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EASTERN ^ MAINE 

Central Railroad Line. 



THE GREAT THROUGH ROUTE 



TO THE 



STATE OF MAINE 



AND 



DIaritiine ProTinces. 



ALSO TIIE 



Shortest and Popular Route via the Sea-shore, 
Hampton and Rye Beaches, and Isles of Shoals, 
to Wolf boro, No. Conway, and White Mountains. 



The only direct route to the Rangeley's and 
Moosehead Lake, the great fishing-resorts. 



Connections are al so made at Portland with 

the arand/" \Gorham, the Can- 

adas, and i Vtt the Steamboat 

▼Vine^ to ^ ^^ of Maine, and 



No change of cars between Boston and North 
Conway, or Boston and Bangor, and but one to 
St. John, N. B. 



Pullman Palace Cars are in use on this Line. 



No other Line offers such facilities, or possesses 
sach advantages to the Oreat Pleasure Resorts of 
Vew England. 



All the modem improvements are in use on 
fhi8 road. 



Seats or Berths in Pullman Cars can be se- 
cured by letter or telegraph at the Boston office, 
280 TVashington Street. 



Before purchasing tickets, refer to Maps, Advertisements. 
etc., of this Company, to be obtained at the ticket-ofifioes 
in New 7ork, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washing;ton, Mon- 
treal, Quebec, and White Mountains. Also of the principal 
ticket Agents in the United States and Maritime Provinces. 



GEO. BAGHELDER, PAY80N TUCKER, GEO. F. FIELO, 

Sup*t E.B.B. Sap't Maine Central K. B. G«ti'V^«»N^. ViL^V« 




STRANGERS AND CITIZENS 

are conllally Invited to vblt tht- nton of 

BE ADFOBD & ANTHON 

371 AVashington St. (opp. Bromflcld St.)» Bogton, 

IMrORTERS AND DEALERS IX 

CUTLERY, FISHING-TACKLE, SKATE 

AND FANCY HAKDIVAKE. 

Ttaroufftaoat thitt cstablislimcnt, fVom bajtement to roof^ are to be seen laasaj 

NOVEL AND USEFUL ARTICLES 

Table Cntlery— of latest styloH — tlnt>8t llnisli and Ber>iccable quality. 
Pocket-Knives — of all tbc noted makers in every style.— Fancy tfnlTCW, 
HcisHors — rU'Kantly finished — all dlzett and forniH — also in Sets and CaseSa 
Razors — Drcssins-Cases — TravelUns-Cases — Sportsmen's KnlvM 

TDAUEI I CD'Q ADTIPI CQ— such as Luncheon-Baskets- FlaskB — Po«ki 
I nflf kLLCn O An I lULCO stoves — Telescopes— I'ocket-Compasses, ^ 

FANCY HABDWAKE in endless Tariety, - SMALL STEEL WABE8. 

A M d_ P D e will And ever^-thlng for Fishing, of the most reliable quality, c 
** "^ ^ *■ ^ ■* ** all kinds and styles. — Rods made of Split llanil)oo. Oreenbewk 
Lancewood, &c. — Reels of Aluminium, Oreide, Ebonite, <\:c. — Artificial FUei 
for all waters, own patterns and dressing. — Special Flies made to order. 

ETEBYTHINO that Is NEW AND CHOICE in tlie way of FISHING-TACKLE. 

Bradford <fe Anthony are AGENTS n a vpyv HOilP OI^ATCO 

fbr the UNITED STATES for the rfl I Ell I MulflC ulVfl I COf 

the best sclf-faatening Skates made, and have always a full assortment of tbe 
best and latest styles of Skates in the market. 

Washington St. (opp. Bromfield), Boston. 



374 



Baedeker's European Guide-Books. 

»«. 

These celebrated Quide-Books are unequalled in the fulness and accuracy of their 
information, and are famous for the excellence and beauty of their Slaps. This 
edition includes the following Books : — 

Belfftum and Holland 91.73 

The Rhine 2.00 

Northern Germany 2.00 

Southern Germany and Austria 3.50 

Paris and Northern France • • • 2.00 

Sivitzerland 2.50 

Northern Italy 2.50 

Central Italy 2.50 

Traveller's Manual of Conversation, in English, German, 

French, and Italian 1.25 

These Guide-Books are abundantly furnished with Maps and Plans. 

" Baedeker is, as is well known, a singularly accurate and useful gnide .... his 
information Is comprehensive, minute, and carefully compiled." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

" No American who knows what is best for his convenience and comfort abroad 
will fall to possess himself of this in^-aluable series of guide-books. Better buy them 
hero Jn America. They will fUmish Just the needed reading during the long hours of 
the sea- voyage." _ Watchman and Selector (Boston). 

*•* ^"^ **^ 6y Booksellers. Sent, post-paid, on receipt of price, by the Publishers, 

JAMES B. OSGOOD & CO., Boston. 



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THE 



MARITIME PROVINCES: 



\ 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS. 



A GUIDE TO 



(the chief cities, coasts, and islands of the maritime prov- 
j inoes of canada, and to their scenery amd historic 
l attractions ; with the oulf and river of st. 

7 LAWRENCE TO QUEBEC AND MONTREAL ; 

ALSO, NEWFOUNDLAND AND THE 
LABRADOR COAST. 



With four Maps and four Plans, 



tt 

\ 



SECOND EDITION, RKVISKD AND ENLARGED. 







v 



BOSTON: 
JAMES R. OSGOOD \TaD CONKKSX. 



COPTKIOHT, 1876, 

By JAMES R. OSGOOD & CO. 



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PREFACE. 



The chief object of the Handbook to the Maritime Provinces 
is to supply the place of a guide in a land where professional 
guides cannot be found, and to assist the traveller in gaining 
^e greatest possible amount of pleasure and information while 
passing through the most interesting portions of Eastern British 
America. The St. Lawrence Provinces have been hitherto casu- 
ally treated in books which cover wider sections of country (the 
best of which have long been out of print), and the Atlantic 
Provinces have as yet received but little attention of this kind. 
The present guide-book is the first which has been devoted to 
their treatment in a combined form and according to the most 
approved principles of the European works of similar purpose 
and character. It also includes descriptions of the remote and 
interesting coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, which have 
never before been mentioned in works of this character. The 
Handbook is designed to enable travellers to visit any or all 
of the notable places in the Maritime Provinces, with economy 
of money, time, and temper, by giving lists of the hotels with 
their prices, descriptions of the various routes by land and water, 
and maps and plans of the principal cities. The letter-press 
contains epitomes of the histories of the cities and the ancient 
settlements along the coast, statements of the principal scenic 
attractions, descriptions of the art and architecture of the cities, 
and statistics of the chief industries of the included Provinces. 
The brilliant and picturesque records and traditions of the early 
French and Scottish colonies, and the heroic exploits of the 
Jesuit missionaries, have received special attention in connection 
with the localities made famous in those remote days ; and the 
remarkable legends and mythology of the Micmac Indias^ «sa 



lY PREFACBL 

incorporated with the accounts of the places made classic I 
them. The naval and military operations of the wars whit 
centred on Port Royal, Louisbourg, and Quebec have been ccm 
densed from the best authorities, and the mournful events which 
are conmiemorated in "Evangeline" are herein analyzed and 
recorded. The noble coast-scenery and the favorite 8umme^ 
voyages with which the northern seas abound have been de- 
scribed at length in these pages. 

The plan and structure of the book, its system of treatment 
and forms of abbreviation, have been derived from the European 
Handbooks of Karl Baedeker. The typography, binding, and 
system of city plans also resemble those of Baedeker, and hence 
the grand desiderata of compactness and portability, which have 
made hia works the most popular in Europe, have also been 
attained in the present volume. Nearly all the facts concerning 
the routes, hotels, and scenic attractions have been framed or 
verified from the Editor's personal experience, after many 
months of almost incessant travelling for this express purpose. 
But infallibility is impossible in a work of this nature, especial- 
ly amid the rapid changes which are ever going on in America, 
and hence the Editor would be grateful for any bona fde cor- 
rections or suggestions with which either travellers or residents 
may favor him. 

The maps and plans of cities have been prepared with the 
greatest care, and will doubtless prove of material service to all 
who may trust to their directions. They are based on the system 
of lettered and numbered squares, with figures corresponding to 
similar figures, attached to lists of the chief public buildings, 
hotels, churches, and notable objects. The hotels indicated by 
asterisks are those which are believed by the Editor to be the 
most comfortable and elegant. 

M. F. SWEETSER, 

JBditor of Osgood! B American Handbooka, 

911 TremofU St,, Boston. 



CONTENTS. 



PAO; 

L Plan of Toxtb 

IL NswrouKDuuND Ain> Labbadob 

IIL MONBT AMD TBAVELLIHQ EzFENSBS 

lY. Railways Ain> Steamboats 

V. Bouin>-TBip ExcuBSioMS 

yj. Hotels 

VIL Lanouaos 

VIIL Climate and Dbess 8 

JX. FlSHINQ 8 

Z. Miscellaneous Notes . . ' 9 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

boute 

General Notes 13 

L St. John 15 

2. The Enyibons of St. John 22 

L LUy Lake. Marsh Road 22 

2. Mispeck Road. Suspension Bridge 23 

8. Carleton 24 

8. St. John to Eastpobt and St. Stephen. Fassamaquoddt Bat . 25 

1. Eastport 26 

4 Gband Manan 28 

6. St. John to St. Andbews and St. Stephen. Fassamaquoddt Bat 30 

1. St George. Lake Utopia 32 

2. St Andrews. Chamcook Mountain 83 

8. St Stephen. Schoodic Lakes 35 

& St. Andbews and St. Stephen to Woodstock and Houlton . 36 

7. St. John to Banoob 37 

8. St. John to Fbedebicton. I^e St. John Riyeb .... 39 

1. Kennebecasis Bay 40 

2. BelleisleBay 42 

8. Fredericton 44 

4. Fredericton to Miramichi 46 

9. WaSHADEMOAK liAKE . . . 47 

10. Gband Lake 48 

11. Fbedebicton to Woodstock 49 

12. Fbedebicton to Woodstock, bt the St. John Riyeb . • • 51 
18. WooDflTOCK to Gband Falls and Biyi^k du Loup . • * < "C;^ 



Vi CONTENTa 

BOUTB PAOB 

L Tobiqae to Bathnnt 54 

2. The St John to the Restigonche 66 

8. The Madawaaka District 57 

4. The Maine Wooda. Temiacouata Lake 58 

14. St. John to Shjediac 59 

15. The Bat of Chalbob akd thv Nobth Shobx or New Bbukswick 60 

1. Chatham to Shippigan 61 

2. Shippigan. BayofChaleor 64 

8. BathuTst to Caraquette 66 

4. Campbellton to St Flavie 69 

. 16. St. John to Amhebst and Haufaz 70 

1. Quaco. Sussex Vale 71 

2. Albert County. Moncton to Quebec 72 

8. Dorchester. Sackville . . ^ 78 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

General Notes 76 

17. St. John to Amhebst and Halifax 78 

1. Tantramar Marsh. Chignecto Peninsula 79 

2. North Shore of Nova Scotia 81 

18. St. John to Halifax, bt the Annapolis Valley ... 83 

1. Annapolis Royal 85 

2. The Annapolis Valley 88 

8. Kentville to Chester 90 

19. Halifax 93 

20. The Envibons of Halifax 100 

1. Bedford Basin. Point Pleasant 100 

2L The Basin of Minas. Halifax to St. John 101 

1. Advocate Harbor and Cape d'Or ....... 103 

2. The Basin of Minas 104 

22. The Land of Evangeline 107 

23. ANNiUPOLis Rotal to Clabb and Tabkoutb . . . . 112 

L The Clare Settlements 113 

2. The Tusket Lakes and Archipelago 115 

24. DioBT Neck 116 

25. Halifax to Yabmouth. The Atlantic Coast of Nova Scotia . 117 

1. Cape Sambro. Lunenburg 118 

2. Liverpool 120 

8. Shelburne 121 

4. Cape Sable 123 

26L Halifax to Tabmouth, bt thb Shobe Route .... 126 

1. Chester. Mahone Bay .... .^ .... 127 

2. Chester to Liverpool 128 

27. The Livebpool Lakes 129 

2a Halifax to Tangibb 181 

29. The Nobtheast Coast of Nova Scotia 133 

M. Sable Island . 134 



CONTENTS. vii 

BOCTK PAOB 

81. St. John iin) Halifax to Pictou ..••... 136 

83. St. John and Halifax to thb Strait of Canso and Capi B&ktoh 188 

CAFE BRETON. 

General Notes 141 

83. Thx Strait of Canso 142 

84. A&ichat and Isls Madame 146 

85. The Strait of Canso to Sydney, Cafe Breton . . • .146 
96. Halifax to Sydney, Cape Breton 148 

87. The East Coast of Cape Breton. The Sydney Coal-Fields . 152 

88. The Fortress of Louisbouro 154 

89. The North Shore of Cape Breton 158 

1. St Anne's Bay 158 

2. St Paul's Island leo 

iO. The Bras d'Or Lakes 161 

1. Baddeck 162 

2. Qieat Bras d'Or Lake 164 

a TheBrasd'OrtoHalifiuc 166 

4L Baddeck to Mabou and Port Hood 167 

1. St Patrick's Channel. Whycocomagfa 167 

42i The West Coast of Cape Breton . , 168 

1. Port Hood. Mabou. . 169 

2. Maigaree. The Lord's Day Gale . « ..... 170 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

General Notes 172 

48. Shediac to Summerside and Charlottetown .... 174 

1. The Northumberland Strait 174 

44. PicTou TO Prince Edward Island 175 

45. Charlottetown 175 

L Enyirons of Charlottetovm 177 

46. Charlottetown to Summerside and Tignish. The Western 

Shores of Prince Edward Island 177 

1 Rnstica Summerside 178 

47. Charlottetown to Georgetown 180 

48. Charlottetown to Souris 182 

49. The Magdalen Islands 183 

50. St. Pierre and Miquelon 185 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

General Notes 187 

61. Halifax to St. John's, Newfoxtndland 188 

62. St. John's, Newfoxtndland 189 

68. Tee Environs of St. John's 195 

1. Portugal Cove. Logie Bay. Torbay 195 

64. The Strait Shore of Avalon. St. John's to Cape Race . V)^ 



viii CONTENTS. 

BOCTK PAOX 

1. The Grand Banks of Newfoundland 199 

55. St. John's to Labrador. The Northern Coast of Newfoundland aoo 

1. BonavistaBay S03 

2. Twillingate. Exploits Island 205 

56w St. John's to Conception Bat 206 

57. Trinttt Bay 208 

5& The Bat of Notre Damb 210 

59. Placentia Bay 212 

00. The Western Outforts. St. John's to Cape Bat .... 213 

L Fortune Bay 214 

2. Hermitage Bay ~ . . 215 

6L The French Shore. Cape Rat to Cape St. John . . . 216 

1. The Interior of Newfoundland 218 

2. The Strait of Belle Isle 220 

LABRADOR 

General Notes 223 

62. The Atlantic Coast, to the Morayian Missions and Greenland 224 

1. The MoraYian Missions 226 

68. The Labrador Coast of the Strait of Belle Isle . . . 227 

64. The Labrador Coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence . . . 229 

1. The Mingan Islands 281 

2. The SeYen Islands 232 

65u Anticosti 284 

PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. 

General Notes 236 

66L FiCTOu TO Quebec. The Coasts of QASpfi 238 

1. Paspebiac 240 

2. Perc4 242 

8. Gasp6 244 

67. Tee Lower St. Lawrence 246 

1. Father Point Rimouski 250 

2. Bic. Trois Pistoles 251 

8. St Anne de la Pocatiire. L'Islet 253 

68. Quebec 255 

L Durham Terrace 259 

2. Jesuits' College. Basilica * . . 261 

8. Seminary 262 

4. Laval UniYcrsity. Parliament Building 263 

5. HdtelDieu. Around the Ramparts 266 

6. The Lower Town 271 

69. The Environs of Quebec 276 

1. Beauport Montmorenci Falls 276 

2. Indian Lorette 278 

8. Chilean Bigot SiUery 280 

4. Point LeYL Chandi^re Falls 282 



CONTENTS* ix 

BQDTB PAOB 

70. Quebec to La Boitne Ste. Amn 288 

L The Falls of St Anne 286 

7L The Isle or Orleans 288 

72. Quebec to Cacouna and the Saguenat Bivbr .... 291 

L St Paul's Bay 292 

2. Murray Bay 294 

8. Cacouna . 296 

73. The Saouenat Riveb 297 

1. Tadoosac 299 

2. Chicoutimi 800 

8. Ha Ha Bay. Lake St John SOI 

4. Eternity Bay. Cape Trinity 803 

74. Quebec to Montbeal. The St. Lawbence Bivbr . . . .805 

75. Montreal 809 

L Victoria Square. Notre Dame 811 

2. The QesiL St Patrick's Church . . . . . . 313 

3. Cathedral McGill University. Great Seminary . . . .814 

4. HdtelDieu. Mount BoyaL Victoria Bridge .... 816 
76L The Envibons of Montbeal 818 

L Around the Mountain. Sault aa Becollet 818 

2. Lachine Rapids. Canghnawaga 819 

8. Beloeil Mt St Anne 820 

Index to Localities 821 

Index to Histobical and Biographical Allusions .... 832 

Index to Quotations ; . 833 

Index to Bailwats and Steamboats 834 

liiOT of Authorities Consulted 834 



L Map 07 the Mabitiiix Provinces : before title-page. 

2. Map of Newfooiidland and Labrador : after the index. 

8. Map of the Acadian Land : between pages 106 and 107. 

4 Map of the Saguenay River : between pages 296 and 297. 

6. Map of the Lower St. Lawrence River : between pages 296 and 297. 



PLANS OF CITIES. 



1. St. John: between pages 14 and 15. 

2. ELalifaz : between pages 92 and 93. 
8. Quebec : between pages 254 and 255. 

4. Montreal : between pages 808 and 809. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



N. — North, Northern, etc. 
S. — South, etc 
E. — East, etc 
W. — West» etc 
N. R —New Brunswick. 
N. a— Nova Scotia. 
N. F. — Newfoundland. 
Lab. — Labrador. 



P. B. I. —Prince Edward Island. 

P. Q. — Province of Quebec 

M — mile or miles. 

r. — right 

L — left 

ft — foot or feet 

hr. — hour. 

min. —minute or minutes. 



Asterisks denote objects deserving of special attention. 



INTRODUCTION. 



I. Flan of Tour. 

The most profitable course for a tourist in the Lower Provinces is to 
keep moving, and his route should be made to include as many as pos- 
sible of the points of interest which are easily accessible. There are but 
few places in this region where the local attractions are of sufficient inter- 
est to justify a prolonged visit, or where the accommodations for stran- 
gers are adapted to make such a sojourn pleasant The historic and 
scenic beauties are not concentrated on a few points, but extend through- 
out the country, affording rare opportunities for journeys whose general 
course may be replete with interest. The peculiar charms of the Mari- 
time Provinces are their history during the Acadian era and their noble 
coast scenery, — the former containing some of the most romantic episodes 
in the annals of America, and the latter exhibiting a marvellous blending 
of mountainous capes and picturesque islands with the blue northern sea. 
And these two traits are intertwined throughout, for there is scarce a 
promontory that has not ruins or legends of French fortresses, scarce a 
bay that has not heard the roaring broadsides of British frigates. 

The remarkable ethnological phenomena here presented are also cal- 
culated to awaken interest even in the lightest minds. The American tour- 
ist, accustomed to the horaogeneousness of the cities and rural communi- 
ties of the Republic, may here see extensive districts inhabited by French- 
men or by Scottish Highlanders, preserving their national languages, cus- 
toms, and amusements unaffected by the presence and pressure of British 
influence uid power. Of such are the districts of Clare and Madawaska 
and the entire island of Cape Breton. The people of the cities and the 
English settlements are quaintly ultra- Anglican (in the secular sense of 
the word), and follow London as closely as possible in all matters of cos- 
tume, idiom, and social manners. 

All these phases of provincial life and history afford subjects for study 
or amusement to the traveller, and may serve to make a summer voyage 
both interesting and profitable. 

Travelling has been greatly facilitated, within a few years, by the es- 
tablishment of railways and stearasliip routes throughout the Provinces. 
From the analyses of these lines, given in the following pages, the tourist 

1 k^ 

/ 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

will be able to compute the cost of his trip, both in money and in time. 
The following tour would include a glimpse at the chief attractions of the 
country, and will serve to convey an idea of the time requisite : — 

Boston to St. John •••••.. I^ days. 

St. John 1 «« 

St. John to Annapolis and Halifax . . . . 2 " 

Halifax 1 " 

Halifax to Sydney I^ " 

The Bras d'Or Lakes 1 " 

Port Hawkesbury to Pictou, Charlottetown, and Shediac 2 *• 

Shediac to Quebec (by steamer) 4 " 

Quebec 3 " 

Quebec to Boston 1 " 

Failures to connect 3 " 

21 days. 

To this circular tour several side-trips may be added, at the discretion 
of the traveller. The most desirable among these are the routes to Pas- 
samaquoddy Bay, the St. John River, the Basin of Minas (to Parrsboro*) 
from Halifax to Chester and Mahone Bay, Whycocomagh, or Louisbours 
(in Cape Breton), and the Saguenay River. Either of these side-trips will 
take from two to four days. 

If the tourist wishes to sojourn for several days or weeks in one place 
the most eligible points for such a visit, outside of St. John and Htdifax 
are St. Andrews, Grand Manan, or Dalhousie, in New Brunswick • An- 
napolis, Wolfville, Parrsboro', or CJhester, in Nova Scotia ; Baddeck in 
Cape Breton ; and, perhaps, Summerside, in Prince Eilward Island. At 
each of these villages are small but comfortable inns, and the surround- 
ing scenery is attractive. 

II. Kewfonndland and Labrador. 

Extended descriptions of these remote northern coasts have been given 
in the following pages for the use of the increasing number of travellers 
who yearly pass thitherward. The marine scenery of Newfoundland is 
the grandest on the North Atlantic coast, and here are all the varied phe- 
nomena of the northern seas, — icebergs, the aurora borealis, the herds of 
seals, the desolate and lofty shores, and the vast fishing-fleets from which 
France and the United States draw their best seamen. English and 
American yachtsmen grow more familiar every year with these coasts, 
and it is becoming more common for gentlemen of our Eastern cities 
to embark on fishing-schooners and make the voyage to Labrador or the 

The tourist can also reach the remotest setUements on the Labrador 



INTRODUCTION. S 

coast by the steaniship lines from Halifax to St John's, N. F., and thence 
to Battie Harbor. This route takes a long period of time, though the 
expense is comparatively light ; and the accommodations on the steam- 
ships beyond St John's are quite inferior. A shorter circular tour may 
be made by taking the steamer from Halifax to St John's, and at St. 
John's embarking on the Western Outports steamship, which coasts along 
the entire S. shore of the island, and runs down to Sydney, C. B., 
once a month. From Sydney the tourist can return to Halifax (or St. 
John, N. B.) by way of the Bras d'Or Lakes. The Western Outports 
steamship also visits the quaint French colony at St. Pierre and Miquelon 
fortnightly, and the traveller can stop off there and return directly to 
Halifax by the Anglo-French steamship, which leaves St. Pierre fort- 
nightly. 

Sea-Sickness, The chief benefit to be derived on these routes is the 
invigoration of the bracing air of the northern sea. Persons who are 
liable to sea-sickness should avoid the Newfoundland trip, since rough 
weather is frequently experienced there, and the stewards- are neither as 
numerous nor as dexterous as those on the transatlantic steamships. The 
Editor is tempted to insert here a bit of personal experience, showing 
how the results of early experiences, combined with the advice of veteran 
travellers, have furnished him with a code of rules which are useful against 
the waZ du mer in all its forms. During 28 days on the Mediterranean 
Sea and 45 days on the Canadian waters, the observance of these simple 
rules prevented sickness, although every condition of weather was expe- 
rienced, from the fierce simoom of the Lybian Desert to' the icy gales of 
Labrador. The chief rule, to which the others are but corollaries, is, 
Don't think of your physical self. Any one in perfect health, who will 
busy himself for an hour in thinking about the manner in which his 
breath is inhaled, or in which his eyes perform their functions, will soon 
feel ill at ease in his hmgs or eyes, and can only regain tranquillity by 
banishing the disturbing thoughts. Avoid, therefore, this gloomy and 
apprehensive self-contemplation, and fill the mind with bright and en- 
grossing themes, — the conversation of merry companions, the exciting 
vicissitudes of card-playing, or the marvellous deeds of some hero of ro- 
mance. Never think of your throat and stomach, nor think of thinking 
or not thinking of them, but forget that such conveniences exist Keep 
on deck as much as possible, warmly wrapped up, and inhaling the salty 
air of the sea. Don't stay in the lee of the funnel, where the smell of oil 
is nauseating. And if you are still ill at ease, lie down in your state- 
room, with the port-hole slightly opened, and go to sleep. The tourist 
should purchase, before leaving Halifax, two or three lively novels, a flask 
of fine brandy, a bottle of pickled limes, and a dozen lemons. 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

m. Xoney and Travelling Szpenf ei. 

The tourist will experience great inconvenience from the lack of a imi- 
form currency in the Provinces. If he carries New-Brunswick money into 
Nova Scotia or Quebec, it can only be passed at a discount ; and the same 
is true with Nova-Scotia or Quebec bills in either of the other Provinces. 
There appears to be no standard currency in circulation. To save fre- 
quent discounts, it is best for tlie tourist to carry U. S. money, changing 
it, in each Province, for the amount of local currency that he will be 
likely to need there. Respectable shop-keepers in the cities take U. S. 
money in payment for their goods, valuing it at the rate at which it is 
quoted on the local exchange. It is, however, more economical and con- 
venient to take the U. S. money to an exchange office and buy as much 
of the local currency as will be needed during the sojourn. The shop- 
keepers are apt to charge at least full prices to people who have Amer- 
ican money. 

The silver coins of this country could only be defined in a lengthy 
numismatical treatise. There are half-crowns, two-shilling pieces, flor- 
ins, shillings, and several smaller grades of English coins, independent 
and varying silver and copper tokens of each of the Lower Provinces, the 
money of Newfoundland, and large quantities of American silver. The 
latter is very unstable in its valuation, since a 25-cent piece goes for from 
20 to 24 cents in the same city and on the same day, the rate of ex- 
change apparently depending on the time of day and the mood of the 
shop-keeper. Nova-Scotian or Canadian money is held at a heavy dis- 
count in Newfoundland, and it is better to carry greenbacks there. 

rv. Railways and Steamboats. 

The new-bom railway system of the Maritime Provinces is being ex- 
tended rapidly on all sides, by the energy of private corporations and 
the liberality of the Canadian Government. The lines are generally well 
and securely constructed, on English principles of solidity, and are not 
yet burdened by such a pressure of traffic as to render travelling in any 
way dangerous. The cars are built on the American plan, and are suf- 
ficiently comfortable. On most trains there are no accommodations for 
smokers, and, generally, when any such convenience exists, it is only to 
be had in the second-class cars. Pullman cars were introduced on the 
Intercolonial Railway in 1874, and will probably be retained there during 
the summer seasons. They have been used on the European and North 
American road for three years. There are restaurants at convenient dis- 
tances on the lines, where the trains stop long enough for passengers to 
take their meals. The narrow-gauge cars on Prince Edward Island and 
on the New Bninswick Railway will attract the attention of travellers, 
on account of their singular construction. The tourist has choice of 



INTRODUCTION. \ 5 

three grades of accommodation on tlie chief raflways, — Pullman car, 
first class, and second class. The latter mode of travelling ia very un- 
comfortable. 

The steamships which ply along these coasts afford material for a 
naval museum. At least two vessels of the Quebec and Gulf Ports 
fleet were captured blockade-runners ; the Edgar Stuart was one of the 
most daring of the Cuban supply-ships, and was nearly the cause of 
a battle between the Spanish steamer Tornado and the U. S. frigate 
Wyoming, in the harbor of Aspinwall ; the M, A. Starr was built for 
a British gunboat ; it is claimed that the Virgo was intended for a U. S. 
man-of-war ; and there are several other historic vessels now engaged in 
these peaceful pursuits. Grood accommodations are given on the vessels 
which ply between Boston and St. John and to Halifax and Prince Ed- 
ward Island. The cabins of the Quebec and Gulf Ports steamships are 
el^antly fitted up, and are airy and spacious. The Annapolis, Minas, 
Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland lines have comfortable accom- 
modations, and the Yarmouth and North Shore vessels are also fairly 
equipped. The lines to the Magdalen Islands, St. Pierre, and along the 
Newfoundland and Labrador coasts are primarily intended for the trans- 
portation of freight, and for successfully encountering rough weather and 
heavy seas, and have small cabins and plain fare. The Saguenay steam- 
iers resemble the better t;lass of American river-boats, and have fine 
accommodations. Since the Canadas are under the English social system 
and have retained the Old- World customs, it will be found expedient, in 
many cases, to conciliate the waiters and stewards by small gifts of 
money. As the results thereof, the state-rooms will be better cared for, 
and the meals will be more promptly and generously served. 

T?ie MaU'Stagea. — The remoter districts of the Provinces are visited 
by lines of stages. The tourist will naturally be deceived by the grandil- 
oquent titles of "Royal Mail Stage," or "Her Majesty's Mail Route," 
and suppose that some reflected stateliness will invest the vehicles that 
bear su^h august names. In point of fact, and with but two or three 
exceptions, the Provincial stages are far from corresponding to such ex- 
pectations ; being, in most cases, the rudest and plainest carriages, some- 
times drawn by but one horse, and usually unprovided with covers. The 
fares, however, are very low, for this class of transportation, and a good 
rate of speed is usually kept up. 

y. Bound-Trip Exonrsions. 

During the summer and early autumn the railway and steamship 
companies prepare lists of excursions at greatly reduced prices. In- 
formation and lists of these routes may be obtained of Lucius 
Tattle, General Passenger Agent of the Eastern R. R., Boston^ T* 



e INTRODUCTION. 

Edward Bond, Ticket Agent of the Central Vermont B. B., 148 Washing, 
ton St., Boston; and from Stevenson and Leve, Passenger Agents of the 
Quebec and Gulf Ports S. S. Co., Quebec. Small books are issued every 
spring by these companies, each giving several himdred combinations of 
routes, with their prices. They may be obtained on application, in person 
or by letter, at the above-mentioned offices. The excursion tickets are 
good during the season, and have all the privileges of first-class tickets. 
The following tours, selected from the books of the three companies (for 
1874), will serve to convey an idea of the pecuniary expense incurred in a 
trip through the best sections of the Maritime Provinces. 

The CeiUral Vermont It, It, — (Excursion 139.) International steam- 
ship, Boston to St. John ; St. John to Halifax, by the Annapolis route ; 
Halifax to Pictou, by the Intercolonial Railway ; Pictou to Quebec, by 
the Q. k G. P. steamships (meals and state-room extra) ; Quebec to Mon- 
treal, by the Richelieu steamer, or the Grand Trunk Railway ; Quebec to 
Boston, by the Central Vermont R. R. Fare, $34.50; or if the Eastern 
Railroad is preferred between Boston and St. John, $ 36.50. 

Boston to Portland, by Eastern R. R ; N. E. & N. S. S. S. Co. to Hali- 
fax ; Halifax to Point du Chene, by the Intercolonial Railway ; Point du 
Chene to Quebec, by Q. k G. P. S. S. Co. ; Quebec to Montreal, by rail- 
way or steamer; Montreal to Boston, by the Central Vermont R. R. 
Fare, $33.35. 

Boston to Montreal, by Central Vt. R. R. and connections; Montreal 
to Quebec, by railway or steamer ; Quebec to Point du Chene, by Q. & 
G. P. steamship ; Point du Chene to St. John, by Intercolonial Railway • 
St. John to Boston, by International steamship. Fare, $ 29.15. 

Eastern It, R, — Boston to St. John, by rail ; St. John to Point du 
Chene, by Intercolonial Railway ; Point du Chene to Quebec, by Quebec 
and Gulf Ports S. S. Co. ; Quebec to Boston, by Grand Trunk and East- 
em Railways. Fare, $35.65. 

Boston to St. John and Shediac, by rail; Shediac to Summerside, C%ar- 
lottetown, and Pictou, by steamship ; Pictou to Halifax, by rail ; Halifax 
to St. John, by the Annapolis route ; St. John to Boston, by rail. Fare, 
$34.10. 

Boston to Portland, by rail ; Portland to St. John, by steamer ; St. 
John to Halifax, by Annapolis route ; Halifax to St. John, by Intercolo- 
nial Railway ; St. John to Boston, by rail. Fare, $ 26.50. 

Quebec and Chdf Ports S. S. Co. — Boston to Pictou, by the Boston 
and Colonial 3. S. Co. ; Pictou to Quebec, by the Q. & G. P. S. S. Co. 
Fare, $21 ; fare from Quebec to Boston, $ 10. 

Boston to Halifax, by Boston and Colonial S. S. Co. ; Halifax to St. 
John, by the Annapolis route; St. John to Point du Chene,. by Inter* 
eolonial Railway ; Point du Chene to Quebec, by Q. & G. P. S. S. Co. 
Fare, $26.50. 



INTRODUCTION. T 

Boston to Portland, by Eastern R R ; Portland to St. John, by Inter- 
national S. S. Co. ; St. John to Point dn Chene, by Intercolonial Rail- 
way ; Point dn Chene to Quebec, by Q. & O. P. S. S. Co. Fare, $ 19. 

YI. Hotels. 

The Hotels of the Maritime Provinces are far behind the age. The 
Hotel Dafferin, at St. John, is the only first-class honse in the four Prov- 
inces, though the two chief hotels at Halifax are •comfortable. The 
Island Park Hotel, at Summerside, P. E. I., is the only summer resort 
of any consequence. The general rates at the better hotels of the second 
class is $ 2 a day ; and the village inns and country taverns charge from 
$ 1 to $ 1.60, with reductions for boarders by the week. 

YIL Lmgiiage. 

Hie English language will be found sufficient, unless the tourist desires 
to visit the more remote districts of Cape Breton, or the Acadian settle- 
ments. The Gaelic is probably the predominant language on Cape Breton, 
but English is also spoken in the chief villages and fishing-conmiunities. 
In the more secluded farming-districts among the highlands the Gaelic 
tongue is more generally used, and the tourist may sometimes find whole 
families, not one of whom can speak English. 

In the villages along the Lower St. Lawrence, and especially on the 
North Shore, the French language is in common use, and English is 
nearly unknown. The relation of this language to the polite French 
speech of the present day is not clearly understood, and it is frequently 
stigmatized by Americans as "an unintelligible pcUois,** This state- 
m^it is erroneous. The Canadian French has borrowed from the Eng- 
lish tongue a few nautical and political terms, and has formed for itself 
words describing the peculiar phenomena and conditions of nature in the 
new homes of the people. The Indians have also contributed numerous 
terms, descriptive of the animals and their habits, and the ox)erations of 
forest-life. But the interpolated words are of rare occurrence, and the 
language is as intelligible as when brought from the North of France, two 
centuries ago. It is far closer in its resemblance to the Parisian speech 
than are the dialects of one fourth of the departments of France. Trav- 
ellers and immigrants from Old France find no difficulty in conversing 
with the Lower-Canadians, and the aristocracy of Quebec speak as pure 
an idiom as is used in the Faubourg St. Germain. Among others whose 
testimony has been given in support of this fact, the Editor would adduce 
a gentleman whom he recently met in Canada, and who was an officer in 
the Imperial Guard until its capture in the Franco-Prussian war. He 
stated that neither he nor any of his compatriots, who came over after 
the triumph of Germany, had ever had any difficulty with the Canadian 
language, and that he had not yet learned a word of Eng^v&Yk. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

This language has an extensive and interesting literatnre, wbich in- 
cludes science, theology, history, romance, and })oetry. It has also 
numerous newspapers and magazines, and is kept from adulteration by 
the vigilance of several colleges and a powerful imiversity. It is used, 
co-orflinatcly with the English language, in the records and journals of 
the Dominion and Provincial Parliaments, and speeches and pleadings 
in French are allowable before the Parliaments and courts of Canada. 

Thus much to prove the substantial identity of the Lower-Canadian and 
French languages. The tourist who wishes to ramble through the an- 
cient French-Canadian districts will, therefore, get on very well if he has 
travelled much in Old France. But if the language is unknown to him, 
he win be subjected to many inconveniences and hardships. 

VIII. Climate and Dress. 

The more northerly situation of the Maritime Provinces and their vidn- 
ity, on so many sides, to the sea, render the climate even more severe and 
uncertain than that of New England. The extremes of heat and cold are 
much farther apart than in the corresponding latitudes of Europe, and, 
as Marmier expresses it, this region ''combines the torrid climate <tf 
southern regions with the severity of an hyperborean winter." During 
the brief but lovely summer the atmosphere is clear and balmy, and 
vegetation flourishes amain. The winters are long and severe, but ex- 
ercise no evil effect on the people, nor restrain the merry games of the 
youths. Ever since Knowles sent to England his celebrated dictum that 
the climate of Nova Scotia consisted of " nine months of i^inter and three 
months of fog," the people of Britain and America have had highly ex- 
aggerated ideas of the severity of the seasons in the Provinces. Tliese 
statements are not borne out by the facts ; and, though Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick have not the mild skies of Virginia, their coldest 
weather is surpassed by the winters of the Northwestern States. The 
meteorological tables and the physical condition of the people prove that 
the climate, though severe, is healthy and invigorating. The time has 
gone by for describing these Provinces as a gloomy land of frozen Hyper- 
boreans, and for decrying them with pessimistic pen. 

The worst annoyance experienced by tourists is the prevalence of dense 
fogs, which sometimes sweep in suddenly from the sea and brood over the 
cities. In order to encounter such unwelcome visitations, and also to be 
prepared against fresh breezes on the open sea, travellers should be pro- 
vided with heavy shawls or overcoats, and woollen underclothing should 
be kept at hand. 

IX. Fishing. 

"Anglers in the United States who desire to fish a salmon-river in the 
Dominion of Canada should dub together and apply for the fluvial parts 



INTRODUCrnON. 9 

of riven. .... The government leases the riven for a term of nine yean, 
and riven unlet on the first day of each year are advertised by the gov- 
ernment to be let to the highest bidden. The places of residence of those 
tendering for fishings are not considered in letting a river ; and if a gen- 
tleman from the States overbids a Canadian, the river will be declared as 
bis. Riven are therefore hired by Europeans as well as by Canadians 

and citizens of the States Riven are either let in whole or parts, 

each part permitting the use of a given number of rods, generally four. 
Parties who desire to lease a Canadian river should address a letter to the 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries, at Ottawa, stating how many rods they 
have, and the district which they prefer to fish. He will forward them 
a list of the leasable riven, and a note of information, upon which they 
should get some Canadian to make the tender for theuL The leases of 
fluvial parts of rivers vary from two to six hundred dollan a year for 
from three to eight rods, and the price for guides or gaffen is a dollar a 
day." (This subject is fully discussed in Scott's "Fishing in American 
Waten.") 

'' The Game Fish of the Northern States and British Provinces," by 
Robert B. Roosevelt (published by Carleton, of New York, in 1865), 
contains an account of the salmon and sea-trout fishing of Canada and 
New Brunswick. The .punuit of sea-trout on the Lower St. Lawrence 
and Laval is described in pages 50-88 and 815-321; the Labrador riven, 
pages 107-111 ; the Miramichi and Nepisiguit Riven, pages 111-145; 
the Schoodic Lakes, pages 145-147. 

" Fishing in American Waten," by Q«nio C. Scott (published by Har- 
per and Brothen, 1869), contains practical directions to sportsmen, and 
graphic descriptions of fishing in the riven of New Brunswick and Lower 
Quebec. 

" Frank Forester's Fish and Fishing of the United States and British 
Provinces of North America," by H. W. Herbert (New York, 1850), is to 
a lai*ge extent technical and scientific, and contains but a few incidental 
allusions to the provincial fisheries. 

" The Fishing Tourist," by CJharles Hallock (published by Harper and 
Brothen, 1873), contains about 100 pages of pleasant descriptions relat- 
ing to the Schoodic Lakes, the best trout and salmon streams of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and Cape Breton, the Bay of Chaleur, the Sague- 
nay and Lower St. Lawrence, Anticosti, and Labrador. 

IX. Misoellsneons Kotes. 

The times of departure of the provincial steamships are liable to 
change every season. The tourist can find full particulan of the d&^& 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

of sftUing, ete., on arriving at St John, from the local and the Hali&x 
newspapers. The names of the agents of these lines have also been giTen 
hereinafter, and further information may be obtained by writiiig to their 
addresses. 

The custom-honse formalities at the national frontiers depend lees upon 
the actual laws than upon the men who execute them. The examination 
of baggage is usually conducted in a lenient manner, but tniiiks and 
packages are sometimes detained on account of the presence of too many 
Canadian goods. It is politic, as well as gentlemanly, for the tourist to 
afford the officers every facility for the inspection of his baggage. 

Travellers are advised to carefully inspect the prices of goods offered 
them by shop-keepers, since the lavish and unquestioning extravagance 
of American tourists has somewhat influenced the tone of commercial 
morality. 

The people of the Provinces are generally courteous, and are willing to 
answer any civilly put questions. The inhabitants of the more remote 
districts are distingiUshed for their hospitality, and are kindly disposed 
and honest. 



EOUTES FEOM BOSTON TO THE MAEITIME 

PEOVINCES. 



1. By Railway, 

The EoMtem and Maine Central R. R. Lntet afford the best mode of ap- 
proach by land. Their trains leave the terminal station on Causeway St, 
Boston, and ran throngh to Bangor, without change of cars. Pullman cars 
are attached to the through trains, and tickets are sold to nearly all points 
in the Eastern Provinces. At Bangor passengers change to the cars of 
the European & North American R. R., which runs E. through the great 
forests of Maine and New Brunswick to the city of St. John. Between 
Boston and Portland this route traverses a peculiarly interesting country, 
with frequent glimpses of the sea; but the country between Bangor and 
St. John is almost devoid of attractions. 

The Botton 4" Maine R. R. may also be used as an avenue to the Eastern 
Provinces, though the Editor does not know what connections (if any) it 
makes at Portland with the lines to the Eastward. 

2. By Steamship, 

The TniemaUonal Steamship Company despatches vessels three times 
weekly from June 16 to October 1, leaving Commercial Wharf, Boston, at 
8 A. M., on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. They touch at Portland, 
which is left at 6 p. m. ; and afterwards they run along the Maine coast, 
calling at Eastport and traversing Passamoquoddy Bay. Fares, — from 
Boston to Eastport, $6; to St. John, $5.60. 

The steamers of the Portland Steam Packet Company leave India Wharf, 
Boston, every morning, running along the New England coast to Portland. 
At that city they connect with the fine steamship Falmouthj which leaves 
Portland every Saturday at 6.80 p. m., stretching out over the open sea, 
and, beyond Cape Sable, following the Nova-Scotia coast to Halifax. 

CUments^ Line affords the most convenient route to visit the famous 
hunting and fishing grounds of the western counties of Kova Scotia. ThA 



12 FROM BOSTON TO THE MARITIME PROVINCEa. 

Btoamship Dominion leaves Lewis Wharf, Boston, every Tuesday noon, for 
Yarmoath and St. John, giving an exliilaratiug voyage across the open 
sea. 

The Boston, ffdUfaXj and Prince Edward Island Steamship Line despatch 
vessels from T Wharf, Boston, ever}' Saturday at noon. After reaching 
Halifax these steamships run N. £. along the Nova-Scotia coast, round 
Cape Canso, and traverse the picturesque Gut of Canso. They call at 
Pictou and then run across to Gharlottetown. By leaving the vessel at 
Port Hawkesbury, the tourist can easily reach the Bras d*Or and other 
parts of the island of Cape Breton. 

8. Routes by way of Montreal and Quebec, 

Montreal may be reached by either the Central Vermont R. R., the Mon- 
treal & Boston Short Line (Passumpsic R. R.)* or the Eastern and Grand 
Trunk lines. These routes are all described in Osgood*s New England: a 
Handbook for Travellers (revised up to 1880). The most picturesque 
route from Quebec to the Maritime Provinces is by the vessels of the Que- 
bec & Gulf Ports Steamship Company, which leave every week for the 
eastern ports of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, connecting 
with the local lines of traveL 



Further particulars about these lines and their accommodations, the days 
on which they depart for Boston, etc., may be found in their advertise- 
ments, which are grouped at the end of the book. There, also, may be 
found the names and addresses of the agents of the lines, from whom other 
information may be obtained, by letter or by personal application. The 
main question for the summer tourist will naturally be whether he shall 
go eastward by rail or by a short sea-voyage. The Editor has travelled 
on each of the above-mentioned lines (with one exception) and on some of 
them several times, and has found them well equipped and comfortable. 



MARITIME-PROVINCES HANDBOOK. 



NEW BRUNSWICK. 

The Province of New Brunswick is situated nearly in the centre of the 
North Temperate Zone, and is bounded by Maine and Quebec on the W., 
Quebec and the Bay of Chaleur on the N., the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
the Northumberland Strait on the £., and Nova Scotia and the Bay of 
Fnndy on the S. It is 140 M. long from £. to W., and 190 M. from N. to 
S., and contains 27,105 square miles. The dirQpt coast-line (exclusive of 
indentations) is 410 M., which is nearly equally divided between the S. 
and E. shores, and is broken by many fine harbors. The Bay of Fundy 
on the S., and the Bay of Chaleur on the N., are of great size and com- 
mercial importance, — the former being 140 M. long by 80-60 M. wide; 
the latter being 90 M. long by 10 - 26 M. wide. The fisheries in the great 
bays and in the Gulf are of immense value, employing many thousand 
men, and attracting large American fleets. They have furnished suste^ 
nance to the people of the maritime counties, and have been the occasion 
of developing a race of skilful mariners. During the past 50 years 6,000 
vessels have been built in this Province, valued at nearly $80,000,000. 
The lumber business is conducted on a vast scale on all the rivers, and 
the product amounts to $4,000,000 a year. 

The country is generaUy level, and is crossed by low ridges in the N. 
and W. There are numerous lakes, whose scenery is generally of a sombre 
and monotonous character. The interior is traversed by the rivers St. 
John, Bestigouche, Miramichi, P«ititcodiac, Nepisiguit, and Richibucto, 
which, with their numerous tributaries, afibrd extensive facilities for boat- 
navigation. The river-fisheries of New Brunswick are renowned for their 
variety and richness, and attract many American sportsmen. 

There are 14,000,000 acres of arable land in the Province, a great por- 
tion of which has not yet been brought into cultivation. The intervales 
of the rivers contain 60,000 acres, and are very rich and prolific, being 
fertilized by annual inundations. The chief agricultural products are 
wheat, buckwheat, barley, oats, potatoes, butter, and cheese ; but farming 
operations are still carried on in an antiquated and unscientific manner. 

The climate is less inclement on the Bay of Fundy than farther inland. 
The mean temperature for the last ten years at St. John was, for the 
winter, 17 J*; spring, 87^*; summer, 58°; autumn, 44|^ The thermom- 



14 NEW BRUNSWICK. 

eter ranges between —22** and 87*" as the extremes marked daring tha 
past ten years. 

The present domain of New Bmnswick was formerly occnpied by two 
distinct nations of Indians. The Micmacs were an offshoot of the Algon- 
quin race, and inhabited all the sea-shore regions. They were powerful 
and hardy, and made daring boatmen and fishermen. The Milicetes were 
from the Huron nation, and inhabited the St. John vallev and the inland 
forests, being skilful in hunting and all manner of woodcraft. They were 
less numerous and warlike than the Micmacs. Both tribes had a simple 
and beautiful theology, to which was attached a multitude of quaint 
mythological legends. 

This region was included in the ancient domain of Acadie (or Acadia), 
which was granted to the Sieur De Monts by King Henri IV. of France, 
in 1608. De Monts explored the St. John River, and planted an ephemeral 
colony on the St. Croix, in 1604. From 1635 until 1645 the St. John River 
was the scene of the feudal wars between La Tour and Chamisay. Oliver 
Cromwell sent an expedition in 1654, which occupied the country; but 
it was restored to France by Charles II. in 1670. Afler the war of 1689 - 
97, this region was again confirmed to France, and its W. boundary was 
located at the St George River, W. of Penobscot Bay. Meantime the 
shores of the Bay of Chaleur and tlie Gulf of St. Lawrence had been set- 
tled by the French, between 1639 and 1672. The New-Englanders invaded 
the Province in 1703, and in 1713 Acadia was ceded to England. 

The French limited the cession to Nova Scotia, and fortified the line of 
the Missiguash River, to protect the domains to the N. In 1755 a naval 
expedition from Boston took these forts, and also the post at St. John; 
and in 1758 the whole Province was occupied by Anglo- American troops. 
In 1763 it was surrendered to England by the Treaty of Versailles. 

The Americans made several attacks on northern Acadia during the 
Revolutionary War, but were prevented from holding the country by the 
British fleets at Halifax. At |he close of the war many thousands of 
American Loyalists retired from the United States to this and the adjoin- 
ing countries. In 1784 New Brunswick was organized as a Province, 
having been previously dependent on Nova Scotia; and in 1788 the capi- 
tal was established at Fredericton. Immigration from Great Britain now 
commenced, and the forests began to give way before the lumbermen. In 
1889 the Province called out its militia on the occasion of the boundary 
disputes with Maine; and in 1861 it was occupied with British troops on 
account of the possibility of a war with the United States about the Trent 
affair. In 1865 New Brunswick refused, by a p'^pular vote, to enter the 
Dominion of Canada, but it accepted the plan the next year, and became 
a part of the Dominion in 1867. 

The population of New Brunswick was 74,176 in 1824, 154,000 in 1840, 
and 285,777 in 1871. 




\ 



ST. JOHN. £auU L 15 



L St John. 

- Arrival from the Sea* — Soon after passing Negro Head, the steamer mns 
In by Partridge IsUmdy the round and rocky guard of the harbor of St. John. Its 
precipitous sides are seamed with deep clef^ and narrow cliasms, and on the upland 
are seen the Quarantine Hospital, the buildings of the steam fog-horn and the light- 
house, and the ruins of a cliff battery. On the 1. is the bold hoklland of Negrotoum 
Pointy crowned by dilapidated earthwortcs. The course now leads in by the Beacon- 
light (1. side), with the Martello Tower on Carleton Heights, and the liigh-placed 
St. Jnde's Church on the 1. In fh>nt are the green slopes and barracks of the Mili- 
tary Grounds, beyond which are the populous hills of St. John. 

Hotels. — The Hotel Duflerin, at the comer of Charlotte St. and King Square, 
is the best ($ 2.50 a day). The New Victoria is a good hotel, on Princess St., near 
Germain St. The Park Hotel is on the N. B. side of King's Square, and several 
smaller houses of varying grades are in the same vicinity. The Waverley is on 
King St., and is an old-fashioned British public-house. 

Amagements* — Theatric^ performances and other entertainments are fre- 
quently g^ven at the Academy of Music, on Germain St, near Duke St. The 
Academy can accommodate 2,000 people. Lectures and concerts are given in the 
hall of the Mechanics' Institute, near the head of Germain St. 

Reading- Rooms* — The Toung Men's Christian Association, on Charlotte 
St., near King Square ; open firom 9 a. m. until 10 p. m. The Mechanics' Institute, 
near the head of Germain St., has an extensive variety of British papers on file. 

Carriages* — For a course within the city, dOc. for one passenger, 10c. for each 
additional one. For|pach half-hour, 50c. If the river is crossed the passenger pays 
the toll, which is, fbr a double carriage, 15c. each way by ferry, 20c. by the bridge. 

- Omnibuses run from Market Square through Dock and Mill Sts., to the ter- 
minus of the river steamboat-lines, at Indian town. 

Railnrays* — The St. John and Maine Railway mns W. to Bangor In 206 M., 
connecting there with the Maine Central and Eastern lines for Boston, 449 M. from 
St. John. The same road also has a branch to Fredericton. The Intercolonial 
Railway mns E. to Shediac, Traro, and Halifax (276 M.), and to Quebec. 

Steamships* — The Temperley and other lines run steamships occasionally 
between St. John and Liverpool, or London. The International Steamship Com- 
pany despatch their sea- worthy vessels from St. John for Boston, touching at East- 
port and Portland, and connecting with steamers for St. Andrews, St. Stephen, 
Calais, and Grand Manan. In Jan. and Feb. they leave St. John on Thursdays; 
from March to July, and from Sept. 22 to Jan., they leave on Mondays and Thurs- 
days ; and July, Aug., and early Sept., on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Sail- 
ing time, 8 a.m. Fare to Boston, $ 5.50. Time, St. John to Eastport, 4 hrs. ; to 
Portland, 19 hrs. ; to Boston, 27 hrs. The Annapolis steamers cross the Bay of 
Fundy to Digby and Annapolis several times weekly, at 8 a.m., connecting at An- 
napolis with the railway for Hali&x. During some seasons, steamers run Arom St. 
John to Yarmouth, to the Basin of Minas (Parrsboro* and Windsor), and to St. 
George, St. Andrews, and St. Stephen. 

St. John River Lines. — The David Weston^otihe Union Line, leaves Indiantown 
on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at 9 a.m., for Fredericton and the interme- 
diate landings. The Rothesay, of the Express Line, leaves Indiantown Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, at 9 a.m., for Fredericton and the intermediate landings. 
The May Queen leaves Indiantown on Wednesday and Satunlay, at 8 a.m.. fo' 
Gagetown and Grand Lake. The Star leaves Indiantown on Tuesday, Thursday i 
and Saturday, at 10 a. m., for Cole's Island and the Washademoak Lake. 

The Carleton ferry-steamers leave the foot of Princess St. every 16 minute* nwko*' 
9.80 P. M . Fare, 8o. ; for one-horse carriages, 9e. ; for two-hoxM c»s^a4^»^'S&»* 



16 MouU t ST. JOHN. 

St. John, th« chief city of the Province of New Branswick and the 
commercial metropolis of the Bay of Fundyf occupies a commanding 
position at the month of the St. John River. From its favorable sitnatioa 
for the purposes of commerce it has been termed "the Liverpool of Amer- 
ica *' (a claim, however, which Halifax stoutly combats, and which should 
be limited at least to ** the Liverpool of Canada"). The city has 28,806 
inhabitants (census of 1871), and the contiguous suburb of Portland has 
12,520 more. The ridge upon which it is built is composed of solid rock, 
through which streets have been cut at great expense; and the plan of the 
streets is regular, including a succession of rectangular squares. The 
general appearance of the city is, however, somewhat uneven and dingy, 
owing to the difference in the size of the buildings and to Uie absence of 
paint. The harbor is good, and is kept free from ice by the high tides of 
the Bay of Fundy and the sweeping current of the St John River. It is 
usually well filled with shipping, and the shores are lined with wharves 
and mills. The hill-country in the vicinity is barren but picturesque, and 
affords a variety of pleasing marine views. Since 1858 the water supply 
of the city has been drawn from Little River, and the works have a daily 
capacity of 5,500,000 gallons. The fire department has 3 steam-engines, 
but is seldom called into service. There are 26 churches in St Jdhn and 
Portland, of which the Baptists claim precedence in point of numbers. 
There are 4 banks, and 4 daily and several weekly newspapers. 

King Street is the main business street of the city, and runs jflrom the 
harbor across the peninsula to Courtenay Bay. All the principal shops 
are on this street, between the harbor and King Square, and along Prince 
William St., which intersects it near the water. At the foot of the street 
is the Market Slip, into which the light packet-boats and produce-vessels 
from the adjacent rural counties bring wood and provisions for the use 
of the city. At low tide, these vessels are, for the most part, left to 
hold themselves up on the muddy flats. At this point landed the weary 
and self-exiled American Loyalists, in 1788, and founded the city of St 
John. The rather dreary breadth of King St is occupied in its lower 
part by wagoners and unemployed workmen. From this point the street 
ascends a steep hill, passing the chief retail shops, and several banks and 
hotels, with numerous fine buildings on the rebuilt district. King Square 
is an open space of about 3 acres in area, studded with trees, and adorned 
in the centre with a fountain. Before the great fire, its entrance was 
adorned with a pretentious triumphal arch, erected in honor of Prince 
Arthur's visit, and afterwards utilized for sustaining the fire-alarm beU. 
The County Market is on the E., and exhibits the various products of 
this region on well-arranged stalls. A few steps N. W. of the Square (on 
Charlotte St. ) is the handsome building of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, containing a large hall, gynmasiura, parlors, and class-rooms. 
The library and reading-room are open daily (except Sunday) from 9 a. ic 
to 10 p. M., and strangers are welcomed. The bnildmg cost $ 38,000, and 



ST. JOHN. BohU L 17 

was dedicated in 1872, bat subsequently gave signs of instability, and has 
since been strengthened at considerable expense. The County Court 
House and Jail are at the S. E. comer of King Square, and are antiquated 
and homely stone buildings. To the K is the Old Burying-Oround, con- 
taining the graves of the pioneers of the province, with epitaphs in many 
cases quaint and interesting. 

Trinity Church extends from Germain St. to Charlotte St, near Prin- 
cess St., and is the finest church-building in the Maritime Provinces, being 
massively constructed of gray stone, with rambling connections, and a 
very striking interior. Occupying a conspicuous position near the crest 
of the hill, it is visible for a great distance. The first church on this site 
was built in 1788, and contained mural tablets and the Royal Arms from 
Trinity Church, New York, brought here by the Loyalists in 1783. This 
venerable building was destroyed in the great fire of 1877. Not far from 
Trinity is the Masonic Temple, a large and costly new edifice of brick. 
The publishing house of the McMillans is on an adjacent street, with ita 
printing-ofiSce and book-store. 

By ascending the next street (Queen) to the L, Queen Square is reached, 
— a carelessly kept park surrounded with dwelling-houses. A short dis- 
tance to the E., on St. James St, is the Wiggins Male Orphan Institu- 
tion^ a new building in Gothic architecture, of red and gray sandstone. 
It is the most elegant and symmetrical structure of its size in the Prov- 
ince, and cost over $ 100,000, but is only adequate to the accommodation 
of 30 orphans. The Marine Hospital is in this vicinity. 

A short walk out Sydney St or Caermarthen St leads to the Xilitary 
Oroundi, on the extreme S. point of the peninsula. Here is a spacious 
parade-ground, which is now used only by the cricket and base-ball clubs, 
and barracks for the accommodation of 2,000 soldiers. These grounds 
were formerly occupied by large detachments from the British army, 
whose officers were a desired acquisition to the society of the city, while . 
the military bands amused the people by concerts on Queen Square. 

Prince William Street runs S. from Market Square to Reed's Point, and 
is one of the chief thoroughfares of the city, containing several hotels and 
some of the largest shops. Where it crosses Princess St., the Carleton 
ferry is seen to the r. The * Post-Offioe is an elegant building of gray 
sandstone, at the comer of Princess St ; opx>osite which is the new City 
Hallf a handsome stone building. The Savings Bank, the Bank of New 
Brunswick, and other institutions, are luxuriously domiciled in this vi- 
cinity. The great fire of 1877, which destroyed several millions' worth 
of property in St John, swept this district clean, and many elegant new 
buildings have since arisen. The * Custom House is of creamy Dorches- 
ter sandstone, costing $ 250,000, with iron roofs and fire-proof floors, and 
two tall towers for the time-ball, the shipping signals, and the storm- 
^dnim. It contains several of the provincio-national offices, aud «. ^\oTS^- 
signal station which receives wamings from " Old pTob8^>W^Xi^V^ ^X.'^^s*^* 



18 JiouU t ST. JOHN. 

ington. The street endii at Reed's Painty the headqiuirten of aerenl 
lines of coasting-stearaersi whence may be seen the Breakwater, W. of 
the Military Grounds. 

At the N. end of Germain St. is the old SUme CkurcA, a Banetuary of 
the Episcopalians under the invocation of St. John. Its square stone 
tower is visible for a long distance, on account of the elevation of the site 
on which it stands. Nearly opposite is the brick Calvin Ckurek (Presby- 
terian); and in the same vicinity is the classic wooden front of the Jfe> 
chamc$' Institute^ which has a large hall, and is the domicUe of one of the 
city schools. The reading-room is supplied with Canadian and British 
newspapers, and the library contains about 7,000 volumes (open fhnn %j^ to 
6 o'clock). From this point roads descend to the water-eide and to the 
railway station in the Valley. 

The Roman Catholic * Cathedral is situated on Waterloo St., and is 
the largest church in the Province. It is constructed of marble and sand- 
stone, in pointed architecture, and has a tall and graceful stone spire. 
The interior is in a style of the severest simplicity, the Gothic arches of 
the clere-story being supported on plain and massive piers. The windows 
are of stained glass, and are very brilliant and rich. The chancel and 
transept windows are large and of fine design ; a rose window is placed over 
the organ-lofl; and the side windows represent Saints Bernard, Dominic, 
Ambrose, Jerome, Mark, Matthew, Andrew, Benedict, Francis, John, 
Luke, Augustine, and Gregory. The building is 200 ft. long, and 110 ft. 
wide at the transepts. The Bishop' $ Palace is the fine sandstone building 
towards Cliff St., beyond which is the extensive building of the Orpikan 
Asylum^ fronting on Cliff St On the other side of the Cathedral is the 
plain brick building of the Nunnery. The visitor should notice, over the 
Cathedral portal ac^jacent to the Nunnery, the great marble bas-relief of 
the Last Supper (after Leonardo Da Vinci's painting at Milan). 

From this point Waterloo St descends to the Marsh Bridge, at the head 
of Courtenay Bay. By ascending Cliff St. for a short distance, a point 
may be reached from which are seen the Valley, with Its churches and 
streets, and the embowered villas on Portland Heights, over which Reed's 
Castle is prominent 

The General Public Hospital is situated on a bold rocky knoll which 
overlooks the Marsh Valley, and is entered from Waterloo St. It consists 
of a large brick building with one wing, and accommodates 80 patients. 
The structure pertains to the city, and was erected in 1865 at a cost of 
$ 54,000. Directly below the precipitous sides of the iuioll on which it is 
built is the broad Marsh, covered with houses, and extending on the r. 
to Courtenay Bay. The geologists entertain a plausible theory that in 
remote ages the St John River flowed down this valley from the Kenne- 
becasis to the sea, until finally the present channel through the Narrows 
was opened by some convulsion of nature. 



8T. JOHN. ItouUL 19 

That suburb which is known as the Valley lies between the rockj hiOs 
of the city proper and the line of the Portland Heights. It is reached 
from King Square by Charlotte and Cobourg Sts., and contains the tracks 
and station of the Intercolonial Railway. The most prominent object in 
the Valley is St, PauTa Church (Episcopal), a graceful wooden edifice with 
transepts, a clere-story, and a tall spire. The windows are of stained glass. 
The brick church of St. Stephen and the white Zion Church (Reformed 
Episcopal) are also situated in the Valley, and the road to Lily Lake di- 
verges to the r. from the latter. Farther to the E., on the City Road, is 
the Skating Rink, a round wooden building, 160 ft. in diameter, covered 
with a domed roof. This is the favorite winter resort of the aristocracy 
of St. John, and strangers can gain admission only by introdnctkm from 
one of the directors. 

The site of St. John was the Menagwe* of ancient Hiemae tnditkm, wheve Hm 
divine Glooecap once had his home. Hence, daring his abeenee, his attendants 
were carried away by a powerftd eril magician, who fled with them to Gruid Bfanaa, 
Gape Breton, and Newfoundland, where he was pursiied by Glooeoap, who rode 
much of the way on the backs of whiles which he called in from the deep sea. 
Fussing through Cape Breton, he at length reached the dark Newfrandland shores, 
where he assumed such a stature that the clouds roiled about his head. The eril- 
doing wianucd was soon found and put to death and the servants of Glooecap woe 
set free. 

The site of St. John was discovered by Champlain and De Bfonts, on St. John's 
Day (June 24), 1604, but was not occnined for 80 years after. 

Claude de la Tour, a Huguenot noble, was one of the earliest of the French advent 
tnrers in this region, and received a grant of idl Acadia fhnn Charles I. of England. 
After his repulse and humiliation (see Route 26), the French government divided 
Acadia into three provinces, placing there as governors, M. Denys, Raailly, and the 
young and chivalrous Charles de St. Estienne, Lord of La Tour (son <k Claude). 
Denys ccmtented himself with the ocean-firtieries from Canso and Cape Breton. 
Raailly soon died, leaving his domain to his kinnnan Charles de Menou, Sieur d'Aul- 
nay Chamisay, who was also related to Cardinal Richelieu. D' Aulnay and La Tour 
began to quarrel about the boundaries of thdr jurisdictions, and the former em- 
ployed a powerfiil influence at the Court of France to aid his cause. Louis XIII. 
finally ordered him to carry La Tour to France, in chains, and open war ensued 
between these patrician adventurers. La Tour nad erected a fort at St. John in 
1634, whence he carried on a lucrative fur-trade with the Indians. In 164B this 
stronghold was attacked by D' Aulnay with six vessels, but La Tour escaped on the 
ship Ctetnentj leaving bis garrison to hold the works. He entered Boston Harbor 
with 140 Hugiienots of La Rochelle, and sought aid from Massachusetts'against the 
Cath<dic forces whlcfa were bori^^g him. The austere Puritans referred to the 
Bible to see if they could find any precedent for such action, but found no certain 
response firom that oracle. **0n the one hand, it was said that the speech of the 
Prophet to Jehoshaphat, in 2d Chronicles xix. 2, and the portion of Solomon's 
Proverbs contained in chap, xzvi, 17th verse, not only discharged them tnm. any 
obligation, but actually forbade tiiem to assist La Tour ; while, on the other hand, 
it was i^preed that it was as lawfUl for them to g^ve him succor as it was for Joshua 
to aid the Gibeonites against the rest of tbo Canaanites, or for Jehoshaphat to aid 
Jehoram against Moab, in which expedition EUshawas present, and did not reprove 
the King at Judah." But when they had assured themselves that it would be 
allowabto fur than to aid the distressed nobleman, they sent such a fleet that D'Aul- 
nay's forces were quickly scattered, and the siege was raised. Two years later, 
wmle La Tour was absent, D' Aulnay again attacked the fort, but was handsomely 
lepulsed (with a loss of 33 men) by the little garrfeon. headed by Bfadame La Tour. 
Smne months later he returned, and opened a regular siege on the landward side 
(the fort was in Carleton, near Navy Island). After three days of fighting a treaeh- 
erous Swiss sentry admitted the enemy into the works ; and even Uien Madame La 
Tour led her troops so gallantly that the victor gave her her own terms. These 



20 Jtoule 1. ST. JOHN. 

tcnns, how«?er, were ehuneftaUy Tiolated, and the gMrrieon wm mMwuji c d belbre 
her fluee. Three weeks afterward, *he died of a broken heart La Tour came hade 
to St. John iome years later, and found that D'Auhiay was dead, whereapcm be 
eifeetaaUy recaptured his old domain by marnring the widow of tha conquenw 
(1668). D^Aolnay died in 1660, having spent 800,000 liTres hi Acadia, and built 6 
fortresMS, 2 seminaries, and several churches. He had sereral aooa, all of whom 
entered the French army, and were slain in the service. 

In 1690 a sharp engagement took place in St. John harbor, between the French 
frigate Union and two English vessels. The former had entered the harbor bearing 
the Chevalier de TUlebon, and was taken at a disadvantage. After a severe cannon- 
ade« the Union hauled down her c<^ors. Yillebon soon descended the rivmr with 
a party of Indians and attacked the ships, but without success. In 1696* while the 
Ghevaiier de Yillebon governed Acadia from the upper St. John and huried de> 
ftroetive Indian bands upon New Ekigland, Massachusetts sent three mennt^war to 
blockade the mouth of the river and cut off his supplies. Th^ were soon attacked 
by D'Iberville's French frigates, and made a desperate resistanee. But the JV«w> 
jportf 24, was unable to withstand the heavy fire of the Profond^ and Boon lay dis- 
masted and helpless. After her surrender the other American vessels escaped 
under cover of a thick fog. A new fleet from Boston soon afterwards overhauled 
the French frigates, cruising between Mount Desert and St. Jc^in, and cMvtored 
the Profond^ with M. de Yillebon, the Governor of Acadia, on board. In 1701 the 
fort of St. John was dismantled by Brouilian ; but in 1708 it was rebuilt, and had 
4 bastions and 24 pieces of artillery. 

In July, 1749, H. B. M. sloop-of-war ADbany entered the harbor and drove away 
the French troops, lowering also the standard of France. The frigates Houmd and 
York had a skirmish with the French here in 1760, and were ordered out of tlie 
port by Boish^bert, the commandant of the fort. In 1766, four British war-vesselB 
entered the harbor, and the French garrison demolished the fort, blew up the mag- 
aifaie, and retreated into the countiy. In 1768 Fort La Tour was still garrisoned 
by French soldiers, but, after a short siege by an Anglo-American force, the poat 
was surrendered at discretion. Two years later, the place was visited by James 
Bimonds, an adventurous New-Englsjader, who was, however, soon driven away by 
the Indians, *^ Catholics and allies of France." In 1764 he returned with a party 
of Massachusetts fishermen, and settled on the present site of the city, erecting de- 
fendve works on Portland Heights, under the name of Fort Howe. In 1776 a naval 
expedition of Americans from Machias entered the harbor and destniy^ the old 
French fortifications (then called Fort Frederick), completing their work by plun- 
dering and bombarding the village. May 18, 1783, a British fleet arrived In the 
pOTt bringing 6,000 of the self-styled "United Empire Loyalists," Americana who 
were loyal to King Oeoige and could not or would not remain in the new BepnbUe 
of tiie United States, from this day may be dated the growth of the city of St. 
John. 

New Brunswick was set off from Nova Scotia as a separate Province the next 



1 



year, and in 1786 its first Legislative Assembly was convened here. In 1787 
Trinity Church was founded : in 1788 harbor-lights were established on Partridge 
Island, and in 1799 the Royai Gazette was started. In 1887 one third of the com- 
mercial portion of the city was burned, involving a loss of £260,000. During the 
boundary dispute with the State of Blaine (1889-42) the citixens were all enrolled 
and drilled in mUitary exercises, in preparation for a war on the borders. Large 
fortunes were made by the merchants during the Crimean war, when the British 
timber-market, which had depended largely on the Baltic ports for its supply, was 
by their closing forced to draw heavily on the American Provinces. The last hia* 
torio event at St. John was its occupation, in the winter of 1861, by several of the 
ehoiceet re^ments of the British army, among which were the Grenadier Guards, 
the Scotch Fusiliers, and other ilite corps. After the pcacefhl solution of the 2Ve«a 
aJbir this formidable garrison was removed, and the city has since been left to 
prosper in the arts of peace and industry. 

" Here is picturesque St. John, with its couple of centuries of history and tradi- 
tion, its commerces, its enterprise felt all along the coast and through the settle- 
ments of the territory to the northeast, with Its no doubt charming soci^ and 
aoUd Thigifaib culture ; and the summer tourist, in an idle mood regarding it for 
» di^, njs it is naught." (Wabnxr's Baddeek.) 



ST. JOHN. 



Mautet 21 



St. Jolin* 

•*To the windt give our banner I 

Bear homeward again I " 
Cried the Lord of iUMdia, 

Cried Charlei of Eitienne ; 
From the prow of hi* aliallop 

He gazed, a« the tun. 
From its bed in the ocean. 

Streamed op the St Jolm. 

O'er the blue western waters 

Tliat fhallop had paaaed, 
"Where the mitts of FenolMeot 

Clung damp on her mast. 
St. Sailor had looked 

On the heretic sidL 
As the songs of the Hocuenol 

Base on the gale. 

The pale, ahostW father* 

BememOKDred her well. 
And had cursed her while paadng, 

With taper and ImII, 
But the men of M onhegaa« 

Of Papists abhorred. 
Bad welcomed and feasted 

The heretic Lord. 

They had loaded his shallop 

With dun-flsh and ball, 
With stores for his larder, 

And steel for his walL 
Femequid, from her iMutionf 

And turrets of stone. 
Had welcomed his coming 

With banner and gun. 

And the prayers of the elders 

Had foUowed his wur, 
As homeward he glided 

Down Pentecost Bay. 
Orwell sped La Tourl 

For, in peril and naln. 
His lady kept watch 

For his coming again. 

O'er the Isle of flie Pheasant 

The morning sun shone. 
On the i^ane-trees which shaded 

The shores of St John. 
** Now why from yon battlementi 

Speaks not my Tore? 
Why waves there no banner 

My fortress above ? " 

Dark and wild, from Ids deck 

St Estienne gazed about, 
On fire-wasted dwellings. 

And silent redoubt ; 
From the low shattered walla 

Which the flame had o'errun, 
There floated no banner. 

There thundered no gun. 

But beneath the low arch 

Of its doorway there stood ■ 
A pale priest of Rome, 

In his doak and his hood. 
With the bound of a Uon 

La Tour sprang to land. 
On the throat of the Papist 

He fastened his hand. 

** Speak, son of the Woman 

CrC scarlet and sin I 
What wolf has been prowling 

My eastie within?"^ 
From the grasp of the soldier 

The Jesuit broke. 
Half in scorn, half in sorrow, 

He smiled as he spoke : 



1647. 

'*No wdf. Lord of Estfenae, 

Has ravaged thv hall. 
But thy rea-handed rivaL 

Witii fire, steel, and belli 
On an errand of mercy 

I hitherward came. 
While the walls of thy castto 

Tet spouted with flame. 

** Pentagoet's dark vessels 

Were moored in the bay. 
Grim sea-lions, roaring 

Aloud for their preyl " 
•• But what of my lady f " 

Cried Charies of Estienne. 
** On the shot.crumbled tonet 

Thy lady was seen : 

*«Half veiledin tiie smoke-dond. 

Her hand grasped thy pennon, 
Willie her dark nresses swayed 

In the hot breath of eannoal 
But woe to the heretle. 

Evermore woel 
When the son of the church 

And the cross is his foe! 

<*In tiie track of the shell. 

In tiie patti of tiie ball, 
Pentagpet swept over 

Thel>reach of the walll 
Steel to steel, gun to gun. 

One moment, — and then 
Alone stood the victor. 

Alone with his men! 

<* Of its sturdv defenders, ". 

Thy lady alone 
Saw me cross-blazoned banner 

Float over St John." 
••Let tiie dastard look to it !** 

Cried flery Estienne, 
••Were D Aulnay King Louie, 

I 'd free her agiain i '^ 

••Alasforthybulyl 

No service from thee 
Is needed by her 

Whom the Lord hath set free : 
Mine days, in stem silence, 

Her thraldom she bore. 
But the tenth morning came. 

And Death opened her door I " 

As if suddenly smitten. 

La Tour staggered back ; 
His hand grasped his sword-hiU» 

His f orenead grew black. 
He aprang on the deck 

Ofnis shallop agdn. 
•• We cruise now for vengeance I 

Give way I " cried Estienne. 

•• Massachusetts shall hear 

Of the Huguenot's wrong. 
And from island and creekride 

Her fishers shall throng I 
Pentagoet shall rue 

What his Papists liave done. 
When his palisades echo 

The Puritan's gun!" 

O^e loveliest of heavens 

Hung tenderly o'er him. 
There were waves in the sunshine. 

And green isles before him : 
But a pale hand was beckoning 

The Huguenot on ; 
And in blackness and ashes 

Behind was St. John ! ^ _,«•, 



23 It4mt€ f . THE ENVIRONS OF ST. JOHN. 

2. The Environs of St John. 

* Lily Lake is about 1 M. from King Square, and is reached by eross- 
ing the Valley and ascending Portland Heights. The road which tarns to 
the r. from the white (Zion) church conducts past sereral yillas and mral 
estates. From its end a broad path diverges to the r., leading in a few 
minutes to the lake, a beautiful sheet of water sarronnded by high rocky 
banks. The environs are thickly studded with clumps of arbor^tae and 
evergreens, among which run devious rambles and pathways. No houses 
or other signs of civilization are seen on the shores, and the citizens wish 
to preserve this district in its primitive beauty by converting it into a pub- 
lic park. The water is of rare purity, and was used for several years to 
supply the city, being pumped up by expensive machinery. This is a 
favorite place for skating eaily in the season, and at that time presents a 
scene of great activity and interest. A pleasant pathway leads on one 
side to the LUy Lake Falls, which are attractive in time of high water. 

The Marsh Bead is the favorite drive for the citizens of St John, and 
presents a busy scene on pleasant Sundays and during the season of aleigh- 
ing. It is broad, firm, and level, and follows the (supposed) ancient bed 
of the St. John Biver. At 1^ M. from the city the Rural Cemetery is 
reached (only lot-owners are admitted on Sunday). This is a pleasant 
ground occupying about 12 acres along a cluster of high, rocky knoUs, 
and its roads curve gracefully through an almost unbroken forest of old 
(but small) evergreen trees. The chief point of interest is along Ocean 
Avenue, where beneath uniform monuments are buried a large number 
of sailors. 1} M. beyond the Cemetery the Marsh Road passes the Three- 
Mile House and Mooaepath Park, a half-mile course which is much used 
for horse-racing, especially during the month of August. 8 - 4 M. farther 
on (with the Intercolonial Railway always near at hand) the road reaches 
the Torrybum Howe, near the usual course for boat-racing on the broad 
Kennebecasis Bay. The course of this estuary is now followed for 2 M., 
with the high cliff called the Mirditer's Face on the farther shore. Pass- 
ing several country-seats, the tourist arrives at Bothesay, prettily situated 
on the Kennebecasis. This village is a favorite place of summer residence 
for families from the city, and has numerous villas and picnic grounds. 
The facilities for boating and bathing are good. Near the railway station 
is Botheioy HaU, a summer hotel, accommodating 80-40 guests ($8>10 
a week). There are pleasant views from this point, including the broad 
and lake-like Kennebecasis for many miles, the palisades of the Minister's 
Face, and the hamlet of Moss Glen. 

Looh Lomond is about 11 M. N. E. of St. John, and is a favorite resort 
for its citizens. Many people go out to the lake on Saturday and remain 
there nntil Monday morning. The road crosses the Marsh Bridge and 
passes near the Silver FaU$^ a pretty cascade on Little River (whence the 



THE ENVIRONS OF ST. JOES, £mU$ I. 23 

city draws its water supply). There are two small hotels near Loch 
Lomond, of which Bunker*8 is at the lower end and Da]zell*8 is 8-4 M. be- 
yond, or near the head of the First Lake. These waters are much re- 
sorted to by trout-fishers, and the white trout that are found nearDalzell's 
Lake House are considered a delicacy. Boats and tackle are fVimished 
at the hotels; and there is good shooting in the vicinity. The shores con- 
sist, for the most part, of low rolling hills, covered with forests. The First 
Lake is 4 x } M. in area, and is connected by a short stream with the 
Second Lake, which is nearly 2 M. long, and very narrow. The Third 
Lake is smaller than either of the others. 

** An elevated ridge of hard-wood land, over whieh tbe road paasee near the nar- 
rowest part, afforded me firom its sammit a Tiew of the lower lake, which would not 
suffer in comparison with many either of our English or our Seotdsh latus. Its 
Burftce was calm and still ; beyond it rose a wooded ridge of rounded hiUs, purpled 
by the broad-leaTed trees which coversd them, and terminated at the foot of the 
lake by a lofty, so-called Lion's Back, lower considerably than Arthur's Seat, yet 
still a miniature Ben Lomond." ^ Pior. Johhstoit. 

. Ben Lomond, Jones, Taylor's, and other so-caUed lakes (being large forest-ponds) 
are situated in this ndghborhood, and afford better fishing Iteilities than the much- 
visited waters of Loch Lomond. Both white and spedded trout are caught in great 
numbers from rafts or floats on these ponds; and Bunker's or Dalsell's affords a 
fliTorable headquarters fbr the sportsman, where also more particular information 
may be obtained. 

The PemtetUiary is a granite building 120 ft. long, situated in an in- 
walled tract of 18 acres, on the farther side of Gourtenay Bay. The Poor 
Bouse is a spacious brick building in the same neigfaboriiood. The road 
that passes these institutions is prolonged as far as Mitpeck^ traversing a 
diversified country, and at times affording pretty views of the Bay of 
Fundy. Mispeck is a small marine hamlet, 10 M. from St John. 

4 M. N. of the city is the estate of the Highland Park Compamy^ an asso- 
ciatioQ of citizens who have united for the purpose of securing rural homes 
in a beautiful and picturesque region. There are three lakes on the tract 
(which includes 500 acres), the chief of which is Howe'' 8 Ldke^ a small but 
pretty forest-pond. 

The * Suspension Bridge is about 1} M. from King Square, and most 
of the distance may be traversed by omnibuses, passing through the town 
of Portland and under Fort Howe Hill (whence a good view of the city is 
afforded). The bridge crosses the rocky gorge into which the wide waters 
of the St John Biver are compressed, at a height of nearly 100 ft. above 
low water. The rush of the upward tide, and the falls which become 
visible at low tide, fill the stream with seething eddies and whirls and 
render navigation iqapossible. At a certain stage of the flood-tide, and for 
a few minutes only, this gorge may be passed by vessels and rafts. 

The St. John River is over 450 M. long, and, with its many tributaries, drains a 
vast extent of country. Tet, at this point, where its waters are emptied into the 
harbor, ibe outlet of the river is narrowed to a channel which is in places but 4fi0 
ft. wide, with cliffs of limestone 100 ft. high hemming it in on eithftt ^Mdb. T^<ei«it»MEa. 
rushes through this narrow pass with great impetuosity , andi V\a wsvJcwfcNA ^JW^*^ 
(Ustnrbed by several rocky islets. The tides in thabac\K»etteMb\A«i\ik9d46D)St*^*^-^^ 



24 RouU f. THE ENVIBONS OF ST. JOHN. 

ft, and nuh up the riTer with inch fbree u to orerflow the fldli and p r oJu ec hmk 
water at flood-tide. The bridge was built in 1862 by an American engineer, and coal 
• 80,000. It Ib 640 ft. long and contains 670 M. of wire, supported on 4 aleiider b«t 
ioUd towers. One-horse carriages pay 18c. toll ; 2-horae carriages, 20c. 

Over the head of the bridge, od the Carleton shore, is the Protrnddl 
IammHc Asylwn^ an extensive brick building with long wings, situated in 
pleasant grounds. Its elevated situation renders it a prominent object In 
approaching the city from almost any direction. The building was erected 
in 1848, and accommodates 200 patients. From this vicinity, or from the 
bridge, are seen the busy manufacturing villages about Indiantown mnd 
Point Pleasant, most of which are engaged in the lumber business. 

On the summit of the highest hill in Carleton is a venerable and pio- 
toresqne stone tower, which gives an antique and feudal air to the land- 
scape. It is known as the Martello Tower, and was built for a harbor- 
defence at the time when this peculiar kind of fortification was favored 
by the British War Office. Many of these works may be seen along the 
shores of the British Isles, but they are now used (if used at all) only as 
coast-guard stations. The tower in Carleton is under the charge of a sub- 
officer, and near by are seen the remains of a hill-battery, with a few old 
guns still in position. The * view from this point is broad and beautiful, 
including St John, with the Victoria Hotel and the Cathedral most prom- 
inent, Portland and the Fort Howe Hill, the wharves of Carleton and its 
pretty churches, the harbor and shipping, the broad Bay of Fundy, ex- 
tending to the horizon, and in the S. the blue shores of Nova Scotia (the 
North Mt.), with the deep gap at the entrance to the Annapolis Basin, 
called the Digby Gut. 

The streets of Carleton are as yet in a transition state, and do not invite 
a long sojourn. On the hill near the Martello Tower is the tall and grace- 
Ail Church of the Attumptionf with pleasant grounds, in which is the 
fine buUding of the presbytery. Below this point is the Convent of St. 
Vincent, S. of which is seen the spire of St. Jude's Episcopal Church. 

The Fern I^edges are about 1 M. tcom Carleton, on the shore, and are mneh 
visited by geologists. They consist of an erratic fragment of the Old Red Sandstone 
epoch, and are covered with sea-weed and limpets. On clearing away the weeds and 
breaking the rock, the most beautlAil impreasions of ferns and other cryptogamoos 
plants are firand. 

The Mahogany^ Boad affords a fine drive along the Bay shore, with a 
succession of broad marine views. It is gained by crossing the Suspen- 
sion Bridge and passing the Insane Asylum. About 4 M. from the city is 
the FoW'MUe House, a favorite objective point for drives. The road is 
often followed as far as Spruce Lake, a fine sheet of water 5 M. long, and 
situated about 7 M. from St. John. Perch are found here in great num- 
bers, but the facilities for fishing are not good. The water supply of the 
suburb of Carleton is drawn from this lake. 

1 Ifahogaar, a popular adaptation of the Indian word ManmooQcmitht applied to fha 
neighboring nij. 



CAMPOBELLO. Souie 3. 25 



& St John to Bastport and St Stephen. ^Fassamaqnoddy 

Bay. 

The eommodioas Tesself of the InteniatSonal Stettmship Company leate the Beed^s 
Point Wharf, at St. John, erery Monday, Wedneiday, and Friday, at 8 a. m., and 
reach i^tport (60 M. distant) a little a^r noon. A connection is made there with 
the light steamboat Belle Broum, which ascends Passamaquoddy Bay and the St. 
Croix Rirer.to St. Andrews and St. Stephen. 

TraTellers who wish to gain a thorough idea of the qnainUy irfctaresqne scenery 
of Passamaquoddy Bay would do well to go to St. Stephen by Route 3 and return 
to St. John by Route 5, or vice versa. Except during Tery stormy weather the 
waters of Passamaquoddy Bay are quiet and without much swell. 

After leaving St. John, the steamer runs S. W. into the Bay of Fundy, 
and soon passes Split Bock, and stretches across to Point Lepreau. The 
peculiarities of the coast, which is always visible (in clear weather) on the 
N., are spoken of in Route 6, and are thus epitomized by Mr. Warner : 
** A pretty bay now and then, a rocky cove with scant foliage, a light- 
house, a rude cabin, a level land, monotonous and without noble forests, — 
this was New Brunswick a^we coasted along it under the most favon^le 
circumstances.*' 

After passing the iron^ouod islets called the Wolves (where the New 
England was wrecked in 1872), the steamer runs in towards the Wett 
IsleSf whose knob-like hills rise boldly from the blue waters. Sometimes 
she meets, in these outer passages, great fleets of fishing-boats, either 
drifting over schools of fish, or, with their white and red sails stretched, 
pursuing their prey. If such a meeting occurs during one of the heavy 
fogs which so often visit this coast, a wonderfully weird efi^ect is caused 
by the sudden emergence and disappearance of the boats in the dense 
white clouds. 

Soon after passing the White Horse islet, the steamer enters the Eastern 
Passage, and runs to the S. W. into Friar's Road. On the r. is Deer 
liU^ a rugged island, 7 M. long by 8 M. wide, with a poor soil and no 
good harbors. There are about 1,000 inhabitants on this island, and it is 
surrounded by an archipelago of isolated rocky peaks. The shores attain 
an elevation of 800 ft., and from some of the higher hills are gained beau- 
tiful panoramic views of the Passamaquoddy Bay, on one side, and the 
Bay of Fundy, on the other. 

Campobello Island lies on the left side of the course, with bold and 
rocky shores. It is 8 M. long by 8 M. wide, and contains numerous 
profitable farms. On its N. point is a lighthouse, below which is the 
entrance to the fine harbor of Welchpod^ where there is a pretty marine 
village. Wilson's Beach is a populous fishing-settlement on the S. shore ; 
and the island contains over 1,000 inhabitants. The surrounding waters 
are rich in fisheries, especially of herring and haddock, which are fol- 
lowed by the island fiotillas; and the hills are saidto^\ft\^to^VCt,\«oA., 
and plaster. The proximity of the lower Bhorea to t\v^ XsDsaNR.«Ck.\«wDk 

2 



26 MouU 8. EASTPOBT. 

of Lubec aod Ea»tport affords favorable opportnDities ibr imnggliiig^ 
which was formerly practi«ed to a considerable extent The iafamd {• 
frequently visited by summer tourists, on account of the fine marine 
scenery on its ocean front and for the sport afforded by the deep-cea 
fishing. Some years ago there was much talk of erecting % first-daa 
hotel on the east shore, but the project now lies in abeyance. The view 
fh>m the abrupt heights of Brucker^s Ilill embraces a wide expanae oi 
blue waters, studded with an archipelago of islets. On the W. ahore is 
the singular group of rocks known as the Friar*s Face, which has been 
a favorite target for marine artillery. 

The earliest settlement on the Bay ms established about 1770, bj the Gaaipfr- 
bello Compflmy, and was located at Harbor do Lute, on Gampobello lalaiid. It mm 
named Warrington, but the Welchpool setUement has long stnoe surpaMed it. The 
island was for some time the property of Capt. Owen, of the Royal Navy, to wboa 
the residents paid tenants' dues. At certain stages of the tide, Eastport out on^y 
be approached by passing around Campobello, concerning wiiich Mr. Warner in- 
dulges in the following pleasantry : ^ The possession by the British of the isbuid of 
Campobello is an insiderable menace and impertinenoe. I write with a ftill knowl- 
edge d what war is. We ou^t to instantly dislooge the British from Campobdla 
It entirely shuts up and commands our harbor, — one of our chief Baatcfm. har- 
bors and war stations, where we keep a flag and cannon and some soldierB, and 
where the customs officers look out for smuggling. There is no way to get into oar 
own harbor, except in favorable circiunstances of the tide, without begging tibs 
courtesy of a passage through British waters. Whv is England permitted to strateh 
•long down our coast in this straggling and inquisitlTe manner f She might afaBoat 
as well own Long Island. It was impossible to preyent our chedks mantling with 
shame as we thought of this, and saw ourselves, free American citiacns, landTocked 
by alien soil in our own harbor. We ought to have war, if war is necemary to pos- 
sess Campobello and Deer Islands, or else we ought to give the British fiastport, I 
am not sure but the latter would be the better course." 

Eastport {*Pattamaqvoddy House, $2.60 a day; Tuttle^t Bbiel, $2) is 
an American border-town, on the coast of Maine, and bos 8,788 inhabi- 
tants and 8 churches. It is built on the slope of a hill at the £. end of 
Moose Island, in Passamaqnoddy Bay, and is engaged in the fisheries and 
the coasting-trade. Over the village are the ramparts of Fort SnlliTaBy 
a garrisoned post of the United States, commanding the harbor with its 
artillery. Eastport is much visited in summer for the sake of the salt- 
water fishing and the unique marine scenery in the vicinity, and has sev- 
eral reputable boarding-houses. It is connected with the mainland by a 
bridge, over which lies .the road to the Indian village. Eastport is the 
most convenient point from which to reach Campobello, Grand Manan 
(see Route 4), and the adjacent islands. A steam-ferry runs hence in8 M. 
to Lubeo (Lubec Howe, Cobscook Hotel), a picturesque marine village to- 
wards Quoddy Head, with advantages for summer residents. This pleasant 
little place is decaying slowly, having lost over 400 inhabitants between 
1860 and 1870. The present population is a little over 2,000. Lubee is 
i M. farther E. than Eastport, and is therefore the easternmost town of 
the United States. The purple clifls of Grand Manon ore seen fix>m 
Qaoddy Head. 



EASTPOBT. JtmUe S. 27 

In 1684 the VmBmumqxtoddj IsktidB were mnted 1^ th« King of Ffaaee to Jem 
Surxeau de St. Aubin. In the •ammer of 1704 the few French settlers about Pasaa- 
maquoddy Bay were plundered by an expedition under Col. Chvreh, consisting of 
000 Massachusetts s<ridieT8, escorted by the men-of-war Jenty^ 48. and Gmport, 82. 
They ascended the St. Croix as fkr as the head of narigadon, then returned and 
crossed the bay to rayage the Minas settlements. They Tlsited Moose Island and 
the adjacent main, and carried off all the settlers as prlsonos. Ei^teen years later 
a Boston ship was captured by the Indians among these islands, but was retaken by 
its crew when a fiur wind arose. In 1744 Massachusetts declared war against the 
Indians on this bay and on the St. John Rirer ; and in 1760 the tribes sued for 
peace, sending hostages to Boston. In 1734 Got. Belcher (of Mass.) risited the 
Day, and in 1750 and 1762 its shores and islamls were regularly surveyed. 

During the War of the Reyolution the Passamaquoddy Indians were loyal to 
the United States, and declined alt oilers from the British agents. The boundaiy 
question began to assume great importuice after the close of the war. The treaty 
stipulated that tlie St. Croix River should form the frontier ; but Massachusetts, 
guppmrted by the Indians, claimed that the Magaguadavic was the true St. Croix ; 
while Great Britain asserted and proved that the outlet of the Sehoodic Lakes waa 
the veritable river. The islands wero surrendered to Britain ; but Moose, Dudley, 
and Frederick Islands were restored to the United States in 1818. 

Eastport was founded about 1784, by fishermen from the coast of Bsiex County, 
Mass.. who settled here on account of the fteilities for catching and eoring fish. In 
1808 the walls of Fort Sullivan were ndsed, and a detachment of troops was sta- 
tioned there. In 1813 the valu&ble British vessel, the Miza AnHf was captured bj 
the i^vateer Timothy Pickering and sent into JBastport. She was followed by 
H. M. S. Martin^ whose commander demanded her surrender, on iiain of destroying 
the town. The citiaens reftised to release tlie prise, and the Mcartin opened fire on 
Eastport,' but was soon driven away by the guns of the fort. July 11, 1814, a Brit- 
ish fleet i^oMied off the town, and informed the commander that if he did not haul 
down his mt% within five minutes they would bombard the town. The flag came 
down, the garrison laid down their arms, and the hostile fleet, headed by the Rami' 
lieSf 74, anchored off the town. British martial law was enforced here for the next 
four jeacB, after which the place was restored to the United States. 



The steamer BeUe Brown^ in ascending the bay, nins for some distance 
between Deer Isle and Moose Island. At about 5 M. from Eastport, 
Pleasant Point (known to the Indians as Sybaik) is seen on the 1. Here 
is the cliief settlement of the Passamaquoddy Indians, who were driven 
from the peninsula of St. Andrews nearly a century ago, and received 
their present domain from the American government. They are about 400 
in number, and draw an annuity and a school-fund from the Republic. 

They are the ronnant of the ancient Openango tribe of the Etchemin nation, and 
they cling tenaciously to the faith delivered unto them of old by the Jesuits. Their 
church is dedicated to St. Anne, and is served by Indian deacons ; and the pictu- 
resque cemetexy is in the same vicinity. They support themselves by hunting, fish- 
ing, and basket-making, and their fovorite amusement is dancing, for which they 
have built a haU. Thero are scarcely any pure-blooded Indians here, but the 
adulteration has been made with a choicer material than among the other tribes, 
since these are mostly French half-breeds, in distinction from the negro half-breeds 
of the lower coasts. Many years ago there was a controversy about the chieftaincy, 
in oonseqoenoe of which a portion ot the tribe seceded, and are now settled on the 
S^oodic Lakes. 

The name Passamaquoddy is said to be derived from Pesmo-aeadief " pollock- 
plaoe." Others say that Quoddy means *' pollock"; but Father Vetromile, the 
aeholarly Jesuit misstonary , claims that the whole word is a corruption of the Indian 
Peskamaquontikf derived frran Psskadaminkkantif a term whicli signifies ** it goes 
Up into toe open field." 



28 nmae4. GRAND MANAN. 

As the bay is entered, above Pleasant Point, tiie West Isles are Met 

opening on the r., displaying a great variety of forms and comblnatioia. 
On the I. are the pleasant shores of Perry, and far across, to the r., are ths 
highlands about the Magnguadavic Biver. After passing Navy Island, ths 
boat rounds in at St Andrews. 
St Andrewif the St. Croix River, and St. Stephen, see pages S8-86. 

4. Grand Kanan. 

This " paradise of cliffii " is situated off Quoddy Bead, about 7 M. from ths 
Maine coast, and pertains to the ProTince of New Brunswick. It is easily raaehed 
fttNn Sastport (during fUr winds), wiUi which it has a mail oommunleatKNi. Ths 
summer climate W9ald be delicious were it not for the fogs : and It is claimed that 
invalids suffering from gout and dyspepsia rereiye much beneflt here (very likely 
from the enforced abstinence from rich food). The brooks and the many ft«di- 
water ponds afford fidr trouting and bird-shooting, and a few deer and labMts avs 
found in the woods. There are no bears nor reptiles on the island. There is a 
small inn at Grand Harbor, but the sojourner will prefer to get board in some of 
the private houses. Meat rooms and simple fta« may there be obtained fiur 94-7 a 
week. 

" As we advanced, Manan gradually rose above the waves and changed Its aspect, 
the flat-topped purple wail being tnmsmnted into brown, rugged, perpendicular 
eliflii, crowned with dark green foliage. Passing, as we did, close in by the extreme 
northern point, we were impressed by its beauty and grandeur, which ftr exceeds 
even that of the clifls at Mount Desert. 

** As a place of summer resort. Grand Manan is in some respects nneqnalled. At 
certain seasons the fog is abundant, yet that can be endured. Here the opportuni- 
ties for recreation are unequalled, and all persons fond of grand sea-shora views 
may indulge their taste without limit. The people are invariably kind and trust- 
worthy, and American manners and customs prevail to such an extent that tmvel- 
lers at once feel at home." (Ds Costa .) 

The island of Grand Manan Is 22 M. long and 8-6 M. wide, and lies in 
the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, whose powerful tides sweep impetnoualy 
by its shores. It has about 1,600 inhabitants, who dwell along the road 
which connects the harbors on the E. shore, and are famous for their 
daring and expertness in the fisheries. They have 8 schools, 6 chnrches 
(mostly Baptist), and a military organization; whUe the advantages of 
free-trade, insignificant taxation, government-built roads, and complete 
self-legislation, give reason for the apostrophe, " Happy Mananites, who, 
free from grinding taxation, now rove out from rock-bound coves, and 
quarry at will in the silvery mines of the sea! " The harbors on the E. 
shore afford safe shelter for small vessels, and are connected with the 
great cliffs on the W. by narrow roads through the woods. The fisheries 
of cod, herring, and haddock are very extensive in this vicinity, and form 
the chief resource of the people, who are distinguished for the quaint sim- 
plicity which usually pertains to small and Insulated maritime communi- 
ties. Grand Manan has been for many years a favorite resort for Amer- 
ican marine painters, who find excellent studies in its picturesque diffa 
and billowy seas. It was visited by Champlain in 1605, but was occuoied 
only by the Indians for 180 years after. Col. AUan, the American con^ 
mander in E. Maine during the Revolution, held the island with his Ii^ 



GBAND MANAN. Itoute4. 29 

auxiliaries, bat it was finally ceded to Greaf Britain. After the war it 
was settled bj several Loyalists from Massachusetts, chief among whom 
was Moses Gerrish. A recent writer demands that the island be fortified 
and developed, claiming tliat its situation, either for commerce or war, 
is strategically as valuable as those of the Isle of Man, Guernsey, and 
Jersey, and that it would make a fine point of attack against Portland 
and the coast of Maine. 

Grand Harbor is the chief of the island hamlets, and is situated on the 
safe and shallow bay of the same name. It has an Episcopal church of 
stone and two or three stores, besides a small inn. Off shore to the S. E. 
lie Ross, Gheyne, and White Head Islands, on the latter of which Audu- 
bon studied the habits of the herring-gulls, in 1888. To the E. are the 
rock-bound shores of Nantucket Island, and on the S. are the Grand 
Ponds. 

The South Shore is reached by a good road leading down from Chrand 
Harbor. At 6 M. distance is the narrow harbor of Seal Cove, beyond 
which the road lies nearer to the sea, affording fine marine views on the 
1., including the Wood Islands and the Gannet Rock Lighthouse, 9-10 
M. at sea. 4 M. beyond Seal Cove the road reaches Broad Cove, whence 
a path leads across the downs for about 2 M. to the high and ocean- 
viewing cliffs of S. W. Head. Among the rugged and surf-beaten rocks 
of this bold promontory is one which is called the Old Maid, from its 
rude resemblance to a colossal woman. About the S. W. Head is a favor- 
ite resort and breeding-place of the gulls, whose nests are madq in the 
grass. A forest-path leads N. to Bradford's Gove, on the W. shore, a 
wide bight of the sea in which the ship Mavoumeen was wrecked. 

The North Shore. The road from Grand Harbor to Whale Gove is 7 - 8 
M. long, and is firm and well-made. 8 M. N. of Grand Harbor, Wood- 
ward's Gove is passed, with its neat hamlet, 4 M. beyond which is Flagg's 
Cove. Sprague*8 Cove is a pretty fishing-hamlet on the S. side of Swal- 
low-Tail Head, where "everything appears to have been arranged for 
artistic effect. The old boats, the tumble-down storehouses, the pic- 
turesque costumes, the breaking surf, and all the miscellaneous para- 
phernalia of such a place, set off as they are by the noble background 
of richly-colored cliffs, produce an effect that is as rare as beautiful." 
StoaUow-Tail Head is a fan-shaped peninsula, surrounded by wave-worn 
cliffs, and swept by gales from every quarter. On its outer point is a 
lighthouse which holds a fixed light (visible for 17 M.) 148 ft. above 
the sea. 

Whale Cove is on the N. E. shore, and is bordered by a shingle-beach 
on which are found bits of porphyry, agate, jasper, and other minerals. 
•* Here the view is surprisingly fine, the entire shore being encircled by 
immense cliffs that rise up around the border of the blue waves, with a 
richness of color and statelUiess of aspect that cannot faU to impress the 



30 ItouUS. GRAND MANAN. 

beholder On the E. side is Fuh Head, tnd on the W. Eel Brook aad 

Northern Hend, the latter extending oat beyond its neighbor, and bO" 
twceu are tlie blue sky and water." On the melancholy difis at Eak 
Brook Cove the ship Lord AMkburUm was wrecked, and neariy all m. 
board were lost (21 of them are buried at Flagg's Cove). Beyond thit 
point, and near the extreme northern cape, is the BUUip's Mtad^ ao called 
because of a vague profile in the face of the cliff. 

The W. coast of Gnmd Manan is lined with asaccestionof maaaiTe cliflb, 
which appear from West Quoddy like a long and nnbioken pnrple waU. 
These great precipices are 3>400 ft. high (attaining their greateet eleva- 
tion at the N. end), and form noble combinations of marine aceneiy. A 
cart-track leads across the inland from near Woodward's Cove to the xo- 
mantic scener>' about Dark Cort ; near which is Money Gove, ao named 
because search has been made there for some of Capt. Kidd*s boried 
treasures. To the N. is Indian Btach^ where several lodges of tjie Paas^- 
maquoddy tribe pass the summer, attending to the shore fishery of por- 
poises. Still farther N. are the rocky palisades and whirling cnrreata of 
Long*s Eddy. 



** When Cbe cUff is brongfat out <m such a stup sa d mis seals as aft Oraad 
with all tlie sfc e woriw of a wild ocean shoce, the interest becomes abaorbfaig. Ths 
other parts of the l«land are of courw lnTe»ted with much interest The hyweMrtem 
sboce, Mnged with nuall islands and rork», allbrds many pictareeqne righta. In a 
pleasant day a w»lk southward has manj charms. The bright sky, the Mm^ 
beach, the i^tureeque boats, and blue Iand*k)cked bays contfaraalfjr enfiiree tibs 
admiration of an ar<l»tfo eye, and allure the pedeetiian on paat c^w, eove, aad 
reach, until he suddienly finds that miles of ground interrme between hiai an^ Ids 
dinner.'' (Db Costa.) 

** Grand Manan, a fkTorite summer haunt of the painter, is the veiy throne «f 
the bold and romantic. The high prei-ipitous shores, but fw the woods which 
tii> them, are quite in the style of Labrador." (L. L. Mobli.) 



Char1eT<dx speaks of an old-time wonder which seems to hsTS iiaiwid away fron 
these shores : '^ It is even asserted that at | of a IcagoeofflslfeMenaBe, whieh senna 
as a Kuide to Teesels to enter St. John's lUTer, there is a rock, almost alwaja cov- 
ered by the sea, which is of lapis-laiuU. It is added that Commander de RasUH 



hrcAe off a piece, which he swit to Vraaee. and Slenr Dnys, wIm had seea it, flsja 
that it was Talued at tiwi crowns an ouncew" 

6. St John to St Andrewi and St Stephen.— FaaBmar 

qnoddy Bay. 

The stcaawr leaTes the Seed's Point Whaif e^ecy Thsursdsy aad Satordsy.aft 8 
A. M., and reaches St Stephen before dark. She returns fbom St. Stephen emry 
Monday ami Friday Bwrnittg. Tares, St. John to St. George, $1.75 ; to St. An- 
diews, StJ)0 : to St. Stephen, $ 1.7i>. Ibis is not a penuaiwat loola, aad la UaUs 
to chmige or discontinuance. 

iSl. John to St. Andrews btf ttage* 

The Roral MaO traverses this route daily over roads which are nigged and tfra- 
■ome. Diittanceo : St. John to rairrille, 2^ M. ; Spruce Lake, 7 : Prince of Wales, 
11 : Musquash, 14; Lepreau, 25; New Ri^r, 88; Ptnnfleld, 99; St. George, 45; 
Boeabee, 66 ; SI Andrews, 65. Fare, $4. Tbe Bay Shore Bailway is a new Una 
which was neantlypn^tsd, anils intended to IbUow the diiectioa of this " 



BAY OF FUNDT. JtaiOeS. 31 

After leariiig the luurixxr of St. John the steamer rnns S. W. hj W. 9^ 
M., passing the openings of Maoawagonish Bay and Pisarinco Cove. The 
coarse is laid well ont in the Bay of Fnndy, which ** wean a beantifnl 
aspect in fine summer weather, — a soft chalky hne quite different ftom 
the stem bine of the sea on the Atlantic shores, and somewhat approach- 
ing the summer tints of the channel on the coast of England." Beyond 
the point of Split Bock, Muaqwuh Harbor is seen openhig to the N. It is 
a safe and beautiful haven, 2 M. kmg and very deep, at whose head is the 
pretty Episcopal village of Musquash (Musquash Hotel), with several lum- 
ber-mills. About two centuries ago a French war-vessel was driven into 
this harbor and destroyed by a British cruiser. From Split Rock the 
course is W. ^ S. for 11} M. to Point Lepreau, passing the openings of 
Chance Harbor and Dipper Harbor, in which are obscure marine hamlets. 
In the latter, many years ago, the frigate Plunder was wrecked, with a 
large amount of specie on board. The harbor is now visited mostly by 
lobster-fishers. Powt L^reau is a bold and tide-swept promontory, on 
which are two fixed lights, visible for 18 and 20 M. at sea. 

The traveller will donbUesB be amased at the radeoess and sterility of these frown- 
ing shores. ** Two Tery diOerent impres^ns in rqcard to the Frorince of New 
Brunswick will be produced on the mind of the stranger, according as be contents 
himself with ylsitiDg the towns and inspecting the lands which ue along the sea- 
board, or ascends its rirers, at p«ietrates bjr its numeroas roads into the interior of 
its more central and northern counties. In the former case he will feel like the 
trayeller who enters Sweden by the harbors of Stockholm and Qottenburg, or who 
sails among the rocks on the western coast of Norway. The naked clifb or shelTing 
shores of granite or other hardened rocks, and the onTarying pine forests, awaken 
in his mind ideas of hopeless desolation, and poyerty and barrenness appear neces- 
sarily to dwell within the iron-bound shores But on the other hand, if the 

stranger penetrate beyond the Atlantic shores ot the ProviDce and trayel tnrough 
the interior, he will be struck by the number and beauty of its riyers, by the fertility 
of its river islands and intervales, and by the neat extent and excellent condition 
of its roads.^* (Paop. J. V. W. Johnstoii, V. R. S.) 

From Point Leprean the course is laid nearly W. for 16^ M. to Bliss 
Island, crossing the bight of .Mace*s Bay, a wide and shallow estuary in 
which are two fishing-camlets. The Saturday steamer stops on this reach 
at Beaver Harbor^ a place of 150 inhabitants. S. of this harbor, and seen 
on the 1. of the course, are the five black and dangerous islets called the 
Wobfes, much dreaded by navigators. A vessel of the International Steam- 
ship Company was wrecked here two or three years ago. One of the 
Wolves bears a revolving light, 111 ft. high, and visible for 16 M. 

The steamer now rounds Bliss Island (which has a fixed red light), and 
to the N. is seen the entrance to VEtang Harbor^ a deep and picturesque 
inlet which is well sheltered by islands, the largest of which is called Cai- 
tiff. A few miles S. W. are seen the rolling hills of Campobello; Deer 
Island is nearer, on the W. ; and the bay is studded with weird-looking 
hummocky islands, — the Nubble, White, and Spruce Islands, the ^vov 
trap-rock mamelon of White Horse, and many otb.«t T\%.'a\^«&% ^oic^iA. 
They are known as the West IsUb^ and mo&t ot tV&Ain «ac« Vc^iXAl^ Vs 



32 RauUS. ST. GEORGE. 

hard-working fishermen. The course is laid to the N. W. fhiongfa tiie 
LetiU Passage, between MacMaster Island and the Peninsula of Mascar 
rene, and Passamaquoddy Bay is entered. Sweeping up to the N. akmf 
and close to a bold shore 150-225 ft. high, the steamer rounds the Mijic 
Bluff on the r. and enters the harbor at the mouth of the Maaagvadaiae 
River, To the N. are the wooded slopes of Mount Blair, and some distance 
up the estuary is the hamlet of Mascarene. The vessel drifts about in the 
harbor while passengers and freight are transferred to the din^y little 
steamer that ascends to St George. 

St. George (three inns) is a town of 600 inhabitants, devoted to the 
lumber-trade, and situated about 10 M. from the mouth of the river It 
has 4 churches, a masonic hall, and a custom-house. It is at the head of 
tide, and ships can load, in the deep water below, all the year round. 
This district has recently become celebrated for its production of a fine 
granite, of a rose-red color, which receives a high poIUh, and is being 
introduced for ornamental columns and monuments. It resembles the 
beautiful Scotch granite of Peterhead (popularly called ** Aberdeen gran- 
ite "). At St. George are the ♦ Lower Falls of the Magaguadavic ^1^ 
the river is compressed into a chasm 80 ft. wide, and falls loo ft in five 
successive steps. Along the sides of the gorge are several powerful saw- 
mills, clinging to the rocks like eagles' nests, and sluicing their lumber 
into the deep pools below. Geologists have found, in this vicinity marked 
evidences of the action of icebergs and glaciers. 

«* The village, the cataract, the lake, and the elevated wlldemem ftn ^v^ «r 
this part of the country peculiarly picturesque; indeed, the neiffhwt2:i "?^ 
Geor^the Digd^juash, Chamcook, and the lower St. Croix? v^^^T?^ "^ ?± 
wnh some of the finest scenery in America." (Dr. Gbsnkr.) **'**®^* «»« tnvelkr 

I^ake Utopia is picturesquely situated in a deep and sheltered <lo.v..»..^ 
forest^overed hills, along whose slopes ledges of red granite cron^nf 5!S!™«*.»"?<»« 
i*T*ho«t 4 M. from St. Geonre. and is 6 M. lone bv 1 - 2 m ^J^^ 5«w» and there. 



it to about 4 M. from St. George, and is 6 M. long by 1 - 2 M wide fef* ^^ *'*^- 
Beaver Harbor to Gagetown follows its K. shore through an alimUf it "^ *^™ 
£Se. On a bluflf over this lake the eariiest pioneers found the renSL * ^•^ "^^^ 
and mysterious temple, aU traces of which have now passed awavi? ""^ ancient 
found a slab of red granite, hearing a large bas-relief of a human h-Jr®f" "J*? '^ 
flemhlinir an Egyptian sculpture, and having a likeness to Wa«hi»^* "* "'^^ *•" 
Sffi meffibn has beSn placed in the Natural HistSy mSIuS**'': J^ ^ 
Vnr nearly 40 years the Indians and lumbermen near the lake hjivl ♦ i^' ^^' Jnbn. 
SorieTof a marine prodigy called " the Monster of Utopia." whlfi.^^** inarvellous 
Sdf toiSt-loch. His last appearance was in 1867, ^hen seVeml ^^^^«»1 ^ *"■ 
rnhfiraa claimed to have seen Airious disturbances of the waten jl«J ♦ 1" about the 
m^ntary glimpses of an animal 10 ft. thick and 80 ft. long. ' Th« iJl ***7» caught 
ftiWv-nay trout, and its tributary streams contain many brook.fw«?f ® •nnonds in 

ISng the hills along the valley of the Magaguadavic Rfyer ax« thS ^ ***** aauAt. 
^fh^ttfi numbers of Virginian deer. Moose were formerly abund^f i ^^'*** haunts 

„aitiB but a few years since over 400 were kUled in one season toTfK ^** »«gion, 
friLa This noble game animal has been nearly exterminated 'hv #.1/*® ■•^® <*f their 
S « 'and wiU soon become extinct in this district. "' *>»« xnercUess set- 

fSha MsKaguadavlc River (an Indian name meanine "tk^ t>i 
•r««-»n rises in a chain of lakes over 80 M. N. W., within i shcW ^^^ of the 
^^^^oe River, a tributary of the upper St. John. Ttaver^n? (E^^**** "^ «»• 
^??2^ffaadavic it descends through an uninhabited and barren h»u, *»*»* Laka 
**' iT^tescribed by an early pioneer as " a scraggly hole." Much of 5?^***** »«glon. 
ter«ej7, {ntervale, which is supposed to have been an ancient lairi v '?^«r vaUev 
^ • «a followed closely by a rugged road, which leads to the ito»^ ,l*om. Tlia 
riverW^yic settlements. «auote Ba,vey ta»A 



ST. ANDREWS. Ii(nUe6, 33 

After leaving the port of St. George, the steamer nina S. W. across Pa»- 
samaquoddy Bay, with the West Isles and the heights of Deer Island on 
the S., and other bold hammocks on either side. On the N. are the estua- 
ries of the Digdeguash and Bocabec Rivers, and the massive ridge of the 
Chamcook Mt. Large fleets of fishing-boats are sometimes met in these 
waters, following the schools of herring or pollock. In about an honr, the 
steamer approaches St Andrews, passes its great summer hotel, and lands 
between Navy Island and the peninsula. 

St. Andrewi ( Central Exchange, $ 1.50 a day), the capital of Charlotte 
County, is finely situated on a peninsula at the month of the St. Croix 
River, which is here 2 M. wide. It has about 1,800 inhabitants, and a few 
quiet old streetB, surrounded by a broad belt of farms. The town was 
founded about a century ago, and soon acquired considerable commercial 
importance, and had large fleets in its harbor, loading with timber for 
Great Britain and the West Indies. This era of prosperity was ended by 
the rise of the town of St. Stephen and by the operation of the Reciprocity- 
Treaty, and for many years St. Andrews has been retrograding, until now 
the wharves are deserted and dilapidated, and the houses seem antiquated 
and neglected. It has recently attracted summer visitors, on account of 
the pleasant scenery and the facilities for boating, fishing, and excursions 
among the adjacent islands. A large and handsome summer hotel has 
been erected near the shore, but the enterprise of the town has not been 
able to furnish it, so that it is not eligible to tourists, who must therefore 
dwell at the village inns. 

Steamboats ran daily between St. Andrews and Eastport, Calais, and St. Stephen. 
There is & ferry to the American village of Robbinaton, 2 M. distuit. The New 
Bmnswick and Canada Railway runs thence to Houlton and Woodstock, 90 and 98 
M.N. (See Route 6.) 

The Chamoook Mt. is about 6 M. N. of St. Andrew, and its base is 
reached by a good road (visitors can also go by railway to the foot of the 
mountain). It is often ascended by parties for the sake of the beautiful 
view, which includes "the lovely Passamaquoddy Bay, with its little 
islands and outline recalling recollections of the Gulf of Naples as seen 
from the summit of Vesuvius, whilst the scenery toward the N. is hilly, 
with deep intervening troughs containing natural tarns, where the toffue or 
gray-spotted trout is plentiful.'* The bright course of the St. Croix River 
is visible for a long distance, and numerous pretty frontier-villages are seen 
on either shore. " The glacial rounded top " of Chamcook is scored with 
the long scratches which indicate that at some remote age a glacier from 
the northern highlands has grated and ground its way across the moun- 
tain. The views of the Chamcook Lake and Harbor, and of the numerous 
conical hills to the N., are of much interest. 

As the steamer swings out into the river, the little shi^buW^Vcv^^^'W^ 
of Robbinston is seen, on the American shore. Ott tiift x. \iJaft'\iQ\^ XiSsSsk cS. 

2» <i 



34 HmUeS. ST. CROIX RIVER. 

Chamcook Mt are passed, and occasional farm-booses are seen along the 
shores. 5 - 6 M. above St. Andrews, the steamer passes on the £. side of 
Donoet's Island, on which a lighthouse has been erected by the Ameri- 
can government. W. of the island is the village of Red Beach, with its 
plaster-mills, and on the opposite shore is the farming settlement of Bay 
Shore, 

In the year 1604 Henri lY. of France granted a large part of America to 'Pksm dn 
Gnast, Sieur de Monts, and GoTemor of Pons. This tract extended from Phi]fr> 
delphia to Quebec, and was named Aeadie, which is said to be derived frt>m a local 
Lidian word. De Monts sailed from Hayre in April, with a motley company of im- 
preBoed vagabonds} gentlemen-adventurers, and Huguenot and Catholic clergymen, 
the latter of whom quarrelled all the way over. After exploring parts of Nova 
Scotia and the Bay of Fundy, the voyagers ascended the Passamaquoddy Bay and 
the river to St. Crdx Isle, where it was determined to found a settkument. Bat- 
teries were erected at each end, joined by palisades, within which were the houses 
of De Monts and Champlain, workshops, magaanes, the chapel, and the barracks of 
the Swiss soldiery. But the winter soon set in with its intense cold, and the rav- 
ages of disease were added to the miseries of the colonists. 35 out of 79 men died 
of the scurvy during the winter ; and when a supply-ship arrived from France,' in 
June, the island was abandoned. 

" It is meet to tell you how hard the isle of Sainte Croix is to be found out to 
them that never were there ; for there are so many isles and great bays to go by 
(from St. John) before one be at it, that I wonder how one might ever pierce so ftr 
as to find it. There are three or four mountains imminent above the others, on the 
sides ; but on the N. side, from whence the river runneth down, there is but a sharp 
pointed one, abov^ two leagues distant. The woods of the main land are fiiir and 
admirable hikh, and well grown, as in like manner is the grass Now let us pie- 
pare and hoist sails. M. de Poutrincourt made the voyage into these parts, with 
some men of good sort, not to winter there, but as it were to seek out hu seat, and 
find out a land that might like him. Which he having done, had no need to sojourn 
there any longer." I^te in the year. " the most urgent things being done, and 
hoary snowy fiither being .come, that is to say, Winter, then they were forced to 
keep within doors, and to live every one at his own home. During which time our 
men had three special discommodities in this island : want of wood (for that which 
was in the said isle was spent in buildings), lack of fresh water, and the continual 
watch made by njght, fiBaring some surprise frtHn the savages that had lodged them- 
selves at the foot of the saidTsland, or some other enemy. For the malediction and 
rage of many Christians is such, that one must take heed of them much more than 
of infidels.'' (Lesgab^ot's NonveUe France,^ 

In 1783 the rfiver St. Croix was designated as the E. boundary of Maine, but the 
Americans claimed that the true St. Croix was the stream called the Bfagaguadavic. 
It then became important to find traces of De Monts's settlement of 180 yean pre- 
vious, as that would locate the true St. Croix River. So, after long searching among 
the bushes and jungle, the boundary-commissioners succeeded in finding remnants 
of the ancient F^nch occupation on Neutral (Doucet's) Island, and thus fixed the 
line. 

