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I  





THE MARINE ENGINEER ; 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 



MARINE ENGINEERING, SHIPBUILDING, 



STEAM NAVIGATION & ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. 



EDITED BY WILLIAM GEORGE NEAL, 

« 

Assoc. I.N.A. 



Vol. XXI.— From April, 1899, to March, 1900. 



< • • 



Xon&on : 

«  

OFFICE FOR ADVERTISEMENTS AND PUBLICATION, 8, AMEN CORNER, 

PATERNOSTER ROW, E.G. 

1900. 





, > ' 



• • » 



«• » . 

• • • • 



• • . 



I 



THE NEW 

PUBUCUBt^ARY 

200782 

Aaron, LCNO}i^/ND 
TILD^H FCHH<M>ATI0N8. 

m 1900. L 



• • • 






• • 



IV 



INDEX. 



Cowper-Coles Bound Locator and Projedor, S47 

Crawford*! Patent Watertight Bulkhead Door for Ships^ Holds, 2S2 

Cro8hj Isdicators, 150 ... 

CrooiSle Furnace. IJqoid Fuel, 131 

Cnnliffe A Groom's Duplex Vertical Milling Machine, 158 (with {age plate 

nipplement) 
Cylindrical Marine Water-tuhe Boiler, Drake's, 443 . . 

Daimler Oil Motor, IIU 

** Danske-Trc,'* Self-trimmiiig Lighter, 220 

Deck Planer, Electric, 339 

'')tagramB from Triple-expansion Engines, Some interesting, 1G8 

Door Hook and Bye, An Improved, 538 

Drake's Air Pump. 140 

Drake's Bearines for Propeller Shafting, 400 

Drake's Cylindrical Marine Water-tubo Boiler, 443 

DrllliDg, Boring, Tapping and Milling Machine, Radiating, 257 

Drilling Machines. Electric, 888 

Drop Kudder, Patent, 882 

Uty Dock at Limehouse, The New Union, 963 

Duncan's Patent Automatic Throttle Valve, 497 

Duplex Vtriical Milling Machine, 168 (with page plate tuppUment) 

DurstoD, Sir John, On Trials and Experiments made in H.M.B. 
'* Argonaut,'* 58 

Dynamo Testing Shop, Messrs. JohnFon ft Phillips, 350 

East Asiatia Go.*s 8.8. '* Korea," 505 

Easton, Anderson A Uoolden, Ltd., 307 

Edson Recording Gauge. The, 532 

Bleotric Deck Planer, 839 

Electric Drilling Machines, 338 

Electric Fan, 864 

Electricity m Shipbuilding Yards, Some notM on the application of, 88b 

Bleotric Launches, ** Vril," 266 

Electro-Magnetic Separator, Patent, 384 

Emigrants* Berth on Boara R.M.B. ** Arcturua," 77 (double-page plate 
supplement) 

Engines of S.S. *' MancheMer Corporation," 158 (with page plate supplement) 

Engines, The Balancing of, 17 

Engine. The " Petter " Petroleum, 299 

Estler Bros., Improved ahipa* Lamps, 397 

Expansion Gland for Steam Pipes, 304 

ExpenmeniH having Reference to the Durability of Water-tube Boilers, 
Some, 201 

Rxperinients on the Heat-absorption Power ofWater, 99 

Fans for Ventilating, 255 

First-class Battleship " Vengearce.*' 152 

First-olass Saloon on Board E.M.S. ** Arcturus," 77 (double-page pla'e 
supplement) 

Fletcher, 8on ft F<>arnall, Limited, Union Docks, Limehouse, 268 

Forced Draught, Gushng's, 14A 

Fox Tube or Pipe Cutting Machine. The, 888 

Friedmann's Patent Re- starting Injectors, 69 

Friedmann's Sight-feed Lubricators, 66 

Gauge, Recording. 532 

Gauge, Yiles' Patent Water, 60 

Gland for Steam Pipes, Kxpa vision, 30 i 

Goflling'K Forced Draught, 146 

Graving Doqk, Ailsa Shipbaild ng Co.'s New, 211 

Heat>abBorption Power of Watei, Experimenta on the, 99 

Heating Devices, Simple, 29C 

** Hezzanith " Parallel Rule, The, G4 

Holden A Broekes' " Sirius" Pulsating Pump, 209 

Homaconstic Syitem of Voice Tubes, ac8 

Hook and Eye, An-Improvod Door, 588 

Hose Union, ''Storz " Patent, 213 

Hulburd's Seamless Conper Jointings, 403 

*' Ikadsuehi,'* Torpedo-ooat Destroyer, 3 

Indicator for Steam Engines, A Continuous Mean-PresB'ire, 42C, .'iio 

Indicators, Crosby, 150 

Injectors, Friedmann's Re-starting, 69 

Installations. Compressed Air, 110 

Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotlnnl, Paper lead before 

the, 530 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Papers read before the, 243, 426 
Institution of Naval Architects, Pai)ers rrad before the, 7, 53, 183, 201 
Japanese Torpedo-bout Destroyer " Ikadsuchi," 3 
Japanese Torpedo-boat Destroyer " Miirakumo," The, 63 
Johnson * Phillips, 350 

Kerosene Com))ination Hot- blast Hand-brar.er, 2l'G 
'• Korea," The H.S., Mft 
Lamps, Improved Ships*, 2197 
** LancaHter " Patent PiHton-Valvc Packing, 58^ 
Lathe Mandrel, The X.L. Adjustable. fM) 
Laonches, "* Vril " Electric. 266 

Launch for the War Oftlce Hubmarine Mine Service, 160 
Lighters for Bclf-Trimining, New Steel, 220 
Liquid Fut;l Crucible Furnace, 131 
Lubricators, Si^ht-food. 66 

Machinery of H.M.BS. " Proserpine'* and **PKyohe,*' 243 
, Machine Shop, Messrs. Kaston, Anderson & Goolden, Ltd., 307 
Machine Shop, Messrs. -Jolmson & Phillips, 3o0 
Magnetic Sciile Collector, Cowper -Coles, 251 

** Manchester Oorporutioo," Knaincs of S.S., 158 (with page plate supplement) 
Mandrel, The X.L. AdjusUblc Lathe, 63 
Marine Boiler, the Babcock & Wiloox, 387 
Marine Oil Motor, PrieKtman's, 119 
Bfarine Sounding Machine, A New, 499 

Marshall, V. T., On the Itoiler Arrangements of certain recent Cruisers, 183 
Mayston, Mr. Robert, B.N., On the Machinery of H.M.BS. '• Proserpine " and 

»'Pj*yehe,»'243 
Mean-PresAure Indicator 'or Steam KngineK, A continuous, 426, 610 
Milling Machme, Duplex Vertical, 153 (with page plate supplement) 
Milton, Mr. J. T., On Steum Pipes, 7 
Moeller & Oondrup's New Burners, m5 
Moasber< Patent Thrust Hearing, The, 291, 492 
Mnltiplc-Ezpannion Engines, Reoelver Drop in, 485 
•'Murakutno, ' The Japanese Torpedo-lniat Doitroyer, M 



NerUle Bros. Drilling, Boring, -Tapping and Milling Machhie, 257 

Nonpareil Cork Ineoiation, 488 

North British Steam Packet Qo.'s P.8. *' Waverlev," The, SIO 

Noith-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, Paper read 
before the, 4tf6 

Nottingham Universal Automatic Fairy Boiler Feeder, The, 221 

O'Brien, Mr. William, on a New Balanced Piston-Valve and its Application 
to Four-evank Engines, 580 

Oil £ngin«8, 102 

Oil Lfiunch. 865 

Oil Motor Boats, 119 

Oa the B«iiler Arrangcmenta of certain Beoent Cruisers, 188 

" Oriental " Dry Dock and Works, Shanghai, 810 

Packing, Compensating Split, 116 

Papers read before the Institution of Naval Architects, 7, 53, 183, 201 

** Paris," The stranded, 109 

" Petter " Petroleum Engine, The, 299 

Phillips's Water tube Boiler, 503 

Pipe-cutthig Machine, The Fox Tube or, 383 

Pioes, Steam, 7 

Piston Ring, The Clyde. 74 

Piston- Valve audits Application <o Four-oiank Inginea, A New Balanced, 590 

Piston- Valve Packinr, An Improved, 588 

Platts & Lowiher's Patent Compensating B^'lit Packing, 116 

Plug-making Machine, Automatic, 435 

Priestman's Marine Oil Motor, 119 

Propellers, Bull's Metal, 346 

Propeller Shafting, Bearings for, 400 

" Proserpine »• and " Psyche," Machinery of H.MRS , 248 

Pulsating Pnmi>, The •* Sirius," 209 

Radiating, Drilling, Boring, Tapping and Millinr Machine, 257 

Receiver Drop in Multiple-Expansion Engines, 485 

Recording Oaoge, The Kdson, 532 

Re-starting Injectors, Friedmann>, 69 

Reversible Propeller, Patent, 102 

Kipper. Prof William, On a Continuous Mean Pr^s ure Indicator for 
Bteam Engines, 426, 510 

Roller Thrust Block, Mo8Kberg*s Patent, 291, 492 

Rudder, Patent Dr jp, 382 

Rule, The '* Hezzanith " Parallel. 64 

Russian Dredger, "litus Edrigevitch," 84 

Scale Collector, Magnetic, 254 

SoamlcHH Copper Jomtings, 403 

Separator. Patent Electro-Magnetic. 384 

Shanghai Engineering, Shipbuilding and Dock Co.'s " Oriental " Dry Dock 
end Works. Shanghai, The. .310 

*' Sheldrake," H.M.S., Fitted with four Babcock ft Wilcox Boilers, 887 

Shipbuildng and Docking Facilities of Troon, 211 

Shipbuilding Yards, Some Notes on the Application of Electricity in, 388 

Ship Lighting Set, Messrs. Johnson ^ Philfii s, 350 

Ships' I^mps, Improved, 397 

Sight-feed Liubricators, Friedmann's, 66 

SimpleHeating Devices, ^96 

Simpson, Strickland & Co., 542 

" SiriuB *' Pulsating Pump, The, 209 

Smith A Wilford'B Automatic Fa ry Boiler Feeder, 221 

Smoke Room, ▲ comer of the, on board B.M.8. ** Arctnrus,** 77 (with plate 
supplement) 

Some Experiments having Reference to the Durability of Water-tube 
Boilers, 201 

Some Interesting Diagrams from Triple-Expansion Engines, 168 

Sounding Machine, A New Marine. 499 

Sound Locator and Projector, Cowper- Coles, 347 

Special Machine Tool for Shipbuilding Requirements, 153 (with page ]>1 ite 
supplement) 

St«am Engines, A Continuous Mean-Pressure Indicator for, 426, 510 
Steam Pipee, 7 

Steam Pipes, Ezpaniion Oland for, 804 
Steam Trap, The Thermoacopio Loop, 401 

Steel Liguters for Self-trimming, ^ew, 220 

S*ono ft Co.'s Automatic Plug-making ttacbine, 415 

" Storz *» Patent Hose Union, The, 218 

Taylor's Patent Door Hook and Bye, 538 

Teak Launch, Copper Sheathed, w 1 1 five B.H.P. Balanced Engints, 101 

Thermoscopic Loop Steam Irap, The, 401 

Tnoroycroft. John I. ft Go., 51 

Throttle Valve, Patent Automatic, 497 

Thrun Bearing, The Mossberg Patent, 291, 492 

" Titus Edrigevitch." The Dredger. 84 

Toloh ft Co., of Fvlham, 102 

Torpedo-boat Building on the Thames, 51 

Torpi'do-boat Destroyers, 8, 53 

Trials and Experiments made in H.M 8. " Argonaut," .'^3 

Triple- Kx pan sion Engines of S.S. ** Manchester Corporation,*' 158 (with page 

plate supplement) 
Triple-Expansion Engines, Some interoKting Diagrams f^om, 168 
Triple-Expansion Launch Engines. 542 
Tube or Pipe-cutting Machine. The Fox, 383 
Tubes, Homaooustic System of Voice, 2(>H 
Twin-SCTew Cable Steamer "Von Podbielski," 460 
Union Docks, Limehouse, 2I6A 
*' Vengeance," H.M 8., 152 
Verticud Petroleum Engine, 2^0 
Vile's Patent Water Gauffe, 60 
Voice- Tul»es, System of, 2<»H 
" Von Podbielski." Twin-Sorf>w Cable Steamer, 480 
" Vril " Electric Launches, 2fi<i 
Water Gauge, 60 

Watertight Bulkhead Door for Ship«>' Holds, Crawford's Patent. 252 
Water-tube Boiler, Cylindrical Marine, 443 
Water-tu> e Boiler. Phillips's. 503 
'* Waverley," The Clyde Passenger Paddle Steamer, 310 
Weightop, Prof. R.L., On Receiver Drop in Multiple-Expansion Engines 4H.'> 
X. L. Adjustable Lathn Mandrel. The, GU 
Yarrow. A. V., f)n the Durability of Water-tube Boilers, 2 01 
Yarrow-SchlicH-Tveedy System of B^ilanoing of Enginea, 17 



Till 



. INDEX. 



TraatMtlons of the Inttltatioii of Naral ArobitecU for 1899, MS 

Water-tube Boilers, by Baboook & Wilooz, 141 

Ytmt Book of XniriiMering Formulie, Rales and Tables ror 1899, The 

Bnginf ers*, by H. R. Kempe. A.M. init. O.B., 89 
Tear Book of the Solentiflc and Learned Bodeties of Great Britain and 

Ireland, 1899, 179 

PATENTS, Ac. 

Board of Trade Examinations. Return of Engineers Reported to bare 
Psssed Examinations under tbe Provisions of tbe Merchant Shipping 
Aots of 1854, 48, 96, 121, 1 80, 340 , 888, 330. 380, 424. 482, 599, 506 

Recent Applications for Patents Connected with Marine Bngineerinff, Ship 
Con#traotion, and Medianieal AppUanocs for ose in Ships. 47, 95, 143, 
179, 240, 876, 4S3, 482, 628, 504 

PARAmiPHS, KOTBS, AND NOVELTIES. 

** Akebono." Torpedo-boat Destroyer, 87 

** Ala^a," The, 205 

Allan Line, The, 251 

Alldays & Onioos, Messrs., 315 

Alleged Tampering with the Mails, 587 

American Electric Orane, 160-ton, 7 5 

Amerioan Line, The, 68, 208, 495 

Amsvloan Mails, The, 180, 496 

American Steainship Enterprise, 63 

Amoi^ing Rumour, An, 642 

'* Angerton,'* The, 61 

Antl-^^^^ioi^ Metal, 587 

Aspfnall Patent Marine Engine GoTemor, 65 

Atlaatlo Patsenger TrafRo, 496 

Atlantic Transport Company, The, 207 

Atmospheric Silent Ash aobt, 315 

Auxiliary Machinery, 95 

Auziliety Steam Power Go., 193 

Baboook & Wilooz, 382 

Binko, H. & Co, 278 

Boiler Feed Pump, 474 

Brancker, Mr. John, 487 

Bremerhaven, 344 

Bristol and its Dooks, 844, 387 

Brosdhrath Works of the Linotype Co., The, 159 

•• Bulgaria/* The, 14 

Buoyant Clothing Syndicate, Limited, The, 404 

Campbeltown, Shipbuilding at, 47 

q^rtm^AJMn Coast, The Dsngers of the, 314 

Oanadian Mails, 909 

Oana<lian Steamship Co , The, 15 

Canadian Steamship Lines, 2.V2 

Canal Boat Haulage, 230 

Oantilerer Electric Crane, 159 

Cape Linef, Limited, The, 438, 495 

Cape Mails, The, 16 

Cardiff. 209 

" Carisbrook Castle/* The, 295 

Castle Line, The, 110, 294 

Castle Union Amalgamation, The, 536 

Catnalties, Recent, 209 

Catalogues, 16, 46, 77, 404 

■* Caran,'* The Barquentin*, lb 

Change of Name, A, 62 

Changes in Shipping and Shipbuilding Concerns, 251 

Channel Islands Service. The. 898 

"China," P. & O., 15, 110, 150, 205 

City of Dublin Steam Packet Co., The, 106, 148, 805 

City of London College, 866 

•' City of Rome/* The, 295 

Clrde Steamship Owners' Assooistion, 160 

CoUisions at Sea, Prevention of, 220 

Compasnie Generale Transatlantique, The, lOH, 148, 204, 

385, 437 
Companies, New, 208 
Cunard Company's Meeting, The. 62 
Cunard Company, The, 15 
Cimard Ensineert, 209 
Cunarder, A Reported New. 293 
Dangera of Deep-Draught Steamers, The, 292 
Deal, A Big. 207,251 

De1ghton*s Patent Plue and Tube Co., Ltd., The, 40i 
l)e LaTsl Steam Turbine, 55) 
Denny ft Brothers, Measrr., 249 
Derelicts, 209 

Disaster on the Tugela River, The, 4S8 
Disasters, 15 
Dock Exten«-ionB. 851 
Dominion Line, The. 251, 486 
Donald Carrie A Ca, Messrs., 436 
Dredger for Japan, 180 
Dry Dock, New, 405 
Durban, Tbe Port of. 488 
E2cnalaz A Leith, Messrs., 74 
Edwards' Air Pump Syndicate, Ltd.. The, 115 
Elder, Dempster A Co., Messrs.. 16, 107 351, 438 
Eld*r, Dempster Lines, The, 535 
Electrical Canal Haulage, 557 
Xlectrical Installation of the " Oceanic.** The, 548 
Electrically Driveji Barge, 267 
Xlectrioally Propelled Ferry-boats. 867 
Electrioal Measurement of tbe 0»ciliation of Ships, 314 
Electrical Motors on tsoard Ship, 647 
£/setrioM^ Power for Marine Propulsion, 504 
^^imcin'omJ BeM^ermtor, 268 



Eleotrlcal Siren, 814 

Electrioal Ventilating Fsn. 159 

Electric Blackman Fan, 47 

Electric Cranes, 820 

Electric Lamp, A New Possible, 605 

Electric Power in Engineering Shops, 506 

Electric Power in Bngineerinc Works. 856 

Electric Pamps for Canals, 169 

Eleetric Traction on the Brie Canal, 504 

Bleetro-Plating the Hulls of Vessels, 75 

Engineering Work in Middlesbrough, A Smart piece of, 939 

Engineers of the S.8. " Kennett,'* The, 852 

Error, A Curious, 15 

EToy Platent Adjustable Compass, The, 5S7 

Famous Greyhound, A, 110 

Fanet, M. Paul, 16 

Ferry-boat Run by Stotate Batteries, 447 

Financing of Steamship Companies, The, 16 

Firth, Thomas ft Sons, Ltd., 46 

Fleming, Birkly ft GoodaU, Ltd., 46 

French Atlantio Trade, The, 68 

Frodingham Iron and Steel Company, The, 547 

•• Fulda,** The, 107 

*• OaUia,** The Acddsnl to the. 148, 486, 536 

" OaspssU," The, 62. 809, 268, 298, 842, 437 

Oeipel A Lange, Messrs., 527 

German Steamship Compan ies. The, 437 

Olow'Lamp Eaplonions, :i05 

"Gorsedd,"The,S50 

Gourlay Bros, ft Co., Messrs., 410 

GoTemor for Marine Steam Engines. 85 

Great Bastem Railway Company, The, 107 

Griffin Launch Engine, 474 

HaU, J. A E., Limited, 363 

Hamburg-American Line, The, 207, 293. 386, 496 

Harland A Wolff, Messrs., 16 

Hartmann's Bahtjens Improved Composition, 77, 24'J , 896, 866 

Helicoid Locknnt PatenU (Parent) Co., Ltd., The, 868 

Hopkinson, John. Memorial, 557 

Howdeo, James ft Co., 497 

" Inadsuma,*' The, 810 

lodU Rubber. 290 

Influence of Cheap Fuel on the Cost of Electrioal Energy, 504 

Institute of Marine Engineers, 8'' 6 

Infititntioa of Junior Engineers, 240 

Institution of Navsl Architects. 147, 239. 647 

In War, In Peace, 842 

Iron and Steel Institute, 30 

Ironclads fitted with Yarrow Boilers, 414 

Isle of Man Competition. The, 908 

Iile of Man Steam Packet Company, The, 407 

Ismay, Imrie A Co., Messrs., 149 

Ismay, Mr., 208. 844 

" Ivemla,'* The New Cunarder, 295 

Jamaica Produce and Fruit Co , Ltd., 295 

Jspanese Institution of NaTsl Architects, 257 

Japanese Launches. 557 

Johnson A Phillipf, 547 

" Kaiser Friedricb,'' The, 852 

" Kaiser Wiltelm df r Grosse," Tbe, 293, 386 

Kellock, Messrs C. W. A Co., 16, 62, 497, 535 

KelTin, Lord, 149 

*• KUdonan Castle," The. 294 

" La Bourgogne, 1 48, 207 

<' La Lorraine, ' 294 

Lane Routes. 147 

Le Repertoire Generale de la Marine Marchande, 344 

Leylsnd Line, The. 108 

Liquid Fuel. 434 

Liverpool, H)7 

Liverpool Dock, The New, 182 

London Brighton A South Coast Railway, The, 537 

Lowestoft Low Lighthouse, 182 

Magnetic Clutch, A, 518 

Magnolia Anti-frioiion Metal Co., and Othen r. Sugden and 

Otters, 122 
Man as a Heat Engine, The Efficiency of, 220 
ManhatUn Refrigerating Co.'s Plant, 220 
Marconi's Visit to the United Stater, 504 
Marine £ngineer&' £xaminationt>, 50, 60, 65, 189, 217, 218, 

34C, 3bO, 503 
Maudslav and Field, S?3 
Maxim Direct Coupled Generator S»t, 159 
Maxim Incandescent Limp, The, 220 
" May Flint," The, 536 
Melhuish. llichsrd. Sons A Co., If! 
Menzies, Messrs., 4)H 
•• Mtjrrimac,** Tlc. 437, 495 
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, The, 344 
" Meteoro," The, 494 
" Milwaukee," Th«, 64 
Missing Steamers, 14 
Missions to Seamen, The, 336 
*• Moravia," The, 14 

Nederlaud- American Company, The, 16 
Nemst Klectric Lamp, The, 159, 2-JO 
Niji, The, 138 

Korddeutscher Lloyd, The. 2«7. 252, 293. 493, 587 
Norddeutscher LloTd, Annual Kepoit of the, (H 
Nova Sco is Steel Company, The, 410 
Nunn, Pidtdale A Co., 232 
" Oceanic," The New, 148, 207, 295, 387 
Palermo, 3S0 

P. 4: 0. Companv, The, 16. 148. 438 
" Parif," The, 149, 208, 850, 437, 494 



INDEX. 



HiBpcridM, 416 
Hibenilm,S71 
Hifhgato,88 
Hnibrook,28l 
Billglai,ai7 
Hlniiiao,867 
B.M.8. ABSimnM, 479 
H.M.8. Viper, 986 
Holmgftrth, 1 70 
Hope, 421 
Hontia, 478 
Hornby OeiUe, 870 
HomMft,410 
Hortensiiis, 90 
Hnddixsfleld, 477 
Hogin, 171 
Hnmber. 419 
HTAde*, 170 
HyanwSSS 
Hylw^aSi 
HT8Qn,S71 
I4X1UDO.S9B 
ZnpiAcable, 29 
Inehkeiih, 185 
Ikadauchi, 4 
India, 184 
Tndradwvi, 522 
loo, 381 
Ini^lzwa, 886 
Inverolt, 660 
Irene, 91 
Irithman, 186 
Iiel Hobne, 8S6 
lMraia,186 
IaU,lS4 
Ulanda,se8 
Iflmore,92 
Itaiirft,421 
' Itaehoe, S88 
iTtmia, 296, 828 
Jabim, 41 
Japora, 831 
Jed. 286 
Jerid,881 

John H. Barry, 416 
JTokai, 89 
Japlter, UO 
Juroa, 419 
Jaruparr. 478 
Kaffir. 871 
Karavea, 288 
K%th'een, 88 
Kathleen, 558 
KelTingrove. 174 
Kennel, S85 
KensinKton, 669 
Xant 41 
VhMU.681 

Khartoma fli 

KielderGaBtte,m 

Kflbroney, S60 

Kildonan Outle 28S 

Kilnaaa 415 

KinfanntOastle. 128, 188 . 

KingAlfrtd. 88 

King Bdgar, 326 

King]Brik«89 

King Haakon, 658 

King Harold, 40 

King WiUiam, 558 

Kitttwake, 285 

Knowiie, 175 

Xokine, 858, 372 

Korea, 373, 507 

Knmara, 134 

Lake Brie, 420 

Lakeside, 624 

Lakonia. 186 

Ltdokol III., 282 

LoTen, 370 

Lincolnshire, 91 

Lindtey, 416 

Linnet, 477 

LiringBtone, 558 

Lizzie, 659 

Llanoner, 416 

Loch Linthrathen, 88 

Lockwood, 522 

Loire, 368 

London Bridge, 477 

Lord Downshire, 418, 421 

Lord Erne, 624 

Lord Ormonde, 234 

Lncifer, 28t 

Lnoiline, 170 
. Lucy, 91 

Lnoy, 478 

Lnne, 420 

Latra,284 

Lydie, 326 

Lynton, 282 

Mabel Grace, 40 

Macedonia, 417 
Machaon, 236 
Magniflo, 90 

M, A. JiMonn, 94 



Maidfltone, 44 
Mambare, 479 
Manchester Commeroe, 

28S 
Manchester Corporation 

172 
Manchester Impoiter, 

171 
Manohester Merchant, 

476 
Manchester Fort, 183 
Manchester Bhipf er, 418 
Mann, 183 
Marburg, 568 
Marchioness, 330 
Msraaret, 476 
M«rtp )sa, 809 
Mari tow, 281 
Manrarri. 479 
M«ry, The, 40 
MaVisbrook. 288 
May, 48 
Merasie, 236 
Menter. 867 
Mercury, AfiO 
Mersey, 870 
Milton, 89 
Milwaukee, 90 
Minerva, 558 
Mfngary. 174 
Minneapolis, 413 
Minto,237 
Molopo. 477 
Montauk Point, 3S7 
Mont Blanc, 88 
Montenegro, 660 
Montesuma, 28<> 
Mountawald, 525 
Mora. 41% 
Naudn, 170 
Nedenaee, 327 
NelB'>n, 40 
Neptune, 90 
Neptuno, 174 
Newholm, 42 
Newington, 41 
Newport Ifews, 43 
Newton Hall, 286 
Nickolaeiff, 176 
Nidd, 870 

Niels Sbbenaen, 380 
Nina, 522 
Nordpol, lt6 
Norfolk, 477 
Northlands, 476 
North Sea. 234 
Northwood Ho, 183 
Novington, 89 
Noyra, 173 
Nnmimu, 90 
Nuttallia. 281 
Okmtm, 174 
Ooeanla,4t 
Ohio, 185 
Olanda, 284 
Oliver Cromwell, 476 
Onward, 41 
Oro. 870 
Oridamme 183 
Ormley, 172 
Oma,236 
Ortona,881,aM 
Osmo,559 
Otta,136 
Panaghi Vaeliano. 368 

Pandora, 510 

Papaioa, 286 
Paragon, 43 

Parana, 138 

Paria,137 

Parka^de, 479 

Pearetb, 41 

Pearl, 881 

Pearl, 827 

Pena C stiUo. ft72 

Pens Sagra, 478 

Penguin, 330 

Penrith Oastle, 418 

Pera,285 

Persian Empire, 396 

Persic, 332 

Penri, 188 

Peter Hsmre, 625 

Pftnnia, 934 

Ping Buey, 98 

Pioneer, 214 

Planet Venus, 660 

Pomona, 90 

Portadown, 660 

Portugal, 171 

Poulton, 44 

Preatonlan, 236 

Proereas, 830 

Prote tor, 282 

Providence, 899 

Puffin, 419 



1 



Puritan, 669 
Pydns, 524 
Qusrnero, 420 
Quassia, 868 
RaichDOor, 40 
Rajah, 40 
Rajah, 236 
Banes, 382 
Banee,556 
Bapid, 491 
Rathhn Head, 872 
Bavenaoraig, 419 
Rembrandt, 91 
Renown, 91 
Rhodesia, 41 
Biver Fiaher, 287 
Biveraide, 479 
Bit erton, 235 
Pobert Irvine, 281 
Bobina,415 
Bokeby, 284 
Rollo. 984 
Rosa'ie, 476 
Rosario, 559 
Rostrevov, 880 
Kourik, 478 
Rowena, 173 

Ruby, 868 
Rouo, 369 

Saint Kevin, 624 

Balamis, 92 

Baldanba da Gama, 137 

Sambia, 525 

8«ndsend, 369 

8aegara,89 

Ban Salvador, 186 

Bappho, 660 

BardlDtrro, 371 

Bardius, 367 

Batum, 560 

Saioline, 327 

hazoD, 625 

Paxonia, 139 

Bazonia, 479 

Baxon Prince, 186 

Scandinavia, 44 

Schwarzenfela, 477 

Bcotsman, 88 

Seabreeze, 284 

Seagull, 178 

Seagull, 372 

Beapoint, 90 

Seaton, 281 

Bebriana, 370 

Secunda, 44 

Seine, 41 

Better, 478 

Sevilla, 569 

Shamrock, 370 

Shandon, 186 

Sheppy Allison, 328 

Shieldrake, 326 



/f4T7 

Shunkai Maiu No. 1, 524 
Sicilian. 332 
Silvio, 189 
Sirdar, 40 
Sirdar, 174 
Birius, 560 
Bkandia, 416 
Bkipaea, 568 
Sokoto,40 
Bomerford, 233 
Sophron, 183 
South Australia, 175 
Bouthgate, 415 
BparU, 2.S5 
Sparton Chief, 236 
Speedwell, 419 
Spero, 368 
Sundard, 184 
St. Anthoqy, 90 
Star of Australia, 234 
Stat, 186 
St. Bede, 40 
St Blaise. 3iO 
Rt. Dunatan, 476 
St. George. 415 
St. Qothard, 416 
Stirling Castle, 871 
St. Lawrence, 368 
Strathbraan. 420 
Strathmore, 420 
StrombuB. 418 
Sfcryon, 327 
Suffolk, 281 
Sunningdale, 326 
Surrey, 173 
Suaaex, 588 
Swallow, 867 
Swallow, 477 
Swan, 868 
Swindon. 172 
Bfriam, 380 
Tagus, 236 



Xanana, 284 
TanbSlon Castle, 137 
Tsymouth.188 
Tayside. 174 
Telefon, 522 
Tento, 380 
Teodoro de Larrinaga, 

173 
Terek, 144 
TereMa, 478 
Texss, 44 
The Duchess, 370 
TheMaiy, 40 
Thiatle, 175 
Thomas Leigh, 415 
Thordis,89 
TUla, 624 
Titanis« 479 
Toward, 332 
Toxtetb. U5 
Trent, 331 
Tressilliao. 282 
Trevessa, 336 
Triton, 174 
Tngels, 560 
TuUochmoor, 188 
Tunisian. 624 
Tupa,479 
Tyrie, 28«i 
Ul spool, 367 
Una, 380 
Undaunted, 133 
Undine, 175 
Upada,91 
Upnor, H.M.B., 91 
Urlaoa, 330 
Vsl ds Trevors, 479 
Valetta,43 
Vampire, 282 
Vauxhall. 523 

Venerable, 896 

VeneUa. 327 

Vengeance, 214, 231, 

Ventmoor, 6.^ 

Venture, 189 

Verona, 329 

Verulam, 233 

Victoria, 118, 116, 

Vienna, 173 

Viking, 89 

Vinolfa, 233 

Vladimir, 479 

Volcano, 382 

Von Podbielski, 419 

Vtoroi, 173 

Wallaend, 175 

Wamba, 172 

Wandby, 40 

Warfield,4S 

Waswiek,90 

Waterloo, 415 

Waverley, 174 

Wearaide, 329 

Weissenfela, 134 

Wellington, 136 

West Point, 88 

Whakatane, 415 

Wilcsnnia, 175 

Winchester. 236 

Winifredian, 44 

WinkOeld, 478 

Yomoana, 88 

Zealand ia. 91 

Zeeborg, 470 

Zeila,559 

Zillah, 559 

Zinnia, 523 

Ziaka, 92 

Vessels Not Namxd. 

Dredger, 90 
Hooper Barge, 175 
Paddle Steamer, 327 
Screw Steamer, 175 
Steam Dredger, 558 
Steam Launch, 233 
Steam Trawlers, 282 
Steel Barge, 283 
eteel Lighter. 139 
Steel Scr^w Steamers, 

136,281,415,419 
Twin Screw bteamers, 

41,419 



TRIAL TRIPS. 

Active. 422 
Aero, 526 
Airedale, 139 
Akebona, 140 
Akebooa, 930 
Aldemey, 334 
Alma, 422 
Amphitrite, 73 



INDEX. 



XI 



' -  .'.-tA. ^- *.vm ^ M 

ABfflo-AiulnUiaii. Ml 
AaiU,46 
ABfinTfU«kl40 
Aqua, 682 
AicudiiLlTS 
ArrhMKfa, 140 
AKhoBdo,880 
Amimncc, H.M.S., 561 
Atlantian, 875 
AneheiMfM, 238 
Avondale, 884 
Biaalaud,SS4 
Ball,4S2 
BBrdlrtan,i5 
Bwdnj, 45 
BMradb,422 
Birton, 141 
BftVttilHi, 288 
Beta, 287 
BflUiania,03 
Brroicia 884 
Bilker Foroo, 91 
Blanch*, 388 
BlooBflald, 482 
BnMida,682 
Brtor,286 
BrisgaTia, 177 
Brifuh Prince, 481 
Britiah Prinoedt, 336 
By]aiidt,875 
Oaaopof, 262 
Capri. 526 
OardiafaBsliire, 44 
GaHaBdra,238 
Caaca»ian. 626 
CeldnlaBd. 587 
Olan Maeaalaj, 93 
Clan Maefadyen, 885 
Claadlns, 94 
ClaTordaie, 44 
CloBberhall. 422 
OonimaDder Cawley, 385 
0«vk,178 
Grawe, 178 
IH^hiie, 526 
Darleydale, 874 
Degama,45 
Deabigahire, 423 
Derwen, 45 
Dob Hofo, 480 
Dordxeolil,52e 
Draehaafels, 626 
Dnlie of Rothesay, 287 
Duke of Rothesay, 374 
Dnadalk, 387 
Basihani,2H8 
BaKleni,94 
Bclipse, 875 
Bduard Bary. 481 
Baataobe, 141 
Elba, 280 

Blaviok Park, 287 
Bmpnss,87S 
EB^OMer, 586 
XudweB, 28>$ 
Etruria, 423 



^_ *B L.. r-=^ 



ji J * ' 



ETCriiigluuii, 481 
Femd«De,885 
^eronla, 45 
l^aazaiiBiiter Witte, 

£78 
Flolii 176 
FlorMip.287 
Vorth, aB8^ 
Oadsby, 4fll 
Qaleka„5a6 
Oaroone, 887 
Qelderi and, 661 
Gertrnd, 45 
Gipsy, 177 
Oleaeoe, 481 
Glenroy, 874 
Golden Eavle, 289 
Gothland, 178 
Granada. 526 
Granit, 289 
Greta, 287 
Grosmont, 288 
Owynvood, 98 
Hannorer, 480 
Harborg, 286 
Harriet, 423 
Hennakerk, 481 
Helsingborr, 526 
Hercules, 661 
Hermes, l57 
Hero, 874 
Hesperides, 481 
Hillglan. 422 
Hirnnda, 422 
H.M.B. Kestrel, 46 
Hope. 481 
Hiucin, 286 
Homber, 481 
Hyanthee 94 
Hydra, 883 
Hylas, 423 
Hyson, 480 
Imperial Pi inee, 288 
Inchkeith, 238 
Inchmaree, 44 
India, 238 
Ino, 423 
InaiEwa, 422 
Irishman. 141 
Itsehoe, 878 
Jabiru, 93 
JaTa, 140 

John Coverdale, 140 
Jokai. 286 
Kathleen, 176 
Katao, 422 
Kelvingrove, .374 
Kestrrl, H.M.B., 46 
Kllosea. 481 
Korea, 481 
Kamara, 287 
Kum Saofr, 46 
Lakonia, 178 
Loch Lintrathen, 140 
Lookwood, 561 
London Bridge, 527 



Lord Onnonde, 287 
Lnoif er, 886 
Laoiline,289 
LndTig PeyioB, 41 
LyBlon,835 
Mahal Graoa, 884 
Macedonia, 526 
Manoheeter Gommcree 

482 
Manehfster Oorpora- 

tioB, 878 
Manchetter importer, 

888 
Manohester Port, 178 
Marietow, 888 
BCayisbrook, 286 
Medio, 280 
MiBgary, 287 
Minto,888 
Mont Blaao, 177 
Moatff suma, 835 
Itentfort, 139 
MQ«hibool,98 
MorMM 
Mandaka,t 
Moristan, 41 
Nedcnes, 874 
Neto, 335 
Newoastle, 45 
Newholm, 140 
Newton Hall, 878 
Hiooln PaUiUn, 875 
Nina, 661 
Nordpol, 287 
Norham Oastle, 422 
Northlands 526 
North Sea, 884 
Nabia, 661 
Ocean, 262 
Olanda, 878 
Oriflamme. 178 
Ormby. 287 
Oro, 521 
Otta,178 
Parana, 287 
Paris, 176 
PauHoe, 93 
Peareth,98 
Pendeen, 44 
Penmoont, 661 
PhiUppeyiUe, 884 
Ping Boey. 179 
Portugal, 874 
Prometheus, 216 
Raithwaite, 45 
Rapid, 626 
Ras Mora, 177 
Bavenscraig, 423 
Ravenshoe, 140 
Rembrandt, 140 
Rhodesia, 94 
Riverton, 334 
Robert Irvine, 885 
Rokeby, 878 
Rosalie, 527 
Rowena, 334 



Saint Aadffw« ( 

8aial1iada,46 

Bambia, 681 

BaadsaDd,480 

8aidinero,4S8 

8axoUsa,876 

8aBOBia,171 

BaxenPrinee.! 

SeaadinaTia, 176 

8eapoiBl,189 

8ebriana,481 

8ocunda,ia0 

Shoppy AlHsoB, 875 

Bhieldrake, 878 

Bhirlay, 661 

BUesia,45 

Sirdar, 288 

Bdlo,45 

Bomorford, 287 

South Australia, 288 

Sottthwood, 428 

Spsro, 428 

Spithead, 45 

sKnleyyille, 481 

Btarof AnsU«Ua,884 

Btentor, 176 

Stirling Castle, 874 

Strombos, 826 

Syrian, 407,428 

Tagui»874 

Tanacra,884 

TaaaroagSn 

nurtaHon Oattle, 140 

X^laf 00,561 

l^aduift da Larrinagt 

Terek, 5iV 
Titan, 141 
Treat, 661 
f P rereas a , 875 
ToUochmoor, 177 
Una, 177 
Una, 884 
Undine, 289 
Uptda, 179 
Upoor, HMJB., 177 
Upnor, ILM.8., 287 
Urlana.a74 
Val de TraTers, 661 
Valotla, 140 
VasMia,526 
Vienna, 287 
VoUiBd, 287 
Wandby,93 
Warwiek, 111 
Wavorley, 288 
WearBide,422 
Weissenfels, 177 
West Point, 178 
Windsor Oa»tle, 93 
Winifredian. 280, 288 
Woodford, 44 



VassKLs Not Nahxd. 
Dradgen, 886 
Steam Laoaohss, 286,661 



Printed iov the Proprietors by Pbbbt, Gabdnrr A Co , iforeiters* Hall Plaoe, Clerkenw»ll Road, London, in the County of Middlesex, and Published al 
•he MBoes, 8, Amen Comer, Paternoster Row, in the Parish of Christ Church, in the City o( LoudLon..~llattV\]i\^\^^. 



8 



THE MABINE ENGINEBB. 



("April 1, 1899. 



When copper has been thoronghly annealed, it is very soft, 
and a very low stress, say, even less than two tons per square 
inch, will produce a slight permanent set. As the stress 
increases the deformation increases more rapidly, and at a 
tensile stress of from 13 to 14 tons per square inch, calculated 
from the original section, fracture will take place. In the case 
of good copper, which has been previously properly annealed, 
the elongation in 8 in. will be about 30 to 40 per cent. If the 
copper is stressed to any less amount than its ultimate strength, 
and the load released, it will be found that the stress has 
hardened the copper, and that the metal will then be practically 
elastic up to nearly its original load, less stress than this pro- 
ducing no further permanent elongation. If after this harden- 
ing the copper is again annealed, it will behave as it did in its 
original annealed state, a low stress again producing a per- 
manent elongation. 

The effect of hardenhig upon the extension, and the apparent 
ultimate strength of copper, is well illustrated by the accom- 
pMiying autographic diagrams of tests made by Professor W. 
C^JUnwin on specimens of copper, one being annealed and the 
other fairly hard. Fig. 1 represents the tests on the annealed, 




Fio. 1 

and Fig. 2 upon the other specimen. In these figures vertical 
distances represent the total load upon the specimens, and hori- 
zontal distances represent upon a scale of twice the full size the 
elongation in an original length of 8 in. 

The particulars- of the actual tests are given in the table 
below. 

The nearly vertical line at the commencement of each curve 
shows that the elasticity of the material was at first nearly or 
quite perfect, the falling away of the curve from the vertical 
portion shows the elongation which takes place after the elastic 
limit is passed. In the case of the hard copper, it appears that 
after the material has commenced to stretch, the application of 
the same load continues to elongate it. In the case of the soft 



\ 



\ 



Fio. 2. 

specimen a low stress commences to stretch it, but until nearly 
half of the total elongation is reached, each successive increment 
of stretch requires a higher stress to produce it. 

The break in the curve was produced by relieving the stress 
after an extension of one -third of an inch. On the load being 
re-applied, it will be seen that the elastic limit had been raised 
by tne previous testing from 1-709 to 0*9 tons per square inch. 



Dimensions. 



Width. 


Thick. 


In. 


In. 


1-503 


0-18H , 


1-498 


0-11)3 ; 



'Stress at Maxm. Elonga- 
Section.l Elastic Stress in tion in Rem'rks 
Limit. Tons. 8 in. 



c^ ;« Tons per Persq. t>^^^^„x 
^^•^"* I sq. i" i" Percent. 



0-282r> 
0-2H91 



in. 

1-709 
lo-Sii 



in. 

13-03 
1013 



4813 

17-88 



Anneal'd 
Hard. 



The lower ultimate strength shown by the aimealed piece of 
rqpj)er is duetto the stress being calculated from the original 



area, the great extension of the soft specimen causing more- 
contraction of area than occurs with the harder specimen. If 
the stress actually borne by the two pieces is referred to the 
actual reduced section at the moment when each is withstand- 
ing the maximum load, it will be found that the results are 
approximately equal in these two cases. This shows the 
importance, when testing copper for the purpose of ascertaining 
its quality, of being careful that the specimen is properly 
annealed before the test. 

Hardening of copper may be produced in other ways than by 
direct tension. Copper wire is hardened by continual bending 
and straightening ; sneet copper is hardened by hammering or 
by cold rolling ; pipes may be hardened by planishing or by 
being hammered or bent whilst they are '* loaded," and copper 
tubes are always hardened when they are drawn on a draw< 
bench either to a smaller diameter or to a thinner gauge. In 
whatever way copper is hardened its ductility is correspondingly 
lessened, and in all cases the hardening may be removed by 
** annealing," that is by raising it to a bright red heat, and either 
quenching it m- water, or allowing it to cool gradually . 

Commercial copi)er, as used for other than electrical purposes,, 
is rarely pure, or even nearly pure. The effects of some of the 
common impurities, such as arsenic, nickel, and silver, are sup- 
posed not to be detrimental ; while, on the other hand, antimony 
is objectionable, and bismuth, even in small traces, is exceed- 
ingly prejudicial. The usual workshop test for the quality of 
copper is to cut off a portion of the pipe or sheet and anneal it 
when it should stand bending quite close, thus, without a sign of 



I 




cracking. Tne edges also should stand thinning to a knife-edge 
without crack when hammered to a scarf joint form with a lap 
of about three or four times the thickness of the copper. 

Brazing solder is composed of copper and zinc, in about equal 
proportions ; occasionally, however, ^ per cent, of tin is added 
to the mixture. The mixed metal is first cast in iron ingot 
moulds, then it is reheated to a certain temperature, consider- 
ably below red heat, at which it becomes brittle, and is pounded 
up with an iron pestle and mortar. The addition of the small 
quantity of tin is said to facilitate the pounding. It thus 
appears that at a temperature intermediate between that of the 
stei&m and a red heat, the solder becomes brittle, and unfit to 
sustain any stress. 

It is usually considered that the brazing solder, like copper, 
is not liable to corrosion, and in the majority of cases in which 
brazed copper steam pipes have been cut up after many years 
of service, the brazing is found to be in as good condition as the 
copper. In a few cases, however, the brazing of copper steam 
pipes has been found to have deteriorated in use to an alarming 
extent. Attention was first drawn to this in the case of the 
fatal explosion of the steam pipe of the s.s. Prodano, referred to 
in the Appendix as No. 1,033. After the official inquirv into 
the matter, this case was investigated by Professor Arnold, of 
Sheffield, whose report was published in J'^ngineering, Vol. LXV. 
p. 408, and The Engineer, Vol. LXXXV. p. 303. Professor 
Arnold showed that the brazing in this and in another case sub- 
mitted to him at the same time had deteriorated by the whole 
of the zinc in some parts of the solder becoming oxydised, the 
copper remaining in the form of a spongy metallic mass, the 
ix)res of which were filled with the oxydised zinc. He attributed 
this result to electrolytic action set up by fatty acids produced 
in the boiler or in the steam pipe from the decomposition of 
organic oils, as he fomid and separated these organic acids from 
the deteriorated solder. Since attention was drawn to these 
cases, a few other steam pi()es have been found to have been 
similarly depreciated in their brazing. 

It is worthy of note that experience with Muntz metal exposed 
to the corrosive action of sea water shows that a somewhat 
similar deterioration of the zinc takes place. It is said that this 
is prevente<l if a small quantity of tin is added to the mixture ; 
but in the cases of the brazing solder investigated by Professor 
Arnold, one specimen which originally contained ^ per cent, of 
tin was equally affected to that composed of copper and zinc 
only. 

The properties of wrought iron, mild steel, and cast iron are- 



April 1, 1899.") 



THE MiSlNE ENGINEEB, 



too wbU known to require lengthened deBcription. In making 
either wroaght iron or mUd Btoel welded stown pipos, (he tubes 
are made from rolled atripa or plBtea, the edges of which are 
bevelled by machine, and the weld ia alwaya lap, not bult. In 
all bat the largest Bizea the welding is done in rolls aC one heat 
the whole length, but in the largest sizes of pipes it u done 
piece by piece in a similar way to the welding of boiler fnmaces. 
In wrought iron a free weldiug qnality ia usually selected in 
preference to a very strong iron, soundness of weld being con- 
sidered to be of the first importaJica. In mild steel the very 
mildest qualities are selected (or the aame reason. With either 
material the requirements of manufacture, except in the cases 
of the very largest piiiea. are snch that the thickness is in excess 
of the requirements of strength (or such steam pressures as are 
now in use, so that when iron or stoel pmea are used » <«■■« 
large margin of strength is always provided. 
In the case of wrought iron pii«s i' 



Flo. S 



ft very 
trust to the 



ia actually required, and that test pieces ahonld be cut off from 
one OT both the ends before flanging and opened out and tested 
in » testing machine across the weld. In addition, ol couzsp, k 
high hydraulic test woiild be made after the flanges are fitted. 

Flanges for wrought iron or steel pipes may be welded to the 
pipes, but usually they are screwoLl on. In some cases they 
have been rivetted to the pipes. Successful plans are sliown in 
Fig. 3, in which the flanges have been, forged out of the solid, 
without weld, and scrawled on the pi(» with a diminishing 
thread. The thread extends through the whole thickneu ol 
flange, but in mora recent practice the flange overlaps a part of 
the pipe without thread. In either case (he flanges are canlked 
on boUi sides to ensure steam tightness. 

When wrought icon or steel pii>es are used, the designs are 
generally made so (hat individual pipes are straight or nearly so. 
It may be of interest, however, to know that if bent pipes are 
really required they can be made with a radios of threertnm . 

! THE NEW 




^ ' b 



fc 






~ 


fe- 

[^- 


r:~~Z- 


:___ 


^ 


1 



welded joint, bnt in the case of mild steel, in some cases a 
rivetted butt strap has been fitted as an extra precaution over 
the welded joint. Experience, however, with steel lap-welded 
boilerandothertubes has shown that, with (he mild qualities of 
material actually used, as reliable welds can be made with steel 
as with wraught iron. It need hardly be pointed out that butt 
straps add considerably to the weight and coat, and that every 
needless rivet bole is a possible source of leakage and trouble, so 
that if the welds are really efticient, and if tbey could t>e test«d 
so aa to practically eliminate the probability of defective work- 
manship, butt straps would soon be dispensed with. 

To put such a high hydraulic test upon welded steel as would 
realty stress the material to nearly its elastic strength is impoa- 
sible, except with the largest pipes, owing to the thickness 
adopted being much greater than ia need^ from the require- 
ments of strength alone, and the fact that such pressures would 
atrun the flai^es and flange fastenings, but tests of three or 
four timei the working pressure can always be made. It has 
baea ■nogMted by some pipe makera that, to give confidence in 
(h» wal£, Moh abeel pipe uionid be made somewhat longer than 



the bora for pipes below 6 in. diameter, and tour times the bora 
for pipes up to 12 in. 

In the paper of 1S9S it was stated that cast iron steam pipes 
had been used with success for many years, and a list was given 
of several vessels in which such pipes were fitted, and the 
periods during which they were in use were also reoorded. In 
moat at these vessels the cast iron pipes are still in service. The' 
almost invariable use of cast iron for stop valve chests, &c., 
shows that as a material it can be relied upon for strength and 
durability, and the experiences with the vessels referred to show 
that pipe designs con be made permitting the nee of rigid 
materia!. 

When wrought iron or steel pipes have been used for modem 
vessels, experience has shown them to l>e admirably adapted for 
their purpose, and no trouble whatever has beeu experienced 
with regard (o their corrosion. 

Having now discussed the qualities of (be different materials 
need for steam pipes, it will be well to refer to the conditions 
which the pipes have to fulfil in actual use. 

The flrst Qon^tioaVi^ ivAvExA.'uk 'ftAii.'jaft'^-^ftK^uM^^AXn 



10 



THE MARINE ENGTNEEB. 



f April ], 18!9. 



strong enough to withstand the pressure to which they are to he 
subjected. In the case of wrought iron or steel, as has already 
been stated, conditions of manufacture require such a thickness 
that the strength is more than ample. Copper pipes^ however, 
may easily be made of less strength than sufficient. . The usual 
practice of marine engineers is to take the Board of Trade Rule 
as a minimum, The rule is as follows : — 
Thickness in inches 

— .. -j — m. 

«,000 16 

for brazed pipes, and for seamless pipes not over 8 in. wide 

PxD. 1 . 

a= + — m. 

6,000 32 
P being the working pressure in lbs. per square inch, and D 
the inside diamett r in Inches. 

When making copper pipe, either from sheet or from straight 
lengths of tube, it is usual to make the bends from material one 
gauge thicker than ^oulil be used for straight lengths, and if the 
bends are very severe, to use two gauges thicker. This is 
necessary, as the material at the back of the bends is thinned 
in working. It must not b3 lost sight of that the extra thickness 
remains over the greater portion of the pipe, which is therefore 
rendered more rigid than it would be if it were uniformly of the 
minimum thickness. 

Regarding questions of strength only, it is well known that, in 
cylinders subjected to internal pressure, the circumferential 
stress produce I in the material is double that in a longitudinal 
direction. A pipe under hydraulic pressure will therefore 
always yield first by bursting open along the line of least 
strength, usually the seam. A reference to the failures which 
have actuallv occurred in practice, however, as given in the 
Appendix, snows that most of the fractures occur circum- 
ferentially at or near the flanges, and are obviously due to lon- 
gitudinal stresses. The causes of these must therefore be 
locked for from other than internal pressure. 

The next condition to be noted is that when in use the pipes 
will be much hotter than when they are fitted up, or when not in 
use. The tempt r:kture of steam at 200 lbs. pressure — a common 
pressure now — isS^^F. At 800 lbs., at which some boilers 
are being worked, the temperature is 422^, so that when in use 
the temperature of the pipes may be from 350^ to 390^, or even 
more in excess of that at which they are fitted up. The co- 
efficient of expansion of iron or mild steel for a range of 360^ is 
*0024, and that of copper is '0037. Pipes, therefore, of these 
materials will tend to become longer when in use by these 
amounts. In addition to this the boiler itself, to which one end 
of the length of pipe is attached, also expands, and thus raises 
one end of the pipe from J in. to J in., according to the size of 
the boiler, while the end attached to the engine remains 
stationary. The necessary alteration of form of the pipes to 
allow for these expansionsmust be provided for in the design of 
the steam pipes, either by providing properly constructed 
expansion joints, which will allow the requisite freedom of 
motion, or by making the pipes of such form that the move- 
ments can take place, owing to the ductility of the material, 
without producing undue stresses on the pipes themselves, or 
on th3ir connections to the stop valves and engines. 

When cast iron or wrought iron pipes are employed, it is usual 
to consider that their rigidity is too great to allow of the expan- 
sion to be accommodated by the flexibility of the pipes 
themselves, and generally, therefore, expansion joints are fitted 
to them. An example of such a joint is shown in detail in 
Fi0. 4. 

With copper pipes, however, it is more often considered 
that the pipes will be sufficiently flexible, and the 
material sufficiently ductile, to permit of their repeated 
contraction and expansion without the need of stuffing-box 
expansion joints and consequently these are rarely fitted. 
Undoubtedly pipes can be made sufficiently flexible to meet all 

Sractical require m 3nts ; but, unfortunately, many of the 
esigns in general use, sometimes combined with the faulty 
workmanship of not prcp3rly annealing the pipes, are such as 
to give continued trouble in keeping the flange joints tight and 
in some instances also in producing rupture of the pipes at or 
near the flanges. Some of thenc designs will be presently 
referred to. 

It must be borno in mind that the hollow cylindrical form is 
one naturally possessing great strength and rigidity in propor- 
tion to its weight, and hence its general use for columns, itc, 
f^Aeiv /ftJ/fnetiy is required. Tliis })roperty is often forgotten 
n/icu deMJitjg nitJj pqyes, and they are often credited with far 



more flexibility than they possess. In questions dealing with 
the rigidity or flexibility of pipes, it is well to remember that H 
a solid bar and a hollow tube of the same material, and the 
same length and shape, are subjected to the same loading, pro- 
ducing either traverse bending or torsion, or the two combined, 
the deflections will be identical if the diameter of the solid bar 
be equal to '__ 

where D and d are the outside and inside diameter of 
the pipe. A bar of this diameter may therefore be looked 
upon as the equivalent of the tube when considering its 
flexibility, and if such a bar be flanged at the ends like the pipe, 
and attached to the stop valves, <&c., by the flanges, the strama 
which the expansion, <&c., will pat upon the flanges of the stop 
valves will be the same by the bar or by the tube. 

Let us now consider a pipe such as is commonly employed, 
say, such as fitted in one of the cases referred to in the 
Appendix. This pipe forms a right-angled bend, the two arma 
being 2 ft. and 6 ft. long respectively, the inside diameter of the 
pipe is 6 in., and its thickness is *212, so that its stiffness or 
rigidity is equal to that of a solid bar of copper 4| in. diameter. 
The expansion due to its temperature would, if not resisted, in- 
crease the lergths of the two arms by over ^ in. and ^ in^ 
respectively, and in addition one end is raised up by the expan- 
sion of the boiler about J in. The pipe therefore has to have 
such forces applied to the flanges at the two ends as would bend, 
a solid bar 4^ in. diameter tiU the arms were shortened by the 
amounts mentioned, as well as displace one end ^ in. vertically,, 
and at the same time there must be such bending moments 
applied to the ends as will keep the flanges in the same plane. 
These forces have to be borne by the thin metal of the copper 
pipe at the parts where it is brazed to the flanges. If a larger 
pipe were considered the forces involved would be even greater 
in proportion. If the copper is at first well annealed, these forces, 
being more than sufficient to produce stresses beyond the limits 
of elasticity, will doubtless peimanently alter the shape of the 
pipe. At the parts where deformation takes place the copperwill 
be somewhat hardened. When the pipe is cooled down it will 
tend to regain its original shape and length, and strains will be 
set up in it of opposite character to those caused by heating it. 
Each raising and lowering of steam will therefore bring alter- 
nating stresses on the pipai each time tending to harden the 
material and decrease its dvictilit^ at those parts where most* 
deformation takes place. Tbteve is no wonder, therefore, that 
in time the whole of the ductility is destroyed, and the pipe 
cracks round near one or both flai^ges. 

From the diagrams shown in Figs. 1 and 2 it will be evident 
that, while on the one hand the more thoroughly aimealed the 
material of the pipe is the more easily it will be deformed, yet,, 
on the other hand, when well annealed the yielding power or 
ductility of the copper is such that very considerable deforma- 
tion can take place without danger. Fig. 2, however, shows 
that with hard copper very much less yield can take place 
without the production of great strains, and consequently of 
great risk. 

It may be well to point out that the expansion of iron is only 
about two-thirds of that of copper, so that the deformation in 
an iron pipe would be only two-thirds of that of a copper pipe ; 
but, on the other hand, it is a st.'onger material, and in general, 
iron pipes would be thicker than those of copper, so that with 
iron there is considerably less flexibility than with copper. 

When copper pipes have to take up the expansion and con- 
traction by their alteration of form, it cannot be too strongly 
urged that they should be annealed uniformly tliroughout their 
whole length. Unfortunately the practice on this point is not 
well established. Some coppersmiths are particular in seeing 
that this is done ; generally, however, only the bends, that is 
the parts where the pipes have been bent and therefore extra 
hardcnel, are annealed, the straight portions being left un- 
anncalel, whilst other coppersmiths leave even the bends un- 
anncalcd. The portions near the flanges always become an- 
nealed when tlie flanges are brazed on, and unless the pipes are 
afterwards annealed their whole length it happens that the 
whole of the deformation strains become concentrate<l upon the 
soft part at the flanges where there is the greatest tendency for 
rupture to be produced. 

From what has been stated, it would appear to be desirable 
that copper pii)es, which have to take up expansion deforma- 
tions, should be periodically annealed. This, however, brings 
up the question as to how the annealing of a bent pipe can be 
effected. The workshop practice is at best a makeshift one, the 



April 1, 1899.] 



TflE MABUTE "ENGIlTEElt. 



11 



QBoal, aod practically the only plan, being to heat snocessive 
portions of the pipe over an open coke fire, the workman taming 
It round and shifting it aboat over the fire until each part in 
torn is thought to have been raised to a red heat. Irrespective 
of the difficulty of getting the inner side of a large bend near 
the coke fire, Uiis meth^ leaves mach to be desired, and in- 
volves a great risk of some parts being left hard, while the 
remainder is annealed. An unhomogeneons pipe may be in a 
worse condition than one wholly anannealeid, and hence the 
reluctance of marine engineers generally to have pipes which 



difficulty in keeping them in order, while one of the largeat 
engineering firms on the East Coast have practically used no 
other design for very many years for their main steam pipe^, 
and their engines and arrangements are at least as popular as 
those of any of their competitors. Further, it must be remem- 
bered that, even if some trouble is experienced in keeping 
stuffing boxes in order, serious troubles with leaky joints are by 
no means unknown, where the expansion has to be met by 
straining the pipes themselves. Figs. 5, 6, and 7 represent 
plans which have been successfully adopted for steam pipes in 





A 



Fio. 5. 



have been satisfactorily at work for some time taken down and 
possibly injured in the attempt to anneal them. It is not too 
much to tak that our engineers should, if they will continue to 
lise large and thick copper pipes, provide proper furnaces where 
the pipes may be uniformly heated throughout their whole 
length at one operation. 

There is, however, no absolute necessity in most cases for 
using bent pipes. Straight pipes can nearly always be designed 
to meet all requirements, and the expansion of these can be 
provided for by expansion joints of the form shown in Fig. 4. 
These joints are, it is true, objected to by some engineers as 
being likely to be a continual source of trouble, but that this is 
not a oorroct view is ^own by the fact that in our very largest 
mail boats they have been fitted and found to present no great 



which all the pipes are practically straight and the expansion 
provided for by expansion joints. 

In providing for the expcuision to be taken up by expansion 
joints, it is necessary to ensure that the lengthening of the pipe 
shall really take plaice by pushing into the joint meant to receive 
it, and that on the contrary the end of the pipe shall neither be 
stationary in the joint nor drawn out of it. This can only be 
ensured by making arrangements for fixing the expansion joint 
in position, and also securing the other end of the pipe to a fixed 
position, either by means of long stays attached to the expansion 
joint itself or by some other means. 

The blowing out of the pipe by the steam pressure may 
possibly take place if there is a large bend in the pipe^ as is seeiv 
in some designs. In «uch caaoA \iYi<^ \iitQN<^\i\KN^ \»r\a\!^<^^^\^^ 



12 



THE MASINE ENGIKEEB. 



[April 1, 1899, 



be'secored to the bend, not to the. pipe near its free end. Ex- 
pansion joints are often fitted with what are called safety stays 
to prevent the pipe being blown out. When these are short and 
fitted too near the free, end of the pipe they are either useless, or 
the expansion joint itself is useless, as they cannot come into 
service if the pipe expands into the joint as it is intended to do. 
They may moreover be. an absolute source of danger, and at 
least one of the failures of steam pipes recorded in the 
Appendix was due to their being fitted. When steam is up and 
the pipe expanded the safety flange should be some distance ofif 
the nuts of the stays. If in this condition the nuts are 
thoughtlessly or ignorantly screwed up to the flange, on the 
pipes cooling down and contracting they will be subjected to 
great strains, and something must fracture to relieve them. If 
such stays are fitted, therefore, the nuts gn tbem should be 



nected to those boilers not in use may form not only condensers, 
but also convenient receptacles for the water condensed from 
leakage into them from the stop valves of the boilers under 
steam. Provision should always be made for draining any part 
of the pipes where water can accumulate, and too great care 
cannot be taken, when opening stop valves, to connect a boiler 
with others, already in use, to ensure that there is no water in 
any of the pipes. Fourteen of the explosions referred to in the 
Appendix were thought to have been caused by want of attention 
to these points. 

It is hoped that this paper will call special attention to the 
design of steam pipes, and elicit the opinions of our experienced 
engineers, with a view of improvements being effected, so that 
such casualties as have been referred to may in the future be 
less frequently met with. 



) M»ir» sT»va 




Fig. 7 



caref ully'adjusted when cold and be /ixid in place, either by pins 
through them, or by ferrules placed over the stays of such a 
ength that the nuts cannot be screwed down too far. Properly 
designed pipes, however, will not need these stays at all. In none 
of the plans shown in Figs. 5, 6, or 7 are these stays really 
required, although they have been fitted. 

Whilst referring to the expansion of pipes it will be well to 
call attention to the methods of supporting long lengths of pipe. 
These should be so arranged that while giving the necessary 
8up|)ort and preventing vibration, they wUl not of themselves 
prevent the movement of the pipes due to their expansion and 
that of the boilers. If this is not provided for, the supports may 
possibly put much greater stresses on the pipes than would 
result from their being left altogether unsupported. ITn- 
fortnnately, this i>oint is often neglected by the designer, the 
hangers being arranged on the vessel by the mechanics, who fit 
them in place, who may not fully appreciate all their re- 
quirements. 

