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Full text of "Marketing Calhoun County apples"

IB RAR.Y 
OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 




AGRICULTURE 



NON CIRCULATING 

CHECK FOR UNBOUND 
CIRCULATING COPY 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



BULLETIN No. 312 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



BY J. W. LLOYD AND H. M. NEWELL 




URBANA, ILLINOIS, JUNE, 1928 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

STATISTICS OF APPLE PRODUCTION 563 

GRADING AND PACKING PRACTICES 564 

Growers Usually Do Their Own Packing 566 

Care in Fruit Handling Varies With Crews 567 

Standardized Grading Not General 568 

PACKAGES USED 571 

Baskets Tending to Replace Barrels 571 

Apple Box Favored by Some Growers 572 

TRANSPORTATION IN COUNTY 573 

Wagons or Trucks Haul Apples to River Landings 573 

RIVER TRANSPORTATION HAS CARRIED BULK OF CROP 574 

Steamboat Lines Handle Shipments on Illinois and Mississippi Rivers 575 

Boats Make Trip to St. Louis Within Twenty-Four Hours 576 

Warehouses at Boat Landings Inadequate 577 

Delays in Shipping Impair Keeping Quality of Fruit 579 

Rolling of Barreled Apples Adds to Damage 583 

River Rates Uniform on Barrel Shipments to St. Louis 584 

FACILITIES FOR RAIL TRANSPORTATION RECENTLY IMPROVED 584 

Most Important Loading Point on C. & A. at East Hardin 584 

Apples May Be Loaded Directly Into Cars at East Hardin 585 

Loading Points Available on C. B. & Q. in Missouri 587 

Apples Ferried Across River Loaded at Graf ton 588 

Freight Rates to Various Markets 589 

Boat Shipments Faster Than Rail From East Hardin to St. Louis 589 

Possibility of a Railroad in Calhoun County 590 

MOTOR TRUCKS HAUL MANY APPLES TO MARKET 591 

STORAGE FACILITIES ACCESSIBLE 593 

METHODS OF SALE 595 

Pre-Harvest Contracts 595 

Consignments to Commission Merchants 596 

The Levee Sale at St. Louis 597 

Brokerage Sales a Factor in 1927 598 

Merits of Different Methods 599 

STORING FOR LATER SALE 599 

Study of Apple Prices 601 

Margins Between Harvest and Storage Sales 602 

RECOMMENDATIONS W~> 

OFFICIAL STANDARDS FOR THE INSPECTION OF APPLES 611 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 

By J. W. LLOYD, Chief in Olericulture, and H. M. NEWELL, 
Assistant in Fruit and Vegetable Marketing 

Calhoun county produces approximately one-third of the com- 
mercial apple crop of the entire state of Illinois. Without a railroad 
or a cold-storage plant within the county's borders, with scarcely a 
packing shed and no marketing organizations, this immense apple 
crop, averaging nearly 400,000 barrels a year, has found its way into 
the channels of trade and into the consuming markets. 

The methods employed in the grading, packing, transporting, and 
selling of Calhoun county apples have been made an object of special 
study with a view to learning the exact conditions existing in the 
county and offering suggestions that may be helpful in the handling 
of future crops. 

STATISTICS OF APPLE PRODUCTION 

\ 

In the 35-year period from 1889 to 1924 Calhoun county devel- 
oped much more rapidly than the rest of the state in reference to 
apple orchards and apple production (Table 1). The number of apple 
trees of bearing age in Illinois, was considerably less in 1924 than in 
1889, while the number in Calhoun county had been multiplied by 
three. During the same period the production in Calhoun county 
increased from 1.2 percent of the total production of the state 
to more than 14 percent. These figures refer to "total produc- 
tion," and not to "commercial production." They include apples of 
all varieties and grades produced in farm orchards as well as in com- 
mercial orchards. Statistics of commercial production in Illinois are 
available for 1916 and subsequent years, but separate statistics for 
commercial production in Calhoun county are available only for 1922 
and subsequent years. During the past six years Calhoun county 
produced from 28.7 to 38.3 percent of the total commercial apple crop 
of the state, or an average of nearly 33 percent (Table 2) even tho 
the county contained only 9.7 percent of the trees of bearing age in 
1924. Furthermore, in 1924 only 52 percent of the apple trees in the 
county were of bearing age, while in the state as a whole 61 percent 
were of bearing age. As the younger orchards come into bearing Cal- 
houn county is likely to produce a still larger percentage of the com- 
mercial crop of the state. 

The orchards in Calhoun county consist principally of. standard 
commercial varieties, and the younger plantings are mainly of espe- 
cially desirable sorts, such as Jonathan, Winesap, Willow Twig, and 

563 

\ 



564 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



TABLE 1. APPLE TREES' OF BEARING AGE AND TOTAL PRODUCTION OF APPLES IN 
ILLINOIS AND IN CALHOUN COUNTY FOR CENSUS YEARS 1889-1924 1 



Year 


Illinois 


Calhoun county 


Percentage in 
Calhoun county 



Number of apple trees 



1889... 


6 949 336 


126 953 


1.8 


1899 


13 430 006 


336 734 


2.5 


1909 


9 900 627 


348 888 


3.5 


1919 


5 113 063 


294 920 


5.7 


1924. . . 


4 129 330 


403 618 


9.7 



Total production 



1889.. . 


bu. 
9 600 785 


bu. 
119 109 


1 2 


1899 


9 178 150 


319 010 


3.4 


1909 


3 093 321 


173 630 


5.6 


1919 


4 673 117 


891 317 


19.0 


1924. . . 


5 529 149 


815 278 


14.7 



] Data from Census reports. 

Delicious. This is an additional factor that will tend to increase the 
relative importance of the county in reference to commercial apple 
production. 

TABLE 2. COMMERCIAL APPLE PRODUCTION IN ILLINOIS AND IN CALHOUN COUNTY, 

1922-1927 INCLUSIVE 



Year 


Illinois 


Calhoun county 


Percentage in 
Calhoun county 


1922... 


bbls. 
1 450 OOO 1 


bbls. 
416 001 2 


28.7 


1923 


1 400 OOO 1 


536 087 2 


38.3 


1924 


1 100 OOO 1 


343 699 2 


31 2 


1925 


1 215 OOO 1 


451 389 2 


37 1 


1926 


1 290 OOO 1 


400 636 2 


31.0 


1927 


804 OOO 1 


240 142 3 


29 8 


Six-year average . . . 


1 209 833 


397 992 


32.9 



^rom government statistics. 2 From data collected each year by H. J. Sellmeyer, St. Louis, 
Missouri. 3 From data collected at shipping points by the junior author in company with a represent- 
ative of the Illinois State Department of Agriculture. 



GRADING AND PACKING PRACTICES 

Practically all the apples grown in Calhoun county are graded 
and packed in the orchard. 1 Portable grading tables with canvas 
bottoms are used. About the only other equipment employed in the 
packing of barrels consists of a few half-bushel baskets for sorting 
receptacles, a portable barrel press, and a hatchet. Sometimes a few 
boards are provided on which the barrels are placed while being 
packed. 

The pickers empty the fruit directly from the picking sacks on to 
the sorting table. The apples are sorted by hand and placed in half- 

growers in the county used packing sheds in 1927. 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUX COUNTY APPLES 



565 



bushel baskets according to grade. When filled, these baskets are 
lowered into the barrels and emptied. In most cases each sorter has 
a basket for "facers." The facing is usually done by a person who 




FIG. 1. PACKING APPLES IN* ORCHARD, CALHOUX COUXTY 
In this important apple-producing area it is the common practice to pack 
apples in the orchard rather than in a shed. Packages, fruit, and packers are 
exposed to the weather, and the product naturally suffers. 




FIG. 2. PACKING APPLES NEAR SHED OF C. L. TUREMAN, HARDIX 
A few growers have built sheds where they pack apples in bad weather, tho 
when the weather is favorable they sometimes work just outside the shed. 



makes a specialty of facing, or facing and "tailing." In a large crew 
there is likely to be a separate person for each step in the packing 
process, including facing, packing, tailing, and heading. A full-sized 



566 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



harvesting crew consists of four pickers, three or four sorters, one 
facer, one tailer, one packer, and one header. Such a crew can pack 
about 100 barrels a day. Smaller crews are often used consisting of 
only two or three pickers, two sorters, and two men to do the facing, 
packing, tailing, and heading, making a total of six or seven instead 
of eleven or twelve. 

In basket packing the same general method of handling the apples 
is employed. The same type of sorting table is used and the apples 
are commonly sorted into half-bushel baskets and later poured into 
the bushel baskets or packing forms, tho sometimes they are sorted 
directly into the bushel baskets or forms. 

Growers Usually Do Their Own Packing 

Most of the packing is done by crews working under the direct 
supervision of the grower. In some cases when the crop has been sold 
before harvest, the crews are under the supervision of the buyer or 




FIG. 3. HAULING EMPTY BARRELS TO THE ORCHARD 

A load of barrels just starting from Hardin, where they were coopered. By 
the use of large racks 100 barrels can be included in a load. 



one of his foremen. Occasionally a grower contracts with some person 
to do the grading and packing at a definite rate per barrel. However, 
by far the largest part of the Calhoun county crop is packed by the 
growers themselves even tho they may be under contract to do this 
work for the buyers. The cost of harvesting and packing apples in 
Calhoun county orchards (including the cost of the package), based 
on data furnished by nine different growers, varied from $1.137 to 
$1.303 a barrel and from 32.2 to 36.0 cents a bushel basket (Table 3). 
The reports made were in reference to the 1926 crop. Variations in 
the costs as reported by different growers were due mainly to the fact 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



567 



TABLE 3. APPLE PICKING AND PACKING COSTS AS REPORTED BY NINE CALHOUN 
COUNTY GROWERS FOR 1926 CROP 



Grower No. 


Picking 


Grading and 
packing 


Container and 
caps 


Total 



Barrel packing 



1 


$.250 


$.315 


$.727 


$1.292 


2 


.250 


.287 


.727 


1.264 


3 . . 


.228 


348 


.727 


1.303 


4 


.177 


.233 


.727 


1.137 


5 


213 


307 


.727 


1.247 


6 


.250 


.310 


.727 


1.287 


7 


.250 


.287 


.727 


1.264 


8 . 


200 


.290 


.727 


1.217 


Average 


.227 


.297 


.727 


1.251 



Basket packing 



1 


.080 


116 


.160 


.356 


2 


.080 


.105 


.160 


.345 


3 . 


080 


120 


.160 


.360 


4 


070 


092 


.160 


.322 


5 


.076 


.109 


.160 


.345 


6 . 


070 


127 


.160 


.357 


Average 


.076 


.111 


.160 


.347 



that crews of the same size did not always pack the same quantity 
of fruit in a day, some crews being more efficiently organized than 
others. Also there were some differences in the wages paid by dif- 
ferent growers for the same operations. 

So far as picking and packing costs are concerned, barrel packing 
is no more expensive than basket packing, volume for volume, but the 
price differential between three baskets and one barrel is about 25 
cents in favor of the baskets. 

Care in Fruit Handling Varies With Crews 

The amount of care exercised thruout the process of grading and 
packing varies greatly with the different packing crews. In some 
cases the pickers are careless in dumping the fruit upon the sorting 
table, and considerable bruising results, tho the injury is usually not 
apparent until the package is opened at the market. In most cases, 
however, the pickers are reasonably careful in emptying the picking 
sacks. As a rule the sorters are careful in handling the fruit and it 
is doubtful if an appreciable amount of bruising occurs at this point 
in the packing process. Usually the packers are careful in emptying 
the baskets, but sometimes the fruit is dumped into the barrel instead 
of being lowered into it. 

Sometimes the packers fail to get the proper degree of tightness 
in the pack. If the fruit is not pressed tightly enough, it becomes 
slack in transit and is discounted on the market. If, on the other 
hand, the barrels are filled too full, some of the apples are mashed 
and others bruised when the head is forced into place. Failure prop- 
erly to rack or shake the barrels as they are being filled results in too 
severe pressing or a slack pack, either of which is undesirable and 
lowers the value of the fruit. 



568 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

Standardized Grading Not General 

The packs of fruit coming from Calhoun county are exceedingly 
varied. There are no uniformly accepted grade standards. Some 
growers pack according to the specifications of the Illinois apple 
grading and packing law, others use the U. S. grade specifications, 
while many seem to pack according to their individual ideas. Apple 
dealers who come into the county and buy apples on contract fre- 
quently write their own grade specifications into the contracts. These 
specifications are usually more rigid than the provisions of the Illinois 
law or the U. S. apple grades. The buyers keep in close touch with 
the packing of the apples they have under contract and usually such 
fruit is well graded. 

The marks on the fruit packages vary fully as much as the grades 
in the packages and have no uniformity in meaning. The "orchard 
run" grade of one grower may be as good a grade as the so-called 
"No. 1" pack of another. Some growers who pack without reference 
to any standardized grades mark their packages with Illinois or U. S. 
grade designations; others use various grade designations of their own 
selection based upon convenience or personal preference ; a few fail to 
place any grade or descriptive marks on their packages. 1 Thirteen 
representative lots of Calhoun county apples in cold storage in St. Louis 
were examined in February, 1926. In each case an entire barrel of fruit 
was sorted on the basis of U. S. grades (Table 4) . Again in December, 
1927, examinations were made of Calhoun county apples in storage. 
Fifteen lots were inspected at this time (Table 5) . These apples had 
been placed in storage for winter and spring sale and undoubtedly 
represent better grading than many of the apples that are sold for 
early consumption at harvest time. 

If the twenty-eight lots of apples representing the packs of 
1925 and 1927 examined in storage are considered together, it will be 
seen that only one of the lots contained more than 10 percent of culls, 
while the average percentage of culls was only 3.8. However, of the 
eleven lots marked No. 1, U. S. No. 1, Illinois No. 1, or "A," only one 
contained 90 percent or more of apples that actually graded U. S. 
No. 1. The lots marked No. 1 contained as an average 28.2 percent 
of No. 2 apples, while those that were not so marked contained as an 
average 56.7 percent of No. 1 and 38.4 percent of No. 2 fruit. 

These observations indicate that errors in the grading of these 
apples were principally in failure to separate No. 1 and No. 2 fruit 

'Both the Illinois law and the U. S. grade specifications designate that each 
package of apples shall be so marked as to give definite information on four 
items: (1) the name and address of the packer, (2) the name of the variety, 
(3) the grade of the fruit, and (4) the minimum size or numerical count. Fur- 
thermore it is prescribed that the grade designation be worded exactly as in the 
specifications. 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



569 



TABLE 4. INSPECTION OF CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES IN STORAGE, FEBRUARY, 1926 









Actual grading 




Lot 
No. 


Grade markings 


U.S. 
No. 1 


U.S. 