AboT^t 10 M. above St. Andrews the river deflects to the W., and to the 
N. is seen the deep and spacious * Oak Bay, surrounded by bold hills, and 
forming a beautiful and picturesque prospect. It is supposed that the 
French ej^plorers named the St. Croix River from the resemblance of its 
waters at this point to a cross, — the upright arm being formed by the 
river to the S. and Oak Bay to the N., while the horizontal arm is outlined 
by the river to the W. and a cove and creek on the E. At the head of the 
bay is the populous farmingrviUage of Oak Bay^ with three churches. 

Rounding on the 1. the bold bluff called DeviVs Head (from one Duval 
who formerly lived there), the course is laid to the .N. W., in a narrow 



ST. STEPHEN. Itauie6. 36 

channel, between sterile shores. 2-8 M. above is the antiquated marine 
hamlet called The Ledge (L bank), most of whose inhabitants are depend- 
ent on the sea for their living. 4 M. above this point the steamer reaches 
her dock at St. Stephen. 

St. Stephen ( Watson House) is an active and enterprising provincial 
town, situated at the head of navigation on the St Croix Biver, opposite 
the American city of Calais. The population is about 5,000, with 6 
churches, 2 newspapers, and 2 banks. The business of St. Stephen is 
mostly connected with the manufacture and shipment of lumber. The 
falls of the river at this point give a valuable water-power, which will 
probably be devoted to general manufacturing purposes after the lumber 
supply begins to fail. A covered bridge connects St. Stephen with Calaif 
(International Hotel; St. Croix Exchange), a small city of the State of 
Maine, with 6,000 inhabitants, 7 churches, 2 weekly papers, and 2 banks. 
Although under different flags, and separated by Imes of customs-officers, 
St. Stephen and Calais form practically but one community, with identi- 
cal pursuits and interests. Their citizens have always lived in perfect 
fraternity, and formed and kept an agreement by which they abstained 
from hostilities during the War of 1812. At that time the authorities also 
restrained the restless spirits from the back country from acts of violence 
across the borders. 2-3 M. above is another Canado-American town, 
with large lumber-mills at the falls, which is divided by the river into 
Milltown-St. Stephen and Milltown-Calais. Travellers who cross the river 
either at Calais or Milltown will have their baggage looked into by the 
customs-officers, squads of whom are stationed at the ends of the bridges. 

The New Brunswick & Canada Railway runs N. firom St. Stephen to Houlton and 
Woodstock (see Route 6). Calais is connected with the Schoodic Li^kes by railway, 
and with Eastport by stages. The U. S. Mail-stage runs daily to Bangor, 95 M. W. 
(fiu:e, S 7.50), passing through a wide tract of unoccupied wilderness. The steam- 
boat Belle Brown leaves Calais or St. Stephen tri-weekly for St. Andrews and E^t- 
port, where it connects with the International steamsUpe for Portland and Boston 
(see also Route 8, and Osgood's New England). Fares, Calais to Portland, $ 4.50 ; 
to Boston, by water, 9 5.50 ; to Boston, by rail from Portland, $ 7. 

The Schoodic Lakes* 

A railway runs 21 M. N. W. from Calais to Lewey^s Island (2 inns), 
in Princeton, whence the tourist may enter the lovely and picturesque 
Schoodic Lakes. The steamer Gipsey carries visitors 12 M. up the lake to 
Grand Lake Stream, one of the most famous flshing-grounds in America. 
The trout in Lewey's Lake have been nearly exterminated by the voracious 
pike, but the upper waters are more carefully guarded, and contain perch, 
pickerel, land-locked salmon, lake-trout, and fine speckled-trout. The 
Grand Lake Stream is 3-4 M. long, and connects the Grand and Big 
Lakes with its rapid waters, in which are found many of the famous sil- 
very salmon-trout. The urban parties who visit these forest-VaJgA'&Nis^NvsJ^ 
engage Indian guides to do the heavy woik ot ^T\aj^g^ wA ^aasss^i^^QS^^- 



36 Route 6. SCHOODIC LAKES. 

ing, and to gnide their conne from lake to lake. There is a large village 

of the Passamaqnoddy tribe near the foot of Big Lake. A two hours' 

portage leads to Grand Lake, a broad and beautiful forest-sea, with 

gravelly shores, picturesque Islets, and transparent waters. The cry of 

the loon is often heard here, and a few bear and deer still lark- along the 

shores. From Grand Lake a labyrinth of smaller and yet more remote 

lakes may be enterod ; and portages conduct thence to the navigable 

tributaries of the Machias and Penobscot Bivers. 

*' One of the most picturesque portions of the western Schoodic ref^n is Grand 
Lake. This noble sheet of water is broken here and there by islets, and surroanded, 
even to the water's edge, with forests of pine and hard wood, whilst its bott(»n is 
covered with granitic bowlders, which, in combination with dnft, are spread fiur and 
wide among the arboreal vegetation around." 

** While the fog if lifting from Schoodic Lake, 
* * " TbibB "" 



And the wmte trout are leaping for fliet, 
I '» exciting i port thoM beauties to take. 
Jogging the nervei and feaating the eyea." 



Qivio C. Scott. 

6. St Andrews and St Stephen to Woodstock and Honlton. 

By the New Brunswick & Canada Railway. Fare from St. Stephen to Wood- 
stock, $2.90. 

Distances. — St. Andrews to Chamcook, 5 M. ; Bartlett's, 11 ; Waweig, 13 ; 
Boix Road, 16 ; Hewitt^s, 19 ; Rolling Dam, 20 ; Dumbarton, 24 ; Watt Junction, 
27 (St. Stephen to Watt Junction, 19) ; Lawrence, 29 ; Barber Dam, M ; McAdam 
Junction, 43 ; Deer Lake, 69 ; Canterbury, 66 ; Eel River, 76 ; Wickham, 80 ; Debec 
Junction, 90 (Houlton, 98) ; Hodgdon, 98 ; Woodstock, 101. 

The country traversed by this line is one of the most irredeemably des- 
olate regions in North America. The view from the car-windows pr^ 
sents a continual succession of dead and dying forests, clearings bristiing 
with stumps, and funereal clusters of blasted and fire-scorched tree-trunks. 
The traces of human habitation, which at wide intervals are seen in this 
gloomy land, are cabins of logs, where poverty and toil seem the fittest 
occupants ; and Nature has withheld the hills and lakes with which she 
rudely adorns other wildernesses. The sanguine Dr. Gesner wrote a vol- 
ume inviting immigration to New Brunswick, and describing its domains 
in language which reaches the outer verge of complaisant optimism ; but 
in presence of the lands between the upper St. John and St. Stephen his 
pen lost its hyperbolical fervor. He says: "Excepting the intervales of 
the stream, it is necessary to speak with circumspection in regard to the 
general quality of the lands. Many tracts are fit for little else but pas- 
turage." This district is occupied, for the most part, by the remains of 
soft-wood forests, whose soils are always inferior to those of the hard- 
wood districts. 

For a short distance beyond St. Andrews the railway lies near the 
shores of Passamaqnoddy Bay, affording pleasant views to the r. Then 
the great mass of Chamcook Mt. is passed, with its abrupt sides and 
rounded summit. Waweig is between Bonaparte Lake and Oak Bay 
(see page 84). About 7 M. beyond, the line approaches the Digdegoash 



ST. JOHN TO BANGOR. IUyiUe7. 37 

Biver, which it follows to its source. At Watt Junction the St. Stephen 
Branch Railway comes in on the 1., and the train passes on to McAdam 
Junction, where it intersects the Eifropean & North American Railway 
(page 38). There is a restaurant at this station, and the passenger will 
have time to dine while the train is waiting for the arrival of the trains 
from Bangor and from St. John. 

The forest is again entered, and the train passes on for 16 M. until it 
reaches the lumber-station at Deer Lake. The next station is Canter- 
bury (small inn), the centre of extensive operations in lumber. Running 
N. W. for 10 M., the Eel River is crossed near Rankin*s Mills, and at 
Debec Junction the passenger changes for Woodstock. 

A train runs thence 8 M. N. W. to Houlton {8neU House, BuzzeU House), 
the shire-town of Aroostook County, in the State of Mame (see Osgood's 
New England, Route 50). The other train runs N. E. down the valley of 
the South Brook, and in about 6 M. emerges on the highlands above the 
valley of the St. John River. For the ensuing 6 M. there are beautiful 
views of the river and its cultivated intervales, presenting a wonderful 
contrast to the dreary region behind. The line soon reaches its terminus 
at the pretty village of Wooditook (see Route 11). 



7. St John to Bangor. 

By the European & North American Railway, Ia 10-12 hours. 

Distances. — St. John ; Carleton, ^M. ; fairville, 4 ; South Bay, 7 ; Grand 
Bay, 12; Westfield, 16; Nerepis,20; Welsford, 26; Clarendon, 90; Oaspereaux, 
83; Enniskillen, 36; Hoyt, 39; Blissrille, 42; Fxedericton Junction, 46; Tracy, 
49 ; Cork, 61 ; Harvey, 66 ; Hagaguadavic, 76 ; McAdam Junction, 86 ; St. Croix, 
91; Yanceboro', 92; Jackson Brook, 112; Banforth, 117; Bancroft, l26; King- 
man, 189 ; Mattawamkeag, 147 ; Winn, 150 ; Lincoln Centre, 159 ; Lincoln, 161 ; 
Enfield, 170; Pftasadumkeag, 175; Olamon, 179 MJreenbush, 182; Coetigan, 187; 
Milford, 192 ; Oldtown, 193 ; Great Works, 194 ; Webster, 196 ; Orono, 197 ; Basin 
Mills, 198 ; Teasie, 20l ; Bangor, 205. (Newport, 288 ; Waterville, 260 ; Augusta, 
281 ; Brunswick, 815 ; Portland, 818 ; Portsmouth, 895 ; Newburyport, 415 ; Bos- 
ton, 451.) 

The traveller crosses the Princess St. ferry from St John to Carleton, 
and takes the train at the terminal station, near the landing. The line 
ascends through the disordered suburb of Carleton, giving from its higher 
grades broad and pleasing views over the city, the harbor, and the Bay of 
Fundy. It soon reaches FairviUe, a growing town near the Provincial 
Lunatic Asylum and the Suspension Bridge. There are numerous lumber- 
mills here, in the coves of the river. The train sweeps around the South 
Bay on a high grade, and soon reaches the Grand Bay of the St. John 
River, beyond which is seen the deep estuary of the Eennebecasis Bay, 
with its environment of dark hills. The shores of the Long Reach are fol- 
lowed for several miles, with beautiful views on the r. over the placid 
river and its vessels and villages (see also page 41). To the W. is a 
sparsely settled and nigged region in which are many laJsA^^ — ^Yss^Sa. 
Alva, the Bobin Hood, Sherwood, and the Queeu^ft \i8^<^» 



38 Route?. CHIPUTNETICOOK LAKES. 

The line leaves the Long Reach, and turns to the N. W. np the yalley 
of the Nerepis River, which is followed as far as the hamlet of Welsford 
(small inn). The country now grows very tame and uninteresting, as the 
Douglas Valley is ascended. Clarendon is 7 M. from the Clarendon Set- 
tlement, with its new homes wrested from the savage forest. From Gas- 
pereaux a wagon conveys passengers to the South^Oromocto ZxJee, 10-12 
M. S. W., among the highlands, a secluded sheet of water abont 5 M. long, 
abounding in trout. Beyond the lumber station of EnniskiUen, the train 
passes the prosperous village of Blissville; and at Fredericton Junction % 
connection is made for Fredericton, about 20 M. N. 

Tracy^B Mills is the next stopping-place, and is a cluster of Inmber-milk 
on the Oromocto River, which tru verses the village. On either side are 
wide tracts of unpopulated wilderness; and after crossing the parish of 
New Maryland, the line enters Manners Sutton, passes the Cork Settle- 
ment, and stops at the Harvey Settlement ^ a rngged district occapied by 
families from the borders of England and Scotland. To the N. and N. W. 
are the Bear and Cranberry Lakes, affording good fishing. A road leads 
S. 7-8 M. from Harvey to the Oromocto Lake, a fine sheet of water 
nearly 10 M. long and 3-4 M. wide, where many large trout are found. 
The neighboring forests contain various kinds of game. Near the N. W. 
shore of the lake is the small hamlet of Tweedside. The Bald Mountain^ 
" near the Harvey Settlement, is a great mass of porphyry, with a lake 
(probably in the crater) near the summit. It is on the edge of the coal 
measures, where they touch the slate.'* 

Magaguadavic station is at the foot of Magaguadavic Lake, which is 
about 8 M. long, and is visited by sportsmen. On its E. shore is the low 
and bristling Magaguadavic Ridge; and a chain of smaller lakes lies to 
theN. 

The train now runs S. W. to MoAdam Janction (restaurant in the sta- 
tion), where it intersects the New Brunswick and Canada Railway (see 
Route 6). 6 M. beyond McAdam, through a monotonous wilderness, is 
St, Croix, on the river of the same name. After crossing the river the 
train enters the United States, and is visited by the customs-officers at 
Vanceboro' ( Chiputneticooh House). This is the station whence the beau- 
tiful lakes of the upper Schoodic may be visited. 

The Cliiputiietlcoolc I<alceg are about 45 M. in length, in a N. W. comae, 
and are ftom X to 10 M. in width. Their navigation is very intricate, by reason ci 
the multitude of islets and islands, narrow passages, coves, and deep inlets, which 
diversity of land and water affords oeautiftd combinations of scenery. The islands 
are covered with cedar, hemlock, and birch trees ; and the bold highlands which 
shadow the lakes are also well wooded. One of the most remarkable features of the 
scenery is the abundance of bowlders and ledges of fine white granite, either seen 
through the transparent waters or lining the shore like massive masonry. " Uni- 
versal gloom and stillness reign over these lakes and the forests around them." 

Beyond Vanceboro* the train passes through an almost unbroken wilder- 
ness for 55 M., during the last 16 M. following the course of the Matta- 



ST. JOHN RIVER. JHouUS, 39 

wamkeag River. The station of Mattawamkeag is at the confluence of 
the Mattawamkeag and Penobscot Rivers ; and the railway from thence 
follows the coarse of the latter stream, traversing a succession of thinly 
populated lumbering towns. 45 M. below Mattawamkeag, the Penobscot 
is crossed, and the train reaches Oldtown (two inns), a place of about 
4,000 inhabitants, largely engaged in the lumber business. The traveller 
should notice here the immense and costly booms and mills, one of which 
is the largest in the world and has 100 saws at work cutting out planks. 

On an island just above Oldtown is the home of the Tarratine IndiaoB, formerly 
the most powerful and warlike of the Northern tribes. They were at first well-dis- 
posed towards the colonists, but after a series of wrongs and infiults they took up 
arms in 1678, and inflicted such terrible damage on the settlements that Maine b^ 
came tributary to them by the Peace of Casco. After destroying the fortress of Pem- 
aquid to avenge an insult to their chief, St. Castin, they remained quiet for many 
years. The treaty of 1720 contains the substance of their present relations with the 
State. The declension of the tribe was marked for two centuries ; but it is now 
slowly increasing. The people own the islands in the Penobscot, and have a reve- 
nue of $ 6 - 7,000 from the State, which the men eke out by working on the lumber- 
rafts, and by hunting and fishing, while the women make baskets and other trifles 
for sale. The island-village is without streets, and consists of many small houses 
built around a Catholic church. There are over 400 persons here, most of whom 
are half-breeds. 

Below Oldtown the river is seen to be filled with booms and rafts of 
timber, and lined with saw-mills. At Orono is the State Agricultural 
College; and soon after passing Veazie the train enters the city of 
Bangor. 

For descriptions of Bangor, the Penobscot River, and the route to Bos- 
ton, see Osgood's Kew England. 

8. St. John to Fredericton.— The St John Biver. 

The steamer Rothesay ^ of the Express Line, leaves St. John (Indiantown) at 9 
A. M on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. The steamer Davtd Weston^ of the 
Union Line, leaves Indiantown at 9 a. m. on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
See also Routes 9 and 10. These vessels are comfortably fitted up for passengers, 
in the manner of the smaller boats on the Hudson River. Dinner is served on 
board ; and Fredericton is usually reached late in the afternoon. 

The scenery of the St. John River is pretty, and has a pleasing pastoral quiet- 
ness. The elements of the landscapes are simple; the settlements are few and 
small, and at no time will the traveller find his attention violently drawn to any 
passing object. There are beautifiil views on the Long Reach, at Belleisle Bay, 
and during the approach to Fredericton, but the prevalent character of the 
scenery is that of quiet and restful rural lands, by which it is pleasant to drift on- 
a balmy summer-day. Certain provincial writers have done a mischief to the St. 
John by bestowing upon it too extravagant praise, thereby preparing a disappoint- 
ment for such as believed their report. One calls it " the Rhine of America," and 
another prefers it to the Hudson. This is wide exaggeration ; but if the traveller 
would enjoy a tranquillizing and luxurious journey through a pretty forming coun- 
try, abounding in mild diversity of scenery, he should devote a day to this river. 

Distances* — (The steamboat-landings bear the names of their owners, and the 
following itinerary bears reference rather to the villages on the shores than to the 
stopping-places of the boats. ) St. John ; Brundage's Point, 10 M. ; Westfield, 17 ; 
Greenwich Hill, 19 ; Oak Point, 25 ; Long Reach, 26 ; Tennant's Cove (Belleisle 
Bay), 29; Wickham, 82; Hampstead, 86; Otnabog, 41; Oagetown, 60; U\kis«& 
Oagetown, 68 ; Maugerville, 72 ; Oromocto, 75 ; Glasier's^ 81 \ f Tft^'^^RX«o.^'^. 

Fares* — St. Jolm to Gtagetown, $ 1 ; to Fxedsi]^tO)n.,^\JEi^. 



40 JtaiOeS. KENNEBECASIS BAT. 

Thii rirer was calkd LoosAfool^ (Long RiTer) hj the Stehemiii lodiaiifl, and 
Ouangoudie by the Hicmacs. It is supposed to haye been visited by I>e Sfonts, 
or other explorers at an early day, and in the commission of the year 1506 to tte 
Lieut. -Qeneral of Acadia it is called La Riviire de la Chumde Bote. But no exam- 
ination was made of the upper waters until St. John's Day, 1604, when the French 
fleet under De Monts and Poutrineourt entered the great rirw. In h<mor of the 
saint on whose festiyal the exploration was begun, it was then entitled the St. John. 
After spending several weeks In ascending the stream Mid its connected waters, the 
discoTerers sailed away to the south, b«iring a good report of the chief xiver of 
Acadia. De Monts expected to find by this course a near route to Tadoosae, on Hm 
Saguenay, and therefore sailed up as fisur as the depth of water would permit. ** The 
extent of this river, the fish with which it was filled, the grapes growing on its 
banks, and the beauty of its scenery, were all objects of wonder and admiration.'* 
At a subsequent day the fierce struggles of the Stench seigneurs were waged cm its 
■hores, and the invading fleets of New England fturowed its tranquil waters. 

The St. John is the chief river of the Maritime Provinces, and is over 450 M. 
in length, being navigable for steamers of 1,000 tons for 90 M., for light-draught 
steamers 270 M. (with a break at the Grand Falls), and for canoes for nearly its 
entire extent. It takes its rise in the great Maine forest, near the sources'of the 
Penobscot and the Chaudiere ; and firom the lake which heads its S. W. Branch 
the Indian voyagevrs carry their canoes across the Mcgarmette Portage and launch 
them in the Cliaudi^re, on which they descend to Quebec. Flowing to the N. B. 
for over 160 M. through the Maine forest, it receives the Allagash, St. Francis, and 
other large streams ; and from the moutli of the St. Francis nearly to the Grand 
Falls, a distance of 76 M., it forms the frontier between the United States and 
Oanada. It is the chief member in that great system of rivers and lakes which has 
won for New Brunswick the distinction of being ** the most finely watered country 
in the world." At Bladawaska the course changes from N. E- to S. E., and the 
sparsely settled N. W. counties of the Province are traversed, with la^ge tributaries 
coming in on either side. During the last 60 M. of its course it receives the waters 
of the great basins of the Grand and Washademoak Lakes and the Belleisle and 
Kennebecasis Bays, which have a parallel direction to the N. E., and afford good 
ikcilities for inland navigation. The tributary streams are connected witti Uiose of 
the Gulf Mid of the Bay of Chaleur by short portages (which will be mentioned in 
connection with their points of departure). 

Immediately after leaving the dock at St John a fine retrospect is 
given of the dark chasm below, over which is the light and graceful 
suspension-bridge. Bunning up by Point Pleasant, the boat ascends a 
narrow gorge with high and abrupt banks, at whose bases are large 
lumber-mills. On the r. is Boards Head^ a picturesque rocky promon- 
tory, in whose sides are quarries of limestone; 8-4 M. above Indiantown 
the broad expanse of Grand Bay is entered, and South Bay is seen open 
ing on the 1. rear. 

The Keimebeoasis Bay is now seen, opening to the N. E. This noble 
Bheet of water is from 1 to 4 M. wide, and is navigable for large vessels 
for over 20 M. It receives the Kennebecasis and Hammond Rivers and 
contains several islands, the chief of which. Long Island, is 5 M. long, 
and is opposite the village of Rothesay (see page 22). The E. shore is fol- 
lowed for many miles by the track of the Intercolonial Railway. 

The testimony of the rocks causes scientists to believe that the St. John formerlr 
emptied by two mouths,— through the Kennebecasis and the Marsh Yallev and 
through South Bay into Manawagonish Bay, — and that the breaking down of the 
mesent channel through the lofty hills W. of St. John is an event quite lecent in 
leeoloffical history. The Indians still preserve a tradition that this barrier of hill- 
wu once unbroken and served to divert the stream. ^ "*^ 



LONG BEACH. HmUe8. 41 

On the banks of the placid Eennebecasifl the ancient Miemao l^iends locate the 
home of the Great Bearer, " feared by beasts and men," wh<»n Glooecap finally 
conquered and put to death. In this yicinity dwelt the two Great Brottiers, Gloos- 
CAP and Malsunsis, of unknown origin and inyincible power. Glooscap knew that 
his brother was Tubierable only by the touch of a fern-root ; and he had told Mal- 
sunsis (falsely) that the stroke of an owl's feather would kill him. It came to pass 
that MalBunsis determined to kill his brother (whether tempted thus by Biik-o, the 
Squirrel, or by Quah-beetne-eis, the son of the Great Beayer, or by his own eyil am- 
bition) ; wherefore with his arrow he shot Koo-koo-skoos, the Owl, and with one of 
his feathers struck the sleeping Glooecap. Then he awoke, and reproached Blalsun- 
sis, but afterwards told him that a blow firom the root of a pine would kill him. 
Then the traitorous man led his brother on a hunting excursion fu into the forest, 
and while he slept he smote him with a pine-root. But the cautious Glooscap arose 
unharmed, and drove MaLsunsis forth into the forest ; then sat down by the brook- 
side and said to himself, " Naught but a flowering rush can kill me." Musquash, 
the Beayer, hidden among the sedge, heard these words and reported them to Mal- 
sunsis, who promised to do unto him eyen as he should ask. Therefore did Mus- 
quash say, ^'^Giye unto me wings like a pigeon." But the warrior answered, " Get 
thee hence, thou with a tail like a file ; what need hast thou of pigeon's wingH i " 
and went on his way. Then the Beayer was fuigry, and went forth unto the camp 
of Glooscap, to whom he told what he had done. And by reason of these tidings, 
Glooscap arose and took a root of fern and sought Malsunsu in the wide and gloomy 
forest ; and when he had found him he smote him so that he fell down dead. " And 
Glooscap sang a song over him and lamented." 

Now, therefore, Glooscap ruled all beasts and men. And there came unto him 
three brothers seeking tlutt he would g^ye them great strength and long life and 
much stature. Then asked he of them whether they wished these thii^p that they 
might benefit and counsel men and be glorious in battle. But they s^d, *' No; we 
seek not the good of men, nor care we for others." Then he oflfered unto them suc- 
cess in battle, knowledge and skill in diseases, or wisdom and subtlety in counsel. 
But they would not hearken unto him. Therefore did Glooscap wax angiy, and 
said: *' Go your ways; you shall haye strength and stature and length of days." 
And while they were yet in the way, rejoicing, '*lo ! their feet became rooted to the 
ground, and their legs stuck together, uid their necks shot up, and they were 
turned into three cecUustrees, strong and tall, and enduring beyond thedaysof men, 
but destitute alike of all ^ory and of all use." 

Occasional glimpses of the railway are obtained on the 1., and on the r. 
is the large island of Kennebecasis, which is separated from the Kingston 
peninsula by the Milkish Channel. Then the shores of Land's End are 
passed on the r. ; and on the 1. is the estuary of the Nerepis River. At 
this point the low (but rocky and alpine) ridge of the Nerepis HiJUs crosses 
the river, running N. E. to Bull ^Moose Hill, near the head of Belleisle 
Bay. 

The steamer now changes her course from N. W. to N. E., and enters the 
Long Beaohi a broad and straight expanse of the river, 16 M. long and 
1 - 3 M. wide. The shores are high and bold, and the scenery has a lake- 
like character. Beyond the hamlets of Westfield and Greenwich Hill, on 
the 1. bank, is the rugged and forest-covered ridge known as the Devil's 
Backy an oflf-^pur of the minor Alleghany chain over the Nerepis Valley. 
Abreast of the wooded Eoster's Island, on the E. shore, is a small ham- 
let clustered about a tall-spired church. Caton*s Island is just above Fos- 
ter's, and in on the W. shore is seen the pretty little village of Oak Point 
(Lacey*s inn), with a lighthouse and the spire of the Episcopal church, q.1 
St. Paul. Farther up is the insulated intervale of Gtnaas^ AaXw^-^^^^oiss^^ 



42 jRouteS. BELLEISLE BAY. 

for its rich hay, which may be seen in autumn stacked all along the shore. 
The steamer now passes through the contracted channel off* Mistaken 
Point, where the river is nearly closed by two narrow peninsulas which 
project towards each other from the opposite shores. 

B«l]eisle Bay turns to the N. E. just abore Mistaken Point. The estoaiy is 
nearly hidden by a low island and by a rounded promontory on ther.,b^ond which 
the bay extends to the N. E. for 12 - 14 M. , with a uniform width of 1 M. It is navi- 
gable for the largest vessels, and is bordered by wooded hills. On the S. shore near 
the mouth is Kingston Creek, which leads S. in about 6 M. to Sklnsston (two 
inns), a sequestered village of 200 inhabitants, romantically situated among the hiUs 
in the centre of the peninsular parish of Kingston. This peninsula preserves an 
almost uniform width of 5 - 6 M. for 90 M. , between the Kennebecasis Bay and river 
on the S. E. and the Long Reach and Belleisle Bay on the N. W. The scenery, 
though never on a grand scale, is pleasant and bold, and has many fine water views. 
A few miles E. of Kingston is the remarkable lakelet called the Picktoeuikeetf occu- 
pying an extinct crater and surrounded by volcanic rocks. This district was origi- 
nally settled by American Loyalists, and for many years Kingston was the <^ital ^ 
Kings County. The village is most easily reached fixnn Rothesay (see page 22). 

Tennant^s Cove is a small Baptist village at the N. of the entrance to the bay ; 
whence a road leads in 6 M. to the hamlet of Belleisle Bay on the N. shore (nearly 
opposite Long Point village) ; from which the bay road runs in 8-4 M. to the larger 
Baptist settlement at Spragg's Point, whence much cord-wood is sent to St. John. 
4 M. beyond is Springfield (small inn), the largest of the Belleisle villages, situated 
near the head of the bay, and 7 M. from Norton, on the IntercoloiSal Railway 
(Route 16). 

At the head of the Long Reach a granite ridge turns the river to the N. 
and N. W. and narrows it for several miles. 4-6 M. above Belleisle Bay 
Spoon Island is passed, above which, on the r. bank, is the shipbuilding 
hamlet of Wickkam. A short distance beyond, on the W. bank, is Han^ 
steady with several mills and a granite-quarry. The shores of the river 
now become more low and level, and the fertile meadows of Long Idand 
are coasted for nearly 6 M. This pretty island is dotted with elm-trees, 
and contains two large ponds. On the mainland (W. shore), near its head, 
is the hamlet of Otnabog^ at the mouth of a river which empties into a lake 
8 M. long and 1-2 M. wide, connected with the St. John by a narrow 
passage. The boat next passes the Lower Musquash Island, containing a 
large pond, and hiding the outlet of the Washademoak Lake (see Route 9). 

" This part of the Province, including the lands around the Grand Lake and along 
the Washademoak , must become a very populous and rich country . A great propor- 
tion of the land is intervale or alluvial, and coal is found in great plenty, near the 

Grand Lake No part of America can exhibit greater beauty or more luxuriant 

fertility than the lands on each side, and the islands that we pass in this distance." 
(McGkegor's British America.) 

After passing the Upper Musquash Island, the steamboat rounds in at 
Gagetown (2 inns), a village of 800 inhabitants, prettily situated on the W. 
bank of the river. It is the shire-town of Queen's County, and is the shipping- 
point for a broad tract of farming-country. After leaving this point, the 
steamer passes between Grimross Neck (1. ) and the level shores of Cam- 
bridge (r.), and runs by the mouth of the Jemseg Biver. 

About the year 1640 the French seigneur erected at the mouth of the Jemaeg a 
fort, on whose ramparts were 12 iron guns and 6 " murtherers." It was provided 



. MAUGERVILLfi. JlouUS. 43 

with a court of guard, stone barracks and magadnes, a garden^ and a chapel ** 6 paoM 
square, with a bell weighing 18 pounds." In 1664 it was captured by an expedition 
sent out by Oliver Cromwell; but was yielded up by Sir Thomas Temple to the 
Seigneur de Soulanges et Msurson in 1670. In 1674 it was taken and plundered by 
** a Flemish corsair." The Seigniory of Jemseg was granted by the French Crown to 
the ancient Breton family of Damour des Chaffour. In 1686 it was occupied by the 
seignorial fiBunily, and in 1^ there were 50 persons settled here under its auspices. 
In 1739 the lordship of this district was held hy the llarquis de Yaudreuil, who had 
116 colomsts in the domain of Jemseg. In 169^ it was made the capital of Acadia, 
under the command of M. de Yillebon ; and after the remoyal of the seat of gorem- 
ment to Fort Nashwaak (Fredericton), the Jemseg fort suffered the -vicissitudes of 
British attack, and was finally abandoned. About the year 1776, 600 Indian warriors 
gathered here, designing to devastate the St. John valley, but were deterred by the 
resolute front made by the colonists from the Oromocto fort, and were finally ap- 
peased and quieted by large presents. 

The Jemseg River is the outlet of Grand Lake (see Route 10). Beyond 
this point the steamer runs N. W. by Grimross Island, and soon passes the 
hamlets of Canning (r.) and Upper Gagetown (1.). Above Manger's Island 
is seen the tall spire of Burton church, and the boat calls at Sheffield, the 
seat of the Sheffield Academy. 

" The whole river-flront of the parishes of Maugerville, Sheffield, and Water- 
borough, an extent of nearly 30 M., is a remarkably fine alluvial sou, exactly re- 
sembling that of Battersea fields and the Twickenham meadows, stretching from the 
river generally about 2 M. This tract of intervale, including the three noble islands 
opposite, is deservedly called the Qarden of New Brunswick, and it is by fiir the 
most considerable tract of alluvial soil, formed by flresh water, in the Province." 

Above Sheffield the steamer passes Middle Island, which is 8 M. long, 
and produces much hay, and calls at MaugerviUe, a quiet lowland village 
of 300 inhabitants. On the opposite shore is Oromocto (two inns), the 
capital of Sunbury County, a village of 400 inhabitants, engaged in ship- 
building. It is at the mouth of the Oromocto River, which is navigable 
for 22 M. 

The settlement of Maugerville was the first which was formed by the English on 
the St. John River. It was established in 1763 by fomilies ftom Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, and had over lOO families in 1776. In May, 1776, the inhabitants of 
Sunbury County assembled at Maugerville, and resolved that the colonial policy of 
the British Parliament "was wrong, that the United Provinces were justified in re- 
sisting it, that the county should be attached to Maosachusetts, and that men and 
money should be rsdsed for the American service : saying also, " we are Ready with 
our Lives and fortunes to Share with them the Event of the present Struggle for 
Liberty, however God in his Providence may order it." These resolutions were 
signed by all but 12 of the people ; and Massachusetts soon sent them a quantity of 
ammunition. At a later day Col. Eddy, with a detachment of Mass. troops, ascended 
the St. John River to Maugerville, where he met with a warm welcome and was 
joined by nearly 50 men. 

Oromocto was in early days a &vorite resort of the Indians, one of whose great 
cemeteries has recently been found here. When the hostile tribes concentrated on 
the Jems^ during the Revolutionary War, and were preparing to devastate the 
river-towns, the colonists erected a large fortification near the mouth of the Oromocto, 
and took refuge there. They made such a bold firont that the Indians retired and 
disbanded, after having reconnoitred the works. 

" The rich meadows are decorated with stately elms and forest trees, or sheltered 
by low coppices of cranberry, alder, and other native bushes. Through the nxuner- 
ous openings in the shrubbery, the visitor, in traversing the river, sees the white 
fronts of the cottages, and other buildings ; and, from the constant change of posi- 
tion, in sailing, an almost endless variety of scenery is presented to lb& \.i»:<t^CL%x'% 
eye. During the sammer season the sor&oe of ttaAfretot aSiCffdA «sx Vi^eK^ifiD% 



44 JtouU 8, FBEDERICrrCN. 

■pectaele. Vast rafts of timber and logs are slowly mored downiraids bj fhe eat- 
rent. On them is sometimes seen the shanty of the lumbeiman, with his ftmily, a 
cow, and occasionally a haystack, all destined for the city below. Numerous canoes 
and boats are in motion, while the paddles of the steamboat break the pcdished snr- 
Ikce of the stream and send it rippling to the shore. In the midst of this landscape 
stands Fredericton, situated on an obtuse level point formed by the bending of the 
rirer, and in the nudst of natural and cultirated scenery." (Qssnx&.) 

Frederioton. 

Hotelf. Barker House, Queen St , • 2 a day ; Queen's Hotel, Queen St , $ 1.50 
a day. 

Stages leaye tri-weekly for Woodstock (62 M. ; fkure, $2.50) ; and tri-weekly for 
Boiestown and the Miramichi (105 M. ; &re, 9 6). 

Rallnrays* The European & North American (branch line) to St. John, in 
about 64 M. ; Ikre, 82. The New Brunswick Railway (narrow gauge), to Woodstock 
and Florenceyille ; Aire to Woodstock, 8 1-75 (page 50). 

Steamboats. Daily to St. John, stopping at the river-ports. Fare, $ 1.50. 
In the summer there are occasional night-boats, leaving Fredericton at 4 p. m. 
When the river has enough water, steamboats run firom Fredericton, 66-70 M. 
N. W. to Woodstock and Grand Falls. Ferry-steamers cross to St. Mary's at fre- 
quent intervals. 

Fredericton, the capital of the Province of New Bronswick, is a small 
city pleasantly situated on a level plain near the St John Biver. In 1871 
it had 6,006 inhabitants, with 4 weekly newspapers and a bank. It is 
probably the quietest place, of its size, north of the Potomac River. The 
streets are broad and airy, intersecting each other at right angles, and are 
lined with fine old shade trees. The city has no manufacturing interests, 
but serves as a shipping-point and depot of supplies for the young settle- 
ments to the N. and W. Its chief reason for being is the presence of the 
offices of the Provincial Government, for which it was founded. 

Queen St, is the chief thoroughfare of the city, and runs nearly parallel 
with the river. At its W. end is the Government House^ a plain and spa- 
cious stone building situated in a pleasant park, and used for the official 
residence of the Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick. Nearly in the 
middle of the city, and between Queen St and the riyer, are the Military 
Grounds and Parade-ground, with the large barracks (accommodating 
1,000 men), which were formerly the headquarters of the British army in 
this Province. They are now deserted, and are falling into dilapidation. 
Near the £. end of Queen St. are the Parliament Buildings^ a group of in* 
ferior wooden structures, where the legislative bodies of the Province hold 
their sessions. The Library is in the brick building on the E., and con- 
tains about 18,000 volumes. It is, however, open only on Wednesdays. 
The Council Chamber and Chamber of Commons are comfortable, but 
small and plain, halls; and the Law Library is also contained in this 
building. 

* Christ Church Cathedral is a short distance beyond the Parliament 
BuUdings, and is embowered in a grove of fine old trees near the river 
(comer of Church and Queen Sts.). It is imder the direct care of the 
Anglican Bishop of Fredericton, and its style of construction is modelled 



FREDEBICTON. HauU 8, 45 

after that of Christ Chnrch Cathedral at Montreal. The beanty of the 
English Gothic architecture, as here wrought out in fine gray stone, is 
heightened by the picturesque effect of the surrounding trees. A stone 
spire, 178 ft. high, rises from the junction of the nave and transepts. The 
interior is beautiful, though small, and the chancel is adorned with a 
superb window of Newcastle stained-glass, presented by the Episcopal 
Church in the United States. It represents, in the centre, Christ cruci- 
fied, with SS. John, James, and Peter on the 1., and SS. Thomas, Philip, 
and Andrew on the r. In the cathedral tower is a chime of 8 bells, each 
of which bears the inscription : 

** Ave Pater, Rex, Creator, Ave Simplex, Are Trine, 

Ave Fill, Liux, Salvator, Ave Begnani In Sublime, 

Ave Spiritus Con§olator, Ave Besonet tine fine, 
Ave Beata Unitaa. Ave SancU Trinitai." 

The Provincial Exposition Bidding is a spacious edifice on Westmore- 
land St., constructed in a singular variety of Saracenic architecture. It 
is used for great industrial and agricultural fairs every 8 or 4 years. In 
this vicinity is the skating-rink, and the railway-station is but a little way 
bevond, on York St. 

The University of New Brunswick is a substantial freestone building, 170 
ft. long and 60 ft. wide, occupying a fine position on the hills which sweep 
around the city on the S. It was established by royal charter in 1828, 
while Sir Howard Douglas ruled the Province ; and was for many years 
a source of great strife between the Episcopalians and the other sects, the 
latter making objection to the absorption by the Anglioans of an institu- 
tion which had been paid for by the whole people. It was fairly endowed, 
but has not yet reached an era of prosperity, probably because there are 
too many colleges in the Maritime Provinces. The view from the Univer- 
sity is pleasant, and is thus described by Prof. Johnston : . 

** From the high ground above Fredericton I agidn felt how very delightftd it is to 
feast the eyes, weary of stony barrens and perpetual pines, npon the heautiftil river 
St. John Calm, broad, clear, jost visibly flowing on ; fall to its banks, and re- 
flecting flrom its surfisMse the graceful American elms which at intervals fnnge its 
shores, it has all the beauty of a long lake without its lifelessness. But its acces- 
sories are as yet chiefly those of nature, — wooded ranges of hills varied in outline, 
now retiring from and now approaching the water's edge, with an occasional clear- 
ing, and a rare white-washed house, with its still more rarely visible inhabitants, 

and stray cattle In some respects this view of the St. John recalled to my 

mind some of the points on the Russian river (Neva) : though aniong European 
pcenery, in its broad waters and forests of pines, it most resembled the tamer por* 
tions of the seararms and flords of Sweden and Norway." 

St. Mary* 8 and Nashwcuiksis are opposite Fredericton, on the 1. bank of 
the St. John, and are reached by a steam-ferry. Here is the terminus of 
the New Brunswick Railway (to Woodstock) ; and here also are the great 
lumber-mills of Mr. Gibson, with the stately church and comfortable 
homes which he has erected for his workmen. Nearly opposite the city 
is seen the mouth of the Nashwaak Biver, whose valley was settled by 
disbanded soldiers of the old Black Watch (42d HighUnd^i^^. 



46 RouU 8. FREDEBICTON. 

In the ynr 1690 fhe French goremment sent out the Cheralier de TiQebon as 
OoTemor of Acadia. When he aniyed at Port Royal (Annapolis), his capital, he 
found that Sir William Phipps's New-England fleet had recently captnied and de- 
stroyed its fortifications, so he ascended the St. John River and soon fixed his capi- 
tal at Nashwaak, where he remained for eeyeral years, organising Indian forays on 
the settlements of Maine. 

In October, 1696, an Anglo-American army ascended the St. John in the ships 
Arundel f Province, and others, and laid siege to Fort Nashwaak. The Cheralier de 
Tillebon drew up his garrison, and addressed them with enthusiasm, and the de- 
taclmients were put in charge of the Sieurs de la Cote, Tibierge, and Clignancourt 
The British royal standard was displayed over the besiegers' works, and for three 
days a heavy fire of artillery and musketry was kept up. The precision of the fiie 
firom La Cdte's battery dismounted the hostile guns, and after seeing tiie Sieur de 
Falaise reinforce the fort from Quebec, the Briti^ gave up the si^e and retreated 
down the river. 

The village of St. Anne was erected here, under the protection of Fort Nashwaak. 
Its site had been visited by De Monts in 1604, during his exploration of the river. 
In 1767 (and later) the place was crowded with Acadian refugees fleeing fh>m the 
stem visitations of angry New England on the Minas and Port Royal districts. In 
1784 came the exiled American Loyalists, who drove away the Acadians into the 
wilderness of Madawaska, and settled along these shores. During the following 
year Gov. Guy Carleton established the capifaai of the Province here, in view of the 
central location and pleasant natural features of the place. Since the formation of 
the Canadian Dominion, and the consequent withdrawal of the British garrison, 
Fredericton has become dormant. 

7 M. above Fredericton Is Aukpagugj the fiivorite home-district of the ancient 
Indians of the river. The name signifies " a beautiful expanse of the river caused 
by numerous islands." On the island of Sandous were the fortifications and quar- 
ters of the American forces in 1777, when the St. John River was held by the expe- 
dition of Col. Allan. They reached Aukpaque on the 5th of June, and saluted the 
new American flag with salvos of artillery, while the resident Indians, under Am- 
brose St. Aubin, their" august and noble chief," welcomed them and their cause. 
They patrolled the river with guard-boats, aided the patriot residents on the banks, 
and watched the mouth of St. John harbor. After the camjp on Aukpaque had 
been established about a month it was broken up by a British naval force firom 
below, and Col. Allan led away about 600 people, patriot Provincials, Indians, and 
their mmilies. This great exodus is one of the most romantic and yet least known 
incidents of the American borders. It was conducted by canoes up the St. John to 
the ancient French trading-post called Fort Meductic, whence they carried their 
boats, families, and household goods across a long portage ; then they ascended the 
rapid Eel B^ver to its reservoir-lake, from whose head another portage of 4 M. led 
them to North Pond. The long procession of exiles next defiled into the Grand 
Lake, and encamped for several days at its outiet, after which they descended the 
Chiputneticook Lake and the St. Croix River, passed into the Lower Schoodic Lake, 
nnd thence carried their families and goods to the head-waters of the Machias lUver. 
Floating down that stream, they reached Blachias i in time to aid in beating o£F the 
British squadron firom that town. 



From Fredericton to the Miramichi. Through the Forest, 

The Royal Mail-stage leaves on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 
a very early hour, and the passenger gets breakfast at Eastman* s, and 
sleeps at Frazer's. The trip requires 2 days, and costs $ 6 (exclusive of 
hotels), and the distance from Fredericton to Newcastle is 105 M. By far 
the greater part of the route leads through an unbroken forest, and the 
road leaves much to be desired. After crossing the ferry at Fredericton 

1 MacMoB !■ laid to be derived from the French word Mage» (meanine the Magi), and It 
if held that it was discovered by the ancient French explorers on the Festival of the JfagL 



WASHADEMOAK LAKE. JUmU9. 47 

the ronte lies due N. and is as straight as an arrow for 9 M., when it reaches 
Nashwaak Village (small inn); thence it follows the Nashwaak Biver for 
6 M., to the hamlet of Nashwaak, above which it enters a wild country 
about the head-waters of the river. To the W. are the immense domains 
of the New Brunswick Land Company, on which a few struggling settle- 
ments are located. In the earlier days there was a much-travelled route 
between the St. John valley and the Miramichi waters, by way of the 
Nashwaak Biver, from whose upper waters a portage was made to the 
adjacent streams of the Miramichi (see " Vacation Tourists," for 1862-3, 
pp. 464-474). At about 40 M. from Fredericton the stage reaches Boie»- 
tovm (small inn), a lumbering-village of 250 inhabitants, on the S. W. 
Miramichi Biver. This place was founded in 1822, by Thomas Boies and 
120 Americans, but has become decadent since the partial exhaustion of 
the forests. The road now follows the course of the S. W. Miramichi, 
passing the hamlets of Ludlow, 62 M. from Fredericton ; Doaktown, 65 
M.; Bllssfield, 62; Dunphy, 73; Blackville, 79; Indiantown (Benous Biver), 
87; Derby, 96; and Newcastle, 106 (see Boute 15). 

9. Washademoak Lake. 

The steamer Star leaves St. John (Indiantown) on Tuesday, Thursday, and Sat- 
urday, at 10 A. M. for Cole's Island and the intermediate landings. The distance is 
about 60 M. ; the &re is $ 1. The boats leave Cole's Island on the return trip at 
7.90 A. M., on Wednesday, Friday, and Monday. 

The steamboat ascends the St. John Biver (see page 39) to the upper 
end of Long Island, where it turns to the N. E. in a narrow passage be- 
tween the Lower Musquash Island and the shores of Wickham. On either 
side are wide rich intervales, over which the spring inundations spread 
fertilizing soil; and the otherwise monotonous landscape is enlivened by 
clusters of elms and maples. After following this passage for 1^ M., the 
steamer enters the Washademoak Lake, at this point nearly 2 M. wide. 
The Washademoak is not properly a lake, but is the broadening of the 
river of the same name, which maintains a width of from ^ M. to 2 M. 
from Cole's Island to its mouth, a distance of 25 - 30 M. It is deep and 
still, and has but little current. In the spring-time and autumn rails de- 
scend the lake from the upper rivers and from the head-waters of the 
Gocagne, and pass down to St. John. The scenery is rather tame, being 
that of alluvial lowlands, diversified only by scattered trees. There are 
10 small hamlets on the shores, with from 150 to 250 inhabitants each, 
most of them being on the E. shore. The people are engaged in farming 
and in freighting cord-wood to St. John. About 6 M. above McDonald's 
Point, Lewis Cove opens to the S. E., running down for about 3 M. into the 
parish of Wickham ; and 4 - 6 M. farther on are the Narrows^ where the 
lake is nearly cut in. two by a bold bluff projecting from the E. shore. 
Coy 8 Islajid has about 200 Inhabitants, and a small hotel. \\. V^'^f^^* 



48 Haute 10. GRAND LAKE. 

from Apohaqai, on the Intercolonial Bailway. Roads ran across the pe- 
ninsula on the N. W. to Grand Lake in 5 -7 M. It is 88 M. from Cole's 
Island to Petitcodiac, on the Intercolonial Railway, by way of Brookyale, 
The Forks, and New Canaan. The Washademoak region has no attrac- 
tions for the summer tourist 

10. Grand Lake. 

The steamer May C^ueen leaves St. John (Indiantown) on Wednesday and Satur- 
day at 8 A. M., for Grand Lake and the Salmon Riyer. The disUmce u 86 M. ; the 
fue is 9 1^. She leaves Salmon River on Monday and Thnxsday mornings ; and 
touches at Gagetown in ascending and descending. 

Orand Lake is 80 M. long and from 8 to 9 M. wide. It has a tide of 6 
incheSi caused by the backwater of the St. John River, thrown up by the 
high tides of the Bay of Fundy. The shores are low and uninteresting, 
and are broken by several deep coves and estuaries. There are numerous 
hamlets on each side, but they are all small and have an air of poverty. 
It is reasonably hoped, however, that these broad alluvial plains will be- 
come, in a few decades, the home of a large and prosperous population. 

The lands in this vicinity were granted at an early date to the Sieur de Frenense, 
young Parisian, the son of that Sieur de Clignanoonrt who was so actiye in settling 
the St. John valley and in defending it against the New-Englanden. On Charle- 



a young Parisian, the son of that Sieur de Clignanoonrt who was so active in settling 
the St. John valley and in defending it against the New-Englanden. On Charle- 
voix's map (dated 1744) Grand Lake is call^ Lac JFV«n«tt5«,and a village of the same 



name is indicated as being a few miles to the N. These shores were a ikvorite camp- 
ing-ground of the ancient MUicete Indians, whose descendants occasionally visit 
Grand Lake in pursuit of muskrats. The lumber business, always iMmeftil to the 
agricultural interests of a new country, has slackened on account of the exhaustion 
of the forests on the Salmon River ; and it is now thou|^tthat a fitnning population 
will erelong occupy the Grand Lake country. 

The steamer ascends the St. John River (see page 89) as far as Gage- 
town^ where it makes a brief stop (other landings on the lower river are 
sometimes visited). She then crosses to the mouth of the Jemseg (see 
page 48), where the Jemseg River is entered, and is foUowed through its 
narrow, tortuous, and picturesque course of 4 M. This is the most inter- 
esting part of the journey. When nearly through the passage the boat 
stops before the compact hamlet of Jemseg^ occupying the slope of a hill 
on the r. On entering the lake, a broad expanse of still water is seen in 
front, with low and level shores denuded of trees. On the 1. is Scotch- 
toum (150 inhabitants), near which is a channel cut through the alluvium, 
leading (in 2 M.) to Maquapit Lake, which is 5 M. long and 2-8 M. wide. 
This channel is called the Thoroughfare ; is passable by large boats ; and 
leads through groves of elm, birch, and maple trees. 1 M. from the W. 
end of Maquapit Lake is French Lake, accessible by another " Thorough- 
fare,*' and 8-4 M. long, nearly divided by a long, low point. This lake is 
5-6 M. from Sheffield, on the St. John River. 

The channel is marked out by poles rising from the flats on either side. 
(The course of the steamer is liable to variation, and is here described as 
followed by the Editor.) Robinson*s Point is first visited, with its white 



GRAND LAKE. Route U. 49 

lighthouse rising from the E. shore; and the steamer passes aronnd into 
Whitens Cove, where there is a farming settlement of 200 inhabitants. 
Thence the lake is crossed to the N. to Keyhole, a curious little harbor 
near the villages of Maquapit and Douglas Harbor. After visiting Mill 
CJove and Wiggin's Cove, on the E. shore, and Young's Cove (2 inns), the 
boat rounds Cumberland Point and ascends the deep Cumberland Bay, feit 
whose head is a populous fanning settlement. On the way out of the bay- 
Cox's Point is visited, and then the narrowing waters at the head of the 
lake are entered. At Newcastle and other points in this vicinity, attempts 
have been made at coal-mining. The coal district about the head of Grand 
Lake covers an area of 40 square miles, and the coal is said to be of good 
quality and in thick seams. But little has yet been done in the way of 
mining, owing to the difficulty of transporting the coal to market 

Soon after passing Newcastle Creek the steamer ascends the N. E. arm, 
rounds a long, low point, and enters the Salmon Biver* This stream is 
ascended for several miles, through the depressing influences of ruined 
forests not yet replaced by farms. Beyond Ironbound Cove and the Coal 
Mines, the boat ties up for the night at a backwoods settlement, where the 
traveller must go ashore and sleep in a room reserved for wayfarers in an 
adjacent cottage. 

Brigg's Comer is at the head of nayigation, and a road nms thence X. E. across 
the wilderness to Richibucto, in 50-60 M. It is stated by good aathority that tide 
fishing in the Salmon River has been ruined by the Inmber-mills ; bat that very 
good sport may be found on the Lake Stream, 15-20 M. beyond Brigg's Corner. 
Tisitors to this district must be provided with full camp-equipage. A road also 
leads N. W. firom Brigg's Comer (diverg^g firom the Bichibucto KMd at Gaspereau) 
to BlissviUe, on the S. W. Miramichi, in about 40 M. 

11. Fredericton to Woodstock. 

By the.Neto Brunswick Railway^ a new line which has been but recently opened 
to trade. It is a narrow-gauge road, and travellers who are not fiuniliar with that 
principle of railway-building will be interested in observing the comparatively low 
and narrow, but comfortable cars ; the small locomotives ; and the construction of 
the bridges, the sharpness of the carves, and the steepness of the grades. 

The New Brunswick Railway is now completed to Florenceville, and is being 
graded to Tobique, whence it is proposed to construct a branch to Cariboo, 18 M. 
up the rich valley of the Aroostook. The company hopes that the line will be car- 
ried through to Riviere du Loup, on the St. Lawrence, at no distant date. 

Stations. Gibson ; St. Mury's, 1 M. ; Douglas, 3 ; SpringhiU, 5i ; Rockland 
10 : Keswick, 12 ; Cardigan, 16i *, Lawrence, 17i ; Zealand, 20 : Stoneridge, 22^ 
Bumside, 25 ; Upper Keswick. 28i ; Burt Lake, 32 ; Haynesville, 36^ ; MiUville,38i 
Nackawic, 43 ; Falls Brook, 48 ; Woodstock Junction, 52 ; Newburgh, 57 ; River- 
side, 60 ; Northampton, 61^. Fare from Fredericton to Woodstock, $1.75. 

Beyond Woodstock Junction the New Brunswick Railway runs N. to Hartland (61 
M. from Fredericton) and to Florenceville (71 M). The trains make connections 
with stages for Tobique and the upper St. John valley. 

The traveller crosses the St. John River by the steam ferry-boat (6c.), 
from Fredericton to Gibson; and the terminal station of the railway is 
near the ferry-landing. As the train moves out, pleasant vie^jro «i^ ^cst^'i\ 

8 l> 



50 Jttmtell. FREDERICTON TO WOODSTOCK. 

of the proeperons and happy settlementB which have be«n fbimded here by 
Mr. Gibson, the lumber-merchant. Glimpses of Fredericton are obtained 
on the 1., and beyond St. Mary's the Nashwaaksis River is crossed. Then 
follows a succession of beautiful views (to the 1.) over the wide and placid 
St. John, dotted with numerous large and level islands, upon which are 
clusters of graceful trees. On the farther shore is seen the yilli^ of 
SpringhiU (see page 61) ; and the broad expanse of Sugar Island crosses L 
the river a little way above. At about 10 M. from Fredericton the line 
changes its course from W. to N.W., and leaves the St. John valley, 
ascending the valley of the Keswick, -- a district which is banning to 
show the rewards of the arduous labors of its early pioneers. The Keswifek 
Valley was settled in 1788, by the disbanded American-loyalist coxps of New 
York and the Royal Guides, and their descendants are now attacking the 
remoter back-country. The Keswick flows through a pleasant regicm, and 
has bold features, the chief of which is the escarped wall of sandstone on 
the 1. bank, reaching for 8 - 10 M. from its mouth. From Cardigan station 
a road leads into the old Welsh settlement of Cardigan. 

The line next passes serenl stations on the old domain of the New Bronsirick 
Land Comi)any , an association which was Incorporated by royal charter before 1B40, 
and purchased from the Crown 560,000 acres in York County. They established 
their capital and chief agency at the village of Stanley, opened roads throiu^' tibe 
forest, settled a large com])any of people fW>m the Isle of Skye uiKm their lands, and 
expended 8600,000 in vain attempts to colonise this district. 

The cotmtry now traversed by the line seems desolate and nnpromism^ 
and but few signs of civilization are visible. This forest-land is left be- 
hind, and the open valley of the St. John is approached, beyond Nob- 
hurgh. For the last few miles of the journey beautiful views are given 
from the high grades of the line, including the river and its intervales and 
surrounding hills. The terminal station is, at ];>re8ent, in a field about Ik 
M. from Woodstock, on the opposite shore of the St. John, which is here 
crossed by a primitive steam ferry-boat. 

WoodBtook (American House, comfortable), the capital of Carleton 
County, is situated at the confluence of the St. John and Mednxnekeag 
Rivers, in the centre of a thriving agricultural district. The population is 
over 2,000, and the town is favorably situated on a high bluff over the St. 
John River. The Episcopal Church of St Luke and the Catholic Choich 
of St Gertrude are on Main St, where are also the chief buildings of the 
town. The academy called Woodstock College is located here. The 
conntry in this vicinity is very attractive in summer, and is possessed of a 
rich rural beauty which is uncommon in these Provinces. The soil is a 
calcareous loam, producing more fruit and cereal grains than any other 
part of New Brunswick. The bold bluffs over the St. John are generally well- 
wooded, and the intervales bear much hay and grain. There are large saw- 
mills at the mouth of the Meduxnekeag, where the timber which is cut on 
its upper waters, in Maine, is made into lumber. 12 M. from Woodstock 



WOODSTOCK. JUmU It. 51 

is the American village of HcuUon^ the capital of Aroostook County, Kaine; 
and the citizen? of the two towns are in such close social relations that 
Woodstock bears great resemblance to a Yankee town, both in its archi- 
tecture and its society. 

"Of the quality of the Woodstock iron itisiinpotsible to speak too highly, espe- 
cially for making steel, and it is eagerly sought by the armor-plate mannficturers In 
England. On six diflferent trials, plates of Woodstock iron were only slightly in- 
dented by an Armstrong shot, which shattered to pieees scrap-iron plates of the best 
quality and of similar thickness. When cast it has a fine silyer-gray color, is singu- 
larly close-grained, and rings like steel on being struck. A cubic inch of Wood- 
stock iron wdghs 22 per cent more than the like quantity of Swedish, Russian, or 
East Indiui iron." (Hon. A&thub OoanoN.) The mines are some distance fhxn 
the village, and are being worked efficiently, ueir products being much used for the 
British iron-clad Mgates. 

The N. B. & C. Railway runs 8. ftom Woodstock to St. Stephen and St. Andrews 
(see page 36); fare, 92.90. The N. B. Railway goes S. E. to Vredericton; five, 
9 1.75. Steamers run to Fredericton and to Grand Falls, when the river is high 
enough. Stages pass by the riyer-road to Fredericton semi-weekly, and daily sta(^ 
run N. to Grand Falls, and also W. to Houlton. 

12. Fredericton to Woodstocl^ by the 8t John Biver. 

During the spring and autumn, when there is enough water in the river, this 
route is served by steamboats. At other times the Journey may be made by the 
mail-stage. The distance is 62 M. ; the fore is 92.60. The stage is uncovered, and 
hence is undesirable as a means of conveyance except in pleaaant weather. Most 
travellers will prefer to pass between Fredericton and Woodstock by the new rail- 
way (see Route 11). The stage passes up the S. and W. side of the river. The en- 
suing itinerary speaks of the river-villages in their order of location, without refer- 
ence to the stations of the stages and steamboats. 

I>l8tance8. — Fredericton to Springhill, 5 M. ; Lower French Tillage, 9 ; Bris- 
tol (Kingsclear), 16 ; Lower Prince William, 21 ; Prince William, 25 ; Dumfries, 82 ; 
Pokiok Falls, 89 ; Lower Canterbury, 44; (}anterbnry,51 ; Lower Woodstock ; Wood- 
stock, 52. 

On leaving Fredericton^ pleasant prospects of the city and its Nash- 
waak suburbs are afforded, and successions of pretty views are obtained 
over the rich alluvial islands which fill the river for over 7 M., up to the 
mouth of the Keswick Biver. Springhill (S. shore) is the first village, 
and has about 250 inhabitants, with an Episcopal church and a small inn. 
The prolific intervales of Sugar Island are seen on the r., nearly closing 
the estuary of the Keswick, and the road passes on to the Indian village, 
where reside 25 families of the Milicete tribe. A short distance beyond 
is the Lower French VtUage (McKinley*s inn), inhabited by a farming 
population descended from the old Acadian fugitives. The road and river 
now run to the S. W., through the rural parish of Kingsclear, which was 
settled in 1784 by the 2d Battalion of New Jersey Loyalists. Beyond the 
hamlet of Bristol (Kingsclear) Burgoyne*s Ferry is reached, and the scat- 
tered cottages of Lower Queensbury are seen on the N. shore. After 
crossing Long's Creek the road and river turn to the N. W., and* soon 
reach the village of Lower Prince William (Wason's inn). 9 M. S. W. of 
this point is a settlement amid the beautiful scenery of Lake George^ 
where an antimony-mine is being worked; 8 M. beyoiid'?}Y)iOcLN&'\&A.\Sa3^^ 
(small inn), to the W. of Lake George. 



52 Route If. FORT MEDUCTIC. 

The road passes on to Prince William, through a parish which was 
originally settled by the King's American Dragoons, and is now occupied 
by their descendants. On the N. shore are the hilly uplands of the parish 
of Queensbury, which were settled by the disbanded men of the Queen's 
Rangers, after the Revolutionary War. Rich intervale islands are seen in 
the river between these parishes. Beyond Dumfries (small hotel) the 
hamlet of Upper Queensbury is seen on the N. shore, and the river sweeps 
around a broad bend at whose head is Poib'oib, with large lumber-mills, 
8 M. from AUandale. There is a fine piece of scenery here, where the 
River Pokiok (an Indian word meaning "the Dreadful Place **), the out- 
let of Lake George, enters the St. John. The river first plunges over a 
perpendicular fall of 40 ft. and then enters a fine gorge, 1,200 ft. long, 75 ft. 
deep, and 25 ft. wide, cut through opposing ledges of dark rock. The 
Pokiok bounds down this chasm, from step to step, until it reaches the 
St John, and affords a beautiful sight in time of high water, although 
its current is often encumbered with masses of riff-raff and rubbish fipom 
the saw-mills above. The gorge should be inspected from below, although 
it cannot be ascended along the bottom on account of the velocity of the 
contracted stream. About 4 M. from Pokiok (and nearer to Dumfries) is 
the pretty highland water of Prince William Lake, which is nearly 2 M. 
in diameter. 

Lower Canterbury (inn) is about 5 M. beyond Pokiok, and is near the 
mouth of the Sheogomoc River, flowing out from a lake of the same name. 
At Canterbury (Hoyt's inn) the Eel River is crossed; and about 5 M. be- 
yond, the road passes the site of the old French works of Fort MeducHc. 

This fort commanded the portage between the St. John and the route by the upper 
Eel River and the Eel and North Lakes to the Chipntneticook Lakes and Pasnma- 
quoddy Bay. Portions of these portages are marked by deep pathways worn in the 
rocks by the moccasons of many generations of Indian hunters and warrion. By 
this route marched the devastating savage troops of the Chevalier de Tillebon to 
many a merciless foray on the New England borders. The land in this vicinity, 
and the lordship of the Milicete town at Mednctic, were granted in 1684 to the Steur 
Clignancourt, the brave Parisian who aided in repelling the troops of Massachusetts 
fix>m the fort on the Jemseg. Here, also, during h^h water,, the Indians were 
obliged to make a portage around the Meductic Rapids, and the command of this 
point was deemed of great importance and value. (See also the account of Allan's 
retreat, on page 46.) 

Off this point are the Meductic Rapids, where the steamboats sometimes 
find it difficult to make headway against the descending waters, accel- 
erated by a slight incline. The road now runs N. through the pleasant 
valley of the St. John, with hill-ranges on either side. Lower Woodstock 
is a prosperous settlement of about 500 inhabitants, and the road soon 
approaches the N. B. & G. Railway (see page 87), and runs between that 
line and the river. 

** The approach to Woodstock, firom the old church upwards, is one of the pkas- 
antest drives in the Province, the road being shaded on either side with fine trees, 
and the ccnnibrti^le fium-houses and gardnis, the scattered clumps of wood, the 



FLOBENCEVILLE. RouUlS, 53 

windings of the great rirer, the pictoresqae knollii, and the gaj appearance of the 
pretty stiaggUng little town, all giving an air of a long-eettled, peaceful, EnglizK- 
looking country." (GtoRDON.) 

13. Woodstock to Grand Falb and Bivitoe dn lonp. 

The pleasanter route to Grand Falls is hy the steamboats, — small, Ught-dnugfat 
craft, which scuttle up the rapids and oyer the shallows as long as there is enough 
water in tiie river (usually only during the springtime and autumn). 

The Royal mail-stages leave Woodstock at 6 P. m. daily ; supper at Bliddle Simonds 
(Mills's), 16 M. out; breakiSut at Tobique, at.4 a. m. ; reach Qrand Falls at 8 a. m., 
and remain one hour; dinner at Belyea's, 18 M. beyond ; supper at Edmundston, 
and remain one hour ; breakfiut at La Belle's, at 1 a. m.. and reach Riviire du Loup 
in time for the morning train for Quebec or Montreal. The time between Wood- 
stock and Riyiire du Loup* is 86-40 hours. The New Brunswick Railway has been 
extended beyond Woodstock Junction to Florenceyille and Muniac, and stages con- 
nect- with the trains at the latter station and run through to Tobique. The railway 
will prolMtbly reach the latter point this year. Passengers leave Woodstock (North- 
ampton) at 8 a. m., change cars at Woodstock Junction, and reach Muniac about 
8.20 p. M. 

I>istanoe8. — Woodstock to Victoria, 11 M. ; Florenceville, 24; Tobique, 50; 
Grand Falls, 75 ; Edmundston, 113 ; Riviere du Loup, 193. 

Fares. — By stage, Woodstock to Florenceville. 8150; Tobique, S8; (}rand 
Falls, $4.25; Grand Falls to Edmundston, 92 5(); Edmundston to Rividre du 
Loup, $5. 

The road from Woodstock to Florenceville is pleasant and in an at- 
tractive country. "It is rich, English, and pretty. When I say Eng- 
lish, I ought, perhaps, rather to say Scotch, for the general features are 
those of the lowland parts of Perthshire, though the luxuriant vegeta- 
tion — tall crops of maize, ripening fields of golden wheat, and fine well- 
grown hard-wood — speaks of a more southern latitude. Single trees and 
clumps are here left about the fields and on the hillsides, under the shade 
of which well-looking cattle may be seen resting, whilst on the other hand 
are pretty views of river and distance, visible under fine willows, or 
through birches that carried me back to Deeside.*' (Hon. Arthur 
Gordon.) 

Soon after leaving Woodstock the stage-road takes a direction to the 
N E., keeping along the W. bank of the St. John River. Victoria and 
Middle Simonds (Mills's Hotel) are quiet hamlets on the river, centres 
of agricultural districts of 5 - 800 inhabitants each. FlorenceviUe (large 
hotel) is a pretty village, "perched, like an Italian town, on the very top 
of a high bluff far over the river." The road now swings around to the 
N. W. and traverses the settlements of Wicklow. The district between 
Woodstock and Wicklow was settled after the American Revolution bv 
the disbanded soldiers of the West India Rangers and the New Brunswick 
Fencibles. 

** Between Florenceville and Tobique the road becomes even prettier, 
winding along the bank of the St. John, or through woody glens that 
combine to my eye Somersetshire, Perthshire, and the green wooded part 
of southwestern Germany.'* There are five distinct t^mjcA^ ^csc^^N^^^ 



54 RtrnU IS. TOBIQUE. 

valley, showing the geological changes in the level of the rhrer, and the 
banks of the stream are composed of sand and graveL The intervale is 
usually narrow, and is broken frequently by intrusive highlands. 

5 M. S. W. of the river is Mars Hill, a steep mountain about 1,200 ft. 
high, which overlooks a vast expanse of forest. This was one of the chief 
points of controversy during the old border-troubles, and its summit was 
cleared by the Commissioners of 1794. The road now crosses the River 
des Chutes, at whose mouth are large saw-mills, near the site of an an- 
cient waterfall which has disappeared on account of the erosion of the 
rocks. Above this point the country is less thickly settled, and the road 
passes up near the river. Perth village is seen on the £. shore, and the 
narrowing valleys of Victoria County are traversed. 

Tobique (Newcomb^s inn), otherwise known as Andover, is pleasantly 
situated on the W. bank of the St. John, nearly opposite the mouth of the 
Tobique River. It has 400 inhabitants and 2 churches, and is the chief 
depot of sapplies for the lumbering-camps on the Tobique River. Nearly 
opposite is a large and picturesque Indian village, containing about 160 
persons of the Milicete tribe, and situated on the bluff at the confluence of 
the rivers. They have a valuable reservation here, and the men of the 
tribe engage in lumbering and boating. 

Fort Fairfield (Fort Fairfield House) is 7 M. N. W. of Tobique, and is an 
American border-town, with 900 inhabitants, 5 churches, and sereral ranall fitc- 
tories. This town was settled by men of New Brunswick in 1816, at which time it 
was supposed to be inside the ProTincial line. A road runs firom Fort Fairfield S. W. 
to Presque Isle ( Presque Me Hotel), a Tillage of about 1.000 inhabitants, with 4 
churches, an academy, several ftctories, and a newspaper (the ** Presque Isle Sun- 
rise "). This town is 42 M. N. of Houlton, on the U. S. military road which runs 
to the Madawaska district, and is one of the centres of the rich fitrming lands of the 
Aroostook Valley, parts of which are now occupied by Swedish colonists. 

From Tobique to Bathurst. Through the WUdemess. 

Guides and canoes can be obtained at the Indian village near Tobique. About 
1 M. above Tobique the voyagers ascend through the Narrows^ where the rapid cur- 
rent of the Tobique River is confined in a winding canon (1 M. long, 150 ft. wide, 
and 50-100 ft. deep) between high limestone cliffs Then tibe river broadens out 
into a pretty lake-like reach, with rounded and forest-covered hills on either side. 
The first night-camp is usually made high up on this reach. Two more rapids are 
next passed, and then commences a stretch of clear, deep water 70 M. long. Near 
the foot of the reach is the settlement of Arthurette, with about 400 inhabitants. 
The Red Rapids are 11 M. from the mouth of the river, and descend between high 
shores. Occasional beautifully wooded islands are passed in the stream ; and By 
the evening of the second day the voyagers should reach the high red cliffi at the 
mouth of the broad Wapskehegan River. This Indian name signifies " a river with 
a wall at its mouth," and the stream may be ascended for 20 M., through a ref^n 
of limestone hills and alluvial intervales. The Wapskeh^an is 81 M. above the 
mouth of the Tobique. 

Infrequent clearings, red clifb along the shore, and blue hills more remote, en- 
gage the attention as the canoe ascends still £gu*ther, passing the hamlet of Foster''s 
Cove on the N. bank, and running along the shores of Pitunond and Long Island, 
44 -M. up river is the Agulquac River, coming in from the E., and navigable by 
canoes for 25 M. As the intervales beyond tUs confluence aro passed, occasional 
glimpses are gained (on the r.) of the Blue Mts. and other tall ridges. At 80 M. 
from the mouth of the river, the canoe xeaches Ihe Forks (4-5 days from Tobique). 



NICTOR LAKE. .Haute IS. 56 

The Campbell Slyer here comes in ftrom the E. and S. E., trim the great ToMqua 
Lake and other remote wildtfmew-waterB : the Momonket dewendfl firom the N., 
and from the N. W. comes the Nictor, or Little Tobique Riyer. It is a good day's 
journey from the Forks to Cedar Brook, on the Niotor ; and another day oondncts 
to the * JNlctor Liake, " possessing more beauty of scenery than any other locally 
I have seen in the Province, except, perhaps, the Bay of Chaleur. Close to its 
southern edge a granite mountain rises to a height of nearly SfiQO ft., clothed wiUi 
wood to its sunmiit, except where it breaks into precipices of daj± rock or long gray 
shingly slopes. Other mountains of less height, but in some cases of more pictur- 
esque forms, are on other sides ; and in the lake itself, in the shadow of the moan> 
tain, is a little rocky islet of most inviting appeanmce." It takes 2-8 hours to 
ascend the mountain (Bald, or Sagamook), whence ** the view is very fine. The lake 
lies right at our feet, — millions of acres of forest are spread out before us like a 
map, sinking and swelling in one dark mantle over hiUs and valleys, whilst Kati^- 
din and Mars Hill in Maine, Tracadi^^h in Canada, the Squaw's Cap on the 
Restigouche, and Green Mountain in Victoria, are all distinctly visible. " (Gobdon. ) 
From the head of Nictor Lake a portage 8 M. long leads to the Nepialsalt Lialce. 
on whose E. shore is the remarkable peak called Mount Teneriffe. Near the outlet 
is a famous camping-ground, where the fishing is good and in whose vicinity deer 
and ducks are found. 

It takes about six days to descend the Nepisigwit River to the Great Falls, the 
larger part of the way being through forests of fir and between distant ranges of 
bare granite hills. 

There is a Provincial highway which follows the W. shore of the Tobique River, 
and touches the lower end of Nictor Lake, whence it runs N. and N. E. across the 
uninhabited valley of the Upsalqnitch to CampbeUton, on the Restigouche. (See 
Route 14.) 



6 M. above Tobique is the month of the Aroostook River, which trav- 
erses a great area of northern Maine, and for the last 6 M. of its course is 
in New Brunswick. It is not easily navigable on account of several rapids 
and the falls near Fort Fairfield; yet great quantities of lumber are floated 
down its current. There is a thriving village near the mouth of the river. 
7 M. farther N. the hamlet of Grand Falls Portage is passed, and the road 
leaves the St. John, which here begins a broad bend to the W. About 10 
M. above the Portage the steamboat or stage reaches Grand FaJUs (2 inns), 
otherwise known as Colebrooke. This town has about 700 inhabitants, 
and is picturesquely situated on a narrow peninsula near the cataract. It 
was formerly a fortified post of the British army, and is now the capital of 
Victoria County. It is hoped that large manufacturing interests will be 
developed here when the railway is completed from Woodstock to Riviere 
du Loup. Daily stages leave for Woodstock and for Rividre du Loup; 
and steamboats descend the river during the brief seasons of navigation. 
The environs of the village are remarkable for their picturesque beauty, 
and the view from the Suspension Bridge over the gorge of the St. John is 
worthy of notice. 

The ** Orand Falls are near the village, and form the most imposing 
cataract in the Maritime Provinces. The river expands into a broad basin 
above, afibrding a landing-place for descending canoes; then hurries its 
massive current into a narrow rock-bound gorge, in which it slants down 
an incline of 6 ft, and then plunges over a preclpioe ol c>«2iavKK2ra& ^a^a 



56 EmUlS. . GRAND FALLS. 

58 ft. high. The shape of the fall is singular, since the water leaps from 
the front and from both sides, with minor and detached cascades over the 
outer ledges. Below the cataract the river whirls and whitens for | M. 
through a rugged gorge 250 ft. wide, whose walls of dark rock are from 
100 to 240 ft. high. '* It is a narrow and frightful chasm, lashed by the 
troubled water, and excavated by boiling eddies and whirlpools always 
in motion ; at last the water plunges in an immense frothy sheet into a 
basin below, where it becomes tranquil, and the stream resumes its origi- 
nal features." Within the gorge the river falls 68 ft. more, and the rug- 
ged shores are strewn with the wrecks of lumber-rafts which have become 
entangled here. The traveller should try to visit the Falls when a raft is 
about passing over. 8 - 4 M. below the Falls is the dangerous Rapide de 
Femme, Small steamers have been placed on the river above the Falls, 
and have run as far as the mouth of the St. Francis, 65 M. distant. 

It is a tradition of the Micmacs that in a remote age two fiunilies of their tribe 
were on the upper St. John hunting, and were surprised by a war-party of the 
strange and dr^ided Northern Indians. The latter were descending the river to at- 
tack the lower Micmac villages, and forced the captured women to pilot th«n down. 
A few miles above the fiilis they asked their unwilling guides if the stream was all 
smooth below, and on receiving an affirmative answer, lashed the canoes together 
into a raft, and went to sleep, exhausted with their march. When near the Grand 
Falls the women quietly dropped overboard and swam ashore, while the hostile war- 
riors, wrapped in slumber, were swept down into the rapids, only to awaken when 
escape was impossible. Their bodies were stripped by the Micmacs on the river be- 
low, and the brave women were ever afterward held in liigh honor by the tribe. 

Crossing the St. John at Grand Falls, the stage ascends the E. bank of 
the stream, and soon enters the Acadian-French settlements and farming- 
districts. 8-10 M. up the road is the village of SL Leonard^ nearly all of 
whose people are French ; and on the American shore (for the St. John 
Biver is for many leagues the frontier between the nations) is the simi- 
larly constituted village of Van Bur en (two inns). This district is largely 
peopled by the Cyr, Vlolette, and Michaud families. 

The Hon. Arthur Gordon thus describes one of these Acadian homes near Grand 
River (in 1868) : " The whole aspect of the farm was that of a mitairU in Nor- 
mandy ; the outer doors of the house gaudily painted, the panels of a diflferent 
color from the frame, — the large, open, uncarpeted room, with its bare shining 
floor, — the lasses at the spinning-wheel, — the French costume and appearance of 
Madame Violet and her sons and daughters, — all carried me back to the other side 
of the Atlantic." 

Grand River (Tardififs innj is a hamlet about 4 M. beyond St Leonard, 
at the mouth of the river of the same name. 

The St. John River to the Rettigouche. 

A ragged wUdemess-joumey may be made on this line, by enga^ng Acadian 
guides and canoes at the Bladawaska settlements. .3-4 weeks will be si^cient time 
to reach the Bay of Chaleur, with plenty of fishing on the way. On leaving the St. 
John the voyagers ascend the Grand River to its tributary, the Waagansis. A port- 
age of 5-6 M. from this stream leads to the Waagan, down whose narrow current 
the canoes float through the forest until the broad Restigouche is entered (see Route 
15 j see also Hon. Arthur Gordon in ** Vacation Tourists " for 1862 - 63, p. 477). 



MADAWASEA. JtouU 13, 57 

6 M. above Grand River is St. Basil (two inns), which, with its back 
settlements, has over 1,400 inhabitants. A few miles beyond are some 
islands in the St. John River, over which is seen the American village of 
Grant Isle (Levecque's inn), a place of 700 inhabitants, all of whom are 
Acfldians. This village was incorporated in 1869, and is on the U. S. mail- 
route from Van Buren to Fort Kent. Beyond the populous village of 
Green River the road continues around the great bend of the St John to 
the Acadian settlement which is variously known as Madawaska, £d- 
mundston, and Little Falls. There are about 400 inhabitants here, most 
of whom are engaged in lumbering and in agriculture. The town occupies 
a favorable position at the confluence of the ^ladawaska and St. John 
Rivers, and it is to be the objective point of the New Brunswick Railway 
(see page 50) during the year 1875. Th's is the centre of the Acadian- 
French settlements which extend from the Grand Falls to the mouth of 
the St. Francis, and up the Madawaska to Temiscouata Lake. This dis- 
trict is studded with Roman Catholic chapels, and is divided into narrow 
farms, on which are quaint little houses. There are rich tracts of intervale 
along the rivers, and the people are generally in a prosperous and happy 
condition. The visitor should ascend to the top of the loftily situated old 
block-house tower, over Edmundston, for the sake of the wide prospect over 
the district. 

This people is descended from the French colonists who liyed on the shores of the 
Bay of Fundy and the Basin of Minas at the middle of the 18th century. When 
the cruel edict of exile was carried into effect in 1765 (see Route 21), many of the 
Acadians fled flrom the Anglo-American troops and took refage in the forest. A por- 
tion of them ascended the St. John to the present site of Fiidericton, and founded 
a new home ; but they were ejected 90 years later, in order that the land might be 
given to the refugee American Loyalists. Then they advanced into the trackless 
forest, and settled in the Madawaska r^on, where they have been permitted to re- 
main undisturbed. When the American frontier was pushed forward to the St. 
.fohn River, by the sharp diplomacy of Mr. Webster, the Acadians found themselves 
divided by a national boundary ; and so they still remidn, nearly half of the villages 
beii^ on the side of the United States. It is estimated that there are now about 
8,000 persons in these settlements. 

" It was pleasant to drive along the wide flat intervale which formed the Mada- 
waska Valley ; to sec the rich crops of oats, buckwheat, and potatoes ; the large, 
often handsome, and externally clean and comfortable-looking houses of the inhab- 
itants, with the wooded high grounds at a distance on our right, and the river on 
our left, — on which an occasional boat, laden with stores for the lumberers, with 
the help of stout horses, toiled against the current towards the rarely visited head- 
waters of the tributary streams, where the virgin forests still stood unconscious of 
the axe. Xhis beautiful valley, with the rich lands which border the river above 
the mouth of the Madawaska, as far almost as that of the river St. Francis, is the 
peculiar seat of the old Acadian-French." (Prof. Johnston.) 

The American village of Martnwaska (two inns) is opposite Edmundston, and 
has over 1,000 inhabitants. The U. S. mail-stages run from this point up the val- 
ley of the St. John for 10 M. to another Acadian village, which was first named 
Dionne (in honor of Father Dionne, who founded here the Church of St. Luce) ; in 
1889 was incorporated as Dickey ville, in honor of some local statesman ; and in 1871 
received the name of FrenchvlUe, " as describing the nationality of its settlers." 
From near Frenchville a portage 5 M. long leads to the shores of LcUce Geveland^ 
a fine sheet of water 9 M. long, connected by Second Lake and Lake PceblA '<«VX2&. 
Lake Sedgwick, which is nearly 10 M. long. 

3* 



58 Route IS. TEMISOOUATA LAKR 

16 M. 8. W. of Madawanlca is Fort Keni^ an old botder-post of ttie U. 8. Anny. It 
haa two inns and about 1,000 inhabitaats (including the a^jiioent Cuming eettla- 
ments), and ia the terminus of the mail-route from Van Bnren. From tms point 
stages run W. 20 M. to the Acadian Tillage of St. Fnmeis.jamr the month of the St. 
Francis River. The latter stream, flowuig from the N. W., is the boondaiy of the 
United States for the next 40 M., descendhig through the long lakes called Wela- 
stookwaagamls, Pechtaweekaagomic, and Pohenegamook. Al>OTe the mouth of 
the St. ^ands, the St. John RiTer is included in the State of Mafaie, and flows 
through that immense and trackless forest which covers ** an extent seven times that 
of the fiimous Black Forest of Germany at its largest expanse in modem times. The 
States of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Delaware could be lost together fai our 
northern forests, and still leave about each a margin of wilderness sdhcientlv wide 
to make the exploration without a compass a work of desperate adventore.*' Its 
chief tributary in the woods is the Allagash, which descends from the great Lakes 
Pemgockwahen and Chamberlain, near the Chesunoook and Moosehead Lakes and 
the head-waters of the Penobscot. 

The U. S. mail-stages also run S. from Fort Kent to Pslten, about 100 M. S., nesr 
Mount Katahdin ; whence another stage4ine runs out to mattawanUeeag. on Uie 
E. & N. A. Railway (see page 39). in 88 M. 8 - 10 M. S. of Fort Kent, by this xoad, 
is Lake Winthrop (16 M. long by 1 - 8 M. wide), the westemmoflt of the great Bade 
I«akes9 fiunous for their white-fish and burbot. 

At Edmundston the Royal mail-route leaves the St. John Biver, and 
ascends the W. shore of the Madawaska. Bat few settlements are passed, 
and at 12 M. from Edmundston the Province of Quebec is entered. 
About 26 M. from Edmundston the road reaches the foot of the picturesque 
Temisoouata Lake, where there is a small village. The road is parallel 
with the water, but at a considerable distance from it, until near the 
upper part, and pretty views are afforded from various points where it 
overlooks the lake. 

Temisoouata is an Indian word meaning ^* Winding Water," and the lake 
is 80 M. long by 2 - 8 M. wide. The scenery is very pretty, and the clear 
deep waters contain many fish, the best of which are the tuladi, or great 
gray trout, which sometimes weighs over 12 pounds. There are also white- 
fish and burbot. Visitors to the lake usually stop at Foumier^s old inn, 
where canoes may be obtained. From the W.,- Temiscouata receives the 
Cabineau River, the outlet of Long Lake (16 by 2 M.); and on the £. is 
the Tuladi River, which rises in the highlands of Rimouski and flows down 
through a chain of secluded and rarely visited lakelets. The chief settle- 
ment on Temiscouata Lake is the French Catholic hamlet of Notre Dame 
du LaCy which was founded since 1861 and has 180 inhabitants. The mili- 
tary works of Fort Ingalls formerly commanded the lake, and had a gar- 
rison of 200 men as late as 1860. 

" Temiscouata Lake is a fine large sheet of water, 20 M. long ; it is 
deep, contains plenty of fish, and there are hills about it, down the valleys 
and ravines of which rush winds which occasion sudden and dangerous 
agitation in the dark waters.*' 

The road from Temiscouata Lake to Riviere du Loup is 40-60 M. long} 
and descends through a wild region into which a few settlers have advanced 
within fifteen years. 



SHEDIAC. lUmU U- 59 



14. St John to S: 



I>l8tance8.~ St. John to Moneton, 89 M. ; Painaec Jimetlon, 97 ; Dorchetter 
tU>ad, 102 ; Shediac, 106 ; Point da Chftne, 106. 

St. John to Painsec Junction, see Route 16. 

Passengers for Shediac and Point du ChSne change cars at Painsec 
Junction, and pass to the N. £. over a ievel and unproductive country. 

Shediac {Kirk Hotel) is a marine village of 600 inhabitants, with 8 
churches, — Baptist, the Catholic St. Joseph de Shediac, and St. Andrew's, 
the head of a rural deanery of the Anglican church. The town is well 
situated on a broad harbor, which is sheltered by Shediac Island, but its 
commerce is inconsiderable, being limited to a few cargoes of lumber and 
deals sent annually to Great Britain. The small oysters ( Oitrea canadtnns) 
of the adjacent waters are also exported to the provincial cities. Shediac 
was occupied by a French garrison in 1750, to protect the borders of 
Acadia, and in 1767 there were 2,000 French and Acadian troopi^ and 
settlers here. The French element is still predominant in this vicinity, 
and its interests are represented by a weekly paper called " Le Momteur 
Acadien.^* 

Point du Chene (Schurman's Point du ChSne House) is 2 M. N. E. of 
Shediac, and is the £. terminus of the railway and the St. Lawrence port 
nearest to St. John. It has a village of about 200 inhabitants, with long 
piers reaching out to the deep-water channels. From this point passen- 
gers embark on the steamers for Prince Edward Island, the N. shore of 
New Brunswick (see Route 16), and Quebec and the Gulf Ports. Daily 
steamers run from Shediac to Summerside, P. E. I., where they make 
connections with the trains of the P. E. I. Railway (see Route 48). The 
Gulf Ports steamers ply between Point du Chene and Pictou, the time of 
transit being about 12 hours, and the route being down the Northumber- 
land Strait, with the red shores of Prince Edward Island on the 1. In the 
time-tables and circulars of the steamships and railways, the term Shediac 
is generally used for Point du Ch§ne. 



ist. Infi%qaent mail-stages run E. from Shediac by Point 
!, 8 M. ; Tedish, 17; Great Shemogue (Avard's Hotel), 22; 



The Westmorland Coast. 
du Chftne to Barachois, 

and Little Shemogue, 24. These settlements contain about 1,600 inhabitants, most 
of whom are Acadians. Capes Jourimain (fixed white light, lisible 14 M.) and Tor- 
mentine are respectively 16 M. and 20 M. £. of Little Shemogue. 

10 - 12 M. N . of Shediac (mailnstage daily) are the large and prosperous Acadian settle- 
ments of the Cocagnes (three inns), having about 1,600 inhabitants, seven eighths of 
whom are of French descent. These people are nearly all farmers, engaged in tilling 
the level plains of Dundas, although a good harbor opens between the villages. 21 M. 
from Shediac is Buetoucke (two inns), a prosperous Acadian Tillage of 400 inhab- 
itants, engaged in shipbuilding and in the exportation of lumber and oysters. 



60 Route IS, RICHIBUCTO. 

15. The Bay of dudenr and fhe Voorth Shore of Hew 

Bmnswick. 

The yemelfl of the Quehee and Gulf Porta Steunahlp Line, ttie Seent and the 
Mtramichi^ leave Pictou every Tuesd^ morning at 7 o'clock, and Shediac (Point da 
Chine) every Tuesday evening at 7 (after the arrival of the St. John train). They 
then aacend the coast, leaving Chatham at 7 A. M. on Wednesday, Newcastle at 8 
A M. on Wednesday, and Dalhousie at 4 A. M. on Thursday (for Quebec). Returning, 
they leave Dalhousie at 9 P. M. on Thursday, Ctiatham at 4 P. M. on Friday, New- 
castle at 6 P.M. on Friday, Shediac at 8 a.m. on Saturday (connecting with the 
morning train to St. John), and arrive at Pictou at 1 p. m. on Saturday (connecting 
with the afternoon train to Halilkz). These hours are liable to variation on account 
of the weather, or if heavy fireights are landed or taken at any port. The Gulf Ports 
vessels are luger and more commodious than that of tb€ North Shore Line, but they 
do not visit Richibucto, Bathurst, or Campbellton. (See abo Route .) 

The North Shore steamer City of St. John leaves Shediac (Point da Chftne) every 
Thursday, on the arrival of the morning train firom St. John, and calls at Rkhi- 
bucto, Chatham, Newcastle, Bathurst, Dalhousie, and (Campbellton. Chatham is 
reached on Thursday evening, the Bay-of-Clialeur ports on Friday. The steamer 
leaves the Bay-of*Chaleur ports on Monday, and the Miramichi ports on Tuesday, 
urriving at Shediac Tuesday evening, and connecting wiUi a late train for St John. 

Fares (North Shore Line). — St. John (by railway and steamship) to Richibucto, 
S5j to Chatham and Newcastle, 96.60 ; to Bathurst, 9960 ; to Dalhousie, 9 10 ; 
to Clampbellton, 8 10.60. 

Distances from Shediac along the N. shore: To Richibucto, by sea, 88 M., 
by land, 84 M. ; to Chatham, by sea, 80 M., by land. 74 M. ; to Bathurst, by land, 
122 M. ; to Dalhousie. by sea. ^ M., by land, 175 M. Daily mail-stages run N. by 
Cocagne and Buctoucne to Richibucto, Chatham, and Newcastle. 

The steamship leaves the long railway wharf at Point du Ch@ne, and 
passes the low shores of Shediac Island on the 1. The coarse is laid well 
out Into the Northumberland Strait. Between Shediac Point and Cape 
Egmont (on Prince Edward Island) the strait is nearly 20 M. wide. On the 
1. the harbors of Cocagne and Buctouche (see page 69) are soon passed. 
14^ M. N. of Buctouche are the low cliffs and lighthouse of Richibucto 
Head, beyond which (if the weather permits) the steamer takes a more 
westerly course, and enters the great Richibucto River, which empties its 
stream through a broad lagoon enclosed by sand-bars. 

Biohibaoto {Kent Hotel) is the capital of Kent County, and occupies a 
favorable position for commerce and shipbuilding, near the mouth of the 
Richibucto River. It has about 800 inhabitants and 3 churches, and is 
engaged in the exportation of fish and lumber. The river is navigable for 
20 M., and has been a great highway for lumber-vessels, although cow tho 
supply of the forests is wellnigh exhausted. The rubbish of the sav.- 
mQls has destroyed the once valuable fisheries in this nver. In tho region 
about Richibucto are many Acadian farmers, and the hamlet of Aldouin 
River, 4 M. from the town, pertains to this people. Daily stages run from 
Richibucto to Shediac and to Chatham (see page 61). A road leads S. W. 
through the wilderness to the Grand Lake district (Route 10). 

The name Richibucto signifies *' the River of Fire,'' and the shores of the river 
and bay were formerly inhabited by a ferocious and bloodthirsty tribe of Indians. 
So late as 1787, when the American Loyalist Powell settled here, there were but four 
Christian families (and they were Acadians) in all this region (the present county of 
Kent). The power of the Richibcctos was broken in 1724, when all their warriors, 



CHATHAM. Soute 15. 61 

nnder command of Argimoosh (" the Great Wlaurd "), attacked Canso and captared 
17 Massachasetts yesaels. Two well-manned yessela of Boston and Cape Ann were 
sent after them , and overtook the Indian fleet on the coast. A desperate naval battle 
ensued between the liassaehnsetts sloops and the Indian priie-ships. The Richi- 
buctos fonght with great valor, but were finally disconcerted by* showers of hand- 
grenades from the Americans, and nearly every warrior waa either killed or drowned. 

After emerging from Bichibucto harbor, the steamer nms N. across the 
opening of the shallow Kouchibougnac Bay, whose shores are low sand- 
bars and beaches which enclose shoal lagoons. 6 M. above Point Sapin is 
£scuminac Pointy on which is a powerful white light, visible for 25 M. 
The course is now laid more to the W., across the Miramichi Bay, and on 
the 1. are seen the pilots* village and the lighthouses on Preston^s Beach. 
The entrance to the Inner Bay of Miramichi is between Fox Island and 
Portage Island, the latter of which bears a lighthouse. The Inner Bay is 
13 M. long and 7 - 8 M. wide, and on the S. is seen Vin Island, back of 
which is the Bay du Vin. Two centuries ago all this shore was occupied 
by French settlements, whose only remnant now is the hamlet of Portage 
Road, in a remote comer of the bay. 

When about 9 M. from the entrance, the steamer passes between Point 
Quart and Grand Dune Island (on the r.), which are 3^ M. apart. 3-4 
M. farther on, the course is between Oak Point, with its two lighthouses 
(on the r.)} and Cheval Point, beyond which is the populous valley of the 
Napan Biver, on the S. The hamlet of Black Brook is visible on the 1., 
and off Point Napan is Sheldrake Island^ a low and swampy land lying 
across the mouth of the river. The vessel now enters the Miramiohi 
Biver, and on the r. is the estuary of the Great Bartibog, with the beacon- 
lights on Malcolm Point. The Miramichi is here a noble stream, fully 
1 M. wide, but flowing between low and uninteresting shores. 

Chatliam ( Canada Hotel; Bowser's Hotel) is the chief town on the North 
Shore, and has a population of nearly 8,000, with 6 churches, a weekly 
newspaper, and a Masonic hall. It is 24 M. from the sea, and is built 
along the S. shore of the river for a distance of Ij^ M. On the summit of 
the hill along which the town is built is seen a great pile of Catholic in- 
stitutions, among which are the Cathedral of St. Michael, the convent and 
hospital of the Hdtel Dieu de Chatham, and St. Michael's College. These 
buildings, like all the rest of the town, are of wood. The chief industries 
of Chatham are shipbuilding and the exportation of fish and lumber, and 
the river here usually contains several large ships, which can anchor off 
the wharves in 6 - 8 fathoms. 

Daily stages run N. from Chatham to Bathnrst, in 45 M., over a road which trav- 
erses one of the dreariest regions imaginable. About 22 M. beyond Chatham it 
crosses the head-waters of the Tabustntao Biver) " the sportsman's paradise," 
a narrow and shallow stream in which an abundance of trout is found. 

Semi-weekly stages run from Chatham N. £. to Oak Point, 11 M. ; Burnt Church, 
20 ; N^uac, 25 ; Tabusintac, 87 ; Tracadie, 52 ; Pockmouche, 64 ; Shippigon, 70 ; 
and Canquette (Lower), 73. The first 30 M. of this road are along (or near) the N. 
shore of the Miramichi Biver and the Inner Bay, by the hamlets of Oak Point an.<l 
Burnt Church. 



62 ItouU 15. THE MIRAMICHL 

BuTBt Clrarch is still the capital of the Mienne IndftDi of flM Pxorlnoe, and 
here they gather in great numbers on St. Anne's Day and engage in religious rites 
and athletic sports and dances. Hon. Arthur Gordon says: **I was surprised hy 
the curious resemblance between these dances and those of the Greek peasantiy. 
Eren the costumes were in some degree similar, and I noticed more than <me short 
colored-silk jacket and handkerchief-bound head that carried me back to Ithaca 
andPazo." (Vacation Tourists, 1868.) 

Tabustntao (small inn) is near the mouth of the Tabusintae River, and is a 
Presbyterian village of about 400 inhabitants, most of whom are engaged in the 
fisheries. Biany large sea-trout are caught near the mouth of the river, and in 
October immense numbers of wild geese and ducks are shot in the adjacent lagoons. 

Tmcadle is a settlement which contains 1,200 French Acadians, and is situated 
near a broad lagoon which lies inside a line of sand-bars. Salmon, cod, and herring 
are found in the adjacent waters, and most of the people are engaged in the fish- 
eries. The Tracadie Lazaretto is devoted to the xeoepnon of persons afiBicted with 
the leprosy, which prevails to some extent in this disMct, but has diminished since 
the government secluded the lepers in this remote hospital There is an old tradU- 
tion that the leprosy was introduced into this r^^n during the last centuxy, when 
a French vessel was wrecked on the coast, some of whose sailors were from Mar> 
seilles and had contracted the true eUphatUiatis graeorum (Eastern leprosy) in the 
Levant. Its perpetuation and hereditary transmission Is attributed to the dosMiess 
of the relation in which intermarriage is sanctioned among the Acadians (sometimes 
by dispensations from the Church). 

Poehnouehe is a settlement of 800 Acadian flumers, and here the mail-route 
forks. — one road running 6 M. N. £. to Shlpi^gan (see page Qi), the other run- 
ning 9 M. N. to Lower Caraquette (see page 66). 

mily stages run from Onatham to Shediac (see page 69), also twice weekly to 
Tredericton and to Bathurst There are two steamers weekly to Shediac, and one to 
Quebec. The river-steamer New Era runs up the river four times daily to New- 
castle (6 M.), touching at IXouglastown, a dingy village on the N. bank, where much 
lumber is loaded on the ships which take it hence to Europe. This village contains 
about 400 inhabitants, and has a marine hospital, built of stone. 

Kewoastle ( Waverley Hotel) is the capital of Northnmberland County, 
and is situated at the head of deep-water navigation on the Miramichi 
Biver. It has about 1,500 inhabitants, and is engaged in shipbuilding 
and the exportation of fish and lumber, oysters, and preserved lobsters. 
One of the chief stations of the Intercolonial Railway will be located here, 
and a branch line is to be built to Chatham. 

A short distance above Newcastle, and beyond the Irish village of Nel- 
son, is the confluence of the great rivers known as the N. W. Miramichi 
and the S. W. Miramichi. These streams are crossed by the largest and 
most costly bridges on the Une of the Intercolonial Railway. The name 
Miramichi signifies *' Happy Retreat,'* and signifies the love that the In- 
dians entertained for these fine hunting and fishing grounds. The upper 
waters of the rivers traverse wide districts of unsettled country, and are 
visited by hardy and adventurous sportsmen, who capture large numbers 
of trout and salmon. This system of waters is connected by portages with 
the Nepisiguit, the Restigouche, the Upsalquitch, the Tobique, and the 
Nashwaak Rivers. The best salmon-pools are on the S. W. Miramichi, 
beyond Boiestown, at the mouths of the Salmon, Rocky, Clearwater, and 
Burnt Hill Brooks. A tri-weekly stage runs from Newcastle to Boies- 
town and Fredericton (see page 46), traversing 105 M. of a rude and 
sparsely settled country. 



SHIPPIGAN ISLAND. ItouU 15. 63 

SeaubairU Island is off apper Nelflon, and wtm toTnmlj oeenpied bj a proeperotM 
Prench town, but few relics of which are now to be seen. It was destroyed by a 
British naval attack in 1769. A colony was planted here in 1722, under Cardinal 
Fleury's administration, and was proyided with 200 hooses, a church, and a l&-gun 
battery. 

In 1642-44 the Miramichi district waa oecui^M by Jean Jaques Enaud, a Basque 
gentleman, who founded trading-posts on the islands and entered also upon the 
walrus flaberies. But a contention soon arose between Enaud's men and the In- 
dians, by reason of which the Basque establishments were destroyed, and their peo- 
ple were forced to flee to Nepisiguit. In 1672, after the Treaty of Breda, several 
fiunilies firom St. lialo landed on this coast and founded a village at Bay du Vin. 
Vrom 17^ to 1757 a flourishing trade was carried on between theBliramiclii county 
and France, great quantities of furs being exported. But the crops fldled in 1757. 
and the relief-ships flrom France were captured by the British. In the winter of 
1758 the transport Vlndiennef of Morlaix, was wrecked in the bay, and the dis- 
heartened colonists, famished and pestilence-etticken, were rapidly depleted by 
death. Uany of the French settlers died during the winter, and were buried on 
Beaubair's Point. Those who survived fled from the scene of such bitter suffering, 
and by the arrival of spring there were not threescore inhabitants about the bay. 

In 1759 a British war-vessel entered the bay for wood and water, and the first 
boat's-crew which landed was cut off and exterminated by the Indians. The frigate 
bombarded the French Fort batteries, and annihilated the town at Canadian Cove. 
Then sailing to the N. E.. the conunander landed a force at N^iiac, and burnt the 
Catholic chapel, the inhabitants having fled to the woods. Neguac is known to this 
day only by the name of Burnt Church. After this fierce foray all the N. coast of 
New Brunswick was deserted and relapsed into a wilderness state. 

In 1775 there was an insignificant Scotch trading-post on the S. W. Miramichi. 
where 1 ,500 - 1 ,800 tierces of sahnon were caught annually. This was once surprised 
and plundered by the Indians in sympathy with the Americans, but in 1777 the 
river was visited by the sloop-of-war Viper and the captured American privateer 
Lafayette. The American flag was displayed on the latter vessel, and it was given 
out that her crew were Bostonte-ns, by which means 35 Indians firom the great coun- 
cil at Bartibog were decoyed on board and carried captive to Quebec. 

In 1786 the Scottish settlers opened large saw-mills on the N. W. Miramichi, and 
several families of American Loyalists settled ajong the shore. Vast numbers of 
masts and spars were sent hence to the British dock-yards, and the growth of the 
Miramichi was rapid and satis&ctory. In 1798 the Indians of the hills gathered 
secretly and concerted plans to exterminate the settlers (who had mostly taken 
refi\ge in Chatham), but the danger was averted by the interposition of the French 
Catholic priests, who caused the Indians to disperse. 

In October, 1825, this district was desolated by the great Miramichi Fire, which 
swept over 3,000 ,OCK) acres of forest, and destroyed $ 1,000,000 worth of property and 
160 human lives. The town of Newcastle was laid in ashes, and all the lower Mi- 
ramichi Yalley became a blackened wilderness. The only escape for life was by 
rushing into the rivers while the storm of fire passed overhead ; and here, nearly 
covered by the hissing waters, were men and women, the wild animals of the woods, 
and the domestic beasts of the farm. 

On leaving the Miramichi Biver and Bay the vessel steams out into the 
Gulf, leaving on the N. W. the low shores of Tabosintac and Tracadie, in- 
dented by wide and shallow lagoons (see page 62). After running about 
85 M. the low red cliffs of Shippigan Island are seen on the W. This 
island is 12 M. long by 8 M. wide, and is inhabited by Acadian fishermen. 
On the S. W. shore is the hamlet of Alexander Point, on Alemek Bay, 
opposite the populous village and magnificent harbor of Shippigan, There 
are valuable fisheries of herring, cod, and mackerel ofif these shores, and 
the deep triple harbor is well sheltered by the islands of Shippigan and 
Pocksuedie, forming a secure haven of refuge for the American and Cana- 
dian fleets. 



64 RouielB. BAY OF CHALEUR. 

Shipplgan HarboTa thoagfa still smroanded bjftn«8ts,liM ooeni^ed a prain< 
Inent place in the calcul^ons of commerce and tratel. It has hem proposed that 
the Intercolonial Railway shall connect here with a transatlantic steamship line, 
thus withdrawing a large portion of the summer travel from Hali&x and New ToriL 
The distance from Shippig^ to Liverpool by the StnUts of Belleisle is 148 M. less 
than the distance from Halifiix to Liverpool, and Shippigan is 271 M. nearer Montreal 
than is Halifax. 

The Ocean Ferrj. — The following plan is ingeniooaly dabontled and pow« 
erfriUy supported, uid is perhaps destined to ledoce the transatlantic passage to 
100 hours. It is to be carried out with strong, swift iBXpress-steamers on the Ocean 
and the Gulf. and through trains on the raUways. TiM ittnerair Is as follows: 
Londbn to Valentia, 640 M., 16 hours ; Yalentia to St. John's, N. F.. 1,640 M., 100 
hours ; St. John's to St. George's Bay (across Newfoundland W railwi^), 260 M., 
8^ hours; St. George's Bay to Shippigan (across the Onlf), 260 M., 15^ hours: 
Shippigan to New York, 906 M., 81 hours ; London to New Yortc, 171 hours, or 1i 
days. It is claimed that this route would escape the dangers between Cape Race 
and New Yortc ; would give usually quiet passages across the Gulf; would diversify 
the monotony of the long voyage by three tran^rs, and would save 4-6 days on 
the recorded averages of the steunships between New York and Liverpool (see maps 
and details in Sandford Fleming's '* Intercolonial Railway Survey "). 

The steamer now crosses the Miscou Banks, and approaches Idcon 
Iiland, which is 20 M. in circnmference and contains about 800 inhab- 
itants. On its S. shore is a fine and spacious harbor, which is much used 
as a place of refuge in stormy weather by the American fishing-fleets. 

Settlements were formed here early in the 17th century by the French, for the 
purpose of hunting the walrus, or sea-cow. Such an exterminating war was waged 
upon this valuable aquatic animal that it soon became extinct in the Gulf, and was 
followed into the Arctic Zone. Within five years a few walruses have been seen in 
the Gulf, and it is hoped that they may once more enter these waters in droves. At 
an early date the Jesuits established the mission of St. Charles de Bfiscou, but the 
priests were soon killed by the climate, and no impression had been made on the 
Indians. It is claimed that there may stiU be seen the ruins of the post of the Royal 
Company of Miscou, which was founded in 1685 for the pursuit offish and walruses, 
and for a time derived a great revenue ftt)m this distrkjt. Fortificationfl were also 
erected here by M. Denys, Sieur de Fronsac. 

The steamer alters her course gradually to the W. and passes the 
fixed red light on Birch Point, and Point Miscou, with its high green 
knoll. Between Point Miscou and Cape Despair, 25 M. N., is the en- 
trance to the Bay of Chaleur. 

The Bay of Chaleur was known to the Indians by the name of Ecketuam 
Nemaacke^ signifying *' a Sea of Fish," and that name is still applicable, 
since the bay contains every variety of fish known on these coasts. It is 
90 M. long and from 10 to 25 M. wide, and is nearly firee fh>m shoals or 
dangerous reefs. The waters are comparatively tranquil, and the air is 
clear and bracing and usually free from fog, afibrding a marked contrast 
to the climate of the adjacent Gulf coasts. The tides are regular and have 
but little velocity. The length of the bay, from Point Miscou to Gamp- 
bellton, is about 110 M. These waters are visited every year by great 
American fleets, manned by the hardy seamen of Cape Cod and Glouces- 
ter, and valuable cargoes of fish are usually carried back to the Massa- 
chusetts ports. 



„ , . kt La Bale da 

ignotSj indJcatlbf IbaE iE m« freqoented bj Bpuiiih TflHclSf prolMblj Ha ui* 
OSes oflbbliiE. 

in lo SUppar Ii«an'g mUdeed, whlcb, vlUi tbs mwid ot Id pnnUhmaat, bM 
camDHmonted in Uie pnetir of ffhittlet : — 



Mka'^MiSbAfM 



.._ .. _ ]?jil[]iiR ihEp iTt CKbIofif Ray,— 



When well trltbin the bay th« eteuner assumes n coarse nearly S. T., 
leaving Miscon and Shippigsn bluida aatem. The broad Cara^tKUe £ajr 
is oD the S., and tbe l^ew-Bandon sbores (see page M) are followed into 
Nepisiguit Bay. The harbor of Batharst is entered by > strait two cables 
wide, between Alston Point aui Cairon Pointy on the former of which 
there are red and white beacon-lighta. 

Bathnnt (£ay yieai Hotel) is tbe capital of Glouceeter Coauty, and hai 
about 60O inhabitaclB. It is favorably situated on a peninsula In the haiv 
bor, i\ M. from tbe bay, and is connected by a bridge with the village of 
St. Peter's. Large i^uantities of fiab are eent hence to the American cities 
during the summer ; and the exportation of frozen salmon has became an 
important business. The Intercolonial Railway has a station near Batburst, 
which will probably be one of its chief ports on this bey. The beautiful 
Basin of Bathnrst receives the waters of four rivers, and Its shores are 
already well populated by farmers. 



I,^ia3t^ 




tnhabltuits at could not eacape bj m^ of ttie ses were ma 
By J670 llu Chilnit shoma were B^ln ataddHl witb F 
pied by an IndDOiloDS ftmdDg popaliUloa, I- «»> ■ 
ag^ntt tbam, and, undor the eoiQiDaiid of the ■ 
Uled Itaa wtaoh district and 00 
Tor 74 yean this oonntFy wu 
post and f>rt was enctod at Alston Point, on ttis N. shore «f BatbunI harbor, and 
thenco wereciporUd great quaoUtles of tDn,iii(»ge.ahliis, walniiUdei and tniks, 
and tabaoD. In ITTS (hit aoiiriablne utUement was destK^ed by Amerteao piin- 
teera which alu deTaitaled the DthRShens of Chalmir. The piwnit town «• 
founiled In ISIS b; Sir Howsid Douglas, and was naowd In taonor of the Bail of 

The Fepllignit Eiver empties Into Bathurst harbor, and Is femons for 
1(4 fine flihipg (it is now leased), ^roadascends the W.b4B!».tot*>o* 



66 Route 15. OABAQUETTEL 

86 M^ ]>a88ing the Boagh Waters, the brOUant rapids of the Pabineau Falls 
(9 M. np), the dark pools of the Betaboc reach, the Cham of Bocks, and 
the Narrows. The * Orand Fallfl of the Nepisigait are 20 M. above 
Bathurst, and consist of 4 distinct and step4ike cliffs, with a total height 
of 140 ft. They are at the head of the Nahrows, where the river flows for 
8 - 4 M. through a canon between high clifis of slaty rock. The river boldly 
takes the leap over this Titanic stairway, and the ensuing roar is deafen- 
ing, while the base of the cliff is shrouded in white spray. From the pro- 
found depths at the foot the river whirls away in a black and foam-flecked 
course for 2 M. The descent of timber over the Falls affords an exciting 
spectacle, and the logs are sometimes shot out clear beyond the lower 
terraces and alight in the pool below. 

" Good by, lovely Nepisigait, stream of the beaatUbl pools, the flshemum's 
elysiom : flunewell to thy meny, ruAsj cmrent, thy long quiet stretches, thy hi^ 
blnflb, thy wooded and thy rocky shores. LtMog may uiy- masks iall the innocent 
angler into day-dreams of happiness. Ltmg may thy romantic scenery charm the 
eye and gladden the heart of the artist, and weloome the angler to a happy eylTsn 
home." (BoosiVKLT.) 

The * Grand Fails of the Tete-4.goache River are about 8 M. W. of Bathurst, and 
may be visited hv carriage. The riyer here fitlls about 80 ft., amid a wild confttdon 
of rocks and clifiB. 

Tri-weekly stages run E. from Bathurst to Salmon Beach, 8 M. ; James- 
ville, 12; Clifton, 16; New Bandon, 20; Pockshaw, 28; Grand Anse; 28; 
Upper Caraquette, 86; Lower Garaquette, 48; Shippigan, 60. Fare to 
Caraquette, $ 8.50. This road follows the shores of the Nepisiguit Bay and 
the Bay of Chaleur for nearly 80 M. The hamlets of CUfton (small inn) 
and New Bandon were settled by Irish immigrants, and are now engaged 
in making grindstones. Pockshaw has an inn and about 600 inhabitants. 
Grand Anu is an Acadian settlement, and has 700 inhabitants, who are 
engaged in farming and fishing. Thence the road runs 8 M. S. £. to Upper 
Caraquette^ where there are about 600 Acadians. Lower Caraquette (two 
inns) is a French village of 1,500 inhabitants, and is famous for its strong, 
swift boats and skilful mariners. 

Caraquette was founded in 1768 by a colony of Bretons, and owed a part of its 
early growth to intermarriages with the Micmacs. It is a long street of ilurms in the 
old Acadian style, and is situated in a firuitfiil and weU-ciUavated coontry. The 
Ti«w ftmn the hills over the village, and especially fix>m the still venerated spot 
where tiiA old ehapel stood, is very pleasant, and includes Misoou and Shippigan. 
the Gasp^ poi^f A>id the bold Quebec shores. The Jersey house of Bobin & Co 
has ona Af Its flshing-ostablishments here, and does a large boshiess. 

Canquetto is od« of the chief stations of the N. shorn fisheries. In the year 1878 
****5!?o??**'¥,* **' ***• ***"* ^^^^^ Maritfane Provinces amounted to. the value of 
f 9,060^. Nova Scotia caught $6^77,086 worth of fish; and New Brunswick 
caughtj 2^660 worth, of wWch $527,812 were of sahnon.»fiw3o6 5"2Sn7 
• ^i? ?^ ^**"' « ^'®^ «f codflshV ^1 108,514 of atowiVes/SSLOW ofSS' 
f 64496 of poUock, $ 45,480 of oysters, $ ^1,851 oY smelt, and 9 ^.J^Sm^SrSS^* 

Daily stages run S. firom Bathurst to Chatham (see Mge 61). Tri.w«^lv^^ 
foUow the coast of the Bay of Chaleur to the N. W. tiMedisi) : ftocheSe^MM^ 
Belledune, 20; Belledune Biver, 24; Armstrong's Brook. 28: iw^^nSLwT M^ 
New MiUB, 38; River Charlo, 44; and Dalhouste, 52. irfeSiJ^o^d Ito^te* ^ 
French villages ; the others are of British origin, and none of thein £S?2f miSy 



DALHOUSIB. Jtouie 25. 67 

as 500 inhabitants. Bianj small streams enter the bay fttnn this coast, and the 
whole district is fiunous for its fishing and hunting (water-fowl). Tlie line of this 
shore is followed by the Intercolonial Railway. 

Off Bathurst the Bay of Chaleur is over 25 M. wide, and the steamer 
passes out and takes a course to the N. W., passing the hamlet of Rochette, 
and soon rounding Belledune Point. The imposing highlands of the Gas- 
pesian peninsula are seen on the N. with the peak of Tracadiegash. The 
passage between Tracadiegash Point and Heron Island is about 7 M. wide ; 
and 6-8 M. beyond the steamer passes Maguacha Point {Maguacha^ In- 
dian for *^ Always Red") on the r., and enters the Restigouche Harbor. 

" To the person approaching by steamer firom the sea, is presented one of the 
most superb and fitscinating i>anoramic TiewB in Canada. The whole region is 
mountainous, and almost precipitous enough to be alpine; but its gnmdeur is 
derived less from clifb, chasms, and peaks, than from ftr-reaching sweeps of out- 
line, and continually rising domes that mingle with the clouds. On the Gaspd 
side precipitous cliffs of brick-red sandstone flank the shore, so lofty that they 
seem to cast their gloomy shadows half-way across the* Bay, and yawning with 
rifts and gullies, through which fretftd torrents tumble into the sea. Behind 
them the mountains rise and fidl in long undulations of ultramarine, and, tow- 
ering above them all, is the fiunous peak of Tracadi^;ash flashing in tne sunlight 
like a pale blue amethyst." (EL&llock.) 

Dalhousie {Fraser's Hotel) is a village of 600 inhabitants, situated at 
the mouth of the long estuary of the Restigouche, and is the capital of 
Restigouche County. It faces on the harbor from three sides, and has 
great facilities for commerce and for handling lumber. The manufacture 
and exportation of lumber are here carried on on a large scale ; and the 
town is also famous for its shipments of lobsters and salmon. The salmon 
fisheries in this vicinity are of great value and productiveness. The line 
of the Intercolonial Railway is about 4 M. S. of Dalhousie. The site of 
this port was called Sickadomec by the Indians. 60 years ago there were 
but two log-houses here, but the district was soon occupied by hardy 
Highlanders from Arran, whose new port and metropolis was * located in 
an alpine wilderness.'* Directly back of the village is Mt. DcdhousUy 
and the harbor is protected by the high shores of Dalhousie Island. Bo- 
nami Point is at the entrance of the harbor, and has a fixed white light; 
and Fleurant Point is opposite the town, across the estuary. 

" The Bay of Ohaleur preserves a river-like character for some distance from the 
point where the river may strictly be said to terminate, and certainly offers the 

most beautifttl scenery to be seen in the Province From Mr. FraSer's to the 

sea. a distance of some 20 M. by water, or 14 by land, the course of the river is 
really beautiful. Swollen to dimensions of migestic breadth, it flows cahnly on, 
among picturesque and lofty hills, imdisturbed by rapids, and studded with in- 
numerable islands covered with the richest growth of elm and maple The 

whole of the distance firom Campbellton to Dalhousie, a drive of 20 M. along the coast 
of the Bay of Ohaleur, on an excellent high-road, presents a succession of beautiful 
views across the narrow bay, in which Tn^BMliegash, one of the highest ot the Gasp6 
mountains, always forms a conspicuous object, jutting forward as it does into the 
sea opposite Dalhousie." (Hon. AaTHxm Gobdon.) 

*' Nothing can exceed the grandeur and beauty of the approach to the estuary of 
the Restigouche. The pointed hills in the backgnround, the deep green forest with 
Its patches of cultivation, and the clear blue of the distant mountains, form a pic- 
ture of the most exquisite kind." (Sm B. Bonntoastlx. ) 



68 JtouUlS, CAMPBELLTON. 

**Tbe expMiM of three miles •eroes the month of the Reetigoadie, the dreamy 
alpine land beyond, and the broad plain of ttM Bay of Ohaleur, present one of the 
tnost splendid and fieiBcinating panoramic prospects to be found on the continent of 
America, and has alone rewarded us for the pilgrimage we haTe made." (Cha&lxs 
Lakmam.) 

The estuary of the Restigouche is 2-4 M. wide, and extends from Dal- 
housie to Campbellton, about 16 M. PoifU i la Garde is 9 M. above Dal- 
housie on the N. shore, and is a bold perpendicolar promontory overlooking 
the harbor. On this and Battery Point (the next to the W.) were the 
extensive French fortifications which were destroyed by Admiral Byron^s 
British squadron in 1780. Several pieces of artillery and other relics have 
been obtained from the water off these points. Battery Point is a ix>cky 
promontory 80 ft. high, with a plain on the top, and a deep channel around 
its shores. Point Pleasant is 4 M. distant, and 1 M. back is a spiral mass 
of granite 700 ft. high, which is accessible by natural steps on the £. 1^ 
M. from this peak is a pretty forest-lake, in which red trout are abundant. 
6 M. N. of Point & la Garde is the main peak of the Scaumenac Mts., which 
attains an altitude of 1,746 ft. 

Campbellton (three hotels) is situated in a diversified region of hills at 
the head of deep-water navigation on the Restigouche, which is here 1 M. 
wide. It has about 600 inhabitants and deals chiefly in the exportation 
of lumber and fish. One of the chief stations of the Intercolonial Railway 
is located here. The adjacent country is highly picturesque, and is studded 
with conical hills, the chief of which is Sugar Loaf, 800 ft. high. 

Mission Point is nearly opposite Campbellton, and is surrounded by fine 
hill-scenery, which has been likened to that of Wales. The river is rapid 
off these shores, and abounds in salmon. This place is also known as 
Point-a-la-Croix, and is one of the chief villages and reservations of the 
Micmac Indians. It has about 500 inhabitants, with a Catholic church. 

The Micmac language Ib said to be a dialect of the Huron tongue : while the Mi]i< 
cetes, on the St. John Biver, speak a dialect of Delaware origin. These two tribes 
have an annual council at Mission Point, at which del^j^tes from the Penobscot 
Indians are in attendance. The Micmac nation occupies the waste places of the 
Maritime Provinces, from Newfoundland to Gasp4, uid numbrars over 6,000 souls. 
These Indians are dating and tireless hunters and fishermen, and lead a life of con- 
stant roving, gathering annually at the local capitals,— Ohapel Island, in Cape 
Breton : Ponhook Lake, in Nova Scotia ; and Mission Pohit. in Quebec. They are 
Sncreasmg steadily in numbers, and are becoming more valuable members of the 
Canadian nation. They have hardly yet recovered firom the terrible defeat which 
was inflicted on them by an invading army of Mohawks, in 1689. The flower of the 
Huritime tribes hastened to the border to repel the enemy, but Uiey were met by 
the Mohawks in the Keetigouche country, and were annihilated on the field of 
battle. 