The remaining |>oint, as regards pipe design, is the necessity 

of providing for means of freeing the pipes from water whicn 

may accumulate in them. In installations where there is more 

Jth/»n one boiler it may at any time happen that for some reason 

sieA/n ja not raisedj^in all the boUera at once; the pipes oon- 



APPENDIX. 

List of Cases of Casualties to Steam Pipes, &c., inquired 

INTO UNDER THE Pro\18ION& OF THE BoiLER EXPLOSIONS AcTS 

OF 1882 AND 1890. 



No. of jName of Vessel. 
Inquiry 

120 S.S. Simoom 

l(i9 Ranger 



238 Elbe 



277 Erm 



299 BrynOlas 



Dftto. 

1885 



1886 



1887 



Remarks. 



Explosion of copper bellows expansion 

joint, which was constructively weak. 
Cast-iron pipe, 0^ in. diameter, decayed 

where it passed through the up-take, 

and was exposed to heat. Pipe was 

26 years old. 
Explosion of copper pipe, which was 

probably cracKed in the process of 

manufacture. 
1888iWrou^t-iron pipe connecting top of 

water gauge to boiler corroded. J^ipe 

was 120 ^ears old. 
Intermediate stop valve cover broke, 

attributed to the wheel for opening 

the valve being turned the wrong way. 



1888 



14 



THE UABINE ENOINESR. 



[April 1, 1899. 



atrandinu, to came even fAttJ reaalts. The ill-fated vessel waa 
about sixteen yean old, and waa built on the Clyde by MeBsra. 
A. £ J. Inglia. I 

■lialnf StoamiH- 
Every recent inatalment of these notes baa had referenoae to 
the terrible diaaatora wbiob have characterised the winter ' 



In view of the fact that there will probably be an inquiry 
into tha circumatanoeB attending the aerioua damage to the 
steamship Paronia. it is premature to make comments upon 
the causes other accident. But it is interesting to note that 
her experience is not altogether au unprecedented one. There 



ii! 



JAImida 

KPietOQ 

ll|Tjaiwhton 

Mimater Hay bach 

S Port Helbonme . , 

S,Croft 

TjDoia Foster 

8 City of Wakefield.. 

gAllagheoy 

iqOberoQ 

llAroua 



Bunderland 
West Hartlepool. 
Hiddlesbrongh 
Newcastle .... 
Newcaatle .... 

Blyth 

Newcastle .... 

Stockton 

Stockton 

Sunderland . . 
Sunderland , . 



Bartrom, Hassell A Co.. 

E. Withey 4 Co 

R. Dixon 4 Co 

Armstrong. Uitchell itCo. 
Hawthorne, £«»lie * Co. . 
Blyth Shipbuilding Co.. 

Tyne Shipbuilding Co 

R. Ropner 

Craig, Taylor 4 Co 

Bartram, Hassetl A Co.. 
J. L. Thompson 



» York 



2408 Hamburg . 

2317NBwport News.. Sligo .... 
a4S6Newport News. .[Copenhagei 

2710 New York 'Flashing. . , 

WONewTork iLondon ... 

S675New York 'Leith ■...,, 

3473 Savannah Liverpool . 

3004 Norfolk, Virginia Botterdam , 

2914Halitai Dover 

1738 Baltimore London . , . 

Portland. Maine. London ... 



. 15 Dec- 

. . 20 Jan., 
1 . 23 Jan., 
. . 2-5 Jan., 
. 37 Jan., 
. 26 Jan., 
.{33 Jan., 
. '23 Jan.. 
. ^24 Jan., 
.35 Jan., 
. 27 Jan.. . 



^ u Chief Eugiai 

5 8i 

23 William Hot 

23 

2ti T.S.CUrk. 

32 

52 C. Rowelt. 

37 E.Rytes. 

24 F. Kemp. 



16 



THE UABINK ENGblNEES. 



r April 1, 18 



reanme her uilinga to the weHtward ; (his owing to the onpre- 
cadented ice of the present winter. Her March sailing is being 
taken by the 2,fi00toD Dorift, a vessel of some eighteen ycAra 
old, built Bt Snnderlauii, Of the two steamshipH H'erra and 
Fuldm, which it was abo.at to aoquire from the Nord Dentscher 
Lltnrd, the Fnlda has been lost to it through the nnaccountable 
aocident which befell her in the graving dock at Birkenhead 
what time she was dry docked for the nsual bottom sighting, 
which is one of the conditions precedent t<i purchase of steamers. 
The vesBel was so damaged as to be condemned an a conatrnc- 
tive total loss. In consequence of this she was sold by auction. 
The advertiaement of tbe sale containeii one carious item. Her 
dimensions, age, bnilders, engines, dc, were set out as usual. 
Bat the information that ahe had "condensers" was also 
afforded, as though in this she was especially well found. In 
the early days of steamers with compound engines it was not 
unUBOal to say that a vessel had " surface condensers," because 
the surface condenser was of comparatively late general adop- 
tion at tlut time. It was desired to show that the then modern 
fonn of condenser wai fitted in lieu of tlie older jet condenser- 
Bat the appliance of one form or another have been with ns so 
long that it seemed ilh necessary to tell us that she had them as 
part of her equipment as to mention Chat she had a bow or a 
stem. The ship was knocked down for £11.500, and was 
boDgfat, it is said, on account of German owners who intend to 
refit her for service. 

The FlBkBcIng of Btunihip Conpsnlu 
has occupied a good deal of attention lately. This is no doubt 
doe not only to the activity which is now prevailing in shipping 
circles, bat also to the demand for larger, and therefore for more 
expensive, vessels. Tbe P. & 0. Company is applying to the 
Privy Council for a supplementary charter to enable it to issue 
debentures to ati amount not to exceed a million sterling, if it 
considers it expedient to do so. 

Tha n Oder It ad Imeriaan Conpfto; 
ifl BO pleased with the big twin-screw steamers Stalenilam and 
Jtetterdam, which it hoa had built at Belfast, that it has ordered 
three more, to be called Hn^irdam, Foltdsm, and RijHdatA. The 
Bcoeasion of these vessels will enable it to maintain a weekly 
service of first-class new twin-screw boat* which will certainly 
make their competition felt by other Continental lines. The 
company seems now lo be in a thoroughly sound and prosper- 
ous condition. It is about to raise additional capitid to the 
extent of a quarter of a million sterling. Thin course is rendered 
necessary in order to pro\'ide for tbe cost of the new Hleamers 
it has ordered. 
' The well-known firm of Houlder Brothers, which has the 
management of ten large steamships registered in the names of 
as many single ship companies, is converthig itself into a 
limited comiany which shall own tbe fleet. The name of the 
new concern will be the Houlder Line. Limited, and its capi- 
tal will be half a million sterling, nearly equally divided into 
ordinary and preference shares, with power to raise £200,000 in 
debentures. The fleet comprises some 43.705 tons of modern 
shipping, of which less than Eve thousand tons la more than 
five years old. All the vckbcIb are fitted with installations for 
carrying frozen meat— a trade in which, as well from the River 
Plate as from New Zealand, the line has for long held a pro- 

Tbe West Hartlepool Bteam Navigation Company, Limited. 
has about tbe same amount of capital as the Houlder Line. It 
acquires some twenty one steamera. ranging from the .Ulirliall 
and tbe iii'rl:i7i<ill of 7,000 tons each, down to the Oermiiu Kvpirc 
of 7M tons. It amalgamates the business of the West Hartle 
HNil Hteam Navigation Company with Chat of Messrs. J, E. 
Guthe. Four of its largest steamers, Ihongh provided for, are 
not yet delivered, and it will have the advantage of being under 
the direction nf Sir Christopher Funiess. 

Kmifi C. W. KeUoek A Co., 
the repnlation of whose firm is seen by the weight attached to 
their eertificatea of valuations in the proBpectuses of the Houlder 
Wtd West Hartlepool companies, have the business of disposing 
ot the famons Bazin roller boat. She will be offered forauction 
Iw them on April fith, and a full description of her appears in 
their list. The dfck or platform ot the vessel is 126 ft. 6 in, 
long, by about 40 ft. Iieam. The t4>ughened steel rollers or discs 
npon which she runs are each of S2 ft. diameter. There is a 
water-tube boiler which is capable of supplying steam toengines 
of SOD H.P. The main engine* are ot the compound type, and, 



in addition, the rollershave their aeparatc engines. It is said that- 
when this strange crafC was towed across the Channel from her 
port of equipment lo Hull, she behaved splendidly. Intending 
imrchosers are reminded of her possibiliCies as a raree show and 
ae an advertising medium. But failing that, it is suggested that 
she would be valuable to sbipbreakers as she contains much 
copper^now at so high a price. Indeed, it is rather cruelly 
saggeated that the platform would make a bridge, whilst Che 
rollers oonid be us«I for gaa buoys or coijuuna. One will be 
cnriouB to see what her ultimate fate may be. 

The Bapqneitlae " Oktui," 
recently converted at Londonderry from a paddler of the City 
of Bublin Bteam Packet Company, is also on the market. Bhe 
seems to have been practically rebuilt since she left the croBS- 
Channel service 

Meiin. BIdeF, Dempiter A Co. 
have been managing grandly for the African Steamahip Company. 
Its t onnsge is now a very small fraction under 9-5,000 tons. It 
pays a good dividend, and seems Co be doing very well for itf 
employees, for whom, as a somewhat hostile question in the 
House of Commons has just announced to the public, iC has 
inaugurated an arrangement whereby its seamen and firemen., 
sailing to tbe not too salubrious West Coast of Africa, can, at 
reduced raCea, make provision with well-known insurance com- 
panies for their wives and families in caae they succumb to the 
climate or perils of the sea. IC is worth noticing here that for 
their African service itself, Messrs. Elder, Bem^iater, who have 
long believed in it for the AClanCic voyage, are now adopting the 

They are rapidly preparing to revi\'e the old Beaver Line 
with fine new steamers, which are now constructing for themou 
the east coast. These vessels will also be of the twin-acrew 

type, and will bear the names, " Lokt ," as did the vessels of 

the old Canada Shipping Company, whose goodwill Mr. A. L. 
Jones has purchased from the liquidator of the old line. 
Tbe Cape Halli. 

The award has not yet been made by the Postal authorities- 
of the new Cape mail contract. There is a story in (■irculation 
that a syndicate with a capital of £3.000.000 starling has sent 
in a tender offering to reduce the contract time tor the mails 
to Capetown to 1-1 days. The present period allowed is 19 days, 
though, of course, tbe limit ia aeldom approaclied. If there be 
truth in the rumour, there are likely to be very stirring times in 
this direction, as the old well-established companies — rich and 
popular aa they are — will not let their position be assailed with- 
out a very stern resistance. 

The P. A 0. Companr 

are deprived of an old servant by the condemnation and aale of 
their old steamship Ilrindui. which sustaineii serious damage 
some months ago at Bi^n, Bhimonoaeki, in Japan, by collision 
with the native steamer Ttijnjawa Mam. Tlie llrimlUi ia, 
fortunately for her owners, one of the smaller and older vessels 
of the line. But for local trading her sizewasa very useful one. 
H. Fanl Fuiet. 
I very much regret to announce the death of the charming 
and agreeable agent in England of La Coni]>agnie Gencrale 
Transatl antique. M. Paul Fanet, who was liked and res]>ected 
by all who had ever been thrown in contact with him, died but 
the other day at Boulogne at an age which was miicb less than 
his appearance would have led one to imagine he had attained. 
His life was shorten Gil bv the effects of two serious wounds,, 
one in the shoulder and the other in the knee, which he had 
sustained nearly 'M yearn ago when Sgliting his country 'k battles 
in the Franco-German war. The compagni'* will have difKcully 
in finding a. man so thoroughly suited for the position as was. 
their late agent in this country. 



Blehsrd Helhniah, Bona A Co. — We have recently received 
a copy of the latest edition of the Engineers' section 
of the Catalogue ii^Kued by Messrs. Iticlianl Melhuisb, 
Sons & Co.. and which has just been published. This 
catalogue has again been revised up to date, ntnl contains a very 
large selection of the latest patterns of^atocka and dies, cutters.. 
general machine shop and special precision tools, lathes, 
drilling and milling machines, and a variety of other apparatus 
and supplies incidental to all grades of engineering and con- 
tractors' work. This book contains over 'MO pages, and im 
profusely illustrated with an extremely naefal aeC of blocks. It 
IB got op in very good stvle with stiff covers, and should there- 
fore prove a handsome addition to a library of similar books. 



April 1, 1899.] 



TDE MABINE ENGINKEB. 



19 



cylinder II will, however, be greater than the force 
exerted upon the shaft by the moving elements of 
cylinder I, in proportion as the distance is between 



should, however, be equal to the force exerted upon 
the crank of cylinder IV, accordingly a force equal to 
iplYy and ^^IV, respectively, should be exerted 




ff?^.. J iPm 




^"^Fiff.dK^ 



i^ 



+H- 



5 




the centres of cylinders 1 1 and IV. is smaller than that 
between the cylinders I\' and T ; the sum of the forces 
acting upon the cranks of the cylinders I and 11, 



upon the crank shaft by tbe moving elements of the 
cylinders I and 11^ releXW^V^ \.o tVi<^\»t^/^ ««j<NA^\r^ 
tiie like element ol c\\TiaL<et \N * ^xi ^^^^^vw^^ ws^Kt 



-s^ 



•< ". 






■\ • • ' 



I . 



\ 

I 

1 



'I 



36 



THE JOJIINE ENGmEEE. 



[April 1, 1899. 



weight of new work reoently, having orders to carry them well 
over next year. Boilermakers are also exceptionally full of 
work, and hydraulic and electrical engineers are sJl exces- 
sively bosy. 

The monthly returns issued by the engineering trade unions 
continue of a very satisfactory character. The Steam Engine 
Makers* Society has only 1 per cent, of its total member^ip 
on donation benefit, whilst in Manchester, Bolton, and Oldham 
practically a clear book is reportai. The difficulty with this 
society is, in fact, to supply men to meet the requirements of 
the employers, and many applications from the latter have to 
be declin^. The United Machine Workers' Association has 
not more than 2$ per cent, of the total membership on benefit, 
and in Manchester the proportion is under 2 per cent., whilst at 
Sheffield, Belfast, Gateshead, Glasgow, Barrow-in-Furness, Bir- 
kenhead, Donoaster, Hudderstield, Grantham, Halifax, Ashton- 
under-Lyne, Lancaster, Crewe, Gloucester, Kewcastle-on-Tyne, 
Wigan, Edinburgh, Woolwich, Erith, Loughborough, and 
Grimsby there are no unemployed members. The wages ques- 
tion at Bolton and Blackburn, where the men have asked for an 
advance of 2s per week, is still pending. Out of fifty branches, 
twenty-nine return trade as *'good," and the remainder as 
•• fair." 

On Saturday, tlie 11th March, Messrs. Laird Bros, floated 
from their building dock at Birkenhead, H.M. battleship Olory, 
which is the third warship constructed by this firm for the home 
navy within a period of ten years. Particulars of this vessel 
and its floating will be found in another column. The firm 
have also in hand the Exprenf and Orwell^ now undergoing their 
steam trials ; two twin single-screw sloops, H.M. 6. Klutine and 
Hinaldo, of 9B0 tons and 1,^ H.P. ; a 80-knot destroyer for the 
BuBsian Government, which will shortly be ready for launching ; 
a paddle-wheel steamer, launched in February, for the South- 
Eastern Railway Company's Folkestone and Boulogne traffic ; 
a first-class battleship for H.M. Navy of 15,000 tons, and 18,000 
X.H.P., to be named the ExmoutM, is to be laid down immediately in 
the building dock just vacated by the Glory, There are also in 
progress a set of twin-screw engines of 15,000 H.P. for H.M.S. 
Implaeailet which is building at Devonport, and a set of water- 
tube boilers for H.M.S. BUnehet to replace her original locomotive 
boilers. 

In our last notes reference was made to the important exten- 
sions now in progress at the Manchester works of Sir William 
Armstrong, Whitworth <& Co., Limited. These extensions, 
which include large additions to the ordnance department, and 
an entirely new range of shoi>s for the manufacture of armour 
plates, are being rapidly pushed forward, and several of the 
shops are now in an advanced state. When complete<l they 
will be an important addition to the industrial enterprise of the 
district. 

Messrs. B. <fe S. Massey, of Manchester, have recently sup- 
plied several sets of steam hammers specially designed for 
fastening the tyres of railway wheels after they have been put 
on the axle, the hammer bemg so constructed that they can 
operate between the two wheels. The firm have also just 
supplied to an English manufacturing firm one of the largest 
stesmi stamps which has hitherto been constructed, this being 
made for 20 cwt. ; the largest stamps of this type previously 
made have not been more than 15 cwt. 

An exceptionally large gas engine has just been completed by 
Messrs. Crossley Brothers, Limited, of Manchester. This 
engine is capable of giving a brake H.P. of more than 400, and 
is of the firm's special type. Messrs. Crossley have recently 
taken out a number of new patents, and have revised their 
designs in many ways, with the result that they have succeeded 
in reducing the consumption of gas in their latest patterns by 
more than ten per cent. 

An important event during the ensuing year is the autumn 
meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, which is to be held in 
Manchester, and as it is twelve years since the Institute last 
visited the above city, very considerable interest is being taken 
in the matter, and everything promises that the proceedings 
will be of a very successful character. Alr^bdy a big 
representative local committee has been appointed, with 
Jat. S. R. Piatt, of Oldham, as Chairman, Mr. Henry Webb, of 
Bury, as Vice-Chairman, and Mr. Thomas Ashbury, C.E., of 
Manchester, as Secretary, and the prelimhiary arrangements are 
being rapidly pushed forward. 

The Railways Regulation Bill, so far as it proposes to introduce 
the compulsory adoption of automatic couplings, is meeting 
with the very strongest possible opposition from all sections of 
the coal trade and waggon- building industry in this district, and 



the contention is that this proposal has been brought forward 
without adequate consideration, and that even taking American 
statistics, where compulsory couplings are in operation, the loss 
of life is larger than on English railways where this arrangement 
has not so »r been adopted. 

During the past month there has been a quietening down, so 
far as new business is concerned, in the iron trade here. Large 
users are mostly well covered, and holding back from placing 
further orders, and transactions have been chiefly througli mer- 
chants at under the current rates. Makers, however, are gene- 
rally well booked, and indifferent about selling just now, and 
show no gi\'ing way on their basis quotations. Lancashire 
foundry is firm at 55s. 6d. less 2^, with Lincolnshire 
53s. net, and Derbvshire 54s. to 55s. net cash delivered 
Manchester. Forge qualities maintain a strong tone and the 
general average is about 52s. 6d. less 2^ for Lanca- 
^ire, and 5} net cash for Lincolnshire, aelivered War- 
rington. Outside brands have been very irregular, owing to 
the fluctuations in warrants, and the average rates show a 
giving way on last month's prices. Good foundry Middlesbro* 
ranges from about 56s. 4d. to 56s. lOd. net by rail Manchester, 
with Scotch iron at Manchester Docks about 59s. for Glengar> 
nock, and 59s. 6d. for Eglinton, and ordinary foundry American 
pig iron about 55s. to 56s. net. 

With regard to finished iron, although makers are well 
booked, bars are in less active request, with £6 15s. to 
£6 17s. 6d. the average for Lancashire, and £7 for Yorkshire 
and North Staffordshire qualities, delivered here. Sheets 
remain at about £7 15s. to £7 17b. Od. Hoops are in steady 
demand at the Association list rates of £7 for random to £7 5s. 
for special cut lengths delivered Manchester district, and 2s. 6d. 
less for shipment. 

The steel trade has scarcely fully maintained the strong tone 
recently reported. Makers still quote 69s. to 70s., less 2^, for 
No. H foundry hematites, but there has been underselling in the 
open market. Local made billets are quoted £5 net. In steel 
bars of the large sizes there have been sellers at £7 5s., with, 
however, general quotations £7 10s. to £7 15s. In common steel 
plates makers ask £7 15s. to £7 17s. 6d., but considerably under 
these figures has been taken in special cases. Steel boiler 
plates average about £8 12s. 6d. delivered in this district. 

In the metal market business has been only of limited weight; 
and with the close of the month the downward move in raw 
material has been followed by a reduction in list rates for 
manufactured goods to the extent of ^d. per lb. on brazed brass 
tubes, rolled metals and wire. Delivered Manchester district 
basis rates are now as under :~- Solid drawn brass tubes, 8|d. ; 
copper tubes, lid. ; brazed copper gas and steam tubes, lOfd. ; 
brazed braes tubes, 9id. ; rolled brass, 7|d. ; brass wire, 8d. ; 
copper wire, 9Jd. per lb. 

Business 'in the timber trade has been fairly satisfactory. 
The arrivals have been moderate, and as the deliveries of moet 
articles have exceeded the imports, stocks, with the exception 
of a few items, are considerably reduced, and values steisMly; 
contracting for next season has not been brisk, but some heabd-. 
way has been made. The arrivals of teak squares have been 
very moderate ; stocks are not heavy, and there is rather more 
enquiry, with prices firm. Planks have been coming in more 
freely, but there is a good demand, and stocks are not large, 
with values steady. There has been no importation of green- 
heart, but stocks are sufficient ; prices are firm. 

A strong healthy tone prevails in the coal trade here. The 
demaad for house-fire qualities is keeping up exceptionally well 
for the time of the year, and tlie output is moving away, with 
prices firm at full list rates. Steam and forge coals are in brisk 
request, and strong at late quotations. At the pit mouth best 
Wigan Arley average 128. to 128. (kl. ; Pemberton four ft., and 
seconds, Arley lOs. 6d. to lis. ; common house coal, 9s. 6d. to 
10s. ; and steam and forge coal, 88. 6d. to 9s. per ton. With 
regard to forward contracts for gas and steam coal and locomo- 
tive fuel, it is not improbable that colliery owners will hold out 
for an advance of Is. 6d. to 2s. on gas coal contracts over the rates 
taken last year, whilst advances of Is. 6d. on locomotive fuel and 
about Is. to Is. 6d. per ton on steam coal contracts for shipment 
have been practically decided upon by local colliery owners. 
Engine fuel is in continued pressing demand, with rather a 
scarcity of supplies, and prices, which are being advanced in 
some cases with opening of the month, generally steady at 48. 9d. 
to 5s. for common, 5s. 8d. to 58. 9d. for medium, and 68. to 
6s. 6d. for best sorts at the' pit mouth. Collieries are also holding 
out for a further advance on current rates for forward contracts 
for engine fuel. 



33 



THE MAKINE £^*QI:?S]SR. 



[April li I8l»0. 



having steamed across linder her own steam. She will be- pat 
in dry dock in order to have her hull cleaned, and wUl then 
undergo a thorough overhaul hoth internally and externally, 
and it is expected she will again take up her stalion within a 
few weeks. 

The S.8. Torr Head has also been in dry dock during the past 
month, having the damage to ber plates rectified, which it will 
be remembered was caased by her coming in contact with an 
iceberg in the Western Ocean. The repairs have been success- 
fully carried out by the builders, Messrs. Harland <fe Wolff, and 
she has- again left this port. 

On the ISth of March the s.s. China, belonging to the Penin- 
sular and Oriental &team Navijgation Company, arrived in 
Bel&Mt Harbour. This vessel, registering as she does 7,800 tons, 
is one of the finest of the P. & O. fleet, and it will doubtless be 
remembered 'that on the 2Sth March, 1898, she ran ashore 
whilst • on her usual run from Sydney to London with pas- 
sengers and freight. 6o tightly was she wedged in between 
rooks that it was believed that her Belfast double-bottom system 
and the sterling work of her builders alone saved her from 
breaking in two. Several rocks pierced her bottom in the fore- 
part, and her fore-holds were full of water immediately after 
stranding; however, salvage operations were at once commenced, 
but it was only after five months' hard work that the repairs 
necessary to make her watertight were effected. Once this was 
done the salvage steamers pumped her out at the rate of 14,000 
tons of water per hour, and on the 17th September last she was 
re-floated. At Perim she underwent some more repairs, and 
last month commenced her homeward voyage. The sides of the 
China show some of the hardships she has come through, but 
the injuries she has received will be better seen after she is put 
in dry dock. It is said that the salvage operations for the vessel 
alone cost £130,000. Her builders, Messrs. Harland & Wolff, 
will, of course, carry out the necessary repairs. 

Besides these, the Rotterdam and State rdam, both of which 
vessels were recently built at the Queen's Island, have been 
docked and fitted with a large addition to their water-ballast 
capacity, as well as having some minor improvements fitted. 
Both tiiese vessels have again left this port, but somehow the 
Staterdatn on her outward trip ran ashore on the Antrim side of 
Belfast Lough, and had to return to port again to be put in dock, 
but the damage done being trifling, she again left on the 18th 
ult.« for Bottcrdam to load cargo. 

With all these extensive repairs on hand, Messrs. Harland 
A Wolff will be kept exceptionally busy for some weeks, and 
any casual observer may see how the want of good graving 
dock accommodation tends to hampei^important ref)air8. as well 
as preventing the taking of Oovernmei t contracts by this firm. 
Several of these have been offered them recently, but have had 
to be refused owing to the want of dry dock accommodation ; 
however, we understand that a deputation from the Belfast 
Harbour Trustees have again been appointed to visit the 
Government Officials at Whitehall, to impress upon them, if 
possible, the necessity of rendering assistance with the graving 
dock accommodation financially and otherwise, and we trust 
they may be successful in their mission. 

We referred last month to the most successful trial trip of 
the new Allan Liner Cai<tiUau, which was built and engine<l by 
Messrs. Workman, Clark A Co., Ltd., and it is accordingly 
with much regret we have to now report her short and most 
unfortunate career, as on her return maiden voyage she got on 
the rocks on the Nova Scotian coast, and has now broken up 
and sunk in deep water, but fortunately no lives were lost by 
the catastrophe. 

The s.s. Panxiau, also belonging to the Allan Line, is expected 
here very shortly to have her engines tripled and new boilers 
supplied by Messrs Workman, Clark Ar Co., Ltd. This 
was erroneously stated in last month's Clyde Notes as being 
executed by Messrs. R. Napier A Son, Glasgow. 

So far no new orders are reiwrted to have been booked here, 
but there is plenty of work in hand for many months to come, 
although the want of material for both shipbuilding and 
engineering works is causing great delay in the finishing of 
vessels. 

It may be uiteresting to note here that shi])building is alx^ut 
to be re-conimenced in Londonderry, the Foyle Shipyard being 
almost ready for building. There have been many changes 
effected on the plant and buildings since they were taken over 
JF /i^d- ^5:j^'/£? A7///>^MJJding, C'Ompany. and in a . very short time 
^i^^^'^^ ^ "^^'**^ conw^ete in &U the necessary arrange- 
'^S^^V'T- ^'''/f building ways have been laid out with a 
w executing the extensive orders promisah and the blocks 



have been laid on fe^oond longest ways for an order on bend. 
This is a steamer of 6,800 tons deadweight, to be built ^ steel, 
and for whioh a qvanUty of plates have already arrived from 
Glasgow. The wi^ laid for the steamer are much longer than 
any laid when* the ytfd was previously open. Formerly the 
vessels were built square to the yard, and launched straight out 
into the river, bat the ways are now all beina laid at an an^le 
to go down the fair way* which will give much more extensive 
launching limits, azid enable the vessels to be brought up more 
rapidly and also more convenient to the finishing wharf. A 
number of minor ohanget in the arrangement of the yard have 
also been made, all of which will tend to make the operations 
in the various departments more easily, more economioEdly, and 
more expeditiously carried oat, and it is expected that within a 
ver}' short time a start will be made in forging the keel of the 
steamer on order. 



NORTH WSST Cr INOLAND. 

(From our own Con^etpOhdent.) 



Barrow. — There is a growing activity in the shipbuilding and 
marine engineering trades of Barrow, because with every week 
and every month increased facilities are being provided by the 
extension of old premises, the building of i^w ones, and the 
otiliaation of new and improved tools of every tort. The works 
of Vickers, Sons & Maxim, which were well tqaipped as the 
Naval Construction and Armament Co.'s works, are now much 
more perfect in every department, and changes are being 
effected on every hand whereby even greater exoellence of 
facility will be brought into play. In addition to the ordinary 
up-to-date machinery produced by English and Scotoh makers 
for shipbuilding and engineering purposes, several very clever 
and economic machines of American origin are being, and have 
already been, put down. These are doing good work, and are in 
very many respects really marvellous specimens of engineering 
skill. It speaks well for the future of Vickers' concern at Barrow 
that so much enterprise is being shown in this work of bringing 
the works up-to-date, and what is more, keeping them up-to- 
date, because the advantages which this policy will give will be 
such as will enable the firm to work profitably when less well- 
equipped establishments cannot pay. Some time ago it was in- 
timated in the monthly report imder this head that Vickers, 
Sons tfr Maxim had acquired a large slice of additional land by 
which they proposed to extend their shipbuilding department 
and their slip-ways. In fact, the increase of the yard will give 
more than double the present frontage to Walney Channel 
and the present launching area. A large steel -casting foundry 
is about to be built in the engineering department, and 
a new wing to the engineering shop about 1 ,000 ft. long by 00 ft. 
wide has l^n erected in which the work of making gun mount- 
ings will be carried on. Some very fine machinery is being put 
down in this department, and work has already been com- 
menced. A very large number of orders are already in hand for 
the building of gun mountings for Vickers' guns, not only those 
required for ships building at Barrow, but for other ships and for 
other purposes. It is in fact very probable that this branch of 
engineering at the Naval Construction Works will be one of the 
most active. It would be difficult, however, to imagine a more 
active state of things than is evidenced at present in the 
engineering works proper, for there is not only under construc- 
tion at present the engines and machinery of H.M.S. Vengeance^ 
but for the first-class cruisers llfujue, Eur y aim, and King Alfreiy 
the name given to the improved Poiccr/id; to be built at Bailx>w. 
Further than this there are the engines for the West African 
and Pacific boats, the engines for the Pacific Co.'s liner, and 
much minor work. The launch of H.M.S. Vengeance will 
probably not take place until July, but the work of both hull 
and engines has progressed very much and the delay in her 
launch will not in any sense mean any delay in the time of her 
completion. Ships can be launched at a very heavy weiglit in 
Barrow, not only because of the hardness of the ways on which 
they are built, but because of the great area and depth of water 
in which they are launche<l. Work has been commenced on 
two of the three first-class cruisers in course of con- 
struction, and the preliminaries for the King Alfred are 
being rapidly pushed forward. Plie will probably be put 
down on the ways from wliich the Vengeance will be 
launched un\e&a another order is booked in the meantime, and 



40 



THE MABINE ENGINEEB. 



[April 1, 1899. 



LAT7NCHEB AND TRIAL TRIPS. 



LAUNCHES— English. 

Boadioea.— On February 9th there was launched at Hull for 
the I^llyer'B Hteani Trawler's Co., Ltd., of Hull, an iron ketch- 
rigged steamer, named the lioadirea. 

Gilderoy.—On February 10th there was launched at Bill Quay- 
on-Tyne, for Messrs. Ellis, ti|)encerd' Co., Limited, of Grimsby, 
a steel schooner-rigged steamer of about 153 tons gross, named 
/ the Oilderoy. 

St. Becl«.— On February 11th there was launched at Sunder- 
land for Messrs. Rankin, Gilmour & Co., of Liverpool, a steel 
schooner-rigged steamer of about 3,000 tons gross, named the 
St. lledt. 

The Vary. — On February 11th Messrs. Hunt, Fowler & Co., 
Hi^ll, launcned from their yard a steel coasting steamer built to 
the order of Mr. W. Nettleton, of Hull. Her dimensions are : 
—Length, 81 ft. <; in. ; breadth, 17 ft. 9 in. ; depth, 7 ft. 9 in. 
The engines, which are compound 25 N.H.P., will be supplied 
by ^r, W..M. Escreet, engineer, Burton Stather. 

iMUinblUi. — On February 16th there was launched at Hull 
for the 8team Trawling Fishing Co., of Kennemerland, an iron 
steam ketch of about 1(>8 tons ^xws, named the A»Humburg. 

Ovynwood.— On February lOth there was launched at 
Walker, for Messrs. Boss i Marshall, of Greenock, a steel 
schooner-rigged steamer, named the GicymnHxl. 

Fulmar. — On February 28rd there was launched at Hull, for 
Messrs. Pickering & Haldanes Steam Trawling Co., Limited, of 
Hull, an iron steam ketch of about 211 tons gross, named the 
Fulmar, 

JLkranet.— On February 24th there was launched at North 
Shields an iron steam ketch of about 190 tons gross, named the 
AkranfH. 

Sirdar. — On February 24th there was launched at North 
Shields for Messrs. G. Meadows, Limited, of Grimsby, an iron 
and steel steam ketch of about 190 tons gross, named the 
Sirdar, 

SokotO.— On February 2iSth Messrs. Vickers, Sons & Maxim 
launched from their Naval Construction Works at Barrow the 
first of two sister steamers building by them to the order of the 
British and African Steamship Co. She is a first-class pas- 
senger and cargo steamer of about 4,000 tons, built to the 
highest class of Ijloyd's, and fitted with all the latest improve- 
ments for the African trade. She is 345 ft. long between per- 
pendiculars, 42 ft. beam, and 25 ft. 8 in. depth moulded. Her 
engines are of the triple-expansion type, with cylinders of 
23 in., 38 in., and 03 in. respcK^tively, and her steam pressure is 
180 lbs. The new vessel, which is named Sokoto^ was launched 
by Mrs. Ella M. Dempster, daughter-in-law of Mr. John 
Dempster, one of the directors of the British and African Co. 

King Harold.— On February 27th there was launched at Selby, 
by Messrs. Cochrane A Cooper, a steamship built to the order of 
the Viking Steam Fishing Co., of Grimsby. The vessel was 
named A'fw<7 Hnrold. 

HallOO.— On February 27th there was launched by Messrs. 
John Jones A SonH, at Liverpool, the powerful steam tug NeUon^ 
of about 150 tonti gross, indicating 600 H.P., built of Siemens- 
Martin Htcel, to the highest class at Lloyd's, and will form a 
valuable addition to the lleet of the Alexandra Towing Co., who 
have ordered a duplicate vessel from the builders. 

Raithmoor. — On February 27th there was launched by 
Messrs. John Ueadhead (V* Sons, at South Shields, the Raith- 
moor, of the following dimensions: — Length, 335 ft. overall; 
breadth, 47 ft.; depth, moulded, 25 ft. The vessel is of the 
single-deck ty|^. with full poop aft containing cabins, and long 
bridge amidsliips, with accommodation at after-end for engineers, 
and topgallant forecastle for crew. The ship has been built 
under special survey, and classed Al at Lloyd's. She will carry 
5,130 tons deadweight on a light draught, and is fitted with all 
the latest improvements and appliances for the working of the 
vessel, and for rapid loading and discharging of cargo. The 
engines are of the triple-expansion type, and are constructed by 
Messrs. Ueadhead & Sons. The cylinders are 24 in., 40 in., and 
/f4 in. by 42 in. stroke, steam being supplied by two large steel 
boi/era, working at a pretmnre oi 160 Ibe. per square inch. The 

^K«ae/ has been built to the order of Meaara. Walter Runciman A 

c^o„ of NewcaetJeonTyiw and Fjondon. 



Wandby. — On February 27th Messrs. Bopner & Son, Stock- 
ton-on-Tees, launched a steel screw steamer of the following 
dimensions, viz. : — Length between perpendiculars, 336 ft. 
6 in. ; brea<1th, extreme, 46 ft. 6 in. ; depth, moulded, 
27 ft. 3 in. Tlie steamer has been built to the order 
of Messrs. B. Bopner & Co., West Hartlepool, and is of 
the three-decked rule, fitted with the builders* patent 
trunk, full poop, bridge, and topgallant forecastle. The saloon 
and cabins for captain and officers will be fitted up in the poop, 
the accommodation for engineers in iron houses on the bridge 
deck, and for the crew in the forecastle as usual. She lias doulue 
bottom on the cellular principle for water ballast, and will carry 
about 6,000 tons on Lloyd^s summer freeboard, on a light 
draught of water. She will have all the most recent appliances 
for the expeditious and economical loading and unloading of 
cargoes, has direct steam windlass, steam steering gear amid- 
ships, with powerful screw gear aft, six large steam winches, to 
which steam is supplied by two large vertical donkey boilers, 
stockless anchors, A'c, &c. She will be fitted with a set of 
triple-expansion engines by Messrs. Blair & Co., Limited, 
having cylinders 24 in., 40 in., 66 in. by 45 in. stroke. The 
christening ceremony was gracefully performed by Miss Margie 
Bopner, ot West Hartlepool, daughter of one of the managing 
owners, who gave her the name of Wandby, 

Mabel Grace. — On February 28th Messrs. Laird Brothers 
launched at Birkenhead a steel paddle-wheel steamer, which 
they have built to the order of the South-Eastem and Chatham 
and Dover Railway Companies for their passenger trafiic between 
Folkestone and Boulogne. The vessel has been specially 
designed to meet the requirements of the Channel passenger 
service. She has a turtle back neck forward, and a large deck- 
house aft, over which there is a spacious promenade deck in 
continuation of the bridge. She is 300 ft. long, 36 ft. beam, and 
measures 1,920 tons o.m. Her machuiery will consist of a set 
of three-cylinder compound fixed diagonal engines of large 
power to ensure a high speed. The vessel was named Mabel 
Grace. The companies were represented by Mr. G. Kelson, 
consulting naval arcliitect, and Mr. Neil Guy, superintending 
engineer. 

Airedale. — On February 28tli Messrs. Wm. Gray & Co., 
Limited, launched the fine steel screw steamer Airedale, which 
they have built to the order of the London and Northern 
Steamship Co., Limited, Messrs. Pyman Bros., London, 
managers. She will take Lloyd's highest class, and her dimen- 
sions are, viz. : — Length overall, 341 ft. ; breadth, 
47 ft. ; and depth, 24 ft. 10 in. The deck erections consist of a 
poop, bridge and forecastle. A handsome saloon and cabins for 
officers, &c., are fitted up aft ; the engineers* rooms are in ths 
bridge, and the crew's accommodation forward, including a 
bath-room for seamen and firemen. The hull is built on the 
deep-frame system, with a cellular double-bottom, large hatdi- 
ways, five steam winclies, steam steering-gear amidships, hand- 
screw gear aft, two donkey boilers, patent direct steam windlass, 
boats on beams overhead, shifting boards throughout, stockleea 
anchors, two telescoping masts with fore and aft rig, and a com- 
plete outfit for a first-class cargo vessel. The Central Marine 
Engine Works of Messrs. Wm. Gray & Co., Limited, supply the 
engines, which are of the triple-expansion type, having cylinders 
24 in., 38 in., and 64 in. diameter, with a 42 in. piston stroke, 
and two large steel boilers to work at 170 lbs. pressure per 
square inch. The vessel has been built under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Wm. Birchby, on behalf of the owners, and the 
ceremony of christening the steamer Airedale was gracefully 
performed by Miss Nellie Pyman, of West House, West 
Hartleix)ol. 

Fred. — On February 28th there was launched from the yard 
of Messrs. K. Williamson & Son, Workington, a finely -modelled 
screw steamer, built to the highest class at Lloyd's, for Mr. 
T. G. Best, Liverpool. Her dimensions are :— Length, 140 ft. ; 
breadth, 23 ft. ; depth, moulded, 10 ft. 3jr in., and designed to 
carry 330 tons on Lloyd's freeboard. The engines are to be- 
Rupplie<l by Messrs. Boss & Duncan, of Govan, and are of the 
compound tyi)e, having two cylinders 18 in. and 36 in., with a 
stroke of 24 in. As she left the ways she was gracefully named' 
the Fred by Miss Best. 

Rajah. — On February 28th Messrs. Cochrane & Cooper, 
Limited, launched from their Grovehill Shipyard, Beverley, a 
new steam trawler of the following dimensions: — 100 ft. by' 
21 ft. by 11 ft. depth of hold, built to the order of Mr« Emeet 
Sleight, Qrimsby. Engines of 45 N.P. are being supplied by 



44 



THE MABINE ENaiNEEB. 



[AprU 1, 1899. 



steamer for Messrs. Gow, Harrison <!' Co., Glasj^ow. The 
dimensions are : — liength, 320 ft. ; breadtli, 40 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 23 ft. 9 in. The vessel is built to Lloyd's highest class 
and is designed to carry about 4,700 tons on a comparatively 
light draught. The erections are, a poop, long bridge and top- 
gallant forecastle, the crew being berthed in the latter, whilst 
the saloon, officers' and engineers' rooms, etc., are placed in 
houses in top of bridge deck. Six steam winclies, and eight 
derricks form the discharging gear, for four large hatches. The 
vessel is also fitted with a |x>werful steam windlass, and steam 
steering gear, the latter being placed near the engine-room with 
oontroUing shafting to bridge. The machinery consists of triple- 
ejtpansion engines having cylinders 22 J in., 36^ in., and BO in., 
by 42 in. stroke, with steam at 180 lbs. pressure, supplied from 
one large boiler fitted with Howden's forced draught. The cere- 
mony of naming the ship ValeVa was gracefully performed by 
Miss Clark, Montgomerie Crescent, Kelvinside. After the launch 
the vessel was taken to Glasgow, where Messrs. Hall-Brown, 
Butterj' & Co. will supply the machinery. The ship and 
machinery have been superintended during construction by Mr. 
Geo. Macfarlane, M.I.N. A., Glasgow. 

Maidstone. — On March 15th there was launched by Messrs. 
William Denny & Bros, from their yard at Dumbarton, a steel 
screw steamer, built by them for the South-Eastern and 
Chatham and Dover Railway Co.*s service between Dover and 
Calais. The moulded dimensions are: — 195 ft. by 28 ft. by 15 ft. 
She has been specially designed for this service, the builders 
being assisted in the arrangement of details by Captain Dixon 
and Mr. Messenger, the company's superintendents at Dover. 
She has a straight stem and elliptical stem. The bottom 
throughout, except under machinery, is on the cellular prin- 
ciple, and the peaks are also adapted for carrying water for 
trimming purposes. She has two pole niasts. The officers are 
berthed on the lower deck aft, and the crew in side-houses 
inside the forecastle. Horse stalls are fitted in the bridge and 
in the after-hold. She is lighted throughout, holds included, 
with electric light. The engines are of the three-cylinder 
triple-expansion tyjje, and, with the two boilers, have been 
supplied by Denny & Co. The christening ceremony of 
naming the vessel MaidHtoiiewaa performed by Miss Eva Ward, 
daughter of Mr. John Ward, one of the partners of the firm of 
Messrs. William Denny & Bros. 

BeandinaYia.— On March 16th there was launched by 
Messrs. Carmichael, Maclean & Co., at Greenock, a hand- 
somely-modelled steel screw steamer, to the order of Messrs. 
Svneska Lloyds. The vessel has been designed to carry a 
deadweight of about 1,800 tons, and has accommodation under 
poop for crew and on bridge for passengers, captain, and 
officers, and will be furnished with all modern appliances for 
the quick working of cargo. The vessel has been built with a 
view of adaptability for general trade, and also for carrying a 
diBck cargo of wood when required. The dimensions of the 
vessel are :— 239 ft. 4 in. by 35 ft. by 17 ft. 9 in. moulded to 
main deck; gross tonnage, about 1.250 tons. She has been 
constructed to the highest class at Lloyd's and the requirements 
of the Swedish law. The engines will be supplied by Messrs. 
Muir A' Houston, Limited, of Glasgow. The ceremony of 
naming the vessel the Scaudiuavia was performed by Miss Ruth 
Maclean, Dowanhill, Glasgow. 

Poolton. — On March 17th Messrs. Fleming * Ferguson, 
Limited, Paisley, launched from their yard the ix)werful twin- 
screw pump hopper dredger Poulton, built to the joint order of 
the Lancashire & Yorkshire * London & North- Western Rail- 
way Companies, and is intended for clearing the Fleetwood Bar. 
The vessel has l)een built to Lloyd's highest class. The christen- 
ing ceremony was performed by* Miss Bay ley, daughter of Mr. 
C. W. Bayley, secretary of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Rail- 
way Co. 

Texat.— On March l^Jth Messrs. Charles Connell d- Co. 
launched, at Scotstown, the steel screw-steamer Tex(m, to the 
order of Messrs. Rol>ert Mackill & Co., for the United Steam- 
ship Co. of Coi)enhagen. Her dimensions are :— Length, 375 ft.; 
breadth, 50 ft. ; depth, 28 ft. 8 in. moulded ; with a deadweight 
capacity of about 7,000 tons. She has been built to Lloyd's 
highest class, with a cellular double bottom right fore and aft 
for water ballast. The engines, which are of the most approved 
triple-expansion type, have cylinders 25 in., 41 in., and 67 in by 
48 stroke, worked by two single-ended boilers, and are being 
constrnctetl by Messrs. David Rowan tt Son, Glasgow. 



LAUNCH— Irish. 

WinifredlaD. — On March 11th a large screw steamer was 
laimched by Messrs. Harland & Wolff, at Belfast, for Messrs. 
Frederick Ley land & Co.'s Atlantic cargo, cattle, and passenger 
service. The vessel is 652 ft. long by 59 ft. beam, and with 
about 10,560 of a gross tonnage. She will have triple-expansion 
engines, constructed by the builders, and will be fitted with 
electric light, and have all the most modem appliances for 
working ship and cargo. The ceremony of naming the vessel 
the Wiiiifrediati was performed by Miss Martin, daughter of the 
general manager of the line. 

LAUNCH— Gkhmax. 

Secanda. — On March 7th the Flensburg Shipbuilding Co. 
launched from their shipbuilding yard at Flensburg, a new steel 
screw cargo steamer they are building for the Flensburger 
Dampf schifff ahrt Gesellschaft vor 1869. The vessel is 270 ft. 
between perpendiculars by 39 ft. beam by 18 ft. 2 in. moulded 
depth, built to German Lloyd's 100 A, and is .to carry about 
3,000 tons. Accommodation for the officers is contained in a 
steel house built on top of bridge deck amidships, the crew 
being berthed in forecastle. She is a partial awning deck boat 
fitted with steam windlass, steam capstan, steam steering gear 
and four powerful steam winches. The engines beuig supplied 
by the Flensburg Shipbuilding Co., are of the triple-expansion 
type with cylinders 19 in., 31 J in., 51 in., by 36 in. stroke. The 
vessel was christened Secunda by Miss Clothilde Danielseu. 



TRIAL TRIPS 



Pendeen. — On February 23rd Messrs. William Gray & Co.^ 
Limited, sent to sea for her trial trip the s.s. Pendeen, which is 
the fifth vessel they have built and engined to the order of Mr^ 
R. B. Chellew, of Truro (of which we gave full particulars in 
our launch columns, December issue, page 371). A very satis- 
factory run was made, the vessel on its conclusion proceeding 
to Venice to load. 

Inchmaree. — On February 23rd this vessel (one of the fleet 
of Messrs. Hamilton, Fraser & Co., of Liverpool) also left the 
port after undergoing extensive overhaul and renewal of some 
parts of the machinery at the hands of William Gray A Co. 
Everything passed off very satisfactorily. 

Woodford. — On Thursday, February 23rd, the s.s. Woodford, 
built by Messrs. Ropner & Son, of Stockton-on-Tees, to the order 
of the Britain Steamship Co., London (of which we gave full 

Particulars in our columns, February issue, page 473^, made 
er trial trip in the Tees Bay, which was quite satisfactory m every 
way, and the day being exceptionally fine, the trip proved very. 
enjoyable to the visitors and others on board. The owners were 
represented by Mr. James Spence, under whose supervision the 
steamer has been built, whilst the builders were represented by 
Mr. Leonard Ropner. After adjustment of compasses, the 
steamer proceeded on her run round to Cardiff, where she will 
load. 

Cardiganshire.— On February 25th the new screw steamer 
Card*gannhin\ being the third vessel built to the order of Messrs. 
Jenkins & Co., Limited, of London, for their Shire Line of 
steamers, by the Sunderland Shipbuilding Co., Limited (of 
which we gave full particulars in our launch columns, March. 
issue, page 512), was taken to sea for her official trial trip, and was 
in every way most satisfactory, a mean speed of 11 J knots being 
obtained on the measured mile, after which the vessel left for 
Middlesbro', where she takes in the first portion of her cargo for 
Japan. 

Claverdale. — On February 25th the s.s. Clavtrdale, built by. 
Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co., Stockton-on-Tees, for Messrs. . 
Edmund Haslehust & Co., of London (of which we gave full 
particulars in our launch columns, January issue, page 429), pro- 
ceeded to sea for her trial trip. Throughout the whole of the' 
trip the engines worked with the greatest smoothness, and on . 
the run from the Tees to the Tyne a speed of llj| knots was 
maintained. Mr. Hewlett, of the firm of Messrs. £. Haslehust 
& Co., expressed himself as being highly pleased with both the 
hull and engines, as also did Mr. Barringer, of the firm of 
Messrs. Jacobs A Barringer, the consulting engineers of the 
owners. Captain John Barker, who has superintended the oon- 



THE MAEINB BNGINBEE. 



(April 1, 1899. 



and boiler. Afler the trial the Bteamer soiled for Sotterdam 
under the command of Capt. EngeUman. . 

■nriatsil- — On March 14th the new steel screw steamer 
tluriiMn, which hasbeen built by Messrs. Wood. Skinner tt Co., 
Limited. Bill Quay-on-Tyne. to tlie order of Messrs. F. C. 
, Btrick * Cp., London {of which we gave full particnlars in our 
launch colamns, February issne. page 474), left the Tyne for 
her oAcial trip, during which the machinery worked without a 
hitch, and gave everv satisfaction to the company on board, 
which Included Mr. ilartin, representing the owners, and Mr. 
J. S. Wood the shipbuilders, Mr, S. Hunter for the engine 
builders, and Mr. A. Walker, of London, who, assisted by Mr. 
Hay. has superintended the construction of both ship and 
machuiery. After the trial the vesael proceeded on her voyage 
to London, where she will load her first cargo, 

lim a. — Oil Wednesday. March l,^th. the steel screw steamer 
Anna left Slesars. Craig, Taylor A Co.'h sldpbuilding yard, 
Thornabv-on-TeeB. tor her trial trip, which proved highly satis- 
factory. ' The leading dimensions are 2!)9 it. bv fi ft. 2 in., by 
31 ft. S in. depth, moulded. She is of the single-deck type, to 
Lloyd's highest class, and is constructed to carry about a.SW 
tons deadweight on a light draught of water. The captain's, 
officers', and engineers' uccomiuodation is all placed amidships. 
the crew being in the forecastle. She is fitted with deep frames 
throughout, and has large cubic capacity ; also water ballast 
fore and aft. and in peaks. The deck machinery consists of four 
large steam winches, steam windlass, steam steering gear, large 
don kev- boiler, screw gear aft, &c. She is rigged as a fore-and- 
att Bctiooner. with telescopic masts, and is also supplied with 
stockless anchors, il'c. The engines, which were by Messrs. T. 
Bichardson S Son, Limiteil, of Hartlepool, are of the following 
size, viz.. 22 in., 'iH in.. 5!) in. by SV in., witli two large boilers. 
During tlie whole of the trip they workeil without the slightest 
hitch, running with the greatest smoothneHa, and a speed of 
twelve knots was maintained. The vessel has been built for 
Messrs. Fratelli Cosulich & Co.. of Trieste, who were repre- 
sented on the trial trip by Mr. ColUsto Cosulich, this 
gentleman expressing himself as beiug highly pleased with both 
the ship and engines. The vessel afterwards left for Hamburg, 
under the command of Captain Antonio N. Cosulich. She 
will load in Hamburg for the far East. 

H.H.8. KeUrel.— On March L^th and ITth the Clydebank 
Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. successfully carried out the 
trials of the the torpedo-boa destroyer Keilrtl. On the l.^th the 
ifffri-i went for the official c.jal-consumption trial at full speed 
for three hours, and on the ITth the official fuU-siieed trial took 
place. Six runs were ma<leonthe measured mile at Skelmorlie. 
giving a mean speed of 30'4 It) knots. The vessel subsequently 
completed the three-hours ti'ial, which finished near Skelmorlie 
at 3.1.^ p.m. After the s|io nl trial, stopping, startiug. and steer- 
ing trials were made. Tlie Admiralty were represente<l by 
Messrs. Welch it Wisnom, overseers, and officials from Ports- 
mouth Dockyard wereal.<" onboard. 

LndTif Perron.— On March ITlh the s.s. Ludrifi Pei/ron, 
built by Messrs. Carmicliael, Maclean & Co., Gteenoclt, for the 
Stockholm Company (of which we gave full particulars in our 
launch columns. December iaaue, page 374), went on her trial 
trip on the Clyde, and attained a mean speed of lit knots, with 
1,700 tons of cargo on board, on Hi ft- draught. The coal con- 
sumption was 1'43 lbs. [>erI.H.F.. which was considered highly 
satisfactory by the owners' representatives. Messrs. Muir J; 
Houston, Limited, of Olosgow, eupplieil the vessel with triple- 
expansion engines, c} linders of 18 in., 30 in-, and 4H in. by 33 in. 



^0vve0V0nbence*. 



SPEEDS AND COAL ENDUBANXE. 

To Hit E.lii..r of Tan Marine ENcLstti.. 

Dkaii Sill, — With reference to the statement in your article 

on tlie new Ucraiiic in your last issue, Chat slie and Che Tfiilmiic 

liave the largest coal endurances in the world. I have seen iC 

ncatcf! eJaewhere thai Che Orient Line s.s, Ifiiliir and Qmrah 

souJd Jceep the aea without recoiling for perltx^a of 130 and 150 



days respectively at a cruising speed of 10 knots per hour. 
Would you kindly inform me whetner this is so? Though not 
a marine en)^neer by profession, I take a great interest in 
and I am indebted to your paper for much 



valuable information concerning shippii 

,,...1.1 — - -lorm me what ship holds the record (a) for a 
I delivery from Plymouth to Adelaide ; (b) for a. 



Could you inform r 



passage from Adelaide to Plymouth? 

I l-elirit the Opiiir of the Orient Line holds the outward 
sinii record with 21 days 2 hours, but have no certain informa- 
tion as to the passage from Adelaide to Plymouth. 

I notice Che new steamer Omrok of the same line has just 
mode a good run from Suez to Perim, Leaving the Canal at 10 
a,m, on Friday last, she passed Perini yesterday at 1 p.m. i.t., 
'i days 3houra for a distance of 1,211 miles, making an average 
speed of Iti-lifi knots per hour ! Is this also a reoorf ? If not, at 
lease it is considerably faster than the usual rate of progress in 
these waters, which is usually about 14 knots an hour. 

I see the tbiua has just left Port Said tor Belfast, where, I 
suppose. Messrs, Harland & Wolff will repair her, but I pre- 
"—- ilie will not take her place in the P. i O, fleet again, as a 

1 anticipa- 



nail boat ? 
Apologising for troubling you, and thanking y 

lai 



Yours faithfully, 

S, L. BfiOAn. 

Old Christchurch Boad. 

Bournemouth East, 

February 21st, Itm. 

Our corres]X)ndent asks a number of questions, most of which 
it is practically impossible to answer, we fear. The China has 
been tem^iorarily repenred aSoat at Perim, and only reached 
Belfast on the IHth March. Till she has been dry-docked and 
thoroughly e.xamiued by the builders and ex^ierts it is impossible 
for even her owners to answer the question as to her future. 
The question as to the mail record between Adelaide and Ply- 
mouUi is not one thatcould be easily answered, for the vessels, 
of the Australian lines do not go fast after they have dischan^ 
their mails on the homeward run at Che Mediterranean 
port or before they have shipped them there on the 
outward trip. The fair test is the run to the mail port in the 
Mediterranean, or the time of mail transit to London. Each 
new ship when she comes out usually makes a run to show her 
(laces, and then subsides into a jog trot, merely keeping her 
contract time and easing down if she is getting ahead of her 
time. As regards the coal endurance question, the statements 
publisheil concerning the Oceaiiif and the Ttutonic and Che Oph'r 
and Omrah are merely owners' and builders' statements. It is 
impossible for an outsider to check them. Only those well 
acquainted with the vessel know what her consumption at 
cruising speed would be per diem. Then, even if he knew that, 
he could not find out how much extra bunker space is reckoned 
in the provision for this long sea keeping. It is, however, 
probable that the Qitanie, whose cruising speed will be higher 
than that of the other slups named, will certainly have the great- 
est coal endurance, — ^Eti, M.E. 



ptiscellaneousF* 

CAtalogoc— We have just received a new illustrated cala 
logue which has been issued bv Messrs. Fleming. Birkly 
A Goodall, Limited, of West Grove Mill, Halifax, and 39, 
Lime Street. London, E.G.. which gives full particulars with 
reference to Che lat^e assortment of goods which they manufac- 
ture and supply. These comprise practically all the typt* 
and sorts of Witing u|K>n the market, and the various fosteung 



'oshers of different materials, and delivery hose and 
tire appliances are listed. Ajid. Ustly, we would refer to stetuti 
and other packing, which is illustrated and fully described in 
this catalogue. It is in a convenient form and of a handy size 
for ready reference, which is a useful characteristic. 

We uadcnund that Messrs. Thos, Firth & Sons, Limitet*, 
ShefiHeld. the well-known firm of steel maimfacturers, bB^v 
ap|K)inte<l Messrs. Echalay. Laith tli Co,, of Newcaatle-on-Tyne. 
to be sole agents in the North-East Coast district for all their 
manufactures. 



48 



THE MABINE ENGINEEB. 



[April 1, 1899, 



4010 

4038 
4079 
4095 
4101 
4149 
4150 
4201 
4206 
4208 
4219 
4225 
4258 
4267 
4281 
4288 
4291 
4309 



4310 
4330 
4401 
4429 

4464 
4469 
4479 
4481 
4487 
4488 
4538 
4604 
4607 
4639 
4644 
4680 
4724 
4739 
4745 
4752 
4757 
4765 
4781 
4782 
4825 
4826 
4827 

4860 
4869 
4891 
4895 
4926 
4953 
4962 
4984 

4987 
5005 



F. 0*C. Prince and C. £. Monkhouse. Directing tor- 
pedoes. 
H. Parsons. Internal combustion engines. 
A. Mitchell. Friction clutches. 
J Price. Unloading the cargoes of ships. 
W. Dewar. Tool for closing metallic rings. 
J. Kadcliffe. Feed water heaters. 
J. Kadcliffe. Condensers for condensing steam. 
J. Archibald Coveriiigs for steam boilers. 

D. CroU. Steam generators. 
£. Sharpies. Anchor. 

I. S. McDougall and N. N. Haigh. Steam trap. 
W. Hay and E. Hotchkiss. Lubricating pistons. 

F. Brown. Steam engine packing boxes. 

G. Wallace. Packings for piston rods. 

F. E. Jorden. Purifying and heating water. 

K. Kiddle. Friction clutches. 

Tangyes Limited and J.N. Floyd. Steam pump. 

O D. Abel (La Compagnie Anonyme Continentale pour 
la Fabrication des Compteurs a Gaz et autres Appareils, 
France). Apparatus for feeding boiler furnaces. 

J. C. Spence. Compound steam engine. 

W. B. Fitch. Utilising motion of ships, 

A. Granger. Boilers. 

A. F. Spooner (E. Aubrat, France). Centrifugal go- 
vernors. 

J. Muir. Hand -steering gear for ships. 

W. A. Ashworth. Multiple expansion engines. 

W. H. Stephenson. Compasses. 

K. W. Hood. Seats for pleasure boats, &c. 

J. A. and S. Fletcher. Valves for boilers. 

K. K. Thompson. Internal combustion engines. 

P. K. Trethewey. Boat propelling mechanism. 

C. A. Bond and T. D. Smith. Quickly stopping ships. 

W. H. O'Hara. Dredging apparatus. 

L. Zamboni. Ki vetting tools. 

H. H. MacTaggart and K. G. Scott. Hydraulic pumps. 

J. Schaefer. Packing pump-hungers. 

C. Eagle-Bott. Shipping docKs. 

F. L. Lane. Flanged flues for boilers. 

E. W. Whitley. Friction clutches. 

D. B. Morison and J. S. Bonnyman. Expansion glands. 
W. Brierley. Cylinders for steam engines. 

C. T. B. Sangster. Friction clutches. 

J. T. Kellett. Friction clutches. 

J. Knaus. Propelling apparatus for ships. 

H. Weigelt. Imitating motion of ships at sea. 

E. Gearing. Boiler flues. 

F. L. Lane and The Leeds Forge Company, Limited. 
Flanged flues for boilers. 

J. Beaumont. Metallic packing. 

A. Koch. Propelling apparatus for boats. 

J. M. McLean and A. Sykes. Governors. 

A. Cooper. Trawl boards for deep sea fishing. 

A. Camilleri. Boat chocks. 

J. Killip. Steam engine governors. 

R. Coulson and T. Forsyth. Indicating speed. 

P. M. Justice (The Pope Manufacturing Company, 

United States). Engines. 
S. de la G. Williams. Self-locking screw nuts. 
W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd;, and E. W. 

Lloyd. Fastening the doors of torpedo tubes. 



BOARD OF TRADE EXAMINATIONS. 



Note. — IC denotes First Class ; 2C Second Class. 
February 25th, lK9y. 



Adam, W^m. 
Adamson, J. 
Airev, John 
Alleii, Thos. 
/Viidreides, G 
Angus, Thos. 
Bonner, T. 
Bowen, K. G. 
/Sovd, James 
liurnett, W. 



S. 2C Dundee 
1. 2C „ 

. . 2C W. Hrtpl. 

A. ICN. Shields 
. J. 2C Cardiff 
, ., 20 N. Shields 
H. 2C London 

.. JC Sthmptn. 
J. IC Cardiff 



Cairns, David . . 
Caldow, John . . 
Cartwright, W. 
Cave, Henry . . 
Chisholm, Kbt. 
Colledge, W. A. 
Cook, Ed. W. 
Cunningham, J. 
Darling, Kobt. 
Day, Ernest C. 
Dunning, Kobt. 
Dvmock, James 



2C Glasgow 
2C „ 
2C Cardiff 
2C Sthmptn. 
2C Dundee 
IC W. Hrtpl. 
2C Dundee 
2C Glasgow 
IC 

IC Dundee 
2C Liverpool 
2C Glasgow 



I 



Forrester, A. S. 
Galloway, Kbt. 
Gow, Harry . . 
Gray, Geo. G . 
Gray, John T . . 
Gwvther, C. J. 
Hartwell, G. T. 
Henderson, Kt. 
Hosking, G. F. 
Inverdale, J. B. 
James, Anthny 
Jones, Jmh. W. 
Kent, Saml. N. 
Lindsay, Geo. 
Maddison, Ed. 
Marshall, Ewd. 
Maxwell, Stuart 
M'Dougall, W. 
Mearns, David 
Meyer, H. F. P. 
Miller, James . . 
M'Kechnie, Ad. 
M'Millan, John 
Moorhouse, W. 
Neill, Hugh .. 
Niven, Wm. . . 
Noble, John C. 
Pittas, John N. 
Pollard, C. E. 
Richards, Ths. 
Ritchie, Jn. K. 
Kobb, Andrew 
Robson, John 
Shilton, J. R. 
Smith, Joseph 
Stewart, C. B. 
TaimahUl, F. J. 
Torrance, Chs. 
Watson, 0. W. 
Wherly, Alfred 
Williams, G.N. 