No. 2 


Culls 


1 


No. 1, 2^-inch minimum 


perct. 
76.7 


perct. 
16.6 


perct. 
6.7 


2 


No. 1, 2J^-inch minimum 


85.9 


13.1 


1.0 


3 




70.0 


24.5 


5.5 


4 


No. 1, 2J^-inch minimum 


60.1 


30.3 


9.5 


5 


No. 1, 2J3-inch minimum 


96.5 


3.2 


.3 


6 


No. 1 . . 


76.9 


20.0 


3.1 


7 


No. 1 


85.4 


13.5 


1.1 


8 


Orchard run, 2 J^-inch minimum 


70.9 


24.1 


5.0 


9 


2 ^-inch minimum 


56.1 


40.9 


3.0 


10 


2^-inch minimum 


57.7 


33.6 


8.7 


11 


2 J4-inch minimum 


73.6 


18.7 


7.7 


12 


2)^-inch minimum 


45.1 


31.9 


23.0 


13 


No mark 


65.4 


26.5 


8.1 



rather than in the packing of culls. This was undoubtedly a carry- 
over from the old practice of packing "orchard run" where only the 
culls were removed. In actual practice there is no more difficulty in 
separating No. 1 and No. 2 fruit than in separating No. 2's and culls. 
Sometimes grade terms are misunderstood by the packer. An 
example of this is shown in Table 5 (Lot 4). In this case the barrel 
was labeled "U. S. Commercial." The specifications for U. S. Com- 
mercial are the same as for U. S. No. 1 except that there is no color 



TABLE 5. INSPECTION OF CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES IN STORAGE, DECEMBER, 1927 









Actual gradinj 


( 


Lot 
No. 


Grade markings 


U.S. 
No. 1 


U. S. 
No. 2 


Culls 


1 




perct. 
73 


perct. 
27 


perct. 


2 




18 


76 


6 


3 


U. S. No. 1, 2J^-inch minimum 


64 


36 




4 




6 


86 


8 


5 




62 


34 


4 


6 


Illinois Commercial, 2J^-inch minimum 


48 


50 


2 


7 


Illinois Commercial 


64 


36 




8 




48 


50 


2 


9 


Orchard run 


60 


32 


8 


10 




18 


79 


3 


11 


2 J4-inch minimum 


72 


28 




12 


No mark 


82 


16 


2 


13 




64 


36 




14 


No mark 


42 


56 


2 


15 


No mark 


92 


8 





requirement for the U. S. Commercial grade. This barrel graded only 
6 percent U. S. No. 1 and 86 percent U. S. No. 2. It would have been 
correctly marked if labeled either U. S. No. 2 or Illinois Commercial. 
The U. S. Commercial and Illinois Commercial are entirely different 
grades. In order to mark packages properly the grade designations 
must be well understood. 



570 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



Thru the courtesy of the State Department of Agriculture data 
were secured regarding the grading of 87 carloads of apples shipped 
from Calhoun county in the fall of 1927, as shown by inspection at 
shipping point (Table 6). These 87 cars of apples included 247 lots 
on which separate inspections were reported. Ten different designa- 
tions had been used by the various packers to indicate the grade or 
pack, and four lots were left without any grade designation whatever. 

TABLE 6. CLASSIFICATION OF 87 CARLOADS (247 LOTS) OF CALHOUN COUNTY 
APPLES INSPECTED AT SHIPPING POINTS, 1927 









Actual grade 








packages 


U. S. 
Fancy 


U. S. 

No. I 


U.S. 
Commercial 


U.S. 
No. 2 


U. S. 
Unclassified 


Total 


U. S. Fancy 


2 
22 


'i 








2 
23 


U.S. No. 1 
No. 1 




41 
34 


3 
3 




1 
5 


45 
42 


U.S. No. 2 
No. 2 








ii 


i 


12 


2J^ inch 
2% inch 
XX 




4 
2 


i 


4 
26 


7 
39 
28 


15 
68 
28 


Commercial. . . . 
Orchard run. . . 
No mark 
Total 


24 


'2 

84 


io 


1 
2 
1 
45 


2 
3 
1 

87 


3 
5 

4 
247 



Of the 25 lots marked U. S. Fancy, or Fancy, all except one actually 
graded U. S. Fancy. Of the 87 lots marked^U. S. No. 1, or No. 1, 75 
graded U. S. No. 1 and 6 graded U. S. Commercial. Twelve lots were 
marked No. 2; all except one of these graded U. S. No. 2. The re- 
maining 123 lots, or virtually half the total number, were not marked 
according to any official grade designation. In the case of 83 lots 
merely the size was marked; 30 of these graded U. S. No. 2 and 46 
fell in the U. S. Unclassified group, which means that they contained 
too many culls to grade No. 2. The 28 lots marked "XX" were all 
below the No. 2 grade. 

These inspection reports indicate that in the 87 cars of apples 
under consideration wherever a recognized standard grade designation 
was marked on the package, a sincere attempt usually had been made 
to grade the fruit according to the specifications for that grade. How- 
ever, half the lots in these cars were marked in ways other than with 
official grade designations and in many instances were of such low 
grade that they could be officially designated only as Unclassified. 

Observations made in the orchards during the harvesting seasons 
of 1926 and 1927 and on the levee at St. Louis corroborate the evi- 
dence already given that there is wide variation in the quality and 
grade of Calhoun county apples offered on the market. The general 
average of the grade of the fruit sent to St. Louis is considerably be- 
low that of fruit from other important apple-producing regions. 
St. Louis apple dealers hold the opinion that grading in Calhoun 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY. APPLES 571 

county is poorer than in most apple sections. On the other hand, a 
number of Chicago dealers do not thus discriminate against Calhoun 
county fruit. The reason for the difference in opinion is quite ap- 
parent. Most of Chicago's receipts from this section are apples bought 
and packed by Chicago marketing concerns or consigned by a few of 
the larger growers. The fruit reaching Chicago is undoubtedly better 
than the average from the county, while that reaching St. Louis, the 
market more accessible to inexperienced packers, is probably some- 
what below the average. 

Calhoun county has not kept pace with most of the important 
apple-producing regions of the country with reference to improved 
standards of grading and packing. The lack of standardization as to 
grade is one of the greatest handicaps under which fruit from Calhoun 
county is marketed. 

PACKAGES USED 

The apple barrel has long been recognized as the standard pack- 
age for fall and winter varieties of apples shipped from Calhoun 
county, even tho summer varieties and early pickings of fall varieties 
not intended for storage have been shipped in bushel baskets. How- 
ever, larger use has been made of the bushel basket from year to year 
until in 1927 over 55 percent of the total crop was shipped in bushel 
baskets. Much of the basket fruit was shipped by rail from East 
Hardin, but data collected at the boat landings show that 44 percent 
of the fruit shipped by boat was in baskets. 

Baskets Tending to Replace Barrels 

The barrel is a much stronger package than the basket and better 
adapted to rough handling and to storage. However, the necessity of 
rolling the barrels about on the river bank, on the boats, and on the 
levee in St. Louis results in considerable bruising of the fruit. There 
is more or less "give" to the bulge of the barrel, and the fruits next 
to the staves at the middle of the package are often bruised during the 
process of loading and unloading, tho these bruises may not be appar- 
ent until later in the season when the apples are taken from storage. 
The fact that bushel baskets cannot conveniently be rolled but can 
be carried without much difficulty results in much more careful 
handling of this type of package and therefore less bruising of the 
fruit even tho the package is less rigid. The introduction of the "tub" 
type of bushel basket is likely to overcome some of the objections 
against the bushel as a shipping and storage package. 1 

'There is some variation in the storage rates quoted by different companies, 
but several companies in St. Louis quoted the following rates on apples in the 
fall of 1927 for the season up to April 1 : barrels, 70 cents ; bushel boxes, 25 cents ; 
bushel baskets, 40 cents. Two firms quoted 30 cents on tub bushels and 40 cents 
on bushel baskets. 



572 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 




FIG. 4. BASKETS OF APPLES BEING STACKED ON LEVEE AT ST. Louis 
The baskets are carried on the shoulder as they are unloaded from the boat. 
Thus the fruit is not bruised as when rolled in a barrel. 



The lower price of baskets as compared with barrels (Table 3) 
has doubtless been one of the factors responsible for the recent trend 
among Calhoun county growers to replace the barrel with the basket 
as a package for winter apples as well as summer varieties. 

Apple Box Favored by Some Growers 

There is a growing sentiment in Calhoun county in favor of the 
western apple box as a package for high-grade fruit produced in this 
section. Two growers are already packing their fruit in boxes .and 




FIG. 5. BOXES OF APPLES FROM HAMBURG ON UPPER DECK OF THE Alabama 

A small quantity of Calhoun county apples are packed in the standard west- 
ern apple box. This container has much to recommend it. It is convenient and 
economical in shipment and storage and protects the contents especially well. 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 573 

others contemplate doing so in the near future. The growers now 
using boxes wrap their apples in oiled paper and pack them according 
to numerical count. Special brands are used, designated by attractive 
lithographed labels on the ends of the boxes. 

The western apple box has much to recommend it as a package 
for Calhoun county. It is a neat and attractive package when prop- 
erly packed ; it is strong and protects its contents well during shipping 
and handling; it stacks well in storage, and because of this, storage 
rates on such packages are comparable with rates on barrels rather 
than on baskets. An added point in favor of the box for Calhoun 
county is that it must be carried when being loaded and unloaded. 
This prevents such bruising as is likely to occur in barrels. 



Calhoun county is bounded, except on the north, by navigable 
rivers. There is not a railroad in the county nor a bridge across 
either river. Hence practically all the apples leaving the county must 
go by boat, transfer barge, or ferry. Since practically all the apples 
are packed in the orchard, they are hauled in the shipping packages 
directly from the orchard to the loading point instead of being hauled 
in field crates from the orchard to a packing shed on the premises of 
the grower or at a railway siding, as is done in many other regions. 
The loading point is usually either a steamboat landing on the river 
bank or a place where a transfer barge or a ferry operates. 

Wagons or Trucks Haul Apples to River Landings 

Either wagons or trucks are used in hauling the apples from the 
orchards. The length of the haul varies from less than one-half mile 
to several miles. During the extremely high water in the fall of 1926 
many of the boat landings were unable to operate, so that many 
growers were forced to haul their apples long distances to other land- 
ings. This situation, tho unusual, is likely to recur from time to time. 

The character of the roads over which the fruit is hauled varies 
greatly in different parts of the county and under different weather 
conditions. The only hard road is that from Hardin to Kampsville. 
Dirt roads that normally are relatively good are cut into deep ruts 
after a few days of rainy weather and at times are nearly impassable. 
Some roads, improved by surfacing with rock and gravel in former 
years, have not been given proper maintenance and are quite rough 
and rocky. 

The character of the roads has, of course, a very important bear- 
ing upon the size of load that each hauling unit can handle and on the 
number of trips that can be made in a day. It also has a bearing 
upon the condition and keeping quality of the apples ; for it is hard to 
conceive of any package of apples, even tho well packed, being hauled 



574 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



four or five miles over rough roads without the fruit being injured to 
some extent. In slack-packed barrels or baskets the fruit suffers 
much more. 

The use of motor trucks in hauling fruit from the orchard to the 
loading point is becoming more common each year. Fruit hauled in 
trucks probably receives more jolting than fruit hauled in wagons 
properly equipped with springs. However, the speed with which the 
work can be done by truck seems destined to make the truck the 
common vehicle for the apple hauling in the near future. Careful 
driving will eliminate part of the jolting. 

Larger loads can be hauled with trucks than with wagons. The 
load for a wagon usually varies from 12 to 18 barrels, depending 
largely upon the condition of the roads. Altho small trucks under 
unfavorable road conditions may haul only 12 barrels, the more usual 
load for the larger trucks is 18 to 24 barrels, and sometimes even 
larger loads are hauled. 

RIVER TRANSPORTATION HAS CARRIED BULK OF CROP 

River transportation has been the dominant factor in the move- 
ment of apples from Calhoun county. Shipments to St. Louis, Han- 
nibal, and Peoria have normally traveled the entire distance by water, 
while those to other markets have moved by boat to some rail shipping 




FIG. 6. STEAMSHIP Belle oj Calhoun READY TO DISCHARGE CARGO 

OF APPLES AT ST. Louis LEVEE 
This is the largest boat engaged in transporting apples from Calhoun county. 



point, there to be transferred to cars. This double handling, with the 
combined charges for boat and rail service previous to the extension 
of the railroad to East Hardin, made transportation rates high to all 
markets that could not be reached directly by water. This fact, 
coupled with the remoteness of other large markets, has caused St. 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



575 



Louis to be the principal market for Calhoun county apples. In fact, 
previous to 1927, more apples were shipped from Calhoun county by 
boat to St. Louis than to all other markets and by all other transpor- 
tation methods (Table 7). 



TABLE 7. RIVER RECEIPTS OF CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES AT ST. Louis, 1922-1927 



Year 


Calhoun county 
crop 


To St. Louis by river 1 


1922 


bbls. 
416 001 
536 087 
343 699 
451 389 
400 636 
240 142 


bbls. 
281 820 
328 482 
219 992 
244 518 
223 347 
60 225 


perct. 
67.7 
61.2 
64.0 
54.1 
55.7 
25.0 


1923 


1924 . 


1925 


1926 


1927 



St. Louis Daily Market Reporter, November 30, 1927, published by O'Connor Market Reporter 
Company. 

Steamboat Lines Handle Shipments on Illinois and 
Mississippi Rivers 

The part of Calhoun county bordering on the Illinois river is 
served by the Eagle Packet Company. The steamer, Golden Eagle, 
operates regularly between St. Louis and Peoria, leaving St. Louis 
twice every week except during the winter months. The steamer, 
Piasa, has hauled apples during harvest time, operating mainly down 
the river from Calhoun county loading points to St. Louis. 

Apples that are shipped by water from the west side of the county 
are handled by the Tennessee River Packet Company, or by the St. 
Louis & Calhoun Packet Corporation, operating steamboats on the 
Mississippi river. 

The Tennessee River Packet Company operates boats regularly 
between St. Louis and Quincy. The schedule is for two trips a week. 
Three boats of this company are available for use in transporting 
apples: namely, The Alabama, the Crescent, and the Jane Khea. Dur- 
ing the apple season part of these boats ply between St. Louis and Cal- 
houn county points rather than making the entire trip to Quincy, and 
they sometimes make three trips a week. 

The St. Louis & Calhoun Packet Corporation operates the Belle 
of Calhoun and the Illinois, making two trips a week between St. Louis 
and Louisiana, Missouri. When freight movement is heavy, both 
boats are operated. 