The chief of the Micmacs at Mission Point visited Queen Victoria in 1860, and was 
kindly welcomed and received many presents. When Lord Aylmer, GoTemor-Gen- 
eral of Canada, visited Oasp6, he was waited on by 600 Indians, whose chief made 
him a long harangue. But the tribe had recently recovered from a wreck (among 
other thinffs) a box of decanter-labels, marked Rum, Brai^t, Oim, etc., and the noble 
chief, not knowing their purport, had adorned ms ears uid nose with them, and 
surrounded his he«d with a crown of the same materials. When the British officers 
xecoghixed the fiuniliar names, they burst into such a peal of laughter as drove the 
B«t(mished and incensed chief from thehr presence forever. 



BESTIGOnCHE BIVER. Route 15. 69 

8 M. above Mission Point is Point au Bourdo, the ancient site of La 
Petite Bochelle, deriving its present name from Capt Bourdo, of the French 
frigate MarckauU, who was killed in the battle off this point and was 
buried here. Fragments of the French vessels, old artillery, camp equip- 
ments, and shells have been found in great numbers in this vicinity. 

In 1760 Restigouche was defended by 2 batteries, garrisoned by 260 French regn- 
lars, 700 Acadians, and 700 Indiana ; and in the harbor lay the French war-Tcssels 
MarchauU^ 32, Bienfcdsant^ 22, and Marquis Marloyef 18, with 19 priae-ehips which 
had been captured firom the English. The place was attacked by a powerfhl British 
fleet, consisting of the Fame, 74, Dorsetshire ^ Scarborough. Aehules, and Repulse ^ all 
under the command of Commodore John Bjron (grand&tiier of the poet, Ix)rd By- 
ron). But little resistance was attempted ; and the French fleet and batteries sur- 
rendered to their formidable autMonist. The captured ships were carried to Louis- 
bourg, and the batteries and the 200 houses of Restigouche were destroyed. 

The Bestigouohe Biver is a stately stream which is navigable for 135 
M. above Campbellton. It runs through level lands for several miles above 
its mouth, and then is enclosed between bold and rugged shores. There 
are hundreds of low and level islands of a rich and yearly replenished soil; 
and above the Tomkedgwick are wide belts of intervale. 30 M. from its 
mouth it receives the waters of the Metapedia River, flowing down from 
the Metis Mts. ; and 35 M. from the mouth is the confluence of the trout- 
abounding Upsalquitch. 21 M. farther up is the mouth of the Patapedia; 
and 20 M. beyond this point the Tomkedgwick comes in from the N. W. 
This system of waters drains over 6,000 square miles of territory, and is 
connected by portages with the streams which lead into the Bay of Fundy 
and the Biver St Lawrence. 

CampbeUUm to t^e 8t. Lanorence Riotr, 
The Metapedia Road leaves the N. shore of the Restigouche a few miles 
above Campbellton, and strikes through the forest to the N. W. for the St. 
Lawrence River. This is the route of the new Intercolonial Railway, 
which passes up through the wilderness to St. Flavie. The distance from 
Campbellton to St. Flavie is 111 M., and the fare by stage is $ 9. This 
road leads across the barren highlands of Gasp^, and through one of the 
most thinly settled portions of Canada. 

The French hamlet of Sl AkxU is near the mouth of the Metapedia 
Biver. Metapedia is 15 M. above Campbellton, and is situated amid the 
pretty scenery at the confluence of the Metapedia and Restigouche Rivers. 
The salmon-fisheries in this vicinity attract a few enthusiastic sportsmen 
every year. Near the confluence is the old Fraser mansion, famous among 
the travellers of earlier days. The Intercolonial Railway crosses the Resti- 
gouche in this vicinity, and has a station at Metapedia. 60 M. beyond this 
village is the Metapedia Lake. 

The Hetapedia Lake is 12 M. long by 2 M. wide, and is surrounded by 
low shores of limestone, above and beyond which are distant ranges of 
highlands. Its waters abound in tuladi (gray trout^^tEOT>X^«sA^^2^^ft>^^^^ 



70 Route JB. BT. JOHN TO HALIFAX. 

and oflbrd good sporting. The lake coataim a large Island, which is a 
fovorite breeding-place of loons. 

Bt. Flarie (Ino iniu) la a, vUlage of 460 French people, situated on tho 
S. shore of the River St. Lawrence, and la the point where the lotercoloaial 
RaQway reaches the riTer and tarns to the S. W. towards Qaebeo. It is 
distant from Cunpbellton, lU H.; fiom Father Foiat, 15 H. ; iixtm Bjviire 
da Loup, 70 M.; and from Qnebec, 201 U. 

16. SL John to Amhent and WnUfcx . 

Tht Mercohni.il Aubray. 



*«.Uicr the t»v«ller oUL tai (he AnupoUi lonle (bte Bonis IS) mocti th« plcH- 

Thoi« U no ch»nge of r»r< bativf™ Ht. John and Rmllfki. Knd baggwe If checked 
throdgb IhjTliis the iuminer Uiere Is a dsj Axprvn-tnun, JtaTlnE St. John at T 

- " — '•■ "-"•-atT.Wp.KjandanlBhIeTiiiMs.lc.ilnr*' '-•■--''-" 

stBA.M. PallmuM^r. liBTe ncentlT be 



"^■S 



tbii fine. 

SUtlinu.— at. Jubn; UonDiHth, 3 IL : 

side,?; Rolh«»y,fli Quis^ '- '"■ —— 

SS; BlmmlMd, 27; Noti 
Rfflobsqnis, Slj Anamnce.OU; lvuaiidi«c, 06; Pollet Rimr, H; SaJlabui^, 7a; 
BonikdiTTCn^,79; Moncton, BS; Uumpbrfj.Sl ; PtinKO Jnnctlon, SKDoTcbee- 
leFBiMd,102; Shedioe, lUO; Point du Chine, iDfi) ; Mmdow Brook. l6l; Uemnun- 
UDoli.lOS; Donhuter. 110 ; SackTUl«, 137; Anlme, 131; Ambcnt, IBS; Nappin, 
IM; lbccan,U7; ACtaol, 161 ; Spring tlUI, 160; SaU Bprtain, 161; Rimr pJiW 
107; Thomp»n,lT4; GnmvUlr, 181: WentwDTtli, 187 ; Fol^lkke, 191; Lnndon- 
denr, ISB; Deliert.204 ; iJhitODlili, 308; Irun, aiO; JohiuDn, lOO; Bmokflelr], 
224; Po]lTBac,22B; 8t«ri>%,S9S; BhohniuadlB, 338; HiKtot4, Z^; Elmedsle, 
WI; BnfleM.aW'; Grand Loks, Wi; WelilnKtoD, 260 ; WindKir JuiictloD, Wi; 
BodvInke.SeO; Bedford, ZOO; lour-lBle Hann, 273 ; Eiilirtx,Z!t. 

Farafnm Sl-Jo^n. — To Sussei, Irtehm, 11-33,— add»tt,88o.; toMoncton, 
lat oliM,t2S7,~2it clsu, 01.78; to Shedlu,lKl clan, S3,— Zd cIim, 92; to 
Aniheral,ljtclae»,»3 7B —d-l -l." "H.fia: lo Truro. Ist plus. Bfi.OO.—ai rlnim 
18^; toHaU^, lBt< 

.fi,,_T„l l...M-« .11.™. — ^— . 

liol»««,»»K., — aiolHe. »"'~- •- '^ 

•wo, no,!!!; to Bt. John, let claes, 1 6, — lui cinir:, w- 

Wajr-paaSHigRi on egHmatc their eipenses cuU; on the hade of So. per mile (br 
1st clise, and 2c. per mile (br 2d clue tickets, irblch Is (be tariff llled b; ttie 
Canadian OaremtDBat tot aU dbtanoa of Mil than 100 M. on Ua national taU- 
wajs. 

On leaving the Yalle}' statioa, in the city of St. John (see page ISX the 
tr^n passes out into the Marsh Valley, which is ascended for several miles 
(see page 22). A short distance beyond Moosepatb Fork the line crosses 
LaaJer't Lake on an embankment which cost heavily, on account of the 
great depth to which Uie ballasting sunk. The KennelMcaili Bay is soon 
seen, on the 1., and Is skirted for 6 M., passhig the villas of Rothesay (see 
page 22), and giving pleasant views over the broad waters. Qolspaio- 



fiom /£i4riiz.— ToTruro, latclawiigi.SS, — 2d claai, f 1.22: toPicloa, 
<,«S.1S,— ^etaM, 82.1IH toAo>hcnt,lEtcbH, (3.78,— 2deWj2.fiSi 
/...-'_„_..,{ „._,_._ JB.CIS; to Simei, lstcla««,»6.31, — 2d 



SUSSEX VALE. JiouU 16. 71 

sis station is 8 M. S. of Gondola Point, whence a feny crosses the Ken- 
nebecasis to the pretty hamlet of Clifton, The narrowing valley is now 
followed to the N. E., with occasional glimpses of the river on the L 
Hampton (two hotels) is the shire-town of Kings County, whose new pub- 
lic buildings are seen to the r. of the track. It is a thriving village of re- 
cent origin, and is visited in summer by the people of St. John, on account 
of the hill-scenery in the vicinity. 

St. IIartin'8, or Qnacoy is about 20 M. S. E., on the Bay of Fondj, and is to be 
connected with Hampton by a new railway. (It is now visited by tri-weekly stage 
from St. John in 82 M., fare $ 1.60 ; a ru^ed road.) This is one of the chief ship- 
building towns in the province, and has over 1,000 inhabitants, with several churches 
and other public buildings. It was originally settled by the King's Orange Rangersy 
and has recently become a Ikvorite point for summer eacursiuns from St. John. 
The hotel accommodation is inferior. S. of the village is the tall lighthouse oa 
Quaco Head, sustaining a revolving white light. The name Qmoco is a contractiou 
of the Indian words GtUuHihgahgee. meaning " the Home of the Sea-cow." 

The shores about Quaco are bold and picturesque, fronting the Bay with lofty 
iron-bound cli£&, among which are small strips of stony beaches. The strata are 
highly inclined and in some cases are strangely contorted, while their shelves and 
crevices are adorned with pine-trees. Quaco Head is 2 M. from St. Martin's, and 
is 350 ft. high, surrounded by cliflb of red sandstone 250 ft. in height. This bold 
promontory rises directly from the sea, and is crowned by forests. The harbor of 
Quaco is rather pretty, whence it has been likened to the Bay of Naples. Traey^s 
Lake is about 5 M. from Quaco, on the Loch Lomond road, and is noted for an 
abundance of trout. 10-12 M. N. of the village is the Mount Theobald Lake, a 
small round forest-pool in which trout are found in great nombers. 

Hampton station is 1 M. from the village of Hampton Ferry, and beyond 
Bloomfielji the train reaches Norton, whence a road runs 7 M. N. W. to 
Springfield, at the head of Belleisle Bay. ApoJiaqui (Apohaqui Hotel) is 
a village of 800 inhabitants, on the upper £ennebecasis, and at the mouth 
of the Mill-stream Valley. 

The train now reaches SuBsez (Exchange Hotel), a pleasant little vil- 
lage of 400 inhabitants, whence the famous farm-lands of the Sussex Vale 
stretch ofif to the S. E. along the course of Trout Brook. There are sev- 
eral hamlets (with inns) amid the pleasant rural scenery of the Vale, and 
good trout-fishing is found on the smaller streams. 8 M. up is the pros- 
perous settlement of Seeley's Mills, with 650 inhabitants. 

The Sussex Yale was settled by the military corps of the New Jersey Loyalists 
(most of whom were Germans), soon after the Revolutionary War, and it is now 
occupied, for the most part, by thdr descendants. " Good roads, well-executed 
bridges, cleared land, excellent crops, comfortable houses, high-bred cattle and 
horses, good conveyances public and private, commodious churches, well-taught 
schools, well-provided inns, and an intelligent, industrious people, all in the midst 
of scenery lofty, soft, rounded, beautifully varied with hill and valley, mountain 
and meadow, forest and flood, have taken the place of the pathless wilderness, the 
endless trees, the untaught Indian, and the savage moose." (Prof. Johnston.) 

Beyond Plnmweseep occasional glimpses of the long low ridge of Picca- 
diUy Mt are obtained on the r., and Mt. Pisgah is just N. of Penobsquis 
station (small inn), which is the seat of the New Brunswick Paper Manu- 
facturing Ck>. and of several salt-works. Tri-weekly stages run hence 82 
M. S. E. to the maritime village of Salmon Biver, on Chignecto Bay, 4 M* 
N. W. of the obscure shipping-port o£ Point Wolfe (Stevens's HotelV 



72 RoiUe 16. MONCTON. 

Fetitoodiao {Mamard Houte; CetUral EoUt) is 15 M. beyond Penob- 
iquis, and is a busy village of 400 inhabitants, many of whom are con- 
nected with the lamber-trade. 6 M. S. £. is the Pollett River village, near 
which there is good trouting. In this vichiity are the PoUeU Falls, where 
the river, after flowing through a narrow def^e between lofty and ragged 
hills, falls over a line of sandstone ledges, and then whirls away down a 
dark gorge below. The caverns, crags, and eroded fironts of the sand- 
stone cliffs form picturesque bits of scenery. 

15-18 M. N. of Petitcodiac are the famous fishing-grounds of the 
Canaan River. The railway now descends the valley of the Petitcodiac 
River, which was settled after the Revolutionary War by Germans from 
Pennsylvania who remained loyal to Great Britain. SaU^ry (two inns) 
is a pleasant village of 800 inhabitants. 

Stegefl ran fh>m Salisbuiy, or Moncton. to HllUbovousli (two hotels), a busy 
village of 900 inhabitants, whence are shipped ttie abundant products of the mines 
of Albert County. The Albert Coal-mines are connected with Hillsborou^ by a 
railway 5^ M. long, and produce large quantiticB of valuable Utaminous coal, much 
of which is sent by sea to Portland and Boston. 7^ M. from the village are ezten- 
Biye plaster-quarries, whose products are shipped to the American ports. S. S. of 
HiliflborouKh, down the Petitcodiac River, are the Tillages of the parish of Hopewell, 
of which Hopewell Cape is the capital of the county. W. of Hopewell Comer is 
Harvey Comer ^ whence a pleasant road leads to Rocher. To the S. are the Shepody 
Lakes and River, beyond which (and 8 M. fr<»n Harrey Comer) is little Rocher, 
near Cape Enrag6 on Chignecto Bay (with a fixed light, visible for 15 M.). Off these 
bold shores are the Albert Quarries and the rocky cuffii of Grindstone Island. The 
mines and villages of Albert County are being joined with the Intercolonial Rail- 
way system by a line called the Autert Railway ^ which intersects the former load 
and runs down through the lower parishes, meeting with fine scenery in its passage 
between Shepody Mt (1,060 ft. high) and the Bay. 

Beyond Salisbury station the Halifax train runs 18 M. N. £. to Xoneton 
{King^s Hotel), the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway and the site 
of its extensive machine-shops. It is well laid out, and has 4 churches a 
weekly paper, and some manufacturing works. Its situation at the head 
of navigation on the Petitcodiac gives certain conmiercial advantages and 
affords opportunity for the visitor to see the great " Bore," or tide-wave 
of the Bay of Fundy. At the beginning of the flood-tide a wall of water 
4-6 ft. high sweeps up the river, and within 6 hours the stream ri»es over 
70 ft. On account of the sharp curve in the river at this point, Moncton 
was known only as " the Bend " for over a century, when it was named 
in honor of an early English officer of the Acadian wars. This bend also 
gave rise to the name of the river, which was hence called by the French 
PeHt Coude ( ** Littie Elbow " ). 

The new division of the iitercolonial Railway rans N. from Moncton and fa 
designed to meet the Cai«dian raUway system at Riviere du Loup. l{ ^15 
through or near the chief towns of the North Shore, and foUows the Bav of^S? 
eur for many miles. A considerable portion of the line will probably be Xij^V^ 
travel In the summer of 1875, but the officers of the road ca^ ySt riJe £^£ 
inlbxmation. The towns on this Ime are described hi Ro«te 16. *^ precise 

The Halifax train runs out to the N. E. from Moncton, and after passinir 
Painsec Junction (see page 59) deflects to the S. E. mto the Memrtlm^k 



SACKVILLB. Jtauie 16. 73 

Valley. It soon reaches the connected yilbiges of Memrameook and Bt. 
Joseph (three inns), occupying the centre of a prosperous farming district 
which is inhabited by over 1,000 Acadians, — a pious and simple-hearted 
Catholic peasantry, — a large portion of whom belong to the prolific fami- 
lies of Leblanc, Cormier, Gaudet, and Bouque. On the opposite shore is 
the College of St. Joseph de Memramcook, where about 100 students 
(mostly from Canada and the United States) are conducted through a 
high-school curriculum by 12 friars and ecclesiastics. Near the college 
is the handsome stone building of the Church of St. Joseph de Memram- 
cook. 

The scenery is of a bold character as the train descends the r. bank of 
the Memramcook Biver, and crosses to Dorehecter {Dorchester Hotel)y a 
prosperous village of 800 inhabitants, situated near the mouth of the river 
and among the finest wheat-lands in New Brunswick. In this vicinity 
(and at Bocktand^ 4 M. W.) are large quarries of olive-colored sandstone, 
most of which is sent to Boston and New York. Dorchester has 8 churches, 
the public buildings of Westmoreland County, and numerous pleasant 
residences. Shipbuilding is carried on to some extent. 

A ferry crosses Shepody Bay to Hopewell Gape (see page 72) ; and 6-8 M. W. of 
Dorchester is Belliyeaa village, nine tenths of whose inhabitants belong to the fiuni- 
lies of Belliyeaa, Qaatreault, and Melanin. This settlement was named in honor 
of the venerable M. Belliyeau. whose lon^ life extended from 1790 to 1840. In 1776 
many of the Acadians of this vicinity joined the New England forces under Col. 
Eddy, who occapied Sackville and attacked Fort Cumberland (see page 78). 

The train now runs E. 12 M. from Dorchester to Sackville {Bruruwick 
Souse), a rising and prosperous village of about 1,600 inhabitants, situated 
on a red sandstone slope at the mouth of the Tantramar ^ River, near the 
head of the Bay of Fundy. It has ship-yards, a stove foundry, a news- 
paper, and 8 churches. Sackville is the seat of the Mount Allison Wes- 
leyan College, an institution which was founded by Mr. C. F. Allison, and 
is conducted by the Wesleyan Conference of Eastern British America. It 
includes a small college, a theological hall, and academies for boys and 
girls. A road leads from Sackville S. E. down the rugged headland be- 
tween Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay, passing the marine hamlets 
of Woodpoint (6 M.), Rockport (12 M.), and N. Joggins, 14 M. from Sack- 
ville, and near the highlands of Cape Marangouin. 

Sackville is the point established fer the outlet of the projected Bale Terte 
Canal^ a useftil work 18 M. long, which would allow vessels to pass from the Bay 
of Fundy to the Golf of St. Lawrence without having to round the iron-bound pe- 
ninsula of Nova Scotia. This canal has been planned and desired for over a cen- 
tury, but nothing has yet been done, except the surveying of the isthmus. Tri- 
weekly stages run N. E. along the telesraph-road from Sackville to Jolicoeur (10 M. ), 
Bale Yerte Road (14 M.), Bale Terte (18 M., small inn), and Port Elgin (20 M. ; inn). 
About 16 M. N. jB. of Port Elgin is Cape Tormentine, " the great headland 
which forms the B. extremity of New Brunswick within the Gulf. Indian Point 
may be said to form the southern, and Cape Jourimain the northern points of this 
^leadland, which is a place <^ Importance in a nautical point of view, not only from 

1 Tcmtramar, from the French word IHMtamamt meaning ** a^'an!^«Asi%'&!(»9Mbr 
4 



74 Rauteie. TANTRAMAB MABSH. 

Ite podtioD, bat from its dangaroos and extendTB dHMls.*' The sobmuine tele- 
graph to Prince Edward laland cr Mew from Cape Joarlmaiii ; and it is tcom this 
wAat that the winter mail-oenioe is condndted, when the malla, passmgen, and 
Mgi^ge are Bal\)eeted to an exciting and perilona tnmrit in ice-boats to Cape Tray- 
erse. Baie Terte is 9 M. wide and 11 M. deep, but afibrds no good shelter. It re- 
ceires the Tignish and Oaspereaa BiTers, and at the mouth of the latter are the 
andent rains of fort Monct<m. 

At Sackville the Halifax train crosses the Tantramar River, and nms 
out over the wide Tantramar Karsh to Anlac, or Cole's Island (stage to 
Cape Tormentine), near which it crosses the Aolac River. Trains are 
sometimes blocked in on these plains during the snow-storms of winter, 
and the passengers are subjected to great hardships. The Missiguash 
River is next crossed, with the ruins of Fort Beausejour (Cumberland) on 
the N., and of Fort Beaubassin (Lawrence) on the S. These forts are best 
visited from Amherst, which is 4-6 M. distant, and is reached after trav- 
ersing the Mimguath Marsh. The Missiguash River is the boundary 
between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and Amhent is the first town 
reached in the latter Province. 

Amherst to Halifax, see Route 17. 



NOYA. SCOTIA. 



The Province of Nova Scotia is peninsolar in location, and is connected 
Yrith the mainland by an isthmus 8 M. wide. It is bounded on the N. by 
the Bay of Fandy,^e Strait of Northumberland, and the Gulf of St Law- 
rence; on the E. and S. by the Atlantic Ocean; and on the W. by the 
ocean, the Bay of Fundy, and the Province of New Brunswick. Its length, 
from Cape Canso to Cape St Mary, is 383 M., and its breadth varies from 
50 M. to 104 M. The area of the peninsular portion of the Province is 
about 16,000 square miles. (The island of Cape Breton is connected with 
this Province, politically, but its description is reserved for another sec- 
tion of this book.) 

*^ Acadie is much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than 
the countries in Europe lying imder the same parallels of latitude" 
(Southern France, Sardinia, Lombardy, Genoa, Venice, Northern Tur- 
key, the Crimea, and Circassia). *^The spring season is colder and the 
autumn more agreeable than those on the opposite side of the Atlantic. 
Its climate is favorable to agriculture, its soil generally fertile. The land 
is well watered by rivers, brooks, and lakes. The supply of timber for 
use and for exportation may be considered as inexhaustible. The fish- 
eries on the coasts are abundant The harbors are numerous and excel- 
lent. WUd animals are abundant, among which are remarkable the moose, 
caribou, and red deer. WUd fowl also are plenty. Extensive tracts of 
alluvial land of great value are found on the Bay of Fundy. These lands 
have a natural richness that dispenses with all manuring; all that is 
wanted to keep them in order is spade-work. As to cereals, — wheat, 
rye, oats, buckwheat, maize, all prosper. The potato, the hop, flax, and 
hemp are everywhere prolific. The vegetables of the kitchen garden are 
successfully raised. (X firuit there are many wild kinds, and the apple, 
pear, plum, and cherry seem almost indigenous. The vine thrives; good 
grapes are often raised in the open air. It was said by a French writer 
that Acadie produced readily everything that grew in Old France, except 
the olive. 

'* In the peninsula, or Acadie proper, there is an abundance of mineral 
wealth. Coal is found in Cumberland and Pictou; iron ore, in Colchester 
and Annapolis Counties; gypsum, in Hants; marble and limestone, in dif- 
ferent localities; freestone, for building, at Bemsheg (Port Wallace) and 



76 NOVA SCOTIA. 

Picton; granite, near Halifax, Shelbnrne, etc.; brick clay, in the comities 
of Halifax and Annapolis. The amethysts of Parrsboroagh and its vicin- 
ity have been long celebrated, and pearls have been found lately in the 
Annapolis River. The discovery of gold along the whole Atlantic shore of 
the peninsula of Nova Scotia has taken place since 1860, and it now gives 
steady remonerative employment to about 800 or 1,000 laborers, with 
every expectation of its expansion." (Bkamish Murdoch.) The pro- 
duction of gold from the Nova-Scotia mines now amounts to about $ 400,000 
a year. 

In 1878 the Nova-Scotians caught $6,677,086 worth of fish, of which 
$2,631,159 worth were of codfish, $1,411,676 of mackerel, $717,861 of 
herring, and $ 866,574 of lobsters. 

The territory now occupied by the Maritime Provinces was known for 
nearly two centuries by the name of Acadit^ and was the scene of fre- 
quent wars between Britain and France. Its first discoverers were the 
Northmen, about the year 1000 a. d., and Sebastian Cabot rediscovered 
it in 1498. In 1618 and 1698 ftitile attempts were made by French nobles 
to found colonies here, and French fishermen, fur-traders, and explorers 
frequented these shores for over a century. In 1605 a settlement was 
founded at Port Boyal, after the discoveries of De Monts and Champlain, 
but it was broken up in 1618 by the Virginians, who claimed that Acadie 
belonged to Britain by virtue of Cabot's discovery. In 1621 James I. 
of England granted to Sir William Alexander the domain called Nova 
Scotia, including all the lands E. of a line drawn from Passamoquoddy 
Bay N. to the St. Lawrence ; but this claim was renounced in 1682, and 
the rival French nobles. La Tour and D'Aulnay, commenced their fratri- 
cidal wars, each striving to be sole lord of Acadie. In 1664 the Province 
was captured by a force sent out by Cromwell, but the French interest 
soon regained its former position. 

The order of the Baronets of Nova Scotia was founded by King Charles 
I., in 1625, and consisted of 160 well-bom gentlemen of Scotland, who re- 
ceived, with their titles and insignia, grants of 18 square miles each, in the 
wide domains of Acadia, ^hese manors were to be settled by the baronets 
at their own expense, and were expected in time to yield handsome 
revenues. But little was ever accomplished by this order. Meantime 
Cardinal Richelieu founded and became grand master of a more powerful 
French association called the Company of New France (1627). It con- 

1 Acadia U the Anglicized (or Latinized) form of Acadie, an Indian word aignifyinff 
M tlie place," or " the region." It is a part of the compound words Segieben'ocadie (shu- 
benacadie), meaning ** place of wild potatoes "*; Tulluk-cadie (Tracadie), meaning " dwelling- 
place " ; Sun-acadte. or ** place of cranberries "; Kitpoo-aeadie, or "place of eagles," and 
others of similar form. The Milicete tribes pronounced this word^ " Quoddy/' whence 
Pettumoo-quoddy (Passamoquoddy), meaning "place of pollocks"; Ifoodi-ouoddy, or 
*• fdace of seals," etc. When a British officer was descending the Shubenacadie with a Mio- 
mac guide, he inquired how the name orisinated ; the Indian answered, " Becsaae plentv 
wild potatoes — teo^eben — once grew here.'' "Well, • acadie; P»ul, what does that mean ?* 
** Meani — where yon find 'em," rgoined the Micmac. 



NOVA SCOTIA. 77 

sisted of 100 members, who received Acadia, Quebec, Florida, and New- 
foundland " in simple homage," and had power to erect duchies, marquis- 
ates, and seigniories, subject to the royal approval. They allowed French 
Catholics only to settle on these lands, and were protected by national 
frigates. This order continued for 40 years, and was instrumental in 
founding numerous villages along the Nova-Scotian coast. 

In 1690 the New-Englanders overran the Province and seized the for- 
tresses, but it was restored to France in 1697. In 1708 and 1707 unsuc- 
cessful expeditions were sent from Massachusetts against the Acadian 
strongholds, but they were finally captured in 1710; and in 1718 Nova 
Scotia was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht. The Prov- 
ince was kept in a condition of disorder for the next 40 years, by the dis- 
affection of its French population and the lawlessness of the Indians, and 
the British fortresses were often menaced and attacked. After the founda- 
tion of Halifax, in 1749, a slow tide of immigration set in and strengthened 
the government. In 1766 the French people in the Province (7,000 in num- 
ber) were suddenly seized and transported to the remote American colo- 
nies, and the French forts on the Baie-Verte frontier were captured. 

In 1758 the first House of Assembly met at Halifax, and in 1763 the 
French power in America was finally and totally crushed. At the close 
of the Revolution, 20,000 self-exiled Americans settled in Nova Scotia; 
and in 1784 New Brunswick and Cape Breton were withdrawn and made 
into separate provinces (Cape Breton was reunited to Nova Scotia in 1820). 
During the Revolution and the War of 1812 Halifax was the chief station 
of the British navy, and the shores of the Province were continually 
harassed by American privateers. 

In 1864 a convention was held at Charlottetown, P. £. I., to consider 
measures for forming a federal union of the Maritime Provinces. During 
the session Canadian delegates were admitted, on the request of the St. 
Lawrence Provinces ; and a subsequent congress of all the Provinces was 
held at Quebec, at which the plan of the Dominion of Canada was elabo- 
rated. It is now thought that this quasi-national government does not fulfil 
all the original wishes of the seaboard regions, and that it may be well to 
unite (or reunite) the Maritime Provinces into one powerful province 
called Acadia, by which the expense of three local legislatures and cabi- 
nets could be saved, their homogeneous commercial interests could be 
favored by uniform laws, and the populous and wealthy Provinces of Que- 
bec and Ontario could be balanced in the Dominion Parliament. 



<< There are perhaps no Provinces in the world possessing finer harbors, 
or furnishing in greater abundance all the conveniences of life. The climate 
is quite mild and very healthy, and no lands have been found that are not 

of surpassing fertility Finally, nowhere are there to be seen forests 

more beautiful or with wood better fitted for buildings and masts* Tlv<&t^ 



78 Route I/. AMHEBST. 

are in some places copper mines, and in others of coal. .... The fish most 
commonly caught on the coast are the cod, salmon, mackerel, herring, 
sardine, shad, tront, gotte, gaparot, barbel, sturgeon, goberge, — all fish 
that can be salted and exported. Seals, walruses, and whales are found 

in great numbers The rivers, too, are full of fresh-water fish, and the 

banks teem with countless game.** (Father Ghablevoix, 1765.) 

'* Herewith I enter the lists as the champion of Nova Scotia. .... Were 
I to give a first-class certificate of its general character, I would affirm that 
it yields a greater variety of products for export than any territory on the 
globe of the same superficial area. This is saying a great deal. Let us 
see : she has ice, lumber, ships, salt-fish, salmon and lobsters, coal, iron, 
gold, copper, plaster, slate, grindstones, fat cattle, wool, potatoes, apples, 
large game, and furs.** (Charles Hallock, 1878.) 



17. St John to Amherst and Hali&z. 

St. John to Amherst, see preceding route. 

Amherst {Acadia Hotel ; Amherst Hotel) is a fiourishing town midway 
between St. John and Halifax (138 M. fit>m each). It is the capital of 
Cumberland County, Kova Scotia, and is pleasantly situated at the head 
of the Cumberland Basin, one of the great arms of tie Bay of Fundy. It 
has 8,606 inhabitants, and is engaged in the lumber trade; while the im- 
mense area of fertile meadows about the town furnishes profitable employ- 
ment for a large rural population. Bi-weekly stages run N. E. up the 
valley of the La Planche to Tidnish (two inns), a village of 800 inhabitants 
on Bale Verte. Tri-weekly stages run N. E. to Shinimicaa and the large 
farming district called the Head of Amherst, which has over 2,000 in- 
habitants. 

The present domain of Nova Scotia was ceded to Great Britain by the Treatj of 
Utrecht, in 1718, but its boundaries were not defined, and the French determined to 
limit it on the N. to the Missiguash River. To this end Got. La Jonqui6re sent M. 
La Come, with 600 soldiers, to erect forts on the line of the Misstguash. The war- 
rior-priest, the Abb6 Laloutre (Yicar-General of Acadie), led many Acadians to this 
vicinity, where the flourishing settlement of Beaubassin was founded. At the same 
time La Come established a chain of military posts from the Bay of Fundy to Bale 
Terte, the chief fort being located on the present site of Fort Cumberland, and bear- 
ing the name of Beausejottr. The governor of Nova Scotia sent out a British force 
under Migor Lawrence, who captured and destroyed Beaubassin, and erected Fort 
Lawrence near its site. The Acadians were industriously laboring in the peaceful 

gursuits of agriculture about Beausejour ; and the King oif France had granted 
D,000 livres for the great aboideau across the Aulac River. The British complidaied, 
however, that the priests were endeavoring to array the Acadians against them, 
and to entice them away fi*om the Nova-Scotian shores. It was^resolved ttiat the 
French forces should be driven from their position, and a powerful expedition was 
fitted out at Boston. Three frigates and a number of transports conveying the New- 
England levies sailed up the Bay of Fundy in Hay, 1766, and debarked a strong 



FORT CUMBERLAND. ItauU 17. 79 

land Ibioe at Tort Lawrence. Meantime 1,200>1,600 Aeadfam had been gathered 
aboat Beaiuegoar, by the hifloeace of the Abb^ Laloutre, and a sharp akhmish was 
fought on L'Isle de la YaUi^re. On the 4th of Jane the Anglo-American foreee left 
their camps on the glacis of Fort Lawrence, roated the Acadians at the fords of the 
Missigoash, and advanced by parallels and si^^lines against the hostile works. 
When the British batteries reached Butte-a-Ghu'les the fort was rigorously shelled, 
and with such disastrous effect that it capitulated on June 16th, the garrison march- 
ing out with arms, baggage, and banners. The French troops were paroled and 
sent to Louisbourg, and the Acadians were sufCered to remain. Laloutxe, escaping 
to Quebec, there received an ecclesiastical censure, and was afterwards remanded to 
France. 

In November, 1776, C!ol. Eddy led a force of Massachusetts troops, men of Mau- 
gerville, Acadians, and Indians, against Fort Cumberiand. He first cut out a store- 
vessel firom under the guns of the fort, and captured several detachments of the gar- 
rison (the Royal Fencibles). The commandant reftised to surrender, and repuhud 
the Americans in a night-attack, by means of a fhrious cannonade. Eddy then 
blockaded the fort for several days, but was finally driven off by the arrival of a 
man-of-war firom Hali&z, bringing a reinforcement of 400 men. The Massachusetts 
camp was broken up by a sortie, and all its stores were destroyed. The Americans 
fled to the forest, and fell back on the St. John River. A large proportion of the 
men of Cumberland County went to Maine after this campaign , despairing of the 
success of Republicanism hi the Maritime Provincee. Among them were a consid- 
erable number of Acadians. 

The ruins of Fort Cumberland are a few miles N. W. of Amherst, beyond the 
Aulac River, and on a high bluff at the S. end of the Point de Bute range of hills. 
It was kept in repair by the Imperial Government for many years after its capture, 
and still presents an appearance of strength and solidity . tibongh it has been long 
deserted. The remains of the besiegers' parallels are also visible near the worics. 
On a bold bluff within cannon-shot, on the Ikrther bank of the Missigoash River, 
are the scanty remains of the British Fort Lawrence. Numerous relics of the old 
Acadians may still be traced in this vicinity. 5 M. above the fort, on the Bale Yerte 
road, is Bloody Bridge, where a British foraging party under Col. Dixon was sur- 
prised and massacred by the Indians (under French officers). 

The *view firom the bastions of Fort Cumberland is jhmous for its extent and 
beauty. It includes Sackville and its coll^;es on the N. W., Amherst and the 
Nova-Scotian shores on the S. £., and the bluff and hamlet of Fort Lawrence. The 
wide and blooming expanse of the Tantramar and Missigoash Marshes is over- 
looked, — the view including over 50,000 acres of rich marine intervale, — and on 
the 8. the eye travels for many leagues down the blue sheet of the Bay of Fundy 
(Cumberland Basin). 

The great Tantramar Marsh is S. of Sackville, and is 9 M. long by 4 M. wide, 
being also traversed by the Tantramar and Aulao Rivers. It is composed of fine 
silicious matter deposited as marine alluvium, and is called "red marsh," in dis- 
tinction firom the "blue marsh " of the uplands. The low shores around the head 
of the Bay of Fimdy for a distance of 20 M. have been reclaimed by the erection of 
dikes, with aboideaux at the mouths of the rivers to exclude the flow of the tides. 
The land thus gained is very rich, and produces fine crops of English hay, averag- 
ing from 1>^ to 2 tons to the acre. The land seems inexhaustible, having been cul- 
tivated now for nearly a century without rotation or fertilization. 

The Chignecto Peninsula. 

Minndle is 8 M. S. W. of Amherst,, with which it is connected by a ferry across 
the estuaries of the Maccan and Hebert Rivers. It has 600 inhabitants, and is near 
the rich meadows called the Elysian Fields. In the vicinity are profitable quarries 
of grindstones, and there are shad-fisheries to the S. W. 6 - 8 M. S. are the Joggins 
liines, pertaining to the General Mining Association of London ; and tbe Yictoria 
mnes, on the river Hebert. Coal has been obtained thence for 25 years. This dis- 
trict is reached by stages from Maccan station. About the year 1790 the coal-mines 
at Chignecto were leased to a Boston company, which was to pay a quit-rent of one 
penny an acre (on 4,000 acres), and a royalty of 18 pence per chaldron on the coal 
raised. But this enterprise was broken up In 17^, when the warehouses and ma- 
chinery were destroyed by the Indians (probably incited by the French at Louisr 
bourg). 



80 XaiUel7. COBEQUn) MT3. 

Th« Josslns Sliore extends to the 8. W. along the Chigneeto Channel, and is 
remarkable for its geologio&l peculiarities, which haye been visited and studied bj 
Boropean sarans. The local explanation of the name is that the cliGb here ** jog in " 
and out in an unexampled manner. The height of the clifib is firom 130 to 400 ft. ; and 
the width of the Chigneeto Basin is from 5 to 8 M. 35-40 M. from Amherst is Apple 
River^ a sequestered hamlet on the estuary of the Apple Riyer, amidst fine marine 
scenery. Apple Head ia just W. of this place, and is 418 ft. high, oyerlooking the 
Chigneeto Channel and the New-Brunswick shores. There is a fixed white light on 
its outer point. To the E., Apple Riyer trayerses the Caribou Plains, and on its 
upper waters afifords the best of trout-fishing, with ap abundance of stdmon between 
February and July. 15-20 M. S. W. of Apple Riyer, by a road which crosses the 
Oobequid Mts. E. of Cape Chigneeto, is Advocate Harbor (see Route 21). 

* ' The road firom Amherst to Parrsboro' is tedious and uninteresting. In places 
it is made so straight that you can see seyeral miles of it before you, which produces 
an appearance of interminable length, while the stunted growth of the spruce and 
birch trees bespeaks a cold, thin soil, and inyests the scene with a melancholy and 
sterile aspect." (Junas Haubuaton.) This road is 88 M. long, ascending the yal- 
Ibj of the Maccan River, and passing the hamlet of Cannan, near the Cobequid Mts. 

The Halifax train runs S. from Amherst to Maccan (stages to Minudie 
and Joggins), in the great coal-field of Camberland County. Daily stages run 
from Athd station to Parrsboro*. From Athol the line passes to Spring HiU^ 
a coal-mining district, whence a railway is being constructed to Parrsboro* 
(see Route 21). 11 M. beyond is the station at River Philip (small hotel), 
a pleasant stream in which good fishing is found. The salmon are espe- 
cially abundant during the springtime. Oxford station (two inns) has two 
small woollen factories, and is 14 M. S. W. of Pugwash, on the Northumber- 
land Strait 

The train now passes through extensive forests, in which many sugar- 
maples are seen, and begins the ascent of the Cobequid Xtfl., with the 
Widlace Valley below on the 1. The Cobequid range runs almost due E. 
and W. from Truro, and is 100 M. long, with an average breadth of 10 - 12 
M. It consists of a succession of rounded hills, 800 - 1,000 feet high, cov- 
ered with tall and luxuriant forests of beech and sugar-maple. From 
Thomson, Greenville, and Wentworth stations stages run to Wallace and 
Pugwash (see page 81), also to Westchester. The railway traverses the 
hill-country by the FoUy Pan, and has its heaviest grades between Folly 
Lake and Londonderry; where are also 2-8 M. of snow-sheds, to protect 
the deep cuttings from the drifting in of snow from the hills. Fine views 
of the Wallace Valley are afforded from the open levels of the line. From 
Londonderry a branch-railway runs to the Londonderry Iron-mines, which 
have been worked for nearly 40 years. The ores are magnetic, specular, 
and hematite, and occur in a wedge-shaped vein 7 M. long and 120 ft. 
thick. The iron is of fine quality, but is difficult to work. 

The train descends from the Pass along the line of the Folly River, which 
it crosses on a bridge 200 feet above the water. Beyond the fanning set- 
tlement of Dehert (stages to Economy and Five Islands) the descent is con- 
tinued, and occasional views of the Cobequid Bay are given as the train 
passes across Onslow to Truro. The landscape now becomes more pleas- 
ing and thickly settled. 



TRURO. R(yiUe TT, 81 

Truro (Somerset House; Prince of Wales Hotel; Victoria) is a wealthy 
and prosperous town of over 4,000 inhabitants, and occupies a pleasant 
situation 2 M. from the head of Cobeqnid Bay (an arm of the Basin of 
Minas). The level site of the town is nearly surrounded by an amphi- 
theatre of gracefully rounded hills, and on the W. are the old diked 
meadows of the Acadian era. Truro is the capital of Colchester County 
and tiie seat of the Provincial Normal School. Fishing and shipbuilding 
are carried on here, and there are large and growing manufactures, in- 
cluding boots and shoes, woollens, and iron-wares. The neighboring 
county has valuable farming-lands, and contains several iron-mines. 

Truro was settled at an early date by the Acadian French, and after their ezpol- 
sion firom Nova Scotia was occupied by Scotch-Irish from New Hampshire. In 
1761 a large number of disbanded Irish troops settled here, and engaged in the 
peaoefal paisnits of sgricolture. 

A road runs W. tnm Traro between the Cobeqnid Mts. and the Basin of Minas, 
passing Mssstown (10 M.) ; FoUy Village (14 M.), at the mouth of the Folly River; 
Great Yillam (18 M.), a place of 600 mhabitants ; Highland Village (21 M.) ; Port 
an Pique (WM..)] Bass Riyer (27 M.) ; Upper Economy (28 M.) ; and Five Islands 
(45 M.). (See Route 22.) The stages run from Debert station. 

Stages also mn S. W. to Old Bams, on the S. shore of Cobequid Bay, and S. E. 15 
M. to Bfiddle Stewiacke, on the Stewiacke River. 

Tniro is the point of departure for the Pictou Branch of the Intercolonial Rail- 
way (see Route 81). 

The North Shore of Nova Scotia, 

Blair's express-stages leave Truro on the arrival of the morning trains firom Hali- 
ftx. on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning on the alternate days. Truro 
to Tatamagouche, 29 M. ; to Wallace, 42 ; to Pugwash, 52. Stages also run from 
Wentworth, Greenville, and Thomson to the N. Shore (according to the Intercolonial 
Railway circular for 1874), and a tri-weekly line runs between Pictou and Amherst 
by way of the N. shore. 

In passing firom Truro to Tatamagouche the road crosses the Cobequid 
Mts. and descends through a thinly settled region to the N. Tatamagouche 
(two inns) is situated at the head of a large harbor which opens on the 
Northumberland Strait, and has about 1,500 inhabitants. Some ship- 
building is done here, and there are freestone quarries in the vicinity. 
6 M. to the E. is the large village of Brule Harbor j and 6 M. farther E., 
also on the Tatamagouche Bay, and at the mouth of the River John, is 
the shipbuilding settlement of Biver John, which was founded by Swiss 
Protestants in 1768. It is 20 M. from this point to Pictou, and the inter- 
vening coast is occupied by colonists from the Hebrides. 

Blair's stage runs W. from Tatamagouche to Wallace (two inns), a town 
of 2,600 inhabitants, situated on the deep waters of Wallace Harbor (for- 
merly called Remsheg). Plaster, lime, and freestone are found here in 
large quantities, and the latter is being quarried by several companies. 
The Provincial Building at Halifax was made of Wallace stone. To the 
N. £., beyond the lighthouse on Mullin Point, is the marine hamlet of Fox 
Harbor, whose original settlers came from the Hebrides. Pugwash (small 
inn) is 10 M. beyond Wallace, and is a flourishing port with about 8,300 

4* i» 



82 MmUeir. GOLD MINES. 

inhabitants. The harbor, though difficult of access, is deep and well shel- 
tered, and has several ship-yards on its shores. The chief exports of Pag- 
wash are deals and lumber, freestone, lime, and plaster. 



The Halifax train runs S. from Truro to BrodkJieJdj whence hay and 
lumber are exported, and then to Stewiackey which is 3 M. from the pretty 
farming village of the same name, on the Stewiacke Biver. The next sta- 
tion is Shubeftacadie (International Hotel), a busy little manufacturing 
Tillage on the river of the same name. 

Daily stages descend the valley of the Shubenaeadie for 18 M. to the N. to the 
town of MaiUand (two inns), at ttie mouth of the river (see Route 22). Stages also 
ran 8. B. (Taesdav and Thonday) to Gay's River (7 M.), Gay's River Road (14 M ), 
Middle MnsqaodoDoit (21 M.), Upper Mnsquodoboit (26 M.), Melroee, Oaysborough, 
and Port Molgrave, on the Strait of Canso. Gold was discovered near Gay's River 
in 1862, in the eenglomerate rock of the great ridge called the Boar's Back, which 
extends for 60 M. Uirough the inland towns. It nearly resembles the allnyial de- 
posits foond in the placer-diggings of California, and Uie stream-washings have 
vielded as high as an ounce per man daily. Scientific mining was b^nn hi 1868, 
but has given only light returns. MideUe Mutquodoboit is a ftrming-town with 
about l/XK) inhabitants, situated on the S. of the Boar's Back ridge, 42 M. fhnn 
WfrUfHx Upper Mnsquodoboit is about the same siae, and beyond that point the 
stages traverse a dreary and thinly settled district for several leagues, to Melrose. 

The Halifax train runs S. W. to ElmsdaU^ a village near the Shuben- 
acadie Biver, engaged in making leather and carriages. Enfield is the 
seat of a large pottery. 7 M. N. W. are the Renfrew Gold-Mines^ where 
gold-bearing quartz was discovered in 1861. Much money and labor were 
at first wasted by inexperienced miners, but of late years the lodes have 
been worked systematically, and are considered among the most valuable 
in Nova Scotia. The average yield is 16 pennyweights of gold to a ton of 
quartz, and in 1869 these mines yielded 8,097 ounces of the precious metal, 
yalued at $61,490. The Oldham Mines are 8} M. S. of Enfield, and are 
in a deep narrow valley, along whose bottom shafts have been sunk to 
reach the auriferous quartz. Between 1861 and 1869, 9,264 ounces of gold 
were sent from the Oldham diggings, and it is thought that yet richer 
lodes may be found at a greater depth. 

Soon after leaving Enfield the train passes along the S. E. shore of Grand 

Lake, which is 8 M. long by 1-2 M. wide. It crosses the outlet stream, 

runs around Long Lake, and intersects the Windsor Branch Bailway at 

Windsor Junction. Station, Rocky Lake, on the lake of the same name, 

where large quantities of ice are cut by the Kova-Scotia Ice Company, for 

exportation to the United States. 8 M. N. E. of this station are the Waver- 

hy Gold-Mines^ where the gold is found in barrel-quartz, so named because 

it appears in cylindrical masses like barrels laid side by side, or like a 

cprduroy-road. At its first discovery all the floating population of Halifax 

flocked out here, but they failed to better their condition, and the total 

jrfeld between 1861 and 1869 was only about 1,600 ounces. Waverley vU- 

A^ is picturesquely situated in a narrow 'vaXiiB^ \«V««fisa Vw^i lakes, and 

Aas about 600 inhabitants. 



ANNAPOLIS ROUTR RouU 18. 83 

After crossing Rocky Lake the train soon reaches the shores of the 
beautiful Bedford Badn^ and follows their graceful curves for several 
miles. On the 1. are fine views of the villas and hills beyond the blue 
water. 

Hali£aX| see page 98. 

18. St John to HalifEo, by the Annapolis Valley. 

This is the pleaaantest route, daring calm weather, between the chief cities of the 
Maritime Provinces. After a passage of about 6 hours in the steamer, across the Bay 
of Fundy, the pretty scenery of the Annapolis Basin is traversed, and at Annapolis 
the passenger takes the train of the Windsor & Annapolis Railway, which runs 
through to w^^Ufc'T- The line traverses a comparatively rich and picturesque coun- 
try, aSonnding in historic and poetic associations of the deepest interest. 

The distance between St. John and Halifax by this route is 86 M. less than by the 
Interccrfonial Railway ; but the time on both routes ia about the same, on account 
of the delay in crossing the Bay of Fundy. The Annapolis-Halifitx line is only prac- 
ticable 4 times a week. The steamer leaves St. John at 8 a. m., on Monday. Wednes- 
di^, FMday , and Saturday, connecting with the express trains which leave Annapolis 
at2 p. M . and arrive at Hali&x at about 8 p. m. Express trains leave Halifitx at 8.15 a. m. 
on Tuesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, connecting with the steamer which 
leaves Anirapolis at 2.3d p. u. and arrives at St. John at 8 ?. m. (Time-table of 1874.) 

JVirex.— St. John to Hali&x, 1st class, 85; 2d class, 8850; to Digby, 8150; 
to Annapolis 82. Passengers for Halifax dine on the steamer and talce tea at Kent- 
ville (10 minutos) ; those for St. John dhie at Kentville (18 minutes) and take tea 
on the boat. There are two through trains each way daily between Halifax and 
Annapdis. Special rates are made for excursions (limited time) by the agents of 
this route, Small & Hathaway, 89 Dock St., St. John. 

Distances.— St. John to Digby, 43 M.; Annapolis, 61 ; Round HiU. 68 ; Bridge- 
town, 75; Paradise, 80; Lawrencetown, 83; Middleton,89; Wilmot. 92; Kingston, 
96 : Morden Road, 101 ; Aylesford, 108 ; Berwick, 108 ; Waterville, 111 ; Cambridge. 
113; Coldbrook, 115; Kentville, 120; Port Williams, 125; WolfriUe, 127; Orand 
Pr6, 180; Horton Landing, 131; Avonport, 133 : Hantsport, 138; Mount Denson, 
140; Falmouth, 148; Windsor, 145; Three-Mile Plains, 148 ; Newport, 151; Ellers- 
house,154; Stillwater, 157 ; Mount Uniacke, 164 ; Beaver Bank, 174 ; Windsor Junc- 
tion, 177 ; Rocky Lake, 179 ; Bedford, 182 ; Four-Mile House, 186 ; Halifkx, 19Q. 

The steamer Empress leaves her wharf at Beed's Point, St. John, and 
soon passes the heights and spires of Carleton on the r. and the lighthouse 
on Partridge Island on the 1., beyond which Mispeck Point is seen. Cape 
Spencer is then opened to the E., on the New Brunswick coast, and the 
steamer sweeps out into the open bay. Travellers who are subject to sea- 
sickness would do well to avoid this passage during or immediately after 
a breeze from the N. E. or S. W., or during a gale from any direction. At 
such times very rough water is found on the bay. It will be remembered 
that the ocean-steamships Pactolus and Connaught were lost in these 
waters. But in ordinary summer weather the bay is quiet, except for a 
light tidal swell, and will not affect the traveller whose mind is properly 
fixed on something outside of himself. 

Soon after passing Partridge Island, the dark ridge of the North Mt. is 
seen in advance, cleft by the gap called the * Bigby Out, which, in the 
earlier days, was known as St. George's Channel. TYi^ <^Q\n%^ N& \icA 
straight for this pasSf and the steamer runs in by Prim Po*nit,N?VOcwNXa Vi%- 
wAA/tfo and Sxed light (visible 13 M.), and eutAift t)aft \.\dL'erV««^\. ^^sSS^ft^ 



84 MouUlS, ANNAPOLIS BASIN. 

with bold and monntainous bluffs rising on either side. The shores on 
the I. are 610 ft high, and on the r. 400-560 ft, between which the tide 
rushes with a Telocity of 6 knots an hour, making broad and powerful 
swirls and eddies over 12-26 fathoms of water. After running for about 
2 M. through this passage, the steamer enters the Annapolis Basin, and 
runs S. by E. 8 M. to Digby. 

" The white houses of Digby. scattered oyer the downs like a flock of washed sheep, 
had a some^^t chilly aspect, it is true, and made us long for the sun on them. 
But as I think of it now, I prefer to haye the town and the pretty hillsides that 
stand about the basin in the Ught we saw them ; and especially do I like to recall 
the high wooden pier at Digby, deserted by the tide and so blown by the wind that 
the passengers who came out on it, with their tossing drapery, brought to mind the 
windy Dutch harbors that Backhiiysen painted." (Wabnie^s Baddeek.) 

Digby {Daley's Hotel) is a maritime village of about 1,000 inhabitants, 
situated on the S. W. shore of the Annapolis Basin, and engaged in ship- 
building and the fisheries of haddock, mackerel, and herring. The Digby 
herring are famous for their delicacy, and are known in the Provinces as 
** Digby chickens." Porpoises, also, are caught in the swift currents of 
the Digby Gut The village is visited by summer voyagers on account of 
its picturesque environs and the opportunities for fishing and sporting in 
the vicinity; and attempts have been made to erect a large hoteL There 
was a French fort here in the early days; and in 1788 the township was 
granted to the ex-American Loyalists, who founded the village of Conway 
on these shores. Stages run between Digby and Annapolis, and also from 
Digby to Yarmouth (see Route 26). 

It is called 18 M. from Digby to Annapolis (though this distance seems 
over-estimated when compared with the charts and the course run by the 
steamer). The * Annapolis Basin gradually decreases firom a width of 
nearly 6 M. to 1 M., and is henmied in between the converging ridges of the 
North Mt, and the South MU The former range has a height of 6 - 700 ft, 
and is bold and mountainous in its outlines. The South Mt is from 800 
to 600 ft. high, and its lines of ascent are more gradual. The North Mt 
is composed of trap, resting upon red sandstone; and the South Mt. is of 
granite and metamorphic slates. The geologic theory is that the North 
Mt. was once completely insulated, and that the tides fiowed through the 
whole valley, until a shoal at the confluence of the Blomidon and Digby 
currents became a bar, and this in time became dry land and a water-shed. 

Between the head of Argyle Bay and the scopes of the Annapolis Basin 
are the rarely visited and sequestered hill-ranges called the Blue Moun- 
tains. '^ The Indians are said to have formerly resorted periodically to 
groves among these wilds, which they considered as consecrated places, 
in order to ofi*er sacrifices to their gods." 

" We were saUing along the graceflilly moulded and tree-covered hills of the An- 
napolis Basin, and up the mildly picturesque river of that name, and we were about 
to enter what the provincials all enthusiastically call the Garden of Nova Scotia. 
.... It is, — this valley of Annapolis, — in the belief of provincials, the most beau- 
iifa} Aod blooming place in the world, with a soil and climate kind to the husband- 



ANNAPOLIS ROYAL. Route 18, 85 

man, a land of fidr meadoFS, orchards, and yines It was not until we had 

trayelled over the rest of the country that we saw the appropriateness of tlie 
designation. The explanation is, that not so much is required of a garden here as 
in some other parts of the world." 

Soon after leaving Digby, Bear Island is seen in-shore on the r., in front 
of the little port of Bear River (inn), which has a foondry, tanneries, and 
saw-mills. Iron and gold are found in the vicinity, and lumber and cord- 
wood are exported hence to the United States and the West Indies. A few 
miles beyond, and also on the S. shore, is the hamlet of ClemenUport (two 
inns), where large iron-works were formerly established, in connection 
with the ore-beds to the S. Roads lead thence to the S. W. in 10-12 M. 
to the romantic districts of the Blue Mts. and the upper Liverpool Lakes 
(see Route 27), at whose entrance is the rural village of ClementsvcUe, 

8-10 M. beyond Digby the steamer passes Ooat Island, of which 

Lescarbot writes, in Les Muses de la NouveUe France (1609) : 

** Adieu mon doux plaiiir fonteines et ruisseanx. 
Qui les vaux et les monto arrousez de voa esux. 
Fourrav-je t'oublier, belle ile fortti§re 
Biche nonneur de ce lieu et de cette riviiFe ?** 

In 1707 the British frigate Annibal and two brigantines were sailing up the Basin to 
attack Annapolis, when they met such a sharp Tolley firom the Ile aux Ch^vres that 
they were forced to retire in conAision. The French name of the island was Angli- 
cised by translation. On the point near this island was the first settlement of the 
French in Nova Scotia. A fort was erected here by the Scottish pioneers, and was 
restored to France by the Treaty of St. Germain, after which it was garrisoned by 
French troops. In 1827 a stone block was found on the point, inscribed with a 
square and compass and the date '* 1606." In May, 1782, ther* was a naval combat 
off Goat Island, in which an American war-brig of 8 guns was captured by H. M. S. 
Buckram, 

Above the island the Basin is about 1 M. wide, and is bordered by farm- 
streets. To the N. E., across a low alluvial point, are seen the spires and 
ramparts of Annapolis Royal, where the steamer soon reaches her wharf, 
after passing under the massive walls of the old fortress. There are sev- 
eral inns here, of which the American House is perhaps the best. Tlie 
Grange is about 1 M. from the pier, and is an old country mansion, in 
broad and shady grounds, now used as a summer hotel. There is also a 
restaurant near the railway-station. Stages run from Annapolis to Digby 
(Annapolis to Clementsport, 8^ M.; Victoria Bridge, 13^; Smith's Cove, 
16 ; Digby, 20^ ;— Yarmouth, 87i). Stages also run S. E. 78 M. (semi- 
weekly) to Liverpool (see Route 27). 

Annapolis Soyali the capital of Annapolis Oounty, is a maritime and 
agricultural village, situated at the head of the Annapolis Basin, and con- 
tains 6-600 inhabitants. It is frequented by summer visitors on account 
of its pleasant environs and tempered sea-air, and the opportunities for salt- 
water fishing in the Basin, and trouting among the hills to the S. The 
chief object of interest to the passing traveller is the *old fortress which 
fronts the Basin and covers 28 acres with its ramparts and outworks.' It 
is entered by the way of the fields opposite Perkins's Hotel. The works 
are disarmed, and have remained unoccupied for many '^eaix^. Q\^.^<^l'Ccv^ 



86 Ittmte 18, ANNAPOLIS ROYAL. 

last occupations was that of the Rifle Brigade, in 1860; but the post was 
abandoned soon after, on account of the numerous and successful deser- 
tions which thinned the ranks of the garrison. But when Canada passed 
into a state of semi-independence in 1867, this fortress was one of the few 
domains reserved to the British Crown. The inner fort is entered by an 
ancient archway which fronts towards the Basin, giving passage to the 
parade-ground, on which are the quaint old English barracks, with steep 
roofs and great chimneys. In the S. £. bastion is the magazine, with a 
vaulted roof of masonry, near which are the foundations of the French 
barracks. From the parapet on this side are overlooked the landward out- 
works and the lines of the old Hessian and Waldecker settlements towards 
Clementsport. On the hillside beyond the marsh is seen an ancient house 
of the era of the French occupation, the only one now standing, in the val- 
ley. In the bastion towards the river is a vaulted room, whence a passage 
leads down to the French garrison-wharf; but the arched way has fallen 
in, and the wharf is now but a shapeless pile of stones. The * view from 
this angle of the works is very beautiful, including the villages of Annapo- 
lis Boyal and Granville, the sombre heights of the North and South Mts., 
and the Basin for many miles, with Goat Island in the distance. 

The road which leads by the fortress passes the old garrison cemetery, 
St. Luke*s Church, the court-house and county academy, and many 
quaint and antiquated mansions. A ferry crosses the Annapolis River to 
Granville (two inns), a busy little shipbuilding village, with 8-400 
inhabitants and three churches. A road leads hence across the North 
Mt in 4-6 M., to the hamlets of HiUsbum and Leitckfield, on the Bay of 
Fundy. 

" Without the historic light of French adventure npon this town and basin of 
Annapolis .... I confess that I should have no longing to stay here for a week ; 
notwithstanding the guide-book distinctly says that this harbor has ' a striking re- 
semblance to the beautiftd Bay of Naples.' I am not oflended at this remark, for it 
is the one always made about a harbor, and I am sure the passing traveller can stand 
it, if the Bay of Naples can." ( Wasneb's Baddeck.) 

The Basin of Annapolis was first entered in 1604 by De Monts's fleet, exploring the 
shores of Acadie ; and the bmuty of the scene so impressed the Baron de Pou- 
trincourt that he secured a grant here, and named it Port Royal. After the failure 
of the colony at St. Oroiz Island, the people moved to tUs point, bringing all 
their stores and supplies, and settled on the N. side of the river. In July, 1606, 
Lescarbot and another company of Frenchmen Joined the new settlement, and 
conducted improvements of the land, while Poutrincourt and Champlain exploied 
the BfassachnsettB coast. 400 Indians liad been gathered by the sagamore Member- 
ton in a stockaded village near the fort, and all went on well and &vorably until De 
Monts's grant was annulled by the King of France, and then the colony was aban- 
doned. Lescarbot says of this expedition, and of Port Royal itself : ** I must needs 
be so bold as to tell in tliis occurrence, that if ever that country be inhabited 
with Christians and civil people, the first praise thereof must of right be due to 

the authors of this voyage Finally, being in the port, it was unto us a 

thing marvellous to see the fiiir distance and the largeness of it, and the moun- 
tains and hills that environed it, and I wondered how so fidr a place did remain 
desert, being all filled with woods, seeing that so many pine away in the world 
which might make good of this land, if only they had a chief governor to oonduct 



ANNAPOLIS ROYAL. Route 18. 87 

Foar yean later the braTe Baron de Pontrinconrt left hii ettatefl in Champagne, 
with a deep cargo of sapplies, descended the rirers Aube and Sdne, and sailed oat 
from Dieppe (Feb. 26, 1610) On arriring at Port Royal, ererything was found aa 
when left : and the work of proselyting the Indians was at once entwed on. Mem- 
bertoa and his tribe were conTerted^jbaptised, and feasted, amid salates from the 
cannon and the chanting of the Te Deum ; and nomeroos other foreet-clans soon 
followed the same coarse. 

Poutrincoart was a Gallican Gathcdic, and hated the Jesuits, bat was forced to 
take out two of them to his new domain. They assumed a high authority there, 
but were sternly rebuked by the Baron, who said, " It is my jMrt to rule you on 
earth, and yours only to guide me to hearen." They threatened to lay Port Royal 
under interdict ; and Poutrincourt's son and successor so greatly resented this that 
they left the colony on a mission ship sent out by the Marchioness de Ouercherille, 
and founded St Sauveur, on the island of Mount Desert. In 1618, after the Tir- 
ginians under Capt. Argall had destroyed St. Saureur, the yengeftd Jesuits piloted 
their fleet to Port Royal, which was completely demolished. Poutrincourt came 
out in 1614 only to find his colony in ruins, and the remnantof the people wandering 
in the forest ; and was so disheartened that he returned to France, where he waa 
killed, the next year, in the battle of M^ry-sur-Seine. 

It is a memorable fitct that these attacks of the Virginians on Mount Deeert and 
Port Royal were the very commencement of the wars between Oreat Britain and 
France in North America, " which scarcely ever entirely ceased until, at the cost of 
infinite blood and treasure, France was stripped of all her poesessions in America by 
the peace of 1763." 

Between 1620 and 1690 an ephemeral Scottish colony was located at Port Royal, 
and was succeeded by the French. In 1628 the place was captured by Sir Darid 
Kirk, with an English fleets and was left in ruins. In 1634 it was granted to Claude 
de Rasilly, ** Seigneur de Rasilly, des Eaux Mesles et Cuon, en A^jou," who after- 
wards became commandant of Oleron and yice-admiral of France. He was a bold 
naral officer, related to Cardinal Richelieu ; and his brother Isaac commanded at 
Lahaye (see Route 25).' His lieutenants were D'Anlnay Charnisay and Charles de la 
Tour, and he transfinrred all his Acadian estates to the former, in 16^, after which 
began the feudal wars between those two nobles (see page 19). Sereral fleets sidled 
from Port Royal to attack La Tour, at St. John ; and a Boston fleet, in alliance with 
La Tour, assailed Pprt Royal. 

In 1664 the town was under the rule of Emmanuel le Borgne, a merchant of La 
Rochelle, who had succeeded to D'Aulnay's estates, by the aid of C6sar, Duke of 
Yenddme, on account of debts due to him from the Acadian lord. Later in the 
same year the fortress was taken by a fleet sent out by Oliyer Cromwell, but the in- 
habitants of the yalleyware not disturbed. 

By the census of 1671 there were 361 souls at Port Royal, with oyer 1,000 head of 
liye-stock and 364 acres of cultiyated land. In 1684 the fishing-fleet of the port was 
captured by English " corsairs " ; and in 1686 there were 622 souls in the town. In 
1690 the fi^t contained 18 cannon and 86 soldiers, and was taken and pillaged by 
Sir William Phippe, who sailed from Boston with 3 war-vessels and TOO men. A 
few months later it was plundered by corsairs from the West Indies, and in 1691 
the Cheyalier de Yillebon took the fort in the name of France. Baron La Hontan 
wrote: " Port Royal, the capital, or the only city of Acadia, is in efiect no more 
Uian a little paltry town that is somewhat enlarged since the war broke out in 1689 
by the accession of the inhabitants that liyed near Boston, the metropolitan of New 
England. It subsists upon the traffic of the skins which the sayages bring thither 
to truck for European goods." In the summer of 1707 the fortress was attacked by 
2 regiments and a small fleet, from Boston, and siege operations were commenced. 
An attempt at storming the works by night was frustrated by M. de Subercase's- 
yigilance and the brisk fire of the French artillery, and the besiegers were finally 
forced to retire with seyere loss. A few weeks later a second ezpeditioa from Massa- 
chusetts attacked the works, but after a siege of 15 days their camps were stormed 
by the Baron de St. Castin and the Cheyalier de la Boularderie, and the feebly led 
Americans were driyen on board their ships. Subercase then enlarged the fortress, 
made arrangements to run off slayes from Boston, and planned to capture Rhode 
Island, " which is inhabited by rich Quakers, and is the resort of rascals and eyen 
pirates." 

In the autumn of 1710 the frigates Dragon^ Oitster^ Falmouth, LeosU^fej Fevers- 
hantt SUtTt and FrovincCt ^th ») transports, left Boeton and sailed to Port Bai«^> 



88 BaiOelS, THE ANNAPOLIS VALLEY. 

There irere 2 laments from Masaachiuetts, 2 ftom the rest of New England, and 1 
of Royal Marines. After the erection of mortar-batterien, sereral days were spent 
in bombarding the fort from the fleet and the siege-lines, but the fire from the run- 
parts yna kept up steadily until the garrison were on the rezge of starvation ; Suber- 
caae then surrendered his forces (258 men), who were shipped off to France, and 
Oen. Nicholson changed the name of Port Royal to Anmapous Rotal, in honor of 
Queen Anne* then soyereign of Great Britain. 

In 1711, 80 New-Englanders from the garrison were cut to pieces at Bloody Brook, 
12 M. up the river, and the fortress was then invested by the Acadians and Micmacs. 
For nearly 40 years afterwards Annapolis was almost always in a state of siege, being 
menaced from time to time by the disaffected Acadians and their savage allies. In 
1744 the non-combatants were sent to Boston for safety, and io July of that year the 
fort was beleaguered by a force of fitnatic Catholics under the Abb4 Laloutre. Five 
ccnnpanies of Massachusetts troops soon Joined the garrison, and the besiegers were 
leinfwced by French regulars from Louisbourg. The si^e was continued for nearly 
three months, but Gov. Mascarene showed a bold front, and provisions and men 
came in from Boston. The town was destroyed by the artillery of the fort and by 
incendiary sorties, since it served to shelter the hostile riflemen. Soon after Duvivier 
and Laloutre had retired,. two French frigates entered the Basin and captured some 
ships of Massachusetts, but left four days before Tyng's Boston squadron arrived. 
A year later, De Ramezay menaced the fort with 700 men, but was easily beaten off 
by the garrison, aided by the frigates Chester, 60. and Shirley, 20, which were lying 
in the Basin. After the deportation of the Acadians, Annapolis remained in peace 
until 1781, when two American war-vessels ascended the Basin by night,««urprijRed 
and captured the fortress and spiked its guns, and plundered every house in the 
town, after locking the citizens up in the old block-house. 

The AnnapoKs VaUey. 

This pretty district has suffered, like the St. John River, tnm the absurdly ex- 
travagant d^criptions of its local admirers, and its depreciation by Mr. Warner (see 
page 84) expresses the natural reaction which must be felt by travellers (unless they 
axe from Newfoundland or Labrador) after comparing the actual valley with these 
high-flown panegyrics. A recent Provincial writer says : *' The route of the Wind- 
sor & Annapolis Railway lies through a magnificent fitrming-country whose beauty 
is so great that we exhaust the English language of its ac^ectives, and are compelled 
to revert to the quaint old French which was spoken by the early settlers of this 
Garden of Canada, in our efforts to describe it." In point of fact the Annapolis 
region is feir inferior either in beauty or fertility to the valleys of the Nasl^ua. the 
Schuylkill, the Shenandoah, and scores of other familiar streams which have oeen 
described without efiusion and without impressing the service of alien languages. 
The Editor walked through a considerable portion of this valley, in the process of a 
closer analysis of its features, and found a tranquil and commonpla^ farming- 
district, devoid of salient points 6f interest, and occupied by an insufficient popula- 
tion, among whose hamlets he found unvarying and honest hospitality and kind- 
ness. It is a peaceful rural land, hemmed in between high and monotonous ridges, 
blooming during its brief summer, and will afford a series of pretty views and pleas- 
ing suggestions to the traveller whose expectations have not been raised beyond 
bounds by the exa^erated praises of well-meaning, but iojudicious authors. 

It is claimed tliat the apples of the Annapolis Valley are the best in America, and 
60,000 barrels are exported yearly, — many of which are sold in the cities of Great 
Briton. The chief productions of the distxict are hay, cheese, and live-stock , a large 
proportion of which is exported. 

The Halifax train runs out from Annapolis over the lowlands, and takes 

a course to the N. £., near the old highway. Bridgetown {Granvilie 

Souse) is the first important station, and is 14 M. from Annapolis, at the 

Aead of navigation on the river. It has about 1,000 inhabitants, 4 churches, 

^nd a weekly newspsLper, and is situated in a disttvcX. ot «i."^^Vi otdhards 

o^d rich paetures. Some manufacturing is done on l\i« \j«X^T-^>K«t q^ 



WILMOT SPRINGS. Houte 18. 89 

the Annapolis River; and the surrounding conntry is well populated, and 
is reputed to be one of the healthiest districts in Nora Scotia. To the 
S. is Bloody Brook, where a detachment of New-England troops was mas- 
sacred by the French and Indians; and roads lead up over the South Mt. 
into the howling wilderness of the interior. 6 M. from Bridgetown, over 
the North Mt., is the obscure marine hamlet of Hampton. 

Paradise (small inn) is a pleasantly situated village of about 400 inhab- 
itants, with several saw and grist mills and tanneries. The principal ex- 
ports are lumber and cheese, though there are also large deposits of mer- 
chantable granite in the vicinity. A road crosses the North Mt. to Port 
Williams, 7 M. distant, a fishing-village of about 300 inhabitants, situated 
on the Bay of Fundy. The coast is illuminated here, at night, by two 
white lights. Farther down the shore is the hamlet of St, Croix Cove, 

Lawrencetoum is a prosperous village of about 600 inhabitants, whence 
much lumber is exported. In 1754, 20,000 acres in this vicinity were 
granted to 20 gentlemen, who nanaed their new domain in honor of Gov. 
Lawrence. 8 M. distant, on the summit of the North Mt., is the hamlet 
of JIavelock, beyond which is the farming settlement of Mt, Hawley, near 
the Bay of Fundy. New Albany (small inn) is a forest-village 8-10 M. 
S. £. of Lawrencetown; and about 10 M. farther into the great central 
wilderness is the farming district of Springfield, beyond the South Mt. 

i/ic?<^Zeton(Middleton Hotel) is a small village near the old iron-mines on 
the South Mt. A few miles S. of Middleton are the Nictau FaUs, a pretty 
cascade on a small mountain-stream. 1^ M. from Middleton is the ham- 
let oi Lower Middleton, surrounded by orchards, with an Anglican church, 
and a seminary for young ladies. Wilmot station is \ M. from Farming- 
ton (two inns), a pleasant little Presbyterian village. MargaretsviUe (Har- 
ris's Hotel) is 7 M. distant, across the North Mt., and is a shipbuilding and 
fishing settlement of 300 inhabitants, situated on the Bay of Fundy. Fruit 
and lumber are exported hence to the United States. Near this point is a 
fixed red light of high power. 

The Wilmot- Spiingrs axe about 8 M. fitnn Farmington, and hare, for many 
yean, enjoyed a local celebrity for their efficacy in heaUng cutaneous diseases and 
wounds. They were formerly much resorted to, but are now nearly abandoned, 
though bathing-houses and other accommodations are kept here. The springs are 
situated in a grore of tall trees near the road, filling two large basins ; and the water 
$8 cold, clear, and nearly tasteless. The principal ingredients are, in each gallon : 
78 grains of sulphuric acid, 54^ grains of lime, 6 grains of soda and potash, and 8 
gndns of magnesia. A few yisitors pass the summer at Wilmot every year, on ac- 
count of the benefits resulting from the use of these waters. 

Kingston station is 1} M. from Kingston, 2 M. from Melvem Square, 2^ 
M. from Tremont, and 4 M. from Prince William Street, rural hamlets in 
the valley. From Morden Road station a highway runs N. W. T M.«At<5fi% 
the North Mt. to the little port of Jforden, ot FreticK Crow V^'j^^'Sk^^ "*» 
Hotel), on the Bay of Fundy. Station \y\e?,?ot^ V'^SNXXfcX^a^^ ^'^^?^^^ -^ 
small hamlet from which a road runs S. E. to Fctctwij DoXe. V,*^'^ ^%'^^^'^' 



90 EautelS. KENTVILLE. 

ufacturing hamlet whence the valley is overlooked ; and the farming towns 
of JachonvUle and Morristown are 6 - 7 M. away, on the top of the South Mt. 

I<ake George {Hail^s inn) is 12 M. distant, whence the great forest-bound chain 
of the Aylesford I«alces may be visited. The chief of these is Kempt Lake^ 
vrhich is aoout 7 M. long. A road runs S. firom the Lake George settlement by Lake 
Paul and Owl Lake to EaUdand (82 M. from Aylesford), which is on the great Lake 
Bherbrooke, in Lunenburg County, near the head-watcnrs of the Gold River. 

*' The great Aviesford sand-plain folks call it, in a ginral way, the Devil^s Goose 
Pasture. It is 18 M. long and 7 M. wide ; it ain't just drifting sands, but it 's all 
but that, it 's so barren. It 's uneven, or wavy, like the swell of the sea in a calm, 
and is covered with short, thin, dry, coarse grass, and dotted here and there with a 
half-starred birch and a stunted misshapen spruce. It is jest about as silent and 
lonesome and desolate a place as you would wish to see. .... All that country 
thereabouts, as I have heard tell when I was a boy, was once owned by the Lord, 
the king, and the devil. The glebe-lands belonged to the first, the ungranted wil- 
derness-lands to the second, and the sand-plain fell to the share of the last (and 
Kople do say the old gentleman was rather done in the division, but that is neither 
re nor there), and so it is called to this day the DeviVs Goose Pasture.''^ 

Station, Berwick (two inns), a prosperous village of 400 inhabitants, 
where the manufacture of shoes is carried on. A road leads to the N. W. 
7 M. across Pleasant Valley and the Black Rock Mt. to HarborviUe, a ship- 
building village on the Bay of Fundy, whence large quantities of cordwood 
and potatoes are shipped to the United States. Several miles farther up 
the bay-shore is the village of Canada Creeky near which is a lighthouse. 

At Berwick the line enters the * Comwallis Valley, which is shorter 
but much more picturesque than that of Annapolis. Following the course 
of the Comwallis River, the line approaches the base of the South Mt, 
while the North Mt. trends away to the N. £. at an ever-increasing angle. 
Beyond the rural stations of Waterville, Cambridge^ and Coldbrook, the 
train reaches Kentville ( Webster House ; restaurant in the station), the 
headquarters of the railway and the capital of Kings County. This town 
has 1,000 inhabitants, 4 churches, and a weekly newspaper; and there are 
several mills and quarries in the vicmity. Raw umber and manganese 
have been found here. The roads td the N. across the mountain lead to 
the maritime hamlets of Hall's Harbor (10 M.), Chipman*s Brook (14 M.), 
and Baxter's Harbor (12 M.); also to Sheffield Mills (7 M.), Canning 
(8 M.), Steam Mills (2 M.), and BiUtown (6 M.). 

KenttiUe to Chester, 

The Royal mail-stages leave Kentville at 6 a. m. on Monday and Thursday, reach- 
ing Chester in the afternoon. The return trip is made on Tuesday and Friday.^ The 
distance between Kentville and Chester is 46 M., and the intertening country is 
wild and picturesque. After passing the South Mt. by the Mill-Brook Valley, at 
8-10 M. from Kentville, the road runs near the Gtixpereaux Lake, a beautiftil 
forest-loch about 6 M. long, with many islands and highly diversified shores. This 
water is connected by short straits with the island-studded Two-Mile Lake and the 
Four-Mile Lake, near which, are the romantic Aylesford Lakes. E. and S. E. of 
the Gaspereaux Lake are the trackless solitudes of the fiur-spreading Slue Mts.^ 
Mn/d wboae receases are the lakelets where the Gold Riyer takes its rise. At 20 M. 
iJwin Kentville the stage enters the Episcopal viWage ol Ne\D Ross ^T\xn\«r'8 Hotel), 
»t tbe crossing of the D&lhonsie Knad from Halifax, to MnQa.vAN». Yt^sol \>Qjia v*^'^ 
i^e stage descenda the valley of the Gold Rivet to Chwiet (j««BoMV%'iA^. 



wiNDsoa houu is. 91 

The Halifax train runs E. from Kentvllle down the Cornwallis Vallej to 
Port WUUanu, which is 1^ M. from the village of that name, whence daily 
stages mn to Canning. The next station is Wolfville, from which the Land 
of Evangeline may most easily be visited (see Boute 22). The buildings 
of Acadia College are seen on the hill to the r. of the track. 

The Halifax train runs out from WolfviUe with the wide expanse of the 
reclaimed meadows on the 1., beyond which is Cape Blomidon^ looming 
leagues away. In a few minutes the train reaches Chrand Pr<, and as it 
slows up before stopping, the tree is seen (on the 1. about 800 ft. from the 
track) which marks the site of the ancient Acadian chapel. Beyond Hor- 
ton Landing the Gaspereaux River is crossed, and the line begins to swing 
around toward the S. E. At Aoonport the line reaches the broad Avon 
Biver, and runs along its L bank to Hant^port (two inns). This is a 
large manufacturing and sUipbuilding. viUagei where numerous vessels 
are owned. In the vicinity are productive quarries of freestone. Mount 
Denson station is near the hill whose ofif-look Judge Haliborton so highly 
extols : — 

" I have seen at different periodi of my life a good deal of Europe and much of 
America ; bat I have seldom seen anything to be compared with the view of the 
Basin of Minas and its adjacent landscape, as it presents itself to you on yoor ascent 

of Mount Denson He who travels on this continent, and does not spend a few 

days on the shores of this beantiflil and eztraordinazy basin, may be said to have 
missed one of the greatest attractions on this side of the water. " 

The next station is Falmouth^ in a region which abounds in gypsum. 
Back toward Central Falmouth there are prolific orchards of apples. The 
line now crosses the Avon River on the most costly bridge in the Mari- 
time Provinces, over the singular tides of this system of waters. 



The traveller who passes firom Annapolis to Windsor at the hours of low-tide will 
sympathize with the author of '* Baddeck," who says that the Avon *' would have 
been a charming river if there had been a drop of water in it. I never knew before 
how much water adds to a river. Its slimy biottom was quite a ghastly spectacle, 
an ugly rent in the land that nothing could heal but the fHendly returning tide. 
I should think it would be confusing to dwell by a rirer that runs first one way and 
then the other and then vanishes altogether.*' 

The remaricable tides of this river are also described by Mr. Noble, as follows : 
The tide was out, '' leaving miles of black " (red) " river-bottom entirely bare, with 
only a small stream courshig through in a serpentine manner. A line of blue water 
was visible on the northern horizon. After an absence of an hour or so. I loitered 
back, when, to my surprise, there was a river like the Hudson at Gatskill, running 
up with a powerful current. The high wharf, upon which but a short time before 
I had stood and surveyed the black, imsightly fields of mud, was now up to its mid- 
dle in the turbid and whirling streun." 

Windsor ( Clifton Bouse, large and comfortable; Avon House) is a cul- 
tured and prosperous village of 2,715 inhabitants, occupying the promon- 
tory at the intersection of the Avon and St. Croix Rivers. The adjacent 
districts of Falmouth and St. Croix have about 8,300 inhabitants. There 
are in Windsor 7 churches, a bank, and sevew^Y mMi\v.^«jcXat\Rfi»\ ^"«^^x^ 
also several busy shipyards. The chief exponaWoxi oi \^ vcAi«t v^ ^"a&X-^^ 
of Paris and gypsum, large qaantitlos oi -wYiVeVi «jc^ xja^^ Va^ 'Oaa^^^Jys 



92 JlmUe 18. WINDSOR. 

States for fertilizing the soiL Near the end of the railway bridge, on a 
projecting hill, is the Clifton mansion, formerly the home of the genial 
and witty Thomas C. Halibmrton (bom at Windsor in 1797, 13 years a 
Judge in Nova Scotia, 6 years an M. P. at London, and died in 1865), the 
author of the **Sam Slick" books. 

On the knoll over the village are the crumbling block-houses and earth- 
works of Fort Edward^ whence is obtained a pretty view down the widen- 
ing Avon and out over the distant Basin of Minas. About 1 M. from the 
station, on a hill which overlooks the fine valley of the Avon and its un- 
cleared mountain-rim, are the plain buildings of King's College, the old- 
est college now existing in Canada. 

It was founded in 1787, and chartered by King George HI. in 1802. It is under 
the control and patronage of the Anglican Church, and is well endowed with schol- 
anhips, honors, etc., but has only 6 professors and a limited number of students. 
The NoTa-Scotians hare not hitherto sought to qualify themselres by culture and 
study for public honors and preferments, because they knew that all the offices in 
the ProTince would be filled by British carpet-baggers. King's College has also a 
dirinity school for Episcopalian students. 

The Province of Noya Scotia is occupied by 86 Christian sects. Of its inhabitants. 
65,124 belong to the Anglican Church, and are ministered to by a lord bishop, 4 
cAuons, 8 rural deans, and 68 clergymen. There are 102,001 Catholics, 103,589 Pres- 
byterians, 78,490 Baptists, 41,751 Methodists, and 4,958 Lutherans (census of 1871). 

The site of Windsor was called by the Indians Pisiguid^ " the Junction of the 
Waters,'' and the tuij/eucent lowlands were settled at an early day by the French, who 
raised large quantities of wheat and eicported it to Boston. The French settled in 
this vicinity about the middle of the 17th century, but retired fiir into the interior 
at the time of the British conquest. Got. Lawrence issued a proclamation inviting 
settlers to cmne in from New England, stating that " 100,000 acres of land had been 
cultivated and had borne wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, flax, etc., for the last cen- 
tury without fidlure." The deserted French hamlets were occupied in 1759-60 by 
fiunilies from Bfassachusetts and Rhode Island, and their descendants still possess 
the land. The Rhode-Islanders erected the township of Newport, Massachusetts 
formed Falmouth, and Windsor was gnmt^ to British officers and was fortified in 
1759. The broad rich marshes near Windsor had attracted a large Acadian popula- 
tion, and here was their principal church, whose site is still venerated by the Mic- 
mac Indians. 

" I cannot recall a prettier village than this. If you doubt my word, come and 
see it. Yonder we discern a portion of the Basin of .Minas ; around us are the rich 
meadows of Nova Scotia. Intellect has here placed a crowning college upon a hill ; 
opulence has surrounded it with picturesque villas." (Cozz(ns.) Another writer 
has spoken with enthusiasm of Windsor's " wide and beautiful environing mead- 
ows and the hanging-gardens of mountidn-forests on the S. and W." 

The Halifax train sweeps along the St. Croix River around Windsor, 
passing (on the r.) the darlL buildings of King^s College, on a hilltop, with 
the new chapel in jfront of their line. The character of the landscape be- 
gins to change, and to present a striking contrast with the agricultural 
regions just traversed. 

" Indeed, if a man can live on rocks, like a goat, he may settle anywhere between 
Windsor and Halifax. With the exception of a wild pond or two. we saw nothing 
but rocks and stunted firs for forty-five miles, a monotony unrelieved by one pic- 

tureaque featuie. Then we longed for the '■ Garden of Nova Scotia,' and understLod 

vrhst is meant by the name. " ( (Varner' s £addecfc.') 

Beyond Three-Mile Plains the train reacViea Ne\Dport,i[«w^\s:vOsx\^x^^ 




II IjtZj^ 




° ; E \ T- 



HALIFAX. JtauU 19, 93 

quantities of g3rp8um are quarried from the veins in the soft marly sand- 
stone. Nearly 8,000 tons of this fine fibrous mineral are shipped yearly 
from Newport to the United States. To the N. are the villages of 
Brooklyn (6 M.), devoted to mannfactnring; Scotch Village (9 M.), a 
farming settlement; and Burlington, on the Kennetcook Biver (10 M.)* 
Ghivirie and Walton, 20-22 M. N., on the Basin of Minas, are accessible 
from Newport by a tri-weekly conveyance. The train passes on to EUers- 
house (small inn), a hamlet clustered around a furniture-factory and 
lumber-mills. 2i M. distant is the settlement at the foot of the Ardcite 
Mt.<, which is the highest point of land in the Province, and overlooks 
Falmouth, Windsor, and the Basin of Minas. The train now crosses the 
Five-Island Lake, skirts Uniacke Lake, with Mt. Uniacke on the N., and 
stops at the ML Uniacke station (small inn). The Mt. Uniacke estate and 
mansion were founded more than 60 years ago by Richard John Uniacke, 
then Attorney-General of Nova Scotia. The house occupies a picturesque 
position between two rock-bound lakes, and the domain has a hard- 
working tenantry. The ML Uniacke Gcid-Mines are 8 M. from the sta- 
tion, and were opened in 1866. In 1869 the mines yielded $37,340, or 
$346 to each workman, being 6 ounces and 4 pennyweights from each 
ton of ore. For the next 10 M. the line traverses an irredeemable wil- 
derness, and then reaches Beaver Bank, whence lumber and slate are 
exported. At Windsor Junction the train runs on to the rails of the 
Intercolonial Hallway (see. page 82), which it follows to Halifax. 

19. Hali&x. 

Arrival from the Sea.— Cape Sambro is osaally seen first by the passenger 
on the transatlantic steamers, and Halifiuc Harbor is soon entered between the light- 
houses on Chebucto Head and Devil Island. These lights are 7)^ M. apart, Chebucto 
ion the 1.) having a revolving light visible for 18 M., and Devil Island a fixed red 
ight on a brown tower. On the W. «hore the fishihg-hamlets of Portuguese Cove, 
Bear Cove, and Herring Cove are passed in succession. 4 M. S. £. of Herring Cove 
is the dangerous Thrumcap Shoal, where H. B. M. frigate La Tribune, 44, was 
wrecked in 1797,, and nearly all her people were lost, partly by reason of an absurd 
stretch of naviU punctilio. Between this shoal and McNab's Island on one side, and 
the mainland on the other, is the long and narrow strait called the Eastern Passage. 
In 1862 the Confederate cruiser TaUUihassee was blockaded in Halifax Harbor by a 
squadron of United-States fHgates. The shallow and tortuous Eastern Passage was 
not watched, since nothing but small filing-craft had ever traversed it, and it was 
considered impassable for a steamer like the TafJafuissee. But Capt. Wood took ad- 
vantage of the high tide, on a dark night, and crept cautiously out behind McNab's 
Island. By daylight he was &r out of sight of the outwitted blockading fleet. 

2 M. firom Herrhig Cove the steamer passes Salisbury Head, and runs between the 
Martello Tower and lighthouse on Maugher Beach (r. side) and the York Redoubt 
(1^ M. apart) Near the Redoubt is a Catholic church, and a little above is the 
hamlet of Falkland, with its Episcopal church, beyond which the N. W. Arm opens 
on the 1. Passing between the batteries on McNab's Island and Fort Ogilvie, on 
Point Pleasant, the steamship soon runs by Fort Clarence and the fortress on George 
Island, and reaches her wharf at Halifiix, with the town of Dartmouth and the gre^t 
Insane Asylum on the opposite shore. 

Arrlvalby Railway.— The station \b atIl\c\mvo1tvl\,Wim<^^^a^»sv^^^»sav*05sA 
dtjf bat passengers can go fn either by carTiB^,\xote\-OTSiuV!a\»,at\tfswfc-<s»!t» ""S>^ 
railway is now being prolonged by a systeia ol coalVv ^oxVa^ %5A Viik. WKWi. tswsa.^ 
tertninua within Che cJty* 



94 ItouU 19. HALIFAX. 

Hotelg.— The ^Hidifiax, 107 Hollis St., $2 a day ; the * International, on Hoi- 
Ub St., $1.75-2 a day ; Carlton House, 57 Argyle St., small but aristocratic ; Man- 
sion House, 149 Barrington St.; Waverley, 8 Barrington St. ; and numerous small 
second-class houses, of which the Arlington and the Cambridge, nearly opposite the 
International, are the best situated ($1-1.25 a day). An attempt is now being 
made to provide for Halifax a first-class modem hotel, like the Victoria at St. John. 

Regtaurants. — One of the best is that connected with the Acadian Hotel, 64 
GranyiUe St. Ices, pastry, and confectionery may be obtained at the shops on Hol- 
lis St. Ameriean beverages are compounded at the bar in the Hali&x House. 

Readlnsp-Itooiiis* — The Toung Men's Christian Association, comer of Gran- 
Tille and Pimce Sts. ; the Provincial Library, in the Parliament Buildings ; and in 
the two chief hotels. The Halifiu Library is at 197 HoUis St. : and the Citizens' 
Free Library (founded by Chief Justice Sir William Toung) is at 265 Barrington St., 
and is open from 8 to 6 p. m. The Merchants' Exchange and Beading-Room is at 
158 Hollis St. 

Clubs. — The Halilkx Club has an elegant house at 155 Hollis St. ; the Albion is 
at 87 Hollis St.: the Catholic Toung Men's Club, 1 Qrafton St. (open from 2 to 10 
P.M.); the Highland, North British, St. George's, Charitable Irish, and Germania 
Societies. The Royal Halifiix Tacht Club has a house at Richmond, with billiard 
and reading rooms, and a line of piers and boat-houses for the vessels of their fleet. 

Amasemeiits of various kinds are afforded, at different times, in the Temper- 
ance Hall, on Starr St. Ihiring the winter some fine skating is enjoyed at the Rink, 
in the Public Gardens. Good games of cricket and indifferent base-ball playing may 
be seen on the Garrison Cricket-ground. But Hali&x is chiefly femous for the in- 
terest it takes in trials of skill between yachtsmen and oarsmen, and exciting aquatic 
contests occur fiequoitly during the summer. 

Horee-cara run every 15 minutes, from 6 a. m. to 10 p. m , from the Richmond 
Station to the Fresh- Water Bridge, traversing the Campbell Road, Upper Water St., 
Granville St., Hollis, Morris, and Pleasant Sts. Also on Barrington St. and the 
Spring Garden Road to the Poor Asylum. 

Rfldlvrays. — The Intercolonial, running to St. John, N. B., in 276 M. (see 
Routes 16 and 17), and to Pictou in 113 M. (see Route 31); the Windsor & Annap- 
olis, prolonged by a steamship connection to St. John (see Route 18). 

Steamshipg. — The Allan Line, fortnightly, for St. John's, N. F., Queenstown, 
and Liverpool, Norfolk, and Baltimore. Fares, Hali&x to Liverpool, $75 and 
$25; to Norfolk or Baltimore, $20 and $12. The Anchor Line, for St. John's, 
N. F., and Glasgow. The Royal Mail Steamers Alpha and Delta (Cunard Line) leave 
Hali&x for Bermuda and St. Thomas every fourth Monday, connecting at St. Tnomas 
-with steamships for all parts of the West Indies, Panama, and the Spanish Main. 

The QirroU and AVuimbra leave Esson's Wharf for Boston on alternate Satur- 
days. Fare, $8; with state-room, $9. The Falmouth leaves Dominion Wharf 
for Portland every Tuesday at 4 p. m. This vessel is nearly new, and is handsomely 
fitted up for passenger-traffic. Fares, Hali&x to Portland, $ 7 and $ 5 ; to Boston, 
$ 8 and $ 6.50 ; to New Toric (by the Sound boats), $ 12 and $ 10.50. 

The CarroU or the AlhamJbra leaves Esson's Wharf every Monday noon for the 
Strait of Canso and Charlottelown, P. E. I. Fares to Charlottetown, cabin, $ 4 ; 
cabin state-room, $5 ; saloon state-room, $6. The George Shattvck leaves Boak's 
Wharf, fortnightly, for N. Sydney, C. B., and St. Pierre Miq. (see Route 50). The 
steamship Virgo leaves for Sydney, C B., and St. John's, N. F. , every alternate Tues- 
day (see Routes 86 and 51). Fares, to Sydney, $ 8 ; to St. John's, $ 15 ; steerage to 
either port, $ 5. 

The Micmae cruises in the harbor during the summer, running fh>m the South 
Ferry Wharf to McNab's Island and up the N. W. Arm (fare, 25c.). The steam- 
ferrjr from Dartmouth has its point of departure near the foot of George St. The 
Ooliak makes firequent trips up the Bedford Basin. 

Stages leave Halifiix daily for Chester, Lunenburg, Liverpool, Shelbume, and 
Tarmouth (see Route 24), defMurting at 6 a. m. Stages leave at 6 a. M. on Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday for Musquodoboit Harbor, Jeddore, Ship Harbor, Tangier, 
Sheet Harbor, Beaver Harbor, and Salmon River (see Route 29). 

Halifax, the capital of the Province of Nova Scotia, and the chief 
naval station of the British Empire in the Western Hemisphere, occupies a 
commanding position on one of the finest harbors of the Atlantic coast. It 



HALIFAX. RouU 19, 95 

has 29,682 ioihabitante (census of 1871), with 7 banks, 4 daily papers and 
several tr}-weeklles and weeklies, and 24 chorches (7 Anglican, 5 Presby- 
terian, 8 each of Catholic, Wesleyan, And Baptist). The city occupies a 
picturesque position on the £. slope of the peninsula (of 8,000 acres), be- 
tween the bay, the N. W. Arm, and the Bedford Basin; and looks out 
upon a noble harbor, deep, completely sheltered, easily accessible, and 
large enough " to contain all the navies of Europe." |n 1869 the imports 
amounted to $7,202,504, and the exports to $8,169,548; and in 1870 the 
assessed valuation of the city was $16,753,812. The city has a copious 
supply of water, which is drawn from the Chain Lakes, about 12 M. dis- 
tant, and so high above Halifax that it can force jets over the highest 
houses by its own pressure. There is a fire-alarm telegraph, and an effi- 
cient fire department, with several steam-engines. 

The city Ues along the shore of the harbor for 2^ M., and is about | M. 
wide. Its plan is regular, and some of the business streets are well built; 
but the general character of the houses is that of poor construction and 
dingy colors. It has, however, been much bettered of late years, owing to 
the improvements after two great fires, and to tiie wealth which flowed in 
during the American civil war, and hardly deserves the severe criticism 
of a recent traveller: " Probably tiiere is not anywhere .a more rusty, for- 
lorn town, and this in spite of its magnificent sitiiation." 

Hollis and Granville Streets, in the vicinity of the Parliament Buildings, 
contain the most attractive shops and the headquarters of the great import- 
ing houses. Many of the buildings in this section are of solid and elegant 
construction, though the prevalence of dark colors g^ves a sombre hue to 
the street lines. 

The Parliament Building occupies the square between Hollis, George, 
Granville, and Prince Streets, and is surrounded with trees. In 1830 this 
plain structure of gray stone was called the finest building in North 
America, but American architecture has advanced very far since that 
time. Opposite the Granville-St. entrance is the Library^ occupying a 
very cosey little hall, and supplied with British and Canadian works on 
law, history, and science. In the N. part of the building is the plain and 
conmiodious hall of the House of Assembly; ^d on the S. is the chamber 
of the Legislative Council, in which are some fine portraits. Gn the r. and 
1. of the vice-regal throne are full-length * portraits of King Creorge III. 
and Queen Charlotte; on the N. wall are Chief Justice Blowers, King 
William IV., Judge Haliburton (see page 92), * Sir Thomas Strange (by 
Benjamin West)^ and Sir Brenton Haliburton. Opposite the throne are 
Nova Scotia's military heroes. Sir John Inglis (the defender of Lucknow) 
and Sir W. Fenwick Williams of Kars. On the S. wall are full4ength por- 
traits of King George II. and Queen Caroline. 

The new ProYinoial Building is E. of t\ie Ym\\«cqkqX. iSxsS^^xsk^^ ^-ol 
Eo]Jl8 St., and is 140 by 70 ft in area. It ia WWt ot Xsto^ix \s^RR^fisaft.^^sL 



96 JUnOeJB, HALIFAX. 

an ornate style of architecture, and cost $120,000. The lower story is 
occupied by the Post-Office; and the third floor contains the * Provinoial 
Xaieum, which exhibits preserved birds, animals, reptiles, fossils, min- 
erals, shells, coins, and specimens of the stones, minerals, coals, and gold 
ores of Nova Scotia. There are also numerous Indian relics, curiosities 
from Japan and China, naval models, and old portraits. Opposite the en- 
trance is a gilt pyramid, which represents the amount of gold produced 
in the Province between 1862 and 1870, — 6 tons, 8 cwt., valued at 
S 3,373,431. Most of this gold has been coined at the U. S. Mint in Phila- 
delphia, and is purer and finer than that of California and Montana. 

On the comer of Granville and Prince Streets, near the Parliament 
Building, is the new and stately stone building of the. Young Men^s Chris- 
. tian Association, with its reading-rooms and other departments. The 
massive brownstone house of the Halifax Club is to the S., on Hollis St. 

The * Citadel covers the sunmiit of the hill upon whose slopes the city is 
built, and is 260 ft. above the level of the sea. Visitors are admitted and 
allowed to pass around the ramparts under escort of a soldier, after regis- 
tering their names at the gate. The attendant soldier will point out all 
the objects of interest, and (if he be an artillerist) will give instructive 
discourse on the armament, though his language may sometimes become 
hopelessly technical. The Citadel is a fortress of the first class, according 
to the standards of the old school ; (hough of late years the government 
has bestowed much attention on the works at George^s Island, which are 
more important in a naval point of view. 

The works were oomxnenoed^ by Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent, and the father 
of Queen Yictoria, who was then Commander of the Forces on this station. He em- 
ployed in the serrice a large number of the Maroons, who had been conquered by 
the British, and were banished from Jamaica, and subsequently deported to Sierra 
Leone. Ctuinges and additions have been made nearly every year since, until the 
present ^mmense stronghold has been completed. It is separated from the glacis by 
a deep moat, over which are the guns on the numerous bastions. The masFivc ma- 
sonry of the walls seems to defy assault, and the extensive barracks within are said 
to be bomb-proot During the years 1873-74 the artillery has been changed, and 
the previous mixed armament has been to a great degree replaced by muzzle-load- 
ing Woolwich guns of heavy calibre, adapted for firing the conical Palliser shot with 
pomts of chilled iron. ■ The visitor is allowed to walk around the circuit of the ram- 
parts, and this elevated station a£Fords a broad view on either side. Perhaps the 
best prospect is that from the S. £. bastion, overlooking the crowded city on the 
slopes below; the narrow harbor with its shipping; Dutmonth, sweeping up to- 
ward Bedford Basin; Fort Clarence, below Dartmouth, with its dark casemates; 
McNab's Island, crowned with batteries and shutting in the Eastern Passage ; the 
outer harbor, with its fortified points, and the ocean &yond. 

Near the portal of the citadel is an outer battery of antiquated guns; and at the 
B. end of the glacis are the extensive barracks of the Royid Artillery. Other mili- 
tary quarters are seen on the opposite side of the Citadel. 

" But if you cast your eyes over yonder magnificent bay, where vessels bearing 

flags of all nations are at anchor, and then let your vision sweep past and over the 

inlands to the outlets beyond, where the quiet ocean lies, bordered with fc^-banks 

that loom ominously at the boundary-line of the horizon, you will see a picture of 

tnarrellons beauty] for the coast scenery here transcends our own sea-shores, both 

Ja color and outline. And behind us again stretch 'iaxfie |E;ce«a -v^ai^QS^ dotted with 

ootit^gBs, and bounded with undulating hl^, with, now axxdi^^ii ig^asvsa«& oIWxja 



HALIFAX. Route 19. 97 

water ; and as we walk down Citadel ffill, we feel half reconciled to Halifluc, ita 
quaint mouldy old gable?, its soldiers and sailors, its fogs, cabs, penny and half- 
penny tokens, and all its little, odd, outlandish peculiaritied." (Cozzcns.) 

Lower Water St. borders the harbor-front, and gives access to the 
wharves of the various steamship and packet lines. It runs from the 
Ordnance Yard, at the foot of Buckingham St., to the Government reser- 
vation near George Island, and presents a remarkably dingy and dilapi- 
dated appearance throughout its entire length. 

The Queen's Bookyard occupies ^ M. of the shore of the upper harbor, 
and is surrounded on the landward side by a high stone-wall. It contains 
the usual paraphernalia of a first-class navy-yard, — storehouses, machine- 
shops, docks, arsenals, a hospital, and a line of officers' quarters. It is 
much used by the frigates of the British navy, both to repair and to refit, 
and the visitor may generally see here two or three vessels of Her Britan- 
nic Majesty. 

The Dockyard was founded in 1758, and received great additions (including the 
present wall) in 1770. During the two great wars with the United States it waa 
invaluable as a station for the royal navy, whose fleets thence descended upon the 
American coast. Many trophies of the war of 1812 were kept here (as similar marine 
mementos of another nation are kept in the Brooklyn and Washington Navy- Yards), 
including the figure-head of the unfortunate American firigate, the Chesapeake^ 
which was captured in 1818^ off Boston Harbor, by the British firigate Siannon^ and 
was brought into HalifiEix with great rcgoicing. It is, perhaps, in kindly recognition 
of the new firatemity of the Anglo-American nations, that the Imperial Gtovemment 
has lately caused these invidious emblems of strife to be removed. 

The Dockyard is not open to the public, but the superintendent will generally 
admit visitors upon presentation of their cards. 

In the N. W. part of the city, near the foot of Citadel Hill, is the 
Military Hospital, before which is the Garrison Chapel^ a plain wooden 
building on whose inner walls are many mural tablets in memory of offi- 
cers who have died on this station. Beyond this point, Brunswick St. 
runs N. W. by the Church of the Redeemer to 8t. George'' s Churchy a sin- 
gular wooden building of a circular form. At the comer of Brunswick 
and Gerrish Sts. is a cemetery, in which stands a quaint little church 
dating from 1761, having been erected by one of the first companies of 
German immigrants. 

On Gottingen St. is the Church of St. Joseph, where the Catholic seamen 
of the fieet attend mass on Sunday at 9^ A. m. Near this building is the 
Orphan Asylum of the Sisters of Charity. 

Farther N. on Gottingen St. is the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, beyond 
which, on North St., is the Roman Catholic College of St. Mary, at Belle 
Air. This institution is under the charge of the Christian Brothers, and 
has the same line of studies as an American high-school. Farther out on 
Gottingen St. is the Admiralty House, the official residence of the com- 
mander-in-chief of the North-American and West-Indvaxi ?iQja»AxQtia»^\i^ 
yond which are the WelHngUm BarradcB^ ovet ttift "KvOKKtfsiA TaS»:«^- 
statioD. From the pjate&u on which the secVudeCL k^xsivt^X.'S ^cpqs» N^ 

5 ^ 



98 ItoutelO. HALIFAX. 

located, the visitor can look down on the Queen's Dockyard, the fleet, 
and the inner harbor. 

The Boman Catholic Cathedral of St. Kary is on the Spring Garden 
Boad, near its intersection with Pleasant St. It has recently been much 
enlarged and improved by the addition of an elegant granite fa9ade and 
spire, in florid Gothic architecture. The Cathedral fronts on an old and 
honored cemetery, on whose £. side is a finely conceived * monument to 
Welsford and Parker, the Nova-Scotian heroes of the Crimean War. 
(Major Welsford was killed in the storming of the Bedan. ) It consists of 
a small but massive arch of brownstone, standing on a broad granite base, 
and supporting a statue of the British lion. Opposite the cemetery, on 
Pleasant St., is the Presbyterian Church of St. Matthew (under the care 
of Bev. George M. Grant). Above the Cathedral, on the Spring Garden 
Boad, is the handsome building of the Court House, well situated amid 
open grounds, near the jail and the capacious drill-sheds. 

The Horticultural Gardens are on the Spring Garden Boad, and are well 
arranged and cared for. They were purchased by the city in September, 
1874, and were then united with the Public Gardens, which are just S. of 
Citadel Hill. Military music is given here by the garrison bands during 
the summer. Near the Gardens is the Convent of the Sacred Heart, a 
stately building situated in pleasant grounds. The Protestant Cemetery 
ac^oins the Horticultural Gardens on the W., and contains a great num- 
ber of monuments. In the same quarter of the city, below Morris St., are 
the new Blind Asylum, the City Hospital, and the immense and stately 
building of the Poor Asylum, lately completed at a cost of $260,000. 

The Oovemment House is a short distance beyond St. Matthew's 
Church, on Pleasant St., and is the official residence of the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Nova Scotia. It is a plain and massive old stone building, 
with projecting wings, and is nearly surrounded by trfes. Farther S , on 
Morris St., is the Anglican Cathedral of St. Luke, a plain and homely 
wooden building. Beyond this point are the pretty wooden churches and 
villas which extend toward Point Pleasant. 

At the foot of South St. axe the Ordnance Grounds^ firoin whose wharf the lower 
harbor is overlooked. Abont 1,800 ft. distant is Georse's Island, on which is 
a powerftil modem fortress, bearing a heavy armament from which immense chilled- 
iron or steel-pointed shot could be hurled against a hostile fleet. This position is 
the key to the harbor, and converges its fire with that of Fort Clarence, a low but 
massive casemated work, 1 M. S. E. on the Dartmouth shore, whose guns could 
sweep the Eastern Passage and the inner harbor. The passage from the outer har- 
bor lis defended by the York Redoubt, near Sandwich Point, by a new line of bat- 
teries on the N. W. shore of MoNab's Island, and by the forts on Point Pleasant. 

At the comer of Prince and Barrington Sts. is St. Paul's Episcopal 

Church, a plain and spacious old building (built in 1750), with numerous 

mam/ tablets on the inner walls. Dalhousie College and University is at 

tAe comer of Duke and Barrington Sts., and waa founded by the Earl of 

I>albousie while be was Governor-General of Canada^ \ts d«&\^^«a \q 



HALIFAX. HouU 19, 99 

provide means for the liberal education of young men who did not wish to 
go (or were debarred from going) to King's College, at Windsor. There 
are 7 professors in the academic department, and the medical school has 
13 professors. 

In the summer of 1746 the great French Armada sailed ftom Brest to conquer the 
British North-American coast from Virginia to Newfoundland. It was commanded 
by the Duke d'Anyille,and was composed of the line-of-battle ships Trident , Ardent, 
Mars, and Aleide, 64 guns each ; the Northumberland, Carillon, Tigre, Leopard, and 
Renommie, CO guns each; the Dianiant, 50; Megire.dO', Argonatae,2&; Prince 
d' Orang:«, 26 ; the Par/ait, Mercure, Paime, Girous, Perle, and 22 other frigates, 
with SO transports, carrying an army of 8,150 soldiers. D'Anville's orders were to 
^ occupy Louisbourg, to reduce Nova Scotia, to destroy Boston, and ravage the 
coast of New England." The Armada was dispersed, however, by a succession of 
unparalleled and disastrous storms, and D'Anviile reached Chebucto Bay (Halifiix) 
on Sept. 10, with only 2 ships of the line and a few transports. Six days later the 
unfortunate Duke died of apoplexy, induced by grief and distress on account of the 
disasters which his enterprise had suffered. The Vice-Admiral D'Estoumelle com- 
mitted suicide a few days later. Some other vessris now arrived here, and immense 
barracks were erected along the Bedford Basin. 1 ,200 men had died from scurvy on 
the outward voyage, and the camps were soon turned into hospitals. Over 1,000 
French soldiers and 2 - 300 Micmac Indians died around the Basin and were buried 
near its quiet waters. Oct. 13, the French fleet, numbering 5 ships of the line 
and 26 frigates and transports, sailed from Hali&x, intending to attack Annapolis 
Royal ; but another terrible storm arose, while the vessels were off Cape Sable, and 
scattered the remains of the Armada in such wide confusion that they were obliged 
to retire from the American waters. 

The Indians called Halifax harbor Chdnieto, meaning "the chief haven," and the 
French named it La Bate Saine, "on account of the salubrity of the air." 

In the year 1748 the British lK)rds of Trade, incited by the people of Massachu- 
setts, determined to found a city on the coast of Nova Scotia, partly in prospect of 
commercial advantages, and partly to keep the Acadians in check. Parliament 
voted £40,000 for this purpose j and on June 21, 1749, a fleet of 13 transports 
and the sloop-of-war Sphinx arrived in the designated harbor, bearing 2,370 colo- 
nists (of whom over 1,500 were men). The city was laid out in July , and was named 
in honor of George Montagu, Earl of Holifisix, the head of the Lords of Trade. The 
Acadians and the Indians soon sent in their submission ; but in 1751 the suburb of 
Dartmouth was attacked at night by the latter, and many of its citizens were massacred. 
600 Germans settled here in 1761-62, but it was found difficult to preserve the col- 
ony, since so many of its citizens passed over to the New-England Provinces. The great 
fleets and armies of Loudon and Wolfe concentrated here before advancing against 
Louisbourg and Quebec ; and the city afterwards grew in importance as a naval sta- 
tion. Representative government was established in 1768, and the Parliament of 
1770 remained in session for 14 years, while Halifax was made one of the chief sta- 
tions whence the royal forces were directed upon the insurgent American colonies. 
After the close of the Revolutionary War, many thousands of exiled Loyalists took 
refhge here ; and the wooden walls and towers with which the city had been forti- 
fied were replaced with more formidable defences by Prince Edward. 

The ancient paJisade-wall included the space between the present Salter, Barring- 
ton, and Jacob Streets, and the harbor ; and its citadel was the small Government 
House, on the site of the present Parliament Building, which was surrounded with 
h(^heads filled with sand, over which light cannons were displayed. 

The growth of Halifax during the present century has been very slow, in view of 
its great commercial advantages and possibilities. The presence of large bodies of 
troops, and the semi-military r^^me of a garrison-town, have had a certain effect in 
deadening the energy of the citizens. Great sums of money were, however, made 
here during the American civil war, when the sympathies of the Haligonians were 
warmly enlisted in fkvor of the revolted States, and many blockade-runners sailed 
hence to reap rich harvests in the Southern ports. The cessation of the war put a 
stop to this lucrative trade ; but it is now hoped that tbft cQX(v^\seXK!SQL q\ K^^s^ 'Vs^ist- 
colonial Railway to St. John and Quebec vrUL gceaM^ \iCQS&.\. ^asi&Ssia^. ^NssstaNa.^ 
rivalry between St. John and Halifia.x wbkh ToaembYeA \ha.\.\sft^^«»^^^*ccv«MEFi «3^'^ 
LouJs, and leada to aimilax journalistic toimuiXQeiLta. ^^. ^Oosx OawasA XJoax «c^'^ 'o* 



100 JUmUtO. THE ENVIRONS OF HALIFAX. 

a first-class hotel and a theatre, which Halifax has not ; and the Koya^cotian city 
answers, in return, that she has the best cricket-club and the champion oarsman of 
America. 

Sir William Fenwick Williams, of Kars, Bart., K. C. B., D. C. L., was bom atHali- 
&x in 1800. After serving in Ceylon, Turkey, and Persia, he instructed the Moslem 
artillery, and fortified the city of Kars. Here he was besieged by the Russians, under 
Gen. Mouravieff. He defeated the enemy near the city, but was forced to surrender 
after a heroic defence of six months, being a sacrifice to British diplomacy. He was 
afterwards Commander of the Forces in Canada. 

Admiral Sir Provo Wallis was bom at HalifEix in 1791, and was early engaged in 
the great battle between the CleopcUra, 82, and the French Ville de Milan ^ 46. He 
afterwards served on the CurieuXj the Gloire, and the Skafmon^ to whose command 
ho succeeded after the battle with the ChescqtecJee. 

2a The Environs of Hali&x. 

The favorite drive from Halifax is to the Four-Mile House^ and along 
the shores of the * Bedford Basin. This noble sheet of water is 5 M. long 
and 1 - 8 M. wide, with from 8 to 86 fathoms of depth. It is entered by 
way of the Narrows^ a passage 2^-8 M. long and ^ M. wide, leading from 
Halifax Harbor. It is bordered on all sides by bold hills 200-830 ft. in 
height, between which are 10 square miles of secure anchoring-ground. 
The village of Bedford is on the W. shore, and has several summer hotels 
( Belle vue, Bedford, etc.). The steamer Goliah leaves Halifax for Bedford 
at 11 A. M. and 2 p. m. daily. During the summer the light vessels of the 
Royal Halifax Yacht Club are seen in the Basin daily ; and exciting rowing- 
matches sometimes come off near the Four-Mile House. 

Along the shores of the Bedford Basin were the moumAil camps and hospitals of 
the French Armada, in 1746, and 1,800 men were buried there. Their remains were 
found by subsequent settlers. The first permanent colonies along these shores were 
made by Massachusetts Loyalists in 1784. 

HammoniVs Plains are 7 M. W. of Bedford, and were settled in 1815 by slaves 
brought away from the shores of Maryland and Virginia by the British fleets. This 
Is, like the other villages of treed blacks throughout the Province, dirty and dilapi- 
dated to the last degree. To the N. W. is the Pockwock Lake^ 4 M. long, with di- 
versified shores, and abounding in trout. 

** The road to Point Pleasant is a favorite promenade in the long Acadian 
twilights. Midway between the city and the Point lies * Kissing Bridge,* 
which the Halifax maidens sometimes pass over. Who gathers toll nobody 
knows, but — *' 

Point Pleasant projects between the harbor and the N. W. Arm, and is 

covered with pretty groves of evergreen trees, threaded by narrow roads, 

and now being laid out for a public park. The principal fortification is 

Fort Ogilvie, a gamsoned post, whose artillery commands the channel. 

A short distance to the W. is the antiquated structure called the Prince of 

Wahids Tower^ from which fine views are afforded. The Point Pleasant 

Battery is near the water*s edge, and is intended to sweep the outer 

passage. 

The KorthweBt Arm is 4 M. long and l^ M. mde, aa^ \% «b xlver-like 

^oJe^ which rum N. W. from the harbor to witJim 2M. ot \Xi^'Sift^feT^^«&vtt. 




DABTMOUTH. Haute il. ] 

Its shores are h!gh and picturesque, and on the Halifax side are sev' 
fine mansions, surrounded by ornamental grounds. In the upper part 
the Arm is MelviUe Island, where American prisoners were kept dui 
the War of 1812. FtrgwoiCt Cove is a picturesque village on the N. 
Arm, inhabited chie.ly by fishermen and pilots. 

The steamer Micmac makes regular trips during the summer up 
N. W. Arm, and to McNab't Idand, which is 8 M.long, and has a si 
mer hotel and some heavy military works. The Micmac leaves the So 
Ferry Wharf at 10 A. M. and 12, and 2 and 8 p. m. 

Bartmontli {Acadian Home) is situated on the harbor, opposite the < 
of Halifax, to which a steam ferry-boat makes frequent trips. It has i 
eral pretty villas belonging to Halifax merchants ; and at about ^ M. fi 
the village is the spacious and imposing building of the 3/bun<^qp«^«2l 
f(yr the Insane, a long, castellated granite building which overlooks 
harbor. Dartmouth has 4,358 inhabitants and 6 churches, and der 
prosperity from the working of several foundries and steam-tanneries, 
is also the seat of the Chebucto Marine Railway. This town was foun 
in 1750, but was soon afterwards destroyed, with some of its people, by 
Indians. In 1784 it was reoccupied by men of Nantucket who prefei 
royalism to republicanism. The Montague Gold-Mines are 4 M. f 
Dartmouth, and have yielded in paying quantities. Cow Bay is a few m 
S. E. of Dartmouth, and is much visited in summer, on account of its 
marine scenery and the facilities for bathing. The Dartmouth Lakes c 
mence within 1 M. of the town, and were formerly a favorite resorl 
sportsmen, but are now nearly fished out. 

2L The Basin of MiDas.— Hali£ea to St. John. 

Halifiuc to Windsor, see Route 18. (in reverse). 

The steamer leaves Windsor every Wednesday at high water, touching at P{ 
boro', and thence running down the Bay to St. John. 

The steamer leaves St. John (Reed's Point) every Tnesday evening at high yrx 
for Parrsboro' and Windsor. Fares, St Jonn to Parrsboro' or Windsor, $3 
Londonderry, Maitland, or Hali&z, $ 4. 

As the steamer moves out from her wharf at Windsor, a pleasant v 
is afforded of the old college town astern, with the farming village of ! 
mouth on the 1., and shipbuilding Newport on the r., beyond the mout' 
the St. Croix Biver. The shores are high and ridgy, and the moutl 
the Kennetcook River is passed (on the r.) about 5 M. below Wind 
2-3 M. below is Hantsport (1. bank), a thriving marine village oppc 
the mouth of the Cockmigon River. On Horton Bluff (1. bank) is a lij 
house which sustains a powerful fixed white light, visible for 20 M., 
beyond this point the steamer enters the * Basin of Minas. On the 1. 
the low ridges of Long Island and Boot Island, t\?>ycv^qxi 'Cafe xo»x^ 
wide and verdant meadow. The meado^r \a ^Ttt.'!^<^ 'ST%^ '^^ ^ 
EvaDgeUne (see JJoute 22 ). Mile after mWe iVvft i«tW\"a ^\^vcv& q'v ^^ 



102 HouUBl, CAPE BLOMIDON. 

open on fhe 1., bonnded by the Horton hills and the dark line of the North 
Mt. In advance is the bold and clear-cut outline of Cape Blomidon, 
brooding over the water, and on the r. are the low but well-defined bluffs 
* of Chivirie, rich in gypsum and limestone. It is about 22 M. from the 
month of the Avon to Parrsboro', and the course of the steamer continu- 
ally approaches Blomidon. 

Cape Blomidon is a vast precipice of red sandstone of the Triassic era, with 
strong marks of volcanic action. " The dark basaltic wall, covered with thick 
woods, the terrace of amygdaloid, with a luxuriant growth of light-green shrubs 
and young trees that rapidly spring up on its rich and moist snrfoce, the precipice 
of bright red sandstone, always clean and firesh, and contrasting strongly with the 
trap above, .... constitute a combination of forms and colors equally striking, if 
seen in the distance from the bills of Horton or Parrsboro', or more nearly from 
i)xe sea or the stony beach at its base. Llomidon is a scene never to be forgotten by 
a trayeller who has wandered around its shores or clambered on its giddy preci- 
pices." The cape is about 670 ft. high, and presents an interesting sight when its 
dark-red summit is peering above the white sea-fogs. Sir William Lyell, the emi- 
nent British geologist, made a careftil study of the phenomena of this vicinity. 

The Indian legend says that Blomidon was made by the divine Glooscap, who 
broke the great ^aver-dam off this shore and swung its end around into its present 
position. Afterwards he crossed to the new-made cape and strewed its slopes with 
the gems that are found there to-day, carrying tLcnce a set of rare ornaments for 
his ancient and mysterious female companion. The beneficent chief broke away the 
beaver-dam because it was flooding all ttxe Comv : Vik Valley, and in his conflict with 
the Great Beaver he threw at him huge masses of rock and earth, which are the 
present live Islands. W. of Utkoeitnrkeeeh (Blomidon) the end of the dam swept 
around and became FUegwn (Cape Split). 