2C London 
2C W. Hrtpl. 
2C „ 
2C Glasgow 
2C N. Shields 
IC Cardiff 
2C London 
IC Dundee 
2C London 
2C Glasgow 
2C Cardiff 
2C 

2C N. Shields 
IC W. Hrtpl. 
IC 

2CN. Shields 
2C „ 
IC Glasgow 
IC Dundee 
2C Glasgow 
IC „ 
2C Liverpool 
2C Glasgow 
2C Liverpool 
IC Glasgow 
2C „ 
2C Liverpool 
IC Cardiff 
2C N. Shields 
IC Cardiff 
2C London 
2C Glasgow 
IC Liverpool 
2C Glasgow 
2C London 
IC Sthmptn. 
2C Glasgow 
IC „ 
2C Cardiff 
20 W. Hrtpl. 
20 Liverpool. 



March 4th. 

Allan, John C. IC Aberdeen 
Bennett, Alexr. 2C Sun'rland 
Binns, Walter . . IC „ 
Bray, Chas.G. . . 2C Hull 
Britton, Ed. T. 2C Bristol 
Brown, Wm. E. 2C Aberdeen 
Browne, Wal. V. 2C Liverpool 
Chalmers, Peter 2C Aberdeen 
CuUum,Wm.H. IC Hull 
Davidson, A. W. 2C Aberdeen 
Davies, John C. IC Liverpool 
Dowse. Wm. A. IC N Shields 
Edwards, W. G. 2C 
Gibson, Thos. . . IC Sun'rland 
Hardwick, C. A. IC Liverpool 
Kidd, Andw. W. 2C 
Lidgerton, T. Y. 2C Sun'rland 
Little, Wm. . . 2C Liverpool 
Longfield, G. . . 2C Sun'rland 
Mackenzie, Alex IC London 
McDonald, A. A. 20 Aberdeen 
McFarlane, A. 20 London 
McLean, F. .20 
Meuzies, J. D. . 20 Aberdeen 
Mossman, Jn. J. 20 Liverpool 
M'Pherson, Jhn IC Sun'rland 
Murray, W. L. 20 Aberdeen 
Reid. Alex. L... IC 
Ronaldaon, Rd. 20 
Scott, James W. 10 
Seed, Thos. C. 10 N.Shields 
Sterling, Rd. . . 20 Liverpool 
Tate, Geo. B. . . 20 Hull 
Topley, Albert 20 Liverpool 
Vaughan, Albert 20 London 
Wade, Albert E. 20 Hull 
Watson, John . . 10 Aberdeen 
Watson, John ., 10 Sun'rland 



»» 



»» 



♦» 



Wilson, Jas. M. 20 Aberdeen 
Wilson, Wm. R. 20 Sun'rland 

March Uth. 

Addison, W. L. IC Liverpool 
Bailey, Jas. J.. 10 London 
Baird, John C. 20 Liverpool 
Bell, Mat. R. .. 10 N.Shields 
Bowden, H. J. 10 London 
Buchanan, T. 20 Glasgow 
Burden, Jhn. H, IC London 
Campbell, H. IC Glasgow 
Cowen, Wm. W 2C London 
Ellis, Hy. J. P. 20 Falmouth 
Evans, Robt. L. IG Cardiff 
Fogg, George . . IC 
Gordon, Alex. G IC Glasgow 
Hamilton, Thos. 20 
Heckford, John 10 N.Shields 
Houston A.M.C. 10 Glasgow 
Jeffery, Wm. G. 20 London 

JonesI Wm 20 Liverpool 

Laing, Thos. D. 20 Glasgow 
Leith, Henry .. 20 London 
Lewis, David . . 20 Cardiff 
Malcolm, Hugh 20 Belfast 
Mathie, Alex. C. 10 N.Shields 
McHray, John 10 Glasgow 
Minnikin, J. R. IC N.Shields 
Muir, Robt. M. 20 
Nay smith, Jas. 10 Glasgow 
Pace, David R. 20 
Preston, James IC „ 
Sievewright, A. 20 Cardiff 
Stirrat, Mat. . . 10 Glasgow 
Tavlor, Jas. B. 20 „ 
Terry, Ernest 10 N. Shields 
Thompson, B. IC London 
Todd, Walter 20 Liverpool 
Toward, L. O. 2 N. Shiislds 
Turner, D. J. 10 Glasgow 
Turner,Thos. J. 2C London 
Watt, John . . 10 Glasgow 
White, Ar. R. . . 10 Cardiff 
Whyte,Robt... 10 Glasgow 

March 18th. 

Allan, John . . IC Greenock 
Apsley, Wm. . . 10 Dublin 
Baird, Jas. . . 10 London 
Boswell, Fred. 20 Greenook 
Brown, Robert 20 „ 

Cumberlidge,W. 20 „ 
Erskine, David IC London 
Filshie, James 20 ,, 
Frost, Harold . . 20 Dablin 
Gray, Geo. A... 10 Leith 
Hattersley, Rob. 20 Liverpoc^ 
Innes, Wm. . . 10 N. Shields 
Jardine, W. G. 10 Greenock 
Kennaugh, T. T. 10 Liverpool 
Kernaghan, S. 20 Dnblm 
Kerr, Wm. J. 20 Greenock 
Madge, Wm. . . IG London 
Masters, H. H. 10 Liverpool 
M'Intyre, A. L. 10 Greenock 
Morton, Jas. ..10 „ 
Mulhern, J. A. 10 „ 
Nicholas, W. 20 HuU 
Nixon, Kobt. J. 20 Dablin 
Ormiston.H. T. lO N. Shields 
Osborne, Ral. 8. 10 ,, 
Ostens, J. W. 20 „ 
Owens, W. H. 20 Dublin 
Roberts, Jas. 20 Greenock 
Robinson, 0. 2C N. Shields 
Rowley, G. B. 20 Liverpool 
Smith, Arthur 10 „ 
Smith, Wm. , , 20 Hull 
Taylor, John.. 20 Dablin 
Thornton, G. 20 N. BhieWs 
Weatherall, O. 10 „ 



66 



THB HABINS ENGINEEIt. 



fMayI,l««. 



hie greue estr»ctors uid srruiffed to disobarge to anuU 
meMuriDg tknlu bt abont 30 cab. ft. esipacity. As in tbe oaae 
<^ U)« large tanks, tbete were fitted in mui-b ; they were pUottd 
on f he npper engine-room platform, and the water wm» run from 
them to tbe hot-nell pnmp Baotiona, ita qomtity being tbiu 
inolnded in the amount meaanrad by the large tanks on the 
upper deck. The diffsTenoe in (he qnantitlee of wKter meaenred 
bv tbe small and the large tanks thas ff,ve (subject to the 
sllowanoo named above) the water used by the main Migines 
. and jackets. The diagram shows in principle the armUunent 
' of uinke and connections employed, nnaeoeawry deteU being 
eliminated for the sake of cleameas. Identioal arrangements 
were made for measuring both the total and auxiliary water 
from each engine-room. 



Umt.'* 



power trial, the main Unk ing gear wa4 ntn ont t< 
and the high-pr-eMnrc independent gear wan jis 
necessary to maintain the required power. The steam iiii«iiii» 
at the engines varied from 330 Ibe. to 344 lb*., and tbit at Uw 
boilers from 390 lbs. to 399 Ibe. The real ratio of eTpandom 
was 6-6 thronghoat the trial. 

The trial was started with the jaoketa ont of use. After thre» 
hours the low-prasBure jackets were Med with steam of abont 
90 lbs. preasore above that in the receiver, and remained in nae 
tot the remainder of the trial.* For the last two haim, tha- 
other jaoketB were also bconght into nae, tbe preianre main-r 
tained in the intermediate being kbont 90 lbs. above -that in th» 
reoeiver : but that maintained in tbe bigh-pr«aanre jacket w^ 
not so bigb as its reoeiver pressDre, it being apprehended by this 



H.SI.S. "ABGONAUT.' 

WaTIIB HRABCBIIiO App&batcs. 



t Skktch Inuicai 



The xlide valve settings in full gear, as actually meaeured, 
give the following cut-offs in the respective cylinders :~High 

Eressure 73 per cent. ; intermediate preseare, 67 per cent. ; and 
iw preBBure, about 4G per cent, of the stroke. The cut-offs 
used during the triaU are given in the tables. 

It should be obeerved here that, as arranged for convenience 
of oomparieou in the tables, the order is that of tbe total ratios 
of eipansion. The alphabetical order of the reference letters 
giree tJte itctaa) aeqaeaxx al the (rials. The general scope and 
^oea/tB of the testa made »re abown IB the tAbXee. 

" ■■> Table I., wbich deals witb tbe 8 faours' lull- 



con(ractorB that (he cylinder walls migh( become too dry lot 

efScient working at. the high piston speed required tor maii- 

Tnming to Table II., which deals with the trial at 18,600 
I.H.P., or tbe maximum continuous steaming power, it will be 
observed that the conditions of initial pressure and ratio m 
expansion varied considerably throughout the trials. Tbe- 
thirty hours was divided into six periods of tour and one-half 
hours each, and one of three hours' duration. 



at Umta adi> 



May l,.ia99.] 



THE MAfilNE ENGINEEB. 



67 



' In trials G, G, D, the main and high-preesore independent 
Unking gears were need to regulate the power. In trial G, with 
V2'5 expansions, all the jackets were in use, the pressure of the. 
receiver being maintaikied in the high-pressure jackets, and 
.pressures above thoee in their corresponding receivers in tiie 
intermediate and low-pressore jackets. In trial G, with 10*4 ' 
expansions, the intermediate and low-pressure jackets were 
used, the pressure maintained in them being in excess of their 
received pressure; while in trial D, with the same ratio of 
•expansion, all the jackets were shut off. The steam pressure 
at the engines dming these three trials varied from 229 to 248 
ibs., and the boiler pressure from 251 to 280 lbs. 



In trial F the main linking gear only was used to regulate the 
power obtained, the slide valves of all the cylmders Iwing thus 
linked up. In this case 9*7' expansions were given, and the 
steam at engines and boilers was rei^pectively 2§5 and 275 lbs. 
No jacketing was used on the cylinders. 

In trial B, with 9*1 expansions, the main links were ran out 
to full gear, the high-pressure independent link being used to 
obtain the cut-off ; in this case steam of 287 Ibs. was UMd at the 
boilers, and 190 lbs. at the engines, and, as before, no jacketing 
was used. 

In trials A and E, again, the jackets were out of use, all the 
slide valves were in full gear, and the total expansion was 8*3 



3600 I HP 



HP. CYLINDER 





IP CVLINOER 



IP CVLINOCR 





fOMlP CYLINDER 




POR»L.P CYLINDER 





AFT LP CYLINDER 

1^ 




STAliBOARD ENGINE. 
H.P. Recr. • 
Vac. 



Revs. 

(r 



A.L. 



To'al I.H.P. 



167 lbs. 

25*5 ins. 

•:4*6 

590 

525 

383 

389 



• «* 



1,887 



PORT ENGINE. 


" ^ — » 


H.P. Recr. • . . ... 


. . 170 lbs. 


Vac. .... 


2ft*2 ins. 


Revs. • 


75-4 


rH. 

i.H.P.jpj^ •• ;; ; 
(a.l. .... 


552 


GIO 
. -388 


• 317 


Total I.H.P.- .. ..*• . 


. . 1.8G7 



SB' 



THB. MABINE KtfrGIKSER. 



rifof 1, 1899. 



tiipaiEk In trial ;^ A the steam pressure at boilers was 194 lb«., 
ai|d in tarSiU'E 38i2i^lb8., the'prelssares shown at the -engines being 
abqnt f 70 and 180 lbs. respectively, the difference l>etween these 
twotiifils'bein^^t in one case tiie boiler steam was of higher 
pressure and' reduced mor6 by. throttling than in the ot^er. 

In Table IIX. it will 'be seen that the thirty hours* trial at 
SJiOOO . I.H J^. wais divided pto six equal periods, each of five 
hours' duitotion. 

In trials Af 9, and C, the main and high pie^sur^ Independ- 
ent linking pears were set to obtain the required po^er, the ' 
total ^oKpan^ion being 15'7 and the steam pressure at engines 
bcdng about 168 lbs., and averaging 285 lbs. i^t. the borers. In 
trial A the high-pressure jacket carried nearly the same steam 
as the receiver; the intermediate and low-pressure jackets 



ing maintained at about 20 lbs. above theirs. In tciid'B the* 
pzMdre jacket wae'not in use, the steam pressure in Ihe* 
ouier jackets being maintained as in A. In trial C, as in the- 
'supoeedjjig trials, D, 'K, F, the jiAsketing was entirely shut off. 
in trial D the main links only were used to obtain an 
expulsion of 13*2, the steam i^t the engines being 142 Ibis., with 
a boiler pressure 280 Ibe. 

In trial £ the main linking gear was in full gear, the high- 
pressure independent gear only being used to obtiun tiie cut-c^.. 
0*1 expansions were giv6n to the steam ; tiie pressure at the 
engines being about 78 lbs., iEuid at boUers 285 lbs., this was- 
[ reduced by throttling, 

In trial F, all the links were placed in full gear, and with a 
total expansion of 8*3, 68 lbs. was the pressure used at engines,^ 



13.500 I.H.P. 



H P. CYLINOCR 



H. P. CYLINDER 





"■"■•F 










ArTL.P.CVUNOCR 




STAHBOARD ENGINE. 
H.P. Recr. 242 lbs. 

'27 ins. 
115 7 
2,266 
14MK) 
1,595 
,U,050 



I.H.P. 




T€fM LH,F, 



7,711 



PORT ENGINE. 

H.Y.Recr. 240 lbs. 

Vac. 270 ins. 

Revs. 114-9 

/H. 2,100 

x„p)l. .. .. .. 1.970 

Ia.L. 1,480 

Total I.H.P. .. .. .. 6,982 



Xay 1, 1899.1 



THE KABINE ENGINXBB. 



m 



and 130 lbs. aA boilers to obtain the power. No lower boiler 
pressure ihaa this bdUig practicable on account of the working 
pf the electric l^ht and steering eoigiiies. 

Now to eKamine the effect of ia&eting, as shown in these 
trials. 

It will be seen by referring ta TaUe I. that the engines were, 
with the ezoeption oi the alteratkn in the nse of the jackets, 
under the same conditions in trtals C, B, and A ; and that the 
steam consumption varied from 16*64 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour 
when all the JMtets were in use to 15*75 when all were shut off, 
it being intermediate, or 16' 15 lbs., when the low pressure 
jacket only was in use. Thus, the consumption due to main 
engines and jackets was reduced -89 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour, 
or 5*3 per cent., in changing from eondition C to condition A, 
iud '49 lb. per LH.P. per hoor, or ±9 per cent., from C to B. 



In table II. trials G, C, D were under similar general condi- 
tions, as in Table I., as regards the use of jacketing, except that 
the high pressure jacket only was shut off in trial C. Trials C 
and D were carried out at an expansion of 10*4 ; trial G, which 
was at the end of the 80 hours* contractors' trial, was made at 
12*5 expansions. Hence, although G shows a slight advantage 
to the jackets, compared with C, yet to compare the results of 
this trial with those on Table I. we will take C and D only. 
Here also there is a reduction of water consumption wi& 
jackets out of use, of *43 lb. per I.H.P. per hou r, or 2*7 per cent; 
between C and D. 

In Table III., trials A, B, and C are under the same general 
conditions of steam pressure and expansion, and only <Uffer as 
regards the use of the jackets. Here again, although in a very 
alight degree, there is a reduction of water consumption when 



I8j000 I.H.P. 



H.F.CYUNOCR 




H. P. CYLINDER 




I.P.CVLINOCR 




IR. CYLINDER 





8TABB0ABD ENGINE. 

BJ?. Beor. .^ .. .. 235 lbs 

Vac. 26 ins. 

Beva. 127*4 

/»••., 2,704 

firi>']L 2,406 

*^^-)rii;.; 1,908 

. .1 KAU' 2,295 

rotel.'XXE:'^. ': ». .. 9,313 



POBT ENGINE. 

H.P. Recr. 2« lbs. 

Vac. 2)'2 ins. 

Revs. 126*6 

!H 2,785 

1 2.450 

f .li. .• ,. •• .• 1^89^ 

\ A..I4* • • % % % « \va\\k 

Total l.H? ^i^^SA 



68 



THE MABINS BNG1N££B. 



fM»7 1, 1899. 



bo solid drawn ; but might be welded with a butt strap o\'er the 
weld. 

Mr« Sl^ton said the best they conld do with their old copper 

$ipes was to take them out and put steel ones in their place, 
[r. Martin, of Flashing, made his pipes as we should a hollow 
shaft, formed them ont of the solid, and the cost was not 
greater than that of copper pipes. The fear that the steel pipe 
might corrode on the inside, had deterred a great many engi- 
neers from selling their copper pipes and substituting steel ones. 
After very many years' experience of wrought-iron, cast-iron, 
and steel pipes, he had found practically nodamage of any kind 
on the iiiaide. 

Mr. List said the number of cases in which his firm had had 
to. take out pipes a few days before sailing was qnite remarkable. 
He had fitted copper pipes in straight lengths with expansion 
joints and bound these with copper wire. They had not caused 
the slightest trouble. The pipes used by his firm had cast-steel 
flanges screwed on in all cases, and no trouble from leakage had 
occurred in any of the flanges in the experience of four or five 
ships. It was found after three or four years* use that there 
was a brown deposit on the surface, probably a little oxide, 
but there was no corrosion. He did not think it was necessary 
to periodically take down copper pipes and anneal them. 
If the pipes were tested every four or five years by hydraulic 
pressure it would be suflicient. Wrought-iron pipes were a 
good deal cheaper tlian copper ones, but the stufiing-boxes and 
other arrangements brought up the expense. 

Mr. Winglield exhibited a piece of copper on which his fore- 
man copiiersmith had allowed two drops of tin, heated over a 
blow-pi^ie, to fall. One drop had gone right through the copper, 
leaving a hole, while the other had embedded itself in the 
cop|>er. Tin was thus an undesirable alloy. 

Mr. Milton Haid the question of soldering material had been 
gone into ver\' thoronghly b}' Professor Arnold and himself. He 
had found on enquiry that half the manufact'irers used half 
per cent, of tin. He found nearly all solder manufacturers 
kept close to HO per cent.of copper and 50 per cent, of zinc. 
reHi>ectively. He had seen common brazing solder go right 
through a jl-in. pipe. 

Portable Pneumatic Rivctcrt, 

by Mr. W. J. Hadcock. was read by the Secretary, Mr. G. 
ifohnes. He said, as Manager of the Chicago Shipbuilding 
Co., he had after experiments introduceil machinery, capa- 
ble of l)eing operated by unskilled ial)Our, by which all the 
rivets in a ship could be driven, which had been entirely 
successful and. in the last ship which was completed, 2.'>0,000 
rivets were so driven out of a total of 340.(XK), and but for in- 
suflicient air supply the proportion would have been greater. 
They use<l a pneumatic hammer, consisting of a cylinder, in 
which a piston reciprocated, delivering almost a continuous 
scries of blows a^nst the end of the chisel, caulking tool, or 
rivet die. The hammer was light and i)owerful, short enough 
to go l)etween frames, and vmall enough to get at rivets in 
comer angles. 

The Strength of Ihilrrs. 

by Mr. C. E. Stronieyer, Chief Enginoor of the Manchester 
Steam Users' Association. He said thev did not vet know what 
tho collapsing pressure of a furnace was. He gave the per 
ccntage of strength for a rivet seam to be 

l-2<> (I— d) } d J 

B= 

I 
He t<x)k case? of floors which collapsed under pressure, and 
examined their strength in the light of fornuilu.* and found they 
were sometimes as much as li:{ |)er cent, too strong, and in other 
cases 40 [mr cent. tcH> weak. He discussed the plates for an 
oval-shai>e<l furn:K'e, slab plates, firelK>x. crown girders, tube 
l^lates for feed heaters. The pa|K*r had a long api)endix giving 
the results of numerous tests. 

Mr. Milton siiid the author stated. " In conclusion, I begtosay 
one word with regard to my use of Lloyd's formula' for boilers. 
The engineering metnliers of this Institution iwe more familiar 
with these rules than with any r)thers, und naturally would 
compare them with any exi)eriences which are laid before them, 
and Lloyd's Hegistrr will. I ho|'e, be pleased at seeing their 
rules set up as a universal standard of (roni])arison.'' Yet 
wherever else in the jmper. Lloyd's rules were referre<l to, 
they apjxjare*! to he nientit.ncd to show tht-v were incorrect. 
He really must take exception to such a pt)sition. The exi)eri- 
ments made hy the Feeds Forge Company, and other firms, 
were not jierhaps niade with tulxis "almost mathematically 



cylindrical," but they dealt with other matters as they were in 
ordinary fomaoes, with the sole object of obtiuning knowledge 
of the strength of the furnaces actually to be na^. Dealing 
with the statement that '* occasionally moral pressnre on the 
part of shipowners and engineers, had resulted in a redaction 
of scantlings," Hr. Milton said he joined the staff of Lloyd's 
Begister 24 years ago, and was cognisant of every reduction of 
scantlings which had been made. The initiative in these cases 
had usually been taken by ofiioers of Lloyd's Renter, while 
at the present time Lloyd's Register had the benefit of the 
advice->-not the moral pressure — of a consultative body of 
engineers and shipowners, on whose experience the modifica- 
tion in the rules is based. 

Mr. Stromeyer hoped that even the results of the experience 
which he had put before them, like the knowledge of other oat- 
side science, might be found useful by marine engineers. So 
far from wishing Lloyd's to alter their rules or do anything 
hasty in that direction, he maintained that his paper did not in 
any way advocate that they should be departed from. Ever^'- 
thing at sea depended on insurance rates. Lloyd's had never 
had an explosion, and the insurance world looked to Lloyd's 
Begister as a guide on the subject of the safety of ships and 
their machinery'. Tlie information given in the pai)er had been 
given for the purposes t>f comparison with Lloyd's Rules. 

Sir Edward Reed said it was perfectly clear the paper had 
been written in absolutely good faith, and that the council had 
seen in it ample merit for its production. 

Mr. Howden read a paper on ** Torpedo Boat Destroyers for 
Sea Service," and Mr. James Hamilton *' On the Communication 
forwanled by Messrs. J. Inglis and A. Denny and Professor 
Biles on the subject of Mr. James Hamilton's paper on the 
horse-j)ower absorbed by Skin Friction and Wave Making.." 

Professor W. E. Dalby read a pa]>er on *' The Balancing of 
Engines, with Si)ecial Iteference to Marine Work." He said it 
was to explain and illustrate a semigraphical method of treating 
balancing problems in a direct and simple manner. He showed 
how to oUain a simi>le formula for finding the best distribution 
of the mass of the connecting-rod between the revolving and 
reciprocating ])arts. He showed how to ascertain the resultants 
of tlie disturbing forces and couples for a system of masses 
revolving about a fixed axis, how the resultant force and 
resultant couple might be reduced to a Poinsot's central axis for 
puri)08es of comi)arison. The conditions of balance were stated 
in a geometrical form. He showed tliat the motion of a system 
of revolving masses in lialance might be projected on a plane, and 
the projectetl simple harmonic motion would be in balance ; and 
inversely assuming a system hav-ing simple harmonic motion, 
its balance might be investigated by translating the motion into 
a corre8i>onding circular motion. He finally showed the 
balancing of a four-crank engine, neglecting the angle of the 
connecting-nxl. 

Professor Dunkerley said he would like to ask if the calcu- 
lated masses were at all approximate to the actual masses, such 
as might be exjK'ctcd to be found, or whether there was con- 
siderable alteration necessary ; and if the designers would, before 
the engine was in the ship, trouble to so arrange their masses as 
to guarantee in the absence of obliquity a i)erfect balance. To 
solve the problem only three masses were required. If they had 
four reciprocating masses given, the problem was indetermin- 
able ; they had got t<H> much, and in ninety-nine cases out of a 
hundred there would Ik.» no exact solution.' 

Professor Grwnhill siiid the subject was familiar bv reason of 
the paper of Mr. Macfarlane Gray. He was sorry tliat gentle- 
man was unable to hv present. About 30 years ago it was 
thought a crank axle in a locomotive would very soon In'come 
a thing of the past. While it had never ap^jeared in America, 
it was gaining ground in this country. The sujxjriority of the 
crank axle consisted entirely in thedimhiutionof the disturbing 
mass moments, as Professor Dalby's explanations ttn<l the 
exiieriments with the nuxlel had sliown. Hitherto, it seeme<l 
as if attoTition in balancing had been devoted to bringing the 
centre of gravity int<» the line of the axle, so as to annul dis- 
turbing centrifugal force, ignoring as apparently intractable 
those transverse disturbing moments. He thought it would lx» 
worth while striking a compromise, leaving a certain amount of 
unbalanced centrifugal force in the axle of the ItK-omotive 
engine, and with that latitude striving to diminish the prcnlucts 
of inertia in mass moments. 

Mr. Thornycroft said one felt after hearing the pai>er that 
they could balance an engine in five minutes. He couhl not 
quite a^ree that the difi*t«rence of one-ninth of the maximum 
force of the moving masses was so small an item as not to be 



u 



THE MABINE BKQIK£IJL 



(May 1, US9; 



HAVAL VlVaiNUB AFPOZHTMBNTS. 



The following appointmentB have been made at the Admiralty 
from March 25th to April 24th, 1899 :— 

Anderson, A. R„ engineer to the Tamar, for the Handy, to date 

Ami 18th. 
Apps, W. R., ohief engineer to the Forte, to date April 20th. 
Aroha^, A. G., aseistant engineer to the Trafalgar, to date 

March 23rd. 
Ash, H. £. H., engineer to the PeiMiwcoAf , lor the Cj/nthta, to date 

March 28th. 
Ash, H. G., assistant engineer to the Pembroke, additional, for 

the Triiuvey tat recommissioning, to date March 30th. 
Backler, L., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

engineer in her MaJesty^s fleet. 
Baker, E. F., assistant engineer to the Magdala, to date March 

29th. 
Begg, W. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Pembroke, to 

date March 23rd, and to the Forte, to date April 20th. 
Bell, J. F. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Crescent, to 

date May 2nd. 
Broadbent, C, engineer to the Pembroke, for the Lee, to date 

April 7th. 
Brown, P. R. T., engineer to the Diadem. 
Brown, T. F., assistant engineer to the Pembroke, to date March 

23rd, and to the Forte, to date April 20th. 
Cox, A. E., chief engineer to the Pembroke, for the Skipjack, to 

date March 25th. 
Cox, H. B. T., engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for the Dove, 

to date April 12th. 
Croisdale, L. R., assistant engineer to the ^oyal Sovereign, un- 
dated. 
Dathan, W.' A., engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for the Bull- 
finch, to date April 12th. 
Davies, R. B. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Fern- 
broke, additional, for the Tribune, for recommissioning, to 

date March 30th. 
Dawson, F. G., engineer to the Vivid, for the Shark, to date 

March 17th. 
Evans, A., assistant engineer to the Virid, for the Pttyche, and 

for recommissioning, to date March 29tb. 
Freeman, B. F. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Itoyal 

Sovereign, for recommissioning, to date April 19th. 
Garde, R. B., engineer to the Vivid, for the ^Kate, to date 

March 18th. 
Gavey« A., assistant engineer to the Royal Sovereign, for recom- 
missioning, to date April 19th. 
Graham, W. J., chief engineer to the Pembroke, additional, for 

the Mersey, to date April 12th. 
Hall, F. M., assistant engineer to the Colossns, to date March 

23rd. 
Ham, J. W., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

engineer in her Majesty's fleet. 
Ham, J. W., chief engineer to the Barjleur, for the Fame, to date 

March 4 th. 
Hardcastle, C. V., engineer to the Duke of Wellington, super- 
numerary, to date April 4th. 
Haves, J. E., engineer to the Goldfinch, to date April 7th. 
Hill, C. H., engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for the Viper, 

undated. 
Jacobs, F. G., chief engineer to the Melampus, for the Oofsamer 

to date April 7th. 
Jones, G. W., assistant engineer (temporary), to the Aufttralia, 

to date April 4th. 
Juniper, W. v., chief engineer to the Fomone, to date May 18th. 
Lawrence, W. G., engineer to the Widgeon, to date April 4th. 
Ludlow, G. T. J., chief engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for 

the Cordelid, to date April 11th. 
Ludlow, G. T. J., chief engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for 

the Naiad, to date April 27th. 
Massey, J. S., assistant engineer to the Duke of Wellington, for 

the St. George, to date April 12th. 
McGregor, D.J,, assistant engineer to the Pom one, to date May 

18th. 
Mew, W. H. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Runoicn, 

to date March 27th. 
Mew, W. H. (probationary), assistant engineer to the Crescent, 

to date May 2nd. 
Milton, W., staff engineer to the Pembroke, for the Ariidne, to 

date April 22nd. 



Morgan, T. J., acting engineer to the Galatea^ to date Ayrit 

19th. 
Morison, R. B., engineer to the Duke of Wtllingtony for the 

Europa, undated. 
Noll, G. W., chief engineer to the Tribune^ to date May 9th. 
Page, F. J., engineer to the P^m^rokey for the Snapper, to date 

March 15th. 
Pratt, W. H., engineer to the Duke qf Wellington, for the 

Crescent, and for recommissioning. 
Rampling, H. J., fleet engineer to the Ftvkf, for the Album, to 

date April 7th. 
Rawling, S., staff engineer to the Ttmhroke, as overseer at Fair- 
field Works, and Wilson & Co., and Clyde District, to date 

April 27th. 
Rees, J. D., chief engineer to the I$it, to date April 19th. 
Rider, R. T., assistant engineer to the Terrible, to date April 

12th. 
Riley, W. H., fleet engineer to the President, for service at the 

Admiralty. 
Ryan, J., chief engineer to the Vivid, for the Phabe, to date 

April 12th. 
Sanderson, P. A., assistant engineer (temporary), to the Colosnts^ 

to date April 19th. 
Smith, J. A., inspector of machinery, to the Niobe, additional,. 

temporary, to date April 27th. 
Spencer, A.P.S., assistant engineer to the Wallaroo, to date 

April 7th. 
Steil, W. J., assistant engineer to the Crescent, to date May 2nd. 
Stuart, M., chief engineer to the Psyche, to date May 2nd. 
Sydenham, E. D., assistant engineer to the Royal Soiereign^ 

undated. 
Teed, H. R., engineer to the Pembroke, for the Mallard, to date 

March 15th. 
Toman, R. W., chief engineer to the Vivid, for the r^aifief, to 

date April 19th. 
Watts, J. A., assistant engineer to the Royal Sovereign, undated. 
Webb, A. T„ acting chief engineer to the Vivid, for the 

Charybdis, to date April 7th. 
Wishart, W. L., fleet engineer to the Warspite, to date April 

7th. . 



INDUSTRIAL AND TRADS NOTI8. 

THE CLYDE AND SCOTLAND. 



I 



(Tmm owr own Co*re&pondent.) 

THE industrial record for April is virtually a repetition of 
that for March and February in respect of work accom- 
plished and contracts entered into. There has been continned 
activity in the one case and even more accentuated stoppage 
than ever in the other. The output of new shipping reaohep 
more than an average figure, while the contrtbots b(X)ked are few 
indeed, and mostly unimportant. This is doubtless an inevit- 
able and quite legitimate — and acceptable — outcome of the 
abnormal condition of things which has obtained in shipbuild- 
ing and cognate industries for some considerable time now. The 
cessation of new orders will enable things to be brought back to 
something like their normal balance. 

But, large as the output continues to be, it does not represent 
anything like the maximum possible and desirable, considering 
the present state of the employers' books and the orders which 
would be forthcoming if only greater celerity still were observed 
in laimching and completing vessels on hand. Two influences 
which are notoriously at work in retarding progress are the 
slow and uncertain delivery of material — the delay and bother 
in some firms, experience being most vexatious — and tlie annoy- 
ing waste of working time by certain branches of operatives. 
To a certain extent the former source of annoyance is respon- 
sible for the latter, but for most part, the loss of time by boiler- 
makers and iron shipbuilders— the riveting sections especially 
— is attributable to unsteadiness, thriftlessness, and a lack 
of will or desire to make the very most of the present spell of 
good trade. For wilful and unauthorised stoppages of work on 
the part of members of the Boilermakers' and Iron Shipbuilders* 
Society, Mr. Knight, the secretary, has been soundly rating 
culprits in his recent reports, and certain of the Clyde em- 
ployers have been publicly calling attention to the great cause 
they have for complaint in these connections. 

Speaking at a social function in Dumbarton lately Mr. John 
Ward, managing partner of Messrs. William Denny & BrotheiE^ 



80 



THE MABINE SNGINEER. 



[May 1, 1899, 



channel trade between Dublin and Liverpool as consort to the 
four popular steamers Louth, Wicklow, Cartow^ and Kerry, 
which steamers were also built by the firm. Tlie machinery, 
which has also been constructed by Messrs. Blackwood & 
Gordon, consists of triple-expansion engines of fully 3,000 H.P., 
and two large double-ended boilers working up to 170 lbs. 
pressure. The Cork is built on similar lines to the former 
steamers, but with the improvement that she has accommoda- 
tion for 50 additional first-class passengers, placed in pri\'ate 
cabins amidships. During construction she has been unaer the 
supervision of Mr. Edwin C. Ferbcr, the company's engineering 
superintendent. 

Messrs. David J. Dunlop & Co., of Inch Works, Port-Glas- 
gow, have received an order to build and engine two large steel- 
screw steamers for the Woermann Line, of Hamburg. 

Messrs. Drysdale & Co., of Bon- Accord Engine Works, 
London Road, Glasgow, whose specialities in the way of centri- 
fugal pumps are so well known, and who, as a firm, celebrated 
their semi-jubilee in March last, are at present completing an 
installation of their pumps for the working of the new graving 
dock shortly to be opened at Troon. Other important contracts 
in hand and nearing completion are a large installation at the 
Prince of Wales New Graving Dock, Swansea, and an installa- 
tion of four compound centrifugal pumping engines for the 
Wakefield Sewage Works. 

At the sixth general meeting of the forty-second session of 
the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, held 
in the Institution Rooms, Bath Street, Glasgow, on the 2l8t 
April, Mr. George H. Baxter, mechanical engineer to the Clyde 
Navigation Trust, read a paper dealing with the pumping 
arrangements and various contingent mechanical details con- 
nected with the Clyde Trustees' new graving dock, at present 
one of the largest of its kmd in the world, and capable of 
accommodating the largest vessels afloat, having, of course, 
pumping machinery of like proportions. 

Some interesting fiigures and diagrams were presented by 
Mr. Baxter, bearing upon the great efficiency of the machinery, 
and the record work it had done in the matter of emptying the 
enormous quantity of water contained in the dock when vessels 
are being accommodated. A few general i)articulars may be 
given respecting the dimensions and capacity of the dock. The 
principal dimensions are : — Length of floor, 880 ft.; width of 
floor 81 ft. 8 in. ; width at top, 115 ft. ; width at entrance, 83 ft. ; 
depth of water on sill at average high water of spring tides, 
26 ft. 6 in. The floor of the dock is 2 ft. above the sill, and the 
length of the dock is divided by a pair of steel hinged gates into 
two parts, the inner division being 420 ft., and the outer, 400 ft. 
long. When no vessel is in the dock, and with a tide 20 ft. 
() in. above the sill, its capacity, or quantity of water to be 
removed, is about 13 J million gallons, equivalent to 2} million 
cubic ft., or 01,440 tons, which, in accordance with the specified 
test, had to be emptied in not more than two hours after com- 
mencing to pump at top of high water, at the expiry of which 
time the tide outside the dock was expected to fall 4^ ft. On 
the official trial, with a tide 20 ft. 3 in. in the outside, and 20 ft. 
IJ in. in the inside division, the dock wasemptied inUU minutes, 
the contractors thus havhig 21 minutes to spare. This was 
good work, considering that this was only the second occasion 
on which they had had an opportunity of trying the machinery 
under test conditions. 

Since that time, however, this record has been surpassed, for 
with a tide of 27 ft. inside and outside the time has been 
reduced to 90 minutes for pumping out both divisions without a 
ship ill either of them. This meant the removal of about 
0<»,033 tons of water, the amount in the outer division being 
about 3'), 520 tons. If, then, a vessel, displacing, say 10,000 tons, 
were (hM'ked in the outer division only, the quantity of water to 
be pumix*<l out would be 25,520 tons. The machinery being 
capable of removing 00,033 tons hi *.M) minutes, or, roughly, on 
an average 734 tons per minute, it follows that with a 27 ft.* tide 
the outer division of the dock, which is the larger, could be 
emptied in somewhat less than 35 minutes. This would probably 
be fmiiid inucli <iuicker than there was any need for, especially 
if a*'e»sel of such a size had to be washed down during the 
prcK'^>s8 of pumping, even if it could l)e adequately shored up in 
such a short time. It is proving a matter of gratification to the 
Clyde trustees, and all concerned with the working of the dock, 
that the ixjrformance of the pumpuig machinery has so nmch 
exceeded the test requirements, and reflects such credit on the 
contractors, Mesi^rs. Andrew Barclay, Sons tV Co., Kilmamoi»k, 
and Messrs. Gwyiine A' Co., London, who sub-contracted for the 
pumps. 



Mr. Baxter also pointed out in the coarse of his paper that 
through the adjacency of the three docks the older benefited 
from the new and its powerful pumping equipment. A braiush 
culvert 3 ft. in diameter had been constructed from the 6 ft. 
filling culvert of the new dock, which oommnnicaied with Dook 
No. 2, an arrangement, he said, which had effected a very great 
improvement in the working of the latter. Owing to this and 
other necessary connections the pumping machinery in oon- 
nection with Dock No. 1 or that of No. B, or both sets of 
machinery, could be utilised for No. 2. In this way not only 
was it emptied much more quickly, but the long delays at- the 
finish liad been altogether avoided. This had much enhanced 
the value of No. 2 Dock, and was an improvement which was, 
no doubt, fully appreciated by surveyors and superintendents of 
steamers using it. 

A noteworthy and highly useful item in the equipment of 
No. 3 dock, which was now being provided on the north side, 
was a 25-ton steam travelling crane with a fixed jib, mounted 
on a strong steel carriage, having a rail gauge of 24 ft. 9 in., 
and with a clear headway of 14 ft. in. from top of rails to 
under side of cross girder. It was capable of travelling by its 
own power with the jib in any position with a test load of 30 
tons on a set of double rails extending the whole length of the 
outer division, and bevond the division gates, so as to make tlie 
crane available for eitner division. The rake, or overhang, was 
74 ft., thus extending well over the centre line of dock, the 
range of lifting block being from 35 ft. below to 50 ft. above the 
cope. The driver's house was so arranged that he could always 
be able to see the bottom of dock. 

The Grangemouth Dockyard Co., launched about mid -month 
the steel screw-steamer Irene, built to the order of Messrs. 
Furness, Withy & Co., of West Hartle()ool, for Messrs. M. 
Hulthen, of Helsingborg, and a sister ship to the Muriel, built by 
the company last year for Messrs. Furness, Withy & Co. She will 
carry a deadweight of 3,100 tons with Lloyd's summer freeboard, 
and has a low net tonnage. The dockyard company are at 
present exceedingly busy, having seven vessels on hand, two of 
them being large steamers fitted for carriage of oil in bulk. 

Three of the steamers of the Laird Line — the Brier ^ the Cedar y 
and the Azalea, are at present receiving an overhaul on the 
Clyde. The />'rt^r, which was built 17 years ago by Messrs 
D. &. W. Henderson, Partick, is receiving new engines and 
boilers with improved passenger accommodation, electric 
light throughout, electric ventilating fans in 'tween decks, and 
other improvements. The Cedar and Azalea are getting a 
general overhaul, which includes the introduction of electrical 
light and fans of the Blackmail type. 



THE TYNE. 



{Iirom our oum Correspondent.) 

ShipboildiniC. — Since last month nothing has occurred to re- 
establish a feeling of li0][)ef ulness as regards the future of ship- 
building, the surrounding conditions having, if anything, taken 
on a still more sombre aspect. In most of the great over-sea 
trades, freights have shown further depression, the downward 
inclination being evidently caused by the circumstance that the 
supply of tonnage has largely exceeded the demand. And still 
tlie launching of big cargo carriers goes on apace, so that as time 
goes on the evil of over-supply is likely to be further accentuated 
instead of lessened. The development of new trades and new 
countries, on which shipping i>eople dei)euded so much as a 
means of absorption for the vast carrying mediums they were 
bringing into existence, has not progressed according to the 
exi)ectations formed, and hence the fact that a necessarily 
limited demand could not keep pace with a practically un- 
limited supply. Yet, despite the circumHtance that the demand 
for new 8hii)8 is no longer urgent, but is beyond all possibility 
1 of doubt declining, there are workmen's leaders so wilfully blind 
to all that imsses as to think the present a suitable time for 
harassing the employers with demands for advances of wages. 
On the Clyde it would seem that the carpenters and joiners 
have asked for an advance, but it has been reserved for the 
labourers to take the initiative in this movement on the North- 
Kast Coast. 

The ofticials of the principal labourers' union (there are three 
or four different unions claiming a foothold in the northern 
shipyards) put forward a demand for a ten per cent, advance 
all round ; and, though the employers have had the courtesy to 



96 



TBJ^ MABINE ENGINB^L 



[May 1,. 189»^ " 



7275 
7829 

73ao 

7393 
7410 

7418 
7430 
7435 
7454 
7462 
7485 
7486 
7493 
7509 
7628 



H. Kirschning and. F. Altschwager. Packing for 

stuffing-boxes. 
F. C. Charch. Anchors. 
S. Davies. Driving gear for machinery. 
R. F. HaU. Internal combustion endues. 
W. Kelchon and J Mason. Ascertaining the weight in 

ship loading 
£. Bennis. Boiler furnaces. 
O. M. Hofwolt. Expansion slide valve gear. 
W. Pett. Pneumatic boat belt. 
W, H. Wise. Derrick swinging gear, 
W. Ambler. Steam generators. 
C. Griffin. Rotary engines. 

E. H. Weatherhead. Hydraulic engine and pump. 
A. Blowey. Lowering boats.. 
E. Guerrier. Internal combustion engine. 
£. H. Montgomery. Rotary engines. 



BOi^BD OF TBADX XXAMWATIONB. 

NoTs.— IC denotes First Glass ; 2C Second Glass. 



March 25th, 1899. 
Abraham, T. A. 10 Cardiflf 
Adamson, Rt. T. IC N. Shields 

Allan, Wm 10 W. Hrtpl. 

Anderson, W. P. 20 London 
Bowen, David.. 20 Liverpool 

Boyle, Wm 20 Glasgow 

Browiie,Lind8ay 10 Oardiff 
Bruce, Thomas 20 „ 
Garter, George 10 N. Shields 
Oooper, Ohas. S. 20 W. Hrtpl. 
Davies, Griffith 20 Liverpool 
Davies, John S. 20 W. Hrtpl. 
Devlin, Peter S. 20 Liverpool 
Douglas, Jas. R. 20 Oardiff 
Duncan, R. A. S. 20 „ 
Evans, Oharles 10 „ 
Forbes, .Robt. A. 20 Dundee 
Gordon, Thos. . . 02 Glasgow 
Grieves, Geo. E. 10 London 
Hall, Oharles . . 10 Oardiff 
Hall, Thomas . . 10 W. Hrtpl. 
Hornby, Edgr. J. 20 Liverpool 
Hughes, Jhn. M. 10 
Hughes, Richrd. 10 Oardiff 
Jones, William 10 Liverpool 
Mackinto8h,G.D 10 Glasgow 
M*Oann, Jsh. H. 10 Liverpool 
Metcalfe, Hy. 0. 10 W. Hrtpl. 
M'Farlaue. Jas. 20 Liverpool 
Moloney, David 10 Oardiff 
Muir, David Y. 10 Glasgow 
Nelson, Frck. F. 10 London 
Nicholson, T. H. 20 W. Hrtpl. 
Oliver. John G. 10 
Parker. George 20 Cardiff 
Parker. Robt. G. 10 W. Hrtpl. 
Pitt, p:dwd. W. 10 London 
Rae, Wm. A. .. 20 N. Shields 
Bogerson.Bnjm. 20 W. Hrtpl. 
Russell, Harper 10 Glasgow 

Santos, E 10 London 

Sharp, Edwd. S. 10 N.Shields 
Smith, Gooi:ge . 10 Ghisgow 
Stephenson. H. 20 Cardiflf 
Stevenson, A. . . 10 Liverpool 
Stobbie, George 20 Dundee 
Sturrock, Jas. A. 20 
Sutton, Wm. G. 10 Sthmptn. 
Walker, James 10 Glasgow 
Watson, Wltr.E. 10 W- Hrtpl. 
William8on,P.R. 20 Livenxwl 
Zeale, Richd. T. 20 Cardiff 

April Ist. 

Aiken, James 2C Sun'rland 
Banks, Albert 10 N.Shields 



Birrell, Wm. 
Chapman, W.F. 
Ohouvaldjy, N. 
Christie, Jhn.O. 
Clark, Ohas. J. 
Clark, James 
Oramman, Wm. 
Elliott, John 
Grallon, John 
Gray, Jas. A. 
Harle, Ralph Y. 
Hibbins, Hy. U. 
Hutchison J. Mc 
Ingram. D. B. 
Jack, John 
JobUng, T. L. 
Johnson, H. L. 
Jones, H. H. 
Lee, John 
Linton, John . . 
MacDonald, N. 
Mackie, Hy. J. 
Mcintosh, L. . . 
Miller, George 
Milne, Wm. A. 
Morrice, A. W. 
Morrison, J. D. 
Murray, James 
Price, Thos. W. 
Quack, E. A. . . 
Richardson, W. 
Thomas, R. P. 
Thomson, J. G. 
Whiteley. J. H. 
Whittingham,G 
Wilkin;on,W.B. 
Winton, John .. 



20 Liverpool 
20 London 
20 Liverpool 
10 Aberdeen 
20 N.Shields 
10 Aberdeen 
20 N Shields 
10 Liverpool 
20 London 
10 Liverpool 
20 N.Shields 
10 Bristol 
10 Liverpool 
20 N. Shields 
20 Aberdeen 
10 N.Shields 
2CSun'rland 
10 Liverpool 
20 N.Shields 
120 

20 Liverpool 
10 Hull 
2C London 
10 Liverpool 
20 Aberdeen 
20 „ 
10 Loudon 
10 Aberdeen 
20 Liverpool 
10 ,. 
10 Aberdeen 
10 Liverpool 
10 London 
10 Liverpool 
10 N.Shields 
20 Liverpool 
.20 Aberdeen 



April 8th« 



Adamson, W. J. 
Aitchison, Thos. 
Ambler, G. H... 
Barr, Duncan . . 
Barrow. A. J. . . 
Best, Ihos. H. 
Brown, O. G. . . 
Bulman. W. . . 
Cameron. A. . . 
Cockayne, W. . . 
Common, W. . , 
Davies, John . . 
Davies, T. H. . . 
Dorman, J. P. 
Dunlop, H. J. L. 
Gemmell, John 
Gilby, N. W. . . 
Greentnan,R.H. 



10 Glasgow 
20 Liverpool 
20 Cardiff 
20 Glasgow 
20 London 
20 

20 N.Shields 
20 Cardiflf 
20 (ilasgow 
10 Liverpool 
20 N.Shields 
10 (Cardiff 
20 Liverpool 
20 N.Shields 
20 Belfast 
20 Glasgow 
20 London 
10 Cardiflf 



I 



Hamilton, John 
Hunter, John . . 
Inman, James.. 
James, Geo. P. 
Jeans, Alfred . . 
Jones, Thos. M, 
Lazzari, Joseph 
Lees, Robert 0. 
Mace, Jas. H. . . 
Miller, Robt. M. 
M'Luckie, A. . . 
Noble, Henry O. 
Paterson, Wm. 
Paull, John A. 
Prichard, David 
Robertson, A. . . 
Robertson, O. . . 
Schmidt. E. F. 
Scivill, Wm. D. 
Smith, E. O. .. 
Smith, S. H. . . 
Stent, Ohas. E. 
Stirton, Alexr. 
Taylor, Benjn. 
Temey, O. .... 
Thompson, E... 
Wallace, L. L.^. 
Webster, R. J. . . 
Williams, David 



20 Glasgow 
10 N.Shields 
20 Cardiff 
20 

20 N.Shields 
20 London 
2C N.Shields 
20 Glasgow 
20 N.Shields 
20 Glasgow 
10 Cardiflf 
10 N.Shields 
20 Cardiflf 
10 Glasgow 
10 Oardiff 
20 „ 
10 Glasgow 
20 London 
10 Cardiff 
20 London 
10 Liverpool 
20 

20 Glasgow 
20 N.Shields 
10 Liverpool 
20 N.Shields 
10 Liverpool 
10 Glasgow 
20 Liverpool 



Williams, G. T. 10 Cudiff 
Williams, John 20 



ft 



April 15th. 
Anderson, Thos. 20 Greenock 
Batchen, D. M'K 10 „ 
Beedie, Wm. D. 20 „ 
Boorman, A. ..20 London 
Bull, Percy A... 10 „ 
Changaratos G. 20 „ 
Garden, Robt. . . 10 Leith 
Gibson, Robt... 20 „ 
Grant, Andrew 20 Greenock 
GrindUy, G. J. 20 
Hunter, Alex . . 20 Liverpool 
Inverarity,D.O. 20 Leith 
Lewis, Robt. H. 20 Greei^ck 
Martin, Wilfrid 10 Lxve$o61 
M*Kinlay David 20 Greenock 
Murphy, Rd. H. 10 Liverpool 
Paterson, E. . . 20 Greenock 
Rae, George . . 20 „ 
Ross, Jas. G. . . 20 Leith 
Roughton, H. . . 20 London 

Scott, A 20 Dublin 

Segreave, Wm. 20 Liverpool 
Sivyer. F. J. J. 10 Londoii 
Thompson, S. F. 20 Livcirpool 
Wood, Thos. . . 20 London 



Water-tabe Bollen In the Oermaa HaYy.— A (German 

engineer, writing on the. subject of the systematic trial being 
given to the several Systems of water- tube boilers in the German 
Navy, observes that it is premature as yet to pass positive jndg- 
ment upon any one of them, but as far as the experiments have 
gone the following results may be noted. First of all as to the 
Thorny croft system. This has been applied to t^e coasting 
ironclad Aegir^ which has been making trial trips for fully half a 
year and has further taken part in the autumn manoauvree, and 
the system has come out very well under the test. For inwtji.T^5»^^ 
it has been shown that with the engineering staff working 
at forced pressure, it is possible to get up stesun in at least 25 
minutes — a very remarkable achievement, which quite puts the 
locomotive and other boilers of that type into the shade. Also, 
the trial has shown many apprehensions which were expressed 
as to the advisability of adopting the Thorny croft boiler to be 
groundless. Particularly striking is the saving in weight of this 
system in comparison with that of the locomotive boiler system 
on the sister ironclad, the Odin. The total weight of the boilers 
on the latter stands at 10*5 tons, as against 68 tons on the Ae§irt 
w^hile the weight of the Odin^n boilers, ready for use, is 239 tops, 
as compared with only IIK) tons on the Aegir^ and the Odin aoun 
has to carry 49 tons of water m her boilers, whereas 23 sumces 
for the Aegir. These proportions are still more striking in the 
case of the new ships of the line and the cruisers. On the 
former the saving of weight effected by the employment of one- 
third water- tube boilers amounts to 140 tons, and where these 
boilers havts been wholly adopted on the large cruisers the savipg 
is as much as some 280 tons. The reason,' the writer remarks, 
why the tubular boilers have only been pairtially adopted on the 
new ships of the line, as in the case of the Fttrst BUmarckf is 
that the heavy battleships as a rule only travel at a reduced 
speed, for which the one- third tubular boUers would be quite 
sufficient in the very shortest time to develop the required pro- 
pelling power. The German system of tubular boilers, that of 
Durr, has also given satisfactory tesults as far as the trial trips 
of the Biden^ lUnerny and Vtcturia Luite have shown, and if 
tain improvements in it which have been taken in hand 
succeeded with, then, it is declared, its future will be assured. 
Others of the fleet equipped after tliis system of boiler are the 
big cruiser Vineta, and the ship of the line Saektcn. The Belle- 
ville system has so far only be^n trie<l on the two big cruisers 
Hertha and Hatim. This class boiler is somewhat heavier than 
the Durr, and entails a bigger consumption of coal. Hie SerthOf 
which is the biggest cruiser fitted up on the Belleville system, 
developed on her trial trip 10,173 H.P., while thei^cya, with the 
Niclausse boiler, develoi)ed 10,22(5 H.P., and the PieUiria LuiH, 
with Durr boilers, '10,K()8 H.P. Further trial trips, which aie 
to be made during the summer, are exx)ected to give more definite 
results. 



98 



THE MABINE ENGINKEB. 



[June 1, 1899. 



and it would appear that long experience of the I 
average accuracy of dead reckoning by the course set : 
and the miles run, or the revolutions of the engine 
noted, are apt to breed a confidence as to position that 
abnormal circumstances may completely upset. We 
still want a warning instrument of the near approach 
of coast or other obstacle if such an apparatus can be 
devised. If not, nothing can replace the precautions 
necessary in thick weather to ascertain from time to 
time the possible position of a vessel, always to be ' 
taken on the assumption that she may be consider- • 
ably out of her supposed position by mere dead , 
reckoning. 

We are glad to see that the Institute of Marine 
Engineers is successfully doing the paramount duty 
of such an Institute in providing to its members and, - 
through them, to the general engineering public, 
information, embodied in papers communicated to it, : 
which will add largely to the scientific and practical 
knowledge of marine engineers, constructors, and 
naval architects. This has been particularly exem- 
plified by two papers communicated to the Institute 
on May 8bh. The first of these was that by Mr. J. T. 
If cArthur, entitled, *' A Comparison between the Per- ; 
formances of two Sbeam Ships." Although this paper 
was comparatively short and very modest in its tone, ' 
as perhaps befitted the scanty ground covered by the ' 
two comparisons given, yet this paper marked an epoch 
in the Institute, inasmuch as it gives to the ship- 
masters, engineers, naval architects, and all interested) ' 
comparative results in the two ships as actually ob- , 
tained at sea. It only requires that these comparisons 
and records should be multiplied by the only men who 
have an opportunity to do so, viz., the sea-going en- 
gineers, to accumulate most important evidence as to 
results, which should baar good fruit in guiding the : 
united efforts of constructors and engineers in pro- . 
ducing the most economical steamers possible. Id 
the present instance the sumniarissd results of 
the two vessels in form of coal consumption per 
ton carried per mile show such surprisingly dilTerent 
results in the two vessels, that the one becomes a  
model to imitate, and the other one to avoid. When, 
however, it is found that the tonnage and dimensions 
are considerably difi'erent and also the indicated horse- 
power — whilst in one a dynamo producing o.OOO watts 
was driven, and in the other there was no dynamo at 
all — the startling fact that one steamer required more 
than a third more consumption of good Welsh coal 
per ton carried per mile loses somewhat of the lesson 
that may be deduced, frqm the difiiculty of determin- 
ing in what special points the loss of the worse vessel 
occurred. Probably the loss was an aggregation of 
deficiencies on all points, from the lines of the hull 



to the conditions of the working of the boilers by fr 
certain amount of mismanagement in having allowed 
caking and deposit in the boilers, from ezceaa of en* 
gine oil passed through the high-pressure cylinder. 
The conditions of coolness and comfort in the stoke* 
hold and engine-room, and dust in the latter, in the 
worst of the steamers, may in themselves have had a> 
good deal to do with the worse conditions of economical 
stoking in that steamer. And as was remarked by 
the Chairman, it was not to be expected that there- 
could be much economy in a ship in which there had 
been three chief-engineers in four years. Whatever 
the drawbacks of the particular comparisons given^ 
as leading to any accurate deductions, we would again 
emphasise that the paper indicates a line of informa- 
tion which no Institute but that of the Marine Engi- 
neers can be so fitted to give ; and of which the im- 
portance, when comparisons, if always carried out on 
the same basis, have become numerous, cannot be 
too highly estimated. By all means let us have 
some more of such comparisons. 

A PAPKR of much higher ambition, and one that, ae 
a matter of research, would be a credit to any of the 
older and longer established technical institutes, was 
that communicated by Mr. Halliday, on ** Experi- 
ments on the Heat-Absorption Power of Water," with 
a view of ascertaining the effect of the speed of water 
circulation in the absorption of heat. It must be 
remembered that the various devices once adopted by 
engineers to accelerate and determine the circulation 
of water in boilers have much been discounted by the 
experiments of Mr. Yarrow, by which it appeared that, 
water readily determines its own path of circulation, 
and will as readily circulate downwards as upwards 
in a tube subjected to the impact of heat. Mr. 
Halliday now presents the other point of view, that 
however the direction of circulation may be deter- 
mined or may determine itself, the speed of sueb 
circulation over a heating surface is of vital import- 
ance to the quantity of water heated in a given time 
and to the amount of heat units thus absorbed. From 
the experiments carried out by Mr. Halliday with 
constant application of heat to a flowing stream of 
water, the velocity of which may be regulated, it 
undoubtedly appears that there is a point of maximum 
velocity up to which the absorption of thermal units 
by a flowing stream of cold water steadily increases, 
though the actual temperature of the resulting heated 
volume of water will naturally decrease. Beyond such 
maximum velocity the amount of absorption of the 
thermal units decreases. This is a curious result, 
which requires some thought and investigatioDi 
in order to determine the best velocity of water over 
a heating surface so that it may, in a given 



June 1, 1899.] 



THB MARINE ENGINEER. 



93 



time, absorb the greatest quantity of thermal anils 
from a given source of heat. As thermal units are the 
product of two factors — the mass of water heated, in 
a given time, by the rise of temperature in the mass — 
the problem would appear analogous to the problem 
of the maximum condition of effective ^ork units from 
a water wheel, turning with the flow of the water, 
where the work units are the product of effective 
pressure upon the wheel into the velocity in a given 
time with which that pressure overcomes a similar 
resistance. As the effective pressure upon the wheel 
also reduces as the speed of the wheel increases, it 
will always be found that there is one particular 
velocity of the wheel relatively to the flowing or falling 
water at which the wheel eflects the maximum work- 
ing efiect. There appears to be some analogy ; but in 
Mr. Halliday's heat experiment, though the water is 
there, which is the wheel ? 



The four torpedo-boat-destroyers built last year by the 
firm of F. Schichau, in Elbing, for the Imperial 
Chinese Government, made on their trial trip in free 
open sea a mean speed of 35 to 37 knots per hour, 
unattained hitherto, they proved their great sea 
capacity. All the four destroyers have steamed from 
Elbing through the Baltic, the German Ocean and 
Biscay around Gibraltar, through the Mediterranean 
Bea to Port Said, having run the way from Port Said 
to Colombo on a stretch without touching the port of 
Aden, a distance of 3,550 sea miles (about 4,100 
statute miles), in quick, irreproachable passage. The 
destroyers had, after their arrival at Colombo, a large 
quantity of coal on board ; this is a new great triumph 
for the economy of coals of the Schichau engines, and 
Schichau has splendidly solved the difficult problem to 
build such small vessels with a radius of efiiciency of 
8,000 to 4,000 sea miles. All the four destroyers con- 
tinued their voyage to Northern China from Colombo 
after two or three days' rest. Hitherto, the voyage 
of the four destroyers has been going on without any 
interruption and without the least delay, as well as 
with the very least repairs to the engines and boilers. 



measur ed by a thermometer at B, and its tenipcratnte as it 
emerge s from the coil is measured by a thermometer at A. 
^ The w ater then flows through L into G, and the number of 
therma^ units given to the water as it flows through the coil J 
can be determined. 



i 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE HE AT- ABSORP- 
TION POWER OF WATER. 

THE following paper is an account of exporimentrt carrioil out 
by Mr. G. Halliday in the Institute of Marine Kn^^Mnetrs 
to ascertain the heat-absoriition power of water iit dityereiit 
temperatures and different velocities acroiis the surfaces : — 

Tne apparatus (Fig. 1) consists of a glass vessel H witli a spiral 
tube sealed into it. "Water flows from F thrtjugh the si>iral 
tube and out by L hito the cubic centimetre measure G. The 
quantity of water flowing through the tube can thus 1>e deter- 
mined. Steam is generated in the flask I>, and flows thviugh 
the copper spiral C, where it becnmes superheated, and fluw- 
ing into H heats the water as it flows thnuigh the coil. The 
tempeimttire of the water as it flows in the glass vesRol II is 



I 



ns- 



r^-^ 




Fig. 1 

At lirst a small copper tank was userl between the thermo- 
meter 15 and the source of water. This tank was utilised for 
raising the temperature of the water l>efore it reache<l tlio glasH 
coil. It was found, however, that this arrangement of heating 
the water before it reached the glass coil did not give constant 
temperature, as the following results show. 

The exi)eriuients were made t<i deitfnnine what influence the 
rate of motion through the tubes had <in the water. It will be 
ol>served that the (pumtity of water flowing through the gla^s 
spiral J was 5 cubic centimetres |^r minute. The difference of 
temperature in the lirst rase was 4.')*16 deg. Fahr., and in the 
se^'ond case 43*00 deg. Fahr. The times and (piantities of water 
flowing through the glass coil J were taken at the end of each 
nunute. 

A. 

Experiment when water /laved throiifrfi the Coil at an Average 
Rate of ^ Chbu Centimetres per niinttte. 







Quantity of 


Temperature of 


Tenipcratarc 


Diirerenee 


Tim*. 




water in 


waier when 




of water 


of k-m- 






c.c. ni-'asarc. 


it einorj^ed. 


at entrance. 


p«nitun. 


4.39 




.. 705 .. 




154 . . 




101) . . 




45 


4.40 




.. 710 .. 




158 . . 




100 . . 




52 


4.41 




. . 721) . . 




103 . . 




107 .. 




5ti 


4.4H 




. . 725 . . 




155 .. 




107 .. 




48 


4.44 




.. 730 .. 




101 .. 




100 . . 




55 


4.4.5 




. . 735 . . 




147 . . 




100 . . 




41 


4.40 




. . 738 . . 




130 . . 




100 . . 




80 


4 47 




. . 740 . . 




1'6\) . . 




105 . . 




84 


4.48 




. . 74l> . . 




148 . . 




104 . . 




44 


4.49 




. . 752 . . 




151 . 




101 .. 




47 


4.50 




. . 7<iO . . 




151 ,. 




102 . . 




48 


Mean 


quantity of water fli 


)wing per 


miinite, 5 cubic 


ccnti- 


metres • 


; av 


erage difference of temixjrature. 


4510. 














B. 














(.Quantity cf 


Tempcrnture of 


Tt 


.■mpvrntuic 






Time. 




wat-r in 




w.ater 




of vvji'.tr 


DifKeKuce. 






c.c. measurt. 


a 


♦. oiitlot. 


at i-ntniic*. 






5,7 




.. 40 .. 




IHO .. 




135 .. 




5ii 


1 '».« 




r,8 . . 




Is2 .. 




131 .. 




48 


o.V» 




.. HI .. 




182 . . 




134 .. 




48 


6.10 




.. IH .. 




1H2 .. 




13J .. 




48 


oil 




. . 140 . . 




ls2 .. 




1J4 5 .. 