The Golden Eagle, Piasa, Alabama, and Belle of Calhoun are able 
to carry large cargoes on their own decks and also may propel one or 
two barges each, thus greatly increasing their hauling capacity. The 
Crescent, Jane Rhea, and Illinois push large barges but carry no 
freight on their own decks. The boats of the three transportation 
companies, together with their barges, are capable of moving more 
than 60,000 barrels of apples a week. 



576 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



In addition to the boats that have been mentioned, there are 
several smaller boats that either have their decks laden or push 
barges, which sometimes handle a considerable volume of apples. 
They have no particular schedule nor particular route but pick up 
business whenever and wherever they can do so advantageously. 





FIG. 7. LOADING APPLES ON OPEN DECK OF ONE OF THE SMALLER BOATS 
Boats of this type, arid also small power boats that push barges, haul 
many apples in seasons of heavy crop. 




FIG. 8. STREET SCENE IN HAMBURG DURING APPLE HARVEST 
When the warehouses at the boat landings have no more room for the apples 
hauled in from the orchards, the barrels of fruit are piled in the street or along 
the river bank. 



Boats Make Trip to St Louis Within Twenty-Four Hours 

The running time of the packets from Calhoun county landings 
to St. Louis varies considerably with conditions. When there are 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



577 



large volumes of freight to be loaded at each landing, more time is 
required to make the trip than when the loading is light and some 
stops may be omitted. There are fifteen landings in Calhoun county 
on the Illinois river and twenty on the Mississippi river at which stops 
are scheduled; but the boat does not stop at a landing unless there is 
freight to be delivered or loaded. The stage of the river also has 
considerable influence on the running time of the boats. Nevertheless, 
it is seldom that more than twenty-four hours are required to make the 
trip from the upper landings in the county to the levee at St. Louis. 

Delay in getting Calhoun county apples from orchard to market 
is not due to slow running time of boats on the rivers, but rather to 
the fact that the boats do not always take all the apples that are at 
the landings. Sometimes at the peak of the harvest, apples may lie 




FIG. 9. Golden Eagle RECEIVING FREIGHT AT HARDIN 
The gangplank extends from the warehouse to the boat deck, 
house was damaged when struck by a boat during high water.) 



(The ware- 



at the landing for several days before a boat comes along that has 
room to haul them. At other times a grower may request that ship- 
ment of his apples be deferred in the hope that market conditions may 
improve. It has been reported that in extreme cases certain barrels 
of apples have been at the landing for thirty days before they were 
loaded. 

Warehouses at Boat Landings Inadequate 

At most of the boat landings there are sheds or barns which are 
supposed to serve as warehouses for the apples until they are loaded. 
In most cases these sheds are owned by the landing keepers, who 
charge a fee of 3 to 5 cents a barrel on all apples loaded at the given 



578 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



landing. At most of the landings the warehouses have a capacity of 
less than 1,000 barrels, tho at Hamburg there is capacity of approxi- 
mately 5,000 barrels. When the harvest is at its height, more apples 




FIG. 10. ROLLING BARRELED APPLES FROM WAREHOUSE TO STEAMBOAT 
Deck hands starting to roll barrels of apples from warehouse across the 
ground to the gangplank of the steamship Alabama. Some livestock had just been 
loaded and the hurdles forming the chute had not yet been removed when this 
picture was taken. 




FIG. 11. ANOTHER VIEW OF BARREL LOADING 

Each deck hand has a short pike pole with which he manipulates the bar- 
rels. This is a common method of loading apples on to boats in Calhoun county. 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 579 

are brought to the landings than can be placed in the warehouses. The 
excess packages are piled on the ground wherever space may be found. 
At Hamburg, in spite of the 5,000-barrel warehouse capacity, it is not 
uncommon to find the principal street of the town piled high with 
barrels of apples exposed to rain or sun. 

Delays in Shipping Impair Keeping Quality of Fruit 

To determine the effects of delayed shipment on the keeping qual- 
ity of apples, tests were run during 1926 and 1927 on Jonathan, Wine- 
sap, and Willow Twig apples grown in Calhoun county. 

In 1926 it was planned to ship four barrels of each variety by 
boat to St. Louis as soon as picked and there to place them in cold 
storage; four barrels were to have been held in the orchard two weeks 
exposed to the weather, and four barrels were to have been held in 
sheds at the loading point for the same period before being sent to 
storage. Owing to unavoidable conditions some of the lots were de- 
layed in their trip to storage. A misunderstanding caused the Willow 
Twigs to be shipped to storage a week earlier than planned. The 
exact number of days elapsing between the picking dates and the dates 
the various lots were placed in cold storage in St. Louis are shown in 
Table 8, together with the conditions under which they were held 
before being stored and the average mean daily temperatures prevail- 
ing during the time the various lots were held. 

At different times during the storage season one barrel of each 
lot was removed from storage, and detailed examinations of the apples 
made. The differences in the condition of the apples in the various 
lots on specified dates are shown in Table 8. 

During the 1927 season tests similar to those made in 1926 were 
conducted with the same varieties. The apples in these tests, however, 
were packed in tub bushels. The treatments given the various lots 
were similar to those planned for the 1926 tests. The time that 
elapsed between picking the various lots and placing them in cold 
storage in St. Louis is shown in Table 9, together with the results of 
detailed examinations made at various times during the storage season. 

In both the 1926 and 1927 tests, when a package had been exam- 
ined and a record of its condition made the fruit w T as disposed of. 
The subsequent examinations were made on other packages of the cor- 
responding lots. The results, therefore, could not be expected to be 
exactly the same for the same lots because the keeping quality of 
apples in the different packages might vary somewhat even under 
identical treatment. Significant differences in the keeping quality of 
the apples handled in different ways are, however, shown in some cases. 

There are apparently no significant differences shown in the keep- 
ing quality of the Willow Twig lots and the Winesap lots examined 
in the 1926 tests. The differences noted are too small to be significant. 
This can partly be explained by the low temperatures that prevailed 



580 



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582 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

during the time the apples were held before being placed in cold 
storage and, in the case of the Willow Twigs, by the relatively small 
difference in the length of time over which the different lots were held 
before being stored. 

The results of the tests on Jonathans, however, indicate that the 
apples in Lot 1, held in the shed for 12 days, kept significantly better 
than those of Lots 2, 3, and 4, held longer in orchard and shed. The 
percentage of decay in Lot 1 was much smaller than in the other lots; 
the fruit was not as slack in the barrels and did not ripen as rapidly 
during the storage period. 

The results of the 1927 tests, as shown in Table 9, indicate that 
delay in placing apples in cold storage was very detrimental to the 
keeping quality of the three varieties tested. In the case of all these 
varieties the apples that were shipped to storage soon after picking 
showed much less decay at all later examinations than did those held 
at the shipping point for two to three weeks before being placed in 
cold storage. Fruit shipped immediately to storage ripened much less 
rapidly than fruit held two to three weeks, and the packs remained 
tight for a much longer period. 

In none of the tests did apples held in the orchard with no pro- 
tection from the weather show significant differences in condition 
from those held in sheds where they were protected. The packages 
that were exposed to the weather were, however, not as clean and 
attractive in appearance as those held in sheds. 

These tests show that with normal weather conditions it is detri- 
mental to the keeping quality of apples of midseason and late varieties 
to withhold them from storage for more than a very few days. Work 
done by investigators in the U. S. Department of Agriculture shows 
that prompt storage after apples have been picked is important be- 
cause it prevents rapid softening of the fruit and because it retards the 
development of destructive storage rots. It is stated: 1 "At 70 F., 
softening proceeds approximately twice as rapidly as at 50 F. At 
50 F., it is almost double the rate at 40 F., while at the latter tem- 
perature softening proceeds fully twice as rapidly as at 32 F." Later 
in the same publication the investigators say: "It is of fundamental 
importance that apples intended for cold storage holding be moved to 
the storage rooms as soon as possible after picking." Brooks, Fisher, 
and Cooley 2 say: "When fruit is placed in cold storage immediately 
upon picking, the rots develop slowly, but if the rot organisms can 
have a week's start on the warm fruit, they will make a rapid growth 
even at 32 F." 



'Magness, J. R., et al. The ripening, storage, and handling of apples. 
U. S. D. A. Dept. Bui. 1406. 1926. 

2 Brooks, Chas., Cooley, J. S., and Fisher, D. F. Diseases of apples in 
storage. U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bui. 1160. 1920. 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



583 



If apples are to be placed on the market in good condition for 
storing, they must be shipped as soon as packed. Much of the fruit 
bought at harvest time is bought for storing, and fruit that shows rot 
or is too ripe for safe storage is usually discounted in price according 
to its condition. Holding apples in sheds or at loading points in the 
hope that market conditions will improve is, therefore, likely to be an 
unprofitable practice. 

Rolling of Barreled Apples Adds to Damage 

When a packet stops at a landing to pick up freight, the barrels 
are rolled on their sides directly from the warehouse to the gangplank 
or down the river bank to the gangplank and on to the boat deck or 
the barge beside the boat. When the banks are muddy, boards are 
usually laid down to keep the barrels out of the mud. As the barrels 
are loaded on the boat they are placed on end in stacks two or three 
high. Part of the barrels on the boat deck have some protection from 
the weather, but those on the barge have none. 

When the boat lands in St. Louis, the barrels are rolled down the 
gangplank or runway on to the levee. There they are rolled over the 




FIG. 12. UNLOADING APPLES AT THE LEVEE IN ST. Louis 

The barrels are rolled down the gangplank and over the cobblestone surface 
of the levee. Unless tightly packed, considerable bruising of the fruit is likely 
to result. 



cobblestones to the location of their respective lots, where they are 
stacked on their sides, usually three high, and are left to be disposed 
of by the dealers to whom they are shipped. The cobblestone surface 
of the levee is quite rough and it is doubtful if a barrel of apples can 
be rolled over these stones without bruising some of the fruit. Fruit 
that was slack-packed or that has been held at the landing too long 



584 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

before shipment suffers worse than fruit that is tight in the package, 
but even the best-packed barrels of fruit cannot escape some injury 
when subjected to such treatment, especially when the handlers are 
not so careful as they might be in rolling the barrels about on the 
levee. Baskets and boxes are carried instead of being rolled in loading 
and unloading and therefore their contents are likely to suffer less 
injury than the fruit shipped in barrels. 

When the apples have been unloaded and piled in individual lots 
on the levee, the duty of the transportation agency is completed. 
Apples consigned to the cold-storage houses are hauled away to the 
coolers soon after they are unloaded. Those intended for sale on the 
open market are taken in charge by the dealer to whom they are con- 
signed or who may already own them but may wish to dispose of them 
immediately. 

River Rates Uniform on Barrel Shipments to St Louis 
The river freight rates on barrels of apples from Calhoun county 
are the same regardless of the number of barrels in the shipment. 
There is no distinction between large and small lots corresponding to 
the c.l. and l.c.l. railroad rates. Thus the small shipper is at no 
disadvantage so far as freight rates are concerned. Furthermore, 
barrels of apples from all boat landings in Calhoun county take the 
same rate to St. Louis, even tho the nearest landing is only about 40 
miles from that city and the farthest approximately 100 miles by the 
river route. The greatest expense in transporting these apples is in 
taking on and discharging the cargoes. All labor connected with these 
operations is furnished by the transportation company. The flat rate 
tends to equalize the marketing costs for growers in different parts of 
the county desiring to use the St. Louis market. This rate is 40 cents 
a barrel. Rates on bushel baskets, boxes, and sacks have differed 
slightly at different points in the county. From Mississippi river 
landings the rate on each of these packages in 1927 was 15 cents, 
while from landings on the Illinois river it was 20 cents. The rate to 
Peoria from Illinois river landings was 45 cents on barrels and 25 
cents on baskets, boxes, and sacks. 

FACILITIES FOR RAIL TRANSPORTATION 
RECENTLY IMPROVED 

Altho there are no railroads in Calhoun county, three railway 
companies have lines that run close enough to the county to receive 
apples as freight. 

Most Important Loading Point on C. & A. at East Hardin 

The most important rail loading point for Calhoun county apples 
is East Hardin, which is directly across the Illinois river from Hardin 



MARKETING CALHOUX COUNTY APPLES 



585 




FIG. 13. MAP OF CALHOUN COUNTY AND VICINITY 

The county is nearly surrounded by navigable rivers. Altho there are no 
railroads in the county, three railway companies have lines sufficiently close to 
receive apples as freight. Hard roads connect the county with East St. Louis 
and St. Louis. 



and is served by a branch of the Chicago & Alton Railway running 
from Carrollton, in Greene county. The extension from Eldred to 
East Hardin was completed in 1925, and thus has been available for 
rail shipments only three seasons. Previous to the completion of this 
line shipments might have been made from Eldred by trucking the 
apples about four miles after crossing the Illinois river by ferry at 
Kampsville. Very few apples, however, have ever been loaded at 
Eldred. 

Apples May Be Loaded Directly Into Cars at East Hardin 

At East Hardin the apples may be loaded into cars from transfer 
barges or from trucks or wagons that have been ferried across the 
river. A track extends over the levee and, paralleling the stream 
for a few hundred yards, descends by a gentle incline into the water, 



586 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



so that at any stage of the river apples can be loaded directly from 
transfer barges into the cars. The lower end of the track is always 
submerged and cars may be backed down the slope as far as may be 
necessary for convenient loading. 




FIG. 14. RAILROAD TRACK EXTENDING ALONG THE RIVER AT EAST HARDIN 
The lower end of the track is submerged. Cars may be "spotted" at any 
point to facilitate loading of apples directly from barges. 



Barges operate between Hardin and East Hardin thru the ship- 
ping season. At Hardin the apples are unloaded from trucks or 
wagons and slid directly down skids and runways on to the barges 
or are left on the bank until a barge is ready to receive them. Barrels 
are usually loaded two tiers high on these transfer barges, about 1,250 
barrels making a full load. As soon as a barge is loaded, the power 
boat pushes it across the river, where it is tied up alongside the track. 
The barrels are then rolled on skids directly into the cars. 

The ferry operating between Hardin and East Hardin has sufficient 
capacity for hauling from six to eight loaded trucks at a time and can 
make a round trip in about thirty minutes. Many growers prefer this 
method of getting their fruit to the cars at East Hardin, since there 
is usually less delay in getting the apples from the orchard to the car 
and also less handling of the fruit. The ferry charge at this point in 
1927 was 5 cents a barrel or 2 cents a basket. There was no charge 
for the empty truck going back. The rate on the transfer barge was 
10 cents a barrel or 5 cents a basket, but in this case the transfer 
company performed all the labor involved in handling the apples from 
the time they were unloaded from the shipper's truck at the river bank 
in Hardin until they were loaded into the cars at East Hardin. When 
the apples were transferred by ferry, the shipper did his own loading. 
In 1926 about 80 percent of the apples shipped by rail from East 
Hardin were transferred across the river by barges; but in 1927 after 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 587 

the capacity of the ferry had been greatly increased, more apples were 
transported by ferry than by barge. Rail shipments from East Hardin 
have been as follows: in 1925, 542 cars; in 1926, 405 cars; in 1927, 311 
cars. 1 Many of these cars were iced at Roodhouse before being loaded. 
Possibility of a Bridge at Hardin. It is the expectation that a 
bridge across the Illinois river at Hardin and East Hardin will be 
constructed in the near future. Appropriations have been made by 
the state for the construction of this bridge and the plans are practi- 
cally completed. When the bridge is finished, it will be possible to 
truck apples directly from the orchards to the team tracks in East 
Hardin without the use of barge or ferry and this will tend greatly to 
increase shipments at this point. 

