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DUCT, M.A., 


t/ M* 0f Iht 


m It C 





'known by the name of Puranas (or old) ar 
evidently derived from the mytho-heroit 

of Hindu belief. They deal with 
five characteristic topics, which, as Mr. 

f 'nlr.ttfoota ittrnlum* are fi) Primary creation (2) Secondary creation 
I j| ittr, Onttitogy of Rods tttd patriarchs -(4) reigns of the Manus and 
I ty ctr %nch particulars an have been preserved of the princes 

til ffti? or Iwur riuro* ;vml of their descendants to modem times* 
Sit* ami Vi'.hwt, un<tar one or other form, are almost the sole objects 
fh4f tUiiit liHwnpr nf the Hindu?; in the Punuius. These are the 
< iut u IT,''U r nt jiu* Piu.uui'i an given by A.nuir Sinha^ the great 
Irjiu ^uftlsn. Iliiiflif rtuAn.iu, which we see in the present, do 
ijiii cptifijffti u> llii^t drftctipimn. The reason is not far to seek* 
Tlifr$f* tai Itrnii a u>n*iiicf*hlc Aililkion of subject matter in the 
ul inicr{MiUii0n. scholars in India never cared for 

Bill 10 fifcuerve what is considered by one as his 
til hi a human instinct* Thus we find fine 

Injury etttftfiitiitg from the pens of Sanskrit Pundits^ 

M ttmn lit llitt bulk of great Ictcrary works. These 

in lite migtiml body of a work, mack at different 
li to u,i UK a completely different book. It is for this 
we tiiiti m twtornftenou! things in old Sanskrit works. 

Vhai*vrr br itm Vtilttcuf the I'uranas as a history or a record of 
tin* ol itw uncle in Hindus their importance as books of 

tcS^umi ts tittluubtd!y very great, 

'Hut of the I*nranas is that of a dialogue fa 

ft . . which person relates Its contents 

! ' '* in reply to the enquiries of another, 

it with others which are repeated as ha?* 

till held tin between different Individuals, The 

1 Lornaharshana, the disciple of 

i. * cuoposed to communicate- what was imparted to him 

WII0 IS bu^r 

by his preceptor.. - - ^ 

Th Puranas are commonly stated to be eighteen m number. It 

1 is said there are also eighteen Upa or 

arfstoft- Minor Puranas but the names of all 

Aese are not found- The principal eighteen Puranas axe Brahma*. 

Istott, Saiva, Bhagavat, Naradiya, Markandeya, Agni, 

Brafetna Vaivarta, . Linga, Varaha r Skanda^ Yamana, 

Ail these Poranas are classed into three groups according to the 
which prevail in them. The Matsya Puran remarks that 
those In which glory of Hari or Vishnu prevails are Satwlka ; those 
la the legends of Agni or Siva predominate are Tamasa and 

those which dwell most on the stones of Brahma are Rajasa. The- 
two representative works of the first group namely Vishnupuran and 
Bfaagmtpuran we have already translated. Markandeya Puran, the 
subfect of our present translation, is the representative of the last 
group. Truly does professor Wilson remark that the Rafasa Puranas- 
lean to the Sakta division of the Hindus, the worshippers of Sakti or 
the female principle. 

** That Parana in which beginning with the story of the birds that 

A *xv \* v^^ flw a were acquainted with right and wrong. 
OtilttbiofaelEarla&cLe^ft. . ./* . .. 

everything is narrated fully by Mar- 

iandeya^ as It was explained by holy, in reply to the question 
of the Muni, Is called the Markandeya containing nine thousand 
Terses." This is the account given of it in the Matsya Puran. Al- 
though according to this account as well as- that of other Puranas 
the original work is- said to consist of nine thousand verses, the text, 
that is now seen,, consists only of six thousand and nine hundred verses, 
It is very difficult to ascertain the date of' these works. Internal 
j. . . evidence Jairnini applies to Markan- 

deya for an explanation of some of the- 
described -in .Mahabharata establishes the priority of ther 
, Mahabharata to the Markandeya Parana. This in not .Of .a piece with 
the- tradltlqn, that having finished the. Puranas .Vlyacsa- wrote tke- 

I'm iii H ili- ( -I in tip name category with IM*I 

l ' l " u " ii*u'rH!i a^ an 

}t!')tltuii<m from IJrahma'j* mouth. Al 

A l*nun<i ifr in! aunhninl *o \)AM who in considered .vi 

n flii* amii^f -t 4'! \Mih< hiMMiH* a|'|w!Lti!cffL Tht M 

*i!h wmi v, Mb ill** Vi?Li4 ihrniM'lvi* ;, It H cli arly hC"n 
1I 6 ?i;^il M 4i4uMtjj'* ilni fhr M,nkatulcy.i prt^fnts A 
**XO'|^MI 1*1 I!IH h.uKiK'iM f*numf*t.tii>n ni iho ri^htc.*?! 
4ti4 ii.*' 4 rV'^Miion t>t V%,^.a\ n.itiif? 

1 li* Iii|jo;ii5|! r ,i jtinjiw^ til tin* unit, 

i'!%*'4 IH } limit}} lu fS|iLuii MJIWC IIHJ- 
*!-*iii . MI I!P* M ilubfurat i lu r f lV.r4 tlinn 

la ".*!tif?),tt<l litiiiig ftn flit Vittittty i iit*!tiitiin til ii tilr%li g il ofi^tn *uitl 
p<ti'mn'*t >ft'***'l lit di* V 4 'i.i ! * in<t ill*: lniwl*<l!t* of ^jxriunl Iftifl* 1 ^ 
M'uu* i M.|* H ^"* f ifh*M t $ 1 pn* I ^IP in f!n k fiillfiHiii'f i|Hi % 
/.,iS''4 U 3^ ^ i \ ,\ i,^ *\,\ pi tit 41 i in \n I It*"" n,n if lli4f I Inn]',' I 
to v ill* '|H" W H i' 'n* 4 { f - Till I ,. i' V/n** i|, I It.ii.^lf^.V r*;jiiiU? It ia* 
i'Ji*, A< I hv wrt" Hi* * )! IM ii nl UMttp.t*)) Killnl ttlirti llii*/ 
L,i ! Ki iM u t Atjitii I'i !*!*i il^fii,'* HUM* An, li* rh 
nii. Ji'iii UM" tit au liiS; i ;i'4 '! tti-i^ * UK* M.UiUliAr'4!i w -dir ( H*rtt* fk 'l 
ifi tiff* fi'tt j??it, 4 fst 4 ilifi !*(<, uu, Hf *t<|r ^ tu in !**|H?fjil**nt turfit 
4*. I A r 1 1 f ittjuti it : itios i! inMht* iinii'i it hu uu AiUiiluMt* 

jt! i U 4 " I'I 't4>iVt MjUjif* I *p Hi if < 4 I**'* it i^jiH . 

i ^n ^ fl ^ t * 14 l|f *' **^ 4 * f '^ *' *'"" ^* 1 "' 1 

il^i us* <alii*'%r I t*y .1 &li*iciv<ifcm tniiii t rfculh ftttd %tti* Tlu . 

i% l^f 4 !,u IM in* ix**''ur li'iiliSiil iif hclh. Il itivri ,4 

ilfHit|4}nt **i lit* Vil.t< in i tlf ?fi'*ifi til fl* imtri'tfilut l,utin ^ 

'1 5^u* H ill $V4ii ml <4 ill* y ttrv iff, ii4 f wliHli in lulluwtnl by 4 '^*tif. 
it I HI**II K <i^ t!i AI! 'j.titi' t*.', rH 4tw ; l*i flu* ^mi :ifi<i I* % 

I'l^^^nl)' ttltlttllt^4 i i V 4ti.H4tl M*UUt 4tl4 till *M,n> f r, I I!I4II*I! if I * 

i.mi4, 1 In* i>iii *,< Vtr A inn, 

t ih* i 4 |f,,'!f* tlf ih (ft M>ltUttiHlP r l't 

i4fM i* ilt* Di.tmU(;Mlu : a ut 

i throit^tuntt 


god dess 

The tittle Saptadi* en hundred 


whteh is 
to be seen prayers and 

beautifully written legeads* 




Oil ! Silutalum unto the Divine VJUudftva. May 

iwo lotus ff*H i*f I Lin, capable r>f dissipating tlif aflltctiost 
* on **'t|m n! upon the* <>t fxist<*n< <*, which, bHnj* got at, 
arr idou'ii bv thr aMMu*> *i t outposts! minds, and which; 
turning into vinv ha\r in onlcr tn\rloprd liraven and 
earth and ilin iifthrr >/jion f pniify you. May IM% who is 
ni|i*iblr: of dr'irovinji *i!I .sins, who n*posd on the ir|>i!nt 
(Aiitintit) liviiif* in tli inhirior of the* Milky oc can, and in 
who:*** mtnpany, th* <w'*an, dth^nn^h having t!w* iiitlous of 
its watriH iritili*rrtl tcrrifi* by ts brtMtft, sotm**d to danc<% 
prutrtt you. 

1 laving %iiltjtnl iltt* Suj>r*m<* l^ity (NftrSyana), and the 
iiigiwtil of ithtli* brings (Nara) *t% tht % goddc*HH of training* 
Irt HH rty Mil t'i*HH, Tlir highly ttiir*rgt*tir Jaimint 
iht! ttisc i|il of Vvi'*4s ti*kr*l llit* |jr^it astvtu* Mlrktind<*yi^ 
*iif**igtit in Itard *ii!4l*tiiii* i nitl Hit* ?ttidy of the Wdus (f} 
"(I K*vi*r^nd Sir t Ifir story of Wif/rn/ii, that bern 

trlatrd by tin* hi){h*MmtM}^ is lull of many brilliant 
i XJUT.. 4tnih t r ttttr|<?il (torn various M-*ipturt*H, and (*onsUtn 
ul diviut* urtn*'4 and tigiirt'.i of Nptvch, ncrllinit w0icl f 
tfiir- lion . ;iii4 ilnur wittilitnt't i^j), A? Vishnu h 

A iu'* the 

jewel amongst all ornaments, tin* itiiiitiirr i?^ft ns^^M ,i! f 
weapons and mind amongst all organ*, w i* tin m ^ n* < 1 
lent Makdbhdrata amongst ail 14 |" r fit tf 

are described both collectivity ami^lf vitiw 

desire and liberation (6) ninth* fori'itm*! f iH t<lntM*it 
scriptures, the most excellent of alt trtMtiw:* j 

wealth, the foremost of all work** fritting In rloirf itir 

best of all discoursing on liberation (7) Cl Sit ? in 

it have been described by th* iiili Ili/jr til \Vil,i VJM.,!, tftf 
practices, mode of living and the att;umnrrtt 1 pftfnt lir 
longing to the four conditions (of tif**) (S). It StMlii* h.i-* 
been so composed by the guti-rm^ Vva^ri t! 4l liit^gtr;ii 
scripture, albeit very extenftm;, In not ,T. .lilt^i liy ^h* 

tions (9). The earth has been frctt from tlir-t %y fSi^ iv.ilr 1% 
billows of Vyasa's words coming itir ni 

the F^ and of destroying UH* I rcu^ til 

ments (10). The huge lake of the t^| 

Krishna (DwaipByana Vyasi) has tlw swcl iint!% KI n . 
big swans, the great stories for it!; cM-tHrui l t *tw* 
and the saying for oxpaniv wafer fit}, *U*nnK 

of learning (from you) faithfully ilii . ?4iny i4 /?*,/*,*.*,* 
instinct with deep Impit anil full ui A^/n i h.u. 
approached you, reverend Sir ^ 14) Wtiv Ufl 
the son of Vasudcva, althounh !rviI 
a human form for the cn-ation, f*it^ 
of this universe? (13). Why did KiMmS. Iti 
Drupada, alone bccomt: (ho cjmvn o( the. livi* * 

a great doubt in this (14), How <iM th.* 

a itlinifiit for his wr.i|u*i, .ihin.-' for t!t, 


of Brihmanacidc hy visHinjj Imly 
Jw the mighty car-warriors, ihr hi K h-M>iii i) 

having the Plnclavts an Ifirii i Mrt |,, ,, t 
married -Jk c forlorn (jiriiumj,)? (iM !i 
describe all thin in ,| rtl a hl ,,., , H| um 
ignorant people 11 (f 7). H^iitn; tfn,, hi 

it s 

-if J 

, v , a 1 4 
fhllK , lIfl4 

. UK >;* .i 


Mfti'kandcy;i, freed from the eighteen shortcomings* 
himself to speak (t8). 

MAKKANDKYA said : "O foremost of Munis, the hour 
for performing my rites is present ; this is not the proper 
time (or dot rilibfj it HI detail (19). I shall name now some 
birds, O j umini, that shall describe (this to you) and remove 
youi doubt (^n). Those of birds, conversant with true 
knowledge^ who always think upon scriptures, and whose 
understanding is tvr free in entering into the knowledge 
of the'Vcdic script nre*, Drona'a sons, Ptnglksha, Vibodha, 
Siiptitra and are living in a cave of the Vindhya 

(mountain) ; RO and ask them (about what you seek 

totaarn)" (3i~22). IVing thus accosted by the Intelligent 
that bi?t of ascetics, having his eyes expanded 
with wonderment, replied (23), 

JAtWNl said ; " Uijrhly wonderful it is, O Brahman, 
that birds sprnk lik' m< n (and i;n*at<r It is) that thy sliould 
attain la knim!fd}{<* which it is so iliifiruft to acquire (24)* If 
th*y havt* npntnij (torn th<* spc*rifs <>( birds whcrefrom have 
ttiry attained t thin knowledgf! ? Whitru arc thete birds 
railed ih of Drona ? (45). Who again Is Drona who hat 
four horn to him ? How did these high*gou!*d and 
;u*compliHftc<l <iiifarqiiirr knowledge of righteousness ? f> (26), 

MAUICANl>f-:VA Mi*! : ff Listen attentively to what took 
in NamUna {the gfardim of gods) when 
and Apnarttn mot (J|} Nlmda naw Sakm the king * 
iif tttf In Uw midst of the courtesAns with his looks 

firmly fixtut ttfwn th**ir fa<*t % H (jH) As soon ^ he WAS espied 
Iiy l AHrelics, Sachi's lord (Indra) al once rose 

lift and r<W|w*rtfully offered him his own neat (29), Be- 
liiititiiifi that ilwlniyer i*f Vala and Vltra rise up, the 
tUI damHh| tifiiiliiig low with humility! bowed to that 


ff* tliitifii tMvrluttittri*^ i4lifr f envy, tfi.anccrity, falnchoodl, 


if 1 


celestial saint (30). Being honored by ami on thr per- 
former of hundred sacrifices taking Ms (the 
welcomed, started a pleasant conversation. it liatt 

ended, the. performer of tiundrcd said lo the 

ascetic (31). 

SAKRA said : <( Command, let one of them, you itkr . 

daace Rambha, Misrakesi, Urvasi TilottamS, hi. 

.MenakS, or (any one else) whom you choose'* (j^f* 
the words .of Sakra, NHrada ? the foremost of the !it it, 

..thinking (for a while) said to the Ap&iritft who 
him) (33). "Let her, amongst you, who cottsidtr* li* i^:ll .< 
superior in beauty and nobility dance befon* nif {j,^ Mnr, 
devoid of beauty and accomplishments, cannot It* ow 

summation in dancing. A dancing which is an *o*jM?'v *! liy 
gestures is (real) dancing any thing else in but fluff f || ^ 
'- MARKANDEYA -said ^Immediately aft*r h lttv) 
;tlis r 'each, bowing, said;~ (< I am superior m 
while the other said " not you, not you" (36)* KIT in;* Ifi* i 
bewilderment the Divine chastiser of Plka natd j A A 
. you the ascetic and he will say who amongst you U 
in accomplishments" (37). Hear from mt! t () Jainiitii, 
NSrada then said on being asked by them, tulliming fir 
direction of Sakra (38), "I shall conaicter her fit tJ 
foremost in accomplishments, who, by her charm, xl 
.the foremost of ascetics Durvsa } carrying on haul 
on the mountain-chief^ (39), Hearing bin wor d s tliry s ilf t 
shaking their heads said " We are all iiicujiaiiir til tfi^ 
this" (40), Amongst them one Apsarl t by nartit* V.tjm, pwA 
of (her capability) to agitate the 8age,aici :--! ^ill 
the anchoret is (41), I shall make to-day that iiriv.*r ,.,| fir 
chariot) of the body, who has controlled tin* , rtir 

senses, lose the .hold of reins and become an 
driver (42). Even if BrahmS, Jatrftrdana, and itte 
(deity Siva) come to me 1 shall make te-ifey iM r hrntN 
pierced with -the shafts, of desire" (4 j). U a il r , tti j lfll , 




Vapu went, to the mount Praleya, (where) by the power 

of the ascetic's penances the ferocious beasts and asylums 

were rendered quiet (44). Remaining at a distance of two 

from where the ascetic was, that excellent Apsarl, 

having the sweet voice of a male coel, began to sing (45)- 

Hcaring her music* the ascetic, having his mind filled with 

surprise, went where that damsel, of sweet voice was (46). 

Beholding her, all whose limbs were graceful, the ascetic, 

controlling liis mind and knowing that she had come to 

ill filled with wrath and indignation- Then 

the great of hard austerities, told her the following (47). 

11 Since, of the sky, you intoxicated with pride^ 

to cause me woe and to put impcdi- 

in my austerity acquired by pain, you shall, therefore, 
O you of vicious understanding, sullied by my wrath, be 
horn in the t>pedps of birds (and remain such) for sixteen 
ye;in-i (4.H-,|9). O wrutrh of an Apsarl, renouncing own 
form litiii antiiifitiii|f that uf a bird (our sons wit! be born to 
you And not obtaining delight in them, and purified 

by (the .stroke of an) weapon you shall again acquire your 
in heavni. There U nothing for you to say in 
reply" (5*) Making that damsel of tremulous bangles, hear 
of this unbearable speech, that Br&hmana, of eyes reddened 
with teavittft the earth containing the Gangft of 

waves, went to the Gangft endued with well* 


or,ed the osess of 
rolhng , n w and i 
he went where the 


LARKANOTYA raid:~Therc *a ,1 king of !!, i, v 
name Garuda, the son of ArMithammi : to- h*i -1 wm, fcnon .* 
as Sampati <i). He Jim! a heroic son, Siij.Swtwa, r n <turI will, 
the velocity of the wind: Suplwhwa's non w.w and 
Kumbhi's son was Prtlolupn (2). |j had t* , Kawki 
and Kandhara (3). Kanka MW on tltc ummit nl th* K4itt., 
a Rakshasa, having eye like !ts (,>, (h^ (ollowrr tf ifi*. 
god of, riches, known n Vidydr r (4), Wr,iri R * , tij |j, lwf 
garland and raimtmt and seated with his tpmw Pn I M Hif.,| 

w " .^ b d t^^ '""T 1 in ' !rinfi "' lf l$)< A * ww "'* 

have you come hw wretch*)' 

Why do you come to me who m wafting hern with my wilr / 
buch is not the procedure of the intoili^nt in tltinii, , 8 , r ,,j 
to secrecy ?" ( 7 ). Kanfcn M kl r-'-Thi* mmm^itrW^ 
common property, it belongn to you, me and other ctriur* 
what special attachment have you f ar it ?' 
said : Being thus accosted by K<tnka the 
down: he looked frightful with blood* g ,*hjnir t 
depnved of consciousness he ro ||d nbmit (9). 
Kanka slain, Kandhara, the king of !,> wwiinrons wii" I- j 
himself with ire, made up U . mind for tl, f , dr.tmt^' 

that destroyer of hi 






- "' ; t 


*yc.s, it! a moment, attacked the mountain with his wings 
(1113). He saw there the night-ranger, engaged in drinking 
with countenance and eyes rendered coppery and seated on a 
golden sofa ; having his head encircled with wreaths adorned 
with Hari sandal, and ftirnidied with a countenance highly 
terrific with teeth resembling the inlying leaves of Ketaki 
(14 15). He saw also his wife, by name Madaoikg, of 

and gifted with the of a male, cocl, 

on his left thigh (16). 

Thereupon having hii mind filled with wrath, Kandhara 
saiil to him who waiting In that mountain cave fl O 

wretch, give me battle (17)* As my eldest brother, (always) 
lias slain by you 1 shall therefore despatch 

pride, to the abode of Yama (18). 

*lain by me 10-day you shall go to lite hells designed for 
tliOHc* who destroy the confiding, women and children"' (19). 

M \UKANDKYA said :~- Hrin^ Uwt ;tddie?;srd by the king 
of bird* in the pies tit , of bis wife the K;tkshu replird to tin* 
bird who wai% tilled with niiRrc (ao). I4 lf 1 luve killed your 
brother fmsooth MKW displayed my prtnvtw; I nlinH 
May you, Cl bird, with thU Nword ol mint* (ji). Watt a 
momotttt O wiiicti of a bin), and >w nhaii ittit KH hence 
liviiijj-" ^Ayiiig thin fie took tip a shitting swor<1 resembling a 
of eollyrttm (.*.*)* There aruuc an unccjuaUi^l fwwnitet 
the. ktujt oi birds and the follower of the of 
liki! thnt between (Jlaruda and f>3)* Then 

In taking up wltt'muttly (ho having tlt 

line of oxtin^uHhed rli;irc;il the Klknhata hurled it at the 
kiiiKot bird* (.'}), As* (iamda (lakes up) a wake, the king 
d bird*, tfie sword ;i little j* fruiw tin: ground, 

(ouk it by tii?f (a<j) Then bnakiiijt it with beak and 

tUiHis l h;it twipurouH was wtkt*d up with anger; on the* 
Mvtw'd beii; thus ^na|i|nnl thrnt <*u.sued a kind to haml 
^i f/<*^ Tlnni * liikii|* llir Rlkf^lrra on bin hrtMxl 
gt ttvtb yyciui hU cnttni!^ tcci, hunK ind head 

(from his body) (27). On his "> ^Liiin f t i s wjif . 

sought refuge with |he bird ; and l**wfs^! 4 little s hrt 

said. "I will be your wife" (jK), TVn tiling I f . r t j mi 
foremost of birds went back lo hi* own towr**- , |>y ^M^ 

troying Vidyudrupa, he was refii'vedl <of fhr "r|ro\v ron- 
sequent upon the death) of Im brother l3i> f , {ming* $ n ||| tr 
abode of Kandhara, that daughter ol tut IHJV f a j r 

eye-brows and capable of assuming at miil f*mk tlml 

of a female bird (30). He then brjjal im In rf 

ApsarSs, a daughter oamitcl P&rkshi hv flu- Jm^ 

precation of the ascetic and flit 1 - iiiiilffnr' In i tiattw* 

of Tlrkshi (31). Mandaplla had ff inj:h!v iut-r^*? i,| s>|^ 
the foremost of the twice-born, I.tiiU nnJ r^S^f', f'tufin- j %vitli 
Drona (32). The youngest of tlifiw, \at,M? ', .>!*< *| ;m f j 
conversant with the Vedas uncl iH hr,ifi<}ir>, r*,|a)pnt fitr fait 
Tarkshi, by the permission o( 
time'TSrkshi conceived and when tin* 

seven fortnights she went to KurukHbftra fl4't. tiir <!rf*;i<!. 

ful combat between the Kutus anil Pftnrtavas n^nm *n ;it tli;il 

time, she, from the inevitable rmtrsie ill iiiliiiis^, fnirft-4 i| 

the thick of battle (35). Thrre .!m tu*h*|il t| t <* rm nmtt*r 

between Bhagadatta and Kiriti, by the t k tiiitiiiiril tii^ ttiit ,;< fl | 

. whose arrows the sky was filled UK if with U,u*.t < f 

a shaft, dark-blue like a serpent, diwharjjml ftom 

PSrtha and coursing vehemently, icvcrnl Ifir ^kiu 

abdomen (37). On the abdomni |M-III K rivw, fu-.r ty r^i t 

endued with the lustre of the mocwi, luring to Iivt% 

dropped to the earth like a IMIM nt '<tl.m i tS? Awl 

simultaneously with their fall tlw !ni M t tiri! !r{ia ( , Wtt f Pe m 

that best of elephants, Supratika, lt,tvifi f! it. ti/- , m h v mi 

arrow (39). Although it dropped down *l l^ ,,,itir 

along with the eggs riving the for,* ot tin , , 4 fth, /^.| 

eggs of the bird were covered by if allMVr tfl , t , | 

the embryos were (40), After that I WI | ,f ^1, tfl , 

. Bhagadatta, had been slain, the f^i^. lllf f ., 

i4 h*r 


Iks Kurus and P&ndavas went on for many a day (41), After 
the ol the battle, Uharnia's son (Yudhisthira) went to 

the son of SSntanu (Bhisrna) to from the high-souled 

(Bhisma) an exhaustive discourse on religion (42), A self- 
controlled ascetic, the foremost of the twice-horn by name 
Shamika, came, in of them where the eggs lay under 

the bell (43). there Im the indistinct cries which, 

though they had full knowledge, the embryos were emitting 
on account of their Infancy (44), Then the tag*, filled with 
surprise, along with his 'dlsripte*, took up the bell and saw th^re 
I ho young one* having no parent* (45). ScHng them Im that 
way mi the ground the divine anreiic Sh.tmiki, filled with 
tttirpritaf &ud to the twice-horn who wen* fallowing him 
(46)* "ndholding the army ol the Rtity;w by lite 

celestial;, wvlt did that Ion-most of the twirn-horn Sukrit, 
thr <um of fsanS, say >'.};), "lh*Mst, you should not fjo 
whns clu you jo in !t%u / \Vhc fc rcv*T )tm may jjo rrnouru'utjj 
and heroism you must not din (4^). A- ywi have bei*n 
crtMtftd hy the 4 l>i*ily, **> long lie wblifB you must live 
whctllpT you fij$ht or n*a 149)* Some cli** In thtir 
cillitrs whl< ilviii** away, and citlutrn 
foml or iiriiiking watrr 1511!, Oilirrn (.if{.*mt), en|f>yin{t 
fiii'rf'U tl lilr, pi>^ -*-4Ht'ii *nnl If .dlh, and tuvitt{ 
|iitr-*t$ii% mil witiiipff^i Jiy uiMipoim, rumi! uncliT the nli 
of tin* bnl il th: drat! (51). miiar,i f in 

un- 1 arriifit away hy th*' fullciwerfi of lite of the 
iltnii! j tho-io who prat tint* r$vi t.ati iie? % r to ifninor* 

t*ilily (5 JJ)* rouwrly th** ihintdrr-luilt \va,* hurlnl hy the 
holder t4 thniitjf*i at S.uiivan ; h<: was wuttudett tt 
ihi* tlit^t Aittf -ili!! ilir AMIM did mt dtt* (53). lint 
ihc fiiii** cum** wild Iht* Hrlf^^ini** thttndrr'tmlt and by llit% 
:iiiii* ldra tilt* iKutya** immrdiitt ty iitrl with tf^trui1Iciii 
j^p. Kfiuwltii; yiHi r,}iiiilil not hit afraid ami tin 

lliririijiCifi i 4*4111^ oil till* tr*if Cif dtMtli flit 

n^ Thr \\urd*. vl Suku liavc litcii b 



these excellent birds for they did not J^ifft \*;' 

in that superhuman batttc( 56), O Vj|irt,*, u i- ihr 

fall of birds and what was th< s!mtitfan**otr h*'*}*j>iri; rf ffiv 
bell ? And what again was thh battle ravfiriinj itn* r.tiili i%i*ti 
: flesh, fat and blood ? (57)* (> Vt{iraH, till llic^* J^ti4*4 

may be -they are not ordinary birtla ; the nf th* 1 I >np, 

sometimes displays good hn k in thi> 
said this and them lit* ajrain ^ 

hermitage taking with you thrsr 

4 i;n 

itft>** il " - 

(59). Keep oviparotm own nt a ffli *! mfirt^ ,* ., ^41^ 

hawks or murgooses may not : (fin) IVfwt i tlir* n^r 
of overcare> twice-born om / AH nrMtutrs ! % nt i!n* 

by their owo actions, so il will tit* wttti Ui'* ^ T VKM^J ,*' ,-t 
the bird (61). Still a man sholl fnil Iniiii Jin riii| r4 i^ sn 
in all that he does; If tr t!cir mil rniplif f% niri|^ |r t 
censured by the (fu), Titan ty || r n, f rhi 

the sons of the itie to lit* 

I age, beautified with the jwrncc l .m! til* k tirr* 

swarming round the branrhcs of trnn (fi/^ <>i|I^fii. t ^ 
he liked, roots, fruits, flower*, and A'w^i gia^, thr 
one performed various religious rito, ^iriclwiinl hy Iftr A>/; t 
in, honor of the holder of dihnw (Vi^ii) > 
Bmhmi, Indra, Yama, the got! O f fin* t thi* itini < 
the lord of speech, the god of wealth, the 
Vidhlta and Vishwadcva (64 - 65), 




^r^ Mceticpwieti * a * iiiiw * rrjiifc '' >- 

with food and water (,}, Withw a mouifc $ J,r,. ,.^i |, 


the of the ascetics, with eyes expanded with curiosity, 

to fly about in the course of the sun's car (sky) (2), 
Having gone round the earth, resembling the wheel of a 
car, abounding in cities, and rivers* those high* 

minded ones, not horn of any female, with their minds and 
bodies exhausted, returned to the hermitage (3), By the 
potency of the their knowledge became manifest 

at that place (4). While the Rishi (Shamika), for favouring 
his disciples, discoursing on the certain truths of religion, 
they,, circumambulating him, bowed to his feet (5). (They) 
said :** C) we by you from a dread* 

ful ; by giving us shelter, food and water, you have 

to be our fattier and preceptor (6), Our mother 
when we in the womb and no father has us 

up ; you have given us our life, for you have protected us 
in our infancy (7). () ycni of undc*Uu*U)rating energy, taking 
away th<* bell of the dcphant, you did n*move our misery 
while we, on the t*;trth t were drying up like so many 

(8). 'When will these poor (young up? 

Whan shall 1 see them ? When I see go-- 

to the from the and fly out to 

? () When the native of my 

with destruction by tin* dust rawed by the wind of the wings 
of ranging about m? f (10). Thinking in this 

O father* w havr brought up by you. We 

up and our understanding hi* 
we do now if" (ti). Hearing those their distinct words; 
til* a tvfhtf d ftpecch, surrounded by all bin 
hin sou Stittyji, the* nM*t*tic *.trii'kt:n with 
curiosity and with hi* hairn standing ftect, siiitl ~ H 'fell mo 
truly how you e*in iilt^f spi^rch (J2 ij} it bf*licivrs 
you to Kpeak to u.i by vvhose unprocaiion > f <m have 
coutt* by this in your fuini and *p*t'th" {t|) s 

Ttte birds said ; " IMII met ly tltwt waw a gtisit 

by tfif luiiiie ot Vpul4:wan. Ho had two 



I ; 


to Srikrishna and Tamvaru (15), Of the self-con- 
Srikrishna we -are the four sons, always con- 
ourselves with humility and bending low with re- 
(16). While he was engaged in hard austerities, 
to his will, with his senses restrained, we used to 
for him sacrificial fuel, flowers and other requisites 
(17;* Thus we all living there in that forest, came to us once 
the king of the celestials assuming the .form of a huge, 
and a decrepit bird, having coppery eyes and 
body, for imprecating a curse on us and asking 
of that foremost of Rishis endued with truth- 
fulness, purity, forgiveness, good conduct and -nobleness of 
awd (18-20). He said:_<0 foremost of the twice-born, 
you should save me, who am stricken with hunger, I seek 
tor food, O great one, and be you my help (21). While 
' " oo the summit of the Vindhya mountain, 1 was - thrown 

groand for 

y wings 

bewildennent I lay 
the r 7 

' S " 




fi ha " ' 

fiod great 

)^ \ 
t, '',. 



The of the wicked never with perfect pacifica- 

lion? (|o)* And what is the use of my this? We* 

now think that has promised must be 

(31). Having said this to him that best of the Vipras, 
making up hk mind, &pv*idily sent for us. And prating 
rach aeeording to his merit, ttut ascetic of aggrieved heart, 
addressed highly crtrl words* Id tin all who were beading low 
with humility, filled with devotion ami had our hands joined 
(^ 33), *(> fowmost of the twitti-horn, you have ubchtecl 
yutinf:lf and have been fiiH?c! fwm your debt* along with me* 
4 1 twice born 0111% as you art* my offsprings, you have begotten 
fxcrllent children (3fi It I am your prtre.ptot , womhtpful 
.inc! ymir father, worthy nl yctur irvftnic i , Hum do you satisfy 
my a $:ncl pirit' (15)^ A * noon an wo 

addruwd by him alle iionatflv with thes<* words we said ; 
1 fliinlc what ynu luiv* said In tr a . ahrmly aeconiplinhed 1 (36). 
rill-: Uf.hi :*iid ''Ihi. iiiid, sttifKeu with hunger and 
llurM, has* Muvjht irlj;* with IIH*. !>*> ynu MJOII clu that 
by which he may obtain *ali*4;irUtni with your Hrnh 
:*ltk* lib IIiiiM with y**ur blaud (j/K 1 hereupon 
and tuifiitiiiiig with tnir w i**ict, * f j thin 

IK* tlowj by in (38), Why hhonld a 

his own body Iw the ^;ikc ol uthcru; n f !i own body in 
like* our 1 * own (;|i). \ ^on f as mentioned^ tbo 

the no % wti.I mum^t tleitirt and but 

lift jjive-i hk b>dy we not do 

flirt, nor ifinrtf% that have it; 

livinj;, to well 'bring; .1 perttnn, living performs pious 

dffdn (|i). A |trriin f dyii% tones his body and all bis 
i''Hi;i<itt!i In *in eml; tlit: vistmiUN 

.iid:' Protect thy W by all meanH 1 ( js). 
vvntd- n| iMir, tin* ascetic, :w il burij.j in COM* 

"timing* ii* withhK eyr>, aj;. ;trldi**!.:rd u (43) *** 

1 i f iomt in ; u mi' ,i* yuu *tu nut alt4y my words, so 
i>\ ttn impi'^.tttMU ynu j.ludl be born u bsrdfc' 


Having said this to us and his 

rites according to the ordinances hi* fo Ilic bin! f | v ' o 

foremost of birds, do you eat me up , I havp 

converted this body of mine into fond for (4**! *^ br 4 
of the birds, as long as a Br&hmana obsnrvi's tn l*>n^ 

his [Brlhmanahood is maintained (47^, A * 

not acquire piety so much by sacrifice, or **' 

act as he does by observing truth* >J 

words of the Rishi, Sakra, ml<r tin* f ,1 bud, 

his mind filled with surprise, rqtltrtl I ci tin* *O ;; 

foremost of Vipras, resorting t< I V/ii t r<*mntfirr ',' 

body I do not feed upon livinj* nniiualN, O br,t n( ( 

(50)* Hearing his words the ascetit 1*11*44^^*1 m F ;; t n**n \ t 
knowing his determination and li^iiinliii* hi* n\\\\ ffirfii Sikra ;! 
said: (51), *0 oC,Vipran,O inlrtiinnil mir, |n vmt ^ 

uinderstandi by your lit 

0. sinless one, for trying you, I llilt r 

by you (52). you of pure mind, either tcjff^ivr ^ 

fore, or do what you will; I have b* k fti highly \\ f 

you for satisfying your promise (53). From you f; 

have knowledge of Indra and the rt* will be no ^ 

to yo-ur religious penance 1 (54)* After S*tlra ,^' 

latwg said this, we^ saluting our sire ftltrd ';; 

Addressed the great ($5), *0 

you should forgive us, poor art*, 

of death j (certainly) we do love our life \ 

2|ttachm.ent for this body which i of mii ; 

and filled with pus and for which no 

be cherished (57), Hear, () on**, how 

become infatuated^ losing all control over th 4 iiiveKY by li* \ 

powerful enemics~the Iust lk*, Tin* i 

W.nfi:Fri/M endowed with conftttouHm;**, tit tlir fjn M 
city (body) encircled by the rampaits <if '; 

bones for its support, a fcnifiiiaiwii nf | 

with fleh and Wood, nine fthtr > f 

of nitgnty miseries surrounucu on ait witn nerves 

(S9"H5o). He has two ministers, intellect and mind opposed 
In other; and each of these* tries to destroy his 

enemy (6t). The king has four enemies, who are always 
desirous of killing himnamely, lust, anger, covetousncss 
and the other enemy is stupefaction (a} When the king 
lives closing those entrances, then only he is strong, healthy 
and freed from anxiety (63)* Then attachment grown in 
htm and he is not overcome by his enemies (64). But while 
he throws all the doors, then the enemy attachment 

hold* of the of his eyes, etc. (65). lie in 

all-pervading, highly powerful and w capable of entering 

five doors* And following him enter the 
dreadful (6)* Thereupon entering the 

doors as organs of attachment attains 10 

unification with mind and the rest (67). Subjugating the 
mind and the senses and occupying the entrances that dread- 
ful one the ramparts. Beholding mind under his 
jugation, Intellect immediately with destruction (68). 
Having no councillors, renounced by the of hit 
and with enemy the of his 

with (69), In this 

attachment i and anger, go 

destroying the of From 

and it the 

of thr impairment of 

loss of and from loss of intellect follows the 

(71), () of men, do you 

your to who lost their 

Icct, are following and 

for life (71},- the corse, impre* 

cated on us by you, the divine may not true, 

O foremost of we not come by the 

by the quality of darkness (73)* 1 , ' - 



THE RISHI said : ' What have I said can never \>c fal.M- 
fied. my sons, to this day, I have never spoken an un- 
truth (74). I consider destiny in this as supreme; Oh fir 
on useless manliness I by which perforce I have unthinkingly 
perpetrated an iniquity (75). Since you have propitiated 
me by bowing to me, you shall even, when born as birds, 
attain to knowledge (76). Having ways discovered by your 
knowledge and your distressing sins washed away through 
my grace, you shall unhesitatingly attain to most excellent 
SuUM (accomplished piety) (77). When, my sons, you 
shall begin speaking (in answer to) Jaimini's queatioiu about 
his doubts you will then be freed from my curse. Tlw is 
the favour I extend to you (78).' Q worshipful Sir, in this 
way we were formerly imprecated by our sire under the fa. 
fluence of destiny ad after a lapse of time we have !*,. 
born m another species (79). We have been bom I* a batU. 
field and brought p by you. O foremost of the twlce-born 
in this way we have come by the state of birds (So). There 
no such (person) in this world who is not governed hy' 

* actions of the 

MARKANDEYA said :-0 reverend Sir, hearing their word* 
the great ascetic Shamika said to the twicc-born one! who 
were around him (82). I have already spoken to you *l h 
*y are not ordinary birds, they must be some great "v 
born ones for they did not meet with death in 

h-r I" 6 (83 i" ^ btaini ^ P^-on from 
h gh-soul ed one who was g , ad at hea 

** .*. Vindhya filled with trees 

who came 

of mind 
ascetic, those 

r I* " f '"" *-"* vfcuSt^l/l'JUi'f 

f b.rds, live with minds controlled 


to the woods of that best of mountain in the Vindhya 

(abounding in) high sacred streams (86), 


LARKANDKYA said : Thus did the sons of Drona, the 
birds, obtain knowledge They live in the Vindhya ; 

do you adore them and ask them (regarding your 
Hearing the words of the saint Markandeya, Jaimmi 
went to the summit of the Viwlhya where tin* pious 
were (2). Approaching that mountain he. hc;m! the sound 
of reading and at thin filled with surprise Jaimitti thought (31. 
"The foremost OIH*. of the twice-born are reciting tint 
with proper accent and emphasis, controlling their 
without any fatigue, with ditmctnei iiiitl any 

(4). Me*thmks it is a wonder that the of 

has not forsaken th"**ft sons of the* anchorite wlui have 
by a different birth (5), Kritmtl* and acquatnlaucen, 
one according to their will, go tti another but the 

dess of learning never htm (6), ff this, lit 

entered, the mountain cave and 
twice-born ones on a mountain ulab (7). 

them recite (the Vedus) without any dintortitm of thr fa*.:*-, tie s 
filled with delight and sorrow, said to them nil (8). "May gopd 
betide you, 0. eminent twice-born oncrn, knew me us 
the disciple of who have conn: here to nee you ()). 

You should not be sorry for bring born a bird* and for being 
imprecated by your 8 i re b gri^l anger : Hits In nil 
(10). ^O foremost twice-born om% aonu iiitelligerit 
bora in an affluent family, were comforted, oc the tote of 



wealth, by a barbarian (n). Some persons giving (ihrir all) 
go about begging; others killing (some) are themselves killed ; 
some bringing down (others) are themselves prostrated; all thi* 
Springs from the wane of asceticism (12). Many such contraries 
have been seen by me : the world is perpetually disturbed 
with these contending chances and mischances (fj). Think- 
ing this in your mind you should not grieve : this b the fruit 
of knowledge riot influenced by joy or grief (14)." Then wet- 
coming Jaimini with water to wash feet and an offering of 
Kuga grass they all, bowing to the great ana'tic, enquired 
about his well-being (15). Then all those birds <wiid to the 
ascetic, the disciple of VyLsa, seated at ease ( and rciicvwl 
of fatigue by the wind of their wings (16). "Blessed is our 
birth to-day and our life has proved to be a good lift* since 
we have seen the pair oC your lotas feet worshipped by 

the celestials (if). Vipr^, that, 'which .originating our 
father's anger, exists in our bodies has been quenched to-day 
with the water of your presence (18). At your asylum, C> 
Brahman, is it all well with birds and beasts, trees, creeper*, 
groves consisting of bark only, grass and others of the 
origiri ? (19). Or perhaps we have not made a proper en- 
quiry, regarded by you as we are ; how can they, who arc 
with you, suffer misfortune? (20). Do you favour m 
tis the cause of your coming : your noble presence is like the 
company of the celestials. By what great luck 

have been brought within the range of oar vision (21)," Jai- 
Ofim said: 'Hear, you the foremost of the twice-horn 
why 1 have come to . this charming hollow of the Vtndhya 
tottered by the river Reva (22). I have come to ak 

you 1 about some doubts in the scripture Ehdrate* Formerly 
asking the higb-aouled Mirkandeya, the best of the 
race, I came across statue doubtful points in \ havtr 

feeen told by him 'There are in the great mountain Vindliya 
the high-souled sons of Drona : they will speak to you (oil 
Ibis) at length' (2324).; Following hi words 1 ha?c 

Ifs. ' 



to this great mountain : do you hear them exhaustively ami 
explain them to me 1 ' (25), The birds said: "We 
tell you if It be a (worthy) subject, do you it, of 

fear. And why should we not speak out what lias come within 
the range of our intellect ? (16). And although* O 
of the Brihinanas, our intellect aver the four Vedas, 

the scriptural work.% all its and others 

by the Vedas still we cannot ourselves to any 

(about It) (2728). Communicate to us confidingly if you 
have any doubts in HkAr&ta and we shall explain llirni to 
you f 0' you conversant with virtue, unless we are over- 
powered by stupefaction (2C|). lf 

J A! MINI said :~0 you of pure souls, hear what doubtful 
points I have in Bh&rata and bearing you tthottUI ex- 

plain (30)* Although devoid of qualities why did . 
the son of Vauudeva, the stay of tho univ^r&e and tin* 
of all causes, conic by tho st.'ttt* of a man ? (31). Why diJ 
Krishnft, the daughter of iJrujKtilt, become I he ow? 
queen of the five of Pliulti ? I havfc a great dtoitfti ii 

this (32). How did the highly powerful Vatadeva, hiv ing a 
ploughshare for hi* the sift of 

nicide by vinittng holy shrities {331, Why did the mighty car 
warriors, the high-souted of Dra|i:tdi t having ihe 

Pftndavas for their lord, with death, enter* 

td upon matrimonial life, like to 

(34). Explain til my 

which I spoken, MCI that I 

return to my own hermitage (35)* 

THE BIRDS said :Salttli(i({; ttu% lord u( tin* ci'Is*tial:,, tint 
highly powerful Vi*hnti the l*iiriwhii of incoiiiparahU* 
the eternal and unctecayingt identical with four tti* 

three-fold and nhorn of tlietit, who i?4 excellnit , 

most powerful, worahtpful and immurtal ; him, than 

there h nothing or *maii<*r ( by whom, unhorn 4inl 
the beginning of the world, thfo univctM: lu tj< 4 ii 


him, who appears and disappears, who is seen and not 
who is the creator and the destroyer of all in the end ; bowing 
with a controlled mind to the Prime deity Brahml who, bring- 
ing out from his mouth Rik and Sdman> purified the three 
worlds (3640). Saluting I^Sna, defeated by whose single 
arrow the Asuras cannot put in obstacles in the sacrifices of 
the sacrifices (41); we shall describe, at length, the moral 
truths which have been revealed in Shdrata by Vyftsa of 
wondrous deeds (42). Water has been called Ndra by the* 
' ascetics seeing the true essence of things; he who 
on it, in the beginning is called Ndrdyana (43). O Brahman 
the divine lord Nlrayana, permeating all, exists in four fold 
forms, (either) endued with qualities or being devoid there* 
from (44). One of these forms cannot be defined; the wise 
behold it as white ; this form, called Vlsudcva, is a* 

being engarlanded by effulgence, the principal of thft 

Yogis, distant yet' near, above the attributes *n<& of alt- 

attachments (4546). Form, color ttc do not really belong 
to it, but are the work of imagination, fts form i one, 
eternal, pure and glorious (47). The second form, known 
as Sesha, remaining underneath, holds the earth, It is per- 
vaded by the quality of ignorance and is accordingly called 
as belonging to the brute creation (48), The third 
through actions, being engaged in protecting people ; It 
meated by the quality of goodness and is known as establish* 
ing righteousness (49). The fourth lies within water resting 
on a serpent bed : darkness is its attribute ancl il nlwayn 
carries on the work of creation (50). That third form of 
Hat!, which is engaged in protecting people, always 
blishes righteousness on earth (51). Slaying the rising 
Who always disturb virtue, it protects the deities and 
fifons men always intent upon protecting virtue (52), At ill 
time% Jamini, whenever the virtue' has suffered 
tion this form has been incarnated for raising 
(53). Formerly assuming the form. of. a boar, and 


the water with the projection of the mouth* it, with onr 
tooth, raised up the earth like a lotos (54), Assuming the 
form of man-lion he slew Hiranyaka<;ipu and other 
headed by Viprachitti (55). Dwarf and various other 
of his I do not like to enumerate* The present 
is his MathurS, incarnation (5). When the form permratrril 
by the quality of goodness was incarnated it engaged in the 
work of preservation under tine name of Pradyumna (57). 
Either born as a celestial, a human being or a beast, V&swtava* 
according to his will, assumes the nature* of tin* form fin 
which he is born) (58). All thin has bern described ; 
bear next, how the-. lord Vishnu, although attaining to 
success, assumed the form of n man 

CHAP T E ft V . 

1 HE BIRDS said: Formerly the Patriarch TashUl hail 

a son by name Trigirl; (once) piTforttiniff miteritit* * with lii- 
head downwards he was stain by Sakm in fear (t). O 
Brahman, Tasht&'a son being ftiain, frulra 1 ^ 
impairment being greatly by the in nf 

(2). OR account of (his iniquity Sakra'* energy enit?rw} 
righteousnessand his energy having <*nterrd into right ftnin. 
nessSakra shorn of it (3), Thereupon hearing of tbr 

destruction of his son the Patriarrh Tashtl, 
anger, tore a matted-Ioek and said rf.j), '* f^t tin* 
ivorlds with the deities behold my prowenH ; k| 

the wickcd-mindcd chart iacr of Ilka, wlici Imn 
BrShmann, witness it also, by whom my 'u>n, in 


penances, has been killed." Saying this, he, having 
his eyes reddened with anger, offered the matted-locks to 
fire (5- 6). Thereupon arose a mighty, huge-bodied Asura, 
Vritra, engarlanded by flames, having huge teeth and resem- 
bling a- mass of crushed collyrum (7), Being impregnated 
by the energy of TashtS, the highly powerful enemy of 
Indra, of incomparable energy, daily grew in like 

the course of an arrow (8), Beholding the "mighty 
Vritra for his own destruction, Sakra, stricken with 
,the sfven Rishis for making a peace (9), The 'sago*, i*Cr 
engaged in the well-being of all creatures with a ghcl htart, 
arranged for a conditional treaty between him and Vritra (m>. 
When disregarding the condition Vritra was slain by Iwlra, 
his strength became enfeebled on account of his being AH. 
sailed by the sin of Vritra's destruction (n). The trtrenjjth 
driven out of Sakra's body entered into air, AlI-ftprcafHng, 
invisible and the deity presiding over all prowess (ta). When 
assuming tke form ot Goutama, Sakra, the lord of the cdr*. 
tials, ravished AhalyS, his beauty disappeared (rj), The 
grace of his limbs which was highly charming, leaving ilie 
wicked king of the deities, resorted to Ntsatyas (the twin 
sons of Aswini) (14). Knowing that the king of the 
lials was shorn of virtue and energy and deprived of 
sa4 beauty the Daityas addressed themselves for 
ing-hini (15). great ascetic, being desirous 'of vanquishing 
the king of the celestials, the highly powerful were 

fcera in the races of mighty monarchs (16). Once on a 
'time, the earth, assailed by her load, 'went to the summit of 
^.ttWAtUeni where there was an assembly of the 
*ls (ift She, distressed with a heavy load, eommunictted 
to them the cause of her affliction arising from the 
the sons of Danu (18). All those powerful who 

hat ^destroyed by you, have been bom in the region" of 
MI* Chouses of the kings (19). They are peal mmy 
Akttumhw gn nuinberJ-disteesBed by them I am going , 




do you so arrange therefore, O celestials, that I 
to peace (20)." 

THE BIRDS said '.Thereupon dividing their 
the celestials descended on earth from their own for 

protecting creatures and relieving the earth of her burrfan* 
(2i). Then the deity Dharma put the energy of 
body in Kunti and then born the highly 

king Yudhisthira (22), The God of Wind gave away his 
energy and Bhima was born * and Plrtha (Arjuna) the con- 
queror of the god of riches was born from a half of 
energy (23). The highly effulgent twins resembling 
wire born from MSdri. In these five ways did tfie Dtvinr* 
performer of hundred sacrifices incarnate himself 
great wife came out from fire as KrislmA (25). 
was the wife of Sakra and of none else. The 
can convert their body into many (26), We* Itav* tlnin 
cribed to you how one ln!came the wife of the* five*. Hr;ir 
how Valadcva went to the Samawati. 




US said ;Kuowing that Kmhn& had a 

love for P&rtha, K&ma, having the plough fr hin 
thought mueh i to what NliouUi be done (t), <g 
Krishna 1 shall to th<* wide of nuryodhiiiinand can I, 

siding with the PSndavim, slay Ihr Icinjj Ilurytnltiani, my 
in-law, disciple' and lord ol twn / (2-;|i Tbf rrfore I 
purify myself by visiting holy sihriticn HO bug nnilitt 
Finduvas do not uxletminatt! ach t>thcr (4) Pt Tlmfi 



Hrishikeca, Partha and Duryyodhana, Valarima (Souri) ur 
rounded by his soldiers went to DwarkS (5). Going to 
Dwarka filled with contented and healthy men, R| ma 
holding plough as weapon, began to drink on the day ..' 
cedipg his departure to holy shrines (6). Then 
his glass and holding by the hand the proud Revati, res 
Wg an Apsara he went to the rich garden of R aivata 
Eluded by a bevy of damsels, he, inebriete as he 
reeled as he went along. The heroe then saw the hi 
(banning wood, rich with fruits and flowers of all 
filled w,th monkeys, holy and abounding in ^ 
lakes (8-9). He heard many maddening notes emitted by 
hrds crcabng dehght, P l easant to the ears and greatly 
weet (ro). He saw those trees, loaded with the frL o^ 
a 11 seasons and sh.ning with the flowers of all 8Caso 8 

of trees, filled with sweet 
Chakoras,Sata P atras 


looses, Kalharas, 

of do- 

w i 

forest, one by one, 
grove of 

n ^ *' 


hc Uvice , b 



bhes versed in the Wclas ami their brnuhf, 
fehlrgavas/ the tlescewl.inlh oi Hinvtradftjn rum* fit 

Goutama and other eminent twice-born on fc #t>ori in 
races, who, seated on Kti$a ah*t*ts on KpaciotH 
deer skins and other of the ascetics, went Ibtni* 

ing with attention. Amongst them, Sula was (iisirottrNing 
on themes, relating to Pur&tu*, on th<* rhnri:tr,r of lh* 
original celestial saints (34 J0). IMiolchntf with 

reddened with tlt^k and cotwidcrinK liitn to in* iiiriiiititn all 
the twice-born huriiedly Htooil up (17)* TIt*y all wrlmi?M| 
the holder of plough* except him \\In> bruit in ihc r.u* 
of Suta (28). Thciat thr tilghly inv* ! rful li^ltlt^ <*l plMii^h, 
illed with anger, and his eyes lolling, \vlrn lia*l >lr*in nnmt*i - 
less Dlnavast, killed Sutu (3y). Suta, ht'iti|* nlaiii r ,>U;M**t 
to, the dignity of Bhiliiiil ; ami .ill the Irtin^boin. < Kul in 
antelope skin, went away from tins foii*.*t fj CfMi'.ui-'ii.j.j 
himself sullh'fl, Ihc holder <f pluj;h tlnu !? - i<r A ^ V P.H 
iniquity luis bt\ ti piipf % li'it' t d l*y w ^ji 1 - Ihn*- ! in* *i 
who has atUiucd to th< 1 <lij;mi' *l Hi.ihiut; .iil tr^iM' m* 
alt t'wic-e-liorn ouoii h.ivt* jjou * awny ij ') "' '** raiirlf oi 

my body haul ar iron, i, $ i ^*atinj{ uii'it a i Ni fc I h,iva 
my own-self cuiwil with the detrtu,*Uuti of 4 C,ij). 

Fie on spit**, drink, it|(oii*m ami rashue^i, ptMs*,*HMnl lv nhi* h 
I have perpcliAtctl this mij'Jity iwijuHy jj,{). ! ; ur t t|ii,$ii!!^ 
my sin, 1 shall tifmervc ;t vow t^uinltug 
by washing nwny my drcd and tnP* 

(35). In thiM viwit ut tli holy f 

1 skill go in /*i<ff///d//iJ S^raswati" (31*). Ilirre- 
upon repaired to J*ratffomti hoai ii**^l tint 

tlie (3.7)* 


1 HE BIRDS said -.Formerly in the Tret! ihf rd 

a royal saint by name Harishchandra : that ruler of tilt 
earth was virtuous, renowned for good .deeds and of a hainl- 
some person (i). - During his rule there was 110 0r 

disease or untimely death amongst men ; nor \m 
tlsed to take delight in impious deeds (2), They were not 
of their riches, prowess and asceticism ; and no woman 
^ gave birth to children before she attained her yotith (j) 
Once on a time ' it so happened, that as that mighty-armed 
one was engaged in pursuing a deer in the fontftt fir beard 
the cries of "Save me" coming from a certain women (4)* 
Then leaving the deer the king said "No fear ; what wicked 
person is engaged in doing wrong during my regcme ? f> (5)* 
He (then) proceeded to the direction of cries : in the 
the dreadful Deity of impediments, who put* in fa 

the beginning of every thing, thought (6) : "Carrymjf on 
unequalled devout penances the highly powerful Vitwtmitrj* 
observing a vow, is striving to acquire various Icnrningn of 
Bhava and others never, before acquired by any (7). 
being accomplished by the ascetic, endued with 
sitence and self-control, and assailed by fear, are 
crying. What should I do now ? ,8). The foremost 0! 
>b energetic and we are greatly weak ; assailed with fear ftluv 
-* cryiag ; this appears as incomprehensible to * ML | 
bave got bere the kmg exclaiming for tbe 
fear/ Eatenng into his body I shaH a 

cncrgy , 

am present here (ra)? Who, alt 

shafts discharged front my up all 

shall enter into a long sleep"? (13) lie 

words of the king, Vi^wlmittm - was i and 

foremost of Rishi* having 

forms of learning Immediately (14)* 

all on a sudden the tit 

with fear, began to tremble like a leaf ef aa (15). 

When the said fi Stay ! O 

the king, bowing down with humility, (16). 

Sir, this is my duty ! O lord ! there is no folly of mim*. O 

ascetic, you should not be angry with me who 

my OWE duties (17). A virtuous king should 

and protect (people) and In pursuance of tic 

fight lifting up Ms bow" (18). 

VISHWAMITRA said :~ (l Whom sthonU! you (n 

thing), whom should you protect and with whom tihmtUI you 
fight, O king? Tdl mo thus apflcuHIy, if you tt*rtr iififtgfilftiiiii- 
ness 11 (19)* Haritthchanclra said : "Cliftn *h(*ulti tit* in 

the foremost of Vtpras and those IIP! ftif 

them ; those that are afraid nhoitK! ba 
sliould always be fought %vith 1f (aX Vlv^ftntitm 
4i looking, you obttcrvo fully nil lit** thiUt*** tl 4 fcinj;, f 
appear before you as a Hr&hmaika clr^itcinn of 
something: mo my d*MevUfrtr gtit 11 (ai) Jho 

sail :**Henring warcU, the hi* inna 

filled with dolighfci con!clen?d hiniirlf to 
again and said to Kou^ika (aj) !Iarii4ichaiitlra ,*** 1*i ti 
me freely* O revfrciid Sisr t what 1 t*lutll have t ^ve yciti , 
and even it be difticalt to know It *t nlr**atly 

lo you, (^3) be it fttfwTt non, wlf% body, flli 

dom, fortune or any other thing that you fmy like to 
(24), VIgw&mlfera said : " CtmHulcir, O kln^ wliat you 
laid as accepted by me. First jjtvi* inr th 4 Unlc^ittitl of tlir 
Rljashuya sacrifice" C*"?sV fU^ kii^ 4ilt! W f 1 l*!ill t 




aut with all virtues, that follow, mi, ,f.r M-. j^li- 
- the use of speaking mon-you B ,v, m Ml .* 

.1. wor-ln of .1,- Hn!, tl. 

king without any change on bin co....!.'namv ^t *iti * 
delighted heart, said 50 b it " with MII"! l-inn J * ^ 

VISHWAMITRA Mtid^ir.O.c^I^nl, ,ou li,.^.^^ 

away to me your kingdom, earth and fu,cv* who i!^ 11 Ih, 
king of them all, tnyclfbcinu In iwanit.H (,P, 

%yrtsU^drasaid:--From tho tlmftl Imvr s ;v m'-f ! vm 
'ibis earth with kingdom, you are tit, !*<! AIL! Ki.i,t of Ih^ 
earth, reverend Sir" (32)- VivwSmilni -u4 -'- h v>i 
liave conferred upon me, king, tin* Mitir^ i^ilh *iul if Ihi* 
be my property, then do you, leaviog olf all yom' Mfinm^iit-4, 
the thread round your waUt attd wtwitiit luik, ?v> out liaiti 
^lA'^tece with your wife and HOII I! (JJ.-J4)* 

THE BIROS said: Say in $ ' so boHMlM* ftM*<"*^l 

himself for departure along with hi* wif Ami 

a boy (35). As he was jjoing h iV 

t tracting his path said to the king- Wlw If ym t> 
* gtfiftg me theDaMiiniof Raj^whuyn ? fl (;<6) ; 
rttt'^^tftvertind Sir, I have conforrJ tijiom y<ni thit 
dom freed of all thorns and I have rftacrvcd to me, <'> 
' Ifeese three bodies of mine" (37), *nM-. M Still 

iftfa should confer ttpoii me the sacrificial ; if ban 

1 Braised to the Brfthraanaf in be wrt giv**n 

every tfiittg is destroyed (38). A long HH Ilia 
are n*0t satisfied in the Rljaslmya sacrifice! 



gifts of Rafashuya should be given (39). You had promised 
before that you would give what you promised, fight with the 
robbers and protect the distressed" (40). Harishcbaiidra 
said : *"0 reverend Sir, I have nothing at present but 1 shall 
give you in time; favour rae, O Brahmana saint, cherishing 
good feelings towards me" (41). Vi^wamitra said: ff How 
shall I wail, O lord of men ; tell me speedily or the fire 
of imprecation shall consume you" (42). Harischandra 
said :" Within a month I shall confer upon you the 
Dakshina, O Brthmana saint : at present -I have nothing ; 
you should permit me (therefore)" (43). Vigwimitra said : 
|{ Go | go ! O foremost of men and satisfy your duties ; may 
you fare well on the way and may not the robbers disturb 

you" (44)- " ' ^ ' ' : 

THE 'BIRDS said: Then permitted with saying go' that 
foremost of royal saints, the lord of the earth, having bis 
mind possessed by wonderment, departed. His wife, unused 
to. walking, followed him (45). Beholding that foremost of 
kings issue out of the city with his wife and son, the citizens 
following, began to lament (46) ; " O lord, why do you leave 
us distressed and oppresse^by-otfaef-'i k- * m O 'king, you have 
always acted piously and been kind to the citizens. If you 
observe virtue, O royal saint, take us (also with you) (47). 
Wait for a moment, O best of kings, we shall drink your lotus 
countenance with these black bees of eyes j When shall we 
see you again ? (48). The wife, taking the boy son (with her) 
follows. ' Mm, whom, when going before, the kings used to 
follow (49). The self-same Harishchandra, the foremost o 
kings* whose servants mounted on elephants used to precede 
him, is now going on loot (50). O king, how shall your 
beautiful face, having a fair nose and eye-brows, be sutllect j 
with dust on your way? (51), Wait ! wait ! O best of kings, 
satisfy your own duty ; compassion is the best of virtues 
-especially for the Kshatryas (52). Of what avail are the 
wives and the sons? What is the use of riches and corns f 


Leaving all these we will follow you like yor 
lord \ great king ! O master j why do you renounce m t 
Wherever you will be we will go ; wherever you live tliere is 
our happiness ; wherever you reside there is owr city where 
the king is there is our heaven" (54). Hearing the lit- 
waitings of the citizens, the king, possessed by sorrow 
having compassion, stopped on the way (55*. Seeing Mm 
agitated by the words of the citizens and approaching 
ViwSmitra, having his eyes expanded with atiffCf 
indignation, said t (56) <( Fie on you ! who are wicked, 
false and utter untruths ; having given your kingdom 
to me you wish to take it back 11 (57), Than 
by him with ( harsh words he began to tremble and 
" I go" he speedily went away taking his wife liy the Imiict 
(58). While his tender wife, exhausted witli fattgu*, 
drawn, VigwSmitra all on a sudden struck her wtfft a cluiitiMng 
rod (59). Beholding her thus struck, HarUhrhandra, flu* 
lordtbf the earth, stricken with grief, saicl f am Roinjj M "*d 
did not utter any thing else (60)* liarifthtlmmlr*, 

the lord of men, thus circumstanced, Hie lite Vivwattava*, 
moved with pity, said : (61) " To what this* 

sinful Viswlmitra attain by whom this one f the of 

t^)$e performing sacrifices, has been deprived 0! hi* own 
kingdom ? (62). And drinking whose by 

reverence and offered in great sacrifice with 
shall we attain to great delight ? " (63), 
w Hearing those their words, the sou of Ko? ika t Ailed will 
great anger, imprecated them, saying ' Do you all 

($4). Being propitiated by them the 
acetic again said ;- Although bora as men you will 0t 
SL chiIdrca nor wives, nor there will be ill-feeling for you* 

shorn of lust and anger you shall again 
?; ffifr-66). Thereupon all those with their own 

^.w^re incarnated in the house of the Kurus at the five 
wjs of the PSndavas sprung from the womb of UrauraU (67), 



It is for this reason by the of tlir 

the mighty car-warriors, lti* of Ihc li4 w* 

obtain wives (68). Thus we to you 

relating -to the history 01 the of the anl 

the four questions, What do you U> ? 


UAIMIKI said :<" All this you have to me in 

order of my questions, But I have n gn*at vwriotttty n*4 to 
the story of Harishchandru (f), Alas ( a grrat misfwhwf 
befell that high-souleci ont*, hut did ht% (> forrmonl of tttt* 

twice-born one, ever attain to felicity like liefon*?" (4* 

THE BIRDS said ;Hearmg the of tftt 

poor king, accompanied by his wift ili 

duly proceeded (3), He thought *Tltis city Is the <*n|oy 

went of human being created hy th<s lriilctit-lmnd*ul 

deity (Siva/ (4), and then going to the diy 

(Benares) he stricken with on 

with his obedient wife but at the of the city tit 

saw Vi^wimltra (5). him ho 

down with humility* then folding his Hftrifthchnntira 

said to the great (6)* "Thin It my life ! this is my Mm 

and this is my wife, Do you one of 

which you like and require it prGiwnt. You 
command me what cine can we do for you ? fl (78)* 

VISUWAMITRA said: "The month i 
saint ; give me my Dakshinft relative to if 

remember your own words" (9), 

to-d^c month will be complete f Wait moiv ; 

you shall not have to wait long (10). 

VISHWAMITR/V said :~Let it be S0 O great king, I com* 
again. If you do not give me to-day i ihali ettrsf yon, ( 1 1 ) 

THE BIRDS said: Saying thin the wrtif , 

'away and the king thought ."What *A.iH I <<>* 

him which I have promised? Where can I j?:l 
friends? (12). And where can I got wealth ? I t!^ tn4 
redeem my promise I shall come by perdition? (#* 
I give up my life? Where shall 1 go? If 1 iw- t willt ilf*s< 
truction by not giving what I had promised, I -h;iH, h< iwj 
guilty of robbing a Brihmana of Iits wealth, bocoim* a wntro, 
the vilest of vile (14), It is better that ntv ftf I <nh,i1l 

enter into servitude' 1 (15). (Then) his wii% %iitfi wnnN MIJ>. 
pressed with grief, said to the poor and attxtou't kinj* lfiifilni|f 
^Jl!b to head hanging down (16). fl Givi up ihoujjhl, 1 1 I^I/MI 
king; and satisfy 'your promise : a man, who hn* hrt*n ihiwii 
out from the range of truth, should be ihmim*<i tiku a CM'm^* 
tion-ground (17). They say there is no otln*i tluty ^irnlrr 
fora man, than the satisfaction of one 1 *! <wtt irmiiu*. 
foremoat of men (18), ' The perpetual 111111111^11 mri* of 
a'^act^d fire, the study of religious bonk%\ .ill th<* 
acts, fc charity and others become fruftIriH fot tttin iviiiirn* 
words are barren (19). Persons, versed in r< h^i*iH it,il|i* 
tures, hold that truth greatly leads to #>Uvatu>n ulMrir*,^ 
untruth brings down those who have not rofitr<!!< k <! l j u*ir UWH 
' I^IT^S (^o) Having performed seven hors$t; 4rriin:cs 
y 1^fe l 'oetebrlittl the Rljashuya sacrifict*. O kitv,?, fur 
single untruth should you be cast clown from tt^twn t (/t). 
0-king! I have borne children/ 1 Sty ing this Mw ta 

Then the king having Ms filled 

H^EI&HCHANDRA $aid ; ' a Renounce your grif p (> lair 
one! this boy waits here ; upeak out if you want to wy any* 



thing more, you endued with the gait of an elephant" 

The wife said : " king, I have borne children j tin: 
marry for having sons : therefore selling me for money, 
the Dakshinl to the BrShmana " (24.) 

THE BIRDS said;- Hearing this the Lord of the earth swoon* 
edUway : - regaining his consciousness he bewailed 
' (25), " Mighty is my grief, fair one, that you this to 

me, have I, a sinner as I am,, forgotten yotir smiling conversa- 
tion? (26). Alas! Alas! how could you speak this, O you 
of pure smiles ? And how can I carry this word so hard 
to utter?" (27)* Saying this that foremost of ant! 

again exclaimed, " Uh fie on me j fie on me 1 ?l and let! down 
on the earth, deprived of consciousness (28)- 
chandra* the king of the earth, lying down on the 

queen! greatly stricken with grief, gave? vont to these 
accents (29). " Alas i great king, what a circumstance, 
beyond conception, is present, since you, used to the caver- 
lets of Ranku deer skin, are; lying down on earth ( % f). Ttte 
king, my husband, who conferred upon Br&hmanua ten million 
of precious kine, sleeps on the ground (31). Oh, 
misery ! God j what did this king commit by you he, 

resembling Indra or Upcndra, ha* 10 

strait 11 (32)* Having said thin, that one of fair hips, aaHniiedl 
with the unbearable affliction of her husband, 
and fell down on earth (33). his 

down on earth, the boy, greatly with 

sorrow, said (34). " Father, father, me f 

mother, give me food t my hunger is growing powerful an*} 
the top of my tongue is dried up" (3$). 

THE BIRDS said : In the interval Viywfyititni of 
austerities came there. Hftrishchaiulm tying down 

on earth bereft of consciousness ancl wunhing him with wutci t 
he said to the king : " Rise ! Risej O of mo 

ray Dakshini* The misery of a mau who ig in 
multiplies" (36- 37). 


Having been washed by ice-cold tho 

Ms consciousness; but seeing Vifwftmitra ft** again lew! I| 
and the ascetic was worked up with anger (,$H), ConhftHng 
the king that foremost of the twico-born l( If you 

wish to observe piety, give me that DakshinS (yjh. Iff truth 
the sun gives its rays ? in truth the earth exists ; truth In 
spoken of as the great virtue and heaven (itself) is rstab* 
lished in truth (40). A thousand horso*aan truth 

being, weighed in the same balance*, truth wrigli** heavier 

I than thousand horse-sacrifices (41), Wli't is tin* u^c of 
speaking these sweet words to you, who, .Vabou;;h a fmv<?r 
ful king, are DOW a dishonourable, tkiotis-fli'.iigiif'i!, niiiniiig 
and untruthful man? Hear thin, what 1 OfitJi*! 1 }* f^jf, 

If, king, you do not give me my tXibihiii! to-rtov, I 
forsooth imprecate a curse on you, c*i$ l!i ,Httn%4jint* to the 
setting hili w (43), Saying this the BrUunAttn \vriii ;iw.iy anci 
the king remained assailed with fear (thin king) " Krtiticwt 
to such a degraded state, without any im*ans and opprf ?icui 
by the rich where shall I go?" (44), His wife n^ato *ti<i ' 
"Act up to my words. Burnt down hy the iixs f htn im- 
precation, do not. meet with death 1 * (45), IVgiui on re. 
peatedly by his wife the king said ; ^ I shall il l0ri| o f n i mm ^ 
wto sell ycm, fair- one (46), I shall do m !i a | the 

Eeartless cannot, provided that 1 can titter ftttrfi it word 
which it is so hard to speak out" (47). Hftvm< akl lltti 10 
his wife with his throat and eyes obstructed with tenrn and 
going to the city, the grief-stricken king sale! (48), <f O ye 
eitteeus, hear ye all my words. Why do you m k mt ? I mn 

- a merciless one, not even a man (49), I aro a veritable 
demon, hard-hearth- or even viler than It, for 1 aw ready to 
mil my beloved wifo, w d not renounce my own lift: (50). If 
of you woU, require her as a maid-servant who it 
ta my Hie iiiell, let him speak out quickly before 
ut an end to my W (gi), 

THE BIRDS said ^Thereupon advancing a little an aged 



Brihmana said to the king : " (Jive me Ilils 
I shall buy her giving the price (52). I !iive profnsr vu*."ilfh 
and highly tender Is my beloved wife ; she! c&ftitot ilo flu* 
work of household, so you give her to me (53) Your wife in 
one of those that are active, young, fair, and good*n<'itm**t! : 
give me the woman and take this fair price" (54), Being 
addressed by the Br&hmatia the mind of tho king H.iritih- 
chandra was sundered by grief and lie could not speak any 
thing (55.) Then having tied fast the money with "t IK* corner 
of the king's bark the Brlhmana began to drajj tin* qmurt 
holding her by the hair (56). Seeing his tnnihrr thus drawn 
the boy Rohitftswa, having locks on his head, bq^itt to t:ty 
pulling the cloth by his hands (57). Tin* qurrii ,* 

"Leave IM, leave me, till I have seen the hilrl. t> my lw>y, 
it will be very difficult for you to see me* n^nin (yS) II* Imlil, 
behold your mother, O boy, who II;UT ln:< onu* a slavr. Hill 
do not touch me, (.) princo, I run uiuvcnlhy of brijj;i trtwlun} 
by you" (59), Then scu*ing all on a sutltlrn hi;* ntfitliri th 
drawn, the boy, with eyes ovui flowing \\ith <rar?s foliownt hr 
crying " mother ! " (60). Hie twuu-born one in 
him with foot who wan then comai;; tntf stifl li tt(i 

crying "mother" and did not let his mother go (fit). Tlw 
queen said : * M master, show im* this fitvotit, cl< >4iu al-a 
buy up this boy ; although bought, I shall lie of im use In you 
without him (62), Unfortunate as I nm, tie yutt kind lit itttv 
Litik'ibe with him as a row in titiiteil with it* tralf " 
The BrShmana said: "Take this momty rind tfivf* mt* ymir 
boy. Persons, conversant with scriptures, Imw sHtlrtl i!i** 
value of both a- man and a wmnan at ;i hcIrMl, a 
thousand, a ten thousand and a im million ruin" 
Then tying the money in hin cloth (the HrAtmutta) 4<ik 
the boy along with his inothisr nnd Imuud ilirm to f ;rlti;r 
(65). Seeing them, his wife and boy, thus tak^n away, Urn 
king, greatly stricken vdtft } r r j { .j t hp|j;m to Lnin-nl 
hot again and nffnin (66). "That my \\ifc, whom t^n tfr 



wind, the sun and the moon or any man whatever did 
see before, has now come by the condition of a slave 
Descended from the solar race, this my boy, having tender 
fingers, has been sold. Oh { fie on me j Fie on my perverted 
sense I (68), Oh dear! my child! through my ron* 

duct, who am a dishonourable man It is f that you have 
by this state under the influence of ; I do not 

die; Oh [ fie on me" (69). While the king was thtiM tic- 
wailing,, the Btflhmana, taking those two, quickly <hi,ipp<*;irt*cl 
in the midst of trees and houses (70)* Immcdtatrly after 
Vi^wimitra came there to the king and asked for th* money ; 
and accordingly Harishchandra handed over to him tlit 
money (71), Finding the money that from the 

sale of his wife, to be small, Koufika, wtraf**?*), said to 
the king who was overwhelmed with sorrow (7* 1 ), "(> 
wretch of a Kshatrya, if you consider this to he fit for my 
sacrificial gift, then behold to-day the of my 

hard austerities, unalloyed Brahma energy, terrific 
and pure studies" (7374)- Harishchandra said : "J 
confer upon you other gifts, reverend Sir, tarry for a 
moment At present I have nothing, I have my wife ami 
son" "(75), Vi?wamitra said, a Dicing, a ioyrlh of the dny 
regains; I hall wait till then, but you should not give any 
other reply" (76). 

THE BIRDS continued ; Having thus that licit 

of kings with cruel and merciless words, the son of Kufika, 
taking the money, speedily went away (77). Vt(wlm!tra 
having departed, the king, drowned In the of the 

of fear and sorrow, determining every thing, cried with 

his face bent downwards (78). Let hint, that would buy me 
at bis slave for mopey, declare Ms Intention before 

tfe mn sets" (79). Then came there quickly the .Deity of 
vhtmtmder the guise of a ChandMa smelling bad, 
rough, bearded, large-toothed, of a dreadful look, 'black with 
nhuge abdomen, of twany dreadful w . 

carrying a numoer or niras, aaornea wun *i gunanu 01 

bodies, with a skull in hand, huge-faced, terrific, always 

ing, surrounded by a pack of dogs, of a fearful look, with a rod 

in his hand and appearing to have no form (808-?)-* H 
said:*' I want you, tell me quickly how much <lo you want 
for your service, small or great ? by which I may buy you up** 
(83). The birds said : Beholding him in that form, of terrible 
looks, highly ruthless words and of dreadfully bad ways, the 
king asked: " who are you" (84). The Chandftla replied: 
" I am a Chandlla, known in this most excellent city aft 
Pravira I am the executioner of those that arc 
to death and take the blankets from the corpses" (85). 
Harishchandra said : " I will not he a servant of a 
so highly degraded. Rather I would be consumed by the 
fire of imprecation than be a slave of a Chaml&ta (Wt)". The 
birds said ; While he was thus giving out the great ascetic 
VifwSmitra, his eyes rolling in anger and indignation, rarw? 
there and said to the king : (87), "This Clutmliki has 
here to give you plenty of money. Why do you not 
me in full the sacrificial gift ? (88), uid :~~ 

"0 reverend Sir, son of Kuptka, I know me m 
from, the solar race. Desirous of money, how can I 
into the service of a Chandila ? fl (89), Vigwimitni rqttied! ;-~ 
" If you do not give me the Chandlla'* money that yaw will 
get by selling yourself, forsooth shall I, the time 

imprecate a curse on you 1 * (90), 

THE BIRDS said ; Thereupon the 

bewildered by anxiety and sorrow, held the asccsttc's feet 
saying " Favour me" (91), Harishchandra satcl :~" 1 shall be 
your slave, I am afflicted, 1 am affrighted ; I am 
your devoted votary. Favour me, O to 

servo a Chandala is a misery (92). With all my 
f shall serve you, performing every sort of work. O 01 

ascetics, I shall be your servant satisfying every of 

(93), Viywamilra said; <* If you are my I 


make you over to this Chandftla for the consideration ol ,t 
hundred million coin" (94). 

THE BIRDS said : When he had this tin* Sttapftlui,* 
delightedly giving the money to Vif w&mitra and fifultiig tint 
king who was greatly trembling on being beaten by tho rod, 
whose senses were agitated, who was disconsolate!, for bring 
divorced from all that was dear to him and bis frirmN, 
him' to, his own house (9596). Living in tin* 
of -the Charid&la, the king Harishchanclra, viry ttinrmitg* 
noon, and" evening, sang (97). " Seeing hfr boypootly before 
her, the damsel, seated with an woe*begonc coitiilroiinrr t n* 
members me (thinking) 'the king shall lilwr&ttMtN both, by 
earning -wealth and giving it profusely to the Hr&hfiwina" (>8). 
That one, having the eyes of a young dorr, dws not kitmv 
that- 1 have fallen into worse misfortune (QC)}. Alas ! n s<*rit*n 
of misfortune has (befallen me) the losti of kingdom, tlw 
reBunciatioti of friends, the telling off of the wile ami clitld 
and my coming by the state of a ChandSla" ! (iio) Thim 
living there-, deprived' of all and stricken with grief ftc* used tn 
remember- daily his beloved son and his wile devoted to tilm 
(101); After a length of time, the king Hariihcltnwira, 
brought under this (ChandSla 1 *) control, was hi MI tpp* 

ing : tfie corpses of clothes at the cremation ground (to A He 
ivas instructed by the Chandlla, engagedin robbing tlte dead of 
clothes, Wait here day and night watching the arrival of dead 
bodies (103). For every corpse- a sixth of the proceed* h to 
br given to the king, three are mine and two are ymf 
$?; Thus advised he went to the house of the drad. 


i broken ^ w tht rt^ 

property than a and dog, and to b. 
with.othartribas, He can only be tmplt 
apuhUc executioner or in Gmjfrg tebodteof tlimie who die 





situated to the south of VlrSimshl (105) to the cremation 
ground, filled with terrible sound*, a pack of 
scattered with the skulls of the corpus giving out a 
detestable smell, filled, with profuse hmoke, ahoundiitK in 
malevolent spirits, ghosts, goblins, female imps and Yak*l*as 
swarming with vultures and jackals, .strewn with boiwH *m<*il 
Ing horribly and filled with heart-rending cries of tin* ri'lafivfft 
of the dead. "O son! O friend, C) kinsman, (> brother, 
O child, my dear husband, O sister, O moflm'% fathn, 
O father, grandson, relative, where arc* you K*w ^ 
Come here/ there a number of men wore cryin;* in ihi' 
way; (10500) there it was filled with the rntrkitig nound* 
of burning flesh, fat and marrow; there haU-btirnt and 
darkened corpses, showing their rows of teeth, swrmed to 
in the midst of fires as if to say, * This is the end of the Imd)*; 
(in) there were heard the tracking sounds of f!;uni*;t 
accompanied by theories of birds in the mid'it oi Uir * lUr 
tion of bones, the bewaiistnijs of iri( 4 nds itntl tin* lu^nnjj 
sounds of the Pukkasas {(!haiidila?4) ; ami wen beard Ilir 
hideous songs of ghoste t goblinn, matignunt 
demons resembling the of the misversal dLsfttliititMt # 

there the collection of the dung of COWH unit ftttlt.ilw** * 
surrounded by heaps of bones mixed with lUmen and divri-.r 
presents of garlands and lights (to the dead) and offering* to 
the crows, made the cremation ground, filled with 
noises, resemble the hell (na~nft). Kitted wiltt lite 
cries of the ominous jackal* of burning mftuile* uml an well 
as with those of others living in cavtm, thti fearful < rniuiiititi 
ground, full of Iartteotati0n f seemed to Htrike irttui rvru iiiln 
the heart of Fear (117). The king, going tbeie, fitlni 
grief, began to mourn : "O where are UKIHC utri'aiiH, 

councillors, Br&hnunas and the kingdom ? (ft 8). 

O Saivyft, O my boy, forsaking me*, who am wretched whnri* 
have you gone through Vi^wIuntniV impreritton / " |ftf|l. 
Thus did he think again and again by tint Chandilu^. 


with his body rough all over, with (profus?) hair, smelling 
(bad) with a braid of hair as well as a staff, looking likt- the 
very destroyers he rushed about crying, " Her*: is the corpse, 
this is the price that I have received. This is mini*. This 
is the king's. This is the ignorant Chandala's,' 1 Thus going 
about hither and thither, the king seemed to hav under- 
gone a change of existence (20 22). He wa- clad in 
blanket made of rags stitched together ; his face, arm* and 
chest were covered with the ashes of the funeral {tyres ; 
and his fingers were besmeared with fat, marrow and asfoss. 
Sighing he lived upon the food offered to the mitnlmrlm 
dead and was contented therewith (122- 124). H<> adorned 
his head with their garlands. He did not sleep in tin* night 
or in the day but always cried "Alasj Aiasj" (12$). Thus 
did the twelve months appear like a hundred yrars, One* 
on a time that foremost of kings, separated from hi friends 
and having a rough body, was fatigued and pom-Mrd by 
sleep. He slept motionless. Sleeping there he saw a highly 
wonderful dream in consequence of his habit of living in a 
cremation ground or through the influence of powerful 
destiny. Having conferred on his preceptor liw Dakuhini 
in another body and undergone miseries extending over 
twelve years he has been liberated. He saw himself horn of 
the womb of a Pukkashi (a female Chandala). Remaining 
there the king thought " Having come out of it I nhatl 
practise virtues and charities" (u6-i 3 o). Afterwards when 
he was born as the son of a Pukkasa he was alwayn engaged 
ia the performance of purifactory rites of the d<wl iu the 
cremation ground ( I3 x). When he became vtm years old 
he saw the dead dody of a poor but accomplished Brfthmana 
Brought to the cremation ground by his friend* (133). e tyg 
JjWtowd by him demanding the fee, the BrtJunana. said :>- 
Tta. us V,9wamitra' action ( I33 ). Do this u , irlghteouj , ^ 
smfut wretch . Formerly the k . ng Hari8hcb * ndra 

having yor piety destroyed by your not giving to a 


what you promised, have htm reduced to a by 

Vi^wlmitra (134)." Because he did not my 

consideration he was imprecated by them in " O 

of a man) go you immediately to a drcadfuti hell (135)." As 

soon as this had been said the dreaming king the 

messengers of Yama with nooses In their hands (136). He 
saw himself carried forcibly by them. Greatly he ex- 

claimed "0 father, O mother ? Where are you to-day? 11 (137). 
As soon as he said this, he was thrown Into a hell of 
oil (138)* Severed with a saw, sharp as a razor 011 the 
part of his body he, tormented, began to feed on pus ami blood 
in darkness (139). Born as a Pukkasa, in the year. 

he found himself, when dead, burnt and boiled dmy lit 

hell (140), Here was he depressed and thw: penitent and 
elsewhere beaten and tortured ; plunged iti water* and 
and assailed by severe cold and winds (141). 1ft thfl hell 
day appeared like a hundred years. Then from the {{u;ir<K in 
the hell he heard that a hundred years had passed iway (143}* 
Then he was thrown on earth and was burn m a clog living on 
excretion. Feeding on he by 

a mouth (143). He then himself in UK* body of in 
an elephant > a monkey, a a a cat, ft ttt'ron, a 

a ram, a bird, n worm* a fish, a tortoi*, a boar, a deer, a fork, 
a male parrot, a female parrot, a serpent atttl ollwr 
'objects, Daily born in the species of various ami 

assailed by sorrow, be a flay 10 be a 

years (144146)* After hundred had in 

his being bom as those animals, the king saw fiim^Ii 

one day in his own (*47) While h W*IH livinj; 

he was deprived of his .kingdom through gitiitiliiig 5 
losing wife and son he alone to woods (148)* He *aw 

there a dreadful lion with his mouth wid twining 

forward along with a Sarabha* to devour him (149)* Devoured 

' A gigantic 

with faff* 


by him he lamented for his wife (crying) lf O Satvyft ! 
do. you go now leaving me here In (?)" Again 

'his wife along with his son (crying) "Save usO HarKhr 
no more with gambling (150 151), Your son, with your wife 
Saivyi, has been reduced to a miserable plight-*" if* ran 
about hither and thither but could not see them (fj4. Then 
stationed in the sky the king again saw her, dtHtrfttswi and 
naked with dishevelled hair, carried away forcibly ami ex* 
...claiming "AUs ! alas; save me," He then Haw 
stationed in the sky at the command of tin* ki?{ of rigfitrmii* 
ness exclaiming "Come, king, Yama hi>* bmt rommait. 
ded for you by Vi9wiroitfa" (153155). IUvsn<* hwtt thu 
accosted the king was forcibly carried AH ay with a 
of serpents being informed that this wzw tin* doing of 
VifwSmitra (156), Still no pious thoughts did ami: in itii 
mind. All these miseries, which he had seen in dream, he 
Buffered for twelve years. After the expiry of lwt*fve yrats 
he was taken away by the emissaries (of Yama) (1571581 
He saw there Yama in his own form who said to the lord of 
men. " This is the irrepressible wrath of the 
Viswamitra (159). Kau ? ika will even bring about the 
.oCjour son. Go you to the world of men and jjo through 
the remaining sufferings. Going there, O king, you ylmll 
meet with your well-being (160)* After the expiration of the 
twelfth year there will be an end of your minarit'*, O 
Then pushed by Yama's emissaries he fell clown from the 
sky (161). Then dropping down from the region of 
ho woke from an excess of terror and thought*' Alii t what 
a misery, it is sprinkling salt over a sore (ufc). l tt a dream 
I have seen a great misery, the end of which I do not r t at * 
,but have twelve years passed away- while I w imng thin 
;^dtain"~in great fear he asked the who were 

waitmg there. Of them some said W others <yas' (163-164) 
Heaunithis, the king, stricken with .grirf, sought refuge 
with th, .. Sayi0g w o d f ities, ; grant me, Savyi U d my 





boy, good fortune (165), Salutation unto the 
salutation unto Krishna, the Disposer, salutation unto the 
Prime of prime, the holy, the ancient and undecaying 
, Salutation unto thee, O Vrihaspali and unto 

Haying said this the king engaged in the work of a 

and the settlement of funeral fees, like one who had lost 

recollection of all things. The king became dirty and : 

his hairs became matted, he had a staff and his 
bewildered (167 168}* Then neither hi* son nor hi* wife 
came within the range of recollection ; and dispiriU**! <m 
account of his having lost his kingdom he lived in th<* ve- 
rnation ground (169). One clay taking her own <lrad aim, 
bitten by a serpent, came there bewailing th<* wife of that 
king (170). She repeatedly exclaimed :'' O my mn f O 
my childi' 1 She was lean, discoloured! stbsint-mtmlwt awl 
had her hairs covered with ashes (171). The king's wilit 
said : " See, O king, to-day, a moon on <:arlh t your MW, 
whom you saw before playing, bitten by a mighty :r rjirnt 
and dead (172)." Hearing her UmnnUlions, Urn kiog f think* 
ing " I shall get the blanket of the dead 1 * spwhly wt*nl 
( I 73)' The king could not Inn 

stricken with sorrow consequent upon living in u 

country and seeming to have been born again (t /,$). And the 
princess too could not recognise the king formerly w**;iriiig 
beautiful ringlets but now witli matted a 

withered tree (175). Beholding that boy by <i 

serpent covered in black and endued with the cil 

royalty the king thought : u Oh what misfortune j horn ia 
the race of what king, this infant lias been reduce! to mu:h a 
condition by the wicked-minded Destroyer (176177), Htt tug 
this boy lying on the lap of Ms mother I remember my Iwy 
the lotus-eyed RohiULshwa (178). If ha hatl not liniiiglif 

to itsS control by the Dreadful Death ho must h;w< t * 

at this age" (879). The queen said : "O my boy, by tit 
malignant desire of what sinful man, thi* 


fortune has overtaken us the end of I do 

g*et at? (180). Olord, O king, without me who 

-am assailed by grief how and where do you remain In 
security? (181). Destiny, what have you not 10 the 

royal saint, Harishchanclra f the destruction of kingdom, 
. the renunciation of friends and the off of thn wife 

and son" (182). Hearing those her words the king, 
nising his beloved wife and dead son, clown 

his place (183). " Oh j painful ! this is SalvyS, thi* Ii my 
boy " cried he ; thus stricken with he wept and 
away (184). Recognising him and him in plight 

she fell into a trance, and stricken with dropped down 

on earth motionless (185)- Then regaining cnttHdmssncjiij 
both the king and the queen began to lament, being greatly 
stricken with sorrow and laden with the weight of 
(186)* The king said : <f Oh my boy t your face* 

tender and having beautiful eyes, eye-brows and A why 

does not tny heart rend? (187)* Clasping whom, coming 
of himself to me with sweet fl Papa| Papaj" shall I call *'(> 
my child i" out of love? (188). With the tw&ay of 
thighs shall my scarf, lap and limbs be covered? 
Descended from my loins, you, the of my and 

heart* ^ere sold like a chattel, my child, by this 
father of yours? (190). Having robbed me of my terrt* 
tones, possessions and wealth, the ruthless of 

has bitten toy child (191), Casting my upon the 

lotus face of my son bitten by the serpent of I 

been blinded by the dreadful venom' 1 (192), Ha? Ing itii this 
te.ttiti his voice choked with the vapour of 
his son, swooned away and dropped down. (x3)* 

, THE QUEEN saidt " Forsooth, from hit he 
tofet that best of men Harishchandra, the moon 0! the 
of A* l W ned (194), Uke his nose it is high nod 
ward ,*t the top. Like those of the illustrious 
one his t**ti& resemble the bwds (195), But 'why him tttui 

1 lord ot men come to uic creniiLuuii giuuiiu t AMTCU t,Lav*uj 
off the grief consequent upon the death of his son she 
upon her fallen husband (196), The exalted (queen) y 

filled with surprise and assailed by the grief of her 
husband, casting her looks, saw the hateful rod of her hat- 
band (197). (Crying out) (r l am Swapaka" that one of expan- 
sive eyes fell iato a swoon. And regaining 
within a short time she said with a heavy voice (198)* f< Fie 
on you, O Destiny, who are greatly hard, hateful and devoid 
of dignity, by whom this king, resembling an. immortal* 
been reduced to the state of &Sw&paka (199)- Having brought 
about the destruction of his kingdom, the renunciation of 
friends, the sale of wife and son, you have not htm ; 

this king has been made a Chand&Ia. (200)* Why do you 
raising me from the earth who am burning in grief, O 
king, 'get upon this bed !' (201). 1 do not see to-day your 
umbrella or your* or ctlunvric or fan* What is 
the change brought about by Destiny (203). That iff 

kings, before whom, formerly while going out, the 
to do the work of menials and make the earth 
dust with their scarps, that one, under the of 

fortune, is now living in the crem&tioftgroum! 
earthen water-pots and vessels coming in with human 

skulls, dreadful with profuse hairs sticking to the threads of 
the wreaths of the dead, covered with mud dry 

terrific with a mixture of 

and marrow ; from which small birds, by mi 

jackals, have fled away ; darkened all by the of 

the funeral phyres ; and where the night-rangers arc brimful 
with delight by eating the flesh 11 (203307). 
this and elapsed the neck of the the tit 

of numberless miseries and afflictions, to in 

piteous accents (208). 

* A golden vessel used on \ lie occa&ipn of royal 


THE QUEEN said : c *0 ktng> t or n reality ^ 
tell me what you think, gpreat one; my mmi! i* stuptfidl 

(209). If this be so, you con variant with morality, virtue 
is of no avail;. and there is no merit in worshipping the 
IMhmanas, the deities and in protecting the earth faio). 
There is then no truth, sincerity or stuff you, 

pious, have been deprived of your kingdom" (.Mi). Hear- 
ing her words, heavy and accompanied by hot ?4gln (he) 
described to that damsel of slender how he had be* 

come a Swapaka (212), Weeping lonjf, ighw*{ hot, 
timid lady, ' stricken with grief, duly to htm the 

death of her son (213), 

THE KING said: CI G dear, 1 do not liku 10 undergo 
this misery for a long time, 8tander*m%<!ft lttly f li^liolrl 
ray misfortune that I am not (even) a master of 

self (214). If without obtaining permission fr0ni ll: ChandUa 
I enter into fire, I shall, in another birth, tin* 

of one (such) (215)), -Or I shall fall into a hell a* an 
feeding on earth-worms ; or I fall into 

with profuse pus, fat, blood and muscle (ai6). Or to 

ia forest of sword-blades I shall be cut ; or to 

itauram or MahA Raurava I shall mfocry (Jty)* 

If a' Snaan is drowned in a sea of miseries he can to an 

efcd by giving up- his life. The only boy, a son on 
depended the perpetuation of the race, he Is drowned 

by the powerful tide of destiny. A wretched m ! arn 

how can' I relinquish my life ? (218 -219). But a 

troubled .person does not care for sin. Not ift 

I born as a beast, nor in the forest of .award or 

in ^ Vaiiarini is that misery which from the low of a 

. (220), . slender-made lady, I shall throw into 

blazing with the body of my son ; you 
mefor this iniquity (221). Permitted by me, go you 10 the 

' 4?* the ^ Brahmaiia * yo^of fair and 

my wt>$ar ^ith a concentrated'- 'mind If I have 



practised 'charities, if I have performed sacrifice II I 
pleased my spiritual guide, I shall agaln t In another world, 
be united with you and my son (223)* What Is the 
lity of my object being secured In this world? I 
therefore, with you, wend the way of my son (224), If, O 
you of' fair smiles, I have said anything indecent in private 
(even) by way of jest, you should pardon me, who am 
begging (225). Out of haughtiness that you are a queen, 
you should not disregard the twice born one ; but O fair 
one, you should please him even like a husband or a deity '* 
(226), The queen said : (f O royal saint, even this very day 
I shall enter into this burning fire with the load of in 

your company " (227). 

THE BIRDS said: -Then making a funeral phyre and 
placing his son thereon, the king, with his wife, 
to meditate upon the supreme spirit, the Lord Nlrlyatia^ 
Hari, living in the rave of heart, Vftsudevn* the lord 
of the celestials, without beginning ami mil* Braiimft, 
or the 'holy deity clad in yellow raiment (Krishna) 
While he was thus thinking, all the deities with 
Dharma before them, came there speedily (330), They, all 
coming there, said: "Hear, hear, () king, O lord! 
the grand-father (Brahml), here m the reverend Dharma ami 
these are the SdMjras, the Vithwas, the Marut*, al the 
Lokapaias with their respective conveyance^ 
with the -GandharvaS) Rudrasj as well 
and others as well as Viqwftmitra, of whom the tiff 0ft worliU 
could not make a friend, are anxious, for their hrliuof, to 
have you as their friend*" Then Sakra, Dharma and <!alhi'.'4 
son came before him (231234), Dharma suit! .**'* He not 
rash, king; I am Dharma who have come to you b**<* 

pleased with your qualities of forgivent;*H, M?lf-c?ontrot, truthful* 
ness and others'* (235), loclra auI:--"O Hurwh* 

chandra, I am Sakra and have come to you, You have 
with your wife and son gained the eternal region (436). tit 


to the celestial region, king* by and 

son which is hard to be got at by other but you 

acquired it by your acts *' (237)* 

THE BIRDS said ; The Lord Indra, 

at the funeral phyre> created a nectarine shower from the iky 
capable of destroying violent deaths (238). He 

great shower of blossoms and huge to bt 

Bounded. ' Then in that assembly of | 

parties* the son of the high*souted king up, will a 

tender body, healthy and with sprightly and 

(239 240)* Then immediately embracing hit the 

Harishchandra, along with his wife, was covered with 
and adorned with celestial garlands and (341)* Ha 

then became comforted with his ffllncl entirely filled with 
great felicity. Immediately fndra saw! : ''You 

shall/with your wife and son attain to 

one, rise up in consequence of your own (243). 

Chandra said:~Q king of the without 

permitted by my master and obtaining n 

from him I cannot go to the region 0! the (244)* 

Dharma .said ; Coming to know of your futu ft! by 

my own power 1 had brought myself to the state of a 
ati displayed that fickleness (245), fodra mid : 
Chandra, ascend the . region . of the pious uteri, tit* ntONt 
exalted station, which all mea on earth seek 
Chandra said :~SaIutation onto you, O ford pf the 
hear these my words,, which favoured bj yw, 1 filial 
to, you with a delighted countenance on of your 

having been pleased (^7) People are living in the city 01 
Kojala with their mmd, sunk in my grief, 
<Wund) now can I go to the celettia! regfon ? (*&. Tlw 
on of a ^oted follower is tqpmlly i mighty a 
of the destmctianof 

fc ^ 1fttte k W ^^^tl^ 
fer hlm wfeo feMwrni a ibf0M ind 

PUttAMAtf. | 

follower. Therefore, Sakra, go you to If, 

O lord of the celestials, they go to heaven with mo, I 
go there or I shall go to hell alohg with them (2151)* 

said: "Various and diversified are their and 

iniquities. Mow can you go to heaven along with so many ?*, 
(252). Harishchandra saidi Sakra* it is tic 

energy of hi? dependents that a king enjoys his 
and celebrates great sacrifices and Purtta acts * (253)* I 
never forsake them through the desire of getting heaven! 
them, niy benefactors, by whose help ! have performed 
thing (254). lofd of the celestials, let whatever 
merit) therefore, I may have acquired by gifts, 
of sacrifices and recitation of religious formute, be] in 
common with them (255)* And through your favour let me* 
with them, in one day* enjoy the fruit of my which is til 
last for a long time (256). 

THE BIRDS said: Then saying M so it halllx *' Sakra, 
the king of the three worlds, with a delighted ht*nrt Uimrrrui, 
and Gadhi's son, VifwSmitra came clown from h*avt*rt to carttt 
abounding in million of cars and laid to tho of 

AyO'dhyS^ IC Do yo^u come up to ftwf ft * f 
Hearing Indra's words and pleased with the king, Vi^wlmitfn, 
of hard austerities, brought Rohtt&shwa and sprinkled tfti* 
prince in the charming city of Ayodhyi, And the 
with the ascetics and Siddhas sprinkled that lord of 

-*6o). Then la the company of the ktnff t all fat 

contented people, together withitheir 
went to the Celestial region (281)* And men bt^an to innvi* 
from one ^ar to anothet with an accession of dHight Tlw 
king Harishchandra^ the lord of men, (going 10 htMwn) in 
a car, obtained immense wealth and lived in A rity fiirtitiwl 
by walls and battlements (263263). Smnfj fah pmsiprity, 
the great preceptor UshanI, versed in all branclu** of learning 
hymned the following verses (264), 

* Acts of pioum liberality such m Ut^ing a wU gr 



SUKRA said : There has never Iwn, n*r will t\ a 
like Harishchandra. Whoever, aasulftl by i*ttrf f 
to it, shall attain to groat Micity (a<5). One, attiring after 

heaven, obtains heaven ; om% <U\siros cif chiltiivt), obtains 

children ; one, desirous of a wife, gfls wife antt 0ti<% 

for kingdom, gats kingdom (266) Oh ihf forrr of }Kilit!itcf t 

Oh the mighty result of charity, for llaii*4icJwwlr*i 

heaven and the dignity of Intlra u'O*) 

THE BIRDS said; We havr iinin clr**frilti*il to ymi ir> 
detail all the actions of HarMichnwlrn ; tli* 
leading ascetics (268)1 the tHstmham*** <*i tlin Ul 
sacrifice, which led to the* ck struct If in nl tin* r.irtlt i*i 
the great battle between ATI *iml l|lic 4 hrrrn- tlut m 
from that disturbance (269). 

wi k ll 


HE BIRDS said; On Harifchchamlta Iiavitig 
deprived of his kingdom and gone to the region of the 
tials, his highly effulgent priest come out of lib watery 
tion, on the expiration of the twelve which lu* j>ini 

the Ganges. The ascetic VashislLi li^nil everything 
about the work of Vijfwioritra, the misfortunir oC tint liiierit 
H^rishchandra ? his being reduced to the condition of a 
Chandtla 1 and the .sale of his wife ancl son (i~j), 
this, that energetic and great one, who wan dellj/htctl with 
king, became offended with the (4}, 

tha said :~My hundred sons were destroyed by 
; even in that I was not offended no much m I !mvo 
to^ay, bearing that thtehigh-saulcd and mert- 




torious king, given to the adoration of the duittes ami !< 
Brlhmanas, has been deprived of his kingdom ($-6). 
As the truthful and the self-controlled king, having no ill- 
will even towards his enemies, meaning no Inrm, virtuous* 
souled, careful, and our support, has been reduced to this stale* 
along with his wife, servants and son, and has In en di privol 
of his kingdom and subjected to various miseries, thai viriotiH- 
souled hater of a Br&hmana, that one, foolwh awl shot n of 
wisdom, imprecated by me, shall bcconu. a heron {/ .->) 
The birds said : Hearing of the imprecation, the luglitv 
energetic Vifw&mitra, the son of Kutfka, cuwi'd him in letuni 
saying "Be you an Ari n (10.)- And in accordance with f*arlt 
other's curse, both Vashistha and the highly ftietgHk Vi^wft* 
mitra, the son of Ku?ika, although endowed vuth |*tt%if efful- 
gence, came by inferior births (n). Although bout in olhf k r 
species they both of incomparable em-r^y and rndurd willi 
mighty strength and prowess, l*ing |rc*ally I'ni.vjrd, (outfit 
with each other (12), Hrflhrnnna, the An \v.i- fwo tho- 
sand Yojanas high and th* heron wan thm* thcmsant! anl 
ninety-six Yojanas high (13), Kiickied with ynsit 
they, srtiking each othtr with their win^ ciratcd rxiii*rtiti|j 
fear of creatures (14)* Shaking his wtn}*s tlu* h<*ion, 
with reddened eyes, struck Ari and the Litter too, uplifting iK 
nck, attacked the heron with its legs (15), Danhwt uilii tin* 
wind of their wings, the mountain dropped on 

and assailed by the downfall of the mountain tin* earth 
(16). The earth shaking, the ocean, overleaping it^ font itch 
Hooded the earth ; and sinking on ono altJo flu? i*ntth wu:. 
going to seek the nether region (17), Some hv the: fall I tin? 
mountain, some with the waters of tint ocean, awl 
the shaking of the earth, alt creatures m<*t with c 
(18). All greatly agitated and deprived of ihrir nm*c 
bcgaa to exclaim Oh and Alas. Thr universe watt 
agitated and the terrestrial round was alt confused f>V ' Hit 
child | husband j infant f Fly. I am in tltb plight* O my 


dear, my husband, the mountain falls down. Do yc % 
at once." Thus did the creatures, overwhelmed with fear, 
cry at that time. Then came the Grandfather 
encircled by all the celestials (2021). The Lord of the 
Universe addressed them both who were worked up 

With anger ; " Do you both desist from and let the 

creatures get respite" (22). Although hearing the of 

self-sprung BrahmS, they, possessed by and 

on and did not desist (23). Thereat beholding the 
of creatures the Deity, the Grandfather^ wishing the well* 
being of them both, removed their (23), 

Those two best of ascetics, Kanaka and 
their former forms on the destruction of the condition 
vaded by Ignorance, the Deity Brahml said : (25). IJ My 
Vasbistha, you foremost of the Koupikas, this 

conflict having its origin from the quality of (36). 

This conflict of yours obstructs the of 

Harishchandra and brings destructions of earth (37)* 
has., this foremost of Koujikas committed any to the 

king; but (on the other hand) being instrumental to his 
Attainment of heaven proved a benefactor to him 
Having come under the control of anger you have been the 
Agents in obstructing asceticism. May you, 

it off. Brahman is highly powerful 11 (29), 
addressed by him both of them were ashamed ; 
other affectionately they forgave each other (30)* Thmsuixm 
worshipped by the celestials Brahmft repaired to lib 
region* Vashistha wended his way to his own habitation and 
Ko%lka to Ms own hermitage (31)* This conflict 
Art and heron and the story of Harishchandra* a as 
hwd, become free from sin those mortals who ti as 
who narrate; nor* any impediments fall it tic way of 
ttofc' action. 