48 


.',.12 




.. 172 .. 




1S3 .. 




IV, .. 




48 


5.1:J 




. . lt»2 . . 




1H4 .. 




137 .. 




47 


r,14 




.. 218 .. 




178 .. 




13'> .. 




30 


■').1."> 




. . 23'.i . . 




173 .. 




14 » .. 




33 


r).iri 




. . 25r. . . 




172 .. 




14') .. 




3i 


5.17 




. . 270 . . 




171 .. 




liO .. 




34 


i 't.lH 




. . 2^2 . . 




175 .. 




i:;«; .. 




3) 


o.l'.l 




. . 300 . . 




175 .. 




1.4 .. 




41 


1 5.20 




.. 312 .. 




175 .. 




1 32 . . 




43 


r,.2i 




.. 330 .. 




175 .. 




131 .. 




4* 



Mean fjuantity nf water flowing througii in cubic centinietreif, 
20*7; average difference nf temperiitiire, io'O'j. 



102 



THE MAEINE ENGINEEB. 



[Jane 1, 1S99.. 



point the water takes in three times as much heat as at other { the engine. The shaft of the Small puUev waS fitted 

t«ninM.afciir*.a ^^ ^^ eccentric gear, worked with a Bmafl lever with 

a pin. When the belt has to be tightened, the lever 



temperatures. 

The velocity of the water was aj^ain changed in order to note 
theefToct of the chnntje of velocity on the heat -absoiiitive power. 
The result is given in the tabic below : — 

M. 



Oc. pur 
m'nulc. 

10 4 




D.lTercxca 

of 

temperature. 

1«05 


TbcTratl units 

absorbed 

per minuti*. 

3ii;5-7 


2G-43 




U{) 


3<I33 <i 


40 




111-3 


51UKS 


125 




.. 4s 


6000 


1580 




40 


r)3U 


193 3 




17 


3-JS61 



20CG 



400G 



JOOO 



20G0 



lOOO 




suflicit-iil l-.'Ji*. hciii;,' supplicrl to meet the requirements of the 
more r;i]«ill\ i:i"viiij,' wjitor. IIk' same couditioiiK would be 
found Well.' ll:e:i; Imt •.'uses iiisteml of stoani. for the heat of tlie 
^ses after a certain spewl of the wuter wouhl j*et forward with 
iusuflitriont ipjickuess to .supply the water with cver-inereasing 
thermal unit.-?. 



MESSRS. TOLCH & CO., OF FULHAH. 



THIS firm has a site most convenient for the 
launches and other small craft being taken down 
to the river, and if the numbers which have already 
been built for England are a sign, the firm has very fair 
success. A small launch, 20 ft. in leuglb, had been only 
a few hours in the water before wo went down to tho 
place. It had been fitted with the patent reversible pro- 
-peller Fig. A and \\ith a single inverted cylinder launch 
oil engice, constructed on the Capitaine system. The 
oil was stored in the bow of the boat in a cylindrical 
tank, carrying a day's fuel, 2^ gallons. Thcio was also 
a simple starting gear, which consisted of a small belt 
iand a handle with a shaft, on which was fixed a small 
pulley. The shaft was inserted in a cylindrical hole 
on the end of the engine, and the belt enveloped 
^e £jnsll pulley and a f\y wheel fitted on the shaft of 



I 



The accompanyinj:» curve — Fi^'. \ ~ hIiows the manner in whieh | 
the alworptive j)i»we'' inerease^ with the vel«)city, and then falls ! 
oflf again after a critical velocity. Tlie falling ulY is due to in- ' 



cooo  




Flo. A. 

is pulled back, it raises the small pulley by the 
eccentric motion, and when tight enough, the pin 
attached to the lever is let into one of the noles which 
hold the pul!cy in place. The handle is then turned 
and the engine started. 

Before we'went down to the launch we were shown the 
engine Fig. 1 A in the shops for driving the small dynamo. 
This dynamo serves twenty IG-candle-power incan- 
descent lamps, and a hundred volts are obtained when 
the speed of the dynamo is 1,350 revolutions. The 
engine had to run about 400 revolutions and before it 
started we had the advantage of seeing the operation 
of heating up the vaporiser. This vaporiser is in the 
end of the engine : it consists of a vessel of cast iron, 
with a series of ribs all round it to promote the heat 
being taken up by the vessel. This vaporiser is 
charged with a small spirit oil lamp to it. The 
valve admitting the oil is forced open by the puiii|», 
which admits always a fixed quantity of oil. The air 
is drawn in by a valve at the top by the suction 
action of tho piston. The exhaust valve and petroleum 
pump are worked from the crank and are under the 
control of the governor. When the speed gets too 
high, the governor cuts off the oil supply and the 
exhaust valve. The valves are thus motionless until 
the speed comes down. We cut out the propeller 
from the shaft several times, and in no case did the 
engine race. And when the propeller was placed at 
different notches, the speed of the engine kept quite 
constant throughout. 

But coming br.ck to the shop engine, which was of 
the type shown in Fig. lA, nnd of three-brake H.P. 
A small spirit lamp \v:i^ inserted under the 
vaporiser and allowed to heat that up. It heated it 
up for about five minutes, and when that had been 
done a small hand pump was woiked at the side of the 
engine, which put about (> lbs. pressure on the oil, and 
the tap \vas then opened and the oil permitted to 
enter the vaporiser by the valve. There is another 
little pipe which serves as a lamp on the outside of 
the vaporiser for heating that. The spirit lamp was 
now taken out and the stationary lamp lit to heat the 
vaporiser. The fly wheel was given a few turns and 
the engine started. The belt was also put on to drive 
the dynamo and all the lights switched on. A counter 
was used and showed a record of 440 revolutions for 
the engine, and 1,400 revolutions for the dynamo. 



Jnnol, 18»9.] 



TBE KASmX XNSmSlB. 



las 



Tlie Tolt meter Bhowed 100 toUb uid the ammeter 8 
amperes. There were 20 Ediawui lunpa. Each 
charge of oil w&a j-^, of a cubic inch, and an ex- 
ploflioD was made every second revolution. In this 
ahop eng;ine it will be seen that the piatone move out 
in opposite directions simultaneoualy, and the cranks 
being at right angles to each other, the recipro- 
cating narts are balanced. 

Thelannch engines are vertical, but they are worked 
in precisely the same fashion as the one already de- 
scribed. They are made si ngle-cy Under engines, from 
one to 13 brake H.F., and double -cylinder, from six to 
■eO K.P. That fitted in the small 20 ft. launch 
was two brake H.P,, making -t20 revolutions per 
ntiDUte. The propeller shaft as it came from the 
«Dgine, was lA in. diameter, and after it went past 



plate k is thai like a erooBhead movin|* in the goidos 
m m and caused to move backwards and forwi^da b; 
the rod » connected to the reversing lever. 

We moved the lever backwards and forwards after 
the engine had been heated up, and it kept miifcinf^ 
the same number of revolutions in whatever position 
the leyer was placed. The current of the river was 
strong, and against the tide this small two H.P. oil- 
engine took lOJ minntes to run a mile, and with the 
tide 7^ minutes. At places where there was plenty of 
water it turned, with the helm full on, in little more 
than its own length. The engine is covered in with a 
wood casing, which became slightlv heated just above 
the vaporiser ; but there was not tne least smell from 
the engine, and everything about the boat was spot- 
lessly clean and it was evident could be kept so. The 




the thrust block Ij in. diameter. The reversing of 
the motion of the boat, to cause it to go astern, is pro- , 
dooed by the reversing of the blades of the propellei'. 
The arrangement goes further than this, for the blades , 
may be set at intermediate positions and held there by ' 
floeans of the lever going into a notch. The propeller 
luw a hollow boss a, which is screwed into the shaft b, 
and there is a cap e fitted in the other end, Fig. 3. The 
blades, d d' have shanks and they can rotate through 
a certain angle in a hush/, screwed into a boss j. A 

KA on the end of i^' fits into a hole in the end of d. 
ollar i is eerewed on to the blade and the bush/ 
mreDfai the Uadea from coming out of their place. 
iHieeraolu are shown at yy, and these fit into slots 
n i, and by ihlg means the blades are moved. The 



over-all dimensions of this engine were 31 la. ia 
length, 23 in. in width, and 40 in. high. Oast iron 
ballast bbcka had not been fitted in the bottom of the 
boat, and when one moved from side to side the boat 
went with them. There was accommodation for about 
twelve persons in the launch, and save for the little 
thumping of the eshaust at the stem there was no in- 
convenience felt in the least. The circulating cooling 
water is drawn in from below and discharged abore 
water level at the side. The temperature of the water, 
as indicated by the hand, was little above that of the 
inlet water. 

The illustration shows an oil motor launch fitted 
with a steering wheel^close by the reversing lever, and 
it shows the compact 'nature of the machinery. Intha 



June 1, 18S9.] 



THE. MABUrS EKGDTEEB. 



105 



The eoit of wHckiiig tbese eo^M ii gtran by the 
makers u f ^t of «U per br»ke H,F. per hoar and 
the coat ot thii oilbom a dnp6t a few jnutds forthernp 
the river ii 4jd. per gallon. Twenty H.F. would thoa 
ose 16 piotB per hour, and 49 gallons per day. That 



about 25 I.H.P., and nse 6 lbs, of eoal per I.H.F. 
per hoar, whieh would come oot at 32 ewt. ot 
coal per day. The cost ot this would be at least 
248. and the space taken np by the eoal for 
a. day's run would be 70 cubic feet, Bendes, 



?^^m 



^Tzv^^^r^"' 



is 17a. per da^ for oil. A captain and two hands ' an engineer with at least Ss. per day in wages would 
' only are required iu this 300-too schooner. And the ' be required. 
■pace required tor the oil per dav would be 7} cubic | For small craft and small H.F, the oil engine baa a 
net. A nmOarsteam ra^e would require to indicate | future before it. 



  1 

June.]., 1S99.] 



THE MABINE ENGINEER. 



107 



The Ihaw BayIII and Ublon Company 

have, as I ni«ntioiied last month, chartered one of their two . 
finest Tesflels, the Denny-boilt Tainui, to the Allan Line. This ; 
▼esael hag not appcMured for a long time now in the New Zealand 
trade, her last engagement having heen to the Componia Trans- 
atluitica, where, under a portentous Spanish name, she was : 
engaged in the transfer of Spanish troops to Cuha, when the 
Dons were trying vainly to cope with the insurrectionary forces. 
It would seem that the class of vessel which she represents is : 
no longer altogether suited for the changed conditions of the 
New Zealand trade. She had a little too much speed, and was : 
altogether rather too expensive in the cost of her working. New . 
vessels of the Aotea type are taking the places of the older and > 
more purely passenger ships. Tlie Kumara, a tine big steamer j 
with very large insulation for frozen mutton, has just been ' 
turned out for the line from the Dumbarton Yard, and the 
owners now announce that the Araxca^ the speedier sister of the 
Tatiiiii, is for sale. This vessel, like the Tainu'*^ had a spell of 
work for the Spaniards. But she had another experience as 
well. It may be within the memory of some of my readers that ' 
when the Canadian Australian Royal Mail Steamship Company j 
was deprived of the services of its steamship Mioirera by an 
accident, which necessitated her coming to England for repairs, 
they chartered tlie Armca for the interval, that vesBel being at 
the moment within easy reach of Sydney, which was one of the . 
termini of the Canadian Australian Line. 

The Sydney-YaneonYer Bcrvlcei. 

Four days after the advertisement regarding the J rair«i ap- 
peared, there was, curiously enough, a preliminary announce- 
ment to the effect that the line for which she rendered tliis 
service is coming into the market with its ships, its goodwill, and 
all its other property. It is to be offered in one lot a<« a going i 
concern. This is rather a sad announcement, for it hIiuws that 
aJDother of Mr. James Huddart's undertakings has ended in 
more benefit to the public than to himself. One felt great sym- 
pathy with Mr. Huddart when the contract for the Fast Service 
to Canada, which he had so persistently and earnestly advo- 
cated, was given to Messrs. Petersen Tate iS: Company. That 
action on the part of the Canadian authorities does not seem to 
have benefited Messrs. Petersen Tate. It certauily did not aid 
the inception of the Fast Service. One felt, however, that the 
line to which Mr. Huddart then turned his attention might per- 
haps recompense him for his disappointment. The field between 
the flouriuiing port of Victoria, British Columbia, and the 
Australasian ports looked a promising one. He made a very 
good start with the two ships which he had built for it on the 
East Coast. These were the Warrimoo and the Mioircra, which 
I described at the time they came out. The trade deveic>x)e<l, and 
a third ship was needed. In an unfortunate liour the Aoranji, 
formerly of the New Zealand Shipping Comimny's fleet, was 
selected for the \'acancy. A large amount of muney was spent 
upon her to fit her for the new service. Her machinery and 
boilers were renewed, her passenger aceomnnxlation whh re- 
organised, and she was sent out as a practically new ship. But 
the new interests introduced into the cr)ncern, and the heavy 
expenses incurred, were too much for the comjMiny. There 
was heavy litigation, and the line went into liquidation. Now 
we see from the announcement that the liquidator cannot see 
his way to continuing to work the line, and that thus he findn 
it necessary to dispose of it. 

Meifn. Elder, Demptter and Company 

have registered themselves as a limited comimny during the 
past month. The public has not had any (tpi^irt unity of 
aoc^uiring an interest in the business itpelf. wliicli indeed is 
believed to be quite good enough for thone who linve built it up 
to wish to keep altogether for themselves. But outsiders have 
been allowed to apply for about- six hundred thousand pounds 
worth of mortgage debentures, which are, uf course, a lirst 
charge on the business. They thus obtain the Itest of security 
with the very tempting interest of 4} per cent. It is interesting 
to observe of what the Elder Dempster Fleet— as distinguished 
from the several fleets, such as that of the African Steamship 
Company, the British and African Steam Navigation Company. 
and the Ocean Transport Company, which the firm mnna;j[es — 
consists. The firm itself owns some se\-enteen steamers. Of 
these the greatest is the Miiliraukee, of 7,317 tons iiross register. 
The two smallest are the Banana and the Yonila. of n little 
nnder three thousand tons each. The Yttruhn, besides being 
one of the two least in size, is much the greatest in age. She 
haa in fact attained the patriarchal age of four years ! 



Ezclndmgher, none of the fleet are more than two years old. 
Messrs. C. 8. Swan A Hunter are responsible for the building 
of five of these ships, whilst Messrs. Palmer's, of Jarrow, have 
constructed four of them. Messrs. A. McMillan, of Dimnbarton, 
have turned out two. The Dajama was built at Hartlepool, the 
Yola and Banana at Sunderland, and the remaining four vessels 
come from Clvde yards. The total tonnage exceeds 7<*,000 
gross register. "The vessels seem all to be in profitable employ- 
ment, chiefly in the Transatlantic trade to United States and St. 
Lawrence ports. The return, as far as it can be arrived at, 
amounts to about seventeen per cent, on the valuation as 
estimated by independent authorities. 

The 'Falda." 

The extraordinary accident to the FuUla in a Birkenhead 
graving dock was the subject of a suit tried before Mr. Justice 
Bigham at the recent Liverpool assizes. A large amount of 
very expert evidence was atlduced, and the trial occupied four 
days. Little fresh information as to the circumstances attend- 
ing the disaster came out. We know that as tlie water left the 
ship ominous noises were heard ; but such are not unusual 
under such circumstances. Then there was a rcpoit like 
artillery, as one witness described it. The stem of the vessel 
came down, then the middle ship, and lastly the stern, and m 
an instant the value of the Fulda was reduce<l from i:B7,000 to 
little over £11,000. The shock not only ruined the ship, but it 
split the very blocks on to which she had been let down. It 
appeareil from the evidence that the ship had an unusual 
overhang forward. This extended as far back as 108 ft. from 
the stem, and probablv no accident could have happened at all 
had she been so blocked that support was given to thia 
part of her fabric. But no notice of her peculiar formation 
had been given bv her owners either to the proprietors of the 
dock or to the firm which undertook the work of placing her 
m position. It was alleged that" the blocks provided for her 
support were unfit for their work. But it was proved that the 
dock had been in use for forty years ; that it had fre<iuehtly 
been occupied by vessels of about her size within recent times, 
and that no accident had ever before occurred. In the result 
it was held that there was no blame to be attached to either set 
of defendants. The blocks were not in default, and there waa 
no rcsponsibilitv for what occurred capable of being attached 
to those who docke<lher. The iJecuUar construction and design 
of the vessel seemed accountable for all that took place. Notice 
I of the peciUiaritv had not been given to cither of the parties 
'' sued, and so thev could hardly be held accountable for not 
j taking special precautions in her case. A suggestion that lier 
owners might be held liable for damage sustained by the dock 
itself through her collapse was sternly discouraged by the judge. 
and so the matter is— as far as one can see— finally closetl. 
Shortly after the termination of the case the old ship left the 
Mersey on her return to Bremerhaven. The Canadian Steam- 
ship Company at least is not likely to see her again. 
The Great Eastern Railway Company, 
whose services to Holland from Harwich are certainly the best 
between England and tlie Continent both as regards shii>s and 
convenience of arrangements, has again piovide<l an improve- 
ment for the benetit of those who patronise its route. If or 
those who are travellin^^ to dermany a saving of no less than 
25 miles has been effected by the oi>ening of a new Dutch line, 
whereby the detour to Amsterdam is avoided and Berlin is 
brought into a straight line of rail with the liuiding place at 
the IItK)k of Holland. The full benefit of the improvement 
will not be reai)ed, however, till the (Jerman authorities can bo 
induce<l to run fast and comi^let* connections through their 
territories in connection with the really admirable services pr<^ 
vided by the Great Kastern Bailway, both by sea and land, and 
bv the butch Government through its State railways. 

LlYcrpool 

has now taken from Southampton the distinction of having the 
greatest graving <Uxk in the world. The new Canada Gmving 
Dock was inaugurated on the 'ind May, 181H.>, when the White 
Star cargo steamer r,t/f was, without any ceremony, and in 
the presence merelv of a few ofticials of the Dock lioard and of 
the companv which nwns her, (luietly received and accom- 
mu<late<l. this is the wav that characterises Liverpn,il, and 
contrasts stronglv enougli with the excitement that attended 
the Koval functions over the l»rincc of Wales Dock at the 
Hamiishire port. A brief cmparison of the principal dimen- 
sioiis of the two d.M.ks mav be of interest : -Canada : length 
over all, ti2oft.; width at tnlrance, 'Jlft.; depth of water on 



108 



THE MARINE BNGINEEE. 



[June 1, 1899. 



sill at high water, ordinary 8prinf{ tides, 32 ft. 6 in. ; capacity, 
3.'28«M»1H cubic ft. Prince of Wales: length over all, 750ft.; 
width at entrance, 01 ft. 1 in. ; depth of water on sill at high 
water, ordinary spring tides, 32 ft. i) in. ; capacity, *2,320,000 
cubic ft. On theoc^uision of the docking of the Cevic the task 
of emptying the dock was completed in 1 hour and 40 minutes. 
This was effected by the use of three centrifugal pumps of 51 in. 
diameter, whose normal throw is 922 tons a minute, rising to 
an emergency capacity of 1,000 tons. There is an installation 
of six lialK.'ock tV Wilcox water-tube boilers to supply steam 
for the engines which drive these pumj^w, and the I.H.P. of the 
machinery is 2,200. 1 must add that, as I <ailculated out the 
figure marked thus • from rather doubtful data, I do not vouch 
for its accuracy. 

The Compagnle Generale Transatlantlqae 

inaugurated its intermediate service to New York, with the 
sailing of the WouUoomooHoo on May Uth. At present this 
service will he maintained by sailings once every three weeks. 
In connection with this there is a report that some famous ships 
are to be accjuired by the company. Twelve months ago. when 
the war between Spain and the United States broke out, it will 
be remembered that the Spanish (iovcrnment purchased three 
Atlantic liners of the first-class from the (lermans. These 
were tlie IlavcU of the Nord-Deutscher Lloyd (.'omi»any — a tuie 
single-screw vessel Iniilt by the Vulain C«»mpany at Stettin — 
and the Normtitihia and the Columhia, of the Hamburg- 
American Steam racket Company. These hitter vessels were 
Brititsli-huilt twin-screw steamers, which liad earned for them- 
selves a very line rejmtation in the possenger trade. P'rom that 
day to this these steamshii)s seem to have di»i{i])iK!ared. They 
never did anything during the war, and tliey have remained in 
retirement since its close. Now, though there is nothing »aid 
ab«jnt the Hard, there is a rejwrt that theCompagnie G^nerale 
Transathmtique is buying tlie other two vessels for its New 
York service. Owing to the conditions under which it carries the 
French mails, it cannot use them in its Saturday mail service. 
But it would l)e tjuitc possible to use them as extra steamers on 
other days. An<l it is thought that they may come in useful 
next year when the Paris exhibition is iK'ing held, and all the 
wurUi und his wife is crossing from America to see the show. 

The American Mails. 

Duriiii; the last few weeks the New York corrcsi)ondent of 
the 'I ifht'g has seen lit to renew his attack on the British lines 
carrying the mails to New York. As on previous occiisions he 
takes instances of letters and newspai)erh sent through our 
mails, and compares their transit with what their experience 
might ha^e been if they had Ikkju sent in foreign bottnnih. He is 
quite riuht totiike wliat steps he thinks proper — if they be fair 
— to briiiti about any ]>ostal ref«^rms of which lieajti'ioves. But 
the roniaikablc tiling alxnit these comi)arisons is the fact that 
in ever\ iii*itanc«.' now. and in previous years, the caseagain«<t the 
Brili^li .-hii)s is hnnentably overstated. Now, one cannot 
ex|)ecl ji gentleman whosi* niission is to deal with questions asso- 
ciated with New Y<irks<.H:iety,and with the higher internatiunal 
and local p«»liti«s(»f America, to be personally very nnich imbued 
with a knowledge of steamsliip [)erforman('e. He has his own 
engr«»>-sini» ;in«l ab^^orbing jjursuits, and 1 know by experience 
thai to carefully watch the mail lines takes up a great deal of 
thiie and atteniinn. But a man who holds so )'esj)onsible a 
position n^ that of the rei»resentative in the New World of the 
principal l.onilon jnurnal oujilit to have at his command the 
best ]H»«,»iil>k- s«»urce> of information, and one c>f the elementary 
qualifications f«>r his iK)siti"n should Ik» the ivmer to judge of 
the value of thc^ information submitted to him. From what 
lii!.^ recently apiu-ared in the New York telegrams of the 
Tiii't^ it would ai>pear that the sources from which the.st» 
attacks nri>e are hitu-rly hostile to Jhitish interests, and are 
not t'.'o I'articular when they cau. either by suppression (»f fact. 
or by overstatement, make up an api)arent case against the 
British l^•st OtVicc and British shi|»owners. The 'limcx an<l its 
correspondent know their own busines^^, and can ju<lge 
whether or not their position and standing will lie advanced by 
the policy t'» whi«h J refer. Hut the liriiish shipowners, whose 
struL'iile on a very •iinall (Jovermnent j)ayine!it for actual work 
done in the j arriage of mail matter is already a very tough one 
— ^ceini; thn: their conqxititors have large Government sub^,idies 
— have surely some right to expect that the representative 
T^^nd"!' daily should not Ik; used as the vehicle f'-r exaiiu'crated 
complaint' as to the way in which they peifona imblic 



The Leyland Line, 

which was incorporated as a limited company with a capital of 
£600,000, to purchase an old-established liiverpool basinesa in 
the Mediterranean and Transatlantic trades, nas jaat issued 
about £200,0<X) worth of debentures. We are thus afforded an 
opportunity of seeing the progress it is making, and the 
intentions of those wlio manage its affairs. It wonld appear 
that it now has a fleet of 28 vessels afloat ; that since it bought 
the business it has re-engined and boilered five of its ships, and 
simply re-boilered one. whilst it has at tlie same time accumu- 
lated a sum of £374,000 in cash and investments. The money 
it is now raising will give it, with its investments, about half-a- 
million sterling ready money, which it proposes to expend in 
large additions to the fleet. About forty thousand tons of new 
shipping, in five bottoms, is to be added. One of the new ships 
will be a sister to the Winifrcdiany of 10,500 tons gross register, 
just built for the company at Belfast. The other vessels will 
be of a somewhat handier size, ranging down to 5,600 tons in 
the smallest of the quintet. 

7he Stella. 

The inquiry into the loss of this vessel is now completed. As 
was altogether to be exi)ected, there has been little result from 
these lengthy proceedings. The speed of the vessel is found to 
liave been, under the circum.stauees. excessive. So much for 
the actual findings. As to the recommendations they do not 
amount to very much, either in extent or as to practicability. 
As alx)ut one-half of one per cent, of the lifebelts on board were 
found to be defective (though there were enough on board to give 
each ])erson carried at least three sound ones), it is recommended 
tliat inspection of l)elts should be made at short intervals. No 
remarks on this jxiint can be made save ^lerhaps to inquire how 
fre<|uently the Court would wish the inspection to take place; 
The desirability of carrying the boats swung out board in fog — 
when the state of the wind and sea allows — is also insisted on. 
Yet in the case under examination little gain coidd liave been 
ma<le by the adoption of this practice. In the evidence of Mr. 
Anderson, we have been given absolute data as to the splendid 
discipline of the crew as regards boat drill. By his watch the 
vessel struck at 4.11 p.m. That watch was stopi)ed by water at 
4.1 i) p.m. Thus from the time of strikmg till all was over it was 
eight minutes at the inoft. What time was taken up whilst the 
water penetrated Mr. Anderson's clothing and the case of a 
carefully made watch must be allowed from off that time. 
Surely better woi-k could not have been expected under any 
circumstances. The Berthow Ixmts do not come very well out 
of the test, for the time allowed was quite insufficient for their 
ex[.)ansion. But it dcK*s not follow that these contrivanoes are 
useless altogether, because it is unusual for disasters to be so 
overwhelming and instantaneous. Then there is the recom- 
mendation that the lK)oked time of arrival of the competing 
lx">ats should not l)e identical or approximately so. It is thought 
by the Court that an alteration in this direction might avoid any 
suspicion of racing between the rival vessels. I do not agree 
with this. For if there be competition it will not be avoided by 
l)reventing the passengers from saying, ** Such and such 
steamers always get in first." The answer to that wiU be that 
tliey start first also, and the rivalry, if rivalry there be, will 
merely shift to one of absolute six?ed! Then there is the sug- 
gestion of communication with the Casquets. With that there 
can \u} nothing bntagi-eemeut. Moi*eover, it is possible tliat the 
invention of Signor Marconi's ma\ not only aid us in effecting 
communication with the lighthouse from the land, but also may 
hel]) the lighthou.se-keeix^rs to otl'er a warning note to vessels 
running into danger under the veil of fog. But time must be 
allowed for further experiments in this direction. 

Btrandiogi. 

There arc two unfortunate strandings to report this month. 
The tirst, in point of time, is that of the Allan liner Gallia^ which, 
on her first trip up the St. Lawrence, has stranded on Sorel 
island. It is hoped — though information regarding the whole 
matter is singularly meagre— that the matter is a trifluig one. 

The other accident is far more serious. It relates to one of 
the finest and largest vessels afloat, though the steamer in 
question is one whose name has unfortunately been previously 
in the disaster column. The American Liner Paris is not a 
lucky ship. She left her dock at Southampton at noon on 
Saturday, tlie 'JOtli lilny, for Cheiliourg and New York. Captain 
Watkins, who has had charge of her for so long — before ever he 
or she went on to the American register — was in command, and 
she passed Hurst Castle at 1.^)0 p.m. Bunuing aoross to Cher- 



June 1, 1899.J 



THE MABINB ENGINEEB. 



117 



ir I i n —> n »*< 



noking on the next layer to be automatically replaced 
By freeh material, and in this manner a large portion 
of the body of the packing is thus utilised. 

A feature in the use of this psMsking is that very 
little pressure is needed by the ^land on the packing, 
in fact the nuts only need screwing down by the hand 
without the use of a spanner, which is due to the 
extreme elasticity of this packing. 

This packing is, we understand, being used largely 
in Russia for high steam and hydraulic pressures, and 
from the copies of the testimonials we have seen it 
appears to be very satisfactory and highly appreciated. 
As an example we would refer to the case of some new 
blowing engines which were packed with this packing 
and after four years' constant running, night and day, 
the tools' marks were still visible in the rods, which 
is excellent evidence of the absence of friction between 
the rods and the packing. 

This packing is put on the market by Messrs. 
Flatts & Lowbher, of 23, Lime Street, Fenohurch 
Street, London. 



MARINE ENGINEERS' NOTES- 

(From our own Correspondent.) 



THEBE have been throe papers read before the Institute of 
Marine Engineers during the month. The discussion on 
Mr. N icholl's paper was finished at the ])revious meeting, and 
another on the comparison of the performance of two ships. 
Tliis latter paper contained a great deal of data, but it could not 
be said that a comparison could readily be made, as neither the 
dimensions of the vessels, the lines were not the same. The 
H.P. required for each was very different. But one advan- 
tage of audi a paper is very clear. It gives a record of what 
goes on in a voyage, and it is the kind of information which is 
interesting to marine engineers, and it also enlightens outsiders 
as to what goes on in a ship. 

Mr. Xjawrie was in the cliair, and he expressed regret at the 
absence of Mr. Adamson, the homirury secretary. The pa|>cr 
was one which might be approaclied from a good many points 
of view. Mr. Hallidiiy said at the beginning of the session he 
ventured to urge the desirability of obtaining i)apers from chief 
engineers of sea-going steamers in order that they might get 
detailed and reliable information as to what actually took place 
in the working of marine engines at sea. This was a paper that 
might not be of so umch interest to the sea-going members, 
but to him and others similarly situated it was a {lai^er of extreme 
interest and importance. More pai>ers of the kind describing 
exactly what went on at sea would, he thought, l)e an excellent 
thing for the institution. Mr. Boyle remarked on the enormous 
difference in the results shown by the two steamers dealt with 
in the paper. The pajier which came after this was also of 
some interest, since it settled several doubtful points which were 
raised in the discussion on water-tube boilers and feed-heaters. 
It will be remembered that one of those points was the effect of 
the velocity of the water through the tubes un the co-efficient of 
absorption of heat. Experiments have now been made on this 
point, and the results published in another [mrt of the paper. 
The apparatus used was made very simple in order that the 
experiments could be jxirformed by anyone else easily. Hut 
althoagh the apparatus was made very siniplo, the results 
came out very satisfactory indee<l. This simple apparatus 
easily showed that there is an increase of absorption of heat 
when the velocity of the water through the tube increases. Hut 
with steam where the heac cannot get quickly enough forward 
to the tube to supply heat as fast as the water in the tube can 
carry it away, it is different. There sc^>n comes a (mint where 
tliere is a maximum absorption of heat, and then u rapid falling 
off as theveiocity increases. But this maximum ix^int de[)ends 
on the kind of fire which is heating the tube. If a fierce fire, 
then the mAzimiun point will be at a high ^velocity, and if less 
fierce ttie maximum ^loint will come s(X)ncr. In one case the 
masimmn point came at alittlo over a i)oint which represented 



a velocity of 100. In another case it was nearer 150, and in 
BtUl another case the maximum point came where the velocity^ 
was a little over li>0. 

There was another question which required solution. That 
was the question of the properties of the water just at the boil- 
ing point. It has l)een held by some that when water reached 
the boiling point it immediately developed new properties 
which enabled it to absorb heat at a much higher rate. Some 
exi)erimenters, notably the French, held that at the boiling 
point a great increase of absorptive power took place, and M. 
Normand, before the Institute of Naval Architects, said that at 
this ixnut the water absorbed three times as much heat as it 
did at other temiHsrutures. The experiments made at the In- 
stitute of Marine Engineers to determine this question do not 
beiir out the statements made by M. Normand or his French 
friends. A straight tul)e was taken through which the water 
could flow and boil, and it was arranged that the water should 
overflow from the tube and produce no circulation by curreuta 
in the tube ; by this means any extra influence which the en- 
training action of the steam would have to produce more rapid 
circulation and more absiDrption of heat was prevented. When 
this was done, and bubbles of steam were freely given off at a 
temix^rature shown by the thermometer at 212 deg., with a circu-  
lation through the tube of 19'4 cubic centimetres jier minutet 
the water absorbed 8118*7 thermal units. The trial was then 
made with the water running at a slightly higher velocity, just 
sufficiently high to stop the steam bubbles being formed. When 
this was done the temperature of the water fell to 202 deg., the 
average quantity of water flowing through the tube was 26*43 
cubic centimetres ^)er minute, and the immber of thermal units 
going into the water as it flowed through was 8088'ri as against 
8118'7 thermal units at the boiling point. Of course, the vessel 
used by the French experimenters was not suited for the ex- 
periment, as the effect of the circulation pro<luced by the 
entraining action of the steam was not excluded. 

The appai-atus which is being made for new experiments is 
one which will first boil water in a vessel, and then allow it to 
flow into a second, where it will again be heated and kept at the 
boiling point. AVhile kept at the boiling point it will circulate 
through this second vessel and be kept at the boiling point for 
a specified time. The first apparatus, presented by Mr. Ilallett, 
has been on exhibition in London, and luis been seen by emi- 
nent engineers with much satisfaction. 

There are still further exi)eriments to be made on the ques- 
tion of absorption of heat by water. Experiments have already 
been made by Mr. Hagemann, of Copenhagen, which are of 
some value, but they were ma<le on different lines. And aUhoUjgh 
his results would show that there would be a maximum (mint 
of heat absorption, he has not cjirried them far enough todemon- 
striite this point. It will be interesting to use a metal tube 
witli gases plaving on and the water moving very rapidly 
thrnugh it. Oi course, the velocity at which the point of 
maximum absorption takes place will be very nmch higher, and 
there may be several other interesting points which the ex^ieri- 
ments can alone elucidate. 

A very im]X)rtant series of articles has appeare<l in the 
Engineer on the naval Ixiiler of the future. The last of the 
scries is on the fii"e-tube boiler. As drawn it is of A shape with 
the fire Ix-'tween the legs. Water eonies down the legs and 
through the legs of the A go fire-tubes at right angles to the 
sides. The hot gases thus flow through the tubes and ascend 
tu the uptake from each side. The disadvantage of the fire-' 
tube boiler, we are told, is that it is too heavy, due to its shellt 
It alsi) carries t<K) nmch water. It c-ompares well, however, 
with the Belleville biiler, and a quotation is made from Her^ 
Bcnischke on this : *• Worked with all the care and attention 
necessary for the ehilxii'ate system de8cribe<l above, Belleville 
boilers have sUxkI well at sea when not pnshe<l. but as steam 
producers their roHults are not eminently good. WHiat they 
save in weight of water, as conqiared with other water-tube 
lx>ilers, is almoi»t made up for by the weight of masonry in the 
furnaces, as well as of the fee<l air-compressing and steam-drying 
arrangements. At the trial trip of the Messageries Maritimes 
Co.'s Australitn only lU-2 H.P. was obtained with one ton 
weight of bi^iler. whereas Scotch Ixnlers prmluce IH II.P. ixjr 
ton with naturnl and 20 to 25 II.P. with forced draught.** 
II.M S. ///I M;f/7«*/V Scotch single-ended boilers weigh 182 lbs. per 
I.H.P.. and give 14 s H.P. ^>er s<]uare foot of grate. Tlie Belle- 
ville boilers in the Cunoputt, working under similar conditions, 
weigh 108 lbs. per I.H.P., and the H.P. i)er square foot is only 
12-U. The H.P. uf the Cunoput is about 21 7 ner ton. Mr, 
Howden has obtained 25 H.P. per ton. The weight \)er sfi^vuuA 



124 



THE MABIKE BNGINEEB. 



[June 1, 1899. 



was 1,073 tons, and — unlike that vessel, which had all her four 
masts of the same height and carrying fore-and-aft sails only — 
she will be square-rigged on the fore mast. 

With reference to the order which, as stated in last month*s 
note, Messrs. D. J. Dunlop & Co., Port-Glasgow, have secured 
from the Woermann Line, of Hamburg, for the construction of 
two passenger steamers of 6,000 tons each, it is reported that 
the contract would have been placed with German builders, but 
*• the prices asked by the German ftrms invited to tender were 
higher than the Scottish firm's tender, besides which a much 
longer time was required to complete tlic boats." 

The well-known firm of Messrs. Scott * Co., Greenock, has 
been formed into a joint-stock company, under the title of 
" Scott's Shipbuilding and Kngineering Co., Limited," with a 
capital of £300,000 divided into 30,000 shares of £10 each. The 
businesses to be carried on are, as formerly, that of ?c«>tt li Co.. 
shipbuilders and engineers, and the Greenock Foundry Co., 
engineers and ironfounders. Kast Stewart Street, GrcciuK.'k. 
The signatories are : John Scott, R. Sinclair Scott, and Charles 
C. Scott, shipbuilders and en^ineerH, Greenock ; Jas. Henry 
Soott, merchant. London ; Mrs. Annie Scott. Ilawkhill. Largs ; 
Colin W. Scott, merchant, 94, Hope Street, Glasgow. 

From the boiler works of the Greenock Foundry Co., there 
lately emanated two unusually heavy marine l)oilers, which 
have been safely placed on board ship by the powerful crane at 
Victoria Harbour, Greenock. These Ixjilcrs were of 90 tons 
each and were put on board the steamer Calchah, recently 
launched by Messrs. Scott & Co., for the Ocean Steamship Co., 
of Liverpool. 

That the development of alreiuly established, and the o)>cning 
up of fresh, fields of commercial enterprise, in various partK of 
the globe, are matters more and more on the increase is indi- 
cated by the demands being nuule on builders of light-draught 
craft for shipment abroad. On the Clyde several firms who 
almost wholly confine themselves to work of this class are ex- 
ceptionally busy at present; and, as their vessels, after construe 
tion,are taken to pieces for shipment to their destination, building 
is proceeding on ground far removed from the usual riverside 
berths necessary when ships have to be launched into their native 
element. Messrs. Denny tV Brothers, Dumbarton, who have 
for many years largely engage<l in the building of light-draught 
craft for re-erection and service abroad, are finding it more and 
more necessary to utilise, for work of this kind, sin-pUis ground 
belonging to them, lying outside their yard wall, but convenient 
and handy to one of the yard gates. Tliey arc now i)roceeding 
to erect, and equip with the necessary plant, a large fitting shed, 
150 ft. long by 50 ft. broiul, on the ground in (luestinn. 

Messrs. C. Macdonald tV Co., of Mair Street, l*lantation, Glas- 
gow, who build st^wm-launches and the lighter class of vessels. 
launched, on the liUh ult , the steam yacht Una 70 ft. long 
overall. 11 ft. tJ in. Ixjani, and 7 ft. mouldwl depth. The note- 
worthv fact in connection with the launch of the vessel is that, 
notwithstanding her dimensions, she was built on Messrs. Mac- 
dona1d*s premises — a l>ack yard, so to say — in Mair Street, 
Plantation, whence she was removed about (> o'clock a.m.. 
drawn down Govan Road by steam traction-engine, consigned to 
Prince's DiK'k, and had her engine and l>oiler on lM)ard In^fore 
y a.m. The machinery has l)een supplied by Messrs. McKie A 
Baxter, of Copland Fingine Works. Govan. 

The work of sounding Glasgow Harbour for the purpose of 
ascertaining the various depths of water, which is done once in 
four years, is now in progress. The soundings, when finished, 
are fonne<1 into a chart of that in-trtion of the river and estuary 
within the jurisdiction of the Trust, and this chart servos as a 
guide for dredging oi>erations for the next few years The IS'.H 
soundings were accepted by the Admiralty as official, an«l still 
remain on their charts as such, the soundings l>elow Newark 
Castle being those of the Clyde Lighthouses Trust, and those 
further down Ixnng taken by the Admiralty ofiicials themselves. 
This year a beginning was nmde at the Victoria Ih'idge, antl the 
boat's crew conducting the work have now reached Govan. The 
soundings in the up))er reaches are taken at intervals of 20 ft. 
across, and 1(K) yards up and down the river, and in the lower 
reaches <.»f 2t) feet across and 'UK) yards uj) and down ; more men 
and boats being employed as tlie work proceeds Firthwards. 
The oiH'ratitins require alvuit four months to complete. 

A wellkm>wn Clyde shipbuilder has invented a ty|»e of ship's 

watertight door and deckhouse window which, in res[)ect uf 

their construction and of the material of which they are made. 

mark a distinct advance (m the kind of door and window frame 

»i present generaUy in use. The feature of the door in question 



is the insertion, in a groove surrounding the opening, of ft 
specially strong pneumatic tube, half the diameter of which 
projects from the framework and fits into a groove in the door 
or window. When the door is shut the tube is fully inflated by 
automatic action, and the joint is thus rendered alMtolutely air- 
and watertight. About 240 such doors and windows are at 
present lieing manufactured for the inventor, who will fit them 
on board a vessel at present under construction in his shipyard. 
The material of which these articles are being made also con- 
stitutes a distinguishing and highly important feature. This 
is a special metal, for which Mr. Lawson, manager of the new 
Howe Cycle Works, Glasgow, holds the patent, known as the 
"Hex" white metal. It is remarkably light, malleable, and 
requires no annealing after being cast. It is capable of brazingr 
and Ls white throughout, and will not corrode under any con- 
ditions. In price it com^tares favourably with gun-metal. As 
regards weight the 240 doors and windows now being made 
weigh in the aggregate 14, KK) lbs. less than would the same 
articles made oi cast iron, and they will serve the purposes 
required of such doors and windows much better. 

Messrs. Uamage &. Ferguson, shipbuilders and engineers, 
lieith, have contracted to build a screw steam tug to the order 
of Sir Donald Currie for service at the Cape. Messrs. Hawthorn 
& Co.. of the same [xjrt, have received an order to build and 
engine a steam trawler of about 300 tons for the Royal National 
Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. The vessel, which will have 
triple-expansion engines capable of driving her 12 knots, will be 
fitted up as a hosx^ital, provision l>eing made for the accom- 
mmlation of a missionai'\' and a surgeon. 

The Leith Dock Commissioners have placed an onler with 
Messrs. W. & T. Averey, Limited, for a set of five automatic 
grain-weighing machines, by means of which the grain discharg- 
ing and receiving facilities of the (Kirt will be much enhanced. 
The set of machines just ordered, which are similar in ever>' 
way to those at present extensively in use at the London docks, 
will Ix; capable of autonuitically filling, weighing, and registering 
20 iKigs of grain in one minute. 

According to Mr. F. W. Paul, late manager of the Blochaim 
Works of the Company of Scotland — who has left that com- 
pany's service to (Kcupy the )x>sitionof general manager of the 
Sheiton Iron and Steel Co., Limiteil, Stoke-on-Trent, and who 
1 early in the month was entertained to dimier in Glasgow, and 
presented with substantial tokens of the esteem in which he la 
held — the competition this country is meeting with from 
America in connection with the steel trade is not to be under- 
rated. We had heard so much about this matter of late, and 
had at the same time been enjoying such prosperous trade 
conditions, that we had almost come to believe tlwt the cry 
contained but little foundali«>n in fact. It was the fact, however, 
that during the last 12 months some 10,<MN) to 12.000 tons of 
shipbuilding material has oetually been landed in the Clyde 
district and at Helfast from America at prices which home 
manufacturers would not accept. Moreover, an order liad re- 
cently l)een placed in America for 80,000 tons of steel for 
Australia. To meet this conqtetition, he suggested that the 
railway companies should recognise the duty that devolved 
u^>on them to take their |>art in the international struggle for 
I connnercial supremacy, and by carrying goods at lower rates 
• assist the industries of this coimtry in maintaining, if not en- 
\ hancing, their present condition. Pig-iron manufacturers also 
should seriouslv consider what could be done to lessen the cost 
of the raw material to the steel manufacturer. 

During the i)ast four years the rejiresentative of the Glasgow 
Chamlx^r of Ctinnnerce and Merchants' House on the committee 
of Llovd's Ilegistrv has betfu Mr. Ross, of Messrs. Ker. Bolton 
iV C-*). Mr. Ross, having intimated his desire to retire, Mr. 
Henry Bell, of Messrs. Bell, Brothers cV McLelland, has been 
ap]^K)inted representative in his stead. At the meeting of the 
Chamlx?r of Commerce, at which the api)ointment was m&de, 
the president intimate<l that a communication had been received 
from the ClNde Steum.ship Owners' Association stating that at a 
meeting of directors the whole position of the representation of 
the Clvde district on Lli>vd's was discussed, and there was a 
unanimous feeling that the present representation was inade- 
(luate. It was felt that the im])ortance of the district as a ship- 
owning, shipbuilding, and an underwriting centre entitled it to 
at least e<|ual reiiresentation with LiveriKX)!, and tliat the time 
had come to approach Lloyd's Conmiittee on the subject with 
the view to a local branch being formed. They asked the 
Chamber to appoint representatives to a meeting to be held, 
when the matter would be considered. Mr. W. F. G. Anderson 



•I 



June 1, 1899.] , 



THE MABIETE ENGH^EEB. 



126 



pointed ont thftt this had long been a standing grievance in the 
Cl^de district, and it was largely on acconnt of this that the 
British Corporation had been formed. That corporation had 
been an entire success, and had given satisfaction to every one 
oonnected wiUi it. Mr. J. A. Duncan urged the importance of 
more representation on Lloyd's Committee, llepresentatives 
were appointed to attend the meeting convened by the Steam- 
ship Owners' Association. 



THE TYNE. 

(From our own Curretpondent.) 



BhipbulldiBg. — 8o far as concerns the ordermg of now 
tonnage, business in this district continues in quite a stagnant 
condition, and if this continues, the yards — though still (juite 
full of work — must in the course of a few months begin to 
show symptoms of slackness. The fact that the quantity of 
floating tonnage in existence is somewhat in excess of the 
demand is shown by the continued depression in freights ; and 
the addition, to an already overstocked market, of the vast 
amount of tonnage now approaching completion in our yards 
will not tend to render less discouraging the prospect for the 
shipowner. During April and the greater part of May the 
weather has been exceedingly unfavourable for outdoor work, 
and much time was lost by the platers, riveters, and other out- 
door workers in consequence. This would, i)erhaps, not have 
been so severely felt, if the men had not already lost a good 
deal of time when there was nothing to prevent them from 
working ; but the two circumstances, of wilful abstention from 
work in the first place, and compulsory abstention in the 
second, have so far altered the outlook that it is now 
universally felt that last year's output cannot be equalled, or 
even approached, in the current year. The officials of tne Boiler- 
makers and Ironship Builders' Society, however, take a hope- 
ful view of the future, as mav be seen bv the re- 
port (May, 1899) from the chairman, secretary, and "dele- 
^te " of the Tyne District Committee, which' says, '< There 
IS, as yet, no falling off in briskness, for as soon as 
launches take place the berths have been immediately cleared 
for the layingdown of other keels, and the whole of the avail- 
able space for shipbuilding in the various yards on the river 
continues to be fuU^ occupied. At a^ number of our shipyards 
spare ground is being taken in, and extensions on a large scale 
are being^ pushed ahead with the view of providing room for 
the buil£ng of much larger vessels than have hitherto been 
oonstmcted on the Tjme. New and heavy machinery is also 
being pat down, and, when the arrangements are f ullycompleted, 
the local employers will be in a position to comi)ete for the 
building of all classes of vessels without any restrictions as to 
size, speed, or equipment." 

Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. have made an applica- 
tion to the Tyne Commissioners, having reference to the driving 
of piles in the river foreshore, for the purpose of lengthening 
the boilding berths, and it has been decided that a deputation 
fn>m the latter body shall visit the yard on an early date to 
examine and report upon the matter. It is quite certain that 
Irhat Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth <& Co. are asking for is 
bound to benefit the district, being merely a question of develop- 
ment, and it may be taken for granted that the Commissioners 
will place no unnecessary obstacles in the way of local enter- 
prise, 

Messrs. Wigham, Bichardson A Co. have a large boat in 
eourse of construction for a German company of high standing, 
and have several other contracts of an exceptionally imi)ortaiit 
kind to go on with. There are vessels in the water undergoing 
repairs or final equipment for sea, and in all the departments a 
eondition Of hign-pressure activity is maintained. Messrs. 
Wood, Skinner A Co., have their berths fully occupied with cargo 
boats, and at Messrs. Dobson's yard a similar state of thingn 
•zists. 

It is understood that the site — several acres in extentr— which 
was formerly occupied by the Walker Ironworks, and which is 
■itnated a httle to the westward of Messrs. Armstrong, Whit- 
worth A Co.*s Low Walker yard, has ^mssed into new hands, 
and will soon be utilised in connection with tlie initiation of an 
imnortant industrial enterprise. The exact nature of the 
QBOttrtaldng has not yet transpired, but it is believed in the 



neighbourhood that it is something in some way associated with 
the fitting out of ships. Two blast furnaces are still standing 
in the place, but they are of a somewhat antiquated type, and 
would scarcely be of much use under modern conditions of 
production. The rolling mills were dismantled, however, 
long ago, and under these circumstances the presumption may 
be hazarded that the manufacture of steel or iron forms no part 
of the project in the minds of the new proprietors. Whatever 
the exact iiatnre of the enterprise may be, however, there is no 
doubt that it will have exceptional cnances of success, as the 
situation of the site is about the best in the district, affording 
quick access to lx>th i-ail and river, and being in close proximity 
to some of the largest shipbuilding and engineering works in 
the north. 

Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. are actively engaged in pre- 
paring for the laying down of the three tori)edo-destroyer8 ordered 
by the Admiralty, and they are also very busy with mercantile 
work. It is strongly hoped that the volunteer boat, which is 
now supposed to be in the market, will be placed with this firm, 
who have built so many splendid vessels for the well-known 
Bussian syndicate. 

One of the vessels now on the stocks at Messrs. C. B. Swan A 
Hunter's yard is said co be the largest at present building in the 
Britisli Isles, being considerably over 600 ft. long, and of pro- 
portionate dimensions in other respects. This vessel is under- 
stood to be for the Cunard Co., and is to be fitted out in a 
unique style. During the exceptionally wet weather that has 
lately prevailed, the utility of the covered berths at this estab- 
lishment was abundantly demonstrated, work having been but 
little interrupted on the vessels building in these sheltered 
])ositions, while in connection with the constructive operations 
on vessels not so protected a good deal of time was unavoidably 
lost. Should the firm decide on covering in the whole of the 
berths in their yards, it may come to pass that — in this case at 
all events — shipbuilding and pontoon building, may be carried 
on with as little interruption as engine building. It is not yet 
known whether the firm have any such intention ; but, in view 
of the great results that have followed their previous bold 
advaitces in development, it is by no means out of the range of 
probability that they will carry to its legitimate conclusion the 
import:uit principle they have as yet but partially applied. 

The Palmer Shipbuilding & Iron Co. have put off the stocks 
several exceptionally large vessels this year, and have one or 
two others almost ready for launching. Some disappointment 
has been telt in the district through the company's tender for 
one of the cruisers recently ordered by the Admiralty not 
having been successful ; and even the acquisition by the company 
of three tor()edo-destroyers has not dispelled, or even greatly 
lessened, the popular dissatisfaction. The fact is that the 
J arrow people are (with good reason) proud of their yard, and 
naturally think that, when the larger class of the country's 
battleships are given out to private builders, one at least of them 
ought to find its way to the well tried and aniply equipped 
establishment which is to Jarrow what the great ElswicK estab- 
lishment is to Newcastle. 

The Tyne Shipbuilding Co. have tlieir three berths occupied, 
the vessels on the stocks being in the various stages of framing, 
plating, and preparing for launching. In the initiators depart- 
ments work is exceedingly busy, and it is believed that Uiere 
are orders enough on the books to keep the place busy for at 
least another twelvemonth. 

Messrs. Beadheod's yard continues to maintain an appearance 
of great briskness, the four vessels on the stocks being of large 
size, wliile others of equal dimensions are in preparation^ At 
the small yards between Tyne Dock and the river entrance, the 
berths are well filled with fishing vessels, and the graving docks 
within the same area are fully occupied with vessels, undergoing 
painting or repairs. A rumour is current, which appears to be 
well fomided, that a site has been secured at North Shields, on 
which a newly formed company are about to erect premises to 
be adapted to the building of ships and engines of a small class. 
Iie])air-w()rk will probably also be undertaken, and it is stated 
that a machinery equipment, of a very complete and elaborate 
kind, will be provided. There seems to oe abundant scope 
for an establishment of this kind, as the demand for fishing 
vessels and other small craft has been well sustained for some 
years past, and is at present so good as to severely tax the 
existing sources of supply. 

Bnglneerlng. — There is not, at the moment, any sign of the 

demand for an advauce of wages put forward some time ago by the 

engineers being persisted in, and it is therefore probable that 

• the steady work now going on in tl.e factories will meet with no 



128 



THE MABINB ENQINEEB. 



[Jona 1, 1899. 



placing any falling off in requirements for shipbuilding. 
Ordinaiy foundry hematites are not now quoted under 72b. 
to 78s. 6a. less 2}; billets £5 5s. to £5 7s. 6d. net cash; angles £7 Ss. 
to £7 7s. 6d.; bar8,£7 15s. to £7 17s. 6d.; common plates,£7 17s. Cd. 
to £8 ; and boiler plates, £8 12s. 6d. to £8 Ids. delivered in this 
district. 

The metal market maintains a brisk tone, and prices continue 
oh the upwanl move, list rates for brazed and seamless copper 
tubes having been put up (d. and seamless brass tubes ^d. per lb. 
delivered Manchester district. List rates are now as under : — 
golid-drawn brass boiler tubes, 9d. ; solid-drawn brass surface 
condenser tubes, lOJd. ; solid -drawn copper tu1)e8, 11 }d. ; brazed 
copper gas and steam tubes, lljd. ; brazed brass tubes, lOd. ; 
common rolled brass, 8fd. ; common brass wire, B^d. ; coi)per 
wire, 104d. per lb. 

Little change can be reported in the condition of the timber 
trade, arrivals having been moderate with deliveries generally 
fairly satisfactory-, stocks mostly light and values steady. Teak 
squares have arrived in small quantity, and there is a steady 
demand, with stocks not heavy. Prices have improved, but 
not to the same extent as for planks. The import of planks 
has been fairly large, but the demand contiimes good, at steady 
rates, and stocks are not excessive. Two cargoes of greenheart 
have come in, and the stock is heavy. 

A leading Liverpool firm of timber and mahogany brokers in 
their monthly circular make some complaint respecting action 
rooently taken by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. *' The 
Board," they state, ** have given notice to a number of their 
tenants at the Canada Dock to quit the premises they hold, thus 
still further reducing the already limited and totally inadequate 
accommodation the timber trade i)ossess for conducting their 
business, and which must entail a very serious disturbance and 
loss to an important business, which employs upwards of half a 
million tons of shipping during the year ; some 300,000 tons per 
annum have already been diverted to neighbouring ports, chiefly 
to Manchester, and the present action of the Mersey I)ocks and 
Harbour Board will tena to drive still more of the trade in that 
direction, and thus make Manchester the chief distributing 
centre of the timber trade instead of Liverpool." 

The coal trade here shows no material change. Pitp continue 
on full time, and the output is moving away with prices firm 
at late rates. House-fire qualities continue in exceptionally 
good demand for the time of the year, and there is still none of 
ihal accumulation of stocks that usually takes place, whilst 
prices are well maintained at the full list. Steam and forge 
coals are in active request, with supplies barely equal to the 
demand, and good qualities readily fetching about 9s. at the pit. 
Gas coal contracts are being settled on the basis of about 9s. for 
the commoner sorts, and 98. 6d. up to 10s. for the better 
qualities at the pit's mouth. Engine fuel is rather more plentiful 
in the open market, increased quantities coming in from Derby- 
shire and Yorkshire, but Lancashire collieries are generally 
short of supplies, and their prices are very firm at Gs. Gd. to 
68. 9d. for best ; 5s. 9d. to Os. for medium, and Ss. 3d. to .Os. Gd. 
common sorts at the pit's mouth. 

Shipping is only moderate, with ordinary steam coal 
averaging about 9s. 6d Garston Docks; 10s. High Level, 
Liverpool, up to lOs. Gd. on the Manchester Ship Canal. 



THAMES. 

{From our own Corretpondent,) 



MESSRS. W. H. ALLEN, SON & CO., of Bedford, have 
lately constructed one of the largest self-containe<l surface 
condensing plants yet made in the iTnite<l Kingdom. It has 
a tube surface of 2,000 lbs. of steam iwr hour with a vacuum 
varying between 27 in. and 2rt in. The shell and frame is of 
Cast iron, and the tube plates are of rolled naval brass and tubes 
of solid-drawn brans. The tubes are fixed into the plates with 
screwed ferrules and tai)e packing. The condensing water 
passes into the condenser at the bottom and out through the 
top. The air and circulating pump-engine is inverte<l with 
10 in. bv 17 in. diameter cylinders and 14 in. stroke. Two 
fly-wheels are fitted to the crank shaft. There is a double 
acting circulating pump with a diameter of 19 in. and 14 in. 
stroke. The sjieed of the engine when the pump is workuig 
at its full capacity is GO revolutions. The weight of the whole 
is 390 cwU 
Messrs. John Steward and R. & IL Green, who build so 



many steel barges, should have a fair opportunity of lome of 
the twelve steel bat^ges for which the Betfast Harbour Cknn- 
missioners are inviting tenders. They are designed to carry 
twenty boxes 6 ft. 6 in. long, 4 ft. wide, and 4 ft. 9 in. deep. 
The material is to be Siemens-Martin mild steel, to be suit- 
able in quality and tests to Lloyd*s requirements. The con- 
tractor has to keep them in repair for three months after 
completion. Preference will be given to the contractor who 
undertakes to deliver the barges within the ^ortest date after 
acceptance of tender. 

Very many of the engineering firms on the Thames are^ at 
present turning out some of their old cutting tools and replacing 
them with American or those with the latest improvements in 
this country. It will be satisfactory for some of those to 
know that Messrs. Schischkar & Co., of Birmingham, have 
just put on the market a very excellent capstan lathe. It 
lias a four-speeded cone 8 in., 10 in., 12 in., 14 in. in diameter 
by 3^ in. face. The spindle has parallel necks in long gun-metal 
bushes. There is a self -centreing clinch with jaws to carry from 
1| in. to 1 in. diameter iron and a hole through the spindle to 
admit of any length of iron. The bed is 6 ft. lon^, 12^ in. wide 
across the face. It is fitted with a saddle or carnage 8 ft. long. 
The revolving table is IG in. diameter, fitted with four tool 
holders. It is revolved by hand. 

Messrs. A. <S: J. Thompson, of Custom House, have a very 
good arrangement of steam whistle which they are fitting^ in 
many steamers. In most steam whistles there is a long pipe 
from the boiler to the whistle, and in the ordinary arrangement 
this pii)e often gets filled with water. The consequence is that 
the signal is by no means instantaneous ; in fact, a considerable 
time elapses between the pulling of the whistle cord and the 
sound of the whistle. It is of the utmost importance that an 
immediate and clear sound from the whistles and sirens of 
steam vessels should be obtained. Moller's drainage valve is 
designed to obviate these defects. It will be seen that in 
this tyi)e of drainage valve the imssage on the right side, 
which is the passage from the boiler, is closed by a valve, but 
the upper passage to the whistle is always open to the left lower 
drainage passage, and there can thus be no accumulation of 
water in the whistle pil>e. The instantaneous, clear, and full 
sounding of the whistle is thus rendered an absolute certainty. 
To obtain this certainty is of great importance, as the safety of 
the vessel is in many cases dependent on the means of prompt 
signalling. The North German Lloyd Co. have had them 
fitted to their fleet, and many vessels in the German Navy have 
also been fitted with them. 

Messrs. Caird & Raynor are very full of work at the present 
time with heaters, evaporators, and condensers. Lately they 
made an excellent steriliser for the purifying of water. 



BBLFAST. 

(From our own Oorre*pondent,) 



THE past month has been exceptionally quiet here in regard 
to shipbuilding and engineering, inasmuchiw there is not 
a single launch from any of the yards, nor even a trial trip to 
report. As we said last month, the extensive repairs and 
alterations to so many large vessels have evidently arrested the 
progress of new work ; besides, the limited number of hands of 
a certain clasH obtainable, coupled with the slow delivery of 
material, combines to obstruct the output of new work, which 
is to be much regretted. 

Work on board the s.s. Oceanic is going on apace, her masts 
and fmmels being now almost complete. These enormous 
funnels are tlie subject of general remark. Owing to their 
extreme height, two of the top courses of plating have had to be 
built on their ])lace in sections, as the crane could not reach 
them. We understand the height of these funnels, from top of 
furnace-grate bars to top of funnel, is 120 ft., which should 
enable the smoke to be carrie<l well clear of anv part of the 
steamer's de?k. Every kind of work on board is bemg hurried 
on as fast as ix>ssible, so that by another month she should be 
fairly well advanced towards completion. 

The s.s. Germanic is now being finished up after undergoing 
a most extensive overliaul, and with her fresh coat of paint ana 
new fittings will almost look like a new vessel ; but she does 
look small and insignificant when Iving alongside her sister 
ships, the Medic and Afrie, her funnels being scarcely seen over 



June 1/ 189,9.] 



TnE MABINE ENGINEER 



129 



the deck houses of these two leviathan steamers, which still lie 
in Abercorn Basin. The Uedie^ however, is getting well on 
towards completion, whilst the Afric has returned for refrige- 
rating machines and some other alterations, which are well 
advanced ; and it is expected these two vessels will be on their 
old stations before long. 

The P. &. O. s.s. China lias not yet goi^e into graving dock, hut 
a great many hands are employed on her, making preparations 
for her occupation of the graving dock. Her repairs will take 
months to execute. 

The new s.s. Winifrtdian still lies in Al)orcorn Basin, and 
there seems to be a great scarcity of men to carry out the work 
recjuired on her. An already mentioned, McHHrH. Ilarland iV* 
Wolff. Limited, who liave all these repairs on hand, find it very 
ditiicult to procure sufficient men for their requirements, 
although at the present time they have in their employment 
upwards of il,(K)0 men ; but certainly, unless more progress w 
made with the new work in hand, the output at end of year will 
be curtailetl vorv much. 

Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co.. Limited, have still the s.s. 
Pimj Suez in hand, but she is nearly Ihiished. They have also 
the s.s. liriftjraviti^ for the Hamburg-American Co., almoKt 
completed. She will leave here in the course of a week or ton 
days. This firm (Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co., Limited), 
have also had a large immber of ship and engine repairs 
recently, so much so that they are at present making extennive 
additions to their re^iairing works at Abercorn Basin, in order 
to meet their requirements in this department, and we under- 
stand that when these extensions are completed they intend 
making all their own winches, windlass and steering gear for 
their steamers, which will mean employment for more men. 
This firm are also very much hamx)ere<l for want of ironworkers 
in their building yard, but they have several vesKels in a forward 
state for launching, and we hope to re^x^rt some of these next 
month. 

Messrs. MacCoU tt Co., Limited, are at present building a 
ferrv-boat for the Belfast Harbour Commissioners, and thev are 
also constructing cranes, tVc, for use at the harbour. A depu- 
tation from the Belfast Harbour Board ha>'e again gone to 
London to seek the assistance of Government in making a suit- 
able new drv dock, which would acconmiodate war vessels as 
well as these large liners, but so far their mission has met with 
little success. This question of dry dock accommodation will 
have to be faced at once, as the increasing wants of this port 
demand it. and surely there is enough money and energy to 
enable us to get it at no distant date. We might state that 
piling has commenced for the extension of the harbour on the 
south side of the river, and when ^mrt of this is done, so that 
the dredger can work, there will so<^n be a flotilla of bargen, 
cranes, itc, at work. A great many of the new electric light 

?>les, which are of malleable iron tube, are now coni])letod. 
hese look very neat with lamp on to]), and when all are lighted 
will be a great advantage to the district on both sides of the 
river. 