Loading Points Available on C. B. & Q. in Missouri 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad runs along the west 
side of the Mississippi river from St. Louis to Hannibal and makes 
connections there for Quincy, Kansas City, Chicago, Minneapolis, and 
other markets. At Peruque, Missouri, the tracks are only about one- 
fourth of a mile from the river. A few apples ferried across the river 
on trucks at this point are loaded into cars for shipment. At one time 
there was a spur track extending into the river at Peruque like the 
one at East Hardin, but this was removed when the brick plant across 
the river ceased to operate. There has been, at various times, some 
agitation among the growers in the southern part of the county to 
have this track replaced so that apples may be loaded from barges 
into cars at this point. The ferry goes a considerable distance up the 
river from Golden Eagle to Peruque, requiring about 1% hours to 
make the round trip. The ferry charge is one dollar each way for a 
truck regardless of its size. 

North of Peruque the C. B. & Q. swings away from the river and 
there are no other readily accessible loading points until Clarksville 
is reached. Here the railway sidings are about a quarter mile from 
the river landing point for transfer barges. Clarksville, Missouri ? is 
about 15 miles upstream from Hamburg, Illinois, which is the largest 
apple shipping point in Calhoun county. In spite of this distance a 
considerable volume of apples is brought on transfer barges from 
Hamburg to Clarksville and there loaded into cars. 

When shipments are heavy, two barges are in operation between 
these points. The shippers deliver their apples at a warehouse in 
Hamburg. The transfer companies handle them from that point to 
the cars, including the wagon haul from the landing at Clarksville to 
the railroad. During the busy season one round trip is usually made 
by each barge every twenty-four hours. The transfer charge in 1927 
was 25 cents a barrel, including the warehouse fee at the loading point. 

'Data furnished by Traffic Department of Chicago & Alton Railroad. 



588 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

In 1925, 177 cars of apples were shipped from Clarksville. Most 
of these apples came from Calhoun county and went to Chicago. In 
1926 the shipments from this point amounted to 264 cars and in 1927, 
127 cars. 1 Many of the cars shipped from Clarksville were iced at 
Hannibal before being loaded. 

Apples Ferried Across River Loaded at Grafton 

Grafton, in Jersey county, is served by the Alton & Eastern Rail- 
road. A good many apples loaded in trucks are ferried across the 
Illinois river below Deerplain and hauled to Grafton for loading into 
cars. To reach the ferry from the nearest orchards the apples must 
be hauled two to three miles over dirt and macadam roads thru the 
river bottoms. After crossing the ferry the trucks must cover more 
than three miles of rough road, partly dirt and partly improved, to 
reach the loading tracks at Grafton. The transfer charge at this 
ferry in 1927 was one dollar for each truck one way. The round trip 
rate was $1.50 for trucks under two tons, and $2 for trucks of two-ton 
capacity or over. This would be about 7% cents a barrel for average 
loads on 1%- and 2-ton trucks. The ferry at this point is small and 
can haul only one or two trucks at a load. If large quantities of fruit 
were to be handled here, considerable increase in transfer facilities 
would be necessary. 

Another way in which apples might be taken to Grafton for ship- 
ment by rail would be to transport them by packet from any river 
landing in the county and transfer them by w r agon or truck from the 
landing at Grafton to the cars. Or the same method might be em- 
ployed for loading them into cars at Alton or St. Louis. The rate by 
packet is the same whether the apples are unloaded at Grafton, Alton, 
or St. Louis. The total charge for getting a barrel of apples from the 
boat landing in Calhoun county to the cars at any of these points is 
approximately 45 cents besides the drayage charge. This expense is 
involved before the apples are even started by rail. This method 
also involves considerable delay before the fruit can be put under 
refrigeration and requires a large amount of handling which impairs 
rather than improves the keeping quality of the apples. It is there- 
fore seldom used. 

Shipments of Calhoun county apples by rail from Grafton during 
the last three years have been approximately as follows: 1925, 100 
cars; 1926, 100 cars; 1927, 70 cars. 2 

The Chicago & Alton line from Kansas City, Missouri, to Spring- 
field, Illinois, passes thru Pike county about three miles from the 

'Data furnished by General Freight Department of Missouri District of 
C. B. & Q. Ry. 

! Data furnished by Freight Department of A. & E. R. R. and station agent 
at Grafton. 



1928} 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



589 



north boundary of Calhoun county. Up to the present time relatively 
few apples have been produced in the extreme north end of the county 
and shipping points on this railway line have been of little im- 
portance in moving the crop, tho some Calhoun county apples have 
been shipped from Pleasant Hill and from Nebo. Shipments from 
Pleasant Hill were 3 cars in 1925, 5 cars in 1926, and 5 cars in 1927. 1 
Shipments from Nebo were 7 cars in 1926, and 3 cars in 1927. 1 
The orchards in Calhoun county close to Nebo are just coming into 
bearing and it is probable that rail shipments from this point will 
show a marked increase in the near future. 

Freight Rates to Various Markets 

Railway freight rates on apples from the principal loading points 
accessible to Calhoun county growers to some of the important mar- 
kets are given in Table 10. 

TABLE 10. CARLOT FREIGHT RATES ON BARREL AND BASKET APPLES 

FROM POINTS ACCESSIBLE TO CALHOUN CouNTY 1 

(Rate in cents per cwt. 2 ) 



From 


East Hardin 


Graf ton 


Clarksville 


East St. Louis 


13 


11 






20 


18 


14.5 




22 


27.5 


20.5 




32 


32 


26.5 


Memphis 


42.5 


42.5 


42.5 




32 


30.5 


42 


Minneapolis 


44 


44 


44 



'Data furnished by the railway companies concerned, winter of 1927-28. 
2 Icing charges are not included in these rates. 

The rail rate from East Hardin to St. Louis in carload lots (with- 
out refrigeration) is 10 cents a barrel less than the river rate but does 
not include the transfer by ferry or barge to the rail loading point nor 
unloading at destination. The rail rate from Clarksville to St. Louis 
is only slightly over half the river rate from Hamburg, but to this 
rail rate must be added the 25 cents per barrel charge for the transfer 
by barge from Hamburg to Clarksville, thus making the total cost of 
transportation by barge and rail greater than by boat. 

Boat Shipments Faster Than Rail From East 
Hardin to St. Louis 

Shipments by rail from Clarksville, which leave that loading 
point in the evening, normally reach St. Louis by the next morning, 
but rail shipments from East Hardin may require two or three days to 
reach the same market. River transportation usually requires no more 
than 24 hours from any loading point in Calhoun county to St. Louis. 

'Data, furnished by Traffic Department of Chicago & Alton Railroad and 
station agents at Pleasant Hill and Nebo. 



590 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 




FIG. 15. RIVER SCENE AT HARDIN 

In the foreground are barges loaded with apples and a power boat for trans- 
ferring the barges to East Hardin. In the background is the steamship Golden 
Eagle that hauls apples to Peoria or St. Louis. 




FIG. 16. FROM BARGE TO REFRIGERATOR CARS AT EAST HARDIN 
The barrels of apples are being rolled on a skid directly from the transfer 
barge to the refrigerator car. The transfer company does the loading. 



Possibility of a Railroad in Calhoun County 

The construction of a railroad running thru Calhoun county from 
north to south has been projected and a right of way over a large part 
of the distance has been acquired. The completion of such a railroad 
would connect this apple region with Quincy on the north and St. Louis 
on the south and entirely change the situation in reference to rail 
transportation. 



1928} 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



591 



MOTOR TRUCKS HAUL MANY APPLES TO MARKET 



Motor trucks are becoming more and more important in the 
transportation of apples from Calhoun county to market. For several 
years it has been customary to haul considerable quantities of the 
early varieties and early pickings of Grimes and Jonathans packed 
in baskets directly from the orchards in the southern part of the 
county to the stores of dealers in St. Louis. Bulk apples have also 
been trucked from the same area to St. Louis and surrounding towns. 

Some growers do their own trucking, but there are now owners of 
commercially operated trucks who make a regular business of hauling 




FIG. 17. BASKETS OF APPLES LOADED FROM TRUCK INTO REFRIGERATOR 
CARS AT EAST HARDIN 

The trucks are ferried across the river. Some growers prefer this method to 
transfer by barge, since it involves less handling of the fruit and less delay in 
loading. 



apples to St. Louis. In either case the apples are loaded into the truck 
at the orchard and delivered at any dealer's store or any cold storage 
plant in St. Louis without rehandling. The trucks cross the Mississippi 
river by ferry at Golden Eagle. There are two ferries operating at 
this point. Each is capable of carrying five or six good-sized trucks. 
Most of the trip from the ferry to St. Louis (a distance of 38 miles), 
via St. Charles, Missouri, is over gravel or concrete roads, tho there 
are three or four miles of road that are in poor condition in wet 
weather. Under normal conditions a truck can make the trip from 
the ferry to St. Louis in about two hours. A common load for a one- 
ton truck is 45 bushel baskets. Some of the larger trucks haul more 
than 100 baskets. Few, if any, apples in barrels have been hauled 
to St Louis by truck. Commercial trucking companies in 1927 charged 
25 cents a bushel basket for hauling apples from the orchards around 
Brussels, Batehtown, and Golden Eagle to any point in St. Louis. In 
1926, 80,000 bushels of apples in trucks crossed the river by ferry at 



592 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



Golden Eagle. In 1927, when the crop was light, there were 105,000 
bushels. 

After the close of the apple harvest in 1927 the concrete road 
from East Hardin to Jerseyville was completed. This affords thru 
connections over hard roads all the way from East Hardin to St. Louis 
via Jerseyville and Alton. The distance is 68 miles. Undoubtedly 
considerable volumes of fruit from the territory near Hardin and along 
the concrete highway between Hardin and Kampsville will be moved 
to St. Louis by truck during the next apple harvest. This new road 
not only makes the St. Louis market readily accessible by truck from 
the eastern part of Calhoun county, but also makes it possible to 




FIG. 18. CIDER MILL NEAR HARDIN 

In 1927 about 8 percent of the apple crop of Calhoun county was made into 
cider. This was used mostly by pickle companies for making vinegar, and was 
shipped out largely in tank boats. 



reach a number of well-populated industrial communities in the vicin- 
ity of East St. Louis. It has been estimated that the combined popu- 
lation of these industrial centers is more than 160,000, thus affording 
a potential market for many apples. 

The quantities of apples shipped from Calhoun county in 1927 
by the various means of transportation are given in Table 11. Thirty- 
eight percent of the crop was shipped by rail, 30.5 percent by river 
packet, and nearly 23 percent by truck. In addition, more than 8 
percent was shipped out in the form of cider, mostly by river boat. 

TABLE 11. TOTAL APPLE SHIPMENTS FROM CALHOUN COUNTY, 1927 





Barrels 1 


Percent of total 


By packet, on rivers 


73 434 


1 . 30.5 


By rail 


91 528 


38.1 


By truck, via ferry 


55 167 


22.9 


As cider* 


20 013 


8.3 


Total 


240 142 


99.8 



'Including baskets and boxes calculated as 3 to the barrel. 
Calculated on the basis of 1 barrel of apples to 10.7 gallons of cider. 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 593 

STORAGE FACILITIES ACCESSIBLE 

There are no cold-storage facilities in Calhoim county. A few 
growers have dry storage houses in which they place a small portion 
of their crops. Fruit held in these houses until spring is usually quite 
ripe and will not long remain firm when taken from storage. It must 
be handled rapidly and usually sells at a discount because it must 
compete on the market with sound fruit from cold storage. This sit- 
uation has led to some discussion regarding the feasibility of erecting 
cold-storage warehouses especially for handling apples produced in 
Calhoun county. 

Altho there are no cold-storage plants in the county, ample facili- 
ties for storing Calhoun county apples are available. In St. Louis 
alone there are seven storage plants having a total apple capacity of 
approximately 460,000 barrels (Table 12). 



TABLE 12. COLD STORAGE SPACE FOR APPLES NEAR 
CALHOUN COUNTY 

City Capacityi 



St. Louis 

Hannibal 

Louisiana, Missouri. 
Peoria . 



Total. 



bbls. 

462 000 
76 000 
35 000 
30 000 

603 000 



'As reported by cold storage companies, or calculated on basis of 
160 barrels to a carload, or 8 cubic feet of space for a barrel. 



Hannibal and Louisiana, Missouri, are readily accessible by boat 
from Calhoun county and can also be reached by rail if the apples 
are loaded at Clarksville after being transferred by barge from Ham- 
burg. These towns have considerable storage space and good rail 
connections for shipping apples from storage to various markets. 
Peoria, accessible by boat or rail, is an important distributing point 
and a logical place to store apples for shipment to markets farther 
east. The storage capacity in Peoria available for apples is about 
30,000 barrels (Table 12). Quincy is another point at which apples 
from Calhoun county might be stored. 

The quantities of apples stored in St. Louis the past three seasons 
have been: for 1925, 252,668 barrels; 1926, 179,893 barrels; and 1927, 
179,712 barrels (Table 13). Of these, 169,961, 114,356, and 39,664 
barrels respectively for the three seasons were from Calhoun county. 
The St. Louis storage of Calhoun county apples represented 37.6, 28.5, 
and 16.5 percent respectively of the crop for these three years. There 
is ample storage space in St. Louis for many more apples from Cal- 
houn county than have been stored there the past three seasons. 