U AIMINI said : O eminent twice-born one^ do you re- 
move my doubt, who ask you regarding the birth 
of creatures obtaining (in this world) (i) Why i* a rriMtttm 
born, why does it grow up, why with its body nsftaitatl by 
sufferings does it live in the womb? (2) Why rottiing 
out of the womb does it attain growth ? Ami why at lh 
time of death is it deprived of 'conaciouHnc** ? (3) VWtlv 
does a raan while dying reap the fruit of both tiln ami 

bad actions ? How do^s an act produce iu fruit ? (4! Wiiy 
in the womb of a female, where is digested the food whit tt in 
hard of digestion, is not a small lump of flesh cligt^ttKl ? fa) 
*Do you explain to me all this so that all my doubts may In* 
removed. This is a great mystery wherein all creature* *ir 
Btupified (6), 

THE BIRDS said :~Tho question! that yoy put 10 tti jg 
a difficult one, though of very ; to tic 

existence or otherwise of all It i* not tin 

range of easy comprehension (f ). O one, lirnr t what 
formerly a highly virtuous ton, tiy name mul to hit 

father (8) A certain high-minded bom in tin 

race of.Bhrigu, said to hit ton Suinati m ^ 

void of sense at the time of his investiture with 
(9). {t Study the VecUti, In due order tiring 

Intent upon serving your and depending upon aiini 

(10). Then entering the life of t householder den ytiu 
bratc excellent sacrifices and desirable tml 

then enter into woods (n) When yo shall live in the 
child, and leaving the company of ytw wife,le<ul thi? life 0! n 
inendkant,you will attain to tlmU^A* m approaching 
no one grieves (13),'' The birds atd;-Alllwtchicoted 



in many ways (the son) could not say anything on aummt i 
his decrepitude ; but the father, out of affection atidre^nl him 
again and again on many topics (13). Being llnis target! on hy 
his father out of parental affection with nectarine words, hr, 
smiling, said: -(14) " Q father, all that you advise me to at tidy 
has been exhaustively read by me together with various othcc mechanical (15), IVtt 

thousand births more come to my recollection. 1 wan convcr* 
sant with happiness and misery and was in des- 

truction, progress and prosperity (16). I had union with 
enemies, friends, and wives, as well as separation from Uim, 
I saw many a mother as well as many a father (17)* I 
experienced thousands of miseries and 1 hud it 

great many friends and different kinds of father (18), I livti 
in a female womb sullied by urine and excreta and 1 uuifotvii 
from severe diseases and ailments in thousand* (19), I 
suffered numberless miseries in the womb in 
youth and in old age ; all these I now recollect (20), I was 
born. as a Brthmana, a Kshatriya, a Vaisya and a Sudra and 
again as a beast, a worm, a deer and a bird (21). I was born in 
the houses of the royal retainers and war-like Icinga, m f have 
been born in your house (22). I became servants and 
of many men and I came by mastery, lordship, and poverty 
(23). I slew. many and in turn was slain and struck down by 
them. My wealth was given away by many to m A 

I -also gave away much (24), I was always by 

fathers, mothers, friends, brothers and wives ; and I 

became poor I bathed my countenance with {35}, 

Ttes revolving on the 'perilous wheel of the world, I have 
attained to this knowledge, father, which i* inttrumentai 
to the, attainment of liberation (26). Acquiring this know- 
le%e all the actions sanctioned by Rik t Ktfw and S4ma me as shorn of any virtue and inadequate (27) 
Thefefore of what use are the ftvto to me who haw 
understanding, have been satiated .with the f tiit 




preceptor, am devoid or exertion and am fond of the 
soul ? (28). I shall attain that most excellent Brahma state 
which is shorn of the six kinds of action, jnisery, happiness, 
delight, sentiment, and attributes (29). Therefore I shall 
go, father, renouncing the collection of evils, as is well- 
known, originating from sentiment, joy, fear, anxiety, anger, 
spite, dscrepitude, and casting off the three Vedas which 
are like the Kimpiika fruit and lead to demerit (30 31)." 

THE BIRDS said : Hearing his words, the great father 
with delighted heart said to his owa son, being filled with 
joy and wonder (32) : " What is it that you say, O my son ? 
Whence has this your knowledge come ? By what your pre- 
vious dullness been changed into wisdom ? (33). Is it that 
on the wane of the curse of an ascetic or a deity, your 
knowledge that was once lost to you has come back? (34), 
I wish to hear all this; great is my curiosity. Tell me O 
my child, all that you did formerly" (35). The son re* 
plied: "Hear, father, nay history, the origin of happi- 
ness and misery as to what I was in another birth and what 
took place thereafter (36). I was formerly a Brahmana 
having my soul consigned to the Supreme Spirit ; I acquired 
eminence in discussion relating to self-knowledge (37). 
Being always engaged in Yoga in that birth, I, from practi- 
sing integrity of conduct, companionship of the pious, from 
passing a righteous course, from reforming the ordinances, 
attained great delight and acquired the position of a pre- 
ceptor being eminently fitted to remove the doubts of the 
disciples (3839). Thereupon after a long time I attained 
highest concentration. But the tranquility of mind being 
disturbed through ignorance, I, by my carelessness, fell into 
peril (40). But till the time of my death my memory did 
not fail me; and I remember all the days of my life which 
I have told (41). By virtue of my previous practice, O father 
I shall, controlling my senses, so endeavour to work that the 
same thing /might not befall me again (42). This my recolr 


lectidn of the previous births which is the fruit of know- 
ledge and gift, is not acquired by men in duties 
laid down by the three Vedas (43), Resorting to the virtue 
of intense, whole-mirided concentration, acquired In previous 
birth I shall exert myself for acquiring emancipation (44)* 
Tell me therefore, O great one, the doubts which in 
your mind. Encompassing your 1 pleasure on this I shall 
be freed from the debts that I owe you f> (45), The birds 
said : Reverencing his words* the father the sort of 
the same thing that yod have enquired of me-thc birth and 
death of creatures (46), The son said s Hear, O father, a 
true accoudt of what 1 have experienced acl 
This wheel of an world is unde&ying, still it hat no 
(47). Commanded by you, O father/ 1 communicate 10 
you all from the time coming out, which no one efce, can 
speak (48). In this body, the bile,* growing 
fanned by a strong wind and fltaming r although no fuel, 
pierces the (very) vftals (4$. Then the wind 
moves over it and obstructs the of the and 
drink taken (50?).. Otfly those peftons, that haw 
food and drink to others, enfoy cowfort at that 
moment (31). He, who hats given awy food with a meat 
purified by reverence, obtains satisfaction even without food 
(52), He who has never uttered a falsehood, he who hat 
not made a distinction? of IWe, he who in God and 
who is reverential, meets with happy death (Ja). who 
are intent upon adoring the deities and who 
* toe from spite, who are pure fe spirit, are liberal nn<t 
bashfal, meet with easy death (54), He who does not for- 
sake virtue through lust, anger or spite, he who keeps hb 
promise and is gentle, meets with easy detth (55). But he 


does not give water to one who is thirsty, foot! to otic win* 

is hungry! are assailed by them when death 

(56). Those who give fuel conquer cold,. who give 

Sandal conquer heat ; but those, who afflict people, by 

a dreaful pain destroying (the very) life (37). 

of men, who cause ignorance and stupefaction, 

fear and are crushed by fierce pangs (58). Those, that give 

false evidence, or speak false! or the order* trf a 

kicked man, or disregard the Vedaj die in ignorance (59). 

The dreadful arid vtdous-souled followers of Yama, brt*atitin;{ 

hellish smell around, with nooses and in hand*,* 

approach them .(60). Attd when they cotne within the 

.of their vision they all tremble and continually 

for their brothers, mothers and sons 11 (61), Then 

speech becomes Indistinct, father, atut i# composed ot 

one letter; their eyes roll and their faces ate dtifd up with 

fear and sighs (62). Then with breath running high, 

dimmed and assailed by pain he denounces hi?; body (fij), 

Then going before the body! for undergoing afllictton 

quent upon his acts M not 

from a fethdr ot 4 a mother but which ha* the 

condition and habitation as to this otht*r hwly 

(64). Then the emissaries of Yama cjuikfy bind him wilh 

dreadful nooses and drag him to the 

the stroka of the rod (65), Then he Is by the 

emissaries of Yaraa sending out dreadful* 

yells through grounds rough with 

pins and $tone% glowing with at with 

pits, blazing with the hett of -the stm and burning in 

rays~(6667). Dragged by the dretdfyl and 

eaten by hundreds of jackals, the sinful person to 

house through a fearful passage (68), Out who 

distributed umbrellas and shoes, those who 

cloth, and as well as those who have given food, g 

.easily by that way (69). Going through twit 


losing all control over self and by sin a is 

on the twelfth day, to the city of Dharma(7O}. When hi* body 
is burnt he experiences a great burning sensation ; and when 
his body is beaten or cut he feels a great pain (71)* Hit 
body being thus destroyed, a creature, although walking into 
another body, suffers eternal misery oil account of lii*i own 
adverse actions (72). Going there he on tin* 

.and water or the ball of boiled rire olfcrwl by lug 
dants (73). A person receives comtorts irom IIIH relations 
rubbing their bodies with oil, from thm kneading their 
and front their taking their food (74), lit* enjoy* ty 

his relations lying down oft the ground A man ii 

pleased with his relations by his performance nf citftrttabl* 
Works (75), Taken to his own home on the twelfth thy hi 
sees it and feeds on the PinJa and Water that *w offered p 
the earth (76). After the twelfth day, being ctntwtt, a mm 
beholds the ..dreadful and terrible-looking iron city of Yarns 
(77). As soon' as he enters there he Yama in the 

midst of the Destroyer, Death and others having 
eyes, and resembling a mass of crushed rollyrttim, with 
face with dreadful teeth, and a dreadful frowning count* 
enance ; the lord, encircled by hundreds of 
having disfigured and dreadful visages, carrying his ro4 
mighty-armed, with the noose in his hand and 
fearful to look at A creature attains to *a gooi 

or bad, assigned by him (7880). One giving fahte *t 
dence or uttering falsehood goes to Raurava. Hear not, 
I will give what is the true description of Kattrava (Hi). 
It measures two thousand \Yoya**s* There t a pit 
which is knee-deep and difficult of being (82), 

' Levelled with heaps of flaming charcoal it is heated by a 
\ piece of land burning dreadfully with coal (83), Intel It 
ibe followers of Yama throw the perpetrator of impiotn 
fate. And burnt by the- dreadful fire he runs about (84). 
His feet get torn and injured at every step and within a diy 



and niglit he can but once take away lib feet 
lie thus goes over a thousand Yoyanas he is let 
to have his sins washed of! lie is taken to bell 

(86). After having gone through all the hells the 
takes upon a beastly life* Then going through lite 
of worms, insects, and flies^ of prey, knats, 

trees, horses, cows, and through diverse oilier sinful 
miserable lives, he, coming to the race of men, is born 
as a hunch-back, or an ugly person or a dwarf or a 
Chandaia Pukkasa (87 89). Then carrying the remnant 
of his virtue and vice he goes up gradually to lh<: higher 
caste, Sudras, Vaishyas, Kshatriyas, Brlltmanas, and the 
of the king of gods ; sometimes perpetrating itmjtiitt:? 
he falls into the hell beneath (90- gi). Hear, I 
describe, how virtuous people proceed. These pcrgong fol- 
low the pious course laid down by Yama (92), With tiun- 
dharvas singing, Apsaras dancing, wearing many a br.iutiful 
and shining garlands they proceed in excellent can* 
lished with chains, bangles and other beautiful 
(93). Coming down therefore they are born in the of 

other high-souled kings and protect people in 

works (94). After having enjoyed all the of life 

they go upward $ but if they go down they fare as before 
I have thus described to yon all lhts of 

creatures. Hear now, O Brfthmana bow 

created (96), 



t . 1 HE SON saicl : As soon a*4 the male in mixed 
female blood one f released from hcavcu m hc!l f into 



that grw. gp in 


minor limbs, 



increase dobg With its case, with h h l t ** ^ 
. ^eping ft. hai i d^^tTuT 
s'des. the thutttbs are p i acf d on th ! L . Us tlu h 
before them M T\l ! g " Mt! thc 

; the 

f * Mtiffll ^|, |'U| 

PS of flesfii so iiwlAnk m 
ho five timbit (3), "jp^,. 
we, face, and ears a re tfcv. 

and then ti, ow on Jfcc^^il 


and drunk; the embryo 
and vic 

i ,l 

* W mb 


<), Having its 
and dril 
the reel 


do it 



^fow (I4~.t 

; - wine, tn e creature with v 7 *"" *" VM ,1 




it bewails (17). Coming out of the womb it an 

unbearable trance ; It regains Its It 

the (surrounding) air (18). Then the enchanting of 

Vishnu takes possession of It ; having Its by 

it, it sustains a bewilderment of (19). With the losi 

of sense the creature comes of infancy^ boyhood, and 

old age (20). A man repeatedly "goes through a cycle of 

and deaths. In this way, the rolls like a clock on the 

of the world (21). Sometimes a man attains heiivrii, 

times he goes to hell and sometimes a dead man 

heaven and hell (22), And sometimes bora in 

earth he reaps the fruits of his own And 

enjoying the fruits of his own acts within a tin 

breathes his last (23). Sometimes, O best of 

living in heaven or hell for a short time on account of hit 

limited merit or demerit he is born in this earth (J,|)* O 

father, the dwellers of heaven are seen by them to rnjoy 

happiness and then those, brought down to perdition, think 

that there Is a great misery in hell (25)* Even in 

is incomparable misery for from the time of 

one conceives in his mind. fl I shall fall" 

the people of hell, they attain to mighty day 

and night "J shall be brought to this condition 11 

is the pain of living in the womb, of * 

of the infancy of one when born, mud of 

as well (^8). There is also lit youth 

by lust, malice and anger ; old age is also full of and 

the culmination of this is (39), Mighty is the of 

those who are carried away by force by the 

and thrown into hell ; then is birth in the womb and 

and hell (30). In this wise bound by tha fatter* of lit 

creatures revolve on the wheel of the world tike a and 

suffer miseries (31) father, there is not the least 

in this world abonding in a hundred miseries. Why 

I,. exerting for emancipation, follow the ? 


1 HE FATHER said : Glory be to you, O my child j in the 
shape of imparting instructions, you have given a highly tmful 
discourse on the wilderness of the world (i). In this you 
have described Raurava and all the other hells. Do you des- 
cribe them now at length, you of great intelligence (a), 
The son said : -I have first described to you the hell called 
Raurava ; then hear of the hell, father, known as Makarau- 
raw (3). It extends, on all sides, over twelve thonmml 
Yoyanas. There the ground is coppery and underneath n 
the flaming fire (4). Heated by that fire, all the ground, hav- 
ing the resplendance of the rising moon, appears dreadful 
to look at or feel (5). There the sinner, bound hand and 
foot, is left by the envoy of Yama and he rolls in it (6), Bo- 
wg eaten by crows, herons, owls, scorpions, knats and vultures 
he is pulled by them on the way (7) Being bewildered and 
greatly agitated he continually cries out, "0 father O 
mother^ brother, child" and does not obtain any respite 
(?). It is after Ayutaand Ayuta of years that the wicked 

zr t"?, r tT ^ rom those (sufferin * s > to Th e 

another hell called Tarn*, bitterly cold by nature , St is a* 
jpacioos. as Maharaurava and enshrouded by darkness <io). 
Stncken w,th cold people run about in that dreadful drnknes* 

Spin8 u 6aCh thCr (1 1}> Stricken with co d and 
teeth break up and they suffer from hunger, 

" affliCti nS (12) " Ad ^fu!wbd, blowing 
rl CUtS assunderthe ^ones; and they, 

* * 




In , tbfs way> Obestof 

y so long their da, not w*ed 


(14). There is another principal hell called ; 

in it, father, potters 1 wheels are continually tolling (15), 
Getting upon them people are cut off from the of 

feet to their heads by the dreadful threads held by the 
of Yama's envoy (16)* These do not however O 

taost of the twice-born, and the portions of tli*Ir 
sundered into hundreds, are again combined* Thus the 
are sundered for a thousand years, so long their lin is not 
plctely washed off (18). Hear, 1 shall now describe the? 
Apratishtha ; living in it, people suffer afflictions hard to 
(19). There are wheels at places and the at 

the instruments of afflictions to persons of impious 
Some men, fast fixed on the wheels, are whirled on 
'cannot come out even for a thousand yearn (21), 
fixed on the machinery of the clock even a# a clock U 
in water, people are whirled on, continually vaitiilling blciodl. 
(22) Vomitting forth blood through their imntih# iltitl having 
eyes overflowing with tears these creatures suffer i fit tillable 
afflictions (23). Hear again, f shall describe 
the forest of sword blades, which is all fire, the 

for a 'thousand Yoyanas (24). Scorched by the and 

fierce rays -of the sun, creatures, dwelling in hell, 
there (25). In it there Is a beautiful covered with 

foliage. The leaves and fruits thereof, O 0! the 

twice-born, consist of sword (aft), a 

million of powerful dogs, with large mouth, 
, dreadful like tigers to look at (27), 

the forest covered with dew* and nhadk**, mstturcit, 
afflicted with thirst, ' rush towards it (58), 
their feet burnt by the fire raging underneath, 
greatly afflicted, cry out, f'0 father, O mather P (*>). A* 
soon as they reach there, the wind blows, the 

leaves and the swords fall on thorn (30). They then 
on earthhere a collection of lire and there ail 
. lames spreading all over the surface (31), The 

then quickly tear into pieces their bodies limbs 

as they cry in agony ($2). 1 have described to you, O fattier, 
the forest of sword-Matcfes. Hear, now from me f of the f*r 
more dreadful Tapiakunibha (33)* ll has all around it 
pans, encircled by flames of fire, filled will Iron hoi* 

ing oil resembling flames (34), In these are thrown by 

the envoys of Yame perpetrators of wicked with 

faces bent towards the ground ; they are fried their 

bodies bursting aitd rendered foul with fatty (35)* 

With their faactsy .eyes and boifes coming out they are forcibly 
taken up by ferodws vultures and afe thrown into 

them (39). Then accompanied % hissing 
verted into liquid their ftea&r, bodies, teftdons^ and 

bones are mi^ed u|f wfeftt oif (37). Then the 
iniquities are petmdfod in these volumes of eddying oil wit! a j 
laddie by the emifMrfefr of Yamm (38). Thus I have 
orfeed to ; you ^ : temgtb, father, the hell 


T -, 

iHESOtf said^In-the seventh birth prt^ecliiig 4 this, tf 
w&s born in the Vaishya race* Formerly I obstructed the 
^ffroach *f kine, ito a reservoir (i), From that 
Action, 1 was thrown into 1 # dreadful hell, terrific with 
^n<l abounding in iroo-beaked blvds (a) ; covered with mire 
^ the streams of blood doming cmf from bodies crushed by 
.- (of torture) aud filled with" the criet of 

^n sufncfereti ($,, Thrown there aad 
. . heat sad thirst and burning I remained * 
luitdred years .srotf iRofe (ji. k ' 


clay came to me a fresh cool lireene de light liig tity fit ;itt 
flowing fyrom an earthen vessel filled with wtxi *1 

curds (5). By its touch the number!*** afflictions ot tht* 
people were brought to a close and 1 too attained *< 
cellenfe joy which is enjoyed by tltc Inhabitants of the 
tial region (6). (Thinking) *What is thisi with ey*?s 
and shaking with joy we saw near us a most etc<?i!< nt 
the jewel of the race) {?) A dreadful emissary of Yama, rev 
plendent like lightning, with a rod in his hand, uaitrd liHitri? 
him showing him the way and saying 'cosm* thi<* t\ ay' (8% 
Beholding the hell abounding in a hundred miunrs in*, 
filled with compassion, said to the follower ol YatiM : * 
(9.)*. "Tell me, O emissary of Yania, what iniquity tiiil 
I commit before by which I have hrnt nniHigiii tl tn 
this dreadful hell filled with terrible aftlt< tiuit'i ftui t 
was celebrated for my erudition in ihr f*iiiiilv *f ttif 

fore -fathers. 
people (n). 


Vcdaha, I 

\\t! flu 

Performing many sarniuvs 1 

protected the earth ; I never did turn away ttom li^lil titir 
did any guest go away dUappointed (frnm my liiiiiw*)^ 
I never dishonored my man8 9 the ct*li*Htial framl*, tr lite 
servants. And never did I covet another*!* wif* or wt%ilf}i 
(13). As kine come to at rough so the mam?* fom<* n! litrm, 
selves to a man during a Parva, and dcntittn on lunar th>* 
(14)* The hhth and Purth* acts of a fwii%rlitilirr 
fruitiest from whose house they go tlitmiipdiittvti 

The sighs of the departed manes destroy the religifiiw 
of seven generations and forsooth thorn* of drtitir* d^ttuy 
that of three generations (16)* For this, I always ttirtl in 
encompass the pleasure of the manes and tlu* dctlim, 1 lti?rt** 
fore have I been doomed to this highly dreadful In*!! t" (17) 


1 HE SON said .Thus addressed by that hif^souN 
one in our hearing, the dreadful emissary of Yama rftilfrd 
in soft words :-(,). "You have a,,,* the truth, (> g rnt 
king, there is no doubt about it. I shall now remind you of 
a small amount of sin committed by you (2). Yew had a 
wife born in Vidharbha named Pivari. Wh.- n {,, wa ', j 
menses you made them go fruitless (j). Yon had y< w 
heart then attached to 'the highly beautiful Kifc.-yi ; .,,! in 
consequence of your making her menws f.uitlo, ymi Imw 
been consigned to this dreadful MI (4). AH , lt th',- tim , ()f 
a Homa (sacrifice) the fire expects sacrificial off,-,,,., so <!, 
the Lord of creatures expect seed at the time of ,,.,.,,., (5, 
A person, however virtuous he may fc., who ilinr^ardH thk 
injunction and desires for another woman, f.,11* info a hcD 
on account of his sin (for not satisfying ih nn,,, tt;i | , Wlta 
(6). This is your sin and nothing more ; COHIB U. n , () kinir 
or enjoymg the fruits of your virtue" ( 7 ). Th, kin l{ s ,ud ^ 
I sha 1 go, O em.ssary of the deiy (Yam.) wh,r,v,r you 
w.ll take me ; I sha ,l ask you something , ,d v< , 
speak to me the truth (8). These crows, Ling kH 
adamant, e plucking out the ye . o f m cn, b u it y 


J w ' * 

Describe to me at length by what adverse action* MII 

ful men are undergoing miseries which I see?* 1 (14*. Tht 
emissary of Yama said : f< O king, you have asked me 
Ing the consequences of sinful actions; I shall duly 
them to you in brief (15). A person reaps the fruit of viilw 
or vice by turns; and when the fruit of virtue or %*ici* i* 
reaped it is spent (16). Without reaping the fniits of gnwl 
or bad actions a person is not released therefrom in the IMS* * 
the extinction (of an action) originates from the rtMpioi; ( J t 
the fruit) (17). Hear me explaining virtue and vice ; wr? if li-$l 
sinners are visited by famine upon famine, pain upon p,ui, 
fear upon fear and death upon death; by the fetters fit 
creatures come by various conditions (r8~iyV f 
cherishing reverence, controlling their souls, di^lrt 
wealth and performing auspicious acts, enjoy frstivitie% 4ifn 
festivities, heaven after heaven and happiness after happi- 
ness (20), But sinners, assailed by iniquities, are daotmrtl tt 
places filled with beasts of prey, elephant^, Hrrpt*iitn f rii/nis 
and other dreadful things. What more far pious men ? {/ii 
Wearing fragrant garlands, clad in good raiment*, driving uti 
beautiful cars, feeding on savouring viands mil fttiloKKtuI >*v 
sacred hymns they repair to sacred grove* (2j) I ttstn \\MV 
virtue ^ and vice, of men gathered through hundred** itiiti 
hundreds, thousands and thotiHAndn of birth*, hrconm the 
of happiness and misery (23), As a seed expfuin ;i 
king, so virtue and vice am dependent tipun time f p| Art * 
and action as the cause (24). If a person commits i slight 
sin generated by place and time, he *mffem stich an atllittion 
as is derived from treacling upon thorns faj) A 
sin in the same way leads to greater sulTertujy nyd* ^ A ^ m ,. 
of land filled with darts *iml pins ami ttnliearaMi* tir%i4 
diseases (26), At the tiim* of ihuir bring i m i r< ! utih ftmu 
the sins mutually expect the* inslrumentn n( iiiuih.| 
foocl^ cold, heat, fatigue and l>tuiti!i|* (.!;>. J,, || l 



born as a deity, a human being or a beast rp- 
originating from virtue or vice characterised ' 

"fi'Scry ("AO) Y^om Ji^t/^ *,* i r u**f *"**" \ft> 

fis^crj'S*: ^ 2 

nth imnioi,i *k^..-t.i \ ?'* ^ w**fwr' 


ain C 4-4). They 

again a.d 
the si 


' / 


Behold, king, those wretched men by 

brought about dissension amongst friends, of * 

father from his son, that amongst relatives, that a 

priest and a sacrificer,that of a mother from her of 

pan ions (from each other) or that between a and a 

wife (4647). Those who afflict others, who 

the enjoyment of others, those who deprive people cif 
fans, air-passages, sandal, Uffira (a fragrant and 

wretched people who bring sufferings destroying (even) life, 
on. innocent persons, reap their sins by being placed cm 
vessels full of meals mixed with curds (4849). Those 
persons, who being invited by others, feed on the 
performed by another, either for the ancestral manes or 
are dragged by these birds in two (opposite) directions 
Those, who pierce the vitals of the pious with thrir own 
have their own in return pierced, without any obstruction, by 
these birds (51). He, who by his perverted mind and word, 
commits an iniquity, has his tongue severed in Iwiiiti by 
sharpened razors (53), Those, that through haughtiness of 
disregard their fathers, or mother*, or preceptor*, are 
with their faces bent downwards, into pits filled 
urine and excretion (53), Those wicked 
their food, before the deities, guests, ncrvant*, new comers 
ancestral manes, the and birds are fed, art* as 

Suchimukhas (birds) huge as hilb and In 

ing pus and clung (5455). Those, who, 
a vow, feed with partiality the Brthmanas and 
of any other order, feed on dung like (56). Tlw*<* wtm 

take their food, without the pour antlbrggarH and 

who, drive the same interest, feed, like these, on phlegm, (57). 
lord of men, those who while unclean from eating, touch 
kine, IMhrnanas or fire, have* their hand* burnt in thin flaming 
fit (58). Those who, while unclean with eating, willingly *>** 
the sun, moon or stars, have their eyes into lire* by th*r 

of Yama and are purified there (59), Thu>c flint 

' S IV*M.I 
f-"t!,<* *,v 

J I >j '*,* f ^\ 

* r ,M*V l^| 
ht^ f *if *!ivm |t 
t^iti^ ^I.IKII out 
^ r, |x 1 }| ff ^ 

* ^|'t %, 
4 fl ,i f fi n^* 

- %|$*twriti?| fin f 
tui {^*^r*iifj 

t r^|ifM<r.iiy ( i wtf 

have with their fret hir. ft 

Vipras, their elder brother*, >,i^ 

preceptors or elderly iwn, havr thar liml**. 
of heated fire ; and bring pivrri in St^ijn 
barn up to their knets (606 iV 
who have eaten PSyUca, AYfim/. p t *wl\ 
given to the deity after having |**v t ,iinl it 
the- earth looking with rolling 171^ ,trr 
with, teeth in the mouth of Yama*i fullmt * % 
wretched sinners, who haw? fhr^i |r. 

/Brihtnanas and the Vwiax to br 4 

delight in that, haw, although frying, jw 
driven repeatedly into earn (C>4...65), Ttm, 
by anger and covetousncM*, hav 
watering places, images, hou^eit erf th 
magnificent assembly hal^ r 

their skin separated from their miifi 

by the highly terrific of Varna <t.r, n; 

men, that pass urine or excrrtien in i!i^ way 4 linr, 
or the sun, have their cntraib exlraftrti ky mm, 
their anus (68.) He, that having jjivrn | 

one again gives her fa) a second man, tiring 
pieces, is thrown into a river of | f|l| j" tltn^ t 

possessed by anger forsake hclptewi son*, ^jj r% if 

friends OB the occasion of a fainin or any 
thus sundered by Yama'a reUUnew, fml mt t f ir j r tmn , Wl 
w hunger and again go**, it out (70-71). !{^ llf > 
out of eupidity dependants living upon 
engmes, by the servant^ of Ynt (74). Thin* w 

sell their religious mtnt acquired all thrlr , ivrH w 

.mac I with stones like thoia fli illittllillrf 

W ? Those, who misippropitte dopotit mmt^ i lrlwi i M || 
^ate constrained to fed day and night ui 
W^wsandowls (74 Thosa 
^ome by day or whoiiv* with owitful^ at 


afflictions and have their tongues and tip with 

hunger and thirst (75). See, they oft 

trees with long iron pins and their bodies have 
and are bathed in streams of blood (76), And see, O 
of men, those, who ravished othen^ wives, killed by Yaa f ft 
servants being thrown in crucibles (77)* The 
who putting his preceptor to or striking him 

dumb, receives lessons or learns any mechanical art from him, 
suffers misery by carrying stones on his head and is greatly as- 
sailed in the way of men ; he suffers clay and night from 
hunger and fatigue and his head aches for carrying the load 
(78-~7g). Those, that discharge urine, phlegm, stool &c t . in 
waterj are doomed to this hell filled with the bad smell of 
phlegm, excreta and urine (80). Those, who never treated be- 
fore each other witb hospitality, are now possessed by hunger 

. eating each others' flesh (Hi). Those, that viltifkd the Vetkis 
and those thru, lighting sacrificial lire, disregarded it, are repeat- 
edly being thrown down from mountain peaks (82). Those* 

. who passed their clays as the husbands of widows, being 
dated, are reduced to those worms that are up by 

ants (83). Those, who from an who offi- 

ciate as his priests and those who serve him, become worms 
living inside the rocks(84), Those, who in the pre- 

sence of their servants, friends, and got to swallow 

burning coal down their throat (85). O king, who 

the flesh of another 1 1 back, has his own daily by 

wolves (86)* The men, who turn ungrateful to 

who do them good,. About, being stricken with hunger, 

or being blind, deaf and dumb (87), This highly vicious* 
minded, ungrateful wretch, injuring his friends, in thrown into 
a vessel and pounded there (88)* lie is then tortured 

by th$.#nginrs in the* sand vessels containing milk with curd 
,iml is ; then Covered .with saws ia the forest of sword-blades 

(8} /llr* will hfi th*n hewn by the thread of time ; 
uiuiorgoing various alllictions I do not know how lie 


freed therefrom (go). Those wicked Br&hmanas, leaping 
over one another, ate the food of a Sraadha. They now 
drink the foam coming out from all their limbs (91), 
That stealer of gold, that killer of a Brfthmana, that 
consumer of strong drinks, and that ravisher of his 
preceptor's wife, are being burnt for many thousand 
years by a fire flaming above and below : these arc 
born as men marked with leprosy, consumption other 

diseases (9293). When dead they go to hell and are again 
bora in the same manner. O king, they will suffer from 
diseases till the end of Kalpa (94). One f who kills a cow, 
goes to hell for three successive births this is also the 
of the perpetrators of minor crimes (95), Hear, I shall cles* 
cribe the respective births which persons coming out from 
hell take, ordained by their sins (96), 



1 A MA'S servant said : Taking gifts from a fallen 
a Brahmana becomes- an ass: the priest* of a fallen 
being liberated from hell, is bora as an earth-worm (i). A 
twice*born one who plays his preceptor false, or for 

his wile or covets his property, forsooth becomes a dog (a), 
If a person disregards, his parents, he becomes an A*H ; if he 
is angry with his father and mother he is born as a 
.parrot (3). If a person insults his brother's wife he 
% the state of a pigeon j .oppressing her he is bora Hi a 
tortoise (4). He, who, taking the food of his manter, 
riot seek'his welfare, 13 possessed by stupefaction and Is burn 
as a wionlcey *ke* dead (5).' He ^who appropriates 


held in truat f is born as an earth-worm when liberated from 
hell ; and h% who U given to calumny when freed from hell, 
becomes a KlkHhana (6)* A treacherous man Is born as a 
fish* He that Htaal* paddy, barley, 

k*) mustard, oaU, AWi/j'jf, wheat, 

r/ or any other kind of grain, being bereft of bis 
is born aft a long-faced rat resembling a mungoone. He, who 
ravishes another's wife, in by and by born as a dreadful wolf, 
a dog* a jackal, a vulture, a srrprnt and a heron. That one 
of perverted wi'imc, who lives with his brother's wife, become* 
a male coil on his bring freed from h<*ll (7* 10.) That iutit- 
ful perwm, who violate** the wife of a friend, or of a pre- 
ceptor or of a king, it* born an swine (i l) He, who obstruct* 
sacrifices* gift* or a wedding, beeomen an earth worm. He that 
gives iw*iy his daughter fttr the second timt % tt born as an 
earth worm (ui Hi* who takes his food without (first) 
giving It to tltr driiirs, thr unc^stntl manes and the HrAhntnitan 
on beii{( fnsrd from hrll, in born a* 4 rrow (ijl lit*, who <ltn- 
regnrck IUH cttilff brth*r whu in like it father to him, cm 
freed fioin hell, w born m a Krmtneha (14). A 
live* with a llrltiiiiiiiiii wr>mati i burn an an 
nnd begetting children on her lie bftroitiett a living 

iftsiik a wood, a an earth-worm, n wul a ChandAljt* 
An ttngraU'fwl and di*grad*<I man, on being from 

hellt in by turnn Imrn ai an turth-wciriii, a worm, an 
ft eimttpHif*, si Ikli, a cow, a tort own find a (i5~lf). 

Slaying 1111 tmarmeti mini in born iw an ans ; the 
of t woman or that of n child H born an an earth worm (18). 
By itt!iilItiK ftnul a wan in born an a fly, There is something 
particular about fotul ; hear It (ft))* By tttoaling 
on being freed from hll, in bora AA a rat. He t 
rice ftiixrti with c^;uni* am! Pinyaka, U born ax t rat (ao). 
By c!lnri<ii*d butter a man bfcornfc* a mungooe t by 

tlc^h he btrcowcs a m a crow* A 

thai ficnh or itwit bccomcn a crow ; one 




'steals the meat of a deer becomes a hawk (21). He who 
.-salt becomes a water-crow and he that steals curds becomes 
an earth worm ; by stealing milk one becomes a crane (22), He 
'who steals oil becomes a cockroach; by stealing honey a 
.man becomes a gad-fly and by stealing fiovwrg an ant (23), 
By stealing nishpava one becomes a house lizard* By 
stealing wine one is born as a titiiri (24)* The sinful man, 
stealing iron, is born as a crow ; by stealing bell-metal one 
becomes a wood pigeon and by stealing silver vessel, a 
pigeon (25). By stealing a golden vessel one b born as an 
iearth-worm ; by stealing a silken cloth one becomes a par- 
iridge (26). By stealing a satin cloth one Is born itu a chry* 
sails. The sinful man, who steals gotdUembrotdered satin, 
a fine cloth made of goat's hair or linen, is born as a male- 
parrot. By stealing cotton cloth, one is born as a 
and by stealing bark a heron (2728), By fttttiling a paint 
t>r S&kapatra one is born as a peacock ; a peinon stealing 
a-' red' eloth becomes a peasant (29), By *itt*iiHng scents 
One is bom as a mole; and by stealing a drifts a harr. fly 
stealing fruits one becomes a bull and by stealing wood a 
wood-worm (30), One stealing flow* rs becomes pour ami 
one stealing a conveyance lame* One stealing potherbs 
becomes a wood pigeon and one stealing water become* * 
Ch&taka (y). Going to dreadful hells Kauruva and others 
the stealer of land becomes sueeessivtriy gr,w f n\mi\w 
creepers, plants and trees with only barks on, ami hi mm 
growing less and weakened he becomes a man (33), Then 
he is' born as an earth-worm, an insect, a gfaw hopper, an 
aquatic fowl, a deer, a co-w and a cursed Chandain or a 
Pukksa( 33 ). He is then bom as a cripple, M blind man 
as a deaf man, as a leper and as one suffering from p hthyw 

U assailed by diseases of mouth, eyes ami stomach (14)' 
becomes epileptic and is bora as a Sudra (15) These 
are ^successive states, to which are reduced 

cow and gold or those that steal letrniog V 



held rent ficc by iheif precept. cirs (36), Hie fool, who 
gives away one's wife to another, being freed front the 
various painn is born an ft bull (37)* The 111*111,. who 
oblations to lire not perfectly lighted up, is by 

the disease of indigestion and becomes dyspeptic (38). 
Calumny, ingratitude, giving pain to another's mind, cruelty, 
impudence, adultery* robbing one of his own r impurity, vili* 
lying the gods*, deceiving people, nrnerlincns, man slaughter 
these and other forbidden acts and a constant tendency 
towaids them all speak that (the author^ have just route 
out of the hell ; iwhftruis) kimhtcHH for creatures, tin, bring* 
ing of good ncw^ service: to tin people of tin* other rcty 
truthiulmvt, word* lor the behoof u( ctvattucH, the < vidt we 
of tli* 1 \Vdis, tin* worship oi tht. pieeeptors, saintn 
and Siddha**, companionship with the pious the pi,u,ticc ot 
good work**, hiendlM'';s thoc and various other 
good and ioi*il woik* arc eonMdeted by a learned man n< the 
marks of pimir* iticu jtr4 <*tniiut IHJ ^ fnt?t* heav4*n (^i 1 ! 8 "4}*) 
Thus 1 havi desu'ibcil to yon, O kinj*, evcivthinj; abuui nu*n 
reaping tin* fruits ol ihcir #u t^ pioun tir jstulul (45)* We 
tthall tHH i;i* to auothet placi, ; you linvf 
You li*!^ 1 %rrn ti r 'H ; let IH g < Ixeulii r: (4^*)- 

TilK SfN ?aitl , I lini fit*tctng Iittii ahratl tin, king ad. 
dnmwl liinifirtt lr going. Then all itini, hiiflrritig from 
% trn*d tilaiitt (47), "Favour u*, C) kiitg t wait ftir i 
it lite winl t mutant; ywir linibh delights ciyr Ii(*iif{ 
(48). <) Jrmst tf ntfii, (ii) drives cwiipklcly th httut oluur 
bodten IH writ *m iJi>*e,aHi*H and aibnenU ; favour us, tht reform 
king/ 1 (49)* HtMitnjt llicw* tht it wcircU, tin* kiii|j n^krd tin? 
envoy 0! Yftina : --"Why do tlu^i. praplci delight in my slay ? 
(511), Trll $nr, what }(ii*atty JMOWS action did 1 perform in 
the region <>i nmrlals which hhowcrn dt*lt ( <;ht on Utcm 11 (51). 
The emitiHjiry af Yatiiii nM : *-"Yur body atutiiu*d to notitihh. 
by tlitt irtiiiuini ol th food offered to tin: att<;t <*tfttl 

L*if*tf^ Uid >t!V till - lil* f !>* ' UI t V*ll 


' devoted to them, therefore the wind, touching your limbs, 
gives them delight and these sinners do not feel the pain, 
king, (52 53). Because you duly performed horse sacri- 
fices and others, therefore seeing you and thwarted by your 
energy, these intruments of Yama, engines and weapon** and 
fires and crows the causes of affliction, wound^ burning; 
I and other great sufferings, have become milder (in their ac 
I tlohy 1 (54 55)- The king said: " The 
enjoys by affording relief to creatures in distress, Is not ob- 
tained by men 'either in heaven or in the region of Bfllitfii 
this is my conviction (56). If for my coming them 

they do not suffer torments, I shall) fair mouthed c>t% life* 
'here motionless like an inanimate object (57)*" The envoy 
of Yama said: " Come king, we shut! go; leaving tlie 
sinners with their sufferings do you tnjoy happiness by 

ybur pious acts (58)." 

THE King said: "As long will remain 

stricken with grief I shall not goj the dwellers of hell 
become happy by my living near them (59). Cursed is the tifti 
of that man who does not know mercy towards the 
seeking refuge with him, even if they for 10 

the side of the enemies (60), Sacrifices, gifts, d0 

not bear him fruit either in this world or in the who has 

not his mind bent upon relieving (61). 1 do not 

consider him a man, whose hard heart is not drawn to 
children, the distressed and the old rather he Is a 
(63). If by living near them do I suffer of hellthe 

heat of fire,.-- piercing -effluvia, hunger, thirst and any other 
great afflctfefc, depriving one of his 1 shall 

consider my act of affording them relief greater than the 
felicity of heaven (63-64). If many, in ectir* 

happiness by my being in it, what have 1 not obtained ? So 
jwgo without any delay (65)." The envoy of Yama mid : 
"fito* are Dharma and Sakra come to take you away ; m ym 
must go and therefore come, king (66)" Dharma said W 1 



shall take you to heavern for f have been duly by 

you. Get upon thin chariot ; corw% do not delay (67)*" 

THE KING said . Thous&nds of mt?n arc suffering in the 
hell, Dharma. Tltry are crying to me in dtatreHs " save 
us- 11 I ahall not go (68). Indra said ; By their acts* these 
sinners have come to hell ; and you, () king, by your pious 
acts, should gci to heaven ^6y), The king ?aiii : If 1 am to 
know you an Dlurnu and if I am to know you an Sarht'st lord 
you tfhciftld tell in the extent nf my religious merit (70}. 
Dharrna said :-l*ik? chop;* of water in this w';*n t like 
in the {inmament! liki: ^lumets |iinirliig ltk<t sandH on 
the (Jan{j4 and like countless {Mtticles lit water, <) Jjreat 
yotir rrIi^ifHi f 4 merit cannot b* et*ttn(*rated (71 15} And 
this ei>mjni!u*ioti ( whi* It you have *xteml*'d U> day to the 
<lweil<*rn of hell, la** mnttfpttrd ytr xetij'iou 1 * merit *i 
And thouHiind Udil (/j^. There fon% j*o t {) yot; 
of kings. In the region of immortal'* for enjuvinj* tt ; and let 
f!X|ii*itf* in Ill-It the Ntn hejjttttrn i*y their own 
king ^**iiel ; Why do tho^ tneit i***ig l^f my 
if they arc nut elevated by ny living nr^r them? 
(75)* It I Iitvt duni* any ait c> king f heaven* 

let thesrt hinnrrn, s*tif!rriii|j lrnn tcif triit> t be rrk^mui from 

bttll (7Ci). 

natd : ' Fn*ni thin )*ou hnvrt filil*iiiic?il a iiighrr ri*gicwi p 
king mill tirtiiild thfj ftinnci* n'hstHini Iron* lirll 
Tilli Ht>N naitl : Him flowrrx wrrr Hliowi'rct 
kiiigjiimi |iiu'iii|j him upuu hi% rar Hiri look htm Iti tik 
own ffgiati (78), MynrH and iilbn** Iliirri* bring frrrd from 
uiiit tiy other btrttiK iifijiotiifctHl by our own actionh 
f tt*wt* thui tl*%cribnl to ywt () forrnuiht of th twictv 
t! all thi* hi* Ih j am! 1 have dr ttr film! to ynii^ &ti UH 

by 1111% all tli^ births Uikrn hi parMtancct of (thrir) 
re*|n*iiift? | (I hiiv gtvt*n you) a truthlnt at'count basttd n 
my |>rcvit>U9 *%|>ticticc what muir :hall I it'll >m, <) gir*il 



1 HE FATHER said :- My son, you have described to rna 
truly the most hateful order of the worltl f going on jH*r 
petually like a clock ; I have fully learnt all this* Such bring 
the case, tell me what I should do (12). 
THE SON said: If you, (3 father, imhcstitiimft|y ritfy on 
my words, then renouncing the condition of a hati < <ulfoi<ier 
enter into woods (3). Duly entering upon fliin Ufi% giving 
up sacrificial fire, severing all tie* and luring frwil fiom 
dissession concentrate your mind upon adf (4) Taktitf your 
food every alternate day, controlling your mind, lieentm* it 
mendicant shaking off inaction. And there when heenmifiif 
intent upon Yoga you nhall be above the extcuu! iiifltiritce 
you will then obtain that Yoga which In the remedy of tfif 
miseries of existence, the means of liberating inroitipar;ti)I<* t 
and indescribable, and which is not acquired i mm party and 
obtaining which you will no more be related- to matter {5 6) 
/ THE FATHER said : Describe to me my on, Yotfa 
which is the best means to emanapation, by which I nkil! tml 
attain to misery for my again being united with mutter (7)* 
Explain to me that Yoga, which is unattached and by which 
my soul, greatly attached, may not be fettered by worldly 
bonds, (8). Do you sprinkle the cool water of spwrh regard* 
ing the knowle^e of Brahma on my body and numl 
and bewildered by the heat of the sun of a world (ij). |Jy 
making me drink your nectarine words do you revive nw wltn 
am dead again by being beaten by the black serpent of 
and possessed by its venom (10). By op4:siig 
the gate of !o,ve and ..knowfege do you rdenie nm 
Cettercd by the chains of. on tW ifc f \ mm ^ ami fiekl 
(n), The son said : Lirten .properly ,0 father, to Yng% 

Alarka when formerly questioned by him (12). The father 
said : Whose son was Dattfttrcya ? Why did lie explain Yoga ? 
Who was the great Alarka who questioned (him) about Yoga? 
(13) The son said : There was a certain firfthmatta, Kau* 
ika, in the city of Prathistth&n&, who> in consequence of htn 
pristine sins, WAS by leprosy (14). His wife 

served her deceased husband as if he was a deity, by sham* 
pooing hisi feet ;uul limb*, bathing him, clothing him* feeding 
him, washing off hi* phlegm, urine, feeest and blood, by 
nerving him in solitude and treating him with swefit word* 
(1516), Although always served hy her with humility 
that highly irascible, and cruel (UrAhmana) us^tl to rebuke 
her angrily (17). Still the humbk, wife considered him iif a 
deity and rejaide<I that horrible one as the best of m*n (18). 
Although inrapahli of moving utmut that foremost of thetwir**- 
bont (Jin* day said to hi.Hwili*: -'* Take me to the licitisf* of 
the coute/n h*iuy by the ro.ul ; N!H? livr> in my heart, O you 
coiiv*i5aiil with virtue (MI - *trt. Istwthat girl HI *uin*riHti 
and it is now ni*!ht~!<tntt the time nf erring ln*r ^Iw mil 

<Utu[>|uMr lr**tit my h<mt (21). li' thai mil* <f it slimier 
niaki% perfi'etly tt*%iitlil'iil with [iliitiiji In^ atui br*a*ttH f tloen 
not ertilnare me you wilt ner ute ilt%it| i*,). Kam*^ (the god 
of love) is ltii%ltl: I> itlrtl Uiul ?*S*f* in ulirited by IMIIIiy J I 
itti im*;t)uhtf* <*( nifwitig about; if appear Iitipt*f** to me? 
Hivuinjj thfHf w>rd.H o( hrt liHb,tncl stricken with 
his lii|li^iiiiiitlrtl anil df*vitrrl wilf% btirn in a nobli!- 
y, makinj* a firm retfolutitMt, takiiif* priitiiw* mtmry an<t 
her husband ott her shimMfr*, ()rH;r*nlinl 
It W*M ni||ttl ; the sky was rover<*d with 
That ltrIltiii;iii4*H \\i(% wishitn; tu rn**m|ns*4 the ji 
of her lisiiibiiitfl, went alonjj the hij*hw;v diHrovi*rt*d hy thr 
flash of lightning Mil On the way m tlarku*xs that t \\iee- 
born 0111* iif the ra*'* uf Kur t 'iU.t t tntuuiteil cm his wilr 1 * 
( v (lushed Mat)(t.t\\4 why wa% }*<eatly suftctiug front 




.agony having been placed on a dart for being susprectecl 
as a thief although he was not so. Being enraged for having 
been pushed with feet Mandavya said to him (27 228)* 
"That sinful wretch of a man, by whom, I sorely afflicted 
and reduced to a miserable plight, have beem pushed with 
feet, shall forsooth be deprived of his life at the sun rise* 
.As soon as he will see the rays of the sun he will meet with 
.destruction' 1 (2930). Thereupon hearing- that dreadful 
curse, his- wife, greatly afflicted, said "The smn shall not 
rise". (31) Therefore the sun not rising there was a con* 
.tinuous night extending 1 over many days anct accordingly 
the celestials were terrified (32). They thought f< How can 
this entire universe, shorn of Vedic recitations and those of 
: Vashat, Swaha and Swadka^ he saved from being utterly 
.ruined? (33). Without the division of day Ariel night that of 
.months and seasons will cease and from its being destroyed 
ittie summer and the winter solisticc cannot be known 
-(34). Without a knowledge of solistice how can the time be 
measured iby a year? And without year no knowledge of 
iime can be had (35). At the words of that faithful wife 
the sun will not rise and without th<i rifting of the sun batH- 
ing, gifts and such other acts cannot take place (36). There 
is no lighting of the sacrificial fire and the want of sacrifices 
is observed. And no gratification of ours can accrue 
from oblations to fire (37), Being duly gratified by 
.mortals with our due share in the sacrifice we favour .men 
with rain for the growth of corn (38), On cmhadhfe having: 
.been procured the mortals worship us with sacrifices ; and being; 
adored by sacrifices and others we grant them their 
(39V We shower down and the mortals shower up 
with water and men 'with clarified butter (40). The wicked 
d the greedy do not perform the dally ntm for us but thejr 
<ie?0fir the sacrificial shares themselves (41)* For the des- 
truction of these sinful and wicked men we vitiate .water* 
the sun, fire, air and earth (42). .By their partaking of. the- 


vitiated water many highly dreadful symptoms for the 

destruction of those sinful men (43). But we confer holy 
regions upon those* high-soulcd men, who, satisfying u all 
first, feed themselveg upon the remnant (44)! But nothing 
of this exists now; how can creation he preserved? How 
cm day appear again ? tf Titus did the celestials confer with 
one another (45)* Hearing the words of the celestials 
bled there; and afraid lit the stoppage of sacrifices the 
Prajlpati (Brahmft) naitl : (41$) , ''Energy i& pacified by 
energy and a&c:t?tidsm hy asceticism j hear, O ye immortal*, 
my wordH (47). For th glorification of the chatttc wife the 
gun will not rise ; and fur bis not rbiftj^ you and the mortal** 
(arc so anxious) (48). II yon wish that the sun nhouid 
you should propitiate Atri's wife, the ascetic and devotedly 

AnuHuft" (49), Th<* mm said :~i!ditg propitiated by 
them *!w staid " Tell m<* what do you wi*h lo havr." The 
dttitiert thru tit jW'd ol hri that th ! rMiitght IH: day a,s for- 
merly (50). \tiiinii4 n;itii ; - n I'h<* j{lory of a rh.'tsta woman 
never s*wifcr?i dcttirase. Hottorin^; tlu,i pious 1*1*1)% tlicrcfuri% 
I shall create d.iy t O c'rl^ntUls i$i) tfn*rc may lit 
tgaiii day and flight ami that ttit* hitHlianii of thut rtglitenirt 
liuly may not niMt with dcntruftton' 1 (53)* 11i non said: 
Having Hiitd thK to thr i^lt*Hliah* tlt*tt aunptciouH luly repain*d 
to her hini^i? and t*ntjiiiri?l ul ihi* welfare and virtue of hwwlf 
and her huHhattil (53). AniivuA said .-"() auH{Mrioii lacly 
da you lirid dfltglit Irotn t*4!ig the fare* of your husband if 
Do you regard your husband inwrc* than ait thr? *li!itir taken 
? (54), It is by Moving roy husband that 1 have* at 1 
taitied this gnntt titiit ; and far my having obtaini*d tint fruit ot 
every tlfsiiu* all trnpedtwiefitn have ttisappeared ($%), (I 
lady, a mat) htuiuld always pay live kind** of drl>tj and ithottld 
richest in cotkHOMatu:e with th<* cliiii* % ,H ol his own ord<*r 
(56)* lit? tihould th* duly ijivt* awav hi> tt'tmt*Ued wraith 
lo proper rtrrjiiriitK. H< *4 tntlit alwavn prartUi* ttwlh, 

ly 4HCiiiii**iti ami kunim-s* ;,/' llftii^ hiinin ot 


anger and malice he should always perform acts laid down 
by scriptures with reverence and accompanied by gifts as 
much as lies in his power (58). chaste lady, it is by very 
great toil that a man attains to regions appointed for his 
own order and then gradually to that of Brahrnl and others 
(59). But by serving her husband a woman obtains a moity 
of the religious merit acquired by a man with hardship* (60), 
A woman has not separate saerifics, Sriddbas or fasts ; by 
serving their husbands they attain to wished for regions (61). 
As the husband is the most excellent course for womrn, you 
should, chaste and noble lady, always set your heart upon 
serving your husband (62), Being whole-rnindedly intent 
upon serving her husband a woman reaps the religious merit 
earned by a man by worshipping deities, his ancestral manes 
and guests and by the performance of pious rites" (63). The 
son said : Hearing h6r words and honoring them duly, 
spoke to Atri's wife AnusuS. (64). "Blessed and favoured 1 *im f 
you auspicious by nature, since the celestials have; looked 
upon me and you (have endeavoured) to increase my reverence 
again (65). I know full well that there is *no better refuge 
to women than their husbands- devotion to them 'lead* to 
their benefit both . in this world and in the next (66). The 
husband being pleased with her, a woman becomes glorious 
both in this .world and in the region of the dead and attaint 
to felicity; the husband is like a deity to women (67). Tell 
me, fair one, what shall myself and my worshipful 
husband do for you, worthy of reverence, who have come to 
oar house" (68), Anusul said: "The distinction, of thy and 
night and pious acts having ceased at your words, all th* 
deities with Indra, stricken with grief, have come to me 
solicit the favour of your so ordering that the day and night' 

way be same *as before. It is for this that I have 10 

'you. Listen to my words. (6970). For the want of day 
there is a stoppage of alt sacrifices, female 'nacelle, for 

want of them,.. the celestials do "not receive any nourfchment 




From Ihr disappearnnrt: of day there is lite extinction 
of all pious observances from the: draught that arises from 
this extinction tlit! universe will be annihilated (72). If you 
wish to deliver the, tinivetse from thin calamity, be you 
pleased with people, O chaste lady, and let the gun rise a* 
before' 1 (73), Tho wif of the Ifalhmana said : "My lord, my 
husband, has been c: urged by the great M&ndavya, in anger 
saying "you will meet with destruction at the sun rise'" 
(74). Ainistii said; "If you wish, () gentle onr, at your 
word* I shall malci* your lin*hani) youthful having a body 
as before (75). (> fair one* I always regard the power ctf th<* 
chastity of women and therefore, honour you" (;*'), Hit* 
jton uaid I Thfi-eat she a^nTem;* to ii, the 'ascetic 
taking tip Urn At^hyt^ bri^tti to invoke tin- sun. If. wan then 
night for ten uiyhts to^thrr (77). Then the* divine Viva* 
swan (sun J irwwbtiu^ a full !{.wn lotus and having a 
disc; nifii* on thr risinj* lull (/S-, In the interval hn- 
divorced from lif", djippe<l <m flu* Around and whiU 
Uken tip by her (71)). 

ANUSUA saicl ;*" You should not grieve, O gentle lady, 
and behold now without tUday my aHcetic jnnvt*r iicrjiiired by 
my serving my hiiMbanc! In beauty, character, intelli- 

gence f s(H?c:h and and other accontpH^hmeit 

not ett any iiltntr prrxnn tujimt to my fiii^lMiiicl-^liy tbnr 
truth let thin Vljir.t, lrierf from fli^ranct, regain hit lift* nmi ft* 

a help to bin wtf for a hundred 

As ! havn not considered even a daily equal to my hu*h&ftd 
by truth le,t thin Hrfthmana revives without iiinrlerance 

(83). I have always ln*eii intent upon 'adoring my husband 
with my tlreiln, nttmi and words, by that lrt iln* twirr-licirn 
one revived (84), Tin; nan i*iid :- Thereupon the 

up fretrtj from disraxe and rrg':itiiiti|( his youth, and 
lighting up the room with his unlive <?iriil#em:e liku a ri*lc?- 
tial touched by (focrfpitiule (85). Tht'ii Ml nhtiw*w of 

and celvhtial iitiLrusncnU wrc HouiuUnl ; the 


then delightedly said to AnusuS (86). "Pray for a boon, O 
auspicious lady, you have done a for tfie tlntteit, 

and they are ready, anchorite,to confer a boon" (87), 
said < * "If the celestials headed by are propitiated 

with me and are prepared to give me a and If am 

deemed by you worthy of it, then let Brahmft, Vishnu and 
Maheswara be born as my sons; and may ! with my 
acquire Yoga leading to the liberation from miseries* 1 
thereupon, Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, and other *m 

be it." Then honoring that female ns.*etic th<py 
to their respective habitations (50). 



1 HE SON said ; Thereupon after a long time 
son the divine Atri cast his look upon his own wife 
(i) ; bathed after her course haying all her limbs 
and an excellent form worthy of being by all 

Having his mind stricken with desire that 
in his mind of that one of a Waraclcsa person (a), 
by her thought he discharged his vital Onid and the 
ful wind carried it upwards and indirectly (3), on 

all aides that white fluid, with Brahma the 

ten cardinal quarters in the shape of the (4), Tie 

MOOD, the stay of the life of all crettwes, was born an the 
mind Begotten aim of the patriarch Atri (5), 
th* high-souled Vishnu was born from his own as the 

best oi the twice- born, Dattltreya permeated by the 
of goodness (6), Incarnating himself Vishnu w&t bom u 


the second son of Atri known under th<* name of Datt&trcya 
who sucked the breast of Anusufi (7) Getting angry 
he got out of lib mother's vtomb within a week. Seeing the 
haughty, perverse" and guilty king of Haihayas and getting 
angry, enraged a* he was before with th vexation and trouble 
of living in the womb, IIP made up hw mind for killing that 
Haihaya (89), Then was born I)urv?LB, a portion of Rudra 
impregnated with ih<? quality of darkness. Thus Brahmt 
Vishnu, and Siva were born as her three sons (10). By 
virtue of the boon conferred upon her by the celestials 
Brahtn.t wasi born as the* moon, Vishnu as I),utatreya and 
Sankara an !)urvfts;\ (n), The patriarch Soma (moon), 
nursing with hU own cool rays plants, lu-rbs and m<m, alway* 
resides In tin: tirmatnent (heaven) (12). Ditt.itrf^ya, a por- 
tion of Vishnu, protectH the creatures by d*^troying the 
wicked demons and favouring the fjocjd pe(pte (13^ AsAum- 
ing a body (impregnated hy the oncrgy of Kudra) thtt divine 
unborn Durvs?l, of drradful looks, thoughts and worcb, burn* 
down those* who insult him (14), UK* Patriarch Brnhmfi became 
born in th family of Atri m Soma (the moon). Hari, 
as Dattfttrcya and ciigagecl in Yoga, bctgan to enjoy the 
worldly object* (15). Fonu&king hif father and moiher and 
resorting to the moil tticellf nt vow, l/nmatha or rnaciness 
he wandered over the earth (16). The uscetie Dattfttrcya was 
encircled by the of ; but dolring fur ilis- 

that lord lived gunk in a lake for a long time (17), 
Stilt boy* living on the banks of the lake die! not leave 

the noble of an extremely hamtoometook (18). Andrven 

on the completion of a hundred celestial y*Mts the son* of the 
did not leave the bank of the hike out of love for 
him (ig). Thereupon arose from the watrtr the ascetic 
taking with him an ftUMpicimi* lady, rind in a ceknitial rai- 
ment, and gifted with beautifcil breasl and hip* (20), thinking 
11 the of ajteetien will luavt* me on seeing me in the 

company of a woman and then 1 shall live disassociated 1 * 



(21). Still the boys did not leave the ascetic ami thm fat 
began to drink wine in the company of the woman (22), 
But even then those sons of the ascetics did not leave, him al* 
though engaged in drinking wine with his wife*. Although he 

was sullied by the enjoyment of carnal pleasure, ^ifi^tngjiitiHir 
and the company of a woman, and even by drinking wnu* 
still he was regarded (by them) as one having a gr%*il smtl 
(22 23). Nor did that great ascetic commit any MM by 
drinking wine like air blowing in the hnttse of a rhnnd&ta 
(24). Drinking wine, that one conversant with Vt^a (tntc'timl 
austerities in the company of his wife. That ma 4rr tif 
Yogis was worthy of being contemplated by thrift 
of emancipation 


1 HE SON said : Some time after Kritavirrya had 
to heaven, the citizens together with the cmindllwH and 
priests called his son Arjuna with a view to innMli him on th<s 
throne and he then said: "I shall not govern my king- 
dom, ministers, which leads to hell, If that for whit It a 
king takes revenues is not done it for nothing (t .a). 

By giving over to the king a twelfth of their |jro<*t<fih the 
merchants can go along roads protected by the police from 
the robbers (3). The cow-herds give a sixth part of the 
clarified butter, whey or whatever they get and iht cultivator 
also a sixth. If they give more than the share and if the 
king accepts it from traders, it leads to the destruction of 
hktka and Purtha acts and that king acts like a thief (45), 
If they, having paid their reveaue, are by 



the king, receiving the sixth part of the outturn as revenue, 
certainly goes to hell (<5). This has been fixed by the former 
sages as the remuneration of the king for protecting them j 
if lie fails to protect them he becomes guilty of theft (j), If 
therefore, by practising hard austerities 1 can attain to the 
state of a Yogi which f wish, I shall he the one king of the 
earth endued with tin* power of protecting the world (8) ; 
hearing arms, honored by all and gifted with prosperity. I 
shall not make me a sharer in sin (9)." The son said : - 
Learning his derision^ the* highly intelligent and elderly 
aacetic by nam<* (urg-i, seated in UK: midst of the: mintHter*, 
said (to*. **!f for governing your kingdom well, you wish to 
do this, O prim:**, th**n listen to my words and act according 
to Ihum (u), Worship, (.) king, the great Dattaireya, a 
refuge unto all, \vho K ' living in thr* valley <>f the Sahya 
mountain, protrets th<" thrrr worlds; iwiwrs*d in Yoga, 
nobl*, impartial tmv.ud all*, t po(iMi of Vishnu, inr.arnattnl 
on <*.mh tur irlfMMiij* the world; adoiin;; whom thi thousand* 
eyed tlfily (fndf.i) n^iiiii i! hi' own nUfimi rohhed by tins 
wickt!(lMiuli*il iKiity*^ ;itl slow tho nm\\ <( Dili' 1 (014) 

* Au|UM^ Hiid , .-" Huvv did tin 1 i 4 *Irsiiiil'; aclim t!m power- 
ful D.ittUrryit f How !M V.t^iva rrg^in the dignity of Indra 
whuli h;itl >nn rthhr*il (by tht* Dtity.t*) T (151 

(fAUtiA ,saitl ' " Ilifi'i* ;uoi it dnviftil huil<? htttwiutn the 
cdf*Htlilti ttnd'tht) DAn;iv;iH; llu* lord of the Daityan 
Jitnbtui ami ih;ii of fht* crifMiuU th htislmtitl of Sacht 
(littlnt) (id) Wliilt, fhry wt*n* figliitn^ a r*lfstial year 
p*i*wrd uw;ty and thrn I lie* t**|t*stuitH W*M* dc*f*siti'd and 
tlu? I ciintt nil vk'torimt<i (i/L Then drfi*,iti*d by this 
IMiuVtiti and cUj>n**4M*d on atvount ol tho MHTI*SH of the 
^ the c*cl*Htials liontled by Vijiracliim .iddirsMd tin in- 
tar ilyttij* (iX). Ih^irtniH ot roalin.; the 

f 4 

t it 

Ir t't 


host Vrihaspati came there and began to consult with 
Rishis called Valikhilyas (19). 

VRIHASHPATI said : " You should with devotion gratify 
the great ascetic Dattatreya, the high-souled son of Atri ol 
uncommon ways' (20). A giver of boons a* he is, he will 
confer one for the destruction of the Daityan and then the 
deities all assembled will slay the Daityas and D&navas" (21). 
Garga said:- Thus addressed the celestial* then repaired 
to -the hermitage of Dattatreya and saw the high-Routed 
(ascetic) in company with Lakshmi hymned by the Gan- 
dharvas and engaged in drinking wine, Going there th**y 
bowing prayed to him for effecting what ought to be done 
(2223). They sang his praises and provided meat;*, drinks 
and garlands for him. The celestials waited whn h waited 
and 'moved when he moved. And when he sat on the cushion 
they worshipped him, having seated themselves biilow (24), 
Dat&treya then said to the celestials who bowed to him 
11 What do you expect of me that you are serving me thtist 11 
(25). The deities said i^O foremost of ascetic*, by the 
demons headed by Jambha invading the three world* we 
have been deprived of Bhur, Bhuva &c , and of til our 
in sacrifices (26). We pray for your grace; concert 
plan, god, for their destruction and our safety so that 
we may regain the celestial region" (37), Datt&treya 
said. "I am addicted to drink and am impure*! sin not 
master of myself. Why do you, celestial^, expect from 
me a defeat of you enemies 11 (28), The deities said : <f 
sinless one, thou art the lord of one utuver*e~-n0 impurity 
can attach to thee whose mind has been washed and purified 
by learning resplendent with the rays of knowledge (29)* 
Dattatreya said: "True it is celestials, that I, looking 
pcm ail things with impartiality, have kn0w)edge-but 
associating with this woman I have been sullied (30). The 
association with a woman being bent on enjoyment leads to 
iixquity." Thus addressed the deities again said (31). " O 


foremost, of UK* twlcfr-horn, this sinless mother of the universe 
is never polluted like the rays of the sun equally touching 
a twice-born one and a Chandila" (32), Qargt said : There- 
upon being thud addressed by the deities Dattltreya, smiling 
said to the celestials : * " If this be your opinion, (I celestial*, 
then Inviting alt the Daityas to battle speedily bring then! 
within the raR of my vision (33- 34). Being smi by me 
and having their strength and energy enfeebled by the fire 
t)f nty looks they alt* numberless m they are, will meet with 
destruction 11 (35). Hearing his words the mighty Dattyas 
Were challenged to light by the cHestia!s and in anger ntsfwl 
gainst them (^fi), liHng slain by those* Daityas, the celes- 
tials, stricken with fear, all apfcftdily went to the hermitage 
of Datt&treya seeking his protection (37)* Slaying the 
Celestials the H.iityns ton entered ihnrc and saw the greatly 
powerful and hi^h-sottlf?d H,itt.;ltr* A ya ( t |H); with his wife 
seated it thi? Ii*ft, the welfare and the wishcd-for of the 
entire tiiiivt^rne, hentttiful of alt limba -Lakshmi, having a 
moon-like*, rountcnanro ; fjij). with btMtififul eyes like the; 
petals cif a hhtr-tottH, with ^rnrt*fiit hips and ImMst, jtpetfkinff 
In words nud endiiini with all thr accomplishments of 

a female (40). nHwidutg httr kinfore thctin the Dairyaa hid 
their mtndM Ntiiiken with denlra; and thus assailed they 
Could not wiili a paticnit miml Iwar th rtKtttg (desire) (41)* 
Leaving off (heoHestmH thy having their ertergy erifeeblcd, 
became desirous of stcattng Unit cltmHet ; HUM! fed (by deiir<t| 
and ovttrwhelmed by tn, they tlitin Maid: -(42). fl If we 
can necurc thin }rwctof a damsel, tint essence of the three* 
World*, wi* %ft ( il! llif*n he* crowned with U(Te,ss-"-t*ven thin if 
our conviction (,|3). Then plariiig her on n palaiujtitn, you 
the of lhi celesti.Urt, let im .ill ffo to our hahftations 

thll In our determitmtion 1 * (44), I^wsrsHrd by desire they 
tbuft amount themsilvs, Tlu-n placing the chaste* 

damsel on a fiatamjum and ejirryinjj it on their heads tht 
ttiui UanavuH, availed by lmt, ptocecdcd 


their habitations (45 46), Then smiling DatUUreya t# 

the celestials : "Fortunately you will prosper; since Lakshmi, 
passing by the seven other places, has got on the heads of 
those Daityas, she will seek a new man 11 (47), The deities 
said :*" Tell us,- lord of the Universe, stationed in whafc 
places she confers what fruits upon men or brimgs about their 
destruction" (48). DattStreya said : -"When placed on tht 
loot of a man she confers upon him a house ; when on the 
fcbigh she gives clothes and diverse riches (49), When 
placed at the organ of excretion she gives wife and when 
on the lap she -gives offspring ; and, when in the heart she 
gratifies the desires of men (50), When the best Lakshmi 
is placed on tfie throat of those endued with prosperity she 
gives an? ornament of the throat, union with beloved friends 
and wives living in foreign countries,- cultured words, 
.and mkes his commands always carried out- When she* 
sprung from the -ocean, is placed on the mouth she gives tht 
power of a poet -(5152), When she is placed on tha 
head she forsakes (the man) and seeks refuge 
She is now on their heads and will invmediau-i'y renounce 
them (53), Do you all tafce up your weapons and 
those enemies of the celestials. These shooid not be greatly 
feared by you for they have been robbed of their energy by 
me. By ravishing another's wife all their pieties have bees. 
consumed' and their prowess has- been- destroyed (54), There- 
fore those- enemies of the gods- should be killed with 
weapons. While Lakslimi has occupied their heads they will 
meet with destruction. This has been- heard by m n (55), 
Then eulogized by the celestials who were a!!' filled with 
in consequence of the destruction of th* Daityas,- 
leaped dawn (therefrom) and went to the great Dattl- 

ireya (56). Thereupon satettng the intelligent the 

deities, freed from; anxiety as before, repaired to the* celertiak 
fegion (57). If, foremost of kings, you wish to have your 
dcsiBed-for,, mafcchlts wealth, 'do you speedily worship bin. 


1 HE SON said : Repairing to the hermitage of DatUU 
treya at the wards of the Rishi, Klrtavlryya, the king of 
men, adored him with devotion (i). By shampooing his 
legs and otherwise, by collecting honey, etc*, by bringing for 
him garland*, sandal, scents, water and fruits, by arranging 
for his meaht, and taking away the refuses, he gratified the 
ascetic, AH the deities had been addressed by him formerly 
In the same way he said to him (the king) describing him 
as polluted by the drinking of wine: -"This woman Is- 
always hesute mc~~and I have heon contaminated hy her 
company. You should not request me who am incapable. 
Do y<> seek another who is capable," (2- 5). The sort 
said *Tlni8 addressed hy the ascetir and remembering the 
word* of <iarga Ktttaviiyya'n son, Arjuna, bowing, replied 
(6). Arjuna aid s~~ M St.Uiomd in your own illusive energy f 
why da you deiudo me, I) god? You are sinless and like-' 
wise Is the" goddess, the mother of Jilt creatures." (7), There- 
it thuH a<ldri*3Ksi*d nntl d!u;hted, the gocl to the great 
Kftrtaviryya. by whuiii tin* ttntiro earth had been nubjugated 
(8), ** Pruy for a IKHUI, jiinct* you have been able to 
my true farm, I have been greatly pleased with yo% O " 
king (9), their delight I confer wives, 

and wealth upon men who worship me along with 

Laksttftti with and others, with presents 

of wine and ntealitt with and clarified butter ac- 

companied by the* adorations of the Br&hmana*, and 

the charming music of Vift f flute, conch and bugle* And 
I bring about tlwir sudden deaths who disregard me (iO ; li.) 
May betide you ; <lo you pray far a dettircd-for boon ; . 

|y ypur my secret glorias I have bciin ready 10*. 



extend my grace to you (13)* Ktrtavlryya ikl;~ ci ff thou 
art propitiated with me, deity, do thou confer upon mo 
isuch excellent prosperity by which I may protect my 
subjects and he not touched by impiety (14)* I may read 
the intentions of others* may have none to mulch tnc in 
battle and I wish to have a thousand arms and ligtit-hancledt 
fiess (ijQ, I may go v^n obstructed uvery wh4'rf*~~on 
wate^, on earth, in sky and the* notbcr region 
I i^ay meet with death from one who is mightier (than I) 
(16), 4 m^y point out goad ways to them who always 
wend wrong ways and may my guests tit* gnu iiuu) with gifti 
Qf endless riches (17). By recollecting iw Irl im ow 
his property in my kingdom and may I luvr whole min!c*<) 
devotion in thee" (18). DatUtreya iuiitl , -" You \%ilt gat 
^11 the boons you have begged and by my fuvoui you wiH 
he tl\e ItPrd Paran^oftt M (19), The on aicl: llti*ii!ii|tcni 
spiHtiag DattEtreya and summo^ir^ together all hh ubj<*vtn 
h^'^uly received msta ? Hatiori (20). Then by Ihr favour til 
Rattatreya, 'bringing all Articles of Instaliatian came there 
all the leading Qandharvas, Apsarls, the Rtshis ticMili*d by 
^istha, the mountains headed by Wjaru, the rivcm 
hy the Qange?, the oceans full of watew, Plak^ihn and other 
trees, the celestials headed by Vaava, the bird* billed by 
Tirfehya, the citizens and villagers. The celrjitial 

others engaged in conversation with one iioth*r. For 
destr^ctian of impiety and the protection of virtue ht 
was *ns,talle4 by NUr^a in the farm of Uutaiwyn by 

sprinkling of water and by tlia 

the r; V< ers and oceans with 


.. (a6). "Whoever, mm 

shall take up a weapon, from, ta-day and a robber and one 
S njurin others shall be alain by me f! (37). Wltk 

f / hC Plodaroaa ^ hw ^ ~ *> Wdor of wtap,. 

dom save ttat foremost of men gifted wltli great 


prowess (28). He alone was the protector of villages, of 
bttasts, of (kids as well as of the twice-born (29). He be- 
cattie the protector of the ascetics as well as that of traders* 
And that slayor of hostile heroes, us soon as he was thought 
of, used to release people stricken with fear of robbers, 
beasts of pray, fire, or weapons, those drowned in the occean 
or those availed by other calamities (3031)* While he 
ruled the earth no body lost his property. He celebrated 
many sacrifices accompanied by profuse gifts (32). He 
undertook many battles and performed hard austerities, Be- 
holding hi* prosperity mid intelligence the ascetic AngirJl 
iatd: (33). "Forsooth, king* will never he able to equal 
K&rtaviryya in sacrifices, in gifts, in ancoticism and 
energy in battle*/ 1 (34), That king WMM! to celebrate a 
Ice in honor of Datt&troyay on that day on which from him I ; a 

lie- obtained prosprrity (35). And tluu? Inslmltling the great 
prosperity of the kinj* the snbj<<*ts too, with devotion, used 
10 celebrate sacrifices in lib honour (j^f. Such in the glory 
of the intelligent Datt&trc?ya, The incarnationM, of the 

Vishnu, the preceptor of the mobile litid tnuno* 
bile creation, incomparable awd the holder cif the 
bow, conch, inure and club, have b**cm described in the 
PuranSLs (37 .38). The man, who meditate* upon this moat 

form, httcomuH luppy Hurl in fitecl ftrever from 
woridiinesH (39). Why hhuil not men rc*fugf* witfc hint 

: |J 1 am aicainahle uuta the 0! 

Vi&lmu by devotion" (40). For the dentruction of impiety of the deity, without hegt lining or ond 

on the work of and fm'Hrrvation (41). I 

to you the birth of Atatka, Dntt&treya 

Yoga to Itigh'iiciwtttrl royal saint Alatka devot. 
c4 to lib sire (43, 



1 HE SON said c There was a highly energetic king l,i 
the days of yore, by name Shatrujit in whose sacrifice drink. 
Ing Soma Purandara was gratified (,). Hi* son became 
greatly energetic and capable of smiting hi* enemies and 
i intelligence, prowess and grace, was equal to the preceptor 
SukraorAswim (2). The prince was always encircled by 
other princes of equal age, intelligence, energy, prowM .J (3). They sometimes used to engage thrnwelvet 
scnptural discussions, sometimes in the critimm of 
poems, dramas and music, sometimes in the pleasurable, 
game at dtce, sometimes in l earnill g the U8e of , am| ^ 
art of warfare and sometimes in riding elephant.,, hones, or 
dnvng cars (4-5). Thus did the prince, filM wfth 
sported day and night in the company of other 

( ' /^ thCy SP rted te "i -o- 
Kshatriyas and Vai S y as of the same age 
edy jo e d them (/) . Aftef sQme ^ ^ K 

n "^ Came t0 the earth from 
tW y Ulhful and 

J rGinainecl thcrc ' 

Pri " ces and otl >^ Brthmana 

-guents and take their meals ( 



hlVf 0d ' ba 
read scriptures for the 


Improvement of his own self (r4) And without that fugb> 
souled one they too used to spend night in the nefcher 
region sighing heavily and used to come away every day (15) 
After a long time the father asked the two sons : "To whom 
in the region of mortals afe you so attached, my sons? 
(16). You two, beautiful as you are, have not been seen by 
me for many clays during the day time in the nether region, 
I see you only in the night" (17), 

THE SON said :- Thus addressed by their sire and?bowsng 
with folded palms those two great sons of the king of 
serpents respited s (18). "O father, there is a son of Shatrujft 
celebrated by the name of Hritadhwaja, endued with beauty 
and simplicity, h<rroie r honourable and sweet speechect ; ha 
does not #pnk uncalled for, is an expert in speaking, learned' 
friendly and a mine of accomplishments j he honours the 
honourable, is intelligent, modest and has humility for orna- 
irtent ; our minds have been pilforwi by bin good behaviour 
and love ami we have* no attachment, () father, either for the 
region of Niiga* or the region Bhuva (19 jr), In hit 
sepration even tin* nether region not appear cool but 
produces affliction from heat, in hi* company isven tha 
of the sun give (Wight 11 (,). Tha father said : 
is that son of a ptous man whose accomplishments are 
sung even in hi* by accompligh&d beings like your- 

(23) wrJUread in scriptures, (sometime*) 

UumitmlvtiH bad (whereas) there are ignornnt 

who behave well; O my nuns, I consider htnv more blessed' 

who a gornl character us wc?ll us i knowledge, of scrip- 

(14). llln father haft a true son whose friend* speak 

of his qualities as a fnVnd and whose' enemies speak highly 

of his (45 ) For thu satisfaction of the mind of 

fh&t yowf benefnctor, have you ever accomplished hk desired 

? fjfi) % lir ii blctis^l and blessed is his life and 1 

Mrth from whom pmoit*, rx[K*<:ting something! do not ^ 

and who is in doin j 10 

his friettds (27). You can without hesitation confer ttptftf 
him whatever he likes of gold, jewel*, conveyance and 
seats that are in my house (28). Cursed is thr life cif that 
man, who, without returning the benefit of friends doing 
good, thinks, ( I am living" (3(9), People doflttv lor the per** 
petual advancement of that wise man, who, lik a cloud f 
showefs benefits upon his friends and iftjurfrft on emumes" 
(30). 1*he sons said *~ (< What can wet do for him who always 
does what should be done and in whose house persona are 
always united With their desired- for objects (31), \Vhf*te are in 
the nether region those jewels.seats, conveyant^Si elri!S<* and 
ornaments that are ift his house? (3*). The knowledge thttt 
exists ift him is not to be seen elsewhere, (I father, he is 
the foremost of those who sever the doubts erf thft wts<*. (3*3). 
There is ofte thtrtg to be done by him which it in impossible 
for us to accomplish only Brahml, VbhnUi Malu^wara and 
others, eati do it" (34). The father said :~"\Vhtfthcr it Is 
within my power or not I wish 10 hear of that excellent work 
of his, What is there which the learned cannot do? (35)* 
Those who halve a firm perseverence can get by all tfaey 
desire the dignity of a god, that of the of immortalt 

or that which eved they Worship (3(6). For the 
men who have controlled their minds and it 

nothing tinknownable, unapproachable and unattainable 
in this world or in the celestial region (37). While 
on an, ant goes ta the length of a thousand And 1 if he 

does not like to go, Garuda e Veil cannot stir out t 
(38). There is nowhere to ga or not to go for Soactif^ men. 
Where Is the earth and the region' of Dhruva, which the' 
king tfttanaipada's SOB Druva attained to although living on 
earth (39). Tell me, O sons, therefor* what you can ck 
for the great prince by which you may be from hi* 

debt" (40), The sow said * "What had befallen that one 
* good conduct ft his boyhood was described by that high*. 
souled ote, O father (41), <0to came to the king Slittr^il 


a 1 fading and prosperous twice-born one by name Glava, 
taking an excellent horse (42). He said to the king : 
"Coming to my hermitage, O king* a sinful wretch of a demon 
is devastating it (43). Assuming the forms of a lion, elephant 
and of other small wild animals day and night he uselessly 
so obstructs me who am inmerscd in concentration and medi- 
tation and am observant of the vow of silence, that my mind 
is agitated (44- 45.) I ant capable of consuming him imme- 
diately with the? fire* of anger, but I do not like to waste, 
king, my hard earned austerities (46). O king, once on a 
time, being distressed by him, whilst I wan sighing heavily with 
a depressed heart on seeing that demon, thin hor*e was im- 
mediately dropped down from the sky and words were uttered 
not by bodily beings, Hear them, (4748)* "To you is 
given this most excellent horne, which, without exertion* m 
capable of going round tht* circumference of the entire earth 
along with the mm (49) It shall have its course unobMructfttl 
in the nether region, in the firmament or in the water and 
and ittt motion shall not be broken even while going to all 
the quarter* or the mountain* (50). Since it i* of 

going round the circumference of the earth- without ill 

any exurtion it nhall he known on earth by the name of 
Kuvalnya (51), O foremost of the twice-born, riding on this 
borne Hritadwaja, llu* son of the king Sfttrujit, shall destroy 
that tunful wri*icli of it demon who in dtntresning you day 
and night. Ami obtaining thin jem of a horse he will be 
well-known through it (5253).'* For this 1 have come to 
you ; subdue him, O king, who throws impediments in the 
way of aftcatictam, A king too in entitled to a due share of 
merit (54), I dedicate, O king, this jem of a horse to 
yott. Do you order your mm *to that virtue may not dis- 
appear" (55), At liis words the vtrtuous*HOu!cd king, placing 
his noil Hritftdwaja, on that ]m of a home and performing 
benedictory ntets despatched him with Gllava* Taking hicn . . 
tlte too r|j.4trtnl to hi exalted hcuuitayr (56- 57), .. 


1 HE FATHER said : Wonderful is your story, 
tell mo what was done by the prince proceeding along with 
G&lava (li). The sons said ; Residing in the charming her- 
mitage of G&lava the. son o the king removed all the im- 
pediments of those conversant with Brahman (2), That 
wretch of a Danava, beside himself with vanity, ctwM not per* 
cetve that the heroe Kuvalay&awa was living in the hermitage 
of Galava (3), Thereupon, one day, to inflict the Brihrnana 
fialavaj engaged in evening prayers, he came there assuming 
the form of a boar (4), Then the disciples of the 
crying aloud, . the prince, riding quickly on his and 

taking up the bow, pursued the boar (5). And stretching 
Ms strong add beautifully painted bow he struck him. with a 
feow histroiis like the crescent (6). Being pierced by the arrow 
and anxious to save Iris life the beast entered Into a,, 
forest abounding m hilly trees (7), Then spurred on by the 
prince engaged, in satisfying the command of his tether, the 
horse, fleet as. the mind, quickly puisuedhim (8) t Then 

quickly a, thousand yoyanas the boar fell into a pit 0m 
the face of the earth (g), And following him immediately 
tke prince too, with the horse, fell into that huge pit 
with darkness (la). The prince could not see hint : h0 

titan saw the light and nether region, but could not see 
(.11). He saw there a -city resembling that of Ptoran* 
data, surrounded by ratpparts and abounding m a number of 
golden* palaces (13). Entering into that city hit did not see 
cnan-r-and then while retracing his quickly he 

a, d*m,$el (139. Thereat that one of a wai 

by him; " To whom and for what are.yo* * f 

The wel sri BoUiing mi weak up to. : . % (14). 


ing the horse somewhere the prince fearlessly followed 
having his eyes expanded, with wonderment (15). He then 
saw a damsel like Rati, the companion of K&ma, lying on a 
highly spacious hed-stead alt made of gold (16). Her 
countenance wan like that of the moon ; eye-brows fair, 
hips and breast round; her lips were like Vimva fruits; 
she was thin built and her eyes were like red lotuses (17). 
Her nails were dark-blue and a little high ; her body 
was dark-bloc aftd tender and her hands and legs were cop- 
pery ; her thighs were like the trunks of an elephant she- 
had beautiful ti*ath and her curling 1 locks were dark-blue, 
thin and firm net (18). ' Beholding her with evry limb fair 
like the tender crfteper (wife) around the body of the bodiless 
(god of love) the prince took her to be a goddess of the 
nether region (u>). Beholding him too with dark-blue lock$ 
with well-built thighs, arms and shoulders that fair one also* 
took him for Mtuiittui (tin* god of love) (20), Having her 
.mind agitated that nobli! lady, of n lender make, up but 

immediately yielded to the control of bashfulncss, wonder 
(3f} {She thought) fl Who is he ? It he a 
aYalwha, a Gandharva, a gcrptmt, a Viclytclhara orta man 
who pr&ctitttd virtue only that has come here* ? " (22). In-- 
Bulging in thin way in various thoughts, sighing heavily and 
ttingon the earth, that ow% cif inebricte eyes, fell into a 
(13), Assailed by the ttluftn of Cupid the prince too, tp* 
preaching, rtmsolecl her and talcl " Do not faar f * (24), Taking 
up a palmyra fan, the damftet* who had beforfe by 

the higfi-ifiiiletl one, to fan her anxiously (25)* Then 

her he enquired into the of her trance t'Ua 

a little every thing through her 

companion dtieribeci to the prince at length, that 

the trawx* awing to her swiping him, an she had 

ComniHHioticid by hr mwtrs (27). The woman 
41 princt% *4e is the daughter of the kig of timulbftrvitft 
living in the ct*k*liil rt^ion celebrated by tin: imtiii, 1 tf 



Visbawavasu. This one, of fair eye-brows, Is known an 
Madalasl (38), .The fierce Dinava, capable (if riving the 
enemies, known as PSUUaketu, the son of Vajrakrtti, liveg } 
the nether region (39). When she came to the ganlrit with* 
out me that vicious-souled one, resorting to his illusive 
energy begotten of darkness, carried her away (joX The 
Asura shall espouse her on the thirteenth lunar dny. He do<*$ 
not deserve this fair one as a Sudra is not entitled to read 
the Vedas (31), While at the end, of the day thift lady wan about 
to lay violent hands upon her own life Surabhi Ktirl in her : . 
".The wretch of a DSnava shall not be able* to get you. (jal 
O great lady, the one, who will pierce him with shafts when 
gone to the region of mortals, shall soon hcmmr your 
husband. (33). I am her loving companion by name 
Jundaja, daughter of Vindhyavln and the wife of VwrapttMh* 
..karanaiUn, (34). My husband being slain by Shumhha I am 
..observing a vow and bent upon going to tlm m*xt world 
roaming about from one shrine to another by virtue of my 
celestial gait, (33). The vidoqs-soulrcl FiillnkHu, ,tHiu- 
minor the fprm of a boar, has been pierced with nn arrow by 
ome one for protecting the ascetics. (36), For I^nrninf 
the truth I have come here speedily, for certain that wretch 
of a Daqava has been struck by some body. (37), Listen, 
,pow to the cause of her falling into a trace. O confarrar of 
honors, from the very moment she saw you nhe Ml in 
love with you, (38). You are like the on of a god and 
gifted with sweet speech and other accomplishments She U 
th$ wife of that one by wham this Dftnava has bean pfcrctd. 
(39)- For this .rafton..she has fallen into a great trance* 
Will this spare.fettUt. damsel go through HMotig raeniriw? 
(4Q). She has been attached to you whereas another will be 
kerh^band and then her misery will last for life; Surabhi'A 
woud c,an neyer be otherwise. (41), I have been stricken with 
^rjef, lord, For my love for her t have come here : thi*re 
? HQ particuU44i%rence between one** own, body and 


10 T 

companion (42), If this fair one can get a desired-for 
heroic husband, I can then carry on my hard austerities with 
a mind shorn of anxiety (43). O you great one, who are 
you and for what have you come here? Are you a deity, 
a Daitya, a Gandharva, a Pannaga or a Kinnara ? (44). For 
such is not a human body nor can he come here. Do you 
therefore speak to me the truth as I have told you" (45), 
KuvalaySshwa *aid:~ "You have asked, me, O you conver- 
sant with virtu**, who I am and for what I have come. Listen, 

you of unsullied understanding, I shall relate all from the 
very beginning (46), I am the son of the king Satrujit, 
Despatched by my Hire, O fair one, for protecting the 
asceticH I came to the hermitage of GSJava (47). White 

1 engaged in protecting the ascetics of pious observances 
some hotly, assuming the form of a boar, came to obstruct 
them (48). Being struck by me with an arrow resplendent 
like the crescent he ilod away tjtuekly and, I on horse back, 
followed him (49)* Bath hi* and my horse all on a sudden 
fell into a pie. And L on horse hack, alone roamed about in 
darkness (50). Then while I got light I saw you. But 
when asked hy me you gave no reply (51), Following you 
then I entered into this most excellent palace. I have thug 
spoken to 7011 the truth I am neither a god nor a Dftnava j 
(52) nor a Pannftgit, nor t Gandharva nor a Kinnara, you 
of pure smile*. All these deities and! others, KundalS, air- 
worthy of my veneration. I am a man and you should not 
fear me 11 (53). 

THE SONS said -.Then filled with delight that damsel 
inert with bashfutneiw* She kept on the most 

beautiful countenance of her companion and could not 
anything else (54), Her companion (Kimdaia) delighted 
with hearing that all thai he said was compatible with the 
worctnof Sttrftbhi, replied. Kundakl snid (55). <4 O hero, you 
ha vi* #pnk*n thi* truth there Is no doubt, about your word** 
not go ebewhere* Seeing you she has 


pacified (56). Supreme grace refuge with flje moon, 

the rays with the sun, prosperity with the lucky, endurance 
with the hcroe and forgiveness with the good (57), On* 
doubtedly that sinful wretch of a Dtnava has been struck by 
you. Why should Surabhi, the mother of ktne, speak false- 
hood? (58) Blessed and fortunate is she by having yo 
near her ; do you, O hero, duly perform what should b* clone 
now" (59). The sons said :*0 father, th primv then 
to her;-*-*'! am not my master; how can f <*spcms<* this 
damsel without obtaining permission ? ft (Ktmdnift .suitl) :~ 
Don't speak like this* She is really the daughter of a gmi 
Marry her." Thus addressed by her he agreed to marry her, 
af(JKbndal)then thought of Tumvuru, her family prif**t. flu too, 
'sfor his love for MadalasS and reverence* for KundalA, imm<!* 
,^diately came there with Samit and AV/jrf In his hamk 
' Lighting up fire, offering oblation consecmtrtl with Mitntr**, 
performing the benedictory rites, and cflubratinu duly the 
, nuptials of the girl that intelligent (ascetic) repaired 
; to his hermitage for carrying on his asceticism (fio 64). She 
(Kundala) then said to her companion < f I have bc*i*n atlnfic4 
fair one, seeing' you, beautiful as you aro, connrcted with 
him (65). Now with- an undisturbed mind 1 gtiall 
in matchless austerities. I shall have my sins washed by the 
water of the holy river and then I shall not be so again (66)." 
She then, desirous of going away, bending low with humility 
and with words suppressed by the love for her companion, 
said to the prince (67). Kundala said ."Even men cannot 
induct persons like you, you of matchless wisdom, how 
can women ? So I do not impart instructions upon you, (68). 
But my heart has been attracted -by love for thi youthful 
damsel and you too trust me. Therefore -I do remind you, O 
*%er of enemies (69) , that a husband should m*iaUin ' 

4 pokecthis wife. A wife always helps a husband in the 
actaiwweat of virtue, profit and desire (70). When n Inwbtm! 
a*d a .wife ate .attached to each other then is the union of 




three-fold objects, namely, virtue, profit and desire 
(is brought about) (71), How can a man, O lord, acquire 
virtue without wife or how can he get profit or desire- for 
these three are established in a wife (72.) And in the same 
way a wife, without her husband, k not capable of acquiring 
virtue etc for the accomplishment of three fold objects i# 
Dependant upon the conjugal relation (73), O prince, 
without wife a man cannot adore the gods, the ancestral 
rnaaes, the servants and the guests (74), In the absence 
of a wife or when united with a bad wife, the wealth, even 
when acquired by men and brought to their house, is spent 
away (75). It is directly son that men cannot accomplish 
their desired for objects without wives. The husband and 
wife, when, they jointly carry on pioun observances, attain to 
three fold virtues (7(1)* AH a man satisfies his ancestral 
manes with offspring, the guests with food and the immortal* 
with adoration, HO with all these should h protect his chaste 
wife (77)* The wife too, without her husband, cannot 
acquire, virtue, desire, wealth and offspring for the*e three- 
fold follow only the conjugal, relation (78). i 
thus this to you both. I shall now go to my wished lot 
place. Oo you advance with her in prosperity, ami 
happineft* (7*)). 

TUK SONS said :~! Living said thin, embraced her com- 
panion and ttuluttul him, ht% with br cple*tinl motion! 
where kh? liktxl (Ho)* Having placed her o the 
whlh Satrujit's son wan about to come out of the nether 
region, the tff*prtng, of Datui, informed of it, all on a sudden 
cried tint :~ f< He b *tcaling ;tw;iy that jem of a girl which 
h$d b^cn brought from h^.tv^ii by Pfttillaketu (Hi- ^8a)* 
Then with Partghiw, NishtringH!m9 f macc*s, darts, arrows and 
other weapon* the hot of th Dftnavan came a'ong 

with (Sj), Thni exclaiming "Wait! waitj" 

those leading D&mwat* tnadt* a downpour of arrows and 
darts upon tlie prince (84). Then the highly powerful o 



df Satrujit easily, as if smiling, sundered all tlmse weapoiui 
with a network of arrows (85). Cut into pieces by his arrows 
the mass of swords, Saklis, Hrishthis and daggers of (the 
Daityas) covered, in no time, the surface of the nether region 
(86). Then taking up the weapon Tashtra lie discharged 
it at the D^navas. By it, greatly fierce like a garland of 
flames, all the D&navas, with Pt&laketu, were consumed, 
with their bones reduced to ashes like the sons of Sagam 
by the energy of Kapiia (8788). Having slain the leading 
Asuras, the prince, on horse back in company with that jem of 
a female, went to his father's city (89). 

Having saluied him he communicated to liis father ali- 
bis going to the nether region and meeting with Kundalft (90)? 
his obtaining Madalasli, his encounter with the Diuavan, their 
destruction by arms and as well as his return (gi) Hearing 
of the adventure of that one of a charming disposition bin 
father 1 was exceedingly pleased ; then embracing his son he 
said to him son (92), "Worthy and high-souted as you are, 
son, you have redeemed my promise and releaved from 
fear the ascetics practising their own pious observances (93). 
The fame, that had been established by my forefathers, and 
had been spread by me, has been magnified by you, 
heroe, endued with prowess as you are (94), The 
who" does not destroy the fame, wealth or prestige *cqu*r$d 
by his father, is considered as of mediocre worth (95). And 
the wise designate him as the best of men, who, by virtue 
of his inherent might, increases the influence (96;. And 
that one, who decreases the wealth, power or fame acquired 
by bis father, is called the worst of men (97), 1 had 
rescured Brlhmanas as you have done ; but you have, 
my son, foremost of men, in addition to this to the 

Aether region atid destroyed the Asuras (98), are 

you therefore, my son ; and obtaining you who have 
excelled "all in virtues I ant 1 worthy of being applauded even 
by the virtuous (99). The man, who is nol excelled by his 


son in generosity, wisdom and prowess does not experience* 

me-thinks, the joy of having a son (ico).' Oh fie on the 
life of a man, who is known in this world through his father 
and blessed is his birth who, through his son, obtains fame 
(101). He, who is known through himself, is fortunate, he 
who Is known through his father or grand-father is middling 1 
but the worst of all is the man who gains renown through 
his mother or maternal relations (102). Do you therefore, 
my son, flourish in riches, power and happiness. Never 
do you forsake this daughter of Gandhnrvas" (103), Haviitg 
thus addressed him repeatedly with many sweet words ancl 
embraced him the father sent his son along with his wife to 
his house (104). And in company with hia wife he 
to sport in the palace of his father m well as in other place*, 
in garden*, wood* and slopes of the mountains (105). 
Saluting the feel of her father-in-law and mother-in-law every 
morning, that fair and youthful dams*;! disported wklt 
him (106). 




UK SONS saUI ; --Then after a routmteirnhta time tfir 
ling addrenfted hi* son 4I Go now and wander over 

the world for the deliverance of Urn Brahmanas (i). 

Mounting; on thii horse, in the morning you should, every 
day, be intent upon ever *eeing that the leading Brfthmanas 
rony not meet with obstacle* (2), There are hundreds of 
wicked born from sinful sources, Do you o act 

that the may not meet with hindrances from them (;$. 

Then the did as he commanded by his 


> awn, <u 

cany part oi the day 
ranged over the entire earth and then al u ted the f, :et J 
his sire; and the remaining portion of the day he passed 
merrily with the dainty-waisted damsel (45). I t 80 ha p peij 
*d that once on a time while he was passing a l ong the bankg * 
^ the Yamuna he espied Patalaketu's younger brother 
Talaketu, who was living in a hermitage at that place (6) 
That Danava, of illusive power fl| remained there ** mm i ne 
the form of an ascetic. Remembering former eneroity he 
to the prince ( 7 ). prince, if you wi 9 h, do what I 
tell you ; O you of truthful vows, you should not disregard the 
prayer of one (8). For acquiring virtu* I shaj , cd :, brate * 
wnfice and sha.l also perform the / M . For thi. I shall 
have to make necessary fires but I have no sacrificial present 
to g-e ( 9 , Therefore for my gold, give me , O heL, the 
ornament that * around your neck, and protect my 
Wn-Uge so long I do not come back 8pee dily ( a her havin/ 
under water propitiated the deity Varuna, the ford of 

^prince s^ing co.erred 

by ! 


and with tears ici its eyes, neighing distressfully it 

carried off by that wicked (30). This has been wit- 

nessed by me, heartless and wicked as I am. After this you 
should do what ought to be dome at this juncture (21), Da 
you also take this neck or tit men fc capable of giving solace 
to your heart. What shall we ascetics do with gold? 11 (22)* 
The sons continued :* Saying this and throwing the ornament 
on the earth he went away s he had come. And then all, 
filled with grbf ml pogsensed by trance, fell down on earth 
(23). And Immediately regaining consciousness all the 
of the king's tttraglb, the quoeti and the king, stricken 
heavily with grief, began to bewail (34). Beholding that 
neck ornament and tit-taring of tho death of her husband, 
Maclalasl at once rttnounccul her life (35)* And there 
a great noie of !%meiiutk>ntt in tin? haunts of the citizens 
find in the palace (2(1), itfholdiitg Madalasft dead from the 
separation of her husband, the king, gaining hin mental equili- 
brium by his judgment> to all the people :* (37). ** You 
should not mourn. I perceive the unreality of all, 01 
and of alt connected with me Should I for my 

daughter-in-law ? To it property of 

ihouldl lie mourner! for they done their duties (29)* 

Having himself in tite protection of the 

la of my command my son with his 

Why (therefore) that intelligent one be mourned (30) ? 

While he ha* Iti* body, body which must 0, 011 

of the twice-born, il will forsooth to his well-being 
(31), This one in a family has followed her 

Why ilia be mourned ? A woman has no 

god but (33). If she had survived her husband 

she an object of pity to ourselves, oyr friends 

and to other people (33), Hearing of the 

destruction of her husband thi* lady immediately followed - 
Urn* Why *he be mourtu*d by the wise ? (34). 


wefmen who suffer from the loss of their husband* .should ht 
mourned and not they who die with them. This grateful lady- 
had not to suffer the loss of her husband {3;}, flow can A 
woman . consider her husband as a man who in the dispenser 
of happiness of both the worlds, here and htr*aftr (36)? 
Thereupon neither - he, nor this lady, nor I, nor his mother 
should be mourned. Having given his life far flu* interest 
of the Brahmanas he has saved us all (37), Having given 
tip his half nourished (youthful) body my noble son ha* 
liberated himself from his debts to the Brfthmana*, to virlttw 
and to myself (38). Having cast off his life in butt If fur the 
protection of the twice-born he has vindicated his own 
herpism, his mother's chastity and the purity of my r;ic* |ff|), 
. THE SON said; Hearing of her fli^tim turn nic{ 

beholding her husband, Kuvalay4shwa'mol!w*r followed her 
husband (40), Saying; " king, neither my mother nor 
my sister experienced, such a joy a I have clone cut hearing 
of the destruction of my son for the protection of the nsrette* 
(41), In vain did their mothers bear them who die, ft^ttlal 
by deseases and sighing sorrowfully before their Irirndn (42), 
But those, who while fighting fearlessly for the imitwticm of 
the kine-and the twice-born are wounded and die, are realty 
men on earth (43). The father, of a man who dm* <,t turn 
away from suitors, friends and tsncmfoi, has indeed a mm lit 
him and his mother has borne a hero (44). When fu-r *<m ii 
either victorious in battle or slain in battle the mother limit 
considers the misery of carrying a child crowned mill* good re. 
wit (45)-" The sons said;~The king then p^rformm! thi* tain** 
raitfcftcques of his daughter-in-law; then toiling out ho 
and offered w^ter to his son (46), Ttlakatu, too coming 
out of the water of the Yamuni, naicl to the prince the* follow, 
u sweet words h love (47), Go f O prince, ! haw got th 
KfMipliBbment of my object through you. You havinff 
waittd here steadfastly I have been abfc to accomplUh tuy 
Jo^ .checiahed work (48), t u e wril}ce of v |||c y ^ 



king of waters. All this which I had desired has 
been carried out (49)." Then saluting him the king mount- 
ed his steed gifted with the vigor of Suparna or the wind an<J 

repaired, to the city of his father (50). 






1 HE SONS said ;Tht!ft reaching his own city hastily 
desirous of fainting tin* fret of his father and beholding 
Maclalajl thr print: aavv the people filled anxiety and their 
faces betraying madness. And immediately he found them 
overwhelmed wit.h wonderment and their face** indicated 
joy. He *aw acme olhern with eyetn expanded exclaiming 
"Luck! Luok ! *'; awl ^making to one anothor in joy they 
said ** Long live, O you of atispkioustiesi* your 

ettemicH nn:<st with dentruction, do you gluddtfti the hrnrti 
of your parent* and free WH from anxiety 11 (i- 4). Say- 

ing thin they * 4 iit ire led him on hi* front and rear. And 
fcxpt'rieftcing inHtantanc*ouH joy hi* entered lib father** houw 
(5)* Embracing hint hin au*pic*iDUd mother^ father mud lib other 
relations conferred upon him (6)* Saluting him 

filler] with surprise h anked his father lf What is thin mil, O 
father/* lln loo dcHcrihinl to him every thing (7), Then 
hearing of the drmbc of lib beloved consort Madalutit aiui 
se^Itijj hii |KirontH before him he sunk in a mm of 
in d sorrow (H). H thought i* 11 Hearing of my death 
l*uly g*iv up her cxiilcnce, Oh fm on my 
heart (<>), 1 am h<wtt!<*ss and Ignoble, Shamt:I<*HH a 
I tin aliv without that one of the eyes of u drcr who, lot tw*, 
with dcuth (to). Tlu?n condoling hb mind uu! dtiving 




thought (n). " n I resign my utc oceanic sue is oa 
on my account, what good can I do to her ? This Is applatt* , 
ded by the females (only) (ja). If I mourn poorly exclaim. 
'ing again and again " Oh my dear P this will not lead to my 
praise for we are men (13)- overcome by grief and 
stricken with sorrow I throw away my and besmear 

my body with dirt I shall be the object of the triumph of 
my enemies (14), My duty is to subdue my m& 

serve the king, my father. My life is at hia command, how 
can I give it up ? (15). Then what do 1 consider as 

my duty ? Have I done with enjoying women ? But that 
even will not lead to the well-being of that thin-built (lady) 
(16). Whether good or bad to her I should 
pledge for her. This even is small in as much its ahe ha* 
tip her life for me (17).*' 

THE SONS said :-**Having thus up his mind, lie per* 

formed the ceremony of offering water and other 
-Hritadhwaja again said s (l8) " When that thin-built 
lasa is no longer my wife, no other (w : 0fnan) shall be my 
wife in this life (19)* Excepting that of a Ga 

dharvSL having the eyes of a doe I not with any 

l>ther woman. This is the vow I Leaving that 

my pious wife moving like a she-elephant I nut 

in the company of any other woman* This is the vow I 
take" (21). 