All the foundries and smaller engine works here keep well 
employed, consequently very few men who care to work 
are idle. 

The Londonderry Shipbuilding Yani have commence<1 opera- 
tions, and have got the keel of their first steamer laid. This 
vessel is being built to the order of MesHrn. McVicker. 
Marshall & Co., of Liverpool, who are extensive shiitowners, 
and has a dead weight of 0,200 tons, and measures 375 ft. over 
all, but thev are now face to face with their first strike of 
labourers, who have demaiide<l an increase of wages from Ids. 
to 208. per week (not a Ixul rise if they can obtain it), but as 
there is plenty of unskilled labour in and around this district, 
we anticipate this strike will be of short duration. 

The paddle steamer Slieve Donanly which belongCHl to the 
Belfast and County Down Railway, and ran to Bangor and 
other holiday resorts along this const, left this port during the 
month, having been sold to Bristol owners. It is reported that 
MesarB. G. & J. Barns intend running a {Missenger service 
direct from Glasgow to Bangor. Co. Down, which will 
increase the popularity of this growing suburb and be a splendid 
trip for excursionists at a cheap fare. 



I 



WuMin* SAlDa|e ft Fergaioa, Limited, Leitb, have received 
order to build a Twin-screw steamer for South Africa, and 
Alio for • cargo ateamer to carry 1,900 tons deadweight. 



NOBTHWEST OF KNOLAND. 

(From our own CorrenpondeHt.) 

Barrow. — There is great briskness and life in the shipbuild 
ing and marine engineering trades of Barrow. No new orders 
have ))een booke<l during the month, but very little need for 
them exists, seeing the very large onlers already held. Yet 
more of the same sort will be welcomed and are expected, bat 
in the meantime the works are being gradually enlarged, and 
being fitted up with the newest and most modem appliances ; 
electricity is taking the place of steam-engines for motive power, 
and a general expansion is taking place at the works of 
Vickers, Sons, tV Maxim, with the view not only of making 
the naval construction works more complete, but of embracing 
within its operations many new departments that will make the 
concern more and more deiwndent on its own resources in a 
great variety t»f ways. One of the most important developments 
taking place at present is one for the manufacture of gaii 
mountings. Tliis, when complete, will be nearly as large a 
de^iartment as that of marine engineering itself, and it certainly 
is a department which is exceedingly busy and has orders before 
it which will ensure very great activity for a very long period of 
time to come. rrei>a rations are being made for the launch of 
H.M.S. Vaiffi-ance on July 2r>th. This will be a red-letter day 
in Barrow, as it will not only be the first battleship ever built 
at Barrow, but will be the first battleship ever built and fully 
equii)iXHl by one firm. The launch of the Pacific luier Ortona 
will very ]r)ossibly take place before that of the Vengeance^ as her 
owners ha^e neeil of her, and the greatest ix)ssible progress is 
being made with her construction. She is plated, and the 
riveters are very busy with her, while the engineers are at work in 
the bringing out of her stern tubes. The Euryalutt, first-class 
cruiser, will go down on the berth vacated by the Oriona^ 
and the Kiuii Alned, first-class cruiser, will go down on 
the iMJith now occupie<l by the Vtiujeaner. The Hoffue, 
first-class cruiser is well in frame, and the Jaimnese war- 
ship, which is a monster, having a very great lx;am and 
bearing frames, is gradually assuming shape. By the time she 
is launched, it is probable much progress will have been made with 
the (.'onstruction of the new lock at liamsden Dock, powers for the 
making of which are being obtained by the ITumess Rail- 
way Bill, now before Parliament, which Bill has jmssed throngh 
its crucial stages without opposition. Tliis lock will have a width 
of 100 ft. and a depth of 30 ft., and will be built so as to be used 
as a graving dock. As such it will be exceelingly useful for the 
repair of heavy tonnage ships, and will doubtless bring to Barrow 
much of the repairing trade. It is possible to launch tho 
Japanese battleship and dock her safely by means of the present 
lock atBams<len Dock, but the greater depth of water provided 
on the sill of the new lock will be required before she can leave 
Barrow when all her weight gets on her. The great difficulty 
Barrow shipbuilders have at present is the great scarcity of 
house accommiKlation for their workmen. As stated last mouth. 
I.IHK) new houses are to be built by the comi»any on Waluey 
Island, but this is only part of a bigger scheme, as it is intended 
to bring into existence a new watering place, Walney-on-the-Sea» 
under the auspices of the Isle of Walney Estates Co., Limited, 
which has ju^«tl)een registered with a capital of £100,000, all of 
which is subscribed. The promoters are Messrs. Albert Vickers, 
of Vickers. Sons, iV Maxim; James Dunn, late of the Admiralty, 
and nnw with Vickers; Alexander Adamson, manager of the 
Naval Construction Works ; George Henry Pattinson, of Win- 
dermere : and John Poole. The work which this syndicAto has 
in hand has already begim. It gives promise of one of the most 
interesting enterprises ever entere<l uix)n by gentlemen mainly 
associated with the shipbuilding trade, but there is a general 
belief that the scheme is a sound one, and only needs courage 
and determination to make it a great success financially. 

The powerful hydraulic 100 -ton crane situate alongside the 
engine and boiler *slu»ps of the Naval Construction Works, built 
by Sir W. Armstrong 6: Co., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, for tho 
Furness Bailway Co.. has been owned by the latter ever since 
it was put up. until the present, but it has now been arranged 
to sell it to Vickers, Sons * Maxim, by whom it will be solely 
used in future. The work of improving its lifting i>ower has 
been undertaken by its new owners, and by means of strengthen- 
ing its radial l)ase, and increasing its multiplication of power 
by adding other pulleys to the blocks, it will be made to lift 
I'JO tons with ease. It has been found necessary to give the 
crane this additional ])ower owing to the heavier weights to be 
lifted nowadays for the big battleships and cruisers. 



182 



THE MABINS ENGINEER. 



[June 1, 1899. 



the warming eylinder h, bo as to heat the overlapping 
charge X, Air is supplied from any convenient source, 
through the slide-valve I, When the warming cylin- 
der is not required, the small lid a is placed on the 
large lid c. The cover h of the combustion chamber^ 
and rim of the latter are machine- faced so as to make 
inflame tight joint; the cover is not fastened down 
in any way. 

To start the device, all that is necessary is to lift 
the lid of the combustion chamber and place therein 
a bit of lighted waste or other inflammable material, 
then turn on the oil and air valves m and /, and as soon 
as the oil catches alight, replace the lid of the com- 
bustion chamber and adjust the oil till the flame ap- 
pears about four inches above the cover. 

The objection to liquid fuel apparatus that is com- 
monly, and in many cases justly, urged is that it is 
liable to choke and is complicated to work. It is 
an interesticg fact to note that in this device there is 
no pipe or hole through which the oil passes which 
18 less than i-inch bore, and, further, the oil passes 
through a double Altering arrangement. 

The makers put forward an interesting comparison 
between coke and oil in the fusion of brass. The 
quantity they take is 40 lbs. : to fuse which, i cwt. 
of coke at Is. 3d. per cwt., costing 3*7 5d., must be 
used ; to which must be added the cost of two hours' 
labour, including carrying coke and laying and clear- 
ing fires, equal to 8d.— together ll*76d. If carried 
out by oil, the cost will be i gallon of creosote heavy 
green oil Id., and i hour's labour 2d., together making 
8d. Bo that the oil fuel only costs a quarter the cost 
of coke. 

The Bickford Burner Co. also make a petroleum 
Bunsen burner, which has been specially contrived for 
Steam-raising purposes. It is extremely simple in 
construction and can be easily regulated. The burner 
requires neither steam nor air-blast and can be started 
all cold in from five to seven minutes. 



OBITUARY. 



ALEXANDER STEPHEN, SIIirBUILDER. 

THE death took place in Glasj,n>\v on the 19th ult. of Mr. 
Alex. Stephen, the senior i)artner in the well-known Clyde 
shipbuilding and engineering firm of Messrs. Alex. Stephen cVr 
Sons, Linthou»e. About six weeks prior to the sad event, the 
deceased gentleman, who was in his OTth year, contracted a 
severe cold wliich developed into intluenza, and altliougli 
apparently recovering, he had a relapse and gradually nank. 
until he finally succumbed on the morning of the 19th, within 
his town residence at Park Terrace. The late Mr. Stejdieu 
canie of a shipbuilding race ; liis father, Alexander Stephen, 
being the founder of thet;hipbuilding business of A. Stephen & 
Sons, long established at Dundee, and subsequently also of the 
ofifshoot business on the Clyde, of which the decoasc<l gentle- 
man eventually became liead partner. He was born at 
Arbroath on the 25th April, lKi2, having thus before his death 
attained his 67th year, and was one of the oldest living Clyde 
shipbuilders. He was echicate<l in Aberdeen and Dundee, and 
studied subsequently at Edinburgh Tniversity, where, with 
the practical sagacity which has marked his highly successful 
career all through, lie gave special attention to the subjects 
bearing most directly on his future profession. His apprentice- 
ship, as a shipwriglit, was commenced under his father in 
Dundee, in 1840. exactly 50 years ago, and he was looking for- 
ward to the celebration of his working jubilee with pleasurable 
anticipation prtvious to his illness. In 1852- three years later — 
Jie CMine to Glasgow, whore he jouied his father in the business 



at Kelvinhaugh, still existing as the Kelvinangh Blip^ook and 
Shipyard. The business St Dundee was then, and for long, 
carried on by his father and brother William. In 1861 fhe 
decensed Mr. Stephen created a stir in shipbuilding circles by 
introducing a style of shipbuilding known afterwards as the 
*' composite" system, where iron took tlie place of wood in 
several parts oi the ship, especially in tlie framework, and his 
lead in this new departure was followed, not only by his fellow 
shipbuilders on the Clyde, and in England,* but by the 
Admiralty as well. Finding, in the course of time, the premises 
at Kelvinhaugh too limited, and to meet the growing demand 
for steam vessels in ocean navigation, the Arm bought in 186^ 
the fine old estate of Linthouse, where works and plant for both 
engineering and shipbuilding were erected, which are to-day 
amongst the fmest and most complete on the Clyde or elsewhere. 
I^Ir. Stephen was a man who gave close and constant attention 
to his business, and to this marked characteristic of the 
man is due mainly his great success. He was one of the 
very few who w*ere at once heads of firms and able to make 
their ship-models with their own hands. His vessels became 
known not only for soundness of construction, but for beauty 
of form, and many of them have bad eventful histories. One^ 
for instance, after doing splendid service as the Sea King^ in the- 
peaceful capacity of a China tea clii)per, was converted into the 
notorious Confederate cruiser Shenandoah, and ultimately 
became the Sultan of Zanzibar's yacht. Among mail steamers 
built by Mr. Stephen were some for Brazil, and in 1872 the 
Enii)eror of that State decorated him with the order of a 
" Knight Of^cer of the Rose.*' Mr. Stephen's firm has also all 
ft long built for important shipping concerns, such as the Ham- 
burg-^Vmerican Co., Messrs. Sloman (Hamburg), the Anchor 
Line, the Clan Line, and the Allan Line, for the last of which 
they have on hand at present a magnificent twin-screw steamer 
of over 10,200 tons. A conspicuous feature of the yttjrd haa 
always l)een the large travelling crane which traverses the 
building berths for the purpose of putting engines and boilers- 
on board. It has been the practice of the firm for years to 
launch their boats, except in special instances, with engines on 
board. One very serious and lamentable disaster befel the firm 
twenty years ago, when the Daphne toppled over on leaving the 
ways, several hundred men 1>cing drowned. It was a catastrophe 
that afllicted Mr. Stephen very sorely, and from which he did 
not recover for many a year. The deceased gentleman leaves a 
widow and three sons and three daughters to mourn his loss, most 
of whom are marrie<l — the two eldest sons, Mr. Alexander E. 
Stephen and Mr. Fred. J. Stephen, being partnera in the old- 
established firm at Lmthousc. About eleven years ago, when 
his sons were beginnmg to take share of the cares of the busi- 
ness, ^Ir. Stephen purchased the pretty syhan retreat known. 
as Kelly Estate, at Wemyss Bay, from the trustees of the family 
of the late James Young, of i)araffin fame, where he demolished 
the old numsion-house and built himself a beautiful home^ 
where he spent the greater part of the years since its com- 
pletion. His close application to business, and the pleasure he 
t<x>k in his work, kept him away from what is commorly called 
'* l)ublic life," but he found time for some good service in thi» 
direction also. He was the first chairman of the Govan School 
I^oard, where he sat for many years, and in 18K2 and 1883 hfr 
was Lord Dean of Guild for* the city, and fille<l both positions. 
with credit and distinction. He was for some years cnairman 
of the Technical College, Glasgow, and was held in high esteem 
bv all leaders of education in the citv. 



The New LiveriHx>l Dock is 925 ft. long, 94 ft. wide at entrance, 
and the sill VA ft. 3 in. below O.D.S. The ca^yacity of the dock 
is B,2'2(),fUH cubic feet, and for emptying the dock there are 
three 51 in. centrifugal pumps, capable of pumping about lOOO 
tons a minute. The 80,000 tons of water in the docks were 
taken out in an hour and forty minutes. 

Loweitoft Low Llghthoaie.— This lighthouse is being 
moved 250 ft. further inland by a local contractor, under the 
6ui)ervision of a representative of the Trinity House, In con- 
sequence of the encroachment of the sea upon that portion of 
the eastern coast between Harwich and Great Yarmouth. This 
will be the third time the lighthouse has had to be removed 
further back. 



June 1, 18990 



1H£ HABlifE ENGINKEB. 



188 



LAUH0HS8 AND TBIAL TBXPB. 

LAUNCHES— ExaLUH. 

Korthweod Ho. — On April Hth there was launched at Hull, 
for Measrs. S. T. White ft Co., Limited, of Hull, an iron steam 
ketch, of about 153 tonagrota, named UieKort/nroul Ho. 

BrltftlUta.— On April 10th there traa launched at PU-mouth, 
for the Volonga Stale Co., of London, a troodeii sailing schooner, 
of about KWtons groM, named the Jlriliiiinia. 

Areadla. — On April 19th there was launched at South 
Ehielda, for an Austrian firm, aatoel schooner -rigged steamer, of 
about 3,143 tonagroM, named the Arcailia. 

MUQ. — On April 24th there was launched at Sunderland, for 
HijoB de Aatigarraga, of Bilbao, a steel schooner -rigged steamer, 
of about 2,OiO Cons groes, named the 3/cmu. 

Sotltried.— On April 35th there was launched at Sunderlaiid, 
for Mr. G. Sjoberg. of Sfalniu, a, steel schooner -rigged steamer 
of about 1,SS4 tona gross, named the Goltfriid. 

TallochniooF.— On April 25th Messrs. William Doxford J: 
Sons, Limited, launched at Follion, HunderUnd, tlic cargo 
turret steamer TuUtrhmoor, built to the order of Messrs. Waller 
Hunciman S: Co., and tlie directors of the Moor Line, Limited, 
Kewcastle. The Tullcfhrnnor is a dupUcatc of tho 7V'ii7inoor, 
bDilt bv Messrs. Doxtord to the order of tho same firm. Her 
dimensions are 340 ft. in length ; 45 ft. in. in breadth ; and 
27 ft. 3 in. iu depth, moulded. She ha« a carrying caiiacity of 
about 5,d00 tons, on a dranght of 22-2 ft. Her gross tonnage is 
3,480, and her net tonnage. 2.220. The engines arc built also 
by Messrs. Doxford, and have 20 in-, 12 in. and Uftiu. cvlinders, 
with 43 in. stroke. 

ConqnenP. — On April 2Cth Messra. Willoughby Brothers, 
Limited, launched at Plymoutli, a steel scrciv vessel, the 
Cten 3 M^ror, built for Mr. George Etheridgc, of London. The 
dimeosions of the vessel are : — Length, between iieriieiidicnlarH. 
S5fl-2in.; breadth. IH ft. ; depth. 10ft. S in. The engines are 
compound surface -condensing, liaving cylinders 17 in. and 
St in, diameter, 21 in. stroke. The hull and machinery were 
built under Lloyd's special survey. 
* lophroB.— On April SCtfa there was taunclicdat Hull.forthe 
Standard Steam Fishing Co., Limited, ot Grimsby, au iron 
steam ketch, named the SopMmn. 

Manoheater Part.— On April 2nth there n-as launched by 
Messrs. Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron Co.. Limited, from their 
Jarrow yard, a finely modellctl steel Hcrew cattle mid cargo 
steamer named the 'Uanrhttttr I'ort. built to the oriier of the 
Manchester Liners, Limited, of which Sir Cliristopher Furness 
iscliairman. Tho vessel is built expressly tor the Manchester 
Liners' service from the Manchester Canal to Canada, 
and when fully laden she will be of a draught perfectly suitablo 
for the canal. She is six feet longer than the ianrhftler 
City, at present rnuning, and will bo tho longest boat which 
baa as vet used the Manchester Ship Canal. Her dinicnsions 
are, viz., length 4fi7 ft. by 52 ft. beam and :■!!» ft. depth, lus 
four masts, and is rigged fore-and-aft with tclcBco|iic topmast'^ 
and funnel to suit the Manchester Canal bridges, ami has 
been built under special survey to take the highest class in 
Lloyd's registry. She is of tho three-decked type, with two 
Bteel decks laid all fore-and-aft, and has an iroii slielter deck 
■pecially strengthened considerably in excess of Lloyii'N rcquiro- 
mants for the Atlantic trado, extending over' tho whole 
length, and above this is a bridge deck LW ft. long. .Ml tho 
available space under the shelter deck, and along each side 
nnder the bridge deck, is Rtted throughout to jhish American 
and Canadian regulations, with the most improvul ami inmlcrn 
arrangemeDta tor carrying about 700 heed of cattle. Tlic 
■eoommodation for tho saloon, captain's, and spare staterooms, 
Ac., is arranged on the bridge deck in a largo steel 'leckhousc. 
with ■apante honaea for officers and engineers. The seamen 
and flrnnea are bonaed under tho shelter deck forward, and tlie 
cattleman's qnartera are onder the shelter deck aft. A cellular 
donbla-bottom is fitted all fore-and-aft for water ballast, and 
also four separate tanks under ongino and boiler s^iaoe for fresh 
wat«t for Bupplying cattle- Water boUast iH also armngLil to 
be carried in a deep cargo tank and in the after [teak, giving the 
veaeel a total water ballast capacity of over 2,000 tuns. Tlic 
diaplaoMuent of the vessel iu abont 14.300 tons, and Khe is 
dlnded Into nine watertight compartments by ineuna of eiglit 



be fitted up 

caslle. 

Lloyd 



eteel biUkfaeada, all of which extend to the upper deck. Eaoh 
compartment is fitted with complete grain divisions. A meet 
complete system of ventilation has been arranged to ensure the 
safe carriage of cattle, grain, or other cargoes. The vessel haa 
10 hatches. 12 powerful steam winches, and 30 derricka pro- 
vided for tho rapid loading and discharging of cargoes. Aft of . 
the engine-room the 'twe«n decks are insulated and fitted with 
the necessary refrigerating plant, specially arranged tor the 
conveyance of fresh beef, mutton, poultry, fruit, butter, ta. 
A ixiwerful steam windlass is fitted forward for working the 
cables, and a combined hand and steam -steering gear of special 
design is fitted in a large steel wheelhouse on the after end of 
the shelter deck. The vessel is lighted throughout by electricity. 
The engines are also being constructed by the Palmeri 
Co. ; they are ot the inverted triple -expansion type, having 
cylinders 30 in., 60 in. and i41) in. by .54 -in. stroke, ateam bung 
supplied by three double-en deil boilers 14 ft. G In. diameter by^,^ 
17 ft. tJ in. long, with a working pressnro ot IfiO lbs. All tW^^v 
sliafting is of hydraulic conipresH^ steel, and is consider»m\; ^^^^^ 
iu e^iceas of Lloyd's requirements. The propeller is of Aon^-'. . '-' '>^ 
ganese bronze, and all the auxiliary machinery is ot Uj^ffioat '' 'V^'-i 
modern type. y \ , 

Dndsnated.- On April 37th tliere wae launchod at SMKr, lo^' 
the Grimsby ITnion St«am Fishing Co., Limited, of Grid^mJ,' ( 
an iron steam ketch, named the V.nAauntid. ^v'^ Oj. 

Barton.— On April 27th Messrs. Itopner A Son. Stockton.on- f-./'J 
Tees, launched a steel screw -steamer of the following dimen- 
sions:- Length between perpendiculars 330 tt. ; breadth extreme, 
47 ft. ;;depth, mouldol, 27 ft. 4 in. The steamer has been 
built to the order of Messra. Webster A Barraclough, Weet 
Hartlepool, and is off the threo-dcclied rule, fitted with the 
builders' patent trunk, full poop, bridge, and topgallant 
forecastle. The saloon and cabins for captain and ofBoerswill 
* the poop, the accommodation for engineer* In 
the bridge deck, and for the crew m the fore- 
She has doublc.bottom on the cellular prin- 
r ballast, ami will carry about 5.7M tons on 
freeboard, on alight draught of water. She 
.'iiriiavcaU the moat recent appliances tor the expeditiotu 
and economical loading and unloading of cargoes, has direct 
ateam windlass, steam -steering gear amidshipH, with powertol 
screw gear aft, six larits steam winches, to which steam is 
suppliea by a krgo liorizontal multitubular donkey boiler, 
stockless anchors, ttc. She will bo fitted with a act of 
triple-expansion engines bv Messrs. Blair A Co., Limited, 
having cylindorsSl in.,40in., IU> in., by 42 In. stroke. The 
christening ceremony was gracefullv performed bv Miss Blarv 
Webster, daughter of Mr. E. A. Webster, of WoIvUton Hall, 
who gave her the name ot Barton. 

OrlBamme. — On April 27th this vessel was succewfaltjr 
launched bv Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth * Co. Limited, from 
their Wallier Shipyard. She is the first of three vessels being 
built by that firm to tho or<lor of Messrs. Lane A Macandrew, 
of London, on behalf of MM, Dusmarais Freres, ot Paris, and ia 
H|>ecially designed for the carriage of petroleum in bulk. This 
vessel and her sister shiiis are being constructed under the 
immediate siilier\'isiDit of Messrs. Flaunery. Bag^llav A 
Johnson, otLundmiand Liverpool ; and arc to obtain the highest 
clasH of Bureau VuritaH, and to conform with the Suez Canal 
regulations for oil steamers. Tho priiicii>al dimensions are : — 
Length, 347 tt. ; breadth, ih ft. ; depth, moulded. 30 ft. 6 in. ; 
and the engines, conatruct^kl by the Waltsend Slipway and 
Engineering Co.. have cylinders of 24 in.. 40 in. and (i4 in., 
taking steam from two'large single -ended boilers working at 
100 Ibi. iirossurc, and having a heating surface o( aboDt STSOO 
aq. ft. It is cxpccte<1 that this machinery will prove capableof > 
propelling the I'CHael at a speed of 10} knots when laden with a 
deadweight ot ii..'i00 tons. Electric light is fitted Ihronghout 
the vessel, and the pumping installation isespeoially handy and 
powerful, and capable of dealing with oil cargoes with great 
rapidity. 

Papana.— On Thursday, April 27th, Messrs. W. Gray * Co., 
Limited, launched a fine steel screw-steamer, which they have 
built totheonlerof Messrs. Morel, Li mitc<l. ot Cardiff. Bhe 
u' jit take Llovd'H higliest class, and is of ihe following dimen- 
sions:— Length o\-cr all, 330 ft.; breadth 47 ft.; depth, 94 ft. 
10 m., with full ]Hiop, briilge, and topgallant forecastle. A 
tasteful saloon tatA the captain's and ctfticcr's rooms will be 
Altedin a large house on the bridgo, and the engiiieer'a roomi 



136 



THE UABINE SSOTSEEE. 



[Jime 1, 1899. 



tHe vessel, ure to be congratulated upon the BvcceBs of tbeir 
enterprise in haTinR the Inckmiittti built, and from the experience 
gBinen with her and the improvements mode in the new ship 
and lier machinery, even better results are SBSured to tlicm 
in the a, a. IiiMiith. The Bteamet will take LloviVa liinhest 
cIms. and has been conatructed under the aupcriutendonce of 
Ur. J. B. Bdmiaton, assisted by Captain F. G. tfajor und Mr. 
T. S. Moaaman. The ceremony of naming the veaoel 
JneJt,lnrh was ivocefully performed bv Ui^s Domtliy CreaswcU 
Gray, Stniucliffe, Beaton Carew. 

Ihuidan.— On May 11th Meaara. Itichardaon, iJnck it Co. 
biutlched from their yard a steel surew-ateainer of tlie tolluwiug 
dimeiiBioDH : — Length over all. 3.52 ft. ; brcoiltli. extreme. -tH ft. ; 
d^tli. moulded. 3h ft. i in.; tonnage, gross, about 'A,^iO tons, with 
R carrying capacity of about 6,.'i00 tons. This Bteoiner, which 
has been built to the order of Mr. W. J. Tatem. of Cardiif. 
will ciasi 100 Al in Lloyd's register, and lias been built under 
weciol Bur\'ey. She ia the largest steamer yet built for Cardiff. 
Tbo vessel is of the three-deck tyjw with one laid deck ; having 
cargo poop, long extended bridfie with houses for captain. 
oificera, and engineers' accommodation on bridge deck, and 
topgallant forecaKtle tor crew. A cellular double bottom, and 
fore and aft peak tEuiksare fitted for water balluat i and llie equip- 
ment includes six steam winches, large horizontal donkey -boiler, 
•lockless anchors, steam windlass, steam -steering gear, &c. 
The engines, by Messrs. Blair it Co.. Limited. Iiave cylinders 
35 in., 13in.. and l>8 in. by 45 in, stroke, ateam being supplied by 
two single-ended boilers having a working pressure of 1(10 lbs. 
As the vessel left the wavs she was christened the Shmdtn bv 
Hn. Tatem, of Cardiff. 

Oeltlo. — On Hay 12th tliere was launched by Mr. Jamet> 
lUiller, at St. Monon'a. a firat-clasa (inhing lioat,' built to tlic 
otder of Mr. James Mackay. The craft, which was named tlie 
Ctltie, is 62 ft. in length, with a breadth of beam 21 ft. fj in. 

Ott>. — On May 13th there was launched by Messra. John 
Friestmau A Co., at Boutbwick. Sunderland, a liandsomcly 
moidelled screw -steamer, built to tlie order of Mr. Lauriui W. 
HouBCvn, of Bergen, Korwav. Her dimenaiona arc : — Length. 
33flfC.; breadth, 47 ft.; depth, moulded. 2ii ft. 10 in. Tbe vessel 
has been c<instructed to "Der Korako Veritas" and Lloyd'i 



into watertight compartments by Ave htcel bulkheads, and _. 
douhlc-bottom forward and aft divided into four seiiarate tanks. 
together with the ofter-peok, provide ample water ballaol. The 
engines are id the triple-expanaion type, and have lieen built by 
Uesscs. Wm. Allan & C-o., Limited, and hai'e cylinders of 25 in., 
41 in., and tiT in. by 49 in. stroke. The boilers supply ateam at 
tt preware of ll'iO Ite. per square inch. Sirs. Andcrsini, of South 
Bhiclda, named the vessel Olta. 

■ttt.— I<atcly there was launched from tlic yard of Wm. 
Haikcss 4 Son. Middkisbroufih-on-Tees, a steel scrtw-'iteamer, 
IGO ft. by 2.1 ft. by 13 ft., built to the urdi-r of a Norwegian firm 
for Uioir fishing trade on the coust of Jirjniay. B'le will bo 



LAVKCHES.— Sn^vn. 

BsImOFal C^ltle. — On Aoril Bth there wai launched from 
the yonl latelv occupied by Messrs. DoliaJdmni, .'Vitken A- Scott, 
Oovan, the iron screw-trawler Jtnlmonil C-iUle. built ta Mr. J. 
A. Smitli. liah merchant, Hull. Xlie vessel, along with others, 
won contracted for by tho firm mentioned, and the work is now 
behiR linisiied by Mesars, Cochrane A C'lMjiior. of Bcverlev, on 
belialf of the owner. Tlie vessel is ll.> ft. in length, -Jl ft. 
brood, aiMl 11 ft. 'i in. deep. She will be registercl lOU X\ at 
Llovd's. and will have triple-expansion engiiicH by Mussrs. 
Anderson * Co.. Pollokshav.-s. 

Irllhnaa.— ''In April '22nd the Irvine Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Limited, Irvine, laimchcJ n steol screw- 
al«amcr of 250 tons deadweight, to the order of Messrs. John 
Kennedy ii Suns, Glasgow. The \-cssel has bi.<cn buill for the 
owners' "coasting trade, her dimensions being TJII ft, by 21 ft. 
r> in. by 9fl. <• in. Messrs. ^luir <V IIoui<ton, Limited, Glasgow, 
are iiui)iilving mnchineri- of tlic c.s.c. tyi>o. having cylinders 
Hi in. anil :vl in. by 22-iii. stroke, with a large steel boiler 
working at l!IU lbs. pressure. The ^-enscl was named Iriahiinin. 



iMi Bftlvadw. — On April 24th there was launched at Por^ 
' Glasgow a steel schooner-rigged ateamer, of about 1,360 toill 
' gross, named the San Baleador. 

8t«et florev SUftmer.— On April 24th Mesua Russell & Co., 
I Port-Ulaagow, launched a steel screw-ateamer of the partial 

 awning-deck type to their own account. The dimensions are : — 
Length, 237 ft.; breadth, 34 ft. 6in. ; depth, 17 ft. 6 in. This 
steamer hoa been built to Lloyd's highest class, and is specially 

. constructed for the Baltic and light-draught trade. Messrs. 
Kincsid & Co., Greenock, will supply the machinery, the 
I cylinders being 17) in., 28) in., and 4^ in. by 33 in. stroke. 

Bqnklor, Erne, and BmolatoP.— On April 24Cli Messrs. 
I Mai'kie & Thomson launched from their yard at Oovan the 
I E'jiiator, Srne, and Emylalor. steam trawlers, of IGO tons each, 

 for the Great Northern Steamship Fishing Co., Hull. 
, The vesaela will be fitted with triple-expansion engines by 

Me^rs. Muir it Houston, Kinning Park, Glasgow. 

LakonlA.— On April 24th the London and Glasgow Engineer- 
ing and Sliipbuildiiig Co.. Limited, launched at Govan a large 
steel scrcw-Ht:amer for Messrs. Donaldson Brothers' Canadian 
cattle and cargo trade. This is the second steamer the firm has 
built for Messrs. Donaldson Brothers within the last two years. 
Tlie dimenaions of the vessel are :— 401 ft. 9 in. by 49 ft. by 31 tt. 
moulded, with poop, bridge, upper bridge, and topgallant fore- 
castle ; she is classed 100 Al tliree-deck rule at Lloyd's, and has 
Board of Trade passenger certificate. She is designed to carry 
over 7,000 tons deadweight, with a groaa tonnage of about 4,700 
tons, and ia litt«d with all the most modern appliances for 
handling cargo, iSc, including 10 powerful steam winches. The 
upiier deck throughout is fitted for cattle, and the main deck is 
arranged so tliat it also can be used for cattle. The steam 
wtticlies arc placed on platforms raised sufliciently Iiigh above 
tlic uptier deck to keep tliom clear of the cattle. The after 
'tween decks are divided into four refrigerating chambers lor 
the carriage of Canadian iloiry produce, frozen meat, Ac. Besides 
having a double boltoni on the cellular system, all fore and aft. 
thereisahirgechaniber tank abaft the engine-room holding about 
TOO tons, and the forcand aft [x^aka are also fitted for water ballast. 
The captain, ofltccrs, and engineers are berthed on the bridge 
deck, also the anloon and liEiBSengera' accommodation. A new 
feature in this steamer is that all tho crew, firemen, and cattle- 
men are berthed on the after port of bridge deck in sidehouses, 
which, besides being more comfortable quarters for the men, 
enables all tho space on upper deck to be utilised for cattle, 
there being space for nearly 600 on this deck alone. Another 
siiecitti feature of tho i-essei ia the ventilation, numerous cowle 
being distributed throughout the ship to thoroughly ventilate 
the holds and 'tween decks, and tliere ia also a steam fan fitted 
for circulating the air in the 'tween decks, and everythisg luM 
been arranged for passing the American and British regnUtioni 
for carrying cattle and grain, including shifting boards, itc. The 
propelling mochinory. which is supplied by the builders, con- 
KistK of one set of triple -expansion engines having cylinders 
2^ in.. 47 in., 7'i in. diameter by 54 in. stroke. Steam is 
supplied by three single-ended boilers constructed for a work- 
ing pressure of 170 lbs., and fitted with Howden's system of 
forcLil draught. A large auxiliary bailer is also fitted for sup- 
plying steam to winches. >tc. As the vessel left the ways she 
wns gracefully named Liikvniu by Mrs. M'Leod. of Glasgow. 

City of Abftrdeen. — On April 2l'>tli there was Uunched at 
-^iHTtiecn, for Captain Spence, of Aberdeen, a steel steam ketch, 
of abont 11)2 tons gross, named tlie City of Aberdeen . 

AnaiOMllU.— On April 37th Measrft. David 3. Dunlop rl Co., 
engineers and sliipbuildcrs, Inch Works, Fort- Glasgow, launched 
from tlieir yard at high water the above-named ateel s 



breadth, moulded, 40 It. 1 
'ill ft. ; groaa tonnage, alK 
built under Lloyd's sjwcial survey to obtain their highest class 
as a "spar deck'" steamer, and is to the order of Meoars. B. 
Singlehurst & Co., of Liverpool, for their well-known trade, het 
coiiitruction ha\ ing bean carefully supervised on behalf of the 
owners by Messrs. George Hupbnrn A Son, Liverpool, and Mr, 
iKoacH, owners' marine superintendent. The erections over the 



June 1, lS99.] 



THE MABINB ENGINEEB. 



137 



in solid polished oak framing, with all the latest commodities 
and staterooms, bathrooms, pantries, lavatories, &c., for accom- 
modation of first-class passengers. On top of this deckhouse is 
fitted a large teak honse, in uliich commodious rooms are fitted 
for captain, and charthonse, over which again the flying bridge 
is built. The erections over after part of bridge deck, as well as 
the poop deck, have been adapted lor locating the boats and life- 
saving appUsnces. Ample provision has been mode for the 
accommocfation of the engineers and officers, as well as the 
crew ; and the oatlit of the steamer includes Hairs patent stock- 
less anchors for stowing in the hawse pipes. Emerson & Walker's 
steam windlass, warping capstan aft, and five steam winches by 
Dnnlop, Bell & Co., 10 cargo derricks, and si^ecial portable 
derrick, and all gear for same, callable of handling 35 tons, at 
fore and main niuHts. The steering gear is a special feature in 
the vessel's fittings, this bemg furnished by Messrs. Fawcett, 
Preston & Co.. of Liverpool, and of Oglethorpe's hydraulic 
type, with Ilastie's screw gear on poop, Wailes, Dove A- Co.'s 
patent bitumastic solution in bunkers and peaks, Bruce's outfit 
of compasses and nautical iuKtruments. complete installation of 
electric light by Holmes, of Newcastle ; in fact, all the most 
modern and approved apx)IiancoH for the safe and speedy work- 
ing of the vessel have been adopted. After the launch the vesftel 
was moored alongside the builders* wharf to receive her 
machinery, tVc, which consists of one set of triple-expansion 
engines, having cylinders 22^ in., 37 in., and 00 in. diameter, 
and 45 in. length of stroke, tlTe steam for which is sup])lied by 
one large single-ended l>oiler 1(> ft. 3 in. diameter by 11 ft. d iii. 
long, all proportioned for a working pressure of 'l^)U lbs. [)cr 

Suare inch. The boiler is fitted with forced draught on 
owden's latest principle. Boiler feed pumps are supplied by 
G. dr J. Weir, Limited, while the cvai)orator, feed heater, feed 
water filter, and ballast pumps are all supplied by the LiveriK)ol 
Engineering Co. In addition, a large marine type donkey- 
boiler is fitted to provide steam for deck machinery. The 
launch was witnessed by a large company of lollies and gentle- 
men. Amongst those i)resent were Mr. Isaacs, Mr. George 
Hepburn, and Captain Uughes, representing the owners, and 
Mr. Dnnlop the builders. The naming ceremony was most 
gracefully i>erformed by Mrs. William Isaacs. The new steamer 
will be commanded by Captain Hughes, who has had long 
experience in the ser\'ice of the owners. 

Alabmma. — On April 28th Messrs. Charles Connell tS: Co. 
lanncuhed at Whiteinch the steel screw - steamer Ahihama, 
which they have built to the order of Messrs. Robert MacKill 
A Co., for the Unite<l Steamship Co., of Copenhagen. The 
dimensions of the vessel are : — Length. 37o ft. ; breadth. 50 ft. ; 
depth, 28 ft. 6 in., moulded, with a deadweight capacity of about 
7,000 tons. She has been built to Lloyd's highest class, with a 
cellnlar donble bottom right fore-and-aft for water ballast, and 
ia fitted with all the latest appliancxis for the rapid and efficient 
working of ship and cargo. The engines, constructed by 
Messrs. David Rowan iV (.'o., of Glasgow, are of the triple- 
expansion type, having cylinders 25 in., 41 in., and 07 in. by 
48 in. stroke, with two single-ended boilers. 

Baldanha da Oamt. — On April 2Hth there was laundied 
from Fanmnre Shipyard, Dundee, a screw-steamer for Brazilian 
owners, and intended for the cattle -carrying trade on the 
Amazon. She has been named Saldanha da Gmmi, and is 170 ft. 
long, 2(>ft. 6 in. broad, and 12 ft. Oin. deep, with a gross 
tonnage of COO tons. 

Orafoivald.—On April 20th Messrs. William Hamilton A 
Co. laanched from their Glen Yard, Port - Glasgtnv. a steel 
•crew-steamer, for Messrs. LunniV ^laccoy, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
for the general and Kasteni trade. The dimensions of the 
venel are: — Length between iK'r|)endicularH, 330ft.; breadth. 
45ft. 6in.; depth, moulded, 20ft. Oin., with iM.K)p, bridge. 
upper bridge, and topgallant forecastle ; and slie is (biassed at 
liloyd's 100 Al. She is designed to carry over 5,400 tons 
deadweight on a comparatively light draught of water, with a 
net registered tonnage under 2,100, and a gross tonno^'e of 
8,400. The propelling machinery, which is being supplied by 
Measrs. David Rowan A Co., of Glasgow, consists of one set C)f 
triple-expansion engines, having cylinders 24 in , 40 in., and 
Mm. diameter respectively, by 42 in. stroke. Steam is supplied 
by two large boilem constructed for a working pressure of 
180 Ibe. Ab the vessel left the ways she was named the Croff •«- 
Widd by HiM Hettie Maccoy, of Newcastle. 

fvatflMlibu — On Apnl 29th Messrs. Caird A Co., sliii • 
Wlderit y^f^ffM*^ at Greenock the steel twin-screw steamer 



Guatemala for the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. The 
vessel, which is of 3,500 tons gross, is of the following 
dimensions :~ 359 ft. in length, 43 ft. broad, and 22 ft. 6 in. deep, 
and will be engined by the builders. 

Tankallon Castle.— On May 6th there was launched by 
Messrs. John Scx>tt & Co. at Abden W^orks, Kinghorn, the first 
of the two paddle steamers for the Galloway Saloon Steam 
Packet Co. The vessel is designed and constructed te 
obtain a No. 3 Board of Trade certificate (passenger), which 
enables her to sail between Leith and Dundee, or on to Berwick 
and Newcastle. Her dimensions are :— 210 ft. long between 
perpendiculars by 25 ft. Warn, and 55 ft. wide over sponsons, by 
8 ft. in. depth, moulded, to main deck and lit ft. 6 in. to 
promenade deck. The promenade deck extends 145 ft. fore and 
aft by the full width of the vessel. Every part of this deck is 
available for i>as8engers except the portion taken up with the 
two funnels and ticket office. There are no oyienings from end 
to end on this deck, the sponsons having been taken advantage 
of to contain the stairs (four in num1)er) leading between the 
main and the promenade deck. The portion of the main deck 
abaft the machinery has been taken up with the first-class main 
saloon, wliich extends the full width of the vessel. The smoke- 
room is forward of engine and boiler space. Attention has been 
given to the dining accommo<lation, the first-class under the 
main saloon, and the second-class under smoke-room, each fitted 
witli a large bar and pantry. Alongside of the enguie and 
boiler casing on either side, and extending from front of main 
saloon to front of smoke-room, are covered-in alleways, which 
will prove a great lx»on to passengers in case of st<»rmy weather, 
and will be sure to be taken advantage of. The mam engines 
are of tlie diagonal compound surface -condensing of 1,H00 1.H.P. ; 
the boilers work under forced draught on the close- stokehole 
principle, and desipied to proi)el the vessel at a mean speed of 
17 knots. As the vessel left the ways for her native element 
she was gracefully christened the Tantalhn Cattle by Mrs. 
Aitken, wife of the chairman, and, as is usual with vessels 
built by John Scott iV Co., she immediately steamed off on her 
preliminary trial trip. 

Calohai.— On May Hth Messrs. Scott A- Co. launched at 
Greenock the screw-steamer CaZc/ia*, for the Ocean Steamship 
Co., Liverpool. Dimensions :— Length, 441 ft.; breadth, 
52 ft. in. ; depth, 30 ft. 3 in. : of 0,7<»3 tons gross, with a carry- 
ing capacity of H,2(K) tons. The builders will supply triple- 
exjxinsion enguies of 4,2(K> I.H.P. 

Pafif.— On May 9th the Irvine Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., Limited, launched from their yard at^ Irvine a steel 
screw -steamer of about 7.'»0 tons deadweight, to tlie order of 
Messrs. B. P. Hutchison, (ilasgow. The vessel has been built 
to Lloyd's 100 Al «lass under 8i>ecial survey, and has been 
specially designed to meet the recpiiremenls of the owners. 
Continental tra<le. her dimensions being 180 ft. between per- 
pendiculars by 27 ft. in., by 14 ft. moulded ; water ballast ia 
fitted in holds, and fore-amd -after peak tanks, and the vessel is 
supplied with steani-stoeriiig gear, direct-acting steam windlass . 
and capstan combined, ami powerful deck machinery for the 
sjK^dy handling of cargo. This vessel is a duplicate in design 
of tlie s.s. Hector built last year by the same firm for Messrs. 
Hutchison. The machinery and boilers are being supplied by 
Messrs. Hutson tV Son, Limited, Kelvinhaugh, Glasgow. The 
vessel on leaving the ways was gracefully named Pari» by Mrs. 
Gaff, Woodstow. Maxwell Park. Glasgow. 

Bavarian.— On May 11th Messrs. William Denny A" 
Brothers launched at Dumbarton a twin-screw steamer of 
10,200 tons, for Messrs. James it A. Allan, of Glasgow. The 
vessel, which is by far the lar>,'est in the company's fieet, is 520 
feet long over all, .59 ft. in beam, and 43 ft. deep. She has 
lxH?n designed to meet tlie latest requirements of the Allan 
Line's Canadian trade. The hull is built of steel to the require- 
ments of the Board of Tnule for foreign-goin;: pas-mnger 
hteamers, and the construction and design have been under the 
s^HM-iul survey, and with the scantlings required by the British 
Corporatitni for their highest closs. When completetl. the 
vessel will have accoinmtKlation for alx)ut l(i2 first-class jwissen- 
gers in the fore-end of the bridge, and on the bridge deck, 13<; 
second-class in after-part of bridge and on upper deck omid- 
ships, and 200 third rhisi in upi^^r deck aft. The engines and 
boilers are being supplied by Messrs. Denny A* Co., and consists 
of two sets of triple-expansion engines, and a set of singleeuded 
boilers. The vessel was named Bafariau by Mrs. Bryce 
Allan. 




'^^ 



138 



THE 



ENQINEEB 



[June 1, 1S99. 



Taymouth.— On May 12th Messrs. Gourlay Brothers launched 
at Dundee the first of two steam trawlers which they have built 
for the Tay Trawling Co. The vessel, which is built to the 
highest class at Lloyd's, under special survey, is 105 ft. Ionj», 
20 ft. broad, 11 ft. deep, and her gross tonnage is i:M tons. The 
machinery consists of a set of triple-exiMinsion engincf> and one 
large single-ended l)oiler. The vessel was christened Taymouth 
by Mrs. Kobert Cook, wife of the managing director of the 
€ompauy. 

Pervi.— On May 12th Messrs. Wm. Simons tVr Co.. Limited, 
launched complete from their works at Renfrew the first of 
two powerful dredging vessels, wliich they have constructed 
to undertake extensive dredging operations in connection with 
the improvement of Port Arthur and Tallenwan. The vessel 
has been built under the direction of Mr. Totshyski. insix^cting 
engineer, assisted by Mr. Johnson. The dreilger. in addition to 
being provided with a chain of buckets for disoliarging into 
barges alongside, is fitted witli a sand suction pump, also with a 
mud discharging 2)ump ; to which is attached fully 2.000 ft. of 
shore discharging pipes, carried on floating ixmtoons, having 
flexible joints. The vessel is capable of dredging and discharg- 
ing 1,000 tons of spoil per hour, and of working to a depth of 
■40 ft. below the water level. Two pair of comiwund surface- 
condensing engines are fitted for propelling the vessel at a ai^ed 
of seven knots per hour. It is constructed in accordance with 
the rules of Bureau Veritas for the highest class for a vessel of 
this type. Electric light installati«)n is provided for working 
day and night. A repairing room is also fitted on board with 
turning lathe, drilling and planing machine. A'c. As the vessel 
left the ways she was named Pervi by Mrs. Walter Brown, 
Munkd} ke, Renfrew. 

KInfanns Castle.— On May 12th the Fairfield Shipbuilding 
and Engineering Co.. Limited, Govau, Glasgow. launche<l the 
Kinfaunn C(title. The vessel is built with a straight stem 
and elliptical stern, a very long forecastle, and a promenade 
deck and i)oop extending alwut four-fifihs of the length of the 
vessel. U nder the promenade deck is a central house !♦ ft. high, 
leaving a passage at the ship's side. Eight ft. »J in. alx)ve the 
promenade deck is a boat deck with deck-house, and on this 
deck provision is made for carrying the lifel)oats. The vessel is 
uilt of steel throughout to the retiuirements of the Bfiurd of 
Trade for a foreign-going passenger steamer, also under sj)ecial 
survey, and with scantlings, as required by Lloyd's latest rules 
for the 100 Al class. A cellular doulilc-bottom* is fitted the full 
length of the ship, and the holds are subdivided into sepanite 
comiiartments by watertight bulkheads, which are arranged and 
constructed so as to meet the recommendation'* of the Bulkhead 
Connnittoe, with a double collision bulkhead fitted forward. All 
the decks are i)lated and sheathed with teak. The Kiufanus 
Ca.<th will have two large funnel**, each llo ft. long, anil 15 ft. 
by 11 ft. diameter, and three raking-i>«»le masts, fore-and-aft 
fichooner-rigged. Her dimension** are as folKnvs : — Length, 
over all, 532 ft. 'A in. ; length on water line, olo ft. ; breadth, ex- 
treme, 5',» ft. H in. : depth, moulded, :W ft. 1» in. The gross ton- 
nage is alnjut 11.700 and the LH.r. alwut 10.000. When com- 
pleted the vessel will contain lU'cunnnodation for about 300 first- 
class passengers, Ix-rthed amidships : ir.O second-class, berthed 
aft ; and about "JOo third-class, herlhod forward. The sanitary 
accomnuxlation and lavatories throughout the vessel have 
received RiHJcial c«»nsidoration, and are of the latest and most 
api>rove<l description. The venlilati«>n has been carefully 
Ktudie<l. and a most complete '*y>teni ailopted. Electricity is 
bnuight to lx?ar in ventilating the >:\lo<»us, corridors, and sleei>ing 
cabins in Iwtween decks, by means of a large number of electric 
fans. A continue uis water service will be sup])lied throughout 
the shij). A complete installation of electric liiiht is l>eing 
arranged on Uwrd, the generating plant consisting of throe in- 
dc^iendent sets (if engines and dynamos. Electric bells will 1h» 
fitted to the sleeping cabins antl j-aloun'*. A large refrigerating 
])lant is also to l>e fitted on lM>ard. and sj>e(ially insulated 
chambers will Ih> provided for the supply of lueat, fish, 
pcmltry, vegetables, milk, fruit. Ac. The cargo hatches 
will l)e equip])ed with steam wiiuhes fur the rai)id han<lling 
of cargo, an additional steam wiiu-li lieingalso fitted for the 
jmrpose of hoisting the boats, of which sixteen are 
provi<led, in addition to a full outfit of life-saving appliances and 
all othiir details required by tlie Board of Trade Passengers 
Act. The steam steering engine is placed aft on the i)oop 
f/ec'/c, enrJosod in a house and controlled from the navi- 
^atiijf; bridge, aho the reserve hand gear and steering wheels. 



i 



A large steam windlase with frictional brakes and catwtaii 
will be fitted on the forecastle deck, adapted for the cables. 
which are 21 in. in diameter. There arc four heavy anchors 
made of nickel steel and of Hall's patent stockiess pattern. Two 
powerful steam-warping capstans with separate engines are 
placed on tlie poop deck. Some idea of the dimensions 
of the ship may l)e gathered from the fact that a walk half- 
a-dozen times round the promenade deck means about a mile. 

In order to minimise rolling, deep plate bilge keels are fitted, 
and tliese with the centre bar keel— having together a side area 
of 7-50 square feet— will ensure greater comfort for passengers 
by re<lucing very considerably the angle of roll in bad weather. 
* The propelling machinery consists of two sets of four-cylinder, 
four-crank quadrup1e-exi>ansion engines, balanced on the 
Yarrow-Schlick-Tweedy system. 

This tyixj of machinery! with a boiler pressure of 210 lbs. per 
square inch, ensures great economy of fuel, combined with 
minimum vibration of the ship. The engines are designed to 
run at a high piston speed, with large bearing surfaces, and 
comimratively light reciprocating parts. The sliafting is of 
Whitworth steel throughout, and the working parts are forged 
from ingot steel, the principal bolts being specially annealed. 
The main condensers of galvanised steel plate are elliptical in 
section. They are placed close to the ship's side, and do notform 
part of the framing of the engines. In this and several other 
resi^ects the machinery com^Mires favourably, as regards weigfat. 
with the t v|Xi of engine usually fitted in mail steamers. The pis- 
tons are of Whitworth steel, and, to carry out the balancing of the 
engines as accurately as {)ossible, they were turned down to the 
correct weight after the other reciprocating parts were finished 
and weiglie<l. The pro^jellers arc of bronze with cBSt steel bosses. 
Every care has been taken to combine with the highest class 
of material and workmanship all details which experience 
has proved to Xte necessary to obtain freedom from break- 
down on a long ocean riln. Two iwwerful independent 
centrifugal pumping engines are fitted in the engine room, 
and are so arranged that both main condensci's can be circu- 
lated by either pump in the event of a breakdown of 
the other. Each of these pumps has a si)ecial bilge sac- 
tion connection, so that, in tlie event of a serious leak above 
the double iMjttom, both can Ih? used for pumi)ing out the ship. 
The discharges from these and all other pumjw are below toe 
water line, toa\oid spray being carried into the stateroom side 
i:K)rts. Three lai-ge steam pumps are fitted si)ecially for hot bath, 
cold bath, sanitary, and fire service purposes. The fire service 
mains from these pum^nt are carried right fore and aft on 
the weather deck, and also in the passenger 'tween decks, 
with connections for hose at the necessary points. Very 
s(>eciAl plant is provided, entirely in duplicate, for e\'aporatiQn 
and distillation. The total output of pure cool drinking water 
from this installation is 13.000 gallons i>er day. Combined with 
the fresh-water supply throughout the ship there is a com- 
)>lete installation of filt<!rs of the Berkfeld type, which ensure 
absolute immunity not only from ordinary impurities held in- 
susjMMision, but from disease organisms being carried by the 
water. 

For the refrigeration of ship's provisions and the carrying ot 
fruit or other cargo, a i>owerful duplex CO.* machine is fitted in 
combination with six large insulated cold chambers. There 
are also lardei*s. wine and mineral water coolers in every bar, 
and (^K)le<l water drinking fountains throughout the ship. 

The electric light and (Hiwer installation is on a considerable 
scale. In addition to nearly 1.000 lights in the ship, there are 
2fi motor-<lriven blowing and exhausting fans (20 of which axe 
each culpable of passing 3.400 cubic feet of air per minute) 
for sending air down to the engine-room and stokeholds, and for 
extracting vitiated air from the iKissenger 'tween decks. Electric 
lifts are employed for hoisting ashes in {x>rt when the hydzo- 
]>neumatic ejectors are not in usi>. Motors are also freely used 
throughout the ship for working roasting ovens, for knilb 
cleaning, coffee grinding, hair brusliing, A'C. For signalling in 
fog an electrically c^^ntrolled steam whistle is fitted, wUidi is 
autonuitically sounded at the rt>quire<l inter\'als of time by a 
clock control. For crnnmunicating between the navigatintf 
bridge and the enginc-rcK)m, and other imrts of the ship, loii£ 
s^K-'aking teIe))hones arc fitted. The attendance at the lanndi 
was exceptionally large. Lady Georgina IIome-Drumnoond 
l)erfonneii the launching ceremony. 

Barrow Cattle. -On May 13th the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co^ 
Troon, launched from their yard a steel screw-steamer, wliieh 
they have built for Messrs. Kobert M'Cowen Sc Bona, TralBe,for- 



r 



Jime I, l&t9.] 



THE UABIKE ENGIBEEB. 



1S9 



tha gansiml- eoBsting timde. Ths diinensioiis are:— Leiigth 
bat«a«i pApendicnluB, 145 ft. ; bteadtli, moulded, 29 tt. in. ; 
4epth, moDlaed, 11 ft. ; and cknying capaclCy 400 tons. Com- 
poDiid enginea vith cylinders IH in. and Hrs in. by 37 in., arc 
Mingsui^Iied by MWsch. Dunsmuir dt Jackson. Govnii. The 
nomlug ceremony traa [M^rformed by Mi's. Jackson, iv-ho named 
the fenel Barraic Ca-ifr. 

TsBtarc. — On Stay ISth Uie Caledou Shipbuilding tiiid 
EniUneeriiig Co.. Limited. Dundee, launched a Bteel twin- 
screw steamer ti> be employed in the oil trade on the Cnspian 
Sea. Her ilimenBions are :— Length, 2-35 ft. ; breadth. 32 ft. ; 
depth, lit ft. ; carrying cBiacJty, l.-'itX) tons. Tlie vessel has 
been built to the order of Sir Christopher I'lirnesa, London and 
West Hartle|iool. tor Messrs. Alfr^ Stuart \- Co., London, and 
111* been named I'tnture. 

Dnadalh.- On Uay 16lh tlieve was lamithed by Messrs. A. 
A J. In|>)is. at Pointhonse, on the Clyde, a twin-screw ateainur 
(or the Dundnlk and Kewi-y Steam Packet Co.'s Li\er])(vil 
Mr%'ice. The vessel naa named the Diimlalk by Mrs. Brown, 
daughter of tliu chairman of the company. 

811%to.— On Mav 20th there was lamithed from the yard of 
the Campbeltown' Shipbuilding Co. the Eeconil of two steel 
acrew-steamers. bnilt Co the order of the Bristol Slcam Naviga- 
tion Co. The vei5(=el, which is of 2,000 tons deadweight, anil Itas 
leen built to the highest class at T.loyd's, is intended for Con- 
tinental trading, bho will bo cngined on tlie<.'l\de. On leav- 
ing the wavs the steamer was gracefully named .Vil' in by Mrs. 
Peter Mac hay. 

Dnclicia of Fife.— Lately there was launched from tile works 
«f tho ( lydebank Engineering it Shiiibnilding Co., Clydeliank, 
the paddle HteainotDi.c/ii«»iti/'ift,de«igneil for the ji>int eer- 
^ice of the London A Pouth-Weston and London, Drigliton it 
South Coast lUilwav Co.'s between Southamjiton and the Isle 
otWight. Theves^iis 21Sft. long, 2Uft. broad, and lOft. 
deep. The proiielUiig machinery is of the comjiound -diagonal 
direct -act Lug type, with two cylindrical boilers, working at a 
Bteam presRure of ISOlkpcr square iticli. All the aaxiliury 
machinery is of exceptional power, and of the nmst modern 
tvpe. The laimching ceremony was jxsrfonneil by Miss Brown, 
Slighter ol Mr. It. Brown, the marine KU|)erintendenl of the 
joint compaiiieB at Portsmouth. The vessel will Ix' placed on 
the aommer cxcarsion service immediately r>n delivery. She 
hftsbeen built to comi>ly with Board of Trade requirements as 
Mgarda hull, machinery' and equipment. 

Slbs.— On May 34tl) Messrs. lUinoge & Ferguson, Limited' 
Ii^th, laouchcd a atoel screw-steamer, built to the onler of 
MeaerB. James Currio >t Co., Lcith. for tlieir general cargo 
timde. The principal dimensions of this vessel are ; — f^nglh, 
2S5 ft. by 33 It! 3 in. beam, by l>i ft. 11) in. defith. uiouhlcd ; 
>nd the engines are triple-exiiansion, with rylmders IH^ in., 
30 in., and 411 in. diameter, hv 3,1 in. stroke, steam being "up- 
plied from a large hinglo-cnded boiler, working up to liJS Ins. 
preasnte. The steamer has been built to the liighcst clum, at 
Lloyd's and has all the moot modem improvcmeutH foi' working 
^rgo: On leaving the wavs. tlie vessel was named kllHi by 
3Ir«. Crawford, fll. StirUng' Koail. Trinity; and sul>se<illeiitly 
the bnildera entertained a conipany to lunch, including Mr. 
Jamea Currie, Mr. James t'lirrie. jun.. Mr. A. Currie. Mr. 
Cmwford, and others, when the toasts nsnal on Kiich occufions 
were duly proposed and honoured. This is the twelfth hleamer 
laanchea by the same firm for Messm. James Currie >V Co. 



LAUNCHES.— Cbiiii IS. 
faxonlk. — Cn Aprilltlth there was laimche<l by the rieii^bnrg 
Shipbuilding Co. thea.s. SotOK^a. asteelM.'rew n'tcanicriirHlniiit 
6,000 tons, built to the order of tlio Iluniburg .American Line. 
The veasel, which is constructed to Gcmiim Tilovd'H chiss lIMi 
Al, ia 414 ft. I! in. long, 4U ft. r, in. broad by LD ft', ih in. depth. 
nunUded, with long poop and to])giillHnt furecHstle. A full 
equipment is fitted of the most efiiciunt nmcliiiicry tor n rnpiil 



Icwduig ma 
iatxo&Ah 



d for the trial Hamburg-East- 1 
lion for oflloerB la placed in a deckhouse on ti>i) of pi>i<]i, 
tUpa. Her engines, of I.HOO H.P., will also be Imilt L 
flnubiirg BhipbnildinB Co. As the vessel left the wa; 
waa named Atronia by Miss £ma Lem|icliuB. 



beam, 31 ft. ; depth, moulded, 8 ft. 6 in. The Taaael ia built on 
tlio self-trimming system patent of Mr. Brededorff, mauagiuff 
director of the Flensburg Shipbuilding Co. The advantagMcS 
bhiiM bnilt according to this systvin are that they take a foil 
cargo of coals and grain without any trimming, and that it is 
impossible for the i;argo Co shift, which isof the greatest import- 
ance. The lighters arc intended for trade Iietwceii the new 
free port of Coixniliogen and all Baltic [lortu. There are live 
other barges on this svstem under conHtruction for the same 
comiwiiy, Det Danske l)ami)er og I.o'gter Co. 



TRIAL TRIPS. 



Seapolut.—On April 2'2nd the bs. Seapoini proceetled dovn 
tliaCI\dc for her trial trip, I1te Sei-poinl is a flnc screw steamer 
of the' ntisod qutrter-deck type and conHtmcted with tlie moat 
re^nt improvements ueccssarv fur the modern coaAtiiig trade. 
She has been built by the wl-II- known timi of S. McKnight * 
Co., Limited, of Ayr, for Messrs. Joseph Fisher A Bona, of 
Sewry, Thedimensioua of the wannl are; — 173ft. by 36ft. 
Gin. by 13 ft. moulded, and she iscaiwbloof carrying consider' 
ably over 700 tons deadweight ni) a very small register, while 
at the some timelier capa4.'ity in such as to enable the dead' 
weight to bo stowed at the rate of nearly SO cubic feet to the 
ton. The Sfaiioiiil has been conutmctcd to tlio highest class at 
Lloj-d's under special Kur\^y. She 1ms cellular double bottom 
fur water ballast throughout t!ie whole length of lliu hold, and 
her lottom geiici-nlly is specially stmiig for li>:uling aground. 
Powerful steam-steering gear is li[(e<l mi the bridge amidships, 
also iiowY>TtulHtcam winches for the iiiiick hniuUing of cargo. 
She has a large nidiler, aiulaH|>ecial featiireof the trial was tlie 
facility with which she was steered, thisbeinganoceasityforthe 
o>v)iers' trade wlieu inssiug up canulH. On the measured mile 
at SkelmorlicHix runs were taken, and a mean sjieed of 3'79i 
knots was attained, the vessel at the lime being fully loaded 
niiil ill seagoing trim. The machinery has lieeii snjmlied by 
Messrx. McKieiBaxter. engiiicera. UoVaii, and has also been 
coiiHtnictcd nnder Lloyil s nilcH for the highest class. ItconHiuta 
of a set of cinnpouud surface condensing engines, cylinders 
Ittin. and 44 in. by 30in. stroke, supplied witli steam'froman 
extra large horizontal return luLo marine t,v]ie toiler. The 
workiiiauship is oltlic higlicst class throughout and during tho 
trial the machinery worked exceedingly satisfui'Inrily, After 
completion of tliesjievd Ac. trinlHillievcMiel proceeded ou her 
maiilen voyage to Newry. 

Vontfort.— On Ajiril SI'ith the n.n. Manlfarl built by Palmers 
Shi|i)>uililing A Iron Co.. Limited, to tliu order ut Messrs. Elder, 
UuiiiliHicrA (.'o.. of Liverpool lof whicli we gave full particulars 
ill our Launch columns. Iklarcli issue, jmge .U4|. was token to 
sen tor her oHieiul steam trials: during which the engines 
worked in u higlilv I'atisfiicti.'iy iiiumicr nt T'.l revolutions ];er 
minute, and a men'n spml of l'^:-!''!' knots wiis attained ou the 
measured mile. 