594 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



In view of the storage space available for apples in St. Louis, 
Hannibal, Louisiana, and Peoria, not to mention Chicago and other 
distributing markets, there would seem to be no adequate reason for 
the erection of cold-storage plants in Calhoun county. Such plants 




FIG. 19. UNLOADING APPLES FROM WAGON INTO WAREHOUSE AT HAMBURG 
By the use of a skid one man handles the barrels with ease. In hauling the 

apples over the hilly roads, brakes are used on the wagons and the load is roped 

to hold it in place. 

would be expensive to build and operate, and there would be no reve- 
nue from the storage of products other than apples during the summer 
season as is possible in storage plants in large cities. At no point in 
the county could apples be loaded from a storage plant directly into 

TABLE 13. QUANTITIES OF APPLES STORED IN ST. Louis, 1925, 1926, AND 1927 1 



Storage 
package and 
year 


Volume of apples 
stored in St. 
Louis 


Calhoun county apples stored in 
St. Louis 


Percentage of 
Calhoun county 
apples stored in 
grower's name 


Volume 


Percentage of 
total stored in 
St. Louis 


Barrels 
1925 


162 004 

116 585 
27 069 

51 237 
27 915 
182 938 

220 756 
162 009 
275 992 

252 668 
179 893 
179 712 


145 615 

107 848 
25 196 

17 002 
13 204 
32 454 

6 868 
6 321 
10 951 

169 961 
114 356 
39 664 


89.9 
92.5 
93.1 

33.2 
47.3 
17.75 

3.1 
3.9 
3.97 

67.3 
63.6 
22.1 


9.08 
13.57 
9.8 

28.7 
26.45 
39.0 

99.2 
100 
100 

10.05 
15.77 
26.05 


1926 


1927 


Baskets 
1925 


1926 


1927. . . 


Boxes 
1925. . . . 


1926 


1927 


Total as barrels. . 
1925 


1926 . . 


1927 



'Compiled from data furnished by the cold-storage companies. Storage space available in St. 
Louis, 462,000 barrels. 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 595 

refrigerator cars, and river transportation to market is not available 
in winter. If a cold-storage plant were erected at East Hardin, just 
outside the county, the loading of cars could readily be handled in 
winter, but the lack of summer revenue would be a serious obstacle to 
the profitable operation of such a plant; and in years of light crop in 
Calhoun county even the winter revenue would be reduced since the 
location is not favorable for shipping in apples from other regions for 
storage purposes. 

METHODS OF SALE 

Calhoun county apple growers have used a number of different 
methods of selling their fruit. Considerable quantities of the apples 
usually are sold long before the harvest. Other quantities are sold at 
harvest time but before the fruit is shipped. Much fruit is shipped 
on consignment to large markets. Smaller quantities have been sold 
thru brokers or stored by the growers and later sold. Numerous 
variations of these methods have been widely used from time to time, 
and the quantities sold in the various ways have varied considerably 
from year to year. 

Pre-Harvest Contracts 

It has been a common practice for apple buyers to come to Cal- 
houn county in June, July, or August, and begin operations for the 
season. These buyers usually represent large produce firms in impor- 
tant markets. A buyer visits a number of orchards inspecting the 
fruit and estimating the crop. He then bargains with the owner of 
any orchard that interests him and they attempt to reach an agree- 
ment as to price and method of selling. If an agreement is reached, 
a contract is usually drawn up stating the price to be paid, basis of 
grading, and other points of importance. In some cases, however, 
such transactions take place without a written contract being signed. 
The buyer usually pays the grower a part of the purchase price at 
the time the contract is made and agrees to pay the balance when the 
fruit is shipped. 

The buyer may pay a lump sum for the entire crop on the trees. 
The fruit then becomes his property and he assumes all risks due to 
adverse weather conditions or possible insect and disease damage. The 
buyer makes all arrangements for handling the crop and pays all ex- 
penses of these operations. He may hire the grower to harvest, pack, 
and haul the crop at a stated rate per barrel or he may handle the 
crop with his own crews. 

Some buyers are unable to estimate accurately the size of a crop 
on the trees before harvest time. During some years adverse weather 
conditions have caused large quantities of fruit to be lost before it 
could be picked and packed. Often the buyer does not wish to assume 
the risks that must be borne when a crop is bought on the trees several 



596 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

weeks before the harvest. In such cases the buyer agrees to pay a 
stated price for the crop packed and delivered at the loading point. 
A flat price per package is usually paid for both No. 1 and No. 2 fruit, 
and the grade specifications are stipulated by the buyer. Such a price 
is made as will allow a fair return for the costs of harvesting, packing, 
and hauling to the loading point in addition to the price for the fruit. 
Under such an agreement the buyer may purchase the grower's entire 
crop or he may buy only certain varieties. When only certain varieties 
are bought, the buyer may arrange to have the remainder of the 
grower's crop handled by his company for the grower's account. Con- 
tracts in which the crop is bought at a definite rate per barrel are 
usually written, and the grade specifications under which the fruit is 
to be packed are included. Here also the buyer usually advances the 
grower a part of the money when the contract is signed and agrees to 
pay the balance when the fruit is delivered for shipment. When this 
method of sale is employed, the grower does all of the harvesting, 
packing, and hauling. The buyer, however, usually visits the orchard 
once or twice each day to see that the grading is being done according 
to specifications and that the fruit is properly packed. 

Sometimes a buyer does not begin his operations until harvest 
time. In such cases he may go into orchards where the growers have 
not yet sold their crops. If the quality and condition of the fruit 
being packed is satisfactory to him, he attempts to buy it. If a sale 
is made, the price agreed upon usually applies to the fruit delivered 
at the loading point. 

The buyer, instead of visiting the orchards, may work at the 
loading points (usually boat landings) and there inspect various lots 
of fruit as they are hauled in from the orchards. He then attempts 
to buy those lots which seem desirable to him. 

Consignments to Commission Merchants 

Most of the fruit not bought up by apple dealers is shipped on 
consignment to commission merchants in the larger markets. This is 
the most widely used method of selling Calhoun county apples. Altho 
some consigned fruit is sent to Chicago and other markets, by far the 
largest part of such fruit is shipped by boat to St. Louis and is there 
sold in the apple sales that are held on the levee nearly every day 
during the shipping season. 

Some growers in Calhoun county have used this method regularly 
and have shipped consistently year after year to one or two repre- 
sentatives in this market. Others have consigned consistently to St. 
Louis but have not formed any permanent market connections there. 
These growers ship first to one dealer and then to another, their choice 
depending upon how satisfactory the preceding returns have been. 
Sometimes growers divide shipments among several different dealers 
and send later shipments to the one who makes the most satisfactory 



1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



597 



returns. Other growers ship on consignment only when they have 
been unable to interest buyers in their fruit or when they and the 
buyers have been unable to agree upon a price. These growers usually 
have no regular market representative, and consequently their fruit 
has little standing on the market. 

The Levee Sale at St. Louis 

An auction sale of apples takes place on the levee at St. Louis 
whenever the boats bring down enough fruit to justify a sale. The 
sales usually begin about ten o'clock in the morning or about two 
o'clock in the afternoon. The fruit has been piled in lots that are 
numbered. Each commission merchant receives from the boat clerk 
a list of the lots consigned to him. When the time for the sale arrives, 




FIG. 20. BARRELS OF APPLES ON LEVEE AT ST. Louis 

The apples are brought by boat from Calhoun county and piled up on the 
levee in readiness for the auction sales which take place nearly every day during 
the apple harvest. 

the commission merchant opens one or two packages of a lot of apples 
and invites prospective buyers to examine them. He then passes slips 
of paper to those who wish to bid on the lot. The bids are written on 
the slips of paper and handed to the dealer selling the fruit. He ex- 
amines the bids, tears up all the slips except the one containing the 
highest bid, and announces the successful bidder. A sales ticket is 
then made out for the lot and the buyer arranges for the disposition 
of his purchase. This process is repeated by the different commission 
merchants having fruit to sell until all of the lots are disposed of or 
until the buyers leave. Frequently large quantities of apples cannot 
be disposed of at one sale. Those not sold then are held over until 
the next sale which usually takes place that afternoon or the next 
day. The commission charged for making sales on the levee is 10 
percent. 



598 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

Sometimes a prospective buyer sees a lot of apples which he is 
particularly anxious to obtain. He may, in that case, arrange to 
inspect them and to have the commission merchant set a price on the 
lot. If the price is agreeable, he may buy the fruit without bidding 
for it. This is more often done with highly desirable lots of apples 
than with fruit of ordinary grade and pack, and the resulting price is 
correspondingly greater. When a lot of apples is offered for sale and 
bids are solicited, the usual custom is for the highest bidder to be 
given that lot of apples at the figure he bids. The salesman may, 
however, announce before the bidding begins that if the price is not 
satisfactory he reserves the right to withdraw the lot from sale. This 
is seldom done except with high-grade fruit in good condition for 
storing and then only when the commission merchant has some such 
agreement with the shipper. Fruit that is only fair in quality or con- 
dition is usually sold for what it will bring because storage of such 
fruit is seldom profitable. 

When supplies are heavy and demand slow, any market is usually 
dull. The market at the levee is not exempt from this condition. At 
such times it is very difficult to get satisfactory prices for the best of 
fruit, and off-grade fruit in poor condition sells for very little. The 
grower who ships poorly graded fruit that is also in poor condition, 
is greatly handicapped when his product strikes such a market because 
it cannot be stored with any assurance of profit and because its value 
on such a market is extremely low. Likewise a shipper shipping to 
a dealer with whom he has no well-established connections and no 
agreement to cover such circumstances, is likely to find his fruit being 
sold at a low price because his representative has no authority to store 
it when unable to make a satisfactory immediate sale. 

This apple sale on the levee often has been condemned as detri- 
mental to the interests of Calhoun county growers. It undoubtedly 
has its faults. However, it performs a distinct service in evaluating 
and disposing of numerous small lots of apples of every grade, condi- 
tion, and description. 

Brokerage Sales a Factor in 1927 

Recently some fruit from Calhoun county has been sold on a 
brokerage basis. Part of this fruit was sold at harvest time and part 
was stored for selling later in the season. The growers who arranged 
to have their fruit handled in this way designated whether they wished 
it sold at once or stored. The time of selling from storage was 
left to the discretion of the broker. In general the selling was dis- 
tributed thru the whole storage season. The freight from the shipping 
point to the storage house was paid by the broker and deducted from 
the sales along with storage and brokerage charges when returns were 
made. The brokerage charge was a flat rate per package regardless of 
the selling price of the fruit. 



1928} MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 599 

Merits of Different Methods 

Each of the various methods of marketing has its merits. Selling 
to a reliable dealer for a lump sum in advance of the harvest relieves 
the grower of all risks due to subsequent storms, insect invasions, and 
market fluctuations and gives him money to pay operating expense. 
On the other hand, the assumption of these risks by the dealer is pre- 
sumably covered by his margin in price. 

If the apples are sold at an agreed price per barrel in advance of 
the harvest, the grower assumes the risk of loss by storms and the 
buyer the risk of price fluctuation. In this case the risks are divided 
between the grower and the buyer. Waiting for buyers to appear at 
the orchard or river bank during the harvest is probably the most 
undesirable way of marketing. The expected buyers may fail to come. 
In such cases shipments are delayed, transportation facilities con- 
gested, and ultimate consignment often the only recourse. 

When apples are shipped on consignment, the grower assumes all 
risks and expenses until the goods are actually sold, but on the other 
hand receives the benefit of any favorable changes in market values 
from day to day. Brokerage sales are associated with wider distribu- 
tion of the fruit, as to time and place, and lower selling costs than the 
charge for commission sales, especially when market values are high. 

STORING FOR LATER SALE 

Some years considerable quantities of fruit have been placed in 
cold storage by the growers. Some growers store fruit every year. In 
many cases, however, they store only when the price offered by buyers 
does not seem satisfactory to them or when the market price for fruit 
at harvest time is low. In years of good prices at harvest time the 
amount of fruit stored by the growers is likely to be small. 

At best apple storage must be considered a speculative enter- 
prise. Low prices at harvest time may be due to a large crop of 
apples in the country as a whole, business depression thruout the 
country, large crops of other fruits that compete with the apple, or 
to combinations of these and other factors. Under such circumstances 
increases in the price of apples during storage may or may not be 
sufficient to cover the costs of storage and the risks involved. It is 
usually difficult to predict with accuracy the future trend of the mar- 
ket. Most growers do not have access to enough reliable information 
concerning supplies of apples and competing fruits and concerning the 
other factors influencing the price at harvest time to judge accurately 
the price that may be offered for stored fruit. Sometimes men expe- 
rienced in fruit marketing who have all available information are 
unable accurately to judge the situation. 



600 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



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1928] 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



601 



Study of Apple Prices 

Changes in prices of apples that have occurred between the time 
of harvest and the end of the storage season each year from 1920 to 
1927 are illustrated in Table 14. The average monthly prices of bar- 
reled Jonathan, Winesap, Ben Davis, and Willow Twig apples on the 
St. Louis market, as given in this table, were calculated from data 
secured from the St. Louis Daily Market Reporter. To expedite the 

TABLE 15. PRICES OF APPLES AT HARVEST TIME AND 
FROM STORAGE IN ST. Louis, 1920-1927 



Variety of apple and year 


Harvest 
price ' 


Average 
price from 
storage 


Costs of storage and 
interest 


Margin 


Jonathan 
1920-21 


Sept. 
$5.84 
3.60 
4.29 
5.14 
4.54 
3.03 
6.20 
4.66 

Oct.-Nov. 
5.15 
3.49 
3.98 
5.95 
4.21 
2.83 
4.52 1 
4.27 

Oct-.Nov. 
3.68 
2.25 
2.38 
3.61 
3.10 
2.29 
4.27 
3.08 

Oct.-Nov. 
5.22 
3.48 
4.29 
5.65 
3.88 
2.88 
5.51 
4.41 


Dec.-Feb. 
$7.39 
4.58 
4.37 
8.56 
3.35 
4.10 
5.94 
5.47 

Jan. -Apr. 
7.25 
5.56 
4.15 
8.59 
4.63 
4.18 
(') 
5.73 

Feb.-May 
5.32 
4.08 
2.94 
5.47 
3.08 
3.57 
6.31 
4.40 

Feb.-May 
7.03 
6.02 
4.49 
8.53 
4.76 
5.05 
7.91 
6.26 


$.70 + .12 = 
.70 + .08 = 
.70 + .09 = 
.70 + .11 = 
.70 + .10 = 
.70 + .07 = 
.70 + .13 = 
.70 + .10 = 

.70 + .11 = 
.70 + .07 = 
.70 + .08 = 
.70 + .12 = 
.70 + .09 = 
.70 + .06 = 

.70 + .09 = 

.80 + .10 = 
.80 + .06 = 
.80 + .06 = 
.80 + .09 = 
.80 + .08 = 
.80 + .06 = 
.80 + .11 = 
.80 + .08 = 

.80 + .13 = 
.80 + .09 = 
.80 + .12 = 
.80 + .15 - 
.80 + .10 = 
.80 + .08 = 
.80 + .14 = 
.80 + .12 = 


.82 
.78 
.79 
.81 
.80 
.77 
.83 
.80 

.81 
.77 
.78 
.82 
.79 
.76 

.79 

.90 
.86 
.86 
.89 
.88 
.86 
.91 
.88 

.93 
.89 
.92 
.95 
.90 
.88 
.94 
.92 


$ .73 

.20 
- .71 
2.61 
-1.99 
.30 
-1.09 
.01 

1.29 
1.30 
- .61 
1.82 
- .37 
.59 

.67 

.74 
.93 
- .30 
.97 
- .90 
.42 
1.14 
.44 

.88 
1.65 
- .72 
1.93 
- .02 
1.29 
1.18 
.90 


1922-23 


1923-24 


1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27. ... 