THE SONS said : Then, father, giving up all enjoyments 
m the company of women, in her he to 

beguile his time in disporting with companions 0! the same 
age gifted with excellent character (22), Who is 

father, of accomplishing this great work for him ? Even tht 
'Deity cannot with difficulty do it, , what to of 

.otbets? (23), 

'TttE (INNERT) SON said :**- Hearing their wardi 

their father became sorry* Then deliberating over Hit matter r 


the king of NJgas, smiling, said to his (34) : M If by 

knowing things to be impossible of execution people renounce 
perseverence in action a great injury will be produced from 
the absence of perseverence (25). Therefore without giving 
up manliness a man should engage in actions* The issue 
of an act depends upon the energy of an individual as well 
as on the Divinity (26), I shall therefore so exert in this 
matter that I may in no time come off successful' 1 (27)* The 
(innert) on Haul: Having said this the king of Nagaiv, 
repairing to the sacred spot Plakshavataranacm the mountain 
Himavftn, engaged in hard austerities (28), Then with his 
mind centered in her, restraining his food and bathing during 
three twilights he hymned the goddess of learning, Saraswati 

Aswataru said : - ** Desirous of adoring the auspicious 
who protocu the universe, I, bowing down my head, 
hymn Saraswati sprung from Brahml (30)* All ntntes, real or 
unreal, fraught with profit or liberation, although unconnected 
with theo, t) gldt*hs, appear an being connected with thee (31). 
g(Kldesm thou art the mtpremt* Irtti?r in which all is 
lished. And thin supreme letter pervades tit like an 
(33)* The letter i the Brahman and the 

composed of water, And is lire in wood and ts the. 

atom pervade* the earth so this Brahman as well as the 
entire universe in the. () the lelter Om, the 

and the unstable, the three the 

mi the non-eKbteitt are in thee. The three w0rWs t tho 

Veclip* the of lariiing t the 

the three luintiinti* bodie^! the thret* orders, the kinds of 
norality, the three principlti, th three fruuntJa, the thn*e gcids f 
.the of Iifc> the kind* of tuw% the three 

the day and night all ihw, C) goddeii 

the three which are thy form C) Saras* 

wati {3331)- U ' H by th c utterance given by the f 
goddess, that the iirahmv&din cart perform the seven kinds 
of recitations! original eternal assigned to Homi* 

andi'aica, laid in Brahmanas for persons of diverse cree&r 
there is another supreme form of thine in half measure which* i 
is not represented, which is divine, and not .susceptible of I 
changes, decay or development; this thy supreme form I 1 
cannot describe in words. It cannot be described by mouth 1 
tongue or palate. Indras, VMM, BrahmS, the moon, the , uo ' 
and the other constellations, (are thy forms), fa the<s exist ^ 
abode of the universe, the form of the univwo, the lord of 
the universe, the Great Lord, whatever has bm mentioned 
m Sankhya and Vedanta, and has been nsc.-rtainml !,y var ; oog i 
branches ; whatever is without beginning, middle nr 
whatever is existent and non-existent, whatever {* , 
that which is one, that which is many, that which k the 
of the difference in creation; and that which go,* by ,. 
name of S1X attributes, four objects and whit* i the root cl 
: the three-fold qualities; that which fa th* ,*, of vriou s 
powerful; that which i. happing <>rmi,ry ; ,< 
that is supreme felicity is manifest in the* (t AA\ 

^\^'^' P^" 11 ^^ % 


"' <* 

j* . ^^""*>**>% ftrftHla^n ,J lifjjy 




SARASVVATI said :_ U O king of N.lgas, there are seven 
notes, seven kinds of /fagas* ; seven classes of songs, 
seven Rturchanas^ ; forty nine measures and three 
Gramas%. All this Khali you sing m well an Kamvala, Q sin- 
less omt (5 i~- 5-0* By my favour you will know many other 
things also, C) king of serpent*. And I shall confer .upon you 
a knowledge! of four /Wiis, three Tatas,\\ three* Lnyasft 
six JPW/'v$ and four Toi/fas'**. By my favour, () king of 
tterpents, (you will have a knowledge of) all this or more that Ls 
included in this or is dependent on this and that is related to 
vawds and consonants. All thin lias been exhaustively giveti 
to you an well us tw Kamwila (5355). O serpent, on earth 
and in the* m*tlu*r region, you two shall lie the author* of all 
these- in tin* tu*thor region, the region of gods, on <?;uih, O 
you ju*rjt'nts(;;ft) Thr (inert) Han sui<l : H tvtn^ said thU 
the Ititus-eycd ^uddrss Saiusvvuti, tlu* touj;tu* t>l all, innneili* 
alt ly vanishi*ti h**ni thf virw ol th* Na|;a (57), And an .said 
both the hiothoiK at:{tiirinl all lint knr\vlrd;;c: consummate 
rvfjarclittj; I'^da^ tua*tu<* ami uotc**i (^H|. llsrn stuping by 
notes to Ifit: acrompauimttnt ot ttimt krjtt by nt ringed Iiwtrti- 

* A#i*;ii iiif ur* 

n wf iiMtr'i, ^ 
iy **ttsi if wl 4 

t **A limit t'xi 
b <*tittM't'* 4l f H 

| A *rrir - ul tt 

lnrtnl by 4 

f* HOI rx it fly wtttif t'i tiittlf f ifUitwl hy *iir fi*r wr AVty 
lM r <tf ,tir* AV/*i* tiv N$I In iitutibrr, 
iv*" *tf tlir lull r fcinst ul ilsi* Himltt f *nlr til mtttti? j itrn! 
P t,i vr i tlirin ,t t'Mit fUjMtMitly l^f*ii|y <nir Iliiir/tiifiii^,** 

l^W4 t A fir a Hut t*tf 

f /^ 

ttftd Ahhttgtt iiiiiijt , i^vrry itir HI nil *t 
F M it 'ti* *1 tin** 1 t iM.itM'*, 

I* Tb** nitr^tti *f litM* 1 lli-it iii-4 t 
Iliil tl ili *ii)Mt*ttou I** tlut wbrn if 

(I) Miit/tw l4Mii4l 4 f,! TiAiw **.M f 
^ A 't> J f /! iti -$iii ,* 

** Fttiff !4ii*li i>i iiht *(!'* /'i 

kdf f j,/ # f ljff4jl<n%iii , lit U uuf'o 


4# tlilftl 

It?tt tw<* 

< *t tu 
Th f Ib 

fj) r/i"/ 

the- summit or ivaiiafa, me Dest ot mountaina, toe ciesiroyer of 
Cupid's body with their words and senses restrained and mindt 
concentrated, exerted themselves greatly, morning, night, 
noon' and evening (59 -60). Then after a considerable time* 
the- Deity, having the emblem of a bull on his banner, 
greatly pleased with their songs and said :- "Pray for a hoon f * 
(61). Then bowing to Mahadeva, the sable-throated lord of 
Ural, Ashwatara, along with Kamvala, said; (62.) "O thow 
having six sorts of wealth, O god of gods, O thou havtngthree 
eyes, 'if thou art propitiated with me then do thow confer upon 
us the hoon we pray for (63). O god > may KuvalaySshwa'* 
Wife be bom as my daughter at once, attaining to the 
age (64). May she, endued with the same beauty, and the 
recollection of her -pristine birth, be born in my house as & 
Yogini and Yogamlta (the mother of illusion) 65)* 

MAHADEVA said : foremost of Ptntrngas, by my favour f 
. wttat you have said shall all come to Listen to this, () 

serpent (66). At the time of her Sr&ddha, do you, O foremost 
of -serpents, being pure &nd of controlled mind, eat the middle 
. Pinda (67). After you had eaten it, from your middle 
shall that auspicious damsel spring in the form in which 

she -died (68). Cherishing this desire In your mmA do you 
offer water to your departed manes ; and as soon as you will 
sigh that one of fair eye-brows, that auspicious damsel, 
come out from your middle hood and in the ift 

which she died (6gf). w Thereupon hearing this and 
the great deity those two, filled with delight, 
XUsfttata (70). Then- the Ntga, the younger brother of 
Kamvala, performed the Sriddha and as ate the 

middle Pindft (71). Then cherishing that as soon as 

be drew forth a 'sigh there sprang from his middle hood that 
. siender-waisted damsel in the same form as before (73). The 
serf ^jt did not disclose it to any one bat secretly kept thai 
one of iae teeth ia his seraglio guarded by women (?5> 


Every day the two NSga princes, resembling the immortals, 
sported happily with Hritadwaja (74). One day the snake- 
king delightedly spoke to his sons : "Why do you not 
do what I had said to you before ? Why, my sons, do you not 
bring to me that giver of honors, that prince* the benefactor 
of yours so that I may reader some good to him ? (75 76}** 
Thus addressee! by their father affectionately they, going to 
the city of their fruuul, sported with that intelligent one (77)* 
Then after having talked on other matters they affectionately, 
invited Kuvalay&uhwa to go to their house (78), The prince 
then said to them " Forsooth this is your house all 
riches, conveyances, clothes aud others are yours as they 
are mine (jg)* O sous of the twice born, if you love me, 
confer upon mo whatever you like of those riches, gems etc* 
(80). 1 have hitherto been di&ippointed by the wicked 
destiny since you do not regard my house as your own (81), 
If you wbh to encotupusH my pleasure, if you wish to favour 
me then consider these tny riches and houat: ;u yours (82). 
Whit is yours is mine ami what is mine is yours. Know this 
Cor certain, and you two are my life moving 
(83). Never O of twtcc-born of 

inch a difference* fr'or love for me lit favourable* I 
you. on my life* 1 (84). Then with their bathed with 

of from affection 

two princes mid to the son : (8586). " O 

Hritadhwaja, there is no doubt in what you hive 

ii our fueling* You need not otherwise (87), 
But our liable fattier repeatedly told us " 1 wish to ee 
Kuvalayftuhwa (S3}* 1 * Then up from hit* excellent 

*atti: " My father has said 11 and then, 
law to the ground. 

KUVAUWASHWA saiil: -" Blessed am I and in my 

. who ii ccjtial 10 me for my father IH eager to see 

me (89)* ii|i I 40 not like? to disregard his commatidi 

' (or a moment ; I by his feet (yo). 11 



(son) said : Having said this the* prince wrnf atvny wirfi 
them. And having issued out of the city th'*y n%nrhd the 
holy Gomati (91). The sons of the* kinf* and N'ta watt 
along the breast of the river. The pi inn* thought il^f |j u ,; r 
house was on the other side of the rivrr f),r% Thin thry 
pulling him' took the prince to the mthrr rrj'iotK Anil there 
he saw the two Naga princes shining with th<* i*iTul';rnc<of 
the gems crowning their crastfand boarmjj auspicious marks 
on their breast (93). Beholding the*m of beautiful pf*r*nnit f 
the prince, with eyes expanded with wonder, sail! smilingly out 
of love: "Well done, foremost of lh twicr bmn" (94), 
Then they communicated it to their father, the king of st'rprntx, 
the gentle Ashwatara, worshipped even of tin* rHrMiaht 
(95). Then the prince saw the nether rcgicni to Iw liihly 
charming ; beautified with boys and youths, old jn*tjtk k and 
serpents, daughters of Nlgas bederkrcl with rar-ringn 
and necklaces, sporting all around as the tky in hratitifird 
with- stars, filled with songs accompanied hv tin* music of 
flutes and Vinos, with the sounds of AfrMtiuga*, I % anntwtts 
and Atodyas and abounding in hundred* of beautiful hmws 
(9697). Casting his looks upon the nether region, that 
subduer of foes, the son of Satrujtt proceeded along with 
those two loving serpents (98). Then they all ontcrod tlu/|wlace 
of the king of serpents and saw the great king seated there 
with excellent garlands and dress, adorned with fiir-rin|{s net 
with gems, bedecked with chains of trmiHp.wnl pNirh that 
great one adorned with armlets, and neatod on a throne 
completely 'made of goldwhose true form had been hidden 
by the effulgence of rubies, sappires and ( W ~io^ 

He was then shown by them, aayihg, Thi i our fathct" find 
then said to their father. < This is the hero Kuvaiayanwa'Xietf). 
Ht saluted the feet of the king of' Nlgai and 
the, king ofNagaa, too, taking him up, embraced him 
wanriy (104). Then smelling bin head he naid :- 
"May yo* %e, long. With your enemici Iaio t may 



you serve your father and mother (105). Fortunate you ai> 
Q my child* for eve.n in your absence my sons speak of your 
extraordinary virtues (iof>). For this you shall grow in 
mind, speech and energy, The.! life of an accomplished man 
is praiseworthy, while one, devoid of accomplishments, Is dead 
even \vh j n alive* (107). Knrompassing the satisfaction of hist 
parents and giving pain Co his enemies, a meritorious man, 
placing his eonlioVnee in f*fe*tt men, secures his own well- 
being (108). {Vlest.iaK departed mnnes, relatives, Brah- 
manas* friends, suitors and maimed persons all \vLsh for the 
long life of a mi*nt.oriou,s person (tfq). Blessed is the life, of 
an accomplished man. desisting from calumny, cherishing 
kindness for all and giving shrltcr to the distressed" (no), 

The ( innl ) MJII continued;- -Having said thus to the 

hcroe, the srprnt di-Nirous of ontertaininj*; KuvalaySinhwa, 
spoke to his sons (ni). M Having finished <iur hath ant! 
Other arts duly, drunk wine, <*jy*d other pleasures and 
taken our meals after our heart we shall, \vith delighted hearty 
spend Home tinio with Kuv;tl.iy*ishwi, in eonversation n*s*in* 
bling the (itHiivity of hiMrt (MJ 113)," Siitnijit 1 * scut *ilen- 
tly agreed to that. And tin* noble of king m,?rptmts ncteti> 
accordingly (114), Tht*n that Heir-controlled nnd the truthful 
king, of the |mwt.M'fui ^ftrprnt^ in the company of hh *on 
-. and Hit! priiice, ate and drank, enjoying the climax of 


KA (inert) wild : After that high^wiled king, of 
those* living on ;tir,h*!.d fttik!i**d In** m^al?*, lie wnn adtinHl by- 
'fcw * f 4? well m by the? prince (i). 1'hnt ihr grrat 



with delightful words pleased the friend of his song ami 
said : (2). " You should, O gentle one, renouncing all mis- 
givings, who have come to my house, tell me even as a son 
speaks to his father, what I can do for you (3), Tell me 
What would you have, even if it be hard of obtain ment silver 
gold, raiment, conveyances or seats" (4). Kuvalayashwa 
s,aid :r-" By your favour, I have gold in my father's house. 
I have never felt the want of any such article (5). My father 
having ruled over the world for a thousand years and yourself 
over the nether region my mind has never been bent oa 
solicitation (6). They are worthy of heaven and religious 
merit, who, their father living, consider in their youth, a koti 
of coins as chaff (7). My friends are of the same tempara- 
ment with me and my body is free from diseases My 
father is gifted with wealth and I am with youth ; what then 
have I not? (8). A man, having no wealth, has his mind bent 
upon begging. But myself having enough why should my 
tpngue beg? (9). Blessed are they who depend on the 
shade of their father's arms without thinking whcthere there i 
wealth in their house or not (10). But they, who having no 
father, from their boyhood are engaged in maintaining their 
relatives, have, me-thinka, been deprived of the taste of 
happiness by the Providence (u). By your favour, out of 
the wealth amassed by my father and given to me, I, accord* 
mg to my desire, distribute riches amongst the suitors (12). 
While I have been able to touch your feet with the jewel 
crestmg my crown and while I have touched your body 1 
have secured all these," ( I3 ). J ara (inert) said ^Having been 
thus addressed with humble words that foremost, of serpent* 
out of love, said to the prince, the benefactor of his sons :- 
(14). "H you do not wish to take jewels or gold from me, 
m me what do you like and I shall confer it upon you 
<*5). Kuvalayashwa replied :-," By your favour, O reverend 
, every kind of object is in my ; I have obtained 
*en m particular from, teeing you d6), I have accom- 


nlished all my objects and my life lias been united with fruits, 
for being a man I have touched your body who is a 
(17). While the dust, of your feet, has been placed on mjr 
head, what have 1 not attained, O king of serpents ? (18). 
And still if you wish to confer upon me a desired for boon* 
let it be that the inclination for the performance of pious 
acts may not leave my mind (19). Conveyance* 

gold, jewels, precious stones, wife, drinks, sons, 

beautiful garland*, perfumeries, song, music of instruments 
md all cither desired for things, I think, are but the 
of the tree of piety (2021). Therefore every self~con~ 
trolled man should water the roots of piety ; there is nothing 
difficult of attainment to those who are devoted 10 virtue** 
(22), Ashwataro said: " O wise man, your mind 
be inclined in this way to virtue. Truly AS you have said, 
such Is the fruit of virtue (23), Still having come to my 
house you must accept something which you like and which 
cannot be secured in the rrgion of men" (24). Hearing his 
the prince hi* looks on the face* of the of 

the king of srrpent* Then bowing, two 

communicated plainly to their was in the 

'of the prince (26). Thy said : "Imposed upon by a wicked- 
touted, vicious And inimical his 

of his destruction, up hey lifethe 

of the Gandharv* kitig t known by the of 

(2728)* Thereat this one faithful (to his wife) thin 

vow "Renouncing I not take to any other 

wife 11 O father, this Hriudhwaj* it to 

a look on her, beautiful of all limbs. If you can cb this you 
will do a service to him (3o). M 

ASHWATAKA iiic! : " White the elements have once 

haw can they b<* united again except In a dream 
or by the illusive energy of Sarnvara" (ji.) 
;. JARA (inert) said:- Then saiuting th* king of serpents 
..Sttrujit's filled with bashfulneas and love, said to . 

me Madalasa created through the power of illusion 

I shall consider it a favour clone to me 11 (33). Ashwatara 

said : "If you wish to behold (her in) illusion, () my child, 

see her. Though a boy, you are worthy of my reverence 
-as a preceptor for you have come to my house'* (34). Jara 

(inert) said: Then the king of serpents brought Maclalatl 
'.protected 'in her house. With a view to deceive them he 

uttered loudly a' number of words (35), He then showed 
the auspicious damsel to the prince. 4 * Is she or not your 
.wife Madalasa, prince"? (36). Ifaholding that sltttidcr- 

inade damsel he, at once throwing off shame, rushed towards 
'her cryirjg " My beloved/ 1 and the Nfiga Ashwatara prft- 
-vented him say ing: -(3 7). " My son, thin is illusion. Do not 

touch her, I have already told you that an illusary figure 
'vanishes as soon as it is touched (38).'* At once he fell down 
fsentseless on earth exclaiming " O my beloved. 1 * The fair 
rone thought (39). "Oh j what gretat affection has the king 
: for me his mind is firm since he, who br'mgs the enemies 
to the ground, lias heen brought clown without weapons (40). 

I have been shown by him (Uie serpent) as' an illusory (figure)* 
-It is evident that an unreal illusion is produced by the 

active energy of air, water, light, earth and ether 1 * (41) 
JARA (the inert sou) said; Then comforting Kuva- 

layashwa the serpent told him every thing regarding the 

revival (of Madalasa) (42). Then delighted on obtaining his 
.beloved (the prince) saluting the Ntga thought of his horse 

which immediately came. Then mounting on it he started for 
-his charming city (43.) 



returned to] his own city he communicated 
.every thing to his father how he had obtained that ^tender 
built damsel after she had died (i). That auspicious lady 
bowed down at the feet of her father-in-law and mother-in- 
law and honoured all her relations with salutations and em- 
braces with reference to propriety and age. And then there 
was in that city a great festivity of the citizens (--'3). And 
Hritadhwaja too, for a long time, sported with that hlender* 
waistcd damsel near the fountains of the mountains, the 
banks of the rivers, in charming; for<?sts,as well as gardens (4), 
Atul desirous of spending h:r religious merit through Out en- 
joyment of desirable objects she sported with thai {{really be- 
loved one at charming plucks (5). After a long time the king 
Satrujit, having governed well the enrth, breathed his 
(6). Thrn the cituens installed, it* king* his mm llritadhwajit, 
high-gouted and of liberal actions and conduct (7)* And while 
he wai governing well hii itubjgcU as if they were his 
own begotten children Madalusi birth to her first son 

.(8), The father gave to hi* intelligent son the name of 
Vikrlntii. Tttu i*ervt*nU w^re greatly delighted and Mada* 
' Its! Iiisghecl (9). Out day white her baby, lying at on 

her tap, wa crying in indistinct notei, Madala8ft by way of 
soothing him, ftaid (10) "Them art pur<% O child, and without 
a name, It is by imagination that a name has been given to 
thee. This thy hody composed of five elemental IH not thine* 
Nor do!*t thou betwg to it* Wherefore clout thou ? 

(u). Or perhaps thou clost not weep^This m a self produed 
sound coming out through the king's son, Various cjualitles, 
or bad, relating to the elements! have ben attributed to 
thy organs (12) In this world, beings, extnunely feebly tc* 



quire their growth by help of the elemento^ and taking meats 
and drinks; but thou hast no growth or decay (13), This 
body is a covering and it will be shattered and still thou wilt 
Irve on ; therefore thou shouldst not yield to stupefaction in 
this body. It is by virtue of good and bad acts engendered 
by stupefaction, caused by pride and other passions that thi$ 
covering of a body has been fixed on thee ( 14)* The father, 
tbe son, the mother, the wife, the relatives and that 

are not so, ace nothing; thou shouldst not attach too much 
importance to this collection of elements (15). Thote, who 
have their minds stupified, consider pain as neutralizing pain 
and enjoyment as leading to pleasure* Ignorant persons, who 
have their minds possessed by stupefaction, consider pain $ 
pleasure (16), When a woman laughs her bones come out 
and her two shining eyes throw out anget. Her breast is a 
mass of flesh and so is her organ- Therefore is not a woman 
a hell? (17)* On earth is the conveyance, in the conveyance 
is the body and in the body is placed another parson* The 
sense of this i$ mme does not exist there as it is in the body, 
Oh fie on the infatuation (18), 


jrLs her son, shorn of attachment,grew up day by day the 
queen taught him knowledge of self in the shape of minister- 
ing to him in sickness etc, (i). As he duly acquired strength 
*tt<3 the heart of his father he attained to self-knowledge by 
his Bother's words (2). Having been thus instructed from bit 
very birth the wise (son), with bis mind shorn of attachments 


did not think of entering the life of the Iionse-holder (3). 
She gave birth to her second son and the father gave him the 
name of Suv&hu and thereat Madaltsi laughed (4). And 
she soothing him in tk<; same way as before, that highly intel- 
ligent one obtained the name kind of knowledge (5). And 
' wheit after the birth of the third son the king named htm 
Satramarddana that one, having fair eye-brows, laughed for 
some time (6). In the same way he was instructed from his 
/boyhood by that rfendcr-waiHted damneL He was without 
any desire and rendered no pious offices (7). And when the 
fourth was burn, the king, desirous of giving him a narnft, 
looked to Madalas& of pure! ways who smiled gently. 
And while she wan thus smiling, the king, somewhat stricken 
with curiosity, *aid to ln*r (8),-~When i iv<-r I was r<*ndy to give 
a name you laughf.*!. Toll tm* the rausc\ Vikrdttta, Stivfthu 
and Satrumarddana! the* names 1 i^w% I hrltavt* nn* all good 
name** The K*h*'Uriy;iK ttlumUl havr ojunrs ftmlnnlying idrus 
of heroic pirit (<)"to). If they <h> not find room in your miiul f 
Oaunpictous Kiily, you ansign n namf to ilm fourth son (n). 
MadalasI ttatd : 'What you hnv<* mld t () gn*at King, I muHt 
carry out. I shall givr a name to this fourth mm (u) Thb 
firtuous one nltall b trrlHiraUui in the world by thn n*ue of 
Alarka. Thin your ywwvjr^t sow shall Abo be intelligent (13)* 
Hearing thin mt^tiin^lrHs nunc Alarka givt-n to the on by 
his mother, tins lord tif ili i%uih f Hmilingty sitid ; (4). lf (Ji 
ttMpictuuA Licly^ tltU name, which you linvi* given to my Hoti f iti 
menningtiiiHt Why h ilm Cl M*id*iIaH|? w (15). MNulafafcft 
said :- M I have given th** n4rni*,(> griMt ktngfOiit of faury only 
but in coii!itiiiitc<! wttbcuHtom, I.tHten,O king, tgtlu* tiicautsig* 
erf tlw* nii**i4 given hy you (16), The winr* ci^Hcribo the 
a omiuprrsffnt but nwm g&lnf/^m <wr t& 

Rut tlit* Lord of ttte body being omnipraittnt 
not go (from otie place; to another). So tlm Ain oi 
Vikrinla in wy vttnv in iiirjinIfili^H (tflY () kit^ **ii ronw* 
of tltc Jiuul liaviii** nu fun the tunuc t*f Suvlhu 


which you have given to your another *<m, is meaningless 
The name of Satrumarddana, which you have given to your 
third so.n, has also no meaning* Listen to the reason hereof 
.(20). When the .self-same soul lives in every body, then 
king, who is its enemy and who its friend ? (21). Element* 
are destroyed by elements, But can that which has no form 

, perish ? On account of the separate existence of anger and 
others such a conception is meaningless (22)* If in pur 
suaace of: custom such imaginary names are conceived why 
does then Alarka appear meaningless to you?*' (23)* Thus 
addressed with excellent words by his rju<**?n the highly In- 
telligent king -said to his beloved spouse who had npoken 
the truth . "this is so' 1 (24). And when the fair-browed lady 
again engaged in the same way in instructing her son in the 
knowledge of self the king said (25) " What are you doing 
foolish one ? You are going to bring ill-luck upon this my 
son as before by initiating him into the knowledge of self 

(26). If you wish to. encompass my pleasure, if you regard my 
words, then . lead this son to the way of denire (27), The 
road of action should not be destroyed, O reverend lady, nor 
should the funeral cake be withheld from the manes. In conso- 
nance with good or bad actions the ancestral manes go to 
heaven, are born as lower animals, or as men or in any other 
life. When they are stricken with hunger or thirst and are 
weakened accordingly men, by constantly offering them 
funeral cakes and oblations of water, relieve the ancestral 
manes. And fair-browed lady, in the same way they please 
the denies and guests (2930). Gods, men, ancestral manes, 
goblins, ghosts, Guhyakas, birds, worms, Insects and all 
depend on men , for their, subsistence (31)*.. Therefore, 

, fetender made lady, perfectly instruct my son in the duties 
tf a Kshatrya which may lead to his .well-being both in this 
wortd arid in the next (32)." Thus addressed by her 'husband 
that mttt excellent lady MadalaA Instructed - her -son Alarka 
by way of coawliog him : (33), " Grow, my, son, and gratify 


my lord with acts. Be you for the good of friends and 
destruction of enemies (34), Blessed are you, O my 
who, freed from your enemies, will govern the earth for 
a long time. May nil enjoy happiness by your rule, and may 
you, by acquiring r<;ligtou merit,be immortal (35), Yoii should 
attentively gratify the Br&hmanas at every Parva, satisfy the 
desires of your friends, should think of doing good to others 
and abstain from violating others 1 wives (36). By celebrating 
various sacrifices you should gratify the celestials, with 
profuse wealth yon should pkw* the twice-born ; you 
should .satisfy thr* females with numberless articles of enjoy- 
ment and your enrmirs with fight, O heroe (37), In buy- 
hood! satisfy your friends, in youth your worshipped relative* 
by obeying their command*! in manhood the females having 
ornaments of nobh* ancestry and in old Jigr, O my son, in 
the forest, the rangers thereof (jK) While! ruling you 
should gratify your friends, protect the* pious, celebrate 
sacrifices! destroy thr! wicked and enemies in battle on 
of kine and Br.ibtttltuts and then met with death (39), 


ti AKA (tNtCKi) ;~Thu comforted by Ins mother evarjr 
day the one nnmrd Alarka grew up in yearn ami imelligttflce 
(i), On ttb attaining to youth and being invested with 
thread the mm of Ilritudliwaja, bowing to Iiw mother, 

&akl (a) : " Spttak to me all who mi bowing to you an tti 
what i should doiftacling to happiness both heru ntnl her*sifter f> 
(3). said , O my child, bring instalind tm the 

throne*, a king, without iufrtnging th<* duties ti hU own *i 

evils* which strike at the seven rootsf a king by keeping his 
counsels, should protect himself from his enemies (5.) As 
from a car of strong wheels one meets with death in eight 
ways, so does, forsooth, a king, by giving out counsels (i).* 4 
He should ascertain whether his enemies have corrupted his 
courtiers or not j and through careful spies he "should make 
himself acquainted with the ways of his enemies (7). A 
king should not confide in his friends, adherents and kinsmen ; 
and when the necessity comes he should confide even in 
his enemies (8). Not influenced by lust a king should 
acquire the knowledge of place, increase and decrease and 
possess the six attributes (9). First controlling his self, next 
the ministers, next the servants, next the citizens he should 
enter into hostilities with his enemies (10), The king of 
uncontrolled self, who, without first subjugating all these, 
desires to defeat his enemies, on being defeated by his 
courtiers, is brought under the control of his enemies (n). 
Therefore, my child, desires should be conquered first by a 
king; on them being brought under control success surely 
attends a king ; but if he is conquered by them he meets with 
destruction (12). The enemies are luat, anger, covetousness, 
pride, idea of self and joy, and they bring on the ruin of 
kings (13. Thinking that Pandu was deprived of his life 
through lust, that Anirudda was deprived of his son through 
anger, that Aila was deprived of his life through covetouaness 
that Vena was killed by the twice-born through his arrogance, 
that AnusuS's son Vali was destroyed through his over ween- 
ing self conceit and that Puranjaya was killed through 
of joy, one should throw off these passions (14 -15). Con* 
quering those the high-souled Mlrutta tubdued the entire 

;? Hunting, gambling, sleep during the day, calumny, concupiscence, danc* 
fc paging, sporting, useless walking, drinking, violence, creating malice, HI. 
wilt, deceif t, cruelty and vilHfying others. 

t Lofcdshlp, cQunseUon, fdends, tewuiy, pwishment, kingdom and capital. 



earth. Remembering this a king should east off all these 
short-comings (16). A king should take his lessons from the 

crows, Kokilas, the black-bees, the harts, the serpents^ the 
peacocks, the swans, the cocks and the iron.* A king should 
act like worms towards his enemies and in season, O king, 
should show the diligence of (18). He should spread 

like the scintillations of fire or like the of the cotton 

tree. And governing the earth like the sun and the moon* 
a king should learn wisdom from the prostitute, the lotus,. 
the Sarava the Sutik&> the breast of a woman big with 
child and the milk-woman* (19 ao)f. For governing (his 
subjects) a king should act like Indra, the king of god*, 
the sun, Yama, the Moon and the wind-god (21), At Indra 
pleases the creatures of the earth with nhowers for four 
months so the king should satisfy his subjects with self- 
sacrifice (22)* As the sun with his rays draws up the water 
for eight months o the kmg f with minute: means, should 
collect hU revenue (23), A?4 Yama metes out punishment 
both to those whom lie like* and to thoa whom he 
when the proper time comas, o the king should impartially 
deal with thone whom he and whom he di$likes~the 

good and the wicked (24). That king truly like 

the Moon in whose alt the are happy and 

experience delight like what derive from the 

* As charity from m iww, pitrtaUun from a Kokila, the habit of ftccttmtilfi* 

tion from a beta* tht* Iwbit of not fflfi It* th* r twtr ltt of an n*my from 

thi hurt | how to bring flown ft big rn*my willi a nmalt ex|eclit nt from a 
terpfmt. Ho h0ultl thr fjwtfl thing itntl ltvr cflf th* b*l thing M ^ swan 

drfnki the nut f wAtrr nilxnl with it, I If should Jwirn how to rise iriy 
from a a4 xhouM b* hafl And it*tfni llkr Jwn 

f Hi ah^ulil ifarii frotti tht firiwllliilr how to $!riw many } Hkt lotos h 
thottW H0I only tin twtiitifttl f pirw>n hut b iirmmpllfhwl alto. Tb* 
San** li a lining atilwiL f lk<^ Sutik* b should ntirrly kill his nemy. An 
milk it crtatrd In tb*^ hr*t of n woman for th future child o the 
fbottld for tlw future* Ai * milk wattuin c* mk 

out oi s thi hould do many tbiog 



fwll moon (25). As the air scretfy through all creatures 
so the king, with spies, should read his citizens, courtiers and 
friends (26). The king, whose mind is not possessed by lust, 
the desire for wealth, or any othrr thing, repairs to the celes- 
tial region, my son (27). The king, who bring* back to the 
pale of their own religion those foollhh persons who stay away 
from right paths and fall of! from thttir dutirg, gout to the 
"celestial region (28). The king, in whose kingdom, O my child, 
the duties of the various orders and Asrumas do not suffer 
deterioration, attains eternal happiness both in this world and 
in the next (29). To establish persons in their own religion 
which is being disturbed by wicked pttoptt* constitutes the 
paramount duty of a king and leads to hi* success (30)* By 
governing his subjects a king accomplices his tmd and 
by governing them well and assiduously tit* is cntittltui to a 
portion of their piety (31), A king, who protects the four 
orders, attains to happiness and rangtfH with Sakra in hut 
own region (32). 


UARA (inert) said: Hearing the words of bin mother 
Alaska, again accosted her regarding the duties of the various 
orders and conditions of life (i), "0 noble body, you 
have described to me, the duties of the kings. I wiah to 
hear now of those regarding the various orders and conditions 
of We" (2). Madalasa said : " Gifts, study and sacrifice 
ace-. t|e duties of a Brahmana j he has not the fourth duty, 
except -carrying oti tirade lor subsistence (3), The adequate 



Itteans of his livelihood has been described aa three-fold) 
namely tuition, officiating an priests at sacrifices performed 
in a pure spirit and receiving sanctified gifts (4). The 
.duties of a Kshatrya have been described as three-fold, 
.namely, gifts> study and sacrifice; the administration of the 
.earth and the usu of weapons are the means of his liveli- 
hood (5). Gifts, atudy and sacrifice constitute the three-fold 
duties of a Vaifya ; trade* tending cattle and agriculture; are 
the means of his livelihood (6). Gifts, sacrifice and serving 
the twice-born have* ben described by me as the duties of 
-Sttflra; handicrafts, serving the other orders, keeping cattle 
tnd buying and Adting are the means of his livelihood, I have 
described to you the duties of the orders and hear I shall 
ROW describe the duties relating to the diverse* modes of 
life (78)* By observing the duties of his onlrr and not 
.deviating therefrom a person in crown *d will* Huccrss ; but 
.when one does a thing which is proscribed he* goes to 
hell (9). Su long as u pernon, bdtmgiug to on<* of the twice- 
born orders, lus not hrrn invested with sacred thread id 
long he can act, speak or Mt arrc'irdtnjf to his will (to)* 
when UK* proper rrrrmony f investiture 4 is through 

he must live* in tint house of his spiritual guide a a Brahma- 
charhu Hear, I shall <Uscubt % his datum (n), The study 
of the WtliiH, and thr kt*i*ptiig of nacrrcl fire, going about 
mil It the precept or'a permission 
^itf'd it to him, to satisfy him complete- 
rr^rplitr'n work, to in study 

In him, concentration of mind 
of n Hrahnmcharin) (1213)* 
from the precept* 
he should 

begging! taking fftoil 
having previously drd 
ly, promptitude in tlirt 
tt Inn command, il 
upon him (are tlm 

Hating oht* f iin<Rfl, in% two or nil the* W 
ft, having; salutwl him anil with Im 

prevent Dtikthittd to lite prc**i*ptor (14), Then degtrou* of 

entering upon tlit* lifit of a tieniHi*IiId*r one should do it ; or 

he can, accrortling in hU ilf*%in% fnlrr upon the fourth mode 

,0flifa, numely IMmif^m^hilM (15)* Or the twice -bora on* 




-may live in his preceptor's house performing hard austerities; , 
shorn of vanity he should live as a Brahmachnrin ministering 

to his son in the absence of the preceptor and to his disciples 
in the absence of his preceptor's son 1 , Then returning from 
his preceptor's house and desirous of entering upon the life 
-of a householder he should, for leading a domestic life, marry 
a girl of a different race, befitting him, free from ciswease ancf 
having no defective limb (16 18). Then acquiring wealth 
.fey his awtr exertions he should gratify completely the deities, 
the departed manes and the gtie*t* and support hig 
'dependants (19). And as much as lie* in his power, fa 
should, with food, support his servants, sons, person* in 
distress, the blind, the fallen, beasts and birds (2n). This 
is the duty of a householder as well m that of living with 
his wife while in her season. And Im should, to the best of 
fiis power, celebrate tic five sacrifices (art). Respected! by 
dly he should, along with hi* gervant*, feed upon what 
remains, proportionate to his mean?*, after the departed 
manes, the guests and the kinsmen have eaten (22). Thus 
have I described to you in full the duties of a householder* 
Hear, I shall now describe to you the duties of one entering 
upon the Vdnaprasktha mode of life (13), Seeing hit 
children and grand children as well as the decay of 
Ife own body a wise man should retire to wood* for 
petrifying his soul (24). There living on mIM fruits he 
shouH improve his soul by asceticism. He nhoulcl sleep* 
cm the earth, practise the Brahmncharyya mode of life, 
perform acts on behalf of the departed man**, andf 

g\jests r perfonm Homa, bathe three times a day, wear bark 
and matted locks, practise Y%* and feed' on the wlkf pro- 
*iccs of the forest (sfj 16), He should thus lead the V&n** 
fmnktha mode of life for washing off his sine and Improving 
t^toul The Viksku (mendicant) mode of life is the finar 
stage of a man (27), Hear now from me the true account of 
flil^as wel dutfes cketfeof, * 

M ' 



lias been described, O my child, by great men (28), One, in 
this mode of lil'e, should renounce company, practise Brahma- 
charyya, drive away wrath, mortify his senses, should not 
live at one place for a long time, withdraw himself from all 
actions, feed once only on whatever has been got by beg- 
ging, should aojiiiff* the knowledge of self and an insight into 
his sou! (2930), I have thus described to you the duties 01 
the fourth stage of life* Do you now listen to me, describing, 
in a general way, the duties of the other orders arid 
of life (31). Truth, purity, freedom from malice and the 
desire of injuring mhrrs, forgiveness, kittdnesft, liberality and 
contentment an tin* eighth quality these have described 

In brief by m to you ag the duties of the various 
and modes of life. Uvury one should satisfy the duties of 
his own order and condition (32- 33)* A king should mete 
out punifthmrtit to him who gc****i astray tranngrogMng the 
duties -of hiM own order and tUtf** of life* (34), If the king 
does not punish a man who disregards his own duties his 
and J'urta nt'U come to (3.5). Therefore the 

king should carefully place nil the orders in their 

and inflict punishment on them they go 



JtlLUKKA said : "1VII me truly, who ask, what acts should 

he duly performed by a householder, leaving which undone 
oiw is fettered and pirrfurming which cine attains to libeni* 

which k%td* tn the well-bring ui men, Uut which 


which should be done. Tell me all this duly (I 2}/ 1 Macta- 
las'a said : "By adopting the life of a householder, O my son,. 
a 1n2n nourishes the entire universe and thereby conquers 
the wished-for regions (3) The departed manes, the ascetics, 
the deities, the goblins, men, worms, insect**, flies, birds, 
beasts and demons all depend upon a householder for their 
subsistence and attain to gratification through him. Think- 
ing 'will give or not' every one looks at his face (4 5)* This 
is "the support of all and the cow of the three (Vedas) on 
which is established the universe and which is recognised 
as the cause thereof (6). The Rik is her back, the Yayur \$ 
her middle, the Saman is the face and neck, hhtha and 
Purta are her horns; the sacred Sukta$ are her hairs ; Senti 
and Pushti are her urine and excreta and the orders and 
modes of life are her developments. The whole universe is 
sustained by her. 'She suffers no deterioration * or decay 
(7^-8). My son, Swa&a, Swadha t V&$hat> Iff a ft fa are her 
four udders. The deities suck the udder SwA/ta, the depart- 
ed manes the udder SwadM t the ascetics that of V&sh&t 
and all save the deities, goblins, Asuras and others the 
human beings suck the udder Hamta* Tims my son^ the 
cow of the threefold Vedas gratifies all beings 9 n). The 
man who destroys these is guilty of a mighty iniquity* He is 
'plunged into Tami$r& and AndhatamifrS (hell) (12)* The per- 
son, who, in season, makes her calves, the immortals! drink 
her milk, attains to the region of the celestials (13)* There- 
fore,' my son., 'it is incumbent upon every human being 
to support the deities, the departed manes, men, ghosts as 1 
he sustains his own body (14). For this reason having bathed 
apd purified himself, a person, with a concentrated mind, 
stkmld offer, in due-time, oblations of water to deities, depart* 
ei Wanes, and Praj&pati (15). After worshipping deities with 
sandal irid incense, a man should worship fire and then offer 
eatables' (16). '' In a room a person should place to the 


fend north, offerings of food for Brahml, the Visltwadevas and 
Dhanyantari (17). The food, intended for Sakra, should be 
placed in the east and that for Yama in the south, that for 
Varuna in the west and that for the Moon in the north (i8)- 
The food for Dh&tft and Vidhfttft, should be kept, at night, at 
the gate of the house and that for the sun should be kept 
arouud outside the house (19). A person should scatter in 
the air the food intended for ghosts and night-rangers. 
Placing one's self towards the south one should offer food to 
the departed manes (20)* Then being up and doing and con- 
centrating his mind well, the householder should take up water 
for rinsing his mouth (21). Then the wise one should scatter 
food at different places designed for the deities. Having thus 
made offer! tigs of food at his house the householder, purifying 
himself, should offer food to the ghosts for their gratification* 
He should keep on the ground food intended (or dogs, 
Sw&p&ck&s and birds (23- 33). The offering, mimed Vaishya- 
devt, should b performed in the morning and evening^ 
Then rinsing his mouth the wise man should look towards 
the door (34). Then for an eighth part of n he 

should look on in expectation of a guest* And on getting 
a at that place he should, to the of hi* might, 

gratify him with mid drinks and with fragrant flowers* 

One should not receive as t a friend or a person 

living in the village (3$~- 2) A Br&hmana, of uiv 

known name mud birth, stricken with hunger, wearied, 
and destitute, mid who comes at that hour and for 

food, called a guest and should be entertained 

by the wine according to their power (27), A learned 
should not enquire the (encage, status or 

Vedic accomplishment* of his Whether beautiful or 

ugly It! should be considered as Prajftpatt himsell (28), 
a man not live for ever therefore he in called 
Atitht* And when a guest it gratified the householder ii 
the of Nriyajna (29), The sinful 


iniquity and lives on dung in the future life (30), The 
guest, that goes away disappointed from the house of a mat), 
transfers to the householder all his sins and takes away 
the latter's religious merit (31). To the best of his might a 
inan should entertain his guest with water, herbs or any 
other thing that he himself takes (32)* A person should per* 
form always i\\tSraddha with water and food for the depart* 
<ed manes and feed one or more Brthmanas (33), Taking off 
the first portion of rice one should offer it to a Brahmana 
'and he should offer alms to the begging mendicaulH and 
Brahrnacharins (34). A mouthful of rice is called Bktk$ktlm^ 
lour mouthfuls make an Arghya and four Arghyas make up a 
ffanta. Thus say the leading twice-born ones (35)* Without 
offering ffanta, Arghya or Bkikshd according to his own 
power one should not take meals (36), After having fed 
guests one should feed his kinsmen, friends, suitors, boys, 
*<6ld people, the diseased, destitute people stricken with 
hunger and begging food. If he has money he should also 
feed poor relatives who desire it (3738), If a person, 
'obtaining a prosperous kinsman, meets with poverty, the 
*iiris, committed by him in that state, visit the prosperous 
kinsman ''(39). This procedure should also he followed in 
the evening'. When a guest comes at about *un*l he 
'should, to the best of one's power, be entertained with a 
$eat, fooding and bed (40), If a person thua the 

"burden of a domestic life, the friend*-, deities, departed 
ttiaftes, great saints, guests, beauts, birds and worms, 

being gratified, bring about 'hi* well-being (4142)* The 
bighly ptous Atri sang a hyam lit ibis connection.' Hear, 
greatly" righteous' -one, the -having the household life 

for its 'subject (43), Wheft a house-holder bat money, hi 
d; after worshipping the celestials, the departed manes, 
s, friends, kinsmen and his spiritual guide, keep food an 
ttoe ground f0 r birds, Swafitckas and dogs. The 



ceremony should ho performed both in the morning am! 
evening (4445)' ^ man should not take m<*nt t rice, herbs 
or any other culinary article, that may be in his house 
without offering (Inly a portion of them (to giirsts) (46), 




,ADAI,ASA said: -The* dtttir*** nf a: householder are 

threefold natm-ly AY/wr (d.iily) Mr iw iff MM (occasional) and! 
Nifyauri/Miffiiw. Hear thrm, O my sou (il The ceremonies 
relating to thf* five snt'tifirrs (li^i-n!>r! to yn\\ hy ntc before, 
are fall***! N/fytt. Thr* t'*rtinnnii k s that, nr** performed on 
the hirth of a Ntm ns well ;H filhrw nrt* ralli*d 
SratM/ias t>n Fttn'tt dnyn ur* re^-nrdet! by the it 

Nifytwtiimitfiktt* 'flu* r^rf mt>iiM*i t arc performed on 
the hirth of a *wti t should a No ht* p!irformul In dine order 
on the wraMon of tiii winliling (24), fn the ceremony 
called Ntlttttimukha flu* departed mnnen should be! properly 
worshipped, SiUiii|j with Itn f*u*i turned toward* the north 
or thr twt the nrrifii*er hou!it v with Inn nrind eoneenfrttft<I t 
offer I* twins (hnlK) of hurtry nnd curdn. Some peopfe 
hold thai thiu cfrrwiwy is without VaishvvAd**va (56), In" 
thw Vt*r^mtiny ;ifti*r h.'tviiirj t*iiTwmuntbulJit<*d thtvn *i muplt* of 
ftrShmntm^ nhtntld h worshipped. Thin i* <\illt*d I' 
SraMAa Pfttimittiktt* ll**ir now of th# Aurththtt 
tSkdtidishfha whit h should b pt*rft>nnrd on htthatf of a 
pardon cm tint day of his dr*miHi*. fn thin no wurnhip of tlw 
ffftif*i t no invornliwi ttr otdatton tu tin* in to h<* maIi* ; only 

huiiUI hi; iwrd in it. Meir the lt*avinj(* 4 


remembering his name one should pour water with sesamum 
seeds. This should be thrown at the spot where the KW 
made Brahmana has been left, saying " May this be without 
deterioration and may he be gratified with it and they will 
say. ' We have been gratified." Every month of the year 
this ceremony should be performed by men* When the year 
is over or when an opportunity presents itself Sapind&kaP&nA 
ceremony should be performed. 1 shall describe to you the 
rules of this ceremony (7- 12)* In it there 1$ no worship 
of the deties, no offering of oblation to fire and no invocation 
is to be made. Only an Arghya and Kuf& are to be offered* 
Placing Pinda and water in an opposite direction he should 
feed an odd number of Brhmanas (13)* The peculiar 
diaracterestic of this ceremony is that additional rites should 
be performed every month. Hear with attention* I shall 
describe this to you (14), My son, four vessels, containing 
..sesamum -seeds and fragrant water, should be kept three 
for the ancestral manes and another for the departed (15). 
An Arghya as well as the vessel intended for the departed 
should be washed over the three vessels and then reciting 
the Mantras Tesam&nA, the ceremony should be concluded 
(i6) This ekoddista has also been laid down for women, 
But when they have no son they are not entitled to 
Sapindakarana (17). Men should perform 
every year for females ; as in, the case of men it should 
be duly performed on the day of her death (18). In the 
absence of a sou (the ceremony) should be performed by 
those entitled to offer watery oblation. Those that are a 
mother's Sapindas and those that are a mother's S0hodetkMs 
should act according to these injunctions ; and a person * who 
Is without a son, should have his rites performed by his 
dfyugttter's son. A daughter's son/ should thus perform the 
ceraxw>ny for his maternal grandfather (1920). This rile 
is called Dwyamn$yayana, A mother's father and a father 1 ^ 


should be properly worshipped by Naimittika Sraddlid 

In the absence of any other relatives the wives should 
perform this rite far their husbands without any Mantra, fn 
the absence of wife a king should hate the obsequies of the 
deceased properly performed by one of his own relatives 
or persons of the same caste* For the king Is the friend 
of all orders (3323). ! have thus described to you f my son ? 
the Nitya and Naimittika rites ; listen now, I shall describe 
other sorts of Nitya and Naimittika rites connected with 
iSraddka (24). The period of the moon's wane is called 
D&rsa ; this is th time of those rites and indicates their 
permanence (25), 


JnL PATUBfc'S gramifattu*r li not entitled to 

and being a paternal ancestor of the fourth 
and upwards tie in deprived of the paternal (x). He 

is the fourth among tlum and fctrd* on the 

oftered by the mm ; hi* IMH no notation and is entitled only. 
to the enjoyment of food (2), The father, the 
a&d the great grand-father Athene three generations are 
regarded m biring ontittccl to pfada (3). The three ancestral 
generation^ beyond the* grand father's grand-father, can 
recelfe only the /efi$ ; and of Ihc^e, the one performing the 
rite is considered us the seventh (4), Thin relation of the 
seven generation* tiiift been laid .lown by the ascetics* Those 

* Tttt wiping*! 41! tlo bitiwl whkh hw otferrti fwrif ral obtationn tu 

and which ure r wskltiml m m olUtton to itttcefcton In the 4th |tl| 

J * 


who precede the sacrificer can receive anulep** ($), Listen, 
my son, I shall describe now the different Sradd&s wbjch a sacri* 
ficer shouM duly perform for the gratification of the ancestor* 
preceding them, for those living In the hell, for Ihote born 
as beasts and those born in other orders of elemental creatiom 
(6-~7) ; . Those, wbo are born as Pislidch&s, obtain gratific**. 
tjon ftoffi th,e feqd that i$. placed o& the ground by men (8J t 
my ycwijngboy, those y that have been converted into tree*, 
are gratified; by the drpps of water tljat fall on. the earth front* 
\yet clothes, (g),. 1"he drop, of water that falls on th** grouud 
from a per3,pa's body, brings; about the gratifkatipn of thoat 
that have been born it) the order of deities (to). Those, 
that are born as beasts, obtain gratification from tut* particles 
of food that fall down on the ground at the lime of the taking 
up of tht ftnda (n). Th.os,i who. although worthy of perfor- 
ming ritea, had been burnt in their childhood, without 
receiving the sanctificatioD ? obtain gratification from scattered 
food and water falling from a_ broom (ta). The other* obtait* 
their gratification from water that falls when the Brahmanai 
rinse their mouths or wash their feet (13). Thus the 
ancestors, of the persons who perform duly the Srajtdkas 
born in other specie^ arc gratified by the food or water f 
piire or otherwise', that is cast by the sacriftcer or the twice* 
born (14), If one perform s f the Sraddha of his anccitoc 
with money obtained ^from another then tl^e ancestor, Hrn in 
the.ocjder of > Chitndalaf or Punkas, finds gratification tli^re- 
from. Thus my cbi)<}^ anceators borq in other are 

gratified ) with ; meats and drinks that are offerad by hit 
kinsmen at the time of a % Sraddha (1516). The 
manes, in numbers, obtain gratification, from drops of tfater 
aDbd particles al fq$d which the kindred cast on the occasion 
f %e performance of Sradfttui* (17}.. " So a person should 
4ife. wJth, devotion, perform a. SnMAa^ even with herbs ^ 
being performed no one, born in the ra.ce, 
* That wbick- is of ered alter ty* Is 

privation (i 8). I shall novfr describe to y<Jii the proper tittle 
ftfr the performance of Mttfa and Nait&itlika rites by ttien. 

Lfst&ft tb the procedure thereof deifcribed by mb (19). On 
the wane of the Moon SrSddha giitiuld tie performed diking 
UiK day of the New Moon as also ctaring the eighth lunar day 
#f thft dark half of the month, do you hear from me of the 
tfptfonil seasons (for It) (20), If an excellent Br&hmaheL is 
^ecwrd and if the articles for the Sr&ddha are procured, 
rtff son, a Sr&ddha .should be, of one's own accord, celebrft* 
t^d ; oti the ecclipae of the gun or moon during a half year, 
fiuridg the equinox, during the course of the sun through 
tie Zodiac, oti the Appearance of an evil omen, 00. tht 
vision of an ftvil dream, tin the ascension of the natal star, 
bt during the malign influence of any planet (2f -22). 
Aft educated person, a Shratrio,* a Yogi, one versed in the 
Veda and stinging; the Yytstha Saman,f one versed in three 
Nttehikcta$,\. one who is vorsecl in the fhrre Afadhus^ the 
SttJ>&rnft.\'\\ attrl the KIX AHgtfsfH n daughter^ tion } a priest 
a fton-iti-taWf A iHter*H son, a fathnr-in-Kivv, one who if 
tegagod in the perforntance of five* fire ritual*, one 
itt asceticifinti, a mothcr* brother, a penton devoted to his 

i^ a di*lcipl% a wifrV brother, and a relative, all 

twice-bom on*H uft rcHwprtertt to perform the 
(23~2S) A twicchorn one, my sort, who has not 
drahmtichnryyi't, who in who' hit 

wfto ha not the natural nuinber of limbs, Who Is born 
6f a twice'ttiarrim!' ffHii?ili* t who b without an who i 
UMi child ol ii female, hibbtnd is living or 

* A pewosfl ff*tt*ii tw flit* *itiiil| of lliii Vftila*, 

t A portion of ttip&Miwt VrtU, the raclutibn of wlikh at a' 

t Till* ttorva U(mnUb*i<U | Nftclttku. 

f Tilt ilirt*r t in*tir4 til i|itfittii4i lit|iinrt, 

| Thj?t til litnl* lit rrftatr*! by I!ralim*tlik4 nd includet] in tint 

tttion of water t*i 
f Slk of ttMtfftiitg* 




of a woman whose husband is dead, who has Injured Ms 
friends, who has diseased nails, who Is Impotent, 

who is possessed of dark and twany teeth, who has ati 
ugly form, who has been imprecated by his father, who is 
crooked-minded or malicious, who sells soma^ who has 

sullied his daughter, who practises medicine, who ha$ 
forsaken his father and preceptor, who teaches for remunera- 
tion, who is an enemy, who is the husband of a widow, 
who has renounced the Veda or fire, who is married 
to a girl of twelve who has attained her puberty,- who 
1 |s stained, these, as well as other twice-born ones guilty of 
transgressions should be forsaken at the performance of the 
funeral rites of the ancestors (2629), The above mention- 
ed best of Brahmanas should be invited on the previous day 
-and should be engaged in ceremonies for the ancestral manes 
and celestials (30), These should keep in restraint alt proper 
sities as well as he, that is to perform the Srftddha, 
The ancestral manes, of a person that visits a woman after 
distributing gifts in a Srlddha and taking his meat, lie on 
his semen for a good month (31). The ancestral manes, of 
a person, who, after knowing a woman, bis meals or 

goes to a Sraddha, live on semen and urine for one good 
month (32), Therefore a wise man should first invite people. 
Even if (Brahmanas) are not had on that day, those who 
have associated with women must be renounced (33), After 
gratifying them with salutation a person should attentively 
feed ' the self-controlled ascetics, arrived in due time for 
(34). As the dark half of the month is more liked 
by the ancestral manes than the light so is the afternoon 
more liked by them than the morning (35). Adoring duly 
'with welcome the invited guests in the house he should, with 
purified, make them take their seats, after they have 
rimmed their mouths (36), In a ceremony for the ancestors 
an odd number of educated Brlhmanas, and in a -ceremony 
for the celestials an even number of educated 

power, may engage a single Br&hmana both in the rites for 
ancestors and celestials (37), This is also the procedure to be 
adopted in rites performed for the ancestral manes on the 
mother's side as also in Vaishwadevas* Some people, if they 
like, may adopt a different procedure in these ceremonies (38), 
Rites, for the eclestial8,should be performed by a person with his 
face towards the east and the rites for the ancestral manes with 
his face towards the north. This is also the practice in the 
rites for maternal ancestral manes as laid down by the wise 
(39)* Having handml over Ku$a for seats a wise man should 
adore them with Arghya etc ; offering a rope of pack thread 
a wise twice-born on<% with their permission, should invoke 
the deities with Mantras, Having offered an 
containing barley and water on behalf of the Vishwadcv&s 
one, after dedicating garlands, incense > iarnps, and water, 
should perform all the; crr<rmonics for ancestral manes on the 
right side (40-*4J), Then offering a double quantity of 
D&rbhb and with their leavt* a wine person should in* 

voke his Ancestral mane* with the recitation of 
(43)* great one*, of gratifying his 

he should j on tint right, ckclieitUt an of barley mixed 

with sesame (44). Thereupon commanded by the twice- 
born to celebrate the lire rite, with saying " Do if* he should! 
as directed, offer to the lire rice devoid of curries and 
(45)* (Then Maying) "To the bearer of Kavya (offering of 
food) fire -Swaba M the first oblation should he offered* (Then 
saying) "To the Moon having Pitriu Swaha" the second 
oblation should be offered. Then what remain*, after the 
oblations have off it red t tthould be made over to the 
sels of the twice-born (4(1 47). " Do you to your 

on these 1 * with words spoken to them lie 

should duly to them the food placed in their 

(48) And they, as destired, will intently and silently 
the food (49)* Tempting them gently am! casting off 

a nten should gradually offer them the food mdst 
by them (50). Hfe Should then tecite the Matitrns that ate 
capable of shying the Rakshastas, and then scatter dti earth 
s^fcds as well as white mustard for them, for thelg 
iriariy impediments in a Sraddha (51). Then h^ should 
the Brahmana saying 'you have been gratified witl 
Mtritrdus and delightful food" &nd they should teply "we 
fcflLre bfcrt." Thert permitted by them a tn&ft should stattet 
tide all o?er* the ground and duly offer Water for ringing thcit 
n with their permission, he, restrMtting hi* bddy, 
arid wo^ds, should make a funeral cake containing 
a*id phtce it on a .D&rltto on the ^outherrt sid, 
near the leaving, for his ancestral manes (52-*-*54). Tteft 
with a concentrated mind' he should offer theto wniet 1 fttwtt 
.the swcred vessels belonging tor the ancestofs-^he, whd^ 
.pfince, performs ivith devotion a sacrifice on behalf of ftfte 
ateestral nitaie$ (55). Then inf the same way offering dely 
' Pin&& fof the ancestral wanes' on hi^ mother's side It sbtould 
crffetf water for' rising, together with perfumeries, gi'rlain-di *te* 
(56) the'n co'A'ftfrrirtg oipon thttti ^fts aceofdirtg to hi* 
power lie should say " may this prove an agMedbfo 

on" their, being gratified, ^y'rrtg "So' be 1" he should 
tBttn recite the V^i$k^ad^d Mtotras-^^O VishwaidaV^ 
fee you pfeasedt May you fairiweir.' 1 ' And 5 afte* 
sdi'd- r So-be it"' he ihtottld pray fof their (5f-w|8); 

That v^it'h' sweet wbtd's and srftitln'g thcliii" 1 fev^reritiall^ Ihl 
them. They mttSt fee fdltovt&l t* tie 1 dte6^ ; 
whea they shall bid him adicm he dHoufd bacf (59)* 

,Tfieil At daify ritfes shoulU be petfonjrtd and tfctf 
his guests. Sdm^ ^dod : people gfct 
Fbr" their pattrii'al (66). Oilers 1 

should tt-ot be peffotme'd'' fof : th'ettl The rertaitting 
<*ottia l btf gbtoier Ardtigli in* tHe afohisaid' urtty. 
say tlterc te nd necessity df separate? cooking in paternal rlte'% 
white sfcecdrdttigffo otttew it must b done (6iX TEcn a 

should taKe inai rice aiong witn ms servanti, u- you 

Conversant with piety, in this way or in any other way you 
should attentively perform (he Srftddha of your ancesttat 
tnanea, so that the leading twice-born ones may t>e gratiiect 
(6263). I a Sr&dclha three things are sacred! a maternal 
grandson, a Kate-pa* and the se&mium ; and three 

according to the leading Brahmnnag, are to be cast off, viz 
angec f walking and hurry (64), My son, in a Srldclba silver 
are best and silver should be seen and given away 
(65). It Is said on, earth, Swadftd was milched by the ances- 
tytali manes with a silver vessel ; therefore the silver 
is acceptable to them and it Increases their delight (66)* 



sitd* Hear now with' reverence y my 
aon^ as to what should be procured lor and 

should he given tip cm their behalf* 

their gratification (i). By living on 
clarified butter onu the for^ a 

and by living aw and fish for a 

couple of months (j) Dm*r v ft brings- the 

grttifieation of paternal mniies for montht ; 

them for four months (3)* BirdV 
(nourishes) them for five months and boar's for si 

montlis ; for months ; Bna'sft for 

* The tlgth Mtthurtu or pwikmoC Iht day* tt it an tUgibl tlmt for the 

|tifofwttt of ritm for Itit *, 

ittr, ; ^ 



eight months (4), Ruru's* flesh certainly gratifies them for rrirre 
months and Gavaya'sf flesh for ten months (5), Mutton gratifies 
the.-' paternal manes for eleven months 'and cow's milk or 
Payaca far twelve months (6). My son, the flesh of the 
rhinoceros, black hares, honey, flesh offered by a daughter or 
any descended from the same line, Gaitri$uta% or Srftddha 
performed at Gay^ these undoubtedly encompass the eternal 
gratification of paternal manes (78)* (3), Raja* 

shyamaka and as well as Pr&satikat Nivaraf 
these various sorts of rice are agreeable 10 the paternal 
manes (9). Besides these, barley, Vrihi rice, wheat, 
Mudaga t mustard, Pryangu t Kovldara can 

also bring about their gratification (10). Maka/a, Jtaja* 
mansa, Knuviprusika and A/asuru should not be in a 

Sraddha. Garlic, turnip, onion, carrot, powdered barky 
mixed with cards, any thing devoid of color and moisture, 
Gandharika, the bottle gourd* salt treacle and red exudation* 
should be discarded in- a Srftddha. Things got by bribe, from 
a fallen person or obtained by money exacted unfairly by 
'marrying one's daughter, are to be eschewed in a Srlddha. 
Water that gives out bad odour or that is frothy, that is small 
in quantity, from which a cow not obtain gratification, 

that has been got at night, that has rejected by every 

one, that is unfit to be drunk, thai has sprung in a 
should, my, child, be always eschewed in for paternal 

manes (u 16). A deer's milk, goat's milk! camel's milk, 
that of an animal with a single hoof,buffaloe' m\Xk $ Chamaru*$ 
milte, the milk of a cow within ten days of her giving birth 
to a calf, milk that has been got by stying "Do you 
give, me milk, for my father's ceremony should not be 
a Sraddha," The earth of a spot that out 

* Another kind of 
t Another kid of deer, 
| A Wad of Sraddha 
| A dtoh near a well. 



b^d "smell," that is filled with worms, rough, or burnt by 
fire, that is full of disgusting and vicious sounds, must be es- 
chewed, in Sraddha (16 ^19), Those who have disgraced the 
race, those who have engaged themselves in injuring another's 
family, those that are nude and that are sinful, injure -cere- 
monies for ancestral manes by their presence there (20). An 
impotent one cast off by his parents, a cock, a wild boar, a 
dog and Rakshasas despoil a Sraddha by merely looking on it 
(21). Therefore well guarded by people should a householder 
scatter sesame seeds on earth. By doing this, my son, 
-protection in Sraddha is obtained by both the parties (22). A 
person, impure for the birth of a child or by the touch of some 
tmclean animal, a valetudinarian, or a fallen, an impure 
person cannot bring on the nourishment of a paternal grad- 
fathers (23). A woman,in menses, should not be seen, on this 
occasion; one with his head shaven as 1 well as a drunkard 
should also be avoided by a sacrificer (24). The food, that 
Jias been polluted by the touch of hair or worms, that has 
jjeen looked at by the dogs, that gives out bad smell, that is 
irfeale or that has been touched by the wind of the cloth, must 
be eschewed in a Sraddha (25). Whatever is dedicated 
reverentially to the ancestral manes in their name and gofra f 
becomes their food. Therefore in a ceremony for the manes 
selected articles should be duly kept in a vessel with the 
object of affording gratification to the ancestral manes 
(2627), A learned man should entertain Yagis (at a 
Sraddha). Because the ancestral manes are the receptacles 
of Yoga they should always be entertained (28). If a single 
Yogi is entertained in the place of thousands and thousands 
f Brahmanas, he delivers the sacrificer as well as those who 
feed like a ? boat which carries people in a river (29). The 
Bmhmavadins chant a hymn which had been sung by the 
manes in honour of the king Aila. "When shall such a 
food son be born to us who will offer for us funeral cakes on 
tfee earth out of the leavings of the Yogis, or for affording urn 


gratification every month in Gaya offer us excellent 

in the shape of rhinoceros, black herbs, tiladhyas or Krisara 

(30-^-32). In offering food in the Vaishuwdcva and Saumya 

ceremonies the flesh of the rhinoceros is considered as the best 

HavL When we get the flesh of a rhinoceros having no 

horns we feed on it so long as the sun is in the sky* 1 (33), 

On the thirteenth lunar day of either fortnight when Afagh& 

is in the ascendant one should perform the Srfulclba according 

to the prescribed ritual. And during the southern solistice 

P&yag-aTnixt&vt\l\\ honey ami clarified butter should I Coffered 

(34). With a view to accomplish It in object ami liberate 

himself from sins, a man, my sew, should reverent Sally adore 

his ancestors (35). When the ancestral manes are pleased 

with a SrSddha they make Kar/tf, Kudras, Adity&3 % start, 

planets and other constellations favourably disposed toward* 

' the people (36). When the ancestral manes are pleased with 

SrSddha they confer longevity, wisdom, riches, teaming 

heaven, liberation ami happiness as well m kingdom (37), 

Thus,my son, I have described all about the Srftcldha ceremony 

I shall now describe- la you the lunar driyg rcgardirtg K&myt 

SrSddha (38), 


saidr-WTbe fimt day of ilm fight half of thf 
Month is auspicious for the acquirement of ricbes, the second 
the third (or obtaining boonai and the fourth 
destruction of enemies (i\ The fifth give* 
fortune amd the slth honor, The gifcn tint 


maey over his own people to a man and the seventh finished 
intellect (2). The ninth confers on him wives and the tenth 
the accomplishment of all his objects. One, performing a 
Sraddha on the eleventh day, acquires a knowledge of the 
Vedas (5). One, actor! itg the ancestral manes on the 
twelfth day, gains victory, children, Intelligence, cattle, 
independence and nourishment (4). If tnati 
performs with rice the Sr&ddha of his 
aftolftral .manes cm the thirteenth day he certainly comes by 
: a tohg lite and riche*. A man, whose ancestral manes died 
id youth or were *tatn by weapons, should, to gratify them, 
perform their riten on the fourteenth day* A man, celebrating 
with care and purity the* Sr&ddha of his father on the day of 
the new moon, obtains all objects and eternal heaven, A 
man, by adoring his ancestral manes, on the ascension of 
Kirttik&t attains to the region of the celestials (58). One, 
desirous of offspring (should perform It under the influence 
of) Rohini ; one, by performing it during the influence ot 
Saumya, attains energy* A person acquires heroism 
by performing it during the influence of Ardra he ob- 

tains land by performing it during tttt influence 
(9), By performing the the influence 

of lie nourifthcnent by celebrating it 

during the influence of he worthy mm, 

During the influence of ho the lead of hi* 

kinsmen and fortune in of Phalgum (id), During 
the influence of mm benxm** liberal and 

. gets offspring ; and atiicifi t performing tint SratfMa during the 
of to exccllctnce! (n). Under 

of one heauliful mud 

cliWrei., ' prosperity in tradci and 

the accompIiMiitnnt of the of having mm* (13). 

fofming (lite during the influcmcct of) 

one to the dignity of lord 1'aramount, suprcmm7 under 

^te 01 and health during 

H'!"' 1 




of Mala {i$) During the influence of Ash&ra one obtains 
fape, and immunity from grief during Uttara ; during srhvan. 
excellent regions and great riches during Dhanuhthh (14). 
By .performing the ceremony in abbijit one becomes versed 
in the Vedas and by doing so in varuna he becomes a master 
of medicine ; ajevM& in prausthapada and the Posterior gives . 
infantry (15). In Revati one gets metals except silver and 
gold and horses in Atwnis ; and performing the Srhddha in 
Bharani one obtains good length of life. Thus knowing the 
truth, one should perform the Kamya Srhddha during the 
ascendancy of these stars (16), 


LADALASA said *~ Thus, my child, the deities, ances*; 
tral manes, guests and friends, - goblins, servants*, beast*, 
birds, ants, beggars, suppliants and persons living in the 
house be entertained with Hawya and Kanya and rice, by a 
pious householder- of virtuous ways* One, neglecting the 
Nityam&Naimittika rites, is visited by sin (13), Alarka* 
said : " Mother, you have described to me Nifya t -ffaimittika * 
vto&Nitya Naimittikat these threefold rites, the duties of a 
person (4), you born in a great race, I wish to- hear of 
the righteous Vays by. which a person secures happiness botlii 
fa this worlJ and k Mie next (5)." , Madalast said.; "A ^ 
should always observe the rules of good conduct i 
a, devoid of righteous conduct, does not obtain happl* , 
Mn-thiswprld and in the next (6), Sacrifice, gift 
"I earth of a man, who acts by duFreg&rd; 


tag t*ie rules of righteous cflttduct, 'do not lead to lib well-': 
being (7)' An unrighteous person never Iiv?s for a good . 
length of time, A m;ui should always exert himself to act 
righteously,; righteous conduct removes ill-luck (8). I will, 
my son* describe to you the nature of righteousness. . 
Listening to it with wlioic*minded attention do you. observe 

it (9)* 

, Every householder < should endevour to accomplish the 
threefold objects of life. If a householder in this, - 

be achieves success both in thw world and In the next (to)* * 
A self-controlled man should amass a fourth of what be* 
earns for securing hi* well-being in the next world ; he 

spend half for maintaining himself AH well as for performing , 
fiitja and Ntti**ittik& (n). The remaining one-fourth , 
of his iticame should be multiplied as the capital for his* own.- . 
self. If a person behave;* in this way, my son, his wealth 
bears fruit (12), In the am way a learned man should accu- 
mulate hiit religiouH merit for washing off his sina, Di- - 
interested piety fruit in the next world and interested* 

ia this (13). From fear of meeting with obstacles . 

practise both interested disinterested piety, so they , 

may not enter into conflict with other* has 

been described a* twofold which never with three 

other objects of life (14)* Think of all as dependent upon- , 
each-other* LUtect, I ROW righteousness, etc**., 

as independent of one another (15!* Virtue and morality . 
is dependant upon it f do not eltuft with profit* As ii .j 

divided into two kinds by its conjunction with these two,soa!so ; 
virtue and profit divide themnrlves in combination with - 

(16), One gel up it the Atuhurtta* and > 

kiiniclf in the conttmplnti(m of virtue and worldly profit and 
th6 pains of which they are the 1 roots*, and in understanding* 

* A day ftttttmttng to tli* iiiwitis I* divided into thirty Mttfarttag. 
lit m tlm I* tirnkitM, whtaH is f*t far contttmptatian 

. . : . 


the true meaning of the Vedas. Then rising up, concetrat- 
ing his mind, purifying himself, rinsing his mouth and Bitting 
with his face towards the east one should finish hi* morning 
prayers (Sandhyfc) while the stars are $till visible in the sky 
and his evening prayer while the sun is yet shining. One 
should never disregard it in peaceful times (1719). O my 
son (at this time), one should avoid evil talk, falsehood, rough 
words and the reading of books containing pernicious 
doctrines, evil discussion and impious service: (19). Having 
controlled himself, every morning and evening, lie should offer 
oblations to the sacrificial tire. He should not look to the 
solar disc at sunrise and sunset (20). Arranging the hairs, 
looking in a mirror, cleaning the teeth and offering watery ob- 
lations to the celestials, should be performed in the early part of 
the day (21). One should not pass urine or excreta on a road, 
{passing through a village a dwelling house, a holy jtpot or a 
field or a cultivated land or a pasture (22)* Ont; should not 
cast his. looks upon a nude woman who is another's wife or 
on his own stool. And one should not see, touch or talk with 
a woman in her monthly course (23)* A man should not pass 
urine or excreta in water, nor should he know a woman there* 
A wise man should not sit on excreta, urine, hair, ashes* pot* 
sherds, chaff, embers, bones, torn-out cloth, a rope, a road 
and the ground (2425), First* adoring according to his power 
ancestral manes, celestials, men, and ghosts a householder 
should afterwards feed himself (26), Sitting with his face to 
the east or north, he, purifying himself and controlling his 
speech* should rinse his mouth, and then folding his knees he 
should sit down and take the rice with his mind concentrated 
<oa (the act of eating) (27). Without provocation a wise man 
sfecwld not give out the shortcomings of another and he 
dtypld toot take salt that is seen And verhot rice (aft). A 
self-controlled man should not '.pass urine or excreta while 
watkiug f sitting; nor dhbuld be take anything after having 
rinsed his mouth (29), While impure for his taking food lie 



tdioukl not converse or read the Vedas or totich kine, 
'BcShmanaS) fire or his own head (30). He should not, of his 
own accordi see the sun, the 01000, or stars, and should avoid 
a broken seat, bedstead or vessel (31)* Showing his 
reverence by rising up he should offer seats to his preceptors, 
should task with them favourably and follow after saluting 
them ; he should never speak to them unfavourably (33)* 
.A wise man should not take bis food or worship the celestials 
with a single cloth on, should not make bearers of Br&hamans, 
.pass urine on lire or bathe or lie down in a state of nudity ; 
nor should he itch his heads with both the hands (3334). 
Persons should not bathe or always wash their heads without 
any cause, or rub any limb with oil after having washed their 
heads (35)* He should not recite the Vedas on interdicted 
days and should never urine before Brlhmanas, fire, kine 
and the sun ( % }G). Facing thtMiorth in the clay and the south 
In the night should a parst>n f with cae, pass urine or excreta 
at a spot free from disturbances (37), One should not com- 
municate (to others) the wrong doings of his parents and he 
should pacify them when tlify an? angry* iie should not 
if my other mat* III of (38). One 

'way far a Ur&hmana, a king, stricken with 
more leurmttl than himself, a wife, 0nc 

although a junior, a dumb, a blind* a man, a mad man, a 
drunkard! a hawed, an boy and a fallen person (39 4&)t 

A wise mat* should a temple, a 

Ing of the four one more learned than himself, a pre- 

ceptor and a celestial (41), One should not use the 
cloth or gftrtattcl, by should discard the 

holy thread, the water-pot (belonging to 

Mother) (41)* One from profusely smearing 

the with oil, connection on the eighth, four- 

teenth or fifteenth lunar day, or during a Parva (43) A 
sensible man nhouUi not tat utrr tching out his l<*g* and ft H ; 
one should not cast lib feet, nor should he wt with 


Jegs" (44). ' A wise man should avoid cutting another to the 
.-quick, giving way to anger or 'proving cruel to any one. He 
should not brag, attach too much importance to himself and 
avoid harsh words (45). He should not mock at an ign$- 
,rant man, a 'mad man, onte in difficulty, or deformed, a magi- 
cian, one of defective limbs, one having additional ones 
(46), He should not inflict punishment on any one else or 
on his son and disciple under instruction. A wise man 
.should not drag his seat with his foot (47). Sanyaw^ 
\Krtgara and meat should not be made ready for one's own 
.self. Entertaining his* guests both- in the morning and 
evening he should afterwards take his meal (48). Restrain* 
.ing his ' words a man should cleanse his teeth with hist face 
towards, the east or north, And as a rule,. O my son, he 
should discard a tooth-brush made of forbidden wood (49)* 
.One should never sleep .with his bead towards the north or 
the west; but one should lie down wkh his head towards the 
south or! east .(50). One should net bathe in foul water o* 
in the night. A person should bathe at night, only when the 
.ecclipse takes place, (51), After bathing a man should not 
-rub his body with his cloth or hands < r nor should he toss about 
-his .hair' or cloth (52). Before bathing a wise man should 
never besmear his person with unguents, nor should he put 
on a red or black cloth or one of many colors (53), One 
.should not wrongly use his scarf, cloth and ornaments. One 
.should, throw away a cloth greatly worn* oat ami having 
jno ends (54). My child, 'one should never take rice con* 
.taining hair or worms, trodden upon; that has been seen or 
licked by a dog, that has been vitiated for its being 

.extracted/the flesh of the back, meat -not consecrated; or that 
should be "rejected, or salt placed before- "(5556). O my 
*0*> .rice/ that is state or mapy -days old, . should be -rejected, 
as'wtll as, prince, cakes, herbs, sugercane or milk,- of 
flash- }f the preparation- thereof has stood over for day% 
* * It may ateo mean polluted. The uvord la the tact Is Ap^t^" *"*"""* 


Should be avoided. One should avoid lying dowh at surprise 
and sun-set (5758). One should not lie down after bathing) 

'sleep sitting or lie down absent minded* A person should not sit 
down on a bed or on the ground sounding it (59), He should not 
eat with one cloth on or while speaking or without giving away 
.ft portion to the spectators. After bathing in the morning 
attd evening a person should take his meals, according to 
the injunction (60). A wise man should not visit another's wife* 

: The intercourse! of a man with other's wives^ destroys Jstkd 
ind furtta rites and longevity (61). There m no other thing 
fo the world which 50 much destroys 'the longivity of a man 
is is his intercourse 11 with moth* r'n wife (62). A matt should 
adore the dities, perform the* lire rit and make obeisance to 
elders, After properly rinsing his mouth a man should take 
hift food (63). Taking with reverence pure water, free from 
foam* bad smell and dirt, one nhouM rinse his mouth tlwre- 
vrith facing the east or the north (64), A man should not 
take earth from uwhr the water, from lib homefitead, from 
ttt ant hill, horn the hole? of \ rat, or from clay Mi per- 

forming the act of ptu ideation (65), After Attentively 
wishing hin hand* and feet unit sprinkling he should 

sit folding htn knt*i*H in ward and *iip the water or four 

times (66). Rubbing twiin: th corner* of his month, the 
cavity thereof and tip* head, h<% bring purified, should perform 
tie ceremony after duly nipping wat^r (67), A 
should always r^gardfully perform the ceremonies for the del* 
tlei f and dc*pi(ted msinm (68)* After ^ having 

spat or put on hin dre*H t a wine nmn should rinse his 
mtuih with water. Aft* r having mwz<d, licked, spat, or 
thrown up, i person tih<uld rin^ hii mouth, touch a cow'f 
back, took at the nun and hold hi* right car (6970). A t 
ttitidh is lies in ht po\vir be nhould adopt the after process 
U.the of wit* precitdinsf. In the absence of the 

f0rer the adoption of the latter is considered favourable 
&!)* Oneihoutd not. lib teeth or afflict any part of 



his body, At the time of two twilights one should avoid fy 
ing down, study and eating (72). In the evening one must not 
engage in a sexu&l intercourse or start for another place (73). 
In the forenodn, my son f a man should regardfully adore 
the Celestials, at mid-day human beings and in the after- 
noon the ancestral manes (74). Washing his head a man 
Should worship the deities and the ancestral manes, One 
should have his beard shaven facing the east or the north (75), 
Although boi-n in a good family a bride, that is diseased 
that has not got a limb, that Is deformed, that is twany 
coloured, that is talkative and that is full of defects, should 
be shunned (76). A man, wishing well of himself, should 
Aiarry a girl that has all the limbs, that has a beautiful nose 
and is gifted with all auspicious marks (77). He should 
rharry the fifth or the seventh daughter of her parents. He 
should protect his wife, throw off jealousy, and should not 
lie' down in day and carry ott sexual intercourse (78), 
A man should avoid acts that may give anguish to others and 
pain to the creatures. Persons, of all the orders, should avoid 
for four nights women in their menses (79), If a roan wishes 
that a daughter should not be bora to him he should also avoid 
her on the fifth day ; he should go to his wife on the sixth 
flight; fqr a night occuridg on an even date is always 
auspicious, my son (80)* If a man knows his wife ois the 
night of an even date he has a son ; whereas one, who visits 
fier on an uneven night, has a daughter (born to him). So if one 
wishes for a son he should live with his wife on an even 
If a man co-habits in the forenoon he has a son whore* 
linquishes his own religion ; his son becomes a hermaphrodite 
^ho does so in the twlight (81), My soft, if a mm goes through 
a shaving, if he has thrown up, co-habrted or gone to a 
ejremation ground, he should bathe with the cloth on (8fl). 
No one should villify the celestials, the Vedas, the lwice-bor% 
virtuous and faithful men, noble parents, chaste women, men 
perform sacrifices or ascetics ; . if a proud man crki 



'down he should not htar him (83 84). A man 

should not sit clown on the bed or seat of either his elder or 
junior; one should not put on inauspicious raiment or use 
inauspicious words (85). One should use a white cloth 
and white flowers. A learned man should not make 
friends with a proud man, a fool f an insolent fellow, 

' one of a bad character, a thief, a miser, a covetous man, a 
bawd, the husband of one such, a powerful man, a bad 

'character, one of a scandalous character! one who fears 
every thing, and on? who depends* on destiny (8689). But he 
should contract friendship with pious persons of good way*, 
the wise, the powerful and the energetic (QO). A wise mart 
should always live with thane who an \ur.sed in the V>dic lore 
and who always bathe after the observance of pi nances. 
When these* nix person*, worthy of honor, a frkml, OIK* 
initiated, the king, n Smiildh^ a father-in-law and a priest 
themselves come to one's house she should woiship them, 
According ten his might one should entertain, e;uefully with 
Madhuparka, at the proper time those twice-born cmt k n that 
have lived for a year. Ami if one winhen Inn own well-being he 
should be obedient to them. He should not cjtiarrt I with them 
even if they rernonHtratt* with him (6193). Having duly 
worshipped the houstc h should at the proper place adore 
the fire and offer obl.ution* duly to it (94)* The first oblation 
must be offered to Brahml, the Morond to PrajUpatJ, the third 
to the Guhyakan, the fourth to Kavvapa and fifth to Amtmati 
(the, fifteenth clay of the moon) and then he should offer food 
to the spirits of the air. Then an I told you while* explaining 
to you the dally he should make offering* to Vinhwadevas, 
Hear now mi to the method from me* K<q>ing in view the 
different abodes and the reaper! 5 ve altare* u man ^htnild make 
separate offerlngi 10 lhi diKitu (95 -K>6, He uhould make 
three offerings near the clouc!*, the waters and the earth 
respectively 'and to the air ; b 'gwmmt with tht rant, offfr 
Ings fchouid alio be to t*ach oi flu* caciliu.d 


with due order (98) ; then gradually to Brahman, the sun,* 
the sky, the Vishwadevas and all the elements of the universe 
99). Then he should make offerings in the north to Dawn 
and the king of ghosts. Then reciting Swadka and Namas 
fee should make offerings to the paternal manes in the south 
(100). Then wishing to keep the remaining quantity of rice, he 
should take water out of the vessel by means of the space 
between his thumb and fore-fiinger and then reciting (the 
Vedic formula) Yakshaitatt, should, as prescribed, offer it 
In the north-west (101). Then taking out the first portion 
of tie rice of the measure of a Hantakara* and with Mantras 
for entertaining guests one should duly, according to injunc- 
tion, offer it to a Brahmana (102). Then with the res- 
pective Tirthas (parts of the hand) one should duly per- 
form the ceremony. By the help of the Brahma Tirtha a 
man should sip water on behalf of the celestials (103). The 
Hue at the base of the thumb of the right hand is called 
Brahma Tirtha and is used for the purpose of rinsing (104). 
The portion, dividing the thumb and fore finger, is cajled Pitri 
Tirtha. All offerings, to the paternal manes except Nandi- 
mukha,f should be offered through this part (105). 
Deva Tirtha is near the fingertips and with this part 
Hie ceremonies for the deities should he performed. At 
the base of the youngest finger, is the Kay a Tirtha ; with it 
should the ceremony for Prajapati be performed (106). In 
this way ceremonies for the deities and ancestral manes 
sk>uld be celebrated by the help of Tirthas and nothing else 
should be used for this purpose (107). For rinsing Brahtoa 
Tirtha is the best ; with Pitntirtha\ a person should perform 
ceremonies for the paternal manes ; those for the deities 

* Sixteen haudfols of rice make^a Hantakara. Sridhara in Vishnu-*., 
$fwmm. It Is^atso called so on account of the word Hani* appearing in the 

JfewJw jftafc is recited otk tMs occasion. 

t TOf fe perf**inin$ 0a festive occasions in honor of the departed manes. 



should be performed with Deva Tirtha and those for PrajUpati 
with Kayo, Tirtha (108). He should also offer Pinda and 
watery oblations to Nandi-mukha progenitors and with Praja- 
pad Tirtha he should perform that for him (109). A discreet 
man should not hold fire and water at the same time ; nor 
should he stretch out legs in front of dieties or preceptors 
(no). One should not look to a cow suckling her calf, ndr 
drink water held in the cavity of palms. Serious . or other- 
wise every sort of purificatory rites must be performed 
promptly ; one should not blow on fire with his mbuth 
(m 112). A person, my son, should not live in a country 
that has not got a money lender, a physician, a Brahm ana 
versed in the Vedas and a river full of water (113). A wise 
man should settle permanently in a country where lives 
a powerful and virtuous king, who has conquered all his 
enemies. How can happiness be in the country of a bad 
king? (114). A man secures comfort by living in a country 
which is ruled by a powerful king, which is fertile, contains 
self-controlled inhabitants who are just and void of envy 
(115). A wise man should live in a country, where the rhus^ 
bandrnen are not luxurious and where there is a plenty of 
healing plants (n6j. A man, O my son, should riot live in 
a country where these are always present, mz^ people eager 
for victory, persons who were once inimical and those 
always given to festivities (i 17). A wise man should always 
live amongst those who have good characters. I"have thus, @ 
my son, described to you all this for your well-being (118). 


lYlADALASA said: Hear, next, of the remedies fop 
things that should be rejected as well those that should be 
accepted. Stale rice should be always taken after mixing 
k with oily substances ; barley, wheat and curds may ho wever 
taken without oily substances. The flesh of a hare, 
tortoise, inguana, hedgehog, and rhinoceros may be taken, 
my son ; but that of domescated boar or of a domesticated hen 
should always be avoided. There is no harm of a eating the 
iemnants of a sacrifice to the paternal names and the deities, 
Nor is there any harm of eating flesh that has been desired 
Iby the Brahmanas at a Sradha and which has been purified 
irilh water being sprinkled over it, as well as by the recita- 
tion of mantras, as also what has been prescribed for medi- 
cine (i 3). A conch, stone, gold, silver, a rope, a cloth, 
potherbs, roots, fruits, a basket made of split bamboo, 
hide, a ruby, a diamond, a coral, a pearl, or the human body 
is purified by means of water (4 j). Articles made of iron 
are purified by means of water.; and those made of ston 
by being rubbed and the purification, of vessels smeared with 
oil, is made by hot water (6). A winnowing basket, paddyi 
a deer-skin, a mace, a wooden mortar, clothes a$d bedding are 
purified by being sprinkled with water (7). All sorts of 
barks are purified by water and alkaline substances. Grass, 
wood and annual plants are purified by sprinkling water (18). 
When a ttealen cloth or one made of hair is dirty it is puri- 
Jied by water mixed with mustard* or the husks of sessame 
Wheo a cotton cloth is unclean, my son, it is purified 
by water and ashes (10). Things made of inferior metals 
ajne purified by water. Wood, teeth, a bone, and a horn is 


purified with being burnt again. Alms, the hand of a 
mechanic, commodity of tcommerce, the face of a female 
are naturally pure. Thing??, that have been brought In car- 
riages, that are unknown, that have been carried by servants, 
that are always spoken of as pure* that have been lying for 
days together, that are light, that have passed through many 
hands, are by nature pure. Things in large quantities, a boy, 
the acts of an old man or of one suffering from disease (are 
by nature pure) (1113). A house, where heaps of charcoal 
lire lying about afU'r the performance of a sacrificial rite, is 
pure, as well as a womatt that gives milk to her child, or water 
that is curret ( thai has no bubble or that doev not give out 
bad smell (14), A ground In purified in time by being bur 
besmeared and with the foot-mark* of the kine. A dwelling 
house is purified by pasting (row-clung), Hcraptnjj, washing, 
sweeping ami worship (15), A place or thinu, that has been 
touched by hairs or worms, that has Inwn smdt by kine, that 
has bei'n infested by (lean! in purified, my <m, by water, earth* 
and ashes (t 6). A copper h purified by acid, ft line 

or leaden vessel iiy potash and a hell-metalled by 

and water and the liquid by the of (17). 

And all other things, when they are by polluting sub* 

stances, are purified an tiring with water and earth 

until the bad iinttll in removed. All other things are purified 
when both the:tr hue and bad smell are removed by 
two substances (iH), The water! that lies in its natural 
On the earth, and is capable of satisfying the kine> is pure. 
The meat i of any beaut brought by a Cfoamta/a or a carmvo* 
rous animal, is naturally pure (19). It 1st aid, my son, that 
cloth and similar things lying* on the high way are purified 
by the air (20), Dust, fire, a horse) a cow, a shade, the 
solar and lunar day, the wind, the earth, a drop of water, 

* Tf*f fir4>?*tt t>! up delicti Ghte wUhthe blade of 

dropping it in flrt, 

vicious things (2i> me mouui ui gwi*. ^ ^ ui ac ^ 
clean but that of a calf is not so. The urine and dung of a 
cow that has given birth to a young one as also the fruits 
dropped by a bird are pure (22). Like the commodities for 
sale, a sit, a bed, a vehicle, a boat, a grass growing on the 
way, are clean for the rays of the sun and moon fall over them 
and the air passes over them (23). A person should change 
his dress after walking, bathing, eating, drinking, passing 
urine ajnd excrata and should rinse his mouth with water (24)* 
If arp^d, clay, water or anything made of brick and clay 
is defiled for coming in contact with a polluting substance it is 
pimfied by air (35), If aheap of rice is polluted slightly a quan* 
tity should be taken from the surface and thrown away* Then 
by tiflsing the mouth with water and sprinkling water on the 
and by earth it -is purified (26). If a man unknowingly 
rice th^t h^s been defiled he should fast fofthree nights ; 
but if he does it knowingly he must perform the penance as 
laid down- (3 7), If a man touches a woman in her menses, a 
horse, a jackal, a woman, who has of late given birth to a 
child, the offspring of a Chandala> or an undertaker, he 
bathe for the purpose of being purified (28), If m 
touches a human bone covered with fat he is ckansedl 
iby bathing ; but if he touches a human bone without fat he 
hould rinse his mouth with water, touch a cow and behold 
rte sun (2g], A wise man should not walk over blood or 
spit or leap over an elevation ; nor should he remain in a 
or such like places during a twilight (30), A maw 
HLot talk with a woman that has no husband or one 
i$ generally reprehended. A man should throw outside 
house leavings, urine, and excreta and! water with 
his feet have been washed (31). A man should not 
another's tank withont digging therefrom five lamp* 
x> day,; buitooe should tatbe in the Gangly in any lafee or 
river or natural water (32), If a person touche* or -talk* 



a man who vilKftas the deities, the ancestral -manes* 
the holy books, sacrifices. Mantrap he is purified by" looking 
at the sun (33). If a wise man beholds a woman in her 
menses, a Chnndaln^ a fallen person* a dead body, an un* 
believer, a Woman who has of late given birth to a child, a 
hermophrodite, on nude, an offspring of a Chandala^ those 
^vho take out things belonging to a child-birth* an adulterer*. 
he is purififd by the same mcMns (3435). If a man touches 
forbidden food, a woman just delivered, a hermophrodite, a 
cat, a rat, a dog, a cock, one fallen, cast off and polluted 
things, a Ckfinttata, an undertaker, a woman in her menses* 
a domostitMtfld boar, a man unclean for child-birth, he is puri- 
fied by bathing (36 37). Hi?, in whose bouse Nitya art 
neglected, In-, who has been foreaken by the Brahmanaft, 11 
the worst of men and a sinful wretch (38), Therefore a man 
should not put a stop to Nitya (obligatory) rites, Except 
on the occasion of birth or death, if he. stops it, tm in to suffer 
bondage (39). If & man is impure on account of any birth 
or death, if a Hrfthnmna, IK* should not for ten days make 
gifts awl perform Kr<**wrmr*ny ;uul othr obligatory 
a KfthfttriyR, for twi*lv ami n Vaistbya, for 

(40)* A Sudra tthould abstain from bin own work for a monthi 
After that, each ordrr tthould perform their 
m laid clown in holy bonk* (,|i), Th body ha? ing 

teen cremated ouUidc the lunise by the |M*WORI of the 
gotra^ water tthould he |*iv**n to the dq>arted ipirit oft tht 
fint the fourth, th* nt*vt?iitli or the ninth day (41). On the 
fourth day f the and botwtt of the should 

he collected by the ptiwifw of the same blood, After such a 
collection their bod ten hecomft touchable (43)* Aftef * 
collection alt the rit?* Hhould be performed by who tre 

entitled to offer water* On the day of death, both 

. who can offer Pittd* (and who ctn offer water), may be 
touched (44)* In the event of death being brought nbowt 
bf wetp0n t water, fire, potion, fall from *n 




ft ,'f*; 



place or by the vow of starvation, or (by mere) starvation, tfo 
period of impurity lasts for only a single constellation (45)^ 
If one dies in infancy or In a distant country or after having 
left his home, impurity disappears on the very day. Some 
say that the period of impurity lasts for three days (46)* If 
after the death of a Sapinda another Sapinda dies, all 
the ceremonies, that are to be performed by the latter, 
become performable by the S&pinda on the expiration of the 
period of impurity calculated from the date of the first 
death (47). A similar injunction is followed duly on the 
birth of a child, both by the S&ptndas and S&mdttod&kas (48), 
It is enjoined that on the birth of a child, the father should 
bathe with the (cloth on 49), If after the birth of one, another 
is bora, in that case too the parity is said to take place by 
counting the days from the first birth (50). On the expiry 
of ten days, twelve days, fifteen clays and thirty clays the 
four orders should duly perform their respective rites (ji) 
On the expiration of such a time the Ektddisht* should bft 
performed for the departed spirit. The wise should make 
presents to the Brahmanas (52), If one wishes to raake 
(these ceremonies eternally (fruitful), he should make presents 
of whatever object is held in highest in this world 

and whatever agteeable object is in the house, to the accom- 
plished Brthmanas (53). After the period of impurity is 
over, all the orders, touching water, as also the animals they 
ride 'or yoke to their cars, weapons, whips and goads, should 
perform the usual ceremonies (5.4). Being- purified they 
should perform the ceremonies and acts that are ordained 
respectively for the Various orders for they lead to pfosperlt^ 
both in this world and in the next (55). The threfe Vcdta 
should be chanted every day and they 4hdti!d then*- 

Mves like the learned. Acquiring riches by fewful means, 
tibe$r sftould attentively perfdifa thfe skcrifices (56)* O my ton, 
otfe should Fefrlefrsly perform an act which does not bring 
icensmre dh his own self and which does ritt require to be 

thus, O my dear son, a householder acquires religious- merit,, 
worldly profit and desire, and becomes happy both in* this- 
world and in. the next. 


J ARA said -.Thus instructed by his mother, Hrita- 
ibwoja's son, on attaining to his youth, duly took to a wife (i). 
The mighty one begot offering on her, and adored the celes- 
tials with sacrifices. And he satisfied the behest of his father 
at all times (a). After a considerable time, when he became 
old, Hritadhvvaja installed hi* sou on the throne (3). Then 
the' virtuouH-souled u, desirous of practising austerities, 
entered into woods along with his wife. That great king 
descended on the arih as the great protector (4). In order to 
dispell the attachrmmt of her son to the enjoyment of pleasure 
Madalasl said these pregnant words to him (5). ' A house- 
holder is always filled with attachment and i therefore the 
abode of misery. You have adopted the order of a householder. 
When, while governing your kingdom, you meet with insuffer- 
able pain engendered by the negation from dear friends or 
begotten by the impedimenta put in by the enemies ^ or pro- 
duced by the low of wealth, you should read what b inscribed 
on this ring in minute letters (68), 

JARA said ; -Having said this, she handed over to him a 
golden ring and such benedictions as should be followed by 
one leading the life of a householder (9). Then having made 
over the kingdom to their *on, Kuvalayanhawa and bin 
retired into forest for carrying on asceticism (10.) 


y ARA said ; The righteo^s-souled Alarka duly governed 
his subjects as if they were his sons who were all, filled with Joy 
and established in the duties of their respective orders (i), 
He attained great joy by inflicting punishment upon the 
the wicked and affording protection to the pious. He gratis 
fied the deities with great sacrifices (2)* To him were born, 
sons who were possessed of great strength and prowess, 
noble and pious minds and who never trod wrong ways (3)^ 
Self-controlled as he was, he acquired wealth by virture an 4 
virtue "by wealth. He enjoyed all worldly objects without 
their interfering with each other (4). Thus governing the? 
kingdom, being equally mindful of virtue, worldly profit and 
desire, many long years passed over his head like a single 
day (5), Enjoying various sweet objects of life, he did not 
feel distaste for them ; nor was he satiated with the acquisi* 
tion of virtue and wealth (6), His brother, by name, Suv&hu* 
living in the forest, heard, that not having been able to con- 
trol his senses, he was carelessly given to the enjoyment of 
worldy objects (7). Thinking on this for some time and 
desiring to awaken him, the king thought that an alliance with 
the monarch's enemies would be the best means (8). With 
a view to take away their kingdom, the accomplished (S^vfthu> 
repeatedly sought the help of the king of Kashi who was 
a master of an army .and powerful animals (19), He made 
a display of his soldiers against the king and sent messengers 
to him asking him to make ovt*r the kingdom to Suvthu (lO) 
folly knowing his own duties, Alarka was reluctant to make 
Wfcc the kingdom at such a command and replied to the 
envojr of the king of Kashi (n), "Let my elder brother 
earning to me with brotherly: feeUags beg. the kingdom* From 



fear of an attack I shall not make over even a small portion 
*of my land (12). M The greatly intelligent Suvihu did not beg 
the kingdom of his brother. Begging is not the duly of a 
Kshatrya. Prowess is his wealth (13). Then encircled by- 
bis entire army, the king of Kashi advanced for attacking 
the kingdom of the monarch Alarka (14), Making alliances 
with the feudatory chiefs and vassals of the kingdom, the 
ittvador, through the servants of those chiefs, attacked Alarka 
and brought him under his control (15), By well-laid geigea 
he assailed the unity of Alarka and brought the guards of 
the forts, forest-patrols and wood-men under his subjec- 
tion (16). And among the feudatory chiefs of Alarka, some- 1 
were won over by the? grant of subsidies, t ome by creating 
dissension* and others by conciliation (17)* Thus afflicted 
|jy the policy of hin onemira the king became weakened.- 
His treasury was hirgdy drawn upon and Ins capital was 
invaded by the ewroy (18). Thus ansaiifd and finding big 
treasury drawn upon cvrry tUy the? king became greatly * 
cheerless and hi* mind wan very much agitated. (19). Over*- 
whelmed by a mighty dbtreHA, he thought of the 
which his mother Mndaiatift had upoken (so). Purify* 

mg himself by a bath and making Br&hmanan 

utter the benediction*, he took*out the piece -of writing and* 
$aw the letters distinctly written on it (21). When the king- 
read aloud the inscription of joy on his person 

and his ey*s wrrit rxjaiKled with exrims of delight (as)* 
(The words wttre*) : AMNnt*inticin liltouitl h renounced with, 
wfeole heart ; it one* cunmit rlo it, hr should associate with 
tbepioun; far the nsjforbtimi with th pitnm b a (powerful) 
panacen (33). Desiro should be renounced with all 

If one cannot do It, that should b*? dinTtd towards liberation \- 
(or Itberttion is a powerful medicine for thin (24). The king 
rend aloud the wortta ninny timcn and brg;ui to think of what 
to the well-lining of mankind* Having srttled thai. 
thU can be acquired by libeut'on ind thi iking that 

r. f tf; 


would spring irotn association with the pious, the -Mag- 
began to ponder over the subject of association with the 
moiis. Then with a greatly disturbed mind f he Went to the 
highly blessed Dattatreya (^526), Having presented him* 
self before that high-souled and sinless one, he saluted him ; 
and having adored him with due rites he said (27). " O Brah- 
raana, show your favour to me. You are the refuge of thft9$ 
iyll9 seek refuge with you. Remove my sorrow, who %m 
greatly assailed by it and possessed by desire 1 *. (28) 

DATTATREYA: "I shall, king, remove your sorrow this- 
very day. Tell me truly, monarch, what is that sorrow 
of yours (29)." 

, .JARA said:-r-Thu$ accosted by that greatly intelligent! 
Rishi the king began to reflect. Me-thinks, the abode, of the 
three kinds* of pain, is self (39), The wise and highly in* 
teiligtat king, reflecting long and repeatedly upon* the self 
with the Mp of self, smilingly said (31). "lam not earth; 
nor water ; nor light, nor wind, nor ether. But having 
been united with the body I desire happiness (32)* In this 
body which is composed of five elements, pleasure ami pain 
vary as regards their measure. If they belong to me, no 
good will be to me, me that live in some thing else (than 
body) (33); that- have mumberless bodies to go through in 
the course of eternity and that happens to be up and down 
an aecount of the diminution or growth of pleasure and pain 
When freed from egoism the self appears in its true light (34) 
Seeing the self in th4 subtle Tanmatras forming the third 
(st^ge of Prafcrui)., what pleasure or pain can attach to me 
who am sheathed with a body composed of five elements 
"(35). Pain exists in mind. What is called pleasure belongs 
t0 the mind also. As I am not my min4> therefore I have 
thither pleasure nor pain (36). As I am not my conscious* 

t%$ three pain$ according to the Sattkhya philosophy are I Adky&t* 
mika Le, t those proceeding from mild and body 2, Adkid&Mk&~ 
3. Adk&houtik* procQodlg fiooi w4cMsnt tc; 


ness, as I am trot my mind ; as I am not my understanding* 

how can pain, which is begotten by inner faculties and which 
is alien to me, be mine (37)? As I am neither my body n<k 
my mind. It appears that I am separate both from my mind 
and body. Therefore whether pleasure or pain exists in the 
rtind or in the body, I have nothing to do with either of theni 
{38)* Th e one born before this body desires to have this king- 
dom. K this body be only a mass of five elements on account 
of the tendency of attributes, what have I to do with it? He 
(my brother) is in it (body). He, however, is different fronk 
feis body an I am from mine (39). He, that has no hands 
4nd various other limbs, he that has no flesh. No bones an$ 
no nerves and arterien, what has he to do with elephants, 
horses and cars awl treasures? Man ha* nothing to do with 
them (40)* I have no ewmy, I have no pain, I have no plea* 
sure,. I have no city* I hiivt* no treasury, I have no army 
consisting of horses and elephants ami others. Ha has not 
them* Nor hah any one els**, as I luive not got them (42)* 
Aa one .(upace) is ftmt as manifold, when put i&to 

jugl jars, ete.f so the which in the 

same, us Suvahu, the of myself, m 

different bodies, on account of the diversity of 


t~Then having the high-souled Draft- 

DatULtrtya, bending low with humility, he said these 

words In reply (i), * 4 For my seeing correctly, O Brahmai^ 

I see that I have no pain. Those who do not see (things) 
correctly* are in an ocean of grief (2). To 


I b 

m 1 



whatever object the mind of a person is attached, it extract^ 
sorrow therefrom and gives it to its owner (3). The measure 
of sorrow that is felt when a domesticated cock is eaten up 
by a cat^ differs from what is felt at the cat eating up a spar- 
row or a mouse, because neither is Cherished attachment for (4), 
I am neither miserable nor happy, for I am above PrakritL 
The material, which is subjugated bjr mattef, is subject to 
pleasure or pain* 1 (5) 

DATTATREVA said : foremost of men, it is eten what 

has been described by you. The consciousness of self is the 

root of pain, and the absence of it, brings about its cessation! 

(6). From the instant of my questioning, you have acquired 

;s.uch an excellent understanding, that by it the consciousness 

iof self will be dissipated like cotten fibres 7, The mighty 

-tree of ignorance is in the heart ; it has originated from the 

foot; of ego } it has the consciousness of self for its trunk, the 

bouse and land for its branches^ children, wife etc, for its 

.twigs ; wealth and corn are its large leaves ; it does not grow 

'up soon; virtue and sin are its flowers; happiness and 

Misery are the great fruits j the relations formed out of ig* 

,rior&nce, are the water that nourishes it ; it b surrounded by t 

number, of bees in the shape of desire for actions/ and it 

stands in the way of liberation (8 *io). How can they 

attain to emancipation, who, exhausted with walking \n the 

road of the world and subjected to happiness begotten by 

ignorance, seek the shade of this tree (n)? Those only, wkr 

can cut off this tree of self-consciousness with the ate of" 

knowledge whetted well on the stone Of the company of the 

good, can go by this road (12), Reaching the forest of 

Brahman, cool, freed from dust and thorns, the wise, divorced 

7-4 " ' , i i^.^^^^^^^^^ 

t * VrakrW, according to the Sankhya system of philosophy. Is the matmfyd 
iiature, Puruska is the soul. Sankfaya system completely disavows the 
<ta*Jtott ( by 'volition, it is by thti urtioft 4 ol PrakHH fn*ttfr*J with Piatai* 
is made, The material or StkiO+Sarira ( boiyA whfefe it 
s! if subject to pleMn 




from feelings, attain to the most excellent liberation (13), 
None of us, O king, either yourself or myself, is identical 
with elements and senses and Is gross; nor any one of us is 
composed of Tanmatras* or Afanatf (14) none amongst 
us, emperor, do I see Identical with Pradhana% ; the soul 
transcends the body whereas all other objects, the combina- 
tion of elements, are composed of Gunas\\ (essential ingre- 
dients) (15). 

AI*AKKA said :* By your favour, reverend Sir, I have 
attained to this most excellent knowledge which creates the 
notion of distinction between self consciousness and the 
principle of greatness (17). But my mind being drawn to 
bo the objects of sense 1 am unable to attain to a state of 
equipoise. Nor can I make out how shall I liberate myself 
from the fetters of nature (18), Tell me, O Brahman, how 
shall I not be subject to re-birth ; how shall I be free from 
gunas and how shall I be united with the eternal*!' (ig). Tell 

* Th* subtln rlwwnH that nuke up the subtle body. 
t The intrileftuti foc-wUi**. 

| According Hi &mkky& teachers Prakrit i Ii called Pimdhnna or lit 
principle of great np. 

f Th word in thr fc*xl if that which the botiy* 

Thti ti th0*ott! In the 

| cannot he properly rtnufored by quality, or attribute. According to 

theSankhya thry into the 0mpo*iti0u of a matorial object. They 

aree<|uaUy 1 sentUt ingredients in the formation of material abjtcti ts thej 
for that iC a forest, In Sankhyti phtionophy th or tht if 

different Iroiti tli? body, l*hi:re are Again two bodieii, One i 
t or which I* *i*le of cUjitt*nH and the othar or subtle wtiwli 

is made 0! Tanmntrax or lite iiiblle imiti*ili?ikliarims, 

f As this chapter awl the nuwcrding threw or four chapters glv a c!esorfp 
tbft of the Yofiif wn think it belief to n brief outline of this tyittw of 
Hindu phUonophy la our to underiUnd It fully. 

The Yogi of philoophy wa* propounded by Patanjali j UK -object 

Is to teach th mttan* by which the human soul may attain complete union 
with the supreme iil, in*4y be from th* fetfeert of Nature nd 

tt4)irth* Ilttratty mnan^t coni?ntration of mint! upon the Divine tow!, 

Ty concentration mn bt by preventing the modifications of 



me, Brahman, you of great wisdom, this Yoga. 1 beg you 
with humility. Association with the good is always bene- 
ficial to mankind (20). 


ATTATREYA said: The separation of a Yogin from 
ignorance by knowledge is emancipation* and disunion with 
the essential ingredients of Prakriti (nature) is union with 
Brahman (i). Emancipation springs from Yoga and Yoga 
from consummate knowledge; O king, knowledge springs from 
pain which belongs to those whose minds are attached to 
the consciousness of self (2). Therefore a man, who is 
desirous of securing emancipation, should cast off attachment; 
from the absence of attachment proceeds the destruction of 
the consciousness of self (3), The absence of attachment leads 
to happiness; from the distaste for the world, the defects, 
thereof, are perceived j as distaste for the world originates 

or thinking principle ; by the constant habit of keeping the mind in unmodified 
state and by the practice of Vairagya or the complete suppression of passions 
Or the distate for the world. This Vairagya can be acquired by the contem- 
plation of the Supreme Being, who is unaffected by works, applications ftc. 
The knowledge of the Supreme Being may be obtained by repeating the 
monosyllable Om accompanied by mental concentration. This Om is composed 
of three letters A. U. M. significant ol the Supreme Being as developing 
Mmself in the Triad of god, Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. The eight mtans of 
tnental concentration are (i) Yarn*, forbearance or self-restraint (a) Nfyama, 
observances (3) As*a t postures (4) Pmn&yama, supposition of 
(5) Prafyahara, restraint oi senses (6) Dh&mna, steadying a! mind 
<7) Dt^am, contemplation (S) Samattki, a state of .religious fame, the out- 
come of profound meditation. 



from knowledge, so knowledge also springs- from the dis- 
taste for the world (4). That is a house wherein a man 
lives; that is food by which one sustains himseM;, that is, called 
knowledge which leads to emancipation any thing else is 
called ignorance (5). By reaping the fruits of virtue and 
vice, by performing the daily obligatory rites without any 
desire, by the dissipation of the acts formerly performed 
and by not doing new acts, a body is not repeatedly 
fettered (67). Know this, O king, as Yoga r which I have 
described to you. By acquiring this Yoga a man does not seek 
refuge with any one except the eternal Brahman (8). 

The Yogins slicHilcl first conquer their selves (by the knowledge 
of) soul for it b difficult of being conquered by them. You 
should endeavour to conquer this (self). Hear, i shall des- 
cribe the meant* (9). By Praxayama he should consume the 
short-comings, by tth&rana the sins, by Pratyahara the ob- 
jects of sentte f and by Dhyaiw the (tunas of the mind which 
is not controlled (10), As all the impurities of mountain 
tnetals are removed by burning, so by the suppression of 
vital breaths, the impurities of are consumed (if)* 

One In should first undertake the 

of vital The of two vita! breaths 

and is called Prilnftyama (ia) is of three 

kinds,. . namely and 

Alarka, 1 shall explain to you the of mil (13)* 

L&$h*i has twelve has twice the number 

and hat to have thrice the number 

(14)* Tfat time occupied in opening and shutting the eye* 
lids is the of a for giving the measure of 

Prif%Iina t the division called has been described 

to of twelve (15). By the first, perspi* 

ration should bu conqueredby the second, trembling and 
by the third! the (various) defects such as etc. 

should be duly conquered (16). An the lion, the -tiger an4 
the elephant are quieted down by training; #o the /Vrf/wn tl 

1 7 2 


yogis is brought down to subjection (by these processes) (i 
As an elephant trainer brings an infuriated elephant to subjec- 
tion according to his will (by training it), so the Yogia 
brings to his subjection the Pmna (18). As when a lion 
is trained, it kills only the deer and not men, so when the 
vital breaths are properly suppressed they destroy the impu- 
rities and not the body. Therefore a Yogin should always 
assiduously practise Pr5n3,yama (19). Hear now, of the 
fourfold stages of PnlnSyama which are the fruits erf 
liberation; king, they are Dkmsh] frfyti, Samvit 
and Prasdda] do you listen in order to their characteristics 
as I describe them (2021), The state, in which the fruits 
of acts, good and bad, are destroyed and along with it the 
impurities of mind are destroyed is called Dhva$ti(te). Thai 
state extending over all time, in which a Yogin, controls 
all desires, both of this world and the next, begotten by 
covetousness and stupefaction, is called Pr&pti (23), Thai 
state of Pranay&ma, in which the Yogin, by virtue of his 
consummate knowledge, acquiring the same power with the 
sun, moon, stars and planets, comes to know of the past and 
future and things not visible and greatly distant, is called 
Samvit (34-25). That state of a YoRin, in which the men* 
tal faculties, the five vital breaths, the organs of sense and 
the objects of sense are purified is called Pras&ia (26). Heat 
now, king, I shall describe the characteristics of Prftnftylma- 
and the postures that are laid down for those who also carry 
on Y g* practices (27), Placing himself in various postures 
(such *&Ypadmd$ana> .Ardh&sana and and 

reciting in bis mind the mystic syllable 'Om 1 one should 
in Yoga (28), Seated straight in an even posture 
contracting his two legs, with the raouth closed and the 
thighs firmly placed in the front, he should, controlling his 
so sit that hi* heels may not touch the organ of gene- 
and testes. He should so rake up his head that 
row of teeth may not touch th' other (39^30)* Fixing 



his look on the tip of his nose and not diverting it in any 
pther direction, and then obstructing darkne*s by passion 

and passion by goodness, and being stationed only 
in the pure principle of goodness, the Yogm should 
practice Yoga, Simultaneously withdrawing the senses 
from their object*, controlling the mental faculties and 
vital breaths, one should engage in practising pr&- 
ty&h&r&* Like a tortoise withdrawing its limbs he, who, 
restraining hi* desires, lives with his mind centered in the 
bout, sees the Divine soul in the hnman soul, The same 
wise man, should, after lirat purifying his external and 
internal limbs, Irani the throat to the navel downward*, and 
filling thebody with breath, begin practising pr&tyah&r&. 
These twelve form* 01 Pr&tt&y&tna are called Uh&raul 
(3135). And the two Uhftraua* are called Yoga by the 
Yogiu* acquainted with Tattwas or principles. When a 
Yogw, ever retraining hi* self, i* engaged in Yoga, all his 
impurities are deilroy^tl and he attains to a peaceful 
state ; and he sect the great Brahman different from the 
essential ingredients of Nature (3637)1 m also the atoms, 
ether etc., anil the pure Thus with ditt m 

Yogin should in PrBnlylma (38), He should slowly 

restrain himself like one ascending a Thus' when a man 

cannot conquer the soil (i.e., the bodily faculties) 

all the and always multiply* 

One should not set his foot on a soil which is not 
(39), In of restraining the vital breaths it if 

called (40), It I also culled for by It 

the mind is held or It m Pr&ty&hdra> 

. for by Yoga, who have their withdraw 

the senses from their objects such as sound */i (41). The 

* II is metapHorU*il. Sell Hew* means bodily fotiuttits. 

t it nun cAtmut a?|iUh tho union with tiwl, which i* tttt 

Ms lilt wiltotti rtitrAiiiI| iht bodily I iu 


expedients have also been pointed out by the great Yogins * 
the great Rishis, by which, obstacles, such as diseases and 
others, may not come in their way (42). As a thirsty matt 
drinks slowly water through a vessel or a tube so the Yogin, 
without any exertion, should inhale air. Dh&rartfa or coa~ 
centration should be first made on the navel, then oru the 
heart, then on the chest, then on the throat, tbe mouth, the 
tip of the nose, the eye,, the space between* tbe eye-bows, the 
head and the last of all on the supreme spirit. This 
concentration is called the best. These are tbe ten. forms 
of Dhhranh or concentration acquiring which- oe. attains to* 
unification with the Eternal Soul (43 45). If a Yogin, O king r 
wants to accomplish his purpose he should never engage in. 
practising Yoga when he is hungry,- fatigued or unsettled in 
mind (46). ,Nor should he, in extreme cold- or hot seasons or 
in other extremes or at a time -when, the high winds blow, 
in". Yoga or meditation (47). ID places filled with 
moise near fire or water,dilapidated cow-she dss,in the crossings 
of the four roads, on withered leaves, in a river, in crem attorn 
grounds filled with reptiles,, in dangerous places, on the 
bank of a well, on tombstones, on- ant-hills in all these 
places should a wise man* renounce the practice of Yoga 
(4849). So long as the quality of goodness is Bot properly 
developed, (bad) times and places should be avoided. The 
sight of an impious man* does qot lead to Yoga and so he 
should be avoided (50). Those,, that through foolishness 
practise Yoga disregarding the distinctions -erf time and place^, 
are assailed by shortcomings that ijnpede their Yoga ; hear* I 
sliall describe them (5t). Such an ignorant man is afKcted by 
deafness, decrtpitude, dumbness, the loss of memory ap4 
blindness andt fever (52). If the Yogins, through, their carer 
lessnesSj are visited by these evils, hear, I shall describe the 
'measures* they should adopt for counteracting (their 
actions) (53). For the cure of (xwlmas, caused by (some dis- 
prder in the wini}} one should eat Mghly keated Yavagu whem 



cooled down and apply it to the afflicted part, to the navel 
and the stomach (54". Yav&gu and air counteract all the 
ills caused by the disorder of the wind. In a similar treat- 
ment he should conceive in his mind a huge and motionless 
mountain (55). On the organ of speech being afflicted by 
deafness he should think of the organ of hearing, as one, 
stricken with thirst, thinks that a maagoe fruit is on the 
organ of taste (56). Then whatever part of the body is 
deseased the remedy should be applied there heat for cold 
&nd cold for heat (57). Placing a wooden peg on the head 
strike it with another piece of woodand the Yogia will 
immediately regain hi* lost memory (58). Let him also 
conceive that the immense space between the earth and 
heavens is filled with tempest and fire. These are the 
remedial measures laid down for superhuman impediments 
(59). If any superhuman creature enters into the Yogin's 
mind he should consume, it living in HIH body, by the concep- 
tion of fire and hurricane (60) > Thus O king, by all means 
should a Yogin protect his body since it is the root of the 
accomplishment of virtue, worldly profit, desire and emanci*' 
pation (61)* From the description of the characteristics of 
propensities and wonderment the to the Yogin of 

his knowledge ; therefore should be kept secret (6a.) 

The absence of the of the mind, the freedom from 

diseases and cruelty, fragrant odour,pa88tng occasionally urine- 
add excreta, delight of mind and melody of voice* 

these are the primary characteristics of the tendency for Yoga 
(63)* The prominent characteristic of this accomplish- 
ed is that people always with love sing his praises in 
his absence and 110 fear him. (64)* He only has 
attained to who with no impediments from 
extremes of cold and and not fear any thing (65) 



UATTATREYA said ; There are many obstacles to the 
Yogin 's realization of the spirit. Hear I shall describe them 
briefly (i). He longs for actions of desire, objects of human 
enjoyment, women, fruits of charity, learning, magical powers, 
wealth, heaven, the dignity of the celestials, the station of 
the king of celestials, chemical works, the raising of winds, 
sacrifics, entrance into fire and water/ the fruits of all sorts 
of gifts and Sraddhas, religious regulations, and as well as 
that of fasting, the performance of Purtta acts, the adoration 
of the deities and all other pious observances. He longs 
for all these being surrounded by those impediments (2 4), 
II Ms mind is inclined towards this the Yogin should with- 
draw it ; and then uniting his mind with Brahman he should 
FiDerate it from all these evils (5). All these impediments 
being remedied, other evils again overtake a Yogin orginating 
from the qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance (6). 
There are five dreadful impediments which the Yogin meets 
with in (the way of his) Yoga they are Pratibha, relating 
to intellect ; Sravana^ relating to the organ of hearing, Daivi, 
belonging to gods, Bhrama or wandering, and Avartta oc 
whirlpool (7). That by which the meanings of the Vedas, 
of the Kavyas (poetical literature) and endless learning and 
mechanical arts are unfolded to the Yogin is called Pratibha 
(8)- That by which one understands the endless meanings 
of the sounds, and catches sound even from a distance of a 
thousand Yojanas is called Sr&vana (9). The wise designate 
tibafc state as Daiva in which, he, equal to a deity, sees 
tienpletely the eight quarters like a mad-man (10). The 
which the mind of the Yogin wanders about 
without definite object and trangressing all sacred injunctions* 



b called Bhrama (11), The whirlpool of knowledge, agitated 
like that of water, destroys (the equanimity of his) mind and 
this impediment is called A^artta (12), All those born in 
the order of deities* having their Yoga destroyed by these 
dreadful obstacles, repeatedly turn round and round" (13), 
Tims covering himself with the white blanket of his mind, 
the Yogin, fixing his mind upon Him> should meditate upon 
the Great Brahman (14). Restraining his senses and living 
on restricted foot!, the Yogin, intent on practising Yoga, 
should conceive in his head, the seven subtile elements* such 
as earth etc., (15). Let the Yogin meditate upon the earth 
and he would attain to felicity, He should first conceive 
himself ai earth and then shake oR its Fetters (16). In the 
same way he should comprehend the property of savour or 
taste in Ap&$ or water, tlu; property of form or colour in Tefas 
or lire or light, the property of tangibility in K>jw or air, 
and sound in or ether awl he tthouM afterwartln cast 

of! these conception** from his mind (1718). When 
by IMH mind (J/imi}t he enters into tit*- minds of alt 
his mind by such Kt^ittlymg become?* tiuhtta (19), Alter 
attaining the itttcUrt'tual perception 0! til creatures 

* These a* tht* ftv* TmmMftli or tuttttr **iemtt # particle* out of which, 
the grosser atom? nt re rvulvrtl 4t*f *4fier with Mudtlki or intellect and 
AirnnMm or the of Individuality. Tk ftri! production is th Ifitittltetml 

jpnvcptbn t which i th* of 0r of individuality 

Which again pwiliice.* tli five r**i&r&f which ara I XAntit, ' ether ' or th* 
itibstmtum of lounr! j a, IVw air with the proptrtf of tangibility ; 3 
firt or light with the properly of form or colour 4 water with the 

fwpwty of favour or ; 5, /ViMtW, uarth will* the property of odour m 
itnett* Truly Sir Monier Willla-iiis " that :0fe be 

wcactly identified with the In iome of itx and 

funt!oni It with the vacant of Lucretlun/ 1 

t The can he by mind or mental facultlen. It it 

With AkatMra 0r 'elf the production of MttM or intellee* 

tat perception. which it nn internAt organ- of ptrcoption, voIitSofi 

and action, uccurding in tit* Hankhya stands between the five 

Of aid lift organ* of action. 



then the most subtle intellect, one versed in Yoga should 
cast it off (20). Alarka, the Yogin, who, after duly com- 
prehending these seven elementary particles, drives them 
away from his rnind, does not suffer from rebirth (21), Ob- 
se^rving gradually the subtlety of the seven elementary 
particles by Dhhranb or steadying of mind and dismissing 
them gradually, the self-controlled Yogin attains to the most 
accomplished state (22). king, by being excessively 
attached to things which he holds dear, he is deceived (23). 
Thus after comprehending that these subtle elementary 
particles ar@ connected with each other, the man, who 
dismisses them, attains to a great state (24). The distaste 
for elemental creation, engendered in the mind of a man 
conversant with the knowledge of truth, by the perception 
of seven elementary particles, leads to his liberation (25)* 
If he becomes attached to smell, etc*, he is ruined and is 
born again and again as a man, remote from Brahman, 
king (26). Having thus fixed his mind upon these seven 
elementary particles, the Yogin, king, can become absorbed 
in whatever subtile element he likes (27)* He can becotre 
absorbed in the bodies of deities, Asuras, Gandharvas f serpents 
or Rlksbasas but he never becomes attached to anything (28). 
O king, he attains to eight-fold divine attributes" 11 leading to 
annihilation namely, Anting Lagtiim^ JlfaAimlt, Pr&ptii 
Prhk%mya } hhitya, Vashitya and Ram&v&s&yitya (29 30). 
The state in which one becomes subtler than subtle is called 
; that by which one becomes light-handed andi quick * 

* A Yogin may acquire eight great powers vte. he will have the power of 
shrinking into the form 'of the minutest atom ; that of assuming a ^igantie 
foody; that of becoming extremely tight; that of becoming extremely heavy y 
that of unlimited reach of the organs, as touching the moon with the tip of the! 
$n|er; that of irresistible will (as, sinking Into earth as easily as into water) ; 
tiiat o| perfect dominion over the inner organs of the body j and that of mastery 
over alt beings, animate and inanimate. These strange effects, attributed 
to Yoga, prices, am the secret of the power whfefothU doctrine has at a!!' 
times exercised over the Hindu mind* 



is called L&ghim& ; that by which one becomes worshipped 
of the world Is called Mahimi ; that by which everything 
is obtained is called Pr&ptUsC)* That by which one becomes 
omnipresent Is Prdkdmya t that *by which one 
the lord of all is called tshitya\ that by which one can keep 
all under his control i* called F^i/iii/jathis is the seventh 
attribute of a Yogiti (32). That, which one can move about 
and do according to bin will, is called /C&tnavasdyita. By 
these eight-fold, qualities a Yogin can act like the God (33)* 
(The appearance of these qualities) O king, indicates 
(a Yogin'a) liberation and the annihilation of self and tbat he 
will neither be born nor increase nor meet with decay (34). 
He will meet with no metamorphosis or end, and he will not 
be afflicted by galling pain, burning heat and drying up 
through element t atich a* *arth t etc* (35). The five elements, 
sound and other properties, shall not. h able to subdue him ; 
he shall not enjoy them nor will he attached to them (36), 
kinjf, as a piece of gold, whim tmtlted in fire and freed 
from impurities like a had tmrtai, in joined with another 
of gold, so whim all the cvitu am consumed by the fire of 
Yoga, the Yogin attain* to unification with Brahman and has 
no (37"^3^) A* fire, when It is thrown 

into fire, is united with it, indentica! with it, 

the appellation (of (ire) and not any 

distinction, so when, the Ycigin O king, having his con 
Sftmtdy unified with the Brahman, he 

no (3940). An water, when It is thrown into 

water, is united with if, *o the of the Yog in at 

one with the soul (4 1). 



ALARKA said : "0 reverend Sir, 1 wish to know, in 
sooth, of the conduct of the Yogin as well as of the ways ol 
Brahman following which he does not meet with deteriorau 
lion" (t), Dattitreya said;- "Honour and dishonour are the 
instruments of success and anxiety to mankind. When they 
bear opposite meanings they bring on the accomplished state 
to the Yogin (2) Honour and dishonour are spoken of as poi- 
son and ambrosia ; of them dishonour is ambrosia and honour is 
the deadly venom (3). He should not place his footsteps with- 
out carefully examm"mg,the ground, should not drink water that 
is not cleansed by cloth, should not speak a word that is not 
purified by truth, and should not engage in a thought that 
is not purified by intellect (4). For accomplishing this object 
a Yogin should not resort to hospitality, the performance of 
Sraddhas, sacrifices, festivities and singing parties in honour 
of deities and great men (5). When the house of a house-* 
holder is freed of smoke and fire and after all of them have 
taken their meals the Yogin should go out for alms- 
and this not thrice a day and nor even daily (6). Without 
desecrating the ways of the good the Yogin* should 
so act that they may be dishonoured and discom Sited by men 
(7). He should beg alms of the householders and priesls-~of 
these the first is spoken of as the best (8), A Yogin should 
flways go to the householders who are modest, reverential, 
self-controlled, well-read in the Vedas and high*souled, (9) 
and who again belong to the higher order, are not touched 
by any sin and are not fallen* To beg alms from persons 
of inferior orders is considered as the most contemptible life 
(10). nv&gu, Takra> milk, Yhvaka, fruits, roots, Priyangu, 
Kama, Pipydka atvtt Sakkis are the foods (u). These are 

tnnt of their objects. These should be procured by aims 
and they should live on them with great concentration of mind 
and devotion (12). Before taking his meals he should observe 
silence and restrain his self and then saying Pr&n&ya* (he 
should sip water) this has been laid down as the first ob- 
lation (13). Then saying Aphnav^^Samnnaya^ Udhx&ya and 
Vytinaya he should offer the second, third, fourth and fifth 
oblations (14), Them separating (his body) by Prftn&y&ma 
(suppression of vital breaths) lie should eat according to his 
desire; then again sipping water he should touch his heart 
(15), Absence* of llu* tUtmre of stealing, life of celebacyv 
renunciation, absence of covetousness and hannlessness are 
the five ohservancftH of a mendicant (16). Absence of 
anger, to minister to the preceptor, purity , the restriction of 
diet and the thily study of the Ve.dn*- these have been 
spoken of as the live rt'jjulatiwm (to be observed by) them 
(17), He* should seek to ftfcjitiff* that knowledge which is 
the f <*we* of all and tin* inntruinf^nt of the nccom 
of all objects 4h* virir'tv oJ knowledge (however) 
Yoga (18)* One who thirst* after knowledge thinking 
should be, kmn^n ! ihn fw elo*tt not attain to 

knowledge tt ven vuthin a thousand Kulpa^t (iy) Ik*ing 
disa8sociated t conc{ut*ring anger, restricting di<*t and 

* These are the five viul brtittis r namely Prana t Apaiw, 
and Vyana. 

t Th true to PalaniaU ii that of the upreme spirit 

or the God j from it tht of all other things flows. According to 

Mm & man should this the <iee8(f all and by and by 

he wilt come lo know *vry In th world. If howwr ono knor 

of every ihln^ h in f lie world at the sacrifice 0! siifirenw knowledge 
or Pnr$ y*d*a he will nctyer acquire it vtn in thousands of yvars. According 
to the Arya Riilils thU /'ar4 y*4tut is the only supreme knowledge- the 
knowledge of thu grtl HwliwiAii which people should strive to acquir* if they 
want to Mberite from tlt three fold pains *ind the i-ttr af list 




train ing senses and forming the gateway by intellect one 
should engage his mind in Dhydna or contemplation (20). 
Resorting to mountain caves, forests or lonely places, 
a Yogin, intent on practising Yoga, should always ^ngage in 
contemplation (21). He who has been able to cpntrol the 
three Dandas or staff namely words, actions an,d mind, is 
called Tridandi and is a great Yogin (22), kihg, who is 
liked and who again is disliked by him who considers this 
universe, existent and non-existent, at one with Gunas and 
divorced from them, and identical with himself? (23). He, 
whose intellect has been purified, who considers a brick bat 
and gold in the same light, who, concentrating himself in all 
elements, sees only the eternal and undecaying Brahman, the 
stay of all, as existing, is never born again (24). The 
Vedas and all the sacrificial rites are superior to all other 
things- above it is the recitation (of Mantras) and abore 
is the road of knowledge and above it is Dhy&na or content 
plation which is freed from association and attachment By 
this one can attain to the eternal Brahman (25). By being 
self controlled, intent upon meditating upon Brahman, assi- 
duous, pure, whole-mindedly devoted and of restrained 
senses, one, who acquiries this Yoga/i attains to the union of 
the soul with the Supreme Soul and then to liberation pro* 
cecding therefrom (26), 


. UATTATREYA said -.Even hundreds of birth cannot dis* 
lodge a Yogin from his position, who, intent on practising 
Yoga, follows such a method (i) Seeing the Great Soul, 


manifest in the form of the universe, having the universe for 
his feet, head wad neck, the Lord and the Protector of the 
Universe, he should, for obtaining Him, recite the great and 
sacred monosyllable Om. The study of this (Om) is (nothing 
but) listening to its great and true form (23). A, U, M 
are the three letters these are the three M$trds* pertaking 
of the quality of goodness, passion and darkness (4). There 
is another half Mdtrd of this Om which is placed high and 
above the reach of the three qualities ; for its dependence 
on the Musical note Gkndk&ra^ it U called Gdndh&ri. Itst 
motion and touch is like that of an ant; it is perceived cm 
the head (5). As when recited Om go*s to the head so the 
Yogin, by every letter, becomes identical with Om (6). The 
vital breath is the bow, the soul is the shaft and Brahman is 
the excellent aim; so by assiduously piercing Brahman like a 
shaft one becomes at one with Him (7). That Om is the 
three Vcda> the three worlds and the three fires, Vishnu, 
Brahml and Siva, as well as Rik, Saman and Ynyush (8). You 
should, know truly that there arc three half Afdtrdf of Om; 
the Yogi D who is intent upon reciting it, ittninn to fusion or 
laya into it (9). Again A Is Intended to mean Bhu (earth) 
Bbuva and M the celestial region (10). The first J/^/r^ Is 
Vyakt^ (Brahma) the second is called Avykath* the third 
the chit or thinking principle ; and the half Mkirk is the Brah- 
man (n), The5 should be duly known as grounds for 
practicing Yoga ; by the recitation of Om t ill things, existent 
and noii-cxuitenti are realized (I a). The first Mhtrk i ffrasya 
(short), the second (long) and the third Plut&$ and 

the half is not within the range of words (13)* 

Thus the person, who thoroughly understands and meditates 

* At tylUbk foot. 

f Qnt of thi primary of 

| Tht third sound givn to vowel i the protracted or continuous round 

feting thrt fclifitithit length of th* thort vowel and occupying three momtnts 
bill utt^ranco. 



upon the great Brahman designated by the great monosyllable 
Om> renouncing the wheel of the world and being freed from 
the three fetters, attains to fusion or Laya in the Brahman 
the Great Soul (14 15). If the fetters of his actions are not 
snapped, he, knowing death by Aristha^ and having the 
recollection of theprestine birth, in another, again is born as a 
Yogin (i 6). By his accomplished Yoga in another life as well 
as by that in this life he is always acquainted with Aristka 
and does not sink down at the time of death (17). 


JATTATREYA said :-Hear, great king, I shall enu- 
merate the signs of approaching death ; by observing them 
the Yogin may know when he will die (i). He, who cannot 
see the road of the celestials, Dhruva, Sukra, the moon, his 
own shadow and Arundhati, meets with death after the ex- 
piration of one year (2). The man, who sees the solar disc 
without rays and the fire full of the rays of the sun, does not 
live more than eleven months'. He, who in a dream sees gold 
or silver in what Is thrown out, urine and excreta, lives only 
for ten months (4). If one sees ghosts, Pisachas, the city of 
the dandharvas and golden trees, he lives only for nine, 
months (5). If one, who is fat, all on a sudden becomes thin,, 
if one thin built man at once becomes fat, his natural lease 
of life will surely run out after eight months (6). He, who 
sets his foot on mire or manure, has the mark of 

* The sign or symptom of approaching death. 


the heel or the fore part half stamped, lives only for seven 
months (7). He, on whose head, sits a vulture, pigeoo, Kikola, 
crow, other carnivorous (birds) or dark-blue birds, does not 
live more than six months (8). One, who is assailed by a 
tow of crows, or a downpour of dust or who sees his own 
shadow iu the opposite direction, lives for four or five months 
(9). He, who, in the absence of clouds, sees lightning in the 
southern quarter and rainbow in the night, lives only for two 
of three months (10). He> who does not see his own shadow 
In clarified butter, oil, mirror or water, or even if he does so 
sees it without head, does not live more Uiana month (it). 
The Yogin, O king, from whose body comes out the smell of a 
corpse, lives only for half a month (12). He, whose heart 
and feet are dried up Immediately after bathing, whose throat 
(s dried up although he drinks water* lives only for ten days 
(13), Death In impending to him whose vital parts are 
pierced by the wind* clashing with one another and whose 
hairs do not stir even by the touch of the water (14). Death 
is present to him, who, in a dream, proceeds singing to the 
southern quarter in conveyances of beam and monkey*, (15). 
He also not live* when in a dream, a female, in a 

dark*ble and crimaou cloth, taken him to the southern direc* 
tion> singing and smiting (16). A learned man* ieeing alone a 
nude, and highly powerful Buddha mendicant in a dream 
laughing and leaping, knows death to be present (17), The 
man, who in a dream, hi* own body drowned neck 
b mire, with immediate death (18), II a man in 

dream hair** char-coals*, serpents and rivers void of 

water, he meets with death on the eleventh day after ten days 
(19). If a man in a dream, a highly terrific, dreadful and 
dark man, striking with uplifted weapons and he 

meets with immediate death (ao). If a jackal passes before 
a man or behind him or round him at sun rwe he meet** 
with immediate death (2t). Forsooth the lease of a man's 
life hat run out who feels hungry immediately after taking 



meals and whose teeth gnash against one another (2z). 
who does not perceive the smell of a lamp, who becomes 
afraid either in the day or night, who sees his own reflection 
in another's eye, does not live (23). The one, knowing 
self, should for certain perceive his end who sees the rain- 
bow in the middle of the night and the stars during the day 
(24), The lease of his life has run out whose nose becomes 
crooked whose ears are either elevated or depressed ad whose 
left eye sheds tears (15). The wise man should then know his* 
end to be at hand when his face becomes red and tongue- 
yellow (26). Forsooth should he know that his death i& 
imminent who, in a dream, goes to the southern quarter in a 
conveyance drawn by camels or jackals (27). He y - who pro- 
jecting his- ears, does not hear the sound made by himself and 
the vision of whose eye is lost, does not live (28)* There is* 
the end of his life who, falling into a pit in a dream, does root 
find the entrance and accordingly cannot come out (29), 
The upward looks, the eyes becoming red, dilated and* 
whirling, the heat of the mouth and the dilation of the navel 
surely indicate the future birth of a man (30). There is the 
end of his life, who, entering into- 5re h> a dream, cannot come 
out nor entering into water 1 can concve out of it (31). He, who 1 
is assailed by mischevous ghosts either in the day or in the 
Bight, forsooth meets with death within seven nights (32)* 
He, who sees his clean white cloth either a crimson or 
darkblue r has his impending death ascertained (33). It 
i$ said that Yam,* and Antaka are near those who have 
the perversity of their nature and character (34), The 
wise designate it as the end of that mart who disregards and 
villifies them before whom he should always be bumble and 
who are worthy of his respect, who does not adore the deities, 
irili&es the preceptor, the elderly men and Brfthnranas, who 
{foes not perform the obsequies of his parents, who doe^ 
.not welcome hi son-in-law and who insults the Yogms, the 
great men (3537). O king, the Yogms 

wise and other 

Snouia wiiu va.iv <-,!** uiau incse lore-Doaings Dear iruua 
daily or at the end of the year (38), Observing particularly 
king, that these fruits are dreadful they should always 
think of that time in their mind (39). Knowing full well 

that time and resorting to a place void of fear the Yogin 
should practise Yoga no that the time may not be divorced 

from its fruits (40), Beholding these omens, casting off the 
fear of death and marking the characteristics of the time 
when they set in the Yogin should engage in Yoga in whatever 
division of the day they may appear. In the morning, in 
the evening^ in the noon or in the night or whenever these 
omens arc seen he should engage in Yoga till the proper 
time conies (41 43). Casting off all fear, controlling the 
time and restraining his own self he should engage in Yoga 
with the Great Soul ; then conquering the three fold qualities 
and making bin awn soul at one with the Supreme Soul he 

should cast off intellect mil faculties (44 -45), He will then 

be able to attain to the great beatitude which is beyond the 
reach of senses and intellect and is incapable of being 
described (46). I have described to you all this truly r O 
Alarka; I shall now relate in brief, how you will attain to 
Brahman ; hear me (47). When the jewel 
is united with the rays of the moon it water and 

not when it is not united ; this has described as a 

simile for the Yogins (48). When the jewel Suryak&nt* 
is united with the rays of the mm it displays fire not 

alone; this is a nimile for the Yogins (49), Ant*, rats, cats, 
and live in a hou*c where the house- 

holder on his death they go elsewhere (50). At 

the of their they feel no sorrow. This 

instance of their dwelling, emperor, is , a simile for 
the Yogin* (51). An earth-worm, although its mouth is very 
small, up a heap of earth ; this is also an instruction 

(or the Yogins (52). bird*, mankind and other 

destroy the crested with leaves, flower 9 and 


fruits ; from this the Yogins should draw a lesson (53). Xh e 
top of the horn of a young one of a Ruru, although it is 
like a sessame seed, grows up with it ; seeing this the Yogin 
.should attain to the accomplishment of his object (54), 
Observing the movements of the limbs of a person while 
ascending an elevation from the surface of the earth with 
a vessel filled with liquid substance in his hands what does 
not a Yogin learn (55)? Knowing truly the exertion of 
mankind that they destroy every thing for their own subsis- 
tence the Yogin can attain the accomplishment of his 
object (59)."* Wherever one lives is his house ; that by 
which one's life is sustained is his food and that by which 
one's object is accomplished is his happiness ; so why there 
should be an attachment (57)? Although solicited as an 
effect is produced by causes so by intellect and others which 
a?e not his own he should strive to accomplish (the union 
With the) Great Soul (58), 

Thereupon saluting him and bending low with humility the 
king Alarka, filled with delight, said :< (57). O Brahman, 

* These verses are very h-n;e and an explanation is therefore necessary. 
The object of the Yogin is to cast off all attachment for the world and to effect 
an union of his own soul with the Great Soul For renouncing this attachment 
he shouid take lessons from the various objects, (48 Sloka) As by the union 
with the rays of the moon, the jewel, so called, discharges water so the mind, 
of the Yogin when engaged in the contemplation of the supreme spirit, enjoys 
a happiness which he cannot otherwise feel, (49)- As when touched by the 
rays of the sun the jewel, so called, displays fire, so the Yogin, by virtue of 
Yoga or concentration of the mind, can see the Great Brahman, (59)- From 
the ants and other creatures, going away to another house after the death of 
a house-holder and cherishing no attachment for him the Yogin should learn 
that after the destruction of one body smother springs up and therefore b 
should cherish no attachment for the body. fs*)A$ an earth worm, though 
an insignificant creature, can collect a heap of earth, so though the attainment 
of Brahman is a difficult task it can be gradually had by the practices of Yogi. 
- As a tree, enveloped with blossoms and fruits, Is felled by men, so tfcin 
body, however rich and great a man might be, will fall a prey to death. So 
the Yog in thou!4 cherish no attachment for this body which is frail 

gendered by the terror of a defeat from the enemy (60), 
By good fortune it is that the king of Kashi is gifted with 
prowess and prosperity for whose ruin I have come hither 
and been united with you (6 1), By fortune it is that my 

strength has been weakened, my servants have been slain, 
my treasure has been exhausted and I have been possessed 
by fear (62), By fortune it is that the pair of your feet 
came within the range of my recollection and by fortune 
it is that your words have found room in my heart (63). By 
fortune it in that 1 have attained to knowledge by seeing you. 
And by fortune it is, O Brahman, that you showed me this 
kindness (64)* With the advent of good luck to a man 
even an evil i converted into good ; for this calamity, by 
bringing me to you, has conduced to my well-being (65)* 
Suvlhu in a benefactor of mine, as also, the lord, the king 
of Ka**hi| by whom I haw been brought to you, the lord of 
asceticism (66). And that I, having all my sins consumed 
by the fire of your grace*, shall so engage in hard austerities 
that I may not again came by miner!** (67). Obtaining 

permission from you who are high~*ouled and can confer 
knowledge I shall off thin condition of a house-holder 

which i* a forcht of the of ill* (68). tf Dattfttreya 

taid : " Depart, O king, may yon fare well* As related 
hy me, shorn of attachment and do you so e%ert 

as may bring on liberation (69)." 

JARA Raid :- Being Ihwt addrnaaed and saluting him he 
came speedily where the king of Kashi and his elder 
brother Suvfthu were (70). Approaching the large-armed 
and the heroic king of Kashi, Alarka, as if smiling, ald to 
him in the of Suv&hu (71)* 4I lord of Kashi, 

desiring for kingdom, enjoy thi* kingdom earned by you as 
you like or confer it upon Suv&hu (73)." The king of Kashi 
said: "Why do yoi^ O Alarka, surrender this kingdom 
without a, battle ; such in not the duty of a Kahatriya and 



too are converasnt with their duties (73). Having brought 
under his subjection the host of ministers and cast'off the fear 
of death a king should take arrows aiming at his enemy (74), 
And having conquered him the king should enjoy all the most 
desired for objects and celebrate great sacrifices for accom- 
plishing his great object (75)." Alarka said : "Formerly 
such was my mind, hero. But now it is quite the contrary* 
Hear the cause (76). As the body of a man is but a collection 
of elements, so all the inner faculties and essential ingredients 
(Gunas) are composed of elements (77)* There exists only 
one Absolute intelligence and none else; how can then be, 
king, the notion of an enemy, friend lord and servant? (78). 
Afflicted by pain begotten by the fear of you } I have, O king 
by the grace of DattHtreya, attained to excellent knowledge 
(79). Having conquered the number of senses and cast off vari- 
ous associations I shall concentrate my mind on Brahman. 
Obtaining Him a man gets every thing (80). A man should 
set forth every exertion for obtaining Him save whom 
nothing exists. By controlling the senses one can attain to 
Him (81). I am not your enemy, nor you are mine. This 
Suvahu is not my malefactor. I have learnt all this truly. 
So do you seek for another enemy (82),*' Having been thus 
addressed the king delightedly rose up and welcom- 
ed his brother with saying, "By good luck it is so/ 1 He then 
said td the king of Kashi (83). 


iiii.i * A * -in- 

saicl : " I have obtained in its entirety thit for 
which I sought refuge with you, O foremost of kings. I shall 
go now ; may you be happy" (i). The king of Kashi said : . 
"For what did you come to me and what have you obtained ? 
Tell me this, Suvfthu. I have been stricken with great 
curiosity (2). Your great ancestral kingdom was occupied by 
Alarka. You urged me saying "conquering him give me 
my kingdom" (3)* Therefore invading your younger brother's 
kingdom I have brought it to your control. So do you 
enjoy it according to the custom of your family" (4), 

SUVAHU said:--"0 king, of Kashi, hear for what did I 
make this attempt an J make you do it (5)* This my brother, 
although acquainted with the real principles, was Attached 
to ordinary objects of enjoyment. (He thought) " my two 
brothers, although by stupefaction, were gifted 

with the knowledge of principles* 1 (6). king, an our mother, 
in our fancy, milk to us so die! she impart 

upon, us three the knowledge of principles (7). king, 
our mother placed, our mmd<i, the knowledge of all 

these objects which Is worthy of being known by mankind ; 
this is not all {8} Ai the good feel sorrow at the ruin of 
the one of many fallowing the same Interest so ts the with 
us, king (9), O' king, ficmt^jsed by the infatuation of 
worldlines* he S^ng down. We hive a connection with 
him; in this body he Is our brother (loj* Therefore I 
tamed that from calamity he would acquire distaste for the 
world and accordingly I refuge with you for making 

this attempt (u). C) king, from this calamity he has acquired 
tine knowledge from which hat sprung distaste for the world* 
My object it accomplished and so I depart. May good betiie 

f$J MARkAfoDfiYA 

you (12). Living in Madala&S/s womb and sucking in the _^ 
way her breast, may, he, king, wend the way which is not 
trodden by the sons of other women (f 3), Ascertaining all 
this in my mind and seeking refuge With you 1 made this 
attempt. My object is accomplished, t shall depart again 
to accomplish the object of my Yoga (14). O king, 1 do not 
consider these men as having their senses in due order but 
rather deranged who disregard their friends, kinsmen, and 
relatives when they are assailed by misfortune (15), The 
friends, relatives, and kinsmen, in the face of whose efficiency 
a person is assailed by the deterioration of virtue, wordly 
profit and desire, are censurable ; he is not (at all) to 
blame (16). By your company I have accomplished this 
great work, king. May you live in happiness, be the foremost 
of the pious and participate in knowledge. I depart (i;)/* 
The king of Kashi said : " You have done a great service to 
the pious Alarka. But why do you not turn your mind to* 
wards doing me goody x* The association of the pious 
with the pious always bear fruit ; it never becomes futik 
Therefore it is but proper that I should advance ia your 
company" 19, 

SUVAHU said : Virtue, worldy profit, desire and liberation 
are the four-fold objects of a man. Of them you have already 
acquired virtue, ivordly profit and desire. But you have the 
want of the other (i *. liberation) (30), I shall therefore 
describe them in brief. Do you hear with attention. Hearing 
them and discussing them properly, king, you should erfe 
for your well-being (ai). You should, O king, never cherbh 
the ideas^of I and mine'. But you should duly think of 
virtue for in its absence a man becomes destitute of help (22), 
Deliberating yourself you should know "To ' whom do I 
HHt?'' Deliberating thus at the end of night you should 
IE thinking of external faculties {33), Everything 
faWlta Invisible (Purusha) to nature is without my meta- 
mofpitdsfa Hid coMcfaftMSi* you should therefore know what 



{g visible and invisible ; also what else should be known, who 
should know and who am I ? * (24)* Knowing this in particu- 
lar you will know every thing; to consider what is non-soul 

(body) as soul and what is not own, as own constitutes igno* 

tance (25). According to human practice, O king, I 
am present everywhere, 1 have thus described to you 
everything you asked of me and 1 shall now go (26). 
Having thus spoken to the king of Kashi, the intellegent 
Suvihu went away. And the king of Kashi too, having woe* 
shipped Alarka, repaired to his own city (27)* Having installed 
his eldest son as king, Alarka too, leaving all human associa- 
tions, entered into woods for attaining the summumbonum of 
his life (28). After a considerable time, being above the in- 
fluence of opposite^, and separated from wife and dependants 
and acquiring incomparable prosperity of Yoga he attained 
the most excellent beatitude (29). Beholding this entire uni- 
verse, with the deities, Asura* and men, bound by nooses com- 
posed of the qualities and being perpetually fettered by them 
(30) by bonds originating from sonn, brother*' own 

relatives and those who are not one's own ; and thus appearing 
as various, and attached by the overcome by ; 

(31) seeing it hopelessly sunk in th$..*nire of Ignorance* and 
finding himself beyond it, the high-minded Al&rka this 

hymn (32) lc Alas what pain. ! We ruled this kingdom before, 
but I have come to know this afterwards that there is no 
felicity greater than Yoga 11 (33). 

JaDa said :~For liberation* da you resort to this roost ex:* 
cellent yoga by which you will get the Brahman, obtain* 
ig whom you will not (34) Then I. too shall go* O 

what avail is or recitation to me? The blessed 

always work for ascertaining the true form of Brahma0 (35) 
Therefore obtaining your permission*. and being above oppo* 
.. and not wanting anything I shall so, exert for' liberation 
that I may find everlasting pctce (36)" 

THE BIHDS said ;~0 Brahman, saying this to his sire mi 



obtaining his permission, the intelligent one, renouncing the 
company of his followers, went away (37), His father too, in 
the same way gradually acquiring good understading resorted 
to the fourth stage of life, namely that of Vanaprashtha, 
(38) Being united there with his son, casting off the fetters of 
qualities he attained to the highest state of Yoga by virtue 
of the noble impulse that arose in him at that time. (39) 
Brahmana, we have thus described to you in detail what 
you asked of us. Tell us, what further more you wish to 
bear of us ? (40) 



UAIMINI said: -0 foremost of the twice-born one you 
should describe to me the two-fold Vaidika rites Prwrittl 
and Nivritti. (Or leading to the knowledge of the means oi 
success and the discountinance of the worldly acts.) What 
.a.. wonder, that by the grace of your sire yew have obtained 
such a knowledge, by which although born as birds you have 
dispelled ignorance (a). Blessed .are you since your minds am 
in their pristine state and have not been agitated by ignoraoct 
begotten by worldly objects (3), Fortunately the revered and 
Intelligent Markandeya spoke of you, the dlspeller all doubtl 
fcfod.ignorance (4). Whilelroving in this greatly perilous world 
roea cannot get the company of ascetie* like yooreelves (5), 
U I cannot accomplish my object in the company of Hud! 
wise persons as yourselves, where can I then meet with 
wcoess f (6). I do not think any one else has' that clear un- 
derstanding which you have in the twofold actions of know* 
Udgp AMdy ttiat of the means of access and tbt disconti- 



nance of the worldly acts (7). foremost of the twice-born 
one, if your mind is bent upon showing me favour do you 
describe to me in full all these subjects (8). How has thisuni- 
verse,composed of the mobile and the immobile has originated ? 
And where does it go again at the time of universal dissolu- 
tion, great one. (9). How from the various families origi- 
Eate the celestials, the Rishis, the Pitris and other creatures? 
What are the Alanwantaras and the accounts of the various 
families (10). All the various creations, all the various disso- 
lutions, all the various Manwantaras (n). The position of 
the earth, the extent of the earth as well as the situations of 
oceans, mountains, rivers, and forests (12) The account of the 
cegions of Bhu and celestials, and of Patala and the move- 
ments of the even, the moon, the stars, the planets and other 
luminous bodies; (13). I wish to hear of them all from the 
orgin to the dessolution. ! wish to know also what will remain 
after the dissolution of thin universe (14). 

THE BIRDS itaid :(.) foremost of sages, fearless arc the 
questions you have put to us* Hear, we shall describe them 
at length, Jaimitu(is). Thin formerly described by 

M&rkandya to the of the twice-born 0110 Kraushtu/ 

intelligent, of a quiescent sou! and who had just 
completed the period of hi* atudentship (16). lord, this 
very question was- put by Kraushtuki to the high-souled 
Mftrkandeya when he sat encircled by the leading twice-born 
ones (17), Hear, O foremost of the twioborn, we shall re* 
count what said by the fion of the Bhrigu (18). Having 
saluted the lord of the ismverie, the lotus-sprung Brahmi the 
orgin of the world, who protects the creation in the form of 
Vishnu and destroys it in the form of the dreadful Rudra (19) 
Markandeya said : As as the uncreate Bnihrtil 

came into being there came out from his four mouths 
all Parana* and Veda* (20). The superior 

compiled many ancient samk/lax^ and made a 
thousand-fold division of the IWf^' (ji). Righteousness or 


Dharma, divine knowledge, renunciation, and power over 
the elements, these four can never be had except through 
his (Brahma's) instructions (22). The seven primal JKfskis 
(sages), the spiritual offsprings of Brahma, recieved the Veda* 
from him, while his other spiritual sons the primal Munis 
received from him the Puranas (23)* Chyabana had those 
Puranas from Bhrigu, and by him were the twice-born sages 
instructed in them ; by these high-soulecl Rishls again were 
these communicated to Daksha (24)* By Daksha again they 
were related to me in those clays, I shall relate that to you 
to-day which destroys the sins peculiar to this kalt-yuga or 
dark-age (35). Do you, Oh highly fortunate one, hear all 
this from me with undivided attention, I shall relate it to 
you even as I myself heard it, of old, from Dakskd(afy t 
Having saluted Brahmd, who is himself unborn, and without 
decay, but from whom has sprung this world, who is the 
refuge of all the moving and immoveable creat ion, the stay 
of the universe, the most superior abode (of the spirit),, the' 
primal person, from whom is the birth, stay, and final 
dissolution of the world, -having saluted Jffiranya-garuha 
the guide of all beings, and the mspirer of intelligence, 
I 1 shall duly relate to you the nature of the superior ele* 
rrtents (27 29). This creation, from the unmanifested 
source of matter and mind the Mahat of the S&nkhya 
philosophy, down to the Bisheska of Kanhd> with all 
its changes and properties, that which can only be 
established by the fivefold forms of testimony, and 
which is joined with the five avenues of the senses, 
which though in a state of flux is yet, on account of 
the presence of tfce-Purusha in it, in the main, beyond 
Change, hear all about it, thou highly fortunate one, with 
Superior concentration of the mind (3031). The tinmani* 
.fated cause, called the Pradhina by the Sdnkyas, which is 
named* by the Maharshis or great sages, as Prakriti-* 
of mature, composed of both that which is, and 



that which is not but simply appears to be^- which is 
.everlasting, which is subtle, is indestructible, not subject 
to old age, which cannot be measured, which is unrelated* 
devoid of smell, form, and taste, and is without sound and 
touch ; which is the source of this wbrld, born of the three 
.qualities Satva, Raja^ and Tama ; which is above loss or 
decay ; which is not joined to anything else, which is beyond 
comprehension,- which, in fact, is Brahman and existed from 
the beginning : by him is all this endless creation pervaded 
.after each Pralaya or elemental dissolution. Afterwards from 
this harmony oi the three qualities owing to the presence 
in them, of the soul, O Muni I at the time of creation 
again, through the movement of the qualities for purposes 
of creation, does the essence of the Pradhana arise and 
cover the unrnanifested Mahat (3236)* Even as the kernel 
of a seed is encased in its shell, so his Mahat enveloped by 
the unmanifesled Pradhana. This Mahat manifests itself 
in a three-fold form according as one or other of the three 
qualities of Satva, Raja, and Tama predominates over the 
others (37)* From this Mahat ^ then, the threefold 

consciousness! named Tayasa and I 

which is the of all the elements (38). Even as the- 

Makai is enveloped by the unmanifested this 

Ahankara or consciousness is enveloped by the Makat*, 
and from this, through the changes wrought upon, 
it by this, origin of all elements the Mahat ^ proceed. 
the primary elements of sound (39). He then from, 

the primary element of sound, ether or of which the 

property is sound*; and then enveloped this Akas& % 

ot which the is simple sound (40), There is. no 

doubt of it that from this is born the primary element of 
touch*, then air, which Is full of force, and it is known 

that touch is the property of air. or ether of which 

the is sound, enveloped the air of which the measure 

is touch (41). Air by undergoing change sent forth ihf 




'. 1 

primary element of sight. Air generates light, and of this, 
formvisibility is said to be the property (42). Air of which 
the measure is touch, enveloped that of which the measure is 
visibility, and light again undergoing change sent forth the 
primary element of taste (43). From that is born water of 
which the essential property is taste, and the water of which 
the measure is taste covered light of which the measure is 
form. (44). Water again undergoing change sent forth the 
primary element of smell ; from that Is born the earth, of 
which the principal property is known to he smell (45). la 
this -manner by the respective elemental* of the primary 
element, they are said to be measured. There can be 
no other specification of them, therefore are they called 
Abishesha (46). Owing to this want of any specification, 
these elementals, thus produced from ignorant con- 
sciousness, Ahankara, are neither tranquil nor disturbed, nor 
inert (47), From the Ahankara that is moved by the quality 
of Satva and that is of the nature of that quality, and under- 
goes evolution, all this evolving creation is simultaneously 
proceeded (48). The five senses and the five organs of 
action, these senses full of light are called the ten 
evolved Devas> of these the mind m the eleventh ;- 
all these are taken as the evolved Devas* (49) The car, the 
tactile nerves, the eye, the palate, and the nose, obtain 

knowledge of sound and touch &c, therefore are they said 
to be joined with intelligence (50) The two feet, the armt 
the generative organ, the two hands and the organ of speech, 
these are the five organs of action ; for by are the func- 

tions of walking, discharging the fccccs, generation, manu- 
facturing various articles, and that of speech are performed* 
(51) Akasi of which the measure is sound, entering into 
that of which the measure is touch, the tri*qualitattve air 
IB brought forth ; of this air touch is said to be the elemental 
property, (52) Both the qualities of sound and touch entered 
in the saroo way into the elemental of visibility, whence 


!s produced the tri-qualitative fire. It has the three proper- 
ties of sound, touch, and visibility (53) Sound, touch, and 

visibility entered into the elemental of taste, from that is 
produced water, which has four properties, and which is known 

to be of the nature of taste, (54) Sound, touch, visibility, 
and taste entered into the elemental of smll and this ele- 
mental of smell being condensed composed and covered this 
earth* (55) That earth possessing the five qualities of 
sound* touch, visibility, taste, and smell becomes visible among 
the gross objects f therefore are specified elements/ 

the B&keshas are specified as tranquil, disturbed, and inert, (56) 
These enter into one another, and hold up one another; all 
this crowded world as far as the region of the sun lias this 
earth as its stay and '57). Owing to their persistence 

the specified elements are declared to be the objects of the 
senses, and the succeeding elements receive the qualities of 
the proceedings ones (58), When existing unconnected 
with one another, and with their energies independent of one 
another, they cannot bringforth any of the objects of crea- 
tion, (59), Entering into mutual relation, 
dependant upon one another, coming into a mysterious 

tenion with onu mother, through the favour of the Unrntni- 
fested, elemental! the of the Pnrnsh^^ or 

soul, tad give birth to the egg of this universe/ containing mil 
objects from the la the (6061.) Like a 

buble of water is this and fr*m the elements, 

the great Qh highly intelligent one! in that 

water (/. *. exists in elements) (62). The soul, 

whose consciousnefts Is that of the Brahman grows in this 
Nature's egg ; he is the of the body, the First, 

and the (63), He Is the first master of the elements, he 

i*JBr&km&i who before everything by him Is alt 

this world both that, moves and that moves not, pervaded 
(64)* The into existence after him, as also the moun- 

tains Jar/$t ; the are as It were the inner waters .$f 


that infinitely capacious egg (65). AH this world with the 
gods, the men, and the Asuras that inhabit it, the islands, the 
mountains, the oceans, and all the multitudes of. the celes* 
tial bodies, are contained in the egg, while water, air, fire** 
the sky and and the earth cover the outside of this egg by the 
ten properties, (the five subtle and the five gross properties oi 
sound, touch visibility, taste and smell)! severally and jointly 
(67). It is also covered, along with these, with M/akaf^ which 
stand as their measure and proof j and with all this, in* 
eluding the Ma/tat itself, it is covered by the un manifested 1 
Prakriti (68). This is covered by these seven-fold 

Prakrifi$) and the eight Prakritis (including the which 
is the eighth) exist entering into one another (69)* This 
(collectively) is that Prakriti which is everlasting, and he 
Is the Puru$k&i who inheres in it ; of whom, called BrahmA 
1 have already spoken to you* of him more 

from me iu greater details (70)* Just as a man get* 
ting drowned in water throws up while getting out 
of it, both the things that are born in the water and the 
water itself, in the same manner Is the author of 

the Prakriti (71), The Unmanifested is designated as the 
Ksbetra or the field, and Is the knowei 

and owner of the field* Know all 10 he the specific** 

tion of the properties of the and the 

(62), This natural creation, by the 

first came into being, without any tike 

a flash of lightening (73)* 



said :- The revered one has duly related 
to me the birth of the egg,and the high-souled one has similar- 
ly told me of the birth of the soul in this egg of Brah- 
mS (x). And I desire to know in truth, O thou descendant of 
the clan of Bhrigu, when, In course o time, all this enter 
into final dissolution ? At the end of this period of dissolution, 
what becomes of the elements, and how are they reproduced, 
or whether do they exist at all (2) ? 

MARKANDEYA said : When this fleeting universe loses 
itself in Prakrit tor Primordial nature, the learned call this as 
dissolution into the Prakriti (3). When the Unrnanifest, 
having withdrawn unto himself the course of creation, lives 
in himself, then both Prakriti and Purusfaa remain in their 
cwn nature (4)* Then the two qualities of Tamas and 
remain in a of equilibrium, without increase or de-* 

crease and in harmony with other (5). Just as oil 

exists In the sesamum or butter In milk, so docs 

the third quality of In the qualities of TatMts 

and (6). The limit of the life of Brahml are 

100,000,000,000,060,000 years ; the length of the days of ih* 
supreme-lord in the as that of the period of his 

tn'd night (7)* At the commencement of the day, be the 
tin-caused of this world, the source of all, 

unapproachable by thought, the supreme spirit, who it 
Above all activities,-* (8), The soul of the world 
immediately into Purttska, and tha 

superior lore! of all quickens them thus by means of his 
superior union with them. (9). Just as pubescence quickens 
the nerves of young maiden, just as lightning quicken* 
the atmosphere, so does this lord, entering 




Prakrati and Purus&a, quicken them (10). And I have 
already told you that, when Prakriti Is quickened, that 
bright one called BrahmS, manifests himself through living 
in the "egg" (u). He is at first the quickener of the 
Prakriti ; and having quickened her, he becomes himself 
.her -spouse and is moved himself ; aud thus he resides 
in. the Prakrit^ holding to the two- fold characters of draw- 
ing in and sending out that which inheres in the Prakriti. 
At first he was the cause of the quickening of Primordial 
Nature, then he, the lord of* Primordial Nature, him- 
self became quickened ; in this way, through the dual process 
of dissolution and evolution, it is ht* who exists even as 
Nature or Pradhana (12). Having thus come into activity 
.he, the origin of this fleeting universe! though himself beyond 
the three qualities, took hold of the quality of Rajas g^ 
Brahmi, and entered upon the work of creation (13), As 
BrahmS, having created the creatures and comttig afterwards 
' into an excess of the quality of Satwa in the form of 
Vishnu, he ruled and sustained the* world as Dharma or law 
(14).. Then owing to the growth of the quality of Tama^m 
Rudra^ he withdraws into himself all this* immense universe* 
and becomes once more inactive. Thus though h in reaHy 
beyond and without the three qualities of A'tf/Vw, and 

Tama$) in the three periods of creation, preservation and dis- 
solution of the world, he takes to three c|ualitieg res* 
pectively (15), In as much as he, who before creation 
as. occupying by his essence all space., become*, by turn b 
creation, its mover and owner, preserver and 
he Js ...designated as 
As Brahmft he creates the worlcln, as he 
them ; and as Vishnu- he them ; yet the 
one, though he attains equally 
ittdtffftrent to all (17), is Tamas Rudnt, 
and Sdtvw Vishnu. ; the lord of the iinivt r$e becomes 
all tbes*! through the of the ; thus 



are the three gods manifested through these three quali- 
ties. (18). These are however joined in pairs, one with the 
other, and are related to one another ; there is not even a 
moment's separation among them ; they never leave one another 
(19). In this way, before the sending forth of this world, the 
four-mouthed Srahmtt^ the god of gods,adopting the quality of 
the Rajas > entered upon the work of creation (20). He is 
Hiranyagarhha) the first of the gods ; and in a sense, he is 
without beginning. This Brahmi, who resides in the sheath 
of the lotus-seed of the world, (L e. -who is himself the seed 
0f all that is-) was the first to come to being (21). The age 
of that high-Houlcd being is a hundred years. The calculation 
of these years is made on the standard of Brahmic measure- 
ment; hear this from me. (22). Fifteen Nimcsha (the time 
taken up in a twinkling of the eye) make one Kasta. Thirty 
Kastas make one Ka A/, thirty Kaltu make one ATuhurta. 
Thirty such Afuhurias make one human day and night, 
Thirty such clays and nights or two Pakshas or fortnights 
make one month. By .six ol these months is one Ayana or 
equinox made $ and by two Ayanas is made a year* these 
Ayanas or equinoxes are called the southern and the northern 
Ayanas. This year with two makes one day and night 

of the gods ; of these Ayanas the northern Aym^ forms the- 
day of the gods (23' 25). By twelve thousand years of- the 
gods are the four Yugas called Satya> TrctA &c- ; (Satyu % 
Tretd 9 Dwlpara> and Kali) formed. Hear from me their 
divisions (26). Four thousand years of the gods are called 
Satya*yttga ; the evening and twilight of this K##'are each of 
four hundred yearn' duration (27). Trctd is formed by three 
thousand yean of the godn, and its evening and twilight 
contain three hundred years each (28), Dw&para contains 
two thousand years, and Its evening and twilight are 
each of two hundred years (29)* most excellent 
Brahmana] KMh one thousand years of the gods, and 
its -evening and twilight are each said to be of one hundrtd 




These twelve thousand 

years' deration (30). These twelve tnotisanci years are 
called, by the learned, Yugas, and these multiplied a thousand 
fold is declared to be a day of Brahmi (31). Brahman* 
in such a day of Brahm twelve are generated, and 

the period of each Maxu is again divided into a thousand 
parts (32). The gods, the seven Rishss with Indra, Mann 
and the Maau's sons, the kings, are all created with eacht 
Manu, and are, as before, dissolved again with him (32). One 

' Manwantara takes place in more than seventy such Yugas t 
Hear from me an enumeration of the years contained in a Ua** 
wantara as measured by human years (34)* Full thirty crores 
sixty seven millions and twenty thousand human years 
make one Manwantara. Hear from me now the measurement 
of a Manwantara according to the year of the (3536), 
Eight hundred thousand years of the with another 

twice fifty thousand years, multiplied by fourteen, are said, 

. to be a day of Brahma* At the of this, it is by the 

sages, the periodical dissolution C?7"38)> The 

terrestrial, the celestial, and the etherial world* are all liable 
to destruction^ and therefore they are all than j 

only the Mahalloka or the fourth world, (39), The 

inhabitants of this world also, are 10 the Jana* 

lok& by the heat that is at the time of the dissofo* 

tion. The three worlds become one on this 

ocean, Brahmft sleepeth during Ms night The of 

the night of Brahmft is the ts of tilt day ; at the 

close of this night, he again this world 

by this a year of Brahml, multiplying It a hundredfold 
and again multiplying the result by a hundred, is fowadl 
the period of time*; called Pa raw. Fifty fttich periods ol 
y^ars are declared to be a (4142), At the 

of such a Par&rdka, most superior Brahmftna, occurred thai 
M^Mlpa which is heard of as (43), The i* 

the second Parkrdkai thou twice-born one,* of the /Calf* 
called Barton, wfakh it thought to be the. first .(44)* 


JXRAUSTUKI said : Tell me in detail the manner Sn whtch 
the lord, the lord of creation, the first creator BrahmS 
created all creatures (i). 

MARKANDEVA said : I shall relate to you> O Brahmana> 
how the author of this universe created all the mobile and 
immobile objects he, who is possessed of the six .qualities 
or powers, the hhagas^ and is everlasting (2)* At the close 
of the Makkkalpa called Padma } when the world existed in 
,a state of dissolution, having awakened from his nightly 
slumber or inactivity, the lord looked on the universe 
moved by the quality of &aiwa and saw it a void (3). Here 
is mentioned this which has been applied to Narayana 
who is of the nature of Urfihmana and is the cause of 
the growth and destruction of this world (4). I have heard 
it said that, N&r& is the of water. And he sleeps on .. 

that water, therefore he is called >(he whose shelter 

is water) (5). On awaking from this sleep, he inferred that the 
world had gone clown into that water, and then he became 
desirous of recovering the earth (6)* As of old, at the 
commencement of the previous K&lpas he had assumed the 
bodies of fish and tortoise, similarly now he assumed another 
body~thtt of the bcwr (7)* The* .*illprt:vading deity of whom 
ate made all the sacrifices of the Vedas, the author of til, lie 
who has entered into ali*-*the lord of the world the object 
<rf meditation of the souls inhabiting the J&nafaka 

"" having the luminous form composed of Veclic 

sacrificeij entered into the waters, and recovering the earth 
from the nether regions posited it upon the waters (8 9J. 
Ga that collection of water the earth stood like an immense 
boatj and owing to the exteudedncss of its body it did uot 


sink (ro). Then having levelled the earth, on the earth he 
set forth mountains. As the previous creation had been 
burnt by the heat of dissolution, the mountains all over the 
world were found shrivelled up by that same heat (n), These 
mountains had been sunk in the universal deluge, beaten by 
the wind ; and now they came up and became stationary in 
the very places where they bad mnk (ol Having divided 
the universe, adorned with the seven inlands, he thought of 
the creation of the four worlds as before (13). Meditating on 
the creation of this universe, as in the previous Kalpas, the 
unpremeditated creation, composed of the quality of Tama$ 
came into existence from it (14). 7V*;///i.v, or inertion, Mohtt 
or ignorance, Mahhmoha^ or infinite ignorance, Tamisra or 
darkness, Andhatamisra or blinding darkness and AvidyJt or 
nondiscrimination, these five, an before, <:amc into being from 
the high-souled Brahmt (15)* Proceeding from him thus medita- 
ting, the -unconscious creation, both the internal and external of 
which were un-illumiaed, where the pirit lay concealed, and 
which was composed purely of mountain**, became stationed b 
five different quarters (16). Beeaitsf? the principal mountains 
came to light in this creation, therefore it i* railed the mm 
creation. Having seen this creatkiti fruitlc**, fie meditated 
again on a fresh creation (17), From li inn this* meditating 
another Creation, that of oblique current*, forth, 

Because from this have originated all indirect and oblique 
movements therefore it is called an oblique current (18), 
The lower animals are known to bdong to this creation ; 
they are almost inert, without reason, follnwera of evil ways, 
and though devoid of wisdom yet ttta conceit of it 

(19). They are proud and. aelf-conct'hed, and lire of twenty* 
eight kinds or classes ; they have A Ilttli* light within them- 
selves, but are covered from one Another (20), Finding tbil 
crtatkm also as useless, he ; and from that medita* 

(ioft another creation came forth, It is the creation of SB 
upward current, the third creation, of the quality 



It moves upwards (21)* The creatures born of this upward 
current are full of love and happiness ; their inner and outtr 
natures are both uncovered and illumined (22). Tins third 
creation which gave satisfaction to his soul, he warned as the 
bright creation. Then, on the accomplishment of this 
creation, Brahma became pleased (23). After this he, at that 
time, began to meditate for the creation of another creation 
that should be uaeful and good. From him, the Unimanifest 
one, thus meditating, whose meditation is ever true, came 
forth the creation of a lower current fitted to serve 
his purpose. These creatures, though largely enligh- 
tened, are yet moved by Tamas or ignorance, and have an 
excess of the quality of Rajas ; therefore they are largely 
subject to pain, and are repeatedly born ; both their inner and 
outer natures* are illumined ; they are men, fitted to serve the 
purpose of Brahma (2427). The fifth is the creation of 
favour, it is posited in four claKss,l>y division into Bipary&ya % 
Siddha t Skilnta and Tuahta (28). The creatures of this crea- 
tion know both the past and the present object of all the crea- 
tures commencing with the elements. This is called the 
creation (29), The creatures of this creation are -all the 
recipients of sacrifices, and are also engaged in dividing 
these ; they are the tnspirer of all, they are known as the 
origin of elements (30). Of these creations of Brahmi, the 
first Is to be known as that of Mahat or Primordial Nature j 
the second is the creation of the measures of Primordial 
elements it is called the elemental creation (31). The third 
is the creation of degeneration and is called the sensual 
creation ; this is the natural creation made through' premedi- 
tation (33). The 'main-creation is the fourth; the main crea- 
tures here are the mountains \ that which I have stated as the 
oblique current, that Is the fifth creation,inhabited fey birds and 
insects. (33). The next, higher current, is the sixth, it is called 
the creation of the bright ones ; the next is the seventh, and is 
composed of human beings. (34). The eighth creation is that 


called Anugraha, it is composed of both the qualities of 
\ Satwa and Tamas. Of these, five are creations of de- 
generation and three are natural creations. (35\ Besides these 
natural and degenerate creations, the ninth creation is 
called Kaumara. These are the nine creations of the lord 
of creatures, described here by me (35 36). 



said,: The process of creation in due form 
lias, been briefly described to me by the reverend one. But 
JBfr^hmana, do thou tell me in detail of the birth of the 
gods and others (l). 

MARKANDEYA said : Brahmana ! at that time, from 
UrahmS, engaged in the work of creation, proceeded, from his 
mind, the four kinds of creatures commencing with the gods 
ending with the inanimate objects, moulded by their previous 
actions both good and not good / who notbetag liberate are 
by him drawn back at the time of the final dissolution (a 3)* 
Being desirous of creating the four cla$se$ of beings namely* 
the Devas, the Asuras, the Pitris and the men, he put himself 
in relation with that water (4)- When he joined himself 
.with that water, the quality of Tamas arose in the lord of 
creatures ;, he then Erst gl all produced the Asuras from hit 
thigh ($) .He- -then gave up that -bo : dy of Ms .which wa 
composed. only of the quality of Tamas. From that body tbu 
ifewn away by him was night immediately produced (6), 
a' second body being desirous of creation, and -. found 
it, , Prom the, mouth o that body, moved by th0 
forth (7), Thfc lard, tht- 



master of creatres f threw away that body also, and from 
that thus thrown away was produced day, which is almost 
full of the quality of Satma, the property of which Is light. 
(8). Then he took another body, which composed only of 
the quality of $awa f and from this were produced the Pitris, 
the manes (9). Having created the Pitris t he, the lord, threw 
away that body also. That body thus thrown away, became 
the twilight, existing between the intervals of day and 
night (10). He, the lord, then took another body composed 
only of the quality of ; from that were produced htsmftft 

beings, born of the quality of Rajas (if)* Having created 
the human beings, he, the lord, threw away that body 9 from 
that was produced the light of the moon* that which 
in the night, but with its face towards the day (12). 
then are the bodies of that of the gods f the intelligent 
one, called^ O thou twice-born one, night and day, and 
twilight and moonlight (13), Moonlight and twilight, 
as also the day are called the three bodies composed only 
of the quality of while the night it only 

of the quality .of ; the is of (14)* 

For this reason are the powerful during the day 

ad the during the jtbt are 

strongest when the moonlight nd similarly the 

JPitrls sre during twilight (15). They become 

undoubtedly strong and invincible to their opponents during 
these periods | during the opposite periods, they become 
different (ifi). Moonlight, night, day, and twiltght~thee four 
Are the bodies of, the lord, Br**f, composed of the three 
tptalttkt of mud (17), Thus the 

lord of having produced four bodies, being 

0?ertaken by hunger and thirst, took/ tt night, another 
'body, composed of the two qualities of JRajas and Tamas 
(18). In that darkness the lord who is himself uncatisedi 
having created ugly haggard through hunger, and 

with .overgrown they began to eat that body 


f ff! 



Among these, others who said, " we shall keep it," were tbt 
Rakskas ; and those who, thou twiceborn one, said "^ 
shall eat" it," on account of their attempt to eat became 
Yakshas (20).* Seeing them, the hair of this Brahmi 
became separated from his head through displeasure. Tbeyj 
thus detached from the head of the Brahmi, became moving 
and living objects. On account of this movement, they 
'became reptiles, and from leanness, snakes arc they called 
(2i)t Then seeing the reptiles, the enraged BrahmS, through 
anger, made carnivorous creatures of irritable nature,by investo* 
ing them with brown colour (22). Then came forth from hirt 
meditating on. words (rounds), the (jantiharvas\ and as they 
were produced by him while meditating on words soundi 
(lit drinking words) therefore are they culled Gandharva&> 
That lord, 'on these eight of bright brings having 

been produced, then from Ms own body produced other% 
birds and' beasts. From his mouth he sent forth the goats? 
from his breasts' he created sheep; from the abdomen and from 
his two sicks, the Brahma produced the bovine specie** ; from 
.the two feet were born horses with elephant*, htre% 

deer, camels, colts, and other anintalti of various formi 
(24- -26). From the hair of his body, fir jirutliti'ol herbs bearing 
fruits and having roots (27). In tin* way, the lore! having 
created the herbs and the beasts ;md others (<?., birdfc, 
-reptiles &c,) performed sacrifice*, in the bfgiiming of tht 
JCalfa/in the of the second or lite TrttbY*ga (28) 

Cows, goats r buffaloes, sheep, and colts, and the 

these are called domestic beasts >r animak. Hear frorft nt 
-tiffthost that are wild and live in the jungles (%}* T-ltl 

* AT, 8. Th*f h it 

. whkh th two wortl^ 

derived from the root 

in tliw 
unit Fili 
~<to kwi^j 

IP tttt 



from the root F 

" : t Hr again t If a to th* root* fit tftt two |A| 

<*/j* meumug both Tfetii wllli M 



ifturderous animals- with two hoops, the elephant, -the 
monkeys, and fifthly, the birds; the sixth class are the animals 
that live in water, and the seventh the reptiles (30). The 
Gayatn 9 the Tkrich^ the Tribith> the Sama, the Rathantara ; 
Agnistoma also, these sacrifices he made from his first 
mouth (31)* From his southern mouth, he created the Vagus, 
the versification called Trishtub^ and likewise the fifteen 
Stoma, the large Saman and Uktha~n portion of the Saman 
Veda (32). The Samans, the versification called Jagati 
and likewise the fifteen Stobham or verses in praise of God, 
the Bairnfa, the Atiratram he made from the western mouth 
(33). The twenty-one BrAhmanaS) the infallible Aryamana^ 
Anustubh with the' Bairaja> he created from his northern 
mouth (34). Lightning, the thunderbolt, as also the clouds, 
'the straight rainbow and the curbed rainbow, and also the 
birds, the revered lord created iheac at the commencement 
of the AW/tf "(35), The fnmtl and the evil creatures, are 
produced fioin his limhs; having first created the four classes 
of creatures, thn jjods the Asuras, the JP.ttris and men,, lie. 
then, created the immoveable and the moveable objects* 
Y&kshaSi PfsAac/tas (goblins) GandAarwtSt. and similarly -the 
classes of Apsaras (3637) men, Kinnaras^ Rakshasas^ birds, 
beasts, reptiles all these that are stationary,, and that move, 
that are perbhabk and that perish not, the works that they 
performed. in the previous creation, being created again and 
agair^ they perform those very functions (38 39). The 
murderous and the not-murderous*, as also the mild and the 
cruel instincts, as well as righteousness and unrighteousness, 
truth and untruth, all the*e enter into the creatures as they 
are meditated upon, and liked by them (40), The director of 
all/ even the lord himself, did join their senses to their differ- 
ent objects, in the bodies of the creatures (41), He made 
from the original Vedic-sounds, the designations, the form*, 
and the multitudinous .functions of the gods and other 
creatures (42)* In this way he named the Rishis . and Uiosp 



that are created among the gods, as also those that 
to being at the close of the night (43). Just as at the time of 
the various seasons the different signs of that seasons appear t . 
similarly do the signs of creation appear at the commencement 
of each cyc'e (44). At the close of the night, on the 
awakening of Brahmt, of unmanifested origin, at each 
are the creations produced in this wise (45), 



said:~0 Brahman, that tomtit 

; <of creation whence human beings sprang, which has btea 
'related by the revered one, kindly tell me in detail how 
Brahma created it, thou of noble aspirations ! tell m 
all as to how the castes and the qualities and the 
' ordained duties and functions of Brahmants and others, were 
created (i 2). 

" MARKANDEYA said : Mum} from the mouth of 
.' meditating on truth and entering upon the functions of 
' creation, were produced a thousand (3). They, 

born, were all moved by the quality of joint4 

to the right understanding. Another thousand It 

created from his breast (4)* They all by tit 

quality of Jaj$ t and were full of invindblt* 

Another thousand pairs he created from his ($> 

They were moved by the two qualities of 
and were full of energy and enterprlie. From his 
fe& created another thousand (6), They all 

'by . the quality of T*mas t and without beauty, and of 

little understanding* Theo thus ii 


a 13 

pairs, were moved by delight, and being desirous of ocie f 
another commenced to come together. Since the*, In this, 
Katpa, creatures are born in pairs (7 8). In those days the 
females did not keep time every month, therefore though 
the pairs came together, they never pro-created (9). Only 
once, at the close of their life they would give birth to pairs. 
Since then in this Kalpa creatures are born in pairs (10). 
Only once, through mediation, were creatures brought into 
being by the mind, and the pairs were pure and invested 
with the five functions, of which the objects were sounds, &c,,, 
(11). This then is the mental creation of the lord of 
creatures, as it took place in the beginning, subsequent to. 
that were produced those creatures by whom this world is 
filled (12)* The creatures could then use and enjoy the 
rivers, the oceans, the lakes and the mountains at their 
pleasure, and in that cycle both heat and cold were moderate, 
therefore the creatures could move about everywhere (13), 
O thou of high aspirations j having found natural gratifica- 
tion in the objects, they had no obstacles in their way, and 
00 envy, and no anger (14)* They were entirely without any 
fcabitation f they used to live in mountains or in the oceans* 
they moved about without any desire f and their minds, 
were constantly full of delight (15). Pishachas, serpents, 
Ktkshasas, as well as envious beings, beasts, birds, alligators, 
{16} fishes, reptiles all, whether bom of mothers or from 

were produced by unrighteousness, In those days 
there were neither roots nor fruits nor flowers of herbs and 
trees, nor were there the season* nor the yearn, (17), All 
times wore pleasant, and there -was neither excessive heat 
nor excessive cold ; in du<* time their wishes would attain 
wonderful fulfilment (jH) Th ;?..j -.n^ain whether in the 
foreooon s pr at noou, aneuever they felt any Want* it 
would be without any effort, even as they 

4skecL (19,) Audi similarly, whenever they wished, they 

put' forth their intellectual efforts Then agat% 


owing to the subtle powers of the waters in those cby$, 
die attainment of their various wishes full of delight would* 
be secured, such as would fulfil all their desire*. Those 
creatures had no need of sacraments for the purification of 
their bodies, and their youth was permanent (2021.) Without 
any determination they would beget creatures in pairs ; who 
Were like them in the process of their birth, in their form and 
beauty, and they would also die like them (31). They were 
without any conflicts of desires, and without envy or ill-will 
and in this way they would live, with one another ; the term 
of their life was the -*ame, and they wre ail without any 
distinction qf superior,, or inferior among them (23)* They 
would live for four thousand years* measured by human 
measurement, and were without any misery, atid did not come 
toy any harmful accident (24)* Now and then they would 
come into being a second time, always owing to the good 
'fortune of this earth, just as in course of time human beings 
are reborn (25)* Similarly, they, whose object* were at* 
tained always, would gradually die ; and mi all of them 
'being destroyed, men would drop down from the sky (36)4 
'Generally they would appear with the heavenly tree that 
"-satisfied all wishes, called the house-hold Aa//rtree and from 
' them- -they would gain the satisfaction of all their (27)* 

. In those days, at the commencement of the TretdYug& % they 
lived holding on to these heavenly trees. Afterwards fa 
course of time, of a sudden, attachment grew upon tham (ag), 
This caused the repeatition of the monthly which ltd 

to repeated child-bearing. Then owing to the birth of 
attachment in them, those called the household trees* - 

O Brahmana, next began to throw out other branches, n<t 
also produce garments and ornament* and fruit* ;~m thotet 
fruits of those trees was produced honey in quantities*. 
measured by pufahas (a sort of cup) and which was full of 
sweet smell atid flavour and of beautiful colour, which w*s 
highly strengthening and which was not produced By bees, . 



(29 31}.^ At the commencement of the Treta-Yuga % they 
Jived on ' this honey. Then, in course of time they were 
overtaken by greed (32). And on their heart being; overcome 
by the sense of ownership of these trees, they took possession 
of them, and on account of the wrong thus committed by 
them, those trees were destroyed (33). Then came conflicts, 
between cold and heat &c., and to overcome those conflicts 
they, for the first time, built houses (34). In deserts, passes, 
mountains, and caves, (an&her reading rivers) they took 
shelter, also in fortresses built in trees, mountains, and on water* 
Similarly they made artificial fortresses having measured (the 
ground) by the measure of their own fingers; for which pur- 
pose they had previously made standards of measurement 
(34 36)* Of those measurements, the first is the most subtle 
atom, then the Trasarenu f which is equal to six atoms, next the 
Jtfakireja i M'3Ki the end of an hair,then the N/sMa t ihtn the jw# 
then the yahdarpi these, eleven. yabodars make one anguli or 
finger, sixteen angulis make one pada or foot, and two pdat$ 
.make one Hta$ti\ similarly two Mash's make one- cubit;, 
which is the measure of the circumference of a Brthmyn.. 
tirtha ; four cubits make one bow-rod, and also one 
nadikayaga* Two thousand bow-rods make one Gatyuti) 
-and four times this is called by the wist&pufana which is 
the highest of all] (lineal or spatial) measures (3640). -Of 
.the four kinds of fort, three are self-made, the fourth is 
artificial, and they (men) always build it (41). -then 
twice-born one, house, village, Kketaka, and like them, 
'Drommoohka^ and suburb, anJl Karbataka or small 
towns, these three ; and villages without wall, and 
S&nghosh&t with dwelling houses built separately in them* 
with high walls and surrounded on all sides by ditches 
-these they built themselves (42- 43). One-half of a Yojam 
is called a bishkamWw ; aind one eighth of a bishk&mbu 
.is the measurement oC a pura. These furas were extended 
'.towards either ihc ease or the north and were spacious/ til 


Central beam supporting them was pure ant! went beyond fc 
(44). By one-half of this (Pura) was made similarly * 
-Khetaka and by one-fourth of a Khetaku was Karbatakm 
made; and that which was less than a Karbata by one- 
eighth, was called a Dronimookka (44)* The pura that was- 
.devoid of wall and ditch used to be called a 6arma; and 
another place the resort of the minister* and the courtiers for 
.purposes of pleasure, was called a Sukhanagar or suburb* 
^(46). Similarly the plac- -^irh \v .is inhabited mostly by 
jsudras } and of which the vu*ai-h o>nsiM'd in the capacity of 
the agriculturists, which was situate in the midst of cultivated 
-fields, was called a village or Srama (47). When people 
cotne from another place and live in a place, for purposes of 
transacting any business in the city, that is known by rota 
a residential quarter (&asutf) (48). The tillage which it 
>!08tly inhabited" by bad men, who are powerful, and not 
-owning any fields themselves, live upon the fields of other 
.people, this village, the place of resort of the favourites of 
:tfae king, is called an Akrimi, (49). Hating thus made 

for their own residence, they for the habi* 

tation of the pairs (54), Those tfdatures, remembering ti 
.bouse-like trees that they inhabited of old* made all their 
.^resent habitations after the model (52), J$t as tit 

the tree sends forth its branches, the 

Jarly sent out its branches, one standing below the other, mi 
rtbey similarly made coverings for the like the barks 4 

r teees (53), Those that of old, O thou of At 

J 4ice~bonv were the branches of the 
became the branches of the and for that 

.were Invested with the qualifications of (54). Hi** 

4ug thus adopted means to' the 

ibeat and cold, they began to ofpff*' 

4fetbf their cattle ad crops, of tht 

tion C the Kttp* with all the honej they (5f>* 

creatures cast and 



by hunger and thirst. Then at the commencement of 
the Treta Yuga in those days, they attained to miraculous 
powers in agriculture (59), The cattle and the crops were 
obtained by them, and for them the rains came down at their 
will j and on earth those rain-waters began to flow downwards 
(57). With the obstruction of this down-flowing rain-water 
rivers, and canals were made. The rain-water that had 
previously found the level of the earth, afterwards corning in 
contact with the earth, became faultless. Then fourteen 
kinds of trees and herbs that had not been cultivated by 
the plough, that had not been sown, and that put forth flowers 
and fruits at all seasons were created. At the commence- 
ment of the Treia Yuga season-flowers and herbs also came 
into existence, and on those herbs, O Muni ! did the 
creatures live in the Trcta Yuga, All of a sudden the 
creatures being moved by attachment and greed, in those 
days, began to appropriate to themselves rivers and fields, 
and mountains^ and trees and herbs, according to each 
person's might (58 62), On account of that wrong, 'O' 
thou twice-born one j the vegetables were destroyed. O' ' 
thou high-minded one, at that time those herbs were, all of a 
sudden, eaten tap '(by the earth) (63). At the destruction 
of those herbs and vegetables those bewildered beings/ 
driven by hunger sought the protection of Brahmft, of most ' 
superior will (64)* By virtue of his spiritual insight, he too, 
having then known of the eating up of the herbs by the earth 

the lord, the possessor of all the powers and riches, .milched' 

the earth having made a calf of the northern pole (65), By- 
him was this cow thus milched of seed-grains ; those seedsj 
being of two kinds, those that grew near human habitations 
(cultured) and those that grew in the jungles (wild)*, were 
created on the surface of the earth (66). These herbs are 
destroyed on the ripening of their fruits and are said to be 
of seventeen kinds, nanwly paddy wheat, yaba % kanu 9 jinjily* 
) ttMra, korvdoskt) cMmka^nishpab, 




adaka, mash, moong, masoor, chauakd, these are the 

seventeen herbs, these were, in the olden times, grown near 
hjxman habitation (6769). The herbs used in sacrifices 
and that grow in villages and jungles are fourteen in number 
paddy, yaba, wheat ^ anu, jinjily, and fn/anu t these are 
sqven, while the. eighth is. Kututhwakd, shaniaka^ and nib^r 
yqttfiai sagabedlmka^ kurubinda^ ^markatakn^ benu % aqd 
grpctka, these are said to be* the fourteen herbs that 
grow both near habitations ami in the jungles (7073), 
When, though thus fully brought forth, the herb* did n# 
again germinate, then he, the BnihmA, created mean* 
for their growth and subi*t*Mtcft (73). The self-created 
lord BrahrnH created the skill of hand born of work, (with 
reference to the art of agriculture). Since then the herbi 
began t to grow, and -became didtcult of clt com position (74), 
In tWs w^y -after the.estabUshment of the 0! subsistence 

forthern, the lord ^himself, established honour and precedence 
apnong them ^cpordtng to their rights and jalifi* 

cations 17.5). The chief, of the upholders of righteotisoesi, 
thus created the castes and the orders, .in the due 

performance of. tht*ir duties and the attainment of their 
pp^es, as also the .law of duty for of til 

The, honor of the Brahmanay devoted to sacrificial works is*, of the. station. of the lord of creature*, CM the Ks 
who, dp not run away from the field, of battle, t(te 
iq, that of Indra the chief of the The of tbe* 

IfyrishyQSi. living by the performance of their own daties isi 
tiy&s^M&rutka and the station of the Gftudhartm is asiignti, 
t^ the. Sudra, following the law of service (78), The 
o| ; the disciple who Ikes, with hist that eighty* 

. eight tThausaml Rights, the conqueror* of lust, Iiv (79)* Th*. 
station., which is., said, to belwig- to the Primal 

i|,;:tliat .of, th$, hermitg wbo live in jungle*. The station o{, 

of the ot* 

. .everything for 



and honour is that of the Brahman himself, while the place of 
the Yogis, is immortal life. These are the statements of the 
positions of honour among men. 



LMARKANDEVA said : Afterwards from him thus medi- 
tating came forth objects born of his mind, with all the 
functions and senses produced from his body (i). From the 
limbs of !iirit~ the intelligent one, came out created souls ; 
they, that is, who have already been described by me (2), 
All creatures beginning with the gods and ending with the 
inanimate objects, are said to be composed of the thtee 
qualities of Satwa, JRajas, and Tamas* Like these are ail 
creatures both animate and inanimate (3). When all tftese 
cofeatures ot this Brahmi the intelligent one, did not in- 
he then created others, sons bom ot his mind, andS 
Ms own-self (4)* Namely : - Bhrigu, Pulasthya, Pulaha, 
ICr&ttf, Angira, Maruchi f Daksha, Atri, and Elashishta, all 
bbrtf of his mind (5). These nine have been ascertained by : 
the PUran to be the sons of Brahztii* Afterwards Brahmi 
again created Rudra, born of his angry self; as also S^nkalfa 
attd t)h&Ym& % which last was born before even the first 
torn (6-*7). Sananda and other who h^d been of old 
created by the self-created one, they being a&tforbed in medi- 
tatidn and listless to everything, did not attach themselves 
to this ^orld. They were all possessed of ttie knowledge of 
that which' it yet to come, and were devoid {of attachment, and 
free from envy (8 -9). OnTtlicm, indifferent t!o the crcatioi 




of progeny, came down the anger of the high-souled 
Of this came forth a person of huge size whose body was 
half-man and half-woman, " Divide thyself Into two"~* 
having said this, he disappeared from that place (xo). He, 
being thus addressed, differentiated his female nature from 
the male, and divided the male portion into eleven parts, 
The beautiful and the not-beautiful, the peaceful and the 
not-peaceful, in this :way, he, the lord, the god f divided 
the male and the female into many according to colour and 
nature (12). Then the lord of creatures, the lord Brahral 
having created at first from himself, the self-begotten Munu 
who was like himself, and Satarupa; this lord Manu, the 
self-begotten one, took unto him as wife that woman whose 
sins had been washed by penance (14), By that person 
Satarupa had two sons both distinguished by their own works, 
Priyabrata and Uthnapada by name (15), Similarly she 
bore two daughters Rtddhi and Praauti. Then the father gave 
Prasuti to Daksha, and Riddhi to Ruthi* m those clays (16). 
He, the lord of creatures, produced from them Jajna with 
Dakshina; and then O f thou highly fortunate one, joined 
this son and this woman as husband and wife (17), And on 
Dakshina. were produced twelve sons of Jajna they arc the 
gods Yma of the age of the self-begotten Maim (18). They 
were the bright sons of Jajna born of Dakfthina, similarly 
Daksha produced on Prashutt twenty-four daughters. Their 
names are here given each by each, Srad'ta, Lakahmt, 
Dhriti, Tushti, Pushti, KriyS, Buclhi f Ujjl t Bapu, 

ShJnti, Shidhi, Keerti, these thirteen of Dakha'* daughters 
were married to Dharma while the remaining and younger 
eleven daughters, namely,. Khylti, Sambhutt t Smriti, 

Preeti, KshamajShannati, Anftshuya, Urjja, Shwadhl 

were given in marriage to Bhrigw, Angira/, 

Fukstya, Pulaha,, Kratu, Bahirta f Atri, and Pitara 15 

cden. ,Sradhagave birth to Kama, to Darpa Dhriti, ,to ( 
Niyama,.-Tvi$hti, 10 Shanta&ha, Pushii to I^obha 9 was 


born of Medhl, Kanda, Naya and Binya, of KriyS, Bodha 
of Budhi, Benoy and Bapu of Lajj& Byeboshaya and Kshema 
were born of SUnti, Shukha of Shidhi, Yasha of KeertL These 
were all sons of Dharma. game birth ,to Atirnukha 
and Harsha, These were the grandsons of Dharma (19 28). 
Hansa was the wife of Adharma and Anrita was born of them 
Niriti was the daughter of Adharma. Of Niriti were born 
two sons, namely, Naraka and Bhaya who married May!, 
and BedanS,. MSyl bore desolating Mrityu. Of the marriage 
of Rourab and BedanS, was born Dukha. It is said 
either Mrityu or Dukha gave birth to Byatlhi, Jara, Shoka, 
Trisbna, Krodha. All these are ungodly, They have neither 
wife nor children. Mrityu has got two other wives, namely! 
Niriti and Alakshmi, By Alakshmi he has fourteen sons 
who do his biddings and deal with men at the time of death. 
Hear all about them. They dwell in the ten senses of per- 
ception and action and in the mind of men to lead them to 
to their respective objects. They attack the senses with the 
help of anger and attachment and lead men to ruin by divert* 
ing them from the path of virtue* Some of them live In 
the Ahank&ra or egotism, and some in the understanding* 
Hence, men are deluded and strive after ruining women* 
Certain of them live in the houses of men. Amongst them 
there is one, Dushaha by name, who has a voice much like 
that of a crow and is so ill-dressed with rags as to be almost 
naked* He is always hungry and his .face is always down' 
caste and his voice is like that. of row. And he, the riches 
of penance, was created by BrahmS. to devour everything, and 
as this hideous and all devouring Dushaha who is. fearful 
to look was about to devour all, . Brahm&.at the creator 
the changeless, the pure, all pervaded, with Brahman, and the 
origin of men, said,* devour not this. world, withhold thy rage 
and be calm (3940). 

f . Bi^AHMA said :~This world is not fit to be eaten by tbce. 
Forsake - tby t anger, be calm, Give up this T&masa desiure f 



and throw away that part of the quality of JRajas which r$ 
moving thee now (41). 

DuSHAHA said : I am weak through hunger, lord, 
of the world, and am "thirsty and feeble. How shall I gait 
satisfaction, how shall I become strong ? What is my refuge, 
tell me, on what may I live in "peace (42). 

BRAHMA said: The house of men Is thy refuge; the 

unrighteous man is thy strength ; by the default of sacrifice 

thou shalt grow, my son. Useless weirds are thy garments, 

and I am assigning also proper food to thee. The wounded, 

that on which woims have grown, similarly that which has 

been 'bitten by dogs, that which is kq>t in broken vesseb, 

that which has been subdued by breath of mottth t the ft* 

mains of food, that which is not ripe, that which has not beetl 

cooked, that which is not worshipped by the strong, that 

which has not been sanctified, that which is by person! 

sitting on broken seats, and during twilight with their fact 

to the north, that which is eaten by- one dancing or playing od 

any musical instrument or singing, thfct which has beei 

stirred or polluted by women keeping time or or bf 

women keeping time, or whatever food or drink It decotti* 

posed, these and others shall I to for thy growth 

(4347). Whatever is offerred to the fire irifhctal 

faith, -or whatever Is given with to 

caste and station ara not known, as whatever is 

without due offering of watet, 'or is thrown 

without any purpose or whatever be simply toby 

tfevewa away, or given through or whutevnr 

is given by one overcome by anger, such polluted object, 0* 

Jaksha, is thy portion (4? 1)* Or Works 

aw performed for purposes of the world by a 

Vmm of a mother who had taken unto her a 

or, whatever is done similarly by a born of aittottof' 

wboJ has -taker a- second' husband) that is OJaksh* 

to the for %' sattofaction (50); 'Or works art 


undertaken for the attainment of wealth for paying* the price 
of brides, and whatever sacrifices are performed in accord- 
ance with unauthoritative and untrue scriptures^ or whatever 
is satisfied by mere wealth, and whatever is not studied 
guided by the spirit of truth, (according to a second reading 
whatever works relating to the next world are performed 
by men while weeping) all these are thy portion, I give 
them for thy satisfaction (5152), Those that approach 
wotnen in their family way, who do not perform the 
daily worship in proper time, and 'whatever is polluted 
by, uascriptural works or words among men, O Dakshahar 
always will these be subject to thy influence (53- 54). 
Iflhthe division of rows while eating,, in the division of ; cook- 
ing in vain-preparation of food, and in family desputes, will 
he thy, permanent abode (55)* When cows and horses &c are 
kept confined but not given proper food, and when the 
dwelling-house is not besprinkled with water of an evening, 
Shalt thou-be the dread of men (56). Those who when* 
by evil stars or when' seeing the three 5 kinds -<rf 
m earth-quake- &c, shall not perform any* sacri*-- 
fice'for-obviatingthe-evils due to tfaem } shalt thou overtake* 
m& overthrow (57),' Those men who fast' without 
c&use, those* who are addicted to wine,- women,- and gambling 
tVoso- who- speakill of their benefactors, those who adopt the? 
war of .the* cat (** 9. who are hypocritical), -who 'Study* 
t^ftttfof without knowledge (of the rites) and the works* of 
0:thoae-who shall live in forests 'for -purposes of penance 1 but* 
shall /not be the masttr of their appetites, and' shall seek/ 
vulgar enjoyments* and also the works of those Br&hmanas/* 
a$d ; Kshftttriya*a Vaishyas and Sudras- who have fallen' from 
the. duties of their station, and* those works that have for their 
object *tbe attainment -of -good in the world to-come> and what*** 
:ar, the, fruits of* those works, all these works, all- these, 
QhcJakshaJ. shall be^ thine.- I shall iel) yo-w of 'other things* 
for thy- growth hear ot them 1 with attention** 



(5861). Whatever offerings shall be made to thee, uttering 
thy name, with the words, these are thine, at the close of 
the sacrifice to the Vaishi/ya-deva shall be subject to 
thee (62). 

He who eats food duly sanctified, whose mind arxi body are 

pure, who is not greedy or avaricious, who is not subject to' 
his wife, do thou avoid his house (63), Who worships the 
gods -by offerings of ghee to the fire, and the manes similarly 
by offerings of cakes of rice &c- and who worships the sons' 
of Yama, do thou, Oh Yaksha ! avoid his (64), The house * 
where there is goodwill towards children, old men, women and 
men, and similarly towards friends and relations, that house* 
too shalt thou avoid (65. The house to which the women, are 
strongly attached and are not anxious logo out, and'arefult 
of modesty, always, Oh Yaknha, avoid that house (66).*The 
bouse where seats and beddings are arranged in accordance to 
age and relation, that house is to be avoided by thee, s 
Yaksba, through my command (67). Where people are kind ' 
and constantly engaged in good works* and satisfied with ' 
the commonplace necessaries of life, that house 'is to avoided 1 
by thee, Oh Yaksha i (68) Where at the approah of the spirit 
tual guide, the aged, and the Br&hman who art seated 4 

occupy their seats no longer (L i\ receive them with due* 
respect, standing) that house is to be avoided by alwayi,0h ' 
Yaksha (69). The house the threshold of which is not over- 
grown with trees and herbs, or where the of men are" 

not pierced with grief, that house is not proper for (70).' j 
Where the food of the owner of the lioniie consists of* what 
remains after offerings have made to the manes/ 

the guests, and men (needing food), avoid thou that house (71)* 
Avoid thou, Yaksha, men who the truth, who are< : 

forbearing, not given to injuring others, who are net remorse* 
ful, at'Well as those that are not envious (73). Avoid thou* 
those women abo who are devoted to the service of their 1 ' 
husbands, who avoid the of bad women/ aid who* 



live on the food left after their relations and husband have 
had their fill (73). Avoid thou also those twice-born persons 
(Brahmanas) whose minds are attached to sacrifice and study 
and religious exercises and charity ; and who are engaged in 
performing sacrifices tor others and in teaching others,who live 
by what comes as gifts unasked and unsought (74). Avoid, 
OhDushaha! that Kshetriya also who is always after works 
of charity, and study, and sacrifices, and who earns his liveli- 
hood by collecting rightful taxes or by receiving pay using his 
weapons (75)* Avoid also that sinless Vaishya who is joined 
with the three above-named virtues (namely charity, study, 
and sacrifice), who breeds cattle, and earns his livelihood by 
agriculture and commerce (76). Avoid, O Yaksha, that Sudra 
also who makes charity, and sacrifice and the service of the 
twice-born classes, the chief object of his existence, and who 
earns his livelihood by the service of the Brfihmanas and others 
(77), The house where the house-holder earns his livelihood 
by works that do not go against the injunctions of the Kw?< 
and the Law, and where his wife fallows him m everything^ tad 
where the son worships the spiritual guide r the gods/ -tfld: * 
uimilarly his father; and where the wife worships the husband/ 
bow can there be any fear of Alakshml (the goddess of " 
poverty and misfortune) in that he-use ? (78-79) Where early in 
the morning and in the evening the house is besmeared and 
besprinkled with water, and where sacrificial offerings are 
adorned with flowers, that house thou canst not strike (80)* 
Where the beddings are not seen by the sun, and where fira 
and water exists alwayn, and where lights are presented to tha 
sun, that house is loved by Lakshmt, the goddess of fortune (81)* 
Where there are bitll,and sandal- w0od r and Vka r anfd mirror } hoaey 
and and the K&sha as also where there are Brlh* 

mft&fts and made of coper, that house is not be possess* 

ed by thee* (82), Where the trees are thorny, where there it 

* -Built sandal, *foo, mirr&r, &c arc all needed for household sacrifice* 
hence the jtaacft meani where fcfetr art tacr&cbJi appliances, 



* creappr, where the wife is a widow *&<> ha taker 
bpsband, where there is an anthill, thai, Yaksha 
jthy tfixiple (83). The house where there are five men 
women, thr^r cow, ^nd where the fire ig kindled in 
darkoes?> that house? 1$ thy abocli* (84). The house where 
|h$re an? one goat, two chamari three cows, fi V4 

buffaloes, six horse9 seven elephants, that house, Q Yakshtt 
do, thaw destroy soon (5). When tthoveN, and cutlases, 
cooking utensils and plates and oilier vessels are thrown 
everywhere , they shall give thee excellent shelter (81 
ijyorosn sit on pentle and the grain grinding vessel tn4 
on the wooden of the door-Cram^ or on mbbigh 

thaa sitting 1 they, conv^rs^ with one And other, these li^ 
i Ya.k$ha ! thy benefactor (87). The house where bath 
and puddles are threnhtd, and similarly where the 
are^' there, Dunhaim t mayeat thoti 
at thy will (88). In the honae of endleM sin wher^ 
fice i^ giwn on cooking wit .rsstis or on the lid thereof, or ty* 
RpQo,n oc on a cutlass or other weapon, there thalt thou il 
superior repose (89^. The liouse whr*re there art humanb(m% 
pr, where the dead body remains for one day and night, therfy 
0; Yaksha, is thy abode, as alto of other (90), 

Whoever take their food without giving tnci 

to. fritods and relations, as to thcww who are partakers el 
the funereal cafee.* and water, thou shaft at those 

wen (9^). The hpuse where lotu f lotuii f y^ug 

conjqgal t I.iciiy, md hull and eft 

tboa that house (92). The without' 

Capons and with, weapons hut without war art 
do thpu avoid |htt f9|i When the : 

tke feasts celebrated of old* in their own hotine, as they f 
be celebrated btfore, imovt not thou in that 

U<HM! in two diffsnot 

to the n^4 

TBosd Who bathe in iiifrirlti of iflr Deduced by tfiA 
fag fati^ br In Walter coritaih&d iri it pot, br in wdter 
from wet cftithes, orm that In which the ehete 6f the fliift 
hfi^e b^ert dipped, go io them of i^tl-riature (95). Thtftf art 
ftot tb keep the compatiy of men who fofldw the ordinatncei 
uf their class, pferfofmi Japa and Homa, and the 
Worship of godSf according to the ctrstotW of the coutttry, 
in due forms prescribed fdr th^ partictilatf titrie ot yuga 'to 
which they bdortg aftd Who dlaly follow the rules of 
s^rid tradition (96). 

MARKANDEYA ^ald : having t6ld all !hi^ to 
Brablmi at omce disap^eired, and the former also followed 
ttoe injunctions asi they were related by him whtus' born^ iri 
the Idtus (97). 


*A\8 .-^D'ushiha h^tfsc Wife kribtftf by 

the name of N^rnasti, wh'd hi^f borti of s ihd Wife ol 
*b6'had s^ert a C&kMtd wliTe ! keepirtf tiihe (0- ^" 
twor Were b'Wn ^xteert issues iktihldurgf" oivtt *Il tft*' 
eight of whcwt' tn<I ] efgM diugfHtfets 1 andf ill df 

exceedingly ($). Oant'aUrisffa, aiitf 1 Ukrt^ 

whild toother wai . Parikteria, An^adhuft, Stwakuni, 
GarbbaliK, iiid anitfidr' 

art dbtinctly and palpably allegorical vl (i) Ml 
! % hM tte'h; (a) thb rtnrtib^of ^r^eebH is ricli-dWr, (3)' 
e, (4) H4WWbuifttse Hmbi; (J> Virft'uiti';' () Hi^Hdi te^a U Irf 

tl etI.fckt of theeho^f, (7) The destroyer offaiMs, (8) The desifoyr of 
harvest flmllarly the names of the daughter! also utoow that they tie mt* 



they are the sons of jthese two (3). There were also 
.others, daughters, similarly eight in number, hear also as their 
names from me (4). The first Is Niyojika, similarly another is 
Birodhini, SwayamharikS, as also BhrHmani, and Rita- 
brika ; Smritihara and Bijahara ? these are two other 
daughters of this pair who are very cruel and the eighth is 
Bidveshini, she who causes dread to men (56). I shall 
relate to you the works of these, and how the evil caused by 
them may be averted ; and also hear,oh thou superior Brahman 
the works of the eight sons (of Dubshaha and Nirmasti) (7). 
Dantakristi living in the teeth of the new born babes, being 
exultant, tries to open the way for the corning of Dushaha- 
(8). The -means of averting his evil is to throw white 
mustard seed on the bed as also on the teeth of the sleep- 
ing . child (9), By bathing in the water containing 
white herbs, similarly by the chanting of right scriptures, 
by wearing ushtra-kantaka and the bone of the rhinoceros, 
and silk dresses, (is the evil caused by Dantalcristi averted) 
(10). The other son, similarly exists, who says again and 
again, this is good, and thus impels men to evil, therefore 
is he called Tathokti there is no doubt about It (11), There* 
fore to avert the evil caused by him, the unseen good is 
always to be described by the foamed, and the name of 
Janirdana is to be chanted, or that of Brahmft the preceptor 
of the whole world both that moves, that moves not ; or that 
of the family god (12),, He who changes the of the 

womb of one woman into that of another, and changes 
the speech of the speaker into something contrary to 
what he meant U the son called Paribartbaka (13), 
The . evil caused by him is also to be be white 

mustard ; and by repeating mystic formulas* do the learned 
save i themselves from him (14), Angadhuk like firs 
the wil of , irruptions on the limbs (of men), he is to be 
averted with the Kum grass (15). Living in crowt and 1 
other birds as well as entering into dogs and Jackals* the 


other son, it is said, direct men's good and evil (16). There- 
fore has the lord of creatures said this that in evil things 
delay as also an absolute giving up of all endeavours 
is proper, while in matters that are good men should 
work with despatch (17). The other son living within 
men's mouth, O most superior of twice-born persons; in 
half a second, eats up all the works of men and destroys 
their good name and good-will (18). By hearing instructions 
from Br&hmanas, by the adoration of gods, and also by draw- 
ing out certain specific herbs by the root, twice-born one | 
and by bathing in water containing the urine of the cow and 
white mustard, by worshipping the natal star of the person, 
and also by the worship of other stars, as also by seeing 
weapons which are used for the support of righteousness, and 
by disregaad of this world is the Gandab&n propitiated (19-20). 
Similarly the other, GarbahSl by residing in the womb of 
pregnant women destroy their fruit. The safety of the 
foetus against him is always to be secured by perpetual 
observance of purity (21) by writing wellknown mckntras^ 
by wearing garlands &c., as are usually used, and by living fo 
purified and clean houses, thou twice-born one, and 
by not overexerting one's self is the evil produced by 
Garbahl averted (22), Similarly another the Shashyaht 
who destroys the growth of grainy his evil is to be averted 
by putting on wornout shoes (23). Likewise is his evil 
averted by walking southwards, by the entrance of a 
candala into the field, and by offerings given outside the 
field, and by chanting hymns dedicated to the moon and 
the clouds (24). The daughter who directs men and other 
beings to rob other's wife and wealth she is NiyojikH (25). 
By reading pure scriptures by giving up anger and greed, 
fitc.) "she directs me to these" thus thinking and by giving up 
all conflicts, is the evil caused by her averted (26). When 
attacked by others or driven by others the wise should not 
fee subject to feelings of retaliation, thinking that it.i? 

Who thus impels me to it (27). f< Thk Nl^ojiki ! 
teadirtg me, to have connections With other's wives" the wi$6 
Shall think also this* Wi$^ ($8). She, the other one, Birodhini 
Creates discord among husbands and wives who ought tcf 
lo^e each other as also between friends and friehds a*rid( 
relations and relations, between father and son, and bi- 
tween people of the &ame cat^te ; frorri her, safety should bt 
attained by sacrificial Offerings, by forbearance even whe'ft 
abused, and by observing the ordinances of the scriptures 
(19-30). 1rhe daughter (of D'ushaha) who ets paddy frorVi* 
the barn or from the house, r6b milk frorrt the cows, and 
^mllarfy robs butter from the cufd, and robs the irnlue 6f 
things having value, she is called Swayamhftrikft, always 
Engaged in spiriting away thihgs. From the cookrooim she robs 
half-boiled rice, a& also rice that 1* preserved In th<5 place' 
Where fide is kept (jt-32) As also' rice that has been put 6ut 
6H thft plated, and she eats with thole engaged in eatfrt^, unrf 
this frurhara also fobs the food left stftff catirig by mtn (33) 
'from the place where paddy is stored or boiled, he robs boilaf 
f>aci-dy, Oh thou twice born one f and robs rrtilfe from the breasts 
df wdrnen sind cows, she is therefore alway'^ the robber of fttilk 
(34). She robs butter from curd, oil ffo'm jlrtjify, aftd similarf/ 
the place reserved for storing away wine's, shf* wifiW, 
als6 the colour from kusum and Bother flowers, iUi 
fro'm cotton (35). She, this SwayamlifrikI, 6 thott 
born one, incftffsan(ly rdb^ things For protection tgtinit 
pair' of peocockd ot drtfficial wottert vhnfuM be 
Ae vessels fo'r Wiilfc &nit gfo* &e, shduld be 
asfte^ of kof^a p6rforrrtecf in liottour of I lie ot B^ 

of intetf se' burnt to them, f are to 6d 

hdr (36-3^), Another td w^4' 

statioii^d in on'tf place, and that daughter U 
(3$)- Protection' agaifttt Ber 1 iiT by ! 

mustard on the A6 bed, and ori the'grdtftftf 
(4^), Artd tbt rtan shall alio 




thu^T- ff this evil wiiaded (girl) leading me fro* pp^ place 
ta Another," and $hall again and again repeat the 
of the Rigveda, with all-absorbing concentration of 
mind (41), Another daughter qf Dushaha is 
in robbing the flower (generative power) of the 
sjie is to be known as Rituharil^ji, (42). Fqr averting the 
ewls caused by her the .woman should be made to bathe? 
in koly places sacred to the gods, in places oi worship? 
(or in Maths of the Buddhists), on table-lands, at the junction, 
Q| two ar mare rivers, and in canals (43), and should be treated 
with superior medicine prescribed, by a twice-born person 
wellversed in the treatment of diseases, and who knows 
tbp Mantms and the esoteric meaning of actions (44), She 
another daughter [of Dushaha] who runs away with 
memory ol women, she is Smritiharika ; by living 
solitude is the evil caused by her averted (45). Ther^ 
another, a most dreadful girl, who destroys the seed 04 
women and mtu. By eating sacrificial food and by 
jg the wil caused hy hor ^vorted (46) The 

by n.ame Dbeabinij-^rjthe,. source of djead to 
.,. the ^l>ject-of pop^f naji^o. Fpr the .cur^ of 
bavld bjp p^^octoe^ by jwjily $0aked in, hooey 
and ^^ andsipllirly by,pejrfarming the sacrifice 
thto cil aate4 by her averted (47^ ^48),. 
ght;er% thqu tpost superior among 
twice-horn \ thore we Ihirty^eight oftspirings, hep,r their 
fiom roe (49). Of Dan^tkri^tia, there wa^ a daughter Bijajp% ^ 
alaba. Bijalpa chatter always disdainful words, and: 
and tyil ^^pr^ssiipji)^. For her cure the wise 
even on h$r, and tho householder shall 

a creates qup,rrel$ i^ th^. houses of men 
ly (5Orrr5i : ). She i^ thp c^u f s f e of the de$truction 
o\ifn rejationsi. Hear t^o nji^aa^ of b^r cure. Itj 

sacrificial offerings of gr^ssrblades 
and piijk (52). These should l>e 




into the fire and thus the homa performed as well as the 
following hymn should be chanted : For the satisfaction 
of the boys with the mothers of creatures, for the satisfac- 
tion of all knowledge and penance, and self restraint and 
discipline, for agriculture and the attainment of commeiv 
cial prosperity, may they all grant me peace (53 54), May 
they be worshipped as laid down in the sacred books, and find 
entire satisfaction the pumpkins, and the yatu grain and other 
vegetables called ganah (55). Through pleasure of the MahSU 
deva or the great god, according to the will of the great god, 
may all these rest satisfied with men (56). Being satisfied may 
they dispel all the evil deeds and evil ceremonies as also that 
give rise to mortal sins, as also that cause other evils (57). 
Through their favour may all our evils and obstacles be des- 
troyed during marriages and all ceremonies concerning the 
manes (58). During virtuous rites and daring the worship 
of the guru and the gods, as also daring the sacrifice called 
yapayajna as also during occasions of leaving the house 
on journeys (59), may they grant peace and health and 
enjoyment of my body, as also happiness, and charity 
and wealth to the old, the young and the infirtn,~~ of my 
family (60). The moon, the sun, the fire, the wind and the 
oceans may they all grant me peace. Of Ukti similarly, 
the .son was Kalijtbha, whose abode is in the palm-tree* 
Whose mother he possesses that vicious person he kills. 
The sons of Paribarta were two, O then twtceb0rn one J 
Birupa and Bikrita (6162), They two lived on the top 01 
trees, on walls and ditches and lakesj^and on the etc. t 

change the fetus of the pregnant women (63). There- 
fore Kraustik!, woman in the family way shall not walk' 
among tree$ or in mountains, on walls or travel on" 
expanses of water nor on ditches, Angadhuk got a ion 
known by the name of Pishuna (6465). He eats up 'the 
strength *of the bones and nerves of the men who hava 
not conquered themselves, ShaknnI had fi?t soas, the 


eagle, the crow> the dove, the vultufe and the owl,- thfe 
Suras and the Asuras took them. The eagle was tak'eft 
by Death, Time took the crow, Niriti took the dreadful owl. 
Disease took the vulture, while his lord Yama himself 
took the dove (6668)* These are said to be their instru- 
ments in working evil. Therefore, thou most superior 
among the twice-born people ! he on whose head, eagles- and 
others alight or in whose dwelling they enter, by them should 
sufficient sacrifices and propitiatory rites be performed for 
purposes of self-preservation (69). The house where they 
breed, similarly where they build their nests, that house 
shall man forsake, as also that the top of which is attacked 
by the doves (70). On the entrance of the eagle, the 
dove, the vulture, the crow, and the owl, O thou twice- 
born one, into a house, the days of the dwellers of that 
house are said to be numbered (71). Such a house shall 
the learned quit, and perform propitiatory rites, the sight 
of a dove even in dream is not considered as auspicious 
(72). Similarly of Gandaprlntarati the issues are said to be 
6iXt * .They live in th& courses of Wochfen, hear from -frrcr 
of thti* titfce ulso '(73)* F6ur dty& and -flights ; 
and another the thirteenth, and similarly another the 
day after the courses, these are hfo :: son's (74). These 
days, as also others, hafltiely, the day whett offerings 
are madfc to the manes, as also other days when there 
are any festivals, by the wise &re these avoided for that 
reason -(75). Of Garbaha the son was Nigh n a and daughter 
Hohini. Entering into the womb of the pregnant woman, 
one eats up the seed, and another having eaten the flesh of 
the wdmaii hypnotises her (76). Through her chart*! 
ffogs mnd tortoise^ and reptiles or again mere phoecete ' 
are born of her (77). In this way they eat 
the flesh of 1 the pregnant woman for six months with 
ot any restraint. The woman who lives in the shade 
of trees during night, or at- the junction of three or four* 


Broads, or sleeps on the ground where the dead are cremtted 
( pr goes about without a second covering, or cries out at 
night, this (Mohini) possesses that woman (78 79), $fa. 
Jarly of ShashyabS, there was one son known by the name 
.of- Kshudraka, He always on finding an opmting, destroyi 
the strength and value of the harvests. Hear from me all 
about him (80). Whoever sows the grain seeds on a 
Inauspicious day, with a dissatisfied heart, into his field 
..whose end is near, he enters (80. Therefore on n day re 
cognized as fit for the purpose, having worshipped the moon, 
with, a gladdened and satisfied heart, mini taking due help 
from others should the work of sowing the be under* 

taken, (82). Of that daughter of Du*halt&, of whom I have 
spoken as going by the name of NiyojikA, was born 
*, daughter by name Prochodilcft* Of her there were four 
daughters (83). They are Mottl, Unrnottft, PramaUl, nd 
Nab$. These women always enter into men for their dentruc* 
tion,' and move them to most cruel (84), They pre- 

sent, unrighteousness as righteousness, lust as not lust, evil 
as good, and bondage as salvation, to men, who tie proud 
and, have no purity of mind and body ; and driven by these 
eight maidens men incesantly stray from the highest 

object of human existence (85-86). Thetr entrance Into the 
house is during even-tide, when the are not mije 

in proper time to DMta and IMM/a (87), Those are con- 
taminated by the entrance of these, among whom men and 
women eat and drink together (88). Of Birodhini were 
three sons, Chodaka, Grlhaka and another Tamftpracbftdftk* 
Hear from me .all about their characteristics (89). Wherf 
the pestle, the mortar, seats t m.A women art 

polluted by coming in contact with lamp-oil ; where tfte 
wiajcowing fan and the cutlass, &c, t are by the feet r 

and tat upon, and where people move about in .the house 
without having adored it by besmearing it with &c.} 

where Bpe is collected or Ukctn from one pltce to on the 

spoon, the sons of Biro'lhini, inspired by their mother, spread 
themselves there (90-92). Of these one given to lies and 
falsehood, entering into the tongue of men and women, 
causes malice and ill-will in the house, he is called by the 
name of Chodaka (93). Another with great attention resides 
in the ear, he is Grfthaka, of exceedingly evil nature, who 
runs away with the words of men (94). Another of 
evil nature, who having drawn people's mind forcibly 
towards him and having covered it with ignorance, creates 
anger; he is Tarnapraschadaka 195). Of Shwavamh&rikft 
were born three sons by Chaurya, namely SarbahcLrij 
and ArdhahSri, and similarly Biryah&ri (96). In the houses 
.where the inmates do not wash their mouth before and after 
meals, in the houses where evil ways prevail, where th& in* 
mates enter the cook-house with unwashed feet ; in the house- 
hold where, whether in the ground used for threshing corn, 
or in the field where the cattle graze, there are constant 
quarrells, in those houses they all move about and enjoy them- 
selves as of right (97 98). Of Bhr&mani there was only one 
son, known as K&kajangha, those that are possessed by him find 
no pleasure whatever in their him (99). Whoever sings while 
eating; sings and laughs while attending calls of nature, and 
the man who meets his wife just at the junction of the day arid 
nightjin such a man,0 thou twice-born oue,does he enter (TOO). 
The girl called RituhHrini, gave birth to three daughters (lol) 
One girl is KuchaharS, another is ByanjanaharikS,, while thfc 
third daughter is named Jatahirini (102). Of the woman whose 
iharriage rites are not duly performed, or performed after 
the proper period of life, the one, KuchaharS, robs the two 
breasts of such a person (103). The girl who is given in 
marriage without due offerings have been made to the manes 
0r without due worship of her mother, similarly the other, the 
Byanjanah&rika, robs her of the marks of womanhood (104). 
Entering into the confinement room which is devoid of fire, 
Water, and incense, and light and iron, and mortar anl 


mustard seed, and collirium, she robs the baby just born of 
her mother, of its life and even there, O thou twice-born oue, 
leaves the carcase (105106). She whose name is Jfttah&riai' 
is exceedingly cruel, and she eats the meat of the new-born 
babe,, therefore the confinement room should be protected 
with great care (107). Her son Prachanda by name living in 
works mischief to the memory of those persons who do not live 
..empty houses according to the law (108). From his grandsons 
were born a hundred thousand Lik&s, and the eight kinds born 
of Chandala women, all exceedingly dreadful through always 
going about with staves and ropes (109), The Lik&s then and 
those begotten of C&ndala women, possessed by hunger, ran 
after one another, desirous of eating up one another (Uo). 
Those Likls and those offsprings of Chandala women being 
.retrained by Prachanda* in time, settled down. The manner 
. in, which they did so hear thou that from me (i i f ). Hence* 
forth whoever shall give quarters to the Lik&s, there is no doubt 
about it that on him, I shall inflict immeasurable punishment 
(i 1 2). And the LikS, that will give birth to a child in the house 
of any offspring of Chandala women, all her children and she 
herself shall meet with destruction that self-same day (113)* 
The girl Bijah&rini, who robs both men and wcmien of their 
seed, gave birth to two daughters,-~*B&Uru(>& and Arupft, two are her weapons (114). The man ami wife og^ 
whom the Bltarupl throws her child, gftt certain of 

the reproductive organs (i 15). Similarly by Arupft Is the man 
robbed of his reproductive power* who eats without bathing* 
or has connections with low caste women (n6) That girl 
Bidbeshini by name whose is crooked through 

frowns, has two sons, one, who works men evil, and the othtr 
yrho leads them to trumpets torth their own (117)*, 

The rrjan or woman who disregard* the rules of purificatioa t 
who is givea to malice, who is avaricious, arid who drinks 
fcml water* lota the reproductive power (118), They two. 
exist attacking the man, who i* moved by malice, Tb 



who is the object of the ill-will of mother, brother, similarly of 
friends and relatives and wellwishera and! enemies meet with 
destruction both in his religious and his worldly life'. One of 
these, the worker of iniquity, leads one to publish one's own 
virtues among men, the other destroys the qualities of friend- 
,ship among men. Thus, these are all the progeny of Yaksha 
and Dusaha ; they are noted for their iniquities, and by them 
is the whole world covered (119 121). . ; 


URKANDEYA said: This then is the creation of 
Brahmfr, of unmanifested birth, that is composed of the* 
..quality of T&ma or ignorance and sin. I ahall presently 
rtlate in detail the creation that is called .Riidra, listen (r); 
As also his daughters,* as well .as hia- eight wives, and $imi~. 
larly his sons, (alt these shall I presently, relate to you)* 
On the lord meditating, at the commencement of the Kalpa, . 
on a son, who shall be like him in all respects, a son, called, 
Nilalohita came forth from his limbs, a-rid moving about cried 
in sweet tones, thoicmost superior BrShmanar (2-7^3)* Him*' 
thus crying BrahmS, asked, -why dost thou cry ; and he spoke 
in- reply to the lord of the world, "Give me a name (4), 
(He said) : Thou, Deva or Bright One, shall be of the; 
name of Rudra, Do not cry. Be patient Thus spoken t% 
then he cried again and again seven times (5). Then to** 
him tha lord gave seven other names, and also the abodes. 
01 these eight Ruckas, and their wives and sons, thow t \ 
Iwktrborn one, (were duly assigned) (6). - 'The lord, -the." 



Grand-father ( BrahmSl ), spoke and gave these names,* 
namely Bhaba, arba, similarly Eshana, likewise Pasbupati, 
Bhima, Ugra, Mahadeva and made abodes for these (7 *8jL 
The sun, the water, the earth, the fire, the ether, the initiated 
Brahman, and the moon, these became respectively thetf 
abodes. Subarchala and similarly Um&, Bikeshi and another, 
ShwadhS, Shwiha, and likewise Disha, Diksha, Rohini these 
respectively, thou superior among the twice-born, became 
with the sun &c. f the possession of the holders of the names 
commencing with Rudra &c. f (910). Their sons respec- 
tively were Shanaishchara, Shukra, Lohttanga, Monajaba, 
Slpndha, Sarga, Santina, and Budha, (it). In this way. 
this Rudra welcomed Sati as his wife, and that Sati through 
being angry with Daksha gave up her body (12). She 
became, thou most superior Brahman j th^ daughter of 
Himavat, and his wife MenH, Her brother is Mainka, than 
whom the ocean has not a better friend. The lord 
Bhaba again married that self same Salt (13). Khy&ti, the 
tfrrfe of Blirigoo gave birth to two goda Dhltl and Bidhltl and' 

to Sri, she the wife of the god of gods Nlrlyana (14)* 
Of the high-souled Meru there were two daughters Ayatl, 
amd Niyati, they were given as wives to Dh&tft and Bidhltl* 
Of these two were bow two sons (15), They were Prioa r 
and Mrikaodu he is ntfy father known to fame, I was bora 
of him on Manashbini. My son is Bedftflhiril, born of my 
wife Dumrabati. Hear also from me of the sons of Prftna* 
The son "of PrSna is Dyutimln. His son is Utpanna 

and also Ajarft* Of these two were born many 
atid grandsons. Sambhuti, the wife of Marichi, birth to 

i8). OT hfm, the high-sotikd one, were bom 
two sons Birajl and Parbata, At tlie time of the enomera^- 
tion of the genedtogy of anybmi^Otholi twice-born one^the 
names of their 1 ' mm should be prWirtlS : {|p), Smriti^he wife of 
Angirl, sincijTarly gave birth to 'daughters, vur., Sinib&li, Ktihn, 

, AnumatI (20), Aausuya' similar^, the wife of Atari, 

birth to sons free from all sins -they are Soma, Dur- 
b^sasa and Dattatreya, \\\t yegi (21). Of Priti, the wife *>f 
Paulasta was born Dattoli; in a previous birth he was known as 
Agastya, born during the age of the Svvyambhuba Manu (22)* 
Ksham,the wife of the lord of creatures Pulaha, brought forth 
three sons namely Kardama, Charbbira and Shahishnu (23)-: 
Sannati the wife of lOatu gave birth to the Balkhilyas, wfa& 
were sixty-thousand Rishis all of whom had completely mas-, 
tered their sexual instincts (24), Of Urjj3L, the wife of 
Bashishta were born seven sons, namely, Rajogitra, Urdha*. 
bjlhu, Sabala, Anagha, Sutap&, Shukta, these all are the 
well-known seven Rishis (25). He who is the presiding deity 
in fire, the eldest among the sons of Brahma, from him 
Shwada had three sons all of them, thou twice-born one, 
of most superior powers ; namely PSibaka, PabamSLn and, 
Shuchi whose food is water (26 2/X Their sons were forty 
and five in number, these sons and fathers are highly 
spoken of (28), They are (the father, three sons and the 
grandsons) thus forty-nine in number, and are spoke^ 
of a$ invincible* The Pitris as created by BrahmS have *t*; 
ready- been described by me to : you (29). - They' whowertt 
the Agnishwatta, the Barhishada the Anagnaya, and 
S^Lgnaya, from them ShwadhS, had two daughters, Mena 
BaidhS-rini (30). They were both, Oh thou twice-born owe ji 
teachers of the wisdom of Brahman and were both Yeginify 
and were possessed of superior wisdom and were adorned 
with all the virtues (31). These are the sons and the desceti* 
cjents of the daughters of Daksha related by me. When they* 
are remembered with faith and reverence, the descendents of 
the person so remembering them are extended and increased 


, lY.R/vuSTUKi said : This Manwantara associated with the 
SWaytabhuba Mfanu which has been described by thce, I de- 
sire to. hear in detail everything ; about it, Oh thou possessor 
f>f the six miraculous powers or Bhagas, tell me all abotit it 
Tell me the measure of that Manwantara, as also of the gods; " 
and the godly Rishis, and of those that were the lord!* of 
earth, and the king of the godsthe Indra tell me all these 
exactly as they were (12). 

, MARIUNDEY/V said: The measure of Manwantaras fa 
made by the figdre seventy one ; hear from me the measure 
<if a Manwantara calculated by human standards (3), Thirty 
crores, multiplied twenty thousand times, and sixty seven 
nfjut&s (of years) are the measurement of a Manwantara, and 
not more (4). Measured according to the standards of the 
gods it is said to consist of eight-hundred thousand and 
another fiftytwo thousand (years) (5), The first was 
fehe Swiyambhuba Manwantara, next the Swftruchisha, 
then Auttama, them THmasa then Raibata f then Chile- 
sJmsba. These six Manus are gone* The present is the 
Manwantara of the Bibashwftta Maun* The coming 
one* ( will 'be the five Slbarnl Manwantaras,* the RauchyS, 
^liautyS. (6 7). I shall tell you in detail who are the at * 

the co'mig on of each of these Manwantarat and Rtshli 
and Yakshas, and the Indras and the PItris (8), Oh Brlh- 
inaiia, the birth and the duration^ and the progeny of these 
Manus, asi also they who were their wives, who also 1 

were their high-souled sons, hear all this from me (9). Of the 
Sw&yambhuba Manu there were ten sons all like himself; by 

* The fwe Sabarni Manus are Brahmm-Saburnl, Dtwrmft.Siitwfiili 
Sabami, Deba-Sabarni, IndraS*%ml. Some autboritlef mtuttoii anothtr 
Daksha-Sabartii, and one who it simply Sahnrni, 



whom this world with all the seven islands and mountains are 
inhabited (ip). They entered into this world, each one into a 
separate continent, consisting of oceans and mines. In the 
Tretayuga, at the time of the first or Swayambhuba Mawantara, 
was the earth thus occupied by the sons and grandsons of 
Priyabrata, the son of Swayambhuba Manu, Of the mighty 
Priyabrata was a daughter horn unto Prajabati (it 12). That 
girl, endued with the six great virtues of kindness &c, bore two 
daughters and ten sons to the lord of creatures Kardatna, 
these two daughters bore princes in their womb (iji. Their 
ten brothers were mighty personages, even like unto the lord 
of creatures in prowess. They are Agnidhra, Medhatithi,' 
Bapushman Jyotishman, Dyutiman, Bhabya, Sabana, these 
seven, Priyabrata anointed them in due form as kings of the 
seven lands. Hear from me also all about these lands. The 
father made Agnidhra, king in Jambudwipa (14 16). 
By him was Medhatithi made the lord of Plakshadwipa, 
in Shahnali Bapushmanta, and in Kushabhaya Joytishmanta, 
iu the Kraunchadvipa Dyotimanta, and of Shakahbaya Bhabya 
was made the lord. While he made his son Sabana the lord 
of Pushkara (17 18), The two sons of the lord of Pushkara 
were Mahabita and Dh&taki. Having divided Pushkara into 
two parts, these two were installed there (19). Of Bhabya 
the sons were seven, hear iron me of them, by their name&, 
Jalada, and Kutnara, and Sukumara, and Baniyaka and 
Kushottara and MedhS-bi and Mahldruma, who was the 
seventh. He (V. e. Bhabya) made countries called after 
their names (20 21). Similarly of Dyutiman ther^ were 
seven sons, hear of them from me. They were Kushala, 
Manuga Oshna, Prakara, Arthakaraka Muni, and Dundubhi, 
who is described as the seventh. And after their own 
names wtre countries established similarly in Krauncba- 
dwipa (22- 23). In Kushadwipa also the different king- 
doms were marked by the names of the sons of 
Jyotishman. Hear of their names from me (24), They are 


Udbhida, Baishnava, Suratha, Lambana, Dhritimat, PravJ- 
kara and Kpila which was the seventh (25). Of Bapushman, 
the lord of SliSUnaaladwipa, there were seven sons, namely 
Shweta, Harila, Jimuta, Rohita, Baidyuta, MSnasa, and 
similarly KetumSn, who was the seventh. Similarly in SSilmala-. 
dwipa also were seven kingdoms established whose names 
were equal to those of these princes (26 27). Of 
MedhStithi, the lord of Plakshadvripa r were there also gevet> 
sons, according to whose names kingdoms were marked In 
Plakshadwipa into seven fold (28), Of these the first Is 
the Sh&kabhaba continent and next Shishira, then Shuka* 
ioya,, then Ananda, Shiba, Kshema, and similarly Bhruba 
(29). The law, according to the division of the castes, 
of the five islands commencing with I^akshadwipa and 
ending with the Shakadwipa^ should be known as ever- 
lasting, devoid of the injunctions regarding the destruc- 
tion- of creatures ; and they are common in these five con- 
tinents (30-3 1 ) To Agnidhra did his father, O thou twice- 
born one, give at first Jambttdvipa. He hi\cl nine SORS^ 
all like the lord of creatures. The eldest was called Nflbhf, of 
fcim the younger was Kiirpurusha ; the third was 
the fourth was Ilabrita (32 33), the fifth was 
Ihe sixth was called Hiranya ; of them the Bf venth was 
Kuru ad Bhadrashwa is known to have been the eighth (34), 
ibe mnlb was Ketum&Ia ; by th<*ir namen were principal* 
kies established, Those places names Kimpurt^ha and 
others, with the exception of that called Hitnabhaya gained ' 
their objects naturally, and thi*y were full of enjoyment* 
wttich could be had without any effoits; and n them there 
were no reverses nor the fear of old-age arid death (35* 36)* 
ncr unrighteousness were there (in those continent**) neither 
Righteousness nor even (the distinction*) between good, middt* 
ii>g, and bad; nor were there in them any of the conditions 
of the four Yugas, aeither the courses 0! women nor of the 
seasons (37), Of NSbhi thfe son of Agnidhra was born 





a son, Oh thou twice-born one, by name Rishabba. Of 

Rishabha was born Bharata, the brave, and the most superior 
among a hundred (sons) (38). Rishabha having anointed 
his son as king took to the order of Bknaprastha or final 
renunciation of the household life, and the highsouled one 
practiced penances, taking shelter in the hermitage of Pulahft 
(39). The father gave to BhSrata the southern continent 
of Himabha (another reading- the continent to the south 
of the Himalayas) ; and therefore from the name of that 
highsouled prince is it called Bhftratabarsha (40), Of 
Bh&rata there was a son, Sumati by name, who was a righ- 
teous king,and having placed the kingdom upon him, 
Bh&rata too went to the forests (41). By their sons and 
grandsonSj -as also by the (other)sons of Priyabrata, was 
the world consisting of the seven islands, enjoyed during 
the time of the SwSyambhaba Manu (42)* This creation 
is called Sw&yambhubar-'fai first Manwantara, as described 
to you by me, Oh thou superior among twice-born persons 
what more shall 1 tell you ? (43). 



..RAUSTUKI said r-^How many are the islands, the 
oceans j how many, O thou twtceborn one, are the mountains, 

and how many are also tha continents, and what are the 
ri^er^ of these ? What again are the measures of the great 
elements, and stmiliarly of the mountain Lokhloka and the 
changes, the measures, and the movements of the moon and 
the sun, Tell me, thou great Muni, all this in detail (i-~3), 



Markandeya said: This earth, Oh thou twice-born one, 
is fully a hundred and a half crore (of yojana) in extent. 
I shall describe to you all the places contained therein, hear 
thou of that (4), Those islands that have been described 
by me, commencing with the Jambudwipa, thou 
twice-born one, and ending with the Puskaradwipa, hear of 
them again in detail, Oh thou possessor of the eight good 
qualities of kindness &c. (5). The islands called Jamhu, 
Plaksha, and then, Shamala and Ktisha, and Craun- 
cha, similarly Saka and the island Puskara, of these, each 
succeeding one is double the extent of that which is named 
before it (6\ And they are covered on all sides by the 
seven oceans, namely the Labana, th Dugdha, the S;irpi, the 
Dadhi, the Ikshu, and the Jala, of which also each one is twice 
the extent of the preceding one (7). t shall tell you of the 
position of the Jambudwipa, listen to me. It is in length and 
breadth a lac of y of ana (8). The seven Kula mountains in 
this are Himab&n, Himakuta, Rinhabha, Meru t Neela, Sweta, 
similarly Snngi (9). The two great mountains in the 
middle of it are each a Ihc of yojana in extent. Of these 
two, that which is towards the south and that which is 
towards the north, of them one is less than the other by ten 
thousand yojana, their hight is two thousand yojana and 
similarly the whole extent of the base in also two thou- 
sand yojana (10 11). All the six Kula mountains 
enter into the womb of the ocean ; and the earth here 
is sloping towards the south and north, and at the middle 
it is raised to great heights (12). Know that on the southern 
side of this are three continents or Banshas and similarly 
three on the northern side ; and between them the Illbrata- 
Barsha stands as a crescent (13), Towards the east of it 
is the Barsha of Bhadranhwa, and to the west that of Ketu-" 
mala, and in the centre of Ilabrata is the golden mountain, 
Mtru (14), The height of this great mountain is eightyfour 
and it has entered into the earth to sixteen 


thousand yojanas^ and is sixteen thousand yyanas in breadth 
(15). Because it stands in the form of a circular plale 
therefore its top is thirtytvvo yojanas in extent, and on 
the four sides, commencing with the east, of the four 
colours, white, yellow, black and red, -the four castes 
reside, according to their respective colours* (16 17). 
In this mountain are the courts of Indra and other protectors 
of the world, and in the centre of them all, is the court of 
Brahma, which is fourteen thousand yojanas in height (18), 
Similarly below it is the Biskamba mountain, whose 
height is ten thousand yojana. In the division of sides 
according to the east &c. r are one after another stationed 
the mountains Mandara, GandhamSdana, Bipula, and similarly 
SupSrsha* adorned with trees peculiar to each. The mount 
Mandara has got the Kadamba tree as peculiar to it. ; while 
the distinctive tre^ of Gandhamfulana is the Jatnbu or 
the jaman ; similarly the Aswathwa tr^e is peculiar 
to Bipula, and the immense Data 5s peculiar to SupJlrsha ; 
and these mountains are eleven hundred yojanas in extent 
in all (19 21). The mountains on the eastern side are 
Jathara* and Devakuta, and Anila and Nisbadha which two 
have run into each other (22)* Nishadha and PSrfpItra 
are situated on the western side of Meru, as in the eastern 
mountains simUiarly also in these, the extent is the same 
as that of Anila and Nishadha (23) On the south are the two 
great mountains Kail&sa and Himab&n they two are extented 
from east to west and stand extended to the limits of the 
ocean (24). Similarly the mountains to the north are Sringa- 
bSln and also J&rudhi ; as in the south so also in the north 
these extend to the limits of the ocean (25), Oh them most 
excellent Brdhman, these eight are called the MarytdH mown- 
tain*. Himabat, Himakuta, and other mountains are at the 

* The Brahmins being of white colour occupied thf* white or ihr custom 

side, the Vabhya of yellow colour, the wostern suit*, the Suclra tf <lirk colour 
occupied the northern side, whilt: the I<5h<;ttrya of rt:d colour*U<i<l lt* 
southern side, 



distance of nine thousand Yofanas from each other, from 
east to west, and south to north ; and are situate on all sides 
of Meru in the Barsha called Il&brita (2627). Those 
Jaman or Jumbu fruits that grow in the GaodhamUdana moun- 
tain, of the size of the body of an elephant, fall on the top 
of the mountain (28). From the melting of those fruits 
arise the river known by the name of Jambu, where is pro- 
duced the gold called JambunSda (29). She (this river) 
having encircled the Meru enters again into its own source, 
and the waters of it are drunk, Oh thou tiger among the 
twice-born persons, by the people of those regions (30). 
Vishnu exists in the BhadrSshwa as Ashwasirft, In Bhirata as 
the tortoise, in KetumSla as the boar, and in the next 
Barsha Ubrtiha as fish (31). In these four Barshas objects 
that defeat the evil influences of stars are arranged according 
to the arrangement of the stars. (32). 


C H A I s T E R L Y . 


LARKANDEYA said: In the four mountains commen- 
cing with MandHra; Oh thou most excellent among twice-born 
persons, the gardens that are four in number, and heat 

of them with attention (i). On the is the garden named 
.Citaitraratha, on the south the garden Nandan, on the 
peak is the garden called Baibhr&ja cm the northern 

mountain is the garden cal'ed S&bitra (2), The Arunoda 
is on lire east, and the Mftnasa on the south, Shttoda, 'on the 
west of Meru and similarly Mahlbhadra on the noith (3). 

\ i 



Sitarta, Cbakramunja, Kulira, and then Sukankaban, Mani 
shaila, then Brishaban, Mahanila, the mountain Bhaba, 
Sabindu, Mandara, Benu, Timasa, Nishadha likewise Deba^ 
shaila the ^ great mountain to the east of Mandara, Trikuta, 
ShikharSdri, Kalinga, and then Patangaka, Ruchaka, Sanuman 
mountain, then Tamraka and Bishakhaban, Shetodara, Samula 
Basudhara, Ratuaban, Ekasringa Mahashaila, Rajashaila* 
Pipataka, Panchashaila, then Kailksha, and the most superior 
among mountains Himabat these mountains are said to b?^ 
situate on the right (or southern) side of the mountain Meru 
(4 8). Suraksha, Shishiraskha, Baidurya, similarly Pingala, 
Pinjara, and then Mahabhadra, Surasa, Kapila, Madhu* 
Anjana, Kukkuta. Krishna, and the best of mountains Pctndura ; 
and the mount Sahasrashikhara, P&ripatra, with SringabSn y 
are similarly situate on the west of Meru, and Biskama 
is similarly situate on the other side of the west /. e. the 
eastern side, of Meru (9 -ii) Hear of the other moun- 
tains to the north, Sankhakuta, then Brishabha likewise 
the mountain Hansankbha, similarly the mount Kapilendra, 
and SinumHn, and Nila, Swarnasringi, Shatasring?, Puspaka, 
and the Meghaparbata; BirajSksha, the mountain Badlha, 
Mayura, these are the mountains to the south of Meru, 
The valleys of these mountains are exceedingly charming 
(12 14), They are adorned with gardens, and lakes and 
pure water; in them are born men of virtuous deeds (15). 
These are as heaven on earth, more meritorious than even 
heaven itself. In them there is no acquisition of fresh virtue 
or sin (16). In them, it is said, that even the gods enjoy the 
fruits of their righteous deeds. thou most excellent among 
the twice-born, towards the close and beginning of the winter, 
in these mountains, are formed the great and beautiful habita- 
tions of Bidyadharas, and Yakshas and Kinnaras, and 
Nagas, and Rakshasas, and gods, and of the Gandharvas 
(17 18), They are highly pure, and have ple?tsurejarden& 
attached to them that are pleasing to the mind,- and 



.similarly there are in them lakes pleasing to the mind, and of 
which the breeze is pleasant in all seasons (19). In these 
there never arises any uneasiness or want of satisfaction 
among men. This is the selfsame mundane lotus, described 
by me, of four leaves ; Bhadrabhwa and Bharata etc these are 
its leaves on the four sides. Tuat region towards the south, 
called Bhkrata which has bet n described by me, is the place 
bf merit and demerit (Karmabhumf) in no other place are the 
fruits of Karma } enjoyed ; in it are all laws established. For 
this reason are heaven, and the fruits of merit, and all births, 
human or hellish, and those of birds or of any othtr animals, 
attained here only by men (20 -23). 


1 HAT foot of Narayana which is the sure refuge of 
Brahma, the cause of this fleeting world, the goddess of 
Ganga, who flows in three currents, proceeded from that (i). 
Having entered into the source of nectar and the stay of the 
waters; (the moon) and from there, having been purified, and 
attaining powers for the purification of others through coming 
into relation with the rays of the sun, she fell on the back of 
the mount Meru, and from there flowed in four channels 
and fell in torrents obstructed by the ends of the mountains 
Meru and Kuta (2). With her waters spread on all sides 
without any support, she fell at the feet of the mountains 
Mandara and others, and her waters were divided equally 
(4). The waters fell in four currents, on the head of four 
different mountains, the eastern current well noted for its 



wnt to the garden of Chitraratha (5). An<* having deluged 
it, it went to the lake Barunoda and from there to the moun- 
tain ShitHnta, and thence gradually io other mountain* (6). 
And having descended to the earth, from mount 
Bhaclrashwa it went (and IV11) into the ocean* Similarly that 
current, of the name of Alakamnndft, having gone to th* 
Gandhamadana in the south, and the garden at the foot of 
the Mem, Nandana, that which plms^n the gods, and 
having by great force deluged the lake Mfinasa, and having 
similarly gone to the peak of the Prince of mountain*, and 
from there to all the mountains that, rise in the south, mid 
having flooded them, found the great, mountain Himagiri. 
There Shambhu held hrr, and he vvlmsr <usu;it is the* Inill 
(*'.*., Shiva) would not release her {7 inl. The lord 
having been worshipped by Bhagtratha, bv rwan* of fasts 
and praises, released her, Kt-hs-ised from thrrt* by Shiva llit* 
flooding great river, in seven ohannHa e*nt.rrr<l ihf south- 
ern ocean ; and also entered the enKtf*rn in thrn* 
and following the car of Flhaglnithji in on rtirr<*tii 
towards the south (1112). Similarly that great riv^r 
the large western foot of mount Meru, and from th**rc under 
the name of Swarakahu w-nt to the motintiitn 
(13). From there the great river having flooded the 
Shitocla, having found thfc mountain Swnrakslui went to 
mount Trikuta (14), From there gradually falling on thfi 
top of the mountains and finding Ketumftla, entered into 
the ocean called Lavana (15), Similarly having gone to tit* 
Suparsbwa, at the foot of the mount Mt*ru f and attaining 
there the name of Soma, she* wrnt to the garden Snbitu, 
Having purified that h found next tht* kke Mahabhadra, from 
there the great river went to Shankhakuta (ifi 17), From 
there having one after another found tin* mountains Hrishahha 
and others, and having {looclrd the northern Kuril rwmtry, 
she found the great ocean (iK), () them bull ;imong twice- 
born persons, thus is the story of tin* (i.-mgf.* rclaird In yo 

2 5 


by me, from her entering into the Jambudwipa, as also the 
Barshas in due form (19). In all those Barshas commencing 
with that called Kimpurusha live creatures, full of happiness, 
free from fear, devoid of all inequalities of greater or less 
(20). In all these nine Barshas there are, in each, seven moun- 
tains, called the Kula mountains, and in each there are rivers 
flowing from these mountains (21), In the eight Barshas, O 
thou most excellent among the twice-born persons, commen- 
cing with that called the Kimpurusha, the waters flow from 
owl of the womb of the earth ; in Bhfirata, however, water 
is obtained from the clouds (22), In these eight Barshas the 
attainment of people's objects are of six kinds, namely, 
those that are called Bdrk$ht\ StC(ibk(it>iki\ Deshytij Toyoftha 
Mdnasi, and Karma/a (23). The attainment of objects from 
divine trees that fulfil people's desires, is called B&rkshi* 
and that which fulfils itself is called A^M/W/*/-~natura! 
l $iMhi ; and that which is due to the virtue of any peculiar 
'dbdhtry is Deshya ; and that which is attained through the 
subtility of the waters is Tfyottha Siddhi\ and that which arises 
from meditation is called M itnasi Sitttlhi, while that whidt 
rssults from works of divine worship is the Karmaja Siddhi 
'(2425). Besides, in these Barshas there arc neither mental 
t>ain nor disease, nor thfc conditions of the Yugas^ and no 
'wbrks giving rise to merit and demerit j nones of these are in 
these Barshas, thou most excellent lii&hmana (26), 

CHAP T E U L V 1 1 . 

JA.RAUSTUKI said: () Reverecl One, you have in detail 
''described to me the Jambudvvipa. Thin has been related by the 
'revered one that leaving llhirala, actions that produce 

from here that men attain heaven and salvation, both tempo- 
rary and final ; and in no other place on earth are works 
assigned to men ; therefore Brahman, describe this Bhkrata 
to me fully : what are its divisions and what its limits, as 
also its exact position, and thou tiger among the twice-born, 
tell me also what are its mountains (i 4), 

MARKANDEYA said : Of this Bhirata there are nine divi- 
sions, of which hear from me with attention. They are to be 
known as existing between oceans, and unapproachable from 
one another (5). Indradwipa, Kasheruman, Stamrabarna. 
Gabh istiman, N&gadvvipa, likewise Saumya, Gandharba, 
Barium, and of them the ninth is this island surrounded by 
the ocean. This island is one thousand yofana in extent 
from south to north (6 7). Of that country, to the east are 
tfhe habitations of the Kirata people, and to the west He 
those of the Yubanas ; while within it live Brhmans, 
Kshetriyas, Baishyas and Sluulras, O thou twice-born 
one ! (8), They are purified by the performance of sacri- 
fices and daily worships, and by trade and other works ; and 
their conduct is also regulated by these works (9) ; and the 
attainment of heaven or of earthly good, of merit or de* 
merit is also due to these works. The seven Kulchalas 
here are the Mahendra, the Malaya, the Sahya, the SuktimS.n, 
the mount Riksha, the Vindya amd the Paripatra (10). Near 
them are another thousand mountains (ci). They are of 
great extension and height, and their tablelands are large 
and pleasant Their names are Kol^hala, BalbhrfLja, 
Mandara, the mount Dardura, B&taswana, Buidyuta, 
MainSka, Swarasa, Tungaprastha, Nigagiri, Rochana, and the 
mount P$,ndar&, Puspa, the mount Dujjayanta, Raibata, and 
Arbuda, Rishyamukkha, Sagomanta, the mount Kuta, 
Kritasmara, and the mount Sri, and Kora, and hundreds 
of other mountains; and on them are interspersed habi- 
tations divided among the Aryan and the Mlechchas (1215)* 

which are drunk by them namely the Ganges, the Saraswati, 
the Indus, and likewise others, the Chandrabh5;, (the ChenSb) 
and the Jamuna, and the Shatadru, the Bitasta, (the Jhclum), 
the Irabti, (the Ravi), the Kuhu, the Gomali, the Dhutap&pa, 
and the Bahuda and the Drishadbati, the BipSsha, (the BewS), 
the Debika, the Raukshu, the Nirschira, the Gandaki, 
the Kaushiki, the Apaga, all these, O Brahman, that have 
proceeded from the foot of the Himalayan (16 18). The 
Bedasmriti, the Bedabati, the Britraghni, the Sindhura, the 
Benwa, the Sanandant, the Sadaaira, and likewise the Mahi, 
the Para, the Charmanwati, the Tapi, the Bidisha, and also 
the Betrabali, and likewise the ShiprFi, and the Abarni, - 
all these are said to be dependents of the mount PftripHtra 
(19 20). The Sone, the Mahanada, the Nurnuida, tie 
Suratha, and the Adrij, the Mandlkini, the DashJirna, and 
similarly another the ChitrakutS, the Chitrotp.ilfi, with the 
Tamasa, the KaramodS, the PishSLchiktl, similarly others, the 
Pippali, the Srini, the Bipashfi, and the river Bajjulii, the 
SumerujS., the Shukimati, the Shakuli, and the Tridiba, and the 
Akramu, and likewise many others of strong current have risen 
from the foot of mount Sknndha, (another reading, the mount 
Riksha) (2123), The ShiprA, the Payoshni, the NirbindhyS 
the TSpi with the NishadhSibati, the Benwa, the JBaitarani, 
and also the SinibSli, the Kumudbati, the Korotaya, the 
Mahagauri, the Durga, and likewise the Antashirft, all these 
rivers of pure water, and beautiful have proceeded from the 
foot of the Vindya mountains (2425). The God&bari, 
the BhimarathS, similarly another the Krishnabenwa, the 
Tungabhadri, the SupraySga, the Bfthyft, the Klberi, and 
likewise the Apaga, all these excellent rivers have also their 
sources at the foot of the Vindhya range. The Kritamlll, the 
Timraparni, the Puslipaja, with the Utpallbati, these rivers 
of coolitig waters have proceeded from the mount Malaya. 
The Pitrikutya, Sonaakulya, RishikulyS, the Ikshuki aud that 

They are 
the ocean ; 
all said to 
there are, 

WHICH ii> uic JLliuiUdj i. iiv: jL*aiiisumiit uuv* *^,*i. ->* ." .... . . - 

known to have taken their rise from the mountain Mthcn<lra. 
The RishikulyS, the KumSri, the Mandaga, of 
current, the KiipS, (second reading, the Krisha) the Fiillslitiii 
are known to have risen from the mountain Shukttittftt. 
all sacred rivers like tlu; Ganges, and flow into 
they are all mothers of the world, and are 
possess the power of taking a way shi*. And 
O most excellent among twice-born p^racim, 
other thousands of small rivers (2631), those that flk*w only 
during the rainy season, as well as those that flow 
all seasons. Matsya, Aswakuta, Kulya, Kwtlala, 
Koshala, and Atharha, and Kalinjya, Malaka with Btika, me 
generally spoken of as the provinces of the* !Vf;iIhy;ulr?*h;i 
or central division (3233). That province whirli is siht;tU;ti 
on the north of mount Sfihya, wh*rr tlu* rivrr (JulAh;u-i flowfi, 
that is the most pleasant: country in nil the rarih (,VO Tim 
pleasant city, Gobardhana^ of the; high-stniteii Uh!Vr);tt;i itnil 
Balhika, Biltadhftna, Abhira,K-ilatoyaka t A|>;iratita,SutlrA t l*at)4 
ba, Charmakhandikl, (Mndhar, Yabann, Siiicifitt. t 
Madraka, Satadruja, Kaltnga, Plrnda, Illrnbhiiihika, 
Bahubhadra, Kaikeya, Dagham8Lliktt,-~ali the colotii^n of 

Kshetriyas, as also of Vaishya* and Sudrns ; Knnibjii liiitl 
Darada, Barbara, Harshabardhatn, China, and Khara HAitula 
peopled by men ; and Atreya, Bhftradvaja, E > ushka>n l 
Kasheruka, Lampaka, Shulakftra, Chulika, with the J4giifJit t 
Aupadha, Anibhadra, belonging to the tribes of Kinitiw j 
T&masai Han.sabhS.rga, Kashmira, Tungana, Shulik^! Kuliak**t 9 
Jarna,and likewise Darba (3541). Th^ are the province* cif 
the north, hear from me of the countries to the as*t. Aclltrlrabt 
Mudakara, Antargirya, Uahirgirya, likewise Fnibangnji.itigryrt, 
Mfinada, Manabartika, Brahmottaryn, Prabijaya, Bltlr|**iti*t f 
Jneyamallaka Prlgjyotisha, Madra, Bi<!rla, Tamutlipuk*, 
Malla, Magadha-Gomanta, these are known tw hr ttic 
eastern provinces (4244), Then there ait- other 


inhabited by the people of the Deccan :~~-rPuixdra, Kerala 
and likewise, Golangula, Shailusha, Mushika, Kusuma, 
Basaka, Maharastra, Mahishaka, Kalinga, all these and Avira, 
with Baishikya, and Adakya, and Shabara, Punlinda, 
Btindhya. Mauleya, Bidarbha, with Dandaka, Paurika, 
Maulika, and Ashmaka, Bhogabardhana, Nashika, Kuntala, 
Andhra, Udbhida, B^nadaraka ; these are the provinces of the 
southern countries. Hear of the western countries from me. 
They are Suryar-aka, Kalibala, Durga, Anikata, Pulinda, 
Siunpiina, Rupapa with 5wapada,like\vise Kurmuina,Katakshara, 
Nasikyaba, s^ud others that are on the north of the Narmada ; 
Bhjrukaccha, Samaheya with S&raswata, Kashmir, Surastra, 
Abanti with Arbuda rthese are all the western provinces. 
of the provinces on the*, Vindyarange (4552), 
KarosUa, Kerala vjrith Utkala, Uttamarna, Dasharna, 
Kiskindhaka, Toshala, Koshala, as well as Tripura, 
; likewise Biclisha, Tumbura and Stumbula, Pataba, with 
Annaja, Tushtikara, Birohotra, Abanti all these 
^r$ on the back of the Vindya hills (5355). I 
relate to you the mountainous countries; #/#- 
a, Hansamarga Kuraba, Gurguna, Khasha, Kiinta, Pr|- 
Urn,a, Darba,, Sakritraka, Trigartha, Malaba, wit(i 
^-n.d Tatuasa. In these places the Yugas> Treta &c, 
fcl|e \a,ws o.f these are well established, This is the 
i, which has countries on all Its four quarters 
(677-5?), la the south, the west, and the east of it i^ the 
Qceap, wjiile the Himalaya stands to the north of it like 
string of a bow (59). This is that BhSlratabarsha, O 
Excellent among twiceborn persons, which contain^ 
se^4 of ail that exist. It is here, O Brahman, that 
According to the fruits of people's action the state of 
of the lord of the immortals, of the gods, the 
of Marutsi similarly, and likewise the births of deer, 
Apsartsand of all reptiles, aqd that of the inanimate 
^ fire #Uinabie, T^is is the field of Karma such as 



fexists nowhere else. Oh them wise am'ortg Brlhma^s, it is 
the heart's desire even of the gods to be deprived of theif 
state as gods to come to earth as men (born iti Bfolrata* 
barsha). Man here does that which even the gods and the 
Asuras are not able to do. People here are bound by the 
chains of Karma, and are anxious to finish that Karma ; they 
do no works moved by the least happiness (60 -64). 



.RAUSUJKi said ; O revered one, by thee has Bharata 
been duly described to me ; including the fakes, the moun- 
tains, the provinces as well as those that inhabit them (i). 
But I am exceedingly eager to hear of the position of Hati 
who has been described by thee as living in BMrata as *a 
tortoise (2). Hoiv that bright one, the oppressor of the 
Asttra i. e. Bishnu, exist in the form of tortoise, and from 
that how are peoples' merits and demerit revealed, tell me ail 
that in detail, from begining to end (3), 

M^wKANDEY'v said : The Possessor of the six qualities 
and powers called Bhagas, the bright one, of the form of 
tortoise, exists with his face towards the east, holding this 
Bhlrata, divided into nine parts (4), On all sides of him are 
stationed, in nine quarters, nine stars ; and the countries that 
are ruled by them, hear of them, O most superior among twice 
born persons, with attention from me, in due manner (5}. 
Vedamantra, Bimandahya Shalmanipi, Shaka, Ujjihana, like- 
wise Batsa, Ghosha, Sankya, similarly Khasha, S^raswafca, 
Matsya, Shurasena with Mathura, Dharmlranya Jyotishika, 
Gauragriba, Cludashmaka, Udbchaka with Pi.nchala, Sanketa, 

5 5 


Kankamaruta, Kalakoti with Pashanda, and the province of 
the inhabitants of Paripatra, Kapingala, Kururbahya and simi- 
larly Udumbara, and G^jabhaya these are situate in the 
middle of the tortoise that live in the water (6 g). And the 
three stars Kirtika, Rohin, and Saumya, are the workers of 
good and evil among these inhabitants of the central portion 
(of the tortoise) (10 . Brishaclhvaja, An j ana, Jambuakhya, Mana* 
bachala, Shupakarna, Byaghramukha, Kharmaka, Karbata- 
shana, and likewise, Chandreswara, Khasha, Magadha, Giri, 
Mithila, Pundra, Badanadantura, Pragjyotisha with Lohita 
Samudra, Purushadaka, Purnatkati, EJhadragour, likewise Oh 
thou twiceborn om;, Udayagiri, Kashaya, Mekhala, Mushta, 
Tamralipta, Ekapaclapa, BardhamSna, Koshala, are all situate 
in the mouth of the tortoise (l 114). And the three star?, 
Raudra, Punarbashn and Pushy a are stationed at this mouth, 
Oh Kraushtuku, hear me, I shall tell you of the countries that 
lie on the south feet of the tortoise. Kalinga, Banga, Jatliaru, 
Koshala, Mrishika likewise, Chedi, Urdhakarna, and the in- 
habitants of Matsya &c., on the Vindyarange, the people of 
Bidbarbha, Nrikela, Dharmadwipa, similarly Alika, Byaghra- 
griba, Mahagriba, of Tripura, and ShmasrudhSiri, of Kiakindll r 
liernkuta, Nishadha and of Katakasthala, DashSrna, Harika 
and the naked people of Bishada, and Kakula and Alaka and 
similarly of Panashabara exist in the .south east foot of the tor- 
toise. Asbleshi, likewise the star cnllrd the Pitri, as well 
as the First Falguni, these three exist holding on to the south- 
eastern foot. Lanka, Kalajina, Shaulika, and likewise the 
people of Nikata, and those that live in the mountains 
Mohendra, Malaya, and Durdara, and these that live in the 
forest Karkotaka, and the people of Bhrigukacca with those 
of Konkan, all these and similarly the people of Abhira and 
tbp?,e living on the banks of the river Benwa, the people of 
Abauti, Dasapara, and likewise the inhabitants of Akani r 
the Maharattas .with the people of Karnata, Gonarda, and 
Chitrakuta, Chola and those of Kolagiri, Krawuchadwipa and 


of the mounts Shankha, Sukti and Baiduryya, and similarly the 
people of Brichar, and of Kol and Charmapatta, the people 
of GandhavUhya, and Para and those that inhabit the islands 
KrishnS, ; those people that inhabit the mountains Sarya and 
Kumada and also those of Aukhavana, with those of Pishika, 
and those that belong to Karmanayaka, those of southern Kuru- 
sha, and those of the hermitage of Rishika, those of Rishabhat, 
and of Singhala (Ceylon) and the inhabitants of KanchI 
and of Tilanga, Eunjara and those people that inhabit 
Darikaccha, and Tamraparni likewise Kukshi, these all live 
on the southern portion of the tortoise (15 28). The Uttara 
Falguni, Hasta and Chitra, thou twice-born one, thesa 
three stars reside in the southern belly of the tortoise. Siniilar* 
ly the people of Bapyaplda and Karnboja, of Palhaba, and 
likewise of BadavSmukha as those of Sindh, and Sauvira 
with the people of Anarta and Banitamukha. The people 
of Drabana, those of Sargiga, those of Sudra, and the 
savage people of Krlnapreyadha, the Kiratas, the Paradas, 
those of Pandru likewise those of PHrashaba and Kala, those : 
of Dhurtaka and Hemagiri, those of Sindbj 'Kalaka, attd' 
Raivata, and those of Surastra, and Darad** and Dravida atid... 
of Maharnavaj these habitations are.situate : '0 : ;n -the other oo-e' : 
of the two southern feet of the torfcolse. The stars Slti 
BishS-kha, and Mactin, these three (are the workers of their 
good and evil) (29^ 33). Manimegha, Kshuradri, Khanjana 
and likewise Astagiri, the western Haihaya, SantifcaL 
Biprashasthaka, Konkan, Panchanadaka, Baman and likewise 
Abara,Taraksbara, Angataka, Sarkar, Shabnabeshmaka, Guru- ' 
swara, Falgunaka Benumabi those inhabiting these places, 
likewise those that live in Falguluka, Ghora, Gurubha, and 
Kala and those of Ekekshana, Bajikesha, Dergagriba, with 
those of Chuleka, and Aswakesha, all these people live in the 
tail of the tortoise. Aiadra, Mulaand likewise Ashada, these 
are the three stars (that rule over their destinies)- The people 
of Mandabya, and Chandakhara, and Ashrnaka, and Lalan% 

and Balika and Nrisimha, and Benumati and others likewise 
of Balabasta and similarly those of Dharmabadna, and Afuka, 
ind the people that live in Crukarma, these people live on 
the side of the left feet of the tortoise ; where the three stars 
Ashada, Sraban and Ghanishta are stationed. Kailash, 
Hiroabari and Dhanusbntati, and likewise Basuman, and the 
people of Krauncha, and of Kurubaka, and Kshodrabina and 
Rasalaya, With those of Kaikeya, and Bhogaprasta, with those 
ok Yamana and ' Antardwipa, Trigartta^ Agnija with the In-* 
habitants of Ardana, similarly the people of Asbwamukha^ 
Prapta and of Chibida who wear long hairs, those of Dasaraka 
and Batadharia, and Shabadhana ; those of Fushkala, and the 
inferior Kairata similarly those that live in Takshashila; 
those bi Ambala, Malabaj Meidra, Benuka, with those of 
BMantika, those of Pingata.'Mihakalapa, Hana, and Kuhalaka, 
those of Mandabya, and Bhutiyubaka, Saptaka and Hema- 
taraka; those of Yoshamati with those of Glftdltara with 
those whose refuge is Svarasagara, those of Yaudeya and 
Dasannieya and Rajanya and those of Shyamaka, as 
well as those of Ksheraadhurta, all these live in the left 
belly of the tortoise (3447). Here the star is Baruna r 
likewise the two Praustapada. The kingdom of the Kinnaras? 
Pashppila, with that of Kichaka, and that of Kashmir! and 
likewise the people of Abhisiara and those of Daba4a and of 
Angana, and those of Kulata and of Banarafthtra, and those 
of Saurista and Brahmapura and similarly those of Banabahya 
those of Kirata, and Kakshikinanda, and the people of 

Palhaba and ' Lolaua and those of Darbada, and of Maraka# 
and of Kurata and qf AnadSraka, and of EkapSda and 
pf Khasha, an,d Ghosha who 'are as faulters as the-' 
of heaven- similarly those of Hinga with the Yabasas r: 
of Chiraprabarana, those that Hve in Triantrt and 
of Pucu| and the Gandfrarbas, on most 

amoiig t^ice-bocEi petsp^s^ these live on tl>e 

are the three stars of this region (48-^53). In the rtgI0tis 
mentioned by me the stars belonging to them cause, good . 
and evil, thou excellent Muni. In these countries. O thou 
twice-born one, these stars in the order related by me cause 
pain to them. While they grow and gain all sorts of good 
when the stars are in their proper places (5455). The 
particular planet which is the lord of the pai ticular star 
rifling over a country, of that country, thou superior among 
Munis, both fear and happiness are caused by that planet (56)* 
In each country, O thou most excellent one among twice- 
born persons, the evil or good, befall men equally, from theso 
stars and planets (57). When the natal stars of creatures 
a're inauspicious, the evil that befalls them is slight, and 
similarly by the planets also they are subjected to slight 
pain (58). Similarly when the star is auspicious by the 
sages who know all these things, it is said, that by planets 
in evil stations bat little 'harm is caused to men (59), When 
the>vl sight of the planets falls on the effects of the virtuous. . 
man,'. -or .011 their cattle, or on their -servants, or on 'their : 
.Mettds,|. ; or- on. tfaek" sons, oron their wives at, their hoft&ea.; 
there, is' Jear'of ; <svil (6)* Whom .4h*. sight. M the -evil ; 
planet falls on ome f s awfiuself^ iif-jcwse. of groat fear - 

to men of little merit or those that are given to sin, 
while there is no cause of fear to the sinless (61). All 
the good and evil arising from either the locality or th 
quarter in which people live, r from their kings or iiora , 
their own selves, or from the operation of the stars and the 
placets', all these men sufer or, enjoy (62). Their mutual 
safety is caused by stars that are not inauspicious^ and by 
thjem when they are inauspicious is caused loss -of good, 
O thou prince among Brlhmans ! (63). The positien, of stars 
in the particular parts of the tortoise as related by me, is 
common to all the countries situate in those parts, and so 
ta. also the evil or good caused by them (64), Therelo; 



knowing the presiding stars of the country as also the un- 
favourable influence of one's own (natal) stars, the wise 
and the good shall propitiate them according to 
lokabada (65). The desires, of the gods and Datyas that 
fall on the earth from the sky, are called lokabada (66}. 
The learned shall duly perform those propitiatory rites nor 
give up the lokabada of those men who perform these ; the 
coming in of evil is obstructed, and the good arises and evil 
is utterly destroyed, O most excellent among twice-born 
persons ; while of those who do not observe these, they (the 
stars) destroy the senses, and also the household properties, 
&c. Therefore are the wise given to the performance of 
propitiatory rites, and are devoted to traditions similarly ; the 
propitiatory rites should be performed and the lokabada 
observed whenever the stars are unpropitious (67 69). Then 
the wise do not work harm, do not fast, perform auspicious 
works, and pay homage to places of sacrifice, and perform 
japa and homa } and likewise acts of charity, and bathing 
and give up anger and other passions, and ill will 
towards all creatures, and practise good will towards them, 
avoid bad words, and similarly harsh and unpleasant 
words, and the worship of the stars ; these should men do- 
when suffering from evil stars. In this way, O thou most excel- 
lent Brahman, all evils are fully remedied in men who thus 
control and discipline themselves. The lord, the possessor of 
the six high qualities, the Bkagas, the spirit who is un- 
approachable by thought, Narayana, who exists as tortoise 
in Bharata, and in whom all is established, and where the gods 
are also established, has all been described by me (70 74); 
In this (tortoise) the gods exist holding on each to a star, 
There in the middle exist the carrier of sacrificial offerings the 
god Agni, and the earth, and, O tfiou twice born one, the moan 
atid three stars (of the signs of the zodiac) the Iamb &o > exist. 
Id i^t middle, and the pairs &c exist in the mouth of the 
tortoise, irhile the crab and the lion exist in the south-eastern 


I '; 

in the belly : the balance and the scorpion exist on the south- 
eastern foot ; the scorpion exists on the back with the archer ; 
the archer and the three stars commencing with the horse,,, 
exist on the north-eastern foot, while the tortoise and the 
fish, O thou most superior among the twice born persons, 
similarly exist in the northern belly of this (tortoise), while 
the fish and the lamb exist on the north-eastern foot (7578). 
In this way are the different regions of the earth and in those 
regions their respective stars, and in those stars their respec- 
tive signs of the zodiac, and in those signs their respective 
planets stationed. Therefore the evils arising from the stars 
and the planets are said to be Deshapida or evils pertaining to 
particular regions. And on these evils arising the injunction 
is that people shall bathe and perform horn and acts of charity. 
That foot of Vishnu which exists among the planets is 
BrahmS, called even as the N9.r5.yana; he is unthinkable and 
is the cause and lord of the world 7981, 



'H Muni, the Bharata Barsha is duly described by me,- 
The Satya, the Tteta, the Dwapara, and the Kali, these are 
the four Yugas; and it is here alone that these Yugas and 
thorfour castes exist, Oh thou twice-born one \ Oh Brahman, 
in the four Yugas, Satya, Treta &c here people lived 
for four, three, two, and likewise one hundred years respective- 
ly. The Barsha Bhadrq^hwa by name that is situate to the 
east of Debakuta, at the back of the Prince of mouutains, helir 


of it from me. In this Barsha, Swetaparna, and Nila, and the 
most excellent among mountain s, Shaiblla, Kamanja, Pana- 
sMIagra, these five are the Kula mountains ; their offsprings 
there are many others, small mountains (i 5). I ft them are 
a thousand provinces, of various kinds, that appear like 
flowers, and the tableland of tfaese smaller mountains is 
clean and auspicious looking (6). Shita, Shank&bati, BhaclrH, 
Chakrabarta, these and others are the rivers in this Barsha, 
they are all of great extent, and the carriers of great volumes 
of cooling waters. The men in this Barsha are possessed 
of the glarhour of pure gold and mother-of-pearl, associates 
of tfafe gods, righteous, and the length of their life is a 
thousand years. Among them there is neither good nor bad, 
all of them look <m this creation with an equal eye, and they 
ate endowed with the eight natural virtues of indifference to 
the conflicts of heat and cold &c-^-There the four-armed god 
Jatiarddana, exists as Asw&shira, adorned with three eyes, and 
having head, breasts, the reproductive organ, the feet and the 
hands. Of him, the lord of the world is this to be known as 
the property (6 -n). To the west of it is the Ketumala 
Barsha 5 hear of it from me. Bishila, Kambala, Krishna, 
Jayanta, the mountains Hari, Bishoka, and Bardham^n, these 
seven are the Kula mountains here. There are a thousand 
other mountains wherein people live. The Manlaya, the 
Mahakaya, the Shakapota, the Karambaki, the AngulS,, and 
others, hundreds of peoples live there, who drink the waters 
of the Rangkshu, the Sbylma, the KambalU, the AmogliS, 
theKamini, and of a thousand other great timers (12-^-15). 
The -duration., of human, life here is the same as in- the pre*. 
viotis Barsha,. and Hari, the -possessor .of -the $!x great- 
qualities, the Bhagas, exists t-n the form of the boar with his 
feet, breast, -back and sides, all like.ih^ boar, in this Bamfea f , 
n^kh has , ihrce stars .attached to .It, mad all these start *r 
p^itibiB* Thus -then, b tibe Ketmroila Ua^ht describe tp 
ydct, Q i "exceBeut.Muoi, by me (itfrij)* : Nesl{. I shall 

fruits of honey and they constantly bear flowers and fruits ; 
and tfiey produce cloth and in their fruits are produced orna- 
ments; those trees are able to fulfil all desires, and bestow 
the fruits of all sorts of wishes (iS ig), The earth is 
made of precious stones and metals, the air is sweet-scented 
and pleasant during all seasons. Men, who fall off from the 
region of the gods, are born there. They are born in paiis of 
males and females, who live for equal periods, and art 
attached to each other, even as the Cakrabakas (2021), 
The duration of their life is fourteen and a half thou- 
sand years< In that Barsha Chaudrak&nta, and SuryakawU 
these two princes of mountains are the KuULcalas ; and be- 
tween them the great river Bhadrasoma flows on the earth 
and the current of its waters is pure and without any uncleanr 
tilings. Similarly in the northern part of this Barsha there 
flows a thousand other rivers., some of whose currents are ot 
ghe and of. some of milk. In that Barsha there are likewise 
many lakes of curd, and many smaller mountains | and many 
kitd$ -of fruits whose flavour ftud taste are like those of 
Dec tor* art m the forests { that Barsha, which number 

hundred* thousand*. Aad there Vishnu, the possessor 
of the six great qualities, the Bk*ga$ 9 he .whose face is 
towards the east,, is of the farm of fish (2226)* then 
most excellent among- Munis, .there the stars are nine in 
number arranged in groups of .three,' and the quarters are 
divided into nine parts. In the ocean (of this Barsha), 
island is Candradvvipaa&d another likewise Bh&dradwipa 
audL ttass, Q.thou great Muni, .are well-known as sacred 
arijonf .places, i,n the ocean, . Tims is the . Kurubarsha. des 
cribel by me to you, Br&bn&ana* Hear from me .new all 
about th,e Kimpurusba and oth^r 



shall presently describe to you, O thou twice-born one, 
that which is Kimpurusha Barsha, where the duration of the 
life of men with well-grown bodies is a ten thousand year ; 
where men and likewise the women are without disease and 
without bereavement* The Plaksha tree there is said to be 
as big as in the garden of the gods Nandana. Those men 
always drink the juice of the fruit of that tree; and the wo- 
men have permament youth, and are possessed of the sweet 
scent of the lotus (i 3.) Next by me will be described the 
Hari Barsha which is situate next to the Kimpurusha Barsha, 
The men there are born with the glamour of gold,~they 
have all fallen off from the region of the gods, and are in 
every respect possessed of the beauty of the gods. In the 
Haribarsha, all men drink the auspicious juice of the sugar- 
cane. There old age does not oppress people nor make them 
lean in any way ; as long as they live they live free from 
disease (4 6). That which has been described by me as 
Ilabrita, is the Meru Barsha j it stands in the middle there 
the sun does not burn, nor do the men there become infirm 
and decrepit ; there the rays of th<2 sun or the moon do not 
gain their own objects (they do not give light) ; 0or even the 
rays of the stars and the planets; there the glow of the 
Meru is the most superior light There men are bora hav- 
ing the colour and brightness of the lotus and eyes like the 
petals of the lotus and the sweet scant of the lotus, and who 
live on the juice of the Jamfru fruit (7 9.) The dotation' 
of life is thirteen thousand years, in Ilavrita which exists 
like a saucer in the body of the Meru. There the Meru is 
the great mountain. Thus is lllvrita Varsha described. 

me. There too the Nyagrodha tree is of exceeding height 
and of green leaves, and drinking the juice of the fruit of 
this tree, so they live. There the duration of life is a ten 
thousand years, and the men enjoy the fruits thereof; they 
are distinguished for their affections, and are pure, and devoid 
of old age and bad smell (1013)* From that to the North 
is the Barsha called Hiranmaya, there the river is the 
Hiranvati brightened by immense lotuses. Men there are 
born of exceeding strength and full of vigour, and of the forni 
of Yaksha, and possessing great energy, riches, and pleasant 
to look at (1415). 



said : Msthlmuni, what' I agke'd ihee 
been duly described by thee^ -niamely the' positions f the 
land and the waters -And- likewise : their measurements and 
the stars ; and their position and measure, and also of the 
three lokas, Shu &c., attd all the nether worlds, and like- 
Wise has the Manwantara of the Swrayambhubk Muni, beeri 
described to me O Muni, I desire to hear now of the other 
Manwantaras with the masters of th6se Manw&ntaras, and 
the gods, the Rishis, and the sons of the Manus and the 
kings (13). 

MARKANDEYA said : After that ManWantar^, called the 
Swayamblmba, which has been described to you by me, there 
was another Manwantara, called the Sanfisha Manwantara, 
hear of that from me (4). A certain superior person among 
the twice-born castes lived in the town of Arun^speda, on the 



banks of the river BarunS, O BrShman, who was in beauty 
even as the twins the Aswinis ($)- He was of a mild dls- 
position, living by righteous occupation and learnt the 
Vedas and the Vednga$ In all their entirety, a lover of 
guests, and the shelter of persons coming to his house after 
night fall (6). But he had this idea, " I shall see the whole 
world, which contains most pleasant forests and gardens, and 
is adorned with many cities (7)." Then once upon a time 
came a guest to his house, who knew of the virtues of many 
herbs, and was an expert in magical formulas (8), This 
(guest) having been served by him with a mincl purified by 
reverence, told him of many countries, and beautiful cities, 
and forests, and rivers, sacred and. extensive, and mountains* 
He then being possessed with admiration addressed that most 
superior among twice-born persons (thus) (9 to). "Thou 
must be overtaken by extreme fatigue for having i^ert many 
places, but them art not very old, nor hast thou gone very 
far away from youth, thou twice-born one, liow dost thou 
in this short period travel all over this world (i i), 1 ' 

THE BRAHM/VNA said : <0 Brahman, by the power "of a 
herb sanctified by magic forumlas with unobstructed move- 
ment, I walk a thousand Yofana in half a day (f j), 

MARKANDEY/V said : Tlnen that Brahman again to 

him thus with due respect, being possessed by unshaken faith 
in his words (13). "Grant me this favour, () thou 
of the six great qualities the Bhagas, of flu* power barn of 
magic or mystic formulas, I have got a very to 

see this world (14)," That Brahman, of a mind, 

to him the feet-salve and a too influenced the quarters 
named by him by the power of myatic formulas with 
care (15), Then, thou mot superior among born 

prscws, that twice born one, having covered his feet with 
thai t salve, with a view to see it, went tt the Himalaya that 
have many springs, thinking that while I shall go a thousand 
in half a day in the half II 



(16 if). Having found the top (lit the back) of the Himalayas 
without getting any bodily fatigue the twice born one then 
walked there, the top of the mountain covered by snow (18). 
Then of him thus walking the feet salve, produced by superior 
herbs dissolved by the snow, was washed away (19). Then 
his movement being made slow, he walking here and there 
saw many most pleasant table-lands of the Himalaya moun- 
tain (20). Seeing these table-lands inhabited by Sidhas and 
Gandharbas, and enjoyed by the Kinnaras, and which was 
pleasant on account of there being held the play 
grounds and promenades of the gods , and crowded by 
hundreds of heavenly Apsarlts, this person, most superior 
among the twice born, O Muni, though full of delight, was 
not however satiated t(2i 22). Some place was pleasant 
because of the falling of water from some springs ; another 
place was resounded by the sound of the dancing peacocks 
(23). Some place wa$ full of most pleasant looking Datya- 
hoka, YastikE and other birds, and of the notes of the black- 
birds that run away with the hearing of people (24), He, 
foil of rapture, saw the great Mountain Himalaya which is 
fanned by wind scented by the smell of flowering trees (2), 
Having seen tbfc great Mountain Himalaya^ .this son of the 
twice born person, thought ?M shall ste it ag&in/' and 
turned his mind towards his home (36), Then with his 
feet salve dropped off, and with his movement gradually 
becoming slow, he began to think, ''what is this that has been 
done by me through ignorance (27). My salve has been 
destroyed, having been dissolved by the waters of the snow, 
en4this mountain is also very difficult to walk, and I am come 
here a great way off from my home (28), I shall, consequent- 
ly, be subject to loss of the daily sacrificial rites as the keeping 
up of the fire at the family altar ; what shall I do here, in the 
face of this great difficulty (29). In this snperior mountain, 
crying this is beautiful, this is beautiful, I shall tnever, with 
my eye thus attached to it, find satiation or satisfaction in ,a 



hundred years (30). From all sides the songs of the Kinttaras 
attract the ear, and the smell of flowering trees attracts the 
. sense of the smell (31). Similarly the breeze here is pleasant 
to the skin, and the friuts are full of flavour and the lakes, that 
are beautiful to the mind, rob the heart per force (32). Under 
these circumstance if I can see some jewel of a hermit, he will 
Instruct me in the means by which I can go home (33)." 

MARKANDEYA said : That Brahman, thus thinking, walk- 
ed about on the Himalayas, having been exceedingly dis- 
tracted owing to the loss of the power of the mystic feet- 
salve (34). Baruthini, the daughter of MauE, a most superior 
Apsara, possessed of great beauty, and possessed of the 
eight qualities, namely, kindness, Sec./ said to that superier 
Mum thus walking on the Himalayas (35)* Then seeing that 
.superior twice-born person, Baruthini, immediately being 
moved by love, her heart drawn by cupid, began to think, 
who is this man, with most beautiful features? My birth 
shall be full of fruit if he does not reject me* O the sweet* 
.ness of the beauty of this person 1 O Ungraceful movement 
of this person f I have seen gods and likewise Asoras and 
Siddhas and Gandharbas, and PannagSs, but there has not 
been a single one equal in beauty to this one, 

Should he be as full of love to me as I am to him, then 
shall I know that I had accumulated a of virtue. If 

he should cast to-day affectionate and loving on me, 

.then what woman In the three worlds Is 
with the fruits of virtue than myself (36 4 2).'* 

MARKANDEYA said : That ethereal woman! by 

Cupid, thus thinking showed herself of lovely 

.. (to the Brahman). That son of the set- 

ing Baruthini of most superior her with 

due respect, spoke words (43), "Who art thou, the 

glow of whose face Is of that of the unfolding lotus, ? Whose 
art thou? 1 What art for? I am a Btih* 

who have cotne from the city called 



(44). .Dissolved by the waters of the snow my feet-salve has 
been destroyed, by virtue of which I had come here, O 
thou whose eyes are like the rapturous Khanjana bird (45)." 

BARUTHINI said : I am . the daughter of Muleya, am the 
possesser of the eight qualities of kindness &c., known by 
the name of 'Baruthini. I always rove about this beautiful 
great mountain (46). Such am F; now, Brahmana, seeing 
you, I have been stricken by lust. Order whatever you want, 
that shall be done by me, I am subject to thy will (47). 

THE BRAHMANA said : O thou whose smile is pure, 
tell me by what means I may get to my home. O thou auspi- 
cious one, all my sacrificial works are being neglected; 
and the non-performance of the daily and the periodical 
sacrifices is the greatest loss to twice-born persons. There- 
fore gentle one, do thou deliver me from the Himalayas 
(48 49). Living away from their homes is never permitted 
to the Brlhmanas ; neither have I any fault, O thou timid one, 
except the curiousity to see strange countries (50). Always 
in the house of superior twice-born persons, there Is the per* 
'forittfeace 'of all sacrificial works $ and there is non-perfor- 
mance (a loss) of both the daily and the periodical ' sacri* 
fices of the BrShman who lives away from his home (51), 
What more shall I say, do, thou of good ttame, that by 
which I may see my own home before the setting of the 
sun (52). 

BARUTHINI said : Do not say thus, O thou possesser 
of the good eight qualities of kindness, &c. May that day 
never be to me when leaving me thou shalt repair to thy 
own house (53), O thou son of a twice-born person, even 
heaven itself is not more beautiful than this Himalaya. 
Therefore, we live here leaving the city of the gods (54)* 
Therefore my love, by roving about this lovely snow-^ 
peaked mountain, with me, thou shalt not recollect thy 
earthly friends (55). I, who have been subject to thee by 
cupid and whose heart has been robbed by thee, shall give 




thee here garlands, and wearing apparel and ornaments, and 
food, and objects of enjoyment, and scents and annoint- 
meets (56). The music Vika and Vena } and songs of the 
Kinnaras that please the mind, the breeze that delights the 
limbs, warm rice, and pure water (57) 5 bed after thy mind, 
and sweet-scented annointments, all these are to be con- 
stantly had here, O thou possesser of the eight good qualities 
of kindness, &c., what more is there in thy own home (58). 
Lining here, old age shall never be thine, this land of the 
inhabitants of Tridasha, the country of the gods) is the giver 
df every thing that keeps up the youth (59). Thus saying 
she, whose eyes are like lotus, saying this, "O thou favour 

roe -" intent on enjoying him, all of a sudden, embraced 

him full of love (60). ; 

THE BRAHMANA said : thou vile one, touch me not, 
go to others who are of thy class and nature. By one art 
thou sought for one thing, and thou seekest me for another 
tMng. By performing sacrifice with sacrificial offerings 
morning and evening men go to the eternal abode of bliss. 
O thou fool, all these three worlds are established on the 
sacrificial offerings. Therefore tell me of that by which I 
may swiftly go to my own house (6 1 62). 

BARUTHINI said: Why, Brahmana, am I not dear to 
thee? Is not this mountain pleasant ? Leaving the Gandharbas 
and Kinnaras, who can be the object of thy desire. There 
is no doubt of it that thou, reverend one, shalt go from 
here. For a little while do thou enjoy that pleasure with me 
which is difficult of attainment (64). 

THE BRAHMANA said :The three sacrificial fires, Garha- 
.patya and others are the objects of my desires, the place for 
.-the sacrificial fires is most pleasant of all places to me, and 
tfce goddess Bistarani is my love (65). 

BARUTHINI said: O thou twice-born one, those that are 
eight virtues of the spirit, of them the first is mercy ; 
thoitjobsecyer of the right law, why dost thou aot 



that (mercy) to me (56). I am so full of love for thee that 
forsaken hy thee I shall not live. This what I say is not 
false, therefore be kind to me, O tbou the gladdener of thy 
clan (67). 

THE BRAHM ANA said : If thou art really full of love, and 
if thou dost not say so to me merely from courtesy, then 
explain to me the means by which I shall be able to reach my 
own home (68). 

BARUTHINI said : Thou, revered one, shalt without 
doubt go from here to thy own home ; only for a little while 
enjoy with me those pleasures that are difficult of attain- 
ment (69).- 

THE BRAHMANA said : Baruthini, nothing is permitted 
to the Bdihman to be done for the sake of enjoyment. All 
the works on earth of the Brahmanas, are for pain, but they 
bear fruit in the world to come (70). 

BARUTHINI said : By working the salvation of me who 
is dying the friut of thy meritorious action shall be assured 
in the next world, as also enjoyment in another birth. In 
this ca$e, thus these two a,re causes of thy advancement. 
By thy rejection I shall find death and thou shalt attain, 
sin (7173). 

THE BRAHMANA said : A strange woman shall not be 
desired, so said my preceptors (gurus, meaning both father, 
mother, the teacher of the vedas and the spiritual preceptor). 
Therefore I do not desire thy love, however much thou 
mayest lament or grieve (73). 

MARKANDEYA said: So saying that possessor of the 
eight good qualities of kindness &c., having touched water, 
being calm and subdued in mind, and pure, having saluted the 
Garhapatya Agni, said this in such a way that none might 
hear it : Thou revered Grahapatya Agni j thou art the root 
of all sacrifices ; from thee have sprung the Ahavanya Agni, 
and the Dakshina Agni, not from any one else ; through .thy 
satisfaction * do the gods become the cause of rain amd 


harvest, and from that harvest, the whole exists^ not 
any thing else. In this way by the power of truth by which 
from thee all these worlds grow, similarly (by thy power) 
may I see my own home to-day when the sun is still (on the 
firmament). As by me the Vedic rites have never been 
neglected in their due time, by the power ot that truth may 
I see the sun while stationed in my own house. As I never 
had a desire for other's riches or other's wives, by virtue of 
that may the desire of mine find fulfilment 



LARKANDEYA said: In the body of the son ofth 
twice-born person, speaking in this wise, the Agni Gttrhd- 
\fatya even theft entered (i). Thus possessed by him, he, 
(the Brahmana) thus illumined that region even as a second 
sacrificial fire (2). Necessarily, the love of the {ethereal 
woman (Barutbini) looking on this twice-born person thus 
glowing with the brightness of the sacred fire) became great 
towards this Brahmana (3), Then that son of the twice- 
born person possessed by the carrier of sacrificesthe G&rhs- 
fafya Agni^&n at once to move as before (4), Thus 
looked on by that goddess he swiftly went out of her sight, 
by the sighs of whom of lean figure, the whole forest region 
began to tremble (5), Then in a moment's rttme he having 
got to his own house, the most superior among the twice-born 
persons, performed all the sacrifices as they all declared (in 
the law) (6;. Then that woman, all whose limbs.were beauti- 
ful, being attached to him with all her mind and soul, made 


^Sghs her chief refuge during both the day ahd the night. 
That woman, of unblemished limbs, sighirig cried hd hd 
(these exclamations) and cried repeatedly; and she, whose 
eyes were like the rapturous Khanjana bird, cursed her 
bad luck (7-3). In those days she did not bind the desires of 
her heart either to walking, nor to eating, nor to the beauti- 
ful forest, nor to valleys pleasant to the mind. Her desires 
went only to the rolling pass of Caktavakas^ forsaken by him. 
That excellent woman only cursed her own youth (9 id). 
Drawn by the force of evil fate why did I come to this 
mountain, and who brought such a man before me (li). If 
that possessor of the eight great qualities does not meet me 
to-day, then the fire of Cupid, hard to bear, shall surely burn 
me up (12), That (Himalaya) which was so pleasant to the 
mind owing to its being resounded with the notes of the 
black-bird, on account of his absence, >even that seems to 
be burning .me to-day (13), 

MARKANDEYA said: In this way she, possessed by Cupid, 
went about, thou 'most excellent among the Munis. And 
then her love towards him also grew at every moment. (14)* ' 
A Gandharva, Kali by name, who having loved, had been 
repulsed by her, previous time, saw het now in that state 
(15). He thought within himself, "why is this Baruthini* 
whose movement is like that of the elephant, dried up by 
the breath of sighs, moving about in this mountain (16) ? Is 
sh wounded by the curse of some Muni ? or has she been 
insulted by any one ? For which reason she is beating this 
face wet by tears (17)." Therefore he, Kali, moved by 
curiosity, thought over this fora long time; and then by 
Virtue of Samldhi knew everything exactly as it happened 
(r8). Muni, he, Kali, again thought, having known all 
this,, "this has happend owing to my good fortune earned 
by meritorious actions performed in a previous existence (19)- 
By me, ful^ of love was she repeatedly prayed and 
$he, who repelled me then, will by me be found to-day (20) 



She is full of love for man ; therefore I shall assume that 
form, and she will unsuspectingly enjoy pleasures with me, 
Why should I delay 1 shall do so (21)." 

MARKANDEYA said : Having by the power of his spirit 
assumed the form of that twice-born person, he began to 
walk about the place where that Baruthmi was lying (22), 
She, of most superior form, who was charmingly lean, see- 
ing him, with her eyes somewhat opened with delight, came 
near him and repeatedly cried "Be kind to me, be kind to 
me (23). Forsaken by thee there is no doubt of It that \ 
shall give up this life, then that will be a greater a?n to thee, 
and will' also lead to loss of thy sacrificial works (24), 1^ 
. the beautiful valley of this mountain that has many great - 
.valleys, by coming near me thou shalt surely earn the merit 
of "saving my life. thou of great understanding { surely 
. the end. of my days has approached^ therefore hast thou, O 
1 gladdener of my heart, abstained from going away from 
men (25 26)." 

KALI said :- What shall I do ? Here there will neces- 
sarily be loss to any sacrificial work, and O thoti, of lean 
waist, thou too speakest in this therefore I am. npw, 
in a painful fix- If thou dost as I bid thee, then tfiere may 
be rny connections with thee^ otherwise not (27 38)* 

.* BARUTHINI said ; Be kind, whatever thou shalt say that 
shall I do.. This is not untrue -Tell me what thou wantegfc 
to have done by me -without any doubt or apprehension (29), 

KALI, said: This day at the time of the enjoyment, I 
am not to be seen by thee in this forest O Ihou of beauti- 
ful brow, tby s connection with me be with 
eyes (30). 

BARUTHINI ; said : So be it. That which thou wlflie$t ti 
is -well, t and be it so - I am now In every way subject tt 
thee (31). 



ARKANDR-YA said : Then he roved about with her on 
the table lands of mountains, or Heart satisfying gardens 
with flowering trees, and on lakes that are pleasing to the 
mind (r). on pleasant Valleys and on the banks of rivers' 
that are pleasant to the mind and likewise, thou twice- 
born one, in many other regions (2). She with closed' 
eyes begati to think of the beauty of the Brahman as he 
appeared when possessed by the fire, at the time of living 
with Kali (3). At that time she, thou most excellent 
Muni, became pregnant, through connection with the Gari- 
dharva and thinking on the beauty of the twice-born one 
(4). He (Kali), who had assumed the form of the Brahmana 
then having pacified Baruthiai bearing his child, and having 
been given leaire by her with love, went away (5). fiat 
cMli was fern full of light even as the burning fire; a!s the 
sun illurmae& 411 the quarters by his own rays (6), glows by 
the glamour of his own rays, even did that boy 5 therefore 
he became known by the riame of Sharoctil (7). That 
possesser of the eight good qualities of kindness, &c., grew 
with his age every day, and with many good qualities, even 
as the new mooii grows disc by disc (8). He then, the 3 
possesser of the eight good qualities, kindness, &c., coming 
to yottth, learnt the knowledge of weapons, (military science) 
and also of the Vedas, in right order, and also other kinds 
of knowledge (9). Once upon a time walking about the 
mount Mandara, Jhe, whosfc works were all lovely, saw a 
maiden on the mountain pass, stricken with fear (ro). See- 
ing him she at that tiaie uttered the words "save me.' 1 He 
also to her jvhose eyes were filled with tears from fear, 
said thus "be not afraid" (rr), What is, the matter/~bemg* 



thus addressed in bold words by that; high-souled one, 
then said with her words broken by sighs (12). 

THE MAIDEN said : I am the daughter of the Vidya- 
dhara Indivaraksha, Manorami, by name, born of the daughter 
of Marudhanva (13). Vibhavari born of the Vidy^dhara 
Mandara is my friend $ and also another Kalavati, the daugh- 
ter of Muni Para (14). Going to the excellent tableland of 
the mount Kailasa, there a certain Afunt, of an exceedingly 
lean and hagard figure, was seen by me along with ther% 
whose throat had grown very lean through hunger and whose 
eye balls were without lustre and sunken deep in the socket 
(15). Being laughed at by me, and getting enraged he at 
that uttered a curse on me in very feeble tones and with his 
lips moving sightly (16). thou non-Aryan, thou whose 
penance is for evil, as I have been laughed at by thee, there* 
fore thou shalt without delay be overcome by a P&kshasa", 
(17). When he had thus cursed me, that Muni also was chidden 
by my two friends, (who said) " Fie to thy station as a 
Brahmana, by thee have all these penances been made 
without practising the virtue of forgiveness* Thou hast 
grown lean through malice and through the strictness of thy 
penance. The essence of the quality of a IMhrnana resides in 
forgiveness, and his penance is the subjugation of his anger 
(18-19)." He, of unabated effulgence, hearing this, cursed 
'those two also, namely that on the limbs of one there shall 
be leprosy, and the other shall get consumption (20), These 
grew exactly on those two even as uttered by the Muni f 
.even at that very moment, and on me also a Rftkshasa. 

is coming following my foot (a i). Dost thou not hear this 
terrific sound, of him who is roaring near* this is the third 
day that he has not given up his pursuit of me I shall 

communicate to thee all the knowledge of weapons and til the 
knowledge of heart (//ruhyagnand) save me, O thou high- 
minded one, from, this Rftkshasa (23). This knowledge was 
at first communicated to Swlyambwba Manu, by Rudra 


lumself, the holder of the bow Pindka ; Swayambhuva gave it 
to that most superior among the Stddhas] by him was it com- 
municated to Citr&yudha, my mother's father. His father-in- 
law himself gave it to my father at the time of his marriage 
as a marriage gift (25). In my early age it was learnt by me, 
brave one, from my father this Hridaya of all the 
weapons, that can punish all foes (26). Do thou accept this 
soon, which is the refuge of many weapons, and then kilt 
this evil-spirit as soon as it comes near me "( 2 7) 

MARKANDEYA said : On his saying so be it, then by 
touching water she gave to him that knowledge called the 
Hridaya) with all the secrets regarding its calling back and 
sending out (28). In the meantime that Rakshasa of fearful 
features, roaring with a dreadful roar quickly came there (29), 
He, Swarochi, saw him saying, "I shall eat thee, without 
any loss of time/' and seeing him approach her, he thought 
within himself, "let him take her, and let the words of the 
great Muni be fulfilled/ 1 and that Rakshasa, also coming near 
her quickly, took her of fine-waist who was crying, 'save me f 
save me, in most piteous tones (30 32).' Then Swardchl, 
moved by anger, directed that fierce weapon on the Rkshksa, 
and looked with fixed eyes. Then being overwhelmed, he, that 
Rakshasa letting off that girl, cried "be" gracious, control the 
weapon, and hear me (33 -34), thou of great effulgence, by 
thee am I delivered from a most dreadful curse, uttered 
against me by the most austere and wise Brahmamitra (35). 
There is no greater benefactor to me than thou, possessor 
of the eight good qualities of kindness &c., by whom I am 
delivered from a great curse which caused me such immense 
pain (36)." 

SWAROCHI said : For what reason wast thou cursed by 
the great-souled Muni Brahmamitra. And of what kind was 
that curse given of old (37). 

RAKSHASA said : Brahmamitra, having gathered from the 
Atharvaveda } studied the whole of the Ayurveda with the 



Adik&ras (38), I am the father of this (maiden) known by the 
of Indivara; and am the son of the lord Of Vidyadharas 
NaJanibba, the holder of the sword (39). The Muni Brahma- 
mitra had been besought by me (with the words) "Q revert 
one f it is fit that thou shouldst give to" me the whale of the 
Ayuroeda (40). When though repeatedly besought by me 
with humility, he, O thou brave one, did not comrftunicate' 
tbe knowledge of the Ayuroeda ; the knowledge of tfe un- 
failing Ayurveda was then obtained by me by eaves drob* 1 
ping, from him when he was communicating it to his disciples 
(4142). Eight months after my thus gaining this! -knowledge,* 
one day I was overwhelmed with joy and began to JaW& 
again and again (43) Knowing the secret of my laughing 
be* tbe great Murii possessed with anger, with trembling- 
told me these harsh -words (44). 'As like a Rakshasa, 
O eTil-ttiaded one, by thee has this knowledge been got from 
me s iiaseeo, through stealing and as thou hast been laughing 
to % want of respect for me, therefore in seven nights, 

O thou evil one, being overtaken by my curse, thou* shalt 
without doubt become a cruel Rakshasa (4$ 46)/ On his' 
saying this, being propitiated by salutatidn and other 
means of worship, he again told me, being softened in 
mind at once (47). -What has been: uttered by me, must 
erne to pass, O Gandbarva; there can be no violation of 
that; but having become a Rakshasa thou shalt again find: 
thy own body (48). When with thy recollection destroyed 
Oo. shalt, moved by anger, desire to eat thy o^n offspring,: 
stall find the character of the prowkrs 
then burnt by the fire of her weapon, 
thou shalt get thy own 

e O thou brave one, accept ^prayer ^ 


2 _ 

enjoyment^ him (56). Such crue, acts even^c 
Perform ho w then shall I, a woman like me , by nature 
Pv,ng d,spo SI tion, do it (S7) . Fath Such ^ 

wo , auuden, are overtaken by miseries caused by me, so 

twoUbe f 

two shall be made fre f h again-t^y f rie , lds , th e r<$ f ore rcfjra 

Oh hp ^ of beautiful ^ fron , ^.^ for ^ , Fain ' 
MwiNUm sai d :-, Then .ne the father hiS gave 
that daughter, according to prescribed forms, and in that 
mountam Swarochi married her of lovely eyes. Then the 
Gandha,rva having, consoled that maiden,-^ daughter given 

\ WCnt b etherea| gait frorn there * M- -owi city 
He also (*.*. Swarochi) with- ,th ; f lean one then 
that garden where the two ma i ; den s had got diseased 
that curse (63). Then he, Swarochi, th/unconquer- 
one the knower of the inner significance of things, by 
nvof medicine and juice that kill d i se ases, made the 
of healthy body (6 3} . Then those two maidens of exceeding 
beauty, the auspedous ones, being cured from the disease, 


began to walk on that mountain, having illumined all the 
four quarters by the glamour of their beauty (64). 


ARKANDEYA said : Thus cured of her disease the 
maiden, moved by delight, thus spoke to Swarochi, "Heat* 
niy words, lord" (*) I am the daughter of the Vidya* 
dhara Mandra known by the name of Vibh&vari. my 
benefactor! I give myself to thee, accept me (2), I shall 
also give thee that knowledge by which the speech of all 
creatures shall de revealed to thee. Therefore be then 
gtacious to me (3). 

MARKANDEYA said :< On this being said by the righteous 
Swarochi so be it, the second maiden then spoke this word 
(4). "My father, Pra by name, he who is a Brahtnarshi 
had been a Brahmacari from his boyhood ; he was greatly 
possessed of the eight good qualities of kindness etc., and had 
seen the limits of the Vedas and the Vedangas (5). Then 
of old, during' spring time which is made pleasant by the 
cooing of blackbirds, came to him an Apsarft known by the 
name of Punjikastani (6). - Being overtaken by Cupid, he 
the superior Muni, then met her, and on her was I born in 
this great mountain (7). Leaving me when I was a mere 
baby, alone in this forest that Is devoid of human-beings* and 
full of all sorts of murderous animals, my mother also 
went away (8). Then, excellent one, I grew from day 10 
day by drinking the growing disc of the moon (9). From 
that war'friy name Kal&vati given me by my high-souled 
father Who f tftok me (id)* ; Then I was asked for m marriage 

6apdharva, Alba, of beautiful f ace , who 

of this darling, thpu sh a lt attaia ali t h s ; 
me that kuowledge, /V-^'by name,- this 

b " the S dS W Thus 

That goddess would never say a thing 
was not true ( I0 ). Sllch arn j who tod ' ln 

owepge as also my o wn body to tto acc 
racious to me (i;). 

^ that 



of immortal eftutgence, .enjpyed life 
of mountains adorned with pleasant garden* 

" a ; 



to the knowledge called Padmini, brought to him at will, at! 
sorts of most precious objects of enjoyment, and the sweetest 
honey; and garlands, and clothes and ornaments and oint- 
ments rich in fragrance, and most white seats, and gold, and 
cups and plates of gold, likewise different kinds of bed, 
furnished with most bright and beautiful beddings (2 4). 
Thus he enjoyed life, in that superior mountain scented with 
heavenly fragrance, and glowing with the effulgence of his 
(Swarochi's) own rays with them (his wives) (5). They too' 
found most excellent pleasure with him, on that mountain, 
even as (the goddesses) find pleasure in the enjoyments in 
heaven (6)* A certain Kdlahansa (a species of duck), moved 
by desire, at the loving relations of him (Swarochi) and theof 
(his wives), spoke (thus) to a Chakrav&tca living in water. 
lf !Ie is blessed, he is endowed with the fruits of most superior 
ififerits, who, on attaining to youth, enjoys such desirable 
pleasures with these his beloved ones (8), There exist many 
highly qualified youths, but their wives are not very beauti* 
ful ; there are but few husbands and wives in this world, who 
are both exceedingly beautiful (9). Of some (husband) the 
wife is most beloved; of some (wife) again the husband is 
most desired ; but conjugal pairs, who are rich in each other's 
love, are rare indeed (ro). Blessed is this (Swarochi) so much 
loved by his wives, and these (his wives) also are most dear 
to him, Of the blessect alone is born- such mutual attach*' 
inent 'n)." Hearing these words'spoken- by the Kdlahansi^ 
the Chakravaki told her, with her mind unmoved by any great 
admiration (12}. 'This person is not blessed because he is* 
not shy on account of the 'nearness of his other wives ; he 
enjoys one of the wives, his heart is not on all of them (13), 
As, friend 1 the affection of the heart is placed always on- 
one person only, then how shall this person- be' full of love 
to all bis 'Wives (14)? They are not the beloved 1 of their 
testmnd, nor is the husband their beloved ; they are mere 
pat times {tt him) like any other attendant (15), If he b* 


really the object of the desire of these (women) then why da 
not they give up their life? Even as he embraces one of 
his wives, be is meditated upon by others (16). This person 
is sold, as a slave, for the price of the gift of knowledge. 
Love does not equally flow to or rest on many objects (17). 
O Kdlakan$i\ blessed is my husband, and blessed also am J 
whose hearts are for ever fixed in one person only (18). 

MARK/VNDEYA said : The invincible Swarochi, who was 
acquainted with the language of all beings, hearing this, felt 
ashamed (of himself) and thought, 'This is true, and not 
false (19)." Then after a hundred years had gone (after this) 
while (one clay) walking about with them (his wives) on the 
great mountain, he saw in front of him a deer, of lovely and 
fat limbs, and roving about among a herd of deer, and 
surrounded by sweet-scented female deer like itself (20 2t). 
Then on those female deer drawing the reservoir of his 
scent (the musk, supposed to exist in the navel) and begin* 
ning to smell him, that deer said; (< Q woman, immodest as 
you are, get you gone, I am not Swarochi, nor am I of toii 
'<fcft?&cter. you of beautiful eyes. There are many shame- 
less persons like him, go to them (2223)* As when one 
woman follows many men she becomes the object of divfsfqn 
among -men, similarly also when one is looked upon by matvy 
with an eye to enjoyment, that one becomes ,an object pf 
deresion (24). Fiom day to day the sacrificial duties of that 
man are neglected and lost ; he is always attached by lust 
to another wife, even when enjoying one wife (23). Others 
who are like these, and of their character, who have turned 
their face from the next world and the good thereof, do you 
desire them, I am not like Swarochi (26). 


S aid:-Hearin g those 

repu sed by the deer, Swarochi began to feel seev 
a fallen being (l ). He, who was thus spoken of by th e 
Chakravlka and the deer, and who was the subjl of 

t 1 ?T H l the ^ reS IVed ' 

, K , ftm (hb WiVC8) (2) ' But on bei * 
agam h s grew, and the instructions f renu 

oahon were thrown away and he enjoyed life with theLl 
-hund red years ( 3 ). But the dmriUble-minded 
eajoyed objects of pleasure with them, whife 



Prabhava (6) , 7 , Merunanda and KalSvati to 

" ( 




be gracious uftto me (13). What good ivilt tlmu gam bjr 
killing this (boar) today? Soon kill me; the arrow discharged 
by thee shall deliver me from misery (14)." 

SWAROCHI said: Thy body is not found to be full df 
disease by us. What then is that cause, for which thou 
desirest to kill thy life (15). 

THE DEER said ; My heart has made; one, whose heatft 
Is attached to another person, its object. Without him, death 
is my remedy. What greater medicine is there ? 

SwARCOHI said ; Who is he who does not desire thefc, 

thou timid one, and to whom art thou moved by love, by 
hot gaining whom thou art resolved to give up thy own 
life? (17), 

THE DEER said : May good befall thee, even thee I 
desire. By thee has my mind been carried away. Therefore 

1 shall embrace death. Do thou discharge the arrow on 
the (18). 

SWAEOCHI said; thou of lovely glance, we are jo!, 
the farm of men, and thou art a deer, how can there %e any 
Connection with thee of persons like ourselves (19). 

THE DEER said : If thy heart is set on me, then do thou 
embrace me. If thy heart be good, I shall do whatever is 
desired by thee, and shall be most glorified (20). 

MARKANDEvA said ; Then Swarochi embraced that female 
deer ; and embraced by him she at once became invested 
'With a most bright and beautiful body (21). He, tten struck 
with wonder, said "who art thou ?" She too told ..him 
(this) m accents Stricken with loving modesty (32). I *am 
goddess of this forest, honoured by the gods. O thou Jwgh- 
ioitled one, Manu is to be produced on me by thee (23). 
I say 4his to thee according to the instruction of the gods; 
<do thou beget on me, who am full of love for thee, a son 
Who AM be the ruler of this world (24). 

MAE&ANDEYA said : He then begat even at that 
on her a son, i!nartked by all the ausrpicious mar!t% 



full of energy, and like unto himself (25). As soon as hfc 
was born the musicians of the gods struck (pleasant) notes, 
and the lords of the Gandharvas began to sing, and the 
Apsar^s began to dance (26). The Rishis, and those whose 
wealth is their penance, and the gods showered flowers from 
all sides (27). Seeing his effulgence his father himself madfc 
his name, Dyutiman, because by his effulgence even all the 
Quarters illumined (28). That boy, maned Dyutiman, full 
of great strength and prowess, because lie was the son of 
Swarochi, therefore became Swarochisha (29). He Swarochi, 
while walking about a pleasant mountain streamlet, saw a 
duck with his mate (30). That duck said to the female duck 
who was repeatedly expressing her desire for him ; "Restrain 
thyself; long bast Ihou enjoyed with me (31). What is the 
good of indulging in enjoyments at all periods of life ? Thy 
last days are near. thou rover on the water, the limte 
has come when both thou arid I should renounce (all 
pleasures) (32), 

THE FEMALE DUCK said: What time is there which is 
not fit for pleasure. The whole world is for enjoyment. 
Even the srlf-restraincd Biiihmauas perform sacrifices for 
1he sake of the enjoyment (33). And those, who have at- 
tained the power of discrimination, desirous of enjoyments 
both seen and unseen, porform works of charity and other 
meritorious works (34), Why then dost thou not desire enjoy- 
ment. Enjoyment is the result of human excrtions,~~as 
much of those that have gained the power of discrimination 
and those that are self-restrained. Why then shall it not 
be good for birds aid beasts ? (35). 

THE DUCK said;- The mind, of those whose heart Is 
attached to plmsure, and who arc eager for the association 
irf friends, is rarely moved towards God (36)* Attached . to 
, friends, wives, people's minds languish, even like. : . : ike 
sinking in the slough -of the lake (37)* Dost thou 
not -se good lacfjr, that Swtradbi, bein 'overcome .by *!< 

tachment even from his boyhood being moved by desire, 

has sunk in the mire of worldly affection (38). In youth 
exceedingly attched to his wives, now to his sons and grand- 
sons, the mind of Svvarochi is sunk (in the mire of this 
world) how shall he find deliverance (39)? O thou who 
movest in water, I am not like Svvarochi, subject to women. 
Presently I have attained to discrimination, and have with-* 
drawn myself from enjoyments (40). 

MAEKANDEYA said : Hearing the speech of the bird, 
being uneasy and taking his wives he went to another forest 
for practising penance (41). There the charitable-minded 
one, having performed most austere penances, and having 
repelled all sins, went to the most pure region (42), 


. m -.... 

I MEN the possessor of the six Bhagas, (Brahml) 
the son of Swarochi, Dyutiman by name, Manu, the lord of 
creatures. Hear (all about) his Manwantara (i). Those 
.that were the gods in that, and those that were their sons, 
and those that were kings, Oh Kroustiki, I am relating all 
these, hear (2)., thou tvvice*born one, the gods in that 
Manwantar of Swarochisa, were Paravat and likewise 
Tushita, and the Indra, was called Vipaschita (3). In that 
.Urja, StSmva, Prina, Dattoli, Rishahha, Nishchara, and 
Aurvaviran these became the seven Rishjs (4). Chaitra and 
Kimpurusha etc., were the seven sons of these high-souled 
ones ; they were of great eneregy, and the rulers of the earth 
,(5) As long as his Manwantara lasted SQ long their 


dents eft joyed this earth; then was the second 

(6) Men, hearing with faith and reverence of the age of 

Swarochisha, are liberated from all sins (/)* 



.RUSTOKl said , O revered one, by thee has the fjfe 
t>f Swarochisha as also the story of the birth of Swarochisha 
been described in all their details (i). That knowledge, 
Padtnini by name, which brings nil objects of desire, as also 
those ffidkis that are attached to it, tell mt of them In detail 
(2), Guru> the eight Nidhis and the objects they live i, 
and their nature, -all these- 1 to hear, related by 

thee (3). 

MARKAND&YA said ; The knowledge that is called Pad- 
mini) has Lakshmi as its presenting its receptacles 
jqw the Nidhis.] hear of them from me (4); 

t Mkwise, Makara aed Cacchapa f and Haa- 

as also Nila, while Shaoktia h the 
Wherever there w 

and of them Siddhi is born* These eight arc 
,tbey have been denoribed to (6). Mutl, 

the of the and the 

is the propertf of by (3), 

..Of what nature they are, 

,MVtt/ Padanu by to 0- tibia 

one (8), It. to lilt too 


ikit (^* t 


possesser of the eight good qualities of kindness etc, he be- 
comes the receptacle of wealth* for this Nidhi is of the 
quality of wealth (10). He gets gold and silver and copper and 
all other metals, in very large quantities, and also trades in 
them (n)i He also performs sacrifices and gives the sacrifi- 
cial fees ; with devotion he causes assemblages (of the learned 
to meet) at the temples of the gods (12)* There is 
another Nidhi, the receptacle of the great of Satwa, spoken of 
as Mah&padma ; possessed by him a man becomes strong 
in the quality of Satwa (13). He gets padmardga and other 
jewels, and pearls, and corals, and buys and sells them (14). 
Those who live according to the laws of Yoga to them he 
gives all this wealth as also habitations (for them) and 
himself becomes of their character, (15). His sons become 
of that character, with their sons and grand sons. It does not 
leave his descendants to the seventh generation (16). The 
Nidhiy Makara by name, is of the quality of Tamas } looked 
on by him a person, of most excellent character, becomes over- 
taken with ignorance and indiscrimination (17). He gains 
arrows, swords, double-edged swords, bows and shields, 
prepares binding instruments (Plshas) and attains friendship 
with kings (i8)> He give these to those persons who live by 
valour, and to kings, and to those who are liked by them ; 
and finds pleasure in the rightful sale and barter of weapons 
(19). All these ^appen to one only and it does not follow 
his descendants ; he finds destruction for these objects from 
soldiers or in battle (20). The man, who is looked on by the 
Nidhi the Kacchapa (tortoise), becomes possessed of the 
quality of Tamas because this Nidhi is"* of the quality of 
Tamas (21. He performs works of various kinds shorn of 
righteousness, and builds all sorts of places for business; and 
does not put his trust in any one (22). Even as the tortoise 
withdraws unto itself all its lines, so having drawn unto him 
people's hearts, he himself exists with his own mind perfectly 
restrained (23). He neither gives (his wealth) to others nor 


himself enjoy (it) being a , ways distracted by tte , , 
estruction, an'd pacs it in th- earth T, ** 

, c., 

to bard,, 

nit y , t hou 
great satisfaction, 
to a 

f lif 

in h 






attains to its character (i.e. the qualities of Satwa and Rajas) 
(37). He gains, Muni, cloths sind cotton, and foodgrains 
&c., and fruits and flowers, and also pearls and corals and 
conches and mother of pearls (38), and also other things 
that are. born in water, and wood &c ; as also he sells and 
barters them> and his heart is npt set on any other thing, 
(39). He makes lakes and ponds, and likewise gardens) and 
bunds, and Ccuumls, and plants trees (40} ; he grows by; 
enjoying scents ami flowery and the Nidhi Nila becomes hisi 
for three generations (41). The other Nidhi, Sankha by 
name, is composed of the qualities of R<ajas and Tamas, and 
O Brahmsina, by it also is the lord of this Nidhi led to attain 
these qualities (42). It becomes of one man only and does qqt 
find any other man (*>, his descendants) ; hear of, Krau$tiki> 
the characteristics of him whos$ this Saakha Nidhi becomes 
(43). He, by himself, eats the rice cooked by him, and simi- 
larly also wears fine clothes, while the members of his family 
as also his dependants and servants eat bad rice and do 
not put on fine clothes (44). He becomes Always dgyo{;e4 
to Iris own maintenance, and does i^ot give (proper food 
clothes) to Wendi wife^ bnHho;, soa or daughter-in-law 
others (45). Thus th<s$e are the Nidhi^ r^ be th$ 
presiding deities of the wealth ^nj riches of men ; ( they arQ 
superior on account pj tl^ir gwp^npr look, an$ are t^e giversi 
of fruits according to the natures of men (46). Through 
being looketi them a nian attains that cbarapten which 
b^lppgs to them. thqu tvyice-bora one, the Padmmi, which. 
is of the character qf the goddess of fortune -Lakshmii 
s qoptr^l over all these (47). 




.RAUSTUK! said:-0 Brabmana, the Swarochisha 
Manwantara has been related to me by thee in detail, and 
likewise also the eight Nidhis as asked by me (i). And the 
first Manwdntara, called the Swdyambkuvam has also been 
described. Now tell me about the third M&ntadntara called 
Auttama (2). 

MARKANDEYAsaidr-ThesonofUttblnapada and Suru- 
chi was known by the name of Uttama-a king reputed to 
be possessed of great strength and prowess (3); and righteous 
and and endowed with the wealth of manliness 
who having surpassed all beings became as glorious as the 
sn (4). O thou great Muni, he was impartial both to 
friends and foes, and just to son or servants ; to the workers 
of iniquity he was even as the god Yama, and to the virtuous 
even as the moon (5). Uttarna, that righteous son of Utttna- 
pada married Vahula. well-known to fame, the daughter of 
Babhru even as Jndra did Shachi. His mind was al 
full of affection (towards her)-and he placed his (heart's) stay 
on her, even as that of the Moon was towards Rohini (6_ 7 ) 
Hii-.n D d never was moved by attachment to any other 
object. The mind of that supporter of the earth rested on 
her even , dream (8). That king, immediately on seeing her 
of exceedingly lovely limbs, would embrace her body, and 
nnmedutely on touching her body would lose his consc ous- 

were! ^ *" ""* ** CaUSed P- *o the ear 
-^^^^^ and even 


insults from her he regarded as great honour (10). She 
would despise the garland and even most lovely ornaments 
(when) given by him$ and would get up 'j.e. leave his com- 
pany (unceremoniously) causing bodily pain to him, when he 
would be drinking most superior wine (n). In this way she 
was not favourably disposed towards that high-souled one 
who was always favourably disposed to her ; (and yet 
the lord of the earth would love her more than ever (12). 
If held by the band even for a moment by the lord of men, 
she, not being sufficiently pleased, would, thou twice-born 
one, eat but little food (13). Then, once, the king, while 
engaged in drinking, with great respect offered her, the in- 
telligent one, a drinking cup filled with wine (14). She, looked 
upon by the supporters of the earth, (t. e. the assembled 
princes) with the coutezans who were adepts in dancing and 
singing, and who were singing most sweet tunes, turned her 
face from it, and did not wish to accept that cup, in the pre- 
sence of the lords of the earth. Then that king repulsed by 
that lady so loved by him, her husband not loved by her, 
bob g angry, said, calling the keeper f the gate, and breath- 
ing even lik& a serpent (15 17). keeper of the gate, taking 
this one whose heart is bad, leave her soon in a lonely forest. 
Thou art not to judge this order of mine. (i. e. thou art not 
permitted to think whether I shall do as the king bids or not 
&c) (18), 

MARKANDEYA said Then that door-keeper, obeying the 
order of the king without judging (of its propriety or impro- 
priety) having placed her on a chariot, left her in the forest 
(19). Thus taken by him, she (the Queen) also regarded 
that banishment in the forest, being put out of sight of the 
lord of earth, as even a great favour (done to her) (20), He 
also, that supporter of the earth, the son of Uttana- 
p^ida with his mind burning with the pain of his love for her 
did not -take a second wife (21). And he thought of her, of, 
infbst lovely limbs, without break day and night, and per- 

formed the works of hiss kingdom according tQ the law as 
prescribed for the government of subjects (22). To hi,qa 
governing (his subjects) even as father his self-begotten 
came a Brahman, in a painful state of the mind, and 
this (33). 

THE BRAHMANA said :-0 great king, hear me speak, I 
anpt in great distress. The distress of men is not ra:i\t- s 
died by any one else except the king (24). My wife 
has been stolen by some one when I was asleep at night, 
with the dpor of my house not bolted, Thou shouldst bring 
her back to me) (25). 

THE K.ING said ; thou twice-born one, thou dost not 
know by whom she has been stolen, or where she has been 
taken, then for whose punishment shall I exert myself, or 
whence shall I bring her (26). 

THE BRAHMANA said : lord of the earth, if the wife, 
of a man sleeping with the doors closed, be stolen, by whom 
and why (has she been stolen) should be found out by 
thee (27). Thou, lord of men, who takcst the sixth part 
of our produce) as thy remuneration, art the protector of the 
law, therefore the sons of Manu (L e. men) sleep fearlessly 
at night (28), 

THE KING. said ; Thy wife has not been seen by me; of; 
what form is she physically, what also is her age, tell me, as 
also what is the character of thy Brlhmani (2^). 

BRAHMANA: Of hard eyes is she, and exceedingly tall, 
and of short arm, and shrunken face ; she is very ugly, lord 
of the earth, I don't speak ill of her, she is really such (3Q), 
In words she is, king, exceedingly hariih, and by 
she is not amiable. Thus is my wift described fey me,. : 
in form exceedingly unpleasing to. tfc? sight. (31). Q 
her first youth has ju*ed passed, qf such * 
wife; this is the truth spoken by me (3$). 
' . Tnp KING said ;^Mo nee4 bftst t^ou, Q 9r|hm^,ri, <?l her. _ 
another -wife, A loietjr 


of happiness, 6ne like her is 6nly a cause of pain (33). 
.fteauty and good character becomes a cause, D Brahman, of 
happiness; for that reason she, 'Who is Without character, Is 
to be forsaken (34). 

THE BRAHMANA said : is it not, Oh king, a good injune- 
tion of the scriptures, that the wile is to "be protected, for 
on thfe wife of beiftg protected the children are pro- 
tedted (35). On her is the Self begotten, therefore, 
lord of men, she is to 'be protected ; on the children 
being protected self is protected (36), If she is not 
protected intercaste connections arise, &nd that brings down, 
lord of the earth, the ancient 'forefathers from 
heaven to hell (37). Of me Deprived oil my wife, there will 
be daily violation of the sacrifical rites, and owing to the 
violation of daily sacrificial duties it will be for my fall 
(38). Of her, preserver of the earth, will be born my 
children ; and she will thus become the giver of the sixth 
part of the produce, and the cause of the maintenance of the 
Law (39). Therefore has my wife, who has been taken away f , 
teen thus de^tribed by me to thee, Lord/ Bring her, for 
t>y rigfht art thou our protector (40). 

MARKANDEYA said : Searing these.-' worcts- of his the 
lord of men, being somewhat clispleasecl ascended his great 
Chariot supplied with all the necassaries (41). By him, wan- 
dering here and there about the earth, was seen in the great 
forfest an excellent hermitage (42). This (king), getting down 
there (from the car) anii entering .(the hermitage), saw there 
the Muni sitting on the seat made of the kusha grass, which 
imparts vigour and energy, and as if burning by his efful- 
gence (43), He, on seeing the kind's approach, .getting up 
with alacrity, and having honored him by .saying Swagata 
"(welcome), asked his disciple to bring the offerings (due to 
& prince by visitors) (44). To him the disciple said in a 
low tone, "what offering is to 4>e -given him, O Iviuni ! order 
*dtie aellberatibn ; I shall do thy bidding 

1 1 


Then having known the story of that king the twice-born 
one, who has been established in his self, honoured him by 
a seat and words of welcome (46). 

THE RiSHi said: For what object hast thou come ? what 
is thy purpose? I know thee, king Uttama, the son of 
Uttanapada (47). 

THE KING said ; From a Bnihman's house his wife has 
been stolen by some one, Muni, whose identification is 
unknown ; looking for him have I come here (48). Therefore 
whatever I shall ask thee, possesser of the six great 
virtues, (the Bhagas), that thou shouldst moved by mercy tell 
me, who am a guest in thy house, and am adoring thee (49)4 

THE RiSHi said : Ask what thou desircst to ask, pro- 
tector of the world, without any reserve or delicacy ; if that 

may be spoken to you by me, I shall relate it truly ,ta 
thee (go). 

THE KING said : That offering, Muui, which on see- 
ing me at first ^approach thy house, thou wert on the point 
of making me, why is that offering withheld (51)? 

THE RiSHi said : When, king, on seeing thee out of 
eagernesss and delight was this disciple ordered by me, then 
I was by him called back to my own consciousness (5^). 
This disciple knows, through my favour even as I know my- 
self, whatever is past or is present or has not come to pass in 
this world (53). On his saying " consider and oder" by 
me was also then every thing known, therefore I did not give 
you offerings according to the injunctions of the scriptures 
(54). Thou art, king, truly deserving of offering being 
born in the race of SwSyambhuva ; inspite of that we did 
not consider you as deserving of superior offerings (55). 

THE KING said: Brahman f whathas been done by 
me either consciously or unconsciously, for which although 
coming here after a long time, I am not thought deserving 
of receiving due offerings from thee (56) ?* 

* The highest offetiag, that is fit to b* given to a spiritual guide* 



THE RiSHl said: Has it been forgotten by thee that 
thy wife has been sent by thee to the forest? With her, O 
king, hav also all the sacrificial rites been forsaken by thee 
(57). Man becomes unworthy of being touched, by violation 
or neglect of the sacrificial rites for a fortnight, and the viola- 
tion of thy daily sacrificial duties has extended over a year 
(58). As the wife must be favourably disposed towards the 
hasband if he be of bad character, similarly is the wife of 
bad character to be supported (by the husband), G lord of 
men (59). That wife of that Brahmana who has been stolen, 
is against her husband, still that (Brahmana), king, desir- 
ous of merit, is anxious to regain her (60). lord of the world, 
thou dost re-establish those that are fallen from their duties, 
in their respective functions, who else shall establish thee 
when thou art shaken from the law (61), 

MARRANDEYA said ; That lord of the earth thus spoken 
to by that wise one, being ashamed, and saying " it is as thou 
sayest," asked of that twice-born one, about the stolen wife 
(62). O thou the possessor of the six great qualities, the 
BkagaS) by whom has that wife of the Brthmana been taken, 
and where. The revered one knows truly that which has 
occurred and that which is yet to come m this world (63). 

THE RISHI said ; The Rakshasa,, Yalika by name, the 
son of Adri has stolen her. O king, thou mayest see him this 
day in the forest of Utpalavatam (64). Go, arad do thou, with 
despatch, join that most excellent person among the twice- 
born with his wife ; let him not go to the place of the sinners 
from day to day like their own self (65). 

to the king, to the son-in-law, &c., consists of calf or cow, but the ancient 
authorities say that this offering is due to those guests who come at least 
after a year. Hence the king here mentions the length of time. 


MARKANDEYA said : Then having saluted the great 
Muni, he got upon his own chariot, and by it he went to that 
forest known as Utpa&vatam (*) The lord o men then 
saw. that wife oi the twice-born one of the same description 
"as related by her husband, eating bael fruits (2). He asked, 
".Why, O good one, hast thou come to this? forest, tell me dis* 
tinctly j art thou the wife of SusharmS the son of Bish&Ia (3)* 

THE BRAHMANI said : I am the daughter of the twice- 
born one, AtirStra, who lives in the forest ; and the wife of 
the son of Bishala whose name has been mentioned by thee 
(4). That am I who has been brought away by the Rakshasa 
Yalakaof evil spirit, when I was asleep in my house, and 
have thus been separated from my brother and mother (5), 
May that Rakshasa be reduced to ashes by whom I am 
separated from mother, brother and others and am placed 
here in great misery (6). Brought by him I have been left in 
this dense forest; I do not know the reason, why he neither 
enjoys nor eats me up (7) ? 

THE KING said: Dost thon know where the Rakshasa 
has gone after leaving thee here ? O thou daughter of twice- 
born parents, I have been sent here by thy husband (8). 

THE BRAHMANI said: That rover in the night 
even in the borders of this forest: enter and tee htm, if thoii 
art not afraid of him (9), 

, MARKANDEYA said : Then he. entered from there, by 
the road pointed out by her, and saw the Rikshasa surroun- 
ded by his family (10). Then immediately on seeing him 
that Rakshasa made haste to touch the ground with his head 
from a distance, and went near his feet (tf )> 

THE RAKSHASA said; By thee coming here to my house 


has great favour beeii done to me. Be graciota&, tell me 
what may I do for thee, I live in thy kingdom (l). At^ept 
this offering, take this seat, we are servants, thou the lord, 
order me firmly (13). 

THE KING said : By thee have all the rites due to a 
guest been fully performed. Why has the wife of the 
Brahman been brought by thee, O thou rovef in the night ? 
This one is not beautiful, of excellent limbs, that she has 
been stoten by thee for taaking her thy wife. If brought for 
mating why has not she been eaten by thee, tell me this 

THE RAKSHASA said : We are not cannibals, O king, 
they are other Rikshasas. We eat that, O king, which is 
the fruit of our merit (16). We eat the character of men 
and women when insulted or honoured (by them), but are 
not eaters of animals (17). Therefore when men's power 
of forbearance is eaten by us they become subject to anger; 
and on their bad disposition being eaten up, they become 
frill of good qualities (18). We have females who -please 
us, O 'Jang) equal in beauty to Apsaris, and when these 
Raksasis exist what cause is there for our becoming attached 
to women? (it)). 

THE KING said:*-If thte wonian, thou ^ight-walker, is 
is not meant for enjoytrient nor for food then why has she 
been stolen by thee, entering into the Brahman's house ? (20). 

THE RAKSHASA said :* king, that superior person, 
among the twice-born, is well versed in spells ; and by read- 
Ing spells for the destruction of Rakshasas he expels me from 
every sacrifice where I go (21). We suffer from hunger by 
Ws reading the spells for the expulsion (of the Rakshasas) ; 
where shall we go, that twice-born one becomes the priest 
in ail the sacrifices (22). Therefore has this disqualification 
of him been worked by us; in the absence of their wives, 
men become unfitted for the performance of sacrificial 
rites (23). 



; MARKANDEYA said :- Then that king, on the fact of y, e 
disqualification of the high-souled Brahman, being related 
(to him) became exceedingly sad (34), By speaking of the 
disqualification of the Brihmana, lie is condemning even me * 
that most superior Muni also said that I was not competent 
to receive offering due to a (of my position) (25), "The 

disqualification of that Brahmana, as of mine, is spoken 
of by the R&kshasa. Such am I, who owing to want of wife 
have come to this great difficulty (26), 

MARKANDEYA Said>-0 Muni! to the king thus medi- 
tating, the Rikshasa, saluting low, and with hi* hands joined 
said once more (27), 

; THE RAKSHASA said ; O lore! of men, by ordering me 
as to what I should do, favour me , who am thy sr;rvant t and 
obedient to thee, and who live in thy kingdom (**8)* 

THE KING said : This which has been upokim by thee, 
O thou night-walker, that we cat the character* of men,-* - 
even that do we desire (of thee), hear from m of the work 
by which thou mayst (fulfil my wishes) (4j>). Ily thee to-day 
is the bad character of this BrRhmani u> he eaten ; so that 
with her bad character eaten ftp by thc?e, Iie way hecomn 
mild of disposition ; (30). And by ( *lmttl<l *ht* be 
to his house, thou nightw;iikt*r wife nlm is, On 

thy doing this, every thing fm'rdful) wilt tie to we who 

have come (as a guest) to thy house (31), 

MARKANDEYA said : TVn that by fo fce of 

bis own occult powers having entered into that woman, at* 
up her evil disposition by fib own pow<f * v in with 

the command of the king (32), Th*it wife, of that 
one thus relieved of her exceedingly lirrce vil 
told that lord of the world. (33), "By virtu* of my own 
iiftve I been from that #rettoou!4! 0r t my tori, 

this was only an initrumtnt (in the of Pw- 

(34), Thii it not th fault of Ott one (U tit 
j nor of hill, my } it I my 



not of others. People always enjoy the fruits of their 
actions (35). In a privious birth separation of some woman 
(from her husband) had been worked by me. That has 
come to me also. What fault is there (for this) of this high- 
souled one (36). 

THE RAKSHASA said: Lord, I shall, in accordance with 
thy command, take this (woman) to the house of her lord. 
Command me, king, what also is to be done by me (37). 

THE KING said : thou rover in the night, on thy doing 
this everything will be done to me. Thou, brave one, wilt 
come to me, whenever, I fcttay remember thee, for the per- 
formance of any work (38). 

MARKANDEYA said : Then, "So be it" saying this, that 
Rlkshasa taking that twice-born woman, who had become 
pure through removal of her evil disposition, conveyed her to 
her husband's house (39). 


IARKANDEYA said Having sent that woman to the 
house of her husband, the king also began to think, sighing, 
"tvhat shall be good for me under these circumstances (i)< 
That high-minded (Rishi) spoke to me of my pain for my 
unworthiness to receive the offerings meet for a guest (of 
my position) ; and this night-walker spoke of my disqualifica- 
tion, referring to the case of the Bnihmana; (2). Such am I, 
what shall I do ? That wife of mine has been forsaken by 
me Or shall I ask that most superior Muni possessed with 
an illumined vision (3) ? Thus meditating, that lordj of the 



earth getting into that chariot of his, went there where the 
righteous great Muni who knows the three periods of time 
(i.e. the past, the present, and the future) lived (4). Getting 
down from the chariot, he then approaching him and making 
due obeisance, related his interview with the Rikshasa exact- 
ly as it happened (5), and similarly his interview with the 
wife of the Brhmana, and her cure of her evil disposition, 
and also her despatch to her husband's house,, and that which 
was the object of his visit (6). 

THE RiSHI said : That which has been done by thee, 
Lord of men, as also the object of thy coming to me, all 
this was already known by me (7). Ask me now,~what is 
to be done by me, I am anxious in mind, cm thy coming to 
me. Hear that which is to be done by thee, lord of earth 
(8)* The wife is the most powerful incentive of men to the 
observance of the law and the attainment of merit ; espe- 
cially is the law forsaken on her being forsaken (9). The 
wifeless man, king, is not entitled to perform his sacrificial 
duties, be he, O king, a BrUhmana, Kshatriya or Vaishya. In 
forsaking thy wife thou hast not done a graceful act; for 
even as wives cannot desert their husbands, so too men can- 
not forsake their wives (n). 

THE KING said : O thou possessor of six great qualities 
the Bhagas, what shall I do ? This is the result of my ac- 
tions. Because she was not favourably disposed towards 
me who was always lovingly inclined towards her, therefore, 
has she been forsaken by me (12), Whatever she did I 
forbore all that with a burning heart, O possessor of the six 
great qualities, with my mind always afraid of the pain of 
tor separation (13). Now that she has been left in the 
forest I know not where she has -gone, qr whether she has 
been eaten in the jungle by lions or tigers or Rakshasa** (14)* 
. THE RISHI said :* She has not- ta$n eaten, tori of 
it* eafth, by the lira m tiger or RUcshosa, slie is now. living 
in the lower region with iwcbaractec unsullied 



THE RlSHi said : The king of serpents, known as 
Kapotaka, liv,es in the nether regions ; that beautiful young 
lady, forsaken by thee, and roving about m that great forest 
was seen by him, who knew her story, and was moved by 
love towards her, and taken to the nether regions (16 18). 
His daughter with beautiful eye-brows was Nanda by name, 
O lord of the world, and the wife of this king of the serpents, 
possessed of intelligence, was Manorama, by name (19). 
This beautiful (lady) will become the co-wife of my mother, 
(she thought), and seen by her, she was taken to her own 
house and artfully concealed in the female appartment (20). 
When besought, Nand did not reply to the king; then the 
father told that daughter "thou shalt be dumb" (21). Thus 
was his daughter cursed by him, and she, the chaste one, 
(thy wife) lord of the earth ! captured and taken by that 
lord of the serpents, lives there (now) (22). 

MARKANDEYA said: Then the king overcome with great 
joy asked him the most superior among the twice-born the 
cause of his misfortune so far as his wife was concerned (23). 

THE KING said ;-^0 thou possessor of the six great 
qualities, the BhagaS) the affection of the whole world towards 
me is very- great. What then is the cause, for which my 
own wife is not overhanging towards me (24). O thou great 
Muni, my love towards her is very great, even more than that 
towards my own life, but she is ill-disposed towards me, tell 
me the cause of it, thou twice-born one (25). 

THE RlSH! said : At the time of taking her hand (i.e. 
thy marriage) thou wert looked upon by the Sun, the Venus, 
and the Saturn, and thy wife by the Mercury, and the Jupiter 
(26). At that moment the moon became hers, while similar- 
ly the son of the moon became yours, these two are mutually 
opposed; therefore, king, is thy misfortune (27). There- 
fore go and govern the earth according to the injunctions of 
thy order and class; taking thy wife as thy helpmate perform 
all sacrificial and other religious duties (28), 


MARKANDEYA said rBeing thus spoken to, Uttama, the 
governor of the earth, having saluted this (Brahman)' and 
then getting upon his chariot, went to his own city (29), 


LARKANDEYA said: Then having found his own city 
the king saw that twice-born one with his wife who had 
attained an excellent disposition, and was full of delight (i). 
THE BRAHMANA said : thou most superior king, I am 
gratified, for the law is maintained unto me by thee who 
kuowest the law and who brought my wife to me (2). 

THE KING said : Thou art gratified, most superior 
among twice-born persons, owing to the due observance of 
the law of my order, but we, O Brabmana, whose wife is 
not in the house, are in a most painful situation (3). 

THE BRAHMANA said : If she has been, O Lord of men, 
eaten up by wild animals in the woods, what can be done 
by her. Why there is not the hand of some other (maiden) 
taken by thee (in marriage). Owing to thy subjection to 
auger the law is not being observed by thee (4). 

THE KING said:-My love has not been devoured by 
W!ld animals: she lives, in truth, with uablemished character 
What shall I do now (5) ? 

THE BRAHMANA said:_If thy wife lives and is not nt- 
tached to any other person then why is the sin, caused by 
tbe absence of the wife, committed by thee (6). 

THE KING said:~Even if brought she will always, 
Brahman*, be opposed to me, she is only for my sorrow and 


not for my happiness she has no love forme. Do thou so 
try that she may be subject .to me' (7). 

THE BRAHMANA said : For her love towards thee, I shall 
perform that sacrifice, called Mitravinda, which great and 
beneficial sacrifice is performed by those who desire love (8). 
That sacrifice is the worker of superior love among husband 
and wife who are not loved by each other. For thy benefit 
I shall perform that sacrifice (9). O Lord of the earth, bring 
her, thy wife, of beautiful eye-brows, from where she exists; 
she will give thee most superior happiness (10). 

MARKANDEYA said : Being thus spoken to, he, 'the lord 
of the world, brought the endless objects (needful for the 
sacrifice) and he, that most superior Brahmin also performed 
that sacrifice (yajna) (n). With a view to work up the 
wife of that king, that superior person among the twice-born, 
again and again performed that sacrifice seven times (12). 
When that great Muni felt that the love of her (the queen) 
had been fully established on her own husband, then that 
BrSLhmana told the lord of men (13). "0 thou most superior 
among men, bring her, who is the object of thy love, near 
thee; and enjoy the objects of pleasure with her, 
and perform sacrifices likewise being honoured (by her) 

MARKANDEYA said : Being thus spoken to, by that BrLh- 
rnana, the ruler of the world, at that time, overcome with 
wonder, then remembered that Rakshasa of great energy 
and steadfast resolution (15). great Muni, remembered 
by him at that time, that (Rakshasa), immediately approach- 
ing the lord of men, after salutation said, "What may 
I do" (16)? Then having been informed in detail by that 
lord of men, going to the nether regions and securing the 
wife of the king, he came back to him (17). Thus brought 
she beheld then her lord with great love, and said again and 
again, being full of delight t( Be gracious" (18). Then that 
king embracing that honoured one with great eagerness 



exclaimed "I am always gracious to thee, my love, why 
then dost thou say so again" (19). 

THE WIFE said. If thy mind is exceedingly gracious 
towards me, O lord of men, then I beg this of thee, "do thou 
do this which is the object of my worship" (20), 

THE KING said : Tell me without fear, whatever is 
desired by thee of me, that will not be unattainable, O thou 
timid one; there is no doubt of it, that I am under thy 
control (21). 

THE WIFE said : For my sake by that serpent has his 
daughter, my friend, been cursed- saying, "thou shaft 
be dumb," and she too has come by dumbness (22). If thou 
canst effect a remedy of her, for the removal of her dumb- 
ness, moved by thy love for me, what great yood wilt thou 
then do unto me (23). 

MARKANDEYA said : -Then that king asked that Brh~ 
mana " under the circumstance what kind of work (sacrifice) 
is to be performed for the remedy of that dumbness," and 
he also said that to the king (24). 

THE BRAHMANA said : In obedience to thy order, 
lord of the earth, I shall perform the Saraswati sacrifice 
and owing to the setting in of the power of speech of Nandt 
this thy wife shall be released of her debt (of gratitude (25). 

MARKANDEYA said : That most superior, among twice- 
born persons for that object, performed the sacrifice called 
Saraswati and with concentrated mind repeated the Saras- 
waii Suktas (26). Then Garga told her, whose power of 
speech had began to work, in the nether world, "this good, 
very hard to work, has been done thee, by the husband of thy 
friend 1 ' (27). Coming by this knowledge, Nandft, the self begot- 
ten daughter of the serpent, having quickly found that city 
&nd then having embraced her friend the queen, and faying 
&lu0 done honour to that rulftr of the earth, and having re- 
portedly utterecf benedictions (on them), the serpent woman 
taking feer $eat spoke (thus) sweetly (3829), <% the good 

heart has been drawn to thee. Hear what I speak (30). 
O thou lord of men, thou shalt have a son endowed with 
great energy, on this earth ; his arms shall be invincible (31). 
He shall know the meaning and significance of all scriptures 
and shall be devoted to the law and the sacrifices ; that intelli- 
gent one shall be a Manu, the lord of Manwantara" (32). 
Thus having uttered this blessing on him, the daughter of 
the king of serpents, Muni, after embracing her friend duly 
went away to the nether regions (33). There a long period 
passed of that king enjoying life with her (the queen) and 
governing his subjects (34). Then a son was born of that 
high-souled king unto her, just as the full-diced and beautiful 
moon appears on the full moon night (35). On the birth 
of that high-souled one all the people found great delight 
and the flutes of the Gods were played and flowers fell in a 
shower (36). Munis, having come (to see him) and seeing 
the loveliness of hb limbs, and his future character, gave 
'hiflv the name Auttama (37), 'This one is born in a gQO$ 
family, similarly in a good time, and unto Uttanma, and it 
of a good fprmt therefor* he shall be Autta&ft' (38), 

HARKANDRYA sai4;~Theq, throne, ihe son of Uttenav 
and similarly known by th warn4 of A*t|ama, became Manu; 
hear of his prowess from rue (39). Whoever, that hears daily 
the whole of the story of Uttama,and that of birth of Autbama, 
shall never become the object of men's ill-wilt (40). 
Of him who shall hear or read these, there shall never fre 
any separation with obj..eQ& of his desires or wives, or sons, 
or ffieads (-41). Hear, BrSlhman, of his MaHwantara, from 
$ as also of him who is the Indra (in that Manwant&ra) 
and who are th<$ Gods and who are Rishis (42), 


in this 

(I). The gods were 

their names; (,:,., 

truth of thdr n Les) 

class, similarly of the 
ca ,ed 

And a 

gods,0 thou 
spoken of in 
Auttama (4) A fifth 

am r* * 

. lrt "> and ^e kinga 

f ^"^ <"> 
' ' h< * whose rk, imitated 

^^ to " 

' were 

a third 
? g ds ' WWe mo ' 

cMha natureof 


"*"*' *" 

of the 



of the nature i 
to have been 
s, in this lf wt 
; all. these were the w , 

o S s ess r th ; L e 

by the * 
gathered the 

h v 

mMl! SUperior 

of gods (6) - 

Muni -' 


gathered to- 



name are sung by men in w. , Iettcrs of *Ieir 

> of diseases fs } Th j tl'T ^ T 
.Wf the gods ^tt ^ 1 th 

(9)- Of that ManftTere 1 " *"* ilwlltr ^ 
famous like the wU ? S ns ' stron S and 

"-hi, and 
*tara of that most 

'''j:" ;/ :'^aS. ;i1 



energetic Manu lasted his offsprings, being lords 'of men, 
governed the whole world (n). The -seven sons of that great 
souled one, who was the most superior person among men 
by their own energy born of penance, became,- in that 
Manwantara the seven principal Rishis (12), This is the 
third Manwantara, now related to you by me ; the Tamasi 
is said to be the fourth Manwantara (13). O Brahman, 
hear from we who will relate to you (presently) the birth of 
that Manu, by whose fame, though he was born of a low 
caste mother, the whole world was illumined (14). The 
character of the others as well as of his, and likewise his 
birth, and the influence of these high-souled ones should be 
known as beyond the comprehension of the senses (15). 


said : There was on earth a king Swa- 
rastra by name, famous, and full of energy, the perfoijpner of 
many sacrifices, wise, and unconquerable in battle (i). Wor- 
shipped by his councillor the sun-god gave him long life, and 
O thou twice-born one, his wives were a hundred in number 
(2). Of him, the long-lived one, the wives were not long-lived^ 
O Muni ! and in time the servants and the councillors similar- 
ly all were dead (3). In this way separated from his wives 
as also from his attendants who were born with him, being 
restless in mind he began to lose his energy day by day (4). 
Then at that time, (a king) by name Bimardda deposed him 
from his kingdom, who had lost his vigour and was sad, 
having been forsaken by most intimate attendants (5). He, 
the possesser of the eight good qualities, deposed from his 


'if I 



kingdom, with his mind bowed down by sorrow and bereave- 
ment, going to the forest, and living on the banks of the river 
Vitasta, practised penances (6)* He practised the penance 
of the five fires in summer, and got himself wetted in the 
waters of the clouds during the rains, and lying in water 
during winter, he lived without food, taking the vow of self- 
control (7). Then while he was thus practising the penances, 
during one rainy season, there was a great deluge owing to an 
incessant down-pour from the clouds (8)* The quarters 
could not be distinguished^ neither the east, nor the south 
nor the west, nor the north ; everything seemed to be covered 
with darkness (9). Then owing to the great deluge that 
}cing was carried away by the extremely rapid current of the 
river, and though praying for rescue he did not find its banks 
(IQ). Next the lord of the earth, carried to a long distance 
by the current of water, came across a deer in that water; 
and he caught her by the tail (n). By that craft (of a tail) 
was he conducted here and there, in that darkness, on this 
earth, and at last he found land (12). Haying crossed exten- 
sive and deep sloughs, pulled by that deer, that king found 
another pleasant forest (13). In that darkness did the deer 
draw the lord of the world attached to her tail, and grown 
lean tand weak) by cruel austerities (14), Walking about 
again and again in that darkness, his mind being moved by 
passion, he found great pleasure in her touch (15), In that 
forest knowing that lord of men full of love (towards her) 
and engaged in touching her hack, that deer (thus) spoke 
to him (16). " Why dost thou touch my back with trembling 
hands, lord of men? This action haa taken- a contrary 
course (17). Thy mind, lord, is not set on an unworthy 
object ; thy connection with me is wot forbidden+~but this 
Lola stands in the way of my union with thee (18). 

MARKANDEYA said ; Hearing this speech of that deer 
tbu lord of the world, , moved by curbsity, spoke this word 
to the deer (19). 



THE KING said: Tell me who thou art, O deer, and 
how dost thou speak like a human being and who again is 
this Lola who stands as an obstacle to thy connection with 
me (20), 

THE DEER said : I am, O king, thy wife, known before 
as Utpallvati, the chief queen among a hundred wives, and 
the daughter of Dridadhana (21), 

THE KING said: But what didst thou do by which thou 
hast found this birth. Why has she, who was devoted to her 
husband, and assiduous in the observance of the law, come 
by such a state (22), 

THE DEER said : In my fathers's house, as a maiden, I 
went with my friends and companions to the forest for a 
pleasure-walk, and there saw a he-deer united with a female- 
deer (23). Then by me, who went near, was the female 
deer driven away and through fear of me she went to another 
place; then the male deer being angry said (24). " Thou fool, 
why hast thou become so mad ; fie to thy evil disposition, 
toy which is this my union frustrated i (25)." Hearing his 
word, who was speaking like a human being over-taken with 
with fear I told him this*" who art thou that hast attained 
this birth (26). Then he said: " I am the son of the Rishi 
Nribrittichakshu, Sutapi by name ; being moved by desire 
for this female deer, I have become a deer; (27)! And 
become subject to her through love, I was also desired by 
her in this forest; but O evil one, we are separated by thee ; 
therefore shall I curse thee (28)." By me was also spoken 
this: "O Muni, through ignoronce I have offended thee ; be 
gracious to me, it is not meet, O respected one, that thou 
shouldst curse me (29)." Thus being spoken to, lord of the 
earth, that Muni also told me this : (< I will not curse thee, if 
I may give myself to thee (30)." By me was also spoken (this) 
''I am not a female deer, thou who art of the form of a deer 
ihalt find another female deer in the forest ; therefore control 
thy passion for me (31)." Being thus spoken to, he said, with 



his eyes becoming blood shot through amrer and h,' r , 
bhng, <<I am not a female deer," byfcee Kbtn* ^ 
tnou, fool, shalt become a female deer 

extremely pained I told the Muni, who 

exceedingly an gry, was now ful[y CQn ' 

after salutation, "be gracious to me| 

inexperienced in (the use of) words ' 

spoken by me; in the absence ot the 


t ,e 



of theel ^\ TL t , vuu* ^,6., ^TJIJ ^ e 

deer a " ^ f the 


deer, and honoured 
/rt which are not. 

(40). That Lo,a also, 

father's enemies and conquered he 
Ut become Manu ( 4I ) 

the state of the b t 

^ rn in my womb (42) 

set on me, l, as not been m 
l % lawful love, but h s 
Obstacle (43). 

1 " 1 ' **> 

' n ^ W0mb 


W0rld ' haU at 
& " d 


tliy mind ' 

the fan ^ 
created L 



- o 

o that hish-soue one 
found a 7-,,^, M h 

by r. u^,, thi ," 

Tbe. that T,n sa , nu^ed b , at 
intelligence grew, ,po k e Ls t 

H , i. h **" 

H< >">'" of ".otter 



. , - 


, of all those who 


S ; !4 

'PUR AN Aft. 

finighty of strength and energy, and joined to a hundred 
sacrifices (58). O Br&hman, Jyotirdhfima, Pritha, Klvya, 
Chaitra, Agni, Balaka and Pivara. these seven were the sever* 
leading Rishis (59). The kings exceedingly powerful, Nara 
Ksfanti, Skanda, DSnta, Jangha &e., were likewise the 
of Tamaisa (60). 


ARKANDEYA said: The Fifth Mann is spoken of 
Riiv^ta, irlhman : hear of his birth in detail, I shall 

it to, you (i). thpn possessor of the eight 
<malities of kindness, $c. f there was a RUhi kiw>wn 

; of him the high-soukd one, who was sonless, 
born a son in the (sign of the) * tar Rava,ti (a). He perform 
ed according to the law all his sacraments commencing- 
with that of Jatakarm* (or the birth- ceremony) and likewise 
Upanayana, and he too, Muni became % tad character 
(3), From the time when this ope w^s bom Ihat Kislri, the 
most superiar among MUM is, was oveclaken by a lingering 
and enduring disease (4). His mother, laid wp with lepiosy 
and other diseases, was subjected to extreme suffering, and 
his father being sad thus thought (within himself) (5), "What 
is this?" And then that exceedingly evil-minded son of hfa 
look away the wile of another Mutti'i son wh0> was attached 
lo him (6), Thn Ritavlka uttered With a heavy mm4 * 
<* Soak***e88 oi raeii is better than the poMeesoik of 
(). A bad ion always cwntea paia to- the- heart tf 
mA of the mother, a0d brings down |t^ tli 
anoewteM stefciftd w fceavt (I). . ii^ m ol 

' i\ 

, I 




food to friends, nor of atty.drtisfefctiofe to tfi6- : ittaweA}lfi is a 
; source of misery to his father; tthfe birth of such a eviUdoar 
is to be lamented (9). Bles$ed are they- tohote sons ace after 
the mind of all the world, the workers of god untd . men 
and of a quiet disposition, and devoted to virtuOu3 worbs 
(10). Our life is unhappy, and bad, and Hot tendrng to- 
wards the next world, but tending towards hel^ and ndt 
.heaven, owing to its connection wkh an evil sori (tr). He 
causes humiliation to friends v and glorification to those who 
wish us ill, and also brings on old age and infirmity on the 
lather before his time j a bad son surely does all this (12);" 

MARKANDEYA said:^~That Muni, with his heart burnt 
by the conduct of this bad son, asked Garga the eefusa* erf 
.all this) (13), 

RlTAVAK said : By me were the Vedas of old duly learnt 
from Subrata; having finished (the study of)- the. Vedas,- I 
took unto me a'wife in accordance with the injunctions of the 
law (14), And by me have all sacrificial works*, works, that 
fie ordained in the Sranta Sutrasj as also thosef 'by -rtjhe 
Sbttfiffci : as a}s<> tho, sacrifices to -fir^^-^bean' performed* witift 
my wife (as help niiite)^ O gpeat Muni 1 nan of my work* 
has beetr imperfectly dn^ till . JJ.QW (25^' '.JAcc9fd||gj bd 
the law of proddcing progeny f nofr tinder th^infeenc^ af kst 
but for the sake of a son, k%s tMs one been begotten by me^ 
who was afnaid o (the hell), called Put (16). Sach is tUte 
one (my son) j O Muni,; is it for his own fault, or through 
any gjailt af ralne^that he has become the^ soured of miserji 
ftq us and the giver of pain to my friends by his bad 

GARGA said: most superior Muni, this thy son is 
withia the sphere of the^ star Revati ; therefore- haftf he 
become a source of thy misery,, for he is born in an evil 
time (18)^ There is no wrong due'to tlhee, or to his mother, 
or to thy family; th cause of his evil disposition is his cam- 

to thisi world within the sphere of thfe star Revati ^( 



RlTAVAK said :- As this evil disposition of my only son 
is due to the Influence of the star Revati, may that Revati 
therefore even fall (from her orbit) (20). 

MARKANDEYA said : In this way on the curse being 
uttered by him, the star Revati fell (from her orbit) in the 
presence of all the world whose hearts were over-powered 
by wonder (21). The Revati star also fell on all sides of the 
mountain Kumuda, all of a sudden illumined the forests, the 
caves and the streamlets (22), On account of that fall the 
mountain Kumuda also became known as Raivataka, the 
most pleasant mountain on all the earth (23). The loveliness 
that was of that star became the lake Pankajini : from it 
was born then a maiden most charming on account of her 
beauty (24). Bhagurat seeing that maiden, born of the 
loveliness of Revati, the Muni Pramucha gave her the name 
of Revati (25). That possesser of the eight good qualities 
of kindness, &c., Pramucha, even in this great mountain, 
brought up this girl born in the vicinity of his own hermit- 
a S 6 (26). That Muni, seeing that maiden endowed with 
great beauty, come to youth, thought (within himself) who 
bhall be the lord of this (girl) ? (27). O Muni ! Thinking 
in this way a long time elapsed, and yet the great Muni did 
not come across a bridegroom worthy of her (28). Then 
to enquire of the god of fire about her bridegroom that 
Muni Pramucha entered the place of sacrificial fire, and' to 
him thus questioning the eater of sacrificial offerings (i* t n 
the god of fire) said (29). The lord, of the earth, Durgama by 
name, mighty of strength and energy, of pleasant speech 
and devoted to the law, shall become the husband of this 
one" (30). 

MARKANDEYA said : Afterwards, Muni, that lord ctf 
men, the wise Durgama, born of the race of Priyavrata, ^,tid 
mighty of strength and valour, the son of Vikramashik, born 
fo the womb of Kllindi, came, in course of a hunting ex* 
pedltibn, to his hermilag^ (31-^ -32). That lord of the earth, 



Entering the hermitage and seeing her of slender limbs, 
calling her as his dear one, asked about that Rishi (33). 

THE KING said: Where has the most superior Mun 
the possessor of the six great qualities, the Bhagas, gone 
from this hermitage ; I desire to salute him here, therefore 
tell me this, O thou graceful one (34). 

MARKANDEYA said: The Brahmin, who had gone to the 
place of the sacrificial fires, hearing those his words, as also 
his addressing her as the dear one, came out in haste (35). 
That Muni saw the great-souled king, possessed of all the 
signs of the lord of men, and bending before him in 
reverence (36). One seeing him then he addressed his 
disciple Gautama thus "Gautama, bring soon due offerings 
for this lord of the world (37). On the one hand this one 
is a king come after a long time, on the other hand he is my 
son-in-law, therefore it is my opinion that he is worthy of 
especial offerings (38). 

MARKANDEYA said: Then that king began to think 
upon the cause of his being (spoken of as) the son-in-law; 
and could not decide it j therefore the king- accepted that 
offering in silence (39). The great Muni welcomed that lord 
of kings, who had taken his seat and had accepted the 
offering arid said: fr Is everything well with thy home, 
(40), O lord of men, with thy treasury, with thy army, with 
thy friends and feudatories, thy servants and courtiers and 
likewise with thy ownself on which are all these established 
(41). Thy wife also is well; I do not ask therefore of her, 
who lives here ; are thy other wives well (42) ? 

THE KING said: O thou of good vows! through thy 
mercy there is no bad news concerning any one belonging 
to me. But I am curious, O Muni, to know who is here my 
wife (43). 

THE RISHI said :That excellent wotokri Revati, the 
possessor of the six good qualities, and who te most beautiful 

3 f 8 

in all- the three worlds, is thy wife ; dost thou not know hr n 
king? (44). W ber > 

THE KING said . Subhadrl, the daughter of Shanta rtl 
daughter of Kaberi, O lord, and also Sujita the da *' * 
Surashtra, and Kadamva the daughter of Barutha 
and also Nandhn, I know as my wives living i, ' 
Othou twice-born one. O thou possessor of 
qualities, the JSAagas t I da not 

THE R.SH, said :~That one of superior colour who ha, 
just been spoken to by thee as the dear ene, O lord of earth 

of thine ' worthy f a 


TH? WG said^T.uly ho ^ been ken - b 
Q Muv,. my motive was not bad. In this case it is 

$<*. that thou, revered Qe, should be angry with 

beseech thee for it (48). 

THE RlSHi said:_Thou sayest truly, O lord of earth 
s. not evil ;Q lord of mea , thou didst say thk 
W aved by the go d of fire (49 ). The great god of fit J the 
jarr-er of the saaificia, ofebgs) having be.n 
by e a s --who shall b e the busband of this one, 

' T 1 T? *? day that thou ' ** one, 
husband) ( 5 o) r Therefore accept,, O lord of 


by t^e as. the dear one, then- W fa* do* tbou 
hesitate ? (h t think of it in thy wnd) fe|>, 

thi * ^d el tb earth, 

' u 
huasejf ready to. perform, her 

, = - 

to h.m, her father, who was making preparation* for 

ri W f J| L for 1 
shQ w me tbi favour that 




feeing gracious towards me thou shalt perform my marriage at 
the ticne of the star Revati (54). 

THE RfSHi said : The >star Revati, existing IB conjunc- 
tion with the moon ; exists not, O thou good oire ! There are 
other stars, O thou whose eye brows are excellent, fit (to 
preside over) thy marriage (55). 

THE MAIDEN said : "It seems to me, father, that without 
him, the time of my marriage shall be fruitless. How shall 
the marriage of one like myself be performed at a fruitless 
time* 1 (56). The performer of penances, well ftnown by the 
name of Ritavk, became angry with Revati, and by him 
thus angry was the star destroyed (57). And by me also 
has it been promised to this one that this one, with intoxica- 
ting glance, shall be thy wife. If thou dost, not desire 
marriage, a great difficulty has presented itself to me ($8). 

THE MAU>EN said : What penances have been practised 
by that Muni Ritavak, such as have not been practised by 
thee, ray father? Am I then the daughter of an inferior 
Brthqiana ? (59). 

i TttB RtSHi said: Thou art not, my girl, the 
of an 1 idlerior Brlhmana, nor even of the performers 
penances ; thou 'ktt my daughter, who is capable of 
' Other gods (60). 

The MAIDEN said : If my father be one who has attained 
the virtues of penance, then why is not marriage performed 
in that star, halving previously set it in the bright firmament 

THE RtSHl said: So be it then for thy good, thou 
good' one Be pleased, fdr tliy sake I 1 shall again establish 
the star Revati on the orbit of the moon (63)- 

MARKANDEYA said : Then thou superior Brahmana, by 
the power of his penances the great Muni* made the star 
Revati, as before, joined with the moon (63)". And having 
performed the marriage of the daughter, according to the 
law, and to the accompaniment of sacred formulas, being 



fined wUh delight he again thus spoke to the son-in-law <> 
governor of the earth, say, what shall I g ive thee as thy 
marnage present; I shall give thee even things that are trn * 
hard to,get , the power of my penances is invincible" (6O 

THE KING said :-I am born of the descendants of the 
Swayambhuva Manu, Muni; I pray that l ' 

^favour, a son who shall be the Iord of 

_ THE RlSHlsaid:_This thy desire shall come to pass 
Thy son, O ruler of the world, shall be Manu and shall enjoy 
all the earth, and shall also be righteous. 7 

MARKANDEYA said : -Tl ien taking her the king went to 
hjs own city ; and f rom ncr , Revati> wag nt to 

Manu Revat, (63). He was invested with all the virtu s 
and was unconquerable by men, and knew all the science,' 
and was yersed in the knowledge of the meaning of the 
y.dM and other scriptures (69). Hear with undivided atten! 
.on, Brahman, O Muni, from me relating the gods t e 
ord of the gods, the earthly kings, & c, ( 7 o) tl ou 
tw.ce.born one in that (Manvantara) the Sumedhas, , e 
Bhupaus, the Va.kuntas, the Amitabhas, were the gods/each 
divided ,nto fourteen classes ( ;i ). The lord of \^ J 
lasses, B,bh by name, was the enjoyer of a hundred 
S ac ri fice ( 7a) . In the Manvantara of the Manu Revata Hira- 
nyaroma Vedasri, Urdhavahu, s i railar , y others.-Vedavah! 
Sudhama, and also P arj>) ya, the great Muni Vashista, the 
po sesser of the . good qualities of kindness, &c., and who 
had g 0n e to the utmost limits of the Veda* and the Vedantas 
** were t e seven primal Rishis ( 74 ). Balabandhu, 


LARKANDEYA :t Thus have the five Manwantaras been 
described to you by me. Hear next of the sixth, belonging 
to Chikshusha (l). In the previous birth this one was born 
of the eye of Paramesti, therefore, O thou twice-born one, 
even in this birth his name became Chakshusha (2). The 
wife of the high-souled Rajarshi (the princely Rishi) 
Anamitra bore a son, learned, and pure, and possessed of 
the recollections of all former births, and powerful (3). At 
his birth his mother embraced him with love, lying on her 
lap, loudly expressing her joy, and again and again did she so 
(4). He was born endowed with the knowledge of former 
births, therefore lying on the mother's lap he laughed ; at this 
the mother becoming angry spoke these words (5). "I am 
overtaken by fear. What is this my child ? There is smile on 
thy face thy intelligence is born prematurely. Dost thou 
see any happy augury? (6). ;/ 

THE SON said: Dost thou not see that this female cat 
before thee is willing to eat me$ and the secend one (wishing 
to eat me) is this Jataharini, who is out of thy sight (7). Be- 
cause moved by the love of thy son, thou, O revered one, art 
beholding me with affection, and by crying aloud art embra- 
cing me many times, from which arises rapture (in thee) and 
thy sight is filled with tears born of love, therefore has 
this smile come to (my lips); hear also its reason (8 9). 
Drawn by selfishness this female cat is longingly looking at 
me j and similarly the other one the Jataharini, who is out of 
sight (ro). Just as these two are devoted to me with tender 
hearts from selfishness similarly thou too also art moved by 
selfishness, so it seems to me (n). But while the female 
cat and Jataharini are bent upon enjoying me (imme- 
diately) thou desirest such fruits of me as thou mayst enjoy 



gradully in time (12). Thou dost not know me, who this 
one is; aor hast thou been benefited by me, our association 
is not of long, only of five or seven days (13). Still thou 
lovest me, embracest me with tears, and dost address me 
with such words as father, son, the good one, &c. 

THE MOTHER said : Not for any benefit, O beloved one, 
do I embrace thee with love. If this be not pleasant to thee,' 
and I be deserted by thee, whatever selfish objects may be 
gained from thee, they are given up by me (15). 

MARKANDEYA said: Thus saying, she, .leaving him, got 
out of the confinement house, with her external senses be 
numbed and unfit for work, but her inner spirit pure (16). 
Then Jataharini took that (child) ; and she, having stolen their 
boy, placed him ou the bed of king Vikranta, and took 
his son (17). And taking him also to another house, and 
taking up the son of that house, gradually JatSharini 
ate up that third one (t8). This exceedingly cruel one, 
thus continually stealing (peoples' children) and exchanging 
one after another, always eats up the third one (19). Then 
the lord of earth Vikranta performed all the sacramental 
ceremonies which are performed by the kings (20). The 
father, that lord of men, Vikranta, moved; by supreme delight, 
according to law, gave him the name Ananda (ai). To him, 
and the boy after his Ufanayan* sacrament had been per' 
formed, the Guru said, "at first go and make obeisance to 
thy mother" (22). Hearing that word of the Guru he said 
laughing :-"Which mother is to be adored by me, whether 
she who gave me,birth or she who nursed me (23)." 

THE GURU said : This, O thou poMctaer of the eight 
great qualities, is she who gave thee birth, she the daughter 
of Jarutha, and the chief queen of Vikrinta, known by the 
name of Haimini (24). 

ANANDA said -.-Shells the mother of Chaitra, resident of 
Vishalagrima and son of the Brahman Agravadha, who is 
born of h*r; we are born of another (25). 

again is Chaitra spoken of by thee ? where art thou born', 
and why art thou here ; tell me, I apprehend a great diffi* 
culty (29). 

AMANDA said: The universe being thus stationed wher'e 
Is the opportunity for stupifaction ? Br&hmana saint, who 
is whose son and who is whose friend ? (52). All such re- 
lations originate with the birth of mankind and they are alt 
snapped by death, BrShmana (33). The relation, with the 
friends that springs up with the birth, ceases with the dis- 
solution of the body ; such is the law of the universe (34)^ 
Therefore do I say that there is no friend while living iw the 
world. Who is else is an eternal friend? Why then is thy 
understanding bewildered ? (35). Even in this birth I hav 
got two fathers and two mothers. What wonder is there if 
this happens again in the next birth? (36). I shall (now) 
engage in devout penances. Do thou therefore bring him 
from VishStlagr^ma who is the son of the king (37). 

MARKANDEYA said : Thereupon the king, along with his 
wife and friends, was stricken with wonderment. Then with- 
drawing all attachment he orderd him to retire into woods 
(38). Then bringing his son Chaitra and reverencing the 
Brahnlana by whofn tie was brought up in the light of a son 
he trained him up for the kingdom (39). Then* Ananda, 
a mere boy,^engaged injrigicTausterities in the forest for ex- 
hausting his actions that stand in the way of salvation (40). 
Whilst thus engaged in rigid austerities the deity BrahmH 
said to him " son, tell me why hast thou engaged in such 
rigid austerities" (41). 

ANANDA said: "O Reverend Sir, with a view to purify 
my own soul, and exhaust those actions that have fettered 
me I have engaged in this devout penance" (42). 

BRAHMA said: "One, engaged in actions, has~no right 
(to practise devout penances) and is unworthy of salvation. 


How canst thou, possessed of 

a par "" [cr of 

' Madhu, 

Tilil *5,nirifit /\f 
*** oviug ui *u,uu unaicsnufthft and ^IIA^ *n L . * '"" 

5Krr^'-^ia* b * 



has now appeared, is called Manu Vaivaswata. Hear, I shall 
now describe the deities and others of this seventh Manwan- 
tara (57). 


LARKANDEYA said : great one, the daughter of 
Vishwakarman was the wife of the sun, by name Sajn, who 
begat on her a son, by name Manu, who, illustrious as he was, 
was equally a master of various branches of learning. He was 
the son of Vivas wat and was therefore called Vaivaswata (i 2). 
As soon as she was espied by the sun Sajna used to close her 
eyes and therefore he, in anger, addressed to her cruel words 
(3) "Since, O stupid one, you close yours eyes as soon as I cast 
ftty looks on you therefore will you give birth to Yama, the 
destroyer of creatures (4).'' Thereupon the goddess, stricken 
with fear, assumed trembling looks, at which the sun again 
said to her (5). " Since beholding me, you have assumed 
trembling looks you will give birth, as your daughter, to the 
fickle river (6)/ 1 Thus by "the imprecation of her husband 
she gave birth to Yama and the great river celebrated under 
the name of Yamuna (7). Henceforth she, with great diffi- 
culty, began to suffer the effulgence of the sun. And unable 
to bear it she began to think (8). "What shall I do ? Where 
shall I go ? Repairing where can I get respite and be not 
subject to the ire of my husband?" (9). Thus meditating 
in many ways the great daughter of the Patriarch thought 
well of the protection of her father (10). Thereupon bent 
on going to her father's house the illustrious (goddess) con- 
verted her own body into the favourite shadow of the sun 



and said to her. " ., 

sun and like wise shouldst IlUrb^r'tLtlf ttf / ** 

sun and his offspring (* - J t0wards the 

shouldst not tell him of my 
sfaouldst always tell 
Sajna said ;~ (I Q 
so long the 
imprecate a curse on rn 

O " 
' I am 


havtn reete his daughter of ' There 

k.nsmen that the 

Pf the three worlds. It doo! 
^ forever in the ho s 
re repair to thaTo,! 

with the e and do adore thee 
girl, to see me (21). 

e, acetic, s he said o 
Dipped her father she repaid to 
upo reluctant to 


observces ( 3 ) 

hf s , 



manifest that excessive affection towards the sons and 
daughter of Sajna as she did towards her own offspring (25)- 
She daily looked after their own comforts. Manu forgave her 
for this but. Yama could not do o (26). Then to strike her he 
raised up his foot in anger- and then immediately stricken 
with mercy he did not let it fall on her person (27). There- 
upon, twice-born one, the illusory Sajna, with her palms 
trembling and lips expanded in anger, imprecated a curse on 
Yama (28), "Since, out of irreverence thou hast raised a 
foot against me who am thy father's wife thy that very foot 
shall drop off to-day" (29). Having thus heard of the curse 
thus imprecated by his mother and been stricken with fear 
Yama approached his sire and having saluted him said (30): 
"Itis a great wonder, O father, never witnessed by any that a 
mother, relinquishing all affection, imprecates a curse on her 
son (31). Methinks, as does Manu hold, that she is not our 
mother, for even when a son grows unnatural a mother does 
not become so n (32). 

Hearing Yama's words the Divine Sun sent for the 
Illttspry SajoJL and asked her where SftjnA bad gone" (33). 
Whereto she replied : "0 Sun, I gun the- -daughter of Twastri, 
Sajna, thy wife and the mother of all these children" (34). 
Although accosted by the Sun in many ways she did not 
communicate any thing else. Then the Sun in anger- 
addressed himself to imprecate a curse (35). Thereat she 
communicated everything truly to the Sun, Informed of all 
the Sun repaired to the abode of the divine Twastri (36). 
Thereupon he worshipped the Sun with great reverence, 
adored of the three worlds who had come to his house (37). 
Then when questioned about Sajna, Vishwakarma told him : - 
"Despatched by thee she came to my house" (38). Then 
having concentrated his mind the Sun saw her, carrying on 
ascetic observances in the form of a mare in the 
province of Uttarakuru (39). The Sun then came to know 
of the object of her penances namely, "May my husband 


become of a mild form and the performer of auspicious deeds" 
(40). The Sun then, O twice-born one, said to Yishwakarmt 
the father of Sajna, "do thou to-day losen the fierceness of 
my rays (41). Vishwakarml then reduced the effulgence of 
the Sun who travels over a year and the deities then began 
to hymn him (42). 


1YJ.ARKANDEYA said : Thereupon having assembled to- 
gether the celestials and theRishis began to hymn the glories 
of the sun, worshipped of the three worlds in the following 
words (i). 

THE CELESTIALS said .-Salutation unto thee who art 
in the form of Rik, Saman, Yayur, salutation unto thee, who 
art the refuge of all and dost light all (2). Salutation unto 
thee who art the only stay of knowledge, identical with pure 
effulgence, who art pure, whose soul is purified and who hast 
not the tinge of the quality of ignorance (3), Salutation 
unto thee who art the greatest and the most excellent ot 
all, the great soul and whose manifestation is the whole 
umverse and whose form is Atman (4). Salutation unto thee, 
he pnmary cause of all, the stay of all who have their Intel. 
lects .llumined by knowledge, who art identical with the light 
and the sou. that manifests itself (5). Salutation unto thee who 

backward thoo 


whole universe, mobile and immobile (7).. Touched by thy 
rays all this becomes purified ; touched by thy rays even the 
water becomes purified (8). As long as this universe is not 
connected with thy rays so long the performance, of Homk % 
charities and other ceremonies, does not lead to the well- 
being (of the performers) (9). From thy one limb has eman- 
ated the Rik f the S&man from the other and Yayur from the 
third (10). lord of the universe, thou art identical with 
Rik, Yayur and Sdman and therefore, O lord, thou art iden- 
tical with three (n). Thou are the subtle and gross form 
of Brahman ; thou art with form and without it ; thou dost 
exist both in thy gross and subtle forms (12). Thou art 
identical with Nimesha, Kashtha and other (divisions of time) 
as well as with Khla the destroyer of all. Be thou pleased of 
thy own accord and make an end of thy own effulgence (13). 
MARKANDEYA said :- Having been thus eulogised by the 
deities and the saints the undecaying bundle of effulgence 
|<be Sun) renounced his own lustre (14). The earth ws 
engendered by that portion of his effulgence which was idetiti* 
^al 'with Rik the etherial region was created by what 
was identical with Yayur and heaven by what was identical 
with Sdman (15), The Divine Architect, made with those 
fifteen divisions of his eiulgence that had been exhausted, the 
trident of Siva, the discus of Vishnu, the dreadful maces of 
Vasus, Sankara and the fire god, the conveyance of the god 
of riches and other shnining weapons of Yakshas, Vidyadharas 
and other celestials (16 18). Thenceforward the Divine 
Sun bears only the sixteenth portion of his effulgence, which 
was thus distributed into fifteen divisions by the celestial 
Architect Viswakarman (19). Thereupon, having assumed 
the guise of a horse the Sun repaired to the province of 
Uttarakuru and espied SajnS in the form of a mare (20). 
Seeing him thus approach and taking him in fear to be 
another person, she went in front of him (21). Then united 
with each othdr, they smelt each other's nose ; then on the 



eminl fluid being discharged there came out r i. 

M rcvt~.r"X' 

the flesh of his 
cause he was * 

-tributary of 

7ather a., 


*~' T1 ' worms, 


became the * 


byis father Kur , fc " 

gotten on her rhird 5 f "*"' 



LARKANDEYA said : Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, SSdhya*, 
Vishwadevas, Maruts, Vrigus and Angiras were the gods of 
that period (t). Adityas, Vayus and Rudras should be 
known as Kashyapa's sons^-Sadhyas, Vasus and Vishwadevas 
were sons of Dharma (2). The Bhrigus were the sorj? of 
Angiras ; they should all now be known as the sqns of 
Marichi, O twice-born one (3). The king of all these gods 
wai the high-souled Urjashwi,;who was the partaker ot sacri- 
ficial offerings. All these kings of the gods past, present, 
and future were endowed with equal marks thousand-eyed 
and holders of thunder-bolt ; they were all subduers of 
foes (45). They were all performers of sacrifices, ( were 
like bulls, with horns and were performers of hundred sacri- 
fices and were all capable of over-powering creatures (6)., 
They wer6 all, by virtue and other pious rites, endowed with 
governing qualities and were ordainers of past, present and 
future. Hear, O twice-born one, of the three worlds {?)* The 
earth is called the region of Bhu, the etherial region Dw and 
htaven Divya thfese are called the three regions {.&). Atri, 
Vashshtha, the great saint Gautama, BharadwSja, Viswamitrl 
Koushika, and Jiraadgni, the son of the high-$ouled Rkhika 1 , 
these were the seven -Rishis of that Manwantara (9 10). 
Iteshwaku, N^bhaga,.Dhrista, Sliaryati, Narishwanta,- Dishta,* 
Karusha, Piishadra, and Vasuman, well-known in the world,* 
these nine were the sons of Manu Vaivaswata (1112). 
O Brahman, I have thus related to you, Vaivaswata Man- 
wantara ; men, hearing of it, great one, are released from 
all sins and attain tq great piety (13). 



.ROUSHTI said : You have described all Manus begin 
nirig with Syambhuva as well as the gods, kings, and Rishis 
of those periods (i). Do thou describe in detail the seven 
Manus and the various gods of those Manwantaras that will 
rise in the present Kalpa (2). 

MARKANDEYA said :-I have spoken to you about Savarni 
the son of the illusory SajnS. He is equal to the previous 
Manus and will be the eighth (3). Rama, Vyasa, Galava, 
Diptiman, Kripa, Rishyasbringa, and Drouni will be the seven 
Rishis in that period (4). Ara, Sutapa and Amitabba, were 
the gods-divided into sixty classes (5). Tap*, Tapas, Shatru 
Dyuti, Jyoti, Prabhakara, Prabhasa, Dayita, Dharma, Teja' 
Rashmi, Vakratu and others were the twenty deities called 
Sutapa. Prabhu,' Vibhu, Vibhasa and others were the twenty 
of the class of deities called Amitabha. Hear, I shall des 
cribe the third class; Dama, Danta, Rita, Soma, Vinta and 
others were the twenty of the class of gods called Mukhya 
they were all the lords of Manwantaras ; they were tfe 
descendants of the Patriarch, Maricha the son of Kashyapa 
they will be gods in the Manwantara of Manu Savarn! 
^-9). Muni, .Virocbana's son Bali is their future Indra 
He^s still now, by virtue of a contract, living In the nether 
rtgion (10). Virajacharvavira, Nkmoha, Satyavak, Kriti, 
Vmhna and others will be the sons of Manu Savarni (i i) 



LARKANDEYA said : "The Savurni (son of the sun) was 
said to have been the eighth Manu. Hear j I will copiously 
relate his birth. 

Manus, possessors of great shares, were the founders qf 
Manwantaras, by the favour of MahamSya, among them was 

In the Manwantara of Swaro-chisha in former times Surad- 
ha, who was born of the race of Chytra, became a monarch of 
the whole earth. 

He ruled this subjects paternally ; the kings who were 
hunters of wild boars then became hostile to him. 

A valiant and mighty king, among the hunters of wild 
boars, conquered him ia battle, and reduced his power* 

Thence the holder of extensive portions returned to his 
city, and ruled over only his owti tract of country j that king 
then became endocnpassed by the greatest enemies. 

The counsellors and evil disposed possesssed the wealth 
of the humble king, who lost all the treasures in his city, 

He lost his royalty. Under the pretext of hunting, he 
retired tp a dreary forest aldne, mounted on his horse. 

He saw the hermitage of an excellent .Dwija, thronged 
atound Hath wild beasts and adorned by the presence of his 
discipie$ and sages. 

He livfcd there some time, revered by the Muni, and wan- 
dered about here and there. 

He ruminated there on the love that agitated his mind 
thus ; what my predecessors ruled, I afterwards lost. 



I wonder whether my subjects are governed with equity 
r not, I know not the fate of my counsellors, and my trained 
elephant Surahusti, 

They are now in the possession of my enemies ; what 
pleasure can they now enjoy, who were formerly pampered 
with food and riches. 

Now they are certainly maltreated by the foreign kinp j 
lavished on vain purposes is the treasure that was assumed. 

The king was sorrowful that his treasury was expended. 
On these and other things he was perpetually meditating, 

He saw a Vysa near the cell of a Vipra, "O who art thou' 1 
said he "what is the cause of thy coming here?*' 

Why dost thou appear pensive and melancholy, wealthy 
man ? why are your eyes red with sorrow ? 

Mlrkandeya said, |f hearing the humble speech of the 
king, the Vysa obsequiously replied to him/* 

My name is Samadhi, a Vysa. 1 am born of a wealthy 
tribe, I am banished through my sons and wife's covetous- 
ness, and wickedness. 

My sons are possessed of my fortune, and I have become 

destitute of wealth, a consort, and children ; in sorrow I took re- 

fuge in the forest, leaving behind me my friends and relations, 

I live here unacquainted with the happiness or misery of 

my sons, the welfare of my people, or wife. 

Whether their house is in safety or danger, at present? 
how my sons are, whether they are engaged In moral or evil 
deeds ? 

The Rajah asked, (t why do you love those sons and that 
wife, through whose avarice you are banished ?*' 

The Vysa replied, " knowing my sentiments, why do you 
interrogate me, I cannot harden my heart, what can I do/* 

Covetousness has ^extinguished their filial affection* ;y*t I 
ffedfor my people* 

flrijghtjr wise man* I am simple, for my heart fo attached 
ta my treieheraut kinsmen though I know them. 

How can I hate them, or bear my heart; 


thee ' cxplain u to 

I am troubled with anxiety? 


an gnorant person r *- 

' attendants ' 



. we are 

our affect.on produces cecity in action 
The RUM said, O great sharer, wisdom exists in 

desirous of life< 


_ Some animals are blind in the day, others at night, and 
others agam that appear equally blind both day and *ght. 

lo-iui ^ that kl ' ngS apP * ar Prudent ' but are n t really 
o a the beasts, birds, animals have knowledge * 

What knowledge mankind is possessed of, the others are 
equally endowed with. ocners are 

See the birds being wise, though Oppre89ed wift hu ef 
themselves yet lovingly pick up the crumbs with their beaks 
and teed their young ones ? 

* Th u 8 h Conscious, &c, that fa, though U,ave sufficient knowledge to 
know the .nstab-Hty of human traction,, yet B ke an ignorant penon ^ 
subservient to the emotions o my soul. 

t Reprehensible action; w >. ( raundaae aff^^ and 
racted religiom devotion. . 




chief 0f kings ! do you not see men lovingly support 
their offspring for the benefit of others.* 

By attraction they fall in the vortex of love. By the 
power of Mahamayi, the world was originally created. 

Mahl,may2l seized the lord of the world when at his slum- 
ber yoga ; the great illusion enveloped Hari, she shackles the 

The divine goddeis possesses Irresistibly the heart of 
even t'he wisest, and forcibly leads into great deception, 

'By "her the universe consisting of animates and inanimates 
was created, her blessings procure emancipation.} 

The knowledge of her is the means of supreme salvation ; 
she is eternal and links mortality ; she is the supreme goddess 
over air goddesses. 

The Rajah said, "0 divine personage 1 who Is that god- 
dess? twice-born! whom you mentioned just now, how 
was she born ? what miracles did she do?' 1 

What stupendous action did she, whose form is admirable, 
p'erform? I am desirous of hearing about those things, 
excellent among those who know the almighty, tell me ? 

The Rishi said, the form of the world is eternal, al! 
things were created by her, I was frequently told her birth/* 

She is eternal and only took form for the benefit of 
the gods, 

When the world was deluged, Vishnu the Divine Superior 
Lord was reclining on the serpent bed at the end of Kalpa. 

Then two horrible Asuras: named Madhu and Kltabha, 
was born from the wax of Vishnu's ear tad endeavoured to 
slay Brlfema. 

Prajapati residing in the lotus naval of Vishnu, saw the 
two wi^thfulA^s and the sleeping Janar ddana, who was 

* CM others *$*,, posterity. ---------- ~-~-~-~~-~~-~~ 

t, Shackles the world, being the great attractive power. 
I Pvow** tmanoiptJfai itmn secular concern*, 

1 Benefit of the Gods, that is, to dtstroy fane**. 



(in Yoganidra), he thus prayed with strict faith to her, who 
made Hari's eye to be her abode. 

O goddess of the universe ; mother of the earth ! creator 
of matter and destroyer of it. Goddess of the slumber of 
Vishnu, who has extreme brilliancy, is surpassing and 

Brahma continued, "thou art Swaha, thou art Swad'ha, 
thou art Vash-ut-kara, thou art Sudha, thou art Akchara, 
thou art eternal, and of three powers; Matra. 

Ardha-matra, constant, perpetual, thou art she who is 
moreover inexpressible, thou art Savitri, thou art the light, 
and a superior matron. 

Thou art the sustainer of all things, thou hast 'created all 
things, thou governest all ^things,**" thou existest to the end 

Thou art the principle of creation, thou art plastic, thou 
art the preserver, thou art the destroyer in the end, thou 
pervadest through the universe. 

4 Thou art the supreme knowledge, thou art the great 
illusion, the supreme intellect, the supreme memory, the great 
love, tht ample light, the mighty goddess. 

Who contemplates all matter by three kind of powers, 
Kalaratri, MaharStri, and Moharatri, dreadful. 

Thou art prosperity, thou art the goddess, thou art Hari, 
thou art the wisdom that creates understanding, thou art 
modesty, strength, and gratification ; thou art mildness and 

Thou art Khudgini, Sulini, the frightful Gadini, Chakrini, 
Sankhini, Chapini Bana, Brusundi, Parigha. 

Thou art placid, the greatest among the meekj beautiful, 
excellent, supreme among the excellent ; thou art the great 

Thou existest in all that is little, and all that is great ; in 

* Three powers,- Creation, preservation, and destruction. 



gay and sad things, and thou powerful by the acquirement 
of their strength, who is left to praise thee ? 

Thou makest the world, thou destroyest the world, who 
can praise thee ? 

Thou possessest the body of Vishnu, and also Mahi 
Esina, both of whom were made by thee, and who is able to 
praise thee ? 

He plauds the goddesses* eminent actions* that she may 
link the wicked giants I^gdhu and Kitahha. 

And that she might awake the supreme lord, who was to 
slay both the great wicked demons. 

The Rishi said, the creator thys praised, that the enraged 
goddess might awake Vishnu to kill Madhu and Kitabha* 

She liberated Vishnu's eyes, nose, 'arms, bosom t and 
breast,, and appeared to BrahmS, birth is pure* 

Janarddana was delivered by her ; the lord of the earth 
arose from his serpent bed in the ocean arid beheld them. 

Madhu and Kitabha, ill disposed heroes ; warlike* with 
red vision, endeavoured to extirpate HrahrnZL 

Rising afterwards, they both wrestled with the divine Han 
for five thousand years. 

They were intoxicated by the great deception; the elate 
with pride desired Keshava to mention his wish. 

BhagavSn relied, lf You shall both die by me( what other 
desire have I ? know this is my only wish." 

The Rishi said> that they looked at the universe over- 
flowed with water tod themselves deceived, they 
looked at the divine lotus-eyed, anil thus 

"We are satisfied with the combat and praise thee; 
vanquish and conquer us in a not by water | 

The Rishi said to the holder of the and Cbakra, the 

,dmne said, I will do so, He then cut off their wftb 

the Chakra on his thigh. 

Brahmi himself applauded the deed 1 will tell thee copi- 
ously of the miracles of the hear them. 



Thus far extends the first chaper, mentioning the destruc- 
tion of Madhu and Kitabha. 



former times war was waged between the deities and 
demons for the full space of one hundred years ; also be- 
tween Mahisha-sura, the greatest of demons, and Poorunder 
(the greatest of deities). 

The Asura of ample heroism repulsed the army of the 
Devas ; Mahishasura vanquished all the angels and became 
as Indra. 

After this, the conquered deities went with Prajapati 
whose abode was the lotus to Garuda-dhwaja (or the eagle 

The Tridasas laid before him the distress of the gods with 
an account of Mahish-asura's actions. 

That he had usurped the authorities of Surya, Indra Anila, 
Indu, Yama, and Varuna ; and others himself. 

They said, the gods are oppressed by the ill disposed 
Mahisha; the whole multitude of Devas have left heaven and 
wander on the earth like mortals. 

Those are the deeds of the enemies of the immortals, we 
humbly bow to thy asylum to meditate on their death. 

Madhusudana hearkened to the words of the deities; 
Sambhu was wroth contracting his brows with furious ire. 

Afterwards, Chakrini's face was transported with rage, 
abundance of light issued from Bramhl and Sankara. 

An immense mass of light proceeded from the bodies of 
Sakra ami all the other Devas, and conglomerated. 



This effulgent lustre appeared as a flaming mountain : the 

Suras having seen the flame receded to the extremities of 

The peerless light issued from the bodies of all the Devas 

and the phenomenon was transfigured as a woman extending 
through the three worlds, 

The energy of Siva created her face ; the brightness of 
Yama made her hair ; her arms were formed by the light of 

Her two breasts were made by the moon ; the space be- 
tween them by Indra j her thighs and the calves of her legs 
by Varuna ; her loins by the light of Bhuvi 

Her feet by the energy of Brahma $ her toes by the rays of 
the sun ; her fingers by Vasus her nose by Cubfira, 

Her teeth were created by the brightness of PrajSpati j 
her three eyes by the energy of Pftvaka. 

Her forehead by the light of Sundhia ; her ears by Anila j 
the brightness of other deities formed her body. 

From the glory of the light of all the Devas, Siva sprang ; 
the Amaras perceived the destroyer of Mabisha and exulted. 

The holder of the PinHka took out his Sula and conferred 
it on her- Vishnu gave her a Chakra drawn from bis own 

Varuna gave her the sank ; Hutaaana the Sacti ; Maruta 
spread a bow with arrows, and quiver complete. 

Indra took the Vajra from his Culisa, the one thousand 
eyed god took the bell from the elephant Iravata, and gave 
it to her. 

Varuna gave her a Cala-dunda; and Yama 'the Pasa . 
Prajipati, lord of the subjects, bestowed an AkchamUla and 
Comundala on her* 

The maker of day filled his ray 8 in the roots of her hair; 
Cala granted a transparent sword and shield. 

A necklace pure as milk, immaculate Panoply, a Chuda- 
mam, and divine Cundala and Cataca. 






A crescent; a beautiful Keyura over her arms; shoulder 
ornaments and beautiful neck jewels. 

Rings of precious stones, on all her fingers. Viswa Karma 
afforded her the limpid Parasu. 

Implements of different forms: likewise an invulnerable 
coat of arms ; a never fading garland of lotus for her head 
and neck. 

Jaladhi conferred on her a prosperous Chaplet of lotus ; 
Himavunt gave her lion vehicle and various gems. 

Dhanadhipa gave her a golden vase with imperishable 
wine to drink ; Sesha gave her a necklace of serpent's orna- 
ments and magnificient gems. 

Prudhwi granted a neckless of snakes, and the other Suras 
geve her jewels and arms. 

She shouted frequently with a terrible voice, the sound of 
which filled the sky. 

The eternal vault echoed with the terrific sound of "0 
Mayah," all the world was alarmed, the ocean trembled. 

The earth quaked, all the mountains were moved, the 
Devas joyously exclaimed, "victory be to the rider of the 
lion/ 1 

Munies were delighted and faithfully made obeisance to 
her; she beheld the whole of the three Lokas grieved by the 
enemies of the Amaras. 

All the nearest armies were amply provided with imple- 
ments, Mahisha-asura furiously said, "O what is this?" 

The sound of his voice reached the surrounding multi- 
tude of Asuras ; he saw the goddess pervade the three Lokas. 

She indented the earth, occupied by her foot, her crown 
struck the sky: tfhe sound of her bow-string terrified the 
whole subterraneous world. 

She grasped all the space of the regions by her one 
thousand arms ; fierce war was waged between the godde&s 
and tke enemies of the Suras, 




They shot many powerful arrows; her arms extended 
towards all the cardinal {points ; the leader of the army of 
Mahisha-sura was a great Asura, by name Chickchura. 

He fought at the head of an Ayuta of great cheeked 
Asuras, The mighty Asura Asiloma, advanced with 50,000 

Bhaskala conducted one hundred and sixty thousand 
Ayutas to the battle, accompanied by one hundred elephants 
and many steeds, 

Bidala led one Kotiof ruths in that war, and fifty thou- 
sand Ayutas* 

The other leaders were attended by one Ayuta of ele- 
phants, ruths and .horses. 

The great Asuras encountered the goddess with Koti-Koti 
thousands chariots, and elephants, 

And with the same number horses, Mahisha~asura wielded 
the Tomara, Bindivala, sacti and Musala, 

He fought the goddess with his Khudga, Parasa, and 
Puttisa; some of the Asuras threw the sacti, and some 
the P$sa, 

Devi began to destroy them with her sword Chundica 
afterwards threw arrows and astras. 

She sportively cut them in pieces by the shower of her 
powerful shafts and arrows, Devi, the imperishable was 
greeted by the excellent Suras and sages, 

The goddess shot the powerful shafts and arrows, and 
severed the bodies of the Asuras; the lion of the goddess 
being enraged, swiftly shook his mane and marched against 
the hostile army, like fire against a forest* 

During her achicvments in war, the goddess sighed 
thereby instantly were produced hundreds and thousands of 
Ganls (or Ama2ons). 

Who fought with the demons, with Parasa, Bindivala, 
aid Puttisa ,* tbe powerful voice of Devi, destroyed the hosts 
of Asuras, 



The Amazons sounded the Pataha, likewise the conches, 
kettle-drums, and other instruments in the festival of war. 

Afterwards Devi, by the trident, by the mace, by the 
sactivrusti, by the 'sword, and so forth, killed immense 
number of Asuras, and made others to fall by the ringing of 
the bell. 

She tied the Asuras with the Pasa on the earth ; and some 
were cut down into pieces by the keen cut sword. 

She afterwards crushed the troops with her rnace on the 
earth : some vommited blood, having been struck by the 

She cast some on the earth, breaking their bosom with 
the trident, she destroyed some by the keen shaft, in the 
field of battle. 

The commander of forces, the oppressors of Tridasas, for- 
feited their lives : some had their arms, others their throats 

The heads of soitfe of the vigorous Asuras were cut off, 
and the calves of the legs of others were severed and thrown 
down to the eatth. 

Devi had maimed each of the Asuras of an arm, an eye, 
and a foot ; and though their heads were severed from their 
bodies, the trunks rose again. 

The trunks, holding the excellent arms, fought with Devi; 
the Apsaras danced during the battle, accompanied by great 

The trunks of the Asuras, whose heads were cut off, still 
held the sacti, Khudga, Vrusti, and spoke aloud : stand } 

The fallen chariots, elephants, and steeds of the Asuras 
'were innumerable ; where the great battle was fought, ins- 
tantly rivers of blood were streaming. 

The centre of the army of Asuras, the chariots and horses 
of Asuras were annahilated by Ambika. 



In a moment the forces of the Asuras were destroyed In 

abundance by fire, like grass and wood. 

The Kesari (or lion) made an excessive roar. It produced 
a concussion among the bodies of the of the Suras, 

By the Amazons of the Devi, victory over the Asuras was 
achieved, the gods were gratified and poured down Amaran- 
thine flowers from heaven* 


1' HE RISHI said ;* The mighty Asura, hy Chick* 

chnra, general of the army, on beholding the destruction of 

his force proceeded to fight against Ambikft. 

That goddess poured a shower of on the Air f as 

the clouds rain on the peak of Meru mmmtain, 

The goddess sportively cut his mighty and killed 

the steeds, and driver by her arrows* 

She instantly broke his bow and hi* the 

wounded him in the body. 

Having lost his bow # he was deprived of hi* fcli 

horses, ad drives killed : the and 

sword, ran. Devi 

He struck the of tier lion the 

of his sword ; he struck the arm g-l tltt 

prince 1 when the her It i tit 

Asur* then took a hm eyes red with 

And It at with a 

ness to the orbit of the t in 



the goddess receiving- the Sula, discharged by the demon, 
threw a trident which cut the mighty Asura's weapoq into a 
hundred pieces and killed him. ' 

When the great valiant demon was dead, Chamara, t^ie 
general of Mahisha's army, oppressor of Tridasas/ mounted 
on an elephant. 

Firmly discharged a Sacti on the Devi, but by her shout 
she made it to fall on the earth innoxious. 

_ With anger he beheld the Sacti broken and fallen, and 
discharged a Sula, she then cut it with her arrows. 

She leapt from the lion to the globular forehead of the 
elephant, and direly wrestled with the foes of Tridasas. 

During the combat, they both dismounted and began 
furiously to beat one another. 

Afterwards the enemy of the beasts,* swiftly attacked and 
separated the head of Chamara, from his body, by the strokes 
of his paws. 

Devi killed Vudagra, by hurling stones, trees, &c. upon 
him, she made Carala to fall by her teeth and feet. 

Devi being enraged by the blows of her mace, ground him 
into powder; Bhascala by Pindivala ; Tomara and likewise 
Andhaca by her arrows. 

The supreme goddess killed Vugramsa, Vugra-Virya like- 
wise Maha-Hanu and Trinatra, by her trident. 

She made the head of Bidala to fall by her sword ; des- 
troyed Durdhara and Durmukha by her arrows. 

While she was thus destroying his army, MahishSsura 
impeded those Ganas in the form of Mahisha. 

Some by biting with his mouth, and others by kicking 
with his hoofs, some by the lashes of his tail and by the gor- 
ing of his horns. 

Some of them by the loudness of his bellow, by his burn- 
ing breath he made them to fall to the ground. 

Enemy of the beastslion. 




The Asura having caused Pramadas to fall, angrily ran to 
kill the lion of the goddess. 

The great hero enraged, tore up the earth with his hoofs 
and cast down the highest hills, 

He speedily turned about, cracked the earth, lashed the 
ocean with his tail, and made it to overflow everywhere* 

The clouds were dispersed by his long horns, the 
mountains and sky were blown into hundred pieces by his 
breath and sighs. 

The great Asura wrathfully bellowed ! Chartdikl looked, 
highly enraged and endeavoured to lay hold on him. 

She'threw out a Pisa to bind him, he was tied, and relin- 
quished his buffaloe's form in this great combat. 

He instantly turned into a lion, within the time that 
Ambiki cut of thin head ; he then converted himself into a 
man, held a sword and disappeared. 

Afterwards the goddess pierced him with her arrows, he 
with his sword and shield turned into a mighty elephant 

The elephant pulled the lion with his trunk, and made a 
terrific noise, the goddess cut his proboscis with her sword. 

Afterwards the great Asura assumed the form of a buffaloe, 
and terrified the three Lokas of animates and inanimates. 

The passionate ChandikS, matron of the world, frequently 
drank excellent liquor, bearing wrathful redness in her eyet. 

The Asura being highly endowed with bravery and last, 
furiously hurled mountains with his horns on ChundikS, 
; She pulverised them with her strong arrows, and with 
increased intoxication and angry looking face. 

Devi cried, Oh ! vain noise \ noise ! wait a moment until 
I 'perfectly drink this liquor; when you are slain by me here, 
all the gods will exclaim** 

The Rishi said, she laid hold on the great Asura, (who 
advanced towards her conveyance), with her feet, she struck 
iiim with her Sula. 

When he was caujghfc bold on bjf her feet, bis half re^I form 



34 8 


and modesty in the Superior castes : to thee, O Goddess { I 
make obeisance and implore thee to rule the universe, 

How can I describe thy form which is inconceivable ? 
thou art great, heroic, ample : destroyer of the giants. Thy 
deeds in war are admirable, Goddess ? and superior to the 
hosts of giants and gods. 

Thou art the Instigating cause of the universal earth, of 
three powers ; Incomprehensible to sinners, and even to Hari- 
Kara, and so forth ; Ihou art attended by all, and art t&e 
proprietress of this world : thou art undeftnablc, Inscrutable, 
and the excellent principle of matter. 

Thou art SwSha, in all the sacrifices. By the devout 
expression of thy name all the deities are gratified : people 
pronounce thee by the name of Swadhl for the expiatory 
oblation for deceased ancestors. 

Thy stability confers Inconceivable salvation, which is 
obtained by those ' votaries, who subdue their organs, thou 
art a goddess, thou art the supreme knowledge to edify the 
searcher after beatitude, sages, and those that are free from 
different offences. 

Thou art the word, source of the purest Rig, Yafa and 
S&man, of eloquent florid phrases. divine Goddess j thou 
art of three powers : for the augmentation of the world j thou 
art the destroyer of the universe and remover of severe evils, 
O Goddesss j. thou art intelligence ; of the Sub- 

stance of various sciences ; impenetrable ; a vessel on the 
difficult sea of secularly ; unasaocifited ; chiefly resident in 
the heart* of the enemy of Khytfibha** Gouri, thou art worn 
by the crescent crowned god. 

With a soft smile, thqu art; the purest representative of the 
perfect orbit of the moon ; thou hast a beautiful golden' fau^d 
It is an entire wonder that MahishAsura, with self- 
created anger could look on the enraged,' and browco'tttiraet 

1 * Vfctow. 



6Ver rCS compassionate 

; All the universe was made 

Why did not all the- adversaries P f the deities 

.r ies ', ? wh r they saw the d -p'e m 

by thy hand ? thou deeming it meet, that they should 
approach to heaven., hast purified them by thy weapons. 

" aCC ' Ambling the 

O Goddess ! thy fortitude will cause to cease the prac- 
tice >o all p ro fli gate acts, thy unequalled from is iuconciev- 
able, thy heroism will absorb other's valour, and even thy 
foes acknowledge thy merits. 7 

* 'Sasadhara-literally, hare-holder, fh mt) on. 



Thy prowess is without equal, fthy form will create fear in 
the enemy : in peace thou art complacent, and in war thou 
art implacable. O goddess! thou givest benedictions in 
the three worlds. 

Thou hast killed the foes at the head of the battle, and 
l?aved the whole of the three worlds ; multitude of enemies 
proceeded to heaven. We are exempt from fear, and pros- 
trate ourselves to thcc, who art a foe to the intoxicated ene. 
mi^s of Suras, 

AmbiH ! preserve us by thy trident and sword ; pre- 
serve us by the ringing of thy bell, and by th<* Bound of thy 
bow-string. Chandika f guard th* East and the West, 
and the South. Oh Brahman! j defend the North with thy 

Mayest thou support the saints and pood spirits that 
wander in three lokas] mayest thou retain a number of 
tremendous forms on the earth, that wield the sword, trident, 
club, and other instruments in their hand, to defend us at all 
times and places. 

The Rishi said, the Suras thus praised and Joyfully wor- 
shipped her with the divine flowers of the garden of Nandana, 
lubbing sandal on the universal DhStrL 

All the Tridasas faithfully offered her sweet smelling in- 
cense, the mild faced goddess said to the humble Suras. 

Devi said, O Tridasas j I am pleased with your worship 
I will affectionately give you whatever you desire. The Devas 
replied, O divine goddess j we have every thing that we 

Thou hast slain our adversary Mahmhlsura, all our de- 
sires have been obtained through thy favour, we have only 
one thing mare to request of thee. 

Secure from hann whatever mortal recollects to call upoa 
, repeatedly, in tbe time of danger, 

beautiful Face! deign to give them augumtatioii of 




E " ad "- K ; 

"en, OB.,, 

of n,. u, ree 


arped the p owers 

likewL P, 
- - deprive,, of ,,, ^ d ta" """ 

He assumed the aut of T. " 



Tims they meditated on the goldess in their hearts and 
repaired to Himavant, (king of mountains) there they greeted 
the goddess of the illusion of Vishnu. 

The Devas sald j we salute the great goddess, maker of 
joy, and continually prostrate ourselves and pay homage to 
the auspicious matter; we humbly bow to the pious. 

Salutation be for ever to Radri f reverence be to the 
DhStri, eternal prostration to the light, to the form of the 
moon and beatitude ; twice obeisance to the prosperous, to 
the prolonger, maturer, and Kurme. 

Twice salutation to the Niruta supporter of the earth 
and the goddess of riches, Sarvftni. 

Twice salutation to Durgl, remoter of difficult limits $ 
constant salutations to the renowned one, likewise to the 
sable and dusky, 

Twice salutation to the ample, the mile! and the austere; 
prostration to the establisher of the world and to the 

Five times salutation to the goddcs*, who is called an 
illusion of Vishnu in all creatures, 

Five times salutation to the goddess, who is the mind in 
all creatures. 

Five times salutation to the goddess, who Is the intellect 
in all ceatures, 

. Five times salutation to the goddess, who is repose In all 

Five times prostration to the goddess, who is the appetite 
m all creatures. 

Five times salutation to the godde s*, who is the 
in all creatures. 

Five times salutation Sto the who Is a power lit 

all 'Creatures. 

Five times salutation to the who is gr 

"fa-. all -creatures* 

' Five timcf 'iilutotiott to the gctffosf* wbo is mercy ia 

*Ung r er that~enoompasseth us; 

We and the Suras salute thee. " Destroy the 



whoever contemplates thec with obeisance, their 
shall he instantly removed, 

The Rishi said, when the deities applauded PRrvati 
prince j she went to perform ablution in the water of jf&nhavi. 

She asked them, " Whom did. you greet there/ 1 The res- 
plendant Siva emanated from her hotly f and spoke thm 
to her, 

" They recited my praises, because they wtrc expelled by 
the giant Sumbha, all the deities retreated before Nisttmhha 
in the war/' 

From the body of PSrvati, Am vi left issued, and was deno- 
minated Kougiki throughout the universe, 

When she had emanated from PJirvmt, (who turned black) 
'she was called Kougiki and re nor ted about Him&chaia. 

".Her transcendent form beautiful, and creating admiration 
was seen by Chanda and Munda, who were attendants of 
Sumbha and Nisumbba* 

They mentioned to Surnhha, gram tciverdgn j there 
is a beautiful female, exalted on the HimAcbala mountain 
she charms the heart of all beholders, 

" There is no shape resembling her yet by any budhr* 
Find out who she is and that angelic female, 

That charming body it a gem among this tlamnel*, glow* 

ding in all direction* ; liiclra of the giititi > it for 

thee to behold her, 

Lord i you have ntoreil in ymir manion f ill 

the precious gems of these three wotlchi; and elc* 

pbaftti. The elephant you have fro 

Purandara, or l*id # the tree 


-The car with divine in y<m r 

^hkh -was made of precious to the 

Ved^you have brought the and 

god of rides. 



The ocean* has conferred on you the lotus and a garland 
ol unfading lotus. 

The gold shedding umbrella of Varuna is in your house, 
and so is the excellent vehicle of PrajSpati, who passed it 

Ypu took the Sakti, by name Utcranta, the cord of the 
king of waters, was occupied by your brother. 

Vanhi has bestowed on Nisumbha, all sorts of gems found 
in the sea at the time of his performing his holy rites. 

sovereign of the demons I you have acquired all the 
precious articles ; why do you not take this auspicious female 

The Rishi said, Sumbha was constantly listening to the 
speech of Chanda and Munda; the mighty giant sent a mes- 
senger Sugriva, to the goddess. 

Said he, "go and tell her that I want her; convey my 
errand swiftly, effect the mandate you are sent upon, pleas- 
ing her in any manner-" 

He proceeded to tfre mountain, where the auspicious wa^ 
Mltioned, and delivered the message to the goddess, endea- 
vouring to move her with mellifluous accents. 

The Duta said, Goddess } Sumbha is the lord of the 
Daityas, he is a mighty sovereign of the three worlds, I am 
his messenger sent by him hither. 

He has perpetual and unbounded authority over all the 
deities, he has conquered all the foes of Daityas, hear what 
he says. 

1 possess all the deities of the three worlds, and receive 
solely all the sacrificial oblations. 

I have gained the excellent gems of the three worlds 
the precious elephant of Indra, he humbly delivered to me. 
I am lord also of the horse, named Ucchaisrav, which was 
pro^iucted from the milky ocean, when the mighty 
churned it. 

All the precious things found among the deities, Gan- 
dharvas and Uragas are mine, 

The world esteems thee> O Goddess f as a female gem 
come to'us and we wtH wear thee. 

thouof the darting glance ! choose either me ortny 
valarous younger brother Nisumbha, who are the possessors 
of the gems. 

You shall gain abundant and unmeasured wealth by 
taking- me ; consider and be wise, and forthwith possess me, 
" The Rishi said/ 1 the goddess with a disdainful smile, 
replied to him. 

"Devi said," what you have declared is true, there is no 
falsehood in your speech. Sumbha is lord of the three 
worlds, and so ia Nisumb'ha. 

But how can I repeal my determined vow, hear what I 
''formerly -swore to without consideration* 

That -whoever can vanquish me in combat, whoever can 
oppress my pride, whoever is equal to me in vigour in this 
world : he shall be my husband. 

Whether Sumbha, or the mighty demon Nisumbha, call 
them here to conquer me, I will their hands without 


fThe messenger said, how do you arrogantly say this in 
my presence, is there any individual in the. three worlds able 
to, cope with Sumbba and Nisbumbba. 

All .the deities united were unable to withstand the giants 
in the war, then how canst thou, a single woman, resist them* 

Indra and all the other deities could not cope with him ; 
how could it be possible for Sumhha to enter into the 
presence of a woman ? You will be obliged at last to go, 
disgracefully dragged by the hair, to Sumbtta and Nishnmbha! 
"evi said, "is such the vigour of Sumbh*, and is such 
the great valor of Nisumbha f I have formerly resolved and 
towed without deliberation, what can I do now? 

Go directly and reveal to your master all that I spoke. 


god appeal to the Indra of dewons ; and let them idi> v^halt is 

Thus far is related in the fifth Chapter, containing 
conversation of the goddess and messeftgef. 


1 HE RlSHI said, hear the word of goddess ! the mes- 
senger transported with rage went to the king of Daityas, 
and addressed him thus 

sovereign of Asuras, hearken to the speech of your 
messenger, he then related the whole circumstances to 
Nisumbha, who furiously told Dhumralochana, (who is a 
superior of the giants). 

Dhumralochana,^ surround with your force and bring 
that wreth to me, forcibly drag her into my presence by her 

*If there is one remaining to protect her, bring him also 
whether he be immortal, Yaksha, or Gandharva. 

The Rishi said, the giant Dhumralochana, as directed, 
marched accompanied by sixty thousand Asuras. 

To the goddess,, resident on Tuhinachala,t he beheld 
her arid spoke loudly, "come to Sumbha and Nishumbha. 

If you go not cheerfully, I shall convey you by force to 
my King, dragging you by your hair." 

Devi said, r 'the Lord of the Daityas, has sent a valiant 
demon with an army, if you carry me away what can I do ?" 

'* Dhumralochana liberally smoky-eyed, 
t Tuhinachala snowy mountain. 


" d 

the blows of her Imnd 


<!emoli8 h<l 

h wi 

Hop , 
her to me.' ' 

Tlius far it related in the 

"" " "" 



(1 iW 








S- - 



The magnanimous goddess devoured or crushed all the 
forces of the valiant Asuras. 

She killed some with the sword, and struck some with the 
Khutwanga weapon ; the giants died with the pressure of her 

In a moment all the forces of the Asuras fell ; Chanda 
beheld it and ran to the frightful Kali. 
The mighty Asura.with a shower of numerous and tremen- 
doiu arrows, and thousands of Chakras speedily enveloped 
the dreadful eyed goddess. 

^ Abundance of the discuses she swallowed, her face 
became as the orbit of the sun enveloped by the clouds. 

Then Kali, angrily shouted : her voice was horrible, her 
mouth became distended and frightful, and she gnashed her 
tremendous teeth. 

The g odd ss made her lion to rise, ran at Chanda, and 
laying hold on him by his hair, she cut off his head with her 

After this Munda seeing the fall of Chanda, marched 
gost her, she made him to fall on the earth and instanta- 
qeowsly killed him with her sword. 

!r ?w ivl1 ? f rCeS Perceived the ^1 f Chanda, and 
valiant Munda, and through fear retreated in all directions. 
KUi took the heads of Chanda, likewise of Muuda, and 
utiMgly, exclaimed to Chandikl. 
I have killed the great beasts Chanda and Munda, you will 
s!*y_Smbha and Nisumbha, in the sacrifice of battle. 

"asThou h." h I h Uidf f e 8enUy repHcd t0 thC PW K ^ 
as thou ha 9 t brought the heads of the great demons 

Uganda and Munda, you shall be. renowed in the world by 
the name of Chamunda." 

te ,V n the seventh Chapter, compmbg th 
a and Munda. 


ab.d Munda fe 

abundant forces were diminished. 

an ThC br ? Vest Iord of the Asuras, Sumbha was moved to 
anger and d-rected all the forces of the demons to be prepared. 

Then the giant s of various forces with eighty-si x sorts of 
arms, e.ghty-four kinds of cumboos, set out in legion. 

One *,tf of heroes, fifty thousand of the giant race the 
tribes of Dhoumra marched by his order. 

Kalikas, great Mowryas, and likewise Kalakeya, directly 
prepared for battle by his order. erectly 

The l ord of the Asuras, the frightful leader Sumbha ad 
vanced, attended by myriads of cohorts. ' 

Chandika viewing the approach of this dreadful army 

; the goddess r Ungt he beU; 

_ The sound of the roar penetrated to the eatremeties of 
the regtons, the mouth of Devi expanded hideously 

The army of the giants having heard the sound 'in the four 

' * ''on, and like- 

The power, of Brahma, E f a, Guha, Vishnu, likewise of 
ndra, 1S sued from their, bodies and proceeded on their re pec 
tive forms towards Chandika. rcspec- 

The similar forms with their vehicles, ornaments, and valour 
of the went to fight with the giants 

with a string of heads, and a pitcner 01 water m tier hand, she 
was called Brahman! 

Mnheswari rode on the ox, she held an excellent trident f 
great serpents were colled round her, she was adorned by the 
signal crescent. 

Koumari held a Sakti in her hand, she was mounted on an 
excellent Mayura, and proceeded in the form of Guhato fight 
with the giants. 

Vaishnavi sitting on the Garuda, held the conch, dis- 
cus, mace, Sarana, and a sword in her hand and inarched 


Hari assumed the peerless form of Yagna-Var&ha, todc 
the- "form of the boar and attended there in a terrific shape* 

Narasimha assumed the dreadful body of Narastmhi, and 
With hr inane extinguished the constellation, 

Indri, holder of Vajra, Was mounted on a mighty elephant 
having one thousand eyes like Sakra. 

' Egina Was surrounded by the Sakti,* of the deities, and 
said to Chandikl, "kill directly the Amarus for my satisfac- 

The implacable power of Chandikft proceeded frotn the 
body of the goddess in a dreadful form, named Siva, whose 
voice increased an hundredfold. 

*' Sh6 said to Egana, (who was sfnoky-hued, unattainable^ 
aftd'&ditine messenger), "go to Sumbha and Nisttmbna. 

- Tell those proud giants to prepare for war f together with 
tite i oUi6r demons. 

! ' Wtira shall festinrid the thfee worlds, and will 

the sacrificial oblations : if they wish to live, let them fifd 

- if they ^estteeto wage war with tee, the jackal shall 
glutted with their flesh, 


* As Siva seat the ullage bjr.thf g$dde$s tp ,the giants 
she was calfe4*a SiVja-EhitS, or Siva's messenger in thif 

The great Asura having hearkened to the message of the 
s sent by Siva, was transported with rage and repaired 
td the place where Ktttyani lived. 

First the enemies of the immortals furiously rained show- 
ers of arrows and Saktis on the goddess. 

She in turn discharged the great arrows from her bow a^d 
sportively cut off their arrows by her trident, Chakra ,and Pa- 

In their front Kali struck them with her trident, and with 
the Khutwanga and achieved mighty deeds. 

Brahmani destroyed wherever she went, the heroic and 
Valliant enemies, by pouring water from her Kamaudalqr on 

Maheswari, by her trident, likewise Vaishnavi with her 
discus, Kaumari with her wrathful Sakti killed the giants. 

Indri pierced one hundred demons, and evil genies w}c% 
Mr Kul.ipa, and threw them on the earth, their Wood 
gushed out 

Brfthrnainurti broke their breasts with the discus. 

By her nails, she tore and devoured many of the great 
Asuras; Narasimhi talked in the battle; her voice filled the 
directions and sky. 

The goddess shouted ; she struck the dpmons to the 
ground and devoured them. 

The chief amazons detested the mighty Asuras, and the 
various demons were ineffectual, and having overcome their 
measures and stratagems, the warriors, adversaries of god, 
fled away. 

Seeing the retreat of the Daityas, the great demon 
^ackta-Bija, (whose blood is a seed), became enraged and 
proceeded to fight, 


When a drop of the blood from his body fell on the earth : 

it produced the same sized giants from the ground. 

The great demon holding a mace in his hand, fought with 

Indri, who held the Sakti Vajra. 

He was struck by the Ku%a, the blood gushed out: other 
demons immediately arose of similar form and valour. 

Equal in number to the drops of blood that fell from his 
body, demons of the same heroism, vigour and fortitude, were 

By the severe beating of the weapons of the chief 
amazons as also by the cut of the Vajra* his head fell off. 

When the blood was streaming, thousands of demons 
were produced by it; Vaishnavi beat him in the battle with 
her discus. 

Indri smote the lord of giants with her mace ; Vaishnavi 
struck him with her discus, and the blood was spilt. 

Thousands of the giants of the same feature abounded 
in this world; Kaumlri beat him with her Sakti; likewise 
VarSJhi with Jier sword, 

BrUhmani, with a cudgel of Brthnwtnfj and Narasirnhi 
tore him with her claws, 

Maheswari beat on the bosom of the great giant Rackta* 
Bija with her trident for he did not move. 

He beirag surrounded by the enraged chief amazons, 
severely beat them with his clubs. 

He *,cut off abundant of the Safeties, tridents, and so forth 
and made a hundred to fall on the earth, 

The giants produced by the blood thronged over all the, 
world ; the gods afterwards were overwhelmed by fear* 
1 Chandik! looked at the discomfitted Suras, and 'speedily 
said to Kali, "0 Chftntandft open your mouth widely.. 

Great Aspens are produced by the drops of the blood o 

JUcfejfbBija, yots must Instantaneously lick up the lood bffore 
it falls to the ground. 


Devout the blood before the demons are produced; the 
Daityas will be diminished and become void of blood. 

If you do this they never can spring up again/ 1 saying 
thus the goddess pierced them with her trident. 

KM sucked up the blood of Rackta-Bija ; ChandikS beat 
htm violently with her mace. , . 

By the vehement beatings of the clubs, a profusion of 
blood gushed out ail over his body. 

Chandika licked it up ; CMmunda drank his blood. 

Devi by her trident, arrows, sword, and fists killed Rackta- 
Bija, and drank his blood. 

He being overwhelmed by a number of arrows, O Ruler 
of the earth! the mighty demon Rackta-Bija, fell on the 
earth, and became void of blood. 

Afterward the deities felt the highest degree of pleasure, 
the chief amazons proudly danced. 

Thus extends the eighth Chapter, mentioning the death 
of the Rackta-Bija. 


1 HE RAJAH said, "0 divine one ! you have disclosed to 
me the wonderful story, and the sacred action of the goddess, 
which exterminated Rackta-Bija. 

I am now desirous of hearing the actions of Sumbha,' and 
the excessive anger of Nisumbha. 

The Rishi said, at the death of Rackta-Bija, and others 
in battle. Sumbha and Nisumbha were uncommonly enrageci- 



Seeing their Immense army destroyed, the demons tvere 
filled with ire. Nisumbba ran to their succour with consider* 
.able reinforcement. 

In the front, rear, and flanks, he was attended by mighty 
-giants, who were wrathfully biting their lips, and meditating 
the death of the goddess* 

The mighty Asura Sumbha, surrounded by his force, 
fought with the chief amazop*, and furiously proceeded to*, 
wards CfaandikiL 

. ; Sqoibha and Nisumbha then commenced a dreadful com- 
bat with the goddess, and shot powerful showers of arrow*, 
thick as clouds of rain. 

CbandikI cut them to pieces with her own parts, and 
pierced both the chief Asuras with several arrows 

Nisumbha then took his keen sword and resplendent 
shield, and struck on the head of the lion, the noble convey. 
ance of the goddess. 

When her excellent animal was beaten, Chichura took 
a sharp sword and cut in two pieces, the shield of Nisumbha, 
called Asta-Chandra.* 

That Asura after his shield was destroyed, shot a Sakti, 
but as it was whizzing towards her, the goddess cleft it in 
twain with her discus, 

Then Nisumbha made a furious charge with his Sula ; the 
goddess pulverized the hostile weapon with her fist. 

The demon then swung his mace at ChandikA, but the 
goddess by her trident reduced it to calx instantaneously. 

After this disappointment, the chief of the Daitayas-tebed 
A. battle axe and approached Devi,, she levelled the warrior to* 
the earth with her arrows, 

. When the dreadful Nisumbha fell . to the ground, ht$ 
Brother burning with fire repaired to kill Amvika, 

Being mounted on his chariot, he grasped his missiles, 



ah4 potent implement, and with unequalled voice penetrated 
overall the sky. . . 

The goddess perceived his cormng-and sounded her conch 
and her bow-string, the noise of which was insupportable 

The sound of her bell filled the etberial space ; the diffe- 
rent detachments of the Daityas were dismayed. 

The lion lustily roared, the sound penetrated the sky earth 
and the ten directions. 

Afterwards Kali leaped up towards heaven and kicked the 
ground, at the piercing sound of her voice the giants - 

Siva-Duti, shouted at the misfortune of the Asura the 
noise reached the giant .Sumbha who furiously proceeded 
towards the goddess. 

Amvika said to him, O impious wretch , stand ! stand , 
the gods immortal inhabitants of the sky have cried "victor* 
to be thee !" * 

Sumbha discharged a Sakti, which issuing in a terrific 
flame, became a mass of fire, she opposed him with a 

The lion like voice of Sumbha, overspread the three world 
(Oh lord of the earth)! by the appalling sound of it, he hoped 
to conquer. , , 

The goddess cut off the arrows of Sumbha, by her own 
shafts, into hundreds and thousands of pieces. 

Chandika, was enraged, and struck him with her trident: 
the giant thereon fainted and fell on the earth. 

Nisumbha having revived, took his bow and beat the god- 
dess Kali, and the lion with bis arrows. 

The king of giants, with, ten thousand arms, enveloped 
Chandika, with numerous weapons, discuses, and arrows. 

1 Then the goddess, the toaectessifete, -the sobiuer of>ariou 
ills, being enraged cut off those direfal; -weapon with her ar- 
rows into hundred 'pi-eces. . ; ; ... , 


Nisumbl)a swiftly took the club, (and attended by hi 
giant's forces), ran to kill ChandikSU 

The goddess destroyed his club and threw her keen sw^td 
the demon took a trident, 

Nisumbha, the oppressor of Immortals, was going to Chaa* 
dika, she broke his bosom with a Sula, with a mace fixed 
to it. 

His bosom being broke, another demon came out of him 
the goddess smiled and cut off his head with her sword, and 
he fell on the earth. 

By the teeth of the lion, by Kali and Siva-Duti, other 
giants were decapitated, 

Koumiri destroyed some giants by her Sakti ; Brfthniaai 
with her enchanted water slew others* 

. Maheswari demolished by her trident Vnrlhi by beat* 
ing reduced them to, powder on the earth, 

Vaishnavii with her discus, crushed the giants to pieces* 
Indri with her weapon Vajra killed others. 

Many of the giants retreated, many annihilated ift 

that horrible war. Kali, Siva-Duti arid the lion devoured 


Thus far is related in ninth Chapter, comprising the dK 
traction of Nisumbha* 


1 HE RISUI said y the of 

his forces, awi tit death of bis who w 

dear to him m hit own tout), and furiously said. 

The king of the Daityas took Bis 

dikl cut through his sword and discharged her keen 
arrows, pure as the beams of the sun. 

The giant having lost his steeds, chariot, and bow, seize d 
a tremendous Mudgara, intending to kill Amvika. 

his ft, agab CUt U ^ hCr keenCSt arr WS ' hC fan at her wit 


He hastily shot a musti, she made it to fall ; and struck the 
bosom of the chief of the Daityas. 

. The severity of the blow felled him to Che earth ; the king 
of giants speedily rose op again, and flew up to heaven with 
the desire of laying hold on the goddess; though he was 
incumbent in the skies, he fought with Chanciiki. 
. They mutually fought in the sky, and performed wondrous 
feats in battle, to the astonishment of the and angels 

, By leaping, turning* and casting each other on the earth; 
they fought a long while* 

, The ill disposed descended to the earth, directly closing 
his fist with an intention of killing ChandikS, 

The goddess saw the lord of giants, coming and pierced 
his bosom with her trident, and made him to fall on the 

He yielded his life, being transfixed by the trident of the 
.goddess ; as he fell on the earth, the seven islands and 
mountains moved. 

. Every one was delighted at the death of the miscreant, 
the world was in peace ; the ^ky became serene, 
. ; The -clouds dissolved in air; inauspir ions omens, hence- 
forth ceased ; while the sun beams converged as usual ; and 
the rivers flowed in the beds assigned them. 
. All the 'gods were filled with joy; Gandharvas, on his 
death pleasantly sang- 

Others shouted, Apsarls danced $ hallowing breexes began 
to blow ; the sun became resplendent. 

The inflaming fire moderated j the noise of the elephant* 
of the regions was hushed; the planets revolved in peace ; 
tlie moon enlightened the whole firmament. 

Thus far is related in the tenth Chapter, containing the 
of Sumbha. 


1 HE RlSHi said, when the chief of the Asuras was killed 
by the goddess, Indra, Suras, and Vanhi appeared before her, 
and with joyful countenances advanced to greet Katyani for 
the favor she had conferred on them. 

goddess ( thy countenance removes the grievances of 
thy people, thou art the beneficent mother of jthe whole 
universe. O sovereign of the world ! save the earth. 

, ; Mayest thou preserve the world; thou art the goddess 
of animates and inanimates. 

Thou dost sustain alone the world in the form of the earth, 
parragon of heroism t thou as water refreshest all the 

'.,.. Thou art the power of Vaishnavi, thy valour is endless, thou 
art the element of the universe, thou art the supreme. illusion} 
Q goddess j thou bindest all things in love, thou art the great 
first cause, thou art the bestower of salvation ori the earth; 
thou art the essence of all sciences, thou art the rich one; 
thou fillest all things, who can praise thy holy eloquence ? 

Thou art the bestower of heaven, and salvation on all 
creatures ; what expression can sufficiently applaud thee? 

1 salute thee, O goddess ! Niriyani, who liveth in the 
hearts of thy subjects, as a form of intellect, and giveth to 
paradise a local and unperishable abode. -* 

I salute Narayani, who protects all things in a spiritual 
and material form, she is the over-ruling power of the! 

, . ,1 salute Nilrayani, who is the auspicious bestower of pros- 
perity, happiness, and every desire; who is the conferer of 
obligations, who is three eyed and brown, ; >. ; - I 



I salute NarSyani^ who has power to create, preserve, and 
destroy; who is the reservoir of virtue from all ages. 

I salute the goddess NarSyani who saveth those that seek 
her protection, who comforteth the wretched and grieved 
who is the dispeller of all sorrows. 

I salute Narayani, who sits mounted on a car, drawft by 
divine swans, who asumes the form of Brfthmani, and eats 

I salute Narayani, holder of ihe Suras, Chandra, Jyuda,* 
who rides on the ample ox in the form of Maheswari. 

I salute Narayani, attended by the peacock, and holder of 
the mighty mountain, on her nails who acquired the form of 

I salute Narayani, the possessor of the Sanka, Chakra, 
GadS, and Sarna ; who favors all in the form of Vaislmavi. 

I salute Narayani, who took the ample Chakra, and sus- 
tained the earth on her proboscis, in the form of Varaha and 

I salute NlrSyani, who assumed the wrathful form, of 
Nrisimhi, and slew the giants to preserve the three worlds, 

I salute Narayani, who is crowned Indra, the holder of the 
Vajra, who glowes with one thousand eyes, the drawer of the 
soul of Vritra. 

I salute Narayani, who destroyed the valiant giants, ri> 

the form of Siva Dttti whose form was dreadful in the great 

I salute Nlrlyani, whose teeth and mouth are frightful 
like. the lions; and who is adorned by a necklace of skulls; 
the crusher of the head of Chamunda ; tho modest j the omni- 
wlant; the faithful; and strong Swadha; the steady ;' the 
mighty ; and the skilled in abundant arts. 

I salute Narayani, .who is intelligence and excellence; 
ti; the be$tower of prosperity; the wrathful; -the 
; *ftd the giver of all benefit* 
I salute the goddw Dwrg^. wbo baa mainiold ferns; who 


is the lord of all things : abounding with different powers ; 
the saviour of the fearful. 

I salute KatyHni, whose face is mild ; who is adorned with 
three eye?* ; who preserves all creatures. 

I salute Bhadra-Kaii, whose face is terrific; who destroyed 
tfee whole race of giants ; may such a trident guard the 

May the bell of the goddess, the sound of which has 
appalled the energy of the giants, and penetrated through all 
the worlds : preserve us as its childern. 

We prostrate ourselves to Chandika, whose exquisitely 
bright sword was stained by the blood and flesh of the giants; 
and became the instrument of the death of Sumbha. 

Thou healing from all kind of disorders, givest pleasure 
and strength to all people ; those that desire to follow thee, 
shall not feel distress, but will be restored. 

Thou hast destroyed the great Asuras, who are the enemies 
of virtue, by thy actions and transfigurations. 

Thou art supremely exalted in the sciences; in knowledge ; 
in wisdom ; in eloquence ; in virtuous practice ; the would is 
overwhelmed in the excess of thy love. 

Thou dwellest even among venomous serpents ; amongst 
hardened and depraved robbers ; ane where there are coira^ 
bu&tibles and fire 5 thou art in the sea, and thou supportest 
the world, 

O Goddess of the universe! thou shouldest preserve tfe 
world, thou pervadest through the world holding it. The 
world prostrates itself to thee ; thou art followed by the 
world ; thou art faithfully lovecl by the world. 

O Goddess | protect and preserve the people from the fear 
of enemies, by destroying always the giants, as thou didst of 
late : extinguish the sins of the world, which proceed from 
accidental causes. 

Goddess j thou shouldest favour him, who humbly bows; 
O dispeller of universal alarm ! the inhabitants of the three 



worlds, shall prostrate themselves to thee ; O bless the 
people t 

Devi said, "Q band of Suras | I will bless you ; ask, and I 
will bestow what you desire, for the benefit of the gods/' 
. The Devas replied, "O supreme goddess of the three 
-worlds ! we solicit thee to expet all danger and destroy our 
enemies ; this is thy task/ 1 

Devi said, on the twenty-eighth age of Vibhaswatta, Sum- 
bha, and Nisumbha, shall be regenerated. 

I shall reside on the mountain of Vindhya, I shall be bora 
in the race of cowherds in the womb of Yasoda, and destroy 

I sha11;be incarnate on the earth, and shall slay the great 
giant Viprochitta, 

I shall have my teeth red, like pomegranate flowers, tliea 
all the gods and mankind shall give me applause and call me 
constantly Racta-Dautic&. 

A famine shall happen for one hundred years without rain j 
being greteed by the sages* I shall be self-born. 

Then shall I look at the sa^es with one hundred eyes^ 

therefore mortals will call me Satftkshi, (or hundred eyes*) , 

The whole world shall subsist by the divine vegetable, 

which shall be produced from my body until the rain shall fall* 

I shall be esteemed in the earth by the name of'Sacum* 

bhari, the preserver by vegetables, I stall be denominate! 

Durga Devi. 

I again shall assume a dreadful form on the mountain 
Him&chala, and devour the giants to protect the sages : all 
the ascetics will bow and applaud me* 

I shall be called Bhima.Devi, when Aruna shall disturb 
tlie three world ; then I shall turn a roving beettle* 

I will destroy the great giant for the advantage of thase 
worlds: *1) will applaud me by the MIM of Bramhini 



Whenever disturbances shall arise from the giants, then 
I shall incarnate and destroy the enemies. 
w Thus far is related in the eleventh Chapter, mentioning 
the death of Sumbha and Nisumbha. 



* * Three different plagues, 
Itibadha annoyance by animals. 

*EVI said, he who for ever joyfully applauds me, him 
I will undoubtedly shield from all kinds of danger. 
; Whoever recites the dissolution of Madhu and Kaitabha, 
and the destruction of Mahishasura ; likewise the death of 
Sumbha and Nisumbha, 

On the Astami or eighth, Navarni or ninth, Chaturdast 
or 'fourteenth, with an intent and pure heart and faithfully 
praise of my noble actions, 

They shall incur no manner of sin, shall never be exposed 
to distress, and never suffer any trouble, or feel any pain. 

Nor shall he be in fear of foes, or thieves, or fire, sword, 
or water, at any period. 

Therefore my actions should at all times be chaunted in 
peace voluntarily ; and always be heard with joy. 

All the dangers of evil and the three different plagues;* 
shall be counteracted by my meritorious deeds. 

Whoever daily attentively reads my words in his house 
I shall not leave, but dwell in his presence. 

During the offering of food to Bali worship, fire oblation, 

Adhi-Infirmity, Viadhi-disease, and 



or festival, mankind should completely read and hear my 

Whoever either knowingly or ignorantly gives the offer- 
ing, food, or fire oblation ; 

Whoever yearly performs the adoration in the Sarat (or 
sultry season), and hears willingly my action recited, they 
will undoubtedly obtain my favour, 

Whoever hears my consecration, prosperity will attend 
him, and he shall be brave in combat. 

Their enemies shall be destroyed ; the rich will attend, 
and listen to my miracles the race of mankind will bt 

Every where, when the preliminary ceremonies art per- 
formed, evil dream*, the inauspicious aspect of the pknets 
shall cease during the recital of my fictions. 

The disturbances, the malignant influence of the placets 
will discontinue, unlucky dreams shall turn out prosperous* 

Evils to which children are liable from demons, I will re* 
mote, and heal the breach of friendship in my people, 

By reading it with strict faith, the strength of all ill- 
disposed-persons, the giants, demons, and evil spirits, shall 
be destroyed 5 

Whoever brings me an offering of noble beast*, of 
flowers* Arghya incense, sandal and tapers ; 

Whoever feeds, the Vipras, performs the various rites of 
'the Roma, ttery day and night ; 

Pleases me* throught a year, and hearkens to my actions, 
sfcttl have their sins remitted and shall obtain the blessing! 
of earth. 

I will preserve all creatures, who read of my birth and 
deeds in words comprising the dissolution of the wigked 

They siall not be in fenc of foes and shall obtain- tfee 
praise of sacred sages. 

Tki. i. ordained by BrahmS ptolridcs , 


a king be enraged and give order to. bind 

of a if 

my action, all dangers will be dispelled 
Rishi said, the warlike goddess 

the ities 

enemies being destroyed, they enjoyed the sacri- 

after the d^o.s and SuJha ,,re 5l ain 

s in battle. ' *" 

The disturber of the universe, th* brae peerless and 

O King Ube divine go4d S s ms rfpwftfdly incarnated to 
preserve the world, she shakles and creates the uni^se ? 
boe gives knowledge, pleasure, intellect. O sovereiio 

M h ^ e PerVSdeS throU ^ h Ut the ^ 0^ Bra hma .' " 

Mftha.-Kah , the form of a gre^t goddess, the bi ffh 
Illusion, the ancient, creates the world occasionally ' ? 

And FPrno^es ^alth inth e liv e soffh peopleinfuture 
penod ; where she is not present their misfortLfcau 

Whoever prases and worships her rfth flow 

/ar extend, the twelfth Chapter/ mentionin,, the 





KING, these are the excellent actions of the Devi 
I mentioned now, such Is this glorious goddess, the holder of 
the universe. 

The illusion of the divine Vishnu constructed this vast 
machine; by her, you, the Vysa, and others are being bound 
in love. 

chief sovereign, go to the assylmn of the goddess, 
whoever adores her, will enjoy both heaven and canh, 

MSrkandeya said, Surdha, hearkened to his words; the 
chief of mankind, the possessor of great share*, prostrated 
himself before him and made a vow. 

Being puzzled by love, and deprived of his kingdom, he 
instantly repaired to perform devotion. 

The Vysa remained on the shoal of the river to have an 
interview with goddess, 

He performed the devotion praying, repeating the Devi- 
Sukti, he made a clay form of the goddess on the shoal, and 
invoked her with flowers, incense, Arghya, Tarpana, and other 

He mortified his body, and in this manner he worshipped 
for three years, 

ChandikS, the matron of the world, being pleased* appear- 
ed to him, and said, U O King, Prince of a goodly tribe j I 
have heard you pray, and cheerfully bestow on you all you 

MUrkandeya said, the monarch being distressed, entreated 
ber to restore his realm, vanquished by the arms of his 

tje Vysa, having a susceptible heart, implored from her 
! and abstraction from social and secular concerns- 


Devi said to the king, O lord of men f you will destroy 
your enemies and resume your kingdom ; you shall afterwards 
die and be regenerated as Vibhaswata, by the name of 
Savarnika Manu of the earth. 

O excellent Vysa, according to your desires you shall 
obtain wisdom, the goddess thus blessed them and granted 
their desires ; she then vanished. Suradha, the chief Chatrey- 
ah, having thus obtained her blessings, became Savurni Manu 
in his next birth. 

Thus far is related in the thirteenth Chapter, containing 
the plaudits of Chandika, and ends Chandipat Parvas. 


ARKANDKYA said ;~-I have Id yen in fnfj 

the Manwantara of Mami SSvuriii, the glorif* of the 
and the destruction of thf htifl,i!|ii**-fiic^cl tli*iii0n f|V *IA 
origin of the goddwm and oth*r mother* in Itif great encoutter 
as well as the origin of the tVimmtfia (z} 

I have described to yon h* gbrim of Shtvadynti, the dts^ 
tructbn of Sumbha and Nishiiiiiltlm ami n% Wf II a* that of 
Rakta-Vija ?(3>, H<ar, CI for^tnr^i of MttttK of another 
Slvarni, Thin Sftvarni \* tfie HOII of Daknha and Is tie 
future ninth Manu (4) () Muni, I shall i}*^crilif* mm who 
will be the goc!s t agr^ ( and Martrhibharga and 

SudharmI' -these will Ue the thw* * UsrH of tleitwi (d 
These three clauses will ev*rnlly lie tlivtilrd into twelve 

each. Their future kttig will tit* highly powerful tttd 
thousand-eyed (6). The ix*facrd d^ity, who it now Iifli| 
as Kfirtil^ya, the mn of the: firc% will fir ||i king, by name . 
Advuta, of the ManwAntura of thin Matin (j), 
Vasu, Satya, YottRhinan, Oyutiman* 
Uiese will be the Mevctt Kmhm (H). I)brbbinkftti v 

Ar ^hi^htnan^ BhWy* 

f now 

I to), During tii 

of Sttkti* 

(ti). (tli 

Panchahata p NJrlmaya t 

urimna Vrihadvaya will 

and kings, Ltt*n, (> twicr-ttorn 

thft M&nwAntora of the truth M rtm i 

tenth Manwfatar* of the it>trilig*nt 

enas and Ntrudhaft will bf the g 

regime) of this future Manu the god* will t>i t bnndml fe 

Dumberftn the gwl* will be a buntlrrcl in number so wl 

be the creatures (u). s&nti wilt br Ific king of nil tbeie go* 

mi endowed with tit the acurni|lUhii. u u ol NUr 

now from me, who will be thr *ev*n at that 

(13)- Apomurti, Haviihrnan, Sukrtta, Hutyt, Apu* 


tishtha add Vashishtha will be the seven Rishis (14). And 
Sukshetra, Uttamonja, Bhimsena, Viryavana, Shatflnika, 
Vrishabha, Anamitra, Jayadratha, Bhuridyumna, and Suparvt 
these will be born as the smrs of that Manu. Hear now 
of the Manwdntara of SSLvarni, thh son of Dharma (1516). 
(At that period) there will spring mto existence three da&ses 
of gods each severally divided into thirty (17). Amongst 
them, months, seasons and days will be the lords of creation* 
and birds, nights and moments will be able to move on at 
their will .(x8). Their lord will be known by the mine ^f 
Vrisba of well-known prowess. avishman Vdrislitha, Risk- 
thi, Aruni, Nishchara, Vrishthi and Agni will be the sevea 
Rishis at that Manw&ntara <i 9-^20), Sarvaga, Susharmt% 
Devatiika, Purudvaha, Hernadhanva, -Drirayu will be h% 
sons and kings (21). Hear, who will be thfe gods and Munk 
during the Manwdntara of the Mai>ili^by name Savarni, the 
so of Rudra (22). Sudhariftanas, Sumanas, Haritas, Rohi- 
ts and SuvarnSs will be the five classes of deities each 
severally divided into tl^n (^3;. Kno^'trf the highly [fcftra*v; 
Ritadhtma m their lord eivdued "with all -the juali|fe& of 
hea^ new, fromcrie of the sdven tRfshis ftzj). iDtjwti, 
Tapashvi, 'Skitapa$, Tapomurti, Tapoaidhi/ Tapotofci, a&d 
Tarpodhriti will te the ? sevefti Rishis <?>. J)evaviin, Kpadeva, 
Devashresfehfe, Vidurathft, 'Mitravab, -and MiHravInda will.bfe 
the sons of that Maau and kfagfc (26). Hear, ? I hall now 
relate to y6u the sons of the thirteenth Mattu Rochya,, ithe 
seven Rishis, "kings and igod^ (127). O foperiiost of Munis, 
Sudharmas, Sukarmls, and Sushalrmas, will be the, cgods lof 
that peridd (28). Tbeir -king will be 'Divashpati of^reat 
Strength and rjrdwess. -Hear, I -.shall now-describe the seven 
Rishis that will be (29). DhritiMn, Avya, TatWadarshi,, JNfitai- 
suka, Nifmoha, SutapSbs and Nishpnafeampa will be tfeetsbvea 
Rishis (30) Ghiba&sena, Viehitta, Nayati, Nit'bbaya, Drida, 
Sanetra, Kshatrdv^ddhi, al\d -SUvrata will be thfe sbn of 
Manu (31). ' \ 


LARKANDEYA said: In* the days of yore, the Patriarch 
Ruchi, bdng shorn of attachments, pride and fear and res- 
training his sleep, travelled all over the earth (l). Seeing 
him divorced from fire, home, hermitage and company and 
living on one meal his departed -manes said, to that ascetic 
(2) ; " child, why dost thou not go through the most 
sacered marriage which is the source of heaven and eman* 
cipation and the absence of which brings on fetters (3). 
Having worshipped the gods* the manes, the Ruhss and the 
guests a householder enjoys the various lokas (4). (By not 
taking a (wife) you are being daily fettered by the debts 
due to the gods, manes, humanity and other creatures (5)* 
He should worship the deities with the exclamations of 
Swahd the manes with those of Swadhk and the guests with 
food (6). Without having engenderel progeny and brought 
about the satisfaction of the gods and manes how dost tho f 
out of foolishness, aspire to a better state ? (7)* We perceive 
the various miseries that will befall you for leaving a single 
life. You will attain to hell after death and suffer miseries 
even in your next birth (8)." 

Rue Hi said : Marriage leads to excessive misery, hell 
and wretched existence; it is for this I did not marry 
before (9). The control of the self by various good processes 
is the instrument of .emancipation and not marriage (10)* 
To wash daily the soul that it sullied with the mire of 
Egotism, with the water, of eternal consciousness shorn of 
attachment is the most excellent course (xi) Therefore 
having controlled the senses the wise should wash their sft'ttls 
sullied with the -mire of actions -begotten in various* births 
with the water of gwod desfoe (la)* 11 


THE MANES said: " Of course it is proper that one, 
having controlled his senses, should wash his soul. But, O 
child will the path in which you a^e now stationed, lead to 
liberation? (13). As ones' sin is destroyed by making gifts 
divorced from the desire of fruits so the pristine actions are 
destroyed by going through the result, good or bad (14). 
He, who thus engages in chraitable works, is not fettered (by 
actions) ; one, by thus engaging in action without desire, is 
freed from all bonds (5). Thus pristine actions are destroyed 
by day and night going through happiness and misery; the 
ways of mankind are thus identical with virtue and vice (16). 
In this way the wise wash their souls and guard them against 
bonds for which the soul is not deprived of conscience 
and accordingly is not sunk in the mire of sin (17)." 

Rucni said : ancestors, the road of action, has been 
mentioned in the Veclas as ignorance then how do you en- 
gage rne in that action ? (18). 

THE MANES said : True it is ignorance, but that igrjo- 
race is engendered by action is false; on the other hand 
without doubt action produces knowledge (19). The self* 
restraint, that is undergone by the wicked for emancipation 
without having made arrangements for the satisfaction of 
their duties, brings on, onf the contrary, a worse state (20), 
O child, you have made up your mind to wash thy soul 
but (on the contrary) you are being consumed by sins be- 
gotten by the negligence of duties (21). If administered 
by proper means ignorance conduces to the well-being of 
mankind like poison ; it never brings on bonds for them (22). 
Therefore child, marry porperly; let not your life prove 
futile by wending the way not approved of by mankind (23). 

RUCHI said: O ancestors, I am now an old man, who 
will confer a wife on me? Besides I am a poor man so it is 
very difficult for me to take a wife (24). 

THE MANES said : O child, if you do not hear us 9 we 



shall faH down and along with us you will be subjected to a 
wretched state (35). 

MARKANDEYA said ; foremost of Munis, having said 
this, the manes disappeared before the very eyes of Rucbi 
like a light put out by the wind 


JtlEARiG the words of the ancestral manes his mind 
greatly agitated and that Brlbmana saint, desirou* of having 
a bride, wandered over the earth (i). But being unable to 
secure a bride and burnt by the fire of the words of the 
manes he was stricken with great anxiety am j y s m i n< j WM 
agitated (a). (He thought) "Where shall I go? What shall 
I do? How can I secure a bride by whiph immediate pros- 
.perity may be secured unto my ancestors" (3). Thus 
thinking the high-souled one arrived at the determination : 
M By ascetic observances I shall worship the lotus-sprung 
deity Brahma" (4). Thereupon he carried on devout penance* 
.dedicated to Brahma for a hundred celestial years. Aal 
observing proper regulations he worshipped him (5). There- 
at the Great Patriarch BrahmS appeared before him and 
said, "I am pleased with thee, tell me what thou desirest" 
(6). Thereupon saluting Brahma, the lord of the universe, 
he communicated unto him what he sought for in accordance 
wlth.the words of the ancestral manes. And hearing of bis 
*Wted for object Brahma said to the Vipra Ruchi (7). "Thou 
bate be- a patriarch and create progeny. Having created 
&toss*toy ftttdJwgottea ions ,! performed alhthe ceremonies, 

. M 



at the expiration of thy ti me , attain to Siddhi 
as commanded by thy manes do thou take a tie 
H.vm| thus determined do thou worship thy 
s. They, being pleased, wil , confer ^ 
w-shed f and pffspring ; when ^J^ 

tae ancestral manes give" (10) ? 

n to propuiate the m with the following hyj. ( I2 

"" Sati -cestra, LL who 

r; ; 

propitiate wi 

them wished for regions 



of desired for objects and 

t f patriarchs ( , s 

" ^ W< " Ship P ed ' " 0e]| er , o te 

" 6 " dui by tte Brih " Mas - bs ' o 

in me(J . 



capable of conferring the fruits of the three worlds whom the 
K.shatryas worship with Swadhhs and with various Kavyas 
(21), Salutation unto those manes who are daily worshipped 

by the Vaisyas on this earth, intent upon the performance 

of the duties of their own order with flowers, incense 
food and water (22). Salutation unto those manes who are 
celebrated under the name of Sukaiin, to whom on this 

earth Sudras offer oblations on the occasion of the Sr^ddkas 
(23), Salutation unto those manes whom the Asuras, re- 
nouncing pride and haughtine**, worship in the nether region 
on the occasion of the Sraddkas and whose food is Swadh! 

(24). Salutation unto those manes whom the N&gas in 
RasStala duly worship in view of many desired for objects 
by performing Sraddhas accompanied by various objects of 
enjoyment (25). Salutation unto those maneft> whom even 
the serpents in Rasttala gratify by reciting duly Mantras and 
dedicating objects of enjoyment on the occasion of a 
Sraddha (26). 

Salutation unto those manes who reside in the region 
of the, celestials, in etherial atmosphere and on the earth and 
whom even the deities worship. May they accept what I 
dedicate unto tnem (27). Salutation unto those ancestral 
manes who are the great souls, and who, assuming- forms, 
drive the chariots, with whom the ascetics of pare souls seek 
refuge and who are the instruments of the cassation of 
mis-cries (2$U Salutation unto those ancestral manes who 
live in heaven with forms, who live on Swftdht, who ar 
capable of fulfilling all desires, who confer emancipation on 
those shorn of desire, who grant the fulfillment of the 
of those who seek them, who confer the dtgnity of gods, 
that of Iiuira, or even that nuperior to it, and who give off- 
spring, animals, wealthy strength, horn* and other things, 
they be gratified with my humility (2930). May those' 
ancestral mtnes fiad gratification in the water, food and scents 
and atttift to nourishment therefrom, and who reside in the > 


l the nao'on^ rays of the sun and white Cfs (31); May 
-those ancestral manes here be propitiated with the wialec 
and food offered by me, who are satisfied with Havi offered 
in the fir, who take their food in the guise of the Brhmanas 
and who are delighted with the offerings of pinda (32), 
May they attain to gratification here who are propitiated by 
the celestials and leading saints with the meat of rhinoceros*, 
beautiful celestial black sesame and black vegetables (33). 
I dedicate those scents, food and edibles unto them, who 
find delight in various Kavyas and who ate adored by the 
immortals; may they come nearer (34). May those ancestral 
manes find gratification >here who accept worship every day, 
at the end of every month, at Ashtaka and are wor- 
shipped at the. end of every year (35). I always bow unto 
those ancestral manes who, invested with the lustre of lillies 
and the moon, are worshipped by the Brahmanas, by the 
Kshatriyas in their hue of the rising sun, by the Vaisyas 
In the hue of pure gold and by the Sudras in that of dark- 
felae. May they find gratification from the incense, food, 
Water etc., which \ dedicate as well as from the Homo, cere- 
ftlony (36 37). I bow unto them who feed, '^Hth ' great 
satisfaction, on Kavyas that are offered to the deities in the 
holy fire, and delighted thereat who bestow various prosperity; 
may they be propiated here (38). I bow unto them who 
i&2ttirpate the Rakshasas, ther fierce Asuras and the ghosts 
and destroy the inauspiciousnfess of creatures, who are the 
.precursors of the celestials,, and who are worshipped by 
the leading immortals. May they find gratification here (39). 
I offer oblations to the ancestral manes called Agnishvatwa, 
Vahirshada, Ajyapa and Somapa ; m,ay they find gratification 
in this sraddha (40). May the ancestral manes called Agnish- 
T&twa protect my western side and may the ancestral manes 
called Vahirshada protect my south (41). May the manes 
called Ajyapa protect the east and the ancestral manes 
called Somapa the north. May their king Yama protect me 


against the Rk$hasas, ghosts, Piflchas and Asuras. 
Vishwablmk, Aradhya, Dharma, Dhanya, Shuhhnana, Bhu* 
tida, Bhutikrit and Bhutt these are the nine classes of the 

ancestral manes (4243). Again Kalylna, Kllyata, KarB, 
Kalya, Kalyatarashraya, Kalyat&petu and Av&dha these 
are the six classes (44) Vara, Varenya* Varada, Pushtida, 

Tushtida, Vishwaplti and Dhita these are the seven classes 
.(45)* Mahtn, MlhttmS, Mahita, Mahim&v&n, Mah&vala* these 
; five constitute the class that destroys sins (46). Sukhada, 
Dhanada, Dharmada^ Bhutida^ these are the the four classes 

.of the ancestral manes mentioned (47), These are the thirty- 

,one classes of the ancestral wanes who reside all over, the 
entire- universe* May they obtain satisfaction and nourish- 
ment at my sr&ddh& and always encompass my 


AEKANDEYA said; While he watt IhtiM chanting the 
glories (of the manes) a bundle of effulgence cawe within his 
perception and was spread all over the sky (i)* Beholding 
that great stationary effulgence enveloping the universe* 
Ruchi, kneeling down, chanted the following hymn (2)* 

RUCHI said : I bow always unto the who are 

worshipped of all, who have no forms, ..who have burning 
^iulgence, who are always engaged in meditation and who 

celestial vision (3), I salute them, wh0 are the 
qrtftdraftnd others, as well as of Daksha, Marichi and the 
*ven Riehif and who besiaw all for (4), I 


Always bow unto those manes who are the leaders of Maiiu 
land other principal saints as well as those of the Sun, moon, 
*and the ocean (5). I salute them with folded palms who 
guide the stars, planets, the air, the fire, sky, heaven and 
earth (6). I always salute them with folded hands who are 
, the progenitors of the celestial saints, who are saluted by 
all the world, who always bestow everlasting fruits (7). 
I bow unto ,Prajpati, Kashyapa, Soma, Varuna, and the 
other Yogins (8). Salutation uno the seven Ganas who live 
in the seven regions ; I bow unto the Self-sprung Brahma, 
who has yoga for his eyes (9). I bow unto the manes of 
whom Soma is the stay and who have yoga for their forms 
and unto Soma (himself) who is the father of the world (10). 
I bow unto those other ancestral manes who have the fire for 
their forms and from whom this endless universe, full of 
Agnishtoma, has emanated (it). With a controlled mind 
I bow again and again unto all those ancestral manes, efful- 
gence is whose support, fire and the sun are whose forms, 
the universe and Brahman are whose real nature and who 
always carry ,on yoga. May they, who feed on Swadhl, be 
propitiated with me (1213). 

MARKANDEYA said :O foremost of Munis, having been 
thus eulogised the manes, lighting the ten quarters with their 
effulgence, came out (14). He, beheld them before him, 
adorned with flowers, perfumeries and pastes, that he had 
dedicated unto them (15). Then again bending low with 
reverence he .again honored them severally exclaiming ".I 
bow unto you ! I bow unto you! 1 * (16). Thereupon the 
ancestral manes, delighted, said to that foremost of ascetics : 
' Pray for a boon." He too hanging his head said (rj) : 
" lord, I have been commanded by Brahma to engender 
progeny; therefore I wish to take a wife who m$y be pf a 
heavenly and glorious life and may give birth to children (18). 

THE ANCESTRAL MANES said :_Immediately at this very 
moment there shall spring up a charming wife for thee, tfrou 



'Shalt beget on her a son, who shall be a Manu (19). O RucM, 

that intelligent lord of a AtAnw^miam shall be designated 
-fey thy name and he will acquire reputation all over the three 

worlds under the appellation of Roochya (so). He will be 
the father of many highly powerful and high-souled sons 
"who will be all the protectors of the world (21). Thou, too, 
conversant with virtu* as thou art, and a patriarch .having 

'created four classes of progeny, ihatt, on the expiration 
*of thy regime, attain to Siddhi (22)* We will be pleased 
with that man who wilt reverentially chant our glories with 
this hymn and shall confer upon him various objects of en- 
joyments, the most excellent knowledge of self, good health, 
'children and grand children. Therefore those, who will seek 
these, must eulogise us with the hymn first instituted by 
thee (2224). Whoever, that shall on the occasion of a 
'Sriddha, chant this hymn, so pleasing to us, with reverence 
before the leading BrUhmanas while taking their meals, when 
we, delighted with hearing* this hymn, shall approach there, 
fchall have Sriddha done without any obstacle. There is no 
doubt in this (25 26). If that Srlddha be without any 
Shrotrya, if it be sullied in any way, either with the spend- 
ing of ill-gotten wealth or otherwise, when carried on by 
unfair means, or at a bad time, bad place or In an irregular 
process or if that Srlddha be instituted with haughtiness 
or irreverence still if this" hymn be sung that shall conduce 
to 'our gratification' (2 729}*' If- this hyton, conducing to 
bur satisfaction, be chanted at a Sr&ddhm we shall obtain 
f ratification extending over twelve yetrs (30)* If it is- chants 
ed, in Hemantl (season df dews) it shall give is* gratifica- 
tion for twelve years, if in winter this excellent hymn shall 
give us satisfaction for twice the period -(31). If it is 
thanted on the occasion of a Srlddha in spring ft shall 
five a* gratification for sixteen years and whet* performed in 
Muftmer it 'shall also afford m gratification for tixteen years 
Ruchi, if a * Srtddha be performed ' imperfectly 

Sraddha during autucnn i t confer* . upon us 

fifteen years (34). I(i , house whe 
kept wntten if a Sraddha is pe r f orme d it .at once 
us near (35) . Therefore whei f h l s ^ 

zn taking their m eal S at a Sraddha, you "d O 


^H "L K 6 r St beaUtifU ' da ^ hter of m i ne , be g , tt 
n.e by the hlg h.souled Pushkara, the son of VarJi.a 
will g,re birth to thy son, the bi gl% intelligent Man u 3 

hr f J 1Bg f VCn hiS C nSent She t0 k U f f 'he w. 
her daughter of a f air body by name . Thereu 

hanng brought together all the leading ^asceti that , 

<**<**. Ruchi espoused ^er duty on the banks ^ ~ 



(6). He begot on her a highly energetic and intelligent son 
who was celebrated on earth as Rouchya after the name of 
his father (7). I have already related to you in detail the 
gods, Rishis, the king and his sons of that Afanw&nt&ra (8)* 
Forsooth, a man, hearing of this Manw&ntara } secures a& 
acquisition of wealth, freedom from diseases, prosperity, 
corns and offspring (g)* great Muni f hearing of the above 
mentioned hymn of the manes, and of their number, one, by 
their grace, .has all his desires accomplished (ic). 


ARKANDEYA said : Hear now of origin of Bhoutya, 
of , the gods, Rishis, his sons and the kings (i). Angiras had 
a highly wrathful disciple by name Bhutt. For a trifle he 
used to imprecate a dreadful curse and he knew what 

a $weet word was (2). In his hermitage the wind could not 
blow high, the sun could not pour and the clouds* 

could not discharge rain in such a. way as to mutch, 

mud (3)* Even the moon, when full, to pour not 

very cold rays. Afraid of that and wrathful (Rishi) 

the seasons, renouncing their natural order, to eover, 

at hw command, all the of his hermitage, with the -fruit*, 
and flowers of all seasons (45), Afraid of the powers gi 
that high-souled one the waters, his hermitage, used,* 

:o enter into his kamandaln at his (6), O.Vipra, 

highly wrathful and could not bear the. least inconveni-- 
That great roan had tissue and therefore i&ade, up 
to carry on,deircmt penances (7). He -..thought* 

ftfARfovrtoEYA PURANAM. ' 

rn and 

U ' "* P P'r, i. 


and (ruits for th. 

doing what shall I reap good? 



myself as Jo I for the iniquity committed towards the pre- 
ceptor (22). Forsooth, beholding the fire extinguished the 
preceptor will imprecate a curse on me or even the fire 
worked up with anger for that twice-born one is equally 
powerfnl (23). He, terrified by whose prowess even the 
celestials carry on his behest for what reason will he not 
curse me who have committed a sin (24) ? 

MARKANDKYA said : thus in many way, he, the 
foremost of the intelligent and always afraid of his preceptor, 
sought refuge with the fire (25). Then cmnlrolling his mind 
and kneeling down he, with vrho!c.nuit<l<'dncs and folded 
hands, began to recite the following hymn (26). 

SANTl said : Om I Salutation unto the high-souled (Agin) 
who is the stay of all creatures, who resides! at the Rajshyua 
sacrifice in sixfold forms (27). Salutation unto tire who gives 
maintenance to all the deities, who i* highly efTulgent, who is 
in the. form of SUukra and who is the supporter of the eivdless 
world (28). Thou art the mouth of all the gods, through thee 
the Lord taketVi sacrificial offerings ad pleasfth the entire 
host of the celestials ; thou art the life of all the gods (29), 
The Havi, that is offered unto thee, becomes highly pure and b 
then converted into air (30). By it are created all the plants, 
O thou thtt charioteer of the wind, all the creatures live hap- 
pily on alt these endless plants (jr). With the plants creat- 
ed by thee men perform sacrifices. And by these sacrifice* 
O lire, the gods, Daityaa and Rakshasas are pleased. 
fire, thou art the supporter of all these sacrifices. O fire, thov* 
art the source of all and identical with all (2333)' The gods 
Danavas, Yakshas, men, beaatg, trees, wild animals, birds,, 
reptiles are all-satisfied and nourished' by thee, O fire. They 
all originate from thee and meet with dissolution in thee 
{3435). O God, thou dost create the water and thou dost 
drink it up ; and all the (plants) when rotten by thee conduce 
tojthejoowishmenl of creatures (36). Thou dost reside a 
effulgent in the midst of the gods/as physical grace in the 



midst of the Siddhas, as poison with the serpents and. as air 
in the midst of the birds (27). Thou art anger amongst men, 
stupidity in the beasts and birds. Thou art the stay in trees 
and hardness in the earth (38). lord, thou art the liquid 
element in water, the velocity in the air, the space in the sky 
and as the soul every where (39). Thou dost travel in the 
hearts of all creatures and protect them. fire, the poets 
sometimes describe thee as one and again as three (40). And 
again designating thee as eight the Prime Purusha undertook 
the sacrifice. The great Rishis say that this universe has 
been created by thee (41). fire, without thee, this whole 
universe at once \ meets with dissolution. By adoring thee 
with Havya and Kavya and with the recitation of Swaha and 
Swadha a twice-born one attains to a position ascertained by 
his own actions. Thou art also worshiped by the immortals. 
Having emanated from thee, the scintillations, the end, soul 
and energy of creatures, burn down the entire elemental crea- 
tion. Thou art Jataveda, thou art highly effulgent. thou hast 
created this universe (4244). Thou art the author of Vedic 
rites and the universe, identical with all the elements. Salu- 
tation unto thee, O Anala, O Pingiksha, Hutasana (45). 
Salutation unto thee, O PHvaka, who art the beginning of all ; 
Salutation unto thee, O Havyav&hana (the carrier of sacri- 
ficial offerings). Thou dost cook what is eaten or drunk ; 
thou dost purify the entire universe (46). Thou dost make 
the corns ripe thou art the nourisher of the universe -the 
cloud, the air,the seed of the corns (47), Thou dost nourish 
all creatures and thou art the past, present and future ; 
thou art the light in all the elements and art Aditya and 
Vibhavasu (41) Thou art the day and the night and two 
Sandhy&s. O Vanhi, thou art Hiranyaretas and thou art the 
cause of the origin of Hiranya (49). Thou art Hiranya- 
garbha thou art bright like gold art the moment and 
Khana (lesser division of the time); thou art Truti and Lava 
(50). lord of the universe, thou dost exist in the shape of 



Kata, Kashtha, Nimesha and other divisions of time. Thou 
art the entire universe and KSla identical with the dissolution 
of all (51), lord, do thou protect us from all fear, sin and 
the great dread of this world as well as of the next with thy 
tongue called K&H which is the support of RUla (52). Do 
thou save us from all sins and the great terror of this world 
with thy tongue called Karlla which is the Instrument of the 
great dissolution (53). Do thou save us from, all sins and the 
great dread of this life with thy that tongue which is 
called Manojava gifted with the quality of LaghimS (54). 
Do thou save us from all sorts of sins and the great fear of 
this life with thy that tongue which is called Sulohita and 
grants the desires of all creatures (55). Do thou save us from 
all sorts of sins and the great fear of this world with thy 
that tonge which is called Dhrucnravarna and which is the 
cause of the diseases of all creatures (56). Do thou save us 
from all sins and the great fear of this world with that thy 
tongue which is called Sphulaga and is the root of the well- 
being, of all (57). Do thou save us from all and 'the great 
fear of this life with thy that tongue which Is called Vishwa and 
which gives peace to all creatures '(58)* Thou art Pingiksha 
(yellow-eyed) Lohitagriva (dark~nhcked) of black hue and 
Hutlshana- Do thou save me from all and the gre&t 

danger of this world (59). 0' Vahni, Saptarchi, O Krishanu, 
Havyavlhan, be thou pleased. I recite thy eight names 
as Agni, PSvaka, Sukra etc (60) Be thou propitiated, 
Agni, the first born of all the elements, Vibhlvasu, 
Habyavaha, eternal and thou identical with hymns (68)* 
Thou art eternal, incomprehensible Vahni, prosperous, greatly 
fierce and hard to bear. Thou art undecaymg, dreadful 
and dost destroy all the worlds, Thou art highly powerful 
and hast a form (62)* Thou art most excellent, the heart of 
'ail energies, art endless and worshipped of all From 
tfyee has emanated this universe, mobile and immobile* 
Hutt$hatia> thou art one and many (63), Thou art' un decay* 



Ing, art this earth with mountains and forests, art the sky 
with 'the sun and the moon, art the time with the day and 
night and art the forest-fire lying in the womb of the great 
ocean. By thy great lustre thou dost reside in the rays (64). 
The great saints, observant of regulations, always worship 
thee as Hutasana in the great sacrifice. Invited at the 
sacrifice thou dost drink the soma Juice and Havi after recit- 
irig Vasatkara for the posterity (of the creatures) (65). For 
reaping fruits the BrSLhrnanas always worship thee on this 
earth. Thou art being chanted in all the Vedas and their 
branches. With a view to worship thee all the leading 
twice-born ones always master the Vedas (66). Thou art 
BrabmJi ever intent on performing sacrifices; thou art Vishnu, 
Siva, Indra, ArjamS, and Varuna. Being pleased with Havyas 
the sun, the moon, the celestials and Asursts all obtain their 
desired for fruits (67). Objects, however impure they may 
be, are at once purified by the touch of thy rays. Even 
when bathed with thy ashes one attains to highest purifica- 
tion. For this the Munis adore thee in th$ evening (68)* 
Be thou, who art Vahni Sachi, propitiated. Thou art Pavaka 
Vaidyuta and Prime be propitiated and save me, O thou the 
eater of Havya (69). Like unto a father protecting his 
own begotten son, do thou, O Vahni, protect us with thy 
all auspicious form and seven tongues. I do chant thy 
glories (70). 


LARKANDEYA said: He having thus chanted his 
glories, Muni, the divine Havyavahana, enveloped with 



his rays, appeared before him (i). twice-born one, the 
the lord Vibhavasu was delighted with the above hymn and 
said to Santi, who was bowing, in words deep as the mutter- 
ing of clouds (2). " VIpra, I have been delighted with the 
hymn that thou hast reverentially sung; I shall therefore 
confer upon thee a boon ; pray for what thou likest (5)," 

SANH said: lord, blessed am I, since, t have beheld 
thee in thy form* Still hear what I communicate unto thee 
bending low with humility (4). O god, my preceptor, leaving 
his own hermitage, has gone to be present at his brother's 
sacrifice. May he, on his return to the hermitage, behold thee 
stationed as before (5). Vibh&vasu, may that twice-born 
one behold thee as before, stationed here which thou didst 
leave before for my folly (6). If thou dost show me another 
favour, lord, then let there be an excellent son born unto 
my preceptor who has no issue (7). And may my preceptor 
grow equally mild towards all other creatures as he will be 
towards his own son (8). eternal, as thou hast been 
pleased with me, thou conferrer of boons, for my chanting 
thy glories, may he likewise be propitiated with me (9)* 

MARKANDEYA said : Hearing his words and being again 
adored with hymns on account of the devotion unto precep- 
tor P&vaka (Fire) said to that foremost of the twice-born (io) 

AGNI said ; O Br&hmana, thou hast prayed for two boons 
for thy preceptor and not for thy own self. For this I have been 
greatly delighted with thee, great Muni (u). Therefore 
what thou hast prayed for thy preceptor shall all be fulfilled. 
He will be friendly towards all creatures and will have a 
son (12). He will be the lord of a and be 

known by the name of Bhoutya ; and your preceptor too 
will be highly powerful, highly energetic and wise (13). 
Whoever, that, being self-controlled, shall chant my glories 
with his hymn, shall have all his desires fulfilled and piety 
(14), This most excellent hymn, conducing to my nourish* 
( meat, when chanted at the % sacrifices at Paryas, at sacred 

and I Hornas, will , ea d to the acquisition of virtue (r 5 ), 

so 1,'L rr ing to this most exceiient h ? m *<* * 

so dehghful to me, will have for sooth his sins committed 
day and ugbt, dissipated 6). The defects., that originate 
from the performance of a Homa at an improper season and 

lL ' mPr ? Per PefS n ' are iratned ^ely removed by merely 
tea-ng M thls (1?) Th . sj when j^^^ ^ y y 

.at Purn^a, A maVaSy a or any other Parva, Lds to the 
destruction of all sins (18). 

MARKANDEYA said :_Having said this the divine Agni, O 
Mum, disappeared immediately in his own presecnce, like 
unto a hght put out by the wind ( I9 ). After Vahni ha* 
departed Shant., wtth a delighted heart and his hairs standing 
erect ,n joy entered the hermitage of his preceptor ( 2O ) 
He saw here fire ablate as before at the very place where 
it bad been kept by hi. preceptor. Thereat he attained to 
an excess of delight (). In the interva , fte ^ 

turned to his own hermitage from the sacrifice of his high- 
wW elder brother ( 22 ). His disciple at first touched Tfc 

L u , acce P tin g seat and adoration the preceptor 

aid I to him (23). " O child, I find in me a growing l ove to, 
wards thee as well as other' creatures; I do not understand 
what^s tins. Tell me speedily if you know anything of 

Thereupon, O great Muni, that Brahmana Sand related 
truly everything unto his preceptor beginning with the des 
traction of the fire (25). Hearing' this, O great Muni, a&d 
embracing him, the preceptor, having his eyes bathed with 
tears of love, delivered unto his disciple all the Vedas with 
their divisions and sub-divisions (26) Then there was born 
to Bhuti a son by name Bhoutya who became a Manp. Hear 
from me of the gods, rishis and kings of his Manwantara 
(27). I shall describe at length who will be all such in th c 
Manwantara of this would-be Manu, as well as who will be 
king of gods of illustrious actions (28), Chakshusha, 



Kanishtha, Pavitra, (BhrSjira and Dtilrlvtka these will be 

the five classes ol gods (29), Suchi will be the lord of all 
these gods highly powerful, highly energetic and endowed 
with all the accomplishments of a king of gods (30). Agttidhra 
Agnivlhu, Shuchi, Mukti, Midhava, Shatru and Ajita~ 
these will be the seven Rishis (31). Guru, Gabhlra, Vradhna, 
BharatS, Anugraha, Strikhlni, Pratira, Vishnu, Sankrandana, 
Tejaswi and Suvala will be the of Mann Bhoutya, I 
have thus described to you the fourteenth Manwantar& 


foremost of Munis, hearing of Afanwantaras in 

order a man acquires virtue and endless offspring (34). 
Hearing of the first Afmuoaniam a man acquires virtue and 
hearing of that of Swarochlsha he acquires the fulfillment of 
all his desires (35). In Auttoma one acquires wealth, in 
Ttmasa knowledge, in Raivata the faculty of understanding 
Srutls and a beautiful wife (36), In Ch&ksfaoaha people 
acquire freedom from diseases and In Vaivaswata strength, 
and in Surya Savarniki accomplished sons and grand sons 
(37). In Brahm S&varnt one acquires glory and in Dharma 
Sivarni auspiciousness* In Rudra Sivarnlki a man acquires 
intellect and victory (38), In Daksha S&varniki one be- 
the foremost amongst his kinsmen and is endowed 
with accomplishments. foremost of men, hearing of 
Rowchya, one has all his enemies destroyed (39)* Hearing 
of Bhoutya Manwantam one acquires the grace of gods, 
Agnihotra and accomplished sont (40). O foremost of Munis, 
hear what an excellent fruit does a man reap when in order he 
hears of all the Manwmir$ (41), Vipr^ hearing of the 
gods, Risht$ f Indras, Manus and their sons of the respective 
; periods one is released from all the sins (42), Indras, g^d$ f 
Rishis, kings and Manus of the various periods become 
greatly delighted and bestow excellent inclination -(43). 
Tbtrtvpon acquiring good inclination and performing good 
actions we attains to a better slation as long as the fourteen 


Imdras exist (44). If one hears in order of all the Manwan- 
taras all the seasons do him good and all the planets, without 
doubt, become propitious towards him (45). 



k ROUSHTl said : Reverend sir, you have described in 
detail and order all the Manwantaras and I have heard of 
them all (i). foremost of the twice-born, I wish to hear 
of the progeny of all the kings beginning with Brahma. Dd 
thou describe them in full (2). 

MARKANDEYA said : O child, hear of the origin and life 
of all those kings beginning with Prajapati who is the origict 
of the universe (3). This family was adorned with hundreds 
of pious kings who had performed many sacrifices and been 
victorious in war (4). He, who listens to the origin and 
story of all these high-souled kings, is released from all 
sins (5). Hearing of the family in which were born such 
heroic kings as Manu, Ikshawku, Anaraya, Bhagiratha 
who were intent on performing sacrifices and conversant 
with the knowledge of Brahman and who all ruled over this 
earth a man is freed from all sins (6 7). Hear of this family 
from which descended thousands of the families of kings 
like the branches of a fig-tree (8). O foremost of the twice- 
born, in the days of yore, the patriarch BrahmS, with a view 
t create various creatures, procreated from his right thumb 
the patriarch Daksha and from his left thumb his wife. In 
this wise, the father of the universe the divine lord Brahma 
created the great cause of the world (910), The beautiful 




Aditi was" born as the daughter of Daksha. Kashyapa begat 
on her the divine sun (n). He is identical with Brahman 
the conferrer of boons in this endless uitiverse, the begin- 
ning, the middle and the end and the ordainer of the creation, 
preservation and destruction (12)* Q twice*born one, from 
him has emanated this entire universe and in him It is sta- 
tioned ; he is the entire universe with the celestial?, Asuras 
and mankind (13). He is identical with all the elements with 
the soul and is the great sou! and in eternal. Aditi had prayed 
for it before and therefore the Divine sun was born in her 
womb (14). 

KROUSTHl said : Reverend Sir, I wish to hear of the 
true form of the sun and why was he born as the own 
begotten son of the prime ckity Knshyapa (15)* fore- 
most of Munis, I wish to hear hi detail, at narrated hy you 
in detail, how he was worshipped by the goddens Aditi and 
Kashyapa and what did the sun say on being adored by 
them as well as of his prowess when incarnated (16- 17.) 

MARKANDKYA said ; Vishtapa, the learning, Jyotis* 

bha, Shwashwati, Shphuta, Kaivalyi, knowledge, Avibhu, ( 
PrSkamya, Samrit, Bodha, Avagati, Smritt, discriminative 
knowledge, these were the forms of the sun who is the form 
of the universe (1819.) Hear, O great one, in . detail m 
narrated hy me of the incarnation cif the gun of which you 
have asked (20). When this universe was shorn of lustre 
and light and was enveloped in darkness a huge egg 
which is the great cause came into being (21)* living 
inside it the Divine Grand Father Brahmi rent it as*. 
sunder j that lotuB-nprung detty is the creator and the lord 
of the universe (22)* great Muni, from his mouth came 
out the great sound Om; then originated therefrom Bhu t 
BhwMis and Swara (23). These three words are the true form, 
01 the sun ; and from Om has come out the form 

of tie tun (24). From Om haim proceeded in due order 
the seven forms, gross and groiser, such, at Mahms, 


Tapas, Satyaetc., (25). These forms appear and disappear 
simultaneously for undoubtedly the presence and absence of 
all these are brought about by this (26). Vipra, the great 
subtle form Om } which I have described to you, is the begin- 
ning and end of all. That great form has no (material form) 
that is the real great Brahman and his body (27). 



LARKANDEYA said : O Muni, when that egg was rent 
asunder, the Rtks first originated from the mouth of the 
tinhorn Brahma (i). They were of the hue of Java flowers 
and were endowed with energy and form. They were in- 
vested with darkness and were separate form each other (2)* 
From his that mouth that was towards the south Came ..oat 
without any obstruction Yayus they were of the hue of 
gold and unconnected with each other (3). Then from the 
western mouth of Parameshth Brahma came out the Samans 
accompanied by their respective metres (4). Then from the 
northern mouth of the creator came out the endless Athar- 
wans that were dark like the black-bees and collyrium. They 
were divided into Abhicharika and Shantikas^ permeated 
by joy, goodness and ignorance and were of the forms both 
gentle and otherwise (5 6). Muni, Riks were permeated 
by the quality of darkness, the Samanas by that of igno- 
rance and Atharvanas by both goodness and ignorance (7). 
They, all burning in unparalleled effulgence, continued to 
exist separately as before (8). Then the effulgence, which 
emanated from the hature of the prime effulgence that is 



designated as Om t covering It wholly, existed (9), great 
Muni, the effulgence of Yayush^ being united with that of 

Saman, began to exist in the great effulgence (10). Thus 
Brahman, Sh&ntika, Peshthika and Abhichftrika these three 
ended in Rik, Yayush and Saman (n). By it as soon as 

the darkness was dispelled the whole universe became clear 
and accordingly the down, up and oblique were dis- 

tinctly perceived (12). Then the best effulgence, of the 

metres forming a circle, was united with the great effulgence, 
O Brahman (13)* Because It emanated from Aditya it was 
called so. great one, that undecaying energy Is the cause 
of this universe (14). Rik t Y-Mynsh these three 

shed effulgence In the morning, noon afternoon (15). 
Riks give It In the morning, Y&yusk in the noon and Saman 
jin the afternoon, O foremost of Munis (16). Santika enters 
Into Rik in the morning, Ponnchika Into Yayusk In the noon 
and Abhicharika Into Saman in the afternoon (17). The 
ceremonies for the manes should be performed in the nooa 
and morning by the Abhicharika and in the afternoon by 
Saman (18). At the time of creation Brahmft is Identical 
with JRftj at the time of preservation Vinhnu is identical 
'with Yayusk and at the time of dissolution Kudra is identical 
with Saman, and therefore he (Rudra) is impure 

tor a sacrifice (19). Therefore the Divine sun is Identical 
with the Veda$ t is the stay of the Vedas and is mentioned 
as the Great Purusba having the knowledge of the Vedai 
(10). Therefore -he Is the cause of tht creation, preservation 
and destruction and under the appellation of Brahml, 

Vishnu and others by resorting to the qualities of darkneti, 
goodness! etc*, (21), He has the Vedas, Us his form, the 
entire host of mortals for his forms and is without it He 
i the Prime and the support of the universe. He Is light 
i4 comprehended by Vedanta and Is the of the 

and the always chant hi$ glories 


LARKANDEYA said : When the sky and the earth were 
heated by the rays of the sun the lotus sprung grandfather, 
with a desire to create progeny, began to think (-1). "As soon 
as I will create it everything will be destroyed by the heat of 
the divine sun, the cause of the creation, preservation and 
destruction (2). All the creatures will be deprived of their 
lives, the water will be dried up by his heat and without water 
it will be impossible to carry on the creation of the universe 
(3)." Thinking thus the Divine Brahma, the grandfather of 
the world, with his mind fixed on him, began to chant the 
glories of the Divine Sun (4). 

BRAHMA said : Salutation unto him who is identical 
with this whole universe, who is identical with all who has 
the universe for his form, who is the great light which is 
meditated on by the Yogins ; (5). who is identical with 
Rik> who is the root of Yayush> who is the origin of Saman> 
who is of inconceivable energy, who, for his grossness, is iden- 
tical with three, the half mdtra is whose great form and who 
is beyond all qualities (6) ; who is the cause of all, who is 
worthy of being eulogised greatly and being known, who is 
the great light Avanhi in the beginning, who is gross being 
Identical with the gross I bow unto that greatest of the great, 
the Sun, the first of all (7), Urged on by this prime energy 
I create water, earth, air, fire, gods and various other 
endless objects beginning with Om ; and in due order pre- 
serve and destroy them. I can qever do so of my owa ac- 
cord (8), Thou art fire. By thy prowess I dry up the water 
and create the world and perform the first cooking process of 
the world, Thou art, lord, manifest over the universe and 


identical with Thou Art this titii- 

verse in fivefold (?) By 

conversant with ; art Vit aiwin**-* 

thou art Viihnu thot*art the lord til ail und the 0| 

the great of anil ||^ 

mind and oul, even the on (10). 

tation unto who AH in the uf art the 

Brahman and by (ti). 

lord, I am fa creation of 

ha$ in my way do thow it < u?, 

naid : Havinn tirm in t 

most mannrr t>y BMhttift, the ( t r.uur ui thr 

the Divine Sun withdrew liii own and 

little (13)- Then the great 

.Muni, as in the K;it|M flu? 

men, attd ur and tttttt 


.ARKANDEYA aaifl : Having ttfii 

Brahml, at blorr f ttttt of 

Aarama, and (t), 

Dotty tor ihn and 

form of the f i)* Th* that wtt 

bora to Brahm&t t% fion wti 

soft wtti ($i, Hie ol 

was bit wife* ifa had the 

Daityat and {4}* to the ti* i! 



lords of the three worlds and Diti to fierce DSnavas of dread- 
ful prowess (5). Virata gave birth to Garuda and Aruna to 
Yakshas, Rakshasas and various other birds. Kadru gave birth 
to Nagas and Muni to Gandharvas (6). Krodba gave birth to 
the river and Rishtha to Apsaras. twice-born one, Ira 
gave birth to Airavata and other elephants (7). O twice- 
born one, Tatnra gave birth to girls Sweni and others, 
who (in turn) gave birth to birds such as Swany, Bhasa 
and Suka (8). Of Ila were born the trees and of 
Pradha the birds. By the offspring of Kashyapa who was born 
of Aditi, by his sons and daughters, grandsons and by their 
sons and daughters, O Muni, this world was covered (910). 
Amongst the sons of Kashyapa, the gods were the foremost ; 
they were divided into three classes namely those pessessed 
of the quality of goodness, those of darkness and those of 
ignorance (u.) The great Patriarch Parameshithi Brahma, 
the foremost of those conversant with Brahman, made the 
gods the partakers of sacrificial offerings and the lords of the 
three worHs (12). Their step-brothers, the Daityas and 
DSnavas being united together, began to throw obstacles 
in their way. The REkshasas too joined them. Accordingly 
there was waged a highly dreadful war (13). After a thousand 
celestial years the gods were defeated and being victorious 
the Daityas and Danavas grew powerful (14). Thereupon 
having beheld her own sons, the gods defeated and ousted 
from the sovereignty of the three worlds and deprived of 
the sacrificial offerings by the Daityas and Danavas AditiV 
foremost of Munis, was overwhelmed with grief. She then 

set forth mighty exertion for worshipping Savitri (15 16)., 

Then abstaining from food and observing regulation she, with 
whole mindedness, began to please the Sun, the collection of 
light stationed in the sky (17). 

ADITI said}; -Salutation unto thee who hast assumed a: 
subtle golden form. Thou art energy, the lord of the ener-, 
and the eternal support of energy (18) Thou art the 

assume at the time of it for the bfnrftt of the 

(19)* 1 bow unto thine that dost 

sume for taking in the of the 

Bhlshman, I bow unto thine that 

form which them clout at the of that 

water (29)* I do unto form 

which thou for 

wp from the by 1 d0 botr 

unto thine that of thai them 

for nourishing the at that tinu? I bow and 

again, G0d t Ravi, nt 41 that ttiy form. It 

neither very nor cold Hi 

spring (24), 1 thim* that is 

unto the and the and ii tie 

instrument of the of fas). I bow % 

that form which life to the which ii 

with Sofina and which Is the* of which is drank 

by the gods and that 

form dientical with Gana, () Arka, wbirh, 

twofold forms of hat 

(27. unto that hai 

created by /Wfc t an 4 is tUi 

universe and which is Trayi that 

form which is to ii ()m, wlicl 

is subtle, which has no is anil it not 

sullied by any (19), 

Muni! thuft in! 

that for the son* 

to this day and fjtij, of 

the twice-born, thus * the 8*t 

within the view of the 0! in the sky (31)* 

Sit saw a of over the 

earth and sky, and to took at for united'' 

with rtf (31), this the 

... . 

possessed by 
r Cannot see 

''free in the sky , hard to 
the same ' 


. L 

I wish to see thee. Thou dost h 
votaries, Olord I a 

f d ' ** first 
heat and '** at ' 

^ *' 

* P r P itiaed ' 

a towards 

the whole universe end 
Save thee 

protect ^ 
time of d -lutio 


and Var una , the king of Wa t 6r I ' .' 
fire, the s ky , the .ountain and hi OC e an ^ m0 n ' 
soul and the form of ill H T Thou art the 

art the lord of sacrifi c ' Can 

born every d a rr and 
Drolling tlL d s a 

f4 totl , g on thee ;:l I'l 'WH Yoga, the 7 , 
e X celle 8 tati ons (38) . Thou dost h! f 

^ eat ' f 'P e ' 

. Thou 

aCti ns the 

Wa te, The gods 
ene mies never obtain thee (39). 


bending low her head as soon as he cwne in view, the sum 
said to her : "Pmy for thy desired for boon whatever thorn 
se^kest from me (a)/ 1 Kneeliog down on earth and bending 
low her he^d Aditi said to the Sun, the copferror of boons 
who was before her (3), "O god, be pleated, the Daityas and 
Danava$ growing powerful have deprived my sons of the 
three worlds and sacrificial offerings (4)* O lord of rays, 
therefore cpnf^r wpon me this favour, that descending as their 
brother in a portion of thy rays do tbou destroy their enemies 
(5), Ravi, being pleased with me do thorn them this 

mercy, lord* that my sons m*y ag*in partake of the 9&crifi* 
cial offerings and be lords of the three worlds Thou dotfc 
remove the misery of the afflicted find thou art spoken of M 
the lord of creation (6 7).*' 

Thereupon, Viprfc, the Divine Bhiskatm the pilierw of 
befog prepmrod to show bi| favour to Adit* wfc0 . 
prostrated hewelf ($), l Aditi, being born in thy womb 
in my endless thousand rays I shall speedily make an end 
of the enemies of thy sons (9)." Having said this the Divine 
BhSskara disappeared. She too, having secured all her 
wishes, desisted from carrying on her penances (10) There- 
upon 9 of the thousand rays of the Sun the one called Sou*ha 
t&ttft took the incarnation of Viprain the womb of the mother 
0f the gods (n). She too, being attentive, performed the 
vow of KrishnachlndrSyana etc and being purified held the 
conception, twice-born one (12)* Thereupon Kashytpa 
addressed to her angry words ; fl Fastmg every day 
will you kill this embryo (13)?" She too to him : 

M thou wrathful I have not killed the embryo that 

then dost see he ii for the of the enemien" 

(14). Saying this, she f wroth it the words of her husband, 
it once discharged the conception which to 

if (15). that embryo t the 

$uHf ioW| 10 hymn 

iti with lit reoiUttion of the prime (16). Being 




thus eulogised by him the Divine BhSshkara, assuming 
I0tus-hued body, catne out of the egg and 
the quarters with his effulgence (17). Then were heard 
divine words deep as the muttering of the clouds sur- 
charged with water from the sky, addressing Kasfiyafi^ the 
fdtfaosttf Ifvai* (18). "0 Muni, since thott didst -tek me 
to Mil (Mteita) this egg, sd ray sdrf will be called Mstttatida. 
His sow wilt perform, cfft earth, the fuftdiorisi of fhe suit afitf 
deMtoy the Asura* wfio are pifferririg the sacrifidd offfer- 
ings 1 ' (1920). Perceiving that the words came bii of 
the 3ky the gods attained to gre&t Might atid the DlnaVas 
were dispirited (21). Thereupon whetr the perfotrtter of 4 
hundred sacrifices invited them to battle the Dinavas delight- 
edly confronted the gods (22). Then there arose a great <*rt- 
countet between the gods and Dinavas (to which) all the 
corners of the world were illumined witfir thef lustre of the 
armi of both the parties (23), In that enddtuter cd! the 
Ittdfog Astira^, as soott as they were Ibokecl upon by the 
Dttftte Mfrtatidt, wete Burttt down fo ashis (2f^). Ther^t 
aH the ittrifted to great defigftt tod btg&n* to fif mtf 

both AditI Jittd Mirtatttfa^ feorcr of effufgetwre (^5). 
they Md beeti ttadffed as before id tfteir 
entitled to sacrificial offerings the Divine MSrtanda begatt 
tci spread his own domfition (26). Then di^pfayitrgf his fustre 
Hie that of Kadamva flowers tvt bfcganf t pour his rays both 
lit the sky and on the earth. He bedatne lilce a burfng 
of fift and asuumcsd a body of greaif dltt%ericcf (27). 


IVlARKANDEYA said: Thereupon propitiating and 
saluting him the Patriarch Viswakarma conferred on Vivaswan 
his daughter Sajna (i). Vivaswan begat on her Manu 
Vaivaswata. I have already described to you in full his true 
form etc., (2). The lord of rays begat on her three children- 
two great sons and the daughter Jamuna, O Muni (3). 
Sraddhadeva the Patriarch Manu Vaivaswata was the 
eldest there were born the twins Yama and Yami 
(4), The effulgent Martanda, with his growing lustre, greatly 
distressed the three worlds, mobile and immobile (5). Be- 
holding the circular form of Vivaswan and unable to bear 
Ms rays, Sajna, addressing her own Shadow, said: (6)-. 
" May good betide thee. I am going to my father's house. 
O auspicious dame, at my command, thou sbouldst live near 
the sun without being agitated (7). Thou shouldst with care 
bring up these my two sons and the most beautiful daughter. 
Thou shouldst never communicate this unto the Divine 

Sun (8)." 

THE SHADOW said: O goddess, as long as the sun will 
not take me by the hair or imprecate a curse on me so long I 
shall not communicate any thing unto him. Go wherever thou 
wishest (9)-" Thus addressed by her Shadow Sajna repair d 
to her father's house; and that one, of auspicious eyes, lived 
there for some time (10). And thereafter when she was 
repeatedly requested by her father to go to her husband she 
assumed the form of a mare and repaired to Uttarakuru (i i). 
O great Muni, that chaste damsel, abstaining from food, 
began to carry on devout penances (12). After she had 
gone to her father's abode, she, the Shadow, assuming the 
form of Sajna and intent on carrying on her words, appeared 



before 'Bhlskara (13). Taking her as Sajtil the Divine Sun 
too begat on her two sons aad a daughter (14). O foremost 
of the twice-born, the first born of the two, Savarni (by 
name) was equal to the preceeding Manus (in prowess) (15). 
The second one became the planet Shani ; and the daughter 
was named Tapati whom the king Samvarana espoused (r6). 
The shadow of Sajnii did not show that affection towards 
the first born children as she did towards her own (17). 
Manu forgave her for this but Yama could not do so, and 
therefore he was repeatedly solicited by his father's wife (t8). 
Thereupon out of anger, childishness and the force of future 
Incidents Yama raised up his foot, Muni, to strike her ; she 
too, greatly revengeful, imprecated a curse an Yama (19). 

SAJNA said : a l am thy father's wife and therefore thy 
superior ; and since thou hast threatened me with that foot, 
undoubtedly it shall fall off' (20). Having his mind greatly 
agitated by that curse the high-souled Yama, along with 
Mian, communicated all unto their sire (21), 

YAWA said: (f O lord, our mother does not treat us aft f 
equally. Leaving us who are elders she always seeks to '-rear ; 
up the younger ones (22). I raised up my foot against her 
but it did not fall on her body. If it be either out of childish* 
ness or ignorance it behoves thee to forgive me (23). O 
father, I am her son and still I have been imprecated by the 
mother. Therefore, foremost of the ascetics, I do not con- 
sider her as our mother (24), father, a mother does 
never become hostile towards the sons even when they 
become so. Then how can she say to her son, "your leg 
shall fall off'* (25). lord, divine sun, do thou think of a 
measure by which, by thy grace, my foot may not fall off on 
account oC the imprecation of the mother (26).*' 

THE SUN said : Since thou, sori, truthful and pious as 

thou art, didst come by anger, undoubtedly there is some 

of it (27)* There is'* a remedy for every curse but there 

Is none such for the imprecation of a mother (28). Therefore 


I am unable to undo the words of thy mother but I shall 
show thee some favour out of my fatherly love (29). Taking 
flesh from thy foot the worms shall fall down 00 the earth, 

By this her words will be verified and thou shaltbe saved (30)* 
MARKANDEYA said : Then the Sun said to the shadow* 
ofSajrti; "All the sons are equat> therefore, why dost thou 
show partiality towards one (31) ? How cart a mother curse 
her soas even when they grow disobedient ? Forsooth thou 
aft not their mother but some body else to me (32)* 

To evade (an answer) she did not say anything to the Sun* 
Then concentrating his own self he saw every thing in its true 
form (33)* Observing him on the point of uttering a curse, 
O Brahmana, the shadow of Sa>n&, trembling, communicated 
every thing truly to the (34)* Hearing all and 
angry the Sun went to his father-in-law* Then 
and adoring him who wat desirous of consuming all In . 

(Yiiiwakara&) of good ?0ws said (35) : 

The whole universe has been overspread by thy great 
effulgence. Unable to bear thy form which is so greatly hard 
bear SajuS is carrying on devout penances in the forest 
Thou shalt behold to-day thy own pious wife carrying 
on hard penances in the forest for thy form* (37). I remember 
the wards of Brahmft ; O god, lord of the day, if it 
the* I shall make thy form charming 1 * (38), 

Formtrlj the form- of the Sun wa circular ; the 

Divine Sua said to the Architect) Tastri "So be 

It" (39)* Having obtained the command mad the 

Sun to travel-it the insular continent of 
et himself When the Saw, 

the navel of the wotld, to r the with 

its motifttstiii* and got up to the iky (41). O 

along with It Hit iky, with the tad 

down* O one, and 

, tl* of tht Sm way t 



^ ^ 

(4t|* The waler$ of 


were shattered (), The huge 
by the verity of *. s/n, 

*? ^^ (45 >' 
the motion of the sun, the earth, sky , 

ewere sent out of their pl 
Yip,, thus cevo,, ing) , J 
along with BrahmS eulogised the 
the P fimfi Deity ; thi, is trulyk^wn t 
nrt m thy threefold form S nt the time of 
tio and destruption (48). M*y good betide . 
ofthe umvew. thou the mine of heat, rains and dews O 
god of gods, maker of the d ay , do thou bring peace unto 
tttand (49)." Indra too, coming there, chanted the glories 
of the revolving Sun :-Salutation unto the gpd who is 
nuifeat all over the universe. May thou be victorious, O 
IM of the universe ( 5 o). The seven Riehis too, headed by 
Vwhwtbft wd Atri, wying, "May , g ood betide tbee 
W<J betid* tj^e !' .plwiod'Wm with the chanting #. 
hymn* (51), ; Tk, B^leW^^^W;' 
the revolving Sun, b^fecitmg.the.prfoife . 
Ufa recorded in the Vedas (52), "Thou art, O lord, thfe 
beautitude of those who have obtained it, thou art the object 
of the meditation of those who engage in it. Thou art 
refuge of all creatures engaged in action (53). Thou ar 
lord of the gods, may good betide the creatures through 
mercy? thou art the lord <tf the ^niverse ; mayst thou en-i 
compass our happiness, peace and well-being. May good 
bttide us all always who are two-legged as well as all those 
that are quadruped* (54)." Thereupon ,the Vidyadbaras, 
RSkshasas, Yakahas and Pannagas, with folded .bands and- 
beads bending low, began to address the Sun with 
the fallowing word" delightful to the mind and the 
"Thou art the protector of creatures, may tfeejr. 


bear' thy effulgence ($5-56)-" Thereupon Hahahuhu, 
Narada, and Tumvura, versed in Sharaja, Madhyama, 
Grandh'ara and the three Talas as well as the other arts of 
Gandhanras, began to sing delightful tunes with the accom- 
paniment of Murchana.Prayoga and time (57-58). Vtshwachi, 
Ghritachi, Urvashi, Tilottama, Menaka, Sahajanaya, Rambha 
and orther leading Apsaras, displaying gestures and various 
other charming gaits, began to dance at the time of the re- 
volving of the sun (59-50)- At that time hundreds and 
thousands of flutes, Vinas, Darduras, Panavas, Pushkaras, 
Mridangas, Patahas, Anakas, celestial bugles and conches 
were sounded (61). When the Gandharvas sang, Apsaras 
danced and cymbals and other musical instruments were 
struck all was filled with noise (62). Thereupon with folded- 
hands and with heads bending down with reverence all the 
deities bowed unto the revolving sun of a thousand rays (63). 
When there arose a great tumult on account of the gathering 
of all the clestials Vishwakarma gradually cut off his efful- 
eence (6 4 V Thus the Divine Sun is the source of summer, 
rains, and dews. Hari, Hara, and Brahma too chant h.s 
glories. One, by listening to the story of lessening his 
effulgence, attains to the solar region after his death (65). 


MARKANDEYA said : Thereupon while thus chiselling 
'MS body Patriarch Vishwakarma, filled with growing delight, 
cHked the following hymn of the Vivaswat (i). 

"Salutation unto thee who art the mine of rays, who dost 
<4Bctfm|A4& the well-being of and show mercy anto those' 



bow unto thee, who art the great soul, who hast seven 
horses all gifted with equal speed, who art of good effulgence 
and dost give life to the lotuses and who art clever enough 
to dispell darkness (2). Thou dost purify others, art of 
pious deeds, dost confer diverse wished-for objects, art the 
source o the highly effulgent fire, art rays and art the 
benefactor unto all. I bow unto thee (3). Thou hast no 
birth, art the cause of the three worlds, art identical 
with all the elements, the lord of the universe and righteous- 
ness,* the foremost of the merciful and the sun who gives 
vision unto all ; I bow unto thee (4). Thou art the source 
of rays and the innermost soul of the learned ; in thee the 
world is stationed and thou art the benefactor of the universe, 
art self-sprung, the vision o all and the foremost of the" 
gods* Thou hast incomparable effulgence, I bow unto thee 
(5)* Thou dost adorn, for a moment, the hill whence thou 
risest like a garland of jems and encompass the well-being 
of the world along with the celestials. The thousand rays 
are thy body ; to dispell darkness thou dost spread them over 
the universe (6)* Drinking the wine of worldly darkness 
and under its influence thy body becomes red ; from that 
arise thy rays that display the three worlds and accor- 
dingly dost thou appear in great , effulgence (7). O 
lord, ascending thine highly beautiful chariot 'of equal 
proportions moving mildly, thou dost, through the help 
of numberless horses, always wander about unobstructed 
for encompassing the well-being of the world (8). By 
bestowing simultaneously ambrosia and the rays of the moon 
th0u dost bring about the gratification of the gods and manes 
and the destruction of the enemies. Therefore dp I, saluting 
thee, chisell thine effulgence for the benefit of the world (9). 
thou fond of thy votaries, O thou the purifier of the three 
worlds, Ravi, do thou save me, who have touched with 

* The word In the text is Vrkha L *, bull 

thft emblem of righteousnes, 


la Puranas a bull with four 

4i 8 


my head the earth, purified with the dust of thf feet and 
trampled down by golden-hued horses (10). Thou art like 
the mother of the universe and the highly sacred abode of 
the three worlds, Thou art the lamp of th entire ttnivwse 
and what more, them art Vwhwakarma ; I bow unto 
thee (11). 


LARKANDEYA said :~ Having thus chanted the 

of the sun Vbhwaktnnl put the sixteenth part of the 
genee of the creator .of the day Into his circular disc (i), 
Fifteen portions of hu ray being chiselled out of his body 
the sun assumed a highly charming form (3). With the 
effulgence that wa* chiselled out of hi* body he made the 
discus of Vishnu, the mftcc of Siva, the vehicle of the god 
of riches, the roc! of the Regent of the doad and Sakt! of 
(KSrttkiyu) the commander of the celestial army (3). With 
the rays of the stm Vi*hwakarm& made many otli<*r shinning 
weapons for othftr gods for the pacffieation of their en*mteft 
(4). With his effulgence thu^ chiseled at soon m the Divine 
sun appeared with not very warm rayji his body became ex- 
ceedingly charming (j). Then concentrating bin mind he 
saw his own wife carrying on- puttancet and obiter?! nf regtsk* 
tion in the nhpe of a mare never thought of by my 
(6). Thereupon repairing to Utraraktim and a*uining ttie 
form of a horse the rait approached h BitlioMing Mm 
thus approach and taking hiin for a straff ger the turned her 
face towards him, Thereupon they each nose 



Tt|e energy qf the sun entered into the re 
her nostril and therefrom originated Ita two gpdu 

the foremp$t of the physicians (9). They both came out of 
the mouth of the horse and are the sons of Mtrtaj)da assum- 
ing the form pf a horse (10). From the seminal fluid came 
Out Revahta .who had in his hands dagger, bow, arro^ and 
quiver and a coat of 0141! on his body and was seated on 
horseback (n)- 

Then ^ the sun displayed his own improved form ; and 
seeing his mild form she attained to great delight (12), 
Thereupon the sun, the pilferer of water, took to his own 
house his loving wife Sajna who bad assumed her own form 
(13)* Then his first son became Harm Vaivaswata and the 
second Yama, on account of the imprecation and favour, 
followed only righteousness (14). Having his mind greatly 
assailed by the curse Yama liked only virtue and therefore 
he was called Dharmaraja or the kfng of virtue (15). 
His father brought about an end pf his imprecation by say- 
Ing " Taking the flesh of thy feet the worms shall fall down 
on earth 11 (16). Since he had always his eye on righteous- 
ness and was impartial both towards friends and foes, the 
dispeller of darkness appointed him as the Regent of the 
dead (17), Vipra, being propitiated with him the Divine 
Sun conferred on him the dignity of a Patriarch and the 
sovereignty over the ancestral manes (18). Thereupon he 
converted .Yamuna into a tributary of Kllindi and the two 
Afwinis were appointed by their high-souled sire as the 
tile physicians of the celestials (19). Revanta was appointed 
m the king of Guhyakas. Then the Divine Sun, worshipped 
of -alt the worlds, said to him. "Q child, do thou become 
adorable by aH the worlds (20). Those mortals, who shall, 
la fear of the forest fire, enemies and robbers^ remember thee, 
will be freed from all those great dangers (21). Adored by 
aed deliglvted accordingly thou shalt confer on man- 
kind peace, intellect, happiness, kingdom, recovery from' 


diseases and , advancement (22). The highly illustrious 
Savarni too, the son of the immitation Sajna, shall also be- 
come the eighth Manu by name Savarni at some future 
period (23). That lord Savarni, still now, is carrying on hard 
penances on the summit of the mount Meru. His brother, 
Sani, at the command of the sun, has become a planet (24). 
O foremost of the twice-born, the youngest daughter, that 
was begotten by Aditya, has become the foremost of rivers 
Yamuna purifying the world (25). I shall now relate in full 
the account of Manu Vaivaswata, who is high-souled and the 
eldest of all and whose reign is now going on (26). He, 
who listens to or reads the birth and glorious account of the 
gods, Vaivaswata Manu, his sons and the divine sun, is 
released from the Impending danger and attains to great 
fame. 'Hearing of the glorious account of the Prime Deity 
tie high-souled Mattanda one has all his sins committed day 
and night destroyed (2728). 


LROUSHTHI said: Reverend Sir, you have related 
in fall, the birth of the children of the Sun, the Prime Deity, 
his glory and his true form (i). O foremost of Munis, I 
wish td hear again fully of the glories of the Prime Deity 
ra; do thoii delightedly describe them (2). 

said : Hear,I shall recount the glories of the 
Vivaswan and what he did do in the days of yore 
adored by people (3). The illustrious Rajya- 
1 soi| o|_ $!$& became the king ;<ihat lord ^ot 



the earth, governed her well (4). That kingdom being 
righteously governed by that high-souled one, it grew, O 
Vipra, daily in men and riches (5). During his administra- 
tion both the citizens and villagers became hale and hearty 
and equally rich like the king (6). There was no impedi- 
ment, no disease and no fear from dangerous animals ; (what 
more) even there was no fear from the scarcity of water 
when Dama's son became the king (7). He undertook great 
sacrifices and gave away presents to those who sought for 
them ; and without interfering with real virtue, he engaged 
in the enjoyment of worldly objects (8). Thus governing 
his kingdom and ruling well his subjects, seven thousand 
years passed away like a day (9). The respectful daughter 
of Viduratha, the king of Deccan, by name Manini, became 
his wife (10), Once on a time that one, of fair eye-brows, 
Miami, while engaged in picking up the grey hairs of the 
king, began to shed tears in the presence of all the 
tiserabled kings (n). When those drops of tears fell on 
the body of the king he saw her face bathed in tears and 
asked her ( I a). Beholding her weeping and shedding tears 
In silence Rijyavarddhana said to Mlnini "What is this?" 
(13), Although thus accosted by her husband that great 
lady did not say anything; thereat the king asked her again 
(14). Thereupon repeatedly asked by the king the youthful 
(queen) showed to the king a grey hair growing in the midst 
of the tuft of hairs (15). (She said) "Behold this, O king; 
what m this ? This is the cause of my grief, unfortunate as 
I am, f< Thereat the king laughed (16), Smiling he said 
to bis wife in the presence of all the kings and citizens who 
had assembled there (17). "Qthou of expansive eyes, no 
more with sorrow ; auspicious dame, do not weep - all 
creatures are subject to birth, development and decay (18), O 
fair damsel, I have studied all the Vedas, I have performed a 
thousand sacrifices, I have made gifts unto the twice-born 
and procreated progeny (19). I have with you enjoyed many 



objects of enjoyment which are dear to the mortals. I have 
governed well the earth and fought many fair battles (20). 
I have enjoyed much in th forest and elsewhere in the coni- 
pany of chosen friends. What is there, auspicious dame, 
which I have not done ? Wherefore art thou afraid of my 
decaying hairs (2j)? Let m y hairs grow grey, my skin 
folded and my body slackenedI achieved all my objects 

MSLoini (22). Repairing fy the forest I fthall treat ml! th0$e 
grey hairs which thou hast s* en on my head, O auspicious 
damsel (23), fair one, my fore-fathers behaved like infants 
in their infancy, like boys in their boyhood, like young men 
in their youth and in the old age they entered into the woods, 

1 hall $lso act like them. Therefore do 1 see no reason for 
thy sheeding tears (33 ?5). Do not grieve therefore. The 
grey hair, that thou hast seen, is the imitnuYtf nt of my pros- 
perity ; therefore do not we^p (26). 

MARKANORYA said : Thereupon, (J great saint, all the 
Assembled kings and citizens, wlio had come hc?re f saluting 
him, said to Rajyavarcldhana (27), "0 king, tht?re is 110 
reason for thy wife! to weep, but ourselves and all the crea- 
tures $hall have to weep (:uS). lord, hearing thy words of 
repairing to woods, the minds of us all,0 king, who have ben 
paintained by you, have become dejectcd( 29). Therefore, 
kiag, we shall all go to the forest if you go there* Thy* 
self repairing to the forest, lord, the work* of all lite i.nhabt* 
tants of the world shall undoubtedly be stopped, II tM* 
leads to the obstruction of virtue do thou up this' 

(3031), Thou hast ruled this etrth for seven thousand 
years* Observe therefore, king, the virtue, that hiii 
therefrom (33). The devout penance, O king, tbut thou 
ctfirry oa by living in the forest, is not equal to the 
pprt of thy governing the world (33)* 

KING 33Jd : I have gov,erne4 this , egrth (or 

the time for repairing. to woods 
children tad 




r,mrtl D 

n conc.ll* w , th (! Mr v.nt., elderly citbeos and the t 
on*. a^rt.t.Hn, ^^ ^^ t& , O|lsult 

(47). T^y.^.,,^^ "* 

. kin, Vipra, ttd theref o rt after 
the cottdumon ( 4 ), eb^tttrdti^ 4of Winds aad 


trolling ourselves we shall, with penances, worship the divine 

Sun fora longer lease of life for this king (49)." When they 
had all arrived at this determination some, in their own 
houses, engaged in worshipping the sun by duly offering him 
Arghya and other articles (50)* Some with the silent recita- 
tion of Riks and others with Yayus and pleased 
the sun f $i) Some Br&hmanas, abstaining from food, lying 
down on the bank of a river and carrying on de?0tjt penances, 
worshipped the sun (52). Others, engaged In the perform- 
ance of Agnihotra, recited day and night where- 
as others remained with their fixed on the son (53). 
Thus resorting to their respective modes, they all, in various 
ways, made up their minds for worshipping the sun (54)* 
When they all thus perseveringly carried on the worship of 
the Sun a Gandharva, by name Sudftqaft, coming, : 
(55)' , " O ye Vipras, if ye are determined upon worshipping 
the sun do ye so act as may please him (56). On the huge 
mountain in Klmrupa there i&a forest called Vishala resorted 
to by Siddhas. Do ye all speedily go there (57). And with 
controlled minds do ye worship the sun there tvhere every 
one gets SiddhI and auspiciousness and attains all his wished 
for objects (58). 

MARKANDEYA said ;~Hearing his words and repairing 
to that forest the twice-born ones saw the holy and auspi- 
cious form of the sun (59), There abstemious of food and 
diligent all the Brahmanas and other began to worship 

him with incense, flowers and other presents (60)* Worship- 
ping him with flowers, sandal pastes, incense, and 
other things, recitations, Homa, food, lamp, etc*, the twice* 
born ones, Brahmana> with controlled minds, there eulogised 
the sun (61), 

THE BRAHMANAS said : We seek refuge with the 
Riti who excels in effulgence the gods. Bananas, Yak*ha r 
planets and luminous bodies; (6a). He who Is the lord 
of the gods, who stationed in the sky lights - up all tht 


Lnd i. f ShrineS> the SUpP rt f the - iv -se 

and ,. beyond comprehension, we see k refuge with 

't (68). He is Brahma, Siva, Vishnu, ^ 

d H o r; etl 7; r'T' aild the earth - wit " -nS; 

nd ooaus; (69). He i. pUnct, sta r, the moon) and 
her,, the plt, trees, and creepers, aod the oridner 
.nrt. ,nd vice i. both, what is -manifest or not Z 
He ha, three-fold forms of BrK.,,,,1, Vi.hna and 81^ 
may ha 8ua be propitiated whh U8 ^ He , ' 
lord ot the un,ver se and i. without birth ; his limb is this 
and he i. the life <rf the worid; m y he b pr 

7 f- May tbat sun be p~^ -^ - 

form, enveloped with rays, is ,, ard to Ioolc 

c rm !' the gCntIe m n *3). May that 

Sun be p,o t >u ia t e d with us with whose ^ 

form* the world has b*n created and filled wh fire (74) ' 

MARKAMDBVA said : - foremost of the .twice-horn, h.** 
been thu, eul t , K isl i.y thn with reverence and worshipped 
for th^ mo,,,h.the Divin Sun was p ] ease d (75). Thereupon 
although hard to work at, he, assuming the effulgence of the 

" ' 

PP are >ore 

. Ihercat trembling in joy and bending low with 
reverance all the people there bowed uoto the unborn , UB 




who came there in his clean form (77), (They aaid) :-N 
tation unto thee, O thou of thousand ra}% thou | 
cause of all and the guide* Thou art worthy of 
eulogised and worshipped by all. Do thou protecj 
Thou art the refuge of all sacrifices ; the Yogins r* 
on thee; be thou propitiated with us (78). 


LARKANDHYA said :- Thereupon dr-tirrht*.<) thej 

Sun said to ail the people " ye twice-born <meg andj 
tell me what do ye seek from me" (i). Beholding; 
stationed before them all the Br&htnanas and others, ! 
him with reverence, said to that lord of the universe 

THE SUBJECTS said: -0 Lord, O thou the dis^ 
darkness, if thou art pleased with our devotion may i 
.live for ten thousand years (3*. May ha be alwa 
from diseases, may he defeat hi* enfmie*, may his ! 
remain always full, ^artd may he be evtr youthfd 
Rajyavarddhana live for ten thouHand years (4), j 

MARKANDEYA said : great Muttt, having sai<| 
iC the sun assumed his own form, They too, haj 
tained their boon*, and been delighted t a|>proached t| 
of men (5). twice-born one, they coimnumcatd' 
thing fully unto the king how they bud obtained \ 

froin the sun (6). O twlce*born one, hearing this 

was delighted. Bat the king thought for' so 
and . ltd mot my my thing to the (7), J 

giving Iw teart* ftllted with dliglt r saic 



husband "0 king, by luck, you have got a longed leas of 
life" (8). twice-born oue, although her husband was thus 
congratulated by Mlnini in delight the king did not say any 
thing and his mind was stupified by pensiveness (9). He 
began to think with his head cast downwards. She again s&id 
to her husband " king, why art thou not pleased with the 
accession of such a good fortune (10). From to-day thou 
shalt live a healthy and youthful life for ten thousand years, 
why art thou not pleased then? (n). king, tell me the 
cause of the anxiety that has possessed thy heart even at 
the advent of such a good fortune" (12). 

THE KING said; auspicious damsel, what is that good 
fortune to me? Why art thou congratulating me? A 
thousand miseries have come for me ? Why do you please 
me? (13). I shall alone live for ten thousand years. Thou 
shalt meet with death. Will not that cause grief unto me ? 
(14). Beholding my sons, grandsons, their sons and .other 
relations passing away before me shall I experience a small 
grief? (I5) When servants,, greatly attached to me, as well 
sp the friends shall pass away, there shall be no end of grief 
unto me? (16). Even they* who by carrying on penances 
have reduced their bodies to skeletons for me, will meet with 
death. Shall I alone live and enjoy? fie on me (17). 
Therefore, fair one, this is no prosperity to me but a great 
calamity* Why do you not consider this? And why do y.ou, 
congratulate me? (18), . . ' '. v 

MANIN! said ; Undoubtedly what thou hast said, great 
Icing, .jg true. In our joy, neither myself nor the citizens 
could observe this defect (19). Therefore, think, king, what 
should now be done. What the Divine Sun has said ia 
propitiation shall never be otherwise (20); 

THE KING said: Without repaying the benefit which 
lias been done me by citizens and servants delightedly' how 
ill-ill I enjoy various objects of enjoyment? (21). I too 
to-day shall go to the mountain and with controlled mind 



abstaining from food shai'l warship the sun and carry on 
penances (22). As I shall, by his favour, live for ten thou- 
sand years, being yonthful and freed from diseases, likewise 
If my subjects, servants, sons, grandsons, their sons, friends 
and others live by the favour of the sun, then with delight 
I shall be their king and enjoy the objects of enjoyment 
|22 25). If the su-n does not encoiripass this, Manini, 
I shall, abstaining from food, carry on, in ttois" mountain, 
devout penances so long my life does -not run out (26). 

MARKANDEYA said : Having been thus addressed by 
film she said f so be it' to the king and with him repaired to 
mountain (27). Having reached that valley, twice- 
born one, the king", engaged in bis service along with his 
wife, began to worship the sun (2$). The king grew lean 
with fasting and so did she. Bearing cold and heat she 
carried on hard atisterittes (29). He thus worshipping the 
sao and carrying on hard penances for a little over a year the 
sun was delighted (30). O foremost of the twice-born ones, 
lie then conferred the boon, as desired by the king, with 
regard to all his servants, citizens and sons (31). Having 
obtained the boon and returned to his own t city the king 
delightedly governed his kingdom and piously ruled his 
subjects (32). He performend many Yajnas and, made 
clarities day and night. And that one conversant with 
irirtae enjoyed many objects of desire in the company of 
(33). He lived a youthful and happy life for ten 
thousand years along with the servants, sons, and grand- 
sons (34). Seeing his life, Praraati, of Bhrigus* race, filled 
with surprise, composed the following theme (35), ' O what 
IB the power of devotion to the sun, since Rajyavarddhaoa 
; fe*s pined a long life both for himself and his own men (36.)" 
as asked by you I have thus recounted to you the 
of tbe Prime Deity, the effulgent Aditya (37), By 
10 or reading in full this most -excellent gloriou^ 
are released from sins 'committed lor 




Sftven nights so also are other men (58). The intelJigmt 
man, who meditates on this theme, becomes ireed from 
diseases, rich, prosperous, is horn in the family of the intelli- 
gent and becomes highly wise (39). O foremost of Mwis, 
ibcxe, wlio are unfortunate and beset with calamities, if they 
reetle this theme of the Sun, three times a day, are freed 
from ^ins (401. The s*un lives always near the house* where 
thin his glorious theme is chanted and he never leaves it 
(41). Therefore, Brahman, you should, desirous of acquir- 
ing great piety, meditate over and chant this glorious theme 
of tfat sun (43)* foremost of the twice-born, by listening 
for thre days to this glorious theme of the sun one reaps 
the same fruit which he does by making a gift of a beautiful 
milch cow having golden horns (43). 



t ARK AND EVA said .:--Q Krausthika, the eternal Divine 

Sun, about whose glories you did reverentially accost mo, 
is thus gifted with rays (j) He is the (Paranatman (great 
sou!) of all those Yogbs who have concentrated their minds 
in Yoga. He is Kshetrafna of the Sankhya philosophers 
and the lord of sacrifices of those who perform them (2). 
The Manu of the seventh Manwantara took his birth as his 
son* He had all his doubts dissipated. Ikshwaku, Nabhaga, 
Rtshtha, Narishyanta, Ntbh^ga, Prishadra and Dhrista 
were bis sons. They were all very highly powerful, of 
Illustrious renown, were well read in scriptures and became 
the rulers of Ihe earth (35). With a view to have a more 



accomplished son, that -Manu, the foremost of successful men t 
a.ofain undertook the performance of a sacrifice in honour 
of Mitra and Varuna (6). grant Muni, on account of the 
baf conduct of HotH in that sacrifice Mami got a highly youth- 
ful daughter by name; Ha (7), Thereupon beholding 1 that 
daughter horn Manu, pleading Mitra and VSruna, said (8) ;* 
'"Expecting that a most accomplished son would be horn to 
me fjy your favour, I undertook this sacrifice but a daughter 
is born (9). If you are pleased with me and. are ready 
to grant a boon may this daughter, by your favour, become ft 
highly accomplished son" (ID). The having said, *so 

be it 1 that daughter 113, Immediately became a known by 
the' name of Sudyumna (l i). Whita going about a4ntr*tttiff in 
the forest that highly intelligent son of Mami, by the 

curse of the Providence, assumed her female form (12), There 
she gave birth to a son by name Pururava who became in 
Lord Paramount (13), After the birth of the son he performed 
a great horse-sacrifice, Sudyumna then regained bis manhood 
and became the king (14), Sudyumna, in hi* manhood, begat 
three sons, Utkala, -Vinaya and CL-iya they wrrt* all very 
powerful and energetic and were Intentt upon performing 
sacrifices "(15). All his sons, born in his manhood, had their 
minds devoted to virtue and governed this c%irfcfi (if*). Puru* 
: rava was born in his womanhood. lit! did not a 

-portion of* the earth since he the mm of Budha (17). 

According to the words of Vifthfctha, a best of cities, Pratih 
th&na, was conferred upon him* Ik became in 

highly charming city (18). 


LARKANDEYA said ;~Manu's son, Prishadhra, by name, 
out ^-hunting into the forest. Going about there in 
that lonely wood he did not find any deer. He was assailed 
by the rays of the sun and was possessed by hunger and 
thirst while moving about hither and thither (12). There 
he saw a highly beautiful sacrificial cow belonging to an 
A*nihotra Brfthmana (3), Taking it for a Gavaya he 
discharged a shaft at her. Having her heart pierced by the 
arrow she fell down on earth (4). Beholding the sacrificial 
cow ^ of his father thus fallen the Brahmachari son of that 
Agnibotri, ever engaged in Tapas, imprecated a curse on him 
(5)* His name was Babhraya and was sent by his father to 
look after the kine. Muni, he was by nature angry and 
wrathfut. So he was worked . up with anger; he began to 
perspire and her eyes were agitated (6). Beholding- the 
Muni's son angry the king Prishadra said "Be plea|ed ; why 
are you -being possessed by anger like a Sudra (jrj? Such 
an anger can never possess a Kshatrya or a Vaisya even, 
as has possessed you who are.born in an eminent B.ahmana's 
family (8), ' . ' , 

Being thus remonstrated with by the king that Rtshi's son 
imprecated a curse on that vicious-souled one, saying "Be a 
Sttdra (9). Since thou hast killed the sacrificial cow of my 
preceptor, the Vedas shall not come out (of thy mouth) 
whith thou didst learn from thy preceptor (ro)/' Being thus 
imprecated and possessed by anger the king took water in his 
hand to curse him(ir). That foremost of the twice-born 
became angry for the destruction of the king. But approach- 
Ing him speedily his father prevented him (12), saying "O 
child, away with anger which is the great enemy of advance- 

ment. Forgiveness only encompasses the welUHetng of the 
twice-born both in. tbia world and the next (13) Anger 
destroys asceticism and Kmgivity. An angry man loses 
knowledge and riches (14)* The angry do not acquire virtue 
nor riches. Persons, who have thrir minds poHswwd by 
anger, do not attain objects leading to happiness. Even if 
knowing it full well the king has killed the sacrificial cow 
still, (actuated by) good sense yon should show forgiveness 
towards him (16). And if unconsciously he has killed this 
cow how dots he then deserve an imprecation niitce he i* not 
wickedly bent (17). A pernon, who his own gotd and 

at the same kills others, has bin good suise destroyed. Such 
a man i* an object of commiseration (18). If the learned 
punish an innocent man, mr-thinks lh illiterate are? swpe- 
rkir to such learned men (19). Therefore, O my you 

should not have cursed the king to-day. By her own Karma 
this cmv has met with a painful death (20). 

Tlwan saluting th* Muni's mn with hin hewd down Prl- 
sh.itlra said ;* v Ik pleased, I have unknowingly killed her 
(21). O Muni, raking hrr for a Gavuva I have, out of igiw>- 
ranrr, kiljcd your sacrilitriai cow (22)* 

1 fiF RISHI'S SON said : king, I have nev^r pokn an 
uiwuth aince my birih. grtsat on*-, to-day my nnjrr imti 
never bt? otherwise (23). lli^re|or% O king, I Hhall not b 
abb to undo this cur<-. But I rrfrnin Imm imprecating the 
stcnnd curse whifh I was about to <?u (23^** 

On bin nnying this the father taking ht* son with him re 
piiirrd to his own hermitage. FrtHhuclltrii too bcrcatnc a Suclrt 



LARKANDEYA said :-Karusha had seven sons who were 
all called Karushas ; they were heroic and brave, from them 
sprang seven hundred heroes aad thousands of others (i) 
NSbhaga was Dishtbi's son. When he set his foot on his first 
youth he saw a highly beautiful daughter of a Vaisya (a) 
As soon as he saw her his mind was agitated by desire The 
pnnce then began to sigh (3). He, then approaching the 
father of the girl, prayed for her. The father then, with folded 
hands, sad to the prince whose mind was possessed by desire 
and whose father he used to fear, words, bending low with 
humility (4~ 5 ):-You are kings, we are your servants and 
ryots. Why do you wish to have an alliance with us" (6) ? 

THE PRINCE said : ~The equality of human bodies is 
rendered by desires, ' stupefaction etc. The human body is 
united with them in time (7). They also lend to their bene- 
faction. ,The pious, thoughithey belong to' different castes, 
depend on each other (8), By the influence of time even the 
unworthy objects become worthy and worthy objects become 
unworthy the worthiness is thus dependant on time (9). 
The body is nourished by desirable edibles thus it is nourish- 
ed when food is taken in proper time (10). Thus I have 
come to like your girl. Do you confer her on me or else my 
body will be destroyed (n). 

THE VAISHYA said : Both of us are equally dependants ; 
obtaining the permission of your father the king, do you take 
her and I shall give her away (12). 

THE PRINCE said : True, at all times, the people should 
obtain the permission of their elders ; but in such unwor- 
thy actions the elders should not be consulted (13). -The 
talking of love affairs and the hearing of the elders are oppoa- 



ed to each other ; the elders should be consulted by men in 
other matters (14). 

VAiSHYA said : Of course, this will be a conversation 
of love for you to ask your father. 1 shall ask him, this b 
no love affair to me (15). 

, MARKANDEYA said : Having been thus the 

prince remained silent He (the Vaishyt) then communi*. 
cated every thing duly unto the prince's father (16). There- 
upon having sent for leading twice-born the Richika* 
apd ot}iers, ^s well as the prioce he said every thing of what 
had been communicated (by the Vaisya) (17), Thereupon 
communicating all he said ** 1 have in tills con- 
4ition, tell me, O ye leading twice-born 
l?e done in this (18)*" 

... .THE RISHI **i(i : Q prince, if yoti *f> 

tflfikmgQt for this Vaisya girl it will bo is morality ; 

but jthte must be observed duly (19). You first 

the daughter of the king Murdhibhishikta and then you 
must raarry her (20). If you enjoy her in this way there 
willi be. no sin, but if you carry her away stealthily you 
will be degraded from your most eminent (21), 

-. MAKKANDKYA said:! laving been tint* ami 

disregarding the words of those high-soutttl one*, corning out 
therefrom, taking her away and uplifting hi* ht 

said: (t l have taken the girt under tlit 

lUkshasa form, of marriage; whoever ha* the lit htm 

come and her (33)." Thereupon fti 

daughter thus carried away, the one y 

speedily with bis 4I m^ f 

(24)* .Thereupon being worked up with the ling 

ordered his huge army faying, "kill, kill 

(25);* Than the to fight with 

ttit By him too, who won tn In the tint of 

WW*, mmj of th^m were killed (aC>) s Hearing of the des- 
truction of the army by the prince, the king, by 



his own soldiers, himself went out to fight with Mnpr 
Then there arose a great encounter between the king 
his own son. The father was excelled by the prince in the 
use of arms (28). Thereupon all on a sudden coming from 
the sky the ascetic Paribrata said to the king Desist from 
the fight (29). great one, your son, high-soulpd as 
you are, has lost his caste. king, it is not proper for you 
to fight with a Vaisya (30). A Brahmana does not lose his 
caste, if after marrying first in the house of Brahmana, he . 
takes wives from other castes (31). Similarly O king, ^ 
Kahatriya does not lose his caste, if after first taking the 
hand of a Kshatriya girl he marries other caste girls (32). 
So a Vaisya is not excluded from his caste if he marries 
a Sudra girl after first taking a Vaisya wife. This is the 
due order (33). king, the Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and, 
Vaisyas lose their caste if they marry the girls o other castes, 
before taking wives from their respective orders (34). If 
persons, before taking wives from their own castes, marry 
in inferior races, they cannot enjoy their objects there (35); 
This your sinful son has become a Vaisya. But you art a 
Kfthatriya. , He has no right to fight with you. king, ,_ we 
do not know the cause which may sanction such a,n encounter:; 
therefore desist from- fight" (36). 


M.ARKANDBYA said : Thereupon the king desisted from 

fighting with llis own son * His soa to es P used the 'daughter- 

of the Vaisya (i). Thereupon attaining 'Vaisyahood and ap-, 
proacUing the king, he said <( 0king, order me } what am* 


I to do/ 1 (2). The king said : The ascetics Babhravya and 
others are engaged in looking after the morals ; let them 
say what you should do and act accordingly (3),'* There-* 
upon the ascetics and courtiers all said, " His duty Is to 
look after cattle, agriculture and trade" (4)* The prince had 
deviated from his own order and so he acted according to 
what had been suggested by the pious 9iges (5)* lie begat 
a son, known by. the name of Fthnnandana. Ills mother said 
to him "go, O my child, and b a protector of the world 11 
(l6) Having been thus ordered by his mother nnd sainted 
her he approached the royal sriint Neepa who was living on 
the Himalaya mountain (7). Approaching him and saluting 
his feet duly, Bhanandana said to that royal saint (8)* **0 
reverend sir, my mother ha* ordered me to be a protector 
of the earth* So I must protect the earth ; but how can I 
obtain her permission ? (Q). I can rule over the subjects if 
she apjtees. But my earth hat invaded by my power- 

ful kinsmen (to). I am thy servant. Do thou so ordrr, O 
lord, that I may, by thy favour,, obtain the earth ; 1 shall carry 
out thy order" (n) 

MARKANDEYA said : 'Thereupon, O Brahman, the royal 
saink Neepa conferred upon the high-souled Bhanandana all 
the- arms (12}* Having obtained the of 

being ordered by thai eel he went to his 
Vftturtt and others (13)* He then the half of hi* 

ancestral kingdom* They IC you are a of a Vai*ya 
how can you enjoy the earth? (i4), fl Then 
began to fight with and born In hi* 

family who in to a downpour of 

(15)* Having wounded all with and 

wnquifthed them all in fair that 

virtue, took the earth from (id). Having all 

'bis he car tit and 

hit but he did not it He . to fall 

IE the of his -wife' (17), 



NABHAGA said : Bhanandana, this kingdom was creat- 
ed by your fore-fathers. This belongs to you. I did not .make 
this kingdom. This was not owing to my inability (18), I 
have attained to Vaisyahood and did not carry out the order 
of my father. Having displeased my father I married the 
daughter of a Vaisya (19). A king is not entitled to the 
enjoyment of sacred regions till the time of dissolution (20). 
And then again disregarding the order of my father if I 
govern the earth I shall not attain emancipation even in a 
hundred Kalpas (21). I am a respectable person $ it does not 
behove me to enjoy a kingdom earned by your arms; (then 
again) I am weak (22). Therefore do you yourself govern 
the kingdom or give it over to your kinsmen. I am your 
father; it is not so much becomng for you to govern the earth 
as it is for you to carry out my order (23). 

MARKANDEYA said: Thereupon his graceful wife Supra- 
bhS, laughing said to her husband : "0 king, accept this pros- 
perous kingdom (25). You are not a Vaiysa nor am I born in 
a .Vaisya family, king. You are a Kshatriya and I am also 
born In a Kshatriya race (25), In the days of yore there 
flourished, a king by name Sudeva. Dumr&sbya's son Nala 
his friend (26). In the month of Madhu, O king, he, 
along with his friend and wives, went to a forest of mangoes 
on a pleasure trip (27). There accompanied by his friend 
and wives. he enjoyed diverse drinks and edibles (28). There- 
upon on the bank of the tank he saw the highly beautiful 
royal wife of Pramati, the son of Chyavana (29). His vicious- 
iftt tided friend Nala, under the influence of drink, caught hold 
of her, who was crying out 'Save me, save me' in the very 
presence of the king (30). Hearing her cries her husband 
Pramati came there speedily saying "What is this' 1 (31)? 
There he saw the king Sudeva and his* wife in the grasp ot 
the vicious-minded Nala (32). Thereat Pramati said to 
Stutava ; "Desist him, Thou art the governor and king. O 
king, (in your presence) this Nala has committed such A 



. violence (33)* 11 Hearing his distressful words and on account 
of his great love for Nala, Sudeva said to him : * n l am a 
Vaisya: seek refuge with a Kshatriya for her safety (34)." 

Thereupon when the king said that he was a Vaisya, Pramatt, 

worked up with anger and as if burttlng all with his energy, 
said to him (35) : "True it is, that you are a Vaisya, He, 
who saves one from injury! is a Kshatriya. They take tip 

.their arms lest any one out a doleful cry. You are not a 
Kshatriya but the wretch of a Kshatriya" (36)* 


LARKANDEYA said ; twice-born one, thereupon hav 

ing imprecated that curse on him and as if burning the 

three worlds In anger, Pramati, of Blmgtt f to 

Nala (x) : "Since you, In my own hermitage! 
violence to my wife tinder the influence of den'tre, you will bt 
consumed at once*' (a). As soon as 
he was immediately to by the fire 

from his own body (3). Beholding his 
-divested of haughtiness and htm '."Forgive me, 

forgive roe (4), revernd Sir, I tmclrr tint iitfluonce of 
Ttqutor. Therefore forgive me, lie and withdraw 

curse" i(5). Having thun pleased by him and on 
being consumed, Ptamati, of llltrigtie f t 

4ritd heart (6). l|f rh wcmli, thai been givin w*nt to by 
me,' thai! never he falsified. Stitl being propitiated with you 
t'wlll you excellent favour (?), You will be 
in the of thf Vaisyai lltcre Is no 



But Immediately, in this very birth you will^be a Kshatriya (8). 
Whdn a Kshatriya will take away your daughter by forc& you 
will become a Kshatriya" (9). In this way, O king, my" 
father Sudeva became a Vaisya. What I am, O great one, 
hear all in detail (10). There was a royal saint by name, 
Suratha in the mount Gandhamadana. Repairing to the 
forest, abstaining from food and forsaking all attachment he 
became an ascetic (n). Thereupon as soon as he saw there 
a SftrikS, dropped from the beaks of a Swena his mind was 
possessed by mercy ; and immediately stupefaction came over 
him (12). When he came to his senses I sprang from his 
body* Beholding me he took me up with an affectionate heart 
(13). The lord said, "Since this daughter is born when my 
mind is possessed by mercy she will be called KripHlvati (14)." 
Then I daily drew up in his hermitage and began to wander 
about [in the forest with my mates of equal age (15). 
Agastya's brother was equally well-known like his brother. 
When he came to the forest for gathering the produces -there- 
of his anger was excited by my female companions and her 
imprecated a curse (16). /Since you have called me a Vaishya, 
you will be born as the daughter of a Vaishya. I give you 
thiscttrse.' After he had said' this I said (t 7), "Q foremost 
of the twice-born, I have committed no offence by thee, why 
dost fchou curse me for another's offence" (18)? 

THE ASCETIC said r Even a good man becomes wicked 
when he associates fwith them. Even good* things, made of 
milk, are spoiled with a single drop of wine (19}. Still as yoii 
innocent and have pleased me with salutation, hear, Q 
girl, what favour I shall] extend to you (20), "When after* 
being born in the race of a Vaisya you will despatch your 
6n for governing the kingdom, you will cotae to recollect' 
your pristine birth (21). Then again attaining t6 Kshatriya* 1 
hood along with your husband you will enjoy many heavenly 
objects. Go, you have no fear (22). king, I was thus* 
formerly cursed by that great saint. My father-was also thus 



crused by Pramatf (23). Therefore, O king, you are not a 

Vaisya nor is'my father. So neither yourself nor I am fallen, 
Why will you be then fallen (in my company) (24) ? 


LARKANDEVA said :~ Hearing the words of hit wife 
and son that pious king again to them. (i). "I never 
accept the kingdom that I relinquished at the of my 

father* What is the use of speaking in ? Why do you 
attract my mind (a). I have taken to this .Vai*ya of 

life. I shall pay you the revenue* Do you enjoy th$ king- 
dom as you like or give it up" (3). 

Having been thus addressed by his father the prince 
Bhanandana took a wife and began to govern the kingdom 
piously (4). twice-born one, the wheel (of hi* car) 
5 unobstructed all over the earth. No one had his mind In 
vice and all the kings his tributaries (5)* He duly 

celebrated Fa/mas and properly ruled the earth* He 
became the ruler of the earth and his administration nxtend- 
eel all over (6), To him was born a son by Vatuftprt, 

who> high sowled (as he was), by hit accomplishment*, 

even his sire (7). Viduratha'* his 

wife. She was equally and Kuj- 

rimbha, the king of demon* and the of luclra, the 

$f god*, he obtained her by his own (8), 

, ,;KROUSHTH!IC said :~ fl tfir f do you 

to me how and got her 

MARKANOBYA said:- There w,as an Mlustrious kitig on 
earth by nam^e Viduratha. He had two sm>s, Suniti .and 
Sumati (to). Once on a time, going out to the forest a-hunfc- 
ing he saw a huge, widening pit like the mouth of the earth 

(n). Seeing it he thought ' What is. this dreadful thing? 
Methiaks this is the door to Patala, This^ is, not of the 
etrth 1 ' (12). While thus thinking he saw in that lonely forest 
a Br&hman a ascetic by name Savrata (13). The king then 
wonderingly asked him : "What it this. The very bottom of 
the earth is being seen through this deep pit (14,)" 

THE RlSHl said: king, methinks, you do not know 
tfeb; there should be nothing on earth which a king should 
not know (15). There lives a highly powerful and fierce 
Dftnava in Ras&tala. He makes the earth yawn and there- 
fore he? u called Kujritnbha (16). Whatever wonder is there 
on earth or in heaven that is his work. How is it that you 
do not know him (17). That vicious-minded one stole away 
the mace Suaanda which was- formerly made by the celes- 
tial Architect. He kills his enemies io battle with it 
Living in Pfttala he rivfs- the earth with it and acc 

a door for all the Asuras (19)* Now he has 
lite earth with that mace Suaanda.- How? will you enjoy 
this earth without having killed him ? (20). This dreadful 
and powerful (demon) spoils sacrifices, distresses the go<Js 
welcomes the demons. He has this mace for his weapon 
If you can slay that enemy living at the u-rthepest end 
of Pitt la then wilt you be the lord ftf the entire eart;h and 
thf god (22). The mace of. that powerful one is 

upokn of by people as Sounanda ; O king, intelligent men 
call il Balivala (13.) king, when touched by a female 'that 
grows powerless. On the second day it again, grows 
powerful (24.) The vicious one does not kno,w the prowess 
of his mace and the fact that it becomes powerless as soon 
ms it is touched by a female (25). O king, I have thus de- 
feo you the power of bis mace (26). Do you now 



act accordingly. O king, he has made this hole near your 
city. How are you then at rest? (27)" Having said this he 
went away. The king too, repairing to his city, began to 
consult there with his experienced counsellors (28). He duly 
described, to his ministers as he had heard, the power of the 
mace and how it is destroyed (29). Living by his side his 
daughter Mudavati heard all the counsels of the king with his 
ministers (30). Thereupon after the expiration of a few days 
the youthful Mudavati, accompanied by her friends, went to a 
garden. Thence Kujrimbha slole her away (31). Hearing 
that and fc having his eyes agitated by anger the king said 
to his two sons who were acquainted with that forest - V'Go 
ye speedily (32). There is a hole on the bank of the river 
Nirvindya. Entering through that to Rasatala kill there 
the wicked one who has taken away Mudavati (33). 

MARKANDEYA SAID : Thereupon those two sons reached 
that hole and following his foot steps (they went to Rasatala); 
and accompanied by their army, they in anger, began to fight 
with Kujrimbha (34). . They set up a highly dreadful en- 
counter with (the dischaige of a) number of Parighas, Nish- 
tringsas, darts, Saktis, Parashwadhas and shafts (35). 
Thereupon having slain in battle their innumerable army that 
Daitya, powerful of illusion, enchained those two princes 
(36). foremost of Munis, hearing of his sons being fetter- 
ed and worked up with great agony the king said to all his 
soldiers (37). -I shall confer upon him, this my daughter 
of expansive eyes who, after having slain the demon^will 
release my two sons (38). Muni, giving up all hopes of the 
release of his son and daughter the king made this proclama- 
tion in hrsown city (39). Thereupon Bhanandana's son 
Vatsapn heard of this proclamation. He was an expert in 
the use of weapons and was gifted with heroism (40) Then 
appmchiog that best friend of his father's, the foremost of 
* ^luting Mm with all humility he >said ( 4 r).^ 
Bease command me immediately; slaying that demon 'by 



my own energy I shall release now both your son and 
daughter (42).' J 


-Having embraced in joy, the 


of his most beloved friend, the king said, "Go my child and 
achieve your object (43). You will really do the work of a 
friend's son if you encompass this. Do this immediately, my 
child, if you are worked up with energy" (44), 

Thereupon taking up his dagger and bow and putting on 
finger protectors that heroe speedily went to the nether region 
through that hole (45). Tnere that prince set up a terrible 
twang with which the whole of the nether region was filled 
yp (46). Thereupon hearing that twang of the bow, Kujrim- 
bha, the king of D^navas, encircled by his own army, came 
there in great anger (47), These arose an encounter between 
demon and the prince who had not the same strength and 
army as he had (48). Having fought with him for three days 
the Dinava, his mind filled with anger, ran forward to bring 
tb* mace (49). great one, that mace, made by the celes- 
tial Architect was in the inner apparent -and was adared 
them with incense! garland and scents (50). Mudavati knew 
the prowess of that mace. Therefore bending low her neck 
she touched the mace (51). Then the great demon again took 
up the mace, and with a view to adore it touched it again 
and again (52). Then that lord of Asuras went there and 
began to fight with the mace, but the strokes thereof became 
fruitless on the enemies (53). Muni, after his mace 
Souaanda had lost all its power that demon fought with his 
enemy in battle with various other weapons (54). That Asura 
could not equal the prince in weapons. The mace was his 
trength~~but it was made useless by the force of intellect (55). 
Thereupon discomfitting all. the weapons of the demon 
the prince immediately brought him down from the chariot 
Thea taking up daggers and leathern fences he ran forward 
(56)* When displaying greatly his prowess Kujrimbha, the 
enemy of Indra, came there in great anger and with fury; 

the prince, with his fiery weapon, -effulgent like the fire of 
dessolution', killed him (57). Having hi* heart by the 

fiery weapon, that enemy of god* gave up hfo Then 

there arose a great festivity of the in 

Rasatala (58). Thereupon flowers upon the 

'prince, the Gandharvas and the cetefttml instrument* 

were sounded (59). Having slain him lite prtin< too 
the' two -sons of the king and his of 

make' (60). 

After the death of Kujrinihha, the of the 

Anarua, designated 'Sesha, took tip lliiit (6t). O ascetic, 

that king of serpents, Seiba, wan pteatifcl with 

Mud&ftti (62). That 'highly beautiful knew of the 

power of the'tou'ch df a-woman'a hand ami no ihe repeatedly 
touched the-mace Sounanda (63). 'O cine*, there* 

tote Mufti vati-'Was- named Sunandl by the -'king of 
In 'grtsit ; dfelight. This was bn 'account of lh virtue of 
Sodrianda (64). He then speedily brought her along with 
'her 'two -brothers before the king and saluting him said : (65), 
"'O father, by your command, I have brought your 
and daughter'*; command rue what mure shall I havcvto c!t 
"now '(66). Thereupon the heart of the king wan ftllfil with 
delight. He then exclaimed In sweet word*, "well-done, 
j my boy (67), By three-fold I have 

a 'courtier of the gods; you have become my non-tn-law, thd~ 
enemy has been killed and itiy children Imvr rrliirtini tin* 
'scathed. I command, to-d;iy h nn ^u^pk'ioun day, tio you 
'accept the hand of my daughter Mtuiftvnti* fnir nl nil 
'i&hd'ever delightful, O prince and my won!* trim" (68 

'70). The prince said : u ftther Si is my duty I 
carry out your ordr. But you know whether we tny 

this (71)." Thereupon thw king o$lc*brnt il the 
his daughter MutHlvati, with Bhan&nt!.*iita ft H 0n (/a), 
i 'was m \\m youth ; he* njttsiit hii tli*iighteflly 

in their company in pleaitiit wntttry and 0n the of 



the palaces .(73). In time, his father Bhanandaua feeoatie mid, 
and repaird to woods. Vatsapri became the king (74), jEfe 
always, performed. Yajnas and governed ,his subjects righte- 
ously. That high-souled one being engaged in ruling over, 
his subjects like their father his prosperity began to uU 
crease. In his time there was no misalliance arid no fear. 
of the people from wild animals, robbers and wicked people ;, 
that king governing ohe earth there was no impediment what- 
soever (7576). 


LAKAttD&YA said:~He:begatt on SunandSl twelve som, 
They were 'Pratigahu, Pravira, Shoora, Suchakra, Vikrama, 
Krami^Vftfa, Vataka, 'Chanda, Prachanda, Suvikranta -and 
Swarupa. They were "all great and ever victorious in battle 
(12). The eldest of them, the highly powerful Pra'dgshu, 
became the king* The other ''brothers were 'submissive to 
him like servants (3), His sacrifices, in which various 
articles 1 were given over by the twice-born and other inferidr 
made good the name of Vasuridhara (4). He used 
to gbvetn his subjects well like his own begotten sons. 
With his wealth, that was in his treasury, thousands bf saCri- 
-were celebrated. There was no number of ' them 
(even it could not be numbered) by Ajuta, Koti, Padma, 
etc., (56). 'His son was PrajS-tiin Whose sacrifice p^rtak- 
inf of the offering, even the porformer of hundred sacrifices, 
with other celestials, attained to great delight (7). 
That -foremost of the powerful killed ninety-nine "higfhly. 

, ft *? 

I , ^ ?r < 


powerful and leading Danavas and their king Jambha, as 
well as other highly powerful enemies of the immortals (8). 
) Muni, Prajati had five sons headed by Khanitra. Amongst, 
them Khanitra, well-known by his own prowess, became the 
king (9)- He was of quiet nature, truthful, heroic and ever 
engaged in the well-being of creatures. He was ever ob- 
servant of the duties of his own order, used always to attend 
upon the aged and was well read in various scriptures (10). 
He was a good speaker, humble, an expert in fighting -and 
freed from haughtiness. He was beloved of all and used 
to say, day and night (11). "Let all creatures be happy 
always and find delight even in a solitary forest. May they 
all live happily and be freed from fear (12). May they not 
suffer from diseases and mental affliction. May all people 
cherish friendship towards each other (13). May good be- 
tide the twice-born a$d may they love each other. May all 
other Varnas grow prosperous and may all attain their ends 
(14). O ye people, may you all wish well of creatures as 
you do seek that of yourselves and your sons (15). Such a 
good feeling should be cherished towards all. If no one 
offends the other there will be a great good (unto all) (16.) 
Forsooth does a man reap the friut of an evil committed by 
feim foolishly towards another. For the fruit precedes the 
doer (17). O ye people, considering this, do ye cherish good 
feeling towards all Do not commit the worldly sins ai*d 
then you will attain good regions (i). Good will betide 
him always on earth who will love me to-day ; may he evtm 
meet with auspiclousness after auspiciousness who will injure 

Such was Khanitra, the son of that king. He was giftei 
all accomplishments and the goddess of riches embraced 
(20). Having placed with delight his brothers in .various 
be ilmself ruled this earth abounding in oceans (21): 
He placed Shanri in the western portion, Udavasu in the 
rt"*- Stmaya in the eastern and Maharatha in the 



northern (23). He and they were of separate gotras and had 
ieparate priests and ascetics. And their ministers were also 
heriditary (23), Suhotra, of Atri's race, was the priest of 
Shouri j the priest of UdSvasu, KushSvarta was born in the \ 
race of Goutama (24). Prarnati, born in the race of Kashyapa* 
W*s Stihaya's priest. And Vashishtha was the priest of the 
king Mahlrath (25). Those kings respectively ruled 
over their own kingdoms. Khanitra was the king of the 
whole earth and their emperor (26). That king Khanitra 
always sought the well-being of his brothers as well as that of 
bis subjects tike unto that of his own sons (27). 

Once on a time, Shouri's minister Vishwavedin said to 
Mm, "0 king, I have something to speak to you in private 
(28): He alone is the king to whom belongs this entire earth 
and to whom all these kings are dependants. He is succeed- 
ed in order by his son and grandson (29;. As his brothers 
are entitled to small properties before so their sons inherit 
smaller states than theirs, and their grandsons still smaller 
(30)* Thus getting in time poorer from generation td 
generation, hit descendants, king, become cultivators 
(in the long run) (31). A brother does not save his 
brother out of affection* So, king, the relation, between 
their sons, becomes more estranged (32). O king, their sons 
become more and more distant Why therefore will his son love 
(the son of his brother) (33) ? And if again a king is pleased 
some how or other, what is the use of his appointing ministers 
(34)? If you consult with me you will be able to enjoy 
the whole kingdom* If you are contented with it why do you 
keep (uselessly) a small kingdom (35) ? A kingdom, which, 
does so many things, requires both an actor and an agent. 
To wifh for a kingdom is your work. You are a doer and we 
are your agents. Therefore govern your ancestral kingdom 
through our instrumentality. This will give you and not us 
fruits in the next world' 1 (3637). 

THE KING said ; Our eldest brother hais become the 



jj ; ' . emperon Since we are his younger brothers he has 

!; ruling over the entire earth and we are ruling over s***^-* * 

territories (38). highly intelligent one, we are five 
1 * and the earth is one; for this reason we have been 

i'' ovtr separate portions. How can we all rule over th 

f; earth (39) f 

! ; VISHWADEVL said : True it is, O kiqg ; if the earfeli 

-one, why dost thou not, being the eldest, take it and 
over it (40)? Be thou the head of all the brothers and 
emperor of the earth. As f am trying for thee so 
ministers are also working for them (41). 

THE KING said : Our elderst brother is a king and to vest 
,s ( us alllike his s-ons. How can I covet his kingdom then 

;i VlSHWADEvI said: Becoming their eldest and 

j the kingdom you may also please them, O king. 

men seeking kingdom there is none who is the eldest ' 
^ none who is the youngest (43). 

i| MAKKANDEYA said: The king having agreed to this 

I , minister Vishwadevi brought all the brothers to his side 

!| He then engaged their priests in the work of their own 

diction and the destruction of Khanitra (45). He sowed 1 
elision amongst his followers by the various means of 
ciliati on, charity and others. J And he set forth 
exertions for continuing his own power (46). The fotlir 
priests, having carried on dreadful Riagicial operations clsty 
and night, produced four Krity as (female deities) (47). 
were greatly fierce, "of dreadful" faces arid of mighty terir 
looks. They h?jd uplifted huge 'darts in their hands and 
highly dreadful to look at (48). They then canie where 
king Khanitra was. He was not polluted by any sin and so 
they were obstructed by the collection of his virtue(4g). 
female deities then simultaneously fell upon the priests of 
teiigs and Vishwadevi (^o). Thereupon the. female deit^, 
nameNihanti, completely consumed the wicked minister of 
, VishwadeTi, tog^feer with : the priests ($1$ 


URKANDEYA said : They all used. to live in separate 
cities ; so when they were all killed at once all the worlds were 
filled with great surprise ((). Thereupon the great king 
Khanitra too heard of the destruction of the priests ,f his 
brothers as weJl as that of his minister Vishwadeyi, ,0 
foremost of Munis, he was filled with great surprise .think- 
ing "what is this?" for he .did not know Ahe cause (2-^-3) 
Thereupon when Vashishtha came to his house the king 
asked him why the minister and the priests of his. brother 
had met with death (4). Accosted by him the great ascetic 
told him all fully~<--what was spoken to him by his minister:, 
what he did say ; how he (the minister) attempted to bring 
tbout dissension amongst the brothers *and what the 
did, on being urged on by the wicked minister (5-*~6) ; 
why the priests of the king, even compassionate towards Ik* 
enemies, met with death, on account of their attempt to injure 
an innocent person (;\ Hearing this and exclaiming 'Alas I 
am done 1" the King blamed himself much, twice-born 
one, before Vashistha (8). 

THE KING said : " O fie on me, I have no piety I am 
unfortunate every thing is vicious in me. Destiny is ad- 
verse to me I am sinful and the most wretched of all (9). 
For mev the four Brhmanas have been killed ; who else 
ibette as on earth that is more si nlu,l than I ,am (IQ), If 
I had not been born in -this earth a a man then the priests 
of my brother would not have met ,with destruction (ix). 
() tie on my kingdom, fie on qiy birth in the*ace!ot the kings, 
for I have been the instrument of; the destruction of the twice^ 
bom (12)* They were the priests of my brothers ; working 
for their client they met with death. They were not wicked. 



I am sinful Air I am thf cause of their death (13). Wha 
shall I do ? Where shall I go ? There Is no one eke mor 
sinful than I am on thi earth who have been the instrument 
of the death of the twice-born (14)." Having his mind thus 
agitated and with a view to retire into the forest the Emperor 
Khanitra installed hut son (15). Having installed on th<* 
throne his son by name Kahupa, the ktng t along with hi* 
three wives, retired into woods for carrying on (16). 

He was conversant with fhi* duties of a VftnaprastWit life, 
Going into wood he carried on hard austerities for thr<*r 
hundred and fifty years (17), O foremost of the twice born, 
having his body reduced by hard austerities and obstructed 
all the currents, that foremost of kings, living in the forest* 
renounced his body (18). He attained to highly nacreil 
eternal regions conferring all wi*hedfor that are 

gained by the kings by the performance of 
(if)* Havtng given .up their lives with, him his wive* 

also attained to the same region with that fortunate king (2*1! 
-By listening to and reading the story of Khanitra one lus 
all his sins destroyed. Hear now of the story of Kstmpa (*n 


ARKANDRYA said } Having obtain**** *> kingdom 

son Kshup* and righteou*ly 

all the subject* like a father (i). As vt& 

the performer of *acrifices y wan lit, in the conduct of 
Impartial towards his friend* and (3), () Muni, 

one day while he watin his the panegyrtnts 

that'be was like tbe king .of the of yore (3)* 



Brahma's son Kshupa was formerly the king of the earth ; the 
conduct of the present (king) was like his (4). .. The. -king 
said: " I wish to hear of the life of the great Kshupa* I 
shall try to lead a life like his" (5). The panegyrists said : - 
<C king, formerly the king Kshupa freed the kine and the 
Brihmanas from taxes. And that.high-souled one used to 
celebrate sacrifices with, the sixth portion of his revenue" (6). 
THE KING said : "What man like myself can immitate 
those high-souled kings. How can one like myself endeavour 
to follow their best conduct? (7). Hear what promise I 
have recently made. I shall immitate the conduct of that 
great king Kshupa (8), I make this. promise on this earth 
of four Varnas that I shall celebrate three sacrifices each 
ivith one corn (9). I shall return the taxes to the Brati- 
manas and the kine which they had paid before to the 
king (10). " 

MARKANDEYA said; Having promised this Kshupa- satis- 
fied it That foremost, of those who celebrate sacrifices, 
performed three sacrifices with one corn (n). He 

to other Brihmanas and- kine equivalent tp the 
the rents paid to him by the Brihmanas and the kine 
That king begat on his queen Pr^matha a highly heroic and 
praiseworthy son by whose prowess and bravery all the Kings 
were brought to subjection (13). Nandini, of Vidharbha, 
became his wife ; that lord begat on her a son by name 
Vivingsha (14)' While the highly powerful Vivingsha govern- 
ed the earth, its whole surface was continually filled to the 
brim with people (15), The clouds discharged showers in 
proper time and the earth yielded harvest. The corns were 
ripe and the fruits were juicy (16). All the juices conduced 
to the nourishment and this nourishment was nqt converted 
into the instrument of madness for any , one. r Although 
coming by immense riches people were not inflated with 
pride (17). great Muni, the enemies were terrified by his 
prowess and the friends, attaining health, were filled with 



clellght (18). Having celebrated many sacrifices, governed 
the earth well and been killed in a battle he attained to the 
region of Shakra (19). 


MJ : 

LARKANDRYA. : Hit son wan Khaninetra, endued 

with great strength and prowess* In his Yafna t the Gan- 

dhirvaSi filled with surprise, (l). There equal 

to Khaninetra on this earth in the of 

He celebrated an Ayut* of and a glit of thi 

earth with oceans (a)* Having a gift of the 

unto the high-souled Brlhmanaa, and having acquired 

by asceticism he released it (3). The riches* of thai highly 

charitable king, being multiplied the Brfthmanas had to 

accept gifts from, no other king (4), He collected 

gifts for sixty-seven thousand, sixty-seven hundred and Htxty* 

seven sacrifices (5). Maul, he bail no son* There* 

fore to collect meat for the performance of in 

of the Pitris for having a son he went out a-hunting (6) 

Without any solclierst he, alone on hornc back, with 

finger protectors, arrows, bow and nworiK <*f$teri*cl into a 

(7), As as lie urged oti hit* for 

elsewhere, ft deer out of the dittine forert t said to him s 

^Having slain me do you aic*om|>li*h your object" (H) 
Th king said : me the otimr cletr 

in fear ; why ire yo^ti, hacriltcing your^lf, for 

(9)? The said ; "O Icing, 1 110 

and therefore my bhih. Cl king t thus I see 119 

necessity |Oi living* '(to;. 


Thereupon coming there another deer said to him in the 
presence of the other deer "O king, there is no use of killing 
him (n). Slaying me, accomplish your work with my meat. 
Then only I shall achieve my object and be greatly bene*> 
fitted (12). O great king, you are willing to celebrate a 
sacrifice in honour of your manes for having a son. How will 
you thus accomplish your end with the meat of that deer 
Which has no issue (13). You should procure things befitting 
the work undertaken. By a bad smell, that of sweetsceirted!- 
articles is not determined ^14). . : 

THE KaNG said ; The deer has just mentioned 'to me 
the fact of his having no issue as the cause of "his disgust 
for the world; Relate now why you, out of disgust, wish 
to renounce your life (15). ' , 

THE DEER said ; I have many sons and many daughters. I 
always live in the midst of the forest fire of sorrow consequent 
upon anxiety for them (16). king, the der are always 
wry weak and are therefore brought under the control of *alt. 
I have a great attachment for my cliildrefi and accordingly I 
am very sorry (17), For I live in a perpeiual dfread of meu^ 
lions, trgtfr^ wolves, and others, even of the dogs and Jackals, 
O lord, who ire inferior to all creatures (|8), Therefore, fotf 
those children of mine, I always wish thatt the earth may be 
freed from the fear of men, lions, etc (19). Even for bringing ' 
them up I wish that the kine and horses, that graze on grass 
may meet with death (20). When my young ones go out 
itttd different directions, hundre'ds of thoughts possess me 
mind is full of attachment (21). (Methinks) my son, 
while wsrtung m the forest, is ekh^er ensnared in a net, or 
assailed by a thunderbolt or has been belaboured by meq or 
lidai (22). If ohe amongst them comes home (I always think) 
lf one has come perhaps others have wandered away into the 
great forest; what may be their state (23)," king, when all 
my sons come to me, I feel a little delighted and then begin 
to think of their well-being for the night (24). When the 



dawn sets ' in I pray for their well-being for all the day and 
when the sun sets I pray for the night* I always wish that 
they may mt&t .with well-being for all the hours of the 
day (25). 

I have thin related to you, O king, the cause of my 
Anxiety ; therefore show me the favour and discharge the 
shaft at me (26), I have thua described and you have heard 
k'in'jf, why being afflicted with a hundred miseries, I wish 
to renounce my life (27), Those, who lay violent hands on 
themselves, repair to the regions void of the sun. But 
lord, the beasts, of- sacrifices, attain ID better regions (28)- 
Formerly the fire became a beast and even Varna, the lord of 
waters, became so* , And then the sun too, meeting with 
death in the shape of a beast of sacrifice! attained io the 
rrgJon of Uchriti (29), Therefore, lord, me 

this Uchriti* And then obtaining a son, you wilt 
your object (30). > -. 

THE FIRST DEER said :~0 king, do not slay him j be has 
ihay sons and blessed and fortunate Is he therefore. There- 
fore, kill me, for I have no issue (31). 

THE SECOND DEER paid :~"Blaed are you, for you 
the misery for one body I have manv bodies nw! thwifotft 
innumerable are my sorrow* (31), When 1 I had 

one single misery on account of my attachment for my body* 
When 1 took a wife that mitery two*fold {jj) When 

the children were born the mtfteric* multiplied thcmntilveii 
proportionate to the number of their (34), Are you 

not blessed as you not yotir birth for 

save misery ? My birth in this world is for miseryand this 
wilt bring in impediments iit the next world (35)* And a* 
1 always think and try for the and 

of. my children 1 shall forsooth be born in licit (36)* 
s THE KlNO said :~0 I 41 

man f with sons, m m 110 I lmv 

undertaken thin for children f therefore my mind Ii 



full- of doubts (37). True, a son brings on miseries im 
this world and the next, but I have heard that a map, who, 
has no son, is involved in debts (38). Therefqre, O deec, 
without slaying any animal I shall engage in hard austerities 
for a sou like the former king (39). 


lARKANDEYA said : Thereupon repairing to the sin* 
destroying Gomati, the king, observing regulation, pleased the 
god Puraiulara (i). Having restrained the functions of th^ 
body, mind and speech and concentrating his mind, he, with 
lltrd penances, began to chant the glories of In^ra for a son 
(&} C) great -Muni, being propitiated by his asceticLsraj fa* 
votcoit and the recitation of hymns the god Indra said to him 
(3). "0 king, I have been pleased witb thee for thy ascetic 
observance^ devotion and the recitation of the hymns. Tell 
me, what boon you do pray for" (4). , '. 

THE KINO said .I am sonless, may a son be born to me 
and may he be the foremost of heroes, pious, religious a$4 
successful and may his prosperity never decrease (5). 

MARKANDEY* said : Sakra having said 'so be it* the ;king, 
obtaining -the accomplishment -of his object, returned to his 
own city for governing his subjects (6), There he engaged 
in celebrating sacrifices and governing his subjects w.elL By 
the tfavour of Sakra a son was born to him (7), His father, 
the king, gave him the name of Baiashwa and trained him in 
the use of diverse arms (8). After the demise of his father 
he sat ou the throne and became the king. BalSshwa brought 





1; J 






all the kings of the earth under his subjection {9^ Having 
taken the principal portion that king them all pay re* 

venues and governed all hi* subjects (10). Thereupon all 
those kings and his powerful kinsmen op and stripped 

the payment of revenue (n). They all t setting themselves up 
as independent kings in their respective kingdoms and grow- 
ing discontented, occupied the earth of the king (12). 
Muni, he, then growing weak, to live in his own city. 

All other kings made dissensions with him (10)* Ap- 
proaching hint all those kings, who were highly powerful and 
gifted with riches and various means, imprisoned the Em- 
peror (14)* When his city was beseized he grew angry. But 
having impoverished treasury and arms be very much 

poorly (15), O foremost of the twice-born f finding no 

mfeans for the protection of his array, ,11% with hit mind 
put- his .bftfid on his mouth and to sigh (10) 

Theft invoked by iiis ' --breatlr out tit 

ctyity of his hand hundreds of charioUtj serpents, and 

soldiers (17), That highly powerful and excellent army 
covered the city of the king, Muni (19), Then 

encircled by that huge and highly powerful army and 
out of his city the king vanqnithed them all (19), 
defeated them, brought .-thorn under subjection and 
pay tributes, that great king was crowned with 

tity (20), Aad from the of hit ori- 

ginated that army which destroyed the 
was called by the .(ax). He was 

friendly towards all tttimttjt. The king 
became famous in the worlds 

this army ,f row : virtue ht the of til terror* 

triken -people (23). 




ARKANDEYA said :~Viryachandra's daughter Veera 
eye ' br WS "' b 

her the 

vara the great king Karandhama (i). 

powerful kin, begat a son by name Aviksh ita 

renown on the surface of the earth ( 2 ). On his birh the 

consulted the astrologers, "Is my son born in d 

under ausp.c-ous stars (3)? Have the auspicious stars cast 

he* looks on the b.rth of my sons Have not the evil star, 

looked onh,m(4>? Having been thus accosted by thj 

king the astrologers said to him :~"This your highly power- 

ful, energetic and great sou is born in good conjunc- 

tton and under auspicious stars. O king, your son will be 

emperor (5-6). Residing in the seventh house Guru and 

Sukra have cast their looks on him. Sotna, living in the fourth, 

house, has cast his look on him (7). Residing at .a comer 

Soraa's son too has cast his look on him. But the Sun, 

Bhowma and Shani have not cast their looks on him (8). o' 

great king, your soo will be fortunate and will be endowed 

with alt auspiciousness and prosperity (9)." 

Having heard the words of the astrologers and havi ff 
ln mind filled with delight, the king, in his own house said 
to them (10) : "Amongst the gods, Vrihaspati,' Sukra, 'soma 
and hia son have cast their looks on him and the Sun", 
Mangala and Sani have not cast their looks on the boy (nj! 
Since you have repeatedly used the word 'AveHsha,ta (seen) 
my son will be celebrated on earth by (the name of Avik- 

MARKANDEYA said : His son Ayikshita was ^vell read 
in the Vedas and their divisions. He received the "knowledge" 
-of weapons from Kanwa'a son (13). That prince excelled 

[ j ff 

in beauty the two Aywtnis, in intellect Vrihnspati, in grace, 
the moon, in effulgence the sun, in gravity the ocean and 
in patience the earth. In heroism there was none equal to 
that high-soy led one (1415)* Him did accept in Swyamvara, 
Himadharma's daughter Vara, Sudiva's daughter Gouri, Vali*s 
daughter, LH&vati, Vecrabhadra'8 daughter Anibh&, Bhima's 
daughter Minyavati and Drtmbhft's daughter Kumudvati 
(1617). They all welcomed him in Swayamvarn. Having 
vanquished all the princes as well an the member* of their 
paternal family and if surfing to hi* own strength, that power- 
ful and heroic prince too, elided with i$k own ttrt*n^th t took 
them all by force (1819). Onc tin a time, Vainhftltm, of 
tiitc teeth, the daughter of Vibh&la, the king of Vidi^ha, Itetd 
her Swayamvara. H* wa not selected by hr. Therefore 
that (prince), proud of the &trengh having vanqui^hi^ci all 
the kings, 0' saint, carried her away by forw (2O~~2i). There- 
upon having been an'l i*U*at*cl iiv that proud prince, 
all those nutnberUsss king* bpok** to a<:li otii-r (22), * !>o ye 
allow this darnel to be carried away by one against so many 
powerful kin^H of one* caster, Oh t fit* on yr, () kin^s (*fj) 
He alone is a K^hatiiya wlit> savrs otx* when ass*uU*<i by 
powerful msiu, Others take this name* for notlun*; (:?4K flaw 
it your considcration t that ymi,iH>iti in a K^hatriya rt(v t do imt 
navit yourHelves from thin wic*kcr( ottu (t) O tube: in the 
eulogy that is chant<l by the portn, pan<%;yriu uiui prisoner** 
Make it O heroes, by d**iroyin| your -nimy (ah). You 

are all born in eminent famiHt;*. Krsnrlifiu to your iiiinll- 
do not an idle lomid of fin? word, in lit tho 

qwartert (27)* Who not IVar drtath ? Who 

immortal without fighting? Thinking of thin, tn^iiiiiifii 
ftboutd not be destroyed by tlt09t0 wltn tr*ttl<* in arnii 11 {|8) 
Hearing this and filled with rtwrnige the kings npuke to 

tnd took up th*ir weapcinti (:r Somr gt upon the 
Hy some rocb tht? i*lt*pliniii% t ^ini** hir*ii*% untl ottifr^ tttt 
tilled with revt?tigr t intltiwcil ihrm 



lARKANDEYA SAID: Thus tjie kings and princes, 
i order of battle, vanquished a good many of them, 
Witting for that time (i). Then there arose a dreadful 
encounter between him and them one with many kings and 
mighty princes, Muni (2). All those greatly powerful 
(kings) with swords, Saktis, club and arrows in their hands, 
(ought with him; he too fought with them all (3). That 
highly powerful son of a king, an adept in the use of arms, 
pierced them with a hundred fierce arrows. They too struck 
him with sharpened shafts (4). Some had their arms torn ? 
some had their heads sundered, some were wounded to the 
very vitals and others were struck on the breast (5). They 
sundered the trunks of the elephants and the heads of the 
and then again the horses of the other party's -cars? 
as well as their charioteers (6). The arrows, falling dowr^ 
sundered twain the shafts of the enemies. He cut off the 
iword of the enemies as w^ll as their heads by virtue of light- 
liaiidedness Their armours being shattered the prince killed 
the enemies. And seeing others wounded the /infantry left/ 1 
the battle-field (8). The entire host of kings being thus 
seven bundled heroes stood there determined 

meeting with death (9). They were all of respectable 
pedigree, elderly, heroic and modest, After all the solders 
had been defeated and taken to their heels, that son of the 
king* greatly worked up with anger, fought righteously with 
all those kings, approaching them ^one by one (1112). 
-highly powerful one attempted there to shatter their 
ptapotts and coats of m;pl ; they too, great Muni, worked 
tip with rage, renouncing righteousness, began to fight with 
him who was combating righteously. All the princes began 

to perspire like a forest filled with water (13 14), Some fie 
wouned with a collection of arrows ; and the armours of others 

were shattered by him and again lie struck down oil earth the 

standards of others (t$). Others killed the horse* and broke 

down the chariots and drove the charioteer with the of 

clubs and arrows (16), On his bow being the prince, 

in anger, took up his sword and and 

struck dowh by another (17). Having hit and shield 

shattered 'that one, the foremost of holding 

up his mace. And that too, one cut off with a 

headed arrow like one of a sure aim (18). Alt kings, 

ever avefrse to a fair fight, forming a trough, them* 

some with a thousand shafts, with a hundred 

(19), When assailed by many, he! being over-powered, felt 

down 0ft earth 5 princes bound htm 

(ao). Then having over-powered that by unfair 

they all* along with the kittf VishUa, entered the city of 

Vidisha (21). Having brought that prince bound, they all 

rejoiced and delightedly placed him before the maiden who 

had arranged for the Swayamvara (22)* She was again 

urged on by her father and the priest, saying <f choose any 

one amongst the kings as your husband" (23}* When 

that honoured damsel did not choose any one as her 

Muni! the the astrologer* for the 

(**ying) (^4) s "Tell me of a day which it suited for her 

marriage; to*d&y has sullied by a which has 

many (25)." 

MARKANDRYA said : Having by the 

king the of 

thlftMttg to him (6), fl be 

that will be for the (27)* 

confertor of honors you way the 

, cdmes. Is no of this m 

i hat 


LARKANDEYA said : Thereupon Karandhama heard of 
his .son being fettered as well as his wife and other heroes 
of his party (i). Then hearing of his son being taken 
away by unfair means by all the kings' of the earth, O 
great Muni, the king engaged in meditation (2). Some off 
the kings said that all those kings, by whom he had been 
fettered by unfair means in battle, should be slain (3)* 
tf Arrange soon the army 1 ' said others " what is the use oi 
waiting. The wicked Visbala should be slain as well as others 
who have assembled there" (4). Others said that the morality 
was not observed here by Avikshata, for she, not wishing 
him, was taken away by unfair force (5). In that Swayamvara 
where numberless kings (were present) that princess wa 
imposed upon by bim and he was overpowered by them all 
collectively 11 (6), < ; ; 

Hearing those words that heroic (queen) the mother of a heroic 
soothe wife of & heroic husband,and who had descended from 
a heroic family, was pleased; and she said before her husband 
and other kings :~~"The kings were treated well by my son 
who (always) does good. Taking away that girl by force and 
vanquishing all the kings, he fought for her. To fight with 
oat Alone is not fair. Besides, I do not see any blame on 
tit* part of my son that may lekd to the destruction of 
his glory (79). This constitutes manliness for him who 
not observe morality. Even a lion, who kills creatures, 
not consider it fair (10)* That maiden t who was present 
at the Swayam varawas taken away by my son in the presence 
of many respectable kings (n). Who, born in the race of 
ft Kshatriya, begs a practice resorted' to- by the mean- A 
Ktfhatriya takes (a thing) by force hi the presence^ of tfa6 _ 


powerful (12)- They (even), when fettered with iron 

and assailed, do not protection ; even the pious 

do (things) by force (13). Therefore, it ii to be 

sorry; praiseworthy is his being fettered and tin welt as the 

fall of weapons on your head* (14)* Even if taken 

thily the earth, son, wealth, wife preceptor* of the 

kings become sources of their gtc^ry (15), Therefore 

proceed quickly to the battle ; get up on your 

arrange without delay horses, elephant* and charioteer* (16). 

Are you thinking of the fight with many kings ? !)<;>*** a 

little fight lead to the satisfaction of a hernt* (17). Who I* 

not capable of fighting with a smalt number of kings, whom 

even the afflicted amongst the enemies not f?ar (18) ? 

He is the heroe who til the like the sun 

dispelling darkness 1 * (fcj)* 

MARKANDEYA, smid : O Mum, having ihtt* 

on by Ws wift f the king Kamndlmma made military arrange- 
ments for the destruction of his* son'* enemies* f^o). great 
saint, then there took place an encounter between the king 
Vishlla whose son had bi-rn imprison!fi and those innumerable 
kings (21), The* re continurd for thnrti dny the brittle 
between the king Kiirandh:im*i and all those kinv;^ following 
Vishftla(22}. After all the kings had clefeatrd, 

with Arghya in bin hand, arrived. Karandhama (23). 

Being wortfthip|Hui by that kiitg and pUt&Hml with liiitt utici on 
his son being released Karandhama the night 

(24)* When Vinhitt* with Ilie daitghteri arrived 
Avtkshita* lii^ fnilntr, for (25), 

f *0 ktng I shall not her or any other damsel, who had 

by others. I had in 

I shall confer her upon some* body Let 

fame In unswIIied|Wfio it powerful and has not 

by hi* pray for her (27)* 1 was 

by my tnemies and by tike a 

Where is manliness for me ? My not to 



her (28). Men are always independant, only the females are 
dependant* Where is manliness,for him who is dependant (29) ? 
How can he,who had been before her very eyes thrown on the 
ground by other kings, see her again. How can I see her 11 
(30) ? Having been thus addressed by his son the Icing said 
to him : "I have heard your word, O my son, high-souled as 
you are (31), auspicious damsel, select any other husband 
whom you like, O you of beautiful looks, I shall confer upon 
you a habitation wherever you like under the Sua" (32). 

THE GlRL said ; king, he has been defeated by many 
in a battle destructive of his fame and prowess. But they 
did not act fairly (33). Having confronted many in battle 
like a lion he displayed his most excellent heroism (34). He 
not only stood in battle. And although defeated by so many 
in battle he displayed his prowess (35). He is endowed with 
bravery and prowess. He fought with all the kings in fair 
battle but they vanquished him unfairly. Where is the shame 
then (36) ? father, it is not by his beauty only that I have 
to love hun,but my mind has been, attracted by his hero- 
ism, prowess aurl patienc'e (37). What is the u$&* of speaking 
mor&. Beg him for me, -0 king. , .Save this high-minded 
one, no one else shall be my husband (39), 

VlSHALA said :~0 prince, really my daughter has given 

vent -to most excellent words. There is no other prince like 

on the surface of the earth ^39). Incomparable is 

thy heroism and great is thy prowess. By taking this 

daughter of mine, do thou purify my race (40). 

THE PRINCE said: king, I shall not take her nor any 
other damsel The thought of a woman shall be concen- 
trated on me only, king (14). 

MARKANDEVA said : Thereupon Karandhama said : "0 
my son, take her ; the fair daughter of Vishaia has been firmly 
attached to thee" (42), The prince said :*"() lord, 1 had 
never before violated thy command. Therefore order me, 
my father, I shall carry out thy mandate" (34). (Beholding) 



the prince firmly made up aginst his daughter Vishala, 
his mind agitated, said to her (44) : " Take away your 
mind, daughter, from him. Select any other husband. 
There are many other princes" (45). 

THE GIRL said i " father, if he does wish to take me, J 
shall, after carrying on penances, pray for this boon that even 
in other births, I may not have any other husband" (46), 

Thereupon having spent there in delight three days, the 
king Karandhama repaired to his own city (47), Having 
been consoled by his father, other kings and the cituens, 
with various tokens Avikshita too repaired to his own city 
(48). Repairing to woods, divorced from her own relations, 
abstaining irorn food and cherishing most excellent di*gut 
for the world that maiden too carried on penance* (49), 
Abstaining from food for three months and suffering from 
great affliction she was reduced and her veins were weakened 
(50). Having lost all energy and desirous of dying that maiden 
princess, of a slender body, made up her mind to forsake 
her life (51). Thereupon coming to know that she had made 
up her mind to put an end to herself the celestials sent 
their emissary to her (52). Approaching the princess the 
emissary said to her. i' Hear, for wht f have ben sent 
to you by the go Js (53). You should not renounce the bo4y 
which it is BO difficult to get ; you will be the mother of * 
Lord Paramount (55). great !*dy, having .bin ali hi 
enemies, and with his commands never battled he will enjoy 
for long this earih consisting of *ven insular continents (55) 
H will kill first TtrujMhe enemy of the god* M writ' a* 
the dreadful Ayu.Sh.nka. And he will establish hi* 
w morality (56). By him will be slab the robben, 
as well as other wicked people (57). lady, he will 
various sacrifices, sixty-thousand in number, such * horse, 
sacrifice and others, finished with profuse gifts (68), 

Beholding him stationed in the sky and Kiwi with 
celestial garlands and ptt* the prioceM said r ,,tly to the 


t g (59) ' " TrUe ^ b ' emissar y of s, 
that l,ou hast come here from the celestial region. Therel no 

doubt m this But how without a husband a son will be bora 
to me (60)? I have taken this vow in the presence of my that save Avikshita no one else will be my husband even 
w another birth (Gi). He does not (however) want me. He 

was requested by my father, by Karandhama, as well as by 
myself" (62). y 

THE EMISSARY OF THE GODS said : -What is the use of 
of speaking more, great lady? A son will be born to 
thee.^ Do not commit the sin of renouncing thy own life (63). 
Live in this forest and nourish thy weak body. By virtue of 
asceticism thou shalt fare well (64). 

Having said this the emissary of the gods repaired where 
he came from. That lady of beautiful eye-braws daily 
nourished her own body (65). 


said > Thereupon the heroic mother f 
Aviktblta, a mother of heroic soas, summoning him on an aus- 
picious day, said (r), "Q my son, I shall fast for observing the 
0w of Kimichaka* I have been ordered by your high-souled 

sire (3). This is within the power of yourself and myself. 
If you promise, my so% I shall take thevo\v(j). I shall 
confer upon you the half of your father's treasure. The 
wealth is your father's (no doubt) but I have obtained per- 
<niii$!9a from him (4). The vow, although a very hard one, fa* 
til my power aad will produce well-being. Even if you can 


accomplish it by putting forth your power and energy t 
if it be beyond your power, or you can accomplish it with 
dtfficutty f still if you promise it, O my son, f shall get It 
speak out your mind* 1 (5-*-6). 

AVlKSHiTA said : "Wealth Is in my father'* 
I am not its master. Whatever can he accomplished by rny 
body, I shall d0 it at your command (7). You wilt accom* 
plish your Kimichaka vow, O mother, if you 
the permission of my father, the king who is the of 

riches* Remove your anxiety and sorrow" (8) Thereupon 
the queen began to observe ihe vow* With word*, body 
and mind restrained she h*gan to worship the king of kings, 
the numberless Nidhfo, th protectory thereof and an well an 
Lakahmi, (the of richen) with devotion (f|***!O}* 

The* Karandhama, while be **nt(d it* hit 

was thus addressed by big ministers wellvttr*cd in tilt 
science of Polity (it), 

THE MlNISTKRS said ; 0' king, governing the earth you 
,' have grown old. You have only one son Avikshita who haft 
made up his mind not to take a wifr (o), Whilo that 
sonless (prince) shall engage in rdlgimt** prartirr*!, () king, 
the earth shall forsooth into the hands of your rnemictit 
(13). ' You race will be exterminated ami tin* unrrstiral 
manes will be deprived of water ami FInil;i, Thin grout feur 
of the enemies will put obntstcta* in yowr r^ligtotw 
(.14). Therefore accm!ptih tlut, O king* by which your 
cherigh a desire to Ilit wll*Wiif 0S 


MAtKANDifA aid;~In the th 

the words addrefmi!d by the prirnt to tb* (i6j. **Wlio 

what? Whtit w thurn which il will IM: (or 

t*> achieve Karandhama 1 * i the vor 

(i7) ff the tKe 

Avitefcita natd to all the tt the 

(18), l Ltt one ay lit I 




accomplish it with my body. My great 
the vow of Kimichaka (16). Hear O 
that I shall give whatever you will w ai 
Kimichaka is being observed (by my mother). 

Thereupon hearing these words given vent to 1 
the king approaching him said: son lam 
Give me what I wish" (21). ' 

AV.KSH.TA said :-Te,l me, O father, wha t I shall have to 
give you, even ,f ,t be very difficult to procure, whether 
within my power or not." (22). weuier 

THE K,NG said:-" If you are truthful, give me what 
wish Show me the face of my grandson seated <m my 
lap (23). 

AV.KHHITA said :-~I am your only son, king, and am Ob- 
servmg a life of celibacy. How can I show you the face of 

a grandson? (24), 

THE KING said ;~The life of celibacy, that you are 
li taking you to sin. Therefore release yourself 
from that and ihow me a grandson (25). ' 

AviKSHlTA said: This i* a difficult thing, O king; 
IM for some thing, else, Retiring from the world 'l 

up associating with females (46). 

THB KING said ; I have been seeing my many enemies 

Off victorious. Still if you wish to retire from the 

you are an ignorant man (26). What is the use til 

more ? Give up your life of celibacy. Show me 

and your mother the face of a grandson (28). ' 

MARKAND&YA said '.Although repeatedly reqtiested'by 

his ion the king did not pray for any thing else. "The son 

then said (29). " Offering to give you what you w!lt 

| have fallen into a great difficulty, '0 father,* therefore, 

shameless, I shall take a wife (30). Before a' female 

I; was vanquished and thrown on earth. I shall be again 

tit hatband of a woman. father, 'it is a very hard thing 

(for me) (31)* Still what shall I do ? I- havfc cbme wftfcM 



the fold of truth, I shall do what you say ; govern your own 



tARKANDEYA said:- Once on ft time while roaming 

a-hunting in the forest, the prince,, having killed deer, hoars, 
tigers and other animals, heard all on a sudden the voice of 
a female, (saying) : "save me j P bewailing In 

piteous accents suppressed by (t 2) "Don't 

fear! don't fear 11 that prince quickly urged -on hii ateed to 
whence the ' sound proceeded (3)- There bewailed the 
damsel In that lonely forest being caught firm by the hair by 
the son of Dami (4). (She said) <f A non-aryan is taking me 
away in this forest who am the wife of the intelligent king 
Av&kshita, the son of Karandhama (5)* All the king*, (Jan* 
dharva*, a well as Guhyakas are not capable of xtanding 
before him* I am hi* wife and am bring carried away (6). 

He the anger of death and prowens of Sakra. I am Ihft 

wife of that son -of K&randhatnft and am 

away (7)." 

MAHKANDRYA *aid: Hearinflf thin flint princ c wlw had 

the .bow in his hand, thought. <f llw in this? My wife in the 

forest (8), Forsooth thin in th* tllun*ion of the wicked 

Rlkuhtsas who live in the fortnt* Or who han come h^re? 

1 shall ascertain the of alt (tj), 11 

Going ftfteedily he In that a 

maiden aciormttl with ill onumifntH. 

by the buir by the on of !>anu y with a dwti in hit twntil aw! 

was exclaiming m*\ me 1 " (fo~!i), 


[ : "Don't fear, don't fear. He is already slain. The 
king Karandhama governing the earth what wicked man cair 
live here ? All the kings of the earth have -been humbled 
by hie prowess" (12). Beholding him approach, with a-n ex- 
cellent bow in his hand, that slender-made damsel said "Save 
mt I save me ! I am being carried away by him. I am the 
daughter-in-law of the king Karandhama and the wife of 
Ayikslrita. I have a lord but am being carried away by this 
wicked (demon) like one who has none" (1314). 

MARKANDEYA said: Thereupon Avikshita began to 
consider the words given vent to by her. (He thought) 
"How is she my wife and the daughter-io law of my father 
(15)? I shall first release this fair one and then ascertain the 
cause. The Kahatriyas hold their arms for saving. the dis- 
tressed (l6V J Thereupon the heroe, worked up with anger, 
said to that highly wicked demon : "Live and go and let her 
alone; or else you will not live" (17). Thereupon releasing her 
and taking up his club the demon ran towards him. He too 
Covered him with shafts (18). Having been covered with ar- 
rows, that demon, excited with pride, hurled his club, coated 
with a hundred goads, at that prince (19). While it was 
about to fall (on him) the prince cut it into pieces with his 
arrows Then taking it up immediately with a loud cry 
Dama stood in the battle-field (20). Creating a down pour of' 

he discharged them at Dama He too cut them into 
pieces, with pikes shot off his bow (21). Then the demon dis- 
charged a stone at the prince. That too, discharged by his 
light handedness, fell down baffled on earth (22). The prince 
easily cut into' pieces .with arrows all the weapons that 
the demon hurled at him in anger (23). Thereupon having 
his club and all the weapons broken, the decoon, clenching 
Ms first, ran towards the prince (24). Thereupon cutting off 
his head, who fell on him, with a Vetasa leaf the prince threw 
it on the ground (25). That wicked demon being slain all 
the gods began to praise Karandhama 1 ? son saying f well 



M? i 




done ! well done j" 
saying "pray for a 

) k On by the 

"pray for a boon*" the prince said lf l pray for a son, 
highly powerful, for encompassing the of my 

.sire (27)." 

THE GODS said ; ="0 sinless one, you will a highly 

powerful son, a lord Paramount, on this girl by 

you (28). 

THE PRINCE said :I have this by my sire 

that I shall wish for a son. Bat thrown clown on 

by the kings I gave up all of a wife 

I did renounce the daughter of king Vtshlia ; she too for me 
has declined to take any oilier husband (joj. Tell file 
how leaving aside the daughter of VUhala 1 * 

faearted person, take any other woman as my (31) ? 

THE GODS said : She is your of you 

so highly, the daughter of Vtsbala .having fair 
who is carrying on penances for you (35). On her you will 
beget a heroic son, who will conquer the seven insular conti- 
nents, perform a thousand sacrifices and who will be Lord 
Paramount (33). 

MARKANDEVA said :-Q twine born one, having said this 
to Karandhama's son the gwln wrol it way. lit* tew then ft,tu! 
to his wife: "0 timid ^lady, what in this* (34)?" Sfttt 
said to him : "Having been forsaken by you nnit Irft h<ltim! 
all my p people, I came here out of digitHt of mind 
Here, heroe, having my body wMlt<riutl by turd *t' 
I was about to renounce my Hfn when nil of ttti* 

gods brought me the inteiligtsntto (36). "Ymi will 
to a highly powerful son who will tie Ltw! I 1 
will satisfy the gods and dent ray itw di*mmt 
been thus informed of tb command of Itut tiy 

emissary I did not renounce my life with tlie tit 

united with you (38), Day O ott*. 

I went to the Ganges to bathe* An m i got 1 
\Yas overpowered by at old (39). { W j 



by Mm to Rasltala. There thousanrds of serpent^ their 
wives and sons pleased me and others adored me ; then the 
serpents and their females humbly prayed to me (40 41). 
11 Show us the favour of preventing your son from slaying 
m who will offend him (42). The (serpents) living on air 
will commit offence by your son. You should pervent him. 
Show us this favour" (43). After I had said 'so be it- I was 
tdorned with beautiful ornaments of Pitala flowers, scents 
and heavenly raiments (44). Then I was brought here by the 
serpent equally beautiful and graceful as I was before (45.) 
Setting me thus beautiful and adorned with ornaments this 
highly wicked demon caught me by the hair with a view to 
carry me away (46). prince, I have now been released 
by the strength of your arms, you of large arms; be 
pleased and take me. There is no other prince on this earth 
like you, I speak the truth (47). 



said :< Hearing thus her words attd 

rtmefttbering the excellent words of his father which the king 
alter Ee had taken the vow of Kimichaka the prince 
Aiikshita said to the maiden. <r I have my mind always 
attached to you ; for you I renounced all sorts of enjoyment; 
An I forsook you of slender body on being defeated by* the 
enemies so I have again, obtained you after havitfg van- 
cjiiiffbecl my foes. Tell me what I shall do 11 (t 3). 

THE MAIDEN said; Do ttfou accept my hand in thra 
charming forest. The ut&icin, of one willing' with anottbef 
equally willing? produces good results (4). i 


THE PRINCE said ; -May good betide you. Providence 
is the instrument in this or why have we met elsewhere (5)? 

MARKANDEY* said: In the meantime, O Muni, Gan- 
dharva Tunaya came there acompantcd by mast excellent 
Apsaras and Gandharvas (6)* 

THE GANDIIARVA said: prince, site in my beautiful 
daughter by name Bhftmini* By the imprecation of 
she became Vinh&la's daughter (7). By her childish 
she excited the wrath of Agastya who imprecated a 
(on her saying), fl Be you a woman" (8), We 
pleased him, saying : " O Saint, she is a girl. 

You should forgive her and show un the favour" (*)}. 
propitiated by us the great Muni sale! : -" Considering her 
as a child 1 a smalt ; while 1 tt 

it shall never be otherwise" (to). Then by the 
Agattya my fair girl is" bora as MUtoitu in the of 

Vishlla (n). For her I have here* Take this 

my daughter. She will give birth to your son who will be 
Lord Paramount (12). 

MAKKANDKYA said :~ Having said ' HO be it 1 the prince 
duly accepted her hand, Tamvuru performed Homa there 
(13). Gods and Gandharvas sang there -the climcec^ 

the clouds showered flowers and the celestial instruments 
were' sounded (14)* There at the of the 

prince all the protectors of wealth who are the 
the of prosperity (15). O Munt, then they *]{, 'without 

any exception, went to the of the 

with that high*ouled one. The prince and 
accompanied them (i6) The prince 

In the company of Bh&mint. too in hi* c- 

]oyrd various objects of denire (17). tic 

with her la the of the city and on the 

(f 8) on the 0! a river 

with' and and In the 

at the ot the (19). He f 

that 'slender-made damsel and she with that high-souled 

ope, sported day and night in various charming countries 

(20). The Munis, Gandharvas and Kinnaras brought for 

them there various edibles, pastes, raiments, garlands and 

excellent drinks (21). That good damsel gave birth to a son 

for that heroe spending his days happily .with Bhamini 

in the region of Gandharvas unattainable by others (22). 

forenvost* of men, on that highly powerful son being born, 

there took place a great festivity of the Gandharvas (23). 

Some of them sang, some played on Mridanga, trumpets 

and Anaka and some played on Venu, Vina and other 

musical intruments (24). There danced innumerable Apsaras, 

the clouds dischanged showers of flowers and the wind blew 

getuly (25), When there arose a great tumult Tumvura, 

bdn^ thought of by Tunaya, came there and performed the 

ydlftkannu ceremony, Muni (26). 'There came the gods and 

the immaculate celestial saints and the leading Nagas headed 

by Seaha, Vasuki and Takshaka from Patala (27). And came 

ft!! the leaders, foremost of the twice-born, of the gods, 

Astira*, Yuktthas and Gukyakas and all the Vyus (28). The 

great city of the Gandhacvaa was agitated by all the Rishis, 

fjodtf, Danavas, Pannngas and Munis, who had come there 

(2g} Having performed all the ceremonies -consequent on 

the birth of the child Tumvaru undertook the performance 

of a benedictory rite preceecled by eulogy (30). "Dothou, 

becoming a Lord Paramount, highly powerful, energetic an<i 

mighty-armed, rule over this endless earth for a long time 

(31), May Sakra and all the gods, all the Lokapalas and 

Rights, do good, heroe, to your prowess destructive of 

your enemies (32). May Marut do you good, and may it 

blow with no dust before it And the pure southern "wind 

shall blow gently for you (33). The Western Marut will 

give you most excellent energy -and the northern Marut 

will give you great prowess (34)-" After the completion of 

this benedictory rite a voice, without any body, said " there 


win DC rnaoy iviaruts for you as inc precrpcor lias said. 

And accordingly he will be celebrated on earth by the name 
of Marutta (35). AH the kings on earth will carry owl his 
command. And this heroe will be at the hear! of ill kings 
(36). Having subdued all the king* this highly powerful 
Lord Paramount will enjoy, without any obstruction, the earth 
consisting of seven insular continents (37), He will be the 
head of all the fcinjj* celebrating and lie will 

all the kings In heroism and energy (38), 

MARKANDEYA *aid ;-~H earing the wards of the 
expressed through one all the Vtprai, and 

aa well as his parents were delighted (39). 


LARKANDRYA said :~Thcrepon taking that clfar son and 
followed hy Vipras and Gandharvat on foot tin* prinrc w*nt 
to his own city (i) Having r^ndinl his fathfr'H IHIUM* h 
saluted his feet with rev*re*nrf, And m tfir! thi* hafthfut ifiln* 
bnilt princess (2)* Th*n taking thrt by flw prtncf s.t! to 
klftK Karandhama d on the fliront* 0! fiwiir^ in tint 
of all (3). "Behold now tin* for* of yr 

on your lap m promised by me in th* V ow 

, 6f my mother 11 (4), Having sid thN and plai^d tin* boy 
on Ms father's lap he elf scribed, In fqll, evi^rythmf; to him (5), 
ht* and titt ry^^ fillH wttli 

tMttt of lay he and highly of iar , 

ing I am (6)* 11 Thereupon i v *ry other 

lie with 

who bad come there (7), Therein 
there took place jn the houses of all citizens a great ferity,, 
who all thought, " A son is horn to ,us and not to him (8) 
That city being delighted and filled with the singing and 
and music of beautiful damsels, other women, of exquiste 
beauty, began to dance (9). The king delightedly ^ade 
tittto the leading twice-born gifts of jewels, riches, kine, rai- 
tients and ornaments (10). That hoy grew up like the moon 
In the light half of the month. He gave delight |o bis parents 
and was loved by his people (n). Muni, he first took 
lessons it) the Vedas from the preceptors and then in number- 
less scriptures and then in the science of archery (12). He 
was always energetic in the use of swords and bow ; and th^t 
heroe never felt tired in the use of other weapons too (13). 
Thereupon, Vipra, being humble and reverent towards his 
preceptor he took lessons in arms from Bhargava of Bhrigu's 
race (14), Having learnt the use of arms, mastered the 
Vftdas wad seen the other end of archery he became highly 
in all branches of learning (15)5 Vishala too, 
having heard all of his daughter and of the proficiency o,f fc$r 
sort, had his mind filled with joy (16). Having seen his grand- 
ton and obtained his desired-for object the king performed 
many sacrifices and gave away gifts to many (17). Having 
performed many ceremonies, the king, gifted with strength 
and intellect (as he was) and (ever) vanquishing his enemies/ 
piously ruled the earth with the help of his own caste people 
(l8)f Then desirous of returning into tfie forest he said to 
lls ."son Avikahita. "Q son, I have grown old, I shall there- 
fore) go to the forest ; take from me this kingdom (19). I 
no other (desire) save your installation. Do yoq tf&e 
from me this well established kingdom which I offer you" (30). 
Thus accosted by his father, the prince Avikshita, haying 

forest for carrying on penan- 
> father, I shall not rule over 

I humbly 


this earth* My mind does not find pleasure in 



Appoint (therefore) another man (22), Wh ft I en- 

chained I released by my father not by my own 

prowess, Where is then man Ittteis (or me ami tho earth 
Is to be governed by manliness faj), How can I, who couM 
not protect my earn sr!f preserve this earth ? Therefore tbb kingdom upon some body rU (24). How attt 
the man, who liar! bot*tt ovrrpownrcil by oilier?! and who hud 
been released by you from the haw, oharrve the cif 

his own order? How can I, who haves the nature of a 
be a king (25)., 

TilP tVtilllti said >~ T!nn* 5* ncMii ttim'ttim hi Uvffn <i 
father and n *um. A* i/* tin* Uihrr to {4 llir* jmn. o hero% 
ycni vurr** not ff !<Mrd bv any ui rht* but tty your f*t!h*T ( JO*. 

Tilh ON* r n\H>' *t> i%ift^! I r.itiiiiif cli4ti|; my mind liit*f- 
\\lm\ 1 hMt H a jjirat fiinriwi in my mtiut I 

tdSiyywi (>7\ ili% \ifin rtpy% Urn by lils 

f^tlief! \vhoha** tti^ti M\i*d (mm ctiHirulty by Im f;ilher f 
naM* is UMdt* ktitnvii by hi* f.iflii r is n*t barn in thr ran* of 


who a 

|rlvr*% thr -| n !''r * ! 

MAU!% \rM t v \ i; 

iiiiwl-il |\ li i | tils i 

1 1 

u It -it n !. 

, Jilt lh * 4 iii t 1 4 


if .\n * I.M.I: 

I I llVl, ho'U hi. 

|V 'I !,;** L it ^ ' 

I .'Itl'f d fii *Vt>d * tt4 ! * 

ftff tllllfiil 1 " |*?**iin ^ 

ft* iilf 

^ if* 

!*)<!*'* in I i npuMn ,, "ti <l *i ursi\m^' t*4 ,u$, 

4 s * I^|l4l }'*'.tT ; || , \' ; 'j ; !**** . * t f I**;;***!! 
Iff |t| It u\^H, *.J^ la.* I nt$ h ill -. i.U 

in tilt Jl f 4f|J4l 4 4 ill lil^ *l il Ifir* 

of the lift in 




_^EOUSHTHUKI said : revered Sir, you have describ- 
ed to me in full the story of Karandhama'as well as that of 
Avilcshita (t). I wish now to hear the story of the high- 
souled king Marutta, Avikshita's son. I have heard he was 

greatly energetic, lord Paramount, noble, heroic, beautiful, 
highly intelligent, conversent with piety. He performed mariy 
religious acts and governed well the earth (2 3). 

MARKANDEYA said: Having obtained the kingdom from 
his grand-father with the consent of his father he governed 
it piously like a father taking care of his own begotten sons 
(4)* He duly performed many Yajnas terminated with gifts 
and gladly carried out the command of Ritwikas and priests 
(5), His wheel was unobstructed in the seven insular c*n- 
and his movement was unimpeded in heaven, Patala 
mA water (6). Having obtained riches, O Vipra, be duly 
performed his own action* and propitiated the gods headed 
by Indra with Yajnas <J). The inferior castes too zealously 
engaged in their respective duties, and performed, with the 
wealth obtained from him, Rishtha and Purtha ceremonies 
(8), The earth being governed by the high-souled Marutta 
the celestial region, with its inhabitants, grew prosperous, 
foremost ofthe twice-born (9). He not only surpassed all 
tit kings of the earth but with sacrifices even the king of 
the gods, the performer of a hundred Yajnas (10). His 
was the high-souled ascetic Samvartta, the son' of 
Angiras and tte brother of Vrihaspati (n). He broke down 

the golden mountain Munjavan, where the celestials used 
** .... *.tji* /_ \ /*% 

to go for he had pilfered 

twice-born one, by giving 

all the 

the conch shell oE that king (i2\. 
lands in his Yajna he 
(13). All the Rtshis sing fully th'e" 

Mag on this earth who can perform Yajnas like Manilla, in 
whose Ya/na all the Ristiis have been (15), He 

distributed Soma juice amongst all the heaied by 

Shakra and Dakshtn&s amongst alt the twice-born (16). In 
the Yafxa of what king like thai of Maruita will the twice- 
born one aside profuse gold in filled with 
(17) ? All his of All the 
Varna* gained something or other from him and equally 
it away (18)* All men, who had their achieved with 
the remnant left off by hint, performed many Yajnas 
mth in different countries (it)). O foremost of Munis, white 
he wan and governing his jtubject* an 
him ami said (20) : H) king, having a of a*c<rfctcft 
assailed by the of with your 

to you 

governed the your grand*fither bat 10 

I too, of carrying on am living In the 

hermitage of Urvl (32). O king, yourself gmwrnin); llir* king- 
dom of your gMnti-fathrr, I HC an irregnltirity (th;it nevc?r 
took place iluiing th* rr|;r*mc of) ynur prrdrcrnsors (*\i) 
For^ooth^ you have hrnt h!inHv *tt;ti:Iiril in llie itttjffts of 
esij>ym<*tit Mai It;ivr hint all omttol ov^tr tieiiitn!, niiirc* yn$t do 
not utiderHtand win* itrr wirki*4 and w}$n un* mil <,J|). Hivtiig 

friiiti IMlIb ihr %t*r|>ftiiin h,iv* Intt^n Muni 

anil vitifUfd the water (15), 11i*i f lmv* 4lv> tlr^rrsini ttm 
ptirtfted Havi wirtt tirtiif, rit:, fVrcnviii); ywir 

do you fot**l to th* seffirtiH ^*) lltrttt 

art uf ttit 

at in tli4t ii (^/', 1) , 

t|t ctf tbe 10 *nj0y iw i lie 

of mil fait eti {.?% |Ttif 

tttifk) v **Wfi0 ire my Who ii ny 

I* tie 01 the 

Wit Who *rt py ? tie on my 


with the enemies 


Who to be punished? Who is to be 
per*,* should be looked aftet by me (3 ,) ? 



Having his 

should spend his 

not indulge in enjoyments (34). 
venot for enjoyment but J.uffenng 

^ 3 ^' If 

r r duties ' he 

troub e ln tlus world bufc atta . n . ^ 

x u t r f; nding this and reiinqu 

,, , p : otoise to underg 
, l 7)< TOi great calato ^ f 

that has fcome from be ^ents tofag yo 
tapir, OklhjfW. Wh^Hstfc^e^a 
Jet paniahnaeht on th wfeked attd protect fhe goW. 
the tang and ate ehtittted to th-e sixth portion of virtue 
By no tprotettin* than and subduing the Wicked yon 
be vmfted by all sids. Do this ff yen like (40). I have 
communicated all to you. I am your grknd-motheh Do 
if you like, king (41). 






LARKANDEYA said :~~ Hearing the words of the 
the king was filled with - shame. Then saying, " Fie* on roe 
who am negligent 11 and sighing tie -up ttis (f). 

Thereupon' speedily repairing to the hcrmitaij* of tie 

touched the feet of hU father 1 * mother VcctS wuhbialMsul 
(2)>. The ascetics too duly wt'lcomrcl him, IWiitititifg the 
seven Rtshis bitten by the serpent* on ih* ground th King 
blamed himself in their presence, He saM-- 1 ' May the ttlh-<$ 
world with gods, demons ami men *re how J with the 

wicked serpents who have ditegnrled my aiid 

proytd hostile to the Brlhmtimi (35). 

MARKAMDBYA said; Having uniJ thi t the king, in 
took up. the weapon called Snmvartaka for the d^tturti*n 
of the innumerable serpents living in P&t&Ia (6). Tlu:r<?upo 
Vipra, there was a conflagration all around th % city of 
Nagas, on its being continually burnt down l>y the t'ITilj;cnce 
of the great weapon (7)* Being assailed hy (hat weapon the 
serpents began to give vent to in ** O lather 1 O 

mother l- child J " (8). Same with, their tails biiriit, 
with their hoods burnt, taking their wives anil will 

them, keeping aside their .ornaments < And and re* 

Bouncing Pallia proceeded to with I!lilniit$i t 

the mother of Manilla, who htcl formerly immmrcl them 
protection (910), Having approached her Alt, 
with fear, saluting her, with ** R*nurm* 

ber what you said to us before (n) f Formerly we wnltip'* 

you in RasStala for something; the time for that is 
4MM&& Save us, mother 0{ (12)* O queen, stop 

y4ttr ion t save our lives* The of lite 

I being burnt down by tbtfirtof his (13). 

by your son. Ha?e pity on us, illustrious lady 11 (14). 

Hearlttg their words and remembering her former words 
the chaste lady addressed the following words respectfully 

to her husband (15). 

BHAM1NI said :-* Formerly ia Patala, the serpents wel- 
coming- you adressed to you some words regarding your 

(16)* They are now being consumed by his energy and 
come here in fear* Formerly I promised them protec- 
tion (17). Those who have sought my protection have also 

sought your protection for observing the same religious life 
with you I am now under your protection (18). Therefore 
your son M&rutta. At your words and requesting me 
he will, forsooth, be pacified (19), 

AVIKSHITA said: For their great iniquity Marutta has 
worked up with anger. Irrepressible is the ire of my 
son, I think (20), 

THK SKRPKNTS saicl : O king, we have sought refuge 
Do thou show us the favour ; the use of arms is 
for the of tht afflicted (ai) 

said :-He*rtag the wordd of the 

for protection tad being requested by blsntite 

the highly illustrious Avtkshita said : (22), " O gentle lady* 

1 go *nd request ysur son to save the serpents* 

who protection, should never be forsaken (23)1 

If tit not withdraw hi* weapon at my words I shall 

tht weapon of my son. with mine" (24)* 
Themupon taking tip Us bow, Avikshtta, the foremost of 
' left for the hermitage of Bhargava along 

with his wife (as). 


LARKANDKYA said : He aw his nott with a 

lent bow, his its fire til lie 

quarters, vomitting fire the 

earth and reaching the of tad 

dreadCw! (12)* the face of the 

he said : " You not be O } tale 

your weapon (3), (as you are) you 

carelessly broken down the order 

the words of his and at him It 

with his bow, Mm ;~ f< 

the serpents me *y 

, rule they, disregarding and to 

(tamitage) hate the (6)* O 

my regime, these wicked (serpents) spoiled the Mavis 

kept In the hermitages of the asceticn (7), They all 
also spoiled the tanks. For this, C) father, you not 

speak any felling, You should not stop me front slaying 
serpents, the killers of (8). 

AVIICSIIITA said;~~lf they thn they 

wiU go to hell Now my ni 

your weapon (9). 

MARUTTA $tl : I too ulto g0 10 hell if I 4& itt 

tiy to bring the to bay, 1)0 not wtt 

fore^O father (xp). 

^ AVIKSHITA aaid : All 

with me* Out of honor to me do you yew 

.What Is the use of ? (n), 

, 1 HAWTTA said ;~I shall 

wit have committed a ; y WR 

dlftf |0w fttt 1 your (u). A lwi f wbt 




those who dd&erve puimhnteat and protect^ those 
who are good, attains to sac@rd regions. One, who negtecla 
fbit duty, goes to hell (13). 

MARKAMDBVA said ;~AIthough he was thus repeatedly 

prevented by his father the son did not withhold Ms weapon, 

Ht then again said (14^ ; Although prevented by me you 

art still beot upon killing the serpents, who ia fear bavo 

refuge with roe* :I shall then adopt "the remedial 

(15). I have 'also learnt the use of arms; it fe not 

you alone who are at expert in it. O kicked one, what is 

your proweess before me (16) ? 

M^EKANDEYA said : foremost of Munis, thereupon 

Avikshtta, with his eyes reddened with rage, took up the 

Kda (17), He them .set to the -bow the highly 

and most excellent weapon of Kala capable of 

burning clown the enemies (i&). Assailed by Samvarta 

weapon the earth was agitated. And when the Kala 

was taken up all the mountains were agitated 

the deadly weapon uplifted by his fetfccjt 

tloids*** 11 ! have taken up tbif' v$ap&p,, $0$ 

the wicked *od not for kitting you. Why do' 'yw 

discharge the deadly weapon ' at me, your soa f 

of his own duties and always obedient to yoti 

3i)? great one, my duty is, to protect my subects,; 

lor destruction have you taken up this weapon (22) ? . 

AVIKSHITA said:- ^1 have made this exertion for prc*-' 

them who have sought my shelter , Thou- art th^ir 

do not save me (23)* Either having slaiq.,me' 

tbd prower of your weapon do thou kill the wicked 

or having slain thee -with the strength of my arms 

1 tbe-.gtaat strpeat? (24)*; fie on the. life 

ol that man who does not help "him who,, seeks his h^Itp t r 

if he be one of the enemies (25), . i'-am a Kshatriya 

ti m have sought my shelter'; thou art their enemy. 

thou not be staia by me (36) ? 

MARUTTA said : He, in in tlw* 

of governing the be he a a 

or the preceptor* be by the I 

therefore strike thee, O father* D0 not tie I am 

observing my own duty and am not with 

MARKANDEYA, said ^Thereupon 
bent upon killing one all the 

others came (29), TVy to : *'You 

not discharge your at your and you not 

also kill your son of illustrious 

MARUTTA : The ba by me 

the earth should be protected, are 

Where is my folly, O ye twice-born (31). 

AviKSlliTA said : * My al*o If 10 
have sought me. O ye my son bit 

an fat bft it to kill iy 

Tut said u*TeII iff 

rolling with terror that we shall revive the Vipras who 
been bitten by the wicked serpents (33)* No u<ws therefore 
of fighting, ye foremost of kings* Be rrconcitad* Both of 
you are of firm promise* and are conversant with 
duties (34)* 

MARKANDRYA said : Then her 

Aoni said : M chlld f at my words you have 
self for dtf0ytg (35). My has 

accomplished! for lite 
regained their lives* You 
hive sought your pmttetion (36). 


I* f *P 

in Plttta nd therefore my wai In this 

work by myself (37)* Therefor^ one v It li 

f roper that there should bt an end of tty 

and son, yottr and *on (31). 

said with 

ii4 |y their ttit 


, , , r 


dsiri ' 




Wrth and is freed from all sins (5 !). 

born, one gets the best 
g C8t 



said:0 Sir, you re- 

counted in full the of I to of an 

account of his (t). O I to of 

of his children who and 

Do you relate It (a), 

M AftKANORYA said :- Marutta had i 01 by 

the nftffie of Nftrtshwanta ; of 

eldest and foremost (3)* Marutta, the 0! tbt 

Kshatriyas, ruled over the for 

(4)* Having hit 

K*/**f ftftd 

into (5), otk 

tusteritlts with a concentrated mind and filled the fttafen 

and earth with his fame he ascended the heaen f O Vipra 

(6)* Observing the conduct of his father^ as well as that of 

dther kings his son, the Intelligent Nartswanta, to think , 

(7), *% this familjp my the 

celebrated many Y&jnas rightcouily the 

(8)* They away and fled 

battles* Am 1 capable of following the of 

touted ones (9) ? I wish to follow hit and 

his religious acts. If I do not do this 1 10 (10) ? 

What credit t king if he tie 

tarth ? For by not go? ertting the the 

to hell (i i). While they It 

If the king performs mid 

(if |? Pride of birth, shame, - 

wn present t from tit 

(13). All 
, by my and my etn 

oeen cone 

y my forefethers? They all performed K*>*r, made' 
charities, never came from the battle-field, were great war- 
riom-.ft&d manly. 1 shall do such works as had not been 

attempted by them (1516). My predecessors celebrated 
EO doubt but they could not do so uninterruptedly 
! Adi do- this (17). 

MARKANDSVA said : Thinking thus that king undertook 
a Ya}na adorned with the gifts of riches the like of which 
tad not been performed by any (18). He gave away prokse 
iiches for the maintenance of the twice-born the king then 
give hundred fold food in that JV<z (19). He then con- 
ferred upon each man of the earth kme, raiments, ornament^ 
and store-houses of corn (20). Thereupon when that king 
undertook the celebration of another Yajna and when 
it was taken in hand he invited many Brahmanas but could 
not get any (21), Every one, of those Brahmanas whom the 
king invited to take up the duties of a Ritwika, said' ; to hino, 
'VVf* tft engaged elsewhere in another fafna (22). Request: 

bodjr else, king. The riches, that you 
your Ya/n*> not be*n trusted as yst* (^3 
MAREAHDEVA mid :*^When the king ot the 
did not get Btmhmtnas to a^et as Ritwifcas he began to 

gifts a* the outside altar (24). Still, they, who had theiif ' 

filled with wealth, did not accept 'them. He, therai 

* to make gifts unto the twieerborn with a pdw 

SiM (35). " Oh J fe is a Mgfhly grand thing that there 

if to poor Bithmiana on this earth. But the treasury has 

and {futlftjM is the object of those who pet form' 

(*$). No one will require a Ritwika for the people 

world w!Hiot celebrate Yq/n*s.' We shall' not be 

If nw vrfib, to gifts unto ; the twice-born (27). 

A said : Thereupon saluting repeatedly with 

Hrahmanas he made them Ritwikas in his 

anl they b^an 'that great ceremony (28). It was a 


great wonder that when that that 

there were many men on in 

(29)* (So) there did not * of the 

born. Few Br&hmanas for 

Whenever the king in 

Jftynas many people! with the monty by 

took numberless such ceremonies on (31)* When the 

king Narishwanta, O Muni, the of a 

JKgfc* there took of 

Ifynas in the west, in the north, in the 

and fifteen in the north (3233), O such wi tie 

virtuous king NarishwanU, the son of ift the 

of yore renowned for his strength and C34) 


LARKANDEYA said ;~NiriihwantA f i son tbt 

of wicked had the of *d 

the and of an (i). The 

(Narl$itwaata) him on The 

MI out li?ed in hit for nine (^)* At 

be endurance by (o in tili 

womb the prince will be by (j), his 

t with tlit f nt and tlit 

^ of to the ion of i|) Tit 

, learnt in full the of tit 

(5). Ht in full the Sn 

Dttttdwbll, the it titt 

Ihi iftl *it 



from Sakti and that self-controlled (prince) received 
T fr m the r yal Saint Arshmis hena ( 7 ). Suma- 
h K the f ayamvara ' invited b y ^r father, accepted him as 
? CC mpIishedj hi ^ souled > highly powerful and 

^ I 1 " , thC USe f amS aS he Was ' in the P resence of all 
who had come there for her. She was the daughter of 

he powerful Chlrukacinan, the king of Dasharna'(8- 9 ). The 
**My powerful and heroic son of the king Madra was greatly 
to Sumana ( I0 ). And so were the great bowman 
*nd the Inghly intelligent prince Vapushman, the son of 
Sangkrandana and the prince of Vidarbha (n). Seeing 
Dama, the subduer of wicked enemies, -selected 'by her they 
to consult with each other, assailed by Cupid as they 
were (1 2) :-~"Taking away this beautiful girl by force from 
Mm we shall go to our houses. His amongst us this fair 
one will be the religiously wedded wife whom she will select 
of her own accord, according to the rules of Sayamvara (13 
14)* If ihe r of inebriate eyes, does not like any one "of us, 
ilit mtjit marry him who will slay Dama (15). 

HARKANDEVA said :~*Havmg made this resolution : the 

princes carried away that fair one from the side of 

Dama (16). Thereupon some kings, who were on his side, 

much as well as som,e others who were the arbi- 

(17), '0 great Muni, beholding them sorry on all 

said to them (iS), 

DAMA : -0 ye kings, Sayamvara is mentioned in the 

lift of religious acts. Do ye consider whether her being 

away by force is fair or wrong (19). If (to save 

tier) Is wrong I should not take any step and must marry 

another wife. And if it is fair fie on me if with my life t 

her by subduing the enemies (20). 

Thereupon the king Ch&rudharma, the lord of Dasharna, 

them all silent, addressed the 'assembly, O great; 
Mtmi (at). <r Do ye consider, ye kings, what Dama * has 


.said relating to what is .tfi'l <M* tin 

not suffer deterioration'* {22:, 

MAEKANDEYA &!<( . *if| to thai 

lord of the earth : 4t Thw w iw 

marriage that is bro glil iliti**! Uy tit t**w*ti 'It 

other (23). Thin m for lit* i^i tw Vrti*)iy,t*, 

Sudras and BrAhmau*!*** Viiti? & M4tr Mgi* lir* n 

celebrated vrillt D^ITM (24,, I lirr* i^Jtt!> 
belongs to Ddnin* Clnl) lit , wlw M lf| 4rstir f 

otherwise (25)* Fhen lilt- f: J ** t %%|nt itn 

the words of the kiig of Ui<*)tArtf<) f fJ^i "*" Tlir| f 

foolishly said that ilie GSntJl^rti <| ii thr 

for Kshatriyas. There * liti^thfT 
Rlkshasa for the (*7 , Hr* 

away by force after all Itw* nUi> 

. ; .hftt. according to tlt i*l 

k the beat form of maniag^ fur ittr 
one h the second, Thin K tlit ilnty tif tin* K>h.ttrh.i^ M* 
laid down by Mahftnandit ninl nilin^ \^iii 

MARKANDEYA said :-- .Thfrrwjn tiir futi|j%, i%li Jnni 
addressed before, again nairl wunis, m;unl,ittuti|{ titbit t smlc 
and religion out of regard ftir r;irh oihrr ijn ft Ttitf It I 
that the Rakhaa form of 111*11 ii* t ^m l m || t 

.ICsbaMyts. But he, of !l mm, w* by thil 

as her fitting (31). That w 

form of marriage when one * K j t | fiy f t || t:t 

having slain all the { l, rr f rt h rf . lt | | t ^ lltlt ^ 

wben the has a ( 31 ). f tt lfll pw%f>ww ^ 

all the kings the Damn. How can firm tm tfc*n 

either the Gandfiarvi f^^ t|l TOlllf i 4|tf ? 4J(0- 

Maidenhood does not hold In die *, til millsrllt 

% marriage the girls are aitirij tt fci, lis (1| j f| tf 

!^Jf fl ! ltr away 

tMii>y force but il i* not fair (35), 


and fi 

i*M*nd with ire. He then 
(36). "HI behold my wife 
en what {, the use of my 
(37). Oh fie on , 
fie on my arrows j fie 
family f the Mg 

aurvive after tak - 
Proficiency !. the use of b 
words to the Hngs headed 
W D., 8ab d UW of ^ea 
DAM, S8 id :-Ho W can 

ey M and bom in this 
or that one P n tokh ' g 
le that y may , affcer va0 q ui8W 
able lady your wife (42). g 

said:~Having sai d 


addresse ^ 

' f 

on a coflct Between Data wfl ail . 
tbtre Mahana0da with * dagger in hi s hand ( 46) . 
him approach with a dagger in his hand in that great eji 
counter Purandara discharged a downpour of arrows 
t0W*r( 4 7). Those weapons and the network O r 
Mftlilnanda, with his dagger, immediately cut off (48). er- 
Pn getting in anger upon Dama's car the highly powerfa! 
Mahftnanda engaged in an encounter with him (49). Riafea- 
nanda fighting in many ways Dama, out of Iight-hand(iness, 
discharged an arrow, burning like -the fire of dissolution, 3 t his 
heart (50), Thereupon taking it out of his heart whi* was 
t MahSnanda threw a shining sword at Dama (51), Dama, 
Witlt his Sakti, cut this off which was like a ^re-bran d 


.about to fall He alno rut oft M^ili'mawta'-. In, til witli *t 
Vetasa leaf (52), On Mah#narnlt Mn% ,*!! ittf 

fled away. Then stood llwrr V^jttt4titi*iti # tltf king ot 
Kundina (53), Then the son ol fttr ktitg <*(, rl,itad 

with the pride of strength, coining to tffi tiattfr-fif {t| ( fought, 
with Dama (34)* The lighl-hanrlnl {Il;itni f rut nil itt 

battle his Jreailful woni, ihr lti**ni t>f lits rtufiuinr ruirl his 
flag-staff (55). Having his fit* up y^ 

club of many thorns. That too hn immrdstt^iy nil nff (rom 
his hand (56), And a 0n AI Vn|Mi*hm;tii wai aluMit to 
lake' : up another puxverfui wmpwi 1)4111,1, fiirrrtti|j 

arrow, immedaiteiy struck liiitt Huwn an ,%iriti {57! 
Falling down on earth he brgitti to trrmhlr wtitt II (tin 
dislocated. Then the princes matin ii|i itirtf to fly 

from the battle-field (58). Tlirti ttittg dtnttt* 

dined to fight, leaving them uttti itir 

sl{-conttolled Duma went (9), T!tt*it the of 

Dasharna duty celebrated the t>*twr<*n Dama *itn) 

Sumana (60). Aftr Im marriagit FKinu Iivf*l f*n *.<m** fitnr 

the city of the king of Dasharna iiml tlini with lii^ 
wife went to bis own city (6 1), Thru cunirrritt^; lifmti him 
elephants, horses, chariots, kirn*, n^e* } cdinrlH, 
vants, and many servant, clothes! bow* itntl 

filled with many excellent thingii lite of it it! 

him away ..(6263). 





iftff mother (t). SumanI, of fair eye-brows, also saluted her 
father-in-law 1 and mother-in-law. They too, O Vipra, also 
welcomed them with blessings (7.). On his marriage and 
return from the city of the king of Dasharna there took place 
a great festival in Narishwanta's -city (3). Hearing of the 
alliance of his son with the king of Dasharna and the defeat 
by the kings the emperor Narishwanta was greatly delighted 
(4)* The prince Dama sported with SumanS in gardens, 
palaces, forest-lands and in the valleys of the mountains (5), 
Having enjoyed many pleasures and grown old the king 
Narishwanata installed his son Dama in the kingdom (7), His 
wife, the illustrious Indraseni, also followed him to the forest 
and led with him the Vanaprastha mode of life (8). Vapush- 
mln, the sort of Sangkrandana, the king of Deccan, w^nt to 
that forest for hunting followed by a small retuine (9). See- 
ing the ascetic Narishwanta covered with dust and his wife 
Intlrasenft, greatly reduced by hard aurterities he asked him, 
"Who are you ? Are you a VIpra, Kshatriya or a forest 
or a Vaisya who is leading the Vinaprastha mode, of 
life ? Tell me thin 11 (to n). Thereupon the . king, t 
ant of the vow of *itwue, -gave him wo reply. 
communicated unto him everything duly (12). 

MARKANDBYA said: Being informed -that NarishwafitS 

was the father of his enemy, Vapushmln, -saying "I have got 

ywt" held him by the matted locks (13), Indrasena crying 

'Alas'! AlasP in suppressed words he took up his 

tword, and said (14) : <f He is the father of Dama who van- 

quiffhed me in battle and carried away ray Surnaoa. I shall 

kill him ; let Dama save him (15). I shall slay the father of 

the wicked one who vanquished the -entire host of -kings 

securing the maiden '(19). I shall .kill the 

of -my enemy, the wicked Dama who fought with me 

In Let him prevent me"' '(17). 

MARKANDBYA. said: Having said -this the wicked king 
cut off Ms head whilst Indrasena kept up cryiof 



(18). Thereupon all the ascetics and other dwellers of the 
forest said to him, "Fie on. you! Fie on you \" Seeing it 
he left the forest for bis own city (19). On his departure, 
fndrasena, heaving a deep sigh, despatched a Sudra ascetic 
to her son (20). She said, "Go immediately and communi- 
cate to my son my words. You know everything about my 
husband's affair. What more shall I speak (2l)H Still you 
should inform my son of what I say, with great sorrow on 
beholding the wicked condition of the king (22), He is the 
king, lord and the protector of the four Varnas, How fair it 
is that he does not protect the ascetics living ip hermitage^ 
(23)? While I was crying "O lord ! O lord!" Vapusfiman, 
holding my husband Narishwanta, engaged in ascetic observ- 
ances, by the hair, killed him without any fanlt. You have 
gained this reputation as a king during your rule (2425). 
Such being the case, behave yourself in $vck a way that 
Wtwe may Q0 t disappear. I should not spent (more) in this. 
I am a female ascetic (29). Your father, au aged ascetic, 
bas been killed, though he was innocent. Think what you 
should do in this (27). You have heroic ministers well read 
IA ail branches of learning. Discussing with them do what 
is proper (28). O king, this is not in our province who are 
ascetics; you are to do thiSi Hear of the conduct of other 
kings (29). Viduratha's father was killed by a Yavana whose, 
family was destroyed (in turn) by his sou (30), The father 
of Jambha, the king of Asuras, was bitten by serpents. And 
so by him ail the serpents Jiving in PatSIa were killed. 
Hearing that his father has beea killed by a Rakshasa 
rartshara completely destroyed the race of Rakshasas with 
fee (32). A Kshatriya cannot brook, the insult offered to 
*ff other member of his family what to speak of tbe des- 
of his father (33)? J B thi, your f atb er has not 
&^| killed nor a weapon 1m ptrack him hut 

been kilted a B d ded with, ^weapon 

is weapon on the dwellers 


of the forest? Will you fear when your son is killed (35)? 
Therefore, king, you should mete out a condign punish- 
mtat to Vapushman along with his servants, kinsmen and 
friends (36). 

Having despatched Indradls with this intelligence, that 
great lady, embracing the body of her husband, entered into 

fire (37). 


IViARKANDEYA said: Being commanded by Indrasena 

the Sudra ascetic went there and communicated the destruc- 
tion of his father unto Dama (i). Being informed by the 
of the death of his father, Dama burnt with ragf 
like fire excited by clarified butter (a)* grort Muni, feting 
COnnumet! by tlie fire df anger and pressing one hand against 
the other he gave vent to the following words (3), "Inspite of 
my existence, his son, my father was killed by that greatly* 
cruel one, throwing an insult at my family, like one having 
none (4)* If I forgive him I shall do so for want of manliness; 
my duty is to punish the wicked and help the good (5). 
Whit is the use of lamenting much as 'Oh (father)'. I should 
now do what should be done in this mattar (6). If I do not 
about the gratification of my father with the blood 
coming out from Vapushman's body I shall enter into fire (7) 
I perform the water-giving ceremony of my father 

with his blood slain in battle; I shall feed well the twice-born 
with his flesh. Or else I shall enter into fire (8). E^ren if the 
Gods, Yakshas, Gandharva*, Vidyadharas and all tfee 
come to his help, even them with him I shall reduce 


to ashes with my weapmi> (cj). Having *tbiti the 
sinful and dishonest king of f)cci in battle I ifrtil enjoy 
the eartli folly* If I ratmot kill him I enter Hie lire (to). 

1 shall slay today the highly wicked on** togrthttr with hi* 
friends, relatives, infantry, cavalry ami ttti: army, 
the aged ascetic, observing the hr>\v of jil**me f living in thf 
forest and always extending words of hlcHsmgH (l t) Taking 
up their bow and sword, riding thi* t hariot cotifictntitif 

the army of the enemy I altali carry cm mi cinsiaiiglif there, 
All the ASHtttnbled there will i*e II (i .1)* 1 

this army, brought up by mywlf, fur tlir iiiiinwliilr 

and absolute dcHtruction ot thi* famili<** of who will 

help him wlilk t*iigagc! in an rtiroiititer with me to-ihiy (13). 
If the king of g4*N comes 10 th* battle with th tliiittflerbtilt in 
hit hand, the king of Pitrw taking up, in bis dreadful 

rod and if the king 0{ and 10 

him iillt ! shall kill hint with the 

vultures -be satisfied with his and blood by whom despite 
rny exlsleuice, bin son, my hither has bfrn slain. He hail bin 
mind undc!i' contic>! t was trrrd from fully, had tii* 
from the for< st tci IUMV^U ami %rd to livr* uti 
dropped from iirr^ am! w;t iiirmlly low.uth all 

ion his in hi* 

01 ill* 


til censuring destiny he said to all the ministers arid sum- 
moned his priest (2). 

DAMA said : Tell me now what is proper. My father has 

to heaven* You have heard what the Sudra ascetic has 

siid (3)* That king was an old ascetic, was leading the Van^ 

pftstha mode of life and observing the vow of silence. My 

mother Indrasenft has communicated everything to me in truth f 

ti what should be done to Vapushmtn. That wicked one, 

talcing up his sword, and holding by the hand, killed the king 

at if he had none. My good mother has addressed the word 

f fie r to me (4- 6) Having embraced the unfortunate Naris- 

wanta shorn of all beauty she entered fire and attained to the 

region of gods (7). I shall to-day encompass what has been 

by my mother* Arrange therefore the elephants, cars, 

aad the army (8), Without vanquishing my father's 

enemy, slaying the destroyer of my father and carrying out 

the words of my mother why shall I try to live (9)? 

HAiItANPEA said: Hearing his words, the ministers 

army, having their minds 
to eidaiifti&g 'Ato f * : Alas 11 (id). 

them and obtftfciag Messiahs -from tfie priest ' 
of the present, past and futuvfe', they,, with the army, : 
iatuedout (XI). Sighing like the king of serpents and kill- < 
Ittg the army of SoumapUla and others in Jamya country 
quickly approached Vapushmln (12). SangkrandanaV" 
on Vapuihmin was informed that Dama with his army and i 
ministers had come (13), Without the least agitation of the" 
wind h& commanded his arniy and sent an emmissary out of* 
ttie city (with the news) (14). <4 Kshatrya, come quickly ,to 
me; Narishwenta, with his wife, is expecting you (15). TBese' 
my sharpened arrows, shot off pay bow, piercing your body, will 
driik your blood lot battle (16)* : /. :,.;/- : : . ' : , . . 
MARKANDEVA said ; Hearing all th& from tfee Hfiess^nger 
and remembering his former promise Daraa went there 
ptdlly, sighiag like a serpent (17). Inviting him to 



he said "Ha, who Ii a rt 

a great encounter and Tfii 

charioteer fought with the Utrr the 

elephant and horse with the The ft* tSnw a 

encounter, O saint (19)* O tit 

in the presence of mil the the 

earth trembled (20). Neither the nor Ibr 

nor the horse could hi* 

commander-in-chlci fought with fis)* hi* 

shaft deep Into his On hi* the 10 

their heels* Then unit! to Jits 

(23) : r< Having ilain my ha! tw 

and who was carrying on g% 

one? Return if you are a 

, M ARKANDBYA Mid : tht 

Offtfmsbraiit} with Mi till 

relative^ fought him the tky ii tie 

were cowrd- with 0ff hii His 

covered Datna with hi$ car and with a mt wotk of 

arrows (as)* Thereupon in rr ln*g*llrii l#y ilir wl 

his- father Dama cut off those *wawi an! lit 

with bis owo (26). With one lie 

abode of Yamt hit titnl 

(27)*, On the death of his and titt* 

VapoahmSoi fought with In the 

resembling (28). O li too cut tiff Mi 

arrows. Both of nf 

fougbt fiercely Having lit 

discharge of ,trr0w% t*a 

foaghfc with each other with ftr 

aiinonient of the of ttis t the in ibn- 

and holding Mm by the bjttr and trim tin 

placing liis foot m lib and tap ti 

saii (31), c ye men, mi I 

ai* off tht itact 0C tie 

^d:~Haviag said this Dama oat off . 
tart with tuft sword. With a view to bathe in 10s bbo<i 
the god* rfW n <* P^cnt him (33). Thereupon with the 
blood of Vapushmtn he performed the water-givhm cere- 
mony and wilt* his flesh he offered Pitida (34). He fed ths 
Brahmanas ami Rik*hasas, and then being freed from debta 
to hi* tether he left lot his own city (35). Such were the 
king* of Uift *okr dynasty as well as other intelligent heroes, 
partners of Yajnas and well read in the Vedas and rel 
ligtotis book*. I do not tike to enumerate them. Hearing of 
their account a ma is released from sins ,(3637). 


HP. Bmr al d : Hiting aaid this aod left the 
of Kroutbthuki the great acetic Markandeya perfornwd |he 
tnld-day ritc (i). We have also heard from yo% great; 
MCrtic, what yea have said. This is the Siddhi without begiar 
ntng described formerly by the Self-Sprung Deity (?)< 
which you communicated unto the ascetic 
nd awnpiciout as it is and which gives Jongivity and 
cowpHlimet of objects (& Hearing aad^readmg ^e four 
tuition* wtcb you put io the beginning .people are iw* 
tml il sini (4). Mmi, o ^ave described unto . 

6 r the 

W,tory of tb* kingt, What n*re r 

.U tteie or Mdttef tbm, 

tin. wtilttd, iad WraifK t ww 

the eighteen PurSnas enumerated by the 

it kn^ftt widely at (7), They are 

Padma r Vishnu, Siva, the 

seventh is Mlrkawdcya (R). Th* tit and 

Bhavisbya Is the ninth; the tenth Is the 

eleventh is Nrisingha (9), The is and 

Skanda is the thirteenth 0! ; it the 

and Karma is ttie fifteenth (10). Then 
mind Bralimanda* He, who tic 01 the 

Pur&nas and a lite 

of a horse sacrifice* The Purtna, has the 
is called ftti^}* On this, the sin ac* 

^mutated fora hundred Atolf years it Ttie 

of Bratimanicidt at at 

things are dliiip itect like by the ly 

bearing It one the piety 10 by 

tug at the holy of (1314). A 

woman, or one child afc birth. If the tftii 

truly, gets a son crowned with alt marks, as wr!l as corns t 
riches and the fternat Iieavrn (15). Hearing ttit9 a 
even If he Itai offinnliui the fr^t!^ i* frerel (turn iitt 
flourishes in heaven (tCtl* C> furrmrst of the inirc-tittiti, 
he long Itft% ficedum from wraith, 

children and a continuous 0?^ O Vi|ira 

10 tilts a ifn, A man t 

corif firej prrform 

of Munis! on inm in the nf ll 

one (inviiid* 

and &c.| Cl of he 

a with Iili wife and |$$m a 

cow with 

as lies in their power, gifts of 

ad 01 ft i) 

tfct l 

the I o tt e t* ttit 


It will t0' * man fi by the 

of The god* are not pleased 

him and the manei,do DO! accept the things 

by Um in The thief 01 scriptures does not 

the fruit of at feoly - shrines and is censured by 

the of the V*df (1224)* After the completion o( 

A maa performs a festival and makes a gift 

of a milch-cotr for* being from alt sins (25). He 

alfto Jeweta unto the^twiee-bora with 

i as golden earnings* turbans,, clean* 

g0!d*c0ttti f .sorts of corns, brass vessels for 

and for clarified butter (26 27). Doing 

ff the twice*bortti a maw achieves all his 

Ht Ibf reciting of all these Puranas duly a 

the fruits of a thousand horse sacrifices! and a 

hundred /tq/askuya ceremonies* He does not stand in fear of 

or hell (22g)f Being freed from all sins he purifies 

the Kid future generations ; forsooth the continuity of 

It (30)* He goes to the regtoft of 

and fhi 

highly h wilt i' a ' Thus by ' ir*te*. 

ing to ttie recitation of Purauas one to nioti excel- 

lent Gifts should not be ma^e unto a atheist, 

^iiylterer y vitlifier of tlie Vc.das, unto him who speaks against 
hit preceptor, him who breaks bis vow, forsakes, |is parents 
ifitl gold j Wttta h! who shall disregard | honour- 

able man andl his |^m$inea. No |ifte 

be made unto these even if ^tal breath come$ up 
10 tli (3i 34). If out of ifjuice, ignorance or fear 

out it 0r makei others read, forsooth does he go to 

hell f3|), ; ' 

out of friendship, have 
of the lolutioa whereof I did not 

ill it ' Who else will doit (3!)? Do ye live long- 

tott ittd gifted with wealth. And may yo f ur 


. J 

wdterstandfng grow jn , Saji^ya Ypga (37), You 
freed from the curse flif 




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