SeoundA.— On WedneMbiy. April 2lith. the Flcnsburg Ship- 
building Co. sent out for trial trip the new steamer Stemula, 
which they luive built for the Flcnsliurger lianiptncliilTfalirts- 
Cioaellscluift von IHIKI rof which we gave iHutii^ilars in our 
IauiicH columiiB. April issue. page41). Herenginesot 2iM) H.P. 
gave the vessel an average s|ieed of KIM knotB, Two large 
I'lilci^ working at a pressure of 10^) llu. gii-es the steam. After 
tlic trial the steamer proi'cttk-il to Bh 111. wheie she will load her 
lirst cargo. 

liredale.— On April 'Jtlch the tine steel screw -stiiimcr .liiyrfoff, 
biiiU by Messrs. AViii. Oniy X Co., Limited, to the order of dio 
r^nidon (t- Northern Slcumsliii) Co.. Limited, lAindon (Messrs, 
I'ynmn Brothers, moimgcrsl, loft West IInrtIe]H>i>l for her trial 
trip. Tlie Airrdate is n lirat'i^l«SB cargo vessel, built to Lloyd^ 
highest claes. anil is of the folliiwing dimensions ; — r.inigtli inft 
all. 341 ft. : breadth. 47 ft. : depth. 21 ft. 10 in. Tlie onginen 
arc of the t'entml Marine Engine Wuiks usual triple'cxjiansinn 
tyiw, having cylinders H in , Hm in. and III in. in diameter, with 
42 in. piston stroke, and two large steel luiilcrs working at  
pressure of 170 llis. per siiiiare inch. Tlw vessel and her 
machinery liave been built miller the sujierinienilencc of Ur. 
lAr'm. Bircliby. and that gentleman, together with Captain 
Murrell, from the shipyard, and Mr, W. C. Borrowtnaa, Cc««& 



112 



THE MARINE ENGINEEB. 



"v ^"'-J ' 



tJm»i;ia99;' 



volamc for us to learn from, much that we can admire, much 
that will give us food for rellcction. We feel that we are taught 
aomethiiig of the rcaliticH and suiferings of war, and of the 
causes which led to the deBtruction of Spanish rule in Cuba 
from the volume before us. Whatever may have been done 
with, or to, Lieut. HoImou after his return to his native shoreH, 
we do not know. Whut the newspaiwrs over thert said, is here 
no business of ours. ^Vll we can do is to take the man as we 
find him. In tlui }>n^cK of his Ixiok he api)ears as a modest, 
thoughtful, and obKervunt mim. One, in fact, of the class of men 
whose self-dcninl and patriotism acting upon a mind and a 
physique trained in g(xxl schotjls, al)oundcd in the American 
forces and ho niade it easy for good officers to wix)e out an 
inferior enemy.' 

Tlic marine ciijiiiieer will Ikj interested especially in the 

* earlier part of the volume. We lire told how the obstruction of 
the Santiago channel by the sinking in it of a big steam collier 
was determined upon. We learn how, when the Merrimav was 
chosen for the sacrifice?, which makes her famous, her oflicers 
were found at mess and were naturally incredulous at the state- 
ment tliat that night she was to be sunk under the guns of t he 
enemy's tieet. The discussiiui of the best mode of securing her 
sixiody foundering at the proper moment is instructive. Three 
suggestions seem to have l)een made. The lirst was the boldest. 
It was no other than to loosen a plate in each compartment <»f 
the ship by cutting off the rivet he*ids, and to leave nothing to 
keep the skin in ix)sition but the external pressure of the water. 
At the right time, an explosion caiMible of overcoming this 
external resistanrc was to be provided. This plan, however, had 
to be discarded because of the length of time which the rivet- 
cutting would necessarily occupy. Then were considered the 
relative merits of internal and external explosions for the same 
puri)Ose. Eventually the laying of internal toriiedoes. to be 
actuated by a liattery, was decided uixm. The work of strii)ping 
the ship, and of preparing her for the purj^se for which she 
was selected, however, took longer than was anticipated, and the 
stripping, if not complete in every detail, was sufficient to 
throw great dit^iculties in the way of those who were to risk 
their lives in the ship. Too much time was lost, and after the 
vohmteers hail actually started upon their perilous mission, they 
were recalled by signal. W'e can well believe that a severe re- 
action followed, and that the twenty-four hours that intervened 
before the attempt could be renewed were trying indeed to 
those concerned. When at last the rush was made the attempt 
failed in so far as the channel was not blocked. Two causes 
contributed to this result. One was that the fire of the 
Spaniards cut away the steering chains, the other was the slow- 
ness with which the ship actually went down, in spite of all that 
those <»n board —aided bv the lire of the enemv — could do. The 
Mnriviiic was carried by the tide down, instead of across, the 
channel. The chagrin of the Lieutenant as he with his handful 
of men clung through the summer night to a floating raft 
attached to the wreck can well be imagined; as, indeed, can be 
his later satisfaction when he found- on knowledge acquired in 
his prison — that if he had sncceeded in his object of blocking 
the channel, he would have debarred his country's arms from 
the victory which lliev linallv and fairlv one. 

Of the iiH'rednlity of the Spaniards — who by their owii cross 
lire hiul sulTercul losses which they attributed to the guns of ihe 
Merrimac — as to the unarmed and almost unmanned condition of 
the p<M»r o\d ct tiller, wc need not here do more than refer. As 
to the author's experience in j^rison we may leave our readers to 
learn tor themselves from the writer's own pages. lint we 
nnist mention the courtesy with which the gentlemen of Spain 
treated their captives. Yet at the simie time we are alforderl 
indications of tin* temper which has caused the Spaniard to 
glide so rapidly d(»wn the scale of natitms ; cruelty, and what is 
alnitist w(»rse than cruelty — want «»f thought — are his character- 
istics. One's bloo«l boils when one reads of the torture of the 
little black dog, of the ribahlry of the Spanish soldiery, who 
enj«)yed its ag«»nies, and of the astonishment of the Spanisii 
officers at Lieutenant llobsnn's vigorous protest against the f»ut- 
rage. This littli' touch of kindness to aninnils marks the 
Anglo-Saxon and the brave man, and stands in strong contrast 
to the external polish and formalism of the others, however kind 
they might ha\e been to him. A va^^t amount as to the respect- 
ive characteristics of the conilxatnnt luitions may be gleaned 
from the lKK»k, and our respect ft>r our sister nation will be 
largely increasetl by its ]ierusa1. We may add that the volume 
is copiously and Ix'autifully illustrated. Those who read it will 
rjso from the study witli a res^K-'ct for its author wliicli the news- 

jMi/fer jv/xfrta of JiJs prowcas could not give. His boldness was 



that of tlie enduring kind and bad its source not in conatltnUo 
or in martial training but in conviction and intelligence. 



The Ntival Annual, edited hy tlie Hon. T. A. Brassey. Porti 
mouth : J. Griffin d: Co., 1890. 

The thirteenth issue of this standard publication gains iin 
wonted interest for more reasons than one. Most intelligen 
people are aware of the costly rivalry that lias set in betweei 
the great Powers in the nratter of com^iarative naval strength 
Such (x^rsons are generally anxious that the enormous interes 
that Kngland holds in the maintenance of peace with honoo: 
should be conserved. Yet at the same time they are, as pmden 
persons, greatly concerned at the strong upward tendency dis 
})layed by successive Budgets. To ** Bi-assey " they turn in tb4 
knowledge that there they will find a calm and accurate state 
ment of the present position and future prospects of foreigr 
navies and also a dispassionate review of our Mav>-'s ability, m 
regards lK)tli materiel and pcrmonnel, to do its duty. " 

From the data here appended it would appear that at the en« 
of the year 1H1M> the strength of England, as compared witl 
that of the next two most important maritime Powers, will be :— 



First -class .. 
Second-class 
Third-class 



I'^ngland. 


France. 


Russia. 


23 


9 


6 


11 


\) 


9 


12 


15 


3 



Totals 



40 



• • 



83 



18 



This is conqileted vessels. But regarding vessels projected, as 
well as those actually completed, the numbers are : — 



Great Britain 
France 
Biissia 
Germany . . 
Italy ..* .. 
United States 
Jai)an . . 



Battleships. Coastguard Cruisers. 

ships. 

. • • 16 ., 

.. 10 .. 

. • • id • > 
• • • •* • « 

. .. 10 .. 



57 

30 
21 
10 
14 
13 
7 



• • 



137 
52 
28 
24 
21 
20 
18 



t • 



Torpedo 
gunboats. 
.. 94 
.. 21 
.. 9 
4 
.. 17 



• • 



The writer in the annual seems satisfied with the table as L 
stands— esi)ecially as regards battleships. We are, howevec 
ourselves cloubtful as to whether too many obsolete ships do nc: 
ap]iear in the effective list. All navies must contain vested 
that are growing old. But an old navy like ours must contaa 
a fuller proportion than those of younger maritime Powers. 

There is another matter, however, which makes the 
under review attractive. It is the full account which it gi\'es^ 
the recent naval operations between Sixiin and America. ~ 
interesting account of this war is illustrated by some excellei^ 
maps and charts. Another historical question is dealt w^ u 
thecha]Uer by an anonymous author — the gimboat operatioau 
on the Nile during the recent Soudan campaign. The mention 
of anonymous contributions leads us to remark on another 
opjiortune chapter, of the name of the writer of which no mentiOB 
is nuule. This is on the subject of British fortification; wbftt 
we ought to fortify and to what extent. This subject was detll 
with twr) years ago by no less an authority than Sir Geoige 
Clarke and some little apology is made for reopening the sab- 
je<t. The recrudescence of what the writer of the chapter 
calN. somewhat contemptously, the *' bricklaying'* school hftl 
made further discussion desirable. Indeed one of the lessons 
of the S))anish-American war — as shown by the letters of 
C'ai>tain Mahan himself — was that the timidity, jierhaps, nol 
unnatural imder the circumstances, of the coast dwellers at 
homo is a factor with which naval authorities must beprepaied 
to reckon, and is one which nuiy ham^icr their movements ll 
a critical numient when a chance shows itself for a dash upon 
the enemv. 

* 

The Annual opens with the usual introductory chaxiter on the 
" Stale of the Navy " from the jhmi of Lord Brassey. After re- 
viewing the naval ex|)enditure— current and recent— he snms up 
by saying that the British Navy is "assuredly not falling be- 
hind." Turning then to the question of manning, he holcU. ar 
he has long held, that the question of Naval Beserves is ont 
that dcnumds the most earnest consideration. He belie\'es that, 
a ^clu>nie for training lx>yMfor the Navy is essential. What form 
that scheme should take he is not prepared to say, but he in 



kt 



7uiie 1, 1899.] 



THE MASIKE EKGINEEB. 



148 



ft 

dieates that Bome modification of that propounded by the Navy 
lieagoe is most likely to meet the case. He, however, criticises 
that scheme as it stands, on the ground that it should never pay 
the shipowner for what he does by giving his support to the 
plan, in reviewing the question of shipbuilding at home and 
abroad, Lord Brassey, as usual, pleads for rcHtriction of dimen- 
sions. Among:;it battleships — whilst he admires the qualities of 
the Maie*tiir — he pleads for the continued representation of the 
CnnopMH clasH. So he reiterates his belief that the Powerful and 
Terrible are beyond the Icpiitimate displacement of any cruisers. 
Bat at the same time he is charactcriRtically fair. The boldness 
whicli induced the designer to aKsociate a practically new type 
of steam -generator with the largest engine ever put into a war- 
ship is fully recognised. lie asserts, too, that the difficul- 
ties which were only to be exiKiCtod under the circumstances 
with the machinerv of these vessels has now been entirelv over- 
come. Further, in relation to the question of size he notices 
the compariscms which have l)cen made— to the disparagement 
of onr naval ships — between war vessels built at Elswick and 
those designed by Sir William White. He emphasises the point 
— which should have been sufficiently apparent — that the greater 
displacement of the latter vessels gives them substantial advan- 
tages in directions which in the British Navy, at least, are of 
essential importance. He traces out, too, how from the lessons 
first taught at the Yaloo we are being kIiowu that protection at 
the waterline is not the only ensential in a warship, and that we 
are giving the sui^erstructure of our new cruisers greater pro- 
tection. 

One of the lessons of the oi)erations last year seems to have 
been the comparative inutility of the torpedo, and accordingly 
it seems likely that in the future these weapons will not he 
carried in any but tori)edo craft. The same exiwrience also 
shows the value of the mercantile armed cruiser. Immense 
benefit was derived by the United States from the assistance of 
die vessels of the American Line, though it is suggested that 
fall use of their cai)abilitics was not made. In this connection 
a point, which needs some qualification, is made against the 
auxiliary cruiser. It is stated that ** vessels of this class 
[referring to the St, Loi/is at page 170] carrying 200 lbs. of steam 
in cylinders 14 ft. above the water-line are clearly unsuited for 
regular fighting purposes/' We are not in a position to check 
the accuracy of this statement as to the level of the cylinders of 
the St. Louis. But we do know that the weakness' here sug- 
gested does not infect all the auxiliary armed cruisers retained 
by the British Government ; for the Teutonic and Majextic at 
least have the top of their cylinders l>elow the water-line, and 
we believe that the same might be said of the Lucauio and 
Campunia. But the value of these auxiliaries in spite of the 
alleged weakness referred to is strongly insisted on. " The St. 
Loi(»,*' it is said, " went to sea with one quarter of her displace- 
ment in coal, and for six weeks never took on board any coal, 
water, or provisions. The publicists who have dwelt on the 
injury to Great Britain due to the abandonment of privateer- 
ing may perhaps be induced to reconsider their position. For 
operations against commerce such vessels as the St. Louia and 
St. Paul in capable hands are necessarily formidable." The 
auxiliary armed-cruiser idea apparently reconmiended itself— at 
least in "theory — to the Spanish also. They purclmsed from the 
Hamburg- American Line the Nonnanuia and the Columbia, and 
the Hatel from the North German Lloyd Co., not, as the 
Annual tells us, from the Hamburg Co.' But they never had 
the energy to fit the vcsscIh out. 

The discussions as regards the further use of nickel steel, of the 
advantages of the triple-screw and of the turbine engine, are 
the main points in Mr. Dunell's most valuable contribution to 
the history of the year. The use of nickel, though much to be 
recommended, seems practically debarred by its high cost. The 
triple-screw has found a warm supi)orter in Commodore 
Melville, of the United States Navy, even though our own 
Admiralty seems to find good grounds for deferring adhesion to it. 
The present authorities are rcs})onsible for the universal adop- 
tion of the twin-screw in the Koyal Navy, and thus should Ik? 
assumed to look with « y*nc»;/ kindliness on the triple principle. 
We may justifiably assume that they have the best of grxul reasons 
for not doing so. The discussion of the turbine engine leads to a 
remark npon the importance of an absence of vibration in ma- 
chinery, and we note that in another part of the same cha[)ter 
the Yarrow -Tweedie-Schlick system of balancing is roferrod to. 
Attention is called to the serious demands now made by auxili- 
ary nubchinery on the coal supply of warships, and a suggestion 
thrown put that economy may be effected by the use of electri- 
city for all ftoxiliary pni^ses — cables being* led from a central 



generating station. The danger arising from cnt steam-pipea 
in action is alluded to, and the advantage of cables msieted upon, 
since no danger is caused by the fracture, and repairs are more 
easily and quicklv effected. The famous run of the U.S.N, 
battleship Oreijon is alluded to as a triumph for the naval eu^- 
neer. It is a triumph of a humdrum kind perhaps, but it is 
this mastery of routine duties and attention to detail which lays 
the necessary foundation of success in emergency. 

The whole' volume— as will be seen from our imperfect review 
— is worthy of the reputation of its predecessors, and of Lord 
Brassev. 



I 



Recent applications for Patents connected with 
Marine Engineering. Ship ' Constmctlon and 
Mechanical Appliances for use in Shipsi firoas 
April 13th to May 9th 1899. 

7531 1). B. Devore, Feeders for boiler furnaces. 

7534 H. F. Smvih. Screw propellers. 

7537 W. iV T. I). Bayliff and B. Drai)er. Packing valves. 

7544 F. G. Wright. ' Flanging metal plates. 

7547 J.T.Pearson. Marine signalling apparatus. 

7560 A. Bauer. Speed regulators for engines. 

751W W. Boby and C. B. Wigg. Pressure-regulating vah*e8. 

7<i*23 E. Seymour. Engines. 

7<»34 J. M. Lo'vold. Steering gear for vessels. 

7«)3<; 1). Enocrk. Water-tube boilers. 

7(»45 B. and II. Lee. Lubricators 

7(»77 K. Macgi'egor. Closing water-tight doors.- 

7t;87 F. Watts and F. Willmott. Saving life at sea. 

7702 W. von Oechelhaeuser. Double-inston twin-motor. 

7735 H. B. & J. S. Watson and T. C. Billetop. High-speed 

engines. 

7742 W. Evans. Governors for marine engines. 

7750 Sir W. Arrol and T. B. ^lurrav. Dvnaraos. 

77ri2 O. Howl and W. J. Tranter. Steani boilers. 

77r»7 G. B. Brace. Cleats for cargo battens. 

77(>H G. K. Brace. Stanchions for cattle fittings. 

7777 M. H. Bowden. Shii)s' life-saving apparatus. 

777S C. S. Snell. I'tilising wave motion. 

7810 J. A. & S. Fletcher. Water gauges. 

7H1K J. D. Young. Mantfuvring steam ships. 

7H23 C. T. B. Sangster. Internal combustion engines. 

7835 >1. Hardill. Compound steam engines. 

7847 A. W. Cooper and J. S. Greig. Steam generator. 

iHiS (j. Woertge. Lubricating cranks. 

7"^'>1 S. iV H. Turner. Cable clips for haulaf;e. 

7872 F. A. Spangenberg. Increasing the pressure of steam in 

engines. 

7873 H. E. Newton. (C. C. Worthington, Vnited States.) 

Steam engines. 

787<i jM. Honnicke. Steamboat driving mechanism. 

7879 C. W. Thompson. Propelling lx)ats. 

7'^93 L. Pszczolka. Keducing pig iron into "Bessemer" steel. 

7tH.»0 W. Thomas. Ships' cominisses. 

7931 C. Ihillock. Apparatus for steering torpedoes. 

7<J40 J. Taylor. Propellers. 

7l»5s A. .J. Boult. (L. Dolone, France.) Ijisubmergible 

vesfrcls. 

700« A. Maton. Composition for hardenhig steel. 

7973 A. CMMxlwin. Duplex pumps. 

IWO T. Sug<len. Water-tube steam generators. 

7U'.»3 A. C. J5uck. Nautical histmments. 

SO'JO F. Gfifen. Reversing gear for engines, tVc. 

8(J2i» W. F. Foord and W. .1. Penniall. Life-saving rafts. 

8030 E. E. Marchand. Centrifugal pumps. 

H085 J. Shepherd. Steering cear for fishing boats. 

81n5 T. Christie. Ships" l>ertlis. 

81S0 H. Norris. Tubes fOr Iniilers. 

n22(» H. Wolters. Furnace for production of hoilt-r tubes. 

H233 E. tV A. \V. Bennis. Steam boiler furnaces. 

823S J. Calcaterra and II. Willis. Anti-friction Ixarings. 

N271 A. Buchan. Vessel -building ui)rights. 

8;j45 S. Cow]>cr-(Vjks. II ender i ng wockI fireproof . 
KJ.V.» E. Rcilly. I'ncking f«>r piston-nxls. 

s3*»i W. K. kon'*haw. Stntting-lwxes and glands. 

^»418 H. N. Bickert..n and H. W. Bradley. Piston for pumps 

s420 G. Duncan an«l A. G. Kamage. Punching holes in steel. 

8433 A. Lambie. Building shii)s. 



July J, 1999.] 



THE MABINE ENGINEEB. 



169 



fa ?/ 




tu 



Ji SOS 



JJL3/ 3 



M t3 6 



Fio. 1. 




Jisam >df^-' ^^ /fCf66, /2i '7&^9S 



vArt«A^ ^^tncr^^ - 



^ 2/0 / 2 <^ 

^/^ 4o(;^ /f/s 



^3S* Hd 



L >f 




Fig. 2. 




di^nunB, and the good record both as regards coal and water. 

. we would draw particular attention to the high and mid- 
preesore steam lines and to the mid-pressure cut-off, both of 
which are evidence of good efficiency, the second being equiva- 
lent in ont-off to a Corliss valve. 
It woold be interesting to ascertain the reason of the drop 



in pressure between the high and mid-pressure cylinders ; 
however, although this appears to be a fault, the fact remains 
that as a whole the result is very satisfactory. 

As regards other matters, the diagrams speak for them^ehes, 
so we need not add any further description with reference 
thereto. 



180 



THE MAEINEvEKGINEEE. 



[Jiilya, 1899. 



10145 
10168 

10170 
10171 
10172 
10173 
I019I 
10302 
10213 

10222 

10260 

^027?' 

10266 

2,0290 

10308 

10346 

10380 
10421 
10436 
10441 
10444 

10453 

4 

10469 
10183 

10522 
10333 

10543 

10578 

10602 
10624 
10625 
10<»35 
10<'>49 
16654 
10(>68 
10687 
10697 
10712 

10714 
10721 

10724 
10743 
1074(> 
10747 
10778 
10780 
107HH 
1080O 
lOSOl 
10818 

10H41 
10S44 
10852 
10856 
10859 
10881 
10887 
10*»21 
1092r) 
im)72 

lOiimi 

10995 

i09ini 

11009 



J. C; £. Mflthieu.' Valve motion gear. 

J. C: E. Mathieu. Speed-changing 4|ear; 

6. Balstond; H. lies. Pendulum governor for marine 

engines. 

L. Brennan. Cylinders and pistons. 
6. Bestwick. Valves for steam, drc. 
J. I. Booker. Corrugated furnaces for marine boilers. 
S. £. Alley. Governing steam engines. 
W. Merritt. Launching lifeboats. 
A van der Woerd. Steam engine governors. 
J. H. Fullerton. Actuating the slide valves of steam 

engines. 

A. Gronholm. Pumps worked by steam. 

H. Hocking. Feed-water for steam generators. 
'J. B.'^Bhodes. Divided dome for boilers. - 
C. Vincent. Bemoving the scale from boiler tubes. 
S. Lonnt. ' Badial flow steam turbine engines. 

B. T. Preston. Valves for steam engines. 

Siemens Brothers & Co., Ltd. (Siemens dr Halske) 
Aktien Cesellschaft, Germany). Packing pistons. 

J. D. Harrison. Speed indicating apparatus. 

W. H. Tate. Water gauges for steam boilers. 

J. I. Thornycroft. Water-tube boilers. 

M. von Schoultz. Searching for submerged objects. 

E. Edwards (F. Bender, Germany). Utilising the 
moven^nt of waves. 

W. J. Pitt. Discharging cargoes for coaling on the 
high seas. 

J. Murrie. Steam condenser and vacuum pump. 

J. Donald. Gear for preventing vessels from founder- 
ing. 

C. F. D. Lang. Attaching keels to boats. 

The Leeds Forge Co., Ltd., & G. Cooper. Steam 

generators. 

N. Mclntyre. Bars for boiler furnaces. 
P. .B. J. Willis (T. Emerson, United States). Holding 

boats in position. 
G. Lawson. Budders. 
B. G. Brooke. Water gauges. 

E. A. Vivinus & A. J. Hecht. Motor crank shafts. 
L. Marshall & S. Naylor. Steam boilers. 

F. J. Borland. Cooling engine cylinders. 

B. Fryer. • Slide valve for steam engines. 

W. P. Thompson (J. P. Serve, France). Steering ships. 

C. F. G. Des Vignes d* W. A. Cloud. Steam boilers. 
L. J. J. B. Le Bond. Bo tar y engines. 

W. Morris (D. Murray, South African Bepublic). Steam 

boilers. 

J. V. Scott. Ships. 
P. Bowie & W. Guilford. Preventing racing of marine 

engines. 

R. Meldrum. Supports for ships' Ixmts. 
W. C. Morison. . Checking the si>eed of a ship. 

D. Ilobertshaw. Improving the draught in boilers. 
J. W; McKinnon. Ships' davits. 

P. Meehan. Steam boUers. 

J. Craig, iun. Pressure reducing valves. 

G. KingsleV. Boilers. 

H. Lentz. Balanced double-beat valve. 
H. Lcntz. Valve gear. 

S. L. Ravicr d: A. Janet. Closing the tubes of water- 
tube boilers. 
W. H. Wise Derrick swinging gear. 
J. W: White. Alarm for ships' engine-room. 
W. E. Moss. Derrick gear for ships. 

A. E. Fairnian. Bladders for use in ships. 

G. F. G. des Vignes <V W. A. Cloud. Steam generators, 
J. W. Johnston (D. Little, Victoria). Steam turbines. 

B. C. Westphalen. Screw propeller for ships. 
H. V. Potter. Yacht pulley. 

R. F. Hall. Roller-bearing nest for shafts. 

H. H. Gardam. Reversing gear of steam engines. 

J. Y. Johnson. {J.. S. Muckle, M. B. Muckle, jun.,and 

T. C. Smith, United States.) Bulkliead doors. 
L. S. Bickley. Befloating sunken ships. 
W. H. Wise. Derrick swinging gear. 
J. D. Andrew. Automatic lubricators for crank 

pins. 



11020 S. Lake. Surface and marine boats. 

110:V2 G. W. Smorthwaite. Screw propellers. 

11033 F. P. Price. Valve gear for steam engines. 

11031 J. C. SchoAcld. Plugging devices for boatSi 



BOABD OF TBADBSXAMXMATZOMB. 

Note.— 10 denotes First Class ; ^0 Ssoond Olass. 



May 27th 
Beal, Ralph..... 
Byrtt. Wm. .... 
Campbell, Wm. 
Carr, George . . 
Charles, Alfred 
Cromar, George 
Crown, James.. 
Dixon, Chaa. H. 
Dixon, Paul .... 
Douglas, George 
Gibson, Thos. B. 
Handcock, H. C. 
Hunter, James 
Jones, G. £. . . 
Livesley, A. E. 
M'Gowan, J. . . 
M'Leod, Alexr. 
Murdoch, A. R. 
Parry, Wm. J. , . 
Pover, Saml. . . 
Rankin, C. D. . . 
Smith, E. R. . . 
Snowdon, Geo. 
Swinton, David 
Thomas, Ernest 
Wilford, St*y M. 



,1899. 

2C S*nd'rrnd 

20 Liverpool 

2C London 

2C Hull 

2C Aberdeen 

IC „ 

IC S'ad'rl'nd 

2C London 

IC N. Shields 

2C Liverpool 

2C N. Shields 

2C London 

IC Aberdeen 

10 Liverpool 

2C „ 

IC 

2C London 

2C Liverpool 

IC 

2C 

2C Aberdeen 

IC N. Shields 

2C S'nd'rl'nd 

IC Aberdeen 

IC S'nd'rl'nd 

10 



»» 



!♦ 



»» 



June 3rd. 

Birch, Jacob .. 20 
Blue, Jas. L. % . 10 
Brown, Jas. D. 10 
Chivers.A.W.A. 10 
Conner, Bobert 2C 
Crockart, Andw. IC 
Currer, Bobert 10 
Evans, Chas. J. IC 
Ferri, Geremias 2C 
Fleming, W. G. 10 
Fridas, John . . IC 
Griffith, O. T. 2C 
Houston, Robt. IC 
Irvine, S. F. I). IC 
James, J. . . 10 

Jones, Ivor .... 20 
Kean, Alexander 20 
Kennedy 'R. D. 2C 

Lang, Wm 20 

Le Gall, W M'C 20 
Mamie, James 10 
Martin, Wm. G. 10 
Matheson,Hugh 20 
Montgomery, R. 10 
Ramsav, John . . 20 
Rattray, David 2C 



Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cardiff 

London 

Cardiff 

London . 

Glasgow 

London 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cardiff 

Liverpool 

Glasgow 

Cardiff 

»» 
Glasgow 

London 
Glasgow 
»t 

»» 

t» 
»» 
i» 



Revely. Percy G 10 Cardiff 
Soott, Alexr. . . 20 Glasgow 
Sproat, John B. 20 ., 
Vos, John B... 20 Falmouth. 
Warren, James 20 Cardiff 
.Williams, Owen 10 Liverpool. 

June 10th. 



Allan, John . . 
Butt, F. G. B. 
Callan, H.F.P. 
Carstairs, G. L. 
Davidson, G. W. 
Deighton, J. E. 
Holman, W. H. 
Homsby, Erst. 
Landrum, J. B. 
Lindsay, Js. B. 
Lishman, Jn. J. 
Mc Art, James.. 
McOulloch, P. 
Pennv, Alhirt E 
Bankin,Wm.W. 
Boberts, Hugh 
Soldat, Sy'n'y G 
Sutherland, J. 
Tickle, John T. 
Tinn, James .. 



20 London 

10 

20 Liverpool 

IC Lopdon 

10 N.Shields 

10 Liverpool 

10 London 

20 N.Shields 

10 Liverpool 

10 London 

20 N.Shields 

20 Liverpool 

20 London 

10 

20 Liverpool 

20 

10 

20 

10 London 

10 N.Shields 



»» 



tt 



f « 



June 17th. 



I 



Barbour, John 
Blackbume, E. 
Bruun, N. C. .. 
Clark, Thomas 
Colling, John . . 
Dabell, A. F. . . 
Day, Anthony 

Duus, J. H 

Feelv, Thos. . . 
Imlach, Bobert 
Jenkins, David 
Johnston, Wm. 
Lumsden, T. H. 
Macleod, B. K. 
M'Auslane, W. 
McFarlane, J. 
Meikle, John D 
Porteous, B. L. 
Smith, H. 0. .. 
Speirs, John . . 
Stewart, W. M. 
Watt, John . . . . 
Whiteway, A.P. 
WoodliouseA.E. 



10 N.Shields 

20 Liverpool. 

20 N.Shields ; 

20 

10 

10 London . 

2C N.Shields 

10 

20 Greenock 

10 London 

10 Liverpool 

20 Greenock 

20 Leith 

20 Greenock 

20 Liverpool 

20 Greenock 

10 

20 Leith 

20 N.Shields 

20 Greenock 

10 Leith 

10 „ 

10 London 

10 N.Shields 



Messrs. Stem Brothers of 57, Gracechurch Street, London, 
have an exhibit at the Greater Britain Exhibition in the West 
Australian section, which will undoubtedly interest all tho83 
interested in lubricants. This exhibit comprises the various 
specialities which they manufacture such as their Sternoline 
Lubricant for Stauffer and Automatic Lubricators, Fram 
Lubricant for Motors, Sternoline Bricks for tunnel bearings of 
steamers, open bearings, and roll necks, high-class Dynamo and 
machinerv oils, also si)ecimen of their Paraffinum Liquidum 
B.P. 98, aiid Paraffinum MoUe B'.P. 98, the former being the most 
highly refined mineral oil in the market, being absolutely water- 
white, and entirely free of taste, smell, and impurities. They 
have four factories in which the manufacture of the. above and 
other lubricants is carried on. 

Dredger for Japan.— Messrs. W. Simons A Ck>., Limited, 
Benfrew, have received an order to construct a powerful Twio- 
ScMw Hopper Dredger for. Japan. 



184 



THE MAEINE ENGINEEE. 



[August 1, 1B99: 



THE uabine: enguteeb. 



[August I, 1899. 



D U ILD Stxui ToBca. 



TABLE II.— FIRE TEST. 
Etpebivknts to Abcbbtiin ihb Eftbcts of Fibi on Nicebl 



SiaKL AHD Hiu) Bnon, ToBaa. 



boilers under working conditions, but it 
■eftBftSuide, 



% iuire««on«bIe to 

. — n to Table if., which records what we liave 
termed the "Fire Test." This was conducted in the following 
way ; — Two tabes were placed Bide by side in a small brick 
Inmace, where they were heated totbeaame extent, and in every 
wa^ were practically under the same conditions. The loss of 
weight of e«ch tnbe due to the oxidation after they had beeo in 
a very heated state is indicated by the weightsgiven. It will be 
seen that the original weight of the nickel steel tube C was 103 
gCAmmes. and the mild steel tube D was IS5 grammes. The 
total loss of weight in this series of tests was, in the CAse of the 
nickel steel tube. 47 grammes, or 24-47 per cent., and of the mild 
steel tnbe 14.5 grammes, or 7837 per cent. In this caaealeo the 
original weights of the two pieces of tube were not exactly the 
same, and we therefore repeated the experiments, as shown by 
G and H, in which the weights of the two tubes were identical, 
namely, 188 grammes, and the loss of weight was found in the 
nickel steel tube to be -52 grammes, or 3766 per cent., and of 
the mild steel tube 143 grammes, or 76-06 percent. The average 
loss in weight in the mild steel tube was, therefore, 2-9 titnes 
what it was in the nickel steel tube. 

These tubes as they appeared on the termination of this ex- 
periment are shown on Plate I. 

These results were submitted to Sir John Dnrston, and he 
pointed out that the experiments did not accurately conform to 
all the conditions under which boilers are worked, inasmuch as 
the tubes, in the care of a boiler when the he*ting aurfaoea are 
not in cloee contact with the water inside, are sabject not only 



(o tbe action of the (paes on the outside, bat to that of the anper- 
heated steam on the inside. The oorrectneis of this view is 
unquestionable, and we consequently tested two tabes having • 
length of 1 ft. 8g in. by a diameter of 1 in. ontside by 14 L.S.O. 
This experiment we termed the " tiuperheated Steam Test," 
and I would now beg reference to Plate II., Fig. 1. Tbe ex- 
periment was carried out in the following manner : — Two tubes, 
one of nickel steel N, and the other of mild steel O, were 
placed side by side in a small brick furnace ; at one end of each 
tube Bteam was sapplied at 60 lbs. prassure, it being allowed to 
issue slowly from the opposite end of each tube, thus ensuring 
the steam heinghigbly superheated. The reeoltof this experi- 
ment ia shown on the diagram. The original weight of each 
tube was 612 grammes. Aft«r the experinient had proceeded 
ten hours, it was stopped, as the mild steel tube gave out, 
steam issuing from the defective place. The loss of weight in 
the case of the nickel steel tube N was 12-7 grammes, and in 
that of the mild steel tnbe 0. 8fi'2 grammes. Deterioratioa 
in this case is dne partly to the action of the steam inside the 
tube, and partly to that of the gases ontside. 

Tbe loss of weight of a boiler tube from deterioration at the 
commencement of its life being much less rapid tb«a towards 
the end of its life, therefore the loss of weight cannot be oon- 
sidered as a quantitative guide for durability, and we contbiued 
the superheated steam test as follows :— After the mild st«el 
tube O had burnt through and allowed the steam t« eaupe, we 
replaced it by another similar mild steel tube F, corresponding 
to what would be done in retnbing a boiler. The experiment 
was then continued, and it was found this second mild steel tube 



THE MABINE ENGINEEE. 



[September 1, 1899. 



pipes and cases of the main ceotrifugal 
pampa at starting. Each of the pomps is fitted 
with a sluice valve on the suction pipe and with a 
Bluioe and reSuz valves on the delivery sides. The 
general airangeinent of the engines is dearly shown 
in Fig. i. As seen in Fig, 1, which shows the arnuige- 
ment of the engine-honse below ground, it will be 
obvious that this arrangement has a twofold advan- 
tage. Firatly, valuable space is saved near the dock ; 
and secondly, the length of the suction pipes to the 
pomps are redoced to a minimum. 

It vrill generally be admitted that ondoobtedly 
gas engines have many advantages over steam engines 



HARINK EHamSBBS' NOTES- 

{From our (nm CoTTtipondtnt.) 

THE soheme for (be National Physical I^abontory hM been 
advanced a step. It viil be remembered that the Trewnry 
appointed a committee, ot which Iiord Bayleigh is chairman, 
to make an enquiry into the necewit; for such an institution, 
and, after an ezhaaative enquiry, this committee haa brought in 
their report. The evidence showed that there tras a necessity 
for a place where instrnmentB coutd have authoritative atand- 
ardisation and where also researoheB could be condactad 
having special reference to the industrial requirements of the 
country. There (ire sappoeed to be facilities for teeting and 
certifymg electrical instruments at the Board of Trade, but 
these are of the most meagre description, and in future aooh 
work will be doue at the National Physical Laboratory. 




for workof this class, as the preliminary expenses of 
raising steam are avoided, and the motive power 
being always at hEtnd the engines can be started imme- 
diately they are required at short notice ; and more- 
over the consumption of fuel ceases as soon as the 
dock is emptied. 

We have bad the opportunity of examining the work 
and can add our testimony that it is of the most up-to 
date description, the dock being provided with every 
possible arrangement of labour and time-saving 
appliances. The new addition to docking accommoda- 
tion on the Thames should prove of great benefit both 
to ship owners and the firm who have had the enter- 
prise to bring it into being. 

Sfessrs. Ki nipple and Jaffey, of Westminster, 
were the engineers for the works, and Mesars. Kirk & 
BftDdall, of Woolwich, the contractors. 



The same condition of things was found to exist in the Indian 
and home arseiinla. and there was no central authority to settle 
tlie point and declare who was right. At Kew sexliuite can be 
tried and certificates issued showing tlie errors of division « 
different iiarts uf the scale. There is no central institution, 
however, for electrical instruments being tested. The electrical 
engineers who gave evidence spoke to the advantage the 
Keichaaiistalt conferred in Germany, and sometimes eiectrioai 
engineers of this country had to obtain assiataDce from it. The 
Treasury is the autliority for laying down the lines on which 
the laboratory shall be worked, tor it is the Treaanry which 
finds the money. It has endowed the laboratory with a Bum of 
£1H,000 for buildings and a yearly grant of £4,000, which, bow- 
ever, will be incre^ed as necessity arises. There are to be 36 
members on the governing body, 'H of which will be supplied 
by the Eoyal Society, and 12 by three institutions— the Iron 
and ljt«el Institute, the institution of Naval Architects, and th« 
Society of Chemical Industry. Precaution will be taken to 
keep the institution always in touch with the e ~ 



THE HABINE KNGIKEEB. 



[October I, 1809. 




306 



THE MABUfB ENGINfiBR. 



[October r,18W. 



miktter in embryo. The fall statement of the ease has already 
been placed before the membership by Messrs. Sage and 
Adamson. The next step is to set the matter in motion. How 
can this third-class certificate be mitiated ? From the papers 
sent oat by the Board of Trade, it is dear that a third-dass 
certificate is very desirable. There ooght to be an acknowledg- 
ment made to the yoang engineer that he is qaite competent 
and a desirable person on board ship. On the other hand, it 
oaght'to be made qaite clear that, when a yoang engineer does 
not hold a certificate from his saperintendent setting forth that 
he is a competent and reliable workman, he shoald 1^ looked on 
as an andesirable person on board a steamer. Oar plan woald 
be to make the granting of these certificates an institate affair. 
One talks about the statas of the engineer. Oar opinion is that 



A contribution to the discussion on Mr. HalUday's WP^ on- 
feed-heaters was read at ^he nieeting of the matittxte on 
Monday, 24th September, which had been sent in by Mr, 
Northcptt (member^. Mr. Northcott says : **, When economy is 
gained " by using wnat would otherwise be . wasted heat, |he- 
cause of the increased economy is clear. But when we warm 
the feed-water by means of live steam, or steam taken directly 
from the boilers, it is not at all clear why any saving should 
result from feed -heating. On the contrary, as most feed-heating 
arrangements entail a loss of heat by radiation, one might 
expect a live-steam feed-heater to lead to a loss rather than ta 
a gain. If we get Peter to pay Paul we don't increase the sum 

of Peter's plus Paul's possessions Mr. Halliday is^ 

apparently convinced that not only do live-steam feed-heatera 




£xPANszoM Gland fob STZAM-i'ipjEtf. 



if an engineer is a competent and reliable officer, his status may 
be left to take care of itself. But the statas of the institute is 
a very different thing. It is the duty of the most humble 
member of the institute to promote its influence and status on 
every possible occasion. And what would promote its influence 
more than to make the institute the guardian of the standard of 
competency of the young engineers who are applicants to the 
Board of Trade for certificates of competency ? It is for the 
council, then, to receive suggestions, to thresh them out, 
and to get into a working arrangement with the superintendents 
for the issue of certificates of competency to young men in shops 
ashore who may be willing or anxious to join the engineering 
ataff on board steamships. We think we see a working plan ; 
but it is for the council of the institute to set the matter in 
motion, and it will be better at this stage simply to offer these 
sagg^tions. 



lead to increased economy although no waste heat is^utilised, 
but that when waste heat is used to heat feed-water the gain ia 
greater than the amoimt of heat utilised by a farther saving in 
the boiler, and due to the feed-water being hot instead of cold. 
He asserts that hot feed-water i s * in better form for receiving 
heat than is cold water.' Also that hot water * absorbe mare 
heat' than cold water." Both statements are somewhat 
nebulous. We should think that it is quite possible that hot 
feed water would be in better form to receive heat, since it was 
thermally more akin to the water in the boiler, bdA secondly, 
that it IS quite possible that hot water might absorb more 
heat if it was in better thermal condition for doing so. .Mr. 
Northcott goes on to say that " The author really «»Ayiff^ x lake 
it, that hot water absorbs heat faster than oold Water.^' No, 
we hardly think that is what the author means, beioaase hot 
water does not absorb heat faster thanj cold water, for his 



S78 



THE MAEINE ENGINEEE. 



[November 1, 1899; 



14942 G. D. Macdotigald. Condenser for steam engines. 
14952 G. Btrtitt and O. A. tiockey. Apparatus for registering 

the level of water in boilers. 
14962 M. Williams. Wrenches. 
149(57 A. Debry and A. Philibert. Cooling cylinders. 
14974 O. Imray. (£. B. Brown, United States.) Lnbricators. 
15001 K. Wagner. Power engine governor. 
15005 T. McKenna. (L. Lake, United States.) Distributing 

oil on the sea. 
15009 W. M. Burnett. Boats' chocks. 
15033 G. Cardosa. Screw propellers for ships. 
15038 F. E.Musgrave. Multiple-cylinder engines. 
15053 W. Heatley. Removal of fouling from ships' bottoms. 
15059 D. Chapman. Life buoy waterproof. 
L5079 T. Hope. Paddle wheels. 
15084 A. Badovano\4c. Connections between piston-rods and 

crank shafts. 
16089 G. Sellers. Valves. 
15154 H. H. Lake. (H. S. Durand, R. McC. Beck and R. K. 

McLellan, United States.)2Mechani8m for propelling 

boats. 
15177 J. H. S. Bradley. Autmobile fish torpedo. 
15184 R. Knappik. Circulation of water in boilers. 
15204 R. Wagner. Marine engine governor. 
1520(> O. G. Meissner and R. Bennctwitz. Hardening steel. 
15222 C. Smith. Compasses. 
15-30 F. Reddaway & Co., Limited, De C. C. T. Davics and 

T. Potter. Friction clutches. 
15243 B. J. B. Mills. (W. De L. Walbridge, United States.) 

Boiler furnaces. 
15262 A. G. Melhuish. Pistons of steam engines. 
15319 A. T. Orr. Ships' ventilators. 
l.!)320 C. M. Shaw. Water-tube steam generators. 
15322 J. A. Webster. Regulator of compass. 

15366 A. Gough. Cowl. 

15367 W. P. Thompson. (M. H. Rumpf, France.) Engines. ' 

15375 F. Fouche, L. Savatier, C. de Lagabbe, and A. Bochet. 

Refrigerating cargo of ships. 

15376 J. Stuart tt J. H. Barton Prismatic binoculars. 
15382 M. Hunter. Bulkhead for ships. 

15387 J. McLay. Heat non-conducting coverings. 

15394 H. Bea & P. Ofifenbroich. Life-saving belt. 

15417 W. Luis. Boilers. 

15442 R. Scott. Water-tube steam generators. 

15455 R. G. Linn. Connecting rods. 

lo458 H. M. Robinson & A. E. Elliott. Boilers. 

15465 J. W. Green. Pleasure boats and steamers. 

15485 J. R. Wigham. Occulthig apparatus for buovs. 

15508 W. Reeves & The Reeves Patent Filters Co'., Limited. 

Filters. 

15509 W. Reeves & The Reeves Patent Filters Co., Limited. 

Filters. 
1.55<)1 W. Andrews. Friction clutches. 
l.').')()H U. C. Dale & G. Overy. Gaff jaws of sailing vessels. 
1.5597 E. Gathmann. Torpedoes. 
l.)i>iy E. Ziegler. Combination screw-down valve. 
ir>(i24 G. A. Nussbaum. Tube joints for steam generators. 
1.5636 C. Cole. Otter boards used in trawling. 
15642 R. Begas. Propelling boats. 

15656 W. Hornsby, D. Roberts, A: C. James, jun. Application 

of doors to engines. 

15657 W. Hornsby, D. Roberts, & C. James, jun. Speed 

governors. 

15658 W. Hornsby, D. Roberts, & C. James, jun. Steam 

engines. 
5663 R. J. Isaacson. Governing devices for engines. 
15695 J. Southall. Internal combustion engines. 

15702 H. R. Mortell A- A. liobb. Trawl nets. 

15703 J. Mcintosh it G. W. Metcalf. Boilers. 
15710 H. K. Gilbert. Water gauges. 

1.5715 G. H. Jones. Defence against torpedo attack. 
15728 A. L. Lefel)\Te. Steam generators. 
15733 G. P. B. Hovt. High-speed engine. 

15735 J. S. & J.'B. Wiiite & A. Forster. Water-tube 

boilers. 

15736 A. E. Farrow. Variable-speed gear. 

1.5742 H. G. Tideniann & E. 1). Meier. Boiler doors. 
1.5769 J. W. Brown tt T. Buckton. Feeding oil into engine 
cylinders. 

15771 T. Buckton tt J. W. Brown. Regulating speed of 

engines. 

15772 E. L. Cooper. Seamless metallic tubes. 



15791 A. DodgBon. Firing regulator for boilers. 

15808 F. Krajos. Life-savmg belt. 

15822 D. Orecchioni. Electric submarine signalling device. 

15828 A. J. Boult. (F. A. Thoenes, Grermany.) Packing rings. 

15844 D. Carter and 0. J. Smith. Rotary engines. 

15849 R. S. Lloyd & S. Davies. Pumps. 

15851 E. Easelowsky. Torpedoes. 

15854 D. B. Morison.* Propeller shafts. 

15855 R. P. Matthew & W. Henderson. Propellers for actuat- 

ing ships. 

15880 J. Christensen. Governing ships* rudders. 

15893 P. Menz & M. Sponholz. Reducing valves. 

15910 E. Rund. Internal combustion engines. 

15917 R. E. Byle, H. A. FiUmore <fe R. H. Nicholson. Pnea- 

matic packings for piston rods, &c. 

1.5924 F. Good. Docks. 

15931 J. M. Thomas. Rudders. 

15970 H. J. Haddam. (A. R. Weisz, H. I. Stockwell, and F. G. 

Fullgraff, United States.) Means for propelling 

ships. 

15989 G. F. W. Hope. Apparatus for dredging. 

15995 S. Briggs. Tubes of refrigerators. 

16007 A, Strong and W. S. Drysdale. Saving life on water. 

16034 J. Broa<lfoot. Watertight doors for ships' bulkheads. 

16075 L. M. G. Delaunay-Belloville. Feed-water heaters. 

16086 C. Bonjour. Distributing mechanism of steam 

engines. 

1(>09H S. Cowper-Coles. Rendering wood non-inflammable. 

16113 G. W. Sutherland. Ships' hatches. 

16124 F. W. Golby. (E. Brucksh, Germany.) Reversing gear. 

16155 F. Watt. Feed-water regulators for steam boilers. 

161HH W. Bingham. Controlling gear of valves. 

16244 A. J. Dudgeon. (Societe Anonyme J. Cockerill, Belgium.) 

Blowing engines. 

16248 C. D. Abel. (The Gasmotoren Fabrik Deutz, Germany.) 

Pistons. 

16249 F. Kupper & A. Vorreiter. Speed governor. 
16289 W. Lees. Valve gear of steam engines. 
16347 R. D. Bailey. Machine for circulating steam. 
16365 H. & A. H. Ough. Building ships, Ac. 
16390 H. Hoist. Propellers for ships and boats, 

16415 W. Fairweather. (J. Morssink, Holland.) Ships' aide 

lights. 

16430 C. T. Holloway. Chairs for decks of ships. 

16455 O. Comuzzi. Anti-fouling composition for ships* 

bottoms. 

16480 F. Friedenthal. Indicating propeller pitch. 

1(>.503 J. Hewes. Promoting the safety of boats. 

1(>517 E. G. Hoffmann. Ball-thrust shaft bearings. 

16524 A. Fensom. Power propellers for barges. 

16542 N. Weeda. Water gauges for steam boilers. 

16550 J. C. Johnson. Welded iron and steel tubes. 

16609 T. H. Massey. Friction gears or couplings. 

16620 CD. Doxford. Construction of ships. 

16630 B. M. Whitlock. Cleaning cables of ships. 

16655 R. J. Lichtenstein. Scraper for boiler tubes. 

16659 A. L. Brun & L. Leclerc. Multitubular boilers. 

16697 L. H. Drake. Bearings for continuous shafting. 

1()700 F. E. Musgrave. Compound steam engines. 

ir)711 C. P. Smith. Glass water levels or gauges. 

16726 J. Gordon. Recording speeds of ships. 

16727 R. B. Dainps. Dislodging barnacles from ships. 
16742 J. E. Sfack. Water-tube steam generators. 
10784 T. P. Robson A A. Stuart. Cranes 

16790 W. Marr. Apparatus for stowing boats. 

16840 H. W. C. Cox tfe C. F. Leighton. Steering boats. 

16!^92 C. Allenow. Rotary engines and pumps 

16910 A. B. Brown. Steering machinery. 

10938 H. Henning. Governing valves. 

16967 B. A. \V. Holtorp. Raising gear for boats. 

16968 A. May. Steering apparatus for ships. 
16975 E. Makin, jun. Steam cylinder cover. 
16996 J. E. Weyman. Feed-water heaters. 

17021 C. E. Ferreira, W. B. Roberts, & T. W. Gleason. Feed- 
water heaters. 

17023 L. C Lanphear. Feed-water heaters. 

17040 J. Milton. Furnaces for steam boilers. 

17042 G. R. Purdy. Fittings for trawl boards. 

17068 J. Orr. '* Automatic baler " for lifeboats. 

17092 J. K. Macdonald. (The Singer Manufacturing Co., 
United States.) Lubricating cranks. 

17142 G. S. Hooker. Varying the speed of driven shafts. 



/ 



430 



THE UAsms' ■mmsEi&i' 



[Jtnmtj 1,. 1000. 



without any osJcuUtion by ui adimtment of the scale of the 
prtoanre gange. tw ehown in Fig. SO. 

By the amngement shown in Pig. 16, the diagnun dnwn on 
the dram of indicator B ia shown ip Pig. 22, uid includes 
the forward prsssnre and the bock pressure in one oontinuons 

If an ordinary indicator be attached to the mean preaanre . 
instrnment in the manner shown in Fig. 21. then it is possible 
by oonpUng the indicator to the driving-presBure nozzle to 
obtain, on one card, the forward or drii-ing-pressare lines taken 
together on one continnoaa roll, fig. 23. or. again, by coupling 
the indicator to the back -pressure nozzle it is possible to obtain 
the backward or resistiog pressure lines tiilteii together on 
another continuous roll, Fig. 24. If a dotted line be drawn 
through the mean height of the variable pressure line, as in 
Figs. 2S and 24, this dotted line will represent the mean effect 
of the series of variable pressures. Fig. 23 for the driving 
strokes and Fig. 24 for the back pressure strokes. This 
mean effect is the reading given by the pressure gauges. 
which are ' respectively attached to the driving and back 
pressure sides of the instrument. The movement of the pointers 
of the gauges is reduced to a minimum by throttling. The 
higher tiie speed of the engine the more steady is the move- i 
rncmt of the flnger, other things being equal. 

Stbuion bftuvM Tinu-PmiuTt and Dulantt-Frutwrt Diagrttrnt, 
— The method of oouvertiug a distance-pressttre diagram i 
a, such as is taken with an ordinary indicator, into a time- 

Sremire diagram b may here be explained. A semicircle is ! 
escribed on the base AB of the distance-pressure diagnun, i 
Fig. 2S a, and the semi-circumference is divided into any num- 
ber of equal parts, 1 ft.. 2 ft., 3 ft., etc. Also the base AB for 
the time-presanro diagram t is divided into the same number ol 
equal parta. Draw at positions 1. 2, 3. etc., on b perpendiculars 
from tiie base line AB, in height ei^ual to the height of the 
distance-pressure diagram a at positions I ft., 2 ft., 3 ft., etc., 
of the crank pin, and join the tops of these lines by & cnrve. 
Then this curve will give the forward pressure line id the time- 
pressnre diagram. A nimiUr method is used for the back- 
pressure line. The same construction applies to the converse 
caae of oonverting a time- pressure into a diatance-pressure 
diigram. 

(1) Taking first examples of simple theoretical diagrams, and 
considering the forward or driving pressures only, it will be 
clear that if the steam is carried through the whole length of 
the stroke without expansion, then the two hinds of diagrams 
will in each caee be a rectangle and their mean pressures 
will be the same. Figs. 26 to 33 are the upper lines of theo- 
retical indicator diagrams for various points of cut off. The 
expansions are assumed hyperbolic, with a clearance space of 
7 per cent. The full line diagram is the true or distance- 
pressure diagram. The dotted line shows where the time 
pressure departs From the distance pressure. The shaded area 
represents the di&erenoe between the two. The following 
table shows a summary of the differences between the two 
diagrams for a series of cut-oS points between 0'3 and the end 
at Ute stroke: 

TABLE 1. 



Fig. 38 shows that if the (op line of the i , 

slopes nntformly (rora admisaion to release — which is thie tc. _ 
enoy, more or leis, in bigh-^eed engines— then the poaitiVB 
area vriiioh inoreaoea the time-pressure diagnm in the first 'faaU 



luf off 

of the stroke is neutralised by the negative area in the latter 

half ot the stroke, oni the two means are in this case equal to 

one another. 
Considering the back-pressure line, it will be seen from 

Figs. 39 to 19 that the oompreaaion comer introduces a more or 
. less large difference between the time pressure and the distance 
I pressure for the bottom line of the dii^ram, and that the \tir^it 

the compression the greater the difference between the two. 
I The full lines of the Figs. 39 to 42 are the bottom lines of the 
I diagrams as they would be taken by an ordinary indicator. The 
I dotted curve is the time pressure curve. The shaded area shows 
' the difference between the two. and represents the amount by 
I which the time pressure differs from the distance pressure. 
' Where a large compression occurs with an early out- 



point of Cut-off. 



Percentage difference 
I reckoned on the mean abao- 
I lute forward pressure. 



Average percentage difference throughout the range from 0-2 

to end of stroke = — 1 88 per cent. 

Fig. S4 shows the same facts by means of the curve AB. The 
difference intercepted by the vertical between the 100 per cant, 
line and the cnrve AB Oirough any point of cut-off on the base 
line ropresenls the difference per cent, at that cut-off, between 
the two kinds of mean pressure for the forward or driving 
stroke of the piston. Fig. 35, 36, and 87 show further results 
under various conditions. 









1 


ifi- 50, 


























-4 


^•^^ 






















rn;, 


f^ 



























































































































































































off, as in link motion engines, then both the npp«r and lower 
lines of the diagram show a high reading on a mean pressure 
gauge, but being both plus results the errors tend to neutralia* 
each other, Figs. 43, 44, and 4S. Fig. 48 Is the indicator diagrun 



432 



TEB MABINE EN6INEEB. 



[Jaaaaxj I, 1900. 



vary for different types of engines, but experience with the 
instrument will determine the factor or gauge correction 
necessary for any given type. 

F fadings by PreMure Gauges,— In order to obtain a reading 
of the mean pressure acting upon th« gauge, the writer em- 
ploys two throtiling cocks, one close to the instrument and one 
.more or less close to the gauge. By the use of these regulating 
coeks the oscillations of the finger of the gauge may be reduced 
to any desired degree of steadiness without interfering with the 
.accuracy of the reading of the mean pressure. 



fn-^trvurvenl'. 




It is not unlikely that some engineers will object ah initio to 
the arrangement described in this paper, seeing that it ia pro- 
posed to obtain such an important value as the mean effective 
pressure in an engine cylinder by means of an appliance so 
unreliable as the pressure gauge is said to be, by some authorities, 
and still more so when it is proposed to throttle the steun 
supply to the gauge, as has just been described. 

But in answer to these objections the writer desires to give 
the results of his own experience, as, having himself been in 
doubt as to the accuracy of gauges and the effect of throttling 



Fig: 22 Forwcurd, ami Bojch Prm^sure^ fnct st.pdraJt^^ ). 




t.J'orw€Lrd. Stroke** Bttrk Stroke •» 



Fig: 23 ForwcLrd PrcssiLrPs, top arvdy boltom 




\ferwar€L IViBSStwe 



L^ 



ScaU '1108^ 



Fig! 24'. BacK Ptesstires, tap ojvd, bottoTrv 



■>■■■■■ n 




i— 'JWeccn, Beiych^ i -/V« 



 * » 




Fijr 2G 




Fro- 28 








'3 D'fo 




- /; f "f 



Fio .50 



- Z fi'^n 



vj>^ Fiq- ."^1 



•*> 



•8 



2 l".** 



"^Fio-.Vi. 



-//••• 



Fig: S3. 




Fiir .'i^i 











Fitr +0 




Fig +1 



Fig: 42. 



V 



January 1, 1900.] THE MAEDIE ENGINBEB. 



450 



THE MAEINE ENQINEEB. 



[January 1, I90U. 



By Union Co-opzBATiyE Shipbuildixo Ck>., Blyth. 



Nftme of Vessel. 

* Beftper 

* Betriever . . 

* Boftmer .. 




By BiTSON & Co., Maryport. 

Bieel Steam British 

Foreign 



i» 



* Algores 

t Thomas Leigh . . 

Barge 

Barge 

By Camper A Nioholsoks, Ltd., Gosport. 



ft 



»• 



British 



376 
791 
ah 105 
ah 105 



180 
180 
180 

450 



Ilex 
Boynhied . . 



Wood 1 Bail i British 



Also several small racers. 

By COTTINGHAM BROTHERS, Goole. 



15 

88 



Oceanic . . 
New Balderton 



Wood , Sail 



it 



t* 



British 



>» 



100 
110 



t No. 


241 




242 




243 




244 




245 




216 




248 



Steam 


British 


3,595 






»» 


3,927 






»» 


6,494 






11 


6,494 






Foreign 


5,115 






t* 


6,235 






11 


6,285 





By Sidney J. Dewdnst. Brixham. 
Sirdar . . . . | Wood < Sail | British | 51 | 
By FuRNESS, Withy & Co., Ltd.. West Hartlepool. 

Steel 
f> 
»i 
It 
tt 
ft 
•t 

By Pxnarth Shipbuilding Co., Penarth. 
Anemone.. .. | Wood | Steam] British j. 13ym| — 

By Lytham Shifbttildino & Enoinbxrino Co.,'Lytham, 

Lancashire. 

Barge .. .. Steel 

Barge 

Tag Mystic 

Barge 

Barge 

Barge 

Bargee 

Tog Fyede 

Launch 

Tog Clande 

Cargo Folwood . . 

By OsBouRNB, Griham & Co., Hylton, Sonderland. 



11 
»» 
ti 
tt 
It 
tf 
It 
tt 
•* 
I* 



t Thordis .. 

t Hero 

t Angost Leffler 



Steel Steam' Foreign 



11 



11 



f » 



It 



It 



3.820 ] 300 
3,719 ; 320 
1,950 I 160 



By Smith's Dock Co., Ltd. (late Edwards Brothers), North 

Shields. 



Sirdar 
Akranes . . 
Andes and Algoma 
Standard . . 
Brimsnes . . 
Atlas and Alhatros 
St. Qaintin 
Brninvisch A Zeeho 
Argentina . . 
Kalso 
Cephalonia 
Carthagenia 
Panaghi VagliaDO 
Knno 

Khedive . . 
No. 621 . . 
City of Manchester 
and Nos. 627 & 628 
Voorwaarts 



Steel 



11 



»t 
Iron 

Steel 
ad Iron 

Steel 



11 



11 



11 



Steam 



tt 



t» 



11 



11 



11 



11 



It 



»t 



t» 



British 

Foreign 

^jritish 



11 



Foreign 



186 • 375 
184 375 
169ea 380ea 



»» 



British 



158 
168 
135ea 

48 



350 
350 
330ea 
120 



Foreign | 161ea 330ea 



British 



t» 



t» 



It 



Foreign 
British 



tt 



tt 



Foreign 



179 
179 
180 
180 
765 
182 
184 
184 



380 
420 
360 
350 
500 
400 
360 
376 



190ea 400ea 
155 i 300 



By John Stewart & Son, Ltd.. Blackwall. 



2 Barges 
2 Barges 



Iron 
Steel 



British 



ft 



110 

80 



* Conpoond, 



t Triple. 



_ 


• • 

1 Foreign 


50 


__ 


— 


It 


50 


_ 


steam 


British 


80 


400 


— 


Foreign 


90 


— 




It 


80. 


— 


— 


It 


264 


^— 




It 


78 ' 


— 


Steam British 


50 


70 ' 


It 


Foreign 60 


210 


tt 


British 40 


00 1 


tt 


It 


250 


330 



By SouTHAMPTOir Natal Worxb, Sonthampton. 











G. T. 


L 


Name of YeaaeL 


BnUtof 


Class. 


Ownenu 


Regis. 


H.P. 


14 Barges . . 


Ir'n<Sk Steel 


Sail 


British 


150ea 


— 


* Tug Sonshine . • 


Steel 


Steam 




108 


891 


* „ Eastham 


It 






103 


884 


• „ Sonrise 


It 






108 


884 


* „ Partington .. 


It 






103 


481 


* „ Holmgarth . . 


II 








814 


engines and boilbbs on lt 










• TngVaUaut 








— 


291 


• „ No. 897 










820 


* ., Lizard 


.— . 






— 


814 


• „ Wellington - 

• ., Onward 








— 


810 


— 








355 


• „ No. 401 / 


— 






— 


318 


* Helen. Biver Float- 












ing Bridge 


Steel 


tt 


It 


— 


— 



By WiLLOUGHBT BROS., Ltd., PlymoQth. 

Conqueror .. | Steel |Steam| British | 150 | 350 

By VospiR A Co., Ltd., Portsmouth. 



Aorangi 
Wainni 



Wood Oil M 



Buhy 

Gordon 

Mosquito 



1 '• 

It 
I 

ft 

I It 

i »» 
It 

♦I 
Steam 



British 



It 
It 
It 
It 
i» 
It 



Foreign 
British 



It 



'9 

? 

6 
2 

, \l 

— I.HP70 






Emerald . . • . 

By John Blumer A Co., North Dock, Sunderland. 



t Maristow .. 
t Spennymoor 
f Mareotis .. 
t HyaHes 
t Hawkwood 
t Cymodocee 



Steel 



It 

It 
It 
It 
11 



Steam 


British 


3.506 




tt 


2,748 




tt 


3,184 




tt 


8,852 




It 


1,155 




Foreign 


4,060 



1.850 
1,580 
1,600 
2,590 
1,090 
1,980 



By Earle's Shipbuilding A Engineering Co., Ltd., Hull. 



Iron 

ul I*n<frSt*l 

Steel 



II 



It 



II 



•I 



Steam Foreign j 171 

British i 195ea 
Foreign 883 

I British \ l,134e 

! Foreign 

I British 



It 



Ir'n (tSteel 
Steel 



n 



It 



t» 



Sail 
Steam 



tt 



•I 
It 

II 
ft 



It 



ti 



tt 



It 



It 



It 



It 



t Assumburg 

t St. Louis and St. Pa 

t Bolama 

t Castro and Hydro 

t Grig Nez . . 

t Cito 

t 4 Vessels . . . . ,, . t. i 

2 Barges .... 
t Swallow and Swan 
t Challenger and 

Ullapool 
t St. Lawrence and 

St. George 
t Molopo 

t Linnet and Swallow 
t 3 Vessels . . 
t 2 ,, . , . 