As Blomidon is left on the port beam, the steamer hurries across the 
rapid currents of the outlet of the Basin. In front is seen the white vil- 
lage of Parrsboro*, backed by the dark undulations of the Cobequid Mts. 
Just before reaching Parrsboro' the vessel approaches and passes Par- 
tridge Island (on the l.)? & singular insulated hill 250 ft. high, and con- 
nected with the mainland at low tide by a narrow beach. 

Partridge Island was the Puloweeh Munegoo of the Micmacs, and was a fiivorite 
location for legends of Glooscap. On his last great journey from Newfoundland by 
Pictou through Acadia and into the unknown West, he built a grand road from 
Fort Cumberland to this shore for the use of his weary companions. This miracu- 
lously formed ridge is now occupied by the post-road to the N. W., and is called by 
the Indians Owwohin\the causeway). At Partridge Island Glooscap had his cel- 
ebrated revel with the supernatural Kit-poos-e-ag-unow, the deliverer of all op- 
gressed, who was taken out alive from his mother (slain by a giant), was thrown 
ito a well, and, being miraculously preserved there, came forth in due time to fulfil 
his high duty to men. These marvellous friends went out on the Basin in a stone 
canoe to fish by torchlight, and, after cruising over the dark waters for some time, 
speared a monstrous whale. They tossed him into the canoe " as though he were a 
trout," and made for the shore, where, in their brotherly feast, the whale was en- 
tirely devoured. 

Parrsboro' (two inns) is prettily situated at the mouth of a small tiver, 

and under the shelter of Partridge Island. It has about 900 inhabitants, 

with three churches, and is engaged in the lumber-trade. The beauty of 

iSfr^ situation and the views, together with the sporting facilities in the 

baxsk-conntry-f have made Parrsboro' a pleasure resort of considerable re- 

pate, and the neat hotel called the Summer Hotwe is Y?e\\ ^»\xoTivi.^d. This 

Js one of the best points from which to enter the ^ueYwrnWu^ «a.^ ^k^\Tv^ 



PARRSBORO*. Route 21. 103 

districts of Camberland Count^', and guides and ontfits may be secured 
here. Amherst (see page 78) is 36 M. distant, by highways following the 
valleys of the Parrsboro* and Maccau Rivers. 

" PaxTsboro' enjoys more than its share of broad, grayelly beach, orerhnng with 
clifted and woody bluffs. One fresh from the dead wadls of a great city woald be de- 
lighted with the sylyan shores of Parrsboro^. The beach, with all its breadth, a 
miracle of pebbly beauty, slants steeply to the surf, which is now rolling up in curl- 
ing clouds of green and white. Here we turn westward into the great Iwy itself, 
goiuK with a tide that rushes like a mighty river toward a cataract, whirling, boil- 
mg, breaking in half-moons of crispy foam." (L. L. Noble.) 

" Pleasant Parrsboro^ with its green hills, neat cottages, and sloping shores laved 
by the sea when the tide is full, but wearing quite a different aspect when the tide 
goes out ; for then it is left perched thirty feet high upon a red clay bluff, and the 
fishing-boats which were afloat before are careened upon their beam ends, high and 
dry out of water. The long massive pier at which the steamboat lately landed, 
lifts up its naked bulk of tree-nailed logs, reeking with green ooaeand sea-weed ; and 
a high conical island which constitutes the chief feature of the landscape is trans- 
formed into a bold promontory, connected with the mainland by a huge ridge of 
brick-red clay." (Hallock.) 

Gentlemen who are interested in geological studies will have a rare chance to make 
collections about Parrsboro' and the shores of Minas. The most &vorable time is 
when the bluffe have been cracked and scaled by recent frosts ; or just after the close 
of the winter, when much fresh dibris is found at the foot of the cliflb. Among the 
minerals on Partridge Island are : analcime, apophyllite, amethyst, agate, apatite, 
calcite (abundant, in yellow crystals), chabazite, chalcedony, cat's-eye, gypsum, 
hematite, heulandite. magnetite, stilbite (very abundant), jasper, cacholong, opal, 
6emi-oi»l, and gold-bearing quartz. About Cape Blomidon are found analcime, 
agate, amethyst, apophyllite. calcite, chalcedoiiy, chabazite-gmelinite, ftroelite, 
hematite, magnetite^ heulandite, laumonite, fibrous gypsum, malachite, mesolite, 
native copper, natrohte, stilbite, psilomelane, and quartz. Obsidian, malachite, gold, 
and copper are found at Cape d^Or ; jasper and fine quartz crystals, on Spencer's 
Island ; augite, amianthus, pyrites, and wad, at Parrsboro' ; and both at Five Islands 
and Scotsman's Bay there are beautiful specimens of moss agate. At Comwallis 
is found the rare mineral called Wichtisite (resembling obsidian, in gray and deep 
blue colors), which is only known in one other place on earth, at Wichtis, in Fin- 
land. The purple and violet quartz, or amethyst, of the Minas shores, is of great 
beauty and value. A Blomidon amethyst is in the crown of France, and it is now 
270 years since the Sieur de Monts carried several large amethysts from Partridge 
Island to Henri lY. of France. These gems are generally found in geodes, or after 
fresh &lls of trap-rock. 

Advocate Harbor and Cape d* Or, 

A bi-weekly stage runs W. from Parrsboro* through grand coast scenery, 
for 28 M., passing the hamlets of Fox Harbor and Port Greville, and stop- 
ping at Advocate Harbor. This is a sequestered marine hamlet, devoted 
to shipbuilding and the deep-sea fisheries, and has about 600 inhabitants. 
It is about 60 M. from Amherst, by a road leading across the Gobequid 
Mts. and through Apple River (see page 80). Some of the finest marine 
scenery in the Provinces is in this vicinity. 8-4 M. S. is the immense 
rocky peninsula of * Cape d'Or, almost cut off from the mainland by a deep 
ravine, in whose bottom the salt tides flow. Cape d'Or is 500 ft. high, and 
has recently become noted for its rich copper deposits. Off this point ther^ 
is a heavy rip on the flood-tide, which, flows wV1\v«.n^o^\V3 ^^ ^ >B:osi\a» ^aa. 
hoar, and rises 88-89 ft. 8 M. W. of Ad^ocaXAliM\iOT^^«AnSs^^^'»'«»» 



104 Route 2L BASIN OF MINAS. 

the open bay, is * Cape Chig^ectOi a wonderful headland of rock, 730 - 800 
ft. high, running down sheer into the deep waters. This mountain-prom- 
ontory marks the division of the currents of the Minas and Chignecto 
Channels. 

Gape d'Or is sometimes called Cap Dori on the ancient maps, and receired its 
name on account of the copper ore which was found here by the early French ex- 
plorers, and was supposed to be gold. The Acadians afterwards opened mines here, 
and the name, Les Mines, originally applied to a part of this shore, was given to the 
noble salt-water lake to the E. Minas is either an English modification or the 
Spanish equivalent thereof Cape d'Or was granted to the Duke of Chandos many 
years ago, but he did not continue the mining operations. 



After leaving Parrsboro* the steamer runs W. through the passage be- 
tween Cape Blomidon and Cape Sharp, which is 3j| M. wide, and is swept 
by the tide at the rate of 6-8 knots an hour. On the r. the ravines of 
Diligent River and Fox River break the iron-bound coasts of Cumberland 
County; and on the 1. is a remarkable promontory, 7 M. long and 1 M. 
wide, with an altitude of 400 feet, running W. from Blomidon between 
the channel and the semicircular bight of Scotsman's Bay. Vape Split 
is the end of this sea-dividing mountain, beyond which the S. shores 
fall suddenly away, and the steamer enters the Minas Channel. 12 M. 
beyond Cape Split, Spencer^s Island and Cape Spencer are passed on the 
N., beyond which are the massive cliffs of Cape d'Or. On the 1. are the 
unvarying ridges of the North Mt., with obscure fishing-hamlets along 
the shore. To the N. the frowning mass of Cape Chignecto is seen ; and 
the course passes within sight of the lofty and lonely rock of Jsle Haute, 
which is 7 M. from the nearest shore. It is 1^ M. long and 850 ft. high, 
and is exactly intersected by the parallel of 65° W. from Greenwich. 

The steamer now passes down over the open waters of the Bay of Fundy. 
St. John is about 62 nautical miles from Isle Haute, in a straight line, and 
is a little N. of W. from that point, but the exigencies of navigation re- 
quire a course considerably longer and more southerly. This portion of 
the route is usually traversed at night, and soon after passing the powerful 
first-class red revolving-light on Cape /Spencer (New Brunswick), the steamer 
runs in by the Partridge-Island light, and enters the harbor of St. John 
about the break of da3\ 

St. John, see page 15. 

The Basin of Minas, 

The steamer William Stroud leaves Parrsboro' several times weekly, for the vil- 
lages on the N. and E. shores of the Basin of Minas. As the times of her departure 
are venr irregular, owing to the necessity of following the tide, and her landings vary 
according to circumstances, the following account relates to the line of the coast 
rather than to her (9ute. She is announced to call at Parrsboro', Londonderry, 
JUaitland, KJogsport, Summerville, and Windsor. 

Sooa after leaving Parrsboro\ Frazefs Head \a ptis&e^ en. \\\^ I., with 
-r^ clifTs elevated nearly 400 feet above the water. A-bouX \b ^\. 'S*. ^^ 



BASIN OF MINAS. Route 2L 105 

Parrsboro' are the remarkable Insulated peaks of the *Five Islands, the 
chief of which is 850 ft. high, rising from the waters of the Basin. On the 
adjacent shore is the village of Five Islands, occapying a very picturesque 
position, and containing 600 inhabitants. In this vicinity are found iron, 
copper, and plumbago, and white-lead is extracted in considerable quan- 
tities from minerals mined among the hills. Marble was formerly produced 
here, but the quarries are now abandoned. The massive ridge various)}' 
known as Mt. Gerrish, St. Peter's Mt, and Red Head, looms over the vil- 
lage to a height of 500 ft., having a singularly bold and alpine character 
for so small an elevation. On its lower slopes are found pockets containing 
fine barytes, of which large quantities are sent to the United States. A 
mass of over 150 pounds' weight was sent from this place to the Paris Ex- 
position of 1867. A few miles W. of the village are the falls on the North 
Biver, which are 90 ft. high ; and to the N. is the wild and picturesque 
scenery of the Cobequid Mts. Five Islands may be visited by the road 
from Parrsboro' (16-18 M.), which also passes near the North River Falls. 
The most direct route to the village is by the mail-stage from Debert station, 
on the Intercolonial Railway (see page 80). 

" Before them lay the outlines of Tive Islands, rising beautifully out of the water 

between them and the mainland The two more distant were rounded and 

well wooded ; the third, which was midway among the group, had lofty, precipitous 
sides, and the summit was dome-shaped; the fourth was like a table, rising with 
perpendicular sides to the height of 200 ft. , with a flat, level surfoce above, which 
was all overgrown with forest (a^ees. The last, and nearest of the group, was by far 
the most singular. It wa8 a bare rock which rose irregularly from the sea, termi- 
nating at one end in a peak which rose about 200 ft. in the air It resembled, 

more than anything else, a vast cathedral rising out of the sea, the chief mass of the 
rock corresponding with the main part of the cathedral, while the tower and spire 
were there in all their migesty. For this cause the -rock has received the name of 

Pinnacle Island At its base they saw the white foam of breaking surf; while 

far on high around its lofty, tempest-beaten summit, they saw myriads of sea-gulls. 
Gathering in great white clouds about this place, they sported and chased one an- 
other ; they screamed and uttered their shrill yells, which sounded a£ur over the 
sea." (DbMolb.) 

10 M. beyond these islands the steamer passes the lofty and far-project- 
ing peninsula of Economy'^ Pointy and enters the Cobequid Bay (which 
ascends to Truro, a distance of 86 M. ). After touching at Londonderry ^ 
on the N. shore, the steamer crosses the bay to Maitland (two inns), a 
busy and prosperous shipbuilding village at the mouth of the Shubenacadle 
River (see page 82). 

The S. shore of the Basin of Minas is lined with bluffs 100-180 ft. high, 
but is far less imposing than the N. shore. Noel is about 15 M. W. of 
Maitland, and is situated on a pretty little bay between Noel Head and 
Burnt-Coat Head. It has 300 inhabitants, and produces the mineral called 
terra aJba, used in bleaching cottons. It is not found elsewhere in Amer- 
ica. After leaving Noel Bay and passing the lIghthou€>Q ovi l£i\is:vi\.-^QR>x 

^ Economj/ is derived from fhe Indian name JBTenomee, "w\At\L "««* ».V5?^*^^ ^^^ *»sb» 
place, and weanM " Suady Point." 



106 RotUeil. BASIN OF MINAS. 

Head, the trend of the coast is followed to the S. W. for about 20 M. to 
Walton^ a village of 600. inhabitants, at the mouth of the La Tete Blver. 
Many thousand tons of gypsum and plaster of Paris (calcined gypsum) are 
annually shipped from this port to the United States. Immense quantities 
are exported also from the coasts of Chivirie, which extend from Walton 
S. W. to the mouth of the Avon River. The whole back country is com- 
posed of limestone soil and gypsum-beds, whose mining and shipment 
form an industry of increasing importance. Beyond the Chivirie coast the 
steamer ascends the Avon River to Windsor. 

The Basin of Minas ^ras the &Torite home of Gloosoap, the Hiawatha of the Mic- 
inacs, whose traditions describe him as an envoy fit>m the Qreat Spirit, who had the 
form and habits of humanity, but waa exalted above all peril and sickness and death. 
He dwelt apwrt and above, in a great wigwam, and was attended by an old woman 
and a beautiflil youth, and " was never very for firom any one of them," who re- 
ceived his counsels. EUs power was unbounded and supernatural, and was wielded 
agiUnst the enchantments of the magicians, while his wisdom taught the Indian 
how to hunt and fish, to heal diseases, and to build wigwams and canoes. He 
named the constellations in the heavens, and many of the chief points on the Acadian 
shores. The Basin of Minas was his beaver-pond ; Cape Split was the bulwark of 
the. dam; and Spencer^s Island is his overturned kettle. He controlled the ele- 
ments, and by his magic wand led the caribou and the bear to his throne. The 
allied powers of evil advanced with immense hosts to overthrow his great wigwam 
and break his power ; but he extinguished their camp-fires by night and summoned 
the spirits of the fh)8t, by whose endeavors the land was visited by an intense cold, 
uid Uie hostile armies were firoaen in the forest. Chi the approach of the English he 
turned his huge hunting-dogs into stone and then passed away ; but will return 
again, right Spencer's Island, call the dogs to life, and once more dispense his royal 
hospitality on the Minas shores. 

*' Now the ways of beasts and men waxed evil, and they greatly vexed Qlooscap, 
and at length he could no longer endure them ; and he made a rich feast by tb» 
shore of the great lake (Minas). All the beasts came to it ; and when the feast was 
over, he got into a big canoe, he and his uncle, the Great Turtle, and they went 
away over the big lake, and the beasts looked after them till they saw them no 
more. And after they ceased to see them, they still heard their voices as they sang, 
but the sounds grew fointer and fointer in the distance, and at last they wholly died 
away ; and then deep silence fell on them all, and a great marvel came to pass, 
and the beasts who had till now spoken but one language no longer were able to 
understand each other, and they all fled away, each his own way, and never again 
have they met tc^ther in council. Until the day when Glooscap shall return to 
restore the Golden Age* and make men and animals dwell once more together in 
amity and peace, all Nature mourns. The tradition states that on his departure 
from Acadia the great snowy owl retired to the deep forests to return no more untU 
he could come to welcome Glooscap ; and in those sylvan depths the owls, even yet, 
repeat to the night, ' Eoo koo skoos ! Eoo koo skoos ! ' which is to say, in the In- 
dian tongue, ' 0, 1 am sorry ! 0, 1 am sorry ! ' And the loons, who had been the 
huntsmen of Glooscap, go restlessly up and down through the world, seeking vainly 
for their master, whom tiiey cannot find, and wailing sadly because they £id him 
not." 



^i!„-itt^*^r;|^*^i, 




THE LAND OF EVANGELINK MouUtg, 107 

22. The Land of Evangelina 

This beantifnl and deeply interesting district is visited with the greatest 
ease from the academic town of WolMlle ( ViUage Hotel; Acadia Hotel), 
which is 127 M. from St. John and 63 M. from Halifax (by Route 18). 
This qniet settlement is situated on the Ck>mwallis River, and is engaged 
in shipbuilding and farming. It has 800 inhabitants, four churches, a 
ladies* seminary, and the Horton Academy (4 teachers, 60 students). 
The Acadia College is a Baptist institution, with 6 professors, 40 students, 
and 150 alumni (in 18 years of existence). The college buildings occupy 
a fine situation on a hill which overlooks '* those meadows on the Basin of 
Minas which Mr. Longfellow has made more sadly poetical than any other 
spot on the Western Oontinent.'* The * view from the belfry of the college 
is the most beautiful in this vicinity, or even, perhaps, in the Maritime 
Provmces. Far across the ComwaUis Valley to the N. is the North Mt., 
which terminates, 15 M. away (21 M. by road), in the majestic bluff of Cape 
Blomidon, dropping into the Basin of Minas, whose bright waters occupy 
a broad section of the field of vision. (See Route 21, for Cape Blomidon 
and the Indian traditions of the Basin of Mmas.) To the N. £. is the 
"great meadow" which gave name and site to the village of Grand Pr4. 

A good road leads E. (in 8 M. ) from Wolfville to Lower Horton, a scat- 
tered hamlet among the hills. By passing down from this point to the 
meadows just beyond the railway-station of Orand Prd) the traveller 
reaches the site of the ancient village. Standing on the platform of the 
station, be sees a large tree at the comer of the field on the left front. 
Near that point are the faint remains of the foundations of the Acadian 
church. The tradition of the country-side claims that the aged willow- 
tree near by grows on the site of the shop of Basil the Blacksmith, and 
that cinders have been dug up at its foot. The destruction effected by 
the British troops was complete, and there are now no relics of the an- 
cient settlement, except the gnarled and knotty trees of the orchards, the 
lines of willows along the old roads, and the sunken hollows which indi- 
cate the sites of former cellars. Near the shore is shown the place where 
the exiles were put on shipboard. A road leads across the rich diked 
marsh in 2-3 M. to Long Island, a slight elevation fronting on the Basin 
of Minas, and on which dwells a farming population of about 120 persons. 
To the N. £. is the mouth of the Gaspereaux River, and on the W. the 
Comwallis River is discharged. The early Acadians reclaimed these rich 
meadows from the sweep of the tides by building light dikes to turn the 
water. There were 2,100 acres of this gained land in their Grand Pr^, 
but the successive advancing of other lines of aggression has driven back 
the sea from a much larger area, all of which is very productive and "«?«i- 
uable. In 1810 the broad meadow between GiTOXidL "^x^ ^5A^^Nr^«5k^^6a» 
enclosed by new dikes and added to the TeeVaVmedL ^oToaXxi. 



108 RmtteiS. GRAND PRE. 

Noble's Massachiisetts r^^ent was cantoned at Grand Pr6 in the -winter of 
1746-7. During a heavy snow-storm, before dawn on Feb. 11, the town -was at- 
tacked by 846 French troops, arranged in 10 divisions, and commanded by Coulon 
de Villien. The sentinels were vigilant, and gave the alarm as soon as the hostile 
columns were seen over the lotty snow-drilts ; but the assailants dashed in fearlessly 
and soon carried the strongest of the barracks. Col. Noble -was slain while fighting 
in his shirt. 134 Americans were killed and wounded and 69 were made prisoners ; 
21 of the attacking party were killed and wounded. In the morning 350 of the 
Blassachusetts men were concentrated in a stone building, and fought with much 
bravery, the combat being waged from house to house through the streets. By 
noon their ammunition was expended, and they surrendered to the French, being 
paroled and allowed to march out with the honors of war. A convivial dinner was 
then eojoyed by the officers of the whilom hostile forces, and the Americans were 
sent to Annapolis under an Acadian guard, while the French soon afterward retired 
to B€»&ubassin, bearing their captured artillery and four stands of colors which had 
been taken in the battle. ' 

The shores of the Basin of Minas were settled hi the early part of the 17th century 
by immigrants from La Rochelle, Saintonge, and Poitou. They soon erected dikes 
by which the tide was kept off from the meadows, and from these rich reclaimed 
lands they gathered great crops. Several cargoes of grain were exported to Boston 
every year, and the settlement soon became large and prosperous. The Indians 
regarded these new neighbors with affection, and lived on terms of perfect peace 
with them. During the wars between France and Great Britain, the Acadians were 
strongly patriotic, and took up arms in the cause of their native land. Intensely 
devoted to the Roman Catholic Church, and considering these wars as in the nature 
of crusades, they fought valiantly and well. 

But when Nova Scotia was finally ceded to Great Britain (in 1713), their position 
became very awkward and painftil. Many of them refused to take the oath of alle- 
giance, and for others a modified formula was framed. The emisEaries of the French 
power at Louisbourg and Quebec circulated among them and maintained their loy- 
alty to France at a fever heat, while their priests acted continually on the same 
policy, and kept up the hostility to the conquerors. The British Provincial govern- 
ment was located at Annapolis, and though its laws were mild and clement, it could 
not command respect on account of its physical weakness. Under these circum- 
stances, hundreds of the Acadians joined the French armies during every war be- 
tween the two powers, and proved dangerous foemen, on account of their knowledge 
of the land. British settlers were unwilling to locate among these people on account 
of their hostility, and the fairest lands of the Province were thus held by an alien 
and hostile population. The great conflict between England and France in the New 
World was still in full course, and the latter power was in possession of the Canadas. 
The majority of the Acadians were doubtless peaceful and honest, occupied only 
with their local afEsdrs ; but some of them were hostile and troublesome, and the 
anomalous position of these alien sulyects was a source of incessant danger to the 
English power. It was therefore determined in the council at HalifEix, in 1765, that 
they must either take an unconditional oath of allegiance to Great Britain or leave 
the country. Deputations were called in from all the French settlements, and the 
alternatives were clearly set forth before them. Almost unanimously they refused 
to take the oath, preferring (they said) exile and confiscation to such an act, and 
seeming to regard their neutrality of the past 45 years as having become a vested 
right. It seems as if diplomacy and argument were tried to their utmost limit upon 
these unyielding recusants, and it then became necessary for the honor and safety 
of the Province, to resort to sterner measures. It was resolved that the whole Aca- 
dian people should be banished to the southern American colonies, and that their 
estates' and buildings, cattle and vessels, should be declared forfeited to the Crown. 

The Acadians were taken by surprise. A British detachment and fleet destroyed 

all the villages, farms, and churches, on the Chignecto Basin and the Petitcodiac 

River, sweeping up many prisoners and meeting with some sharp fighting. Monc- 

ton destroyed Shediac, Remsheg, and other towns on the Gulf coast ; Murray gath- 

ered up the people about Windsor and to the £. ; and Handfield put the French 

AujoapoUtana od ehipboard^ except a few who escaped into the woods. Winslow 

collected 1,928 persons at Grand Pr6 and embarked lYiom^wvCL \i\3iTOcd 265 houses, 

-p/(? barns, end 11 mills. (Winslow was a MaE8ac\a,u?cl\B oae«.w\^*lft>)V,w:«.\a.\Kt 

£^ ^»^ fatx^ily was driven into exile for hoBtiWty to AmcAta..^ tY» V^o^X* oIOxmA 

'^'^ rreresent to North Caroiina, Virginia, andMaxyAand. 



GRAND PIU£ R<mUi2. 109 

** While w» see plainly that England eonld nerer really control thiw Prorince 
\7hile they remained in it, all our feelings of humanity are affected by the removal 

itself, and still more by the severity of the attendant circumstances They were 

the victims of great error on their own part, and of delusive views that Iklse fHend.i 
had instilled into their minds, and the impulses of national ambition and jealousy 
precipitated their fate. It is, however, some consolation to know that very many of 
the exiles returned within a few years to their native land, and though not restored 
to their native farms, they became an integral and respected portion of our popula- 
tion, displaying, under all changes, those simple virtues that they had inherited, — 
the same modest, humble, and peaceable disposition, that had been their early attri- 
butes." (Murdoch.) (See also Clare, Chkzzetgook, and Tracadie.) 

In 1760 a large colony of £unili«s from Connecticut, in a fleet of 22 vessels con- 
voyed by a man-of-war, arrived at Grand Pr6 and occupied the deserted &rm8. 
" They found 60 ox-carts and as many yokes, which the unfortunate French had 
used in conveying their baggi^^ to the vessels that carried them away from the 
country ; and at the skirts of the forest heaps of the bones of sheep and horned cat- 
tlet ttxat, deserted by their owners, had perished in winter from the lack of food. 
They also met with a few straggling fiunilles of Acadians who had escaped from the 
scrutinizing searoh of the soldiers at the removal of their countrymen, and who, 
afraid of sharing the same &te, had not ventured to till the land, or to appear in 
the open country. They had eaten no bread for five yean, and had subsisted on 
vegetables, fish, and the more hardy part of the cattle that had survived the sever- 
ity of the first winter -of their abuidonment." (Uaububtozt.) 

" This is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks, 
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight, 
Stand like Druids of eld, witii voices sad and prophetic. 
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms. 
Loud firom its rocky caverns, the deep-voiced neighboring ocean 
Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest. 

" This is the forest primeval; but where are the hearts that beneath it 
Leaped like the roe, when he hears in the woodland the voice of the huntsman? 
Where is the thatch-roofed villaee, the home of Acadian &rmers, — 
Men whose lives glided on like nvers that water the woodlands, 
Darkened by shadows of earth, but reflecting an image of heaven? 
Waste are those pleasant &rni8, and the fiumers forever departed ! 
Scattered like dust and leaves, when the mighty blasts of October 
Seize them, and whirl them aloft, and sprinkle them fitr o'er the ocean. 
Naught but tradition remains of the beautiful village of Grand Pr6. 

" In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas, 
Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand Pr6 
Lay in the fruitful valley. Vast meadows stretched to the eastward, 
Giving the village its name, and pasture to flocks without number. 
Dikes, that the Ixands of the formers had raised with labor incessant. 
Shut out the turbulent tides; but at certain seasons the flood-gates 
Opened, and welcomed the sea to wander at will o'er the meadows. 
West and south there were fields of flax, and orehards and corn-fields 
Spreading a&r and unfenced o'er the plain ; and away to the northward 
Blomidon rose, and the forests old, and aloft on the mountains 
Sea-fogs pitched their tents, and mists from the mighty Atlantic 
Looked on the happy valley, but ne'er ttom their station descended. 
There, in the midst of its fkrms, reposed the Acadian village. 
Strongly built were the houses, with frames of oak and of chestnut. 
Such as the peasants of Normandy built in the reign of the Henries. 
Thatched were the roofs, with dormer-windows ; and gables projecting 
Over the basement below protected and shaded the doorway. 
There in the tranquil evenings of summer, when brightly the sunset 
Lighted the village street, and gilded the vanes on the chimneys, 
Matrons and maidens sat in snow-white caps and in kirtles 
Scarlet and blue and green, with distafiEs spinniw^ t\\« ^W€<(v 
Flax for the gossiping looms, whose noisy BYiutt\«a ^\}^Vxi. ^<c>ckT% 
Mingled their sound with the whir of tha ^lieeia an^ \Jaft %o\i%^ o\ ^«i xsa^i^^A 



110 RmUtH. GRAND PRK 

Solemnly do'wn the street came the parish priest, and the children 
Paused in their play to kiss the hand he extended to bless them. 
Reverend walked he among them ; and up rose matrons and maidens, 
Hailing his slow approach with words of affectionate welcome. 
Then came the laborer^ home from the field, and serenely the sun sank 
Down to his rest, and twilight prevailed. Anon from the belfry 
Softly the Angelas sounded, and over the roofs of the village 
Columns of pale blue smoke, like clouds of incense ascending, 
Rose from a hundred hearths, the homes of peace and contentment. 
Thus dwelt together in love these simple Acadian farmers, — 
Dwelt in the love of God and of man. Alike were they free firom 
Fear, ^at reigns with the tyrant, and envy, the vice of republics. 
Neither locks had they to their doors, nor bars to their windows ; 
But their dwellings were open as day and the hearts of the owners ; 
There tiie richest was poor, and the poorest lived in abundance." 

The poet then describes " the gentle Evangeline, the pride of the vil- 
lage." 

" Fair was she to behold, that maiden of seventeen summers. 
Black were her eyes as the berry that grows on the thorn by the wayside. 
Black, yet how softly they gleamed beneath the brown shade of her tresses ! 
Sweet was her breath as the breath of kine that feed in the meadows. 
When in the harvest heat she bore to the reapers at noontide 
Flagons of home-brewed ale, ah ! &ir in sooth was the maiden. 
Fairer was she when, on Sunday mom, while the bell from its turret 
Sprinkled witli holy sounds the air, as the priest with his hyssop 
Sprinkles the congregation, and scatters blessings upon them. 
Down the long street she passed, with her chaplet of beads and her missal, 
Wearing her Norman cap, and her kirtle of blue, and the ear-rings, — 
Brought in the olden time from France, and since, as an heirloom. 
Handed down from mother to child, through long generations. 
But a celestial brightness — a more ethereal beauty — 
Shone on her &ce and encircled her form, when, after confession, 
Homeward serenely she walked, with God's benediction upon h^r. 
When she had passed, it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music." 

After a beautiful description of the peaceful social life of the Acadians, 
and the betrothal of Evangeline, the poet tells of the arrival of the English 
fleet, the convocation of the people, the royal mandate, the destruction of 
Grand Pr^, and the weary exile of the villagers. 

" So passed the morning away. And lo ! with a summons sonorous 
Sounded the bell from its tower, and over the meadow a drum beat. 
Thronged erelong was the church with men. Without, in the churchyard. 
Waited the women. They stood by the graves, and hung on the headstones 
Garlands of autumn-leaves and evergreens fresh from the forest. 
Then came the guard from the ships, and marching proudly among them 
Entered the sacred portal. With loud and dissonant clangor 
Echoed the sound of their brazen drums from ceiling and casement, — 
Echoed a moment only, and slowly the ponderous portal 
Closed, and in silence the crowd awaited the will of the soldiers. 
Then uprose their commander, and spake from the steps of the altar. 
Holding aloft in his hands, with its seals, the royaJ commission. 
* Ye are convened this day,' he said, ' by his Majesty's orders. 
Clement and kind has he been ; but how have you answered his kindness, 
Let your own hearts reply ! To my natural make and my temper 
Painful the task is I do, which to you I know miist be grievous. 
Tet must I bow and obey, and deliver the will of our monarch ; 
Namely, that all your lands, and dwellings, and cattle of all kinds 
Forfeits he to the crown ; and that you yourselves from this province 
-Se tmasported to other lands. God grant yon tmcj dweU. there 
^ver as &itbful subjectB, a happy and peaceable veo\>\e\ 
■Prisoners now I declare jon ; for such Is bis Majeat^j -a pVeasoro.'* 



i 



f 









GRAND PRf. JtouUgi. Ill 

There disorder prevaned, and the tnmnlt and stir of embarking. 

Busily plied the freighted boats ; and in the confusion 

Wives were torn fh>ni their husbands, and mothers, too late, saw their children 

Left on the land, extending their arms, with wildest entreaties. 

• • ■ ■ • 

Suddenly rose from the south a light, as in autumn the blood-red 

Moon climbs the crystal walls of heaven, and o'er the horizon 

Titan-like stretches its hundred lumds upon mountain and meadow, 

Seizing the rocks and the rivers, and piling huge shadows together. 

Broader and ever broader it gleamed on the roofe of the village. 

Gleamed on the sky and the sea, and the ships that lay in the roadstead. 

Columns of shining smoke uprose, and flashes of flame were 

Thrust through their folds and withdrawn, like the quivering hands of a martyr. 

Then as the wind seized the gleeds and the burning thatch, and uplifting. 

Whirled them aloft through the air, at once from a hundred house-tops 

Started the sheeted smoke, with flashes of flame intermingled. 

■ • • • ■ 

Many a weary year had passed since the burning of Grand Pr^, 

When on the &lling tide the freighted vessels departed. 

Bearing a nation, with all its household gods, into exile, 

Exile without an end, and without an example in story. 

Far asunder, on separate coasts, the Acadians landed ;. 

Scattered were they, like flakes of snow, when the wind from the northeast 

Strikes aslant through the fogs that darken the Banks of Newfoundland. 

Friendless, homeless, hopeless, they wandered frvm city to city, 

From the cold lakes of the North to sultry Southern savannas, — 

From the bleaJc shores of the sea to the lands where the Father of Waters 

Seizes the hills in liis hands, and drags them down to the ocean, 

Deep in their sands to bury the scattered bones of the mammoth. 

Friends they sought and homes ; and many, despairing, heart-broken. 

Asked of the earth but a grave, and no longer a friend or a fireside. 

Written their history stands on tablets of stone in the churchyards." 

LoMGFSLLOw's Evangelitu. 

*' Much as we may admire the various bays and lakes, the inlets, promontories, 
and straits, the mountains and woodlands of this rarely visited comer of creation, — 
and, compared with it, we can boast of no coast scenery so beautifUl, — the valley of 
Grand Pre transcends all the rest in the Province. Only our valley of Wyoming, 
as an inland picture, may match it, both in beauty and tradition. One liad its Ger- 
trude, the other its Evangeline. " (Cozzens. ) ^ 

" Beyond is a lofty and extended chain of hills, presenting a vast chasm, appar- 
ently burst out by the waters of 19 rivers that empty into the Basin of Minas, and here 
e.scape into the Bay of Fundy. The variety and extent of this prospect, the beauti- 
ful verdftnt vale of the Gaspereaux ; the extended township of Horton interspersed 
with groves of wood and cultured fields, and the cloud-capped summit of the lofty 
cape that terminates the chain of the North Mt.,form an assemblage of objects 
rarely united with so striking an efifect." 

'* It would be difficult to point out another landscape at all equal to that which is 
beheld from the hill that overlooks the site of the ancient village of Minas. On 
either hand extend undulating hills richly cultivated, and intermingled with farm- 
houses and orchards. From the base of these highlands extend the alluvial mead- 
ows which add so much to the appearance and wealth of Horton. The Grand 
Prairie is skirted by Boot and Long Islands, whose fertile and well-tilled fields are 
sheltered from the north by evergreen forests of dark foliage. Beyond are the wide 
expanse of waters of the Basin of Minas, the lower part of Cornwidlis, and the isles 
and blue highlands of the opposite shores. The charm of this prospect consists in 
the unusual combination of hill, dale, woods, and cultivated fielcig ; in the calm 
beauty of agricultural scenery ; and in the romantic wildness of the distant forests. 
During the summer and autumnal months immense herds of cattle are seen quietly 
croppkig the herbage of the Grand Prairie ; while numerous vessels plying on the 
Basin convey a pleasing evidence of tiie prosperity and tei&QiQcxfi«& ^1 \2gS& ^sstv^^^sttr^ 
trict." (Haububton.) 



112 Route tS. ST. MARY'S BAY. 



23. Annapolis Eo3ral to Clare and Yarmonth. — The Tos- 

ket Lakes. 

From St. John or Hali&x to Annapolis Royal, see Route 18. 

The Western- Counties Railway was begun in September, 1874, and is tobe fini&hed 
from Yarmouth to Met^han (30 M.) by the summer of 1875. It will not reach An- 
napolis before the latter part of the year 1876. 

The Royal mail-stage leaves Annapolis daily on arrival of the morning train fh>m 
Halifax, and runs S. W. to Clementsport and Digby (distance, 20^ M. ; fere, $ 1.50). 
A pleasanter route is to go from Annapolis to Digby by the steamboat (75c. ; see 
page 85), which makes four trips weekly. On boat-days the stage leaves Digby for 
Yarmouth about one hour after her arrival ; on other days it leaves at 6 p.k. Digby 
to Yarmouth, 70 M. ; fare. $ 4. 

Itinerary. — Annapolis Royal ; Clementsport, 8J M. ; Victoria Bridge, 13i : 
Smith's Cove, 16; Digby, 20*; St. Mary's Bay,27J; Weymouth Road. ^; Wey- 
mouth Bridge, 88; Belliveau Cove, 43; Clare, 50; Meteghan Cove, 59; Cheticamp, 
68 ; Bear River, 74 ; Yarmouth Lakes, 81 ; Yarmouth, 90. 

The traveller will see from the time-table that this is a night-journey, and the return 
from Yarmouth to Digby is also effected by night. The ensuing descriptions, there- 
fore, will be useful only to such as stop off at some of the roadside villages, or make 
the journey in their own carriages, by daylight. 

Annapolis Royal to Digby, see pages 84, 86 (reversed). 

On leaving Digby the stage follows the highway to the S. W., traversing 
the farming settlement of MarshaUtoum, and crosses the isthmus between 
the Annapolis Basin and St. Mary^s Bay, a distance of about 7 M. Thence- 
forward, for over 80 M., the highway lies near the beautiful * St. Mary's 
Bay, which is about 85 M. long, with a width of from 8 to 10 M. On the 
opposite shore are the highlands of Digby Neck (see Route 24), a continu- 
ation of the North Mi. range. On this shore a wide belt of level land has 
been left between the receding range of the South Mt. (or Blue Mts.) and 
the bay, and the water-front is occupied by numerous farms. 

In St. Mary's Bay the fleet of the Sieur de Monts lay for two weeks, in 1604, while 
the shores were being explored by boat's-crews. The mariners were greatly r^oiced 
in finding what they supposed to be valuable deposits of iron and silver. The 
Parisian priest Aubry was lost on one of these excursions, and roamed through the 
woods for 16 days, eating nothing but berries, until another vessel took hhu off. 
The name Baie de Ste. Marie was given by Champlain. 

Brighton is at the head of the bay, and is a pleasant agricultural village 
with a small inn. The hamlets of Barton (or Specht's Cove) and GilberVs 
Cove are soon passed, and the stage enters the pretty village of Weymouth 
(two inns), a seaport which builds some handsome vessels, and has a snug 
little trade with the United States and the West Indies. It is at the mouth 
of the Sisslboo River, on whose opposite shore is the Acadian hamlet of 
New Edinburgh, Across St. Mary's Bay is the maritime village of Sandy 
Cove. 

The stage now ascends the r. bank of the Sissiboo River to Weymouth 

Bridge (Jones's Hotel), a maritime village of about the same size as Wey- 

mouth. It is 4 M. from the mouth of the river; and 2-8 M. to the E. 

are the Stssidoo Falls. The shore of St. Mary^a ^?^y 1% regained at BeUi- 

veau Cove (sumll iim), an Acadian hamlet c\i\fetLy ^evoX^^ \» ^.^vwkSXxa^ 



CLARE. Route gS. 113 

and shipbuilding. From this point down to Beaver River, and beyond 
through the Tusket and Pubnico regions, the shore is occupied by a range 
of hamlets which are inhabited by the descendants of the old Acadian- 
French. 

The Clare Settlements were founded about 1763 by the descendants of the 
Acadians who had been exiled to New England. After the conquest of Canada these 
unfortunate wanderers were suffered to return to Nova Scotia, but they found their 
former domains about the Basin of Minas already occupied by the New-£nglanden. 
So they removed to the less f<§rtile but still pleasant shores of Clare, and founded new 
homes, alternating their farm labors with fishing-voyages on St. Mary's Bay or the 
outer sea. This little commonwealth of 4 - 6,000 people was for many years governed 
and directed by "the amiable and venerated AbbS Segoigne,"a patrician priest who 
had fled from France during the Revolution of 17d3. His power and influence were 
unlimited, and were exerted only for the peace and well-being of his people. Under 
this benign guidance the colony flourished amain ; new hamlets arose along the 
shores of the beautiful bay ; and an Acadian village was founded in the oak-groves 
of Tusket. M. Segoigne also conciliated the Micmacs, learned their language, and 
was highly venerated by all their tribe. 

*' When the traveller enters Clare, the houses, the household utensils, the foreign 
language, and the uniform costume of the inhabitants excite his surprise ; because 
no parish of Nova Scotia has such a distinctive character. The Acadians are &x 
behind their neighbors in modes of agriculture : they show a great reluctance to 
enter the forest, and in place of advancing upon the highlands, they subdivide their 
lands along the shore and keep their children about them. They preserve their 
language and customs with a singular tenacity, and though commerce places them 
in constant communication with the English, they never contract marriage with 
them, nor adopt their manners, nor dwell in their villages. Tliis conduct is not due 
to dislike of the English government ; it must be attributed rather to ancient usage, 
to the national character, and to their systems of education. But if they are infe- 
rior to the English colonists in the arts which strengthen and extend the influence 
of society . they can proudly challenge comparison in their social and domestic vir- 
tues. Without ambition, living with frugality, they regulate their life according to 
their means: devoted to their ancient worship, they are not divided by religious 
discord ; in fine, contented with their lot and moral in their habits of life, they en- 
joy perhaps as much of happiness and goodness as is possible in the frailty of human 
nature." (Hauburton.) 

" Still stands the forest primeval ; but under the shade of its branches 

Dwells another race, with other customs and language. 

Only along the shore of the mournful and misty Atlantic 

Linger a few Acadian peasants, whose fathers fbom exile 
' Wandered back to their native laud to die in its bosom. 

In the fiusherman's cot the wheel and the loom are still busy ; 

Maidens still wear their Norman caps and their kirtles of homespun, 

And by the evening fire repeat Evangeline's story. 

While fh>m its rocky caverns the deep-voiced neighboring ocean 

Speaks, and in accents disconsolate answers the wail of the forest." 

Longfellow's Evangeline. 

The road runs S. W. from Belliveau Cove to Grosses Coques (300 inhabi- 
tants) and Port Acadie, Clare, and Saulnierville, a line of hamlets whose 
inhabitants are engaged in farming and the fisheries. A road runs 7 M. 
E. to New Tusket, an Anglo-Acadian village in the interior, near the 
island-studded Lake Wentworth. Meteghan ( German* s Hotel) is a bay- 
Bide village of 600 inhabitants, nearly all of whom are Acadians and farm- 
ers. It is thought that the Western-Counties Railway will be completed 
from Yarmouth to this point by the summet ol \%*I^. "^^Xfe^-Bca. Sa» *^'a^ 
last village on St. Mary* 8 Bay, and the road noTi tatika Xo ^^5aB%. ^s^^^^-aaRK^ 



114 MoiUe 2S. YARMOUTH. 

the Inland hamlet of Cheticamp. Cape Cove is an Acadian settlement, 
and is finely situated on a headland which faces the Atlantic. The stage 
next passes Salmon River (small inn), and descends thence (by Brook ville) 
to Beaver River (inn), the first English settlement. It is a village of 400 
inhabitants on the Atlantic coast, near the promontory of High Head. 
The road now leaves the vicinity of the sea and strikes inland through a 
region of forests and lakes ; reaching Yarmouth about 13 M. S. of Beaver 
Eiver. 

Tarmouth {United States Hotel, $6-8 a week; American Hotel) is a 
wealthy and prosperous seaport on the S. W. coast of Nova Scotia, and 
is situated on a narrow harbor 3 M. from the Atlantic. It has 6,335 in- 
habitants, with 9 churches, 2 banks, 4 local marine-insurance companies, 
and 2 weekly newspapers. It has a public library and a small museum 
of natural history. The schools are said to be the best in the Province, 
and occupy conspicuous buildings on the ridge back of tbe town. The 
Conrt-House is in the upper part of the town; near which is the spacious 
Baptist church, built in Novanglian architecture. The Episcopal church 
is a new building, and is one of the best in Nova Scotia. 1 M. out is a 
rural cemetery of 40 acres. Yarmouth is built along a line of low rocky 
heights, over a harbor which is nearly drained at low tide. It receives a 
goodly number of summer visitors, most of whom pass into tbe Tusket 
Lakes or along the coast to the E., in search of sport. 

Tannouth has been called the most Ameiican of all the Provincial towns, and is 
endowed with the energy and pertinacity of New England. Though occupying a 
xemote situation on an indifferent harbor, with a barren and incapable back coun- 
try, this town has risen to opulence and distinction by the indomitable industry of 
its citizens. In 1761 the shipping of the country was confined to one 25-ton fishing, 
boat ; in 1869 it amounted to 284 vessels, measuring 93,896 tons, and is now fiir in 
advance even of that figure. It is claimed that Yarmouth, for ner population, is 
the largest ship-owning port in the world. In addition to these great commercial 
fleets, the town has established a steamship-line to St. John and Boston, and is 
building, almost alone, the Western-Counties Railway to Annapolis. It is expected 
that ^at benefit will accrue from the timber-districte which yAiX be opened by this 
new Ime of travel. " Yarmouth's financial success is due largely to the practical 
judgment and sagacity of her mariners. She has reared an army of shipmasters of 
whom any country might be proud," and it is claimed that a large proportion of 
the Cape-Ann fishing-captains are natives of this country. On the adjacent coast, 
and within 12 M. of Yarmouth, are the murine hamlets of Jegoggin, Sandford 
(Cranberry Head), Arcadia, Hebron, Hartford, KeUey's Cove, Jebogue, Darling's 
Lake (Short Beach), and Deerfield. These settlements have over 6,000 inhabitants 
in the aggregate. The coast was occupied by the French during the 17th century, 
but was afterwards abandoned. About the middle of the last century these de- 
serted shores were taken ixMsession of by colonies of fishermen from Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, who wished to be nearer their fishing-grounds ; and the present 
population is descended from these hardy men and the loyalists of 1783. The an- 
cient Indian name of Yarmouth was Keespoogvntk, which means " Land's End." 

The steamship Linda leaves Yarmouth for Boston every Saturday, and for St. 
John, N. B., every Thursday. 



TUSKET LAKES. JloUteSS. 115 

The Tusket Lakes and Archipelago. 

The township of Yarmouth contains 80 lakes, and to a bird flying OTerhead it 
must seem like a patchwork of blue and green, in which the blue predominates. 
They are nearly all connected with the Tusket River, and are generally small, very 
irregular, and surrounded by young forests. They rarely attain the width of 1 M., 
and are strung along the course of the river and its tributaries, joined by narrow 
aisles of water, and breaking off into bays which the unguided voyager would often 
ascend in mistoke for the main channel In the lower hikes, where the tide flows, 
near Argyle Bay, are profitable eel-fisheries. The remoter waters, towurds the Blue 
Mts., afford good trout-fishing. 

The westerly line of lakes are visited from Yarmouth by riding 6 M. out 
on the Digby road and then turning off to Deerfield^ near the Salmon-River 
Lakes, or passing over to the settlement at Lake George (12-14 M. from 
Yarmouth), which is 1^ M. wide and 3-4 M. long, and is the largest lake in 
the township. A little farther N. is the Acadian settlement at Cedar Lake, 

The best route for the sportsman is to follow the Barrington telegraph- 
road 10 M. N. E. to Tnsket (two inns), a large and prosperous shipbuild- 
ing village, with three churches, near the head of ship-navigation on the 
Tusket River. The scenery in this vicinity is picturesque, its chief feature 
being the many green islands off the shores; and the river has been famous 
for fisheries of salmon and gaspereaux, now impaired by the lumber-mills 
above. From this point a chain of lakes ascends to the N. for 20 M., in- 
cluding the central group of the Tuskets, and terminating at the island- 
strewn Lake Wentworth. The best place is found by following the road 
which runs N. £. 15-18 M., between Vaughan Lake and Butler*s Lake, 
and by many lesser ponds, to the remote settlement of Kempt (small hotel), 
near the head-waters of the central and western groups. To the N. and E. 
of this point are the trackless forests and savage ridges of the Blue Mts., 
and the hunter can traverse these wilds for 40 M. to the N. E. (to the Liv- 
erpool Lakes), or for 80 M. to the S. E (to the Shelbume settlements), 
without meeting any permanent evidences of civilization. 

The ancient Indian tradition tells that squirrels were once very numerous in this 
reprion, and grew to an enormous size, endangering the lives of men. But the Great 
Spirit once appeared to a blameless patriarch of the Micmacs, and offered to reward 
his virtue by granting his utmost desire. After long meditation the chief asked the 
Divine Visitor to bless the land by tskking the power firom the mighty squirrels, upon 
which the mandate was issued and the dreaded animals shrank to their present in- 
significant Riae. And hence it is known that ever since that day the squirrel has 
been querulous at tiie sight of man. 

This great forest was formerly the paradise of moose-hunters, but is now closed 
to that sport by the recent Provincial law which forbids the killing of moose for the 
next three years. Poaching is, of course, quite possible, since the forest cannot be 
studded with game-keepers ; but men of culture and foresight will doubtless approve 
the action of the government, and will abstain from illegally pursuing this noble 
game, which must become extinct in a very few years unless caieftdly protected. 



S. of Tusket village are the beautiful groups ot V\ya'l?OL^'^\. 'V^^'«k^ '^gqA.- 

ding the waters of Argyle Bay and the AbiipWc "BaxV^CPC. \i^<ik xansJ^ ^Siasst 

collections of islands on this continent, tYiey are po^^J^aiVj wjjg^'*'^^'^^'^ 



116 IlouteS4. DIGBY NECK. 

865 in number, though they do not claim to possess an intercalary islet 
like that on Lake George (New York), which appears only every fourth 
year. The Tuskets vary in size from Morris Island, which is 3 M. long, 
down to the smallest tuft-crowned rocks, and afford a great diversity of 
scenery. The outer fringe of the archipelago is threaded by the Halifax 
and Yarmouth steamship (see page 126). 

" The scenery of Argyle Bay is extremely beantiflil of its kind ; innumerable 

islands and peninsulas enclose the water in every direction Cottages and cul- 

tivated land break the masses of forest, and the masts of small fishing-Tessels peep- 
ing up from every little cove attest the multiplied resources -which Nature has pro- 
vided for the supply of the inhabitants." (Capt. Moorsom.) 

Among these narrow passes hundreds of Acadians took refuge during the persecu- ' 
tions of 1768 - 60. A British frigate was sent down to hunt them out, but one of her 
boats' crews was destroyed by the ftigitives among the islands, and they were not 
dislodged. There are now two or three hamlets of Acadians in the r^on of the 
upper lakes. 

[The Editor deprecates the meagreness of the for^;oing account of the Tusket 
Lakes. It was too late in the season, when he arriv^ at Yarmouth, to make the 
tour of this district, and the landlord of the United States Hotel, the best authority 
on the sporting facilities of the lake-country, was then attending a party of Boston 
sportsmen among the Blue Mts. The foregoing statements about the district, 
though obtained from the best accessible sources of information, are therefore given 
under reserve ; and it would be best for gentlemen who wish to summer among the 
Tuskets to make inquiries by letter of the proprietor of the United States Hotel, 
Yarmouth, N. S.j 

21 DigbyNeck. 

Tri-weekly stages leave Digby for this remote comer of Nova Scotia. Fare to 
Sandy Cove, S 1.60 ; to West Port, $ 2. 

Distances. — Digby to Rossway, 8>^ M. ; Waterford, 12 ; Centreville, 16 ; Lake- 
side, 17; Sandy Cove, 20; Little Biver, 26; Petite Passage, 80; Free Port; West 
Port, 40. 

The stage runs S. W. from Digby, leaving the settlements of Marshall- 
town and Brighton on the 1., across the Smelt River. The first hamlet 
reached is Rossway^ whence a road crosses to Gulliver^s Cove on the Bay 
of Fundy. For over 20 M. the road descends the remarkable peninsula 
of Digby Neck, whose average width, from bay to bay, is about 1^ M. 
On the 1. is the continuous range of dark hills which marks the W. end 
of the North Mt. range, where it is sinking towards the sea. Among these 
hills are found fine specimens of agate and jasper, and the views from their 
summits (when not hidden by trees) reveal broad and brilliant stretches 
of blue water on either side. Fogs are, however, very prevalent here, and 
are locally supposed to be rather healthy than otherwise. On the 1. of the 
road are the broad waters of St. Mary's Bay, far beyond which are the 
low and rugged Blue Mts. 

Sandy Cove (small inn) is the metropolis of Digby Neck, and has 400 

JuhabitiiDts and two churches. Its people live by farming and fishing, 

and support a fortnightly packet-boat to St. John, N. B. 4 M. S. E., 

across St. Mary^s Bay^ is the port of Weyiiio\il\i <^s.feft ^«L%<i \\T^. Beyond 

LittJe Biver village the stage crosses the xldge, and \)laft Y^^'&«vi%«t ^^^^vs^ 



NOVA-SCOTIA COAST. RouUiS. 117 

the Petite Postage^ which separates Digby Neck from Long Island. This 
strait is quite deep and 1 M. wide, and has a red-and-white flashing light 
on its N. W. point (Boar's Head). *0n the opposite shore of the passage 
is a village of 890 inhabitants (mostly fishermen), and the stage now runs 
down Long Island on the Bay of Fundy side. If there is no fog the view 
across the bay is pleasing, and is usually enlivened by the sails of passing 
vessels. Long Island is about 10 M. long, and 2 M. wide, and its village 
of Free Por£ has 700 inhabitants. 

Near the end of Long Island another ferry-boat is taken, and the trav- 
eller crosses the Grand Passage to West Port {Denton's Hotel)^ a village 
of 600 inhabitants, most of whom are fishermen, shipbuilders, or sea- 
captains. This town is on Brier Island, the S. E. portal of the Bay of 
Fundy, and is 6 M. long by 2 M. wide. On its £. side are two fixed white 
lights, and on the W. are a fog-whistle and a powerful white light visible 
for 15 M. 

25. Hali&x to Tarmoutk— The Atlantic Coast of Hova 

Scotia. 

The steamers M. A. Starr and Edgar Stuart, of Fishwick*s Express 
Line, ply along the coast of Nova Scotia. One of them leaves Halifax for 
Yarmouth on Tuesday, at 6 A. m. ; leaving Yarmouth on Thursday, at 
9 A. M. (There is also a'possibility that a vessel of this line will ply dur- 
ing the present summer between Halifax, Cape Canso, Guysborough, 
Port Hastings, Port Mulgrave, and Antigonish.) 

Fares. — Halifkx to Lunenburg, S2 ; to UTerpool, $ 8.50 : to Shelbnme, $ 4.50 ; 
to Tarmouth, $6. Lunenburg to Liverpool, $3; to Shelbume. $3.50; to Yar- 
mouth, $4.50. Liverpool to Shelbume, $2; to Yarmouth, 88.50. Shelbume to 
Yarmouth, $2.50. Berths are included in these piicee, but Uie mealB are extra. 

"The Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, from Cape Canso to Cape Sable, is pierced 
with innumerable small bays, harbors, and rivers. The shores are lined with rocks 
and thousands of islands ; and although no part of the country can properly be con- 
sidered mountainous, and there are but few steep high cliffs, yet the aspect of the 
whole, if not romantically sublime, is exceedingly picturesque ; and the scenery, in 
many places, is richly beautiful.. The landscape which the head of Mahone Bay, in 
particular, presents can scarcely be surpassed." (M'Gregor's British America.) 

'* The jagged outline of this coast, as seen upon the map, reminds us of the equally 
indented Atlantic shores of Scandinavia ; and the character of the coast as he sails 
along it — the rocky surface, the scanty herbage, and the endless pine forests — re- 
call to the traveller the app^urance and natural productions of the same European 
country." (Psof. Johnston. ) 

The steamer passes down Halifax Harbor (see page 98), and gains the 
open sea beyond Chebucto Head and the lighthouse on Sambro Island, 
She usually makes a good offing before turning down the coast, in order to 
avoid the far-reaching and dangerous Sambro Ledges. W. of the open 
light of Pennant Bay is Mars Head, on whose fatal rocks the ocean steam- 
ship Atlantic was wrecked. 



118 RouUiS. LUNENBURG. 

This line of coast has been fiunons for its marine disasters. In 1779 the British 
irar-vessels North and Helena were wrecked near Sambro, and 170 men were drowned. 
Ifars Head derives it^s name from the fact that the British line-of-battle ship MarSf 
70 guns, was wrecked upon its black ledges. In 1779 the American war-vessel Viper ^ 
ilSif attacked H. M. S. Resolutiotif just off Sambro, and captured her after a long and 
desperate battle, in which both ships were badly cut to pieces. Cape Sambro was 
named by the mariners of St. Malo early in the 17th century ; and it is thought that 
the present form of the name is a corruption of St. Cendre, the original designation. 
The ancient Latin book called the Novus Orbis (published by Elzevir; Amsterdam, 
1688) says that the islands between Cape Sambro ( Sesambre) and Mahone Bay were 
called the Martyrs' Isles, on account of the Frenchmen who had there been mas- 
sacred by the heathen Indians. 

Beyond Cape Prospect the deep indentations of St. Margaret^s Bay and 

Mahone Bay make in on the N., and 

** breezy Aspotogon 
Lifts high ita summit blue." 

liie roughest water of the voyage is usually found while crossing the 
openings of these bays. The course is laid for Cross Island, where there 
are two lights, one of which is visible for 14 M. Passing close in by this 
island, the steamer enters that pretty bay which was formerly known to 
the Indians as Malagash, or "Milky," on account of the whiteness of its 
stormy surf. At the head of this bay the white and compact town of 
Lunenburg is seen between two round green hills. The steamer passes 
around the outermost of these, and enters the snug little harbor. 

" The town of Lunenburg is situated at the innermost extremity of a peninsula, 
and to a military traveller presents a more formidable aspect than any other in Nova 
Scotia, the upper houses being placed on the crests of steep glacis slopes, so as to 
bear upon all approaches." (Capt. Moo&sozt.) 

Lunenbarg {King's Hotel) is a thriving little seaport, situated on a se- 
cure and spacious harbor, and enjoying a lucrative West-India trade. • 
Together with its immediate environs, it has 8,231 inhabitants, of w^hom 
over half are in the port itself. The German character of the citizens is 
still retained, though not so completely as in their rural settlements ; and 
the principal churches are Lutheran. The public buildings of Lunenburg 
County are located here. A large trade in lumber and fish is carried on, in 
addition to the southern exports. There are numerous farming communi- 
ties of Germanic origin in the vicinity; and the shore-roads exhibit at- 
tractive phases of marine scenery. 7 M. distant is the beautifully situated 
village of Mahone Bay (see Route 26) ; 4 M. distant are the remarkable sea- 
side ledges called the Blue Rocks ; to the S. E. is the rural settlement of 
Lunenburg Peninsula, off which are the sea-girt farms of Heckman*s 
Island ; and 12 M. distant is the gold district of The Ovens. 

This site was anciently occupied by the Indian village of Malagash. In 1745 the 

British government issued a proclamation inviting German Protestants to emigrate 

to Nova Scotia and take up its unoccupied lands. In 1753, 200 families of Germans 

And Sffiss settled at Lunenburg, and were provided with &rming implements and 

three years' prormons by the government. They fortified their new domains as 

JjaJ7 a8 possible, but many of the people were WUcAYjy lii4&A.nfi larking in the woods. 

Tbe settlement was thus held in check, until aJtct tla© Conq^aecX. ot CiKoada-^-w^vevv \Jc»a 

Indiana ceased bostiUUeB. In 1777 the town waa atxacfeeA. \>^ Vwq k\R«rv!ca.TL ^tv-«^ 



IRONBOUND ISLAND. RouU 25. 119 

teen, who landed detachments of armed men and occupied the principal buildings. 
After plundering the place and securing a yaluable booty, these unwelcome risitors 
sailed away rejoicing, leaving Lunenburg to put on the robes of war and anxiously 
yearn for another naval attack, for whose reception spirited proTisions were made. 

Among the people throughout this county German customs are still preserred. as 
at weddings And ftinerals ; the Qerman language is spoken ; and sermons are deliv- 
ered oftentimes in the same tongue. The cows are made to do service in ploughing, 
and the forming implements are of a primitive pattern. A large portion of the out- 
door work in the fields is done by the women, who are generally strong and muscular. 

The steamer leaves Lunenburg Harbor, passes Battery Point and its 
lighthouse on the 1., and descends between the knob-like hills of the outer 
harbor. On the r. are the shores of the remarkable peninsula of The 
Ovens (distant from Lunenburg, by road, 10 - 12 M.). The low cliffs along 
this shore are pierced by numerous caverns, three of which are 70 ft. wide 
at their mouths and over 200 ft. deep. The sea dashes into these dark 
recesses during a heavy swell with an amazing roar, broken by deep 
booming reverberations. Certain features in the formation of these caves 
have led to the supposition that they were made by human labor, though 
the theorists do not state the probable object for which they were exca- 
vated. In 1861 gold was discovered on the Ov^ns peninsula, and 2,000 
ounces were obtained during that autumn, since which the mining fever 
has subsided, and no earnest work has been done here. The precious metal 
was obtained chiefly by washing, and but little was effected in the way 
of quartz-crushing. 

Beyond Ovens Head the pretty circular indentation of Rose Bay is seen 
on the r., on whose shores is a settlement of 250 German farmers. The 
steamer now passes between Cross Island (1.) and Rose Head, which are 
about 2 M. apart, and enters the Atlantic. When a sufficient offing has 
been made, the course is laid S. W. i| W. for 8| M. Point Enrag^ is soon 
passed, and then the vessel approaches *Iro]iboTind Island. This re- 
markable rock is about \ M. long, and rises from the sea on all sides in 
smooth curves of dark and iron-like rock, on which the mighty surges 
of the Atlantic are broken into great sheets of white and hissing foam. 
Upon this dangerous outpost of Nova Scotia there is a revolving light, 
which is visible for 13 M. Beyond Ironbound, on the r., is seen the deep 
estuary of the Lahave River, which is navigable to Bridgewater, a distance 
of 13 M., passing for 12 M. through the hamlets of New Dublin, and thence 
through a valley between high and knob-like hills. 

At Fort La H^ve in 1636-7, died Isaac de Razilly, " Knight Commander of the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Lieutenant-General of Acadie, and Captain of tbe 
West." He was a relative of Cfardinal Richelieu, and had fought in the campaigns 
of La Rochelle and the coast of Morocco. In 1642 D'Aulnay purchased these do- 
mains from Claude de Razilly, but soon evacuated the place, removing the people to 
Port Royal. By 1654 the colony had recovered itself having " undoubtedly the 
best port and the best soil in the whole country." It was then attacked by the 
Sieur le Borgne, who burned all its houses and the chapel. At a later day the new 
Fort La H^ve was attacked by a strong force of N«w-En.'^«.\A \x<y$v^^NRVsk ^%^c» 
beaten oflF several iAm^ with the loss of some ot \JtieVc \i«BX. \awa.. ^\s.\.''Ocia\<tw?»'ek 
Frenchmen were £ naJiy forced to surrendeT, and. tJoft "'^VJBJCfe "^^a^ 'KftaRR^\R»T<Sisss.' 
Id 1705 the settlement was again destroyed \>]} 'fioaVsu^'^TaXn^Ti^^ 



120 RouUtS. LR^RPOOL. 

When off Cape Lahave the steamer takes a coarse W. by S., which is 
followed for 15| M. The fishing hamlet of Broad Cove is on the shore 
S. W. of Cape Lahave; and when about 9 M. from the cape, the entrance 
of Port Medway is seen. This harbor is 4 M. long and 1^ M. wide, and 
receives the waters of the Port Medway and Pedley Rivers. Port Med- 
way (Dunphy's Hotel) is on its W. shore, and has 600 inhabitants, who 
are engaged in shipbuilding and lumbering. 

The steamer soon rounds the revolving red light (visible 16 M.) on Cof- 
fin's Island, and turns to the N. W. up Liverpool Bay. The shores are 
well inhabited, with the settlement of Moose Harbor on the 1., and Brook- 
lyn (or Herring Cove) on the r. The lighthouse on Fort Point is rounded 
and the vessel enters the mouth of the Liverpool River, with a line of • 
wharves on the l.,'and the bridge in advance. 

/ Liverpool ( ViUage Green Hotels a comfortable summer-house; and two 
other inns) is a flourishing seaport with 8,102 inhabitants, 6 churches, a 
weekly paper, and a bank. Its principal industries are lumbering, fish- 
ing, and shipbuilding. The town occupies the rocky shore at the mouth 
of the Liverpool River, and its streets are adorned with numerous large 
shade trees. Many summer visitors come to this place, either on account 
of its own attractions, or to seek the trout on the adjacent streams and 
lakes (see Route 27). There are pleasant drives also on the Mill-Village 
Road, and around the shores of the bay. 

Liverpool occupies the site of the ancient Indian domain of Ogumkegeok, made 
classic in the traditions of the Micmacs by the celebrated encounter vhich took 
place here between the diTine Glooscap (see page 106) and the great sorceress of the 
Atlantic coast. The struggle of craft and malevolence against superior power are 
quaintly narrated, though taking forms not pleasing to refined minds, and the con- 
test ends in the defeat of the hag of Ogumkegeokj who is rent in pieces by the 
hunting-dc«8 of Glooscap. 

In May, 1604, the harbor of Liverpool was entered by Pierre du Guaf t, " Sieur de 
Honts of Saintonge, Gentleman in Ordinary of the Chamber, and Governor of Pons ," 
who had secured a monopoly of the fhr-trade between 40° and 54° N. latitude. He 
found a ship here trading without authority, and confiscated her, naming the har- 
bor Port Rossignol, after her captain, " as though M. de Monts had wished to mako 
Bouie compensation to the man for the loss he inflicted on him, by immortalizing 
his name." This designation did not hold to the harbor, but has been transferred 
to the large and beautiful li^e near the head-waters of the Liverpool River. 

About 1684 a shore-fishery was established here by M. Denys and Gov. Bazilly. 
This enterprise was for a long time successful, but was finally crippled by the cap- 
ture of its heavily laden freighting-ship by the Portuguese. Soon afterward Denys 
was forced to leave Port Rossignol on account of the machinations of D'Aulnay 
Chamisay, and the settlement was broken up. By the year 1760 a thriving village 
stood on this fite, and in the War of 1812 many active privateers were fitted out here. 
In 1882 the port owned 25,000 tons of shipping. 

On leaving Liverpool Bay the steamer rounds Western Head and runs 

S. W. i S. 14 M. On the r. is the deep embayment of Port Mouton, 

partly sheltered by Mouton Island, and lighted by a fixed red light on 

Spectacle Island. At its head is the farming and fishing settlement of 

-Port Mouton, with 850 inhabitants. TYila inVel -w^ia V\^\\.^^ \i^ IV^ eiL- 

ploring ship of the Sieur de Monts ia leo^, ttnei T©te\\ft^VVftTi"!cca^>wV\OcL 



i 



SHELBURNK Jtoute 26. 121 

it still bears because a sheep here leaped from the deck into the bay and 
was drowned. The shores were settled in 1783 by the disbanded veterans 
of Tarleton^s Legion, who had done such valiant service in the Carolinas. 

In July, 1622, Sir William Alexander's pioneer-ship entered Port Monton, " and 
discovered three very pleasant harbors and went ashore in one of them, which, after 
the ship's name, they called Luke's Bay, where they found, a great way up, a very 
pleasant river, Ming three fisithoms deep at the entry thereof, and on every side of 
the same they did see very delicate meadows, having Roses white and red growing 
thereon, with a kind of white Lily, which had a dainty smell." These shores, which 
were hardly so fitir as the old mariner painted them, were soon occupied by a French 
post, after whose destruction they remained in solitude for over a century. 

On Little Hope Island is a revolving red light, beyond which the steamer 
runs W. S. W. 15 M. ; then Port JoU opens to the N. W., on which is a 
fishing-village of 200 inhabitants. About 3 M. beyond is Port Herbert, a 
deep and narrow estuary with another maritime hamlet. Farther W. is 
the mouth of Sable River ; but the steamer holds a course too far out to 
distinguish much of these low shores. 8^ M. N. is Bam Island, W. of 
which are the ledges off Bagged Island Harbor, at whose head is a village 
of 350 inhabitants. On the W. side of the harbor is Lockers Island (two 
inns), a prosperous little port of 400 inhabitants, whence the West-India 
trade and the Bank fisheries are carried on. Duricg the season of 1874 
70,000 quintals of fish (valued at $ 250,000) were exported from this point. 
On Carter^s Island is a fixed red light, and the sea-swept ledge of Gull 
Bock lies outside of the harbor, and has a powerful white light. Beyond 
Western Head the steamer runs across the wide estuaries of Green Harbor 
and the Jordan River, on whose shores are four maritime hamlets. The 
course is changed to N. W. ^ N., and Bony's and Government Points are 
passed on the r. On the 1. Cape Roseway is approached, on which are 
two fixed white lights, visible for 10 and 18 M., standing in a black-and- 
white striped tower. Passing between Surf Point and Sand Point the ves- 
sel turns N. by E., leaving Birchtown Bay on the 1., and runs up to Shel- 
bume. The last few miles are traversed between the picturesque shores 
of a bay which an enthusiastic mariner has called " the best in the world, 
except the harbor of Sydney, in Australia." 

Shelbume {Port Bosetoay House ; English and American Hotel) is the cap- 
ital of Shelburne County, and has over 1,000 inhabitants and 5 churches. 
It is engaged chiefly in fishing and shipbuilding, and excels in the latter 
branch of business. The harbor is 9 M. long and 1 - 2 M. wide, and has 
5-7 fathoms of water, without any shoals or flats. It is completely land- 
locked, but can never attain any commercial importance, owing to the 
fact that it is frozen solid during the winter, there being no river currents 
or strong tides to agitate the water. There are granite-ledges near the 
village, and the Roseway River empties into the bay 1 M. distant. Birch- 
town is 5 M. from Shelburne, and is at the be&d of «i\iTWiOa. <il^^\iV5 . \^. 
is inhabited hy the descendants of the neRTo c^\Qi;ve% \iTWi.\^\. lx<2fccL '^'w^- 
land and Virginia by the Loyalist refugees, 'm VI ^^. Taa ^^\«i\V3\i^^ 

6 



122 Jtoute 26. PORT LATOUR. 

of Shelburne is unimproved, and the roads soon terminate in the great for- 
ests about the Blue Mts. Stages run from this town £. and W. Fare?, 
Shelburne to Liverpool, $2.50; to Barrington, $1.50; to Yarmouth, $4. 

" The town of Shelburne la situated at the N. extremity of a beautiful inlet, 10 H. 
in length and 2-3 M. in breadth, in which the whole royal navy of Great Britain 
might lie completely landlocked." In 1783 large numbers of American Loyalists 
settled here, hoping to erect a great city on this unrivalled harbor. They brought 
their servants and equipages, and established a cultured metropolitan society. Shel- 
burne soon ran ahead of Halifax, and measures were taken to transfer tiie seat of 
covemment here. Within one year the primeval forest was replaced by a city of 
12,000 inhabitants (of whom 1,200 were negroes). The obscure hamlet which had 
been founded here (under the name of New Jerusalem). in 1764 was replaced by a 
metropolis ; and Gov. Parr soon entered the bay on the frigate La Sophie ^ amid the 
roaring of saluting batteries, and named the new city Slielbume. But the place 
had no rural back-country to supply and be enriched by ; and the colonists, mostly 
patricians ftam the Atlantic cities, could not and would not engage in the fisheries. 
The money which they had brougnt from their old homes was at last exhausted, and 
then " Shelburne dwindled into insignificance almost as rapidly as it had risen to 
notoriety." Many of its people returned contritely to the United States ; and the 
population here soon sank to 400. ** It is only the sight of a few large storehouses, 
with decayed timbers and window-firames, standing near the wharves, that will lead 
him to conclude that those wharves must once have teemed with shipmasters and 
sailors. The streets of the town are changed into avenues bounded b> stone fences 
on either side, in which grass J^ants contest the palm of supremacy with stones." 
Witiiin two years over $2,500,000 were sunk in the founding of Shelburne. 

The steamer leaves Shelburne by the same course on which she entered, 
•with the stunted forests of McNutt*s Island on the r. Rounding Cape 
Roseway within 1 M. of th^ lights, she runs down by Gray's Island, pass- 
ing Round Bay and the hamlet of Black Point, on the bold headland of 
the same name. Negro Island is then seen on the r., and is occupied by 
a population of fishermen; while its N. E. point has a powerful red-and- 
white flashing light. Inside of this island is the broad estuary of the Clyde 
River, and near by is the large and picturesque fishing-village of Cape 
Negro. Cape Negro was so named by Champlain, in 1604, " on account 
of a rock which at a distance resembles one." The steamer then passes 
the Salvage Rocks, off Blanche Island (Point Jeffreys), and opens the 
broad bay of Port Latour on the N. W. This haven was the scene of 
stirring events during the 17th century, and the remains of the fort of 
Claude de la Tour are still visible here. 

*' Claude Turgis de St. Estienne, Sieur de la Tour, of the province of Champagne, 

quitted Paris, taking with him his son Charles Amador, then 14 years old, to settle 

in Acadia, near Poutrincourt, who was then engaged in founding Port Royal." 17 

years afterwards, Charles succeeded to the government on the death of Biencourt, 

Poutrincourt's son, and for 4 years held Fort St. Louis, in the present Port Latour. 

Meantime Claude had been captured by the Ihiglish and carried to London, where 

he was knighted, and then married one of the Queen's maids-of-honor. Being a 

Huguenot, he was the more easily seduced fh)m his allegiance to France, and he 

offered to the King to procure the surrender of Fort St. Louis (the only French post 

then held in Acadia) to the English. So he sailed to Nova Scotia with two firigatea, 

and asked his son to yield up the stronghold, offering him high honors at London 

And the supreme command in Acadia, on behalf of the English power. " Claude at 

oace told his Atber that he was mistaken \n 8up\>w\n% him capable of giving up the 

place to the enemies of the state. That he wou\A pT^sene \\. i«t \.\vft"V\TV5t,\v\^-n!«ater 

while he had a breath of life. That he esteemed YvXgJttVj ^\ie ^\^\\.\sa ^^«s^\!i5fla.\yj 



CAPE SABLE. RouUtS. 123 

the English khig, hat should not hnj them at the priee of treason. That the prince 
he served was able to requite him ; and if not, that fidelity was its own best recom- 
pense." The father employed affectionate intercession and bold menace, alike in 
vain ; and the English nayid commander then landed his forces, but was wTorfly 
repulsed from the fort, and finally gave up the siege. A traitor to France an<l a 
cause of disaster to England, the unfortunate La Tour dared not return to Europe, 
but adTiaed his patrician wife to go back with the fleet, since naught now remained 
for him but penury and misery. The noble lady replied. " that she had not married 
him to abandon him. That wherever he shocdd take her, and in whatever condi- 
tion he might be placed, she would always be his fiiithful companion, and that all 
her happiness would consist in softening his grief." lie then threw himself on the 
clemency of his son, who tempered filial affection with military vigilance, and wel- 
comed the elder La Tour, with his funily, servants, and equipage, giving him a house 
and liberal subsistence, but making and enforcing the condition that neither himwlf 
nor lus wife should ever enter fort St. Louis. There they lived in happiness and 
comfort for many years. (See also page 19. ) 

The hamlet of Port Latonr is seen on the inner shore, and the 
vessel rounds the long low promontory of Baccaro Point, on which is a 
small village and a fixed red light (visible 12 M.). On the W. is Cape 
Sable Island, which is 7 M. long and 2 - 8 M. wide, and has a population 
of 1,636, with three churches. Its first settlers were the French Acadian?, 
who had prosperous little hamlets on the shores. In August, 1768, 400 
soldiers of the 35th British Regiment landed here and destroyed the settle- 
ments, and carried priest and people away to Halifax. About 1784 the 
island was occupied by Loyalists from the New-England coasts, whose de- 
scendants are daring and adventurous mariners. Cape Sable is on an 
outer islet at the extreme S. point of the island and of Nova Scotia, and is 
8- 9 M. S. W. of Baccaro Point 

It is supposed that Cape Sable and the adjacent shores were the ancient lands of 
the Norse discoverers, " flat, and covered with wood, and where white sands were 
&r around where they went, and the shore was low." In the year 994 this point was 
visited by Leif, the son of Ihric the Red, of Brattahlid, in Qreenland. He anchored 
hi.s ship off shore and landed in a boat ; and when he returned on board he said : 
*' This land shall be named after its qualities, and called Marklanb " (woodland). 
Thence he sailed southward, and discovered Yinland the Good, on the S. shores of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, where for many years the bold Norsemen main- 
tained colonies. In the year 1007 Markland was again visited by Thorflnn Karlscfne, 
who, with 160 men, was sailing south to Yinland. These events are narrated in the 
ancient Icelandic epics of the Saga of Eric the Red and the Saga of Thorflnn Karlsefne. 

In 1347 a ship arrived at Iceland from the shores of Markland, which is de- 
scribed by the Annates Skalholtini and the Codex Vlateyensis as having been 
smaller than any Icelandic coasting-vessel. In such tiny craft did the fearless 
Norsemen visit these iron-bound shores. 

In the autumn of 1750 there was a sharp naval action off the cape between 
H. M. S. Albany and the French war-vessel St. Francis. The engagement lasted 
four hours, and ended in the surrender of the St. FranciSy whose convoy, however, 
escaped and reached its destination. 

In July, 1812, the Salem privateer PoUy was cruising off Cape Sable, when she 
sighted two strange sail^ and bore down on them, supposing them to be merchant- 
men ; but one was a British sloop-of-war, which opened a hot fire upon the incau- 
tious PoUy, and a sharp chase ensued. A calm commenced, during which the frig- 
ate's boats and launch attacked the privateer, but were repulsed by heavy dis- 
charges of musketry and langrage. The Polly made her escape, and during the 
chase and action the convoy of the firigate had been captured by the privateer Mad- 
isoUf and was sent into Salem. 

In the same vidnity (Aug. 1, 1812) the Rhode-Ts\a.iid "^AvBAftW Yaukee ^a.^\.w^^<V 
iJie British alifp Royal Bounty ^ 10 guns, after a battle ot ooa ^vwvt' ii ^\«».\itfiw. "^X^a 



124 BmUU, BARRINGTON. 

prirateer^s broadsides were delivered with great precision, and 150 of her shot stmck 
the enemy, while the fire of the Royal Bounty ^ though rapid and heavy, was nearly 
ineffective. The shattered Briton became unmanageable, and while in that condi- 
tion was raked ttom. stem to stem by the Yankee's iMtteries. 

Gape Sable has long been dreaded by seamen, and lias caught up and destroyed 
many vessels. It is one of the most dangerous prongs of that iron-bound Province 
for which Edmund Burke could find no better words than " that hard-visaged, ill- 
flkvored brat " Probably the most destructive wreck on this shore was that of the 
ocean steamship Hungarian. 

The steamer is now running to the N. W. up the Barrington Pas- 
iage^ between Cape Sable Island and the populous Baccaro peninsula. In 
about 12 M. it lies to off Barrington, a thriving maritime village of 1,000 
inhabitants, most of whom are engaged in the fisheries and the coasting 
trade. Clyde River is about 9 M. N. E., and is a lumbering district origi- 
nally settled by Welshmen. 10-12 M. N. are the Sabimm and Great 
Pubnico Lakes. Barrington was settled at an early date by the French, 
but they were crowded off in 1768 by the arrival of 160 families from Cape 
God, who brought hither their household effects on their own vessels. 
After the Revolution, a colony of Loyalists from Nantucket settled here 
with their whilom neighbors. 

The course is now to the S. W., through a narrow and tide-swept pas- 
sage between Clement Point and N. E. Point, and thence out through the 
Barrington West Passage, passing the Baptist church near darkens Har- 
bor, and emerging on the open sea between Bear Point and Newell Head. 
(It is to be noted that, under certain adverse conditions of wind and tide, 
the steamer does not call at Barrington, but rounds Cape Sable on the 
outside.) On the 1. is Green hXand^ hiding Cape Sable, and the inlet of 
Shag Harbor is seen on the r. On Bon Portage Island (whose original 
French name was Bon Potage) is a new lighthouse, to warn vessels from 
the rugged shores on which the Viceroy was wrecked. The course soon 
changes toward the N. W., and Seal Island, " the elbow of the Bay of 
Fundy," is seen on the 1., far out at sea, with the tower of its lighthouse 
(fixed white light, visible 18 M., and fog-whistle) looming above its low 
shores. On this island the ocean-steamship Columbia was lost. The 
Blonde Rock is 8j M. S. by W. from the lighthouse, and marks the point 
where H. B. M. frigate Blonde went to pieces, in 1782. Her crew was res- 
cued from the island and was given liberty by the American privateers 
Lively and ScammeUf which were prowling about Cape Sable at the time 
of the wreck. 

When the Seal Island lighthouse is just abeam, on the other side is seen 

Cockerwhit and the Mutton Islands; N. of Seal Island the Noddy, Mud, 

and Round Islands are seen, lying well out at sea. The early French 

maps (Chaubert's) gave these lonely islands the significant name of Les 

fsles aux Loups Marim, 

From Cape Sable " one goes to the Isle out CormoranU, t^Xw^safe ^^^t^ eo callpd 
oa account of the infinite number there of tkioBe Y>Vt^,'«VV^'«\wjsfe«?j^'«%«i«A.* 



TUSKET ISLANDS. JiauU 25. 125 

cfutk ; and firom this bay making W. about 6 leaffnest crossing a bay which nins in 
2-3 leagues to the N., we meet several islands, 2-3 leagues out to sea, which may 
contain, some 2, others 3 leagues, and others less, according to my Judgment. They 
arc mostly very dangerous for vessels to come close to, on account of the great tides 
and rocks level with the water. These islands are filled with pine-trees, firs, birches, 
and aspens. A little further on are 4 others. In one there is so great a quantity of 
birds called tangutux that they may be easily knocked down with a stick. In 
another there are seals. In two others there is such an abundance of birds of dif- 
ferent kinds that, without having seen them, could not be imagined, such as cor- 
morants, ducks of three kinds, geese, mannetteSj hvutaid»,perroquets de mer, snipes, 
vultures, and other birds of prey, mauneSj sea-larks of two or three kinds, herons, 
goiUarUs^ curlews, sea-gulls, divers, Idtes, appoils^ crows, cranes, and other sorts, 
which make their nests here." (ChjUIPlain. ) 

** Here are many islands extending into the sea, 4 - 6 M. distant from the main- 
land, and many rocks with broeiking seas. Some of these islands, on account of the 
multitude of birds, are called Ities aux Tangueux ; others are called Ides aux Loups 
Marins (Seal Islands)." (NoYUS Oebis. ) 

N. of St. John's Island (on the r.) is seen the deep inlet of Pubnico Har- 
bor, on whose shores is the great fishing-village of Fnbnico ( CarkuvTa 
Eotel\ with 1,900 inhabitants, of whom 136 families are Acadian-French, 
the greater portion belonging to the families of Amiro and D'Entremont. 
There are valnable eel-fisheries off this coast, and the Acadians own 65 
schooners in the Banks fisheries. 6 M. N. is Argyle^ a settlement of 800 
inhabitants, near the island-strewn Abuptic Harbor. 

The steamer now crosses the month of Argyle Bay and the estuary of 
the Tusket River (aee page 116), and enters the archipelago of the * Tusket 
Islands. In favorable conditions of wind and tide she traverses the EUen- 
wood Passage^ passing the Bald Tnskets, EUenwood, Allen, and Murder 
Islands, and a n)ultitnde of others. The islands are of great variety of size 
and shape, and are usually thickly covered with low and sturdy trees; 
and the channels between them are narrow and very deep. The frequent 
kaleidoscopic changes in the views on either side, and the fascinating 
commingling and contrast of forest, rock, and water, recall the scenery of 
the Thousand Islands or the Narrows of Lake George. But the Tuskets 
are not even embayed ; they stand off one of the sharpest angles of the 
continent, and the deep lanes between them are traversed by the strongest 
tides of the ocean. 

Soon after passing the last Tusket the steamer runs in near the white 
village on Jebogtie Pointy and enters Yarmouth Sound. On the 1. is Cape 
Fourchu, with its fog-whistle and a lofty revolving light which is visible 
for 18 M. The narrow channel is ascended, with a plain of mud on either 
side, if the tide is out; and the vessel reaches the end of her journey at the 
wharves of Yarmouth. 

Yarmouth, see page 114. 



120 Mouie t6. ST. MARGARETS BAY. 

26. Halifiax to Tarmonth, by the Shore Boute. — Chester 

and Mahone Bay. 

The easiest route to the chief ports on this coast is bj the steamship line (see 
Route 25) ; and the new Western-Counties Ridlway^ from Tarmou^ to Annapolis, 
\ri]1, when completed, fiimish a still more expeditious line of travel. But many 
points on the Atlantic front of the Province are, and will be, accessible only by 
stages. This mode of travel is folly as arduous here as in other remote districts, and 
the accommodations for way&rers are indifferent. 

Dlstanoe§. — Halifiix to St. Margaret's Bay, 21 M. ; Hubbard's Cove (McLean's), 




191 ; Yarmouth^ 201. (Certain facts ascertained while travelling over this route 
have led the Editor to state the distance between Bridgewater and Chester as 4 M. 
less tiian that given in the official itinerary.) 

Fare§«— &di&x to Chester, $2.50;. Mahone Bay, $8.50 (Lunenburg, $4); 
Bridgewater, $ 4 ; Liverpool, $ 6 ; Shelbume, $ 8.50 ; Barrington, $ 10 ; Yarmouth, 
$12. 

The stage rattles up the hilly streets of Halifax at early morning, and 
traverses the wide commons N. of the Citadel, with formal lines of trees 
on either side. Beyond the ensuing line of suburban villas it descends to 
the level of the Northwest Arm (see page 100), along whose head it passes. 
The road then leads along the shores of the lakes whence Halifax draws 
its water-supply, and enters a dreary and thinly settled region. Dauphi- 
ney*s Cove is at the head of* St. Margaret's Bay, one ^f the most beauti- 
ful bays on all this remarkable coast. It is 12 M. long by 6 M. wide, and 
is entered by a passage 2 M. wide ; and is supposed to have been named 
{Bate de Ste, Marguerite) by Champlain, who visited it in May, 1603. 
There are several small maritime villages on its shores, and the dark blue 
waters, bounded by rugged hills, are deep enough for the passage of large 
ships. The stage runs S. W. along the shore for 11 M., sometimes rolling 
alongside of beaches of dazzling white sand, then by shingly and stony 
strands on which the embayed surf breaks lightly, and then by the huts 
of fishermen* s hamlets, with their boats, nets, and kettles by the road- 
side. Hubbard's Cove has a small inn, where passengers get their midday 
meals. 

There was an ancient water-route firom this point to the Basin of Minas. 2 M. 
from the Cove is Dauphiney^s Lake, which is 4 M. long, whence a carry of 1^ M. leads 
into the Ponhook LaJee, a river-like expanse 8 M. long, and nowhere so much as 1 
M. wide. A short outlet leads to the Blind Lake, which winds for 7 M. through the 
forests W. of the Ardoise Mt., and is drained by the St Cioix River, emptying into 
the Avon at Windsor. 

7 M. S. W. of Hubbard's Cove the stage crosses the East River ^ " a 

glorious runway for salmon, with splendid falls and cold brooks tumbling 

into it at intervals, at the mouth of which large trout can be caught two 

at a time, if the angler be skilful enough to land them when hooked.** 

Frequent and beautiful views of Mahone Bay are now gained (on the 1.), 

B8 the stage sweeps around its head and desceivd& \.o 



CHESTER. Itautete. 127 

Chester (two good iDns), a village of about 900 inhabitants, finely situ- 
ated on a hill-slope which overlooks the Chester Basin and Mahone Bay. 
It has three churches^ and a pleasant summer society. This town was 
settled about the year 1760 by 144 New-Englanders, who brought an outfit 
of cattle and farming-tools. In 1784 they were joined by a large number 
of Loyalist refugees, but these were from the American cities, and soon 
wearied of farming and returned out of exile. In the woods near the vil- 
lage is a thermal spring 8 ft. around, whence a soft alkaline water is dis- 
charged; and on the shores of Sabbatee Lake are found deposits of kaolin, 
or white pipe-clay. 

Mr. Hallock is an enthusiastic admirer of this town, and says : " Three pleasant 
seasons have I spent at Chester. 1 idolize its very name. Just below my window a 
lawn slopes down to a little bay with a jetty, where an occasional schooner lands 
some stores. There is a large tree, under which I have placed some seats ; and off 
the end of the pier the ladies can catch flounders, tomcods, and cunners, in any 
quantity. There are beautifhl driyes in the yicinity, and innumerable islands in 
the bay, where one can bathe and picnic to heart's-content There are sailing-boats 
fur lobster-spearing and deep-sea fishing, and row-boats toa From the top of a 
neighboring hill is a wonderfVil panorama of forest, stream, and cultiTated shore, of 
bays and distant sea, filled with islands of every sise and shape. And if one will go 
to Qold River he may perchance see, as I have done, caribou quietly feeding <mi the 
natural meadows aiong the upper stream. Beyond Beech Hill is a trackless forest, 
filled with moose, with which two old hunters living near oft hold <i"»"»*r inter- 
course." (The Fishing Ibwist.) 

One of the pleasantest excursions in this district is to Deep Cove and 
Blandford, 16 M. from Chester, by a road which follows the shores of 
Mahone Bay. From Blandford the ascent of Mt. ABpotogon is easily ac- 
complished, and rewards the visitor by a superb marine * view, including 
the great archipelago of Mahone Bay, the deep, calm waters of St. Mar- 
garet's Bay on the E., the broken and picturesque shores towards Cape 
Sambro, and a wide sweep of the blue Atlantic. Visitors at Chester also 
drive down the Lunenburg and Lah^ve road, which affords pretty sea- 
views. 

A rugged road leads across the Province to Windsor, about 40 M. N., passing 
through an almost unbroken wilderness of hills, and following the course of the 
Avon Lakes and Siver. Semi-weekly stages run from Chester to Kentville (see 
page 90). 

* Mahone Bay opens to the S., E. and W. from Chester, and mny be 
explored by boats or yachts from that village. It is studded with beau- 
tiful islands, popularly supposed to be 865 in number, the largest of which 
are occupied by cosey little farms, while the smaller ones are covered with 
bits of forest. The mainland shores are nearly all occupied by prosperous 
farms, which are under the care of the laborious Germans of the county. 
The fogs prevail in these waters to a far less extent than on the outer 
deep, and it is not infrequently that vessels round the point in a dense 
white mist and enter the sunshine on the Bay. Boats and boatmen rcLO.Y 
be obtained at the villages along the shore, and pVea^^xi^ ex.c\rc^vQpos. ^o».'^ 
Jbe made among the islands, in pursuit of fish, '^ T\iB xvicrc^iJ^^^ Xi^awiJcj 



128 RauUgG. MAHONE BAT. 

of Mahone Bay" has been the theme of praise from all who have visited 
this district. In June, 1813, the line-of-battle-ship La Hogue and the 
frigate Orpheus chased tlie American privateer Young Teazer in among 
tliesc islands. Though completely overpowered, the Yankee vessel re- 
fiijrcd to surrender, and she was blown up by one of her officers. The 
whole crew, 94 in number, was destroyed in this catastrophe. 

Oak Island is celebrated as one of the places where it Is alleged tiiat Gapt 
Kidd's treasure is hidden. Aboat 80 years ago 8 New-Englanders claimed to hsn 
fi)und here evidences of a buried mystery, coinciding with a tradition to the same 
effect. Diggiog down, they passed regular layers of Bag-stones and cut logs, and 
their succetwors penetrated the earth over 100 ft. fiuther, finding layers of timber, 
charcoal, putty, West-Indian gra«8, sawed planks, and other curious substances, 
together with a quaintly carved stone. The pit became flooded with water, and wm 
pumped out steadily. Ilalifiix and Truro merchants invested In the enterprise, ud 
gi>eat stone drains were discovered leading from the sea into the pit. After much 
uioucy and labor was spent in the excavation, it was given up about 10 years ago, 
and the object of the great drains and concealed pit still remains a profoaiftd mys- 
tery. 

Big Taneook is the chief of the islands in this bay, and is about 2 M. long. It 
contains [AK) inhabitants, who are engaged in &rming and fishing. Between this 

E)int and Mt. Aspotogon is Little Taneook Island, with 00 inlmbitants. These 
lands wore devastated, in 1756, by the Indians, who killed several of the settlers. 
'* This bay, the Kcenery of which, for picturesque grandeur, is not surpassed l^ 
any landscape in America, is about 10 M. broad and l2 deep, and contains within it 
a multitude of beautiful wooded islands, which were probably never counted, bat 
are said to exceed 200." 

Soon after the Yarmouth stage leaves Chester " we come to Chester 
Basin, island-gemmed and indented with many a little cove; and far out 
to sea, looming up in solitary grandeur, is Aspotogon, a mountain head- 
land said to be the highest land in Nova Scotia ( ? ). The road follows the 
shore for many a mile, and then turns abruptly up the beautiful valley of 
Gold River, the finest of all the salmon streams of this grand locality. In 
it there are eleven glorious pools, all within 2 M. of each other, and others 
for several miles above at longer intervals.'* 

Mahone Bay (Victoria Hotel) is a village of 800 inhabitants, situated on 
a pretty cove about 17 M. from Chester. It has 4 churches, and its inhab- 
itants are mostly engaged in fishing and the lumber-trade. In the vicinity 
are several other populous German settlements, and 7 M. S. is Lunenburg 
(see page 118). This point was known to the Indians by the name of 
Mtcshamush, and was fortified by the British in 1764. 

The stage now traverses a dreary inland region, inhabited by Germans, 
and soon reaches Bridgevxiter (two inns), a thriving village on the Lahave 
Biver, 13 M. from the sea. It has 1,000 inhabitants and 4 churbhes, and 
is largely engaged in the lumber-trade, exporting staves to the United 
States and the West Indies. The scenery of the Lahave River is at- 
tractive and picturesque, but the saw-mills on its upper waters have 
proved fatal to the fish (see page 119). The road now traverses a dismal 
region for 18 M., when it reaches MiU Village (small hotel), on the Port 
Medway River. This place has several large saw-miUs and a match- 



LIVEKPOOL LAKES. ItouUi?, 129 

factory, and its population numbers about 400. It is near the Doran and 
Herringcove Lakes, and is 6 M. from the Third Falls of the Lahave. 9 M. 
S. W. is Liverpool (see page 120). • 

From Liverpool to Yarmouth the road runs along the heads of the bays 
and across the intervening strips of land. The chief stations and their 
distances are given in the itinerary on page 126; the descriptions of the 
towns may be found in Route 25. 

27. The Liverpool Lakes. 

This system of inland waters is most easily reached from Halifliz or St. John 
by passing to Annapolis Royal and there taking the stage which leaves at 6 A. M. 
daily. 

I>l8tanceg. — Annapolis ; Milford, 14 M. ; Maitland, 27 ; Northfield.dO ; Kempt, 
85; Brookfleld, 41; Caledonia Comer; Greenfield (Ponhook), 60; Middlefield, 56; 
Liverpool, 70. 

Soon after leaving Annapolis the stage enters the valley of Allen* s River, 
which is followed toward the long low range of the South Mt. At Milford 
(small inn) the upper reservoirs of the Liverpool River are met, and from 
this point it is possible to descend in canoes or flat-bottomed boats to the 
town of Liverpool, 60 M. distant. If a competent guide can be secured 
at Milford this trip can be made with safety, and will open up rare fishing- 
grounds. The lakes are nearly all bordered by low and rocky shores, with 
hill-ranges in the distance; and flow through regions which are as yet but 
little vexed by the works of man. The trout in these waters are abundant 
and not too coy; though better fishing is found in proportion to the dis- 
tance to which the southern forest is entered. Mr. McClelland has been 
the best guide from Milford, but it is uncertain whether he will be avaU- 
able this summer. 

Queen's and Lunenburg Counties form ** the lake region of Nova Scotia. 
All that it lacks is the grand old mountains to make it physically as at- 
tractive as the Adlrondacks, while as for game and fish it is in every way 
infinitely superior. Its rivers are short, but they flow with full volume 
to the sea, and yield abundantly of salmon, trout, and sea-trout. Its lakes 
swarm with trout, and into many of them the salmon ascend to spawn, 
and are dipped and speared by the Indians in large numbers.'* (HaI/- 

LOCK.) 

" In the hoUows of the highlands are likewise embosomed lakes of every variety 
of form, and often quite isolated. Deep and intensely blue, their shores fringed 
with rock bowlders, and generally containing several islands, they do much to di- 
versify the monotony of the forest by their frequency and picturesque scenery." 
(Capt. Habdt.) 

The Liverpool road is rugged, and leads through a region of almost un- 
broken forests. Beyond .Milford it runs S. E. down the valleys of the 
Boot Lake and Fisher's Lake, with dark forests and ragged clearings on 
either side. Maitland is a settlement of about 400 inhabitants, and a few 
miles beyond is Northfield, whence a forest-road leads S. W. 6 M. to th& 

6* A 



130 BouiefB?. LIVERPOOL LAKEa 

shore of Fairy Lake^ or the Frozen Ocean, a beautiful island-strewn sheet 
ofwater 4M. long. 

•The road now enters BrooJcfield^ the centre of the new farming settle- 
ments of the North District of Queen's County. Several roads diverge 
hence, and in the vicinity the lakes and tributaries of the Liverpool and 
Port Medway Rivers are curiously interlaced. 5 - 6 M. S. £. is the Malaga 
Lake^ which is 5 M. long and has several pretty islands. The road passes 
on to Greenfield^ a busy lumbering-village at the outlet of Port Medway 
Great Lake. This long-drawn-out sheet of water is also skirted by the 
other road, which runs S. from Brookfield through Caledonia Comer 
(small km). The Ponhook Road is S. W. of Greenfield and runs dowil 
through the forest to the outlet of Ponliook Lake, *' the headquarters of 
the Micmacs and of all the salmon of the Liverpool River." This Indian 
Tillage is the place to get guides who are tireless and are familiar with 
every rod of the lake-district. From this point a canoe voyage of about 
8 M. across the Ponhook Lakes leads the voyager into the great * Lake 
Bossignol) which is 12 M. long by 8 M. wide, and affords one of the most 
picturesque sights in Nova Scotia. 

" A glorious view ^?as unfolded aa we left the run and entered the still water of 
the lake. The breeze fell rapidly with the sun and enabled us to steer towards the 
centre, fiNHu which alone the sue of the lake could be appreciated, owing to the 
number of the islands. These were of every imaginable shape and size, — firom the 
grizzly rock bearing a solitary stunted pine, sha^y with Usnea, to those of a mile 

m length, thickly wooded with maple, beech, and birches Here and there a 

bright spot of white sand formed a beach tempting for a disembarkation ; and fre- 
quent sylvan scenes of an almost fidry-land character opened up as we coasted along 
die shores, — little harbors almost closed in firom the lake, overgrown with water- 
lilies, arrow-heads, and other aquatic plants, with mossy banks backed by bosky 
groves of hemlocks." (Caft. Habdt.) 

At the foot of Lake Rossignol is a wide oak-opening, with a fine greensward under 
groves of white oaks. Near this point the Liverpool River flows out, passing several 
islets, and affording good trout-flshing. In and about this oak-opening was the 
chief village of the ancient Micmacs of this region ; and here are their nearly oblit- 
erated bu^ng-grounds. The dte is now a fovorite resort for hunting and fishing 
parties. The name Ponhook means " the first lake in a chain " ; and these shores 
are one of the few districts of the vast domains of Miggumdtighee^ or " Micmac 
Land," that remain in the possession of the aborigines. From Ponhook 12 lakes 
may be entered by canoes without making a dngle portage. 

From Lake Rossignol the sportsman may visit the long chain of the 
8effum-8ega Lakes^ entered from a stream on the N. W. shore (several 
I)ortages), and may thence ascend to the region of the Blue Mts. and into 
Shelbume County. The Indian Gardens may also be visited thence, af- 
fording many attractions for riflemen. The Micmacs of Ponhook are the 
best guides to the remoter parts of the forest. There are several gentle- 
men in the town of Liverpool who have traversed these pleasant solitudes, 
and they will aid fellow-sportsmen loyally. The Indian vUlage is only 
about 16 M. from Liverpool, by a road on the 1. bank of the river. 

Liverpooli see page 120. * 



CHEZZETCOOK. Route £8, 131 

28. Halifiu to Tangier. 

The Rojal mail-stage leaves Hali&z at 6 a. m. on Monday, Wednesday, and Fri- 
day (returning the alternate days;, for the yillages along the Atlantic shore to the 
£. The conveyance is not good, and the roads are sometimes in bad condition, but 
there is pretty coast-scenery along the route. 

Distances* — Hali&x ; Dartmouth ; Porter's Lake (Innis's), 16>^ M. ; Chezzet- 
cook Road (Ormon's), 18>i ; Musquodoboit Harbor, 28 >^ ; Lakeville (Webber's), 40 ; 
Ship Harbor, 48; Tangier, 66 ; Sheet Harbor, 74 ; Beaver Harbor, 84. 

After leaving Dartmouth, the stage runs £. through a lake-strewn coun- 
try, and passes near the gold-mines of Montague. Beyond the Little 
Sahnon River it traverses Preston, with the gold-bearing district of 
Lawrencetown on the S. The mines and placer-washings at this point 
drew large and enthusiastic crowds of adventurers in 1861 - 62, but they 
are now nearly abandoned. The road rounds the N. end of Echo Lake 
and ascends a ridge beyond, after which it crosses the long and river-like 
expanse of Porter's Lake, and runs through the post-village of the same 
name. 8-4 M. to the S. £. is Chezzetcook Harbor, with its long shores 
lined with settlements of the Acadian French, whereof Cbzzens writes : — 

** Bat we aie agafai in the Acadian forest ; let us eqjoy the scenery. The road we 
are on is bat a few miles firom the sea-shore, but the ocean is hidden from view by 
the thick woods. As we ride along, however, we skirt the edges of coves and inlets 
that frequently break in upon the landscape. There is a chain of fresh-water lakes 
also along this road. Sometimes we cross a bridge over a rushing torrent ; some- 
times a calm expanse of water, doubling the evergreens at its mu-gin, comes into 
view ; anon a gleam of sapphire strikes through the verdure, and an ocean-bay with 
its shingly beach carves in and out between ttie piny slopes." 

Here '* the water of Vbe harbor has an intensity of color rarely seen, except in 
the pictures of the most ultramarine painters. Here and there a green island or a 
fishing-boat rested upon the sorfiu^ of the tranquil blue. For miles and miles the 
eye followed indented gnssy slopes that rolled away on either side of the harbor, 
and the most delicate pencil could scarcely portray the exquisite line of creamy sand 
that skirted their edges and melted off in the clear margin of the water. Occasional 
little cottages nestle amonff these green banks, — not the Acadian houses of the 
poem. *witti thatched roora and dormer-windows prqjecting,' but comfortable, 

homely-looking buildings of modem shapes, shingled and un-weathercocked 

The women of Ohenetcook appear at daylight in the city of Halifax, and as soon as 
the sun is up vanish like the dew. They have usually a basket of fresh eggs, a brace 
or two of worsted socks, a bottle of fir balsam, to sell. These comprise their simple 



commerce." 



Chessetcook was founded by the French in 1740, but was abandoned during the 
long subsequent wars. After the British conquest and pacification of Acadia, many 
of ttie old fiunilies returned to their former homes, and Cheizetcook was re-occupicd 
by its early settlers. They formed an agricultural community, and grew rapidly 
in prosperity and in numbers. There are about 250 families now resident about the 
bay, preserving ttie names and language and many of the primitive customs of the 
AcadUms of the Basin of Mihas. (See pages 106 and 113. ) 

The road passes near the head of Chezzetcook Harbor, on the r., and 
then turns N. E. between the blue waters of Chezzetcook Great Lake ( 1. ) 
and Pepiswick Lake (r.). The deep inlet of Mtuqitodoboit Harbor is soon 
reached, and its head is crossed. This is the harbor where Capt. Hardy 
made his pen-picture of this romantic coast : — 

*' Nothing can exceed the beauty of scenery in some of the Atlantic harbors of 
Nova Scotia,— their innumerable islands and heavily-wooded shores fidnged with 



132 R(mUt8. TANGIER. 

the golden kelp, the wild undulating hills of maple rising in the background, the 
patches of meadow, and neat little white shanties of the fishermen's clearings, .... 
the fir woods of the western shores bathed in the morning sunbeams, the perfect 
reflection of the islands and of the little fishingnschooners, the wreaths of blue 
smoke rising from their cabin stoves, and the roar of the distant rapids, where the 
river joins the harbor, borne in cadence on the ear, mingled with the cheerftil 
Bounds of awakening life from the clearings." 

Near Musquodoboit are some valuable gold-mines, with two powerful 
quartz-crushing mills, and several moderately rich lodes of auriferous 
quartz. The stage soon reaches the W. arm of Jeddore Harbor j and then 
crosses the Le Marchant Bridge. The district of Jeddore has 1,628 in- 
habitants, most of whom are engaged in the fisheries or the coasting trade, 
alternating these employments with lumbering and shipbuilding. A long 
tract of wilderness is now traversed, and Skip Harbor is reached. A few 
miles N. W. is the broad expanse of Ship Harbor Lake, reaching nearly 
to the Boar's Back Bidge, and having a length of 12 - 14 M. and a widdi 
of 2-4 M. To the N. are the hills whence falls the Tangier River, to 
which the Indians gave the onomatopoetic name of Ahmagqpakegeek^ 
which signifies ** tumbling over the rocks." The post-road now enters 
the once famous gold-bearing district of Tangier, 

These mines were opened in 1860, and speedily became widely renowned, attract- 
ing thousands of adyenturers from all parts of the Atlantic coast. For miles the 
ground was honeycombed with pits and shafts, and the excited men worked with- 
out intermission. But the gold was not found in masses, and only patience and 
hard work could extract a limited quantity from the quartz, so the crowd became 
discontented and went to the new fields. Lucrative shore-washings were engaged in 
for some time, and a stray nugget of Tangier gold weighing 27 ounces was shown in 
the Dublin Ejcposition. This district covers about SO square miles, and has 12 lodes 
of auriferous quartz. The South Lode is the most valuable, and appears to grow 
richer as it descends. The mines are now being worked by two small companies, 
and their average yield is $ 400-600 per miner each year. 

Beyond Tangier and Pope's Bay the post-road passes the head of Spry 
Bay, and then the head of Mushaboon Harbor, and reaches Sheet Harbor 
(Famars Hotel). This is a small shipbuilding village, at the head of the 
long harbor of the same name, and is at the outlets of the Middle and 
North Rivers, famous for their fine salmon fisheries. 

From this point a road follows the shore to the N. E. to Sherbrooke, about 50 M. 
distant, passing the obscure maritime hamlets of Beaver Harbor, Necum Tench, 
Ekum Sekum, Marie Joseph, and Liscomb Harbor. The back-country on all this 
route is ^et desolate and unsettled. There are so many islands off the shore Uiat 
this portion of the Atlantic is called the Bay of Islands (old French, Btde de Toutes 
les Isles), although it is not embayed. 

Slierbrooke, see page 138. 



GUYSBOBOUGH. ItouU 29. 133 



29. The IToriheast Coast of ITova Sootia. 

This distriet is reached by passing on tlie Tntercolonial Railway (see Routes 16 
and 17) from St. John or Hali&x to New Glasgow, and thence taking the Royal 
mail-stage to Antigonish (see Route 82). 

From Antigonish a stage departs on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 
mornings, running 40 M. S. (fare, $ 2) to Sherbrooke (two inns). This is 
a village on the 1. bank of the St. Mary's River, the largest river in Nova 
Scotia, and is at the head of navigation on that stream. It is engaged in 
shipbuilding and in the exportation of deals and lumber. The town de> 
rives considerable interest I'l-om the fact that in the vicinity is one of the 
broadest and most prolific gold-fields in the Province. GoldenviUe is 3 M. 
from Sherbrooke, by a road which crosses the St. Mary's on a long bridge. 
This district covers 18 square miles, and is the richest in the Province, 
having yielded as high as $2,000 per man per year, or about three times 
the average production of the best of the Australian mines. The aurifer- 
ous lodes are operated at Croldenville only, where there are several quartz- 
crushers on a large scale. These mines were discovered in 1861, and on 
the first day over $ 500 worth of gold was found here. Systematic mining 
operations were soon commenced, and the yield of the precious metal has 
since been very satisfactory. 

The Wine-Harbor Gold-Jield is several miles S. E. of Sherbrooke, near the mouth 
of the St. Mary's Kver. The average yield per ton is small, yet the breadth and 
continuity of the lodes renders the work easy and certain. This district is seamed 
with abandoned shafts and tunnels, one of which is 700 ft. long. The first discoyery 
of ^Id was made in 1860 in the sands of the sea^shore, and the quartz lodes on the 
N. £. side of the harbor were soon opened. Of later years the Wine-Harbor district 
has greatly declined in popularity and productiveness. 

The Stonrumt Gold-j^lds are 36 M. N. E. of Sherbrooke, and are most easily 
reached by direct conveyance from Antigonish. Gold was discovered here by the 
Indians in 1861, and occurs in thick layers of quartz. Owing to its remoteness, 
this r^on has remained undeveloped, and its total yield in 1869 was but 227 ounces 
($4,540). The chief village in the district is at the head of Ckmntry Harbor, a pic- 
turesque arm of the sea, 8 M. long and 2-3 M. wide. There are fine opportunities 
for shooting and fishing among the ac^jacent bays and highlands. All this shore 
was settled in 1788 - 4 by Loyalists fh>m North and South Carolina. 

Guysborough and Cape Canso, 

Guysborongh ( Grant* s Hotel) is reached by daily mail-stages from An- 
tigonish, from which it is 81 M. distant (fare, $2.50). After leaving the 
valley of the South River, the road passes through a rough and hilly region, 
and descends through the Intervale Settlement and Manchester to Guys- 
borough, a marine village at the head of Chedabucto Bay. It has about 
1,500 inhabitants, with a prosperous academy, and is the capital of Guys- 
borough County (named in honor of Sir Guy Carleton). It is engaged in 
shipbuilding and the fisheries, and has a good and spacious harbor. The 
noble anchorage of Milford Haven lies betweea the tA\m.«ii^\K^\>^l> 



134 lUmU 90. SABLE ISLAND. 

A strong post was established at Chedabucto, on the site of Guysborongh. in 1636, 
by M. I>enys, who had spacious warehouses and a strong fort here, together with 
120 men. Here he received and supported the exiled children of D' Aulnay Char- 
niny ; and here also he was vainly besieged for several days by La Criraudifere and 
100 men from Canso. In 1600 the works were held by De Montorgueuil, and were 
bravely defended against the attacks of the New-England army under Sir William 
Phipps. Finally, when the buildings of the fort were all in flames about him, the 
gallant Frenchman surrendered, and was sent to Placentia with his soldiers. The 
ruins of the ancient fort are now to be traced near the mouth of the harbor. , 

A bold ridge runs 81 M. E. from Guysborough along the S. shore of Ched- 
abucto Bay to Cape Canso, the most easterly point of Nova Scotia. A. 
road follows the course of the bay to the fishing-village of Cape Canso, 
which has over 1,000 inhabitants and enjoys a profitable little export 
trade. Several islands lie off this extreme point of Nova Scotia, one of 
which bears two powerful white lights and a fog-whistle. Canso Harbor 
is marked by a fixed red light which is visible for 12 M. 

Wblte Haven is on the S. side of the great peninsula of Wilmot, 80 M. from 
Guysborough, and is a small fishing settlement situated on one of the finest bays on 
the American coast. It was originally intended to have the Intercolonial Railway 
terminate here, and connect with the transatlantic steamships. The harbor is easy 
of access, of capacious breadth, and free from ice in winter. Its £. point is White 
l^ad, usually the first land seen by vessels crofiping from Europe in this upper lati- 
tude, on which is a fixed white light. Just W. of White Haven is the fishermen's 
hamlet of Molasses Harbor, near the broad bight of Tor Bay. 

30. Sable Island. 

The Editor inserts the following sketch of this remotest outpost of the Maritime 
Provinces, hoping that its quaint character may make amends for its uselessness to 
the summer tourist. It may also be of service to voyagers on these coasts who should 
chance to be cast away on the island, since no one likes to be landed suddenly id a 
strange country without having some previous knowledge of the reception he may 
get. 

A r^ular line of communication has recently been established between Sable 
Island and Hali&x The boats run once a year, and are chartered by the Canadian 
government to carry provisions and stores to the lighthouse people and patrols, 
and to bring back the persons who may have been wrecked there during the pre- 
vious year. 

Sable Island is about 90 M. S. E. of Cape Canso. It is a barren ex- 
panse of sand, without trees or thickets, and is constantly swept by storms, 
under whose powerful pressxire the whole aspect of the land changes, by 
the shifting of the low dunes. Tiie only products of this arid shore are 
Cranberries, Immense quantities of which are found on the lowlands. 

" Should any one be visiting the island now, he might see, about 10 M. distance, 
looking seaward, half a dozen low dark hummocks on the horizon. As he ap- 
proaches, they gradually resolve themselves into hills fHnged by breakers, and by 
and by the white sea-beach with its continued surf, — the sand-hiUs, part naked, 
part waving in grass of the deepest green, unfold themselves, — a house and a bam 
dot the western extremity, — here and there along the wild beach lie the ribs of un- 
lucky traders halfburie^ in the shifting sand Nearly the first thing the vis- 
itor does is to mount the flag-staff, and, climbing into the crow's-nest, scan the scene. 
The' ocean bounds him everywhere. Spread east and west, he views the narrow 
island in form of a bow, as if the great Atlantic waves had bent it around, nowhere 
much above 1 M. wide, 26 M. long, including the dry bars, and holding a shallow 
Ja^ 13 M. Jong in its centre. There it all lies spread like a map at his feet, — grassy 



SABLE ISLAND. RouUSO, 135 

hill and sandy valley Aiding away into the distance. On the foregronnd the ontpoet 
men galloping their rough ponies into lieadquarters, recalled by the flag flying oTer 
his head ; the West-end house of refuge, with bread and matches, firewood and 
kettle, and directions to find water, and headquarters with flag-stafT on the adjoio- 
ing hill. Srery sandy peak or grassy knoll with a dead man's name or old ship's 
tradition,— Baker's Hill, Trott's Cove, Scotchman's Head, French Qardens, — tra- 
ditionary spot where the poor convicts expiated their social crimes,— the little 
burial-ground nestling in the long grass of a high hill, and consecrated to the re- 
pose of many a sea-tossed limb ; and 2 -8 M. down the shallow lake, the South-side 
house and bam, and sta£F and boats lying on the lake beside the door. 9 M. fiuther 
down, by the aid of a glass, he may view the flag-staff at the foot of the lake, and 6 
M. fiurther the East-end lookout, with its staff and watch-house. Herds of wild 
XK>nies dot the hills, and black-duck uid sheldrakes are heading their young broods 
on the mirror-like ponds. Seals innumerable are basking on the warm sands, or 
piled like ledges of rock along the shores. The CHasgow^s bow, the Maskorumet^M 
stem. tlu9 Bast Boston's hulk, uid the grinning ribs of the well-f.utened Guide ^ are 
spotting the sands, each with its tale of last adventure, hardships passed, and toil 
endured. The whole picture is set in a sUver-frosted frame of rolling surf and sea- 
ribbed sand.'* 

" Mounted upon his liardy pony, the solitary patrol starts upon his lonely way. 
He rides up the centre valleys, ever and anon mounting a grasAy hill to look sea- 
ward, reaches the West-end bar, speculates upon perchance a broken spar, an empty 
bottle, or a cask of beef struggliiag in the land-wash, — now fords the shallow lake, 
looking well for his land-range, to escape the hole where Baker was drowned ; and 
coming on the breeding-e^und of the countless birds, his pony's hoof with a reck- 
less snuuh goes crunching through a dosen eggs or callow young. He fidrly puts 
his pony to her mettle to escape the cloud of angry birds which, arising in countless 
numbers, dent his weather-beeUen tarpaulin with their sharp bills, and snap his 
pony's ears, and confhse him with their sharp, shrill cries. Ten minutes more, and 
he IB holding hard to count the seals. There they lay, old ocean's flocks, resting 
their wave-toBsed limbs, — great ocean bulls, and cows, and calves." (Da. J. B. 
GiLPHC.) 

For over a century Sable Island has been fiunous for its wild horses. They num- 
ber x>erhaps 400, and are divided into gangs which are under the leadership of the 
old males. They resemble the Mexican or Ukraine wild horses, in their large heads, 
shaggy necks, sloping quarters, paddling gait, and chestnut or piebald colors. Once 
a year the droves are all her Jed by daring horsemen into a large pound, where 20 or dO 
of the best are taken out to be sent to Nova Scotia. After the horses chosen for ex- 
portation are lassoed an4 secured, the remainder are turned loose again. 



Since Sable Island was first sighted by Cabot, in 1497, it has been an object of 
terror to mariners. Several vessels of D'AnviUe's French Armada were lost here ; 
and among the many wrecks in later days, the chief have been those of the ocean 
steamship Georgia and the French frigate VAJHcainf.. 

In the year 1588, when Sir Humphrey Gilbert was returning from Newfoundland 
(of which he had taken possession in the name of the English Crown), his little fleet 
became entangled among the shoals about Sable Island. On one of these outlying 
bars the ship Delight strack heavily and dashed her stem and quarters to pieces. 
The officers and over 100 men were lost, and 14 of the crew, after drifting about in a 
pinnace for nuuiy days, were finally rescued. The other vessels, the Sqiurrel and the 
Golden lEnd, bore off to sea and set their course for England. But when off the 
Aaores the Squirrel was sorely to«sed by a tempest (being of only 10 tons' burden), 
and upon her deck was seen Sir Humphrey Gilbert reading a book. As she swept 
past the Golden Hindy the brave knight cried out to the captain of the latter : 
" Courage, my lads, we are as near heaven by sea as by land." About midnight the 
Squirrel plunged heavily forward into the trough of the sea, and went down with 
all on board. Thus perished this " resolute soldier of Jesus Christ, .... one of the 
noblest and best of men in an age of great men." 

In 1508 a fritile attempt at colonizing Sable Island was made by " Le Sieur Baron 
de Leri et de St. Just, Yiccmte de Gueu." But he left some live-stock here that 
afterwards saved many lives. 

In the year 1598 the Marquis de la Roche was sent by Henri IV. to America, car- 
rying 200 con^cts firom the Trench prisons. He determined to fbund a settlement 



136 JtauUSl, NEW GLASGOW. 

on Sable Iskad, and left 40 of his men there to commence the work. Soon after, 
' De la Boche was forced by stress of storm to return to France, abandonhig these 
unfortunate colonists. Without food, clothing, or wood, thej suffered intensely, 
until partial relief was brought by the wrecking of a French ship on the island. For 
■eren years they dwelt in huts built of wrecked timber, dressed in seal-skins, and 
living on fish. Then King Henri lY. sent out a ship under Chedotel, and the 12 
Burmors, gaunt, squalid, and long-bearded, were carrfed back to France, where they 
were pardoned and rewarded. 

An attempt was made about the middle of the 16th century to colonize Cape Bre- 
ton in the interests of Spain, but the fleet that was transporting the Spaniards and 
their property was dashed to pieces on Sable Island. 

3L St John and Hali£Euc to Picton. 

By the Picton Branch Bailway, which diverges ftom the Intercolonial Railway at 
Truro. 

Stations. — St. John to Pictou. St. John to Truro, 215 BL ; Valley, 219 ; 
Union, 224 : Biversdale, 228 ; West River, 236 ; Glengarry, 243 ; HopeweU, 250 ; 
Stellarton, 255 ; New Glasgow, 258 ; Pictou Landing, 266 ; Steamboat Wharf, 267. 
' Stations.— Ho/t/oa; to Pictou. Halifax to Truro, 61 M. ; Valley, 65 } Union, 
70 ; Riversdale, 74 ; West River, 82 ; Glengarry, 89 ; Hopewell, 96 ; Stellarton, 101 ; 
New Glasgow, 104 ; Pictou Landing, 112 ; Steamboat Wharf, 113. 

St John to Truro, see Routes 16 and 17. 

Halifax to Truro, see Route 17 (reversed). 