1927-28 


Average 


Winesap 
1920-21 


1922-23 


1923-24 


1924-25 . . 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 




Ben Daris 
1920-21 


1922-23 


1923-24 . . 


1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 . . 


1927-28 


Average 


Willow Twig 
1920-21 


1922-23 


1923-24 


1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


1927-28 


Average 



J Xot included in the average below. 
November on account of crop shortage. 



J Xo quotations on barreled Winesaps in St. Louis after 



compiling of the records, quotations for every third day only were con- 
sidered. This usually resulted in nine quotations for the month. To 
test the accuracy of this method the monthly averages thus secured 
for the season of 1926-1927 were compared with the monthly averages 
based on daily quotations for the same season. In most cases the dif- 
ference in the monthly averages obtained by the two methods were 
from 2 to 4 cents a barrel, the maximum difference being 11 cents for 
one variety one month. Some months one method gave the higher 



602 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

average and in other months the other method. Thus the variations 
from month to month practically balanced one another, so that there 
were no essential differences in the averages obtained by the two 
methods. The quotation used each day was the average between the 
high and the low quotation for No. 1 fruit in good condition as given 
in the Market Reporter. St. Louis quotations on apples in barrels 
refer almost exclusively to Calhoun county stock. 

The prices of the four varieties at harvest time, the average selling 
prices from storage, the cost of storage and interest, and the margin 
of profit or loss per barrel for each year from 1920 to 1927 are given 
in Table 15. These figures were derived from the monthly average 
prices given in Table 14. Since most of the Calhoun county Jonathans 
are harvested in September, the September average was taken as the 
harvest price. The harvest period for Winesap, Ben Davis, and Wil- 
low Twig apples extends thru October and November. Some seasons 
the Winesap harvest especially may be nearly completed in October, 
but other years it extends well into November. The average prices for 
October and November have therefore been taken to represent the 
harvest prices for these three varieties. 

The market reports from which these price quotations were de- 
rived indicate that most of the barreled Jonathans stored in St. Louis 
were marketed in December, January, and February, and most of 
the Winesaps in January, February, March, and April, while most of 
the Ben Davis and Willow Twigs taken from storage were sold in 
February, March, April, and May. The average prices for these 
periods have therefore been taken as representative of the prices 
received for stored apples of the respective varieties. 

Storage rates in St. Louis were reported as 60 to 70 cents a barrel 
for the season ending April 1, with an additional charge of 10 cents 
for each month or fraction of a month thereafter. On this basis the 
average storage charge for Jonathans and Winesaps has been figured 
at 70 cents a barrel and the average charge for Ben Davis and Willow 
Twigs at 80 cents a barrel. Interest has been figured at the rate of 
6 percent a year on the average price at harvest time, beginning at 
the middle of the harvest period for the respective varieties and ending 
at the middle of the period for sales from storage as indicated above. 

Margins Between Harvest and Storage Sales 

During the period covered by these figures there were substantial 
margins above actual carrying charges on the three late winter vari- 
eties every year except two, and the average margin per year, including 
the two years of losses, was 44 cents, 67 cents, and 90 cents a barrel 
for Ben Davis, Winesaps, and Willow Twigs respectively. In the case 
of Jonathans there were substantial margins 'two years out of seven, 
small margins two years, and serious losses three years. The average 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



603 



Price per 
Barrel 
*9M 

850 
8.00 
750 
700 
650 
600 
550 
500 
450 
400 
550 
300 

Z50 
225 


















Millions 
Of 
Barrels 




, 


I 
















/ 


1 




I 


\ 










' 


> 




/ 


\ 

















/ 


\ 






41 




f ' 


, \ 




/ 


\ 


/ 


V 


J9 




' 


. \ 




/ 


\ 


/ 


\ 

> / 


37 






i \ 


x 
x 


V 


\ 


/ 


\ ?- 


55 




\ 


1 , 


x' 


A - 


., E 


' 


SE 


53 




\ 


> , A 




i* 


>V 




//<- 


51 






, A 


^x 




z \ 


\ 


a v 


29 




\ 


/ ( 


X 




\ 


y 


/ V 


27 




\ 


/ Price 


at hardest time 
from storage 
e U.5. Commercial op 
> calculated from da 
>r markets to 1921 


' \ 


/ 


25 




\ 




Volun 
- - Price 

on 


pie crop 




25 












21 














1020 1921 mi 1925 1924 1925 1926 1927 



FIG. 21. PRICES OF CALHOUN COUNTY JONATHANS AT HARVEST AND FROM STORAGE, 

SHOWING RELATION OF PRICES TO VOLUME OF UNITED STATES 

COMMERCIAL APPLE CROP 



Price per 
Borrel 
*900 

50 

aoo 

750 
700 
650 
6.00 
550 
500 
450 
400 
550 
3.00 

250 
225 




















Millions 
of 
Barrels 

41 
J9 
57 
55 
35 
51 
29 
27 
25 
2J 
21 




/ 


















' 


. 




/ 


\ 










, 







/ 


\ 












1 




/ 


\ 
















/ 


\ 


/ 


v - 






/ 


> % 




/ 


\ 


*~) 


\ 






X X 


> 


/ 


V / 


\ \ 


/ 


\ - 






7 


x 


X 


A/ 


\ V 


/ 


\ - 






\ 


/ 


\ 


/A 


2j 


^^ 


\ - 






\ 


/ 


\ 


/ \ 


/ \ 


\ 


*V 






\ 


/ ' x 


^.^-'' 






\ 


/' \ 






\ 


/ 




Price of harvest tlrt 
Price from storage 
Volume U.S. Commerc 
Price calculoted from 
for other markets 1 
i 


e \ 


/ - 






l > 


/ 




(al opple^ 
data 
i 1921 


^crop 

F= 
















1920 1921 1922 1925 1924 1925 1926 1927 



FIG. 22. PRICES OF CALHOUN COUNTY WINESAPS AT HARVEST AND FROM STORAGE, 

SHOWING RELATION OF PRICES TO VOLUME OF UNITED STATES 

COMMERCIAL APPLE CROP 



margin for the seven-year period was only one cent a barrel. This 
does not take into account any shrinkage, expense of repacking, 
other extra charges, or compensation for the assumption of risks in- 
volved. The loss on Jonathans in 1927-28 when Ben Davis and Wil- 



604 



BULLETIN No. 312 



[June, 



Price per 
Barrel 
*900 . 


















Miiiiona 
of 
Borrelj 

4\ 
39 
37 
35 
35 
31 
29 
27 
25 
23 
21 


450 




Price at 


harvest time 








aoo 






Price from storage 
- Volume US. Commercial apple 
- Price calculated from data 
other morKets in 1921 








750. 




- - 


for 






7.00. 












650. 












/ 


{ 




600 . 


, 


x 








/ 


\ 7 




550. 


f 


v 


,/" 


\ 




/ 


\ h 




500. 


% 


, 


/ 


\ / 


\ / 


f 


y- 




450 . 


\ 


^ Y 




V 


v 




A- 




400 . 


V 


% / ' 




/\ 


A 




/ y 




330 


- ' \ 


x / 


\ 


/ 


. \ 




/ A 




300 


\ 


/ 


\ 


I / 


-^\ 


^ 


/ 1 




250 . 


\ 


\ 




/ 




~*-^. 
^ 


/ 




225 . 




\ r 




> 


! 
















1920 1921 1922 1925 1924 1925 \9li> 1927 



FIG. 23. PRICES OF CALHOUN COUNTY BEN DAVIS APPLES AT HARVEST AND FROM 

STORAGE, SHOWING RELATION OF PRICES TO VOLUME OF UNITED STATES 

COMMERCL\L APPLE CROP 



Price per 
Barrel 
*900 

850 

aoo 

750 
ZOO 
650 
600 

550 
500 
450 
400 
550 
3M 

250 
225 


















WllllOIS 

of 
Barrels 




/' 


j 
















e 


l 




/ 


\ 













1 




/ 


V 










' N 


x 




/ 


\ 




7^ 


41 






v 




/ 


\ 


/ 


V A 


50 




/ 


x 




, / 


\ 


J 


\/- 


37 




f 


% 


\ / 


\ 


, \ 


/ 


i - 


55 




\ 




A 


h/ 


\ \ 


r 


/ \ ? 


55 






/' 


\ 


l/\ 


x ; 


~^~ 


\/_- 
1 


51 






Y 


/ 


f \ 


/ \ 




r*-. 
I \ 


29 




\ 


/ , 


/ 






\ 


i 5 


27 




\ 


/ " Price 


at harvest thpe 
from storage 
e (iS. Commercial op 
calculated from do 
r markers In I9ZI 


^ 

?le crop 


/ 

f 


25 

: 25 




V 




Volun 
- - Pric< 
oth< 




V 









; 21 








\QiO 1921 1922 I92J 1924 1925 1926 1927 



FIG. 24. PRICES OF CALHOUN COUNTY WILLOW TWIGS AT HARVEST AND FROM 

STORAGE, SHOWING RELATION OF PRICES TO VOLUME OF UNITED STATES 

COMMERCIAL APPLE CROP 



low Twigs showed a profit, w y as due partly to the heavy crop of Jon- 
athans in the country as a whole and the poor keeping quality of some 
of the Jonathans from other regions. The Jonathans showed a wider 
range in selling price out of storage from year to year than any of the 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 605 

other three varieties. It seems evident that the storage of Jonathans 
is more hazardous than the storage of the other varieties under con- 
sideration. 

The relation of harvest prices for the given varieties to storage 
prices and to the volume of the commercial apple crop 1 in the country 
as a whole is shown graphically in Figs. 21, 22, 23, and 24. Since 
there were no quotations on barreled apples in the St. Louis Daily 
Market Reporter for the 1921-22 season due to crop failure in Calhoun 
county, the prices indicated in the charts for that season have been 
calculated from prices in other markets. Prices for the other years 
were taken from Table 15. 

If a grower were to store about the same quantity of apples each 
year, especially of the later keeping varieties, his profits from storage 
in the more favorable years would, according to the figures given for 
the seven years, more than balance the losses in the unfavorable 
years. Furthermore, if a grower can regularly have the advice of an 
able and experienced fruit man who is intimately acquainted with 
marketing conditions and prospects, his opportunity to profit from 
storage will be increased. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. Restrict New Plantings to Standard Varieties. Any additional 
plantings of apples in Calhoun county should be restricted to standard 
commercial varieties that are adapted to the region and in good de- 
mand on the markets. This is in line with recent plantings and the 
policy should be continued. 

2. Wider Use of Improved Cultural Methods. The more general 
use of cultural methods favorable to the production of high-grade fruit 
should be encouraged. Thoro spraying and careful pruning are espe- 
cially important. If all orchards in the county were given as good 
care as the best, the proportion of high-grade fruit from the county as 
a whole could be increased. 

3. Adoption of Standardized Grading. Standardized grading 
should be adopted as a county-wide practice. While there are different 
standards of grading that might be employed, the grade specifications 
recommended by the U. S. Department of Agriculture are the best- 
known in the trade in this and other states, and are used as the basis 
of shipping-point inspection in most apple regions east of the Rocky 
Mountains. These specifications are given on page 611. While these 

'"The commercial apple crops of the United States for the years under con- 
sideration, as given in government statistics, were as follows: 

Year Barrels Year Barrels 

1920 33,905,000 1924 28,013,000 

1921 21,557,000 1925 33,246,000 

1922 31,945,000 1926 39,411,000 

1923 35,936,000 1927 25,900,000* 

'Subject to revision. 



606 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

grade specifications may not seem entirely satisfactory to every 
packer, they are the only specifications now applicable to Illinois 
apples that are generally recognized in the trade, 1 and it would be 
much more satisfactory for all packers to follow them than for each 
to follow his own inclinations as so commonly has been the practice 
in the past. When all packers grade according to the same standards, 
the output from different orchards will be much more uniform. The 
packing of uniform, standardized grades thruout the county will do 
much toward enabling Calhoun county to acquire an enviable reputa- 
tion as an apple-producing region. 

In packing under the U. S. grade specifications it should be recog- 
nized that the 10 percentage of tolerance is allowed merely to permit 
rapid packing on a commercial basis without incurring any danger of 
failure to conform to the specifications. Purposely to include 7 or 8 
percent of apples that are known to be below the requirement is almost 
sure to result in a pack that will exceed the 10 percent tolerance, for 
in spite of all the precautions that may be taken a few defective 
specimens will slip past the sorters. If each packer strives to make 
his pack considerably better than the minimum requirements, much 
more satisfactory packs will result and the reputation of the county 
will be enhanced. 

4. More General Use of Shipping -Point Inspection. Much help 
in standardizing the grading can be secured from the use of shipping- 
point inspection. To get the most benefit from this service a careful 
study should be made of the inspection report on each car as soon as 
it is completed and such changes made in the grading of the 
fruit for the next car as may be necessary to meet the requirements 
with a safe margin to spare. One of the chief advantages of shipping- 
point inspection lies in its educational value to the packer. Unless use 
is made of the information in the report to improve the subsequent 
packing where needed, the chief value of the inspection service is 
likely to be lost. Personal conferences with the inspector may be of 
assistance in interpreting the reports in some instances. Such confer- 
ences should be sought whenever additional information will help im- 
prove the pack. 

5. Greater Care in Packing Bushel Baskets. Special attention 
should be given to the packing of bushel baskets to insure a heavy 
pack that will not become slack during shipment or storage. The 
package must be thoroly shaken before it is completely filled. The 
facing layer must be especially tight and crowned considerably at the 
center. When mechanical packing devices are used, it will often be 



J Grading according to the provisions of the Illinois apple grading and pack- 
ing law, passed in 1921, has never come into general use, and these grades are not 
well known in the trade. 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



607 



necessary to insert a specimen or two of fruit in the facing layer just 
before the cover is put in place in order to make sure the pack is tight. 

6. Use of "Tub" Bushels. Fruit packed in bushels intended for 
storage should be in "tub" bushels rather than in round-bottom bas- 
kets. This type of package carries better in the car and stacks better 
with less danger of crushing in the storage house. There are great 
differences in the strength and rigidity of packages from different 
factories, and it is important that a good quality of tub bushel be used. 