By A. Bxttherford A Co., Biricenhead. 



8S0 

400e» 

600 

1.500a 

430 

1,250 

400ea 

l,500e 

400ea 

400ea 
500 
400ea 
400ea 
2066al 400ea 



207 
819 
198ea 
lOOea 
l,004e 



197ea 

196ea 
220 
210ea 
198ea 



1085 

• Syren 

I Elizabeth 
La Heine 

• 1092 
: Ekela 



Wood 

Steel 
Wood 

Steel 

Wood 



Sail I Foreign 
Steam: British ' 
Foreign 
Briti^ ' 
Foreign 
British 



II 
SaU 

Steam 



It 



II 
ti 
It 
II 



Sail 



Foreign ' 



II 



It 



It 



British 



1103 

Marie Boko 

Dora 

1110 

Princess Maud . . 

Also a large number of small craft and repairs. 

By H. Fellow A Son, Yarmouth. 



II 



10 
15 
31 
82 
45 
9 
8 
29 
18 
18 
18 



60 
78 

100 
16 
18 



Emily 

Claudian 

Annie 



Wood 
Steel 



Sail British 
Steam 



It 



11 



It 



11 



80 
62 
40 



* Conipoand. 



f Triple. 



t High PrMsure. 



January 1, 1900.1 



THE MAEINE 



JOSIPB SCkBB, 



• Chester .. .. 1 ISteai 

By CocuiuNE A Coofeb. Ltd., Beverle; uid Salb7. 
t Vclta 
f Einft Hftrald 
t KiDRErik 
t UDdBDnted 
t Agami aad Merlin 
I Nandn 

f OloarU t tetania 
f Bhodeaia . . 
t Bsfiinald .. 
t Sardloa .. 
f Bftrendgz . . 
f Heemskerk 

^ AmeibtirjF Abbej 

and Battle Abbe; 
t Bookiogbam ft Baj 
t Cephalonia 
t Ooeanio 
i Pomona 

t Cedrio and Wamba 
t Bolla 

t Aeiyrian A Brazil) 

t Veoetia 

t Pearl and Baby . 

f Shamrock.. 

t Brough . , 

i Adrian 

t Rinto 

t Dancan . . 

t WindMC Cutis . 

t Balmoral Cb«(]o . 

Bi J. P. RsxHOuisaif ft Sons, 8«alh Shielde. 



Iron 


Steam 


Britiafa 


iS!l 






:: ! M?| 


Steel 




.. : aifl 1 


Iron 


;;' 




186» 
185 

SOaea 
197 
191 
1»S 


;; 


;; 


Foreign 


196 
196 


 


 


Bri'tiih 


201 
198el 


ah ,. 






iTSea 
180 
207 
161 
161 

197ea 
167 
30t 


an 




I 


176ea 
201 

198Ba 
173 
812 
180 

167 
182 






M 'ml 




.. 




196 1 



Steam Foreign 61Q , 2,950 



BritX 


105 ' 




lis 




56 




65 




70 


Foreign 


766 








323 


— 


— 



t TiUn 

t Bootiman . . 

* Stranton . . 

* Beaton 

* Ooole No. 2 

* Ooole No. :i 

* Enterprise 
t Providence 
t AbeiUelO.. 
t Atlaa 
t Newark (engln 

By YiHRov & Co., Ltd., Iile of Dogi. Poplu. 

Six It long by 20 ft. 6 in. beam ; 
spaed, 

Pon to boilera for torpedo boati. 
BriUe 

Nin S2 ft. S in. long by 16 ft. 3 in. 

be«m «r*ioe. 

Tor, (t. long by 13 It. in. 

Une SO ft. long by 10 ft. beam ; 

speed 10 mites. Foreign Servioe. 

Two Yarrow's patent natec-tabe boileri, foe torpedo boati. 
Foreign Servioe. 

One side paddle.iteamer, ihallow draft, 100 ft, long by 16 ft. 
beam. Foreign Servioe. 

One shallon draft paddle-steamer, 61 ft. long by 12 (t. beam. 
Foreign Servioe. 

 Trl^e. 



461 



WSimMM EtamtnLDiaa Co., Ltd., Sonderlaad. 



BriUsh 3.8S8 ! 1,650 

U,95S |B,fiOO 

13,841 1.650 

16,764 3,500 

! 6,764 i 8,600 



Cardiganshire 

Wiloannia 

Denbighshire 

Suffolk . . 

Norfolk .. 

By J. L. TnoNraoN A Sons. Ltd., North Bands, Sanderland. 
Steam' British 3,327 1,200 
3,267 1,400 
3,4S3 1,400 
2,577 . 1 500 
4,461 2,700 
4.093 . 1.560 
5.256 1,900 
3.396 1,690 
6.196 2.776 



Wilbeiforoa 
Hilton 

Abbey Holms 
Bath City.. 
Newton UaU 
Isel Holms 
Mariposa . . 
John H. Barry , 
Crown Point 

By A. W. RoBKaTSOH tc Co., Lea Sbipbnilding Yard, 
Canning Town. 

8 Steel Grain Elevaltor Ligbte'ri I — 1 2,000 I - 

9 Btael Oil Tank Lighters I — — I 200 - 
6 Steel Lighters., j — | _ _ ] 860 - 



33 



& Sons, Lro., Fallion, Banderland. 



Clan Farqnhar 
Olan Urqnh«tt 
Clan A 'pine 
Skandia .. 
H.M.S. Lee 



Steel Steam British 5.8S6 3.060 
„ {9.519 1,850 
1 6,858 3,080 
3,854 3,080 
3.5«6 2,080 
Foieisfa 4,627 2.300 
Briiiih 340 ! 6,000 
All of tarret type eioept H.M.B. Lee, wbioh is ft torpedo 
deatroyer. 
By Wx. Obit A Co., Lrt>., West Harttcpool- 
Raithwaite 
CUudina . . 
Aiidftle 



Elantaobe.. 
Jobn Coverdale 
Raa Uora.. 
Incbkeith . . 

Maviebrook 
Ell wick Park 

Beta 

Glenroy . . 
Olanda . . 
Bbepp; AlUaoD 
Dorieydale 
Wearside .. 
KilDset . . 

Northlands 

Sand send . . 

Eva 

Helsinborg 

PenmoDDt 

Bhirley 



f Woodford 
f Wandby .. 

> Barton 

I Floristoa .. 

\ Qrosmont . . 

1^ Riverton .. 

\ Rok^by .. 

\ Bylands . . 

I Oadsby 

h Ednard Bary 

h Eiondon Bridge 



British 


3,027 : 1,600 


Poreien'3.5aO |2,000 


British 3,044 , 1,500 


Foreitjn 2,396 ! 1,800 


.. I2.39S ; 1,300 


British 3.015 ! 1,600 


3,346 1 1,700 




3,767 :2.ooa 




3,035 1,500 




2.101 i 1,200 




3.403 1 1.700 


Foreign 


3.106 l,-500 




1,984 ; 900 


British 


3,017 1,600 




2,755 1.300 


Foreign 
British 


2,164 ; 1,200 


2.284 1 1,850 




3.095 ; 1,600 




3.580 .2,000 




2,994 1.500 


Foreign 


1.393 800 


Brilirh 


2,755 (1.300 


,. 


3.814 i 3,000 


Foreign' 3.520 2.000 


„ j 2.308 '1,350 


BritUh 2.308 1,250 




3.403 : 1,700 



By BoFNEB A Son, StOokton-on.Tees. 



Steel [Steiun 



Britiab 1 2,937 ' 
„ :3,flHi  

Foreign 3,472 

Britidi 3.751 ! 

,. 3.4:9 i 



,600 

, .460 

2.8<0 1 1.260 

3.438 1,460 

.. 13,788 1.300 

„ '3.809 '1.260 

„ 2,«48 :i,800 

Foreign 3,034 1 1.300 

British 13.050 1,300 



452 



THE MARINE ENGINEEE. 



[January 1, 1900. 



By R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie A Co., Ltd., Hcrbbnrn-on-Tjne. 

BnUt of 



Name of Vessel. 

Kent 

Surrey 

Earamea .. 

H.M.S. Viper .. 

Whakatane 

H.Af .8. Bulwark (M 

Battleship 

T.B, Destroyer ) B 



aohinery o 
oilers, Anx 



Class.' Owners. 



G.T. 
Re^is. 



nly)^ 

iliary 
tc. 



British , 7,000 
6,98C 
7,090 
354 
7,L')0 



• » 



• f 



»i 



Foreign I — 
British I — 



I. 
H.P. 



3.200 
8,200 
3,200 

10,000 
3,200 

15,000 
4.500 

10,000 
400 



H.M.S. Havock j Mlachinery, e 
By Palmer's Sdipbuildiko & Iron Co., Ltd., Jarrow on Tyne. 



Steel 



»> 
»» 



nt „ 
with new b 
for H.M. G 



Steam 



t Spit^fol 

t iContfort .. 

t Peterel 

t Manoh« sier Port . . 

t British Princess.. 

t British Prince 

t Manchester Mercba 

t Skipjack \ Fitted 

t Speedwell J engines 

By FoBBEfiTT A SoKS, Ltd., Wyvenhoe, Essex 



»» 

»i 
ft 



oilers land 
overn !ment. 



British i 355 16,000 
7.445 13,500 
, 355 ; 6,000 
,7,673 3,600 
; 9.591 
. 9,591 
1 7,673 



»» 
»» 
II 
II 
II 



4,400 
4,400 
3 500 
6.000 
6,000 



• Cysne 

* 4 jPinnaces 

• IIo .. 

6 Canoes . . 
Lighter 

* Cutter 
Pinnace 
Lighter 
Pomp Pont 
Palliser 
Pioneer 
Mnlliped .. 
2 Launches 
5 Boats 
Launch 

} Polypode .. 
Cecil Rhodes 

7 Boats 



• 

+ 
+ 
• 



Steel 
Wood 

Steel 

Wood 

Steel 
Wood 

Steel 

11 

Wood 
Steel 

Wood 
Steel 

♦» 
II 



Steam! British 



»i 



»» 



Steam 
Sail 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



Steam 



It 



II 



Foreign 



II 



British 



II 



II 
11 
II 

II 



Foreifn 
— I British 
Oil 
Steam i 



II 



II 
Sail 



II 



II 



II 



70 
15ea 

6 

6ea 
10 

5 

7 
14 

4 

60 
11 
83 
lOea 
99 

2 
93 
60 
161 



100 
200ea 
50 



50 



200 

45 
150 

40ea 

6 
150 
170 



24 Boats for Rowing and Sailing from 12 to 32 ft. 
By SiMPsojr, Strickland A Co., Ltd., Dartmouth. 



t Parole 

a Whimbrel II. 

t paladin 

* Steam Launch 



Wood Steam! British 



t 

t 

t 

t 
a 



t 
a 

a 

a 

m 

t 

m 



It 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



II 
II 
i> 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Birdie 
Mildred . . 
bteam Launch 



II 
Steel 

Wood 
II 
•I 

•• 
It 
li 



II 



•t 
II 
i> 
II 
•I 
»i 
II 
II 



•I 



•I 



II 
»» 



3 boatS' 



2 boats 



• 12 Sets 
a 9 Sets 



n 



»l 



II 
II 



II 



" I I Machine 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
It 
II 
II 
•I 
II 
II 
t« 
II 

u 
II 
II 
II 
If 
II 
II 

Sail 
ry onl 



II 
II 

II 
II 



38 



Foreign 



II 



British 



I 

J — 



•t 



■I 



Foreign 



It 



British 



II 
It 



350 
300 
45 
40 
20 
40 
34 
62 
48 
48 
20 
30 
30 



60 
20 
14 
io. 14 
5 
18 
8 
5 
454 
365 



By W. Harkess & Sok, East Slipway, Middlesbrough. 



t Feronia 
t Blat 
t Allie 
t Dorothy 
Barge 



Steel 



>t 



Steam I Foreign 



II 



II 



ft 



II 



British 



II 



700 

492 

1,140 

185 

50 



500 
450 
625 
400 



* Compoaad. f Triple. a Quadruple. 



BySiaW. Q. Armstrono, Whitworth A Co., Ltd., 

Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



Name of Vessel. 



Built of 



Class. 



Owners. 



Torpedo boat destr 



I* 



11 



Albsny 
Hatsuse 
Idzumo . . 
Atlantian 
Ledokol 3.. 
Oriflamme 
Luciline . . 
Saxoleine . . 
Angara 
Strombus.. 



II 



oyer Steel Steam 
Steel 



It 

It 
It 
It 
11 
tt 
It 
tt 
It 



II 



II 



It 
11 
II 
It 



Foreign 
It 

II 
British 

Foreign 

British 

11 

II 

Foreign 

British 



G.T. 
Regis. 



340 

860 

3,450 

15,000 

9,800 

9,355 

907 

3,764 

8,766 

3,767 

1,080 

6,015 



I. 
H.P. 



By Bltth Shipbuildiko Co., Ltd., Blytb. 



t Moorabool 
t Everingham 
t Warwick .. 
t Somerford 
t Battenhall 



Steel 



I* 
II 
II 



Steam 


British 


2,996 


II 


It 


8,036 


II 


11 


1.257 


It 


•1 


1.824 


•I 


•• 


1,550 



6,500 

10.000 

7,500 

14.500 

14,500 

4,550 

2,280 

1,960 

1,960 

1.960 

1,250 

8.100 



1,280 

1,260 

950 

1,000 

him 



By W. DoBSON & Co., Low Walker. Newoastlc-on-Tyne. 

Gwynwood .. Steel Steam) British 1,084 1 950 

Seine , „ iForeign 1,861 j 1,850 

Lord Ormonde ... „ .. j British 4.586 1.884 

Aruege .. ' „ „ „ 8,818 1.7W 

Southwood .. i .. It ,1 1.095 960 

No. 9 .. .. Iron A Steel— „ 794 — 

Nina .. | Steel Steam „ 1,084 950 

By J. T. Eltsingham & Co., Stone Quay, South Shields. 



Egyptian Prince*. 

Grecian Prince . . 

Pauline . . 

Imperial Prince . . 

Scottish Prince . . 

Chieftain .. 
t Commander Cawle 
* Andromeda 
t St. Gothard 
t St. Vincent 



Steel 



II 



II 



II 



It 
Iron 

Steel 



Steam 



II 
»t 

n 



II 
»l 
II 
II 
II 
»» 
II 
II 
II 



British 



II 



It 



II 



II 



It 



II 



It 



II 



II 



130 
127 
188 
128 
131 
148 
218 
130 



286 
385 
286 
286 
286 
500 
860 
286 



a. 140 !a.280 



a. 140 <a.280 



By Mes6R8. John Readhfad A Sorb, South Shields. 



Derwen 
Raitbmoor 
Arcadia 
Enidwen . 
Tresillian . 
Trevessa . 
Mora 
Msrgaret . 



( — 


— 


3,544 


— 


— 


3,112 


— 


— 


3,100 


— 




8.ft94 






3.585 


— — 


— 


3.566 


— 


"^ 


3,047 


— 




8,685 



1.760 
1,600 
1,600 
1.750 
1,760 
1.760 
1,760 
1,750 



By Robert Stephxnson & Co , Ltd., Hebburn-on-Tyne. 



t West Point 
t Montauk Point 
t Garonne .. 
t Loire 



Steel Steam 



II 



t» 
ti 
It 



British, 4.8 13 2.000 

„ 4.809 12,000 

Foreign 1.486 ; 1.000 

1.493 11,000 



By C. S. Swan A Huntkb, Ltd., Wallsend on-Tyne. 



t Newholm . . 
t Kumara .. 
t Lucifer 
ft Ivernia 
f Dacia 

t Saint Dunstsn 
Milwsukee 



Steel 
•» 

It 
II 

It 
II 



steam' British 3,684 

7.229 

i 8,883 

16,512 

Foreign 4,476 

British 4,668 

3,820 



tt 
It 
It 
II 
tt 



It 
It 
II 



II 



1.800 
3.800 
1,600 
12,000 
1.600 
2,800 



By Wood, Skinner A Co.. Ltd., Bill Quay, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



t Gilderoy 
t Alroy 
t Crewe 
t Hugin 
t Hydra 
t Hirundo 
t Daphne 
t Telefon 



Steel Steam! British 



II 



II 



•> 



II 



ti 



II 
II 
It 
t) 
•I 
II 
It 



tt 
It 



It 



It 



11 



163 ' 300 

]53 800 

8,1^9 1.S00 

Foreign 1,382 960 

1,883 960 

2,102 1,300 

1.540 960 

1.541 960 



II 



OompouLd. 



tTrtple. 



January 1, 1900.J 



THE MAMKB ENOmEEE. 



Name of Teseel. i Bailt of . CIabi. Owners. , 



t Enzinu 
t Ifooh Lintrathea 
t BIoonifieldI> 
t Begoni* .. 



Bteel jStMrnJ For«igD| 3.648 1,600 

„ ., British 2,789' 1,700 

I ., M 4,455' 2,700 

I „ ' „ I 3,flo3 1,M0 



b Steamer tor carrying 6,000 Iodb oI oil in bnlk. 
By W. White & Sona, VeoUi Worki, Conea. 



British I 57 
Foreign SO 
Britiih i 70 



* St. Hilda .. .. i Steel t 
' ChTvaopnee .. |Goropoai(e 

* Katbleeo .. .. ' Steel 
 Volage . . . . i Wood 

* Baxon ..I Bteel 

* Cnlter Wood ; 

* 6 Admiral a Barges \ 

* SCnttere.. ..I 



By W. FioEEKsaii.L, & Sons, Sonthwiok, SDndetland. 

- > Steami Britiib i3.S7S 
' „ Foreign 1 2.060 

- . „ ! „ 2,053 

 ,. I .. 2.067 

- „ BritiBbl3,713 

 „ ! „ i8.730 

By GsoBnt^ t Thomas Smtn, Bye, Saaaez. 
EBlellel) . . . . I Wood ' Sail | Btitieh I G4 

Evelyn .. ., „ „ ,, I 102 



By Sift RjiTLioN Dixon 4 Co., Ltd., Middlesbroagh-on-Toe*, 

Knm Sang 

PhiliiipeTilla 

Hunt BlaDo 

India 

Fortngal .. 

Stanleyville 

Island* British 

No. 465 ., 

No. 470 . . 

Host of these steamers are first-oIa«i paasenKer veuels ol 

expensive type, and io addition to buildiog them, a large 

Mnonnt of repairing work has been done, and some aite&slve 

alterationa to steameri have been affected. 






By W. H. LuN, Falmoath. 
.. I Wood I Sail I British [ 25 | 



By Edi 

* 1 Screw Tags . . i 

* Sirdar ACerberns, 
Dredger . . 
Pontoon . . 

 Paddle-wheel Tug 
3 Barges . . . . i 
t Screw Tug 

* Magpie .. ..I 
t 4 Launohes 

" 2 Screw Toga ,. 

* Cell. Marcband .. 

; Screw Tag . . : 

* Cargo LauQcli .. 

i Gertrude and Bar- . 
riembe . . .. ' 
t Stetn-wbcel 



e & Co., MlllwaU. 



I - 

Steam 



By WlQRUI-RlCBjtBDBON A Co., Ltd 


. Neptnne Works. 




». 


Name of YesMil. | Boilt of 


Glass. 


Ownera. 


O.T. 
Begi^ 


I. 

H.P. 


Solo 


_ 


HtMTX 


_ 


3,643 


1,550 


Jabim 










i.4oe 


1,350. 


Hannover.. 










7,SBS 


3,206 












7,000 


3,000 












3,H58 


3,200 


Sbieldrake 










l,*Ofi 


1.260 


SobwarEenfelB 










»,8« 


9.200 


Aiigaia (engines 


an 


d boilers o 


°iy) 






1,360 



s. Wighain-Richard»]D * Co., 



4,061 4,050 
5,670 2,.50O 
3,636 l,t>00 
3,320 , 1.400 

veatels of 



By B. S. n*NHSx & Co (late CniiiLeH Uuif 
Uinerta Yard, East Cowo. 
EndeavooT .. I Wood iSteami British 

Courier .. .. | „ ' ., 



By Hbhbi SciKB, Haven Shipyard, Heaale. 



1 = 1 = 



Medea 

Lightship.. 
Bisa 
Cyros .. 

Wilhetmiiia 

Llgbtship . . 

Essex 

Steel Frames for 

Vessel 



Steel 




British 


230 








320 


Iron it St': 








Steel 










Sail 




155 


Iron & 8t' 






135 


Steel 






130 


Iron & Bf 








Bteel 


fltraai 






Lighter 


- 




160 


Iron ft St'l 









By Sbobt Bbothbbs, Sunderland. 



Name of Vaaael. 



Built ol Class. Owners. 



I G. T. N. 
Regis. H.P. 



iSteam Foreign ' 2.106 | 
British , 4,019 | 

! ,. ' ,. 1 3,471 [ 

I ,. ,. 4,01* 

I .. ,. 2,09* . 

Foreign . 1,639 

British : 4,331 

,. ; „ 4.608 1 



Sborg 

Anglo- Australian 
Saxon Frinoe 
South Australia . . 
Avondale . . 

Oebriana . . 
Winkfleld.. 

By T. ToBSBULT & Boot, Whitby. 
t BriDkbarn .. I Bteel iSlcam Britiah 3.683 2 

t Bouthgate .. „ i ,. „ 3,691 | a 

• Onward . . , . „ ,, i „ 358 | 

Pearl .. .. 1 ,.  Sail i .. 274 : 

By Stkimi> Blipwat Co., Sunderland. 
t Goltfrid .. .. ' Stsel ISteam Foreign l,i;39  
\ Stanton .. | „ ,, Britiih 1,097 

t Brenda .. ..I „ | ., ., 1.160 

By RoHBT Thohfsom ft Soks, Sunderland. 



Foreign' SO I 130 

British . 115 230 

SOea HOea 

„ I 30ea 75ea 
Foreign! 90 

., 10 - 

! .15 ItO 



• Lynalder .. 
■^atienzo.. .. 




Steam; British 3,!33 




„ Foreign 1,H34 


 Oeltio FrinoesB . . 




British S.UOJ 


• Lynton .. 










„ Foreign 2,683 


• Zeeburg .. 




.. ; -, 3,<I50 


LaoDched side 


waya from Bridg'e Dooky ard. 




Bled 


Steam! Britiah , 4t 


By BicnABixuN, Due 


ft Co., South Stockton Iron Sh 




SlooktOD-o 


n-Teaa. 


Bardsey .. 


Steel 


Steam Br iUsh 1 3,381 


Clinton .. 




„ i ,. 13,381 


Novington 










.. 1 „ 13,H3C 


SwrndoD .. 




„ 18,841 


Sparta 






Lydie 




British 2.6.17 














Chulmleigh 




„ , 3.922 


•Ooaiptunl. 


• Tllpl.. 





454 



THE MAEINE ENGINEEB. 



[January 1, 1(00. 



By Sib JiJOM lunio A Sons, Ltd., Sa&darknd. 









G T. 


N. 


Name of Yeiiel. 


Built of 


Class. Owners. 


Regis. 


H.P. 


Tomoana . . 


Sleel 


Steam 


^^^ 


7,882 


600 


Adalia 




,j 


— 


8,847 


400 


Terek 






— 


3.860 


S30 


Balakani .. 








3,845 


830 


Bono 








4,038 


520 


Caaoasian 








4.667 


880 


Indradevi . . 








6,805 


560 



By Chables Hill A Soiis, Cumberland Boad, Bristol, 
t Bristol City .. i Steel jSteami BritUh ] 2,511 « 312 

LIST OF VESSELS ENGINED IN 1899. 
By Wm. Allan ft Co., Ltd., Sootia Engine Works, Sunder- 
land. 



Name of Vessel. 



N. 
H.P. 



I.H.P. 



Pressure. 



t Folmina and Otta 

t Hendon 

t Ormley 

t Manchester Importer, Ce- 
briana and Manchester 
Shipper 

t Nedeoaes 



315ea l,600ea 
200 l.COO . 
860 i 1,900 



160 lbs. each 

170 

200 



»• 



380ea| 2,000eai 
160 . 800 . 



180 
160 



fi 



*• 



eaeh 



Name of Vessel. 



2,490 12,900 
By Blair & Co., Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees. 

Builders. 



ThyraandThordis 
Oorsemore, Sparta 

and Lydie 
Greenwich, Wood- 
ford ft Grosmont 
Bardsey ft Cliaton 
Moorabool ft Ever- 

ingham . . 
Wand by, Java, 

Floriston, and 

RiTerton 
Zuleika ft Bath City 
Euxinia . . 
Novington 
Barton ft Bylands 
Shandon, Exmouth 

and Llanover . . 
Brinkburn and 

Southgate 
Swiadon . . 
South Australia . . 
Maristow .. 
Rokeby 
Anigar 
Gadsby ft Eduard 

Bary 
Bristol City 
Mariposa .. 



Osboume, Graham ft Co. . . 

Richardson, Duck & Co. . . 

Ropner ft Son 
Richardson, Duck ft Co. . . 

Blyth Shipbuilding Co. . . 

Ropner ft Son 

Jos. L. Thompson ft Sons . . 
Tjme Iron Shipbuilding Co. 
Richardson, Duck ft Co. . . 
Ropner ft Son 



Richardson, Duck ft Co. 

Thos. TurnbuII ft Son 
Richardson, Duck ft Co. 

Short Brop 

J. filamer ft Co. 

Ropner ft Son 

Feyigs Jtrnskibsbyggeri 



I.H.P. 

l,500ea 

l,400ea 

l,250ea 
l,450ea 

l,400ea 



l,500ea 
1.500ea 
1,600 
I 1,150 
I l,400ea 

l,G50ea 



.. ! l,400ea 
.. ! 1,500 
.. ; 1,800 
.. I 1,600 
1,550 
.. I 1,500 



Ropner ft Son .. .. , l,300ea 

Chas. Hill ft Sons . . . . ; 1,500 

Jos. L. Thompson ft Sons. . 1,900 
Total I.H.P. 52,700 

By Da>id Rollo ft Bons, Fulton Engine Works, Blackstone 

Street, Liverpool. 
Name of Ve«8e'. jLU.P. ! Pressure 

Stentor, Engines and Boilers . . . . 4,500 

Gothland, ,, „ .. .. 950 



Neto, One New Cylinder and Boiler . . 
Tampican, Four New Boilers . . ^ . 8,000 

By Thk Thames Iionwobks, Shipbuilding ft ENoiNBBBraa Co., 

Ltd., Greenwich. 



180 
1(>5 
200 
180 



Name of Vessel. 



Builders. 



I.H.P. Pressure 



f H.M.S. Goliath .. {Chatham Dockyard; 13.500 I 250 
t II.M.S. Condor .. iSheerness Dockyard 1,400 ' 250 

f Triple. 



By GsoBoa Clabx, Ltd., Sunderland. 

Tomoana, Wilberforce, Soborg, St. Bede, Adalia, Anglo- 
Australian, Mann, Banderas, Terek, Balakani, Abbey Holme » 
Isel Holme, Highgate, Pertusola, Caucasiaa, Avondale, 
Acheoolanda, Ohio, Spero, Sunningdale, Hornby Castle, Pearith 
Castle, Winkfield and Hnddersfield. 

24 vessels. N.H.P. 7,281. All triple-ezpansioD, 
By Eablb's Shzpbuildiiio akd Enoikeebino Co., Ltd., Hull. 



Name of Vessel. 



t H.M.S. Formidable 
t Eveline .. 
t Dubbelman 



Builders. 



Portsmouth 
Foreign 



N.H.P. 



713 
50 
50 



LHP. 



15,000 
400 
400 



Preaanre 

800/350 
180 
180 



Total I.H.P. 15,800. 
By Sir C. Fubnbss, Wbstoabth ft Co., Ltd., Middlesbro*. 



Name of Vessel. 



Lodsen, Allie, and for Norwegian 8.S. . . 

India 

Dalton Hall, and for 8.S. No. Ill . . 
Manchester Corporation and Manchester 

Commerce 

Hercules and Verona 

For Norwegian S.S 

Slat, for S.S. No. 32 and Dorothy . , 

Freiburg and Marburg 

Oro 

Barendsz and Heemskerk 



I.H.P. 



700ea 
1.700 
l.OOOea 

2,900ea 
3,000ea 

750 

400ea 
2,700ea 
1.800 

450aa 



Land engines 



19 Sets 26,850 
0,650 



Total I.H.P. 32,500 
By John Stswabt ft Son, Ltd., Blaokwall. 



Name of Vessel. 

t — 



Builders. 



J. Stewart ft Bon, Ltd. 



t» 



I.H.P. iPreasure 



1,500 
50 



160 

100 



Also (I) high- pressure compounded 8.8. Brunette's engines, 
and built new boiler for same; (2) overhauled Ramsgate 
dredger, ftc; (3) built new boilers for 4 vessels, I.H.P. 1,140. 

By Robert Stephenson ft Co., Ltd., Engineers, Newcastle- 

on-Tyne. 



Name of Vessel. 



Builders. 



Robert Stephenson ft Co. Ltd. 



t West Point 
t Garonne .. 
t Montauk Point .. 

t Loire .... „ »-,--- 

By the Wallsend Slipway and ExoiNfiEBiNa Co., Ltd., New- 

castle-on-Tyne. 



*> 



»» 



I.H.P; 

2.000 

1,000 

2.000 

[1,000 



Name of Vessel. 



I 



Builders. 



t Torpedo Boat Destroyer Sir W. G. Armsworth, 

Whit worth ft Co., Ltd. 

t Veria 

t Atlaotian . . 1 

t Oridamme, Luciline, | 

and Saxoline . . ! 

t Ledokol 3 
t St. Andrew 
t St. Donstan 
a Ivernia . . 
t Anversville, Philipville, j Sir Raylton Dixon & Co. 

and Starleyville 






C. S. Swan ft Hunter, Ld. 






t Hillglen and Rosalie . . 



Northumberland Ship- ; 
building Co. 



ft 



f No. 83 Ship . . 
t Prah and Arrage 
t Abarto (Old vessel fitted 
Vessels fitted with new boilers 

Total I.H.P. 67.600. 



W. Dobson ft Co. 
with new machinery) 



I.H.P. 



6,800 
2,820 
4,550 

l,960ea 
2.250 
4.600 
2,300 
13,000 
4,050ea 



2,100ea 

2.400 

1.750ea 

1,050 

3.200 



• Compimiid. 



tiripl*. 



January 1, 1900.] 



THE MABINB ENOIHEEB. 



455 



By Uie CsMTRAL Hjleinb Evaans Woue8» Wert Hartlepool. 



Namo'Of YesseL 



Itaithwaite and John Gov 
Claudius and Eva 

Airedale 

Mondeka and Elantsobe 
Ras Mora and Shirley . . 

Inohkeith 

Parana 

Mavisbrook 
Elswiok Park . . 
Aldemey .. 

Kumara 

Beta 

Bowena and Darleydale 

Glenroy 

Olanda 

Sheppy Allison .. 

Wearside 

Kilnsea 

Harriet 

Northlands 
Sandsend . . . • 
Helsingborg 



Port of Begistry. 



erdale West Hartlepool 
Hamburg 
London . . 

BUbao 

London 

Liverpool 

Cardiff .. 

Glasgow 

Newcastle 

Tonsberg 

Southampton . . 
Amsterdam 
West Hartlepool 



»» 



Rotterdam 
West Hartlepool. 
Sunderland 
HdU 



I.H.P. 



Lyngor 
Car£ff 



West Hartlepool 
Helsingborg 






l,500ea 

2,000ea 

1,600 

l,300ea 

IJOOea 

2,000 

1,600 

1,200 

1,700 

1,600 

4,600 

900 
l,600ea 
1,800 
1,200 
1,250 
2,000 
1,600 

800 
1,300 
2,000 
1,260 
1,260 



Pomount . . . . . • I Falmouth 

Total 44,660 
By HxppLx 4 Co., LvD., South Shields. 



Name of Vessel. 



N.H.P. 



Name of Vessel. 



Builders. 



I.H.P, 



t Clan Colquhoun . . Wm. Doxford & Sons, Ltd. , . 3,080 

t Tullochmoor „ .. .. 1,360 

t Clan Farquhar 3,080 

t Clan Urquhart „ .. ., 3,080 

t Clan Alpine „ .. .. 2,080 

t Skandia „ .. .. 2,200 

t H.M.S. Lee , . . . . 6,000 

By Vosper & Co., Ltd., Portsmouth. 

Steam Enoines. 
3 in. and 6 in. by 6 in. stroke 
62 in. „ 12 in. „ 7 in. „ eaoh 



* Cylinders .. 

4 „ (patent) . . 

* Cylinder .. 



Horizontal 

Locomotive 

Vertical 






4 Cylinders . . 
2 single Cylinders 
2 CyUnders . . 
Single Cylinder 
2 (flinders .. 



8 in. „ 16 in,, 12in. „ 

Boilers. 
3 ft. 61 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. diameter 

6 ft. 9 in. „ 3 ft. 6 in. 

2 ft. 6|in. „ 2 ft. 7} in. 

3 ft. 2 in. „ 1 ft. 8 in. 
3 ft. 3 in. „ 2 ft. 2 in. 

Oil Engines. 

9 in. dia. by 9 in. stroke. 

7 in „ „ 7 in. „ ea. 3| 
7 in. „ „ 7 in. „. ea. 8 

6 in. „ „ 6 in. „ 2 

7 in. „ „ 7 in. „ 6 



>» 

»• 
It 



20 B.H.P. 



•f 
>» 
>t 
*• 



Reaper and Betriever 60 eaoh 

Chieftain 99 

Wapping I 26 

By John Dickinson & Sons, Ltd., Palmer's HiU Engine Works* 

Sunderland. 

Semantha, Baron Eldon, Hesperides, Hvades, Hawkwood, 
Gregynog, John H. Barry, Arechondo, Lord Ormonde, August 
Leffler, Indradevi, Cymodocee, J. L. Thompson & Sons', Ltd*, 
No. 380, Blyth Shipbuilding Co.'s No. 100, John Blumer & 
Co.'s No. 164, and J. W. Taylor. Total; N.H.P. 4,834; 

I.H.P. 29,004i 

By Wic. DoxFOBD & Sons, Ltd., Sunderiand. 



SCOTCH. 

By AiLSA Shipbuildino Co., Troon, N.B. 



Name of Vessel. 



t Hermes .. 
t Katoomba 
t Ziska 
t Mingary .. 

* Barrow Castle 

* The Marchioness.. 

* The Duohees 
t Glynn 

* Fleswick .. 

* G. A. Savage 



Built of 


Class. 


Owners. 


G.T. 
Begis. 


Steel 


Steam 


'Foreign 1,206 | 


•t 


»» 


BritiS^ 


469 


1* 


i» 




168 


It 


If 




640 


•f 


If 




368 


It 


II 




686 


.i 


>> 




686 


f* 


I* 


* 


1,106 


»> 


•* 


• 


660 


•• 


«• 




870 



I. 

H.P. 



800 
800 
300 
1,000 
600 
660 
660 
800 
700 
600 



By Abdbossan Dry Dock^& Shipbuildino Co., Ardrossan. 
* Humber . . . . | Steel ISteam| British | 280 , 380 
By Baeclat, Curle & Co., Ltd., Whiteinoh, Glasgow. 



t Fantee 
t Ismore 
t Vienna 
t Volcano .. 
e Lake Erie.. 



• • 



Steel 



II 
f» 
i» 



Steam 



»» 



British 



It 
If 
tf 
ff 



3,649 
6,216 
4.169 
411 
6,682 



2,649 
8,700 
2,649 
1,860 
8,760 



By Calbdon Shipbuildino & Enoinbebino Co., Ltd., 

Dundee. 



t Saltees 

• Venture .. 

t Duke of Bothesay 

t Toward .. 



. a 



Steel 



i* 
ft 



titeam 



If 
tf 
ff 



British 

Foreign 

British 



ft 



1,246 

1,289 

1,226 

11.246 



1,700 
1.000 
8.000 
1,706 



By Campbeltown Shipbuildino Co., Campbeltown. 



• • 



t Oato 
t Gorbea 
t Silvio 
t Inc.. 
t Sardinero.. 
t Mambare .. 



. • 



Steel 



tf 
ff 
t> 
ft 
If 



Steam 



t) 
ft 
«« 



British 
Foreign 
Britidi 



It 



Foreign 
British 



1.268 
2,041 
1,229 
1,240 
2,086 
1,260 



By DmniBB Shipbuildebs' Co., Ltd., Dundee. 



Steel 



ti 
fi 
•f 
>t 
i» 



Steam 



tf 
ft 

ft 
ff 
ff 
ft 



Foreign 
British 



* Magoary .. 

t Windsor Castle . . 

f Magnific .. 

t Saldana da Ghima 

t Prestonian 

t Balmoral Castle . . 

t Bavenscraig 

By John Fullbbton & Co., Paisley. 



Foreign 
BritUh 



tti 
ft 



348 
242 
242 
469 
804 
242 
860 



t Cimitangi.. 

* Burton Port 

* Biver Fisher 

* Rostrevor,. 

* Clonaelon.. 

* Saint Kevin to be 

launched 



• . 



• . 



Steel 



ff 



ft 



ft 



ft 



ft 



Steam 


British 


342 


t* 


ft 


' 298 


II 


ft 


497 


ft 


If 


294 


tt 


ft 


294 


ff 


If 


660 



By GouBLAT Bbos.. & Co.. Dundee. 



t Zealandia.. 
t Minto 

t Belvoir Castle 
t Dreadnought 
t Defender .. 
t Tajrmouth 
t Tayside .. 
f Marwarri . • 



• • 



• • 



Steel 



ti 
It 
ti 
•I 
ft 
ft 
tf 



Steam 



ft 
ff 
ft 
ff 
ft 
tf 
ft 



Colonial] 2,770 
1,090 

British 220 
128 
128 
187 
137 



ft 
tf 
tf 
If 

ft 



760 
1,000 

760 

760 
1,000 

760 

80Q 
6^ 
640 
660 
650 
640 
800 

286 
440 
760 
460 
460 

860 



8,200 
2,900 
600 
420 
420 
420 
420 



6,620 I 3,600 



By Gbanobmouth Docktabd Co., Grangemouth, N.B. 



t Lrene 
t Sirdar 
t Syriam .. 
t Kokine 
t Engineer .. 
Lakeside .. 



• • 



• a 



Steel 



ff 
ft 
ft 
tf 
If 



Steam 



ft 
ft 
tf 



ft 
Sail 



Foreign \ 
British 



ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 



1.820 
1,816 
1,427 
1,427 
860 
860 



1,200 
1,000 
1,160 
1.160 
700 



By John Sheabbb & Son, Eelvinhaugh, Glasgow. 



* C. A C. Aohaque.. Steel 

* A. Achaque 

* Dunlossil . . 

* Helen 



• • 



ft 
tf 
tf 



SteamlForeign 


196 


ft 


ft 


196 


ft 


British 


286 


ft 


If 


286 



260 
250 
260 
260 



• Compound. t Triple. 



« Componad. ITMple. 



Displaotment. 



THE MAEINB ENGINBEB. 



[January 1, 1900. 



Br OsoKU Ddhcih, Bknkhud. Mtodnft, N.B. 




IT«m« of VeM- 


Built of 


ClMH. 


r,, 1 0. T. 


I. 
H.F. 


The Birdftr 

Hdlie .. 


Wood 


Skil 


BriWahl M 

„ . 40 


- 



i WaddOD 
t Warflold . . 
t CnigMnftId 
f Wiaoheater 
t C3aT«don.. 
f Crohftm , , 
t Adkto 



By Wir. Hauiijon A Co., Port-Oloegonr. 



13,695 
I 3,696 
3,69S 



«nd Kennet 

t Active, Eclipge, 

Hope uid Bapid 

* Iriihmen .. 
t Paria 

* Biikerforoe 
tNo. 16 .. 



f Bpitha>a 

t lAkonia 
H.H.Qoaboat This 
H.M.TasAdvie«.. 
H.M. lag Cracker 



StB»mi British I 4.(ig7 ]2,600 
,, „ 4,686 13,700 

— „ L;(70O|l,30O 

— .. Ls 700|1.2SO 
I — I .. hi 7O0!l,a6O 



By McBtMiCB & MiTBBiY, Fort-OUggow. 
VkletU 
NeptoDO .. 
WftllseDd .. 
Bothnia .. 
ItDODcnaa 

Tops 

Jampar; . . 

By Ritchie, GnuiAif St Milnb, Whiteinch, Olasgov 





— 


_ 


BritUh 


3,017 








FoMUjn 


443 










GOO 










1,388 










293 










342 










398 




— 


— 







Steel 


_ 


„ 


B70 








as 








2M 
















100 








330 








70 








160 




— 


—  


4ao 



1 

I Barge 

1 Bsraw 8te«mer 

4 Barges . 

By Scott St Co., Gartedyke, Qreeoook. 
Calchae .. .. i Steel [Sieaml — iG.TIB 1 4,500 
Haobaon .. .. „ „ _ 6,748 1 4,300 

AlciDOUB .. .. „ 1 I _ 6,74a ,4,500 

Latra .. | „ I „ I — I 300 , 460 

By A, MctNBO, Boatbnilder, Ardriahaig. 

Dore .. ..I Wood I Soil I Britiih I 10 [ — 

Bangalore ..I „ ■. .. 14 — 

Maggie .. .. „ 1 >. | „ | 13 | — 

By Caibd £ Co., Ltd., Oteeoooii. 

f Colombia .. ,. [ Bleel [Steam: British .3,334 3.000 

t aaatemala ..; „ .. .. i8.32d 3,000 

^ Asiaya „ .. | „ | „ | „ .7,376 (i,fi00 

By MiNziKfl A Co., Ltd.. Inverkeithing, N.B. 

t Horatia .. .. < Steel ,Steam| British | 220 | 700 

By JuiEs UiLi.EB, St. MonaDce, K.B. 

Vesper .. Wood Sail British 35 [ - 

S^'yTi :: : = = = ! = 

Nenown ., ., ' „ — — — I — 



By CocBBCN A Co., Ltd., Annan, N.B 



Name of VesMl. 


Built of 


ClasaJownere. 


G.T. 
Begis. 


I. 
H.P. 


• Bolivar .. 

• Tam Tompeaay,. 

• Ootavlo 
Barge 

• LaoDob 

• 2 aten. Wheel Stea 

• Ethelinda.. 


Steel 
Wood 
Steel 

W'iod 

mere Steel 

Wood 




Foreign 
British 
Foreign 

Bri'tiib 
Foreign 
British 


S6 

7 
90 
3S 

S 
30sa 

6 


90 
IS 
BO 

10 

90m 

10 



By E. N*Pi«B * Sons, Ltd., Qovan Yard, Glasgow. 
Eastern . . . . I — I — ! British 3,S86 1 3,600 
Twos .. .. — — „ '6.646 7.600 

Trent .. ..I — I — I „ ,5,670 1 7,600 
By Scon & Soxe, Bowling, Olasgow. 



* Gertrade . 

• Iritcn 
' ObcroD 

 Edith 



Steel I Steam I British [ 

1 



158 j 2 



I „ 'Foreign 700 
] ,. I British 329 



By D. U. CuuHiNo, BlackhUl Dock. Glasgow. 
Nos. B3 and H4 . . I Steel | Bail I British ■- 26e» | 
„ 85 „ 8G .. „ '■ '• I 3^** 

„ 87 „ 88 . . I ., I „ I .. I *0» I 
By WiUJAn Denht A BBomeiis, Dumbkrton. 
Maidstone — . - . 

Bavarian .. 
Paparoa . . 

HibemiA .. 

Anglia 

Sir Walter Scott.. 

Meedonog.. 

Scorpio 

By Nae'ieb a Milleb, Ltd., Yoker, Glasgow. 

18 Barges . . . . I Steel i Sail 1 British 1 3,600 [ — 

t CnMO . . 1 „ 'Staami „ ' 4.500 1 — 

By Divio J. DuNLOP & Co., Inch Works, Port-Glasgow. 

t Amazoncnae . . , Steal ISteam British a,S30 . 1.500 

t Don HUKO .. „ ..I .. 12,250 I 2,620 

t VonPoiibieUki .. | „ 1 ., Foreign; I,52u | 1,700 

By A. Hu.L & Co., Cootdee, Aberdeen. 



tish 


539 




10,37. 




6,Sfi» 




5,810 




638 




1,850 




1.850 




109 




107 




SS 




8,930 



Lord Kitchener .. 


_ 


Jteam 


British 


199 


4S0 






„ „ 1 202 


4S0 


Viceroy . . 




„ ., i 149 












TeDto 




,. 1 ,. : 1" 


350 


Titania . . 


— 


,. ' ., 173 


450 


By Hawthobnb It Co., Ltd.. Leith. 




t BobBoy .. Steel 


steam 


British 


162 


300 


t CoDiineror .. j 










•May ..- .1 „ 




















1 Chieftain .. ' 




















t Speedwell.. ..1 „ 






373 




t Alpha .. ..| .. 








By D. & W. nESDEBsmj . 


Co., Fartiok. Glasgow 






fltean' 


British i 4.f,C8 


3.200 






„ 13,730 


1,700 


j Hysott .: .. : „ 






1,400 


Gloniffer .. .. — 




317 




!?/i« :: ;■. J"""" 


ry on 


T II Z 


3.300 
1.100 


By S. M'KNion 


r* Co., Ayr. 






Steam' British 600 






„ !Fore*Kn, 670 






„ Briiinh 870 




t ValdeTravers .. 


„ 1 „ 800 


— 


•Cmnpaud. 


I»il 


le. 


• Qssdn 


Vl*- 





JoBN ScoTt St Co.. EiDghoro, Fitnhlre. 

^ Laccaefaiie ..( Steel Steam' British 490 1,100 

t ClangbtOD .. „ : „ . „ 490 : 1,100 

• TaDtalloDCutU.. „ I .t I .. 398 1,800 
+ Una .. „ ,. 1 „ 1.407 1.416 

• Stirling C«Btl« ..I „ ; „ ! ., 271 1,000 

By Thouab B. Skath & Co., Hathe^en. 



Steel 


SlMm 


Btitith 


60 

SOOea 
40 








120 








SSea 






Foreign 


66 
















G6ra 


„ 


— 




47e« 



• Hntton .. 
3 Coaliiig Lighten 

aCargoBa^cB '.'. 



B; WiLLiuc Firs A Sox, Fairlis, Faitley. 
Uirza 

Nanoe 
TriDga 

Pierrette . 
Tvette . 
Petnla . 

ACCBDOV 

y Abcbd. McMillan <b Soir, Ltd., Dockyard, Dumbarton. 



Wood 


6ail 


Britiah 

:: 


24 1 

6 \ 
16 1 

_ ; 
IS ! 
so 1 



Lord Erne 

Hylas 
HonoriQB . . 

HortCDBiDB 

Kelvin^ rove 
Pens CastUIo 
Boatik 
Tladimir . . 



Asahi 

DnoheM ol Fife . 

Sutlcj 

Saionia . . 



S,476 ' 
8,473 I 
8,0&2 



Mftobi 
ToUIb: tonnage 41,400; I.H.P, SS,480- 
By BoBKHi Du.vcAN t Co., Ltd., Fort-OlMgow. 



f DomJDgode Larrinlaga Steel 

t SpartaD Chief .. 

t FiuanziDiiiiBter Witte 

t Jotepfaioa.. 

t FenaSagra ,. I 



Sttam; British 1 4,076 : 
I „ ,1,192 I 
I roreiga, 1,180 
,. 1.193 
I „ ! 1,590 I 



t Ponlton 

• Nieolai PaJibio . 
t FinnieBtoo 

' Toeorrin ,. 

• No. 285 '.'. 

• No, 286 . . 
' Tara 

2 SetB Quadrnple- 



By Fleuiko & FsBOCtOH, Ltd., Paisley. 



3team| BritlBh ;l,2. 
Foreign 
British 



By T. Obb, Greenook. 

Wood jSleami Britieh 



By WtLLtAH EwoHB * Co., Ltd., Benfrew. 



Hopper Dredger., 
3 Dredgera 
2D^edgars 



Pontoons . . 
4 Hopper Barges.. 
Dredger .. 
Hopper Dredger.. 



490ra 
3,160 
1,160 



By JiMKB Adui, Qonrock. 



wooa 


— 


BiitisU 




















" 


— 


BritX 


14 


.. 


- 







Laiinoh 

Laimch 

SYoolita . 

7 Taohts . 

aYaohts . 
By Cnutun Comm-i. & Co,, 8<!0ls(owa Shipbuilding Tan), 
Whiteinob, Glasgow. 
Oairlooh .. 
Teiaa 

Alabama .. 
Bajab 

Cnstodian . . 

By The Faidfibld BHiPBoiLDno & ZNoiiiciBit.a Co., Ltd., 

OoTan, Glasgow. 

Einfanni Castle . . I Bteel ISteaml British 1 — 1 — 

Kildonan Castle.. „ ., i. — — 

B.M.S. Creasy ., „ .. " ~ — 

H.U.S. Falcon .-I „ t  1 ■• I — 1 — 

Total gross tonnage 81,694. LH.P, 61,660, 

Bo&dioea steam yacjit, new boiler and overhaiil. 

B<^ Hall, BcaaaLi. A Co., Ltd., Aberdeen. 





Steel 


BtewD 

;; 


British 
Foreign 

British 


8,766 
4,444 

4,463 
6,661 
6.069 
9,200 



 HUda .. .. Wood |Sleam| BritiBh [ 6 , 
Alao unmeroDS pleasure yachit boat|s and liflsboalsl 



Benalder .. 


Steel 


Steam 


British 


ISO 


890 


BaUmii .. 








4,SDS 4,G0O 


Ben more A Ben Ve 


one „ 






ISOea 3!0e» 


Crimond .. 








173 810 


Insiiwa .. 








2.968 3,GDu 


Cairneea* Cortes 








178ea 830ea 


Strath Mere ftStral 


hBr^ 






leiaa SMm 


Setter .. 








170 860 


By LoBKin * Co., Ltd., Renfrew. 


No, 111 .. 






British 


100 




PorteurKo. 4 .. 




Bteem 


Foreign 


160 


800 


Alerta .. 








38 


90 


Beira and AJgarre 








1,37 le 


l,400e 


Paul ..' .. 








37 


00 


Beadv and Brisk 






British 


1930 


300e 


Valle Nacional .. 






Foreign 


lee 


300 


SanJnan.. 








170 


230 


Papalrapam 








848 


300 










873 


1,400 


Maynard .. 






British 


790 


90O 


D'Andrada 


— 




PoreigD 


85 


100 


Sarctlle .. 








28 


00 


Rio Itecaahy 








100 


90 


Dryad Bi Jouvence, 












Bacchante. ± Alow 








168e 


ISOe 


Rookoutting anddt 


edging pla 


nt, 








£0., shipped abro 


ad 






500 


600 




Betbauia .. .. Bteel Bteaml Foreign 7,tl8 4,047 
ClanMaoAoJay .. „ „ 1 British 2,8U 3,89S 


ClanMaoUren .. „ „ „ 2,838 1,896 





TBB MABIN^ ENGINEER. 



[January 1, 1900.^ 



H.M.B.TJpnor ... Sleet Steam BiitUh , 
fi.M.8. AaaaraiiM ; „ 
SekbncEe „ 

CakaoD »nd Bargeij 
■bipped (o Colo- 

LIBT OF VESSELS ENGINED IN 18!)lt. 

By Bow, MoLacbi,!)! & Co., Thiitle Worka, Paitley. 

To(a1 oDtpnt lor 1B99, 9,fi50 I.E. P., comprisinf; :— 1 let 

triple- expanaioD soiew engineB, 1,500 I.H.P,, tor s.i. BkU, 

* Triple. 



t Sirdar 

f&dato 

tBftjali 

tRaiiae 

fCnitodiftn 

tPkcktide.. 

6 seta oompleted, 



The Orkngeraouth Co. 
Uesari. Wm. Hunilton 

4 Co 

MesBrB. ConDell Jt Co. 



1,600 
S.397 
2,3))7 
8,«(W 
1.600 



3anu«iy 1, 1900.1 THB MAKINE ESGINEEE. 469 



460 



THE UABINE BNGINEER. 



[January 1, 1900. 



AUaSICAM. 

By BiTR Iron Woub. Bath, Uaine, U.B.A.. 



KunB of VMiel. 



Chesapaake ,, StMl 

I Dalghran and 

T. A. H. CrftTen 
t Tirginia . . 

By Wm. Cbamf * SoHB" Ban- 



Bnilt ot CloM. OwtMct. 



Sail Americn 

SteamI 

7.50 ', 1 
Bnqink Bna.DiNa Co 



,10(1 



Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

t Jffeiico .. ,, I Steel {Steam {Amerioti .^UOO I 5,000 

t Variag .. ,, | „ | „ iForeignl — |20,000 

By Dklakuie Btvin laoN SHiPBDiLDiHa AEnoine Wobkb, 

"Boaoh'a Bbipyord," Cbealei, Pa., V.S ' 



t HamiltOQ . 
t Jefferso] 
t AUean 



StMl BtMID 



Americn 



!,127 13.000 
1.127 a,000 
i7H I 600 
201 '1.000 



t Eageuia .. 

t Alberta „ „ 25!l 1 2,000 

t OovoTDor Dingley „ , ,, „ I3.82G '2,500 

By DBnon SHiFBDn.DtMO Co. (lacceBBor to Detroit Dry Docks 

Co.). Detroit, Mich., U.S.A., 

* Oea. 3. M. WilHuu 1 Steel .Steam [Americn — { ij^ 

Angelina.. .. „ j .. .. <4.i;44 1,500 

t Colombine ..I ,, | .. [ ., ; 4.U44 1 1,600 

By Qlobe Ibon Woreb Co., Oleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. 
t'U. A. Hanna .. I Steel |Steam|Americni4,<;r.l 1.700 
t H.C.Friok .. ,. .1 ., U.713 1 1.700 

a DooglBMHoQgbtonl „ I „ I „ [5.332 13,000 
By HuLUi St HoLLiRaBwoHTH Co., Wilmington. Del., U.S.A. 
t Nantnoket . . Steel Steam — 2,CO0 8,200 

t Kenhaw „ -- 2.600 3.200 

t Ponoe .. .. ,. „ — 3.603 1, BOO 

+ Stringham .. ., „ — 340 '7,300 

t Haracaibo „ „ „ — 1,771 1,100 

(- San Juan „ ~ 8,503 1 1,800 

By UuTLiHD Stbil Co., 3, Wall Street, Nen York, U.S.A. 

t Britannia .. ..1 Steel IB b.A SI I Americn I 24t) ' C-'iO 

t Cheater W. Cbapln ,. Steam „ 3,e!RH 4,200 

Plnadei .. .. | ., ISt.lSlI .. 1 3,500 < 1,500 

By NawFOBi Niwb BHipaniLDiHa ft Dbt Docs Ci>., Newport 

News. U.BA. 



t £1 Bud . 
t £1 Norte . 
t El Rio 
t Et Old . 



Bteei 



Amerion 



t ComuB 
t Protena 

By Nuna ft Lk\-t, Penn Work*, Philadelphia. 
i Walter A. Luoken- 



14.606 


3.900 


4.605 


3,800 


4.G05 


3,a00 


I.60B 




ISO 


380 


5,000 


3.800 



SlMl 


Steam 


;: 


434 , 

163 1 
974 
176 

lis 

626 



* SToaMt .. 

' Goeltenlutm 

f LyKeoi .. 

t Aogiuta . . 

t Edward Lnckenbaoh 

t Biohmond 

t OOTIDgtoD. 

By CLITBL.UIP Shitbdildino Co., ClflTelaud, Ohio. U.Fi A. 

 Pennaylvania . . | Steel iBleamlAmericnl 4,840 ' 1,800 

t Henry W. Oliver.. „ .. >, 4,90<J 2,000 

t Eareka . . . . „ „ ., 2.122 '. 8G0 

a Malietoa .. .. { „ | „ I „ [6,229 | l,BOo 

By A. Skwuj. JE Co., Bath, Uaine. U.S.A. 

Edward Bewail .. 1 Steal 1 Bail Amerioni 3,306 1 — 

Kainharri.. .. „ 1 „ „ 1,670 I — 

Arthar Sewall ,. I „ | „ „ 1 8.309 | — 







Name of Veuel. Bnilt of Claie. Ownert 


O.T. 
Hegia. 


N.H. 
P. 


niinoia . . . . ' — iStoam Amer'oD 
Manila . . . . 1 — Bail 1 „ 
Mannaloa ..1 - Istram ., 


2,427 
6,039 
4,961 


X,900 
3,500 



Piedmont . 
Bemiuole 

Harlfjrd 



By CobOiiButi Ibonwobes, Baltimore. 



2 Tag Boat! 
Union 
Catifomian 
San PaMo.. 
Ohio 
Wvoniing . . 

3 Valwls . . 



.. : — ., ,,570 1.600 

..1 — ,1 ., 440 810 

.. I — I ,. I „ 1 1,554 I 1,«S0 

Bv Uk:on Dbv Dotk Co.. BofFalo. 

, " .. — ( iteamAmer'onl 3.951 I 2,258 

..I ~ 1 " i ., I 200 ] 350 
By Umon Wobe9, San FraDoiaoo. 



[S learn Ametion 

I 



eooe 
300 
3.200 
1.800 
14.600 
3,400 
8.00Oe 



No. f 

John Smeaton 



By SuPEBiOB Co., West Superior. 
- ] — I Amer'cn 



I 1,102 I  
I 5.049 I . 



SWEDISH. 

y KocKU^s Meeanibea VKitEsiADH AmKBoLie. Ualmo. 



Name ot Veeael. 


Bnilt of 1 Class 


Owner..' O^H^j, 


 Mirza-Aga 
• Islam 
Lightship 


Steel Steam 


Foreign I 793 | 520 

.. ' 659 1 460 

Swedish' 60 1 — 



By HoTALA ViBKBTAiia Nta. AlTlKBOua, Hotalft. 

• Finn .. ; Steel Steamj Foreigni - S6 1 31 
■WetradoIII. .. „  .. Swedish 172 aj 

• NUae .. ,. „ ; ,. I ., S3 ) 
•AiSiatans.. ..' ., I ., I Foreign | 193 I 4: 

By LwDHOLUBsa Vehmtaub, Gothenbai^. 

Saleimao Os«inoS I — lSteatii|6w«dish 1.G38 1,31 

Erik .. .. — ,. ,, I 605 41 

Lindholmen . . | — | Bargej ., | 135 | - 

By JOKUPINOS ViEItESTADa. 

3ToeB .. .1 — ISu-amlSweiilBh I ISOear 2-i( 

DANISH. 

By AlTIESELaEABET BCItltBIBTBB & WaIR'A MaBXIH 00 

[. Copenhagen. 



t Tijpl*. 



 Qoadrupla. 



Name of Veaael. 


Built of 


ClaiB. 


o™-|„°.£ 


HP. 
I. 


t Ulabrand . . 


Steel 


Steam 


Foreidu 


3.011 


950 


t Maba Vajiraroah 








779 ' 500 


Barge No. 6 






















,. No. 8 










196 — 






Steam 






5.709 ,8,000 


Barge No. 6 




Rail 






141 ~ 


t Bornholm 




tteann 






456 1 700 


t Mancfaoria 










5.709 13.000 


During the same period have docked and repaired S80 








Steel 


Steam Foreign 1 1,499 


600 


i Anna 




,. 1 


1.1132 


7« 


t Erika 






9.103 


900 


D.F.D.8. 11 




Bargel Danirii 


843 




13 










t Nr.81 




Steam 


For 


ei|«n 


2.103 ! 900 



January 1, 1900.] 



THE MARINE ENGINE BR. 



461 



GERMAN. 

By Actdcm-GebsiiLSchaft ** NsprtTN" Schiffswebft A Maschikbn. 

Fabsik, Rostock. 



Name of Vesael. 




t Sedina 

t Hans 

t Westfalia . . 

t Benebola .. 

t Marie 

t Lnsida 

t Martha Bass 

t Ariadne .. 

t FridaHorn 

* Kahwiirder 



a Batavia 
a. Belgravia.. 
a Tijaca 
Kaiser Karl 
GroBse .. 
a Bheia 
t Potsdam . . 



Built of 



Steel 
i> 

»♦ 
»» 
i» 
»» 
»♦ 

»> 
♦» 



i 



Steam 



»» 



tf 



i» 



I* 



»» 



•f 



»» 



Oermdn 



>» 
»i 
»> 
t» 

♦» 
»t 
»> 
I* 



1,018 
1.617 

996 i 
1,858 
1,858 
1,358 
20,074 
9,000 
2,860 

100 i 



Bj Blohm & VoBB, Hamburg. 
Steel Steam 



der 



»» 



If 



Steel 



a 



»» 

>» 

>» 



German 10,300 

10,800 

4,850 



»■» 



>) 



German 10,500 
Foreign 112,400 



900 
650 
600 
700 
700 
700 
800 
550 
850 
400 

4,000 
4,000 
2,000 



5.400 
7,500 



By Flemsburoeb Schiffsbav-Gbsbllschatt, Flensbnrg. 



• Gertrud .: 
\ Secnnda .. 
t Saxonia .. 
t Harbnrg .. 
t Itzeboe 

Danske En 
Daneke To 
Danske Tre 
t Korea 
Danske Fire 
Danske Fern 
Danske Sex 

• Oro' 

t Sambia 



Steel i Steam 



>» 



n 



SaU 



t) 



Steam 

I SaU 



»» 



»» 
Steam 



I 



tf 



German 



»» 



»» 



»i 



»» 



Foreign 



816 

2,025 

5,126 

5,217 

5,217 

129 

199 

824 

5,000 

142 

220 

341 

75 

German 1 5.500 



ft 
»> 

fi 

»» 
»» 



450 

700 

2,000 

2,500 

2,500 



2,700 



160 
2,000 



By Gbbkudeb Sachsenbebo Gesellschatt mit beschbanktbb 

Kaftuno, BoBslan, Elbe, Anhalt. 
• Kaiserin Angaste- 



Victoria 
t Rubrort V. 
t Job. Kuppers II. . . 

• Stadt Straesborg II. 

• Neptnn 

• Velde 

• N'Daki .. 

t StadtStrassburglll. 
No. 456 (praam) . . 
No. 457 (lighter) . . 

• Vorwarts III. 

• Albreoht Achilles 

• Wilhelmshafen . . 



Steel Steam German 





1 )» 




1 " 




)> 




»> 




»» 

1 




'» 1 




M ' 








steam 




»» 




»» 



t» 



»♦ 



>t 



Foreign 



»» 



German 



»» 
>» 
»» 



620c 

656c 

656c 

580c 

220c 

45c 

45c 

75c 

145c 

40c 

377c 

225c 

182c 



1.300 

1,000 

900 

800 

250 

60 

60 

150 



450 
300 
800 






Bor.)tel I. . . 
Brnnsbaasen 
Emil 

Fairplay II. 
Fairplay IV. 
Piratll. .. 
10 A 
Tack 

Piompt .. 
Carla 
7B 
Max 



steel 



»» 
»♦ 
»» 

u 
t» 
»» 
>f 
»» 
 
f» 
»» 



»♦ 



»» 



Sieam 



Gterman 



II 

»» 



675 

675 

1,500 



Znknnft (lighter) . . Steel 
ModemeKnn8t(ligb ter) 
t Shantung.. •. I 

By Reihebstieo BcHnrFswEBTTB ukd Maschinbnfabbik, 

Hamburg. 
a Athesia 
a Cap Frio 



950 



Steel >8team|(;erman 5,750 '2.600 
,, „ a5.800. 2,900 



UNSET, 


uambur 


g- 




Steam 


German 


93 


280 






78 


140 






29 


65 






68 


280 






68 


280 






82 


120 






22 


80 






29 


65 






86 


140 






86 


140 






17 


60 


..Brem 


erhaven. 


25 





* Compound. 



I Triple. 



^High 



e Dii^tscemant. 



By JoHANNBEN ft Co., DauEig. 



Name of VeBsel. 



Express . . 
OdiH 

S. No. 109.. 

„ 110.. 

Margarete . . 

8.S. No. 118 



BuUt of 


Class. 


Steel 


Steam 




11 
Sail 




i» 
Steam 




II 





;g.t. 


I. 


Owners. ^^^^ 


H.P. 


German 125 


170 


94 


180 






60 


II 


M^W 


260 



By J. W. Klawitteb, Danzig. 



D.P. I. . . 
Saxonia . . 
D.P. II. .. 
Graf Bismarck 
Graudenz . . 
Richard . . 
Vinera 
Blitz 
229 . . 
230 . . 
231.. 
232.. 
234.. 



Steel 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
ff 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 



Steam 


German 


308 


II 


•1 


978 


II 


II 


303 


1* 


II 


64 


II 


i> 


160 


II 


It 


' 58 


11 


i» 


130 


»i 


Foreign 


116 


II 


German 


i^e 


II 


•1 


82 


II 


•I 


890 


II 


II 


75 


II 


>• 


24 1 



166 
650 
160 
180 
250 
160 
800 
250 
460 
90 
800 
800 
150 



By Odebwebxb Actien Gebellschaft, Stettin. 



Senior 
Gluckaof .. 
Luise . . 
Stengow . . 
Viadra 
Heinrich .. 
Ottonie 
Emil Berenz 
Erich • . • • 
Rhenania . . 
Harald 
Willy 
Fritz 
Herold 

Hans Joachim von 
Zieten . . 



Steel 



>i 
II 

II 

II 

II 

XI 
II 
II 
II 
II 



steam 


German 


II 




II 




II 




It 




II 




II 




II 




II 




II 




II 






' 



308 


180 


80 


140 


27 


110 


100 




950 


500 


32 


140 


20 


80 


764 


600 


32 


140 


1,S50 


650 


24 


110 


41 


.— 


*i4 


_ 


20 


.i. 



34 



By Schiffswebft von Henby Koch, Lubeck. 



•f Portima . 
• Vianna 

Kobold . 

Bazar 
t Ydnn 
t Mnnin 
t LuiaeHoro 
t Bianoa 



Steel 



ti 



II 



*i 



II 



tt 



i> 



II 



Steam 


German 


1.489 


II 


II 


400 


Sail 


II 


404 


II 


II 


404 


Steam 


Foreign 


.1.392 


II 


II 


1.392 


II 


German 


1.826 


11 


It 


al.330 



560 
150 



600 
600 
600 
600 



By SCHIFF- UHD MASCHINENBAn ACTIEN GeBELLSCBAFT 

*' Grbmamia," Kiel. 



t Kaiser Wilhelm 

der Grosse 
t Nymphe .. 



Steel 



II 



Steam' German 11,000 

I 2.700 



n 



13,000 
8,000 



By J. C. Tecxlenbobo Bkbmebhayen, A-G., Geestemunde 



t Koln 
t Zanzibar , 
t Adjutant . 
f Frankfurt 



Steel 



It 
II 
II 



Steam 


German 


7,410 


1* 


It 


1,270 


n 


• • 


380 


It 


II 


7,440 



By Heinbich Bbadenbubo, Hamburg. 

BurgermeisterAben droth 
Gatreideleber II. . . 
2 Tugs . . 

2 Launches 
Hans • . 

Badagry . . 

By J. L. Meykb, Papenburg. 





German 


326 


Steam 


II 


400 


II 


II 


27 ea 


II 


II 


18ea 


1 '* 


II 


25 


»i 


African 


28 



3,400 
550 
275 

8,400 



450 
80ea 
50ea 
60 
70 



Kaiser WUhelm II. 




Steam 


German 


515 


1,000 


Stadt Dortmuner I 


V. - 


II 




54 


180 


2 Steamers 




II 




689ea 


860e 


Barge 








96 




2 Barges . . 






I8ea 


— 


I Barge 


— — 




80 





• Compound. 



t Triple. 



462 



THE MABINE ENGINEEE. 



[January 1, 1900. 



By VuLCiN ft Co., Stettin. 



Name of YeBsel. 



t Kftiserin Maria 

Theieeia . . 
a Patricia .. 
a Kontg Albert 
a Hambarg .. 
<i Deotschland 
t Yakamo .. 



Built of 



Class. 



Steel 



>» 
)» 



Steam 



>» 
it 



Owners. 



German 



If 
It 

»» 



G.T. 
Begis. 



8,285 
13,293 
10.642 
10,642 
16,000 



HP. 
I. 



16,000 

5,300 

9,000 

9,000 

83,000 

16.000 



Foreign 
By F. SoHiCHAU, Danzig. 
a Grosser Enrfarst { Steel |Steam| German ;12.500| 8.000 

By B. WsNCKB, Hambarg. 



^ Brookes .. 

* Nehls 

• Wasserboot IV. 



Steel 






Steam 



»• 
}i 



German 



>» 



By HOWALDTSWERKZ, Kiel. 



f Oscar Fredrik .. 


Steel 


Steam Foreign 


Ingeborg .. 




Sail 


German 


f Nordstjernan 




Steam 


Foreign 


f Begenstein. 






German 


f Babenstein 






It 


j Prinz Sigismnnd. . 






i» 


f Admiral von Knorr 




. . 


»♦ 


f Admiral Roster . . 






»» 


• No. 1 






Foreign 


 No.ir 






»» 


• No. Ill 






»» 


t Vera 






»» 


-f Diana 






„ 


• Heinrich .. 






German 


t Podbielski 






>» 



2 Vessels .. 

1 Vessel 

* »» • • 
Emil 

4 Ligbters . . 
Solide 
Schooner .. 



By M USEES & Co., Stettin. 

— S team G er man 



»» 



i» 



»» 



»» 



)i 



It 



ab.lOO 
ab. 80 
ab.llO 

4,500 

26 

1,148 

1,506 

1,507 

697 

93 

93 

438 

438 

437 

2,153 

3,325 

80 

116 

220ea 
680 
900 
30 



By F. W. Wbncke, Bremerhaven. 

Foreign 
Steam German 

t» 



137ea 
35 
350 



220 

220 

85 

1,800 

650 
550 
550 

1,400 
180 
180 
300 
300 
300 
900 

1,800 
120 
200 

170ea 
360 
600 
90 



65 



— iStcam 



By ScHiFFSWERFTE UND Maschinenfabrik A.-G., Hamburg. 

Borstal I. . . 
Branhanser 
Bmil . • • . 
2 Tugboats 

Piratll 

10 A 

Tack 

2 Tugboats 

x.S. • . . . 



»» 



tt 



tt 



It 



>t 



German 


93 




73 




29 




68ea 




32 




22 




29 




36ea 




17 



By Bbeveb Vulkan, Vegesack, 



Steamer . 
Sperber . 
Straoss 
Koln : 

6 Barges • 
Dnsseldorf 



4 Barges . 

Nine 

2 Trawlers 
Launch . 
2 Barges . 
No. 141 . 



, Steam 


Foreign 


366 


' 11 


German 


1,265 


It 


11 


903 


It 


It 


692 




ti 


400 


Steam 


It 


1 692 



By Gborg Seebeck, Bremerhaven. 

— — ' German 

Steam I 



II 



It 



it 

It 



Foreign 
German 



II 



739ea 

843 

205ea 

8 
250ea 
345 



280 
140 

65 
280ea 
120 

80 

66 
140ea 

60 

360 
850 
650 
360 

300 



2,000 
3oOe 
30 



2 Barges 

3 „ 

1 Barge 

1 ,1 
Viben 
Barge 



By D. W. Krkmer & Son, Elmshom. 

German 70ea' 
90ea 
85 i 
Foreign ' 100 
German 155 
90 



It 
II 



100 



ti 



Compound. 



t Tripl«. 



a Quadruple. 



By AcTZXH GsssLLBCHAFT ** WssEB," Bremen. 



Name of Vessel. 


BnUtof 


Class. 


Owners. 


G.T. 
Begis. 

<ab.200 


H.P. 
I. 


* Friesland • . • • 


Steel 


Steam 


German 


860 


t UnterweserX. •. 


»> 


II 


II 


ab.l58 


850 


+ Niobe 


II 


»i 


11 


a2,000 


a 8,000 


t Deli 


II 


It 


It 


ab.90O 


1.200 


•No. 121 .. 


II 


/I 


11 


ab.200 




VerschluBsponton 












fur Kaiserdock in 




1 

1 






Bremerhaven .. 


I, 


1 
— 1 It 




— 


4 Klappenprahme 


It 




It 


a.40ea 





ITALIAN. 

By Gko. Axsaido & Go., Sestri, Ponente. 



Name of Vessel. 


Built of 


Class. 


Owners. 


G.T. 
Begis. 


I. 


t Garibaldi IV. .. 
t Serbia 


Steel 

II 


Steam 
>» 


Italian 


4,800 
2,548 


13,500 
1,600 



f Varese 
J. Taranto 



By Orlando Brothsrs, Leghorn. 

Steel [Steam! Italian I — 1 18.500 
„ j „ I 1,230 I 783 






•i 



• • 



2 Barges . . 
4 Ferry Boats 
1 Kitchen Boat . . 
46 Barges 



By CiiinsRi Poli, Ghioggia, Venice. 



Steel — 



It 



♦I 



Wood — 



— 


Italian 


90 




It 
II 
II 


12 



By Societa £bercizxo B acini, Genoa. 



2 Vessels .. 
2 



»i 



Steam 



Italian | 164ea 
— j 850ea 



250ea 
850ea 



Also a floating dock for Genoa to lift vessels np to 2,900 tons 

dead weight. 

By N. Odero & Co.,* Genoa. 

8 Vessels .. .. | — Steam Italian 4,04891 1,500 

AUSTRIAN. 

By Marco U. Martinolich, Lussinpiccolo. 



Name of Vessel. 



* Valderthe 

• Aquileja .. 



Nibbio 



Built of 



Steel 



»i 



Class. 



Steam 



II 

It 




By Starilimento Tbcnico, Trieste. 



t Ai Petri .. 
t Hydra 
t Sarajeivo .. 
* 3 Steam Tugs 






Steel 



•I 
•I 
It 



Steam Foreign 


995 


»i 


>• 


220 


II 


Austrian 


654 


II 


II 


28ea 



Benaoo 
Bosnia 
Franz Ferdinand 



By Lloyd Austriaco, Trieste. 

Steam Austrian 



It 
tt 



It 

It 



558 

847 

6,043 



700 
450 
450 
60ea 

380 

600 

3,600 



SPANISH. 

By CoxPAHiA Transatlantica, Cadiz. 



Name of Vessel. 



t Felisa 



Built of 



Steel 



;Class. 
Steam 


Owners. 


G.T. 
Begis. 


Spanish 


1,044 



By Naval Works, Cadiz. 

Extremadura .. ' — jSteam Spanish [2,030 
Udala 

^^ • . . . . . 

Mi . . • . 

Sanlucar .. 

Emilia 

4 Launches 







2.050 




• 


850 






120 






160 






120 






248 



L 
HP. 

600 



7.000 
1.000 
620 
220 
240 
. 80 
400 



• Compound. 



t Triple. 



January 1, 1900.] 



THE MARINE ENGINEER 



463 



DUTCH. 

By Maatschappij De Maas, Botterdam. 



Name of Vessel. 



Zoid-Beveland 
Kodin 
Tosmar . . 
Gai'iiaoh . . 



BnUt of 



Steel 



>» 



»» 



»» 



Class.! Owners. 



Steam 



»» 



»» 



M 



Datch 
Foreign 



G.T. 
Begis. 



»» 



»f 



350 
850 
350 
350 



I. 
H.P. 

I 500 

I 260 

> 250 

' 250 



+ 

i 



By Maatschai>pij voor Scheeps- ew Webetuiobouw, 
" FwEWOORD," Rotterdam. 



Steel Steam 



)» 



»» 



Butch I 3,300 i 1,500 



Mossel 
Spits 

By Nedebulkdschs Scheepsbouw-Maatschappij, 

Amsterdam. 



>i 



350 i 600 



t Soembawa 
t Heelsnm .. 
• Van der Parra 
t Flores 
Floating dock 



Steel 



»» 



»» 



It 



Steaml Datch > 3,350 

1,600 

860 

8,650 



»t 



•t 



»» 



It 



1,600 
750 
450 

1,600 



7,500 itons Jifti,ng oapaoiiy. 

By Royal Sbipbuildiko and Enoikxsbiko Co. Db Schelde, 

Flushing, 
t Noord Brabant .. i Steel Steam I Datch 
a Sindoro .. 



t Thor VIII. } tz? ' IX 

• Van de Parra ) (^° «'"«« °^y) 



u 



»f 



t» 



• I 



»» 



4,900 



10,000 
4,000 
300 
500 



» Ym-ye, 1 

* Dineprovskaia, 22 

and 23 . . 

• Wislavskaia 
No. 203 .. 
Nos. 204, 205 
No. 206 . . 
Volskaia No. (?) . . 

No. (?) . . 



By Werp Co^bad, Ltd., Haarlem. 



Steel 



Steam 



« 



»i 



»> 



t» 



f» 



t> 



»i 



)t 



»f 



II 



tr 



»i 



II 



II 



II 



II 



Foreign 



II 

♦I 
II 
II 

n 
II 
II 
II 



440 
440 

250 
250 
200 
270 
800 
250 
250 1 



800 
300 

210 
210 
200 
125 
550 
210 
210 



By A. F. Smuldehs, Rotterdam, Holland. 



Backet Dredger . . 
Tagboat . . 
Floating Elevator 
Hopper . . 
Backet Dredger . . 
4 Hoppers 
Tagboat .. 
Backet Dredger . . 



Steam Foreign 
El'tric 



i» 



4 Hopper Barges 
2 

4 



II 



II 



Steam' 



II 



II 



II 



I • 



II 



II 



II 



II 



11 



Dutch 



— Foreigt) 



700 
150 
300 
350 
300 
1,300 
150 
670 
250 
250 
120 
600 



1,000 
200 
150 
250 
250 
1,000 
220 
600 
250 



7 Barges 
Nordenham 



By J. A W. Mulder, Vierverlaten. 

— — I British 130e8 

— — [Foreign 360 ; 180 

By J. Drewes, Zindbroeok. 
4 Vessels .. .. — | Bail i Dutch 568 ; — 

By Scheepswebf Vooriieen Jan Smitcz, Alblasserdann. 



Leopold Marianne III. — 
,, «. IV. — 

2 Vessels . 



Lights Dutch 



II 



II 



II 



II 



2,096 
1,716 
2a50e 



,1 . — iSttami 
By Gebb. G. a H. Bodewes, Martensholk 



Two Brothers 
Bertha 
Mathilde .. 
Ocean 
2 Lighters.. 
2 Vessels . . 
4 Lighters 
Hamburg . . 



Steam 

Steam 
Sail 



Datch 



— Gretman 



45 18 

52 — 

71 28 

197 j — 

44* a — 

460ea| — 

186ea — 

65 . — 



NORWEGIAN. 

(By Aksbs Mekanisks Vcebested, Christiania. 



Name of Vessel. 

* Bjorg 

* Louise 

t Tordenskjold 

* Framnas 2 

* Aokends . . 
f Sport 

t Emanuel .. 

* Steam Laonch . 



Bnilt of 


Class. 


Owners. 


G.T. 
Regis. 


I. 
H.P. 


Steel 


Steam 


Norwgn. 


31 


115 




II 


II 


134 


260 








Foreigo 


95 


250 








Norwgn. 


86 


60 








II 


84 


40 








II 


112 


250 








II 


82 


250 




' 




II 


— 


80 



By Bergens Mbkaniskb V;ebksted A B., Bergen. 



t Grane 
t Diana 
t Fulton 
t Europa 



Steel 



ft 
II 



Steam 



II 



11 



II 



Norwgn. 



II 



II 



II 



1,127 I 680 

1,127 ! 580 

1 045 580 

1,045 { 530 



N.B. — The firm has also done a considerable amonnt of 
repair work in connection with their dry dock, which is 265 fl. 

lODg. 

By Fbbdbikstad Meeaniskb V/b bested, Fredriksstad. 
t Frank .. ) Steel ISteamI Norwgn.11,000 I 600 



By Ntlands V^bksted, Christiania. 



t Balduin 
t Irene 
t Seirstad 
* Launch 



Steel 



i» 



II 



II 



Steam 



11 

II 
»i 



Norwgn. 
Swedish 
Norwgn. 



I* 



1,017 

688 

1,000 

8 



650 

600 

650 

20 



By Laaxwaios Shipbuilding & Ekoineebiko Co., Bergen. 



t Flora 
t Volund 
t Alma 

t Peter Hamre 
t Ansgarius.. 
t Stabil 
Capri 



Frosta 
Orkdal 
Walangen 
Solstrand , 



Steel 



11 



If 



Wood 



I* 

II 



Steam I Norwgn.' 1,082 

' 1.087 

 1,031 

11,090 

j (En- 

) I only) 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



i» 
i» 
II 
fl 



580 
680 
580 
680 
400 
320 
880 



ByTaoNDHjEUS Vcebksted. 

— |8team!N'we'gn 



I — 



II 
II 
II 



II 
II 
♦I 



By Feyio Jebkskibsbyogebi, Arendal. 



Inercator 

Ladsen 

Ausgar 

Frida 

Anna 






Steam 


N'we*gn 


1.083 


II 


,1 


1,224 


II 


II 


3,570 


II 


»» 


500 


II 


II 


1,220 



113 I 200 

152 ; 275 

275 I 280 

187 ! 275 



600 
650 
1,800 
650 
200 



BELGIAN. 

By SociETE Anontsib John Coceerill, Hoboken. 



Name of Vessel. 



By J. & K. SxiT, Kinderdijh and Krimpen. 
Puerto Belgrano.. — SteamjForeign 800 



Governor . 
2 Vessels 
Dragon 
No. 515 



II 



Dutch 



♦I 
— Foreign 



700 

240ea 

470 

170 



450 
800 
200ea 
400 
450 



• Compoand. 



t Triplf. 



a Quadruple. 



Dredgers, Nos. 7 A 8 

t Volga 

Tsaritzine 

Tog, No. 1 

„ No. 2 

Kempenaar 

Brazaville.. 

Tug No. 3 . . 

„ No. 4 . . 

Ddlivrance 2, 3. ft 4 

• Russ, No. 1 

• „ No. 2 
Madeleine.. 
Felix Faore, 1 ft 2 



BuUt of 



Steel 



Class. 



Owners. 



G.T. 
Regis. 



Steam! Foreign 



»i 
11 
»» 
ti 
II 
II 
II 
II 
•» 
II 
II 
II 
It 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
fl 



II 



Belgian 



Steam 



II 



It 



II 



•t 
It 
tt 
II 



Foreign 
Belgian 

•• 
Foreign 

II 
Belgian 



It 



I. 
H.P. 

I [2.600 

200 
150 

80 
150 
115 

25 

60 

750 

265 

75 

60 



* Ocmpound. 



f Tripla 



466 



THE If AETNB BNGINEBB. 



[January 1, 1900. 



Messbs. Botal Shipbuilding and Enginbxbino Co., De Schelde, 
FlnBhxDgr, hare yiz. :— 

Class. Tuwoers. i G.T.R. 



Name of Vessvl. 



a Hail Steamer for ) 
• Netberlaud \ 
Steam Ship Co. ) 

t Carf70 do. do. 



BuiU of 



Steel 



Steami Dutch ; 4,480 



I.H.P. 



•^»* *■*'• vivf. ,, ,, I J, ,,, *,v 

YeBsels building^ elsewhere, fnflrioee sapplied by them — 



4,000 
1,600 



Steam 



»» 



Dutch 



»» 



760 
6.000 



Toirboat **Poo1zee" 
\ Battleship "Keni-". 
ngen Begentes" ) 

Messbs. Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, Atosterdam* 
have 7 ▼easels, viz. : — 



Steel 



»♦ 



II 



it 



ft 



tt 



Steam! 



t Timor 

t Van Biemsdjk ... 

t De Klerk 

t Alting 

* Saotion hopper ... 

* Hopper 

* Hopper 

Mbssrs. Webf Conrad, Limited, Haarlem, have 5 bailding and 
1 oontracted for, viz. — 



It 



tt 



tt 



t» 



tt 



Dutch 1 3.650 
M 12.000 
2,000 
1,100 
300 
300 
300 



tt 

tt 
tt 
It 



1.600 
1.660 
1,R60 
760 
200 
200 
200 



Steel 



ft 
It 



Steam jArgentn. 
Roamna. 



>t 



II 



tt 
Cormbia 



400 

450 

200 

50 



300 

650 

75 

40 



t Hoppers 1, 2, 3 

• Dredger No. 215 ... 

 Elevator No. 216... 
X Dredger for goldsand 

Mkssbs. J. k W. Muldbb, Yierverlaten, have 8 barges of 390 

tons for London. 
Messrs. J. Dbewes, Zindbroeck, have 2 barges of 1,656 tons. 
MxssBS. Q. A H. BoDEWES, Martenshoek, have a three-masted 

tchoooer of 250 tons for Alloa, and another of 475 toos for 

Schiedam. 

Messbs. J. & K. Suit, Kinderdijk and Krimpen, have a twin- 
screw hopper-dredger of 860 tons and 600 l.H.P. for Buenos 
Aires, and three screw steamers, one of 60 tons and 60 l.H.P. 
ani two of 330 tons and 325 I.H.P.. for Amsterdam. 



ITALIAN. 
Messrs. Geo. Ansaldo & Co., Sestri, Ponenti, have, vii — 

NaniHorVewei. ~ | BuTit of | Cl>a». ] Q wneiaTTQ.TJT j 

145 



I.H.P. 



ttteei 



11 



Steam 



2 Torpedo boats ... 

2 Passenger k, \ 

Cargo boats ) 

Messrs. Orlando Bros., Leghorn, have — 



'I 



it&lian 



It 



Steel 



»t 

ft 
II 



Steam i Italian 



It 
It 
•I 
II 



tt 
>t 
tt 
II 



t **B." 

I ^^m^ • • • • • • 

t Isola dt Favif^nana 
t Isola di Levanzo ... 

t "BS" 

t"N" 

Messrs. M. Odero k Co., Genoa, have — 

2 VesseU 4.048 ea. tons gross, and 1,600 e%. l.H.P. 
2 4 040e8 1,600 ea. 



j 5,100 



8.272 
7.400 
7.400 
7.400 
9,180 



2.400 
4.000 

1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1.500 
4,000 



tt 



It 



It 



(Kngioes onlj) 



It 



tt 



8,000 



tt 



♦t 



NORWEGIAN. 

Messrs. Nylands Ygebkbteo, Christiania, have — 

Tons flrrost. l.H.P. 
Nos. 118 & 119, steel, steam, Norwegian, 1,432 ea., 700 ea., triple. 
No. 120 „ „ „ 853 650 „ 

MsssRs. Trokdhjems Vcerksted, have — 

No. 88 .. screw steamer ... 800 tons. 600 I.H.P. 
Nos. 89, 91, A 93 „ „ 1,250 es. „ 600 ea. „ 

No. 90 ... „ „ 400 „ 5.50 

No. 92 ... „ „ 320 „ 300 

5 for Bergen, and 1 for Tromso owners. 



tt 






SWEDISH. 
Messr-s. Motala V(erkstad8, Nya, Aktiebolag, have 2 vessels, 
steel, steam, Swedish, 260 ea., l.H.P. Compound. 

Messrh. Linduolmkns, Vebkstads. Gothenburg, have — 

1 vessel 3,500 disp 6,000 l.H.P. 

*■ tt 8,7UU ,1 ... 0,200 

1 It 700 tons gross ... 600 



ti 



ti 



GEBMAN. 
Messbs. Actien-Gesellbchaft Nbptcn Bchxtfswbbft & Masc- 
HiNENFABBiK, Bostock, havc on hand — 

Name of Veaael | Built o f | Clas». | Ownern. ( G.T . K. | l.ILP . 



t 87 
t 88 
t 89 
t 90 
t 91 
• 92 
t 93 



Steel 
























tt 



Steam 



tt 



Messes. Flbnsburgei, Sohiffsbau. Gese 



German 



tt 



French 
German 



It 
tt 

tt 



2,360 
900 
2,400 
1,500 
8,500 
100 
1,500 



850 
500 
860 
600 
1 .000 
400 
600 



Isohaft, Flensbnrg. 



Steel Steam [ German 



t No. 196 Druisburg 
a No. 197 Cap Verde 

a No. 200 

t No. 201 

a No. 202 

t No. 203 

t No. 204 

Messrs. Jakssen <& Schmilinskt, Hambnr 



t» 
It 
»• 
ti 
tt 



i« 
tt 
II 
ti 
i» 
tt 



tt 
tt 

rt 
tt 
tt 
tt 



• Fri^ia 

• No. 391 

• No. 892 

• No. 393 
No. 394 



Steel 



tt 
»t 

t» 



Steam 


German 


168 


It 


i» 


60 


It 


It 


60 


tt 


tt 


120 


— " 


It 


— 



5,220 2.600 

6,000 2.800 

4.800 , 2,400 

5.220 - 2.500 

5,220 > 2.500 

6,200 2.500 

6,200 2,500 



ICO 
220 
220 
260 



Messrs. Odrrwerke, Actien, Gesellechaft, Stettin. 



t No. 508 
No. 509 

 No. 510 

• No. 511 
No. 512 
No. 513 
No. 514 
No. 615 
No. 516 
No. 517 

t No, 618 
t No. 619 
t No. 620 



I Steel 



tt 
tt 
It 

n 
Jt 
It 
ft 
It 
tt 
II 
II 
I* 



Steam 


Forfi^n 
German 


























It 










Foreign 




tt 



640 
95 
24 \ 
2i 

846 
345 
92 
845 
345 
190 
2.803 



1,100 

110 
110 



400 

2,000 
2,300 i 2.000 



Messrs. Rickmers k Co., Bremerhaven, are building — 

Steam i German 1,500 
„ I .t ItlOO 



950 
1,500 



t Tsintau Steel 

* Chungking ... I ,. 

Mr. F. Schichau, Danzig, have on hand — 

Battleship A Stoel Staam German 11 OOOf — 

BattleshioD ..J ,. I „ tt ll.OOCc — 

t Cruiser Nowik ...! ,. j „ Foreign 3, OOOc 17,000 

Messrs. Schiffswerft von Henry Koch. Lubeck. 



t No. 114 .. 


1 Steel 


Steam, German la ],300| 6E0 


t No. 115 .. .. 1 


1, 
ti It ' 


1 1.180> 450 


t No. 117 .. 


ti 


a 1,360 600 


t No. 124 . . 


It 


„ 1 ,. a 1,300 600 


Messrs. Vulcan k Co., Stettin. 






a Ship 245 .. 


Steel 


Steam 


German s 


11.000, 9 000 


a „ 240.. 


It 


It 


* 


11.000 9,000 


a „ 249 .. 


t « 


tt 


• 


14,700 30,000 


t ,. 247 .. 


tt 


. 1 


Russia 


— 20.000 


t ,, 248.. 


tt 


It 


German! 


— 15,000 


Mb. B. Wencke. Hamburg. 






f No. 90 Steel 


S 


team {German 


650 300 


• No. 91 


It 




ti 


1 .. 


80 220 

• 



- I - 



* Compound. 



t Triple. 



a Qasdraple 



Messrs. Howaldts weeks, Kiel. 

9 vessels and 1 Dock | — | 

Messrs. Actien-Gesei.lsckapt "Weber." 

t 2 Cruisers ' ^«teel I Steam 

4 Dockgates ., I — 



— j a.2 000 
German — 



I 15,015 t 8100 
a8,000 



Me89R<. Museke k Co., Stettin, have five vesrelp, including a 
steamer of 2,400 tons and another of 700 tons. 

Mr. Georo Seebeck, Bremerhaven, has 4 bar^eii - 90, 620 and two 
at 739 tons gvoss ; 3 tog bo%tE — two at 30 t-^ns gross and 70 
I.H.P. each, and one at 60 tons mross with 180 l.H.P. ; one 
■toamrr 1,460 tons gross and 1,000 l.H.P. for Sbanvbal : one' 
trawler 180 tg., and one Launch 12 tg. and 40 I.H.P. for 
Congo, all the others for German owners. 



* Compound. t Trlpl*. 



a Quadruple. eDii 



February 1, 1900.] 



THE MABIKE ENGINSEB. 



487 




Mt Mr  V. ■• t^ CTvnM«* iMSMMk 




i 1 1 i I M I I I I i.i 1 1 i I 1 I ! 1 > I 1 I I i I I . t : t I ; I 



■(r 



mv ••* •• •• OS i.» e<.-«M«« •mam% 



I 






r 



r 



I - 



I 



} 



DMCNAM 



f 






9 Mjl I I I t t I  I I  



I 




•W« ••* M l» •■ L^ OijKMM iMCatt) 



« 



488 



Ttiffi MARINE ENGINEER; 






[February 1, 1900. 




**f- 



V.-Smkwwo tmi mo«t cmeicNT ctfr Mr m tni nam laot cwwoms or ( 
OtiT OTF* IN TK« N.P. Cru»o«a I cwr or** m k^.. U^ * L>^ wuM «•■ 
CvuNocn. T • KH-iai • n Botctt.PMMwaa • aio lm^ 

par •4*.*. par Havrx 



<-'■''■''<''''•' 




-•-4- 



< . 1 



OUT ow M •#, t^. M« i.# enjMtfua cMoitat. 



1- 

I T 



a 



I - 



I 



s- 




February 1, l^OO.] 



THE MABINE BKeiNEEB. 



489 



sre gpvtoTDed by the same influenoes as in triples. The nJtioe of: 
the quadruple cylinders are praGtioally all the same, and are, 
identical with the ratios of Diagrams III. and IV. The best' 
cnt-off is aboal 10} in. on the average. This is to be comparedt 
with the best cnt-off in Diagrams I., 11., Ill-, and IV. for the- 
same cylinder ratio. 

Owing to the space they would occupy, it has not been thought; 
desirable to give tables for all the diagrams. Those correspond- 
ing to Diagrams III., IV., and V. are therefore omitted. 

All the trials so far referred to were made without jacket 
steam. In order to determine what influence jackets might 
have on the results, a series of trials were made, the results of 
which are given in Table III. and Diagram VI. The curves of 



practice-— haa no sensible effect .upon t^he maximum economy 
cut-off in the lai;ger cylinders. 

It was not thoQ|(ht necessary in the two last series of trials 
to dunlicate the experiments by varying the cut-off in the other 
eylinaer, as had been done in all the previous trials. 

Table V. and Diagram VIII. give results from the engines 
arranged as double expansion or compound engines, with 
cylinders 7 in. and 28 in. diameter, corresponding to a cylinder 
ratio of 11. In tiiis case maximum economy cut-off in the low 
pressure occurs very early in the stroke, viz., at about 4g in. 

Of course the cylinder ratios 4n these trials have been 
purposely chosen as different from each other as the design of 
the engines allowed, in order to show as definitely as possible 




.- 4-- 







_j 



''^:''-- 'I ■.ii.:.;-'iiiii. ^ -■■'■'■' ^- ■'■-'' t 't J ^ ^1 ,. ,... . I t I, 1 1^  i. i ; 1 ;, t J 1^1 II I li I. ! , i . ' 



•WT •»» M •.• 



I - 



? 



i 



 
r 

i 




I I . I I ! I M-[ 1 > f  t '! •; r , t : i I I  I 



this diagram are to be compared with those of Diagram II. 
when the low pressure cut- on was varied. 

The best cut-off in the low-pressure cylinder with Bteam in 
the jackets is about 5| in., as against (>^ in. without jacket 
steam. The legitimate conclusion seems to be that jackets 
liave no material effect upon the cut-off of maximum economy. 

Table IV. and Diagram VII. show results of trials made with 
the intermediate-pressure receiver capacity doubled as fompare<l 
with its capacity under the conditionH of Dia^'ram II. An 
inspection of Diagram VII. shows that the best cut-off in the 
intermediate-pressure cylinder is practically identical with that 
of Diagram II. It may therefore be concludcvl tliat variation in 
receiver capacity — at least within limits generally m»!isible in 



the connection which subsists between cyliniler ratio and the 
cut-off corresponding to highest efficiency. This \m\Hir does 
not profess to deal with the entirely distinct questions of the 
best cylinder ratios or the best total number of ex})ansions for 
steam* of different pressures. The particular values of the 
cylinder ratios used in these trials are therefore of no economic 
signiticance, except in so far as they are associated with the 
best cut-offs in the larger cylinders of the engines. And it is 
obvious that the more widely the experimental ratios iliffer 
from each other the more clearly will ilieir special coiniection 
with the jjoint wo are in search of he indiiate'l. Hence the 
ri^n^jn for the trials of Diagram VIM., an«.l <u;h an unus'ul 
ratio as 11 to 1. 



t f 



.1 



• ^\. 



■«' 



>l 



490 



THE KAttlKS SNGINEEB. 



[February I, 1900. 



* ^ >' 



An examination of the whole of these resulta shows that the 
oAe and only factor which afifects materially the cat-off of 
afuudmum economy in any one of the cylinders foUowing the 
high pressure cylinder is the ratio hetween the cylinder in 
question and the immediately preceding cylinder. In other 
words, the ratio hetween any two successive cylinders is the 
one factor which determines the point of of maximum 
economy cut-off in the second of the two cylinders. 

In the suhjoined table, column II. simis up the results from 
all the trials, in the shape of the best cut-os for each value of 



B, as in Diagram IX., will be seen to lie practically in a 

line. The equation to this line will be found to be as foUowsT — 

jj Best cut-off _ R -f 6'6 



Stroke 



6-6 



From this follows the best cut-off in terms of B, viz. : — 

Best cut-off ^ R - 6-6 

Stroke 66 B ' 

This last expression is an equation to a curve which is plotted 



DIAGRAM No. IX. -Shswino Rbceivkr Drop or MAXfMUM economy. 

OnoiNATM OP Line 



o 

X 



jf 



4» 



O 
0:0 



I* 

> 
< 



3 
u 




I I 



... U-. 









f 



OP WO mcigivm owop 



I 'I ! 

l'i:^!ii:'fi^^'i'!|'IINMIl|MMIIIIl|llllMMl|l!!l.|t|l|lllllllll|lllMIIII^IIIIMMlh!i 



- ANY CVUWOeW CAPACITY 

pulecDma CYuiNocR capacity  " 



cylinder ratio (R). The figures in column III. represent 
maximum economy ratios of free expansion in the receivers. 



I. 


II. 


III 


Anv Cylinder 






Capacity. 


Best Cut-off in 


« ^ Best Cutoff 
Stroke. 


Preceding Cylin- 


Inches of Stroke. 


der Capacity. 






B. 






2195 


lOi 


1-28 


2195 


lOi 


1-28 


2195 


lOi 


1-28 


2195 


lOJ 


1-31 


2195 


lO'i 


1-31 


2-296 


10 


1275 


2-296 


11 


1-4 


4-86 


6a 


1-72 


504 


H 


1*85 


1100 


48 


2-67 



Those figures are therefore proportional to the receiver drop, 
with which is associated maximum economy in the several 
cases. The values in column HI., when plotted to a base of 



in Diagram X., and from which diagram the best cut-off for 
any cylinder ratio can be read off by inspection in fractions of 
the stroke. On the same diagram is shown, merely for com- 
parison, the curve of cut-off for no receiver drop. 

In the tabulated values of B, allowance is made for clearances, 
and also for areas of piston rods. By ** best cut-off " is meant 
the particular cut-off in the larger cylinders at which maximum 
economy occurs. 

It was very noticeable in the working of the engines that late 
cut-offs were distinctly conducive to smoothness of running, 
uniformity of turning moment, and durability of bearings; 
whilst early cut-offs were always accompanied by a comparative 
absence of these desirable qualities. With early cut-off in any 
cylinder the engines always appeared to labour heavily, and to 
work with jars and thump6,whicn symptoms entirely disappeared 
when the cut-off was increased. Owmg to the absence of a fly- 
wheel any tendency towards inequality of turning was rendered 
very evident, and was, in addition, automaticidly recorded on 
the brake diagram. 

Moreover, late cut-offs, being associated with amftllnegg of 
valve travel, and all that this entails, are conutmctively prefer- 
able to early cut-offs. Late cut-offs also favour handiness in 
starting and reversing. From many points of view, therefore, 
it follows that late cut-offs are greatly preferable to early cut- 
offs. But, as shown by Diagram X., late cut-offs, in the larger 
cylinders at least, can only be adopted with economy when uie 
cylinder ratios are small. This leads to the conoluaion that, 
other things being equal, the most satisfactory engine as reguds 
smoothness of working, durability, and economy, in io far •• 



Pehpuiry 1, 1900.] 



THE MAEINB ENGUTBEB. 



491 



affected by ncwivet drop, will be that en^e irttioh ottftiiu » 
gma d^cee o* total expaoaion with the Binalle* t oylinder ntioa, 
<it at least with ratios not eioeeding a certain limi t, 

It was Decenary to bear in mind that, although rsanlts are here 
givflD from double, triple, and qnadrnpla expansion, no valid 
oomparison can— ^n the results as they now stand—be instituted 
between these three methods of working. To institute soeh a 
oomparison all the different results must be reduced to a oorn- 
mon baeia aa renrds vacuum, barometer, steam pressure, Ac 
and this has not been done in the paper because not oecesaarT 
for the purposes in view. 



th« OMtte impoTtant of the dednotionB which mav be made from 
the results at the trials: — 

1. For marim u m eomtomv of ooninmption, steam mast be 
out off at a oertaiD pcunt of the stroke in Uie laraer cylinders of 
mnltiple-espansioii engines. For any given cylmder this point 
depends solely upon Uie ratio between the capacities of (hat 
oyhnder and the preceding oyUnder (Rl, and is expressed as 
follows, VIZ. :— 

Maximnm econom y cut-off R -|- 6*6 
. , stroke " ~ " ^■6"R" 

This IB the principal and most important conclusion deduced 



In DiagEsma XI. to XV. inclusive, are given some samples of 

Xaded indicator cards. These particuUr cards have been 
ted from a very large number, m order to show the effects, 
by contrast, of extreme variations is cut-off. The notes on the 
diagrams are sufficiently explanatory without further reference. 
The " mean pressure " on each card is that reduced to the low 
pressure cylinder. It therefore represents comparative power 
iutbesevenUcvlinders. It will be noticed that there is no marked 
evidence that maximum economy is associated either with 
equality of power or with equality of lemperatore ranges in the 
several oylindera. 

J>tihutKm fnm the Reiulli.—Tiie following is a summary of 



from the trials, and— as already explained— is embodied In 
Diagram X. 

3. It follows from No. 1 that the cutoff in the larger 
cylindera, onoo fliod, should never be altered, whatever may bs 
the cnt-oO in the high pressure cylinder, or the steam pressure 
employed. This means that automatic expansion govemrns 
or linking-up gear, should act upon tha high pressure cylinder 
only, if maximum economy at all powers is to be pre- 

3. The cut-off in the larger cylinders affects materially the 
total liorse power developed by the engines. As regards the 
low pressure cylinder of triples, and the second intermediate 



492 



rH£ M&BINEIENOINEIB. 



[F«bnury 1, 190*; 



BDcl low presaare cylinder! of qtudruple , 
oH in these cylinders coincides with tiio cut-uff of niitximiini 
economy. As regards the second cylinder of triiilcs uml 
qiiadraples, maximum power cut-off is very conuirtcrably later 
th*a (hat of maximum economy. In compounds the maximum 
poller oat-ofF io the low pressure cylinder in only ulightly Intci* 
thu that ot manimuni economy. See Diain^niD I. to VIII. 

t. When cylinder ratio (K) is sniall — say from 2 to '2-'t — the 
cut'Off in Uie larger cylinders may be varied considerably from 
that uorrcspoudinij to Diaximum economy, without any appre- 
ciable fall in economy. But ivhen V. is largL-. there in no auch 
permisHible deviation nitliout entailing as a consciiuencea fall 
in eHicioiiuy. 

5. With (pvcn cfticiency in receiver di'up, smolhiess of 
cylinder ratio is con<hicive tosmoothnessof n'orkinj<, uniformity 
of ttiming, durability, liuidiuess in startini; aiul rcverain).', au(l 
coni|>iic(ncsa uf design. 






HOSSBBBO'SPATBHI ROLLER THRUST BLOCK 



IN oar iseae of October last year we gave a desorip. 
tion and illuatrations of the patent roller bearing- 
I of the MoHsberg Boiler Bearings, Limited, of 6b 
Victoria Street, London, S.W., which clearly set forth 
; the general priociplea and arrangement of parts which 
; obtain in these devices. We have now the pleasure of 
illustrating the roller bearing in the form of a thrnst 
, block for a propeller shaft. By reference to thtr 
adjoining diagram it will be seen that Fig. 1 is a per- 
spective view of the tbraat block complete, whilst 
; Fig, 2 is a similar view with the cover over the roller 
: elements removed. 

The block generally is in the main casting similar 
. to those now nsed with horseshoe collars, the central 
: portion or recess forming an oil bath. This main 
, casting carries a cylindrical bearing at the fore and 
'■ aft ends, within which the shaft is jonxnalled. The 
I shaft carries centrally disposed the live roller path 
- collar, a path being arranged apon both faoes. This 
I collar is in halves and bolted together by through bolts 
I around the shaft. 

! The stationary roller paths are arranged one on each 
cylindrical bearing ; these are also in huves. Between 
the pairs of live and stationary paths rings carrying 
the rollers are inserted. These rollers are conical, so 
that the peripheral speed along their length is pro- 
portional to the distance at which any particular part 
of the roller is situated from the centre of the ahoft. 
These rings are also in halves, and are constructed to 
hold the rollers in place when the ports of the throst 
bearing are being assembled. 

The stationary paths are adjosted and net np in 
proper position relative to the live paths by means of 
set screws, two of which are arranged at each end of 
the main casting. 

As an interesting fact relative to this particalar clut 
of bearing, we illustrate in Fig. 3 one of the Mossbarg 
patent end thrust bearings loaded with 8,000 Ibi^ 



498 



THE HABIME EITeiNBBB. 



[February ViMO/ 



MABINB BNaiMSERS' NOTES- 

{From our own Corrtipondmt.] 

A MEETING of the Iimtitute of Marine Eiieineerii took 
pUce on Jana&ry 8th at the institute premises, when 
an interetttiiifj iliecuiiBion took place on the paper read 
at a previous meeting by Mr. Halliday on " Experi 
menta Jiowing Decreaae in the lUte of Evaporation in con- 
sequence of Increase in the Bate of Circulation through the 
Tubea of Wat^r-tube Boilers." An abstract of the [laper was 
Hiven in lost month's " Engineers' !Sotcs." Mr. Halliday 
opened the discussioD by explaining that the figures given wore 
not absolute numbers bat comparative. Cc^roctions would 



water as it flows from Ifae (abe, and this u approximatalf « 

ooustant quantity whatever qoantity may be flowing thiongh. 
The effect, therefore, of the loss of heat dae to this will 
be an approximately constant deduction from the qoantity 
of water evaporated. At the separator there will also he aome 
trouble. Corrections wit] require to be made in consequence 
of the loss of heat at the surface. The effect of this will be a 
fairly constant loss to the ^naotity of water evaporated aa 
shown by the results. It is desirable that results should be 
obtained which are very nearly correct, but even without them 
the results show comparatively what goes on when the velocity 
of the flow is chan^jed. Mr. Lawrie had objections to the tank 
with a greater head being used for obtaining the necessary rale 
of circulation, Ue thought that the ciicuiatioii should be piO' 




nec<8garily require to be made in order that the numbers should 
represent the whole evaporation in each experiment. For 
example, if it is assumed that the water to be supplied for the 
expenment is at a lens temjierature than the boiling jioint, 
that tcmjieralure will rei|uirc to be made n|i before the genera- 
tion of steam bv^'ins. And the quantity of lioat iiui-essary tu bo 
given to the waUr flowing in the tube niusl hu dcfluctcd from 
the whole quantity givi'n to the tube by the former. Should 
a greater quantity of water be set flowing, then a greater quan- 
tity of heat inunt be deducted from the total quantity of heat 
supplied. Virtually, llien, it is equivalent to saying tliat a less 
quantity of heat is available for causing evaporation when the 
Ito of flow is greater. There si also a lowi of boat by the 




TUBOTILB VlLVE. 

duced by heat ae it was in the case of water-tube boilers. When 
Mr. Halliday said, " First of all it may be premised that the 
accepted view is tliat the evaporation increases wiUi the 
rapidity of circulation of water through tubes ; that is, the 
faster the water runs through the tubes, it is believed, the 
quicker is the ovai>oration of sli;ani. This is the universal view 
with one exception." In this iiaragraph the author made a 
slatenient that was not aljsolutely correct. If he had said that 
this was Ibe view of experts, he would have been ne*rer the 
truth, liecause moat practical men held that circulation was not 
everything, for in the caite of water-tube boilers which had m 
free discharge from the upper ends of their tnbes the leenlte 
were not better thaa in tbe case ol boilois with drowned tttbeo. 



500 



"THE MABINB ENGINBBB. 



[FAbraary 1, 19tf0: 



termed, is now being mumfaetoied by Maasra. 
Capetiek & Carefn]], engiueen, of Liverpool, for 
Gomish'a UariDe Aatomatic-Lead Syndicate, Limited, 
tfaepiopTieto;8 of the macbiDe. 

Jnie inventor baa for the last eight years filled 
tbe responsible position of Buperintendent of the 
dredging operations at tbe bar of the river 
Hent^, under the Mersey Docks and Harbour 
Board, of Liverpool. Daring these eight years a 



rents and different depths in relation tp 
npon sonndins apparatas. He aimed atp rodncing a 
sounder whicn enoold be easy to use and .give a 
correct and continuous automatic record — on deck, on 
the bridge, or in a captain's cabin. Tbe apparatus may 
be desormed as consisting of two mun parts: a vinding 
and recording machine, which iB'pla(»dat a desired 
spot on tbe ship, and a set of three "towing wires " 
and a "lead-wire," which are submet^ad for aaeer- 



pansage baa been dredged through the bar, so that, for 
some time past, the largest ocean-going steamers and 
aailing ships have been able to enter and leave the 
Mersey at any state of the tide, which could not be 
done before the dredging operations referred to began. 
During the operations sounding has gone on almost 
without interruption, the effect of tbe dredging beiilg 
closely watched. In designing his automatic-lead, 
Ur. Cornish had the advantage of a large experience 
f marine sounding, and of the effects of strong cur- 



taining the depth of the water. The purpose of the 
three towing wires is to furnish means of working 
an efficient "sinker," which is towed or "trailed" 
along the bottom as tbe vessel using the automatio- 
lead moves forward. When the length of ship admits 
thereof the drum carrying the towing wire! will 
usually be placed well forward on tbe ship, and the 
lead-wire, which is the recording-wire, will be worked 
through an outrigger placed aft. When in itse the 
towing wires are paid out, and the disc, or lead,- tnUa 



FelnTiiry 1, 1900r| 



IBS "MSSmE 3!lfOIliKKft. 



W- 



iUoBtratioD is adapted for uae on Tertioal engines, uid 
is Bupplied with eoapltng nnta A and £ for | in. or ^ in. 
bore orasB pipes for connecting the inBtrument to the 
indicator pipes or direct to the cylinder ends. If it is 
desired to use J in. bore conneotiog pipes the instm- 
ment is fitted with a special coupling oat. The 
pressnie ganges are connected with the valve box by 
copper pipes C and D, and fine regalating valves E 
and F serve tot throttling the pressure gauges ; whilst 



a doable-beat -nim N, onder the action of the vteam, 
makes the eommnnieation between the back-pressure 
gauge Q and the back-prossnre side of the piston ; 
iS and T ore dlrt-collectinK pockets, which are cleared 
by removing the plugs V and Tt'. This instrament, 
which is automatic, and requires no driving gear, will 
give for all ordinary cases a very close approximation 
to the result obt^ned with an ordinary indicator ; but 
in engines sometimes working under a very large and 



tbeie are two throttling cocks G and If on the valve 
box for the purpose of initial throttling to prevent the 
disappearance of the water from the gauge mihons. 
Soswed plugB J and K are provided for blowing 
throngb the instrument when required and for filling 
the syphons with water. The constant communica- 
tion of the forwaid-presBure gauge with the forward- 
pressure side of the piston is secured by a ball valve 
Jf, which is pushed forward at the end of every stroke 
by the greater pressure of the incoming steam, thus 
making communication between the gauge P and the 
high-pressure side of the piston, and closing the com- 
muuloation to the other aide of the piston. Similarly 



var^g degree of oompresaion, such as locomotive 
engines, an error is introduced, owing to the reversal 
of the valves taking place too early in the stroke, and 
a special arrangement has been designed to obviate 
this difficulty. The Bipper indicator possesses, 
amongst other advantages, that of enabling the load 
at which the engine is running to be seen at a glance ; 
and in compound or triple -expansion engines it 
shows whether the load is evenly or unevenly dis- 
tributed over the different cylinders. It is also readily 
ascertained how far above or below the " rated load " 
the engine is working, whilst the power required to 
drive ooy machine or portion of a workshop oan be 



52S 



THE MAEINE ENGINEEB. 



[February 1, 1900. 



Beeent applications for Patents connected vtiih 
Marine Engineering* Ship Constractioc* ana 
Mechanical Appliances for use in Shins, from 
NoTem1:er 15th, 1899^ to December 6th, 1899. 



iS732 

S8744 
S3745 
22755 
32766 
227d& 
22806 
2284S 
22881 
22898 
2S918 
229S1 
22982 
23997 
2300a 
23007 
29D43 



29066 
29091 
28101 
23126 

2S130 
2313a 
23144 
23151 
23152 
23162 
23171 

23177 
23186 
23189 
2B19B 
23199 
23211 
23213 
23221 
23332 
23238 

23248 
23332 
23341 
23342 
23355 
23370 
233K5 
23397 
23430 
23434 
23446 
23479 
23553 
235C8 

23569 

23570 

23573 
28670 
23673 
28677 



28700 
28707 
23744 
28751 
28779 
28793 
28825 

23847 



H. H. Leigh. (F. J. Sprague, F. T. Bowles, and G. H. 

Hill, United States.) Watertight doors. 
A. Goodwin. Pistoir packing. 
J. Gibson. Loading coal in ships' hold*. 
W. H. Willson and M. S. Conly. Engines. 
G, Green. Feed -water heaters for boilers. 
W. Clarke. ' Marine life-saving jacket. 
H.H.Lake. (F. A. Dalay, United States.) Furnaces. 
W. D. Hamilton. Water- tube boilers 

C. V. Suppan and B. Szendi Ship propellers. 

L S. McDougall and N. N. Haigh. Feed-water filters. 
J. J. B. Arter. Friction clutches. 
A. Peter. Rotary pump. 

F. I. Groese and P. Boubalt. Petroleum engine. 
W. H. Robinson. Wrenches. 

D. A. and J. B. Blair and R. BaiUie. Condenser. 
L. Myers and F. R. Baker. Compass. 

C. R. Boswell. VaJves for steam engines. 

G. V. L. Chauveau. Balanced engines. 
A. W. Baxter. Valve. 

A. F. Cole. Valves 

L. Wohner. Feed-water heaters and purifiers. 

T. W. Nordenfelt and A. Christophe. Generating 

steam. 
H. La^we. Crank driving mechanism. 
H. J. Kimman. Portable pneumatic tools. 
T. Melrose. Steam whipping engine. 

E. F. J. Spafford. Teaching the use of mariners' compass. 
R. Richardson. Direct-acting steam engines. 

G. R. Da vies. Flue-cleaners for boilers. 

A. J. Boult. (C. F. Bainter, G. W. Possell, and C. M. 
Persons, United States,) Purifying feed-water. 

E. H. J. C. Gillett. Closing the ends of boiler tubes. 
H.J. Kimman. Pneumatic riveting device. 
J. A. Hopewell. Marine pro{)ellers. 
J. Maudslay. Steam generators. 

B. E. Dickinson. Friction clutches. 
J. P. Cowing. Bascule lift bridges. 

A. Colome's covering, Ac. Leaks in ships. 

H. Loose and G. Schreyer. Self-acting lubricator. 

J. Aufreckt. Rotary engine. 

E. A. Ventillard and E. Scherding, jun. Injecting fuel 
into furnaces. 

W. E. Hickling. Apparatus for raising water. 
G. A. Newton. Boiler furnaces and fines. 

F. W. Lanchester. Vajwrisers for engines. 
F. \y. fjanch ester. Packing of piston-rods. 
A. Kesson. Pumping machinery. 

T. Matthews and R. Howcroft. Metallic packings. 

N. Fortescue. Hopper barges. 

A. J. van Stoc'kum Gear for torpedoes. 

J. Brown. Shipbuilding. 

J. Patterson. Reversing gear for engines. 

J. Srait. Prevention of incrustation in boilers. 

F. G<X)dwill. Otter board for trawl nets. 
A. Coard. Engine. 

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Wliit worth & Co., Limited, and 

E. L. Orde. Burners for liquid fuel. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co , Limited, and 

E. L. Orde. Supporting burners. 
Sir W\ G. Armstrong, Whitworth ft Co., Limited, and 

T. Wyse. Attachable designs. 

A. J. D. iioult. (C. de Haupt, Belgium.) Phigine valves. 
W. Robins. Fixing valves to pumps. 

W. H. Booth. Pumping machinery. 

H. Bowman and J. T. Southworth. Pumps. 

J. Wright. Surface heaters or condensers, 

J. and R. Temi)erley. Valves for steam engines. 

B. Ljungstrom. Balanced rotary steam engines. 

C. G. Borthwick. Internal combustion engines. 
J. H. Darragh. Rotary engine. 

G. H. At trill. Collapsible rowing crutch. 
E. W. Wynne. Steam boilersl 

W. Reavell, E. B. Ball, and Reavell A Co., Limited. 

Shaft governors for motive. power engines. 
T. R. Smith. Rotary engine. 



BO^RD OF TRADE EXAMINAXIONS- 



Extra First Class. 



January 20th, 1900 Bulow, Viggo C Ex IC London 

Deans, Alex. R Ex IC „ 

Kluge, Thomas E Ex IC Swansea 

Olford, Frank Ex IC Plymouth 

Simpson, James Ex IC Liverpool 

Williams, Harry A. . . Ex IC Cardiff 
NoTK.— IC denotes Fust Class ; 2C Second Class. 



>i 



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jt 



If 



It 



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(I 



♦I 



>« 



December 16th 
(Continued 
Macpherson, D. IC 
Matthewson. J. IC 
McDougall, J.N. 2C 
McDuff, John.. 2C 
McLean, Jas. . . IC 
Montgomery, S. IC 
Moore, Thomas IC 
Munton, Wm... 2C 
Murray, Thomas 2C 
Porter, Geo. F. 2C 
Ridley, A. E. . . 2C 
Robson, Wm. . . IC 
Shaw, David R. 2C 
Sinclair, Wm... 2C 
Vasiliades, C. .. 2C 
Watson, R. P.. . 2C 
Wilkinson, Wm. 20 
Williams, G. S. IC 



1899. 

Liverpool 
N.Shields 
Greenock 



»» 



December 
Anderson, J. W. 
Atkinson, R. H. 
Ball, George . . 
Barr, David C. 
Beilbey, N.II... 
Bell, Frederick 

Boyd, A. E 

Brown, D. S. . . 
Buglass, R.W.B. 
Campbell, P. . . 
Cochran. J. F. . . 
Crawford, John 
Davison, Fredk. 
Dent, Thos. A. 
Dixon, Tom .... 
Elliott, John W. 
Fernie, David M 
Forde, Thos. A. 
Garnett, J. A. . . 
Gillies, Thos. C. 
G leave, James.. 
Gordon, J. F. . . 
Gore, David .... 
Gresham, W. J. 
Hall, William . . 
Henderson, A.G. 
Henderson,C.N. 
Hunter, HughK. 
Hutchinson, C. 
Jones, Charles., 
Jones, John M. 
Jones, Wm, E. 
Lowe, John W. 
MacLean, C. S. 
Marten,DavidH. 
Maxwell, David 
M'Carthy. J. J. 
McFarlaine, M. 
Mileaon, G. £... 
Miller, D. A. . . 
Nicol, Donald.. 
Park, Wm. H... 
Payne, Wm. . . 
Pearson, Gea P. 
Smith» E. M. . . 
Stephenson, WJ 

Stewart, N 

Summers, P. N. 



London 

Liverpool 

N.Shields 

Liverpool 

London 

N.Shields 
Leith 

Greenock 
Hull 

•» 
Liverpool 

23rd. 

2C London 
IC „ 
2C Cardiff 
2C; Glasgow 
IC N.Shields 
IC 

IC Cardiff 
2C N.Shields 
IC Dundee 
20 Glasgow 
IC Dundee 
2C Glasgow 
2C N.Shields 
20 Cardiff 
10 N.Shields 
20 W. Hart'l 
10 Dundee 
20 Cardiff 
20 W.Hart'l 
20 Bristol 
20 Liverpool 
20 Glasgow 
20 N.Shields 
20 London 
20 W.HartU 
20 Glasgow 
10 N.Shields 
10 Liverpool 
IC „ 
10 N.Shields 
20 Liverpool 
10 Cardiff 
10 W.Hart'l 
2C Glasgow 
20 Liverpool 
20 

10 W. Hart'l 
10 Glasgow 
20 N.Shields 
20 Glasgow 
IC 

10 N.Shields 
10 W.Hart'l 
IC N.Shields 
20 Liverpool 
IC N.Shields 
20 Liverpool 
2C W.Hart'l 



»» 



»» 



»» 



IJmpleby, R. E. 20 W.Hart'l 
Wildsmith, E.G. 10 
Williams, James 10 London 
Wood, John Wfcl 2C Glasgow 
Woolfenden, W. 20 Liverpool 

December 30th. 
Allan, George .. 20 N.Shields 
Brewer, 0. W.. . 10 Liverpool 
Brewis, Joseph 20 Sun 'land 
Brodrick, Harry 20 Hull 
Bvrne, Alfred . . 20 Liverpool 
Campbell, P J J 20 London 
Chad wick, J. M. IC Liverpool 
Cockayne, H. . . 10 
Cretney, W. D. 20 
Cunningham, T. 20 
Dakin, Norman 20 Hull 
Darling, John . . 20 Liveri^ool 
Dixon, Thomus 20 N.Shields 
Downie, A. 0... 10 Liverpool 
Duffy, James .. 10 N.Shields 
Earle, Wm. R. 20 
Henderson, Jas. 20 Aberdeen 
Hind, Frederick 20 N.Shields 
James, Wm. F. 20 London 
Mills, Andrew . . '2C Sun'land 
Mohrke, A. W. 20 

Morris, R 20 Liveri>ool 

Nicolson, W. J. 20 Aberdeen 
O'NeU, R. S. . . 20 London 
Pascoe, George IC Liverpool 
Pickering, H.W. 20 
Plater, H. T.B. 20 London 
Prentice,T.S.M. IC 
Purvis, John . . 10 N.Shields 
Reay, Gabriel . . 20 Sun'land 
Ross, Robert .. IC N.Shields 
Shakle, Jas. G. 10 London 
Thompson, H.G. 20 Liverpool 
Tulloch, Jas. E. 10 Aberdeen 
Tunley,Porcy J. 10 Hull 
Whitworth, I W 20 N.Shields 
Williamson, J R 10 Liverpool 
Worden, R. A. 2C Sun'land 
Young, Geo. A. 10 London 

January 6th, 1900. 
Adam, John . . IG Glasgow 
Charles, W. N. 2C Cardiff 
Cooper, R.W... IC „ 
Davies, Enoch 10 S'thmptn 
Evans, Evan . . IC Cardiff 
Evans, G. H. . . 2C „ 
Ferguson, J. . . 20 Glasgow 
Ferguson, John 2C 
Galloway, Robt. 20 
Grieve, Thomas 20 
Hughes, J.M... 20 S'thmptn 
Johnston, A. . . 10 Glasgow 
Louttit, J. W... 2C 
MacKinnon, D. 10 
Mayer, Thos. •• IC 
M'Clafferty, J. . . 20 
Meiklejobn,A.A. 10 
M'Intosh, D. J. 10 
Munro, W. £..• 20 
Neilson, T. J. .. 2G 
Richards, E. W. SC Cardiff 
Ritchie, Jas. • • IC Glaagow 



(t 



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»f 



«t 



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•• 



t» 



I* 



tf 



633 



THB HABINE EKGINEES. 



[Xar:<li 1, 1900. 



nMdiate-preuiire oylinder paaaoB into (he middle port of the 
valve, then into the receiver or oonnectiiig-plpe to the valve for 
the two low.preasnre cylmdera. Thia valve, whioh diffsrs 
Bomewliat from the afore-mentioiied valve on aooonnt of the 
slesm preBsnre in the two oylindera being the aame, has only 
' three ports. Xlie two end ports convey the ateam from the 
in termed iate-preasu re receiver to the forward low-preunre 
cylinder, by the atraight ports at the top and bottom of the 
cylinder ; and the exhaust ateam paaaes over the enda of the 
valve into ita interior, (hence to the exhaust or middle port of 
the valve, which ia open to the oondenser. The steam to the 
after low-pressure cylinder ia admitted through the same two 



^> * 



to hid fair (o oaaae some revolution in ship dadgn, at I 
in the internal arrweemeDta, by devoting Oia apttoe  
to other parpoees. 



THE EDSON BECORDIHG GAUGE. 



THE utility of a oontinnotu mphio record of %af 
phecomenoii or fonctioa has been recognitea 
now for many years, as ia exempiified by recording 



end p^rta o( thia valve, by the carved porta leading to the top 
aad battom of the cylinder; the eiliaust from the cylinder 
piaajs into the luIdJlc port of the valve, atid from there to tbe 
condenser. 

Prom what ha« been said, and what is shown in the 
illustration, it will be apparent that the advantages gained 
for the same power by BidoptiDg the Clyde balanced piston- 
valvs are savinx in B^iace, reduction In weight, and fewer 
working parts. Fig. 3 shows two highpreasare vatvea inside 
one' casing, and Fig. 4 shows two low-pressure valves inside 
one casing- The aabjoct appears to the writer to be of 
sofHcient interest and importance to warrant liis bringing it 
Under the notice of the lusti(a(ioii ; in fact, i( aeema to him 



barometers, gauges ou water maias, and just lately 
coatioooua indicator for engines. The same prinaipta 
bas been employed for recording the coarse of a ship 
npoa a continuous chart. Tbe dedactioas and eoa- 
cmsioQS to be drawn from a record of absolate con- 
tinuity are much more reliable aud correct as a batit 
than any number of independent observations takoa 
at specific interrala of time. 

We have pleasure now in describing and illasttat 
iog tbe Edson Beoording Gauge) which ia being intro 
dueed into this country oy Alusrs. FindUy & Battle