The train runs £. from Truro, and soon after leaving the environs, enters 
a comparatively broken and uninteresting region. On the 1. are the roll- 
ing foot-hills of the Cobequid Range, and- the valley of the Salmon River 
is followed by several insignificant forest stations. BiversdcUe is surrounded 
by a pleasant diversity of hill-scenery, and has a spool-factory and a con- 
siderable lumber trade. 14 M. to the N. is the thriving Scottish settlement 
of EarUovon. Beyond West River the train reaches Glengarry j which is 
the station for the Scottish villages of New Lairg and Gairlocb. HopeweU 
(Hopewell Hotel) has small woollen and spool factories ; and a short dis- 
tance beyond the line approaches the banks of the East River. 

Stellarton is the station for the great Albion Mines, which are con- 
trolled (for the most part) by the General Mining Association, of London. 
There is a populous village here, most of whose inhabitants are connected 
with the mines. The coal-seams extend over several miles of area, and 
are of remarkable thickness. They are being worked in several pits, and 
would doubtless return a great revenue in case of the removal of the re- 
strictive trade regulations of the United States. In the year 1864 over 
200,000 tons of coal were raised from these mines. 

Kew Glasgow (three inns) is a town of 2,500 inhabitants, largely en- 
gaged in shipbuilding and having other manufactures, including foundries 
and tanneries. It is favorably situated on the East River, and derives 
considerable importance from being the point of departure for the Royal 
mail-stages for Antigonish, the Strait of Canso, and Cape Breton; also for 
Guysborough, Wine Harbor, and Sherbrooke. 

The train now descends by the East River to Fisher's Grant, opposite 
/ibe town of Pictou, to which the passengers are conveyed by a steam 



PICTOU. MouU 31, 137 

ferry-boat. If the traveller ig aboat to take the steamship he most remain 
on tiie train, which mns down 1 M. farther to her wharf. 

Fictou (St, Lawrence HaU) is a wealthy and flourishing town on the 
Gulf shore of Nova Scotia. It has about 8,500 inhabitants, with several 
churches, a masonic hall, and a weekly paper. The public buildings of 
Pictou County are also located here, and the academy is the chief educa- 
tional establishment The harbor is the finest on the S. shores of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and can accommodate ships of any burden, having a 
depth of 5-7 fathoms. The town occupies a commanding position on a 
hillside over a small cove on the N. side of the harbor, and nearly oppo- 
site, the basin is divided into three arms, into which flow the East, Middle, 
and West Rivers. On the East Kiver are the shipping wharves of the 
Albion and the International Coal Companies, whence immense quantities 
of coal were exported in the palmy days before the United States punished 
Canada for aiding her rebel States, by repealing the Reciprocity Treaty. 

Pictou has a large coasting trade; is engaged in shipbuilding; and has 
a marine-railway. It has also tobacco-factories, carding-mills, several 
saw and grist mills, a foundry, and three or four tanneries. But the chief 
business is connected with the adjacent mines and the exportation of coal, 
and with the large freestone quarries in the vicinity. 

Stages leave Pictou several times weekly, for River John, Tatamagouche, Wallace, 
Pag^wash, and Amherst (see page 81). Steamships leave (opposite) Pictou forChar- 
lottetown, Sammerside, and Shediac, on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, on the 
arrival of the Halibx train (see Route 44) ; also for the Onlf ports and Quebec, every 
Tuesday at 7 a. m. , and alternate Fridays at 1 p. m. (see Route 66) ; also for Pert Hood 
and the Hagdalen Islands (see Route 49) ; and for Hawkesbury and the Strait of 
Ganso. 

After the divine OlooScap (see page 106) had left Newfoundland, where he conferred 
upon the loons the power of weirdly crying when they needed his aid, he landed at 
Pictou (from Piktookf an Indian word meaning "Babbling," or " Oas-ezploding," 
and referred to the ebullitions of the water near the great coal-beds). Here he 
created the tortoise tribe, in this wise : Qreat festivals and games were made in his 
honor by the Indians of Pictook, but he chose to dwell with a homely, lazy, and 
despised old bachelor named Mikchickh, whom, after clothing in his own robe and 
giying him victory in the games, he initiated as the progenitor and king of all the 
tortoises, smoking him till his coat became brown and as hard as bone, and then re- 
ducing ms size by a rude surgical operation. 

The site of Pictou was occupied in ancient times by a populous Indian village, 
and in 1763 the French made fhtile preparations to found a colony here. In 1765, 
200,000 acres of land in this vicinity were granted to a company in Philadelphia, 
whence bands of setUers came in 1767 - 71. Meantime the site of the town had been 
given to an army officer, who in turn sold it for a horse and saddle. The Pennsyl- 
yanians were disheartened at the severity of the climate and the infertility of the 
soil, and no progress was made in the new colony until 1773, when the ship Hector 
arrived with 180 persons from the Scottish Highlands. They were brought over by 
the Philadelphia company, but when they found that the shore lands were all 
taken, they refused to settle on the company's territory, and hence the agent cut 
ofT their supply of provisions. They subsisted on fish and venison, with a little 
flour from Truro, until the next spring, when they sent a ship-load of pine-timber 
to Britain, and planted wheat and potatoes. Soon afterwards they were joined by 
15 destitute &milies firom Dumfriesshire ; and at the close of the Revolutionary War 
many disluinded soldiers settled here with their families. In 1786 the Rev. James 
McGregor came to Pictou and made a home, and as he was a powerful preacher in 



1 38 Itoute St, ANTIGONISH. 

the Gaelic language, many Highlanders from the other parts of the Proyince moTed 
here, and new immigrations arrived from Scotland. In 1788 the town was com- 
menced on its present site by Deacon Patterson, and in 17S(2 it waa made a shire- 
town. Great quantities of lumber were exported to Britain between 1806 and 1820, 
during the period of European convulsion, when the Baltic i>orts were closed, and 
while the British nayy was the main hope of the nation. The place was captured in 
1777 by an American privateer. Coal was discovered here in 1798, but the exporta- 
tion was small untiri827, when the General liining Association of London b^an 
operations. 

J. W. Dawson, LL. D. , F. R. S., was bom at Pictou in 1820, and graduated- at ttie 
University of Edinburgh in 1840. He studied and travelled with Sir Charles Lyell, 
and has become one of the leaders among the Christiui scientists. His great^t work 
was the " Acadian Geology." For the past 20 years he haa been Principal of titie 
McGill Coll^^, at Montreal. 

32. St John and Hali&x to the Strait of Oanso and Cape 

Breton. 

By the way of the land, through Antigonish, 

(Compare also page 12.) The Royal mail-stage leaves New Glasgow (see page 196) 
daily, on arrival of the morning train from Halifax, — at about 12.80 p.m., — and 
runs £. to the Strait of Canso, connecting with other stages for Sherbrooke, Guys- 
borough, and all parts of Cape Breton. This route is served by a line ot^ stage- 
coaches which are said to be '^ second to none on the continent," though these ex- 
cellent conveyances are exchanged at Antigonish for less comfortable vehicles. 
Passengers take supper at Antigonish, ride on all night, and reach the Strait of 
Canso before dawn. Gentlemen who are planning a summer trip will see that this 
mode of travel is utterly unsuited for an element in a pleasure-tour, and that it is 
nearly impracticable for ladies, at least, to endure such a night-journey. The at- 
tractions and discomforts of this route are admirably drawn in Charles Dudley War- 
ner's " Baddeck : and that Sort of Thing " (Chapter HI.). 

Fares. — Hali&x to Antigonish, $5; Guysborough. $6; Port Hawkesbury, 
$ 7 25 (exclusive of ferriage across the Strait of Canso) ; St. Peter's, $ 9.26 ; Sydney, 
$12. 

Distances. — New Glasgow to French River, 15 M. ; Bfarshy Hope, 25 ; Antigo- 
nish, 36 ; Tracadie, 58 ; Port Mulgrave, 74 ; Port Hawkesbury, 75^ ; St. Peter's, 
114 ; Sydney, 179. 

On reaching the open country beyond New Glasgow, the road passes on 
for several miles through an uninteresting region of small farms and recent 
clearings. At the crossing of the Sutherland River, a road diverges to the 
N. E., leading to Merigomish, a shipbuilding hamlet on the coast, with a safe 
and well-sheltered harbor. In this vicinity are iron and coal deposits, the 
latter of which are worked by the Merigomish Coal Mining Company, with 
a capital of $ 400,000. Beyond the hamlet at the crossing of French Biver, 
— *' which may have seen better days, and will probably see worse," — 
the road ascends a long ridge which overlooks the Piedmont Valley to the 
N. E. Thence it descends through a sufficiently dreary country to the 
relay-house at Marshy Hope. 

*' The sun has set when we come thundering down into the pretty Catholic village 
of Antigonlsli, the most home-like place we have seen on the island. The twin 
stone towers of the unfinished cathedral loom up large in the fiuiing light, and the 
bishop's palace on the hill, the home of the Bishop of Arichat, appears to be an im- 
posing white bam with many staring windows People were loitering in the 

street ; the young beaux going up and down with the belles, after the leisurely 
manner in youth and summer. Perhaps they were students from St. Xavier Col- 



ANTIGONISH. Route SS. 139 

lege, or Tisifcing gallants firom Gnysborough. They look into the pott-offlce and the 
fiaincy store. They stroll and take their little provincial pleasare, and make love, 
for idl we can see, as if Antigonish were a part of the world. How they most look 
down on Marshy Hope and Addington Forks and Tracadie ! What a cluurming place 
to live in is this ! " (Baodkck.) 

AntigoniBli ^ (two good inns), the capital of the connty of the same 
name, is situated at the head of a long and shoal harbor, near St. 
George* s Bay. Some shipbuilding is done here, and many cargoes of 
cattle and butter are sent hence to Newfoundland. On the £. shore of the 
harbor are valuable deposits of gypsum, which are sent away on coasting- 
vessels. The inhabitants of the village and the adjacent country are of 
Scottish descent, and their unwavering industry has made Antigonish a 
prosperous and pleasant town. The CoUege of St. Francis Xavier is the 
Diocesan Seminary of the Franco-Scottish Diocese of Arichat, and is the 
residence of the Bishop. It is a Catholic institution, and has six teachers. 
The Cathedral of 8t, Ninian was begun in 1867, and was consecrated Sep- 
tember 13, 1874, by a Pontifical High Mass, at which 7 bishops and 80 
priests assisted. It is in the Roman Basilica style, 170 by 70 ft. in area, 
and is built of blue limestone and brick. On the facade, between the tall 
square towers, is the Gaelic inscription, Tighe Dhe ( '* the House of God '^). 
The arched roof is supported by 14 Corinthian columns, and the interior 
has numerous windows of stained glass. The costly chancel-window rep- 
resents Christ, the Virgin Mary, and St. Joseph. There is a large organ, 
and also a chime of bells named in honor of St. Joseph and the Scottish 
saints, Ninian, Columba, and Margaret, Queen of Scotland. 

Stages run from Antigonish S. to Sherbrooke and S. E. to Qnysborongh (see 
Route 29). N. W. of the Tillage are the bold and picturesqae highlands known as 
the Anttgonlsli Mt8«, prqjecting firom the general line of the coast about 15 li. 
N. into i^e Gulf. They are, in some places,^ 1,000 ft. high, and have a strong and 
well-marked mountainous character. Semi-weekly stages run N. from Antigonish 
to Morrisloum and Cape George^ respectively 10 and 18 M. distant. 8-10 M. N. of 
the latter is the bold promontory of Cape St. €leorKe, on which, 400 ft. above 
the sea, is a powerftil revolving white light, which is visible for 26 M. at sea. From 
this point a road runs S. W. to Malignant Covej which is also accessible by a roman- 
tic road through the hills from Antigonish. This is a small seaside hamlet, which 
derives its name from the fitct that H. B. M. frigate Malignant was once caught in 
these narrow waters during a heavy storm, and was run ashore here in order to 
avoid being dashed to pieces on the iron-bound coast beyond. 4-5 M. beyond the 
Gove is Arigaiffy a romantically situated settlement of Scottish CathoUcs, who 
named their new home in memory of Arisaig, in the Western Highlands. It has a 
long wooden pier, under whose lee is the only harbor and shelter against east-winds 
between Antigonish and Merigonish. 

The Canso stage leaves Antigonish after dark, and after running 9 M. 
out and crossing the South River, reaches Pomquet Forhs^ a Franco- 
Scottish Catholic village of 400 inhabitants. 4-5 M. N. is another seaside 
hamlet. The new Catholic Church of the Holy Cross was consecrated at 
Pomquet in 1874. The next station is Traoadie, a French village of 1,800 
inhabitants, situated on a small harbor near St. George's Bay. There is a 

^ ^ntHToatsA,— accent on the last syUaUe. It is an Indian word, meaning **the Biver of ' 
Xlsh." 



liO Ji<»iU S2, TRACADIE. 

wealthy monastery here, pertaining to the austere order of the Trappists. 
Most of the monks are from Belgium. There is also a Convent of Sisters 
of Charity. The people of Tracadie belong to the old Acadian race, whose 
Bad and romantic history is alluded to on pages 108 and 113. *' And now 
we passed through another French settlement, Tracadie, and again the 
Norman kirtle and petticoat of the pastoral, black-eyed Evangeline ap- 
pear, and then pass like a day-dream.** (Cozzeks.) 

The road is now narrowed between the hills and St. George*s Bay, and 
it is beyond midnight. But the exhausted traveller cannot sleep on this 
rugged track, and can only watch the stars or the moon and think how 
"these splendors bum and this panorama passes night after night down 
at the end of Nova Scotia, and all for the stage-driver, dozing along on his 
box, from Antigonish to the Strait.** 

At Port Mulgrave the Strait of Canso is reached, and passengers bound 
for Cape Breton are here ferried across. 

The Strait of Canao, see page 142. 



CAPE BEETON. 



The island of Cape Breton is about 100 M. long by 80 M. wide, and has 
an area of 2,000,000 acres, of which 800,000 acres consist of lakes and 
swamps. The S. part is low and generally level, but the N. portion is 
very irregular, and leads off into unexplored highlands. The chief natural 
peculiarities of the island are the Sydney coal-fields, which cover 250 
square miles on the E. coast, and the Bras d'Or, a great lake of salt water, 
ramifying through the centre of the island, and communicating with the 
sea by narrow channels. The exterior coast line is 275 M. long, and is 
provided with good harbors on the E. and S. shores. 

The chief exports of Cape Breton are coal and fish, to the United States; 
timber, to England; and farm-produce and live-stock to Newfoundland. 
The commanding position of the island makes it the key to the Canadas, 
and the naval power holding these shores could control or crush the com- 
merce of the Gulf. The upland soils are of good quality, and produce 
valuable crops of cereals, potatoes, and smaller vegetables. 

The Editor trusts that the following extract from Brown* s " History of 
the Island of Cape Breton " (London : 1869) will be of interest to the 
tourist : " The summers of Cape Breton, say from May to October, may 
challenge comparison with those of any country within the temperate 
regions of the world. During all that time there are perhaps not more 
than ten foggy days in any part of the island, except along the southern 
coast, between the Gut of Canso and Scatari. Bright sunny days, with 
balmy westerly winds, follow each other in succession, week after week, 
while the midday heats are oftien tempered by cool, refreshing sea-breezes. 
Of rain there is seldom enough; the growing crops more often suffer from 
too little than too much.'* 

'* To the tourist that loves nature, and who, for the manifold beauties by 
hill and shore, by woods and waters, is happy to make small sacrifices of 
personal comfort, I would commend Cape Breton. Your fashionable, 
whose main object is company, dress, and frivolous pleasure with the gay, 
and whose only tolerable stopping-place is the grand hotel, had better 
content himself with reading of this island." (Noble. ) 

The name of the island is derived from that of its E. cape, which was 
given in honor of its discovery by Breton mariners. In 1713 the French 
authorities bestowed upon it the new name of Vide Royaler during the 



142 JttnOe SS. THE STRAIT OP CANSO. 

reign of Louis XIV. At this time, after the cession of Acadia to the Brit- 
ish Crown, many of its inhabitants emigrated to Cape Breton ; and in 
August, 1714, the fortress of Louisbourg was founded. During the next 
half-century occurred the terrible wars between France and Great Britain, 
whose chief incidents were the sieges of Louisbourg and the final demoli- 
tion of that redoubtable fortress. In 1765 this island was annexed to the 
Province of Nova Scotia. In 1784 it was erected into a separate Province, 
and continued as such until 1820, when it was reannexed to Nova Scotia. 
In 1815 Cape Breton had about 10,000 inhabitants, but in 1871 its popula- 
tion amounted to 75,503, a large proportion of whom were from the Scot- 
tish Highlands. 

33. The Strait of Caoso. 

The Gut of Canso, or (as it is now more generally called) the Strait of 
Canso, is a picturesque passage which connects the Atlantic Ocean with 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and separates the island of Cape Breton from 
the shores of Nova Scotia. The banks are high and mountainous, covered 
with spruce and other evergreens, and a succession of small white ham- 
lets lines the coves on either side. This grand avenue of commerce 
seems worthy of its poetic appellation of ** The Golden Gate of the St. 
Lawrence Gulf." It is claimed that more keels pass through this channel 
every year than through any other in the world, except the Strait of Gib- 
raltar. It is not only the shortest passage between the Atlantic and the 
Gulf, but has the advantage of anchorage in case of contrary winds and bad 
weather. The shores are bold-^ and free from dangers, and there are sev- 
eral good anchorages, out of the current and in a moderate depth of water. 
The stream of the tide usually sets from the S., and runs in great swirling 
eddies, but is much influenced by the winds. The strait is described by 
Dawson as ** a narrow transverse valley, excavated by the currents of the 
drift period," and portions of its shores are of the carboniferous epoch. 

The Strait of Canso is traversed by several thousand sailing-yessels every year, and 
also by the large steamers of the Boston and Colonial Steamship Company, and (as 
Ikr as Port Hawkesbary) by the vessels of the P. E. I. Steam Navigation Company. 

*' So with renewed anticipations we ride on toward the strait ' of uniivalled 
beauty,' that travellers say ' surpasses anything in America.' And, indeed, Canseau 
can have my feeble testimony in confirmation. It is a grand marine highway, hav- 
ing steep hiUs on the Cape Breton Island side, and lofty mountains on the other 
shore ; a fUIl, broad, mile-wide space between them ; and reaching, firom end to end, 
fifteen miles, firom the Atlantic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence." (Cozuns.) 

Vessels from the S., bound for the Strait of Canso, first approach the 
Nova-Scotian shores near Cape Canso (see page 134), whose lights and 
islands are rounded, and the course lies between N. W. and W. N. W. 
towards Eddy Point. If a fog prevails, the steam-whistle on Cranberry 
Island will be heard giving out its notes of warning, sounding for 8 seconds 
in each minute, and heard for 20 M. with the wind, for 15 M. in calm 



PORT HASTINGS. Jtoute $$. 143 

weather, and 6- 8 M. iil stormy weather and agatiist the wind. On the I. 
is Chedabucto Bay, stretching in to Guysborough, lined along its S. shore 
by hills 8 - 700 ft. high ; and on the r. the Isle Madame is soon approached. 
28-30 M. beyond Cape Canso the vessel passes Eddy Pointy on which are 
two fixed white lights (visible 8 M.)> On the starboard beam is Janvrin 
Island, beyond which is the broad estuary of Habitants Bay, On the 
Cape-Breton shore is the hamlet of Bear Point, and on the 1. are Melford 
Creek (with its church), Steep Creek, and Pirate's Cove. The hamlets of 
Port Mulgrave and Port Hawkesbury are now seen, nearly opposite each 
other, and half-way up the strait 

Fort Mulgrave (two inns) is a village of about 400 inhabitants, on the 
Nova-Scotia side of the strait. It is engaged in the fisheries, and has a 
harbor which remains open all the year round. Gold-bearing quartz is 
found in the vicinity; and bold hills tower above the shore for a long dis- 
tance. A steam ferry-boat plies between this poiat and Port Hawkesbury, 
1^ M. distant. 

Port Hawkesbury {Hawhedmry Hotel, comfortable ; Acadia Hotel) is a 
village of about 700 inhabitants, on the Cape-Breton side of the strait. It 
is situated on Ship Harbor, a snug haven for vessels of 10-ft. draught, 
marked by a fixed red light on Stapleton Point. This is the best harbor 
on the strait, and has very good holding-ground. The village is of a scat^ 
tered and half-finished appearance, and has two small churches. There 
are several wharves here, which are visited by the Boston and the Prince 
Edward Island steamers, and other lines. Stages run hence to Sydney, 
Arichat, and West Bay, on the Bras d'Or; and a railway has been sur- 
veyed to the latter point. The fare from Port Hawkesbury to Charlotte- 
town, by the vessels of the P. £. I. Steam Navigation Company, is $ 3 50. 

Fort Hastingf (more generally known as Plaster Cove) is about 4 M. 
above Port Hawkesbury, on the Cape-Breton shore, and is built on the 
blufis over a small harbor in which is a Government wharf. From this 
point the Cape-Breton mails are distributed through the island by means 
of the stage-lines. The village is about the size of Port Hawkesbury, and 
has a lucrative country-trade, besides a large exportation of fish and cat- 
tle to Newfoundland and the United States. It derives its chief interest 
from being the point where the Atlantic-Cable Company transfers its mes- 
sages, received from all parts of Europe and delivered under the sea, to 
the Western Union Telegraph Company, by which the tidings are sent 
away through the Dominion and the United States. The telegraph-office 
is in a long two-story building near the strait, and 20-30 men are em- 
ployed therein. The hotel at this village has been justly execrated in sev- 
eral books of travel, but occupies a noble situation, overlooking, from a 
high blufif, the Strait of Canso for several miles to the S. E. Near this 
building is the consulate of the United States, over which floats the flag 
of the Bepublic. 



144 BouUSS. CANSO. 

Nearly opposite Port Hastings is the bold and shaggy headland of Cape 
Porcupine^ attaining a height of 640 ft., and contracting the strait to its 
narrowest part. The stream now widens slowly, with 16 - 20 fathoms of 
water, and at its N. entrance (W. side) the steamer passes a lighthouse, 
which sustains a powerful fixed white light, 110 ft. above the water, and 
visible from Cape St. George to Port Hood. 

Canso was in the earlier days called Campseau. or Ccmseau^ and the word is 
deriTed from the Indian Camsoke, which signifies " facing the frowning cliffii." It 
is also claLmed that the name is derived from the Spanish word. Gan<so, signifying 
** goose," in allasion to the great flocks of wild geese sometimes seen here. Here 
the Micmac traditions locate the marrellous transit of the divine Glooscap (see page 
106), who was stopped by these deep waters wliile on his way to attack a mighty w&- 
ard in Newfoundland. He summoned from the sea a whale, who bore him across 
the strait, like a new Arion, and landed him on the Breton shores. 

For many years the Strait of Canso was called the Passage de Fronsae, on all the 
old French maps and charts, in honor of the Sieur de Fronsac, the able and enter- 

J>ri8ing Governor of Cape Breton ; and in 1518, over a century before Plymouth was 
bunded, it was visited by the Baron de Lery, who designed forming a settlement on 
these shores, and left a considerable number of swine and cattle here. Savalette 
frequented this vicinity, for the purposes of fishing, from the year 1563 ; and in 
16CKk De Monts found here four Basque ships (from St. Jean de Lus) trading with 
the Indians. Three years later a Dutch vessel entered Canso, and excited the terri- 
ble hostility of the Indians by rifling the graves of their dead in order to strip off 
the beaver-skins in which the corpses were wrapped. Pontgrav^ cruised about tiiese 
waters for a long time, protecting the monopolized frir-trade. 

A fortress and rendezvous for fishermen was soon established near Cape Canso, at 
the harbor of Canso. In 1688 the Canso station and the sedentary fishery were 
plundered by an expedition from Boston, consisting of a crew of West-Indian pri- 
vateersmen. They entered these waters in a 10-gun vessel caJled a barealonga^ and 
carried away a French ship from the harbor. After the conquest of Acadia, the 
New-England fishermen occupied the harbor of Canso, and erected dwellings and 
warehouses. In 1720 the settlements were attacked at night by powerfril Indian 
bands, and completely plundered, though most of the fishermen escaped to their 
vessels. They loaded several French vessels with the proceeds of the ndd, and then 
retired to the forest. In 1722 the Massachusetts fishing-vessels were captured here by 
the Indians, and were followed by armed vessels of that Province, who retook them 
after a naval battle. H. M. S. Squirrel seized some illegal French traders here in 
1718 ; and in 1724 a prize-vessel was boarded by the savages in the Gut of Canso, and 
all its crew were kilkd or captured. During the subsequent peace New England had 
1,500 - 2,000 men here in the fisheries, and in 1788. 46,000 quintals of dry fish were 
exported hence. When the war-clouds were lowering, in 1787, the British had 100 
soldiers in garrison here, and H. M. S. Eltham was kept in the Strait as a guard- 
ship. In 1744 M. Duvivier attacked Canso at the head of 670 men, French Acap 
dians and Micmacs, and soon captured and destroyed it. In 1745 Pepperell reached 
Canso with 8 regiments of Massachusetts troops and New-IIampshire and Connecti- 
cut regiments, and here he remained for some weeks, drilling his men and erecting 
fortifications. At a later day Commodore Warren arrived here with the British 
West-Indian fleet, the Superb^ 60, Launceston, 40, Mermaid^ 40, Eltham^ and other 
ships. 

The British war-vessel Little Jack, 6 guns, was cruising about the Strait of Canso in 
1781, when she met two Marblehead privateers. Securing a favorable position near 
Petit de Grat, a shore-battery was formed, and the cutter was anchored with springs 
on her cable. After a sharp action, one of the privateers was crippled and forced to 
surrender, and the other made haste to escape. The Americans were paroled at Petit 
de Grat, and the vessel was taken to Quebec. 

After the close of the American Revolution, the S. end of the Strait of Canso was 

occupied by a colony of Loyalists from Florida, who sufiered terribly from the com- 

pantire JDclemency of the climate. The present inhabitants of these shores are 

mostly of Scottish descent, a hardy and VnlrepiCi ipeoie\e. So late as the year 1787 

tJiere was not one aettler on the Breton side of tha B\i»it, Wi^ \^* ^^^s^A^E».^^sstt. bu 

niostjy occurred during the present century. 



ABICHAT. RtnOe $4. 145 



34. Arichat and TAe Madama 

A mail-stage runs daily from Port Hawkesbury to Arichat, 30 M. S. E., 
passing near the sea-shore hamlets of Caribacou and Lower Biver Inhab- 
itants, and approaching the Scottish village of Grand Anse. At the French 
fishing-settlement of Grand Digtie, the passenger is ferried across the 
Lennox Passage, a long and picturesque strait which separates Isle 
Madame from the Breton shores. 

Isle Madame is 16 M. in length from E. to W., and about 5 M. in 
breadth. Its surface is very irregular, though of but moderate elevation, 
and the central part is occupied by a small lake. It was settled over a 
century ago, by exiles from Acadia, whose descendants now occupy the 
land, and are pious Catholics and daring seamen. 

In 1760 the French explorer of Isle Ifadame found 113 inhabitants here, " who 
live as they can," on a sterile soil, and barely maintained by some petty fisheries. 
He closes his aceonnt by saying, " We quitted this country with no r^ret, except 
that we must leave there so many miserable people." 

Arichat (two indifferent inns) is the capital of Richmond County, and 
is the most important fishing-station between Halifax and St. John*s, New- 
foundland. It has over 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom are of Acadian- 
French origin, and are connected in some way with the sea. The fisheries 
of which this port is the centre are connected with the great establish- 
ments on the Isle of Jersey (in the English Channel), like those of Cheti- 
camp, Gasp^, and Paspebiac. There is also an American firm located 
here, engaged in the canning of lobsters. The town is scattered along the 
steep N. shore of a spacious and secure harbor, which is sheltered by 
Jerseyman Island, and is '* capable of containing any number of the largest 
ships.'* The spacious Catholic church in the W. part of the town is pro- 
vided with a chime of bells, and is the seat of the Coadjutor Bishop of 
Arichat, whose diocese includes Cape Breton and the E. counties of Nova 
Scotia. It is claimed that " The Sisters of the Congregation of Notre 
Dame, of Montreal, have a grand and flourishing academy for female edu- 
cation of the highest order in the town of Arichat.'* E. of the cathedral is 
the Richmond County Court-House, surmounted by a cupola. There are 
also an English academy and an Anglican church in the town. On the 
S. W. is seen the lighthouse, bearing a fixed red light, which guides mari- 
ners through the Crid Passage and into the harbor. 

To the W. is the settlement of Idtile Arichat, extending along the coast 
for several miles, and having undeveloped coal deposits. There are over 
1,600 inhabitants in this town, all of whom are French.. 3-4 M. E. of 
Arichat is the Acadian fishing-hamlet of PetU de Grat, with nearly 2,000 
inhabitants; and D^Escousse is another place of similar pursuits, on the 
other side of the Bay of Rocks. 

7 ^ 



146 jRouUSS, ST. PETEBU 

35. The Strait of Canso to Sydney, G B. 

By the way of the land, through St. Peter's. 

The Boyal inail-8ta{;e leayes Port Hawkesbuiy eyeiy morning, some time after the 
arriyal of the Antigonish stage, and runs E. and N. E. to Sydney. Fare. 9 5. This 
is one of the most arduous routes by which Sydney can be approached, and leadi 
through a tiiinly settled uid uninteresting country until St. Peter's is reached. 
B^ond that point there is a series of attractive views of the Great Bras d'Or and St. 
Andrew's Channel, continuing almost to Sydney. 

Distances. — (Port Hastings to Port Hawkesbury , 4 - 5 M. ) Port Hawkesbuiy 
to Grand Anse, 21 M. ; St. Peter's, 85 ; Bed Island, 62; Irish Cove, 64 ; Sydney, 

J.W/. 

There is but little to interest the traveller during the first part of the 
joomey. Ailer leaving Port Hawkesbury, the stage enters a rugged and 
unpromising country, leaving the populous shores of Canso and pushing 
£. to the Biver Inhabitants. Crossing that stream where it begins to nar- 
row, the road continues through a region of low bleak hills, with occasional 
views, to the r., of the deeper coves of the Lennox Passage. Before noon 
it reaches the narrow Haulover Isthmus, which separates St. Peter*s Bay, 
on the Atlantic side, from St. Peter* s Inlet, on the Bras d'Or side. At this 
point is situated the village of St. Peter's (two inns), a Scottish settlement 
near the bay. The canal which has been constructed here to open com- 
munication between the Atlantic and the Bras d*Or is ^ M. long, 26 ft. 
wide, and 18 ft. deep, and is expected to be of much benefit to the Bras 
d'Or villages. It has been finished within a few years, and pertains to the 
Government, which takes a small toll from the vessels passing through. 
S. E. of St Peter's are the bluff heights of Mt. Granville, and to the N. W. 
are the uninhabited highlands which are called on the maps the Sporting 
Mts. 

St. Peter's was founded by M. Benys, about the year 1686, to command the lower 
end of the Bras d'Or, as his post at St. Anne's commandwl the upper end. He built 
a portage-road here, opened farm-lieinds, and erected a fort which mounted several 
cannon. The Indians residing on the most remote arms of the Bras d'Or were thus 
enabled to visit and carry the& flirs and fish to either one of Denys's forts. Denys 
himself, together with the fort, the ship, and all other property here, was captured 
soon after by a naval force sent out by M. le Borgne. But in 1666 Denys retook his 
posts, guarded by a charter from King Louis. A few years later St. Peter's was 
captured by La Giraudi^re, but was afterwards restored to Denys, who, however, 
abandoned the island about 1670, when all his buildings at this post were destroyed 
by fire. In 1737 St. Peter's was fortified by M. de St. Ovide, the comjnandant at 
lx>uisbourg ; but during the New-England crusade against the latter city, in 1745, 
it was captured and plundered by Col. Moulton's Massachusetts raiment. In 1752 
St. Peter's was the chief depot of the fur-trade with the Micmacs, and was sur- 
rounded with fruitftil &rms. It was then called Port Toulouse ^ and was connected 
with Louisbourg by a military road 18 leagues in length, constructed by the Count 
de B^rmond. Besides the garrison of French troops, there was a civil population 
of 280 souls ; and in 1760 Port Toulouse had grown to be a larger town than even 
Louisbourg itself. The King of France afterwards reprimanded the Count de Ray- 
mond for constructing his military road, saying tliat it would afibrd the English an 
opportunity to attack Louisbourg on the landward side. 

From the Strait of Canso to Grand River the coast is occupied by a line of humble 
and retired villages, inhabited by Acadian-French fishermen. 7-8 M. S. E. of St. 
Peter's are the VArdoise settlements (so named because a slate-quarry was once 
irorked here). In 1750 there was a large French village here, with a garrison of 



THE BRAS D'OR. Route S5. 147 

troops, and L'Ardoise was the chief depot of the flir-trade with the Indians. At 
Grand River the character of the population changes, though the names of the set- 
tlement would indicate, were history silent, that the towns beyond that point were 
originally founded by the French. They are now occupied exclusively by the Scotch, 
whose light vessels put out from the harbors of Grand River, L'Archev^que, St. 
Esprit, Blancherotte, Framboise, and Fourchu, on which are fishing-villages. 

A few miles N. E. of St. Peter's the stage crosses the Indian Reserva- 
tion near Lonis Cove. Chapel Island is a little way off shore, and is the 
largest of the group of islets at the mouth of St. Peter's Inlet These 
islands were granted by the government, in 1792, to the Micmac chiefs 
Bask and Tomma, for the use of their tribe, and have ever since been re- 
tained by their descendants. On the largest island is a Catholic chapel 
where all the Mlcmacs of Cape Breton gather, on the festival of St. Anne, 
every year, and pass several days in religious ceremonies and aboriginal 
games. Beyond this point the road runs N. E. between Soldier's Cove and 
the bold highlands on the r. and traverses the Red-Island Settlement, off 
which are the Red Islands. 

" The road that skirts the Arm of Gold is about 100 M. in length. After leaving 
Sydney you ride beside the Spanish River a short distance, until you come to the 
portage, which separates it from the lake, and then you follow the delicious curve 

of the great beach until you lurive at St. Peter's There is not a lovelier ride 

by white-pebbled beach and wide stretch of wave. Now we roll along amidst pri- 
meval trees, — not the evergreens of the sea-coast, but fomiliar growths of maple, 
beech, birch, and larches, juniper, or hackmatack, — imperishable for shipcraft; 

now we cross bridges, over sparkling brooks alive with trout and salmon To 

hang now in our curricle, upon tlus wooded hill-top. overlooking the clear surfsMse 
of the lake, with leafy island, and peninsula dotted in its depths, in all its native 
grace, without a touch or trace of liandiwork, far or near, save and except a single 
spot of sail in the &r-o£f, is holy and sublime." (Cozzems.) 

About 10 M. beyond the Red Island Settlement is the way-office and vil- 
lage at Irish Cove, whence a road runs 10-12 M. S. E. across the highlands 
to the Grand-River Lake, or Loch Lomond^ a picturesque sheet of water 
6-6 M. long, studded with islets and abounding in trout. The Scottish 
hamlets of Loch Lomond and Lochside are on its shores; and on the N., 
and connected by a narrow strait, is Loch Uist, The road crosses the 
lake and descends to Framboise Harbor, on the Atlantic coast. 

N. of Loch Uist, and about 7 M. fh>m the Bras d'Or, is a remarkable saline spring, 
containing in each g^lon 3i3 grains of chloride of sodium, 808 of chloride of cal- 
cium, and 9 of the cUorides of magnesium and potassium. This water Ls singularly 
free froxa. sulphurous contamination, and has been found very efficient in cases of 
asthma, rheumatism, and chronic headache. There are no accommodations for 
visitors. 

About 6 M. N. W. of Irish Cove is seen Benacadie Point, at the entrance 
to the East Bay, a picturesque inlet of the Bras d'Or, which ascends for 
18-20 M. to the N. E., and is bordered by lines of bold heights. Near its 
N. shore are several groups of islands, and the depth of the bay is from 
8 to 32 fathoms. The stage follows its shore to the upper end. Above 
Irish Cove the road lies between the bay and a mountain 600 ft. high, be- 
yond which is Cape Jthumore. 3 - 4 M. farther on is Loch an Fad, beyond 
which a roadside chapel is seen, and the road passes on to Edoobekuk, 



148 Route 96. THE BRAS D*OR. 

between the heights and the blue water. The opposite shore (4 M. dis- 
tant) is occupied by the Indians, whose principal village is called Etcasoni, 
and is situated near the group of islands in Crane Cove. The bay now 
diminishes to 2 M. in width, and is followed to its source in the lagoon of 
Tweednogie. The aggregate number of inhabitants, Scottish and Indian, 
along the shores of the East Bay, is a little over 2,000. The stage crosses 
the narrow isthmus (4-5 M.), and then follows the line of the Forks 
Lake and the Spanish River, to the town of Sydney. 
Sydneyt see page 150. 

36. HalilEtz to Sydney, Cape Breton. 

By the Sea, 

There is an iDdirect route by the Boston & C!olonial steamships to Port Hawkee- 
bnry, thence by stage to West Bay, and up the Bras d'Or to Sydney. 

The Anglo-French Steamship Company's vessel, the George ShcUtuckj leaves Hal- 
ifax on alternate Saturdays at 8 p. M., for Sydney and St. Pierre (see Route 50). 
Fares (including meals), Halifax to Sydney, cabin, $ 10 ; steerage, S 6. 

The Eastern Steamship Company's vessel, the Vtrgo^ leaves Hali&x on alternate 
Tuesdays for Sydney and St. John's, N. F. (see also Route 51). Fares to Sydney, S 8 
and 8 o (including state-rooms, but not meals); or for an excursion to Sydney and 
return, $12. For fttrther particulars, or to make certain of the days of starting, 
address Wilkinson, Wood, & Co., Hali&x, N. S. The Virgo is much better adapted 
for carrying passengers than is the George Shattuek. 

Halifax Harbor, see page 93. 

The coarse of the steamship is almost always within sight of land, a 
cold, dark, and rock-bound coast, off which are submerged ledges on 
which the sea breaks into white foam. This coast is described in Routes 
28 and 29; but of its aspect from the sea the Editor can say nothing, as 
be was obliged to traverse the route as far as Canso by night 

After passing the bold headland of Cape Canso, the deep bight of Ched- 
abucto Bay is seen on the W., running in to Guysborough and the Strait 
of Canso. Between Cape Canso and Red Point, on Cape Breton, the open- 
ing is about 30 M. wide, inside of which are Isle Madame (Route 84) and 
St. Peter's Bay. The course of the vessel, after crossing this wide open- 
ing, converges toward the Breton coast, which is, however, low and with- 
out character, and is istudded with white fishing-hamlets. St E^mt is 
visible, with its little harbor indenting the coast. 

About the middle of the last century the British firigate Tilbury ^ 64, was caught 
on this shore during a heavy gale of ^nd, and was unable to work off, in spite of 
the utmost exertions of her great crew. The Tilbury Rocks, off St Rspnt, still 
commemorate the place where she finally struck and went to pieces. 200 sailors 
were either drowned or killed by being dashed on tiie sharp rocks, and 200 men and 
15 officers were saved from the wares by the French people of St. Esprit, who nour- 
ished and sheltered them with tender care. England and France being tlien at war, 
the survivors of the Tilb\try''s crew were despatched to France as prisoners, on the 
French frigate Hermione. This vessel was, however, captured in the English Ghaa- 
tiel, and the sailors were released. 

Beyond St. Esprit the coves of Framboise and Fourchu make in from 



CAPE BRETON. Route 96. 149 

the sea, and above the deep inlet of Gabants Bay the lighthouse of Louis- 
bourg (see Route 38) may perhaps be seen. 

In 1744 the French ships Notre Dame de la D&ivranee, Louis jSratme^ and Marquis 
tPAntin sailed firom Callao (Peni), with a vast amoont of treaBore on board, con- 
cealed under a surftice-caiso of cocoa. The two latter were captured off the Axores 
by the British priyateers Prince Frederick and Duke^ but during the 8 hours' actioa 
the Notre Dame escaped. Not daring to approach the French coast white so many 
hostile priyateers were cruising about, she crowded all sail and bore away for Louis- 
bourg. 20 days later she sighted Scatari, and it seemed that her valuable cargo 
was already safe. But she was met, a short distance to the S., by a British fleet, 
and became a prise. Among the people captured on the Notre Dame was Don 
Antonio d'UUoa, the fiunous Spanish scientist, who was kept here in light captivity 
for two months, and who afterwards wrote an interesting book about Cape Breton. 
The lucky vessels that made the capture were the Sunderland jBoston^ and Oiester, 
and their crews had great prize-money, — for oyer $4,000,000 was found on the 
Notre Dame^ in bars and ingots of gold and silyer. 

In 1766 the French frigate Are-en- Cielj 60, and the Amitii were captured in these 
waters by H. B. M. ships Onticn'on and Success. In July, 1766, the French vessels 
HAroSy 't^.lUustre^ 64, and two 36-gun frigates met H. B. M. ships Orafton^ 70, Not- 
tingham, 70, and the Jamaiea sloop, and fought firom mid-afternoon till dajrk. The 
action was indecisiye, and each fleet claimed that the other stole away at night. 
The loss of men on both sides was considerable. 

In Bfay, 1746, a galluit naval action was fought hereabouts between the French 
flhip-of-the-line Vigilant and Com. Warren's fleet, consisting of the Sup^-rb (60-gun 
ship), and the La»nc««ton,Jl!fer7naiW, and £?tAam(40-gun frigates). The Vigilant yraa 
carrying a supply of military goods fiK>m Brest to lK>uisbourg, and met the Mer-- 
tnaidy standing off and on in the fog. The latter made sail and fled toward the 
squadron, and the IHgilant swept on in the fog and ran into the midst of the 
British fleet. Warren's ships opened fire on every side, but the French captain, 
the Marquis de Maisonforte, refhsed to surrender, though his decks were covered 
with stores and his lower batteries were below the water-line by reason of the heavy 
cargo. The battle was terrific, and lasted for 7 hours, while Maisonforte kept his 
colors flying and his cannon roaring until all his rigging was cut away by the British 
shot, the rudder was broken, the forecastle battered to pieces, and great numbers 
of the crew wounded or dead. 

The steamship now runs out to round Scatari, traversing waters which 
maintain a uniform depth of over 30 fathoms. On the W. is the promon- 
tory of Cape Breton, from which the island receives its name. It is a low 
headland, off which is the dark rock of Porto Nuevo Island. 

There is an old French tradition to the effect that Terazzano, the eminent Floren- 
tine navigator, landed near Cape Breton on his last voyage, and attempted to found 
a fortified settiement. But being suddenly attacked and overpowered by the Indians, 
himself and all his crew were put to death in a cruel manner. It is known to his- 
tory that this discoverer was never heard from after leaving France on his last voy- 
age (in 1626). 

It is believed that Gape Breton was first visited by the Marigold (70 tons), in 
1598 ; whereof it is written : " Here diners of our men went on land vpon the very 
cape, where, at their arriuall they found the spittes of oke of the Sauages which had 
roasted meate a Uttle before. And as they viewed the countrey they saw diuers 
beastes and foules, as blacke foxes, deeres, otters, great foules with redde legges, pen- 
fpiines, and certaine others." Thence the Marigold sailed to the site of Lonisbourg, 
where her crew landed to get water, but were driven off shore by the Indians. 

The cape probably owes its name to the &ct of its being visited by the Breton and 
Basque fishermen, who in those days firequented these seas. Cape Breton was at 
that time a prosperous conunercial city, near Bayonne, in the South of France. It 
was fi^uented by the Huguenots about this time, and had large fleets engaged in 
the fisheries. By the chan^ng of the course of the Adour River, and the drifting of 
sand into its lutrbor, its maritime importance was taken away, and in 1841 it had but 
920 inhabitants. {Dietionnaire EncyrlopMiqve.) 

In 1629 Lord Ochiltree, the son of the £arl of Arran, came out with 60 colonists, 



150 RmUe. 36, SYDNEY. 

and founded a town on the harbor of Baleine, S. E. of Cape Breton. The headstrong 
Scottish noble was arbitrary in his dealings with the French fishermen on the coast, 
and was soon attacked by a strong body of Normans. The armor-clad Scots for a 
time defended their fort brayely, but were at last compelled to surrender, and were 
carried off as prisoners, including Lord Ochiltree, who was plundered of all that be 
possessed, and was sent to France in the hold of the Great St. Andrew. 

In 1726 the French frigate Le Chameau^ 60, was wrecked on Porto Kueyo Island, 
and all on board were lost. Among these unfortunate people were M. de Chazii, 
Intendant of Canada; M. de Louyigny, Governor of Trois Rivieres, numerous other 
colonial dignitaries, and several ecclesiastics. " This misfortune in the course of a 
single night brought more grief and loss upon the French colonies than they had 
snared during 20 years of warfare. ' ' (Charlevoix. ) 

Soatari Island is about 5 M. N. E. of Cape Breton, and lies on the 46th 
parallel of N. latitude. It is a rock-bound island, 8 by 4 M. in area, and 
is a favorite resort of sea-birds. On the E. point is a powerful revolving 
"White light, and on the W. end is a fixed red light. The Halifax and Syd- 
ney steamers sometimes run inside of Scatari, through the Main-a-Dieu 
(or Menadou) Passage, near the obscure fishing-hamlet of Main-a-Dieu. 
N. and W. of Scatari is the wide, deep, and unsheltered Mira Bay. 

After crossing the broad mouth of Mira Bay, the shallower bight of Cow 
Bay is seen on the 1. The vessel steams to the N., by the dark and rug- 
ged rock of Flint Island^ and then runs about N. W. by the great coal-dis- 
tricts of Glace Bay and Lingan (see Route 37). Rounding the lighthouse 
on Low Point (or Flat Point), she ascends Sydney Harbor, passing the 
mines and villages of the Victoria Company on the 1., and the great shafts 
and works, hamlets and churches, of the General Mining Association on 
the r. After running by the lighthouse on the S. E. Bar, the opening of 
the W. Arm is seen, and the steamer soon reaches her wharf at Sydney. 

Sydney, formerly the capital of the Island-Province of Cape Breton, 
occupies a favorable position on one of the finest harbors on the Atlantic 
coast, and is the chief town of the island. It has about 2,800 inhabitants, 
with 6 churches, 2 newspapers, a masonic hall, and the Court-House of 
Cape Breton County. The principal article of trade is coal, of which vast 
quantities are brought by railways to this harbor, whence they are sent 
away on vessels. Cattle and provisions are also exported from this point 
to St. Pierre and Newfoundland. Near the water's edge is a white build- 
ing, surrounded by balconies and adjoined by a broad pier and a fiag-staff. 
This little estate is the headquarters of the French fleet in the North At- 
lantic, and is kept with true m&n-of-war's-man's neatness. There is 
usually a frigate of this fleet lying off the village, and their bands fre- 
quently play in the town. There is a pleasant view over the harbor fr6m 
the old fort on Barrack Point. 

It is usually said of a fair harbor anywhere in the Australian or Ameri- 
can colonies, that it "is capable of containing the whole British navy." 
This remark has been made concerning Sydney Harbor by the best 
authority, CapU Bayfield, R. N., the marine surveyor who made the 



NORTH SYDNEY. It<nUe36, 151 

Admiralty charts for the British North -American coast. The deep water 
continnes above the wharves, and as far up as Sydney Bridge. Over 500 
vessels called at this port in the summer of 1874, most of which were here 
freighted with coal. The harbor is usually ice-bound during the winter, 
from Jan. 1 to April 1, and on this account is less valuable than others 
more to the S. 

The town of Sydney is not attnctiye in its external aspects, though it is mSd that 
its society is of a high order of culture and exclusiTe dignity. It po e s e ae ea many of 
the social attributes of an old colonial capital, tiiough there are now no vestiges of its 
former position save the deserted barracks and decaying batteries. The struoger hi 
Sydney will be able to see all that he cares to of the town in less than an hoar, for 
it is devoid of interest, notwithstanding the prominent position which it holds in 
the world's marine intelligence and shipping news. Sydney is 750 M. from New 
York, 600 M. ftom Boston, 240 M. from Halifax, 400 M. from St. John's (N. F.), 
and i20 M. from Quebec. 

The hotels at Sydney are ArehibdUPs and the International ^ both of which are 
small. Mrs. Tonng also keeps a comfortable inn. The routes firom Sydney to Hali- 
fax are by the Eastern Steanuhip Company's boat ; by the Anglo-French Steamship 
Company, fortnightly ; by the Bras d'Or steamer, connecting with various lines at 
Port Ebtwkesbory (see Route 40) ; or by stage and railway, through Port Hawkesbury 
and Antigonish (see Routes 85 and 32, reversed). The Bras d'Or steamer leaves Syd- 
ney semi- weekly (see Route 40) ; and a steam ferry-boat crosses to N. Sydney three 
times daily. Stages run several times weekly to the coal-mines at Lingan, Little 
Olace Bay, and Cow Bay (see Route 37) ; and also to Loulsbourg (see Route S8). 

North Sydney is 6- 8 M. N. W. of Sydney , with which it is connected 
by the steam ferry-boat Lady of the Lake^ making three trips daily. It 
is a busy and dingy little place, and has several tanneries, a shoe-factory, 
and the shippingndepots of the Sydney coal-mines. There are several 
taverns, of the most inferior order. The marine-railway at this point has 
until recently been occupied by the hulks and wrecked vessels which 
were left along the coast after the Lord's-Day Grale. About 4 M. N. W. is 
the French Village on the Little Bras d'Or; and a road runs 30 M. S. W. 
over the uninhabited highlands of the peninsula of St. Andrews, to the 
Grand Narrows, on the Bras d^Or Lake. 

The harbor of Sydney was visit«d in 1587 by the English ship Hopewell^ which 
drove out a Biscayan vessel and plundered all the flsh-st^ges along the shore. Many 
savages here visited the ship, " among whom was their king, whose name was Itary, 
and their queene, to whom also we gaue coats and kniues and other trifles. These 
Sauages called the harborow Cibo. In this place are the greatest multitude of 
lobsters that euer we h^rd of ; for we caught at one hawle with a little draw 
net abonel40.'* This harbor soon received the name of Bale des Espagnols, be- 
cause during the troublous times of the 16th century, it was the favorite resort of 
the Spanish fishermen, as Loulsbourg was of the English, and St. Anne's of the 
French. 

In 1686 the French firigates VEnvieux and Frofond^ commanded by the valiant 
Iberville, entered the harbor of Sydney, and summoned to its shores the Indian 
warriors of Cape Breton. A chosen force of Micmacs were soon embarked, and then 
they sailed away to the destruction of Pemaquid. This was also the station of the 
powerful French squadron under the Chevalier du Palais. After Admiral Walker's 
terribly disastrous voyage in the Oulf (in 1711), the remainder of his fleet was 
gathered together here, and it is said that the 42 war-vessels then assembled formed 
the most powerful naval armament ever seen in these waters. They lay in the 
roadstead, abreast of Lloyd's Cove, and the Admiral had the following pompous in- 
scription erected on the shore : — ti-j »• 

" In nomine Patris, Filii, et Spirit'is Sanctis Amen. Omnibus in Christt Fideli' 
Ina Salulem. Anna, Dei GraticB, Magn. BritamUtB, Francice, et ISbemicB, Regina,- 



152 Routes?. THE SYDNEY COAL-FIELDS. 

Totiusque America Septentriontdis Domina^ Fidei Defensor^ etc. In Cujus hanm 
in»ularum vulgo Cape Breton^ Proprietatis et Dominti Testimonium, Hoe Erexit 
Monumentumf Sua Majestatis Servus, et Subditus JideUssimus, D. Hovenden 
Walker f Eques Auraius, Omnium in America Navium Regaiiunif Ftcefeetus et 
Thaiassiardta. Monte Septembris, Anno SaliUis MDCCXI." 

The first civil goyemor of Cape Breton after its seyerance firom NoTa Scotia (1784) 
was MMJqit Desbarres, a yeteran of the campaigns of the Mohawk Valley, Lake George, 
Ticonderoga, Louisbourg, and Quebec One of his chief steps was to select a site for 
the new capital of the i^and, and the location chosen was the peninsula on the S. 
arm of the capacious harbor called Spanish River. The seat of government thus 
established was named Sydney, in honor of Lord Sydney, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, who had erected Cape Breton into a separate Province. In the spring of 
1786 the Loyalists under Abraham Cuyler (ex-lkuiyor of Albany, N. Y.) came from 
Looisbonrg to Sydney, cut down the forests, and erected buildings. 

In 1781 a sluurp naval battle wa^ fought off Sydney Harbor^ between the French 
frigates VAsttie and VHermione (of 44 guns each) and a British squadron consist- 
ing of the Oicarleatoum^ 28, Allegiance. 16, FuZture, 16, Little Jack, 6, and the armed 
transport Vernon. 16 coal-ships whicn were under convoy of the British fleet fled 
into Sydney harbor, while the frigates rapidly overhauled tiie escort and brought on 
a general engagement. After a long and stubborn action, the Little Jaele surren- 
dered, and the remainder of the fleet would have shared the same fitte, had it not 
been for ibo approach of night, under whose shelter the shattered British vessels 
bore away to the eastward and escaped. They had lost 18 men killed and 28 
wounded. The senior captain of the victorious French vessels was La Perouse, who 
started in 1788, with two frigates, on a voyage of discovery around the world, but 
was lost, with all his equipage, on the Isle of Yanikoro. 

87. The East Coast of Cape Breton.— The Sydney Coal- 
fields. 

The Sydney Mines are on the N. side of Sydney Harbor, and are con- 
nected with N. Sydney by a coal-railway and also by a daily stage tfare, 
75c.). They are on the level land included between the Little Bras d'Or 
and the harbor of Sydney, and are worked by the General Mining Asso- 
ciation of London. Nearly 500 men are employed in the pits, and the Til- 
lage has a population of 2,500. 

The International Mines are at Bridgeport, 13 M. N. E. of gydney, and 
are connected with that harbor by a railway that cost $600,000. The sea- 
shore is here lined with rich coal-deposits, extending from Lingan Harbor 
to Sydney. It is probable that the submarine mining, which has already 
been commenced, will follow the carboniferous strata far beneath the sea. 

The Victoria Mines are W. of this district, and near Low Point, 9 M. 
from Sydney. The company has a railway which extends to their freight- 
ing station on Sydney Harbor, and is at present doing a prosperous busi- 
ness. 

The Lingan Mines are near Bridgeport, and are reached by a tri-weekly 

stage from Sydney (15 M.; fare, $1.50). Lingan is derived from the 

French word L'Indienne, applying to the same place. It was occupied 

and fortified by the British early in the 18th century, and a garrison of 

^0 wen was Btationed here to guard the coal-mines. At a later day the 

French army at Loaisbourg was suppWed \i\l\i Xw^'Si c^woJuV\ft& of coal 

frona this point, and several cargoes were senl avi«L^. \i\«\vi^HJckfe ^\«o.\aKt 



THE SYDNEY COAL-FIELDS. ltouUS7. 153 

of 1752 the mine was set on fire, and the fort and buildmgs were all 
destroyed. 

The Little Glace Bay Mines are 18 M. from Sydney, and are reached 
by a tri-weekly stage (fare, $ 1). They are situated on Glace Bay and 
Glace Cove, and about Table Head, and are carried on by a Halifax com- 
pany, which employs 800 miners. The deposits are very rich along this 
shore, and extend far out beneath the sea. 

7%e Gounie and Block-House Mines are on Cow Bay, and are among the 
most extensive on this coast. They are 22 M. from Sydney, and are 
reached by a tri-weekly stage. They employ over 600 men, and have 
formed a town of 2,000 inhabitants. Large fleets gather in the bay for 
the transportation of the coal to the S., and while lying here are in con- 
siderable peril daring the prevalence of easterly gales, which have a full 
sweep into the roadstead. Nearly 70 vessels were wrecked here during 
the LordVDay Gale, and the shores were strewn with broken hulks and 
many yet sadder relics of disaster. The S. portal of the bay is Cape 
Morien, and on the N. is Cape Perry, ofif which is the sea-surrounded Flint 
Island, bearing a revolving white light. 

The coal-beds of Cape Breton irere first described by Denys, in 1672, and firom 
1677 to 1690 he had a royalty of 20 sous per ton on all the coal that was exported. 
Some of it was taken to France, and great quantities were sent into New England. 
In 1720 a mine was opened at Cow Bay, whence the French army at Louisbourg 
was supplied, and numerous cargoes were shipped to Boston. Between 1745 and 
1749 the British garrison at Louisbourg was abundantly supplied with fUel from 
mines at Burnt Head and Little Bras d'Or, which were protected ag^nst the Indians 
by fortified outposts. The Abb6 Raynal says that there was " a prodigious demand 
for CaperBreton coal trova New England fh>m the year 1745 to 1749." But this trade 
was soon stopped by the British goyemment, and only enough mining was done to 
supply the troops at Louisbourg and Hali&x. The " coal-smugglers " still carried 
on a lucratiye business, slipping quietly into the harbors and mining team the great 
seams in the face of the cli£fo. In 1785 the Sydney vein was opened by Gov. Des- 
barres, but its profitable working was prevented by heavy royalties. The Imperial 
Government then assumed the control, and its vessels captured many of the light 
craft of the wvugglers. In 1828 the General Mining Association was formed in I>on- 
don, and secured the privilege of the mines and mineraJs of Nova Scotia and Cape 
Breton firom the Duke of York, to whom they had been granted by King George IV. 
Under the energetic management of the Association the business increased rapidly, 
and became profitable. Between 1827 and 1857 tinclusive), 1,931,634 tons of coal 
were mined in Cape Breton, of which 605,008 tons were sent to the United States. 
Between 1857 and 1870 there were sold at the mines 8,823,981 tons. By far the 
greater part of these products came from the Sydney field, but of late years consid- 
erable exportattons are being made fh>m the mines at Glace Bay, Cow Bay (Block- 
House), Gowrie, and Lingan. The Caledonia, Glace Bay, and Block-House coals are 
used for making gas at Boston and Cambridge, and the gas of New York is made 
firom International, Glace Bay, Caledonia, and Block-House coals. 



154 MauU 38. LOUISBOUBG. 

38. The Fortress of Lonisbonrg. 

Louisbourg is reached (until the railway is finished) by a weekly stage 
from Sydney, in 24 M. A road runs hence 15 - 18 M. N. £. along an in- 
teresting coast, to Cape Breton (see page 149), passing the hamlets of Big 
and Little Loran, ** named in honor of the haughty house of Lorraine.'* 
Cape Breton itself is nearly insulated by the deep haven of Baleine Gore, 
and just off its S. point is the rock of Porto Nuevo, rising boldly from 
the sea. Beyond the cape and the hamlet of Main-a-Dieu the Mira Bay 
road passes the hamlet of Catalogne (18 M. from Sydney), at the outlet of 
the broad lagoon of the Catalogne Lake, and follows the Mira JRiver from 
the village of Mira Gut to the drawbridge on the Louisbourg road, where 
the farming hamlet of Albert Bridge has been established (12 M. from 
Sydney). A road runs hence S. W. 12 - 14 M. to Marion Bridge^ a Scot- 
tish settlement near the long and narrow Mira Lake. The road ascends 
thence along the valley of the Salmon River to the vicinity of Loch Uist 
and Ijoch Lomond (see page 147). 

Gabarus Bay is 8-10 M. S. W. of Louisbourg, and is a deep and spa- 
cious but poorly sheltered roadstead. It has a large and straggling fishing- 
settlement, near the Gabarus, Belfry, and Mira Lakes. 

Louisbourg at present consists of a small hamlet occupied by fisher- 
men, whose vessels sail hence to the stormy Grand Banks. The adjacent 
country is hilly and unproductive, and contams no settlements. The har- 
bor is entered through a passage 10 fathoms deep, with a powerful white 
light on the N. E. headland, and is a capacious basin with 5-7 fathoms 
of water, well sheltered from any wind. On Point Rochfort, at the S. W. 
side of the harbor, are the ruins of the ancient French fortress and city. 

" The ruins of the once formidable batteries, with wide broken gaps (blown up 
by gunpowder), present a melancholy picture of past energy. The strong and capa- 
cious magazine, once the deposit of immense quantities of munitions of war, is still 
nearly entire, but, hidden by the accumulation of earth and turf, now afibrds a com- 
modious shelter for flocks of peaceful sheep, which feed around the burial-ground 
where the remains of many a gallant Frenchman and patriotic Briton are deposited ; 
while beneath the clear cold wave may be seen the vast sunken ships of war, whose 
very bulk indicates the power enjoyed by the Gallic nation ere England beceime 
mistress of her colonies on the shores of the Western Atlantic. Desolation now sits 
with a ghastly smile around the once formidable bastions. All is silent except the 
loud reverberating ocean, as it rolls its tremendous surges along the rocky beach, or 
the bleating of the scattered sheep, as with tinkling bells they return in the dusky 
solitude of eve to their singular folds." (Montoomert Martcv.) 

*' If you ever visit Louisbourg, you will observe a patch of dark greensward on 
Point Rochfort, — the site of the old burying-ground. Beneath it lie the ashes of 
hundreds of brave New-Englanders. No monument marks the sacred spot, but tho 
waves of the restless ocean, in calm or storm, sing an everlasting requiem over the 
graves of the departed heroes." (R. Brown.) 

The port of Louisbourg was called from the earliest times Havre d VAnglois^ but 

no important settlements were made here until after the surrender of Newfoundland 

and Acadia to Great Britain, by the Treaty of Utrecht. Then the French troops and 

inliabitants evacuated Placentia (N. F.) and came to this place. In 1714 M. de St. 

Ovide de BrouiWsai was made Governor of Lomsbonrg ; and the work of building the 

fortreaa was begun about 1720. 



THE FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURG. RouUSS. 155 

The powerftil defences of '* the Dunkirk of America *' were hurried to completion, 
and the people of New England " looked with awe upon the sombre walls of Loui»- 
bourg. whoae towers rose like giants above the northern seas." Orer 30,000,000 
livres were drawn from the French royal treasury, and were expended on the forti- 
fications of Louisbourg ; and numerous cargoes of building-stone were sent hither 
from France (as if Cape Breton had not enough, and little else). Fleets of New- 
England vessels bore lumber and bricks to the new fortrera ; and the Acadians fient 
in supplies and cattle. For more than 20 years the French goTemment devoted 
all its energy and resources to one object, — the completion of these fortifications. 
Inhabitants were drawn to the place by bounties ; and Louisbourg soon had a large 
trade with France, New England, and the West Indies. 

The harbor was guarded by a Iwttery of 30 28-pounder8, on Goat Island ; and by 
the Grand (or Royal} Battery, which carried 30 heavy guns and raked the entrance. 
On the landward side was a deep moat and projecting bastions; and the great 
careening-dock was opposite. The land and harbor sides of the town were defended 
by lines of ramparts and bastions, on which 80 guns were mounted ; and the West 
Gate was overlooked by a battery of 16 24-pounder8. The Citadel was in the gorge 
of the King's Bastion. In the centre of the city were the stately stone church, 
nunnery, and hospital of St. Jean de Dieu. The streets crossed each other at 
right angles, and communicated with the wharves by five gates in the harbor- 
ward wall. The fbrtress was in the first system of Yauban, and required a large 
garrison. 

Early in 1745 the Bfassachusetts Legislature determined to attack Louisbourg with 
all the forces of ttra Province ; and Gov. Shirley, the originator of the enterprii«e, 
gave the military command to Col. Wm. Pepperell. Massachusetts fhmished 3,250 
men ; New Hampshire, 300 ; and Connecticut, 500 ; and George Whitefield gave the 
motto for the army, " NU desperandum^ Christo duce^ thus making the enterprise 
a sort of Puritan crusade. The forces were joined at Canso by Commodore Warren's 
West-India fleet, and a landing was soon effected in Gabarus Bay. The garrison con- 
sisted of 750 French veterans and 1,500 militia, and the assailants were "4,000 un- 
disciplined militia or volunteers, officered by men who had, with one or two excep- 
tions, never seen a shot fired in anger all their lives, encamped in an open country, 
.... and sadly deficient in suitable artillery." The storehouses up the harbor 
were set on fire by Yaughan's New-IIampshire men ; and the black smoke drove down 
on the Grand Battery, so greatly alarming its garrison that they spiked their guns 
and fled. The fort was occupied by the Americans and soon opened on the city. 
Fascine batteries were erected at 1,550 and 950 yuds from the West Gate, and a 
breaching battery was reared at night within 250 yards of the walls. Amid the roar 
of a continual bombardment, the garrison made sorties by sea and land; and 1,500 
of the Americans were sick or wounded, 600 were kept out in the country watching 
the hostile Indians, and 200 had been lost in a disastrous attempt at storming the 
Island Battery. Early in June, the guns of the Circular Battery were all dis- 
mounted, the King's Bastion had a breach 24 feet deep, the town had been ruined 
by a rain of bombs and red-hot balls, and the Island Batteiy had been rendered un- 
tenable by the American cannonade. On the 15th the fleet (consisting of the Superb^ 
Sunderlandj Canterbury^ and Princess Mary, 60 guns each ; and the Launcestori. 
Chester. Larky Mermaid, Hector, and Ettham, of 40 guns each) was drawn up ofiT 
the harbor ; and the army was arrayed " to march with drums beating and colours 
flying to the assault of the West Gate." But Gov. Duchambon saw these ominous 
preparations and surrendered the works, to avoid unnecessary carnage. " As the 
troops, entering the fortress, beheld the strength of the place, their hearts for the 
first time sank within them. ' God has gone out of his way,' said they, 'in a re- 
markable and most miraculous manner, to incline the hearts of the French to give 
up and deliver this strong city into our hand.' " Pepperell attributed his success, 
not to his artillery or the fleet of line-of-battle ships, but to the prayers of New Eng- 
land, daily arising from every village in behalf of the absent army. '* The news of 
this important victory filled New I^agland with joy and Europe with astonishment." 
Boston and London and the chief towns of America and England were illuminated ; 
the batteries of London Tower fired salutes; and King George II. made Pepperell a 
baronet, and Warren a rear-admiral. (For the naval exploits, see page 149.) 

4,130 French people were sent home on a fleet of transports ; the siege-batteries 
were levelled, and a36 guns were mounted on the repaired walls ; and in the follow- 
ing April the New-England troops were relieved by two regiments from Gibraltar, 
and went home, having lost nearly 1,000 men. The historian SmoUet designated 



156 nouU38, THE FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURa. 

the capture of Louisbonrg, " the moet important achierement of the war of 1745 " ; 
and the authors of the " Universal History " considered it " an equivalent for aU 
the successes of the French upon the Continent." The siege is minutely described 
(with maps) in Brown's " Hiotory of the Island of Cape Breton," pages 168-248. 

" That a colony like Ifassachusetts. at that time flur flrom beung rwh or p<9ulou8, 
should display such remarkable military spirit and enterprise, aided only by the 
smaller Province of New Hampshire ; that they should equip both land and sea forces 
to attack a redoubtable fortress called by British officers impregnable, and on which 
the French Crown had expended immense sums ; . . . . that 4,000 rustic militia, 
whose officers were as inexperienced in war as their men, although supported by 
naral forces, should conquer the r^pilar troops of the greatest military power of the 
age, and wrest fh>m their hands a place of unusual strength, all appear little abort 
of miracle." (Bbamish Murdoch.) 

So keenly did the French government feel the loss of Lonisbonig that the great 
French Armada was sent out in 1746 to retake it and to destroy Boston. Alter the 
dimtstrous fidlure of this expedition (see page 99), La Jonqui&re was despatched with 
16 men-of-war and 28 other vessels, on the same errand, but was attacked by the fleeti 
of Anson and Warren off Cape Finisterre, and lost 9 ships of war, 4,000 men, and 
8 8,000,000 worth of the convoyed cargoes. In 17^ the war was «ided, Louisbourg 
and Cape Breton were restored to France, and ^' after four years of warftre in aU 
parts of the world, after all the waste of blood and treasure, the war «ided just 
where it began." 

When war broke out again between England and France, in 1766, Louisbourg was 
blockaded by the fleet of Admiral Boecawen. England soon sent 11 Une-of-l^tle 
ships, a squadron of frigates, and 60 transports, bearing 6,000 soldiers, to reduce the 
fortress : but France was too prompt to be surprised, and held it with 17 sail of the 
line and 10,000 men. The vast English fleet got i^thin 2 M. of Louisbourg and 
then recoiled, sailed to Halifax, and soon broke up, sending the army to New York 
and the ships to England. France then equipped fleets at Toulon and Rochfort, to 
rMnforce Louisbourg ; but the Foudroyant^ 84, the Orpheus, 64, and other vessels 
were captured. Six men-of-war and sixteen transports reached Loui8l>ourg, with a 
great amount of military supplies. 

Great Britain now fitted out an immense fleet at Sj^thead, consisting of the 
Namur, 90 guns ; Royal Wiftttam, 80 ; Princess Amelia^ 80 ; TerribU^ 74 ; the North' 
umberland^ Oxford, Burford, Vanguard, Somerset, and Lancaster, 70 guns each ; 
the Devonshire, Bedford, Captain, And Prince Frederick, 6i each; the Pembroke, 
Kingston, York, Prince of Orange, Defiance, and Nottingham, 60 guns each ; the 
Centurion and Sutherland, 60 each; the frigates Juno, Grammont, Nightingale, 
Hunter, Boreas, Hind, IVent, Port Mahon, Diana, Shannon, Kennington, Scar- 
borough, Squirrel, Hawk, Beaver, Tyloe, and Halifax; and the fire-ships Etna and 
Lightning, There were also 118 transports, carrying 13,600 men, in 17 regiments. 
Boscawen commanded the fleet, Amherst the army, and Wolfe was one of the briga- 
diers. 

This powerful armament soon appeared off Louisbourg, and at dawn on the 8th of 
June, 1768, the British troops landed at Gabarus Bay, and pushed through the &tal 
surf of Freshwater Cove, amid the hot fire of the French shore-batteries. Alter losing 
110 men they carried the entrenchments at the point of the bayonet, and the French 
fell back on Louisbourg. The fortress had been greatly strengthened since the Fiege 
of 1746, and was defended by 8,400 men of the Artillery and the regiments of Volon- 
taires Istrangers, Artois, Bourgogne, and Cambist, besides large bodies of militia and 
Indians. In the harbor were the ships-of-war. Prudent, 74 ; Entreprenant, 74 ; 
Caprideux, 64 ; CiUbre, 64 ; Biet^aisant, 64 ; ApoUon, 50 ; Diane, 86 ; Arithuse, 
86 ; Fidile, 86 ; Echo, 32 ; Biche, 16 ; and Chivre, 16. 

Wolfe's brigade then occupied the old Lighthouse Battery, and opened fir« on the 
city, the French fleet, and the Island Battery. The latter was soon completely de- 
stroyed by Wolfe's tremendous cannonade; and since the harbor was thus left 
unguarded. Gov. Drucour sank the frigates Diane, ApoUon, Biche, Futile, and 
Oiivre at its entrance. Meantime the main army was erecting works on Green Hill 
and opposite the Queen's and Princess's Bastions, under the fire of the French 
ramparts and ships, and annoyed on the rear by the Indians. During a bloody 
sortie by the French, the Earl of Dundonald and many of the Grenadiers were 
killed. The heavy siege-batteries were advanced rapidly, and poured in a crushing 
fire on the doomed city, destroying the Citadel, the West Gate, and the barrarkn. 
The magazine of the Entreprenant, 74, blew up, and the Caprideux and Ciiibre, 



THE FORTRESS OF LOUISBOURG. Itouie S8, 157 

catching the fire in their sails, were bnmed at their moorings. The Arithuu and 
^ho ran out of the harbor in foggy weather, bat the, latter was captured. Only 
two French frigates remained, and these were both captured by boats from the fleet, 
after a daribg attack. On the 26th of July the Chevalier de Drucour surrendered 
the city, with 6,637 men, 236 pieces of artillery, and immense amounts of stores and 
supplies. The French 1^ lost about 1,000 men, the British nearly 000, during the 

All England rang with the tidings of the iUl of " the DunUric of America," special 
prayers and than^givings were read in all the churches of the kingdom ; and 11 
sets of colors txan Louisbonrg were presented to the King at Kensington Palace, 
whence they were borne with great pomp to St. Paul's Cathedral. Bfarine insurance 
on Anglo-American yessels fell at once from 30 to 12 per cent, because the French 
privateers were driven from the western seas by the closing of their port of refhge. 

In 17^ the great fleet and army of Gen. Wollb gathered at Louisbonrg and sailed 
away to the Conijuest of Canada. Halifax was a fine naval station, and it was 
deemed inexpedient to maintain a costly garrison at Louisbonrg ; so sappers and 
miners were sent there in the summer of 1760,and " in the short space of six months 
all the fortifications uid public buildings, which had cost France 25 years of labor 
and a vast amount of monev, were utterly demolished. — the walls and glacis levelled 
into Um ditch, — leaving, in ihct, nothing to mark their former situation but heaps 
of stones and rubbisli. Notliing was left stancUng but the private houses, which 
had been rent and sliattered dunng the si^^, the hospital, and a barrack capable 

of lodging 90O men All the artillery, ammunition, stores, implements, — in 

short, everything of the slightest value, even the hewn stones which liad decorated 
the public buildings, wwe transported to Halifiuc." 

The British garrison was withdrawn in 1768, and after the foundation of Sydney 
*' the most splendid town of La Nouvelle France " was completely deserted by its 
people. 

During a year or two past a scheme has been agitated whose fulfilment would 
restore Louisbourg to more than its former importance. It is proposed to construct 
a first-class railway firom this point to some station on the Pictou Branch of the 
Intercolonial Railway, crossing the Strait of Canso either by a lofty suspension- 
bridge or a steam ferry-boat on which the trains would be carried. It is thought 
^at the freight and passenger receipts firom the coal-mines and the settlements on 
the territory traversed would more than deflray the cost of construction and mainte- 
nance. The prqjectors then intend to make Louisbourg a port of call for the ocean- 
steamships, for whose use this safe and accessible harbor is peculiarly adapted. This 
port is on the OOth parallel of W. longitude, and is 11 d^prees E. of Boston and 14 de- 
greea E. of New York, or so much fkrther advanced on the route to Europe. When 
the through ndlway Is completed to Boston, Montreal, and New York, it is thought 
tiiat most of the better class, at least, of transatlantic travellers would prefer to save 
time and nearly 1,000 M. of ocean-voyaging, by leaving or taking the steamship 
here. Extensive surveys have already Iwen made in tlus vicinity, and real estate 
in Looisboarg has rapidly advanced in value. 



158 RmUeSB, ST. ANNETS BAT. 



S9. The ITorth Shore of Cape Breton.— St Anne's IBSay and 

St Fanl'8 IfOand. 

Conveyances may be hired at Baddeck (see page 162) by which to visit 
St. Anne*s. The distance is about 10 M. to the head of the harbor. The 
fii*st part of the way leads along the shores of Baddeck Bay, with the 
promontory of Red Head over the water to the r. The road then crosses a 
cold district of denuded highlands, and descends to the * VaUey oft^, Jjme. 
As the harbor is approached, the traveller can see the amphitheatrical 
glens in which the great Holy Fairs or annual religious communions of 
the people are held. These quaint Presbyterian camp-meetings are said 
to be a relic of the ancient churches in the Scottish Highlands. The 
shores of the harbor were occupied in 1820 by immigrants from the High- 
lands, who are now well located on comfortable farms. The road follows 
the S. Arm, and to the 1. is seen the N. Arm, winding away among the 
tall mountains. Just E. of the N. Arm is St. Anne's Mt, which is 1,070 ft 
high, and pushes forward cliffs 960 ft. high nearly to the water's edge. 

*^ There is no ride on the continent, of the kind, so full of picturesque 
beauty and constant surprises as this around the indentations of St. Anne's 
harbor. High bluffs, bold shores, exquisite sea^-views, mountainous ranges, 
delicious air,** are found here in abundance. About opposite the light- 
house on the bar, at the mouth of the harbor, is Old Fort Pointy on which 
the French batteries were established. Near this point is the hamlet of 
EngUshtoiDfi^ chiefly interesting as containing the grave of the once famous 
** Nova-Scotia Giant.** The mountains back of Englishtown are over 
1,000 ft. high, and run N. E. to Cape Dauphin, whence they repel the sea. 
Imray's Sailing Directions states that ** on the N. side the land is very 
high, and ships-of-war may lie so near the shore that a water-hose may 
reach the fresh water.** As to the harbor, the ancient description of 
Charlevoix still holds good : — 

" Port Ste. Anne, as already stated, has before it a veiy sure roadstead between 
the Cibon Islands. The port is almost completely closed by a tongue of land, leav- 
ing passage for only a single ship. This port, thus closed, is nearly two leagues in 
circuit, and is oral in form. Ships can everywhere approach the land, and scarcely 
perceive the winds, on account of its high banks and the surrounding mountains. 
.... The fishing is very abundant ; great quantities of good wood are found there, 
such as maple, beech, wild cherry, and especially oaks very suitable for building 
and masts, being 28-38 ft. high ; marble is common ; most of the land good, ^ in 
Great and Little Labrador, vhich are only a league and a half off, the soil is very 
fertile, and it can contain a very large number of settlers." 

In St. Anne's Bay the English ship ChanceioeU was wrecked in 1597, and while 
she lay aground " there came aboord many shallops with store of French men, who 
robbed and spoyled all they could lay their hands on, pillaging the poore men euen 
to their very shirts, and vsing them in sauage manner ; whereas they should rather 
as Christians haue aided them in that distresse." In 1629 this harbor was occupied 
by the Great St. Andrew and the Marguerite^ armed vessels of Fiance, whose crews, 
together with their English prisoners, constructed a fort to command the entrance. 
It was armed with 8 cannon, 1,800 pounds of powder, pikes, and muskets, and was 
garrisoned by 40 men. The commander of the fleet raised the arms of the King and 
of Cardinal Richelieu over its walls, and erected a chapel, for whose care he left two 



INGONISH. JlotUe S9. 159 

Jesuits. He then named the harbor St. Anne^s. Before the close of that winter 
more than one third of the troops died of the scurvy, and the commandant assas- 
sinated his lieutenant on the parade-ground. In 1634 the Jesuits founded an In- 
dian mission here, but both this and the garrison were afterwards withdrawn. Some 
years later a new battery and settlement were erected here by Nicholas Denys, Sieur 
de Fronsac, who traded hence with the Indians of the N. of Cape Breton. 

The yalley of the N. Arm of St. Anne's was granted, in 1713, to M. de Rouville, 
a captain in the infifintry of France, and brother of that Hertel de RouTille who led 
the forces that destroyed Schenectady, Deerfleld, and Haverhill. The N. Arm was 
long called -RouvUle's River. At a later day Costabelle, Beaucourt, Soubras, and 
other French officers had fishing-stations on the bay. In 1745 a frigate firom Com. 
Warren's fleet (then blockading Louisbourg) entered the harbor, and destroyed all 
the property on its shores. St. Anne's Bay was afberwards called Port Dauphin by 
the French, and the government long hesitated as to whether the chief fortress of 
Cape Breton should be located here or at Louisbourg. The perfect security of the 
harbor afibrded a strong argument in favor of St. Anne's, and it seemed capable of 
being made impr^nable at slight expense. After the foundation of Louisbourg 1,000 
cords of wood were sent to that place annually &om St. Anne's. 

The road from the Bras d'Or to the N. shore of Cape Breton diverges 
from the St. Anne road before reaching the harbor, and bears to the N. £., 
along the W. Branch. It rounds the North-River Valley by a great curve, 
and then sweeps up the harbor-shore, under the imposing cliffs of St. 
Anne's Mt. From St. Anne's to Ingonish the distance is about 40 M., by 
a remarkably picturesque road between the mountains and the Atlantic, 
on a narrow plain, which recalls Byron's lines: — 

*' The mountains look on Marathon, 
And Marathon looks on the sea." 

** Qrand and very beantifbl are the rocky gorges and ravines which fhrrow the 
hills and precipices between St. Anne's and Ingonish Equally grand and pic- 
turesque is the red syenitic escarpment of Smoky Cape, capped with the cloud 
from which it derives its name, with many a lofty headland in the background, 
and the peak of the Sugar-loaf Mountain just peeping above the far-distant hori- 
zon." (Bbown.) 

The proud headland of Cape Smoky (the Cap EnfumS of the French) is 
950 ft. high, and runs sheer down into the sea. To the W. there are peaks 
1,200-1,800 ft. high; and as the road bends around the deep bights to the 
N., it passes under summits more than 1,400 ft. high. Among these mas- 
sive hills, and facing Cape Smoky, is the village of Ingonish, inhabited by 
Scottish Catholic fishermen, 800 of whom are found in this district. On 
the island that shelters the harbor is a fixed white light, 237 ft. above the 
sea, and visible for 15 M. 

Ingonish was one of the early stations of the French. In 1729 a great church was 
built here, whose foundations only remain now ; and in 1849 a church-bell, marked 
St. Malo, 1729, and weighing 200 pounds, was found buried in the sands of the 
beach. The settlement here was probably ruined by the drawing away of its people 
to aid in holding Louisbourg against the Anglo-American forces. In 1740 Ingonish 
-was the second town on the island, and its fleet caught 13,560 quintals of fish. It 
was destroyed, in 1745, by men-of-war from Com. Warren's fleet. 

The highland region back of Ingonish has always been fkmous for its abundance 
of game, especially of moose and caribou. In the winter of 1789 over 9,000 moose 
were killed here for the sake of their skins, which brought ten shillings each ; and 
for many years this wholesale slaughter went on, and vessels knew when they were 
approaching the N. shore of Cape Breton by the odor of decaying carcasses which 
came from the shore. Finally the outraged laws of the Province were vindicated by 
the occupation of Ingonish by a body of troops, whose duty it was to restrain the 



160 



ST. PACLS ISLASa 





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THE BRAS D*OR LAKES. JtauU 40. 161 



40. The Bras d*Or Lakes. 

T%e " Inland Route "'^from Sydney to Halifax. The steamer Neptune leaves Syd- 
ney on Tuesday and Thursday at 6 a. m., and trarerffes the entire length of the Bru 
d'Or, stopping at Baddeck and other Tillages. A train of stages and wagons leaves 
the landing at West Bay, on her arrival, and crosses to Port Uawkesbury (13 M.), 
whence passengers pass to Picton by steamer, and thence by railway to Ilali&x or 
St. John. The Ikre from Sydney to Halilkz is $ 8 ; from Svdney to West Bay, 8 8. 
The time of the passage from Sydney to West Bay is from 12 to 14 hours. Close con- 
nections are usnaUy made on this route, and also on the same line in an opposite 
direction (Halifiuc to Sydney). The journey from Sydney to Halifiix is much to be 
preferred to the journey in the opposite direction, because in going S. the lakes are 
traversed by daylight, while in going N. much of the voyi^ is at night. The Nep- 
tune is a second-class riva^boat, smaller than the Rose Standixh^ of Boston, or the 
Sylvan Stream^ of New York, but affords &ir accommodations to passengers. 

After leaving the wharves of Sydney, the steamer passes up to N. Syd- 
ney, where she makes a short stop, then mns to the N. E. out of Sydney 
Harbor, with the shafts and villages of the Sydney Mines on the 1. After 
rounding Cranberry Head the course is N. W. for 8-9 M., in the ocean, 
passing the surf-beaten Bird Rock on the 1., while the stately mountains 
towards St. Anne's and Ingonish (see page 159) are seen in advance. 
When within 2-3 M. of Point Aconi the vessel turns in to the 1., and soon 
enters the strait called the * Little Bras d*Or, a narrow and river-like pas- 
sage through which the tide sweeps rapidly, and which is impassable for 
large craft. The water-view is sometimes limited to a few score feet, so 
tortuous and landlocked is the channel ; and there are several small and 
picturesque hamlets on the shore, mostly inhabited by immigrants from 
the Hebrides. 

On the r. side of the channel is Bonlarderie Island, which is about 35 
M. long by 2 - 8 M. wide, and supports a small farming population. In 
1713 this rich and beautiful island was granted by the French Crown to 
M. de la Bonlarderie, an officer of the French navy, who had greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in the defence of Port Royal and of Placentia. It is 
now occupied by Highlanders, who number about 1,300, and have several 
small hamlets. On the N. end of the island is the coal-field of Point Aconi, 
which has not been operated for several years. 

The * Great Bras d'Or is the channel on the W. side of Bonlarderie, and 
is always used by ships and large coasters bound into the lakes. It has 
from 5 to 38 fathoms of water, and is much grander in scenery than is the 
E. channel. The Neptune traverses this strait fortnightly, rounding Point 
Aconi, and approaching the sea-repelling mountains of St. Anne's and 
Ingonish. On the N. are seen the C^iue Islands, sheltering St. Anne's 
Bay (see page 158), and marked by a reyolving red-and-white light, which 
is visible for 14 M. On the r. the dark and wind-swept Cape Dauphin is 
approached, terminating, in a peak 1,045 ft high, the massive ridge which 
occupies the peninsula of St. Anne. Bej'ond the lighthouse on Black Rock 
Point (I. side), the steamer passes through a strait ^ M. wide, and then 
enters the Great Bras d'Or, which is 1-8 M. wide, and is followed to the 



162 EauU40, BADDECK. 

S. W. for nearly 80 M., between the monntains of St Anne and the high- 
lands of Boularderie. 

The Neptune soon trayerses the narrow channel of the Little Bras d^Or 
and enters a broader bay. Beyond Grove Point it reaches a beautiful 
sound which is followed for 25 M., and is 8-4 M. wide. (It is called St 
Andrew^ s Channel on the Admiralty charts, but that name is elsewhere ap- 
plied to the East Bay.) Near George Mt, on the 1., are the low shores of 
Long Island ; and the steamer sometimes stops off Beaver Harbor, or Bois- 
dale. The course is now laid towards the W. shore, rounds Kempt Head, 
the S. extremity of Boularderie Island, and passes Coffin Island on the r., 
beyond which is seen the long channel of the Great Bras d'Or. The course 
is nearly N. W., and lies between Red Point (r. side) and Mackay Point (1. 
side), which are about 3 M. apart. In front is seen the village of Baddeck, 
while inside of the points Baddeck Bay extends to the r. and St Patrick's 
Channel to the 1. 

Baddeok ( Telegraph House^ comfortable; Brat cT Or Botd) is the capi- 
tal of Victoria County, and the chief village on the Bras d*Or. It has 
three churches, a court-house, and a quaint little jail, and is the centre of 
a group of farming-settlements whose aggregate population is 1,749. Thei 
harbor can accommodate vessels of 500 tons, and from this point several 
cargoes of produce are annually sent to Newfoundland. Gold has been 
found in the vicinity, and there is a saline spring farther down the shore. 
This locality was first visited by the French, from whom it received the 
name Bedeque, since Scotticized to Baddeck {accent on the last syllable). 
It was first settled by the disbanded soldiers of the Royal Rangers, and in 
1798 there were 10 inhabitants here. 

** Although it was Sunday, I could not but notice that Baddeck was a clean- 
looking village of white wooden houses, of perhaps 7 - 800 inhabitants ; that it 
stretched along the shore for a mile or more, straggUng off into fiirm-houses at each 
end, lying for the most part on the sloping curve of the bay. There were a few 
counts-looking stores, and shops, and on the shore three or four rather decayed 
and shaky wharves ran into the water, and a few schooners lay at anchor near 
them ; and the usual decaying warehouses leaned about the docks. A peaceftil and 
perhaps a thriving place, but not a bustling place 

" Having attributed the quiet of Baddeck on Sunday to religion, we did not know 
to what to lay the quiet on Monday. But its peaceAilneM continued. 1 have no 
doubt that the formers began to fiufm, and the traders to trade, and the sailors to 
sail ; but the tourist felt that he had come into a place of rest. The promise of the 
red sky the evening before wa« ftilfilled in another royal day. There was an inspira- 
tion in the air that one looks for rather in the mountains than on the sea-coast, it 
seemed like some new and gentle compound of sea-air and land4dr, which was the 
perfection of breathing material. In this atmosphere, which seems to flow over all 
these Atlantic isles at this reason, one endures a great deal of exercise with little 
fktigue ; or he is content to sit still and has no feeling of sluggishness. Mere living 
is a kind of happiness, and the easy-going traveller is satisfied with little to do and 
less to see. Let the reader not understand that we are recommending him to go to 

Baddeck. Far from it There are few whom it would pay to go a thousand 

miles for the sake of sitting on the dock at Baddeck when the sun goes down, and 
watching the purple lights on the islands and the distant hills, the red flush on the 
horixon and on the lake, and the creeping on of gray twilight. You can see all ttiis 
as well elsewhere? I am not so sure. There is a harmony of beauty about the 



BADDECK. It(nae40. 163 

Bras d'Or at Baddeck which is lacking in many ficenes of more pretension.'' 
(Charles Duduet Wabnee's Baddeck; and that Sort of Thing.) 

The tourist who stops at Baddeck should visit the Indian village which 
occupies a grassy point near the town. It pertains to one of the clans of 
the Micmac tribe, and usually has 12-15 wigwams. Visitors are received 
with a not unkindly indifiference, and may here study Indian domestic 
life, the curious manner of carrying babies, and the architecture of the 
wigwam. Some of the people can talk English. The visitor should en- 
deavor to see one of the Micmac Catholic prayer-books, printed (at Vienna) 
In a singular hieroglyphic, and bought by the Indians at the Trappist mon- 
astery in Tracadie. The camp at Baddeck is broken up in the autumn 
and the people retire to their reservations near the hunting- grounds. 

The Micmacs of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton still retain many of their ancient 
cnstoms, and are of purer blood ttum any other tribe on the Atlantic coast. They 
number about 1,600 (and 1,400 in New Brunswick), and occupy several reservations 
in the Province, where they are eared for and protected by the Dominion govern- 
ment. Under this paternal care (strongly contrasting with the Indian policy of the 
United States) the aborigines are steadily increasing in numbers and approaching a 
better standard of civilization, and are loyal and useful subjects of their " great 
mother," Queen Victoria. The discipline of families is well preserved by the use of 
corpor^ punishment. Warm parental affection is a strongly marked feature, and 
the subordination of the women is still maintained, though ameliorated by the in- 
fluences of civilization. The Micmacs have exchanged their former belief in and 
worship of the hostile principles of good and evil for the creed of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church, of which they are devout communicants. 

Their language has many curious verbal coincidences with that of the Gaelic race, 
and is said to be *' copious, flexible, and expressive." Philologists have also traced 
a marked analogy between the Greek and Micmac languages, basing thereon a sharp 
rebuke to Benan's flippant attack on the aboriginal tongues of America. 

Baddeck to Whycocomagh, see Koute 41. Baddeck, to St. Anne's Bay, 
see Route 89. A road runs from this point* nearly N. for 10 M. to the 
forks of the Big Baddeck River, where trout are found. To the N. are 
the Baddeck Mts., an unexplored and savage highland region which ex- 
tends for 60 M. to the N., as far as Cape North, with a breadth of 15 - 25 
M. This mountain-region has been the favorite hunting-ground for the 
moose and caribou (none of which can be shot between 1874 and 1877, 
according to the Provincial game-law), and it also contains bears, wolves 
and foxes, rabbits and hares, beaver, mink, and muskrats. 

The Margaree River may be reached from Baddeck (in 28 M.) by a 
picturesque road, ascending the long valley, and crossing the Hunter's 
Mt., with fine views over the Bras d'Or. The pleasant rural district of 
the Middle Valley is then traversed, and the road leads through a remark- 
able pass of the hills and enters the rich valley of the Margaree, famous 
for its fishing (see Route* 42). Visitors to this district usually board in 
the farm-houses, where plain and substantial fare is given. 

The Middle River lies to the W. of Baddeck, and is approached by the Whyco- 
comagh road (Route 41). The valley has over l,OiDO inhabitants, of the Gaelic High- 
land race, many of whom are unacquainted with the English language. Near their 
settlements are prolific trout-streams, where fine sport may be enjoyed in the early 
summer. The chief settlements are respectively 12, 13, and 16 M. finom Baddeck, 
and near the head of the river is an undeveloped gold district. A few miles up this 



164 Route 40, THE BRAS D*OR. 

xiyer is " a Gaelic settlement of fanners. The river here flows through lorely mead- 
ows, sandy, fertile, and sheltered by hills, — a green Eden, one of the few peaceful 
inhabited spots in the world. I could conceive of no news coming to these High- 
landers later than the defeat of the Pretender. " 

In 1801 the total population of the Island of Cape.Breton was 2,513, including 
Englishmen, Acadiane, and Micmacs. In 1802 the firet emigrant-ship arrived at 
Sydney from Scotland, and since that time over 25,000 Scottish immigrants have 
landed and settled on this island. They rapidly spread over the W. coast and occa- 
pied the shores of the Bras d'Or and its connected waters, and Cape Breton is now, 
and probably will ever be, a Scottish land. After the dispersal of the Highland clans 
and the final pacification of Northern Scotland, the chieftidns and nobles found it 
more profitable to devote their estates to cattle-raising than to maintain the old ten- 
antry system. So thousands of poor tenant-formers were expelled finom their hold- 
ings and their ancient homes to make room for deer-parks or sheep-fiums among 
the glens. Driven forth against their will, they crossed the Atlantic to settle on 
the New- World shores, in a fiidrer but less honored land. The selfish policy of the 
powerful nobles depopulated broad districts of the Highlands. " Many who had 
friends in the colonies, and knew what they had to expect, emigrated with great 
alacrity ; but thousands, who liad no such desire, on the contrary the greatest 
repugnance to leave the land of their fathers, the &miliar hills, and the green 
filopes of Lochaber, were heart-broken at the idea of being separated from them by 
a thousand leagues of raging sea." This hardy rural population is peculiarly adapted 
to develop a new country like Cape Breton, and can also endure the great fluctu- 
ations of the climate, which range from 82° below zero to 96^ above. The descend- 
ants of these immigrants are superior to the native Highlanders, both physically 
and mentally, and pay more attention to the education of their children and to this 
general estate of the nation. 

On leaving Baddeck the steamer runs out around Mackay*s Point, and 
ascends the * Little Bras cT Or Lake, to the S. W. This sheet of water is 
6 - 6 M. wide, and is bordered on the £. by the peninsula of St. Andrew 
and the hills back of Sunacadie and Christmas Island, and on the W. by 
the highlands of the Watchabaktchkt peninsula. 

" The most electric American, heir of all the nervous diseases of all the 
ages, could not but find peace in this scene of tranquil beauty, and sail 
on into a great and deepening contentment. Would the voyage could last 
for an age, with the same sparkling but tranquil sea, and the same en- 
vironment of hills, near and remote. The hills approached and fell away 
in lines of undulating grace, draped with a tender color which helped to 
carry the imagination beyond the earth. 

" Certainly, as we glided out upon the summer waters and began to 
get the graceful outline of the widening shores, it seemed as if we had 

taken passage to the Fortunate Isles It was enough to sit on deck 

forward of the wheel-house, and absorb, by all the senses, the delicious 
day. With such weather perpetual and such scenery always present, sin in 
this world would soon become an impossibility." (Warner's Baddeck,) 

12-15 M. from Baddeck is the * Strait of Barra (or Grand Narrows), 
so named because the inhabitants of the adjacent shores came from the 
island of Barra, in the Hebrides. The strait is picturesque, and is 2 M. 
long and 1 M. wide. On the shore are a conspicuous Catholic church and 
a lighthouse; and the inhabitants are nearly all Campbells and McNeils. 

The steamer now enters the * Great Bras d*Or LakOi a noble expanse 
of water with a depth of from 15 to 57 fathoms. It is difficult to state its 



THE BRAS D'OR. Itoute 40. 165 

size, on account of the numerous deep bays, but from the Strait of Barra 
to the S. shore it is 18 M. long (N. and S.), and from Malaga wdatchkt it is 
nearly 20 M. (E. and W.). From the head of West Bay to the head of 
East Bay, a vesf^el could sail in a straight course nearly 60 M. 

** The Bras d'Or is the most beautiful salt-water la^e I hare erer seen, aud more 

beautiftil than we had imagined a body of salt water could be The water seeks 

out all the low places, and ramifies the interior, running away into lovely bays and 
lagoons, leaving slender tongues of land and picturesque islands, and bringing into 
the recesses of the land, to the remote country farms and settlements the- flavor of 
salt, and the fish and mollusks of the briny sea. There is very little tide at any 
time, so that the shores are clean and sightly for the most part, like those of a fresh- 
water lake. It has all the pleasantness of a fresh-water lake, with all the advan- 
tages of a salt one. In the srreams which run into it are the speckled trout, the 
shad, and the salmon ; out of its depths are hooked the cod and the mackerel, and 
in its bays fatten the oyster. This irregular lake is about 100 M. long, if you meas- 
ure it skilfully, and in some places 10 M. broad ; but so indented Is it, that I am 
not sure but one would need, as we were informed, to ride 1,000 M. to go round it, 
following all its incursions into the land. The hills around it are never more than 
5 - 600 ft. -high, but they are high enough for reposefiil beauty, and offer eyocy where 
pleasing lines." (Warner's Baddeck ) 

Soon after passing the Strait of Barra the broad estuary of the River 
Denys is seen on the r. Deep ship-channels may be followed thither, pass- 
ing at first through a cluster of islets, and then into the North Basin, 
whence the Portage Inlet runs N. to within j^ M. of the Whycocomagh 
Basin. The Inner Basin is 7 M. long and 2 - 3 M. wide, and is sometimes 
visited by ships, which load here with lumber for England. The River 
Denys debouches into the S. W. angle of this basin. There are five ham- 
lets of from 150 to 300 inhabitants each, situated on the basins and the 
river, most of the people being from the Western Isles of Scotland. 

The ancient Indian name for the Bras d'Or was Bideavboch ; St. Patrick's Channel 
was called Oitameeh; the River-Denys Basin, Mirminiguash; the West Bay, Paque- 
laeadie; and the East Bay, Piscabouask. For the convenience of trading with the 
numerous Indians who inhabited these shores, M. Denys established his forts at St. 
Peter's and St. Anne's ; but there is no record of settlements by the French on the 
lakes. The chief seat of the Indians is now on the shore where 

** Escasoni's fountains 
Four down their crystal tide." 

The beautiful basin and river of I>enys were named in honor of their discoverer, 
icholas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, 
*' Governor and Lieutenant-Generai ' 



Nicholas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, who was appointed by King Louis, in 16&4, 

'"of Cape Breton and the adjacent shores. 



When the steamer is about 4 M. from the Strait of Barra, Benacadie 
Point is seen on the 1., 7-8 M. distant, below which is the great opening 
of the East Bay or St. Andrew's Channel, running in to the N. E. for 
nearly 26 M. (see page 147). 10-12 M. below the strait is the opening of 
the long and sinuous harbor of Malagawdaichkty which approaches the 
marble formations of the western highlands, and has a village of 350 in- 
habitants. To the S. E. are the islands off St, Peter's Inlet, 

The steamer now enters the S. W. arm of the Great Bras d'Or, which is 
called the West Bay, or 8t, George's Channel^ and is about 15 M. long and 
7 M. wide. It contains numerous islands, and is separated from the River- 



166 Houte 40. THE BRAS D'OB. 

Denys Basin by a range of massive highlands on the N. The N. shore 
hills are 700-770 ft. high, and those on the S. shore are 250 - 620 ft. high. 
The shores are thinly inhabited, and the only hamlets are at the head of 
the channel. (For the rest, the- Editor has all these shores minutely out- 
lined on the Admiralty chart now before him; but what shall it profit the 
traveller to know the precise locality of the Crammond Isles, or Calder 
Hill, or Ballam Head?) 

" The only other thing of note the Bras d'Or offered as before we reached West 
Bay was the finest show of medusae or jelly-fish that could be produced. At first 
there were dozens of these disk-shaped transparent creatures, and then hundreds, 
starring the water like marguerites sprinkled on a meadow, and of sizes fit>m that 
of a teacup to a dinner-plate. We soon ran into a school of them, a convention, a 
herd as extensive as the vast bufiEalo droves on the plains, a collection as thick as 
clover-blossoms in a field in June, miles of them apparently ; and at length the boat 
had to push its way through a mass of them which covered the water like the leaves 
of the pond-lily, and filled the deeps &r down with their beautiful contracting and 
expanding forms. I did not suppose there were so many jelly-fishes in all the world." 
(Warner's Baddeek.) 

'*The scenery of the lakes is exceedingly striking and diversified. Long rocky 
cli& and escarpments rise in some places abruptly firom the water's edge ; in others, 
undulating or rolling hills predominate, fringed on the shores by low white clifis of 
gypsum or red conglomerate ; whilst the deep basins and channels, which branch 
off in all directions from the central expanse of waters, studded with innumerable 
islets covered with a rich growth of spruce and hemlock, present views the most 
picturesque and diversified imaginable.'* (Browm.) 

*' The scenery of this vast inlet is in some places beautifully picturesque, and in 
some others monotonous and uninteresting, but in many parts of a sublime charac- 
ter, which exhibite the sombre gloom of pine forests, the luxuriant verdure of broad 
valleys and wooded mountains, and the wild features of lofty promontories frowning 
in stubborn ruggedness over the waters of the rivers and inlets." (M'Qregob.) 

*' So wide is it. and so indented by broad bays and deep coves, that a coasting 
journey around it is equal in extent to a voyage across the Atlantic. Besides the 
distant mountains that rise proudly from the remote shores, there are many noble 
islands in its expanse, and forest-covered peninsulas, bordered with beaches of glit- 
tering white pebbles. But over all this wide landscape there broods a spirit of 
{>rimeval solitude For, strange as it may seem, the Golden Arm is a very use- 
ess piece of water in this pajrt of the world ; highly fiivored as it is by nature, land- 
locked, deep enough for vessels of all burden, easy of access on the Gulf side, free 
from fogs, and only separated from the ocean at its southern end by a narrow strip of 
land, about $ M. wide ; abounding in timber, coal, and gypsum, and valuable for its 
fisheries, especially in winter, yet the Bras d'Or is undeveloped for want of that 
element which seems to be alien to the Colonies, namely, enterprise,'*'* (Cozzsns.) 

The Bras d' Or to Halifax. - 

When the steamer arrives at West Bay^ a collection of singularly as- 
sorted vehicles is seen waiting by the wharf, and the passengers are con- 
veyed on this motley train over 13 M. of uninteresting country to Port 
Hawkesbury (see page 143). The morning mail-stage may be taken from 
the opposite side of the Strait of Canso to Antigonish and New Glasgow 
(see Route 32); thence by railway to Halifax. But a pleasanter route (in 
calm weather) is to go on board the P. E. Island steamboat, which arrives 
during the evening, and pass to Pictou, through St. George*s Bay and the 
Northumberland Strait. Pictou to Halifax, see Route 81. 



ST. PATRICK'S CHANNEL. RouU il, 167 

4L Baddeck to Habou and Port Hood. — St Patrick's 

Channel and Wiiycocomagh. 

This route ifl travened by the Royal mail-stage on Monday and Wednesday, lear- 
ing Baddeck at noon, and reaching Whycocomagh after 4 o'clock, and Mabou at 9 
p. M. The distance is about 60 M. ; the fiue is f 2 60. The Royal mail-etage on this 
route is a one-horse iragon with a idngle seat, so that the acc<nnmodations for travel 
are limited. 

Mr. Warner thus describes the road between Whycocomagh and Baddeck: " From 
the time we first struck the Bras d'Or for thirty miles we rode in constant sight of 
its magnificent water. Now we were two hundred feet above the water.on the hill- 
side skirting a point or following an indentation ; and now we were oiTing into a 
narrow valley, crossing a stream, or turning a sharp comer, but always with the 
Bras d'Or in liew, the afternoon sun shining on it, softening the outlines of its em- 
bracing hills, casting a shadow from its wooded islands. Sometimes we opened upon 
a broad water pl^n bounded by the Watchabaktchkt hills, and again we looked over 
bill after hill receding into the soft and haxy blue of the land beyond the great mass 
of the Bras d'Or. The reader can compare the view and the ride to the Bay of 
Naples and the Cornice Road *, we did nothing of the sort ; we held on to the seat, 
prayed that the harness of the pony might not break, and gave constant expression 
to our wonder and delight.'' 

St. Patrick's Channel is 20 M. long by 1-8 M. wide, and is made 
highly picturesque by its deep coves, wooded points, and lofty shores. Its 
general course is followed by the highway, affording rich views from some 
of the higher grades. After leaving Baddeck the road strikes across the 
country for about 5 M. to the Baddeck River, in whose upper waters are 
large trout. Beyond this point the road swings around the blue expanse 
of Indian Bay, approaching a bold hill-range 650 ft. high, and crosses the 
Middle River, at whose mouth is an Indian reservation. Frequent glimpses 
are afforded of St. Patrick's Channel, well to the 1. across the green mead- 
ows. A range of lofty heights now forces the road nearer to the water, 
and it passes within 2 M. of the remarkable strait known as the Little 
Narrmos^ about which there are 150 inhabitants. 

A road leads N. W. 6 M. into AindU GUn^ and to the great Alnslle "LaJke, 
which covers 25 square miles, and is the source of the Margaree River- Its shores 
are broken and irugged, and are occupied by a hardy population of Highlanders. 
Petroleum springs have been found in this vicinity (see page 169). 

Beyond the Little Narrows is a magnificent basin, 15 M. long and 8-5 
M. wide, into whose sequestered and forest-bound waters large ships make 
their way, and are here laden with timber for Europe. On his second trip 
up this Basin, the £ditor was startled, on rounding a promontory, at seeing 
a large Liverpool ship lying here, at anchor, with her yard-arms almost 
among the trees. The road runs around the successive spurs of the Salt 
Mt.y a massive ridge on the N. shore of the Basin, and many very attractive 
views are gained from its upper reaches. The water -is of a rich blue, 
partly owing to its depth, which is from 3 to 20 fathoms. 

Whycocomagh {Inverness House) is a Scottish Presbyterian hamlet, 
situated at the N. W. angle of the Basin, and surrounded by pretty Trosach- 
like scenery. There are about 400 inhabitants in this neighborhood, 



168 RouU4^/ WHYCOCOMAGH. 

whence small cargoes of produce are annually shipped to Newfoundland. 
Near this point is a marble cave, with several chambers 6 - 8 ft. high ; and 
foxes are often seen among the hills. It is claimed that valuable deposits 
of magnetic and hematitic iron-ore have been found in this vicinity. 
Stages run 30 M. S. W. from Whycocomagh to Port Hastings, on the tame 
and uninteresting road known as the Victoria Line. 

** What we first saw was an inlet of the Bras d'Or, called by the driyer Hogamah 
Bay. At its entrance were long, wooded islands, beyond which we saw the backs 

of graceftil hills, like the capes of some poetic sea-coast A peaceful place, this 

Whycocomagh. The lapsing waters of the Bras d'Or made a summer music all 
along the quiet street ; the bay lay smiling with its islands in front, and an amphi- 
theatre of hiUs rose beyond." (Wabheb's Baddeck.) 

On leaving Whycocomagh the quaint double peaks of Salt Mt. are seen 
in retrospective views, and the road soon enters the Skye Glen, a long, 
narrow valley, which is occupied by the Highlanders. The wagon soon 
reaches the picturesque gorge of the Mabou Valley^ with the mountainous 
mass of Cape Mabou in front. The Mull River is seen on the 1., glitter- 
ing far below in the valley, and erelong the widenings of the sea are 
reached, and the traveller arrives at the wretched inn of Mabou, The 
stage for Port Hood (10 M. S.) leaves about midnight, reaching Port Has- 
tings at 9 A. M. (see Route 42). 



The steamer Neptune ascends St. Patrick's Channel to Whycocomagh 
every week, on its alternate trips passing around from Sydney to the 
Channel by way of the Great Bras d'Or (Sydney to Whycocomagh, $2). 
This route is much easier for the traveller than that by the stage, and 
reveals as much natural beauty, if made during the hours of daylight. 
The passage of the Little Narrows and the approach to Whycocomagh are 
its most striking phases. 

42. The West Coast of Cape Breton.— Fort Hood and Mar- 

g^aree. 

The Boyal mail-stage leaves Port Hastings (Plaster Core) every morning, after 
the arrival of the Halifax mail. Fare to Port Hood, f 8. 

Diatanceg. — Port Hastings ; Low Point, 7 M. ; Creignlsh, 9 ; Long Point, 14 ; 
Judique, 18; Little Judique, 24; Port Hood, 28; Mabou, 88; Broad Cove Inter- 
vale, 66 ; Margaree Forks, 68 ; Margaree, 76 ; Cheticamp, 88. 

The first portion of this route is interesting, as it affords frequent pleas- 
ant views of the Strait of Canso and its bright maritime processions. The 
trend of the coast is followed from Port Hastings to the N. W., and a suc- 
cession of small hamlets is seen along the bases of the highlands. Just 
beyond Low Point is the Catholic village of the same name, looking out 
over the sea. The road now skirts the wider waters of St. George's Bay, 
over which the dark Antigonish Mts. are visible. Beyond the settlements 
of CreigDish and Long Point is the populous district of Judique^ inhab- 



PORT HOOD. BtmU42. 1G9 

ited by Scottish Catholics, who are deyoted to the sea and to agricultore. 
The Judiquers are famous throughout the ProviDce for their great stature, 
and are well known to the American fishermen on account of their pug- 
nacity. Yankee crews landing on this coast are frequently assailed by 
these pugilistic Gaels, and the stalwart men of Judique usually come off 
Tictorious in the fistic encounters. The district has about 2,000 inhab- 
itants. 

Fort Hood (two inns) is the capital of Inverness County, and is a pic- 
turesque little seaport of about 800 inhabitants. The American fishermen 
in the Gulf frequently take shelter here during rough weather, and 400 
sail have been seen in the port at one time. There are large coal-deposits 
in the vicinity, which, however, have not yet been developed to any 
extent. The town was founded by Capt. Smith and a party of New- 
Englanders, in 1790. *' This port affords the only safe anchorage on the 
W. coast <^ Cape Breton to the N. of the Gut of Canso,*' and is marked 
by a red-and-white light, near the highway, on the S. Off shore is Smith's 
Island, which is 2 M. long and 210 ft. high, beyond which are the high 
shores of Henry Island. The Magdalen-Islands steamer touches at Port 
Hood (see Route 49) and a stage-road runs N. £. to Hillsborough, where 
it meets the road from Mabou, and thence passes E. to Whycocomagh (see 
page 167). 

Mabou (uncomfortable inn) is 10 M. N. E. of Port Hood, and is reached 
by a daily stage passing along the shore-road. It is at the mouth of the 
broad estuary of the Mabou River, amid bold and attractive scenery, and 
contains about 800 inhabitants. To the N. E. is the highland district of 
Cape Mabou, averaging 1,000 ft. in height, and thickly wooded. The 
Gulf-shore road to Margaree runs between this range and the sea, passing 
the marine hamlets of Cape Mabou and Sight Point. There is an inland 
road, behind the hills, which is entered by following the Whycocomagh 
road to the head of the estuary of the Mabou and then diverging to the 
N. E. This road is traversed by a tri-weekly stage, and leads up by the 
large farming-settlement at Broad Cove Intervale, to the W. shores of 
Lake AinsUe (see page 167), which has several small Scottish hamlets 
among the glens. 

^*The angler who has onee driven through Ainslie Glen to the nhores of the 
lake, launched his canoe upon its br6ad watera, and entered its gwiftly running 
stream, will never be content to return until he has fished its successive pools to its 
■very mouth." 

A road leads out from near the W. shore of the lake to the village of 
Broad Cove Chapel, on the Gulf coast, traversing a pass in the highlands. 
The stage runs N. between the hills and the valley of the Margaree (S. W. 
Branch), ^*one of the most romantic and best stocked salmon-rivers in the 
world." Beyond the settlement of Broad Cove Marsh, a road runs out to 
the Gulf abreast of /Sea- Wolf Island^ on whose cliffs is a fixed light, 300 fl. 

8 



170 Route 4^. 



MARGABEK 



high. Margaree Forks is a rural village at the junction of the N. E. rnd 
S. W. Branches of the famous Margaree Si ver,. where salmon abound 
from June 15 until July 15. 



** In Cape Breton the beautiftil Margaree is one of the most noted streams for i 
trout, and its clear water and picturesque scenery, winding tlirough interrale mead- 
cits dotted wifcli groups of witch-elm, and backed by wooded hills over a thousand 
feet in height, entitle it to pre-eminence amongst the rivers of the Gulf.'* 

There are several small hamlets in this region, with a total population 
of over 4,000. Margaree is on the harbor of the same name, near the 
Chimney-Corner coal-mines, 48 M. from Port Hood, and has a small fleet 
of fishing-vessels. A shore-road runs N. £. 12 M. to Cheticamp, a district 
oontaining about 2,000 inhabitants, most of whom are of the old Acadian 
race. It is a fishing station of Robin & Ck)., an ancient and powerful 
commercial house on the Isle of Jersey; and was founded by them in 1784, 
and settled by Acadian refugees from Prince Edward Island. The harbor 
is suitable for small vessels, and is formed by Cheticamp Island, sheltering 
the mouth of the Cheticamp River. There is a powerful revolving white 
light on the S. point of the island, 150 fU high, and visible for 20 M. 
at sea. 

N. E. and E. of Cheticamp extends the great highland-wilderness of 
the N. part of Cape Breton (see page 163), an unexplored and trackless 
land of forests and mountains. There are no roads above Cheticamp, and 
the most northerly point of the Province, Cape St. Lawrence (see page 
169), is 80 M. K. £. by £. j^ E. from the K. part of Cheticamp Island. 



The terrible storm which swept the Gulf of St. Lawrenoe in August, 1878, and 
wrecked hundreds of vessels, attained its greatest force around the island of Cape 
Breton and in the narrow seas to the W., towards Prince Edward's Island and the 
Magdalen Island. It lasted only a few hours, but was fearAiIly destructive in its 
effects, and strewed all these coasts with drowned mariners The following spirited 
poem is inserted here, by the Idnd permission of its author, Mr. Edmund G. gted- 
man. 

The liOrd's-Day Gale. 



In Gloucester port lie flahing craft,— 
More staunch and trim were never seen : 

They are sharp before and sheer abaft. 
And true their lines the masts between. 

Alone the wharves of Gloucester Town 

Their fares are lightly landed down. 
And the laden flakes to sunward lean. 

Well know the men each cruising-ground, 
And where the cod and mackerel be : 

Old Eastern Point the schooners round 
And leave Cape Ann on the larboard lee : 

Sound are the planks, the hearts are bold. 

That brave December's surges cold 
On George's shoals in the outer sea. 

And some must sail to the banks far north 
And set their trawls for the hungry cod,— 

In the ghostly fog creep back and forth 
By shrouded paths no foot hath trod : 

TToon the crews the ice-winds blow, 

STjbe bitter sleet, the frozen snow, — 
Their Jives sreiatht hand of God ! 



New England! New England! 

Needs sail they must, so brave and poor, 
Or June be warm or Winter storm. 

Lest a wolf gnaw through the cottage-door 1 
Three weeks at home, three long months gone. 
While the patient good-wives sleep alone. 

And wake to hear the breakers roar. 

The Grand Bank gathers In its dead, — 
The deep sea-sand is their winding-sheet ; 

Who does not George's billows dread 
That dash together the drifting fleet ? 

Who does not long to hear, in May, 

The pleasant wash of Saint Lawrence Bav, 
The fairest ground where fishermen meet ? 

There the west wave holds the red sunlight 
Till the t)ells at home are rung for nine : 

Short, short the watch, and calm the night ; 
The fiery northern streamers shine ; 

The eastern sky anon is gold, 

And winds from piny forests old. 
Scatter the white mists off the brine. 



THE LORD*S-DAY GALR R(mU4i, 171 



The Frovinoe craft with onn at mom 
Are mingled when the vapon thift ; 

All day, by breeze and current home. 
Across the bay the sailors drift ; 

With toll and seine its wealth they win, — 

The dappled, silvenr spoil come m 
Fast as their hands can haul and lift 

New England I New England I 
Thou lovest well thine ocean main I 

It spreadeth its locks among thy rocks. 
And long against thy heart hath lain ; 

Thy ships upon its boeom ride 

Ana feel the heaving of its tide ; 
To thee its secret speech is plain. 

Cape Breton and Edward Isle between. 
In strait and gulf the schooners lay ; 

The sea was all at peace, I ween. 
The night before that August day ; 

Was never a Gloucester skipper there. 

But thought erelong, with a right good fare, 
To sail lor home from Saint Xawrence Bay. 

New England ! New England I 
Thy giant's love was turned to hate I 

The winds control his flclcle soul. 
And in liis wrath he hath no mate. 

Thy shores his angry scourges tear, 

And for thy childien in his care 
The sudden tempests lie in wait. 

The East Wind gathered all unknown, — 
A thick sea-cloud his course before ; 

He left by night the frozen-zone 
And smote the cliffs of Labrador ; 

He lashed the coasts on either hand. 

And betwixt the Cape and Newfoundland 
Into the Bay his armies pour. 

He caught our helpless cruisers there 
As a gray wolf harries the huddling fold ; 

A sleet — a darkness — filled the air, 
A shuddering wave before it rolled : 

That Lords-Day mom it was a breeze, ~ 

At noon, a blast that shook the seas, — 
At night — a wind of Death took hold 1 

It leuied across the Breton bar, 
A death-wind from the stormy East I 

It scarred the land, and whirled afar 
The sheltering thatch of man and beast ; 

It mingled rick and roof and tree. 

And like a besom swept the sea. 
And churned the waters into yeast 

From Sidnt Paul's Light to Edward's Isle 
A thousand craft it smote amain ; 

And some against it strove the while. 
And more to make a port were fain : 

The mackerel-gulls flew screaming past. 

And the stick that bent to the noonday blast 
Was spUt by the sundown hurricane. 



Woe, woe to those whom the islands pen I 
In vain they shun the double capes ; 

Cruel are the reefs of Magdalen ; 
The Wolf 8 white fang what prey escapes? 

The Grin stone grinds the bones of some. 

And Coflin Isle u craped witli foam ; — 
On D«adman's shore are fearful shapes I 

O, what can live on the open sea^ 
Or moored in jport the gale outnde? 

The very craft that at anchor be 
Are dragged along by the swollen tide I 

The great storm-wave came rolling west, 

And tossed the vessels on its crest : 
The andent l>ounds its might defied 1 

The ebb to check it had no power ; 

The surf ran up to an untold height ; 
It rose, nor yielded, hour by hour, 

A night and day, a day and night ; 
Far up the seething shores it cast 
The wreck of hull and spar and mast, 

The strangled crews, — a wof ul sight I 

There were twenty and more of Breton s^ 

Fast anchored on one mooring-ground ; 
Each lay within his neighlwr s hail. 
When the thick of the tempest closed them 
round: 
All sank at once in the gaping sea, — 
Somewhere on the shoals their corses 1>e, 
Tne foundered hulks, and the seamen 
drowned. 

On reef and bar our schooners drove 
Before the wind, before the swell ; 

By the steep sand-cliffs their ribs were stove, — 
LfMig, long their crews the tale shall tell I 

Of the Gloucester fleet are wrecke tiireescore; 

Of the Province sail two hundred more 
Were stranded in that tempest felL 

The bedtime bells in Gloucester Town 
That Sabbath night rang soft and clear : 

The sailors* childrtn laid them down, — 
Dear Lord I their sweet prayers couldst thon 
hear? 

*T is said that gently blew the winds ; 

The good-wives, through the seaward blinds, 
Looked down the l>ay and had no fear. 

New England ! New England I 

Thy ports their dauntless seamen moom ; 
The twin capes yearn for their return 

Who never shall be thither borne ; 
Their orphans whisper as they meet ; 
The homes are dark in man v a street, 

And women move in weeds forlorn. 

And wilt thou fail, and dost thou fear ? 

Ah, no ! though widows' cheeks are pale, 
The lads shall say : " Another year, 

And we shall be of age to sidl ! " 
And the mothers' hearts shall fill with pride. 
Though tears drop fast for them who died 

When the fleet was wrecked in the Lord's- 
Day gale. 



PEINCE EDWAED ISLAOTD. 



Princb Edwabd IsLAim is situated in the southern portion of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is bounded on the S. by the Northumberland 
Strait. It is 80 M. from Cape Breton Island, 15 M. from Nova Scotia, and 
9 M. from New Brunswick, and is surrounded by deep and navigable 
waters. The extreme length is 130 M. ; the extreme breadth, 34 M. ; and 
the area is 2,183 square miles. The surface is low or gently undulating, 
with small hills in the central parts, and the soil is mostly derived from 
red sandstone, and -is very fertile. The air is balmy and bracing, less 
foggy than the adjacent shores, and milder than that of New Brunswick. 
The most abundant trees are the evergreens, besides which the oak and 
maple are found. The shores are deeply indented by harbors, of which 
those toward the Gulf are obstructed by sand, but those on the S. are com- 
modious and accessible. 

The island is divided into 8 counties, including 18 districts, or 67 town- 
ships and 3 royalties. It has 94,021 inhabitants, of whom 40,765 are Cath- 
olics, 29,579 are Presbyterians, 8,361 Methodists, and 7,220 Episcopalians. 
The majority of the people are Gaelic, and there are 300 - 400 Micmac 
Indians. The local government is conducted by the Legislative Council 
(18 members) and the House of Assembly (28 members), and the political 
parties which form about the petty questions of the island display a par- 
tisan acrimony and employ a caustic journalism such as are not seen even 
in the United States. The Province is provided with governor and cab- 
inet, supreme and vice-admiralty courts, a public debt and a public do- 
main, on the same plan as those of the great Provinces of Quebec and 
Ontario. The land is in a high state of cultivation, and nearly all the 
population is rural. Manufactories can scarcely be said to exist, but the 
fisheries are carried on to some extent, and shipbuilding receives consid- 
erable attention. The roads are good in dry weather, and lead through 
quiet rural scenery, broken every few miles by the blue expanses of the 
broad bays and salt-water lagoons. The chief exports consist of oats, 
wheat, barley, hay, potatoes, fish, live-stock, and lumber. 

It has been claimed that Prince Edward Island was discovered by 

Cabot, in 1497, but there is no certainty on this subject. It was visited 

by Champlain on St. John's Day, 1608, and received from him the name 

of L* Isle St Jean, The whole country was then covered with stately for- 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 173 

ests, abounding in game, and was inhabited by a clan of the Micmac 
Indians, who called it Epayguit (** Anchored on the Wave"). It was 
included in the broad domain of Acadia, over which France and England 
waged such disastrous wars, but was not settled for over two centuries 
after Cabot's voyage. In 1663 this and the Magdalen Islands were granted 
to M. Doublet, a captain in the French navy, who erected summer fishing- 
stations here, but abandoned them every autumn. After England had 
wrested Nova Scotia from France, a few Acadians crossed over to L'Isle 
St. Jean and became its first settlers. In 1728 there were 60 French fam- 
ilies here; in 1745 there were about 800 inhabitants; and during her death- 
struggles with the Anglo-American armies, the Province of Quebec drew 
large supplies of grain and cattle from these shores. The capital was at 
Port la Joie (near Charlottetown), where there was a battery and garrison, 
dependent on the military commandant of Louisbourg. It is claimed by 
Haliburton that the island was captured by the New-Englanders in 1745, 
but it is known only that Gen. Pepperell ordered 400 of his soldiers to sail 
from Louisbourg and occupy L'Isle St. Jean. It does not appear whether 
or not this was done. After the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova 
Scotia, many of them fled to this island, which contained 4,100 inhab- 
itants in 1758. In that year Lord Rollo took possession of it, according to 
the capitulation of Louisbourg, with a small military force. 

In 1768 the island was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Fon- 
tamebleau, and became a part of the Province of Nova Scotia. It was 
surveyed in 1764 - 6, and was granted to about 100 English and Scottish 
gentlemen, who were to pay quitrents and to settle their lands with 1 per- 
son to every 200 acres, within 10 years, the colonists to be Protestants 
from the continent of Europe. When the 10 years had elapsed, many of 
the estates were forfeited or sold to other parties, and only 19 of the 67 
townships had any settlers. In 1770 the island was made a separate Prov- 
ince, and in 1778 the first House of Assembly met. In 1775 the Americans 
captured the capital, and in 1778 four Canadian companies were stationed 
there. In 1780 the Province was called New Ireland, but the King vetoed 
tiiis name, and in 1800 it was entitled Prince Edward Island, in honor of 
His Royal Highness Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, then Commander of the 
Forces in British North America (afterwards father of Queen Victoria). In 
1803 the Earl of Selkirk sent over 800 Highlanders, and other proprietors set- 
tled colonies on their domains. The complicated questions arising from tho 
old proprietary estates have engrossed most of the legislation of the island 
for 70 years, and are being slowly settled by the purchase of the lands by 
the government. Prince Edward Island long refused to enter the Dominion 
of Canada, but yielded at last on very favorable terms, one of the condi- 
tions being that the Confederacy should build a railway throughout the 
Province. 



174 Rouie4S. CAPE TRAVERSE. 

43. Shediac to Smnmendde and Charlottetown. — The 

Northumberland Strait 

St. John to Shediac, see Routes 14 and 16. 

It is probable that steamers of the P. E. I. Steam Navigation Company 
will leave Shediac (Point du Ch§ne) every day during the summer season, 
on arrival of the morning train from St. John. The fare from Shediac to 
Summerside is $1.50 ; and from Summerside to Charlottetown, % 1.50. 

The distance from Shediac to Summerside is 35 M. Soon after leaving 
the wharf at Point du Ch§ne the steamer passes out through Shediac Bay, 
and enters the Northumberland Strait The course is a little N. of £., and 
the first pbint of- the island to come into sight is Cape Egmonti with its 
lines of low sandstone cliffs. The traveller now sees the significance 
of the ancient Indian name of this sea^-girt land, Epayguit, signifying 
"Anchored on the Wave." 

After passing Cape Egmont on the 1., the steamer enters Bedeque, or 
Halifax, Bay, and runs in toward the low shores on the N. £. After pass- 
ing Indian Point and Island it enters the harbor of Summerside, with the 
estuary of the Dunk River on the r. 

Smnmersidei see page 179. 

Upon leaving Summerside the steamer passes Indian Point on the 1., 
and, after running by Salvtatum Pointy enters the Northumberland Strait. 
The course is nearly S. £. 9 M. from Salutation Point is Cape Trayerse, 
and on the S. shore is Cape Tormentine.. At this, the narrowest part of 
the strait, the mails are carried across by ice-boats in winter, and passen- 
gers are transported by the same perilous route. A submarine cable un- 
derlies the strait at this point. It is 20 M. from Cape Traverse to St. 
Peter's Island, and along the island shores are the villages of Tryon, Cra- 
paud, De Sable, and Bonshaw. On passing St. Peter's Island, the steamer 
enters Hillsborough Bay and runs N., with Orwell and Pownal Bays open- 
ing on the £. 

** Charlottetown Harbor, at its entrance between the cliffs of BIockhon;>e 
and Sea-Trout Point, is 450 fathoms wide, and, in sailing in, York River 
nmning northward, tlie Hillsborough River eastwardly, and the Elliot to the 
westward, surround the visitor with beautiful effects, and as he glides 
smoothly over their confluence, or what is called the Three Tides, he will 
feel, perhaps, that he has seen for the first time, should a setting sun gild 
the horizon, a combination of color and effect which no artist could ade- 
quately represent." 

Cluurlottetown, see page 176. 



CHARLOTTETOWN. SouU 44. 175 

41 Ficton to Prince Edward Idand. 

To Charhtteiown, 

The steamships of the P. E. I. Steam Navigation Company leave Picton 
for Charlottetown every Wednesday and Saturday (hours not yet regu- 
lated). Fare, $ 2. The distance is a little over 50 M. 

Soon after leaving the safe and pleasant harbor of Pictou, the steamer 
approaches Pictou Idand^ a hilly and well-wooded land 4 M. long, with a 
lighthouse and some farms. On the W. is Caribou Island, consisting of 
several islets united by sand-bars, and guarded by a lighthouse. There are 
pleasant views of the receding highlands of Nova Scotia; and the vessel 
moves easily through the quiet waters of the Northumberland Strait. 
** Prince Edward Island, as we approached it, had a pleasing aspect, and 
none of that remote friendlessness which its appearance on the map con- 
veys to one; a warm an'd sandy land, in a genial climate, without fogs, 
we are Informed.'* 

After passing (on the r.) the long low Point Prim, the steamer sweeps 
around to the N. into Hillsborough Bay, and enters the harbor of Char- 
lottetown. 



Pictou to Georgetown, 

The P. E. L Steam Navigation Company's steamships leave Pictou for 
Georgetown every Tuesday and Friday; leaving Georgetown for Pictou 
on the same days. Fare from port to port, $ 2. The distance is nearly 
70 M. 

The chief incidents of this short voyage are the views of Pictou Island ; 
the approach to Cape Bear, the S. E. point of P. £. Island, backed by 
hills 200 ft high; and the ascent of the noble sheet of Cardigan Bay, be- 
tween Boughton and Panmure Islands. 

Georgetown, see page 181. 

45. Charlottetown. 

ArrlTBl. — The steamer passes between St. Peter's Island (1.) and Goyemor's 
Island (r.) and ascends Hillsborough Bay Tor about 6 M. It then passes between 
Blockhouse Point (on the 1., with a lighthouse) and Sea-Trout Point, and enters the 
harbor of Charlottetown, where there are 7 -10 fothoms of water. Powerful cur- 
rents are formed here by the tides of the Hillsborough, York, and Elliot Uvers (or 
East, North, and West Rivers), which empty into this basin. 

Hotels. — St. Lawrence Hotel, Water St. ; Revere House, near the steamboat 
wharf; City Hotel. The hotels of Charlottetown are only boarding-houses of aver-, 
age grade, and wiU hardly satisfy American gentlemen. Attempts are being made 
to erect a large summer-hotel here, though th«e seems to be but little to warrant 
such an enten>rise. 

Steamalilps. — The Alhambra and the Cmrott leave Charlottetown every 
Thursday for the Strait of Canso, Halifiiz, and Boeton. Fares to Halifiix, saloou 
state-room, 96 ; cabin state-room, %b \ cabin, $ 4 ; Hali&x to Boeton, 9 9, $ 7.50, 



176 MoiUe 45. CHARLOTTETOWN. 

and f 5^. The P. E. I. Steam NaTigation Company's vessels St. Laicrenee and 
Princess of Wales run between Charlottetown, Shediac, and Pictou (see Routes 43 
and 44). The Heather Belle plies about the bay and up the Hillsborough River, 
making also trips to Crapaud and Orwell. She runs up the Hillsborough River 
to Mount Stewart on Monday, Tuesday, Friday and Saturday; to Crapaud on 
Wednesday ; and to Orwell on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday (time-table of 
1874). 

Charlottetown, the capital of Prince Edward Island, is situated on 
gently risiug ground on the N. side of the Hillsborough River, and fronts 
on a good harbor. It has about 8,000 inhabitants, with 6 weekly news- 
paperSf 2 banks, and 10 churches. The plan of the city is very regular, 
and consists of 6 streets, each 100 ft. wide, running E. and W., intersect- 
ing 9 streets running from N. to S. There are four large public squares. 

The Colonial Building is the only fine structure in the city. It stands 
on Queen's Square, at the head of Great George St., and is built of Nova- 
Scotia freestone (at a cost of $ 85,000). The halls of the Legislative Coun- 
cil and House of Assembly are on the second floor, and are handsomely 
furnished and adorned with portraits of the statesmen of Prince Edward 
Island. On the same floor is the Colonial Library^ containing a good col- 
lection of books relating to the history, laws, and physical characteristics 
of Canada and the British Empire. A pleasant view of the city and the 
rivers may be obtained from the cupola of the building. The Post Office 
is also on Queen's Square, and is a new and handsome stone building. 
Just beyond is the Market House, a great wooden structure covered with 
shingles. The principal shops of Charlottetown are about Queen's Square, 
and ofier but little to be desired. The Roman Catholic Catheditd of St. 
Dunstan is a spacious wooden edifice on Great George St, near the Square. 

The extensive Convent of Notre Dame is on Hillsborough Square, and 
occupies a modem brick building. The Prince of Wales CloUege and the 
Normal School are on Weymouth St., in this vicinity. 

The old barracks and drill-shed are W. of Queen's Square, between 
Pownal and Sydney Sts., and are fronted by a parade-ground. The Gov- 
emmerU House is on a point of land W. of the city, and overlooks the 
harbor. 

In 1748 the goyemmcnt of the island was Tested In civil and military officers, 
vhose residence was established at the W. entrance to the harbor of Port la Joie 
(Charlottetown), where they had a battery and a small garrison. It is said that the 
first French sailors who entered the innir harbor were so pleased with its tranquil 
beauty that they named it Port la Joie. There were no houses on the site of the 
city in 1762. The harbor was held by three British frigates in 1746. but was raraged 
by 200 Micmacs under the French Ensign Montesson. All the English found on the 
shore were captured, but the Indians refused to attack the war-vessels. 

In 1768 Morris and Deschamps arrived here with a small colony, and erected huts. 
They laid out the streets of Charlottetown , which was soon established as the capi- 
tal of the island. In 1775 it was captured by two American war-vessels, which had 
been cruising in the Gulf to carry off the Quebec storeships. The sailors plundered 
the town, and led away gcverul local dignitaries as prisoners, but Washington lib- 
erated the captives, and reprimanded the predatory cruisers. 

Charlottetown " has the appearance of a place from which something has de- 
parted; a wooden town, with wide and vacant streets, and the air of waiting for 



ENVIRONS OP CHARLOTTBTOWN. Moute 46. 177 

something. .... That the prodactiye island, with its system of finee schools, Ib about 
to enter upon a prosperous career, and that Charlottetown is soon to become a place 
of great actirity, no one who converses with the natiyes can doubt, and I thii^ 
that even now no traveller will regret spending an hour or two there ; but it is 
necessary to say that the rosy inducements for tourists to spend the summer there 
exist only in the guide-books." 

Environs of Charlottetown. 

The Wesleyan College is on an eminence back of the city, and overlooks 
the harbor and the rivers. It has 10 instructors and about 300 students. 
St. Dunstan's College is a Catholic institution, which occupies the crest 
of a hill 1 M. from the city, and has 4 professors. There are several pretty 
villas in the vicinity of Charlottetovm ; and the roads are very good during 
dry weather. Some travellers have greatly admired the rural scenery of 
these suburban roads, but others have reported them as tame and uninter- 
esting. The same conflict of opinion exists with regard to the scenery of 
the whole island. 

Southport is a village opposite Charlottetown, in a pretty situation on the 
S. shore of the Hillsborough River. It is reached by a steam ferry-boat, 
which crosses every hour. 8 M. from this place is the eminence called 
Tea HiUf whence a pleasing view of the parish and the bay may be ob- 
tained. A few miles beyond is the village of PowncU, at the head of 
Pownal Bay, and in a region prolific in oats and potatoes. 

46. (Jharlottetown to Summerside and Tigniah.— The 
Western Shores of Prince Edward Island. 

This region is traversed by the Prince Edward Island Rulway, a narrow-gauge 
road which has recently been built by the Canadian government. This line was 
opened late in 1874, and its stations are not yet fully established, many of them 
being merely platforms, at which the trains do not stop unless there are passengers 
to be put down or taken up. During the winter of 1874 - 5 this line ran three trains 
a week, " weather permitting." 

Stations. — Charlottetown; Royalty Junction, 6 M. ; N. Wiltshixe, 17; Hunter 
River, 21 ; Kensington, 41 ; Summerside, 49 ; Wellington, 61 ; Tyne, or Port Hill, 
71 ; O'Leary Road, 89 ; Alberton, 104 ; Tignish, 117. 

After leaving the commodious station-building, in the E. part of Char- 
lottetown, the train sweeps around the city, turning to the N. from the 
bank of the Hillsborough River. The suburban villas are soon passed, and 
the line traverses a level country to Royalty Junction^ where the tracks 
to Souris and Georgetown (see Route 47) diverge to the N. £. The train 
now enters the main line, and runs W. through a fertile farming country, 
— "a ^rt of Arcadia, in which Shenstone would have delighted." The 
hamlets are small and the dwellings are very plain, but it is expected that 
tl)e stations of the new railway will become the nuclei of future villages. 
The train soon crosses the head-waters of the York River, and reaches N, 
WUtahire, beyond which is a line of low hills, extending across the island. 
4 M. beyond this point is the station of Hunter JStver, whence a much- 

8* li 



1 78 JRauU 46. BUSTICO. 

travened road leads to the N. to New Glasgow and Bostico, locally famous 
for pleasant marine scenery. 

Buitioo is a quiet marine settlement, with two churches and a bank, 
and about 800 inhabitants. It is near Grand Rustico Harbor, and is one 
of the chief fishing stations of the N. shore. The original settlers were 
Acadians (in the year 1710), many of whose descendants remain in the 
township, and are peaceful and unprogressive citizens. The Ocean House 
(40 guests) is a small summer hotel near the sand-hills of the beach; and 
tiie facilities for boating, bathing, fishing, and gunning are said to be ex- 
cellent. The great fleets of the Gulf fishermen are sometimes seen off 
these shores. There is a pleasant drive up the Hunter Biver to New Glas- 
gow (Bockem*s inn), which was settled by men of Glasgow, under Alex- 
ander Cormack, the Newfoundland explorer, in 1829. The Hunter Biver 
affords good trouting. 

Grand Bustico Harbor is rendered unsafe by shifting bars of sand, and 
it was off this port that the Crovemment steamer Rose was lost. On the 
coast to the N. W. are the hamlets of N. Bustico and Cavendish, the lat- 
ter of which is a Presbyterian farming settlement of 200 inhabitants. 

Kensington station is about 41 M. from Charlottetown, and is near the petty 
hamlet of the same name. To the N. E. is Grenville Harbor, with the estu- 
aries of three rivers, the chief of which is the Stanley. There are several 
maritime hamlets on these shores, and on the W. is New London^ a neat 
Scottish settlement with two churches. A road also leads N. W. from 
Kensington to Princetowny a village of 400 inhabitants, situated on the 
peninsula between Bichmond Bay, March Water, and the Damley Basin. 
This town was laid out (in 1766) with broad streets and squares, and was 
intended for the metropolis of the N. coast, but the expectations of the 
government were never realized, and ** the ploughshare still turns up the 
sod, where it was intended the busy thoroughfare should be.*' Malpeque 
Harbor is the finest and safest on the N. shore of Prince Edward Island. 
A few miles E. are the lofty sandstone cliffs of Cape Tryon, near New Lon- 
don harbor. Princetown fronts on Richmond Bay, a capacious haven 
which runs in to the S. W. for 10 M., and contains 7 islands. Travellers 
have praised the beauty of the road from Princetown to Port Hill, which 
affords many pleasant views over the bay. 

Beyond Kensington the train runs S. W. across the rural plains of St 
David's Parish, and passes out on the isthmus between Bichmond Bay and 
Bedeque Bay, where the island is only 8 - 4 M. wide. 9 M. from Kensing- 
ton it reaches Summerside. 

Summeriide (two inns) is situated on the N. side of Bedeque Harbor, and 

is a town of about 2,000 inhabitants, with 8 churches, 6 schools, 2 weekly 

newspapers, and 2 banks. It is the port whence most of the products of 

the W. part of the island are sent out, and has grown rapidly of late years. 

The chief exports in 1870 were 268,000 bushels of oats, 87,893 bushels of 



SUMMERSIDE. JtouU 46. 179 

potatoes, 10,300 bushels of barley, 86,450 dozen of eggs, and 4,837 barrels 
of the famous Bedeque oysters. The wharves are long, in order to reach 
the deep water of the channel ; and the houses of the town are mostly 
small wooden buildings. Considerable shipbuilding is done here. 

The * Island Park Hotel is a summer resort on an islet off the harbor, 
and is patronized by American tourists. There are accommodations for 
fishing and bathing, and a steam ferry-boat plies between the island and 
the town. The hotel commands a pleasant view of the Bedeque shores 
and the Strait of Northumberland. 

'* This little seaport Is intended to be attractive, and it would give these travellem 
great pleasure to describe it if they could at all remember how it looks. But it is a 
place that, like some foces, makes no sort of impression on the memory. We went 
ashore there, and tried to take an interest in the shipbuilding, and in the little 
oysters which the harbor yields ; but whether we did take an interest or not has 
passed out of memory. A small, unpicturesque, wooden town, in the languor of a 
provincial summer; why should we pretend an interest in it which we did not feel? 
It did not disturb our reposefhl frame of mind, nor much interfere with our enjoy- 
ment of the day." (WAatrxa's Badduk.) 

On leaving Snmmerside, the train runs out to the W., over a level region. 
To the N. is the hamlet of 8t Eleanors (Ellison's Hotel), a place of 400 in- 
habitants, situated in a rich farming country. It enjoys the honor of being 
the shire-town of Prince County, and is about 2^ M. from Summerside. 
8 M. from St. Eleanors is the rural village of Miscouche, inhabited by 
French Acadians. Wellington (Western Hotel) is a small hamlet and 
station 12 M. beyond Summerside, near the head of the Grand River, which 
flows into Richmond Bay. The Acadian settlements about Cape Egmont 
are a few miles to the S. W. 

The line passes on to Port JERU, a prosperous shipbuilding village on 
Richmond Bay. Near this place is Lennox Jskmd, which is reserved for 
the Micmac Indians, and is inhabited by about 150 persons of that tribe. 
Between the bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence is George Island, which is 
composed of trap-rock and amygdaloid, and is regarded as a curious geo- 
logical intrusion in the red sandstone formations of the Prince-Edward 
shores. The train runs N. W. over the isthmus between the Cavendish 
Inlet and the Percival and Enmore Rivers, and soon enters the North 
Parish. This region is thinly inhabited by French and British settlers, 
and is one of the least prosperous portions of the island. The line passes 
near Brae, a settlement of 800 Scotch farmers, near the trout-abounding 
streams of the Parish of Halifax. To the S. W. is the sequestered marine 
hamlet of West Point, where a town has been laid out and preparations 
made for a conmierce which does not come. The coast trends N. by £. 
6 M. firom West Point to Cape Wolfe, whence it runs N. E. by E. 27 M. to 
North Point, in a long unbroken strand of red clay and sandstone cliffs. 

Alberton (two inns) is one of the northern termini of the railway, and 
is a prosperous village of 700 inhabitants, with two churches and an 



180 RouJUJpt, TIGNISH. 

American consular agency. It is situated on Cascumpec^ harbor, and is 
engaged in shipbuilding and the fisheries. The American fishing-schooners 
often take refuge in this harbor. The neighboring rural districts are fer- 
tile and thickly populated, and produce large quantities of oats and pota- 
toes. This town was the birthplace of the Gordons, the heroic mission- 
aries at £romanga, one of whom was martyred in 1861, the other in 
1872. S. of Alberton is Holland Bay, which was named in honor of him- 
self by Major Holland, the English surveyor of the island ; and 6-8 M. N. 
is Cape Kildare. 

Tignish {Ryan^s Hotel) is the extreme northern pomt reached by the 
railway, and is 117 M. from Charlotte town. It has about 200 inhabitants, 
and is one of the most important fishing-stations on the island. The in- 
habitants are mostly French and Scotch, and support a Catholic church 
and convent. There are several other French villages in this vicinity, 
concerning which the historian of the island says: **They are all old set- 
tlements. The nationality of the people has kept them together, until 
their farms are subdivided into small portions, and their dwellings are 
numerous and close together. Few are skilful farmers. Many prefer to 
obtain a living by fishing rather than farming. They are simple and in- 
offensive in their manners; quiet and uncomplaining, and easily satisfied. 
The peculiarities of their race are not yet extinct ; and under generous 
treatment and superior training, the national enterprise and energy, polite- 
ness and refinement, would gradually be restored.** 

North Point is about 8 M. N. of Tignish, and is reached by a sea-view- 
ing road among the sand-dunes. It has a lighthouse, which sustains a 
powerful light, and is an important point in the navigation of the Oulf. 

47. Charlottetown to Georgetowiu 

By the Prince Edward Island Railway. 

Stations. — Charlottetown ; Bcyalty Junction, 6 M. ; Mount Stewart, 22 ; Car- 
digan, 40 ; Georgetown, 46. 

Beyond Royalty Junction the train diverges to the N.E., and follows the 
course of the Hillsborough Biver, though generally at some distance from 
the shore. The banks of this stream are the most favored part of that 
prosperous land of which Dr. Cuyler says: **It is one rich, rolling, arable 
farm, from Cape East clear up to Cape North.** As early as 1758 there were 
2,000 French colonists about this river. The Hillsborough is 30 M. long, 
and the tide ascends for 20 M. Much produce is shipped from these shores 
during the autumnal months. About 8 M. beyond the Junction the line 
crosses French Fort Creek, on whose banks the French troops erected a 
fortification to protect the short portage (1^ M.) across the island, from 
the river to Tracadie Harbor. Here the military domination was surren- 

i OMCwnpec, an Indian word, meaiUng ** Flowing through Sand." 



GEORGETOWN . ItouU JgT. 181 

dered to the British expeditionary forces. To the N. W. are the Gaelic 
villages of Covehead and Tracadie, now over a century old ; near which 
is the sandy lagoon of Tracadie Harbor. At the place called Scotch Fort 
the French built the first church on the island, and in this vicinity the 
earliest British settlers located. From the French Catholic church on the 
lofty hill at St Andrews, a few miles to the N. £., a beautiful view is 
obtained over a rich rural country. 

Mount Stewart (two inns) is a prosperous little shipbuilding village, 
whence the steamer Heather BeBe runs to Charlottetown. The train 
crosses the river at this point, and at Mount Stewart Junction it turns 
to the S. E., while the Souris Railway diverges to the N. E. The country 
which is now traversed is thinly settled, and lies about the head-waters of 
the Morrell and Pisquid Rivers. There are several small lakes in this 
region, and forests are seen on either hand. At Cardigan (small inn) the 
line reaches the head-waters of the eastern rivers. A road leads hence to 
the populous settlements on the Vernon River and Pownal Bay. 

Georgetown {Commercial Hotel) is the capital of King's County, and 
has about 800 inhabitants. It is situated on the long peninsula between 
the Cardigan and Brudenelle Rivers, and its harbor is one of the best on 
the island, being deep and secure, and the last to be closed by ice. The 
county buildings, academy, and Episcopal church are on Kent Square. 
The chief business of the town is in the exportation of produce, and ship- 
building is carried on to some extent. The town is well laid out, but its 
growth has been very slow. Steamers ply between this port, Pictou, ani 
the Magdalen Islands (see Routes 44 and 49). The harbor is reached by 
ascending Cardigan Bay and passing the lighthouses on Panmure Head 
and St. Andrew's Point. 

Montague Bridge (Montague House) is reached from Georgetown by a 
ferry of 6 M. and 11 M. of staging. It has 350 inhabitants and severnl 
mills. To the S. E. is St. Mary's Bay. About 20 M. S. of (Jeorgetown is 
Murray Harbor, on which there are several Scottish viUages. From Capo 
Bear the coast trends W. for 27 M. to Point Prim. 

" No land can bout more rich supply, 
That e'er was found beneath the sky ; 
No purer streams have ever flowed, 
Since Heaven that bounteous gift bestowed. 

» • • • • 

And herring, like a mighty host. 

And cod and mackerel, crowd the coast." 



** In this fine island, long n^ected, 
Much, it is thought, might be efrected 
By industry and application, — 
Sources of wealth with every nation." 




182 Route 48. ST. PETERU 



48. Charlottetown to Sonris. 

By the Prince Edward Islaod Bailwsy. 

Stations* — Charlottetown; Royalty Janction, 6 M.; Mount Stewart, 22 ; liIor> 
lell, 80 ; St. Peter's, 88^ ; Hannony, 66 ; SooriB, 60^. 

Charlottetown to Mount Stewart, see page 181. 

At Mount Stewart Junction the train diverges to the N. £., and soon 
reaches Morrell, a fishing-station on the Morrell Biver, near St Peter's 
Bay. 

St. Peter's {Prairie HoUt) was from the first the most hnportant port 
on the N. shore of the island, on account of its rich salmon-fisheries. 
About the year 1750 the French government endeavored to restrict the 
fishing of tJie island, and to stimulate its agriculture, by closing all the 
ports except St. Peter's and Tracadie. The village is now quite small, 
though the salmon-fishery is valuable. St. Peter's Bay runs 7 M. into 
the land, but it is of little use, since there is only 6 ft. of water on its 
i>8andy bar. From this inlet to East Point the shore is unbroken, and is 
formed of a line of red sandstone clifis, 88 M. long. 

*' The sea-trout fishing, in the bays and harbors of Prince Edward Island, espe- 
cially in June, when the fish first rush in firom the golf, is really magnificent. They 
ayerage from 8 to 6 pounds each. I found the best fishing at St. Peter's Bay, on 
the N. side of the island, about 28 M. from Charlottetown. I there killed in one 
morning 16 trout, which weighed 80 pounds. In the bays and along the coasts of 
the island they are taken with the scarlet fly, firom a boat under easy sail, with a 
* mackerel breese,' and sometimes a heavy ' ground swell.' The fly skips from wave 
to wave at ttie end of 80 yards of line, and there should be at least 70 yards more on 
the reel. It is splendid sport, as a strong fish will make sometimes a long run, and 
giro a good chase down the wind." (Pxrlkt.) 

Harmony station is near Hollo Bay, which was named in honor of Lord 
Bollo, who occupied the island with British troops in 1768. There is a 
small hamlet on this bay; and to the S. W. are the Gaelic settlements of 
Dundas, Bridgetown, and Annandale, situated on the Grand Biver. 

Sonrii (three inns) is a village of Catholic Highlanders, pleasantly 
situated on the N. side of Colville Bay, and divided into two portions by 
the Souris River. The harbor is shallow, but is being improved by a break- 
water. The shore-fishing is pursued in fleets of dories, and most of the 
produce of the adjacent country is shipped from Souris to the French Isle 
of St. Pierre (see page 186). There is a long sandy beach on the W. of the 
village, and on the S. and £. is a bold headland. Souris was settled by 
the Acadians in 1748; and now contains about 600 inhabitants. 

The East Parish extends for several leagues £. of Souris, and includes 
the sea-shore hamlets of Red Point, Bothwell, East Point, North Lake, and 
Fairfield. The East and North Lakes are long and shallow lagoons on the 
coast. East Point is provided with a first-class fixed light, which is 180 
ft. above the sea and is visible for 18 M. 



1CA6DALEN ISLA2n>S. RoiUe 49, 183 



48. The Magdalen Idands. 

Thece remote islancUi are sometimee Tisited, daring the soinmer, by flBhing-par- 
tiies, who find rare sport in catching the white seartrout that abound in the yiclnitj. 
The accommodations for visitors are of the most primitire kind, bat many defects 
are atoned for by the hospitality of the people. 

The mail-steamer AU)trt leaves Pictoa for Georgetown (P. £. I.) and the Magdalen 
Islands every alternate Wednesday. She also leaves Pietou for Port Hood (Cape 
Breton) eveiy Monday evening, returning on the following morning. (Time-table 
of 1874.) 

Fares* — HaliJkx to Port Hood, $ 4.60 ; to Georgetown, $ 4.10 : to the Magdalen 
Islands, 9 8. Further particulan may be obtained by addrMsing James King, mail- 
contractor, HalifltT. 

The Magdalen Iilands are thirteen in number, and are situated at the 
entrance to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 60 M. from East Point (P. E. !.)• 
60 M. from Cape North (C. B.), 120 M. from Cape Bay (N. F,), and 160 M. 
from Gasp^. When they are first seen from the sea, they present the ap- 
pearance of well-detached islets, but on a nearer approach several of them 
are seen to be connected with each other by double lines of sandy beaches, 
forming broad and quiet salt-water lagoons. The inhabitants are mostly 
Acadian fishermen (speaking French only), devoted to the pursuit of the 
immense schools of cod and mackerel that visit the neighboring waters. 
At certain seasons of the year the harbors and lagoons are filled with 
hundreds of sail of fishing-vessels, most of which are American and Pro- 
vincial. Seal-hunting is carried on here with much success, as extensive 
fields of ice drifb down against the shores, bearing myriads of seals. On 
one occasion over 6,000 seals were killed here in less than a fortnight by 
parties going out over the ice from the shore. This is also said to he the 
best place in America for the lobster fishery, and a Portland company has 
recently founded a canning establishment here. On account of their 
abundant returns in these regards the Magdalen Islands have received the 
fitting title of " The Kingdom of Fish." In order to protect these interests 
the Dominion armed cutter La Canadienne usually spends the summer in 
these waters, to prevent encroachments by Americans and Frenchmen. 

Amherst Island is the chief of the group, and is the seat of the principal 
village, the custom-house, and the public buildings. On its S. point is a 
red-and-white revolving light which is visible for 20 M. ; and the hills in the 
interior, 660 ft. high, are seen from a great distance by day. The village has 
8 churches and the court-house, and is situated on a small harbor which 
opens on the S. of Pleasant Bay, a broad and secure roadstead where hun- 
dreds of vessels sometimes weather heavy storms in safety. 1 M. N. W. 
of the village is the singular conical hill called the Demoiselle (280 ft. high), 
whence the bay and a great part of the islands may be seen. 

Grindstone Island is 6 - 6 M. N. of Amherst, and is connected with it 
by a double line of sand-beaches, which enclose the wide lagoon called 
Basque Harbor. It is 6 M. long, and has a central hill 660 ft. high, while 
on the W. shore is the lofly conical promontory of sandstone which the 



184 BtmU 49. MAGDALEN ISLANDS. 

Acadians call Cap de Jfeule. On the same side is the thriving hamlet of 
L'lUang du Nord, On the E., and containing 7 square miles, is Alright 
IfUuid, terminated by the grayish-white clifiSi of Cape Alright, over 400 
ft. higiL A sand-beach runs N. E. 10 M. from Grindstone to Wolf Island, 
a nndstone rock | M. long; and another beach rons tiience 9 M. farther 
to the N. E. to Groue Itland^ on the Grand Lagoon. This island has another 
line of lofty cliffs of sandstone. To the E. is Coffin Jdand, and 4 M. N. is 
Bryon Jdand^ beyond which are the Bird Isles. 

Entry Island lies to the E. of Amherst Island, off the entrance to 
Pleasant Bay, and is the most picturesque of the group. Near the centre 
if a hill 580 ft. high, visible for 25 M., and from whose summit the 
whole Magdalen group can be overlooked. The wonderful cliffs of red 
sandstone which line the shores of this island are very picturesque in their 
effect, and reach a height of 400 ft. 

Deadman's Isle is a rugged rock 8 M. W. of Amherst, and derives its 
name from the fancied resemblance of its contour to that of a corpse laid 
out for burial. While passing this rock, in 1804, Tom Moore wrote tho 
poem which closes : 



** There lleth a wreck on the diimel shore 
Of cold and pitileM JLatbrador, 
Where, under the moon, upon monnti of 

froit, 
Full menj a mariner*! bones are tossed. 

**Ton shadowj bark hath been to that wreck, 
And the dim blue fire that lights her deck 



Doth plaj on as pale and llrid a crew 
As ever yet drank the churchyard dew. 

** To Deadman's Isle in the eye of the blast, 
To Deadman's Isle she speeds her fast ; 
By skeleton shapes her sails are furled. 
And the hand that steers is not of this 
world." 



The Bird Isles are two bare rocks of red sandstone, | M. apart, the chief 
of which Is known as Gannet Rock, and is 1,300 ft. long and 100-140 ft. 
high, lined with vertical cliffs. These isles are haunted by immense num- 
bers of sea-birds, gannets, guillemots, puffins, kittiwakes, and razor-billed 
auks. *^ No other breeding-place on our shore Is so remarkable at once 
for the number and variety of the species occupying it." Immense quan- 
tities of eggs are carried thence by the islanders, but to a less extent than 
formerly. 

This great natural curiosity was visited in 1682 by the Jesuits (who called the rocks 
Les Cotombiers), by Hcriot In 1807, by Audubon, and in 1860 by Dr. Bryan. The 
Dominion has recently erected a lighthouBe here at great expense, and to the imminent 
peril of those engaged in tho work, since there is no landing-place, and in breezy 
weather tho surf dashes yiolently agednst the cliffs all around. The tower bears a 
fixed whito light of the first class, which is yisible for 21 M. 

Charlevoix visited these islands in 1720, and wondered how, " in such a Multitude 
of Nosts, every Bird immediately finds her own. We fired a Gun, which gave the 
Alarm thro' all this flying Commonwealth^ and there was formed above the two 
Islands, a thick Cloud of these Birds, which was at least two or three Leagues 
around." 

The Magdalen Islands were visited by Cartier in 16S4, but the first permanent sta- 
tion was founded hero in 1663 by a company of Uonneur mariners, to whom the 
Jslands were conceded by tho Company of New France. In 1720 the Duchess of 
OrJeana granted them to tho Count de St. Pierre. In 1768 they were inhabited by 
JO Acadian HuuiUcs, and in 1767 a Bostonlan named Gridley founded on Amherst 



ST. PIERRE AND MIQUELON. MotUe SO. 185 

Jjdand an estabUshment fat trading and for the wal and walnu fisberles. During 
the Revolution American priyateers visited the islands, and destroyed ererythiug 
accessible. Gridley returned after the war, but the walrus soon became extiuct, 
and the islanders turned their attention to the cod and herring fisheries. When 
Admiral CofiBn received his grant there were 100 fiunilies here ; in 1831 there were 
1,000 inhabitants; and the present population is about 3,500. In the mean time 
three colonies liave been founded and populated from these islands, on Labrador and 
the N. shore. The Lord's-Day Gale (see page 170) wrought sad havoc among the 
fleets in these waters. 

Tradition tells that when C^t. CofBn was conveying Govemor-Oeneral Lord Dor- 
chester to Canada in his frigate, a Airious storm arose in the Gulf, and the skilful 
mariner saved his vessel by gaining shelter under the lee of these islands. Dorches- 
ter, grateful for his pre ser v a tion, secured for the captain the grant of the islunds 
'* in free and common soccage," with the rights of building roads and fortifications 
reserved to the Crown. The grantee was a native of Boston and a benefactor of 
Nantucket, and subsequently became Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin. The grant now 
belongs to his nephew, Admiral Coffin, of Bath, and is an entailed estate of the 
ikmily. In 1873, 75 years after the grant, the legislature of Quebec (in whose juris- 
diction the islands lie) made extensive investigations with a view to buy out the pro- 
prietor's claim, since many of the islanders had emigrated to Labrador and the 
Mingan Isles, dissatisfied with their uncertain tenure of the land. 

60. St Pierre and Miqnelon. 

The Angle-French Steamship Company dispatches the steamer George Shattuck 
from Hftlifrx to Sydney and St. Pierre every alternate Saturday during the season 
of navigation. She leaves St. Pierre every alternate Friday. The voyage to Sydney 
has recently been made by way of St. Peter's Canal and the Bras d'Or, but it is not 
likely that that route will be adopted in preference to the outside course. 

Fares firom Hali&x to Sydney, cabin, $ 10, steerage, $6 ; to St. Pierre, cabin, 
$15, steerage, $8; Sydney to St. Pierre, cabin, S9, steerage, $6. The price of 
meals is included in the cabin-fkres. Further information may be obtained by ad- 
dressing Joseph S. Belcher, Boak's Whaif^Halifax. 

St. loerre may also be visited by the Western Coastal steamer from St. John's, 
N. F. (see Route 60). 

There are several French cafis and pensions in the village of St. Pierre, at which 
the traveller can find indifferent accommodations. The best of these is that at which 
the tel^raph-operators stop. 

On entering the harbor of St. Pierre, the steamer passes Galantry Head, on which 
is a red-and-white flash* light which is visible for 20 M., and also two fog-guns. 
Within the harbor are two fixed lights, one white and one red, which are visible for 
6 M. ; and the I^ aux CMens contains a scattered fishing-village. 

The island of St. Pierre is about 12 M. from Point May, on the New- 
foundland coast, and is 12 M. in circumference. It is mostly composed of 
rugged porphyritic ridges, utterly arid and barren, and the scenery is of 
a striklcg and singular character. Back of the village is the hill of Cal- 
vaire, surmounted by a tall cross; and to the S. W., beyond Bavenel Bay, 
is the lakelet called Vitang du Savoyard. The town is compactly built on 
the harbor at the E. of the island, and most of its houses are of stone. It 
is guarded by about 50 French soldiers, whose presence is necessary to 
keep the multitudes of fearless and pugnacious sailors from incessant riot- 
ing. There is a large force of telegraph-operators here, in charge of the 
two cables from America to Great Britain by way of Newfoundland, and 
of the Franco-American cable, which runs E. to Brest and S. W. to Dux- 
bury, in Massachusetts. 

The only good house in the town is that of the Governor; and the Oath- 



186 RmUeBO. ST. PIERBE AND MIQUELON. 

olic church and convent rise prominently over the low houses of the fisher- 
men. Near the sea is a battery of ancient guns, which are used only for 
warning in season of fogs. The buildings are nearly all of wood, and in- 
clude many shops, where every variety of goods may be obtained. The 
merchants are connected with French and American firms. There are 
numerous cabareU, or drinking-saloons ; and the auberges, or small taverns, 
are thoroughly French. The citizens are famed for their hospitality to 
properly accredited strangers ; and the literary culture of the conununity 
is served by a diminutive weekly paper called La FeuilU OffideUe, printed 
on a sheet of foolscap, and containing its serial Parisian fewXLtUm, 

The street of St. Pierre presents a very interesting sight during the 
spring and fall. It is crowded with many thousands of hardy fishermen, 
arrayed in the quaint costumes of their native shores, — Normans, Bretons, 
Basques, Provincials, and New-Englanders, — all active and alert; while 
the implements of the fisheries are seen on every side. The environs of 
the town are rocky and utterly unproductive, so that the provisions used 
here are imported from the Provinces. 

The resident population is 3,187 (of whom 24 are Protestant), and the 
government is conducted by a Gonunandant, a Police Magistrate, Doctor, 
Apostolic Prefect, and Engineer, with a few artillerists and gens-d*armes. 
There is usually one or more French frigates in the harbor, looking after 
the vast fisheries which employ 16,000 sailors of France, and retum 
80,000,000 francs' worth of fish. 

St. Pierre is the chief rendezvous of the French fishermen, and immenfle fleets are 
sometimes gathered here. Over 1,000 sail of square-rigged vessels from France are 
engaged in these fisheries, and on the 29th of June^874, the roadstead near the 
island contained 860 sail of sqnare-rigged vessels and 800 fore-and-aft vessels. They 
are here furnished with supplies, which are drawn from the adjacent Provinces, and 
in retum leave many of the luxuries of Old France. It is claimed that the brandy 
of St. Pierre is the best in America. The fishermen leave their fish here to be cured, 
and from this point they are sent S. to the United States and the West Indies. 

Uxtlt Miquelon Island, or Langley Island, lies 8 M. N. W. of St. Pierre, and is 
about 24 M. around. It is joined to Great Miquelon Island by a long and 
narrow sandy isthmus. The latter island is 12 M. long, and looks out on Fortune 
Bay. Near its N. end are the singular hills known as Mt Chapeau and Mt. Cal- 
vaire. On this island, during the summer of 1874, was wrecked H. B. M. frigate 
Niobe, the brave ship that trained her guns on Santiago de Cuba, and prevented a 
total massacre of the Vtrginius prisoners. 

St. Pierre was captured by a British fieet in 1798, and all its inhabitants, 1,602 in 
number, were carried away to Halifax, whence they were soon afterwards sent to 
France. In 1796 a French Republican fieet under Admiral Richery visited the de- 
serted island, and completely destroyed its buildings and wharves. It was, how- 
ever, restored to France in 1814, together with her ancient privileges in these 
waters. "All the island is only a great laboratory for the preparation, curine, 
and exportation of codfish. For the rest, not a tree, not a bush, above 26 cenu- 
metres." 



NEWFOUNDLAND 



Is bounded on the W. bj the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the K. bj the 
Strait of Belle Isle, and on the £. and S. by the Atlantic Ocean. From 
N. to S. it is 860 M. long, and the average breadth is 130 M., giving an 
estimated area of 40,200 square miles. The coast is steep and bold, and 
is indented with numerous deep bays and fiords. Mines of lead and cop- 
per are being worked with much success, and there are large undeveloped 
deposits of coal on the W. coast. 

" Up go the surges on the coast of Newfoandland, and down again into the sea. 
The huge island .... stands, with its sheer, beetling clifiEB, out of the ocean, a mon- 
stroos mass of rock and gravel, almost without soil, like a strange thing from the 
bottom of the great deep, lifted up suddenly into sunshine and storm, but belong- 
ing to the watery darkness out of which it has been reared. The eye accustomed to 
richer and softer scenes finds something of a strange and almost startling beauty in 
its bold, hard outlines, cut out on every side a^nst the sky Inland, sur- 
rounded by a flringe of small forests on the coasts, is a vast wilderness of moss, and 
rock, and lake, and dwarf firs about breast-high. These little trees are so close and 
stiff and flat-topped that one can almost walk on them. Of course they are very hard 
things to make way through and amoi^. .... In March or April almost all the 
men go out in fleets to meet the ice that floats down from the northern regions and 
to kill the seals that come down on it. In early summer a third part or a half of 
all the people go, by fimiilies, in their schooners, to the coast of Labrador, and 
spend the summer fishing there ; and in the winter, half of them are living in the 
woods, in tilts, to have their fuel near them. At home or abroad, during the sea- 
son, the men are on the water for seals or cod. The women sow, and plant, and 
tend the little gardens, and dry the fish ; in short, they do the land-work, and are 
the better for it." (R. T. S. Lowell.) • 

Two of the most remarlcable features of the natural history of the island 
are thus quaintly set forth by Whitboume (anno 1622) : " Neither are there 
any Snakes, Toads, Serpents, or any other venomous Wormes that ever 
were knowne to hurt any man in that country, but only a very little nim- 
ble fly (the least of all other flies), which is called a Miskieto; those flies 
seem to have a great power and authority upon all loytering and idle peo- 
ple that come to the Newfoundland.'* Instances have been known where 
the flies have attacked men with such venom and multitudes that fatal 
results have followed. In the interior of the island are vast unexplored 
regions, studded with large lakes and mountain-ranges. Through these 
solitudes roam countless thousands of deer, which are pursued by the Mic- 
mac hunters. 

Newfoundland was discovered by the Norsemen in the tenth century, 
but they merely observed the coast and made no further explorations. 



188 MotUe $1. NEWFOUNDLAND. 

There is good reason for supposing that it was frequented bj Breton and 
Norman fishermen dnring the fourteenth centnry. In 1497 the island was 
formally discovered by John Cabot, who was voyaging under the patron- 
age of Henry VII. of England. The explorations of Cortereal (1601), Ye- 
razzano (1624), and Cartier (1634), all tonched here, and great fishing- 
fleets began to visit the surrounding seas. Sir Humphrey Gilbert took 
possession of Newfoundland in the name of England, in 1683, making 
this the most ancient colony of the British Empire. The settlements 
of Guy, Whitboume, Calvert, and others were soon established on the 
coast 

The fishermen were terribly persecuted by pirates dnring the earlier 
part of the 17th century. Peter Easton alone had 10 sail of corsairs on the 
coast, claiming, that he was '* master of the seas,** and levying heavy 
taxes on all the vessels in these waters. Between 1612 and 1660 alone, 
the pirates captured 180 pieces of ordnance, 1,080 fishermen, and large 
fleets of vessels. 

Between 1692 and 1713 the French made vigorous attempts to conquer 
the island, and the struggle raged with varying fortunes on the £. and S. 
shores. By the Treaty of Utrecht the French received permission to catch 
and cure fish along the W. coast (see Boute 61). In 1728 Newfoundland 
was formed into a Province, and courts were established. The French made 
determined attacks in 1761 and 1796, and the people were reduced to 
great extremity by the Non-Intercourse Act passed by the American Con- 
gress in 1776 and again in 1812-14. In 1817 there were 80,000 inhab- 
itants, and 800 vessels were engaged in the fisheries, whose product was 
valued at $ 10,000,000 a year. In 1832 the first Legislative Assembly was 
convened; in 1838 a geological survey was made; and in 1858 the Atlan- 
tic telegraph-cable was landed on these shores. Newfoundland has re- 
fused to enter the Dominion of Canada, and is stiU governed directly by 
the British Crown. 

6L Halifax to St John's, Newfoundland. 

The ocean Bteamships between Hali&x and Liverpool call at St. John^s fortnightly. 
Their course after leaving Halifax is directly to the N. E. across the open Bea.giyiDg 
Oape Race a wide berth. The fiure on these vessels is higher than it is on the Virgo, 
and the accommodations are superior : but the voyager does not get the interesthig 
views of the Canso and Cape-Breton shores. 

The Eastern Steamship Company's vessel, the Yirgo, leaves Hali&x on alternate 
Tuesdays, for Sydney and St. John's, carrying the Royal mails. The fiure is f 16 
(steerage, $5). This steamship is large, and is well arranged for passenger-traflElc. 

Halifax to Sydney, see page 148. 

After leaving the harbor of Sydney, Flint Island is seen on the r., and the 

blue ranges of the St. Anne Mts. on the I. The course is but little N. of 

E., and the horizon soon becomes level and landless. Sometimes the dim 

bJae hills of St, Pierre are the first land seen after the Cape-Breton coast 



ST. JOHN'S. nouieSi. 189 

8fnks below the horizon; but generally the bold monntain-promontory of 
Cape Chapeau Rouge is the first recognizable shore. Then the deep bight 
of Placentia Bay opens away on the N. After rounding Cape Race (see 
Route 22), the steamship stretches away up the Strait Shore past a line 
of fishing hamlets, deep fiords, and rocky capes. 

** When the mist8 dispersed, the rocky shores of Newfoundland were close upon 
our left, — lofty clifiEB, red and gray , terribly beaten by the wayes of the broad ocean. 
We amused oarselyes, as we passed abreast the bays and headlands and rugged 
islands, with gazing at the wild scene, and searching out the beauty timidly reposing 
among the bleak an<t desolate. On the whole, Newfoundland, to the yoyager from 
the States, is a lean and bony land, in thin, ragged clothes, ^th the smallest amount 
of adornment. Along the rides of the dull, brown mountains there is a suspicion 
of yerdure, spotted and striped here and there with meagre woods of birch and fir. 
The glory of this hard r^on is its coast : a wonderful perplexity of fiords, bays and 
cree£i, islands, peninsulas and capes, endlessly picturesque, and yery often magnifi- 
cently grand. Nothing can well exceed the hostdlands and precipices, honeycombed, 
shatterod, and hollow^ out into yast cayems,and giyen up to the thunders and the 

fury of the deep-sea billows The brooks that flow from the highlands, and faM 

oyer clifib of great eleyation into the yery surf, and that would be counted features 
of grandeur m some countries, are here the merest trifles, a kind of jewelry on the 
hem of the landscape." (Noble.) 

*' The first yiew of the harbor of St. John's is yery striking. Lofty precipitous 
clif!s,of hard dark-red sandstone and conglomerate, range along the coast, with deep 
-water close at their feet. Their beds plunge firom a height of 400 - 700 ft. , at an angte 
of 70°, right into the sea, where they are ceaselessly dashed against by the unbroken 
swell of the Atlantic wayes. " ( Jukss ■ ) 

52. St JoIm% Newfoundland. 

Amrival from the Sea« — " The harbor of St John's is certainly one of the 
most remarkable for bold and effectiye scenery on the Atlantic shore. .... We were 
moying spiritedly forward oyer a bright and liyely sea, watching the stem headlands 
receding in the south, and starting out to yiew in the north, when we passed Cape 
Spear, a lofty promontory, crowned with a lighthouse and a signal-staff, upon which 
-was floating the meteor flag of England, and at once found ourselyes abreast the 
bay in front of St. John's. Not a yestige, though, of anything like a city was in 
sight, except another flag flitting on a distant pinnacle of rock. Like a mighty 
Coliseum, the sea-wall hsdf encircled the deep water of this outer bay, into which 
the full power of the ocean let it-self under eyery wind except the westerly. Right 
towards the coast where it gathered itself up into the greatest massiyeness, and tied 
itself into a yery Gordian knot, we cut across, curious to behold when and where the 
rugged adamant was going to split and let us through. At length it opened, and we 
looked through, and presently glided through a kind of mountain-pass, with all the 
lonely grandeur of the Franconia Notch. Aboye us, and close aboye, the rugged, 
brown clifib rose to a fine height, armed at certain points with cannon, and before 
us, to all appearance, opened out a fnost beautiful mountain lake, with a little city 
looking down from the mountain-side, and a swamp of shipping along its shores. We 
were in the harbor, and before St. John's." (Noble.) 

Hotels. — The Union House, 879 Water St. (nearly 1 M. firom the Custom House), 
is the best; Atlantic HoilSe, Water St. There are also two or three boarding* 
houses, which are preferable to the hotels, if a long stay is to be made. Mrs. 
Simms's. 853 Water St. , is one of the best of these ; and Knight's Home, 173 Water St, 
is tolerable. The accommodations for yisitors to St. John's are not such as might 
be desired or expected in a city of so much importance. 

Carriages may be engaged at the stands on Water St. (near the Post-Office). 
The rate per hour is 80c. 

Amusements, generally of merely local interest, are prepared in Temper- 
ance Hall or the Ayalon (Victoria) Rink. Boat-racing is frequently carried on at 
Quiddy-Tiddy Pond. Cricket-matches are also played on the outskirts of the city. 

Post-Office, at the Market House, on Water St. Telegrc^h, New York, New- 
foundland, and London Co., at the MariLet House. 



190 RtmUBt. ST. jomrs. 

Consulates. — Americsn, 149 Water St. ; Freneh, fflfnsl-EBn Bosd ; Germaii, 
227 Water St ; Spanish, 116 Cochrane St.^ Portognese, 9Sb Water St. 

Mall-'vrasons leave St. John's for Portugal CoTe, daily; forTopeail,Holjrood, 
Harbor BfaiOf Brigus, Bay Roberts, and Harbor Grace, Mondays and ^orsdays (or 
after arriral of mail from Halifex) in winter, and once weekly in summer ; to Bay 
Boils and Ferryland, weddy ; to Salmonier and Placentia, on the day of aniTal of 
the Hali&z maU. 

Steamships. — For Bay Yerd, Old Perlican, Trinity^ Catalina, Bonavista, 
Oreenspond, Fogo, Twillingate, Exploits Island, Tilt Gore, Uttle Bay Island, Nip- 
per's Harbor, and the Labrador coast, fortnightly, on Monday ; to Fenyland, Be- 
ne wse. Trepassey, Bnrin, St. Pierre, Harbor Briton, Bnxgeo, Little Bay (La Pdle), 
and Gnannel, fortnightly, on Thnrsday or Friday (passing on to Sydney, G. B.,eaeh 
alternate trip) ; to the ports on Gonception Bay sereial t&es s wedc, from Portagsl 
Gore (see Boute 66) ; to Haliikz, fortnightly, by the Esstem Steamship Co 's ycs- 
sel, the Virgo ; to Halilkx. fortnightly, br steamships of the Allan Line; to London- 
deny and Uverpool, fortnightly, by tiie Allan Une. 

St. Johk*8, the capital of the Province of Newfoundland, is situated in 
latitude 47" 83' 6" N., and longitude 62** 44' 7" W., and is buHt on the 
slope of a long hUI which rises from the shore of a deep and secure har- 
bor. At the time of the census of 1869 there were 22,665 inhabitants in 
the city (there are now over 25,000); but the population, owing to the 
peculiar character of its chief industry, is liable at any time to be in- 
creased or diminished by several thousand men. The greater part of the 
citizens are connected with the fisheries, directly or indirectly, and lai^ 
fleets are despatched from the port throughout the season. Their return, 
or the arrival of the sealing-steamers, with their great crews, brings new 
life to the streets, and oftentimes results in such general " rows " as re- 
quire the attendance of a large police-force. The interests of the city are 
all with the sea, from which are drawn its revenues, and over which pass 
the fleets which bring in provisions from the Provinces and States to the 
S. W. The manufactures of St. John's are insignificant, and consist, for 
the most part, of biscuit-bakeries and oil-refineries (on the opposite side 
of the harbor). An immense business is done by the mercantile houses 
on Water St in furnishing supplies to the outports (a term applied to all 
the other ports of Newfoundland except St. John's); and one firm alone 
has a trade amounting to $12,000,000 a year. For about one month, 
during the busy season, the streets are absolutely crowded with the people 
from the N. and W. coasts, selling their fish and oil, and laying in pro- 
visions and other supplies for the ensuing year. The commercial interests 
are served by three banks and a chamber of commerce; and the literary 
standard of society is maintained by the St John's Athenaeum and the 
Catholic Institute. The city is supplied with gas, and water is brought 
in from a lake 4i| M. distant, by works which cost $ 860,000. 

" In trying to describe St. John^s, there is some difficulty in applying an adQee- 
tire to it suflBciently distinctive and appropriate. We find other cities coupled with 
words which at once give their predominant characteristic: London the richest, 
Paris the gayest, St. Petersburg the coldest. In one respect the chief town of New- 
foundland has, 1 believe, no rival ; we may, therefore, call it the fishiest of modorn 
capitals. Bound a great part of the harbor are sheds, acres in extent, roofed with 
cod split in halff laid on like slates, drying in the sun, or rather the air, for there Is 



ST. JOHN'S. R(mU5t, 191 

not much of the former to depend upon The town is irregalar and dirty, built 

chiefly of wood, the dampness of the climate rendering stone unsuitable." (Euot 
Warbdbton.) 

The harbor is small, but deep, and is so thoroughly landlocked that the 
water is always smooth. Here may generally be seen two or three British 
and French frigates, and at the close of the season these narrow waters are 
well filled with the vessels of the fishing-fleets and the powerful sealing- 
steamers. Along the shores are the fish-stages, where immense quantities 
of cod, herring, and salmon are cured and made ready for exportation. 
On the S. shore are several wharves right under the clifis, and also a float- 
ing dock which takes up vessels of 800 tons' burden. The entrance to the 
harbor is called the * KarrowS) and is a stupendous cleft in the massive 
ridge which lines the coast. It is about 1,800 ft. long, and at its narrow- 
est point is but 660 ft. wide. On either side rise precipitous walls of sand- 
stone and conglomerate, of which Signal Hill (on the N. side) reaches an 
altitude of 620 ft, and the southern ridge is nearly 700 ft. high. Vessels 
coming in from the ocean are unable to see the Narrows until close upon 
it, and steer for the lofty block-house on Signal Hill. The points at the 
entrance were formerly well fortified, and during war-time the harbor was 
closed by a chain drawn across the Narrows, but the batteries are now in 
a neglected condition, and are nearly disarmed. 

The city occupies the rugged hill on the N. of the harbor, and is built 
on three parallel streets, connected by steep side-streets. The houses are 
mostly low and unpainted wooden buildings, crowding out on the side- 
walks, and the general appearance is that of poverty and thriftlessness. 
Even the wealthy merchants generally occupy houses far beneath their 
station, since they seem to regard Newfoundland as a place to get for- 
tunes in and then retire to England to make their homes. This prin- 
ciple was universally acted on in former years, but latterly pleasant villas 
are being erected in the suburbs, and a worthier architectural appearance 
is desired and expected for the ancient capital. Water Street is the main 
business thoroughfare, and follows the curves of the harbor-shore for about 
1^ M. Its lower side is occupied by the great mercantile houses which 
supply "fish-and-fog-land" with provisions, clothing, and household re- 
quirements ; and the upper side is lined with an alternation of cheap shops 
and liquor-saloons. In the N. part is the Custom House, and near the cen- 
tre is the spacious building of the Market-Hall and the Post-Office. To the 
S., Water Street connects with the causeway and bridge of boats which 
crosses the head of the harbor. Admonished by several disastrous fires, 
the city has caused Water St. to be built upon in a substantial manner, 
and the stores, though very plain, are solidly and massively constructed. 

The Anglican Cathedral stands about midway up the hill, over the 
old burying-ground. It was planned by Sir Gilbert Scott, the most emi- 
nent British architect of the present era, and is in the early English Gothio 



192 BauteSB, ST. JOHlTa 

architecture. Owing to the hiability of the Gharch to raise snfficient funds 
(for the missions at the outports demand all her revenues), the cathedral 
is but partly finished, the end of the nave being boarded up and furnished 
with a cheap temporary altar. The lofty proportions of the interior and 
the fine Gothic colonnades of stone between the nave and aisles, together 
with the high lancet-windows, form a pleasant pictore. 

The * Boman Catholic Cathedral is the most stately building in New- 
foundland, and occupies the crest of the ridge, commanding a noble * view 
over the city and harbor and adjacent country, and looking through the 
Narrows on to the open sea. The prospect fit>m the cathedral terrace on 
a moonlight night or at the time of a clear sunrise or sunset is especially 
to be commended. In the front part of the grounds is a colossal statue of 
St. Peter, and other large statues are seen near the building. The cathe- 
dral is an immense stone structure, with twin towers on the fi!t>nt, and is 
surrounded with a long internal corridor, or cloister. There are no aisles, 
but the whole building is thrown into a broad nave, ftom which the tran- 
septs diverge to N. and S. The stone of which it is constructed was 
brought from Conception Bay and from Dnnleaiy, Ireland, and the waUs 
were raised by the free and voluntary labors of the people. Clustered 
about the cathedral are the Bishop's Palace^ the convent and its scliools, 
and St, Bonaventure*s College (6 professors), where the missionaries ars 
disciplined and the Catholic youth are taught in the higher branches of 
learning. 

Catholicism was founded on the island by Sir Geom CalTefft (see Route 64) and 
by the Bishop of Quebec ; suffered persecution from 1t62 to 1784, when all priests 
were banished (though- some returned in disguise) ; and afterwards gained the chief 
power as a consequence of Irish immigration, upon which the Usliops became arro- 
gant and autocratic, and the Province was, practically, governed firom Cathedral 
Ilill. The great pile of religious buildings then erected on this commanding hei^t 
cost over $ 500,000, and the present revenues of the diocese are princely in amount, 
being collected by the priests, who board the arriving fishing-vessels and assess their 
people. The Irish Catholics form a great nuOo^ity of the citiaens of St. John^s. 

Near the cathedral are the old barracks of the Royal Newfoundland 
Companies and the garrisons from the British army. The Military Road 
runs along the crest of the heights, and affords pleasant views over the 
harbor. On this road is the Colonial Building, a substantial structure 
of gray stone, well retired from the carriage-way, and adorned with a 
massive portico of Doric columns upholding a pediment which is occupied 
by the Royal Arms of Great Britain and Ireland. The colonial legislature 
meets in this building, and occupies plain but comfortable halls. The 
Government Howe is N. of the Colonial Building, and is the official man- 
sion of tlie governor of the Province (Col. S. J. Hill, C. B.). It was built 
in 1828-80, and cost $240,000. The surrounding grounds are pleasantly 
diversified with groves, fiower-beds, and walks, and are much visited by 
the aristocracy of St. John's, during the short but brilliant summer 
season. 



ST. JOHN'S. Route St. 193 

Passing ont throngli the poor suburb called '* Maggotty CoTe,'* a walk 
of about 20 minutes leads to the top of * Signal Hill. 

" High aboTe, on oar r., a mined monolith, on a mountain-peak (Orow'a Nest), 
marks the site of an old battery, while to the L, sank in a hollow, a black bog lies 
sheltered amid the bare bones of mother earth, here mainly composed of dartc nd 
sandstones and conglomerate, passing down by regular gpradations to the slate below. 
A sudden turn of the road reveals a deep solitary tarn, some 350 ft. above the sea, 
in which the guardian rocks reflect their purple fices, and where the ripple ot the 
muskrat, hurrying across, alone disturbs the placid surfitce. We pass a hideous- 
looking barrack, and, crossing the soft velvety sward on the cfest, reach a little bat- 
tery, from the parapets of which we look down, down, almost 600 ft. perpendicu- 
larly, right into ' the Narrows,' the strait or creek between the hills connecting the 
broad Atlantic with the oval harbor within. Tit» great south-side hills, covered 
with luxuriant wild vegetation, and skeined with twisting torrents, loom across the 
strait so close that one might fancy it almost possible a stone could fly fix>m the 
hand to the opposite shore. On our left the vast ocean, with nothing — not a rock 
— between us and Qaiway ; on our right, at the other end of the narrow neck of 
water directly beneath, the inner basin, expanding towards the city, with the back- 
ground of blue hills as a setting to the picture, broken only in their continuous out- 
line by the twin towers of the Catholic cathedral, ever thus firom ail points perform- 
ing their mission of eoospicuity. Right below us, 400 ft. perpendicular, we lean 
over the grass parapet and look carefully down into the little battery guarding the 
narrowest part of the entering-strait, where, in the old wars, heavy chcuns stretehed 
from shore to^hore. .... The Narrows are full of fishing-boats returning with the 
silver spoils df the day glistening in the hold of the smacks, which, to the number 
of forty or fifty at a time, tack and fill like a fleet of white swans against the western 
evening breeae. Even as we look down on the decks, they come, and still they come, 
round the bluff point of Fort Amherst, firom the bay outside." (Lt.-CoL. MgGrea.) 

" After dinner we 'set off fbr Sigpial Hill, the grand observatory of the country, 

both by nature and art Little rills rattled by ; paths wound among rocky 

notches and grassy chasms, and led out to dizzy ' over-looks > and * short-ofb.' The 
town with its thousand smokes sat in a kind of amphiUieatre, and seemed to ei^y 

the spectacle of sails and colors in the harbor We struck into a fine military 

road, and pissed spacious stone barracks, soldiers and soldiers' fkmilies, goats and 
little gardens. From the observatory, situated on the cn^gy peninsula, both th« 
rugged interior and the expanse of ocean were before us." (Noblb.) 

" Britones et Normani cmno a Omsto nato MCCCCCIIII. has terras invenere ♦' ; 
and in August, 1527, 14 sail of Norman, Breton, sEhd Portuguese vessels were shel- 
tered in the harbor of St. John's. In 1542 the Bieur de Roberval, Viceroy of New 
France, entered here with 3 ships and 200 colonists bound for Quebec. He fbund 17 
vessels at anchor in the harbor, and soon afterward there arrived Jacques Cartier 
and the Quebec colonists, discouraged, and returning to France. Roberval ordered 
him back, but he stole out of the harbor during the darkness of night and returned 
to France. A few years later the harbor was visited by the exploring ship iUory of 
GHilfordj and the reverend Canon of St Paul, who had undertaken the unpriestly 
function of a discoverer, sent hence a chronicle of the voyage to CanUnal W<rfsey. 

In August, 1683, Sir Humphrey Gilbert (see page 135) entered the harbor of St. 
John's, ixdth a fleet consisting of the Delight^ Oaiden Hind^ Swallow^ and Squirr^. 
He took formal possession of the port and of the island of Newfbundland, receiving 
the obedience of 36 ship-masters then in the harbor. But the adventurous mari- 
ners were discontented with the rudeness of the country, and the learned Patrme- 
nius wrote back to Hakluyt : " My good Hakluyt, of the manner of this country 
what shall I say, when I see nothing but a very wildemesse." In view of the date 
of Qilbert's occupatiofl, Newfoundland claims the proud distinction of being tiiA 
most ancient colony of the British. Empire. In 1584 St. John's was visited by the 
fleet of Sir Francis Drake, which had swept the adjacent seas and left a line of burn- 
ing wrecks behind. 

In 1696 the u>wn was so strongly guarded that it easily repulsed the Chevalier 
Nesmond, who attacked it with ten French men-of-war. The expedition of the 
daring Iberville was more successftil, and occupied the place. In November, 1704, 

9 U. 



194 JttmUSS. ST. jomrsu 



a lUct from QoAce knded a Tmeh aad Tafian fHca aft FlaccntSa, whence they 
adrascMl aboat the mkldk of Janoaij. They rac aboat 400 atrong, and crocaed 
tha Fmianala of Avmloa od mam-thotm. The town of Bay Italia i^BebomUe) snrren- 
dcnd on their approach, and a k»s and pafailU midwinter march cnaocd, over the 
matmtaiui and throogfa the deep mows. The French militia of Pl a cenfia were wnfc 
in at dawn to mrpriw the fort at St. Jolm*s, bvt eonld not enter tlia w«jclca for lade 
of aeaMng-ladden : lo they contented tlic uieeliM witih oecnpyins tha town and 
Qoiddy Yiddy. The fort was now bcuc«ed for 88 dm, in a n m um of intenee cold, 
when even the harbor was frooen over ; bvt tlia Jai^ieh lield out TaUaatly, and 
•bowerMi balls and bontae upon tbm town, ftnal^ ■nrceediiift in dialod^ng the ca- 
emy and pnttl^ them in ftiU leticat. 

In Jnne, 1762, the Coant d'HaMonHBe entered tha Bay BoDa with a poacrftal 
Yrench fleet, coneUthig of the Rokm *te , 74; L'SceilU, 64; Ijm Cmromme, 44; aad 
La lieoriM, 80. He e«wrtcd lereial tnnepovte,wlftenee 1,500 aoldien were landed. 
This foree marrhrd on St. Juhn'B, which nirrendered on aammona, tocether with 
the En^iah frigate GroimnoNX. Lord CohriUe's fleet haatened np fron HaJifrx aad 
blockaded Admiral De Teraay in the liarbor of 8i. John, whUe hmd Ciecca were de- 
barked at Torbay and Qoiddy Tkldy. The laM-named detachment (Rqyal Ameri- 
cana and Hi^landen) proce^ed to etonn tlie wocka on ffignnl HHI, but tlie Ficoch 
iMfht desperately, and held them at bay nntil the ISngliah foveea ftomTtebay caaie 
in and soeceeded in carrying the entire fine of iMighta. In the mean time, a dense 
fog had settled otct the coast, nnder wliose pr ot ec ti on Be Teraay led his sqnsdxoa 
throogfa the British lioe of blockade, and gafaied the open aen. In 1796 a Ibrmidable 
rreneh fleet, under Admiral Ricbery (eonaisting of 7 Une-of-bnttle ahipa and aefcial 
frigatea), menaced St. John's, tlien commanded by Admiral Sir JasBes Wallace. 
Strong batteries were erected along tlie Narrows ; flr»-ahipa were drawn np in the 
luurbor ; a chain was itretchcd across the entrance ; and the entire bodty oi the 
people was called ander arma. The hostile fleet blockaded the port for many dajs, 
Irat was kept at bay by the batteriea on Stenal Hill ; and after an inefleetnal attempt 
at attack, aailed awar to the S. Feb. 12, 1816, a diaastrooa flre ocenned at St 
Jirfm's, by which 1,500 persons were left homeless ; and great aoflering wonld hxn 
eosoed had it not been for the citiaens of Boston, who deqmtehed a ship loaded with 
proiisions and dothing for gratoitoos distribution among tlie imporerislied people. 
Not. 7, 1817, another terrible fire occurred here, by wliieh $^O0OjD0O worth of 
prupe r tj was destroyed ; and this was Icdlowed, within 2 we^a, by a tliiid dh- 
astrons eonflagration. This succession of ealainitiea came near rcaolting in the 
abandonment of the colony, and the people were goaded by hnnnr to a soeecsBbm 
of deeds of crime and to organised Tiolations of the laws. Inl825 theflrstlii^way 
was built (from St. John's to Portugal Cotc) ; in 1888 the flrst scaaion of the Colonial 
Parliament was held ; and the first steamship in the Newfirandland waters arrived 
here in 1840. 

In 1860 the city was conrulsed by a terrible riot, arising from poUtico-ieBgkm 
causes, and threatening wide ruin. An immense mob of armed Irialunen attacked 
and pillaged the stores on Water St., and filled the lower town with impine and rob- 
l>ery. The ancient organisation called the Royal Newfoundland Companies wai 
ordered out and posted near the liarket House, where the troops soflered forhonn 
^ne gibes of the plunderers, until they were fired upon in the twilight when 
they returned a point-blank rolley, which caused a sad carnage in theinsursent 
crowd. Then the great Cathedral belU rang out wUdly, and summoned all the 
noters to that building, where the Bishop exhorted them to peace and fhrbearance 
^der pain (^ excommunication. After a remarluible interview, the n«xt d&Y 1m.' 
*Jjen the Bishop and Gov. Sir Alexander Bannerman, this tragiod rarolt'irai 

In 1870 St. John's had 21 aailing-yessels and 6 steamers enewnMi in a%^ m^Im 



PORTUGAL COVR R<mU5S, 195 



63. The Environs of St John's. 

" On either side of the city of St. John's, stretching in a semicircle along the mg- 

Sd coast, at an average radius from the centre of 7 or 8 M., a number of little fish- 
g-covva or bays attract, during the sweet and enjoyable summer, all persons who 
eauijommand the use of a horse to revel in their beauties. Each Uttle bay is but a 
slice of the high clifi^ scooped out by the iHction of the mighty pressure of the At- 
lantic waves ; and leading down to its shingled beach, each boasts of a lovely g^reen 
valley through which infallibly a tumbling noisy trout-bum pours back the waters 
evaporated from the parent sur&ce." (Lt.-Col. McCrea.) 

The country about the capital is not naturally productive, but has been made to 
bring forth fruit and vegetables by careful labor, and now supports a considerable 
ikrming population. The roads are fine, being for the most part macadamised and 
ftee from mud. 8 M. l>eyond the city is the Lunatic Asylimi, pleasantly situated in 
a small forest. 

Quiddy- Viddy Lake is frequently visited by the people of St John*s. 
The favorite drive is to PortugiU Cove, over a road that has been de- 
scribed as possessing a ** sad and desolate beauty.'* This road passes the 
Windsor Lake, or Twenty-Mile Pond, "a large picturesque sheet of water, 
with some pretty, lonely-looking islands." The inn at Portugal Cove 
looks out on a handsome cascade, and is a favorite goal for wedding-tours 
from St. John's. 

" The scenery about Portugal Cove well repays the ride of nearly 10 M. on a good 
road from St. John's. It is wildly romantic, and just before entering the village is 
very beautiful. A succession of lofty hills on each side tower over the road, and 
shut out everything but their conical or mammillated peaks, covered with wild 
stunted forest and bold masses of rock, breaking through with a tiny water&ll from 
the highest, which in winter hangs down in perpendicular ridges of yellow ice. 
Turning suddenly out of one of the wildest scenes, you cross a little bridge, and the 
romantic scattered village is hanging over the abrupt rocky shore, with its fishcakes 
and busy little anchorage open to the sight, closed in the distance by the shores of 
Conception Bay, lofty and blue, part of which are concealed by the picturesque Belle 
Isle." (Sia R. Bonntcastls.) 

" On approaching Portugal Cove, the eye is struck by the serrated and picturesque 
outline of the hills which run along the coast from it towards Cape St. Francis, 
and presently delighted with the wild beauty of the little valley or glen at the mouth 
of which the cove is situated. The road winds with several turns down the side of 
the valley, into which some small brooks hurry their waters, flashing in the sun- 
shine as they leap over the rocks and down the ledges, through the dark green of 
the woods. On turning the shoulder of one of the hill-slopes, the view opens upon 
Conception Bay, with tiie rocky points of the cove immediately below." (Prof. 
Jukes.) 

Another favorite excursion is to Virgima Water, the former summer 
residence of the governors of Newfoundland. It is reached by way of 
the King's Bridge and the pretty little Quiddy- Viddy Lake, beyond which 
the Ballyhaly Bog is crossed, and the carriage reaches the secluded domain 
of Virginia Water. It is situated on a beautiful lake of deep water, 3 M. 
in circumference, *Mndented with little grass-edged bays, fringed and 
feathered to the limpid edge with dark dense woods." Beyond this point 
the drive may be protracted to Logie Bay, a small cove between projecting 
cliffs, with bold and striking shore scenery. Logie Bay is 4 M., and Tor- 
bay is 8 - 9 M. from St John's, by a fine road which crosses the high and 
mossy barrens, and affords broad sea-views from the cliffs. The country 
is thinly settled, and is crossed by several txo\]LVbx^y:^<^ 



196 ROUU54. TORBAY. 

Logie Bay Is ranarkable for the wildness of its rock and cUff soenery. " Nothing 
like a beach is to be found anywhere on tliis coast, the descent to the sea being 
always difficult aud generally impracticable. In Logie Bay the thick-bedded dark 
sandstones and conglomerates stand bold and bare in round-topped hills and preci- 
pices 8 - 400 ft. in iieight, with occasional fissures traTersing their Jagged clif^, 
and tbe boiling waves of the Atlantic curling around their feet in white eddies or 
leaping a^nst their sides with huge spouts c^foam and spray." (Prop. Jukes.) 

'^Torbay is an arm of the sea, — a short, strong arm with a slim \uuad. and finger, 
reaching into the rocky land and touching the waterfldls and rapids of a pretty 
brook. Here is a little Tillage, with Romish and Protestant steeples, and the dwell- 
ings of fishermen, with the unWersal appendages of fishtne-honses, boats, and flakes. 
One seldom looks upon a hamlet sopicturesque and wild.^' On like N. shore of the 
bay is a long line of cliflis, 8-400 ft. high, surf-beatm and mqjestie, and finely 
observed by taking a boat out from Torbay and coasttns to the N. *' At one pdnt, 
where the rocks recede from the main front and form a kind of headland, the strata, 
6 - 8 ft. thick, assume the form of a pyramid, from a broad base of a hundred yards 
or more running up to meet in a point. The heart of this vast cave has partly 
fldlen out, and left the resemblance of an 6n<Mmous tent witti oavemous recesses 
and lialls, in which the sliades of evening were already lurking, and the surf was 
sounding mournfully. Occasionally it was musical, pealing forth Uke the low tones 
of a great organ with awful solemnity. Now uid th«D, the gloomy silence of a min- 
ute was broken by the ci^h of a billow Ihr within, when the reverberations wrae 
like the slamming of gpreat doors." 

** After passing this grand specimen of the aiehitecture of the sea, there appeared 
long roclcy reaches, like Egyptian temples, old dead clifb of yellowish gray checked 
<^ by lines and seams into squares, and having the resanbiance, where they have 
fiillen out into the ocean, of doors and windows opening in upon the fresher stone. ^* 

(NOBLI.) 

64. The Strait Shore of Avalon.— St John's to Cape Bace. 

That portion of the Peninsula of Avalon which fronts to the etttwaxd on tht 
Atlantic has been termed the &raU Shorty on account of its generally undeviating 
line of direction. Its outports may be visited either by the Friday nudl-con* 
veyance, through Petty Harbor, Bay Bulls, Ferryland, and Renewae, or by the 
Western Coastal steamer (see Route 60). 




mouse, 51 ; Benewse, M \ Cape Race, 64. 



<* The road, one of the finest I ever saw, — an old-ftshioned English gniTel-road, 
smooth and hard almost as iron, a very luxury for the wheels of a sprin^^ess wagon, 
— keeps up the bed of a nnall river, a good-uzed trout-stream, flowing fixnn the in- 
land valley into the harbor of St. John's. Contrasted with the bold regions that 
front the ocean, these valleys are soft and fertile. We passed smooth meadows, and 
sloping plough-lands, and green pastures, and houses peeping out of pretty groves. 
One might liave called it a Canadian or New-Hampediire vale.' ' The road passes 
several lakelets and trout-streams, and eives fine views of the ocean on the L, hdng 
also one of the most smooth and firmly built of highways. " No nation makes sneh 
roads as these, in a land bristling with rugged difficulties, that has not wound its 
way up to the summit of power and cultivation." The hills along the coast closely 
resemble the Cordillera peiEdu ; and from the bald summits on the W., Trini^ Bi^ 
may be seen. 

The mail-road running S. from St. John*s passes Waterford Bridge and 
toon approaches Blackhead^ a Catholic village near an iron-bound shore 
whose great cliffs have been worp into fantastic shapes by the crash and 
attrition of the Atlantic surges. Near this place is Cape Spear, the most 
easterly point of North America, 1,656 M. from Valentia Bay, in Ireland. 
On the summit of the cape, 264 ft. above the sea, is a red-and-white striped 
tower Sttst&iniDg a revolving \ig\it vrVilt^i \a Nm\i\a for 22 M. 



BAY BULLS. Route 54, 197 

The road now passes between ** woody banks numing through an an- 
dolating country but half reclaimed on the r., while on the I. the slopes 
streteh up to the breezy headlands, beyond which there is nothing but sea 
and cloud from this to Europe." Petty Harbor is 4 M. S. W. of Cape 
Spear and 10 M. from St. John's, and is a village of SCO inhabitants, with 
a refinery of cod-liver oil and long lines of evergreen fish-flakes. Off this 
point H. B. M. frigate Tweed was wrecked in 1814, and 60 men were 
drowned. The houses of Petty Harbor are situated in a narrow glen at 
the foot of frowning and barren ridges. . The harbor at the foot of this 
ravine is small and insecure. The dark hiUs to the W. attain a height of 
700 ft. along the unbroken shore which leads S. to Bay Bulls; and at 
about 4 M. from Petty Harbor is the * 8poiit» a deep cavern in the sear 
ward cliffs, in whose top is a hole, through which, at high tide and in a 
heavy sea, the water shoots up every half-minute in a roaring fountain 
^hich is seen 3 M. off at sea. The road now approaches lonclay Hill (810 
ft. high), the chief elevation on this coast, and reaches Bay Bulls, a village 
of 700 inhabitants. This is one of the most important of the outports, and 
affords a refuge to vessels that are unable, on account of storms or ice, to 
make the harbor of St. John's. There are several fkrms near the bay, but 
most of the inhabitants are engaged in the cod^shery, which is carried 
on from large open boats. This ancient settlement was exposed to great 
vicissitudes during the conflicts between the French and the English for 
the possession of Newfoundland, and was totally destroyed by Admiral 
Bichery (French) in 1796. Fine sporting is found in this vicinity, all along 
shore, and shooting-parties leave St. John's during the season for several 
days' adventure hereabouts. 

In 1696 the French frigates Feliean^ Diamante Count d« Toulouse^ Yendange. 
^ilippe, and Hareourt met the British man-of-war Sapphir« off Cape Spear, and 
chased it into Bay Bulls. A naval battle of seyeral hours' duration was closed by 
the complete discomfituze of the British, who set fire to the shattered Sapphire and 
abandoned her. The French sailors boarded her immediately, but were destroyed 
by the explosion of the magazine. 

Witless Bay is the next village, and has nearly 1,000 inhabitants, with a 
large and prominent Catholic church. Cod-fishing is carried on to a great 
extent off this shore, also off Mobile, the next settlement to the S. Beyond 
the rock-bound hamlets of Toad Cove, La Manche, and Brigus, the road 
reaches Cape Broyle. 

In 1^8 Cape Broyle was captured by Admiral de la Bade, with three French war- 
vessels, who also took the fishing-fleet then in the harbor. But Sir George Calvert 
sent from the capital of Avalon two frigates (one of which carried 24 guns) and sev- 
eral hundred men, on whose approach *' the French let slip tiieir cables, and made 
to sea as fut as they could." Calvert's men retaliated by hurying the French 
stations at Txepassey, where they captured six ships of Bayonne and St. Jean 
de Luz. 

Cape Broyle is a prosperous fishing-settlement on Broyle Harbor, near 

the mountainous headland of Cape Broyle (662 fb high). There is good 

salmon-fishing on the river which runs S. E. to the harbor from the foot 

of Hell Hill. 



198 ItouU54. FERRYLAND. 

Ferryland is 2 M. beyond the Caplin-Cove settlement, and is the capi- 
tal of the district of Ferryland. It has about 700 inhabitants, and is well 
located on level ground near the head of the harbor. In the immediate 
vicinity are several prosperous farms, and picturesque scenery surrounds 
the harbor on all sides. To the S. E. is Ferryland Head, on which is a 
fixed white light, 200 ft. above the sea, and visible for 16 M. Off this point 
are the slender spires of rock called the Harems Earsy projecting from the 
sea to the height of 60 ft. 

In 1614 (1022) King James I. granted the great peninsula between Trinity and 
Placentia Bays to Sir George Calvert, then Secretary of State. The grantee named 
his new domain Avalon, in honor of the district where Christian tradition claims 
that the Gospel was first preached in Britain (the present Glastonbury). It was de- 
signed to found here a Christian colony, with the broadest principles of toleration 
and charity. Calvert sent out a considerable company of settlers, under the govern- 
ment of Capt. Wynne, and a colonv was planted at Ferryland. The reports sent 
back to England concerning the soil and productions of the new country were so 
favorable that Sir George Calvert and his family soon Joined the colonists. Under 
his administration an equitable government was established, fortifications were 
erected, and other improvements instituted. Lord Baltimore had but little pleasure 
of his settlement in Avalon. He found that he bad been greatly deceived about the 
. climate and the nature of the soil. The Puritans also began to harass him ; and 
Erasmus Stourton, one of their ministers, not only preach^ dissent under his eyes 
at Ferryland, but went to England and reported to the Privy Council that Balti- 
more's priests said mass and had '*all the other ceremonies of the Church of Rome, 
in the ample manner as 't is used in Spain." Finally, after trials by storm and by 
schismatics, Lord Baltimore died (in 1632), leaving to his son Cecil, 2d Lord Balti- 
more, the honor of founding Maryland, on the grant already secured from the king. 
In that more fiivored souuem clime afterwards arose the great city which com- 
memorates and honors the name of B.4LTImore. 

In 1637 Sir David Kirke was appointed Count Palatine of Newfoundland, and estab- 
lished himself at Ferryland. He hoisted the royal standard on the forts, and main- 
tained a strong (and sometimes harsh) rule over the island. At the outbreak of the 
English Revoluuon (1642), Kirke's brothers joined King Charles's forces and fought 
bravely through the war, while Sir David strengthened his ^Newfoundland forts and 
established a powerftil and well-armed fleet. He offered the King a safe asylum in 
his domain ; and the fiery Prince Rupert, with the royal Channel fleet, was sailing 
to Newfoundland to join Kirke's forces, when he was headed off by the fleet of the 
Commonwealth, under Sir George Ayscue. After the fall of the Stuarts, Sir David 
was carried to England in a vessel of the Republic (in 1661), to be tried on various 
charges ; but he bribed Cromwell's son in-law, and was released, returning to Ferry- 
land, where he died in 1666, after having governed the island Ibr over 20 years. At 
a later day this town became a port of some imimrtance, and was the scene of re- 
peated naval attacks during the French wars. In 1678 it was taken and plundered 
l)y 4 Dutch frigates. 

In 1694 Ferryland was attacked by 2 large French frigates, carrying 90 guns, 
which opened a fUrious cannonade on the town. But the fVtttiam and Jlfory, 16, 
was lying in the harbor, with 9 merchant^bips, and their crews built batteries at 
the harbor-mouth, whence, with the gwas of the privateer, they inflicted such dam- 
age on the enemy that they withdrew, after a 6 hours' cannonade, having lost 
about 90 men. In 1762 the powerftd French fleet of Admiral de Temay was driven 
off by a battery on Bois Island. 

Aquafort lies S. W. of Ferryland* and is a small hamlet situated on a 
long, deep, and narrow harbor embosomed in lofty hills. The next settle^ 
ment is Fermeuse^ with 600 inhabitants and a Catholic church and convent 
It is on the shore of Admiral's Cove, in the deep and secure harbor of 
Fermeuse, and the people are engaged in the cod and salmon fisheries. 
I JSemetate is an ancient and decadent port 16 M. S. of Ferryland, situated on 



CAPE RACE. Jtouie 64, 199 

an indifferent harbor which lies between Burnt Point and Renewse Head. 
8 - 4 M. inland are the nigged hummocks called the Red Hills, whence 
the eastern hill-range runs 80 M. N. across Avalon to Holyrood. 

6-8 M. from Renewse are the tall and shaggy hills called the Battorpots. 
which command broad views over Avalon, and from Bay Bulls to the W. shore m 
Trepaasey Bay. The Bntterpots of Holyrood are also seen from this point ; and Prot 
Jukes counted 80 lakes in sight from the main peak (which is 966 ft. high). 

S. of this point extends a fittal iron-bound coast, on which scores of vessels, veiled 
in impenetrable fog or swept inward by resistless storms, have been dashed in pieces. 
A very slight error in reckoning will throw vessels bound S. of Cape Race upon this 
shore, and then, if the Cape Race and Ferry land lights are wrapped in the dense 
black fog peculiar to these waters, the chances of disaster are great. The erection 
of a fog-whistle on the cape has greatly lessened the perils of navigation here. The 
coeau steamships Ansilo-Saxon, Argo, and City of PhiUuUlphia were lost on Cape 
Race. 

Cape Baoe is the S. E. point of Newfoundland, and is a rugged head- 
land of black slaty rock thrown up in vertical strata. It is provided with 
a powerful light, 180 ft above the sea, and Yisible for 19 M. The great 
pK>lar current sweeps in close by the cape and turns around it to the 
W. N. W., forming, together with the ordinary tides and the bay-currents, 
a complexity of streams that causes many wrecks. 

Icebergs are to be seen off this shore at almost all seasons, and the dense togB are 
often illumined by the peculiar white glare which precedes them. Field-ice £ also 
Cixnmon here during the spring and early summer, but is easily avoided by the 
warning of the '* ice blink." Throughout the summer and autumn the fog broods 
over thu shore almost incessantly, and vessels are navigated by casting the lead and 
follo^dng the soundings which are marked out with such precision on the Admi- 
ralty charts. 6 M. B. of Cape Race is the BaXlard Bank^ which is 18 M. long and 
2 - 12 M. wide, with a depth of water of 16 - 26 ikthoms. 

Cape Race is distant, by great-cirele sailing, flrom New York, 1,010 M. ; Boston, 
820 ; Portland, 779 : St. John, N. B^ 716 ; Halifiuc, 468 ; Miramichi, 492 ; Quebec, 
886; Cape Clear, 1,718 ; Galway, 1,721; Liverpool, 1,970. 

The Grand Banks of Kewfoiindlaxid are about 60 M. E. of Cape Race. 
They extend for 4 degrees N. and S. and 6 degrees E. and W. (at 46<* N. 
latitude) running S. to a point. They consist of vast submerged sand- 
banks, on which the water is from 80 to 60 fathoms deep, and are strewn 
with shells. Here are found innumerable codfish, generally occupying 
the shallower waters over the sandy bottoms, and feeding on the shoals of 
smaller fish below. They pass out into the deeper waters late in Novem- 
ber, but return to the Banks in February, and fatten rapidly. Immense 
fleets are engaged in the fisheries here, and it is estimated t^t over 
100,000 men are dependent on this industry. 

Throughout a great part of the spring, summer, and fkll, the Granct Banks are 
covered oy rarely broken fogs, through which fidls an almost incessant slow rain. 
Sometimes these fogs are so dense that objects within 60 ft. are totally invisible, at 
which times the fishing-vessels at anchor are liable to be run down by the great 
Atlantic steamers. The dangerous proximity of icebergs (which drift across and 
ground on the Buiks) is indicated by the sudden and intense coldness which they 
send through even a midsummer day, by the peculiar white glare in the air about ' 
them, and by the roaring of the breakers on their sides. 

Tt was on the Grand Banks, not fax from Cape Race, that the first battle of the 
Seven Years' War was fought. June 8, 1766, the British 60.gun frigates Jhinkirk 



200 I^(mU 65. THE GRAND BANKS. 

«iiA Defiant were cmMng about in a denae fcg, when they met theFreneh men-ef- 
war Alnde and Ly$. For five hoars the battle conthiued, and a continual can- 
nonade was kept up between the hostile ships. The French were OTermatched, bat 
fira^t Taliantlj, inflicting heavy losses on the assailants (the Dunkirk alone lost 90 
men). When they finally surrendered, the Lyj was foond to ccmtain 9400,000 in 
■pede and 8 companies of in&ntry. 

n>e Tidnity of Cape Race was for some time the eral(dng-croand of the U. S. 
frigate Cottstttutian^ in 1812, and in these waters she captured the Adiona, the Ade- 
Une^ and other vessels. 

Near the edge of the Grand Bank (m lat iV 41' N., long^. GBP IS' W.) ocenrred 
the flunous sea-fight between the Con»titiaion and the GMerriire^ whoee resalt filled 
the United States with rcgoicitig, and impaired the prestige of the British navy. On 
the afternoon of Aug. 19, 1812, the Constitution sifted the GuerrOre, and bore 
down upon her with double-shotted batteries. The British ship was somewhat in- 
faimr in force, but attacked the American with the confidence of victory. The Cbn-. 
stitution recdved several broadsides in silence, but when within lialf pfetol-shot di»- 
oliarged her tremendous batteries, and followed with such a fire of deadly precision 
tliat the Guerriire was soon left a dismasted and shattered wreck. The British ship 
then surrendered, having lost 101 men in the action, while her antagonist lost but 
14. The Guerriire had 38 guns, and the Constitution had 44. 

Among the American privateers that cruised about the Grand Banks in 1812 - 14, 
none was more successfhl than the Mdmmothj of Baltimore. She captmed the 
•hips Ann and Siza. Urania^ Aniiby^ Dobson. Sallust, DrnzOf Sarah, Sir Home 
Fepiam, (tampion. Mentor , and many other nch priaes. 



** Far off by ttormy Labrador — 

Far off the Banki of Newfoundland, 
Vr'here angry seaa incesMnt roar. 

And foggy mista their wingi esqiand. 
The fiihing-achoonen, black and low. 
For weaiy monthi sail to and tto." 

65. St John's to Labrador. —The Kortihem Coast of Kew- 

fonndland. 

The midl-steamer Leopard leaves St. John^s, N. F., every alternate Monday during 
the season of navigation, and visits the chief outpqrts on tbe N. coast (so called). 
The figures are as follows: St. John's to Old Perlican or Bay Yerd, S2, — steer- 
age, Sl-^; to Trinity, $4.40, — steerage, S2; to Bonavista, 4^6 60, — steerage, 
92.80; to Greenspond, $6,— steerage, Sd; to Fogo, S6.50: to Twillingate, $7; 
to Ibq|>loits Island, S 7.60 ; to Tilt Cove, Little Bay Island, or Nipper's Harbor, $ 8, 
— steerage, 94.50; to Battle Harbor, $12. At Battle Harbor the Leopard meets 
the HereuteSj the Labrador mail-Bt«amer. 

The &re on the Labrador steamer is $ 2 a day, which includes both passage and 
meals. The northern boats are powerful and seaworthy, but the fiire at their tables 
is necessarily of the plidnest kind. The time which will be required for the Labrador 
trip is nearly four weeks (fh)m St. John's back to St John's again). The expense 
is about $60. The journey should be begun before the middle of July, in order 
to avail of the short summer in these high latitudes. It would be prudent for gen- 
tlemen who desire to make this tour to write early in the season to tbe agents of the 
stmmship lines, to assure themselves of due connections and to learn other partkn- 
lara. Mr. J. Taylor Wood is the agent at Halifax for the steamer firom that port to 
St. John's; and Walter Grieve & Co., St. John's, N. F., are the agents for tlie 
Northern Coastal Line. 

Passing out between the stem and frowning portals of the harbor of St. 
John*8, the steamer soon takes a northerly course, and opens the indenta- 
tion of Logie Bay on the W. (see page 196). After running by the tall 
cliffs of Sugar Loaf and Red Head (700 ft. high), Torhay is seen opening 
to tbe W; within which is the village of the same name. 



TRINITY. JlouU 65. 201 

About 8 M. beyond Torbay, the white shore of Cape St. Francis is seen 
on the port bow, and, if the water is rough, the great breakers may be 
seen whitening over the rocks which are called the Brandies. The coarse 
is now laid across the mouth of Conception Bay, which is seen extending 
to the S. W. for 30 M. 18 M. fVom Cape St. Francis, and about 40 M. from 
St. John*8, the steamer passes between Bay Verd Head and Split Point, 
and stops off BoAf Verd^ a village of about 600 inhabitants, situated on a 
broad and unsheltered bight of the sea. The fishing-grounds in this vicin- 
ity are among the best on the American coast, and attract large fleets of 
boats and schooners. The attention of the villagers is divided between 
forming and fishing, the latter industry being by far the most lucrative. 
Boads lead out fh>m Bay Verd S. to Carbonear and Harbor Grace (see 
Route 50), and N. W. to the settlements on Trinity Bay. Soon after 
leaving Bay Verd, the steamer passes Baccalieu Islandy a high and ridgy 
land 8| M. long, and nearly 2 M. from the main. On its N. end is a pow- 
erfVil fiashmg light, elevated 880 ft. above the sea, and visible for 28 M. 

Although Cabot was the first professional discoverer (if the term may be used) to 
visit and explore the shores 6f Newfoundland, there is no doubt that these waters 
had long been the resort of the fishing-fleets of the Normans, Bretons, and Basques. 
Lescarfoot elalms that they had fished off these shores '* for many centuries," and 
Cabot applied the name ''Baccalaos" to the country because "in the seas there- 
about he found so great multitudes of certain bigge fishes, much like unto Tunnies 
(which the inhabitants call BaeccUaos)^ that they sometimes stayed his shippes.'' 
Baccalaos is the ancient Basque name for codfish, and its extensive use by the 
natives in place of their own word Apegi; meaning the same thing, is held as con- 
clusive proof that they had been much in communication with Basque fishermen 
before the arrival of Cabot. Cabot gave this name to the continent as for as he 
explored it, but in the map of 1640 it is ap|>Iied only to the islet which now re- 
tains it. ^ 

On her alternate trips the vessel rounds in about Grates Point, and stops 
at Old Perlican (see Route 67). Otherwise, it runs across the mouth of 
Trinity Bay for about 20 M., on a N. W. course, and enters thfi harbor of 
Trinity, 116 M. from St. John*s. The entrance is bold and imposing, and 
the harbor is one of the best on the island, afibrding a land-locked anchor- 
age for the largest fleets. It is divided into two arms by a high rocky 
peninsula (380 ft. high), on whose S. side are the wharves and houses of 
the town. Trinity has about 1,600 inhabitants, and is a port of entry and 
the capital of the district of Trinity. Considerable farming is done in the 
coves near the head of the harbor. Roads lead out to the S. shore (see 
Route 67), and also to Salmon Cove, 6 M ; English Harbor, 7; Ragged 
Harbor, 16; and Catalina, 20. 

On leaving Trinity Harbor, the course is S. E until Green Bay Head 
and the Horse Chops are passed, when it turns to the N. E., and runs along 
within sight of a high and clifiy shore. Beyond the Ragged Isles is seen 
Green Island^ where there is a flxed white light, visible for 16 M., around 
which (through rough water if the wind is E.) the vessel passes, threading 
a labyrinth of shoals and rocks, and enters the harbor of Catalina, re- 

9» 



303 BmitSS, BOSAYISXA. 

in «w ir«M* fe»» it« —lAi— mw*A ft *i | iiPiit mtPwntttMi^ fiAi«- Tbe town of 
r-***'^ has If 900 iohmbitonti^ vith 2 cimiclies, of winch that of the £pi»- 
^i>^«^*»n*«« »< a fkr^ pS*ii»^ ftf •wiiiix'iMig, tJMMigfc hmlt rf '^w mmI. The main 
part of tbe settlement is en the W. ade of the harbor^ and has a ooosider- 
able maritime trade. Tbe adjacent waters abonnd in aalmnn, and deli- 
cioos edible wfaelks are fbond on tlie rocks. B f ma d ffs tiie ii^^wmj to 
TrinitT (20 ^L\ a ragged road leads N. to Bonarista in 10 M. Gtetalina 
was Tisited in lS»i bj Cartier, who named it SL CWficrias. 

On leering Catalina Harbor, Xorth Head is passed, and after Tiuming 
K. E. b J X. 2 3i. Flowers Head is left on the port bow. About 2 M. be- 
jQod, tbe Bird Islets are seen on tiie L, near wfaidi is Hie fiBlUng-aettlemeDt 
oiB^ Idamd Con (€70 inhabitants), with its long and handsome beach. 
A short distance inland is seen tlie Bomt Ridge, a fine of dark bleak hills 
rising to a height of 500 ft. The DoOarmaa Bank, fiunoos for codfish, is 
now crossed, and on the L is seen Gq»e Largent and I^Mller Point, off which 
are tbe precipitoos and tower-like * SjfSBer Modta, sonoanded by the sea. 
The steamer now passes Gi^pe Baaavista, on whidi is a red-and-white 
flashing-light, 150 ft. abore tbe sea, and TisiUe Ibr 16 M. 



or Scvtmdlnd (after tbsHortbam'aipayagsB 6 centuries be- 

) WMM eftetod in Joe, l«r. br Cybat, a TmpH i a ia tbe aerrfee of HeniT 

Tn.orKDgiwl,MiBi«iBtliediipJirttAnp,«rBsirtaL BegBietkeMMfl ~ 

fisf«(''fkirTiev"),«riVnna fista ('« fflnt TIev "K <• <he 2iak paiat of 1 

which he asv, and that naaw Itts siaee been atlaihirt to this WKtikartr 

It ii beliewd that thia maa the location cf thaae w - fc m d ahote. (Tbei«a„ 

dle*a "XcaMiis or Sebadiui Cabot"* will, however, be sanch po^ed to kaov'wfaat 
point, if aa^^, Cabot actoaDj aav on these coaats.) The racks and sImmIs to the N. 
— pcoli&e m fidi, and are viaitcd bj great flotillaa " 



After roonding the light, the steamer enters BonaTista Bay, a great 
bight of the sea extending between Capes Bonarista and Fre^ a dis- 
tance of 87 M. Abont4M.S. W. of the cape, the steamer enters the har- 
bor of Boaa^ista, an ancient marine town with 1,000 inhabitants and 8 
churches. It is the capital of thtf district of tiie same name, and is also a 
port of entrv, having a large and increasing coamterce. The harbor is 
not secure, and daring long N. W. gales the sea breaks heavilj across the 
entrance. The Episcopal chnrch is a fine building in English Gothic 
architecture, but the houses of the town are generally mean and smalL 
Considerable farmmg is done on the oomparatiTely fertile lands in the 
▼icmity, and it is claimed that the climate is much more genial and the 
^'T*/?^ ^*>*n on the S. shores of the isUnd. The town is 146 M. 
n^^ o?^'"* """^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ "^ *^ '^™^*3r and 10 M. from Catalina. 
in 1696 bv ^.^"^^^u*^"* settlements on the coast, and signalized itself 



. BONAVISTA BAY. . Itoute 66. 203 

Bonavista Bay, 

A road leads S. W. from Bonavista to Birchj Cove, 9 M. ; Amherst Gore, 12; 
King's Ck>ye, 20 ; Keels Cove, 26 ; Tickle Cove, 83 ; Open Hole, 86 ; Plate Cove, 88 ; 
and Indian Arm, 43. 

King^s Cove is a Tillage of Labrador fishermen, with 550 inhabitants and 2 
churches. It is on a narrow harbor between the lofty clifb of the coast range, 
through whose passes a road runs S. to Trinity in 13 M. 3 M. from King's Cove is 
Broad Cove Tillage, under the shadow of the peak of Southern Head. Kttls is 6 
M. from King's CoTe, and does a considerable lumber business. Thence the foaA 
descends through Tickle CoTe (2 M. from the picturesque Red Cliff Island) to the 
three Tillages on the S., each of which has 2-800 inhabitants. To the W. are the 
deep estuaries of Sweet Harbor, Clode Sound (20 M. long), and Newman Sound (11 
M. long), penetrating the hill-country and exhibiting a succession of Tiews of ro- 
mantic scenery and total desolation. Boats may be taken from Open Hole to Bot' 
row Harbor^ a fishing settlement 10 M. N. W., at the mouth of Newman Sound, and 
to Salvage, 16 M. distant, a Tillage of 500 inhabitants. 6 M. N. W., beyond the Bay 
of Fair and False, is Bloody Bay, a deep and narrow inlet with picturesque forest 
scenery, extending Ibr seTeral miles among the hills. The name was giTen on ac- 
count of the frequent conflicts which here ensued between the Bed Indians and the 
fishermen. At the head of the bay is the Terra NoTa RiTer, descending fit>m the 
2Vrra Nova Lake, which is 15 M. distant, and is 12 M. long. 

The N. shore of BonaTista Bay is Tisited most easily ftt>m the port of Greens- 
pond. The communication is excluslTely by boats, which may be engaged at the 
Tillage. Nearly all the islands in the Ticinity and for 10 M. to the S. W. and S. are 
occupied by small communities of hardy fishermen, and the shores of the main- 
land are indented with deep and narrow bays and sounds. To the N. are Pool's 
Island, 3 M. ; Pincher's Island, 9 ; Cobbler's Island, 10 ; and Middle Bill CoTe (near 
Cape Freels), 15. To the S. and W. are the Fur Island, 7 M. ; Deer Island, 11 ; 
Cottel's Island (three settlements), 15 ; the Gooseberry Isles, 12 ; and Hare Bay, 23. 
The last-named place is at the entrance of Freshwater Bay, which runs in for about 
15 M., with deep water and bold shores. The great northern mail-road is being 
hu)lt along the head of this bay ; a short distance from which (by the riTer) are the 
Crambo Ponds, large lakes in the desolate interior, 23 M. long, abounding in fish. 
One of the best sahnon-fisheries on the island is at the head of Indian Bay, 12 M. 
W. of Oreenspond. 

On leaving Bonavista, the steamer runs N. by W. across Bonavista Bay, 
passing the Gooseberry Isles on the port bow. After over 3 hours* run, 
the N. shore is approached, and the harbor of Ghreenapoiid is entered. 
This town contains over 1,000 inhabitants, and is situated on an island 
1 M. square, so rugged that soil for house-gardens had to be brought from 
the mainland. A large business is done here in the fisheries and the seal- 
trade, and most of the inhabitants are connected with either the one or the 
other. The entrance to the harbor is difficult, and is marked by a fixed 
red light, visible for 12 M. 

The steamer now runs N. E. and N. for about 18 M. to Cape Freels, 
passing great numbers of islands, some of which are inhabited by fisher- 
men, while others are the resort of myriads of sea-birds, who are seen 
hovering over the rocks in great flocks. Soon after passing the arid high- 
lands of Cape Freels, the course is laid to the N. W. across the opening of 
Sir Charles Hamilton's Sound, a broad and deep arm of the sea which is 
studded with many islands. Leaving the Cape Ridge and Windmill Hill 
astern, the Penguin Islands are seen, 15^ M. from Cape FreeLs; and 6 M. 
fitirther N. W. the Wadham IsUs are passed, where, on a lonely and surf- 



204 JtauUeS, FOGO. 

beaten rock« is the OfTer Wadham lighthouse, a chrcnlar brick tower 100 
ft. high, exhibiting a fixed white light, which is visible for 12 M. To the 
N. E., and well out at sea, is Funk Itiand, near which are good sealing- 
groonds. 

Funk Iilaod wu Tiaited by Cartier in 1584, who named it (and the adjacent rodEs) 
Les IsUs des Oyaeaux. Here he saw a white bear ** as large as a cow,' which had 
swnm 14 leagues fh>m Newfouudland. " He then coasted along all the northern 
part of that great island, and he says that you meet nowhere else better ports or a 
more wretched country ; on every side it is nothing but frightftU rocks, sterile lands 
covered with a scanty moss : no trees, but only some bushes half dried up ; that 
nevertheless he found men tnere well made, who wore their hair tied on the top of 
the head." The isles were again visited by Cartier in July, 1686, in the ship Grand 
Hertniiu. " If the soyle were as good as the harboroucrhes are, it were a gi«at com- 
moditie ; but it is not to be called the new found land, but rather stones and cragges 

and a place fit for wilde beastes In short, I believe this was the land allotted 

to Caine." Such was the unlkvorable description riven by Jaques Cartier of the 
land between Cape Bonavista and the Strait of Belle Isle. 

It is supposed tbat either the BaccaUeu or thePeng[uin Islands were the " Feather 
Islands,'* which the AfmaUs SktUkoUini and Lugmann^s state were discovered by 
the Northmen in the year 1286. The Saga of Eric the Bed tells that Leif, son of the 
Earl of Norway, visited the Labrador and Newfoundland shines in 994. ** Then 
sailed they to the land, and cast anchor, and put off boats, and went ashore, and 
saw there no grass. Great icebergs were over all up the country .but like a j>lain of 
flat stones was all firom the sea to the mountains, and it appeaxvd to them that this 
land had no good qualities." Leif named this country Helluland (trom Helta, a flat 
stone), distinguishing Labrador as HeUuland it MUda. In 1288 King Eric sent the 
mariner Rolf to Iceland to call out men for a voyage to these shores : and the name 
Nyja Land, or Nyy'a Fundu Land, was then appUed to the great island to the S., 
and was probably adopted by the English (in the Angliciaed form of Newfoundland) 
during the commercial intercourse between England and Iceland in the 16th cen- 
tury. 

* 

9i| M. N. W. by N., Cape Fogo is approached, and is a bold promontory 
214 ft. high, terminating Fogo Island on the S. E. The course continues 
to the N. W. off the rugged shores of the island, and at 6^1 M. from Gape 
Fogo, Round Head is passed, and the steamer assumes a course more to 
the westward. 6 - 8 M. from Bound Qead she enters the harbor of Fogo, 
a port of entry and post-town 216 M. from St. John*s. The population is 
740, with 2 churches ; and the town is of great local importance, being the 
depot of supplies for the fishing-stations of the N. shore. (See also Boute 
68 for this and other ports in the Bay of Notre Dame.) 

'* The western headlands of Fogo are exceedingly attractive, lofty, finely broken, 

of a red and purplish brown, tinted here and there with pale green As we pass 

the bold prominences and deep, narrow bays or fiords, they are continually changing 
and surprising us with a new scenery. And now the great sea-wall, on our right, 
opens and discloses the harbor and village of Fogo, the chief place of the isliuid, 
gloaming in the setting sun as if there were flames shining through the windows. 
Looking to the left, all the western region is one fine JEgean, a sea fSied with a mul- 
titude of isles, of manifold forms and sizes, and of every height, from mountain pyra- 
mids and crested ridges down to rounded knolls and tabUs, rocky ruins split and 
shattered, giant slabs sliding edgewise into the deep, columns and grotesque masses 
ruflEled with curling surf, — the Cyclades of the west. I climb the shrouds, and be- 
hold fields and lanes of water, an endless and beautlAil network, a little S^tierland 
with her vales and gorges filled with the purple sea." (Noblb.) 



In passing out of Fogo Harbor, the bold blufi* of Fogo Head (346 ft. high) 
is Been oo the 1., bacli of which is Brimstone Head. The vessel steams 



TWILLINGATE. RmiUBB. 205 

* 

in to the W-, up the Bay of Notre Dame, soon passing Fogo Head, and 
opening the Change Island Tickles on the S. Change Island is then seen 
on the I., and the course is laid across to the lofty and arid hills of Bacca- 
lieu Island. At 22 M. from Fogo the steamer enters the harbor of Twil- 
lingate (the Anglicized form of TouUnguet^ the ancient French name of 
the port). The town of TwiUingate is the capital of the district of Twil- 
lingate and Fogo, the most northerly political and legal division of New- 
foundland, and has a population of 2,790, with 8 churches. It is situated 
on two islands, and the sections are connected by a bridge. Farming is 
carried on to a considerable extent in the vicinity, but with varying suc- 
cess, owing to the short and uncertain summers. The houses in the town 
are (as usually in the coast settlements) very inferior in appearance, 
snugness and warmth being the chief objects sought after in their archi- 
tecture. 

The fiiMst breed of Newfoundland dogs were formerly. found about the TwiUingate 
Isles, and were generally distinguished by their deep black color, with a white cross 
on the breast. They were smaller than the so-called Newfoundland dogs of America 
and Britain ; were almost ampliibious ; and lived on fish, salted, fresh, or decayed. 
Like the great maiiogany-colored dogs of Labrador, these animals were distinguished 
for rare intelligence and unbounded affection (especially for children) { and were 
exempt firom hydrophobia. A Newfoundland d(^ of pure blood is now worth from 
$75toSl00. 

The steamer passes out of TwiUingate Harbor and runs by Gull Island. 
The course is to the S. W., off the rugged shores of the Black Islets, and 
the N. promontory of the great New World Island, 14 M. from TwiUingate 
she reaches the post-town of Exploits Island, a place of 530 inhabitants, 
with a large fleet of fishing-boats. (See also Route 68.) 

From Exploits Island the Bay of Notre Dame is crossed, and ^e harbor 
of Tilt Cove is entered. This village has 770 inhabitants, and is prettily 
situated on the border of a picturesque lake. The vicinity is famous for 
its copper-mines, which were discovered in 1867 and opened in 1866. Be- 
tween 1865 and 1870, 45,000 tons of ore, valued at $1,180,810, were 
extracted and shipped away. It is found in pockets or bunches 8-4 fl. 
thick, scattered through the heart of the hills, and is secured by level tun- 
nels several thousand fept long, connected with three perpendicular main 
shafts, 216 ft. deep. There is also a valuable nickel-mine here, with a lode 
10 inches thick, worked by costly machinery, and producing ore worth 
$332 a ton. A superior quality of marble is found in the vicinity, but is 
too far fh>m a market to make it worth while to quarry. The male inhab- 
itants of Tilt Cove are all miners. 

The next stopping-place is at Nipper'*^ Harbor^ a small fishing-village 
10 M. S. W. of Tilt Cove. The harbor is the best on the N. shore of the 
Bay of Notre Dame, and lies between the Nipper's Isles and the mainland. 
On alternate trips the mail-steamer calls also at ZAUle Bay Island^ 6 - 8 M. 
S. of Nipper's harbor. 



206 Itoute 56, CONCEPTION BAY. 

Tilt Core was the terminus of the Northern Coast Postal Boats nntfl the eatalK 
lishment of the mail-serrice on the Labrador coast, and it is not probable that the 
steamers will go N. of that point if the Labrador Ihie is discontinued. It is but a 
short distance firom Tilt CoTe to the French Shore (see Route 61). 

In mnning from Tilt Cove to the Labrador, the steamer first passes out 
around Cape St. John, and then takes a course almost due N., and far out 
from the land. Belle Isle, Quurpon, and the other points which may be 
distantly visible from the ship, are described in Route 61, adjinem. 

At Battle Harbor (see Route 62) the new route of the Northern Coastal 
steamer ends, and the freight, mails, and passengers bound for other ports 
are transferred to another vessel. 

The Labrador Coast, see Routes 62 and 68. 

66. St John's to Conception Bay. 

Midi-stages leave St. John's every morning Ibr Portugal Cove, distant 9} VL At 
this point the traveller meets the steamer Lizzie^ whose route was as follows, during 
the navigable season of 1874 : Tuesday, leaves Harbor Grace for Carbonear, Portu- 

gil Cove, and Bay Roberts ; Wednesday, leaves Bay Roberts for Brigus, Portugal 
ove, Carbonear, and Harbor Grace ; Thursday, leaves Harbor Grace for Carbonear, 
Portugal Cove, and Brigus ; Friday, leaves Brigus for Portugal Cove and Harbor 
Grace ; Saturday, leaves Harbor Grace for Portugal Cove, Brigus, Carbonear, and 
Harbor Grace. 

Fares. — Portugal Cove to Brigus, 18 M., fitre 9 1.40 ; to Carbonear, 20 M. ; to 
Bay Roberts, 20 M. ; to Harbor Grace, 20 M., fitre, 91.50. 

There is also a road extending around Conception Bay. It is 20 M. from St. 
John's to Topsail, by way of Portugal Cove, passing Beachy, Broad, and Horse 
Coves. The more direct route leads directly across the N. part of Avalon from St. 
John's to TopsaiL The chief villages and the distances on this road are as follows : 
St. John's to Topsail, 12 M. ; KilUgrews. 18; Holyrood, 28; Chapel's Cove, 88; 
Harbor fiiain, 84^ ; Salmon Cove, 3/ ; Colliers, 40 ; Brigus, 46 ; Port de Grave, 51 ; 
Spaniard's Bay, 56; Harbor Grace, 63; Carbonear, 67|r; Salmon Cove, 72; Spout 
Cove, 76^ ; Western Bay, 82 ; Northern Bay, 87 ; Island Cove, dSj^ ; Caplin Cove, 
97 ; Bay Verd, 105. 

The stage-road, after leaving St. John's, traverses a singular farming 
country for several miles, and then enters a rugged region of hills. Portu- 
gal Coye is soon reached, and is picturesquely situated on the ledges near 
the foot of a range of highlands. It contains over 700 inhabitants, with 
2 churches, and has a few small farms adjacent (see page 195). 

Gaspar Cortereal explored this coast in the year 1500, and named Conception 
Bay. He carried home such a fisivorable account that a Portuguese colony was es- 
tablished at the Cove, and 50 ships were sent out to the fisheries. In 1578, 400 sail 
of vessels were seen in the bay at one time, prosecuting the fisheries under all flags. 
The colony was broken up by the English fleet under Sir Francis Drake, who also 
drove the French and Portuguese fishermen fh>m the coast. 

Belle Isle lies off shore 3 M. from the Cove, whence it may be visited by feny- 
boats (also from Topsail). This interesting island is 9 M. long and 3 M. wide, and 
is traversed by a line of bold hills. It is fomous for the richness of its deep black 
soil, and produces wheat, oats, potatoes, and hay, with the best of butter. The 
lower Silurian geological formation is here finely displayed in long parallel strata, 
amid which iron ore is found. The cliSiB which front on the shore are very bold, 
and sometimes overhang the water or else are cut into strange and fisintastic shapes 
by the action of the sea. Two or three brilliant little waterfii.lls are seen loping 
fjrom the upper levels. Belle Isle has 600 inhabitants, located in two villages. 
Core, At the W. end, and the Beach, on the S. 



HARBOR GRACE. MouUSS, 207 

The steamer runs out to the S. W. between Belle Isle and the bold 
heights about Portugal Cove and Broad Cove, and passes up Conception 
Bay for 18 M., with the lofty Blue Hills on the S. It then enters the nar- 
row harbor of Brigns (Sullivan's Hotel)^ a port of entry and the capital 
of the district of Brigus. It has 2,000 inhabitants, with Wesley an, Roman, 
and Anglican churches, and a convent of the Order of Mercy. The town 
is built on the shores of a small lake between two rugged hills, and pre- 
sents a picturesque appearance. It has over 800 boats engaged in the 
cod-fishery, and about 30 larger vessels in trading and fishing. There are 
a few farms in the vicinity, producing fair crops in return for great 
labor. The best of these are on the bright meadows near Clark^s Beach, 
4 M. from the town; and several prosperous villages are found in the 
vicinity. Near the town is the singular double peak called the Twins, 
and a short distance S. W. is the sharp and conical Thumb Peak (598 ft. 
high). 

The steamer passes out from the rock-bound harbor and runs N. by the 
bold hill of Brigus Lookout (400 ft. high). Beyond Burnt Head, Bay de 
Grave is seen opening on the 1., with several hamlets, aggregating 2,600 in- 
habitants. Cupids and Bareneed are the chief of these villages, the latter 
being on the narrow neck of land between Bayde Grave and Bay Roberts, 
2i M. from Blow-me-down Head. Green Point is now rounded, and the 
course is laid S. W. up Bay Roberts, passing Coldeast Point on the port 
bow and stopping at the village of Bay Boberta (Moore's Hotel), This 
place consists of one long street, with 2 churches and several wharves, 
and has 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom spend the summer on the Lab- 
rador coast. 

Passing out from Bay Roberts, Mad Point is soon left abeam, and 8par^ 
iarcTs Bay is seen on the 1., entering the land for 8^ M., and dotted with 
fishing-establishments. The bay is surrounded by a line of high hills, 
on whose promontories are two or three chapels. The hamlet and church 
of BryanVs Cove are next seen, in a narrow glen at the base of the hills, 
and the steamer passes on around the dangerous and surf-beaten Harbor- 
Grace Islands (off Feather Point), on one of which is a revolving white- 
and-red flash light, 151 ft. above the sea, and visible for 18 M. 