7. Use of Apple Box for Fancy Fruit. The apple box must be 
used with discretion. It is a package designed primarily for fancy 
fruit. To make an attractive pack the specimens must be uniform 
in size. The wrapping of each apple is associated with box packing. 
Unless the fruit is fancy and the packer is prepared to attend to all 




FIG. 25. PACKING SHED OF FRANK DIRKSMEYER NEAR HAMBURG 
This shed is equipped for box packing. It is one of the few apple packing 
sheds in Calhoun county. 



the niceties involved in up-to-date box packing as practiced in the 
West, it is unwise to attempt this method of preparing apples for 
market. Under special conditions, however, a limited amount of fruit 
may be handled advantageously in this way. 

8. More Packing Sheds. Calhoun county needs more packing 
sheds. Orchard packing is especially precarious in wet weather. A 
rain lasting only a few minutes is sufficient to stop packing operations 
in the orchard until the fruit has dried off. In shed packing it is 
feasible to have enough fruit picked ahead to last the packers for a 
few hours so that packing may continue during intermittent rainfall. 
When shed packing is employed, the fruit may be picked slightly wet 
if necessary and allowed to dry in the shed before it is packed. Fur- 
thermore, in shed packing the packing equipment, the supply of pack- 
ages, the packed fruit, and the packing crew are afforded protection 



608 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

from unfavorable weather. Special equipment to facilitate grading 
and packing can more readily be employed in a shed than in the 
orchard. The sloping ground in some Calhoun county orchards adds 
to the inconvenience of orchard packing. 

The use of packing sheds will facilitate standardized grading and 
reduce packing expense. The almost universal experience of people 
who have substituted shed packing for orchard packing has been the 
securing of a better pack at lower cost. One of the Calhoun county 
growers, C. L. Tureman of Hardin, kept an accurate account of his 
costs of shed packing in 1927 and found that he saved 5 cents a bushel 
and 15 cents a barrel as compared with the costs of orchard packing 
of his crop in 1926. The present outlook in the apple business over 
the country as a whole indicates that for the next few years profits 
are likely to accrue from reductions in packing and marketing costs 
rather than from increased prices. Since the use of sheds reduces the 
expense of packing, their use should become general thruout the county. 

9. Prompt Shipment After Picking. Precautions should be taken 
to insure the prompt shipment of apples after they are picked. The 
existing transportation facilities are adequate to move the crop 
promptly if they are utilized to their full capacity and the flow of 
apples from the orchards to the loading points is made as uniform as 
weather conditions will permit. 

The transportation companies, both river and rail, should be fully 
informed considerably in advance of the crop movement each season 
regarding the approximate volume of apples that is likely to be 
shipped. A railroad needs about 30 days' time in which to assemble 
a supply of refrigerator cars for use in a given region if the number 
needed is greatly in excess of the requirements in previous years. Op- 
erators of transfer barges and ferries also should be advised regarding 
the probable crop movement in plenty of time to make any adjust- 
ments in equipment that may be necessary. Full preparations for the 
handling of the crop should be made long before the apples mature. 

Delays in hauling fruit from the orchard to the loading point, or 
in loading after delivery at loading point should be avoided as much 
as possible. Purposely withholding shipment in the hope that market 
conditions may improve is of questionable value. If fruit is to be 
held for later market, it should be shipped promptly and placed in 
cold storage rather than held at the orchard or on the river bank. 

10. Better Utilization of Existing Cold-Storage Plants. So 
long as existing cold-storage plants that are readily accessible from 
Calhoun county have sufficient capacity for handling all the product, 
there would seem to be no adequate reason for erecting additional 
storage plants especially for the storage of apples produced in this 
region. There is no insurmountable barrier to prompt storage under 
existing conditions. Better utilization of the present transportation 



1928~\ 



MARKETING CALHOUN COUNTY APPLES 



609 



facilities, and especially better planning in advance for the movement 
of the crop, will make prompt storage entirely feasible. 

11. Wider and More Direct Distribution. Advantage should be 
taken of the recent improvements in transportation facilities which 
have increased the number of markets that can readily be reached 
with Calhoun county apples at harvest time. The new rail and 
hard-road connections have made it much easier for persons inter- 
ested in apples to get into the county. This situation should naturally 
lead to a wider distribution of the fruit since buyers, brokers, and 
dealers from various markets can now readily visit the region, inspect 
the growing crops, make the acquaintance of the growers, and become 
familiar with the shipping facilities. 




FIG. 26. THE MOST PRACTICAL WAY OF GETTING INTO CALHOUN COUNTY 
There is not a bridge across either river into the county. With the present 
hard road connections, driving to the county by auto and crossing the river by 
ferry is the most expeditious way of entering this important apple-producing 
region. 

The completion of the hard road to East St. Louis, thus connect- 
ing Calhoun county with the various industrial centers in that part of 
Illinois, presents an opportunity for many growers to truck their lower 
grades of fruit in bulk to these markets and there dispose of them at 
reasonable prices and without excessive marketing expense. Such dis- 
position of off-grade fruit, instead of consigning it to the St. Louis 
market, will be a benefit to the people of these towns and will also 
have a tendency to improve the conditions in St. Louis for the sale of 
the better grades of fruit. Distribution of apples by truck to the 
manufacturing towns and trading centers within hauling distance east 
and southeast of Calhoun county should become an important factor 
in the handling of the crop now that hard-road connections have been 
established. 

12. Marketing Arrangements Before Harvest. Marketing ar- 
rangements should be made considerably in advance of the crop move- 



610 BULLETIN No. 312 [June, 

ment whether the fruit is to be handled thru a buyer, a broker, or a 
commission merchant. It is a wise practice for the grower not to wait 
indefinitely in the hope that some buyer may become particularly 
eager to secure his crop. In many instances the grower should take 
the initiative and personally call upon the dealer he has decided he 
would like to have handle his crop, after assuring himself of the 
business ability and financial integrity of the dealer in question. With 
the present hard-road system it is not difficult for a grower to drive to 
St. Louis, for instance, for a conference with a dealer regarding his 
crop. 

13. Personal Contact With Marketing Agency. Personal contact 
should be maintained with the marketing agency thruout the harvest 
season. After business connections have been established, there is 
great advantage to the grower in keeping his dealer fully advised from 
day to day regarding shipments in transit and in prospect. Telephone 
tolls are good investments when apples are being harvested. If goods 
are sent on consignment, it is especially important that the dealer 
know exactly what quantities and grades are included in each ship- 
ment. With such information in advance, it is often possible for the 
dealer to sell the apples before they arrive. This is especially true 
in the case of fruit that is graded according to definite standards. 

14. Maintenance of Satisfactory Connections Once Established. 
There is much cumulative advantage to be gained for both grower and 
dealer by maintenance of the same marketing connections year after 
year, after satisfactory contacts have once been made. Under such 
circumstances it is possible for both to profit from the reputation es- 
tablished in previous years. Especially in years of heavy crop is the 
grower with regular connections and an established reputation at a 
decided advantage. At such times market preference is a tangible 
asset. 

Whether the apples are to be sold at harvest time or stored for 
later sale, there is the same advantage in having established market- 
ing connections and a definite marketing plan. 



1928] MARKETING CALHOUX COUNTY APPLES 611 

OFFICIAL STANDARDS FOR THE INSPECTION OF APPLES 1 

II. S. Fancy shall consist of apples of one variety which are mature but not 
overripe, carefully hand picked, clean, well formed, free from decay, broken 
skins and bruises except those incident to proper packing, sprayburn, stings or 
other insect injury, sunscald, visible watercore, and from injury by russeting, 
limbrubs, hail or mechanical or other means. Each apple of this grade shall have 
the amount of color specified hereinafter for the variety. (See size requirements.) 

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, 
not more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of the apples in any lot may be 
below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-half of this tolerance, 
or 5 percent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more 
than one-fifth of this amount or 1 percent shall be allowed for decay. 

U. S. No. 1 shall consist of apples of one variety which are mature but not 
overripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, fairly well formed, free from decay, broken 
skins, and bruises except those incident to proper packing and damage caused by 
limbrubs, sprayburn, sunscald, russeting, hail, visible watercore, disease, insects or 
mechanical or other means. Each apple of this grade shall have the amount of 
color specified hereinafter for the variety. (See size requirements.) 

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not 
more than a total of 10 percent, by weight, of the apples in any lot may be 
below the requirements of this grade, but not more than one-tenth of this amount 
or 1 percent shall be allowed for decay. [This same tolerance applies to the U. S. 
Commercial and U. S. No. 2 grades.] 

U. S. Commercial shall consist of apples of one variety which meet the 
requirements of U. S. No. 1 except as to color, and provided further that early 
varieties such as Duchess of Oldenburg, Red June, Wealth}', Williams and other 
varieties which ripen at the same period need not be mature. (See size require- 
ments.) 

U. S. No. 2 shall consist of apples of one A r ariety which are mature but not 
overripe, free from decay and from serious damage 'caused by dirt or other 
foreign matter, bruises, sprayburn, sunscald, russeting, hail, disease, insects or 
mechanical or other means. (See size requirements.) 

Unclassified shall consist of apples which are not graded in conformity with 
any of the foregoing grades. 

Color Requirements 

In addition to the foregoing requirements for U. S. No. 1 and U. S. Fancy, 
each apple of these grades must have the percentage of color shown in the list 
below. "Color" means a good shade of red characteristic of the variety. Faded 
brown stripes shall not be considered as color. 

U. S. Fancy, 50 percent; U. S. No. 1, 25 percent: Arkansas Black, De- 
licious, Gano, Jonathan, King David, Missouri Pippin, Winesap, and other sim- 
ilar varieties. 

U. S. Fancy, 33 percent; U. S. No. 1, 15 percent: Arkansas (Mammoth 
Black Twig), Ben Davis, Rails (Geneton), Rome Beaut}-, Stayman Winesap, 
Wealthy, Willow Twig, York Imperial, and other similar varieties. 

U. S. Fancy, 25 percent; U. S. No. 1, 10 percent: Duchess of Oldenburg. 
Red Astrachan, and other similar varieties. 



lr These standards issued June 30, 1927, by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, apply to apples packed in containers other than the standard 
northwestern apple box. 



612 BULLETIN No. 312 

Size Requirements 

The minimum size of the apples in any closed container shall be plainly 
stamped, stenciled, or otherwise marked on the container. "Minimum size" 
means the transverse diameter of the smallest apples permitted in the container 
taken at right angles to a line running from the stem to the blossom end. Mini- 
mum sizes shall be stated in terms of whole and quarter inches, as 2% inches 
minimum, 2% inches minimum, in accordance with the facts. 

In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 5 
percent, by weight, of the apples in any container may be below the specified 
minimum size. Where the maximum and minimum sizes are both stated, an 
additional 10 percent tolerance is provided for apples which are larger than the 
maximum size stated. 

Packing Requirements 

Each package shall be packed so that the apples in the shown face shall be 
reasonably representative in size, color, and quality, of the contents of the 
package. 

Definitions of Terms 

As used in these grades: 

"Mature" means having reached the stage of maturity which will insure the 
proper completion of the ripening process. 

"Clean" means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign 
material. 

"Well formed" means that the apples have the shape characteristic of the 
variety in the locality where grown. 

"Fairly well formed" means that the apples may be slightly abnormal in 
shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from the appearance of 
the fruit. 

"Damage" means any injury or defect which materially affects the appear- 
an-ce or keeping quality. Any one of the following defects, or any combination 
thereof, the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one 
defect shall be considered as damage: 

Limbrubs Dark brown over % inch in diameter. Light brown 

over 1 inch in diameter. 

Sprayburn or sunscald Color materially changed ; skin blistered or 

cracked. 

Russeting Smooth, net-like over more than one-fourth of 

surface. Smooth solid, over more than one-tenth 
of surface. Rough or bark-like area more than \-> 
inch in diameter. 

Hail marks Skin broken; or superficial marks exceeding ^ 

inch in the aggregate. 

Scab Spots not corked over or corked over spots affect- 
ing a total area of more than % inch in diameter. 

Insect stings, healed More than 2, either of which is over % inch in 

diameter. 

Cedar rust .Aggregate area over ^4 inch in diameter. 

Worm holes Any. 

Sooty blotch or fly speck. .Thinly scattered over more than one-tenth of 
surface or dark, heavily concentrated spots affect- 
ing an area more than ^ inch in diameter. 

"Serious damage" means any injury or defect which seriously affects the 
appearance or keeping quality. 

(70 #) 



AUTHOR INDEX 



613 



AUTHOR INDEX 



PAGE 

Bauer, F. C. Crop Yields from 
Illinois Soil Experiment Fields 
in 1926 17-40 

Bauer, F. C. Crop Yields from 
Illinois Soil Experiment Fields 
in 1927 341-72 

Bauer, F. C., DeTurk, E. E., and 
Smith, L. H. Lessons from 
the Morrow Plots 105-40 

Brunson, A. M., and Smith, L. 
H. Experiments in Crossing 
Varieties as a Means of Im- 
proving Productiveness in 
Corn 373-86 

Burlison, W. L., Dungan, George 
H., and Stark, Robert W. Bar- 
ley Varieties for Illinois. . . .41-52 

Burlison, W. L., Sears, O. H., and 
Hackleman, J. C. Soybean 
Production in Illinois 465-532 

Buswell, A. M., Lehmann, E. W., 
and Kelleher, E. C. A Study 
of Factors Affecting the Effi- 
ciency and Design of Farm 
Septic Tanks 297-340 

Case, H. C. M., and Ross, Robert 
C. The Place of Hog Produc- 
tion in Corn-Belt Farming. 145-80 

Crandall. Charles S. Native 
Crabs: Their Behavior in 
Breeding 533-60 

Davidson, F. A. Growth and 
Senescence in Purebred Jersey 
Cows 181-236 

DeTurk, E. E., Bauer, F. C., and 
Smith, L. H. Lessons from 
the Morrow Plots 105-40 

Dungan, George H., Stark, Robert 
W., and Burlison, W. L. Va- 
rieties of Barley for Illinois. 41-52 

Gaines, W. L. The Energy Basis 
of Measuring Milk Yield in 
Dairy Cows 401-40 

Hackleman, ,T. C., Sears, O. H., 
and Burlison, W. L. Soybean 
Production in Illinois. .. .465-532 



PAGE 

Hamilton, T. S., Mitchell, H. H., 
and Kammlade, W. G. The Di- 
gestibility and Metabolizable 
Energy of Soybean Products 
for Sheep " 237-96 

Kammlade, W. G., Hamilton, T. 
S., and Mitchell, H. H. The 
Digestibility and Metabolizable 
Energy of Soybean Products 
for Sheep ' 237-96 

Kelleher, R. C., Lehmann, E. W., 
and Buswell, A. M. A Study 
of Factors Affecting the Effi- 
ciency and Design of Farm 
Septic Tanks 297-340 

