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Assoc. I.N.A., H.'N. M.I. Mar. Eng. 

Vol. XYII From April, 1895, to March, 1896. 

tonHon: • ' 




• • • • • 

••• • \ • • • • 


PUBLIC library! 

fw f i 



( • • *•• • • • • 


Address by the President of the InsHtutloii of Naval Architects, 4a 

Admiralty and Water-Tube Boilers, The, a 

Admiralty Doekyards and Private Contract, iso 

Adoption of a Simple Code of Signal Whistles in Fog, as7 

Alominlam Metal for Boat Building, 87 

Amalmmated Society of Engineers, 383 

American-built Marine Engines, 465 

An Address by Mr. F. Mo^. J.P.. 381 

Annual Dinner of the Institution of Marine Engineers, aS7 

Belleville Boiler. 301 

Belleville Water-Tube Boiler as used on Ironclads, a 

Bilge Keels on various Battleships, 41 

British and Chinese Worlunen. 44a 

British Engineers and Shipbuilders, 34a 

British Mails crossing the Atlantic, aiy 

British Shipyards ana Engine Shope open to Foreimers, 85 

Bureau of Steam Engineering in the united Sutes Navy, 3JS3 

China and Japan, 30a 

Clyde and BcOSsst, Strife between Capital and Labour, 383 

Collision between the ** Elbe ** and the " Crathie,** z 

County Council and the River Thames, 4^6 

Denny, A., Bsa., President of the Institution of Junior Engineers, 341 

** Elbe ** and the ** Craithie,*' Collision between the, z 

Engineering Skill and Science, 341 

Evolution of the Water-Tube Boiler, 42$ 

Experimento, and theoretical deductions therefirom, of Battleships at Sea, 41 

Bzperimento on the Water-Tube Boilers 433, 

Foreign Improvers in Drawing Offices, 83 

High-speed Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, 301 

Increase and Decrease of the Amplitudes of Rolling, 

Increased Expenditure upon the British Navy, 463 

loatltute of Marine Engineers, Dinner of the, 257 

Institution of Innior Engineers, 341 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers in Glasgow, 317 

Institntion of Naval Architects, 4a 

Iron and Steel Industries, 38X 

Launching of the " Victorious,** 30Z 

Machinery of the *' St. Louis '* and " St. Paul,** 463 

** Ma^ific^t," completion of the, 238 

Mail Service to and from New York^i7 

Marine Department of the Board of Trade, 177 

Marine Engineering in the United Sutes, 38a 

Naval Construction and Armaments Co., 301 


Naval Policy for, 1896, 463 

Navy and the Mercantile Marine, 341 

North-German Liner ** Elbe*' and the "Crathie,** Collision between the, i 

Penn, Messrs. John ft Sons, 338 

Personnel of this Navy, 41^ 

Preventing Collisions at Sea, 357 

Private and Foreign Steamers for Post Office Work, 317 

Rapid Construction and Cooopletion of a First-class Battleship, 338 

Sheathing Ships to Prevent Fouling, 139 

Shlpbollaing aind Engineering Industries, 343 

Shipbuilding Trade and Labour Troubles, 303 

Signal Whistles for use in Fog, 337 

StoblUty of Vessels, 130 

«• Starfish,** Suooesnul Trials of the, 301 

Stem Wheel Boats on the Congo, 86 

Summer Meeting of Institution of Mechanical Enj^ineers, 3x7 

Tbunes River and the Tramway Co., 436 

The Relation between Capiul and Labour, 383 

Torpedo-Boat and Destroyers, 381 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyer " Starfish,** 301 

Vessels Built at Government Dockyards and Private Tender, 139 

Vessels of Different Types for Rivers, 86 

Vlbradons set up by Hlish Speed Engines, 86 

" Victorious,** Launch in g of the, 301 

Warship Design and Buoyancy, 436 

Watertiight Doors in Bulkheatu, xiy 

Watertight Subdivision of Ships, 

Water-Tube Boilers, 3x8 

Water-Tube v. Cylindrical Boilers, a 

Yarrow's Ssperlments on the Water-Tube Boilers, 433 


Aocelerated Twin-Screw Mall and Express Service to the North of Ireland, 
Lancashire and Yorkshire and London and North Western Railways, 
390 (and six plate supplements) 

Advanced Radial Drilling Machine, 309 

Alley & Maclellan*s ** Sentinel ** Steam Steering Gear, 3 

American Line, The, 334 

A me r ican Liners, Twin-Serew Steamers ** St. Louis*' and " St. Pattlt''a7o,479 

Anebor, The ** Defiance** Patent, 104 

ApptnUQt for Ralalog Bimkeo Ships, 147 

Asqulth*s Advanced Radial Drilling Machine. 309 

Addnson & Leathers* Cold Sawing Machine. 35? « , , 

Audible DirecUon Indicator, TheWUmot-Thackeray Patent, att 

Automatic Feed Regulator, 239 

Automatic Water Gauge, Safety, 303 

Bain ft Alnsley*s " Ha-Hy ** Course Corrector. 6a 

Baldwin's Patent *' Perfect** Sight-Feed Lubricator, 304 

BoUer, a Marine Type Donkey 46 

Boiler Drilling Machine, Buder's Improved Special. S7 

Boiler Feed Regulator, Thomycroft Patent, 330 

Boilers of the American Uner, '• St. Louis,*' 333 

Boilers, On Water^Tube, 132 _ , 

Boiler/rhe NicUusse Wate1^Tube, 178 

Brush, Improved Steel-Wire, too 

Buder's Improved Special Boiler Drillliig Maehlne, 37 

Cargo Boat "Georric,** The new White Star. x87^ 

Chunel Steamer, ^Wicklow,** The new, 133 (and pUte tupplemant) 

ClrcuUdon of Water in BoUers, The, 466 

Cold Sawing Machine, Addnson & Leadiers*. 35a , ^. 

Combined Cutting-off. Endixig-up, and Centring Machine, 393 

Combined Engine and Dynamo. 97 ... , ^ 

Combined FUter and Feed Heater, Webster*s 331 

Combined Filter and Feed Heater for High Powers, 3S4 

Compass, die •• Evoy-Jumper-SUy.** 350 

Condensers, Row*s Patent Fresh Water, 3x3 

Controlling Valve, Davis's Patent, « 

Corrugated Metallic Lifebuoy. Sankey^ Patent, 473 

Course Corrector, Bain &Alnsley's»«HapHv,** 6a 

Cutting-off, Endlng-up, and Centring Machine, cemblned, 303 

Davis*s Patent (>>ntrolllng Valve, 33 

" Defiance " Patent Anchor, The, Z04 

Delu Bronxe Propellers. 470 

Donkey Boiler, a Marine Type, 16 

Drilling Machine, Advanced RadlaL |p9 

Drilling Machine, Improved Special BoUer, 57 , 

" Duke of Clarence,*' The S.S. 390 (and plate supplement) 

•* Duke of Lancaster,** The Saloon of the, 39X 

** Duke of York,** The S.S., 390 (aod pUte supplement) 

Duplex Steam Pump, Holebouse & Morley*s, 100 

Durham Churchill & Co.'s Patent Throtde Valve, 10 

Dynamo, Combined Engine and, 97 

" Edmlston" Patent Feed-water Filters, Improved, 363 

Electric Llghdng Plant for Steamships, Improvements in, 477 

Electric Ruddei^otor, The, 366 . . ^ . ^ 

Endlng-up and Centring Machine, Combined Cuttlng-oft, 303 

Engine and Dynamo, Combined, 97 _ ,^ ,, ^, , » 

Engines of the •* St. Louis ** and " St. Paul,** 479 (double-page plate) 

Engine Speed Indicator and Recorder. Walker's Patent, 386 

Evaporation, Experimento In connecdon with, 43 

Evaporator, Hocking's Patent, 89 

•• Evoy Jumper-SUy '* Compass, The, 350 

Experimento in connecdon with Evaporadon, by D. B. Morlson, 43 
Express Service to the North of Ireland, Twin-Screw Mail and, 390 (and six 

elate supplemenU) 
eater, Cfomblned Filter and, 331 . _. 
Feed-Heater for Hiah Powers, Combined Filter and, 3S4 
Feed Regulator, Auiomadc, 330 _ ^^ ^ , ......,_. 

Feed-Water Filter and Oil Separator, The ** Sendnd *' Multiple, 43s 

Feed-Water Heater, The •* VictorU" Patent, 4JB 

Feed-Water Filters, Improved Patent, a6s 

Feed-Water Filters, Reeves's Patent, 94 

Filter and Feed-Heater, Combined, 331 

Filter and Feed-Heater for High Powers, Combined, 334 

Filters, Improved Patent Feed-water, 363 

Filters, Reeves's Patent, Feed-water, 94 

First-class Cruiser " Powerful," aio 

First-class Torpedo Boato for the Royal Navy, 314 (also plate supplement) 

Fitting Ship Plating, Improved Method of, 14X (also plate supplement) 

Fresh Water Condensers, Row's Patent, 31a 

Fricdon In Steam Engines, Internal, 341 . 

Furnace and Light for Ship's use, Portable, 339 

" Georglc,'* The New White Star Cargo Boat, X87 

'* Ha-Hy " Course Corrector, 6a 

Haiphong, Launch at. 14a 

Haidlng*s Patent Tachometer, 4 

HeaSift Co., Ld., •* Hessanttk ** Sextant, 3s 

*' Heave-a-hoy '* Compass, The, 330 

** Hexxanlth** Sextant, The, JS 

H.M. First-Class Cruiser •• Powerful,** 3x9 

Hocking's Patent Evaporator, 89 

Holehouse & Morley's Duplex Steam Pump, zoo^ _ 

Horlsontal Steam Steering Gear, The " Sendnel ** Patent, 5 

Humble & Barker's Patent Valves, X3x 

Hydraulic Leathers and their Lubrlcadon, 38 „ . . . 

Imperial Russian Government's Torpedo Boat "Sokol," 31S i*^ pl«te 

Improved "Edmlston ** Patent Feed-Water Filters, a6s 
Improved Mediod of Fitdng Ship Pladng. X4X (also plate supplement) 
Improved Steel-Wire Brash, If organ's, Z90 
ImpcovemenU In Bleotrlo Ughdng Plant for Steamahlpa. 477 




Incandescent Paraffin Lamp, The, 98 

Indicator and Recorder, Patent Engine Speed, 386 

Indicator, Tlie Patent Audible Direction, 22a 

Induced Draught as a means for developing the Power of Marine Boilers, 

by W. A. Martin, 51 
Institute of Marine Engineers, Paper read before the, 343 
Institution of Naval Architects, Papers read before the, sx, 132, 178 
Internal Friction in Steam Engines, by W. W. Houfe, 343 
Joint Lancashire and Yorkshire and London and North Western Railways' 

Accelerated Twin-Screw Mail and Express Service to the North of 

Ireland, The, 390 (and six plate supplements) 
Kaye*s improved OiUCan Spout, 310 
Lamp, The Incandescent Paraffin, 98 
•' Lancaster ** Patent Metallic Packing, 185 
Launch at Haiphong, 14:1 
Leathers and their Lubrication. Hydraulic, 58 
Leemann System of " Oil-Gas ** Stoking, The. 196 
Lifebuov, Corrugated Metallic, 473 
Liners tor Propeller Shafts, Safety, 293 
Liverpool Endneering Society, Paper read before the, 49 
London and North Western and Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways* 

Accelerated Twin-Screw Mall and Express Service to the North of 

Ireland, 390 (and six plate supplemenU) 
Lubrication, Hydranlk: Leathers and their, 58 
Lubricator, •• Perfect " Sight-Feed, 304 
Machinery for Marine use. Special Pumping, 137 

Marine Boilers, Induced Drauglit as a means for developing the Power of, 51 
Marine Engineers, Paper read before the Institute of, 343 
Marine Salvaee Appliances, Patent, 429 
Marine Type Donkey Boiler, a, x6 
Metallic Packing '* Lancaster " Patent, 183 

Method of Fitting Ship Plating. Improved, 141 (also plate supplement) 
Morgan's Improved Steel- Wire Brush, 190 
Motor, The Electric Rudder, 266 
Myers* Screw Propeller, The, 384 

Naval Architects, Papers read before the Institution of, 51, 132, 178 
Niclausse Water-Tube Boiler, The, by Mark Robinson, 178 
Oil-Can Spout, An Improved, 310 
•* Oil-Gas" Stoking. The Iieemann System of, 196 
Oil Separator. The •• Sentinel" Multiple Feed-Water Filter and. 43s 
On Water-Tube Boilers, by I. A- Normand, 132 
Packing " Lancaster** Metallic, 183 
Paint. A New Process for Spraying, 87 
Paraffin Lamp. The Incandescent, 98 
" Perfect ** Sight-Feed Lubricator, 304 
Pistons, 462 

Plating, Improved Method of Fitting Ship, 141 ^also plate supplement) 
•• Powerful.'' H.M. First-class Cruiser. aiQ 
** Prince of Wales," The S.S., 390 (and plate supplement) 
Process for Spraying Paint, A New, 87 

Propellers, Delu Bronxe, 478 
Propeller Shafts, Safety Line 

, ___nersfor, 223 
Propeller, The Myers* Screw, 384 
Pump, Duplex Steam, 100 

Pumping Machinery for Marine use, Worthington*s Special, 137 
Radial Drilling Machine, Advanced, 309 
Raising Sunken Ships, Syer*s Apparatus for, 147 
Reeves^s Patent Feed- Water Filters, 94 
Remarkable Ventilator for Ships, A New and, 392 
Row's Patent Fresh-Water Condensers, 312 
Royal Mall Steamer ** Vega,** The, 190 

Royal Navy, First-class Torpedo Boau for the, 3x4 (also plate supplement) 
Rudder-Motor, The Electric, 266 
Safety Automatic Water Gauge, Patent, 305 
Safety Liners for Propeller Shafts, 223 
Saloon of the S.S. •• Duke of Lancaster,** The, 39x 
Salvage Appliances, Marine, 429 
Sankey's Patent Corrugated Metallic Lifebuoy, 473 
Sawing^Machine, Cold, 352 
Screw Propeller, The Myers*, 384 
Sentinel Horisontal Steam-Steering Gear, The, 3 

'* Sentinel** Multiple Feed-Water Filter and Oil Separator, The Patent. 435 
Sextant, the *' Hezsanith," 35 

Ship Plating, Improve Method of Fitting, 141 (also plate supplement) 
Ships. A New and Remarkable Ventilator for, 392 
Ship use. Portable Furnace and Light for, 259 
Sight-Feed Lubricator, Baldwin's Patent *' Perfect,** 30 
** Sokol,*' The Torpedo-Boat Destroyer, 313 (also plate supplement) 
Speed Indicator and Recorder, Patent En^ne, 380 
Spout, An Improved Oil-Can, 3x0 
Spraying Paint, A New Process for, 87 
Steam Engines, Internal Friction in, 343 
Steamer ** Vega,*' The Royal Mail, 190 
Steam Pump, Duplex, too 

Steamships, Improvements In Electric Lighting Plant for, 477 
Steel- Wire Brush, Improved, loo 
" St. Louis," and •• St. Paul *' Twin-Screw Steamers, 270 
** St. Louis," Views of the American Liner, 224 
Syer's Apparatus for Raising Sunken Ships, 147 
System of" Oil-gas Stoking,^* The, 196 
Tachometer, Harding's Patent, 3 
Thomvcroft Patent Boiler Feed Regulator, 230 
Throttle Valve, Durham Churchill & Co.*s, 10 
Torpedo-Boat Destroyer *• Sokol," The, 313 (also plate supplement) 
Torpedo-Boau for the Royal Navy, First-CHaas, 3x4 (also plate supplemem) 
Triple-Expansion Engines of the Twin-Sorew Steamer ** Duke of Lani 

390 (and double-page supplement) 

Screw Mail and Express Service to the North of Ireland, 390 (and six 


plate supplements) 
Twin-Screw Steamers *• St. Louis,** and " St. Paul," 270 
Valve, Davis's Patent Controlling, 53 
Valve, Patent Throttle, 10 
Valves, Humble and Barker's Patent, 131 
" Vega," The Royal Mail Steamer, 190 
Ventilator for Ships, a New and Remarkable, 392 
'* Victoria " Patent Feed-Water Heater, 428 . 

Walker's Patent Engine Speed Indicator and Recorder, 386 

Water Gauge, Safety Automatic, 305 

Water in Boilers, Circulation of. 460 

Water-Tube Boiler, The Niclausse, X78 

Webster's Combined Filter and Feed Heater for High Powers, 334 

Webster's Combined Filter and Feed-Heater, 231 

Wells & Co.'s Poruble Furnace and Light for Ship Use, 239 

Wells & Co.'s Process for Spraying Paint, 87 

White Star Cargo Boat •♦ (Seorgic.^The New, 187 

" Wicklow," The New Chanhel Steamer, X52 (and plate supplement) 

Wilmot-Thackeray Patent Audible Direction Indicator, The, 222 

Worthington Special Pumping Machinery for Marine Use, X37 

Wreck-Raising Appliances, 429 


Admhral Sir G. P. Hornby, The Late. 16 

Advanced Radial Drillinff Machine, Asquith's, 309 

Alteration in Par of En^uneers, R.N., 233 

Alumixiium for Torpedo- Boats, 316 

Amalgamated Society of Engineers, 93 

Ameiican Liners " St. Liouls " and " St. Paul," 479 

American Line, The, 224, 270 

American Mail Contract, The New, 306 

American Navy, The, 63 

American Sailing Ship, A Big, 307 

Anchor Line, The, 361, 476 

Anchor, The " Defiance *' Patent, 104 

Anglo-American Boiler Solvent Co.'s Preparations, The, 335 

Annual Dinner of the Institute of Marine Engineers, 260 

Apparatus for Raising Sunken Ships. 147 

Appointments, NavalEnglneer, 21, 66, xo8, 1751 ^oo, 236,277* 3X9» 3<Ht 407i444 

Argentine Cruiser " Buenos Aires," The, 356, 339 
Argentine Navy, xo6 

Armed Cruiser for the Haytian Government, 335 
Asquith's Advanced Radial Drilling Machine, 309 
Association, Iron Trades Employes, 189 
Atkinson and Leather's Cold Sawing Machine, 332 
Atlantic Passenger Statistics, 473 

Audible Direction Indicator, The Wllmot-Thaokeray, 3tt 
AugmenUtion of the Active Squadrons, 336 
** Anstralasiaxi," The, X94 
"Australia," The. 65 
Austrian Navy, The, 65 
Automatic Feed Regulator, 230 
Automatic Water Gauge, Patent Safety. 30S 
Bah) & Ainsley*s •• Ha-Hy " Course Corrector, 6s 
Baldwin's Patent ** PerCsct " Sight Peed Lubricator, 304 
Baltic CanaLThe, 60 
Battleships, The New, 16 
Beaver Line, The, 39 

Belfest Industrial Exhibition, Names of some of the Finns Exhibiting, &c 
vix. :— 

Andrew, J. E. H. & Co., 36 

Barrow Steam Navi^tlon Co., 134 

Bel&st and County Down Railway Co., 134 

Beliard & Fletcher, x «S3 

Clarke, Chapman & Co., Ltd., 133 

Cooney & Swan, 153 

Cowley, John & Son, 36 

Crossley, Bros., Ltd., 36 

Cunard Steamship Co., X34 

Denny Bros., 133 

Doxford, W. & Sons, 134 

Fahrfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 134 


Harland ft Wolf, 134 

Laird Bros., 134 

Nelson & Co^ 56 

Richardson, Duck & Co., 134 

Robey & Co» X33 

Sagar, J. & Co., 56 

Scott & Mountain, Ltd., Ernest, X33 

Taninres, Ltd., s6 

Wornnan, Clark & Co., X54 
Belgian Mails, The, 268 
Belgian Steamers, The, 361 
Belleville Boilers, The, 198 
'* Berlin," The, 194 
Birthday Honours and the Navy, xss 
" Blake,^' Trials of the, 357 
Boiler, A Marine Type Donkey, x6 
Boiler Drilling Machine, Butler's Improted Special, 57 
Boiler-Feed Regulator, Thomvcroft Patent, 230 
Boilers, A Paper on Water-Tube, 132 
Boilers of Different Systems, On Coupling, 140 
Boilers of the Axnerican Liner *' St. Louis?* 223 
Boilers, Paper on Water-Tube, 387 
Boilers, Water-Tube, xo6, 393 
Boiler, The Nlclauss? Water-Tube, 178 
Boston Trade, The, 6x, 228 

Bristol Chaimel Centre of the Inst, of Marine Engineers* Annual Dinner, 3x0 
British and Foreign Mail Steamers, 307 
Brush, Improved Steel-Wire, 190 
" Buenos Aires," Trials of the, 356, 359 
Bulkhead Doors, 107 

Butler's Improved Special Boiler Drilling Machine, 57 
Cammell & Co.'s, Charles, Cyclops Worm, 7 
Canadian Pacific Liners and the Royal Naval Reserve, The, 229 
Canadian MaU8,j68 
Cape Services, The, 475 
Captains, 8, 6x 

Cardiff-New York Steamship Une, The New, iGB 
Cargo-Boat " Georglc," The New White Star, 187 


Carco Stetmer ** Te]j»,**4a6 

duOlenger Bxpedidon, T%e, 63 

Change of Goirenunent, The, 157 

Channel Fleet, The, 375 

Channel Fleets, The, 3S9 

Channel Steamer " Wtcklow,'* The New, 97, 152 

Chatham Dockyard, 65, 106* 155. 198. 234. ^75 .3«5. 357. 39*. 44©, 481 

Circnhulon of Water in Boilers, 466 

aty of DabUn Steam Packet Co/s S.S. ** Wteklow.*' x<3 

ClTll and Mechanical Bngfaieers* Society, Paper read before the, 18 

Civil Engineers, Papers read before the Instttntion of, 4, S4 

Coal as a Foel, Powdered, 433 

Coal Consomptlon, 234 

Coaling in the Mediterranean, 483 

Cold Sawinf Machine, Atkinson & Leather's, 352 

Combined Catting^>ff. Endi|ig-np, and Centring Machine, 303 

Combined Engine and Dynamo, 97 

Combfaied Filter and Feed-Heater, Webster's. 231 

Combined Filter and Feed-Heater for High Powers, 354 

Co mmis sions and Re-commissions, 357 

ComparatlTe Strength of Navies, The, 439 

Compass, The ** Evoy-Jnmper-Stay," 350 ) 

Composite Steam Pipe for High Pressures, Patent. 105 

Composition of Sea Water, The, 478 

Condensers, Row's Patent Fresh Water, 313 

Contract-built Vessels, iqq 

Contracts, Launches and Trials, 136 

Controlling Marine Bnalnes, 58 

ControUinc Valve, Daids's Patent, 53 

Conversadfone, Institute of Marine Engineers, 383 

Cormnted Metallic Lilisbnoy, 473 

in, X40 


Coverings, Non-Conducting, 58 

** Crete a Pierrot,** Launch of the, 335 

Cunarders. The New, 361 

Curious MtstaiccL A, la 

Cuttteg-oflL Ending-up, and Centring Machhie, Combhied, 303 

Cyclops Works, Sheffield, 7 

Dally Press and the Fleets of the Mail Lines, The, 969 

Davis*s Patent Controlling Valve, 33 

Deck Pbms of the '* St Louis " and ** St. Paul,** 470 

Defence of the Medway. The, 313 

'* Defiance '* Patent Anchor, The, 104 

Delay through Breakdown of Machinery in Connectton with Insurance and 

Charter Party. 376 
Delta Bronse Propellers, 478 
Demonstration in the Levant, The, 333 
Derelict Question, The, i<n 

Despatch Money as Set-off to a Claim for Freight, 30 
*' Desperate,** Launch of the, 483 
Devonport and Keyham, 374, 441, 483 
Devonport, At, 106 

^DSSSr\SS^%\m^2^'^ ^'5' '"^ ^' ^' 

Digest of Recent Decisions ofthe High and Appeal Courts of the United 

Kingdom on Shipping Cases, 30, 376 
** Diogenes,** The, 16 
Disasters, 476 
Docks for New Ships, 480 
Dominion Line, The, 39 
Donkey Boiler, A Marine Type, 16 
Dredgsr at Barrow, Launch of another Bis. 36^ 
DrilUng Machine, Advanced Radial, 309 
Drilling Machine, Improved Special Boiler, kj 
" Duke of Clarence," The S.S., 390 
** Duke of Lancaster,** Views of tne. 300 
•• Doke of York,** The S.S., 390 
Duplex Steam Pump, " • -"^ 
Durham Churchill A C 
Dynamo, Combined Engine and, 97 
*" Edgar,** Disaster, The, 336 

'• Edmiston " Patent Feed- Water FUters, Improved. 36s 
Educational Purposes, Ship ModeU for, 304 
" Elder.** The, 194 
•* Elbe,** The, 339 

Electtic Lighting Plant for Steamships, Improvements in. 477 
Electric Rudder-Motor, The, 366 '"•*/7 

Endhig-Up and Centring Machine, Combined Cuttlng-off. «w 
Enghie and Dvnamo. Combined, 9^ "ung-on. 303 

Engineering Report, An, 155 
Engineers in the " Lightning.** The 394 
Engines of the " St Louis ** and " St. Paul.** 479 
Englne-Room Pracdce at Sea, 18 

Baghie Speed Indicator and Recorder, Walker's Patent, 386 
Evaporation, Esperiments in connecUon with, 43 
Evaporator, Hocking*s Patent, 89 
•• Evoy-Jumper Suy " Compass, The, 350 
Ezperlmenu in connection with Evaporation, 43 

Peed- Wster Filters. Reeves's Patent. 94 
Peed*Water Heater, •• Victoria '» Patwot 438 
Festivities at KieL The, 107 "™'»4»> 

Ftgfating Tops and Machine Guns, 441 
Filter and Feed Heater, Combined, 331 
555" ■?* PoedH ^ter for High Powers. Combined, 354 
raters. Improved Patent FeeSwater,^ * ^^ 

niters, Reeve8*s Patent Feed- Water, 94 

»team Pimp, Holehouse and Morley's, 100 
Churchill ft Co.'s Patent Throttle Valve, xo 

grst-cUss Cruisers, New, 64, la 
First-class Torpedo Boats for tb 

Royal Navy, 314 

Pitting Ship Plallxig, Improved Method of; 141 

Fleet Engineer Oldknow in the ** New Review," 373 

Fleets of the MaUUnes, 8, 59, xos, 130. 193, 336, 367* 306, 339, 388, 437, 474 

Flushing Route, The, 330*3109 

" Forban," Trial Trip ofTorpedo Boat, 309 

Forced Drau^t and Induced Draught, 303 

Forthcomina Naval Publications, 374 

ITour-msstea " President Felix Faure," 474 

French Navy, The, 13 

Fresh Water Condensers, Row's Patent, 313 

Friction in Steam Engines, Internal, 317. 343 
Furnace and Light for Ship Use, Poruble, 

^ . 359 

Gallant Rescue, A, 473 

" G. B. Crow," Launch of the, 363 

" Georgic,** The, 187, 338 

" Germanic,** The, 104 

German Navy, The, 65 

Gland Packing, Metallic. 99 

Grounding of French Irondads, The, 337 

" Ha-Hy '^Course Corrector. Bain andAhisley*8, 0s 

Haiphong, Launch at, 143 

Hamburg-American Line, The, 39 

Harding^ Patent Tachometer, 3 

Hardships attending the Possession of a Board of Trade Certificate, The, 338 

Heath ft Co., Ltd;, ^* Heszanlth" Sextant, 53 

" Heave-a-Hoy '* Compass, The, 350 

History of the Canard Line, The, 8 

H.M. Pirst-cUss Cruiser •* Powerful,** 319 

H.M.S. *' Juno " at Barrow, Launch of, 333 

H.M.S. "Porcupine," Launch of, 3^ 

H.M.S. " Venus,** Launch of, 366 

Hocking's Patent Evaporator. 89 

Holehouse and Morley's Duplex Steam Pump, 100 

Horixontal Steam Steeriog Gear, The ** Sentinel '* Patent, 3 

Hornby. The Late Admiral Sir G. P., x6 

Hull and District Institution of Engineers and Naval Architects, Paper read 

before the, xo6 
Humble ind Barker's Patent Valves, 131 
Hydraulic Leathers and their Lubrication, 38 
Imperial Institute, Raihray Ships at the, X87 
Imperial Russian Government's Torpedo-Boat " Sokol," 313, 338 
Improved Method of Fitting Ship Plating, 141 
Improved Steel- Wire Brush, Morgan's, 190 
Improvements in Electric Lighting Plant for Steamships, 477 
Incandescent Parafiln Lamp, The, 98 
Indicator and Recorder, Patent Bogine Speed, 386 
Indicator, The Wilmot-Thackeray Patent Audible Direction, 333 
Induced Draught as a means for developing the Power of Marine Boilers. 51 
Induced Draught Forced Draught and, 303 
Industrial Exliibltion, Belfost 56, iss 
Injunction to restrain proceedinss in Foreign Court for attachment of 

Freights on Company being wound-up. 376 
Institute of Marine Engineers, Annual Dinner, 360 
Institute of Marine Enf^eers' Conversaslone, 385 
Institute of Marine Engineers, Papers read before the, 317, 343, 387 
Institute of Marine Engineers, President's Inaugural Address, 370 
Institution of Civil Engbeers, Papers read before The, a 

Institution of Civil Engineers, President's Inaugural Ad< 

Institution of Engineers and Naval Architects, Hull and District, Papers 

read before the, 106 
Institution of Junior Engineers, Annual Dinner, 443 
Institution of Naval Architects at Paris, 143 
Institution of Naval Architects, Papers read before the, 31, 89, 133, 140^ 149, 

Instructional Squadron for Stokers, An, 394 
Internal Friction in Steam Engines, 317, 343 
Interpretation of Charter-party as to freight payable, 30 
Irish Mail Contract, The New, 336 
Iron Trades Employes Association, zte 

Ilsle of Man Steam Pscket Company, The, 133, 388, 437 
anes' Naval Annual, 136 ' 

apanese Navy, The, xo6 
oint Lancashhv and Yorkshhe and London and North Western Rallwavs' 
Aooeleiated 1 win-Screw Mail and Express Service to the North of 
Ireland, The, 390 
Junior Engineers, Institution ofl Aimual Dinner. 413 
* Juno,** Launch of H.M.S« 333 
" Jupiter,** Launch of H.M.S., 356, 358 
Kave's Improved Oil-can Spout, 310 
Kidderpur Docks, The (Calcutta), 4 
Kiel Festivities, The, i« 

La Compagnie Oenerafe Transatlantlqne, X03, 104 
"LaGascogne,**i03 t , a. sf» 

Lamp, The Incandescent Paraffin. 98 

Lancashire and Yorkshire, and London and North Western Railways 
^^^}S^T>^'«ir9w Mail and Express Service to the North of 
Ireland, The Joint, 390 
** Lancaster ** Patent Metallic Packing, 183 
Launch at Haiphong, 143 
Launches. 63 

Launch of a Fast Torpedo-Boat Destroyer at Jarrow 
Laun(^ of another Big Dredger at Barrow, 363 
Launch of H.M.S. ** Diana,** 386 
Launch of H.M.S. " Juno ** at Barrow, 333 
Launch of H.M.S. ** Jupiter," 356^ 338 
Launch of H.M S. " V«qus," 26$^ 
Launch of the " Crete-k-Pierrot,- 335 
Laun<A of the " Prince George,** The, 334 
Launch of the *< Victoria,** 3x6 
Leathers and their LubricaUon, Hydraulic, 38 
Leemann System of •' Oil-Gas »» StoUng, TheTxgfi 
Leith Steam Yachthig Notes, X64 ^ 

Lifebuoy, Corrugated Metallic, 473 
** Ughtning *• Court Martial, tUl 394 
" LIghtntafe** Trials of Vull,sT$^ 
Lighu on the Ocean, X89 
LUmn for Propeller Shafts, Saf^, 333 



Liners, Old, 30? 

Osi of Vessels Laiuicbed In tBgs, jg&t 443 

LKerpoo! Engineer In J? Society, Paper read beforo thB, 43 

lilverpool ImprovemenU, 9.61^1511 tqz* 327, 306 

** Load Line/' On the mlTlty of caiculatlnjj the whole external volume of 

Ships, and constrEietln^ the complete scale of floUdity from the points 

qf view of ^' Stabilhyt" "Tonnage;" and, 149 
Lubrication. Hydraulic Leathers and tbeir> jB 
Lubrlcatar, Baldwin^s Patent *' Perfect "Sight Feed, 304 
Machinery lor Marine use. Special kumpltig, J37 
MachSntiry of the '' Barfl^^ar/' 4J^i 
Mail of a Century a^o, TliCi 439 

Mall UiKi, Fleets of the, t^, $9, i03, 150, tgl» 33fi, ^, 306, 359f 388, 437f 474 
Malta and Hall la k News, Hj^ 
Marine Bolters, 195 

bfarlns Be Her v Induced Draught fts a^eans for developing the Power of, 51 
Mtilne Bollcri^ Steam Feed fort 3^1 

Marine Engineers, Papers read before the Institiila of, 3x7, 343, 387 
Marine Enitincs^ Control I in k, j8 

Marine Salvage Anpllances, Paten t^ 439 
Marine Type Donkey Boiler, A, 16 
Merchant ftlftriine Officers for the Nav-y, 314 

Merchant Marine O (fleers, The entry of, 274 

Method of Hiitlnj5 Ship PlatingT Improved, 141 

Metallic Gland Facltlni^, 99 

Metallic Packing, *' Lancaater " Patent, fSj 

Mishaps to Torp.tJo'IiaiH Destroyers, 4^3 

MobHuln(E the Flyinc Squadroiit 435 

Morgan's Improved Steel- Wire Brush, 190 

Motor, The Ete<;tric Rudder, 266 

Mutual Idea for Steatners, The, 3,07 

Myers' Screw Propeller* The, 384 

National Steam&hip Co,'? Affairs, 474 

Natfonal Steamship Co., The, 267 

Savol Architects at Parts, Institution of, 141 

Naval Architects, Papers Read belore the InyittiUon of, 51, 89, 132, 140, 149, 

Naval Coos true tloTi and Armaraenta Co/s Works, Vlilt to the, z86 
Naval Eaglneer Appointments, ai, m, loS, lyj, »^ 136, 277, 319, 364, 407, 444 

Naval Festival at Kiel, The, 154 

Naval Greyhound, A, 228 

Naval Men and tbcf Mercantile MlHue, loa 

Naval Mobiliiatlon, The. 157 

Naval Officers: EaLpenditnre, 275 

Naval Outloolft The. 435 

Naval Programme^ The Ne». 4S0 

Navlisatar^ and BoKl^eera, 314 

Navy Estimates, The^ 16 

Navy League, The, igg, 394 '4^' 

Navy Notes, 6s 

New Proeesfl for Spraying Paint, A, 87 

New Tonnage, 153 

New York and Mediterranean Service, The, 103 

New York Harbour Improvements, 103 

New York Iniprovernents, 9 

Niclaus^ Water tube Boiler, The, 178 

Non-cooduding Cover in g&> Simons', 58 

North of Ireland, Twln&creiv Mall and Eipress Service to the* 390 

North Sands Yard. SandorlandT 5 

Ocean, Lights on the, 1B9 

Oil-cam Spout, An I rn proved, 310 

** Oil-Gas ^' Stoking, The Leemann System ot, loA 

Oil Separator^ The " Sentinel " Multiple Feed- Water Filter and, 435 

Old Steamers. 474 

On the utility of qali^ulatlng the whole external volume of Ships, and con- 

stmctln); thu ct^mpleie scale of solidity from the points of view of 

" Stability," " Tonnage^" and '* Ijiad Line,'' 149 
Openlnc of the Canals 154 
*' Oro/a,*' The, 10, Gi, toa, 307 
Oscend Line, The, jSS 
Ostejid Mall Line, The, 43? 
Oor Supply of Seamen, 334 
Packlaif " Lancaster " Paient Metftlllfl, 1B5 


Packing, the United States Metallic, 

Paint, A New Process for Spraying, 

P. and O. Company, ThSt 308 

Para^n La rap. The Incandescent, 98 

Passenger and Cargo Steamer '^Telne/* 436 

■■ Pelorus.** Launch of the. 483 

Pembroke Dockyard, 64, lofi, 156, 199, 335^ 336, 337, 395, 441, 483 

" Perfect " Slt^bt-feed Lubricator, Baldwin's Fatentf 304 

** Pbccnlx," Trials of the, 441 

Fh&sphor Bronfe for Steam Faces, 30a 

Platingt Improved Method of Fitting Sblpr 141 

"Porcupine," 1LM,S.* Launch ofn 765 

Portable Furnace and Light for Ship use, 259 

Portsmouth, 107 

PortsiHonth Dockyard, im< 1984 13^* *73i 314. |5<S^ 394i 440t48o 

*' Powerful;' H.M.5., 198, ^19 

Power of Merino Boilers, Induced Draught as a means for developing the, 31 

Powdered Coal aa a Fuel, 433 

Practice at Sea, Engine Room, 18 

Preparatlonft. The Anglo-Atnerlcan Boiler Solvent Co,*t, 355 

Pre^karing tor the Naval Estimate^, 3,33 

Preparing for War, 4j9 

•* President Feliir Faure," Four-Malted. 474 

Preaidenrs Inaugtiral Address, Institute of Marine Engineers, 970 

President's Inaagfural Address, Institution Cff ClvlJ Engineers, 351 

" Prince Ceorge, The Launch of the, 134 

Prtnce ol WaSes at Southampton^ The, asfi 

■■ Prince of Wales/' Thcr SS,. 390 

Process. A Ne*if Wooti- Preserving, 63 

Process for Spraying PaJni, A Ntw, 87 

Programme for tho Naval Mantsuvret, Thi?, 107 

ptopetlcr*, Ddlft BroMo» 478 

Propeller Shafts, Safety Liners for, 333 

Propeller, The Myers' Screw, 384 

Publications, 151, 193, 306, 389 

Publio Yachting, xo3 

Pump, Duplex Steam, 100 

Pumping Machinery for Marine Use, Worthbigton Special, 137 

Radial Drilling Machine, Advanced, 309 

Railway Ships at the Iniperial Institute, 187 

Raising Sunken Ships, Syer's Apparatus for, 147 

Reeves's Patent Feed-Water Filters 94 

Reforms for Naval Engineers, 481 

Relative Strength of Navie?, The, 48a 

Remarkable Ventilators for Ships, A New and, 392 

Remarks on Steam Pipes, 89 

Reorganisation of the Channel Squadron, 393 

Returns of United Kingdom in 18^3, arraxiged in Order off Tonnage built by 

each Firm, Summary of Shipbuilding, 406 
Row's Patent Fresh Water Condensers, 3x3 
Royal Mail Steamer" Vega," The, 190 
Royal Navy, First-class Torpedo Boats for the, 3x4 
Rudder Motor, The Electric, a66 
Russian Imperial Yachts, X3 
Russian Passenger Steamers, 103 
Safety Automatic Water Gauge, 305 
Safety Liners for Propeller Shafts, 233 
"Salak,"The. 152 

Saloon of the S.S. " Duke of Lancaster," The, 390 
Salvage Appliances, Patent Marine, 439 
Sankey's Patent Corrugated Metallic Ufebuoy, 473 
" Sanspariel," The, 13 
" Satellite's" Screw Shaft, The, 315 
Sawing Machine, Cold, 343 
Scheme of Evolutions, The, X97 
Screw Propeller, The, 64 
Screw Propeller, The Myers, 384 
Sea Water, The ComposiUon of, 478 
Second 'Class Cruisers, The New, 337 

" Sentinel " Multiple Feed- Water Filter and Oil Separator, The Patent, 435 
Sentinel Patent Horixontal Steam Steering Gear, The, 3 
Sextant, The " Heszanith,'*5s 
" Sharpshooter's " Trials, The, 136 

Sheemess Dockyard, 64, X07, 156, X99, 333, 3x6, 357t 395i 440, 483 
Shipbuilding by Contract, 334 
Shipbuilding in Wales, 319 
Shipbuilding Programme, The New, 440 
Shipbtiilding Returns of United Kingdom in X89S, arranged in order oi 

Tonnage, Built by each Firm, Summary of, 400 
Shipbuilding Work in hand, 303 
Ship Models for Educational Purposes, 304 
Shipping Cases, Disest of Recent Decisions of the High and Appeal Courts oi 

the United Kingdom on, 30, 376 
Ship Plating, Improved Method of Fitting, X41 
Ships, A New and Remarkable Ventilator for, 392 
Ship Use, Portable Furnace and Light for, 339 
Short Sea Route, The, 473 

Sight-Feed Lubricator, Baldwhi's Patent " Perfect,'* 304 
Simon's Non-conducting Coverings, 38 
Smaller Battleships, X4 
Societv of Engineers, Amalgamated, 93 
** Sokol," TheToxpedo Boat Destroyer, 3x3, 338 
Southampton Docks, 368 
Spanish Navy, The, 14 

Special Boiler Drilling Machine, Improved, 37 
Speed Indicator and Recorder. Patent Engine, 386 
Splendid Results by a Jarrow-built Torpedo- Boat Destroyer, 338 
Spout, An Improved Oil-can, 310 
Spraying Paint, A New Process for, 87 
** Stability," "Tonnace,** and " Load Line." On the utility of calculating the 

whole external volume of Ships, and coxistructing tne complete scale 

of Solidity from the poinu of view of, X49 
Line, The, x 
Steam Engine Mai 

State Line, The, X3x 

Steam Engine Makers* Society, 471 

Steam Engixies, Internal Friction in, 3x7, 343 

Steamer ** Vega," The Royal Mail, 190 

Steam Faces. Phosphor Bronze for, 393 

Steam Feed for Marine Boilers, 363 

Steam Pipe for High Pressures, Patent Composite, 103 

Steam Pipes, Remarks on, 89 

Steam Pump, Duplex, 100 

Steamships, Improvements in Electric Lighting Plant for, 477 

Steam Steering Gear, The HorixonUl, 3 

Steel- Wire Brush, Improved, 190 

" St Louis," The, 150. 193, 368 

" St. Louis," Views of the American Liner, 334 

" St Paul," The, 39 

" Snltan," Revivimns, The, X33 

Sunmoary of Shipbuildixig Returns of United Kingdom In 1893, arranged in 

order of Tonnage, Built by each Firm, 406 
Syer's Apparatus for Raising Sunken Ships, X47 
System ot " Oil-Gas " Stoking, The, 196 
Tachometer, Harding's Patent, 3 
Tactical Exercises, The, 333 
"Tel»" Passenger and Cargo Steamer, 436 
" Terrible " and " Powerful,^ The, 133 
Tliames Steamboats, 308 

Thompson, J. L. & Sons, Ltd., North Sands Yard, 3 
Thomycroft Patent Boiler Feed Regulator, 330 
Thomycroft Water-Tube Boiler, ^87 
Throttle Valve, Durham Churchill & Co.'s Patent. 10 
" Toimaae " and " Load Line." On the utility of calculating the whole externa 

volume of Ships, and constructing the complete scale of solidity from 

the points of view of " Stobility," 149 
Torpedo-Boat Destroyer at Jarrow, Launch of a Fast, 363 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, x3, xo7, 443 
Torpedo-Boat Destroyers as Drill Sh] 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, More, 3x3 





Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, Paper on, 54 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyer ** SokoV* Tbe, 3x3, 358 

Torpedo-Boat " Forben," Trial Trip of, 309 

Torpedo-Boat ManoBUTres, The, 333 

Torpedo-Boats for the Royal Navy, Flrst-elass, 314 

Torpedo llaiuravres. The, 197 

Trabliig Ship for Stokers, 313 

Trials and New Constroctlon, Some, 3x6 

TriaU of H.M.S. «* Lightning,* 358 

Trials of the** Blake'' 357 

TriaU of the •* Magnlfioent** and «• Majestie,*' 974 

Trials of the •* Phosnlx," 441 

Triple-Bxpanslon Engines of the Twin-Screw Steamer " Dnke of Lancaster,** 

js of Torpedo-Boat Destroyers* Boilers. The, 316 

TWitt-Screw Mail and Express Service to the North of Ireland, 390 

Twin-Screw Steamers " bt. Louis •* and " SU Paul,** 470 

Twin-Screw Torpedo Boat " Forban," 309 

Union Company, The, 103 

Union Line, The, 6x 

United States and Great Britain, The, 393 

United Stotes and her Power for Oilence, 393 

United States Metallic Packing, The, 303 

Value of Old Liners, The, 360 

Vahre, Davis's Patent Controlling, 33 

Valve, Patent Throttle, xo 

Valves, Humble & Barker's Patent, X3X 

** Ven,** The Royal Mail Steamer. 190 

Venouitor for Ships, A New and Remarkable, 392 

** Venus,** H.M.S., Launch of, 266 

Vessels Launched in X893, List of, 396, 443 

«* Victoria,** Launch of the, 316 

** Victoria,** Patent Feed-Water Heater, 438 

Visit of a Spanish Fleet, The, X98 

Visit of Italian and Spanish Warships, XS4 

Visit of Italian Fleet, 107 

Visit to the Works of the Naval Construction and Armaments Co., 186 

Wales, Shipbuilding in, S19 

Walker's Patent Eiigine Speed Indicator and Recorder, 386 

Water Gauge, Patent Safety Autooiatic, 303 

Water in Boilers. Cfaxmlatlon of, 406 

Water-Tube Boilers, 14, xo6, 233, 39s, 441 

Water-Tube Boilers, Papers on, X33, ^ 

Water-Tube Boiler, The, 10 

Water»Tube BoUer, The Niclausse, X76 

Webster's Combined Filter and Feed-Heater, 331 

Webster's Combined Filter and Feed-Heater for High Powers. 354 

West IndU Royal MaU Une, The, 307 

West India Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., The, 36X 

White Star Cargo Boat " Georgle," The new, X87 

White Star Line The, 60, 389 

*« WIeklow ** The New Channel Steamer, 

cator, The, 333 

Wifanot-Thackeray Audible Direction Ind 

Wood-Preserving Process, A New, 63 

Woolwich Dook^, 483 

Work at No. 14 Graving Dock, The, C4 

Work in the Dockvards, New, 440 

Work of the Last Year, 395 

Worthington Special Pumping Machinery for Marine use. X37 

Wreck-Raisinfl: Appliances, 439 

Yachting Ezhibitioii. Names of some of the Firms Ezhibltlxig, fto., vis.:— 

Audible Indicator Syndicate, 433 

Braby, Fredk. ft Co., 433 

British Aluminium Co., 433 

Clark. Edwin & Co., 433 

Cochran & Ca, 433 

Cox & Kiiig, 433 

Daimler Motor Syndicate, Ltd., 433 

Davis, B.C., 433 

Defiance Anchor and Cable Co., 433 

Glaser, Bowers & Co., 433 

Keybar BngineerinE Co., Ltd., 43 

Laeev. Captain R. G., 433 

Liquid Fuel Engineering Co^ 433 

New & Mavne, 433 

Sargeant, W. S. & Co., 

Simpson, Strickland & Co,, 
Yachting Notes, Leith Steam, 164 
Yachting Tours, 360 

Ltd., 433 

TRADE H0TB8, fte. 

Belfost. 38,^3. "5. 163. 205, 843, 385, 335, 370, 416, 451, 400 * 

gy^ and ScotUnd, 33. 67. xo8, X57. aoo, 337, 377. 3«), 3^. 408, 446, 485 
Hardwood Market Iteport, 31. 66, xo8, X57, 300. 336, 377. 319, 3641 408; 445, 484 
MerseyjS. 70, xi^x6i, 254. 240. 383. 3*4. 369. 414, 449. 489 
Naval Matters, Past and Prospective, X3, 63, 106, 154, i97i as*. a73. 3X4. 355. 

3t93* 439t 480 
North- Wesl of England, 37, 7a, 114, 162, 306, 343. 885, 326, 370, 416. 45a, 49© 
Tyne. Wear, Tees. HartlepooU, Ac., 33, 69, xxi, X59, 303, 338, 381. 333, 367. 

4XX, 448, 487 


Burnet, Mr. Lindsay, x8 

Darby, Captain, 8 

Denny, Dr. Peter, L.L.D., 333 

Penwiok. Captam B. F., 6x 

Harland, Sir Edward, 416, 439, 443 

Henderson, Mr. Thomas. 17 

Henderson. Mr. William, 73 

Hornby, Admiral Sir Geoffrey Phlpps, x6 

McKay. Captain, 61 

Mitchell, 16. Chas., 333 

Schichau, Mr. P., 439 
8t. Clair, Captain. X07 
Thompson, Mr. George, 73 
Trench, Captain, 107 
Wailes, Mr. E. F., 395 


Belleville Boilers, 379 

Bull's Metal Steam Pinnace, 463 

Fluid Resistance, Ship Accderation and, 37 

Furnaces for Gas, Workshop, 3x6 

Gratuity for Repairs at Sea, 502 

Law for Portugal, New Patent, 83 

Law, United Stotes New Patent, 303 

Lifeboat, Ship's 399 

Pistons, 463 

Portugal, New Patent Law for, 83 

Repairs at Sea, Gratuity for. wz 

Ship Acceleration and Fluid Resistance, 37 

Ship's Lifeboat, 399 

Steam Pinnace, Bml's Metal, 463 

United Stotes New Patent Law, 303 

Workshop Furnaces for Gas, 3x6 


Almanac tor the Year 1896, Engineers* Gazette Axmual and, 377 

Almanack for 1896, Calvert's Mechanics, 500 

American Steam Vessels, by Samuel Ward Stanton, 338 

Axmual, Lord Brassey's Naval, 180^, 136 

Belgium, Walks in, by Percy Lindley, 398 

Boiler Making. Platins and, 82 

Burton's Illustrated Manual of Photography, 46a 

Dangerous Goods, The Handling of, by Joshua Phillips, 377 

Calendar, Magnolia Metal Ca, 500 

Calvert's Mecnanics* Almanack for x8q6, 500 

Determining the motion of a Gun during Recoil, Notes on a Photographic 
Method of, 50X 

Development and Uses, Petroleum : its. 133 

Diagrams In Open or Lattice Girder Work, Stress, by W. H. Bidder, 353 

Dictionary of Sea Terms, Phrases, and Words (English-French and French- 
English), by WlUiam Pirrie, 398 

Directory and Stotisdcs for x89f , Gas Lighting Companies, 460 

Directory, 1895, of Merchanto, Manufacturers, and Shippers, 133 

Directory, X803, ot Railway OflScials, 338 

Directory, The Universal Electrical, 82 

Drawing and Designing for Marine engineers, by Charles W. Roberts, 433 

Drawixig and Rough Sketcbixxg for Marine Engineers, by James 
Donaldson, 353 

Electrical Directory, by J. A. Berly's, 83 

Electricity, X896, Catalofi;ue, 50X 

Engine Construction, Model, 3; 


Exigineers' Reference Book tor Machine and Boiler Coxistxiictloxi, by Nelson 

Foley, M.I.N.A., M.I.M.E., etc., 254 
Engineers' Year Book of Engineering FormuUe, Rules, Tables etc., The, by 

H. ILKempe, 82,3ox 
Experimento with a New Popularisixxg Photo-Clut>xiograph, by Dr. A. C. 

Crehore, and Dr. G. O. Souier, 337 
Explosives, The Manu£scture of, 297 

Gas Lighting Companies' Dlrectoiy and Statistics for 1893, 460 
Handbook/The Works Ma 

Handy Ready Reckoner 
Openshaw, ^34 

'^ le. b 

Handling of Dangerous Goods, The, by Joshua Phillips, 377 

" ' -. . -^ . * . . j^j Castixig Purposes, by 



History of North Atlantic Steam Navigation, The. by Henry Fry, 433 
Hull and District Institution of Engineers and Naval Architects, Vol. Ix., 

Transactions of the, 337 
Hydraulic Motors, Turbines and Pressure Engines, by G. R. Bodmer, 3x6 
Indicator and Ito Practical Working, The, by By A. G. Brown, 8x 
Institution of Naval Architects, Vol xxxvi.. Transactions of the, 378 
Ironclads in Action, by H. W. Wilson, 460 

Jacket, The Steam, by*William Fletcher, 315 
unior Photographer, 463 
Lelly's Directory of Merchanto, Manufacturers, and Shippers, 1893, X35 
Law and Practice, Patent, By C. F. Emery, sox 
Lean's Royal Navy List. 500 
Literature of Photography, 462 
Machinery and ito Management, Refrigerating, 83 
Manual of Marine Engineering, A, by A. E. Seaton, 3^3 
Manuale degli olu per lubrifioadone, by Salvatore Ralneri, 378 
Manufacture of Explosives, The, by Oscar Gottmann, 297 
Marine Engineering, A Manual of, 2^3 
Marine Engineering^A Text-Book of, 501 
Marine Engineers, Drawing and Designing for, 433 
Marine Engine, Steam and the, 3^8 
Marine Propulsion, Screw Propellers and, 398 
Mechanical Engineering, by Francis Caropin, C.E., 338 
Mechanical Enoneers' Reference- Book for Machine and Boiler Construction 

The, by Nelson Foley, M.LN. A., M.I.M.E., etc.. 254 
Mechaxiical Worid Pocket Diary and Year Book for 1896, 460 
Merchant Shipping Act, The, 1804, a Supplement to iCay's " Law relating to 
Shipmasters and Seamen,^' with notes by the Hoxl John W. Mansfield 
and G. W. Duncan, Esq.. Barrister-at-Law, 2x3 

Merchants, Manufacturers, and Shippers, X893, Directory of, X23 

Model Ensine Construction, by J. Alexander, ^7 

Modem Wood Working Machinery jby J. Staflord Ransome, 399 

Naval Annual, The X893, Edited by T. A. Brassey, 136 
North Atlantic Steam Navigation, The History of, 433 
Notes on a Photqeraphic Method of determining the Motion of a Gun during 

Recoil, by Dr. A. C. Crehore and Dr. G. O. Squier, yti 
Nuovo Caratteri Delia Nave Modema Memoria, by S. Rainarii m$$ 



Petroleum; its DeYelopment and Uses, by R. Nelson Boyd, M.I.C.E., las 

Photographer, Junior. 46a 

Photosraphic Method of determining the Motion of a Gun during Recoil, 

Notes on a, 502 
Photography, Burton's Illustrated Manual of, 462 
Photography, Literature of, 462 

Plating and Boiler Making, by the Foreman Pattern Maker, 82 
Pocket Diary and Year Book for 1896, Mechanical World, 460 
Popularising Photo-Chronograph, Experiments with a New, by Dr. A. C. 

Crehore and Dr. G. O. Squier, 337 
Practical Working, The Indicator and its, 8x 
Pressure Engines, Hydraulic Motors, Turbines, and, 216 
Reckoner for Wages and Casting Purposes, A Handy Ready, 423 
Refrigerating Machinery and its Management, by A. Ritchie Leask, 82 
Rough Sketching for Marine Engineers, Drawing and, by James Donaldson, 

Koy^l Navy List. Lean's. 300 

Screw Propellers and Marine PropuliiflQ, by L McKim Chase. M.E., 298 

Shipping Act. The Merchant, t&g4. A snpplcracnt to Kay'A '* Law relating to 

ShlpmaMers and Scann^n," with no tea by the Hon^ John W. Mansfield 

and G- W, Lhincaii, Esq., Barrt£ier-al-Law, ^15 
Steam and tht Marine Einelne, b> J. Veo, uH 
Steam racket. The, by WdHani Fletcher. 415 
Steaoi Veasels, Aniericanf by Samuel WftrdT Stanton, 338 
Stress Dia^rauis in Open or Lartice Girder Work, by w, H, Bidder, 253 
Technical dictionary of Sea Terms* ?hrate& and Wordfi (English-French 

and I-rench-Hn^Hsh), by WllUam Pirrle, 29a 
Tiiit-BcMk of Mj^rlne Bn^ineerlnj;, A, by Au. B* Tumpkiiis, 501 
Transactions of the Hull ahd District Institution of Engineers and Naval 

Architects, Vol. in., 337 
Transactions of the Inslilution of Xaval Architects, Vol. sxsvi., Edited by 

GeorRO Holmes , 378 
Universal Directory of Hallway Officials* 1B95, The, 338 
Universal Electrical Directonr, The, by L A. Berly'a, St 
Walks in Belgiunin by P«rcy Lin d ley t afjB 
Water Companies' Dlreciory ajid Statistics for i9^5« 460 
Wood Working Machinery t Modern, b^f J, Stafford Ransome, tgg 
Works' ^f anaecr Handbook. Tbe» hy Walter ft, Hutton* 1^ 
Vear-Book Qt Eri}*ineerirk^ Fottiiuhiv Hul«5, Tabteft, etc. The Enfi|[ineer*s, by 

H. H. Kempe, Sia. joi 

P1T£HT8, fto. 

Board of Trade Examinations, Retnm of Bnsineers Reported to have passed 
Examinations under the Provisions of the Merchant Shipping Acts 
of 185^, 40, 84, 128, 176, 2x6, 256, 300, 340, 380, 434* 464. 504 

Recent Applications for Patents, connected with Marine Engineering, Ship 
Construction, and Mechanical Appliances for use in Ships, 39, §3, lay, 
175. ^07, 255, 299, 339. 379. 4a3t 463. 503 


Additions to the Navy, The, 250 

" Admiral Oushakoff," Steam Trials, 327 

Allr-- ■ 'tl,iriti-: F.i.::-, An. inj 

Mtvi. , ... : .:■, .: L .,. .ucri. R.N., 333 

AlumiJULim iui I urptrdlct Btjats^ ji6 

American Lin or r Th(^ Ntw^ 3B 

America I) Mall Contract, The new, joi 

AmerJcih Navy, The, 65 

American Sailing Ship, A Bip, 30? 

American Screw Steamboat " Newport News," The New, 254 

Anchor Line„ The, 36 1» 476 

Another Old Shlp^ 4^ 

Argentine Cruiwr "Buenos Aires," 356 

Arsentlcit Kavyn The, io5 

Asbieates Cooiis, lyg 

Atlantic Greyhoutidi, New^ 37t, 453 

Atlantic Passenjjifir Statistics. 475 

Ausmematlon of the Acttvt Squadrons. 356 

'Au^tr^la^ian/' The. ic^ 
AustnalJa, The, 65 
Austrian Navy, The, 65 
Auitro- Hungarian Govemmeni. The, 73 
Baltic CanaT, The. to, S8 
Battleship!! ^ Thij New, 16, ^m 
Beaver Line. The, 53 
Bcluhin Math, The, 26$ 
Bet^iC^^n SteiinEr4t 3^!>J 

Belkvillc Boik-r!& for the Auatrian Kavy, 254 
Belleville Boilers, The, t^fi 
" Berlin,*' The, 134 
iBeynon, Mr, Thomas, 155 
Bl^CftTgo, A,438 
Dl^ Steamer, A, i6& 
Birthday Honaurs^ and the Navy, ts; 
■' Bkke." Trials of the, 357 
Blumer, J^. St Co, jijs 
Boiler Coverinfi CompoiitJoni;. 501 
Boston Trade, 6t, ij^ 
British and Foreign Mail Stea[nerT,^307 
Brcivrn^ John St Co., Lii!.^ 1^3 
"Bfulier/" H.M.S f Launch of. 30 
" Bucnoi Alre5,'^ The^ 536 
Bii!lih«ad Doc^r^H ro^ 
Cable J-^ylni^ Gear, 12^ 
CajH: ServlcQS,^ The, 4^3 
*' Campania " launch of the Trawler. 386 
Canadian Mails, jfiH 

Canadian Pacific Liners and the ltoynl Naval Reserve, The, 229 
" Capcjllo^" Gunhoat for the Pt^rttifiuiHie Government, 116 
CarRo Boat, A Great. 151 

Cirdlft-Nt'W York Suiamship Line, The New, 268 
Canualttes, 229 


Catalogue, Messrs. Johnson & Phillips, 327 

Catalogue, Messrs. John Stone & Co., xi6 

CataloKue, Messrs. Magnolia Anti-FrlcUon Metal Co., 417 

Chain Making, 116 

Challenger Expedition, The, 63 . 

Change of Addresa, Messrs; The Defiance Anchor and Cable Co., Ltd., 

Change oi Government, The, 157 

Channel Fleets, The, 27^, 3^ 

" Charlemagne,** Launch of French Battleship, 1x8 

" Chasseloup-Laubat," Second-class protected Cruiser, 3 

Chatham Dockyard, 65, 106, 135. 198* 234, 275, 3x3. 3S7. 394t 440i 48t 

City of London College, 269 

Civil and Mechanical Engineers* Society, 28, xx6, 406 

Coal Consumption, 234 

Coaling in the Mediterranean, 483 

Commissions and Re-commlsslons, 357 

Comparative Strength of Navies, 439 

Contract-Built Vessels, 199 

Contract for a Paddle Steamer, 464 

Contract for Torpedo Boats, 366 

Contracts, Launches and Trials, X56 

Contracts, New. 417 

Cost of Ships ot War, The, 156 

Cunarders, The New, 361 

Curious Mistake, A, 12 

Daily Press and the Fleets of the Mail Lines, 269 

Defence of the Medway, The, 315 

Delaware Hard Fibre Co., 286 

Demonstration in the Levant, The, 335 

Dennv, Mr. Archibald, M.LN.A., 309 

Derelict Question, The, 103 

Devonport and Keyham,*482 

Devonport, At, 106 

Devonport Dockyard, 153. 107, 233. a74. 3X3. 336. 394. 44> 

Dickinson, John A Sons, Ltd., 157 

" Diogenes," The, 16 

Disasters, 269, 4^8, 476 

Docks for New Ships, 480 

Dominion Line, The, 59 

Dry Dock, New, 387 

Dunn, Mr. James, 255 

Earle's Shipbuilding and Enslneerlng Co., Ltd. 316 

Economical Transmission of Power, 363 

" Edgar '* Disaster, 336 

•• Eider,** The, 194 

" Elbe,** The, 229 

Electrical Measurements, 84 

" Emperador Carlos Quinto,*' Launch of the, 20 

Engineering Report, An, 155 

Engineers in the " Lightning,** 394 

Enquiries, Tenders, Specincations and Contracts for Stiyunsliips and tnelr 

Machinery, 318 
En Route, 193 

Entry of Merchant Marine Olficers, The, 274 
Expensive Soup, An, 361 
Falrfiekl Shipbuilding Yard, 443 
Fast Cruiser, A, 352 
Fast Passages, 105 
Festivities at Kiel, The, 107, 131 
Fighting Tops and Machine Guns, 44X 
Financial Position of Shipping Companies, 360 
First-class Cruisers, New, 64, ic^ 
First Engbeer Rewarded, A, 286 
First Lord of the Admiralty and Engineers, 437 
Fixed Hour for leaving New York, 439 
Fleet Engineer Oldknow in the ** New Rovlew,* 
Floating Dry Dock, A, 104 
Flushing Route, The, 339, 389 
" Forban,** Toipedo-Boat, 253 
Forthcoming Naval Publications, 2^4 
" Foudre,** Depet Ship, 327 
French Battleship, 3x8 
French Navy, The, 13 

French Second-class Cruiser " Chasseloup-Lauba 
French Torpedo-Transport, 337 
" Furieux," French Coast- DdEsnce Armdur>clad, 
Gallant Rescue, A, 473 
Gallantry at Sea, 362 

•• Georgic,'* White Star Uner.The, 228, 263 
"Germanic,** The, 104 
German Navy, The, 63 
Graceful Act, A, 475 
Great Lake Steamer, A, 233 
Griffin's Nautical Series, 4x7 
Grounding of French Ironclads, 337 
Guns, New, 383 

Hamburg-American Line, The, ^9 

Hardships attending the possession of a Board of Trade Certificate, The, 228 
Hartmaim's Rahtjen's Composition, 363 
Hasties* Patent Rudder Brakes, 106 
History of the Cunard Line, The, 8 
Holyhead Mails, 306 
Hornby, The late Admiral Sir G. P., 16 
Hull and District Institution of Engineers and Naval Architects, 84, 318, 363, 


Hull Steam Trawlers, 286 
Imperial Russian Yacht, The, 38 
Indian Trooping, The, 152 
Institute of Marine Engineers, 252, 463 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Paper read before the, 2 
Institution of Civil Engineers, The, 63 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuifders in Scotland, 40 
Institution of Junior Ensineers, The, 28, 327 
Instructional Squadron for Stokers, 394 
Irish Mail Contract, The, 157, 226 
Iron and Steel Institute, 303 



Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, The, 159. 388, 437 

^ Wens,** Gunboat for the Pprtugnese Government, xi6 

'^ James Forrest ** Lecture, The, 7 

Iane*s Naval Annual, 136 

Japanese Navy, The, 106 

lohnson ft Phlllipa* Catalogue, 337 

Junior Engineers, The Institution of, 28 

*• Jupiter,** Launch of the, 336 
"Katahdln.*^""" " 

. ■* The Ram, 407 
Kiel Festivities, The. 151 
King*s CoUms, Ufdon, a86 
** Kodaka,*' Torpedo Boat, 7 

" Lacerda,** Gunboat for ue Portuguese Government, 116 
La Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, 103, 194 
** La Gascogne,** 105 , 

Lagging for Boilers and ReMgerating Plant, 254 
Largest Bailing Vessel, ass 
Late Dr. Denny, The, 4^ 
Launch of H.M.S. " Bruteer,** 30 
Launch of the " Emperador Carlos Quinto,** 20 
Launch of the '* Jupiter,** 336 
Launches. 6s> ^75 

Lifeboat, Launch of a New Steam, 286 
*' Lightning,** Court Martial, 394 
Light- Ship, New, 104 
Liverpool Engineering Society. 340 
Liverpool Improvements, 9, 61, isx, 192, 227, 306 
LobnU2 ft Co., Messrs., 199 
Long Passace. A, 8 

London ana GUsgow Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., The, 16 
Machinery of the ** Pelorus,'* 481 
" Magnificent,** Trial of the, 274 
Mafliolia Anti-Friction Metal Co.*s Caulogue, 417 
Mall of a Century Ago, 439 
MaU Subsidies, 308 
" Majestic,** Trial of the, 274 
Malu and Halifax News, 27s 
Marine Boilers, 195 

Marine Engineers* Examinations, 38, 318 
Mavor ft Coulson. Messrs., 4 
Mechanical Ventilation, xo^ 
Merchant Marine Officers for the Navy, 314 
Missutemenu in the DailyPress 389 
Mishaps to Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, 483 
Mobilisation, The, 233 
Mobillxhig the Flying Squadron, 439 
More Warships, 3S8 

Moss, H. B. ft Co., Steamship Circular, 417 
Mutual Idea for Steamers, llie, 307 
National Steamship Comgony's Affairs, 474 
National Steamsfato Co., The, 967 
Naval Estimates, The, x6 
Naval Festival at Kiel, The, xS4 
Naval Greyhound, A, 228 
Naval Men and the Mercantile Marine, 102 
Naval Mobilisation, The, 197 
Naval Officers* Expenditure, 275 
Naval Outlook, 439 
Nwal Progranune, The New, 480 
Navigators and Engineers, 314 
Navy EstimatML 273 
Navy League, The, 199, 394, 48X 
Navy Notes, 63 

New Edition of Po^*s Handbook, etc., 37 
" Newport News,** The New American Screw Steamboat, 234 
New Toimage. 193 

New York and Biediterranean Service, The, 103 
New York Improvements, 9, X03 
Nigh Sixty Years at Sea, X02 
Non-Teonnieal Press, 438 
Nottage Bequests, The, 104 
Ocean Graveyard, The, 60 
*" Oceanic** White Star Steamer, 116 
Oil-Firing, S<>3 
Old Liners, 307 
Old Salt** Yam, An, 102 
One-Sided Floating Dock, A, 380 
Okl Steamers, 474 
Opening of the Canal, 134 
** Oroya,** The, xo, 6x, xo2, 307 
Ostend Lixie, 388 
Oslend Biall Line, 439 
Our Supply of Seainen. 234 
P. and O. Company, The. 194. 308 
Palace Steamers (Umited), The New, 84 
Ponbroke Dockvard, 64, 106, 136, X99, 233. 316. 357. 395. 44«f 483 
** Peimsylvania," The, 443 
- Phoant,- Trials of Uie, 
Phosphor Bronse, 337 
Pleasant Ceremony, A, X04, xsx 

Portsmouth Dockyard, 107, 134, 198, 333, 373, 314, 336, 394, 440, 480 
" Potosi,** Larsest Sailing Vessel, 233 



•• Powerful.** H.M.S., 198 

Preparing for the Naval Estimates, 3 

Preparing for War, 439 

Presentaoon, A, 194 

Presentation of the Royal Humane Society's Medal to Mr. R, Morrison, 164 

** President Van Heel,*' T-«Mn*.h nf *Ka <.a#f 

'Launchof the, 386 

-* Prince George,** The Launch of the, 234 

Prfaice of Wales at Southampton, The, 226 

Procranmie for the Naval Manosuvres, The, 107 

S?S^^^.*5i. 193. 30«. 389 

Pnblitt Yachting, los 

Ramage ft Ferguson, Lid., New Contraeu, 164 

RanUne ft BlMkinore, Messrs., 199 

Record, A. 268 

Record American Cargo, A, 263 

Reforxns for Naval Engineers, 481 

Relative Strength of Navies, 482 

" Renown,** Twln-Screw BatUeahip, X48, 406 

Reorganisation of the Chaimel Squadron, 393 

Richard*8 Plastic Metal, 433 

Risby's Tannate of Soda, 343 , 

Robberies at Sea, 61 

Royal Visit to the Docks. 286 

Russian Imperial Yachts, 13 

Russian Passenger Steamers, 103 

Russian Steamers. Contract for Four, 94 

dafety Tread Syndtoate, Ltd., 337 

•• Salak.** The, im 

Sand Pumping Dredger, 333 

" Sansparell,** The, 13 

" 8atemte*s ** Screw Shaft, The. 3x3 

Scheme of Evolutions, The, 197 

Science and Art Department, 463 

Screening of Ship's Side-Llghts, 371 

Screw Propeller, The, 64 

Second-class Cruisers, The New, 337 

Sectional Marine Boiler, A, x&i 

" Serpa Pinto,** Gunboat for the Portuguese Government, xi6 

" Sharpshooter's *» TrUls, The, 136 

Sheemess, At, 107 

Sheemess Dockyard, 64, X36, 199. 333, 316, 337. 395. 440,r483 

Shipbuilding by Contract, 314 

Shipbuilding Proo-amme, The New, 440 

Shipbuilding Trade, 386 

Shipbuilding Work in Hand, 395 

Ship Railways for Warships, 38 

Ship's Course Recording Invention, 318 

Short Sea Route, The, 473 

SiUy Article, A very, 477 

Simon's, Wm. ft Co., New Contracts, 334 

Singular Sutement, A very, 8 

Smaller Battleships, 14 

Smart Work in Engineering, 463 


Some Trials and New Constructions, 3x6 

Southampton, 133, 360, j~ 

Southampton Docks, 26L 

Spanish Decoration for a British Engineer, 443 

Spanish Gunboats, 94 

Spanish Navy, The, 14 

SENBed Trials, 443 

"Standard,** Imperial Russian Yacht, 38 

State Line, The, i^i 

Steamers to be Sold, 194 

Steamship Circulars, 107, 417 

Steel Steam Yacht, 380 

Stem- Wheel Shallow- Draught Gunboats, 116 

Stem- Wheel Steamer, xi6 

" St. Louis,** The, 130, 193, 333, 368 

Stone. J., ft Co., Catalogue, 116 

" St. Paul,** American Liner, 38, 39, 406 

Strong, Mr. Geo. H., xx6 

Style of Rig, A New, 44^ 

** Sultan ** Revivimus, The, X33 

Suimy South, The, 489 

Tactical Exercises, The, 333 

Tannate of Soda for Marine BoDers, X99 

" Terrible '* and " Powerful,** jn 

Testing of Materials, The, 38 

Thames Steamboats, 308 

"Thekla,** Launch of the. 303 

" Thrasher,'* Tr4»»*nfth of the, 343 

Tipstaff and the Lady, or theMan who did not Catch a " Tartar,** 38 

** Titania,'* Sailing Vessel, 443 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, 13, 107, 143, 443 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, as Drill Ships, 336 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers, More, 313 

Torpedo-Boat " Kodaka,** 7 

Torpedo-Boat Manoeuvres, The, 333 

Torpedo- Boats, 327 

Torpedo Mancauvres, The, 197 

Trades and Industrial Exhibition, A, 333 

Training Ship for Stokers, 313 

Trials of the " Magnlficient^ and " Majestic,'* 374 

Triple- Expansion Engines, New, 334 

Trooping, 63 

Tub^ of Torpedo-Boat Destroyers' Boilers, The, 316 

Tubular Boilers, 363 

Twin-Screw Battleship " Renown,** 148 

Twin-Screw Steamer, New, 319 

Twin-Screw, The, 39, 473 

Type of Steam Vessel, A New, 33 

Union Company, The, X03 

Union Line, The, 61 

United Stotes and Great Britain, ^^ 

United States and her Power for Offence, 393 

" UrsuUp** Launch of the, 140 

Value of Old Llxiers, 360 

Valve Attachment, Patent, 34 

" Vestkysten,** The, 463 

** Victoria,** Launch of the, 3x6 

" Virago,** Launch of, 353 

Visit of Italian and Spanish Warships, 134 

Visit ofa Spanish Fleet, The, 198 

Visit of Itaflan Fleet. 197 

** Wairapara** Disaster, The, 39 

** Wales?* Launch of the, 164 

Water-Tube Boilers, 14, 333, 379, 390, 393, 441 

Water-Tube Boilers and the Debate in the House, 61 


Water-Tube Boiler, The, zo 
Welcome the Coming, Speed the Parting Gnest, 239 
West India Royal BfiaU Line, The, 307 
West India Royal Mail Steam Paclcet Co., 361 
White-Star Boat, An Old, 267 
White-Star Line, The, 60, 390 
• Wicklow,** The New Steamer, 107 
Winter Storms, The, 10 
Wonderful Steamship, A, 116 
Woolwich Dockyard, 482 
Work at No. 14 Graving Dock, Portsmouth, 64 
Work in the Dockyards, New, 440 
Work of the Last Year, 395 
Wright & Co., Messrs. Joseph, 104 
Yachting Tours, 360 



Aaypion, 77 

Acacia, 308 


Admiral, 434 


iEolus, 373 


Afridi, 75 

Ajax, 494 

Alchymist, 418 

Aldemay, 29 

Alexandra, 210 

Alfred Menzell, 249 

Algoa, 455^ 

Amana, xoo 

American, 249 

Anapa, 455 

Andania, 374. 4x8 

Annie. 454 

Antonio Olyntho, 437 

Arcturus, 33X 

Argo, 208 

Argonaut, 244 

Ariagne, 287 

Aries, 246 

Arion. 75 

Arkadla,74 „ 

Armenian, 248 

Athene, 120 

Atlas, 169 


Aureola, 3< 

Aureole, 209 

Australian, 450 

Ava, 290 

Ava, 493 

Avery HiU, 165 

Azov, 32 

Balgay, 121 


Baluchistan, 455 


Barcelona, X20 

Barlby, 3*8 , 

Baron de Neve de 

Roden, X19 
Beacon Rock, 167 
Bedouin, 244 
Beechwold, Z19 
BellaUsa, 457 
Bellevue, 458 

Benalder, 34 
Benclutha, 2iz 
Bengloe, 78 
Benrldge, 29 
Benshaw, 33 
Bermuda, 288 
Bertholey, 374 
Betty Inglis, 167 
Bimam, 454 
Bishop Rock, 78 
Borneo, Z19 
Bovic, 454 
Bruiser, H.M.S., 20 
Buenos Aires,! 18 
Bums, 30 
Burntisland, 210 
Cadis. x68 
Caimisla, 436 
Caimlock, xxy 
Cala Mara, i2x 
Caledonia, X19 
Cambois, 291 
Cambria. 77 
Cambusdoon, 77 
Campania, 286, 328 
Captain Orella, 494 
Carinthia, X23 

Catania, 168 
Cavour. 166 
Cayo Blanco, 328 
Centaur, 293 
Cento, 287 
Cervantes, 78 
Cestrian, 332 
Champion, 373 
Channel Queen, 244 
Charlemagne. 318 
Charles Gaselee, 289 
Charterhouse, 118 
Chesapeake, 210 
Chirket-i-Hairie. 2S9 
Cliiswick. 454 
Chow Tai, 456 
Chun Bang, 492 
Clan Menries, 493 
Cleopatra, 33 
Cleve, 372 
Cloch, %7± 
Clydesdale, 290 
Clydesdale, 373 
Condor, 419 
Coptic, 454 
Corsica, 21 x 
Costeira, 32 
Cowrie. 454 
Craigellacnie, 456 
Craig Gowan, 456 
Craiemore, 170, 209 
Craiuey, 328 
Cr6te-A-Pierrot, 355 
Crystal, 418 
Dacia, 494 

Daisy, 292 
Dalblair, 331 
Dandle Dinmont, x2o 

Dania, 170, 209 
Davspring, 247 
Deike Rickmers, 4X& 
Deoof Airlle,2Q2 
Desperate, H.NI.S., 483 
Devon, 330 
Diana, H.M.B., 386 
Diciembre, 289 
Dido, 405 

Diego Velasquez, 291 
Dilward, 287 
Dinsdale, 117 
Diomed, 77 
Dione, 165 
Dominic, 330 
Donai, 292 
Dorando, 292 
Dorothea Rickmers, 908 
Dorrie, 32 
Dorris, 33 
Dorothy, 33 
Dorothy, 330 
Dover, 456 
Draco, 202 
Drumelzier, 287 
Duano, 455 

Duchess of Rothesay, 78 
Duchess of York. 31 
Duchess of York. 208 
Duke of Lancaster, xi8 
Dunottar, 288 
Dtmstan. 420 
Eastlands, 373 
Bast Neuk, 248 
Eddie, 244 
Bddystone, X19 
Effort, 76 
Eidsvold, i6s 
Ekaterinoslavl, 492 
Elizabeth, 29 
Elm Branch, 373 
Emblem, 331 
Emperador Carlos Quln- 

to, 20 
Emperor, v> [247 

Emperor NlohoUsi lU 

Empire, 78 
Empress, 76 
Euchzis, 2x0 
Evening Star, 374 
Excel, 33X 
Fastnet, x68 
Faugh-a-Ballagh, 79 
Fan Sang, 492 
Favell, 289 
Femfield, xx9 
Fervent, 77 
Finland, 122 
Firby, 328 
Florida, 208 
Flying Bn^zard, 3a 
Folsjo, 492 
Foochow, 246 
Forest Abbey, 30 
Fuiiyama, X20 
G. B. Crow, 3631 388 
General Alava, xao 
General Havelock, z6s 
Geneva, 293 
George WUllami, 74 
Georalc, X70 
Gibel Musa, 375 
Girasol, 120 
Girniffoe, 78 ' 
Glencloy, 77 
Glenelvan, 79 
Glenfiimart, X23 
Glengowan, 290, 392 
Glenlochy, 495 
Glenmore, 77 
Gleziroy, 287 
Gloamin, 331 
Goldenfels, 24s 
Goodwin, 32 
Gothic, 328 
Granby. xxy 
Grand Duchess Xenia, 

Grand Duchess Xenia, 

Grantor, 4x9 
Grecian, 492 
Grenada, 457 
Grenadier, X17 
Greta, 76 
Greyhound, Z2i 
GuiUermo Lopez, 288 
Gweimie, 247 
Haddon Haiu, 372 
Haimun, 457 
Haiphong, X42 
Haller, 49s 
Hanbury, 4x8 
Handy. H.M.S., 30 
Hanseat 288 
Hapsburg, 79 
Hi^calo, X18 
Bardwick Hall, 4x8 
Hart, 76 
Hasllngden, 39 
Hathor. 20 

Haughty, H.M/S., 289 
Hawnby, 29 
Helge, 79 

Heman Cortes, 390 
Hero. 420 
Hersllia, 33 
Hester, z66 
Hillbrook, 495 
Historian, 292 . 
Holgate. 419 
Holmfield, 372 
Horace, 331 
Hovding, 373 
Huascar, 49^ 
Hunter, 457 
Ilaro. 329 
Imerlna, X65 
Inskenderoun, 33 
Inverlochy, 2x2 
Invermav. 330 
Invemeill, z68 
Invema, 248 
lolaire, 457 
Isolde, 79 
Ivy, X18 

anus, H.M.S., 30 
' osephine, xx8 

ules Mi^Ml. 248 

uno, 167 



upiter, H.M.S., 356, 358 

Caisow, 33 
Kansn, 33 
Kelvin, 494 

Kherson, 329 

King David, 288 
lUng Edgar, 492 
King Sing. 374 
Kingtor, 493 
Kintuck, 293 
Kirkhill, 374 

Koimixigen Reffentei,2xx 
Koimlngen Wilhelmlna 


Kurdistan, 74 
Knt Wo,39x 
Kylemoor, 494 
Lady Furneea, 167 
Lady Margaret, 169 
Lady Olivia, 346 
Lady Sophia, X30 
Lady Wrndsor, X30 
Lauro Sodre, 457 
Leitrim, 494 
Lezmox, 2x0 
Leonora, 387 
Leven, 374 

Lightning, H.M.S., 75 
Linduden, 493 
Liverpool, 375 
Liverpool, 4x8 
Lizard, 347 
Lombard, 33 
London City, 496 
London, 330 
Lorle, 495 
Lvdia, 74 

Madge Ballantyne, 330 
Magnetic, 338 
Maiestic, x6s 
Malta. X30 
Manelaus, x68 
Manila, axx 
Manoel Victorlno, 345 
Manzanillo, 4x9 
Maria Rickmers, 455 
Marie Elsie, 328 
Marseilles, 333 
Mathilda, xx7 
Menes, 77 
Merlin, 418 
Mermmss, x2o 
Middletoii. xx8 
Minister Wltte, 454 
Mixmeburg, 495 
Mobile, 372 
Mogul, 29 
Monkbams, X69 
Monkbams, 2x0 
Motisoon, 165 
Morning Star, 330 
Morven, 248 
Moyune, 2xx 
Nanette, 4x9 
Nanshan, 375 
Nell-Jess, 420 
Nephrite, 495 
Nerite, 328 


Nicolai II., X30 
Nithsdale, 420 
Nomadic, 328 
Nordhvalen, 1x7 
Nordkyn, 289 
Norman, 290 
Northumberland, 287 
Norwood, 33 
Noviembre, xx8 
Nubia, x68 
Oak Branch, 24 
Oakwold, 329 
Obra, XX7, 
Oceana, 247 
Ockexifels, 117 
Octopus, 247 
Okhla, 167 
Okixiawa Maru, 497 
Olaf Kyrre, 344 
On Sang, a88 
Ontario, 387 
Opossum, 345 
Oratios Couppas, 39X 
Orontes, 74 
Ortoire, X70 

^Jn^fa 2100 

Paes deCarvalho, 456 



Pakling. 2ia 
PaknAm, 77 
Palawan, 287. 290 
Parkhorst, 456 
Pelonis. H.M.S.. 482 
Penartb, 418 
Pendower, 455 
Penelope, 30 
Penelope, 288 
Penguin. 119 
Penrhirn, 246 
Pensador, 165 
Perseverance, 493 
Peter Johnstone, 457 
Phoebe, 32 
Ph«Bnlx, 494 
Pinners PcAnt, 246 
PiTmonth Belle. 169 
Ponce de Leon, 291 
Pontes, 289 

porcnpine, H.M.S., 265 
Port Logan. 330 
Poseidon, so 
PowerfDl, H.M.S., 198 
President Van Heel, 286 
Prince George, 234 
Princess, 495 
Prins Hendrik, 248 
Progress, 209 
Prompt, 330 
Pron)er, lax 
Pradente de Moraes, 

Pan, 33X 

Ooeen Elizabeth, 165 
Qoeen Cristina, 49A 
Queen of the North, xi8 
Qoeen Olga Constantino, 

Qoeen o' the May, 120 

Rajah. 289 
Ralph, 246 
Rasona. 458 
Rebecca, 119 
Redcap, 372 
Redgaontlet, 77 
Revenge, 1x9 
Rhino, 167 
Richmond, 454 
Rio Paohiny, 248 
Rio Xapury, 291 
Rodo, 30 
Rodney, 418 
Romadalen, 74 
Rose, 345 
Rosstrevor. 33 
Roaefield. 493 
Rodelsborg, 418 

Saint Ronald, 289 

Salvador Correia, 75 


Sardinia. 212 


Scott, x66, 169 

Scottish Hero, x66 

Seaforth, 328 


Selma, 494 

Shirley. 373 

Simonette, six 

Sir Frederick Chapman, 

Sir Robert Hay, 374 
Snapshot, x68 
Solway. 2x1 
Sonnenburg. 454 
Sound ol Jura, 458 
Speeulant, 167 
Speedy, 34 
Spbene. 374 
Spitfire, 165 
St. Adrian, 244 
Standard, 38 
Statesman, X22 
St. Austen, 497 

tu Ives, 458 
L Tudwal, 246 

Sofiolk, XX9 
Sui Sang, 373 
Suixiatra, X69 
Sonda, 2x0 
Swanley, 455,„ 
S^echnen, x68 
Tabasco, x66 
Teenkai, 290 
Tel-el-Mina, X2a 
Telena, 329 
Terrible, H.M.S., 7 
Thekla, 302 
Thetis, 78 ^ 
Thrasher, H. M.S., 343 
Thistle, 244 
Thistle, 247 
Thistle, 290 
Throstlegarth, 32 
Tientsin, 290 
Tiger. 75 
Titania, 332 
Titania, ao8 
Topaz. 454 
Treasury, 492 
Trevarrack, xxy 
Trevethoe. 74 
Tropic, 493 
Turret Cape, 75 
Turret Crown, 74 
Turrethlll, xx9 
T. W. Stuart, 494 
Unyoro, 4M 
Urania, x68 
Urd, 245 
Ursula, X40 
Vagliano, 208 
Valhalla, 493 
Valkyrie, xM 
Vanconver, 288 
Vaxo, 244 
Vazo Nunez de Balboa, 

Vega, 30 
Ve^a, X69 
Verbena. 3x 
Venus. H.M.S., 266 
Victoria, H.M.S., 316 
Victoria, 497 
Victorian, 2x2 
Vida. x66 
Vigilant, xx9 
Vimeira. 247 
Vbago. hM.S., 35a 
Vladimir, 77 
Volage. 30 
Voronej 456 
Vulcan, 120 
Wales. 164 
W. A. Mackie. 78 
W. D Cruddas, 288 
Westmeath, 244 
Wicklow, 76 
WUI7 Rickmers, 244 
Wolfsbur^, 454 
Wolviston, 372 
Wone Koi, 420 
Woodbum, 375 
Wren, 117 
Wuhu, 330 
Zephyr, 120 

VBSSBtk MOT Named. 

Barge-Loading Dredger, 29X 

Barges. 1x9 

Boats, 289 

Cargo Boat, 290 

Four-Masted Barque, 30 

Hopper Barges, 2x0, 492 

Ice- Breaker, xx8 

Iron Barges, 201, 492 

Passenger and Cargo Steamer, 372 

Screw Passenger Steamer, X65 

Screw Steam Yacht, 374 

Steam Hopper, 457 

Steam Plimace. 419 

Steam Yacht, 78 

Steel Barge 372 

Steel Hopper Barge, i28 

Steel Screw Hopper Dredger, 420 

Steel Screw Hopper Steamer, 495 

Steel Screw Steamer, 208 

Steel Screw Steamer, 24) 

Steel Screw Steamer, 328 

Steel Screw Steamer, 331 

Steel Screw Steamer, 456 

Steel Screw Tug and Tender, xx8 

Steel Twin-Screw Steamer, x66; 

Twin-Screw Hopper Dredger, 76 

Tug, 212 


Aaypion, X23 
Acacia, 250 
Achilles. 334 
Admiral, 400 
.admiral Oushakofl, 327 
Alleghany, 34 
Amana, 2x4 
American, 335 
Anapa, 499 
Arcadia, 42X 
Arcturus 458 
Ardandearg, 2x5 
Aries. 333 
Arion, X24 
Arkadia, X23 
Armenian, 332 
Aureole, 293 
Australasian, 249 
Avery HiU 250. 
Azov, 37 
Baluchistan, 500 
Barcelona, X74 
Beacon Rock, X74 
Beechwold, 2x2 
Benrath, 80 
Benridee, 8x 
Bermuda, 33S 
Bertholey, 459 
Bishop Rock, X25 
Borneo, 249 
Buenos Aires, 3S6t 359 
Buluwayo, 125 
Cadiz, 3x4 
Caimlooh, X72 
Caledonia, X74> 3X2 
Cambois, 459 
Cambria, 171 
Campania, 356 
Carinthia, 2x2 
Carperley, 34 
Catania, 250 
Cayo Blanco, 375 
Charterhouse, X72 
Chesapeake, 250 
Chiswick, 459 
Chow Tai, 499 
Christiana, 249 
City of Gloucester, 337 
Cleopatra, 125 
Cleves, 42 X 
CUo, 336 

Colonel J. T. North, 123 
Corsica, 293 

Countess of Morley, X74 
Cowrie, 498 
Czar, 250 

Danme lMxmi( 

tout, X72 

Dayspring, 296 
Deike Rickxriers, 460 
Donai, V76 
Donegal Castle, 377 
Dorothea Rickmers, 293 
Dover, 498 , ^ ^ 
Duchess of Rothesay, 

Duke of Lancaster, 252 
Dnnottar, 334 
Easdands, 459 
Effort, 80 
Eidsvold, 2x4 
Elfie, xyx 
Emperor, 79 
Empress, 80 
Eva, 251 
Falcon, 252 
Fastnet, 2x2 
Femfield, 2x3 
Firby. 576 
Fiamlnlan, x73 
Flensburg, 249 
Forest Brook, 315 
Fort Salisbury, 8x 
General Alava, xys 
Girasol, 125 
Glenroy, 296 
Gloamin, 4^1 
Goldenfels, 296 
Granby, 170 
Grand Duchess Xenia, 

Granualle, 79 
Grenadier, X72 
Greyhound, X73 
Gubrune, X22 
Guillermo Lopez, 296 
Gustaf Wasa, 80 
Hai-Mun, 499 
Hanbnry, 422 

Handy, 2x4 
Haken, X22 
Harcalo, i73 
Haslingden, 79 
Helge, 124 
Hero. 171 
Holgatc, 497 
Hovding. 42X 
Hyson, 499 
Ivy. 252 

Toseph Sddune, 172 
Jnlia, 333 
Keong Wai, X23 
King David, 336 
Kittiwike, 296 
Komiloff^, 375 
Konningen Wi 

Kut Wo, 334 
Lady Fumess, 252 
Lady Margaret, 2x3 
Lady Sophia, X74 
Lady Windsor, X73 
Langbank, 334 
Languedoc, 421 
La Rapide, 249 
Las Palmas, 377 
Lestris, 250 
Leven, 377 

Lightning, H.M.a, 338 
Lisnacrieve, 498 
Lombard. 124 
Madge Ballantyne, 375 
Magnificent. H.M.S^ 374 
Majestic 2x4 
Majestic. H.M.S., 2x3 
Manoel Victorino, 296 
ManzaniUo, 500 
Marie Elsie, 377 
Marino. 35 
Mathilda, 174 
Menes, X24 
Middteton, 2x4 
Mindello, 80 
Mlxiila, 2SX 
Mogul, 8x 
Monarch, 36 
Monsoon, 2x3 
Mount Sinon, 36 
Murcia, 8x 
Nanette, 460 
Nanshan, 498 
Nerite, 422 
Newfoundland, 295 
Nicolai II., X74 
Northumberland, 376 
Nubia, 213 
Oakwold, 375 
Ockenfels, 174 
Olaf Kyrre, 293 
Onda, 422 
On Sang. 336 
Ortoire, 212 
Pakling, 295 
Pectan. 297 
Penartb, 459 
Peveril, 293 
Phoenix, 44 X 
Piimer's Pohit, 333 
Plymouth Belle, 2x3 
Premier, 35 
Princess Beatrice, 499 
Prins Hendrik, 376 
Progressist, 8x 
Prosper, X73 
Rauma, 295 
Rebecca, 172 
Rheno, 2x3 
Richmond, 497 
Rio Pauhiny, 295 
Riverdale, 34 
Robin, xyx 
Rodo. 80 
Romsdalen, 123 

Rose, ^37 


Rotterdam, X74 
Royalist, 8x 
Rudelsburg, 497 
Saba. 249 
Saint Ronald, 336 
Salmon, 250 
Samoyed, 2sx 
Saratovski Ledokol, lyt 
Sardixila, 25X 
Savoy, 79 



Scotsman. 80 
Scott Harley, 171 
Skate, 296 
Sltedrecbt, 35 
Sokol, 296, 313 
Sonnenburg, 459 
Spaniel, The, 123 
Speedy, xm 
Starfish, H.M.S, 334 
Star of New Zealand. 36 
Steinberger, 35 
St. Ninlan, 79 
St. Tudwal, 333 
Sturgeon, 212 
Sul Sang, 459 

Sumatra, 231 
Snnfish, 250 
Surly, H.M.S., 36 
Sylvania. 80 
Tabasco, 2x4 
Tier-el-Mina, 174 
Telena, 42X 
Theme, 34 
Thetis, 123 
Throstlegarth, 80 
Tiger, X25 
Titania, 249 
Tokio 35 
Trevarrack, X71 
Trevethoe, xa4 

Turret Cape, 172 
Turret Crown, 124 
Turrethill, 173 

U rd. 295 
Vagliano, 250 
Vancouver, 336 
Vasco, 295 
Vega, 171 
Veglia, 296 
Verbena, 123 
Victorian, 294 
Vimeria, 29s 
Viper. 497 
Wales, 252 

Walter Glynn, 336 
W. A. Massey, 35 
Warrior, 35 
WestmeaUi, 295 
Wild Rose, 171 
Wolfsburg, 500 
Wollowra, 124 
Wolviston, 422 
Wong Kol, 499 
Zara, 124 

Vessels not Named. 
Steel Screw Tug, 256 

Printed for the Proprietor by Pbsbt, Oardrxb ft Co., Farringdon Road, the County of Middlesex, and Published at the Office, 8, Amen Comer 
Paternoster Row, in the Parish of Christ Church, in the City of London.— AfarcA Ut, 1896. 

April 1, 1895.] 


®tre piartne Engineer. 

LONDON. APRIL 2, 2895. 

THE disastrons collision between the North-German 
Liner Elbe and the screw-steamer Crathie of 
Aberdeen, has once more drawn forcible attention to 
several matters of the highest moment connected 
with the safety of ocean travel by large mail and 
passenger steamers. Questions bearing npon one or 
more points raised by the disaster have been asked 
in Parliament, letters and leaders have appeared in 
the daily press, and the public mind has been, as it 
always is in the face of appalling catastrophes, deeply 
stirred by sorrow and amazement mingled with 
aggrieved qaestioning. Things, however, are already 
settling into that quiescent state bom of the rapidity 
of events, and the common human failing of easily 
forgetting disagreeable things. There are, however, 
lessons enforced by the disaster which those con- 
nected professionally with shipping cannot afford to 
overlook or leave unconsidered. More forcibly than 
in any previous instance of collision and resulting 
disaster, the case of the Elbe points to the subject of 
watertight sub-division of ships. It is considered one 
of the proudest — and it is certainly one of the best 
canvassed — qualifications of our large modem mail 
and passenger steamships, that they would not sink 
in the event of ''any two compartments being 
opened to the sea." We have always suspected 
that in the phrase just quoted — ** any two compart- 
ments, &c." — the machinery compartment has been 
left out of account. This is necessarily the space 
largest in capacity and lending itself least to sub- 
division. At most, all that can be done in this space 
is to divide the engine-room from the boiler-room by 
abulkheadhaving large doors for inter-communication. 
In the case of twin sets of engines a central bulkhead 
may be fitted, but here again, doors are a necessity, 
and even advisable so as to obviate the weight of the 
sea — in the case o an inroad — Wheeling the vessel to 
one side dangerously. The condition of unsinkability, 
with the engine space and another compartment 
simultaneously laid open, was not maintained in the 
case of the Elbe, and what happened to her — viz., the 
opening of her shell in wake, of the bulkhead 
dividing the engine-room from the cargo compart- 
ment abaft it, the shattering of that bulkhead itself, 
and the consequent inrush of the sea to both com- 
partments simultaneously— may happen to any of our 
large ocean liners to-morrow. Had the blow been 
delivered in wake of the bulkhead dividing the engine- 
room and boiler-room, the result might have been 

equally disastrous, and perhaps even more appalling. 
But this is a point which the enquiry to be in- 
stituted about the catastrophe may be expected to 
make clear: whether the door in the bulkhead 
separating engine and boiler-rooms was closed or 
open, and whether, had there been no door at all in 
this bulkhead and the water had been kept out, the 
vessel would have floated. We think the time has 
come for all our large ocean passenger steamships to 
be fitted with watertight bulkheads not only in full 
conformity with the recommendations of the Bulkheads 
Committee, but that all so-called watertight bulkheads 
should be so more than in name, viz., that there should 
be no doors nor openings whatever. It may be 
thought by some to be quite impracticable in passenger 
steamers to avoid altogether in bulkheads watertight 
doors on the level of the lower decks. This is not so, 
however, and in the Parit and New York, built seven 
years ago, there has never been doors, the bulkhead 
running intact from the bottom of the ship to the 
upper deck. Any passenger, therefore, or for that 
matter any engineer or stoker, who wishes to go 
from one compartment to another, must go to the 
upper deck level. While one passenger out of 100 may 
grumble at the momentary inconvenience, the pro- 
spective advantage of the system in the event of a 
collision or other mishap is a most convincing 
argument in support of it. The Parisy four years 
ago, as everyone knows, met with a mishap in the 
engine-room, which led to its being speedily flooded, 
but as there was no door to the boiler compartment, 
the latter was kept free from water. The bulkhead 
aft of the engine-room was damaged, and the com- 
partment abaft of it flooded, but still the vessel floated. 
The abolition of doors is not impracticable in steam- 
ships, and their absence is found from experience in 
the case of the ParU and New York to cause no very 
great inconvenience. In spite of the many ingenious 
methods of promptly closing doors, panic and human 
error in critical emergencies are matters which come 
in to discount such efficiency. It would be bet;(er, 
therefore, to at once recognise the fact, and extend 
the system of dispensing with doors. The Elbe disaster 
has been made the occasion of some agitation both in 
and out of Parliament, to have the character of vessels 
as to bulkhead sub-division subject to Board of Trade 
jurisdiction. This, however, we think, is ill-advised, 
or at all events the giving effect to the aims of the 
agitation would be. We are of opinion that the re- 
sponsibility of providing efficient sub -division should 
be allowed still to lie with owners themselves. Any 
regulations as to sub-division, which might be framed 
for general application would inevitably prove tmfair 
and harassing in particular cases. Owners of cargo- 
carrying vessels especially would find the new powers 


[April 1, 1896. 

of the Board of Trade in this matter subject of serious 
complaint. On the other hand, with the onus and re- 
sponsibility of providing efficient sub-division still 
resting with owners, matters in the case of passenger 
vessels will always adjust themselves. The lessons of 
the Elbe disaster, though costing dear, will be laid to 
heart, and improvements on the lines we have in- 
dicated may soon result. All that the Board of Trade 
may be looked to to accomplish is to encourage the 
introduction of efficient watertight compartments, in 
accordance with the recommendations of the Bulk- 
heads Committee of 1891, by a partial exemption of 
vessels so fitted from the requirements of the Mer- 
chant Shipping (Life Saving Appliances) Act, 1838, to 
which it would otherwise be necessary to conform. 
This exemption, together with the prospect of State 
employment in times of war held out to vessels 
efficiently sub-divided, will be found inducezaents 
enough towards attaining the ideal of unsinkability ; 
even if it were not the case that the sense of respon- 
sibility resting on owners and builders of large 
passenger steamers is in itself as potent as compulsory 
enactments might prove to be. 

Thb Admiralty is getting it hot again. Public offices 
in England are at present no sinecure. There seems 
always someone ready and willing to find fault. If 
things go easy and in the ordinary routine, the de- 
partment is hauled over the coals for being inert and 
sluggish. If, in desperation, a department makes some 
unusual e£E6rt to be abreast of the times, it is de- 
nounced at once as rash and improvident. We trust 
that between such a Soylla and Charybdis the 
official mind preserves its equanimity under either 
fortune, as being all in the day's work. From our 
own point of view, seeing the great temptation there 
must be in an official department to run in well-known 
and safe grooves, even at the expense of energy and 
enterprise, we would welcome any movement towards 
marching with the progress of the day, even if such 
departure seemed at first experimental. Somebody 
must lead the way in innovations, and it is seldom 
that a Government department can lay any well- 
founded claim to enterprise in new inventions, but 
rather finishes up, without a *' place," when every- 
body else has done the up-hill work for them. These 
remarks are apropos of the serious wigging in Parlia- 
ment that the Admiralty have lately undergone 
through adopting water-tube boilers rather extensively 
for some new ironclads. Perhaps the rancour of the 
critics has been most severely stirred by the fact that 
the favoured water-tube boiler, viz., the Belleville, 
bears a foreign name, and has its first origination 
from our neighbour France. As the boilers in ques- 

tion, however, are produced by the Admiralty them- 
selves, and also by >(essrs. Maudslay, Sons & Field, 
so well known for the quality and reliability of their 
workmanship, we think that these facts ^ould do 
much to cover the foreign origin and appellation of 
the boilers. We have no.doubt that the selection of 
these boilers by the Admiralty has been guided by 
the fact that they are the only water-tube boilers for 
heavy marine purposes that have any established 
record to show. We have no doubt that in a few 
years many of the water-tube boilers now being built 
in this country from English designs, and so to 
speak out of our own heads, will have a record suffi- 
ciently good to qualify them for adaptation to any 
sea-going steamer, cruiser or ironclad. But British 
prejudices die hard, particularly where those 
prejudices are based upon vested interest in capital 
sunk in plant and factories, organised to produce 
established and recognised productions. An improve- 
ment, however, if it really is one, and will stand the 
test of wear and tear, will sooner or later make its 
way, and even force the ejection of obsolete ideas out 
of the window, and Canute was as reasonable in com- 
manding the tide to cease to flow, as are those who 
would endeavour to prevent the adoption of innovations 
if those innovations have real merit to recommend them. 
We believe with many engineers and experts and ship- 
owners, such as Messrs. Wilson & Sons, that water- 
tube boilers have a future before them. They are 
essentially, in principle, the lightest type of boiler for 
the most speedy evaporation, andneed not necessarily, 
that we can see, be either less economical, or less safe 
and reliable, than their unwieldy progenitors. It is 
quite probable that we shall not at once produce the 
most effective and most reliable type of such a boiler, 
and that we shall learn from many mistakes and 
errors, by dire experience, as to the best form 
ultimately for safety and reliability, but this is the 
characteristic of all new departures in the engineering 
world, and success can only be attained to the full by 
the aid of actual experience and lengthy test. Mr. 
Allan's cry against the Admiralty is too bitter to be 
effective, and was unfortunately based upon general 
statements which, when analysed, do not seem to 
have been sufficiently warranted by facts. Mr. 
Charles H. Wilson speaks emphatically of two years* 
satisfactory experience with water-tube boilers made 
by Messrs. Babcock & Wilcox, and expresses his 
definite opinion that after further satisfactory con- 
firmatory trials, his firm will abandon the use of 
cylindrical boilers. This, as coming from a source 
which has no interest in any type of boiler beyond 
that of obtaining the best value for their money, is 
pregnant testimony indeed as to the probable future 
of water-tube boilers. On the other hand, those 

AprUl, 1895.1 


makers of eylindrioal boilers who are anxious of 
coarse that saeh boilers should have their full modi- 
cam of praise and credit, can and do addaoe marvel- 
loas performances of these boilers under the latest 
improved conditions of heat-catching flues and 
artificially-induced draught. There is no doubt that 
the competition of the water-tube boilers will cause 
the makers of cylindrical boilers to minutely watch 
all details of their construction and means for the 
increase of their evaporation by artificial draught, so 
that they will run their rivals very close, and the 
shipping trade and the world at large will be all the 
better for the very keen antagonism that at present 
rages between the diverse forms of contraction. 
Messrs. Thoraycroft and Yarrow & Go. are anxious 


ris somewhat refreshing in these days, when so 
much is heard of foreign competition and the 
importation of foreign manufactured goods, to hear 
of instances in which a hitherto foreign-made device 
has been taken in hand by a home firm, who have 
made up their mind to put on the market a thoroughly 
efficient home-manufactured article, which will compete 
in every way with the foreign-made goods. It has 
always been a matter of surprise that, hitherto, the 
only tachometers or speed indicators conforming with 
the requirements of modern marine engineering, have 
been almost entirely of foreign make, and many ship- 
builders, engineers and electricians have regretted 
that they have been obliged to use expensive and 
sometimes unreliable instruments that were of foreign 

that the world should know, that though they may have 
no considerable records as yet for their light water- 
tube boilers in vessels of large tonnage, yet that they 
are not to be considered in the experimental stage, 
but to have already obtained a sufficient record of 
success and reliability to warrant the adoption of 
their types of boilers to any H.P. if the shipowners 
or the Admiralty have the pluck to do it. 

duuMloiip-Lailbat.— The Frenoh seoondolass protected 
oroiaer Chataehup-Laubat, 3,740 toDS, laaDohedin 1803, has lately 
completed her fall.power trial. The engiDCt developed 9,700 
H.P., and with 188 reyolationa the made lB-5 knots. Her eati* 
mated speed for 9,000 H.P. was 19*25. The boilers are on the 
Ligrafel-d'Allest system; 

We have the pleasure noW| however, in placing be- 
fore our readers an illustration of a new tachometer, 
which has been put upon the market by Messrs. T. 
B. Harding & Son, Limited, Leeds. This instrument, 
we understand, has been designed to comply with the 
latest Admiralty requirements, and with a view of not 
only being made, so as to be more accurate and 
reliable than the foreign-made instrument, but at the 
same time, by reason of its extreme simplicity of con- 
struction, it can be sold at a considerably lower price. 
We understand that large numbers of these instru- 
ments have already been supplied for ships ordered by 
the Admiralty, either direct to the Admiralty or 
through the shipbuilders. An important feature that 
Messrs. Harding & Son, Limited, make, is the supply- 
ing, when desired, with the tachometer of a special 
driving gear, enabling the instrument to be driven 


[April 1, 1895. 

direct by means of vertical shafts from the shaft of 
the main engines. The latest type of this gear, 
specially designed for the new torpedo-boat destroyers, 
includes a Harding revolution counter driven by the 
vertical shafts that drive the tachometer, so that the 
shipbuilders can order from one firm the tachometers, 
revolution counters, and direct driving gear all self- 
contained, thus saving a considerable amount of 
detail work, properly belonging to the makers of the 

It will be seen from the illustration, that the Hard- 
ing tachometer is a neatly designed and compactly 
made instrument, and it may be well to add that 
these instruments can be driven from any direction 
and from any size of pulley or shaft, and also that the 
dial can be marked for any range of speeds, or placed 
on either side of the pedestal. 

We should judge that an instrument having the 
above-mentioned characteristics should prove a 
formidable rival to foreign-made instruments. Messrs. 
T. R. Harding & Son, Limited, of Tower Works, 
Leeds, are the sole makers of the instrument. 


AT the Ordinary MeetiDg on Tneadaj, March 12th, 1895. Sir 
Donglaa Fox, Yioe- President, in the obair, the first paper 
read was on "The Kidderpor Dooks, OalonttM," bj Mr. W. 
Dan Bmoe. M.Inst.G.E. 

Within the limits of the Fort of Calcutta the river Hooghly 
▼aried in width from 1,800 to 2,000 fc From March to July, 
when strong winds preyailed, the current at spring tides attained 
a yelooitj of ftom 6 to 6 miles an hoar, nnd during the rainy 
season the water carried a large quantity of mud in suspension. 
The city was about 90 miles from the sea, end the tidal range 
between low water of spring tides in the dry season, and the 
average high water in the rainy season was aboat 18 ft., and 
during floods as much as 22^ ft. 

Previous to the oonstruction of the dooki the trade of the port 
was carried on at a wharf constructed of iron piles, extending 
for a length of 3,000 ft. along the river bank. The wharf was 
equipped with hydraulic cranes and provided with sheds having 
a to^ area of 250,000 square ft. Further accommodation being 
required, and space not being available for Extending the wharf, 
it was decided to construct docks at Kidderpur, the nearest 
point to the mercantile part of the dty at which land could be 
obtained at reasonable cost. The docks so built consisted of 
a 60 ft. lock and an 80 ft. entrance from the river to a basin 
600 ft. by 680 ft., with a double entrance of 60 ft. and 8a ft. 
leading from the basin into a dock 2.600 fb. long and 600 ft. 
wide for the greater part of its length, the area of the dock 
being Sii acres. Two graving-docks, one 620 ft. and the other 
350 i^. long, had also been made on the east side of the basin. 
An important feature of the design was the construction of a 
canal and boat-dock from Tolly's Nullah to the southern end of 
the docks for the supply of clear water. Water was admitted 
from the nullah to the canal, which was 3,300 yds. in length, at 
high tide, and was allowed to flow into the canal until its level 
attained that of high water. The sluices were then closed, and 
the flow of the water through the canal being very slow, the 
mud whioh it contained on entering the sluices was deposited 
before reaching the pumping-station. There the water was 
raised by centrifugal pumps to a maximum height of 11 ft., and 
discharged into a canal connected to the south end of the lock. 
The object of this arrangement was to prev^it the inflow, through 
the entrances, of water highly charged with mud, to ensure the 
frequent change of water in the docks, and to allow of the 
foundations of the walls being kept as high as possible. The 
pumps provided were capable of raising 256,000 cubic feet of 
water per hour through a height of 10 ft., and were worked as 
required to maintain a higher level of water in the dock than in 
the river. 

The docks were equipped with fifty-six movable hydraulic 
cranes, tifty being constructed to life 36 cwt., and six to lift loads 
up to 5 tons. AU these cranes had a radius of 36 ft. and over- 
hung the quay 29 ft. Pressure ^or working the cranes, lock- 
gates, capstans, and swing-bridges was provided by hydraulic 
engines situated near the south end of the docks. The engines 
(two pairs) were each of 230 l.H.P. The pressure in the mains 
was 700 lbs. per square inch. In addition to the cranes, sheer- 
legs, worked by steam power and capable of lifting 100 tons, had 
been erected on the east wall of the dock. 

Cargo sheds, 800 ft. long and 120 ft. wide, had been erected 
on both sides of the dock, the total shed-area provided being 
432,000 square feet. About 28 mile^ of railway lines had been 
laid to the 5 ft. 6 in. gauge, for working the trafi^ of the docks. 
The qnays and sheds were lighted by arc and glow-lamps. 

The doc-k and basin-walls, the dt-sign of which led to much 
discuftsion. were 35 it. wide itt the base. They were built with 
voids filltrd up with broken bricks and dry earth, and hid a eub- 
•vay near the top for the accommodation of hydraulic and other 
mains. The walls were of sufficient width at the top to entirely 
carry the cranes. Owing to the treacherous nature of the 
ground, it was found imposdhle to excavate trenches for the full 
width of the walls ; the groimd was therefore only tsken out for 
half the width at one time, and when the brickwork wss built in 
the excavated portion up to the level of the dock bottom, the 
second half of the trench was opened and the wall was then 
completed to its full width. The author intended that the walls 
snould have a berm of earth left in front, and should not be 
backed up higher than the top of this berm until water was 
admitted into the dock, when the berm would be dredged away 
and the backing completed. This method of construction was 
adhered to until the works were almost finished, and when the 
author visited them in February, 1890, the walls were completed 
and the backing in this condition. Subsequently, however, the 
backing was fiBed in to within 2 ft. to 4 in. of the coping level, 
and in October, 1890, before the dock had bes«i fully excavated, 
a movement in parts of the walls took plaoe, an account of whioh 
was given in the second paper, by Mr. J. H. Apjohn, the engineer 
then in charge of the works in India. The damaged portions of 
the walls had since been repaired and the docks opened for 

In the second p^ser, " Note on the Movement of the Walls of 
the Kidderpur Docks,'* bv Mr. J. H. Apjohn, M.A., M.Inst.C.B., 
an account was giv«i of movem^ts which had taken plaoe 
early in October, 1890, in the eastern and south-western walls of 
Dock No. 1. These were first indicated by cracks in the walls of 
cargo>sheds then in course of construction, and afterwards by 
considerable advances of the coping-lines. 

A plan of the dock was given, showing that the length along 
which the movement occurred in the eastern wall was 2,080 ft., 
and the amoimt by whioh the coping-line had advanced at the 
point of maximum displacement about 7^ ft. A length of 450 ft. 
of the south-western wall was effected, but the advance of the 
coping-line was in this case about twice the amount observed in 
the eastern wall. The positions and dimensions of the cracks at 
the coping level in the south-western wall were indicated in a 
large-scale plan, and cross-sections at various points along the 
lengths of the walls illustrated their original positions and those 
assumed after the movements had taken plaoe. 

The stability of the walls, after water had been admitted to 
the dock, was considered, the resultants of the forces concerned 
being laid donm upon diagrammatic cross-sections. The admis- 
sion of water to the docks had entirely obviated danger from 
further movement of the walls, so that no attempt had been made 
to strengthen them. 

The paper concluded with a short description of the repairs 
carried out upon the walls, of which the coping lines had been 
straightened and a portion, near the north-east shoulder, con* 
verted into landing-steps. 

Meurs. MavoF ft Conlton.-Mr. Gaxrington Smythe, of 12, 
Idol Lane, B.O., has been appointed sole agent for London and 
district for Messrs. Mavor A Coulson, engineers and electricians, 
Glasgow, and will represent them for the sals of their manufac- 
tures, including Bayer's patent dynamos and motors, "0.0." 
concentric system, also for the equipment of complete lighting 
and power installation, electric traction, heating and welding, 
and electric launches. Special estimates and prices on implica- 

April 1, 1895.] 




riTH a view to increaBing the length of tbe bnildiog berthi, 
eo M be able to pnt down yesBels ap to 500 It. id leDgth, 
Uman, J. L. Thompeoxi A Sods, the emment Snsderland ship- 
builders have decided to remoTe their juinery department frcmi 
the North Sands Shipyard to the Manor's Qnaj Repairing Works 
where they fit ontyessels after launching. For the parposee of 
the ohange, the firm have erected at the latter place a sub 
stantial building 200 ft. long by 60 ft. in width. The gronnd 
floor is used for oariying out the preparatory operations connected 
with the fitting of timber to its manifold usee on shipboard. On 
this floor is placed the more powerful machinery, including a 
horizontial saw capable of cutting through a huge piece of timber 
at the rate of 6 ft. per minate. The main entrance is, as a 
matter of course, on this floor, from the centre of which a wide 
stairoase leads to the upper floors. Tbe flrst floor is fltted 
from end to end with work benches, and a variety of machines 
for planing, monldingy mortising, tenoning, Ac, as well as band, 
and press-cutting saws. These are all of modem type, and with- 
out doubt, the most effiBOtiTe procurable. The upper floor is some- 
what narrower than those below it, bnt is of equal length. At one 
end is a commodious polishing or yamishing room, where some 
dosen operatives will have aro]^ space for carrying on thi« intecest- 
ing branch of work, which amounts almost to an art. Owing to 
the special nature of the work to be done in this depsrtment, 
greac pains have been taken to keep it free from dust a'wamulations 
while, at the same time, maintaining adequate ventilation. The 
ventilating and sanitary arrangements throughout the whole of 
the building are, indeed, ezoeptioDally good, and evince much 
eonsideration for the health and comfort of the workers. The 
machinery in the building is driven by a 80 H.P. gas engine ; but 
a hydraulic lift will be provided for conveying material from the 
basement to the flrst and seoond floors, or finished work from 
the upper fioors to the lower. This, of course, will involve a very 
considerable saving of labour — a result which will be further 
helped by the contiguity of the new premises to the mooring place 
where all the vessels built by the firm, as well an those they have 
to repair, are finally fitted out. With a view to seasoning and 
drying timber, a gallery has been run along the front of the 
building on the level of the first fioor and a hot-air stove has been 
provided in the interior to supplement the drying and seasoning 
fiunlitiea afibrded by the outside gallery. Nothing, indeed, 
seems to have been omitted which could make the building ^as 
a joinery department — complete in eveiy detail ; and it is certain 
that the pospeesign of such facilities fbr dealing with the finer 
class of work Irhich they have now at their command, will 
materially help the firm in their efforts to bring to the port 
more of that land of work than has hitherto fallen to its share. 
The elaborateness and completeness of the arrangements 
made for turning out work, show that the firm intend making 
the coostruotion of passenger steamers more than ever a princi- 
pal feature of their business, and we are pleased to note that 
almost the very first work that is being done in the building is 
intended for a vessel of this description. In this vessel there ts 
quite an exoeptional amount of joiner work ; but it is being dealt 
with very easily, the output capacity having been increased 
three-fold by the new arrangements. An electric lighting in- 
stallation has been fitted by the well-known firm, Messrs. Ernest 
Soott A Mountain. Limited, of the Close Works, Newcastle. 
The plant consists of a ''Tyne" compound wound dynamo of 
Soott A Mountain's improved type, capable of giving an 
output of 400 amperes at an B.M.F. of 65 volts when running 
at a speed of approximately 600 revolutions per minute. The 
machine is fittea with an extended bedplate with outer bearing 
and a wry heavy fiy iHieel, so that an absolutely steady light is 
obtained when driven by a gas engine, but at the present time 
the dynamo is driven by the existing steam engine which drives 
the bending rolls and other machinery in the ship repairing yard. 
The current from the dynamo is taken to a main switchboard, 
and is from there divided into three circuits, one circuit being 
taken ov«rhead to the joiners' shop, another circuit along the 
jetty for driving duster lights for repairing oil ships, Ao., and 
also for working electric deck planers and drilling machines, and 
the third circuit is provided as a spare, as the firm contemplate 
applying electricity to many other purposos besides lighting. In 
the joiners' ahop a distributing switchboard is placed on the first 
floor, and from this board eighteen arc lamps of 2,000 candle 
power each are fed, the lamps being on separate circuits so that 

any lamp can be switched on or o£P as required. The arc lamps 
are of Soott k Mountain's improved type, being exceedingly 
simple, and are fitted with light fiashed oiial globes with solid 
bottoms, so that it is impossible for any bparks or pieces of carbon 
to fall. This is an extremely important matter in a joiners' shop 
where shavings are lying about, and these lamps particularly 
meet the requirements of the case. The varnishing shop and light 
joiners' shop are lighted with incandescent lamps of 16-candle 
power, there being in all between 40 and 50 incandescent lamps. 
Along each side of the first fioor and gronnd fioor a separate 
circuit is laid with wall plugs about every 10 ft., portable hand 
lamps being provided, so that the shafting or under side of any 
of the wood- working machines can be quickly examined. The 
installation has been carried out with the greatest care and is 
probably one of the most complete in any joiners' shop in the 


THE Sentinel Works of Messrs. Alley & Maolellan 
at Polmadie, Glasgow, noted for the large num- 
ber and high-class character of engineering specialities 
they produce, have long been well-known in shipping 
and marine engineering circles for their ms^e of 
* < Sentinel " steering gears. About 1,000 vessels in all 
have been supplied with steering gears by this firm, and 
this, as a measure of the success attained in the past, 
bids fair to be quite eclipsed by the reception being 
accorded to a new gear differing essentially in principle 
trom the type of Sentinel gear formerly made. The 
gear in question, ** The ^ntinel Pat^it Horizontal 
Steam Steering Grear," is not new in the sense of 
being imtried in practice, as already between 15 and 
20 gears are at work on steamships. 

On pages 6 and 7 we give illustrations of the gear, 
from which it may at once be gathered that its distin- 
guishing feature, and a distinct novelty in ship steer- 
ing gear generally, is that not only are the cylinders 
and their working parts placed horizontally, but the 
worm wheel and chain pulleys work also in a hori- 
zontal position, thus saving the first and hardest nip 
in the lead of the rudder chain which must necessarily 
occur in altering — ^in the case of an ordinary fore and 
aft barrel— from a vertical lead to a horizontal one, 
leading athwartships. This arrangement allows the 
drum, which is large enough to take up all the chain 
in one revolution, to be placed quite close to the deck, 
and the chain may be led away direct to the ship's 
side without the intervention of the guide pulleys and 
quick bends which absorb so much iK>wer in the 
ordinary type of steering engine with chain barrels on 
horizontal shafting. In the '* Sentinel*' horizontal 

S^r the few pulleys required are of extra large 
ameter, thus rendering the travel and stress of the 
chains very easy. 

The engme of this gear has two cylinders, placed 
horizontal, with the Sentinel Patent Slide Reversing 
Valves worked by one eccentric, the casing doors 
being at outside of cylinders for easy access to the 
valve and having an automatic controlling valve 
of the piston type placed between the cylinders 
for easy reversing. The main framing which carries 
the engine part oi the gear is bolted on to the top cir- 
cular flange of the base part, which carries the chain 
pulleys, and for examination of the latter, at any time, 
it can be easily lifted and lowered into its place 



[April 1, 1895. 

again without dismantling a single part of the gear, 
llie main bearings in which the crank shaft works 
are of great length, and have adjustable gun-metal 
bushes for taking up the wear. The crank shaft is of 
mild steel, and has the worm cut out of the solid in 
one with the shaft. The worm-wheel into which the 
worm works is of a special mixture of iron, and has 
extra broad and deep teeth so as to give great surface. 
Both the worm and worm-wheel run in a bath of oil 
and water, which cannot leak, and in this way perfect 
lubrication is ensured. 

The vertical spindle on which the worm^awheel is 
carried is of mild steel of an extra large diam. This 
spindle has a long bearing both above tbe worm-wheel 
and below it, and on the end of this spindle is a pinion 

the chain pulleys round until the palms are brought 
opposite the openings in base-piece, for taking off and 
on the chains for examination at any time, this being 
effected by revolving the clutch, which has podger 
holes bored in it for this purpose. The chain pulleys 
are of an extra large diam., thecentre bearing is bushed 
with gun-metal, and revolves round a vertical steel 
spindle with perfect smoothness. The spindle has 
suitable bearings, both above and below the pulleys, 
and is lubricated automatically from the inside bath 
in which the worm-wheels revolve. 

An important point about the horizontal position in 
which the chain pulleys revolve is the fact that the 
chains can be led awav to the sides of the vessel at 
any angle desired without requiring guide pulleys of 
any kind. On several occasions smpbuilders have 
felt this a, very great conveDience, as it en&bles them 
to place the side ptilkys in the position most suited 
to their deck requir^menfcB. This, of course, could not 
be done in any fare-and*aft barrelled gear. The 
lower flange of the baee-pieee is made circular, and is 
securely fixed to the deck^ and being of a large dia- 
meter makes a splendid foundation for the gear to sit 
on» The port chain is attached to the upper groove 
of the pulley by a strong wrought -iron palm, which is 
securely fastened by large sized screwed pins, while 
the fltarbaard chain is in the same way attached to 
the lower groove. About 13-]6thB of a turn is sufl&- 

cut out of the solid injone with the shaft. The pinion 
works into an internal toothed wheel which is cast 
inside of the chain pulleys. This, to a great extent, 
takes the strain off the teeth of the worm-wheel so 
that it runs for years without being marked. The 
worm-wheel is not keyed to the vertical shaft, but has 
a clutch box cast on the upper portion of it to receive 
the clutch, which slides up and down on two broad 
steel feathers securely fitted to the shaft. This clutch 
serves two purposes ; first, inthecaseof anyenrerffency, 
the clutch can be lifted out of the worm-whed in a 
few seconds, thus freeing the engine from the chain 
pulleys, so that the chains need not be removed when 
steering the vessel by the screw gear aft ; the second 
purpose which this arrangement serves is in bringing 

cient to bring the rudder from hard-over to hard-over, 
and the one chain is separated from the other by a 
strong central flange on the pulleys, and is also 
shielded by the circular body of the base-piece, so that 
it is absolutely impossible for one chain to foul the 
other in any way whatever. The large diameter of the 
pulleys makes it very easy on the chains, and the 
smoothness with which the pulley revolves makes it 
also easy on the working parts of the gear. 

Another very important feature about the Sentinel 
Horizontal Gear is the fact that the engine part of 
the gear can be placed on the top deck, while the 
base-part, which carries the pulleys, can be placed on 
a lower level, and made to revolve by a strongvertical 
shaft worked by the engine. This arrangement saves 

April 1, 1895.] 


three hard nips on each side where it is necessary to 
carry the chain over the house and down the sides. 
In fact, the Sentinel Gear chain-pullevs can be laid 
down on the deck which is level with the chains lead- 
ixig aft, while the engine part may be placed up on a 
higher level when found to be more convenient. The 
gear can be arranged to work direct on the rudder- 
head with the Sentinel Patent Spring Quadrant. It 
can also be combined with hand power, but the 
makers prefer making it steam only for vessels over 
1,500 tons gross. 

A large number of vessels have now been fitted with 
this new gear, ranging from 500 to 4,000 tons gross, 
and giving the greatest satisfaction. Nine have been 


Steel and Iroa Works, Sheffield, have for some time past 
beea engaged on extending and re-organising their steel founding 
department, with a riew to meet more completely the require- 
ments of customers. It tieed scarcely be said that a firm of such 
standing, when making a change, have not been deterred by con- 
siderations of cost from investing the new arrangements with 
every reqaisite calcalated to faoilitste production and enhance 
their world-wide reputation. The re-equipment of this 
important department has indeed been carried out on a scale 
of great completeness; the additional machinery put down 
being by the best makers and the most effective procorable at 
the present day. The firm are accordingly in a position to 
supply steel castings for marine and bri^e work, locomotive, 
electrical, mining, hydraulic, agricoltural, and other machinery, 
with the utmost dispatch. The firm have put down special plant 
for the prod not lOQ of macbiiie moaUled wheels of ©Tory desoription, 
^nd from the smallest mts ap to 30 ft. diameter ; al«o for pro- 
diicmg hjrdraalio cjlindera of any size, Tbey have al^o made 
apeciai arraDgemeDtA fur the manufactnre of stoel castings, for 
cru^btDgt f^rmdiDg, and palTerising macbiDefl, iboes and dies, 
cam Si acd tappoifl for gold abatnpin^, colli erj wheels and axles, 
ruller^t a b eaves, palleyfl^ aad other flmaU castings. Tb«y have 
inrtber provided faoilitlAS of tbo moat effective kind, for the 
eii^'oesifLJl turning oat of abipa' stern framas, rDdders, stem- 
piece*, propoHerflj and other large oaatings up to 60 tons. From 
I be few details here given it will be seen that the firm have left 
thing undone to place their steel foundry department on a 
looting of the highest possible e£fectJvenesSf and there osn be no 
doabt that ao far as regards cost and prompt cxeoation, as well 

fitted with great snccess to Messrs Wm. Doxford & 
Sons' turret type of cargo vessels which are coming 
intofayour so rapidly. The gears are worked with 
eteam, carried direct from the main boiler at 160 lbs. 
pressure. The owners of several vessels already fitted 
with the gear speak very highly of its sweet working and 
the great saving on the chains and all the working parts, 
and at the present time Messrs. Alley & Maclellan 
have a large nmnber in hand. 

The " James Forrest" Leetnre at the Institution of Civil 
Enginaers on Thursday, the 2nd of May next, is to be by Pro- 
ieasorW. C. Unwin. F.A.S.. M.Inst-O.E., and is intended to 
be a oomj^ete monograph on the History of the Experimental 
Btody of Heat Engines. 

as in the more important feature of qnality, the firm will be able 
to hold their own against the world in this, as in the other 
departments of prodaotive work in which they are engaged. 

Torpedo Boat '* Kodaka.*'— The following aoooont of the 
capture of Port Arthor. written by a Japanese officer, has been 
received :— " The armour-plated Yarrow torpedo boat Kodaka 
is now in China waters on active service, and proving to be of 
great use. It was she that led the torpedo flotilla in their dar- 
ing entry into the harbour of Port Arthur at the nick of time, 
which called forth the admiration of the British officers on 
board the Porpoite. She is at this moment being used for 
scouting purposes off Wei-Hai-Wei. Meanwhile, I ma^r say 
that none of the Chinese torpedo boats have given a creditable 
account of themselves, and a flotilla of these craft was con- 
spicuous by its flight very soon after it met oar fleet. Since 
vnriting the above, tne Kodaka took a leading part in the snc- 
ccwrfof attack at Wei-Hai-Wei.*' 


[April 1, 1895. 


{From our cvm Corr^tpondnit.) 

k Long Passage. 

LAST month I began mj notes with a tale of disaster. This 
time I can begin them with a tale of escapes. Tbereweresome 
wonderfnl anivals jnst at the end of Febroaiy of vessels whose 
case was, at least from an nnderwriter's point of view, almost 
hopeless. First, there was the Istrian, once a liner in the 
Lejland fleet. She left LiTerpool for Newport News as long ago 
as the 24th January. Anxiety abont her began to be eyinced 
abont the middle of Fefamaiy, and on the 25th re-iusnranoes were 
being effected in respect of her at as high a rate as 80 to 85 
guineas. She, however, reached Bermuda in safety that day 
short of coal. She, of course, had the bront of the bad weather 
but pulled through all right. She is a proof, if a proof were 
needed to-day, of the fact that well-built iron steamers last prac- 
tically for ever. She was launched as long ago as the year 1867, 
being one of the earlierlproductions of the famous yard of Messrs. 
Harland A Wolff. She was fitted with an iron deck which eight- 
and-twenty years ago was not so common a device as at present. 
Then too, the Loch Maree, whose adventures were alluded to lasc 
month, went to about as high a premium as tug after tug came 
back to the Irish ports for fresh supplies of fuel and made the 
discouraging report that nothing was to be seen of the derelict. 
It was a very agreeable surprise, therefore, when, on the last day 
of Februazy, the news came that she was picked up and coming 
into Belfast Harbour in tow and under her own steam. The 
lucky finder of this valuable prize was the William Joliffe, a very 
powerful Liverpool tug. 

As the Loch Maree was abandoned on the 10th, she had been 
adrift more than a fortnight, but as far as was reported, she 
seemed ywj little the worse for the experience. 

Then again, there was the experienoe of the Oanges, a vessel 
with a cargo as valuable as that of the Loeh Marte. She had kst 
her propeller and made a port. Thence she was befog tO#ed 
home for repain by a powerful tug when they encountered the 
February hurries ne in the Bsy of Biscay. The tow ropes parted 
and at last the tug was compelled to leave her helpless charge 
and go for f^esh supplies of coal. The plight of those on board 
the Oangei left in an nnmansgeableship in such weather was not 
a very enviable one. The offloerfl and crew of the Ganges, how- 
ever, were in this position for fnlly five days, and at last 
were ngjbted by the steamship Sargatto, bound from Norfolk to 
London. Not without difficid^ was the help afforded, but at 
length all was overcome, and Captain Hynd brought his 
valuable prize safely into Qneenstown after a tow of 150 miles. 

I am very pleased to see that the latest, and one of the finest, 
additions to the fine fleet of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. — 
the Orepaa — ^which sailed from Liverpool on her maiden trip on 
the last day of February, 1895, made her dtMt under the charge 
of that fine and tried sailor Oaptson Massey. His present position 
refiects honour alike on himself and on the management he serves. 
He it was who six years ago commanded one of the finest 
steamers of the line — ^though not one of the most modem — ^when 
she struck an uncharted and utterly unsuspected rock in the 
Straits of Kagellan. Sight minutes later his ship made her final 
plunge into almost .4uifathomable depths. Yet in that brief 
period, thanks to the discipline and courage of Captain Kassey, 
100 passengers and 98 orew were safely transferred to the boats. 
Not a life was lost and Captain Massey, who was the last to leave, 
escaped just as his charge sank. Do not let it be thought 
that I draw any comparison between this case and more recent 
and more disastrous ones. The accident happened in daylight, 
the sea was not rough, the ropes were not frosen, most of the 
passengers were on deck, for they had been at sea long enough 
to be enjoying the trip. Yet eight minutes is a very brief time, 
and it would have been strange if even a Court of Inquiry could 
have refrained from giving the captain the praise he deserved 
and the court bestowed. Captiun Massey's employers did not 
hesitate to give him a new ship, and they did not only wisely 
but honourably. I doubt if the companies who make it an un- 
alterable rule that the captain who loses a ship is dismissed the 
service, whatever may be the circumstances under which the 
casualty takes place, attain the object they have n view. That 
object is undoubtedly the prevention of accident. But the rule 
is not a jnst one. It tends to keep the best men out of the 

service, for the man to whom every service is open will hesitate 
to put himself in a position where his whole career may be 
blighted by a matter which is entirely beyond his control or that 
of any of his subordinates. 

Captain Massey now commands a very fine ship. She is a steel 
twin-screw schooner-rigged vessel of 2,817 tons net and 5,817 
tons gross, built and engined by Messrs. Harland A Wolff, of 
Belfsst. She did about 15 knots on her trial with about 8,600 
I.H.P., and has all the improvements which the oombined ex- 
perience of her owners and builders can suggest. Good luck to 
the ship and the tried and resourceful man who commands her. 

To turn to a sadder subject, I have to notice the fact that 
Captain Darby, of the s.s Ormuz, has died at the i>ost of duty like 
so many other merchant captains. It is undoubtedly a very fine 
thing to be the commander of a first-class mail steamer. But 
the responsibility seems to be a crumbing one. Men who have to 
be on duty for some eight-and-forty hours almost at a stretch, and 
that in the severest weather, like Captain Cameron— of whom 
1 shall speak in a moment,— must find such hardships tell on their 
constitutions. And so we can hardly be surprised when we hear of 
mail captains dying suddenly at sea. The names of half-a-dozen 
distinguished sailors, who have died almost on the bridge, will 
readily occur to many of my readers. And now comes Captain 
Darby's untimely end. He died on the 18th of February when 
his vessel was crossing from Port Said to Naples on her home- 
ward run and his remains were claimed by the sea on whose 
waters he had spent his life. 

A certain weekly journal has awarded a pruse to Captain 
Samuel Brooks, late of the s*s. Arizona, because he has traversed 
the greatest number of miles at sea of any person who went in 
for their " competitioo." Captain Brooks can boast that he has 
traversed some two and a-hali million miles in sail and steam. 
He has been forty-eight years oompiliiig this enormous total. 
But he was nine years iu sail, and he was not therefore making 
the best use of his time then for getting over the ground, though, 
doubtless, he was learning the seamanship which stood him in 
good stead in after years. I slKmld very much like to know 
who were the other competitors, for I sbooMl iauigine that some 
of the retired Cunard captains, or jSMSn CoonBOdcce Hains could 
show quite as big a score if they were indnoed to reckon up what 
they had done. 

Captain Dutton, of the Cunard steamer UnOirim, has had a very 
unpleasant experienoe. imcording to a Dalliel account of the 
MdroH outward voyage of his stss m er there were two large 
tidal waves shipped in calm weather on the afternoon of the 
6th, as the vessel was steamhig westwards some fourteen 
hundred miles from the Iri»h coast. The captain was resting 
in his berth and was roused bv the unceremonious entrance 
of a large body of water, whi^ completely wrecked his room 
and retired wiui the greater part of his personal effects. If the 
account be not exaggerated he seems to have had a very provi- 
dential eswe from being carried overboard or killed by the 
wreckage. The vessel herself was, of course, practically uniigured 
and made a passage of little over the average duration. 

JL T6ty Siogiilar Statement. 

Under the heading "A Singular Statement," the /ourtia/ o/ 
Comm^cetoldusontheSthMaroh that owing to «< unfinished 
workmen " the New York has since her last overhaul at Newport 
News lost no less than 2| knots per hour, though her revolutions 
had increased three per minute. We have heard a great deal 
about the American workman and how his product in the S, Loui$ 
and ^e S, Paul is going to make the Lueania and all the other 
masterpieces of the British marine engine and shipbuilder look 
very small indeed. We have wondered how he was going to do 
it, seeing that he has had no experienoe in building fast mail 
boats. Now the mystery is solved. It is his personal want of 
finish which enables him to do all this. This quality seems to 
have already enabled him to do the impossible, for he has 
increased the revolutions slightly and largely diminished the 
speed, and that apparently without altering the propeUert. A 
further explanation will be very welcome. 

The History of the Onnard Line. 

My attention has been called during the month of March to a 
correspondence which took place in January in the columns of 
the Olatgow Herald, It commenced with an enquiry in a letter 
as to whether the famous line ever had a screw steamer called 
the Persia as well as the paddle steamer Persia, which made thai 

April 1, 1895.] 


same a household word on both sidM of the Atlantic. To that 
enqnixT a Texy brief answer might have been returned. Thej 
neTer had a icrew steamship of that name. And it might hare 
been added that it has been the costom of this line never to nse 
the same name twice. Famous as many of their ships have been 
their memories have always been allowed to disappear from the 
company's fleet lists and have never been pnt on again. This 
Cunard custom is a peculiarity of its own. The P. & O., the 
Paciflo Steam Navigation Co., the West India Hoyal Mail and 
most of the historical companies have always desired to have such 
names as Rinudaya and Australia, Iheria and Patagonia, Trent 
and NiU in their sailing lists. But the gentleman who answered 
the inquiry about the Persta, having correctly stated that there 
was no screw vessel of that name, volunteered the information 
that the China was their first screw steamer. This caused a very 
considerable correspondence and a great citing of authorities, 
from Wyman's Commercial Encjdoprodia down to Maginnis's 
Atlantic Ferry. The fact of the matter is that the statement 
would have been correct if it had run — *' the China was the first 
screw steamer built by Cunard's for the Atlantic Mail Service." 
This was in 1862. Previous to that time they had been running 
in the mail service a screw steamer called the Australatian, 
which they had purchased from a yery unfortunate concern. 
With them, however, her luck changed, and as a telegraph 
steamer she is alive to this dsy, haviag, at various times, done 
very good service in transport work lor the British Gk>vemment 
since she ceased to sail under the rampant lion of Cunard's. 
This was the first steamer regularly employed by Cnnard*9 in the 
mail service. But she even was not their first screw. The 
quotation made by Mr. Chalmers from Mr. Maginnis's book 
would appear adverse to this statement of mine. Mr. Masinnis's 
remarks ran, '* Bach was built of wood of improved designs, as 
experience pointed out, but with no radical depsrture fitmi 
the Britannia until the year 1856, when the Persia, the first iron 
steamer owned by this Une, was put upon the station to maintain 
the sapremacy which was now being contested by other lines.*' 
The impression oonveyed by this statement of Mr. Maginnis is 
strengthened by a remark at page 177 of his interesting book, 
where he writes, " The first Transatlantic Cunard screw steamer, 
China." But both these statements of Mr. Maginnis are too 
wide. The Persia was truly the first mail steamer built of iron 
for the line, but there had previously been several Transatlantic 
screws built for the same owners. In proof of this fact I have 
only to call attention to psge 176 of Mr. Maginnis's own book, 
where be actually gives illustrations of " the engines of the 
Cunard steamer Etna, built in 1855 " — the year before tiie Persia 
was launched. And even she was not the first. 

LiTerpool ImppoTemeatt. 

The first Saturday in March saw the practical inauguration 
of the second of the long-delayed improvements at LiverpooL 
The first of theee was the provision of free transit across Liver- 
pool for passengers and baggage. Dredging at the bar has now 
attained such a point that it is now possible for the Liverpool 
lines to make a fixed hour of departure. Unlike the Southampton 
lines they are bound by their contract with Her Majesty's 
Post Ofitoe not to leave Queenstown till the arrival of the mails 
at that port, which is soon after noon of the day following their 
departure from the Mersey. They are therefore sure either to 
have to go down channel slowly or to wait several hours at 
Queenstown if they leave Liverpool too early in the day. Thus 
it has been determined that the specials in connection with 
these steamers shall leave Euston at noon on the day of sailing. 
This is a very convenient time. For it gives passengers IVom the 
suburbs or from towns beyond London ample time to get there 
without making a start in the small hours. On Saturday, the 
2nd March, the Vmbria was the Cnnarder appointed to sail for 
New York. The London passengers left Euston at noon, and 
four hours and thirty*two minutes later the railway authorities 
had transported psssengers and eifeots, not only to Lime Street 
station, but to the landing sta«e and the tender. All payments, 
attention and responsibility for baggage are now removed from 
the shoulders of the paisenger to those of the authorities, and 
the traveller having strolled on to the tender is carried off to his 
floating hotel where he has just time to inspect his stateroom 
snd have a look round before dinner is served. Meanwhile the 
work of effacing the necessity of omnibus — even if free — and of 
tender, is being ranidly pushed forward, and I expect that for the 
present, each montn I shall have to record fresh conveniences pro- 
vided by the White Star and Cunard Co.'s for the travellers who 

sail under the blue ensign, which still has the monopoly of the 
passenger traffic from the Mersey to the Hudson. Next month, 
for example, there will probably be a large cut from the wait at 

The Dock Board seem to have been really benefited by the 
various shocks thay have received lately, and they actually would 
appear to have some idea at last of suiting their wares to their 
customers' needs. Thus it is announced that a wool warehouse is 
to be built near Great Howard Street with every convenience 
not only for storage but also for the transaction of business in 
regard to wool. Then again, the big graving dock projected at the 
Huskisson eztsnsion is to be even bigger than was proposed. It 
was, and, so far, is, to have a width of 90 ft., but the original 
idea of a length of 750 ft. has been extended to 810 ft., so as to 
give room for an 800 ft. steamer. ' This may sound like making 
provision for remote posterity. But the air seems full of large 
projects for bigger car,(o boats. The White Star Line is 
credited with an intention to build one of 15,000 tons, and Mr. 
Glynn, the President of the Chamber of Shipping, seems to 
think we shall soon see even that sise exceeded. At all events 
Liverpool will be pleased if her new graving dock breaks South* 
ampton's record for the biggest dock in the world. 

Hev York Improyemeati. 

The spirit of progress has crossed the Atlantic. I do not 
know which of the rival lines took it across. But it U evident 
that the port of Kew York, which seemed to oonsiier itself 
entitled to a short rest on its laurels when it tackled the bar, 
has now determined to do something more for the facilitating of 
business. The inspecting medical officers are not in future to 
keep vessels waiting till daylight if they happen to arrive out 
after hours, and there will no longer be any considerable delay 
at quarantine, vessels befaig allowed to proceed direct to their 
docks irrespective of the hour. For the majority of passengers 
this boon may not seem very great. They don't want to leave 
the ship at unearthly hours of the morning if they can have a 
comf citable breakfast on board. But to throagh passengers in a 
hurry, who are condemned to idleness when they see that by a 
rush they could catch the train they desire, this will be a g^reat 
blessing. In these days, too, when ships are turned round bo 
qnickly, every moment gained at the dock wall is a valuable 

Meanwhile the great port on the Hudson is reaping the reward 
of its expenditure in the removal of its bar. From the unpre- 
judiced columns of a Philadelphia paper I learn that the fine 
new twin-screw cargo boats Southwark and Kensington, hitherto 
employed on the original American Line service between 
Liverpool and Philadelphia, will cease to ply between these two 
ports on and after Ist of Julv, 1895. They draw too much water 
to use the port with ease and safety. There is plenty of cargo 
for them but the channel is not reliable. Here is a lesson for 
the Philadelphians. Big boats are the cheapest and fattest. 
But they can only be employed where channels are Muitable and 
where '* inducement offers " in the way of freight. In the latter 
direction Philadelphia has all that can be desired, and its 
merchants might have continued to enjoy the advantage of being 
served by fine ships. Its docks might have still reaped the 
harvest <i dues calculated on big tonnages. It might still have 
gained for its railways a good share of through traffic to the 
West. Yet it has neglected its opportunities and must pay the 
penalty. When the 8. Louis comes oat there will be the Peris 
and New York to join with her in carrying on the three-weekly 
round in the New York and Southampton service, and I presume 
the Chester will go to the Antwerp and New York service, whilst 
the Berlin w ill lie for the present as reserve ship at Southsimpton. 
The Bed Star service will supply old lengthened Cunarders, such 
as the Pennland — which I described in the summer — for the 
Philadelphia line, and Antwerp will gain the prestige of sailing 
the Southwark and the Kensington. 

Speaking of the American Line, I must remind my readers of 
the death of Mr. Bromley, which 1 noticed in my December notes. 
This gentleman was third officer of the Berlin, and he was swept 
overboard from his vessel in heavy weather on her November 
trip from New York to Southampton. He was a Liverpcol mar. 
but when the line changed its headquarters he took his family 
to Southampton. So now Mrs. Bromley is a widow amongst 
strangers. She has a family of three young children, and I under- 
stand is likely to have an added responsibility in a few weeks. 
The position of her husband was anomalous. He was a British 
iailor on a British ship, but on an American Line. She there- 



[April 1, 1896. 

fore seems in a position to claim notbiog from either side the 
Atlantic by right, bat to deserve sjmpaUij from both British 
and Americans in jnstice. I sincerely hope that those who 
feel able to do anything towards alleviating her hopeless sorrow 
by assuaging the added pangs of want will aid her. I am told 
that Messrs. Richardson, Spenoe & Co., are willing to receive 
subscriptions for Mrs. Bromley. 

The Water-Tube Boiler 

has, as a Navy question, come prominently to the front during 
the last few weeks. That is discussed elsewhere. But it must 
not be lost sight of that, if the Navy's faith stands on certain 
foundations, we are on the eve of a vast revolution in merchant 
shipbuilding. The busy days of the early seventies will come 
again for the marine engine builder. Contradictory reports as 
to the efficacy of the water-tube boiler have been promulgated 
by various writers in the columns of the Timet. Messrs. 
Wilson k Co.. of Hull, think that in it they have found an end of 
leaky tubes, and they have fitted, and are fitting, it to several large 
steamers of their fleet. Then, as I mentioned some time ago, it 
. has been applied to one of the NewhaTen and Dieppe boats, 
La TamUe. Mr. Ellis, the chairman of Messrs. John Brown & Co., 
of Sheffield, writes to the Times to say that this vessels bums 

and which tend to prevent not only the defeat of the object but 
also the risk of the loss of the brave men who volunteer for rescue 
work) — but also for additional skill shown in certain exceptional 
mancBQvres executed which, if unsuccessful, might have imperilled 
his professional reputation. The hero of the occasion was, how- 
ever, his chief officer, Mr. Basil Whitehead, a gentleman who 
has since his return entered into an engagement of a very 
different kind. It is very pleasant to see that, whilst public 
bodies gave formal recognition of these brave deeds, the owners 
of the Castle Line not only allowed their ship to be used as the 
place of presentation and entertained a large party with their 
noted hospitahty, bat also substantially rewitfded their gallant 
employes themselves. To every sailor who took part in the 
service there was given a month's pay, whilst Mr. Whitehead 
received a cheque which will enable him to remember the 
Fascadale when he famishes the home where we may trust he 
will have many years of happiness. 

The "Oroya." 

Accident and the Orient line have long been strangers. It is 
therefore with great regret that I notice the stranding of the 
Oroya, one of their liners chartered from the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Co. She was leaving Naples in due course on her 

Fio. 1. 

37} tons of coal in a cross-channel trip against 27} tons burnt 
under the same circumstances by a sister fitted with ordinary 
marine cylindrical boilers. If this statement be subject to no 
qualification it is a heavy blow to the reformers. For 20 per 
cent, more coal makes a thing a commercial impossibility. I 
fancy, however, from what I have heard, that later explanation 
will account for this statement and considerably modify its value 

The Winter Storms 

lave brought in many tributes to the bravery of those who officer 
ond man the fleets of the Mail Lines. The rescues effected by 
the Teutonic and Umbria, of the Liverpool Mail Lines, have 
already been mentioned here. The cargo boats of the same lines, 
as repressLted by the Tauric and Catalonia, have not been behind 
their faster sisters and have been the heroines of equally galUint 
deeds which have met with recognition from the authoritioe. On 
the South African Lioe too, those on board the Norham Cattle 
performed an action which has met with warm public recogni- 
tion. Eighteen men were, by their means, saved when the 
sailiog ship Fatcadale was wrecked on the 7th Pebrusry, 1895, 
on the coast of Natal. Captain Duncan, of the Norham Cattle 
earned his reward, not only for the general supervision of 
arrangements which captains always take in such matters — 
(serTices which greatly contribute to the purpose of the salvage 

outward voyage to the Antipodes when a sudden squall caught 
her and carried her on to the shoals. The weather was excep- 
tionally bad then and since. The passengers were never in 
danger. They and their baggage and the mails were soon 
landed. The postal matter went on by the P. & O. boat after a 
week's delay ; the passengers and their bagg^age by the next 
Orient liner. All the cargo has been got out, and as I write Mr. 
Armit, of the East Coast Salvage Co., is superintending the efforts 
to get the ship herself restored to her proper element. 


IT will be generally conceded by engineers that the 
controlling power of a governor, measured by its 
effect on the engine, must naturally be de- 
pendent upon the efficiency of the throttle valve. 
Throttle valves in the main may be said to be de- 
fective, either by the fact of allowing sufficient steam 
to pass after thay are closed, to keep the engines going 

April 1, 1895.] 



at a fair speed in smooth water, or to cause heavy 
racing in rough water, or, if sufficiently ti^ht, they are 
very liable to jamb when shut, which is decidedly 

It may be said, that to efficiently control multiple 
cvlinder engines it is absolutely necessary the 
throttle valve shbuld be capable of cutting off the 
steam, not merely throttling it ; and at the same time 
be easily and quickly operated, without liability to 
failure. To meet the great difficulties, defects and 
dangers attending the use of ordinary throttle valves, 
especially in connection with the high pressures and 

Fig. 6 is a view showing the device as fitted on 
board the s.s. America of the National Line. 

It will be seen by these illustrations that the valve 
is somewhat like a plug cock with a number of ports, 
the essential differences being that the seat ana plug 
are surrounded by live steam. Thus there is 
uniformity of expansion, and no liability of distortion. 
It has a floating, balanced plug, subject only to a 
slight upward thrust (due to the taper), and retained 
in position by a collar on the spindle, bearing in a 
thrust block which is adjustable- by screwing up or 
down through the bridge attached to the valve cover. 

Fio. 2, 

number of cylinders now in vogue, a new design of 
throttle valve has been brought out by Messrs. Durham, 
Churchill & Co., of 9, London Street, London, E.C., 
which we have pleasure in illustrating in the adjoin- 
ing diagrams. 

Fig. 1 is an outside perspective view of the valve 

Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the valve box with the 
valve removed. 

Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the same with the valve 
in place, also shown in section. 

Fig. 4 is a plan of the valve box. 

Fig. 5 is a sectional plan of the valve and its 

The special advantages that are claimed for this 
valve may be summarised as follows : — 

1st. It can be readily adjusted when under steam 
pressure to any degree of steam-tightness. 

2nd. In case of emergency, it can be used as a stop 

3rd. It cannot jamb, as an ordinary throttle vah e 
is liable to do. 

4th. It is perfectly balanced for all practical pur- 
poses, as far as any difference of steam pressure 
between the two sides of the valve is concerned. 

5th. The small traverse to open or close, allows the 
use of a long lever, thus giving great control and 
facility for operation of the valve« 



[April 1, 1895. 

6tb. The plug and Beat can be readily removed for 
renewal or other purpose, without interfering with 
the steam pipe. 

The drawings certainly indicate that the advantages 
clamied above will obtain in valves made in accord- 
ance with them. 


(From cur oion Correspondent,) 

k Cariom Mistake 
■eems to have been perpetrated by the naval correepondents of 
several of the daily papers. It refers to a notable vessel of the 
Brazilian Navy, the Aquidaban, which, as may be remembered 

aoooonts of the eni^^ment. It is mnch more probable, there- 
fore, that the date in qnestion is commemorative of her raising 
and her restoration thereby to the Gk>vemment fleet. The mis- 
take in itself is not of much importance, but it serves to show how 
mistakes are given onrrenoy and get embodied in history 
through the blind way in which information is copied withoni 
being checked or examined by those who absorb it. 

Toppedo-Boat Destroyers 

are very popular with the Admiralty just now. The Naval 
Estimates provide for the building of some 20 additional 
vessels beyond the 42 ordered last year. Most of the latter are 
now coming forward, and those triad have attained the contract 
speed with ease. Useful vessels and good sea boats as thev 
are likely to nrove. they are not beautiful. The Momtt, with 
her four funnels placed at unequal intervals, was bad enough, 
but the Swordfish from the Elswick yard will surpass her in 
point of strange appearance. She has three funnels only, but 

Fig. 3. Patint Thbottlx Valtx. 

bv most of my readers, was torpedoed and sunk in the 
Brazilian Civil War. This tribute to the powers of the 
torpedo lost much of the significance owing to the fact that the 
ironclad was caught with her men ashore and her nets up. 
But this is not the point. The vessel sank, but, fortunately, 
in shallow water* and was subsequently raised and is to be 
re-boilered, the insurgents having treated her so badl^ that 
her boilers were completely worn out. Her name is now 
changed to VinU Quatro de Mayo, '* This," say the naval 
(xurrespondents in question, '* was in memory of the day on 
which she was sank." Here they are wrong. To begin with 
it is extremely unlikely that the Brazilian Government would 
wish to commemorate a viotor;^ , which, however satisfactory, 
was merely a surprite, whilst, if they did wish to do so, they 
would probably not do so in the person of the rejuvenated 
vessel which was the subject of the matter. But on looking 
into Uie case I discover that she was sunk some time previous 
to that date, and that long before the 24th May the very 
journals in question had published in their news columns 

the centre one does double duty and is accordingly of double 
size. The general effect of this arrangement is very curious* 
The details of the 20 new boats are not vet settled. It is. how- 
ever, stated that ss the leading builders have exceeded the 
stipulated 27 knots by a full knot on trial, the new contracts- 
will be for 28, and that without making increase in the payment* 
If this be true, it will have a considerable tendency to dis- 
courage the healthy spirit shown by good builders in allowing 
a good margin of power for trial. There is also a rumour that 
a limit is to be placed upon the number of revolutiona 
allowed for certain speeds. Though such a step may have a 
tendency to make the continued maintenance of a high speed 
more probable, it teems a great pity to tie the hands of con- 
tractors with so much red-tape. A more rational way of attain- 
ing the object would be to lengthen the period during which the 
mean speed must be maintained before the vessel is accepted ^ 

The Sanipareil. 

I mentioned last month that this vessel was to return from 

April 1, 1895.] 



the Mediterranean, and to be replaced by the Barfleur, It has 
flinoe been annoanoed that ahe is not to be altogether idle, for 
€he is to be goardahip at Sheemess. This is probably a very 
^ood place for her. Her constraction and arrangements are of 
the modem type, and if a mistake was made in giving her snch 
monstroas gnns it can best be remedied by asing her chiefly as 
a land fortress. From the waters of a harbour she woald 
probably have no difficulty in fighting her big weapons, and 
when they were fought, the practice she would make would be 
of a nature of unparallelled destruotiveness. 

RoMlan Imperial Taohti. 
Our continental neighbours seem to 'attach much greater 
importance to anniversaries— and especially to birthdays— than 
do our own people. Thus it was that the late Ozar^s birthday 
was fixed for the date of the launch o( thenewBissian Imperial 
yacht Standard, which took the water at Copenhagen on the 

at Jarrow, largely for the purpose of carrying high diplomatic 
officials, are, with us, calledT <^ despatch boats." Then, the 
latest Imperial Oerman yacht is in reility a swift ocean-going 
cruiser of a type which approximates more to our mail 
steamers in her proportion of boiler to engine power, and 
wluch would, therefore, be able to maintain a good average 
speed over a long passage. Though classed and used as a 
yacht, she is an important fighting ship. Our Royal yachtB. 
Victoria and Albert, or Alberta, with their wooden hulls aod 
exposed paddle wheels, oould never fulfil any function but that 
for which they were primarily designed. 

The Freneh Navy. 

M. Lookroy, the former French Minister of Marine, drew '^ 
very interesting oomparis3n a s to theconditioo o! the French t nd 
Britiah Navies in the Franch Gbamber on the llth March. It 
we could take all hia atatemcnti aa facts we n i|ht be very well 

Fio. 4. Patikt Thkotilx Valts. 

10th March, in spite of all difficulties raised by froat and ice. 
The name Standard is not a new one in the Imperial Navy, for 
there was a wooden paddle boat of this name built in 1858 at 
Bordeaux, which until recently was attached to the Black Sea 
Fleet. This vessel, however, only had a displacement of some- 
thing under 1,000 tons, whereas her successor in title will be a 
twin-screw steel steamer of something like six times the size. 
Another Buasian Imperialyacht has attracted attention during 
the month, though in a different way. This was the Tiarevna, 
which was taking the Bussian minister from Athens to Corfu. 
She went ashore on a sandbank at Cape Drepano, on the south 
flhore of the entcance to the Gulf of Corinth. She is not a 
▼easel of much acJoount, being a single screw iron steamer of 
600 tons, just 21 years old, built at Hull. The Continental 
Navies contain manv vessels classed as yachts which we should 
class quite differently. The Alacrity and the Surprise, for ex- 
Ample, which were built some 10 yean ago by Messrs. Palmer's, 

pleased with our own state. Moreover, there are certain com- 
ments to be made on the facts, and these he naturally does not 
make. For example, he says, that our neighbours spend two- 
thirds of the amount we do on their navy. This, of course, he 
thinks is an argument for increased expenditure by the French. 
In good truth the drift is entirely the other way. If th e small 
mercantile marine of the French requires so much police 
supervision and protection, ours should require infinitely more. 
When we regard tiie amount of our carrying trade, the amount 
of food we import into England for the maintenance of the 
population, and the raw material that comes in to keep our 
manufacturing classes employed, and see the same figures on 
the French account, we are convinced that England ought to 
have a very large balance on the riarht side to as to maintain the 
certainty of peace. M. Lookroy* s allegations that the French 
ironclads could only make short voyages without replenishing 
their bunkers, and that many of them were fitted with out-of- 



[April 1, 1895. 

date guns «re oritioiBmB that would apply to many of our own 
veeaeli. Take for example the Monarch recently re$tted at 
sncb a heavy cost for machinery'. 6he is still fitted with old 
fastiioned muzzle loaders. No( only is there the weakness 
caused by her comparatiTO slowness of fire when matched 
against more modem veeselSf bat there is the fact that, owing 
to their exposed position when loading, it might be impossible 
for the most steady of gunners to fight the guns at all. That 
we can build faster and cheaper is certainly true. But are we 
progressing as fast in that direction as are our rivals? They 
seem to be, year by year, lessening our lead in these directions. 
The small extent of the duties of the French Navy were verv 
well illustrated by the impossibilities of getting suitable French 
transports for the Madagascar Expedition. Merchant ships were 
needed, and to £nglandthey had to turn. Fr^ch pride did 
not like this, and an outcry was raised against chartering British 
ships, but ships of a certain type were indispensable, and were 
only to be obtained on this side of the Channel, and so, instead 
of chartering, purchase was resorted to. This was perhaps a 
stroke of luck for the owners of the fine old mail steamer 
Aconeagria^ which is now the French transport Egypte^ but it 
affords a good Illustration of my point. 


rio» 5. Pais :t Thbottle Vaivc. 

Smaller Battlcihipi. 

In my last monlh^s notes I mentioned that there was a feel- 
ing in certain quarters that the present dimensions of battle- 
ship were too great, and tha' the Cintwrion type was largely 
demanded. Since I wrote ibis the Poii Mall Gazette has cried 
out with the same voice. I do not venture to go as far as the 
writer in the Pall Mall Gax*Ve, for I think the recent deyelop- 
ment of the big battleships has been in the ri^t direction, and 
warships must ever be creatures of compromise; to get every- 
thing we must have size. The Majestic is certainly a better 
ship than the Centurion^ and we are having ten new Majesties. 
We cannot, therefore, grumble that we are not to have any 
more Centurions at present. 

Water Tube Boilers. 

The Admiralty seems to hare committed itself indefinitely 
to the water-tube boiler. A question was asked in the House 
of Gommons about the experimental boilers fitted in the 
Sharpshooter, and ie was stated that she had had a number of 
trials duriog the twelve months these boilers have been in use, 
one of them extending to a thirty hours* rxm, and that the 

I results of all this experience had in '*eaoh case been most^ 
1 tetisfaotory." This as to the Belleville boiler. But though the 
{ Belleville is so good, the Admiralty is not convinced that some' 
other of the numerous types before the public may not be better,. 
and the Sharpsh<fOter*s sisters are to be fitted >vith water-tube 
boilers of other types so as to arrive at some conclusion as ta 
i which , amoDgst water-tube boilers, is the beet type. As time goea 
on and the Admiralty becomes more and more deeply committed 
to the water-tube type — ^for we now have not only tbe Powerful 
and Terrible, first-class cruisers, building in private yards, but 
also the new third and second-class cruisers of the ISQS-B- 
estimates designed for this class of belief —one cannot but regret* 
for the sake of knowledge, that Messrs. Ifaodslay, Son ^ Fiel4 
could not see their way to accept Mr. Howden*8 challenge as tO' 
a trial of the comparative merits of tbe cylindrical and water- 
tube boilers under equal conditions. If that trial had come oS, 
there would have been an end to doubt and uncertainty, not- 
only for naval but also for mercantile purposes. Mr. Howden, of 
courae, in making the challenge, proclaims his absolute faith in 
the old typo of boiler. It does not, however, by any means- 
follow that Messrs. Maudslay, Son A Field by not accepting 
that challenge show any want of faith in the new design with 
which they have so prominently associated themselves. They 
are Government contractors, and as such are rightly bound to- 
preserve a certain decorous reserve and unreadiness to be drawn 
into newspaper warfare. Indeed, in any case I should be 
inclined to think them wise to have declined the challenge, for 
though, of course, for mercantile purposes it would be well for 

them to be able to say. " Our goods give per cent, more 

efficiency with the same prime cost and the same running 
expenses and weight as other people's,** it would certainly not 
be good policy for the British Government to proclaim aloud 
any find that it might make. For other nations are alwaya 
o 1 the watch for improvemeots, and it would be absurd for ua 
to give away the advantage that our smartness has earned for 
OS. Mr. William Allan, M.P., has severely criticised the 
Admiralty for giving its adhereolce to the water-tube boiler. 
.He, however, showed that his knowledge of affairs is not up Uy 
date, and he has given those who are moving more with the 
spirit of the times an opportunity of emphasising thepso^esa 
which the new appliance is making m various directions.. 
Such progress is very quiet and not very noticeable. But that 
is, perhaps, one of its most satisfactory features. If ita 
followers had not been so eager to rush forward some twenty- 
five years ago it would probably have been generally established 
ere this as tne universal steam-generator. 

The Spanish Nayy 

has, during tbe month of March, received an addition and 
sustained a loss. On the 12th there was launched from the- 
Yea Muglia Shipbuilding Yard at Cadiz a new steel built twin- 
screw cruiser — ^tbe Emperador Carlos Qtdnto, She is a vessel of 
the first class. A comparison may usefully be made between 
her and the British cruiser * Blenheim, we see that she i» 
5 ft. longer and has 2 ft. more beam. With about 6 in. 
less draaght. her displacement is 89 tons greater. The 
forced draught power is to be 18,500 H.P., against 20.000 in the 
British cruiser, whilst the speed will be only 20 knots against 
our 22 knots attained. The bunker space will, however, be 250 
tons greater, and thus she should have a greater radius of action 
at cruising speed, unless— as seems not unlikely — her greater 
beam should make more power necessary to drive her. The 
protection of both vessels is obtained from a steel deck of a. 
maximum thickness of about 6 in. The offensive jpower 
of the Blenheim consists of bow and stem chasers of 9*2 in. 
calibre. Those of the Spanish ship are designed to be of 
about 11 in. Whilst, however, the British ship has ten 6 in. 
guns on the broadsides, the Spaniard is but to have eight, and 
she will not carry so many smaller quick-firing guns. On the 
whole— especially when we consider the fate of the Reina 
Begenta, which I shall refer to in a moment — it would appear 
that the oomparison is decidedly in favour of the British velssel,. 
a fact which is satisfactory when it is remembered that the 
Biake and Blenheim were launched six years ago. since when 
considerable experience has been gained. We look to have far 
better ships than she in the improved Blenheijns of the 1895-6 
Navy Estimates. The loss which the Spanish Navy has 
sustained has been a terrible one indeed. A very fine modem 
ship, the Reina Regenta, has gone down with every soul on 
board. Four hundred and twenty men have perished. The 
fact is undoubted though no soul survives to tell the tale. 

April 1, 1895.] 



After performing a duty which was entmsted to her becanse of 
the fact that she was a ship well caloolatei to ^ive a good 
impression of her oonntry*8 navy, she sailed on the short. trip 
from Tangier to Cadiz. A little while aftet her departare a 
storm of unexceptional severity arose. It u said that she was 
seen the same evening with upper works damaged and making 
very bad weather, but this report still lacks confirmation. 

barometrical indications of what was coming, should be over. 
Whelmed by the force of any weather. There is only one clue 
suggested. That is a hint that, since she was delivered, her 
bow chaser has been replaced by a heavier piece. If this is -so 
the explanation is not difi&oult. Her reserve of buoyancy for- 
wflird was UXkdnly cut down and she could not rise to the seas. 
In that case she was bound soon to be overwhelmed. This 

Pio. 6. Patent Thbottlb Valti. 

What, however, is certain, is that she lies in deep water off 
Conil, at the entrance to ihe Straits of Gibraltar. It would 
seem unlikely from what has been heard so far, that she can be 
raised, but it is certain that she is not too deep for an examina- 
tion to be made by divers, and it is to be hoped that this will 
be done, and done carefully. It is a terrible and disquieting 
reflection that this vessel, built by one of the best firms in the 
world, fully manned by a crew of hereditary sailors, with 

hypothesis is a little strengthened by the knowledge that, 
whereas she is a vessel very like the second-class cruisers built 
imder our Navy Defence Act, such as the CharybdU, which only 
carries a 6 in. gun forward, and another aft, besides, of coarse, 
her broadside guns, the Reina Regenta is credited with 9 in. 
guns. But whatever may be the cause of the disaster we can- 
not fail in sympathy with a nation which has sustained so 
heavy a loss. 



[April 1, 1895. 

The Late Admiral Sir 6. P. Hornby. 

Tiie terrible mortality of the present season has shown itself 
almost more severe amongst Naval men than amongst other 
classes of the commnnity. The Navy and the conntry has 
sustained an irreparable loss in the death of Sir Geoffrey 
Phipps Hornby. Fall of vigour and energy, vhioh, had he 
been spared, would have still been at his country's service, he 
retired from active service just a month before he was struclc 
down. As a distinguished tactician, and as a leader of mtru we 
shall not soon look upon his like again. His views as to the 
necessities of the Navy, and as to the vital need of our keeping 
up our strength in the Mediterranean were well known, and it 
was with full appreciation of the work which it set before it, 
that he accepted the presidency of the new Navy League. 
That organisation has m his sudden death sustained a blow 
which might well stagger it. But at the moment there are so 
many things which show that there is a great work for the 
League to do. The present Navy Estimates show that at 
present the Government will spare no expense on the Navy. At 
present the expenditure may be sufficient. But what guarantee 
have we, in the maze of irresponsibility at Whitehall, that this 
expenditure is properly applied ? Straws, we are told, show 
the direction of the wind, and from one sample of Admiralty 
dealing we may learn something of the general practice. The 
troopship Tamar has some little time been on sale. The 
memory of man scarcely runs to the time when the Victor 
Emmanuel was not receiving ship at Hong Kong. Nothing can 
have transpired lately to affect these ships wliich might not 
have been foreseen when the Tamar was offered for BsXe. Yet 
suddenly the Admiralty countermand their orders to the Dock- 
yard authorities : the Tamar is to be withdrawn, and is to go to 
Hong Kong to replace the Victor Emmanutl. To enable her to 
accomplish this voyage her masts and rigging, lately removed— 
at some cost, of course, — is to be replaced at an estimated cost 
of £1,700. Her engines will need an expenditure of £3,000 
to fit them for the voyage. That is all very well. They are 
probably no worse now than they were when she was last under 
steam, and the money would have to be spent on them in any 
event to carrv her to the East. But what I do think needs 
attention is this vacillating policy which pulls down and then 
restores what might have been left alone. 

The MaYy Eitimates 

are satisfactory in that they show an increase in most 
departments and are a very strong proof that the present 
Cabinet is not unmindful of the Navy and its needs. It is, 
however, unfortunate that the misprint in the Times was, 
in fact, a misprint. The usually carefully edited daily informed 
its readers that £90,000 was to be spent on the engineering 
branch, in excess of what was included in these of the 
preceding financial year. It turns out that there was a cipher 
too many in the figure named, and that the whole benefit 
offered was the not very alarming sum of £9,000. Thus it is 
still a fact that in our service a fleet-paymaster or a fleet- 
surgeon may get 338. per diem whilst the fleet-engineer's 
maximum is 26s. per diem. The paymaster and surgeon are 
very useful personages, and their luck need not be objected to, 
but their responsibilities are nothing to those of the officer of 
the Engineering Department, and it will not do to leave this 
matter alone until at least equality is gained for the engineer. 
Most unprejudiced persons would he inclined to say that he is 
dearly entitled to actual superiority. 

Lord Brassey, in the House of Lords, pressed the Government 
to strengthen the Navy not only, as they are doing, in the 
actual number of men serving under the flag, but also by 
making a strong reserve. Lord Spencer, speaking as a depart- 
mental chief, raised difficulties which he alleged were in the 
way of the adoption of what Lord Brassey and Lord Hood of 
Avalon urged upon him. Bat there is little doubt that after 
being emphasized so strongly by such men there will be some 
scheme or other to meet the need they point out, formulated 
at Whitehall. 

The Hew Battleihfpi 
are to be armed with a 12-inch 50-ton wire gun, of which great 
hopes and expectations were formed. It is satisfactory to learn 
that trials have been made of one of these guns and of its 
carriage, on boanl the experimental gunnery ship at Ports- 
mouth, and that everything stood the test well. 

The <lDiogenes." 

There was a fine scare in the Thames in the middle of March. 

A stranffe man-of-war came out of a building-yard near Mill* 
waU and proceeded to run trials on the Maplms. Memories of 
the trials of the Alabama and her escape and all that resulted 
therefrom came over the authorities, who wisely determined 
that we should not again be mulct in heavy damages for letting 
vessels go to belligerent powers. The Diogenes was allowed to 
run her trials, but a guard of British blue-jackets was main- 
tained on board throughout the proceedings. It was alleged 
that the vessel was being tried previous to her sale to one of 
the powers now fighting in the far East. Her owners deny the 
suggestion, saying that she was merely being tried because they 
wished to know her capabilities. The vessel was built, as far 
as I can remember, m 1883. Several correspondents have 
stated that she was built at Southampton. This is, I thmk, a 
mistake. A continental yard had the honour of turning her 
out. Her history is involved and she has never done anything. 
For the best part of her life she has lain in the Thames where 
I went over her and her sister some three or four years ago. 
ShcT is not of great size, but has considerable speed and might 
prove very useful to a fighting power which oould acquire her 


WE illustrate herewith a well-desig:ned and finished 
boiler of the well-approved double-flued return 
tube marine type, as it stands slung from a powerful 
derrick in the yard of the Dunston Engine Works, 
Limited, of Gateshead-on-Tyne. As will be seen, the 
longitudinal seams subjected to the greatest pressure 
are triple-rivetted, with the central row of rivets of 
the usual short pitch, and the outer rows of long pitch, 
the rivet holes being drilled in place, and rivetted upby 
special plant of rivetting machinery. The design is 
noteworthy for a large steam chest surrounding 
the uptake, where the steam is collected not only dry 
from priming, but where it is also slightly super- 
heated, saving much condensation in the cylinders, 
and adding to the elasticity of the steam by the 
utilisation of what would otherwise be waste heat. 
The smoke box is fitted with the usual flap doors, 
through which the tubes are readily accessible for 
cleaning and repairs, and these doors have an internal 
double plate for their protection against the heat. 

Boilers of this description are, we understand, being 
largely adopted on steamships, and a large number 
are on order with this firm, the super-heating arrange- 
ment having been very favourably received. 

The Dunston Engine Works have lately gone to 
great expense in equipping their works in the most 
approved manner for boiler work, by putting down 
rivet drilling, rivetting, and flanging machinery of the 
latest type, and their jetty is furnished with shear- 
legs of exceptional power, to deal with heavy boiler 
work promptly and effectively. We imderstand they 
have recently supplied a marine type boiler, built 
under the Board of Trade survey to the Tyne General 
Ferry Co., which has given complete satisfaction. 

It will be in our opinion by such fresh designs as 
this, and by attention of boiler makers to saving every 
pound of coal in evaporation, and securing a good 
supply of dry and possibly super-heated steam, that 
the rivalry of fire tubular boilers as against water- 
tube boilers, the latest craze, will be maintained. 

Mesirs. The London and Glasgow Engineering and Ship- 
building Co.. Oovan, have oontracted to build a large steel 
steamer of about 4,600 tons oapaoity for the Glen Line 
managed by Messrs. McGregor, Gow k Co., Glasgow. 

April 1, 18950 





THE death hastaken place of Mr. Thomas HenderaoD, leadmg 
partner in the Anohor Line of steamshipB, the melan- 
ctioly event oooarring at hia residence, 14, Blythswood 
Sqaare, Glasgow, on the 21th Febraary. Aboat foor months aso 
the deceased gentleman, who was in his 75th vear, was laid 
aside from business with a serioas ailment which developed 
into hemorrhage of the stomach while staying at his country 
residence, Grosslet House, Dnmbarconshire. Bacovering from 
this illness, he returned to his town residence early in Februarv, 
the saverity of the weather, however, keeping him withm 

broking business, assumed Mr. Henderson as a partner ; the 
title of the firm being changed to Handyside A Co. Following 
upon Mr. Henderson's accession, the firm acquired^ew sailing 
ships, and traded with them on the American and Australian 
coasts, and some time subsequently, when the name of the firm 
had been changed to Handyside A Henderson, a line of 
steamers were started between Glasgow and Liabon and the 
Mediterranean. Some years later, on the retiral of the Messrs. 
Handyside and the assumption of Mr. John Henderson— brotiier 
of Thomas— and other partners, the firm became Henderson 
Brothers. Under this designation, and largely owing to the 
business energy, tact, and keen practical knowledge of Mr. 
Thomas Henderson, who was for long the dominant partner, the 
steam shipping business developed and extended under the title 

▲ Mab»k Ttpk Doxkey Boilks. 

doors. In spite of care, however, he seems to have caught a 
cold which developed into bronchitis and congestion of the 
lungs, and to these complaints he succumbed on the date stated. 
The deceased was a native of Pittenweem, one of the quaint 
fishing villages situated on the Fifeshhre coast, and from a very 
early age had a liking for the sea. Coming to Glasgow as a 
youth, he entered mto the Mercantile Marine service as an 
Apprentice. He had more than ordinary rough probationery 
experience, but not for long, and he was fond of stating that he 
had entered the seafaring calling « through the hawse hole,*' 
And had worked his way aft to the cabin. He rapidly rose 
through the different grades of his calling, and qualified him- 
self as shipmaster, eventually taking command of various sail- 
ing ships and steamers belonging io Glasgow. In 1858, the 
firm of Messrs. N. & B. Handyside, engaged in general ship- 

of the Anohor Line until it had become one of the largest 
shipping concerns in the Kingdom. At the present time the 
fleet comprises 86 steamers ranging in size from 2,000 tons up 
to the City of Rome of 8,100 tons, the sroes tonnase of the whole 
fleet being about 120.000. As far back as 1856 the firm began 
its regular sailing between Glasflow and New York, and it is 
thus the oldest existing Soottiui line in the Aftlanlio trade. 
The firm was among the first to start steam communication 
between the Clyde and the Mediterranean, and a steamer be- 
longing to them was the first British trader to pass through 
the Suez Ganal in the great inaugural procession. Jir. Hender. 
son was one of four brothers, two of whom predeoeased him 
within the last three years, viz. : Mr. John, of the Anohor Line, 
and Mr. David, of Messrs David A William Henderson, of the 
Meadowside shipbuilding firm. Mr. Henderson took a keen 



[Apia 1, 1895. 

and active inteiest in all seafaring matters, and devoted maoh 
of his time and ability to the management of varions bodies 
assooiated with the shipping interest. At the time of his death 
he was chairman of the Local Marine Board, and from the first 
occnpied a similar position at the Clyde Lighthonses Trust. 
He tcok a deep and active interest in the Clyde training ship, 
and in his capacity of chairman of the Committee of Manage- 
ment he did much to promote the nsefnlness of the institution. 
He was for long ckaiiman of the Glasgow Shipowners* Associa- 
tion, and a director of the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce ; 
and vas formerly for a considerable period a member of the 
Clyde Navigation Trust. Among other important appoint- 
ments conferred upon Mr. Henderson was that of president of 
the Chamber of bhipping ; but unfortunately, owing to the 
state of his health at the time, he was unable to take the chair 
at Uie annual meeting. As a manager of the Glasgow Sailors* 
Home, he further showed his practical interest in those who 
'* go down to the sea in ships." Mr. Henderson was twice 
married, and is survived by his wife and four sons and a 
daughter. His sons are partners in the great shipping concern 
of which their father has been so long t^e honoured chief, and 
his daughter is the wife of Dr. John Murray, of the Challenger 
Expedition. The announcement of Mr. Henderson's death was 
received with unfeigned regret in shipping and mercantile circles, 
and on the day following the melaucholy event, the vessels in 
Glasgow harbour had their flags half-mast high. 

Wr have to record ^ith deep regret the death of Mr. Lindsay 
Burnet, of Moore Park Boiler Works, Govan, Glasgow, which 
event took place on the 14kh ult., at Dunblane Bydropathio, 
where the deceased gentleman had gone to recruit. Never a 
physically strong man, Mr. Barnet bad long been in rather poor 
health, and some time ago, in tbe hope that he might get his 
system set up, he took a voyage to, and a cruise in, tbe West 
Indies. This extended over several months, and it was thought 
that he would ultimately recover his strength. In the month of 
December, however, he caught a chill, which settled in his lungs ; 
but from that also he was recoveriog, and was arranging for a 
visit to Madeira, when he was attacked by influenza, to which he 
succumbed on the date stated. Mr. Lindsay Buroet, who was 
the second son of Mr. John Burnet, father of the architectural 
profession in Glasgow, and brother of John James Burnet, Assoc. 
B.I.B.A., was one of tbe younger school of engineers, and had 
already made a name f( r himself in the construction of steam 
boilers, the special department,, of his profession to which he 
devoted his skill and his business abilities. He has been cut ofi" 
at the early age of 89 years, in the midst of his work, and with 
abundant promise for the future. Tbe major part of his appren- 
ticeship was served in the works of Meserd. Barclay, Curie & Co., 
Whiteinoh, and finished with Messrs. T. Wiogate <& Co., White- 
inch, a firm now defunct, who were well known for their exten- 
sive work in the building of steam dredging plant. For a short 
time, after the expiry of his apprenticeship term, he went to sea 
in order to get further iosight into the business of mechanical 
engineering. Subsequently bo settled in London for some time, 
and entered the ofSce of Messrs. Bruce A Batho, civil engineers, 
Westminster. While residing in London he became a student in 
the engineering department of Univereity College, where he had 
the benefit of instruction of a high order from Professor A. B. 
W. Kennedy. After a year or two Mr. Burnet returned to Glas- 
gow, and about a dozen years ago he commenced business on his 
own acocunt as an engineer, choosing more especially the depart- 
ment of boiler-making, for which purpose he erected the well- 
known works at Moore Park, Gcvan. He laid out these works 
with much judgment and ekill, specially adapting them for the 
aim which he had in view, and to which he fulhered throughout 
— his desire being to turn out work of the best description and 
of the highest class. A few jears after he began the busineBs, 
he was joined, at his own request, by a partner, in the person of 
Mr. Sinclair Couper, who had been a fellow apprentice with him. 
The business at the Moore Park Works was thenceforward carried 
on under the designation of Messrs. Lindsay Burnet ft Co., and 
from these works there has been an extensive and constantly 
growing output of boilers and boiler plate work to home and ex- 
port order. Mr. Burnet was not only a specialist in designing 
and constructing steam boilers, but he latterly devoted very much 
attention to the deeper kindred questions connected with the 
combustion of coal and other fuels, the analysis of these fuels, 

of the waste products of combustion and of different qualities 
of water — all in order that he might be a better master of his 
subject and better fitted to give professional advice to those 
persons who consulted him. As an arbiter and expert his services 
were much in request in cases of dispute or difficulty, and to al) 
such cases he devoted the same close and painstaking attention 
as characterised all his work. The deceased was either an 
associate or full member of all the following scientific societies:— 
The Institution of Civil Engineers, Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers, the Institution of Naval Architects, the Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, and the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow. Mr. Burnet was a man of rare enthusiasm 
in his profession, entering with his whole heart into everything 
connected with it. He was also a man of a most vrinning dis- 
position, and endeared himself to all those who knew him. His 
employees found him to be one who had their interests at heart 
and his relations with them was always most cordial. 


Paper bead bxfcse The Civil and Mechanical Ekodteeks* 
Society, Ja»uaky SIst, 1896, by W. M. BINNY. 

THE object of this paper is not to describe the duties of the 
engineers of one of our first-class liners, but the every- 
day life on board an ordinary merchant steamer, commonly 
known as a •* tramp." 

This style of steamer carries a chief, second, and third 
engineers, but on alongvoyage, or to ports to which it is neces- 
sary to go through the Ked Sea, a fourth engineer is generally 
carried ; the actual number being settled by ceitain Board of 
Trade regulations. 

The chief engineer is responsible for the proper working and 
repairs of the machinery placed in his charge, also for the con- 
sumption of the fuel and stores. The actual work is carried 
out by the second, third and fourth engineers, who each take a 
watch at sea, and, in port, each junior engineer has a certain 
portion of the engines to overhaul and adjust. 

Supposing the ship is ready to start on her voyage, and the 
crew on board, the chief engineer receives orders from the 
captain to have steam for a certain hour, at which time the 
engines will have been warmed up, and ready to be worked, 
according to the orders from the bridge, as shown by the engine- 
room telegraph. 

After the pilot leaves the ship the engine-room department 
generally settles down to their every-day duties. 

The general arrangement of watches at sea being for the fourth 
engineer to take the chief's watch from 8 to 12, the third 
engineer from 12 to 4, and the second engineer from 4 to 8, thus 
each has four hours on watch and eight hours off, day and 
night. The chief engineer, if a fourth is carried, does not 
actually stay down in the engine-room during the four hours of 
his watch, but after giving ozders to his juniors as to the amount 
of steam, vacuum, &o., to be carried, and after linking up the 
valve-gear, and if all is working well, leaves the engine-room in 
charge of the engineer on watch. 

I will now briefly describe the general duties of an engineer 
on watch. On eight bells being struck the engineer going on 
watch should makb it a point of being down promptly in the 
engine-room to relieve the previous watch, and, after noting the 
number of revolutions on the counter, his first duty is to test 
the water-gauges in the boiler, and see for himself that they are 
working properly. He should then try the bilge-j^ump and see if 
the bilges are free of water, and likely to contmue so. Much 
damage has been caused to cargo by allowing the bilges to 
become flooded, also the danger of washing up the stoke-hole 
floor plates. After going round the engines and trying, by 
feeling, if the bearings, &o., are cool, and receiving any directions 
from the ens ineer going off watch, will exclaim, "All right." 
which is unaerstood to mean that he is now in charge. 

After seeing the fires are properly cleaned, th^ engineer Will 
now give his attention to various parts of the engine that 
require it, besides osjefully noting from time to time the 
height of water in the different gauge-glasses, especially if the 
ship is rolling. Towards the ena of the watch he will make up 
(truthfully, we hope) his log on the engine-room slate, statins 
the steam vacuum, temperatures of feed- water, injection and 
engine-roc m, &o., and if coal is being measured, the quantity 

April 1, 1896.] 



oonsmned dnring his watob. And on being relieved in bis torn 
will make over the charge to the next engineer. 

It must not, however, be supposed that after coming off watch 
a sea-going engineer baa the next eight honni to himself. There 
are various small jobs that require his attention ; for instance, 
the winchesrequire overhauling and adjusting ready to discharge 
cargo on arrival at the next port ; there are certain joints that 
show a tendency to leak or blow out, and if the chief does not 
want assistance to take indicator diagrams, then, perhaps, 
the engineer may count upon a few hours to himself. 

With regard to the machinery itself, the usual type of 
engines for sea>going cargo-boats is the inverted, triple- 
expansion, and surface-condensing, working with a steam 
pressure from 1501b. to 1801b. per square inch. The most 
economical speed of the ship—from the shipowner's point of 
view— being between nine to ten knots per hour. 

The boilers are mostlv of the cylindrical multitubular t3rpe. 
although in some of tne more recent cargo steamers water- 
tube boilers have been put in and appear to answer very well 
so long as fresh water only is used. With regard to the 
cylindrical type, with which most of my own experience has 
been, I have found that one of the worst troubles, namely, the 
leakage at the circumferential seams, may be greatly reduced, 
if not altogether avoided, by taking ample time to warm the 
boiler up on getting up steam i say about 12 hours, the lower 
fires, if three-furnace boilers, being lit first and the others a few 
hours after. The boiler should also have some arrangement 
for circulating the water while steam is being raised, either 
a ** hydrolimiter " or the usual feed donkey may have connec- 
tion, so that water mav be pumped from the bottom of the boiler 
and returned through the usual feed check valve. Also the 
practice of blowing down boilers with steam up when they are 
to be emptied at the end of a voyage ; the proper way being, 
in the opinion of myself and other sea-going engineers, that 
the boiler should be allowed to cool slowly, until Uie hand can 
be placed upon it without inconvenience, and then to slack back 
and force in one of the bottom doors, so aUow the water in the 
boiler to run into the bilges from whence it can be pumped 
overboard. This not only preserves the seams, but ^ould 
there be any scale taken into the boiler with the feed- water it 
does not get baked hard into the plates. 

Another very serious matter with the high pressure now used 
in steamers is the injury caused by the presence of cylinder- 
oil in the boilers causing the furnace crowns of boUers to 
ccdlapse, this oil coming from the cylinders with the steam 
into the condenser, mixes with the feed-water and is sent into 
the boiler. There are several methods of trying to prevent 
this occurring. Firstly, by using as little oil in the cylinders 
as the engines will work with, and then only mineral oil of the 
best possible quality. I have noticed that most oil is required 
in the cylinders, when the vessel is going in or out of dock, and 
the engines are being run alternately t^ead and astern. This 
also causes other injuries to which I will refer in another part 
of this paper. But when the engines have settled down to 
steady work the oil may be reduced in some cases as low as 1 
^ropm 65 revolutions with engines indicating about 2,500 H.P. 
Cases have been mentioned where no oil was put in the 
cylinders, but probably the oil used to lubricate the piston rods 
found its way to a certain extent into the cylinders. Secondly, 
by using a feed-water filter, fitted in duplicate so that one may 
be cleaned while the other is at work. 

Thirdlv, should, however, oil be found to be making its way 
into the boiler— and its presence is to be noticed in the gauge- 
glass—by careful use of the scum cock a great part may be got 
rid of before it settles down towards the bottom of the 

Another point with regard to marine boilers— and I think I 
may safely say any other type — are the boiler fittings. The 
most impc^ant being the water gauge, this fitting as well as all 
the others, should be very carefully and substantially made, and 
should be of the automatic shut-off kind, at any rate for the 
water, but at the same time should be so conducted as to be 
easily cleaned, and not liable to show false-water. 

In the other fittings, namely, the feed check and steam stop 
valves, there is room for great improvement. I have founa 
that they require ooxistant attention to prevent leakage, and 
when the gland is screwed up and left for any time, on 
attempting to open or shut the valve, the spindle is strained, if 
not broken. 

I will now mention some of the parts of the main engines 
that have given trouble to engineers at sea. 

Before metallic or semi-metallic packing was made, trouble 
was found in keeping the high-pressure cylinder piston rod and 
valve spindle glands tight, in triple-expansion engines. If the 
glands were packed with the old style of canvas packing 
mixed with rubber, etc., in about 48 hours steaming the gland 
would commence to blow, and if tightened up, would soon start 
acain, and would end bv the engines being stopped to pack 
a&esh. On the packing being taken out the rubber would be 
found to resemble the earth in flower pots, and the canvas 
quite rotten. All this, however, has been done away with 
with the introduction of metallic packing, made in sections of 
Babbit's metal, or Lindsey's compressed brass wire and asbestos 
packing, also Beldam's, Ac. I have found in several cases, 
where one of the above types did not quite answer, to work 
with some of each : in cases, for instance, where the piston rod 
did not run quite true, but worked from side to side. Another 
point about packing high pressure glands is, that if the bottom 
of the cylinder inside is not formed so that any water that col- 
lects does not drain away horn the centre where the gland is, 
I think I may venture ^to say that the difficulties of keeping 
that gland tight for any length of time is greatly increased. In 
practice I have seen a small | in. drain valve fixed near the 
gland and left slightly open to drain into the hot-well, with a 
marked improvement. 

Referring back to a former portion of my paper,I mentioned 
that certain injuries were caused by reversmg the engines in 
coming out of port. It is the practice in some vessels to screw 
up all piston rod glands before starting the engines. The conse- 
quence is, that the packing is greatly cut up by the rod working 
first on one guide and then the other. If, on the other hand, 
the freshly packed gland is screwed up hand-tight and allowed 
to- blow a little, it will often be noticed that after a while the 
packing appears to sweU, and Uie blowing decreases ; after the 
vessel is fairly on her voyage the gland may then be nipped up 
until there is no visible leak, it will very often then run for 
some time without further attention. 

The next part that now claims attention are the working sur- 
faces of guides and bearings. The main bearing bushes are 
now usually cast-iron and lined with white metal, the bottom 
half being made circular, so that it may be taken out to 
examine and repair without first removing the shaTt. The two 
halves of the bushes are kept in place by means of a cast or 
wrought iron key, and if good wide oil- ways are made and the 
bearings kept in line, there is no necessity for the practice of 
using water to keep them cool. The thrust block is usually of 
the horseshoe type lined with white metal, and if the casting 
will allow it, the recess is filled with a mixture of oil and fresh 
water. This arrangement lubricates the rings on the shaft, 
requiring very little attention, and very economical in the use 
of oil. 

A part of the shafting that requires careful looking after 
when in dry dock is the tail-end shaft and stem tube : it is 
generally found to be badly corroded on being withdrawn, 
especially close up to brass-uners. Various plans have been 
tried to remedy this, either to entirely cover the shaft with 
brass liners or one of Mr. Mudd's india-rubber covers which 
appear to answer very well, or some arrangement that would 
entirely exclude the water from the interior of the stem tube. 

In connection with the engines and boilers there are several 
kinds of pumps for different purposes, among them the air and 
feed-pumps. The air-pump is usually worked off the main 
engine by means of levers and a cross-head. To the same cross- 
head is attached the feed and bilge pumps, which should be 
arranged in duplicate so that one may be repaired without 
stopping the other. The valves and connections should be 
arranged so that thev may easily be got at. A good arrange- 
ment for the boiler feed is to have independent feed-pumps of 
the Weir's type in conjunction with a feed-hc»ter and 
evaporator. B v this means it is possible to put the feed into the 
boDers near the boiling-point, the evaporator being used to 
make up losses of water from glands, &o., with fresh water. 
A rough rule being 1 ton of fresh water per day for every 
100 I.H.P. 

The evaporator may be considered as being a part of the 
boiler arrangement in a modem steamer. It is in this 
apparatus that the scale is deposited and the salt removed, that 
was formerly done in the main boiler itself, with this differ- 
ence, that if the scale was allowed to form sufficiently in the 
boilers, it would, in the first place, take more fuel to make the 
same quantity of steam on account of the non-conducting 
properties of the scale, and might even, if allowed to go too 



[April 1, 1895. 

lonff, oaxise the collapse of the fomaces. Bat in the evaporator 
no narm is done, the apparatus merely beooming less efficient 
until cleaned again, tins operation is easily done at sea in a 
few hours. In practice I have known a steamer in which I 
served to fill her boilers with fresh water in Australia, and 
after some weeks on the New Zealand coast, to return to 
England, and, after being several days in dock, daring which 
time the boilers were fed with dock water, on the density 
being taken, it was not quite l-82nd or a little less than ordinary 
sea water. 

With regard to spare gear, or the duplicate portions of the 
machinery, to be carried in the engine-room, all vessels are 
required to carry certain bolts and nuts, &o. Some vessels 
that have a large number of duplicate parts on board never 
seem to break down and require them, while others are very 
unfortunate in this respect, and the part that gives out generally 
happens to be that of which there is no duplicate. In this case 
something has to be contrived to substitute it. For example, 
a vessel in which I served broke her circulating pump rod 
when some distance through the Bed Sea, and as we had no 
duplicate, and could not proceed to any port to get one, a 6ub- 
etitute was found in one of the gangway ladder davits, which 
was nearly the same diameter, about 8 in., but had to be 
straightened and out to the right length, the tools on board to 
do it with being the usual rivet forge, a few chisels, and 
hammers, Ac. The davit was first cut to the required length, 
about 3 ft. 6 in., and the ends tapered to fit the bucket and 
crosshead. This was accomplished partly by drawing out in 
the small forge, and partly with chipping and filing ; but as we 
had no tools to cut a new thread, the bucket and the crosshead 
were counter sunk ; then afterwards the rod was heated and 
rivetted over in position, the whole repair being done by the 
engine room stan of four engineers and Lascar firemen in 9i 
hours, from the time of stopping to time of starting again. 
This rod carried us from the Bed Sea to Singapore at the usual 
fall speed. 

From the above example it was not so much the requirement 
of spare gear but want of handy and useful tools, and as 
many vessels carry electric light nlant, these could be used 
in any part of the engine-room and driven by a small motor. 



Interpretation of Charter-party as to freight payable. 

THE plaintiff, who owned a ship, chartered her to the defen- 
dants for a voyage from New Zealand to London. It was 
agreed that the freight should be **alamp sum of £4,000 sterling.*' 
The following clauses were contained in the charter-party, viz. : 
— ** The charterers to have the privilege of re-chartering the 
vessel, at any rate of freight, without prejudice to this agree- 
ment, and the captain to sign bills of lading (Australian and 
New Zealand trade) for the cargo, according to the custom of 
the port, at the current or any rate of freight reqaired, without 
prejadioe to, for which purpose he is to attend 
daily at the charterer's or their sgent's office daring basiness 
■ hours if so reqaired, and should the freight list, according to 
the bills of lading, show a less sum in the aggregate than the 
chartered freight, the difference to be paid in cash prior to the 
ship's olearaooe at the Costom Hoose .... the liabilities 
of charterer's to cease on the vessel being loaded, the master 
having a lien on the oarf^> for all freight and demurrage under 
this charter-party." The charterers sub-ohartei*ed the ship. 
She was loaded with a cargo of oats for carriage from New 
Zealand to London, and a bill of lading for the cargOt under 
which freight was payable at per ton, was ptesented by the sub- 
eharterer to the captain, by whom it was signed. There was a 
great shrinkage of the cargo during the voyage, so that the 
freight paid 1^ the consignees was lees than the snm that had 
been calculated at the port of loading, the difference between 
these two sums was £195 13s., which sum the owner sought to 
reoover from the charterers. The difference between the sum cal- 
culated as freight according to the weight at the port of load- 
ing, and the chartered freight of £4,000, had been paid by the 
•oluurterert before the steamer was cleared, according to the 

terms of the charter-party. At the trial of the action before Mr. 
Justioe Day without a jury, this learned judge decided that the 
charterers were liable for the £195 ISs., and he gave judgment 
for the plaintiff. From this decision the defendants appealed. 
It was argued for the charterers, firstly, that the captain was 
entitled to refuse to sign the bill of lading unless the words 
'* all other conditions as per oharter-party," were added, and his 
negligence in not insisting on ^is right relieved the charterers ; 
and seoondly, that the charterers were relieved by the cesser 
clause from liability for anything ooourring after the ship had 
been loaded. It was decided by the Court of Appeal, ia affirm- 
ing Mr. Justice Day's adjudication, that the captain's duty was 
to sign the bill of lading offered to him, and his doing so did not 
prejudice the right of the owners to recover the charter-party 
freight firom the charterers, and also that, according to the rules 
laid down for the interpretation of a oefser clause by the appel- 
late tribunal in the case of Clink v. Radford (64 Q. T. Bep., N.S., 
491 — 1891), the charterers were not relieved by the cesser clause 
from their liability to pay the balance of freight sued for. — 
Hansen v. Hmrold Brothers, 

Deipatch Money as Bet-off to a Claim for Freight. 

The S.S. Olendevon, owned l^ the plaintiff, carried a cargo of 
2,103 tons of coals belonging to the defendants, proprietors of 
the South Derwent OoUiery, from Newcastle to Lisbon, under a 
charter-party which was dated November 17th, 1892, the 
essential purts of which stated that the " steamer was to be dis* 
chajTged at the rate of two hundred tons per day, weather permitt- 
ing (Sundays and fdte days excepted), according to the custom of 
the port of discharge, and if discharged to pay at the rate of 
8s. 4d. per hour for every hour saved. . . Demurrage twoLty 
pounds for every day's detention in discharging, and in same 
proportion for any part of such day over and above the days 
allowed as aforesaid, except in case of riot or any hands 
striking work, frost, snow or floods, or other accidents which may 
prevent the discharging of such steamer." The discharge of 
the ship was begun at 7 a.m. on December 2nd, and completed 
at 5 p.m. on December 7th« or (excluding Sunday, December 4th) 
in 106 hours ; but the time allowed for the mscharge was 252 
hoam, which, excluding December 8th, a fdte day, and December 
11th, a Sunday, would bring the time for discharge op to 
7 p.m. on December 15th, and the plaintiff oonseqaently 
credited the defendants with £60 ICs. 8d. for 146 hours 
despatch, 'the defendants included the fdte day and the Sunday, 
De<^ber 8th and 11th respectively, as also saved to the ship, 
amounting in all to 194 hours saved, and therefore they demanded 
a dedaction from the balance of freight due to a farther sum of 
£20 for 48 hours despatch. The Judge of the Newcastle County 
Court gave jadgment for the plaintiff, because, as he held, the 
argument between the parties should be read as excluding 
Sundays and f6te days from the estimation of despatch. It was 
decided by the Admiralty Court, in affirming this decision, that 
Sunday andfdte days were exoladed both in the compensation of 
the time allowed in discharging and in that of the time saved, 
therefore despiUtth money by way of set-off to a claim for freight 
was only payable by the plaintiffs to the defendants on the 
difference between the number of hours occupied by the 
defendants in the discharge and the total number of hours which 
the charter-party permitted them. — *' Tht Oltndevon," 

H.1I.8. ** Broiler,*' the last of the new type of torpedo-boat des- 
troyen supplied by Messrs. J. 1. Thomyoroft & Co., has lately 
been suooessfully Isunched at Chiswiok, the naming ceremony 
being performed by Hiss Bamaby, daughter of Mr. S. W. Bamaby, 
naval arohitect to Messrs. Thomyoroft. The vessel is a sister 
ship to the Boxer, built and engmed by the same firm, which 
recently, on her official trial, attained a speed of 29*17 knots. 
She is 200 ft. long, and has a beam of 19 ft. Her engines and 
boilers — to be fitted by her builders — will be of the eame type as 
those supplied to the Boxer, and are g^ranteed to give her a 
running speed of 27 knots. The armament of the BruUer will 
comprise odo 12-poander and five 6-pounder quiok-firing guns 
and two torpedo deok tubes. 

Bmperador Carloi Qnlnto.— On March 13th the Spanish 
turret-ship Emperador Ca^lo* Quinto was successfully ^launched 
at Cadiz from the shipbailding yard, VeaMurgina, belonging 
to Messrs. Noriega & Co., under the superintendence of Mr. 
Nicolar Faster, naval architect of the Spanish Navy. 

AprU 1, 1896.] 




The following appointments have been made at the Admiralty 
from Febmary 26th, to March 26th, 1895 :— 
Aottin, F. W., engineer to the Searty, to date Febmary 27th. 
Bench, George E., chief engineer to the Secla, additional* to date 
March 13th. 

Billa, W. W. (probationary), aaiistant engineer to the Crescent, 
to date March 12th. 

Brawn, T. F., asaiatant engineer to the Fictory, i apemnmerarr. 
to date Febmary 16th. ^ 

Bomei, Thomas, fleet engineer to the Apincourt, to date March 

Christian. T. W., engineer to the Eainbow. 

Cocks, H. W. L., assistantengineer to the Vivid, snpernamerary, 

to date Febmary 11th. 
Colqahono, Peter, fleet engineer to the Achillea, to date March 

Cook, W., staff engineer to the Creteent, to date Msrch 12th. 
Coopper, H., engineer to the Retribution, to date April 9th. 
Cottam, F. M., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Crowle, J. N., engineer to the Spider, to date March 2nd. 
Cndlip, Edwin W., engineer to the Daring, to date March 1st. 
Dnke, D. S., has been appointed assistant engineer for temporary 

serrice in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Erans, H., assistant engineer to the Rainbow, to date March 

Fleetwood, John L., engineer to the Dreadnought, to date 

March 16th. 
FoUeU, Samuel G., staff engineer to the Aurora, to date March 

Oallery, E., engineer to the Orlando, additional, to date Feb. 

George, F. T., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Oilbert, W., engineer, has been placed on the Retired List, 

with permission to assume the rank of inspector of 

machinery, having attained the age for compulsory retire- 
Harding, Bobert, staff engineer to the Hibernia, additional, to 

date March 13th. 
Irish, H. W., engineer to Hong Kong Yard, to date Febmary 

28kh. ' 

Johnson, M. C, has been appointed assistant engineer for tem- 
porary service in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Kingston, F. J., engineer to the Hotspur, to date March 6th. 
Knapman, H. T., engineer to the Fervent, to date March 2nd. 
Loch, H. J., staff engineer to the Raleigh, to date February 28th. 
Mabb, W. J., chief engineer, has been advanced to the rank of 

staff engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Mallinson, B. D., assistant engineer to the Pembroke, super- 

numeraxy, to date March 2nd. 
Martell, B. W., engineer to the Vernon, to date March 18th. 
Headen, K., fleet engineer to the Orlando, additional, to date 

February 23rd. 
Michell, George K. H., fleet engineer to the Jjax, to date 

March 6th. 
Minhinnick, P. C. (probationary), assistant engineer to the 

Crescent, to date March 12th. 
M'Lean, H. C.» engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

. engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Murray, George W., engineer to the Tictory, to date March 4th. 
Paol, 0. B., engineer to the Conqueror, to date March 7th. 
Pearoe, W. H., engineer to the Rainbow, to date March 6th. 
Peel, H. W. C, engineer to the HmUer, to date March 2nd. 
Pring^ F., assistant engineer to the Orlando, additional, to date 

February 28rd. 
JPHston, B. B., staff engineer, has been advanced to the rank 

of fleet engineer in Her Majeit/s fleet. 
JUmsay, T. W, H., inspector of machinery to the OrUmda, 

additional, to date February 28rd. 
Jtsyndds, James A., engineer to the RasiUsh^ to data March 

Siohards, T. W. (probationary), assistant engineer to the 

Retribution, to date April 9tli. 
Botii G. J., staff engineer to the Tyne, to date March 6th. 
Mjma, James, engineer to the Ferret, to date March 90th. 

Smith, C. E., has been appointed assistant engineer for tem- 
porary service in Her Majesty's fleet. 

Stevens, John G., chief engineer to the Victory, additional, to 
date March Idth. 

Stuart, J. J., staff engineer to the Orlando, additional, to date 
Febmary 28rd. 

Sydenham, F. W., assistant engineer to the Mohawl, to date 
March 14th. 

Teed, H. B., engineer to the Partridge, to date March 6th. 

Tbompeon, F. D., engineer to the Northampton, to date Feb- 
mary 27th. 

Tuckweli, H. M. S. (probationary), assistant engineer to the 
Victory, supernumerary, to date March 1st. 

Turner, H. J., engineer to the Crescent, to date March 12th. 

Underbill, A. W. (probationary), assistant engineer to the 
Crescent, to date March 12th. 

Whittingham, W., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of 
chief engbieer in Her Majesty's fleet. 

Worth, Frederick, staff engineer to the Dreadnought, to date 
March 16th. 

REPORT, MARCH 238t, 1895; 

Teak : Timber 

Stock 1st Mar. 5,600 
Landings — 







Stock 20th Mar. 5,238 






ThereAi very Utile movement either in logs or planks, and the 
deliveries have shrank to very small flgnres. A bosy time was 
anticipated after the breaking np of the long frost, bnt dnring 
the bad weather very few orders were booked, and any percep. 
tible difference in the stock flgnres can scarcely be looked for 
nntil the supplies for the Admiralty are taken. 

Large without reserve sales of planks are being held, with the 
promise of more to follow, which will no doubt result in a further 
fall in values. Deliveries frmn the docks are only of small 

Mahogany. — The market continues firm, and good prices are 
paid for prime logs. The minimum has also advanced another 
5 per cent, both for Honduras and Cuba. Some cargoes are still 
being held for better figures, and an advance in values is confidently 
expected, provided African and Panama supplies are witheld to 
a reasonable extent. Both these latter qualities are coming 
forward in better condition and are finding increased favour, the 
price being greatly to the advantage of the consumer. A large 
quantity St Cuba wood has been delivered lately, leaving a finner 

Cedak. — The trade in this wood is very inactive, the cigar box 
industry being unusually quiet, and stocks are increasing ; but 
prices hold up. 

Kaweik Pink. — ^A fair business is in progress, and although 
prices fell a little lately, they are not expected to drop any 

Padouk. — No business of any importance to report. 

GasBKHKABT. — A sluggish trade, the deliveries for some tima 
having been very meagre. 

Sequoia. — Positively nothing doing lately. Stocks conse- 
quently continue large. 

Black Walnut Loo^. — The stock consists of nothing but 
inferior qualities, which have been rather freely moved at low 
figures. Prime wood of large sixes is in great demand and would 
realise full prices. 

AMiaicAN LcMBEB. — Any remariu aa to one deaoriptioQ are 
generally applicable to the whole. While there is a fair demand 
for the better descriptions of oak, walnut and whitewood, the 
lower qualities and culls, of which there are large stosks, can only 
be forced on the market ai minons prices. 



[April 3, 1895. 


{From our own Oorr$tp<md9nt.) 

THE qaeBtion of wages in the West of Scotland steel trade, to 
which reference was made in last month's Notes, has now 
been settled, and in a manner satisfactory to the best interests 
of the steel trade generally and of s^pboilding and marine 
engineering, as well as those of the men themselves. The Con- 
ciliation Board of the West of Scotland steel trade mot in Glasgow 
on the 18th nit., and discnssed the qnestion in an amicable way. 
The men contended for arbitration on the question of a 5 per cent, 
redoction ; bat the employers held that if arbitration were re- 
sorted to, the qnestion should be one of a 10 per cent, redaction. 
Eventually the men agreed to accept a rednotion of 5 per cent. 
This result has occasioned satisfaoticm among steel makers and 
shipbuilders, as it will in some small measure help to increase 
the margin of profit on the work being contracted for, which 
margin in very truth has been infinitesimsl for a long time, if not 
quite absent altogether. 

While good results hare apparently followed the apiK>intment 
of the committee on the demarcation of work as between car- 
penters and joiners in shipbuilding operations, there are still 
seemingly loopholes for the escape of the spirit of envy and 
gprievance which so persistently dominates these two classes of 
artisans. On the Tyne, accordiing to the annual report of the 
AsK)ciated Shipwrights' Society just issued, the Committee's 
doings ** prevent useless stoppages" — ^which is in itself some- 
thing. On the Clyde, to all appearances, there is still a less 
satirfactory state of matters existing. The thin end of one of 
those disputes which have so often before culminated in insane 
struggles between these two classes is once more seen in the 
strike which took place in the yard of the London and Glasgow 
Shipbuilding Co., at Govan, on the 16th ult., and is still unsettled 
at the date of writing. About 150 carpenters — the whole force 
employed — struck on account of the manager giving tie joiners a 
job which the carpenters contend belongs to their side of the 
demarcation line. The work in question — the fitting up of felt 
and wood cleading in a passage — ^had been held in abeyance for 
several days, as the job is apparently one of those which has 
been left by the Demarcation Committee to the employers for 
disposal. The shipwrights are convening meetings daily and 
seem determined to keep off work until their alleged rights and 
prerogatives in this special item of work are conceded them. 

The orders placed with shipbuilders and engineering firms 
during March have not been very numerous, but the aggregate 
tonnage booked is considerable. Altogether some 25,000 tons, 
mostly of steam vessels, have been placed and more than com- 
pensates for the tonnage launched during the month which has 
been smaller than usual. 

Messrs. Wm. Simons & Co., Benfrew, early in the month 
received from a London firm an order to consl^ct a large and 
powerful hopper dredger for Plymouth, which will be employed 
in connection with the extensive improvements being carried out 
in that harbour. The dredger is specially designed for the 
removal of rook, and will have all the most modem appliances. 

Messrs. Charles Connell A Co., Whiteinoh, about mid-month 
oontracted with Messrs. Bell Bros. A McLelland to build 
a steel screw steamer of 6,000 tons capacity. The machinery 
for these vessels will be supplied by Messrs. Dnnsmuir A Jackson, 
of Govan. 

Messrs. D. A W. Henderson, of Meadowside, Partick, have con- 
tracted with Messrs. Bell Bros. & McLelland for the con- 
struction of two steamers of about 6,000 tons each, similar to 
the 6,000 tenner above noticed as having been secured by 
Messrs. Connell A Co. All these three vessels, it may be stated, 
will be built to the rules and under the supervision of the 
British Corporation Registry. Messrs. Henderson are making 
considerable progress with the construction of the new America 
Cup challenger, Valkyrie. Almost all the frames have been set 
and it is expected the yacht will be launched next month. 

Messrs. Blackwood i Gordon, engineers and shipbuilders, Port- 
Glasgow, whose patent slip, since it was put into 
operation some months ago, has been largely requisitioned for 
ship repairs, overhaul and painting, have just contracted with 
the Ness Steam Shipping Co., Limited, ox Inverness — through 
Messrs. Pollock & Co., naval arohiteots and surveyors, 128, 

Hope Street, Glasgow — to lengthen the company's paddle 
steamer. New Undaunted, and to fit her with new boilers, new 
masts and rigging, and g^ve her a general overhaul. Messrs. 
Blackwood A Gordon have at present on their slip the screw tug 
steamer Eat^, having the repairs made to her hull, rendered 
necessary by her having been aground during the recent severe 
weather off the island of Arran ; also the Clyde river steamer* 
£lane, being overhauled for the summer season. The Vtvid, 
another of these river passenger steamers, has just left the slip, 
and in the coarse of the next few weeks the Glen Sarmox, the 
crack steamer of the Caledonian Steam Packet Co.'s fleet, and 
one Or two others will be taken on and similarly treated. In 
this oonnection it may be added that Bowling Harbour, where 
most of the large fleet of Clyde passenger steamers find winter 
quarters, is now almost depleted of its galaxy of Clyde 
" greyhounds," the cause being the usual spring overhaul prior 
to entering on the summer services. 

It has been officially announced that the Bight Hon. Sir 
William Marriott, has joined the Board of the Fairfield Ship, 
building and Engineering Ce., Limited. He was formerly a 
prominent member of Parliament. 

Messrs. Gourlar Bros, ft Co., Dundee, have secured a contract 
to build for the India General Steam Navigation Co. a passenger 
steamer. The vessel will be about 1,000 tons register; built of 
steel, and fitted with twin screws. She will have large passenger 
accommodation both for British and native passengers, and will 
be employed in the coasting trade in India. The engines will be 
of 4,000 H.P., and calculated to propel the vessel at a speed of 
18 knots per hour. The steamer will be constructed according 
to the highest requirements of the Board of Trade. Messrs. 
Gonrlay will begin the building of the vessel immediately, and it 
is expected she will be ready for launching in about six months. 
Messrs. Gonrlay Bros, have also secured through Mr. John P. 
Bruce, shipbroker, an order to build a powerful screw tug for a 
firm abroad. The vessel will be supplied with triple-expansion 
engines, and otherwise fitted for the special work for which 
she is intended. 

Messrs. Hall, Bussell ft Co., Aberdeen, have contracted with a 
Liverpool firm to build two steel barges of about 800 tons 
capacity. They will be employed in the Brazilian coasting 

The Fairfield Co. launched on the 19th ult., the torpedo-boat 
destroyer Sandy ; the first of the three destroyers the company 
is building for the British Admiralty. The vessel should have 
been float^ during February, but on the day fixed for the cere- 
mony the river was blocked with ice, and the launch had to be 
postponed. The boat is an exceptionally fine specimen of her 
type, looking if anything smarter than any that have preceded 
her. One design with slight variations has certainly served for 
the whole fleet ; but what restrictions there were have not pre- 
vented the Fairfield Go. from imparting something of its own 
style to the new boat. The ffanc^ has only two funnels. The 
Birkenhead boats, it will be remembered, had four funnels, and 
the Clydebank trio, three funnel. In all the fast vessels built at 
Fairfield — excluding, of course, the Normmmia — ^the practice has 
been to have the waste produoto of combustion going up only two 
funnels, no matter whether the boats are Campaniaa, cross- 
channel record breakers, or torpedo-boat destroyers. On trial 
the Handy is certain to at least maintain the reputation of the 
builders of the earliest and the latest ocean greyhounds. She is 
194 ft. long, 19 ft. 4i in. broad, and 5 ft. 7 in. draught. 
The engines are of the ordinaiy triple-expansion type. The 
Clydebank boats have Normand boilers, and the pair being con- 
structed at Paisley, locomotive boflere $ but two of the Fairfield 
boats, including the Sandy, have the Thomyoroft boiler, and 
one, the Babcock, a boiler whose performances is being watched 
at present with more than usual interest. 

During the past six weeks or so, as many as six of these swift 
torpedo-boat destroyers have gone through their paces over the 
Clyde measured mile at Bkelmorlie, which seems to be becoming 
more and more the area over which high-speed steamers of every 
class, emanating from shipyards all over the kingdom, must 
show their paoes and satisfy contractors stipulations as to speed, 
turning power, etc. Two of these peculiarly constructed craft, 
the Banshee and the Contett, were the productions of Messrs. Laird 
Bros., a conspicioos feature being their four short funnels and 
low freeboard, which serves to accentuate if not give a sort of 
incongruous aspect to the g^at lee gth of the vessels. Three 
others were the Shark, the Rocket, and the Swrly all built by 
Messrs. J. ft G. Thomson, Limited^ Clydebank. Though these 

April 1, 1895.] 



are about the same length aa the Mersej-built boats, the^ are 
only fitted with three funnels. All have attained an average 
■peed of 28 knots per hoar on their official three hours' trial, 
eqnal to fully 82 miles per hour. In the case of the latter, indeed, 
the speed during the three hours' run was found to be 28*05 
knots; revolutions, 405. The Surly* s mean speed on six runs 
over the measured mile was 27*6 knots, the corresponding 
revolutions being 398. 

The sixth torpedo-boat destroyer tried on the renowned stretch 
of water at Skelmorlie, was the Sturgeon, the production of the 
Naval Armaments Co.» of Barrow, and the results in her case 
were even more remarkable than in any of the others. On the 
21st nit., during a 2| hours' run in a stormy waterway, she 
averaged 20 knots or nearly 34 miles ^r hour. This truly 
phenomenal speed was attained under conditions which were lUl 
against fast steamiog. Half a gale blew from the south. west 
and heavy seas broke over the little boat as she sped down firth. 
While off Holy Isle, a heavy sea was shipped which filled the 
forward stokehold and put a stop to the official trial. The trials 
have been resumed, but up to time of writing the results have not 
been made known. 

Messrs. Hannah, Donald & Wilson, of Paisley, have work well 
forward on the toi^do-boat destroyer they are constructing, and 
she vrill be launched in a day or two. She will be launched 
broadside into the river Oart. 

Beverting to the subject of the suitability of the Clyde 
UMasured mile, it may be recalled chat during the autumn of last 
year Messrs. Laird tested as many as four vessels on the Skel- 
morlie mile, viz : No. 97, first-class torpedo boat ; the torpedo 
omisers Ferret and Lynx, and the Argentine cruiser Patria. At 
Liverpool the measured mile is unsuited for .these high speed 
vessels, while on the other hand, the course at Skelmorlie is 
weU sheltered and exceptionally suited for securing tmstworihy 
and uniform results. The water is deep — about forty fathoms — 
and the depth of water, it is generally conceded by experts, 
should not be less than from ten to fifteen times the draught of 
the vessel. If less than this the speed will be seriousl^r interfered 
with. The Admiralty knot at Stokes Bay, from this cause is 
almost totally useless for vessels of deep draught or high speed. 
Attention having been drawn to this subject by Dr. (now, Sir) 
W. H. White at the Institution of Naval Architects two years 
ago, it is not surprising that the A.dmiralty should encourage the 
trisJs of vessels built north of the Thames taking place at Skel- 
morlie, and it may even become the standard testing ground for 
many of the naval vessels prodnoed in the dockyards of the 

Greenock people are seemingly resolved that the idea of having 
a Government graving dock constructed at Greenock shall not 
be lost sight of. The matter was discussed at a recent meeting 
of the Law and Finance Committee of the Local Harbour Trust, 
when it was agreed to meet with a committee of gentlemen 
interested in the question. It cannot be seriously disputed that, 
as pointed out in the course of the debate on the Naval Estimates 
in Parliament on the I8th ult. — there is here matter for some 
reform. Scotland is entirely left out of count when sites are 
proposed for permanent naval docks and arsenals. Why, should 
the West of Scotland not have a fair share of the permanent 
works which are contemplated P To msss these all on the South 
Coast of England might be a serious cause of weakness in the 
event of an outbreak of war, for it would retard unduly the 
running in and repairing of such vessels as were injured in confiict 
on the coasts. Is it to be assumed that all attacks upon our 
" first line " are to be confined to the narrow stage of the English 

Messrs. Hannan A Buchanan, Glasgow, the well-known makers 
of engine indicators, pressure gauges and other important engine- 
room accessories are busy as ususl with their various specialities. 
One of these, the MoKinnell A Buchanan Patent Indicator, which 
was introduced some three years ago and was at that time 
fibvonrably noticed in these columns, la receiving extended 
adoption amongst the best steamship companies, who highly 
recommend it for simplicity and accuracy. One chief engineer 
of a laige Atlantic liner writes to the makers as follows : — *' I 
have taken diagrams on several occasions with MoKinnell A 
Buchanan's Patent Indicator and have pleasure in stating that It 
has worked to perfection. I have tested the accuracy of this 
instrament by running the pencil over the card for twenty con- 
secutive revolutions o? the engines, and no deviation of the 
penoH iras perceptible." One of these indicators was sent on 
approval at the request of a firm of gas engine makers, and the 

fact that they retained it and ordered other three forms strong 
evidenoe that the instrument is suitable for gas as well as steam 
engines. Another speciality, in steady demand by engineer all 
over the Kingdom and abroad, is Buchanan's Patent Improved 
Pressure Gauge for high-pressure steam. The improvement— an 
almost indispensable one for high-pressure steam — prevents the 
gauge from getting damaged with steam, and insures its always 
working at an even temperature. It dispenses with the need for 
any drain cock or valves on syphon, the cook on the gauge being 
arranged to suit this purpose. By turning out the handle of cock 
the pressure is instantly released, the gauge hand falls back to 
zero, thereby showing it to be working. This arrangement is 
equally good for low pressore vacuum and compound gauges ; 
in aU of which the firm introduce another improvement in the 
form of a special xnake of the springs which form so essential 
a feature in these instruments. These are made of Delta metal 
and are finer in the grain, bear a greater strain without stretch- 
ing, and in various ways are superior to the yellow brass springs 
usually fitted. With springs of the description fitted by the firm 
no difficulty is experienced in maintaining the accuracy of pressure 
vacuum and compound gauges even with the high pressure 
required for working the triple-expansion and other multi-expan- 
sion engines now common. 


(From our own CorrMpondent,) 


Shi pbailding. — The depressing Bi>eotacle of fully one hundred 
idle steamers on the Tyce affords little hope of an early improve- 
ment in the demand for tonnage, and it is to be feared that for 
some months to come the present state of extreme slackness at 
a number of the yards must remain unchanged. Though prioes 
are now probably lower than they have ever been in the histoiy 
of the industry, being, it is stated, no more than £5 5s. per ton 
for ordinary cargo steamers, new orders are rarely heard of, and 
enquiries are, if anvthing, scarcer than in the first two months of 
the year. Such orders as haye been placed this month are either 
on foreign account or for vessels intended to be placed on 
specif services. Messrs. Wigham, Richardson A Co., for instance, 
have booked an order from the Hansa Co., of Bremen, for a 
steamer of 5,000 tons carrying capacity, to be fitted with quad- 
ruple-expansion engines at the works of the builders. Itmay be 
stated that the firm built a handsome steamer for the same com- 
pany a few years ago. The firm have just launched a fine vessel 
named the HatJior, which has been built to the order of the 
Kosmos Co., of Hamburg, and they have a couple of other 
vessels in progress. 

Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. have received from Bussian 
owners an order for two passenger steamers of similar size and 
design to the Orwnd Duke Constantine built by the firm 
for the same owners in 1892. As the firm have also an 
order for a large vessel intended for addition to the Bussian 
Volunteer Fleet, besides three torpedo destroyers ordered by the 
Admiralty, the yard is likely to be kept fully going for a long 
time to come. At the adjoining yard of Messrs. B. Stephenson 
A Co. there is nothing on the stocks and no work in preparation ; 
at the time of writing, however, an expectation exists that some 
work which is now being negotiated for will be secured, and the 
machinery again put in operation. 

Messrs. Armstoong, Mitchell A Co. have been commissioned 
to buHd for Messrs. Samuel ft Co., of London, two oil steamers 
of 7,000 tons carrying capacity each. It is understood that 
these vessels will embody some new features in construction, 
and besides having engines of exceptional power, will be fitted 
up in the most complete manner, with ventilating and lighting 
accessories, and the most approved appliances for loading and 
discharging cargo. In addition to this important order, the firm 
have a contract to build an immense pontoon, 75 ft. wide by over 
200 ft. in length, which is to be used as a forty for carrying 
tnmn across the river Volga. The design of Uie pontoon Is 
quite novel, and it wil),when completed, be among the most 
interesting specimens of na^al architecture that has ever been 
turned out ^om an English shipyard. A powerful ice cutter is 
also ordered for the same destination, and the whble of the work 



[April 1, 1895. 

will be executed* in the firm's Low Walker yard. The britkness 
noted a month ago at the Elawiok yard, is fuUj maintained, and 
it is understood- that besides the cruiser f6r wMch frame-turniDg 
was commenced in January, there are two others of the same 
type and size to be built in the Tard. One of the torpedo des- 
troyers, which the firm are building for the home Goremment, 
was launched early in the month, and the other is well adTanced 
towards completion. 

Operations at Messrs. G. S. Swan A Banter's yard were tem- 
porarily stopped this month through one of these petty sectional 
strikes which are usually as objectless as they are annoying. It 
appears that less than a dosen men went on strike beoMse of a 
misunderstanding which ought never to hare taken place, and 
this perfectly inexcusable prooeedtng led to a stoppage— hi^ily 
only for a few days — of the wh^ establishment. If trade 
unions are to be managed so clumsily and ineifeotiTely as to be 
powerless to prevent such manifestations of disorderliness as 
this amongst their members, they will lose the best characteristio 
with which they have been u^ to the present credited, and will 
forfeit the good-will of their staunohest friends among the 
employers. A keel is now being placed in the west 
yard, which for some mooths past has been practically un- 
occupied. At Messrs. Dobson A Co.-s yard, the framing of a 
large vessel has been commenced, and two small ones that are 
on the stocks are nearly completed. 

The Tyne Shipbuilding Co. have commenced the construction 
of a second large steamer ordered by local owners, and their 
yard now presents a very satisfactory appearance, as compared 
with the two other yards in the immediate vicinity. At the 
Palmer Co.'s yard, the first of three torpedo destroyers— the 
Janua — was launched on the 12th inst., and is now at the wharf 
getting her fittings completed. The firm have five vessels on the 
atocks, two of which are of exceptionally large tonnage. Two 
large steamers — the Jaffar and the Hankow — ^have recently 
arrived, and are now moored in the vicinity of the Jarrow yard. 
It is probable they are to be repaired ; but to what extent is as 
yet unknown. At Messrs. Beadhesd's yard four berths are 
occupied with vessels in various stages of construction, and in 
the repairing department there is a good deal of work going on: 
It is announced that this firm have been commissioned by local 
owners to build a 5,000 ton steamer of special and somehbt novel 
type. A number of steam fishing vessels have been sold to Spsnish 
owners lately, and as it is expected they will be replaced with 
larger ones, an impetns, is likely to be g^ven to business in 
certain yards where the building of sach craft is a speciality. 

Engineering. — At Messrs. Stephenson's foundry. Forth Street, 
Newcastle, two large castings, weighing about 20 tons each, were 
turned out in the first half of the month, and two others of equal 
aize are to be completed shortly. They are to form the bed 
plates (two for each set of engines) of powerful duplicate engines 
now in course of construction at Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.'s 
St. Peter's Works, for a Bussian passenger vessel No finer ex- 
amples of ironfonnding could be met with than these castingfs, 
which refiect the greatest credit upon the management of the 
department. In the locomotive department of Messrs. Stephen- 
son's works business has improved, an order for engines on South 
American account having been received lately. The leading 
marine engine works keep fairly well employed, though in no 
case, excepting perhaps at the St. Peter's establishment, is there 
An abundance of work. Messrs. Baird A Bamsley, of North Shields, 
have been entrusted by the Tyne Conmaissioners with the order to 
build the engines for a new ferry steamer to ply between North 
And South Shields. This order, with the other contracts in hand, 
willcausethe works to be pretty busy for some time to come. 
Messrs. Eltringham, of South Shields, are engaged in putting 
new boilers in the s.s. VtndabaUa, 

Messrs. John Spencer St So&'s works at Newbum continue to be 
Aatisf^otorily employed, eepeoially in the steel rolling mills where 
"boiler and ship plates of Uie veiy largest size are maaulMtured. 
The forge depar&aent at Ousebum, is also kept going steadily. 
The Combination Metallio Packing Co., Lombard Street, 
Newcastle, have booked a fair number of orders since the opening 
of the year, and their works at Gateshead are kept in satisfactory 
oneration. The company have amongst their customers, many 
of the foremost engineering firms in the kingdom, a cironmstanee 
which aooounts for their having nsnally a full supply of work. 
Messrs. H. Watson A Sons, engineers and brass founders, 
Wailnr Oate, maintain a f^ degree of briskness in their 
-various departments, notwithstanding the depression in ship- 
bnHding and other trades. At Messrs. Wm. Beid A Co.'s load 

depot, 1, Akenside Hill, a steady business is being done in the 
sale of lubricators, reducing valves, and other specialitiee. 

Messrs. Higginson & Co., of *' Steam Qusfftermaster" fame, 
have established a branch of their business at No. 82, Side, New- 
castle, undo' the management of Mr. B. Smith, a gentleman well 
known in Liverpool shipping cirdes. The firm are now intro- 
ducing on the North-East Coast, wronght steel blocks of every 
description for use on ship-board, as also their special cargo 
blocks, for which there is likely to be a good demand. 

Among recent orders obtained by Messrs. Noble A Lund, 
machine tool makers, Felling, is one for an exceptionally large 
radial drilling machine of their own special type, from Messrs. 
Wm. Doxford A Son^^underland. They have also some other 
imnortant work in hand for the same well-known shipbuOding 
and engineering firm. 

The preservative composition for boilers known as *'Zyn- 
lokra," continues to have a large and extending sale, which, con- 
sidering the dolness of the time, is a strong testimony to its 


Shipbuilding.— Messrs. J. L. Thompson A Sons, Limited, 
launched on the 9th inst., a finely desLrned passenger steamer 
for the regular service between the ^^e and Norway, and 
having been fitted with her machinery in the prompt manner 
characteristic of the Palmer's Hill Works, she is now xeoeiving 
the finishmg touches — which are of a most elaborate description 
—at the Manor's Quay. While on the stocks, the work of this 
vessel was greatly delayed by the long-continued bad weather ; 
but notwithstanding this unlooked-for hindrance to progxesr, 
there is little reason to doubt that the vessel will be delivered to 
the owners in good time. 

The yard of Messrs. Bobert Thompson & Sons, Southwick, 
which hiss been inoperative some time, is about to be restarted, 
the firm having obtained an order for a vessel of between 3,000 
and 4,000 tons carrying capacity. The keel blocks for the vesse 
have already been placed in position, and it is probable that 
frame turning will be commenced in the course of a few days. 
We understand the firm contemplate putting down new plant 
at their Bridge Dock, with a view to effect the docking and un- 
docking of vessels in the shortest possible time. It may be added 
that the dock has been kept pret^ constantly occupied during 
the past three months, and the resources of the establishment at 
the present moment, are being fully utilized. At Messrs. Pickers- 
gill's yard a second steamer of over 3,000 tons carrying capacity 
otdered, it is said, by Hartle]KX>l owners, has been laid down. 
The other vessel on the stocks is a sister ship for the same 
owners, and is now partly plated. Messrs. Doxford who have a 
considerable amount of work in hand, have oommenoed the sys- 
tem of " Jogirle " plating, in which they have secured proprietory 
right from Messrs. Bell A Rookliffe, the orginal patentees. A 
machine or ••roller press" for "joggling" the edges of the 
plates, has been put down, and we can say from observation 
that it does its work effeotivelT and with precision. The purpose 
of the invention is to enable shipbuUders to dispense with pack- 
ing, by fitting outside as well as inside plates, close to the frames, 
beams, or other structural parts to which thev are meant to be 
connected. The absence of packing tends to mcrease the light- 
ness ss well as the stability of the straoture, and from the point 
of view of mere appearance the indented plating is without doubt 
a great improvement upon the flat plating now in general use. It 
admits of short rivets, where lonff ones bad previously to be used 
(in the frame botes), and this siso is a great advantage. The 
system which on the whole, seems to be a success, has been 
rendered possible by the ductility of the material from which 
ship plates are now manufaotored ; this quality ivndering them 
oapable of being indented cold, without any danger of fracture 
or damage. 

Messrs. Austin A Co. have had a good deal of repair work 
lately, and it is understood that one ci the vessels on the stocks 
has been sold to a local firm. At Mr. Laing's yard the outlook 
is far from bright, as the tnatm furnaces are inoperative, and 
there are no signs of any work in preparation. It is expected, 
however, that the building of a large vessel for which the frame 
material was received a year ago, will shortly be proceeded 

Bnglnaerlng. — ^In the marine engine works, the state of busi- 
ness is far from brisk, and considering the very limited amount 
of work in the hands of local shipbuilders, the prospect for the 
future is not reassuring. Messrs. Doxford have ordered through 

April 1, 1895.] 



the reprMentatiTeB of MeBsra. Hirrleee, WatBon, Yarjan A Co., 
of London and Glasgow, two '* Yaryan *' eyaporators, for nae in 
connection with the water-tnbe boilers to be fitted in '< turret* ' ships 
now bnilding in their jard. These, we are informed, are the firat 
boilers of t&» tjpe that hare been adopted in the Mercantile 
Marine. It is expected that a third <* Yaryan" OTaporator will 
be ordered for use in another Tossel which is also to be fitted 
with water-tnbe boilers, bnt the matter is not yet definitely 

At the Sanderland Forge there is a fair amount of work in 
progress, including stem frames, mdders, crank webs, Ao, A 
vecent addition w^ch has been made to the machinery equip* 
ment of this establishment, is a powerful band saw for cutting 
iron and steel cold. The machine, which is one of Koble A 
Lund's special type, does the work of a slotting machine ; but 
with greater quiclmess and precision, and its working in this 
particular instance has given the fullest satisfaction. At other 
foiges business is slack and foundries are generally short of work. 
At the Monkwearmonth Iron Works, business is sll|ghtly better 
than in the early part of the year, and a larger proportion of the 
regular hands are employed. Brass and copper works are with- 
out exception showing a depressed state of business. 

The aiartlepooll.— It is stated that Messrs. Fumess. Withy & 
Co. hsTc obtained sn order from Messrs. Thos. Wilson A Sons, Hull, 
for a steamer of 8,000 tons oarryinv cspscity. The other yards 
At this oeatre continue to hare a fair show of work on the stocks. 
Work proceeds with the usual steadiness at the Central Marine 
Engine Works. Since the middle of February the following 
▼essels, eogined by Messrs. Thos. Richardson A Sons, Limited, 
have proceeded to sea after suooessf ul trial trips : — On February 
2Ist the s.i. AiUatcaldt with engines having cylinders 23 in., 
^7iin., 61^ in., by 39 in. stroke, and built by Messrs. Fomess, 
Withy d; Co. for Messrs. Lnnn & Maccoy, of Newcastle. This is 
a fine oargo*boat, over 320 ft. in length, and has been specially 
designed for the heavy deadweight cargo trade. Boring the 
trial trip the engines worked in a most satisfactory manner, and 
« mean speed of II knots was obtained. The owners were 
represented by Mr. Maccoy, who expressed himself as highly 
satisfied with the performance of the ship and engines. On 
March 1st the s.s. Steinberger left Middlebro* Dock for a ioll 
speed trial of her machinery before proceeding to Antwerp to 
complete loading. This vessel has been built by Sir Baylton 
Dixon A Co., Middlebro', for the Hansa Steamship Co., of 
Bremen, and has a deadweight carrying capacity of about 6,500 
ionp. The engines, which are of the triple-expansion type, 
embody all the latest improvements, calculated to ensure the 
best results in the direction of economical working, as well 
as in effectiveness. The cylinders are 24} in., 39 in., 67 in. by 
45 in. stroke, steam being supplied by two extra large single-ended 
boilers, constructed to work at 180 lbs. pressure. A full-speed 
trial, lasting several hours, was made ofi* tne Yorkshire cosst, 
during which steam was easily maintained and the engines 
worked to the complete iitisf action of the owners' representatives. 
The macbioery in this instance was constructed under the super- 
vision of Mr. D. Wulfi*, the company's superintendent engineer. 
On March 9th the s.s. Ibix, built by Messrs. Irvine ft Oa, of 
West Hartlepool, for Messrs. Jackson, Bros, ft Cory, of Cardiff, 
ran a very successful trial trip from the Hartlepools to the Tyne. 
The engines have cylinders 22 in., 35 in., 59 in., by 39 in. stroke, 
with two single-ended boilers working at 160 lbs. pressure. The 
maohineiy was constructed under the superintendence of Mr. 
W. Dumlin. During the past month the following vessels have 
received their machinery at the sheerlegs : — The s.s. Benrath and 
the 1.8. Benridgs, two sister ships, built by Messrs. Craig. Taylor ft 
Ca, of Stockton, for Joseph Hoult, Esq., of Liverpool, with engines 
22} in., 38 in., 62 in., by 42 in. stroke, and working at 200 lbs. 
pressure. The s.s. Verbena, built by Messrs. Fumess, Withv ft 
Ca, for Messrs. J. Lilly ft Co., West Hartlepool, with engines 
22 in., 35 in., 59 in., by 89 in. stroke. Tbe steelworks are kept 
gsing pretty steadily, and local rope works show a continuance 
of moderately good business. Coal shipments at the docks show 
fittle or no improvement as compared with corresponding periods 
of former years, and business of other kinds is slack, the com- 
mencement of the timber importing season being yet a long 
wi^ off. 

atoeklon.— The state of work at Messrs. Bopner ft Co.'s yard 
ta vety satisfactory, thsnks to the enterprise of the firm, who 
have msnaged to secure work at a time of exceptional scarcity, 
their main anxiety having apparently been, to keep the opera* 
tires employed. At the other establishments business is moderate. 

Messrs. Blair ft Co. continue to have a large number of hands 
employed. The works of Messrs. Rogers ft Co., sre kept 
tolerably brisk, and at Messrs. Biley Brothers' 'establishment, 
quite exceptional activity is maintained. The Stockton Foige 
Co. are fairly well employed in some departments, while in 
others the state of business is not psrtioularly g^d. Bridge 
works sre only doing a moderate business, and rolling mills are 
far from being fully employed. In other industries duluees very 
generally prevails, and the nomber of the unemployed at this 
centre is— -deepite the cessation of the frost— sbnonnally large* 

Middleabro'. — Messrs. Rsylton, Dixon ft Co. have seversl 
vessels in various stages of construction on the stocks, and have 
also some repair work in hand. The firm have recently booked 
an order from Norwegian owners, for a steamer of 5,000 tons 
carrying capacity, and this came very opportunely, as otherwise 
the outlook would have been rather gloomy. Messrs. Craggs ft 
Sons have secured an order for twoWges of rather small dimen- 
sions ; but the work on them will keep the machinery going for 
some time. Messrs. Harkess ft Sons have been fairlv well em- 
f^oyed on repair work. Engine works at this centre are slack, 
and a similar state of matters is to be noticed at boiler and 
bridge works. There is a scarcity of orders at most steel works, 
but in one or two instances fairly good business exists. 

Oonaett. — At the Coosett Iron and Steel Works trade is in r 
fairly satiffactcry state. 


(From our own Corre$pondent.) 

THERE is still nothing of any weight coming forward in 
the way of new business, so far as shipbuilding and 
marine engineering in this district is concerned, and general 
engineers continue but indifferently employed, although the 
returns issued by the trades union organisations show some 
slight improvement, so far as the number of out-of-work mem 
bers on the books is concerned. No appreciably increased 
activitv is, however, reported in any branch of engineering 
throughout this district, and tbe spring season is opening with 
anything but hopeful prospects. 

Messrs. Laird Brothers, of Birkenhead, are making satisfac- 
tory progress with the large line-of-battle ship, the Mars^ for 
Her Msjesty's Government, the first batch of armour-plates 
having been received on the premises, and some of them 
already fitted in place on tbe ship. The torpedo-boat destroyers 
recently completed by the firm, and to which reference was 
made last month, have undergone very successful trials. The 
sea-going qualities of these boats, the outcome of high-speed 
requurements for our Navy, are perhaps as interesting as the 
mere speed, and an illustration of their success in this direc- 
tion has been afforded by the Bamhee and Contest, The first, 
the Bamhee, left Birkenhead on the Friday, and reached 
Greenock at three o* clock next morning,, in spite of a heavy 
south-east gide, which prevailed from the Mull of Galloway 
onwards. The ConteH left Birkenhead on Tuesday, at 7.15, 
and reached Greenock at 4.50 the same afternoon, giving an 
average of over 20 knots. Two days after, the Banthee went 
through her official trials, and came out creditably in every way, 
with a speed of 27*97 knots on the meesured mile, and kept up 
for three hoars* continuous steaming, 27*6 knots, or 88 statute 
miles per hour. Both these handy boats are now ready for ser- 
vice, aithoagh ordered only in February last vear. The Dragon, 
which is the last of this lot, is almost ready for trial. Each 
boat is about 210 ft. long, I9i ft. beam, and 4,600 H.P. 

Further developments of the '*Row'* sectional tube as a 
water-heater, of which we gave a description when it was first 
brought out in Liverpool, have been introduced by J. J. Boyle, 
of the Dalham Engineering Works,Manchester, who has taken up 
the manufacture of this very simple but effective heating appli- 
ance. As we have previously stated, the " Bow " heating sec- 
tion oonsiBts simply of a cinsular tube indented in a regular 
maimer, so that the indentions intersect each other at right 
angles, with the result that a liquid passing through the tube is 
thoroughly broken up and diverted into contact with a large 
amount of impinging surfaoe, the effect being that the increased 
heating power thus secured is twice the efficiency of the j^lane 
tnbe surface. One of the latest applications of this tube is in 
the fonn of a steam kettle, very uselul on board ship for boiling 



[April 1, 1896. 

water for the requirements of the crew, by the waste steam 
from the engine boilers. This kettle consists of a strong 
cppper casing, tinned inside, and moimted upon a substantial 
iron stand, one or more '* Bow " heating sections being fitted 
inside, at the centre of the casing, and these sections being 
entirely submerged, are very e£fective in their action, one 
square foot of this tube being sufficient to raise 11 gallons of 
water from 43 deg. to 212 deg. Fahr. in 6 min. 20 sees., at a 
steam pressure of 62 lbs., as compared with 14 mins. with the 
same surface of plane heating tube. 

The Manchester Ship Canal is making steady progress both 
in acquiring increased traffic and also in completing the requi- 
site equipment of the docks, the most redent addition being a 
series of three^ store V- warehoifses specially oonstr acted for the 
accommodation, of the large cargoes of cotton now going up to 
Manchester. These warehouses are throughout of fireproof 
construction, and are supplied with hydraulic power for hoist- 
ing, etc., whilst the lighting is entirely by electricity. With 
regard to the advantages of the three-storey sheds over the one 
storey designs first erected by the company, the former possess at 
least three times the storage space, and are adapted for handling 
the traffic in a much more expeditious manner, being supplied 
with an the necessary appliances. The buildings are connected 
together in pairs by means of a glased roof, covering a loading 
way 250 ft. by 60 f t. , and the warehouses on the quay-eides 
are fitted with steel sliding shutters throughout their entire 
length, so that the ship's cargo can be discharged at any point 
in the warehoase. A noticeable feature is ^e almost entire 
absence of cast-iron work, this being replaced by wrodght steel. 
Each warehouse is 300 ft. long by 72 ft. wide, and 11 ft. from 
floor to floor. The bases of all the stanchions rest on blue 
brick footings, supported on concrete blocks, each 6 ft. square 
and 5 ft. decnp, and, owing to the unstable nature of the ground, 
four wood piles, 12 inch square, were driven by means of steam 
pile drivers, about 20 ft. below each base. The stanchions are 
of wrought steel, those on the inside being built up with chan- 
nels and plates, whilst the outside stanchions are braced with 
lattice bars only. The two upper floors are of cement concrete 
7 in. thick with a face of rock asphsdte f in. thick, the concrete 
being supported by steel joists. The main floor girders, which 
are of steel, are composed of a joist with plates rivetted to the 
top and bottom flanges, and the floors are provided with hatch- 
ways, fitted with steel fire-proof doors resting in cast-iron 
frames. Access to the upper floors is gained by circular iron 
staircases. The bottom floor is laid with Hochdale flags 4 in. 
thick, and the floor is about 3 ft. 6 in. above the quay level, 
thus allowing goods to be loaded on to or discharged from the 
lorries and railway trucks with great expedition and ease. The 
roofs over the warehouses are covered with slates supported on 
steel angle laths, and a continuous skylight about 6 ft. wide is 

g laced along the ridge, whilst the steel roof principals are 
raced together with two rows of longitudinal and diagonal 
wind-bracing. The roof over the intermediate roadway is also 
supported on steel principals and framing, and being, as already 
stated, covered in with glass with a glazed screen end, an 
abundant supply of light comes to the loading way, and the 
inner sides of the warehouses. The gable ends, which are built 
of brick, rest on cement concrete footings, and each gable is 
provided with two doorways on each floor, and these are fitted 
with steel sliding shutters on continuous rails. Over the door- 
ways on the top floor are teazles for lowering the goods 
from the upper floors on to the lorries when standing on the end 
roadways. The top floors are fitted on the quay-side with a 
series of hinged loading platforms, whi(^ when not in use can 
be raised to a vertical position, thus maintaining the full width 
of the quay for the manipulation of the portable, hydraulic 
cranes, Ao. When a ship is discharging the goods for the 
top floor it can be lowered on to f any one of these platforms 
and run inside the shed, and the goods are lowered from the 
floors on the roadway side by means of hydraulic hoists and a 
number of monkeys or movable carriages are provided which 
run on continuous girders, thus enabling the goods to be handled 
at any point. The warehouses have bmn carried out according 
to the designs of the engineer for the Ship Canal Co., by Mr. 
Edward Wood. Ocean Ironworks, Manchester, and Messrs. De 
Bergue <&Co., Strangeways, Manchester. 

A specially designed lathe of exceptionally large capacity has 
just been completed by Messrs. Hnlse A Co., Salford, for dealing 
with heavy marine work, such as propellers, Ac. This machine, 
which is a patent self-a3ting duplex break and pit lathe, and 
has been specially designed for a firm on the Continent, is 

capable of operating on objects up to 12 or 13 ft. diameter by 
4 ft. wide in thb pit, 9 ft. diameter by 7 ft. wide in the break- 
over the baseplate when the pit is closed, and up to 4 ft. 
diameter by 10 ft. long between the centres. An inlaid ^late 
traversable longitudinally for opening and closing the pit is 
fitted in the baseplate, alohg which a slide bed of the three- 
girder type with movable headstdck [Is adjastable. A sliding 
carriage carrjriDg a compound rest traverses the slide^bed, and 
transversely is of sufficient length for surfacing large objects ' 
admitted in the break. For turning objects in the break, and 
pit duplex front and back rests are provided mounted on short 
slide-beds capable of being placed parallel, or at any angle with 
the lathe centres. The fast headstock, which is very power- 
fully gearedi having 30 changes of speed unifonoly 
graduated carries a massive face-plate chncSi with cast-steel 
jaws. For turning and boring, gearing, and the like, ^ese 
toc^ may be simultaneously in operation, one on the boss, the 
other two on the periphery, and the seU-actions are entirely 
self -oontaineA leaving all clear for getting work in and out. 

In the iron trade business during the month has been quiet 
with low prices ruling, some brands of pig-iron being weaker 
by about 6d. than they were last month, but with the close 
rather more business is reported at the bottom prices, and the 
tendency is towards firmness at these figures. Local brands do 
not now average more than 42s. 6d. less 2^, delivered Man- 
Chester, for foundry, with very little business doing, and forge 
numbers in so small enquiry as to be scarcely quotable. In 
districts brands, forge Lincolnshire showed a hardening up at 
the commencement of the month, with a considerable demand 
coming forward, but this has now fallen off, and only limited 
transactions are being put through, with prices not 
averaging more than 36s. lor forge and 388. for foundry Lincoln- 
shire, and Derbyshire now quoted 42s. to 42s. 6d. net cash, 
delivered Manchester. Outside brands have during the month 
been offered very low, but good foundry Middlesbrough would . 
now be difficult to obtain under 43s. 4d. net cash, delivered 
Manchester, with most sellers holding to 45s. 6d. for Eglinton 
and Glengarnock. and 47s. 6d. to 48s. for Gartsherrie net 
prompt cash, delivered at the Lancashire ports. 

In the manufactured iron trade business continues fery 
depressed, with forges on short time, and prices not now 
averaging more than £^5 for Lancashire bars, and —except in 
special cases— for North Staffordshire qualities, with sheets 
ranging from £6 128. 6d. to £6 15s. and £6 I7s. 6d. The Hoop- 
makers' Association have reduced their rates for shipment 
2s. 6d. per ton, these now being £5 12s. 6d. to £5 17s. 6d., 
whilst for home trade quotations remain at £5 15s. to £6 for 
random and special cut lengths respectively. 

Only a slow business comes forward in the steel trade with 
low prices current, ordinary foundry hematites not how 
averaging more than 51s. to 51s. 6d., less 2| ; steel billets, £4 to 
£4 5s. net cash, according to quality; steel boiler plates, £6 and 
delivered Manchester district. 

In the metal market the month opened with a reduction of 
^d. per lb. in copper tubes, owing to the fall in raw material, 
and this brought forward some increased enquiry, and 
moderate orders have been booked, although businesd is still 
only quiet. At the close of the month a further reduction of H. 
per lb. in copper and brass tubes has been made, list 
rates for delivery Manchester district being now as under : — 
solid drawn brass boiler tubes, S^d.; solid drawn brass snrface 
condenser tubes, 7d. ; Rolid drawn copper tnbes, 6f d. ; brazed 
copper gas and steam tube, 6^. ; brazed brass gas tube, Bid.*; 
brass wire, 5d. ; copper wire, 6d. ; rolled brasp, 4|d. ; sbiset 
brass. 5^. ; yellow metal bolts, 4|d. ; condenser plates. 4$d. ; 
cut copper nails, 7id. to 8Jd. per lb. and copper bolts, £53 per 

The coal trade has shown a quietening down, with prices 
weakening, although not quotably lower. House-fire qualities 
are necessarily in leesened demand, owing to the milder 
weather, but quotations remain about as last given. Steam 
and forge coals are in but limited demand, with prices easier, 
6s. to 6s. 6d., now becoming about the average at the pitmouth. 
Engine fuel is in fair request, but supplies are plentifiU and 
prices are cut very low, Ss. 6d. and 4s. for common to 4s. 6d. and 
58. for better qualities being about the general pit prices. 

In the shipping trade there has been rather more doing 
during the month, but any increased activity has now fallen 
off, with good ordinary steam coal delivered at the Garston 
Docks, or the High Level, Liverpool, not averaging above 88. 
to 8s. 6d. per ton. 

April 1, 1895.] 




(From our own Correspondent.) 

Banrow. — The ooodition of the BbipbnildiDg and engineeriog 
tndes of this dittriot has not materially changed during the past 
month. Much activity has been maintained in all the depart- 
ments of the Naral Constmction and Armaments Co.'s yard, and 
with the large programme of work in hand this activity may be 
expected to oontinne for some time to corner bat as the orders 
held are gradually , in the natand oouree of things, being worked 
oat, and new orders are not coming to hand, the time mast soon 
oome when some of the iiiitial departments of shipbuilding, saoh 
as pattern making, frame bending, plating, rivetting, Ac, will 
be shprt of work. In that view it is becoming necessary to look 
oat for new work, bnt there is very little new tonnage on' offer. 
Some enqoirieF, however, are being made for steamers for the 
Mercantile Marine, but great competition is experienced, and 
builders have only a chance with the best classes of work, as 
cheaper vessels invariably gravitate to the £a4t Coast. The build- 
ing of ocean tramps on the West Ooast is the exception to the 
general rule. Anticipations have been indulged in that with the 
preaenfe low quotations per ton, shipowners would be led to 
speculate to cover immediate future requirements, but they have 
been deterred from doing much in that direction by the fact that 
so much shipping is now lying up idle, and until there are hopes 
of better tn^e in shipping it seems likely that new 
orders will not be plentiful. There is some reason to expect, 
however, that when capital is to hand shipowners will 
gradually possess themselves of steamers with, eoonomio 
engine power, in order that when the shipping trade does revive 
they will be able to compete on favourable terms with the modem 
type of steamer. It is much to be feared that many of the old 
type of steamers, will either have to be modernised by being 
tripled or improved off the face of the earth and be capitalised in 
the fionn of scrap. The Barrow builders have been ao successful 
in all the vrork they have done for the Admiralty that hopes are 
entertained of securing a portion of the contraels offering in the 
new naval programme. Not much work is being given out by the 
Admiralty this year, and it will not represent much business for 
private yards except in the case of the three first-class cruisers, 
which are to be built out of the Dockyards. It is shown in the 
bine book returns that the Barrow Oo. has made greater progress 
with the building of the Fotcerf$U than has been made by the 
buitders of the Terrible, and it is also noticeable that more pro- 
gress hae been made with the building of the second-class oruifiers 
Juno and Dorii than that made by other firms engaged in the 
construction of this class of vessel. Further than this,, the three 
torpedo-boat destroyers building at Bariow, the Sturgeon, Star- 
fish, and Skate, bid fair to be amongst the fastest craft afloat 
either in the Kavy or outside of it. In a preliminary trial, the 
Sturgeon steamed 27*86 knots, the mean revolutions of her engines 
being 401, the vacuum, 27 in., and the mean air pressure 2i in. 
In a second trial she eteamed practically 29 knots for 2J hours 
in half a gale of wind and in a most cboppy sea. These boats 
are frail-looking craft in which everything is sacrificed to light* 
nees of construction for the sake of securing speed. In this 
respect the Sturgeon can be regarded as a phenomenal success, 
and her performances will be maintained by the two other Barrow 
*• flyers,*^ Starfish and Skate. The Fcwerful will probably not be 
launched until autumn, bnt her hull is very well forward, and the 
work of sheathing her with teak is proceeding admirably in 
the hands of the shipwrights. A strike of the latter took place 
daring the month which fortunately was of short duration. Two 
London caulkers were put on to caulk the timbers of the Power- 
ful, and four hundred shipwrights struck work because these 
men were not members of their society. A question arose as to 
the amount of work which ought to be done at caulking in a 
working day. and it was repcurted the London caulkers could 
manage to do about 60 lineal feet, as against the shipwrights 15 
to 20 ft. The men returned to work after about a week's holiday, 
on the understanding that each would do a fair day's w(ffk with- 
out any test restrictions, and the two London caulkers were sent 
away. For sometime past there has been almost complete har- 
mony between tho masters and men at Barrow — a most fortunate 
thing considering how badly off some firms are for orders, and 
certainly a good thing for the work ia hand, and the rapidity 
with which it has been got through. Much attention is now 
being devoted to the work of constraetiog the great sand-pump 
dredger at the Barrow Yard for the Mersey Harbour and Dock. | 

Board. In some respects this dredger is an improvement on the 
Braneksr built at the same yard, which has already done such 
good work in the ctredging operatioas on tiiie Mersey Bar? ^ 
and good progress has also been made with the twin-screw 
steamer Duke of Lancaster, building at Barrow for the 
London and North Western and Lancashire, and Yorkshire 
Kailway Co.'s, Fleetwood and Belfast aervice of steamers. 
This steamer will be delivered at nudsummer/ although the order 
has only been in hand about four months. It is a remarkable fact, 
showing the effect of the' introduction of the triple-expansion 
engine, that the steamers Duke of Connaught, Earl of Ulster, and 
Prince qf WaUs, bnilt at Barrow for the Flcewood service only 
the teens of years ago, are now praotioally out of date; twin-screw 
steamers are now all the rage, as thev are found to be more easily 
and mere cheaply worked, as well as much smarter ou the 
service. The old type of paddle steamer is going ont of fashion 
for channel services. Three steamers were launched at Barrow 
daring the month— the fi. M.S. Skate, the London Oounty Conncil 
steamer Bums, named as a compliment to Mr. John Bums, M.F., 
and a small dredger for the Kingston Harbour. It is noteworthy 
in connection with the Utter that on the day after her launoh 
steam was got up and she steamed away to her destination. In 
the case of the s.s. Btarns, her eug^nes and boilers were fixed id 
less than a week after the launch, and she went, satisfactorily 
through her dock trials. The engines of H.M.8. MajistU have 
been delivered complete at Fortemouth, where the employed of 
the Barrow Co. are now busily engaged in fixing them in this 
newly-laqnched line-of -battle ship. Several structural alterationa 
are being made in the Barrow and Douglas steamer Manx Quem. 
Improvements are being made in her saloons -and in her hold 
generally, and the Naval Constmction and Armaments Co. are 
providing her with new boilers and overhauling her engines. 
The Manx Queen will take her station on the Isle of Man service 
in the summer, when she is expected to steam at an accelerated 
rate of speed. 

West Comberland. — The shipbuilding trade in West Camber^ 
land is steady, but not describable as active. The only two yards 
working are those at Workington and at Maryport. At White- 
haven nothing is doing. During the month Messrs. Williamson 
& Son, Workington, launched a four-masted barque classed Alat 
Lloyd's, and built of steel throaghout, with steel masts. Her 
length is 296 ft., breadth, 46 ft.; depth of hold, 27 ft. 6 in.; 
registered tonnage, 2,800 ; gross tonnage, 2,950 ; deadweight, 
4,660 tons. Another ship will be put down on tho flame stocks. 

Shipbnlldiiig Material.— There is not a brisk demand for ship, 
building material, and for about a month past the mills at Barrow , 
have been at a standstill. This, however, has not been owing to 
any scarcity of orders, bnt on account of a diaagreement between 
masters and men as to the extent of a proposed redaction in 
wages. The difiBculty has been referred to Mr. Jeremiah Head, 
of Middlesbrough, as arbitrator. In the meantime, the mills will 
start work on April Ist pending the award being received. Orders 
are held at Barrow for about 8,000 tons of plates and it is 
expected new work will follow both for Admiralty and general 
requirements. Ordinary ships' plates are quoted at £4 7s. 6d. The 
balance sheet of the Barrow Steel Co. shows a loss of upwards of 
£25,000 on last year's working. Changes are likely to be made 
which will lead to an improvement in the company's position. A 
new plate mill recently erected is ready for starting. This will 
tend to the economic production of plates, as it will be able not 
only to deal with thin plates, leaving the heavier mill for heavier 
plates, bnt will be able to utilise the cuttings from the old mill 
and convert them into merohandiaable goods. 

The Hematite Trade.— This trade is still depressed and even 
with only twenty-six furnaces in blast it is found that stocks of 
pig iron are increasing at the rate of the weekly output of three 
furnaces. Prices are easy at 42s. fid. net cash, seller's warrants, 
and 42s. 5d. buyer's, while makers quote 43a. to 44a. per ton 
net, f.o.b., for mixed Bessemer numbers. Proppeots in the hematite 
trade are not considered cheerful, and maksrs have not maoh 
hope till there is a brisker demand for steel both of Bessemer and 
Siemens-Martin's qualities. 

Important Find of Iron Ore.— The Barrow Steel Co. has dit- 
coveredanewdepodtof iron ore at Paik Mines which gives promise • 
to be very extensive. The quality is of the highest, analysing 68 
per cent, of metal and only 8 per cent, of silica or insoluble con- 
stituents. This class of ore is that from which the very best 
steel can be made, and therefore the find is of importance to 
Barrow as a centre for tho manufacture of steel-making material 
and for the building of ships. The Duke of Devonshire, who is 



[April 1, 1895. 

chairman of the Barrow Steel Co.,u the royalty owner at Park, and 
the new ore can be delivered at the Barrow works at 88. oompared 
with 13s. 6d., the preient Talae per ton of equally good ore. 


(From our own Correspondent,) 

THE month now drawing to a close has been a busy one as 
far as shipbuilding and engineering is concerned, the 
firms taking advantage of the good weather to make up for lost 
time. The yards here have all enough work on hand to Ireep 
them going for fully nine months, and as regards new tonnage 
numerous enquiries are being made, and one or two veiy 
important contracts sigiad rinoe last report. 

Messrs. Harland A Wolff, Limited, have the s.s. On'Ma almost 
ready for sea, and she will have had her trial by the time this 
reacnes our readers' hands. 

They also have the Warrmi liner Seoteman well in hand now. 
She was launched last December, but her engines and boilers 
were not ready owing to the fact that Messrs. Harland and 
Wolff are very busy in their engine shop at present, the twin 
engines of H.M.8. Hannibal at present building at Pembroke 
being in hand, and about which I propose to say more in a few 

The SciUman^e machinery is now on board, and she is being 
pushed on rapidly. She will probably be ready for sea about 
May 1st. 

The Germanic is now out of dock, and is getting her 
machinery in at the sheerlegs. 

Messrs. Harland A Wolff have also the s.8. Lord Bangor of 
the Lord Line at present in for repairs. 

Messrs. Workman, GlarkftCo., Limited, delivered the s.s. 
Mount Strum to her owners during the month, after a very 
successful trial in the Lough, she having attained a speed of 
11^ knots per hour. The Mount Siricn has oeen built to the order 
of Messrs. Smith A Service, of Glasgow, and is 3,250 tons gross 

The s.s. Star of New Zealand had her trial on the 2l8t of the 
month. She is a very fine specimen of a modern cargo boat, 
being buUt with the object of carrying a large deadwei^t cargo, 
and at the same time to maintain a good sea speed. 

That the builders have succeeded in fulfilling the conditions 
of the contract would be a mild phrase to use in this instance, 
for at the trial she proved herself a very smart boat in every 
respect, and attained a speed of 13 knots per hour. 

The builders were frequently complimented on their skill, 
9knd the Star of New Zealand is sure to do Messrs. Workman, 
Olark it Co. credit wherever she may go. She was built to 
the order of J. P. Corry A Ck)., Belfast and London, and pro- 
ceeded to Cardiff on the 21st to load bunker, after which she 
proceeds to London to load a general cargo for New Zealand. 

Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co. had the s.s. Auric in for 
general overhaul. 

Since last month Messrs. Harland A Wolff received in- 
structions from the West India A Pacific Steamship Co. to 
build for them two 8,000 ton steamers. The dimensions are not 
fixed yet. but probably will be 600 ft. by 63 ft. by 85 ft. The 
second of these two boats is not to be delivered for eighteen 

This eminent firm seem to always get the greater share of 
any new tonnage of any importance that is wanted, doubtless due 
to the quality of the work they turn out; the work at present 
on hand, together with orders received, amounts to about 70,600 
tons, a pretty handsome figure for these times. 

Messrs. Victor Coates A Co., Limited, still continue bu^. 
They had the s.s. Theme on her trial at the end of last month. 
This was in every way satisfactory, the speed being 11} knots 
per hour. She immediately after proceeded to Troon to load 

At the beginning of the month Messrs. Coates received an 
order for a large triple-expansion engine of their own special 
design, from Messrs. A. A A. Crompton A Co., Limited, of 
Shaw, near Oldham ; the cylinders will be 20 in., 81 in., and 50 in. 
by 4 ft. stroke, the working pressure being 160 lbs. 

The Institution of Junior Engineert.— On Saturday, 28rd 
February, a very large number of the members of this Insti- 
tution availed then^lves of the opportunity kindly afforded 
by the President, Mr. Alexander Siemens, for visiting Messrs. 
Siemens Brothers A Co.*s manufactory at Woolwich. Special 
arrangements had been made for their guidance over the exten- 
sive works, which cover an area of 7} acres, and the occasion 
was rendered exceedingly interesting in every way. The new 
and old dynamo shops, the milling, bobbin, fitters' and rubber 
shops; the central power and lighting station (all thn 
machinery is driven by electric motors), the switchboard 
erecting room, the cable shop, tank-houses, lead cable shop, 
cable-testing, instrument calibrating, and show-rooms were 
seen. At the conclusion of the inspection the members were 
hospitably received by the President, who expressed the pieft- 
Bure he felt in meeting them, and the chairman, Mr. H. J. 
Younfl, conveyed the thanks of the Institution for the facilities 
extended in connection with the visit. 

The Toiting of Materials.— A lecture was delivered last 
month by Mr. A. S. £. Ackermann, A.M.I.C.E., before the 
Civil and Mechanical Engineers* Society, on ** Testing Machines 
and the Testing of Materials.*' The lecturer entered fully into 
the principles governing many of the various and well-lmown 
testing machines, and pointed out the good qualities, faults 
and dififtculties of working with them. Various methods of 
gripping and holding the specimens to be operated upon were 
describe. This was followed by details being given of the 
proper method of shaping the specimens, and of measuring and 
recording the results obtained, and the instruments used for 
this purpose, particular attention being drawn to the several 
extensometers, particularly those of Professor Unwin. Expla- 
nation was given of certain laws that it was well those making 
tests should bear in mind in working out results. The lecture 
was well illustrated by samples of metals and woods that had 
been tested ; these were kindly lent by the authorities of the 
City and Guilds of London Institute and Mr. E. H. Q. Brewster, 
C.E., M.I.M.E., who lent samples of steel boiler plates that 
had been tested by him in connection with boilers of his design. 
The peculiarities exhibited by some of the metals was very 
marked, and were prominently brought to the notice of those 
present. The necessity for testing materials was fully brought 
out in a discussion which took place towards the close of the 
meeting, at the invitation of the lecturer. A vote of thanks 
closed a very interesting meeting. 

Ship Railways for Warships.— A certain newspaper which 
has the distinction of being edited by a lady — at least, so I 
-judge from the fact that all letters published in its columns 
commence " Madame"— has given publicity to one of the most 
extraordinary ideas yet put forward. It is neither more nor 
less than a ship railway across France, to save the passage 
through the Straits of Gibraltar for vessels proceeding, say, 
from Marseilles to Bordeaux. That communication between 
these ports would be of immense strategic importance is 
abundantly clear. That it would be an advantage to the French 
commensurate with that which Germany will derive from the 
Balic Canal (about which I hope to speak next month) is 
obvious. But that warship|S can be carried by railway at the 
full speed of express trains is, as things stand at present— weU, 
unlikely. This fact has been pointed out mildly by a corres- 
pondent of the paper. The original writer replies with a burst 
of indignation at the obtuseness of one who could suggest 
difficulties here. He says that the ships could be fought on the 
rails either singly or in a company. This allegation has only 
to be stated in these columns for each reader to answer it in 
his own mind. Then the writer goes on—*' The men belonging 
to the vessel could, in the course of a few hours, throw up a 
curtain or mask of earth in front of it that would render it as 
secure and formidable as a permanent fortification " — and so on. 
It is possible that either the lady editor or the writer can be so 
hopelessly ignorant of the underwater dimensions of a warship ? 
A battleship is not only some 350 ft. to 400 ft. long, but she has 
some 23 ft. of unarmoured side below her belt. Then there is 
the height of the railway truck. The curtain that the crew 
would have " to throw up in a few hours " would have to be 
then at least 80 ft. high and thick enough at the top to resist the 
heavy projectiles now used. Comment is needless here, but the 
ridiculous impasse that the suggested *' curtain " brings us to 
is probably a fair criterion of .the value of the suggestion that 
war^ps of the largest size should be oonveyeia at express 
speed by rail 

April 1, 1896.] 




LAUNCHES.— English. 

Motfol.— On Monday, February 25th, Sir Baylton Dixon & 
Co., MiddlM)>roagh, launched from Cleveland Dockyard a very 
hazidaome steel screw steamer of about 5,500 tons deadweight 
carrying capacity, built to the order of the Mogul 
Steain£ip Co., of which Messrs. Gellatly, Hankey, Sewell <fe 
Co., of London, are managers, and intended for tiie China tea 
trade. The vessel will take Lloyd's highest class, and has been 
built under special survey to their three- decked rule. Her 
dimensions are :— 372 ft., by 45 ft. 6 in., bpr 28 ft. 4 in. The 
upper decks are all of teak, and the vessel is specially fitted in 
every way for the Eastern trade. The accommodation is all 
arranged on the upper deck with a charthouse and captain's 
room on bridge deck, and Uie crew in topgallant forecastle. The 
vessel will be fitted with six steam winches, powerful steam 
steering gear amidships, and every modern appliance, including 
Sidgwick's patent hinged topmast. Triple-expansion^ngines will 
be supplied by Messrs. The Wallsend Slipway and Engineering 
Co., Limited., Kewcastle^on-Tyne, with cylinders 27 in., 44 in., 
and 72 in., by 48 in. stroke, provided with steam by two single- 
ended boilers, 15 ft. by 11 ft. 8 in., working at 170 lbs. pressure, 
and fitted with Howden's ^stem of forced draught. The vessel is 
built on fine linee and handsome model, so as to attain a good 
rate of speed. The hull and machinery have been constructed 
under the supervision of Mr. F. Edwards, 62, Bishopsgale Street 
Within, London, the owners* consulting engineer. The 
christening ceremony was graoefuUy performed by Mrs. 
Kennedy, of Saltbum, who named the vessel Mogul. Sir 
Raylton Dixon A Co. have a lister vessel on the stocks for the 
same owners. 

Havnby.— On February 25th Messrs. Bopner k Son. of 
Stockton, launched a steel screw steamer of the following 
dimensions :— Length, over all, 290 ft. i breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 
18 ft. 6 in., whichuiey have built for a West Hartlepool firm. 
The steamer is buUt off the part awning deck rule, having poop 
and raised quarter deck, her deadweight carrying capacity being 
8,000 tons on 17 ft. 6 in. The saloon and cabins for the captain 
and officers are fitted in the poop, whilst the engineers are 
accommodated in iron houses placed on the awning deck near 
the entrance to the engine room. She is built on the web frame 
principle, leaving the holds entirely clear for cargo, and carries 
&r water ballast in a cellular bottom, and in the after peak. 
All labour-saving appliances are fitted for the economical work- 
ing of the steamer, and also for the expeditious loading and 
umoading of cargoes. She has steam steering gear amidships, 
and screw gear aft, four powerful steam winches, two large 
donkey boikrs, working at the same pressure as the miLi 
boilers, patent windlass, stockless anchors, Ac. The engines 
will work up to about 800 effective H.P., and are by Messrs. 
Blair ^ C6. Limited. They are of the triple-expansion type, 
having cylinders 21 in., 34 in., and 56 in., by 86 in., steam being 
supplied by two large steel boilers, working at 160 lbs. pressure. 
The name of the steamer is the Haumhy^ the christening cere- 
mony being neatly performed by Miss Bopner, of Preston 

PoteldoiL— On February 2 5th there was launched from the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. John Beadhead & Sons. West 
Docks, South Shields, a steel screw steamer, built to the order 
of Messrs. Stathatos Brothers, Ibrail. Her dimensions are as 
follows :— Length. 300 ft ; breadth, 41 ft ; and deoth, moulded. 
20 ft. 10 in. She is classed 100 Al at Lloyd's, and has a carry- 
ing capacity of 8,750 tons deadweight. The vessel is built wil^ 
a raised quarter deck, and piurtial awning deck forward, with 
topgallant forecastle ; has cellular double bottom fore and aft, 
ai^also deep hold tank in after hold, available for car^o. She 
is specially designed for grain cargoes, having extra bulkheads, 
Ac Her engines, which are also supplied by Messrs. John 
Beadhead & Sons, are of the triple-expansion type, having 
Aylinders 28 in., 37* in, and 61J in., by 42 in. stroke j workinff 
at a pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch, steam l^ing supphed 
by two steel boilers. The vessel has been built under the super- 
intendence of Mr. J. W. Donovan, of Sunderland, and Captain 
Caravias, and is the sixth vessel built for the same owners by 
the above firm. As she left the ways the vessel was named the 
Po$iidon, by Mrs. James Beadhead. 

Hathor.— On Tuesday. February 26th, Messrs. Wi^m 
Biohardson k Oo. launched from their Neptune Shipyard, New- 

oastle-on-Tyne, a handsome steel screw steamer, which they are 
bulling to the order of the Deutsche Dampfsohifffahrts 
Gewellschaft ** Kosmos," of Hamburg. The steamer is a sister ship 
of the S.S. Luxor ^ she is 850 ft in length, by 44 J ft. beam, and 
will have well-finished aooommodation for a number of passen- 
gers and for emigrants. The engines and boilers are also being 
' constructed by Messrs. Wisham Biohardson k Co., the former 
being of the builders* well-Known tvpe of four-crank quadruple 
expansion engines. They are the third set of this tvpe supphed 
to the'* Eosmos *' Co., this and the preceding set embodying also 
the system of balancing patented bv Mr. Schliok, of Hamburg, and 
introduced into the United Kingdom and developed by Messrs. 
Wigham Biohardson k Oo. The christening ceremony was 
gracefully performed in the presence of the owners and builders- 
oy Mrs. Jensen, the vessel being named the Hathor. 

BeBFidg6.~On Tuesday afternoon, February 26th, Messrs. 
Craig. Taylor k Co. launched from their Thomaby Shipbuilding 
Yard a sister ship to the Btnnuh, which they recently kunched. 
The dimensions are :— 842 ft. by 48 ft, by 29 ft. 9 in. She is 
built of steel to the spar-deck rule, Llovd's highest class, and 
has f uU poop, bridge and topgallant forecastle. She will be 
fitted with six large steam win(£es and patent steam steering 
gear by B. Boger k Co., multitubular donkey-boiler by T. 
Sudron k Co., Limited, direct-acting steam windlass, by 
Emerson. Walker ft Thompson Bros., Limited, patent fresh- 
water condenser by O. M. Bow k Co., and all modem improve- 
ments. One of her special features is the large quantity of 
water ballast, being fitted.with tanksto carry about l,250tons. Id 
addition to the ordinarv ceUular bottom, the vessel is fitted 
with a deep tank abaft the engine-room, which can be utilised 
either for carrying water ballast, or any description of cargo, 
being fitted with large hatches, also a special system of ventila- 
tion, so as to obviate the difficulty so frequently oocurring i» 
those deep tanks. The vessel is rigged as a two-masted 
schooner, with telescopic masts, and carries about 5.600 tons 
deadweight, with large cubical capacity. The engines and 
boilers, which are being constructed for a working pressure of 
200 lbs., are built by Messrs. Thomas Biohardson k Sons^ 
Limited, Hartlepool. This vessel, which has been built to the 
order of Joseph Hoult, Esq., of Liverpool, and under the- 
superintendence of A. C. Hay, Esq., is the fourth built bv these 
builders for the same owner. The ceremony of ohristemng the 
vessel the Benridge was very gracefully performed by Mr» 
Hoult, the wife of the owner. 

Haslingden,— On Tuesday, February 26th, Messrs. Willian» 
Gray k Co., Limited, launched a fine steel screw steamer of 
the following dimensions, viz. :~ Length, over all, 280 ft; 
breadth, 37 ft. ; and depth. 20 ft. She has been built to thi^ 
order of Messrs. Murrell k Teoman, of West Hartlepool, and 
will take Lloyd's highest class. The deck erections consist 
of poop, raised quarter-deck, long bridge and topgallant fore- 
castle. A handsome saloon, state-room and aooommodation 
for captain and officers will be fitted up in the poop, and com- 
fortable quarters for the engineers at the after end of the 
bridge, and for the crew in the fore end of the bridge. The 
hull is built with web frames, a double bottom is fitted under 
each hold for water ballast, and there is also a large ballast 
tank in the after peak. Four steam winches, donkey boiler, 
steam steering gear amidships, screw steering gear aft, patent 
windlass, schooner rig, boats on beams overhead, and al) 
modem appliances will be fitted. The engines are of the 
triple-expansion type working on three cranks. They are 
supplied by the Central Marine Engine Works of Messrs. 
William Gray k Co.. Limited. The cylinders are 20 in., 8U in. 
and 53 in. diameter, and the piston stroke 36 in. The boilers, 
built of steel, are of large size and will give an ample supply 
of steam at a working pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch» 
The ceremony of naming the ship Hoilingden was gracefully 
performed bv Mrs. Harrison, wife of CounoiUor Harrison,, 
of Hartlepool. 

EliEabeth.^-*On February 27th there was launched by Mr. B.. 
Dunston, at Thome, an English oak carvel-built keel, suitable 
for the general trade. The vessel is 62 ft over all. 7 ft. 8 in. 
high, and has a 15 ft. 8 in. beam. She was named the 

JUdaraay.— On February 27Ui, an iron steam ketch, of 
about 138 tons, named the Alderna^, was launched at Hull, 
owned by the Hull Steam Fishing and Ice Co., Limited, Hull. 



[AprH 1, 1895. 

Emperor.— On February 28th Messrs. Coohrane & Cooper 
laonohed from their yard, Grovehill, Beverley, an iron steam 
trawler, 93 It. by 20 ft. 6 in. by 11 ft. depth of hold, which 
wiU be fitted with 40 N.H.P. triple-expansion engines, by 
Messrs. G. D. Holmes & Ck)., Hall, and on leaving the ways 
was named the Emperor by Mrs. Connor, of Beverley. The 
Above vessel has been boilt to the order of the Anchor Steam' 
Fishing Co., Limited, Grimsby, and will be fitted np with all 
the latest improvements for deep-sea trawling. 

Forest Abbey.— On Pebraary 28th this turret-deck steamer 
was launched from the yard of Messrs. William Dozf ord & Sons, 
Limited, of Sunderland, having been built to the order of Mr. 
Henry Sherwood for the Forest Oak Steamship Co., Limited, 
Newcastle. She will receive the highest class in both the 
British Corporation and Bureau Veritas registries. The 
<diristening ceremony was gracefully performed by Mro. J. D. 

Corea.-On March 9th Messrs. Earless Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Limited, Hull, launched the s.s. Corea, a steel 
screw steamer built by them for the Bennett Steamship Co., 
Limited, of Goole, for their service between the latter port and 
Boulogne. She is 210 ft. long, 81 ft. beam, and 18 ft. 8 in. 
depth of h(dd, is buOt to Lloyd's 100 Al dass, with raised 
quarter-deck, bridge, and forecastle^ is schooner-rigged, and is 
fitted with powerful cargo appliances and large hatchways. 
There is accommodation amidships for captain and twelve 
passengers, aft for officers, and in forecastle for crew. The 
•engines are triple*compound with cylinders 19 in., 82 in. and 
^2 in. diameter, by 86 in. stroke, the boilers being two in number 
4knd made for 160 lbs. working pressure. 

Bami.— On March 9th the Naval Construction and Arma- 
ments Co. launched, at Barrow, the sixth steamer they have 
built for the London County Council. The st-eamer was named 
Burnt, in compliment to Mr. John Bums, M.P. The fire 
eteamers already built are the Baxelgette, Belvedere, Binnie, 
Barking, and Barrow, These vessels carry London sewage 
sludge out to sea, and are constructed to carry 1,000 tons each. 
They are driven bv two sets of triple-expansion engines of 1,000 
I.H J?., capable of propelling the ship at a speed of 10^ knots 
«n hour, fully loaded. 

Yega. — On March 9th the new steamer Vega, built for one of 
the largest steamship companies in Norway, the Bergenske 
Damskibsselskabet. was launched by Messrs. J. L. Thompson 
^ Sons, at Sunderland. The steamer is constructed on the 
spar-deck plan, and the principal dimensions are: — Length, 
233 ft. ; breadth, 82 ft, ; depth, 22 ft. 4 in. She has been built* 
to take the highest possible class with Lloyd's for passenger 
service. Her engines will be fitted by Mr. John Dickinson. 
The vessel wUl be completed in time for the Norwegian tourist 
season, and will be at once placed on the regular mail and pas- 
€enger service between the Tyne and Bergen, in which route 
the Bergenske and Nordenf jeldske Co.'s have departures three 
times weekly. 

H.1f .8. Handy.— On March 9th H.M.S. Handy, the first of 
the three torp^o-boat destroyers which the Fairfield Co. are 
building for the Admiralty, was launched. The boat is an 
-exceptionally fine specimen of her type, looking, if anything, 
emarter than any tnat have preceded her. One design wiui 
slight variations has certainlv served for the whole fleet, but 
what restrictions there were have not prevented the Fairfield 
Co. from imparting something of its own stvle to the new boat. 
On trial she is certain to at least maintain tne reputation of the 
ouilders of the earliest and the latest ocean greyhounds. She 
is 194ft. long, 19ft. 4} in. broad, and 5 ft. Tin. draught. The 
engines are of the ordinary triple-expansion type. Two of the 
Fairfield boats, including the Handy, have the Thomycroft 
boiler, and one has the Babcock A Wilcox, a boiler whose per- 
formance is being watched at present with more than usual 

Yolage.— On Monday afternoon, March 11th, Messrs. 
-Richaiason, Duck A Co. launched from their building-yard 
a fine steel screw steamer of the following dimensions, viz., 
length over all, 825 ft. ; breadth extreme, 42 ft. 10 in. ; depth, 
moulded, 20 ft. 11 in,; tonnage gross about 2,700 tons. This 
vessel, which has been built to the order of Messrs. Christie A 
Co., Cardifif, will class 100 Al at Llovd's, and has been built 
under special survev. She has a breaK poop, quarter-deck and 
a part awning deck extending from mainmast to stem. Ao- 
commodation for captain and officers is provided in poop, engi- 

neers in 'tween decks amidships, and crew forward. A cellular 
double bottom is fitted for water ballast, and an extra large 
after-peak tank. The equipment includes stockless anchors, 
four steam winches, steam windlass, large donkey boiler, steam 
steering gear, etc. The engines by Messrs. Blair A Co. are 
triples of 1,000 I.H.P., steam being supplied bv two single- 
ended boilers working at 160 lbs. pressure. As the vessel left 
the ways she was christened Volage by Mrs. E. B. Biohardson, 
of Hartbum. 

Belby.— On March llth Messrs. Bopner & Son, of Stockton, 
launched a steel screw steamer of the following dimensions : — 
Length, over all. 290 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 18 ft. 6 in. ; 
which they have built for a West Hartlepool firm. The steamer 
is built off the part awning-decked rule, haviog poop and raised 
quarter-deck, her deadweight carrying capacity being 3,000 
tons on 17 ft. 6 in. The saloon and cabins for the captain and 
offliceriB are fitted in the poop, whilst the engineers are accom- 
modated in iron houses placed on the awning deck, near the 
entrance to the eogioe-room. She is built on the web-frame 

Erindple, leaving the holds entirely clear for cargo, and carries 
er water ballast in a cellular bottom and in the after peak. All 
labour-saving appliances are fitted for the economical working 
of the steamer, and also for the expeditious loading and 
unloading of cargoes. She has steam steering gear amidships 
and screw gear aft, four powerful steam winches, two lar^ 
donkey boilers, working at the same pressure as the mam 
boilers, patent windlass, stockless anchors, &o. The engines 
will work up to about 800 effective H.P., and are by Messrs. 
Blair A Co.; they are of the triple-expansion type, having 
cylinders 21 in., 34 in., and 56 in. by 36 in., steam being sup- 
plied by two large steel boilers, working at 160 lbs. pressure. 
As the steamer moved off she was named Selby by Miss Evelyn 
Bopner, of Preston Hall. 

Four-masted Barque.— On March llth there was launched 
by Messrs. Williamson A Son, at Workington, a four-masted 
barque, classed Al at Lloyd's. Her dimensions are :— Length, 
296 ft. : breadth, 46 ft. ; depth, 27 ft. 5 in. ; net register ton- 
nage, 2,800 tons ; gross, 2,950 ; deadweight on Lloyd's free- 
board, 4,650 tons. She is built of steel' throughout. 

Penelope.— On March llth Messrs. Turnbull launched at 
Whitby a new screw steamer of the following dimensions : — 
Length, over all, 321 ft. 9 in. ; ditto, between perpendiculars, 
311 ft. ; and extreme breadth, 40 ft. 6 in. She is classed 100 Al 
at Lloyd's, and is built of steel. Her engines are by Messrs. 
Blair k Co., and the estimated deadweight carrying capacity 
of the vessel is about 4,200 tons. She has been built to the 
order of Messrs. H. Baxter <& Co., Whitby, and was christened 
the Penelope. 

Roolo.— On Tuesday, March 12th, Messrs. WilUam Gray & 
Co., Limited, launched the fine steel screw steamer Roeio, 
She is of the following dimensions, viz. .'—Length over all, 
248 ft.; breadth. 84 ft.Oin.; depth, 17 ft. 3 m., and has been 
built to thie order of Messrs. Orders <fe Handford, of Newport, 
Mon. She will take Lloyd's highest class, and her deck 
erections consist of a raised quarter deck, bridge deck, and 
topgallant forecastle. The saloon and aocommodation for 
captain and officers will be fitted aft, and comfortable quarters 
for the engineers in the bridge, and for the crew in the fore- 
castle. The vessel is built on the web-frame system with a 
double bottom under each hold for water ballast, and there is 
also a ballast tank in the after.peaks. Four steam winches, 
donkey boiler, steam steering gear amidships, screw steering 
gear aft. Emerson, Walker A Thompson's patent windlass, 
schooner rig, boats on beams overhetid and all modern ap- 
pliances wiU be fitted. The engines are of the triple-expansion 
type working on three cranks, they are supplied by the Central 
Marine Engine Works of W. Gray & Co., Limited. The 
cylinders are 18 in., 28^ in. and 47} in. diameter, and the 
piston stroke 83 in. The boilers, built of steel, are of large size, 
and will give an ample supply of steam at a working pressure 
of 160 lbs. per square inch. The vessel has been built under 
the superintendence of Mr. Jno. Boddy, and the ceremony of 
naming her Rocio was gracefully performed by Miss James, 
daughter of Christopher James. Esq., of Swansea. Mr. W. J. 
Orders, who was present on behalf of the owners, presented 
Miss James with a handsome gold bracelet set with diamonds. 
There were also present Messrs. E. George Protheroe, Jno. 
Boddy, James W. Thompson, Ac, &o. 

H,M.8. Janui. — H.M. torpedo destroyer cToniM was launched 
Msroh 12th, from the Jarrow Yard of Measrs. Pakner's Ship- 

AprU 1, 1896.] 



building And Iron Co.. Limited. The vessel has been built to a 
med^ and design supplied by the builders, and is the first of 
, three of the same claira being built at Jarrow for the British 
Kavy. Her dimensions are :— Length, 200 ft. ; breadth. 19 ft. 
9 in., and about 280 tons displacement. Her armament con- 
sists of one 12-pounder quiok-nring gun forward on the conniuf; 
tower, four 6-pounder ditto on the broadside, and one 6- pounder 
on a platform aft. There are also two revolving torpedo tubes 
on deck, arranged to fire on either broadside. She also has a 
powerful electric searchlight. The ofiicers and engineers' 
cabins are arranged abaft of the engine-room, and forward there 
is accommodation for about 40 men. The builders have guar- 
anteed a speed of 27 knots per hour, and the machinery, which 
has also been designed by them, consists of two sets of triple- 
expansion engines, in one compartment, of a special design to 
suit the high rate of speed. Steam is supphed by four of 
Beed's patent water-tubs boilers, constructed by the builders, 
fitted m two separate watertight compartments with the 
neoesaary fans for supplying air under forced draught. 
She is fitted with Caird A Bayner's evaporator, 
and fresh water distilling apparatus* The cSiristen- 
ing ceremony was gracefully performed by Mrs. A. M. 
Palmer, wife of one of the directors of the Palmer Co., after 
which the visitors adjourned to the model-room of the company 
where they partook of refreshments. Col. English, the general 
manager, proposed ** Success to H.M.S. Janui,"' and the toast 
being enthusiastically drunk, the proceedings terminated. 

Dncheai of Tork.— On March 12th the steel paddle passenger 
steamer DuchetM of York was launched from the vard of Messrs. 
B. dE H. Green, shipbuilders and engineers. Blackwall. The 
vessel has been built for the service of the South-Eastem Bail- 
way Co., for the conveyance of passengers and goods between 
Tolkestone and Boulogne. The principal dimensions are : — 
Length, 270 ft. ; beam, 80 ft. ; depth to promenade deck. 24 ft. 
The vessel has been thoroughly subdivided, there being eight 
watertight bulkheads oontiuued to the upper deck, and thirteen 
air-tight compartments below the lower deck, which is plated 
over so that should the engine and boiler space be flooded the 
ship may maintain a freeboard of 2 ft. 6 in. The first-class 
Accommodation is placed aft of the machinery space, there being 
a commodious saloon and eight private cabins m the deckhouse 
on the main deck, as well as the dining, sleeping, and ladies* 
saloons below. The second-class accommodation is placed for- 
ward of the machinery space ; and the crew are berthed forward 
of this again. Qnder tine forecastle deck portable stalls are 
fitted for the conveyance of horses. The vessel will be lighted 
throughout with the electric light. The machinery is being 
oonstmcted by Messrs. John Penn A Sons, of Greenwich, and 
will be of the three-cylinder compound diagonal type. The 
boilers are of the return tube type, two forward and two aft 
of the engine room, with a working pressure of 120 lbs. per square 
inch. Induced draught fans are to be fitted in the uptakes for 
the purpose of maintaining a goo^^snpply of steam. The high- 
prMsure cylinder is 48 in. mameter, and each of the low-pressure 
oylinders is 68 in., with a stroke of 72 in. The speed is nine- 
teen knots. Budders are placed at both bow and stem, with a 
steam steering gear to ea<m. and a hand gear for after rudder. 
The vessel is under the survey of Lloyd's and the Board of 
Trade, to be registered under the highest class. Captain Boxer, 
B.N., maiine superintendent, and Mr. N. Guy, marine engineer 
to the South-Eastern Bailway Co., are inspecting the vessel 
during construction. Da leaving the ways the vessel was named 
by Miss Bevan. 

Bulawayo.— On March 12th |the large Cape liner JSulmcayo 
was launched from the Walker Shipyard of Sir W. G. Arm- 
strong, Mitchell A Co. The Buluwayo is the last of three sister 
vessels ordered by Messrs. Bncknall Brothers, on bdialf of the 
British and Colonial Steam Navigation Co., for their 
well-known line to the Cape and East Coast of South Africa. 
The Johanneiburff, the first of the three, having already started 
on her first voyage, whilst the second vessel. Fort SalUhury, is 
now completed and will leave the Walker yard in a few days. 
The vessels are of the three decked type, and have been built of 
steel to the highest class at Lloyd's. Their principal dimen- 
sions are :— Length, 876 ft. ; breadth, 47 ft. ; depth, 30 ft. 6 in., 
with a deadweight carrying capacity of over 6,000 tons, which 
they carry with the statutory freeboard. The vessels have a 
poop, forecastle, and very extensive bridge or midship citadel, 
which forms an important part of the vessel, embracing as it 
does the accommodation for officers, and also 66* first-class 
passengers, the cabins for Vhich are situated partly upon the 

upper deck, at the fore end of the bridge, and partly upon the 
bridge itself, and as.these latter cabins will be exceptionaUy airy, 
with large square windows, they will be more attractive for 
passengers, Uie more so that the deck overhead is carried the 
full length, and the full width of the vessel, forming an 
excellent covered promenade, whilst the deck above being 
practically free of obstructions the passengers will have an 
additional most spacious and edry promenade. The passenger 
accommodation in general is very elaborate, consisting of larjge 
dining saloon, capable of seating the whole of the passengers 
at once, large smoking room, ladies' boudoir, and large and airy 
sleeping cabins. In view of the trade for which the vessels are 
intended the ventilation has been very speciallv considered. 
Electric fans are provided and so arranged that the ventilation 
of the cabins can be regulated at will, whilst m the dining 
saloon a very simple and efficient arrangement of portaUe 
electric fans have been fitted for causiDg currents of air 
during hot weather in the Bed Bea and tropics. Electric bells 
are fitted to all cabins and state-rooms. The vessel will be 
lighted throTighout with an electric installation carried 
out on the branch aub-division system by Messrs. Clarke, 
Chapman & Co. In no case are there more than ten 
lamps in a sub-circuit, and there is therefore no risk 
of larffe sections of the the ship being acddentaUy tiurowa 
into daiimess. Moreover, the generating plant embraces 
two complete duplicate dynamos and engines, each capable 
of lighting the ship. A complete refrigerating installation is 
fitted by the Lhade British Befrigerating Co. The deck 
machinei^ and oargo gear is probably the most complete of its 
kind yet fitted to any vessel. It comprises very large donkey* 
boiler, numerous steam winches, steam windlass, steam warp- 
ing capstan, steam steering gear, and sight specially strong 
tubular steel derricks, two placed to each hatchway, and 
capable of lifting 25 tons. The vessel was named the ^uluwavo 
by Mrs. Henry F. Swan, of North Jesmond, and inmiediately 
after t^e launch was taken to Messrs. B. and W. Hawthorn, 
Leslie A Co.*s St. Peter's Works, where she will receive her 
machinery, whidh is of the triple-expansion system, havix^ 
oylinders 30 in., 50 in. and 80 in., by 54 in. stroke, with three 
single-ended boilers working at 180 lbs. pressure, and whidi 
are arranged to be worked by Howden's system of forced 
draught. The owners were represented at the launch by Mr. 
H. A. B. Cole, consulting engineer and naval architect, to 
whom is due the design of the vessels as well as the specifica- 
tions, which are of the most comprehensive iund, so that the 
three vessels in question will in sJl respects be thoroughly up 
to date. 

Yerbena*— On Wednesday, March ISth, Messrs. Furness, 
Withy & Co., Limited, launched from their shipbuilding works 
at Hartlepool a large steel screw steamer built to the order of 
the well-known firm of shipowners, Messrs. J. Lilly & C6., 
West Hartlepool, and from the care in the designing of the 
vessel it is anticipated that she will be a profitable addition to 
their fleet. The vessel is a substantial type of a modem cargo 
boat, measuring over 800 ft. in length, and built throughout of 
Siemens-Martin steel, with a la^ measurement and dead- 
weight capacity, and is built to the highest class at Lloyd's. 
Every care htts been taken to construct her as strong as possible 
for the heavy deadwei^t trade, and at the same time she has 
been so designed that die wiU be especially suitable for trading 
in shallow waters. The vessel is bmlt on the web-frame system 
with cellular double bottom all fore and aft, and subdivided at 
intervals, the after peak beinff also available as a tank. The 
main and fore holds are divided by iron watertight bulkheads 
efficiently stiffened by an iron longitudinal division. Steam 
suctions as well as hand pumps are fitted to each compartment, 
so that if the vessel were damaged by collision or stranding, 
she would remain afloat. The greater portion of the shidl 
plating is in 24-ft. lengths, and is ef&oiently backed up by 
strong sectional framing to Uie top of vessel lOl fore and aft, 
the topside plating being extra thick to withstand the heavy 
Atlantic trade. The bottom plating is also thicker in way of 
the ballast tanks, to allow for the vessel Iving aground whilst 
loading. The whole of the weather decks, tank tup, floor plates, 
(&c., are also of extra thickness, and the hatchways are of extra 
size to take in the bulkiest cargo. Large winches to hatches, 
patent steam steering gear amidships with hand gear aft, steam 
windlass, large donkev boiler, and patent stockless anchors are 
fitted. The vessel will be rigged as a pole-masted schooner, and 
to hiake her available for bridge and canal work the topmasts 
are telescopic. The engines and boilers have been constructed 
by Messrs. T. Biohardson d 'Sons, Limited, Hartlepool, and 



[April 1, 1895. 

are of maisiye detigD, with erery proyision for economioal 
workinjg. The ship has heen oonBtmoted under the careful 
saperyision of Captain J. Lilly, who has had the advantage of 
practical experience, and the enginet and boilers have been 
snperviBed dnring oonstmotion by Mr. C. E. Smith, who has 
introduced several imiMortant modifications, all tending to the 
more economical working of the vessel. On leaving the ways 
the vessel was graoefnlly christened Vtrbena by Birs. Lilly, of 
Stranton House, West Hartlepool. The launch was a very 
successful one and was witnessed by a large number of visitors, 
who afterwards adjourned to the builders* offices, when every 
success to the new vessel was heartily wished for. 

Dorrie. — On March 14th a splendidly modelled steamer was 
launched from the yard of Sir William Gray & Co., Limited, 
of the following dimensions : — 304 ft. between perpendiculan, 
44 ft. beam and 23 ft. 2 in. dei>th moulded, built to the order 
of Messrs. Btainthorp, EitohiDg & Co., of Stockton-on-Tees. 
Bhe will take Lloyd's highest class, has raised quarter-decks, 
bridge deck and topgallant forecastle, four large hatchways 
with powerful winch to each, and direct-acting steam win^ass, 
self-bousing anchors and steam steering-gear, with neatly fitted 
and furnished saloon, captain and officers* rooms aft, engineers' 
rooms of large dimensions tastefully fitted under the bridge, 
crew having spacious and well-ventilated quarters under ttie 
topgallant forecastle. She wiU be fitted by the Central Marine 
Engine Works, of Sir William Gray k Co., Limited, with triple- 
expansion engines of 1,100 H.P. working on three cranks, 
cylinders 23 in., 86i in. and 62 in., the stroke of piston 39 in., 
and fitted with patent evaporator, patent piston packing rings, 
patent gland packings and patent preserver sleeve fitted to pro- 
peller shaft, utd other modem improvements for the economy 
of fuel and stores. Boilers built of steel, of extra large dimen- 
sions to give an ample supply of steam, working at a pressure 
of 160 lbs. per square inch. Also extra large donkey boiler for 
dischamug carpo. The vessel and machinery have been built 
under the supermtendenoe of Mr. James Summers, of Middles- 
bro*. The ceremony of christening the ship Dorrie as she left 
the ways was gracefully perl'ormed by Mrs. Kitching, wife of 
one of the managing owners. 

Inreola. — On March 14th Mr. Henry Scarr launched at 
Beverley, an iron keel, built to the order of Mr. Webster, of 
HuU. Her dimensions are as follows: — 61 ft. 6 in. by 
15 ft. 6. in. by 8 ft,* amidships ; carrying capacity, ISO tons. 

Phoebe.— On March 14th there was launched from the 
Walker Shipyard, on the Tyne, a steel paddle steamer, built to 
the order of the Tyne General Ferry Co., Newcastle. The 
principal dimeniions of the vessel are :— Length, 113 ft. ; 
breadth, 16 ft. 3 in.; depth, 7 ft. The vessel will be fitted 
with oscillating surface-condensing paddle engines by the 
Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Go. She was named Phaht 
by Miss Bea, daughter of Mr. James Bea, secretary to the 

Gotteira.— On March liBth a twin-screw steamer for the 
Amazon Biver trade, was launched by Messrs. John Jones & 
Sons, at Liverpool. Her dimensions are: — Length, 165 ft.; 
beam, 83 ft. ; and depth, 10 ft. The hull is built of steel, and 
Ihe engines consist of two sets of the triple-expansion type. The 
vessel was bmlt to the order of Messrs. £2. A. Da Costa & Co., 
of Liverpool, and was christened Coiieira. 

Lombard. — On Monday afternoon, March 16th, a large 
clipper-stem, spar-deck, screw steamer was launched from the 
shipbuilding and dry dock works, of the Blyth Shipbuilding Co., 
Limited, of Blyth. The vessel has*been built for the Lombard 
Steamship Co., Limited, of London, through Mr. John White, of 
London, and is of the following dimensions : — Length, over all, 
326 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; deptii, 27 ft. 9 in. The vessel is built 
prinoipallv of steel and has cellular double bottom throughout 
for water-ballast. Web frames are fitted in lieu of hold l^ams 
thus allowingverybulky cargoes to be stowed with ease. A hood 
is fitted over the after part of the vessel and a long bridge 
amidships under which the captain and officers' bertha 
are plaoisd, and on the top a chart and wheel-house is fitted. 
There are extra large steam winches fitted to each hatch by 
Messrs. J. Smith i Son, of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Donkin's 
patent steam steering - gear, Emerson's p«kent windlass for 
working the stockless anchors, and Clarke, Chapman's patent 
donkey bdler. The engines will be supplied by Messrs. Blair 
A Co., of Stockton-on-Tees, and are of the triple-expansion type 
and of large power. The vdid was gracefully named the 

Lombard by Miss Vaughan, of Newcastle, daughter of the 
chairman of the Bljrth Shipbuilding Co. , Limited. The hull 
and engines have been built under the sunerintendence of Mr» 
George Walker, consulting engineer ana naval architect, of 

Throstlegarth and Bangarth.— On March 23rd there were 
launched from Messrs. Palmer A Cc's Jarrow yard, two very fine 
modelled steel screw steamers, built to the order of Messrs. B. 
and J. H. Bea, of Liverpool. Their dimensions are as follows : 
— Length, between perpendiculars, 260 ft, beam, 86 ft. ; moulded 
depth, 19 ft 7 in., and is built to Lloyd's highest class under 
speoiiU survey. They have long raised quarter decks extending 
to after end of machinery space, and fitted with acoonunodation 
for the captain, officers, and engineers ; and a topgallant fore'* 
oastle for the crew. The hulls are built of steel with cellular 
double bottom throughout, except in the engine and boiler 
space, and is fitted with three powerful steam winches and 
donkey boilers ; patent direct-acting steam windlass, large self* 
trimming hatches, steam steering gear amidships, screw steer- 
ing gear aft i and all modem gear for rapid loading and dis- 
ohargiug of cargo. The engines and boilers, which are also being 
built by the Palmer Co., are of the triple-expansion type with 
cylinders 20 in., 88 in. and 54 in. by 36 in. stroke, and two steel 
boilers working at a pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. The 
vessels are designed to load about 2,800 tons deadweight on 18 ft. 
draft of water, and bave besn constmoted under the super- 
vision of Mr. J. B. Edmiston, consulting engineer, of liverpooL 
On leaving the ways the vessels were christened ThrostU^arth 
and Bangarthf by Mrs. Bossell Bea, and Mrs. James H. Bes,. 

LAUNCHES— Scotch. 

Ooodwtn.—On February 22nd the London and Glasgow 
Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding Co., Limited, Gk>van, cSas- 

Sow, launched the second of two large steel screw steamera 
uilt by them for the Clvde Shipping Co., Limited. This vessel is 
891 ft. 8 in., by 46 ft. 6 m., by 30 ft. 6 in., moulded, and will carry 
between 6,500 and 7,000 tons deadweight, having a gross tonnage 
of about 4,700 tons, and has been built to the bluest grade of the 
British Ccnrporation and under their special survey. She is inten- 
ded for the Eastern trade, and is fitted up with all the most mod- 
em appliances for handling cargo, &c., including seven large 
spedaUy-designed steam winches, made by Clarke, Chapman & 
Co. ; capstan and windlass by same makers ; and steam steer- 
ing gear by Caldwell A Co., Limited. The ship is fitted with 
electric li^t throughout. Special attention has been given to 
theoffioersandcrew'sacoommodation.the rooms being all very 
large and airy, each of the officers and engineers having a separ- 
ate room. Besides having a double bottom to hdd water ballast, 
there is a large chamber tank abaft engine-room, so that the 
ship can be navigated to alVparts of the world without cargo. 
The hold capad^ is over 8,000 tons. The builders also supply 
the machinery, the engines being triple-expansion, with cylin- 
ders 27 in, 42 in., and 69 in. diameter, by 54 in. stroke. Hcw- 
den's forcra" draught is fitted to the boilers. As the vessel left 
the ways she was gracefully named the Ooodwin by Miss Ethel 
Kidston, of Finlayitone. 

Asov.— On February 22nd Messrs. Charles Council A Co. 
launched, from their Scotstoun Shipbuilding Yard, Whiteinch» 
the steel screw steamer Azovt built on foreign account. Her 
dimensions are : — Length, 255 ft. ; breadth, 85 ft. 9 in. ; depth, 
moulded, 18 ft. 9^ in. ; with a deadweight carrying capacity of 
2,600 tons, and nas been built to Lloyd's highest class. The 
engines, which are of the improved triple-expansion type, having 
cylinders of 19 in, 31 J in., and 51^ in. diameter, by 36 m. stroke, 
worked by one single-ended boiler 16 ft. diameter by 11 ft. long, 
at 160 lbs. pressure, are being construotsd by Messrs. Dunsmuir 
A Jackson, Govan. 

Flying Boizard.— On February 23rd Messrs. William Hamil* 
ton A Co. launched from their Glen Yard, Port Glasgow, a 
powerful screw steam-tug of about 400 tons gross tonnage for 
the Clyde Shipping Co., Limited, Glasgow. The following are 
the principal dimensions : — Length, between perpendicmars. 
150 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft. 6 in. ; de^Si of hold, 13 ft. The vessel 
has beeoi built to the owners' specification considerably in excess 
of Lloyd's requirements, and is fitted with water ballast 
trimming tanks both forward and aft. The accommodation for 
the officers and crew is of the most complete description. The 

April 1, 1895.] 



maohinery, which ia being supplied by MeuBrs. Bankin ft 
Blaokmore, of Greenook. is on the triple-expanaion system. 
The oylinders are 18 in., 29 in., and 47 in. diameter, by 38 in. 
stroke, the boiler working to a praesare of 160 lbs. As the 
▼easel left the ways she was graoefnlly named Flying Buzzard 
by Miss £thel Kidston, of Finlaystone. After the launch the 
▼eeael was towed to Greenock to receive her machinery. 

Dorothy.— On Fetoiarr 26th there was launched from the 
yard of the Montrose Shipbuilding and Engineering O)., Limited, 
A iteel screw cargo steamer, the 2>prot%, built to the order of a 
I^mdon ,m«rnhant, and of the following dimensions:— Length, 
ISO. ft ; breadth, 25 ft. : and depth, lift. 5 in. She wiU have 
enginea with 15 in. and 82 in. cylinders, and 24 in. stroke. She 
baa been oonstmcted to Lloyd's highest class, and will carry 
about 500 tons. She will be towed to Leith, where she will be 
engined by Messrs. Hall-Brown, Buttery & Co., Govan. 

Kaliow.— On February 26th Messrs. David & William 
fienderson A Go. launched from their yard at Partick the first 
of three steel screw steamers, which they are building to the 
order of the China Mutual Steam Navigation Co., Limited, 
London, for their Eastern trade. The dimensions are: — 
Length, 870 ft. : breadth 46 ft. : depth 29 ft. 8 in., with a gross 
tozmmge of about 4,000 tons. The hull and machinery are con- 
structed in excess of Lloyd's requirements, and are classed in 
their register. The vessel is also provided with the Board of 
Trade passenger certificate. The hull is to the three-deck rule, 
with two oomnlete steel decks. There is a poop, long bridge 
amidships, ana topgallant forecastle. Arrangements are made 
for carrying a large quantitjr of water ballast. The pumping 
arrangements for dealing with this are of the most complete 
deeoription. The stem post and rudder are of forged iron, the 
latter being of the builders' latest single-plate pattern. The 
u^per deck and poop bridge and forecastle decks are sheathed 
with teak. The deck machinery consists of steam capstan, 
windlass, steam steering gear, and steam winches. These latter 
are ten in number, and in conjunction with a most complete 

rem of derricks render the vessel exceptionally well suited for 
rapid working of the larse and varied cargoes she will carry. 
Hie derricks are capable of lifting weights up to 80 tons. The 
masts are telescopic, to suit the Manchester Ship OanaL The 
crew's quarters are fitted under the topgallant forecastle, and 
those for petty officers under the poop, which also covers the 
•orew steering gear. The saloon, state-rooms, and captain's and 
chief officers' rooms are in a large steel house fitted on the 
bridge deck. The saloon is handsomely furnished, and is 
flnidied hi polished hardwood. The state-rooms are of large 
size. A specie-room is fitted in this house adjacent to the 
saloon. 'Hie officers and engineera* rooms and mess-room are 
also on the bridge deck at the sides of the engine casing. All 
the rooms are heated by steam. A teak chart and whedhouse 
is fitted on the top of the saloon deckhouse. Electric li^t is 
fitted throughout the vessel, including cargo clusters for the 
rigging when working carffo at night. Ae propelling machinery 
has been constructed by the builders' firm, and consists of a set 
of triple-expansion en^es, with cylinders 26 in., 42 in., and 71 
in. diameter, by 48 in. stroke, and two large single-ended 
boilers, constructed for a working pressure of 180 lbs. The 
boilers are fitted with Howden's patent system of forced 
dteu^t. The auxiliary machinery is of the most complete 
description. The propeller blades are of manganese bronze. 
As the vessel left the ways she was named Kaitow by Mrs. 
Qolland, wife of the managing director of the China Mutual Co. 

RoastrOTor.—On February 26th Messrs. William Denny A 
Brothers launched from the Leven Shipyard, Dumbarton, a 
twin-screw steamer named Roittrevor for the London and 
North-Weetem Bailway Co. The dimensions of the vessel 
are:— Length, 272 ft.; breadth, 35 ft.; depth. 15ft. She is 
intended for passenger and goods service between Holyhaad 
and Greenore, and will be fitted with triple-compound surface- 
condensing engines by Messrs. Denny ft Co. Tne christening 
ceremony was performed by Mrs. Binney, wife of Captain 
Binney, marine superintendent of the company. 

Bomhaw.— On February 27th Messrs. John Scott A Co., 
Abden Shipyard, Einghom, launched a steel screw steamer to 
the order of Mr. Josepii Holt, Liverpool. Since the launch of 
tiie Mentmorg it attracted the largest crowd of sightseers, and 

after ^ding safely down the ways hearty cheers were raised. 
The vessel is 250 ft. long l^ 88 ft. by 21 ft. 9 in., and it is 
expected that she will be able to carry 2,700 tons burden on the 

lightest draught of water. Her engines, which have also been 
built by Messrs. Scott A Co., are of 900 LH.P., and their 
working pressure is expected to exceed 200 lbs. per square inch. 
The steamer was named the Bmhaw on leaving the ways, and 
at once steamed up the Firth on her first trial. She was 
christened by Miss Chalmers, of Liverpool. Another steamer 
is on hand for the same owner. 

BAPk.— On February 28th Messrs. Mackie A Thomson 
launched at Oovan a steam screw trawler named the Sark, for 
the Steam Fishing and Ice Co., Hull. Her dimensions are- 
Length, between perpendiculars, 90 ft. ; extreme breadth, 20 ft. 
6 in. ; depth, moulded. 11 ft. 10 in., with a tonna^of 150 tons. 
The engines have been made by Messrs. Mnir ft Houston. 

Herallia.— On March. 11th Messrs. Bamage A Ferguson* 
Limited, launched from their shipbuilding yard at Leith. a 
very finely modelled steel steam yacht of about 450 tons yacht 
measurement, built to their own design and to the order of 
the Bev. John Hutchison, D.D., Afton Lod^. Bonnington, 
Edinburgh. The principal dimensions are— Lensth 161 ft., 
between perpendiculars ; breadth, 24 ft., and depth, moulded, 
15 ft., while the engines are of the builders' most improved 
^rpe of triple-expansion, with cylinders 15 in., 24 in. and 39 in. 
mam. by 27 in. stroke, supplied with steam from a large steel 
boiler working up to 160 lbs. pressure. The arrauj^ement of 
state-rooms and cabins below provides accommodation for the 
owner and a large number of guests, while the fittings through- 
out are in light oak of a most tasteful description. On deck 
there is a large deck saloon, chart-room, captain's room, galley, 
and the other usual fittings of a first-class yacht. Throughout 
the yacht the builders have introduced all the most recent 
appliances and fittings, and when finished there is little doubt 
but she wiU prove to be one of the most comfortable and 
perfect vessels afloat. On leaving the ways the y^oht was 
named HertiUa by Miss Hutchison, of Afton Lodge, Edinburgh. 
A large number of ladies and gentlemen witnessed the launch, 
and were afterwards entertained by the builders, when the 
toasts usual on such occasions were duly honoured. 

KaD8a.-0n March 12th Messrs. Scott ft Co., Greenock, 
launched a steel screw steamer, named the Kcmiu, for the 
China Navigation Co., Limited. Dimensions: — Length, 
260 ft. : breadth, 88 ft. ; depth, 22| ft. ; with a carrying 
capacity of 2,400 tons. The builders will supply triple- 
expansion engines of 1,500 l.H.P. This is the fourth steamer 
recently launched for this company by Messrs. Scott & Co., 
and there are six more to follow. 

Doni8.^0n March 18th Messrs. Lobnitz ft Co., Benfrew, 
launched a handsome steam yacht of 170 tons for Mr. Thomas 
Boiddn. The yacht has been built to the design and under 
the superintendence of Mr. A. H. Brown. N.A., London, and 
will be fitted with triple-expansion engines by the builders. 
On leaving the ways the yacht was chnstened Dorris by Miss 
Jenny Young, of Hulbum House, Benfrew. 

Norwood.— On March 18th Messrs. Hall, Kussell ft Co. 
laundied at Aberdeen a steel screw steamer built to the order 
of the Aberdeen, Newcastle and Hull Steam Shipping Co. The 
vessel, which was built to take the place of the steamer 
OounUta of Aberdeen, recently lost, is of the following 
dimensions:— LengUi, 229 ft.; breadth, 80 ft.; depth, 16 ft. 
6 in. ; and 800 tons gross register. She was built to class 
100 Al at Lloyd's, and was named Norwood. 

deopatra. — On March 18th Messrs. Caird ft Co. launched 
at Greenock, a mail and passenger steamer of 4.000 tons 
register for the Austrian Lloyd's Steam Navigation Co. The 
new vessel was named Cleopatra by Madame Von Kodolitch. 
wife of the technical director of the Austrian Lloyd's Steam 
Navigation Co. The dimensions of the new vessel are as 
follows:— Length, 877 ft. ; breadth, 44 ft. 9 in.; and depth, 
80 ft 6 in., moulded, and of 4,100 tons gross. She will be 
supplied bv the builders with triple-expansion ensines of 
between 4,090 and 5,000 l.H.P. Buut of the best steel, and in 
accordance with Lloyd's highest requirements for a spar-deck 
ship, the CUopatra has accommodation for 80 first, 40 second, 
and about 200 third-class passengers. 

InikoBdoroiiB. — On March 14th there was launched by 
Messrs. John Fuilerton ft Co., Paisley, the first of three sted 
screw steamers of about 200 tons each which they are building 
to the order of Messrs. Thomson ft Oampbdl, London, for a 
foreign Government. The steamer has been specially designed 
as a revenue cruiser, commodious accommodation being fitted 



[April 1, 1896. 

for officers and orew. Powerfol eleotrio learoblight is fitted 
on the bridge, look-out cage on foremast, steam windlass, 
steam steering gear by Raid, of Paisley, along with other 
specialities. Compound engines of great power are being 
hupplied by Messrs. Boss & Duncan, Gk>van, for high speed. 
The owners were represented by Mr. J. B. Campbell, of 
London, and Captain Kyle, under whose superintendence the 
steamers are being built. The steamer was named Intkmiderotm 
by Mrs. Alex. Fullerton. Glendoy, Bridge of Weir. 

Beiuddep.— On Thursday afternoon, March 14th, Messrs. 
Alex. Stephen & Sons launched from their works at Linthonse, 
a handsomely-modelled steel screw steamer, being the sixth 
steamer built by this firm to the order of Messrs. Wm. Thom- 
son A Co., Leith, for their well-known <*Ben " line of China 
s^d Japan traders. The vessel is of the following dimensions : 
Length, between perpendiculars, 880 ft., brcMth, extreme. 
41 ft. 9 in., depth, moulded, 27 ft., and has been constructed 
under Lloyd^s supervision for their highest class of 100 Al 
three deck rule, oonforming also with idl the Board of Trade 
requirements for passenger certificate. Like all the steamers 
of this line, she has the now uncommon but graceful cutwater 
bow surmounted with a handsome carved figure-head and trail- 
boards, and being of two-masted schooner rig with yellow 
funnel, the vessel has quite a yacht-like appearance in the 
water. The deck erections consists of full poop, bridge deck 
enclosing engine and boiler casing, and topgallant forecastle. 
She has been constructed with a double bottom on celluLur 
principle for water baUast, has six steam winches, steam 
capstan windlass, steam steering gear and all the latest and 
most approved appliances for the efficient and economical 
handling of ship and cargo, special attention being given to 
facilities for rapid loading and discharging. Under the bridge 
deck, accommodation is provided at the fore end, for saloon, 
captain's room and spare state rooms, while the dfioers and 
engineers are located at after end; all spaces being fitted up in 
a substantial and comfortable manner. The crew, as usual, are 
berthed in the topgallant forecastle. The engines, which were 
fitted on board before launching, are of the most improved 
triple-expansion type, having cylinders 25 in., 41 in , and 67 in. 
diameter, by 42 in. stroke, steam being supplied from two extra 
large steel boilers at 160 lbs. pressure. As the vessel left the 
ways she was gracefully named the Benalder, by Mrs. lliomson, 
wife of Captain Bobert W. Thomson, who is to take command 
of the vessel. 

Bfieady. — On March 25th Messrs. Bamage & Ferguson, 
Limited, launched from their ^ipbuilding yard at Leith. a 
steam yacht of 110 tons, built to the order of Baron Banreto, 
Brandon Park, Soffolk. and from the designs of Dixon Kemp, 
Esq., of London. The yacht is fitted with triple-expansion 
en^es of the builder's design, and is expected to steam 18 knots 
on trial. The ceremony of naming the yacht Speedy was 
gracefully performed by Mrs. Bamage, of the Hawthorns, in the 
unavoidable absence of the Baroness Barreto. 


Ulefhany.— On February 2Ut the s.s. Alleghahy, built by 
Messrs. B. Napier A Sons, Qovan, for the Atlas Steamship Co., 
went on her trials. This vessel has been built to fonn one of the 
line of steamers which run between New York, Hayti, Jamaica, 
and the Bepnblics of Colombia and Costa Bica. In view 
of the warm climate in the trade in which the Alleghany 
is to be employed, the passenger aocommodation is placed 
entirely above the main deck and amidships, the 80 large 
etate-rooms provided for the complement of 60 saloon passen- 
gers being on this deck, whilst the dining saloon, social hall, 
smoking-room, and the othem modem aeoessories required for 
comfortable passenger travel are in commodious houses on the 
promenade deck, above the sleeping accommodation. The 
general dimensions are:~Length, 322 ft.; breadth. 88 ft.; 
depth, moulded. 26 ft. : with a topgallant forecastle, bridge- 
house, and poop aft. and has been built under special survey to 
the highest grade of the British Corporation, with the Board of 
Trade requirements for passenger steamers, and also hi accord- 
anoe with the American Government rules. A very complete 
installation of electric lighting has been fitted throughout the 
vessel. The machinery consists of a set of triple-expansion 
«ngines; with cylinders of 24 in. for the high pressure; inter- 

mediate, 40 in. ; and low pressure, 68 in., with a stroke of 48 
iv. These are supplied by two unusually large single-ended 
boilers, carrying 200 lbs. pressure of steam, fitted with 
Howden*8 forced draught, the intention being to maintain an 
I.H.P. of over 2,000, to propel the vessel at a mean speed of 
nearly 14 knots per hour. The object of the high speed is to 
enable the vessel to bring cargoes of bananas from Costa Bica 
to New York in the shortest possible time, as the fruit is very 
perishable m its nature. The specifications for the ship and 
enemes were prepared for the owners by Messrs. William £rolan 
ft Son, of Liverpool, who also superintended the construcuon. 
This is the first vessel built by the firm for the Atlas Co.. whioh 
has a fleet of nine vessels solely employed in the trade between 
New York and the West Indies, making six voyages every 
month. These vessels are in close connection with the liners 
from Glasgow, Liveipool, and London, and carry large quanti- 
ties of British manunustures and many passengers to the tropica 
by a system of through arrangement with the owners of these 
vessels. The trials, which lasted all day, were conducted off 
Wemyss Bay, and several runs were made on the measured 
mile, at varying revolutions of the engines, for the purpose of 
testing the speed attainable with different powers developed. 
The engines worked smoothly and satisfactorily during the 
entire trials, and the result obtained exceeded the owners* 

Rlverdale.— On February 28rd the steamer RiverdtUe went 
down the Firth of Clyde on her trial trip. The SiverdaU was 
built to the order of Messrs. James Little A Co.. Glasgow, by 
Messrs. Charles Connelly Co., Whiteinch, and engined by Messrs. 
Dunsmuir ft Jackson, Govan. She is an awning-deok vessel. 
820 ft. long, 42 ft. wide, and 28 ft. in depth from the awning 
deck. Her enf^ines are 23 in., 88 in., and 62 in., by 42 in. stroke. 
Built to the highest class of the British Corporauon, her dead- 
weight capadty is 4,900 tons. She is fitted with all 
the latest appliances for the economical working and rapid dis- 
charge of cargo. The Riverdale is intended principally for the 
Eastern trade, and will be commanded by Captam Lawrence, 
who has had wide enerienoe in that and other routes. The 
vessel cruised about the firth for several hours, and her per- 
formance in the matter of steaming power was regarded as 
satisfactory both by owners and builders. In the course of the 
day luncheon was served in the saloon. Mr. Charles Connellpre- 
sided, and among those present were Mr. H. W. Little, Mr. F. L. 
Wrede, and Mr. T. L. Duff, of the firm of Messrs. James Little 
A Co. ; Mr. Archibald Denny, Dumbarton ; Mr. Peter Denny, 
jun., Dumbarton ; Mr. Wm. Jackson, Mr. Peter M'Lellan, 
Captain Lawrence, and Captain J. B. Murray, marine superin- 

Theme.— On Saturday, February 28rd, the steel screw 
steamer s.8. Themes built to the order of W. A. Grainger, Esq., 
Belfast, by Messrs. The Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., Troon, had her 
trial trip in Belfast Lough. The vessel is of the following 
diminsions : — Length, between perpendiculars, 176 ft. ; breadth, 
26 ft. 6 in. ; depth, moulded, 18 ft. 7 io. She has been built 
under special survey, and classed 100 Al at Lloyd's, and is 
fitted throughout with all the most recent appliances for a first- 
class cargo coasting steamer. The engines, whioh are of the 
triple-expansion t^^, have been built and fitted on boMrd by 
Messrs. Victor Coates & Co., Limited. Belfast, cylinders 
being 14 in., 28 in., and 39 in., by 83 in. stroke ; working at a 
pressure of 180 lbs. per square inch, steam being suppUed by 
one steel boiler with patent furnaces. The engines worked 
admirably, the trial being highly successful and satisfactory to all 
concemea. The vessel was deugned and constructed under the 
superintendence of Mr. H. MacCoU, of Belfast. After the trial 
tnp the Theme proceeded to Troon. It may be interesting to 
note that this is the first ship built in Scotland and sent to Bel- 
fast to have the engines and boilers fitted on board. 

Carperlay.—On Wednesday, February 27th, the s.b. Carperley, 
which has been built by Messrs. Bopner A Son, Stockton-on- 
Tees, was taken to sea for trial trip. She is of the following 
dimensions, viz. :— Length, between perpendiculars. 275 ft. ; 
breadth, 89 ft. 6 in. ; depth, moulded, 19 ft. ; and is classed 
100 Al at Lloyd's. She has a break poop, raised quarter and a 
partial-awning deck extending continuously from abaft the 
engine-room right forward, with chart-house amidships, and 
also large iron houses containing roomy accommodation for the 
engineers. The saloon and cabins for captain and officers are 
in the poop aft, and the crew and firemen are berthed in the 
forecastle forward. The steamer has web frames in all 

April 1, 1895.1 



Ottrffo holds, dispensiiig with beams, and has a oellolar 
boMom and after peak tank for water ballast. Emerson, 
Walker A Go.'s patent steam windlass, Davis's steam steering 
gear amidships, with Hastie's screw gear aft, fonr large steam 
winches, two donkey boilers, working at the same pressure as 
the main boilers, shifting boards, stooldess anchors, and all the 
latest appliances for lending and discharging quickly. Her 
triple-expansion engines are by Messrs. Blair & Co., having 
oylinders 21 in., 84 in., and 56 in., by 86 in. stroke, with two 
Uurfls steel boilers, working at a pressure of 160 lbs., and fitted 
with an improved evaporator. Everything worked in a most 
satiBfaotory manner, a speed of 10} knots per hour being 
attained. The steamer has been built for Messrs. B. Bopner <fe 
Oa, West Hartlepool, and wiU carry 8,000 tons deadweight on 
16 ft. 8he has also a large cubical capacity. 

81iedjreehi.~0n February 28th the new steel screw steamer 
SlUdrecht Itf t the Tyne on a trial trip. The vessel, which is a 
fine specimen of a cargo steamer, has been built bv Messrs. 
Wood, Skinner & Co., of Bill Quay-on-Tyne, to the order of Mr. 
Phs. van Ommeren, of Botfrdam. The SUedncht is of the 
well-deck type, with cellular double bottom all fore and aft, and 
has been constructed under special survey for Lloyd's highest 
classification, viz., 100 Al. The principal dimensions of the 
vessel are :— Length. 285 ft. over sJl ; breadth, 89 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 20 ft. ; and she has a deadweight carnring capacity of 
8,200 tons. The engines, which have baen built and fitted by 
ihe North- Eastern Marine Engineering Co., are of the triple- 
expansion type, having cylinders 21 in., 35 in., and 58 in., and 
89 in. stroke. During the loaded trial the ship attained an 
average speed of Of knots against a pretty strong head sea, the 
machinery working without the least hitch, the owners and all 
on board expressing themselves highly satisfied with the vessel 
and the results obtained. Captain C. G. Heidemann,of Better- 
dam, who has superintended the building of the vessel, has now 
taken oommand of her^ 

ToUo.— This fine steel screw steamer, built by Messrs. 
Bichardson, Duck & Co., for Messrs. Thomas Wilson, Sons <fe 
Co.'s Eastern trade, was taken for trial on Friday, March 1st, 
after loading bunkers and part of her cargo in Middlesbro' dock, 
a total of about 3,800 tons. She has been built to Lloyd's high- 
est class, on the three-deck rule, and is of the following dimen- 
'sions, viz. :— Length, over all, 376 ft. ; beam. 4.5 ft. 6 in. : depth, 
moulded, SO ft. The deck erections consist of poop, bridge, and 
topgallant forecastle. A handsome saloon and state-rooms have 
bc«n fitted up in an iron house on bridge deck for passengers 
and captain, chart and wheel-house being on top of uiis house. 
The steam steering engine placed in engine-room is worked by 
shafting from wheelhouse. Ample accommodation for officers 
and engineers is fitted in an iron house at after end of engine- 
room on upper deck. Crew and petty officers are berthed in 
forecastle under upper deck, with large sleeping berths; also 
mess-room and lavatory. A cellular double bottom is fitted 
fore and aft for water ballast. She has also fore-and-aft peak 
tanks, 7 steam winches, double derricks to all hatches, steam 
windlass, stockless anohom, etc. The eninnes, by Messrs. Blair 
A Co., Limited, have cylinders 24j^in., 40} in., 66} in., bv 42 in. 
stroke ; steam being supplied by three large boilers working at 
180 lbs. pressure. The vessel left Middlesbro' on Friday morn- 
ing at 6 o'clock, and after the compasses h^d been adjusted the 
run for Hull, where she will complete loading, wasoonunenced. 
Ftom South Gtare light to Spurn Head light, a mean speed of 
11} knots, with 59 revolutions to the minute, was ootained, the 
engines working very satisfactorily. The owners* surveyors, 
MeflBTR. J. F. WHkins and John Spear, who were on board, were 
very pleased with the vessel's perlorQauoes. 

Btelnberger.— On March 1st the trial trip of the fine steel 
screw steamer StHnberger took place in Tees Bay. This vessel 
has been constructed by Sir Raylton Dixon ft Co.. Cleveland 
Dockyard, Middlesbro', for the Hansa Steamship Co., of 
Bremen, and is the fourth steamer built for the same owners 
within the last 20 months, a dujolicate being now also on the 
stocks. Her principal dimensions are :— Length, 852 ft. ; 
breadth, 44 ft. ; depth, moulded, 29 ft. 7 in.t and she has a 
deadweight carrying capsoity of about 5,500 tons. The upper 
decks are of teak, the main deck of steel and the vei«el is 
divided by six watertight bulkheads The cabin accommoda- 
tion (placed amidships), and fittings are of the best description, 
and the vessel is supplied with all the latest appliances for the 
rapid loading and discharging of cargo. Triple-expansion 
engines of the latest design have been fitted by Messrs. T 

Bichardson & Sons, Limited, Hartlepool, with cyhnders 25 in., 
89 in.. 67 in., by 45 in. stroke. A full-speed run of some hours' 
duration was made, during which time tiie engines worked to 
the entire satisfaction of all on board. The boilers steamed 
easily at 180 lbs. pressure. At the conclusion of tiie trial trip 
the vessel proceeded direct to Antwerp. The hull and 
machinery have been constructed under the personal supervision 
of Mr. D. Wulff, superintendent engineer to the Hansa Co. 

Warrior. — On March 1st the new hron screw steam tug 
Wunior^ built and engined by Messrs. J. P. fiennoldson & 
Sons^ of South Shields, proceeded to sea from the Tyne on her 
official trial trip. The dimensions sre, 105 ft. between perpen- 
diculars, by 20 ft. beam by 12 ft. depth moulded. A raised deck 
fitted forward, extending from stem to bridge, renders the 
vessel specially suitable for sea towing. The btmkers, placed 
amidships, are of eztia size, having capacity for 100 tons. 
The propelling machinery consists of a set of triple-compound 
Bturface-oondensing engines of 500 I.H.P., the cylinders being 
18} in., 22 in., and 86 m. in diameter by 24 in. stroke of piston. 
Steam is supplied by one steel tubular boiler of extra size, 
having a worlung pressure of 160 lbs. The Warrior has been 
built to the order of Messrs. Dick & Page, of London. The 
trial throughout gave most satisfactory results, fully 12 knots 
per hour being attained. 

Premier.— On March 2nd the s s. Premier, a new well fishing 
vessel, built by Messrs. Cochrane k Cooper, Beverley, to the 
order of the Anchor Steam Fishing Co., Limited, Grimsby, 
went on trial trip. The Premier, which is of the follow- 
ing dimensions :— 107 ft., by 21 ft., by 11 ft. 6 in. depth of hold, 
has triple-expansion engines of 50 N.u.P., fitted by Messrs. C. 
D. Holmes A Co., Hull. The vessel gave great satisfaction, 
the machinery throughout the whole run working without the 
slightest hitch. She oehaved well, and showed herself to be a 
splendid sea-boat, the trial being thoroughly successful and 
entirely to the satisfaction of the owners.. 

Marino.— On March 2ud the trial of this steamer, built by 
Messrs. Harland 8c WoIfF, and owned by Messrs. Thomas Dixon 
A Sons, of Belfast, took place on the Clyde. After a euocess- 
ful run the ship proceeded to Cardiff to load for Bombay. The 
Marino is a steel vessel, 870 ft. long, 43 ft. broad, about 31 ft. 
deep, and 8,744 tons register. She is propelled by triple-expan- 
sion engines, having cylinders 24 in., 40 in., and 66 in. diameter, 
and 42 in. stroke. 

W. A. Massey.— On Saturday, March 2nd, the trial trip of the 
W. A. Mastey, the new steam pilot cutter, took place, and was 
an event which will rank firat in importance in the history of 
the fl umber Pilotage service. Hitherto the work of serving 
fihlps at sea has been restricted to sailing cutters, but for years 
the pilots have been agitating for the mtroduction of steam 
into the service, believing that its advantages would far out- 
weigh the present method, and add immeastirably to the 
efficiency of the pilotage system. The W, A, Mauey is the 
pioneer in steam pilotage outside the Thames, and all who 
have been instrumental in launching the new steam venture 
are sanguine of her success. On Saturday morning the W. A. 
Money was moored at the Minerva Pier ready for departure on 
her first trip to the North Sea. There were about 80 gentlemen 
on board. Shortly before 11 o'clock the ropes were cast off, 
and the start was made. The vessel went beautifully down 
stream towards the mouth of the Humber. her enj^nes working 
splendidly. Off Grimsby the compasses were adjusted by Mr. 
Olsen. of that port. A heavy northerlv swell was running, 
with a smart breeze, but the ship proved herself a splendid sea 
boat, and did not take a drop of water on board. The log, 
which was timed by Mr. Olsen, was hauled in after an hour^s 
run, and the speed of the cutter ascertained to be 9{ knots. As 
onl^ 9} knots had been guaranteed, the trial was considered 
emmently satisfactory, and more particularly so as there was 
a heavy swell and the firemen were " hors de combat." 

Rotiall.— On March 12th the s.s. lUmaU went on her trial 
trip. She is a fine steel screw steamer, built by Messrs. Wm. 
Gray ft Co., Limited, to the order of Messrs. Galbraith, Pem- 
broke it Co.. of London. She takes Lloyd's highest class, and 
her dimensions are : — Length, over all, 822 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; 
and depth, 26 ft. The deck erections consist of a half poop, 
bridge over machinery space, and a forecastle deck. The 
saloon and cabin are aft. tne engineers' rooms in the after part 
of the bridge deck, and the crew's accommodation forward. 
The hull is ouilt on tiie web-frame system, with double bottom 



[April 1, 1895 

under eaob hold. Large hatchways are fitted, foar steam 
winches, steam steering sear amidships, screw gear aft, two 
donkey boilers, patent direct steam windlass, and shifting 
hoards thronghont, stockless anchors, two masts telescopic, 
with schooner rig, and all modem working appliances for 
general trading. The engines are of the triple-expansion type, 
and have been supplied by the Central Marine Engine Works 
The cylinders are 28 in., 86 in., and 62 in. in diameter, with a 
piston stroke of 89 in., and steam is supplied by two large steel 
boilers, working at a pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. The 
S.S. Ro$$aU is the fifth steamer engined at the Central Marine 
Engine Works for Messrs. Galbraith, Pembroke & Co. The 
veesel left the harbour about noon, and after adjusting com- 
passes the engines were driven full speed till dusk, everything 
working in a highly satisfactory manner, there being no hitch 
or trouble of any land, and no water whatever applied to any 
bearing. The supplementary feed is made up by one of 
Mudd's patent evaporators, and the tail shaft is fitted with 
the patent preserver sleeve. The veesel and her machinery 
have been built under the superintendence of Capt. Page and 
and Mr. T. 0. Charters, both of which gentlemen were on board 
at the trial, and accompanied the vessel to Cardiff, to which 
port she immediately proceeded at the end of a most successful 
trial trip. The shipbuilders were represented on the trial 
bv Capt. J. Murrell, and the engine builders by Mr. Thomas 

Monareh.—On March 14th the new steam trawler Monarch 
went on trial trip. The Monarch, which has been built to the 
order of the Anchor Steam Fishing Co , Limited, Grimsby, by 
Messrs. Cochrane & Cooper, Bever&y, and engined by Messrs. 
C. D. Holmes k Co , Hull, is of the following dimensions : — 
98 ft. by 20 ft. 6 in., by 11 ft. depth of hold, with triple-expan- 
sion engines of 40 N.H.P. The machinery worked splendidly 
throui^ont the whole run, the vessel showing herself to be a 
splendid sea boat, the trial being Uioroughly successful and 
entirely to the satisfaction of the owners. The owners were 
repreeented by Mr. Lettere and Mr. Bennett, the builders by 
Mr. Cochrane, and the engineers by Mr. Holmes. 

Mount Birioii.— On March 15th the new steel screw steamer, 
Ifoimt Bifion, recently launched from the shipbuilding yard of 
Messrs. Workman. Clark & Co., Limited, Belfast, prooeeded 
down Belfast Lough on her trial trip. This vessel has been 
built to the order of Messrs. Smith & Service, of Glasgow, and 
specially designed for their requirements. The dimensions 
are:— Length, 885 ft.; breadth, 48 ft. 6 in. moulded; depth, 
moulded, 28 ft. 9 in., with a gross tonnage of 8,280 tons, and a 
large deadweight carrying ci^)acity. The vessel has been built 
to class 100 Al at Lloyd's, and also in accordance with the 
requirements of the British Corporation. Deep framing has been 
introduced instead of hold beams and quarter pillars dispensed 
with to obtain the most favourable stowage capacity. The 
spar deck is of iron and the main of steel, witn beams fitted to 
each frame. Six wf^tertight bulkheads subdivide the ship, 
giving four cargo holds, each provided with ample hatchways, 
the two larger ones each having two steam winches with the 
derricks outrigged to suit. The deck erections consist of a noop, 
bridge and topgallant forecastle. In the bridge is placed the 
accommodation for the captain and officers wiw the saloon in 
the front of the bridge. The engineers' rooms are in wing* 
houses at the after end, and under the forecastle deck are the 
crew's quarters. The poop is arranged with a hatch and suited 
for cargo purposes. Ritchie's bituminous cement has been 
introduced for the cementing of the inside and top of the 
cellular double bottom, and other parts of the vessel usually 
coated with Portland cement. All the deck machinery and 
other fittings are of the most approved type and construction, 
and include Muir <fe Caldwell's steam-steering engine and 
Wilson's winches. The Mount Sirion is rigged as a two-masted 
fore-and-aft schooner, with the masts arranged on the tele- 
scopic principle to suit the Manchester Canal. The machinery 
has been constructed at the builder's engine works, and consist 
of triple-expansion engines of the most modem type with 
cylinders of 28 in., 37 in., 68 in. diameter, stroke 42 in. Steam 
is supplied from two large steel boilers at a working pressure 
of 180 lbs , and a large horizontal auxiliary boiler provides for 
the deck machinery. After cruising about Belfast Lough for 
some time, the vessel was run on &e measured mile when an 
average speed of 11} knots was obtained. 

H.M.8. Borly.— The Surly, the last of the three torpedo boats 
which Messrs. James & George Thomson, Limited, Clydebank, 

are building for the Admiralty, went on her official trials on 
the 15th ult., in the Firth of Clyde. The weather was of the 
most unfavourable description. Bain fell heavily from the 
start, and there wan a strong breeze from the south-west. The 
vessel left Clvdebank shortly before ten o'clock, and proceeded 
direct to Skelmorlie. On six runs over the measured mile her 
mean speed was 27*6 knots— the corresponding revolutions 
being 398 — which even under the unfavourable conditions was 
in excess of the guarantee. To complete the three hours* 
continuous steaming stipulated in the contract, the run was 
continued down firUi. Outside the head wind was. if any- 
thing, stronger, and the sea less favourable to fast steaming, 
but Uie pace actually improved as the trial advanced, and when 
the return voyage was commenced, just to thei-outh of Arran, 
the little veesel was travelling astonishinglv fast, and with a 
smoothness that reflected the greatest credit on the builders. 
In the Surly Messrs. Thomson have progressed, as they invari- 
ably do, with succeeding vessels of &e same type, for at the 
end of her three hours' run the mean speed came out at 28*05 
knots, the revolutions being 405. The steering trials — ^rather a 
tecUous process after 28 knots — ^followed, and by half -past five 
o'clock the vessel was beside her sister ships— i2ocA«( and Shark 
^in the dock at Clvdebank. The builders, who were, it may 
be' recollected, the first private firm to complete their contracts 
under the Naval Defence Act of 1889, are also the first to 
deliver three torpedo boats of the current contract. The 
mean speed of the Surly on the three hours' run is, it may be 
noted, amongst the highest, if not actually the highest, yet 
recorded for the class. Mr. Welsh, of the Constructors' Depart- 
ment, and Mr. Ellis, of the Steam Department, watched the 
trials on behalf of the Admiralty, and the builders were repre- 
sented by Mr. George P.Thomson and Mr. J. G. Dnnlop. 
The RocketU average on the mearared mile was 277 knots, and 
on the six hours' rxm 27*4, and the Shark'i were 27*5 and 27*6 
respectively. ' 

8t«P of Nev Zealand^— On March 21st this new steamer 
proceeded down Belfast Lough on her trial trip, having on 
board a party representing the owners and builders. She is the 
fourth vessel built byMeesrs. Workman, Clark <!^ Co. for Messrs. 
J. P. Oorry A Co., London, and is of the following dimensions : 
Length, 393 ft. 6 in., breadth, 46 ft. 7 in.; depth, moulded, 31 ft. 
2 in., with a gross tonnage of 4,712 tons. The vessel is of the 
three-deck type, and built considerably in excess of Lloyd's 
requirements for the 100 Al class, and with upper and main 
decks of steel with the exposed parts of the upper deck 
sheathed. Deep framing has been introduced in place of hold 
beams, which leaves the holds dear for the stowage of cargo. 
A cellular double bottom extends fore and aft for water ballast. 
The forward holds and 'tween decks have been insulated to suit 
the carrying of frozen meat, in which trade the vessel will be 
largely engaged with Austmlia and New Zeidand. The re- 
frigerating machinery and method of insulating sre on the 
most approved principle, and the engine can be worked at the 
full boiler pressure when necessary. 'In order to provide for 
rapid loading and discharging, two powerful steam winches 
have been placed at each of the hatchway* with derricks out- 
rigged to suit. On the upper deck the erections consist of a 
lonsr poop, bridge and topgallant forecastle, the latter extending 
a distance of 120 ft. from the stem, the fore portion contains 
the rooms for the petty officers and crew's quarters, the re- 
mainder is fitted as a cargo hold, and equipped similar to the 
others. In* the bridge is placed the accommodation for the 
engineers and officers who are berthed in winghouses on each 
side of the ship. Across the front of the bridge is placed the 
saloon, which is tastefully finished in oak cima the panels fitted 
in with fioral desiims also on oak. On deck above is the 
captain's house with chart and pilothouse above on the flying 
bridge. The vessel has been ringed aa a two-maste4 brigantine, 
the topmasts as well as , the lower masts being of steel and 
arranged on the telescopic principle. All the deck machinery, 
consisting of winches, steam steering ^fear, windlass, Ae., are 
by approved makers and of special design to suit the owners' 
views. The machinery has bsen oonstructed at the builders* 
engine worlra, and consists of triple-expansion engines with cylin- 
ders 26^ in.. 44 in., and 73 in. diam., stroke 48 in., with steam 
supplied from three large boilers at a working pressure of 
180 Iba. and fitted with Howden's svstem of forced draught,with 
the fans placed in a recess at the fore end of the engine-room 
above the boilers. The boilers are covered with James Duff 
A Co.'s Pearl brand of non-conducting composition. After 
cruising about the Lough for some time the vessel was run on 

April 1, IHU5.] 



the measured mile, when an averai^e speed of 18 knots was 
obtained. The Star of New Zealaful then proceeded on her 
way to London, onder the command of Captain Simpson, to 
load for her maiden voyage. 

Kaliov.— On March 2l8t the new steamer Kaisow, built by 
Hmsts. David A William Henderson ft Go. for the China 
Mutual Steam Navigation Co., of London, went down the 
Clyde for her trial trip. The vessel is of the following dimen- 
aionB:~Length, 370 ft.; breadth, 46 ft.; dept^, 29 ft. 3 in; 
and is fitted with triple-expansion engines, with cylinders. 26 in., 
4S in. and 71 in., with a stroke of 48 in. The owners wererepre- 
santed at the trial trip by Mr. Beid, the chairman, and Mr. 
Onlland, the managing director of the company. As a result 
of a seriea of rons on the measured mile a mean speed of 13) 
knots was attained. The engines worked all dav in a most 
satisfactory manner, and to the entire approval of owners and 
builders. The vessel returned to Glasgow in the evening, 
where she will load for China and Japan. 

AiOT.— On March 22nd the s.b. Azov, recently launched bj 
Meases. Charles Gonnell A Co., Whiteinoh, and built for Sr. 
Sigiamondo Copaitich, Fiume, after loading with a full cargo of 
ooal, want down the Clyde for her tnal trip. She was 
tried on the measured mile for a number of runs, and attained 
the satisfactory speed of over 9) knots. The machinery, whioh 
was supplied by Messrs. Dunsmuir A Jackson, Gk>van, worked 
moat satisfactorily, and the vessel proceeded to sea in the 

Model Engine Cottitmetion. By J. Alexander. Whittaker <fe 
Co., of 2, White Hart Street. Paternoster Square, London, 
and 66, Fifth Avenue. New York. 
Ths book that is now before us is an extensive treatise on 
the subject of model engine construction, and the author has 
moat probably produced a more complete volume on the matter 
than has hitherto been done. There is no doubt in our mind 
that a oonsiderable amount of educational value attaches to the 
manufacture of working models to the youth during his 
apprenticeship, not so much on account of the practice afforded 
in the uae of tools, but as a means of inducing thought on the 
Tarious points of detail of construction, and mode of woridng 
of a mawiine, and enabling the student to more readily grasp 
them, than could be done by mere textbook study. The study 
of oaose and effect in a concrete form is far more acceptable 
to a atodent than any possible presentation of facts in an 
abatract f orm. 

The volume is certainly very bulky indeed for the matter 
oontained therein, and it is diffioidt to understand whv it was 
not set out in a more compact form. The volume contMns some- 
thing over SCO pages, the subject matter beinfr interspersed with 
59 illustrations of details of construction. In addition, there 
are 21 sheets of drawings, giving details of various types of 
boilera. engines and other mechanical appliances. The volume 
commences with a description of and method of using the various 
tools requisite in the manufacture of models. The details of 
oonstruction of boilers and their fittings are then dealt with in 
exteneo, in such a way as to enable any person with ordmary 
intelligence to construct either one or other of the tjrpee 
indicated. The author then proceeds to describe parts of a 
steam engine, the machinery and finishing of those parts, and 
filially their erection into the form of a complete working 
machine. The remainder of the book comprises descriptions 
relating to various classes of engines, a full detailed construction 
being given of each type. On the whole, it must be said that 
the author has treated his subject in a fairly complete manner, 
whioh will make the book very acceptable to those for whom 
it is written. 

Hew Editlom.— "Poole's Fraotical Telephone Handbook.*' 
Messrs. Whittaker A Co. announce the issue in a fev days of a 
revised and enlarged edition of the above popular work. It is 
made more complete and up to date by the addition of ohe ptor« 
on ** Electrical Measurements and Metallic Circuit Working" 
And a oonsiderable amonnt of other new matter. The same firm 
annonnoe the third edition of " Electricity in our Hornes and 
Workshops," by Sydney F. Walker, revised and brought up to 
date. The chapters on '* Telephones " has been re- written, and 
a chapter added, dealing witti dry batteries. A new edition 
of Mr. Allsop's " Practical Electric Light Fitting" hts recently 
been issued by the same publishers. 

[li muet be underttood that^ in giving intertion to wmt m m ieetU me 
a^der this hemding^ we do not in any iroy pledge oureehee to the 
opiniont pre/erred therein, We wM with pleueure ineert onf 
lettere Ukely to benefit our readere^ either from their intrineie 
value or ae being caleulated to promote iueh dieeueeion ae will 
elicit faete valnabh/rom their b9ing the reeuU of praetieeA 
experienee.—Bif. M. B.] 

To the Editor of The Marine Enoinbbk. 

Sir, — I have taken care to keep separate the two distinct 
subjects of the eomtanqf ana the amount of acceleration of 

My paper to which yon have taken exception discusses only 
the comfancy, and reserves for a farther paper the discussion of 

It seems to have escaped your notice that I distingnish the 
velocity, whioh is a transitory phase of a ship getting underweigh 
(a velocity contioually changing) from a fuU tpeed of that vesseL 

Say hor fall speed is 20 knots. On her way up to the 20* knot 
speed she has momentary velocities regularly increasing from 
zero up to 20 knots. And yet when she was momentarily en- 
dowed with a 15 or 16 or 17 knot velocity during her aooelerative 
ran she was not in the same hydrodynamic state aa when 
running at full speeds of 15 or 16 or 17 Imots ; for a fall speed is 
quite SiFerent from a momentary velocity of the same nomeral 
value. And so, to avoid confusion, it bicomes necessary to 
clearly distingnish between one and the other. 

Let it be granted, for argament's sake, that '* within certain 
limits resistance increases as the square of the speed." 

Nothing whioh I have advanced in my paper denies or ques* 
tions that statement. The conflict whioh yoa seem to think 
exists between my statements on this point and generally 
recoimited theory is imaginary, and arises from your having 
treated my references to momentary velocities as though they 
referred to fall speeds. 

If a ship St twenty kno^s* full ppeed met resistance 
1 W I 

= rx^ displacement (, if . = ^ ) and if the resistance 

200 D 200 

varied ss the square of the speed, then st a full speed ^ 

10 knots the resistance would be 

would - ^ 

^^^ displacement (i,*., - 
800 D 

Now in both these cnses the aooelerative run would have 
momentary velocities of I, 8, 8, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 knots. But thes«» 

W 1 
momentary velocities would not when _ = — be hydrodynami- 

Yf \ ^ *^ 

cally the same as when ^ = — . And as these correspondinsr 

D 800 *^ ^^ 

numerals of momentary velocities do not not represent corres- 
ponding hydrodynamic valoes, bo likewise Uie momentary 

velocity of 10 knots, when ^ — — , is of qnite a different value 

D 20U yf I 

and character from the 10 knots' fall speed when -ri — g^ 

As the increment of absoisssd may be constant while the 
increment of ordinates may vary ; so the constancy of accelera- 
tion due to any given -. latio may, and does, consist, with great 

variations, of full speeds of one and the same ship. 

If, even at the highest speeds, resistance continue to vary as 
the square of velocity, the ship which at 20 knots had resistance 

~ oTvTT ^^"pl<^o^i>^®B^> would, when her resistance became equal 
to the displacement {i^,, when ^^ 1) have a full speed of 288 
knots nearly (for tT 200 x 20 = 282-8). 

The aeceUratione of the ship in the three cases above specified, 
will be as follow : — 

For 10 knots' foil speed, the acoel. = ^g ^ 004 ft. per seo. 

>» 20 „ „ „ = ^g ■= 0*16 „ „ 

n288 ., „ ., =-|-g=82-2 „ ^ 

The timee which the ship would occupy in gaining these thiee 
full speads respectively, are : — 



[April 1, 1895. 

For 10 knots, the time = •noal^^ flee. 


„ 20 

S600 X 04 ■ 
8600 X (hie »» ^-*^^ »» 

188.6080 . j5 ^ ,,^iy 


The traveU of the ihip in the three oasefl above specified wiU 
he at follow : — 
For 10 knots the travel to get np speed 

433 Mot. X 10 knota x 6060 ^.^^ ^ 
:= 8664 ft. 

„ 20 ' ^ 

8600 MOt. X i 
311 leo s. X 30 knote x 6090 _ 

8600 MOt. X 3 ~ >> " 

. 15 lect. X 388 knoll x60»0 

The aocel^rative space, or travel of a r^ fall-size model of this 


ship wonld thus prove to be = -^^ = 37 ft nearlj. 

So that in this above case (which i& i rfisomaMythat of a large 
and rather fine- lined ship, of low resistance and considerable ac- 
oelerative travel) your recommendation of poUs 40 ft high 
wonld 11 bout meet the oasA. 

I shonld like to make the experiment as yon propose. Bnt my 
40 ft tank at Wallsend has long given place to my pendulum 
resistance meter tank in Sanderland, which lutter serves to 
measure the speed powexs of ships perfectly (see printed descrip. 
tion herewith inclosed). 

But this Sunderland tank is barely 19 ft. long, and it is not in 
m^ power to re-erect a long tank like that of Wallsend, and fit it 
with poles 40 ft. high, Jnit at present. Bluff small ships of same 
or smaller scale reach their full speeds in much less space. 

Though the above figures are based on the assumption that 
resistaBce at all the speeds varies as the square of speed, if faot 
were not in accord with that assumption my argument, which 
in no degree relies on it, remains unaffected. 

In the above figures themselves I do not think you will find 
anything unreasonably hard to believe, though I have applied, to 
evolve these figures, the same principles as you call in question 
in my paper, both as to comtancy and as to amount of accelera- 

Nature escapes from the rtdMctio ad absurdum which you laid 


at the door of the ^g — accel. theory. Her mode of escape is 
as follows:— ^ 

A small mass of fiuid in motion possesses the same supporting 
or buoying power as a larger mass of fiuid at rest. 

Thus we have seen often enough in the common shooting 
galleries a hollow glass sphere buoyed on the nimble summit of 
a water spray. 

Similarly the water which buoys up a ship at rest^t.^., the 
mass which constitutes the ship's displsoement — ^is a larger mass 
than that which supports her in a state of motion. The difference 
between these two masses, viz., the static and the moving masses 
of displacement may be expressed thus : — 
Let D =^ static displacement mass. 
„ Di =3 displacement muss at the speed produced by W. 

Then D = Dj 4- W. 

I think if you will follow out this last fact to its logical con. 
elusion you will come to see that there is nothing absurd in th^ 

^ g s accel. theory after all. On the contrary, once admit 

that Di 4- W = D, and the ordinary laws of acceleration require 
that the amomit of acceleration shall be what I have stated it is ; 
for the fact we have to deal with is that the virtual mass of the 
ship's displacement in motion is not = O but is — Di ; and so 
W W 

In order to explain this subject further, the principle of pulsa- 
tion, which governs all motion, would have to be exhibited at 
such length as wonld ill comport with a letter of this kind. 

I am, Sir, yours, Ac, 

Frank Caws. 
Ezperimentol Tank, Sunderland, 14th March, 1895. 

[We regret to say that we cannot see that the above is any 
answer at aU to oar reductio ad mbturdum argument. We have 
Boggested a plain experimental test as to wlmther our views or 
those of onr correspondent are sound, and would now prefer, 
on oar part, to allow the matter to rest until that experiment 
baa been tried and reported.— £d. Mibznb Engihsbb.] 

The Maw Imevtoan Liner.— The 8. Paul, the second 
of the two sisters now building at Fhfladelphia for the 
express service of this line, has, it is reported by 
telegraph, met with an unfortunate mishap. Her 
launch was attempted on Monday, the 26th March, and was 
unsncoessf ul. The vessel got partly down the ways and remained 
fixed. She has sustained no damage, as far as is vet known, but 
the work of getting her afloat is expected to be tedious and costly. 
The details of the mishap have not yet tranmired on this side, 
only one evening paper noticing the matter. This journal misled 
its readers as to tne identity of the veaiel by heading the 
announcement with the words ** The United States Navv," and by 
speakinff of the 8. Paul as '' an armoured cruiser," she will, of 
course, be an auxiUary to the United States Navy, and pcoviiion 
will be made for arming her, but hardly foi; amumrifig. 

The Imperial RvsalaB Taeht, the 8Umdm^, was successfully 
launched on March 10th, ftrom the shipyard of Messrs. Bormeis- 
ter A Wain's Bngineering and Bhipbuildinor Go.. Copenhagen, 
in the presence of the Grown Prince and Grown Princess of 
Denmark and a most brilliant gathering. The Standard has 
shared the fate of numerous Bussian ships, material alterations 
having subsequently been made in the orig^l eontraot. Accord- 
ing to report the dimensions were to be as foUows : — Length, 870 
ft. , breadth, 60 ft. } depth, 20 ft. ; with a displaoement of 5,657 
tons. She was to be coated with teak and copper to above the 
water-line. The engines were to be compound, wiUi two pro- 
pellers, capable of indkwting 10,600 H.P. The contract speed 
was 20 knots, and the time of delivery May 1st, 1805. The con- 
tract wss subsequently altered, the copper coating was abandoned« 
the breadth was increased to 50 ft 6 in., and the displacement 
reduced to 5.200 tons. The engines were to be triple-expansion, 
and the boilers after the Belleville system, whilst power and 
tpeed remained unaltered. The yacht will, on the upper deck, 
have two saloons, a drawing-room, and a dining-sakx>n capable of 
seating 60 persons. On the main deck will Im a saloon for the 
Imperial family furthest aft, besides a smaller dining-saloon and 
rooms for the Smperor and Empress, the l>ow8ger-£npress, and 
the grand dukes. There will also be rooms for the Imperial 
suite, the Naval Minister, and for the General AdmiraL Forward 
will be the quarters of the officers. On the intermediate deck 
will be dining-salcons and saloons for the suite, and some rooms 
for servants and crew. On the lower dec^ will be rooms for the 
non-oonmiissioned officers, Ac. The Standard is the largeat ship 
ever launched from a Scandinavian shipyard. 

The Tipttair and the Lady; or, the Man who did not 

Oatoh a *' Tartar."— It has often been asked why the Admiralty 
anc* Probate Divisions are amalgamated. I do not now pro- 
pose to answer that question, but I would notice the fact that 
the ofi&cials of the one part of the court do not seem to refer to 
those of the other, or to volimteer them advice. On the last 
sailing of the Gastle liner Tartar to the Cape, it was announced 
when the President sat at 10.30 on the sailing morning, that 
a young lady who was bound to appear that day in court had 
committed, or was oomitting. a ** contempt" by proceeding 
to the Cape instead of appearing before his lordship. After 
some little discussion, the tipstaff was sent off at 11.80 a.m. 
to fetch her. He found that she had left Waterloo by the 
Castle express at 11.40 a.m., and missing that, he returned 
empty handed. Had he known what some of thoee in court 
knew, he might — if he would — ^have spent an hour or two more 
in London, and yet boarded the mail boat in Southampton 
water. The last time I visited the Port of Southampton, I 
left Waterloo at 12.30 on the Saturday in a comfortable iBoume- 
moath express, which took me to Southampton West in an hour 
and forty minutes. I had an excellent lunch at the Pier Hotel, 
spent a pleasant hour on board the new South-Westem liner 
Oolumbia, with Mr. John Dixon the genial superintendent of 
the docks, &nd then walked to the mafl tender which took me 
down to the liner off Calshot point. On that occasion the sail- 
ing was made by the Roilin CoMtU, which had just had a 
thorough overhaul, and whilst the msils were taken on board 
Captain Travers showed me with pride the alterations which 
had takenplaoe. It was all done easily, quickly and without 
bustle. We cannot suppose that tipstaffs have less facilities 
than the writer of this column, and we must conclude that he 
did not wish to be successful in the chase of his fair quarry. 

April 1, l«95,] 



Raoent applioatioiis for Patents oonneotad with 
Marine Bngineerintfi Ship Constraotlon and 
Meohanloal Appliances for use in Ships, from 
February 16th, to March ISth, 1896. 













J. CM07. Steam rtXrw. 

J. GttMy. Cooslmotion of port holes for ships. 

T. 0. Palmer. Feed-water heating apparatoa. 

T. C. Palmer. Separating impDrities from water in 

J. B. T. Leportier. Steamer ooaliog apparatoa. 
S. Z. de Ferranti. Steam and other enginea. 
W. Diokinaon. Boiler famaoea. 

A. W. Gatfleld and W. Clark. Sorapiog halla. 
L. H. M. Volckera. Making ahipa reoognisable. 
T. B. Bntler. Seonring boat dayita. 

W. Joyoe. Slide Talfea. 

F. OomwalL Ships. 

J. Medway. Lnbiicatora. 

J. L. Mitton. Boiler fuel eoonomiaer. 

W. O. Wrench. Screw propellera. 

H. Paol. Oloaing bolkhead doom in ahipa. 

Q. Vogel. Propolaion and ateering of boata. 

Q. Bobaon. MotiTO power enginea. 

Q. Mnnro. Protectora for water gauge glaaaea. 

T, B. Neal and T. Woodward. Fornaoe iire-bara. 

J. Grow. Formine flangea on pipea or tnbea. 

F. W. Kitto and W . Haworth. Cooling of bearinga. 

H. A. Clark. Speed regnlatora. 

B. B. Oaraley and J. H. Betta. Fnmaoea. 
J. K. Starley. Wrenchea. 

E. J. Green. Fonnela. 

F. Herring and F. Bamead. Preaaore TalTea. 
J. Anderaon. Motora. 

M. Stabler and C. T. Dorr. Shipa* bnlkheada. 

H. Bongier and the Patent Weldleas Steel Chain and 

Cable Co. Weldleaa ohaina. 
S. and S B. Chatwood. Steam generatora. 
The Cowper-Colea GAlraniaing Syndicate, and S. O. 

Cowper-Colea. Making metal aheeta. 
W. Barton and J. H. Williama. Anti-inoroatation com- 

F. J. Laoaa and A. E. Beevea. Speed gear. 
The Hon. C. A. Paraona. Portable tteam pnmpa. 
W. A. Lees and F. Famworth. Famaoea. 

F. King. Electric ateering apparatna. 

A. J. Southwell. Steam pretaure gaugea. 

B. P. Holly and H. and C. T. Howard. Preaaure reducing 


A. A. Aokerman. Making face-hardened armour. 
J. S. D. Shanka and T. Harriaon. Furnaoea. 

M. Adier. Lever crank. 

B. Cookbnm. Operating water-tight doora. 

W. Fairweather (The Baboock and Wilcox Co., United 

Statea). Steam preaaure gaugea. 
J. Owe. ^pe wrench. 

A. Coke. Ventilating pipea and manholes. 

B. Haddon (C. M. A. Q. Boocley and the firm of Bouclej, 

Thomaa, Bardon, Glero, and Cie (Corderie Central), 
France), (-ablea. 

B. and L. Boper. Attaching copper to ahipa. 

W. G. Stevennoo. Betarding the motion of veaaela. 
J. H. Boolds. Water-tight bulkhead doors. 

G. C. B. Atkinaon. Shipa. 

F, H. Stacey and G. J. Beedham. Steam pnmpa. 
W. Waltera. Steam glanda or atufriog.bozea. 

F. E. Adama. Steering ateamahipa and reaaela. 
H. Lindley. Engine go?emora. 

C. H. Keati. Berolring llghta for ahipa. 

B. Meikle (J. L. VignolOi South America). Indicating 

annken ahipa. 
R. G. H Worth. Ventilating manhole oorera. 
W, Harvey. Screw propellera. 
A. Marshall. Drag for arreating ahipa. 

G. Wataon, C. W. Jamea, and B. L. Bullock. Teeting heat 

in famaoea. 

8899 C. W. Thompaon. YalTC gear for enginea. 

8407 J.Klein. Steam trapa. 

8421 J. G. Penn. Screw propellera. 

8426 D. J. Morgan. Looking ateering gear. 

8428 J. Tweedy. Balancing of ateam enginea. 

8484 A. Collia. PreTenting burating of boilers. 

8460 J. Huddart. Governors. 

8469 L. MaoBrayne. Steam boilers. 

8481 H. Parsons. Bearings. 

8484 W. Carter and Tne Hydraulic Engineering Co. Hydraulic 

atop TalTea. 

8604 J. S. Baworth. Automatic ezpanaion goTemora. 

8606 J. S. Baworth. Speed regnlatora for enginea. 

8668 J. Brotherton, Limited, and E. Lotc. Tube Joint. 

8686 W. £. Lewie. Maata or apara for ahipi. 

8618 F. Basom. Steering locks. 

8680 T. A. Kennedy. Boat-towering apparatus. 

8681 J.Andrew. YalTea. 

8686 B. Wataon and A. D. Mitchell. Floata for flahing-net 


8687 J. Fairlie. Big for achoonera. 

8688 F. W. Croaaley. Internal oombuation oil enginea. 
8642 J. Howden. Steam boiler and other furnaoea. 
8662 J. B. Boott Contacta for torpedoea. 

8666 H. Zeita. Boiler. 

3782 G. G. Bhodea. Furnaoea of ateam boilera. 

8761 F. Edwarda. Derricka. 

3763 M. T. Neale and A. Smith. Submarine signalling. 

8769 H. E. Werner. Packing. 

8772 H. OaTcv. Water-pressure engines. 

3786 J. A. and J. Hopkinson. Water-gauges for ateam boilera. 

3810 J. B. Qresty. Steam generators. 

8817 V. Canrobert. Watertight bulkhead door. * 

8841 G. H. Niabett. Ventilating manholea. 

8860 W. Standing. Safety oontriTance for boilera. 

3877 A. Shielda. Centre-boarda for aailing boau. 

8987 J. Eaglea. BUde rule. 

8948 H. Heckler. Swimming and life-aaTing doTioe. 

3961 H. H. Lake (A. Chriatenaen, Denmark). Shipa' bulla. 

8982 J. Menziea, B. Bogeraon. and J. Menzies, jnn. Fluid 
preaaure Tal?ea, 

M. Johnaon and W. H. Withell. Derrick topmast. 

H. Cotton. Boiler furnaoea. 

4024 J. Pembery. Faatening ropea into yokea of rudderai Ao. 

4082 A. J. Boult (F. A. Broughton, Anatralia). CoUapdble 


4036 J.W.Wood. Slide TalTcs. 

4089 W. Lawrie. Metallic paokinga for piatona. 

4044 G. Martena. Trawling neta. 

4058 F. G. Houghton. Safe^ TalTea. 

4076 W. D. Charlton and T. Clark. Ship mattreaa. 

4098 A. D. OtteweU. Sight-feed lubricatora. 

4094 E. B. B. floyt. Steam boiler furnaoea. 

4186 M. Genre. Boilera. 

4168 H. MoPhail. Steam generatora. 

4188 D. MoGrath A Son. Steam goTemor for boilera. 

4204 E. Wall and J. Sampaon. Torpedo interceptor. 

4206 B. MoLaohlan and W. Abbey. Beam compaaaea. 

4249 G. Beech. Life-aaTing apparatna. 

4278 C. Ankara. Lubricatora. 

4276 T. Edge and J. B. Boacoe. Connecting-rods. 

4347 W. W. Williams. Shafts of ateam Teaaela. 

4869 F. W. Challen and J. B. S. Brooka. Boiler TalTC. 

4372 J. Knott and J. McDermott. Sectional marine engine. 

4876 H. E. Inakip. Life-aaring float. 

4380 H. Mallet. A water-gauge for ateam boUera. 

4890 £. Howl. Steam boiler famaoea. 

4464 W. Diokinaon. Condenaera. 

4468 F. A. Langen. Electrically ateering ahipa. 

4474 J. E. Hornby. Funnela. 

4612 T. Liahman. Steam generatora. 

4616 J.B. MiUer. Shaoklea for Teaael'a ohaina. 

4631 J. Weir. Piaton ringa. 

4669 A. E. Alexander (W. H. Bradt and M. Marble, United' 

States). Preaaure gaugea. 

4686 W. F. Beart. Stopping leaka in ahipa at aea. 

4604 J. B. Fumeauz and E. Butler. Starting enginea. 

4605 J. W. Hedley. CoTora for ahipa' hatchwaya. 

4607 J. B. MuUer-Landamann. Smcke-oombuaiion furnaoea. 

4613 J. P. Allen. Kon-alipping ooTcr for manholea. 



[April 1, 1895. 

4616 J. Smithyxnan and D. 0. DaWee. Damper for boilers. 

4624 J. Bobinaon. Water gaagea for steam boilers. 

4625 O. LoDgworth. Meobani^ stoker and smoke bnmer. 
4680 O. M. Haiohant. Sigbt-feed ]abricators. 

4686 J. Bromilow. Sigbt-feed lubrioators. 
4662 7. Lamplougb. Steam trsps. 
4665 C. B. Parnell. Screw propellers. 

T. J. Bezemer and L. ran Sobie. Botary engine. 

J. Alves. Supplying bot air to f umaoes. 

G. Waller. A trapped float cbeok valve. 

C. Soott, H. Hodgson, i. M. Livsey and J. B. 8. Bootb. 
Operating valTes of engines. 

B. Welford and P. Mitcbinson, Ships' wincbes. 

H. B. 0. Webb sod J. Lane. Lubricators. 

Q. Cbisbolm. Safety valves and accessories. 

P. Baumert. Hydraulic propulsion of vessels. 
^P. Baumert. Propulsion of navigable vessels. 

W. Ansell. Sbips' sigoal lamps. 

Tangyes, Limited, and J. Bobsoo, juo. Bngines. 

J. E. Carroll. Feed-water beating apparatus, 

H. Basoby. Bemoving boiler incrustation. 

M. Jnllien. Boilers. 

T. F. Wells. Self -levelling sbips' bertbs. 

A. W. Horsbruffb and J. H. Lee. Gompasses. 
K. D. Noble and J. Irving. Double tube boilers. 
J. E. Gibbins. Steam generating apparatus. 
W. Stewart. Steam generator furnaces. 
W. Beardmore. Armour plates. 
T. Langer. Begulating draugbt to furnaces. 
J. A. (formand and P. Sigaudy. Multitubular steam 


B. Tumbnll. Construction of vessels. 
W. P. Thompson (F. Loos, Germany). Lubricator. 
H. H. Noltenius (M. Sauza, Soutb America). Ancbors. 
A. J. Lester. Internal combustion engines. 
W. Freakley. Fire-grates for boiler furnaces. 
£. C. Mills and J. G. Gbamberlain. Surface condensers. 
J. Smit and L. J. Smit. Dredgers and barges. 
A* B. Allison. Vertical slide furnace door. 
G. Ainswortb and J. Amott. Lubricating tbe submerged 

portions of sbips. 
0. H. Lawson. Metallic packing for st ffing-boz. 
J. F. Maclaren. Internal combustion engines. 
E. Harvey. Heating apparatus for boilers. 
E. G. Brewer (C. Bongier, France). Smoke-consuming 

A. Mack. Lifeboats. 

0. Scott and H. Hodgson. Steam engines. 
T. Keene. Packing for piston rods. 
Z. W. Baogb. Grates of boilers and furnaces. 
























NoTB.— IC denotes First CUst; 2C, Second CUsi. 

February 28rd. 1895. 

Anderson, Jno . 
Amott. J. H. . . 
Baxter. C.K. .. 

Beatson, A 

Best, J. D 


Bowman, J. W. 
Burden. Jas. . . 

Burnett, D 

Cameron, Jno. . 
Capus, C. G. . . 
Clement, F. G. . 
Clincb, Z,}L, . . 
Cowan. Jas. H. 
Day, Tbomas . 

Dent, Joe 

Ferrell, Jas. £. . 
Gillespie, W. B. 

. 2C W.Hrtlpl 
2C Glasgow 
IC Dundee 
IC Glasgow 
20 W.HrUpl 
2C .. 

2C Cardiff 
2C Glasgow 
2C Dondee 
2C Cardiff 

IC „ 
2C Glasgow 
2C W.Hrtlpl. 
2C „ 
2C Glasgow 
IC W.HrUpl. 
2C Glasgow 

I Grabam. A. P. . 
I Griffiths, P. F. . 

Grimsby W. H. 

Hooper, J. C. . . 

Hopkins, Jno. . 

Keay. Alex. D. 

Kenny, Alex. . . 

Kirkpatrick, W. 

Kistner, F 

Lawley, Geo. T. 

Locbhead, D. . . 

Marrinos. T. . . 

Minshaw, A. .. 

Moir, Jno 

Morrison, Neil. . 

Mudie. R. T. . . 

Nacator. J.B. S. 

Nye, A. W 

Paterson, Jno. . . 

Richardson, W. 

Shea, £. S 

2C W.Hrtlpl. 
2C Cardiff 
IC „ 

IC London 
2C Liverpool 
IC Dundee 
IC Glasgow 
2C „ 
IC London 
2C Cardiff 
2C Liverpool 
2C Cork 
2C Glasgow 
IC Dundee 
2C „ 
2C London 
20 Glasgow 
20 W.HrtlpI. 
IC Liverpool 

Strntbers, R. A. 2C Glasgow 
Tervit, Thos. . . 2C Dundee 
Thompson.T.W. ICW. Hrtlpl. 
Waterhoose, H. 20 Liverpool 

March 2nd. 1896. 
Acklam, Henry IC Hull 

Bell, J.B 2CN.8hields 

Bell, W. G IC Aberdeen 

Bennett, L. M. 2C Hull 

Blakev. W IC Sunderl'd 

Brandie. W. . . 2C Aberdeen 
Brown. D.W... 10 „ 
Campbell, A. .. ICN.Shields 
Carter, Thomas, 20 Simderl'd 
Cbisbolm. J. . . IC Aberdeen 
Dunn, William . 10 „ 
Hanmiond, J. 0. 10 N.Shields 
Hudson, W. . . 20 HuU 
Kermode, F. 8. 10 Liverpool 
Kerr. Andrew. . 10 N.Shields 
Leslie, W. H. . . IC Aberdeen 
MoKenzie, R. . . 20 Hull 
Meikle, J. M. S. 10 Aberdeen 
Morgan, W. A. 20 Lirerpool 
Morley, Bobert . 10 Hull 
Officer, James . 20 Aberdeen 
Ross, G.M. ..20 

Scott, Alex 10 

Smith, J. A. M. 10 
Wilson. J. W...2C Hull 

March 9th. 1895. 
Aiken, F. G . . 10 N.Shields 
Archer, Andrew 20 Leith 
Bacon, H.a ..20 HuU 
Barclay, W. G. 20 Liverpool 
Bowler, 0. J. . . 10 London 
Branson, J. S. 10 Cardiff 
Buchanan, T. J. 20 Leith 
Clemow, R. F. . . 10 Cardiff 
Davidson. Alex. 20 Glasgow 
DeBertodano, J. 20 London 
Duncan, Alex... 20 Leith 
Dunn, David . . 10 Glasgow 
Douglas, Frank IC London 
Sggers. William 20 Leith 
Fi3d, H. F. . . 10 N.Shields 
Fletcher. John 10 Cardiff 
Frauds, Thos. 10 ,. 
GUb6rt8on,H. A. 20 N.Shields 
Hansen, 0. W. 10 Cardiff 
Holland. J. W. 10 N.Shields 
Hutton, James 10 Cardiff 
Johnson, Robt. 20 Glasgow 
Laing, Wm. R. 10 Leith 
Lambert, Robt. 20 Liverpool 
Lidgerton. R. . . 20 N.Shields 
Lloyd, W.H. .. 10 Cardiff 
Mavis, F. J. . . 20 N.Shields 
McCririck,Robt 20 Liverpool 
McMillan, D. . . 20 Cardiff 

MUbnm, R. W. 10 N.Shields 
Miller, W. T. . . 10 London 
Mihie. Thomas 10 N.Shields 
Moffat. James. . 20 Leith 
Morphew.^ G. 8. 20 N.Shields 
Nelson. G. B.. . 10 London 
Olufsen, Peter 20 N.Shields 
Orohardson, J. 10 ,. 
Pepper, G. 8. 10 London 
Pott, George . . 10 Liverpool 
Potts, W. T. . . IC N.Shields 
Renfrew, Robt. 20 Glasgow 
Santos. £. . . 20 Cardiff 
Smith. H. J. L. 10 London 
Summerson, G. 20 N.Shields 
Thus, J. P. . . 20 Cardiff 
Tyroil. C. . . 20 London 
Crwin, Stephen 10 N. Shields 
Watson. Arthur 20 Glasgow 
Watts, F. H. . . 20 London 
Wayman, Wm. 20 N. Shields 
Young, Colin . 20 Glasgow 
Young, Jas. £. 20 N.Shields 

March 16th. 

Aitken, David . 20 Dundee 
Barbour, James 20 Liverpool 
Black. James . . 20 Greenock 
Brodie, Niel ... 10 
Byers, William 20 N.Shields 
Carter, Sam. A. 20 Dublin 
Chapman.W.M. 20 London 
Crawford, John 20 Greenock 
Davison, Geo. . 10 London 
Davison, Wm. . . 20 N.Shields 
Evans. Wm. A. . 20 Liveipool 
Flinn, David B. 20 Greenock 
Hails. Henry T. 20 N.Shields 
Hart, Walter J. 10 ., 
Hill. Sidney J. . 10 London 
Houston, W.O. . 10 Greenock 
Ions, Thos. R. . 20 N.Shields 
Lawrence. F. ..10 „ 
Malcolm, James 10 Greenock 
MarshaU. B. J. . 20 N.Shields 
Matheson, H. W. 20 Greenock 
Mathie, Wm... 10 
McLean. T. A.. 20 „ 
Miller, Hugh .. 20 
Powell. Alex. R. 10 Dundee 
Quiun. Alfd. H. 20 Liverpool 
Rice, Joseph . . 10 London 
Riding, John.. 20 Liverpool 
Sivewright, J... 10 Dundee 
Smith. A. £. . . 10 London 
Smith, Arthur 20 Liverpool 
Smith. J. F. B. 10 N.Shields 
Tyson. Thos. . 10 Liverpool 
Wallace. Geo. . 20 N.Shields 
Warren, F. E. . 10 London 
Williams, John 20 Liverpool 

Institution of Entfinoen and Bhipbnllden In Scotland.— 

On the evening of March 26th the monthly meeting of the 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders was held in the 
rooms, 207, Bath Street, Mr. George Russell presiding. The 
chairman made feeling reference to tbe death of Mr. Lindsay 
Burnet, and it was agreed that the Institution record their 
deep regret at the loss of such a prominent member. A paper 
on *'The Extension of Loch Katrine Water Works *' was read 
by Mr. J. M. Gale, M.Inst.O.E. Mr. Gale exhibited various 
maps and plans which showed vividly the present position and 
the future prospects of Glasgow water supply. A paper oir 
*'The Drawing Office,*' was read by Mr. Arch. Denny, of 
Denny Bros., Dumbarton. Discussions took place on ''Elec- 
trical Transmission of Power in Sbipvards and on Board 
Merchant Steamers,'-' ** The Strength of Ships' Beams," and 
** A New Development in Steam Engine Economy," on whidi 
subjects papers were read at last monthly meeting. 

May 1, 1895.] 



®^« plarine Engineer* 

LONDON, MAY 2, 1896. 

Sib Wiluam White has contributed a most valuable 
paper to the Transactions of the Institution of Naval 
Architects upon the latest experiments, and theoretical 
deductions therefrom, of battleships at sea, and 
tests in calm water as to the extinction of rolling by 
the addition of bilge keels. Every compliment is due 
to the author for the courage of his frank statement 
that the experimental results have been as much a 
surprise to him as they will probably be to others, 
and he at once places the results before the tribunal 
most fitted to appreciate the magnitude and impor- 
tance of the achievements. What has stood so long 
in the way of these results having been arrived at 
before has been the inconvenience in the abstract of 
bilge ko^lfii interfering with docking facilities, and 
further, the long-accepted formulae of the late 
Professor Froude, as to the theoretical value of bilge 
keels on. the extinction of rolling. As a matter of 
fact the actual co-efficient of value of bilge keels of 
small area, per square foot of area, has been found to 
be about ten times greater than that assigned by the 
late professor. Why this is so is still a matter of 
some conjecture ; but for the present the practical fact 
is amply sufficient to ensure the general adoption of 
bilge keels, or an equivalent improved structure of 
hull, throughout our Navy, or at least throughout our 
flrst-class .battleships. A steady platform for gun 
fire in a disturbed sea is evidently a boon to be sought 
for even at considerable disadvantage as regards 
facilities in dock accommodation. The valuable results 
obtained on the RepuUe at sea when fitted with bilge 
keels, as compared with her former behaviour without 
them, and in compsuison w,ith sister vessels without 
bilge keels, was so marked that crucial experiments 
were at once carried out on the Revenge in still water 
before being fitted with bilge keels and afterwards, 
and the results have been tabulated in diagrams, most 
interesting and easy of comparison, which Sir William 
White submits to the Institute. The late Professor 
Froude published, about 20 years ago, a series of 
curves which he termed " curves of extinction,'* for a 
number of representative ships of the Boyal Navy, 
and Sir W. White borrows two of these curves of the 
Incontiani and Sultan for comparison with his new 
experimental curves of extinction of the Revenge with- 
out bilge keels, and afterwards when fitted with them. 
The curve of extinction of the Bevenge without bilge 
keels practically coincided with that of the Sultan^ 
with the general result that in both ships without 
bilgekeels the reducingrolls are practically isochronous, 

and that it required about 45 to 50 swings for the rolling 
to be gradually reduced from 6 degs. to the vertical, 
to 2 degs. of inclination. When the Bevenge was 
fitted with bilge keels it was found that the rolling 
was reduced from 6 degs. to 2 degs. in about eight 
swings, and the isochronism was found to gradually 
vary as the vessel came to rest. It was found also 
that the rate of extinction was practically accelerated 
when under headway and in proportion to the 
speed, which was also recognised by the late Professor 
Froude. It is also a remarkable fact that the 
addition of bilge keels on various battleships has 
materially improved their steadiness in steering, and 
what is still more surprising, has actually diminished 
their tactical diameter in making a complete circle^ 
thus increasing their handiness in manoeuvring. It 
is now also accepted from practical test in actual 
service that the bilge keels produce no sensible- 
reduction in speed for power, or increase in coal 
expenditure for a given speed at a given draught. In 
addition to this valuable paper. Vice- Admiral Colomb* 
presents to the Institution a most carefully tabulated 
series of comparisons of the total elements and the 
proportional elements of force as he estimates such 
functions for the battleships, cruisers and gunboats of 
the Navy. He considers the elements of effective 
force to be estimated by displacement, speed, coal 
supply, and endurance, and the number and calibre 
of offensive g^uns and torpedoes. In themselves these 
tabulated statements are most valuable as giving a- 
comprehensive view of the offensive and defensive 
force of the whole of our Navy, but it is the deductiona 
that have resulted from the computation of these 
tables, and which Admiral Oolomb merely submits for 
consideration, that are most interesting. He finda 
that as displacement increases, which has been the 
tendency for the last 20 or 25 years, the speed also 
tends to increase as an absolute integer, but that 
when both the speed and the other elements of force 
are compared proportionately to a unit of displace* 
ment the force elements are all on a decreasing scale 
per thousand tons of displacement, though the speed 
unit shows that decrease to be the least, and the calibre 
of guns and coal endurance show it the most. It would 
appear, then, that the development of the present 
constructional ideas in heavier displacements teuda 
to give an offensive or defensive force gradually de- 
creasing per ton of displacement, and where the speed 
unit is exceptionally maintained, the other force units 
diminish in a corresponding degree. Where is thia 
to end ? With the sacrifice of all other force units to 
that of speed. Surely this would be useless. Or with 
the constant decrease of all units of force elements per 
units of displacement as the vessels increase in ton- 
nage. Is this latter a necessity ? asks, very pertinently^ 



[May 1, 1895. 

Admiral Colomb, from the designers who ought to 
know. If so, where does the practical limit of effi- 
cient increase of tonnage come in? This opens a 
grave question, and one which will no doubt give rise 
to many diversities of opinion from experts. 

Ths thirty-sixth session of the Institution of Naval 
Architects took place in April, at the hall of the 
Society of Arts in London, with Lord Brassey, the 
President, in the chair. The absence of Sir William 
White through illness was much regretted, but he was 
represented by an able paper, on which we comment' 
in a previous note. A numerous representation from 
the Clyde district was present, and we noticed amongst 
those present. Lord Charles Beresford, Admiral Sir 
John Hay, Vice- Admiral P. H. Columb, Sir Frederick 
Bramwell, Professors Biles and Elgar, and Messrs. 
John Scott, John Inglis, John Ward, H. Napier, 
James McGilchrist, J. P. Wilson, and other well- 
known faces too numerous to mention. The r^ort 
of the Council was received with approbation, refer- 
ring as it did to the success of the Southampton 
meeting, to the great cordiality of the French invita- 
tions for the summer meeting, and to the agreement 
of the President to preside at the Paris meeting be- 
fore his departure to occupy his new post as Governor 
of Victoria. Lord Brassey, in his address, referred 
«t length to the naval lessons to be learned from the 
war between Japan and China, and considered that 
the value of protective armour had been conclusively 
established. The effect of the new explosives and 
of quick-firing armaments on armoured sides had 
proved so destructive, that it might be accepted as an 
axiom that no guns, except for repelling torpedo-boat 
attack, should be mounted without adequate pro- 
tection. The speed also of a fleet he considered should 
be uniform so that there should be no laggards. 
Although granting credit to Parliament for what was 
being done to increase the strength of the Navy, he 
did not think that all that was to be desired had yet 
been done, and pointed out that France and Russia 
had each as many battleships building as we had, 
though not of such large tonnage. He understood 
that Sir William White, having added largely to 
the number of the most powerful battleships of 
large tonnage, thought that requirements; now 
pointed to progress to be made with slightly smaller 
battleships. The fighting power of the Navy would 
be thus more distributed, and as the largest battle- 
ship was as equally unprotected from torpedo attack 
as the smallest, it was not well to have too many eggs 
in one basket. It was desirable that there should be 
a great increase in torpedo-boat destroyers, as a pro- 
tection against these insidious little foes. 'Ihe 
available harbour depths and that of the Suez Canal, 

presented some limit also to the available tonnage for 
battleships for foreign service; altogether it was 
probable that the next batch of battleships should be 
about the size of the JRenown. Dealing with the 
merchant service, he referred to the great carrying 
capacity of individual steamers, but curiously enough, 
regretted the disappearance of sailing ships, which he 
claimed were 30 per cent, cheaper than steamers, and 
saved 25 per cent, in working expenses on long 
voyages. Though there is no doubt as to the cheap- 
ness of sailing vessels in first cost as regards steamers, 
we wonder that the President did not see that there 
must be serious counteracting disadvantages, notably 
in loss of time, to counteract the apparent economy 
on long voyages, or the shipowners would soon find 
it to their profit to maintain them as ocean carriers, 
whereas their rapid disappearance proves the con- 
trary, and all progress is necessarily the survival 
of the fittest. Lord Brassey is evidently tinged with 
the Colonial spirit in anticipation of his coming post, 
when he strongly urged Great Britain to subsidize 
the Canadian Pacific route to the East, and recom- 
mended co-operation in a liberal spirit with the 
colonies to maintain the great lines of communication 
of our vast empire. After the address by the Presi- 
dent, and the usual business of receiving papers from 
members, to most of which we refer later in detail, 
the meeting, spread over three days, terminated with 
a pleasant international episode of the presentation of 
the Institute's gold medal to Mr. Taylor, of the 
United States constructive department, as a mark of 
appreciation of two most valuable papers contributed 
by that gentleman, which it was considered, bore the 
mariES of original thought on professional subjects of 
great importance. 



THfi- nniTenal practice on tteamriups a fefw yean ago was to 
aopply the Iom of water, due to leakage in a condensing 
engine, from the sea direct to the boilen, bat since the intro- 
duction of triple expansion, with its higher pressores and tein- 
peratnres, the necessity for minimising the scale in boilers has 
resulted in the use of an independent apparatus, in which sea 
water is evaporated by means of steam, and the generated steam, 
being condensed, is delirered to the boilers free from all im- 
parities. Apart from the necCMity of each an arrangement from 
an engineering point of yiew, there is the commercial considera- 
tion of redacing the boiler scaling expenses, minimising the 
liability to accidents and prolonging the life of the boiler, as, 
whilst it is possible for csreful engineers of long experience to 
work boiltrs without an eraporator, there are few soperin. 
tendents who do not realize the fact, that in order to obtain the 
greatest engineering and commercial efficiency and as a safe- 
gnard against accidents, an evaporator is a necessary anxiliaiy 
on board a modem steamship. The quantity of wateriest depends 

• Paper read before the LiTerpool Bngineering Society. 

May 1, 1896.] 



on the deBiRrn and worinn»n8hip of the varions detadB enbjeoied 
to steam presenre, to the number of appliances and arrange, 
memts for proTentiog wMte and to the care of the engineers in 

TW diief sooroee of loss in the main engines are from the 
piston rod, yalre spmdle and feed pnmp glands, bnt these may 
b» minimized by the use of antomauc water drainers and special 
water-saTinff appliances, examples of whicb are shown on Figs. 
1 and 2. Garef ol attention of those in charge to all the details 
of the Tarions steam ooimeotions is the diief factor however, as 
there is no better index of tiie efficiency of an engine-room staff 
than the quantity of aoxiliaiy feed water reqaired. 

The ease with which loss of water in marine machinery can be 
made np, by simply allowing it to flow from the sea to the hot 
well, has often tended to mislead those in charge as to the 
quantity which should be required and the quantity actually used. 
The natural result is that there are large numbers of boats in 
which the loss is most eztraTagant, the engineers being either 
unaware of the fact or accepting the condition as normal. » 

One of the many examples which hare oome under the writer's 
notice was a steamer with an evaporator, which, even when 
cooted with scale, would have been capable of producing four 
times the amount of fresh water which should haye been 
necessary. The engineer reported that the eyaporator was cer- 
tainly of assistance, but he had to keep it going continually, clean 
it erery day and use in addition a large amount from the sea. 
This is an apt illustoition of the unconscious influence the old 
auxiliary supply from the sea had over the engineer, as his entire 

efforts were concentrated in endeaTonring to oompel the e?apor- 
ator to produce sufficient water to make up the loss, he being 
totally blind to the fbct that the amount of lorn was both ex- 
travagant and unnecessary. An example of what may be oon- 
siderad an exoeptiooally high efficient^ has been obtained on a 
steamer belonging to the Peninsular and Oriental Ca, on which 
facilities were kindly given the writer by Mr. Manuel for obtain- 
ing reliable data extending over several voyages. The engines 
are t8 in., 44 in., 72 in. by 48 in. stroke, with two boilers of 160 lbs. 
pressure, steam steering gear, electric bght and the usual auxili- 
ary machinery being fitted. 

At sea the average I.H.P. is 2,000, and the amount of Auxiliary 
supply five tons per day. In the previous example the I.H.P. 
was about 1,000 ; each boat was fitted with identical evaporators, 
the Peninsular and Oriental boat used 2^ tons per 1,000 I.H.P. 
per day, and the other certainly not less than 15 tons, bpt prob- 
ably nearer 20 tons. In order to allow a margin for auxiliary 
engines, it may be assumed that the consumption of water in 
the Peninsular and Oriental example is 16 lbs. per I.H.P. per hour, 
and by reference to the annexed table it is seen that 2} tons is 
equivalent to 1 J per cent, of the total feed water. 

tn r-ft IS . 

Auxiliary Peid Watbr. 

Waler at 15 poonds per 

Water at 18 pounds per 

Water at ao pounds per 

Indicated Hone-power 

Indicated Hone-power 

Indicated Hone-power 

per hoar. 

per hour. 

per hoar. 


1 AaxUiary 

1 Aasiliary 

Feed in 

Feed in 

! Feed in 


tons per 


tons per 


of AoziUary 


of Auxiliary day 

Feed to total 

per 1000 

Feed to total 

per 1000 

'Feed to total, per 1000 

Feed Water. 

Feed Water. 

, Feed Water. Indicated 



1 Horse- 


1 power. 


1 per cent. 


1 percent. 


1 percent. 2*14 

2 V 


2 ,. 


2 „ 4-28 



3 „ 


3 ,, 648 



4 „ 


,4 .. 8 56 



5 u 


5 „ 1070 



6 ,. 


6 ., 12-84 

7 , 


7 ., 1 1361 

7 „ • 14-98 



8 ,. ' 15-44 

, 8 .. 1712 


; ' 144 

9 „ 


1 9 „ 19-26 



10 „ 


10 „ 21-4 



.11 „ 


11 „ 23-54 


19 2 

12 „ 


,12 ,. 25-68 


1 20-8 

u ,, 


18 „ 27-82 


' 22-4 

14 „ 27-02 

14 „ J9-98 

16 ., 1 2t-0 

16 „ 1 28-95 

,16 „ 321 

The consumption in the other boat would probably be about 
18 lb8.» and assuming 20 tons of auxiliary feed, the perceotHge 



[May 1, 1895. 

of the total would be 10*8 per cent. These cases maj be con- 
sidered extremes, but the greatest care is necessary in order to 
obtain mazimmn efficiency, as a number of yery slight leakages 
when combined produce a large quantity at the end of 24 
hours. The trials of the s.s. lona, by the Besearch Committee 
of the Mechanical Eng^eers, may be taken as an example, as the 
loss was 6 per cent, of the total feed, although beyond a slight 
leakage at the feed pump glands during a portion of the trial, 
there was nothing apparent to the many observers on board 
which would account for such a large loss. 

The Committee on Kaval Boilers recommend in their report 
that not less than six tons per 1,000 B.P. be allowed, which 
would be about equiralent to 8 per cent, of the total feed. 
This allowance seems very small when the large number of 
auxiliaries are considered, but probably the estimate is made on 
the maximum I.H.P., which is, of course, very seldom obtained. 
It will be evident, therefore, that not only does the amount of 
auxiliary feed vary for different types of engines, but tbe varia- 
tion may be very great in ships of the same class depending 
entirely on the condition of the main and auxiliary machinery. 
In passenger boats, where the labour is sufficient to keep every- 
thing in good order, a safe allowance is eight tons per 1,000 
I.H.P. at sea, which, assuming a consumption of 15 lbs. of 
water per I.H.P., is five per cent, of the total feed ; but in cargo 
boats, where the available labour is much less, and so much 
attention cannot be given to details, 10 tons x>^ 1,000 I.H.P. is 
advisable. In both these oases there is ample margin for contin- 
gencies, and if evaporators are fitted of these capacities but still 

are not sufficient, then the waste of water is highly extravagant 
and altogether unnecessary. 

The arrangement of multiple evaporators working in series so 
that the generated steam from the first is utilis *'■ to generate 
steam in the second, and so on, although being t..o universal 
system for sugar refining tnd distilling, is not in use to any 
extent on shipboard, as it involves unnecessary complication and 
initial cost, besides entailing more attention when working; so 
that what is generally understood by a marine evaporator is a 
single vessel in which salt water is boiled away, the heating 
medium being steam. From the elementary nature of the 
apparatus the different designs nre exceedingly numerous, as 
given a vecsel in which water is evaporated by means of steam 
within a tube, theie is ample scope for variation of detail. Bot 
simple variation is of no value except accompanied by definite 
improvement, which only results from development based on 
the practical requirements of those engaged in the working of 
the apparatus at sea ; and it is becoming more and more recog- 
nised by designers that not only must all auxiliaries on shipboard 
be simple, but that the labour necessary to maintain efficiency 
whilst at work must be reduced to a minimum. There is only a 
certain amount of labour available, and the requirements from 
that labour are ever increasing ; in fact, if engineers at sea are 
hampered with any detail whidi requires an imdue amount of 
attention, then, as a consequence, something else suffers. It is, 
therefore, prsctically imperative for success that such an 
elementary apparatus as a marine evaporator must not only be 
efficient from a scientific point of view, but also from a marine 
engineer's point of view, which is equivalent to saying that it 

must be simple in constrnotion, strong, requiring but little 
attention when working, and the least possible labour in 
cleaning. It would be altogether beyond the possibilities of a 
paper to deal with all the designs which have been proposed, so 
the writer will refer only to some of those which have been 
adopted. Long before marine evaporators were introdnoed, 
Messrs. Normandy, Kirkaldy, and others, had been engaged in the 
manufaotuze of distillers, but it was the well-known engineer, 
Mr. Weir, of Glasgow, who showed the marine engineering world 
the advantages which would result by the use of what are now 
generally known as marine evaporators. Mr. Weir's flbnt 
apparatus was designed in 1884, but his evaporator in its present 
form was introduced in 1887, and sinoe that date Mr. Weir's 
lead has been followed very largely. iSvaporators may be divided 
into the following classes, viz., those in which — 

(1) The heating tubes are connected to steam and exhaust 
chambers within the evaporating vessel, the means of aocess to 
the tubes for cleaning or removal being through band-holes in 
the sides of the vessel, as, for example, the early designs of 
Messrs. Kirkaldy, of London, and Mr. Quiggio, of Liverpool. 

(2) The heating tubes are attached to the door in snoh a 
manner that on removal of the door the ooils can be brought 
without tbe vessel for examination and cleaning, as, for example, 
the designs by Messrs. Weir, Bayner, Kirkaldy (1894)^ and 

(8) The beating ooils are attached to the base or lower vessel 
containing the steam connections, the ooils being covered by a 
dome which, on being lifted, exposes the ceils, as in Morison's 
dome type. 

(4) The heating coils are attached to steam and exhaust 
chambers vrithin the vessel, such chambers being arranged to 
terminate in a trunnion, so that each coil can be revolved to a 
position opposite a door in the side of the vessel through which 
it can be removed, as in the design by the late Mr. Blair, of 

(6) The heating ooils are independent of the door, and are 
arranged on arms terminating in trunnions, so that the entire 
heating surface can be swung without the vessel into a position 
for removal or cleaning, as in Morison's radial evaporator. 

The early design of Mr. Kirkaldy, the well-known maker of 
feed heaters, distillers, Ac, consisted of a vertical oylindrioal 

May 1, 1895.] 



el, Pig. 3, within which were a namber of spiral ooils oon- 

Beoied at their upper and lower ends to brass steam inlet and 
omtlefe chambers, aooesa being obtained bj two doors, one 
opposite each chamber. Mr. Qoiggin's early design, Fis. 4, is 
somewhat similar in general arrangement, with special features 
of detail which haye rendered it a verj sncoes^ul apparatus. 
Mr. Qoiggin also manufactures multiple eraporators of very high 
e£Bolen<7, but although multiple effects are used in some large 
steamships^ tiie system is by no means common. 

The well-known evaporator of Mr. Weir, Fig. 5, consists of a 
horiaental cylindrical steel shell with two flanged ends, rivetted 
throughout and fitted with the usual mountings. The heating 
tubes are of U section and are attached to a tube plate, forming 
part of a hollow door containing the inlet and outlet chambers. 
Xaoh tube is flanged at its discharge end, and the diameter of 
outlet reduced to a minimum in order to maintain the pressure 
wiiMn the tubes and so increase the efficiency of the apparatus. 

Sosae vety valuable experiments were made with this 
evaporator by Mr. Lang, who read an interesting paper on the 
subject before the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders of 
Scotland, in 1889. 

Mr. Baynei^s design. Fig. 6, consists of a vertical cyUodrical 
Tcssel; the coils are attached to the door as in Weir's, but are 
hi the form of volutes. Two valves controlling the supply to 
and from the steam and exhaust chambers in the door are fixed 
to the body of the evaporating vessel, and connections are made 
hy oo-inoident ports in the flanges of the door and the vessel, so 

that when the door is jointed in position these form a continuous 
passage. The arrangement is very convenient and does not 
necessitate the removal of any mountings when withdrawing the 
tubes. The door and attached tubes are withdrawn from the 
vessel by a simple overhead runner, the whole forming a very 
oompaot apparatus. 

Mr. KirloJdy's latest design is very similar in general detail, 
the oofls being in the form ^ volutes connected to chambers 
in the door, the volutes being in pairs arranged in vertical planes, 
and not horizontal, as in Bayner's. Another modification is that 
manufactured by Messrs. Maudslay, as in Fig. 7. 

Mr. Mudd has also adopted the same general arrangement, 
Fig. 8, except that the door is hinged, and U shaped tubes, in 
the form of arcs, are struck from the hinge of the door as a 

Morison's dome type evaporator, Fig. 9, is in the fonn of a 
vertical cylinder, the lower part or base having attac h ed to it 
the spiral coils arranged in pairs. The upper portion is in the 
form of a dome, which on being raised is supported by standards, 
thus exposing the ooils and enabling them to be readily cleaned. 

The evaporator designed by the late Mr. Blair, Fig. 10, is in 
the form of a vertical cylinder with a door in the side. The 
ooUs are spiral and mounted on a tronnion base, so that each 
ooil can be revolved opposite the door for examination or dean- 

Morison's radial evaporator, Fig. 11, comprises a lower 
horiMntally arranged water vessel, provided with a vertical 
cylindrical extension forming a steam dome. The lower part of 
the vessel is fitted with a door which is swung by a pivoted arm. 

to which it is attached, into such a position as will enable the 
ooils to be withdrawn. The heating coils are arranged in pairs 
and are detaohably connected to two horizontal tubes, forming 
respectively the inlet for steam and the outlet for the resulting 
water of condensation. Bach of these tubes is dosed at its free 
end, and terminates at its other end in a cap mounted on a 
hollow plug, so that the tubes and the attached coils can be 
readily turned on the hollow plugs as a oentre, and so withdrawn 
from the vessel for cleaning purposes, and afterwards swung 
back again, these operations being effected without breaking 
any steam connections. Should it be desired to replace a dirty 
set of tubes with a dean set, two nuts are removed from the 
plugs, and the inlet and outlet tubes with all the attached coils 
are lifted off, and the spare set lifted on. There are no flat-sided 
steam chests or jointed tube plates in this arrangement, all the 
parts subjected to boiler pressure being tubular, of brass and 
copper. Testing is also an easy operation, as by opening the 
steam valve and closing the drain the entire heating surface can 
be examined, and all the joints being in front are easily accessi- 
ble for adjustment. In evaporators of large size the heating sur- 

Fift ^mi 


face is divided into two sets, each set being independently mounted 
on the steam hinges or trunoions ; the object of the arrangement 
being that each set of coils can be lifted by one man without the 
aid of any mechanical appliance. 

In all the foregoing evaporators the contained water is simply 
boiled, but in the Yaryan apparatus the water is delivered in a 
fine spray throagh a series of tubes in direct connection with 
the condenser, and the resulting brine falling into a receiver is 
vrithdrawn by a special pump. 

An evaporator being simply a boiler, the mountings are very 

Fig. 12 shows a special by»-pass drain cock which admits of 
continuous brining by an independent adjustment, which is not 
efTeoted by the complete periodical blowing of the entire contents* 
Some makers allow the sea water to enter by gravity throagti a 
controlling float tank at the inlet, whilst others use a feed pump 
driven by the air pump lever. The writer favours the latter 
plan, as it renders the position of the evaporator in the ship 
independent of the sea level which, in shallow boats especially, 
is a distinct advantage. An evaporator naturally requires a 
little supervision and is consequently usually placed in a position 
on the lower platform, readily accessible by the engineers. In 
the event of it being placed in some out-of-the-way position, and 



(May 1, 1895. 

with a Tiew of oontroUiDg the lerel from the startiiif; platform, 
the arraagemant shown in Fig. 18 may be adopted. This regulat- 
ing doTioa oompriies a pipe connected at its lower end with the 
lower part of the evaporating yesael where the brine is denaeet, 
and at ita upper end with the steam space : at the desired water 
level a branch pipe is taken to a float tank, which may be situated 
at any distance from and below the evaporator. 

In these times of severe competition, when every detail on 
shipboard is viewed from a commeioial standpoint, the probable 
cost of obtaining fresh water by means of an evaporator is a 
most important consideration. There an» several arrangements 
available ; as steam may be taken from the boiler direct, or from 
tile receiver after having done work in the engine, and the steam 
generated in the evapontor may either be led to the condenser 
or to the hot well. In order to compare the relative economy of 
these methods, loss by radiation may be neglected, as it is 
practically a constant quantity ; also for the saJce of simplicity 
the usual tables on the properties of sceam may be taken as 
applicable to the general conditions. ^ 

Steam inpplled to the Evaponitop f^m Boiler ^and Steam 
generated in Evaporator dlioharged to Hot Well. 

In considering the method by which steam is supplied to the 
en^Ksrator direct from the boiler, and the steam generated in the 
evaporator is condensed amongst the feed water in the hot well 
or its equivalent, let it be assumed that the pressure in the 
evaporator is 1 lb. per square inch, and that the water fed to the 
evaporator is taken from the circulating pump discharge at a 
temperature of 80^ F. Bzperienoid has bhowo that evaporators 
at sea should be worked at a density of from » to ^, but for 
purposes of calculation let us assume i, and in order to maintain 
that density in the evaporator one-third of the total amount of 
water fed to the evai>orator must be discharged into the bilge 
or overboard, consequently to produce 1 lb. of pure steam 1^ 11^. 
of sea water must be supplied to the evaporator, of which 1 lb. 
is evaporated in steam and ^ lb. is discharged as hot brine, 
therefore the total heat required to make 1 lb. of pure steam is 
the sum of the heat in the steam and that in the discharged 

The temperature of steam at 16 lbs. abs. =216*8<' F. 

The heat in 1 lb. of steam at a temperature of 216*3^ from 
water at 80«F 1099 4 T.U. 

May 1, 18950 



The heat in ^ lb. of brine at a temperature of 216*8<=^ from 
irateratao^F 681 T.U. 

Theirefore the total heat required to prodace 1 lb. of pure 
•team ^. ... 10994 + 681 = 1167-5 T.U. 

Ab the generated steam is passed direct to the hot well and is 
entirely ooadensed amongst the feed water it gires up the whole 
of its hetkt, so the net cost of prodnoing 1 lb. of steam is (1167*5 
—1099-4) =68-1 T.U., or, in other words, the aotnal expenditure 
of heat is that due to brining. 

Stbax fbox Boiikbs, Geitsratiid Steam to Hot Well. 

^22^* 'iMMh^fgedbyevEporalor 


doee one pound of 
steam at a tem- 
perature of 216-3** 
above «0*> 


Heat given up to 

Balance in brine ... 
Total ... 


Total ... 



Tho caloiifio value of 1 lb. of good coal maj be taken at 14,600 
T.U., and bj assuming the boiler efficienoj to be 66-6 per cent, 
which was about the average result obtained on the trials of the 
Beaearoh Committee of the Institute of Mechanical Sngineers, 

M have • ^^y?A^^ = 10 lbs. of water evaporated from and at 

966-6 *^ 

212® F. per pound of coal, so that 9686 T.U. will be obtained 
from the oombosuon of 1 lb. of coal, and the amount of pure 
steam generated by 1 lb. of coal with this arrangement will 

be ^s~r = I'^l-'d 1^» or the amount of coal required to make 1 

too of pure steam r—r-^= 16-7 lbs. 

Steam rapplied to BTaporatop fh>iii Boiler and Steam 

OeneFated in ETaporator ditehapged to the RecelTer of 

the Low-PreuoFe Engine. 

In this case the generated steam from the evaporator is dis* 
charged into' the low-pressure casing and does work upon the 
low-pressure piston before it id condensed. Again availing 
ourselves of the data contained in the report of the Com- 
mittee already referred to, we find that in economical triple- 
expansion engines about 17 per cent, of the total heat in the 
steam is converted into work; for the sake of simplicity, how- 
ever, consider the efficiency as 18 per cent., and assuming that 
the power developed in each cylinder is equal, one- third of this, 
or 6 per cent, of tlie total heat, is utilizc^d in each cylinder ; ic 
therefore follows that 82 per cent, of the heat is rejected, that the 
amount of heat entering the low-pressure casing is 88 per cent, 
of the total supplied to the engine, and, of the total heat supplied 

6 X 100 
to the low-pressure cylinder, — ^^ = 6* 82 per cent, is con- 
verted into work. 

Let the pressure in the low-pressure casing be 7 lbs. per 
square inch, and the temperature of the evaporator feed be 80° 
F., as in the previous case. 

Temperature of steam at 22 lbs. abs.=283-l<' F. 

Heat in 1 lb. of steam at a temperature of 233*1^ F. from 
water at 80^ F 1104-6 T.U. 

Heat in i lb. of brine at a temperature of 238*1^ F. from 
water at 80*>F 76 6 T.U. 

Heat required to produce 1 lb. of pure steam = (1104-6 + 76*6) 
=1181 T.U. 

Tne equivalent weight of steam if taken from the boiler at 
160 lbs. pressure and discharged from the evaporator coils at a 
pxesiure of 60 Ihs. abs. or 292 7^ F. would be:— 

The temperature of steam at 176 abs. =870*8^ F. 

Heat in 1 lb. of steam at 370-8«» above 292-7' =933-7 T.U. 


To produce 1 lb. of steam in the evaporator ^ > =1-26 lbs. 

must be taken from the boiler. 

Assuming that this steam had passed through the engine in 
the ordinary manner, and taking the temperature of the hot well 
St 120^ F., the heat in 1 lb. of steam at 370-8« F. above 120' F. 
=1106-4 T*U., so that if instead of being taken to the evaporator 

it had passed through the engine in the ordinary manner, the 
amount converted into work would have been 1106*4 x 1*26 X '18 
=261 T.U., and of the heat passed from the evaporator to the 
low-pressure casing 1104-6 x -0682 = 76-8 are converted into work, 

75*3 X 100 
or — ^^r — = 30 per cent, of the total useful heat had it passed 

through the whole engine ; therefore the available useful heat 
given off 1^ the evaporator is 1104-6 x -30=331*3 T.U. To this 
must be added the heat which is contained in the drain from the 
coils and which is led to the hot well. viz. (292*7—120) X 1'26 
=217-6 T.U. . 


Fig. XII. 

Stsah from Boilkrs OBMsaATBD Stbam to Low-Peessube 

Reoeired by evaporator. 


Disoharged by OTaporator. 


Heat in 1-26 pound 

Equivalent value of 

beat utilized in low 

perature of 370-8'' 

pressure cylinder 


F. above 120<? F. 

1106-4 X 1*26 ... 


Heat carried forward 
to the hot well 

from coils 


Balance unaccounted 


Total ... 


Total ... 



The net cost of producing 1 lb. of pure steam is, therefore, 
the balance as above, and the amount of pure steam generated 


per pound of ocals^^r^^: = 11*48 lbs., consequently the amount 


of coal required to produce 1 ton of fresh ^^^'^TTZIo ='^96 lbs. 



[May 1, 1895. 

Staam inpplied to ETaponilop from Intemiediate PreMBre. 

BeoeiTer and Steam Generated in BTaporator discharged 

to Hot WeU. 

In this arrangement steam is taken from the intennediate 
preisnre caeiog (after having done work in the high-preoeure 
cylinder) and employed in the eyaporator to prodnoe steam at a 
pressore of 1 lb. abore the atmosphere, the evaporator steam 
being taken direct to the hot well and there condensed amongst 
the feed water. Let the data in this oase be as follows : — Steam 
in the intermediate pressure casing at 60 lbs. pressure, tempera- 
ture of evaporator feed 80° F., and temperature of the hot well 
120° F. The heat required to produce 1 lb. of pure steam will 
be the same as in the first example, viz., 1167'5 T.U. Let the 
temperature of the discharge from the coils be that due to a 
pressure of 15 lbs. per square inch or (saj) SO lbs. abs.= 260*4^ 
F. Temperature of steam at 65 lbs. abs. =298° F. 

Heat in 1 lb. of steam at a temperature of 298° F. above water 
at 250-4° F.= 958-9 T.U. 

Therefore, to produce 1 lb. of pure steam in the evaporator 

" 953» ^^'^^ ^^ ^' steam, which must be taken from the inter- 
mediate pressure casing, this on the basis explained in the second 

arrangement is equivalent to 1*22 x-^» 1*8 lbs. of boiler 

steam, the total heat per lb. above water at 120° F., being 
1106*4 T.U. If, therefore, the heat contained in 1-8 lbs. of steam 
had passed through all the cylinders, 18 per cent, would have 
been converted into work, 6 per cent, or one-third of the effec- 
tive heat being utilized in the high-pressure cylinder ; the 
equivalent of the total heat is therefore 1106^*4x1*3x1=479*4 

There is also the heat in the condensed steam from the coil or 
(250*4- 120) 1*22=159 T.U.; and lastly, the steam formed in 
the evaporator being taken to the hot well and there condensed, 
it gives up the whole of its heat above 120° = 1059*4 T.U. 

Stbam feom Intebmbdiats-Pkissubb casino Gbnbbated 
Stbax to Hot Wkll. 

Eeoeivedbyevaponltor. | ^^^Sl^ DiKhirged by evaporator [ '^^^ 

Heat in 1*8 pounds of 
steam at a tempera 
ture of 870*8° F. above 
120° F. 1106 4x1*8.. 

Surplus heat after al- 
lowing for heat in the 


Equivalent value of 
heat utilized in high-j 
pressure cylinder ... 479*4 

Heat carried forward! 
to hot well from coils.' 169 

Heat given np by gene*: 

rated steam to hot well. I 1030*4 



From the above statement it will be seen that there is a reserve 
of 250 5 T.U. beyond the expenditure of heat in brining. Ex- 
pressing this in coal as before, the equivalent is 1 lb. of coal for 

**" 9666 

the evaporation of ^-- _ =87*2 lbs. of pure steam; therefore, in 


TOoducing 1 ton of fresh water, by employing an evaporator in 
this manner, there is a reserve baJance in ftkvour of the evaporator 

equal to ^=— = 60*2 lbs. of coal. This theoretical result is based 

on perfect adiabaticity, and is greater than that which would be 
obtained in practice, as a large amount of heat naturally dis- 
appears by initial condensation. 

Steam lapplied to ETaporatop from Boiler and Steam 
eenerated in ETaporator Diiehartfed to Condenter. 

In this arrangement it is customary to place a vapour or re- 
ducing valve between the evaporator and the condenser, the 
evaporation will therefore take place at about atmospheric 
pressure, the feed being at 80° F., as before. 

Temperature of steam at atmospheric pressure 212° F. 

Heat of 1 lb. of steam at 212° F. above water at 80° F. = 1098*1 

Heat in i lb. of brine at 212° above water at 80<2 F.=66 

Heat required to produce 1 lb. of pure steam 1098*1 + 66 = 
11641 T.U. 

As the steam generated in the evaporator is taken to the con- 
denser and there condensed j ■ it forms 1 lb. of pure water at the 
hot-well temperature of 120° F., the total heat above 120° F. 
carried away in the circulating ptimp discharged at 80° F. being 
1058*1 or 1098*1—1058-1 =40 T.U., which represents the amount 
of useful heat sent to the hot well after condensation has taken 
place in the condenser. . 

/ L_j|lu-X 

Steam from Boiler Gbnbratbo Stbam to Condbkser. 

Received by evaporator. 


Disobarged by evaporator. 


Heat required to pro- 
duce 1 pound of 
steam at a tem- 
perature of 212° F. 
above 80° F. 


Heat given up by 1 
pound of steam in 

Balance of heat lost 
in circulating 

Total ... 


Total ... 



The net cost of prodnoing 1 pound of steam in, therefore, 1124*1 
T.U., whilst the combustion of 1 pound of coal would produce 

^. = 8*6 pounds, and 1 ton of fresh water would require 


-— — = 260 pounds of coal, 



Fio. XIV* 

These investigations show that water may be obtained from an 
evaporator for a nominal expenditure of coal or very wastefully, 
depending entirely on the arrangements adopted. The steam 
supply from the intermediate-pressure casing is more economical 
from a heat expenditure point of view than a direct oonnecdon 
to the boiler, but there are practical considerations in favour of 
the latter which will be referred to later. With reference to the 
steam generated in the evaporator, there is no doubt whatever 
that discharging direct to the condenser, although a cheap 

May 1, 1895.] 



moUiod M regards the cost of fitting up the apparatas on board, 
ia diatinotly the moat nneconomioal which ooola be adopted, and 
aHboogh a connection to the condenser is sometimes convenient 
in party yet at sea it should nerer be nsed, as it is simply eqoiva- 
lent to wilfully throwing coals overboard. There is in the hot well 
a mediam, rix., the fe^ water, which will readily absorb all the 
heat contained in the steam g«nerated by the evaporator, and in 
inch a manner that none of the heat so absorbed in wasted, con. 
■eqnently, to adopt any other method is sacrificing possible 

The condensing of the steam amongst the feed water natorally 
raises the temperature of the latter, but not to such a point as 
will infloence the working of the feed pumps uuless the desifl^n is 
▼ery faulty. If any difficulty occurs a remedy is often found by 
making a connection by a fin. pipe between the top of the 
feed pump barrel and the condenser. In order to overcome 
certain objections to evaporating direct into the hot well, the 
writer has adopted an independent vessel, Fig. 10, which has 
given good results in practice. The vessel contains two 
chambers, one of which forms a receiver or well for the feed 
water on its passage from the hot well to the pumps. Projecting 
into this well is a nozzle with radial openings through which the 
steam from the evaporator flows, and by giving the water a 
centrifugal motion is rapidly condensed ; any fned air escapes 
by an eiit pipe, and the heated water overflowing from the well 
is drawn tlurough the suction valve of the feed pump in the usual 

The effect of an accumulation of scale in boilers does not come 
within the scope of this paper, but, considered briefly, the results 
nre: — 

(1) Decreased efficiency of the heating surface, causingan un- 
necessary expenditure of fuel. 

(2) Increased temperatures of the materials forming the heat- 
ing surfaces, causing collapse or deformation of furnaces and 
leakage of tubes and joints. 

^8) Increased wear and tear of boilers. 
(4) Excessive boiler cleaning expenses. 

Specimen was shown of scale taken from a boiler, which 
resulted in a very heavy repair bill and serious injory to the 
fomaces. It is very easy to understand that such a scale must 
have caused a great waste of fuel, but the rapid increase in the 
temperature of the furnace plates, when covered with but a slight 
coating of scale (especially when it contains oil), is not always 
folly appreciated until accidents happen, and for this reason a 
feed water filter is a valuable adjunct to an evaporator. Some 
very interesting investigations on boiler deposits have been 
made by Mr. Isaac, the consulting engineer for the Eastern 
Telefcnkph Go., who has given the subject careful study on 
account of the nature of the work of cable laying, necessitating 
boilers being kept under steam for long periods. In one boat, 
after 110 days* steaming, the boiler on beiog opened out was 
found perfectly dean, and only required the light powder with 
which the surfaces were covered brushing down and washing 
out. In another boat, after 103 days' steamiufr, a similar result 
was obtained. Each boat was fitted with an evaporator and an 
Bdmiston filter, the boilers, of 100 lbs. pressure, being worked 
under Howden's forced draught, and in both cases zinc and soda 
were used. If boilers were treated in this manner, maximum 
efficiency is maintained, the expenditure of fuel, the cost of boiler 
up-keep and the expenses in scaling and cleaning being reduced 
to a minimum. An example recently came under the writer's 
notice, in which a boat brought all her furnaces dowD, yet the 
thickness of scale on the heating surfaces was by no means 
excessive. Subsequent analysis of the deposit gave the following 
extraordinary result : — 

Glritty matter and sand 

Oxide of copper 

» sine 

M iron 

„ magnesium 

„ calcium 

Oily matter of acid character, combined 
with oxides of copper, zinc, iron and 


Oil in its natural state, but mechani- 
cally mixed through the deposit ... 

2*69 per cent. 

1-07 „ 

342 „ 
24-21 „ 



... 17-98 

Total ... 99 93 per cent. 

This remarkable deposit contains, therefore, 50 i>er cent, of oil. 
The oil on being examined was found to have a vaporizing 


s :? I? 5 S 6 8 S 











- — 


f i 


1 9 

























> _^ 









O 8 




5 « 

^ 6 



















i :i t s 

s s s 



[May 1, 1895. 

pomt of 806 <> F. and was, therefore, aHogether nnBnitoble for the 
internal labricatioo of high-prBflanie eD|^e8. 

The effioienoy of the heating snrfaoe in an eraporator depends 
ohieflj on the iteam presanre within the tabea and the thiokness 
of Boale on the tabes. With a yiew of aaoertainjng the effeot of 
scale, the following experiments were made. Fig. 14 is a Tessel 
open at the top, within which are fitted ordinary condenser tabes 
terminating at eaoh end in chambers for the inlet steam and oat- 
let water of condensation, the latter being oonreyed to a drainer 
so that fall pressnre coald be maintained within the tabes. Dry 
steam was supplied to the tabes at a pressure of 45 lbs. per 
square inch, the water to be evaporated taken from the sea, and 
a density maintained of about m ^o « ^ continuous brining. 
As the intention was to ascertain the decrease inefficienoydne to 
the formation of scale on a dean tube, every precaution was 
taken t3 maintain constant conditions in order that no scale might 
be cracked off by any variation in temperature. 

The trial lasted 48 hours, all water being carefully measured 
and every provision made for obtaining accuracy. Fig. 16 gives 
the results i from which it is seen that the evaporatkm during 
the first hour was 32 gallons, falling rapidly to 8} for the twelfth 
hour, and continuing to decline gradually to 4 gallons for the 

fi* Z3ZI 

forty-eighth hour. The initial drop being very rapid, it was sug- 
gested that water in sus|>ension passed off with the steam ; half 
the tubes were then taken out. and the experiment repeated with 
practically identical comparative results. At the end of the 
trial the scale was about ^ in. thick. 

Fig. 16 illustrates another vessel, in which the heating surface 
is in the form of volute coils, and with which the same experi- 
ment was made with exactly similar results. The pressure within 
the coils and the temperature of the water outside being kept 
constant, there was no tendency for the scale to crack off, and at 
the end of the trial the coils were covered uniformly with scale 
in. thick. 

It will be noticed that the curves are different on Fig. 16 for 
the first few hours in the two ei periments, this being due to the 
fact that the first vessel had a larger amount of contained water 
than the second, tnerefore the density of the latter rose more 
rapidly and scale formed more quickly. At the end of the forty- 
eighth hour steam was shut off, and after the water became cold 
it was drained away. Sea water was then admitted, and on steam 

being turned full on a large amount of scale could be seen to 
crack off and fall to the bottom of the vessel. The effect of this 
is clearly shown on the diagram, Fig. 17, as, although the evi^^ora- 
tion had fallen to four gallons during the forty*eighth hour, yet, 
after the coils had been sulgeoted to this treatment, the evapora- 
tion rose at once to 17* 

After three hours ' working the water was again drained away, 
sea water admitted, steam turned on, and scale thereby cracked 
off", this process being repeated at intervals until the 81st hour, 
with the result that, although the evaporation had fallen to four 
gallons during the 48th hour of the oontinuous trial, yet, after a 
farther 88 hours of intermittent working, it had risen to 6, which 
corresponds to the evaporation at the 20th hour of the con- 
tinuous trial. At the end of the 81st hour the evaporator was blown 
down, cold water admitted, steam turned on for a few minutes, 
and then the whole of the water was drained off a second time. 
The result of this is seen at once in the diagram, Fig. 17, where 
it will be noticed the evaporation for the Snd hour has risen to 
15] galhms. 

At the end of the eighty-fifth hour a continuous trial of fifty- 
five hours' duration was made without brining in any way, and at 
the end of that time, that is, for the 140th hour, the evaporation 
had fallen to two gallons* On opening the evaporator it was 
found that a large quantity of salt had been deposited and that 
underneath the salt crystals, the coils were coated with scale 
l-16th in. thick. 

The above method of filling with cold water, admitting steam 
and draining off, was repeated, and a large portion of the scale 
cracked off, after which, the apparatus was closed up and 
the experiment continued for a further four hours, with the 
result that during the first hour the evi^ration was 29 
gallons, falling to seven for the fourth hour. The total time, 
therefore, that this trial lasted was 144 hours, and daring the 
whole of this time the coils were not scaled by any mechanical 
means, the process of blowing down periodically being the only 
method adopted of maintaining the efficiency of the apparatus. 

How long the efficiency could be maintained with this method 
of working the experiments do not show, but the natural infu> 
ence is that the decrease in efficiency would be slow, especially if 
a greater pressure of steam was available ; ultimately, however, 
it would he necessary to scale the tabes by mechanical means. 
It is for this reason that the writer advocates connecting an 
evaporator direct to the boiler, as not only is the maximum 
pressure of benefit if the coils are allowed to become heavily 
coated with scale, but there is also the advantage of the greater 
expansion and movement of the coils doe to the sadden appUoa- 
tion of the tuU. pressure, thereby materially increasiiig the 
tendency for the scale to crack off. 

A double connection to the boiler and I.P. casing is, of oourse, 
the more complete arrangement, as the economy due to the use of 
receiver steam may be obtained when the evaporator is of ample 
size, and in fair working condition ; whilst if the coils are dirty, 
or an extra amount of water is required, boiler steam is available. 

Bepeated instances have come under the writer's notice of 
where the coils have been encased in a solid block of salt or 
covered with a scale of exceptional hardness. Both these results 
are due to the careless working and insufficient attention to 
brining. It is necessary for success that the density should be 
maintained from ^ to a* <m> ^ allowed to become too dense, 
salt will be rapidly deposited on the coils, whilst if the density is 
kept too low by excessive brining, not only is there a large 
amount of heat in the discharged water, but the scale formed on 
the tubes is very hard and difficult to remove. On acooant of 
the density of the water and the low pressure of evaporation, there 
is sometimes a slight tendency to prime, and for this reason a 
portion of the heating surface is usually kept above the water 
level in order to break up the bubbles and so preventing water, 
in the form of spray, passing off with the steam. 

A connection to the condenser is very convenient after blowing 
down, as the vacuum enables the evaporator to be filled from the 
sea more rapidly when this is being done. Care should be taken 
to fully immerse the whole of the tubes before turning on steam, 
the excess water being drained away as soon as the craoking off 
process is completed. The detached scale should also be cleaned 
out frequently, as when present in suspension it increases the 
tendency to prime. 

Evaporators are sometimes used as condensers for winches 
when in port, and certainly seem well adapted for the purpose. 
The cooling surface required is usually in excess of what is 
necessary for evaporating purposes, oonsequently an increased 

May 1, 1895.] 



8ise of evaporator has to be fitted. In order to minimize thin i^- 
orease in size, the writer has designed a oombined apparatoi, atf 
in Fig. 18, the featare of which is the utilization of the steam 
space of an evaporator for the reception of a sat of condensing 
coils, saoh set being a daplioate of the set of evaporating coils in 
the lower part of the vessel for which thej are available whev 
required. In the iUnstration the coils are divided into thren 
similar sets. When evaporatiDg, two sets are in use and one set 
available as spare ; when condensing, this spare set id fixed iu 
the steam space so that the available surface when used as a 
condenser is 33 per cent, greater than the sorfaoe when used as 
an evaporator. This extra surface in- the steam space is also of 
value when it is desired to work the evaporator at its maximum, 
as it vaporises any water which may be in the steam doe to 
violent ebullition, and would, therefore, be well adapted.for war 


ships or torpedo boats where reduction of weight is a great de- 
sideratum. On passenger and better dass lK>ats, winch con- 
densers or exhaust tanks are a necessity, in order to ovei come the 
delay and inconvenience caused by the escaping steam ; but it 
is the donkey boilers which reap the great l^nefit, as, in cargo 
boats especially, they never have a laige marg^ in size, and 
being fed direct from the sea, thereby causing an ever-increasin^c 
accumulation of scale, they constitute not the least of th(3 
wonies on board a steamship. The questk>n of first cost has 
been the obstacle, however; but now evaporators are an 
established necessity, it seems but a natural development that 
they should, with a little extra outlay, be rendered available for 
condensing purpoaes, and so materially add to the general 
efficiency. The writer had hoped to include the results of 
experiments with this apparatus, but as they are incomplete he 
will have pleasure in communicating them to the luHtituticn 
at a later date. 



Bt W. a. Martin, Esq. 

INDUCBU or exhaust draught has been adopted in various 
forms for many years, and has been employed especially on 
locomotives from the commencement of railways up to the 
present. It is the best known means of promoting rapid steam 
generation with safety. 

The locomotive type of boilers has been largely adopted for 
marine purposes, but the system of working them has been 
reversed with very unfavourable results. The author, having 
made a large number of experiments in steam generation with 

•Read at the Thirty*gixth Session of the Instltation of Naval Arohitects, 
April 5th, 1895. 



[May 1, 1895. 

All olaoBM of boilers, is enabled to place before the meeting some 
particulars that may be interesting, both on forcing and indaoing 

Although it has been sometimes maintained that so long as 
yoa oreate a difference in pressore between the air in the chimney 
and that in the stokehold, it matters not whether yoa exhaust 
from, or blow to, the fire ; yet it will be seen, upon closer exami. 
nation, that the oharaoteristios of forcing and inducing are 
widely different. The forcing system is advantageously used 
for blasting down ores, and for iron foundry purposes, where the 
metal can fall below the blast as soon as melted ; but it is an 
unsuitable process for puddling, rererberatory and reheating 
furnaces, such bh axe used in &n and armour plate making, 
where rolume and steady heat are required. For these purposes 
exhaust or induced draught is used. 

Hie marine boiler exposes a large amount of surface to be 
acted upon, and it is of primary importance that the heat should 
be ermly distributed orer it, and not oonoentrated on particular 
parts. To effect this, the draught must have perfect control oyer 
the gases generated in the furnaces, as on the proper application 
of tl^ draught the whole working of the furnaces depends. It is 
a tendency of the forced draught system, as used in the Navy, 
to concentrate and localise the heat. The initial effect of the 
draught is under the body of the fuel, and the gases generated 
are £iTen on without any controlling influence, whereas, with 
induced or exhaust draught, the initi^ effect is on the top of the 
fViel, and the gases erolved are under oontrol of the draught 
until they are passed through the fnnneL The efEeot of the 
<)raught is constant, the gases become perfectly developed and 
consumed before leaving the tubes, hence a lower temperature 
in the uptake and funnel, and comparative absence €d smoke 
with induced or exhaust draught. 

The author is indebted to the Admiralty for permitting an 
extensive series of experiments upon his system to be carried out 
4in board H.M.S. Oosacmer, at Chatham. This ship had been 
fitted and worked with f oroed draught prior to these experiments. 
There are two boiler rooms identically simil«r, and two boilers in 
each, of the locomotive type. The forward bc^ers were selected 
for the application of the induced draught system, which was 
fitted in the uptake forward, leaving the stokehold in its original 
condition, with the air-looks and other forced draught fittings 
unnecessary for induced draught. The air-locks and hatches, 
^•owever, were left open during the ttials, and in this respect only 
was there any difference in the working of the two systems. 

The following table gives a summary of the trials that were 
carried out. It will be noticed that the power produced by the 
builers with the induced draught system was far in excess of that 
developed under forced draught ; also, that in point of economy, 
indrced draught was greatly superior. The table is by no means 
4'zhauiitive, as there are other points not noted, such as the 
(greatly lessened temperature both in stokehold and funnel, the 
immunity from dust, and the freedom of ingress and egress in 
the stokehold : — 

It will be seen that the trials on board the Ooisamer confirm 
and verify those which were made in the Pol^hemui boiler. In 
the oase of the Gostamer esjiecially, it was found that with forced 
draught the boilers oould not be worked at anything approaching 
the rates attained by induced draught without priming taking 
place, for which reason the final trial of forced draught had to be 
abandoned after six hours' run. 

It has been observed that the boilers of the Chasamer had been 
worked under forced draught previous to the experiments here 
recorded. It should also be added that they had been damaged 
and weakened to a considerable extent. It was therefore 
necessary in both the indoced draught and the forced draught 
trials to use more care and caution than would otherwise have 
been necessary, but the author's experience is that very high 
rates of steaming may be practised with induced draught with 
perfect safety, as the tube ends and other surfaces are protected 
by the partial vacuum which takes place, and within a certain 
limit it may be said the greater the speed of draught the greater 
the immunity from damage to the boiler. The author has driven 
an ordinary marine boiler to the utmost limit that the coals would 
endure without producing the slightest injury to the tubes or 
any part of the boiler. The heat is drawn oil rapidly and dis- 
tributed over the whole surface of the tubes, observations taken 
proving that there is very little difference in temperature 
either at the front or back part of the tubes. This uniformity 
of temperature ii an important factor in generating dry steam 
Another important point in favour of induced draught is the 
saving in weight in comparison with forced draught. The iron- 
work involved by the latter for casing and air-locks in a first- 
class battleship is about nineteen tons. This is dispensed with 
by the induced draught system. The economy of fuel effected 
also telU in connection with weight. For instance, reverting 
to the Polyphemu8 trials, it is therein demonstrated that with 
the coals burnt in the 96 hours under forced draught, the 
boiler oould have steamed 112^, at the same time exerting an 
excess of 81 B.P. 

^^rmt MCMMW 

It will be seen that by the action of induced or exhaust dranght, 
the heat is drawn off without being allowed to expebd its force 
locally. It should also be observed that the principle of induced 
draught renders it quite independent of the length ot f cmnel. In 


Date of Trials. 


March 6 and 7 

May 1 to 5 

February 7. 8, and 9 .. 
Febraar; 14. 15, and 16. 

February 22 and 23 

Pel.ruary 27 

Deioription of TrUli. , Hours. 

Induced draught 
Forced draught 

Forced draught 
Indoced draught 
Induced drauKht 
Forced draught 










I 1288 11 
, 710-69 

760 1 772-64 

750 I 825-81 

1,000 ; 1004-04 

1,000 I 

Revolution of Fans. 

Starboard. Port 

I.H.P. per 
foot of 








8 99 





Lbs. of 




square foot 

of Orate. 





Trial abandoned on account of priming. 

Grate surface, 143*32 sq. ft. ; tube surface, 5.772 sq. ft.; l^o. of tubes, 1,728 , length, 7 ft. IJ in; diameter, 1| in. 

It may be mentioned that the above trials were arranged by 
the Admiralty as a more crucial test, and to institute a oompari- 
HOD with experiments made some time previously on a boiler of 
he same hind which had been taken out of H.M.S. Polyphemus. 
Ihe folloiring is a record of the results of the 96 hours' run 
A hich took place with each system on that occasion : — 

fact, the funnel may be dispensed with altogether, so that in the 
oase of a war vessel, if the funnel were shot away in action, it 
would not in any way affect the facility of steaming. The 
appended sketches convey an approximate idea of the flow of 
the gases as they enter the tubes under a partial vacuum, in the 
one oase, and with forced draught in the other. 

May 1, 1895.] 



Experiments at Portsmduth Docktard with Boiler ex H.M.S. "Poltpbbmvb." 




Aug. 6] 


Oct. 28-) 

to [ 

Not. IJ 












in lbs. 


In lbs. 

Lbs. of Water 


per lb. 

of Coal. 

Water evapo- 
rated for 
square foot of 
Orate per hour. 


















96 bra. 














Length of tabes between tobe plates, 8 ft. 6 in. Number of tubes, 258. Diameter, 1} in. outside. Area of fire-grates, 20*77 
square feet. I.B.P. of fan engine, 1*38 per cent, of power produced. 

In this case both eeries of experiments were conducted on the same boiler, the indaced draught installation being dismantled 
after trial and substituted by the forced draught system. 

It is remarkable that while the forced-air system results in 
diminishing economy as the blast is raised, and there is a maxi- 
mum pressure beyond which it is difficult to work at all, the 
induced system, on the contrary, giTes an increased draught with 
no limit but the couTenience of obtaining high speed cd fan. The 
gases, being drawn through the tubes instead of being forced, are 
more perfectly consumed, and there is no lodgment of ashes in 
the tubes. 8o regular is the process of combustion that the 
quantity of coal consumed does not increase in anything like the 
same ratio with an augmented rate of working. 

creases, while, when the hekn is at or near the mid- 
position, very little steam is admitted to the engine, 
only just such a quantity being allowed to pass as 
will driv^ the engine at a sufficient speed for efficient 
steering. It will be seen from the illustration that 
the valve is operated by a bell crank lever, one arm of 
which is connected to a nut, worked by the helm 
indicator. It is claimed that this device saves about 50 
per cent, of the steam under ordinary circumstances ; 
that the steam supply varies with the load ; that the 


IT is well known to anyone who travels to any 
extent upon steamers, that the steering engine 
in many cases is one of the noisiest devices in the 
ship compared with the work done by it, and 
engineers are fully aware of the extremely low 
mechanical efficiency of the engine as a motor having 
regard to the amount of steam used. The latter 
result is mainly brought about by the fact of the load 
on the engine at the mid-position of the rudder and 
that of extreme helm is widely different. The engine, 
however, has to be designed to deal with the greatest 
load at the pressure available, and as the engine for the 
greater part of the time is working at or near the mid- 
position of the rudder, when the least load is felt, the 
pressure of steam upon the engine is much greater 
tiiBJi it need be. The consequence of this is that the 
pressure of the exhaust steam is high, and the loss 
from this source is great, as it also is from energy 
absorbed by friction in the engines by its being 
operated at a much greater velocity than is neces- 
sary, which causes heavy strains on the working 
parts, excessive vibration, and often difficulties in 
way of efficient lubrication. We have pleasure in 
bringing to the notice of our readers a device for 
overcoming the before-mentioned disadvantages, the 
application of which to a steering engine we 
illustrate in the adjoining illustration. It will be 
seen, that a valve arranged over a double-ported seat- 
ing, is fitted on the slide case of the engine just above 
the ordinary controlling valve. This valve is auto- 
matically operated in conjunction with the travel of 
the tiller, in such a way that more steam is admitted 
to the engine as the helm goes over and the load in- 

engine is more under control, and therefore a truer 
course can be kept ; that the shock of admission of 
steam is lessened, and therefore, the engine will run 
more smoothly, no reducing valve is necessary ; aod 
lastly, that the device can be fitted to existing 

The arrangement is manufactured by Messrs. Davis 
& Co., Limited, engineers, of Garford Street, Poplar, 
E., and 12, Fenchurch Street, London, E.G. 



[May 1, 1895. 


' A T tbe OrdiDarj Meeting of tbe Institution of Oivil Engineers 
A on Tuesday, AprU 2nd, 1895, Mr. W. H. Preece, O.B., Vioe- 
President, in the Chair, tbe paper xead was on *' Torpedo-Boat 
Destroyers," by Mr. John I. Thomycroft, FJt.B., and Mr. 
Sydney W. Bamaby, MM.Inst. C.E. 

Until the year 1883 the British Navy possessed no vessels 
speoially designed to destroy torpedo-boats. In that year a 
niunberof small Teasels of about the same size and speed as the 
torpedo-boat, but intended to have a greatly saperior gun arma- 
ment,were ordered to be bnilt for the purpose. Thej were of about 
66 tens didplacement and had a guaranteed speed of 19 knots. 
Before completion the original intention of u^ng thenp as catchers 
was abandoned, and they were fitted as torpedo-boats. A new 
class represented by the RatiUsmike followed, haying the same 
speed but with a displacement of 550 tons. This was succeeded 
In turn by the SAarpthooter class of 785 tons, by the Speedy class 
<cf 810 tons, and by the Halcyon class of 1,070 tons. The speed 
of e>«ch was from 19 to 20^ knots. 

The growth in size of the catchers or torpedo-g^unboats, 
although conducing to greatly improved seaworthiness, had not 
been accompanied by much increase of speed, while the speed of 
the torpedo-boat had ad?anced rapidly. These little vessels, of 
which the first was bnilt for the Norwegian Government, by 
Messrs. Thomycroft in 1873, commenced with a speed of 15 
knots. The torpedo-boat of tbe present day had a speed of 
from 26 to 27 knots, or as much as 7 knots in excess of the speed 
of the gunboat in smooth water. The advantage rapidly dis- 
appeared in a rough sea, and the gunboats would doubtless prove 
formidable foes to torpedo-boats in many conditions of weather. 
Tbe want had, however, been felt of vessels having a speed equal 
to that of the fastest torpedo- boats in all weathers, and it had been 
supplied by the introduction of a new type known as torpedo- 
boat destroyers. These were practically enlari^ed torpedo- 
boats, carrying a very powerf ol gun-armament. Forty-two had 
been ordered, and the speed of those which had been tried varied 
from 26 to 29 knots. The Daring, constructed by Messrs. 
Thomycroft, was fully described. Her total weight was approxi- 
mately equal to the weight of the machinery of the Salcyon class, 
but her I.H.P. was 31 per cent, more than that of the Halcyon. 

The metacentric height of the X>ann^,with all sea-going weights 
on board, was 2*21 ft. and 2*58 ft. with bunkers full and empty 
respectively. In the mean condition, the maximum righting, 
moment occurred at an angle of 46^, and stability vanished at 
95^. At full speed the height of the roetaoentre was reduced by 
shout 2 in«. by the change of waterline. Gslculations of the 
bending moments produced when the Daring was alternately 
supported upon a wave-crest and in a wave-hollow showed that 
the greatest stresses were prodqced by the latter condition, and 
amounted to 6'4 tons per square inch upon the material of the 
deck. She had two side-balanced radders, and turned a com- 
plete circle ahead in 1 min. 28 sees., and astern in 8 mins. 80 sees. 
There were twin-screws, driven by two sets of four-cylinder 
engines, using steam of 210 lbs. pressure, and having a piston- 
speed of over 1,000 ft. per minute. The engines were of novel 
design, speoially adapted to run at high speed, with little friction 
or vibration. The cylinders were slightly inclined and had 
adjacent cranks nearly opposite, so as to completely balance the 
vertical reactions of their pistons, thereby reducing greatly the 
load on the main bearings and consequent friction. The curve 
^f indicated thrust showed that the initial friction was unusually 

Tue distortion of an ordinary three-throw crank was compared 
with what took place in the cranks of the Daring^ and it was 
shown that the latter tended to preserve its trae line, while 
tbe former, by tending to distort, threw much useless pressure 
upon the main bearings. With a view to lightness and simplicity, 
the cylinders were unjacketted. The circulation of water through 
the condenser was partly eifeoted by the natural fiow due to the 
velod^ of the vessel through the water. 

The boilers were three in number, of the Thomycroft type, 
each having two furnaces. It was necessary to arrange for about 
an equal power in much less space than was available in H.M.S. 
Speedy, and three of the Daring boilers did the work of eight of 
those of the Speedy. In order to obtain a regular feed, automatic 
gesr was introduced, the very rapid rate of evaporation making 
haiid regulating difficult. 

Some difficulty was experienced with the propellers during tbe 
early trials. The Daring was at first fitted with a pair of screws 

having blades of elliptical form, the minor axis of the ellipse- 
being f^ of the major axis. Very unsatisfactory results were 
obtained, the slip at the higher speeds rising rapidly, and xeaoh- 
ing as much as 80 per cent, at 24 knots. The authors considered 
that the bad performance of the screws was probably due to 
the fact that too large a thrust was required from them per unit 
of area. The greater part of the acceleration of the screw-rsoe 
was always produced by negative pressure on the forward side 
of the blades. If the whole thrust of the screw were divided 
into two parts, one part due to negative pressure on the forward 
side, and the other to positive pressure on the after side, the 
negative pressure exceeded the positive pressure in all oases 
except the limiting one, ia which no rotation was given to the 
race, a condition in which they became equal. The only force 
available for producing this acceleration in front of the screw 
was gravity. The recession of the helical surface as it revolved 
relieved the pressure of the water upon its forward lace, and the 
water could only follow it up with the velocity which was due 
to the head above it. At the very small depth below the sarfaoe 
at which the screws worked in the Daring, a few inches only, the 
weight of water over them might almost be neglected and the 
head taken ss that due to the atmosphere. Tbe maximum 
thrast which oould be obtained from the acoeleration produced 
by atmospheric pressure close to the surface of the water was 
therefore 15 lbs. per square inch. It was estimated that the mean 
negative pressure per square inch of the projected blade-surface 
of the screws amounted to 8| lbs., but as the thrust at the roots 
and round the edges of the blades was probably below the 
average, so there would be parts of the blade at which a greater 
negative pressure would exitt. This, in fact, might approach 
more nearly to a state of things in which the pressure was so 
low that cavities formed behind the screw-blades filled with air 
and vapour boiled off from the water. A pair of screws were 
made of the same diameter and pitch a^ those first tried, but of 
greatly increased blade-area, and these gave satisfactory results, 
the slip at 29 J knots being only 15f per cent. At a speed of 24 
knots the slip as compared witn that of thenarrow-bladed screws 
was reduced from 80 per cent, to l7i per cent, and the I.H.P. 
fell from 8,700 to 3,050. The revolutions required to obtain 24 
knots with the narrow screws gave 28*4 knots with the wide ones. 
From analysis of a progressive trial of the Daring, it appeared 
that " cavitation " did not commence soddenly, but appeared to 
become detrimental when the mean negative pressure exceeded 
about 6i lbs. per square inch, or when the whole thrust exceeded 
Hi lbs. per square inch. This was with blades of elliptical form ; 
it would probably vary somewhat when the surface was 
differently distributed. These results were corroborated by the 
trials of two torpedo boats in which a great saving of power was 
effected by reducing the mean negati^ protsnra on the blade- 
surface from 9*9 lbs. per squaro inch to 6i lbs. by widening 
the blades. The authors believed that the speed of vessels had 
now approached within measurable distance of that at which 
propulsion by screws became inefficient. For a given pitch-ratio 
and slip the thrust per unit of area varied as the square of the 
speed. Cavitation oould only be avoided at very high speeds by 
increasing either the immersion of the screw or its blade-area. 
Immersion was limited by considerations of draught. Increased 
area could be obtained in three ways, (1) by increasing the ratio 
of surface to disk-area, (2) by employing a larger diameter than 
that theoretically best for the given conditions, (8) by increasing 
the pitch-ratio which involved a larger diameter with a reduced 
rate of revolution. Either tended to a waste of power if 
pursued beyond somewhat narrow limits, and it appeared in- 
evitable that reduced efficiency must be submitted to as the 
speed of vessels was increased. 

Patent Talve Attachment.— Mr. E. B. Hough, 101, Leaden- 
hall Street, London, £.0., has lately put on the market a new 
device, designed to prevent the hammering and consequent 
injury to main feed check valves and the vibration of .feed con- 
nections. This arrangement permits of a full lift being given to 
the valve, and consequent removal of excessive strains on pumps 
and pipes. The greatest success has attended the use of this 
valve attachment, the valves having become silent and showing 
no sign of wear, and this in oases where previously the valves had 
hammered themselves to pieces. As no alteration is required 
either to chest or valve, it can be readily fitted, and this, com- 
bined with its small cost and efficiency, should secure for it a very 
general application. 

May 1, 1895.] 




IN our issue of February, 1894, we described and 
illustrated a sextant that was brought out by 
Messrs. Heath k Co., Limited, of London and Gray- 
ford, which was designed to meet the requirements of 
the then latest *' Extract from Admiralty Hegulations 
respecting cadets whilst under training." 

We have now pleasure in bringing to the notice of 
our readers this instrument, as it is now made and 
brought up to date to comply with the latest Admiralty 
requirements issued in October, 1894. The instru- 
ment is illustrated in the adjoining diagram, from 
which it will be seen that the improvements consist 
in, firstly, the arrangement of the object glass of 
enlarged size, upon a moimtingB, which is fitted wibh a 
rack and pinion adjustment, enabling the focus of the 

of the instrument are made with the key Z held in 
the case ; and the case itself has an automatic sprins 
lock, so arranged that as soon as the lid is pressed 
down to the closed position the case is locked with- 
out any other fixing; but to further secure it the 
front of the case is fitted with ingeniously made 
circular hooks C, which form secure and reliable 
fastenings to keep the case closed. An adjustment 
key Z is disposed in a socket in the lid of the case 
ready for use when required. 

The arrangement of the telescope tubes is extremely 
convenient, as the one selected ia slid into the 
mounting up to a shoulder, and if not quite in focus 
when pressed home, the milled head at B is slightly 
revolved until the focus is obtained. Thus the un- 
satisfactory and tedious operation of sliding the draw 
tubes of the telescopes until the focus is adjusted is 

telescope to be obtained with great nicety and facility. 
This fitting is adapted to fit any of the telescope eye- 
pieces that are sent out with the instrument, which 
are three in number. The eyepiece marked 1 in the 
illustration being for the star telescope, that marked 
2 for the extra-oower telescope, and that marked 3 for 
the inverting telescope. 

Any or either of these telescope eye-pieces can be 
slid into the mounting B carrying the objective. The 
cut and covered horizon glass A and index clips have 
special spring fixings W, so arranged as to avoid 
bending the glasses by the pressure of fixture, the 
vertical and horizontal adjustment being made by a 
box Y. The instrument is held in the hand by means 
of the strong bridge handle T. An automatic spring 
catch U is adapted to hold the sextant firmly in its 
case. A swing index reader X, with lens, is mounted 
on the arm for reading off the arc and vernier, so 
that the observer may change its angle to suit the 
light, or so set the glass central with any paxt of the 
dividing that parallax is avoided. All the adjustments 

abolished, and rapidity, ease, and accuracy of focus 
by this new method is substituted. There are no 
f Mtenings to undo in order to obtain either of these 
three telescope tubes as the closing and opening of 
the lid of the case secures and releases them auto- 

Two separate eye-heads are included, which are 
fitted conically on the telescopes to enable a rapid 
change of eye-head to be made. The use of these 
dark glass eye-heads is advised when possible ; and 
shade glasses are necessary, as owing to their position 
on the telescope, and the position of the telescope on 
the instrument, any defects in the parallel glasses are 
not magnified. In using the shade glasses which 
are fitted on the limb of the sextant, and thus in 
front of the telescope, every defect is magnified. 

JL new type of steam vessel for river traffic has been introdaoed 
at Havre, in which the power for the propeller is obtaiaed from 
a gas engine. A French syndicate has been formed for building 
marine gas eng^ines. 



[May 1, 1895. 


(From our own Cvrretpondmt,) 

No. I. 

THE Belfast lodnstrial Exhibition, opeued on the 11th April 
hj Lord and Ladj Londonderry, is even now an assured 
SBCcesa financially, the attendance np to the date of writing being 
about 60,000. The object of the exhibition is to wipe off the debt 
on the Working Men's Institnte. The committee engaged the 
services of Mr. Philip Shrapnel as manager, and anyone wiU see 
that they are to be congratulated on their choice. 

Mr. Caldwell, C.B., was instructed by the committee in charge 
of arrangements to prepare plans for the object, the White linen 
Hall and grounds having been lent by the Corporation for the 
purpose. Mr. Caldwell haying submitted his plans, Messrs. Fitz- 
patrick Bros, were appointed contractors. The space at the dis- 
posal of the committee was 370 ft. by 290 fb.. and this was covered 
in by a wooden building in fire spans with glass skylights. The 
old offices of the Linen Hall were all made into art gallery, 
amusement rooms, refreshments, he. ; the new buildings contain 
the machinery besides all the leading local industries and foreign 

The electric lighting arrangements were entrusted to Messrs. 
W. Coates & Son, of Belfast ; the buildiog is well illuminated at 
night by 10 3,000 C.P. arc lamps and 95 )!,000 C.P. arc lamps 
(Crompton's patent), 1,600 16 C.P. incandescent lamps, also a 
16.000 (60 amperes) searoh-b'ght placed on the highest point 
outside the building. 

Six of the dynamos (by Holmes, of Newcastle) to supply the 
current are driren by gas engines of the follnwiog well-known 
makes :—Tangyes. Crossley, Midland, Stockport, Bobey and 
Acme. The dynamos are capable of supplying 180 amperes by 
116 Tolts. and are worked in the exhibition at 140 by 115. One 
dynamo, driven by steam engine (Victor Coates & Co., Belfast), 
has an on^nt of 360 ampdres by 116 volts. 

The current for the search-light is supplied by a Holmes' 
dynamo, driven by a Dick, Kerr gas engine, and has an output of 
80 amperes by 116 volts. 

The current is taken from the main switchboard by eight pairs 
of maios to the four comers of the building, — the mains consist 
of bare copper strips laid in china insulators. There is a dis- 
tributing board at each comer of the exhibition, and the lamps 
are divided into 26 circuits — 14 circuits of 2-aro lamps in series, 
and 12 circuits of incandescent lamps. 

The fitting up of the entire installation, which is the largest 
indoor one ever executed in Ireland, was under the personal 
supervision of Mr. S. Dashwood, Messrs. Coates' clever engineer, 
and he has every reason to be proud of his undertaking. 

Leaving the buildings and coming to the exhibits, which are 
numerous and interesting, anyone paying a visit to the exhibition 
will see that engineering is well represented in all its branches. 

Messrs. Crossley Bros., Limited, of Manchester, show some 
very fine specimens of their skiU in the manufacture of gas 
engines. They show a 14 H.P. nominal gas engine, giving 36 
effleotive, driving a Holmes' dynamo for lighting purposes. This 
engine is built on the patent scavenging principle, tiieir latest 
patent, which saves from 7 per cent to 10 per cent, in consump- 
tion of gas over any of their previous makes. This fine motor has 
proved itself the steadiest in the exhibition, and any engineer 
will see by looking at the electric indicator on the switchboard 
that it scarcely varies any, in fact less than the steam engine. 
This speaks volumes for Messrs. Crossley's skill, and shows to 
what perfection they have brought their engines. This engine 
is fitted with Messrs. Crossley's patent self-starter. 

They have also a stand where they exhibit a 7 H.P. nominal 
gas engine giving 16 effective, built on the scavenging principle, 
and is used for driving looms in the exhibition. There is also a 
1 H.P. nominal gas engine, giving about 4 effective, and in addi- 
tion they have a 2 H.P. oil engine built after the model of the 
gas engines. 

Messrs. B. Carswell k Son, Belf^Mt, are the sole agents in the 
North of Ireland for Messrs. Crossley Bros., limited. 

Fumival k Ca, of Manchester, exhibit two of their Wharfedale 
printing machines, a platen machine, and a patent guillotine for 

S per cutting. These machines are being worked by Messrs. 
rswell, Belfast 

Messrs. J. B. H. Andrew k Co., Limited, of Beddish, near 
Stockport, are well represented in the exhibition with their 
well-known "Stockport" gas engines. They show a 14 H.P. 

nominal driving a Holmes' dynamo. This engine is capable of 
giving 33 H.P. It is fitted with their patent self-starter. The 
'* Stockport" engine has in this exhibition, as it has in all others, 
proved itself a very reliable machine, for out of the eight engines 
in the exhibition the " Stockport" was the only one that could 
be got to run from five in the evening till six next morning 
during the late working previous to the opening of the exhibi- 

Messrs. Andrew make these engines firom \ to 400 H.P., 
and the "Stockport" has proved itself to be a most reliable 
engine of the latter power. The Grand Central Hotel Co., 
Limited, of Belfast, are having a 30 H.P. ** Stockport" fitted 
for their improved electric plant. Thii hotel is the largest in 
Ireland, and it spesks well for this engine that they should 
have selected i t out of so many shown in the exhibition. 

Mr. F. A. Porter, Messrs. Andrew's Belfast agent, is showing 
in his stand a small 1 H.P. '* Stockport," which has ahneady been 
sold, and has many admirers. He also shows Messrs. Johnson's 
(Armley, Leeds) patent biick-making machine. It is a very 
powerful machine, and is capable of turning out from 16,000 to 
20,000 bricks per day. 

Messrs. J. Sagar k Co., Halifax, manufacturers of wood*working 
machines, are also represented on the stand, and the dexterity 
shown by Mr. Grigor in manipulating their patent band-saw is 
one of the features of the exhibition. The demand for Messrs. 
Sagar's machines is very great, and they have already sold an 
immense amount of wood-working machinery of all kinds to 
cabinet-makers, saw-mills, builders. ko,t in Belfast, Dublin, 
Cork, and all over Ireland. 

Messrs. John Cowley k Son are also to the front with their 
various screwing machines which are so well known in the 
engineering trade. 

Messrs. Nelson k Co. show on this stand samples of their cele- 
brated fibrous non-conducting composition, " Island " brand, of 
which they are the oldest manufacturers in Ireland. Th^ have 
executed orders for most of the large engineering firms in the 
country in abestos, fossil meal and other non. conducting com- 
poands, and their references contain the names of nearly all the 
steam users in Ireland. They have just completed a very ex- 
tensive contract for the Avoniel Distillery Co., Limited, whose 
order for covering was one of the largest placed in recent times. 
Last, but by no means least interesting, invention on the stand is 
Smith's patent reversible tramcar seat. The object is to turn the 
seat when rain comes on and then you will always have a dry 
seat. Simplicity of working is the most prominent feature about 
this very ingenious contrivance, and I think it will not be long 
before most of the tramway companies recognise its value. As 
will be seen from above, Mr. Porter is well to the front with the 
various inventions for which he is sole agent in Ireland. The 
Belfast office is 13, Queen's Square, and the Dublin one, 86, 
Parliament Street. 

The next stand to catch the eye of the engineer is that of 
Messrs. Tangyes, Limited. Birmingham, who exhibit samples of 
their skill in the manufacture of gas, steam and oil engines, 
their name is so well-known that it is hardly necessarv for me to 
give a lengtheoed description of their engines. They have 
working on their stand a 6 H.P. nominal gas engine (PLnkey's 
patent). The smooth way in which this clever piece of machineiy 
ran 8 is one of the features of the exhibition ; in fact anyone 
passing and not looking in the direction of the engine would not 
be able to tell that the engine was working at all. Messrs. 
Tangjf 8 have a very large sale for the engines and can now make 
thpm up to any sise. When working in conjunction with the gas 
producing plant the fuel consumption is under 1 lb. per 1 H.P. 
per honr. They also show a '94 pattern Duplex boiler feeder 
4i in. by 3 in. by 6 in. This pump is specially designed for ship 
work, and great care has been taken to combine lightness and 
strength with low cost of production. These pumps are made 
for a steam pressure up to 200 lbs. per square inch. Alongside 
the gas engine they show their petroleum engine (Pinkey's 
patent). This engine is capable of giving 4 H.P. effective and is 
of remarkably simple construction. It has been carefolly 
designed so that it can be with safety placed in the hands of 
servants, Hrm labourers and those unskilled in the handling of 
machinery. It has but two valves, the inlet and exhaust, and has 
no air or oil pumps, and is very simply started. The consumption 
of Royal Daylight oil is under 1 pint per I.H.P. per hour. They 
also exhibit a 8 in. by 9 in. vertical steam engine fitted with quick- 
speed governor of the Pickering type (made in England) ; chain 
and rope block are also shown. They have a 14 H.P. nominal 

May 1, 1895.] 



gas engine driTing a Holmes' dynamo for eleotriQ lighiing. This 
engine gives 31 H.P. effeotire and is a fine specimen of Messrs. 
Tangyes' skUl. 

Mestra. Tangyes' Belfast representative is Mr. Chester W. U. 
Adamson, 35, Royal Avenae, Belfast. 


worked by a handle fitted with a qnarterlDg box and 
change wheels. 

The vertical standard carries two drilling spindles, 
with hardened steel end thrusts, one of which is 
mounted on the drill carriage, and the other or lower 
one is arranged so that it can be placed either imme- 
diately under it for drilling the vertical seams, or in 
line with it for the ring seams, so that the two drills 
can always be at work at the same time. The spacing 

SCIENCE and art advances step by step in the 
dLTection of improvements in the meana adopted 
for the execution of work for the service of mankind, 
with the view of making the physical means fcake away 
as far as possible the necessity of brama or intelli- 
gence of the human factor of the equation. The trade 
difiputes and petty quarrels among the artizan claas 
does much to stimulate (hia kind of thing, becauae 
manufacturers who have invested large amounts of 
money in undertakings desire to sever themaelvos 
from influencea which will at any future time exert a 
detrimental effect upon their operations- There are 
few branches of business that have been affected more 
by this advance than that of boiler- making, and when 
one looks back twenty years, and remembers the 
method of constructing a boiler theu and comparing 
it with the present practice, it is clearly seen how 
much one is indebted to those whose mental energy 
have produced such useful, efiicient, and controllable 
Bervatits as we have with ua to day in the form of 
machine tools for boiter-making. 

We have pleasure in illustrating in the adjoining 
illustration, an improved special boiler-drilling 
machine. This is a large and powerful machine 
that has been specially designed for drilling and 
spacing a nmnber of holes in boiler shells, floe tubes, 
&c. It will be noticed that large work is fixed by 
means of screw dogs fitted into radial arms, which are 
securely bolted in f slots to the table, while any work 
6 ft. in diameter or under, may be fixed direct on the 
table, which is mounted on roller bearings, and has a 
central trunnion of large diameter. The circumferences 
of the work can be accurately divided bv means 
of a large worm-wheel fixed under the table, and 

of the holes in the vertical seams is accomplished 
by the screw inside the standard, which also has a 
quartering arrangement so that a variation of i of an 
inch can be spaced. Each drill-spindle is driven inde- 
pendently of the other, and can be instantaneously 
stopped or started. The weight of the drill-carriage 
is balanced so that it can easily be moved. A platform 
for the workmen to stand on is fixed to the drill-head 
and rises with it. Steps are fitted to the ridge of the 
standard, so that the workmen can get up and down 
without having to lower the drill-head. The standard 
is adjustable on the base by a rack and pinion to meet 
the difference in the diameter of the work. The 



[May 1, 1895. 

machine illustrated will drill holes 1 in. diameter at 
9 ft. 6 in. high and 12 ft. diameter, and is manufac- 
tured by Messrs. J. Batler & Co., of Halifax. 


11/ K have received a pamphlet on the oontrolling of marine 
YY engines from Messrs. Dorham, GharohiU & Co., in 
which they deal with this important matter upon a basis that 
appears to as to be very tenable. The pamphlet commences 
with the statement that every prudent man naturally takes 
precautions against contingencies, more particularly against 
those which are highly probable and fraught with dangerous, 
uncomfortable and expensive consequences. On this ground 
every prudent marine engineer should see that his engine is 
provided with a thorou^ly efficient and proper means of 
control, not only to reduce the risk of breakdown, but in order 
that the main engines shall give a higher mechanical efficiency. 
There are doubtless some engineers who are biassed against 
governors, but enquiry invariably shows that their experience 
has been gained either with machines incapable of fulfilling 
the duties of a governor, or with a good machine too small 
for its work or rendered useless by bad fitting. It is laid down 
in the pamphlet that to efficiently operate the oontroUing 
valves, ft is absolutely necessary to have a most sensitive 
yet powerful governor, capable of coming into operation at 
every part of the revolution, so as to regulate the supply of 
steam according to the load on the engine. Ninety per cent, 
of the breakdowns of marine engines occur in fine weather, when 
the engines are being pressed to their utmost, and the engineers, 
not '* standing by," are least prepiured for a mishap. With 
reference to the means for governing, it is stated that the 
governors should operate the throttle valve on the smallest in- 
crease of speed, tnat the throttle valve shall be capable of 
absolutely cutting off the steam, and that in triple and quad- 
ruple engines the steam already in the cylinders and caisings 
and the vacuum shall be also controlled. To carry out this 
triple object Messrs. Durham & Churchill have laid themselves 
out to supply a governor, throttle valve, and a compound 
attachment whioh jointly effects the results as above described, 
so that whatever happens, the engines are so under control that 
the risk of breakdown is reduced to the minimum. 


WE have lately received a circular from Messrs. 
Fleming, Birkby & Goodall, Limited, of West 
•Grove Mill, Halifax, giving partictdars of their goods 
for hydraulic work, of which we illustrate one article 
in the adjoining diagram. This firm makes a speciality 
of hydraulic leathers, and claim as items of importance 
in this matter— 1st, that they are themselves miners 
of these goods ; 2nd, that they never use leathers that 
have been tanned with chemicals, as this is the 
principal cause of rough, corroded and fluted rams ; 
and 3rd, that they use nothing but oak tanned 
leather. The circular in question gives some valuable 
h!nts to users of hydraulic leathers, which should 
prove of service to those concerned. 

This firm have paid special attention to the lubrica- 
tion of hydraulic machinery, and have acquired a sole 
license for Entwistle*s Patent Hydraulic Bam and 
Cylinder Lubricant. It is generally known that the 
ordinary method of lubricating bearing surfaces, which 
are subjected to the action of water, i^ords no pro- 
tection against corrosion ; hence the rams and working 
surfaces oecome porous, rough and fluted, thereby 
causing the leathers to wear out very quickly, and 
creating a very serious item of expenditure and 

annoyance, consequent on stoppage for re-turning or 
boring out of rams or cylinders, and replacement of 
leathers. By the use of the before-mentioned lubri- 
cant it is claimed the following advantages are 
secured: — 1st, all corrosion is arrested and perfect 

lubrication of the parts ensured ; 2nd, the composi- 
tion fills up the grooves and rough places caused by 
corrosion; 3rd, the making of the bearing faces 
smooth ; and 4th, the reduction of corrosion and 
friction to a minimum. 


THE importance of a periect non-conductor for use on hoard 
ship cannot be overrated. It will be generally conceded, 
we think, that such a covering must thoroughly imprison the 
air spaces, be durable, be caDable of resisting all shocks, such as 
occur in deck use, be easilv removable and replaced, be fire 
and acid proof, be light and practically everlasting, and under 
no circumstances must it break offer crumble into powder, and 
in this manner find its way into bearings. Further, it must 
be so manufactured that it can be put on or taken off by a boy, 
and made to any reasonable shape, and bo capable of imme- 
diate application under anv circumstances to boilers or pipes 
whether they be hot or cold. 

A non-conducting covering has been invented and patented 
by Mr. S. Simon» of 2, Townfield Lane, Liscard. Liverpool, for 
which the inventor claims all the advantages and characteristics 
detailed above. This covering consists of a foundation of 
woven cloth upon which are moanted close to one another a 
series of separate laminated blocks of materisl in such a way 
that when the covering is bent in either direction, the spaces 
between the separated blocks permit of flexure without diffi- 
culty, although the covering may be an inch or more in thick- 
ness. The attachment of the blocks to the cloth is effected by 
means of a network of oord which covers the blocks and is 
attached to the cloth in the spaces betweep the block, so that 
the blocks are kept in place on the cloth. 

These coverings are usually made entirely of asbestos, but 
when desired they can be made of other material, and in any 
shapes or sizes required, the usual stock form being that of 
sheets and bands. The asbestos net whioh comes next Uie pipe 
or boiler is divided into small lozenges in whioh the air is con- 
fined in minute quantities, as well as also in the blocks. The 
air is thus prevented from setting up convection currents. 

By reason of the laminated and cellular character of this 
covering lesp thickness than usual is sufficient to produce a given 
result, and hence, the first cost is less. 

Marine Engineert* Ezamiiiatioii.— At the Board of Trade 
Examination held at North Shields on April 9th, 10th and 11th, 
Hr. S. Downs, of Bradford, and Mr. A. A. Ward, of Derby, suc- 
ceeded in obtaining tbeir certificates as extra first-class engineeis. 
They were prepared by Mr. W. H. Thorn, 5, WaterviUe Terrtce, 
North Shields, making twenty-eight successful papils in tho 
above grade from this establishment. 

May 1, 1895.] 




(From our oton Com»ppndent.) 

The *'&t. Paoir 

IN a poBlsoripi to mj Notes for April, I mentioned the nnfor- 
tnnate it^cident wnich attended the first attempt to launch 
the seoond of the pair of Bistere which are aboat to be added to 
the American line. After a delay of nearly three weeks the 
attempt was renewed and completed without further mi^ap. 
The fault is said to lie with the quality of the grease used for 
easing the ways. But whatever the reason may be matters 
little. The fact remains that Messrs. Cramp were put to a 
great deal of inoonvenienoe and expense through the ooonrrenoe, 
which is by no means unprecedented, even on this side of the 
Atlantic, and in yards which have had very great experience in 
tnming out steamers of the largest class. 1 he lesson seems to 
tend in the direction of proving that it is a very thin line which 
divides failure from success on these, as on many other occa- 
sions, and that therefore those shipbuilders who are aUe to 
construct their leviathans in dry does save themselves a certain 
amount of risk for the extra expenditure they incur. 

The Hamburg- American Line 

is one of the most enterprising and well managed of the fleets 
of the mail lines, and a short history of the enterprise which 
appears in Kuhlow's " Oerman Trade Beview," is therefore of 
general interest. We see how the line, beginning in a most 
humble manner in 1847, entered the fierce competition of the 
Atlantic trade some nine years later, and, gradually building 
up its experience and strength, started its well known Express 
service some six years ago. The success of this service is too 
well known for me to need to say anything about it here. But 
the constitution of the fleet is a matter which calls for the 
attention of English engineers and shipbuilders. For very 
many years this compuay was a constant and valuable cus- 
tomer to the Olyde. When the Express service came on the 
tapis, the experiment was tried of having half the quartet of 
twin-screw greyhounds built in a native yard. Whilst, of the 
remaining two, one came from the Mersey and the other from 
the Clyde. The Mersey-built Columbia is certainly a much 
^ter vessel than the Vulcan Co.'s Augusta Victoria, though 
ahe was not as the " Review " states, *' for some time the fastest 
afloat in the Transatlantic service/' for her speed is not equal to 
that td the older vessels Umbria and Etruria. But with the 
experience gained in the Augxuta Victoria, the Vulcan Co. were 
able to make a very fast vessel in the Furst Bismarck, which has 
hitherto done better than the Clyde-built Normannia. It looks 
therefore as though the Germans had now learnt all they can 
from us, and are quite able to build the highest class of mer- 
ohant-man for tiiemselves. The French too were once good 
OQstomers to the Clyde, but in the recent production, La 
Touraine, we see that they can turn out as go<>i ships as the 
Oermans, and now the Americans are about to show us what 
they can do in the competition. It is urged that we can build 
cheaper than anyone else, and ihat is at present certainly true. 
The Germans press us most closely in that regard. But the 
legislation of these countries is carefully designed to prevent 
ns getting tiie benefit of our power of building cheaply when 
we are in rivalry with native yards, and it becomes apparent 
that we are unlikely in the future to get the useful foreign orders 
which did so much for our yards in the past. 

The Twin Serew 

has got another valuable convert in the Warren Line. This 
important concern hss long nm a service of first-class cargo 
steamers to Boston. The vessels have hitherto, however, be«i 
of the single-screw type. But the importance of duplication of 
machinery for vessels carrying valuable cargoes, especially 
cattle, has become so apparent, that the Scotsman (as the new 
boat is called) has been fitted with two sets of triple-expansion 
engines. Bhe is the production of the Queen's Island yard, and 
is of 6,000 tons gross measurement. 

Meanwhile, the West India Boyal Mail Line has had another 
strong hint that it would be wiser if they were to do likewise. 
Their e.s. Clyde, homeward bound from the Brazils with mails, 
passengers and treasure, was detained for 27 hours through an 
accident to the piston rod of her high. pressure engine. The 
derangement occurred in the Bay of Biscay, and in a strong 
gale, according to the telegrams published in the Times, a 
^umal which does not often lay itself open to a charge of sensa- 
tionalism. Fortnnatelyi the gale was blowing off shore, and 

so there was no risk. But it might appear that il it be worth 
. while to fit the twin-screw to cattle-boats for the sake of 
ensuring regularity in length of passage, a similar precau- 
tion would not be thrown away m steamers that carry the 

The BeaTer Line. 
Last year I wrote an obituary notice of the Beaver Line. I 
am glad to have to admit that I was premature in doin^ so. 
The case was not anything worse than one of suspended anima- 
tion. The line is resuscitated, and is to recommence its sail- 
ings from Liverpool on the 4tn of May. The old fleet is still 
at its service, and it has new Liverpool agents, a firm of no less 
standing than Messrs. D. & C. Mclver, who were connected 
with the Cunard Line before the premier Atlantic Co. became 
a limited concern. There is avery indication that the year 
1895 will be a better season for emigration than its prede- 
cessor ; indeed, it could hardly be worse ; but rates are harden- 
ing, and we may hope that there will be work enough for all 
the competitors in the field. 

The " Wairapara" Diiastev 
has now been reported upon by a Court of Inquiry. Severe, 
but not unmerited, condemnation has been meted out to certain 
of the surviving officers. Some of the dead were not guiltless, 
and their faults were referred to lightly. 

Two classes of persons, however, as well as one or two of the 
deck officers, showed that they were not forgetful of the 
traditions of the British Mercantile Marine. Giving the place 
to the ladies we must notice the heroiem of the stewardesses 
who, when it became a cas6 of "each for himself," gave ap 
their lifebelts to female passen^rs, and then were lost in an 
unaided attempt to carry the children into safety, whilst the 
men were takmg themselves to the rigging. This is heroism 
of an active and noble kind. But it is worthily bra6keted 
with the steadiness of the en^eers. It appears that the vejwel 
remained upright for eleven minutes after the shock of striking. 
Then she turned over, so that the unlaunched boats were 
obviously useless. At this juncture the fore-rigging seemed 
the safest place on the ship, and thither some of the officers 
felt justified in seeking safety for themselves. Things must 
therefore have been very bad indeed, and yet for another 
eighteen minutes the engineers stuck to their duty, and kept 
the engines going. What their doing so meant to their ship- 
mates is well expressed by a quotation from the evidence of one 
of the surviving officers, Mr. Moys, who admitted that he said 
10 the captain. *< For goodneiss' sake keep her going ahead, or 
she will slip off the ledge and we shall all be drowned.'* The 
engineers aid keep her going ahead, as I have indicated, and 
their conduct met with great commendation from the Court of 
Inquiry for the way in which they behaved, the chief engineer 
and Mr. Dunlop particularly so, the President remarking that 
'* had all orders been given and carried out with the same 
promptitude my task would have been a much less painful 
one." What the feelings of these gentlemen, doing their duty 
below the water-line, in momentary expectation of being 
drowned without even a struggle for life, must have been ' 
during those long eighteen minutes can be better imagined than 
described. But their bravery will not be forgstten, and it is an 
honour to the profession of marine engineexing, which indeed 
is accustomed to hearing of noble deeds wrought by its 

Apart from the matters I have mentioned, the loss of the 
Vairapara is noticeable for thecaptain*s unacoountable error as 
to his position, and for the mismanagement of the boats. The 
former matter needs little comment. We all are prone to make 
mistakes, and he expiated his by dying at his post on the 
bridge. But the boat question is one that needs attention. 
Here the boats had not been moved from their chocks for at 
least six months previous to the disaster. The sear was stiff, 
and the men ignorant of their stations and of their duties. 
Had things been otherwise, the less of life on the occasion would 
' have been much less. If new rules for boat drill be made and 
enforced by those ^ipowners who have hitherto neglected the 
point, we shall feel that sometLing has been done to prevent a 
repetition of this great sacrifice of human life. 

The DomUion Line. 

As most of our readers are aware, the Dominion Line was 
bought en bloc by a Liverpool shipping firm, and is continuing 
its sailings without interruption and \nih increased energy. I 
was therefore a little astonished to read in a weekly shipping 
paper, under the head of '* American Shipping News,*' the 



[May 1, 1895. 

following paragraph, dated New York, 6th April, 1895:— <* 8. 
Lawrence navigators are looking for many changes in the ships 
and companies of the Montreal and Quebec trade in the coming 
summer. The Dominion Line having gone oat of existence, 
the old ships, Samia, Dominion^ Toronto and Oniario having 
been sent to Belfast to be broken n^, ftnd a new service ont of 
London and Bristol promised, it is anticipated that other 
changes may also oocar." I may say at once that other and 
very startling changes might well be anticipated to occur if the 
faots-~or any of them ~ were as this American correspondent 
states. First, as we all are aware, the Dominion Line has not 
gone out of existence. Its agents and interest have changed, 
and that is all. Its advertisements are still to be seen as hereto- 
fore in the daily shipping^ press. Next let us examine the 
breaking-up statement. This is, on the face of it, extraordi- 
nary, when we remember that the oldest vessel there mentioned 
is the Dominiotit built as recently as 1873, and thus of an age 
which is by no means patrian&al in the 8t. Lawrence, and 
moreover a vessel which only a very few years ago had new 
boilers and her engines tripled. This vessel has in truth been 
to Belfast, but only for an overhaul. She arrived there on the 
19th January, and returned thence on the 11th April, and left 
Avonmouth for Portland, Maine, on the 19th. The Ontario is 
a vessel of nearly the same age, but the other two vessels 
were built in the early eighties, and are comfortable and 
useful ships ; they are not likely yet awhile to go to the scrap 
heap. The new owners have naturally had their latest aquisi- 
tions overhauled, but the service from Bristol, at all events, 
will probably for some time to come be carried on by these very 
prematurely condemned vessels. 

The White Star Line 

is to have its New York service reinforced by the return of the 
Germomic in May. She is advertised to take the sailing of the 
16th of the month. Her performance will be watched with the 
greatest interest, for she and her sister, the BritanniCt were the 
first modern steamers to astonish observers by the fact that 
their speed regularly and consistently improved with age. It 
is believed that her new engines are to be of greater power than 
those with which she was originally fitted, and it will be very 
interesting to see if her speed will in future be greater than it 
was originally. I do not remember a case where a vessel on 
being re-engined, improved on her former performance. Take, 
for example, the City of Berlin, a vessel which was ihe contem- 
porarv of the Oermanic^s, and one which for a time held the 
record against her. In 1875 and the beginning of 1876 these 
two vesaels were cutting down the eastward record against one 
another, the Britonnic at the moment being out of the competi- 
tion. The Otrmanie's 7 days 22 hours was met by the Berlin^ 8 
7 days 15 hours and a-half . Then the Germanic got it back with 
a run 12 minutes better. I do not think the Berlin ever with 
her old engines bettered that 7 days 15 hours and a-half. 
In 1891 the Oermanie had got her time down to 7 days 7 hours 
and a-half with her original engines and boilers. Her horse 
power was given at something near 5.000 I.H.P. Turning to 
the Berlin again, we find that her I.H.P. on trial when new was 
a couple of hundred greater than that of the White Star boat. 
When she had her engines tripled it was increased by over 
800 I.H.P. on trial. Yet in my Notes I can onl^ find two east- 
ward passages of hers in the two years immediately following 
her refit which were under eight days between Sandy Hook and 
Queenstown. One of these was just over 7 days 12 hours, which 
was certainly better than her best previous performance, but 
the other was some ten hours longer. Her average for the years 
1875 and 1890 are almost identical. We know nothing, of 
course, of the conditions under which she was worked at various 
periods of her history, but the broad fact remains that this 
vessel indicated 800 H.P. more on her second trial than on 
her first, and did not show any corresponding increase in her sea 

Those who are interested in historic mail steamers will soon 
have an opportunity of seeing the pioneer of the White Star 
Line, for the Oceanic, after fljfteen years on the Pacific is home- 
ward bound, and by the time these Notes are printed, should be 
in home waters. 

The Teutonic seems destined to be oflScered by those who are 
strong swimmers as well as brave and determined men. The 
feat of Oaptain McKinstrey. then her first officer, who jumped 
off the bridge of the big ship at the 1889 review at Spithead to 
rescue a drowning man. made some sensation at time. Captain 
HcKiuEtrey has long had a command of bis own, but 

the present third officer is following his good examfde. 
The Teutonic, homeward bound, was going up the Irish 
Channel on the morning of the 17th of April, when 
a Spaniard deliberately jumped overboard. He was 
quickly followed by Mr. Johnson, the third officer, and a trifle 
later by one of the ship's lifeboats. When the latter came up 
to the two men it was found that the suicide was violently re- 
sisting the attempt to save him. He was, however, got into 
the boat. When the boat was picked up by the Teutonic he was 
found to be dead. This does not lessen the bravery of Mr. 
Johnson's feat. It is well that he was recovered safe and 
sound, and that a valuable life was not thrown away as was 
the sad case a few weeks ago on board the P. & O. steamer 
Kaiser-i-Mind. There a drunken Malay fell overboard, and Mr. 
A. J. Cooper, the third officer— who had previouslv received 
several awards for life-saving—plunged after him. A boat was 
at once lowered, but the tackles fouled and several men were 
precipitated into the sea. When at last the boat was despatched 
all traces of the two men had disappeared, and a brave man^s 
life was lost. 

The Ocean OraYeyard. 
A correspondent has written to express his interest in the 
subject treated under this head a month or two ago. He asks 
whether it would be possible to give a complete list of the 
steamers ''posted as missing" on the North Atlantic. He 
also asks if tnere was any such loss before that of the Preeident. 
Answering his last query first, because it is the easier, I think 
there is no doubt that the President was the first on the long 
and melancholy list. Then going to the other part of his letter 
I would observe that the length of the list is such as to preclude 
me from printing it, even if I could make it out. Of mail 
steamers posted as missing, the list is not very long, though 
it is quite large enough. But since the ocean has become 
covered with tramps, the number of steamers of all classes 
which have disappeared and left no trace is legion. I think I 
am not exaggerating when I say that every winter at least half 
a dozen areloet on the North Atlantic, and that not reckoning 
the considerable number which are accounted for by the terrors 
of the Bay of Biscay. These losses, however, attract com- 
paratively little attention. There may be a short pflungraph in 
the papers that such and such a steamer is seriously overdue, and 
later on, another brief announcement that she is quite given up 
may follow. But that is all. There are no harrowing details 
to sell the sensational halfpenny papers, and the occurrence 
is soon forgotten, save by the relatives of the crew. And their 
grief, as suspense is slowly forced into certainty that their 
loved ones are gone, is often likely to be of a very heartrending 
kind. Formerly, as there was no survivor to give evidence, 
the Board of Trade did not often hold inquiries into these 
losses, but of late years they have generally gone into the 
questions of the manning, construction, outfit and loading of 
the vessels, and generally taken what outside evidence might 
be available for the purpose of finding out as nearly as might 
be what was likely to nave been the cause of the disaster. 
Thus of the losses which have occurred of recent years it is 
comparatively easy to 6nd traces and to give details and dates. 
But of many of the early disappearances the bare fact seems 
alone traceable. For example, there was the case of the 
Tempest, which was one of the pioneer vessels oi a line which 
has since become famous in almost every trade. She was, I 
believe, posted as missing m 1857 or thereabouts. But I know 
nothing beyond the bare fact. If some reader who remembers 
the circumstance would kindly let me have a note of the case, it 
might prove to be a matter of general interest. The same 
remark would apply to information regarding any other im- 
portant losses of early days. 

The Baltic Canal 
has a very important military character which does not 
concern us who are here interested chiefly in the mail lines. 
But it is also sure to have an important bearing upon the 
mercantile fleets of the world. The opening of the Suez Canal 
made a revolution in the Eabtem trade, for sailing ships are 

Eractically debarred from using artificial waterways. They 
ad therefore to retain the old Cape route whilst thousands of 
miles were cut off the steamer's journey to the East because of 
the possibility of its using the Canal. The steamer was thus 
enabled to compete at an unusual advantase with the sailer, 
and Uie latter in those trades lost its hold upon all cargoes 
txccpt such as sugar, for which shippers and consignees, for 
market reasons, seem to prefer to have afloat for six months. 

M&j 1, 1895.] 



The Mdling ship will have another hlow here for it will he 
greallT handicapped in the trade to and from the Baltic. A 
iahle has heen prepared which shows that from almost every 
port the voyage to the Baltic will he appreciably shortened by 
&e opening of the new waterway, i say almost every port 
beoanse from the Scotch, Norwegian and East Coast of England 
ports the saving of time woold he so trifling as not to make it 
wcarth while to pav daes, and vessels from these ports will not 
be likely to avail themselves of the facilities offered. The 
neatest saving will be to stCMners bound from Hambnrg. 
They are to save 425 miles, which is reckoned as eqnivalent to 
a reduction of 45 hours on the passage. Vess^ from the 
I>irtch ports and Antwerp and Ixmdon will save about a day. 
In reckoning to what extent the facilities will be used by 
merchant alups it is of course necessary to consider the usual 
qiiesAion — ** Willitpsy?" The answer dejpends in the first place 
on the view the underwriters take. Will they consider the 
dangers of the canal less than those of the sea passage and 
accept a reduction in premiums ? This remains to be seen. 
When the answer to this question is settled and put on one 
side of the account we must, in the case of London vessels, 
consider if one day's interest and depieciation on the capital 
•mbarked in the ship, with one day's wages, coal and provisions, 
will amount to a sufficient value to pay the dues demanded for 
t^ privilege of using the canal. If there is a sufficient balance 
m economy in favour of the new route to overcome the con- 
aervatism of the shipowner— who hates to alter his time- 
htoaonred customs — we shall see the canal much used and 
another weight added to the burden to be carried by the sailer 
in the race for existence. 


Tltlking of sailing ships reminds me that the death is an- 
nounced of one of the most famous captains of the old racing 
clippers. Oaptain McKay, who commanded some of the fastest 
Bailing vessels which raced the earlv steamers between England 
and we Antipodes. He was the brother of the great Boston 

A weD-known Ounard oaptain has also joined the majority. 
This was Oaptain E. F. Fenwick. He was for thirty-five years 
in the service of the company though he did not get a command 
till 1885. I think his first ship was the Morocco and he after- 
wards had the Kedar and other Mediterranean liners. 

Bobbariet at Sea. 

The difficulties of maintaining order amongst passengers on 
the big liners has often been noticed, and as the number of 
saloon passengers carried in single ships increases, the problem 
seems to get narder. The wdl-dressed rough is alwajrs the 
most difficult to deal with, and I have on previous occasions 
^oken of the gambling question. The line which divides the 
professional gambler, or ** bunco-steerer," to use the Amuican 
equivalent, from the ordinary thief, is a very fine one. Thieves 
at sea are very hard to cope with. Bpace, even in the biggest 
voesols, is after all venr limited. Boom-mates are soon on very 
intonate terms, and mendships ripen very rapidly, and en- 
quiries as to pleasant people's antecedents are not Insisted upon. 
TbnB it becomes easy, where state-rooms toe left open, for the 
dishonest to take advantage of confidence, people thinking that 
the difficulty of getting fiunder away would prevent thieves 
ridung dete^ion. It appears, however, that the prosperity of 
the Cape has made some clever criminal chose a Cape liner as 
a hunnng-ground. From one passenger's trunk he extracted 
diamonds, from another he stole valuable papers. The inci- 
dent occurred before Madeira was reached, and the detective 
talent of the officers beinff exhausted, they telegraphed home 
from that port of call, with the result that a detective awaited 
the shi]ys arrival at Plymouth, and attempted to solve the 
mystery. He was, however, also unsuccessful, and we fear the 
thief has got clear off with his bootv. There seems to have 
been no effort or expense spared by the owners to protect their 
passengers' property, but it is obvious that no precautions by 
the authorities can save passengers from bemg robbed if 
robbers chose to direct their energies to this promising field 
and passengers do not protect themselves. All valuables ^ould 
be handed to the purser for carriage in the ship's safe, and a 
leceipt taken from him. It may be that persons think their 
property would be safer in their own possession in case of acci- 
dent to the ship. Apart from, the improbability of accident 
to a well-found liner, we may remember that that risk can be 
covered by insurance, and that the passenger agents will usually 
insure the baggage what time the passage is taken. 

The Boston Trade 

has had a severe blow in the accident which landed one of its 
regular liners on a bank in the channel. The vessel is now a 
total loss, and her fate is a strong commentary on the wisdom 
of the policy of the New York people in their struggle with the 
out-ports. Last month I referred to the way in whidh they are 
** besting" Philadelphia. Now it appears that they are 
Hkelv to ^t something from the defldenoies of Boston. How 
are the mighty fallen ! Most of my readers remember reading 
how in the early days of the Ounard Line, the Boston mer- 
chants clubbed together to cut a canal through the ice to insure 
the regularity of fiie mail service from their port to LiverpooL 
Now they are not asked to combat the occasiomd ice, but merely 
to keep their harbour dear for their regular traffic, and they 
are too apsthetio to do their du^. Yet piping times may be 
expected in Boston Harbour if tibe competitimi promised be 
followed up with any warmth. 

Ounard's talk of starting an extra service according to the 
Shippinp Oazette — to be inaugurated by their new steamer the 
Sylvania on the 27th April. There will then be two Cunarders, 
two Warren, and one Leyland liner sailing between Liverpool 
and Boston, and it is very difficult to see how any of these 
lines can hope to secure anything but serious losses from such 
a struggle for the trade which has hitherto been efficiently 
carriedon by a service not much over half as frequent as that 
now threatened and maintained by much smaller vessels than 
those recently added to these fleets. 

LiTerpool ImproTemeiiti. 

The alterations in the departure of the Ounard mails, which 
I spoke of as imminent in last month's notes, are now accom- 
plished facts, and have shown the experience of several weeks' 
work. The change has been rendered possible by the universal 
adoption in business houses of a Saturday half -holiday. All 
work is now done in the forenoon of that day, and it was felt 
that if the American mails dosed in London generally at 1 p.m. 
on Saturdays, with a little margin at the General Post C^ce 
for letters witii a late fee, a considerable savins in time might 
be effected without inconveniencing anyone. Accordingly the 
mail is now despatched from Euston at 4.10 on Saturday after- 
noon, some four hours and twenty minutes earlier than hereto- 
fore, and running at its usual speed throughout, this enables 
the Ounarder to get away between 8 and 9 on the Sunday morn- 
ing instead of between noon, andl p.m. Notcmly will this in 
summer insure the landing of Ounard passengers *by the Cam- 
pania and Lucania on the Friday afternoon, but it wlQ cut down 
the patience-trying wait at Queenstown in all oases. 

Meanwhile, Southampton has tried the experiment of bring- 
ing the (German steamer up to the docks for the purpose of 
landing and embarking passengers, and has found that the 
extra &lay to continental travellers thereby occasioned, is very 
trifling compared with the advantages given to the London- 
bound passengers. 

The Union Line 
has ^ven a good deal of information regarding its present fine 
fleet in its magazine, the Union XiiM Oasette, Now it is b^|^- 
niufl to deal with its early boats. I have recdved a copy of the 
April issue, wherein are several views of the patriarons of the 
line with details as to their dimensions and performances 
which cannot fail to be of generd interest. Tho illustrations, 
which are of condderable interest, are from the collection of Mr. 
Herbert Summers, of Olifton Down, Bristd, a gentleman from 
whom I have myself obtained valuable information for this 
column on more than one occadon. 

The Oroja« 

Another success to the German Salvage Ga The Oroya was 
moved a 100 ft seaward on the 19th April, and on the 83rd she 
was towed into safety in Naples Harbour. 

Water-Tabe BoUeri and the Debate In the Home.— During 
the debate on the BdlevUle boilers in the House of Oommons, on 
April 29th, models of the Yarrow patent water-tube boiler were 
exbibited and explained to the members; and, as there are no 
less than 80 boflers of this type bemg oonstruoted at the present 
time for vessels in H.M. Navy, Messrs. Yanow's exhibit was of 
oonsiderable interest. The room in whidi the models were shown 
was the one in which Oliver Oromwell signed the death warrant 
of Charles the Fbst. 





AN improved form of the Bain <fe AiDsley's Course - 
Corrector is being pot upon tha market under 
the trade mark of '* Ha-Hy/' and for which a new 
patent has heen obtained. We illustrate this instru- 
ment in the two adjoining diagrams, Fig. 1 being 
& perspectiye view of the complete instr undent and 
Fig. 2 being a plan of the dial. It wiH be seen from 
the iilnstrationd that the dial of the instrument is 

Pro. 1. 

furnished with inner variation degrees on the circle, 
which are shown more clearly in Fig. 2; this will 
enable the variation to be set on more accurately than 
keretofore. Another novel feature of the instrument 
is the mounting upon the central standard of a conical 
sight tube and vane, with a dark glass shutter at the 
eve-end. The advantages of this conical tube and its 
shutter will be obvious to all those who have used the 
now obsolete instrument. It was heretofore very 
di£Bcult to get an object within the framing of the 

sight-vane, and without a dark glass head difficult to 
define this object if it was at all bright ; both these 
difficulties have been overcome by the adoption of the 
conical tube and its glass shutter. The method of 
using this instrument with Burdwood's Azimuth 
Tables is to read A.M. bearings from south to north 
round by the west point, and P.M. bearings from 
south to north round by the east point. 

In a north latitude, to set the variation you turn 
the south point of the inner dial the required number 
of degrees from 0^, while in a south latitude yon 
reverse the compass dial and turn the north point as 

In order to find the true course the ship is steering 
the shadow pin or style is placed in the centre of 
the compass dial, and the latter is turned tUl the nortli 
point is on the 180^, in which position it is clampei 
with the set screws ; the sun's true bearing is founa by 
Burdwood*s tables; you turn the dials round thie 
number of degrees required, and place the bearing on 
the ship's head. The shadow of the style vnll then fall 
on the true course the ship is making. 

To find the magnetic course the north point of ilw 

Fig. 2. 

compass dial is set for variation and the sun's true 
bearmg is placed on the ship's head ; then the shadow 
of the style will fall on the magnetic course the ship 
is making. To find the ship's course by the north 
star, or by two lights, or by any other object, the 
shadow pin is removed and the sight vane is placed 
in the centre of the dial ; the bearing of the object is 
then set on the ship's head. The bearing through the 
sight vane will be the true or magnetic course the ship 
is on, according as the bearing is true or magnetic 
that is placed on the ship's head. To find the course 
when the sun is rising or setting you place the ampli- 
tude on the ship's head and the bearing of the sun 
will be the course the ship is making. In all cases 
where the sun is dull and will not give a shadow, the 
sight vane is placed in the centre of the dial with the 
pointer reversed, the bearing of the sun is then taken 
through the sights when the pointer will give the 
course the ship is making. 

This instrument is manufactured by Messrs. Heath 
& Co., of Crayford and London. 

May 1, 1895.] 




ALTHOUGH the tendency of the last generation has been to 
enbetitate iron and steel in the oonstmction of the halls 
of vessels, Uiere are still many details in shipbuilding for which 
timber is still the most convenient material, saoh as for boats, 
internal fittings, decks, masts, and other items too namerons to 
mention. A desideratum for the material, to be exceptionally 
Baited for these various applications, is that it shall be absolutely 
protected from decay or rot, from the harbouring of insects or 
germs of any kind, and that at the same time it shall be of 
handsome appearance, easy to week with tools, and without 
offensive smell. 

Hitherto the usual mode of naturally seasoning timber has been 
the extraction of the sap by time, for which even some years are 
nooossary to eflSeot an absolutely reliable seasoning, and the 
tf ed upon the wood is deterioration of quality by reason of 
■aii» sliiJces, cracks, or by warping, twisting, shrinking, and 
other similar evils, and a porous condition is proiduoed, rendering 
farther absorption of moisture easy. 

This may readily be understood when it is remembered that 
the structure of all hard or exogenous timber is that of a 
number of vertical tubes bound together by transverse medul- 
lary rays. The desiccation of these tubee, which, when the tree 
is in life are filled with sap, causes a shrinkage of the general 
structure, and leaves the tubes empty and ready for the further 
-abeorption of moisture, so that at every atmospherio change 
it ahemately swells and shrinks. 

Other methods are also in use, all based upon the same 
principle, viz., the extraction of the sap and its substitution by 
foreign matter, such as oononve sublimate, chloride of zinc, 
sulphate of copper, pure creosote, or other similar chemical 

Of these processes probably only that of injecting creosote 
'has been largely used, and this has been found to be open to 
many objections, the difficulty, if not impossibility, of impregna- 
tinff the wood with the oil to any great depth, leaving the centre 
still liable to decay. The wood so preeerved has a most objec* 
tionaUe odour, which would prevent its use for intemid wood- 
work, or anvwhere where the odour would be offensive ; further, 
it cannot when so impregnated be readily worked bv tools. 

The Haskin process, known as Haskixuzingor vulcanizing, is 
a new departure both in theory and practice, and is based upon 
the prinmple of treating the sap in situ within the pores of the 
wood, so that the whole of its preservative properties are re- 
tained, and solidified within the structure itself. The sap of 
wood contains certain albuminous, glutinous, resinous and 
oleaginous substances in a state of solution, and it is these com- 
pounds that nature utilizes to gradually create the hard; sound 
' fibrous portion of the wood. 

Ck>lonel Haskin, the inventor, follows the course of nature 
but improves thereon, by concentrating into a process of a 
' few hours that which nature takes years to effect. The soluble 
sap becomes insoluble in the substances of the fibres, thus 
filling up the tube or pores, forming a homogeneous mass in- 
capable of absorbing moisture, impervious to atmospheric 
changes, unshrinkable, easily worked without smell, and of a 
splendid appearance when worked up with tools. 'Ihe vulcan- 
izing appears also to carry out rapidly the natural ripening 
of natfure, thus merely deepening the natural tints, and pro- 
ducing a most harmonious and marked result on the texture of 
the wood when worked. 

Ck^onel Haekin's process is carried out in a cylinder made 
*of boiler-plate, sufficiently^ strong to withstand an internal 
pressure of super-heated circulating compressed air of several 
atmospheres, for the purpose of holding the fluids of the wood 
from evaporation. The wood is piled on cars, which are run 
into the cylinder, and the air is pumped from a large com- 
pressor into the cylinder, after it has passed through a small 
■tove or furnace, so as to become super-heated. 

The air-pressure holds the sap or fluids in the wood, effec- 
tually preventing their evaporation, while the intense heat 
passing tiirough and dear to the centre of the timber, so sub- 
umates and attenuates the fluid matter of the wood, that a 
new compound is formed, or rather, the constituent elements 
of the sap are thus caused to enter in combination with one 
another, which otherwise are, under lower degrees of heat, dis- 
tilled or desiccated separately. 

AU preconceived methods of curing and preserving lumber 

are here reversed, and instead of distilling out these valuable 

.antiseptics, they are distilled within the wood itself, and are 

affiliated as a new and oleaginous compound, which oxidiaes 
un contact with the air, and the timber is rendered souud and 
.homogeneous without possibility of decay or shrinkage, after a 
process of a few hours. 

A large number of specimens of vulcanised wood are on view 
at 2, Dean's Yard, Westminster, 8.W., and those interested in 
wood seasoning are invited to call and inspect them, „ . 


(From our own Correspondeni,) 


Maiy Motet. 

THE boiler question has commanded, if anything, in cr e a sed 
attention daring the last month. There was a very excellent 
defence of water* tube boilers in the Timei of the 9th April over the 
signature of Mr. John Sampson. If he did not add very much 
to the sum of our knowledge about the powers of the new steam 
generator he certainly strongly exposed the ignorance of fact 
and the recklessness of statement of the opponents of, the view 
he takes. On the other hand he points out that, though the 
French have undoubtedly had trouble with ih^Brennui, it has not 
been with her boilers, which have quite fulfilled their promise. 
Then he proceeds to go categorically ,throngh " M.'s " attack, and 
to correct and answer his statements. He refers to the 
experience of the Messageries Haritimes with this type of boiler, 
and also to that of the Russian Admiralty. Like their French 
naval colleagues, the American mercantile engineers attribute 
their dissati^aotion in the case of the s.s. North We$t, not to the 
vessel's boilers, but to her engines. He closes by asking that those 
who criticise the action of responsible but pen-tied (if I may 
coin a word) officials would at least have the decency to give 
some due to their identity. This as a guarantee of good faith, 
and to give the public some reason for listening to them, and 
some idea of the standing and information of the Admiral^s 
accusers. There is only one point in this letter which seems to 
have been missed. That is, that no criticism has been made of 
the assertion that whilst the Seaford bums ST^tons in her 
cylindrical marine boilers per trip, her sister La TamU^ requires 
10 tons more for the same speed. Shipowners are proverbiallv 
reticent about the coal consumption of their vessels. Tet it 
would be well if the owners of La TamUe would afbrd the public 
some information on the point. It seems very hard to accept 
the statement a^ it stands, in the light of the knowledge w» 
have of the cousuroptioo of the British torpedo-boat destroyers 
on their speed trisJs. The figures here given must be quite 
unimpeachable, and they would tend to show that the water-tube 
boiler is quite ss economical as its older rival. It is true that 
the trials we have bad hitherto the opportunity of criticisiiig 
have been those of vessels fitted with Yarrow or Thomeyoioft 
boilers; but the thing attacked so virulently is the water-tube 
principle, not the. application as made by various patentees, 
and we certainly gather that some patents are by no means 

A very unfortunate droumatance, in view of the open hostility 
shown to innovation in this department, was the explosion at a 
Olyde shipbuilding yard, when testing a water-tube boiler. The 
accident, on examination, it is true, proves to have been due to 
the blowing out of a temporary plug placed in position for experi- 
mental purposes ; but the outside public does not know this, and 
we may be sure Uiat the incident will t»e used for the purpose, of 
discrediting the new method, although the accident had obviously 
no bearing on the controversy. 

The OhaUenf er Ezpeditioii 
has been concluded nearly twenty years, and yet it is only now 
that the report of what it accomplished has reached its comple- 
tion. The report, in fifcy volumes, is a national monument of 
more value than thoie of stooe or braes. The last two volumes 
are from the pen of Dr. Murray, one of the naturalists to the 
expedition. He gives an interesting ruami of all the work done 
for the science of oceanography previous to the ChalUngor's 
labours, and then gives a scientific summary of the results of that 
memorable voyage. The briefest possible summary of all that 
was done during these laborious three years and a half is all that 
I can allow myself. The vessel carried six civilians of recognised 
position in the world of science, as well as a staff of able.^aTi^l 



[May 1, 189^ 

ofioen. In that period th« yenel was stopped 605 times for 
deep sea soundings. On these occasions the temperature of the 
ocean depths, the natore of the bottom, the salinity of the water, 
the nature of the onder-cnrrents and their direction were made, 
and, in addition, the tow was almost constantly oat collecting 
what it conld at intermediate depths. What use has been made 
ef these materials is proved bj the statement that no less than 
76 authors ha?e been engaged ufibn the prodootion of the 
complete series of Tolnmes, and by the fact that it has taken no 
less time than the period I have indicated to complete the work* 
ing ont of the results. Dr. Morray's dedaotions from what he 
has observed of the mud line are interesting and valaable. In 
onr Beviews the Mabins* Enoinbib has recenUy noticed a French 
work, which shows cartog^phically the distribation of the ocean 
mnd, and I need not, therefore, refer to it again. Bat Dr. Marray 
considers ocean life, if not all life, originated in ocean mud. 
It is certainly most curious that this should be|hiB conclusion. 
We know the old Greek story of Venus rising from the sea fosm. 
We consider it but a fable. And yet here is the result of a 
great scientific expedition, conducted at the eod of the nineteenth 
century, confirming as it were the poetry odf the old world. It is 
unfortunate that the necessity of the case limited the issue to one 
hundred copies, so that v^rr few, even public libraries, will be 
able to have copies of this invaluable contribution to the sum of 
humsa knowledge. 

The Berew Propellev. 
It is interesting to learn from a paper read at the Institute of 
Civil Engineers on « the 2nd April, by no less authorities than 
Messrs. 8. W. Bamaby and Thomeycroft, that in their opinion 
the present spued attained by the screw propeller has in the 
fastest craft now afloat apprbaohed the limit ot efficiency. It 
will socn be a question, therefore, if this view be correct, not as 
to the coinparative merits of twin and triple screws, but as to the 
■crew in comparison with other methods of propulsion. Here is 
a vast field for experiment and research. We know neither the 
paddle wheel nor any modification, therefore, will help us, even 
if it were more efficient at high speeds, because of its vulnera- 
bility. We must have some mode of applying the power below 
the water-line. 

The Work at Ho. li OntTing Dock 

at Portsmouth is being pushed forward by continuously working 
in order that it may be ready by the end of June, 1896. Thus it 
Is hoped that ere the two great first-class cruisers now building 
in private yards are handed over by the contractors, there may 
be Government docks capable of accommodating them, and ii 
only by a few weeks' margin, the Admiralty may be saved the 
reproach of having to dock its new requisitions in mercantile dry 

Dredging operations are being taken earnestly in hand at last, 
and the torpedo sohod-ship Vernon has been moved to a new 
anchorage in Porchester creek. With her goei her companion, 
the Ariadne, and not only will the school be in a somewhat remote 
spot, but it is said that to save a trifle of a few hundred pounds 
the two vessels are to be moored side by side. If this statement 
be correct it is to be hoped that some Parliamentary notice will 
be taken of the fact. It is obviously inconvenient to use 
ships so lashed. It is also certain that ventilation and light 
will be saoriflced, and it is not improbable that the health of those 
on board the vessels will suffer. We have not so many officers 
and men in the Navy that we can afford to sacrifice them need- 
lessly, and we have no right to go out of our way to put them 
under conditions which cannot fail to impair both their health 
and their usefulness to their country. 

The same reason which causes the removal of the torpedo- 
school demands the removal of the magazine hulks, QrampHe and 
Melampui, which are to go to Fareham Greek. 

The authorities at Portsmouth are hosj getting the new 
torpedo-boat destroyer Ardent completed for commission, as she 
is to go to Malta to strengthen our defences at that port. 

Pambroke Dockyard 

is to have some money spent upon it to enable it to compete in 
speed and in economy 6t production with the more favoured 
yards. The Renoum, a battleship of the type so much desired by 
Lord Brassey and those who with him wish for more ^moderate 
dimensions in battleships, is now making rapid progress. 

The coast defence vessel, Bwpert, which has long been gaard- 
ship here, is to replace the Bramble at Gibrailtar, and the T/iuyi- 
derer is to take up the Rupert*s duties at Pembroke. The sub- 

stitntion of the Rupert, old as she is, is oertainly a good move. 
For the Bramble is open to the same otgections as the Alert, 
which I am about to criticise adversely, and has the farther 
disadvantage of being some nine years older. She was far too 
trifling a craft to have ever been given the responsible position 
she hM hitherto occupied. 

has completed for her trials the new steam sloop Alert, of 960 
tons, and 1,400 H.P. Her maximum speed is to be IS^ knots 
under forced draught, and she will be one of six useless vessels 
which are being added to the Navy. What is the good of spending 
the nation's money in vessels which have no speed and cannot do 
anything in time of war F 

Dredging is to be undertaken immediately to enable warships 
to get up to Chatham in all states of the tide. 

One of the new third-class cruisers to be constructed under 
this year's instalment of the Spencer progranune is to be laid 
down on the slip on which the Charybdts was built. 

Ckmiparing this^No. 1 third-class cruiser with the class of four 
built under Uie Naval Defence Act it would appear that the pro- 
portion of length and beam is to be very greatly altered. The new 
vessel is to be 300 ft. long, against 265 ft. in the FhHomel, and 
86'6 beam (that is 4 ft. 6 in. less than her predecessor), whilst her 
displacement (2,100 tons) will be 475 tons less. This alteration 
in form is to give her 20 knots with 7,000 I.H.P. at forced 
draught, as against 19 knots with 7.500 H.P. in the older vesseL 
The armament will be the same in point of number of guns 
carried, but the main armament will consist of 4 in. quick-firing 
guns, instead of 4*7 breech-loading guns. 

The Empreet of India, which was built at Pemljroke and was 
originally known, like at least two other recent battleships, as 
the Renown, has, it is stated, showed signs of fiEMilty construction 
during her recent cruise with the Ohannel Squadron, especially 
in weakness of her longitudinal frames, and she is to be ovei^ 
hauled at Devonport. &> is the BeUona, whose boilers are in an 
unsstisfactory condition. The vessels of the Squadron are all to 
go to their ports and to have their annual overhaul previous to 
the Naval Manceuvxes. 

Mew FIrst-dasi Croiiers. 

A Parliamentary Paper was issued on the 23rd April containing 
particulars of the new first-class cruisers promised in the 
current Estimates. It will be remembered that their plans wens 
not completed when the Estimates were presented. They must 
not be expected to rank with the Powerful and Terrible, for these 
vessels are apparently exceptional ships, built as replies to 
certain foreifirn-built cruisers of large tonnage and unusual 

They will, however, be nearly half as big again as the first* 
class cruisers of the Naval Defence Act, such as the Edgar, 
whose high freeboard they are to have, and a couple of thousand 
tons greater than the Blake and her sister. They will not, how- 
ever, have the forced draught speed which these vessds 
have on paper, though at natural draught they are to have half 
a knot more. The defensive arrangements to the ship's vitala 
will be on the plan adopted in the Powerful and TerrUtle. 
Indeed, they may be considered as smaller PowerfuU, The 
hulls aro to be wood sheathed and coppered. Nothing is said as 
to the type of b(nler tp be given, this probably being left till after 
the debate on the subject of Navy boilers in the House of Gom- 
mens. The bunker capacity is given at 2,000 tons ; but, as we are 
told that only half thiat amount can be carried at the designed 
draught and displacement, it would be fairer to call it only 1,000 
tons. A continuous sea speed of 19 knots is promised with clean 
bottoms and smooth water, which is not a very great concession to 
the demand for speed, considering the numerous merchant ships 
that attain that sea-speed in practice without any conditions 
beyond " average condition of ship and sea." The length, 485 ft.,is 
66 ft. less than that of the Powerful, 60 ft. more than that of the 
Bktke, and 76 ft. more than that of the Edgar. Tlie beam is 2 ft. 
less than of the Powerful, being 69 ft., against 65 ft. in the Blake 
and 60 ft. in the Edgar, The armament will contain only three 
torpedo tubes, one on each side and one in the stem. The bow 
tubs has been abolished in view of recent theories regarding its 
danger to the vessel herself and of the experience that too many 
tubes are unnecessary and extravagant of space. Thus we have 
come down from eleven tubes in small torpedo gun vessels* of 
ten years ago, to three in big cruisera of to-oay. The armament 
will consist entirely of quickfiren, the heaviest being fifteen 6-in. 
guns. The Blake, the Edgar, and the Poweiful, each have bow and 

May 1, 1895.] 



stern ohawn of the 9'2-in. breeoh-loadiog type, as well as their 
broadside 6-iiL guns, of which the two earlier classes carried ten 
and the later is intended to cany tweWe. The twelve three- 
poanders allotted to the new vessels is a less complement than 
that carried bj any of the others named. We see, therefore, that 
thongh two 6>in. gnns wiU be added to the armament carried by the 
StUfar and the Blake, that balance of advantage is lessened by the 
lighter bow and stern gnns. The defence will be better than that of 
these ships and the sea speed is likely to be higher both from the 
greater length and from the fact that to little difference is made 
in armament for the extra displacement, for that most be nsed 
np somewhere, and it will probably be found to have been taken 
to give more boiler power and therefore a better chance of 
maintained high speed. 

The Imerioan Mavy 
is to be angmented by two new battleships, half a dozen gun- 
boats, three torpedo boats and a tag, whilst the experiments in 
snbmarine navigation are to be pressed forward. The Holland 
boat, which is to oost over 150,000 dels., is to be finished next year. 
She is 80 ft. long, and hss two sets of machinery, steam for 
ordinary work when above water, or rather when on water level, 
and electric for the occasions on which she makes her dive. The 
intention is not to drive her at any greater depth than is 
neceasaiy to conceal her from observation. 

The battery for the defence of Sandy Hook is now complete. 
It is armed with sixteen mortars and a 12-in. gnn, besides qnick- 
firvrs. The mortars are designed to throw a 1,000 lb. prqjeotile. 

The AaitrUn Mavy 

is to be reinforced in a fortnight's time by a coast defence iron- 
clad named the Monarch, bnill at Pola, and now almost ready 
for lannohing, which is to have a displaoement of 5,500 tons and 
engines of 8,500 I.H.P. under forced dranght. Her srmament is 
to include four 24 oc. Erapp gnns in two turrets and six 15 cc. 
qoiokfirers. The maximum thickness of her armour will be 
lOJ in. Two sisters to this vessel are bailding at Trieste under 
the names of Wein and Budapetth. This G^emment has also 
ordered from Messrs. Yarrow a first-class torpedo boat of a 
length of 148 ft. The boilers are to be of the water-tube type 
under the Yarrow patent. 

The Oennan Maiy 

will have a busy time at the Kiel festivities when the Baltic 
Canal is open in June. Including their own ships and the 
visitors, over a hundred " sail " are expected to be present The 
canal certainly deserves all the ceremony that con be brought to 
bear on ita optniog; It must be a matter of the greatest 
strategic importsnce to effect a Saving of nesrly two days in the 
transit from Hamburg to the Baltic, not only for warships, but 
also for the Mercantue Marine. When we consider that in war- 
time the vessels of the German Navy will be passed through a 
canal in their own territory instead of through dangerous seas 
probably guarded by an enemy's fleet, the enormous sSvantage it 
will give becomes apparent. A much smaller force than hereto- 
fore will efficiently guard both the Baltic and North Sea Coasts. 
The engineering difficulties have been considerable as there have 
been interferences with railways and common roads whilst the 
problem had to be solved as to how the canal would best over- 
come the fact that one of its ends is in the tideless Baltic and 
the other in the North Sea where there is a considerable rise and 
fall. This difficulty has been met by two sets of locks which are 
contrived to be the least possible hindrance to the passage of 

On the 3rd of April the Aegir, formerly know as the " 7,'* 
was launched at Kiel by the German Bmperor. She is a vessel 
of 3,490 tons displaoement and of 4,800 I.H.P., carrying three 
19-ton breech-loading guns and six quick-firers. She is classed 
as a third-class battleship and is one of a numerous class in the 
German Navy of the which one of the latest is the Odin, 

The German Admirslty has plans out for an armour dad of an 
improved Brandenburg type, of an armoured cruiser, and of 
three omisers of the Oefion pattern. 

There is some little pressure beinsr brought to bear on the Parlia- 
mentary representatives of Portsmouth, to make them use their 
beat efforts to get the Government to reconsider the arrangement 
by which the Indian trooping business was taken to Southampton. 
The tmnsfer was effected very quietly, and there was no great 
outcry made at the time. But no doubt the tradesmen of 

Poxtsmouth feel the loss verv appreciably, and they are well 
advised to see if they cannot have back at least some part of the 
trooping business, which was very efficiently conducted from 
their port for a very long series of years. 

An advertisement has been issued by the director of trans- 
ports asking for tenders of three steam transports, capable of a 
sea speed of at least 13^ knots on the voyage to BomlMiy, for the 
Indian trooping season of 1895-6. The vessels must be at least 
5,000 tons, and must have electric lights throughout. The 
period they will be taken for will be six months certain, from 
September next. Last year the trooping was very well carried 
out by the old Malabar and four merchant steamers. I have not 
yet heard why only three are wanted this season. 
Ghatham Doekyard. 
The work on the new battleship Uagmficent is being rapidly 
pressed forward, and the erection of the engines on board 
is nearly completed. She will, unless something unforeseen 
occurs, be ready for her trials in a couple of months. A new 
induced draught system is being fitted to her boilers and so 
there will be special interest attaching to her trials. 

It is a very satisfactory answer to the recent scare about the 
intended abolition of the new practice of building engines in 
dockyards to be able to state that a couple of thousand pounds 
is to be spent at Chatham on the enlargement of the machinery 
and boiler shops. Whilst encooragement should certainly be 
given to private contractors to provide machinery for the Boyal 
Navy, it must not be forgotten in the time of war our resources 
of e?ery kind would be enormously taxed and the more shops 
there are capable of doing work for the Navy the better for the 
country. Expedition too is vital, and probably the value of 
having shops capable of executing repairs on the spot would be 
very great when the ships came in to refit after a general action. 
It would therefore have been exceedingly false economy to 
discourage work in the Royal yards alto^ther, because there 
might be an apparent economy in having it done elsewhere. 

The War Department's torpedo factory at Chatham is to be 
removed from Chatham to Gillingham to make room for an 
extension of the Naval Barracks. 

Work on the new second-class cruiser Minerva is being poshed 
on, and a few weeks more will see her ready for laonching. 
The present time sees three additions to the Boyal Navy. The 
most important is that of the battleship Menoum, which, earlier 
in these Notes, I spoke of as being nearly ready at Pembroke. 
She is of 12,850 tons. Of the same length and draught as the 
i Eoyal Sovereign class, her beam is S ft. less. She will carry four 10- 
in. breech-loading guns, ten quick-firers, and twenty smaller guns. 
She is to have an estimated speed of 18 knots, which is half a knot 
faster than the beamier vessels, and that with only 12,000 I.H.P. 
Her coal capacity is unfortunately only 800 tons. Messrs. 
Maudslay, Sooi, A Field are responsible for the engines, and con- 
sidering that she has been 27 months on the stocks her ma- 
chinery should be well forward. 

On the 25th April, Devonport saw the launch of the sloop 
Phcenix, cue of the ISi-knot vessels, which are built for police 
duty and not for war services. At the same time the second- 
class cruiser Talbot took the water. She is a sister to the 
Minerva, building at Chatham. There are six of these craft 
building altogether in public and private vards. Their displr ce- 
ment is no less than 5,600 tons, which is that of the AwtraHa 
and her belted sisters of Uie Jubilee ye%r. 
The Aoitralia. 
Speaking of this vessel it may be well to record her visit to 
Havre to pay respect to the French President on his return to 
the town where he made his fortune and his name. The 
exigencies of space and the draught of water made it impossible 
for us to be represented by anything larger than this vessel, and 
even she had to discharge weights to take up her position. 
The President paid a visit to l^e British ship and took a most 
intelligent interest in all he saw, whilst great hospitality was 
shown to the ^ii«/ralia*s officers by our French friends* 

The Institution of Oivil Engineers.— From a revised list it 
appears that there are now on the books of the Institutioo of 
Civil Engineers 6,787 members of all ol asses, there being 17 
Honorary Members (including five princes of the blood), 1,862 
Members, 8,687 Associate Members, 855 Associates, and 816 



[May 1, 1896. 


The following appointmente have been made at the Admiralty 
from Maroh 27th to April 23rd, 1895 :— 
Allen, J. W., staff engineer to the Vivid, to date Maroh 28rd. 
Andrews, W. J., staff engineer to the Vivid, for the Rnpert, 

Atkins, A. E., assistant engineer to the Excellent, additional for 

torpedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Barr, Bmest, engineer to the BoycU Sovereign, 
Bearblock, C. W. J., engineer to the Pique, to date April 23H. 
Bennett, J. M. C, staff engineer, has been adyanoed to the rank 

of fleet engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Blnett, P. W. P., assistant engineer to the Pembroke, to date 

April 4th. 
Burner, Alfred, engineer to the Nile. 
Canter, W. J., inspector of machinery to the Victor Emanuel, 

Chase, John E., staff engineer to the Wildfire, for the Bane Pareil, 

Cook, H. J., staff engineer to the Tamar, to date March 28th. 
Goope, W. T., fleet engineer to the Melpomene, to date April 4th. 
Crichton, George A., assistant engineer to the Wildfire, for the 

Sans PareiU 
Dawson, T. J., assistant engineer to the Thunderer, 
Duke, D. E., assistant engineer to the Pique, temporary, to date 

April 23rd. 
Elbrow, G., staff engineer to the Emerald, to date April 4th. 
ElliP, M. W., sUff engineer to the Pique, to date April 28rd. 
Fielder, John, staff engineer to the Blenheim, to date April 28rd. 
Pinoham, W. C, staff* engineer to the Orlando, to date April 28rd. 
Gardner, John, staff engineer to the Etteellent, additional, for 

torpedo and hydraulic coorse, to date April 6th. 
Garwood, H. T., engineer to the Teazer, to date April 6th. 
Grantham, C. F. D., engineer to the Wildfire, for the Sam PareU. 
Harding, W. J., fleet engineer to the Preetdeni, to date April I7th. 
Hayes, iB., assistant engineer has been promoted to the rank of 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Head, Ernest A. Y/., engineer to the Lightning, to date Maroh 30th. 
Hirst, J. E., staff engineer to the lUustrious, to date April 4th. 
Jennings, B. 8., engineer to the Benbow, to date April 4th. 
Jones, J., staff engineer to the Jupiter, to daie March 28rd. 
Juniper, W. Y., chief engineer to the KarrakattaM date April 2nd. 
Kerswell, G. T., engineer to the Endymion, to date April 6th. 
Kingsnorth, A. P., engineer to the Circe, to date April 28id. 
Lamb, P. E., assistant engineer to the Pique (temporary), 

to date April 23rd. 
lAshmore. H., assistant engineer, has been promoted to the 

rank of engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Lock, H. J., staff engineer, has been adyanced to the rank of 

fleet engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Mallinson,B. D., assistant engineer to the Excellent, additional for 

torpedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
MoOarthy, J., staff engineer, has been adyanced to the rank of 

fleet engineer in Her Biajesty's fleet. 
Meadus. W. H., engineer to the Ardent, to date April 4th. 
Mogg, W. G., chief engineer to the Excellent, additional for tor- 
pedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Moorshead. H. B., assistant engineer to the Excellent, additional 

for torpedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Morison, R. B., assistant engineer to the Excellent, additional for 

torpedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Page, W. H., assistant engineer to the Eweellent, additional for 

torpedo and hydraulic, to date April 6th. 
Peacock, Darid, engineer to the Spitfire, to date Maroh 30th. 
Pearoe, R. H., assistant engineer, has been promoted to the rank 

of engineer in Her Majeaty's fleet 
Pedriok, J. R. J., chief engineer, has been adyanoed to the rank 

of staff engineer in Her Majeaty's fleet. 
Pill, J. H., chief engineer to the iiinerva, to date A pril 28rd. 
Bftttey, W., assistant engineer to the EmceUent, additional for 

toipedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Sercombe, F. J., engineer to the Repulse, to date April 23rd. 
Stansmore, H. C., fleet engineer to the Olatton, to date April 4th. 
Stuttaford, F. R., engineer to the Victory, to date April 4th. 
Thomas, Elijah, staff engineer to the Excellent, additional for 

torpedo and hydraulic course, to date April 6th. 
Thumwood, Lewis E., engineer to the Porcupine, to date March 

Trayers, A. B., mgineer to the Blenheim, to date April ith. 

Underhill, C, staff engineer to the Volage, to date April 4th. 
Yibert, J. E., acting engineer, has been oonfirmed in the rank of 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet with seniority of September 

1st, 1893. 
Walker, H. J., staff engineer to the Thunderer, undated. 
Wall, Henry, engineer to the Hibemia, additional. 
Whitaker, F. G., fleet engineer to the Raleigh, to date March 

Whitmarah, A.., assistant engineer, haa been promoted to the 

rank of engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Williamson, W. K., engindsr to the Bomer, to date April 4th. 
Wilson, W. A., assistant engineer, has been promoted to the 

rank of engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 

REPORT, APRIL 23rd. 1895. 

Tbau : Timber 
Stock 1st April 5,139 
Landings 709 

.. 2,005 




.. ^,285 

DeUyeries 487 

.. 2,460 

. . 2.188 


.. 8,899 

Stock 20th April 5,361 


.. 7,590 

The srriyals during the last month consist of a large 
Moolmein cargo (going directly into consumption), also one 
Rangoon and one Banfskok cargo, which are not yet included in 
aboye figures. The deliyeries are small compared with the same 
period of the last two years. There has been a fairly good 
business in floating cargoes, seyeral sales being reported, and the 
greater part of the forward consignments now on the way haye 
changed hands. 

Selections are being mbde from landed stocks by Her Majesty's 
Goyemment, which will take up the principal part of the Bnrmsh 

The present stock of Bangkok is larger than usual and includes 
one shipment the condition of which will do a great deal of 
damage to the growing and well-earned reputation which this 
class has obtained of late. 

Trade in the ordinary way is exceedingly quiet, and with 
further imports expected, market yalues may be reduced 
should shippers decide to realise by means <if forced without- 
reserye sales. • ,. 

In planks there is a fair business doing. The stocks are large 
and competition is growing yery keen. 

Mahogany. — The market fur Tobasco has been yery quiet, 
although prices are being upheld, and owners are not inclined to 
make any concessions tmder the impression that supplies will 
be short. With Honduras a oousiderable clearance has been 
made through channels of a competitiye nature, and there is still 
some likelihood of further opportunities arising for moring off 
another large consignment yery soon. A rise in prioes, prophesied 
by shippers and brokers, appears yery remote, considering the 
large quantities of African and Panama wood being imported, 
which haye a depressing influence upon values. 

CiOAR. — ^Tbere is still a good demand for long straight wood, 
but other descriptions are inaotiye. The importi^ions are smaller 
than of late and prices are likely to keep steady. 

Padouk. — The demand is fitfiU, though of a limited character. 
Stocks are yery considerable, but being all held under one 
interest, it is not anticipated that quotations will reoede. 

Kawrii Pini. — Some satisfaotory business is in progress, 
and prioes are keeping steady. Shippers appear anxious to 
forward large consignments, but prerious experience of depressed 
markets resulting from this action makes them shy of again 
taking the risk. Present supplies are just sufficient to preyant 
fluctuations in prioes. 

SiquoiA. — Some planks were offered by without- reserye'sales 
and met with a poor reception, and the same result will attend 
any further yentures of this kind at the present time. Stocks 
are much heayier than prospectiye requirements call for. 

Amirican Lumbir. — Business is exceedingly quiet, the best 
grades only showing any activity. Logs of Whitewood are selling 
fairly well, and also prime walnut logs, but there is no call for 
inferior paroels. 

May 1, 1895.] 



GixiNHSABT.— Some eDqniries are abont, and likely to lead to 
bntlnef 8, bat the extent of orders to be obtained now comparee 
Tary faTOorably with the biuiness of a few yean ago. Stocks 
remain amall, but more than snfBoient for leqoirementa. 

Bosiness wss very qniet indeed prerioiis to the holidays, bat 
haa been more active sinoe. 


(From our own Oorroapondont.) 

THB activity in Clyde ahipboilding and marine engineering 
indastries daring April, as meaaored by the number of 
laonohes and trial trips taking place, has not been of more than 
average character; perhaps, indeed, of less than the average. 
This is in some measare attributable to the large amount of 
intricate warship constructional work carried on, and also to a 
prevalent spirit of unrest and apparent discontent among the 
various olassos of artisans, a subject to which I will return. 

The steel trade is well employed, chiefly in supplying the 
demand for ship and boiler plates, but the competition iu 
aecuring orders from shipbuilders is very keen, the result being 
that prices have reached the lowest figures ever known. During 
the month ship angles of Siemens steel are reported to have 
been sold at £4 7s. 6d., and ship plates at £4 178. 6d. less the 
usual 5 per oent. discount for delivery in Glasgow district. The 
fresh additions to the work on the books of shipbuilders have had 
the efieot of keeping the prices at these low figures. The steel 
workers are now working contentedly at the 6 per oent. reduction 
enforced last month, and a further help to the steel industry is 
the 6 per cent, reduction which the West of Scotland and Fifo- 
shire coalmasters have effected during the month in the wages 
of their workers. 

The shipbuilding tonnage at present on hand in the various 
Clyde shipyards amounts to about 800,000 tons, compared with 
some 265,000 tons at this time last year. In the shipyards of the 
up^r reaches there is a considerable quantity of work on hand 
which should keep workmen employed constuitly for some con- 
siderable time. 

The yard of the London and Glasgow Go. at Govan is the 
busiest, that firm having secured more orders than can be laid 
down for some time to come. The Fairfield Shipbuilding Oo.'b 
yard is temporarily busy owing to the torpedo catchers, on 
which a g^at number of men are employed. 

Messrs. fiobert Napier & Qontt* yard is empty, but it is 
rumoured that this firm is making changes which may possibly 
affect its condition in a few weeks. Messrs. Mackie & Thomson, 
Govan, have several small orders on ha:i<1, including a steel screw 
ooaati ng steamer of 600 tons for Messrs. B. B. Ballantine A Co., 
Glasgow. The eogines for this vessel, which are to be of the 
tripkhezpansion type, will be supplied by Messrs. Mair & 
Houston, Glasgow. The Linthouse yard of Messrs. Stephens A 
Sons is fairly full, the latest contract being for a large dead, 
weight cargo-carrying steamer for a Hartlepool .firmof shipowners. 

Work on the other pide of the Clyde is plentiful, especially in 
the yard of Messrs. D. & W. Henderson, Meadowside, and of 
Barclay, Curie & Co.'s yard at Whiteinch. The latter firm's 
latest contract is for three steamers, each of 2,600 tons gross, for 
Messrs. Caw, Prentice, Clapperton A Co., Glasgow. 

Messrs. A. & J. Inglis, of Point house Shipyard, have recently 
booked an order f6r a steel paddle steamer, 270 feet long, for the 
Drogheda and Liverpool Steam Packet Co., intwided for their 
passenger and cattle traffic between Ireland and Liverpool. 

Messrs. John Beid A Co. (Limit^), of Whiteinch, have con- 
tracted to build a screw passenger steamer of 2,800 tons, for the 
Campania Snd Americana de Vapores, of Yalparaiso, similar to 
the Loa built by them last year for the same owners. Messrs. 
Dunsmuir & Jackson, Govan, will supply the machinery. 

Messrs. Fleming & Fergason, of Paisley, whose "Clyde" 
type of tubulous Ixdler is being largely ordered by firms abroad, 
have been instructed during the month by the Blyth Harbour 
Commissioners to build a new dredger for that port of the 
twin-florew hopper type. 

Messrs. Simons A Co., of Benfrew, continue to be well 
provided with work of the specialised kind for which this firm 
is so widelv and favourably known. 

At Dumbarton, Messrs. William Denny <fe Bros., Leven ship- 
yard, and Mesars. Denny k Co., of Leven Engine Works, 
are ^irly well employed, two c^ their latest contracts being a 
cargo steamship of large tonnage for one of the companies which 

have patronised them for many years. Messrs. Denny Bros, 
have a contract for a lai^ twin-screw steamer for the Bussian 
Volunteer Fleet, similar to the Vladimir now being finished by 
the firm. 

Messrs. A. McMillan A Son, Limited, of the same town, secured 
daring the month the order to build a cargo-carrying steamer, 
of about 5,500 deadweight tons, for Messrs. B. A. Mndie A Sons, 
of Dundee. The engines for this vessel will be supplied by 
Messrs. David Bowan A Sons, Glasgow, and will be fiUed with 
Weir's patent feed heaters, Ao,, and the boilers worked under 
Howden's system of forced draught. 

Messrs. William Hamilton A Ca, shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow, 
contracted during the month to build a steel screw tug steamer 
for service on the river Thames, the engines for which, of the 
triple-expansion type, will be supplied by Messrs. David Bowan 
A Son, Glasgow. 

None of the shipyards of Port-Glasgow are at all well occupied 
by new work ; three or four of the yards in faot being all but 
empty. By some of the firms it is felt that unless work at the 
present phenomenally low prices is secured in considerable 
quantity it is much better not to touch it at all. 

Messrs. Blackwood A Gordon, Port- Glasgow, continue to find 
plenty of work for their patent hauling-up slip. They have 
recently completed ezteosive repairs to the Clyde Shipping Co.*s 
twin-screw tug Flying EagU, which was on the rocks on the west 
coast during the storm two months ago, and they are now busy 
on the work of lengthening and reboilering and general over- 
hauling a paddle steamer employed in the north of Scotland, to 
the specifications of Messrs. Pollock A Co., Glasgow. At 
the same time the firm have been engaged on the annual over- 
haul of several of the river steamers, including the Glasgow and 
South Western Oo.'s GUn Sainnox, and the laUi of Bute, 
formerly the Guy Mannering, and now owned by the Messrs. 

Messrs. S. McKnight A Co., shipbuilders, Ayr, who recently 
bought the s.s. Contest, of Drontheim, which was stranded behind 
the breakwater at Ayr, and who made extensive repairs on both 
hull and machinery, restoring her to the 100 Al class in Lloyd's, 
have now sold her to a Glasgow firm. 

Messrs. Bussell A Co., Port-Glasgow, who some time ago laid 
down a 4,000-ton steamer on speculation have, it is said, disposed 
of the vessel to a German firm of owners. 

Messrs. J. A G. Thomson, Clydebank, are more than ever con- 
centrating their effbrts on the construction of the 14,000-ton 23- 
knot cruiser Terrible, mnd they parpose launching the vessel in 
the coarse of the present month. This promises earlier delivery 
than was anticipated, and in view of this, and also of the 
approaching launch of the sister cruiser Fowetful, building at 
Barrow, special instructions have been given out to the con- 
tractors for the new graving docks at Portsmouth that one of 
these docks must be completed within 15 months' time. Ija 
pursuance of this the work of excavating and construction is 
being pushed on under pressure of night and day shilts. 
Excepting the new Glasgow graving dock at Cessnock which 
will shortly be complete, the new Portsmouth dock will be the 
only one in existence or contemplated into which these new 
cruisers can be taken. Messrs. Thomson have contracted to build, 
for the liussian Volunteer Fleet, a large twin-screw steamer similar 
to the one also just ordered from Messrs. Denny of Dumbarton. 

At Greenock the busiest shipbuilding firm seems to be Messrs. 
' Scott A Co. About mid-month they launched a steel steamer of 
2,400 carrying capacity which is the fifth of no fewer than ten 
vessels ordered by the China Navigation Co., Limited. The 
machinery for all these vessels being, of course, supplied by the 
same firm from their well-known Gartsbrim Foundry and 
Engine Works, both sectionsof their business are busily employed. 

Messrs. Caird A Ca continue to make progress with the large 
vessels they have on hand to the order of their good cuatomers, 
the P. A O. Co., and the large steamer for the Austrian Lloyd 
Co. A change in the managerahip of their shipyard has lately 
been made, Mr. John Carmichael, who has been manager for about 
seven or eight years, having been asked to resign in order that Mr. 
William Caird, a partner in the firm, might take up the reins of 
outside government Messrs. Bussell A Co. have at present their 
berths fully occupied with vessels, large sailing ships principally. 

Wages disputes and wranglinga over the ever debatable 
" demarcation ** question, as between carpenter and joiner work, 
have plentifully occurred during the month, while those already 
under way when last month's Notes were written, are still un- 
decided. An exception to this is the dispute between shipwrights 
and joiners in the London and Glasgow Shipbuilding Yard, Gova^ 



[May 1, 1895. 

whioh has now been Bettled in favoor of the shipwrightB, accord- 
ing to the decision of the arbitrators. The shipwrights, it will 
be remembered, strack work owiog to joiners being set to work 
in the cargo space ; but sabseqnently resumed work on the 
understanding that the matter be reported to the Board of 
Arbitration, coDsisting of the referees who decided the disputed 
points of the list of work between the trades. The decision, 
beinsr in favour of the shipwrights, is considered satisfactory (by 
the diipwiights at least), and will form a precedent for future 
guidance. A strike of shipwrights employed by Messrs. Bamage 
& Ferguson, shipbuilders, Leith, is proceeding. Thirty-nine of 
the men have been on strike since the end of last month, but 
now they have been joined by the apprentices, thirty-three in 
number. It is stated by the emplojers that the matter in dis- 
pute is that the shipwrights desire to restrict their canlkiog 
from 200 ft. per day to 120 ft. per day, and yet maintain the 
same rate of pay. This the masters consider unfair in face of 
the fact that they have to compete with the Olyde, where no 
. such restriction exists. At Dundee, shipjoiners to the number of 
over 100 ceased work on the 19th ult., on account of the refusal 
of the masters to raise the wages from 7d. to TJd. per hour. An 
offer was made to the men that the wages be raised to 7id. per 
hour as from 17th May, but at a meeting of the men the com- 
promise was refused. 

With reference to the dispute referred to in last month's 
Notes, between the engineers and boiler-makers at Clydebuik, 
a conference of employers in the Olyde shipbuilding and engi- 
neering trades, wiUi representatives from the Amalgamated 
Engineers and also from the Iron Shipbuilders and Boiler- 
makers Societies, was held in Glasgow on the 18th ult. The 
proceedings were conducted in private, but it is understood that 
the business of the conference was to discuss the merits of 
the dispute between the engineers and boilermakers of Clyde, 
bank with regaipd to the performance of certain work on the 
water-tube boilers at present under construction there for the 
British Admiralty. Also to suggest — by way of settlement once 
and for all — a divisional arrangement of work to be observed in 
the future construction of such boilers in Clyde yards. It 
appears that the points in dispute have narrowed themselves 
down to a comparative clear issue, namely, which trade shall 
fit the elements together. It seems to be generallv admitted 
that the preparation of the elements, lathe work, Ac., belong 
by rights to the eng^eers. In order to get over this point 
temporarily, it was proposed that each side should take week 
about at tJbe work until a final decision had been arrived at. 
There is every probability of the question being made the sub- 
ject of a reference under a mutually chosen arbiter. So far 
as the employers are oonceined they maintain a perfectly neutral 
attitude on the question. 

One of the Glasgow daily papers which as a rule regards every 
question from the interested standpoint of " How does this affect 
the working man ?'* in a recent issue makes much of *' How a 
Clyde order was lost." It relates a very simple story in a very 
elaborate way, and the whole account is a covert '* lecture " to 
the Clyde workmen, on ''the importance of being earnest," 
reasonable and industrious. The managing director of a pro. 
minent shipbuilding firm on the upper reaches recently went to 
London and arranged details of a contract for building a steamer 
of considerable tonnage. Points rogarding design, engines, and 
cost were all settled when the question of time arose. The 
Clyde manager said seven months. This did not suit the owners ) 
they wanted delivery at the end of four months, to meet the 
autumn trade. " The manager explained how it was impossible 
to guarantee delivery in that time on account of the erratic 
style in which the ironworkers in his yard, and indeed all over 
the Clyde, worked nowadays. If he could rely upon the ** black 
squad " vrorking with regularity he could promise the vessel in 
four months, but not under the system they presently adopted. 
The owners said they would have no difiSculty in getting the 
vessel built on the Tyne within four months, and to-day the Clyde 
is one order the poorer. The manager, by the way, argued the 
advantage of having a Olyde-built steamer, but the owners 
tamed round and atserted that good vessels could now be built on 
the Tyne as well as on the Clyde. For a couple of years or 
more there has been constant annoyance in the yard referred to, 
owing to the platers, riveters, and riveters' boys taking holidays 
as they pleased. After each pay no fewer than 200 men and 
boys were absent from the yard for three and often four days. 
To such an extent has this unsatisfactory system prevailed for a 
few years in another and an old-established yard, that the firm 

has lost extensively; and, if rumour be correct, they i^re 
endeavouring to privately sell the business. 

The torpedo-destroyer Sturgeon, the production of the Naval 
Construction and Armaments Co., Barrow, has been in the 
Clyde for over a month running her various speed and coal con- 
sumption trials. She left the Clyde on the 19th ult., for Barrow. 
She underwent her official speed trial on the 11th inst., and 
attained the phenomenal speed of 29i knots — equiviJent to d4| 
miles per hour — the best yet attained by these swift torpedo 
destroyers. A slight hitch took place in connection with her 
counters before the three hours' trial was finished, and the 
Admiralty will insist on the trial again taking-place. The weather 
during the Sturgeon's sojourn on the Clyde has for the most 
part been too rough for getting the best results as to continued 
high steaming in these speedy craft, and hitches have not been 

At the Parkhead forge of Messrs. Wm. Besrdmore & Co., the 
manufaotuie of armour plates by the Harvey process — ^under 
licence from the patentees — will shortly be begun. Niokel-ateel 
plates up to a considerable weight and thickness have already 
been pretty extensively made for the war vessels in the hands 
of private shipbuilders, but as the Harveyised plates are now so 
much in request, the firm are preparing their works for this 
make of plating. A hydraulic forging press of 13,000 tons 
capacity — the largest in the world it is believed — ^is now being 
laid down. The pumps and other items are already prepared, 
including a large hydraulic cylinder, oast of nickel steel, 74 ic. 
in diameter, and weighing over 60 tons, made by Messrs. 
Beardmore themselves ; being the first cylinder ever cast of 
this special materiaL 

Messrs. Alley A MaoLellan, of the Sentinel Works, Polmadie, 
Glasgow, are kept busy with numerous orders for their new 
horizontal type of steering gesr and for the patent '* Sentinel** 
Multiple Feed-water Filter and Oil Separator, one of their most 
recent patented specialities for which, notwithstanding, a large 
number of orders have already been received. 

The extensive steel works at Wishaw at the time of writing are 
about to be closed for a period not yet fixed. The works have 
just been entirely reconstructed and converted from the basic to 
the Siemens' process. It is proposed to make still farther altera- 
tions and extensions. It is, however, very generally supposed that 
had prices been at all satisfactory, any extensions still required 
would have gone on while the steel was being manufactured. 

Messrs. Alexander Hall A Co., of Aberdeen, have secured the 
oon tract for the reconstruction of the Dundee sailing-ship Loma 
Doone, which has been purchased for an expedition to the North- 
Baat of Siberia, under the direction of Captain Wiggins, tho 
celebrated modem navigator. The Loma Doone will be fitted up 
with double compound engines and all the other appliances 
necessary for her transformation into a steamer. Messrs. Hall dt 
C J., it may be stated, had the fitting up of the Windward pre- 
vious to that vessel proceeding in the Jackson-Hainsworth expe- 
dition to the North Pole. Captain Wiggins shortly pays a visit 
to Aberdeen to arrange lor the improvements on ihbLomaDoone, 
His preference for Peterhesd seamen is well known, and no doubt 
he will endeavour to secure the services of these hardy mariners 
for this his latest expedition. 

In connection with the formidable and praiseworthy scheme of 
Olyde purification, towards which end the Town Gouncil of 
Glasgow has already achieved an important step in dealing with 
the sowsge of that part of the city north of the Clyde, it is 
worthy of note that Uie Council will shortly consider the question 
of the disposal of the sewage on the south side. A scheme is in 
preparation with a view to its treatment in a manner similar to 
that now in operation on the north side of the cit^. A very 
interesting, and it is thought by some a conclusive, bit of testi- 
mony to the cleaner state of the river since the sewage scheme 
came into operation, consists in the fact that on two separate days 
last week a number of fish, alive and seemingly healthy, were 
caught in the dock at Meadowside Shipyard ; also in Cessnock 
and Queen's Dock. At rare intervals of late years trout have 
been got alive at the mouth of the Kelvin, but on this occasion a 
shoal of btaise or roche has come into the harbour. In the office 
of Mr. Deas, engineer to the Clyde Trust, five specimens have 
been preserved in a basin, the longest being about in. and 
weigMng fully | lb. One of the fish caught at Partick, and still 
alive, measures 18 in. long. The opinion is that the fish came 
from Uddingston district, where braise are plentifnl, and that they 
got so far down the Clyde is no doubt in someway associated with 
the present state of the partially purified river. 

May 1, 1895.] 




(From our cwn CoTr§$p<md$HU) 


Shlplraildiilg.— A more hopcfol feeling has ariMxi among 
persons connected with the shipping trade, and it is scarcely to 
be wondered at that Uie oironiDstance has tended to prodnoe a 
greater show of confidence among shipbuilders. The main gproond 
for the impitired tone in business circles anpeers to be the pro- 
■peotiTO early signing of the peace settlefflent between China 
and Japan, and there certainly seems to be some reason for 
beliering that this event is likely to have a stimalating effect 
upon tr^e generally . The large war indemnity secored by Japan 
will enable the latter power to increase her resoorces of offence 
and defence both by sea and land, and in carrying out a pro- 
gramme of this deecription, she will doabiless freely avail her- 
self of the ready assistance obtainable from Sngliih steel 
makers, ordnance manofactorers and shipboilders. The opening 
of several additional ports in China for trading pnrposes mnst 
of course also have a stimulating effect on business in most parts 
of the world, although some time must necessarily elapse before 
any influence resulting from this point in the peace proposals 
can be felt. It remains to be seen whether the ezplBctations 
formed regarding improved trade will be realized ; but if we may 
haaard an opinion on the matter, we do not Uiink that any 
appreciable improvement will be noticeable before the autumn. 

At the Elswiok and Low Walker yards of Messrs. Armstrong, 
Mitchell & Co., the improvement in business referred to in pre- 
vious reports this year shows further development, especially at 
the last-named establishment, where a night shift has been put 
on in the frame-turning department, and the number of hands 
employed in most of the other departments, has been largely 
increased. It is stated that the two oil-carrying steamers 
ordered from the company by Mesera. Samuel, of London, and 
which are now in course of construction, will be the largest 
vessels yet built for the trade. A large cruiser, which was put 
down at the Elswick yard on the speculative principle, and which 
ia now in advanced stage of construction, has been sold to the 
government of the Aj^entine Bepablic. The vessel, which is a 
■plendid specimen of her class, has been altered to suit the re- 
quirements of the purchasers, among other additions that have 
been made, being a complete outer sheathing of teak wood. The 
torpedo destroyer Swordjiih, which was launched a few weeks 
ago, is being got ready for a preliminary trial, and the other 
▼essel of the same class which is still on the stocks, is 
being prepared for launching. The company are putting 
down new plant of a very massive description for dealing with 
the heavy classes, of work which have now become so pre- 
ponderating a featore in ship construction. 

At Hebbnm the industrial situation has brightened op consider- 
ably, Messrs. B. Stevenson & Co. having obtained an order for 
10 Busaian barges of large carrying capacity, which are to be sent 
out to their destination in sections. There were 28 of these barges 
to be built, 3 of which were secured by a firm on the Clyde, 10 
by the Hebbum firm as stated above, and 10 by the Union Ship- 
bnildiog Co., of San Francisco. It is perhaps of ioterest to 
state that the price quoted by the latter company was lower than 
that obtained by either the Scotch or the English firm. It is 
understood that delivery by a comparatively early date has been 
stipulated for, and in view of fulfilliog this requirement with the 
utmost possible promptitude, the Hebbum firm have lost no time 
in putting the work in hand. At Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Cc's 
ysfd great activity now exists, the amount of work in hand — all 
of which is of sn exceptionally costly description — being very 
considerable. The yards of Messrs. Wigham Bichardson A Co., 
Messrs. C. 8. Swan & Hunter, and the Palmers' Shipbuilding and 
Iron Co., Limited, continue fairly busy, one of the vessels in hand 
at the last-named establishment being intended for employment 
in the Norwegian tourist service. The work of two large vessels 
at the Tjne Shipbuilding Co.'s yard is progressing rapidly, and 
at Messrs. Beadhead's jard the work on the stocks is suflScient to 
keep a full complement of hands employed. Messrs. Wood & 
Skinner are about to resume operations after a temporary 
stoppage caused by want of orders, and there is some prospect 
that business will be resumed at the Sootswood Yard before the 
end of the year. 

The new giaviog dock of the Wallsend Slipway and Engineering 
Co. has been pretty constantly occupied since the opening, 
the exceptional facilities provided for the accommodation of 
large vessels having induced the Hamburg American Co. 
and other owners to send several of their biggest ships there to 
be painted or repaired. 

Bngineeriiig.—The engineering works of Messrs. Hawthorn, 
Leslie and Co.. at St. Peter's and Forth Banks, continue' very 
busy, and at the Neptune Works, and the Wallsend Slipway 
Works, some additional orders have been secured. The Palmer 
Co.'s engineering department is fairly well employed, and 
the same may be said respecting Messrs. Beadhead's works, and 
the North-Eastem Marine Engineering Works at Wallsend. A 
further order for locomotive engines and aocessorif s from South 
America has greatly improved the state of business at Messrs. B. 
Stephenson and Co.'s works, and at Messrs. Black, Hawthorn & 
Cc's establishment, Gateshead, there are also signs of increasing 
work. The various departments of Messrs. Carriok A Wardale's 
works are kept in steady operation. 

Messrs. Clarke, Chapman & Co. continue to secure a good share 
of such work, in their special lines, as is in the market, and all 
their departments are tolerably brisk. Since the beginning of 
the present year their gas and oil engine department has been 
specially active, orders for both types of engines having been 
very numerous. The oil engine is admirably adapted for driving 
dynamos, and it is simple in construction, as well as effective in 

Messrs. Wm. Hindson & Co., hydraulic and general engineers, 
South Shore Boad, Gateshead, have now more work in hand than 
at any time since the opening of their works some 16 months ago. 
There is scarcely anything in the way of ship or colliery 
engineering repairs that they do not undertake, and the excellent 
facilities at their command enable them to execute contracts 
with exceptional economy and dispatch. Mr. John Welch, of 
No. 8. Back Ord Street, Newcastle, manufacturer of ships' tanks, 
ventilators, &c., continue to have a fair share of such business 
as is to be had, in the present rather depressed state of ship- 
building, and other manufacturers in the same line are doing 
moderately well. 

Blyth.— The graving docks at this rapidly developing port 
have been almost constantly occupied during the past few weeks, 
vessels having been undecked and replaced by others, quite fre- 
quently in the same tide. In the shipbuilding ysjrd business is quial 
but there is little reason to doubt that as soon as trade begins to 
revive this establishment will participate in any improvement thai 
may take place. Coal shipments have been kept up to a fair 
average lately, in spite of the fact that many of the suirounding 
collieries have been on short time. 

Bleetrio Ll^tiiig.— Messrs. J. H. Hohnes & Co., Portland 
Boad, Newcastle, have recently booked orders for electric light 
installations on five high-class vessels, building for the Bussian 
Steam Navigation Co., and also an order for an instaUation 
on a large passenger vessel iu course of construction for the 
Bussian Volunteer Fleet. They have ahK> been commissioned by 
Messrs. G. Thompson & Co., Clydebank, to light the s.s. 
AuHralaHan, and l^ the Tyne Steam Shipping Co. to light 
their new passenger steamer Ortnadier. Among the contracts 
recently completed by the firm are the lighting of the steamers 
Kina Orry, M<ma*i IsU, and Sunefell, for the Isle of Man Steam. 
Packet Co. The two first-named vesseb are each fitted 
with 200 16-candle power lamps, which are supplied by a 
coupled plant consisting of an 8 in. by 8 in. engine, with automatio 
governor, coupled to a No. 15 dynamo, capable of supplying 180 
Ismps at 60 volts. The Xing Orry is wired on the single wire, and 
the Mona'i UU on the double wire system. The SunrfiH is fitted 
with 125 16-candle power Umps, supplied by a complete plant of 
a 9| in. by 8 in. engine (with automatio governor), and a No. IS 
dynamo, having an output of 110 amps, at 60 volts. Another 
recently-completed contract was the lighting of the sju Bri- 
tannia for Mf ssrs. Currie k Co., of Leith. This vessel is fitted 
with 100 16-candle power lamps, in the same style as the s.a. 
Bemieia (which was fitted by Messrs. Hohnes & Co. about three 
years ago). The current for these lamps is supplied by a 
coupled plant, namely, an 8 in. by 8 in. open automatio engine, 
coupled to a No. 18 dynamo, with an output of 60 amps. 105 
volts. The S.S. Manx Queen was also fitted for Messrs. J. Little 
A Co., of Barrow-in-Furness. The installation in this case ccn- 
sisted of ISO lamps and an equipment of bells. The ourrent is 
supplied by a 7 in. by 6 in. open automatic engine, coupled to a 
No. IS compound wound dynamo, having an output of 185 ampa. 



[May 1, 1895. 

at 60 yolts. The firm have also sent eight dynamos to the Bel- 
fait Exhibition. 


Since last month little ohange has taken place in the aspect of 
shipbnilding matters on the Wear, as no new orders have been 
booked, and no additional work has made its appearance in the 
yards. It is understood that one of the principal yards on the 
river is about to have two or three more building berths added, 
and also a quantity of new machinery put down. At Messrs. B. 
Thompson A Son's yard a resumption of work has taken place 
alter a prolonged stoppage for want of orders. It is stated that 
Messrs. Priestman & Oo.'s yard is likely to become pretty busy 
in the course of a few weeks, but at present slackness exists, and 
there are no tangible signs of improvement to be noticed. Messrs. 
J. L. Thompson & Sons are having a fair amount of both new and 
old work in progress, and at Messrs. Blumer & Co.'s yard all the 
berths are occupied with vessels in various stages of construction. 
The Sunderland Shipbuilding Co. have one la^e vessel in course 
of building, but there does not appear to be any great desire to 
proceed actively with the work. At the adjoining yard of 
Messrs. Bartram & Sons there is also one vessel on the stocks, 
but it is expected that another will be put down shortly. 

Engineering. — In the marine engineering works business is 
hut moderate, and it is not to be expected that any change for 
the better will take place till an improvement in shipbuilding sets 
in. The smaller engineering works are also slack, and foundries 
are veiy badly employed. At the Monkwearmouth Ironworks 
orders are scarce and most of the operatives are on short time. 
Brass and copper works are moderately well employed, and the 
outlook for the future is not encouraging. 

The Harilepools.— It is reported that Messrs. W. Gray A Co. 
have booked some important orders, which will keep the yard 
of the firm pretty busy for some time to come. Messrs. Fumess, 
Withy A Co. have also secured a couple of good orders, and the 
outlook at this centre is consequently much improved. 

At the Central Marine Engine Works the customary briskness 
is maintained, the work in hand being so plentiful as to 
necessitate the putting on of a night shift during part of ApriL 
The foundry department is specially active, and a large number 
of moulders are employed; but contracts are getting rapidly 
completed, and there must soon come a time of slackness if 
further orders are not forthcoming. The forge has been kept 
well employed throughout the first quarter of the year, especially 
on heavy stem frames and rudders, as well as crank and tail ^afto 
for repair work. Some very remarkable results in the way 
of dispatch have been accomplished during that period, in the 
manufacture of tail shafLs for vessels undergoing repair at 
Cardiff. The brass foundiy and copper shop have been fully 
employed, and the high quality of the work turned out has been 
in accordance with the reputation for excellence which these 
departments have achieved. The boiler shop has been fairly 
well employed, but its resources were far from being overtaxed, 
and a good deal more work could have been turned out if it had 
existed. Special attention is given at this establishment to 
boiler work, both with regard to design and the quality of the 
work in the shop, resulting in repeated and continual expressions 
of satisfBMtion ftx>m superintending and seagoing engineers who 
have Central Marine-made boilers under their charge. The 
pattern-shop has not been fully employed since the termination 
of the long continued strike last year ; but there is a fair amount 
of work in hand, and extensions are in progress with a view to 
providing more suitable storsge space for valuable patterns. 

The new lodg^ at the entrance gates of the works has been 
completed, and is now in occupation. The architect* s plans for 
contemplated extensions to the drawing and general ofllces are 
almost ready and an early start with this work may be looked 
for. Since our last report on the work turned out from this 
establishment, the following ships have made success- 
ful trial trips off Hartlepool, and subsequently proceeded 
to sea: — The s.s. Moling, a vessel built by Messrs. 
W. Gray & Co., Limited, to the order of the West Hartlepool 
Steam Navigation Co., and having engines 34 in., 88 in., 64 in., 
by 42 in. stroke, with two larp;e boilers working at 160 lbs. 
pressure. The s.s. Boisal, built by Messrs. W. Gray & Co. to the 
order of Messrs. Galbraith, Pembroke & Co., London, having 
engines 23 in., 86} in., 62 in. by 39 in. stroke, and two large 
boUers constructed for 160 lbs. pressure of steam. This, it may 
be added, is the fifth vessel engined at the Central Works for 
these owners. Followiuflr up the list, we come to the s.s. Hasling- 
d$H, built by Messrs. W. Gray & Co. co the order of Messrs. 

Burrell & Yeoman, and being a sister ship to the ThwaUm and 
Chatbumt built for the same owners some time ago. She has 
engines 20 in., 31} in., 63 in. by 86 in. stroke, and two steel 
boilers working at 160 lbs. pressure. There was also the s.s. 
Bocio, built to the order of Messrs. Orders & Handford, of New- 
port, by Messrs. Gray A Co., and similar to the b.s. iUuo, 
previously built for the same firm. Her engines are 18 in., 
28} in., 47} in. by 30 in. stroke, and she has one large steel boiler 
working at 160 lbs. pressure. This is the third vessel built by 
Messrs. W. Gray ft Co. for these owners. There have also been 
several ships steamed at the sheerlegs, including the s.s. 
Romadalen, built by Messrs. Gray & Co. to the order of Messrs. 
G. B. Harland A Co., and having engines 22 in., 3^ in., 59 in. by 
39 in. stroke, and two steel boilers working at 160 lbs. pressure. 
The 8.8. Darrie, built by Messrs. Gray ft Oo. to the order of 
Stainthorpe, Kitching ft Co., of Stockton, having engines 23 in., 
36} in., 62 in. by 39 in. stroke, and two large boilers ; and the b.b. 
Arion, built by Messrs. Furness, Withy ft Co., to the order of 
Messrs. BickiniM>n, Son ft Co., of West Hartlepool, having engines 
23 in., 86} in., 62 in. by 39 in., and two large steel boilers. 

A good deal of repair work has been canied out at the works 
this year, including new boilers to old ressels and alterations to 
existing engines so as to render them suitable for higher pressure 
The 8.8. Scandinavian is now in hand at the sheerlegs depart-, 
ment, receiving new boiler and getting cylinders reduced for the 
purpose named. 

Stockton. — ^Messrs. B. Bopner ft Sons are reported to have 
made another addition to their order-book lately, and one or two 
other firms in the neighbourhood are said to luive been equally 
fortunate. In the engineering works business is, with one or 
two exceptions, somewhat dull; but some of the boiler and 
bridge works continue to do a steady trade. Boiling mills are 
scarcely so well employed as at the close of last year, and there 
seems little likelihood of any return of prosperity just yet. 

Middlesbro*. — Since last month a few more shipbuilding 
orders have come to this oentie, among them being one for a 
twin-screw steamer, of somewhat small dimensions, which is 
on foreign account from Messrs. Sir Baylton, Dixon ft Oo. 
Messrs. Ctaggs ft Sons have secured an order for a twin-screw 
passenger steamer, to be employed on the service between Ply- 
mouth and the Channel Islands, and they have also a tugboat to 
build for London owners. Messrs. Harkess ft Sons have very 
litUe work on hand at present, but they are tendering for oon^ 
tracts — both new and old — and expect soon to have something 
to go on with. Messrs. Westgarth ft English have recently 
booked orders for several sets of angles of a small type, and 
an accession of briskness at their works is expected. At other 
engineering establishments business is quiet, and foundries are 
only showing a moderate state of briskness. At the docks there 
are beginning to be noticeable indications that the season of 
timber imports ib at hand — ^indeed, a few cargoes have already 
arrived and been discharged. 

Darlington. — Though there is no work of a very special 
character just now in progresB at the Darlington Forge Cc's 
establishment, there is considerable activity in all the depart- 
ments, the forge and machine shop being so full of work as ta 
necessitate the running of the machinery day and night. In 
the foundry department there is also a good supply of work. 
Other engineering establishments at this centre are for the 
most part only inSfierently employed. 


{From our own CorreMpondent.) 

ALTHOUGH the marine engineering and shipbuilding 
industries of this district do not at present appear to be 
participating in the improvement which is reported from some 
other important centres, the outlook of the general engineering 
trades is certainly more satisfactory than it has been recently. 
A decidedly more hopeful tone prevails in man^ quarters, and 
new work is coming forward rather more freely in most depart- 
ments. Stationary engine builders are fairly well engaged, 
machine-tool makers are securing an increased weight of new 
work, and in the boiler-making and locomotive building trades 
there are more orders stirring. The returns of the engineering 
trades' union organisations sSbo indicate a general improvement- 
in the position, both the Ajnalgamatc>d Society of Engineers 
and the Steam Engine Makers' Society reporting a substantial 
decrease in the number of unemployed members on the books. 
This decrease is perhaps not so marked in the important 

May 1, 1895.] 



centres of Liverpool and Manchester, bat in most of the 
lifcnoashire industrial distriots there has been a steady lessen- 
ing of out-of-work members with increasing enquiries for 
workmen. The returns of the Amalgamated Society of 
Engineers for the whole of the branches throughout the coun^ 
■how a reduction of 1 per cent, on those of the previous month 
in the number of members in receipt of out-of-work support, 
this not now amounting to more than 7 per cent, of the total 
membership, and the report of the Steam Engine Makers' 
Booiety is also much to the same effect, showing a decrease of 
1 per cent., the total number of members in receipt of donation 
benefit not now being more than 4 per cent, of the membership. 
Gnus much more satisfactory condition as regards employment 
returns may, however, to some extent be discounted by the 
large increase in the number of members thrown on the sick 
fiuids» mainly through the recent influenza epidemic, as there 
is no doubt tnat to a considerable extent out-of-work members 
have been finding employment owing to other members who 
had previously been employed being thrown out through sickness. 
The outlook, however, in all the reports of the trades' union 
societies is regarded as much more encouraging than it has 
been, and there are confident anticipations of steadily increas- 
ing activity as the year advances. 

In the shipbuilding industry, as already stated, there is still 
no particular sign of improvement to notice, and the only item 
of int^est is the launching during the month by Messrs. Laird 
Bros, of a despatch vessel for the Portuguese Government. This 
venel, which is built of steel, and is named tbe Salvador Ccrreiaf 
hma been designed to meet the requirements of the Portuguese 
colonial service on the African coast, and the work is being 
carried out under the superintendence of Captain Azevedo 
Oontinbo, of the Portuguese Royal Navy. The vessel is about 
800 tons B.MMand 480 1.H.P., and is to be completely fitted in 
the matter of armament, electric search-lights, signalling appar- 
atus, &o, Messrs. Laird Bros., it may be added, have during 
the past twenty-five years built seventeen vessels, including the 
Salvador Correia, for the Portuguese Government. 

The application of electricity for mechanical purposes has 
made nothing like the same progress in this country as on the 
Continent, and in the United States. In one important direc. 
Hon its application as the motive power for operating overhead 
travelling cranes, which is already extensively adopted in 
America and on the Continent, it has made only very slow 
development. Of course a number of cranes have been erected 
during the last few years, driven by electric motors, but so far 
these oan scarcely be regarded as really electrically driven cranes, 
compared witii the much more perfectly designed and com- 
pletely equipped apparatus elsewhere. Messrs. Yaughan & 
Son, of the Royal Iron Works, Gorton, Manchester, have, how- 
ever, just completed for the Woolwich Arsenal an electric crane 
possessing several features of novelty which it may be interest- 
mg to notice. The special feature of this crane is the appli- 
cation of three separate electric motors plsced in suitable posi- 
ttcm for giving respectively longitudinal travel in both directions 
to the crane, cross traverse in both directions to the crab, and for 
operating the hoisting and lowering motions, each motor being 
capable of being reversed. The Government have already a 
■ingle-motor electric-driven crane at the Woolwich Arsenal, 
biit the one just completed by Messrs. Yaughan A Son is 
the first which they are erecting with three separate motors, 
and it is a crane to lift seven tons with a span of 30 
ft., and weighing about nine tons. The advantage of this 
crane over the single motor, and the ordinary rope-driven 
cranes, is that it dispenses with a considerable amount of 
gearing, which necessarily absorbs a good deal of the driving 
power, and as compared with the rope-driven cranes, it dis- 
penses altogether with the headstock, belt and rope pulleys, 
counter shafts, longitudinal cross shafts and shaft supports, the 
only gearing required being a sufficient complement of wheels 
to regulate the speed as required, a switch box and resistance 
chamber being provided with each motor for regulating the cur- 
rent proportionate to the speed of running required. All the 
operations are controlled from the fioor by means of chains 
dependent from the switches, from one part of the crane. 
within easy readh of the attendant. The firm are also just 
oompleting another crane which is to be rope-driven, for lifting 
live tons, and having a span of 60 ft. It may be added that 
Messrs. Yaughan are at present carrying out an extension 
of their works by the building of a new erecting shop of 
200 ft. long by 50 ft. wide, which will be traversed from end to 
end by a 20-ton electrically -driven overhead crane constructed 
en nnular Unes to the one described above. 

The various appointments of labour representativeB to the 
magisterial bench, which have been made during the last year or 
two. have naturallygiven considerable satisfaction to the different 
trades' union organisations. The latest appointment was that 
of Mr. James Swift, the general secretary of the Steam Engme 
Maken' society, and at the quarterly meeting of the executive 
council held during the month, he was presented ''rith a 
handsomely iUuminated address signed by the members of the 
council on behalf of the society, offering him titor 
warm congratulations on his appointment as J'Ww^ 
of the Peace for the City of Manchester, the seleotton 
being regarded as a well-deserved tribute not only to his 
high character as a citizen but aleo to his ability as a trades 
union official and a compliment to the society when its seven- 
tieth anniversary had just been celebrated. Mr. Swift, m 
a few pertinent remarks acknowledging the presentation, said 
he could not claim that his recent appointment had o««n con- 
ferred upon him as a prominent citizen, or for service rendered 
to any particular party in the State, but it was w^y a oom- 
pUmentto a society with a seventy yeara' history bdund it, and 
was paid throu^ him, as its diief officer. If they looked 
backwards, they would find that ten yeara ago the position of 
magistrate was reserved for capitalists and partizans, but 
since then public opinion had advanced, and representatives of 
working-men were now to be found on the Commission of the 
Peace in all parts of the country. His short experience on the 
Bench told him that dealing vrith the chronic evildoer was only 
a limited part of the magistrate's duty. A large number of 
minor causes had to be dealt vrith of which the general public 
heard little, and it was in these cases that the necessity for 
direct contact with the working class, became apparent. 
There was in such instances a need on the p^rt 
of those who had to adjudicate upon them, of a knowledge 
of the surroundings of the labouring part of the oommmiity, 
and if need be to act as their advocate rather than they should 
be deprived of their Uberty when not able to at once meet even 
a limited penalty owing to their limited resources. 

In the iron trade a much more hopeful feeling has prevaUed 
during the month than for some time past, and a fair amount 
of business has been put through in pig-iron, with a hardening 
tendency in prices, some brands being now 6d. to Is. stronger 
than last month. Local makers of pig-iron report no 
improvement vrith prices very little better, but in district 
brands there is a stiffening tendency, a moderate business 
hsving been put through; and makera have m some cases 
put up their quotations 6d. to Is. per ton, forge Lmooln- 
shire now averaging 86s. 6d., and foundry SSs. 6d., with 
foundry Derbyshire about 428. 6d. net cash dehvored Man- 
Chester. Outside brands are also stronger, good found^ 
Middlesbrough being now quoted 43s. 4d. to 48s. lOd. net oaan 
delivered Manchester, with Eglinton and Glengamock about 
46s. net prompt cash delivered Lancashire ports. , 

In the finished iron trade rather more business is reported m 
some quarters, but generally forges are but poorly employed. 
Prices, however, although low, are firmer than ttiey have been, 
Lancashire and Staffordshire bare averaging £5 to £6 2s. 6d.j 
sheets, £6 128. 6d., and £6 16s. to £6 ITs. 6d. for Lancashire and 
Staffordshire qualities with hoops; £6 ISs. to £6 for random 
and special out lengths, delivered Manchester district, with 
28. 6d, less for shipping orders. ^^^ 

Only a slight improvemeut is noticeable as regards ttie steel 
trade, with ordinary foundry hematites obtainable 6l8. 6d. to 62s. 
less 2}, although more is quoted for one or two special brands ; 
billets £4 for common qualities, and steel boiler plates about 
£6, delivered Manchester district. , 

In the metal market there is a moderate enquiry, witn a 
tendency to harden up in prices owing to the stiffening in raw 
material, but as yet there is no quotable change, list rat^ fjwr 
delivery in the Manchester district being as below :— SoUd 
drawn brass boiler tubes, 6Jd. ; solid drawn brass surface con- 
denser tubes, 7d.; solid drawn copper tubes, 6|d.; brazed copper 
gasand steam tube, 6}d. ; brazed brass gas tube, 6Jd. ; brass wue, 
6d.; copper wire, 6d. ; rolled brass, 6d. ; sheet brass, otd. ; 
yellow metal condenser bolts and pUtes, 4id. ; cut copper nails. 
7Jd. to SJd. ; wrought copper boat nails, ifi. per lb. ; and copper 
bolts, £63 per ton. 

Business has been quiet in the timber trade, and al^ov^n 
the deliveries have been, perhaps, more satisfactory than during 
the last few months, prices are low, with stocks sufficient in all 
articles. The arrival of greenheart consists of one cargo <^ 
large average wood ; there is an easing down in values, with 
ample stock. In East India teak the deliveries have improved 



[May 1, 1895. 

with eapplies ample. Planks oontinne to arrive too freely and 
prices are deoidedly easier. 

In the coal trade the demand has slackened off oondderahly 
with an easier tone in prices. Hoose-fire qnalities are in only 
slow request, with best qualities averaging 10s. to 10s. 6d.; 
seconds, 8s. 6d. to 9s. ; and common sorts, 7s. to 78. 6d. Steam 
and forge coals also meet with no better enquiry, low prices 
c on sequently being taken to secure orders, 6s. to 6s. 6d. oeing 
the full average pit prices. Supplies of engine fuel move off 
fairly well, the output necessarily being very limited, and prices 
are maintained at 3s. 6d. and 48. for common sorts, to 4s. 6d. 
and 5s. for better qualities of slack at the pitmouth. 

For shipment there has been only a small weight of business 
stirring, with jprices at an extremely low point, some of the 
inferior qualities of steam coal being obtainable at as low as 
7s. 6d. with better qualities about 8s. delivered at the ports 
en the Mersey. 


(From our own Correspondent.) 

Banow-in-Fiinieu. — There is not much that is new to report 
in connection with the shipbuilding trade of this district. No 
new orders have come to hand during the month, and the en- 
quiries from all sources are not only few in number, but are 
not being given out except at extraordinarily low prices. Some 
orders during the month have been declined because the prices 
offered by owners have left no margin of profit. Builders go to 
the trouble and expense of tendering, and although they quote 
at a low price per ton they are asked to take lees money or lose 
the work. They prefer the latter alternative. The opinion is 
held in some districts that much of the tendering which has 
to be done by makers in dull times is with a view that owners 
can get at the bottom prices so as to form a data for operations 
when new tonnage is actually required, on the basis of any rise 
in the value of building material or increase in the cost of labour 
which may at the time be the fact. 

Some hopes have recently been expressed, and in many in- 
stances the belief is entertained that the stoppage of hostilities 
in the far East will lead to a marked reviviu in the shipping 
trade generally. There is some justification for this, as not only 
have Japan and China much lost ground to pull up, but they 
have before them a very bi^ programme of developments in the 
future which cannot but give an impetus to the shipping trade, 
and as British ships are the chief carrying agencies of the 
world it stands to sense that we shall get our share of any im- 
provement that may assert itself in the near future. It is felt 
by those who have ventured to give any thought to this question, 
that not only will the changed condition of things vastly im- 
prove the oidinary shipping trade, but that new developments 
will follow in improving direct steam navigation with Japanese 
and Chinese ports. The splendid service of the P. A O. Co., by 
way of the Suez Canal and India, leaves nothing to be desired 
in that direction, but it is quite on the cards Siere will be a 
marked development in the steamship service acioss the 
Padfic— from Vancouver to Yokohama, and from San Francisco 
to Yokohama. At present the Empress Line, the Empreu of 
China, Empreee of India, and Bmprets of Japan, Barrow-built 
high-speed steamers, are doing good service on the Yokohama 
station, but they will doubtless have to be supi^emented by 
additional steamers of equal size, power and general 
equipment, and this is naturally expected to bring new 
orders to this country. But over and above this fea- 
ture of the case, further need will be shown for the new 
line of steamers from British ports to Canada in con- 
nection with the Canadian Pacific Bailway Co., from 
Montreal to Vancouver. Thi» line has been in embryo 
for some time, and will certainly some day become a realised 
fact, so soon, indeed, as the Home Government, the Canadian 
Government, and the Australian group of governments can see 
their way to such a combined subsidy as will satisfy a British 
Bjmdicato, which is even now ready to find the necessary 
capital when these initial conditions have been officially 
assured. The Australian governments will be asked to join in 
such a guarantee because of the proposed establishment of a 
direct line of steamers from Vancouver to New South Wales 
in connection with express services of trains across Canada 
and fast steamers communicating between Canadian and 

British ports There is much that is practical in these fore- 
oasts of the future, and there is also a certainty that whatever 
developments are in store for Vancouver as a Canadian port 
will find contenoporary enterprise to meet them in the United 
States port of San Francisco. It therefore seems likely that 
the settlement of the war between China and Japan will be 
the forerunner of great changes in the steam navigation of the 
Pacific. In these changes British shipbuilders, including 
those of Barrow, will verv naturally profit. 

Much better weather has lately been experienced, and this 
circumstance alongside the fact that days have been gradually 
lengthening, has enabled builders to make great progress witti 
the work they have on hand. H.M.8. Fowerful, first-class 
cruiser, has been fully plated and sheathed with teak wood, 
and arrangements are in progress for the outer copper sheath- 
ing. The main shafts and the twin screws are bemg prepared 
for fixing, and it seems probable that the great vessel will be 
launched in July or August next. The internal fittings of the 
Powerful t^te considerably advanced, and the vessel will probably 
have a deadweight when she is launched of from 7,000 to 8,000 
tons. The Barrow yard possesses the best laundiing ground 
in the world, but to give greater facilities for this launch 
dredging operations are proceeding in Walney Channel opposite 
the launching ways which will give ample space m any 
emergency. This vessel is being built on the ways where the 
Ciiy of Rome, the Normandy, and the Empress of India were built, 
and is as solid as possiUe. No trouble from that source is 
either anticipated or probable. The building of the two sets 
of engines for the Powerful as well as the BelleviUe boilers is 
proceeding satisfactory and both will be readv for lifting into 
the vessel when launched. It is noteworthy that the enginea, 
although of triple-expansion type, will each have four cylinders, 
the low-pressure steam having play on two cylinders in each 
engine in order to obviate the enormous diameter of cylinder 
which would be necessary were this not the case. GraduaUj 
the two second-class cruisers Juno and Doris are raising theur 
massive steel sides. Owing to the adequate supply of material 
much headway is being made with these cruisers. The three 
torpedo-boat destroyers. Sturgeon, Starfish and Skate, will 

Jrobablytake their trials together in May or the beginning of 
one. The Sturgeon has alr^dy shown herself to be one of the 
smartest, if not the smartest vessel of her class yet built for 
the Admiralty. Much attention is being devoted to the work 
of building tne Duke of Lancaster, the twin-screw hijgh-speed 
passenger steamer for the Fleetwood and Belfast service. She 
will be launched early in May, and has to be on her station by 
Jime 1st. If this feat 'Js accomplished, as no doubt it will be» 
it will be one of the smartest performances ever recorded in the 
history of British shipbuilding. The Liverpool sand dredger ie 
grckdually taking shape. Those who have not seen these 
leviathan dredgers, capable of lifting 4.000 tons of sand per 
hour into hoppers whi^ are part of herself, and then steammg 
away to depositing ground and discharging her whole cargo in 
three or four minutes, have no idea of the size and capacity, 
the power, and the mechanical arrangements generally, which 
are brought into play, in order that the vessel can do what is 
required of her. She will be delivered during the year, and 
will be a worthy addition to the dredg^ing fleet of the Mersey, 
which has alreadv done such good service in that river, which 
is now navigable for the largest ships even at the lowest state 
of the tide. 

During the month the Naval Construction and Armaments 
Co. delivered to the London County Council the sludge steamer 
named Bums, as a compliment to Mr. John Bums, M^. On 
her trial on the Thames this steamer exceeded her specified 
speed by 2 knots. It is probable that other large cities like 
London will adopt the metropolitan system of carrying out 
sludge to sea. as the best means of keeping rivers clear and 
pure. Manchester is already scheming to this end. Very much 
progress has been made with the engines of H.M.S. Majestic 
which are being built up at PortsmouUi Dockyard. The repairs 
to the Barrow and Isle of Man steamer, Manx Quun, are very 
considerable. Withher new boilers and improved engines it u 
expected she will make a fast sailer, and reauce the time taken 
to reach the Isle of Man. 

Bhipbuildintf Material.— There is a quiet demand for all 
classes of shipbuilding material, but it is expected the mills at 
Barrow will be kent busy during the year wiui orders for plates 
for Admiralty and merchant work, and that the Inrisk demand 
which has been experienced for some time for heavy steel 
castings will also be maintained. 

May 1, 181)5.3 




{From cur own Oorre$pondeHU) 

^HB ■hipboilding and engineering trade here condnaee brisk, 
•^ and good trade ii the order of the day. The ihipboilding 
return! imed by Lloyd'i for the quarter ended 81it March, 1895, 
ahowa that the Clyde, the Tyne, the Wear, and all other ship- 
building oencree, are simply not in it with the commeroial capital 
of Ireland. In the returns Belfast is the chief port in which 
adranoe has been made, the increase in the quarter of the num- 
ber of T o ese l under construction, compared with the corresponding 
period last year, is 29,568 tons gross, the only other place which 
baa an increase to its credit is Middlesbrough and Stockton, which 
haTO improTed about 3,000 gross. 

A most disastrous fire occurred in the timber yard of Messrs. 
Harland A Wolff on the erening of the 10th, and was not ez- 
tingnisbed till the following STening and till damage to the 
amount of about £25,000 had been done. 

The fire broke out in a yard of about ten acres in extent stored 
with timber to the value of £40,000, and is situated aloogidde the 
fine new boiler shops erected about a year ago, and which were 
in imminent danger of being destroyed, but thanks to the exer- 
tiona of the plocl^ firemen with their four steamers, the fire was 
confined to one side of the timber. The timber is only partially 
insured so that the firm will lose heayily by the 6re, but it will 
not in any way interfere with the work of the yard, as about half 
haa been saved. 

The OriMsa had her trial on March 30th, and attained a speed 
of 15 knots per hour, which was considered very satisfactory. 
She is a twin-screw steamer of 5,370 tons, driven by two sets of 
^ple-ezpansion engines of 1,800 I.H.P. each, and has manganese 
propellen. It is not necessary to say more about this fine 
steamer. SufiSoe it is to say that she is a sister to the Oopet a, 
whose trial was reported in our March number, and is owneid by 
the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. 

The ScoUman also had her trial during the month which was 
aatiafactory in every way. She is a twin-screw steamer, of 
6.000 tons gross, and has two sets of triple-ezpaosion engines of 
1,500 I.H.P. each, and manganese propellers. l:\ioBeot9man 
was built to the order of Messrs. Geo. Warren & Son, Liverpool, 
and is intended for the North Atlantic cattle trade. After the 
trial she proceeded to Cardiff to load bunker, after which she sails 
for Liverpool, and from tbence on her maiden voyage across the 

The Otrmanic is beginning to get into shape now she has her 
new engines and boilers in, and her two new funnels up, and pre- 
sents a strikiuK contrast to her old state. The new funnels beiog 
very hign give her a very smart appearance ; a new deck has been 
fitted and altogether, when she is completed, will be counted in 
the front rank of ocean palaces. 

Measrs. Harland h. Wolff have the as. Caloric, of the Belfast 
and Liverpool Line, in for her spring overhaul. 

Measrs. Workman, Clsrk & Co., Limited, of the Belfast Ship- 
yard continue busy ; although they have bad no launches since last 
report there are a good many vessels in a forward state in their 
yards, one of which will be launched in a fortnight. 

They are at present erecting a new shed in their South yard, 
and the new sHp is nearly ready for receiving keels. Altogether 
when their numerous improvements are ready they will have one 
of the most complete and up-to-date yards in the kingdom. 

They have the s.s. QUnarm^ of the Antrim Iron Ore Co., and 
the a.s. Tut, of Messrs. Grainger's fieet in for general repairs. 

The Harbour Commissioners are at present extending the new 
Salisbury Dock through the Princes Dock and erecting new 
sheds similar to thoie at the Dufferin Dock, and when completed 
will prove a valuable addition to the already extensive quays and 
docka of the commercial capital. 

Tbe fine barque Lough Neagh was recently sold to foreign 
owners for £6,000. She was built of steel in 1892 by Messrs. 
Workman, Clark, & Co., Limited, and cost £12,000 to build and 
carries about 2,000 tons. 

The barque Linda Park was also sold for £3,000. 

The Anstro-HiiBtfariAn OoYemment have recently entered 
into a contract with Messrs. Yarrow & Co., of Poplar, to construct a 
first-claas torpedo boat of the very latest type. The dimensions 
are 148 ft. in length by 14 ft. 9 in. beam, and the boilers are to 
be of tho Yarrow wftter-tube type. 



THE death took nlaoe on Sunday, the 7th ult., at his private 
residence in Partick Hill, of Mr. William Henderson, of 
the well-known shipbuilding firm of Messrs. David <ft William 
Henderson, Meadowside, Partick. The deceased gentleman, 
who was in his 69th year, and had been mostly confined to his 
room for about a month past, was the last of four brothers 
whose names have long been closely associated with the ship- 
pinflT industry. He was predeceased by his brother, Mr. Thomaa 
Henderson, founder of the well-known ** Anchor Line," whose 
obituary was given in our last issue. At an early age Mr. 
William Henderson acquired a practical knowledge of sea- 
faring life, which stood iiim in good stead in later years when 
he entered on his career as a shipbuilder. He took an active 
part in the formation of the firm of which he was a member, 
and brought his wide experience to bear upon the work ao 
successfuDy that the firm of D. and W. Henderson occupy a fore- 
most place among shipbuilders — a class of work for which the 
firm is specially noted being the construction of high-class racing 
yachts, both the present and previous America Cup ohallengeti, 
as well as other noted craft, being from their stocks. Mr. 
Henderson led a quiet, unassnminglife, and the annoxmoement 
of his demise was received with deep sorrow by a large circle 
of friends. 

The death took place at Aberdeen, on the 11th ult., of Mr. 
George Thompson, founder and head of the well known ship- 
ping firm of Messrs. George Thompson A Co., Aberdeen and 
London. The deceased, who was one of the oldest citizens of 
Aberdeen, had reached the advanced age of 91 years. He 
started business in the Granite City as a shipowner, insurance 
broker and timber importer, and gradually built up a large 
connection between this country and Australia. He started a 
Une of traders to the colony, and his vessels were amongst the 
first to make regular trips between the two countries. He waa 
also among the first shipowners in this country to adopt the 
clipper type of sailing veesels. and for long the clipper bow of 
the Aberdeen Line was a well-known feature in Australian 
ports. In 1850 Mr. Thompson was joined in partnership by 
his son-in-law, Sir William Henderson. A London house waa 
opened four vears later, and the partnership bad since been 
extended by the admission of three of Mr. Thompson's sons, 
and afterwards three of his grandsons. Of recent years the 
firm have substituted steam vessels for sailing vessels. The 
s.s. Aberdeen, the first steamer in which the triple-expansion 
type of engines, as arranged by the late Dr. A. C. Kirk, was 
practically demonstrated to be a success, being one of their 
first steam vessels. Other steamers fitted with triple-expan- 
sion engines have, of course, since been added to the fleet, and 
the AMrdeen Line is still well and favourably known, Mr. 
Froude, the historian, paying it a compliment in his work, 
entitled '* Oceana." Mr. Thompson tooJc an important part in 
the public life of Aberdeen halx-a-century aflo. He was Dean 
of Guild in 1640 and 1841, a Town CounciUor from 1842 to 
1845, and Lord Provost of the city from 1847 to 1860. During 
his Provostship the Queen made her first visit to the city, 
landing with the Prince Consort and the Boyal children at the 
Victoria Dock, in 1848. Her Majesty was presented with an 
address from the Corporation, and Prince Albert with the 
freedom of the city. An advanced Liberal in politics, he con- 
tested the Parliamentary representation of the city in 1852 
with Sir Andrew Leith-Hay, and was elected. He remained 
in Parliament for five years, retiring at the general election of 
1857, and declining to again come forward. In recognition of 
his distinguished services to the community, Mr. Thompson's 
portrait, painted by Sir George Beid, P.R.S.A., was in the year 
1880 presented to the Town Council on behalf of a large body 
of citizens, who highly valued the work that Mr. Thompson 
had done. Mr. Thompson had lived in retirement for many 
years past. He gave up the active management of his firm's 
afifairs in 1866, but he never ceased to follow with interest the 
fortunes of his native city. He was a liberal supporter of all 
the philanthropic and charitable institutions of tne town. 



[May ], 1895. 


LAUNCHES.— English. 

KnrdiBtan.^ On March 25th Messrs. Short lannohed at 
Fallion a steel screw steamer, built to the order of Messrs. J. 
W. Sqnanoe & Ck)., of Sunderland, of the following dimensions : 
^Length, 825 ft. ; breadth, 43 ft. ; and depth, moulded, 27 ft. 
3 in. The vessel is constructed to the highest class in Lloyd's 
Begister, on the strengthened spar-deck grade, and was named 
Kurdistan, The vessd is to be fitted with triple-expansion en- 
gines, having cylinders 23^ in., 39 in., and 64 m. diameter, with 
a stroke of 42 in., by Mr. John Dickinson, of Sunderland. 

Timet Crown.— On March 26th this turret-deck steamer 
was launched from the yard of Messrs. William Doziord & Sons, 
Limited, of Sunderland, having been built to the order 
of Messrs. Petersen, Tate & Co., Newcastle. She will 
receive the highest class in both the British Corporation and 
Bureau Veritas registries. 

Lydia.— On Tuesday, March 26th, Messrs. Biohardson, 
Duck & Co. laxmched from their building yard a steel screw 
steamer of the following dimensions : — Length, over aU, 800 ft. ; 
breadth, extreme, 42 ft. { depth, moulded, 27 ft. 6 in. i tonnage 
gross, about 2,740 tons. The vessel has been built under special 
survey and will take Lloyd's 100 Al class. She is of the complete 
awningdeck type with a large deckhouse forward of enigine 
casing, in which accommodation is provided for 24 passengers, 
an upper house being fitted for smoke-room, dhart-room, 
&c. The officers and engineers are berthed in a deckhouse 
aft of the engine skylight. The vessel has a cellular double- 
bottom all fore and aft, which, together with the after peak, is 
arranged for water ballast. She will be schooner rigged, and 
her equipment includes four large steam winches, steam steer- 
ing gear, stockless anchors, direct steam windlass, and all the 
latest appliances to facilitate loadipg, discharging and manoeu- 
vring. Her engines are by Messrs. Blair A Co., Limited, of 
Sto<&on ; cylmders 22 m., 86 in. and 59 in., by 89 in. 
stroke, with two single-ended boilers, 18 ft. 9 in. diameter 
by 10 ft. long, working pressure, 160 lbs. The vessel 
has been built to the order of Messrs. A. C. de Freitas 
k Co., of Hamburg, for their South Brazil trade. As 
she left the ways she was christened Lydia by Miss Gillet, of 
Warminster, Wilts. 

Arkadia. — On March 26th there was launched from the 
Thornaby Shipbuilding Yard of Messrs. Craig, Taylor ft Co., 
a steel screw steamer for Messrs. A. C. de Freitas A Co., for 
their Hamburg and South Brazilian trade. This is the fourth 
vessel owned by this firm, which Messrs. Craig, Taylor ft Co., 
have built. The dimensions are :— 288 ft. by 41 ft. by 24 ft. 
7| in. ; built on ti^e awning deck rule, and similar in this 
respect to two vessels which have preoeded her, viz., the 
MaeedoniM and Ithaka, She is, however, fitted up with very 
sumptuous passenger accommodation suitable for a hot oountrv, 
for over 40 first-class passengers. The saloon will be charmingly 
fitted up with dining alcoves, swing chairs, sideboards, ftc, and 
upholstered in a superior manner, while the sleeping accommo- 
dation is apart from the saloon, and in seoarate state-rooms, 
each having two berths, with bathroom and lavatory accommo- 
dation for both ladies and gentlemen. There is also a ladies' 
boudoir, or retiring room, and a smoke-room fitted up in a most 
comfortable manner. The accommodation for the captain, 
engineers and officers, is all carefully arranged for the special 
trade, affording boUi plenty of room and abundant ventilation. 
The galley, whic^ is a specially large one. is fitted with 
very superior Hamburg cooking range. The vessel also has an 
ioe-houae, mail and buUion room, and capital bathroom for the 
firemen and crew ; the object of the owners being to haye 
thoioughly comforuUe quarters for aU on board, the sanitary 
conditions receiving particular attention, as the work of the 
vessel will be a good deal on the Brazilian coast, which does 
not boast of the highest reputation from a health point of view. 
The vessel will be fitted with propelling machinery by Messrs. 
Blair ft Co., Limited, the cvlinders being 21 in., 35 in., and 57 in., 
by 39 in. stroke, calculated to sive a speed of between 11 and 12 
knots. She is also fitted witn steam steering gear by Messrs. 
Davis ft Co., of London ; patent steam wincUass by Messrs. 
Emerson, Walker ft Thompson Bros., Limited ; steam winches 
by Messrs. R. Roger ft Co. ; Hastie's screw gear ; and she has a 
large, separate, multitubular donkey boiler, by Messrs. Riley 
Bros., for supplying the steam for this deck machinery. She 

will carry a large dtsadweight on a light draft, viz.. about 
2,500 tons on 16 ft., which renders her particularly suitable 
for some of the shallow ports on the Brazilian coast. The 
vessel has been built to the highest class in Bureau Veritas, 
and also under the superintendence of Mr. Heinr Wiengreen 
and Mr. C. Hanven. the representatives of the owners. The 
ceremony of christening the vessel the Arkadia waa very grace- 
fully p^ormed by Mrs. Fawcett, wife of Dr. Fawcett, 

Romgdalan. — On Thursday, March 28th, Messrs. William 
Gray ft Co., Limited, launched a fine steel screw steamer which 
they have built to the order of Messrs. Erichson, Harland ft 
Willis, of West Hartlepool. The vessel will take Llovd's high- 
est class, and her dimensions are : — Lergth over all, 310 ft. ; 
breadth, 40 ft. ; and depth, 20 ft. 10 in. She is of the partial 
awning type with poop, and raised quarter deck. The saloon 
and cabins will be tastefully fitted in the poop, the engineers* 
rooms amidships and the crew's accommodation forward. The 
hull is buUt with web frames, and a cellular double bottom for 
water ballast, and the after peak is also constructed as a ballast 
tank. The steam winches, steam steering gear amidships, 
screw gear aft, two donkey boilers, patent curect steam wind- 
lass, stockless anchors stowing into hawse pipes, ftc, will all be 
of the best description, and shifting boards, as required by the 
grain otarymg Acts will be fitted. Boats on beams overhead, 
two masts telescoping to dear bridges, with schooner rig and 
all modem appliances will be fitted to thoroughly equip the 
vessel for general trading. The Central Marme Engine 
Works of luBsrs. W. Gray ft Co., Limited, supply fine triple- 
expansion engines having cylinders 22 in.. 85 m., and 59 in. 
diameter, wi& a 89 in. piston stroke, and two largo steel 
boilers to work at 160 lbs. pressure per square inch, with 
evaporator and all latest improvements. The vessel and 
madiinery have been superintended during construction by 
Captain T. W. Willis and Mr. C. Dobson on behalf of the 
owners. The ceremony of naming the ship RonadaJUn was 
gracefully performed by Mrs. Hans Erichson, wife of one of 
the owners. 

TreTethoe.— On March 28th there was launched from the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. John Readhead ft Sons, West 
Docks, Souui Shields, a new steel screw steamer of the follow- 
ing dimensions, nan^ly :— Length, 284 ft. ; breadth, 39 ft. ; 
depth, moulded, 19 ft. OJ in. The vessel is intended for general 
trade, is of the partial awning deck type, and is fitted with all 
the latest improvements for rapid loading and discharging of 
cargo. Her engines, also built by Messrs. John Readhesyd ft 
Sons, are of the triple-expansion type, having cylinders of 20^ 
in.. 88} in., and 55 m. diameter, and 86 in. stroks, steam being 
supplied from two large steel boilers, working at a pressure of 
160 lbs. per square inch. The steamer has been built for Messrs. 
Edward Hain ft Sons, St. Ives. Cornwall, and is the 28th vessel 
built by Messrs. John Readhead ft Sons fox the same owners. 
She is named the Trevethoe 

OFOntei.— On Thursday, March 28th, Messrs. Cochrane ft 
Cooper launched, from their yard at Grovehill, a handsomely 
mo^lled iron steam line fishing vessel and trawler, classed 100 
Al at Lloyd's, which has been built to the order of Messrs. 
Thomas Hamlyn ft Co., Limited, Hull, and is the first of the 
kind out of the port, being fitted with Alwards ft Charleton*s 
patent well and pumping arrangement, by means of which the 
water can be circulated m the well every 45 minutes. The vessel 
will be the largest and most powerful in' the district. Her 
dimensions are as follows :~118 ft. over all, 21 ft broad, and 
lliH depth of hold, with 60 N.H.P. triple-expansion engines, 
by Messrs. C. D. Holmes, Hull, having cylinders 18 in., 21 in., 
84 in., by 24 in. stroke. She wiU also have a large steel boiler, 
working at 170 lbs. pressure. On leaving the ways the vessel 
was named the Ortmtes, by Miss Lizzie Fisher, of Beverley 

Oeopga William.— On March 30th an English oak keel, to 
carry 120 tons, for the com trade, was laxmched by Mr. Henry 
Connell, at Selby. The vessel was christened the Oeorge WUlitim 
bv the son of the owner, Mr. John Jackson, of Cawood. The 
dmiensions of the vessel, which is intended to ply between York 
and Hull, are 67 ft. over all, the depth of the boat amidships 
being 7 ft. 4 in 

AchiUei.— On April 4th Messrs. Fellows launched at Yar- 
mouth a steel barge of 100 tons capacity, named the Achilles. 
This vessel has been built for Messrs. Keen, of London, and is 
intended for the grain traffic on the London river. 

May 1, 1896.] 



Tiger. — On April 9tli Heetn. Bopner A Son, of Stockton, 
Uonvbed a steel sorew ataamer of the foUowisg dimentionB : — 
Length, between perpendionlan, 824 ft.; breadth, 46 ft. 6 in. ; 
depth, 27 ft, which they have bnilt for a Continental firm. The 
steamer is bnilt off the spar-decked mie, haying poop, bridge and 
topgallant forecastle, her deadweight carrying capacity being 
^000 tons on 21 ft. The saloon and cabins for the oaptoin and 
aSRetn axe fitted in the poop, whilst the engineers are accom- 
modated nnder the Ividge amidships, and the crew in the top- 
gallant forecastle. She has water ballast in a oellnlar bottom 
and in the after peak ; all laboor-saving appliances are fitted for 
economical worldng, and also for the expeditions loading and 
^niU>^^»ig of cargoes; she has steam steering-gear amidships 
and screw-gear aft, fonr powerful steam winches, one large 
mnltitabnlar donkey boiler, direct steam windlass, stockless 
aaobora, Ac. The engines will work np to aboot 1,100 effeotiTe 
H.P., and are by Messrs. Blair & Oa, Limited. They are of the 
triple-expansion type, baring cylinders 28} in., 89 in. and 64 in. 
by 42 in., steam being supplied by two la^ steel boilers work- 
ing at 160 lbs. pressure. The steamer has been bnilt nnder the 
superrision of Mr. C. A. Bashell, of Newcastle-on-Tyne ; and 
was christened Tiger by Miss Corder, of the same city. 

HarilBgioB.-— On April 9th Meesrs. 8. P. Austin ft Son 
launched from the Wear Dockyard the steel screw steamer 
MarlmgUm, built to the order of a London firm of shipowners and 
ooal merchants. The dimensions are as follows: — Length, 
220 ft. ; breadth, 81 ft. 6 in. ; depth, 16 ft. 2 in., moulded ; gross 
tonnage about 1,080 tons. Her machinery will be supplied by 
Messrs. William Allan A Ca The yessel has been constructed 
under special survey at Lloyd's to class 100 Al. 

H.MJI. Ltghtniag.— H.M. torpedo-boat destroyer Lightning 
was launched on April 10th from the Jarrow Yard of Messrs. 
Palmer's Shipboilaing and Iron Co., limited. The vessel has 
been built to a model and design supplied by the builders, and 
ia the second of three of the same class being built at Jarrow for 
the British Navy. Her dimensions are;— Length, 200 ft.: 
breadth, 19 ft. 9 in. ; and about 280 tons displacement. Her 
armament consiets of one 12-poander quick-firing gun forward 
on the oonning-tower, fonr 6-poander ditto on tne broadside, 
and one 6-pounder on a platform aft. There are also two re- 
volving tomdo tubes on deck arranged to fire on either broad- 
aide. She also has a powerful electric search light The officers 
and engineers' cabins are arranged abaft of the engine-room, and 
forward there is accommodation for about 40 men. The builders 
hnve guaranteed a speed of 27 knots per hour, and the 
maf^inery, which has also been designed by them, consists of 
two sets of triple-expansion engines, in one compartment, of a 
fecial design to suit the high rate of speed. Bteam is supplied 
by four of £Bed*8 patent water-tube bcmers, constructed by the 
bailders, fitted in two separate water-tight compartments with 
the necessary fans for supplying sir under forced draught. The 
dhrieteninfl ceremony was performed by Mrs. Dillon, wife of 
Hr. M. DiUon, secretary of the PaUner Co., after which the 
▼leitorB adjourned to the model-room of the company where they 
partook of refreshments. Colonel English, the general manager, 
proposed success to H.M.8. Lightning^ and the toast bmng 
enthusiastically drunk, the proceedings terminated. 

Ifridl.— On Wednesday, April 10th. Sir Baylton Dixon A 
Go., Middlesbrough, laun<died from Cleveland Dockyard a very 
handsome steel screw steamer of about 5,500 tons deadweight 
carrying capacity, built to the order of the Mogul Steamship 
Co., of which Messrs. Qellatly, Hankey, Sewell A Co., of 
Ixmdon, are managers, and intended for the China tea trade. 
Hie vessel will take Lloyd's highest class and has been built 
nnder special survey to their three-decked rule. Her dimensions 
are 872 ft. by 45 ft. 6 in. by 28 ft 4 in. The upper decks are 
all of teak and the vessel is specially fitted in every way for the 
Saatem trade. The accommodation is all arranged on the 
upper deck with a oharthouse and captain's room on bridge 
dedL, and the crew in topgallant forecastle. The vessel will be 
fitted with six steam wmches, powerful steam steering gear 
amidships, and every modem appliance, including Sidgwick's 
patent hinged topmast. Triple-expansion engines will hd fitted 
by Messrs. The Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Co., 
limited, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, with cylinders, 27 in., 44 in. 
and 72 in. by 48 in. stroke, provided with steam by two single- 
ended boilers, 15 ft by 11 ft. 8 in., working at 170 ibs^ressure, 
and fitted with Howden's system of forced draft. The vessel 
is built on fine lines and handsome model, so as to attain a good 
rate of speed. The hull and machinery have been constructed 

under the supervision of Mr. F. Edwards, 62, Bishopsgate 
Street Within, London, the owners* oonsultinfl en^eer. The 
christening ceremony was gracefully performed by Mrs. Walter 
W. ^nneiy, of Bedoar, who named the vessel AfndU 

JLrioii. — On Wednesday, April 10th, Messrs. Fumess, 
Withy & Co., Limited, launched from their shipbuilding works 
at Hartlepool, a large steel screw steamer built to the order of 
Messrs. Biokinson, Son & Co., West Hartlepool. The vessel is a 
substantial type of a modem cargo boat measuring over 820 ft. 
in length and built throughout of Siemen's Martin steel, with a 
large measurement and deadweight capacity, and is built to the 
highest class at Lloyd's. Every care has bcMi taken in designing 
this ship to construct her as strong as possible for the heavy 
deadweight trade. The vessel is built on the web frame system, 
with celhilar double bottom, sll fore and aft, and subdivided at 
mtervals, the i^er peak be^g also avaUable as a tank. The 
main and fore holds are divided by iron watertight bulkheads 
elBoiently stiffened by an iron longitudinal division. The 
greater portion kA the shell plating is in 24 ft. lengths, and is 
efficiently backed np by strong sectional framing to the top of the 
vessel all fore and aft, the topside plating being extra thick to 
withstand the heavy Atlantb trade. The bottom plating is also 
thicker in way of the ballast tanks to allow of the vesMl lying 
aground whilst loading. The whole of the weather decks, tank 
top, fioor i^tes, Ac., are also of extra thickness, and the hatch- 
ways are of extra size to take in the bulkiest cargo. Laige 
winches to hatches, patent steam steering gear amidships with 
hand gear alt, steam windlass, large donkey boiler, and patent 
stockless anchors are fitted. The vessel will be rigged as a pole- 
masted schooner, and to make her available for bridge and canal 
work, the topmasts are telescopic. The engines and boilers have 
been constructed by the Central Marine Engine Works, West 
Hartlepool, and are of massive design with every providon for 
economical working. The ship and engines have been con* 
structed undergo supervision of Mr. C. E. Smith, on behalf d 
the owners. On leaidng the ways the vessel was gracefully 
christened ArUm by Miss Bickinson. 

BalTador Ooneia.-^0n April 11th the Bcivador CorrHa, a 
steel despatch vessel bnilt by Messrs. Laird Bros, for the 
Portuguese Government, was launched at Birkenhead. The 
vessel has been designed to meet the requirements of the 
Portuguese Colonial service on the African coast She is about 
800 tons B Jf ., and has engines of 480 I.H.P. 

Jnpitep. — On April 11th Messrs. Osboume, Graham & Co. 
launched at HylUm a screw steamer to the order of Mr. John 
Lookie, of Newcastle, of the foUowiug dimensions and par- 
ticulars :— Length. 886 ft. by 48 ft beam, end 29 ft 8 in. depth 
moulded to the spar deck. The vessel is bnilt with cellular bottom 
fore and aft, and with poop, bridge, and forecastle. Captain and 
officers are to be berthed in house amidships, leaving the poop 
for cargo or to be fitted up for passengers as occasion may 
require. She will have five steam winches by Wigham, and a 
patent " Tyne*' donkey boUer by Clsrke, Chapman A Co., Limited i 
double derricks, and idl appliances and fittings that will conduce 
to economy and rapidity in loading and discharging. The 
engines are by George Clark, Limited, of good power, 24| in., 
40 in., and 66 in. oyHnders, by 46 in. stroke, with two large boileta, 
calculated to drive the boat at a high rate of speed. Chi leaving 
the ways the ceremony of naming the vessel the Jupiter was 
performed by Mrs. Lookie, of Newcaatle-on-Tyne. 

Turret Cape.— On April 23rd this turret-deck steamer 
was laxmohed from the yard of Messrs. William Doxford A Sons, 
Limited, of Sunderlana, having been built to order of Messrs. 
Petersen. Tate k Co., KewcasUe. She will receive the bluest 
class in both the British Corporation and Bureau Veritas. 

Elfle.— On Wednesday, 24th April. Messrs. Wm. Gray <& Co.. 
Limited, launched the fine steel screw steamer SlfU. She is 
of the following dimensions, viz. :— Length, over all, 280 ft. ; 
breadth, 87 ft; depth, 19 ft. 6 in., and has been buUt to the 
order of Messrs. C. Nielsen & Son, of West Hartlepool, and will 
take Lloyd's hiffhest dass. The deck erections consist of poop, 
raised quarter deck, long bridge and topgallant forecastle. A 
testeful saloon, stote-room, and accommodation foroaptolnand 
officers will befitted up in the poop, and comforteble quarters 
for the engineers at after end of the bridge, and for the crews 
in the forecastle. The vessel is built on Uie web frame system 
and cellular double bottom for watnr ballast, and there is also 
a large ballast tank in the after peak. Four steam winches, 
donkey boiler, steam steering gear amidships, screw steering 



[May 1, 1896. 

gear aft, patent windlass, sohooner rig, boats on beams o^er- 
ead, and all modem applianoes will be fitted. The tmgines 
are of the triple-expansion type, working on three cranks. 
They are snpplied by the Central Marine Engine Works of 
Messrs. William Oray A Co., Limited. The cylinders are 
19 in., 30^ in., and 51 in. diameter, and the piston stroke 86 in. 
The boilers, bailt of steel, are of large size, and will give an 
ample supply of steam at a working pressure of 160 lbs. per 
square inch. The ceremony of naming the £lfie was gracefully 
performed by Miss Femandes, of Aokworth House, Yorkshire. 

LAUNCHES.— Scotch. 

Effort and EmpFeu.— On March 26th Messrs. Mackie A 
Thomson launched from their yard, at Govan, two steel screw 
"fleeters" for the Great Northern Steam Fishing Co., 
Limited. Hull. They are twin Tessels, the dimensions of 
each being :— Length, 103 ft. 9 in. ; breadth, 20 ft. 6 in. ; 
moulded depth, 11 ft. 7 in. The engines, which have been built 
by Messrs. Muir A Houston, Kinning Park, have a groea tonnage 
of 160 tons each, and are triple-expansion. The vesciels are 
named the £ffort and the Empreit by Miss Buby Raeside, of 
Craiglea, Dennistoun, and Hiss Cassie Baeside respectively. 

Twin-BoFew Hopper Dredger.— On March 26th Messrs- 
Wm. Simons A Co., Benfrew, launched from their yard, com- 
plete with its dred^^g and propelling machinery on board, a 
Sowerful steni-well twin-screw hopper dredger. It is a 
uplicate of two dredvers they constructed last year for the 
British Admiralty, and will, like them, be employed in connec- 
tion with the extensive dredging operations at Her Majesty's 
Dockyard, Portsmouth. It is specially designed to raise and 
discharge adhesive clay. The hoppers have a capacity for 650 
tons of material, and the buckets work at a maximum depth of 
46 ft. under water level. 

Zara. — On March 27th the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. launched 
from their yard at Troon, on the Ayrshire coast, a handsomely- 
modelled yacht for Mr. Peter Coats, of Paislev. The following 
are her dimensions : — Length over all, 201 ft., length on load 
water line, 165 ft.; breadth, moulded, 25 ft. ; depth, moulded, 
16 ft. 6 in. She was built under a shed specially erected for 
the purpose, and will be fitted throughout in the most sumptu** 
ous manner, including a complete installation of electric light. 
Her engines, which are triple-expansion, are being fitted by 
Messrs. David Bowan & Son, Glasgow, and are designed to 
give a high speed. She is designed by Mr. G. L. Watson, who 
superintended her during construction. On leaving the ways 
she was christened the Zara by Miss May Mackenzie Coats, 
Stanley, Paisley. After the launch, Mr. Coats and a number 
of friends adjourned to the drawing office, when the usual toasts 
were given. 

Greta,— On March 27th Messrs. Soott A Co., shipbuilders, 
Greenock, launched a handsome steam yacht of about 350 
tons, built for the senior partner of the firm — Mr. John Scott, 
C3. On leaving the ways she was named Oreta, 

Hart.— On March 27th the Fairfield Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Limited, Govan, laxmched the second of the 
three torpedo-boat destroyers which they are constructing for 
the Britii^ Government. The vessel, which is named the 
jSiort, is 200 ft. long, and 19J ft. broad, while the displacement 
when equipped for sea will oe about 800 tons, and the draught 
5| ft. She IS fitted with twin screws, her engines indicating 
between 3,500 and 4,000 H. P., the Hart, like all the other vessels 
of her class, is to have a guaranteed speed of 27 knots, or 31 
miles, per hour. There are no deck erections excepting gone, 
funnels, and conning tower. The last mentioned is situated aft 
of the forward turtle-back, and from it the ship is 
navigated. On either side the protection afforded by the 
turtle-back is to be utilised for mounting three six- 
pounder guns, besides a 12-pounder, while two torpedo-dis- 
charging guns will be placed on deck. The Hunter, which is 
the last of the three torpedo catchers at Fairfield, will be ready 
for launching in the courEC of a few weeks. 

Wioklow.--On March 28th Messrs. Blackwood k Gordon, 
shipbuilders and engineers, Port- Glasgow, launched at high 
water the steel screw steamer Wicklow, built to the order of 
the City of Dublin Steam Packet Co., for their 
traffic between Dublin and Liverpool. Her dimensions are : 
Length, 260 ft. ; breadth, 34 ft. ; depth, 16 ft. 9 in. ; and of 1,250 
tons gross register. The vessel will be handsomely fitted i 

throughout, with a luxuriantly-furnished saloon capable of 
accommodating 70 first-class passengers. Triple- expansion 
en^es of 2,750 indicated horse-power will be supplied by the 
builders. Special attention has oeen devoted to the facilities 
for the oonveyance of live-ntock. Five hundred head of catlla 
can be carried, and the space allotted for this purpose is large 
and well ventilated. Forward in the steamer are a cattle 
dealers' cabin and comfortable accommodation for deck 
passengers. As the vessel left the ways she was gracefully 
named by Mrs. Bell, wife of Captain G. B. Bell, B.N., Liver- 
pool agent of the company. Tnere were also present at the 
launch :— Mr. Edward Watson, managing director of the com- 
pany : Mr. £. G. Ferber, superintending engiheer of the oom- 
pany ; Mr. and Mrs. Walter Blackwood, Mr. and Mrs. D. B. 
M'Geoch, Mr. and Mrs. W. Carlile Wallace, Mr. John Ander- 
son, Mrs. Purvis, the Misses Harrington, Miss Gordon, Mrs. 
Kixig, Port- Glasgow ; Messrs. James Btruthers, William Merri- 
lees, David Pollock, Glasgow; and Mr. Spencer, Greenook. 
After the luncheon, which took place in the builders' model- 
room, Mr. M'Geoch proposed ** buccess to the WickUm** He 
believed she would prove as successful as the Louth, which 
they had built for the same owners, and of which ihe is a 
duplicate. The Louth had been running for six months, 
and the report they had of her from the owners was 
that she had proved very satisfactory, and from outside 
quarters that she is the finest Channel uteamer crossing, and 
tnat she gives satisfaction to the cattle dealers, The City of 
Dublin Steam Packet Co. is an old shipping company— he sup- 
posed, the oldest in Ireland. They had had the pleasure and 
the privilege of carrying the mails between England and Ire- 
land for many years, and he hoped they would get the new 
contract, which had yet to be fixed. Mr. Watson, in reply, 
and in proposing *' The health of the builders," said he believed 
the Wieklow would ^rove the greatest possible assistance in the 
carrying on of their business. He had a personal knowledge 
of the tnffio during the past twentv years, and the weather of 
the past winter had been abnormally bad. During the night 
of tne great storm, on the 21st December, he took a passage 
in the Louth, the steamer last built for them by Messrs. Black- 
wood ft Gordon, and she proved to be a vessel that ootdd carry 
a large cargo and go as well on a rough day as on a fine day. 
The only vessel that got into Dublin in reasonable time that 
morning was the Louth, Her performances had given such 
satisfaction that they were enabled to satisfy their colleagues 
that a new vessel was necessary. The result was they were 
there that day witnessing the launch of the Wieklow, and if she 
proved as successful as the Louth he thought they would feel 
satisfied. Mr. M'Geoch replied on behalf of ms firm, and 
several other toasts were proposed and duly, acknowledged. 

KeoBtf Vai.— On March 28th there was launched from the 
yard of the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Limited, the steel screw steamship Keong Wat, for the Sottish 
Oriental Steamship Co., Limited. The dimensions of the 
vessel are :— Length, 290 ft. ; breadth, 88 ft ; depth. 22 ft. 9 in.; 
and gross tonnage about 1,850. This is tiie eleventh vessel 
built at Fairfield for the Scottish Oriental Co., and is somewhat 
larger than their present steamers. She is classed in the 
highest grades in the Bureau Veritas Begistry, and also in the 
British Corporation, and is under the Board of Trade survey. 
The Keong Wai has a cellular double bottom for water ballast, 
topgallant forecastle, bridge with chart-house above, deckhouse 
aft, turtle-back stem, two pole masts, and schooner rigged. 
The first-class passengers and captain's accommodation is sit- 
uated in the after deckhouse, with a comfortable saloon and 
all conveniences. The officers and engineers' cabins are placed 
under the bridge deck, and the crew and firemen are berthed 
forward. The 'tween deck spaces are fitted with sidelights, 
and all arrangements made for carrying Chinese passengers, 
and the full complement of boats and life-saving appliances are 
provided as usual. A donkey boiler and deck machinery, 
including steam cargo winches, steam steering gear, and steam 
capstan windlass, are supplied complete. The vessel will be 
fitted with surface-condensing triple-expansion endues, having 
three inverted cylinders 22 in., 38 in., and 57 in., diameter, aU 
adapted for a stroke of 3 ft. 6 in. The high.pressure cylinder 
is fitted with a piston valve, the intermediate and low-pressure 
cylinders are fitted with slide valves, all worked by the usual 
double eccentric link motion valve gear, and controlled by 
steam-reversing gear. The crank shaft is " built," and together 
with the tunnel and propeller shafts is of mild steel ; the pro* 
poller blades are of manganese bronze. Steam will be supplied 

May J, 1896.] 



by two BiDgle-ended boilers made entirely of steel, each having 
three oomigated fnrnaoes, and adapted to work at 1^0 Ibe. 
preeeore per square inch. The machinery will be fitted with 
all the modem improvements for economical working, including 
' feed-water heater, evaporator* and feed-water filter, and aU the 
neoesaary auziliaiiee. The vessel on leaving the ways was 
christened Kamg Wax, by Mrs. Gookbum, of Edinburgh. 

FerTenti— On March 28th Messrs. Hanna, Donald & Wilson, 
Paisley, launched from their Abercom shipbuilding yard the 
first of two toroedo-boat destroyers for Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment. A number of officials from the Admiralty witnessed the 
proceedings. The vessel is 200 ft. long by 19 ft. beam, having 
a displacement of about 280 tons, Bhe is fitted with two sets 
of triple* expansion surface-condensing engines, having a col- 
lective H.P. of about 4,000 indicated. The boilers are of the 
usual locomotive type, and are fitted in two sepsrate water- 
tight compartments with the necessary fans for supplying an 
under-forced draught. Her armament will consist of one 
12-pounder quick-firing gun on conning tower, four 9-poander 
quick-firing fiuns on the broadside, one 6-pounder quick-firing 
§run on a pedestal aft. There are al?o two single revolving tor- 
pedo tubes on deck, and she is to have powerful electric seaich- 
ught. The officers and engineers' cabins are situated abaft the 
engine-room, and the crew's accommodation forward. Mrs. 
Harding cut the line and launched the vessel, and Mrs. Knapman 
named it the FtrvenU 

AaypioB.— On March 28th there was launched by Messrs. 
Cummmg St Ellis, at In verkei thing, a steel screw steamer, 136 
ft. by 23 ft. by 10 ft. 4 in., built to the order of Captain Spero, 
Vlasaopoulos, PirsBus. This vessel is intended for trading 
azDong the Grecian Islands, and was towed to Leith, where 
the machinery will be shipped by Messrs. Hawthorne & Co. 

CambnsdooB. — On March 29th there was launched from 
Messrs. Bussell k Co.'s yard, Port-Glasgow, a steel sailhag 
vessel of about 1.680 tons net reflister, built to the order of 
Messrs. Bobert Bussdl & Co., Gordon Street, Glasgow. The 
vessel is for the general carrying trade, and has been built 
under the superintendence of Mr. Hugh Stewart, and is to be 
commanded by Captain Macdonald. On leaving the ways she 
was named Cambutdoon by Miss Madge Russell, Ssjrdinia 
Terrace, Glasgow. 

Menct.— On March dOth Messrs. R. Napier <ft Sons launched 
at Govan a steel screw steamer of about 2,500 tons, for the 
Moss Steamship Co., Liverpool. This new steamer is a dapli- 
oate of the steamer Rametes, recently built by Messrs. Napier 
for the company's Mediterranean service, and hks been con- 
atructed under special survey to clas8 100 Al Lloyd*s three>deck 
role on the deep-frame priociple. The genersl dimensions of 
the vessel are :— Length. 320 ft. : breadth, moulded, 38 ft. ; and 
depth, moulded, 24 ft, 7 in., with a topgallant forecastle, long 
brMge-houpe, and full poop : and while designed to carry a large 
cargo, superior accommodation has also been provided in the fore- 
part of the bridge-house for first-class passengers. This ac- 
commodation includes a handsome dining saloon on the upper 
deck, finished in polished hardwood; the state-rooms srevery 
large and roomy, and are fitted with the most modem appliances 
for the comfort of the passengers, while above, on the bridge deck, 
are commodious music and smoking rooms, and in the poop 
Ksaroely inferior accommodation for the second-class passengers. 
All the most modern appliances have been supplied for the 
working of the ship and the rapid handling of cargo, and a very 
complete installation of electric lighting has been fitted through- 
out the vessel. The machinery consists of a set of tri^e- 
expansion engines, and two single-ended boilers for a working 
pressure of 200 lbs., with the roost recent improvements for 
efficiency and economy. The ship and engines have been 
constructed under the superintendence of Messrs, William 
Esplen & Sons, of Liverpool. Miss Millicent H. Moss named 
the vessel the Menet. After a most successful launch, the ship 
was towed up the harbour to receive her machinery, which has 
been constructed at the builders' Lancefield Works. 

Redfaimtlet.~On April 4th Messrs. Bardsy, Curie & Co., 
Limited, launched from their building yard, Whiteioch, a 
smart steel paddle stesmer, built to the order of the North 
British Steam Packet Co., which will be a handsome addition 
to their fiiie fleet of tourist steamers, and will enable the com- 
pany Bucoessfnlly to cope with their large and ever.increasing 
passenger traffic between Craigendoran, intermediate ports, 
and Rothesay. The new boat will be a worthy consort of the 
famous •TMnteDraftf (by the same builders), the premier steamer 

of the company's fleet. The vessel is fitted with dining-room 
forward under deck, large and commodious saloon aft above 
deck, and smaller one forward for smoking-room. The prome- 
nade deck extends over the entire length of the afore-mentioned 
saloons. The furniture, fittinffs and upholstery will be supplied 
by Messrs. Wylie & Lochhead, and will be of the most luxu- 
rious and modem description. On leaving the ways the vessel 
was named the MedgauntUt by Mrs. William Russell Ferguson, 
of Lamoma, Scotstoun Hill, wife of Mr. William R. Ferguson, 
of Messrs. Barclay. Curie k Co., Limited, and was afterwards 
towed to the crane to be fitted with her machinery, which is 
being supplied by the builders. 

Paknam.— On April 8th Messrs. R. Napier <ft Son launched 
at Govan a steel screw stesmer of about 700 tons for the Com- 
pagnie Messageries Fluviales de Cochinchine. This is the third 
steamer which Messrs. Napier have recently built for the oom- 
pany. It has been constructed under special survey to the 
highest class at Bureau Veritas, and is fitted with teak decks 
and the latest improvements for efficienOy and economy. The 
principal dimensions are :— Length. 210 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. 
10 in. ; depth, 14 ft. 9 in. ; with a topgallant forecastle, long 
bridge and full poop. As the vessel is intended for service in 
a hot climate, the passenger accommodation has been placed 
on the upper deck to admit of good ventilation, and includes 
very superior accommodation amidships for the first-class, 
with a handsome dining saloon in selected bird's-eye maple, 
and extra large state-rooms with polisbed mahogany fittings 
and the most modem appliances for the comfort of the pas* 
sengers. A oomf ortable saloon and state-rooms for the second- 
class passengers has been provided in the poop, and the 
captain's and officers' cabins are in a teak house on the bridge 
deck. The niachinery consists of a set of triple-expansion 
engines capable of indicating 600 H.P., with two single, 
ended boilers for a working pressure of 144 lbs. As the vessel 
commenced to move down the ways she was named the Paknam 
by Miss Agnes M. Hamilton, and after a successful launch the 
vessel was towed up the harbour to receive her machinery, 
which has been constructed at the builders' Lanoefield Works. 

Diomed.— On April 9th Messrs. Scott k Co. launched at 
Greenock the steel steamer Diomed for the Ocean Steamship 
Co., Liverpool. The JHonud is a sister ship to the Ore§UM and 
the Dardanus, built ^ud engined by Messrs. Scott k Co. for the 
same firm. She is a vessel of 4.384 tons gross, with a carrjring 
capacity of 6,500 tons, and the builders will supply triple- 
expansion engines of 2,500 I.H.P. 

Olenmore.— On April 9th Messrs. Russell k Co. launched 
from Kingston Yard. Port-Glasgow, a steel paddle saloon 
steamer to the order of Captain John Williamson. The dimen- 
sions are:— Length. 190 ft.; breadth, 21 ft.; depth. 7i ft. 
Messrs. Rankin k Blackmore, Greenock, will supply compound 
surface-condensing engines and a locomotive boiler. The 
ceremony of naming the veesel OUnmore was gracefully per- 
formed by Miss Williamson. Rothesay. A speed of 14 knots an 
hour is expected, and acceding to present arrangements the 
steamer, which is intended for passenger traffic on the Clyde, 
wUl commence sailing on 15th May. 

Olenoloy.— On April 10th what is said to be the first steam 
vessel ever built in Arran was launched at Brodick. Although 
a number of small sailing veosels, ranging from 80 to 60 tons, 
have been constructed there, none of them approached the size 
of the one launched. The vessel is constructed of wood, 
the greater part of which was srown on the island. The owner, 
Mr. Adam Hamilton, is the designer as well as the builder. 
The following are the ship's dimensions :— Length of keel, 
60 ft. ; length over all. 68 ft. ; breadth of beam, 18 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 7 ft. She is to be supplied with a steel boiler, and 
compound surface*condensing engines of about 80 H.P, by 
Shanks & Son, Arbroath. The vessel was named Glencloy. 

Cambria— On April lOth there was launched by Messrs. H. 
M*Intyre & Co., at Alloa, a passenger steamer, named the 
Cambria, built for Messrs. Peter k Alex. Campbell, of Bristol. 
The new steamer is 238 ft. in length over all, 17 ft. in depth, 
and has a beam of 26 ft., giving a fine promenade deck which is 
carried right up to the stem, similar to that of the paddle 
steamer Weatufard Ho, of which vessel the paddle steamer 
Cambria is sn exact duplicate in her external appearence. The 
machinery will consist of a pair of compound engines of about 
2,600 I.H;P., with 87i-in. and 67-in. cylinders of 60-in. stroke. 

YladlmiP.— On April 11th there was launched from the ship- 
building yard of Messrs. Wm. Denny k Bros., Dumbarton, the 



[May 1, 1895. 

Bteel screw steamship yiadimir, which is of the following 
dimensions and tonnage :— Length, 419 ft. ; breadth, 49 ft. 6 in. ; 
depth, 82 ft. ; and tonnage, 6,400 tons gross. The ship has 
been constructed for the Russian Volunteer Fleet, for the oon- 
▼e jance of passengers and cargo, and is considerably larger than 
the Yaroslave and Tavtboff, built for the same company a couple 
of years ago. The machinery will be supplied by Messrs. Denny 
« Co. The ceremony of naming the vessel was performed 
by Miss Kitty Denny. Tunstan, daughter of Mr. James Denny. 

Saklz.— On April II th there was launched by Meears. John 
FuUerton A Co., Paisley, the second of three steel screw 
steamers of about 200 tons each, which they are building to 
the order of Messrs. Thomson A Campbell, London, for a foreign 
government. The steamer has been specially designed as a 
revenije cruiser, commodious accommodation being fitted for 
officers and crew. Powerful electric searchlight is fitted on 
budge, look-out ci^e on foremast. Steam windlass, steam- 
steering gear by Reid, of Paisley, along with other speoiaUties. 
Compound engines of great power are being supplied by Messrs. 
Ross A Duncan, Govan, for high speed. The steamer has been 
inspected during construction by Oapt. David Kyle, and was 
named SakU, by Miss Lamb, 8, Albion Place, DowanhiU, 
Glasgow. * 

Bengloe.— On April 11th there was launched from the 
buildmg yard of Messrs. Barclay, Curie A Co., Limited, White- 
mch, Glasgow, a steel screw steamship, built to the order of 
Messrs. William Thomson A Co., of Leith— this being the 
sixth steamer constructed by the builders for the same owners 
—and is intended for their general Eastern trade, being 
specially designed for tea cargoes, and flttea with ample and 
smtable accommodation for the carriage of Chinese emigrants. 
The vessel has a very smart appearance, having a clipper stem, 
and carved figurehead, the same as all the otber Bens, instead 
of the usual straight stem, and will be rigged as a schooner. 
She has been built to Lloyd's highest class, and under special 
survey, and will be fomished witii Bo^d ot Trade passenger 
certificate. While under construction the ship and machinery 
were under the superintendence of CaptainPotter.the company's 
superintendent, and Mr. Buchanan, engineer. Her dimensions 
are :— 830 ft. by 41 ft. 9 in. by 27 ft.. and measures about 8.000 
t^s gross. The vessel was named the Benglot by Miss Louise 
^omson, daughter of Mr. James W. Thomson, of Glen Park, 
Mid-Lothian, and after the launch was towed to the harbour to 
be fitted with her machinery, which is being supplied by the 
builders. *» *r«^ j 

Oenrantet.— On April 11th Messrs. David and William 
Henderson <fe Co., launched at Partick the Cervantes, a steel 
screw steamer, which they have built for Messrs. Lamport A 
Holt, of Liverpool. This vessel is a duplicate of the Canova, 
recently built by Messrs. Henderson for the same owners, the 
diDoensions being :— Length, 410 ft.; breadth, 48 ft.; depth, 
29 ft. 2 m. , and the gross tonnage about 4,650. The vessel is 
a fine example of a first-class modern cargo carrier, combining 
large deadweight capacity with considerable speed. The cargo 
working arrangements are most complete, and include nine 
steam winches. Water baUast is carried in a cellular double 
bottom, the peaks, and a hold tank, amounting in all to 
over 1,600 tons. The erections consist of poop, bridge, and 
^p'^^Mtle. Under the poop are the parcel-room, store-rooms, 
Ac. The bridge covers cattlemen's, petty officers', apprentices*, 
and stewards' accommod&tion, bakery, and store-rooms. The 
officers' and engineers' rooms and mess-room are on the top of 
the bridge deck in houses alongside the engine casing. The 
saloon, captain's room, and staterooms for a few passengers are 
in a deck-house at the fore end of the bridge deck. The saloon 
is handsomely finished in polished hardwood. A teak chart 
and* wheel-house is fitted on the cabin deck-house with Lord 
Kelvin's standard compass on the top. The rooms are lighted 
by electricity, including cargo lamps for the hatches. The sea- 
men and firemen are berthed in the topgallant forecastle. 
The vessel will be rigged as a two-masted schooner, the masts 
being telescopic to suit the Manchester Canal. The machinery 
has be^n constructed by the builders, and consists of a set of 
triple-expansion engines, with cylinders 27 in. 46 in. and 76 
in. in diameter by 60 in. stroke, and three large double-ended 
boilers, with a working pressure of 180 lbs. The ship and 
machinery take Lloyd's highest class, and during construction 
havel been under the inspection, on behalf of the owners, 
of Mr. (John Russell for the hull, and Mr. Morrin for the 

Bishop Rook.— On April 13th the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co. 
launched a steel screw steamer, 170 ft. by 25 ft. 9 in. by 12 ft. 
10 in. moulded, for Messrs. Alfred Rowhmd A Co., of Liverpool, 
for their Rock Line of Channel traders. She will be clasaed 
100 Al at Lloyd's under special survey, and fitted with oom- 
nound engines, 21 in. and 4:fi in. cylinders by 80 in. stroke, by 
Messrs. Muir A Houston. This ia the third vessel built by the 
Ailsa Shipbuilding Go. for Messrs. Rowland A Co.. and thej 
have a sister ship to this one on the stocks to be launched 
shortly. The christening ceremony was gracefully performed 
by Mrs. Rowland— the name given being Bithop Bock, 

llietii.— On April 13th Messrs. Scott A Son launched from 
their shipbuilding yard at Bowling a screw steamer of dimea- 
sions 140 ft. by 24 ft. by 11 ft. 2 in., built to the order of Messrs. 
Robert Walker A Co., Clyde Terrace. Glasgow, for their fish- 
carrying trade. Triple-expansion en^es ot large power will 
be fitted on board by Messrs. Ross & Duncan, Govan. and tho 
boilers by Messrs. Anderson A Lyall, Govan, are of their patent 
combined fire and water-tube type. The construction of the 
steamer and machinery has been superintended by Mr. Ander- 
son, of Messrs. Anderson A Lyall. On moving down the ways 
the steamer was named ThHis by Miss Gibb, 10, Granby Terraoe, 
Hillhead, Glasgow. 

W. I. Maekie and Empire.— On April 16th Messrs. Maokie 
A Thomson, Govan, launchedl the W, A, Mackie and the 
Empire, two steam trawlers of about 160 tons, built respectively 
for Messrs. J. Leyman A Co., Limited, and the Great Northern 
Steamship Co., Limited, Hull. The boats are each 103 ft. 8 in. 
long, 20 ft. 6 in. broad, and 11 ft. 7 in. deep, and will be fitted 
with triple-expansion engines constructed by Messrs. Muir & 
Houston, Kinning Park. The W. A. Maekie was christened by 
Mrs. Mackie. Falkland Bank, Partick, and the Empire by Mies 
Wyle, Elmslie, Baillieston. 

Dacheu of Rotheiay.— On April 20th -there was launched 
from iks yavd M Messrs. James and George Thomson, Limited* 
Clydebank, a handsome saloon passenger steamer for the coast 
service of the Caledonian Steam Packet Co., Limited. The 
vessel was named the Duchest o/Rothtaay. She will be fitted up 
with all the latest improvements, including electric light, and 
when finished should prove a valuable addition to the fleet of 
the Caledonian Co. Captain James Williamson superintended 
the construction of the vessel on behalf of the owners. 

Olmlgoo.— On April 22nd Messrs. S. M'Knight d: Co. 
launched from their shipbuilding yard at Ayr the steel screw 
steamer Gimigoe, built to the order of the John o*Groat Steam 
Shipping Co., Limited (Messrs. Duncan & Jamieson. 
managing owners), Wick, to be employed in the fish-carrying 
and general coasting trade. Her dimensions are : — Length, 
between perpendiculars. 140 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 22 ft. ; depth, 
moulded. 10 ft. 6i in. ; built under special survey to class 100 
Al at Lloyd's. She has a long raised quarterdeck, bridge, and 
topgallant forecastle. The machinery is being supplied by Muir 
A Houston, Glasgow. Engines, oompound surface-condensing ; 
cylinders 20 in. and 40 in. diameter, by 27 in. stroke ; multitubular 
boiler. 12 ft 6 in. diameter by 10 ft. long, 110 lbs. working 
pressure. The ceremony of naming the vessel the Gimigoe was 
performed by Miss Nicholson, Gowan Bank, Ayr. 

Caronl.— On April 22nd Messrs. Fleming A Ferguson, ship- 
builders and engineers, Paisley, launched a steel screw tug 
steamer, built to the order of the Crown Agents for the Colo- 
nies for the Port of Spain, Trinidad. She has been built to 
Lloyd's requirements under the direction of Messrs Coode. Son 
A Mathews, engineers, London, Mr. Wilson Wingate, of 
London, being inspecting engineer, and Mr. Robert Anderson, 
of Renfrew, resident inspector. As the vessel left the ways she 
was named the Caroni by Miss Wilson, 5, Meadowbank Crescent, 

Kashing.— On April 22nd Messrs. Scott A Co., Greenock, 
launched a steel screw steamer named the Kashing, for the 
China Navigation Co., Limited, the fifth of an order for ten. 
Dimensions :— Length, 260 ft. ; breadth, 88 ft. ; depth. 22| ft. ; 
and with a carrying capacity of 2,400 tons. The builders will 
supply triple-expansion engines of 1,500 l.H.P. 

Steam Yacht.— On April 23rd Messrs. Charles Connell A Go. 
Scotstoun Shipyard, launched a steam yacht which they have 
built to the order of Messrs. John A Arthor Connell. Her 
dimensions are 85 ft. by 15 ft. by 9 ft. moulded, and measuring 
83 tons. Messrs. David Rowan A Son have supplied the 
machinery, consisting of a pair of compoand engines, 9 in. and 

May 1, 1895.] 



18 in. oylinders by 12 in. stroke, with snitable boiler power. At 
^etriaX which took place immediately alter the lannch. the 
Tary aatiifaotory speed of 10^ knots was got on the measured 

01«Belyaii.— On April 24th Messrs. A. Rodger d: Go., Port- 
Glasgow, laonched a three-masted sailing ship, which was graoe- 
folly named Qkn^lvaH by Mrs. J. H. Hatchinson, wife of one 
of the partners of the firm. The Tessel registers 1,850 tons, and 
is oapahle of carrying 3,200 tons cargo. Dimensions :~Length, 
265 ft. ; breadth. 40 ft. ; depth. 23 ft. This vessel is buUt to the 
order of the Glen Shipping Co., Glasgow, has been chartered to 
load at Cardiff for the East, and will be under the command of 
Captain Kerr. Greenock. 

Isolde. — The new racing 40-rater to/r Mr. Peter Donaldson* 
of Glasgow, was launched from Messrs. Fife's yard at Fairlie. 
The boat, which is named I*olde, is of an advanced type, and 
was designed by Mr. William Fife, jun, A. Hogarth, of Port- 
Bannatyne, is to haxe charge of her. She was taken off the 
beach on the builders* new pontoons, and the launch was very 

Faagh-a-Balla^.— On March 27th there was lamiohed at 
Cork harbour by the Passage West Dry Docks Co. a steel 
barge, built to the order of Mr. H. Lefroy. of Killaloe. The 
barge is 71} ft. long, 15 ft. beam, and 6 ft. deep ; and is designed 
to carry 80 tons deadweight on 4 ft. draught. The barge was 
named Faugh-a-BalUigh, 

Haptbnrg.— On April 10th a new Austrian Uoyd steamer 
was launched at Trieste, being christened Hap%hurg by the 
Axohduchess Marie Theresa. The Hapiburg says a Vienna corres- 
fondant, is the first large ressel built in the Lloyd yard, and 
n ooa of the three ships for the designs of which a prise was 
offered. A number of English and (German firms competed, 
but an Austrian engineer, Herr Theodore Albrecht, secured the 

LAUNCH.— Dbnmabk. 

Halga.— On March 19th the s.s. Helge, built by the Elsinore 

Iron Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Denmark, for the 

Steam Navigation Co. *'Danmark," of Copenhagen, was 

■nooessfuUy launched at Elsinore. This steamer is built 

of steel to the highest class at Bureau Veritas' special 

.•uryey, and her dimensions are 270 ft. by 37 ft. 11 J in. by 

. 17 ft. 10} in. depth of hold. The engines are of the triple- 

eipanaion type, with surface condenser, indicating 650 H.P. 


BaToy.— On March 19th the s.s. Savoy, which has been built 
by the Montrose Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Limited, 
van her trial trip in Montrose Bay. There were present Mr. J. S. 
Doig, managing director of theoompany, Mr.B. Pollock represent- 
ing the owners and others. The trial was very satisfactory, 
after which the vessel left for London. Her particulars are as 
follows: ISO ft. by 25 ft. by 13 ft. 4 in., having engines 
15 in., 82 in. and 24 in., with boiler 11 ft. by 10 ft., and 130 lbs. 
working pressure. The vessel is one of three which the com- 
pany are building just now; hs sheen fitted with Messrs. B. 
Boger <ft Co.'s steam winches, Clarke. Chapman's patent wind- 
lass, and Fisher*8 steering gear, has winding masts and 
funnel and fitted with all the most modem improvements. She 
is to the order of Messrs. Joseph Constant. London. The 
vessel will carry about 1130 tons on 12 ft. draught, she has water 
ballast in double-bottom throughout and in after-peak tank. 
The company are preparing to laydovm 12 barges for London 

Gnumalle.— On March 28rd, the s.s. OranuaiU, recently 
launched by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., Troon, for the Con. 
geated Districts Board for Lreland, ran the usual series of trials 
on the measured mile at Skelmorlie, when she attained a mean 
■peed at the rate of 10} knots per hour. Her dimensions are 
aa follows:— Length, between perpendiculars, 150 ft. ; breadth, 
naoulded, 24 ft.; depth, moulded, 10 ft, 8 in. She is built under 
■pedal survey, and is classed 100 Al at Llovd's, and has a Board 
tA Trade passenger certificate. She is fitted with very handsome 
ation amidships, and for water ballast in double 

bottom and peak tanks ; has steam windlass, steam steering 
gear, installation of electric light, and is also adapted for 
carrying fish and cattle. Her engines have been fitted by 
Messrs. Moir A Houston, and are triple-expansion, 15 in., 1& 
in., and 29 in. cylinders, and 24 in. stroke. The builders and 
engineers, with a company of friends, went on board at Troon, 
the Board being represented by the Bev. W. S. Green, H.M. 
Inspector of Irish Fisheries. Dublin Castle, and Mr. Henry H. 
West, of Liverpool, who designed and superintended the con- 
struction of the steamer. After the trial the Oranuaik proceeded 
to Dublin, making a good passage, notwithstanding the rough 
weather which prevailed in the Channel. 

Hailingden.— On Tuesday, March 26th, the s.s. Ha$Hngdm 
went on her trial trip. She is a fine steel screw steamer of the 
following-dimensions :— Length, over all, 280 ft. ; breadth, 87 ft. ; 
and depth, 20 ft. She has been built by Messrs. William Gray 
k Co., Limited, to the order of Messrs. Murrell & Yeoman, of 
West Hartlepool, and takes Lloyd's highest class. The deck 
erections consist of poop, raised quarterdeck, long bridge, and 
topgallant forecastle. A handsome saloon, state-room, and 
accommodation for captain and officers have been fitted up in 
the poop, and comfortable quarters for the engineers in the 
after end of the bridffe, and for the crew in the fore end of the 
bridge. The hull is built with web frames, a double bottom is 
fitted under each hold for water-ballast, and there is also a large 
ballast tank in the after-peak. Four steam vrinches, donkey 
boiler, steam steering gear amidships, screw steering gear aft. 
patent windlass, schooner rig, boats on beams overhead, and all 
modem appliances have been fitted. The engines are of the 
triple-expansion type, working on three cran^. They have 
been supplied by the Central Marine Engine Works of Messrs. 
Wm. Oray & Go. The cylinders are 20 in.. 81} in. and 58 in. in 
diameter, and the piston stroke 86 in. The boilers, built of 
steel, are of large size, and give an ample supply of steam at a 
worldng pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. The vessel pro- 
ceeded about noon into the Hartlepool Bay, and after Mr. 
Berrv had carefully adjusted the compasses, the engines were 
put full speed ahead, running at about 80 revolutions per 
minute, the vessel making about 11 J knots per hour. Every- 
thing in the engine-room ran exceedingly well, the boilers giving 
an ample head of steam, and no troume was experienced of any 
kind. The engine-room is fitted out with several of the 
specialities now so well known in connection with the Central 
Marine engines, the tail shaft being fitted with the patent 
shaft-preserver, and the high-pressure piston rod and spindle 
with Messrs, Mudd dt Airev's metallic packing. Mudd's patent 
evaporator was also provided for supplying supplementary feed» 
and the engines are m every respect fully up to the best practice 
of the day. Captain J. Murrell and Mr. F. Yeoman, the manag- 
ing owners, were on board to witness the trial, as was also Mr. 
G. T. Yotmghusband, their superintending engineer, under 
whose supervision the vessel and her machinery have been con- 
structed. There was also on board a party of ladies, including 
Mrs. Younghusband. Miss Yeoman, Miss Murrell, Miss Thistle 
and others, who greatly enjoyed the fine weather trip to 
Middlesboro*, to which port the vessel was taken immediately 
on the conclusion of the trial to load her first cargo. There 
were also on board Mr. Mark Harrison, Mr. Whyte.lfir. Biydon, 
junr., Mr. Yeomaxi, junr., and several other visitors. Mr. T. 
Mudd represented the engine builders, 

8t. mnian. — On March 28th the screw steamer St. Ninian^ 
recently launched by Messrs. Bamage A Ferguson. Limited, 
Leith, for the passenger service of the North of Scotland, and 
Orkney and Shetland Steam Navigation Co., Aberdeen, went on 
her trial on the Firth of Forth, and notwithstanding the strong 
gale and unsuitableness of the weather, the average speed was 
over 13} knots, the machinery working during the whole time 
without a hitch. Cabin accommodation is provided for 180 
passengers, and the general finish and furnishings have been 
greatly admired, and we have no doubt she will shortly prove 
to be a favourite vessel on the north route. The directors pre- 
sent were Messrs. Ogston, Fortescue, Adam, Davidson, 
Webster, and the manager, Mr. Merrylees, who expressed their 
entire satisfaction with the performance of the steamer, and 
arranged to place her on the Orkney and Shetland route at an 
early date. 

Bmparop. — On March 28th the new steam trawler Empgror, 
which has been built by Messrs. Cochrane A Cooper, Beverley, 
to the order of the Anchor Steam Fishing Co., Limited, Orinuby, 
went on her trial trip. The Emperor is of the following dimen- 



[May 1, 1696. 

dons :— 93 ft. between perpendioalarB, by 20 ft. 6 in. by 11 ft. 
depth of hold, and has triple-expansion engines of 40 N.H.P., 
which have been supplied by Mesars. G. D. Holmes & Co., 
Hall. The vessel behaved well, and showed herself to be a 
splendid sea boat, the maohinery throaghont the whole ran 
working withoat the slightest hitch, the trial being thoroaghly 
saccessral and entirely to the satisfaction of the owners. 

Benrath.— On Satarday, March 80th, the s.s. Benrath, bailt 
by Messrs. Craig, Tavlor & Co., of Thomaby-on-Tees, for 
Joseph Hoolt, Esq., of Liverpool, proceeded to sea for her 
trial trip, which proved very sacoessfal in every way. The 
dimensions of the vessel are:— 330 ft. by 43 ft. by 29 ft. 9 in. 
depth, moalded, to spar deck, and constracted to carry over 
6,500 tons. The engines, which have been constracted by 
Messrs. T. Richardson A Sons, Limited, Hartlepool, for a 
working pressare of 200 lbs., proved highly satis&ctory, and a 
good speied was maintained against strong head wind and 
sea. llie owner was represented by Arthor O. Hay, Esq., 
of Liverpool, ander whom the ship and engines have been 

Omtaf Waio.— On April 1st the trial trip of the b.8. Outt4nf 
Waaa took place in the Sound, built by the Elsinore Iron 
Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., £lsinore, Denmark, 
to the order of the Steam Navigation Co., ** Stockholm- 
Lubeck.'' of Btookhohn. This steamer is built of steel to the 
highest class at Bureau Veritas special survey, and her 
dimensions are 143 ft. by 24 ft. 9 in. by 12 ft. 0^ in. depth of hold. 
The engines are of the triple-expansion type with surface-con- 
denser. During the trial trip the engines indicated 435 H.P., the 
result being a mean speed of 10^ knots with a very moderate 
consumption of ooaL 

Rooio.— On April 2nd the s.s. Rodo went on her trial trip. 
She is a fine steel screw steamer built by Messrs. Wm. Orav & 
Co., Limited, to the order of Messrs. Orders <ft ;Handford, of 
Newport, Mon. She takes Lloyd's highest class, and is of 
the following dimensions : — Length over all, 243 ft. ; breadth, 
84 ft. 6 in. ; depth, 17 ft. 3 in. Her deck erections consist of a 
raised quarterdeck, bridge deck, and topgallant forecastle. 
The saloon and accommodation for captain and officers have 
been fitted aft, and comfortable quarters for the engineers in 
the bridge, and for the crew in the forecastle. The vessel is 
built on the web-frame system, with a double bottom under 
each hold for water ballast, and there is also a bsUast tank in 
the siter-peak. Four steam winches, donkey boiler, steam 
steering gear amidships, screw steering gear aft, Emerson, 
Walker, k Thompson's patent windlass, schooner rig, boats on 
beams overhead, and ul modem appliances have been fitted. 
The engines are of the triple-expansion type working on three 
cranks. They have been supplied by the Central Marine Engine 
Works of Wm. Gray k Co., Limited. The cylinders are 18 in. 
28} in., and 47^ in. diameter, and the piston stroke 38 in. The 
boilers, built of steel, are of large size, and give an ample supply 
of steam at a working pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. 
There were present at the trial Mr. Handford, one of the 
owners, and Mr. John Boddy (under whose superintendence the 
ship and her engines have been constructed), representing the 
owners. Everything worked to the entire satisfaction of all 
concerned. On the completion of the trial the ship ran round 
to the Tyne to load for her first outward voyage, making the 
run from Hartlepool to the Tyne in less than two hours. 

SylTania.— On April 3rd the trial trip of the latest addition 
to the Cunard fleet, the twin-screw steamer Sylvania^ took 
place on the Firth of Clyde. Built at Oovan, the Sfilvania is 
to be engaged in the cattle and cargo trade between Liverpool, 
New York, and Boston. The vessel is 460 ft. long over all, 49 
ft. beam, 42 ft. 6 in. deep from shelter deck, and carries 
6,500 tons deadweight. The hull is entirely of Siemens-Martin 
steel, including the rivets : the orlop, lower, main, and upper 
decks are steel, and the shelter deck is partially plated and 
then sheathed with pine. The vessel being twin-screw, the 
framing of the after end is carried out to meet the stem tubes, 
and ends in a massive steel casting on each side built into the 
hull. There are nine watertight bulkheads, extending to the 
upper deck and these are fitted with watertight doors on 
each side in the 'tween decks for the handy working of 
cattle or cargo. In addition to the double bottom, which 
is fitted for water ballast, there are four large deep tanks 
for trimming purposes — one aft and one forward, and one 
at each end of boiler space — and these are subdivided 
by fore.and-aft watertight bulkheads. In all there are 24 

compartments for water ballast, and part of the double bottom 
under the ennnes may be utilised for carrying reserve fresh 
water for cattle or boiler use. The bulkheads are so arranged that 
anv two compartments, and in some cases more, may be bilged 
and the vessel still keep afloat. Although built to Lloyd's 
highest class 100 Al, three deck, the vessel has special extra 
strengthening at the bilge and topsides, and, in addition to the 
usual Board of Trade survey, is in conformity with the 
American survey. The cattle fittings are on the most approved 
plan and comprise patent slingable fittings, which enable the 
whole space to oe doised and utilised for cargo. The two seta 
of triple-expansion engines have cylinders 22} in., 36} in., and 
60 in. diameter, by 48 in. stroke, and two large double-ended 
boilere fitted with Howden't forced draught. There is a huge 
auxiliary boiler for winches, electric lights, ko. The propellers 
have bronze blades, and the shafting is of steel. As the result 
of the trial runs general satisfaction was expressed. The vessel 
was tried both on the measured mile and between the lights, 
and proved in every way satisfactory] — a speed of 15} knots 
being obtained between the lights. This speed is considerably 
in excess of what was required by the spedfioation. The 
owners were represented on board by Captain Watson, Mr. 
Bain, and Mr. Bae. 

Selby.— On Wednesday, April 3rd, the s.s. Selby, which has 
been built for and by Messrs. Bopner k Sons, Stockton-on-Tees, 
was taken to sea for trial trip. Her dimensions are : — Length, 
between perpendiculars, 2b0 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 18 ft. 6 in. ; and is classed as 100 Al at Lloyd's. She 
has a break poop, raised quarter and partial awning deck ex- 
tending continuously from abaft the engine-room right forward 
with (mart-house amidships, and also liurgeiron houses contain- 
in? roomy accommodation fbr the engineers. The saloon and 
caoins for captain and officers are in the poop aft, and the crew 
and firemen are berthed in the forecastle forward. The steamer 
has web frames in all oar»> holds, dispensing with beams, and 
has a cellular bottom and after peak tank for water ballast. 
Her triple-expansion engines are by Messrs. Blair k Co., 
having cylinders 21 in., 34 in., and 56 in. by 36 in. stroke, with 
two large steel boilers working at a pressure of 160 lbs., and 
fitted with an evaporator. Everything worked satisfactozily, a 
speed of 10| Imots per hour being obtained. The steamer ia 
designed to carry 9,000 tons deadweight on 17 ft. 6 in. 

Mindellc— On Saturday, April 6th, Messrs. Edward Finch 
k Co., Limited, of Chepstow, ran a most satisfactory trial trip 
of the screw tug Mindello, built by them to the order of the 
St. Vincent Cape Verde Islands Coaling Co., Limited, of 4, 
Fenchurch Avenue, London. The tug, which is 55 ft. bv 12 ft. 
6 in. by 7 ft. 6 in., is fitted with compound surface-conaensins 
engines 11 in. and 22 in. by 16 in. stroke. She sailed on April 
10th for Cape Verde, where she is to be used at the dep6t 
for towing barges alongside steamers for coaling. Messrs. 
Finch k Co. are supplying 20 large barges to the company 
for this purpose. 

EiTort and Empress.— On April 10th the two steam 
trawlers. Effort and Emprett, recently baUt for the 
Oreat Western Steam Fishing Co., Hull, by Messrs. 
Mackie k Thomson, shipbuilders, Govan, and engined 
by Messrs. Muir k Houston, engineers, Einning Park, Glas- 
gow, went down the Firth of Clyde on their official trial 
trip. Both vessels, which are fitted out with every accessory 
of a modem equipped engine-room, attained the most satis- 
factory speed results of 10 knots. After landing the represen- 
tatives of the builders' and engineers' firms at Gourock, the 
vessels proceeded by way of the North of Scotland .to their 
destination at Hull. 

Scotsman. — On April 11th the trial trip of a new steamer, 
named the Scotsman, built by Messrs. Harland k Wolff for the 
British and North Atlantic Steam Navigation Co., the man- 
agers of which are Messrs. Richards, Mills k Co., of Liverpool, 
took place in Belfast Lough. The ship, like the other 
vessels owned by the same company, is intended to sail in the 
Warren Line. She is upwards of 6,000 tons register, and of 
the following dimensions :— Length, 470 ft. ; breadth, 49 ft. : 
depth, 29 ft. 5 in. She is propelled by two sets of triple- 
expansion surface-condensing engines, with cylinders 22 in., 
36} in., and 60 in. diameter and 40 in. stroke. Afker a satis- 
factory trial and adjustmen t of^compasses the Scotsman left for 

Throstlegarth.— On April 18th the s.s. ThrouUparth, built by 
Messrs. Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Limited, to the 

May 1, 1895.1 



order of Mesara £. & J. H. Bea, of Liverpool, was taken to sea 
for her official steam trial. Her dimensions are as follows : — 
Lenffth, between perpendicolars, 250ft. ; beam, 86 ft. ; moulded 
depth, 19 ft. 7 in., and is boilt to Lloyd's highest dass onder 
special survey. She has a long raised qoarterdeok extending 
to after end of machinery space, and fitted with accommoda- 
tion for the captain, officers, and engineers ; and a topgallant 
forecastle for the crew. The hall is boilt of steel with 
cellular donble-bottom throughout, except in the engine and 
boiler space ; and is fitted with three powerful steam winches 
and donkey boilers, patent direct-acting steam windlass, 
large self - trimming hatches, steam steering gear amid- 
shi^ screw steering gear aft, and all m<Mem gear for 
ramd loading and discharging cargo. The engines and boilers, 
mioh have also been built by tiie Palmer Co., are of the triple- 
expansion type with cylinders 20 in., 83 in., 54 in. and 86 in. 
■kroke, and two steel boilers working at a pressure of 160 lbs. 
per square inch. The vessel is designed to load about 2,300 
tons deadweight on 18 ft. draught of water, and has been con. 
strooted under the supervision of Mr. J.B. Edmiston, consult- 
ing engineer, of Liverpool. During the trial trip the engines 
worked for a considerable time at 84 revolutions per minute in a 
highly satisfactory manner, and a mean speed of 11*09 knots 
per hour was attained on the measured mile, after which the 
▼OMcl proceeded to Cardiff to load. 

Benridge..— On Thursday, April 18th, the s.b. Benridge, built 
by Messrs. Craig, Taylor, A Co., of Thomaby-on-Tees, for 
Joeeph Hoult. Esq., of Liverpool, was taken to sea for her trial 
trip, which proved highly successful. She is a sister ship to the 
Benrath, lately sent away by the same builders, the dimensions 
being 380 ft. by 43 ft. by 29 ft. 9 in. depth, moulded, and con- 
atru^ed to carry over 5,600 tons. The engines, which 
have been constructed by Messrs. T. Bidiardson & Sons, 
liimited, Hartlepool, for a working pressure of 200 lbs., proved 
bighlv satisfactory, and a speed of 10 knots was easily main- 
tained over a course of 46 miles. The owner was represented 
by Arthur C. Hay, Esq., of Liverpool, under whom the ship 
and engines have been constructed. 

Miirola.~On April 18th the new screw steamer Uwreia^ built 
by Messrs. John Beadhead k Sons. West Docks, South Shields, 
to the order of the English and American Shipping Co., 
Limited, of which the managers are Messrs. 0. T. Browning & 
Ca, London, was taken to sea on her official trial trip. Her 
dimensions are as follows: — Leoigth, 308ft.; breadth, 41ft. 
6 in. ; and depth, 21 ft. li in. The vessel is built of steel, and 
is of the partial avming deck type, and has a carrying capacity 
of 8,960 tons deadw^ht She has been built under speciaJ 
anrvey, is classed 100 Al at Lloyd's, and is fitted with all the 
latest improvements and appliances for the working of the 
▼easel, and for rapid loading and discharging of cargo. Her 
engines, which are of the triple-expansion type, are also 
supplied by Messrs. John Beadhead k Sons, and have cylinders 
28 in., 86 in., and 61 in. diameter, by 42 in. stroke, and working 
al a pressure of 160 lbs., steam being supplied from two large 
> ooilers. 

After having compasses adjusted the vessel 

steamed north and south, her speed, &c., being thoroughly 
teeted over the measured mile, a rate of 11 knots being attained. 
The engines worked very smoothly, the trial being highly 
snooeesf ul and satisfactory to all concerned. This is tibe fourth 
steamer built for the company by Messrs. Beadhead k Sons. 

Royalist.— On April 19th this turret-deck sieamer was taken 
on her official trial, when a mean speed of 12 knots were 
registered, her total deadweight capacity being 5,200 tons, on 
20 ft. 6 in. draft. She has been built by Messrs. William 
Doxford k Sons, Limited, of Sxmderland, to the order of 
Measrs. Angier Bros., London, and has received the highest 
class in both the British Coiporation and Bureau Veritas 

Mogul.— On Saturday, April 20th, the new steel screw 
steamer Moguls built by Sir Baylton Dixon k Co., Cleveland 
Dodkyard, Middlesbrough, for the China and JapsA trades, to 
the order of the Mogul Steamship Co., of which Messrs. 
Gellatly, Hankey, Sewell k Co., of London, are managers, was 
taken to sea on her official trial trip. Her dimensions are as 
follows.— Length, 372 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. 6 in. ; depth, 28 ft. 4 in. 
The vend, which is a beautiful model, has s carrying capacity 
of about 5,500 tons deadweight. Her decks are all of East India 
teak, and she U fitted in every way in a first-class manner for 
the Eastern trade. Triple-expansion engines have been fitted 
by Messrs. The Wallsend BUpway and Engineering Co., 

Limited, of Newcastle^n-Tyne, with cylinders 27 in., 44 in., 
and 72 in., by 48 in. stroke, and working at a pressure of 170 
lbs., steam being supplied from two single-ended boilers fitted 
with Howden*8 system of forced draught. The trial was highly 
successful and satisAsctory to all concerned, a speed of 13 knots 
being attained with ease. At the oondusion of the trip the 
vessd returned to Middlesbrough to load. The hull and 
machinery have been constructed under the supervision of Mr. 
F. Edwards, 62, Bishopsgate Street Within, London, consult- 
ing engineer to the owners, and Captain Johnson the owners* 
superintendent. Sir Baylton Dixon k Co. have a sister vessel 
alongside their yard nearly completed for the same owners. 

Progreisist.—On April 24th this turret-deck steamer was 
taken on her official trial, when a mean speed of 11} knots was 
registered, wiUi 5,080 tons deadweight aboard. Her total 
deadweight capacity being 5,200 tons on 20 ft. 6 in. draft. She 
has been built by Messrs. William Doxford k Sons. Limited, 
of Sunderland, to the order of Messrs. Angier Bros., London, 
and has received the highest class both in the British and 
Bureau Veritas registries. 

Fort Salisbwy.— The large steel screw steamer Fort SaUthwy, 
built by Sir W. O. Armstrong, Mitchell k Co., at their Walker 
shipyard, for Messrs. Bnoknall Brothers on behalf of the 
British and Colonial Steam Navigation Co., has lately com- 
pleted her speed trials. The Fort Saluhury is the second of 
three sister vessels built by Messrs. Armstrong, Mitchell k Co. 
for the above company's new service to the Cape and East Coast 
of Africa. The Fort Salisbury is a vessel of 6,000 tons, and fitted 
out for passengers and cargo. She w%s tsiken for a series of 
runs on the measured mile off Whitley, a mean speed of over 14 
knots being shown. The machinery has been constructed by 
Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie, k Co. 

Henilia.— The steam yacht Hertilia, recently launched by 
Messrs. Bamage k Ferguson, Limited, Leith, for the Bev. John 
Hutchison, D.D., Afton Lodee, went on her trial on Tuesday, 
April 16th, on the Firth of Forth, and, notwithstanding a 
strong easterly wind, the average speed on the measured mile 
was 18} knots. 

The Indicator and ittPraeiieal Working, By A. G. Brown. The 
Globe Engineering Co., Limited, of 38, Victoria Buildings, 
Manchester, and 7, Billiter Buildings, Loodon, B.C. 
Thb introduction to this book gives a concise and interesting 
history of the indicator from the inception of the idea by James 
Watt to the present day, taking one through many of the various 
stages of improvement through which the instrument has passed 
beforo reaching its present state of aocurscy and efficiency. 
The Tabor indicator is taken throughout the book as thestabdaid 
instrument for illustration and description, and one cannot help 
feeling that either the author or publishers has or have some 
special interest in pushing the particular merits of this apparatus. 
After a oaroful description of this particular iostrument and the 
methods of practically working it, various gears for the correct 
transmission of the motion of the piston to the paper drum of 
the indicator ara described and illastrated in a very lucid and 
complete manner. 

A number of typical diagrams aro given showiog the particular 
objects for using the indicator, the defects in the diagrams being 
pointed out, what the probable reason was for the existence of 
the defects, and finally a set of diagrams is shown in each case 
after the defects have been romedied. The use of the indicator on 
locomotives is then folly gone into and numerous striking examples 
are given showing the advantage derived by the examination of 
indicator cards as a means to detect defective working of the 
mechanism. A very interesting and useful chapter is given on 
the use of the indicator in connection with a feed-water or con- 
denser test in determining the number of pounds of steam 
consumed per I.H.P. per hour by an engine. In connection with 
this particular application some very useful tables aro given 
with reference to the cylinder condensation for varions 
positions of cut-off in simple compound and triple-expansion 
engines. The author then proceeds to give a simple 
exposition of the thermal unit measure of engine performsnoes, 
and illustrates his remarks by four simple examples. The next 
point dealt with is the important one as to the amount of steam 



[May 1, 1895. 

aoooilnted for by the indioator, ard m reference to this matter 
gome useful tables are giren. The teetiog of the quality of steam 
by a calorimeter is also fully described and illustrated, as also is 
the method of locating the clearance line on a diagram. The 
location of the point of cut-off and the combination ai diagram 
from compound and other stage expansion engines, are also fully 
described. A variety of useful formulaB and tables are given at 
the end of the book. Taking the publication as a whole, we think 
that it is both instructive to students desirous of masteriUK the 
principles involved in the treatment of thermo-dynamic problems, 
and useful as a reference book to those more advanced in the 

It is somewhat remarkable that in these days of advanced 
scientific knowledge, so much ignorance exists among users of 
steam motors as to the enormous waste of money in the shape of 
cohI, from causes that could be readily remedied if the problem 
wer6 only attadced by those who are sufficiently armed with 
technical knowledge to find a ready solution to tJie difBcnlties, 
and we feel sore Qiat books of the nature of that now being re- 
viewed will do much to dispel such ignaoranoe and prove a benefit 
net only to the vsera of the motor Imt to the nation in general, 
by the fact of inducing a better conterraUon of energy among 
cor industrial uadertaking. 

The UfUverBal EUctrieal Directory (J. A. Berly's). London : 

H. Alabaster, Qatehouse & Co. 1896. 
This is the fourteenth annual inrae of this directory to the 
^ectrical and kindred trades. The names axe classified under 
the heads of Foreign, British, Colonial and American, and 
arranged both according to trades and in alphabetical order. 
Tbere are thoe eight sections in the work and the commence- 
ment of each of these lists is made easy of reference by a very 
ingenioas arrangement of tags let into the margin of the paper. 
Not onljr are the names and addresses of firms and of indi- 
viduals given, bat their telegraphic addresses are noted, and in 
the case of limited companies some particulars as to share 
capital are afforded. 

As a sort of frontiapieoe, there is given a large sheet reprinted 
from the EUctrieal Review, which snows all the central electric 
lighting stations of Great Britain. Tl^e officers of the most 
important institutions connected with electricity are also given, 
and the large number of adversisements in the volume are made 
attainable by an index. A small bibliography of electricity 
will be found at page 55, and this will greatly add to the use- 
fulness of the volume. 

The only adverse criticism to which ^e volume can possibly 
lay itself open is that the oompiler's definition of what comes 
within '* allied trades " is somewhat too wide. But we cannot 
take exception to this, for though we find names herein whose 
direct connection with electricity may be difficult to trace, they 
are those of firms who are wont to supply requisites for most 
large establishments, and it is well to give more than is needed 
than too little. The book should have a very wide circulation, 
and its moderate price, 4b., is not its least recommendation in 
theiMi days, when there are so many claims upon business men. 

The Engineer'i Year-Book of Er^ineerinp FcramUet Sutee, TabUe, 
etc. By H. R. Kempe. London : Crosby Lookwood A Co. 
In reviewing the first edition of this work, published a year 
ago. we commented very favourably upon the range, method 
of treatment, and general get-up of the volume. We are there- 
fore pleaaed to learn that the auth<Nr has met with the success 
he deserved, it having, according to his statement in the new 
edition, *' much exceeded his expectations." Last year we 
remarked upon the fact that though there was much useful 
information regarding the ordinary marine boiler and the 
Bibcock & WilToox water-tube boiler, yet there was no 
mention of the marine water-tube boilers which were then 
attracting so much attention. The year that has elapsed has 
brought the Belleville and its various rivals for public, and 
especially Admiralty, patronage, so much to the front, that the 
addition now made to this volume of details regarding these 
flteam-raisers will be most acceptable to the engineering pro- 

A large part of the volume has been re-written, ai for 
example, the sections relating to cotton mills and girders and 
bridges. The whole of the statistics furnished have been 
brought down to date, the logarithmic tables have been 
extended, and some very interesting information relating to 
modern engineering practice in America has been a^ded to the 

article on the <* Proportions of Parts in Steamships." The book 
is well got-up, as was its first edition, and it is likely to prove 
as useful as its predecessor. We notice one nmple and 
obvious printer's error on page 585, whcore, under the head of 
** Builder's Measurement," the word "stem'* has been gi^wi 
as " stem," but the context is so clear that no ona^ eem be 
confused by it. 

Flating and Boiler Making, By the Foreman PM^ern Bfaker. 

London : Orosby Lockwood & Co. 1895. 
Like all the works from the pen of the Foreman Plittem 
Maker, this book approaches its subject from the most practical 
point of view. His work is not so much for use in the office, or 
even in the shop, as in the workman's own dwelling. He 
believes that no man can be considered a good workman if be 
merel V f tilfils his appointed task without inquiring the why and 
the wherefore of what he does, and neglects to learn the theories 
and facts upon which the present-day practice is based. The 
volume before us runs to nearly four hundred pages and is fully 
illustrated, some of the blocks being exceedingly well finished. 
Thus he is able to treat a most important subject in a manner 
which it deserves. Boiler-making has long been free from the 
reproach of its early days. The writer remembers a speeoh of 
Dr. Denny, when presiding at the dinner of the Institute of 
Marine En^eers a year or two ago, in which that gentleman 
gave some mteresting reminiscences of the casual way in which 
the low-pressure boilers, even of his early days, were put together. 
They were not expected to be absolutely tight, to begin with, and 
the theory of using the material to give the greatest strength 
and efficiency for a given weight was entirely unknown. Now 
all that is changed : there have been innumerable experiments 
made, notably those by Mr. Kirkaldy, as to the strength of 
every part of the materials employed, and as to the strains and 
stresses laid upon the plates, stays, and rivets, both by the 
pressure of the steam and by the alterations in the temperature 
of the fabric. In this book a vast amount of knowledge leaned 
from these experiments is tabulated and put ready to hiuid for 
the inquirer. 

In pursuance of the exhaustive plan of treatment which he 
has set before him, the writer tells ui in separate chapters of 
the tools employed, and of the materials worked up, the latter 
being naturally followed by a chapter on the tevting of 
materials whereby it is accurately known what the materia 
in truth are. Perhaps one of the most noticeable features of 
modern development in this department is covered by the 
chapter on the limiting dimensions and weights of materials. 
For here we see collected for us the very numerous shapes and 
thicknesses of plates, bars, angle-irons, bulbs, tees, channels and 
other forms which are supplied by the great manufacturers to- 
gether with some indication of their usual prioes and of the 
probable extra cost of having any alteration made in the 
standard forms usually supj^ied. We see here how numerous 
are the forms of bars now used in boiler-making and its kindred 
arts, and how largely the ingenuity of the manufocturer has 
enabled the builder to effect economies in weight of the fabric 
without injury, and indeed with benefit, to the strength and 
lifeof thef^ric. 

Cutting, bending, flanging, punching and rivetting are aU 
treated from his practical point of view, and not only are the 
machines used for these purposes illustrated but the methods of 
using them are explained and some of the common faults and 
difficulties dwelt upon in a ver^ instructive manner. 

Space will not adlow us to give a more detailed description of 
the book, but we have said enough to show that it is a 
thoroughly workmanlike and exhaustive work, and we may 
add that as far as we can see it is brought down to the very 
latest practice, and it will no doubt prove a very useful work to 
a large circle of practical men. 

Refrigerating Machinery and it» Management, By A. Bilchie 

Leask. London : The Tower Publishing Co. 1895. 
With the almost universal introduction of refrigerating 
plant into modem steamships, a handbook on the subject of 
cold installations and their management will certainly be wel- 
come to marine engineers. The introductory chapter, ^ving as 
it does a most interesting account of the various uses both by 
land and sea to which these appliances can be put, would show 
how necessary it is for the modem engineer to be acquainted 
with this branch of his duties. The astonisl^ing thing about 
this vast trade is its comparatively recent origin. In 1880, we 
are told, only 400 carcases of mutton were imported. Next year 

May 1, 1895.] 



iheStratAZev^withaBeU-ColemaninBtallAtionbroafiht another 
eonsigninent. She was followed by the Protos and Uler in the 
■ame year by the. Orient liner Orient, and then the frozen meat 
trade wae fairly under way. By 1893 the annual import into this 
ooantry had riaen to two and a-half million oaroases. But not 
oomtant with the immenee expansion of this carriage of mutton 
the ah^wner saw that the installation might be used for the 
oarriage of other goods, and in Bf *y, 1885, the Oeenna left 
Melbonrae with the first lot of southern fruit. The difference 
of treatment between animal and vegetable products is easily 
understandable when explained by the author, but in the tirst 
voyages the management of the fruit must have laid great 
responsibility on those in whose charge it was placed. 

The interesting re$ume of the expansion and usefol- 
nese of the trade is followed by a dissertation on 
the theory and laws and heat and, we think, for once the 
author is not quite up to date. He says '<The most 
ir**e-9e cold as yet known was produced by Professor Faraday 
during his experiments on the liquefaction and solidification of 
gaaea ... an intense cold 166 degrees Fahrenheit was 
obtained." Sorely the recent experiments in the liquefaction of 
oxygen by Professor Dewar have, daring the iMt twelve months, 
shown us a temperature to which 166 F. is comparatively hot. 

Having discnaed the natural laws which guvein the sobjest 
Mr. Leask tells us of Uie gradual development of refrigerating 
at»paratus from the experimental to the practical stage. He 
deeoribee the well-known forms patented by Linde and by Messrs. 
Hall, of Dartford. Coming to this part of thn work he tells 
of the duty to be expected from th» machines and gives 
full and plain accounts of the various kinds of installations, 
deeeriptions which are rendered even more easily intelligible 
by numerous acoompanving cuts. Two types of machines, 
well known in the United States for stationary purposes, are 
De La Vergne and the Eclipse. Descriptions of several others 
are given, and the rationale with the disadvantages and strong 
points of each are made clear. Many hints on the erection, 
management and working of installations are given, together 
with hints as to the ** crews" required to operate factories. 
The whole is completed by an appendix of tables which aro 
likely to prove useful. We have not indicated by any means 
all the heads upon which Mr. Leask gives information, but we 
hope we have said enough to show tmkt the present volume will 
be very usefully studied by the marine engineer, and will be a 
very welcome addition to his library. 



b4 ymderatood ihat^ m giiring inurtion to 0ommtmi&aiUm» 
tder this A«adtfi^, W0 do notm amy way pleig* curteliou to ths 
opiniom frrfwrtd tkirem, Wt wul with pUaaurt imtrt amy 
Utters hMy to hmsfU <mr r$aderi^ either from their imtrimtie 
value or at heimg eeieutated to promote tueh diteuMion at will 
elieU faett vatmbU from their bting the rttuU of praetieal 
txperienee.—'EJi. M. E.] 

To the Editor of The Mabini Enoinxbb. 

DiAB Sir, — By advices just tu hand we have received infor- 
mation that a new Patent Law has been published in Portugal, 
which will tend to the further development of industrial enter- 
prises in that country. We have not yet received a full text of 
the new law, but we find that many of the d^ects of the existing 
law are corrected, and perhaps what is of more importance to 
English inventors desiring to securo patents and protect their 
inventions in Portugal, the fees payable aro much lees than at 
present, so that the costs of obtaimng a patent will be consider- 
ably reduced. 

Although Portugal oannot be included amongst first-class 
industrial countries it should not be completely overlooked by 
inventors, as during the last few years it hat devoted considerable 
effort and energy towards industrial progrest. 

We will shortly furnish you with further particulars of the new 

Yours truly, 

W. P. Tbompson a Co., 
Pate/it Agentt, 
Manohester, Liverpool, and London, 
9th April, 1896. 

Recent applications for Patents connected with 
Marine Bngineeringi Ship Construction and 
Mechanical Appliances for use in Ships, firom 
March 14th, to April 9th, 1896. 

6868 A. G. Brookes (P. Armington, United States). Steam 

6371 H. Beresford. Smoke-bumiog furnace for boilers. 
6389 B. Wootton and B. flewitt. Manufacture of sea ml e s s 

steel tubes. 
6406 F. Bd wards. Steam cylinder awningSk 
6412 E. A. B. Woodward. Feed-water heating arparatne. 
6464 T. Dawson. Smoke consumer for steam boiler. 

6466 H. Mechan. Making of ships' side-lights. 

6467 A. G. Lyster. Subaqueous dredgers. 
6520 F. D. Thomseit. Safety valves for boilers. 

6631 A. C. S. B. Leslie (F. D. Klapp^ United States). Alarm 

gauges for steam boilers. 
6568 J. Lambert. Closing watertight doors. 
6693 S. A. Johnson. Feed-Water heater, Sto, 
6608 T. S. Mossman. Circulator and feed heater. 
6610 D. F. Black. Watertight bulkheads. 
6621 A. Forster and N. Pirrie. Steam generators. 
6629 M. J. Darg. Propuhdon of torpedoes. 
6639 E. CuDuingham. Packiog for piston-rods. 
5688 J. Tally. Ventilation of cellular ships. 
6718 B. F. Allnut. Cap for lubrioators. 
6726 J. E. Knights and H. Gutting. Steam engines. 
6736 J. Fairhurst and J. Fairhurstw Fire-bars. 
6740 O. D. Orvis. Steam boiler. 
6769 W. W. Hutchinson. Wrenches. 

6800 I. A. Oawley . Chains and ship^ cables of any material. 
6807 J. Johnston. Tachometers or speed indicators. 
6810 J. Mills. Steam boilers. 
6822 W. de C. Prideaux. Fnnnela. 
6836 M. T. Keale and C. B. Monkhouse. Utilising the motion 

of waves. 
6842 0. FriedericL Boiler furnaces. 

6869 J. S. White and J. L. White. Steam boilers. 

6870 J. B. Walsh. Floating derrick cranes. 
6874 T. Sherratt and W. S. WiUson. Bearings. 
6880 W. A. Bain. Retarding the speed of ships. 
5930 B. Swinton. Preventing bmler explosions. 
6960 J. G. Calvert. Cleaning feed-water heaters. 
b^2 J. A. Hopkinsott. Apparatus for heating water. 
6968 H. K. Bridger. Sounding apparatus for ships. 
6976 S. Croskery. Sextants and other instruments. 
6978 C.Davies. Ships' lights. 
5982 G. H. Mann. Expansion gear for slide valves. 

6080 J. BobertoD. Preventing foundering of ships. 

6081 G. S. de Livet. Boilers, furnaces and floes. 
6037 A. B., H. W., H. B. Wbite and H. A. Fenn. Bngine. 
6044 J. Davison. Automatic cable grip for ships. 
6060 A. C. Chapman (G. P. Boughton, at present on the high 

seas). Sea anchor. 
6064 J. N. Beevor. Preveoting damage to vessels. 
6099 A. J. P. Whitaker. Preventing corrosion of shafts. 
61Q6 P. Watts and M. Sandison. Propelling engines. 
6164 C. H. Bachy. Furnaces. 

6166 F. Pelzer. Pumps. 

6167 M. H. Robinson and M. H. P. E. Sankey. Steam 

6169 E. Vickers. Heating furnaces. 

6160 J. Girlot and C. Castin. Weldless chains. 

6199 J. A. Steven. Piston-rods of hydiauHo cylinders. 

6i04 W. B. Cumming. Multi-cylinder steam engine. 

6208 F.W.Webb. Water gauge attachments. 

6821 J. H. Rosenthal. Superheaters for steam generators. 

6826 W. M. Walters. Working of derricks. 

6227 F. H. Brooke. Slow combustion furnaces. 

6234 J. y. Rice, junr. Oscillating piston steam engines. 

6274 H. S. Maxim, steam engines. 

6288 G. Bound, coupling joints for tubes. 

6306 F. Rooml Boat. 

6368 J. Kelson. Fire-grate bars for furnaces. 

6367 A. J. Hay ward. Emptying bilge water from boats. 

6403 G. H. Ssnkey. Lifebuoys. 

6406 H. M. Steinthal. Sheathing ships and other vesseld. 



[May 1, 1895. 






679 i 






W. C. Gilles. Lubricator for fishing lines. 

E. Howl and W. W. Attwood. Yalres for pumps. 
J. H. lones. Preventing oorroeion in boilers. 
W. Molntoeh. Man-way ooyer and dnst box. 

The Brayton Petrolenm Motor Company, Limited, and 
H. Townsend. Engine goTeming apparatus. 

F. W. Beck. Water heating boiler. 

G. W. Heath. Compasses. 

E. W. Lloyd and C. W. Hutchinson. Launching torpedoes. 
W. J. Pirrie. Winches. 
C. C. Braithwaite. Stuffing-box packing. 
G. B. Roberts. Float. 

S. Carter. Tool for cutting boiler tubes, Slo, 
E. and F. J. M. Chapman. A floating rope. 
A. Denny and W. Gray. Instrument for asoerlainiog the 
metacentric height of a ship. 

A. Cocks. Packing for piston*ix)ds. 

B. W. Barker (W. F. Burroughs, United States). Anchor. 

A. G. Schaeffer. Safety appliance for boilers. 
J. G..Calyert. Cleaning feed- water heaters. 
J. Smith and 0. Wynn. Steam engine yalve. 
J. Clarkson. Submarine search-lights for ships. 
P. and J. J. Mechan. Steam boilers. 

E. J. Woolf. YalTcs for compound engines. 

C. D. Abel (The Deutsche Hetallpatronenlkbrik, Ger- 

many). Tubes. 
H. Prini. Centrifugal speed indicators. 

B. le Doux. Paints for coating bottoms of vessels. 
J. H. Gibson. Indicating the opening of valves. 
T. Hampton. Manufacture of steel. 

H. Taylor and W. Ginmao. Hauling out slipwsy. 
J. G. Lovering. Nautical recording apparutus. 
J. E. Hornby. Funnels. 
W. J. Pitt. Tethering stanchioTiS for ships. 

A. Morcom and G. S. Bellies A Co. Steiun engines. 

D. Thomson. Valves. 

B. Ciucaa. Yaouum-displaoing propelling blade, 

Davis A Co. and W. B. G. Hay. Controlling valve 

A. Schmedtje. Yalves for steam engines. 
A. W. Cash. Pressure regulator and governor. 

E. F. Wailes. Steam generators. 

J. J. Mather. Pneumatic pontoons flotilla. 

J. A. Ashley. Steam g^enerators. 

J. H. CLristensen and B. L. A. Sohifter. Unsinkable 

J. J. Tinker and B. HoUinworth. Forced draught 

J. F. Weatherley. Petroleum engines. 
J. Wood. Balshig and lowering ships' boats. 
G. A. Billington. Ships* berths and bed bottoms. 

Hull and District Inititntioii of Engineen and Naval 
ArohlteetB. — On Mondsy evening, April 8^, a paper was read 
by Mr. W. H. Willatt before the members of the above Institu- 
tion on "Electrical Measurements," the President (Mr. F. H. 
Pearson) in the chair. The paper dealt with, the origin of 
electrical units, and ^e firm scientific bads upon which they 
were founded, and compared them with methods of measuritg 
which involved the use of the foot, the poond and the gallon. 
Various instruments and methods of electrical measurement, 
which had been necessitated by recent developments of eleotrioal 
machinery and appb'ances, were described ; several electrical 
measuring instruments of modem dedcrn were exhibited on the 
lecture table, including Lord Kelvin's mirror galvanometer, 
Wheatstone's bridge, an improved form of quadiant elestrometer, 
a difFerential galvanometer, various standards, Ao,» Ac A short 
discussion followed, in which Messrs. F. H. Pearson, A. N. 
Somersoales, G. H. Strong and Mr. A. H. Gibbings (Borough 
Electrical Engineer) took part, at the close of wUch a hearty 
vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Willatt on the motion of the 
President, seconded by Mr. M. Stirling.— The next paper will be 
one on " Water-tube Boilers," bv Mr. A. E..Seaton. 

The New Palace Steamert (Limited).— It has been arranged 
that during the ensuing season the steamers La MargwHte, RoycU 
Sovertign, and Koh-i-Noor, shall be manaaed and run by the New 
Palace St«'amers (Limited), the offices of which company are at 
50, King William Street, E.C. It is expected that the sailings 
will oommenoe on Saturday, the 1st of June. 


Extra First Class. 

April 20th, 1895.— L'Estrange. A. H Ex. IC Leith 

ft M ., — Mathieson, D Ex IC GUsgow 

.f ,. „ —Tremain, William.... Ex. 10 Leith 
*> n ,. —Young, George Ex. 10 Cardiff 

NoTB.— IC, denotes First Class ; aC, Second Clase. 

March 30th. 1895. 
Brown, A. A. . . IC London 
Brown, David. . 2(1 Glasgow 
Bryant, Ed. E. 2C N.Shields 
Boacher, B. E. 2C Liverpool 
Dean, Oswald.. 2C „ 
Elliot, James.. 20 London 

Emslie, Jas 20 Aberdeen 

Ford, A. H 20 Dover 

Gibson, J. H. . . 10 N.Shields 
Gowan, David 20 Liverpool 
Holland, Louis 20 „ 
Inglis. George. . 20 Aberdeen 
Lawson. Rooert 10 N Shields 
Leay, Biohard 20 Liverpool 
Lloyd, Arthur.. 20 
Neil, James .... 10 N.Shields 
Oliver, J. W. .. 20 
Bead. Wm. S. 20 „ 
Bennie, Wm. . . 10 Glasgow 
Riddle, John .. 20 N.Shields 
Boberts, D. F. 10 London 
Seyinonr. G. H. 20 N.Shields 
Sharman, B. S. 20 „ 
Simpson, J. B. 10 Aberdeen 
Simpson, J. R. IC N.Shields 
Smith, John . . 10 Aberdeen 
Uronhart, John 20 Liverpool 
Wsils. John . . 10 Glasgow 
Wood. Wm. T. 20 N.Shields 
Yoonger, Bobt. .. 20 Aberdeen 

April 6th. 1895. 
Burgess, W. B. 20 N.Shields 
Olonston, J. H. 20 „ 
Croft, W.H. ..10 
Douglas, Joseph 20 London 
Eri^sen, O. M. 10 N.Shields 
Fawoett, B. W. 10 
Findlay, Alex. 10 
Fbster, Thos. ..10 „ 
Freeman, A. J. 10 „ 
Gnnn, Wm. . . 20 London 
HaU, Joeeph .. 20 N.Shidds 
Heath, A. H. . . 20 London 
HoUey, B. 0. .. 10 London 
Howey, J. W. 20 N.Shields 
Hntton, J. C. . . 10 London 
Jones. H. E. . . 10 Cardiff 
Lewis. Edgar . . 20 „ 
Maovicar, J. L. 20 Liverpool 
McGiU. John .. 20 
McClelland, Os. 10 N.Shields 
Payne, Jack . . 20 Liverpool 
Pearson. 0. H. 10 N.Shields 
Pickett, A. E... 20 Falmouth 
Piggford, J. . . 20 N.Shields 
Piumley, Geo. 20 „ 
Qoixley, E. W. 20 HuU 
Bobertson, Wm. 10 
Bobson, J. W. . . 20 N.Shields 
Rowell Geo. W 20 

Scott, J. T 20 

Stewart, R. J. 10 Cardiff 
Stokoe, F. A. . . 20 N.Shields 
Thomas, Jno. . . 10 Cardiff 
Thompson, J. H. 20 N.Shidds 
Thompson, J. W. 10 „ 

April 18th, 1895. 
Andrews, J. M. 10 Greenock 
Barclay, W. F. 10 ,. 

Barron, B. S. . . 
Bennett, Ernest 
Birkenshaw, S. 
Bowden. Jose^ 
Chalmers. H.W. 
Christison, D. . . 
Davidson, D. L. 
Fleming. W. G. 
Kerr, Donald . . 
Kirby, 8. 0. . . 
McKersie. J. . . 
Peden, J. F, .. 
Bamsay. A. . . 
Beid. J. L. .. 
Wheeler, W. H. 

20 Liverpool 

10 London 

20 Liverpool 

20 Leith 

IC „ 

10 ,. 

2C „ 

20 Greenock 


10 iKmdon 

10 Dublin 

10 Greenock 

20 Leith 

20 „ 

lO .. 

20 London 

20 .. 

20 Liverpool. 

April 20th, 1895. 

Alderson, Joseph 10 Cardiff 
Coleman, 0. P. 10 „ 
Cooper, Sidney ION Shields 
Davies, Thomas 20 Liverpool 
Davison, S. E. 20 Cardiff 
Diaper. W. H. 20 
Dixon. Frank . ..20 N.Shielda 
Dunn, John . . 20 N.8hields 
Dyer. J. O. . . 20 London 
Ellerker, 0. P. 10 
Fielding, Harry 20 W.H'pool 
Findlay, Alfred 20 London 
Forrest, D. .. 10 N.Shields 
Eraser, Frank 20 Glasgow 
Gibb, James . . 20 N.Shields 
Goodyear, W.V. 10 Cardiff 
Gordon, Charles 10 London 
Gorton, B. W. 10 Cardiff 
Grant, John . . 20 N.Shields 
Greenshields. A. 20 „ 
Gronhang, 8. N. 10 Cardiff 
Harper, G. E.. . 10 N.Shields 
Heseltine, B. B. 20 W.H'pool 
Hoy, W. M. . . 20 Aberdeen 
Hutchinson, Jn. 10 Glasgow 
Jarren, Gustav. 10 W. H'pool 
Machin, Edwin 10 Cardiff 
Maohin, S. L. . • 20 „ 
Mason, F. K. . . 20 W.H'pool 
Mitchell, Wm. . . 20 London 
Moir. B. B. . . 20 N.Shields 
Montgomery, D. 20 London 
Noble. Harry . . 20 W.H'pool 
Oakey, W. E. . . 10 Cardiff 
Park, Thomas. . 20 Glasgow 
Peaoock, D. T. 10 
Powell, Walter 10 W.H'pool 

Bamsay, B 20 „ 

Bankine, D. K. 10 N.Shields 

Shaw, David . . 

Smith. David . . 

Stormont, A. . . 

Summers, F. T 

Talbot, Charles 20 London 

Thompson, J. . . 10 Cardiff 

Thombeck.B.B. 20 ., . 

Wellock,John.. 20 N.Shields 

Westington F 

Williams. D. . . 

WyUe, S. J. . . 

Young, J. G. . . 

20 Dundee 
20 ., 
10 Aberdeen 
10 N.Shields 


10 Cardiff 
10 Aberdeen 

June 1, 1895.] 



®l;e plarine (Bng^n^]^v. 

LONDON, JUNE 1, 2895. 

FOR a very long time shipbuilders in this country 
have, in one way and another, been slowly killing 
the proverbial goose that lays the golden egg. There 
was a time, for example, when shipbuilders were in- 
duced to accept the services of foreign '< improvers " in 
their drawing offices with good and legitimate reason. 
The young men hailing from the technical schools of 
the Continent could not only be had cheap, but could 
really give points to the plain, practical and compara- 
tively uneducated draughtsmen of this country, in so 
far as mathematical and scientific knowledge was con- 
cerned. On the other hand the amount of " spoil" 
in the way of practical experience, ** tips " and data, 
which these same highly scientific youths contrived 
to take away with them was never very deadly. For 
some considerable time, however, the competitive 
struggle for " work to do " on the part of shipbuilders 
and engineers has been so great, that in order to 
secure orders from abroad, or as a bid for " more to 
follow,'' many firms have opened wide their gates and 
offices — ^if not their books of data — to students and im- 
provers directly sent by, or in whom foreign countries 
and shipping, and shipbuilding firms are closely 
interested. Now, when orders from abroad are daily 
becoming fewer and farther between, and shipbuilding 
abroad is daily increasing, it seems advisable to call 
attention to this system of of international gi£F-gaff as 
in all likelihood affording some partial reason of the 
gradual and steady cessation of foreign orders. It 
may not be generally known that in some countries 
where shipbuilding has for some time been carried on, 
under a system of national molly-coddling, funds are 
in existence for subsidising and encouraging the 
foreign learners in British shipyards and engine shops. 
So thoroughly is the working of the fund made sub- 
servient to the object in view, any foreign learner in 
our midst who may apply for benefit must accept it 
under stringent conditions as to his not remaining 
longer than a certain period in any one given yard or 
shop, but must peregrinate as much as possible from 
yard to yard, in the character, we suppose, of an 
itinerant picker-up of '' unconsidered trifles." Some 
four years ago, it may be remembered, there was a 
threatened invasion of our shipbuilding and engineer- 
ing works by six " young naval officers,', acting under 
the orders of the Secretary of the United States Navy, 
the object being a course of special instruction in naval 
architecture preparatory to their appointment as assis- 
tant naval constructors. Whether or not these emis- 
saries came, saw and conquered, is not within our 

knowledge, but at all events it was felt at the time that 
the application made to European Governments, and 
to mercantile builders on the Clyde and elsewhere, for 
assistance toc^ards this object was '' a bit stiff." If the 
Americans, like other nations who patronise us, gave 
us orders to construct ships for them, the proposition 
that we should coach theit young men for them might 
have been excusable, but when it is considered that 
the Yankees* acknowledged purpose was then, as it has 
all along been, to make '' the States " thoroughly in- 
dependent of British or European help, the request 
simply bordered on impertinence. There seems little 
room for doubt that the coaching and insight which 
the learners from other countries — sent by firms who 
also send orders — have all too freely bestowed upon 
them — are helping materially to the acquisition of the 
knowledge of ''how it is done.'' In any case there 
has been for several years past an almost constant 
recall of the foreign *' improvers " to appointments in 
their own countries, one of the latest instances of this 
being the transference of a foreign gentleman from 
one of the largest Clyde shipyards to the works con- 
ducted by Messrs. Belbino, Frederick & Co., Odessa, 
Bussia. It may be denied that what these improvers 
and learners are privileged to see, or contrive to 
learn, is of much consequence ; and that much of the 
information imparted is also obtainable from the 
Begistry, rules and regulations, and from the draw- 
ings and data now so largely disseminated through 
the medium of the technical journals and societies. 
The fruits of the " improvers* " sojourn, however, are 
not alone to be measured by the information put in their 
way and acquired. The ties of intimacy sometimes 
contracted between them and home designers and 
skilled workers result not infrequently in the transla- 
tion of highly experienced ** hands," with bulky port- 
folios probably, to foreign situations. This is so par- 
ticularly in the case of the United States, where the 
facilities for ** translation " are not interfered with by 
any question of foreign language. It cannot of course 
be maintained that ship construction — ship design 
even — in these days is, in the old sense, a ''secret'* 
art or industry, the ins and outs of which are to be 
jealously guarded, or sold at a very high price ; but 
between this untenable, not to say ridiculous, extreme 
and the lax way in which promises of " insight ' to 
foreigners are dangled before the eyes of prospective 
foreign customers there is surely some more dignified 
and safer middle course. A fact of decided significance 
in this connection is that our Admiralty now dis- 
courage, if not absolutely prohibit, private firms who 
undertake Government work from employing foreign 
draughtsmen. In some recent cases known to us, 
foreigners who have been in the service of firms prior 
to their securing Government work have been paid off 



[Juno 1, 1895. 

immediately the contracts have been received. This 
positive attitude of our Admiralty authorities is cer- 
tainly very different from that passively assumed by 
them only a few years ^o, when the students from 
foreign lands and rival nations at Greenwich Naval 
College had the free run of, if not practical instruc- 
tion in, the naval dockyards. Whether the more 
exclusive and reticent line of policy now followed by 
our Admiralty authorities is directly the outcome of 
the mysterious '* translation " of plans about which a 
good deal was heard last year, or is simply the result 
of a general feeling that the exigencies of naval affairs 
impose more secrecy upon them, there seems to lurk 
in their present attitude a lesson which private 
mercantile shipbuilders might in some way profit by. 

The investigations and experiments set on foot by 
Mr. Yarrow, as to the vibrations set up by high- 
speed engines, and their effect upon light-framed 
torpedo-boats, has caused a large amount of attention 
to be given to this subject by various experts, and 
naturally the subject of vibrations resulting from the 
reciprocation of heavy masses and the irregularity Of 
strains developed in engines has formed the subject 
matter of no less than three papers submitted to the 
Institution of Naval Architects, each author dealing 
with a special and distinct branch of the subject. 
Mr. n. Mallock deals analytically both mathematic- 
ally and graphically with the determination of the 
direction and magnitude of the forces and couples 
which arise from the unbalanced moving parts of 
marine engines, and adds a few valuable remarks as 
to the determination by models of the actual period of 
vibration of any proposed ship when loaded in any 
given manner. He investigates mathematically the 
resultant force and couple of any engine, and shows 
graphically how to determine the amount and position 
of counterbalance weights to neutralise the disturbing 
couples and forces. Mr. Mark Robinson and Captain 
Sankey add to the ground covered by such investi- 
gation by a practical example of a serious alleged 
disturbance due to the vibration of ten high-speed 
engines felt and complained of at a distance of some 
100 ft. or more away from the engines, though no 
vibration was sensible when standing close to the 
engines. 1 he investigations ensuiag disclosed two 
distinct and possible forms of disturbance to the 
foundations set up by the engines in question. One a 
tilting tendency due to an unbalanced couple, and the 
other a direct vertical up-and-down rise and depression. 
It was found that twice in a revolution — 700 times a 
minute — a net lifting power of one ton acted upon the 
engine, and changed an equal number of times a minute 
intc a depressing power of about l-2*tons. This appeared 

to be an ample cause of vibration, and was due solely 
to the effect (sometimes supposed to be negligible) of 
the connecting rods not being of infinite length, that 
is, that owing to the rocking action of any connecting 
rod of ordinary length, the movements of the pistons 
are not xmiformly distributed in the first and second 
portions of the stroke. The authors finish their investi- 
gations by a description of a special designed pair of 
triple engines calculated to remove the effect both of 
the tilting and vertical vibrations. Herr Schlick, well 
known as an expert in vibration, completes the trio 
of vibration papers by investigations as to the laws of 
\ibrations of the hulls of iron or steel vessels, vertical, 
horizontally, and torsionally, and points out tha 
position of the modes of vibrations in a series of six 
orders of vibration. This gives a basis for naval 
architects if they have to deal with engines producing 
vibrations, as to where the engines would be best 
placed so that the vibrations set up should synchronise 
as little as possible with the period of vibration of the 
hull as a whole. It is a coincidence of these periods 
that produces the serious and distressing amoimt of 
vibrations throughout the hull of a high-speed steamer. 
It appears probable that what with engineers closely 
examining the means to prevent the development of 
unbalanced moments and stresses from the engines, 
and naval architects so determining the position of 
the engines that they shall produce the least effect, 
should vibrations exist, upon the hulls as a whole, we 
may soon find ourselves able to travel 20 to 25 knots 
an hour on the water without knowing that engines 
are revolving at high speed under us. 

As the internal navigation of many countries on 
navigable rivers is largely on the increase, and each 
river requires vessels of different types, Mr. George 
Eickard desires to add to the reference data of the 
Institution of Naval Architects on such matters by 
information as to leading characteristics of boats suit- 
able for the Volga, Amoor, Dnieper, and the Congo. 
He divides such boats into five types, the first for 
prospecting and exploration; the second to carry a 
small number of passengers ; the third with regular 
cabin and saloon accommodation for passengers to 
carry cargo, and to be fitted for towing cargo barges ; 
the fourth for employment on main rivers, to carry a 
great number of passengers and a considerable weight 
of cargo; and the fifth with luxurious dining and 
sleeping accommodation for a great niunber of 
passengers and a large quantity of cargo, with con- 
siderable fuel capacity for long distances, and up to a 
draught of 54 in. These are side paddle steamers. 
On the Congo and branches, he states the best 
icsttlts have been obtained from stem wheel boats, on 

June 1, 1895.] 



acoount of the large amount of floating timber, weeds, 
&e., met with in this river. The author then proceeds 
to give the considerations that are found most useful 
in guiding the construction and designs of the hulls 
for such river navigation, and gives a useful table of 
the chief dimensions of hull from 12 to 64 inches of 
draught. The paper as a whole is an excellent record 
of the ideas and practice at present in use for such 
special steamers as to which, hitherto, little seems to 
have been recorded. 

Aluminium is the new fashionable metal of the age 
for boat building. Mr. A. F. Yarrow considers that 
it is not improbable that aluminium and its light alloy 
maybe available, by reduction of its price of production 
as a metal, for a large variety of boat building, and he 
therefore gives a detailed description of the experience 
of their firm in building an aluminium second-class 
torpedo-boat for the French Government. In a boat 
of this class lightness is of paramount importance, 
as such boats have to be stowed on deck, and 
weight is objectionable, both as regards the lifting 
tackle and the effect on the stability of the vessel as a 
deck load. The offer to build the boat of aluminium 
originated with Messrs. Yarrow & Co., and they were 
left an entirely free hand by the French Government 
They used aluminium of 50 per cent, greater thick- 
ness than they would have used for steel, which 
reduced the weight one-half. They found it best 
eventually to use an alloy of aluminium with six per 
cent, of copper. This, rolled to a medium hardness 
gave 14 or 16 tons per square inch tensile strength 
with great toughness. Its greatest enemies are heat 
and alkalies ; a film of oxide protects the metal &om 
further action. As a result, the French Government 
were exceedingly, pleased with the craft and will 
probably have more built. 


MESSRS. A. C. WELLS & CO., of London and 
Manchester, whose '' Wells' light " has been so 
widely successful, have recently turned their attention 
to machinery for spraying paint, and, in conjunction 
with Messrs. Henry WalTwork & Co., have now per- 
fected the arrangement, which we illustrate. The 
advantages of any method whereby the slow and 
primitive hand-brush may be dispensed with are 
obvious. Prejudice, it is true, clings to hand work, 
and most modem labour-saving machinery has met 
with great opposition and the objection that the work,, 
althragh more speedy, is not so thoroughly done as 
by Hie old-fashioned methods. 'But tne hydraulic 
rivetter, the pneumatic caulker, the sand-blast, and 
countless other contrivances .leave nothing to be 

desired in the quality of work produced, while the 
output is increased to an almost incredible extent. 
Messrs. Wells claim that paint thrown on in a sprajr 
is more intimately in contact with the surface treated, 
covers it more evenly and smoothly, and penetrates 
into recesses and irregularities more thoroughly than 
if laid on by a brush, while the machine is from twice 
to four times as fast as the hand. From samples of 
work sent us by Messrs. Wells, their claim as to 
quality appears to be well-founded, the surfaces in 
question being smooth and even. In brush-work the 
marks of the brush can only be got rid of by repeated 
coats, while the samples before us, which have only 
received one coat from the sprayer, are perfectly 
smooth. The most important feature of the invention 
is, however, the speed at which the paint can be ap- 
plied, this, of course, varying with the quality of 
surface required. Bough painting such as that in 
shipyards, oridge or girder yards, boiler- works, docks, 
&c., can be done at the rate of three cubic yards per 
minute, and an ordinary Lancashire boiler can be 
painted in less than an hour. In fact this machine is 
peculiarly adapted for use in shipbuilding yards, 
where large and comparatively rough surfaces have to 
be covered quickly during construction. In mary 
yards pneumatic mains are led alongside the slips for 
working pneumatic caulking machines, and in some 
cases pneumatic riveters. Where this is so it is only 
necessary to couple theflexiblehose to thenearcst union 
and lead it to the paint container, which may be hoisted 
about the working scaffolds as desired, the furthet 
length of paint hose giving a large range of movemenr 
without shifting the container again. Where no air 
mains exist the compressor is fixed and driven by a 
belt in the nearest shop, the air being taken to the 
ship in wrought-iron pipes. Where the distance 
between the shop and ship is too great to make this 
course advisable, Messrs. Wells supply a neat portable 
steam ens^e and compressor with a vertical boiler on 
a wheeled carriage. For use in dry docks this steam 
engine is idmost invariablv required, as many docks 
have no machinery at all in their vicinity. One of 
the few processes for which the machine has been 
found unsuitable is that of coating ship bottoms with 
anti-fouling composition, as the composition — being 
mixed with spirits— is found to clog in the nozzle 
but for paintmg all above the boot the machine 
effects a great saving of time. Messrs. Wells have 
designed a nozzle with a handle some 6 ft. long, which 
is intended to take* the place of the turk's-head brush 
commonly used for this class of work. The head of 
this nozzle is similar to that used with the ordinary 
plant, which is described in detail below, and needs 
no further illustration. 

The method adopted to attain these results is by 
atomising the paint, and blowing it on to the work to 
be painted, by means of a stream of compressed air. 
The principle is simple, but the difficulty is found in 
its practical application. The smallness of the orifices, 
and their consequent liability to choke, the shape of 
the spiayer or injector, the tendency of paint to 
settle and deposit sediment, the necessity for sim- 
plicity and facility for cleaning in the apparatus, are 
some amongst the many points upon which the 
success of painting by machinery depends, and which 
have demanded much consideration and many ex- 



[June 1, 1895. 

periments on the part of the designers of the 
** Lightning," as it has been teimed, Paint Sprayer. 

Our illustration shows a complete painting- plant 
for use where no supply of compressed air is available. 
In many places the compressor shown can be dis- 
pensed with and air from pneumatic mains for 
riveters, &c., made use of. Air from the compressor, 
which is worked by power or hand for certain classes 
of work, or from the air main, is led by a flexible tube 
to the paint container shown in part section. This 
container has an airtight removable cover and holds 
a loose interchangeable pot containing the paint, 
which is a special feature, as it facilitates the cleaning 

gauge and a handle for carrying. It is generally 

I placed near the work while the compressor Ib of 

necessity fixed where power is available. The 

pressure of air required varies with the weight of 

: paint and the speed and quality of work required. 

I For engineer's work about 20 lbs. per square inch 

\ may be taken as about an average, while for some 

classes of cabinet work 5 lbs. is sufficient and may 

easily be obtained by hand power. Messrs. Wallwork 

& Wells make other forms of the machine ; for smaU 

articles painted at the bench they put the paint in an 

I overhead container, whence it drops by gravity into 

a dish and is sprayed downwards on to the work. 

as well as the speedy change or renewal of paint. 
The paint is forced by the compressed air up an 
internal pipe, and along a second hose to the spraying 
nozzle where it is met by another stream of air direct 
from the compressor, and atomized. The correct 
proportions of the nozzle have been decided upon 

. after much experiment and the liability to choke is 
overcome by an ingenious arrangement in the thumb 

• valve on the nozzle which controls the paint supply. 

' Should this become stopped an extreme movement 
can be given to it, whereby the small hole in the plug 
is reversed and the obstruction is blown out by a puff 
of compressed air. The paint container is fitted with 
an agitator or stirrer, a safety valve and pressure 

Other special appliances have been designed for 
various purposes, and we understand that the system, 
although only very recently brought out, is already- 
attracting considerable attention amongst all classes 
of engineers, as well as shipbuilders, cabinet-miners, 
house decorators, &c. 

Several ilipi have occnrred in the banks of the Baltic 
Canal, but it is said ample preoantions have been taken against 
any farther slips. Experts are of opinion that the canal may^ 
on the whole, be regarded as a complete snocees, ihoogh the 
carves at certain points west of the Levensan Bridge might 
have been avoided had the canal been began later, in the light 
of sabseqaent experience. 

June 1, 1895.] 




WITHIN the last fdw years many forms of 
evaporators have been put upon the market, 
each yieing with the other in efficiency, the main 
feature of difference being in the form and arrangement 
of the heating^ surfaces. We now have pleasure in 
bringing to the notice of our readers a new form of 
evaporator manufactured by Messrs. Hocking, Glas- 
codlne & Co., of 7, York Street, and 29 and 31, Henry 
Street, Liverpool. We illustrate this device in two 
vievrs, Fig. 1 being a side elevation with the door and 
tubes removed from the interior for cleaning and 
inspection; and Fig. 2 being a front elevation of the 
•device closed up ready for use. 

The heating surface consists of a battery of straight 
solid-drawn copper tubes, brazed at each end into a 
series of inter-connecting castings, and arranged in 
independent sets, each of which can be detached from 
the door by removal of two external nuts, so that 
every part of the heating surface can be exposed to 
€ighl and touch with a facility and completeness 
unattainable in any arrangement of coils. The opera- 
tion of opening, scaling, and closing up is so extremely 
simple that it may 1^ done entirely by unskilled 
labour, and it is claimed that the arrangement of the 

Fio. 1. 

«et8 of tubes is so strong that it is practically impos- 
sible to damage them. There is only the one joint 
to break when opening up, and by the special arrange- 
ment of bearing rollers on the door, it is prevented 
from tipping with the weight of the tubes when 
drawn, and is rendered extremely easy to handle with 
perfect safety. 

The makers, when so desired, supply with these 
evaporators a thorough^ reliable automatic feed- 
regulating device. An efi&ctive anti-priming arrange- 
ment is fitted to all evaporators, by which any water 
carried up with the vapour is returned below the level 
of the tubes. 

We understand that Messrs. Hocking, Glascodine 

Fio. 2. 

& Co. have several orders on hand for these evapora- 
tors for Belfast and the Clyde, and that these devices 
have been most favourably received in many influential 


Br J. T. MILTON, Esq., Member of Council. 

THE importance of liBTiag reliable steam pipei on board- 
vesselB cannot be overeetimated. There have been a few 
cases where pipes have fractured with fatal resnltSi which at 
the time drew attention to the sabject- ; bnt minur accidents 
ocoar, and serious troubles with joints, &c., hare to be faced, in 
which very little interest is taken. For instance, since the 
accident to the steam pipe of the Elbe in 1887, there hare been 
fifteen casualties to the steam pipes of British-owned veisels 
which have been inquired into by the Board of Trade nnder the 
Explosions Act of 1882. A list of these cases is given at the 
end of the paper. 

The object of the present paper is to bring forward some 
points of interest in connection with steam pipes, with the view 
of eliciting, in the discussion, the opinions of those who make and 
those who are responsible for the maintenance of these pipes a» 
to the best material of which to make them, and the best means 

• Read ftt the Thirty-sixth Session of the Institation of Nayal Architects. 



[June 1, 1895. 

to be ado|>ted to proyide fbr their Bpeoial reqniremeDts in the way 
of expansioD, draining, &o. 

With regard to material, by far the greater number of steam 
pipes hare been and are being made of copper, bat of late 
wronght iron has in a few cases been need. Amongst the vessels 
fitted with wronght-iron pipes may be mentioned the Campania 
and Lucania. The following list, showing the names of some 
Liverpool ships in which oast-iron steam pipes (and oast-iron feed 
pipes) have been in nee for many years, will probably be a 
surprise to some of the members of this Institution, as it was to 
me when the information was given to me three years ago by Mr. 
McGregor, my colleague in Liverpool : — 

Age of 

Are of 

Name of Vessel. 

Steam Pipes. 

Name of Vessel. 

Steam Pipes. 



Africano ... 

... 24 


... 20 


... 23 


... 22 


... 24 


... 25 


... 20 


... 21 

Bernard Hall 

... 15 

Plantain ... 

... 16 

Britannia ... 

... 10 

Boumelia ... 

... 18 


... 7' 


... 21 

Lord Olive ... 

... 11 


... 21 

Lord Gongh 

... 16 

•flaytian ... 

... 19 

The almost invariable Ui>e of ccpper for steam pipes for so 
many years has produced the general impression that it is the 
only suitable materia). It, no doubt, was orig^'nally selected on 
account of its non-liabilitv to corrosion, on one hand, aud of its 
grreat ductility on the otn^r. As regards corrosion, the almost 
invariable use of cast iron for stop-valve chests and safety-valve 
chests, as well as its fVequent use for T pieces cocnecting copper 
steam pipes, and its invaviBble use for the slide chests and doors 
of the high-preisure cylinders, shows that cast iron, at any rate, 
can be used, without misgivings on this point, in parts which, 
like steam pipes, are always subjected to the full pressure of the 
steam, while the experience of the eighteetl vessels previously 
mentioned also bears this out. The experience with Campania 
and Lucania, so far as it has gone, and also of several other large 
vessels in which they have been somewhat longer in use, shows 
tbat wrought-iion pipes also give no trouble in this respect. It 
weg, therefore, no doubt, mainly owing to the ductility of copper 
that it obtained, and has since maintained, the preference over 
other materials for steam pipes. 

Steam pipes have to withstand considerable changes of 
temperatuie, and their length is consequently liabie to continual 
alterations. Their attachment to the engine may be liable to 
slight alteration in position, owing to the working or vibration of 
the engines or vessel ; while those to the boilers are also liable 
to small displacements, due tathe contraction or expansion of the 
boilers from variations of temperatures. All these cbaoges are 
generally taken up or provided for by the deformation of easy 
bends in the pipes, or by expansion stufi^g boxes where the 
pipes are straight. 

It is evident that whatever forces are necessary to produce the 
deformation of a length of steam pipe necessary to allow for 
the expansion of the pipes, or for any possible working of the 
engines in the vessel, these forces have to be withstcod by the 
necks of the stop valve chests or their attachments to the boilers 
and to the engines. In the case of pipes of small diameters and 
small thickness, if the bends are easy, a moderate force may be 
sufiBcient ; but if the pipes are thicker, even if the diameters and 
the shapes of the benos are the same, the forces required ito be 
borne by the attachments will increase in proportion to the 
thickness. • The same thing holds good of the flange joints 
between the different lengths of pi>e. These have to sustain the 
forces brought on the end attaohmcnts, and it might, therefore, 
very well happen that a design suitable for steam pressure of 
60 lbs. msy be altogether unfit for 180 lbs. solely on account of 
the greater thickness required making the pipes more rigid. 

It must be remembered that the advance of engineering of late 
has not only increased the steam pressores used — and, therefore, 
the temperatures also — but engines are, in general, of much 
greater size and power than those used years ago. The steam 
pipes now, therefore, are, as a rule, larger in diameter, mnoh 
thicker, and are subject to greater changes of temperature and 
expansion, &o., than foimerly. These all mske the pipes to 

^TheMYe^Belsarenow broken up or dinLabUed, but the cast-iron steam 
pipes were in use for the periods stated. 

much stiffer, or more rigid, that with many pipes, even when 
made of copper, their rigidity is so great that their yielding or 
altering form cannot be relied upon to relieve expansion strains^ 
which have, therefore, to be provided for in the same way 
as they would need to be if the pipes were n:iade of cast 

Concurrently with the trouble of providing for expansion, Ac. 
with thick and large pipes, there arises also a diffionlty in manu 
facturing them. The usual method of making pipes of larga 
diameter is to make them, both bends and straights, from copper 
sbeetSi the straights, except in very large pipes, having on& 
seam along the entire length, the bends having two seams along 
the sides, the saddle and back pieces being each worked up from 
one sheet. The seams aro invariably brazed, the edges of the 
copper being thinned down to' form a soarph.' Now, the* 
difficulty of satisfactorily braxing a joint of this desoriptioii 
increases rapidly with the thickness. The heat has necesaarily 
to be applied from the outside, and has to pass through the 
thickness of the metal to reach the brazing solddr, and thus the- 
risk of overheating the copper on the outside, and consequently^ 
burning it, is much gpreater with thick than with fairly thin 
copper. There is also a further danger of deoxidising the oopper, . 
both in the brazing and also in the previous annealings to which . 
the copper has to be subjected. To this further reference will 
presently be made. 

All these considerations have made some of our prominent 
engineers look with disfavour upon copper as a material for 
large steam pipes, and to turn their attention to iron or 

Endeavours have been made to ititroduce seamless pipes of 
largo size for these purposes to avoid the risk of brazing. These 
are made by several firms, and lately, I believe, with a oertaan 
amoimt of sucoess; but amongsc some of the earliest of those 
made some serious longitudinal defects, probably arising from a 
local defect in the original ingot being drawn out lengthwise in 
the manufacture of the pipe, causing them to be looked upon with 
a certain amount of suspicion ; besides which the great difficulty 
of making satisfactory bends with these large pipes has no doubt 
had some influence in preventing their more general use. 

While treating of bending copper pipes, it may be well to 
mention that the usual practice is to make bends from tubes one 
gauge thicker than straight pipes of the same diameter. This is» 
no doubt, correct practice, so long as the radius of the bend does 
not fall below a certain value, depending on the diameter and 
thickness of the pipes ; but where sharp bends are made from 
bent tubes, a greater thickness ought to be provided. It is often 
sssumed that in bending pipes the axis of the tube does not 
lengthen, and that the material of the saddle of the pipe becomes- 
compressed to an amount about eqaal to the extension at the 
back of the bend. This is not the case. The compression of the 
material is not very great, and the pipe bends by extending not 
only at the back of the bend, but also along the sides ; and if it 
be remembered that the thinning of the metal must be propor- 
tional to the extension, it will be found that ono gauge thicker 
is in many cases scarcely sofficiect to provide for this. 

In Vol. II., page 431, of the Transaetiona of the Iron and Steel 
Institution, there is described a method by means of which 
seamless steel boiler tubes are made in Germany, and it is tmder- 
stood that a somewhat similar process is in rise in this country for 
making seamless copper tubes. In some oases, however. Uiese 
tubes are still made by repeated drawings from a oast pipe, in 
which case any original defect in the casting must produce » 
more serious defect in the finished tabs. 

The method of manufacturing the Elmore copper pipes has 
Iteen publicly described, and it has been claimed that it rendere 
the probability of their containing any latent defect very remote. 

The following results of tests made by the Elmore Copper Co. 
upon two tubes made by themselves, and on one seamless tube 
and three brazed tubes which they procured from other makers 
will be of interest: — 

It will be observed that the seamless drawn, and also t^ 
Elmore tubes, showed a high degree of strength, which indicated , 
that they were hard, or unannealed, a condition in which they 
would not be used in practice, as steam pipes are always I^ 
annealed, or very slightly hardened by planishing. To show^the - 
actual strengths of the copper in an annealed condition, twenty'^ 
eight test pieces were out from these -pipes and tested* in mn 
ordinaT7 tensile testing machine, some of them being annealed; ^ 
others unannealed. The results of these tests are given vx 
Table H, 

June 1, 1895.] 




Description of Pipe. 

Elmore Deposited. 


Seamleas Drawn ... 




Diameter inside. 









From lOi to -144 j 

From '125 to '148 I 


From -116 to -126 I 

Pressure at which l^l,'^]^ ^^rn^Si^^^f' 
Pine banit. ^^' *"' P'0<'ucea by 

i'lpeoarji. this pressure. i 


libs, per sq. in. 














Pipe commenced to stretch at about 

800 lbs. p9r square inch. 
Fractured at flange only. 

On thinnest section. 
On mean section. 
Oo thinnest section. 
On mean section. 
On thinnest section. 
On mean section. 


NoTi:.— All the l)razed pipes burst by tearing at the edge of the brazing. 

Showing the Rk4Ult8 of Tests of Strips of Coppeb prom the Seamless Drawx, Elmore Deposited, and Brazed Copper. 


Dimensions of Test Piece. 

Breadth Thickness. 



8tres9 at which 
T^_*-__i-,_ Permanent 

Extention. Elongation was 
first at>served. 



Tests From Seamless Drawn. 




6g. in. 

Sq. In. 

Per cent. 

Tons per sq. io 





























Tons per sq. in. 

Not annealed. 




Tests from Elmore Deposited Copper Pipe. 

2 70 


•176 1 









•088 1 








•084 , 




-097 , 



•175 1 

•084 ! 



•179 ; 




















Not annealed. 


Not annealed. 



Not annealed. 


Tests from the Copper from which the Brazed Pipes were made. 



•135 1 

•200 1 








-133 1 

•198 I 









•181 , 









•200 ! 









•198 1 









•184 i 


31-8 ' 




Tests from Brazed Pipes cut Across the Joints. 



























All but last test broke at edge of brazing. The last test broke partly at edge and partly through the brar^ing. 



[June 1, 1895. 

Mean Results. 

Elmore copper 

SeamleBs Drawn 

Ordinary Copper 

Brazod Joint 


Tensile Strength. 





Tons per sq. in. 





16 53 




Esteniion per cent. 



From these teneile testa it will appear that Elmore copper 
even when hard has mnch extension, but that it commences to 
elongate at much less stress than annealed ordinary copper; 
while, when annealed, its behaviour as to nltimate strength and 
extension is very similar to that of good commercial copper, bnt 
it appears to commence to elongate at somewhat lower stresses 
than the latter. 

While treating of copper pipes it may be well to say a few 
words as to the qualities of copper. Engineers generally pur- 
chase their copper sheets or tubes without subjecting them to 
rigid tests, relying upon the reputation of the makers for supplying 
A good article, and not troubling about the chemical composition, 
Ac, so long ab it is found to work well. Inview of the great ductility 
of copper, the working of even an indifferent sample of copper 
may not be sufficient to detect its quality, especially when made 
into straight or nearly straight pipes. 

^ Commercial copper is practically never pure, the amount of 
different impurities found in it being probably greater than in 
the case of any other metal commonly used. Information on 
this question can be found in the Transactions of Mechanical 
Engineers, No. 2, 1893, where two papers will be found on the 
subject, by Professor W. C. Roberts- Austen and Mr. Wm. Dean, 
respectively. An opinion is generally held by locomotive en- 
gineers, coppersmiths, and many others that the commercial 
copper of the present day, although chemically purer thsn that 
of years ago, is inferior in respect to its lasting qualities, both as 
reg^s ability to resist corrosive influences and also to withstand 
fatigue without cracking. Accordingly, for some purposes, what 
may be termed impurities are added to the copper for the pur- 
pose of improving some of its properties. The papers referred 
to, and the discussion on tbem appear to show that arsenic up to 
a proportion of i per cent, is certainly not injurious and is proba- 
bly beneficial, improving both the tensile strength and ductility 
of the copper. On the other hand bismuth is objectionable, even 

Pure Copper 

Copper containing 1*2 per 
cent of arsenic 

Copper containing 1*5 por 
cent of arsenic 

Copper containing •! per 
cent, of bismuth ... 

1 •- . 

1 g ^ 


per sq. in 

P^centaire of 

of Co 



Dog Fabr. 




























25 to 50 












Percentage of 

Elongation in 4 in. 














2 770 

small quantities, such as *l per cent., being sufficient to make the 
metal absolutely unreliable when heated above the boiling point 
of water. The following figures extracted from the paper by 
Professor Eoberts- Austen, show these points. 

Partioalars are given in the preceding table for com- 
parison of pure copper and of copper containing arsenic or 
bismuth ; in all cases the copper being as oast, not hammered. 

A small quantity of lead, say under *1 per cent., does not 
appear to be objectionable, bnt large quantities are not desirable i 
on the other hand, it appears that nickel and silver are not 
detrimental, the samples quoted by Mr. Dean as containing 
the largest proportions of these elements having given satisfaotorj 
results in use. 

It is rather singular that in all copper made by smelting, 
oxygen is required in the copper to give ductility i the actual 
amount required in any case varies apparently with the propor- 
tions and amounts of the various impurities present. The precise 
amount needed is ascertained by frequent tests made during the 
" poling " process. If less than sufficient oxygen is present, the 
copper is called ** over-poled, "and is deficient in ductility, while 
if the oxygen is in excess, and the copper " dry,*' as it is termed, 
ductility also is lost. When the exact proportion is present 
the copper is termed "tough," or '* tough pitch," and is 

A point not generally appreciated by copper-smiths is, that 
copper of the proper "pitch," that is to say, containing the 
exact proportion of oxygen to give it its proper ductility, can be 
made to give up its oxygen and to become in fact ** over-poled' 
by heating it in a reducing flame ; that is, a flame not fully 
charged with oxygen. On the other hand, by heating it in an 
oxydising flame, it does not appear to absorb oxygen into the 
body of the material, the oxygen remaining on its surfoce, com* 
bined with some of the copper, in the form of oxide scale. If, 
therefore, copper is annealed or brazed, or worked in any way 
in a reducing flame, it loses its " pitch," and this cannot subse- 
quently be regained by reheating in an oxydisinir flame. This 
matter was strongly impressed upon me by Dr. Watson, of the 
Broughton Copper Cu., to whom I am indebted for mnch infor- 
mation on copper, and from experiments on this point I am of 
opinion that many of the so-called *■ burnings " of copper arise 
from heating in a reducing flame, rather than from overheating, 
or being raised to too high a temperature. 

Inasmuch as the proportion of oxygen required to produce 
the proper *' pitch " in copper varies according to the composition 
of the copper, the liability of its losing pitch during working 
will probably be much greater in some qualities of copper than 
in others. 

It has been stated that the tensile strength and ductility of 
copper very according to its composition, but with the same 
mixture of metal they vary very much more with the mechanical 
treatment it undergoes. If properly annealed its tensile strength 
is comparatively low, and its ductility is high. In comparing the 
qualities of copper, therefore, it is necessary to fix the standard 
as being thoroughly annealed. To show the efiect of annealing 
and of work, the following tests recently made may be quoted. 
A copper tube was drawn in one operation (Vom 3 w.g. to 11 w.g. 
(a very excessive draw, more than doubling its length). Its 
tensile strength when drawn was 24*38 tons per square inch, bnt 
its elongation was only 31 per cent, in 4 in. After annealing 
(or possibly only partially annealing) its tensile strength was 
16*6(3 tons per square inch, and its elongation was 44 per cent in 
4 in. A good average result with annealed copper is 14 tons per 
square inch, and 40 to 45 per cent, elongation in 4 in. Some other 
illustrations of the effect of annealing on tensile strength, ^c, are 

June 1, 1895.] 



giren in the resnlts of the tests made by the Elmore Co., alreadj 

Whfle treating on aonealing it is loteresiing to compare the 
difference in the methods adopted in tube works and in ordinary 
ooppersmiths' shops. In the former the tabes are annealed 
after eyerj draw. They are raised to a temperature of from 
800** to 900® C. say from 1,500<> to 1,650** P., and are kept 
at thai temperature for some little time, after which they are 
qnenohed in water. 

The tnbes are nniformly heated over their whole length, care 
being taken that the flame is clear and contains an excess of 
oxygen. In the coppersmith's shop, both sheets and pipes are 
heated oTer open coke fires ; the flame may possibly be redncing, 
that iS) may have a deficiency of oxygen, if the fire is a thick 
one. The sheet or pipe is moyed about oyer the fire, spot after 
spot being heated, generally to a dull red, and after the whole 
turfaoe has been thus treated the copper is either quenched or 
allowed to cool, and is considered to be annealed. It thus 
depends upon the workman's care and judgment to ensure that 
every part has been heated, and there is considerable probability 
tbat^ some small part may escape full heating. Fmrther. the 
beating cannot be uniform, nor can any part in general be 
retained at the red heat for any considerable time, nor is the tem- 
perature at any part raised to the same degree as is usual in 
tabe works. 

The influence of time upon anoealiug has, so far as I know, not 
been much experimented upon, neither has that of the various 
impurities, but I am informed by Dr. Watson that annealing 
may be efficiently carried out at lowpr temperatures than 800^ C, 
bat that it requires longer time at the lower temperatures than 
at the higher. 

To show the influence of temperature upon annealing the 
foHowing experiments are deseiVing of notice. A sample of 
copper was found to be abnormal in its behaviour, being brittle 
instead of dnotile. Its composition was as follows : — 

Copper 99*693 

Nickel t 260 

Iron 027 

Arsenic Traoe 

Silver '020 

100 000 
Six test pieces were cnt oft it, one was tested nnannealed, 
and fire ware annealed at different temperatures. The following 
were the zesnlts : — 

Temperature at which anw^aling 
was performed. 


Faintly Tisible red, about 525" C. 
Dull red, about 700* C. 
Cherry red, about 860** C. 
Bright red, about 900<> C. 
Approaching yellow, 1,000<> C... 

1 As 




cent, in 


1 14-9 



1 1218 





1 *> 







I am not able to say what caused the abnormal brittleness in 
this case, but after annealing at the high temperature the 
material regained a fair amount of ductility ; and, after subse- 
quent drawing or cold rolling, behaved in a perfectly normal 
Btannar. Annealing, however, at red heats left the material 
brittle. In this case very little time was allowed for annealing, 
the test pieces having been heated in an open fire and then 
quenched, the influence of time on annealing not having been so 
folly appreciated as it should have been. 

The following figures, taken from page 310, Vol. II. , 1894, of the 
Tramaetiant of the Iron and Steel Institute, giving the temper- 
fttores corresponding with different yisible appearances of heated 
metals are of interest : — 

Deg< Cent. Deg. Fahr. 

Indp^t redne« 525 = 977 

Doll red ... 700 = 1.292 

Cherry red 850 = 1,562 

Bright red 960 = 1,742 

YeUow 1.100 = 2,012 

lodpient white 1,300 == 2,372 

Bright white 1,500 = 2,732 

That copper for large steam pipes is now being looked upon 
with some distrust is evidenced by the Admiralty having such 
pipes bound round with wire, whilst in mercantile practice some 
firms put iron bands round the pipes every few inches, and in 
some cases the pipes are lapped with fine steel wire ropes. 

Turning our attention to other materials suitable for steam 
pipes, we find, practically only three, viz., oast iron, wrought 
iron, and mild eteel. 

Cast iron has the advantage that it can be made in any shape, 
straight or bent, and that tees or junctions can be made of it. 
On the other hand, if the pipes are of the same strength as 
wrought iron or steel, they are much heavier. 

Wrought iron and steel may both be made with a lap-welded 
joint, but, whereas welds in iron are apparently looked upon as 
trustworthy after a severe hydraulic test, those in steel do not 
appear to have the same confidence reposed in them, as they 
generally have a riveted butt strap fitted over them. Apparently, 
therefore, iron pipes are preferable to steel, unless the uitter are 
made seamless. 

With pipes of either iron or steel, manufacturing conditions 
appear to require them to beef such a thickness that either has a 
very large margin of strength compared with the pressures now 
being uMd, or even with those higher pressures to which marine 
engineering appears to be tending, so that there is no advantage 
in this respect in using steel rather than iron. 

The question of flanges for iron pipes is important. Most of 
those hitherto used have had forged iron flanges screwed on, 
riveted over on the face of the flange, but flanges are now being 
electrically welded to the pipes in some cases, and welded by 
machine hammers in others, these plans apparently giving 
sound results without the chance of leakage which screwed 
flanges might develop. 

Begaiding provisiou for expansion of pipes, whether of copper, 
iron, or st^l, a point sometimes lost sight of is, that it is not 
sufficient to provide a faucet joint in a straight length of pipe, but 
provision must also be made to anchor the ends of the lenigth of 
pipe for the expansion of which provision has to be made, and 
so compel the movement of expansion to take plaoe in the part 
provided for it, otherwise the end pressure on the pipes, 
amounting to several tons in all but the smallest pipes, will 
cause the joint to slide in the wrong direction* This has 
occasionally been overlooked in pipe designs. It is always 
difficult to provide for the expansion of large bends without 
producing excessive strains, so that, as far as possible, pipes 
should be made straight. 

The only other point to which reference will be drawn is that 
of providing means of draining steam pipes. More than one fatal 
accident has been thought to be due to the presence of water in 
the pipes. In cases where it is the practice to always raise 
steam in all the boilers simultaneously, the stop valves on the 
boilers, if opened before steam is raised, may be the best 
possible drains for the pipes ; but where there is more than one 
boiler in a vessel it may often happen that, even if all the boilers 
are invariably used for steaming purposes, one only may be used 
in port for auxiliary purposes, and in this case leakage from its 
main stop valve will find the steam pipes leading to the other 
boilers receptacles for the condensed steam, which, if not 
drained, may be dangerous when opening the stop-valves when 
raising steam in the other boilers. It is noteworthy that more 
than one of the serious accidents with pipes has occurred at the 
instant when stop-valves were being opened. 

Too mnoh attention cannot be paid to the provision for draining 
steam pipes, and it is considered that it is preferable that these 
shoald be automatic, or such as not to require personal attention. 


List or Casks in wuicn Inquiriks have bikk held bt tbk 
Board or Trade as to thr Cause op Casualties to Steam 
Pipes of British Vessels since the Case of the s.s. 
Elbe, IN 1887 :— 

Name ol Vessel. 


Date of 



Cafloalty, Cause, ftc. 

Wix>ught iron pipe oonneotlng top of 
water.gauge to boiler corroded, and 
burst. This pipe was apparently 
twenty years old. 



[June 1, 1895. 

Name of Vessel. 

I Date of 
I Casualty. 

BrynGlas ... 1888 

Springbok ... 1890 


Number Three 

Greencastle ..< 


City of Lincoln 














Viola 1892 

Othello ... 1893 

Astrakhan ... 1893 

Casaalty, Cause, Sec. 

Intermediate stop -valve cover broke, 
attributed to the wheel for opening 
the val?e being turned the wrong 

Main steam pipo of copper — 6 in. 
diameter, 3.16 in. thick— broke away 
from flange next the boiler stop-valve, 
due to faulty construction and to 
imperfect repairs. 

Main steam pipe of copper burst at the 
lap in a bent portion near the boiler 
stop-valve, probably due to defective 
workmanship in the original brazing. 

5iia. copper steam pipe burst at the 
brazed joint of the bend near throttle 
valve. The brazing was thought to 
be defective, and the accident was 
attributed to the presence of water 
in the pipe. 

Steam pipe broke at the flange joioing 
throttle valve. An expansion joint 
was fitted, but it was not so arranged 
as to take the strain off the flange. 

Copper pipe, 14 in. diameter, failed at 
the seam, which was riveted and 
brazed. Accident was attributed to 
an accumulation of water in the pipe. 

Copper pipe, 6|in. diameter, cracked 
through the solid copper at the edge 
of brazed seam. Accident was at- 
tributed to the presence of water in 
the pipe, and to the existence of old 
flaws in the copper. 

Branch steam pipe of copper, 8 in. 
diameter. Accident was attributed 
to the impact of water in the pipe, 
set in motion by the admission of 
steam from an auxiliary boiler. 

Main steam pipe 6 in. diameter, failed 
at brazed seam after being in use 
five years. Probably due to the de- 
velopment of a latent defect, and 
possibly through want of sufficient 
provision for expansion, &o. 

Main steam pipe, 9 11-16 in. diameter, 
burst at a part adjacent to the 
braced seam. Casaalty was attributed 
to water in the pipe being set in 
motion when the stop-valve was 

Copper T-pieoe exploded at the jano- 
tion of two 6 in. pipes with one of 
9 in. Failure was attributed to the 
movement of the boilers and to the 
expansion jjint having become set 

Stop-valve box (oast iron) burst 
Accident was attributed to the ac- 
cumulation of water in the steam 
pipe, the draining arrangements 
having been allowed to c^t out of 

Small steam pipe, ' li in. diameter 
barst by tewring away from the 
flaage. Attributed to vibration of 

Winch steam pipe broke, due to water 
in tbe pipe being set in motion when 
steam was turned on. 

Contract for Four Roisian Steamers.— Messrs. William 
Dobson & Co. have just secured a good order for four Russian 
Bteamers and two steam bargee. 

Bpaoish Gunboati.— The Spanish Government have decided 
to order in Spain a number of gunboats, for which English 
builders were tendering. The English tenders were mach 
lower, and offered earlier delivery than the Spanish. 


IT is well known that where condensed steam from 
the cylinders is utilized for return feed water to 
the boilers such feed water is apt to carry with it a 
large amount of grease and fatty matter, which will 
deposit on the boiler plates or tubes with other scale 

and form a non-conducting coating on the heating 
surfaces which may lead to collapse. 

Frequently, also, the only supply of fresh water 
that can be obtained may have a large quantity of 
earthy impurities in it which are equally disadvan* 
tageous to the heating surfaces of the Doiler. 

To prevent deposits and scaling chemicals are some- 


rfi r^ r<f^ ^ rYl 


times used, but their effect upon the boiler plates may 
be disastrous, leading to corrosion and pitting. 

There is no doubt then that the proper procedure for 
the feeding of the boiler is continual recharge from 
the condensed steam, which, when clear from im- 
purities and grease, becomes actually distilled water 
of great purity. 

June 1, 1895.] 



To remove all grease and imparities from such feed 
water a perfect filtration of the feed water is necessary, 
which shall always be reliable and in an apparatas 
•eaBY ot access for constant renewal of the filtering 
medium, which otherwise soon loses its efficiency and 
will clog the feed passage. 

Beeves' Patent Feed -water Filter, which we illustrate 
herewith, and which is put on the market bv the 
Beeves Patent Filters Co., Limited, of Albany 

Buildings, 39, Victoria Street, Westminster, seems to 
be carefully adapted to fulfil these requirements. 

The filtering medium employed in these filters is of 
the cheapest and most procurable material, viz., 
saw-dust. It is presented with an exceptionally 
large area and volume to the feed water, so as 
not in anv way to obstruct its passage even if 
partially choked with dirt and grease, and when 
used in conjunction with fine gauze wire cloth 

■CeTlflMTWir BV-yABt riLTCW 

and enclosed between grids the sawdust has been 
found to act magnificentlv as an absorbent which 
effectually and permanently arrests and retains all 
grease and injurious suspended impurities contained 
in the feed water. 

From the sectional view it will be seen that the saw- 
dust can be, at any time, inserted into the body of a 
cast-iron box, or drum, where it is held in place by 
iron, grids, one on each side, the face of the grids 

meeting the flow of the feed water being further pro- 
tected by coarse and fine wire gauze nettings. The 
large area and volume of the mass of sawdust, as com- 
pared with the area of the feed water inlet and outlet 
pipes, is very noticeable, and a great feature in the 
efficiency of the filter, a freshly-charged filter runnine 
fourteen days without attention or re-charging and 
doing good work during that period without setting 
up any resistance or pressure on the feed-pumps. 

When dirty, the sawdust can be expelled ''over- 
board" by opening a blow-out valve, and afresh charge 
of sawdust can oe poured in through the filling hole 
in the form of porridge. 

Where large quantities of impure water have to 
be dealt with, gravity filters are used in combination 
with the Beeves filter, also where jet condensers are 

It will be seen also that a miniature bye-pass filter 
is provided as an adjunct to the main filter, to provide 
for contingencies and for use when the main filter is 
being cleansed or re-charged, so as to ensure constant 
filtration at all times. 

Hand-holes are provided to remove any dirt that 
may collect on the face of the first gauze nettings. 

The principle adopted here of a large quantity of 
filtering medium of so cheap and common a character, 
that it may be obtained all over the world at a nominal 
cost, is a good one, as this should lead to constant dis- 
charge of the saturated medium and constant renewals, 
which is the essence of all perfect continuous work from 
any filter. The apparatus also is solid, well designed 
easy to be understood and handled on board ship, 
which are the qualities in all ship-going appliances 
that are most essential. 


THE above sooietj, which is one of the most important trade 
nniona in the country, has daring the past month iasaed its 
forty-foorth Annnal Beport, and the (General Secretary (Mr. 
John Anderson) in his introdnctory remarks, states that their 
society, like aU other trade-onions, had severely snifered owing 
to the large amoont paid for unemployed benefit daring the past 
year, closely foUowing upon two preceding years of bad trade 
A large number of their members was for a considerable portion of. 
the year oompalsorily idle, owing to the protracted moalders' strike 
on the North -East Coast, the pattern makers' movement, and the 
Scotch minera* strike, for advances of wages. This combina'-ion of 
events, coupled with the severe depression, caused ther un- 
employed list to rise seriously from April until Augnst^iwhen 
they had more unemployed members than had ever before been 
recorded. After October, however, the change had been in the 
direction of a steady decrease in the unemployed list, and this 
improvement had been, he might add, maintained until the 
present time. With regard to the progress of the society in a 
numerical point of view, this had been very satisfactory, nine 
new branches having been opened, and the membership having 
iuoreased by 1,984, which brought the tot%I namber of branches 
up to 644, and the membership to 75,510 at the dose of 1694. 
Turning to the financial operations of the society, they found 
that the income had again increased, so that it was the largest 
amount ever realised, the income for 1894 bebg £268,871 as 
against £265,214 in 1893. The expenditure for the year was 
£281,524, the heaviest item l>eing out-of-work benefit, which stood 
at £188,976, rr^presenting an increase of £4,908 on the previoos 
year, Sick benefit amounted to£41 ,824, Buperannaation to £55,482. 
Funeral benefit had been reduced from £12,976 in 1893 to 
£11,101 in 1894, bat the contiogent expenditure had gone up by 
£562. now reaching £2,488. The Benevolent fund amountel to 
£S,896, and the Accident benefit to £1,900, which was about the 



[June 1, 1895. 

ordinary average. hey began the year with a balance of 
£185,854, but this had, with the end of 1894, decreased to 
£160,093, which although somewhat disheartening, was not so bad 
as might have been expected, owing to the decline in trade. 
With regard to the general policy of tbe society during the 
year, Mr. Anderson said the shipwrights versus fitters, payment 
for work on oil-tank steamers, overtime and apprentice questions, 
and GoTomment and " Fair Wages *' resolution, were the chief 
questions dealt with. With reference to all of them, the Council 
had pursued a cautious and painstaking policy, and in more than 
one case strikes had been avoided which might have been en- 
couraged had the trade of the country warranted it, and he must 
beg the members to bear in mind that the restraint the Council 

this question, he might say that whilst appreciating the pro- 
tection of each trade within properly and reasonably defined 
limits, he entirely disapproved of filching and grasping. The 
oil-steamer question had, after some delay, been satisfactorily 
settled with the Ship Repairers' Association, and had been the 
means of laying down a system of discussion and conference that 
had produced good results. Their relationship with this Associa- 
tion was at the present time very satisfactory. The Fair Wages 
resolution had been on its trial in many instances during the past 
year, but the results were not so satisfactory as was desired. 
They must nob, however, forget that such a departure in in- 
dustrial economics as the drawing of a line at a fair wage for all 
Government and municipal workers was almost certain to 

Combined Enoinb and Dynamo. 

had been compelled to use at times had not been for want of 
sympathy with them in tbmr efforts to improve their position, 
but was due to an earnest desire to prevent disputes wheie their 
chances of success were doubtful. No satisfactory progress had 
been made on the apprentice question, but they could record 
several sncoesfes in the curtailment of overtime. Dealing with 
questions specially interesting to our readers, Mr. Anderson 
observes that tbe shipwrights' question had been one of very 
considerable importance, and hod entailed a great deal of work, 
but he hoped they could now see something like a settlement in 
view, believing, as they did, that apart from the question of the 
royal dockyards, their relations with the Shipwright s' Society 
were of a very cordial nature, and he hoped that, however the 
matter might be settled, it would be done in a manrfr which 
would entail no hardship on the men of either trade. While on 

require a large amount of careful adjustment, so that its object 
might be achieved without a general loss to the whole community. 
In oonclnsion, the Secretary offers a word of warning to the 
members with regard to the danger threatened by the internal 
dissensions and diiSerenoes of opinion amongst the members of 
all the larger organisations, as to the future methods of dealing 
with social and industrial questions. While the Council entirely 
refrained from giving an opinion on them, or attempting to 
shape tbe opinions c$ their members, they must impress upon 
them the absolute necessity of maintaining harmony in their 
branch meetings, and they utterly deprecated any attempt to 
throttle the opinions of old, tried and trusted branch and district 
officials for the unjustifiable reason that they declined to forego 
the convictions of a lifetime for something that as yet was but 
imperfectly understood. 

June 1, 1895.] 




WE illustrate in the adjoining diagrams a com- 
bined engine and dynamo, whicti is one of a 
pair recently constru^tsd by Messrs. J. P. Hall &Co., 
Blackridings Ironworks, Oldhan?, and is one of a series 
of six sizes, ranging from 5 to 140 H.P., now manu- 
factured by them. These engines are accurately 
balanced, the crank shafts being of forged steel with 
the balance weights forged on, and the material and 
workmanship throughout being of the highest quality. 

The engine illustrated gives 18 I.H.P. when running 
at 250 revolutions per minute, with a steam pressure 
of 80 lbs. The dynamo is of the usual direct type 
made by this firm, and is compound wound, giving at 
the speed stated, 150 amperes at 65 volts. 

The armature is of the drum bar type, the driving 
power being transmitted to the winding by means of 
strong flat driving pegs let into the core, which is 
positively driven through keys let into the shaft. 

The insulation is of the highest quality and largely 

0, pivotted and free to revolve in the discs F and G. 
The compression of the springs can be adjusted to 
balance the centrifugal action of the weights within a 
certain variation of speed by means of the locknuts 
S S. The flexible bar which replaces the numerous 
connecting rods, pins and joints hitherto used, is on 
the outside of the disc F, and taken on to the studs 
J J, on the weights. These studs pass through slots 
in the disc. Fig. 4. At the centre of the bar is a forged 
eye that embraces a stud T on the eccentric B. 

The eccentric, which has a large eye to enable it to 
move relatively to the shaft, has an extended ear 
pivotted to the disc at E. When the weights I I 
move in or out, owing to variations in the speed of the 
engine, the flexible bar K shifts the eccentric to vary 
the cut-ofl. At the minimum travel of the valve, the 
port is only opened by the amount of the lead, and at 
all other cut-offs the lead remains the same. The 
governor can be used for either right or left hand by 
reversing the position of the parts. It is exceedingly* 
compact and powerful and, we understand, works 

Fio. 2. 

Fio. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

consists of mica. The commutator contains 91 seg- 
ments of hard-drawn copjper, each being 1^ inches 
deep, The current density m the armature conductors 
is below 1,000 amperes per square inch of section, and 
the rise in temperature does not exceed 70 deg. Fahr. 
after a 10 hours* run with full load. 

The engine is fitted with Messrs. Hall & Co's new 
patent automatic expansion gear, details of which we 
Rostrate in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. This gear, we understand, 
gives extreme regularity of speed throughout the entire 
range of power of the engine. It will be seen that 
the governor disc is in two parts ; the part F is keyed 
to the shaft, while a part G (Fig. 3) is an annidus 
connected by bolts and distance pieces V to F, 
leaving an intermediate space in which are contained 
the weights I I and the springs M M, as shown in 
Fig. 2, which represents the disc G removed to display 
weights and springs. The weights are pivotted at 
H H, the upper one being provided with a tailpiece so 
that the two weights can be connected together by a 
flexible bar E. Each weight has connected to it by a 
stud L, an eye bolt round which is coiled the helical 
spring M. The eye bolt passes through a swivel lu^ 

exceptionally easy, there being hardly any friction, and, 
as will be seen from the construction, should run for a 
longtime without attention or- developing slack joints* 


THE City of Dablin Steam Packet Co., whioh oUims the 
diitinotioa of being the oldest steamship company in 
existence, and whose excellent service of steamers for both 
passenger and oargo carrying, between the Irish capital and the 
port of Liverpool, has been maintaioed for the past 56 years, 
have within recent years evinced much enterprise in adding to 
their fleet vessels of a thoroasrhly up-to-date character. Five 
years ago they entrusted to Messrs. Blackwood & Gtordon, of 
Port- Glasgow, the bnilding of a powerfal paddle steamer, the 
Oalway, which has ever sioce be?n doing excellent service. Last 
year the company made a stiU further addition to their fleet ; in 
this case departing from their time-honoored and invsriable rule 
of employing paddle- wheel propulsion and going in for a screw- 
propelled vessel. The builders again selected for the production 
of this, their first screw steamer, were Messrs. Blackwood 
& Gordon, and the result was the s.s. Louth, handed over to the 
company in Aogust lant year. 

This vessel hu been flying constantly since, doing the work 



[June 1, 1895. 

required of her in a way eo efficient — even during the abnormally 
trying seTerity of last winter — that the company have on several 
occasions openly complimented the builders on the Tessel's sea- 
going qualities and speed. Not only so, but some six months 
ago they gare the best and most tangible proof of their satisfac- 
tion with the Louth by ordering from Met srs. Blackwood & Gordon 
a similar, or but slightly altered, vessel. This steamer, the 
Wicklow, has just been handed over to the company after under- 
going systematic and exhaustiTO tests cf her speed, steaming 
powers, ooal consumption and steering efficiency, all of which 
have proved entirely satisfactory to the company^s representative. 
The Louthf it may be stated, during the seven months she has 
been on the service between Dublin and Liverpool, has made the 
passage on an average m eight hours. The distance being 120 
knots, this gives an average working speed of 15 knots an hour. 

Difficult as it might appear to have been to improve on the 
Louth, there seems to be good reason for anticipating that, in the 
case of the TFickUto, the company have been provided with even 
a better boat. On the measured mile at Skelmorlie, this latest 
vesselmade, in the partially loaded condition, a speed of 15i knots 
per hour. Fully loaded, and proceeding for the greater part in 
the teeth of stiff, northerly breezes, on the Firth of Clyde, on the 
16th ult., the Wicklow steamed for over 6 boors, averaging during 
^be period a speed of 1,492 knots. In this connection it should 
be stated that the propeller fitted on the Wicklow is of Stone's 
bronze, a material growing in fsvour for propellers in Clyde 
marine engineering pmotice as elsewhere, and for which an 
augmentation in »peed in the vessels fitted with it can justly be 
claimed. The principal dimensions of the Wicklow are : — Length, 
260 ft.| breidth, 31 ft. ; depth, 16 ft. 9 in. ; while she registers 
1,250 tons gross. The engines, which have been constructed by 
the bnilderp, sre of the triple-expansion type of 2,750 I.H.P. 
Steam is suppUdd from two cylindrical boilers at 160 lbs. working 
pressure, and amongst the numerous accessories fitted are the 
" Harris" patent feed-water filter. Watts patent automatic boiler 
oironlator and deposit extractor, and Af pinall's patent governor, 
fully described and illustrated by us in our June number last 

The Wicklow has main and 'tween decks and poop bridge and 
forecastle. She has seven watertight bulkheads, and her bottom 
is fitted with doable bottom for 120 tons water ballast. The hull 
and all deck and other fittings are exceptionally strong con- 
■tmction, and adapted for the heaviest demands of the intended 
service. Accommodation is provided for 71 first-class passengers. 
The saloon is luxuriously appointed, being upholstered in ruby 
velvet, while the panelling is of carved oak, walnut and other 
woods, with hardwood trusses and mouldings. Opening from 
the sflJoon are the state-rooms, handsomely appointed, and ad- 
mirable alike for spaciousness, light and ventilation. Amidships 
is a spacious cabin for the acoommodation of cattle dealers, who 
have at their disposal a comfortable cabin, fitted with roomy 
bunks and other convenience i. In this cabin there are 32 
berths. The accommodation for steerage passengers is in the 
forward part of the vessel, and 460 passengers of this class can 
be conveyed. The deck is spacious, while below there is ex- 
cellent shelter against heavy weather. 

Throughout the vessel are fitted all the modem and approved 
appliances for the general working both of the ship and carso. 
T^ steam windlass is by Clarke, Chnpman A Co., Newcastle, 
and the steam winches by Messrs. Wilson A Sons, Sandhills, 
Birkenhead, st each of the carg^ hatches. Steam steering gesr 
of the "Hsrrison" patent type is fitted in the deckhouse at 
front of bridge deck, and can be worked either within the house 
or l^m a handwheel on the navigating bridge above. The rods 
and chains connecting with the quadrant at rudder.head are 
specially strong, and near the latter are fitted steering rod 
springs of strong make, designed to take the force of sny 
sudden shock su8ta*ned by the rudder from off the steering rods. 
Sleotric lighting is general thtonghout the ship, in cabin, beiths 
and holds, the installation having been fitted by Messrs. Siemens 
Brothers, the engine driving the dynamo being by Mei srs. W. H. 
Allen A Co. Electric bells have been placed for the conveni- 
ence of passengers all over the vessel. The lifeboats, which 
were built by Mr. Robeit Rodger, Port-Glasgow, are fitted with 
Clifford's patent lowering apparatu*, in conformity with Admi- 
ralty requirements in event of the ship csrrying troops. 

O^e of tie most important features of this steamer is the 
excellent accommodation for the convevance of cattle. The fit- 
tings are arranged in aocordnnce with the regulations as issued 
by the new Order in Council, which into force at the 

beginning of the past month. In the 'tween decks four tiers of 
animals can be carried. The lower hold forward is also appro- 
priated for cattle carrying, the whole of the arrangements being 
well considered^ end carried out with every regard to the pre- 
servation and care of cattle in transit. In this hold and 'tween 
decks the atmosphere is kept pure by the method of induced 
currents, the inducing current being supplied through nozzlea 
from a special engpine made by the Anderston Foundry Co.. 
This artificial ventilation, although very complete, is looked 
upon as an auxiliary only, for special circumstances, very large 
up oast and down cast ventilators (with copper cowls) being* 
supplied sufficient to give thorough ventilation under Gordinary 

On the occasion of the official trial on the 16th ult., the result* 
of which have already been stated, there was on board, besides a 
goodly company of local ladies and gentlemen, Mr. William: 
Watson, managing director. Captain Bell, marine superintendent,, 
and Mr. S. J. Ferber, superintendent engineer ; City pf Dublin 
Steam Packet Co. ; Mr. MoGeoch, Mr. Parvis, and Mr. Wallace, ot 
the firm of builders; Messrs. George Turnbull, William 
MacConnell, and William Laing, of the Glasgow and Londondeny 
Steam Packet Co. ; Mr. A. D. Wedgewood, Dennystown Forge 
Co., Dumbarton ; Mr. F. Gross, of Messrs. John Brown A Co.,. 
Sheffield; Mr. John Neilson (Messrs. Xeilson Bros.) ; Mr. David 
Pollock and Mr. C. B. Stewart, Glasgow. Mr. MoGeoch, wha 
presided at the dinner served in the saloon during the trial, 
after referring to the Wicklow*9 performances and those of her 
elder sister the Louth, said this wss the third vessel they had 
built for the City of Dublin Steam Packet Co., and he hoped it- 
would not be long until they had a fourth. The company have 
had the privilege of carrying Her Majesty's mails for 56 years.. 
There is a new mail contract about to be entered into, and the 
Government are at present considering the question. It wa» 
intended that the journey between Holyhead and Kingstown 
would be lessened. The Irish people, he felt sure, would wish 
that this contract be placed with a company of their own 
nation, namely, the City of Dublin Steam Packet Co., who had 
served them so well and faithfully in the past. Mr. William 
Watson, managing director of the compimT, who replied,, 
expressed himself highly satisfied with the performanoet of the 
Wicklow. In every detail the Wicklow U satisfactory, and he 
complimented the builders on the way they had carried out the 
ordera of the company. Reference had been made by the 
chairman to the company's mail service. He might say that 
they had had the privilege of carrying the mails for the past 6^ 
years. They are now negotiating for a new contract, and it would 
be no fault of theirs if they did not get it. They would endeavour 
to obtain the contract, and if they were successful they would 
carry it out satisfactorily. 


WE have bad the opportunitjr of inspecting a novel 
form of paraffin lamp, which has certainly valid 
claims for advantages which do not obtain with the 
means for lighting at present in use. This lamp-— an 
outside view of which we illustrate in the adjoining 
diagram — produces without any wick, a splendid soft 
light, much clearer than gas, which is equal in light- 
ing power to the electric arc lamp. The upper part 
of the lamp carries an oil reservoir, from which the- 
oil is led down to the burner, through a vaporising^ 
coil. This coil is heated by the waste heat from the 
flame. The burner is circular, and is very similar 
in form to the Wenham gas burner. The oil in a 
vaporised condition is allowed to issue from the 
orifices of the burner, and when lighted forms a ring 
of flame. A special starting device is fitted to the 
lamp to heat up the parts ready for starting the light- 
ing device proper. The flame is protected bv a globe,, 
which latter can be lowered in order to apply a light 
to the burner for lighting it. As to the efficiency of 
the lamp as a lighting device, we understand that it 

June 1, 1895.] 



has been examined by the " Physico-Technical Govern- 
ment Institute of Germany." In a report issued by 
this Institute it is stated that *' the petroleum lamp 
has been examined with a photometer," with the 
result that *' with a reflection at an angle of 45 degrees 
from the horizon, a lighting capacity of 140 candles, 
with a consumption of petroleum of 164 grammes 
per hour, is given off." 

Taking now the 140 candle-power lamp as running 
for 50 hours with petroleum at 6d. per gallon, the cost 
for this time would be Is. 2id. With gas at 3s. per 
thousand cubic feet, the cost of the same amount of 
illumination would be 7b. with ordinary fish-tail 

burners. Taking electric current at 8d. per unit, the 
cost of lighting by electricity would be 19s. 5d. From 
these figures it will be seen that the Petroleum Incan- 
descent Lamp only costs from a quarter to one-fifth the 
cost of gas and about one-nineteenth the cost of 
electric light. So that the new lamp appears, from 
the above data, to be a loug way ahead of the usual 
systems of lighting. With regard to ordinary petro- 
leum lamps with a wick, we understand that the 
incandescent lamp will give about double the light of 
a wick lamp with about half the consumption of oil, 
roughljr about four to one in the matter of efficiency. 
It is said that the lamp is perfectly safe and cannot 
explode, and either Bussian or American oil can be 

The lamp is simply constructed, and being without 
complicated parts the lamp can be kept in perfect 
working order by anybody. When arranged for out- 
side use, the lamp is fitted with a storm-proof guard 
to protect it against the effect of the wind. 

These lamps can be seen at 73, Queen Victoria 
Street, London, E.G. 


MR. JAMES AIBET, of West Hartlepool, read a paper on 
the above aubject, with partioular reference to the Madd 
& Airey patent paokiDg. before the Marine Engineers' Inetitnte 
at West Hartlepool, on April 23rd, of which we give an 
extract, as follows :— 

A great engineer once remarked, '* You will never have a 
perfect steam engine till yon can make one without glands." 
There was more keen insight in this remark than appears on 
the surface, because it showed he had at an early period become 
fully aware of the fact so often overlooked, that a very large 
proportion of the internal reeistances of an engine consist of 
the resistance produced by the packing in the stuffing boxes to 
the motion of the rods. 

One of the great fields open to the engineer in which he may 
delve with a view to unearthing improvements in the steam 
engine, is the efficiency of the mechanism as distinct from the 
efficiency of the steam, the efficiency of the boiler, or the 
efficiency of the propeller (regarded as a separate instrument 
from the engine). 

Of this enticing field, viz., the efficiency of the mechanism, 
there is perhaps no more fertile spot than that which yields 
reduction of friction. In recent yean the frictional losses in 
marine engines have been reduced in many directions, partly 
by mechanism better adapted to its purpose, and partly hj the 
adoption of more suitable qualities of bearing metals, but m no 
part of the engine where friction must necessarily exist to some 
extent has the friction, in all probability, been reduced to the 
same extent as it is possible to reduce it by the adoption ot a 
good type of metallic gland packing, when compared with the 
older forms of packing. 

A gland packing, however, that will run with little friction, 
has in a very important degree the further useful property of 
consequently reducing wear. This is of course the same in all 
cases where friction is reduced, such as in cylinders, which, by 
means of a steamtight but very friotionless packing in the 
pistons, can be made to retain their parallelism and circularity 
over long periods ; and iu main bearings, which with suitable 
bearing areas and qualities of bearing metals, can be made to 
run for years without letting the shaft get out of line, and 
almost without showing wear at aU. With the piston rods the 
absence of wear is important, because when wear exists ridgee 
are formed top and bottom, which ridges naturally terminate, 
in a tapering fashion, and these tapers act as wedges on the 
packing at the top and bottom of the stroke. Also the rods, 
when wear goes on, do not retain their circular form, nor their 
parallelism, and it becomes necessary to take them out to be 
trued up in the lathe, which again readily reduces them below 
the strength necessary in a part of the engine through which 
the full pressure of steam is transmitted to the other working 

If, therefore, a packing can be designed that will at once per- 
mit a large amount of power to be transmitted to the propeller 
which has hitherto been lost in thrusting the rods to and fro 
through the packing, and preserve tibe rods and spindles from 
wear, with all the unpleasant consequences which follow there- 
upon, it is obvious that such a thing is highly to be desired and 
is worth a great effort to make it a success. 

Some four years ago the writer of this paper, toother with 
another, attempted to secure a satisfactory steam-tightness of 
the glands by means of a packing based in its design upon the 
principles which had rendered Mr. Mudd's patent piston pack- 
ing so eminent a success for some years previous thereto. The 
prmciple, simplv stated, is that of avoiding everything in the 
shape of a bevil or wedge and applying vertical and tangential 
spring pressures independently of each other, so that each 
might oe adjusted to suit its own purpose. 

A large number of stuffing boxes have now been fitted with 
the packing, and it has been found that as much as 50 H.P. had 



[June 1, 1895. 

in some instances been relieved and become available for 
driving the ship by the packing of one high pressure rod, which 
had previously been expended on forcing the rod through the 
ordinary packing. It has also been found , in an experience 
extending to nearly four years, that there is an almost imper- 
ceptible wear on the rods by this system of packing, and this 
is just such a result as would be looked for with so considerable 
a reduction of friction as the indicator cards show. 

Some indicator diagrams were exhibited, taken from a local 
vessel engined at the Central Engine Works, and when they 
were taken the vessel was steaming 9^ knots, carrving 2,770 
tons deadweight, on a consumption of 9*4 tons of Welsh coal 
per 24 hours. She is fitted with this metallic gland packing in 
all the piston rods and spindles. 

The writer of the paper concluded by reading a dozen very 
favourable reports selected from a large number received 
from vessels fitted with the patent gland packing referred to, 
and an interesting discussion followed, in which Mr. J. B. 
Fothergill, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Dobson and others took part. 


WE illustrate in the adjoining diagrams a vertical 
duplex steam pump which is adapted for work- 
ing expansively. Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the 
pump, Fig. 2 is a part sectional view showing the 
valve mechanism, and Fig. 3 is a plan of the same. 
It will be seen from the iflustration that the valve of 
each engine is partly controlled by its own piston and 
partly by the piston of the other engine. The valve 
o^ one engine is opened by the other engine, but is 
closed by its own piston. To carry this into efiect, 
each valve spindle is operated by a rocking lever 
driven by a crosshead on the piston rod. This lever 
is not mounted upon the ordinary fixed stud, but 
arranged to rock upon a stud situated at the end of a 
lever attached to a rocking shaft which is operated by 
the opposite engine. The valve spindle is adapted to 
be turned round by hand in order to alter the amount 
of dead play of the spindle in relation to the valve to 
a more or less extent according to whatever degree 
the steam is to be used expansively. 

The expansion can be varied, whilst the pump is in 
motion, to cut off steam at any portion of the stroke 
from 7-l2ths to full stroke, and by giving the sUde 
valves inside lap the pistons will not strike the covers 
if the water fails or a pipe breaks. We understand 
that pumps have been run at an enormous speed, 
which it was impossible to count without special 
appliances, and the suction pipe has been loosed o£f 
from the pump without the pistons striking the covers. 
Inside lap will as a matter of course give excessive 
back pressure. 

In actual practice inside lap is not given, as up to 
about 400 ft. piston speed it is found not to be required, 
as the inter-relation of the pistons and valves of the 
two sets of steam and water parts permits of an 
automatic compensating action. 

It is also found that a long suction and fairly long 
delivery pipes add to the smooth working of the pump, 
the water in motion acting as a fly wheel to the pump, 
making this pump especially suited for petroleum 
vessels, &c. 

The pimip makes no short strokes, and with the 
variable expansion gear the strokes can be adjusted 
to suit the load whilst the pump is in motion. For 
instance, suppose a pump is required to work against 

several different heads, say one head to equal 100 ft. 
and another head of 20 ft. For the 100 ft. head the 
steam would be required to act upon the piston for a 
long period of the stroke, and the speed would be slow, 
whilst for the 20 ft. head the expansion is altered to an 
early cut-off by simply twisting the small hand wheels 
on the valve spindles, the speed of the piimp increasing 
four or five times. In both cases the full length of the 
stroke is maintained, and providing the water pipes 
and valves are large enough the pump works more 
quietly as the speed increases. 
When working expansively the pistons follow each 

other like pistons controlled with cranks at risht 
angles without the disadvantages of the circmar 
motion. The circular motion changes the speed of 
the pistons four times in each revolution, which 
causes all rotary pumps to knock or pound by the 
overrunning of the water on to the piston. 

The straight line motion, with its instantaneous 
reversion, has practically no variation of speed, conse- 
quently the speed of the water is constant, and there 
is no time for the mass of the water to act upon the 
valves, with the result that there is little or no wear 
on the valves when working under these conditions. 

The effect of late expansion tends to destroy the half 

June 1, 1895.) 



Btroke position of the pistons, as not being rigidly con- 
nected they can approach towards and recede from 
that relative position, but it does not prevent both 
pistons working at the same time, thus rraking this 
pump twice the capacity of the ordinary duplex pump 
working at the same piston speed. 

speed) is 75 per cent, greater. In pumps made espe- 
cially for boiler-feeding and hydratdic work, all lap is 
taken off the sb'de valve, and the hand-wheels are 
abolished, so that no alteration can be made, as it is 
absolutely requisite in these cases, especially for 
hydraulic work in shipyards, &c., where accumulators 


Fio. 2. 

The ordinary duplex pump practically stands still 
one-half its time, and has only the capacity of a single 
pump, so that when pumping against an accumulator 
or against a hydraulic lift, each stroke of the pump 
is felt like a blow. The continuous flow of the Hole- 
house & Morley pump gets over this difficulty. 

When working expansively the two pistons keep an 
exact juxtaposition, viz. : half stroke, or precisely as 
though they were coupled together with cranks at 
right angles ; when working in this position the hand- 
wheel, which is fast on the valve spindle, is turned 
round until the space between the hand wheel and 
the shoulder on the spindle is closed up, and the 
spaces between the bridle and the valve are also 
closed, the valve being riddly held to the spindle, the 
spindle having compouna screws for this purpose, the 
outside thread being one-half the pitch of the thread 
shown in the steam chest. 

In this position the pump runs at high speeds, the 
cushion at the end of the stroke being quietly effected, 
the reversion of the piston being instantaneous. The 
direct effect of this is that the water is kept in one 
constant motion acting by its momentum, acting the 
part of a fly-wheel to an ordinary engine, whilst the 
straiflht Hne motion of the piston enables a higher 
speed to be run than can be got by a rotary motion. 

To work slowly the hand- wheel is turned back to 
the position shown in Fig. 2, by which it will be 
perceived the valve has some amount of lost motion 
or slack action, and steam is carried the full length of 
stroke ; this causes the half-stroke position to be dis- 
turbed somewhat, and gives a pause at the end of the 
airoke, but not nearly so long a pause as obtains in 
other duplex pumps. The pause being shorter or 
approximately 75 per cent, less than other pumps, the 
capacity of the pumps (at the same actual piston 

are used, that the pressure should be free from jerk or 
jar. The ordinary duplex pump causes a vibration, 
owing to a sudden stroke and stoppage ; whilst these 
pumps, on account of both pistons working together, 




Fio. S. 

give a regular and easy motion. The compound 
motion does away with all short strokes, the ordinary 
pump slide valve is actuated solely from its fellow 
pump, keeping steam on one piston whilst standing 



[June 1, 1895. 

still until its fellow pump reverses it ; but the slide 
valve in this case is partly operated by its fellow pump 
and partly by its own piston rod, causing the steam 
to be cut on, and cushioned as each piston reaches 
the end of its stroke. These pumps are being manu- 
factured by Messrs. Cole, Marchent & Morley, 
engineers, Bradford. 


{From our cwn Corrapondent,) 

Naval Hen and the Mercantile Marine. 

TWO Terj exoellent examplefl have recently been given of bow 
little tbose connected witb tbe Bojal Navy botber tbem- 
■elvee witb exact details regarding mercantile vessels. 

Tbe first matter was tbe speecb of Mr. Forwood in regard to 
"Water-tabe BoileYs in tbe Navy,'* delivered in tbe House of 
Commons at tbe dose of April. He several times referred in bis 
speecb to tbe ordinary marine boilers of tbe Cnnarder Sylvania 
wbicb be said constantly snppUed steam for engines of 25,000 
H.P. Of conrse be meant tbe Lucania or tbe Campania, wbose 
engines are fnlly of tbe power named. Tbe Splvania, as readers 
of tbese Notes all know, is n cargo sbip of one-fifth that power. 
Bnt she was a new Gnnarder, and so tbe name slipped out. Mr. 
Forwood, himself a Liverpool man and a shipowner, probably 
realised bis mistake. The newspaper people who commented on 
his speech witb one accord accepted what be said, and a very 
fine pitfall has been dug for thefature historian of steam naviga- 
tion who gets hold of this discossion. He will search in vain for 
a mail steamer of that power and name. 

Tbe second matter to be referred to is a notice in tbe " Naval 
Notes " of tbe Olohe abont tbe rejuvenated Oerminic, It begins 
with tbe words " In the year 1871 Messrs. Maudslay, Sons A Field 
fitted engines into a new steamer (MiUed the Oemwiiic,** They did 
nothing of tbe kind. Tbe Britannie did not come out till 1874, 
and tbe Oermanie followed her a year Ister. Tbe statement too 
that *' these two vessels maintained a steady speed of nearly 
18 knots on both voyages," gives them a speed to which their 
owners would never lay claim. Sixteen knots is much nearer their 
true speed, and even that was a sufficiently marvellous rate of 
progress 20 years ago. Eighteen knots at sea was not attaioed 
till tbe time of tbe Oregon and the America about a decade later. 
The naval correspondent of tbe Qlohe is always accurate and 
interesting when he writes about naval matters, but it seems as 
though there was a feeling that any notice is good enough for 
merchant ships and that accuracy would be thrown away in such 
a connection. 

An Old Salt'! Tarn. 

I have been reading tbe reminiscences of a veteran sea captain, 
Mr. Robert Woolward, who has been in tbe service of tbe West 
India Boyal Mail Co. almost from tbe inception of that under, 
taking down to tbe other day. Tbe book cannot fail to interest 
all my readers. He tells of much that must have passed within 
tbe knowledge of most of them and be wakens many veiy 
interesting memories of tbe old times and tbe old methods. 
The whole is very chatty and— when tbe writer is dealing with 
tbe bistovy of bis own life — very accurate. When he speaks of 
strange vessels be occasionally gets a little astray. Thus he 
speaks of the Corcovado as having been built for tbe O. S. N. Co. 
He is just a letter wrong there. The company who ordered her 
was tbe Pacific Steam Navigation Co. Again he speaks 
of having met the old wooden paddle steamer Arctic in Halifax 
Harbour. She had at tbe time be mentions long gone to her rest 
at tbe bottom of tbe North Atlantic and tbe vessel he saw was 
another of tbe unlucky Collins* liners. But for those who want 
to see how tbe grand old sea-dogs who made our Fleets of tbe Mail 
Lines what tbey are, men who brought the old rule-of-tbnmb 
navigation to its present state of scientifio accuracy, and who never 
were daunted by difficulties, however unexpected and however 
threatening, those who are attracted by this subject should 
obtain and read this bonk. It is also likely to be attractive to 
passengers, especially those travelling bj the company's vessels, 
and should certainly be found in the library of every passenger 
ship. The title is *< Nigh Sixty Years at Sea," and tbe book is 
published by Messrs. Bigby, Long & Co., of Bouverie Street, B.C. 
After beg fn ii ing his sea career in safl he entered the service of 

the West India Mail Line as fourth officer and soon rose to be 
captain. A Yerj large part of their fleet has passed under his 
command, and in them he has worked on both the main lines 
to tbe Islands and to Brazil, as well as on the intercolonial 
service. In tbe Crimea be saw a good deal of service in tranqxnt 
work; for tbe coffers of the Boyal Mail line were well 
replenished by public money earned in that servioe at a time 
when losses of snips had almost crippled the enterprise. It is an 
ill wind that blows no one any good, and the coming of that 
disastrous struggle was most opportune to tbe line. Every sbip 
tbey could spare was taken up by Government and the rate of 
hire was calculated on no illiberal scale. '* Three and sixpence a 
minute " is stated to have been tbe rate on one vessel of a couple 
of thousand tons, the Qovemment finding tbe coal, which was in 
those days of extxavagant engines an item of much ooneideration. 
Captain Woolward also commanded vessels chartered to other 
lines and so saw many persons and places where the company's 
flag is to-day unknown. The book is well stocked with tbe 
anecdotes which are generally assodated with sailors of tbe old 
school. Such a tale as that of tbe author's appearance before 
tbe Lord Mayor on a charge of obstructing tbe streets of London 
witb a string of waggons laden with specie must of course be 
taken witb a grdn of salt. The idea, however, underlying it is not 
quite what we should have expected from one used all bis life to 
command. Implicit obedience to all orders, even if tbey sppear 
unjust, from a competent authority is tbe keynote of discipline 
and a sea captain should set a good example to those who dwell 

PnbUo Yachting 
is an amusement which is very eagerly sought after, to judge by 
tbe number of public yachts that offer their various i^tractions 
to tbe reader ox shipping advertisements. Tbe attractions often 
comprise a fiag which is very seldom seen over a big steamer, 
and fares so low that it ought to be patent to everyone that the 
shipowner could never recoup himself in passage money, even if 
his ship were always full of passengers, for Uberal treatment of 
bis guests. Yet the landsman is so confiding, or so ignorant, or 
perhaps has so much of both qualities, confidence and ignorance, 
that be goes saily mto the contract. There was one case where 
tbe Boaid of Trade stepped in and prevented tbe vessel going to 
sea at all. Whether the passage money prepaid was ever 
recovered in this instance I do not know, but in any case there 
was some little difficulty on that head and when arrangemente 
made long previously were so suddenly upset many must have 
been disappointed altogether of tbe holiday to which they were 
looking forward. Now another difficulty has arisen. It seems 
that some of tbese vessels do not carry surgeons and so the hap- 
less passenger must either wait for advice till he makes a part 
or he must take bis luck as to whether there be a fellow-passenger 
with a medical qualification. If there be a doctor on board, 
however, to learn from what transpired in a recent case, there is 
satisfaction for neither doctor nor patient. For the former has 
presumably come away to get rest and to forget the calls of 
duty, whilst if he can be prevailed upon to give bis services to 
his fellow -passenger tbe latter has to pay him for tbe advice. 
When we note all these mattera— and there are others tbat oould 
be named — it seems strange indeed tbat persons can be found to 
go by vessels wbose ovmers have no well-known name or great 
repuUtion in tbe shipping world, especially when there are ships 
of such lines as tbe Orient slways engaged in the business and 
available, if at a slightly higher figure. Such firms can always 
replace a vessel wbicb is found unable to go tu sea at tbe Uat 
moment, and are not likely to forget other details which pertain 
to tbe health and comfort of their passengers. 

The "Ofoya." 

Talking of tbe Orient Line reminds me of tbe Oroya, 1 
mentioned briefiy last month tbat she was ofL First of all the 
salvors, who, by dint of patience, had worked her through an 
apparently impassable barrier of sand, took her to Naples. 
Thence she proceeded in tow, but with some slight assistance 
from her own engines, to Genoa. A week's stay there was all 
she required, and thence proceeded to Liverpool for a thorough 
refit. It is understood tbat the damage sustained is very much 
less than tbe most satiguine could have anticipated, as is 
evidenced by her using her engines so soon after being refloated. 
There was a most extraordinuy passage in tbe judgment of the 
Court of Inquiry at Naples. First, they commented on tbe 
wonderful strength of construction which the vessel showed by 
her endurance of fifty days on the sands of the Bay of Naples. 

June 1, 1895.] 



Thii was detenred onoagh, and th« Burrow Co. were well 
entiiled to this praise for good workmanship. Then praise was 
giTen to the ofBoers and orew for good discipline as shown by 
the behaTionr of all noder the trying cironmstanoes of a stranding 
in a gale and in darkness. Here sgain, one is strongly with the 
remarin of the Oonrt. Bat they went on to say that they oon* 
sidered the Oroya ** ondermanned with execnti?e officers." Now 
this I cannot see at all. To nse a tme if somewhat homefy 
prorerb, *' The proof of the podding is in the eating" and good 
discipline conld not have been preserred if there had not been 
Boffioient oflSoeis to maintain order. Besides, the Tessel oaxried 
ae many officers as is nsoal in pa see ng er ships of her tonnage, 
and of coarse many more than the great cargo ships of far greater 
oapaoity than hers, which are now not nncommon in Tarioas 
trades. The thing seemed at first a little incomprehensible, 
bnt the dae is to be fonnd in the constitaiion of the Ooart. 
There were two officers of the Boyal Navy, several landsmen, and 
one Mercantile Marine <A)er. The Nayal men naturally carried 
great weight, and their ideas of a proper complement ol officers 
were of coarse based npon their own sea sendee. It woald 
be a small man-of-war indeed that did not carry as many deck 
officers as the Oroya, But the daties of the two clateses are 
eatirelf different and no comparison can be made between them. 
A man-of-war, for example, has to carry snffident officers to make 
it imptobable that a serions engagement shall leave her withont 
plenty of responsible officers to bring her into port. No snch 
eventaality has to be contemplated in the case of a peaoefal 
merchantman, and in every way a comparison between the two 

The Lifuria did a smart piece of work in connection with the 
accident to the Oroya, She was sent oat to take the tarn of the 
disabled veesel on the homeward trip. She accordingly left 
Liverpool on the 15th of March, jast a fortnight after the 
accident at Naples. Five days later she called at Las Palmas 
and thence steamed to Sydney direct, making a passage of 
thirty-three days. As the distance is 11,000 miles her speed 
was aboat 14 knots throaghoat. She was not, however, pressed 
as she had plenty of time to take in her homeward cargo on 
andval at Sydney. This is a good performance for a vessel 
twenty-one years old, thoagh it most not be forgotten that she 
and the Ibma had new boilers and her engines tripled a year 
or BO ago. 

The New York and MediterraBean Berrice. 

has proved so saccessfal for the Oerman liners that Canard's 
are making a bid for their share of the work. Some coaple of 
months ago they ran the Marathon from Naples and the Mediter- 
ranean ports to Qaeenstown and there transshipped passengers 
to the Lucania, On that occasion passengers had to strike an 
average. If the Marathon is not qaite ap to date, the Zueania 
is qoite able to make np for her deficiencies. Bat in April they 
sent the Bothnia to Naples and thence, via Gibraltar, to New 
York. As wiU be remembered, the Bothnia was the favoarite 
ship of the line twenty years ago. Latterly her services have 
not been required, even as a stand-by, on the New York line 
and she has been transferred to the Boston service. Last year 
she made a trip to the East on Government acooant. She is as 
comfortable a ship as was ever bailt, even in those days of 
moderate speeds, and the experiment will be watched with 
interest. It certainly seems a pity that foreigners shoald be 
allowed to take all the cream of the traffic in Una trade withont 
our people making the least attempt to get their share. 

RniaiaB PaiMngeF Bteamen. 

A few months ago I referred to the loss of the Vtadindr and 
to the charges broaght against her captain and crew. It appears 
that a steamer belonging to the same company has been lost by 
collision in the same spot as she was. This time, fortanately, 
the colliding vessel is a Bnssian Gk>vemment steamer and so we 
are likely to have a faAr field and no ftivoor. The collision this 
time is Mid to have taken place in fine, clear weather. Tliere was 
some considerable confasion amongst the passengers, as was, of 
eoone, only natural. A boat was lowered and into it were pat 
eome seamen and a Boasian sea captain, who happened to be a 
passenger. Another passenger, a lady with a life belt, was also 
got into the boat, whtm the latter capdzed and all the occapants 
were thrown into the water. The Bassian master mariner was 
then ob s erv e d to be straggling with the lady for her life belt. 
He did not, however, snoceed in his object, for the vessel 
stmok them and ended the contest for ever. This, at least, is 

the stofy as printedin the Daily Niwi, We most, however, hope, 
for the sake of oar common hnmanity, thai these tales clBaseiaa 
sailors are somewhat exaggerated. 

The Union Company 

is always engaged in keeping its fleet np to date. If we do not 
note the advent of a ship of the latest class we bid adiea to one 
of the older ships of the fleet. The last to go is the old German 
which came oat only some 18 years since. She was bailt by 
Denny's, at Dambarton, and is a vessel of 8,000 tons gross. Her 
departnre leaves the Pretoria as the patriarch of the fleet— a 
patriarch of 17 years. 

New York Harbour ImproTements. 
Last month I mentioned the new arrangements which were 
about to come into effect at New York to prevent delay to 
passengers and mails by steamers which arrived after sundown. 
These arrangements were inaugurated in the case of the White 
Star liner Britannic, which arrived out on the evening of the 
10th May. She reached quarantbe at 9 o'clock. This mails 
were landed but the passengers preferred to stay on board till 
next morning, as it wan 11 p.m. before they had the opportunity 
of disembarking. As I ventured to prophesv, they preferred to 
leave the toils and delays of disembarking till the morrow. But 
the fact that they were able to exercise an option in this matter 
makes the privilege a valuable one, and one that can be availed 
of by hurried thr^gh passengers. 

La Oompagnie Genende Tramailantlqiie. 

Some little time ago I spoke of a contemplated attack on the 
French passenger traffic by the Gorman liners. Nothing has 
been heard of that again. I thought at the time that the 
attackers would ri^ any English traffic they might have if they 
carried out their project, and that they would have very little 
chance of taking much by their action. The French passenger 
has gained however by the mere suggestion. On the Ist of June 
the maiden trip is to be made of a train de Uuce which consists 
of five cars owned by the Compafi^e Generale Transatlantiqne. 
IBach car of the train bears the name of one of the line's express 
steamers. These are arranged en iuUe and are fitted with every 
luxury and comfort which experience can suggest. Against this 
provision for the land journey from Paris to Havre, and the 
excellent cuisine and accommodation of the company's steamers, 
opposition will be silenced or at least will only lead to defeat. 
It is interesting however to see how in every quarter the Atlantio 
passenger is benefiting by the competition of the various lines 
and porta for the first place in the rase across the Atlantic. 

The Derelict Qneatlon 

is one that is still exciting a good deal of attentioo, but it is still 
impossible to arouse the British authorities to take any interest 
in the removal of these dangers. Private enterprise is attempt- 
ing to make up for official apathy. A floating wreck was reported 
a short time ago off the Insh coast, right in the track of the 
Liverpool and New York Mail steamers. As no one else seemed 
inclined to move in the matter the White Star and Cunard Lines 
took joint action. They chartered a powerful tug Bad sent her 
in search. She was cruising for a fortnight, but did not succeed 
in her quest. Anothw Liverpool tug was, however, more sue* 
oessf ul and managed to tow the wreck into port. As the cargo 
consisted of valuable timber there was some reward for this 
service beside the consciousness of having benefited the public. 

•• La Oaioofne." 

is unfortunate with her new engines. She has again been over- 
due, though Uiis time anxiety was not pressed to so high a pitch 
as on the former occasion. Measured by an underwriter's 
standard it was considerable, however, for the premium for re- 
insurances ran to eight guineas. She arrived in safety at New 
York on the 21st May, having made a passage of twelve days 
instead of between seven and eight. The cause of the delay was 
strangely enough a breakdown of precisely the same kind as the 
previous one, and it affected the new piston rod which had been 
put in to replace that broken on the former occasion. The 
weather was fortunately of a very improved character this time, 
and the ship was able to effect temporary repairs, and do 8 knots 
during the latter pcut of her trip. An mquiry into the causes of 
Uiese breakdowns would be most valuable, if sufficient facts can 
be elicited to form a proper groundwork. It would appear, on 
the first glance, that some unusual strain must be put upon the 

giston rod of this particular cylinder— a strain which was caused 
y something recently developed. Perhaps the form of the ship c 



[June 1, 1895. 

the posiiioii of the oylioder hM got iliglitly altered and a bendiDg 
streta ia noir pat oonatanUj upon the rod. 

A PleMant Cepamony 

waa enao'.od at Liverpool on the 2l8t May, when the rewarda 
bestowed by the United States Goyemment apon the oaptain of 
the Teutonic and the boat's orew from that steamer whioh rescned 
the orew of an American fishing vessel off New York on the 8th 
February were pablioly presented. A presentation was also 
made by the owners of^ the vessel to Lienteaant Brown in 
recognition of hia bravery in apringing overboard after a passenger 
in the Irish Sea as mentioned recently in these Notes. Attention 
was called to the fact that whilst the American Preaidenta and 
the (German Bmperor always make a point of showing their 
appreciation of rescues effected by onr people of their snbjeots, 
oar antboritiei are most apathetic in th^ recognition of similar 
servioea rendered to British sailors. Thoa the attempt made to 
obtain an Albert medal for Lientenant Brown haa not been 
aacceaafol, and Gapt. McKinstrey of the Adriatie is still without 
any offiloial notice of hia feat at the Spithead Review of 1889. 
On that occasion the person rescued waa not only a British sailor 
but an officer in Her Majeaty's Navy. Theae slights are not 
likely to prevent brave men from risking their Uvea for their 
fellows but thev are nevertheless most unfortunate, for they are 
an indication of a spirit that either in public or in private Ufe is 
moat regrettable. It shows that politics and party dominate 
everything connected #ith our Government and that nothing 
which does not tend to the getting of votes for the party in 
power will be worthy of the attention of departments or their 

The Nottage Beqaasta. 

I mentioned aeon after the death of Gaptain Nottage that he 
had left certain legacies to perpetuate his memory in connection 
with the sport he loved. These bequests would have tended to 
benefit the community at large by the encouragement of yacht 
building and of the science of seamanship. The law, however, 
with regard to legaoiei of this kind is in a very extraordinary 
condition owing to historical reasons which need not be dwelt 
upon here. SuCBce it to say that the bequest of two thousand 
pounds left for the establishment of the " Nottage " Gup has 
been impagned by those interested in the estate and that the 
Gourts have reluctantly concluded that it is not a valid gift. 
The " Nottage " Gup will therefore never be offered for compe- 
tition aa the donor desired so earnestly it should be. 

The ** Qermaido." 

This vessel has, ai usual, defeated expectation and upset prece- 
dent. She left Qaeenstown at 1 p.m. on the 16th Hay and was 
at New Tork at 12.80 p.m. on the 38rd. Allowing for difference 
in time this is a passage of 7 days 4 hours. It is, of course, 
better than anything ^e haa ever done. It is done, too, 
over the long coarse, which makes a difference of say six hours 
longer than the course prevailing during the record-breaking 
season. That would make her passage equivalent to 6 days 
22 hours over the short course. This is, to all intenta and 
purpoaes, a maiden trip, and it is a better speed than that 
made by either the Umhria or the Etruria on their first voyages. 
We cannot suppose that the Gtrmanie will rival them, but she 
has proved in this run that she is at least equal to the famous 
record-breaker Alaska. Her homeward trip will be equally 
interesting, but ere it is completed these Notes will be in the 
hands of my readers 


MewLl^t-thip.— The Strand Shipbuilding Go., Sunderland, 
have obtained from the Trinity House an order for a new light- 

A Floatiag dry dock haa lately been launched at Benioia, 
Gal., capable of holding a veasel of 3000 tons. The dock is 
300ft. lonfl and 95ft. vnde, and wUl coat £24,000 when fully 
equipped for service. Ban Francisco now has five dry docks, 
severau of them large enou^ to handle the largeat ocean steamer. 

Meain. Joteph Writfht ft Co., of Tipton, have introduced 
aome improvements into the Idartin anolior, which have 
enabled one in a recent test to destruction by Lloyd's to stand 
400 per cent, abdve the Admiralty test. 

ALTHOUGH there have been many and various 
improvemeDts in the constraction of all classes 
of anchors daring the past few years, it does not 
appear that finality has been reached in the design of 
these devices. We have pleasure in presenting to our 
readers the description and illustrations of the 

Fio. 1. 

** Defiance Patent Anchor/* for which certain ad- 
vantages are claimed. On reference to the illustra- 
tions, it will be seen that Fig. 1 is a perspective view ; 
Fig. 2 is a side elevation ; and Fig. 3 is a plan of the 

The action of the arms of this anchor is somewhat 
similar to the principle of the Martin anchor, i.e., the 

self-canting of the arms allows them to simultaneously 
take hold of the bottom ; but instead of having any. 
pins or bolts, which are often a source of weakness, 
two shoulders project from the crown of the arms, 
a slot being arranged between the shoulders, into 
which a plate engages. This plate is passed down into 
place through a hole in the crown of the head. The 
shoulders and arms being made in one piece, not only 

June 1, 1895.] 



provide a double stop-action, but considerably increase 
the strength of the arms at the part of grbate^t strain. 
The anchor has no stock, but is made with or without, 
^hat are called steadying arms, which have a holding 
power almost equal to that of the two main arms, 
especially in shingle, muddy, soft or sandy bottom. 
l%e anchors are made of Bessemer's or Siemen- 
Maxtin steel, and are absolutely weldless, the flukes 
beiuR composed of one solid piece, and the shank of 
another, and the severe strains when the anchor is in 
tise are confined entirely to these solid pieces. It 
will be noticed that by its simplicity of con- 
struction, all pins, keys, bolts, colters, side-plates, and 
box-heads, suoject to strain, and liable to have their 


Fig. 8: 

action interfered with by ^and or earth, are dispensed 
with, and in addition increased bearing surfaces are 
provided, which ensure greater holding power, 
strength, and durability. 

Many important advantages are claimed for this 
anchor, amongst which may be mentioned that it 
possesses very considerable holding power ; it cannot 
drag in any sort of ground ; it is extremely light for 
the strength ; it wiU act immediately and certainly in 
whatever position it is cast ; it is self -canting ; it is 
impossible to foul it or get it fouled ; it can be catted 
and fished with ease and rapidity ; it will stow flat 
alongside or inboard ; and, lastly, by reason of its 
simple construction, can be made cheaply. 

This anchor is being put upon the market by the 
Defiance Patent Anchor & Gable Co., (Secretary, Mr. 
S. Seymour Gordon), of 18, Billiter Buildings, feilliter 
Street, London, E.G. 

FB some time past there has been eabjeoted to seyere teste 
in Olesgoir a form of steam pipe combining a copper 
interior with a spirally-wonnd steel-wire enter body, whidi has 
several outstanding advantages over copper steam pipes as 
ordinarily mannfaotored, the most important being its f ally and 
economically meeting the requirements of increasing steam 

This composite pipe, which has been patented by Hr. B. D. 
Smillie, electrical engineer. Mains Street, Glasgow, corresponds 
in general stroctnral principle to that upon which the prodnotion 
of the heaviest modem ordnance is now based, and consists of a 
thin interior sheU of copper, wound doeely round which, and in 
intimate contact with it, is a coil of steel wire of square section 
and of high tensile strength. The steel ooil is wound on the 
shell while it is rotating in a bath of molten alloy of special 
preparation, by which means the shell and ooil are fused into a 
solia mass, llie meltiug point of the alloy, it may be stated, is 
suiBoiently high to obviate any risk of its being affected by the 
temperature of steam of the high pressures now common. The 
copper shell is of sufficient strength to withstand the longitudinal 
stresses produced by any given pressure of steam acting on the 
sectional area of the pipe. The circumferential stresses are 
provided for by the coil of steel wire. The fibre of the ooil is at 
right angles to the circumferential stresses, and is thus the<^ 
retioally and practically in the best position to withstand them, 
while b\\ the risks are avoided common to pipes with brazed or 
welded joints, as well as to solid-drawn pipes, in which latent 
defects are not infrequently found : in which, too, the fibre of the 
metal, being parallel to the oiroumferenttal stresses, is in the 
least effective position for resistance. 

Several highly important advantages are claimed for the pipe 
as prepared under the fusing process. In the event of the wire 
ooil being from any cause broken or cut it wiU not unwind. Even 
assuming that every second turn of the coil is cut, the strength 
of the pipe will not be materially affected. The fusing prevents 
corrosion and the possibility of galvanic action, which occurs 
where metals of a dissimilar nature constitute the pipe. Pipes 
of a given size, to withstand a given pleasure, having a copper 
shell manufactured by the process will, it is claimed, onljr be 
about one-half the weight of brazed copper pipes made to with- 
stand the same pressure. 

The pipe, which has been repeatedly subject to severe teats, is 
9 ft. long and 9 in. in diameter. Its weight per running foot is 
24'S lbs., while the weight of a pipe of similar calibre, and to 
withstand the same pressure, would be by Board of Trade rules as 
much as 65 lbs. per foot. In the works of Messrs. Mechan & Sons, 
Elliot Street, Onmston Hill, Glasgow, on the 17th ult., the pipe 
was shown under a pressure of 250 lbs. per square inch, the 
steam at this high pressure being generated in a " Haythom " 
tubnlous boiler, at the same time shown under forced-draught 
trial. Previously the pipe had been subjected to both stesm and 
hydraulic tests. The steam test ezteuded over a period of ten 
successive weeks ; the pressure applied was 160 lbs. per square 
inch, and the pipe was cooled to atmospheric temperature four 
times daily— frequently by the application of the hose. Under 
the hydraulic test the pressure was repeatedly as high as 
1,800 lbs. per square inch. These tests have discovered no 
wMkkness or flaw, and there is no appearance of the pipe having 
been deleteriously affected or of any structural change. 

FMt Pattagei,— A telegram received reports the arrival of 
the large Leith-owned four-masted ship RoytU Forth, at New- 
castle. New South Wales, from Bio de Janiero, after a remarkably 
fast passage of 60 days. 

MeohanicaJ Yentllation.— We are pleased to record that the 
Russian Steam Navigation Ck>. has been so highly satisfied with 
the efficiency of the " Baird-Thompson " improved system of 
mechanical ventilation introduced into their fleet some time 
ago, thev have again contracted with Messrs. Baird, Thompson 
<fc Co.. Limited (ventilating engineers. London and Glasgow), 
for the introduction of their system into the large new steamers 
at present being built for them in this country. This speaks 
volumes for the " B.-T. " system. 



[June 1, 1895. 



|N Monday eTeniog, May ISth^ a paper, entitled "Some 
' Remarks on Water-Tnbe BoUera, wai read before the 
members of the Hnll and District Institation of Engineers and 
Naval Architects, by A. £. Seaton, Esq., M.I.C.E., ftc. In the 
absence of the president through indisposition, Mr. J. Spear 
(past president) took the chair. 

So much (said the lecturer) has been said and written lately 
on the subject of water-inbe boilers by peonle who, either 
deliberately shnt their eyes to the facts, or else have had no 
opportonities of becoming acquainted with the boilers in 
question, that the issue in the argument of Water-Tube Boilers 
ver$u$ Tank Boilers is very confused, so that those who have 
but a limited knowledge of the case can form but a very 
erroneous opinion. He purposed making clear, as far as 
possible, the demerits, as well as the merits, of what is known 
as the water-tube system, and to set forth some of the facts 
brought to light by the latest experience, so that the members 
of the Institution might have a better idea as to why the 
Admiralty, and some other individuals, equally enterprising, 
are employing that which bv some is so much abused. As 
the interest in the water-tube boiler is moreover likely to 
become general, the knowledge of the first principles governing 
the design and construction of it are important to everyone. 
In former years their use has been restricted on aooount of the 
difficulty of obtaining suitable feed water, but the perfecting of 
the evaporator has emboldened engineers to again adopt this 
type of boiler. From an historical point of view considerable 
interest attaches, inasmuch as it is now 90 years since the first 
water-tube boiler was made in America for marine purposes. 
The design of boiler to be successful was next considered. 
Diagrams of the elements of the Belleville, Babcock & Wilcox, 
Du Temi>le, D'Allest, Thornycroft, Yarrow A Normand boilers 
were exhibited, as well as an illustration of the Goldsworthy- 
Gumey boiler, invented in 1827, of which the most successful 
modem forms of water-tube boilers are more or less the out- 

The lecturer described the principle on which water tube 
boilers should be constructed, and he argued that there is strong 
presumptive evidence that a water-tube boiler must be lighter, 
aafer^ and more efficitnt than an ordinary cylindrical one. 
Another point in their favour is the rapidity with which steam 
can be got up, which is obviously a very considerable 

No particular invention was selected for notice, the lecturer 
mentioning only that one was an old and tried invention, and 
had been largely used in other countries, that another is manu- 
factured by the hundred, and that others have enabled com- 
paratively small steamships to travel at rates of speed that at 
one time were deemed beyond the wildest stretch of the imagi- 

The fact that accidents had happened with these boilers was 
freely admitted; but on the other hand it was pointed out 
that accidents with tank boilers of all classes have been and 
still are of almost daily occurrence. 

The claims of the water-tube boiler for consideration are — 
(1) that it is a safe one to employ for steam of very high pres- 
sures, and so makes it specially suitable for quadruple com- 
pound engines ; and (2) that it is very much lighter than any 
other form for the steam produced, and iienoe admits of higher 
speeds in all classes of ships than are attainable with the tank 
form of boiler. 

Figures taken from actual practice were adduced in support 
of the claims made, especially in the comparison of weights of 
various types of water-tube boilers per I.H.P. as against 
cylindrical boilers. 

At tiie dose of the paper a discussion ensued, in which 
Messrs. J. Spear, W. B. Dixon, W. H. Willatt, R. Carson, and 
W. H. Brodrick took part. 

Mr. Seaton having replied to the points raised, a hearty vote 
of thanks was accorded him ^on the motion of Mr. J. bpear, 
seconded by Mr. G. H. Strong) for the trouble he had taken in 
preparing to interesting a paper. 

Hattie*! Patent Rudder Brakes.— Four steamers in course of 
construction at Greenock for the Peninsular and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Company are all to be fitted with Messrs. 
Hastie's patent rudder brakes. These four steamers are 
designed to aggregate 22,000 tons. 


(From our own CcrretpondHU,) 

Pembroke Dockyard. 

THE lanoch of the lUnown on the 8th May was successfully 
accomplished, though at one time there was a veiy (to 
suspicion that the launch would be a repetition of the accident at 
Messrs. Cramp's yard, when the S, Paul refused to move 
altogether. Fortunately the exercise of a little judicious per- 
suasion from a hydraulic ram induced the big ship to take the 
water. I gave an account of her in my last Notes, and I will not 
repeat wl»t I then said. 

Orders have been issued for the commencement of a first-olaM 
cruiser to be called the Andromeda at Pembroke. She will be 
one of the dass described last month. In speaking of the speed 
it was given as " a continuous sea speed of 19 knots." This is 
perhaps hardly the way to speak of warships' rate of travel, and 
it makes comparison with other men-of-war diiBcolt. It will 
therefore be best to put the Ancdromeda'i estimated speed as 
<< 20*5 knots on trial." 

Chatham Dockyard. 
is very busy over the Magnificent, and oyerj exertion is being 
made to get her completed within the shortest possible time. 
There is one of the new type of second-class cruisers to be built 
here, and she is to have the name of VindieHve, 'Bat engines, 
like those of the Minerva, now rapidly approaching oompletioii, 
will be built in the dockyard. 

The Japanese Navy. 

A very interesting paper on this subject, which has been 
recently so prominently before men's miuds, was read by Dr. 
Elgar on the 8th May at a meeting of the Japan Society. He 
traced the development of the Japanese Marine fh>m the time — 
only some forty years ago — ^wben the law forbidding the building 
of large sea-going ships was repealed. Previous to that time 
the maximum tonnage allowed was about 70, and vessels were 
only permitted to have one mast. Now the Japanese have a 
merchant shipping company which ranks with the British India 
Company and Uie North German Uoyd in the magnitude of its 
fleet, whilst the State has a navy comprising sixteen cruisers, an 
armour-clad, a torpedo gunboat, ten sloops and g^unboats, beside 
the ten Chinese vessels which were added to the oonquerot^s 
navy at Wei-Hai-Wei. Theee include three ironclads and a 
deck-protected cruiser. 

But the Japanese are not going to stop the expansion of their 
Navy because they have conquered in the recent war or even 
because they have absorbed the Chinese fleet They are building 
in their own yards three 20-knot cruisers, and in British vards 
two flrat-class battleships of the largest size and greatest force. 
The latter are very much of the sSyal Sever ^gn tjrpe. Their 
length is 6 ft. less than hers, and the beam 2 ft. less. The dis- 
placement will be 12,150 tons, at 26 ft. 6 in. draught, as against 
14,160 at 27*6 draught in the case of the British ship. 
Only 700 tons of coal is to be carried, which is 200 tens less than 
the limited amount iJlowed by our designers. The armament 
will comprise four 12 in. Blswick guns and ten 6 in. quick-firers, 
besides smaller quick firers. This is the same main armament 
as our Magnificent Qtmo^^ though the latter has twelve 6 to. g^ons. 
The defensive armour is of Harveyised steel plates, 18 in. thick 
in the belt and 14 in. thick on the barbettes. The belt, by the 
way, is to be 16 ft. long^ than that in the Moyat Sovereign, 

One of these vessels is being built by the Thames Ironworks 
and the other at Blswick« where for the 
Argentine Navy 
there was launched on the 10th May a very remarkable cruiser 
called the]3ueno$ Airet, She is of some 4,600 tons displacement, 
and has twin screws driven by engines of a collective force of 
17,000 H.P., sn^aranteed to give her a speed of no less that 24 
knots. Needless to say she will be the fastest onuser afloat by 
something substantial. She is to carry quick-firers throughout, 
there being a pair of 8-in. guns as bow and stem chasers, whilst 
five 4*7-iQ. will be placed on each broadside and about twenty 
smaller Hotchkiss guaiM will also be given her, besides torpedo 

At Devonport 
two new second-class cruisers, the Arrogant and Furious, are to 

June 1, 1895.] 



be oommeooed. The third-olait .onuaer Owraeoat jost retained 
from a aiz jeazt' oonuniasioo, is to be refitted to take the place 
of the (7<%pfoiii thetrainiogeqaadron. 


hae at laet been allowed to get the old SuUm Baffioientljr near 
the mA of her refit to permit of her being nndooked. Ttii4 re- 
engining and rebailding an old ship will oost ttie ooantry over 
two handled thooaand poands, and yet when all is finished she 
will have, a main armiment of obsolete and oselesa mozzle- 
loaders. One of the most obvions leasoos of the war in the Ssst 
was that it wonld be impossible to work mnzzle-loading gone 
under the rain of projecttles experienced in a modem ena^age- 
ment, and so to aV intents this large som of money will be 
thrown away. 

When the Prince Qtorge is laanched her place on th ) sUo will 
be taken by a new second^slass orniser of the '* improved Talbo t 
type to be called the Qladiator, 

The ooTered docks in this yard are to ha?e the roofs remored, 
BO that tiiere may be accommodation arailable for OTerb%aling 
Teasels which have not been dismasted. 

Torpedo-boat Destroyers 

seem to be in faToor jost at present. Mr. Thomeycrort has 
bsen reading papers about them and their nses. He conclades 
that the nse of these vessels woald be very greatly enhanced if 
they were painted so as to make them diffioalt targets, and this 
is obrionsly a point to be borne in mind. Bat after trying varioas 
tints ho finds nothing which is so effective for his purpose as a 
mixtnre of tints in patches so as to dazsle the ^es of hostile 
gnnners. Ships set less beantifol almost every year, bat it will 
take some education to make smart sailors accept a condition of 
things which will make their ships look as though they had been 
part^ painted by a number of colour-blind workmen. For 
natural^ the more irregular the shade and size of the patches 
of colour the more difficult will they be to the hostile eye. 

The Laird-built destroyer Ferret has had a little service at sea. 
She took some ministerial despatches from Devonport to 
Fahnou^ in unfavourable weather at speed. The distance ii not 
a grsat one, but she achieved a speed A 22 knots both going and 
returning. This is an experience of which both f avounble and 
unfkvounbble comment can be made. On the one hand it shows 
that 27 knots on trial is not to be expected to be reached in 
actual piaotice. On the other hand it shows that these little 
boats can maintain a really high rate of speed in ordinary 
channel weather. We may be sore that weather which affects 
them appieoiably woold render the torpedo-boat they have to 
keep in check absolutely useless. 

The FestMtles at Kiel. 

The programme has been altered so much that it seems useless 
to try to give any account of the intentions of the various guests 
and of Uie arrangements for the ceremony. About 117 warships 
are expected to be present. Of these we shall have ten. They 
win be very good specimens of our modem Navy. Four first- 
class battleships, one first-class and two seoond.class cruisers, 
cme third-class cruiser, and a torpedo gunboat of the vessels built 
under the Naral Defence Act will be included. The other Tessel 
will be the Blenheim^ one of the biggest and fastest cruisers we 

The United States will have four ships, including the triple 
screw CoiUmhia and the 8,000-ton New York, which is comparable 
wiUi our Blenheim, The Oerman Navy wiU of course be present 
in force, 61 of their vessels being expected to be preseut. Altoge- 
ther 20 Admirala and 27,000 men are computed to belong to 
these fleets, and the Beichstag has Toted £66,000 for the 


has been busy within the last few weekj. The occupation of 
that miserable collection of huts called Corlnto will be memor- 
able in a way that was hardly to have been foreseen. It oost the 
life of Oaptain Trench, who acted as Ooveraor of the town daring 
our occupation, and who c8|Oght fever there and died at sea. 
Captain St. Clair of the Edinburgh, to which he had only just 
been appointed, has also died. Both these officers were com- 
paratively young men who might have looked forward to many 
more years of distinguished service for their country. Older 
officers who had seen service in former days were Admiral Sir 
George Elliott and Yioe-Admiral Chapman. 

It Bheemess 

there is to he laid down shortly the Felorue, a third-class cruiser. 
Here too is to be refitted the Uiird^dass cruiser Champion, wnich 
has returned from the Paoiflo and is to replace the Buby in the- 
traiiiing squadron. 

The Programme for the NaTal MaBoavres 

is now being settled. The vessels in the Devonport list are pab- 
lished. Th^ include seven torpedo boats, six destroyers, four 
cruisers, two special service vessels and three torpedo vessels,, 
as well as eight guardships. One of Uiese is the Conqueror, and 
her inclusion is protested against on the ground that her slow 
speed and bud steering qualities make her a disadvantage to the 
fileet to which she may be allotted. It would be well if this faot^ 
that want of speed in one ship ieopardites a whole fleet, wera re* 
cognised more clearly by our Naval authorities. 

Bulkhead Doors. 

The importance of either having no doors in bolkheads or of 
having more efficient means of closing them than have hicherto 
been devised, has been recognised across the Atlantic both in th» 
Naval and Mercantile Marines. It is now stated that an electric 
i^paratus has been invented by an American officer, whereby 
every bulkhead door in tiie ship can be instantly closed ftom the 
conning tower by a single movement, and that one of the new 
waiships now building for the United States Navy is to be fitted 
with the appliance 

Steamship Cirenlar.^Messrs. H. £. Moss A Co. say— *'In our 
semi-annual Circulars for the last two years, we have perslB- 
tently called attention to the depressed condition of shipping 
property, and have cautioned our friends agpainst the unwisdom 
of building new tramp tonnage except for special requirements. 
That our Mvlce was correct is proved by the fact that although 
last season's cotton crop was the largest on record, amounting' 
to about 9,000,000 bales, it was moved without the least difficulty, 
and lower rates were accepted this season than ever known 
before. The amount of new merchant tonnage built during 
1894, according to statistics abready before you, was l,046,5O& 
tons, or, allowing for the losses during the year, still shows a 
nett increase in tomiM^ for the United Ehigdom of 482,000 
tons for the year. The prices for bailding new steamers 
remain abnormally low— in fact, never in our experience 
have been lower; some yards are closed, and nearly ell 
the builders are most anxious for work. We are glad that 
owners of old tonnage are at last realising the usdeesness 
of holding on to their property, and consequently about 
100,000 tons, out of at least 500,000 tons available, have already 
been broken up. It is absolutely impossible for such tonnage 
to be worked at a profit, or to compete any longer with modem 
light-draught triple steamers, carrying, in many instances, 
double the deadweight on the same draught of water. One 
good feature we have to chronicle, and that is the marked 
unprovement recently in values of almost all kinds of produce, 
ana especially the increased value of silver, which must have 
a beneficial effect on freights, and consequently on the 
values of flipping property; but it is to be ho|^ that the 
bitter lessons learnt will not be without wammg, and anv 
fresh undue rush into new tramp s t ea m ers will be avoided 
The war in the East between Japan and China created, while 
it lasted, employment for about 250 British and foreign 
steamers, and many owners were fortunate enough to dispose 
of their property in Japan on satisfactory terms. The con- 
clusion of peace and the cessation of hostilities will bring 
about in time the opening up of the vast empire of China to 
the commerce of the workl. This, combined with the gradual 
increase in the values of produce and silver and the cessation 
of rainous over-buflding of new tramj^ tonnage, will do a great 
deal to soon put the shipping trade m a different and more 
satisfactory position.*' 

The Mew Steamer *<Wioklow.'*— Since Mr. Watson's speed 
was made at the official trial, it may be added, the decision in 
the matter of the mail contract has been given. The Covem- 
ment have renewed the contract with the City of Dublin Steam 
Packet Co., for a period of twenty years, at the rate of £100,000 
per annum. This is an increase of £15,000, and the Company 
nave undertaken to build four new and more powerful steamers^ 
so that the passage from Holyhead to Kingston will average at 
least less. 



[June 1, 1895. 


The foUowing appcnntments hsTe been made at the AdmhnJtr 
irom April 24th to Maj 25th, 1895 1— 
Agnew, J. W., chief engineer to the Ptdo, to date May 18th. 
Barnes, B. J., staff engineer to the Corddia, to date If ay 18th, 
Bone, Howard, engineer to the 8harp$hooUr. 
BooneTiaHe, Joseph A. W., assistant engineer to the Tamar, to 

date May 88th. 
Bomett, W. G., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of 

chief engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Cleave, B. C. Cpcobationary), assistant engineer to the Royal 

Arihwr, to date May 8rd. 
•Camming, 6. B. T., staff engineer to the Calyp$o, to date May 

-De Paris, Y., acting engineer, has been confirmed in the rank of 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Edgar, E. J., engineer to the Leda, 
MAjf C. J., engineer to the Victory ^ to date May 11th. 
Hnghes, Thomas, fleet engineer to the Vind, additional, to date 

April 27th. 
•James, W. H., engineer to the Halcyon, 
Juniper, W. Y., engineer, has been promoted to the rank of chief 

engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
Look, Henry J., fleet engineer to the Tamar, to date May 28th. 
Meadns, W. H., engineer to the Ardent, 
'M.omj, George W., engineer to the Tamar, to date May 28th. 
Newton, George 8., fleet engineer to the Invindble, to date 

April 27th. 
jPaterson, G. T., assistant engineer, has been promoted to be 

acting engineer in Her Majesty's fleet. 
-Skinner, W. U., fleet engineer to the AtatnUia, to date April 

•Smith, Frederick T., assistant engineer to the lamart to date 

May 28th. 
Thompson, J. M., chief engineer to the Behe, to date May 23rd. 
Tnmer, A. W., chief engineer to the Sharpihooter, 
Yibert, J. E., engineer to the Halcyon, 
Yining, Henry P., engineer to the Vt^mon, for the Sta^vU, to date 

May 28rd. 
"Whebl^. Thomas, staff engineer to the Vivid, for the Hermione, 

to date May 11th. 
Williams, 8. B., fleet engineer, has been placed on the retired 


REPORT, MAT 24th, 1896. 

Tkik : Timber 

Stock 1st May 5,524 
Landings 2,579 














The deliveries have been exceedingly good, showing a remark- 
able increase OTor any one month daring the last two years. 
This is a pleasing fact to record, considering the continnal outcry 
of bad trade, which is heard on all rides, as, although a large 
proportion of the deliyeries have gone to H.M. Dockyards, more 
than half have found their way into London consumption. 

The cargo of Bangkok wood remarked upon by ns in our last 
is advertised for sale without reserve, the owners no doubt wish- 
ing to realize promptly and save dock rent and interest. 

Planks have been imported very freely, and as sales cannot 
keep pace with the supply, prices have receded. 

The stock is still too heavy. 

Mahogany.— The forced ssles of large cargoes, other than 
Honduras, have again demoralized the market. The very fact of 
the brokers holding for a 2f d. minimum, and after clearing out 
upon several oocasions at that fij^ire, forcing other cargoes later 
on without reserve and selling at Ifd. aod 2d. per foot, is sufB- 
cient to discourage buyers, wbo have found themselves being 
undereold by nearly 50 per cent. There are still two more 
cargoes, which are destined to destructive handling, and prices 

are expected to sgain touch the lowest point yet reached and 
may be a trifle lower, as the wood is very shaky. 

The dock merchants have met offets of Cuba with a decided 
denial, and latterly large quantities offered for public sale have 
been withdrawn in consequence. 

Panama and African, unless good and sound, flnd very little 
support, and sales are only made at ruinous prices. 

Cedab. — The market is very dull and the only demand is for 
long boat building logs, which are not to be had at prssent. 

Kawxib Pink has been doing fiurly well, even at sales where 
it has been forced lately. The importations likely to be made 
in the near future will t^ values very hard, and probably caose a 
slight decline. 

SsquoiA. — At the last withont-reserve sale a further depression 
in prices was noticed, and should sales of this character continue 
a still further drop will take place, as thete is little demand of 
any kind for Sequoia at the prasent moment. 

Business may be described as unusnally quiet, takmg hard- 
woods aU over, and a hand-to-mouth style of buying is mostly 
adopted among manufacturers. 


(Frosi onr ovm Oorrupondmi,) 

THE past month's doings in the shipjrards of the Clyde have 
been characterised by considerable activity and stir, an ex. 
ceptionally large number of vessels havingbeen put off the stocks, 
some of them of the largset tonnage. The chief event in this 
way was the launch of ttie ilrst-clMs cruiser Terrible from the 
stocks of the Clyde Bank establishment, which took place 
on the 27th ult., in the presence of a large concourse of 

The total tonnage turned oat during May approaches 48,000 
tons, the most notable of the vessels as regards sisse and equip- 
ment beng the MaMa, of 5,800 tons, built by Messrs. Caird k 
Co., Greenock, for the P. A O. Co. ; the first-class cruiser Terrible, 
of 14.250 tons displacement, already referred to. and the Okhla, 
of 6,000 tons, for the British India Steam Navigation Co., 
from the yard of Messrs. Dennv. Dumbarton. 

As r^rds fresh orders for shipping, a very cheeribl state of 
things uJls to be recorded, the new bookings for the month 
amounting to no lees than 56,000 tons, considerably in excess of 
the output. This large figure is for the most part made up by 
new vessels of considerable tonnage for several well-known 
Ocean lines, the Canard, the P. d; O., the Alfred Holt & Co., Ac. 
Particulars as to the separate orders are afterwards given. 

The usual number of petty disputes amongst workmen have 
occurred here and there, as u to put a brake on the accelerated 
powers of production which shipbuilding works now possess. 
Discontent, which has been quietly simmering for some years 
over the piecework system amongst carpenters, has broken oat 
in open agitation at Dumbarton, where *the system has been in 
vogue for many years. To this and other labour matters I will 
refer later. 

Clyde shipbuilding firms who are on the Admiralty list are 
eagerly preparing for the opportunity of tendering for the 
construction of three of the four first-class cruisers included in 
the new programme. At present, of course, they are provided 
with a fair amount of Government work. All the torpedo- 
boat destroyers consigned to their hands last year have been 
launched and several of them finished, and three of them, the 
Clydebank trio, taken over by the Admiralty, bat they are 
still engaged upon one first-class battleship, a first-class 
cruiser, and four second-class cruisers. The Jupiter, as the 
battleship has been named, is well advanced in the yard of 
Messrs. Thomson, Clydebank, though her progress was much 
delayed owing to the coal strike of last year. Messrs. Thomson, 
however, expect that she will be launched before the close of 
the present year. The first-class cruiser Terrible, as already 
stated, was launched from the stocks at Clydebank on the 
27th tdt., and more than one of the second-class cruisers, now 
in the yards of the Fairfield and London and Glasgow CcMn- 
panics, will be launched in the course of the summer. 

Messrs. Alexander Stephen A Sons, Linthouse, have booked 
an order from the Canard Co.. of Liverpool, to construct a large 
steamer of 6,500 tons for their service between Great Britain, 
New York, and Boston. 

June 1, 1896.] 



Mflun. John Shterer A Son, Bhipbnilden, Kelvinhangh, 
have oonlraoted to build a steel screw steamer of about 400 tons 
gross register, which is intended to be employed in the Irish 
coasting trade. On their patent haoling-np slip, Messrs. 
Shearer A Bon have been l^pt ezoeptionaUy bosy for some 
considerable time. 

Messrs, Maokie Sc Thomson, shipbuilders, Gh>van, early in 
the month sub-contracted with Messrs. Alex. Stephen & 
Sons, of Linthouse. toconstruut a small two-masted miauonary 
steamer, of about 160 tons register, for service on foreign 
mission stations. 

Messrs. Bussell A Co., shipbuilders, Greenock, have secured 
an order to build a large cargo steamer of, it is said, about 
8,000 tons deadweight carrying capacitv, the engines for which 
on the triple-expansion principle, ana of about 2,000 1.H.P., 
have been given out to Messrs. fiankin A Blaokmore, engineers, 
Greenock. The same firm have also contracted to build a steel 
sailing ship, of 1,800 tons register, for Messrs. Crawford A 
Rowat, Glasgow, to replace the I\}rt Errol, which was destroyed 
by fire off Arran a few months ago. Messrs. Bussell have also 
secured an order to build two 1,800- ton sailing barques. 

Meosrs. Bankin A Blaokmore, engineers, Eaple Foundry. 
Greenock, have booked an order to construct a pair of diagonal 
compound surface-condensing engines for a river passenger 
steamer, the cylinders being 22 in. and 44 in., with 51 in. 
piston stroke. 

Messrs. A. Bodger A Co.. Port- Glasgow, have just entered 
into a new lease with the Harbour Trust for an extension of 
their shipbuilding yard . Their application, which is to reclaim 
about 6,000 square yards waste grotmdfrom the East Harbour, 
was oonsidered by the Harbour Trust on the 8th ult and agreed 
upon. This extension will enable Messrs. A. Bodger ft Co. to build 
steamers of the larger class now common. As evidence of this 
it is interesting to state that the firm, abouk mid-month, con- 
tracted to build a steel screw steamer ef about 5,500 tons 
carrying capacity for Mr. Hugh Hogarth, Glasgow and 
Ardrossan. They are also about to lay down the keel of a 
l,600*ton sailing ship for the Glen Shipping Co., managed by 
Messrs. Stirling A Co., Glasgow, and similar to the OUnelvan^ 
launched last month for the same owners. 

Messrs. Blackwood A Gordon, Port-Glasgow, during the 
month contracted with the Glasgow, Dublin and Londonderry 
Steampaoket Co. to build for them a steel screw steamer of 
about 600 tons. This vessel is intended for the company's 
cattle and goods cross-channel trade and is to be fitted with 
cattle fittings of the newest type. The engines and boilers will 
also be supplied by Messrs. Blackwood A Gordon, who have 
arranged to ^ve early delivery of the vessel. 

Messrs. William Mamilton A Co.. adjoining Messrs. Black- 
wood A Gordon's, whose berths have been unoccupied for some 
considerable time past, are understood to have secured orders 
for one or two vessels of medium size, and this, together with 
the contract entered into last mouth for a steel screw tug for 
Thames servioe, should keep a goodly proportion of their usual 
hands emploved for a few monuis. 

Messrs. Murdoch A Murray, Shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow, 
whose works have been closed for a while, have oontraoted to 
build two saloon passenger steamers for the traffic on the river 
Amazon. They built £>nr vessels of a similar class last year 
for the same owners. The machinery in each case will be 
triple-expansion. As these steamers have to perform trips of 
more than a thousand miles on the Amazon, they will be 
luxuriously fitted up for passenger traffic. The machinery for 
one of the vessels will be supplied by Messrs. Lees. Anderson A 
Co., Glasgow, and that for the other by Messrs. David Bowan A 
Son, Glasgow. 

Messrs. Bobert McAlister A Son, Dumbarton, have secured 
an order to construct a 50-ft. steam launch to have a speed of 
10 knots. Messrs. Matthew Paul & Co., of the same town, are 
to supply the machinery. 

Messrs. Caird A Co., Greenock, early in the month laid the 
keel of a single-screw passenger steamer for the Peninsular and 
Oriental Co. The vessel, which measures 500 ft. in length, will 
be Ihe largest in the P. A O. fleet, and is to be nameid India, 
Messrs. Caird A Co. have two other large steamers on the stocks, 
in different staaes of construction, for the same owners, and 
they also launched during the past month the MaUa^ of 5,800 
tons, similar to the Simfa, and Nuhia^ recently completed for the 
P. k O. Co. 

Messrs. Soott k Co., shipbuilders and engineers, Greenock, 
secured an order about midmonth to build and engine for 

Messra. Alfred Holt A Co.. Liverpool, two steel steamers, each 
of 7,000 tons carrying capacity for their China trade. The 
same firm have lately fitteid up a saw for cutting out the webs 
of cranks, the jaws of connecting rods, jaws of eccentric rods, 
and other work, the operations being attended to by a handy 
labourer. At an aggregate meeting of the members of the 
Groenock district of the AmalgamatMl Engineers' Society this 
matter has been discussed and protested against. The engi- 
neers have no objection to the introduction of the saw, but hold 
that it should be worked by an engineer. It is stated that the 
saws are likely to be introduced into other works, and it is held 
that, owing to the nature of the work done by these machines, 
no person, unless a tradesman, should be allowed to work 

At the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co.'s yard, Troon, workmen were 
kept pretty busv at the begmning of the month prenaring for 
her trial trip Uie fine steam yacht Zara^ beinc bnut for Mr. 
Peter Coats, of Paisley. The firm early in the month con- 
tracted with Messrs. J. M. Campbell A Co., Glasgow, to build 
a large barque similar in stvle to the KUimny^ launched some 
months ago from the Ailsa shipyard. 

The new yacht Valkyrie^ intended as challenger in the 
America Cup contest, was safely launched from the yard of 
her builders, Messrs. D. A W. Henderson, of Meadowside 
Partick, on the 27th ult. While ffenerally built on the same 
lines as her ill-fated namesake kA last yeekr, the new vessel is 
of larger beam, with a keel shorter, deeper and heavier. Her 
length is 110 ft., beam 26 ft., the deadweight being about 
300 tons, as compared with her predecessor's dimensions of 
06 ft. length, 22} ft. beam, and tonnage 190. The mainmast is 
to be 96 ft. high without the topmast, and the boom 120 ft. 
long, extending about 20 ft. over the stem. The area of the 
mamsail alone will be about 5,000 square feet. 

The '* limited liability" principle is gradually spreading 
amongst Clyde shipbuilding firms. Fairfield set others an 
example in this way some few years ago; later on Messrs. 
Thomson, of Clydebank, and Messrs. McMillan, of Dumbarton, 
followed suit, and now there falls to be added to the list of 
limited companies the firm of Bobert Napier A Sons, one of 
oldest and, m one sense, one of the most historic of ship- 
building firms on the river. The concern, under its new 
designation of B. Mapier A Sons, Limited, has abeady secured 
an order, and have substantial prospects of securing several 
additional orders at an early date. 

Messrs. Bitohie, Graham A Milne, of Craigton, Govan, who 
occupied the small shipyard at Water Bow, near Govan Ferry, 
last year, have decided to occupy the vacant shipyard below 
Whiteinch, formerly held by Messrs. W. B. Thompson A Co.» 

who removed to Dundee about nine years ago. Messrs. 
Thompson sloped the gipand and laid it out snitaUe for ship- 
building operations. The new occupiers have already several 
small orders to execute, one of them being too large to be laid 
down in the old yard, which has necessitated the change. 

In the matter of Clyde steamboat accommodation and 
facilities, which one would have thou^t had almost reached 
the limit for a term of years, there has to be reported a further 
forward step. Two of the three railway companies have added 
new steamers to their alreadv numerous fleet, and the other two 
boats are in the possession of private owners. This latter fact 
is worthy of special consideration, in so far that it seems to 
confute the prevalent belief that the large companies were 
likely to crush private enterprise out of existence. Captain 
John Williamson, who last season ran the Benmore so success- 
fully on special lines, has had the OUnmor$ built to meet the 
demands of his increasing business ; and Captain Buchanan's 
fleet now includes the UU of Bute (lately the property of the 
North British Steam Pacdnt Co., and known as the Guy 
Mannering), The North British Co. has replaced the 
latter wiUi the new steamers, RtdgauiUUt and Dtmdie Dimmont, 
and the remaining fresh addition to the Clyde fleet is the 
Duchets of Both$say by the Caledonian Steam Packet Co. At 
the dose of last season the Glasgow and South- Western Co. 
were credited with a resolve to build ; but it now appears that 
thev mean to get through another season without audition to 
their already numerous and handsome steamers. 

The Dundee Shipbuilders' Co., Limited, who reopened the 
shipyard of Messrs. Alex. Stephen A Sons sometime after its 
having been dosed, owing to the decease of Mr. Alex. Stephen, 
launched, on the 22nd ult., the flrst ship built in the shipyard 
under the new proprietary. This vras the Balgay, of some 800 
tons carrying capacity, for the ooasting servioe of Messrs. 



[June 1, 1895. 

WilliMn KiiiTiear A Co.. Dundee. After safelj entering the 
water, she was towed to Viotoria Dock, where her engines and 
boilers will be fitted by Messrs. J. and H. Whyte &> Cooper. At 
a cake and wine bananet, whioh followed the lannch, Captain 
Lindberg, managing direotor of the Shipbnilders' Co., proposed 
sncodss to the Balgay and her owners, and Mr. William Kinnear 
congratulated the company on the launch of their first ressel. 
on the good character of the work, and wished the company 
increasing prosperity. 

Messrs. Caldwell & Co., 180, Elliot Street, Glasgow, for the 
new battleship Renown^ launched early in the month at Pem- 
broke, supplied the steering engine of their well-known special 
type. The rudder actuated by this engine, it is of interest to 
note, is 18} tons in weight, and ^e largest yet fitted to a war- 
ship. The engine and rudder are expected to turn the ship in 
about four and a half times the length of the ship with both 
screw propellers going ahead, and in three times the length 
with one screw going ahead and the other astern. The rudder 
frame, stempost and stem for the Menown were all supplied 
by the Steel Co. of Scotland, the latter being a massive piece 
weighing 28 tons, while the stempost weighs 25 tons. 

Messrs. T. S. Mclnnes k Co., Limited, 41, Clyde Place. 
Glasgow, have on hand an order from the Admiralty for a 
number of their well-known patent steam indicators. Sets of 
these indicators and other engine-room accessories have been 
supplied to a number of the vessels recently tried on the Clyde 
for speed, notably the fine new channel steamer WiekUnc, the 
latest addition to the fleet of theCity of Dublin Steam Packet Co. 

The measured mile at Skelmonie and the Firth of Clyde 
generallv, formed the scene of unwonted activitv in the way of 
need trials of steamers on 2nd May. On that day as many as 
sUL new steamships varying in tonnage from about 100 tons to 
over 4,000 tons burden went down the Firth on preliminary 
and ofi&cial trial trips. The vessels were the City of Dublin 
Steam Packet Co.'s steamer Wieklaw, the Scottish Oriental 
Co.*s steamer Ketrng-Wai^ built by the Fairfield Shipbuild- 
ing and Engineering Co., Limited, the Austrian Lloyd Steam 
Navigation Co.'s fine steamer Cleopatra, built by Caird & Co., 
Greenock, the London and North- Western Railway Co.'s 
steamer Ss9tr$vor, built for the service between Greenore and 
Holyhead, the splendid passenger paddle steamer JUd OauntUt, 
built by Messrs. Barclay, Curie A Co., Limited, Whiteinch, 
for the North British Steam Packet Co.'s Clyde service i and 
a new steel-screw tug named the Caroni, buut for the Crown 
Agents of the Colonies for the Port of Spsin, Trinidad. The 
JRTsofi^-Wifi is the eleventh vessel built at Fairfield for the 
Scottish Oriental Co., and is classed in the highest grades 
in the Bureau Veritas, also in the British Corporation, and is 
under the Board of Trade survey. On the measured mile at 
Bkelmorlie a speed in excess of the contract was obtained and 
the trial was m every way satisfactory. 

The amount of laid-up tonnage in the Gareloch is not under- 
going any very sensible decrease as time goes on, but it has been 
reduced by at least two vessels during the month. One is the 
steamer Waterloo, of 1,146 tons, wh£oh has been laid up for a 
long time, and the other the Navarino, a still older vessel. 
The JTaterloo, has been sold l^ Messrs. A. C. Gow A Co., to 
Messrs. Macbeth A Grey, Glasgow. She was built at Glasgow, 
in 1879, by the London and Glasgow Shipbuilding Co. Her 
engines are compound surface condensing, of 500 I.H.P. The 
Navmrino was formerly owned by the British India Steam 
Navigation Co., and after having been in disuse for several years 
has been taken to Dumbarton, where she will be broken up. 

For the two new vessels of the Russian Steam Navigation 
Co.'s fleet now being built in the yards of Messrs. Denny, Dum- 
barton, and of J. A G. Thomson, Clydebank, Messrs. Baird, 
Thomson A Co., ventilating engineers, London and Glasgow, 
are preparing an installation of the "Baird, Thomson" 
improved system of mechanical ventilation. The company have 
given the order to Messrs. Baird, Thomson A Co., as the result 
of the satisfaction with the system as supplied some time aao to 
other vessels of their fleet, For the same vessels the Link&ter 
Shipfitting Co., Tynemouth, are supplying three of their patent 
combined raft and deck seats. 

The dispute referred to in last month's Notes between the 
engineers and boilermakers in the yard of Messrs. J. A G. 
Thomson, Clydebank, in regard to work on tubulons boilers, 
having been submitted to arbitration, evidence was heard on the 
21st ult. by Mr. D. J. Dunlop, of Messrs, D. J. Dunlop A Co., 
shipbuilders, Port-Glasgow— the arbitrator selected— in the 
Central Hotel, Glasgow. Mr. Bobert Knight, general secretary 

of the Boilermakers and Jiaa ShipUdlders' Sodaty, and a lar^e 
number of others repr e sen t i ng the several parties interested in 
the matter, were present. A representative from each side 
opened the proceedings, after whioh evidence was submitted, 
and the respective arguments placed before Mr. Dunlop, who 
intimated tnat he would consider his decision. The difference 
between the two classes of workmen, which is the subject of 
arbitration, originated in connection with the new water-tube 
boilers being made for HM.8. TtrribU^ each class claiming the 
workl The boilermakers daim the work on the ground 
that it is boUers that are being made, while the engineers^ 
though admitting that boUers are being made—oootend that the 
work being different from that reanired on boilers previously 
made and more resembling the work of engineers than of boiler^ 
makers should be done by them. In the early stages of the 
dispute, Messrs. Thomson took the work from the engineer! 
and gave it to the boilermakers, but on the engineers p r es sing 
their claim, and even stopping work for a day or two, they 
withdrew the workmen and neither were engaged on the boilers 
for some time. The situation was made slightly more acute by 
the fact that a demand by the engineers for an advance of 
wages had been settled only a few days previously. After the 
work had been delayed for some time the parties agreed to sub- 
mit to arbitration, the engineers being ^ven the work in the 

The carpenters in the yard of Messrs. Denny A Bros., Dumbar- 
ton, have tor some time past expressed dissatisfaction with the 
system of piecework which has for many years been in vogue 
in Messrs. Denny's shipyard. The system is general in Dum- 
barton shipyards, but the carpenters complsin that it boars 
most heavily on their trade, and is in force In almost no other 
shipyard. Dissatisfaction has existed more or lees since the 
system was introduced, but it is only recently that it was 
resolved to take action in the matter. A well*attended meeting 
of tile carpenters was held in Dumbarton about mid-month. 
There was a considerable number of non-society men p re s en t, 
and delegates from Partiok and Clydebank were in attendance. 
After some discussion it was proposed that the voice of the 
meeting be taken in favour of the abolition or continuance of 
the piecework system. This was agreed to and the vote taken 
by ballot, when the meeting declared in favour of abolition by 
an overwhelming majority. It is understood that the result A 
the meeting will be intimated to the executive before further 
proceedings are taken. 

As illustrating the petty incidents on which great issues hang 
now-a-days as regards labour, I may refer to one out of many 
instances which might be given. The other day in the jrard of 
the London A Glasgow Shipbuilding Co., one of the hammer* 
men, who is alleged to be in the habit of losing time, did not 
appear at his work until after breakfast. He was not allowed 
to start work as he had lost considerable time after the last 
pay. He is alleged, then, to have gone to the other hammermen 
and persuaded the whole of them to stop work. Their conten- 
tion was that the man was dismissed not because of his losing 
time but because he was their delegate and shop steward, so 
they declined to start unless be too was given work. 

Messrs. Douglas, Dick A Co., 11, Bothwell Street, Glasgow, 
who are agents for the "Providence" crank bronse capstana 
now so much in favour for yachts, are receiving numerous orders 
for this speciality, one of the latest received being from Mr. 
Sibbick, the well-known yacht-builder of Cowes, who is fitting 
the capstan to the sailing yacht Nerida, Messrs. Dick A Co. 
are also agents for the sale of ** Argymaut," a beautiful incor- 
ridable white metal exquisitely suited for saloon and stateroom 
fittings. They have just been commissioned by the Clyde 
Shipping Co. to supply all the saloon and stateroom fittings in 
two of the vessels belonging to the company. " Argymaut," 
it may be mentioned was employed throughout in the magnifi- 
cent steam yacht VaUant, built for W. K. Yanderbilt some 
years ago by Messrs. Laird, of Birkenhead. 

At the half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of the Glasgow 
Harbour Tunnel Co., held on the 80th April, the chairman in 
moving the adoption of the report, said the American Elevator 
Co. haa completed the erection of the lifts, and were now test- 
ing them with a view of having them in a satisfactory state 
for being brought into use at an early date. The tunnel crosses 
under the Clyde at Finnieston, thus connecting the north and 
soutii sides ox the harbour in ttie vicinity of the Queen's dook 
on the north, and the Cessnock dock on the south side. It is 
anticipated, if no unforeseen difficulties arise, that the tunnel 
will be opened to the public in June. 

June 1, 1896.] 



At a joint meetiiigof Greenook Chamber of Gommeroe and 
tiie shipowners and Bhipbnilders of Greenock and Port-Glasgow 
held on the last day of April. Hr. Dngald Macdongall, of the 
Golf Line Steamship Co., who has held the poet for the 
last 12 years, was again elected to represent the district on 
Lloyd's Begister for a term of four years. Having retnmed 
tiuuiks, Mr. Maodoogall gave a brief history of the origin and 
progreea of Lloyd's since 1838. It was now composed of 68 
ropreeentatives. 26 from London, and 82 from the provinces. 
The funds of the society now amounted to £450,000. The 
income was £115,000 per annum, and the revenue about 
£10,000 to £12,000. Mr. Macdousall contrasted the working of 
Lloyd's with the Board of Trade, and showed how in the 
former oase eversrthing was done satisfactorily, while in the 
Utter it was quite the reverse. Th^ had on the one hand a 
society composed of commercial gentlemen, and on the other, 
the Board of Trade, managed by Government officials ; the 
former had an accumulated mcome of about £500,000, gained 
bit by bit ; the latter, by gross mismanagement had a deficit 
of many thouauids of pounds. Lloyd's was now in a position 
ol doing everything possible to assist the shipbuilder, the ship, 
owner and engineer ; the Board of Trade nad done nothing 
towards that end. Mr. Macdongall, in reply to a question, 
said that probably next year there would be a further reduction 
in Lloyd's fees, which pressed heavily upon the Clyde, but held 
out no immediate prospect of increased representation in Scot- 
land. The election of ten representatives from Scotland have 
since been announced, and are as undemoted: — Glasgow 
underwriters— Mr. Alexander Mitchell and Mr. Seton Thom- 
son ; Shipowners' Association, Mr. G. M. Kerr ; sailing ship- 
owners, Mr. T. C. Guthrie ; steamship owners, Mr. B. Mackiu : 
Chamber of Commerce, Mr. John Boss; Greenock, Mr. D. 
McDou^ ; Leith, Mr. J. Cormaok ; Dundee, Mr. Charles 
Barrie ; Aberdeen, Mr. A. P . Hogarth. 


(From (mr own Com$p<mdini,) 

Bhipbllildiiig. — The indications of coming improvement in 
shipbuilding have become somewhat more proiounced since 
last month, and among these indications the increased number 
of inquiries from shipowners is perhaps the most sigm'fioant. A 
few orders of more than ordinary importance liave been secured, 
and at one of the yards, where operations have been discontinued 
for several months, preparations for resuming work have been 
commenced. There is undoubtedly, a more confident tone in 
business circles, and we shall expect to see a substantial addition 
to the volume of shipbuilding work in this district before the 
advent of winter. The most important event of the month was 
the lauBOh of the Argentine cruiser from the Elswick yard, 
which took place on the 10th. The vessel is one of the Isrgest 
and most costly that have been built at the establishment, and 
the launch was consequently regarded with more than usual 
interest. Everything having passed off successfully, the large 
company of invited guests, were subsequently entertained to a 
luncheon in the works. The vessel is now being fitted with her 
machinery and armament, and will, it is expected, in the course 
of a few weeks be ready for her first trial. Among the various 
accessories that have been already fitted, are two " Taryan " 
evaporators of large power, for producing the requisite supply 
of fresh water, for boiler feed, and for general purposes on boiitfd. 
These evaporators have now become very popular, and no war 
vessel has been launched at Elswick during the last three years 
without a suitable equipment of these very effective fresh water 
producers. Preparations for laying down another large cruiter 
are now being made, and the prospect of brisk work in the 
yard during the remainder of the year is tolerably well 
assured. Business at the Low Walker Yard of Sir W. G. 
Armstrong, Mitchell A Co. is now very active, the whole 
of the building berths being occupied with vessels of 
various types and dimensions. New plate bending rolls of 
modem design, and the very largest sise, are being put down, 
and it is expected that by their aid work will be greatly 
f^Msilitated. Messrs. W. Dobson A Co. have just completed the 
framing of an exceptionally large vessel, and have other work in 

preparation. At Messrs. Wigham Eiohardson A Cc's yard there 
are now but two vessels building, and one of these is ready for 
launching. It is understood, however, that the firm have other 
work to go on with, Messrs, Wood A Skinner, who are building 
a ferry steamer to ply between North and South Shields, have 
put down the keel for another small vessel, thus causing two out 
of their four building berths to be occupied. 

We are pleased to be able to state that Messrs. Hawthorn, 
Leslie & Co., have been commissioned to build another high-claas 
vessel of over 6,000 tons displacement, for the Russian Yoluoteer 
Fleet. A vessel, which was ordered from the firm for the same 
destination some months sgo, is now well advanced in con- 
struction, and it is understm)d that the building of the more 
recenUy ordered vessel will be commenced at once. The firm 
have supplied a good number of vessels to the great Bnssisn 
syndicate mentioned, as well as to other lesdtng commercial 
companies of the same nationality, and no higher testimony 
conkl be adduced as to the quality of the work turned 
out by the firm than the fact of such important commissions 
being from time to time repeated. The firm have resdy for 
launching a large vessel which is understood to be intended for 
the New Zealand trade, and the 6nishing touches, preparatory 
to launching, are being given to the torpedo destroyers ordered 
by the Admiralty. Messrs. 0. S. Swan A Hunter have, by 
arrangement with Messrs. Doxford, undertaken to build two 
" turret " steamers of large size, and one of them is already well 
advanced in construction. 

They have commenced the building of a vessel under the new 
sheds, which is now pracUcallv completed, and is undoubtedly 
the most conspicnous object to be seen on the river. It is fitted 
with a novel type of combined overhead traveller and jib crane, 
worked electrically and serving to deal with all lifts which may 
be necessary in building even the Isrgest steamers. This 
interesting applisnce is supplied from the electrical department 
of Messrs. Clarke, Chapman A Cc's works, and it reflects the 
Cpreatest orodit upon that well-known firm. It has ahready 
proved a marked success, and is probably the roost unique order 
in the way of electric motor work that has op to the present 
been executed byany firm in the country. It is understood that 
Messrs. Swan & Hunter are about to build a large pontoon dock 
for the Smithes Pock Co., North Shields, and they have on hand 
a large steamer ordered by Mr. B. M. Hudson, of Sunderland, 
which is to have bronse propellers, and will otherwise be equipped 
in a superior style. 

At Messrs. Stephenson's Yard, Hebbnm,the 10 barges ordered 
last month by Bnssian owners are all in course of construction, 
and two or three of them are quite ready to be taken to pieces 
for shipment. The building of the others would have been much 
further advanced but for a wages dispute at the Jarrow Steel 
Works, which caused delay in the delivery of materiel. 

Engineering. — The order for engines and boilers for the 
Russian volunteer steamer to be built by this firm at their 
Hepburn yard, will make a substantial addition to the work in 
hand at their St. Peter's establishment, where contracts are at 
present sufficiently numerous to keep most of the depsrtments 
poing night and day. At the North- Eastern Engineering Works, 
Wallsend, there are two old steamers receiving new or converted 
machinery, and there is a good deal of other work in hand. 
The Wallsend Slipway Engineering Works are also well supplied, 
some of the contracts in progress being of more than ordinary 

The Palmer Cc's engineering department is kept in steady 
operation, and the same may be said of Messrs. ReAdhead's works, 
Tyne Duck ; but at some of the smaller marine engine workn 
business is not so satisfactory as could be wished. 

Mef BTJ. Clarke, Chapman A Co., (Htenbead, are at present well 
tnpplied with work, though the effects of severe competition on 
prices are complained of. They have in hand a large amount of 
work for Admiralty contracts in capstans and hoisting 
machinery, as well as the electrical installations on three 
cruisers. The electrical department is jost now specially busy 
on steamship installations, and also upon electric motor work, of 
which there is a large quantity in hand. Of this class is the 
lifting apparatus supplied to Messrs. Swan A Hunter for the 
new shed over theUr largest building berth, which has ahready 
been referred to. 

The Palmer Shipbuilding and Iron Co. have been oommis- 
sioned to build two steamers of 7,000 tons carrying capscitv 
each for the owners of the ** Hall " line of steamers, Liverpool. 
The oompany have buHt several vessels for these owners In 



[June 1, 1895. 

former years, all of which have giTen great satisfaotion, and 
hesoe the refcam of the Liverpool firm to the Jarrow company 
when they required additional steamers. A fine vessel, order^ 
by the Peninsular and Oriental Co., is far advanced towards 
completion, and there are three other vessels on the stocks, 
while berths are being prepared for others to be laid 
down. The fitting ont of three vessels in the water, and the 
breaking np of a conple of old steamers, adds materially to the 
generally brisk appearance of the yard. The yard of the Tyne 
Shipbuilding Co. continnes to be kept very busy, and at 
the Edwards Oo.'s ysrd, which has been idle for several 
months, the keel for a vessel has been placed in one of the berths. 
It is to be hoped that more work will follow, as the stoppage of 
this yard for so long a period has been a serious misfortnne to 
the locality. At Messrs. Beadhead's yard the state of work 
remains satisfactory, the four building berths being occupied 
with vessels in the various stages of keel-laying, framing, 
plating, and preparing for launching. There are also several 
vessels under repair at the yard, and in the initiatory 
departments signs of continued activity are apparent. Messrs. 
Eltringham have two small vessels on the stocks at their 
shipyard, and in the boiler- works business continues active. 
There is a fair amount of work in the graving docks, and in one 
or two instances big contracts are in progress. 

The engine worn of Messrs. B. Stephenson & Co. are kept in 
fairly steady operation on locomotive and general work. A good 
contract for engines, &c., is expected from a foreign source, and, 
should this be secured, briskness In all the shops will be assured 
for some months to come. 

The principal departments of Messrs. John Abbot k Co.*s 
works, Gateshead, are kept tolerably busy; but more eapeciallT 
tiie chain and anchor shops, where Uiere is a good deal of work 
in hand. A new fitting shop has been added recently, or rather 
an old one reconstructed with most satisfactory results, bo far 
as regards economical production and increased output capacity. 
In the ironfounding department there is a large amount of work 
in hand, principally for Sunderland engioeers. 

Mr. Thomas Beynon, of No. 9, Dean Street, Newcastle, has 
taken up the agency for the sale of a new preparation of tannate 
of soda, specifdly intended for use in marine boilers, which is 
manufactured by Messrs. Balph Bigby 4 Co., Walsall. This 
composition is prepared by an improved process which enables 
the manufacturers to offer it at a lower price than such a 
preparation has ever before been sold at. Mr. Beynon is sole 
sgent for the North of England, and holds a large stock at the 
Newcastle dep6t and at l^^e Dock. It should be added that 
where this composition is used neither chipping or sine plates 
are required. Mr. Beynon is also the local sgent for Messrs. 
Engelbert, and is now selling largely a new engine-oil for lubri- 
cating marine and other engines which has just been introduced, 
and which combines the advantage of exceptional cheapness 
with excellence of quality. In these days of keen competition, 
when everything has to be cot '* low," the enterprise of Messrs. 
Engelbert in trying to meet the requirements of shipowners and 
manufacturers will no doubt be appreciated. 

Messrs. Baine & Co., iron manufacturers, have just put down 
a very powerful shearing machine by Messrs. Craig & Donald, of 
Johnstone, N.B., at one of their rolling mills. 

Mr. George Tyzack, of South Shields, continues to do a large 
business in the manufibcture and sale of his well-known patent 
stockless anchors. At Messrs. Spencer's works, Newbum, 
business is still pretty active. 

Owing to the advance in prices of raw hides, Ac., Messrs. 
Georse Angus k Co., of the St. John's Leather Works, have 
found it necessary to apprise their customers that the price of 
all leather goods &all be raised 10 per cent. 


Bhipbnilding^— Messrs. William Doxford & Sons have booked 
anomoer of orders for "turret" steamers during the past few 
weeks, and there is little reason to doubt that this type of ship 
is becoming popular. They have three large ones now on the 
stocks, and it is understood that there are five or six others to 
follow. The firm have also received an order from Messrs. Crow, 
Budolph 4 Co.,'Liverpool, for a cargo boat of 11,260 tons carrying 
capacity ; but they will not be able to lay the keel till one of the 
** turret" ships is launched, and a suitable berth is thereby made 
vacant. The vessel, which is considerably larger than either of 
the two exceptionally large steamers which ^ey have previously 
built for the same owners, will undoubtedly be the biggest cargo 

vessel afloat, and it is no small distinction to be entrusted with 
the building of such a vessel and to be capable of carrying ont 
such a contract successfully. 

Messrs. Short Bros, have booked some contracts lately, and 
business at their yard is sure to be brisk for several months. 

In the other yards above bridge there is very little doing, 
Messrs. B. Thompson k Sons and Messrs. Pickersgill having one 
boat each, and Mr. Laing having three on the stocks, but all in 
advanced stages of construction. Among the latter is the 
sucpesFor to the b.s. Qtneral Eavelock^ which was lost near 
Sunderland last year. The vessel, which is handsomely fitted 
up, was launched on the 26th inst. An extensive piece of ground, 
which was incorporated with the yard some time ago, is now 
being levelled and otherwise prepared for adaptation to ship- 
building on a large scale. Vessels of unusually great length can 
be built on this ground, and it is believed that in time it will be 
exclusively devoted to the building of such vessels. 

At Messrs. Austin's yard there is no new work in progress, 
although a vessel which is unsold is completed on the stocks. 
The firm, however, are kept fairly busy in the repairing depart- 
ment. The Strand yard has all the berths empty ; but there is 
some repair work in hand which keeps a portion of the working 
staff engaged. 

Messrs. Blumer k Co. have four vessels on the stocks, only 
two of which, however, are being piooeeded with, the others being 
" spec " boats, the construction of which it is not desirable to 
carry on beyond certain limits, uotil customers have been 
obtained. The two yards at the South Dock have each but one 
vessel in progress, and in neither case is there many hands 

Messrs. J. L. Thompson k Sons are busily preparing the s.b. 
Vega for delivery to the owners, the Bergenske Damskibscelskabet 
of Norway. The vessel is sumptuously fitted up for psssenger 
accommodation, and will, we have no doubt, be one of the most 
successful on the service between the Tyne and Norway. The 
firm have a good deal of work in the yard, and have just com- 
menced frame turning for a vessel of large size. They have had 
a good share of repsir work lately, one important contract, 
which is not yet completed, being the overhaul of the s.f . Freth- 
field which was ashore at Buenos Ayres, and was greatly 

The building of ships* boats is a decaying industry, and in 
Sunderland, where once it flourished, there sre now scarcely a 
dosen operatifes employed. It is probable that wood will be 
entirely soperpeded by steel, in course of time, as a boat building 
material, and there is consequently little hope of improvement 
for the anemployed manipulators of the former. It is not only 
the introduction of steel boats, however, thst has served to 
destroy the wood boatbuilding trade, but the steady lucres se in 
the size of cargo steamers, which has caused fewer boats to be 
required in proportion to the amount of cargo carried. 

Engine Works. — At the North-Eastem Engireering Works, 
South Dock, work is very actife, particularly in the boilershops 
and foundry. The Palmer's Hill Works are kept in steady 
operation, a considerable amount of repair work having been 
secured, to supplement the new work, lately. There is now at 
the works to receive her machinery a larpe vessel just launched 
IVom the yard of Messrs. J. L. Thompson k Sons, Ltd. The fitting 
with engines and boilers of the British India steamer recently 
launched from Mr. Iiaing*s yard has occupied a good many hands 
at the Southwick Engine Works during the last couple of weeks. 
It is not the first vessel the firm have engined for the same service, 
and there can be no doubt that the work in this case will be as 
sstiffactory as in former instances. On the oocasiun of the tfial of 
the Turret Crown, built by Messrs. Doxford to the order of Messrs. 
Petersen, Tate k Co., of Newcastle, the water-tube boilers 
(Babcook k Wilcox pattern) with which the vessel is fitted, 
were subjected to a pretty severe test, which they came through 
in a most satisfactory manner. With the engines making 78 
revolutions per minute, the vessel maintained a speed of nearly 
12 knots, not the sUghtest sign of priming in the boilers being 
discernible. The heating surface of the boilers is 4,680, and 
the grate area 111 square feet. We are informed that with 
these boilers an hour is deemed quite sufficient to get np steam, 
a feature which, of course, must be looked upon as a great 
advantage from the points of view of quick dispatch and economical 
working. The great reduction in weight, as compared with 
ordinary cylindrical boilers, must also tell in favoar of the newer 
type, which seems bound to make its way in time into general 
adoption. The '* Taryan " evaporator, with which the vessel is 

June 1, 1895.] 



•applied, worked admirably on the occasion of the trial, making 
ao abundance of pore fresh water, and completely satisfying the 
engineers in charge, and all other persons on board, who were 
interested in the working of the maohinerv. 

The engine works, at Wreath Qaay, which have been acquired by 
Messrs. Jamieson A McCoU, and been altered and improved to 
suit the purposes of marine engine boildiog, boilermaking, 
repairing, &o,, are now almost ready for a start being made, aiul 
it is probable that part of the machinery will be in operation 
before the end of the month. Besides the foregoing, the firm 
intend entering npon the manufacture of winches and other 
steamship accessories, and will thereby greatly widen their scope 
of operations. They have reoeiyed a foreign order for the 
engineering department, and are in receipt of a good many 
enquiries for engines, &o., from Tarious quarters. 

Mr. William Mills has, since his withdrawal from the partner- 
ship known as ''Crosier A Mills," devoted his attention to 
developing the resources of his own works at Brewery Bank, 
Monkwearmouth. In addition to the manufacture of his patent 
boat gear, and to the coppers mithing business, which was adready 
under way, he has opened a brass finishing department, which 
enterprise has proved a marked success, as besides getting a 
good share of local work, he is cultivating a steadily growing 
export trade. 

The Monkwearmouth Ironworks have been busier lately than 
for 10010 time previously, a better demand locally for bars 
and angles having arisen. At the Bloomfield engine works of 
Mr. A. A. Riokaby business continues fairly brisk, orders for 
engine packing and other specialities being still pretty numerous. 
At the Pier Engine Works, belonging to Mr. B. J. Smith, there 
has been a fair amount of repair work lately, the situation of 
the works, at the entrance to the Sonth Dock, being highly 
favonrable to the acquisition of contracts. 

The HAFtlepooll. — At this centre shipbuilding continues in a 
tolerably satis&ctory state, though at the leading establishments 
m number of empty berths are to be seen. Messrs. Irvine A Co. 
have a number of barges on the stocks. The engineering estab- 
lishments are well off for work, and it is believed that there is 
other work in prospect. The steel worki are kept going pretty 
regnlariy, and in the rope works a fairly brisk state of 
business is maintained. Timber imports are becoming heavier 
each week, and employment for labour at the docks is oonse- 
qnently much more plentif nU 

Bloekton. — The shipboilding yard of Messrs. Bopner ft Son is 
bUU showing a satisfactory state of briskness, all the berths being 
occupied with vessels of Jaige size, and the initiatory departments 
being kept busy. At Messrs. Richardson ft Duck's yard business 
is slack ; but at Messrs. Craig, Taylor ft Co.'s yard, a worse state 
of things exists, as there is no work whatever on the stocks. 
Engineering and bridge works are moderately busy, and at 
Messrs. Riley Brothers' boiler works quite exceptional activity 
exists. At the Stockton Forge Co.'s work, orders are numerous 
and work brisk. 

Middleibro'.— The state of the shipbuilding trade at this centre 
is unchanged since last month ; but it is expected that in the case 
of the leading firm (Sir Raylton Dixon ft Co.), some further work 
will soon be in evidence. Messrs. Westgarth ft English, marine 
engine manufacturers, ftc, have a good deal of work in hand, and 
are likely to be kept busy during the remainder of the year. 
Foundries are tolerably busy, and steel works are generally better 
supplied with orders than was the case a month ago. In the 
docks business is improving, through increased imports of timber. 


[From our own Corre$pofuUnt.) 

THE position in the marine engineering and shipbuildiog 
industries of this district still remains without appreciable 
improvement. Marine engineers do not report any new work of 
importance, and much the same applies to shipbuilders, this 
branch of industry continuing generally quiet. As regards other 
branches of engineering steady improvement hos been going on 
for the last two or three months. Heavy stationary engine 
builders are mostly getting full of work, a considerable number 
of important orders having recently been given out in this 
district. Machine tool makers also report more enquiry, new 

work coming forward more freely, whilst boiler-makers, although 
many of them are still far from busy, are gradually getting 
better off for orders, and the outlook all through the general 
engineering trades of the district is becoming more satisfactory 
than it has been for some time past. 

The returns issued this month by the trades-union organisations 
connected with the engineering industries again show a steady 
decrease in the number of unemployed members, and although 
this scarcely indicates any really marked revival of activity 
generaUy, it is evidence of the gradual approach of a more 
satisfactory state of trade which augurs well for the immediate 
future. In the Amalgamated Society of Engineers the returns 
stiow about six and a-half per cent, of the total membership on 
donation benefit, which represents a slight reduction as compared 
with last month's reports. Althoagh in this immediate district 
the condition of employment improves but slowly there are 
decidedly more enquliies for workmen, and the number of unem- 
ployed members in the Manchester district now only represents 
eight per cent., as compared with 10 per cent, of the local 
membership a few months back. With regard to the state of 
trade the reports received by the different societies from the 
various districts throughout the country indicate a steady 
improvement, some branches being in a much better position than 
they have been for some time past. Marine centres are generally 
in a more favourable position than they have been, and heavy 
engineering firms are also securing more work, whilst locomotive 
builders are obtaining more orders than they have done for some 
time past. One noticeable feature in this month's returns is the 
decrease of members on the sick list, which has recently been 
abnormally high ; the percentage is now not much above the 

Messrs. Laird Brothers, of Birkenhead, have during the month 
been making rapid progress with the work of fitting on armour 
plates to the hull of the battleship Mars, some 100 tons of armour 
plates being bolted on to her sides weekly, whilst her machinery 
in the engine and boiler shops is being rapidly completed. The 
firm have also launched from their works a specially designed 
passenger steamer, built for the Blackpool Paseenger Steaniooat 
Co., Limited, for their excursion service in connection with the 
Central Pier. This, which has been called The Queen of ths 
North, is a steel paddle-wheel steamer of the most modem type, 
and is 220 ft. long between perpendiculars, 26 ft. beam, 12 ft. 
depth, and measuring about 800 tons O.M. She is to have com- 
pound surface*condensing engines, with four cylinders, the two 
high-pressure fixed diagonal and the low-pressure vertical oscil. 
lating, working at 130 lbs. pressure, and the speed will be about 
20 knots : so that the Queen of the North will be one of the fastest 
excursion steamers on the ooait. The passenger accommodation 
will be ample, consisting of a large open saloon aft, tastefully 
decorated, and a commodious ladies' cabin, with lavatories, 
Ac, also a captain's cabin and a spsoious dining 
saloon forward with bar at after end. There is also a 
handsomely deoorsted smoke-room, and the sponson house con- 
tains lavatories, lamp-room, and other deck ofiEloes. The bridge 
deck will form a promenade, and afford sest-room for a large 
number of passengers, and on this will be placed the steering 
house, engine, telegraphs, ftc. The sides of the vessel aft of the 
paddle-boxes are built up to the bridge deck so that the space 
beneath forms a large deck-house, which will afford commodious 
shelter for deck passengers. The steamer is to be lighted by 
electricity, and carries an electric search light on the bridge, 
whilst steam windlasses, after capstan, steam-steeriog gear, life- 
boats, and other life-saving requirements will be provided, and 
throughout the vessel is fitted in the most approved style for 
first-class passenger service. With regard to the torpedo-boat 
destroyers built by Messrs. Laird, the Ferret, in a three-hours full 
power trial of her machinery with forced draught, attained veiy 
satisfactory results. The vessel went out from Plymouth, and 
the trials resulted as follows : — Steam boilers, 175 lbs., in engine 
room, 172 lbs. ; air pressure in stokeholds, 4*6 in. ; vacuum, 
starboard, 26*5, port, 26*5; revolutions, starboard, 338*1, port, 
334*4; I.H.F., 4,800. The speed attained was 25*5 knots, and 
the engines worked extremely well, whilst the boOers, which are 
of the Normand type, generated steam without any indications 
of priming. The last of the five torpedo-boat destroyers recently 
built by Messrs Laird — the />ra^on— of which a description 
has previously been given, was on May 7th taken out from 
Chatham Dockyard, and in trials made in rough weather, over 
the measured mile on the Maplin Sands, attained the following 
speeds, first mile, 2 mins. bl sees. ; second, 2 mins. 14^ sees. ; 



[June 1, 1895. 

third, 2 mios. 25 seos. ; foarth, 2 mins. 13; sees. ; fifth, 2 miDS. 
8J sees. ; and the last, 2 mins. 2^ sees. ; so that the average 
speed was 27*4 knot§, which was very creditable, considering 
the wind, and the lopping sea, while she scarcely heeled ac all 
in turning at full speed. After other severe test?, which the 
veesel went through in a very satisfactory manner, the engineer 
from the Admiralty expressed his approval of the vessel, and 
Lord Charles Beresf ord in going home by Sheerness signalled 
to the Admiral his complete eatisfaotion with the Dragon* 
Messrs. Laird Bros, have also received orders for several vessels 
of the same bnild and engines as the Dragon^ bat with 
greater boiler power, and getting into 400 revolations, and these 
are expected to attain over 30 knots per boor. 

The West Gas Improvement Co., Miles Platting, Manchester, 
are introdacing a special type of banling capstan, which contains 
one or two new featnres. This capstan, instead of being driven 
by hydranlic power, as is usually the case, is driven by com- 
precsed air. The general design of the capstan does not differ 
much from the ordinary type, except as regards the motor, 
which is similar to a small double-cylinder eagine fitted with 
Joy's patent valve gear, and completely boxed in, so that no 
dust can get to the working parts, and the bottom of the 
chamber forms an oil bath in iihioh the working 
parts of the engine ran. The company have also in 
hand, for the South African goldfieldf, the construction of 
two large air compressors, of their two-stage with intermediate 
cooler type, one of there being to sapply compressed air 
at 100 lbs. pressure, for driving 10 rock drills, and one 
for driving 20 rock drills, at the same pressare. The 
steam engines are compound with Snlzer valve gear, and all 
the auction and delivery valves of the compreFsor will be con- 
trolled by cams, according to West & Jenkins' patent. Owing 
to the high price of fuel in the South African district the engines 
are to be of the most economical type, with surface condensers, 
and the steam cylinders will be jacketed all over, and carefully 
lagged to protect them from radiation. The air ccmpref sors are 
being constructed to deliver 93 per cent, of the volume swept 
through by the pistons, and the intermediate cooler serves to 
economise the power needed for compression. The West Co., it 
may be mentioned, have just added to their works a new platers' 
shop, 192ft. by 56ft., for the mauufactare of hydraulic mains 
and air receiTors and coal conveyers for gas works. 

In the iron trade here the stronger tone reported last month 
has been fully maintained, and a considerable weight of business 
has been put through at higher prices, makers of some brands 
being now well sold for some time ahead. Local pig-iron makers 
have been securing more business, and their quotations have been 
advanced, 408. for forge to 42s. 6d. for foundry, less 2i, being 
now the general rates for delivery Manchester. District brands 
are also stronger than last month, and makers are firm at 378. 6d. 
for forge to d9s. and 89s. 6d. foundry Lincolnshire, with Derby- 
shire about 448. to 46ff. net cash, delivered Manchester, 
although iron in second hands is offered at under these figures. 
For outside brands fair orders have been booked, and prices, 
although they have fluotcated somewhat, owing to the movements 
in warrants, are now generally steady at 43s. lOd. to 44«. 4d. 
for Middlesbrough, net cash, delivered Manchester, with Scotch 
iron 46s. to 46e. 6d. for Eglinton, and about 48s. 6d. to 49s. for 
Gartsherrie, net prompt cash, delivered at the Lancashire ports. 

In manufactared iron makers report some increased busineis, 
but no materially better prices obtainable. They are, however, 
firm in holding to their quoted rates and are not disposed to book 
forward except at an advance on present prices, which lemain at 
£5 to £5 2s. 6d. for bars, £6 128. 6d., and £6 ISs. to £6 17s. 6d. 
for sheets, and £6 15s. to £6 for hcops. delivered Manchester 
district, and 28. 6d. less for shipment. 

In the steel trade rather more activity is reported, orders for 
constructive material having been placed at advanced rates. 
Hematites are now quoted 52s. 6d. to 638. 6d. less 2A ; billets, 
£4 58. net cash for good qualities, and boiler plates, £6 2s. 6d. 
delivered in this district. 

In the metal market there has been a fairly active enquiry, 
and a further advance in list rates of ^. per lb. consequent 
upon the upward movement in raw material. The li^t 
rates for delivery Manchester district are now : — Solid 
drawn brass boiler tubes, 6d.; brats surface condenser tubes, 
7id. ; solid drawn copper tubes, 7|d. ; brazed copper gas and 
steam tube. 7d. ; brazed brass gas tube, 6|d. ; brazed brans machine 
tube, 6id. ; brass wire, 5Jd. ; copper wire, 6Jd. : rolled brass, 
5Jd.j sheet brass, 6Jd. ; yellow metal bolts, 6Jd. ; wrought 

copper boat nails and nvet«, 8id. ; wrought copper tacks, 8}d. ; 
cut copper nails, 7id. to 9id. per lb. ; and copper bolts, £58 per 

^ Bnsiness in the timber trade remains quiet, deliveries have been 
light, but stocks generally are ample and prices are low. In 
East India teak the arrivals of both logs and planks have been 
heavy, and although deliveries have been large, stocks are ample 
with values declining. Only a small quantity of greenheart has 
arrived and fair deliveries are reported, bat stock continues 
ample with prices somewhat easier. 

In the coal trade business continues slow, with pits only 
working about three and a half to four days per week, and supplies 
exceeding requirements as regards all descriptions of round coal. 
House-fire descriptions continue in slow demand, but prices 
remain without quotable change, and steam and forgjs coals also 
continue in very indifferent request, with prices for Uiese not 
averaging more than 6s. fid. at the pit Contracts for gas coal 
and locomotive fuel have also been placed at ybtj low figuies, 
gas coals not fetching within Is. to Is. 6d., and locomotive fuel 
is offered at 6d. less than last year's prices, 68. fid. to 78. for gas 
coal, and 6s. 3d. for locomotive fuel representing the full average 
figures that would be taken. Engine fuel with the present limited 
output, moves off fairly well with prices steady, at about 8s. fid. 
to 4s. for common, to 4s. fid. and 5s. for better qualities at the 

The shipping trade shews no appreciable change, business con- 
tinuing very quiet with prices low, ordinary steam ooals not 
averaging more than 78. 6d. to Ss. delivered at the Garston 
Docks on the High Level, Liverpool. 


(From our own Correspondent.) 

Barrow-lB-Farnesi.— The month of May has not been • 
very eventful one in the shipbuilding and engineering trades oi 
Bam>w. The launch of the twin-screw steamer The Duke of 
Lancaster^ from the yard of the Naval Construction A Arma- 
ments Co., was the occasion of an interesting function, al whiob 
many of the directors Tof the Lancashire and Yorkshire and 
London & North- Western Railway 'Co.*s were present, as well as 
such prominent officials as Mr. Webbe, of Crewe, and Mr. 
Aspinall, of Harwich, the heads of the locomotive departments 
of the two companies. The launch was made the occasion of 
the presentation to Mrs. Armitage, wife of the chairman of 
the Lancashire A Yorkshire Railway Co., who performed the 
christening ceremony, of a diamond bracelet, in tiie form of a 
shamrock, frqm the directors of the two companies, and also oi 
a silver enamelled card case, illustrative of Furness Abbey, 
from the directors of the Naval Construction and Armament* 
Co. The Duke of Lancaster will prove one of the smarlea^ 
steamers engaged in the channel service, and will be on her 
station in about a month's time. The Barrow Co. havt 
still on the stocks the first-class cruiser Powerful^ the two second- 
class cruisers Juno and DorU, and the sand pump dredger for 
the Mersey Dock and Harbour Board. As there is room in the 
yard for twenty steamers or ships at one time, the yard now 
naturally looks comparatively empty, and this will be still 
further noticeable when the Powerful is launched. But ^e 
market for new tonnage is very quiet, and shipping owners are 
very slow in placing orders, even although it is known that 
shipping can now be built much cheaper than at any previous 
time probably in the history of the trade. It oannol ha 
expected, however, that owners will give out new orders when 
the shipping trade is so quiet, and when there is not sufficient 
employment for the tonnage already built. There is, of course, 
always the inducement to spend money cheaply in the bnilding 
of the modem type of vessel, knowing that if any shipping 
trade is doing at all, this class of steamer can be much more 
economically employed than the old-fashioned type of ship. If 
there was a prospect that in a given time, not too far distant, 
there would be a revival in the shipping trade, there cannot 
be a question that much new tonnage would be built. In the 
meantime owners of the old type of steamer with compound 
engines and heavy coal consumption have to look facts fairly 
in the face, and determine whether their craft is worth trana^ 
formation by putting in new high-pressure boilers and 
triple-expansion engines, or whether it would not pay better to 

June 1, 1895.] 



break then) np and sell the old materutl for what it will 
fetch. One of the two alternatives indeed must be adopted, and 
in the meantime new tonnage will take its place, bat the surest 
way of ensuring the building of new ships is the demolition of 
the oM ones, which cannot under new conditions be profitably 
worked. Three strikes have occurred in the Barrow yard 
during the month. The dockers first of all gave notice last 
mouth that they required a revision in their earnings, which 
the builders saw in some oases represented 40 per cent., while 
the drillers on the other hand declare that the scale was intended 
to raise the earnings of those who were practically making no 
income to speak of at all. The men are still out, and in the 
meantime the masters have started a full installation for 
eleetrio drilling, which is working satisfactorily, and they have 
engaged a large number of non-unionist men. The plumbers 
struck work because one man who could not produce his inden- 
tures was engaged by the company. A strike of engineers 
engaged on the Belleville boilers for H.M.8. Powerful, affecting 
about 70 men, took place in the middle of the month, against 
boilflrmakers on a question as to whether a certain job ought 
to be done b^ engineers or boilermakers. These strikes are of 
only small immediate moment, but they have succeeded in 
storoing several departments, and may affect others. 

The month has seen much progress in the construction of 
H.M.8. PowtrfiU. It is calculated she is 500 tons heavier at 
present than U.M.S. TerribU, launched on the Clyde on May 
the 27th. The launch of the Potcerful will probably take 
place on the 26th of June. Her sheathing is well-nigh com- 
ideted, and the work of fixing the tail end shafts and the 
propellers is being proceeded with. The launchways are being 
prepared, and everything got in readiness for the launch on the 
oate named. There is fully a mile width of water in Walney 
Channel where the Powerful will be launched, and in order to 
give plenty of room for the big vessel, some dredging operations 
have oeen going on in Walney Island. These have now been 
completed. The Juno and Durit are well forward in plating, 
and will be ready for launching in about three months. The 
Mersey Dock and Harbour Board's sand dredger, which is a verv 
big job, is gradually assuming ehaps, and will soon be plated. 
This represents the whole of the work the Barrow Co. has 
in the shipbuilding department. New orders are being 
Bought for, but there is no prospect at present of new business 
of any importance. In the engineering department the engines 
of the Powerful are nearly ready, and will oe completed in time 
to be read;^ for lifting aboard when the cruiser is launched. 
Her Belleville boilers, about which so much has been said, are 
gradually being completed. Thirty out of 48 are already btiilt, 
and the others will be ready by the time they are wanted for 
the ship. The engineers of the Juno and Dorii are also 
making headway, as are also the multifarious engines and 
mechanioal appliances for the sand pump dredger. In the 
course of a few weeks the twin-screw steamer Duke of Lancaster, 
for the Fleetwood and Belfast service, will be equipped for sea 
and ready for her trials. Her engines and boilers are already 
on board, and the dock trials wiU take place early in June. She 
has to steam 18 knots. The three torpedo-boat destroyers 
Sturgeon^ Skate, and StirJUh are now ready for their official trials. 
There is reason to believe they will prove themselves to be 28- 
knot boats. 

Sir James Ramtden.— The resignation of Sir James Ramsden 
as managing director of the Forness Railway Co. marks an 
epoch in the history of Barrow. He was in very man^ senses 
the creator of the town audits industries. He originated, 
amongst other concerns, the Barrow Shipbuilding Co., of which, 
antil its transfer to the Naval Construction and Armaments 
Co., he was managing director. Sir James is 73 years of ase, 
and has spent a busy life in endeavouring to promote the 
interests of the Fumess district and of the town of Barrow 
eepeoially. His health is the cause of his retirement from 
active duty. 

The BhipbaUdIng Material Trade.— Orders for plates and 
shipbuilding sections generally are fairly well maintained, and 
Barrow makers are busy on orders held for Glasgow, Belfast 
and Barrow firms. New orders are expected so soon as Admi- 
ralty contracts are given out ; but it is not expected much trade 
wiU be given out on ordinary Mercantile Marine account this 
year. A second plate mill has been started at Barrow, on which 
thin plates are beiog rolled, and it is probable a sheet mill will be 
put down as well. The strike of bogie men and shearers s gainst 
the award of Mr. Jeremiah Head, the men declining to start 
work on the proposed reduction of wages set forth on his list. 

has terminated, and the men have returned to work on the 
terms he laid down. Plates are quoted at £i 15s. per ton. 

The Hematite Trade.— There have been erratic movements 
in the hematite market during the month. Speculative buyers 
placed large orders at fuller prices up to 44s. 8d. per ton, although 
consumptive sales have not increased. Stocks, however, have 
been lifted fully 10,000 tons, and although prices receded to 
43s. 3d., they are back again at 488, lOd.. and firm at that. 
There are good prospects on the hematite market, because the 
demand for Bessemer steel has increased, and there will be 
a fuller consumption of pig-iron. 


{Prom our own Correepondent) 

THE oondition of the shipbuilding and eogineering trades 
of this district has not materuilly changed during the 
Sast month. Much activity has been maintained in all the 
apartments of the various firms, and with the large programme 
of work on hand this activitv may be expected to continue for 
some time to come. Most of the ships on the slips are in an 
advanced state, and the yards present a very full and busy 
appearance, anyone coming up the river would fee a good 
example of the activity which has always been the 
characteristic of the place. 

By the time this reaches our readers' hands, Messrs. Harland 
A Wolff will have launched the large cargo steamer they are 
building for the White Star line. Her dimensions are 560 ft. 
long by 64 ft. beam, making her by far the largest cargo 
steamer in the world. Her deadweight capacity will amount 
to over 17,000 tons, and she will be capable of accommodating 
over 1,000 cattle. 

According to the above it would appear as if the size of cargo 
steamers is on the increase, as these larj^ boats seem to be the 
order of the day, and owners are beginning to find out that 
they pay much better than the small ones. The White Star 
liner Germanie left here for Liverpool after a very satisfactory 
trial in Belfast Lough. 

This steamer has a record which, for a boat of her class, I 
think, would be hard to beat. She left Belfast in 1875 to take 
her station on the White Star Line, and from that time until 
she was returned to her builders (Messrs. Harland & Wolff) 
at the end of last year, was regularly at work on the Atlantic, 
and made no less than 211 round voyages, 422 passages across 
the Atlantic, or a distance of more than one ana a half-million 
statute miles. The original engines and boilers (bvMaudslay, 
Sons St Field, London), after nearly 20 years* work, have been 
taken out and replaced by four cylinder triple*expansion 
engines and boilers to work at 180 lbs. pressure. 

The ship has besides undergone a thcHron^h overhaul, fore and 
aft, and many improvements have been introduced so as to 
make her practically equal, as regards comfort, to the 
Majettie, and Teutonie of the same line, which have proved 
such favourites with the travelling public. The saloon^ 
situated amidships, has been redecorated in white and gold, 
relieved with teakwood framing, and with handsomely-carved 
pilaeters and capitals, and the table and seating arrangements 
have been remodelled with small thwartship tables on each 

The main companion way has all been rebuilt and redecorated 
in wainscot oak and carved panels, entering upon the saloon 
deck, which is covered along its entire length with a permanent 
sun -deck, or awning, on which the lifeboats are placed. This 
deck is now perfeoUy clear of boats and ventilators, and will 
prove a fine promenade, as well as a convenient resort, for the 
usual amusements indulged in by passengers. 

The state-rooms and cabins, Ac, both on the main and 
other decks, have all been redecorated and arranged, and 
Harland's patent rubber tiling has been introduced to a very 
large extent in the main entrances, passages, smoke-room, Sto., 
which will, no doubt, contribute to the comfort of travellers. 

The pantrv, galley, and all culinary arrangements have 
been re-modelled, and are now practically a duplicate of those 
in the larger ships of the line. The Oermanie sailed from 
Liverpool on her first refit vovage on May 15th, and 
I am sure that both travellers ana the public generally will 
take no ordinary interest in a ship which, after performing 
regular passages satisfactorily for 20 years to and from America, 
is rendered capable of not only competing with the majority 



[June 1, 1895. 

of Atlantic Liners lately bailt or designed, bnt far surpassing 
many of them in comfort and convenience. 

Such a history as this must not only be gratifying to the 
Germamc'8 builders and designers, bnt also to the owners, 
Messrs. Ismay, Imrie & Co., Liverpool, who must have taken 
no ordinary care of the vessel to enable her to maintain her 
place as one of the favourites of the Atlantic. 

The pioneer of the White Star Line, the Oceanic, arrived here 
on May 17th for new engines and boilers. Like the Gnmame, 
she is in every way a wonderful ship. Built in 1870, she took 
her station on the ordinary New York run, but, in 1880, being 
too slow for that ^oute, she was chartered out to the Occidental 
Steamship Co. for to run on the Pacific, and from that time 
until she arrived home to her builders, she has been performing 
regular passages. 

Her owners and builders must have every con6dence that 
her hull is in good condition, or they would not go to the 
expense of fitting new engines and boilers, and it speaks well 
for Messrs. Harland & Wolff's work, that a ship after 25 years' 
service is fit to have new engines and boilers. 

Messrs. Harland & Wolff had the fine saloon paddle-steamers, 
Sliive Btmagh and 8lieve Donard, belonging to the County Down 
Bailway Co., in for their summer overmiul previous to starting 
the coast service to and from Bangor, Lame, &o. 

The 8.8. Lord CharUmont,ot the Lord Line, and s.s. Dynamic, 
of the Belfast and Liverpool Line, were also in for repairs. 

By the time this reaches our readers* hands, Messrs. Work- 
man, dark A Go., Limited, will have launched the large 
steamer they are building for Messrs. T. & J. Harrison, of 
Liverpool. She is 450 ft. in length, and over 50 ft. beam, and 
will oarry dose on 10,000 tons, conBtituting her by far the 
largest ship of Messrs. Harrison's akeady extensive fleet. 

Messrs. Workman, Clark A Co. are also making good 
progress with the ships they have on hand for the China 
Matnal Navigation Co. Thc^ also have a large steamer on 
hand for Messrs. Holt, of Liverpool, similar to the s.s. 
Sarpedon and Hector, built for them last year by Workman. 
Clark A Co. 

Heasrs. Workman, Clark & Co. have the s.s. Tyrcmnell, 
belonging to Messrs. Hammond, of Londonderry, which 
■tranaed at Portpatriok during the memorable December gale, 
in for repairs. 

The 8.8. Kathleen, of Mr. Milligan*8 fleet, was also in for 
general repairs. 

The fine steel four-masted ship, OoodHeh, of Belfast, built 
in 1892 by Workman, Clark ft Co., is offered for sale at 
Liverpool. She is of 2,880 tons register, and carries about 
4,000 Ions deadweight on 22 ft. draught. 

BteFB-wheel Steamer.— The b.s. Umkuxi left the Thames on 
May 2l8t. having on board a stem-wheel steamer, $6 ft. in length 
by 20 ft. beam, built by Messrs. Yarrow A Co., of Poplar, for the 
Ooeana Co., Limited, for service on the Zambesi, having a 
draft of 18 inches. The engines are direot«acting borisontal ; the 
boiler, of the locomotive type ; displacement, about 40 tons ; speed, 
ten miles an hour. This boat is similar to the MotquUo and 
Herald, oonstracted by the same firm for the British Oovemment, 
being built in floatable sections, which can be bolted together 
while afloat. 

Mr. Geo. H. Strong, M.LN.l. consulting engineer and 
marine surveyor, of 52a, Savile Street, Hull, has been appointed 
eurveyor (non-exclusive) for the Hull District, to the British 
Corporation for the Survey and Registry of Shipping, Glasgow. 

Chain Making —At the ordinary meeting of the Civil and 
Mechanical Engineers' Sooiety, on Thursday, April 25th, a 
paper was read by Mr. W. Cooper Penn, A.M.LM.E., on 
** Chain-Making.'* A history of iron chain cable-making was 
given ; the first cables used by the English Navy being made by 
Jdessrs. Brown, Lennox & Co., at the beginning of the century, 
and they remained until 1830 the only firm who supplied the 
Navy with these very necessary articles. The method of 
manufacture was gone into, and the various proportions of the 
links that have been adopted at different times was given, and 
the divers forms used. The paper was well illustrated by 
diagrams, photographs, and samples of chains, some of which 
had been tested to destruction for the purpose of showing the 
soundness of the welds and the quality of the material of which 
they were made. A discussion followed, in which Messrs. 

I WUliam C. Street, AJ.C.E., F.R.LB.A., E. H. G. Brewster, 
I A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., A. C. Moffatt, and A. Williamson took 
, part with others. 

Catalogue. — We have received a neat cloth-bound volume 
I from Messrs. J. Stone & Co., of Deptford, London, E. It 
is entitled ** Ships' Fittings and Brass Work." It is thoroughly 
well illustrated. It is businesslike from cover to cover. It 
opens with a £mall telegraphic code for the use of customers 
ordering by telegraph. This contains code words both for 
customers* enquiries and for the firm's replies. Then follows 
a note on the recent extensions of the firm's works, and an 
excellent index to the contents of the book. If anyone wishes 
to knew anything about the fittings of vessels of the Boyal 
or Foreign Navies, or of the fleets of the mail lines, he has 
only to refer to this index. He will see how these things were 
best done in 1805. Telegraphs of every kind, steering and 
engine-room ; steering indicators, binnacles, compasses, bells, 
search-lights for naval and mercantile purposes (such in 
the latter case as for use in the Suez Canal) are here 
in great variety. Scuttles of patterns which we have 
before noticed, and ventilators of every form and suitable for 
use in any part of a vessel have taken a vast amount of 
study in elaborating the best designs for various positions. 
There are sanitary appliances, including baths and state- 
room, washhand basins to suit all purposes and all classes of 
pass^ers. Fittings for boats, sidehghts, lamps, capstans, 
winches, and steering-gears. With the latter we must notice 
the firm's ingenious rudder brake. This not only saves a noise 
which is most irritating to passengers, but it also tends to save 
wear and tear of the pintles. Finally we have the various 
alloys for which Messrs. Stone are so favourably known. The 
volume will be useful generally as showing the constant 
improvements which are so steadily being made in the 
direction of increasing comfort and safety at sea, and at the 
same time in lessening the cost of fittings to those who have 
to pay for the luxuries which modem travellers demand, 
whilst it will be invaluable to the large and increasing body of 
firms who deal with Messrs. Stone & Co. 

Stem-wheel BhallowdrafI Gunboats,— The s.s. Buccaneer 
has latelv left the Thames, having on beard four stern-wheel 
shallow draft gunboats, constructed for the Portuguese Govern- 
ment by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., of Poplar. Three of these 
vessels were oonstructed in floatable- sections, sothat they could 
be connected together and started within a few days after their 
arrival in East Africa. The fourth one was in small pieces, 
arranged for transport overland to the interior on the backs of 
natives. Two of Uie gunboats are for service at Lourenco 
Marqaea and two for Inhambane. These vessels are 89 ft. in 
length by IS ft. beam. Those for Lourenoo Marques will have 
a draft of 18 in. with steam up, and are named Lacerda and 
Serpa Pinto, and the remaining two for Inhambane are named 
Capello and Ivens and will have a draught under the same con- 
ditions of 14 in. 

k Wonderfiil Steamship.— The White Star steamer Oceanic 
arrived in Hymouth last month from Hong Kong and 
Sinsfapore. llie Oceanic was the pioneer steamer of the 
White Star fleet. She was launched on the 27th August, 
1870, and has therefore been afloat a quarter of a century. It 
is given to few ocean steamers to do such marvellous work as 
the Oceanic has done. Coming as an entirely new departure, 
the veritable type of the modem passenger liner, with saloon 
and staterooms amidships, and other innovations, she ran 33 
voyatfes with great success, and achieved a high reputation for 
speed and cooai ort in the Liverpool and New York trade. She 
was then sent out in April, 1875, just 20 years ago, to the 
Paciflc, to run between San Francisco and Hong Kong under 
charter to the Occidental and Oriental S.S. Co., of San 
Francisco. At the end of 1879 she came home to be re- 
boilered, returning to her station in March, 1880, since when 
she has not once been taken off, but has continued uninter- 
ruptedly performing her work with regularity and efficiency, 
and has been the most popular steamer on the Pacific. The 
Coptic, which until recently, was employed in the trade between 
London and New Zealand, has gone to the Pacific to replace 
the Oceanic. The other White Star steamers running in the 
Trans- Pacific trade are the Gaelic and Belgic, The Oceanic was 
designed and built by Messrs. Harland A Wolff, Belfast, from 
whose yard have proceeded the whole of the steamers of the 
White Star fleet. 

June 1, 1895.] 




LAUNCHES.— English. 

Robin and Wreii.~On April 22 od there was launched at 
Hull, by Earle't Shipbuilding Co., two new steel Borew steam 
trawlers, built for the Pioneer Steam Fishing Co., Limited, to 
the order of Messrs. Moodys & Kelly, of Grimsby. These 
boats are 93 ft. Bin. loog, 20 ft. 6 in. beam, and 10 ft. 6 in. depth 
of hold, being generally similar to the Blackbird and Swift, con- 
straoted for the same owners last year. The engines are of the 
triple compound, three crank pattern, and the vessels were 
named the Robin and Wren, 

Cmlmlook. — On April 24th Messrs. Short Bros, launched at 
Sunderland a steel screw steamer, built to the order of Messrs. 
Cairns, Young A Noble, of Newoaslle-on-Tyne. for their Cairn 
line of steamers. The vessel is of the following dimensions : — 
LengUi, 255 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. 9 in. ; and depth, moulded, 
20 ft. 4 in., with a deadweight carrying capacity of about 2,400 
tons. She is classed 100 Al at Lloyd's, and is to be fitted with 
triple-expansion engines and boilers by Messrs. Black, Haw- 
thorn & Co., Limited, Gateshead. Uias Edith Lyle Cairns 
performed the ceremony of naming the vessel the CaimJock. 

Obi«.~On April 25th a steel schooner-rigged steamer of 5,240 
ions gross was lannohed at Sunderland, owned by the British 
Indtt steam Nayigation Go. ; port of registry, Glasgow. 

Bmkala.— On April 25th Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie A Co. 
launched a large steamer at flebbum-on-Tyne. The dimensions 
of the vessel are 435 ft. by 54 ft. by 32 ft. She is built to the 
order of the New Zealancl Shipping Co., of London, for their 
Australian trade, and specially fitted for carrying frozen meat. 
She is classed at Lloyd's 100 Al. The machinery consists of 
a set of triple-expansion engines, capable of indicating upwards 
of 3.000 I.H.P. The vessel was named Bakaia, 

Diudale.— On April 25th Messrs. Philip & Son launched at 
Dartmouth a ketch yacht of 86 tons, built to the order of Mr. 
C. G. Dixon Johnson, of Croft, North Yorkshire. She was 
named the Dingdale, and her dimensions are : 72 ft. between 
perpendiculars; 17ft beam; 10 ft. 4 in. depth of hold, and 9 ft. 

Onuiby.— On April 25th Messrs. Bopner A Son, of Stockton, 
^munohed a steel screw steamer of the following dimensions. 

viz. : — Length between ] 

;— ijengtb Detween perpendiculars, 270 ft. ; breadth, 89 ft. 
6 in. : moulded depth, 17 ft. 2 in., which they have built for a 
West Hartlepool firm. The steamer is built on the part awn- 
ing decked rule, having poop and raised quarter-deck, her 
deadweight carrying capacity being 2,550 tons on 16^ ft. The 
saloon and cabms for the captain and officers are fitted on the 
poop, whilst the engineers are accommodated in iron houses 
plaoed on the awning deck near the entrance to the engine-room. 
She is built on the web-frame principle, leaving the holds 
entirely clear for cargo, and carries her water ballast in a 
oellalar bottom and in the after peak. All labour-saving 
appliances are fitted for the economical working of the steamer, 
and also for the exfMBditious loading and unloa£ng of cargoes. 
She has steam steering gear amidships and screw gear aft, four 
powerful steam winches, two large donkey boilers working at 
the same pressure as the main boilers, patent windlass, stocUess 
anchors, Ac. The engines will work up to about 700 effective 
H J*., and are by Messrs. Blair k Co. Thev are of the triple- 
expansion type, having cylinders 19 in., 81| m. and 51 in. by 
36 in. stroke, steam being supplied by two large steel boilers 
working at 160 lbs. pressure. The vessel was named the Oranby 
by Mis. Robert Bopner, jun. 

GffeDadier.— On April 25th there was launched on the Tyne 
the screw steamer Grenadier, built to the order of the T\^e 
Steam Shipping Co., to replace the old steamer Grenadier. The 
steamer is 240 ft. in length by 30 ft. beam by 17 ft. deep, and 
will be rigged as a three-masted fore-and-aft schooner. She 
will have very comfortable accommodation for 56 first-class 
p s s e eng ers on the mahi and saloon decks, which will be in style 
and finish fully equal to that of the New Londoner. It will 
indude a large saloon in polished oak, a smoke-room, a ladies' 
room, and state-rooms, with the usual lavatories, ^. The 
second-class passengers, 16 in number, will be plaoed on the 
main deck under the topgallant-forecastle, in two well-furnished 
rooms, one for ladies and the other for gentlemen. The vessel 
will also be fitted with electric light, steam heating, and with 
everything to ensure the comfort of the passengers and the 

rapid loading and unloading of the cargo. The engines and 
boilers are expected to propel the vessel when laden at a speed 
of between 13 and 14 knots. 

Mathilda.— On Thursday, AprU 25th, Messrs. Wm. Gray A 
Co., Limited, launched a large steel screw steamer, which nas 
been built to the order of Messrs. J. Christensen & Co., of 
Bergen, Norway. She will take the highest class in Lloyd's 
and also in the Nor^e Veritas Begistries, and is of the fol- 
lowing dimensions, viz..— Lencth over all, 836 ft.; breadth, 47 ft.; 
depth, 27 ft. 4 in., with long bridge and topgallant forecastle. 
A handsome saloon, state-room, capudn's room, <fec., will be 
fitted up in a large deckhouse am idships. The officers' and 
engineers* accommodation will also be on the bridge deck, and 
the crew's berths in the forecastle. The hull is built with web 
frames, large hatchways are fitted, steam winches, steam 
steering gear amidships, and screw gear aft, patent direct 
steam windlass, two donkey boilers, cellular double bottom for 
water ballast, shifting boards throu^out, stockless anchorsi 
telescopic masts, with fore-and-aft rig, boats on beams over- 
head, and a complete outfit will be provided for a first-class 
cargo boat. First-class triple-expansion engines are behig 
supplied by the Central Marine Engine Works of Messrs. 
Wimam Gray &Co., Limited, having cylinders 24 in., 38 in., and 
64 in. diameter, with a piston stroke of 42 in., and fine large 
steel boilers with a working pressure of 160 lbs. per square 
inch. The vessel and maohmery have been constructed under 
the superintendenoe of Mr. John Black, and the ceremony of 
naming the vessel Mathilda was gracefully performed by Mrs. 
Christensen, wife of the managing owner. 

Ookenfelf .— On Saturday, April 27th, Sir Baylton Dixon A 
Co. launched from the Cleveland Dod^rard, Middlesbrough, 
the fine spar deck steamer, Oekenfel*, which has been built to 
the order of the Hansa Steamship Co., Bremen. This is the 
fifth vessel Sur Baylton Dixon A Co. have launched for the 
same owners withm the last two years. The principal 
dimensions are:— Length, 352 ft.; breadth, 44 ft.; depth, 
moulded, 29 ft. 7 in. ; and she is built to Lloyd's highest class. 
The spar-deck is of steel, sheathed with teak, main deck 
of steel, and the poop, bridge, and forecastle deoks are of teak. 
Her deadweight-carrying capacity is about 5,500 tons. The 
accommodation for the centra, officers, and engineers is amid- 
ships, and very handsomely fitted. The vessel will be fitted 
with Sidgwick's patent hinged topmasts, so that they can be 
readily lowered when required. Triple-expansion engbes will 
be supplied by Messrs. T. Biohardson k Sons, Limited, 
Hartlepool, bavins cylinders 25 in., 89 in., and 67 in., by 45 in. 
stroke, with two large single-ended steel boilers, working at 
180 lbs. pressure. The steamer on leaving the ways was 
named Ockenfele. 

NordhTalen.— On Saturday afternoon, April 27th, Messrs. 
Biohardson, Duck k Co. launched from their building yard i^ 
steel screw steamer of the following dimensions :— Length over 
all, 842 ft.; beam extreme, 43 ft.; depth moulded, 29 ft.; 
tonnage gross, 8,250 tons. This steamer, which has been built 
for the Dampskibs Selskabet "Norden" CMr. Peter Brown, 
managing director), of Copenhagen ; will class 100 Al at Lloyd's, 
and has been built under special survey. She is of the spar- 
deck type with break poop aft, bridfle over engines and bdfers, 
and a break forecastle. C&ptain and officers' accommodation is 
amidships in 'tween deoks, engineers are berthed in a deckhouse 
abaft bridge, and crew in forecastle. A cellular double bottom 
for water ballast is fitted throughout, and the vessel has pro- 
vision for additional water ballast in a large deep tank abaft 
engine room bulkhead and also two large peak tanks. The 
equipment includes five steam winches, large donkey boiler, 
steam windlass, stockless anchors and all modem appliances 
for facilitatmg loading and discharging. The engmes by 
Messrs. T. Biohardson <fe Sons, Limited, Hartlepool, are of 
1,000 I.H.P., steam behig supplied by two boilers to work at 
160 lbs. pressure. As the vesnel was leaving the ways she was 
christened NordhvaUn by Mrs. C. J. Bagley, of Hartbum, 

Trevarraok. — On April 80th there was launched from the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. J. Beadhead & Sons, West Docks, 
South Shields, a new steel screw steamer of the following 
dimensions, namely :— Length, 284 ft. ; breadth, 89 ft. : depth, 
moulded, 19 ft. i in. The vessel is intended for general trade, 
is of the partial awning deck type, and is fitted up with all the 
latest improvements for rapid loading and discharging of cargo. 
Her engines, also built by Messrs. Beadhead k Sons, are of the 



[June 1, 1895. 

triple-expansion type, having cylinders of 20^ in., 334 in., and 
^5 ms. diameter, and 86 in. stroke, steam being supplied from 
two large steel boilers, working at a pressure of 160 lb. per square 
inch. The steamer has been built for Messrs. Edwara Hain A 
Sons, St. Ives, Cornwall, and is the 29th vessel built by Messrs. 
John Beadhead & Sons for the same owners. She is named the 

Qoaan of the Horth. — On April 80th Messrs. Laird Bros, 
launched at Birkenhead a paddle steamer, specially designed 
and built to the order of the Blackpool Passenger Steamboat 
Co., Limited, for their excursion service in connection with the 
Central Pier, Blackpool. The new steamer, which was named 
Queen qf the North, is 220 ft. long between perpendiculars, has a 
beam of 26 ft., and a depth of about 12 ft., and measures about 
800 tons, O.M. She wiU be fitted with compound surface*con- 
densing engines. 

Havealo.^Messrs. PickersgiU launched at Southwick last 
month a steel screw steamer, built to the order of London 
owners, of the following dimensions -.—Length, 295 ft. ; breadth, 
42 ft. 8 in. ; depth, 17 ft. 2 in. ; and she will take the higheat 
class at Lloyd's. The engines were built by Messrs. George 
Clark, Limited, and are of the triple.ezpansion type, having 
cylinders 22 in., 86 in., and 59 in., with 89 in. stroke. The 
vessel was named the Harealo. 

Btaal Beraw Tog and Tender.— Messrs. Bennoldson A Sons 
launched at South Shields last month a steel screw tug and 
tender, which has been built to the order of Messrs. Constantino 
Svorono ft Sons, Kertch, and is intended for service in connec- 
tion with their extensive shipping trade there. This vessel, the 
dimensions of which are 100 ft. by 18 ft. by 9 ft., is being fitted 
with a single-screw triple*compound engine of 800 I.H.P., with 
a steel tubular boiler working at 160 lbs. pressure. 

loe Breaker*— On May 7th there was launched from the 
Walker shipyard of Sir W. O. Armstrong, Mitchell A Co., a 
powerful ice breaker, which is intended to be employed in con- 
junction with a railway ferry steamer, also bmlding in the 
aame yard, in carrying railway trucks across the river Volga. 
The vessel is 150 ft. long, and 86 ft. beam, and will be fitted 
with twin«Borew ensines of 1,400 H.P. In consequence of the 
canal locks througn which the vessel must pass between St. 
Petersburg and the Volffa being only 28 ft. wide, the vessel 
being 86 ft. beam, she has been constructed on Swan's patent 
divittUe principle, whereby the vessel can be readily divided 
into two parts longitudinallv, and subsequently rejoined afloat. 
The frames are very closely spaced, and in the bow they are 
doubled, and a great deal of the shell plate is as much as an 
inch thick. The vessel will be fitted with electric light, in- 
duding a projector. 

Charterhooie.— On May 8th Messrs. Priestmsn A Co* 
launched at Southwick a steel screw sfeamer, for Messrs. 
Oslbraith, Pembroke A Co., London, of the following dimen- 
sions :— Length, 886 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. 6 in. ; depth, moulded, 
26 ft. 1 in. The vessel is constructed to Lloyd's nighest class, 
and is described as being of an entirely new type, being really 
a 8par-de(^Eed steamer with heavier scantlings, but having no 
deck laid below the top one, thereby leaving clear holds for the 
quick working of cargoes. The engines and boilers are being 
constructed by Messrs. Wm. Allan & Co., of Sunderland, the 
engines having cylinders 24 in., 38 in., and 64 in., with 42 in. 
atroke. The vessd was namod CharUrhouee. 

Ifoviembre. — On Wednesday, May 8th, there was launched 
from the yard of the Tyne Iron Shipbuilding Co., Limited, of 
•Willington Quay-on-Tyne, a steel screw steamer built to the 
order of Messrs. Aznar k Co., of Bilbao, and of the following 
dimensions, viz. : — Length, 845 ft. : breadth, 44 ft. ; depth, 
monlded, 28 ft. 8 in., and to class 100 Al at Lloyd's on the spar- 
deck rule. This vessel has water ballast fitted right fore and 
«ft on the cellular system, and is also fitted with all modern 
improvements for the rapid loading and discharging of car^, 
including six double oviindered steam winches, direct acting 
steam windlass, large high pressure donkey boiler, steam 
steering gear by Messrs. John Uastie & Co., of Greenock, and 
Hastie s screw gear aft. The engines, which are to be supplied 
by John Dickinson, Esq., of Sunderland, are of the triple- 
expansion type, having cylinders 24 in., 40 in. and 64 in. by 
"24 in. stroke, and working at a pressure of 160 lbs. On leaving 
the ways the vessel was named the Noriembre by Miss Mabel 
Dickinson, daughter of Mr. WiUiam Dickinson, Healy Hall, 
Biding Mill. Among those present at the launch were the 

t Messrs. Aznar, of Bilbao, and their superintendent. Captain 
Uribe, under whose inspection the vessel has been built. 

Doke of Laneaater.— On May 9th the Naval Construction 
and Armaments Co. launched at Barrow the twin-screw 
steamer Duke of Lancaster, built to the order of the Lancashire 
A Yorkshire and London A North- Western Bailway Co.'s. The 
vessel is intended for their Fleetwood and Belfast service, and 
is the third of her class to go on the route. The new vessel ia 
310 ft. long by 37 ft. by 17 ft. 6 in., and she is certified for 800 
passengers. The machinery will be capable of driving the 
vessel at an average speed of 18^ knots. 

Middleton.— Oo Thursday, May 9th, Messrs. William Grav & 
Co., Limited, launched a hMddsome screw steamer which they 
have built for the Middleton Steamship Co., Limited, of Hull 
(Messrs. H. Samman A Co., managers). Her principal 
dimensions are :— Length over all, 814 ft. ; breadth, 44 ft. ; 
and depth, 23 ft. 2 in., and her class will be the highest at 
Lloyd's. The deck erections consist of a half poop, bridge and 
forecastle, and the rig is fore and aft schooner with telescoping 
topmasts. Very tasteful cabin accommodation will be pro- 
vided under the poop, consisting of saloon, state-room, captain*a 
and officers' rooms. The engineers' quarters amidships and the 
crew's berths forward. The sides of the vessel are supported 
by strong web frames, taking the place of hold beams as far aa 
possible, and leaving a clear hold for stowing bulky goods. A 
cellular double bottom is fitted, and also an after*peak tank 
for water ballast, while the steam windlass, steam steering 
gear amidships, screw gear aft, steam winches, patent donkey 
boiler and the whole of the outfit are of the most approved 
description. The machinery for the vessel will be supplied by 
the Central Marine Engine Works of William Gray A Co.. 
Limited, the engines being of the triple-expansion type with 
three inverted cylinders 28 in., SO^^in. and 62 in. diameter, and 
a piston stroke of 89 in. to receive steam from two large steel 
multitubular boilers working at a pressure of 160 lbs. per square 
inch. The vessel and machinery have been constructed under 
the superintendence of Mr. Walter Sa^, of Hull, on behalf of 
the owners. The ceremony of naming her Middleton waa 
gracefully performed by Miss Samman, daughter of the 
managing owner. 

Josephine— On Thursday, May 9th, there was launohed from 
the yard of Messrs. C. S. Swan A Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne, 
a steel screw steamer built on fine lines to carry about 7,000 
tons deadweight on an average speed of 11 knots at sea to the 
following dimensions : —Length, between perpendiculars, 400 ft.; 
breadth, 47 ft. ; depth, moulded. 31 ft. 6 in. ; and to be fitted 
with engines 27 in.,'44 in., and 71 in. by 51 in. stroke, with two 
boilers 14 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft., and one auxiliaryboiler 10 ft. 6 in. 
by 10 ft., 170 lbs. working pressure, by the Wallsend Slipway 
and Engineering Co., Limited. The.vessel was gracefully namea 
Joeephine by Mrs. Campbell, wife of the Consul of Newoaatle 
for the United States. 

Iyj.— On May 9th Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding A Engineer- 
ing Co., Limited, launched from their yard at Hull a splendid 
composite armed yacht named the Ivy, which they are con- 
structing for the service of H.B.M. Niger Coast Protectorate. 
She is classed 100 Al at Lloyd's, and has teak planking on steel 
frames, her dimensions being 204 ft. between perpendiculars, 
by 84 ft. beam, by 16 ft. 6 in. depth, and she is divided by 
watertight bulkheads into nine separate compartments. A 
teak deckhouse 180 ft. long and 20 ft. wide, containing the 
principal state-rooms, is built on the upper deck, and its top is 
extended to the sides of the vessel to form a spacious shade 
deck. The main saloon is on the lower deck, where also are 
situated the bath-rooms, crew's quarters forward, and a large 
cold store chamber and refrigerating apparatus aft. There 
will be a complete installation of electric light, and a search- 
light projector. Her machinery is on the triple compound Miree 
crank principle, driving bronze twin screws, and steam is 
supplied from two steel boilers, to work at 150 lbs. pressure. 
The launching ceremonv took place before a large representative 
gathering, which included the Agent-General (Sir A. Jephson. 
K.N.) and Lady Jephson, Sir Frederick Seager Hunt (Chairman 
of Earle's Co.) and Lady Seager Hunt, Oapt. Vardley Wilmot, 
B.N., Mr. W. James, N.G.P., Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Seaton. and 
Messrs. J. A J. A. Thompson, naval architects, of London, the 
designers of the vessel. 

Baenos Aires —On May 10th Messrs. Armstrong, Mitchell 
A Co. launched at Newcastle the cruiser Buenoe Aires, built for 

June 1, 1895.] 



ilia Argentine GoTernment. The vessel' a dimensions are: — 
Liength,896 f k. • breadth. 47 ft. 2 ia. ; draught, 17 ft. 7 in ; dis. 
plaoement, 4.500 tons. She is constructed of steel. The 
▼eiael ia fitted with twin-screw maohioery 17,000 H.P., and^it 
ifl expected that this will give her a speed of 24 knots. 

B eachwold.— On May 11th Messrs. Cochrane & Cooper 
lannohed from their yard at Grovehill, Beverley, a new steam 
trawler which has been bailt to the order of the Northwold 
Steam Fiahin^ Co., Limited, Grimsby, and is of the following 
dimensions, viz. :~93 ft. between perpendiculars by 20 ft. 6 in. 
by 11 ft. depth of hold, and will be fitted with do N.H.P. triple- 
expansion engines, which are being constmcted by Messrs. 
Amos & Smith> of Hull. The vessel will be fitted with all the 
latest improvements for trawling. On leaving the ways the 
Teasel was named the Beeehwold by Mrs. W. C. Brown, of 
Appleby, Donoaster. 

FeDgnin.— On May 11th an iron steam ketch, of about 151 
ions, named the Penguin, was launched at Hull, owned by 
Pickering & Haldane's Steam Trawling Co. 

Tnmthill.— On May 11th this vessel was launched from the 
Tard of Messrs. William Doxford & Sons, Limited, of Sunder- 
land, having been built to the order of the Broomhill Coal Co., 

SofTolk.— On May 13th a paddle steamer, named the Syffolk, 
was launched at Hull for the Great Eastern Railway Co. 
This vessel has been designed and built for river traffic between 
Harwich and Ipswich, and for short excursions to sea in the 
▼ioinity. Her dimensions are : — Length, 165 ft. ; breadth, 
SI ft. * depth in hold, 7 ft. 3 in. She is built of steel to the 
Board of Trade requirements for this class of steamer, with a 
flnah upper deck, all fore and aft, the deck saloons extending 
the foil width of the ship, as well as over a great portion of 
the length, and above these is a promenade deck, carried also 
over the engine and boiler rooms. The ship was launched with 
machinery on board complete, and steam up, and she made a 
short nmon the Humber prior to being berthed in the Victoria 

Baroa de HeTe de RQdttat--On Thursday morning. May 
16th, Messrs. Coohrane & Cooper launched from their yard at 
Orovehill a handsomely modelled steam trawler builc to the 
order of the Societie Anonyme des Peoheries Ostendaises, 
Ostend, and which is of the following dimensions : Length, 1 01 ft. 
9 in. ; beam, 20 ft. 6 in. ; and II ft. depth of hold. The vessel 
will be fitted with triple-expansion engines of 59 N.H.P., which 
Are being supplied by C. D. Holmes ft Co . of Hull. On leaving 
the ways the vessel was named the Barnn de Neve de Roden by 
Mrs. Coohrane, of Beverley, wife of the senior partner in the 

t. — On Mav 2drd there was launched from the Jarrow 
yard of Messrs. Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Limited, 
a finely-modelled screw cargo and passenger steamer, of the 
foUowing dimensions, viz. : — Length, between perpendiculars, 
400 ft.7beam, 46 ft. 6 in. ; moulded depth, 31 ft. The vessel is 
of the three^deck type, with poop, bridge and forecastle, and 
has been built under special survey to class 100 Al at Lloyd's, 
and to comply with the Admiralty requirements for transport 
«ervioe. Tne upper and main decks are of steel and wood* 
aheathed all fore and aft. and the lower deck is laid throughout 
the cargo holds. A double bottom is fitted on the cellular 
eystem for water ballast, extending all fore and aft, and the 
hull is subdivided by a huge number of watertight steel bulk- 
lieads. Spacious accommodation for fifty to sixty first-class 
passengers is provided in the bridge-house, and will be hand- 
somely and comfortably fitted and ventilated throughout in a 
manner suitable for service in warm climates. Comfortable 
accommodation is fitted in the poop for forty to fiftv second - 
oUas passengers. The officers and engineers are berthed along 
the sides of the bridge-house, and the crew in the topgallant 
forecastle. The vessel will be fitted with all the most modem 
improvements, including steam cranes, winches. Ac, for rapid 
loading and discharging, and will be lighted throughout by 
electricity. She is designed to load about 6,000 tons dead- 
weight on Lloyd's summer freeboard. As the vessel left the 
ways she was christened the Borneo by Miss Angove, daughter 
of Captain Angove, commodore of the P. ft O. Co., London. 

Iddyttona. — On Saturday afternoon, May 25th, Messrsj 
Bichardson, Duck A Co. launched from their yard a steel screw 
steamer of the following dimensions, viz. : — Length over all, 

300 ft. ; beam. 42 ft. ; depth, moulded, 20 ft. ; gro is tonnage, 
2,830 tons. This vessel, which has been built for Messrs. 
Farrar, Groves A Co., of London, will class 100 Al in Lloyd's 
register, and has been built under special survev. She is of 
the part awning deck type, captain and officers being accom- 
modated in half poop, engineers in 'tween decks abaift engine 
casing, and crew in forecastle. A doible bottom throughout, 
and after peak tanks are fitted for water ballast, and the 
equipment includes four steam winches, large donkey boiler, 
steam windlass and steering gear, stockless anchors, etc., etc. 
The engines are by Messrs. Blair ft Co., cylinders 22 in., 36 in., 
and 59 in. by 39 in. stroke, steam being supplied by two single- 
ended boilers working at 160 lbs. pressure. The christening 
ceremony was performed by Miss B. Wood, of Coxhoe Hall, 
Durham, who named the vessel Eddystone. 

Fernfleld.— On Saturday, May 25th, Messrs. Fnrness, 
Withy ft Co., Limited, laundied f^m their shipbuilding yard 
at Hartlepool a large steel screw steamer, built to the order 
of F. Woods, Esq., London. The vessel is a substantial type 
of a modem cargo boat, measuring over 840 ft. in length 
and built throughout of Siemen's Martin steel, with a large 
measurement and deadweight capacity, and is built to the 
highest class at Lloyd's. Every care has been taken in 
designing this vessel to construct her as strong as possible for 
the heavy deadweight trade. The vessel is built on the web- 
frame system, with cellular double bottom all fore and af I, 
subdivided at intervals, the after peak bein^ also available as 
a tank. The main and fore holds are divided by iron water- 
tight bulkheads efficiently stiffened by an iron longitudinal 
division. The greater portion of the shell plating is m 24 ft. 
lengths, and is efficiently backed up by strong sectional 
framing to the top of the vessel all fore and aft, the topsides 
being extra thick to withstand the heavy Atlantic trade. The 
bottom plating is also thicker in way of the ballast tanks to 
allow of the vessel lying aground whilst loading. The whole 
of the weather decks, tank top. floor plates, ftc, are also of 
extra thickness, and the hatchways are of extra size to take in 
the bulkiest cargo. Large winches to hatches, patent steam 
steering gear amidships with hand-sear aft, steam windlass, 
large donkey boiler, and patent stockless anchors are fitted. 
The vessel will be rigged as a pole-masted schooner, and to 
make her available for bridge and canal work the topmasts are 
telescopic. The engines and boilers have been constructed by 
Messrs. Blair ft Co., Stockton-on-Tees, and are of masaive 
design with every provision for economical working. The ship 
and engines have been constructed under the supervision of 
Mr. C. Sage and Captain McFee on behalf of the owners. On 
leaving the ways the vessel was gracefully christened Femfield 
by Miss Mollis Sivewright. 

LAUNCHES.— Scotch. 

ReTenge.— On April 26th there was launched by Messrs. 
Hawthorns ft Co., for London owners, a steam tug of 400 H.P. 
Provision is made on board for a number of passengers. She 
was named Rtvenge, 

Vigilant.— On April 29th there was launched by Messrs. 
Cnmming ft Ellis, at Inverkeithing, a steel barquentine, 
145 ft. by 27 ft. by 12 ft. 2 in., built to the order of German 
owners. The vessei is designed to carry 600 tons on a dbraught, 
of 11 ft. 4 in., and was named Vigilant. 

Rebecca.— On April 29th Messrs. John FuUerton ft Co. 
Paisley, launched a steel screw steamer of 400 tons, named 
Rebecca, built for the Carnarvonshire and Monmouthshire 
Steam Shipping Co., Limited, for their trade between Liverpool 
and Port Madoc. 

Barges.— On May 2nd Messrs. Fleming ft Ferguson, ship- 
builders and engineers, Paisley, launched from their yard two 
steel barges, being the first portion of the order for dredging 
plant which they are executing for the Admiralty in connection 
with the improvement of Gibraltar Harbour. 

Caledonia.- On May 6th a steel twin-screw passenger 
steamer wis launched on Loohawe in presence of a lar^e 
company. As she glided down the ways she was named thn 
Caledonia by Mrs. Campbell, of Dunstaffnagpe. She is 80 ft. 
long, 14 ft. beam, and is supplied with surface-condensing 
compound engines. Her passenger accommodation includes a 
handsome saloon, and she has been built for Mr. Thomas 
Cameron, Portsonachan Hotel, wh^se present steamer is too 



[June 1, 1895. 

small for tbe growing traffic. A large company was after- 
wards entertained to luncheon, Mr. D. M'Nicol, Unionist 
candidate for Argyllshire, being in the chair. The contractors 
for the vessel, Messrs. Bow & MacLachlan, Paisley, first bnilt 
the vessel there, and after being taken down she was rebuilt 
on the shores of Lochawe by the same firm. 

Barcelona. — On May 7th Messrs. Connell & Co. launched on 
the Clyde a steel screw steamer, 390 ft. by 46 ft. by 31} ft., 
which ihe^f have built on Spanish account. She is bnilt to 
Lloyd's highest class, and is fitted with engines having 
cylinders 30 in., 48 in., and 78 in. by 54 in. stroke. Messrs. 
Dunsmuir k Jackson, Govan, supply the machinery. She was 
named Barcelona, 

General AlaYa.— On May 8th there was launched from the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. Arohd. M*Millan A Son, Limited, 
Dumbarton, a steel screw transport steamer of dimensions, 
212 ft. by 30 ft. by 18 ft. 9 in., wmoh has been built to the order 
of the Spanish Bo^al Government. This vessel is intended for 
the transport service of the Government amongst the PhiUipine 
Islands, and has been speoii^y oonstructed and fitted for this 

gurpose. 8he has a teak upper deck, on which are situated 
krge deckhouses containing the saloon and commander's and 
officers' apartments. The lower deck aft is entirely occupied 
with the state-rooms required for the transport service, and 
forward there is aooommodation for petty officers, crew and 
trooDs. The commissary department is also on this deck for- 
ward. The machinery, which is on the triple-expansion 
principle, is being suppUed bv Messrs. David Bowan A Son, 
Glasgow, and embodies all the latest improvements and 
appliances for the efficient working of the ship. Provision has 
been made for the carrying by the vessel of a sufficient arma- 
ment when on her station, and the necessary magazine 
acoommodatiop has been provided in the fore hold. As the 
vessel moved off she was christened General Alava by Signora 
Donna Teresa Oarda de Talero, wife of Captain Ramon de 
Talero, naval superintendent in this country for the Spanidi 
Boyal Government, under whose supervision the vessel has 
becoi built. There were also present at the launch Signor Juan 
Cervera, representing his father, his Excellency General Cervera, 
chief of the Spanish Legation in London ; Captain B. de Talero, 
Captun de Avila (who will ^ as commander of the vessel) and 
Oaptain Vasquez ^s seoond m command), Mr. and Mrs. Haynee 
and Miss Haynes, of Cadiz ; Signor Ernesto Soanavino, Mr. 
Donald, Mr. B. Morton, Glasgow, and others. 

Yalcan. — On May 8th Messrs. J. & J. Hav launched from 
their yard at Kirkintilloch a screw steamer for the coasting 
trade. The vessel, which will carry about 100 tons, was named 
the Vulean by Miss Bathia Biohmond, Kirkintilloch, 

Queen o* the May.— On May 8th Messrs. A. & J. Inglis 
launched a steam yacht of 300 tons for Mr. W. A. Coats, which 
has been named the Queen o' the May, She is from Mr. G. L. 
Watson*! design. 

Lady Sophia.— On May 9th Messrs. Bamage & Ferguson, 
Limited, launched from their shipbuilding yard at Leith, a steel 
steam vacht of 280 tons, Y.M., built to the order of Mr. Robert- 
son, of Washingley Hall, near Peterborough. Built to the 
designs of Mr. St. dare J. Byrne, Liverpod, the new vessel 
presents a very handsome and bold appearance, being modelled 
as a good sea boat, as well as to have great speed. Her 
principal dimensions are: — Length, 149 ft.; breadth, 21 ft.; 
depth, moulded, 12 ft. ; while the machinery consists of a set of 
trii^le-expansion engines, having cylinders 13 in., 21 in., and 
34 in. diameter, by 22 in. stroke, supplied with steam from a 
steel boiler working at 165 lbs. pressure. Electric light is fitted 
throughout and all other recent improvements, including bronze 
propeUer, steam windlass, ash ejector, <!^o. The cabins below 
are unusually large and well fitted, and on deck a spacious 
deckhouse affords ample accommodation for a large party. On 
leaving the ways the yacht was named the Lady Sophia by 
Mrs. Byrne, of Hoylake. 

Oiraio!.— On May 9th Messrs. Scott & Sons launched from 
their shipbuilding yard at Bowling, a screw steamer of 
dimensions 180 ft. bv 29 ft. by 13 ft., built to the order of Mr. 
William Bobertson, 15, Gordon Street, Glasgow. Triple-expan- 
sion engines will be fitted on board by Messrs. Muir & Houston, 
Kinning Park, Glasgow. On moving down the ways the 
steamer was named Giratol by Miss Jane B. Cassels, Buchanan 
Gardens, Mount Vernon. 

Dandle DInmont.— On May 10th Messrs. A. ft J. Inglis 
launched from their building yard at Pointhouse a beautifully 
mo4elled paddle steamer for the North British Steam Packet 
Co. for uieir fervice from Craigendoran. This vessel was 
gracefully named the Dandle Dinmont by Miss Macpherson, 
daughter of Bailie H. S. Macpherson, Park Gate, and was 
immediately placed imder the ouilders* crane to receive her 
machinery. She was built to the specification of Mr. Bobert 
Darling, the company's manager, and under his superinten- 
dence, and will be a useful addition to the fleet so successfully 
managed by him. The new Dandie Dinmont is of similar 
dimensions to the old Clyde favourite of the same name, built 
by the same firm 30 years ago for the same owner. 

Hicolal II. — On May 10th Messrs. Lobnitz & Co., Benfrew, 
latmched the first of three steamers they are building for the 
United Steamship Go. of Copenhagen. The vessel will take 
a cargo of 3,500 tons, and is also arranged for a few 
passengers. The engines are triple-expansion, and are made 
by the builders. On leaving the ways ttie steamer was grace- 
fully named Nkolai II, by Miss Caspersen, daughter of Mr. 
L. C. Caspersen, superintending engineer, who was present on 
behalf of the United Steamship Co. 

Menneviss.— On May 10th Messrs. John Fullerton & Co. 
launched at Paisley the last of three steamers of about 200 tons 
each, which they have constructed to the order of Messrs. 
Thomson A Campbell, London, for foreign service as revenue 
cruisers, and for which they are specially designed. Engines 
on the compound principle, and of great power, are to be fitted 
by Messrs. Boss & Duncan, Whitefield Works, Govan. The 
steamer was named MermerUt by Mrs. Kyle, wife of Captain 
Kyle, who has inspected the steamers while building. 

Lady Windior.— On May 10th Messrs. Groom & Arthur 
launched from their yard, Victoria Dock, Leith, a powerful 
screw tug, 96 ft. by 18 ft. 6 in. by 10 ft. 6 in., moulded, with 
engines of 400 LH.P.. to the order of Messrs. W. H.Tuoker A 
Co., Cardiff. She was named Lady Windtor by MIm Groom, 
25, Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. 

Athene.— On May 10th Messrs. Charles Connell A Co., Soots- 
toun shipyard, launched the steam yacht Athene, a duplioate 
of^the Moneira. launched by them a fortnight ago. She is built 
to the order of Mr. Charles ConneU. 

Zephyr.— On May 10th Messrs. Hanna, Donald A Wilson 
laundied from their Abercom shipbuilding yard, at Paisley, 
the seoond of the two torpedo-boat destroyers they are building 
for Her Majesty's Government. A number of officials from the 
Admiralty were present, and when evervthing was ready Mrs. 
Ford cut the line and launched the vessel, which, while leaving' 
the wavs, was gracefully named Zephyr by Miss Barry. The 
vessel IS 200 ft. long by 19 ft. beam, having a displacement of 
about 280 tons. She is fitted with two sets of triple-expansion 
surface condensing engines having a ooUeotive H.P. of about 
4.000 indicated, ftie boilers are of the usual locomotive type. 
They are fitted in two separate watertight compartments, with 
the necessary fans for supplying air under foroed draught. 
Her armament will consist of one 12-pounder quick-firing gun 
on conning tower, four 6-in. quick-firing guns on the broadside, 
one 6-in. quick-firing gun on pedestal aft. There are also two 
single revolving toi^tedo tubes on deck, and she is to have 
powerful electric searchlight. The officers and engineers' 
cabins are arranged abaft the engine-room. The crew*s accom- 
modation is arranged forward. 

Fidiyana.— On May 13th Messrs. John Beid A Co., Limited, 
launoned from their yard at Whiteinch a screw steam yacht 
for Mr. Andrew Coats, Ferguslie House, Paisley, which 
received the name Fvjiyama from Miss Coats, of Ferguslie 
House, Paisley. This vessel, which was designed by the 
builders, and has been built to Lloyd's highest class, is of 170 ' 
tons yacht measurement, and has triple-expansion engines 
fitted by Messrs. Hall-Brown, Buttery & Co., Govan. 

Malta.— On May 14th Messrs. Gaird & Co., Greenock, 
launched the screw steamer Malta for the P. & O. Co., similar 
in most respects to the ships Simla and Nubia, built by the 
same firm. Dimensions :~Length, 430 ft.; breadth, 50 ft.; 
deptii, 38 ft.: gross tonnage, 5,800; deadweight carrying 
capacity, 7,000 tons. The builders will supply triple-expansion 
engines of 8,600 LH.P. The Malta, which is for the 
Indian and Australian trade, has aooommodation for 90 first- 
class and 62 seoond-dass passengers. She is also fitted with 

June 1, 1895.] 



4kll the latest applianoea of a cargo steamer, and is lighted 
throQghoat by eleotrioity. 

Prosper.— On May 15th, the Campbeltown ShipbnUding Co. 
laxmohed from their yard at Campbeltown, Clyde, a handsomely 
modelled steel screw steamer, of the part awning deck type. 
The vessel registers abont 1,300 tons gross, and has been 
specially bailt to carry a large deadweight on a small draught. 
AU the must improved appliances for navigating the ship and 
for the speedy loading and discharging of cargo are to be 
supplied, including steam steering gear, patent stookless 
smchors, and Clarke, Chapman & Co.'s steam winches. The 
vessel is fitted with oellular double bottom for water ballast, 
and has a raised quarterdeck extending to the engine-room, the 
^tween deck space in fore hold being utilised for cargo. The 
accommodation for captain, officers, and engineers, is situated 
noder awning deck before engine-room and i^ surmounted by a 
deckhouse, containing the cabin entrance and a spacious chart- 
room. Awnings are being supplied throughout the ship. The 
whole arrangements are of the most complete description, 
4jpeoial attention having been paid to lighting and ventilation. 
The crew and firemen are as usual to be berthed forward under 
the awning deck, and a whaleback and large deckhouse have 
been fitted aft for store-rooms, protection of steeriog gear, and 
additionsl accommodation for officers and passengers. The 
engines, which are being sapplied by Messrs. Eincaird A Co., 
Clyde Foundry, Greenock, are of the triple-expansion type, and 
have 17| in. high-pressure cylinders by 39 io. stroke, steam being 
supplied at a working pressure of 160 lbs. There is also a large 
•donkey boiler capable of supplying ample steam to the steam 
winches. A speed of 1 1 knots on a small consumption has been 
guaranteed by the builders. The vessel, which has been built to 
class 100 Al at Lloyd's and has also been accepted by the Nor- 
wegian Veritas for classification to their highest class, is intended 
by the owners, Messrs. Larssen A £!iaer, of Drammen, for the 
China coasting trade, and has been specially fitted to carry 
native passengers. As the vessel left the ways, she was grace- 
fully named Prosper by Mrs. Goddard, Solheim, Bargate, 

Gala Mara.— On May 16th there was launched from the 
yard of Messrs. John Beid & Co., Limited, Whiteinch, a steel 
ecrew steam yacht of about 230 tons yacht measurement, for 
Mr. Neil Mathieson, of Beechfield, Liverpool. This vessel, 
which has been designed by the builders, is to Lloyd's 
highest class, and is the fourth yacht built by Messrs. Reid 
for the same owner. The machinery consists of triple- 
expansion engines, fitted by Messrs. David Bowan & Son, 
iEUiot Street, Glasgow. As the vessel left the ways she was 
named Cala-Mwra by Mrs. Robert Morris, of Carlton, Little 
Sutton, Cheshire. 

Greyhound. — On May 16th the steel paddle steamer Grey- 
hound was launched by Messrs. James <& George Thomson, 
Limited, at Clydebank. She has been built for the North Pier 
Steamship Co., of Blackpool, and is specially intended 
for the excnrsion traffic between that port and the Isle of Man. 
The vessel has a length of 230 ft., breadth of 27 ft., and a depth 
of 10 ft. 

Balgay.-On May 22nd the Dundee Shipbuilders* Co., 
Limited, launched from their shipyard a steamer for Messrs. 
William Kinnear & Co., Dundee. The vessel, which was 
christened the Balgay by Miss Jane Rae, Baludderon, Tealing, 
on leaving the stocks, was towed to Victoria Dock, where her 
engines and boilers will be fitted up by Messrs. J. & H. Whyte 
& Cooper. The Balgay will have a carrying capacity of about 
300 tons, and it was expected she would be ready for sea in 
about ten days. At the conclusion of the ceremony a number 
of ladies and gentlemen were entertained at a cake and wine 
banquet in the office of the Shipbuilders' Co. Captain Lind- 
berg, managing director of the Dundee Shipbuilders' Co.. 
presided, and amongst those present were Mr. William Kin- 
near, Mr. A. H. Stephen, Mr. James M*Laggan. Mr. George 
Drummond, Mr. James Galloway, Errol; Captain Rollo, Mr. 
G. £. Kidd, secretary ; Mr. David Burns, manager ; Mr. George 
M'Ritchie. Mr. J. £. Crow, Mr. G. M. Eidd, Mr. Joseph Thom- 
son, Lloyd's surveyor ; and Mr. F. 8. Stephen. The chairman 
stated that this was the first ship built and launched by the 
young companv in that yard, and he hoped they would receive 
plenty of good and substantial orders. He congratulated 
Messrs. William Kinnear & Co., the managing owners of the 
Balgay, on the fact that they had received a splendid job, not 
only in material, bat in workmanship. Mr. William Kinnear, 

on behalf of the co-owners, thanked Captain Lindberg for the 
kind way in which he had referred to the Balgay ^ and for his 
good wi&es for the success of the vessel. He congratulated 
him, as chairman of the young company, on the very successful 
launch which they had witnessed. He and his ccowners had 
every reason to be satisfied with the workmanship and material 
which they had got in the Balgay. 

Konningen Wilhelmina. — ^On May 23rd there was launched 
from the yard of the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., Limited, Govan, a lar^e steel paddle steamer, named the 
Konningen WiVulminay which has been built to the order of the 
Zeeland Steamship Co., Flushing, for mail and passenger traffic 
between that town and Queenborough. This is the fljrst of 
three similar vessels which the Fairfield Co. have contracted to 
build for the same owners. Her dimensions are:— Length 
between perpendiculars, 320 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 35 ft. 6 in. : 
depth, moulded to upper deck, 24 ft. The vessel is built of steel 
throughout, to the requirnments of Lloyd's rules for the Al class 
for Channel service, and has been under special survey during 
construction. The hull in closely sub-divided by steel water- 
tight bulkheads in order to ensure as far as practicable the 
vessel's safety in case of collision. She has a straight stem and 
elliptic stern, and is flush decked, with a large deckhouse aft, 
a bridge between the paddle-boxes intended for passengers' use, 
and navigating and look-out bridges. Accommodation is pro- 
vided for passengers on all three decks, the first-class being 
arranged in the after part of the vessel and the second-class 
forward. The first-class passengers have a spacious entrance 
in the middle of the after deckhouse. A very Urge state-room, 
specially fitted for persons of high rank ; and four deck cabins 
also communicate with this entrance, while tho remainder of 
the house contains the smoking-room, the well for light and 
ventilation to the dining saloon find two deck cabins. A large 
staircase leads from the upper deck entrance to the main deck, 
on which are situated the dining saloon and ladies' cabin. The 
dining saloon is framed in mahogany and satinwood, with 
picture panels specially painted for the ship by Dutch artists : 
and the ladies' cabin has lincrusta-walton panels with framing 
painted in delicate tints. From the end of the dining saloon a 
corridor extends aft, with passages on either side leadOlng to the 
sleeping cabins, the greater part of which are situated here and 
immediately below on the lower deck. The forward deck-hous