Harbor Grace (two inferior inns) is the second city of Newfoundland, 
and is the capital of the district of Harbor Grace. It has 6,770 inhab- 
itants, with several churches, a weekly newspaper, and fire and police 
departments. The town is built on level land, near the shelter of the 
Point of Beach, with its wharves well protected by a long sand-strip. 
The bay is in the form of a wedge, decreasing from li M. in width to ^ 
M., and is insecure except in the sheltered place before the city. The 
trade of this port is very large, and about 200 ships enter the harbor 
yearly. There is a stone court-house and a strong prison, and the Con- 
vent of the Presentation is on the Carbonear road. The Roman Catholic 



208 JtouU67. CABBONEAB. 

cathedral is the finest bailding in the city, and its high and 83rmmetrical 
dome is a landmark for vessels entering the port. The interior of the 
cathedral is profascly ornamented, having been recently enlarged «nd 
newly adorned. Most of the houses in the city are mean and nnprepos- 
sessing, being mdely constructed of wood, and but little improved by 
painting. 

A ragged road mns N. W. 16 M. aerots the peninmila to Heart's Coatent 

(see Route 57). A road to the N. reachee (in 1^ M.) the ftrming village of Mosquito 
Cove, snagly embosomed in a pretty glen near the cnlttrated meadowa. About the 
year 1610 a colony was planted hei^ by the agents of that English company hi whidi 
were Sir Francis Bacon, the Earl of Southampton, and other knighte and nobles. 
King James I. granted to this company all the coast between Capes B<»iavista and 
St. Mary, but their oiterprise brought no peeiuiaxy retuma. 

^larbonear is lj| M. by road from Mosquito Cove (8 H. from Harbor 
Grace), and is reached by the steamer after passing Old Sow Point and 
rounding Carbonear Island. This town has 2,000 inhabitants, with 8 
•churches, and Wesleyan and Catholic schools. Several wharves are built 
out to furnish winter-quarters for the vessels and to acconunodate the 
large fish-trade of the place. It is 21 M. by boat to Portugal Cove, across 
Conception Bay. This town was settled by the Fr«ich eariy in the 17th 
century, under the name of Carboniete, but was soon occupied by the 
British. In 1696 it was one of the two Newfoundland towns that re- 
mained in the hands of the £nglish, all the rest having been captured by 
Iberville* s French fleet. Other marauding French squadrons were beaten 
off by the men of Carbonear in 1705-6, though the a^acent coast was 
devastated; and in 1762 Carbonear Island was fortified and garrisoned by 
the citizens. 

The mail-road runs N. from Carbonear to Bay Yerd, paaeing the vUlagea of Cro. 
ker's Cove, 1 M. ; Freshwater,, 2; Salmon Cove, 6; Perry's Cove, 8; Broad Core, 
15; Western Bay, 17; Norther a Bay, 20; Job's Coye, 25; Island Cove, 27; Low 
Point, 33 ; Bay Yerd, 38. There is no harbor along this shore, the " cotes " being 
mere open bights, swept by sea-winds and affording insecure anchOTage. The ba- 
habitants are engaged in the fisheries, and haye made some attempts at filming, in 
defiance of the early and biting frosts of this high latitude. Salmon Cove is near 
the black and frowning clifib of Salmon Cove Head, and is fiuBOUs ftnr its great num- 
bers of salmon. Near Ochre Pit Ooye are beds of a reddish clay which u used for 
paint, and it is claimed that the ancient Boeothic tribes obtained their name of 
" Hed Indians " from their custom of staining themaelvea with this day. 

Bay Yerd) see page 201. 

67. Trinity Bay. 

Tills district may be visited by taking the Northern Coastal steanrar (see Boats 66) 
to Bay Yerd, Old Perlican, or Trinity ; or by passing from St. John's to Hubor 
Grace by Route 56, and thence by the road to Heart's Content (15 H.). The latter 
Tillage iB about 80 M. firam St. John's by the road around Conception Bay. 

Heart's Content is situated on a fine harbor about half-way np Trinity 
Bay, and has 880 inhabitants, most of whom are engaged in the Labrador 
fisheries or in shipbuilding. The scenery in the vicinity is very striking, 
partalcing cf the boldness and startling contrast which seems peculiar to 
this sea-girt Province. Just back of the village is a small lake, over 



, 



TRINITY BAY. 



noute 57. 209 



which rises the dark mass of Mizzen HiU^ 604 ft. high. Heart's Content 
derives its chief importance and a world-wide fame, from the fact that 
here is the W. terminus of the old Aflantic telegraph-cable. The office of 
the company is near the Episcopal Church, and is the only good building 
in the town. 

** Throb on. strong pnlse of thunder I beat 
From answering beach to beadi ; 
Fuse nations in thy kindly heat, 
And taeVb the chains of ea«h I 

•* Wild terror of the sky abore. 
Glide tamed and dumb below t 
Bear gently. Ocean's carrier-dove. 
Thy «rnmds to and fro. 

** Weare on, swift shuttle of the Lord, 
Beneath the deep so far. 
The bridal robe of earth's accord, 
The funeral shroud of war ! 

*• For lo ! the fall of Ocean's wall 
Space mocked and time ou^n ; 
And round the world the thought of aQ 
Is as the thought of one." 
John G. Whittibbs Cable Hifmn. 

The read miming N. from Heurt*8 Content leads to New Perlie«n, 8 M. ; Sillee 
Cove, 6 M. ; Hants Harbor, 12 ; Seal Coye, 19 ; Lance Coye, 24 ; Old Perlican, 28 ; 
and Grate's Gove, M. 

New Perlican is on the safe harbor of the same name, and has about 
420 inhabitants, most of whom are engaged in the cod-fishery and in ship- 
building. A packet-boat runs from this point across the Bay to Trinity. 
Near the village is a large table-rock on which several score of names have 
been inscribed, some of them over two centuries old. 

Old PerUcan is about the size of Hearths Content, and is scattered along 
the embayed shores inside of Perlican Island. It is overlooked by a 
crescent-shaped range of dark and barren hiUs. The Northern Coastal 
steamer calls at this port once a month during the season of navigation. 



•• O lonely Bay of Trinity, 
O dreary snores, give ear ! 
I/ean down into the white-lipped sea. 
The voice of God to hear f 

** From world to world His couriers flr, 
Thought-winged and shod with fire ; 
The angel of Hfs stormy sky 
Bides down the sunken wire. 

*• "What saith the herald of the Lord ? 
' The world s long strife is done : 
Close wedded by that mystic cord. 
Its continents are one. 

** * And one in heart, as one in blood, 
Shall all her peoples be ; 
The hands of human brotheriiood 
Are clasped beneath the sea.' 



The southern road from Heart's Content leads to Heart's Desire, 6 M. ; Heart's 
Delight, 9 ; Shoal Bay, 14 ; Witless Bay, 19 ; Green Harbor, 28; Hope All, 28 ; New 
Harbor, 82 ; and Dildo Coye, 36. The villages on this road are all small, and are 
mostly inhabited by the toilers of. the sea. The country about Green Harbor and 
Hope .\11 is milder and more pastoral than are the cliff-bound regions on either side. 
From New Harbor a road runs E. by Spaniard's Bay (Conception Bfiy) to St. John's, 
in 68 M. To the S. and W. lie the fishing-hamlets on the narrow isthmus of Avalon, 
which separates PlaoentiaBay firom Trinity Bay by a strip of land 7M. long, joining 
the peninsnla of Avalon to the main island. The deep estuiuy called Bull Arm runs 
up amid the mountains to i^thin 2 M. of the Come-by-K;hance River of Placentia 
Bay, and here it is proposed to make a canal joining the two bays. 

Heart's JBase is 15 M. firom Heart's Contient (by boat), and is at the S. entrance 
of Random Sound. It is a fishing-village with WO inhabitants and a church. To 
the S. is the grand cliff-spenery furound St. Jones Harbor, and the long and river- 
like Deer Harbor^ filled with islands, at whose head is Centre Hill, an isolated cone 
oyer 1,(X)0 ft. high. From the summit of (Centre Hill or of Crown Hill may be seen 
nearly the whole extent of the Placentia and Trinity Bays, with their capes and 
Ltlands, villi^es and harbors. Just above Heart's Ease is Random Island, covering 
a large area, and separated from the main by the deep and narrow watercourses 
called Random Sound and Smith's Sound. There is much fine scenpiy |n the sounds 
and their deep arms, and salmon-fishing is here carried on to a fon^ideriUjle extent, 
lliere are immense quantities of slate oa the shores, bome of which has been qu»p* 



210 RouUSS. BIVER OF EXPLOITS. 

ried (at Wilton Grove). The two sonnds are about 80 M. long, forming three sides 
of a square around Random Island, and haye a width of fironi t M. to 2 M. " The 
aail up Smith's Sound was yery beautiful. It is a fine river-Uke arm of the sea, 1-2 
M. wide, with lofly, and in many places precipitous, rocky banks, covered with wood. 
.... The character of the scenery of Randmn Sound is wild and beautiftil, and con- 
Toying, from its stillness and silence, the feeling of ntter solitude and seclusion." 

Trinity is the most convenient point from which to visit the N. shore .of 
the Bay (see page 201). 'The southern road rans to Trouty, 7 M.; New 
Bonaventure, 12 M. ; and Old Bonaventure, 18 M. Beyond these settle- 
ments is the N. entrance to Random Sound. 

68. The Bay of ITotre Dame. 

Passengers are landed from the Northern Coastal steamer at Fogo, Twillingate, 
Little Bay Island, Nipper's Harbor, or Tilt Cove, — all ports on this bay (see 
pages 204, 205). 

Fogo is situated on Fogo Island, which lies between Sir Charles Ham- 
ilton's Sound and the Bay of Notre Dame. It Is 18 M. long from £. to W., 
and 8 M. wide, and its shores are bold and rugged. There are 10 fishing- 
vijlages on the island, with nearly 2,000 inhabitants (exclusive of Fogo), 
and roads lead across the hills from cove to cove. 

It is 9 M. by road from Fogo to Cape Fogo; 7 M. to Shoal Bay ; 6 to Joe Batt's 
Arm (400 inhabitants) ; 7 to Little Seldom-come-hy ; and 9 to Seidom-come-by^ a 
considerable village on a fine safe harbor, which is often filled with fleets of schoon- 
ers and brigs. If ice on the coast or contrary winds prevent the fishermen fh>m 
reaching Labrador in the early summer, hundrads of sail bear away for this harbor, 
and wait here until the northern yojeiga is practicable. There is no other secure 
anchorage for over 60 M. down the coast TUton Harbor is on the £. coast of the 
island, uid is a Catholic village of about 400 inhabitants. The principal settlements 
reached hy boat from Fogo are Apsey Cove. 14 M. : Indian Islands, 14; Blackhead 
Cove, 14 ; Rocky Bay, 25 ; Barr'd Islands, 4 ; and Chs&ge Islands, 8. 20 M. S. W. 
is Gander Bay , the outlet of the great Gander-Bay Ponds ^ which bathe the slopes of 
the Blue Hills and the Heart Ridge, a chain of mountahis 80 M. long. 

From Exploits Island (see page 205) boats pass S. 12 M. through a great 
archipelago to the mouth of the Biver of Exploits. This noble river de- 
scends from Red-Indian Pond, about 90 M. to the S. W., and has a strong 
current with frequent rapids. The Grand Falls are 146 ft. high, where 
the stream breaks through the Chute-Brook Hills. An Indian trail leads 
from near the mouth of the river S. W. across the vast barrens of the in- 
terior, to the Bay of Despair, on the S. coast of Newfoundland. The Biver 
of Exploits flows for the greater part of its course through level lowlands, 
covered with evergreen forests. It may be ascended in steamers for 12 
M., to the flrst rapid, and from thence to the Bod-Indian Pond by boats 
(making frequent portages). 

The river was first ascended by Lieut. Buchan, R. N., in 1810, under orders to find 
and conciliate the Red Indians, who had fled to the interior after being nearly ex- 
terminated by the whites. He met a party of them, and left hostages in their hands 
while he carried some of their number to the coast. But his guests decamped, and 
he returned only to find that the hostages had been cruelly murdered, and the tribe 
had fled to the remote interior. In 1823 three squaws were captured, taken to St. 
John, loaded with presents, and released ; since which time no Bed Indians have 
beai JsecD, and it is not known whether thft tribe is extinct, or has fled to Labrador, 



RED-INDIAN POND. RouU68. 211 

or \b secluded in some more remote part of the interior. They were rery numerous 
at the time of the adyent of the Europeans, and received the new-comers with con- 
fidence ; but thereafter for two centuries they were hunted down for the sake of the 
rich furs in, their pbesession, and gradually retired to the distant inland lakes. 

In 1827 the Bceotliic Society of. St. John's sent out envoys to find the Red Indians 
and open friendly intercourse with them. But they were unable to get sight of a 
single Indian during long weeks of rambling through the, interior^ and it is con- 
cluded that the race is extinct. On the shores of the broad and beautiftil Bed-Indian 
Pond MrJ Cormack found several long-deserted villages of wigwams, with canoes, 
and curious aboriginal cemeteries. This was evidently the fkvorite seat of the tribe, 
and from this point their deer-fences were seen for over 30 M. (see also page 218). 

Little Bay Island (250 inhabitants), 15 M- from Tilt Cove, is the most 
fiivorable point from which to visit Hall's Bay. 8 M. S. W. are the settle- 
ments at the mouth of Hall's Bay, of which Ward's Harbor is the chief, 
having 200 inhabitants and a factory for canning salmon. There are valu- 
able salmon-fisheries near the head of the bay. From Hall's Bay to the N. 
and W., and towards White Bay, are the favorite summer feeding-grounds 
of the immense herds of deer which range, almost unmolested, over the in- 
terior of the island. The hunting-grounds are usually entered from this 
point, and sportsmen should secure two or three well-certified Micmao 
guides. 

A veteran British sportsman has written of this region : " I know of no country 
8o near England which offers the same amount of inducement to the explorer, natu- 
ralist, or sportsman." It is to be hoped, however, that no future visitors will imi- 
tate the atrocious conduct of a party of London sportsmen, who recently entered 
t.icae hunting-grounds and massacred nearly 2,000 deer during the short season, 
leaving the foreste filled with decaying game. Public opinion will sustain the Mic- 
ra.ac Indians, who are dependent on the deer for their living, and who have declared 
that they will prevent a repetition of such carnage, or punish its perpetrators in a 
summary manner. 

The Indians and the half-breed hunters frequently cross the island from Hall's 
Cay by ascending Indian- Brook in boats for about 25 M., and then making a port- 
age to the chain of ponds emptying into Grand Pond, and descending by Deer Pond 
aad the Iluniber River (skirting the Long Range) to the Bay of Islands. The transit 
iH both arduous and perilous. 20 M. inland are the mountains called the lyiree 
TjwerSf from whose summit may be seen the Grand Pond, the Bay of Exploits, and 
tlie Strait of Belle Isle: 

The deer migrate to the S. W. in the autumn, and pass the winler near St. George's 
B.iy and Cape Ray The Red Indians constructed many leagues of fence, from the 
Bay of Notre Dame to Red-Indian Pond, by which they intercepted the herds during 
their passage to the S., and laid in supplies of provisions for the winter. 

Bed-Indian Pond is about 30 M. S. W. of Hall's Bay. It is 40 ?!. long by 
5 -6 M. wide, and contains many islands. To the S. lie the great interior lakes, i i 
an unexplored and trackless region. The chief of these are Croaker's Lolie (10 M. 
distant), filled with islete ; Jameson's Lake, 20 M. long, between Serpentine Mt. and 
Mt. Misery ; Lake Bathurst, 17 by 5 M.j and George IT. Lake, 18 by 6 M. 15 M. 
yV. of Red-Indian Pond is Grand Pond, which is 60 M. long. (See page 218.) 

From Nipper'' s Harbor^ the sportsman may pass up Green Bay, to the S. W., and 
enter the hunting-grounds (having first taken care to sccuro trusty guides). On the 
N. side of the bay is a copper-mine that was opened in 1869, cmd has yielded well. 

Tilt Cove is 23 M. from Hall's Bay, 30 M. from New Bay, and 24 M. from Nim- 
rod. 7 M. distant is Burying Place, a small fishing-village, near which have been 
found numerous birch-bark cofilns and other memorials of the Rod Indians. A road 
runs N. E from Tilt Cove, passing in 3 M. Round Harbor^ which is prolific in cop- 
per ; and in 4 M Sioe. Cove^ famous for trout, and the station of a government boat 
vhich here watehes the French fisheries. A rood runs N. 7 M. fin>m Shoe Cove to 
La SciCf on the French Shore (see Route 61). 



212 Rouie69. PLACENTIA BAY. 

69. Placentia Bay 

Is included between Cape St. Mary and Cape Chapeau Bouge, and is 48 
M. wide. Placentia is the capital of the eastern shore, and is a port of 
entry and post-town, 80 M. from St John's by road. It is built along a 
level strand, overshadowed by round detached hills, and maintains a large 
fleet of fishing-boats. There are remarkable clifi& on Point Verde and 
Dixon Island, near the town; and the views from Signal Hill and Castle 
Hill extend far out over the bay. There is much romantic scenery along 
the narrow channels of the N. E. and S. £. Arms, which extend firom the 
harbor in among the mountams. 

In the year 1660 Placentia Bay was entered by two French frigates, which sailed up 
into the harbor and landed a strong force of soldiers, 'vdth heavy artillery and other 
munitions. Here they erected a strong fort, occupying a point so near the channel 
that the Baron La Hontan (who was detached for duty here) said that *' ships going 
in grace (so to speak) upon the angle of the bastion." The French held this post 
until 1713, when it was surrendered, according to the terms of the treaty of Utrecht. 
The port became famous as tlie resort of the French privateers which were destroy- 
ing the English fisheries, and Commodore Warren was sent out (in 1692) with three 
60-gun frigates and two smaller vessels to destroy the town. Warren ran in close 
to Placentia and opened fire, but was warmly recdved by the batteries at the en- 
trance and by Fort St. Louis. After a heavy cannonade of six hours' duration, the 
English fleet was forced to draw off. In 1696 Iberville gattiered 14 war-vessels at 
Placentia, and having received 400 men of (Quebec, sailed to tb^ E. and overran all 
the Atlantic coast of Newfoundland, returning with 40-60 prize-ships and 600 
prisoners. In 1697 the great French fleet, which (under Iberville) destroyed all 
the British posts on Hudson's Bay, gathered here. So much did the British dread 
the batteries of Placentia and the warlike enthusiasm of M- de Costabelle, its com- 
mander, that Admiral Walker, anchored at Sydney, with a splendid fleet carrying 
4,000 land-soldiers and 900 cannon, refused to obey his orders to reduce this little 
French fortress, and sailed back to Britain in disgrace. When France surrendered 
Newfoundland, in 1713, the soldiers and citizens of Placentia migprated to Gape Bre- 
ton ; and in 1744 a French naval expeditign under M. de Brotz fidled to recapture 
it from the British. This town afterwards became one of the chief porta of the 
Province ; but has of late years lost much of its relative importance. A road runs 
hence to St. John's in 80 M. ; also throng the settlements on the S. to Distress 
Cove in 26 M. ; also S. W. 88 M. to Branch, on St. Mary's Bay. 

Little Placentia is on a narrow harbor 5 M. N. of Placentia, and has 883 
inhabitants. Near this point is a bold peak of the western range in 
Avalon, from which 67 ponds are visible. The islands in the bay are 
visited from this point. Ram^s Islands (133 inhabitants) are 10 M. dis- 
tant; Red Island (227 inhabitants) is 12 M. W.; and about 18 H. distant is 
Merasheen Island, which is 21 M. long, and has on its W. coast the Ragged 
Islands, 365 in number. The great lead-mines at La Manche aire 12 M. N. 
of Little Placentia, on the Isthmus of Avalon, 7 M. from Trinity Bay. At 
the head of the bay, 83 M. from Little Placentia, is the village of North 
Ilarbor, near the great Powder-Horn Hills, and 7 M. beyond is Black 
River, famous for its wild-fowl and other game. 

Harbor Buffet is 16 M. trom. Little Placentia, on the lofty and indented Long 
Island, and has 883 inhabitants. Near the 8. W. part of PlacenUa Bay is the town 
and port of Buritif a station of the Western Coastal steamers (see page 214). 



ST. MAEY'S BAY. RouU60. 213 

60. The Western Outports of ITewfoimdlaiid.— St John's 

to Cape Bay. 

On alternate Thttrsdajs or Fridays after the arrival of the mails from Europe, the 
Western Coastal steamer leaves St. John's for the outports on the S. shore of New- 
foundland. 

Fares. — St. John's to Ferr7land,S2; Renewse, $2; Trepa8Bey,$850; Burin, 
$ 5 ; St. Pierre, S 6 60 ; Harbor Briton, $ 7.50 ; Burgeo, $ 9 : La Poile, S 9.60 ; Row 
Blanche, $ 10 ; Channel (Port au Basque), S 11 ; Sydney, 9 14. The Sues for steer- 
age passengers are about half the above prices. Meals are included in the price of 
the tickets. The trip out and back takes 10 to 12 days. 

St. John* 3 to Cape Race, see Route 54. 

Passing through the rocky portals of the harbor of St. John*s, the 
steamer directs her course to the S. along the iron-bound Strait Shore. 
After visiting Ferryland and Renewse (see page 198), the Red Hills are 
seen in the W. ; and beyond the lofty bare summit of Cape Ballard, the 
dreaded cliffs of Gape Baoe (page 199) are rounded well off shore. Off 
Freshwater Point the course is changed to N. W., and Trepassey Bay is 
entered. The shores are lofty and bare, and open to the sweep of the 
sea. 8^ M. from Freshwater Point is Powles Head, on whose W. side the 
harbor of Trepassey is sheltered. The town contains 514 inhabitants, most 
of whom are engaged in the fisheries, and fronts on a secure harbor which 
is never closed by ice. Roads lead hence to Salmonier (81 M. ) and Renewse. 

In 1628 Lord Baltimore's ships of Avalon, the Benediction and the Ttefory, entered 
Trepassey Bay under full sail, bent on attacking the French settlement. The Bene- 
diction first greeted the flee£ with several cannon-shot, after which she sent a tcrriflo 
broadside among the vessels. The Basque sailoFB fled to the shore, and the Victory, 
lowering her b<M.ts, took possession of all the vessels in the harbor and bore them 
away as prizes. The town of Trepassey was destroyed by a British naval attack in 1702. 

The steamer -now runs S. W. to and around Cape Fine, on which is a 
tall circular tower which upholds a fixed light 314 ft. above the sea, visible 
at a distance of 24 M. 1 M. W. N. W. is Cape Freels, a little beyond 
which is 8L SkoVs Bay. 

This narrow shore between Cape Pine and St. Shot's is said to be the most danger- 
ous and destructive district on the North American coast, and has been the scene of 
hundreds of shipwrecks. The conflicting and variable currents in these waters set 
toward the shore with great force, and draw vessels inward upon the ragged ledges. 
In former yeara disasters were firequent here, but at present mariners are warned 
off by the Admiralty charts and the lights and whistles. St. Shot's is as dreaded a 
name on the N. coast as Cape Hatteras is in the southern sea. In 1816 the transport 
Harpooner was wrecked on Cape Pine, and 200 people were lost. 

St. Mary's Bay is bounded by Cape Freels and Lance Point, and extends for 28 
M. into the Peninsula of Avalon. On the E. shore is St. Mary^s^ a court-house town 
and port of entry, situated on a deep land-locked harbor, and largely engaged in 
fishing. To the S. is the mountainous Cape English, near which a narrow sandy 
besich separates the bay from Holyrood Pond, a remarkable body of ftesh water over 
12 M. long. It is 65 M. by road fh>m St. Mary's to St. John's ; and at 16 M. dis- 
tance the village of Salmonier is reached. This is a fishing and forming town near 
the outiet of the broad Salmonier lUver, fiunous for its great salmon. To the N. W., 
at the head of the bay, is some striking scenery, near Colinet Bay, where empties 
the Hodge-Water River, descending firom the Quemo-Oospen Ponds^ in the interior 
of Avalon. There are several small hamlets in this vicinity ; and Cohrut is accessible 
by land from St. John's in 56 M. The W. shore of St. Maiy's Bay is mountainous 
and rugged, and has no settlements of any consequence. 



214 MouUGO. FORTUNE BAY. : 

Beyond the bold Cape St. Mary the steamer runs to the N-W* across the 
wide entrance to Placentia Bay (see page 212). At about 20'M. from Cape 
St. Mary the sharply defined headland of Cape Chapeau Rouge becomes 
visible; and the harbor of Burin is entered at about 42 >I. ^m Cape St 
Mary. This harbor is the finest in Newfoundland, and is sheltered by 
islands whose cliff-bound shores are nearly 200 ft high. On DoddingHead 
is a lighthouse 430 ft. above the sea, bearing a revolving light which is 
visible for 27 M. Still farther up, and almost entirely land-locked, is the 
Burin Inlet. The town of Burin has 1,850 inhabitants, and is an important 
trading-station, supplying a great part of Placentia Bay. ^The adjacent 
scenery is of the boldest and most rugged character, the lofty islands vying 
with the inland mountains. 

On leaving Burin the course is laid to the S. W., passing the lofty prom- 
ontories of Corbin Head, Miller Head, and Red Head. Beyond the tall 
sugar-loaf on Sculpin Point the deep harbors of Little and Great St. Law- 
rence are seen opening to the r. ; and the sea-resisting rock of Cape Chapeau 
Rouge is next passed. This great landmark resembles in shape the crown 
of a hat, and is 748 ft. high, with sheer precipices over 800 ft. high. From 
this point the course is nearly straight for 38 M., to St. Pierre, running well 
off, but always in sight of a bold and elevated shore. 

St. FierrO) see page 185. 

On leaving St. Pierre the course is to the N., passing, in 5 M., the low 
shores of Green Island^ and then running for a long distance between the 
Miquelon Islands and May and Dantzic Points (on the mainland), which 
are about 12 M. apart. When about half-way across Fortune Bay, Brunet 
Island (5 M. long) is passed, and on its E. point is seen a lighthouse 408 ft. 
above the sea, showing a flashing light for 25 M. at sea. 6 M. beyond this 
point is Sagona Island, with its village of fishermen; and 5 M. farther N. 
the steamer enters Harbor Briton. Here is an Anglican village of about 
850 inhabitants, with an extensive local trade along the shores of Fortune 
Bay. The harbor is very secure and spacious, and runs far into the 
land. This town was settled in 1616 by Welshmen, and was then named 
CatnbrioL 

Fortune Bay 

is included between Point May and Pass Island, and is 85 M. wide and 66 M. long. 
Fortune is a town of oyer 800 inhabitants, situated near the entrance of the bay, 
and on the Lamaline road. Its energies are chiefly devoted to the fisheries and to 
trading with St. Pierre. 3 M. E. N. E. are the highlands of Cape Grand Bank, from 
which the shore trends N. £. by the hamlets of Garnish and Frenchman's CoTe to 
Point Enrag^e. The E. and N. shores are broken by deep estuaries, in which are 
small fishingHsettlements ; and in the N. W. comer are the North and East Bays, 
famous for herring-fisheries, which attract large fleets of American yessels. On the 
W. shore is the prosperous Tillage of Belleoremy engaged in t|ie cod and herring 
fisheries, and distant 15 M. from Harbor Briton. Roads lead from this point to the 
villages of Barrow, Blue Pinion, Corbin, English Harbor .West.. Co<mib8' Cove, and 
St. Jaques. The other settlements on the W. shore are mere fishing-stations, closely 

hemmed hi between the mountains and the sea, andare visiced by mmts from Harbor 

Britim. 



BURGEO. RcnUe 60. 215 

Hermitage Bay is an extensive bight of the sea to the N. of Pass Island. Ita 
principal town is Hermitage Cove^ an Anglican settlement 9 M. from Harbor Briton. 
N. of the bay is Long Island, which is 25 M. around, and shelters the Bay of I>e« 
spalr, &mous for its prolific salmon-fisheries. From the head of this bay Indian 
trails lead inland to Long Pond, Round Pond, and a great cluster of unrisited lakea 
situated in a land of forests and mountains. From the fiu-ther end of these inland 
waters diyeige the great trails to the Riyer of Exploits and Hall's Bay. 

Afler running oat to the S. W. between Sagona Island and Connaigre 
Head, the course is laid along the comparatively straight coast called the 
Western Shore, extending from Fortune Bay to Cape Ray. Crossing the 
wide estuary of Hermitage Bay, the bold highlands of Cape La Hone are 
approached, 12 M. N. of the Penguin Islands. About 25 M. W. of Cape 
La Hune the steamer passes the Eamea Islands^ of which the isle called 
Columbe is remarkable for its height and boldness. There is a fishing- 
community located here ; and the August herrings are hdd as very 
choice. ' 

The old marine records report of the Ramea Xsl^s : " In wliich isles axe so great 
abundance of the huge and mightie sea-oxen with great teeth in the moneths of 
April, May, and June, that there haue been fiiteene hundreth killed there by one 
small barke in the yeere 1591." 

In 1597 the English ship Hopewell entered the harbor of Ramea and tried to 
plunder the French ressels there of their stores and- powder, but was forced by a 
shore-battery to leave incontinently. . •> 

About 9 M. W. N. W. of Ramea. Columbe, the steamer enters the har- 
bor of Bnrgeo, a port of entry and trading-station of 650 inhabitants, sit- 
uated on one of the Burgeo Isles, which here form several small, snug 
harbors.' This town is the most important on the Western Shore, and 
is a favorite resort for vessels seeking supplies. 8 M. -distant is Upper 
Burgeo, built on the grassy sand-banks of a' small islet; and 7 M. N. is 
the salmon-fishery at Grandy's Brook, on the line of the N. Y., N. F. and 
London Telegraph. 

Beyond the Burgeo Isles the course is laid along the Western Shore, and 
at about 25 M. the massive heights at the head of Grand Bruit Bay are 
seen. - 6 M. farther on, after passing Ireland Island, the steamer turns into 
La Poile Bay, a narrow arm of the sea which cleaves the hills for 10 M. 
The vessel ascends 8 M. to Za PoiU (Little Bay), a small and decadent 
fishing-village on the W. shore. 

The distance from La Poile to Channel, the last port of call, is SO M., 
and the coast is studded with small hamlets. Garia Bay is 5 - 6 M. W. 
of La Poile, and has two or three villages, situated amid picturesque 
scenery and surrounded by forests. Bose Blanche is midway between 
La Poile and Channel, and is a port of entry with nearly 500 inhabitants, 
situated on a small and snug harbor among the mountains. It has a con- 
siderable trade with the adjacenj fishing-settlements. 8 M. beyond Rose 
Blanche are the Burnt Islands, and'8 M. farther on are the Dead Islands. 
At 8-10 M. inland are seen the dark and desolate crests of the Long- 
Bange Mountains, sheltering the Codroy Valley. 



216 Rfmteei. PORT AU BASQUK 

The I>ead Islands (French, Les Isles ma Morts) sre so named on account of 
the many fittal wrecks which hare occurred on their dark rocks. The name was 
Ktren alter the loss of an emigprant-ship, when the ihlands were so fringed with 
Enman corpses that it took a gang of men five days to bury them. Georee Harvey 
formerly lived on one of the islands, and saved hundreds of lives by boMuy jratting 
•at to the wrecked ships. About ISiSO the Dispatch struck on one of the isles. She 
was ftill of immigrants, and her boats could not live in the heavy gale which was 
rapidly breaking her up. But Harvey pushed out in his row-boat, attended only 
by his daughter (17 years old) and a boy 12 years old. He landed every one of the 
passengers and crew (163 in number) safely, and fed them for three weeks, inso- 
much that his fiimily had nothing but fish to eat all winter after. In 1838 the 
Glasgow ship Ranietn struck a rock off the isles, and went to pieces, the crew cling- 
ing to the stem-rail. In spite of the heavy sea. Harvey rescued them all (25 in 
number), by making four trips in his punt. " The whole coast between La Poiie 
and Cape Bay seems to have been at one time or other strewed with wrecks. Every 
house IS surrounded with old rigging, spars, masts, sails, ships' bells, rudders, 
wheels, and other matters. The houses too contain telescopes, compasses, and por- 
tions (n ships' Aimiture." (PBOF. JUSJBS.) 

Channel (or Port au Basque) is 8 - 4 M. W. of the Dead Isles, and 30 
M. from La Poiie. It is a port of entry and a transfer-station of the N. Y., 
N. F. and London Telegraph Company, and has nearly 600 inhabitants, 
with an Anglican church and several mercantile establishments. The 
fisheries are of much importance, and large quantities of halibut are 
caught in the vicinity. A few miles to the W. is the great Tcible ML, 
over Cape Ray, beyond which the French Shore turns to the N. A 
schooner leaves Port au Basque every fortnight, on the arrival of the 
steamer from St. John's, and carries the mails N. to St. George*8 Bay, the 
Bay of Islands, and Bonne Bay (see Route 61). 

The steamer, on every alternate trip, runs S. W. from Channel to Syd- 
ney, Cape Breton. The course is across the open sea, and no land is seen, 
after the mountains about Cape Ray sink below the horizon, until the 
shores of Cape Breton are approached. 

Sydney, see page 150. 

* 

6L The French Shore of ITewfonndland.— Cape Bay to 

Cape St JohiL 

It is not likely that any tourists, except, perhaps, a few adventurous yachtsmen, 
will visit this district. It is destitute of hotels and roads, and has x>nly one short 
and infirequent mail-packet route. The only settlements are a few widely scattered 
fishing-villages, inhabited by a rude and hardy class of mariners ; and no form of 
local government has ever been established on any part of the shore. But the Editor 
is reluctant to pass over such a vast extent of the coast of the Maritime Provinces 
without some brief notice, especially since this district is in many of its features so 
unique. The Editor was unable, owing to the lateness of the season, to visit the 
f reneh Shore in person, but has been aided in the preparation of the following 
notes, both by gentlemen who have traversed the coast and the inland lakes, and 
by various statistics of the Province. It is therefore believed that the ensuing 
itinerary is correct in all its main features. The distances have been verified by 
comparison with the British Admiralty charts. 

The French Shore may be visited by the tradingnschooners which run ftt>m port 
to port throughout its whole extent during the summer season. The most interest- 
ing parts of it may also be seen by taking the mail-packet which leaves Port an 
Basque (Chsamel) fortnightly, and runs N. to Bonne Bay, touching aU along the 
coast. 



CAPE RAT. JiauUei. 217 

The Freneh Shore eztencb from Cape St. John (N. of Notre Dame Bay) 
around the N. and W. coasts of the island to Cape Ray, including the richest Tid- 
leyd and Ikirest soil of Newfoundland. It is nearly exempt from fogs, horders on 
the most prolific fishing-grounds, and is called the " Garden of Newfoundland." 
By the treaties of 1713, 1763, and 1788, the French receired the right to catch and 
cure fish, and to erect huts and stages along this entire coast, — a concession of 
which they haye availed themselves to the fuUest extent. There are several British 
colonies along the shore, but they live without law or magistrates, since the home 
government believes that such appointments would be against the spirit of the 
treaties with France (which practically neutralized the coast). The only authority 
is that which is given by courtesy to the resident clergymen of the settlements. 

It is 9 M. fh>m Channel to Cape Ray, where the French Shore begins. The dis- 
tances ftt>m this point are given as between liarbor and liarbor,aod (k> not represent 
the straight course from one outport to another at a great distance. 

Cape Kay to Codroy , 18 M. ; Cape Anguille, 18 (Crabb's Brook, 45 ; Middle Branch, 
60 ; Robinson's Point, 55 ; Flat Bay, 57 ; Sandy Point, 65 ; Indian Head, 75) ; Cape 
St. Qeorge, 54 ; Port au Port (Long Point), 84 ; Bay of Islands, 108 ; Cape Oregory, 
125; Bonne Bay, 140 ; Green Cove, 147 ; Cow Harbor, 158 ; Portland Bill, 176; Bay 
of Ingornachoix (Point Rich), 206 ; Portau Choix, 206 ; Point Ferolle, 220 ; Flower 
Cove, 245 ; Savage Cove, 249 ; Sandy Bay, 250 ; Green Island. 255 ; Cape Norman, 
285 ; Pistolet Island. 292 ; Noddy Harbor, 806 ; Qnirpon (Cape Bauld), 810 ; Griguet 
Bay, 821; St. Lunaire, 826; Braha Bay, 830; St. Anthony, 836; Goose Harbor 
(Hare Bay), 340 ; Harbor de Yeau, 848 ; St. Julien, 868 ; Croque, 858: Conche, 373 ; 
Canada Bay , 387 ; Great Harbor Deep, 410; La Flenr de Lis, 482 ; LaSeie,465; Cape 
St. John, 460. 

* Cape Bay is the S. W. point of Kewfotindland, and is strikingly pi&* 
tnresque in its outlines. 8 M. from the shore rises a great table-moun- 
tain, with sides 1,700 ft. high and an extensive plateau on the summit. 
Nearer the sea is the Sugar Loafy a symmetrical conical peak 800 ft. high, 
N. of which is the Tolt Peak, 1,280 ft. high. These heights may be seen 
for 50 M. at sea, and the flashing light on the cape is visible at night for 20 
M. From this point St Paul's Island bears S; W. 42 M., and Cape North 
is W. by S. 57 M. (see page 160). 

Soon after passing out to the W. of Cape Bay, Ccg9€ AnguiUe is seen on 
the N., — a bold promontory nearly 1,200 fl. high. Between these capes 
is the valley of the Great Codroy Rivtr^ with a farming population of 
several hundred souls; and along its course is the mountain-wall called 
the Long Bange, stretching obliquely across the island to the shores of 
White Bay. 

St. George's Bay extends for about 50 M. inland, and its shores qre 
said to be very rich and fertile, abounding also in coal. The scenery 
about the hamlet of CraWs Brook "forms a most lovely and most Eng- 
lish picture.** There are several small hamlets around the bay, of which 
Sandy Point is the chief, having 400 inhabitants and 2 churches. The 
people are rude and uncultured, fond of roaming and adventure ; but the 
moral condition of these communities ranks high in excellence, and great 
deference is paid to the clergy. The Micmac Indians are oflen seen in 
this vicinity, and are partially civilized, and devout members of the Catholic 
Church. The country to the £. is mountainous, merging into wide grassy 
plains, on which the deer pass the winter season, roaming about the icy 

levels of the great interior lakes. 

10 



218 JRout«6t GRAND POND. 

Gnuid Pond is usnally (and rarely) visited ttcm St. George^s Bay. After as- 
cending the broad soand at the head of the bay for about 10 M. , a blind forest-path 
la entered, and the Indian guides lead the way to the N. E. over a vast expanse of 
moss (yery uncomfortable travelling). The Hare-Head Hills are passed, and after 
about 15 M. of arduous marching, the traveller reaches the Grand Pond. *'■ And a 
beautiful sight it was. A narrow strip of blue water, widening, as it proceeded, to 
about 2 M. , lay between bold rocky precipices covered with wood, and rising almost 
directly from the. water to a height of 5-600 ft., having bare tops a little fiu-ther 
back at a still greater elevation.'' The Bay Indians keep canoes on the pond, and 
there are aeveral wigwams on the shores. Game and fish are abundant in these 
woods and waters, since it is but once in years that the all-slaying white man 
reaches the pond, and the prudent Indians kill only enough for their 'own actual 
needs. There is a lofty island 20 H. long, on-each side of. which are the narrow and 
ravine-like channels of the pond, with an enormous depth of water. The route to 
Hall's Bay (see page 211) leads up the river from the N. E. comer of the pond 
for about 35 M., passing through four lakes. From the uppermost pond the canoe 
U carried for ^ M. and put into the stream which empties into Hall's Bay. 8 M. W. 
of the inlet of this river into Grand Pond is the outlet of Junction Brook, a rapid 
stream which leads to the Humber River and Deer Pond in 8 - 10 M., and ia passable 
by canoes, with frequent portages. 

Near the N. end of Grand Pond, abodt the year 1770, occurred a terrible battle 
between the Micmacs and the Red Indians, which resulted in the extermination of 
the latter nation. The Micmacs were a Catholic tribe from Nova Scotta, who had 
moved over to Newfoundland, and were displacing the aboriginal inhabitants, the 
Red Indians, or Boeothics. In the great battle'on Grand Pond tbe utmost deter- 
mination and spirit were shown by the Boeothics. invaded here in their innermost 
retreats. But they had only bows and arrows, wnile the Micmacs were armed with 
guns, and at th'o close of the battle not a man, woman, or child of the Red Indians 
of this section was left alive. 

This region' is densely covered with forests of large trees (chiefly fir and spruce), 
alternating with "the Irairrcns," — vast tracts which are covered vHtb- thkk'mbss. 
Gov. Sir John Harvey, after careful inspection, claims that th6 barrens are und«r-' 
laid with luxuriant soil, while for the cultivation of grasses, oats, barley, and pota- 
toes there is ** no country out of England or Egypt superior to it." The intense 
and protracted cold of the winter seasons will preclude aipricidture on a large senile. 

These inland solitudes are adorned, during the short ^ot summer, with many 
brilliant ' flowers. Among these are great numbers of wild roses, violets, irises, 
pitcher-plants, heather, maiden-hair, and vividly colored lichens ; while (says Sir 
R. Bonnycastle) *' in the tribe of. lilies, 3olomon^in.all his glory exceeded not the 
beauty of those produced in this unheeded 'wilderness." The only white man who 
ever yet crossed these lonely lands from shore to shore was a Scotchman named 
Gormack, who walked from Trinity Bay to St. George's Bay, in 1822. He .was ac- 
companied bya Micmac Indian, and the trip took several weeks. The maps of 
Newfoundland cover this vast unexplored re^on with conjectural mountains and 
hypothetical lakes. The British Admilralty chart of Newfoundland (Southern Por- 
tion) omits most of these, but gives minute and valuable topogi^phical ontiines of 
the lakes and hills N. of the Bay of DesjMdr, the Red-Indian Pond, and River of Ex- 
ploits, and the region of the Grand Pond and Deer Pond, with their approac^iefl. 

Cape St. George thrusts a huge line of precipices into the sea, and 5 M. 
beyond is Red Island^ surrounded by dark red cliffs. 25 M. farther to the 
N. £. is the entrance to Fort au Fort, a great double harbor of noble 
capacity. It is separated from St. George's Bay by an isthmus but 1 M. 
wide, at the W. base of the great Table Mt. 

The * Bay of Islands affords some of the finest scenery in the Province, 
and is sheltered by several small but lofly islands. The soil along the 
Sjbores is said to be deep and productive, and adapted to raising grain and 
produce. Limestone, gypsum, and fine marble are found here in, large 
Quantities. There are about 1,000 inhabitants about the bay, most of 
whom are engaged in the herring-fishery. . ^ 



HUMBER RIVER. RouUSl 219 

At the head of the bay is the month of the Humber River, the largest rirer 
in Newfoundland. In the last 18 M. of its course it is known as the Humber Sound ^ 
and is 1 -2 M. wide and 50- 60 &thoms deep, with lofty and rugg^ hills on either 
slie. Great quantities of timber are found on these Hhoree, and the trout and ml- 
mon fisheries are of considerable valne. The river flows into the head of the sound 
in a narrow and swift current, and is ascended by boats to the Deer Pond. Occa- 
sional cabins and clearings are seen along the shores, inhabited by bold and hardy 
pioneers. 8 M. above the head of the sound there is a rapid 1 M. long, up which 
boats are drawn by lines. Ilere '* the scenery is highly striking and picturesque, — 
lofty cliSs of pure white limestone rising abruptly out of the woods to a height of 
3 -400 ft , and being themselves clothed with thick wood round their sides and 
over their sommits." ■ Above the rapids the river traverses a valley 2 M. wide, filled 
with birch-groves and hemmed in by high liills. The stream is broad and shallow 
for 6 M. above the rapids, where another scries of rapids is met, above which are the 
broad waters' of' *]>«er l^ond, 2-3 M. wide and 15 M. long. Here is the undis- 
turbed home of deer and smaller game, loons, gulls, and kingfishers. A few Micmac 
Indians still vi^it these solitudes, and their wigwams are seen on the low savannas 
of the shore. (8ee also pages 211 and 218.) 

'* B^ond the fbrcet-covered hills which surround it are lakes as beautiful, and 
larger than Lake George, the cold clear waters of which flow to the bay under the 
name of the river Humber. It has a valley like Wyoming, and more romantic 
scenery than the Snsqu^umna. The Bay ot Islands is also a bay of streams and in- 
lets, an endless labyrinth of clif& and woods and waters, where the sununer voyager 
would delight to wander, and which is worth a volume sparkling with pictures." 

Bonxie Bay is 23, M. N. E. of the Bay of Islands, and is a favorite resort 
of American and Provincial fishermen. Great quantities of herring are 
caught in this vicinity. The mountains of the coast-range closely ap- 
proach the sea, forming a bold and striking prospect; and the rivers which 
empty into the bay may be followed to the vicinity of the Long Range. 

The coast to the N. N. W. for nearly 70 M. is straight, with the slight 
indentations of the Bay of St. Paul and Cow Bay. The Bay of IngomO' 
ckoix has comparatively low and level shores, with two excellent har- 
bors. On its N. point (Point Rich) is a lighthouse containing a white 
flashing-light which is visible for 18 M. ; and 2 M. E. is the fishing-station 
of Port auChoiXf whence considerable quantities of codfish and herring 
are exported. The Bay of St. John is dotted with islands, and receives 
the River of Castors, flowing from an unknown point in the interior, and 
abounding in salmon. 

" What a region for romantic excursions ! Yonder are wooded mountains with a 
sleepy atmosphere, and attractive vales, and a fine river, the River Castor, flowing 
from a country almost unexplored ; and here are green isles spotting the sea, — the 
islands of St. John. Behind them is an expanse of water, alive with fish and fowl, 
the extremes of which are lost in the deep, untroubled wilderness. A month would 
not suffice to find out and enjoy its manifold and picturesque beauties, through 
which wind the deserted trails of the Bed Indians, now extinct or banished." 

. The Bay of St. John is separated by a narrow isthmus from St. Mar- 
garet's Bay (on the N.), on which are the stations of New FeroUe and Old 
FeroUe, Beyond the Bays of St. Genevieve and St. Barbe, with their few 
score of inhabitants, is Flower Cove, containing a small hamlet and an 
Episcopal church.' The great sealing-grounds of the N. shore are next 
traversed; and the adjacent coast loses its mountainous character, and 
sinks into wid^ plains covered with grass and wild grain. 



220 RotUeSL STRAIT OF BELLE ISLE. 

Th€ Strait of BeUe Isle, 

The Strait of Belle Isle is now entered, and on the N. is the lofty and 
barren shore of Labrador (or, if it be night, the fixed light on Point 
Amour). As Green Island is passed, the Rtd Cliffs, on the Labrador shore, 
are seen at about 10 M. distance. The low limestone cliffs of the New- 
foundland shore are now followed to the N. £., and at 30 M. beyond Green 
Island, Cape Iforman is reached, with its revolving light npheld on the 
bleak dreariness of the spray-swept hill. This cape is the most northerly 
point of Newfoundland. 

The Sacred Islands are 12 M. S. E. by E. from Gape Norman, and soon 
after passing them the hamlet of Quirpon is approached. This place is 
situated on Quirpon Island, 4 degrees N. of St John's, and is devoted to 
the sealing business. It has an Episcopal church and cemetery. Multi- 
tudes of seals are caught off this point, in the great current which sets 
from the remote N. into the Strait of Belle Isle. Hundreds of icebergs 
may sometimes be seen hence, moving in stately procession up the strait* 
In front of Quirpon are the cold highlands of Jaques-Gartier Island. Cape 
Bauld is the N. point of the island of Quirpon, and the most northerly 
point of the Province. 

14 M. N. of Cape Bauld, and midway to the Labrador shore, is Belle Isle, in the 
entrance of the strait It ia 9^ M. long and 3 M. broad, and is utterly barren and 
unprofitable. On its S. point is a lonely lighthouse, 470 ft. above the sea, sustain- 
ing a fixed white light which is visible for 28 M. During the dense and blinding 
snow-storms that often sweep oyer the strait, a cannon is fired at regular intervals ; 
and large deposits of provisions are kept here for the use of shipwrecked mariners. 
Between Dec. 15 and April 1 there is no light exliibited, for these northern seas are 
then deserted, save by a few daring seal-hunters. There is but one point where the 
island can be approached, which is 1^ M. firom the lighthouse, and here the stores 
are landed. There is not a tree or even a bush on the island, and coal is imported 
firom Quebec to warm tibe house of the keeper, — who, though visited but twice a 
year, is happy and contented. The path firom the landing is cut through the moss- 
covered rock, and leads up a long and steep ascent. 

In the year 1527 '*a Canon of St. Paul in London, which was a great mathemati- 
cian, and a man indued with wealth," sailed for the New World with two ships, 
which were fitted out by King Henry Till. After they had gone to the westward 
for many days, and had passed " great Hands of Ice," they reached *' the mayne 
land, all wildemesse and mountaines and woodes, and no naturall ground but all 
mosse, and no habitation nor no people in these parts." They entered the Strait of 
Belle Isle, and then '* there arose a great and a maruailous great storme, and much 
foul weather," during which the ships were separated. The captain of the Mary of 
Guilford wrote home concerning his consort-ship : " I trust in Almightie Jesu to heare 
good newes of her " ; but no tidings ever came, and she was probably lost in the 
strait, with all on board. 

The islands of Belle Isle and Quirpon were called the Isles of Demons in the 
remote past, and the ancient maps represent them as covered with ** devils ram- 
pant, with wings, horns, and tails." They were said to be fii^inating but malicious, 
and Andr6 Thevet exorcised them firom a band of stricken Indians by repeating a 
part of the Gospel of St. John. The mariners feared to land on these haunted 
shores, and ** when they passed this way, they heard in the air, on the tops and 
about the masts, a great clamor of men's voices, confused and inarticulate, such as 
} ou may hear from the crowd at a fair or market-place ; whereupon they well knew' 
tbAt the Isle of Demons was not fistr off." The brave but superstitious Normans 
dared not l&nd on the Labrador without the crucifix in hand, believing that those 
gloomy Bhorea were guarded by great and tenihl« (grifllns. These quaint legends 



STRAIT OF BELLE ISLE. ItouU 61. 221 

undoubtedly had ft good foondatkni. In July , 1878, the eouts of the Stadt of Belle 
l9le wexe ravaged by bands of immenM woWee, who deTOured seTeral human beings 
and besieged the settlements for weeks. 

An ancient MS. of 1586 relates a carious l^end of Belle Isle. Among the com- 
pany on the fleet which was conducted through the Straits to Quebec in 1642, were 
the Lady Marguerite, niece of the Viceroy of New France, and her lover. Their 
conduct was such as to have scuidaliied the fleet, and when they reached the Isle 
of Demons, Roberval, enraged at her shamelessness, put her on shore, with her old 
nurse. The lover leaped from the ship and joined the women, and the fleet sailed 
away. Then the demons and the hosts of heil began their assaults on the forsaken 
trio, tearing about their hut at night, menacing them on the shore, and assaulting 
them in the forest. But the penitent sinners were guarded by invisible bands of 
saints, and kept from pcnriL After many months, wearied by these fiendish assaults, 
the lover died, and was soon followed by the nurse and the child. Lcmg thereafter 
lived Marguerite alone, until finally a fishing-vessel ran in warily toward the smoke 
of her fire, and reflcoed her, after two yean of life among demons. 

From Cape Baald the coast runs S. by the French sealing-stations of 
Griguet, St. Lnnaire, Braha, and St. Anthony, to the deep indentation of 
Hare Bay^ which is 18 M. long and 6 M. wide. A short distance to the S. 
is the fine harbor of Croqut^ atavorite resort for the French fleets and a 
coaling-station for the steamers. The back coontry is dismal to the last 
degree. 

To the S. E. an file lai^e islands of Groais (7 X 3} M. in area)and Belle l8le(9 X 6 
M.). Running now to the S. W. by Cape Rouge and Botitot, Conche Harbor is seen 
ou the starboud bow, and Canada Bay is opened on the W. This great bay is 
12 M. long, and is entered through an intricate passage called the Narrows, beyond 
which it widens into a safe and capacious basin. The shores are solitary and de- 
serted, and fkr inland are seen the great hill-ranges called The Clouds. 7 M. to the 
8. W. is the entrance to Hooping Harbor, and 5 M. fkrther S. is Fourchette, 12 M. 
beyond which Is Great Hatrbor Deep, a long and narrow estuary with such a depth 
of water that vessels cannot anchor in it. This is at the W. entrance of White 
Bay, and Is 16 M. firom Partridge Point, the E. entrance. 

Wliite Bay is a fine sheet of water 46 M. long and 10 - 15 M. wide. It is very 
deep, and has no islands accept such as are close in shore. The fisheries are car- 
ried on here to a considerable extent, and at Cat Cove, Jackson's Arm, Chouse 
Brook, Wiseman's Cove, Seal Cove, and Lobster Harbor are small settlements of 
resident fishermen. Chouse Brook is situated amid noble scenery near the head 
of the bay, 60 M. by boat fh>m La Scie. On the highlands to the W. and S. of 
White Bay are the haunts of the deer, which are usually entered from Hall's Bay or 
Green Bay. 

8 M. S. E. of Partridge Point is La Fleur de Lis harbor, so named from 
the simulation of the royal flower by a group of three hills near its head. 
Running thence to the E., the entrances of Little Bay and Ming's Bight 
open on the starboard side, and on the port bow are the St. Barbe, or Horse 
Islands. About 20 M. from La Fleur de Lis is La Scie, the last settle 
ment on the French Shore, with its three resident families. A road leads S. 
7 M. from this point to Shoe Cove, on the Bay of Notre Dame (see page 
211); and5M. E. of La Scie is *Cape St. John, the boundary of the 
French Shore on the Atlantic. 

" The Cape is in fhll view, a promontory of shaggy precipices, suggestive of all the 
fiends of Pandemonium, rather than the lovely Apostle whose name has been gib- 
beted on the black and dismal crags. .... As we bear down toward the Cape, we 
pass Gull Isle, a mere pile of naked rocks delicately wreathed with lace-like mists. 
Imagine the last hundred feet of Conway Peak, the very finest of the New-Hampshire 
mountain-tops, pricking above the waves, and you will see thU IvtU'^ QU.t^QA,t» «xA 



222 RmUeSL CAPE ST. JOHN. 

bnakwater of Gape St. John.*' (Nobli.) The Gape presents by &r the grandest 
aoenery on the £. coast of Newfoundland, and is an unbroken wall of black rock, 
4 -£00 ft. high and 5 M. long, against whose immediate base the deep sea sweeps. 

"Or THK LANDES OF LaB&ADOR ANA BaOCALAOS, LTINO WeST AITO NOBTH-WSST FROM 

Englamdk, and beings pabte of the fibme lande of TBS West Indies. 

*' Many haue traualyed to search the coast of the lande of Laborador, as well to 
the intente to knowe howe &rre or whyther it reachethe, as also whether there bee 
any passage by sea throughe the same into the Sea of Sur and the Islandes of Maiuca, 
which are under the Equinoctiall line : thinky oge that the waye thy ther shulde greatly 
bee shortened by this vyagc. The Spanyardes, as to whose ryg^t the sayde islandes of 
spices perteyne, dyd fyrst seeke to fynde the same by this way. The Portugalee 
also hauynge the trade of spices in theyr handes, dyd trauayle to l^nde the same: 
although hetherto neyther anye suche passage is founde or the ende of that lande. 
In the yeare a thousande and fiue hundredth, Gaspar Cortesreales made a yyage 
thyther with two carauelles ; but found not the streyght or passage he sought. .... 
lie greatly maruayled to beholde the houge quantitie of snowe andise. For the 
sea is there froeen ezcedyngly. Thinhabitauntes are men of good corporature, al- 
though tawny like the Indiess, and laborious. They paynte theyr bodyes, and weare 
braselettes and hoopes of syluer and copper. Theyr apparel is made of the skynnes 
of martemes and dyvers other beastee, whiche they weare with the heareinwarde in 
wynter, and outwarde in soommer. This apparell they gyrde to theyr bodyes with 
gyrdels made of cotton or the synewes of fysshes and beAstes. They eate fysshe 
more than any other thynge, and especially salmons, althoughe they have foules 
and frute. They make theyr houses of timber, whereof they haue great plentie : 
and in the steade of tyles, couer them with the skynnes of iVssMeS' aiM -beastes. It 
is said also that there are grifes in this land : and that the beares and many other 
beastes and foules are white. To this and the islandes aboute the same, the Britons 
are accustomed to ref orte : as men of nature agreeable vnto them, and bom vnder 
the same altitude and temperature. The Norways also sayled thyther with the 
pylot cauled John Seoluo : and the Englyshe men with Sebastian Cabot. 

" The coaste of the lande of fiaccalaos is a'greate tracte, and the altitude thereof 
is xlviii degrees and a halfe. Sebastian Cabot wius the Qrrst that browght any knowl- 
eage of. this land. For being in Englande in the dayes of Kyng Henxy the Seuenth, 
he Aimyshed two shippes at his ownc charges or (as some say) at the kynges, whom 
he persuaded that a passage might bee found to Cathay by the North Seas, and that 
spices myght bee browght from thense soner by that way, then by the yyage the 
Portugales vse by the Sea of Sur. Ue went also to knowe what manor of landes 
those Indies were to inhabite. He had withe hym 800 men, and directed his course 
by the tracte of islande uppon the- Cape of Laborador at lyiii degrees : affirmynge 
that in the monethe of July there was such could and heapes of ise that he durst 
passe no further : also that the dayes were very longe, and in maner withowt nyght, 
and the nyghtes very cleare. Certeyne it is, that at the Ix degrees, the longest day 
is of xTiii houres. But consyderynge the coulde and the straungeness of the un- 
knowne lande, he turned his course from thense to the West, fblowynge the coast 
of the land of Baccalaos vnto the xxxviii degrees, from whense he returned to Eng- 
lande. To conclude, the Brytons and Danes have sayled to the Baccalaos ; and 
Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, was there twy^e with three galeons. 

*' Of these lands Jacobus Hastaldns wryteth thus : ' The Newe land of Baccalaos 
is a coulde region, whose inhabytauntes are idolatours, and praye to the soone and 
moone and dyvers idoles. They are whytc people, and very rustical. For they eate 
flesshe and fysshe and all other thynges rawe. Sumtymes also they eate mans 
flesshe priuilye, sp that theyr Caciqui have no knowleage thereof The apparell of 
both the men and women is made of beares skynnes, although they have sables and 
martemes, not greatly esteemed because they are ly ttle. Some of them go naked in 

soomer, and weare apparell only in wynter Northwarde from the region of 

Baccalaos is the land of Laborador, all full of mountay nes and great woodes, in whiche 
are manye beares and wylde boares. Thinhabitauntes are idolatoures and warlike 
people, apparelled as are they of Baccalaos. In all this newe lande is neyther dtie 
or castell| but they lyve in companies lyke heardes of beastes.' " 



LABKADOR 



Is the great peninsular portion of North America which lies to the N. and 
N. W. of Newfoundland, and is limited by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the 
ocean, and Hudson's Bay. It extends from about 50^* N. latitude to 60^, 
and the climate is extremely rigorous, the mean temperature at Nain 
being 32" 6'. The land is covered with low mountains and barren plateaus, 
on which are vast plains of moss interspersed with rocks and bowlders. 
There are no forests, and the inland region is dotted with lakes and 
swamps. There are reindeer, bears, foxes, wolves, and smaUer game; 
but their number is small and decreasing. The rivers and lakes swarm 
with fish, and the whole coast is famous for its valuable fisheries of cod 
and salmon. At least 1,000 decked vessels are engaged in the Labra- 
dor fisheries, and other fleets are devoted to the pursuit of seals. The 
commercial establishments here are connected with the great firms of 
England and the Channel Islands. The Esquimaux population is steadily 
dwindling away, and probably consists of 4,000 souls. 

" The coast of Labrador is the edge of a vast solitude of rocky hills, split and 
blasted by the frosts, and beaten by the waves of the Atlantic, for unknown ages. 
Every form into which rocks can be washed and broken is visible along its almost 
interminable shores. A grand headland, yellow, brown, and black, in its horrid 
nakedness, is ever in s^ht, one to the north of you, one to the south. Here and there 
upon them are stripes and patches of pale green, — mosses, lean graspes, and dwarf 
shrubbery. Occasionally, miles of precipice front the sea, in which the fancy may 
roughly shape all the structures of human art, — castles, palaces, and temples. Im- 
agine an entire side of Broadway piled up solidly, one, two, three hundred feet in 
height, often more, and exposed to the charge of the ^reat Atlantic rollers, rush- 
ing into the churches, halls, and spacious buildings, thundering through the door- 
ways, dashing in at the windows, sweeping up the lofty fronts, twisting the very 
cornices with silvery spray, /ailing back in bright green scrolls and cascades of sil- 
very foam ; and yet, all this inuigined, can never reach the sentiment of these 
precipices. More frequent than headlands and perpendicular sea-fronts are the 
Fea-9lopes, often bald, tame, and wearisome to the eye, now and then the perfection 
of all that is picturesque and rough, — a precipice gone to pieces, its softer por- 
tions dissolved down to its roots, its flinty bones left standing, a savage Scene that 
scares away all thoughts of order and design in nature. .... This is the rosy time 
of Labrador (July). The blue interior l3lis, and the stony vales that wind up 
among them from the sea, have a summer-like and pleasant air. I find myself 
peopling these regions, and dotting their, hills, valleys, and wild shores with human 
habitations. A second thought — and a mournful one it is — tells me that no men 
toil in the fields away there ; no women keep the house off there ; there no children 
play by the brooks or shout around the country school-house ; no bees come home 
to the hive ; no smoke curls from the fitrm-house chimney ; no orchard blooms ; 
no bleating sheep fleck the mountain-sides with whiteness, and no h^er lows in 
tlie twiUght. There is nobody there ; there never was but a miserable and scat- 



224 EouUeg. BATTLE HARBOR 

tered few, and there nerer will be. It is a great and terrible wildercesit of a tboa- 
Mnd miles, and lonesome to the very wild animals and birds. Left to the still -vis- 
itation of the light fi:t>m the sun, moon, and stars, and the auroral fires, it is- only 
fit to look upon and then be given over to its primeval solitariness. But for the 
living things of its waters, — the cod, the salmon, and the seal, — which bring thou- 
sands of adventurous fishermen and traders to its bleak shores, Labrador would be 
as desolate as Greenland. 

*' For a few days the woolly flocks of New England would thrive in Labrador. 
During these few days there are thousands of her teiit daughters who would love to 
tend them. I prophesy the time is coming when the invalid and tourist from the 
States will be often found spending the brief but lovely summer here, notwithstand- 
ing its ruggedness and desolation." (Bxy. L. L. NoBLS.) 

" Wild are the waves which lash the reefs along St. George's bank ; 
Cold on the coast of Labrador the fog lies white and dank ; 
Through storm, and wave, and blin^ng mist, stout are the hearts which man 
The fishing-smacks of Marblehead, the sea-boata of Cape Ann. 

" The cold north light and wintry sun glare on their icy forms, 
Bent grimly o'er their straining lines, or wrestling with the storms ; 
Free as the winds they drive before, rough as the waves they roam. 
They laugh to scorn the slaver's threat against their rocky home." 

John O. Whitiiib. 

62. The Atlantic Coast of Labrador, to the Moraviaa KLsh 

sions and Greenland. 

The mailHsteamer Hercules leaves Battle Harbor fortnightly during the sum- 
mer. 

Battle Harbor is a sheltered roadstead between the Battle Islands and 
Great Caribou Island, It M. long and quite narrow. It is a great resort for 
fishermen, whose vessels crowd the harbor and are moored to the bold 
rocky shores. Small houses and stages occupy every point along the 
sides of the roadstead, and the place is very lively during the fishing sea- 
son. On the W. is Great Caribou Island, which is 9 M. around, and the 
steep-shored S. E. Battle Island is the easternmost land of the Labrador 
coast. The water is of great depth in this vicinity, and is noted for its 
wonderful ground-swell, which sometimes sweeps into St. Lewis Sound in 
lines of immense waves during the calmest days of autumn, dashing h|g}i 
over the islets and ledges. An Episcopal church and cemetery were con- 
secrated here by Bishop Field in 1860, and the nephew of Wordsworth 
(the poet) was for some years its rector. The first Esquimaux convert 
was baptized in 1857. 

Fox Harbor is 3-4 hours* sail from Battle Island, across St. Lewis 
Sound, and is an Esquimaux village with igloes, kayaks, and other curious 
things pertaining to this unique people. There is a wharf, projecting into 
the narrow harbor (which resembles a mountain-lake); and the houses are 
clustered about a humble little Episcopal church. 

" Carlbon Island fronts to the N. on the bay 5 -6 M , I should think, and is 

a ragged mountain-pile of dark gray rock, rounded in its upper masses, and slashed 

along its shores with abrupt chasms. It drops short off, at its eastern extremity, 

/oto A narro'tr gulf of deep water. This is Battle Harbor. The billowy pile of igneous 

rock, perhaps 250 ft. hifch, Wing between this quiet water and the broad Atlantic, is 

BtUtle Jaland, and the site of the to^m XX. Wi&a moment (July) the rocky isle. 



SANDWICH BAY. RauU 62, 225 

bomlMurded bj the ooean, and flayed by the ewoird of the blast fat months In the 
year, is a little paradise of beauty. There are fields of mossy carpet that sinks be- 
neath the foot, with beds of such delicate flowers as one seldom sees I hare 

never seen such fairy loveliness as I find here upon this bleak islet, where nature 
seems to have been playing at Switserland. Oreen and yellow mosses, ankle-deep 
and spotted with blood-red stains, carpet the crags and little vales and cradle-like 
hoUowB. Wonderful to behold ! flowers pink and white, yellow, red, and blue, are 
countless as dew-drops, and breathe out upon the pure air their odor, so spirit-like. 
.... Little gorges and chasms, overhung with miniature precipices, wind gracefully 
from the summits down to meet the waves, and are filled, where the sun can warm 
them, with all bloom and sweetness, a kind of wild gieexmoose." 

The course is laid from Battle Harbor N. across St. Lewis Sounds which 
is 4 M. wide and 10 M. deep (to Fly Island, beyond which is the St. Lewis 
Biver, which contains myriads of salmon). Passing the dark and rugged 
hills (500 ft. high) of Cape St. Lewis, the steamer soon reaches the small 
but secure haven of Spear Harbor , where a short stop is made. The next 
port is at St. Francis Harbor, which is on Granby Island, in the estuary 
of the deep and navigable Alexis River. An Episcopal church is located 
here. In this vicinity are several precipitous insulated rocks, rising from 
the deep sea. The harbor is j| M. W. of Cape St. Francis, and is deep and 
well protected, being also a favorite resort for the fishing fleets. 

Cape St, Michael is next seen on the W., 11 M. above Cape St. Francis, 
with its mountainous promontory sheltering an island-studded bay. Be- 
yond the dark and rugged Square Island is the mail-port of Dead Island. 
Crossing now the month of St. Michael's Bay, and passing Cape Bluff 
(which may be seen for 60 M. at sea), the steamer next stops between 
Venison Island and the gloomy cliffs beyond. Running next to the N., 
on the outside of a great archipelago, the highlands of Partridge Bay are 
slowly passed. 

The Seal Islands are 24 M. N. E. of Cape St. Michael, and 18 M. beyond 
is Spotted Island, disthiguished by several white spots on its lofty dark 
cliffs. To the E. is the great Island of Ponds, near which is BaUeau Har- 
bor, a mail-port at which a call is made. The next station is at Indian 
Tickle, which is a narrow roadstead between Indian Island and the high- 
lands of Mulgrave Land. Stopping next at S. E. Cove, the course is laid 
from thence to Indian Harbor, on the W. side of Huntington Island. This 
island is 7 M. long, and shelters the entrance to Sandwich Bay (the Esqui- 
maux Netsbuctoke), which is 6-9 M. wide and 64 M. deep, with 13-40 
fathoms of water. There are many picturesque islands in this bay, and on 
the N. shore are the Mealy Mts., reaching an altitude of 1,482 ft. On the 
W. side are Eagle and West Rivers, filled ^ith salipon; and East River 
runs into the bottom of the bay, coming from a large lake where immense 
numbers of salmon, trout, and pike may be found, 4 M. from the mouth 
of East River is the small settlement of Parooftse. 

At the head of this great bay are The Narrows, with Mount Nat and its bold 
foothills on the S. " On efther ^dp hill* towered to the height of a thousand feet, 
wooded with spruce fW>m base to summllfc, and these twin escarpments abutted ran(Bes 

10* '^ 



226 Route 69^, MORAVIAN MISSIONS. 

of bold binflb whose shadows seemed almost to meet midway in the narrow channel 
that separated them. Through this grand gloomy portal there was an nnbroken 
Tista for miles, until the channel made an abrupt turn that hid the water from 
view ; but the great gorge continued on beyond till it was lost in blue shadow.'' 
On the N. shore of the Narrows is the Hudson's Bay Company's post of Rigolette, 
occupying the site of an older French trading-station. At the head of the Narrows 
is MelTille Lake, a great inland sea, all along whose S. shore are the weird and won- 
derful yolcanic pet^s of the lofty Mealy Mountains. 120 M. S. W. of Rigolette, by 
this route, is the H. B. Company's post of Nonvest, situated a little way up the 
N. W. River, near great spruce forests. This is the ctdef trading-post of the Moun- 
taineers, a tribe of the great Cree nation of the West, and a tali, gracefiil, and spir^ 
ited people. In 1840 they first opened communication with the whites, it was this 
Uibe, which, issuing from the interior highlands in resistless forays, nearly exter> 
minated the Esquimaux of the coast. 900 M. fh>m Fort Norwest is Fort Naseopie, 
situated on the Heights of Land, Ikr in the dark and solitary interior. In that vicin- 
ity are the Grand Falls, which the voyagettrs claim are 1,000 ft. high, but F^tor 
McLean says are 400 ft. high, — and below them the broad river flashes down through 
a caBon &J0 ft. deep, for over 80 M. 300 M. from Fort Nascopie are the shores of 
Ungava Bay. (The Esquimaux-Bay district is well described in an article by Charles 
Hallock, Harper's Magazine, YoL XXII.) 



The Moravians state that the Esquimaux are a proud and enterprising people, low 
in stature, with coarse features, small hands and feet, and black wiry hair. The 
men are expert in fishing, catching seals, and managing the light and graceful boat 
called the kayaks which outrides the rudest surges of the sea ; while the women are 
skilfiil in making garments from skins. Agriculture is impossible, because the 
country is covered with snow and ice for a great ^axt of the year. They call them- 
selves Jnnuits (" men "), the term Esquimaux (meaning " eaters of raw flesh ") 
being applied to them by the hostile tribes to the W. On the 600 M. of the Atlantic 
coast of Labrador there are about 1,000 of these people, most of whom have been 
converted by the Moravians. They live about the misttions in winter, and assemble 
firom the remotest points to celebrate the mysteries of the Passion Week in the 
churches. They were heathens and demon-worshippers until 1770, when the Monir 
vian Brethren occupied the coast under permission of the British Crown. They were 
formerly much more numerous, but have been reduced by long wan with the 
Mountaineers of the interior and by the ravages of the small-pox. The practice of 
polygamy has ceased among the tribes, and their marriages are celebrated by the 
Moravian ritual. The missionaries do considerable trading with the Indians, and 
keep magazines of provisions at their villages, from which the natives are freely fed 
during seasons of fkmine. At each station are a church, a store, a mission-house, 
and shops and warm huts for the converted and civilized Esquimaux, who are fiuit 
learning the mechanic arts. The Moravian mission-ship makes a yearly visit to the 
Labrador station, replenishing the supplies and carrying away cargoes of furs. 

Hopedale is 300 M. N. W. of the Strait of Belle Isle, and is one of the 
chief Moravian missions on the Labrador coast. . It was founded in 1782 by the en- 
voys of the church, and has grown to be a centre of civilizing influences on this 
dreary coast. Its last statistics claim for it 35 houses, with 46 fiunilies and 248 per- 
sons ; 49 boats and 49 kayaks ; and a church containing 74 communicants and 85 
baptized children. The mean annual temperature here is 27° 82'. The church is a 
neat plain building, where the men and women occupy opposite sideSi and Qerman 
hymns are sung to the accompaniment of the violin. 

Nalii is about 80 M. N. W. of Hopedale, and has about 300 inhabitants, of whom 
05 are coinmunicants and 94 are baptized children. It was founded by three Mora* 
Tians in 1771, and occupies a beautiftil position, ftcing the ocean fh>m the bottom 
of a narrow haven. It is in 67° N. latitude (same latitude as the Hebrides), and the 
thermometer sometimes marks 76° in summer, while spirits freeze in the intense cold 
of winter. Okkak is about 120 M. N. W. of Nain, towards Hudson Strait, and is a 
very successful mission which dates from 1776. The station of Hebron is still fitrther 
up the coast, and has about 300 inhabitants. 

Par away to the N. E., across the broad openings of Davis Strait, is 
Cape Desolation) in Greenland, near the settlements of JtUianshaab, 



CHATEAU BAY. Route 63. 227 

63. Tke Labrador Coast of the Strait of Belle Ida 

At Battle Harbor the Northern Coastal steamer connects with the 
Labrador mail-boat, which proceeds S. W. across the mouth of St. Charles 
Channel, and touches at Cape Charles, or 8t. Charles Harbor, entering be- 
tween Fishflake and Blackbill Islands. This harbor is deep and secure 
(though small), and is a favorite resort for the fishermen. As the steamer 
passes the Cape, the round hill of St. Charles may be seen about 1 M. 
inland, and is noticeable as the loftiest highland in this district. Niger 
Sound and the Camp Islands (250 '300 ft. high) are next passed, and a 
landing is made at Chimney Tickle. 1^ M. S. W. of the Camp Islands is 
Torrent Point, beyond which the vessel passes Table Head, a very pic- 
turesque headland, well isolated, and with a level top and precipitous 
sides. It is 200 ft. high, and is chiefly composed of symmetrical columns 
of basalt. To the S. are the barren rocks of the Peterel Isles and St. 
Peter's Isles, giving shelter to St. Peter's Bay. In the S. E. may be seen 
the dim lines of the distant coast of Belle Isle. On the N. is the bold 
promontory of Sandwich Head. The deep and narrow Chateau Bay now 
opens to the N. W., guarded by the cliffs of York Point (1.) and Chateau 
Point (on Castle Island, to the r.), and the steamer ascends its tranquil 
sheet. Within is the noble fiord of Temple Bay, 6 M. long, and lined by 
lofty highlands, approached through the Temple Pass. On the r. is the 
ridge of the High Beacon (969 ft.). Cliateau is a small permanent village, 
with a church and a large area offish-stages. In the autumn and winter 
its inhabitants retire into the back country, for the sake of the fuel which 
is afforded by the distant forests. The port and harbor are named for the 
remarkable rocks at the entrance. There are fine trouting-streams up 
Temple Bay; and vast numbers of curlews visit the islands in August. 

" This castle ia a most remarkable pile of basaltic rock, rising in vertical columns 
from an insulated bed of granite. Its height from the level of the ocean is upward 
of 200 ft. It is composed of regular five-eiid«l prisms, and on «11 sides the ground is 
Ftrewn with single blocks and clusters that h&ve become detached and fallen from 

. their places [It] seemed like some grim fortress of the feudal ages, from whose 

embrasures big-mouthed cannon were ready to belch forth flame and smoke. On the 
very vergewof the parapet a cross stood out in bold relief in the gleaming moonlight, 
like a sentinel upon his watch-tower." (Hallook, describing Castle Island.) 

Chateau was formerly considered the key of the northern fisheries, and its pos- 
session was hotly contested by the English and French. At the time of the de- 
population of Acadia a number of its people fled hither and established a strong 
fortress. This work still remains, and consists of a bastioned star-fort in masonry, 
with gun-platforms, magazines, and block-houses, surrounded by a deep fosse, be- 
yond which were earthworks and lines of stockades. It was abandoned in 1753, 
and is now overgrown with thickets. In 1763 a British garrison was located at 
Chateau, in order to protect the fisheries, but the place was captured in 1778 by the 
American privateer Minerca, and 3 vessels and £ 70,000 worth of property were 
carried away as prizes. In 1796 the post was a^dn attacked by a French fleet. A 
long bombardment ensued between the frigates and the shore-batteries, and it was 
not until their ammunition was exhausted that the British troops retreated into the 
\::>rk country, after having burnt the village. In 1536 the French exploring fleet 
Ui.uLr the command of Jaques Carticr assembled here. 



228 RouUeS. STRAIT OP BELLE ISLE. 

After emerging from Chateau Bay, the course is laid around York 
Point, and the Strait of Belle Isle is entered (with Belle Isle itself 18 
M. £.)• The Labrador coast is now followed for about 25 M., with the 
stem front of its frowning cliffs slightly indented by the insecure havens 
of Wreck, Barge, and Greenish Bays. Saddle Island is now seen, with 
its two rounded hills, and the steamer glides into Red Bay, an excellent 
refuge in whose inner harbor vessels sometimes winter. Large forests are 
seen at the head of the water, and scattering lines of huts and stages show 
evidences of the occupation of the hardy northern fishermen. Starting 
once more on the voyage to the S. W., at 7 M. from Red Bay are seen the 
Little St Modeste Islands, sheltering Black Bay, beyond which Cape 
Diable is passed, and Diable Bay (4 M. W. S. W. of Black Bay). 8 M. 
farther to the W. the steamer enters Loup Bay, rounding high red cliffs, 
and touches at the fishing-establishment and hamlet of Lance^au-Loigp 
(which views the Newfoundland coast from Point Ferolle to Cape Nor- 
man). Field-ice is sometimes seen off* this shore in the month of June. 
Capt. Bayfield saw 200 icebergs in the strait in August. 

The coarse is now laid to the S. W. for 8-4 M., to round Point Amonr, 
which is at the narrowest part of the strait, and has a fixed light, 165 ft. 
high, and visible for 18 M. From the Red Cliffs, on the E. of Loup Bay, 
it is but 11 M. S. S. E. to the coast of Newfoundland. 

" The Battery, as sailors call it, is a wall of red sandstone, 2-8 M. in extent, with 
.hortsontal lines extending from one extreme to the other, and perpendicular fissures 
resembling embrasures and gateways. Swelling out with grand proportions toward 
the sea, it has a most military and picturesque appearance. At one point of this 
huge citadel of solitude there is the resemblance of a giant portal, with stupendous 
piers 200 ft. or more in eleTation. They are much broken by the yearly assaults of 
the frost, and the eye darts up the ruddy ruins in surprise. If there was anything 
to defend, here is a Gibraltar at hand, with comparatively small labor, whose guns 
could nearly cross the strait. Beneath its precipitous cUGEb the debris slopes like 
a glacis to the beach, with both smooth and broken surfaces, and all very hand- 
somely decorated with rank herbage The red sandstone shore is exceedingly 

picturesque. It has a right royal presence along the deep. Lofty semicircular 
promontories descend in regular terrkces nearly down, then sweep out gracefully 
with an ample lap to the nuugin. No art could produce better effect. The long 
terraced galleries are touched with a tender green, and the well-hollowed vales, now 
and then occurring, and ascending to the distant horizon between ranks of rounded 
hills, look green and pasture-like. .... Among the very pretty and refreshing fea- 
tures of the coast are its brooks, seen occasionally fiilling over the rocks in white 
cascades. Harbors are passed now and then, witii small fishing-fleets and dwell- 
ings." (NOBLI.) 

The steamer enters Forteau Bay, and runs across to the W. shore, where 
are the white houses of a prosperous fishing-establishment, with an Epis- 
copal church and rectory. About the village are seen large Esquimaux 
dogs, homely, powerful, and intelligent. This bay is the best in the strait, 
and is much frequented by the French fishermen, for whose convenience 
one of the Jersey companies has established a station here. On the same 
side of the harbor a fine cascade (100 ft high) is seen pouring over the 
clitfSf and the fresh-water stream which empties at the head of the bay 
containa large numbers of salmon. 



BLANC SABLON. R<mU64. 229 

7 M. beyond Forteau, Wood Island is passed, and the harbor of Blano 
SaUon is entered. To the W. are Bradore Bay and Bonne Esperance Bay, 
with their trading-stations ; and a few miles to the N. W. are the Bradore 
Hills, several rounded summits, of which the chief is 1,264 ft. high. 

Blano Sablon is on the border-line between the sections of Labrador 
which belong, the one to the Province of Quebec, the other to Newfound- 
land. It is named from the white sands which are brought down the 
river at the head of the bay. Several of the great fishing-companies of 
the Isle of Jersey have stations here, and the harbor is much visited in 
summer. Blanc Sablon is at the W. entrance to the Strait of Belle Isle, 
and it is but 21 M. from the Isle-k-Bois (at the mouth of the bay) to the 
Newfoundland shore. The village is surrounded by a line of remarkable 
terraced hills. On Greenly Island^ just outside of the harbor, 32 sail of 
fishing-vessels were lost on the night of July 2, 1856. 

Following the trend of the N. coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Blanc 
Sablon is distant from Esquimaux Bay 20 M., from Quebec nearly 800 M., 
and (in a straight line) 218 M. from Anticosti (see Route 65). 

From Blanc Sablon the steamer retraces her course through the Strait 
of Belle Isil^ to Battle Harbor. 

64. The Labrador Ctoast of the Onlf of St Lawrence.— The 



The ports along this coast may be reached by the American fishingHSchoonera, 
from Gloucester, although there can be no certainty when or where they will touch. 
Boats may be hired at Bluic Sablon to convey passengers to the W. 

Quebec to the Moisic River, 

The steamer Margaretta Stevenson leaves Quebec for the Moisic River every week, 
and may be hired to call at intermediate ports. The passage occupies 90-40 hours, 
and the cabin-fiure is 929 (including meals). The round trip to Moisic and back 
takes nearly a week. 

The N. shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence is a region which is unique in its dreari- 
ness and desolation. The scenery is wild and gloomy, and the shore is faced with 
barren and storm-beaten hills. The climate is rigorous in the extreme. This dis- 
trict is divided into three parts, — the King's Posts, with 270 M. of coast, from Port 
Neuf to Cape Cormorant ; the Seigniory Qf Mingan, from Cape Cormorant to the 
River Agwanus (136 M.) ; and the Labrador, extending from the Agwanus to Blanc 
Sablon (156 M.). Along this 661 M. of coast there are (census of 1861) but 6,413 in- 
habitants, of whom 2,612 are French Canadians and 888 are Indians. 1,764 are fish- 
ermen, and 1,038 hunters. In the 660 M. there are but 380 houses, 67K arpents of 
cultivated land, and 12 horses. There axe 8,841 Catholics,- 670 Protestants, and 2 
Jews. 

The wide Bradore Bay is near Blanc Sablon, to the W., and has been 
called *' the most picturesque spot on the Labrador." In the back coun- 
try are seen the sharp peaks of the Bradore Hills, rising from the wilder- 
ness (1,264 ft. high). The bay was formerly celebrated for its numerous 
humpbacked whales* The village is on Point Jones, on the £. side of 
the bay. 



230 Mcmte 64. 



ESQUIMAUX BAY. 



Bradore Bay is of great extent, and is Btndded with cltusters of islets, which 
make brocul divisions of the roadstead. It was known in ancient times as La Bale 
des llettes, and was granted by France to the Sieur Le Oardeur de Courtemanche 
(who, according to tradition, married a Princess of France, the daughter of Henri 
lY .). That nobleman sent out agents and officers, named the n£w port Philypeaux^ 
and built at its entrance a bulwark called Fort Pontchartrain. From him it de- 
scended to Sieur Foucher, who added the title *' de Labrador " to his name ; and there 
still exists a semi-noble fiuuily in France, bearing the name of Foucher de Labrador. 

On this bay was the town of Brest, which, it is claimed, was founded by men 
of Brittany, in the year 1508. If this statement is correct, Brest was the first Euro- 
pean settlement in America, antedating by over thirty years the foundation of St. 
Augustine, in Florida. In 1535 Jaques Cartier met French vessels searching for this 
port. About the year 1600 Brest was at the he^ht of its prosperity, and had 1,000 
permanent inhabitants, 200 houses, a governor and an almoner, and strong fortifica- 
tions. After the subjugation 6f the Esquimaux by the Montaignius, it was no longer 
dangerous to establish small fishing-stations along the coast, and Brest began to 
decline rapidly. Ruins of its ancient works may still be found here. 

The Bay of Bonne-Eiperance is one of the most capacious on this coast, 
and is sheltered from the sea by a double line of islets. The port is called 
Bonny by the American fishermen, who resort here in great numbers 
during the herring-season. The islands before the harbor were passed by 
Jaques Cartier, who said that they were ** so numerous that it is not pos- 
sible to count them." They were formerly (and are sometimes now) called 
Les Isles de la Demoiselle; and Th^vet locates here the tragedy of Rober- 
val's niece Marguerite (see page 221). 

EgqaixnaTix Bay is N. of Bonne-Esperance, and is 8 M. in circumference. 
2 M. above Esquimaux Island is a small trading-post, above which is the 
mouth of the river, abounding in -salmon. There is a great archipelago 
between the bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. On one of these islands 
an ancient fort was discovered in the year 1840. It was built of stone and 
turf, and was surrounded by great piles of human bones. It is supposed that 
the last great battle between the French and Montaignais and the Esquimaux 
took place here, and that the latter were exterminated in their own fort. 

13 M. W. of Whale Island are Mistanoque Island and Shecatica Bay, beyond Lob- 
ster and Rocky Harbors. Port St. Augustine is 15 M. W. of Mistanoque, beyond 
Shag Island and the castellated highlands of Cumberland Harbor. A line of high 
islands extends hence 21 M. W. by S. to Great Meccatina Island^ a granite rock 2x3 
M. in area, and 500 ft. high. The scenery in this vicinity is remaikable for its gran- 
deur and singular features. 58 M. from Great Meccatina Island is Cape Whittle ; and 
in the intervening course the Watagheistic Sound and Wapitagun Harbor are passed. 
A fringe of islands extends for 6-8 M. off this coast, of wUch the outermost are 
barren rocks, and the large inner ones are covered with moss-grown hills. 



** Now, brother*, for the icebei^gi 

Of frozen JLubrador, 
Floating spectral in the moonshine 

Along the low black shore ! 
"Where like snow the gannet's feathers 

On Bmdor s rocks are shed, 
And the noisy tnurr are flying, 

Like black scuds, overhead ; 

** Where in mist the rock is hiding. 
And the sharp reef lurks below. 
And the white squall lurks in summer, 

And the autumn tempests blow ; 
Where, through gray and rolling vapor, 
From evening unto mom, 
A thousand boats are hailing, 
Horn answering unto horu. 



** Hurrah ! for the Red Island, 

With the white cross on its crown 1 
Hurrah I for Meccatina, 

And its mountains bare and brown I 
Where the Caribou's tall antlers 

O'er the dwarf -wood freely toss. 
And the footstep of the Mickmack 

Has no sound upon the moss. 

• • • • « 

** Hurrah I — hurrah I — the west-wind 
Comes freshening down the bay. 
The rising sails are filling, — 

Give way, my lads, give way I 
lAaN^VIIcvQ covrard landsmen clinging 
To \)\« ^\]^««x\icv.A^«' a weed, — 
TYve *\«ta q1 Vkftvjwv. AvsN^ ^v\^.% \\« 

Sous Qt.'WaYtTYiiB;^ SonQQtt ih» ¥\»a«xtiwiu 



THE MINQAN ISLANDS. R(mU64. 231 

From the quantity of wreck foand among theae islaada, no doabt many melan- 
choly shipwrecks have taken place, wliich have never been beard of; even if the 
unfortunate crews landed on the barren rocks, they woold perish of cold and hunger. 

The "eggers" carry on their illegal business along these shores, wbere milliona 
of sea-birds liave their breeding-places. They laud on the islands and break all tbe 
^^, and when the birds lay fresh ones they gatlier^tbem up, and load their boats. 
There are about 20 vessels engaged in tliis contraband trade, carrying the eggs to 
Ilali&x, Quebec, and Boston. " These men combine together, and form a strong com- 
pany. They suffer no one to interfere with their boidneflB, driving away the fisher- 
men or any one else that attempts to collect ^gs near wliere they lutppen to be. 
Might makes right with them, if our informatitm be true. They liave arms, and 
are said by the fishermen not to be scrupulous in tlie use of them. As soon as tbey 
have filled one vessel with eggs, they send her to marlcet ; otliers follow in succtf»> 
sion, so that the market is always supplied, but never overstocked. One vessel of 26 
tons is said to have cleared £ 200 by Uiis * egging ' buainesa in a fitvonble season." 
(^Nautical Magazine.) 

To the W. of Cape Whittle are the Wolf, Coacocho, Olomanosheebo, 
Wash-shecootai, and Musquarro Biyers, on the last three of which are 
posts of the Hudson's Bay Ck)mpany. Next come the Kegashka Bay and 
Biver, the cliffs of Mont Joli, the cod banks ofif Natashqoan Point, and 
several obscure rivers. 

The MiTignTi Islands are 29 in number, and lie between the moun- 
tainous shores of lower Labrador and the island of AnticostL They 
abound in geological phenomena, ancient beaches, denuded rocks, etc., 
and are of very picturesque contours. About their shores of limestone 
are thick forests of spruce, birch, and poplar; seals and codfish abound 
in the adjacent waters; and wild fowl are very plentiful in the proper sea- 
son. Large Island is 11 M. in circumference; and Mingan, Quarry, 
Niapisca, Esquimaux, and Charles Islands are 2-8 M. in length. They 
front the Labrador coast for a distance of 45 M. 

There are about 600 inhabitants near the islands, most of whom are In- 
dians and French Acadians, for whose spiritual guidance the Oblate Fathers 
have established a mission. The chief village is at Mingan Harbor, on 
the mainland, back of Harbor Island; and here is a post of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. The harbor is commodious and easy of access, and has 
been visited by large frigates. The salmon and trout fisheries of the 
Seigniory of Mingan are said to be the best in the world. Long Point is 
due N. of the Perroquets, 6 M. from Mingan Harbor, and is a modem fish- 
ing-village fronting on a broad beach. The fish caught and cured here 
are sent to Spain and Brazil, and form an object of lucrative traffic. The 
fishermen are hardy and industrious men, generally quiet, but turbulent 
and desperate during their long drinkmg-bouts. 

The Seigniory of the Mingan Islands and the a4Jacent mainland was granted to 
the Sieur Francois Bissot in 1661 , and the feudal rights thus conveyed and still main- 
tained by the owners have greatly retarded the progress of this district. The walrus 
fisheries were formerly of great value here, and thdr memory is preserved by Walru* 
Island, on whose shores the great searcows used to land. " In 1862 there was not a 
single establislmient on the coast, between tbe Bay of Mingan and the Seven Isles, 
and not a quintal of codfish was taken, esEoept on tbe baiuui of Mingan and at the 
Biver St. John, which the American fishermen have ficex^saasoiuiAL^scR: \sanc^ ^«kx%. 
Kow, there is not a river, a cove, a creek , w\nc\i \b liot ott\x^\t^^«xA «^«rj ^'Oix^ioie** 



232 EouUei THE MINQAN ISLANDS. 

are taken 80-85,000 quintals of cod, withont eonnting other fish." ** The once 
desolate coasts of Mingan have acqabed, by immigration, a vigorous, moral, and 
truly Catholic population. The men are generally strong and robust, and above all 
they are hardy seamen." 

On the W. edge of the Mingan Islands are the Perroquets, a cluster of 
low rocks where great numbers of puffins burrow and rear their young. 
On these islets the steamships Clyde and North Briton were wrecked (in 
1867 and 1861). 

A beach of white sand extends W. from Long Point to the 8t. John 
Miver, a distance of 18-20 M. The river is marked by the tall adjacent 
peak of Mount St. John (1,416 ft. high); and furnishes very good fishing 
(see G. C. Scott's " Fishing in American Waters "). 

The Manitou River is 84 M. W. of the St. John, and at 1^ M. from its mouth it 
makes a grand leap over a cliff 118 ft. high, forming the most magnificent cataract 
on the N. shore. The coast Indians still repeat the legend of the invasion of this 
country by the Micnuu» (finom Acadia), 200 years ago, and its heroic end. The hos- 
tile war-party encamped at the &lls, intending to attack the Montaignais at the 
portages, for which purpose forces were stationml above and below. But the local 
tribes detected their presence, and cut off the guards at the canoes, then surprised 
the detachment below the fidls, and finally attacked the main body above. After 
the unsparing carnage of a long night-battle, the Micmacs were conquered, all save 
their great wizard-chief, who stood on the verge of the fiUls. singing songs of de- 
fiance. A Montaignais chief rushed forward to take him, when the bold Mksmao 
seised his opponent and leaped with him into the foaming waters. They were both 
borne over the precipice, and the fidls have ever since been known as the Manitoudn 
(Ck>njurer's) Falls. 

The Moigic Biver is about 40 M. W. of the Manitou River, and empties 
into a broad bay which receives also the Trout River. At this point are 
the Moisic Iron Works, near which there are about 700 inhabitants, most of 
whom are connected with the mines. This company has its chief office 
in Montreal, and runs a weekly steamer between Moisic and Quebec (see 
page 231). There is a hotel here, where visitors can get plain fare at $6 
a week (no liquors on the premises). Large quantities of codfish and sal- 
mon are exported from Moisic. 

The Seven Islands are a group of barren "mountain-peaks, starting 
suddenly from the ocean," and situated several leagues W. of the mouth 
of the Moisic River, They were visited by Cartier (1635), who reported 
that he saw sea-horses here; and in 1731 they were included in the 
Domaine du Moi, The trading-post which was established here by the 
French, 140 years ago, subsequently reverted to the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, and is visited by 3-400 Nasquapee Indians. Since the departure 
of the H. B. Company, the post itself has lost its importance, but all ves- 
sels trading on the N. shore are now obliged to get their clearances here. 
The Montaignais Indians had a broad trail running thence up a vast and 
desolate valley to Lake St. John, 300 M. S. W., and the Moisic River was 
part of the canoe-route to Hudson's Bay. The Montaignais were here 
secure from the attacks of the dreaded. Mohawks on the one side, and the 
znaritime Esquimaux on the other, and Ykfeie \\»^ Te<iw<^^\\!ka Jesuit mis- 



THE SEVEN ISLANDS. JtouU 64. 233 

The seeneiy of the Bay of Seren IsIaacUi is tuned for its wild beaaty and wefatl 
desolation. The bay is 7 M. long, and is sheltered by the islands and a moantainooa 
promontory on the W. The immediate shore is a fine sandy beach, back of which 
are broad lowlands, and " the two parallel ranges of mountains, whkh add so much 
to the beauty of the distant scenery of this bay, look like huge and impenetrable 
barriers between the coast and the howling wilderness beyond them." In the iipring 
and autumn this bay is yisited by myriads of ducks, geese, brant, and other wild 
fowl, and the salmon-fisliing in the adjacent streams is of great value. The Great 
Botue is Uie loftiest of the Seren Islands, reaching an altitude of 700 ft. above the 
sea, and commanding a broad and magnificent view. There are about 800 inhab- 
itants here, a large proportion of whom are Indians who are engaged in the fur- 
trade. On Carrousel Jskmd is a fixed light, 195 ft. above the sea, which is visible 
for 20 M. 

From Carrousel Island to the St. Margaret River it is 8 M.; to the 
Cawee Islands, 24; to Sproule Point, 28; and still farther W. are the 
Pentecost Biver and English Point, off which are the Egg Islands, bear- 
ing a revolving white light, which warns off mariners from one of the most 
dangerous points on the coast. 

In the spring of 1711 the British government sent against Quebec 15 men-of-war, 
under Admiral Sir Hovenden Walker, and 40 transports containing 5,000 veteran 
soldiers. During a terrible August storm, while they were ascending the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, the fleet drove down on the Egg Islands. The frigates were saved 
fix)m the shoals, but 8 transports were wrecked, with 1,383 men on board, and 
'* 884 bravo fellows, who had passed scathless through the sanguinary battles of 
Blenheim, RamiUies, and Ondenarde, perished miserably on the desolate shore* 
of the St. Lawrence." This terrible loss was the cause of the total fiiilure of the ex- 
pedition. The French vessels which visited the isles after Walker's disaster " found 
the wrecks of 8 large vessels, from which the cannon and beet articles had been re- 
moved, and nearly 3,000 persons drowned, and their bodies lying along the shore. 
They recc^nized among them two whole companies of the Queen's Guards, dis- 
tinguished by their r^ coats, and several Scotch fiunilies. intended as settlen in 
Canada," among them seven women, all clasping each other's hands. The regi- 
ments of Kaine, Windresse, Sc^rmour, and Clayton were nearly annihilated in this 
wreck. *^ The French colony could not but recognise a Providence which watched 
singularly over its preservation, and which, not satisfied with rescuing it from 
the greatest danger it had yet run, had oiriched it with the spoils of an enemy 
whom it had not had the pains to conquer ; hence they rendered Him most heart- 
felt thanks." (Chablxvoiz.) 

Beyond the hamlet on Caribou Point and the deep bight of Trinity Bay 
is Point de Monts (or, as some say, PoitU aux Demons)^ 280 M. from Que- 
bec. There is a powerful fixed light on this promontory. 8 M. beyond is 
Godbota, with its fur-trading post; and 9 M. farther W. is Cape St Nicho- 
las. 18 M. from the cape is Manicouagan Point, 20 M. W. of which is the 
great Indian trading-post at the Bersimu River, where 700 Indians have 
their headquarters; thence to Cape Colombier it is 11^ M.; and to the 
church and fort at PoH Neufit is 12 M. Point Mille Vaches is opposite 
Biquette, on the S. shore of the St Lawrence, and is near the 8auU de 
MoutoHf a fall of 80 ft. There are several settlements of French Catholic 
farmers along the shore. At Les Etcoumaxne there are 600 inhabitants 
and considerable quantities of grain and lumber are shipped. The coast 
is of granite, steep and bold, and runs S. W. 16 M. to PetiU Bergeronne, 
whence it is Sj M. to the mouth of the Saguenay River. 



234 HouU 65. ANTICOSTL 



65. AnticostL 

The island of Anticosti lies in the month of the St. Lawrence Biver, and 
is 118 M. long and 81 M. -wide. In 1871 it had about 80 inhabitants, in 
charge of the government lights and stations, and also 50 acres of cleared 
land and 8 horses. Fox River is 60 M. distant; the Mingan Islands, 30 M. ; 
and Quebec, about 450 M. The island has lately been the scene of the 
operations of the AnticQSti Land Company, which designed to found here 
a new Prince Edward Island, covering these peat-plains with prosperous 
farms. The enterprise has as yet met with but a limited success. 

Anticosti has some woodlands, but is for the most part covered with 
black peaty bogs and ponds, with broad lagoons near the sea. The bogs 
resemble those of Ireland, and the forests are composed of low and stunted 
trees. The shores are lined with great piles of driftwood and the frag- 
ments of wrecks. There are many bears, otters, foxes, and martens; also 
partridges, geese, brant, teal, and all manner of aquatic fowl. The months 
of July and August are rendered miserable by the presence of immense 
swarms of black flies and mosquitoes, bred in the swamps and bogs. 
Large whales are seen off these shores, and the early codfish are also found 
here. Fine limestone and marble occur in several places; and marl and 
peat are found in vast quantities. There are lighthouses at S. W. Point, 
S. Point (and a fog-whistle), W. Point (and an alarm-gun), and Heath^s 
Point. The government has established supply-huts along the shores 
since the terrible wreck of the Grardcm^ on the S. E. point, when the crew 
reached the shore, but could find nothing to eat, and were obliged to devour 

each other. None were saved. 

• 

In 1690 one of Sir Tniliam Phipps's troop-ships was wrecked on Anticosti, dnrii^ 
theretreat from Quebec, and but 5 of its people survived the winter on the islan£ 
When the ice broke up, these brave fellows started in a row-boat for Boston, 900 M. 
distant ; and after a passage of 44 days they reached their old home in safety. The 
island was granted in 1691 to the Sieur Joliet, who erected a fort here, but was soon 
plundered and ejected by the English. In l8l4 H. B. M. frigate Leopard^ 60, the 
same vessel which captured the U. S. frigate Ckesapeake was lost here. 

" The dangerous, desolate shores of Anticosti, rich in wrecks, accursed in human 
Bufifering. This hideous wilderness has been the grave of hundreds ; by the slowest 
andghastliestof deaths they died, — starvation. Washed ashore from maimed and 
sinking ships, saved to destruction, they drag their chilled and battered limbs up the 
rough rocks ; for a moment, warm with hope, they look around with eager, strain- 
ing eyes for shelter, — and there is none ; the fidling sight daikens on hill and forent. 
forest and hill, and black despair. Hours and days waste out the lamp of life, until 
at length the withered skeletons have only strength to die." (Euoi W^bbubton.) 



PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. 



Quebec is bounded on the W. by the Province of Ontario, on the N. by 
the wilderness towards Hudson's Bay, on the E. by Maine, Labrador, and 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the S. by New Brunswick, New Eng- 
land, and New York. It covers 210,020 square miles, and its scenery is 
highly diversified and often mountainous, contrasting strongly with the 
immense prairies of Ontario. The stately river St. Lawrence traverses the 
Province from S. W. to N. E., and receives as tributaries the large rivers 
Ottawa, Richelieu, St. Maurice, and Saguenay. The Eastern Townships 
are famed for their fine highland scenery, amid which are beautiful lakes 
and glens. 

The Province of Quebec has 1,191,616 inhabitants (census of 1871), the 
vast majority of whom are of French descent and language. 1,019,850 of 
the people are Boman Catholics, and the laws of education are modified to 
suit the system of parish-schools. 

The Dominion of Canada is ruled by a Governor-General (appointed by 
the British sovereign) and Privy Council, and a Parliament consisting of 
81 senators (24 each from Ontario and Quebec, 12 each from Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, and 9 from P. E. Island, Manitoba, and British Columbia) 
and 207 members of the House of Commons. There is one member for each 
17,000 souls, or 88 for Ontario, 65 for Quebec, 21 for Nova Scotia, 16 for New 
Brunswick, 6 each for Prince Edward Island and British Columbia, and 5 
for Manitoba. In 1872 the debt of the Dommion was $ 122,400,179, most 
of which represents internal improvements. There are 80,144 Canadian 
militiamen, with a military school at Kingston ; and the navy consists of 
8 armed screw-steamers (on the lakes and the Gulf). In 1800 Canada had 
240,000 inhabitants; in 1825, 581,920; in 1851, 1,842,265; and in 1871, 
8,667,887, — a fifteen-fold increase in 70 years. Between 1842 and 1872, 
831,168 emigrants from Great Britain entered Canada; and in the same 
period, 4,888,086 persons, from the same kingdom, emigrated to the United 
States. In 1871 and 1872 the exports of Canada amounted to $ 156,813,281, 
and her imports to $ 194,656,594. Her chief trade is with Great Britain 
and the United States, and the main exports are breadstuff's and tim- 
ber. In 1872 the Dominion had 2,928 M. of railways, which had cost 
$ 168,553,000; and there were then 3,943 post-olSSces. 

The first European explorer w\io vV5\\Ad VS^iv* cqvslxi^s^ ^^:^ "^^r^c^sr* ^"^s.- 



236 PROVINCE OP QUEBEC. 

tier, who landed at Gasp^ in 1534, and ascended the St. Lawrence to the site 
of Montreal daring the following year. Seventeen years later the ill-fated 
Boberval founded an ephemeral colony near Quebec, and thereafter for 
oyer half a centufy Canada was unvisited. In 1603 Champlain ascended 
to the site of Montreal, and Quebec and Montreal were soon founded; while 
the labors of explorations, missions, and fighting the Iroquois were carried 
on without cessation. In 1629 Canada was taken by an English fleet under 
Sir David Kirke, but it was restored to France in 1632. The Company of 
the Hundred Associates was founded by Cardinal Richelieu in 1627, to 
erect settlements in La. NouveUe France^ but the daring and merciless in- 
cursions of the Iroquois Indians prevented the growth of the colonies, and 
in 1668 the company was dissolved. FinaUy, after they had exterminated 
the unfortunate Huron nation, the Iroquois destroyed a part of Mon- 
treal and many of its people (1689). The long and bitter wars between 
Canada and the Anglo-American colonics had now commenced, and New 
York and New England were ravaged by the French troops and their allied 
Indians. 

Naval expeditions were sent from Boston against Quebec in 1690 and 
1711, but they both ended disastrously. Montreal and its environs were 
several times assailed by the forces of New York, but most of the fighting 
was done on the line of Lake Champlain and in the Maritime Pix)vinces. 
At last these outposts fell, and powerful British armies entered Canada on 
the E. and W. In 1769 Wolfe's army captured Quebec, after a pitched 
battle on the Plains of Abraham; and in the following year Montreal was 
occupied by Gen. Amherst, with 17,000 men. The French troops were 
sent home; and in 1768, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded to Great 
Britain all her immense Canadian domains. There were then 67,000 
French people and 8,000 Indians in the Province. 

The resident population was conciliated by tolerance to their religion 
and other liberal measures, and refused to join the American Colonies 
when they revolted in 1776. The army of Gen. Montgomery took Montreal 
and the adjacent country, but the Canadians declined either to aid or to 
oppose the Americans; and when Arnold was defeated in his attempt to 
storm Quebec, the Continental forces were soon driven back into the 
United States. In 1791 the Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada 
were formed, in order to stop the discontent of the French population, who 
were thus separated from the English and Loyalist settlements to the W. 
In 1791 representative government was established, and in 1793 slavery 
was abolished. The War of 1812 was waged beyond the boundaries of 
Lower Canada, except during the abortive attempt of the Americans to 
capture Montreal. In 1837 revolutionary uprisings occurred in various 
parts of Canada, and were only put down after much bloodshed. In 1840 
the two Provinces were united, aitet \i)Q\Oa. ^iJaa ^v^iorial tenures were 
abolished, decimal currency -was adoT^\ftd, ^^\arw%^«^tQ8^'i^>^^<ither 



PROVINCE OP QUEBEC. 237 

improvements took place. The capital, which had been shifted from 
Kingston to Montreal, and then to Toronto, was established by the Queen 
at Ottawa in 1860. The French and English deputies in Parliament were 
still at odds, and after a long wrangle in 1864, the attention of the country- 
was drawn to the old project of confederation, which was at last realized 
in 1867, and Canada (then divided into Ontario and Quebec) and the Mari- 
time Provinces were consolidated into the Dominion of Canada. Since 
that day the councils of the Imperial Government have manifested a de- 
sire to give independence to the new State; and the Dominion, endowed 
with autonomic powers, has made rapid advances, building great railways, 
bridges, and canals, and forwarding internal improvements. Meantime 
Ontario has gained a preponderating power in the national councils, and 
the statesmen of Quebec are now maturing plans for the repatriation of 
the 500,000 French-Canadians now in the United States, hoping thereby to 
restore the Province of Quebec to her former pre-eminence and to popu- 
late her waste places. 

" Like a yirgia goddess in a primeyal world, Canada still walks in unconscious 
beauty among her golden woods and along the margin of her trackless streams, 
catching but broken glances of her radiant miOesty, as mirrored on their surfi^ce, 
and scarcely dreams as yet of the glorious future awaiting her in the Olympus of 
nations." (Eabl of DinPFXBiN.) 

*^ The b^gared noble of the early time became a sturdy conntty gentleman ; 
poor, but not wretched ; ignorant of books, except possibly a few scrape of jrusty 
Latin picked up in a Jesuit school ; hardy as the hardiest woodsman, yet never for- 
getting his quality of gerUUhomme ; scrupulously wearing its badge, the sword, and 
copying as well as he conld the.ftshions of the conrt, which glowed on his vision 
across the sea in all the effulgence of Yorsailles, and b^uned with reflected ray from 
the chateau of Quebec. He was at home among his tenants, at home among the 
Indians, and never more at home than when, a gun in his hand and a crucifix on 
his breast, he took the war-path with a crew of painted savages and Frenchmeu 
almost as wild, and pounced like a lynx from the forest on some lonely &rm or out- 
lying hamlet of New England. How New England hated him, let her records tell. 
The reddest blood-streaks on her old annals mark the teack of the Canadian genlil' 
homme.^^ (FasxujlS.) 

*' To a traveller fh>m the Old World, Canada East may appear like a new coun- 
try, and its inhabitants like colonists ; but to me, coming firom New England, .... 
it appeared as old as Normandy itself, and realised much that 1 had heard of 
Europe and the Middle Ages. Even the names of humble Canadian villages affiscted 
me as if they had been those of the renowned cities of antiquity. To Im told by a 
habitant, when I asked the name of a village in sight, that it is St. Fereole or St. 
Anne, the Cruardian Angel or the Holy Joseph^ s ; or of a mountain, that it was 
Belange or St. Hyaeinthe ! As soon as you leave the States, these nsdntly names 
begin. St. John is the first town you stop at, and thenceforward the names of the 
mountains and streams and villages reel, if I may so speak, with the intoxication 
of poetry, — Chamhly, Longueuil, Pointe auz DrembUs, Bartholomy, etc, fete, — as 
if it needed only a little foreign accent, a few more liquids and vowels perchance in 
the language, to make us locate our ideals at once. I b^an to dream of Provence 
and the Troubadours, and of places and things which have no existence on the 
earth. They veiled the Indian and the primitive forest, and the woods toward Hud- 
son's Bay were only as the forests of France and Germany. I could not at once 
bring myself to believe that the inhabitants who pronounced daily those beautiful 
and, to me, significant names 1^ as prosaic lives as we of Ke^^ 'fis^^^sksA. 



238 RotUe 66, PICTOU TO QUEBEC. 

" On« of the tributaries of the St, Anne is named La Riviire de la RoUf and fur- 
ther east are La Riviire de la Blondetle and La Riviire de la Friponne. Their very 
riviire meanders more than our river [It is] a more western and wilder Arca- 
dia, methinks, than the world has ever seen ; for the Greeks, with all their wood 
and river gods, were not so qualified to name the natural features of a countiy as 
the ancestors of these French Canadians ; and if any people had a right to substi- 
tute their own for the Indian names, it was they. They have preceded the pioneer 
on our own firontiers, and named the prairie for us.'' (Thoreau.) 



On the question as to whether the Canadians speak good French, Potherie says 
that ** they had no dialect, which, indeed, is generally lost in a colony." Charle- 
Toix obseryed (about 1720) : " The French language is nowhere spoken with greater 
purity, there being no accent perceptible." BougainviUe adds: "They do not 
know now to write, but they speak with ease and with an accent as good as the 
Parisian." Prof. Sillimau says that they speak as good French as the common 
Americans speak English. 

From the yoluminons work of M. Ramean, entitled La France aux Colonies — 
Aeadiens et Canadiens (Paris, 1859), we l«um that in the year ld20 the valleys of 
the Saguenay, Ottawa, and Lower St. Lawrence shall be occupied by a Franco- 
Canadian nation of 6,000,(XX) souls ; that the moumfUl vices, " impoverishment of 
intelligence, and corruption of manners," which the Anglo-American race in the 
United States has suffered, shall be opposed and checked by the fecund genius of the 
French race, and the '* scientific and artistic aptitudes of the Canadians," emanating 
continent-enlightening radiance from the walls of the Laval University ; that the 
di'isolute barbarism of the Americans shall be ameliorated by the sweet influences 
of the "Greco-Latin idea" of the Franco-Canadians: and that that agricultural 
and intellectual people, " the general and essential principle of whose material and 
intellectual power is in their religious faith and in the simplicity of their manners," 
shall profit by the sad experience of Old France, — and under the conservative influ- 
ences of a social aristocracy shall erect a New France, to be forever illustrious in its 
culture " de Ve^prttf la modestie des maurs, la liberti et la rdigion.^* 

66. Picton to Quebec. —The Coasts of Oaspe and the Lower 

St Lawrence. 

This voyage is lull of interest to the lover of fine scenery, and leads through some 
of the most attractive parts of the Provinces. The vessels pass the lofty highlands 
of Nova Scotia, the Acadian districts on the sandy shores of New Brunswick, the 
stately mountains about the Bay of Chaleur, and the frowning ridges of Gasp^. Then 
comes the ascent of the msjestic St. Lawrence, with its wldte French villages, its 
Alpine shores, and romantic history, terminated by the quaint mediaeval towers of 
Quebec, " the Walled City of the North." The steamers are large and ccmnfortable, 
and are quite steady in ordinary seasons. The cabin-tables are well supplied, and 
the attendance is good. There is but little danger from sea-sickness, except in very 
breezy weather (see also page 3). 

This route is served by the vessels of the Quebec and Gulf Ports Steamship Com- 
pany, the Secret and the Miramichi. The Georgia formerly plied between Pictou, 
Charlottetown, Shediac, and Quebec, but she was wrecked on the coast of Maine in 
January, 1875. The times of departure are liable to variations in case that heavy 
cargoes are t« be landed or shipped at any of the ports. The following time-table is 
that of the Q. & G. P. S. S. Co. for 1874 ; Airther particulars, and the details of 
changes (if there should be any) may be obtained from the company's agents. 

Passengers leave Hali&x by railway Monday morning, and connect with the 

steamship, which leaves Pictou at 7 a. h. on Tuesday. By leaving St. John on 

the Tuesday-morning train, the boat is met at Shediac, which she enters at 6 p. ii. 

on Tuesday, leaving at 7 P> m. She reaches Chatham at 6 a. m. on Wednesday, and 

leaves at 7 a.m.; Newcastle at 7.S0 a. h., Wednesday, leaving at 8 a. m. ; Dalhousie 

&t 1 A. M.f Thursday, leaving at 4 a. m. ; Paspebiac at 9 a. h., Thursday, leaving at 

10 A. M. ; Perc6 at 4 p.m., Thursday, \ea.v\w% a.t 450 p. m. ; Gasp6 at 7 P. m., Thurs- 

dajr, leaving at 8 p. M. ; Father Po\t\t atl v.ii.^'Etva^s^Ywiln^ at 8p. m, ; and ai^ 

riveM at Quebec at 10 a. m., on Saturday. 



CARLETON. Route 66. 239 

Qudtee to Pietou. — The steamship leaves Qnebee at 2 p. m., on Tuesday ; Father 
Point, 6 A.M., Wednesday; Gaspd, 4 a.m., Thursday; Perc6, 8 a.m., Thorsday; 
Paspebiac, 8 p. m., Thursday ; Dalhousie, 9 p. m., Thursday ; Chatham, 4 p. m., Fri- 
day; Newcastle, 6 p.m., Friday ; Shediac, 8 A.M., Saturday (morning train to St. 
John) ; and arrives at Pietou at 1 p. M., Saturday, connecting with the afternoon 
train to Haii&x. 

Fares. — (Meals are included in the Ist-class fiure6,but the state-rooms are extra. 
The 2d-class fares are without meals.) Hidi&x to Shediac, S 5 or 83.50 ; to Chat- 
ham or Newcastle, $ 8.50 or $ 4.50 ; to Dalhousie, S 11.50 or 86 ; to Paspebiac, 8 12.50 
or 8 6.50 ; to Perc6 or Oasp^, 8 12 or 8 7 ; to Father Point, 8 17 or 8 8 ; to Quebec, 
8 17.50 or 8 8.50. 

Quebec to Halifax. — Quebec to Father Point, 8 4 or 82; to Gasp^, 8 10 or 84; 
to Perc6, 8 11 or 8 4.25 ; to Paspebiac, 8 18 or 8 5 ; to Dalhousie, 8 14 or 8 5.50 ; to 
Cimtham or Newcastle, 8 14 or 8 5 ; to Shediac, 815 or 8 7 ; (to St. John by rail, 
8 16 or 8 8) ; to Pietou, 8 16 or 8 7.50 ; to Halifax, 8 17.50 or 8 8.50. 

Distances. — Pietou to Shediac, 120 M.; to Chatham, 225; Newcastle, 280; 
Dalhousie, 428; Paspebiac, 478; Perc6, 549; Ga8p«,578; Father Point, 846 ; Que- 
bec, 1,028. 

Halifax to Pietou, see Route 81. St. John to Shediac, see Route 14. 

After leaving Pietou Harbor, the steamship passes out between Caribou 
Island and Pietou Island (see also page 175), and enters the Northumber- 
land Strait. On the S. are the dark highlands of Pietou Clounty, among 
whose glens are scattered settlements of Scottish people. 10 - 12 M. N. are 
the low hills of Prince Edward Island. The deep bight of Tatamagouche 
Bay (see page 81) is passed about 35 M. W. of Pietou, and the blue and 
monotonous line of the dobequid Mts. may be seen in the S., in very clear 
weather. Beyond Baie Verte the steamer passes through the narrow 
part of the Strait between Cape Traverse and Cape Tormentine, and the 
low red shores of Prince Edward Island are seen on the r. The course is 
next laid along the level Westmoreland coast (see page 59), and the har- 
bor of Shediac is entered. 

The general aspect of the N. Shore of New Brunswick is described in 
Route 16 (page 60). It is to be remembered, however, that the Gulf- 
Ports steamships do not stop at Richibueto, Bathurst, or Campbellton. 
Having, then, described the coast from Shediac to Dalhousie in Route 15, 
the present route will follow the shores of the great Gaspesian peninsula. 

As the steamship leaves the estuary of the Restigouche, the red sand- 
stone cliffs of Magttacha Point are passed, on the 1., beyond which is the 
broad lagoon of Carleton Road. The beautiful peak of * Traoadiegash 
is now approached, and after passing the lighthouse on Tracadiegash 
Point, the white village of Carleton is seen on the Quebec shore. This 
])Iace has about 800 inhabitants and a convent, and is snugly situated 
under the lee of the mountains, near a bay which is secure during gales 
from the N. and E. Immense schools of herring visit these shores during 
the springtime, at the spawning season, and are caught, to be used as food 
and for fertilizing the ground. The village is enterprising and active, and 
is inhabited chiefly by Acadians. The steamer stops off the port if there 
are any passengers or freight to be landed. 



240 RouU 66. PASPEBIAC. 

** Garleton is a pretty town, to which a little steamer sometimes nins firom Dal> 
housie, rendering the salmon streams in the vicinity quite accessible. When the 
sun shines, its white cottages, nestling at the foot of the majestic Tracadiegash 
Mountain, glisten like snow-flakes against the sombre background, and gleam out 
in lovely contrast with the clouds that cap the summit of this outpost sentinel of 
the All^hany range." (ELlllogk.) 

The steamer now passes ont upon " the undulating and voluptuous Bay 
of Chaleur, full of long folds, of languishing contours, which the wind 
caresses with fan-like breath, and whose softened shores receive the flood- 
ing of the waves without a murmur.*' On the N. is Cascapediac Bay^ on 
whose shores are the Acadian and Scottish hamlets of Maria and New 
Bichmond, devoted to farming and the fisheries. The rugged peaks of the 
Tracadiegash range are seen in fine retrospective views. 

New Carlisle is near the mouth of the Grand Bonaventure Biver, and is 
the capital of Bonaventure Coimty. It has 400 inhabitants, and is en- 
gaged in the fisheries, having also a few summer visitors. The churches 
and court-house occupy a conspicuous position on the high bank which 
overlooks the bay. This town was founded in 1785 by American Loyal- 
ists, who received from the government one year's provisions, lands, seeds, 
and farming-implements. $400,000 was expended in establishing this 
settlement and Douglastown. 

Faspebiao ( Clarke's Hotel) is a village of 250 inhabitants, situated on 
the N. shore of the Bay of Chaleur, 440 M. from Quebec. Its harbor is 
formed by a fine beach of sand 8 M. long, curving to the S., and forming 
a natural breakwater against the sea during easterly gales. The church 
and houses of ,the village are built above the red cliffs of the shore, and 
present the neat and orderly appearance of a military post. On the line 
of the beach are the great white (and red-trimmed) storehouses and ship- 
yards of Charles Bobin & Co. and Le Boutillier Brothers, the mercantile 
establishments which sustain the place. 




taken by two American privateers, which carried away the vessels Hope and Bee. 
The whole fleet was soon afterward captured by H. B. M. fHgates Hunter and Piper^ 
but Robin was forced to pay such heavy salvage that it ruined his business. In 
1783 he came back here under French colors, and in 20 years accumulated a great 
fortune. The firm of Charles Robin & Co. is now the most powerfiil on all these 
coasts, and keeps large fleets employed, supporting numerous villages from 7 wealthy 
establishments. The heads of the firm live in Jersey, and their officers and man> 
agers on this coast are forced by rule to lead a life of celibacy. This company em- 
ploys 750 men, besides 17 vessels and 151 sailors ; and the LeBoutilliers have 580 
men and 15 vessels. They export vast quantities of fish and oil to the West Indies 
and the Mediterranean, supplying their Canadian posts, in return, with all needed 
products of other countries. Paspebiac receives $ 100,000 worth of goods yearly, 
and exports $ 300,000 worth of fi»h. The best fish is sent to the Mediterranean in 
bulk, the second grade goes in tubs to Brazil, and the poorest Js shipped in casks 
to the West Indies. The Jersey fleet reaches Paspebiac early in Blay, spends the 
fiumtner Sshing in the bay and Gulf, and returns in December. The American mar- 
ket ia supplied by the Cape- Ann fleet in these waters: and the proceeds of the an- 
tumnal months are sold in Upper Canada. T\ife vonuai yield of the Bay of Chaleur 
is estimated at 26,000 quintals of dry codaB\i,«» ^VxjtasXaJa oiXAAdock^ 8,000 bar- 



CAPE DESPAIR. RwUGS. 241 

relfl of herring, 800 barrels of salmon, and 15,000 galloni of cod-oU. The flsheriei 
of the bay and Oolf are yalued at % 800,000 a year, and employ 1,600 sail of ressels 
and 18,000 men. 

In January and February the thermpmeter smnetimes sinks to 25*' below aero, 
and the bay is overhung by dark masses of ** frost smoke." In this season the 
Aurora BoreaUs is seen by night, illuminating the whole northern horixon with 
steady brilliance. In July and Aug^t the thermometer ranges from 65" to 100", 
and the air is tempered by fresh sea-breeses. 

The name Paspebiae means *' broken banks,^' and the inhabitants are called 
Paspy Jacks or Pospillots. Many of the bits of i^te and Jasper called ** Gasp6 peb- 
bles " are found on this shore after the gales of spring and autumn, and are sent to 
the jewellers of London and Quebec. It is supposed that they come from the con- 
glomerate rocks on the Bestigouche Biyer. 

Beyond Paspebiae are the shores of Hope, on which immense masses of 
caplin-fish are thrown up every spring. They are shovelled into wagons 
by the farmers and are used to fertilize the land. The next point of in- 
terest is the deep bay of Port Daniel, a safe and well-sheltered haven, on 
whose W. shore is a remarkable hill, 400 ft. high. Near the fishing- 
village up the harbor are deposits of oil-bearing shale. The steamer soon 
passes Pcint Maquereau (which some consider the N. portal of the Bay of 
Chaleur), with Point Miscoa on the S. E. 

At midnight on Oct. 15, 1838, the ship CoSbonu went ashore on Point Ifaqoexeaa, 
and was soon broken to pieces. Her crew, consisting of 42 men, was lost. The 
caigo was composed of silks, wines, silver-plate, and specie, and was valued at 
over $ 400,000. The wreckers of Oasp6 recovered rich treasures frcm the wreck. 

Newport is 6 M. beyond Point Maquereau, and is inhabited by 200 Aca- 
dians, who are devoted to the fisheries and to the pursuit of the vast flocks 
of wild fowl which resort to these shores during the spring and autumn. 
Great and Little Pabos are seaside hamlets, 4 and 8 M. farther E. 4 M. 
beyond is Grand Hirer, a large Acadian village clustered about the fish- 
ing-establishment of Robin & Go. It is 7 M. from this point to Cape 
Despair. 

Cape Despair was named by the French Cap tPEfpoir. or Gape Hope, and the 
present name is either an Anglicised pronunciation of this French word, or else was 
given in memory of the terrible disaster of 1711. During that year Queen Anne sent 
a great fleet, with 7,000 soldiers, with orders to capture Quebec and occupy Canada. 
The fleet was under Admiral Sir Hovenden Walker, and the army was commanded 
by Gen. Hill. During a black fog, on the 22d of August, a violent storm arose and 
scattered the fleet in all directions, hurling 8 large ships on the terrible ledges of 
Kgg Island (see page 2^) and Cape Despair, where tbe^ were lost with all on board. 
Fragments of the wrecks, called Le Naufrage Anglais, were to be seen along the 
shores until a recent date ; and there was a ixdld superstition among the fishermen 
to the effect that sometimes, when the sea was quiet and calm, vast white waves 
would roll inward from the Oulf, bearing a phantom ship crowded with men in 
ancient military costumes. An officer stands on the bow, with a white-clad woman 
on his left arm, and as the maddened surge sweeps the doomed ship on with light- 
ning speed, a tremendous crash ensues, the clear, agonised cry of a woman swells 
over the great voice of despair, — and naught is seen but the black clifEs and the 
level sea. 

Just beyond Cape Despair is the prosperous fishing-station of Cape Cove, 
M. from Perc^. The traveller should now be on the lookout for the 
Perc^ Rock and Bonaventure Island. The steamer runs in between the 
Bock and the Island, affording fine views of both. 

11 ^ 



242 JtauU 66. PEBC£ 

The • Pere^ Book is 288 ft. high, rising with precipitous walls directly 
trom the waves; and is about 500 ft. long. This citadel-like cliff is pierced 
by a lofty arch, through which the long levels of the sea are visible. Small 
boats sometimes traverse this weird passage, under the immense Gothic 
arch of rock. There was formerly another tunnel, near the outer point of 
the Rock, but its roof fell in with a tremendous crash, and left a great 
obelisk rising from the sea beyond. 

The tnxnmit of the Perc^ Rock covers about two acres, and is divided into two 
groat districts, one of which is inhabited by the gulls, and the cormorants dwell on 
the other. K either of these trespasses on the other's territory (which occurs every 
fifteen minutes, at least), a battle ensues, the shrill cries of hundreds or thousands 
of birds rend the air, great clouds of combatants hover over the plateau, and peace 
Is only restored by the retreat of the invader. When the conflict is between large 
flocks, it is a scene worthy of close notice, and sometimes becomes highly exciting. 
The Eock is at right angles with Mt. Joli, and is of new red sandstone. The top is 
covered with fine grass. 

Many years ago the Bock waff ascended by two fishermen, and the way once being 
found, scores of men clambered up by ropes and carried away the eggs and young 
birds, finding the older ones so tame that they had to be lifted off the nests. This 
vast aviary would have been depopulated long ere this, but that the Perc6 magis- 
trates passed a law forbidding the ascent of the Rock. There are numerous quaint 
and weird legends attached to this place, the strangest of which is that of Le Ginie 
de Vile Percie, a phantom often seen over the plateau. *' It is likely that the founda- 
tion for this, l^end can be traced to the vapory or cloud-like appearance the vast 
flocks of. waterrfowl assume when seen at a distance, wheeling in every Seuitastic 
shape through the air, previous to alighting on the summit." 

The harbor of Perc6 is very insecure, and is open to the N. E. winds. In 
earlier times this port was called La Terre des Tempetes, so frequent and 
disastrous were the storms. The village has about 400 inhabitants, most 
of whom follow the shore-fisheries in small boats. The town is visited 
every spring and summer by hundreds of stalwart Jersey lads, sent out by 
the Robins. 

Perc^ consists of South Beach, where are the white-and-red buildings of 
the Robin establishment; and North Beach, where is the bulk of the popu- 
lation, with the court-house, jail, and Catholic church. The two sections 
are separated by Mount Joli, a lofty promontory which here approaches 
Perc^ Rock. The Episcopal church is a cosey little Gothic structure, 
accommodating 100 persons. Perc^ is ** the Elysium of fishermen,** and 
hence arises a circumstance which detracts from its value as a summer 
resort, — when the shore is covered with the refuse parts of codfish, pro- 
ducing a powerful and unpleasant odor. It is said that even the potatoes 
are found to contain fish-bones. 

Back of Perc4 is the remarkable * Xount St. Anne, with its bold and 

massive square top rising 1,230 ft. above the sea, and visible for a distance 

of 70 M. over the water. This eminence may be ascended without great 

trouble, and from its summit is obtained one of the noblest views in the 

Maritime Provinces. It includes many leagues of the savage moimtain- 

Jand of G&sp4, extending also aVoug the coast from the Bay of Chalenr to 

Gasp4 Bay and Ship Head. But \3aft TQaxVaa Vww \%\.\!kamost attractive. 



PEBCS. JtouU 06. 243 

and embraces many leagues of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with its great fish- 
ing-fleets and squadrons of small boats. It overlooks Bonaventure and 
Perc^ Rock. A fine view is also obtained from the highway near French 
Town, including a vast area of the Gulf, the bird-colonies on top of the 
Rock, Point St. Peter, and Barry Head, with its conspicuous Catholic 
church. The walk around the mountain to the comer of the beach is full 
of interest; and the road through the hills to Gasp^ is picturesque, though 
rough, leading by Corny Beach and through a profound mountain-gorge. 
Mt. St. Anne is also known as Mt. Joli and the Table Roulante. Upon its 
red -sandstone slopes are found shell-fossils, jasper, agate, and fine quartz 
crvstals. 

* Bonaventiire Island forms a great natural breakwater before the 
Perc^ shores, and is surrounded by deep channels. It is 2^ M- from the main- 
land, and the passage around the island in a small boat affords a pleasant 
excursion. Bonaventure is 2^ M. long and | M. wide, and is a vast pile 
of red conglomerate rock, with a line of cliffs 3-500 ft. high, facing the 
Gulf over 60 fathoms of water. There are about 800 French Catholics 
on the shores, connected with the fishing-establishment of LeBoutillier 
Brothers. The island was formerly the property of Capt. Duval, a brave 
mariner of the Channel Isles, who, in the privateer VuUure, swept the 
coasts of France during the Napoleonic wars. He is buried on Mount Joli. 

'* PeTc6 is one of the curiosities of the St. Lawrence. If one should believe all the 
&ntastic stories, to which tradition adds its prestige, that rest about this formidable 
rock, thrown forward into a ceaselessly surging and often stormy sea, like a fearless 
defiance from the shoal to the abyss, it could only be approached with a mysterious 
dread mingled with ang^h. Perc6 proper is a village of 200 firesides, established 
on a promontory that seems to guard the St. Lawrence : this promontory is not lofty, 
nor does it compare with our northern mountains ; but it is wrinkled, menacing, 
foil of a fierce grandeur ; it might be said that the long battle with the ocean has 
revealed to it its strength and the power which it holds from Ood to restrain the 
waves from pasting their appointed bounds. It is an archer of the Bfiddle Ages, 
covered with iron, immovable in his armor, and who receives, invulnerable, all the 
blows of the enemy. In face of the Atlantic, whkh has beaten it with tempests 
through thousands of centuries, trembling under the eternal shower of the waves, 
but immovable as a decree of heaven, gloomy, thoui^tful, enduring without mur- 
mur the wrathful torrents that inundate it, bent downward like a fidien god who 
expiates in an eternity the arrogant pride of a sin^e day, Perc6 fills us at once with 
a sorrowful admiration and a sublime pity." (Akthur Bvdes.) 

Perc^ was visited by Cartier in 1534, and thereafter became a celebrated fishing- 
station for the French fleets. The coast from Ganso to Cape Rosier was granted 
soon after, and on its reversion to the Crown this site was bestowed on De Fronsac, 
who founded a permanent village here, whUe over 500 transient fishermen made it a 
summer rendezvous. Bishop lAval sent the Franciscans here in 1673 to look after 
the spiritual wel&re of the people, and they erected a chapel at Perc6 and the 
Church of St Claire on Bonaventure Island. In 1600 the place was taken, with all 
its vessels, by two British frigates, whose crews sacked and burnt all the houses at 
Perc^ and Bonaventure, destroyed the churches, and fired 150 gunshots through 
the picture of St. Peter. In 1711 another naval attack was made by the British, 
and the French ships Hiros and Vennandois were captured in the harbor. In 1776 
a desperate naval combat took place off Pere6 Rock, between the American pri- 
vateers that had devastated the shores of the Bay of Chaleur and the British war- 
vessels Wolf Mod Diiigenu. Two of the American vessels were sunk within, caas^ts^- 
shot of the Rock. 



244 MauU 66. GASPf. 

After leaving her anchorage off Perc^ the steamship runs N. across the 
openings of Mai Bay, and at 9 M. out passes Point St. Peter, with its fish- 
ing-village. The course is next laid to the N. W. up Gasp^ Bay, with the 
fatal strand of the Grand Gr6ve on the r. To the L is Douglastown, on 
the broad lagoon at the mouth of the St. John Biver (famous for salmon). 
This town was laid out by Surveyor Douglas, and is inhabited by Irish 
and French people. The vessel now steams in through the narrow strait 
between the grand natural breakwater of Sandybeach and the N. shore, 
and enters the * Oasp^ fiasin. The bay is 20 M. long and 5 M. wide, 
and the basin is a secure and land-locked harbor at its head. As the 
steamer rounds the lighthouse on Sandybeach, beautiful views are pre- 
sented of the broad haven, with the North Biver Mts. to the W. 

** The mountains of OaspS are fidr to behold, 
With their fleckings of shadow and gleamings of gold." 

Oasp6 {Gulf House) is a town of 800 inhabitants, beautifully situated 
between the mountains and the sea, and fronting on the S. W. arm of the 
basin. It is the capital of the county and a free port of entry, and is de- 
voted to the fisheries, having several whaling-ships and a large fleet of 
schooners. The Gasp^ codfish are preferred, in the Mediterranean ports, 
to the Newfoundland fish, because they are not so salty. The chief 
establishment here is that of the LeBoutilliers, who have also a fine 
mansion near the village. Petroleum has been found here, and wells 7 - 800 
ft. deep have been sunk by two companies. Gasp^ is visited by 2-800 
city people every summer, for the sake of its picturesque scenery, cool 
and sparkling air, and the conveniences for yachting and for fishing. The 
York and Dartmouth Bivers empty into the basin, and are famous for 
their game-fish. The adjacent shores are fertile and are thickly settled, 
and the town itself is rapidly advancing in importance. On a hill to 
the S. is Fort Ramsay, a line of guns among the trees. This is the first 
point N. of Newcastle where the steamer is moored to a wharf. Monthly 
mail-packets run from Gasp^ to Esquimaux Bay, on the Labrador coast 
(see page 230). 

'* What a glorious sight ! Imagine a bay 20 M. long ending in a basin where a 
fleet of a thousand vessels could Tm sheltered. On right and left, two rivers, which 
are parted by the port, sweep around the amphitheatrical shores ; hills here and 
there of savage outlme or covered with rounded lawns ; below, a little line of piers, 
fishing-vessels, schooners and some brigs swinging their slackened sails in the light 
breeae which blows from the shores ; something wild, fteeh, and vigorous, like the 
first spring of a great creation. The Qasp6 Basin has traits of the giant and of the 
in&nt ; it astonishes and charms ; it has a harmony at once delicate and striking." 
(Arthur Buses.) 

The Indians of Oasp6 were distinguished, in a remote age, for unusual advances 

Id c/riJizat/oa. They knew the points of the compass, traced maps of their country, 

observed the positions of the stars, and worshipped the symbol of the cross. They 

informed the early Jesuit missiouBxies Ih&t in &r distant ages they were scourged 

bjr a, fatal pestilence, until a vener&bXe ms.u ^&Ti^«\.OTl^.\i«Vt shore, and arrested the 

progress of the disease by erecting the ctoasV&eb ^tsxli&CLiafi^^ llou^tUe Relation ds 



GASP£ JtouU 66. 245 

la Geupisie, 1676). It is fapposed that thii mysterious risitor was a Noneman. The 
name Gaspi meaos ** land-s end," one of its component parts being found also in 
the aboriginal words Blala-gash, Tracadie-gash, etc. The warlike tribes on this 
shore were formerly distinguished for their fierce and Tktorious forays into the re- 
mote lands of the Montaignais and Esquimaux. 

Prof. Rafta, the great Danish archseologist, has adraneed a thcoir to the effect 
that Gasp6 was a fishing-station of the Norse rikings in the 11th, 12th, and 13th 
centuries. It is supposed that it was Tisited in 1506 by the Spanish mariner Yelasco, 
who ascended the St. Lawrence for 200 leagues, or else by Stelkno Qomcs, who was 
sailing fix>m Spain to Cuba in 1625. but was blown fitr trom his course, and entered 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. There is an old Castilian tradition that ttie gold-seeking 
Spaniards, finding no precious metals here, ndd, *' Aca ndda^^ (" There is nothing 
here "). This oft-repeated plirase became fixed in the memory of the Indians, 
though it was not comprehended ; and when Cartier came, they supposed him to be 
of the same people as the preTious European Tiritors, and endeavored to excite his 
interest by repeating the words, *' Aca n4da, Aca nida." He thou^^t that they 
were giving him the name of their nati<m or country, and so, according to this 
puerile tradition, arose the name of Canada. Another theory of the deriration of 
the name was given by the early New-Englanders : ** New England is by some af- 
firmed to be an island, bounded on the north with the RiTer Canada (so called from 
Monsieur Cane)." (Josskltn's New RtglanePs Rarities Discovered, 1672.) " From 
this lake northwards is derived the Ikmous River of Canada, so named of Monsieur 
de Cane, a French Lord, who first planted a colcmy ct French in America." (Mor- 
ton's New English Canaan^ 1682.) 

The generally received account of the origin of the name Canada is that it is an 
Indian compound word. Caugh-nchVKotg^-a means " the Tillage of the rapid," its 
first syllable being similar to that of ttie Indian word Caugh-na-daugk, ''village of 
huts" (also of Oxugh-yu-ga, or Cayuga, and Caughrna-dau^-ga, now Canan- 
daigua), which has been euphonised into " Canada." When Brant, the Mohawk 
chieftain, translated the Gospel of St. Matthew into his own language, be always 
put Canada for " a village." 

In April, 1534 (being then in his fortieth year), the Ixrid jmd tagadons Jaquea 
Cartier set sail from ancient St. Malo (" thrust out like a buttress into the sea, 
strange and gprim of aspect, breathing war femo. its walls and battlements of ragged 
stone, — a stronghold of privateers, the home of a race whose intractable and de- 
fiant independence neither time nor change has subdued"). He was under the 
patronage of Pliilippe de Brion-Chabot, Admiral of France, and was sent forth to 
reconnoitre a new route to Cathay, for the great advantage ch European commerce. 
It was also thought that in the new realms beyond the sea ttie Catholic Church 
might make such conquests as would requite her for the great schisms of Luther and 
Calvin and the AngUaLn Church. The result has nearly justified the hope. 

The intre]rfd voyager traversed the Strait of Belle Isle, and stretched across to 
the Baiedes CkaUwrs, which was entered on the 9th of July, and received its name 
from the intense heats which the mariners encountered there. He then landed at 
Oasp^, and took possession of the country in the name of liis Church and King by 
erecting a cross, 80 ft. liigh, adorned with the fleur-de-lis. Here he met a company 
of warriors ttxxa Quebec, campaigning against the natives of this r^on, and car- 
ried two of them to France. They were introduced to all the splendors of Paris 
and the court d Francis I., and in the following year returned with Calrtier and 
piloted his fleet up the St. Lawrence to their home at Stadacona (Quebec). 

" Twenty vessels were laden with stores, food, building implements, guns, and 
ammunition ; nearly 150 pieces <tf ordnance were stowed away in the different holds, 
to be mounted upon the walls of Quebec and other forts ; the decks were crowded 
with emigrants, male and female ; priests were there, burning with religious seal ; 
and everything looked hopelhl for their success. The whole fleet was put under the 
command of M. de Roquemont, a French Admiral ^and fhll <tf hope and expectation 
they set sail firom France in the month of AiHil, 1627." This stately fleet was over- 
taken by a storm in the Gulf .and took refhge in Gasp4 Bay, where they were boldly 
attacked by Captain Kirke's English squadron of 3 vessels. Kirke summoned the 
immensely superior French fleet to surrender, but De Roquemont, though unprepared 
for battle, and hampered with freii^t and non-combatante, ueot back a 8Qtritedre,f<isaL. 
The Kirkes then sailed boldly into the ho&tOfttkiM^^VQiiiSuBtTsifiiiB^^iQi^ Vi^ss££ssi^'« 



246 R<mU€7. THE LOWER ST. LAWRENCE. 

ihip, carried it by boarding. The French resisted bnt feebly, and the whole squad- 
ion feu into the bold Briton's hands. He burnt 10 vessels, and freighted the otticrs 
with the grand train of artillery and the other stores, with wliich he returned to 
England' Cbamplain was left in desjudr, at Quebec ; and the Kirkes were burnt 
in effigy in the Place de Gr&ve, at Paris. 

Oasp6 was honored, in 1668, by the sojourn of the brave old Baron Dubois d'Av- 
angour, some time Governor of New France. From this point he sent his celebrated 
memorial to Colbert, the French Prime Minister, after he had been deposed from 
office through the influence of Bishop Laval and the Jesuits. Hence he sailed to 
France, and soon met a soldier's death in the Groatian fortress of &in, which he 
was defending against the Turks. 

In the year 1760 Commodore Byron's powerful fleet entered Gasp^ Basin and 
captured the village. The French frigate La Qttharina was in the harbor, but 
was soon taken and destroyed by fire. Many yean ago the Gasp^ian peninsula was 
erected into a province, and the seat of government waa located at this town. But 
the number of inhabitants was not enough to warrant the expense of a vke-r^al 
oourty and the peninsula was reannexed to Quebec. 

In leaving Gasp^ Basin the steamship passes the beaches of the N. 
shore, lined with whale-huts and fish-stages, and then mns to the S. £. 
down Gasp4 Bay. * Cape Oasp^ is 7^ M. K. of Point St. Peter, and 
fronts the Gulf with a line of sandstODe cliffs 692 ft. high. Off the S. E. 
point there was formerly a statue-like rock 100 ft. high, called La Vieille 
(the Old Woman), but it has been thrown down by the sea. The Indians 
named this rock Gaseptofif whence the name Gaspi^ which is now applied 
to the great peninsula between the Bay of Ghaleur and the St. Lawrence 
Biver. Two leagues beyond Gape Gasp^ the steamship passes Cape Rosier, 
and enters the St. Lawrence Kiver. 

67. The Lower St Lawrence. 

« The modt interesting object in Canada to me waa the Uver St. Lawrence, known 
flur and wide, and for centuries, as the Great River. Cartier, its dif>coverer, sailed 
np it as &r as Montreal in 1636, nearly a century before the coming of the Pil- 
grims ; and I have seen a pretty accurate map of it so &r, containing the city of 
' Hochelaga ' and the river * Saguenay,' in Ortelius's Theatrum Ortns Terrarum^ 
printed at Antwerp in 1676, in which the fiunous cities of * Norumb^^ ' and ' Or- 
sinora' stand on the rough-blocked continent where New England is to-day, and 
the fabulous but unfortunate Isle of Demons, and Frislant, and others, lie off and 
on in the unfrequented sea, some of them prowling near what is now the course of 
the Cunard steamers. It was fitmous in Europe before the other rivers of North 
America were heard of, notwithstanding that the mouth of the Mississippi is said to 
have been discovered first, and its stream was reached by De Soto not long after ; 
but the St. Lawrence had attracted settlers to its cold shores long before the Missis- 
sippi, or even the Hudson, was known to the world. The first explorers declared 
that the summer in that country was as warm as France, and they named one of 
the bays in the Gulf of St. Lawrence the Bay of Chaleur, or warmth ; but they 
said nothing about the winter b^ing as cold as Greenland. In the MS. account 
of Cartier's second voyage it is called * the greatest river, without comparison, 
that is known to have ever been seen.' The savages told him that it was the 
*Chemin du Canada^ (the highway to Canada), * wliich goes so ftr that no man 
hath ever been to the end. that they had heard.* The Saguenay, one of its tribu- 
tarieSf is described by Cartier in 1686, and still more particularly by Jean Alphonse 
in 15i2, who adds : ^I think that this river comes from the sea of Cathay, for in 
this place there issues a strong current^ and there mns here a terrible tide.* The 
early exploren saw many wh^es and otYiet «e»i-T(ionster8 fiir up the St. Lawrence. 
Cbamplain. ia his map, represents a w\ia\o «^\x\iitt\^Vn.«aft\».t\«it <if Quebec, 860 M. 
£rom wliat ma,j be called the moutli ot tiie iVf« ', MAQ.\ttx\CT<&iL\«Ji.\j5a\»d«t to 



CAPE BOSIEB. 



Jtoute er. 247 



the summit of Cape Diamond to see the ' porpoises, white as snow,' sportinr on the 
surface of the harbor of Quebec. In Ghamplain's day it was commonly called ' the 
Great River of Canada.' More than one nation luO claimed it. In Ogilby 's ^ Amer- 
ica of 1670,^ in the map Novi Belgi^ it is called 'De Groote Rivier van Niew Ne- 
derlandt.' It rises near another fitther of waters, the Mississippi, issuing from * 
remarkable spring &r up in the woods, called Lake Superior, 1,600 M. in circum- 
ference ; and several other springs there are thereabouts which feed it. It makes 
such a noise in its tumbling down at one place as is heard all round the world. 
Bouchette, the Surveyor-Oeneral of the Canadas, calls it * the most splendid river 
on the globe ' ; says that it is 2,000 M. long (more recent geographers make it 4-600 
M. longer ) ; that at the Riviere du Su^it is 11 M. wide ; at the Paps of Matane, 26 ; 
at the Seven Islands, 73 ; and at its mouth, from Cape Rosier to the Mingan Settle- 
ments in Labrador, 96 M. wide. It has much the largest estuary, regarding both 
length and breadth, of any river on the globe. Perhaps Charlevoix describes the 
St. Lawrence truly as the most navigable river in the world. Between Montreal 
and Quebec it averages 2 M. wide. The tide is felt as fiur up as Three Rivers, 482 
M., which is as for as from Boston to Washington. The geographer Ouyot ob- 
serves that the Maranon is 3,000 M. long, and gathers its waters from a snrfeoe of 
1,500X)00 square M. ; that the Mississippi is also 3,000 M. long, but its basin coven 
only 8 - 900,000 square M. ; that the St. Lawrence is 1,800 M. long, and its basin 
covers 1,000,000 square M. ; and speaking of the lakes, he adds : ' These vast fresh- 
water seas, together with the St. Lawrence, cover a surlkce of nearly 100,000 squaie 
M., and it has been calculated that they contain about one half of all the fresh 
water on the surface of our planet' Pilots say there are no soundings till 160 M. 
up the St. Lawrence. McTaggart, an engineer, observes that * the Ottawa is larger 
than all the rivers in Great Britain, were they running in one.' The traveller Grey 
writes : * There is not perhaps in the whole extent of this immense continent so fine 
an approach to it as by the river St. Lawrence. In the Southern States you have, 
in general, a level -country for many miles inland ; here you are introduced at once 
into a miO^tic scenery, where everything is on a gnnd scale, — mountains, woods, 
lakes, rivers, precipices, water&lls.' We have not yet the data for a minute com- 
parison of the St. Lawrence with the South American rivers ; but it is obvious that, 
taking it in connection with its lakes, its estuary, and its fells, it easily bears ofiF 
the iMdm from all the rivers on the globe." (Freely condensed from Tho&bau's 
A Yankee in Canada.) 



" Bien loin de >es sonrbU, sons Tombre des 
platanes. 
L'Arabe au blanche onmous qui suit les 
caravanes 
8ur les sablei errant 
D€cotivre moins joyeux son oasis hnmide, 
Que les Canadlens sous la saison torride 
Leur flenve Saint-Laurent 



A nous ses champs d'aznr et ses fralches 

retnutes, 
Les Qots couronn^s do monrantes aigrettes, 

Les monts audacienx. 
Les arOmes piquants que la mer y d6pose 
£k son grand horizon oil voire oeil se repose 
Comme 1 £toile aux cieux." 

L. J. C. FisxT. 



** Sur ces bords enchant6s, notre m^re, la 

France, 
A laiss6 de sa gloire nn Immortel sillon, 
Precipitant ses flots vers I'ocean immense, 
Le noble Saint-Laurent redit enoor son 

nom. 

** Saint, 6 ma belle patrie I 
Salut 6 bords duBaint-Laurent 
Terre que I'etranger envie, 
Et qn'il regrette en la qnittant 
Heureux qui pent passer sa vie, 



Tonjonrs fidele i, te servir ; 
Et dans tes bras, mere chfirfe, 
Pent rendre son dernier soupir. 

** Salut 6 del de ma patrie I 
Salut noble Saint-Laurent I 
Ton nom dans mon Ame attendxie 
Il6pand un parfuni enivrant 

• O Canada, flls de la France, 
Qui te couvrit de ses bienfaits, 
Toi, notre amour, liotre esperance. 
Qui ponrra t'oublier jamais If " 

O. CbAmazib. 



Capo Rosier, *'the Scylla of the St. Lawrence," is 6 M. beyond Cape 
Gasp^, and is the S. portal of the St Lawrence River, whose mouth at 
this point is 96 M. wide. At the end of the cape is a stone lighthouse 
tower, 112 ft. high, with a fixed light (visible 16 M.) and a fog-horn and 
cannon. The hamlets of Grand Grfive, GriflSn's Cove, and Cape Hosier 
are in this vicinity, and are inhabited by Ft«ii<iVi ^^ftw^V^^'^Xv^ ^xr^ ^'ar 



248 Rimuer. cape maodelainr 

pendent on the fishing-establishment of Wm. Frning & Co., of the Isle of 
Jersey. 

'* The coast between Cape Hosier and Cape Chatte is high and bold, free 
firom dangers, and destitute of harbors," and is lined with a majestic wall 
of moontains composed of slate and graywacke. They are covered with 
forests, and afford successions of noble views, sometimes of amphithe- 
atrical coves, sometimes of distant vistas of blue peaks up the long gorges 
of the rivers. 

** How can it be that men inhabit this harsh, arid, rough, ahnost hat^tal conntiy, 
which extends from Cape Chatte to the Gasp^ Baan ? One can scarcely imagine. 
Tet, as jou see, here and there app«ur parcels of tilled land, houses scattered along 
tbe bMilu, and little churches at various points." 

" The peninsula of Gaspd, the land's end of Canada towards the E. , from its geo- 
logieal formation of shale and limestone, presenting their upturned edges toward 
the sea and dipping inland, forms long ranges of bMtling cliffis running down to a 
narrow strip of beach, and affording no resting-place even to the fishermen, except 
where they have been cut down by streams, and present little coves and bays open- 
iaig back into deep glens, affording a view of great rolling wooded ridges that stand 
rank after rank behind the great sea-cliff, though with many fine valleys between." 

T M. N. W. of Cape Rosier the settlement at Griffin's Cove is passed ; and 
6 M. farther on is Fox River (Cloridorme), a settlement of 500 persons, with 
one of the Isle-of-Jersey fishing-establishments, a large Catholic church, 
and a court-honse. The cod and mackerel fisheries are followed in the 
adjacent waters, and large American fleets are oilen seen off the port. 
The grand highway from Quebec ends here, but a rugged road runs down 
to Gasp4 in 17 M. The inhabitants are nearly all French. 16 M. farther 
W. is the haven called Great Pond, 24 M. beyond which is Cape Mag^e- 
laine (red-and-white revolving light, visible 15 - 20 M.) at the mouth of the 
River Magdelaine, the home of some of the wildest legends of this region. 

*' Where is the Canadian sailor, femiliar with this coast, who has not heard of the 
Plaintive sounds and doleful cries uttered by the BraiUard dt la Magdelaine ? 
Where would you find a native seaman who would consent to spend a few days by 
himself in this locality, wherein a troubled spirit seeks to make known the torments 
it endures ? Is it the soul of a shipwrecked mariner asking for Christian burial for 
its bones, or imploring the prayers of the church for its repose ? Is it the voice of 
the murderer condemned to expiate his crimes on the very spot which witnessed 
its commission ? . . . . For it is well known that Gasp4 wreckers have not alwi^s 
contented themselves with robbery and pillage, but have sometimes sought conceal- 
ment and impunity by making away with victims, — convinced that the tomb is 
silent and reveals not its secrets." The Abb6 Casgrain attributes these weird 
sounds to the Ikte of a priest who refused to christen a child who afterwards was 
lost by dying unbaptized. The conscience-stricken priest fiuled away to a skeleton, 
and the sound of his moaning has ever since been heard off these dark shores. An- 
other l^^nd tells that a terrible shipwreck occurred at this point, and that the only 
soul that reached the shore was a baby boy, who lay wailing on the beach tiirougfa- 
out the stormy night. " Where La Magdelaine runs into the Gulf, horizontal layers 
of limestone, fretted away all around their base by the action of the tides and 
waves, assume the most fentastic shapes, — here representing ruins of Gothic archi- 
teeture, there forming hollow caverns into which the surf rolling produces a moan- 
tng soundf like an unquiet spirit seeking repose." The strange wailing which is 
beard at certain seasons along th\s shore V& otherwise referred to the rush of the 

wbtd tluough the pine-trees on the cape,'vYio&ft \xiaxvY& \sc^\a toother with a harsh 

creaking. 



CAPE CHATTE. Eouie CT. 249 

Pleurese Point is 12 M. from Cape Mogdelaine, and is near the remote 
hamlet of Mont Loais. Lines of wild clififs front the shore for the cext 28 
M.f to Cape St. Anne, near which is the French Catholic village of St. 
Anne de$ Monts^ which has 250 inhabitants and a consulate of Italy. The 
adjacent waters abound in mackerel, cod, halibut, and herring, and great 
quantities of salmon and trout are caught in the River St. Anne. The 
stately peaks of the * St. Anne Mountains are seen on the S., com- 
mencing 12 M. S. W. of Cape St. Anne and running in a S. W. course for 
40 M., nearly parallel with the river and 20-26 M. inland. These moun- 
tains are the most lofty in Canada, and are visible for 80-90 M. at sen, 
in clear weather. The chief peak is 14 M. from Cape Chatte, and is 
3,978 ft high. 

*' All those who come to New Trance know well enough the mountains of Notre 
Dame, because the pilots and sailors being arrived at that part of the great river 
which is opposite to tiioee high mountains, baptize ordinarily for sport the new 
passengers, if th^ do not torn aside by some present the inundatioa of this baptism 
which Is made to flow plentiftdly on their heads. ' ' (Lalemant, 1648.) 

Cape Chatte is 15 lA,. N. W. of Cape St. Anne, and sustains a white 
flashing light which is visible for 18 M. 

Cape Chatte was named in honor of the officer who sent out the expedition of 
1603, under Pontgray6 and Lescarbot. His style was Eymard de Chaste, Knight 
of Malta, Commander of Lormetan, Grand Master of the Order of St. Lazarus, and 
Qovemor of Dieppe. 

Somewhere in this broad reach of the river occnrred the chivalrous naval battle 
between the English war-vessel Abigail and the French ship of Emery de Caen (son 
of Lord de la Motte). The Abigail was commanded by Capt. Kirke, and was sailing 
against Tadousac, when she was attacked (June, 1629) by De Caen. A running fight 
of several hours ensued, until a fortunate cannon-shot firom the Abigail cut away 
a mast on the French vessel and compelled her to surrender. The loss on each 
ship was considerable. 

The reach of the St. Lawrence next entered is about 85 M. wide, and 
on the N. shore is Point de Monte (see page 283). It is 33 M. from Cape 
Chatte to Matane, in which the steamer passes the hamlets of Dalibaire 
and St. Felicite. In 1688 the Sieur Riverin established a sedentary fish- 
ery at Matane, devoted to the pursuit of codfish and whales. Sometimes 
as many as 60 whales were seen at one time from the shore. This branch 
of the fisheries has now greatly declined. Matane is a village of 300 in- 
habitants, devoted to fishing and lumbering, and is visited by Canadian 
citizens on account of the facilities for sea-bathing on the fine sandy 
beach. There is also good fishing for trout and salmon on the Matane 
River. The remarkable peaks called the Paps ofMcUane are to the S.W., 
in the great Gasp^sian wilderness. In clear weather, when a few miles E. 
of Matane, and well out in the river, Mt. CamxUe may be seen, 40 M. 
distant, S. W. by W. \ W., like an island on the remote horizon. 

The shore is now low, rocky, and wooded, and runs S. W. 22 M. to 
PeiU Metis, which was populated with Scottish families by its seigneur. 
4 M. from this point is the station of 8t, Octave^ on the Intercolonial Rail- 
way. M^tis is a little way W., and Is occ^u^v^^ Vj *Mi^'^x«QsjQk^^il!^M3^^:s» 

11* 



250 -RoMfe ^. RIMOUSKI. 

and Scotch Presbyterians. It has a long government wharf; and the 
people are engaged also in the pursuit of black whales, which are sought 
by schooners equipped with harpoons, lances, etc. N. of M4tis, across 
the river, is the great peninsula of Manicouagan^ at the mouth of the 
rivers Manicouagan and Outarde, abounding in cascades. 

The steamship comes to off Father Point, where there is a lighthouse 
and telegraph-station (for news of the shipping), and a hamlet of 100 in- 
habitants. , Here the outward-bound vessels discharge their pilots. Near 
this place are the hamlets of St. Luce and St. Donat, and at St. Flayie, 
15 M. K. E., the Intercolonial Railway reaches the St. Lawrence (see page 
70). A few miles S. E. is ML CamilU, which is 2,036 ft. high. Father 
Point (Pointe au Pere) was so named because the priest Henri Nouvel 
wintered there in 1663. Canada geese, ducks, and brant are killed here 
in great numbers during the long easterly storms. 

St. Germain de BimouBki {Hotel 8t. Laurent} Rimouski Hotel) is 6 M. 
from Father Point, and is an incorporated city, an important station on 
the Intercolonial Railway, and the capital of Rimouski C!ounty and of a 
Roman-Catholic diocese. It has 1,200 - 1,600 inhabitants, with a handsome 
cathedral, a Catholic college, convent, episcopal palace, court-house, and 
other public buildings. The Canadian government has built a large and 
substantial wharf out to the deep channel, and a prosperous future is ex- 
pected for the young city. Many summer visitors come to this place, 
attracted by its cool air and fine scenery. 

Rimouski was founded in 1688, and in 1701 a missionaiy was sent here, who 
founded a parish which has now grown into a strong bishopric. *' Rimouski, the 
future metropolis of the Lower St. Lawrence, a little city fall of promise and fur- 
rowed already by the rails of the Intercolonial, will have its harbor of reftige where 
the great ocean-steamers will stop in passing, and will attract all the commerce of 
the immense region of the Metapedia, the fhture granary of our country." The 
Rimouski River is fiunous for its abundance of trout. 

Barnaby Island is low and wooded, and 3 M. long, sheltering the harbor of 
Rimouski. It was known by its present name in 1629, when the fleet of the Kirkes 
assembled here. From 1723 to 1767 it was the home of a pious French hermit, who 
avoided women and passed most of his time in his oratory. Some say that he was 
wrecked ofiF these shores, and TOwed to Heaven to abide here if he was saved ; others, 
that he had been disappointed in love. In his last hours he was visited by people 
from Rimouski, who found him dying, with his fidtliful dog licking his chilliug 
face. 

Bic Island was formerlv called L« Pre, bnt was named St. Jean by Cartier, 
who entered its harbor in 1686, on the anniversary of the decapitation of St John. 
It was included in the scheme of D'Avaugour and Yauban (in the 17th century) for 
the defence of Canada, and was intended to have been made an impregnable mari- 
time fortress, sheltering a harbor of reAige for the French navy. But this Mont St. 
Michel of the New World never received its ramparts and artillery. The place was 
taken by Wolfe's British fleet of 200 ships, Jnne 18, 1769 ; and when the Trent af&ir 
threatened to involve the United States and Great Britain in war, in 1861, British 
troops were landed at Bic from the ocean-steamship Persia ^ and were carried hence 
in sleighs to Riviere du Loup. Near this point is Vlslet au Massacre, where, ac- 
cording to tradition, 200 Micmac Indians were once surprised at night oy the Iro- 
quois, while slumbering in a cavern. The vengeful enemy silently filled the cavers 
mouth with dry wood and then set it on fire, shooting the unfortunate Micmacs as 
they leaped through the flames. 196 of the latter were slain, and it is claimed that 
tbeLr bones strewed the islet until within a few yean. 



TR0I8 PISTOLES. JtouU 67. 251 

Ste.-C^oilo du Bio (two boarding-houses) is a prosperous French vil- 
lage of 600 inhabitants, with a good harbor and a large and ugly church. 
It is 9 M. from Rimouski, and is surrounded by fine scenery. The Bay 
of Bic is 'Marge enough to be majestic, small enough to be overlooked in 
one glance; a shoro cut into deep notches, broken with flats, capes, and 
beaches; a background of mountains hewn prodigally from the world*8 
material, like all the landscapes of our Canada.'* The Intercolonial Rail- 
way was carried through this region at a vast expense, and sweeps around 
the flank of the mountain, 200 ft. above the village, affording beautiful 
views. Wonderful mirages are seen off this port, and out towards Point 
de Monts. The highlands immediately over Bic are nearly 1,300 ft. high; 
and the bay receives two rivers, which descend in cascades and rapids 
from the neighboring gorges. As the steamship passes the lighthouse on 
Biquette Island^ the remarkable and varied peaks of the mountains to the 
S. will attract the attention by their fantastic irregularity. Between Bic 
and Trois Pistoles, but not visible from the river, are the new French vil- 
lages of St. Fabien, among the mountains; St. Matthieu, with its great 
quarries of red stone for the Intercolonial Railway; and St. Simon, near a 
pretty highland lake. 

The rocky islets of Rosade are 2 M. off the shore of Notre Dame des Anges, and are 
decorated with a large cross, in memory of a marrelloas escape. Some §0 years ago 
the St. Lawrence froze for 6 M. out fit>m the parish, and many hundreds of seeds 
were discovered on the ice. The people gathered and went out to slay these strange 
visitors, but the ice suddenly broke adrift and was whirled away down the stream. 
There appeared no hope of escape for the 40 men on the outer floes, which were 



now ^ M. fi-om the shore. Their fiunilies and friends bade them an eternal forewell, 

' the Tillage priests, standing at the water's edge, _ 
preparation for the approaching catastrophe. But even while they were kneeling 



on the ice, a bold mariner launched a uny skiff fiKMn the shore and crossed the 
widening belt of tumultuous waters, touched the crumbling edges of the floes, and, 
after many trips back and ibrth, succeeded in landing evenr one of the men upon 
the isle of Rosade. Thence they passed earily to the mainland, and afterwards 
erected a cross on Bosade, as a token of tbdr gntitode. 

Trois Pistoles (two good hotels) is a thriving village of 660 inhab- 
itants, situated inside of Basque Island (5 M. from the Rosades), and near 
valuable deposits of limestone. There are two Catholic churches here, 
whose construction involved a litigious contest which is still remembered 
in Lower Canada. The beauty of the marine scenery in this vicinity has 
induced several Quebec gentlemen to build summer cottages here. 

There is a well-firanded tradition that in the year 1700 a traveller rode up to the 
bank of the then unsettled and unnamed river uid asked the Norman fisherman, 
who was tending his nets near his rude hut, what he would charge to ferry him 
across. " Trois pistoles >* (three ten-firanc pieces), said the fisher. " What Is the 
name of this river ? " asked the traveller. " It has no name ; it will be baptised at 
a later day." " Well, then," said the traveller, ** name it JYoit FistoUs." The 
river is now Itunous for its fine trout-fishing. 

" That portion of the St. Lawrence extending between the Sagnenay River and 
Goose Island is about 20 M. wide. The spring tides rise and fUl a distance of 18 ft. 
The water is salt, but clear uid cold, and the channd very deep. Here may be ceen 
abundantly the black seal, the white porpoise, and the black whale." The white 
porpoise yields an oil of the best quality, and its sUn makes good leather. 



252 EauU 67. KAMOURASKA. 

The Gulf-Ports steamship does not stop hetween Father Point and 
Qnebec, bat the villages described in this itinerary may be visited from 
Quebec ; those on the S. shore by railway, and St. Paul's Bay, Murray 
Bay, Riviere du Loup, and Rimouski by river-steamers. The N. shore 
from Cape Tourmente to the Saguenay is described in Route 72. 

The vessel steams up by Green Island, which is 6- 7 M. long, and shel- 
ters the large manufacturing village of /s2e Verte, whence' fine butter is 
sent to Quebec On the r. is JUd /Wand, with its tall stone lighthouse, o£f 
which is a lightship. Caeouna and Riviere du Loup (see Route 72) are 
next passed, on the I., and the vessel runs W. with the three steep islets 
called the Brandy Pots (Pote-o-Teatf-tfe-vts) on the r. The S. islet bears 
a fixed light; the N. islet is 150 ft. high, of vesiculated conglomerate in 
which almond-shaped bits of quartz are imbedded. In war-time merchant- 
ships wait off the Brandy Pots for their convoying frigates. N. of these 
islets is Hare Island, which is about 10 M. long, and has extensive salt 
marshes, on which herds of cattle are kept. On the 1. are now seen the 
five remarkable islets called The Pilgrims, about 1^ M. from the S. shore 
and 4i M. in aggregate length. The Long Pilgrim is 800 ft. high and par- 
tially wooded, and is marked by a lighthouse, 180 ft;, above the river. 
The Kamouratka Islands are 6 M. farther W., and over them is seen the 
pretty village of Kamonraska {Albion Hotel), with its great Church of 
St Louis and Congregational Convent. The river-water at this point is as 
salt as the sea, and the village was the chief summer resort on the St. 
Lawrence before Caeouna arose. 

** Who does not know Kamounska? Who does not know that it is a channing 
village, bright and picturesque, bathing its feet in the crystal of the waters of the 
river like a naiad, and coquettishly viewing the reflections of its two long ranges of 
white houses, .... so near the river that from all the windows the great waves may 
be contemplated and their grand voices heard ? On all sides, except towards the S., 
the horison extends as fiur as the eye can reach, and is only bounded by the vast blue 
curtain of the Laurentides. At the N. E. the eye rests on a group of verdant isles*, 
like a handful of emeralds dropped by the angel of the sea. .... These isles are the 
fiivorite resort of the strangers who visit Kamonraska. There they fish, or bathe, 
or seek other amusements. Le pique-nique is much in vogue there, and the truest 
joys are felt." 

St. Paschal (700 hihabitants) is 5 M. from Kamonraska, on the Grand Trunk 
Railway. 

*' Bel endroit, Saint-Paschal, par sa croupe onduleuce, 
Ses couteaux, see vallons, sa route sinueuse ! 
C'est la Suisse ou I'Auvergne avee leurs gals clialets, 
Leurs monts, leurs pr^s en pente et leurs jardins coquets.'' 

Beyond Kamonraska the steamer passes Cape Diable, and on the N. 
shore, 22 M. distant, are the bold mountains about Murray Bay (see 
Route 72). On the level plains to the S. is seen the tall Church of St. 
Denis, with its attendant village; and beyond Point Orignaux is the vil- 
]&ge of Jiiviere Quelle, famous for its porpoise-fisheries. Near this point 
is the gnaint Casgrain manoT-house, now over a century old. 

Tills parish is named for Madam Ho\M\,l^^fe<A ^oos^VatsUftr-General Houel, who 
»ww captured here by In^Uaas Vn tlie lltti wotooj • '^w Xi» VajSo.Nk^xjjck which 



ST. ANNE DE LA POCATlteE. MouU 67. 253 

bears the plain iinpreu of three mow-ehoes, and formerly had the marks of human 
feet and hands. In 1090 the priest of Riviera Ouelle led his parishioners, and drove 
back the New-£nglanders of Sir William Phipps's fleet. Back among the htna are 
the hamlets of St. Onisime and St, Paeonu. 

St. Anne de la Pooatitoe (two hotels) is a large and prosperous town, 
72 M. below Quebec, with 3,000 inhabitants, a weekly paper (La GazttU 
des Campagnea)f and a convent. ** Nature has given to St. Anne charm- 
ing shores, laden with foliage and with melody, ravishing points of view, 
and verdant thickets, fitted for places of meditation." 8t. Anne^a College 
is a stately pile of buildings with pleasant surroundings and a sumptuous 
chapeL It has 30 professors (ecclesiastics) and 280 students, and is main- 
tained in a high state of efficiency. The parks cover several acres, and 
the museum is well supplied. St. Anne*s Agricultural School and Model- 
Farm is connected with the college, and has 5 professors (zootechny, rural 
law, etc.). The view from the dome of the college is of great extent and 
beauty. 

As the steamer passes St Anne the frowning mass of Mt ffboulements 
is seen on the N. shore. A few miles beyond St. Anne the hamlet of St. 
JSochrdes-Aulnaie* is passed, on the L, and still farther to the W. is 8t. 
Jean-Portr-JoU^ a pretty little village about which is laid the scene of 
De Gaspers popular romance, *'Les Anciens Canadiens.'* The Isle aux 
Coudres is far away towards the N. shore. The course is laid in by the 
islet called the Stone PiUar^ on which there is a lighthouse, and 14 M. 
farther W. is the insulated rock of the Wood Pillar. The large and pros- 
perous village of L'Islet (1,000 inhabitants) is seen on the 1. Goo$e hland 
is passed on the r., and is connected with Crane Island {VIbU aux Grues) 
by a long alluvial meadow, which produces rich hay, the total length 
being 11 M. Fine sporting Is enjoyed here in the spring and autumn, 
when great flocks of snipe, plover, and wild geese visit these shores for a 
breeding-place. There is a settlement of about 150 persons on Crane 
Island, whence are obtained noble views of Cape Tourmente. 

Darinff the French regime these islands (LesJbUsde SU.'Mcarguerite) were erected 
into a seTgnioiy and granted to an officer of France. He built a massive stone house 
on Crane Islimd, and was afterwards kept there, in rigorous captivity, by Biadame 
de Granville. She claimed that she was his sister, and that he was insane ; but this 
report was doubted by the people of the S. shore, and the island was regarded with 
dread. She kept him in close durance for many years, until at last he died. 

Beyond the S. shore village of Cap St. Ignace (400 inhabitants) the 
steamer passes St. Thomas, the capital of Montmagny County. This town 
has 1,660 inhabitants, and carries on a large local trade. The College 
Montmagny is located here, and there is also a convent and a large and 
conspicuous church. The broad white band of a cascade is seen at the 
foot of the cove, where the Rivi6re du Sud falls 30 ft. On the r., beyond 
St Thomas, is seen a cluster of picturesque islets, over which the massive 
Cape Tourmente frowns. 



Rude Nature dofib her savage mountain dress, 
And all her sternness melts to loveliness. 
On either hand stretch fields of richest green, 
With glittering Tillage spires and groves between, 
An'd snow-white cots adorn the fertile plain." 

GtoIM Ille formerly appertained to the Ursulines, and is 24| '. 
On its graTwacke ledges is the great Quarantine of Canada, wh 
grant-ships are detained until thoroughly inspected and purifie 
island is a yast tomb, so many have been the emigrants who have 
these shores only to die, poisoned in the filthy and crowded ships 
fed and rarely ministered unto. The Quarantine-station is occu 
medical and police forces, and is under a rigid code of rules. 

The next town is Bertkier, an ancient French parish of 400 inhii 
W. of which is Bellechasse Island, composed of high, steep, and ba 
wacke rocks. On the K. are Reaux Island (160 ft. high) and ] 
Island, both of which are covered with trees. St, Valier is beyoD 
chasse, and is a place of 200 inhabitants, near which large deposit 
iron-ore have been found. The Isle of Orleans (see Route 7i; 
approached, on the r., and over it is seen the peak of Mt. St 
Nearly opposite St. John (on the Orleans shore) is St. Michel, a 
working town of 700 inhabitants, in whose spacious church a: 
paintings for which a high value is claimed: St. Clara, by Mw 
St. Jerome, Boucher ; the Crucifixion, Romanelli ; the Death of 
gin, Goidy ; St. Bruno, Philippe de Champagne ; the Flagellation, 
6 M. beyond St. Michel is Beaumont, a village of 600 inhabitant 
site Patrick*^ Hole, on the Orleans shore. The settlements no 
thicker on either shore, and in about 6 M. the steamship passes 
end of the island of Orleans, and opens the grandest **view*on th 



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QUEBEC. R(mU 68. 255 



68. Quebec. 

Anival. — If the trareller has much bagsam, it is best to take a carriage or 
the hotel omnibus to the Upper Town. The ctuiche is not adapted for carrying lag- 
gage. 

Hotels. — The * St. Louis Hotel is a large house near the Durham Terrace, 
kept by Willis Russell, an American gentleman. It accommodates 500 guests, and 
charges $ 2.60-3.50 a day. The Russell House is a large modem hotel, near the St. 
Louis, and under the same management. Its terms are lower than those of the St. 
Louis. The Albion Hotel is on Palace St., and charges 92.50 a day. Henchey's 
Hotel (on St Anne St., opposite the Anglican Cathedral) is quiet and moderate, for 
. gentlemen trarelling en garfon. The Mountain-Hill House, on Mountain-Hill St. , 
and Blanchard's Hotel, in the Lower Town, opposite Notre Dame des Victoires, are 
second-class houses, charging about $ 1.50 a day. 

There are sereral good boarding-houses in the Upper Town, among which are 
those of the Misses Leonard, 8 St. Louis St. ; Mrs. McDonell, 12 St. Louis St ; Miss 
Lane, 44 St. Anne St. ; Mrs. Boyce. 1 Oarden St. Comfortable quarters may be ob- 
tained at these houses for about S 10 a week. 

Carrlases in e-very rariety may be procured at the liTery-stables, and large 
numbers of them are kept at the stands near the St. Louis Hotel, in front of the Ca- 
thedral, and beyond St. John's Gate. The carriages in the Lower Town are less ele- 
gant and much less expensive than those within the walls. The rates for excursions 
fn the suburbs in sununw are from $3 to 84 for 1-3 persons (to Montmorenci 
Falls. Lorette, Ci^ Rouge, etc.). During the autumn the rates are reduced. The 
Mt/^en^-drirers of the Lower Town usually demand $ 2 for carrying 1-2 persons to 
the outer suburban resorts. The eeUiche is a singular and usu^y rery shabby- 
looking rehide, perched on two high wheels, with the driver sitting on a narrow 
ledge in firont. It is drawn by a homely but hardy little horse, and is usually driven 
by a French Canadian, who urges the horse forward by the sharp dissyllabic cry, 
•* Marche'done ! " 

Horse-Cars run between St. Ours, St. Sauvenr, and the Ghamplain Market, 
every 15 minutes, traversing St. Joseph, St. Paul, and St. Peter Sts. The &re 
is 5c. 

Beadlns-Rooms. — The elegant library of the Quebec Literary and His- 
torical Society (in Morrin CoU^^) is courteously opened to the visits of strangers. 
The Library of Parliament is also accessible, and is finely arranged. The Institut 
Canadien is at 11 St. John St., and the Y. M. C. Association has rooms at 24 Fa- 
brique St. (near the Cathedral). 

Post-Offiee at the comer Of Bnade and Du Fort Sts. According to the new 
rules of the Canadian postal service, stamps are not sold at the post-offices, but are 
kept on sale by the booksellers. 

The most attractive shops are on Fabrique and St. John Sts., and in the vicinity 
of the French Cathedral. 

Railways. — The Grand Trunk Railway has its terminal station at Point Levi, 
317 M. from Portland, 4S& M. from Boston, and 586 M. fh>m New York. Passengers 
take the Grand Trank ferry-steamer near the Champlain Market. The North Shore 
Railway is now being built from Quebec to Montreal along the N. shore of the St. 
Lawrence. The Quebec & Gosford Railway is of most primitive construction, and 
runs occasional trains from its terminal station in the Banlieue for 20-25 M. up the 
valley of the St. Charles. 

Steamships. — The steamships of the Allan Line leave every Saturday for IJv- 
erpool (fiures. $ 80, S70, and $ 25) ; also, once weekly in summer, to Glac^w (fbres, 
9 60 and $ 24i The Dominion Line sends a weekly steamship to Liverpool (fore, 
960 and S24). and the Temperley line despatches a fortnightly steamship to Lon- 
don (fores, 860 and S24). The vessels of the Quebec k Gulf Ports S. S. Co. leave 
every week for Father Point, Gasp^Perotf, the Bay of Chaleur, the Miramichi ports, 
Shediac, and Pictou (see page 239). Steamers for the Lower St. Lawrence (see 
Route 72) and for the Saguenay lUver (see Route 73) leave several times a week. 
The Portneuf leaves on Tuesday and Saturday for Cap Sant6, Platon, Portneuf, 
St. Emelie, and St. Jean Deschaillons. The Mowtmorenei leaves semi-weekly for 
Chateau Richer, St. Famille, St. Anne, and Grande Riviere. Steamers run to the 
Isle of Orleans three times daily, and the Point-Levi fexry-boats cross the river 
every 15 minutesw 



256 Itoute 68. QUEBEC. 

Quebec, "the Gibraltar of America," and the second city in the Do- 
minion of Canada, is situated on a roctey promontory at the confluence of 
the St. Lawrence and St. Charles Rivers, 180 M. from Montreal, and over 
400 M. from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It has about 75,000 inhabitants, 
witli 6 banks, 6 Masonic lodges, and numerous newspapers in the French 
and the English languages. The chief business of the city is in the hand- 
ling and exportation of lumber, of which $5-7,000,000 worth is sent 
away annu^y. There are long lines of coves along the St. Lawrence 
shore, above the city, arranged for the reception and protection of the 
vast rafts which come down from the northern forests. A very consid- 
erable export trade in grain is also done here, and the various supplies of 
the populous counties to the N. and E. are drawn from this point Ship- 
building is a leading industry, and many vessels of the largest size are 
launched every year from the shipyards on the St. Charles. Of late years 
several important manufactories have been established in the Lower Town, 
and the city is expected to derive great benefit from the convergence here 
of several lines of railway, connecting with the transatlantic steamships, 
and making it a depot of immigration and of freighting. The introduc- 
tion of an abundant and powerful water supply from Lake St. Charles and 
the establishment of a flre-brigade and alarm-telegraph have preserved the 
city, during late years, from a recurrence of the terrible fires with which 
it was formerly scourged. 

Quebec is built nearly in the form of a triangle, bounded by the two 
rivers and the Plains of Abraham, and is divided into the Upper Town 
and Lower Town, the former standing on an enwalled and strongly forti- 
fied blufif 350 ft. high, while the latter is built on the contracted strands 
between the cliffs and the rivers. The streets are narrow, crooked, and 
often very steep, and the houses are generally built of cut stone, in a style 
of severe simplicity. It is the most quaint, picturesque, and mediaeval- 
looking city in America, and is surrounded by beautiful suburbs. 

** Take mountain and plain, sinnous river, and broad, tranquil waters, stately 
ship and tiny boat, gentle hill and shady valley, bold headland and rich, fruitfiil 
fields, firowning battlement and cheerfbl viila, glittering dome uid rural spire, flow- 
ery garden and sombre forest, — gproup them all into the choicest picture of ideal 
b^uty your fancy can create, arch it over with a cloudless sky, light it up with a 
radiant sun, and lest the sheen should be too daoling, hang a veil of li^^ted haae 
over all, to soften the lines and perfect the repose, —you will then have seen Qoebeo 
on this September morning." (Euot Warbubton.) 

" Quebec recalls AngoulSme to my mind : in the upper city, stairwajrs, narrow 
streets, ancient houses on the verge of the cliff; in the lower city, the new lortunM, 
commerce, workmen ; — in both, many shops and much activity.^' (M. Samd.) 

** The scenic beauty of Quebec has been the theme of general eulogy. The mi^tlo 
appearance of Cape Diamond and the fortifications, — the cupolas and minarets, like 
those of an Eastern city, blazing and sparkling in the sun, — the loveliness of the 
panorama, — the noble basin, like a sheet of purest silver, in which might ride with 
safety a hundred sidl of the line, — the graceftil meandering of the river St. Charles, 
— the numerous village spires on either side of the St. Lawrence, — the fertile fields 
dotted with innumerable cottages, the abodes of a rich and moral peasantry, — the 
dintant Falls of Montmorenci, — tlie park-like scenery of Point Levi, — the bMiuteous 
Isle of Orleans, — and more distant still, the fi owning Cape Tounmente, and the loltj 



QUEBEC. Route 68. 257 

range of purple monntalns of the most picturesque forms which bound the prospect, 
unite to form a coup (Vctil^ which, without exaggeration, is scarcely to be surpassed 
in any part of the world." (Hawkins. ) 

" I rubbed my eyes to be sure that I was in the nineteenth century, and was not 
entering one of those portals which sometimes adorn the frontifipiece of old black- 
letter volumes. I thought it would be a good place to read Froissart's Chronicks. 
It was such a reminiscence of the Ifiddle Ages as Scott's novels. 

" Too much has not been said about the scenery of Quebec. The fortifications of 
Gape Diamond are omnipresent. You travel 10, 20, 80 M. up or down the river's 
banks, you ramble 15 H. among the hills on either side, and then, when you have 
long since forgotten them, perchance slept on them by the way, at a turn of the 

road or of your body, there they are still, with their geometry against the sky 

No wonder if Jaques Cartier's pilot exclaimed in Norman-French, Que bee! (* What 
a peak ! ') when he saw this cape, as some suppose. Every modem traveller invol- 
untarily uses a similar expression The view from Cape Diamond has been 

compared by European travellers with the most remarkable views of a similar kind 
in Europe, such as from Edinburgh Castle, Gibraltar, Cintra, and others, and pre- 
ferred by many. A main peculiarity in this, compared with other views which I 
have beheld, is that it is firom the ramparts of a forikifled city, and not finnn a soli- 
tary and majestic river cape alone that this view is obtained I still remember 

the harbor far beneath me, sparkling like silver in the sun, — the answering head- 
lands of Point Levi on the S. E. , — the frowning Cape Tourmente abruptly bounding 
the seaward view fiir in the N. E. , — the villages of Lorette and Charlesbcmrg on the 
N., — and fiirther W. the distant Val Cartier, sparkling with white cottages, hardly 
removed by distance through the clear air, — not to mention a few bhie mountains 
along the horizon in that direction. You look out fi^m the ramparts of the citadel 
beyond the frontiers of civilization. Yonder small group of hills, according to the 
guide-book, forms ' the portal of the wilds which are trodden only by the feet of the 
Indian hunters as far as Hudson's Bay.' " (Thokkau.) 

'* There is no city in America more fiunous in the annals of history than Quebec, 
and few on the continent of Europe more picturesquely situated. Whilst the sur^ 
rounding scenery reminds one of the unrivalled views of the Bosphorus, the idiy site 
of the citadel and town calls to mind Innspruck and Edinburgh. Quebec may be best 
described by supposing that an ancient Norman fortress of two centuries ago had 
been encased in amber, transported by magic to Canada, and placed on the summit 
of Cape Diamond. ' ' 

** Quebec, at least for an American city, is certainly a very i)eculiar place. A mili- 
tary town, containing about 20,000 inliabitants ; most compactly and permanently 
built, — stone its sole material ; environed, as to its most important parts, by walls 
and gates, and defended by numerous heavy cannon ; . . . . founded upon a rock« 
and in its highest parts overlooking a gn»at extent of country : 8-400 miles fttxn 
the ocean, in the midst of a great continent, and yet displaying fleets of foreign mer- 
chantmen in its fine, capacious bay, and snowing all the bustle of a crowd^ sea- 
port ; its streets narrow, populous, and winding up and down almost mountainous 
declivities ; situated in the latitude of the finest parts of Europe, exhibiting in its 
environs the beauty of a European capital, and yet in winter smarting with the cold 
of Siberia ; governed by a people of diflbrent language and habits from the mass of 
the population, opposed in religion, and yet leaving that population without taxes, 
and in the epjoyment of every privil^e, civil and religious : such are the prominent 
features which strike a stranger in the city of Quebec. A seat of ancient Dominion, 
— now hoary with the lapse of more thui two centuries, — formerly the seat of a 
French empire in the west, — lost and won by the blood of gallant armies, and of 
illustrious commanders, — throned on a rock, and defended bv all the proud defiance 
of war ! Who could approach such a city without emotion ! Who hi Canada has 
not longed to cast his eyes on the water-girt rocks and towers of Quebec.'* (Psor. 
Silliman; in 1820.) 

** Few cities offer so many striking contrasts as Quebec. A fortress and a com- 
mercial city together, built upon the summit of a rock like the nest of an eagle, 
while her vessels are everywhere wrinkling the fiice of the ocean ; an American city 
inhabited by French colonists, governed by England, and garrisoned by Scotch 
regiments ; a city of the Middle Ages by most of its ancient institutions, while it is 
subject to all the combinations of modem constitutional government ; a European 
city by its civilization and its habits of refinement, and still close by the remnants 
of the Indian tribes and the barren mts. of the North ; a city with about the same 



258 JtouU 68. QUEBEC. 

laiitiide u Paris, while raooesBirelj combining the torrid climate of soathem i^ons 
with the MTeritiefl of an hyperborean winter; a city at the same time Catholic and 
Proteetant, where the labors of our (French) missions are still uninterrupted along- 
side of the undertakings of the Bible Society, and where the Jesuits, driven out of 
oar own country, find reliige under the egis of British Puritanism." (X. Makmieb's 
iMires sur PAmirique. 1860.) 

** Leaving the citadel, we are once more in the European Bliddle Ages. Gates and 
postrans. cranky steps tiiat lead up to lofty, gabled houses, with sha^ French rooft 
of burnished tin, like those of Li^ ; proceraions of the Host ; aliars decked with 
flowers ; statues of the Virgin ; sabots ; blouses ; and the scarlet of the British lines- 
nan, — all these are seen in narrow streets and markets that axe graced with many 
a Cotentin lace cap, and all within 40 miles of the down-east, Yankee State <^Maine. 
It is not fiur from New England to Old France. .... There has been no dying out 
of tlie race among the French Canadians. They number twenty times the thousands 
that they did 100 years ago. The American soil has left thdr physical type, re- 
U|^n. language, and laws absolutely untouched. They herd togetl^r in their 
zambUng viUages, dance to the fiddle after mass on Sundays, — as gayly as once did 
their Norman sires, — and keep up the Jle%ar'de4ys and the memory iH Montcalm. 
More French than the French are the Lower Canada habitans. The pulse-beat of the 
jBontiaent finds no echo here." (Sm Chablxs DnxK.) 

*' Curious old Quebec! of all the cities of the continent of America the most 
quaint! It is a peak thickly populated ! a gigantic rock, escarped, echeloned, and 
at the same time smoothed off to hold firmly on its summit the houses and castles, 
although according to the ordinary laws of matter they ought to iUl off like a bur- 
lAen placed on a camel's back without a fostening. Yet the^honses and castles hold 
there as if they were nailed down. At the foot of the rock some feet of land have 
been reclaimed from the river, and that is for the streets of the Lower Town. Que> 
bee is a dried shred of the Middle Ages, hung high up near the North Pole, fiir from 
the beaten paths of the European tourists, .... a curiosity without parallel on 
this side ot the ocean. We traversed each street as we would have turned the leaves 
of a book of engravings, containing a new painting on each page The local- 
ity ought to be scrupulously preserved antique. Let modem progress be carried 
(elsewhere ! When Quebec has taken the pains to go and perch herself away up 
9ear Hudson's Bay, it would be cruel and unfitting to dare to harass her with new 
Ideas, and to speok of doing away with the narrow and tortuous streets that charm 
all travellers, in order to seek conformity with the fimtastio ideap of comlbrt in 
TMrne in the 19th century.' ' (Hbhet Wabd^ Bkkobbr.) 

" Op I'a dit, Quebec est un promontoire, c'est avant tout une forteresse remaiqua- 
ble. Is. icitaaelle s'^l^ve au-dessus de la ville et mire dans les eaux du fleuve ses 
ertoeanx brants. Le voyageur s'^tonne, vptkB avoir admir6 les bords verdoyants et 
fleuris jdv Saint-Laurent, 1^ forftts auz puissantes ramures pleines de myst&res et 
d'ombre. les liantes valines pleines de bruits et de rayons, de rencontrer tout 4 coup 
l&ette ville qui semble venir d'Europe et qui serait moins strange sur les bords du 
BhUi aux dramatiques Ifegendes. Mais Qu6bec n'est pas une ville oil l'6tranger ^enne 

f e distnire et cheroher d'oi^li an theAtre i grands luxes, k grands spectacles 

C'est peut-6tre la seule ville du monde oil les gens aient droit de se plaindre et oil 
lis ne se plaignent pas. J'ai icAt que Quebec est une forteresse remaiquable ; 
eUe 61jbve son front superbe et se cambre avec fiect6 dans sa robe de pierre. Elle a 
conserve nn air des temps chevaleresques, elle a soutenu dee si^l^ges, elle a re^a son 
bapt^me du feu. En longeant ces vieux murs, en admirant cette foitereese dlevee 
comma un nid d'aigle sur un roc sourcilleux. on se croirait dans une ville du moyen 
lige. an temps des notions et des guerres civiles, une de ces villes accoutom^es aux 
brolts de0 armes , aux fimfiures et aux hymnes gneniers, mais tout est silencieux dans 
la noit serdne, et vous n'entendes vakma pas le pace cadence d'one sentindle. 
Dans cette ville et aux alentours, que d'^6nements ont €Ui accompli ! Quelle lutte 
pleine de poifsle heroique ! Que de vicissitudes ! et quel courage ! En quelque Ueu 

Sue vpus allies, k la basse-ville, sur le chemin Saint-Louis ou Sainte-Foye, sur les 
Ives de la riviere SiJnt-Charles, tout resphre un parftim historique, tout paxle k vot 
yeoZt to^^ ^ ^^0 ▼oix 4°i exprime quelque chose de grand et de triste, et les pierxes 
wAiam sont autoor de yous comme les flwitflnwB qui jefl^bJBRcmt le passe •'> 



QUEBEC. Route 68. 259 

The Durham Terrace is on the riverward edge of the Upper Town, and 
stands on the buttresses and platform formerly occupied by the Chateau 
of St. Louis, which was built by Champlaln in 1620. The old Chateau 
was a massive stone structure, 200 ft. long, used for a fortress, prison, and 
governor's palace* and it stood until 1884, when it was ruined by fire. 
The terrace is 200 ft. above the river, and commands a *view of surpass- 
ing beauty. Immediately below are the sinuous streets of the Lower 
Town, with its wharves projecting into the stream. On one side are the 
lofty fortified bluffs of Point Levi, and on the other the St. Charles River 
winds away down its peaceful valley. The white houses of Beauport 
stretch off to the vicinity of the Montmorenci Falls, while beyond are seen 
the farms of L' Ange Gardien, extending towards the heights of St. FereoL 
Vessels of all classes and sizea are anchored in the broad basin and the 
river, and the rich and verdant Isle of Orleans is in mid-stream below. 
Beyond and over all are the bold peaks of the Laurentian range, with Cape 
Tourmente towering over the river far in the distance. The Terrace is 
the favorite promenade of the citizens, and presents a pleasant scene in the 
late afternoon or on pleasant Sundays. At the upper end of the Terrace 
is a plain stone structure called the Old Chateau (built in 1779, for the 
British governors), which is now occupied by the Laval Normal and Model 
School (5 professors). In its gateway is a large stone bearing carvings of 
a Maltese cross and the date 1647, done by order of Gov. Montmagny, a 
Knight of Malta, in 1647. 

** ThM« is not in the world a nobler oatlook than that ftom the Temee at Qne- 
bec. You stand upon a rock orerlungkig city and rivw, and look down upon the 
guard-ships^ masts. Acre upon acre of timber comes floating down the stream 
above the city, the Oanadian boat^cmgs jost reaching yoa upcm the hdghts : and 
beneath you are fleets cX great ships, English, €tennan, nench, and Dutch, embark- 
ing the timber from the floating docks. The Stars and Stripes axe nowhere to be 
seen." (Sia CaAaLBS Daaa.^ 

** On a summer evening, wiien the Tnrraoe Is covered with loungezs, and when 
Point Levi is sprinlded with lights and the Lower Town has illuminated its narrow 
streets and its long dormer-windows, while ti&e Uvely mnxmnr of business is ascend- 
ing and the eye can discern tiie great shadows of we ships beating into port, the 
scene is one of marrellous animauon. It is then, above aU, that one is stnxck with 
the resemblance between Quebec and the Kuropean cities : it might be called a city 
of France or Italy transplanted ; the physiognomy is the same, and daylight is 
needed to mark the alteration of features produced by the passage to Ammca." 

" At a later era, when, under the protection of the French kings, the Provinces 
had acquired the rudiments of milita^ strength and pow«r, the CSwtle of St. Louis 
was remarkable as having been the site whence the French governors exercised an 
immense sovereignty, exten^Ung firom the Qnlf of St. Lawrence, akmg the shores of 
that noble river, its magnificent lakes, and down the course of the Mississippi to its 
outlet below New Orleans. The banner which first streamed from the battlements 
of Quebec was displayed tnm. a diain of forts which protected the settlements 
throughout this vast extent of country, keeping the Bnglish Colonies in constant 
alarm, and securing the fidelity of tiw Indten nations. During this period tiie coun- 
cil chamber of the castle was tike scene of many a midnight v^, many a long delib- 
eration and deep-laid project, to free the continent from the intrusion of the ancient 
rival of France, and assert throughout the supremacy of the OalUc lily. At an<><;her 
period, subsequent to the surrender of Quebec to the British arms, and until the 
recognition of the independence of the United States, the extent of empire of which 
the Castle of Quebec was the principal seat comprafaended the whole American con- 
tinent nortii of Mexico." (Hawkins.) 



260 J!t(mte 68. QUEBEC. 

The Angliean Cathedral occupies the site of the ancient Becollet Con- 
vent and gardens, and is a plain and massive building, 136 ft long, with 
a spire 162 ft. high. It was built by the British government in 1803-4, 
and received its superb communion-service, altar-cloths, and books as a 
present from King George III. There is a chime of 8 bells in the tower, 
which makes pleasant music on Sundays; and the windows are of rich 
stained glass. The interior is plain and the roof is supported on Corinthian 
pillars and pilasters, while over the chancel hang the old Crimean colors 
of the 69th Regiment of the British army. Under the altar lie the remains 
of Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond, Lennox, and Aubigny, and Gov- 
ernor-General of Canada, who died of hydrophobia in 1819. There are 
numerous mural monuments in the cathedral, and in the chancel are the 
memorials to the early Anglican Bishops of Quebec, Jacob Mountain and 
^ Charles James Stewart The former consists of a bust of the Bishop, 
alongside of which is a statue of Religion, both in relief, in white marble, 
on a background of black marble. 

Dr. Mountain was in the presence of King George, when he expressed a 
doubt as to whom he should appoint as bishop of the new See of Quebec. 
Said the doctor, '* If your Majesty had faith, there would be no difficulty.** 
'*How so? '* said the king. Mountain answered, **If you had faith, you 
would say to this Mountaio, Be thou removed into that See, and it would 
be done.** It was. 

Between the cathedral and the Durham Terrace is a pretty little park 
called the Place cfArmei, beyond which are the ruins of the court-house, 
which was recently destroyed by fire. Beyond the court-house (on St 
Louis St ) is the Masonic HaU^ opposite which are the old-time buildings 
of the St. Louis Hotel and the Commissariat and Crown Lands Depart- 
ments. The latter is known as the KefU Houit, from the fact that 
Prince Edward, the Duke of Kent (father of Queen Victoria), dwelt here 
during his long sojourn at Quebec. Opposite the St. Louis Hotel is a 
quaint little building (now used as a barber-shop), in which Montcalm 
held his last council of war. St. Louis St runs out through the ramparts, 
traversing a quiet and solidly built quarter, and is prolonged beyond the 
walls as the Grand All^e. 

The * Market Square is near the centre of the Upper Town, and pre- 
sents a curious and interesting appearance on market mornings, when the 
French peasantry bring in their farm-produce for sale. 

" A few steps had brought them to the market-square in ftont of the cathedral, 
where a little belated traffic still lingered in the few old peasant-women hovering 
over baskets of such fhiits and v^^tablea as had long been oat of season in tibe 
States, and the housekeepers and servants cheapening these wares. A sentry moved 
mechanically up and down before the high portal of the Jesuit Barracks, over the 
arch of which were still the letters I. H. S. carved long ago on the keystone ; and 
the ancient edilBce itself, with its yellow stucco flront and its grated windows, had 
every right to be a monastery turned barracks in France or Italy. A row of quaint 
Btone houses — inns and shops — formed the upper side of the square, while the 
modem buildings of the Rue Fabrique on the lower side might serve very well for 



QUEBEC. ItouU 68. 261 

that show of impTOTement whieh deepens the wntiment of the neighboring antiquity 
and decay in Latin tovrns. As for the cathedral, which ftced the convent from 
across the square, it was as cold and torpid a bit of Renaissance as could be found 
in Rome itself. A red-coated soldier or two paned through the square ; three or 
four neat little French policemen lounged about in blue uniforms and flaring 
havelocks; some walnut-fkced, blue-eyed old citiaens and peasants sat upon the 
thresholds of the row of old houses and gaied dreamily through the smoke of their 
pipes at the slight stir and glitter of shopping about the fine stores of the Rue 
Fabrique. An air of serene disoceupation pervaded the ]dace, with which the 
drivers of the long rows of calashes and cairii^pes in front of the cathedral did not 
discord. Whenever a stray American wandered into the square, there was a wild 
flight of these drivers towards him, and his person was lost to sight amidst their 
pantomime. They did not try to underbid each other, and they were perfectly good- 
humored. As soon as he had made his choice, the rejected multitude returned to 
their places on the curbstone, pursuing the sueceesAil aspirant with inscrutable 
jokes as he drove off, while the horses went on munching the contents of their 
leathern head-bags, and tossing them into the air to shake down the lurking grains 
of com." (HowELLS's J[ CAanc« J[cguatii<anc«.) 

On the W. side of this Square is the great pile of buildings which were 
begun in 1646 for the Jesuits* College. For some years this structure 
has been deserted, and in a state of dilapidation; and it is thought that it 
will be levelled and that on its site and in the spacious grounds adjacent 
will be founded a new market-house, although a movement has been made 
to erect here a superb Parliament Building for the Province of Quebec. 
The present structure is a parallelogram 224 ft. long by 200 ft. wide, and 
8 stories high, whose quadrangle is entered by the lofty archway on the 
Square. 

The Jesuits' College was founded in 1687, one year belbre Harvard College, 
and performed a noble work in its day. It was suspended in 1769 by Oen. 
Murray, who quartered his troops here, and in 1809 the property reverted to the 
crown, on the death of the laat of the Jesuit FaUiers. The buildings were U8ed 
as barracks until the British armies evacuated Canada. ** From this seat of piety 
and learning issued those dauntless missionaries, who made the Gospel known 
over a space of 600 leagues, and preached the Christian fiiith from the St. Law- 
rence to the Bfississippi. In this pious work many suflfered death in the most 
cruel form ; all underwent danger and privation for a series of years, with a con- 
stancy and patience that must always command the wonder of the historian and 
the admiration of posterity." 

The * Basilica of Quebec is on the E. side of the Market Square, and 
was known as the Cathedral of Notre Dame until 1874, when it was 
elevated by Pope Pius IX. to the rank of a basilica. It was founded in 
1666 by Bishop Laval, and was destroyed by the bombardment from 
Wolfe's batteries in 1759. The present building dates from the era of the 
Conquest, and its exterior is quaint, irregular, and homely. From its 
towers the Angelus bells sound at 6 o'clock in the morning and 6 in the 
evening. The interior is heavy, but not unpleasing, and accommodates 
4,000 persons. The High Altar is well adorned, and there are several 
chapels in the aisles. The most notable pictures in the Basilica are, ** the 
Crucifixion, by Van Dych (** the Christ of the Cathedral " ; the finest paint- 
ing in Canada), on the first pillar I. of the altar; the Ecstasy of St. Paul, 
Carlo MaraUi ; the Annunciation, RestotU ; the Baptism of Christ, HaUi ; 
the Pentecost, Vignon; Miracles of St. Anne^ Platrumdon ; Angels waiting 



262 RotUe 68. * QUEBEC. 

on Christ, RestoiU (in the choir); the Nativity, copy finom Anmbale Co- 
racci; Holy Family, Blanchard. 

The BaslUca occgptoe the rite of the andent church of Notre Dame de la Beeoo- 
TTanoe, built in 1688 by Cbamplain,ixi memorj of the r ecovery of Canada by France. 
Within ita walls are boried Biahope Laval and Pleasis; Ghamplain, tba heroic ex- 
ploxer, founder and first Goremor of Quebec ; and the Count de Trontenac. tlw 
fiery and chiTalric Ooremor of Canada from 1688 to 1696. After his death his 
heart was enclosed in a leaden casket and sent to his widow, in France, but the 
proud countess reftised to receiTe it, saying that she would not have a dead heart, 
which, while liying, had not been hen. The noble lady (" the marrellotuly beantifol 
Anne de la Orand-Trianon. sumamed The Divine") was the friend of Madame 
de S^Tign6, and was alienated from Frontenac on aeoonnt of his lore-aflUr with 
the brilliant Yers^llaise, Bfadame de Montespan. 

Most of the valuable paintings in the BasiUea, and elsewhere in Canada, vwe 
bought in France at the epoch of the Revolution of 179S, when the ohurehes and 
convents had been pillaged of their Measures of art. Many of them were porchased 
fit>m their captors, and sent to the seeme shores of New France. 

BaclLof the Basilica, on Port Dauphin St., is the extensive palace of 
the Archbishop, surrounded by quiet gardens. To the £. are the Parlia- 
ment Building and the Grand Battery. 

The * Seminary of Quebec adjoins the Cathedral on the N., and coven 
several acres with its piles of quaint and rambling buildings and quiet 
and sequestered gardens. It Is divided into Le Grand Seminaire and Le 
Petit Semincdrt, the former being devoted to Boman-Catholic theology and 
the education of priests. The Minor Seminary is for the study of litera- 
ture and science (for boys), and the course extends over nine years. 
Boarders pay $160 a year, exclusive of washing, music, and draw- 
ing. The students may be recognized in the streets by their peculiar 
uniform. The quadrangle, with its old and irregular buildings; the spot- 
less neatness of the grounds ; the massive walls and picturesquely outlined 
groupings, will claim the interest of the visitor. 

'* No such building could be seen anywhere save in Quebec, or in some ancient 
provincial town in Normandy. You ask fbr one of the gentlemen (priests), and you 
are introduced to his modest apartment, where you find him in his soutane^ with all 
the polish, learning, and honkommie of the nineteenth century." Yisiton are con- 
ducted over the buUding in a courteous manner. 

The Seminary Chapel has scmie fine paintings (beginning at the r. of the en- 
trance): the Saviour and the Samaritan Woman, La Gretue; xhe Virgin attended 
by Angels, Dieui the Crucifixion, Monet; the Hermits of the ThebAid, OuiUot; 
the Ybion of St. Jerome, D^HuUm; the Ascension, Philippe cte Qtampeigne; the 
Burial of Christ, Rutin; (over the altar) the FUght into Kgypt, Yanlno; above 
which is a picture of Angels, Lebrun; the Trance of St. Anthony, Piurrocel 
if Avignon ; the Day of Pentecost, P. de Champagne ; St. Peter freed from Prison, De 
la Fosse; The Baptism of Christ, HaU6; St. Jerome Writing, J. B. Champagne; 
Adoration of the Magi, Bonnieu. **The Chapel on the r. of the chief altar con- 
tains the relics of St. Cflement ; that on the 1. the relics of St. Modestus." 

The Seminary of Quebec was founded in 1663 by M de Laval, who endowed it with 
all his great wealth. The first buildings were erected in 1666, and the preeent Semi- 
nary is composed of edifices constructed at different dates since that time. In 18C^ 
a Isjrge part of the quadrangle was burnt, but it has since been restored. In 1704 
there were 64 teachers and students ; in 1810 there were 110 ; and there are now over 
400 (exclusive of the University students). " When we awake its departed shades, 
thev rise upon us from their graves, in strange romantic guise. Hen steeped in 
aougne learning, pale with the close breath of the cloister, here spent the noon and 
ewdiUDg of their llvee, lukd lavac!^ ^ot^MiiVftk «» tdS^^ vktexnal sway, and stood 



QUEBEC RowUeS. 26^ 

serene before the direst shapes of death. Men of courtly natores, hefrs to the poUsh 
of a far-reaching ancestry, here With their dauntless hardihood pat to shame the 
boldest sons of toil." 

The * Laval University is between the Seminary gardens and the ram- 
parts, and may be reached from St. Famille St The main building is 280 ft. 
long and 6 stories high, is built of cut stone, and cost $ 226,000. The roof is a 
flat sanded platform, securely enrailed, where the students promenade and 
enjoy the grand * view of the city, the river, and the Laurentian Mts. Vis- 
itors are admitted to the collections of the University on application to the 
janitor. The reception-rooms contain the great picture of the Madonna of 
Quebec, a portrait of Pius IX., by Pcuqualoni, and other paintings. The large 
hall of convocation has seats for 2,000, with galleries for ladies. The chem- 
ical laboratory is a fire-proof chamber, modelled after that of King's Col- 
lege, London ; and the dissecting-room is spacious and well arranged. The 
* mineral museum was prepared by the late Abb^ Haiiy, an eminent 
scientist, and contains specimens of the stones, ores, and minerals of 
Canada, with a rare and valuable collection of crystals. It fills a long 
series of apartments, from which the visitor is ushered into the ethnologi- 
cal and zoological cabinets. Here are a great number of Indian remains, 
implements, and weapons, and other Huron antiquities; with prepared 
specimens of Canadian animals and fish. The Library contains 70,000 
volumes (about half of which are French), arranged in twa spacious halls, 
from whose windows delightful views are obtained. The * Pidure-Gal' 
lery has lately been opened to the public, and is the richest in Canada. 
The works are mostly copies from the old masters, though there are sev- 
eral undoubted originals. It is by far the finest gallery N. of New York, 
and should be carefully studied. The visitor should also see the brilliant 
collection of Canadian birds; and the costly philosophical and medical 
apparatus, imported from Paris. The extensive dormitories occupy sub- 
stantial stone buildings near the University, over the gardens. 

The Seminary was founded In 1668 by Fran^^ de Montmorenci Laval, first Bishop 
of Quebec, and has been the central power of the Catholic Church in this Province 
for over two centuries. The Laval University was founded in 1862, and has had the 
privileges of a Catholic University accorded to it by Pope Pius IX. The processes 
of study axe modelled on those of the University of Louvain. The department of 
arts has 14 professors, the law has 6, di^bity has 6, and medicine has 8. Thereare 
also 24 profeescna in ttie Minor Seminaiy. 

The Parliament Building is on the site of Champlain*s fort and the old 
Episcopal Palace, and is an extensive but plain buildhig, whose glory has 
departed since the decapitalization of Quebec The Legislative Council 
of the Province meets in a pleasant hall, upholstered and carpeted in crim- 
son, with a very large throne, over which is a canopy surmounted by the 
arms of the United Kingdom. There are spacious galleries for visitors. 
The hall of the House of Assembly is on the front of the building, and is 
upholstered in green. Back of the speaker^s chair is a line of Corinthian 
pilasters upholding a pediment on which are the Royal Arms. The *Li' 



264 Htmte 68. QUEBEC. 

hrary occupies a large and quiet apartment on the first floor, and is rich in 
French-Canadian literature. It also has copies of the costly volumes of 
Audubon's "Birds of America," Dngdale's ** Moruuticon Anglicanum,''' 
*'The Antiquities of Italy/* and the *^Acta Sanctorum** (54 volumes, in 
vellum). 

Mountain-Hill St, descends by the place of the Prescott Gate, to the 
Lower Town, winding down the slope of the cliff. On the r., about ^ of 
the way down, are the * Chaxnplain Steps, or Cote la Montagne, a steep, 
crowded, and picturesque stairway leading down to Notre Dame des 
Victoires (see page 271). Near the foot of the steps is a grating, over the 
place where the remains of Champlain were recently found, in the vault 
of an ancient chapel. The Cote la Montagne has reminded one author 
of Naples and Trieste, another of Venice and Trieste, and another of 
Malta. 

The new Post-Offioe is a handsome stone building at the comer of Buade 

and Du Fort Sts. In its front wall is a figure of a dog, carved in the stone 

and gilded, under which is the inscription : — 

** Je tnii an chien qui ronge Tof ; (" I am a dog gnawing a bone. 

£n le rongeant je prend mon repoi. While I gnaw I take my repoae. 

Un tempi vienara qui n'est pat vena The time will come, though not ret, 

Que je mordraia qui m'aura mordu.** When J will bite him who now oitea me.**) 

This lampoon was aimed at the Intendant Bigot by M. Fhilibert, who had 
sufiered wrong Trom him, but soon after the carved stone had been put 
into the front of Fhilibert's house, that gentleman was assassinated by an 
officer of the garrison. The murderer exchanged into the East Indian 
army, but was pursued by Fhilibert's brother, and was killed, at Fondi- 
cherry, after a severe conflict. 

The Post-Offioe occupies the eite of the Grand Place of the early French town, on 
which encamped the Hnron tribe, sheltered by the fort from the attacks of the piti- 
less Iroquois. Here afterwards lived the b^tutiful Miss Prentice, with whom Nelson 
fell in love, so that he had to be forced on board of his ship to get him away. ** How 
many change would have ensued on the map of Europe ! how many new horizons in 
history, if Nelson had deserted the naval service of his country in 1782 ! Without 
doubt, Napoleon would have given law to the entire world. His supremacy on the 
sea would have consolidated his rule over the European continent ; and that becaure 
an amorous young naval officer was seized by a {Mission for a bewitching Canadian 
girl ! " Near this place the Duke of Clarence, then a subaltern of the fleet, but 
afterwards King William IT. of England, followed a young lady home in an un- 
seemly manner, and was caught by her &ther and very soundly horsewhipped. 

The * TTrsoline Convent is entered from Garden St., and is a spacious 
pile of buildings, commenced in 1686, and covering 7 acres with its gardens 
and offices. There are 40 nuns, who are devoted to teaching girls, and 
also to working in embroidery, painting, and fancy articles. The parlors 
and chapel may be visited by permission of the chaplain (whose office is 
f^jacent); and in the latter are some valuable paintings: * Christ at the 
Fharisee's House, by Philippe de Champagne ; Saints Nonus and Pelagius, 
Prvdhomme ; the Saviour Preaching, P. de Champagne ; the Miraculous 
i^raught of Fish, Le Dieu de Jouvenet ; Captives at Algiers, Restout ; St. 



QUEBEC. Jtoule 68. 265 

Peter, Spanish School f and several others. In the shrines are relics of St. 
Clement Martyr, and other saints from the Roman catacombs. Within a 
grave made by a shell which barst in this chapel during the bombardment 
of 1759 is buried ** the High and Mighty Lord, Louis Joseph, Marquis of 
Montcalm,** and over his remains is the inscription, ^'Honneur a Mont- 
calm ! Le destin en lui d^robant de la victoire Pa r^compens^ par une 
mort glorieuse.'* Montcalm*s skull is carefully preserved tmder glass, and 
is shown as an object worthy of great veneration. 

The first Superior of the XJnuline Convent was Mother Marie de rincamation, 
who was *' revered as fche St. Teresa of her time." She mastered the Huron and 
Algonquin languages, and her letters to France form one of the most valuable rec- 
ords of the early days of Canada. The conyent was founded in 1639, when the first 
abbess landed in Quebec amid the salutes of the castle-batteries ; and the special 
work of the nuns was that of educating the Indian girls. The convent was burnt 
down in 1850, and again in 1686, when the Ursulincs were sheltered by the Hdpital- 
i^res. The Archbishop has recently ordered that the term of profieesion shall he for 
seven years, instead of for lift. 

Morrin College occupies a massive stone building at the comer of 
St. Anne and Stanislas Sts., and is the only n9n-Episcopal Protestant col- 
lege in the Province. It was founded by Dr. Morrin, and has 5 professor?, 
but has had but little success as an educational institution. The build- 
ing was erected by the Government in 1810, for a prison; and occupied 
the site of an ancient fort of Champlain^s era. It was used as a prison 
until the new Penitentiary was built, on the Plains of Abraham, and in 
the N. wing are the ** sombre corridors that not long ago resounded with 
the steps of the jailers, and the narrow cells that are never enlivened by 
a ray of light.'* 

The * Library of the Quebec Literary and Historical Society is in the 
K. wing of Morrin College, and contains a rare collection of books re- 
lating to Canadian iiistory and science, in the French and English lan- 
guages. This society is renowned for its valuable researches in the annals 
of the old St. Lawrence Provinces, and has published numerous volumes 
of records. It includes in its membership the leading literati of Eastern 
Canada. There is a small but interesting museum connected with the 
library-hall. 

St, Andrew's Church, with its school and manse, occupy the triangle at 
the intersection of St. Anne and Stanislas Sts. It is a low, quaint build- 
ing, erected in 1809 on ground granted by Sir James Craig. Previously, 
from the time of the Conquest of Canada, the Scottish Presbyterians had 
worshipped in the Jesuits* College. The Wtdeyan Church is a comforta- 
ble modem building, just below Morrin College; beyond which, on 
Dauphin St., is the chapel of the Congregationalists (Roman Catholic). 
At the corner of St. John and Palace Sts. (second story) is a statue of 
Wolfe, which is nearly a century old, and bears such a relation to Quebec 
as does the Mannikin to Brussels. It was once stolen at night by some 

12 



266 JtouU 68. QUEBEC. 

Toystering naval officers, and carried off to Barbadoes, whence it was re- 
tamed many months after, enclosed in a coffin. 

The * HOtel-Dieu Convent and Hospital is the most extensive pile of 
buildings in Quebec, and is situated on Palace St (r. side) and the Bam- 
part E. of the long ranges of buildings (in which 650 sick persons can be 
accommodated) are pleasant and retired gardens. The convent-church is 
entered from Charlevoix St, and contains valuable pictures: the Nativity, 
by Stella; the Virgin and Child, Coypel; the Vision of St Teresa, Mena^ 
geot ; St Bruno in Meditation, Le Sueur (called *^ the Baphael of France ") ; 
the * Praying Monk, by ZuHmran (undoubted) ; and fine copies of the 
Twelve Apostles, by Raphael, and the Descent from the Cross, by Rubens 
(over the high altar). 

The Hdtel Dieu ynm founded by the Dachesse d'AguUlon (niece of Cardinal Riche- 
lieu) in 1689. In 1664 one of the present buildingd was erected, and most of it was 
built during the 17th ceotuxy, while Talon, Baron des Lslets, completed it in 1762. 
There are 20-40 cloistered nuns of the order of the Hdpitaliires, and the hospital 
is open fieely to the sick and infirm poor of whatever sect, with attendance by the 
best doctors of the city. The singing of the nuns during the Sunday services will 
interest the visitor. 

The most precious relic in the Hdtel-Dieu is a silver bust (^ life slse) of Br^beui; 
in whose base is preserved the skull of ttiat heroic martyr. Jean de Br6beuf , a Nor- 
man Jesuit of noble blood, arrived at Quebec with Chunplain in 1688, and went to 
the Huron country the next year. Here he had frequent celestial visions, and 
labored successiVdly in the work of converting the nation. He often said : " SeiUto 
me vehementer impelli cut moriendum pro Christo " ; and his wish was gratifled when 
his mission-town of St. Ignace was stormed by the Iroquois (in 1649). He was bound 
to a stake and scorched from head to foot ; the savages cut away iaa lower Up, and 
thrust a red-hot iron down his throat ; hung around his neck a necklace of red-hot 
collars (" but the indomitable priest stood like a rock") ; poured boiling water over 
his head and ftice, in demoniac mockery of baptism ; cut strips of flMh from his 
limbs, and ate them before his eyes ; scalped him ; cut open his breast, and drank 
his living blood ; filled his eyes with live coals ; and after four hours of tortun, a 
chief tore out his heart and devoured it. " Thus died Jean de Br<lbeuf, the founder 
of the Huron mission, its truest hero, and its greatest martyr. He came of a noble 
race, — the same, it is said, from which sprang the l^nglish Earls of Arundel ; but 
never had the mailed barons of his line confironted a &te so appalling with so pro- 
digious a constancy. To the last he reftised to flinch, and ' his death was the aston- 
istuneut of his murderers.' " The delicate and slender Lailemant, Br6beuf 's col- 
league on the mission, was tortured for seventeen hours, with the most refined and 
exquisite varieties of torment " It was said that, at times, he seemed bei>ide him- 
self; then, rallying, with hands uplifted, he oflfered his sufferings to Heaven as a 
sacrifice." The bones of Lalemant are preserved at the Hotel Dieu. 

Around the Ramparts, 

* The Citadel is an immense and powerful fortification, covering 40 
acres of ground, and is situated on the sunmiit of Cape Diamond (so called 
from the glittering crystals found in the vicinity), which is said to be ** the 
coldest place in the British Empire." Since the evacuation of Canada by 
the Imperial troops, the Citadel has been garrisoned by Provincial volun- 
teers, and visitors are usually permitted to pass around the walls under 
the escort of a soldier. The **view from the most northerly bastion 
^fvliich contains an immense Aimstrong gun) surpasses that from the 
'^nrham Terrace, and is one of the most magnificent in the world. The 



QUEBEa R0UU68. 267 

St. Charles is seen winding throngfa a beautiftil undnlating plain, and the 
spires of Beauport, Cbariesboorg, and Lorette, with the white cottages 
around them, form pleasing features in the landscape. On the S. of the 
parade are the officers* quarters and the bomb-proof hospital, while bar- 
racks and magazines are seen in advance. The armory contains a great 
number of military curiosities, but is not always accessible to visitors. 
The Citadel is separated from the town by a broad glacis, which is broken 
by three ravelins; and the wall on that side contains a line of casemated 
barracks. The entrance to the Citadel is by way of a winding road which 
leads in from St. Louis St. through the slope of the glacis, and enters first 
the outer ditch of the ravelin, beyond the strong Chain Gate. Thence it 
passes, always under the mouths of cannon, into the -main ditch, which is 
faced with masonry, and at this point opens into a narrow parade, over- 
looked by the retiring angles of the bastion. The curious iron-work of the 
Chain Gate being passed, the visitor finds himself in an open triangular 
parade, under the loopholes of the Dalhousie Bastion. 

" Such fitmetores cany us bock to the MkkUe Ages, the siege of Jenualem, and 
St. Jean d^Aere, and the days of the Buccaniers. In the annoxy of the Citadel they 
showed me a clamsy implement, long since ufleless, which they called a Lombard 
gun. I thought that their whole Citadel was such a Lombard gun, fit o1]|)ect for the 

muaeums of the curious Silliman states that ' the cold is so intense in the 

winter nl^^ts, purticularly on Cape IMamond, that the sentinels cannot stand it 
more than one hour, and an reliiBved at the ezpirati<m of that time ; and even, 
as it is said, at much shorter interrals, in case of the most extreme cold.' I shall 
nerer again wake up in a colder ni^^t than usual, but I shall think how rapidly the 
sentinels are relieving one another on the walls ci Quebec, their quicksilver being 
all froaen, as if apprehensive that some hostile Wolfe may even then be scaling the 
Heights of Abraham, or some persevering Arnold about to issue from the wilderness ; 
some Malay or Japanese, perchance, craning round by the N. W. coast, have chosen 
that ^moment to assault the Citadel. Why I should as soon expect to see the senti- 
nels still relieving one another on the walls of Nineveh, which have so long been 
buried to the world. What a troublesome thing a wall is ! I thought it was to de- 
fend me, and not I it. Of course, if they had no walls they would not need to havo 
any sentinels." (Thobiau.) 

The Citadel was fbrmeriy connected with the Artillery Barracks, at the farther 
end of the city, by a bomb-proof covered way 1,887 yards Icmg. These fortifications 
are 946 feet above the river, and considaably higher than the Upper Town. The 
rock on which they are founded is of dark slate, in which are limpid quarti-cxystals. 

The picturesque walls of Quebec are of no defensive value since the modern im- 
provements in gunnery; and even the Citadel could not prevent dangerous ap- 
proaches or a IxHnbardment of the city. SkiUtd military engineers have therefore 
laid out a more extensive system of modem ibrtifieations, including lines of powerful 
detached forts on the heights of Point Levi, and at Sillery. The former were begun 
In 1867, and an neariy completed ; but Vm Sillery forts are not yet commenced. 

The spirit of utilitarianism, which has levelled the walls <^ Frankfort and Vienna 
and is menacing Boston Common, has been attacking the ramparts of Quebec f<»r 
many years. The people of the Upper Town and the extra-mural wards are doubt- 
less much incommoded by this brwul wall of separation .which has also become use- 
less in a military point of view. However much it may be deplored by antiquarians 
and men <^ culture, the day is at hand wh«i the medueval fortifications of Quebec 
will be sacrifleed to the spirit of the times. There are not wanting reverent Ameri- 
can Buskins to cry out against such demoliti<m, but the wishes of tbe indigenous 
population will probably prevail against these ideas. Already the picturesque old 
gates are gone. The St. Louis and Prescott Gates were taken down m 1871} and the 
Palace and H<^pe Gates were removed in 1878. 



268 Jtouie 68, QUEBEC. 

The EspUnade extends to the r. finom the St. Lonis Gate (within), and 
the tourist is recommended to walk along the ramparts to St. John^s Gate, 
viewing the deep fosse, the massive outworks, and the antiquated ord- 
nance at the embrasures. On the r. are the Stadacona Club, the Congre- 
gational (Catholic) Church, and the National School; and Montcalm's 
Ward is on the 1. * St. John's Gate is the only remaining gate of the 
city, and is a strong and graceful structure which was erected in 1869. 
While rallying his soldiers outside of this gate, the Marquis de Montcalm 
was mortally wounded; and Col. Brown (of Massachusetts) attacked this 
point while Arnold and Montgomery were fighting in the Lower Town. To 
the 1. is St. John's Ward (see page 269); and the road to St. Foy passes 
below. The ramparts must be left at this point, and D'Auteuil and St. 
Helene Sts. follow their course by the ArtiUery Barrackt, amid fine 
grounds at the S. W. angle of the fortifications. The French garrison 
erected the most important of these buildings (600 ft. long) in 1750, and the 
British Government has since made large additions ; but the barracks are 
now unoccupied and are closed up. On and near St Helene St. are sev- 
eral churches, — St. Patrick's (Irish Catholic), Trinity (Anglican), the 
Baptist, and the Congregational. 

After crossing the wide and unsightly gap made by the removal of the 
Palace Gate, the rambler may follow the course of the walls from the 
Hotel Dieu (see page 266) to the Parliament Building. They occupy the 
crest of the cliff, and command fine views over the two rivers and the Isle 
of Orleans and Laurentian Mts. The walls are thin and low, but are fur- 
nished with lines of loopholes and with bastions for artillery. The walk 
takes an easterly course beyond the angle of the convent-buildings, and 
passes between the battlements and the high walls of the Hotel-Dieu gar- 
dens for nearly 500 ft. 

The streets which Intersect the Rampart beyond this pdnt are of a quaint and 
pleasing character. One of them is thus described by Howells : " The thresholds 
and doorsteps ivere covered with the neatest and brightest oilcloth ; the wooden 
sidewalk was yexy clean, Uke the steep, roughly paved street itself; and at the foot 
of the hill down which it sloped was a breadth of the city wall, pierced for musketry, 
and, past the comer of one of the houses, the half-length of cannon showing. It 
had aJl the charm of those ancient streets, dear to Old-world travel, in which the 
past and present, decay and repair, peace and war, have made friends in an effect 
that not only wins the eye, but, however illogically, touches the heart ; and over 
the top of the wall it had a stretch of landscape as I know not what European 
street can command : the St. Lawrence, blue and wide ; a bit of the white village of 
Beauport on its bank ; then a vast breadth of pale green, upward-sloping meadows ; 
then the purple heights; and the hasy heaven above them." 

Since Prescott Gate fell, there was *' nothing left so picturesque and characteristie 
as Hope Gate, and I doubt if anywhere in BuropeHhere is a more mediseval-looking 
bit of military architecture. The. heavy stone gateway is black with age, and the 
gate, which has probably never been closed in our century, is of massive ftame, set 
thick with mighty bolts and spikes. The wall here sweeps along the brow of the 
crag on which the city b built, and a steep street drops down, by stone>parapeted 
curves and angles fh>m the Upper to the Lower Town, where, in 1775, nothing but 
a narrow lane bordered the St. Lawrence. A considerable breadth of land has since 
been won from the river, and several streets and many piers now stretch between 
this alley and the water ; but the old Sault an Matelot still cronches and creeps 



QUEBEC. ItouU 68. 269 

alonpr nnder the shelter of the city wall and the orerfaanging rock, which Is thkkly 
bearded with weeds and grass, and trickles with abundant moisture. It must lie 
an ice-pit in winter, and I should think it the last spot on the continent for the 
summer to find ; but when the summer has at last found it, the old Sault an 
Matelot puts on a Tagabond air of Southern leisure and abandon, not to be matched 
anywhere out of Italy. Looking from that jutting rock near Hope Oate, behind 
which the defeated Americans took reftige from the fire oi their enemies, the rlita 
is almost unique for a certain scenic squalor and gjrpsy luxury of color : sag-roofed 
bams and stables, weak-backed and sunken-chested workshops of eyery sort lounge 
along in tumble-down succession, and lean up against the clifT in erery imaginable 
posture of worthlessness and decrepitude ; light wooden galleries cross to them from 
the second stories of the houses which look back on the alley ; and over these galleries 
flutters, ftOTO. a labyrinth of clothes-lines, a Tariety of bright-colored garments of 
all ages, sexes, and conditions ; while the footway underneath abounds in gossiping 
women, smokmg men, idle poultry, cats, childreo, and large indolent Newfoundland 
dogs." (HowELLS^S A CSutnee Acquaintanee.) 

Passing the ends of these quiet streets, and crossing the gap caused by 
the removal of Hope Gate, the Rampart promenade turns to the S., by the 
immense block of the Laval University (see page 268) and its concealed 
gardens. The course is now to the S., and soon reaches the * Orand Bat- 
tery, where 22 32-pounders command the river, and from whose terrace a 
pleasing view may be obtained. The visitor is then obliged to leave the 
walls near the Parliament Building (see page 263) and the site of the Pres- 
cott Gate. A short detour leads out again to the Durham Terrace (see 
page 259). Des Carri^res St runs S. from the Place d*Armes to the Gov- 
emor*8 Garden, a pleasant summer-evening resort, with a monument 65 ft. 
high, erected in 1827 to the memory of Wolfe and Montcalm, and bear- 
ing the elegant and classic inscription: 

MoBTEM. Virtus. Communem. 
Famam. Historia. 

MoinTMENTUM. POSTERTTAS. 

Dedit. 

In the lower garden is a battery which conmiands the harbor. Des 
Garri&res St. leads to the inner glacis of the Citadel, and by turning to the 
r. on St. Denis St, its northern outworks and approaches may be seen. 
Passing a cluster of barracks on the r., the Chalmers Church is reached. 
This is a symmetrical Gothic building occupied by the Presbyterians, and 
its services have all the peculiarities of the old Scottish church. Beyond 
this point is St Louis St, whence the circuit of the walls was begun. 



The Montcalm and St. John Wards extend W. on the plateau, from the 
city-walls to the line of the Martello Towers. The population is mostly 
French, and the quarter is entered by passing down St. John St and 
through St. John's Gate. Glacis St leads to the r., just beyond the walls, 
to the Convent of the Gray Sisters, which has a lofty and elegant chapel. 
There are about 70 nuns, whose lives are devoted to teaching and to 
visiting the sick. This building shelters 186 orphans and infirm persons. 



270 Route 68. QUEBEC. 

and the sUten teach 700 female childr^L It overlooks the St Charles 
valley, commanding fine views. Just above the nunnery is the Convent 
of the Christian Brothers, facing on the glacis of tt\,e rampart. A short 
distance out St John St. is St Matthew*s Church (Episcopal) ; beyond 
which is the stately Church of SU John (Catholic), whose twin spires are 
seen for many leagues to the N. and W. The interior is lofty and light, 
and contains 12 copies from famous European paintings, executed by 
Plamondtmy a meritorious Canadian artist Claire-Fontaine St. leads S. 
from this church to the Grande All^, passing just inside the line of the 
Martello Towers; and Sutherland St, leading into the Lower Town, is a 
little way beyond. The St Foy toll-gate is about <! M. from St John*8 
Church. 

** Above St John's Gktte, at the end of the street of that name, devoted entirely to 
business, there is at sunset one of the most beautiful Tiews imaginable. The river 
St. Charles, gambolling, as it were, in the rays of the departing Imninary, the light 
still lingering on the spires of Lorette and Charlesbonrg, until it fitdes away beyond 
the lofly mountains of Bonhomme and Tonnonthnan, presents an evening scene of 
gorgeous and surpassing splendor." (Hawkins.) 

" A sunset seen from the heights above Uie wide vall^ of the St. Charles, bathing 
in tender light the long undulating lines of remote hills, and transfiguring with giory 
the great chain of the Laurentides, is a sight of beauty to remain in tlra mind Ibr- 
ever." (Masshall.) 

- The Montcalm Ward may also be reached by passing out St Louis St, 
through the intricate and formidable lines of ravelins and redoubts near 
the site of the St Louis Gate. On the r. is the skating-rink, beyond which 
are the pleasant borders of the Grand All^e. The Convent of the Good 
Shepherd is in this ward, and has, in its church, a fine copy of Murillo's 
" Conception," by Plamondon. There are 74 nuns here, 90 penitents, and 
500 girl-students. The dark and heavy mediaeval structure on the Grand 
All^e was built for the Canada Military Asylum, to take care of the widows 
and orphans of British soldiers who died on the Canadian stations. Near 
the comer of De Salaberry St. is St. BridgeVs Asylum, connected w;ith St 
Patrick's Church. The Ladies' Protestant Home is neariy opposite, and 
is a handsome building of white brick, where 70 old men and young giris 
are kept from want by the bounty of the ladies of Quebec. 

The IKartello Towers are four in number, and were built outside the 
extra-mural wards in order to protect them and to occupy the line of 
heights. They were erected in 1807 - 12, at an expense of $ 60,000, and 
are arranged for the reception of 7 guns each. They are circular in form, 
and have walls 13 ft. thick toward the country, while on the other side they 
are 7 ft thick. The new Jail is about ^ M. in advance of the towers, and 
is a massive stone building, with walls pierced for musketry. Near this 
point (turning to the 1. from the Grand All^e beyond the toll-gate), and on 
the edge of the Plains of Abraham (extending to .the S.), is a moniiment 
consisting of a tall column, decked with trophies, and rising from a square 
base, on which is the inscription : 



QUEBEC. Movie 68, 271 

HEBE DIED 

WOLFE 

tictobious. 

Sept. 13. 

1769. 

" The horror of the night, the precipice scaled bj Wolfe, the empixe he with a 
handAil of men added to England, and the gloriouB oatastiophe of cimteotedly ter> 

minating life where his feme b^;an Ancient story nuiy be ransacked, and 

ostentatious philosophy thrown into the account, before an episode can be found to 
rank with Wolfe's.'' (Wiluam Pnr.) 

The Lower Town. 

The most picturesque approach from the Upper to the Lower Town is 
by the Champlain Stq>8 (see page 264). This route leads to the busiest 
and most crowded part of the old river wards, and to the long lines of steam- 
boat wharves. Hotre Dame des Viotoires is in the market square in the 
Lower Town, and is a plain old structure of stone, built on the site of 
Champlain*8 residence. It was erected in 1690, and was called Notre Dame 
des Victoires to commemorate the deliverance of the city from the English 
attacks of 1690 and 1711, in honor of which an annual religious feast was 
instituted. A prophecy was made by a nun that the church would be de- 
stroyed by the conquering British ; and in 1759 it was burned during the 
bombardment from Wolfe's batteries. S. of Notre Dame is the spacious 
Champlain Market, near an open square on whose water-^nmt the river- 
steamers land. The narrow Champlain St. may be followed to the S., 
nnder Cape Diamond and by the point where Montgomery fell, to the great 
timl)er-coves above. 

8t, Peter 8t, runs N. between the cliffs and the river, and is Uie seat of 
the chief trade of the city, containing numerous banks, public offices, and 
wholesale houses. The buildings are of the prevalent gray stone, and are 
massive and generally plain. The parallel lane at the foot of the cliff is 
the scene of the final discomfiture of the American assault in 1775. It is 
named Sault au Matelot, to commemorate the leap of a dog finom the cliff 
above, near the Grand Battery. Leadenhall St leads off on the r. to the 
great piers of Pointe a Garcy and to the imposing classic building of the 
* Custom-Honse, which is at the confiuence of the St Lawrence and St 
Charles Rivers. 8t. Paul 8t runs W. from near the end of St Peter St, 
along the narrow strip between the St Charles and the northern cliffs, and 
passes the roads ascending to the Hope and Palace Gates. 

The Quun''8 Fud-Yard (L ride) is beyond the Palace Market, end ooonples the rite 
of an immense range of boildincs erected by M. B^p>n, one of the later Royal In- 
tendants of New France. Hera ako lived Bigot in all the feudid splendor of the old 
French noblesse, on the reyennes which he extorted fitnn the oppreesed ProYince. 
In 1776 the palace was captured by Anudd's Tiiginia riflemen, who so greatly an- 
noyed the garrison that the buildings were set on fire and consiuned by shells finom 
the batteries of the Upper Town. 



272 EouU 68. QUEBEC. 

St. Paul St. is prolonged by 8i. Joseph 8t,, the main thoroughfare of this 
quarter, and the boundary between the Jaques Cartierand St. Roch Wards. 
The latter is occupied chiefly by manufactories and shipyards (on the 
shores of the St Charles) f and the narrow and plank-paved streets of 
Jaques Cartier, toward the northern walls, are filled with quaint little 
houses and interesting genre views about the homes of the French-Canadian 
artisans. St. Booh's Church is a very spacious building, with broad in- 
terior galleries, and contains several religious paintings. The Convent of 
Notre Dame is opposite St Roch*s, and has 70 nuns (black costume), who 
teach 725 children. 

The * Xarine Hospital is a large and imposing modem building, in 
Ionic architecture, situated in a park of six acres on the banks of the St 
Charles River. The General Hospital and the monastery of Notre Dame 
des Anges form an extensive pile of buildings, on St Ours St., near the 
St Charles. They were founded by De Vallier, second bishop of Quebec 
(hi 1693), for invalids and incurables. He spent 100,000 crowns in this 
work, erecting the finest building in Canada (at that time). It is now 
conducted by a superior and 45 nuns of St Augustme. The convent- 
church of Notre Dame des Anges has 14 paintings by Legari, with an 
Assumption (over the high altar) dating from 1671. 

Pointe aux Liivres, or Hare Point, is beyond the General Hospital, on the mead- 
ows of the St. Charles. It is supposed to be the place where the idoos Fiancisean 
monks founded the first missioa in Canada. Jaques Cartier's winter-quarters in 
1596 were here, and on leaving this point he carried off the Indian king, Donnacona. 
who was afterwards baptized with great pomp in the magnificent cathedral of 
Rooen. On this ground, also, the army of Montcalm tried to rally after the disas- 
trous battle on the Plains of Abraham. 

The suburb of the BanUeue lies beyond St Ours St, and is occupied by 
the homes of the lower classes, with the heights toward St. Foy rising on 
the S. St. Sauveur^a Church is the only fine building in Uiis quarter. 

In May, 1535, Jaques Gartier with his patrician oflicers and hardy sailors attended 
high mass and received the bishop's blessing in the Cathedral of St Maio, and then 
departed across the unknown western seas. The largest of his vessels was of only 120 
tons' burden, yet the fleet crossed the ocean safely, and ascended the broad St Law- 
rence. Having passed the dark Baguenay clifb and the vine-laden shores of the Isle 
of Orleans, he entered a broad basin where '* a mighty promontory, nigged and 
bare, thrust its scarped front into the raging current. Here, clothed in tbenuijeety 
of solitude, breathing the stem poetry of the wilderness, rose the clifb now rich 
with heroic memories, where the fiery Count Frontenac cast d^ance at his foes, 
whero Wolfe, Montcalm, and Montgomery fell. As yet all was a nameless barbar- 
ism, and a cluster of wigwams held the site of the rock-built city <^ Quebee. Its 
name was Stadacone, and it owned the sway of the royal Donnacona." 

It is held as an old tradition that when Cartier's Norman sailors first saw the 
promontory of Cape Diamond, they shouted " Quel bee.' " {" What a beak ! ") whieh 
by a natural elision has been changed to Quebec. Others claim that they named the 
place in loving memory of Caudebec, on the Seine, to which its natural futures bear 
Ji magnified resemblance. But the more likely origin of the name is tcom the Indlui 
word Jk^e. signifying a strait, and applied to the c<»npara(ive narrowing of the river 
»bore the Basin. It is, however, held in support of the Norman origin of the name 
thAt the seal of William de l&PoVe.lfiaxY of Sufiblk in the 15th century, bears the 
title of Lord of Quebec. This nome h»A \m«6 ^oiraiT^s in France, and was the vic- 
tor at Crevant and Compelgne,Mid«ttft cotMvy»xoToli««sio\ K.w,but was impeached 



QUEBEC. JtouU 68. 273 

and pat to death (as narrated by Shakenpeare, King Ilcnrx VI , Part IT.« Aet IT., 
Scene 1) for loeing the liOgUsh provinces in France after 81 arduous campaigns. 

When Cartier went to Montreal his men buiit a fort and prepared winter^uarters 
near the St. Charles River. Soon after his return an intense cold set in, aocl nearly 
every man in the fleet was stricken down with the scurvy, of wliich many died in 
great suffering. In the springtime, Cartier planted the cross and fleur-de-lis oo 
the site of Quebec, and returned to France, carrying King Donnacooa and several 
of his chielb as prisoners. These Indians were soon aft^wards received into the 
Catholic Church, with much pomp and ceremony, and died within a year, in 
France. In 1641 Cartier returned with 6 veesds and erected forts at Cap Rouge, 
but the Indians were suspicious, and the colonv was soon abandoned. Soon after- 
wards Roberval, the Yicraoy of New France, founded another colony on the same 
site, but after a long and miserable winter it also was broken up. 

In the year 1606 the city of Quebec was founded by the noble Cliamplain,! who 
oected a fort hcHre, and laid the foundations of Canada. A party of Franciscan 
monks arrived in 1616, and the Jesuits came in 1644. In 1628 Sir David Kirke 
vainly attacked the place with a small BngUsh fleet, but in 1629 he was more sue- 
eessfol, and, after a long blockade, made himself master of Quebec. It was restored 
to France in 1632 ; and in 1685 Governor Champlain died, and was buried in tlie 
Lower Town. Champlain's successor was Charles de Bfontmagny, a brave and de- 
vout Knight of Malta, on whom the Iroquc^ bestowed the name cS Onontio 
(** Great Mountain '> The work of founding new settlements and of proselyting 
the Uurons and combating the IroqjioiB was oontinued for the next oentoxy from 
the rock of Quebec. 

After the king had erected his militazy colonies along tiie St. Lawrence, he found 
that another element was necessary in order to malie them pennanent and p r ogrcs- 
sive. Therefore, between 1665 and 1678 he sent to Quebec 1,000 girls, most of whiMn 
were of the French peasantry ; though the Intendant, mindAil of the tastes of his 
ofllcen, demanded and received a consignment of young ladies (" demoiselles bien 
ehoisies "). These cargoes included a wide variety, fh>m Parisian vagrants to Nor- 
man ladies, and were maliciously styled by one of the chief nuns, *' mixed goods " 
{une marehandise milie). The government provided them with dowries ; bachelors 
were excluded by law fh>m trading, fishing, and hunting, and were distinguished by 
** marks of infkmy )^; and the French Crown gave bounties for children (each inhab- 
itant who had 10 children being entitled to a pension of fh>m 400 to 800 livree). 
About the year 1664 the city indulged in extraordinary festivities on the occasion 
of the arrival of the bones of St. Flavien and St. Felicity, which the Pope had pre- 
sented to the cathedral of Quebec. These honored relics were borne in solemn pro- 
cession through the streets, amid the sounds of martial musks and the roaring of 
saluting batteries, and wwe escorted by the Ifarquis de Tracy, the Intendant Talon, 
and the valiant Conrcelles, behind whmn marched