Lehenbauer, P. A., and Weinard, 
F. F. The Effects of Phos- 
phorus and Sulfur Fertilizers 
on Flower Production of Roses 
and Carnations 77-104 

Lehmann, E. W., Kelleher, R. C., 
and Buswell, A. M. A Study 
of Factors Affecting the Effi- 
ciency and Design of Farm 
Septic Tanks 297-340 

Lloyd, J. W. Bush Lima Beans 
as a Market Garden Crop. 389-400 

Lloyd, J. W., and Newell, H. M. 
Marketing Calhoun County 
Apples 561-612 

Mitchell, H. H., Hamilton, T. S., 
and Kammlade, W. G. The 
Digestibility and Metaboliza- 
ble Energy of Soybean Prod- 
ucts for Sheep. . .'. 237-96 

Newell, H. M., and Lloyd, J. W. 
Marketing Calhoun County 
Apples 561-612 

Rickey, Lacey F. Costs of Stor- 
ing Corn on the Farm 1-16 

Ross, Robert C., and Case, H. C. 
M. The Place of Hog Produc- 
tion in Corn-Belt Farming. 145-80 

Sayre, C. B. Experiments in the 
Culture and Forcing of Wit- 
loof Chicorv . 441-64 



614 



AUTHOR INDEX 



PAGE 

Savre, C. B. Winter Forcing of 
'Rhubarb 53-76 

Sears, O. H., Hackloman, J. C., 
and Burlison, W. L. Soybean 
Production in Illinois. .. .465-532 

Smith, L. H., Bauer, F. C., and 
DeTurk, E. E. Lessons from 
the Morrow Plots 105-40 

Smith, L. H., and Brunson, A. M. 
Experiments in Crossing Va- 



PAGE 

rieties as a Means of Improv- 
ing Productiveness in Corn. 373-86 

Stark. Robert W., Dnngan, George 
H., and Burlison, W. L. Bar- 
ley Varieties for Illinois. . . .41-oLJ 

Weinard, F. F., and Leheubauer, 
P. A. The Effects of Phos- 
phorus and Sulfur Fertilizers 
on Flower Production of Roses 
and Carnations . ..77-104 



INDEX 



INDEX 



(The headings in capitals are subjects of entire bulletins') 



PAGE 
Acid phosphate experiments with 

roses and carnations 81-104 

Comparison of phosphate with 

bone meal 86-0., 

Aledo experiment field yields .... 

!20-21, 345-40 

Antioch experiment field yields . . 

'. ...21, 346 

Apple production, statistics on. 563-64 
Apples, Calhoun county, grading 

and packing of , 564-71 

Methods of sale of 595-90 

Packages used for 571-7.", 

Recommendations for produc- 
tion of . . .- 605-10 

Shipments of in 1927 592 

Storage facilities for 593-95 

Storing of for later sale 599 

Transportation of, by rail.. 584 90 

freight rates of 589 

by river 57484 

damage from rolling barrels 

583-84 

freight rates of 584 

losses from delays in.... 579-83 

time required for 576-77 

warehouses at landings. . .577-79 

by truck 591-92 

within county 573-74 

Apples, official standards for in- 
spection of 611-12 

Self-pollinations of 560 

Study of prices of 600-605 

Barley, acre value of compared 

with other crops 43 

As nurse crop 43 

Diseases of 50-51 

Distribution of in Illinois 44 

Feeding value of 43 

Seed bed for 50 

Sowing dates for 50 

Uses of 43-45 

Varieties of, description and 

origin of 52 

Variety studies of in central 

Illinois 47-49 

in northern Illinois 45-47 

Bnrlev and oats mixture. . 49 



PAGE 



Beans, see Lima beans, bush 

Bloomington experiment field 

yields 21, 346 

Bone meal for lima beans 

393, 395, 397-9S 

Breeding experiments with corn . 

373-86 

With crabapples 533-60 

Calhoun county, map of 585 

Possibility of railroad in 590 

See also Apples, Calhoun county 

Carlinville experiment field yields 
; ."..22, 347 

Carnations, effect of phosphorus 
and sulfur on production of . . 

78, 93-100 

On split calyces 78, 98 

Carthage experiment field yields. 
22-23, 347-4S 

CHICORY, WITLOOF, EXPER- 
IMENTS IX CULTURE AND 

FORCING OF 441-62 

Best planting time 449-50 

Conditions of experiment ... 447-49 

Effect of freezing 451 

of rest period 450-51, 452-5.. 

Forcing in field 459-60 

Forcing in storage, covering ma- 
terial 460-61 

method of 447-49 

second 458-59 

size of roots for 455-58 

temperature for. 451, 454-55, 456 
Objects of experiments 447 

Chicory, Witloof , methods of forc- 
ing '. 446-47 

Varieties of for forcing. . . .44345 
See also Chicory experiments 

Clayton experiment field yields. 23, 348 

Clover, value of in rotation. . .114-15 

Corn, continuous cropping of. ... 

111-13, 120 

Effect of soil treatment and 
rotation on maturity of.. 120-22 

CORN, EXPERIMENTS IN 
CROSSING VARIETIES AS 
A MEANS OF IMPROVING 
PRODUCTIVENESS IN. . .373-86 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Crosses made 376-85 

closely selected strains. .. .383-84 

common dent varieties 382 

Eeid yellow dent with closely 

selected strains 384-85 

Summary of results. .374, 385-86 

Sweet and pop with dent. .382-83 

Corn, grown with soybeans. . . .49307 

Storage on farm 3-16 

crib, interest, and insurance 

charges 3-4 

damage during 14 

method of figuring costs of .11-14 
shrinkage and change in grade 

during 5-11 

summary of costs 15 

Terminal storage of 4 

Corncribs, construction require- 
ments of 14 

Corn-hog ratio 177-78 

Cost of producing hogs 

146, 148-58, 166-60 

Cost of production on Morrow 

plots 131-36 

COSTS OF STORING CORN ON 

THE FARM 1-16 

COWS, GROWTH AND SENES- 
CENCE IN PUREBRED JER- 
SEY 181-235 

Analysis of data 185-225 

Appe'ndix 231-35 

Introduction 183-85 

Literature cited 220-30 

Source of data 185 

Summary 226-28 

Cows, see also Dairy cows 
CROP YIELDS FROM ILLI- 
NOIS SOIL EXPERIMENT 

FIELDS IN 1026 17-40 

CROP YIELDS FROM ILLI- 
NOIS SOIL EXPERIMENT 

FIELDS IN 1027 341-69 

Crab apples, results in breeding of 

.535-60 

Mains angustifolia 538-41 

Mains cororuiria 536-38 

Mahis dawsoniana 55455 

Mains fusca 552-54 

Maltts ioensis 541-47 

Mains soiilardi 547-52 

Mercer county crab 550-52 

Self-pollinations of 555 

Separation of from pear genus 536 

Species of recognized 535-36 

DAIRY COWS, ENERGY BASIS 
OF MEASURING MIL^K 

YIELD IN 401-38 

Estimation of energy value. .404-15 



PAGE 

Fat percentage and feed re- 
quirements 415-10 

and yield of milk 410-28 

Illustrative applications ...420-32 

Introduction 403-404 

Literature cited 436-38 

Significance of fat percentage. 

432-34 

Summary and conclusions. . .434 35 

Dairy cows, soybeans for 471-72 

Davenport plot yields 30, 368 

Dixon experiment field yields .... 
.'23-24, 348-40 

Elizabethtown experiment field 

yields 25, 350 

Emmer, yields of 51-52 

Endive, French, see Chicory 

Enfield experiment field yields . . . 
."..25, 350-51 

Ewing experiment field yields 

'...26, 351-52 

Farm management, hog produc- 
tion in successful 160-70 

Fertilization, effect of on crop 

maturity 120-22 

On soil content 122-30 

On yields 111-22, 138-30 

Fertilizing experiments with lima 
beans 305-08 

Grain, plant for drying and 
shrinkage tests of 16 

Greenhouse soils, supplements for 
78-104 

Gypsum experiments with roses 
and carnations 78, 03, 06-09 

Hartsburg experiment field yields 
26, 27, 353 

Hog production, adjusting sales in 

to markets ' 146, 160-70 

Costs of 146, 148-58 

Factors influencing success of. 

146, 150-60 

Labor requirements of 161-62 

Maintenance of soil thru .... 163-64 
Value of skilful management in 
166-69 

Hogging down, advantages of... 163 

Hogs, feed consumed by 

159-61, 171-72 

Finishing of for better markets 

164-66 

Harvesting of crops by 163 

Returns from light and from 

heavy 170-71, 172-76, 178-79 

Seasonal variations in price of 
176-78 

Horses, soybeans for 471 

Inoculants, commercial 482 



INDEX 



617 



PAGE 

Inoculation experiments with lima 
beans 394-96 

Irrigation experiments with lima 
beans 393-96 

Joliet experiment field yields 

"...26, 28, 354 

Kewaiiee experiment field yields. . 
.' 28, 355 

Labor, distribution of thru year. . 134 

LaMoille experiment field yields. 
'....29, 355 

Land values as affected by treat- 
ment and rotation 136 

Lebanon experiment field yields. 
29-30, 356-57 

Lima beans, preparation of for 
market 398-99 

Lima beans, bush, experiments 

with 392-9S 

Fertilizer experiments with . . 395-98 
Inoculation experiments with . 

394-96 

Irrigation experiments with. 393-96 

Plan of experiments 392-93 

Summary of experiments 390 

Variety tests of 392-98 

Limestone, effect of on soil acid- 
ity 130 

McNabb experiment field yields. 
.'...30, 357 

Mains varieties, see Crab apples 

Manure, effect of on yields. . .111-20 

MARKETING CALHOUN 

COUNTY APPLES 561-612 

Mercer county crabs 550-52 

Metabolism experiment 237-95 

Milk yield, energy basis of meas- 
uring * 403-38 

Minonk experiment field yields . 30, 356 

Morrow plots, annual acre yields 

of 112-13, 138-39 

Economic lessons from 13136 

Effect of rotation and fertiliza- 
tion on 111-22, 137-39 

History and management of. . 

'. 106-11, 140 

Summary of results on 137 

Yields of 1926 and 1927 on. 39, 368 

Mt. Morris experiment field yields 
30-31. 357-58 

Newton experiment field yields . . 
'.31, 358-59 

Nitrate of soda for lima beans. . 
393, 395,396 

Oblong experiment field yields . 32, 360 

Odin experiment field yields. . .33, 361 

Oquawka experiment field yields. 
.'...33, 361 



PAGE 

Palestine experiment field yields. 

"...34, 362 

Phosphate fertilizers, comparison 

of 86-93 

PHOSPHORUS AND SULFUR 
FERTILIZERS, EFFECTS OF 
ON FLOWER PRODUCTION 
OF ROSES AND CARNA- 
TIONS 77-104 

Appendix 101-104 

Conclusions and recommenda- 
tions 100 

Experiments with carnations, 
effect of acid phosphate. .93-100 
later phosphorus and sulfur 

experiments 96-99 

Experiments with roses, effect 

of acid phosphate 78, 81-85 

of acid phosphate vs. bone 
meal and precipitated phos- 
phate 78, 86-93 

of gypsum 93 

Literature cited 100 

Previous investigations 80-81 

Summary 78 

Raleigh experiment field yields . 35, 363 
RHUBARB, WINTER FORC- 
ING OF 53-76 

Commercial practices in 55-58 

Experimental work in 59-76 

effect on yield and quality of 

age . ." '...66-73 

of freezing and rest period 

73-75 

of temperature 59-63 

of watering 63-66 

summary and conclusions. .54, 76 

Storing in home cellars 58 

Roses, effect of acid phosphate 

on production of 78, 81-85, 100 

Compared with steamed bone 
meal and precipitated phos- 
phate 78, 86-93 

Effect of gypsum on production 93 
Rotation, crop, effect of on crop 

maturity 120-22 

On soil* 122-30 

On yields 111-22 

Rye, yields of 51-52 

SEPTIC TANKS, FACTORS AF- 
FECTING EFFICIENCY AND 

DESIGN OF 297-339 

Comparison of 2-chamber tanks 
with different cross-sections. 

321-32, 338-39 

Single vs. multiple-chamber... 
301-21, 330, 336-37 



018 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Sewage flow in farm homes. .301-303 
SHEEP, DIGESTIBILITY AND 
METABOLIZABLE ENERGY 
OF SOYBEAN PRODUCTS 

FOR 237-95 

Appendix 283-95 

Discussion of results .263-80 

digestibility of soybean prod- 
ucts . . .' ." 266-68 

metabolizable energy of. .276-80 
significance of indirectly cal- 
culated coefficients of di- 
gestibility 271-76 

of refused feed 268-71 

Investigation of 1923 244-55 

of 1925 255-63 

Literature cited 281-82 

Previous experiments 239-43 

Summary and conclusions. . .280-81 

Sheep, soybeans for 471 

Sidell experiment field yields. .34, 264 
Soil acidity, effect of limestone on 130 
Soil experiment fields, crop yields 

on, 1926 ' 19-40 

1927 341-69 

Purpose and location of 

18-19, 342-43 

Soil treatment, effect of on crop 

maturity 120-22 

On crop yields 111-22, 138-39 

On soil content 122-30 

Soybeans, acreage and distribu- 
tion of in Illinois 467-69 

Adaptability to various soils. 473-75 

As substitute for oats 472 

Average prices for 473 

Compared with cowpeas on poor 

soil 473, 474 

Cultivation of 485-88 

Digestion experiments with, see . 
Sheep fff 



PAGE 

Grown with corn 493-97 

Handling and storing of 493 

Harvesting of for hay 489 

for seed ' 489-90 

History of production of in Illi- 
nois 530 

Improvement of soil by 475-76 

Inoculation of 479-82 

Place of in crop rotation. . .476-78 

Seed bed for 478-79 

Seeding of 482-85 

Threshing of 490-93 

Uses of 526-30 

as cake 527-28 

as oil 528 

as human food 528-30 

Value of as nitrogenous feed . . 

469-71 

Variety study of 498-520 

description of varieties. . .516-26 
differences in varieties. . . .51416 

in central Illinois 502-13 

in northern Illinois 499-502 

Yields of compared with corn. . 472 
Sparta experiment field yields. . . . 

.' . . . 36, 364-65 

Spring Valley experiment field 

yields ' 36-37, 365 

Steamed bone vs. acid phosphate 

for roses and carnations. 78, 86-104 
Sulfur, experiments with on roses 
and carnations. ..78, 89-93, 96-100 

Swine, soybeans for 471 

Toledo experiment field yields. 38, 366 
Unionville experiment field yields 

37, 39, 367-68 

Urbana experimental plots . . . 39, 368 
Water consumption in farm homes 303 
West Salem experiment field yields 

, '. .40, 369 



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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA