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^- MarJ^anis Faretpel to 



The Enriching of all forts of Barren and 

Sterile Grounds in our Nation , to be as 

Fruitful in all manner of Grain, Pulfe, and 

Grafs, as the beft Grounds whatfocvcr. 

Together withtlie Annoyances andPreiervation of aM 
Grain and Se^d , from one year to many years. 

As alio a Husbandly computation of Men and Cattels 
daily Labours, their Expences, Charges, and utmort profixs* 

Nownewlv the Tenth time rens'd,corre(ftedand amen- 
ded, together with many new Additioas, and cheap Experiments. 

For the bettering of Arable Pafture^ and 

Woody Grounds ; Of mikmg good all Grounds 

again, fpoiled with over-flowing of Salt water by 

Sea breaches i as alfo the enriching oftheHop- 

Garden. And many otlier things never 

publilhed before. 

By G. Marh^am. 


Printed for George Sarvbridge^ at the vSign of the Bibl^ 
on LitdgAte-HiU, 1616, 




Il^ dS^ ^ dBi «lt* ^ ^ "V^-^ V^V cfi gfi dSii 

■ uSj^ 

To the R I G H T W O R S H I P F U L 


His moft Worthy FRIEND, 

Worthy Sir, 

KNoipledge^ which is the divine 
mother of certain Goodnefs^ ne- 
ver came jtmvelcome to a know- 
ing Judgment'^ no more J hope ^ 
jhallthis my labour to your worthy Selffince 
douhtlefi you jhall find in it many things 
neceffary^ and nothing which hath not in it 
fome particular touch of profit : It is a wor\ 
your former incouragements to my other la- 
hours didcriatetn me^ and the wants you 
worthily found, I hope jh all bringyoufup- 

A 2 plies 

flies both n^holefome and hecomming. The 
experience ,1 ajfure your goodnep^ mjs the 
exfence of a hitter and tedious Winter , 
hut the contentmeiit C in gaining my nvJJjJ 
made it more fleafant then all the three other 
Seafons. What ever it he^ it comes to you 
full of love ^ full offervice. And Jim e I 
h^ioip Virtue meafureth all things by its 
onpn goodn^s ; it is enough to me^ that I 
fy/otvyou are that Virtue, Inyon is fow- 
er to judge ^ in you is Authority ta exerafe 
Mercy ; let them both fly e from your good- 
nefs mth that mildnefs^ that in then\my 
hopes may be cron?ned ^ and iUf^jelffeJi 
ever atyourfervice,. 

Gervase Markham. 


^ >v W 


The Preface to the Keadery^\ti a\ui 

Shewing the ure3profit5iin(ftrtitli of the Work.-' 

THe ufe and apl^licatio/j of this /For k^ f gentle Rea- 
der) i^ to reduce the Hard^ Barren^ .tnd Sterile 
Grounds, fuch asnere never fruttfn.11^ orfuchas 
.. :.'iT: . have been fruitfully and Are 'made barren by'iU 
Hffshandry^to be generally as fruit full as any ground whap- 
fsever ; from whence (hall enfue thefe general profits, 

Firfi^Plenty of Corn andPulfe; becauft all grounds bet no 
made able and aft for Tillage , the Kingdome may afford to 
fmvefor one bujbell that is noiv^hereafter fi e hundred, fo 
mghty great are the unfruitful I rvajh of Heaths^ Do)vnes^ 
Mores^ andfuch like^^ rvhich at this day lye unprofitable;and 
to this abiwdance of€orn will arife an equal I abundance of 
Grafs and Pafiure: fo% as thj be fl ground of the worfi is to be 
converted to Pafiure^ and the ir or ft to Tillage] fo that ivorfl 
being tilled and drefl^ rvhen it hath done bearing of Cor n^ 
{which. wUl be in fix or f even years) jh all for xs many years 
more bear asgoodj'aflure either for breedirJg or feeding as 
can be required^ and then bc'.ng ncrvly dreft again.fhallnew- 
/: fourijh in its firfi profit. 

Secondly^ rvhere.ts in fruitf nil places^ the third or fourth 
fart of all arable ground is lof in the fallow' or tilth ground^ 
no^' inthefe barren grounds^ you jball keep no fallorv f eld at 
all^ but all ffjaJA bear either Corn or Grafs ; that fallow part 
ferving topayforthe charge beforred on it,^ and the reji. 
Taflly^ whereas in fertile grounds you cannot have either 
/VheM^ Barley .^or Rye,^ under trro^ three^four, fve^ and 


To the Reader. 

fix [everAUplowi?2gs^ asfdlomng i/z January ii;?^* Februa- 
r> , Stirring in April Andybiy, Soiling //? July 4;?^ Auguft, 
fVinter-rtdging in Odober And November , and Somng^ 
fk^ith other Ardors \ now In theje hard grounds rejlored^you 
Jhall not vlorv above trvice at the mofl , to the faving of the 
Hushanamam pains ^ his Cattels trarjell^ and a. larger limita- 
tion of time for other necepary buftnejjes. 

for the truth of the iVork^ he that tvill ride into the hxr- 
ren parts (j/HDe vonfliire or Cornw all , into the Mount ai- 
nous parts ofV^^X^s^intothe hard parts of Middlelex^ or 
D2iih)MxQ^or tnto the cold parts (/Northumberland, 
Cumberland, Weftmerland, LancalHre, or Chefliire ; 
/hall find, where induflry is ufed^ a fnll fatisfaCiion for dL 
that is here written. 


Thine . G. M. 

Book 2. 



Farewel to Husbandry. 


7he NatKre of Grounds in general \ But particularly efthe 
barren and jieril earth, 

TO come to the full effe(9: of my purpofe, with- 
out any preambulation , or fatisfadtion to 
the curious , (for to the hone(tIy vertuous 
are all mine endeavours dired^edj you fhall 
underftand that it is meet, that every Hus- 
bandman be skilful in the true knowledge of 
the nature of grounds ■■> as, which is fruitful, 
wliich not ; of which in my hrlt Books 1 have written fufficient- 
ly V nor do I in this Book intend to write any tittle that is in 
them contained-, forasllovenot Tiz«/o/(?gy, fol deadly hate to 
wrong my friend. 

Grounds, then, as I haTc formerly written in my firft book9, 
being fimple or compounded i as iimple Clays, Sands, or 
Gravels together, may be all good, and all tir to bring forth 
tncrcafe j or all evil and barren, and unht for proht : for eve- 
ry Earth , whether it be Goiple or^ compound , whether ot 
it fclf or of double mixture , doth participate wholly with 
the Clime wherein it lyeth i and as that is more hot, or more 
cold, more moift or more dry, fo is the earth ever more or 
Itis Cifuilful. . Yet for the bettci underftaniiing of the plain; 


The Kno)vleige (f Book 2. 

Country-man, ycu fl.all know that both the fruitful and un- 
fru U fid Grounds ha vcdicir icvenlficcs and charaders, where- 
by they b: as well known, as by the clime or fitaation of the 
continent > for that ground, which, though ic bear not any ex- 
traordinary abundance of grafs , yet will load it fdf with ftrong 
a^d lufiy wccd>, as Hemlocks, Docks, Mallows, Nettles, ftct- 
lock , and fuch like , is undoubtedly a moft rich and truitful 
ground f-^r any grain whatfocver. And alio, that ground which 
beareth Rcc'd?, Ru(heSjClover, Dii{ic,3nd fuch like,isever fruit- 
ful in Grafs and Herbage, fo that fmall colt, and Icfs labour in 
fuch grounds, will ever make good the proht of the Husband- 
man : But with tlicfe rich grounds, at this time I have nothing to 

To come down then to the barren and unwholcCjiHc 
Grounds, you (hall underftand that they are to be known three 
fevcral wayes : firft , by the Clime and Continent whercm they 
lyes ncxtjby their conftitution and condition , and lartly,by out- 
ward faces and charaders. By the Climeand Continent,as when 
the ground Ives hx remote from the Sun , or >vhcn it lyes 
inountainousand high , flony and rocky , or fo nccr unto the 
;$kirts and bc-rders of the Sea , that the continual Foggs , 
Storms, Miiis, and ill Vapours arifingtiora thence do poyfon 
and (tarve the earth : all which are moft apparent Cgns ff bar- 
renneis. By the ConlHrution and Ccndition,as when the ground 
is cither too cxtrearoly cold and moift , i r clfe too violently 
hot and dry » cither of which produceth much hardnefs to bring 
forth, and (hcwcth thecaith, fo lying to be good for little or no 
proht. By the outward faces and Charadtcrs, as when you fee 
r inftead of Grafs,which would be green, fio wry ,and thick grow- 
ing) a pale thin moflic fubrtancc cover the earth , as i^noft com- 
monly is upon all high Plain-?, Heaths, Down?, and fuch like ■•> 
or when you fee the ground covered with Hcaih, Ling, Broom, 
BrakcB, Goifc, or fuch like, they be rroft apparent figns of inn- 
nitc great baricnncfs, as may be ictn in n^any Mores, Forrclts, 
and other wild and woody places. And ol ihcfc unfertile places, 
you Ihail underftand, that it is the clay ground , which for the 
molipart bnrgs forth the Mofs, the Broom , the Gorte, and 
;<'ucb like i) the fand, which br in gcih forth Brakes. Ling, Heath, 
- > , • and 

Book 2. BxrrenGroimd^ 

and the mixt earth, which utters Whinnes, bryars, and a world 
of fuch like unnatural and biftardly iiTnes. 

Thus having a true knowledge of the Nature and Condition 
of your ground, you fhall then proceed to the ordering, earing, 
and drelling of the fame, whereby it may not only be purged 
and cleanfed from thofe faults which hindred the increafe there- 
of, but alfo fo much bettered and rerincd, that the beft ground 
may not boaft of more ample increafe, nor your more truitfull 
placed Neighbouis exceed you in any thing, more then in a lit- 
tle eafc. 


Ofxhi Ordering, Tdling^ and Vrefftng ofallfirtiofplaifi hsncn 
CUyes^ rvhitlj^r they befim^le or compound* 

j Hou whom it hath pleafed God to place upon a barren and 
A hard foil,whofe bread muH: evermore be ground with fweat 
and labour, thatmaift nobly and vidorioufly boaft the conque(\ 
of the earth, having conquered Nature by altering Nature, and 
yet made nature better than ihee was before: thou I fay tlut 
taketh this honeft delight in goodnefs, hearken unto thefe fol- 
lowing Precepts. 

As foon as thou hall well pondered and confidered the na- j]^^ {{^ cmU 
tureof thy ground,8c doft rind that it is altogether barren &un- ching of bar- 
fruitful, tlie clymc and condition not fuffering it to bring forth rcnGreund?- 
any thing of worth or profit, and that thou haft well weighed 
what manner of earth it is, as that namely, it is either a Umple 
Clay, or a Clay fo mixt with othet earths, that yet notwith- 
ftanding the Clay is ftill moft predominant*, thou ftialt then felc(ft 
or chu(e out of this earth fo much as to thy felf flnll (cem conve- 
nient, it being anfwerablc to the ftrength of thy Team,and the 
ability ofthy purfc and labour to compafs i and this earth fo 
chofen out, thou fhall about the beginning of AXiy, in a fa*r 
feafon break up with a ftrong Plough, fuch as is generally ufed 
inallftrong Clay grounds, the Share being rather long then 
broad, and the Coulter rather fomewhat bending then ftreight 
and caven according as the nature of the ground fiiall require, 

B- which 

The Jnriching of 


which every fimple Plough-man will foor Hnd out in turning 
up two or three furrows , for according to the cutting of the 
earth, fo muft the Husbandman falkion the tcmpei ot his 
The manntr Now for the manner of plowing this bad and barren earthy 
©f Ploughing, if the ground lye free from water i which comtnonly all evit 
barren earths doj) you (hall then throw down your Furrows 
flat, and betwixt every Furrow you (ball leave a baulke of earih 
half as broad as the Furrow, and fo go overhand plow you* 
whole earth up, without making any difference or dirtinction 
of lands : but if you fear any annoyance of Watcr,then \ou {hall 
lay your Furrows more high, neir, and clofc together, dividing 
the grounds into fevcral lands, and proportioning every land 
to lye the higheft in the mid ft, fo that the water may have a dci^ 
cent or pafTage on either fide. 
Hacking of Now fo foon as you have thus plowed" up your land, and tur^ 

Ground. ncd all the fwarth inward unto the earth, you {hall then take 

Hacks of Iron, well fteelcd,and reafonabk {haTp,rach a compe- 
tent number, as your purfe or power can compafs, or the great, 
nefs of your ground requitcth: for you {hall undcrftandjthai one 
good hacker, bring a lufiy labourer, will at good eafe hack or 
cut mori then halt an acre of ground in a day \ and with tbefc 
hacks you fhall hew and cut to pieces all the canh lortTiCrly 
plowed up furrow by furrow > and not the furrows on^ly, but' 
alfo each fevtral baulke that was left between, and any other 
green fwarth whatfoever the plough had efcapcd^and it {hall be 
cut into as fnr. 11 pieces as conveniently as you can \ for thereby 
is your tr.ould made iruch more mellow and pjentiful,and your 
Seed at fuch tinxas it is to Le call into the earth, a great deal 
the better and fafcr covered, and much more fooncr made to 
fprout and bring forth ircreafe. Now for the (tape and fa{b'Qa 
*if ihefc Hacks, you (hall behold it in this hgure. 


Book 2. Barren Clays, 

When you have thus hacked all )*our ground, and broke ta 
pieces all hard cruds and roughnefs cf the fwarth, you (>.all then 
immediately, with all the convenient fpeed you can (becaufc 
time is very precious in thefe labours) if you be near unto any part q.^^ ^ 
ortheSea-coaft,or to any other Creek or River, where the fait- wa- 
ter hath a continual rccourfe^thence fetch Ceither on Horfe-back, 
orinCait, or other Tumbril, fuch as the nature of the Coun- 
try , or your own eafe can afford) great ftore of the fait fand, 
and with it cover your ground which hath been formerly 
plowed and hackt, allowing unto every acre of ground, threc- 
(core or fourfcore full bu(hels of fand,which is a very good and 
competent proportions and this fand thus laid,{hall be very well 
fpread and mixed among the other hackt and broken earth. 
And herein is to be noted, that not any other fand but the fait 
is good or available for this purpofe, becaufe it is the brine and 
(altnefs of the fame which breedeth this fertillity and fruitful- 
nefs in the earth, choaking the growth of all weeds, and bad 
things which would fprout from the earth, and giving ftrength, 
vigour, and comfort to all kind of grain,or pulfe, or any fruit of 
better nature. 

When you have thus fanded your earth, you (hall then if you 
have any Limeftoncs about your grounds fas barren earths are Qr^iiJI^ 
feldomc without) or if you have any quarries of ftone (which 
arc fcldome unaccompanied with Lime-llone) gather fuch Lime- 
rtone together, and make a Kiln in the moft convenient place 
you have, as well for the carriage of the Lime, as for the gathe- 
ring together of the Itone, and having burnt your Lime, the 
^nanner whereof is fo generally well known through the whole 
Kiugdome, that in tliis place it necdeth little or norcpctition,you 
(hall then on^ every Aae fo formerly plowed, hackt,and fanded, 
beltow at Icaft forty or elfe fifty bu(hels of Lime, fpreading and 

B 2 mixing 

5 T^e Inriching of Book 2, 

mixing it exceedingly well with the other fand and earth i and 
hirein is to be noted, that the ftronger and (harper the Lime is, 
the better the earth will be made thereby, and the greater en* 
creafe and profit will ifTuefrom the fame: neither (hall you need 
to rcfpcd the colour and complexion of the Lime, as whether 
it be purely white fas that which is made from Chalke^ or, 
gray fas that which is made from the fmall Lime-ftone; or elfc 
blackilli brown ^as that which is made from the great ftone and 
main QuarryO Cnce it is the ftrergth and goodnefs of the 
Lime, not the beauty and colour, which brings forth the 
MaBuriftg of ^^'^^ '^^^ ^^is Lime is of excellent ufe,and wonderful profit, 
Gfound. do but behold almoft all the Countries of the Ringdome where 

there is sny barrenncfs, and you (liall find and fee how fre- 
quently Lime is ufed, infomuch,that of mine own knowledge in 
<oirc Countriesjwhere (in times paft) there was one Bu(helmadc 
or ufed, there is now many loads,and all rifen from the profitable 
experience which men have found in the fame. 

Now, when you have thus Limed your ground, you (hiall 
then take of the beft manure you have,as Oxe, Cow, or Horfe- 
dung, Straw rotted either by the littering of bc3fts,or by caflirg 
upon high-wayes, the mud ofLakcs.Ponds or Ditchesv the foylc 
cf young Cattel made in the Winter time by feeding at (land, 
Heake, or any fuch like kind of Ordure •, and this m.anure or 
ccmpoll you (liall carry forth either on Horfe-back, or in Carts 
of Tumbrels (accoiding as the Country will afford) and you 
fhall lay it and fpread it upon your ground fo formerly plow- 
ed, Hackr, Sanded, and Limed irj very plentiful manner, fo far 
forth as your provifion will extend \ for it is tobeunderftood, 
that barren and hard earths can never be overhded with good 
manure or compof>, fmce it is onely the N\*ant of warmth and 
fat ncfs, which manure breedeth andcaufeth all manner of fruit- 
ful nefs. 
Times for all After you hare thus manured all your ground, it is to be fup- 
labours. pofcd that the feafon cf the year will be (hot on, for the labour 

of finding will take little lefs than two months, your ground" 
being of an indifferent great quantity, except you havea(fi(l- 
ancc and help of many of your friends , which is a courtefie 
.' that 

Book 2. Barren Ground. 

that every Husbandman n^ay embrace, bur not truft unto s for 1 
would not with any man that hath not Tenants to com- 
inand, to prefume on other friends, left they fail him, and fo 
his work lye half done, and half undone j which is a great 
Charadter of negligence and itr.providence: but let every one 
proportion their labours according to their own ftrengrh;,and 'rc-r." -r- 
the number of their ordinary families^ The Liming of your 
ground will take at leaft half fo much time as the fanding, and . 
the Manuring rather more than lefs than the Liming i fothatby 
any reafonablc computation of time, beginning to plow your 
ground at the beginning of A/jy, ere it be Hackt,Sanded, Limed, 
and Manured, hlichaelttiw will be come, which is the end of 
Sepemhir ; for I allow the month of hhy to plowing and haek- 
ingi jF««^ and July for Sanding-, Auguji for Liming> & Sepemher 
for Manuring. So then to proceed on with our labour, at Micha" 
elmas^ or from that time to the end of C^t'/rr, you (hall begin to 
plow over that ground again which formerly you had Plow- 
ed, Hackt, Sanded, Limed and Manured', and at thislatttr -^^"'^ ^^°'^' 
plowing you (hall plow the ground fomewhat deeper then ^' 
ycu did before i and taking a good ftitch (as they call it in Hus- 
bandry) you fnall be furc to raifc up the quick earth, which 
had not been ftirred up with the Plough betore, making your 
furrows greater and deeper than formerly they were, and lay- 
ing them elofcr and rounder together then they were before > 
and in this order or latter earing, you (hall be careful to Plough 
your Ground as clean as ycu can without balks.or other efcapes 
in husbandryjandas you thus plow your ground, you (haHhave 
certain Hackers, with their Hacks to follow the Plough,and to 
cut the earth and furrows into very fmill peeces, as was for- second hacJr- 
tcerly (hewed in the hacking and cutting ot the firftarderithen iog. 
fofconasyour ground is thus ploughed and hackf, you (hall 
take a paire ortwoofvery ftrong andgood Iron harrows, and p. « „ 
with thera you fliall go over your ground, tearing that which jj,-_ 
was formerly ploughed and hackt into more fmall peecesthan be- 
fore, and railing up the mould in much greater abundance than 
was formerly fecn .' which work once tinillied, you (hall then 
fake your Seed which would be the ftneft, cleancfr, and belt 
Wheat you. can provide, and after the manner of -good Hus- 


T%e Inrkh'mg of 



The fccond 

^r r • . a "^'^'^ ^^ ^" ^?r " °" '^' g*"^"'-^ ^^'^ plentffuHy , nor 
Of fowing the Uarvmg the ground for want ol Seed (^which were a tyrannous 
tccd. penury^ nor yetchoaking it with too ir.uch, which isaslavifha 

too cry; but giving it ihc lull duc,kave it to the Earth and Gods 


Now fo loon as you have thus fcwn your k^^, forthwith 
you fhall take all the harrows agiin, harrowing the feed into 
. the earth, and covering it clofc and well with all care and di- 
ligence; and in this latter harrowmg,vou (hall have great rcfpcd 
to break every dot as inuch as you can, and fo ftirr up and 
inake as mucn mould as you can, and the hncrfuch mould is 
made, the better itis,fo it cover deep and clofc, for you (h.ll un- 
derhand, that all thcfe kinds of barren Clayes arc naturally 
tough cold, and binding, whereby thcylhrite andchoakany 
Fiidts in die ^{)'"g ^'lat growcs within them i for the natural toughncfs of 
£anh. the earth will not give any thing leave to fprout, or if it do 

Iprout, the binding nature thereof To tetters and locks it within 
the nnould, that it cannot ifTuc outi or if it do ^with extreme 
Itrugling; rife through the pores of the fame, yet doth the cold 
prdcntly ftarve the root, and makcthe fremmc utterly unable to 
bring forth fruit, or any proHt at all, fo that if the toughncfs 
be not converted to a gentle loofencfs, and cafie dividing of it 
lell, the coldnefs unto, and the hard binding unto a foft 
liberty there can be fmall hope of commodity, which this man- 
ner of dreibng the earth bringcrh to pafs^ for the mixture of the 
iand taKcs away the toughncfs, the Lim: biings heat, and the 
tnanure comfort and hbrrty : As for (he hackmg and cutting 
tnc earth, that is, to raake all the reft f mbolizc and mix toge- 
ther i for as ifany by a Difpenfatory make a Medicine and caft 
,, his ingredients confuledly ore upon another, without care of 
TT)ixture, nitltirg, or d.ifointion, (hall rind but a corrupt,difor- 
derly andi.I compounded i fo hcthat drr ffcth andmr-nu- 
': reth his ground, arxl dcth not by hackin^.. plowing, orfomc 
other Husbandry courfc irJx the earth, and the cr.mrrl}pcr- 
kdly well togcther,l>)aIl fcldome rind prorit trr m his fced,6r rind 
any n.anoi witdcurousto bcccmchis imid^.r. Novv 1 muft 
<onfefs,th^t-romce. fie grounds oflight and t^mpefatcnaiurey 
will miX Ycry will and fufficicndy by the help -of li^e Plough' 

only i 

Book 2^ Barren Qhys, ^ 

only > but this barren hard earth of which I now write, muft 
oncly be broken by this violent and extreme labour, orellethcre 
will neither be mould, ea4rth,or any converturefor theSeed,but 
only foul, great, and diforderly clots and lumps,through which 
the grain can never pafs, and that which lyeth uncovered wilt 
be made a prey to fowl,and other verm!ne,which will hourly d^ 
lUoy it. Ji ii \i irja .mm '.nhnik 

After you have fown and harrowed the groun(J,you (hall'then ©f cKktthi^ 
fee if there remain any clots or hard lumps of earth unbroken, ^^^ Eanl^. 
which the teeth of the harrow are not able to tear in pieces (as 
it is very likely you fliall perceive many) for thefe hard barren 
earths which are plowed up in their green fwarths, are nothing 
neer fo eafily broken and brought to mould, as are the mellow 
foft earths which have been formerly plowed many times before, 
becaufe the hard and intricate roots ofthe Grafs, Mofs,and other 
quick fubftances growing upon the fame doth bind and hold the 
mould fo clofe and hi\ together, befides the natural firength 
and hardnefs ofthe earth, that without much indudry and pain*.- 
full labour, it is impoflible to bring it to that fincnefs of mould 
which Art and good Husbandry rcquireth^ therefore asfoon as 
you behold thofe clots and lumps to lye undiffevered, and un- 
broken, you (hall forthwith take good Hrong clotting bectlcSjOr:. 
mauls made of hard, and very found wood^according tothepra-- 
portion of this ligurc* 

)i^»)^iii>^>tnfi>'^:i>'jy.tit ittn. .t^i'H^ij^m;^±ii^^±2LL 

And with thefe mauls or clotting beetles, you fhall break z\V- 
the hard clots and lumps of earth in pieces, even to fo fmall duft 
as polfibly you can, becaufe you arc toprefuppofc that thefeclots- 
thus hard, tough, and unwilling to be ansdigeflcd' 

ixitG . 


The /nrUhing of 



into raould, are eirher not at all, or el(c very inlufliciently mix- 
ed with the Sand, Lime, and other manures : and therefore you 
mult rather break them that thereby ihey may mixe, and 
give eafie pafTagc to the Grain, and not like heavy poyfcs 
and dead himps lye and prefs down the Seed fo that it cannot 
Another man- But if it fo'fall out, partly by the hardnelTc of the ill earth, 
ner ofClot- partly through the feafon and drynefs of the year, that thefe 
^OS* clot and lumps of earth will either net be broken at all, or at 

leaft fo infurticiently that the mould will not be any thing Hcar 
fo tine as you would have it » you ihall then, having done your 
beft endeavour, let your ground reft till there have fain a good 
round (bower or two of riin : which may wet the clots through 
Bnd through, and then the next fair blaft ycu (hall take ycur clot- 
ting beetles, but not thofc which you took before in the dry 
feafon, but fv me much lighter, broader and tiatter, being made 
of thick Afh-boards more than a foot fquare, and above two in- 
ches in thickrefs, according to this figure. 

And with thcfe flat Maulcsand Beetles, you (hall break all 
the unbroken clots and lumps of earth which fhall trouble or 
annoy your ground, making your Lands iS plain andfmooth 
as is polhble, fo that the grain may have eafie paffage forth i 
which labour as foon as you have hnifhcd, you ft^ill then refer 
theincreafe and profperitythcrecfunto the mercies of God, who 
no doubt will give his blelling according to thy labour and 


Book 2. of Barren Grounds, ii 

As touching the trimming and weeding of this Corn, after OfWcedingi 
it is fprung a foot abov>; the earth, or thereabout, you (hall un- 
derftaiid, that thefe hard barren grounds arc very feidome trou- 
bled with wecdsi for weeds, efpecially gicat,rtrong,andortlnlive 
we.d>, are the ilTues ot rich and f^rtik foils-i yet, it throuj^jh the 
trim.ming and making of this earth (which is not commonly 
feen) you do perceive any ilore ofthiltlesor other grofler weeds 
to fpring up, you (h.all then in the month of AIj)', with hooks, 
rippers, and foch like tools , cut them away , or pull thenn 
up by the roo:es, which indeed is the better manner of *veed- 

Now here is to be under !iood, that your ground being thus Scvera] Seeds 
drelfcd and trimmfd as is before fl^ewed,yoa may very wdl for Several years. 
the two iirll years (bw Wheat or Rye upon it, but Wheat is 
the greater protic and more certain fcedi the third year bellow- 
ing but your fold of Sheep upon it, that is, manuring it with 
-your Sheep, (for it is to be intended, that in thefe barren earths 
iheeparc the greatelrftock of which theHusbanJman can boiiij 
vol: m .y very well fow it withBarley,and havea fruiifull & plen- 
tiful! crop thereon i the next three years, you may fow it with 
Oa:s •> and the (cventh year you may {ow it with fmall white 
Garden Peafeor Beans, according as you ihall hnd the ftrength 
.and goodnefs of the ground, f for Beans defire fomewhat a 
richer foyl than the Peale i) then for three or four years follow- 
ing the feven, ycu may let it lye at reft for graf5,ind doubtlef^ it 
will yield you either as good paiturc,or a-sgoodMeadowasyou 
can.r^-afonably require, And then after the expencc of this time,it 
■fiiall be good that you drcfs and order your ground in fach 
fort as was fonriCrly declared, and thus you may every year drefs 
one or other piece of ground, till you have gone ail over all your 
ground, or at leaft as much as you iV-all think expedient \ ani 
without faile, he that is Mailer cf the molt fruittuileft rnd ri- 
cheA foyl, ihall not boau of anygreitev increafe rhcn yixi ihall, 
only your charge may be a little more, and fo (hall be -alio 
your commodity, which Qiall make an amends for you charge .' 
as for your toyles, yours tna'l be much the Icfs, by a iult compu- 
tation i for though you have many labours , yet they are bu: 
Summer labours, and neither hurt yojr own b:dv , nor your 

C Cattel •, 


The Inr'iching of 

Book 2. 



Karth where 
Sinds wan< 

Sov« of 


Cattel s whereas the Maftcr of the lich foyl isincuntinuall work 
both winter and Sumnocr, labouring twice fo much to confound' 
the rupctfluous growth ofVVeeds,asyou do to beget the incrcafc 
of Corn, and whereas he murt ever keep a third or fourth part of 
his Corn ground without fruit,you fhall not keep any which fhall 
not yield you a fufficient Commodity. 

Now me-thinks I hear in this place to be obje<ftcd unto mc, 
that whereas L do prefcribe the fanding of thefe barren earths 
with the fait Sea-fand and no other , fas it is true, for all other 
fredi fand is unvaihble ) what if the ground do lye fo far within 
the Land, that there is no fait fand within many fcore miles of it, 
how then (ball I make good my barren earth?fure to fetch fand fo 
far will never equal the coft •, or it may be this experience hath 
no further limits then to fuch hard and barren earths as lye a- 
longft the Sea coaftonly. 

To this I anfwer, that albeit this fait Sea-fand be of-infinitc 
gcod and neceffary ufe, inriching grounds wonderfully much , 
yet is not this experience ot bettering of barren foiles foftridtly 
bound thereunto, but that without any ufe of the fame, you may 
make your earth as fruitful in Corn or Grafs, as hath been al- 
ready formerly declared. 

Therefore if your ground lye much within the Land, and 
far from the Sea , fo that this Commodity of fand is not by 
any potlible means to be gotten ■•> then you fliall ( having Hrll 
lookt into the Nature of your ground, and hnd<ng it to be by all- 
charaders and faces a cold, barren, ftiff, dry Clay, yielding no- 
thing but a fhort raolfie Gr^fs, without any other burthen at all, 
as is feen upon mod Plains, and Downs of this Kingdom ) rtrllr 
plow it, and hackit, as.v/as before (hewed in the former part 
of this Chapter, then infleadof fanding it, you fliall lime it as 
aforcfaid, or rather a little more plentifully , then you (hall ma- 
nure ir,after fas at feed time ) you (lull plow it and hack it a- 
gain,thcn harrow it as before faidithcnto every Acre of ground 
you (lull take two bufhclsofvery dry bay-fair, and in fuch man- 
ner as you fowyour wheat, you A^all (ovj this fait upon the 
ground 7 then immediately after the fowing of the fait, you 
iball fow your Wheat, which Wheat would be thus prepared 
bt fore you igvv it j the. day before you arc to ibw your grain, you 


Book 2. Barre» QUyes, i 3 

fhalltakc bay file and water, and mixing them together make 
a brine Co Ihong that it will beat an Egge,then put the Wheat 
you are to fow into that brine, and let it fteep therein till the 
next day, then drain it as dean as may be from the brine, and fo ^j^^ Excels 
fow, harrow it, clod it, and weed it, as was before declared,and igncy of Salt, 
no doubt but you (hall hnd a marvellous great increafe thereby > 
for this 1 can affure you, both from a mofl certain knowledge , 
and a moft worthy P>.clation,that a Gentleman buying fome ilore and inforft to bring it home by Sea, by fonK 
cafuil means , fome of the Sacks at the unlading , fell into the 
Sea, and were muchdrencht in the fait- water, whereat the Gen- 
tleman being grieved C as doubting fome hurt to come to the 
feed) yetinforli ofnecelliry to make ufe thereof, caufed all the 
wheat which was fo wet to be fown by its fclf in a particular 
place, and upon the worrt ground which hehad,f as much def- 
pairinginthe increafe therecfj and it is moft infallib'y true, that 
of that wet feed, he received at Icaft rive fold more prohc then of 
any othericnd from thence it came,that this experiment of Brine 
and the fo wing of fait hath taken place ifrom which the painful 
Husbandman hath found fuchinrinitc increafe to arife, that the 
ufe thereof will never be laid down in this Kingdome, Neither 
is the thing it felf without good and ftrong probability of miuch 
increafe and flrength for the bettering of all manner of arable 
grounds i for there is nothing which killcth weeds,quicks,and o- 
ther offences of the ground fo much as faltnefs : for what makes 
your Pidgeons dung &: your Pullens dung to be better for arable 
gTOunds,then any other dung,or manure wh3tfoever,but by rea- 
fon of the faltnefs thereof •, by which faltneCs alfo^you may judge 
the Arcngthand he^t thereof, in {o much that the proper talk of 
lTre,oranyhot thing is ever fait i alfo we fay in Philofophy, that 
blojd which carry. th the vital heat and warmth of the body 
is in tartefalt,and foa nourifher, maintainer, and incrcafer of all 
the ftrength and vigour of the inward faculties-, whereas Flcgm, 
Choler. and Melancholly, which arc the hurts, and confounders 
of the vital fpirits, the rirll is in tafle fweet, the fecond bitter, 
and the laft of an earthly and dry talk, full of much loathfomc- 

Now again, you (hall undcrflandj that as you thus wet or oflleeping 

C a ftcep feed ia brine* 

i^ Barren CUyes» Book n 

ftcfp your wheat feed, fo you may alb ftecp any other Seed -, as- 
bailey jOatSjbeans.peafe.lupins, FetchcSjand fuch like i of which 
vf ur bc2ns,pcafc.and lupins, ycu may Itccp more than any of the 
icfr, and your Oats the leaft. 

As touching Rye, it (hall 'oc good r.ot to ftecp it at all, for it 
is a great enenny to all manner of wet and rooydure , info- 
ir.uch, that the curious Husbanditun will forbear to few it in- 
any fhowic of rain, bearing in his nnind this ancient adage, 
or fiying, that 'Rye rv/L' droTCiid in the Heifer ■■, as on the con- 
trary part, Tf^ ppctdilbe forpn fj mtiji that it might jiick^ to the 
Hfp(r : Yet notwithftanding, when you do fow Rye in any 
of thefe In-hnds, and cold barren Countries, where fand is not 
to be gotten, vou rnall not by any means onnit the fowing ofyour 
fall before ', for it is noihfngnccr fo irioiftasitis warm and com-- 


I 0/the orderirtz^ '^'^^"'gi ^^^ dreeing of all rough Barren Chyes^ 

nhitber fjmple tr cemp(und, bf rig Uden and ovcr-rttn 
veith Gffrfe^ Broom ^ and fitch lik^, 

NExt unto thefe plain barren earths, which by reafon of 
their heights, are fubjed in the Winter time to all man- 
ner of ccld, froalis, llormes, tempers, blalls, and winds, which 
are the perfect hinderersofall enaeafes and growth s and in 
the Summer time to all hot fcorchin?, fcaldings, and hcry 
icflcd^ions of the Sunne, which on the contrarv part, burneth 
and. withcrcth away that little fceming increafc which cp- 
peareth above the earth i I will place that barren cliy whe- 
ther itbemixt or unmixr, which lying not fohigh, 2tA being 
fubjc(f^ unto thofj hurts and otllnces, fccmeth to be a little 
more frcicfull, yet cither by the extream co!d moifture there- 
of, or the ftony hardnefs and other malignant qualitie?, is no 
kfs barren than that of which 1 have formerly written , 
which indeed is that barren and vile (byle, which ^11 n-ither 
brjr^ucn ncr grafs, but is cr.C'- cvcr-iun and quit: covered 


Book 2. -Corfe-i Broom') &c. 15 

ever with great, thick, and tall bulhes of Gorfc or Furrss, 
uhich ismoti fnarp, wocdy, and grois weed, (o full of pricks, 
that nsichcr Horfc^Bcaft, Shccp.nor Goats^darethiufr thdr nofe 
to the giound to gather up rhat little poor grafs, which grow- 
eth thereon. And albeit thSz Gcrfe or Furs are one way a little 
comniodity to the need full Husbmdman, in being a reafor.a- 
ble gocd fuel, cither for baking,brewing^ or divers other fudden 
and necetlary ufcs s yet ia as much as the profit being compared' 
with the great qumtity of earth which they cover and deirroy, 
and which with good Husbandry might be brought to great 
fruitfulnefsj it is indeed no protir at all i it fhall not be amils for 
every gocd Husbandman that is psfter'd and ovcr-laden. with 
fnch grourd, to feek by way ofgoc-d Husbandry how to reduce 
and bring it to that perte(5tion and excellency whch may be beft 
for his own particular commodity, and general good cf the 
Kingdcme wherein he liveth. 

Then there is another kind of foile which is nothing at all 
differing from this, but is every wiy as barren and iierile, 
(which is as noyfcme a weed as the former) and though it have 
rot fuch (harp prickles as the otlier, whereby to hinder tiie 
gra7ing of Cattel , yet doth it grow fo ciofe and thick toge- 
ther, and is naturally fo poifonous and otf^^nfive to graft, that 
you fhall feldome fee any grow vvhere this Brcom profpereih \ 
hcfidcs, thebittcrncfs thereot is fo unpleafant and dabftf.ill to 
all kind cf Caticl , that not any will ever crop or bite upon the 
fime,cnly it is of feme nccclfary ufe for the poor Husbandman, 
in refpedt that it fcrveth him both iorfueUj tor thatching and 
the covering of his houfes, (being tor th-it p'lrpofe, of all, the 
Icngefr luling) and alfo for the making of Ikcfoms for clean- 
iingot thehcufe and barnts, or elfe for fale ivk^ commodity in 
the Market \ all which pronts as before I fiid,- bsing compared 
wish the lois of the grcund. and the good ncfe that might be 
reaped from <hc Janxj are indeed truly no proiits but hinde- 


Therefore I would wilh every man that is Mafter of fuch 
grounds, whether they be over- run wiih Gcw^fe, Furrcs, Brcom, 
Of any fuch kind of gvoft, wood y. or r.ibluncial weed, hrl\ to cut 

1 6 DeJlroyingoffVeeis. Book 2. 

Ddiroy:ng of up the weed ( of what fortfocver it be, whether Gorfc^ Fjrs or 
Weeds. Broom ) as <1ofe and necr to the ground as ycu can polDbly , 

and then making them up in fhrats or bigge f2g2,ots , csrry 
tbcm home, and Ihck them Lp very dry, fo as no ram may enter 
or pierce into them, for the fmallcft wet will rot and confuroc 
them to dirt and hlthiuefs \ which done, you (hall make Labou- 
rers with hacks , picks and luch like tools, to ftub up all the 
roots which you left in the gr:>und, even to the very bottom of 
the fame> and thefe roc:s you thall be very csrcful to have 
Aubbed up exceeding clean, by no means Ifatmg ( fo near as 
you can ) any part or parccll of the roots khind ycu i then 
thdc rx)Otsthus liubbed up, yoaihall diligently gather toaerhct 
into little heaps , as biggc as Mo2l-hi!l5,"and place thcnTupon 
the ground a pretty diihnoe one from another, and (o let theca 
lye till the Sun and Wind hare dr)-ed them : for it is intended, 
that this labour mui^ begin about the latter end of -^/r?/, and be- 
ginning of A%. 

Then fo foon as yon find thefe roots arcthorowly dr^'cd, you 
(hall pile them handfom.cly together, hying them a little hol- 
low one from another , and then with a hsck cut up fome of 
the fame earth , and therewithal! cover all the recti quite over, 
only leaving a vent hole at the top, and on one (idc , and fo let 
tarn-nz of ^^^ ^''I'^rcft two or three dayes, till the earth be a little parch:, 
Bail.'' ^"^ ^^^^^^ *^^" ^^^^ ^^^ 2"^ ^c>m: other light do' fuel which is 

apteft to blaze, and with the famek-ndh every hill, not learing 
them till yoa kc them perfcd'y on fire \ w>.'ich done, let them 
bum both day and n=ght. till thefublhnce being wholly con- 
fumed, the fire go out of it o vn fdf, and this in fome Ccun- 
tiicsis called the httnmtg e/Bjit. 

Now as foon asth? fire hath been extinguilhed fortwoor three 

thSm ^^^^^' '''''" ^^^^^ ^'^'" ^°^'- ^^-^ ^^"^'^ (hovil;^ & beetles to break 
Eardi. ^^^ ^"^ ^^rnt earth in pieces ) you (hall fpread all the aflics 

clean over the ground i which done, you fhall with a very long 
plouiih tear up the earth into great and d?:p furrows, and 
divide it into Lan^s, as you (hall think meet and convenient , 
laying them higher, and flatter, as you (hall have occaHon, and as 
thegrcund lycth mor^ or !:fs within the danger of water , 
whether it be the over-flowing of fome necr "Neighbouring 


Book 2^ Burnwg of Bane, ij 

Brooks, or Rivers, or elfe other franding water occafioned by 
Rain and extraordinary Showrcs, which muft be carefully Caufes of un« 
lookt uHto i bccaufe all over-flows and inundations of water ^'^"^'^"^°^»- 
is a mighty deliroyer and con Turner of grain v but thefe barren, 
grounds of which I now write, are very fcldome oppreft with 
water i for moft commonly they lye {o high, that the continu- 
all drynefs thereof is a (hong occafion of the. niucJi unfruit- 
fulnefs. After you havj thus burnt your bait, and plowed up 
your ground, you (hall then with your hacks hack it intofmall, 
pieces, in fuch manner as was declared in. the former Chapter i 
then you lliall (if the Sea be any thing near youj fand it with 
filt fand (as before fiid^ then lime it, and after, manure it either 
with Ox-dung, Horfe-dung, rotten Straw, mudd of Ponds and 
Ditches, the fpitling of Houfe-floores, or fweeping of Channels ^Jnure" ^^ 
and Streets, or fuch hkei or for want of all cafe you d well 
neer unto the Sea-coalt (where manure for the moft part is in 
greateli fcarcity, and thchardeft to come, by) you (hall gather 
trom the bottom of the rocks (where the feydge of the Sea 
continually bearcth) a. certain black weed, which they call 
Hemp-weed, having great broad leaves, and growing in great 
abundance, in thick tufts, and hanging iogether likepeafe-firawv 
and' with thefe weeds you fliall cover your lands all over ofQ^p. . 
a pretty good thicTincfs, and then forthwith you fliall plow it °^^*''^' 
again fomcwhat deeper, and with fomewhac greater furrows 
then before, raifliig up tiie new quick cartlito intermingle, and 
mix with thofe manures and helps which thou \\Ai formerly pre- 
pared and laid upon the ground i then you fliall again hack it, 
and harrow it i then you fliall take Pigeons dung, or Pullens 
dung (that is, any kind of land fowl whatfoever, bat by no 
means any water fowl) or Pigeons dung and Pullens dung Of diTcrs Mi- 
mixttf g.ther, and allowing to cv.ryacre two or thre: bufliels ^^'^"' 
thereof, which is the true quantity of feed proportioned for the 
fame, andthis dung broken and maflit into fmall pieces, 
you fhall put into your Syclop or Hopper, ana in the fame 
nera^youfow your corn, you fl^all fow this dung upon the 
ground, and then imircdLitcly after it^ you fliall fow your 
Wheat, either fteept in brine, fir-clfefalt Sea- water, or unfiecpt 
as^you fhall think good •, but in cafe you can. neither get fait 



o o 

Book z. 

Mixture of 

Of weeding. 

Time for 

fand nor Sea Rock- weirds, then you (hall by no means oroit the 
fteeping ot' your Seed \ neither (hall you fail before you fow 
ycurSjed, to mix wl;h your pidgeons and pullcis durg, a full 
equal part ct Biy-fi!r well dryed 2nd broke, and fo fown with 
the dung upon the land, and then the iced ufter it \ which done, 
you Ihall harrow it again, clot it,(lcight it.and fmoorh it,in fach 
fort as was foriiKrly declared in the former Chapter, for thefc 
labour? have no aUcrations,butn:.ui^ in^all points be done as was 
before frt duwn. 

Now touching the weediTig of this earth, after the Corn bo 
oinncth to grow about the gvound^thereisnofear to he had ei- 
ther of Thi files, Tares, Cockles, Darnel, Docks, and fuch like 
ftrong weeds, which indeed are the i(ruesof good grcunds ill 
ordered and Iwndlcd \ but the weeds which you (hall moli fear 
in this place, is young Gorfe, or Furrs, or clfe yoL;ng Broom, 
which are very apt to grow from the lean part or parcel! 
of roots that l>.a!l be kft behind \ Nay, the very na:ure of thofc 
barren earths is fuch, that cf its own accord it will bring foriU 
rhofe weed?; the cold (harpnefs of the air mixing with the flerili- 
ry & roughnefs of the earth, being the caufe that it will give life 
to no oti-!er better plants » therefore fo foon as you Hiall behold 
any of them to appear above the earth, though they benotiialfa 
hn>zcr high, ycu (hall prcfcntly with all diligence pull them 
»p by the roots, and caft them away, or lay them in heaps that 
they may be afterwards burnt, and the alhcs fprinkkdupon the 
e;TOund : And herein is f o be obf.rved,that the younger and the 
'fooner thatyou do pull up^Iiefe weeds, the bater it is, and the 
eafilier tbe^' will come from thee2rth,and the fooner bedefiroy- 
cd : forallthcfe mixtures wherewith already you have 
taught to mix -your earth, are in themfeWes fuch naturall ene- 
mies to all thefe kind of barren weeds, that fhould you omit the 
manual labour of dcllroying them fvvhich no good Husband 
willirigly will doj) yet in time the earth of it felf, and the often 
plowing of the fircie would kave no fcch oifcnce of weeds, or o- 
ther growths which might hinder the corn. 

Now touching the belt time when to pull away thefe weeds, 
though generally it muO be done a(roon as they ^d appear 
above the ground > yet it (hall not be amils for you i\.^ defer the 


Book 2* Rough Barrett QUyes. 


work till after a (howre of rain, and then immediately after 
the ground is wet ) and fo by that means more apt and wil- 
ling to open and forfake the rootfartned within it J you (hall 
with aM diligence pull them out of the ground, and deftroy 
them : neither (hall you puU them out of the ground with 
your hands only \ for the Gorfe have exceeding (harp pricks,(b 
that with your naked hands you are not able to touch thtm, 
and to arm your hands againl^ them, with (hong thick gloves, 
would be too boilterous and comberforae, (b that (bmeticres 
you might either mifs the weeds, and pull up the corn y or el(e 
pull up the corn and weeds both together i therefore to pre- 
vent all thefe cifualties or hiaderances, you (hall take a pair 
of /ong fmall wooden Nippers, made after the form of this 

And with thefe you (hall pull the weeds out of the ground, 
and caft them into the furrows by the fides of the Land, till 
your dayesworkbcfini(hcd, and then with a rake you (hall rake 
them together, and fo lay them in heaps to dry and wither, in 
more convenient places-, that when time (hall ferve,you may burn 
them, and uie them, as was before declared. 

Lallly, you (hall have great refped, that if this ground be vc- Gatherim! of 
ry much troubled with loofe Hones, as flint,pibble, and fuch like, ftoacs. 
that then you very carfeully get them gathered from the ground] 
both before and after you have plowed it, and to lay them 
on heaps in other vacant places, where they may fervc for 
pavings, and fuch like purpofcs when time requireth : but if the 
ground be over-run with great, or elfe fmall Limcftones,as for 
the mofJ part thefe barren grounds are i then (hall you with all 
care gather fhem up, and lay them in great heaps in fome cor- 
ner of your held, where you may make a convenient Limekiln, 
andfo there burn thefe .flones thus gathered, which will be 

D both 

20 Rough Barren QUyes, Book 2. 

both an inlinite profit, and an infinite eafe to (he reft of your 


Of the oritring^ I'lll'ing^ ani Dre^ng cfaV rwgh barren Clayei^ . 
whether fim^le or compotincl^ thut are over.runn with 
IVhinnes^ orfUcb like. 



Ext unto this barren Clay, which is over-run with Furle, 
Broom, and fuch like, I will place that barren and unfer- 
tile earth, being alfo a Clay, whether fimple or compound , 
which is OYcr-run onely with Whinns, and indeed bearing 
little or no other burthen, or if it do bear any other burthen 
as fomc little (hort mo the grafs, yet is that grafs fo covered o- 
verwith thefc (harp Whinns, that not any beaft dare put his 
nofe to the ground, or bite upon the fame •, and indeed this kind 
of earth is not any whit at all kfs barren than thofe of which 
I have already written, but rather more, in that the malignant 
qualities thereof are not fo foon corrcded, nor yet the vertues fo 
foon reftored. 
What whiiiBcs Whinnes are a certain kind of rough dry weeds, which grow 
btifhic and thick together, very fhort and clofc unto the ground, 
being of a dark brown colour, and ofcrookcdgrowth,thickand 
confufcd, and full of knots,and thofe knots armed with hardjong 
(harp pricks like thorns or bryars, they have little brown leaves 
which fliaddow the pricks, and do wind their branches fo one 
into another, that they can hardly be feparatcd, yet is not their 
growth at any time little more than a handfuU above theearth, 
Only they fpread exceedingly, and will runn and cover over a 
v;hole field, choakingup all forts of good plants whatfoevcr, 
and turning the beft grafs that is, to mofs and filthincfs: where- 
foreifatany time you be Mafter of any fuch naughty and bar- 
ren ground, and would have it reduced unto goodnefsand fer-r 
tility, you fhall firft take a fint thinn paring fliovcl* made of the 
b:fl Iron, and well tteelcd,and hardoned round about the cdgesj 
£';cordingto the form of this figure following. 




iVith JVhinnes, &c. 




And with this paring-ftiovcl, you (hall firft pare up al! the upper 
fvvarthof the ground, above two inches, or an inch and a half 
thick at the leaft, and every paring would be fomc three foot in 
length at the leaft, and fo broad as the Ihovel will conveniently 
give it leave, and this fwarth thus pared up, you fliall hrfi turn 
the whinny or Grafs- tide downward, and the earth fide upward 
and fo let it lye two or three dayes in the Sun to dry (for this 
work is intended to begin in the month of M^y) and when that 
fide is well dryed, you fhall turn the other fide, and dry it alfo, 
then when all the fwarth is dryed, you (hall gather fix or feven 
pceces together, and turning the Whinny or Grafs fide inward 
and the earth fide outward, you (hall make round hollow lit- 
tle hills thereof, much according to the fa(hion of this Figure 

And the inward hollownefs like unto the hollownefsofan 
Oven, but much lefs in compafs •> which done, you fliall rtll the 
hoUow^nefs with dry chips, or fmall flicks, or Furfe and Straw 

D 2 mixed 

32 Barren Clayes, Book 2, 

mixed fogcLher, which you (hall put in at the vent-hole which 
{hall be ktt on one fide of the hill, and kindling it wich fire, 
you (hall burn all that fwarth in fuch fort a$ you burnt the roots^ 
of your Furfe and Broom before v for this is alfo called a burning 
of bait, as well as the former •, for i^ is a raolt principal nouriilicr 
cf the earth, and a very fudden deftroyer of all malignant weeds 
Breaking of ^^^^"^ ^^^ burning of your hills, as foon as the fire is utterly 
Biits. quenched and gone cut, and no heat at all left in the hills ^ 

ycu IhaU then with clotting beetles beat them all down to duft, 
and then with fliovcls you (hall fpread the alhes quite over all 
the ground, as was before declared in the former Chapter : and 
h.rcinis to benotcd, that you muft place thefe hills as thick and 
clofe together as by any means pollibly you can, making your 
hills fo much the le (sand lowcr,tbat they may Hand thicker and 
nearer together , and (o cover m.ore ground , and thereby 
the heat and (^rength of the fire to difperfe it fclf over all 
that peece of ground i for the fire burning upon the earth, 
doth as much good for the inriching of the earth, and defhoy- 
ing of the weeds, as the a(hes doth which are fpread upon the 
Howing. Now after your bait is in this manner burned and fpread, you 

(hall then Tas before (hewcdj plough up your ground in good 
large furrows, then hack it very fmall, Sand ir, Lime it, and 
manure it i and of all' manures, there is not any better for this 
ground than Oxe-dung,and a(hes well mixt together i of which, 
a(hcs.thofcofbean-llraw,Peafe-ftr3w,or any other draw are befti 
and thofe of Wood ■■> or Fern next, and thofe of Sea-coal, or Fir- 
coal are the wor(l of all. Swines dung is not much amifs tbr 
this ground, for though it be a greater breeder of weeds and 
thifilcsin good and fertile grounds, yet in this cold, hard, and 
barren earth it workcth no fuch effedl, but is a great comforter 
and warm m.ciflnerof thefam.e. 

After you have thus made your ground, as foon as Wheat 
(ecd-time com.mcfh, which is the latter end of September , and 
beginning oiOdobtr^ you ihall then v^n^h great care plow over 
your ground again, and take great refped that you turn up your 
turro'.vs it-ucji deeper than before, and tliat for two fpecial 


Book 2. fVith /f'hirjnes, drc. 23 

caufcs i the firOjthat the n.w earth may the better b; mixt with 
the old earth, and thofe liclps that are added thereunto i and 
fccondlyj that you may be furc to tear up the roots of all the 
Whinns from the very bjttom of the earth, not futfering any 
part of them to remain behind, and for tJiis purpofe it ihall not 
be amifs to have an idle boy or two to follow your plow , 
and to gather away all the roots that ("ball be torn up, or any 
way elfe left bare above ground, which roois ihall be laid on 
heaps in convenient places, and then attcr burnt, and the alhes 
thereof fprcad upon the ground ; which vvill be a very great 
comfort unto the feed, being a fpeedy help unto the fprou- 
ting thereof, and a very warm comforter of the roor after the 
ftemmc is fpindlcd above ground, for in thefc cold barren earths 
nothing doth fo much Ipoyl and fliycorn, as the dead coldnefs 
xvhichlyeth attheroot thereof-, for in many of thefe unfertill 
places, you (hall fee Corn at the hrfi fowing (whil/t there is a 
little firength in the ground^ fprout in great abundance.promi- 
fingnsuch hope of the prorit : but when it should fpindle and 
come to much better perfcdf ion, that poor ftrcngth being fpenc 
and confumed, and the cold and drynefs of the foyl, having ^ 
k were over-come all m.srter of comfort, then prefently yott 
ftall fee the blade of the Corn turn yellow, the ficmm or Ihlk to • 
wither, and either put forth no ear at all, or elfc a very poor^ 
little empty one, being lade^ with nothing but a raoli dry 
chafhehusk without fabitance. But to come again to our pur- 
pofe, after you have thus plowed up your ground the fecond 
time, you (hall then- hack i: again, and harrow it, as was decla- 
red in the farmer Chapter- i. then you (hall take your feed- 
wheat which hath been ikept either in brine or Sta-watcr, and 
to every buChel of that feed you (hall add a bul>.el of bay-fair, . 
and mixthena very well toge her in your Hopper- or Sydlop, 
and fofoWe them together upon the ground,obfeTving todoublc " 
your cad fo off, that you may not fiil to call that trae quantity- 
offtcd into the earth, which otherwifeyou would have done, , 
if fo be there had been no mixture at all, forte do otherwife 
were to deceive the ground, and a handfull of feed fo fjved 
would b-e the lofs of a p^ck in the time of Harvcit v therefoie 
have greit rofpLdi" that your ground have his due i for it is r.o 





fTith Ltng Heath. 




more coir, though it be a lUtlc labour. 

When your feed is Town, you (hall harrow it again the fecond 
time, clot, fmocth it,and Height it, as was before declared in the 
former Chapter;. 

As touching the weeding of this groundjit is the leaft labour 
of all other, for the earth being fo corred:ed as is before fhewed, 
it will naturally of ir fclfput torih no weeds, efpecially if you 
remerr.bcr to plo-jgh itdetp, 3nd beiurero tear up and gather a- 
way al' the quick roots, othcrwifcit that labour be any thing 
negleded, then will it put forth both Whins aud great ftore of 
other rough weeds, which as foonasyou (hall perceive to ap* 
pear, you (hall prefcntly with.\our wooden nippers pull thciii 
up by the roots, as was at large declared in the foregoing Chap- 

Now for the general proh: ct thisgrcjr.d thus made and pre- 
pared, it is the fame that the two former are, that is to fay, it will 
bear you good andfuffccient Wheat, in plentifull abundance for 
the fpace of two or three yearssrhen barky a year afierithen Oats 
three years together after the barky, and peafe or beans a yeat 
after the cats i then Laftly, very good Medow or Paftare for 
the fpice of three cr four years after, and then you (hall begin 
and dre{s it again, as was formerly declared. 


OJ the ordering^ liUinZy ai'dVufftug of aH barren Chyes. vplyether 
fmfle cr ccw^ou»d^ rrhdclf are d'cr-run with Ling «r Heathy 

THcre followcth now fuccellively another fort of barren 
earth, which indeed is rruch more.Acrile and barren than 
anv of the other formerly written upon i becaufe they, out of 
their own nature, do bear a certain kind ofgrafsor food which 
will relieve ordinary hard liore-Cattel , whether it be Sheep, 
Goats, or young Beafts: But this eartli, of which I am now to en- 
treat, bcarerh nografsat all, but only a vile tikhy black brown 
weed, which wt call Ling, t r Heath, the tender tops whereof 
Cattcl and wild Deer will foiretimcs crop, yet it is to them but 
Jif tie relief, and o:ily maintaincihlitc and no more. 


BcMDk 2. Barre\Claye. 2 J 

Now albeit fome may objed unto h:ie, that this kind of foyl 
is ever a fandy foyl, and no' clay, as may be fecn in mofi Chafes, . 
ForreHSjand Down \ yet 1 anfwer, that albeit it hold fo in gene- 
ral, yet there are divers clays, efpecially in mountainous Coun- 
tries, that are peftercd with thefe kind of weeds, as may be feen 
in the North, and North- welt part oiVevorf^iire^ in fome parts 
of Cornvp ilt, and in many parts both of North and Sourh ^alesy 
and thefe clay grounds which are thus offended with thefc 
weeds of Ling, or Heath, are much more barren and unfruitful 
than the Sands, becaufe of their much more coldnefs i yet thole 
dayes which are mixed with either black Sand, dun S^nd, or 
yellow Sand, andover-runn thus with Heath or' Ling, are the 
moft barren of all. To make any further defcripcion of this 
Heath or Ling, being a thing fo notoriouily known over all 
this Ringdome, I hold it meerly neediefs , only, to fuy it is a 

rough brown weed, (hooting out abundance of ihlkes from one 
root, with little dark leaves, and fiowcrs on the top, of a pale 
reddilh colour, much inclining unto Peach colour at' the firft : 
but being full blown, they are then a little more whitiflu 

You therefore that havcany fuch ground, and delirc to bring Deflroying , of i 
it to fruitfulnefs, and bearing of good Corn and Grafs in a H^a^h.. 
reafonable abundance , you (liall lirft with fythes or iharp 
hooks fbut old fythes are the better; cut down all the Heath, or 
Ling, which growcth upon the earth you intend to convert to 
goodnefs, fonecr the ground as polhbly you can •, then when 
it is cut down (which would ever be at the beginning of the 
Month ofA%j you (hall let it lye upon the ground daily tolling- 
and turning it ti'l it become very dry, then fpreading it all 
ov^r the ground, and mixing or covering it with dry Ifraw of 
any kind whattoevcr, you fhall prefently'fet it on lire in fo ma. 
ny feveral corners of the field, that all the feveral hrcsin the ends 
may meet in one poynt, and not leave any part of the mowcn- 
Heath or Ling unburnt, or any part of the ground unfcorched b , 
After this is done, and the ground cooled, you fliall with vour. 
flat clotting beetles beat the allies hard into the ground, then 
you (hall take a flrongplow, with a broad winged lhare,and an; 
edven coulter, and you (hall plow up all this g^round thus burnt 

2:6 Barren Qayes,. Book 2. 

in very large and deep farrowcs, by no means picking ou any 
of the quick roots which (ha'l remain in the furrows fo turned 
up, but letting them reft in the earth llilU then with your hacks, 
and the help of your Iron paring (hovel, you (hall cut up tiie 
furrows, formerly turned up, into fliort pieces.of three foot, or 
tlirce foot and a half long, and fomc Itfs as occ<:fion (hull fervc : 
then with thefe pieces, you (hall buiid little hollow I i'ls, fuch as 
in the former Chapter you made of the upper Hvarth ol the 
grcund only > and then hlling the hollownefs with dry heath, 
and diy llraw n ixt together, you (Vail fet every hill on fiic^ 
Another bur- ^^^ ^^, hwxn the very fubftarce of the earth into afnes, which 
will foon be done by reafon of the infinite number of roots 
and fmall firings, which lye mixt in the earth, and the drynefs 
thereof occalioned by the former burning : And this is another 
kind of burning of Biite, much differing from all the former, 
and yet to as great end and profit as any whatfoever i and thefe 
hills muft, as the former, be placed one as near another asispolll- 
ble, fo as they may fpread and cover over the greateft part of the 
ground,and leaving no more than a good rcafonable path to pafs 
between hill and hill. 

Now as foon as you have burned all your Biite , and that 
your hills are cold, you (hall then as was before (hewed in the 
former Chaprer, with beetles and (liovels break down the hills, 
and fpread the earth and afhes over all the grounds which done, 
you fliall fand it fif the fituation of the ground be anfwera- 
b'e tht-reunto ) and lime it in fuch fort as was fliewed in the 
(Icond Chapter i then when it is limed, and the lime equally 
fpread, not more in one place than in another, you (hall 
then manure it with the beft manure you can provide , of 
which tiicrc is none better or more proper for the ground 
than mans ordure, and the rubbifh , fwcepings, parings, 
and fpitlings of houfes mixt together : for want of thisf becaufe 
it may not be in io great plenty as other manures) you may 
fake cither old Oxedung, or Horfc dung, or for want of them 
(he old rotten and muddy (iaddUs or bottomes of Corn flacks 
of Reeds, cfpccially Pcafc-flacks, or Bean-ftacks, provided that 
it be throughly rotten > for the Icfs rotten it is, the worfe it is, 
Alfo the fcourings of comimon Sewers, and cfpccially thofe 


Book 2. Dcflroying offf^eeds. tj 

through which much of mans urine doth pafs, is a moft won- 
derful and beneticial manure for thefe grounds > Co are alfo the 
fcowring of finks and channels, which come from Kitchins and 
wa(h-houfcs, where great ftore of brine and falc broathis (hed, 
and other greafie, far, and putriried fubfianccs, as alfo abun- 
dance of fopc-fuds, and buck-athes, and other fope and Ice- 
wafhings, than which , there is no better manure that can be 
ufcdfor thefe kind of grounds* 

After your ground is thus pcrfedly made and manured, and 
that Wheat-feed time doth draw on,whlch (as before was fhcw- 
ed) is ever at the Utter end o^Sepember^you fliall then plow up 
your ground again in that manner as was (hewed for the former 
earths, to wit, much deeper than before : for you are to under- 
hand, that this ground being dreft, as is before declared, there 
will nothing remain of the furrows which were hrrt plowed up 
but fhea(hes, which being covered with fand,lime,and manure, 
the earth will lie plain and kvel, fo that of necel(ity you muft 
raife up new furrows of new earth, which being done, you 
Ihall then with your hacks, cut all the new earth into very 
fmall pieces, mixing them well with the other mould made 
orfand,Iimc,manureand alhesithen as wasbefore f .id,you fhail 
harrow it to make the mixture Co much the better, and the 
mou'd fomuch the Hner : and then if it have been fandcd,yr>u 
may fow your feed-wheat fimply of it fclf, without anydoubl 
of the plentiful increafe thereof-, but if it have not been landed, 
then as in the foregoing Chapter, you (hall not only Itecp your 
Seed in brine rasb:forc fhewcd^ but alfo you (hall mix your 
Seed with Bay-falt, and fo fowe into the ground ■■> or if at the 
time of fo wing (after it is plowed,hickt,aHd harrowed )you bc- 
ftow either Pigeons-dung, or PalIcFi5-dung,or Shccps-dung up- 
on the Land,itwill be muchb;tter, and the Corn will give a 
much greater increafe. Now as foon as you Land is fown, you 
(hall forthwith harrow it again, and cover the S:ed very clofei 
then you (hill clot it, fmooth it, and lleigb.r it Cas was before 

As touching the weeding and cleanGn^of this earth tfrer the Weediog. 
Corn is fprung up, you (hall underkand that there is great care 
to be had theicunto.fjr this ground is much fwibjed^ unto weed-s, 

E and 

28 JVith Dngor HeAth^ Book 2. 

i;iMlthorccf" the vTorfi kind : fcr although tor the mofi part *' 
will be tiee rrc:^ all inaniicr of foft and lender weeds, as thilUes, 
cockle. darml, kcilccksj dcck?> rape, and fach like herbal fiujf^ 
yctit isn-uch fuhjed to twitch-bryars, which grow at both 
cnds.Linj^VVildc-uine,and fuch-likcjany ol" which asfoonasyoi* 
£hall lee to appear-* or peep abov: the earth, you (hall prefen^ly 
with your Nippers pull ibcm up by the roots, and no: fuller 
them in any wife to lock ahandtul above the ground \ for '\{ 
youdo,their hardncfs is fogjreat, and their rcoti fo large and fiA 
tixt into the mould, that you can bv noir.far.s pull thera away 
without great lols and hurt to the grain, Fulling up with them 
all fuch roots of Corn, as fnall be fixed near about thcon : for- 
any other weak and fupcifluous things which (bill grow frond 
the Land, you may with ordinary weeding hooks cut them a- 
way i as for long ^a{s, whether it be fott or f^dge.or any other 
ilich-likc liul^, you lluU not fiirit>but let it grow ; for it keep- 
pth warm the roots of your Corn, and givetii nouriihment and 
incieirc thereunto. Now for the profit ot tris Soil thus ordered 
and husbanded, it is equal with any of theformer,and will bear 
Wheat very plentitully for tlie fpace of the three lirft years ^good 
Bailey the fourth year with the help of the ll^cep fold (as was 
before laid) and good Oats the fifth, rixth,and feventh ycarsvand 
very good fmalllVafe, the eighth year (for beans this Soyl will 
yery hardly btar atalOaod-tliCTimth, tcn:h, and eleventh year 
it will bear very good meadow (though not altogeriier very nnc 
pure grafs, yet very good feeding and wholfom gra6,or fo good 
pafture as a man can reafonably require for any holding Cattle 
whatfocver •» nay, it will alfo iudiJfcrently well feed, and fat 
Cattle, though peradventure itrequiretha little longer time 
than other liner ground will. 

(Xf i]ct critrm^^ T/HiHg and Vregitfg '^fjUfhinfi/n^U hjrrtn 
Sd.tds^ b(arhtgnctbn:^kttt ajJt^rt m 0f grjfr. 

H. A viae thus fin as large manner as 1 hope llall be ncedfjl 
tor any judicious or iiiditfcrent Reader' written of the Na- 
tures, Oxdcri35%l lowing«,iiid Drcilings^f all minucr oi bar- 

B "tok 2. BjirrcnSinds, 

rcn and unrniitful Clays, whether they b: fimuile of than- 
felvcs, or elfe compounded with orher earths, as S:nd5,Chi1k5, 
Gravcls,and fuch like', (hewingby thofenaturul burthens which 
condnually of their own eccord thq' do produce (which indeed 
isthc cafiefi and fafeft way of knowledge) how to amend and 
btttcr them, and bring them to that perfedion of fruitfulnels 
that the boft earth (hall but in a very fir.all degree exceed them, 
nay, nay hardly any rhin^ at all, except in the fiving of a lict'e 
charge and fjme labour, without which nothing is to be obtain- 
ed by the Husbandman , neither is this charge or labour thi^s 
bcdowed on thcfe birren Grounds to be gtiucht at by any 
honeri ir.ind i fince the worrt crop of ten or eleven will malx& 
good hischarge and toil with a reafonable Intere.1 \ f:> thi^ 
I make account, nine or ten years proh:5 come into his Buns 
wichout purchafci for it is to be intended, thatal'l thcfe earths 
formerly fpoken of, arenottobe drcll, or to put the Husband- 
man to any charge more than tne hrll year of ten or eleven, 
for the fecond year he (haJ! as foon as he hath gathered his 
Wheatofti which will be in -rf«g/^f,and HnilTit otiier parts of his 
Havverr,prer;ntly put his Plow into the fame VVheat-grownd a* 
gain,and plow it up, hack it,arid harrow ir,fowc it, harrow it a- 
gain, clod it, and weed it, as in the former year, and foconfe- 
quenily of all the reft of the years following •, whereby you per- 
ceivcihit all labours and charges ate faved rt.ore than' once 
plowing and fowing. 

This then conlideced,i:ncceffari!y now followcth that I fp-ak 
cf the bettering, and bringing into jxrrfedhon ot all manner of 
barren fand Grounds, being liirply f f fhcmklv-.'s^ without cny 
mixrure of other earths, except orfe and' the fame kind s as far.d 
with find, though perad venture fhcctilont^of the Sands may 
alter^as red with whitciycllow with Wick/^f^.- which inasmuch 
as the whole fubfiance is fand wiihout any. contrary mixrute;' 
there it may well be called ttmple'and not coitipound •, ^nd * t 
thefe Sands, I purpofe totYca:, i'^f.^rrrcrly I did of t1ie Chyi . 
that is to fay, by their outward faces and Chafad'er5,which arc 
tKofe burrhensandiricreuil^, which t>t' theirown pr0ptr nature, 
without any helporcomipulfion Gfany otUe^, theyprt^duce and- 
briing forth into the worM'. ' ' .■■•'.. I :;.<• , 

E 2 And 


5© Barren S^nds, Book 2^ 

And firrt of that naughty cold aud barren Sand, which lyin^ 
upon liigh, llony, and mountaioons Pvocky places, or elfc upon 
lower cold bleak Plains, fubjcdt to the North, and North-Eaft 
winds and tempcft?, or bordering upon the Seas>doih not bring 
forth any thing but a lliort niolfie grafs, which the Sun maketh 
bicrcr, and the cold dews fulfonae and unfavory In tafte. IT any dien be M-fter of fuch unprontable and unfruitful earthy 
and dcllretohaveit brought to goodnefe, and perfcclion, you 
Plowiae. ^-^^J lirr:,at the beginning of the Spring , as about middle Apr}!^ 
or earlier, with a firong Plow anfwerable to the Soil, yet fomc- 
what kfs, both in Timbers and Irons,then thit wherewith you 
plow your Clay ground, plow fo much of thatcarth upas you 
may conveniently compafs, to fowe and drefs exadly, and per- 
t-d'yj for to undertake more, were to make all unprotirab!c,and 
to caA away much labour and charge, widiout any profit. This 
ground you lliall plough of an indifferent depth, though not fo. 
deep as the Clays,you Ihall by the farrows,though flat,yct clofc 
one to another, without leaving any bulk betvvcen, but plough- 
ing all very clean, yet not fo very clean and clofe together, that 
you may lay the green fwarth, to the new ploughed or quick 
e^rth i but rather turn one fwarth againO anothcr,fo as the fur- 
rows may lie, and no more but touch the edges one of another : • 
This when ycu hare done, you (hall then with your hacks, cut 
and break all the earth fo turned up into very fmall pieces, 
and net only the earth fo turned up into very fraall pieces, 
hut alfo other green fwarth which was left unplowed ■, provided- 
that b^^fore this labour of hacking,you let the ground lie certain 
days in the furrows, that one fwarth heating and fcilding the 0- 
thcr, they may both equally rot and grow mellow together : 
which once perceived by the blackncfs thereof, you may 
then at your pleafure hack it, and cut it, as is- before decla- 

Ob}eftioo. ^°^ ^'^^^ ^^y *" ^^'^ P^*^*^ ob)cd unto me,That this labour 

of hacking (hould be ncedlefs, in as much as all fand grounds 
whatfocver arcout of their own nature fo light, lcK)ft, andwil- 
lingtodiHever, that thistoyl might very wefl and togrod pur- 
pclc be faved. 

Am'wcr. To thLsIanfwer,Thattrucitis,moflSandsin their own na- 

Book 2. Of Marling, 31 

turcs arc loofeand light, and willing todiflcver into Hnc mould 
without any extremity, efpecially rich and fruitful Sands, n-hofe 
predominant quality of warmth, giveth nourilhment and in- 
creafe : But thcfe barren and cold Sands, in which isacertain 
flegmatiquetoughnefs, and m^olt unwholfom drinefs, arc of a 
clean contrary nature, and through the rtony hardnefs thereof, 
they are as unapt to break and dilTever , as any Clay whatfc- 
evcr : bcfides, the fwarth being of a tough moliie fubftancc, 
(which ever carrieth a hard (Irong root anfwerable with the cold' 
in which it is engendrcdj doth fo conlhntly bind, fetter, and' 
hold the mould together, that it is impolUblefor any harrow to 
break it in pieces, or to gather from it fo much mould as may 
fcrvc to cover the Corn, and give it root when it is Town into 
the fame : And therefore this work of hacking is necelTary, 

when therefore you have thushacktyour Land, and diftri- OfMarljngi- 
buted the mould into many fmall pieces, you fhall then with all 
expedition Marie \x ■■> which forafmuch asit is no general nor 
common pra(^ice in every part of this Kingdom, I will Hrft tell 
you what Marie is, and then how to hnd it, dig it, and ufc it 
for your hd\ behoof. 

Marie, you (hall then underrTand,is('according to the dciini- «^^ 
tion of MafierBfr;fjr<iPji7;j[fvy a natural, and yet an excellent Additions.- 
Soiljbtingan enfray to all the weeds- that fpring up of them- 
felves, and giving a generative xfrtue to all feeds that are fown 
upon the ground : or ffor the plain Husbandmans undcrliand- 
ingjit is a certain rich, ftiff, and tough clay, of a glewy fub- 
ftance, and no: fatorOyly, as feme fuppofe. This Marie is in 
quality cold and dry, and not hot fas fome would have it}and it 
was earth before it came to be Marie, and being m3^eMarle,yct 
it is but a Clay ground i all Chalk whatfoever was Marie before 
it was Chalk, and all manner of ftones which are fiibjedt unto 
Calcination or burning, as Limc-fionr, Flint, or the like, were 
firlt Mar! before they were ftones, 6c only hardned by accident, 
and Co not pi^inbleto be d'.flTolved but by the rire i as for Marie 
it fetfi when it is a little hardned, it is only diJfolved by frotts, 
and nothing elfe i and thence is the cauft that Marie ever wcrk- 
wh better erttd the fccond year than therirP. 

This Marie hath been made fo precious by fome Writcr?,that 


Of M^xrlhig. Book 2. 

It bath bcea accounted a JiUh clcn^r/,but oi this curiollty I will 
not novv difp'jtc. 

^ Touching the Con^plcxions or Colours of Marie, there is 

(cmc Ji(irciaic:i for though all conclude thcic are four fcveral 

■cplouis in Mirlcjct oneiaith, there is a \Vhi:c, a Gray, or Ruf- 

let, a BbckanJ YcUo'v ', another faich, there is a Gray, aBlew, 

a Ydkm,3ud a Kediand a tiiiijfaith,thcic is aRed,and White* 

iniiit like unto Torphery. And all ihc(c may well be reconciled' 

and the colours may alrcr according ro the clitLafe and arengrh 

ot the J uii : So ih.u by thefe Charaders, the Colour, the tough- 

r.cfs, and the loofnefs when it is dried, any man of judgment 

iTay ealily know Marle,from any other carch vvhatfocver. This 

Mailc is lo rich in it felf, and fo excellent for continuance, liut 

it will maintain and enrich barren grounds, the woril for ten 

•years, (omc lor a dozen, und Ibme tor thiriy years i yet there is 

a great refptcT: to be lud in laying of this Marie upon the 

^ground, that is to fay, that yculay it neither too thick nor too 

thin, that you have it neither too much, nor too little \ for any 

ot the(c extremities arc huitful > and therefore hold a mean, and. 

(ee there bean indifferent mixture between the Marie and the 

carLh,on uhiehit is laid. 

For the general iinding out of this Marie, there is no better 
way for rcadmcrs,and the fa ving of chargcs,tha*n by a great Au- 
gur or Wimble of Iron, made toicceive many bit^ one longer 
than ir,other,and fo wrciling one after another into theground 
to draw out the earth, till you hnd you arc come to the Marie, 
which peiccived, ai,d an alTay taken,- you may then dig at your 

Now for the places molt likely where to find this Marie, it. is 
commonly found in the lowclt parts of high Countries,'ncar 
Lakes and fmall Brooks, and in the high parts of low Coun- 
tries, upon the knolls of fmall hills, or within the Clifosofhigh 
Mcuntainous Banks, which bound great Rivers in : To con- 
clude, you Hi:!! fcidom Hnd any ot ihcfe barren Sands,but they 
are cither verged about with Marie Grounds, or il you will 
bcnow the labour to dig below the Saad, you fl^all not fail, 
cither ro find Marle,or fome Quarr> offione,or both^for in fome 
l^laces Marie licth very deep , in other fome places within 

Book 2. Of Marling, 33 

a Spidcs graft of the upper fwarth of the earth : therefore 
ic (hall bi: good for yen to make proof of all the mo^ likely 
parts of your Ground to find out this Marie ^and as foon as you 
have found it out, you (lull with Mittocks and Spades digit 
up and carry it to your , there laying i«t in big round 
lieaps, and fetting them within a yard or two one of another : 
riius when you have hllcd over all your Ground (which would 
be done wicli as great tpccd as might be i for the antient cullom 
of this Kingdom w-as, when any man went about to Marie his • 
ground, all his Tenants, Neighbours and Friends would come 
and help him tohalkn on the work} you (hall then (pread all 
thofe heaps, and mixing the Clayvvell with the Sand, you fiiall 
lay all fir.ooth and level together; and herein \s to beobferved, 
that if the hnd you thus Marie ft-iall lie againft thelldeof any 
great Hill or Mountain, whereby there will be much dcfccnt 
in the ground \ then you fl-nll (by a!l means) lay double as much 
Marie, Sand, or other compoft on the top of the Hdl as on the 
bottom, becaufe the rain and (howrs which (hall fall, will c- 
ver waih the fatne(s of the earth down to the lowefr parts the re- 

Now in the laying of your Marie, you arc to hold this 00- 
iervatioRj That if you lay it on hard and binding ground;., 
then you arc to lay it in the beginning of Winter : but if 011 
grounds of contrary nature, then it muft be laid in the Sprin^,^ 
or Summer. Again, you (hall obCerve, that if you cannot get 
any i^erfcCt and rich Marie, if then you can get of that eirth 
which is called Fulkis earth', and where the one is not, com- 
monly evjr the other is, then you may ufe it in the fame man- 
ner as you fhould Marie, and it is found to be very near as pro • 

when your ground "is thus Mirkd (if you be near to the Ad J it ion'?. 
Sea-Hde; you flull <hcn alfo fand it with fait Sea-und, in C\ic\\ Obierrations. • 
fort as was formerly declared, only you m.ay forbear to tiy 
altogether fo much upon this Sand ground as you did on riic 
Clay ground, becaufe an halfpirtis fully fufficienr. lt"ycu can- 
not come by this Salt-fand, theninftead thereoi, you i>u;i take of Chialk an4-'. 
Chalk, if any be to be had near you, and that yoa may liy in the uic. 
iiioic pkctiful minaer than., the Sind > and a-ib-.i: ix i^ faid, 


34 Of Cktlk. Book 2^ 

that Cha'.k is a wearier out of the ground, and maketh a rich fa- 
ther, yet a poor Ton , in this Soil it doth ROt fo hold, for as it fret- 
tct!i and waftcth away the-uoodnefs that is in the Clay grounds, 
fo itccmtortcrh and rr.uch Itrcngthencth the fand-carths; and 
this Chalk yoi: fhall lay in the lame rr.anner as you did your 
Marl, and in the fame manner fprcad it and level it \ which 
-done, ^t?ij(hall then Lime it, as was before (hewed in the Clay 
gTunds> yet rot fo abundantly, bccaufe alfo a half part will 
be fufticienr : afreryour Liming, ycu (hall then manure it with 
the be(t mar.ure you have, whether it be dung of CattlejHoife, 
Sheep, Goats, Straw, or other rubbi(h-, and that being done, 
and Sced-tirre drawethon. ycu (hill then plow upyoiir t,round 
aj^ain, mixing the new quick earth and the former Soyls fo 
wclltogetlier, that there m.ay be little dil>ingui(hn-.ent between 
thera : then you fhall hack it again, then harrow it , ai.a la(i- 
Jy fcwc it witii good, found, and peTfe<i^ S ed : and of Scds, 
though Wheat wsll very wci! grow upon tkis earth, yet Ry^is 
the mere natural and certain in the incrcafc > yet according to 
ihe firengh of the ground, you m::y ufc y.^-u difcretior, ub- 
ierving th t if you fowc Whcit, then to Ikcp it before in brme 
or fait fei- water, as wis be:crc dcicnbcd •, but if ycu fowc Rye, 
ti^.en you nail fowc i: limply without any hc'p?, except it be 
Pigeons- dung, or Bay-falt {Im.ply cf itf-lf, in fuch manner as 
hach been before declared, either fowing the fait with the Corn, 
or before the Corn, as fliall fecm belt in your own difcrction. 

Alter your Iced is fowr, ycu (h.allthen harrow it again, clot 
it, fiT.ooth it, and (Icight it, as be fere is fhcwcd in the fecond 
C!iaptcr:>which dene' after the Corn is Ihot above t!xcarth}you 
fh:H tliCn lock to tl-e weeding of ir,beingfomcwhat a little too 
ir.'Jch fubjed to certain particular Weeds, as are Harc-bottlcs, 
wild Che(<-bol!<:, Gypfie-flowers, and fi:ch-likc, any of which, 
when you f:e themfprung up, you (Va'.l immediately cut them 
away ckjfc by the roots \ as for rearing their roots out of the 
^rc^r-.d with your Nippers , it is not much m.atcrial, for the 
cutting of them is fufficient^fre they will hardly ever again grow 
to do you any hindcrancc , many other weeds there may grow 
air.ongfi thcfe, which are ilfo to be ait away, but thefe are the 
principal, and ofn';cftnotc *, vthereof as fecn a? vou haveciean- 


Book 2. Of Qhdk^ And, the -profit, 3; 5 

fed your lands of thefe and the reft, you (hall then refer the fur- 
ther incrcafe of your profit unto Gods Providence. 

Laftly,you (hall underftand that this ground being thu« plow- Thcprofics. 
ed, dreft, ami ordered^ will without any more drelliHg,but once 
plowing and fowing, every year bear you good Wheat or good 
Rye three years together *, then good Barley the fourth year > 
good Oats, thehfth, fixth, and feventh years i excelknt good 
Lupins the eighth year.and very good Meadow or Pafturc three 
or four years after, and then it (hall be necelTary todrelsita- 
gain in (uch manner as was before defcribed. 

C H A P. VII. 

Of the Flopping^ T^i^i^fgt Ovdering, and Inriching of a& barren 

Sand^ rvhich are laden and with Brak^n^ 

Fern^ or Heath, 

N Ext unto this plain, cold, barren Sand, which bearethno 
other burthen but a (hort moflie Grafs, I will place that 
Sand which is laden and over-run with Braken,Fern,or Heath, 
as being by many degrees more barren than the former, both tii 
refped that it is more loofe and lefs fubftantial, as alfo in that 
it is more dry and harfh , and altogether without nutri- 
ment , more than an extreme llerile coldnefs', as appeareth by 
• the burthen it bringeth forth, which is Braken or Fern, a hard, 
rough, tough weed, good fornothingbutto burn, or elfe to lit- 
ter ftore Beads withal, for the breeding of Manure '-> or if you 
flrow it in the High- ways where many Travellers pafs, it will 
alfo there turn to good reafonable compofl. 

Of this kind of ground,if you be Mafter,and would reduce it Of deftroying 
unto fertility and goodnefs, you (hall tirft, whether the braken Braken. 
be tall and high fas I have fctn fomcashighas amanon Horfe- 
backjor (hort,and1ow(and indeed moft commonly thefe barren 
earths arc, for tall Fern or Braken flicws (bme ftrength in the 
ground^ you fliall with fythes firft mow it down in the month 
cf Miy^ then wither it and dry it upon the ground, and after 
fpread it as thin as you can over all the earth you intend to 
plow •, which donc,you (hall bring your plow and begin toplo'.v 
the ground after this order ; inft you (hall turn up your furrow, 

F and 

^ Groiwds <ner-runrvnh Book 2. 

and lay fl-t to tlic ground, grecn-fwanh againft grcea 
iVarth, then look how broad your furrow is fo turn>;d up, or 
the ground fo covered i and jull fo much ground you lliall 
leave unplovrcd between farrow and furrow, fo that your land 
may lie a furrow and a green balk, till you have gone over all 
tlie ground i then you ihall take a paring- fhovel ot Iron, and 
pare. up the green fwarthof all the balks between the furrows 
at leafi rwo inches thick, and inio pieces oftwo or three foot 
long, and with ihefe pieces of c3Tth,and the dry Fern which is 
pared Lip with them, you In^ll make little round hollow bait- 
hills, as in the third or.fciirth Chapter, and rhefe hills fhaJl be 
fct thick and-cbfe overall the ground, and ^ fvt it on rire aiid 
burn it , then when the rire is extind,and ihe. hills cold,you (hall 
hrlt with your hacks cut in pieces, all the funow that were 
formerly turned up, and then break down the burnt hills, and 
mix the a(hes and earth with the other mould very well toge- 
ther \ which donc,pu (hall then with all fpeed rPiarle this earth 
or Marie. asfulficiently aspollibly may be, notfcanting it of Kfailc, but 
beftowing it very plentiful upon the fame > which done, you 
fliall then plough it over again, and p'owing it exceeding we! , 
not leaving any ground whatfoever untom up with the plow i 
tor you Ihall undcrftand, that the reafon of leaving the fv^rrrjer 
fcBlks,was,that at this fecond plowing after the Marie wasfpuad 
U|)on the ground, thcnew,quick,and unllirred frtlh earth rriight 
iiswellbe ihrred up to mix with the MarkJ, 2s the other 
d^3id earth and a(hcsformeily received, whereby a frelhcomtoit 
Ihould be brought to the ground, and an equal mixture without 
too much drinefe, and this fccond Ardor or Plowing would be- 
g:n about the latter end of Jufie. 
Sanding and After your ground hath been thus marlcd,and the fecond time 
Liming. plowed, you Ihall then fand it with fak Sca-fand, Lime ir, and 

iiiinure it, as was dcclaied in the foregoing Chapter : and ot all 
Manures for this Soil, there is not any fo exceeding gocd as 
(Ixtps-manure, which, although of the Husbandn^n it be eftec- 
ir^ed a Manure but for one year, yet by experience in ijiis giound 
ithapncth orherwlfe, and is as durable, and as long laring a 
compoli asany that ca-n be ufcd>anc! bcfidcs,it is a cre.t t'efipw- 
cr of Thirties, to which this ground is very n :u:h fubjcd^, b> 


Book 2. Brahn.Fern^^z. ^7 

caufe upon the alteration of the ground the Fern, is alfo ,i>atural- ' 

ly apt to alter into Thiltlcj as we daily fee. 

When your ground is thus drelt, and well ordered, and the Plowingand 
Seed-time comcih on, youlhall theii plough it again in fuch ° ^"^' 
manner as you did the fecond time, that is to fay, very deep, 
Cle, and after the rnanner of good Husbandry , without any 
rcrtj balks or other diforders \ then (hall yoi;' hack it very well,, 
then harrow it,and then {q-nz \x. bat by mine advice,inany cafe, 
I would not have you to beftow any Wheat upon this Soil, 
(except it be two or three bufhels on the bcft part thereof, for 
experience-fake, or provillon for yourhoufholdj for it is a great 
enemy unto Wheat, and more than the marl ; it hath no nourifh- 
mcnt in it for the Dme, becaufe all thatcometh from thefalt- 
Sand, Lime, and Manure, is little enough to takeaway the na- 
tural fterility of the earth it felf, and give it ftrength to bear Rye, 
which it will do very plentifully i and therefore I\vould wifl^ 
you for the hrrt three years only to fowe the befl Rye you can 
get into this ground i the fourth year,to fowe Barley \ thq hfth, 
lixthj and feventh, Oats •, and of Oats, the black Oat is t fie befr 
for this ground, makeththe beft and kindlieft Oit-meal, and 
feedeth Horfe or Cattle the founded i as alfo it is of thchardell 
conllitution, and endureth cither cold or drinefs much better 
than the white Oat, the cut Oat, or any Oat whatfoevcr \ the 
eighth year you Ihall only fowe Lupins, or Fetches •, and three 
years after you (hall let it lie for Grafs, and then drefsrt again as 
beforc-faidi for it isto beunderftood, thacin all the following 
years (after the firft yearj you '(hall beftow no labour upon this 
ground, more than plowing, fowing, hacking, and harrowing 
at Seed-time only. 

But to proceed to*thc orderly labour of this ground, after you L^'^our after 
havefown your Rye, you flnll then harrpw it again, clot it, ^°^'^"S« 
fmoothit, and fleightit, as was before (hewed in the fecond . ^.n-rr 
Chapter of this, Book. And although a man would imiginethat 
the fandy loofnefs of this Soil, vyould not need much clotting 
or flcightingof the Earth, yet jayjeaGip of the mixture therjC- 
of with the Marie and Manure, it' will fo hp'd and cleave toge- 
ther, that it will a^kgpod liron^ Ubpur to loofen it,' a^d lay^it 
fo hollow and.fraoothj as^n .fight it flipuld be. • /''"j _' 

F 2 ■ ' "tdiicii- 

38 Sdnds over -run Book 2. 

^k'ccdiDg. Touching the Weeds which are moft fubjea to th:s S^il, they 

arc Thirties and young Brakes, or Ferns, \vhich will grow up 
within the Com, which, before they rife fo high as the Corn,3ncl 
cvtn as it were at the hrft appearing, yoamuit with yotu wood- 
den Nippers pull up by the roots, and after take up and Uy in 
fome convenient place where the; may wither and ro:. and io 
turn CO good Manure. 


Of the Flcttingy liling, Ordsring^ a->id Enriching f aX bar- 
Tin Sifids^ trkiih jrc Isdin j^td rzf y.-: wnb 
Jiviicb^-'- l-f-'.'ld Bnar. 


Aving Written futficiently of this hard and wrren, wjfi«, 
wildjfandy t:round, which i? ovcr-raa with BTakcn^Fem, 
Heath, and fuch like. I will now proceed, and unto it joyn an- 
other Sand which is much more barren, and that is the Sand 
that bringeih forth nothing but wild Twitch, Bryars, Thoro- 
balh, and fuch like under-growth, of young irilliking wood, 
which never would rife or come toprohr. the biiter cold drinefs 
of the earth wherein it growcih, and the fnarp fiornriS to which 
the Clime is contia.ually fub eel boih day and ntght, blifiing it 
in fuch marjicr, that nothing cppearcth but li.rvcd, withered, 
and utterly unprohrablcburthens.good hor nothing but the lire, 
and that in a very limple fort. Such grounds if you be Maftcr 
of, and would reduce it to pront and fruitfulnefe, you fliill 
tirft with hooks, or axes cut up the upper-growth thereof, that 
is, the bu(hes, young Trees, and fuch liktithe- you (hall alfu ftub 
up the Rontf, nor leaving any p-rt of them behind in the canh, 
carrying away both home to yourhojfc to be employed ei- 
ther for fuel, or the mending of the hedges, or fuch like,as you 
Dcftroying 'of (hall have occafion j this done, you (hall take a pair of ftrong 
Twitch and Jj-q^ harrows, and with them ycu thill harrow over all the 
^"' earth, tearing up all the Twitch, Bryars, and rough grafs fo 

by the roots, that not any part but the bare earth may be feen i 
and when ycur Harrows arc cloyed, you ihall unlade them in 
fcvcral places of the ground, laying all fuch rubbilh of weeds, 
and Other fturt' which the Harrows (ball gather up in aii«le 


Book 2. with Twitch Bryars^Scz* 


round hill clofe up together, that they may fweat, wither and 
dry i then fpreading them abroad, and mixing them well with 
drylkaw, burn ihcm all over the ground, leaving no part of 
the weeds or thegrafs unconfumed ,thcn, without beating in of 
the alhes, you fhall prefently plow the ground all over very 
clean as may be, laying il e lurrows as clofc as you csn to crc 
another,and leaving no earth ^ntoucht or untorn up with the 
plough i which done, you (hall immediately hack h mto fmall 
pieces, and as you hack it, you (hall have idle Boys to go by the 
hackers, to gather away all the roots which they (hall loolen 
or break from the mouId,and hying them on heaps on the worfi 
pait of the ground, they ihalhhere burn them, and fprcad the 
alhes thereon i after your ground is thus harrowed,plowed and 
backt, you (hall then muckir, as was formerly fliewed in the 
fix^h Chapter i thenlhall you fandit, lime it, and manure it 
as before- fiid. 

Now of Manures, which are moft proper for this Soil, you Manure^:- 
fl-ial! under(hnd,:hat either Cxe,or Horfe-manurc, r9tten draw, 
orthefcouringof Yardsisvery good, provided that with any 
of thcfe Manur-es, or all thefe Manures, you mix the broad-leU- 
vQ d weeds, and other green weeds, whi^h do grow in Ditches, 
Brooks, Ponds, or Lakes, under Willaw-trecs, which vvithan 
Ifon Rake, Drag, or fuch like Inlhument, you may eafily draw 
upon the Banks,and fo carry it to your Land, and there mingle 
it with the other manure, and fo let it rot in the ground y this 
Manure thus mixed is of all other mo(^ exceHent for this Soil, 1 ' 

both by the experience of the Antients who have left it unto me- < 

mory, as alfo by daily pradlife now ufed in fundry parts of this 
Kingdom, as well bccaufc ofthe temperate coolncfs thereof, 
which in a kindly manner alTwages the lime and fand, as alfo 
through moi(iLire, which dilVilling through thofe warm Soils, 
doth quicken the cold liar ve d earth, and giveth a wonderful 
cncreafetotheSced, that (hall be thrown into the fame. 

After your ground is thus fufficiently drcft with thefe Soils Harrowing, 
and Manures, you (hall then plow it again the fecond time, and other U* ■ 
which would be after Michaelm^ i after the plowing you (halV ^*^'**^ 
then hack it again, and be furc to mix the earth and thenaanures ,, 

very well together, then you (hall break it in gentle manner ';- . ,^ ^f 

with >i ' **/ 

4' Grouxdsai'er-runwith Boak ^' 

with youi Harrowc, and then fowc it i which don:, yoa (hajl 
hirrowit much more pair-fully, and not leaving any clofs or 
hard iurth unbroken that the Harrow can pul! in pice? : as 
touching the Seed, which is littelt for this earth, itisthcfame 
that is fpokcn ot' in the next foregoing Chapter \ as namely, the 
"bsli Rye, or the befi NLilin, which is Rye and Wheat equally 
n.ixc together v or it' there be two pans Rye, and but one Wiiear, 
the S^ed will be forr.uch the more certain and fure holding , 
and tliis Seed you may (owe on this ground shree years toge- 
ther i thjn Barley, then O^t?, and ^o t)rth,is is formjrly writ 
of the grounds foregoing. After yo.:r ground ii fo wn and har- 
rowed, you (hall :hc-n clot i*-. Height ir, and Gnooth it as you 
did the other ground before, and then laftly with your bick 
Hiirows ' that is, with a piir of Hirrov5,thc teeth turned up- 
ward from the ground, and the back of the Hirrow next unto 
the ground, you fnall run over all the ground, and gather from 
the lame all the locf, Grafs. Twitch,or other Weeds that ftiall 
any ways be ra fed up, and the faUie fo gathered you ihall lay 
at tlie Lafids ends in heaps, either to rot tor manure,or elfe at the 
linric cf the year to be burnt for alhes, and fprinkled on the 
earth the next Seed year. 

Larrly,toudiing the weeding of this Soi^, you (hall under- 
frand the Weeds which are molt incident ih.rcunto, are all the 
Hireyou rirft wentabcutto dcibroyi as namely, Tw.tch, rough 
•vi.d Grais, and young woody under-grcwth>belidcs, Thiftlc<:, 
Hare-boftlcs,ar.d Gyplic-t'.oweTSitherctorc you (lull have a great 
c:re at the hrll appearance of the Corn, to fee what Weeds arife 
with it tor thele weeds are ever fully as hat\y as the Corn J and 
asfoon as you fee them appear, bo.h your fclf and your people 
vfith yvurhand fliallpull them up by the rcots, and (^) weed 
your laud :i% you would weed a Garden, or Woad ground. Now 
it at this firti weeding Cwhich will beat the latter Spring, com- 
monly called AOc/>-i^/mj*, or the winter Spring^ you happen to 
omit and let f-'me weeds pafs your hands unpullcd up f which 
very- well may chance info great a work ; you (hall then the 
' Spiibgnext tbljowiri^ ', feeing theraashigh, cr peracj venture 
hii; .^r than the Corn) widi your woodd^n nippers pull them 
up by tke roots from the grouod, and ^o ufi them a.way. 


"Book 2. Twitch ar I rili-Bryxr. ^i 

As touching the cutting thcra up clofe by ^\t ground with or- 
dinary weed-hooks, 1 do in no foit allow it i toi thcfc kind of 
weeds are fo apt to grow, and alio lo IWift in growth, that if 
you cut them never ib clofe in the Spring, yet they will again 
over-mount the Corn before Harveli^and by reafon of their grcat- 
ncfs, toughnefs, and much hardnefs,. choak and lUy much Coin 
that {hall grow about thcm> and therefore by all means y.oui 
{bill pull thefe weeds up by the roots whilU tiicy aictend:r (if. 
poilibleyoucan) or othcrvvife in their Ihongcii growth, fith 
tlieir furterance brcedeth great lofs and deftruition, 

C H A P. I X. 

Of their FlowiMg^ I'l^ingi Ordering^ and Eriri hhtg ofJl bar- 
ren Sands J which are over-run with Moors^ or mojrilh 
jiinking ii»g Grafs* 

UNto thefe foregoing barren Sands, of which I have alrea- 
dy written, I will lartly )oyn this h\x barren faad, being of 
all earths, whether Clay or Sand, the moll: b;rren. ^nd that is 
that rilthy, black, mooriOi Sand which bearcth nothing but 
ftinkingputriried Grafs o: Mofs,or Mo s and Grafsmixed toge- ~ 
ther, to which not any Beaft or Cattle, how courfly or hardly 
bred foever, will at any time lay their mouths •» and this kind of 
ground alfo is very much fubj-dto mirlhes and q jagmires, of 
which that which is covered with Mofs or Grafs, is the worit, 
and that which is tufted above with Ru(hes, the bel\,and foon- 
elt reduced unto goodnefs: In brief, all thefe kind of grounds 
generally are extremely mcift and cold, the fuperabundancc 
whereot is theoccalion of theinrinitcfterility and barrennefs of 
the fuTie. 

And mereforehe that is Marter of fuch unprofitable Earthj. 
ana would have it brought to fomeprolit or goodnefs, (lull: 
Hrlt coniider the fcituation of the Ground, as whether it lie 
high Of low i for fome of thefe marilh grounds lie low in the 
Valleys, fomeon the Cdcsof Hills,, and fome on the tops of 
Mountains : then, whether the much moiftnefs thereof be fed 
by River, La];e , or Spring, whofe veins not having currant 
pailigethrough, or upon the earth, fpreads look'ngly over all. 


4* Moorijb S/wds. Book 2. 

the face thereof, and Co rotting rhs mould with too much wet, 
makes it not on?y unpalTab!-, bjt alfo u:tcr}y unprofitable tor 
any gcxxl burthen. 
Grounds foe Now if you nrrd thit this marilh Earth lie in the bottom 
<Fiib-poo(b. q( \^y^^ Valleys, as it were guarded about with Hill, or higher 
grounds, fo that be fides thw tceding of certain Springs, Lakcs,or 
Rivers, every ihowerof rain or falling ct water from higher 
grounds br in geth to thefe an extraordinar)* moilture to main- 
tsin the rottennefe, in this cafe this ground is paft cure for graft 
cr Corn, and would only be converted, and made into a fi(h- 
pond, for the breeding and tied in g of fifh, being a thing no 
lets prohtable to the Husbandman for keeping his houfe, and 
furr.ifhing the Markets, than the beft Corn-lands he hath i and 
therefcrs when he maketh any fuch Pond, he (hall hrft raifc up 
the head thereof in the narrowert part of the ground, and this 
head, by driving in offtakes, and piles of tough and hard wocd, 
as Elm. Oak, and fuch like, and by ramming in of the earth hard 
between them, and fadding ihem fo faft that the mould can by 
no means be wom down, or undermined with the water, he 
(hall bring it to as nrm earth as is pollible, and in the midft cf 
this head he fliall place a (luce or Rood-gate made of found and 
clean Oak timber, and plancks, through which at any time to 
drain the Pond when occahon (hallfervei and this done, yen 
fr-all dig the Pc nd of fuch depth, as the earth conveniently will 
bear, and cafiingthe earth upon either fide, ynu (hall m.akc the 
Banks as large and firong as the ground requireth s then if any 
Spring which did betcre lecd the earth be left cut of iheccm- 
pafs of the Pond ' b:c2nfe it lieth rco high to be brctJght in^ 
then (hall you by drawing gutters or drains from the Spring 
down to the pond, bring all ibc waters of the fprings into the 
Pond, and fo continually feed it with frefh and fwcet water. 
Then timing it wiihh(h of -beft eil: cm;, asOrp, Tf^cfc, Beamy 
Ffo/cb, and iuch like, and keeping it from weeds, tilth and ver- 
inine,iherc is no doubt of the daily profit. 

But ifthismarilhand !cw ground, though it He low.andhave 
many fprings falling upon it, yet it licth not fo extreme low 
but that there is U^me Rrvei or dry Ditches bordering upon 
it, whici lie in a little lower dcfccnt, tb that except in cafe cf 

in on- 

Booji 2.. Grounds for Fijhfonds, 4.9 

inundation, the river and ditches are free from the moiPture 
ofthis ground, but where there ii any over-flowing of waters, 
there this mar(h ground mult needs be drowned \ in this eafe, 
this ground can hardly be made for Corn, becaufe every over-- 
flow putteth the Grain in danger, yet may it be well conver- 
ted to excellentpafture or meadow, by Hading out ihe heads .of 
the Springs, and by opening and cleanllng them,and then draw- 
ing from thofe cleanfed heads, narrow drains or furtowSjthrough 
which the waters may pafs to the neighbours ditches, and fo be 
conveyed down to the low Rivers : leaving all the reft of the 
gr®und dry, and futTering no moifmres to pifs, bu: what goeth 
through theie fmall deep Channels;, then as foon as Summer 
commcth,and the ground begins to harden, it you'i fee any of 
the ^^ater ftandinany part of the ground, you (hiU forthwith 
mend the drain, and hdp the water to pafs away s which done, 
C as the ground hardncth ) you ihiU with hacks and fpades lay 
the fwarth fmooth and plain , and as early in the, as yoti^ 
can conveniently, you (lull Tow upon the ground good Hore of 
Ha)'-feeJs, and ifalfo you do manure it with the rotten Saddles 
or bottoms of hay.ftacks, it will be miuch the b:tter, and this 
fiaddle you fhall not fprcad very thick, but rather of a reafona- 
ble ihinnefs , that it may the fooner rot and confume upon the 
fame. ^ •;,..•..... 

Butif this marth and filthy grou9d do notlye fo low as the(d Draining of 
low valleys, but rather againit the tops of hills i you (hall then, ^^"g«"oyn<is. 
rirll open the heads ofall the fprings you can had, and by feve- 
ral drains or fluccs, draw all the water into one drain , and 
fo carry it away into fome neighbouring ditch and valley \ and 
thefe drains you ihall make of a good depth, as at leafi two foot, 
or 2 foot and a half, or more, ifneed require.and then crofs-wi(e 
every way ovcrthwart the ground, you ihall draw more lliallow 
furrows, all which fhiU fall into the former deep drains , and 
fo make the ground as condant, and tirm as maybe : then ha- 
ving an intent to imploy it for corn, you ihall bring your Plow 
into the ground, being a very ftrong one, and not much dirtc- 
ring in Timber-work, or Irons from that which turncth up the 
Chy-grounds, and laying before the Plow long waddes,or rouls 
of the firaw of Lupins, Peafe, or elfc Fetches, 'but Lupins is 

G the 

4^ Drayning of Book 2. 

the beft; you (hall turn th- fttrTCNVs of the earth with the plow 
iipon the wades, and fo cover or bury them in the mould, and 
thus do unto every furrow, or at leaft unto mof^ of the furrows 
you turn up, and fo let it lye a little time to rot, as by the fpacc 
cfa fortnight or three weeks, in which fpace, if the qround re- 
ceive not rain and moifture enough to rot the Itraw thus for- 
rr^rly buried, you (hall theu by flopping the drains, making 
the Spring? over-flow, gently wafh the ground all over and no 
nK)re,and then pre(cntly drain it again > which done,as foon as 
the earth is dry, you fhall hack k, and break it into (mall pieces, 
and then you (hall alfo fand it, lime it, and manure it. 

And laftly, you fcall Marl it, but if no fait fand be to be had, 
then inficad of it you (hal! chalk if, yet of all the reft you (hall 
take the leaA part of chalk. 

This done, about the latter end of July you (hall plow up the 
ground again with fomewhat a better and deeper flitch thaiv 
you did before, that if any of the itraw be unrottcd, or uncon- 
iusned, it may again be raifed up with the new moyft earth,and 
fo made to wafce more fpcedily •, and if at this (econd carry- 
ing you do fee any great hard clots to rife, then with your hacks 
you (hall break thofe hard clots in pieces, laying the Land clean 
without clots, weeds, or any other annoyance, and fo let it reft 
till Odobcr, at which time you (hall plough it over again,hack it, 
harrow it,3nd then fow it with the bcft Seed- wheats for this foyl 
ihus dreft and manured, albeit it be of all other the mo(* bar- 
ren, yet by reafon of this moyllurc, which at pleafure may be 
put to it, or taken frcm it, and the mixture of thefe comfor- 
table foyles and comports, it is made as good and fruitful a? 
any earth what foever, and will bear Wheat abundantly for the 
fpace of three years together , then good Barley the fourth 
year, with a little help of a Sheep-fold, or Shceps manure : 
then Rye the hfth years Oats the fixth, thefeventh and eighth 
years s fmall Peafe the ninth year v good meadow or palUire 
three years following, and then lobe new dreft again, as before- 

Now as foon as your Seed-Wheat is fown, you (hall then 
WKTov-ing- harrow the ground again, and be fure to cover the Wheat both 
deep and clofci as for tl*e dot^^^which lliall arife from this foyl,, 

Book 2. wet GroitTtds, ^^ 

it (hall not natter whether you break t^^eni or no, for by rcafon 
ofthcirmoifturejthey will be plyantand cafic for the Wheat to 
pafs through, fo that you (hall net care how rough your land 
lye, fo it lyc clean, and the Corn well covereci \ but for all o- 
ther feeds, you (hall break the clots to duft, and lay the land as 
fmooth as may be. , ' 

Now for the weeding of this foyl, you will not be much trou- WcediM. 
bled therewith, becaufe this ground naturally of its own accord 
putteth forth no weeds,morc than thofe which are ingendred 
by the new made fruitfulnefs thereof, and thofe weeds tor the 
mofl part are a kind of fmall fcdge,or hollow retdi any of which 
if you fee appear, or with them any other kind of wccd,you Ihall 
at the Hrft appearance, either pull them up by the roots with your 
woodden nipper3,or clfc cut them clofe by the ground with your 


A general way for the enriching of any p&or arable gronrJ^ 

either Clay or Sand^ rpitb lefs charge than 


F the former demon (irations and inftrudtions which 1 have 
fhewed thee, appear neither too difficult, or too colrly ffor 
now Ifpeak to theephin,limple,pcor Husbandmawjand yet thou 
art matter of none but barren earth, then thou (ha't by thine 
own induftry,ortheindurtry of thy Children, Scrvants,and fuch 
like , or by contradting with Taylors, Botchers, or any poor *^Sgsof 
people that will defervea penny, gather up, get or buy all the ''^^^^^^ cloth* 
rags, (hrcds, old bafe pieces ot woollen cloth whatfocver, which 
are onely caft , and fit for nothing but the Dung-hill, and of 
tiefe thou canllcompafs but a fackfull, or a fackfull and a half, 
it is fufficient for t!ie drelfing of an acre of arable ground. Thele 
(hredsand ragsftornfmalljor hackt and hewed intofnall pieces 
or bits, thou flialt thinly fpread over the land before fallowing 
time, then coming to fallow , plough them all into the ground, 
&bcfure to cover them, then giveyour land the reft of itsardors, 
asfiirring, foyling, ridging, Sec. in their due feafons,and after an 
husbandly manner: then when you come to f^ w it,you (hill take 

G 2 the 


/^ " A^oorjjb SMJids. Book 24 

^eepikg rf ihc llimic thick "water ^hich cormcrt^ firom 'dartg-hills, or for 
fecrfcorm. vr>r ' i:cT in whidi Cow-dung hath been fieeped, and 

ther- ^ fttcp your fecd-ccrn ^ that is to fay , it it be 

biile)', you ihall (ircp if for the fpicc of thirty fix hours,or there- 
abouts, if jr be Wheat, but eighteen hours^and if it be Pea fc, but 
Or any prCft. twelve hourr, tcr Rye, cr OitSjHCt at 2II; and the feed thus ?^c^ 
cd, voi ftiailfow it atceiding to good Husbandry, and there is 
TiO do-btof wonderful! increafe. 

There be ethers which take the Seed-corn, and fteeping it in 
gc-cd f:ore of Cow-dars. and v^ atcr. ftir all togethtr for sn hour 
in the iroicing, aixj an hcur at right, and thcti being (etled, 
drain the water trcm the feed and the dung, and the next morn- 
ing fow the com -ind the dung boch together en the land, being 
furecot to feint the Land cfSccdjind no doubt the increaf: \\'A\ 
be wccderfull. 

Nowif thiscannct be conveniently done, or that you uant 
dung, if then you rzke crdinsry water, and therein ftecp your 
feed, it isgood-a.'ib- andeipedally fot barley, and is appiove dl h-; 
daily experience* •• .■ 

Shinngs of ^'^^ r-c^v n- e-thicks, I hear the poor man <ay, that here is^ 
Bora. butCEe acredrcii, and that isa fn^allprcpoition v to this I an- 

fwcr. If thou htzd able but to drefscne acre with rhcfc woollen 
rages , thou ihait then fearch among the HDrncr?, Tanner?, 
Lanthcrn-nr>akers, and fuch hke^ and get a\\ the waft fl^a rings 
of horn which thru carft poUib'y corr.pafs . as befoje of -the 
rags, fo ofthefe 1 f:ck and a half, or two fack? will dref? an a- 
crc: thele fnaving? 'which are indeed good for no other ufe you 
{hall frstter irpoa the 'and as yru did the rags, then plow ihein 
ID after the fame manner, fo order the ercund. lolbw. and ^f^r^fe 

ii cr ftrcp the feed, and '^e inac; ' j 

v^ - : great: Thcfe manure ....... v^ars v,;: .....'. 

Hcnfcofcit- jenewiag, Nowif nfrheieyoHcannot get fjfticient totrima 

your .^ ' ' • • ' ■ ■ Btcheis, S«'^f--'.vo- 

rr.en, ■ ^ -. - like > andfrv>ni th<!^ 

ycu ihall get an thehf)ots you can, «thcf>of Oxe, Cow. or- B«fl, 

.C-^" ■'■ ^ ' '..Deer.'"" -' ,• ' .tchcweth 

t; . mdceJ. 7'.Ti''» nt- 

tiintiycaiiawaytoihcdungjiiii, asidcfpikd: Ani tiicfc hofe- 

Book 2( x}Ioorijb Sa/jds. ^j 

youfliaU cut and l^vv into fmall pieces, and fcatter thick upon 
your land at fallowing time, then plow them in, as forefaid, and 
do in all with the other manures already recited, and fo 
flecp your feed, and thcr^ c?i,iinoi be a greater inricher of arable - ,, . 
ground whatfoeyer^vi.n v , \ ^ . 

Now ifall thefe wilf not yet compoft your hnd ,. you \\\i\\ 
then fee what fope-afhes you can get, or buy, for of all manures 
there is none more excellent, for bclldes,ir giveth an exceeding 
firength and fatncfs to the Land i it alfo killeth all manner oi 
weeds, great and fmall, as Broom, Gorfc, \Vhinncs,and the like, 
andjit killexh all Himner of \Vormsy& venemouseteepingthingsi ^'i^ jl^M -jo 
it is excellent for Woad,8cthe ground renewed yearlytherewiih, of Woad; 
may be fown continually : Thcfe fope-aOies mull be laid on the 
Land after falbwing,and then Airrcd in \ two load thereof will 
ferve to drefs an acre : when it is ht for (ced, th,: feed nr^uft be 
ftccpt as aforefa-id,and then fowp,and ^be iccreafe will quit the 
charge; manifold. Thefe Ibpc-afbes are alio excellent good for i ; . -;- Jj^i 
Hemp, and Flax, being thinly fown upon the Land, after it is Theei^n^lh| 
plowed, and immediately before the Seed be fown ; but if you o* ordinary 
have more Land to drefs, then you mu.'r make ufe of your own ""^'^'^^* 
ordinary manure , as is Oxe-dung, Horfc-dung, and the Lk.% 
"which that you may make richer and lirongcr than other.wifc dt" 
its own nature it would be, you fnall caufe contiraully to be .'5obx)IdlO 
thrown upon it, all your powdrcd beef broth, and all otherfsh: .?'* 

broths or brines , which (hall grow or breed in your hoafe'ii 
alfo all manner of foap fudds, or other fudds , and walhing-, 
which ("hall proceed trom the Laundery , and this wil; fo 
tirengthcn and enrich your manure, that every bad fluU he 
.worth hvc of that which wantcth this help. Thijre be diveiis 
other manures, which do wonderfully, enricli aiid fatten all 
manner of barren grounds, as namely, the hair of beafrs hides, The hair>; ot 
Cwhichfor the moll p^rr, Tanners and Glovers do calt away,; '^^^^'^ '•'''' '" 
thisthinly fpreadon the Land, and plowed in, brings every .,. 

year a fruittuU crop» Again, if Braken,or Fern be hyed a foot ^^'"'^^' 
thick upon the earth , and thena layer of earth upon it, then a- 
nother layer of braken , and a layer of earth upon it, then a- 
notheilayer of braKcn, and another layer of earth, and fo lay- 
er upon layer, till the heap be as bigg as y u intend it, and fo 
lef^to rotall the Winter following, there cannot be a better 

^8 t^<f^ to Enrtch Book 2 

maaure for any arable giound , for you (hall underftand, that thr 
earth will fo rot the braken, and the bnkcn fo foak into the 
earth, that they will beconric both one rich fubftance. And 
To rot dang herein you ihall note, that whenfoevcr you vroukl have a»y 
^ckly. fubfiancc fof whatconditicn foever) quicWy to rot, and tura 

to manure, that the only way is, to mix it with caf th, and that 
will in (hort fpace bring it to rottennels. Now this brakcn and 
earth thus rotted, you (hall lay upon your land as you d« your 
ordinary dung of Cattc],and then fow your feed being fteept as 
Of Malt-duA. Next, your Mak-duft, which is the fprout , come, fmy- 
tham, and their excrements of the Malt, as an excellent mannrc 
for arable land, allowing three quarters thereof for an acre, and 
ftrowing it upon the land after it is plowed, and ready to be 
Of Rotten There isanother manure which albeit it is not plentifull cTcry 

Pilchcrsand where, yet in (bme places iti«;, 2nd not inferior to any manure 
garbage. before fpokcn of, and that is your rotten Pilchers after the oyl '^s 

taken from them, 6c the circalTescaft to the dungill, this laid on 
the land, and plowed in, bringcth Corn in great abundances and 
no Icfs doth tlie carcaflTcs, and garbage of all kind of fifh what- 
focver, cfpccially of fca-tiOi. 
Of blood of- Laftlvjthe blcod entrails, and oJfall of any bcart,isan excellent 
fcls. manure of any kind of grain, plant, ot tree, but eipccially for 

the Vine, for to it there is no nourill^ment of greater t~orce or ef- 
ficacy : alfo, if this blood be tempered with lirre, it is exceeding 
comfortable for grain, and dertroyeth worms, and other creeping 
thing5,which hurt Corn,only it muft not beapplycd prefently, 
but futfcred for a little time to rot,leri the too much hear there- 
of might fcorcli and do hurt to the root of the Com : this ma- 
nure is tnbe hid on the earth when you fow if,& fow the ^^^6^ 
and it harrowed or plowed in together v which done, after the 
order of good workmanlhip, there is no doubt of fhecncreafe. 


Book 2. rough vpfyj(Uy Grounds, 4^ 

CHAP. 11, 

Ho»-to Enrich for Corn^ any barren^rougb^ wooddy ground^ 
being nevcly flubbed up, 

IF you havs any barren wooddy ground, which is newly ftub- ''%^ 
bed up, and that you would convert it to arable, you (hall 
then take a great quantity of the underwood, or worli bru(h 
wood which was cut from the fame, and in the mort convenient 
place in the field, as in the mid ft, or near thereabout, you (hall 
frame it into a broad hollow pile, and then cover it all over 
with great fodds of earths which done,fet Hre on ir,and leave no 
part thereof ( cither wood or earth) unburnt, then take thofc 
a(hes and fpread them all over the field, fo far forth as you Wood aflies* 
mean to plough up, then with a good ftrong plough fallow the 
ground as deep as you can, and fo let it reft till it be alraoft 
hL^j then take either Fern, Stubble, Straw, Heath, Furrs>Sedgc, 
bean ftalks, or any other waft growth,take I fay,eith(.r any one, ^^^^ of Fern. 
or more of thefe, or altogether, as you ftand polTeft of them,and Straw, 8kc. 
bum them to afhes, and therewith cover your land the fecond 
time, and then in fummer ftirr it within a Month, after foyl 
it, then at the beginning of OCiober^ or a little before, plough it 
again, and fow it with Rye the tirft crop, and you (hall fee the 
increafe will b: very plentiful! i the next year you may fow it 
with Wheat, the third year with Barley, the fourth year with 
Pcafe, Lupins, Fetches, or any other pulfe, and then begin with 
Wheatagains for itis credibly faid, that this manner of drelling 
thefe barren, wooddy grounds,(halI maintain and keep the earth 
in good heart, and ftrength in the worft pbces, for thefpacc of 
four years, in that which is in any thing reafonable for the fpace 
of fix years, and where there is any fmall touch of fertility, for 
the fpace of ilxteen years, of which there are daily experiences in 
Frj«ff,about the Forreli of ylrderh^nd fome with us here in E«(^- 
/iia^j in> many wooddy plicis. 


«^o Horv to tnnch Book i. 


77;f vuniUT of reducing and bri>igi}7g into tijeir jirtt ^'rftdhH jS 

forts of^iUJidt^ nrbich hr^e been over-jbwei^or fpeiUd by 

fjlt-rv2ter^ or the Sej-hreach, either arshle erfjjlare^ 

a j!f> tbe enriching^ rr bitterhig of tbefjme, 

THcre is notliiug more: hard orditiicult in alj the art ofhus- 
bin dry , then this point ot which I aninowto intrcatias 

of mis Ubour. ^^jj^^jy^ jj^^ reducing and bringing unto thc.r hrii perfedion all 
forrs of ground?, which have b;2en ov^r- flowed, or elfe fpoiied 
by tiie Sea-bieach, and bringing in ot too great abundance of 
falt-warer, which to fome.mcn oriirthcxpensnce^nd tree from 
thofe dangerous trcublcs,T"nay appear a matrcr very fleighr, and 

J-XF"^" the wound moli cali: ivA carable i and the rather, becauL* in all 
my tbrn^es relations, and dcmonluations, touching the bettcriog 
of ever fcueral fort of ground, I do app]y,2S one of m, ' ' 
ingcedicnts, t)r ilmplcs, by wi^ich to cure Barrmnefs, S - 

.ruilo e>fi - Cil^-^'^^^ds, fait- water, fi!:-brinc, ALhes, Lirur, Chilk,and nriao:^' 
0* .w»i7: other things of fait natur:, as indeed all the manures and marlc«: 
whatfocver, cnuft cither have a fait quality in thenn , or they 
cannot produce fiuitfulnefs, fo that to argue limply from natu- 
ral reafoni If fait be theoccaficm of fruittlilnefs, and iiKrcat. 
then there cannot bi- much hurt done by thcfe over-flowcs c t 
ths filt-wrter , that it fhauld rather add a fattening and 
enriching to the ground , then any way to impoveriih it , and 
make it incapable of growth or bunhen. Eut cxperience,r which 
is the bilt Mii'rrefst ihews us the contrary, and there is nothing 
more Doifome and pclUlcnt to the earth, then the fuper-abun- 
Tlic vices dance,' and too great cxcefscf fa Itnefs*, for according to our old 

frr!'^^^i!'^^ ProvcTb, oiomne nimium^ that too much of every thing is viri- 
ous, as we fee in the Itate of man's body, that your ftrongeft 
pr yfuns, as Atttimovy^ or Stihntm^ Colaqnintidj^ BJmhsrh^znd. the 
iikctakcn in a moderate rruarure,arealmoft heal thfull,3ndexpell 
thofc milignant qualities which ofjcnd the body, and occa- 
fion licknefs > but taken in the Icaft exccfs that can be dcvifed , 
thcvthen ''out of rluir riiious and naughty qualitie<;J do fud- 
Jenly and violently d:llroy all heat , and bring upon the 


from Silt. 

Book 2. deducing Grou/tds to perfection. 51 

body inevitable death, and mortality i fois it with this matter 

of fait, and the body ot the earth , tor as by the moderate di- 

ftributing thereot, it corrcdlcth all barren qualities, dilrerfeth 

cold, and naughty vapours, and yicldeth a kind of tatncTs and 

truitUilnels, whereby the Seed is made more apt toQprouf, and 

the ^oand more itrong or able to cherilli the lame, till it come to 

pcrfcdion, through the (harp, warm, and difperling quality The ahufeof 

thereof, fo being bellowed in too great abundance and cxeefs, ^-I't iiicxccfj. 

whereby the eartn is furftitwd, and as it were overcome, and 

drowned up with too much of this natural goodncfs, and 

helpful quality, then all his proper vertues turn to egregious 

vices, as his wlolfi-me Iharpnefs to a fretting, gnawing, and 

delhoying greedinels, his comfortable warmncfs to a confu- 

mingand wafting rierinefs, and his gcntlcnefsia difperling toan 

inicdiousand venemous pollution, by the joynt qualities of all 

vvhicii together, tiieground is made neither ht to receive any 

thing from the hand ot the Husbandman, nor yet to produce 

or bring forth any ot it felf, becaiife every good quality is abu- 

fcd or expelled, and nothing but unnaturulnefs , and (tcrility 

Ictt, which like a Serpent lodgcth in the ground,and will fuffer 

no good thing to have focicty with it ; And thcfe are thcetfccfs 

and milchiets which are occafioned by thcfc S. a- breaches, or 

inundations of the fait- water. 

It is certain, that although in the fait marflus, where the Sea Offaltraode- 
cometh in at certain times, and only walbcth or fprinklech "^'•''X ^^^d. 
the ground all over, and lb departetli, there is neither want of 
grals, nor yetcomp'aint of any evil quility in the grafs •, yet 
it is moft certain, that noovcrtlow of Sa!t-watcr,how little or 
moderate foe ver, can be truly Did to be w!-io'G)m for any kind Noovcri^ow 
of grafs-ground wharfoevcr "> for grafs is compoinulcd oi an in- of fjJr warer 
hnitewo^rld of plants and llmplc's and mo(h)l tiicm of leve- S°°'^-^'"S"'*- 
ral nafurts and qualities, fo that it it ;i;ive nour'lhment to one, 
yet it may dcltroy ten ■-, neither do I tind it by auy o\ the An- 
ricnrs, limply and properly applied untothi. grafs grounds, but 
rirfr unto the arable, in 'vhich having fpent itsprimary, or tirfi 
Urcngrh upon the fted-Cwinch isa ercat and greed/ dcvourer.or 
eater upol the Itrength, and tatnclsot the earth) it then pre- 
pares and makes the ground ir.orc able and lit to brin^ 

H foitU 

52 /\:d:::h:gGrou7iJis to perfection. Book 2. 

Tlvcgroiu;^ forth grafs, and that of the bsft and hncft kind : for although 
i^^ »hc Malicrsof ihc Silt-marfhcs find a lint^ular and lire prune 
in thofe grounds for the feeding, breeding, taiting, ar.d fuHain- 
iog of ihur great Hocks ot Snccp \ which upon thclc Salt 
ground?, they lay they will uerer ro: or peri(h by that univcrfal 
Diffai'c i yet ihcy mufi not irr.pute it to the great quantity^ood- 
nefSjOr any growih in the grals, bur to the fait which they lick 
up in thegra(s,and to thefalt quality of the gra(s,which is not 
only an Antidote or prefervative againfi that noyfom and 
peliiiCT.t OTiOrtalit)', but alfo a delightful and plcalant tood 
wherein thofc Cattle take more contentment than in any o- 
ther thing whatfoever •, foihat 1 rouii ncccfiarily refi upon this 
Conclufion, that as more moderate walliing and overfiuwing of 
Silt-waters arc no certain or particular great helps uniografs- 
grounds,efpecially if they be applied thtieunro,and tothatpur- 
pofe limply at ihe rirft, wiihcut any other preparative or wor- 
king by a former means, 2s by tilbge, digging, delving, or the 
A truccaufc like v lb the exceeding great Inundation, or Sea-breaches which 
«f barramcfs. jj^ y^^ foaking and linking into the earth, muft needs be a 
certiin infallible , and almoft incurable caufe of barrenncfs, 
eating, fpoilin^, and the very roots ol all man- 
ner of plants, trees, and growths , by which the ground is 
Wncrcr.i:i made uxierly incapable of generation or bringing toith : and 
f""'*^??^ ^ therefore where thefe great inundaiions or over-llowings can- 
"^^""^ not be either prevented or avoided, but as the feafons of the 
year, they do and muft hold their ccurfes s there I would not. 
wifhauyman tobeftow cither hi; labour or his colt, for it is 
lofsof timfpnd lofs of fubftance :but where it is tc be prevented 
^*2j^"^ or avoided by induirry, or that ihofe over-flowing or Sca- 
^""^ ' breaches a^me and happen by cafua^y or cither by the 
upna^uralnefs and fuperabundance of Tides being driven in by 
the violence and imperuoufncfs cf outragious winds, or by any 
ncgkd or breach in the Sea-walL cr other miihaps 1 1 the lik. 
rat^are, which hspneth feme tines fcarce once in an the 
rr.oll not above once or twice in many years \ in theli: cafcs there 
is iT»oft certain rewcdy, and the ground fo fpoikdand wafted, 
mavbvatrar.d indufiry be acain reduced and bioug'n to the 
fcr.Ler peifudi<:n and ^:dne£5 > nay.mmy nmes aciesiicd and 


Book 2. overjloivedby Sdt'ivater. j:^ 

freed from many faults and fierilc qinlities, towhichic was ei- 
ther naturaVy addid^d, or clfcby chance and accident gie^v 
thereunto, by contuiu.M vveiiingand in^ployment without reft 
or retrclhing, by theartiticial means ot wholfi^m manures, or 
other ftrcngthningq which ought to be applied before thofe 
faults grow in extremities. 

Now touching the cure of thefe grounds which are th-JS worn 
out, decayed and mide barren by thefe inundati<^ns of Salt- 
water, ihcownfr thereof is Hrft to draw into his co;;fiaerition, 
that as the malignity and evil qualify of the eirtii is grown 
by too much fretting, gnawing, and waging of the Sa!t, fo it 
mull be allayed and qualiried by a quite contrary condition 
which is freflmcG : the contrary then to Saltr water, muli ofnc- ofthrcurc"*" 
ccffitybcfrefh-water, fo that you are to cali about your judg- 
mcnt,and by the view,!ituation,and kvel of the ground (which one contrary 
for the molt part canhav.^ bwt little difficulty in it, becaule helps anocher 
thefe grounds upon which the Sea thus brcaketh, muft ever be 
the lowed of all other, fo that a true defcent coming unto {x^ 
andatrue afcent coming from it, there is no hardncfs to con- 
vey any water-courfe thereunto i look how tobr:ng a frelhnefs 
which may conqncr and overcome this fatnefs , and tlatmud The\va»cring 
therefore be freih water, which by channels, ditc'ies, furrows, "J;'^^!^^/^^^ 
fluccs, and the like you may brinj^from any freOi river, fpring, ^^^ 
pond, or other freth-wat^r courfe ^though rem-:!ved fome di- 
llance of milc=; from the place to which you would convey it ) 
to the very place to which you dcfire to have it, and with this 
frdh water you lliiU wall> and g:n ly droA-n over {o much 
of your fpoiled grnind as you (li-^ll be able reafonably to deal 
\>ithal,inothcrco -s r-nd labour for that year \ and if you have 
plentiful ftore of fre(h water. tHcii having (cs I laidj dio^vncd • 
it over p.cntly, ab'^ut four inches, or half a foot deep, you (lull ^^^ toHraw 
{o let it lie two or three days, then d»-:in away that water by awav the frci!! 
the help of back ditches or by lluccsmade for that purpofe, water, 
which if the lituition of the groimd deny yon. and that there is 
nofuch convenient conveyance, then you fn.dl in the lowclt 
part of the ground f either joyningucon fon.e other fpoilcd 
ground, or upon (he Sea-wall or b:nkj plac: aCoy,whichm3y 
cither caft the water into the ether ground, or clQ over the wall' 

H 2 and 

54 JRcduci/fg Grounds to ^erfeciion. Book 2,^ 

How oft to and bank into the Sea i and having thus drained away the 
canh"^^^ hrft water, you (hall then open your flucccs of frcfb wa- 
ter again, and drown your ground over the fecond time, 
and do in aJI things as you did before, and thus according 
to the plentirulncfs of your frcfli water , you fhal] drown 
your ground , or at Icali walh it over with frclli water 
twice a week, before the beginning of the Spring » and if 
the Salt-water have lain long, or be but new departed, then 
you (hall ufc your frefli water, for feme part of the Spring 
Hclpi.if tVefh Nowfome n^ay objcd unto me here, (and it is a matter al- 
uatcr be wan- together unlikely; that in fome ofthefe places, where thefe In- 
"°S' undations and Breaches are, it is impollible cither to find frefh 

Whether brae- ^^•^^^^'^j""^ to bring freOi water unto them,bccjuft all the fprings 
kifh water be ^or many miles about, being made naturally blacki(h, and the 
whoUoBic. rivers by the infedion o^ the fak tides, having loft the grcitcll 
part of their fwcct freOinefs i the Queftion nowrcftcth, whe- 
ther thefe brack! Hi waters are wholfomefor this purpofc, I, or 
No } To this I muft needs anfwcr, That they cannot in any 
wifebegocKl for thiofe fpoiled grounds, bccaufc the earth n-tu- 
rallyof anattradtivc and drawingcondition, fucking and ga- 
thering unto it felf any that is of a flurp fwcet> or fewer taltc, 
and efpccially faltnefs •, fo that being covered with thi fe 
brackifli waters, it will draw from them only their fair, fof 
which it hath too much already) and no part of the fre(hnefs 
which fliould qualihe and amend it : therefore, if cithcryour 
ground be thus lituated, or your neceirKicsthusunfupplicd,it is 
better,that you rather forbear this labor of wafhing or drowning^ 
yourcaitli, (though it be the firfr, the fpe edit ft and furcftcurc 
"otali other j than by watering it with infinite and unxvho^fomc 
waters, rather cncrcafs the nnifchicf , than any way delay 
. After you have watered your groviaJ, f if it be a work_ 

ofSo^t^!"& P'^'^'^^^ f" ^" attained unto^ or other wife ncgledcd^ ; it king a 
thco-jfcrva'ti. thing not polliblc to be found ; ynu ih.jlJthcn about the Inner 
oos tiiercjrt. end of M^rr/;, plow up id^thcf^ound with a good dot p ft itch,. 
tttm'ai> up> 1 l*r^.e tuirovv, and by'v^g it inio lands, raife 
sSih,^"^''^ them up as mucL as vou can, and make tlxm round, then look 

Book 2. overfljweciyy Sdt'WAter, 55 

of what nature or temper the earth is, as whether it be fine fai^d, 
rough gravel, rtiff clay, or a mixtcarthjOr any of thefe contra- 
ries together : If itb: a tine fand, either white, red,or brown, it 
mittcrs net whether, then you (hall take any ckin earth vvhick 
is free trotn thefe fait wafl^ings, being of a mean or fmall fiilf- 
Ocfs, andlikewife ofas mean and htck richncfs, which being 
digged out of fome bank, pit, or other place where Icalt lots 
is to be had, you flia'.l carry 'it in tumbrels orcar iages to the 
new plowed ground, and 'here hriilay it in heaps as you do 
manure > then after fprcad it over the Land, and being dry, 
with clotting l^eetlcs break- it as fmall as you can poUibly v for ^ 
this hungry Clay bcing'of no rich and tat condition, will To ' 
fuck and draw the fait into -t, that it will take away much of 
the cvilquility, and mix'ng his tough quality with the loo(c 
cpnditionof the fand, they will both together become apt for 
fruirfu'ncfs and generation. 

If the fpoiled ground be a rough hard gravelly earth, then Jf q ^^j^"''^" 
you (hall mix or fpread upon it the belt and richelt frefh Clay 
yai> can get, or if there be any fuch fruitfulnets near about you, 
then with a good blew Marie, for that is the cooleft and the 
fre(he(i,and will the fooncft draw out the fjlc from the gravel, 
and give it anew nouri("hment,. whereby any Seed i"hall be ted 
and comforted which is caft into it. 

Ifthefpoilcdcarhbeof its own nature, a ftiflfand ^«^'S^ ^Jf clITv^^'""^ 
Clay, which i$ but feldom found fo near the Sca.(hore, then " 
after the plowing you O^all ir.ixit, and cover itover wichthe 
frcO.cft and rinefr Sand that you can podib'y get,for that will net 
only feparatc the Salt from the Clay5-and take away the natural 
touglineis and Ihft'iuf? of the fan.e, which hindcrcth and fuOo- 
cateth the tender fprouts, fo as they cannot cafily get out ofthe 
earth, -butallb by lending a gentle wjrmth, will alVwage the 
cold quality ol tnc Clay, and mike it bring fortli more abun- 

Lafily, if the fjmc fpoiled earth be of a mixcc quality., then The mrxru^c 
you (hall look whether it be binding or loofentng. If it be of nnxi caf:U. 
binding; ikien yoia ("hall niix or cover it with tine hefh fand i 
if kkofcrting, theo with a leafonabkriclv and-tou.ih c'ay, lor fo 
ypulhallUringtt to an opea aud. comfor^aUc temper, maki...q 


Eeiincing Grotmds to ferfeCtioft Book 2. 

The Tecond 
,j)!o\vi ng. 

Election of 

ir able both to receive, clicri(h,and bring forth the Seedi which 
btforc cither too much wet, or too much drinefs did Itiflc and 
bind up within the clots and mould, (b as it had no itrcngth to 
bear it fclf through the fame. 

when you have covered your Lands vv/th this mixture, you 
fl)allthen plow it over a^ain before Midfumiucr, turning the. 
new laid c:rth unto the old earth, and as foon as that labour 
ishni(V\cd, you fliall then lade torth your manure or compofl 
unto it, in which you arc to have a great CJre what manure you 
clcd for that puvpofe, for it is not the vicheft and fatfeft manure, 
as, your Pigeeas-dung, or PuUens dung, Lime, Chalk, or A(hes, 
yc'ur Horfe-drn^, your (hovclin^s upon High-ways, your hearts 
hoofs, your Horn (havings,your Hjmp-v^'ccdjOr any other Weed 
which grovveth near the Sedge of tlx: Sea, neither your Oxe, 
or Cow.dung,though of all bcforc-n3mcd,that is the belt, wliich- 
doth the tr.olrgood upon thefc fpoilcd grounds, bccaud they 
have all in them a llrong quality of faltnefsor (harpnefs, which 
■will rather add than diminiih the evil quality of the earth, 
but in Head of thcfcjyou thail take the mud of dried bottoms of 
Lakes, Ponds, and Ditches of frelVi-watcr, and the moifturc or 
wetter fuch mud or bottoms arc, the better it is, or ftravv wjiich 
is rotted by fomefreili watcr-ccurfe, rain, or the like : byno 
means t'*jat which is rotted by the urine or Aale of horfe or cat- 
tle,for that is the faltell of all other •, or you may take any Weeds 
whifch you fee grow in frcfli Rivers, Ditches, Ponds, or Lakes, 
efpccially thofe whicli grow at the bottoms of Willow, Sal- 
low, or Oli:r-Trces •, or you may take the old rags of woollen 
cloth, or any other manure which you know to be the wool- 
oVdicMamirc l*-"'^ ^^ frefliell:, and with any of thefc, or all thofe together, 
you (hall very plentifully cover ycur ground all over , and im-* 
mediately upon the covering or laying on, lee you prefenMy 
plow if, land after land •, for to give it any long refpit after it 
is fprcad, the Sun out of his attradive and llrong natural will 
cxhilc and draw out all the vcrtue from your manure, and fo 
fpoil much of your labour. 

when you have thus manured it, and plowed it, you may 
then let it reft till Michaelmas, at which tim.c you may plow it 
the lali; time, and then fowe it with the Ihongefi and hardell 



The ordering 

The third 

Book 2. " everfljn'edhySalt'jvater. ^y 

Wheatyouhave,of which the white Pollard is the beft,ancl there 
is no quelhon but if it be fafcfrom a iecond Intmdation, your 
crop will be both plentiful and rich, and alfo acquit and pay 
largely fc^r all your former charges. The fecond year you need 
but only plow it as arorefaid,and then foweit withgood Hemp- 
feed, and be allured you will have a brave crop arife thereof", 
then the third year you Ihall plow it as flat as you can,fcill throw- 
ing it down, and not railing it up at all, and then fowe it with ji-^^ fecond' 
the befi Oats you can get, according to the nature and ftrength ^--ear fowing. 
ofyour Country, and be fure to harrow it well, and to break ^"<^ '^^^ird. 
every clot, and make the mould as tine as poffible, and the next 
year after your Oats, hy it for grafs, and I dare be bold, it will 
bear reafonable meadow ", yet would I not have you this year 
to preferve it tor that purpofe,but rather to graze it with Sheep Laying the 
or Cattle, efpecially Sheep, of which I would have you lay on earchfor 
good ftore •■> for it matters not how near or clofe to the ground ^" ^* 
they eat if, for the next year it will become to the fulncfs of 
pertedlion, and beasprohtable or more prohtableground than 
ever it was, and tl>en you may apply or accommodate it for 
what ufe they plcafe, citherarable. Meadow, or for continual 

And thus much touching the manner of reducing again, and Ofgrazing,. 
bringing unto their tirll perteclion, all f.;rts ot grounds which 
have been over-flowtd, or fpoilcd by Salt-water, or the Sea- 
breaches, whether if be arable or pa (lure j as alfo the enriching 
or. bettering of the fame. 


Another vpay to enrich barren FjJhtreSy er Meadorvs^ without 
the help of rvater, 

IF your barren Paftures or Meadows be fo feated, that there is- 
no poilible means of wafliing or drowning them with water, 
you are then only toreilore and ftrengthen them by thectlica- 
cieof Manure or Scyl, without any other help, and tliis may 
divers ways be done, as bythofe manner of manurings, which 
1- have formerly treated of. But to go a better, and briefer way 
to work, ai:id more for the cafe and capacity of the pbin Hus- 

58 yhvxy to enrich barren Pajl IOCS, Book 2. 

bandman, uhenfocver you ihall be pofTeft of thcfe barren pa- 
CUy manure. Trures, it" the burcunds from fand, or gravel then fomc 
Husbands ufc to manure the paUure over with the belt Clay 
they can get, hrlt laying it on heaps,thcn fpreaJIng itjind l-ftly, 
with clotting bect!:5 breaking it into as hne duft as they can get 
if, and this labour they cctnirionly peitorm as foon as they 
can after Harvc(t,when the latter fpringisearcn.and the earth is 
moft bareibut it the barreuncfs proceed from an hang:y,co!d,3nd 
Mconthcanh. dry cl.iv, then the manure is with the bcU rroonlh bbck earth 
which (hey can get, or with any moil\ manure whatfoevcr, e* 
fpccially, and above the relt, wh.n the Soil that is digged out of 
old ditches, ponds, or dried up liandinghkcs , and this earth 
mull belaid plcntilully uponihe ground in m J cure heaps, as 
aforefaid, that is to fay i nr!t in great heaps, then after broken 
and difperfcd over the whole ground ^ and lately, broken into 
fmall dull, and mixed wi.h the Uvarth ot the ground, and this 
labour, astiic other generally pertbrmed after the Harvtft, as a 
time of moli convenience, and giving the earth .1 nt rtfpit to 
fuck in the ftrengthand comfort ot' i\\c new earth, and alio ha- 
ving all the Winter after witli his frolis, fnows, and (howcrs, 
toniellow,ripcn,and mix together oneearth with the ether: and 
doubtlei's thi^; is a moll exceeding g(X)d Hnsbindry, and not to 
be rcfcll d ur carpt agiinli by any knowing or Ibund judgment » 
only it isno*- the moitabfolutc,or bed ot all wa^'s whatfrcvcr, 
but that (/tiurs may be found fomcv»hat morcne:r, and fomc- 
what mere commodious. 
TfccScrtway Therefore, whentbcvcr ycu fhall be owner of any of thcfe 
tocnrichpa- barren p-:iiurcs, or meadows, ot whit nature or condition foe- 
ticw°'^'""' v^rthecanhbciwhcthcr proceeding from gravel, land,cljy, or 
peltercd with any other mjlignant quality whatfoevcr, to re- 
dtceit toterfilityand goodncis in the fhorrefttime, andfothe 
molt prorit, about the Month of A/jrc/?, when all palUirc grounds 
are at the balel^, and d ) as it were remain a: a fland between 
decrealing and incrcaling, y(ui fhall begin then to lead forth 
your manure for the rcirtlhin^ of thcfe tarths, and the ma- 
TficSoyl ©f nure which you flu 1 carry unto tl-.efe grounds, (hall be the foil 
tSc ftrccts or oc firccts wtthin Cities or Towns, or the parings and gatlierings 
Htfc -v,a}s. up of the Hgh- ways, much beaten with travel, alfo the earth 


Book 2. ThehejtwAy to Enrich. 5P 

for two or three foot deep, which lyeth under yoar dung-hill Earch under 
when the dung is removed, and carryed away, for this is moft ^""§""*^^'* 
precious and rich mould, and i? not aJcnc excellent for this ufe, 
fcutalfo for the ufe of Gardens,for the llrengthningandcomfor- gardea^or 
ting ot all forrs of tender plants, and for the ufe of Orchards, for Orchards, 
the comforting both of old and young Trees, when at any time 
their Roots, are bared, or otherwifc when there groweth any 
millike or decreafing. 

You (hall alfo take the fine cartq pr mould which is foand The mould 
inthehollowofold WillovV-tre?s,rilingfrom the rootupalmoft ofwiliow is 
to the middle of the Tree, at Icaftfo fir as the tree is hollow, for ^recj, 
than this, there is no earth or mould finer or richer. 

Of all thefe m.anure?, or of aoy one of them, or of as many as 
you can conveniently get, you (hall lead forth (b much as may 
very plentifully manure &: cover your ground all over-, you (hall 
riift lay it on the earth in reafonablc big heaps, that the Sun may 
not exhale the goodnefs out ofit,and then atyourbeft leifure,8c 
fo foonasyou can conveniently, you (lull fprcad it Univerfally 
over the field, difperfing it as equally as you can, unlcfeyouc 
lield be more barren in one place than in another, which if it be, 
then you fhall lay the greatefl plenty where it is moft barren, and 
the Icls where you find the greateft fertility, yet,by all means,fec 
you fcant-notany place, but give every one his due » for to do 
otherwifc would (hew much ill husbandry. 

Now it is the ufcof fome Husbandmen, that what mould or 
earth is laid out from fix a clock in the moming,tiIl three of the 
clock in the afternoon, that they make their Hinds fpread in the 
evening before they go to fupper \ and qucftionlefs it is a very 
good courfe, and worthy to be imitated of every good Hus- 

After you have laid forth your mould, and fpread it all over 
your pafture or meadow, then you (hall make fome boyes,girles, 
or other people, to pick and gather up all the ftones, fticks, or 
other unnecefTary matter which might happen to be led forth 
with the mould, and to pick and lay the pafture io clean as is 
pofGblc \ which done,it is to be inteHded,that yet notwithftand- 
ing this ground will lye exceeding rough, both in refpedt of 
the clots of earth, which will not eafily be broken, as alfo in re- 

1 fpe(a: 

6o ^ nerv way of Harrowing, Book 

fped of naturall roughncfs of thefe rich moulds, which at this 
time being digged up in the wet, will not eafily be fcpirited or 
diffolved, and therefore when you havehni(h:d the labours be- 
forcfaid, you (hall let the clots relt till the Sun and weather have 
drycd them, then after a groind (howi ''obferving to take the 
iirft that fallcth ; you fhall harrow your ground over, after this 

You fhall cut down a pretty big white Thorn-tree , which 
A nrw way of ^.^ ^-^^j j},^ Hauthorn-tree , and make fure that it be wondcrt'ull 
**'"^^^°^' thick bufhie and rciigh grown i which doBe,you ihiU pla(hit as 
fiat is ycu can, and fpread it as broad as you can , and thofe 
branches or boughes which of nccetSty you mufi cut in funder, 
you (hall again plaih and thrufl into the body of the Trec,biud- 
ing them with cords or withs fo fafi thereto, that they may by 
no means fcarter or (bake out, and if any place appear hollow or 
thin, and cannot come to lie hard , tirm, and rough upon the 
ground, then ycu (hall take other rough bu(hes and thruft into 
the hollow places, and bind them from fiirring alfo , till you 
have made your plafli full and equall in all places, and that all 
the rcughnefs may be as in a tUt kvell equally touch the ground* 
when you have thus proportioned your Harrow , you ilia II then 
tike great loggs of wood, or pieces of timber, and with ropes 
bind them on the upper Cde of this rough Harrow, that the poifc 
X)f weight of them may keep the rough fide hard, and rirm to the 
earth , and then the Harrow will carry this prop<2tioQ oz h» 





A ne)v fvay off/arrowing. 


To the big end of this harrow , you flialJ fix a flrong rope 
with a Swingle-tree with Treats, Oiler, and Harnefsjand one 
Horfe is fully fufficicntto draw it round about the Palture or 
Meadow ; fo with this Harrow you (hall harrow the ground all 
over, and it will not cnely break all the hard dots to a very fine 
duftj but alfo difpcrre thcra and drive thcnti into the ground, 
and give fuch a comfort to the tender roots of the young grafj, 
that newly fpringing , that it will double and treble the in- 
crcafc. And for mine own part, this experience I my felt have ..-•i 

ft en upon an extream barren Palhire ground in ^^''^^'^' /^•'^* •. Of j^uhb-fTi ' 
where none ofthefegnod moulds or foyles could be got ^ but amiiVcepiogs. 
this Husbandman was fain to take all thcrubbilhand coorfc earth 
even to the very fwecpings of his yard,and for want ot enough 
thereof, to take any ordinary earth he could get, and vvithit he 
dreft the ground in fuch fort 3S 1 have now laft fhewcd you, and 
this being done in /^pnl^ he iiad in June following as good 
Meadow as could be wiiht for, and the firli Mea- 
dow I faw cut down in all that Country : from w'lencc 1 

1 2 diaw 

62 Ktdiui?ig Grounds to ^erfecfiof}^&c. Book 2. 

draw this conclufion. That where thefe better moulds or foyls 
are not to be had, if yet notnotwithlhnding vou take any or- 
dinary mould or earth whatfoever, and with it repkni(h your 
Pafiure or Meadow ground as is before {hewed, that without 
doubt you fhall hnd an inhiiite commodity.and profit thereby^ 
ibr even the rule of Reafon, and generall exf eiiince (htws us, 
that any frclh or quick mould comming to the root of th: G af , 
when icis in fpringing, mull needs be an inhniie comfort there- 
unto, and make it prcfper, and ll.oor up with a double hafte j 
and therefore 1 would have every Husband to make much cf 
the lubbifh, fwecpings, parings, and fpirliogs cf his houfeand- 
yard, and alfo of Cho veilings up of the high-waves, back-lanes, 
and other fuch places \ and cfpecially if they beany ihingclayie, 
cr moorii>),or fandy mixt with any other foyl > for of them he 
friaH find great ufc, according to the Husbandry and experience 
already defcribcd. 
of SojD-afhes Laiily, There is not any d\ing that naore enridjeth Pafture or 
' " meadow ground then So3p-«ftxs, being thinly fcattercd and- 
fpread over the fame v and this labrur would ever be ccne 2t the 
Utter cndof^pr//, tor then Grafs is beginning to flroot up, and 
at that time finding a comfort, the cncteafe WiU mult-ply execs* 


H.'ve tc enrich and niah^ the molt harren f.yl to hear excelleta 
good PjjUue (T ^leadoxv. 

•*_ ,», rr- nPO fpcok then of the bettering and enriching of th-fe barren 
Two waves to- I r ,,. , jt^^ »«j 

cr.ric hearth- earths, and reducing them to good ranure or Meadow, it 

is to be underftood.that there are but two certain waycsto coon- 
pafs and etfcik the fame, namely, water or manure. 

You arethen,whcn you go about thisprofitsbk bbonr,tocon- 
fider the firnation of t)ie earth you would a^nvert to Pafiure , 
and to cle<3: for this purpofe, the beft of this worfi earth you can 
lind, and that which lyes lowefLor elfc that which isfo defccn- 
ding, as that the bottom thereof may Autch to"the loweft ptrt 
of the continent, for the lower tlut fuch grr unds lye, the fooncr 
tbc^c arc made good. and brought to yroht. Next,you (hall coc— 


Book 2 . To ^*^c rich Pajiure^af Me:tdoiv, 6^ 

fidcr what burthen of grafs it bearSj and whether the grafs be 
dean andintheof itfelt'Cwhich is the be ft and likeliefr foyl to 
%t made fruitfull ) or elfeiBixt with other worfer growths, as- 
Thiftle,Heath, Broom, or fuch like, and ifit be barthened with 
any ot thefe naughty weeds , you fiull hrildefcroy themby 
ftubbing them up by the roots, and by burning the upper fwartli 
of the earth with dry llraw inixt with the Weeds which you 
(hall cut from the fame, then it fhall be good for certain nights, 
both before the hrll snd latter fpring, to fold your (heep upon 
this giound.and that not in a fcant manner, but very plentiful, 
fo as the dung of them may cover over all the earth,and their feet 
trampling upon the ground, may not only bear in the dung,but 
alfo beat off all the fvvarth from the earth , that where the 
Fold gocth , there little cr no grafs may be perceived •, . 
then whilelt the ground is foft, and thus trampled, you (hall 
fow it all over with Hay-feeds, and then with your fbt board 
beetles, beat the ground fm.ooth and plain, which done, you 
(lull then frrow, or thinly cover the ground with the rotten 
iiadds of Hay.-fracks , and the moyft bottoms of Hay-barns, 
and, ovst-that, you flull fpread other llroQg manure, of which, 
Houfe-dung, or Horfe-dung, and mans ordure mixt together is 
the bell, or forwantoffuch, either the. manure of Oxen, Kine, 
or other beafrs ••> and- this m.anute alfo yo-j (hall fpread very 
thin upon the ground, and folet it lye till the Grafs comiC up 
through the fame, vvhich Graf; youfl.allby no means graie. 
or feed with your Cattell, but being come to th; perfcdlnefs of- 
growth, you ftiall mow it down i and although it will be the 
rirfi year but fnort and verycoorfc, yet it skillttii not •, for the 
enfuifig years (hall it yield profit > and brin^ fcith both fo 
goodgnfs, and fuch plenty thereof as reafonubly you can re- 
quire 5 for thisis but the iirft making of your gTOund,and altera-- 
tion of the nature thereof: neither (hall yon fhus drcfs yourr 
ground every year, but once in twenty or 40 ycars,having plenty . 
of water to relieve it. When therefore you have thus at hrit one- 
ly prepared your ground by defiroying.. the b.uren growth 
thereof, and by manuiirg, fowing, and dreiljug it,yau (hall then 
carefully fcarch about the higheft parts of the ground, and the 
hi^hjT pprtsofall ojhergror.nds, any way n€'^'.bv^uiing.round 



Of II ^ater'uig Ground, 



*^ watering 

Heip= in rue 

WVien and 
how to water. 

about itj and fomewhat above tlie level thc;reot,to fee it you can 
find any Springs in the fame (as doubtlefs you car.not chuf: but 
do, except the ground be of rr.orc then ftrange nature •>) and the 
headsofall fuchfpiingsas you (hall find , you fhall by gutters 
Jind channels draw into thofc ditches which flull conr.pafs your 
itcadow round about, obfcrving cither to bring the water into 
that part of the nr:eadow ditch which ever lyeth higheft^and fo 
let it have a currant p^iT ge through the ditches down to the 
lower part thereof, and fointo fome Lake, Brcok,or other chan- 
nel!, and in this fort yru may bring your water a mile or two : 
Niy, 1 have fecn water brcught for this purpofe, three or four 
rr)i?-s, and the gain thereof hath quit the charge ia veiy plenti- 
flill manner. 

But if yiu cmnot find any Spring at all, nor can have tlie 
liclp ofjny Lake, Brook, River, or other channel! of moving 
water, (which is a doubt too curious, as being caft beyond the 
Moon.^ you fhjl! then not onely call ditches abaut this your Mea- 
dow ground, but alfo about all other grounds,which (hall lyca- 
bcut, and that in fuch fort,that they all may have no paffage but 
into the upper part ()f the meadow ditch, fo that what rain fo- 
cvcrfliall (all from the Skie upon thofe earths, it (hall be recei- 
ved into thnfc ditches, and by them conveyed into the meadow 
ditch : and to augment the (tore of this water, you (hall alio in 
fund ry parrs of fhofe upper grounds which are above the mea- 
dow in places moft convenient, dig brge Ponds or Pits, which 
both of then f-lvcsn-ay breed, and a!fo receive all fuch water as 
Ihall fill ncer abcutthcm, and thife Ponds or Pits being filled 
fas in tlie winter time ncccflaiily tlay mull needs be at every 
glut of rain} you! prefently by fmal! drains, made for 
that putpofe, let the water out fiom them into the ditches, and 
i<d into the meadc w dfrch , and fo llopping all the drains 
again , make the Ponds or Pits capable to receive more wa- 

when you have thus made your ground rich with water, and 
that you {zq it How fas in the winter time nccelTaii'y it mull ) 
in plentiful! manner thr<^ugh all your ditclies, you (hall then 
twice or thrice in the year, or ofrncr, as you (ball then think 
jrcct in the mcrt convcni:ntcll places of the meadow ditch. 


Book 2. Of /Catering Grounds. 65 

ftop the fame, and make the water to rife above his boundsjand 
to over-flow and cover your meadow ground all over , and if 
it be a flat level ground , if you let the water thus covering it 
to lye upon the fame the/pace of four or five dayes, or a week , 
itlhallnot beamifs i and then you may water it the fv.ldomcr. 
But if it lye againft the ilde ot a hill, io that the water cannot 
relt upon the fame, then you Hiall wafl-i it all over , leaving no 
part unmoyftencd \ and this you fhall do theoftncr , according 
as the water (hall fall out , and your water grow more or kf$ 

Now for the beft feaf^nor time of the year for this watering vor.- 
ofmeadowsjou (hall underftaad, that tVojp AlhallowtidejWhich J^^^^ ^^Itc- 
is the beginning of Nbi'cwi^fr (and at which time all after-growth ring. 
of meadows are fully eaten, and cattel for the moli part are 
tak^nupintothe hcufeCuntill the end o'i Afril ( at the which 
timegrafs bcginncth to fpring and arife from the ground_) you 
may water all your meadows at your pica fure without dangn , 
if you have water enough at your pleafure , and m;^y impend or 
fpare at your will -, yet to do in the bcfi peifedion, and where- 
by your ground may receive thegreateft benefit, you ihall un- 
derlhnd, that the onely time for the watering of ycur ireadows^ 
is, immediately after any great Fiux of rain , falling in the 
Winter, any time before }<hy , when the water is mofr muddy, 
foul, and troubled, for then it carrieth with it^ foyl or compoft, 
which being left upon the ground, wonderfully enricheth it, 
and makes it fruitfali beyond expedlation , as daily is fecn in 
thofe hard Countries, where almoft no grafs grows but by this 
induftry: And here you mult obferve,thatasyou thus water one 
ground foyou may water many , having ever refped to bjgin 
with the higheft, and fo let the witer pafs out of one ground into 
another, unfill it corbe to the lowell, which commonly is ever 
themoft flit and level.and there you may let the water remain fo 
long as you think good as wasbefore (he wed j and then let it oiu 
into other waft ditches or river?:.. And here you (hall knovv,that 
this lowefr ground vvill ever be the moil fruitfull , as w.ll 
hecaufe it lycrh the warmjfr, moy(ie(t, and fafeii fromftorms^ 
and tempelts, and al(o kcaufe what foylor other gooJnef; this- 
Q7er-flowofwater,pr the rain vvadieth from other ground.-, it' 

leave thi 

66 BArren Grounds. B^ok 2. 

Icaveth upon this, and fo daily encrcafeth the krtiUty, from 
whcnc;: you (hill gather, that at the rirR making ofthefe mea- 
dow ground?, you may bellow IcQ coft cf manure and other 
charges upon this lowcllj flit, Icv'el ground, than on the high- 
ei : and fo by that rule alio, obfcrve to bdrow on the higheft 
ground , and the higheft part of the higheft ground ever the 
greatert abundmce of manure, and foasycu fhall de(cend lower 
and lower, to lay your manure thmner and thinner, yet not any 
part utterly unfumifhed and void ot compoll i yet, as before I 
(aid, you arc to remember, that thefe meadow grounds need not 
thus much ufe of manure ("having this benefit ot water, and the 
iirft years drelhngas was (hewed in the beginning of this Chap- 
ter) above once in twenty years ■■> my, it may be^not above once 
in a mans life time. 

And here alio is to be conridered,that the water which com- 
mcth from Clay or Marl grounds,beingthick,muddy,3nd puddy, 
is much better and richer than that which commethfrom fand, 
gravel, or pibble, and fo runneth clear and fmooth, for that ra- 
ther doth wafb away and confumc the goodnefs of the ground, 
than any way add ihrength thereunto. 


Of the inrichiftg and drejjirtg ofBarren grounds^ for the 
ufe ofHt'tnp or Flax, 

grounds ill VOU (hall un^crftand, that there are two forts of grounds, 
for Hcrap or I which out of their own natures utterly rcfufe to bear 
JFkx. Hemp or Flax j thct i^, the rich (lift bhck Clay, of tough folid 

and ha mould, whofe extreame fertility ^nd fatnefs givcth 
fuch a furcharge to the increafe of the iecd, tiiat cither with 
the ranknefs it runneth all into Bun and no rind j or elle the 
feed being tender, and the mould fad and h:avy, it baricth it 
fo dLep therein, that it can by no means get out ofihef^inc : 
The other isthemoli vile and extreme barren ground, which 
byreafon of the climate wherein it lyes, is fo exceeding fterile 
andunfruitfull, that it will neither bear thefe feed?, nor any 
other good feed. Andof thefe two foylsonly I purpofc in this 
place to treatifor which, fuch foylsas will niturally ficcommodl- 
oufly bear thefe feeds, I have nothing to do, in that I have fuf- 


Book 2. for Hemp and Flax, - 6^^ 

ficiently written of them in mine Englijff Husbandman^ and Eng- 
lif} HoHfiivife^ which are books onely for good grounds, but this 
for all fuch grounds as arc utterly held withotit curc» 

To begin then with the ftiff black Clay, which albeit it be Black Clay for 
very rich for Corn, is moft poor for thefe feeds^ when you Hcrap, &c. 
would reduce and bring it to bear Hemp or Flax, which neet 
unto the Sea-coaft is of greater price and commodity than Corn 
any way can be, efpecially adjoyning unto any place of filhing, 
in refpedl of Nets and other Engines which is to be made of the 
fame, and which being daily wafted and confumed, muft like- 
wife be daily replenished \ you muft firft with a ftrong plough,fit 
for the nature of fuch land , plow up fo much ground as you 
intend to (owHemp or Flax upon, about the midft of May , 
if the weather be feafonable, and the ground not too hard : if 
otherwife, you muft ftay till a fliowr do fall, and that the earth 
be moiftncd, then ftiall you hack it and break the clots in fmall 
piecesj then with the fait Sea-fand,you ftiall fand it very plenti- 
fully, but if that be not to be gotten, and that you be very well 
affured of the natural richnefs of the earth, you fliall then fand 
it with the beft Red Ond you can get or find neer unto you , 
and upon every Acre of ground you thus fand withfrefh fand , 
you (hall fow three buftiels of Bay- fait, and then plowup again 
the earth, fand and fait together, which would be done about 
the latter end of the year, as after Michaelmas , and fo let the 
ground reft till feed-time, at which time you ftiall firftbefore-- 
you plough it,go down to the low rocks on which the Sea-beats^i^ 
and from thence with drags and other Engines , gather thofe' 
broad leaved black v/eeds, which are called Ore wood, and grovf 
in great tufts, and abundance about the ftiore j and thefe weeds ,.;.. ..... 

you fliall bring to your Hemp-land, and cover it all over with \IJj^'i/j^g5 
the fame, and then you ftiall plow it again, buryingthe weed* * .,, ~ 

within the earth, • fJ' --^-'i:^- • 

And herein IS to be obferved, that in any wife yOuttluft hi'^ 
thefe weeds as wet upon the Land as when you bring them out 
of the Sea, provided ftill, that you add nootherwet unto them 
but the falt-water,for fotheyareofallfoyls and manures what* 
foever the onely beft and fruitfulleft, and moft cfpecial'fdr the'fe 
feeds, and breed' an increafc beyond expedation, ^1 ^i^iV/ 

K When 

68 BArren Gronniis fcr B<Jok 2* 

When yoa hive thus plowed over the ground, you (hall th.n 
h^ckjc again, and then low it with either Hemp or F!ax- 
leed, which you plcafe, and after it is fown, you fhali then 
harrow ic Tand not belorc; and you fhall be carcfull to harxcw 
itintaas tine mould as you can, and this racLiid is Tiktly to 
lun rine caougli, as well by rearon of the fertility, as alio of. 
tjiv trjsture i ;'^cjt-whav ,clo;s yv»« cannot break with your Har- 
r3sws;^^ie:^(>«^ feli-J?f,^^k- wirh your clottin^-bcctlc , jnd 
iucbiiit^ tools s tlieh after the tini Rreat (hovvr which fluH fa 1 
alter' your fbyvini;; , you (hall run over your land thus fnvu 
witii your back Harrov.s, that is, widi a pair of large Har- 
rpwc, the wrpn^fide turned upward, to wir, the teeth turoedi 
irQQ(i the earth, aP'd rhel^ack to wards the earth j and if need be,. 
^04 liijll lay ^ upon ^he Harrows -fome indiderent he-vy pieeej 
ofy^ood , which may keep the back of the Harrows clofer to. 
the ground, a^nd fogoover all the earth, and lay it ,a*rip-*poi^h,afidi 
light as is poihble, without leaving t^ne fmallett clot thit may 
be. unbroken. Now if (he ground be fown with Hcmp.^ you 
(bftHfnot thiiik pf weeding it at all, becaufe Hemp is^ fo lw.:ra 
grower, and fuch a poyfon unto allvvecds, that it ovcr-runncth,, 
choaketh,and defrrny^th thems but if it be fown with Flax or 
t-inc, which is a much tenderer feed, and biingeth forth more 
tender leaves and branches," then you lliall watch what weeds 
you (eefpringup, aud in their hrft growth pluck them upand 
call them away,. till you behold your Flax or Line to be grown, 
above; the weeds, aod then ^you may;lct it alone alfo, for after, 
it hath once gotten hcigbc^ it wiU vycn be over-grown with 

Now touching the other foyl, which tlirough the extrcame. 
^^^h"b« barrennefs fhcreol, refuting to bring forth any good fruit at allv 
%Lc, * you fhallin all points drefs; it, as you.drefs your plain clayes, 

dcfcribed in the (econd Chapter of this Book, beginning at tha 
fame time of the yeir that is then appointed , orCif more necef- 
faiy occafions hold you- if you begin later, it lliall not be a« 
mifs^ and then at Micb.ielniM you (lull plow it over the fecond 
time, and manure it with fca- weeds, atvd Co let it lye at reft till 
Mxreh ("which is feed time) and then plow it again, and aia- 
rtire it with fca-weeds again, and after the plowing, you (hall 


Book 2. Jfem^^ fUXfif^'C, ^9 

hackir, and ifin the hacking you find the earth fciffand tough 
then you flull harrow it befote you fow ic , and harrow 
it again, breaking the earth lo fmall, and laying it fo fmooth 
as pollible yo« can, ullng tliC help both of the clotting beetles , 
and all other tools which may be available for breaking the 
earth and making the mould as tine as any a(Vies, then atter the 
■firft great fiiowr of rain, perceiving the ground to be well 
rnoiUned, you (hall inltead of the back Harrows (which upoa 
this earth ir.ay be too ligiit ) take the great rowler which is de- 
•fcribcd in the book of the EngHfh Hu^hjyJman ^ht\T)Z, a great 
round piece of timber ofraany fi^uares, drawn either by Horfe 
or Oxen,but a fingle Horfe is bell,both in refpccS- oftmich tread- 
ing the ground,as alfo for the fwift going away or drawing of the 
fame : for the fwifter it is drawn, the better it breaketh the 
ground, and the lighter it leaveth the mould : and with this 
Touler, you (hall run over and fmooth your ground very well, 
leaving no clot unbroken, and (^o let it reft. 

As for the weeding of this ground, you (hall not refped: it ait wecdirw. 
all, for naturally it will put up no weed, the very ground of it 
fclf being a very great enemy thereunto, nor (hall you need to 
drefs this ground in the form before faid, but once in eight or 
ten years : only every feed time, when you plow it (as you (hall 
not need to plow it at any time,^ut feed time only) you (hall be- 
fore the plowing, cover or manure the Land with the fea-weed 
-before fpoken of, which will give (Irength enough to the ground, 
without any other alliftance. 


7he manner ofjtachir'.g of al Kind of grain or ^ulje rritb 
greateji fi^ety'j and leaji luff-, ^ 

TN thcfe barren and hard Countries, of which I have formerly 
-^ written, all forts of buildings are exceeding coftly and fcarce, 
bothinrefp:(ft ofthe clime, which is commonly moll extreme 
cold, mbuntainods, and nluch fubjeft to ilorm and tempe/i, as 
alfo through ^:he great Want of Wood and Timber , wl\ich m 
fhofehard f^iylsdothh-ardtyorbever profper, and therefore in 
fjch places buildings nouft be bo:h fmall and dear, fo that it 
wrll be very hard for the Husbandman to have houfe-room for 

K 2 all 

70 Stacking of aH Book 2. 

all his com -> but that of necellity he rr.ult be inforccd to fiack 
much, or themoA put of his Corn without doors,which albeit 
it be a thing very ufuall in this Kingdome, yet is it in rriany pla- 
ces fo icruficicntly done, that the lofs which redounds thereby 
( partly by the moyfture of theground, which commonly doth 
iDt and fpoyl at kafi a yard ihickncfs ct the bottom of the 
Stack next the ground, and partly through Mice, Ratf, and o- 
thcr VerrFiine, which breeding in the Stack, do eat and devour a 
gjeat part thereof, as alfo through many fuch line negligent cau- 
fcs; is greater than a Husband may with his credit be guilty of, 
cr a f roritable Husband will by any mieans fudfer to be loll fo 

To fncv/ then the manner how to Itack or mow your Corn 
without dooies, in fuch fort, as neither the ground (hall rot it, 
Dor thefe vermines defiroy it, nor any other lofs come to it by 
way of ill Husbar^dry, you (hall iirlt caufefour pieces of timber, 
or four ftone?, to be hewed broad and round at the neither endi 
like the fafhioa of a Sugar-loaf, cr this hgure. 

And thcfc pieces of wood or fione fl^all be in length three- 
fe»otor thereabout, and in compafs or breadth at the bottom , 
two foot, or a foot and a half, and at the top net above ohc 
foot : thefe four pieces of wood or ftone you (hall place in your 
fiack-yar«t , or other convenient place neer your thrafhing- 




kind of Grain, 


ftoor, and you (hall place them four fquare, of an equal di- 
ftsnce one troHi. another : then you (lull cut out four fmooth 
boards of two inches and a half thick at the lead, and full three 
foot fquare every way , and thcfe boards you (hall lay upon the 
heads or narrow tops ofthefe ftones or pieccsor timber accord-- 
ing to this Figure. 

Then fhall you take ftrong over layes of wood, and lay them 
four fquare from one board to another, according to this Fi- 

Arid i 

*72 Stiickipg of all Book 


And then upon thcfe ovcr-!aycrs you fliall by other fmaller 
pdlesclofe one by another, and then upon them you Ihall mow 
or ftack your Corn, wV^thcr it be Wheat, Barley , Oats, 
Pcafe, or any other kind ot t^rain, and be fure if you make your 
ftack handfomc and uptighr, which conlilleih in the Art and 
Workmanfliip of the Workmanj you (lull never receive lofs in 
your Corn : tor the'raidng ofit thus two or three foot from the 
grouiKl, will prcfervc it trom all moifiure or hurt thereof , and 
the broad boaxds which cover the four ground-pofls will not 
fuffer any Mice or other vcrmine to afccnd or come into the 
fame. , 

Now for the manner of laying your Corn into the Stack , 
you (hall be fure to turn the part of the iTieaf where the eares 
of the Corn lye ever inward into the Stack, and the other which 
is the ftraw end, you (hall ever turn outward, and by that means 
you (hallbe alTuredthat no flying Foul, asPigeons, Crows,and 
fuch like, can do you any hurt or annoyance upon the fame," 
Lafily, you (hall under(\arvd,--that you may make thefc Stacks ei- 
ther round, fquarc, or long- wife, yet round is the fafe(l,and if you 
do make them longwife,then yen iTiall fet them upon fix ground- 
.po(\s,or eight,accordingtothe kngth and proportion you would 
i}:jve, it, and aftci your Stack is made, you (hall then thatch it ve- 
ry well to keep out the wet 5 alfo if when ycu do Stack' yowr 
wheats yc'U do top your Stack with Oits or other courfe grain, 
it will be fo-mtich the better, and the Wheat will lye in greater 
fafety : for no part of a Stack well made, cfpecially a round 
5cack, will fo foou take wtt rr hurt, as the top thcreoC 


Ihe dif^afes and imferft Cihtts rvhicb happen to all manner 
oj Grain, 

ALbcit the manner of Sta' .-nf, 3nd laying up of Corn or 
Grain in thclorm befoic'k>»e\vcd, may to cver>* one give 
an a(Turan«c for the fafe and pruhtablckeepingthcreof as long 
as it induicth therein, and abidcrh in the eare, yet becaufe di- 
vers nceclhticsmay compel! the HusbanJman to thraOi our hrs 
Corn, us cither, tor prefcnt ufe of Straw, Chaff, Garbage, or c- 


Book 2-, ki»d of Grain. 73 

other commodities needful! unto him (as the fcafon ofthe year 
ihall fall out) I think it mofr neccffary in this pl3ce,to (hew how 
all manner ofGrainand Pulfe, of what nature foever, may moft 
fafclyand profitably be kept from all manner of annoyances, or 
corruptions whatfoever, being a work of that utility and good- 
nefs, that not any belonging to the Hu-:b3ndman doth exceed 
ic : Nor (halHt be fufncrent tofhewMhe orftras and difeafes of 
Grain with tiuir cures and healthful prelVrvarions, whiilV it 
is in tlie Huibandmians poflelfion, but alfo whilft it is in the 
earth, and at tl\e mercy of cold, hear, moyHiTefs, or drynefs , 
and net onely fubjcd: to the malignant mfluences of Stars 
and Planets^ with the encreating and de^reafing ofthe Moon 
and her cperations : but alfo of divers other hurtfuU Vermine •> 
IS birds, w^rms, pifmires, dorrs, fnails^, rooals , and" other 
fuch like : feme whereof confnme and de^-Dur the grain ere it 
fprout, other fprouting when the kernel is rotten , and turn- 
ed to fweet fubltanee, and others after it is fprouted, by devou- 
ring the hrit tender leaves, beforq they have any Inrength to ap- 
pear* above earth, being as it were but foft white threads nor 
char-ged into the ftr:ngth of green, becaufe the air an(i Sun 
hath not yet lookt upon it. 

To begin then with the iirft enemies of corn or grain, after Crows , 
it is thrown into the earth, there is none more noyforae then Fidgeons, and \ 
Croves^ and ChMf^hes; and other fmaller birds, which flocking ^'^*^*' 
after dieleeds-man will in amannei: devour and gather up the 
griin as faft as it is fown : for as according tothe old faying'. 
That rrtjny hands makf light warl^^ fo many of their raouths 
(being creatures that ever flye in flocks together) and their much 
nimblenefs in devouring , foon rob the earth of her Acre , 
and deprive the labouring Husbandniaa of very much profit , 
and the Grain which the creatures do raoftconfume, is all man- 
ner q1 white Cornu as Wheat of all kinds. Rye and Oats, as alfo * 
Hemp- feed, Lin-feed, Rape- feed, and fuch like : Neither are 
they only otTenfive during this time offowing, but after it Is 
fown and covered, digging it with their frrong bills out ofthe 
earth, and Co making the wafle greater and greater. 

The prevention or cure of this evill, is divers, as the aifcdi- -^^^ Curc,-^' 
ens of people, and cuftom of Countries do inftru^ them : for 


nA Offences of Crorvs, Book 

; fome (cfpccially tlic frsnch-men) ufe when they fow ihcfe grains 
and feeds, firft to fprinkle it with the dregs or kes of their bit- 
terefi oyles, which whenthefe devouring fowls do tafte , they 
refufe to do any further hurt : Others ufc to fow Pigeons dung 
or Lime with their feed, which nicking unto the grain , the 
unfavorinefs thereof will make the fowl cal^ up the grain a- 
gain, and leave to do further hurt. But forafmuch as thefe 
medicines cannot ever be had, nor are ever wholefome for every 
ground, the onely beftand fafcft means to prevent this evil, is , 
to have ever fome young boy, with bow and arrows to follow 
the feed-man and Harrows, making a great noife and accla- 
mation , and (hooting his Arrows where he fliall fee thefe de- 
vourers light, not ceafing, but chafing them from the Land, and 
not fuffering them at any time to light upon the fame, and thefe 
fervants are called Field-keepers, or Crow-keepers, being of no 
lefs ufe and profit (for the time) then any other fervants what- 
foever. Nor is it fufficient to have the Field-keepers for the bare 
time of feed only , whiJcft the grain is in fowing, but he fliall 
alfo maintain them untill fuch tiirx as you fee the grain ap-> 
pear above the earth, which fcr Wheat or Rye, bccaufe they arc 
winter feeds, and fo longer in fprouting, will ask a full month \ 
for all other feeds which arc fownin the Spring, or Snmmer, a 
fortnight is full fufticicnt : And this Field keeper (hall not fail to 
be in the field an hour before Sun in the morning, and fo con- 
tinue till half an hour after Sun-fct in the evening, for at the 
rifing and fctting of the Sun is ever done the greatcft mifchief , 
for then are all creatures moft eager and hungry > and though 
the indurance may promife much pain and trouble, yet que- 
ftionkfs the labour to any free fpirit, is both eafie , and plea- 
- , ,. . Alfo ifyour Field-keeper, inftead ofhis bow and arrows, do 

ufe to fl\oot off a musket, or Harquebufh, the report thereof will 
appear more terrible to thefe enemies of Ci>rn, and the profit 
thereof will be a great deal more : tor a (hot or two of powder 
will fave n.cre Corn, than a weeks whooping and (houting , 
one^y you rauA obfervc,that your Field-keeper wfc no bullet or 
hail-(hot, for fo 'he may turn fearing to killing. Now touch- 
ing tlic dcftru(5tion which thefe creatuies make of Corn after it 


\ , 

Book 2. Pf^eo^s a^ Birds y dec, 75 

is ftacktup by tearing off the thatchjand digging holes and pits 
therein > to prevent that, you (hall caufc the thatcher to fcatter 
upon the thatch, great ftore of afhes of any kind, or elfe Lime, 
that as the Pidgeonsor Crows tear up the ftraw, the Lime or 
aflies will fparklc into their eyes and narcs, which they will 
not indure j as for thofe parts of the Itack which cannot be 
thatcht, as the fides and ends » upon them you (hall prick divers 
fcare-crows, as dead Crows, or dead Pidgeons, or any other 
*ags,as the fhape of a man, made either of thumb-ropes of hay or 
ftrawjor elfe fome old caft-away apparel, flopt with ftraw, &fo 
fixed on the flack, alfo in this cafe you may ufe- Clap-mills, or 
fuch-like toys,which make a great noife.But to conclude,thc bcft 
prevention for chcfe CreaturesCif you want ability to maintain a 
field-keeper) is to take long lineis of pack-thread, and in them to 
knit divers feathers of divers colours, cfpccially white ones, and 
with little flakes fo faften them over the Corn, that with every 
breath of wind the feathers may dance and turn about, and the 
nearer that thcfe blinks or fcares come to the ground ("when the 
Corn is new fown) fo much the better it is, leaft the fowl find- 
ing a way to creep under them, begin not to rcfped thcmifo that 
a haml or.'two from th? ground is fufficient i Provided that the 
feathers and fcares have liberty to play and move. 

But if it be to fa ve Corn in ripening, that is to fay, a little 
before it be reapt, when the ears begin to harden , or when it li- 
eth in finglefheaf upon the Land, for then fowl and birds do as" 
great mifchief, as at any other (eafon, it fliall then be fit that 
you raife thefe lines or (cares upon higher ftakes, fo as they may 
play as much above the pars of Corn, as before they did above 
the earth j and aniongft thefe fcares thus made upon lines in fun- 
dry parts of the field, you (hall upon other ftakes place many o- 
ther bigger fcares, as dead Crows,Pics, Gleadf, Pigeon?, or fuch 
like, as al{() the proportion of a man formerly (hewed you, or 
any rags of cloith being black, fowl, and ugly, like Bakers mal- 
kins-, and than this , there is no faferway for the defence of 
Grain or Corn from thefe Birds, and fuchlike. 

The next great devourcrs or confumers of grain are Pi(mires OfPiiimrcs. 
or Ants, which although it b: but a little Creature, yet it is fo 
labourfome,that the grain which they carry away or deftroy by 
eating amounteth to a.grcat quantity, and the mifchief which 

L thefe 

•76 offences of Dores, Book 2. 

thefe little vermine do, after the Corn is covered in the ground, 
and before it fprour, for they creeping in at the little chinks of 
the earth, and finding the Corn, either drag it out, or eat it, fo 
that ic cannot grow, and the grain which they mort hurt, is all 
manner of white Corn,erpccially your rinelt and fmalleft Wheat, 
for the skin or hull isthinnelt, and the kernel whiteft and fweet- 
ert : alfo to barley they do much hurt, cfpecially that which is 
fuileft and belt ilikewife to Rye,Hemp.fecd,Lin-feed,and Rape- 
feed i as for Oats, becaufe it is double hull'd, and alfo your 
great whole llraw wheat, and polard wheat, whick is thick 
huird, their hurt is not fo much to them, and untopulfe no- 
thing at all, becaufe they are too heavy, too thick skinned, and 
bitter in talk. 

The Cure. ^^^ ^^'^ ^"'^^ ^"'^ prevention for thefe Pifroires, is, to fcarch 

your Corn-rields well, cfpecially under hedges and old trees, and 
on the top of Mole-hils,and if you hnd any beds or hills ol Ants 
or Pifmires, prefentlyatter Sun-fctcing, with hot fcalding wa- 
ter to drown the beds or hills, or wich wet ftraw and hre, to 
make fuch a fmoak upon them, as may fmother them to d(.aih : 
alfo if you manure your Corn-lands wijh afties, lime, or falt- 
fand, you (hall be well affured it will never breed Pifnares. 

Of Dores. Next unto thefe, your Dores or great black Clocks are ve- 

hement deftroyers of all kind of Coru, both white Corn and 
Pulfe, whiift it lietli dry on the earth, and before it fprout i tor 
for after itb^ginneth to fprout , they do no more touch ir, and 
thffc Dores dclboy it in the fame manner, as the Pifmires do, by 
creeping in at the I'mall crevices ol the earth, and hnding tlic 
grain, do as long a5 it is dry, feed thereon i and thougii they are 
no hoarders, or gatherers together ot the gram, keeping it in 
heaps in dry places, as the Pifmires and other vermine do, yet 
they are great feeders thereon, and that continually : beiides, 
they will ever chulc out the fulicl^ and belt Corn, and leave the 
leaner, whereby they do the Husbandman double injury,as firlk 
to dcvour,and then to devour but the bcft only. 

The Cure. Thecure or prevenion for thefe Doies, or blac'< Clocks, is 

in Sccd-timc to makL great -.moaks in your Corn-nclds, which 
will prefently chafe them from thence,for they arc the greateft 
enemies that may be Co all manner ot Imoak > but if that be not 


Book 2. Of f eld Rats and Mice, 77 

fufticient, then immediately before you fowe your Corn, you 
fhal! very lightly fowe your Land with fliarp Lime, and when- 
foevcr the Dore (hall Hnd the fmell, or tafte thereof , prefcntly 
he will depart j or ifheeateth of the grain that toucheth the 
Lime, it is a prefcnt Poyfon unto him^-and there he dicth* 

After thefe, your held Rats and Mice are very vehement de- Of field Rats 
ftroyers of all manner of grain or Seeds before they fprout, efpe^ ^^^ Wicc 
dally all forts of wheat, and all forts ofpulfe, becaufe for rhe 
TOoftpart thofe kind of grains in many Soyls are fown under 
furrows, and not harrov/cd, Co that the furrows atfirftlyinga 
little hoUow, thefe Vermines getting in between the earth and 
them,willnot only devour and eat a great part of thcgrain,but 
alfo gather together great heaps thereof into their nelt, as is of- 
ten feen when at any time their ne(h are found, fome having 
more, (bme lels, according to their labours. 

And albeit in other Soils where the grain is fown above fur- 
row, and fo harrowed in, and laid mUch more clofe and fafe, 
they cannot do fo much hurt as in the former, yet even whh 
thefe they will with their feet dig out the Corn in great abun- 
dance, and though in lefs meafure, yet do hurt that is unfuffera- 
ble i fo that to conclude, neither Rye,BaTlcy,Oats,nor any other 
fmallerand more tender Seeds, arc free from their annoyance 
and delhudtion. 

Now the Cure and prevention for thefe Field Rats, or Mice, "^'^^ ^^'^^- 
are divers, according to the opinions of divers Authors, and 
divers of our beft experienced Husbandmen ; for fome ufe in the 
Dog-days, or Canicular days, when the Fields arc commonly 
bare, to fcarch out the holes and nells of thcfc Rats and Mice, 
which are eafily known, being little round holes in the earth, 
madefo round and artihcially as if they were made with aa Au- 
ger, no bigger than the body of the Creature that was to liein it, 
and into thefe holes they ufe to put a few Hemlok-feeds^oCv<i\\\c\\ 
when the beafts tallcs it is prefent death unto thcmiOthers ufe to 
fprinkle upon the land Mf/'tr, or necfing powder mixt with 
BarL7-meal,of which the Mice and Rats will greedily feed, and 
it is a deadly baneand prefent death unto them. 

La(Uy(& which is the beft Medicine Jif you take -a good quarv- 
tity ofordinary green ghfs, beaten alfo to powder, ind as much 

L 2 Copperas 

78 Offences of H^orms, Book 2* 

Copperas or Vitriol beatei> alfo topowd.r, and raixthem with 
courfc honey, till it come to apalk, and then lay itin th.. holes^ 
and moLi fufpitious places, and it will lyive Rat nof 
Moufe about all your fields, but fuddcnly dcliroy them. 
Of Worms, ^^c nexr great dcftroyeis of Corn and Grain, are Worn-iS, 

and they dcliroy it in the fprouting, then when the ground 
hath rotted it, and the white or milk fubftance breaking opci^ 
the upper husk, (hootcth forth in little white threds at both ends^ 
upon which whilft it is fo moifi and tcnder,the worm fcedcth ex- 
treme, and fo devouring up the fubilancc or fpcrm, is the caufc 
thecorn cannot grow or get out of the groundjindthcfewar/n^ 
being as it were the main citizens within the earth, are fo innu- 
inerable, that the lofs which is bred by them is inHnite, 

The Cure* Now the cure or prevention forthefe \Vorms,isdivcrfly ta- 

keni for fome Husbandnicn ufe but only toftrikcinto.the PJow- 
Reft, and under the loweft edge of the {hebord certain crooked 
fpikcsof Iron of great nails half driven in, and turned back a- 
gain, with which as the Plow runs tearing in the ground, and 
turns up the furrow, ihofe pieces of Iron kill and tear in pieces 
fuch Worms as are either within or under the furrow that the 
Plow cafts up, and this is fure a very good Husbandry Piadtice, 
but not fufficiw'nt for the deftroying of fuch a fccrct hurtful ver- 
mine which is fo innumerable, and lieth fo much concealed i 
therefore more curious Husbands ufe befides this help of the 
PloWjto take Oxe-dung and mix it with riraw,and then tobnrn 
it up in the land making a great fmokc overall the land, imme- 
diately before you plow it for Seed, and it is thought that this 
will kill all the worms which lie fo high in the earth, as to hurt 
the Corn. 

Others ufe before they make cither the mixture or the fmoke, 
to wet the Ihaw in ftrong lye, and then adding it to the d ung, 
the fmoke will be fo much the ftrongcr, and the Worms kill'd 
the fooncri or if you fprinkle ftrong Lye upon your Seed, be- 
fore you fowe it, there is not any Worm that will touch the 
grain after : Alfo if you take hemp and boil it in water, and 
with the water fprinkle your {ttd^. before you fowc it, not any 

Of Hvcuotto ^O''"^ will come near to touch it, 

be wet. Yet it is to be obferved in this rule of wetting youi feed. corn, 


Book 2 . Offences of fVorms, 


that by no means you mufl wet your Sccd-Rye, for it is a Grain 
fo warm and tender, thitir will neither indurecold, wet, nor 
fiitf ground, in Pjn^.uch that the Plow-man hath a Proverb, that 
Rye well drown'd in the Hopper ", that is -to fay, it muft neither 
be f>'.vn on wet ground, nor in a wet day,fince prefent (howers= 
ar.eapt to deiiro)'. ~ . : . . 

Laltly-it is thought that oft plowing )K)ur ground in the wane 
of the Moon is a very good means to dertroy both. 

Touching that pradtice which many ufe,to gather the worms 
from their lands at Sun-rife, in bright dewy morning, and Sub- 
fet, when the worms couple above the earth, I hold it more lit 
♦or fmall Gardens, than large Corn-hclds. -' i 

The next great deftroyers of Corn, are Snails, and they de- Of ftiayls. -. 
ftroyir after it is fprouted,feedingupon the tender white threds 
and (tons which Hart from the Seed and would rife above the 
earth, being theftem orftalk on which the ears (hould grow 
(were it not devoured and eaten up by- the Snails, and fuch like 
VermineJ as foon as it begins to peep up, or as it were to open 
the earth i whereby it is driven back and forced to die in the 
earth ; for thefe creatures fucking upthe tender fweetnefs, de- 
prive it both of life and nourifhment. 

The Cure and prevention for this evil, is to take the foot of The Cnrc . 
aChimney, and after your Corn hath been fown a week or 
ten days, or within two or three days after the rirft fhower of 
Rain which fhall fall after the Corn is fown \ you ("hall fowe 
this foot of the Chimney thinly over the Land, and not a Snai) 
will indurc to come thereon : Others ufe ( efpeeially in Trance 
and thofe more fertile Countries^ to take common Oyl-lees,and 
after the Corn hath been fown, and is ready to appear above 
the ground, tofprinkle it all over the Lands,by which means 
no Snail or fuch like Creature will indure to come near the 

The next great dcftroyer of Corn is accounted theGrafnop- OfGraOioj^ 
per, and he alfo deftroyeth itatter it is fprouted, and appeareth pers. 
above ground as the Snail doth, but fomewhat more greedily, 
for he not only feedeth on the tender white flrings,but upon the 
iirft green leaves that appear alfo i by which nmeans the Corr> 
ls>not ab!e to fpring ojt briiig forth a ftem'or -ftalk to bear 

the . 

8o Ojjencesof MoUs. Book 2 

the car upon.orif i: do puttonhany,yei: it isfo fnullj weak and 
wretched, that the ear growing on the fan e, is withered and 
lean, and the grain dry and blaficd,and no better than dulf>nor 
is there any Corn that fcapeth the defiru(fiion of the Gralhop- 
per,he generally fcedeth on all : Hift on Wheat and F\yc, be- 
caufc they are the earlief}, then on Barly and Oa:s, ar-d laftly 
onpulfe, upon whofe leaf and blolTom he feedeih, whiiil the 
tirfi is f^ect and pteafantjCr the other green. 

Ihe Care Now the Cure or prevention for theL Creatures, is, accord- 

ii^ to the opinion of fome Husbandmen , to take Worm-wood, 
and boy 1 it well in water, till thefirength of the Woim-wood 
be gone thereinto, and then wet with tliai: water in the month 
' o4.Aii>'jto fprinkle all your Corn over when the Sun is riling 
or ictting, aed not any Giafhoppcr will come near, or annoy 
fhefanie. Others ufe inftjad of VvMrm-wood tobol Centau- 
ry, and toufelhe water thereof in t'.e fame maimer as aforefaid, 
ao4 rind an equal prorit in the fame ; but it is moft certain that 
^^bitfcrconcodion whatfc>ever, ufed andappU^d asaforefaid, 
will not leave any Graihopper about ycur held \ for any bitter- 
cefs is fuch an enemy unto them, that they cannot live where 
tb.ey feel any tafte thereof. 

OfI4ok* irhe laft offence ot living Creatures belonging to Corn cr 

Grain are Molcs.wiiich not only feed upon it at:er it isfproutcd, 
and fpjndlcd^by eating up the roots thereof,and fo confequcnt- 
ly by killing the whole Corn •, but alfo their digging and un- 
dermining ot the earth, do root up the Corn and dcfiroy it in 
raofi wondertul manner, for where they make their haunts, or 
5re futfercd to dig, there they will defiioy almofi hah an acre in 
a day : neither make th,:^ choice either ot grounds or grain, tor 
aH grounds and grains are alike, if the ground be not too wet or 
iub);d lolQundation-SOrovcr-RowsC-S for the moft part Corn 
grounds arc uotj tor above all things Moles caimot indure wet 
ground, or earth of too moiii a quality. 

The Cure. Now the bcfl Cure or prevention againft thcfe Creaturcs,is,to 

tindout the trenches and paffa^cs, which arc moft plain & cafie 
to beknown by the turning up ut the new earth, and digging 
crois holes io^ fame, to watch either the going forth, or the 
coming back of the Mole, and when you fee her caft,toftrike 


Book 2. Of Smuninefs atk MUderp, 8r 

her with an iron fork made ofmany grains, as eight or fix at the 
leafljind fo to kill anddeftroy them, which isfo gen-rally knowa 
amongft Husbandmen, that it is become a trade and occup^ition 
among thcm/j that it needs no farther defcription \ and the ra- 
ther, in as much as for three or four pence a fcore,you may have 
any ground cleanfed of Moles whatfocver, 

No^v there be fome others which have not this art of killing or 
catching of Moles, which only do take brimiione and wet link- 
ing liraw, or any thing elfe that will mKe a itink"ng fmoak,an(l 
putting fire thereto, fmoak all the places of their haunts, and by 
that means drive them all clean away from thecom landsimany 
other pradi'es they have, but none To good, certain, and pro- 
bable as thcfe already declared. 

Thus far I havcfpoken of thofe offences which proceed from offences fronj 
living Creatures, I will not treat of thofe which come and grow the influence 
from the influence of the Heavens, being malignant vjpours, ofche Heaven, 
which ftriking into the earth, do alter thefwectand pbafant 
nourishment thereof, and change it into bitternefs and rorten- 
ncfs, whereby the Corn is either llain ou:-right, withered and" 
made lean and unkind ly,or clfe the kernel turns to a hlthy bh:k- 
nefs, being bitter, dry and dul^y, like unto fnoak, whi:h the ■ ^ 

Husbandmen call fmuttinefs, or mildew. It comethalfosrro- ^f 5'?''«f'''<:rs 
therway, as namely, by over-ranknefs, or too muchhtnefs of^'^'^^^^^'^^^^- 
the earth, and this hapneth moft commonly only to Wheat > 
for if blacknefs happen :o any oth.-r grain, it comcth ofbl-fr- 
ing<;, cr other malice of the Stars, for ranknefs of the ground is 
in Barley^ Ry;r,or Oats only, make them lie Rat to the ground, 
the ftilk not being able to fupport the muUiplicity cf thecars, 
and fo by that means the grain ivantlng his true nourilnmcnt, 
grows wichcred, and cf no validity, nosv that tl.isis moficaiie 
to be found out, the ranknefs of the growing Com riling as it. 
were in clofc bundles together, and thed;ep blacknefs of the 
green blade will with fmall travel fliew you. 

This to cure and prevent, it (hall b; good before yoh;fo'w^^^ Curcr. 
your grain, to foweyour land lightly over with Chalk, fcj: that 
will abate his ovcr-rankncf?. ■' 

There be other malignant qualities which proceed from the'^^^'^^^*^- 
influences of the HsaVwiiS, or rather from the qualicies of "the. 

&2 ' Offences from the /nftue me of Heaven. Book 2 

Planets or Elcments,which do many dangrous hurts unto Corn, 
as namely the Hail, the Lij,htning, the Thunder,or the PJanct- 
liruck, or Blafting, for all which the anticnt Husbandmen have 
fuggefted feveral Cures : as namely for the Hail, to plant the 
White-vine, or flick the branches thereof in the Corn-held: tor 
the Lightning, to clofe a Hedge- Toad in an earthen Pot, 
and burying her in the Corn- he id, or to plant or hang up the 
feathers of an Eagle, or a Seal-skin, or to fet Lawrel thercinifor 
the Thunder, to Ring Bells,to fhoot oif great Ordnance, or to 
burn (linking weeds in the Corn-field : And for lilafling, to 
take the fair horn of an Oxe, and mixing it with dung, to burn 
it in the Corn field, or to take the Branches of the Biy-tree,and 
to plant them in the Corn-field : But, in as much as all thefe, 
and many other the like, fmell rather of Conjuration, Charm, 
orExorcifm, thenof any probability of truth i I will neither 
here ftand much upon them, nor perfwade any man to give fur- 
ther credit unto them, than as to the vapours of mens brains, 
which do produce much, many times out of meet imagination \ 
and fo I will proceed unto thofe things whicli are of far greater 

OfFrofts. The next evil which hapneth unto Corn or Grain, is that 

which cometh by froft and (harp-nipping colds, which ftar- 
ving the Root, and binding up all nouriOiment, makcth the 
Corn dry, wither, and never profper '•> and, than the violence 
of the froHs, there is nothing more bitter to Plants and Seeds i 
• for, cvtn Rafor-like^it cuttcth the veins and finews in pieces,and 
as (harp needles prickcth the heart cf every growing thing r 
For as the fire vvhich is molt hot, when it ragcth, burneth, and 
confumeth all things , (o the troft, which is moft cold when it 
continueth, flarveth and choakcth, or fliflcth whatfoever item- 

The Cure. Now the Cure or prevention for thofc evils which do hap- 

pen to grain by thcfe great frolls, is as fome Husbandmen fup- 
pofe, to cover the Land over when it is fown with a(hcsi others 
ipread draw or rotten litter upon their Corn, and not any of 
them but is fufticient to prevent the vvorfl injury that froll can 

Pyp,^ Themoft malignant quality which offcndcth grain, is mift 


Book 2. Offences from the Infiuence of HeAven. 8^ 

and fog \ which being naughty vapours drawn froni the infe<3:- 
ed parts of the earth, and fall upon the Corn, do not only make 
the grain leprous, but alfo infedting the better earth after the 
kindly nouriflimcnt thereof, and as it were diftiJling corruption 
in the veins, makes all that depends thereupon moft leprous and 
unwhojforti, and thereupon altcreth the quality, quite turning 
fweetncfsinto bitternefs, fulnefsintoemptincfs , and goodnels 
into bd nefsjto the great iols of the Husbandmen,and the much 
difreputation of jhe ground. 

Now the Cure and prevention of this evil, according to the The Cure, 
opinion of all the beft Husbandmen, is, to take weeds gieen, the 
twigs of bramble, and other brufi^ woods, wet firaw,or fuch like 
ftuif, and binding them up in great bundles , to put lire thereto, 
making a great and violent fmoke, and then taking the advan- 
tage of the wind, to walk up and down the held and fmoke it, 
which is thought a certain remedy to take away thofe inconve- 
niencies which happen by the venome and poylbn ofthefe mifts 
and fogs. 

Now to qonc!udc,of the difeafesand infirmities which happen Corn rcapt 
to Corn whiKlit is in the held, there is not any formerly fpoken ^'''"• 
of more dangerous, or ofvilder quality than the reaping, mow- 
ing, or gathering inof Corn wet, or too green,and unhardncdv 
for fuch moifture, when the Corn is (heaved up clofc together,, 
orftacktor mowed up, forthwith, gathereth hear, and cither 
fetteth the Corn on fire, or eife the moifture being of lefs quan- 
tity, and not apt to flame, yet \t. corrupteth the grain and (triw, 
" and brecdeth a frinkingmouldineis or rottennefs about it : fo 
that the Grain either becomes dung or dirt,or at leaft f) Itink- 
ing and unfavory , that it is good for no ufc or purpore,as is dai- 
ly feen where carelefs Husbands gather in their Grain without 
refped or Government , making liie old Proverb, l.]ut hajie 
ever briiigs rvjjh. 

The Cure and prevention of this evil, is the well-husbanding The Cure, 
andmanaging ofthe Harvclr, asrirft with a careful and vvclU 
judging eye to look upon your Corn.and to know by the hang- 
ing downward of the car, looking a*^ it were back to the 
ground, and by the hardncft of the Grain, whether it be ripe 
orno-, then looking to the cleanncfs of the Corn, as whether it 

M be 

84 Of Corn rent wet. Book 2* 

be full of ereennefs, as grafs, weeds, and iuch hke : or clean of 
i: \c\i without any mixrurs ; if you rind there be any weeds 
mixt with ir, ihen you may reap it fo riiuch the fooner, though 
the kemtfl be not fo well hardned as you would wiih : and 
above all things , have a care never to Ihcar Corn in the 
rain or wer. no, tier fo triuch as with the mornings or c- 
venicgs dew upon ir, bu: even in the heat and brighrnefsof 
the day. Then having reapt your Corn fo full cf grafs and 
weeds yc'u ihall by r:c means iheaf ir, but fpreading it thin 
in the Sun, let the grafs wither all that day, which when 
you perceive to charge ccloar and grow dry, then bind ir 
up in {heaves, an3 let it lie lingle a day. that the wind and 
Sun may get into it, and dry the greens more fufficiently \ 
then lay it in (hocks cf lii cr eight (heaves apiece, and in 
thofe (hocks, turn the cars fo inward, that the other big- 
ger ends may defend then: from all the rain, wet or dew 
th-t may fall upon them : then a day or two after , lay 
them in ihocks cf twenty , 01 tbur -nd twenty fneaves a- 
piece, and in thcfe O-.ock?. let them take a fweat ; then break 
them open in a bright Sun-fhine day. and letting the air pafs 
thcrow them, to dry their, torthwith lead the grain home, 
and houfe it or fiack it in fuch fort as was fnewed in Hi'.t 
totmer Chapter, and be fure the grain thiis ordered and dri- 
ed can never take hurt : but if the feafon of the year fall 
cut fo extraordinary evil and full of wet, that bv no means 
you c^n get your Corn dry home, { which although it be 
icldcme fecD. yet it is poliible tobefcen ) in this cafe you 
muft bring it home as well as you can, and having your 
Kilne well ordered and bedded, yon (hall lay asmany (heaves 
thereon, as it can contain, and turning and tolhng them over 
a very gen lie fire, by flow degrees, dry them very pcrfcdly as 
i^ear as you can, with no greater a heat than that which the Sun 
^veth, and then mow and ftackthennup atyourpleafurc, fcr 
ihc air will fwcercn them cgain, and take away all fracll or 
iiriokt or other annoyance > only obfcrve, not to Track them up 
whiiftThc hic or heat is in them, but whtn they are cold, and io 
fhcy wjlj be as fwect as msy be. 

Nc-'v it ii iif»t aiiiifs that I fpcak here. a word cr two of 


Of Com 

Book 2. OfwajhtQom, 85 

wafht Corn, or the wafhing of Corn : True it is Cas before I 
have written) that all forts of Wheat whatfoever are fubjed 
either by the ranknefs of the ground, blading or clfc mil- 
dewing, to a kind of filthy footy blacknefs, as is already 
(hewed i and this footy Corn is taken two ways, generally 
and particularly : generally, if the whole Land b.^ftricken, 
and no Corn faved, but all fpoilcd, which is called mildew- 
ed •> or particularly, where but forae certain ears are ftruck, 
or fome certain part of the grain, as when it is black at botli 
ends, yet lull and found in the middeft, and this is called 
fmutcht Corn, being disfigured in part, but not in all. This 
fmutchtCorn, which is liricken here and there, if theblalkd 
ears be not culled out from the other, which to do is an 
Husbandry exceeding good and very worthy) when it Com- 
eth under the flayl, the dufi of thofe black blalled ears 
will fo foul all therelt of the Corn, that it will lookblackand 
ill-tavoured,and fo become unferviceable and unmarketable-,for 
the blafted Corn is both bitter and unwholfome : In this cafe, 
you muftof force wa(h this Corn, and you mud do it iw two 
or three waters, till you fee all the blacknefs quite gones 
which done, then drain away your water clean , and laying 
the Corn on fair window cloaths, or coverlids, lay it in the 
hear of the Sun, and fo dry it again till it be fo hard that 
it will grind : But if the time of the year will not ferve for 
the Suns drying it, then you fiiall dry it on a Kiln, with a 
very foft and gentle fire, and then cool it in the air to reco- 
ver the fweetnefs again, and then the Corn is as fcrviceable as 
any other : only for Seed it will by no means (erve, both by 
means of the blalting, which makes the kernel impcrfcd: at 
both ends where it ihould fprout, as alfo the too much drying 
thereof, by which it is fo much hardncd, that the ground ham ^^^ enfoy ^ 
no ftrcngth to rcfolveit •, therefore it is the Office of every Hus- ' ' " 
bandman when hechufeth his Seed-Corn, to cfchew by all 
means this wafht Corn as a Grain that is loll in the earth, and 
will by no means grow. 

Therefore that you m:y know wafht Corn from all other to know 
-Corn, and fo not to be cozened by any deceit in the ill HuS- waflitCorn, 
i)andman, you Ihall take it up in your Hand, and if the Corn 

M 2 look 

9S Hew to preferve aU forts of Grahf, Book 2. 

look bright, clear, and fVaning, being all of oneintirc colour, 
wirhour change or ditferencc, then be fure the Corn is unwaftit 
and p:rf:(f^. 

Butifyou hnd it look whiterat the ends than in any other 
part of the Corn j3nd that the whitcncfs is black and not ihining, 
ib that there is a changeable colour in the Cor:":, th.^n be alTurcd 
that the Corn is wafht, and then by no means apt for Seed or 

Again, put three or four grains into your mouth, and chew 
their), and thenifthetafte be fwectand pleafant.and grind mel- 
low and gently between your teeth,then is the Corn not wafhti 
but if it have a bitterifh, or flefhy raw tafte, and grind hard 
between your teeth with much roughnc(s, then hath the 
Corn been wafht, and dried again, and is not good for Seed v 
alfo when Corn is more than ordinarily moil>,ormore than or- 
dinarily dry, both are very ill fignes, and (hew either imperfed: 
Corn, or imperftdV keeping, for the beA and good Com indeed, 
crer holdeth an indifferent temperature, betwixt drinefs and 
moi/hue. - 


Hsw to k^eep aSnunner ef Grairt^ either thraOrt or nnthrajht , 
vpith Ujji lofs the hngej\ time ', artd horv tifrejitne rt 
from aHinfirnuies^ and Vermine in the 
Houfe or Game r. 

TO proceed to the keeping and preferving of Com and 
Grain, it is ^0 be underftood, thit it is :o be done two fe« 
^^^^ veral ways, that is to fay, in the Ear, and cut of the Ear *, in the 

ftack, when it isileanfed and drefled. 
Keeping Corn Touching the keeping of Corn in the Ear, or in the Stack, 
wtheearor there is no better nor fafer way than that already defcribcd in 
M) the chaff, ^j^^ ilxrcenth Chapter, being free from all offences whatfocver, 
that can come to hurt it. 

Now there be others that cut off theEar<; of then- Corn, and 
then put them into great Chelis cr Hutches of wood ffuch as arc 
very frequent and much ufed in Ireland^ and other Countries 
where War rageth^and fokcep itfweetand g,ood many years : 


Keeping ot 
Corn two- 

Book 2. OfCorninthe£:ir. 87 

Others ufe to beat it out of the ear, but not feparate it from the 
Chaff^ and then Uying a lear of the Straw more than a foot 
thick, to lay a good thick lear of the thratht Corn ■, and thus lay 
lear upon lear, till you have made up your fiack, in fuch propor- 
tion as you (hall think convenient ", and this m\\ keep all kind ot 
Corn, or Grain, or other Sced?,found,f\ve£t,and ritiorany pnr- 
pofe,at leaftadoivn ycar5,or more^as tome have fuppofed, with- 
out either too muchdrying,vvithering,moifiening5 or moulding. 
And furely tkisis a very excellent way tor the fmringupofmudi 
Corn in a very little room, and may as well be done with Coni 
as wich l^raw ■•> only it is not to be done in Barn nor Houfe, be- 
caufe Mice, Rats, and other kind of Vermine will work much 
Jeftrucf^ion thereupon, but on a Stack, or Hovel m.adeand pro- 
portioned in fuch form as was fhewed b:fore in the llxteenth 
Chapter, and fo it will ftand fate without all annoyance, as long 
as it Ihall pleafe the owner to keep it i furc I am, it will h(\ thus 
fully twelve years » yet fome Authors athrm, it wdl laft rifry 
years, but that is a fpace of years b;yond my trial. 

Touching thekecping of Corn after it is thraflic and drefr, it Keeping cf 
is divers ways to be done, as by ftowage or place of Icai, as Gar- Corn ov-.i c-\ 
i\txs, Hutches, and fuch like, by labour and indullry, as with the ^^^^.p^'^r 
fliovel, or elfe by device or medicine. 

For Gamas, they be made divers ways, according to thena- Of Gameis*- 
tureofthe Country, and cufiom of the people. 

Someare made with clay, and fome trodden withhair, ftraw 
chopt, and fuch like : but thefe arc the worft, and do fooneft 
corrupt Corn •. for althongh they are warm, which is a great pre-- 
fcrvation to Corn, yet they yield duft, and t>om that dull is 
bred fleas, mitss, weavels, and other Vcimine which do fpoil 
Corn, and make it eafily rot. 

Others are made oflioneand limejbut they are fubjec^ again ft 
wet weather, to yield forth a moift dew, which corrupteth and 
fotteth Corn. 

Others are made of Brick and Lime, and they arc very good 
againrt the Weave), and other fmall Vermine, but the Lime is 
(harp, and fo confequently very unwhokfoeiic for all manner of 

The beil Garner thar.can be mside to keep ail manner of Grains 


88 Of Garners and Hutches. Book 2, 

in, is made of playftcr, burnt, and brought into mortcr, and fo 
railing it up vnih the help of fmall ftoRcs hidden and placed in 
the midltot the wall, to make both the infidc and outlldcofthe 
Garner of fmoothphyfter, r.oftone being fcen but hidden at 
leaft two fingers thick on each fide, and all the bottom alfomult 
-befnadeofplaylteri fornoP.oot keepeth Corn fo well, cf what 
kind foever it bei and th<^fc Garners would be placed as near as 
you can to to the backs, or lides of Chimneys, or as near the air 
ot the lire as you can conveniently i fcr as there is nothing more 
cold then plainer, yet it is cvjr fo dry and free from moifturc, 
that wi:h no change of the :ir or weather it relenteth,but keep- 
eth the Corn ever in one Itate of goodnefs, whilfr the warm 
fianding thereof is fuch a comfort in the winter, and the natu- 
nl coolncfs of the thing fofoveraign in Sum.mer, tfiat thegraia 
ever abideth in one ftate without alteration. >h...,y.^ 

Now fcr Hutches, or great chefls, bins, dry fats,and fuch like, 
they are made of old, dry.and wcll-feafoned Oak-boards,plain- 
ed fmcoth, and clofe joyned and g,kwed together, with covers 
and lids made alfo very clofe, whereby little or no air can 
comeinj fomc of thcfe great Bins, or Hutches, made of dry 
board?, are made open and without covers, but they are not fo 
good, for the air covering the upper-part of the Corn, and the 
■TTiiddle partfwcating, brcedeth corruption, or mulh'ncfs, which 
hurtcth and fpoikth the Corn : bcfidcs, they are fomewhattoo 
warm, and thereby make any green Corn apt to corrupt and 
Of Hutches. Toucliing the ufe of Garners and Hutches,they are principal- 
ly tokec-p Male alter it is dricd,or Barley,which is for the ufe of 
bread or meal , and here is to be noted, that the beft manner of 
keeping Malt, is to keep it in the Corn,that is to fay, in the duft, 
and other hith which ccmcth with it frorri the Kilne, as thusi 
when hrft you lay your Malt on the Kilne to be dried , you 
know -here is3t one end a certain fprout, or fmall thred, which 
grows from the Corn, and is called the Come, which by the 
rubbing and drying of the Malt falls away, and leaves the Corn 
dean, and fmug oiit (elf,and when you trim and drcfsupyour 
Malt for the Mill, is vsinnowcd and cicanfed away : This you 
(hall prefeivc and put altogether into your Garner or Hutch, 


Book 2. Of Garners and Hutches, 89 

which will be fo mellow and ripen your Malt,thac in the fp^nd- 
ing rhereof^ a peck will go further, than a peck and a hilt kept 
of a contrary fafeion » and although fonie are pcrfwaded that 
this Come or Malt dull, is a great breeder of the vvorm or wea^ 
vel, by reafon of the much heat thereof, being indeed of the pti" 
reft of the heart of the Corn \ yet it is not (o, unlcfs feme rank- 
neis or moil\ure do get to the Corny and then it breeds weavels 
in infinite abundance, and therefore by all means be furc that 
Xour Garners and Hutches do fund exceeding dry, and then 
there is no fear of the lofs of Corn, nor Ihall you need to 
drefs or winnow your Male but as you fpend it. 

LaQIy, here is tobenotcd5that.although I here joyn GarncrSj 
Hutchcs,Cherrs,and Bins tog:cher,yet 1 make them not all of c^ 
qual goodnefsifor the pbifier Ginierisabfolutcly the beli ot all, 
the dofe Hutch or Che(} next, and the open Binhfto yet any, 
or all, fufhcient enough to keep Malt, Barley, or fmall Seeds, 
divers years without imperfedion» 

It is written by fome of the anricnted- Authors, that Wheif 
hath been kept in thefeclofe Hutches or Chefis fwect, the fpacc 
of fifty years i yet I hold the rule fomcwhat doubtful, both be^ 
caufe wheat of it felf, lying foclofe p:;ckt togcther,i5 apt 10 heat 
and fweat, and that heat commonly turneth to fiultinefs, and 
the fweat to corruption \ but that it may thus be prefer ved from 
worms, weavels, mites, and other vermine breeding in G)rn,it 
is doubtlefs and infallible. 

Now for the prefervation of Wheat, which is the moft prin- Topreferve.: 
cipal grain, of grcatefl ufc, and greatel^ price, and therewith- "^* 
almolUender, andapicd to take hurt, the experiments are di- 
vers, as mens fancies, and pradifcs have found out-, for fome 
Husbandmen hold opinion, efpccially the French and Spa- 
tiijh^ That if you take tlic Lees of common Oyl (fo it be fweet^ 
and rprinkleit uponyour Wheat as it lies , either in the Garner, 
or upon the floor,thatit will prcfervc it from all corruption and 
annoyance wharfoevcr> r,or doth it prefcrvc Wheat only, but all 
other manner ofTgrain whacfocver, nor doth it pre ferve Corn . 
alone from mifchiet but if Corn by cafualcy be tainted or hurf^ 
it doth recover it again^ and brings it to the frrlt fwectncfsvami 
ifcither worms or wcayels be bred in if, the OylprcfcntJ^ 

90 ' To preferve fVheat. Book 2. 

kills them, and frees the Corn from thatroifchiefiasfcr fmallet 
kz^s^ ashcirip, line snd rape, this Oyl doth not only kccpthcoi 
long and found, but alto teeds and nouriflKS them, and makes 
them better, either for the ground, or for ufe, cithcrinthe mill, 
cr in Medicine. 

There b.- others that ufe to take Chalk,and beat it to powder, 
and then fcatter it amcngft their Wheat, when they put it 
into the Garner, and have found that thereby their Gra'n 
hath been wouderfully prefervcd from all imperfed^ion > and 
furely there is great reafon for the fime, bccaufc the drinefs 
of the Chalk drinketh up the moilturc vfhich fweateth from the 
Grain, and is thehrft breeder of all putrifadion : Alfo it cool- 
eth and alTwagcth the immoderate heat which is ingendrcd 
in the Corn, by reafon of the packt and clofe lying toge- 

Again, there be others which ufeto lay great ftore of Worm- 
wood amongft their Wheat, which likewifc prefcrverhit from 
all anroyanccs,efpecially from W^orms and Weavcls,as alfo from 
Micc,Rat5,and fuch devouring Vermine, neither will the Corn 
corrupt or grow faulty, as long as the Worm-wood rem-ins a- 
mongft it. In Itjly^ the careful Husbands ufe to take a certain 
dry earth or clay, called car.h ot Olintbut^oT Cerintbut^ and this 
cart^^ they beat amongll their Wheat, and t en putitintothc 
Garner or Hutch, and itwillkeep it found and fwect divers 
years together ', then when they have occalion to ufe,with fmall 
reeing lives todrcfs it from the Corn, and fo pieferve the dufl, 
which Will bfi and ferve you many years together, even almort 
an age \ as fomchave reported, and is at this day to be fccn in 
many parrt;©*' Italy, and other places. 

Again, I have ior mine own part fcen in the iHand of the 
Azsnis^ certain very great large Caves, or pits made under 
rhe earth, <"4 thcfalhion of a Spatiijh earthen Lear, that is to fay, 
jgrcar and fpaci^usin the midli, and narrow both at the top 
and bottom, like a bra^s Pot, or great gla(s Vial, and made 
as fm<x)th within as may be, and in thcfe caves or pits, they hrll 
lay chaff, and then their tiirallt Whear, filling it up full to 
the top, or witliin a handful thereof, which they fill again vvith 
Chaff, and then doling the top fvirh abroadlbne, they cover 


Book 2. To Preferve /Vhext, pi 

it over with earth fo clofe and unperccivable , that you may 
Walk or travel over it without any fufpition \ and for mine 
own parr, I have my f=lf digged up many of thefe pits , and 
found great iiore of Wheat, both in the High-way5, and o- 
ther molt fufpitious places \ and furely it is thought, and ex- 
perience in thofe places makes ic good, that in thefe Caves or 
Pits you may keep Wheat as long as you pleafe, as tlhty fpeak- 
cthof, which is an hundred, or an hundred and twenty years, 
without hurt or putrefaction, either of heat, moifrure, worms, 
weavels, or any other Vermine whatfoever which confumeth or 
devoureth Coini yet how I may recommend this experiment 
to our Nation, lam uncertain, becaufc the much moifrure of 
our Climate, and the cold rawnefs thereof promifeth a contrary 
etfedl \ for the great enemies unto grain, are violent cold and 
moifture, and with us it is very difficult to make any Caverns 
under the earth but they mufr be fubjedt unto both : Therefore 
only to thofe which live in hot fandy Countries, high and free 
from (prings or waters, or in dry and rocky grounds, where 
thefe mines or hollow places may be hewed out, as in amain 
and firm Quarry, Irecommend the trial of this pradife, with 
this afiTurancc, that where the ground is fit for that purpofe, as 
any of your fand grounds or gravel earths, 2i in Norfolk^Mid- 
dlejex^ Kent^ and many other Tandy Climates", or in rocky fci- 
tuations, as in Nottlnghanty Bath^Brjhl^ and fuch like, you may 
keep your Wheat good, found, firm, and free from all annoyan- 
ces, even as long as you (hall pleafe to keep it, both without pu- 
trefadtion in itfelf, or wafie made by other devouring worms 
and verminibutif in a more moirt place,asin clay or other mixt 
earth, which ever is vomiting wet and dcwhh humours, you arc 
forced to ^approve this experiment i thtn you rauft necelTarily 
lime all your Cave or hollow Mines within, at leall half a foot 
thick with tylelher'd and plaifrer laid wall-like together, and 
then the plaittcr dawb'd at leail three fingers thick above an,and 
fo you may keep your Corn as fafe and as found as any hot foyl 
whatfoever i but without iryour Corn will not endure a week 
without rottennefs, fauhinef^mculdinefs, and linking. 

Toconclude, having (Tewed you all the moft approved and 
bed experiments for the keeping and preferving of wheat, there 

N is 

^, ToPreferve/fheJLt, Book 2. 

is none better, oi fo good as this Glly plain one, which I will 
here deliver; and that is,ftrft,a5 near as youcaB,Teap your Wheat 
at the change of the Moon > for Wheat which is fo reaped, i? fel- 
«lom or never fubjeft to lofs or putrifadion 'being got in dry, 
or in husbandry manner ordered and handled} becaufe that Coc- 
leftial body baih fvich a power and infiucnce in the growth of 
Com and Seeds, that asihegroweth, fothey grow, and as Ok 
wancth, fo they abate and wither. 

And truly tor my own part, in my poor Husbandry, IhaYC 
made this cbfcrvation, that I have reaped Corn at the beginning 
ofthewane(to mine eye and judgment^ great,full^an4 bd'd as 
the Plow-man calls it, and within few days after, when itcaL"5C 
to thraihing, I have found it mcft poor,hungry,and fmallCom: 
nor could I give or hnd any other reafon for the fame, but that 
it was reaped in an ill and rooft unfeafonablc time : for, on the 
contrary part, I have ever found that Corn reaped upon the 
change, being ripe, full, and every way ht for the Bam ("and 
Jthe weather fair and dry above head; it hath never altered, but 
kept his hrfiand perfed goodncfs v fothat I cannot chufe, but 
in this cafe think tficobfervation of the Moon to be a thing of 
great efled and validity, appointed by God as a fecord means 
for our help and profit : "when therefore your Corn is thns fea- 
fonably and well got in, you ihall fhrafhit, winnow it,ar>d drcfs 
irfo clean as you can, ihcn carry it up into your C'hambers or 
lofts appointed f«5i that purpofe, of whofe floors by all means I " 
weuld wifn to be caft of the beft plaifrer ^ for boards is too hot, 
and clay is too apt to breed Verminc : On this pkifter floor you 
(hall fpread your Wheat.not above a foot thick at the upper- 
irujft, and fo let it lie, obtrving once in four or in tire days at the 
TTiOidjWidi a large wooddcn il-ovcl to tarn the Wh^ttquirs over 
and ever, and thus doing, you (hall be fure to keep n as fwect, 
found,and good, as when it lirft came into theBarn:for neither 
can the heat, fwcar, nor coldnefs offend it, the Hrft being cooled 
and terr.percd by the opening and difperflng, the fccond dried 
up by the air which hathfiree recourie unto it, and the hft com- 
forted by the labour and tolling of the (hovel, caftmg it up and 
down from one place to another : and though (ome curious 
Hosbands may objcdt, That this manner of keeping Com dricth 


Book 2. ToPreferveRye, pj 

it fomewhat too much,and thereby difableth if for fome parti- 
cular purpofcs, as for feed and fuch likeryct in chat they are much 
iTiirtaken s for this ftirring and moving of Grain, is not a dry- 
ing of it,but rather a great comforter and ftrcngthncr of it, di- 
fperfing back into the Corn, thofe wholcfome vapours which 
(hould do it good C by way of communication and fellow (hip 
with the Grain ) and cxpJling thofe ill humors which fweat- 
ingoutofit would otherwife confound and hurt it, fc that in 
conclulion , for the true an4 long keeping of Wheat fweet, 
found, and perfedi, without lofs or corruption, there is no way 
more fafe oreafie,than thislartexpreflfed, being of all other the 
bed, although in ihew it appear fleightand trivial, as for the 
moft part things of the grcateft moment in this nature do : but- 
to the judiciais Husbandman I refer it, whofe aim is afthc 
v«orth and fublbnce, not at the words and curious glofs, fet 
forth in ftrange ingredients. 

Touching the keeping of Rye, or Maflin, or, as fome call Jo prefcrve 
it, Munck-corn, or Blend-corn , being part Rye, and part ^^' 
Wheat mixed together, that which prelervcth Wheat, will al- 
fo prtferve it, for they are Grains of like nature, only the Rye 
is fomewhat hotter and drier, and therefore will endure Ibmc- 
what more moiflure : yet to fpeak particularly touching the 
prefervationof Rye , there is nothing better than theplaifter 
floor, and oft turning s the clo(e Hutch is alfo exceeding good, 
fo is the Pipe or dry fat, but being once opened, and the air en- 
tring into the Com, except it be ioon fpcnt, it will foon putri- 
fic> for though in the clofe keeping, it laft long, yet when it 
comes to the air it will quickly receive taint. Laftly,forthc 
prorit in keeping of Rye, indeed there is nothingbetter than 
to ply it, and tread it hard into Veflek or Barrels, wherein falc 
hath been much lodged, or other brine or fait matter : provi- 
ded always that the Veffels be fvvcet and untainted , no ways 
fubjedt to faultinefs or other unfavoury fmells,from which there 

Concerning the prefer v a ti on and keeping of Beans, which p° ^'"^'^'^^'^ 
are indeed amoregrofs and fatter Grain thin any heretofore 
written of, and out of thefulnefs of their fubftance, m.ore fub- 
jedl to moifture and thofe dankifn humors which corrupt Corn: 

N a The 

^A To Preferve Beans. Book 2. 

The careful Husbandman obfervcth two RulC;,firft,not to thrafh 
any Beans or Fulfe, more than for neceflary ufc ( as tor the 
Stable or Mill J before it be middle Mi»rcl>, at which time the 
Grain, having taken a kindly fwcatinthe Mow, Stack, or 
Hovel, is become fo dry, firm, and folid, that no floor, wall, 
or other place of Lear can make it relent, or give again (except 
g'^Cit abufcy and too moift keeping ) for it is to be underftood, 
that this fort of Pulfe or Grain is of it felf fo exceeding moift 
and apt to fweat in the Mow, that all Husbandmen endeavoui 
by no means to houfc it, or lay it within doors, but feek to 
make it up in (lacks and hovels without doorsvnot fo much that 
houfe-room is wanting, as that the benefit of the Sud, and 
^ Air, which pierceth through the fame, drieth and ripeneth 
the Corn in fuch kindly manner, asmaketh it as ferviceableas 
any other ;and indeed,the fir ft invention of ftacks, hovels, reeks, 
and fuch like, did not fpring fo much from the want of hou» 
fing, as from the good and pcofit which the Husbandman found 
to accrue to this kind of Grain, only by reafon of laying it a- 
bjoad i for it is certain, that Beans and Peafe neither grow to- 
gether, nor ripen together,but put forth their increafe one after 
another > for you (hall fee upon one ftalk, blooms, fwads and 
ripe cods : fo likewife in the gathering of Pulfe ( when it is 
reaped from the ground ) you (hall fee fomedry and withered, 
fome ripe, fome half ripe, fome abfolutcly green, and as but now- 

Now all thefc muft be reapt together, and if you ftay them 
in the field till all be of like drinefs, queftionlefs theoldeft will 
fhake and fhed upon the ground before the youngeft be ripened, 
and what that lofs will redound to, every Husbandman can 
judge : So alfo to houfc and mow up in a clofe mow, the dry 
Pul e with the green, furely the green cannot chufe but inflame 
and heat the dryland the d ry fb heated to give fire to the green, 
till both be cither rotted or confumcd i and hence it came, that 
expert Husbandmen dcvifed to lay their Pulfe,for the moft parr, 
ever without doors, in flacks,rccks,and hovels, that the Sun and 
• ■ wind palling thorow them,njight bring all the grain to an e- 
^al drinefs and hardncfs. 

.Ag^iitJjPuJfc being of all grain thjccorfeft and fullcft offub- 


Book 2. To Preferve Beans and Peafe, p,^ 

ftancc in it felF, and the ftraw ever big and fubftantia],and full 
of broad thick leaves, ever moiinnd fappy •, it mult needs fol- 
low thatthis grain muft ev^r be moll apt to fweatin the mow, 
andfd neceflarily craveth the greateft Itore of air,and the long- 
eft time in drying •, fo that to return to my rirft purpofe, it mull 
needs follow, that no Beans or Peafe can be ripe or feafoned in 
the mow, till it be mid-M-arc^ at leaft j for it is an old laying, 
among the beft riusbands,/^^/ aMjrch rt>Jnd ii jjlt rvhich Jeaja.- 
neth allFulfe : And if ufe or neccility compel men to thralh their 
Pulfc before that time, the Grain is foimperfed, that it mult be 
Kilne-dried, or elfe it is lit neither for the ufe of Bread nor Pro- - 
vender. ,ri 

Now herein is tobeunderftood, that Peafe or Beans which 
are Kilne-dried, maybe kept found, fweet, andgood,eitheron 
plaiftcr-floois., boarded- floors, or earthy- floors , the fpace of 
many years, without turning, or tolling > nor need you tore- 
fped how thick the heap lie, iince Beans alter they are once 
dried on the Kline, or in the Sun, never after will thaw, give 
again, or relent, but remain in their Hrlt found ncfs : But if you 
preferve your Beans for other ufes, astoboyl in your pot, and 
feed your Servants withal, asisufedin Somerfetjhire^ and ma- 
ny other Wellernly parts of this Kingdom, then it fhallb^good 
for you to take Oyl-barrels, Oyl-cask that is fweet, and hrll calk 
them all over within and without with a(hes, and then put your 
Beans therein, and clofe up the heads, and as it is aflirmed by 
divers great Authors of Husbandry, it will keep Beans found, 
fweet, and good, twenty years i nay, fome give inftances of 
Beans which have been thus kept and preferved the fpace of one 
hundred and twenty years •, and furely I ampcrfwjiied that if 
Beans be well and dry got, at thrafhtat a feafonable time of 
the year, as in March^ ^^^y that thus kept, .they will laft theut- 
tcrmoft of a manspleafurc. ' tl , 

Now for the keeping or prefervihg of Peafe or Fetchc?, which Prefcrving of 
of all other Grain whatfoever, is mcft fubjcdl to rottcnncfs ''.^•i^'-' or 
and imperfedlion, becaufe out of its own nature it is apt to ^"^"^5' 
breed Worms, Wcavels, and Mites, by reafon of the much 
lulhioufnefsand fwectncfs of the kernel of the Grain : you Ihall 
iaall things obferve the fame couriesthat you do with your 

Beans, , 

gS To Preferve Penfe AnA f€Uh€s, Book 2. 

Bears, both touching your gathering, drying, (lacking, ard 
alfo thrafliing \ for as they are molt apt to go together, be- 
ing near ot nature and condition on: to the other, fo it is ht 
thai you do apply unto then^ one aijd the felf fame Medicine 
or remedy. 

And herein is to be noted, that as Pcafe arc of more gene- 
ral ufc then Beans, as for Horfe Provender, feeding of Swine, 
Pidgeoiis, Pulkns,and fuch like> as alfo for Bread, Pottage, to 
boyl with or without meat i tor certainly, it is a moft whol- 
fome and llrong food, as may be fcen by the people of "Dt- 
voMjhire, Cirnrval^ and Somerfttjhire^ of whofe great Arength of 
body not any reafcn can begiven more probablytban theirmuch 
feeding on this grain, and their acquaintance with much and 
Itrong labour : So they ought with more care and circumlpedi- 
on to be prefer ved from all thole annoyances that naturally are 
apt to hurt them, as worms, rottennefs, mould, mulHnefs, and 
fuch like. 

And firft, there is notliing better for the long and well 
keeping of Pcafe, then the very well drying ofthcra, cither in 
the Sun, or on the Kilne, efpecially thofc which you ufe for 
Bread, Provender, or feeding of Swine: and although fonM 
Husbands ufe to feed Swine with undried Peafe, nay, many 
times both undried and undreft, that is to fay, the Pulfe or 
Chaff not taken away j and are of opinion that the Grains fo 
given, fooner feedeth and up Swine than the other, 
yet they are deceived i for albeit it fwell and purf"up a Bcaft, 
yet is the flelh and fat neither fo good, found, and long laft- 
ing, as that which is gotten with dry fotxl, nor doth it make, 
a Swine fo thirfry » and the Husbandman is ever aflTured, that* 
when his Swine drinks not well, he feeds not well : therc*^ 
fere what Pcafe you keep for Bread, or feeding of Cattle, by' 
all means dry them well, and lay them either in Garners or 
floors , arnlthcy will lali found and good without breeding 
worms or weavels, as long as you pleafe. But thofe which 
yOH keep for food at your own in Pottage,or other ufes, 
muftby no means be too m^uch dried, becaufe then they ask a 
double time in boyling, and fptnd a double quantity of fewel 
jri their preparing. 


Book 2. r< sPreferv€ Pe^fA. 97 

Some ufe after they be dean thr.i(ht and ^cefr, to lay them 
in a cool clofe Garner, cither of Plailler, Earth, or Boards, of 
which Plaifter is the beft •■, as for any thing that relenteth, or 
yieldeth moifturc, aslin^c, ^one-walls, or fuchlike , it ismoft 
hurtful, and ijumediately makeih Peafe mo^ld ^r^d rot : alfoit 
is good to lay your Pcafe in thick h^ -your Garner, 
'ibr that will preferve them moift the longer time i but to 
j^read them thin upon the floor, by whkh means the Sun, Air, 
ani Wind may pafs thorow them, is not fo, good, for it dri- 
€th them too fore, and taketh from them much of their 
fweetnefs and goodijicfs , which ought mo.ft carefully to be 
<pfeferved. There be others which preftrve thefe ; tender 
.meat Pcafe by thradiing rhcm up, and then letting them lie 
in their own Pulfe or Gbarif, and not dreifiag them, but as 
they have occafion to ufe them > and quefiionlefs.Lthis is a 
very good ^nd laudable wpy i for the Pulfe and Chaff doth 
maintain tiicm fweet apd moift, and yet keeptth thena wjth- 
alfo warm and comfortable, that they laft much .longer, than 
-^any other way whatfoerer i and in this manner of prefer ving 
Peafe is to be noted, that by all means you muft lee them lie 
apon adry earthen floor, fo long as they are in the Chatf, ra- 
ther than on the board, or on Plsuftcr, and yet in this cafe <he 
boards arc better than Plainer. It ,.i.::(0 .• ..n'.'ciA'i'ii yyiih 

Laitly, and which indeed is the beft expetimcpt of all 
'Other , =if you intend to keep Peafe any extraordmary. long 
time, you (hall take Barrels or dry Casks, well and ftrong- 
ly bound, and pitch them within exceeding well with the beft 
Pitch ojr Bitumen that you can get , and then fprinkle the 
Pitch ail over vvithi^rong Vinegar i then take your Peafe, be- 
Jng clean and well dreft,and put them into the Barrels, prciiing 
thcmdown clofe and hard » then head up the Barrels, and let 
them iiand dry. and cool, and they will preicrve your Peafe 
found, fweet, and ^ood for any ufe whatfoever, as long as 
you pleafe, be it for ten, twenty, or thirty years, according, 
to thcopinionsof ancient Husbandmen, and other Provant- 
Mafters, that have lived and commanded in Towns beficged, 
and Towns of Garnfon » neither iTiall any wonn, mite,or wea- 
veiever. breed. init, or offend it> nay, if .any have in former 


98 To Pr^fcr've Linttls or Lupns^ Book i- 

time been b:ed in thcm,thi5 iranrer Gf keeping ihc grain kiU 
ra JLi.W wf '^^^"^- *^ det>rcycth them forever. 
Ladboc '^ ^'<^^ rheicis another fort rfPulfc, which are called Lentils 
Lapins. er Lupir.s-, which a!beit they are cot fo gcr.eru'\' ufed tor the 

lood ind fallcDance of man, yet they arc for Horlc, Swine, and 
. other CatiIe,2SCL jch in rcoueft as any grain whatfoevcr, and io- 
tdecd do feed faiiCf,^nd foe ner than other ordinary Pu',fe,and the 
'flcth fo \tA, is fweetcr and pleafanter both to the eye ard to the 
tal'fe, than that which is fed with Bsans or Peafe \ alfo they arc 
a P-lfe very Phybcal and good for many Mfdicines, as may ap- 
pear by the works of rraoy learned Phyiltians -, and tiitfc the 
looger they 2rc kept, the better they are,and fullfr ot pront. To 
prefervc tbcfiv id good and found efnte, it is naeet \o reap them 
io very foir weather, and co lUck them up exceeding dry, and 
if they be laid in the Bam, or any ck fe hcufe, it is not amifei 
for they will indure houfmg better than any other Pulfe, yet 
the foooer you beat them oct of the fira w. or thcafh them up, 
tbebener it is i for Huibandtren fuppcfe there is no greater 
hurt to this kind of Griin, than the long keeping it in the 
(haw \ for it is of fud; ranknefs, that the vers' f^"^ ^^^ cods 
breed in itmuch putiefiKltirn i and I try fcU' cbfcivcd both 
in Sfain^ and in the neighbourir.g Irtands, where is greitabun- 
daccecf this kind of Graiu, that thr>' do co foooei gather it 
ar. r' ' ir horoe^ but imrr ediitcly they thra(h it \ nay, fome 

thr_ : the /jclds upart th; Lands where it grows, and fo 
bring it home, and then fprcad it en fair bearded floors in very 
gTiat heapf, or lay it up rn ckfe Hutches, or Bins, fuch as 
whcat,and other white grain is tobekeptin.Ifycu dry this kind 
ofPullcin the Sun, or upcnakilnc, with a very moderate and 
foft hre. acd then lay it up either in a clofe Garner, or ciofe 
Hutch, it will laft many years found, good , and without cor- 
lupticD. There be ether Husbandmen which mix wiJi this 
grain, when it is thra(h:, a haif part of hot, dry, white (and, or 
atlcaft cover the whole heap of pulfe with the fan d, and do 
find th2t it keeps the grain v.ry fxind cod good many years to- 
gether. But to conclude, if you take firongvinegarand a good 
quantity o\ Lafirptimm, dlltclvc and miixthem very wellto- 
|g|Ctha,and tiaCD having laid your Lentils or Lupins together on 

Book 2. Prefervmg of Lentils^ ^Q, ^p 

a fairboard.d fl ;or, in large, broad, and flat heaps, about two 
tooc, or two foot and a halt thick > with the vinegar and Lafer- 
pttHm fprmkic overall the heap,and not any change oF weather 
tro s, worms or other vermine (lull do them hurt , but they ~ 
Ml remam found and good as many years as you pleafe to 
keep them : there are other Husbandmen,that inllead of this be. 
fore rchearled take only fweet Oyl, and fprinklc it all over the 
Uram , and hnd tne fame vertue and ctfed,for ncirher worms 
Zr^nf '. "'•"' ^-^'l f^^-^h it, nor will the radical humour 
thereof at any time wafte or decay, but remain rtrong, fulLand 
found, without any kind of diminiihing , nor (hall you find any 

a bXl"^h°^ ''' '' ^fll^'^S •" '^' meafure,but that which wal 
a bu(hel this year, will be alfo a bu(hel the next year, and as 
many years after as you pleafe, which is no fmall profit to the 

Whereas on the other part, if the Grain be either dried in 
the Sun, °" the Kline or by the Wind, you (hall hardly have 
of every fuch bu(hel fo dried, three pecks and a half again 
which ,s by computation at every quarter, which is eight bul 

a^tfo r^l^'^n^^^'u^"^' '"^ ^'' '^' P^^^hafe thus priferved, 
asbeforefaid, (hallbeasgood for anyufe whatfoever , fit fo; 
fuchCorntobeimployed in, as any other dried grain whatfoe- 
aTd TsSr^'^^^^^ -^y' -^ ^^-g-h-- Soodmeal, 

Now touching the preferving and keeping of Oats, itis to Prefervingof 
b und rftood, that ofall grain it is lealt cafual,becaufeof it felf Oa"'^ 
naturally »t breedeth no evil vermine,and is again preferved nd 
def nded a double Husk, whereby neither cold , moifture, 
hear, nordrinefs, isablefofoon to pierce and hurt it as other 
grams, which are more thin clad and tender •, yet becaufe it^of 
great and nece(rary ufe both for Cattle and Pullen, and that nd 

nn7i V ^'^y'ut "°' "^"^^^'^^ "" ^^11 ^>^^P houfe with, 
out It, you Ihall know, that the bcft way to preferveit longeft 

K iln ? 'a I '^"^' '° ^^y '^ "^^'' ^'^her in the Sun or on^the 
Klin and then cither put it in a clofe Garner, or clofe Cask and 
It will keep many years found and fweet '-asK,and 

xi/orrt'f>''r ^''Y'''^ of Oatmeal, whichis the inner Ker- 
nel ot the Oats, and a gram of moft fpecial ufe in the Hus- 

S^ band. 

100 Prefervingof any Meal, Book 

bandmans houfe, as in his Pottage, in his Pudding?, and in ma- 
ny other meats neceffarily ufedfor the labouring man ", it is an 
experiment not altogether fo curious as any of the reli former- 
ly written of, forno Oat-meal can be made, but tke Oats murt 
be exceedingly wellkiln dried, or elfe tlie kernel will not part 
from the hull, and being dried, as is rit, that drying is fufficiect 
to keep and prcf.rve the Oat-meal divers years. 

Provided ever, that prefently after the making of your Oat- 
meal, you put it into dry clofeCask, or dry clofc Garners (but 
Cask is bettcr^^and fo that it may remain exceeding dry,' for any 
thaw or moifuire corrupts it ' and as near as you can, let it have 
Cit it be poilible; fomc air of the fire, for the warmer it (lands, 
the better and longerit will lafi. as experience flieweth. 

Preferring of For the prefrrvmg and long keeping of any fort of mcal,there. 

any mciL ^j ^^ better way than firfi to boult and fearfe him from his bran, 
for the bran is very apt to corrode and putririe the meal,and to 
bring it to a faultinefs ormuftinefs : then into very fweetand 
clean dry cask clofe and well bound, tread in your\ fo 
hard as you can polhbly tread it, and then head it up clofe,and 
fo you may either keep it by land or water fo long as you 
pleafe, and when you have any occalion to fpend of it, be furc to 
kiolen no more of the meal than you prefent'.y ufe, for :he fafter 
andclofer the meal licth together, the longer and fweeter it 
will lafr, for it is the gathering of the air that only corrupts it. 

And here is alfo to be noted, that you fhould not prefently as- 
foon as your meal is ground, boult it from the bran, but rather 
let it lie a week or fortnight in the bran, in fome clofe bin or 
trough, and then after that time boult or fearfe it, and you (hall 
find it to aiTord you in every buOiel, more meal by at leaft half 
a peck, than if you (hould prefently boult it as foon as it comes 
from the mill i whence it proceeds, that the cunning and skilful 
Baker will ever have a week or fortnights provifion of meal be- 
fore hand, which lying fo long in the bran, pays double interell 
for the continuance. 

Now if it fall out fo, that either by trade or merchandife, or 
other ocjaHons, you biiy any meal by way of tranfportation, 
which is caskt up, (as^much meal is fold by the barrel j you (hall 
prefently as foon as yow have bought it ( if it be for your own 


Book 2. Pr eferving of all fmall Seeds. loi 

ufc or expence ) break open their heads, and empty the meal 
upon fair Iheets on a dean door, and then fpreading it abroad, 
let the San and Air pafs thorough it, which will dry up the 
fweati and if there be any taint of faultincfs, take it away, and 
bring the meal to his Hrfl rweetnefs,and then immediately boult 
out the courfc bran, and after, as was before declared , tread 
it hard into ftelh and fweet cask j and thus you may keep your 
provilion of meal all the yearlong: nay, if need require,twoor 
diree years i for after the hrll fweat is taken away, and kind- 
ly dried, there is no doubt to be made of any that (hall follow 

LalHy, touching the prefervation and keeping of all manner preferving of 
of fmall feeds of what nature and quality foever they bc,whether all fmallfccds^ 
Hemp, Lime, Rape, Muftard-feed, or any other Garden-feed 
whatfoever, though truly and properly they laft but one year, 
nor are ht for Seed or Increafe after that date expired : yet in as 
much as they are medicinable after, and a much longer time* 
therefore you (hall underftand, that the bell way to keep them 
fafe and found, and ritteft for ufe and profit, is, fir(t to gather 
them as foon as you perceive them to be ripe, and the weather 
being bright, clear and dry, then you (hall dry and wither them 
in the (hade, and not in the Sun, efpecially upon a plaiftered 
floor, where the Sun lookethto the South, and befure that as 
little Sun and moifture come to them as you can, for both are 
main enemies \ which done, bind them up in bundles without 
thraChing, andfo hang them up, and keep them in their own 
cods, and they will laft for all ufes, a full year, and for fome 
particular ufes two or three years i and in this manner you may 
alfo prefcrve all manner of hcrbs,.weeds, flowers, roots, and 
the barks or rinds of all manner of trees, 


Hovp to h^ef Grain ^ either for tranfpvtation hy Sea, erforttfg 

in a lofvn ef War or Garrifon, from one year to 

one hundred and twenty. 

'Ofpeakof the Grains and Pulfes which arc mccteft for 
the Sea, and their fevcral ufes. 

O 2 It 

102 Of Rice, Book ^\ 

gnin?nd^ It is to be undcrrtood, that the beft and principallcft Grain 

Polfca^tSca. '^^^'ch is indeed both moll fweet, moft t'refh, molt pica fan t in 
Of Rice and t^^*^, and mo ft laliing, is Rice, which i.khough it grow not 
the Uie. much in our Kingdom, but that we are beholden to our good 

Neighbours for tiie trade thereof, yet it is in fuch plenty where 
wetetchit, that we need neither complain of the Icarcity, nor 
the coir, and fo much the rather, in that a peck thereof will 
go further then a bulhclof any other Grain : Ot this Rice is 
made many good and vvholfome dilhes, fome thick,fume thin, 
fome hiked, fomeboyled, as thus : If you take a qujitcr of a 
pound of Pvice, and boyl it in apoitleot water, tiJi it come un- 
to an inditfercnt thicknefs, and then put it into a good lump 
• of potted or barrelled butter, and as much Suiar as (l>all falt- 
wite fcafon it to an indifferent fwectncfs, \\. is a dilh of meat 
meet tor an Euiperour at Sea, wholcfomc, good, and light of 
digefturc, and will be .".s much as four rcafonablc men can wclJ 
eat at a meal -, fur the nature of Pvice is fuch, that it will fwj> 
in boyling, and grow to that bignefs, that in an inilant it wiT 
thicken a pottle » fome ufc the night before they boyl it, to fteep 
it info much water, as will only cover the Rice all over, and 
then the next day boyl it in a pottle of water or more, and the 
Rice fo ftecped will fo fwell that all the rirlt water will be 
drunk up, and a great deal of lefs boyling will ferve to make 
It ready i and fure,thaathis a man cannot find a cheaper way ta 
kcd men, Irnce one pint ot water, and the fourth part of a 
quarter of pound of Rice (which come not to above halfa penny- 
at the deareft i\ckoning^ is a meal fufficicnt for a mans eating, 
having Bisket and Drink proportionably. And this dilh of meat 
being thus thioboykd, is called Sea- Lob-lolly, and after fait 
feeding, is wondrous whokfome and con f rtablc to any man- 
whether he be lick, found or difeafed, and both r.batcth infir- 
mities, and hafincth the healing of all wounds. 

There bj others, that after they have fteeped this R-ce f as 
aforc-faidj do then boyl it in like manner, till it be fo thick 
that a fpoor.inay Itand upright in if, and noliquidnefs of the 
water perceived i then put a good lump of butter into it, and 
boyl it witli ir, and fiir it about, and it will make it come moft 
clean out oi the pot in which it isboyled? then feafon it with 


Book 1. Of rvheat, 103 

Sugar, and a little Cynnamon, and it will be adiOiofmeat 
right good and delicate, and meet tor any man of what Quality 
foever, that is svorch goodncfs or prefcrvingj nor need the quan- 
tity exceed the proportion already prefcribed. 

Again, if youhavc Meal in the Ship, if you take of this Rice 
ficeped \\\ watcr,and a little lightly boy led and feafoned with Su- 
gar,Cinnamon,ind Ginger,and a good quantity of Butter, and 
then bake it in little Paities,you Pnall rind it a m.o't delicate p^e> 
lant,and wholfoine meat, and that a p.nny in it ihiUgofurchcr, 
and give bwtur contentment than four penny worth ot Beef,Ea- 
con,Fiih,pr any otier hard fait meat;, yet I do not wifli any man 
ct Ship-board to make this a continual feeding drtli, for then it 
is ijoth too pleafant and too llrong, and where evacuation of 
forac humouis are wanting, may breed inconveniences in ihong •, but rather ufc it once a week as a Phylical nourifhcr^ or 
tor the comfort of lick and difc-fcd men, whofe fromacbs are 
tane away, or elfe weaknedi there may be madealfo ofthls R'cc 
in timeofneceimy (being ground to a tke m:al; an excellent 
good Bread or Rusk, which ispleafanter, fweetcr, and much, 
longer laiiing than any made of Wheat, or any other Grain 
whatfoeveri befides many other Seeds, which would in this 
place (hew but too much curiofrty to repeat. 

The next Grain unto Rice,.wbichisof cftimation and great Wheat,and. 
fcrvice at Sea,is wbe3t,of which although there be divers kind Sj ^^^ "^'^• 
yet they arc all alike for the ferving of this purpofe i only the 
laigeand thick hull'd wheat being well dried Jwillhfi the long- 
eft, but thefinall snd hne skinn'd Wheat yields the purer flowr, 
and makesthe better Meah Now of this Wheat is made di- 
vers di(he5 of meat, f^r fome take it, and bruife or beat i: in bags 
till the upper skin be beaten off, and then having dreftand win- 
DDwcdit,boy] it in clean water till itburft.and grow as thick as 
Pap, then take it from the hre,3nd being hot, put it into fevcral 
dithesof wood, or trays, fo much in every diih, or tray,as may 
ferve four men,and fo let it cool,then give it to the fick or found 
as you {hall be direded, and it is an excellent good meat,eithcr 
cold or clfehot,and a little butter melted with it,or being again 
boyledin frelh water, and fcafoned with Salt and a little Sugar, 
it makes an excellent Grcwel,or Loblolly,which is a veryfove- 


104 ^/ Oaf -meal. Book 2. 

reign at Sea. Alfo your parched Wheat is a very good food 
at Sea, and ot much rcqueft and eftimation , bcingfprinkled 
with a little fait i and of this food a little will fcrve a man at a 
time, by reafon that the much fweetnefs thereof foon fillethaid 
cloyeth the rtoraach, yctiiis wondrous light of digeftion, and 
breeds great ftrength, and much good blood, as we daily find 
by experience. 
Of Oat-meal The next Grain unto this which is to be recommended to the 
aadtheufe. 5^ ^^^^ which is indeed not any thing inferior to either of the 
other goingbeforc, bothtor ftrength andlafting; is Oat-meal, 
which by reafon of the great drincfs, and drying thereof, feels 
little or no imperfed^ion at the Sea, as being unapt to fuck or 
draw in any of the ill or moift vapours thereof. Of this Oat- 
meal is made many good t'relh, and comfortable meats at Sea, 
as Grewel, or Lob-lolly, by boyling itinfrcfli water, and fea- 
foning it with Salt, and f if you have it continually) fome- 
times with Sugar and a few Currants, and a little Mace, which 
is meat of great lirength and goodncfs , tfpecially for f-ich as 
are lick and weak > for it is a great reftorer of nature, and a 
purger of the blood i alfo to ftcep the whole Grotes of Oat- 
meal a night in water, and then draining them, and putting it 
in a bag- boil it till the Grots break s then putting it out of 
the bag, butter it with butter, audit is excellent food i as alfo 
boyling Oat-raeal in freili Water with Barm, or Dregs,and the 
hinder-cndeof your Beer-barrels, makes an exCv.llent good pot- 
tage, and is of great ufe in all the parts of the Weft-Country, 
efpecially where Mariners or Sea-men live, and are called by the 
name cf Drounbn pottage. Alfo, of Oat- meal is made that 
meat which is called in the Wei}, Wafhbrew, and may be made 
at the Sea at your plcafure, beinga meat of that great account 
amongfi Dezonjhire and Cor»//&. m,cn, that they will allow it 
to be a meat of lingular great frrcngth and goDdncfs, and 
withal (b light of digefiion , that a man can very hardly 
furfeit upon itat any time > and I am the rather induced to 
bwlicvc the lame, bccaufe I have obfcrv.d and feen many cf 
the labouring iren of that Country to cat {vc[\ an unmca£i- 
1 able quantify thereof, that in mine eye one mans Supper would 
iavc fervid awholctamily. 


Book 2. Of Bxrley, I05__ 

But you will ray,Hunger and labour are fuch excellent Sauce, 
that they digefi any thing. 

To that I anfwer, That I have feen Gentlemen and Gentle- 
wonr.en of that Country , of whom as much curiofity hath 
attended, as is liable to the City \ nay, fuch as have had fick- 
n^fs their bcrt familiar, yet cat of this with great and (harp 
appetiC-% and when health was m.o ft to be feared, thentoboafi 
cf molt foundnefs. This Jf^jpbrcrv is to look upon like Poin- 
ters Size, or new made Jelly, being nothing but the very 
heart of the O^t-meal , boylcd and drained to that heighth 
and thicknef?, having neither Hull nor Byan in it , but the 
pure Mtal and Water, and is to b:; eaten either with Wine, 
lirong Beer, or 'Ale, or with clarified Honey, according to 
mens itomachs and abilities* Now this the eaters thereof afiirm, 
that by no .means- it mult be chewed, but rather fwallowed 
by the fpoonful whole, becaufc chawing like a Pill makes it 
tarte unpleafant. There is again another meat to be made, 
of Oat-meal, which is called Girt-brerp^ and is fomewhat more 
couife, and iefs pleafant thzn Jyajl:.hre7v^ having bo:h the bran 
and hulls in it,ycc it is accounted a food of a very good ftrength, 
and exceeding wholfome for mans body i and of my knowkdg 
much ufed and much defeed of all labouring peifons that 
aic. acquainted with it : Many other foods there arc to be 
made of Oat-meal , but thefe (ball be at this time fully fufH-.- 

The next Grain to this I account Barley, which may be eve- Of Barley and4 
ry .way ufed like unto Wheat, cither to make Grewel, or to be ^""^ 
creyed,parcht, orboyledi and for Barley for this purpofe of food, 
the beft is French Barley, the next is Barley-big, or bear-Barley, - 
and the worftare the fpice or Battledore-Barley, and out com- 
mon Englifh Barley* 

And as Barley or Whcatj fo you may ufe your Buck, and your ^"ck and the 
Iridian Siligo, for they are of like nature, only they are a Ion- " * 
ger time in their beating, fleeping, and boyling, becaufe they 
are naturally more hard and more dry, by reafon of the heat of 
the Climate in which the beftgrow ■■, and it is ever tobeobfcr- 
vedforaRule, that the drier you keep your Corn at Sea, the 
better it is, and fweeter,and longer lafting. 

Now V 

io6 Of Pulfe. Book 2. 

DFPu!fe, aad Now having (hf wed the ufe of thefe lighter g,raias,l willcon,e 
I'Tcd^''^ toPulfe, and Ihew their ufe and b;ncmatS-a, or in befiegcd 
Towns ; and ot Pulfc, I will hrlt fpeak of Beans as a principal 
food, wholfome and llrong , and though not fo hneand light 
ofdigeflion as of any of the formtr, yet exceeding hearty and 
found ,nnd a gr:a: breeder of good blood : They are for the molt 
part to b: boyled whole, till fuchtimeas they appear foft and 
tender, or begin to break, and then drained from the water arc 
ferved in Trays, and well faked, and fo eaten s a pottle whereof 
is thought a tull proportion for four nr.en : and of thefe Beans 
there arc divers kinds, as the common Garden-bean, or the 
The French- French- bean,which is great, broad and flat^and thefe arc the beft 
bean. to boyl either with meat, or by themfelvcs, and ask the leaft la- 

bour, b:caufe their outer skin is moll tender, and the inward 
fubftance rooft apt to be molihed and foftned , they may alfo be 
boyled when they are young and green, and when they are old 
and dry, and the meat at both times h good and favory. 
TheEidney. The next Bean to thefe are the Kidney- bean, which is flatter 
bean. and Ic/Ter, & nearer the proportion of a Kidney,th.n the French- 

bean is, and this is alfo a Garaen-bcan.and whilft it is young and 
green is to be eaten Sallet-wife after they are belled, both the 
Cod and Bean tcgethcr,aDd it is better Sallet cannot be 
tafied \ for the Cod 01 Husk is every way as excellent in talk as 
the Bean is i but ifrcr they grow old and dry, and that the moi- 
fhirc is gone our of the Cod, then it is meet to thrafh them, and 
boyl them like the French- bean, and they are every way as good 
meat, and as foon boy!cd, and as tender. 
Common-field The next Bean to thefe are your common and ordinary field 
Bcansjtheufe. £»ajj5 which having tough and hard slins ask more boyling 
tfjan theorher bcans,and arc forr.ewhat harder in tal(e,yct a good 
fotind food alfo v there be many that parch th<m in the hie, and 
think rhcm t'iCn the belt meat, becaufe the rire fooncr breaks the 
skin, and fofineth the kernel-, b.caufe iheycinnot be done (o 
abundantly, and therefore aie not fo much in oi:. 
Of Peafc, and Aficr this great fort of Pulfc, I will now fpcak of the fmall r 
the ufe. rprtja=; Pcafc.and their like ^ani of Peafc there are iwo kinds, the 

Gafdcn-Pcaf-*, and the ti-ld-Pcafe, and for this ufe falbcit both 
arc very good, yctihe Gardcn-peafearcbeft, forthey are fooneft 


Book 2. TrafjJ}ortdtion of Grai/f. loy 

boyled and are moft tender,and ferve for moft urc,asfor poitage, 
boyling,parchin'g,rpelting > and ofthcfc Garden pcaie,thcrc arc 
divers kinds, as white peafc, French peafejHarrings, Rounfivals, 
and fuch Hke, the rirll being the longeft latlers, the fecond thr 
pleafantcft in taHe, the third theearlieft and tcndcrcil, and the 
laft largeft and fulled. 

TIic held peafe are only of two kinds, as the white pcafe and several ferr! 
the gray peafe j and they feldome make pottage.bccaufc they are of Garden- 
unapt to breakj but are only for boyling and making otleap P^^^^ 
pea^, or for parching, yet a good and a ftrong food : and as we 
ufepeaTe, foin other countries theyufe Lupins, Lentils, Tares, 
Fetches, and fuch like fmaller pulfc, but they are neither {o good, 
wholcfome, nor favoury in tai{e,bcinga kind of grain" more rank, 
fulfome'j and breeding of ill blood and infecflion within: thefe iti 
cafesof Sea-fare and war- farc,ought principally to be efchcwed 
and fiiunned. 

Now it refieth after this long digreilion of thefe feveralf 
grains, ^and their ufes, with the meats and profits which are"" 
made of ^^cm, that we come to the fafe manner of keeping and 
prcferving them either by Land or Water, for Vidlual,or Tranf- 
portition. fo as they may lart and indure without ill f ncll or 

And ririi for tranfpoftation ofgrain bySea,it is two wayesto Grain for 
be done,3S either \vi great quantities for trade and the victualling ti^dc. 
of other nations, or in fmaller quantity for vidualling the men 
ia the Sbip, prepared for a ling asd tedious voyage. 

For the tranfporting of Grain for trade in great qumtities, To tranfporc 
it is to be intended the voyage is feldome long , but from Grain for 
neighbour to neighbour, and tlierefore commonly they make T«de. 
clofe decks in the Thips to receive the grain, fair and even board- 
ed, ye^;if fuch decks be matted and lined, both under, and oii 
each iide, it is rhuch the betters and this matting would be llrong 
and thin. There" be Tome which make the decks only of mats, and 
fure it is fweet, but not (o (trongasthe boards; theretore the b ft 
way of tranfportation, is, to have Itrong boarded decks well 
mattf4 > and thcnfpreading the Corn ofa reifonab'c chicl^ncfs, 
to cover it with matting agaia,and then to lay corn on it a,^-'.in, 
and then m.ats agiin, tlut between every re'.i>)ii s!)!.- rhic.-n ■/< < 1 

io8 Trjifijportathn ofGrjJn, Book 2. 

Giiin a mat may lye i the profit whereof is , that when the 
Lorn with his o'-^n heat, and the working of the Sea fhall begin 
to fwear, which fwear, for want of air to dry it up, would turn 

Then thefe iLats thus lying between, win not onely exhale 
-nd fuck ijp the fweat, but slfo keep the Corn fo ccol and 
dry, that no impcrficlion fhali come unto it. And here is to be 
notcd,That thefc mats thould rather be made of dry white bents, 
thi D of flags and bull ulhi for ihebfnt isa hrm, dry, crifp thing, 
end will not relent or fweatof it ftlf^but thcflag or bulrufhisa 
fpurgy and foft fubfi-rce, '.vhich is never en.pty of its own and 
ether moyriures. 
y^^.-_,.,..3g Now for tranrportirgcf Gruins. for Victuals for the Ship^ 
ci V;du4>;. which is in iLUch faiiller quantity, becaufc it is but fcr the 
private ufe of a few within the fhip i the onely beft and fafcft 
way, i?, to take Salt-fifn barrels, or any Cask in which any 
Salt hn\ harh been piled, as Cod, Herrings, Salmon, Sprats , 
or any other powdred Filh \ and whilft the velfels are fweet , 
you fhall chalk them both within and without with plailler , 
daubing them all ever , dien into them put your Graihof%vhar 
kind foever it tc , and head them up clofe , and then ftow 
them in fuch convenient dry place of the (hip, as you {hall think 
tit, and quellicnlefe if belief may be ^iven to the worthiefi 
AuthcTS which havev^^i:il) this kind, you may thus keep your. 
Grain fwcet, fcund, ^nd in full perft(9^ion from one year to an 
hundred ard twenty years ■•, but certainly daily experience fl-iCws 
U5, that ail kind of Grain thus put up and kept , will remain 
tbund and fweet, three, fr.ur, and as fome fay, fcven years, for 
fo far hwli lately been tryM : and what here I fpeak c>f (hip- 
board, the like may be done in any To^^'n of War or Garrifon, 
whether bifi.gcd, or notbtfieged, or inanyother place , where 
tny necefijty fhall compel > the proofof this manner of pilling ox 
imting upof Grain, fervcth as well for Land as Sea- 


Book 2* £r;Hchifig of barren Groimds^ iop 


TJk h^rkhing of all mannev of barren Grotinds, and h 
mak^ it fruiifnll to hear Hopps. 

TPHe Hop of all plants is the moft tender, and can endure nei- 
'*' ther too rich a gtound, nor yet too poor; for being planted 
in the firll, itbringeth forth only leaves and nobells, and in the 
latter yieldeth neither leaves nor bells. 

Now in the firft fort of Ground, which is fertile and rich, I -Abanng fer- 
have nothing to do but only to advife how you may allay and tiiity. 
leflen that too much fatncfs, by mixing your liills well with 
Chalk j or finall fharp Gravel, if it be a ha (Tel or mix'd mould > 
and with good ftore of red fand if it be a liiff chy , for ei- 
ther of thc(e mixtures will in fhort fpace abate any fertili- 
But if the foyl be contrary to this, that i=;, extream barren , increafing af - 
then you fhall feck by thcfe means following to increafe the fertility, 
fertility. Firrt,when you have taken a view of that barren earth , 
which you intend to convert to a Hop-garden i you (liall firft 
look to the lltuation thereof, whether it lye high or low, whe- 
ther it be fubjed to inundations or drownings, or that it lye choice of 
fafe and free from any fuch annoyance : If it be fubjedt to great Earth, 
and deep over-flowcs, then it is no ground for this purpofei but 
ifitbeoncly lyable but to fome Irnall wafhings, then you may 
bya fewfmall drains and fewerscaft through your allcys,cjnvey 
away the water to fome lower grounds, fo as it may not con- Draiiing wa- ■ 
tinue long iii the Gardens to do hurt. Befides, for a further fafe- ter. 
ty to the Hop, you fliall make your hills a great deal bigger and 
higher, that when any over-flow fhall happen,the water may not 
reach abcve the mid-part of the hill at the moft, for the root » 
may endure moiftning, but not drowning •, and this water thus 
running through the alleyes, and not drowning the root , will 
bring to the ground very much fertility. But howfocver, after 
you have eas'd your ground of thefe particwlar faults, yet the 
general fault, which is barrennefs, will remain ftill : therefore, 
having plotted out your Garden,and fenced it fuRiciently about, 
you (hall then drt up your hills about Michaelmiif , placing 

P 3 - them 

110 Enmhing ofhArrfn Grounds^ Book 2. 

Cafung of ^ncTC in a very orderly manner.and r^aking alleyes between therr. 
lillis and of four or tive foot breadth between hill and hill, fo as a man 
*^^ may walk at pk-afure through and about them: neither fhall 

rhtfe hills ftap.d all dired^ly be- 
hind one another, fer fo one will 0000 
cverftudc another , which is an 

annoyance , but according to g o o 

this Figure,whcrc there is a largc- 

nefs of rpace, a»d a by-paffage ,0 o g o 

through which the Sun may come 
to givi comfort to every Plant. 

Thefe hills, if the ground be free from wafer, may be raifcd 
■ sbout two foot, or a foct and a hilf higji, and of a compifs an- 

fwerabk to the heighth i neither fo l:ule , that the hill may be 
fharp like a Sugar-loaf, nor yet fo big, that the hili may lye 
flat, and fo rerain and hold any rain or wet, which (hall fall up- 
on it ) but you fhall keep a due middk proportion, making the 
hill convenient for your Plants and px ks , and fo as it may 
ihoctor put off any wet, or other annoyance , which (hall fall 
upon it. 
The compoli- ^'^^ ^^^^ ^'^'^ V^" ^^^^ "Ot make intirely, all of one mould, 
DOB of the but you fhall rake, as it were, a third part or better thereof, 
enriching of then another part of the earth which lyeth under dung-hills, 
hills. ajj^j the laft part of Sope-afhis i and thefe three bodyes you 

lliallrTiix equally together, and cf them compound your Hop- 
hills : but if this fcem fcnrjcwhat difficult, and that you cannot 
ijnd enough for your parpofc of either of thefe manures, then 
you may take three parts of the natural earth, and bat onely a 
fourth pirt of the other two, and therefore nJx your Hop-hills, 
and it wH! be futHcicnt to aiTord you profit enough, provided 
ycu be able «" nee in three or four years to rciicw it, for fo long 
this will la/r in full Arcngth and power, 
f rcwrmz of ^Vhf n you have thus made up your hills, you fhall then pare 
the allies. "P '*''^'^ 2. paring fhovel all t'le green fwarrh quite through all 
your allyes at leaf: fc.ur fingers thick, and with the fwarth fo 
pared up, you fhall cover all your hills aln oft to th.ctop, turn- 
ing the green fwarih next unto the earth, fo as it may rot, for 
that isan excellent manure alio ; then when your allyes arc all 


Book 2. TomjikeitfruuffdforHopps. iir 

thus cleanfed of their fwarth^you (hall take good ftoreotbraken, 
or fern, and ftrow it all over quite thorow all the allies/o that 
it may lye in a good thickiiefs, almolt to the midrt of the hills , 
which having all the Winter to rot in, will not only be an ex- 
ceeding comfort to the hills, and preferve both them and their 
plants from many evils, but alfo being fl-iovdled up together 
with the earth in the fpring time, will be a marvellous fcrong 
manure wherewith to repleni(h the hills, and to make them to 
proff)cr exceedingly , and to fave much other coll and charges 
as well in manure as in carriage. 

\Vhen your hills are thus inriched, and your allies thus pre- -j-j^^ planting 
pared, you (hall then open your hills in the top, and fet your of Hopps. 
plants, that is to fay, in every hill four plants at the leafi, being 
well prepared i aud this (liould be done in the month oWVtober^ 
andthefe plants muft be fet good and deep in the earth , and 
covered «il over atthelcaft four fingers thick : and if with the 
earth which covercth thefe plants you mix Ox-blood and 
Lime, it will not onely give great comfort and nouriOiment 
to the Plants, but alfo defend and fave the roots from worms 
and other vermines , which otherwife would feek to deftroy 

After yonr Garden is thus planted over, you (hall then pqH^p ^^ 
let it reft till the following Spring, and about Ap-il , rinding Hopps. 
the fmall Twines of your Hopps idued out of the Hills and 
running alongfi the ground, you (hall then fet up your Poles , 
which Poles, fo they be long and Irreight, may be of any wood 
you pleafe, as eithtr A(h, Elme,\VithyjWillow,or Sallow,and in 
the fetting up of the(e poles, you (hall have two very carefull 
refpe<Ss: Firft, that inputting in of the poles, and faftening 
them with the earth, you do not hurt the Hop roots, which a 
fmall carelefnefs may do, but be fure to fet them cleer at the 
roots » and that you may do it the better,and make your poles 
to frand the fafter, it is good that you have an iron auger, there 
with hrft to pierce the ground, and then to put the pole after , 
ar.'dfo ram it in hard that it may not Air. The fecond care is , 
that you pUce not one pole to overfludow another, but that 
they may Ibnd fo clear one from another,that which way fcever 
the Sun (hall qM\ his beames, yet every plant (as it winds about 


Ill y:/ Computation of mens Book 2. 

the pole ; may be an cquall partaker of the fame. 

This^ with a (mall obfervation in the fetting up of the poles 
may eaiily be peiformcd : the nurr.ber of poles that you (hall 
fet on every hill, muft be anfwetable to the Sytns which fhall 
ilTuc from the roots, allowing to every pole two Sycns at the 
leart, and not above three at the moft : thefe Syensf when your 
hills aie poledj you fhall with your hands twine about their 
ieveral poles, and thofc which are but new peeping from the 
grcundj you ihall fo fold ihc other Branches,as they may 
of thcmfelvesrunabcutthc pOie>and as thefc,fo alfo all the other 
twigs, which are any way derived from the main Sien, leaving 
not any at all to run upon the grounds for that is altogether pro- 
iitlcfsjandto no ufe. 
Of weeding For the weeding of this barren earth thus made into an Hop- 

Hops. Garden, there is little care to be had : for hrft,the foap a(hes where- 

with the hills are manured, the Ox blood and the Limc,arc fuch 
enemies to all manner of weeds, that they will not fuffer any to 
grow where they abide: Next,the Biaken arnl Fern, which coyc- 
. icth the allcyes, is fuch a poyfoner and fmothercr fef any thing 
that ihall grew underneath it, that it will not fuffer any weed 
to pap or fpring up through it •, yet if in any efpecial place, 
where neither ot thefe defences come, it happen that any weeds 
dogrow,ihcn you fhall with your belt care cut them away , or 
pull them up, andfo your Garden fliall remain comely, pleafiint 
and fruit full to every profpcdt. 

C H A P. X X I. 

A generall comfutation of ntetij and Cjttels labours : 
rvhat each may do vpuhuut hurt daily. 


. ^ , TPO fpeak generally of all Husbandly works , where the 
^^ A Country is tolerable, without any extraordinary difficul- 

ty, you fhall underltand, that a man may well in ft iffs ground?, 
plow an Acre, or an Acre and a half, and in light fand grounds 
two or three Acres with one Team in a day , and he may 
p'oughand f)we in iHft ground two Acres and an half each 
day , and \^ light ground four at leali with one Team ■-, and al- 
wayc5 what he fowcth, that he may harrow the fame day alfo. 


Book 2\ a^d CdUe/s labour, 113 

A man may well mow of good and deep loggy meadow, or 
ofrough, uneven meadow, every day one acre i mowing clean 
and making a fraooth board of well (landing and good fimootli 
meadow, an acre and a half each day; and of very thin and 
fhortgrafs, or upland meadow, two acres at the leal] leafl every 

Alfo, he may mow of Corn, as Barky and Oats, if it be thick. Mowing, 
loggy, and beaten down to the earth, making fair work, and not 
cutting off the heads of the ears,and leaving the flra w flill grow- 
ing one acre and a half in a day : but if it be good, thick, and 
ftir ftanding corn,then he may mow two acres, or tw© acres and 
half in a day j but if the corn be fhcrt, and thin, then he may 
mow three, and foraetimes four Acres in a day, and not be over- 
laboured : Al(b of beans he may mow as much , and ofpeafe 
mixt with beans, having a hook to follow him, no lefs i for 
they are works in this nature moft eafie, and kaft trouble- 

One man with a Binder may well reap an Acre of Wheat Reaping. 
or Rye in a day, if it be principal good and well ftanding, but 
if laid or beaten down with weather, then three rood is fully 
fufficient for a dayes labours but if it be thin and upright ftand- 
ing, then he may reap and bind five roods in a day : Offmall 
peafe, Fetches, and fuch like, a man may v;ell reap two acres 
every day. 

Now forafmuch as it is a cuftom in divers Countries C and Binding of^ 
truly it is exceeding profitable and worthy imitation ) to ftieaf Barley and 
and bind up both Barley and Oats, as well as Wheat or Rye, Ctats. 
ani that both favcth much Corn, and alfo makes it takea great 
deal lefs room, and that this labour is to be done after the mow- 
ers, as the other was after the reapers, by gathering the Barley, 
or Oats up without a fickle or hook, as it lyes in the fwath, and 
fo binding it ]n fheafs, you ftiall underftand, that one man in a 
day ftiall bind as much as one mower can mow s and if the man 
be any thing skilful in the labour^ two binders will bind as much 
as three mowers can mow. 

For the gathering or inning of Grain, no> man can propor- Q^j^ering lu 
tion the number of loads, or quantity of ground, ihall daily be of Grain. 
feffOiight home, fith the journeyed are uncertain, fome going 


114 y^ Computation of mens Book 2. 

a mile, fomc half a mile, and fomc two mile : tlicrefore it is the 
Husbandmans bcft way, the firft day to go with his Teamhim- 
fclf , and both to obfervc the labour and diftance of place, 
and by that to compute what may be done after , without hurt 
to his cattelj and where he fails of any hope , there to make a 
frrid account of the errour i for it is either ignorance or carclef- 
ncfs which brings forth mifchances, fpcaking of husbandry , as 
over-throwing the Team, over-loading the Team, breaking ne- 
ceffary inftrumcnts, or not rcfpeding the wayes and paflages ■■> 
any cf which may in a day hinder more then half a dayes la- 
•Dirching. Again, a man may in a day ditch and quickfet of a rcafonablc 

ditch four foot broad, and three foot dcep,a rod or a pole a day \ 
allowing llxtccn feet to the rod, and lo of large meafure leii 
ground, and of lefs ground larger m.eafure according tothefutti- 
ciency ot the fence which ycu purpofe to make. 
Hedging. A man may hedge alfo in a day, if the hedge be good and Tub- 

ftantial, tl-iat is to fay, Hvc foot high, well bound, thick Ilackt, 
and clofc laid, two rod in a day \ and if the work be lower or 
thinner, then double fo much more according to the former pro- 
rUfhing. f^*^^ ^'^^5 plaflMng of hedges, or making a quick fence, if he do 

it workmanly, and that the growth bejiigh and well growD,aud 
then he lay it thick, cUjfc, and (Irongly bound in the top, tur- 
ning the quick downward and intvard,to plafh a rod a day,i^ as 
rr.ifch as any man can well do ; but if he platli it after the welt- 
country fadiion, that is, oncly cutting it down, and layin^t 
along clofcro the ground, fcekiftgonly tliickncfs, and not mrch 
guard cr ccirilinef% then he may well pbfli a rod and a half a 
day without trouble : And fure in work is great care and art 
to be uffd, 3S well for the prcfcrvation ofthequick,as the good- 
nefs of the fence, being a thing of worth and valJiiiy <o every 
Husbjndman. ^ ' ' 
^ . . Again, a man may ddrc or dig, as for Garden mould, Hemp- 

yard, Fl3X-yard,or tor the fitting of corn, or for levelling of une- 
ven placcSj one rod in a day, and the ^rciip^ fo diggedarid dcU 
. ved^.he' itii'y'rakc,<*tc<^,clnd T^xfcf m i,Kc /aracflay a^fo ;,'put if 
he'^lr^ ir^9^ep , 'and* trench it , and' itiaiVurclt' , as is'meet, ei- 

'■• ■ 1 1 r«ai*^86j>Mj>ii**» 

Book a. 4ndCattels labours, 115 

therfor Garden, Orchard, or Corn-fetting, then to delve half a 
rood in a day, is a very great proportion, be^aufe ordinarily to 
delve, as to receive ordinary Seeds, requires but one fpadc graft 
in depth i but extraordinarily to delve,asfor enriching and bet- 
tering of the ground,and to cleanfe it fromitones, weeds, and 
other annoyances, will require two fpadcs graft at the leaft. 

Laftly, a man may thra(h if the Corn be good and clean, with- Thrafhing. 
out fome extraordinary abufe or poverty in the grain,in one day 
four Bufiiels of Wheat or Rye, iix bufhels of Barley or OAts,and 
five bufhel-s of Beans or Peafe : but then the Pulfe muft be ima- 
gined to be exceeding good, otherwife a man (hall thrafh lefsof 
It, than of any other kind of Grain i for as when it is well loa- 
den, it yieldeth plentifully, fo when it is poor and lightly loa- 
den, it yieldeth little or nothing, and yet hath not one ilrokc 
lefs of the flail, nor any labour faved, more than belongs to the 
beft pulfe whatfoevcr, being ever at leaft three times turned,and 
four times beaten over. 

Having thus generally run over (m a fliort computation) the The partictj, 
labours of the Husbandman, I vvjll now briefly as I can, go ^^^ expencs 
over the particular days labour of a Farmer or Plow-man,(hew- °^* *^^* 
ing the particular expcnce of every hour in the day, from his 
Hrft rifing, till his going to bed, as thus for example : we will 
fuppofe it to be after Chriilmai^zn^ about plow-day( which is the 
rirftfetting out of the PlowJ and at what time men either begin 
to fallow, or to break up P.afe-earth, which is to lie to bait, 
according to the cuftom of the Country •, at this time the Plow- 
inan (hall rife before four ot the Clock in the morning, & after 
thanks given to God for hisrcfl,and prayerfor the fuccefsofhis 
labourS,he (hall go into his ftable,or bcaft-houfc, and firft he (hall 
fodder his Cattle, then cleanfe the houfe, and make the booths 
clean,rub down the Cattlejand cleanfe their skins from all hlth v 
then he (hall curry hisHorfcs,rubthcm with cloathsand wifps, 
and make both them and the (table as clean as may be \ then 
he (hall water both his Oxen and Horfcs, & houfing them again, 
give them more fodder,& to his Horfe by all means Provender! 
as Chaif,-and dry Peafc or Beans,or Oat-huls, Peafe or Peans, or 
clean Oats,or clean Garbadge f which is the hinder ends of any 
Grain but RyeJ with the Itraw chopt fmall amongft it, accord. 

Q* ing 

:ii6 ^ CompHtAtion of mens^ Book 2. 

ding as tlic ability of the Husbandman is. 

And whiUt they arc eating their meat, he flull make rea- 
dy his Co!krs,Hames, Treates, Halters, Mullens, and Fbw- 
geares, feeing every thing ht, and in his due place, and to ihafe 
labours I will alio allow full two hours , that is , from four 
ofthe clock till fixi then he ihall come in to brcaktafl, and to 
that I allow him half an hour, and then another half hour 
to (he gearing and yoaking of his Cattle, fp that at fevcn of 
the clock he may fct forward to his labour, and then he thai! 
plough from fcven of the Clock in the morning, till betwixt 
two ond three in the afternoon \ then he (hall unyoke and 
bring home his Cattle, and having rubb'd thtm, drell them and 
cieanfcd away all dirt and hlth, he (hall fodder them, an^igivc 
them meat s then (hall the fcrvants go in to their dinner, which 
aibwed half an hour, it will then be towards four ofthe 
clock, at which time he flull goto his Cattle again, and rubbing 
them down, and ckanfmg their lialls,give them more (odder : 
which done, he (hall go into the Barn, and provide and make 
ready fodder of all kinds for' the next day, whether it be 
hay, draw, or blend-fodder, according to the aiaility of the 
Husbandman. * \*"'^ ' 

This being dene, and carried into the (lable, Oxc-houfe, or 
other convenient place, he ll^all then go water his Cattle, and 
give them more meat, and to his Horle-Provcndcr, as before is 
iliewcd : and by this time it will draw pa ft fix of the Clock, 
at which time he ihall coine into fupper, and after fuppcr, he 
ihall by the (ire (ide mend hisfhoocs both for himfdfand 
rhcir Family, or beat, or knock Hemp, or Flax, or pick and 
fiamp Apples or Crabs, for Cyder or Verjuyce , orelfc grind 
Malt on the Qucrncs, pick Candle-mlhcs, ©r do 1( me Hus- 
barwHyortice withindoors till it be full eight a Clgck : Then 
fliallhc take hi^ Lanthorn and Candle, and go kt his Cattle, 
and having clcanftd the Hall and plaiiks , litter them down i 
look that they be fafely tied, and tl^n fodder, and give them 
meat (br aVl night ■-> then giving God thanks for benefits received 
t-hat'day, let him and the whole houfhold go to their rcll till the 
next niorrting. 

-I Now it \i .to be intended, that there may ' bs in the Houfc- 


.'lib K '. 

i l ■ ' 

■gQok 2. an dCatnls labours, iiy 

hold more fcrvants than one : and fo you will demand of 
me what the reft of the fervants (hall be imploycdin, before 
and after the time of plowing. To this lanfwer, that they 
may cither go into the Barn andthrafli, hll or empty the 
Malt fitj load or unload the Kilne, or any other good and 
necclTary work that is about the yard i and after they come 
from plowing, fome may go into the Barn and thrafh, fome 
hedge, ditch, ftop gaps in broken Fences, dig in the Orchard 
or Garden, or any other Out-work, which is needful to be 
done , and which about the Husbandman is never wanting, 
efpecially one muft have a care every night to look to the men- 
ding or fliarpeningof the Plough-irons, and the repairing of the 
Plough and Plough-gears, if any be out of order •, for to defer 
them till the morrow, were the lofs of a days work, and an ill 
point of Husbandry. 

Now for the particular labours of Cattle, though it be al- Particular la- 
already inclulively fpoken of in that which is gone before, hours of Cat- 
where I fliew you how much a man may conveniently plough ^^* 
in a day with one Team or Draught of Cattle , yet for further 
fati9fad:i®n, you (hall undcrrtand, that in your Cattle there arc 
many things to be obferved, as the kind, the number, and the 
Soil they labour in. For the kind , which are Oxen, Bulls, or 
Horfes '> the bcfl for the draught are Oxen, and the reafon I 
have fliewed in my former Works : The next are Horfes, and 
the worft, Bui's, bccaufe they are mofr troublefome : the num- 
ber fit for the Plough, iseighr, fix or four v for the Cart, five 
or four i and for the Wain^i, never under fix, except in leading 
home of Harvell, where loading eafilv, four very good Oxen 
arefutficient i for the Soil, if it be in the tougheit and dcepcft 
earth, eight Beads can do no more but fallow or break up 
Peafe earth i no, nor fewer fiir, if the feafon grow hard and 
dry i forfoyling, Winter rigging and Seed furrow, fixBeafts 
may difpatch that labour : if the Soil be mix'd and haf- 
fel, then fix may fallow and fowe Peafe, and four do every 
other ordure : but if it be light and eafie Sand, then four is 
enough in every feafon. For the quantity of their work, an 
Oxe-plough may not do fo much as a Horfe-plough , becaufc 
they arenotfo fwift, nor maybe driven out of their pace, bc- 

ii8 The y^pp lie Ation of Husbandry Book 2. 

ing more apt tofurleit than Horfcs bc/o that for an Ox-plough 
ro do an Acre , and an Horfc-plow an Acre and a Rood, or an 
Acre and a halt in g^ood ground, is work fully fuflkicnt. 

CHAP. X X 1 1. 

Ihe ayflyltig of Huihandry to the feveral Count re f of thU 

Kingdom^ rvherein is (hewed the Off.ce and Duty 

of the Carter cr FlorV'Tnan. 

IT is to be underAood, that Husbandry doth vary accord- 
ing to the Nature and Climates of CounrricS : not one rule 
obferved in al, places, but according as the Earth, the Air» 
the much or little hear> moifcure or cold doth increife or di- 
minifh, fo mull the skiltul Husbandm.nn alter his Icjfons, la- 
bours and inllruments » for in llirf" Clays, as are all the trufr- 
Tul Vales of this Kingdom ( of which Ihave named inoftpart 
in a Chapter bttbie ^ as alfo Hunt irigton-jh ire ^ Bedford-fhire^ 
Cambtidgi-lhire^ and many oiherof likenaturei al! manner of 
arable work muft be begunbctimcs in the year, and thcPlough? 
and Inllrumcntsmullbc of large liic, and llrong rimbcrj^nd the 
labour great and painful : fo alfo in m xti^MlSjthat are good and 
truittul, as Northatnpton-fhire^ Hjrtfjrd-Jhire, molt part of Kenty 
tjj^x^ Bark^tre^ and Counties of like nature i all arable toils 
^vould bcgm at laticr feafons, and the Ploughs and Inftruments 
H'ould be of middle llze, andindirtlrent timbers, and the la- 
bour fomewhat lefs than the other*, but the light fandy grounds 
•which have alfo a certain natural fruitfulncls in them, as in 
J^jrjolk^^ Suffulk^ moli part of Lincdn-jhire^ Hjmf^j'tre^ Surry ^ 
and Counties ot that nature, all arable toils would begin at the 
Liteit feafon<;,and the Ploughs and luftrumcnts would be of the 
fmallellandlighccft iize, and of thelealt timber, and the labour 
of all the other is ealiclt. 

Lartly, ior the barren unfruitful earth Cof which only I have 
written in this fas in Dcvonjhire ^ Cornwall many parts of 
V^alcs,^ l)jjh\f.ure^ Laticajliire^ Chtjhire^ Tork^-jhire^ and manyo- 
rbcf like, or worfc than they : the arable toils would have a ht 
icalbn of the year, according tothetemp:ratenefsof the year, 
w-hicii if it liappcacajlfjthen you muli begin your labours at lat- 

Book 2. to fever d Countries, ii9 

tt; fcaron,and for your Plough and Inflruments, thcyinufi: not 
k( > any certain proportion,but be framed ever according to the 
git id, thcliionger and Hi tfer ground having ever the ftrong 
ana trge Plough, with Inltruments ot like kind,and the Ughttr 
eartti a Plow and Inllruments of more eafie fubltance: as for the 
labour, it mud be fuch,and no other, than that which hath been 
already declared in this Book. 

And hence it comes, that the office and duty of every skilful 
Plow-man, orCart-r, is, rtrrt to look to the nature of the earth, 
next to the feafons of the year , then to the cuAoms and falViions 
of the place wherein he Ijveth i whichcul^oms, although they 
be held as fecond natures amonglt us > and that the bell reafons 
of the beft work-men commonly are, that thus I dojbecaufe thus 
they do i yet would I with no man to bind himlclf more ftrid- 
ly to curtom, than the difcourfe of reafon fliall be his warrant, 
and as I would not have him to prejudicate in his own opinion, 
fo 1 would not have him too great a flave to other mens tradi- 
tion, butrtanding upon the ground of reafon,- made good by 
experience , I would ever have him profit in his own judg- 

Now the further office and duty of the Husbandman,is,with The Garter's 
great care and diligence, to refpedl in what fort fafliion to office, 
plough his ground : for although I have in the former Chapter 
(hewed how hefhouldhy his furrows, what depth he fliall plow 
them, and how he (hall be able to raife and gain the greatcit 
(lore of mould ■■, yet is there alfo another confideration to be had, 
nolefs prohtable to the Husbandman than any of the former » 
and that is, how to lay your Land bell for your own profit 
and eafc, as alfo iheeafeof your Cattle which iTialldraw with- 
in your draught,as thus for inftanccilf your arable Land (hall lie 
againrt the iide of any fkep hill ( as for the moil part all barren 
earths do ; if then you flull plow (uch Land diredly againlt the 
hill, beginning below, and io afccnding Itrcight upright, and fo 
down again, and up again, this very labour and toyling a- 
gainft the hill will breed fuch a bitter wearifomnefs to the cat- 
tle, and fuch adifcouragemcnt, that you fliall not be able to 
compafs one half part of your labour, befides the danger of 
o\fer-heating and furfeiting of youtbcafts, whence will fpring 


120 Th^ Office of a Carter. Book 2. 

many trortal difcafes : Therefore when you (hall plough any 
fuch ground, be fare to plough it Gde-ways over-thw3rt the 
hill, where your Beafts may tread on the kvel ground, and ne- 
ver directly up and down, fofhall the Corapoft and Shnure 
which you lay upoi: the ground not be fo foon wafh d away frotn 
tkic upper-part ot theground, becaufe ihs hirrows not lying 
fTreight dowrn in an even defccn:, but turned crofs- win's up- 
wirdagainfi :he hill, itraafi necellarily hold the Soil within it, 
and not ktit wafhaway. 
^ ^"^ ^^^ Again, it is the o&ceofevery good Plow-man ?o know what 
Hia .g t. Cattle are meetclt tor his draught, as whether Oxen or Horfc, 

or both Oxen and Horfe : wherein is to be underltood, that al- 
though of all draughts whatfoever wirhin this Kingdora, there 
is none fo good to plough withaljbotb. in rcffccft cf the firength, 
frability,indurance, and hrnels for labour, as the Oxen are, in 
whom there is feldom or never any lofs , becoufc whcnfoevcr 
hisfavicefjileth in the draught, hisflclh will be of good price 
in the G-.arr.bksi y:t r.otwithiUnding in this cafe a man mufr nc- 
cellarilybind hirafelfmuch to the cuftom of theCcuntn.', and 
tifhion ot his neighbours \ for if ycu (hall live in a place wherr 
fuel is fcarce and far to be fetch 'd,a5 cwnnoonly it is in all barren 
Countries, which tor the moft pirt are Aony Champains, or 
cold Mountains •> and your Neighbours, as well for the fpced of 
ibeirJourncys,as for length, keep Horfe-draughts \ in this cafe 
alfoyoumuft do :he like, or elfe you tliall want their conapany 
in your Journey, which is both difcomfort and dilproiit, if any 
mi(chaiM:e or cafoaity fnall happen \ cr being inforcd to drive 
your Oxen as fair as rhcy do their Hcrfe, ycu (hall nor only 
oyer-hcar,:ire,brui{c,ind fpoil thetr.,but alfo rr.ake them utterly 
uoht either tor t'eeding or labour i and theretore if your Efrate br 
mean, and that you have no more bu: what neceifity requires, 
then ycu (hall for: your Plow or Team according to the fa- 
(hion of your Coun'ry, and the ufe of your neighlwurs : but if 
God have blsfi you with plenty, then it fhall not be amifs for 
yjijuohave ever an Oxe-draught or two to till yrur Land \ and 
a Horie-draught to do all your forraign abroad bufineflTes : (b 
ihpll your work at home ever go conlrat^tly forward, and 
your outward ncceffary Provilions be never NN'anting. Now 


Book 2 . The Office of a Carter, 121 

for theii-iixture of Oxen and Horfcs together, it falletli out of- 
tentimes that the Plow-man of force mutt be provided with 
Cattle of b^jth kind, as if he happen to live in a rocky Country, 
where the iteepncis of the Hills, and narrownefs of the ways, 
will neither futfer Cart, Wain,nor Tumbrel to pafs i in fhiscifc 
you (hall keep Oxen for the Plow to till the ground wich, and 
Horfesto carry pots and hooks : the tirft to carry for.h your 
manure, and the other to bring home your Hay and Corn-har- 
vefi, your fuel and other provilions, which arC needful for your 
family, as they do both in Comrvjl , and other mountainous 
Countries, where Carts and Wains^ and fuch likcdraught,have 
no pollible paffage, , '"'- ^. "■' ' *'^* 

Again, it is the office and duty of every good Plow-man to 
know his feveral labours, for every fcveral month through the 
who'e year,whereby noday nor hour may be mifpentjbut evay 
tinneand feafon employed according as his nature rcquireth : as 
thus for example. 

In the Month oi 'January^ the painful Plow-man, if he live in yamirp 
fertile and good Soyls, as among rich, fimple Clays, he (hall 
firft plow up his Peafe earth, becaufe it muft lie to take bait be- 
fore it be fown *, but if he live in fruitful, well mixt Soyls, then 
m this month he Ihall begin to fallow the field he will lay to reft 
the year following : but if he live upon hard barren earths ( of 
which chiefly I writejthcn in this month he (hall water his mea- 
dows 6c pailure grounds,and he (hall drain and make dry his ara- 
ble grounds,efpecially where he intends to fowc Peafc,Oats, or 
Barley the Seed-time following. Alfo he ihall Hub up all fuch 
rough grounds, as he intends to fowe the year following. You 
(hall meafure and trim up your Garden moulds, and you (hall 
comfort with manure, fand, or lim.e, or all three mixt together, 
the Roots of all barren Fruit-trees j and alfo cut down all fuch 
Timber,on1y there will be lofs in the Barkjfor the time is fome- 
whattoo ear'y forit to rifc.Lal]ly,you may tranfplantatt man- 
ner of Fruit-trees,the weather being open,and the ground eafie i 
you may rear Calves, remove Bees , and for your own health 
keep your body warm, let good diet and vvholefome be your 
Phyfitian, and rather with excrcifc than fawcc encrea'"c your 


122 The labours for the Book 2. 

FtbiMirj*^ In the month oi^ February ^cither fct or fowc all forts of Beans, 

Pcafc, and other Pulfc, and the OilTer your ground is, the fooncr 
begin your worki prepare your Garden-mould, and make it cafie 
and tender i prune and trim all forts of Fruit-trees, from mofs, 
cankers, and all fuperfluous branches?pla(h your hedges,and lay 
your quick-fets clofe and intire together •, plant Rofes, Goofc- 
berries,and any fruit that grows upon little bulhes i graft at the 
latter end of this month upon young and tender (locks, but by 
all means overlade not the ttocks. 

Laftly, for your health, take heed of cold, forbear meats that 
are flirayand phlegmatick, and if need require, either purge, 
^^^^^ bathe, or bleed, as Art (hall dired you. 

In the month of March^ make an end of fowing of all forts 
of fmall PuIfcjanJ begin to fowe Oats, Barley, and Rye, which 
is called Afurc/7-Ryeigraft all forts of Fruit-trees, and with young 
Plants and Syens repleni(h your Nurfery ■•, cover the roots of all 
trees that are bared,and with fat earth lay them clofe and warm: 
if any Tree do grow barren, bore holes in the Root,and drive 
hard wedges or pins of Oak-wood therein, and that will bring 
fruitfulnefsitranfplantall forts of Summer-flowers,andgivenew 
comfort of manure and earth to all early Out-landi(h flowers, 
cfpecially to the Cron^n Empcrial Tul'fs^ Hyacinth^ and Nar^ 
c/JJiiSot' all (hapc-sand coburs i> cut down under-wood for fuel 
and fencing, and look wdl to your Ewes, for then is the princi- 
pal time of yeaning. 

And laftly, bathe often, and bleed but upon extrcmity,purgc 
not without good counfel, and let your diet be cool and tem- 

In the month of Jprily hnifh up all your Barley-feed, and be- 
gin to (owe your Hemp and Flax : fowc your Gardcn-feeds,and 
f^ant all forts of Herbs i hnifli grafting in the Hock, but begin 
your principal inoculation, for then the Rind is moll pliant and 
gentle ^ open ycur Hives, and give Bees free libcrty,and leave to 
Iviccour them with food, and let them labour for their living* 

Now cut down all great Oak-timber, fornow the bark wiH 
life, and be in fcafon for the Tanners i now fcour your ditches, 
and gather fuch manure as you make in the ftreets and high- 
ways, into great heaps together^ lay your meadows^ Height your 


Book 2. feverd Months^ x^y 

corn-ground, gather away (lones, repair your high-wayeSySct 
Oziers and Willows, and caft up the banks and mines of all 
decayed fences. 

Laftly, for your health, either purge, bathe, or blec<J> as ycu» 
(hall haveoccafion, and ufe all wholefome recreation : for than 
moderate exercife in this month ^ there is no better Phyr 

In the month of A%, fow Barley upon all light fands and" May* 
burning ground?, fo likewifc do your Hemp, or flax, and al- 
fo all forts offender garden leeds, as are Cucumbers, and Mel- 
Ions, and all kind of fwect fmelling herbs and flowers i Fal- 
low your flilf clayes , fummer ftir your mixt earth , and foyl 
all light and loofchot fands i prepare all barren earth for Wheat 
and Rye, burn bait, ftub Gorfe or Furs, and root out Broom aid 
Fern •, begin to fold your fliecp, lead forth manure, and bring 
home fuell and fencing j weed your winter corn, follow your 
common works, and put all forts of grafs either in pafture or 
teather \ put your Mares to the Horfe, let nothing be wanting 
to furnilh the Dairy i and now put off all your Winter fed Cat- 
tel, for now they are fcarecft and dearelh put young ftears and 
dry kincnow to feed at fre(h grafs, and away with allpcafe-fed 
iheep \ for the fwcetnefs of grafs mutton will pull down their 

Laftly, for your health, ufe drink that will cool and purge 
the blood, and all other fuch phyfical precepts, as true Art fhall 
prefcribe you : but beware of Mountebanks, and old wives tales, 
the latter hath no ground, and the other no truth, but apparent 

In the month ofjme^ carry fand, marle,lime, and manure of June.'; 
what kind foever to your land i bring home your coals and o- 
ther necelTary fuel fetch far offi fhcar early fat (heep, fow all 
forts of tender herbs, cut rank low meadows, make the firft re- 
turn of your fat cattel, gather early fummer fruits, diftill all forts 
of plants and herbs whatfoever. 

And laftly, for your health, ufe much exercife, thin dyet, and 
chart thoughts. 

In the month of J«/y, apply your hay harveft i for a day jyiy, 
fl xkt is many pounds loft i chiefly, when the weather is uncon- 

R ftant. 

j;^ Tloc hb ours for tht Beak 

Ibnr, fh^ar sll msnncr of fidd-fticep, Summcr-riir rich ftiff' 
grounds, foyl all mixr earths, and htter foyl all loofe hot fands. 
Let herbs you would piercrve,row run to feeds cut off the (hlks 
of our-hhdi(h-fioNvers, and cover tUc roots with new tanh,. fo 
well rr.ixt with manure as may be •, fell all fuch Lsmbs as you- 
ftedforthcburchcrjand riilllead forth fandjmarl,liir.c.and other 
iXiJnure s fence up your crpfts.gra'zc ycur tldcr undcr-wcods, 
and bring home all your held-tii-nb.r. 

And hrtly, for your health, ablUin from all phyfick, bleed not 
but upon violent occilion, and neither meddle with Wine, Wo- 
men, nor no other wantonneis. 

A'-'gufi, In the Mcnth oi Avigu^ ^ SPP-Y Y^ui^ Corn Harvelf , (hear 

cjown ycur Whest and Rye, mow your Birky and Oars^And- 
make the fecond return of your ftt fhtep and cattle •, gather-. 
all your Summer greater ttuit , Plums, Apples, and P^arsv 
in Summer make yt^ur fweet Perry, 2nd Cyder ■•, S^t llips, and 
r.Tn;ofall forts ot Gilly-tk'>wfrs , and other flowers, and 
tranfpbnt them that were fet the Spring before, and at the end 
of this month begin to winter-rig all fruitful foyls whatfrc- 
ver, Gtld yo«r hmbs, carry n anurc from your dove-coats , 
and put your fwine to the early or Hrft maft. And ladly, tor 
your health, (hun fcalts and banquet*:. Let Phyftcloalone, hate 
wine, and ondy take delight in drinks thai are cooj and tcm— 

Semptcrabcr. ^" ^^ rr.oniii ff Sepitnber, reap your pcafe , beans, and all' 
other pulfe, making a tinal ci:dot your harveft v now bcrtow. 
, upon your wheat Land your principal manure, and no^v fow 
your VVhcutand Rye, both in rich and in barren -climates s now 
put your f.ving ro-maft.ofall hands, gather your winter fruif,3Tid 
make fak of your wooll, and other fummer commodities-, now 
put Oif thofe frocks of bees, yoa mean to fJl, or take for your 
own u(e,clofe thatch and daub warm aH the furviving hivc^.and 
look that rif> Drone, Mice, or other V^rminc be in or abouf 
them \ T>ov,- ihatch your (iacis^and recks, thrafh your kc6 Rye 
and wheat, and m::kc an end witli your cart of all forraign jour- 

La.niy, foryvur health, in thismonth. ufc Phyfick, but mode- 
r^felyi forbear frtiitsthatarejoo pleafant or iotten, death, 
rtiun ryor and furfcit. !c 

Book 2. feverd Moi^s^ 125 

In the Hlcnuh t)^Oaober^ finidi your wheat-Ceed, and fcour 06iober. 
ditches *nd ponds^phQi and ]ay hec!j>es and quickfeCjCTaufplant, 
jremovc or Set all manner offruit-trecs, of what nature ox quali- 
ty foever, make your Winter Cider and Perry/pare your private 
padfturcs, and eatopycmrcorn-hcldsand CoiT>rnons t and now 
awke an end of winter lidgtngj draw fufr&ws to drain, and keep 
dry your new fown corns follow hard tliernikingofyourmaiti 
rear all fuch calves as Hiallfall^ and wean rhofe^oalsfromyom 
draught marcsjwhich the Spring before were foaled: now fell al) 
fuch ftieepas you will not winter, give over foldings aad fepajratc 
■Lannbs from the £ wcs, which you purpofe <Or](tecp (qi yotjir .pAv^ 

LalHy, for ycnir health, rcfufe not any heedfMUiprhyilIck at ^c 
hands of the leirncd Phylltian, ufc all moderate fpofts, for any 
thing now is good, which rcvivcth the fpirits. 

In the month oi November^ you may fow either Wheat or Rye November, 
jnexceedittg hot foyls, you may then rtmpve all forts of fruit- 
trees, and plant great trees either for (helter or (hadow: now cut 
down all forts of Timber, for plows, carts,axeltrces,naves5har- 
rows, and other husbandly offices \ make now the laft return of 
your grafs fed cattle, bring your fwine from the mart, and feed 
them for flaughter, rear what calves foever fall, and break up all 
fuch Hemp and Flax, as you intend to fpin in th: winter fea- 
?bn." _ 

Laftly, for your health, e:it good vvholcfotrve and rtrong meats, 
very wellfpiced and dreft/ree from rawnefsi drink fweet wines, 
and for digertion ever before cheefe, prefer good and moderate 

e>, Tr|"tlie Month of December^ put your (hecp and fwine to the ^ 
•^ttre'Reeks, and fat them for the flaughter and markets now ^"™ ^' 
kill your fmall porks, and large bacons, lop hedges and trees , 
faw out your timber for building, and liy it to ieafon s and if 
your land be exceeding ftiff^andrifeup in an extraordinary fur- 
row, then in this month begin to plow up that ground whereoa 
you mean to fow -clean beans only. > now cover your jdainty fruit 
trees over with canvanlc,and hide all your bert flowers from froft 
and ftorraes, with rotten old horfe-litter i now drain all your 
corn-iields, and as occafion fhall fcrve, fo water and keep moid 

R 2 your 

J 26 The laboi^rs for-i &i. Book 

your mcado wsi now become the fowler, with Piece,Nets,and all 
manner ofEngineSjforin this month no fowl isoutoffeafoninow 
fi(h for the Carp, the Bream, Pike, Tench, Barbel, Peal and Sal- 

And hftly, for your health, cat meats that arc hot and nou- 
ri(hing, drink good wine that is neat, fprightly and lufty, keep 
thy body well clad, and thy houfe warm, forfake whatfoever is 
flegmatick, ajfid banifli all care from thy heart, for nothing is 
more unwholefomethen a troubled fpirit* 

Many other obfervations belong unto the office of our skilful 
Plow- man or Farmer •, but fince,they may be imagined too curi^ 
ous, too needlefe, or too tedious, I will ftay my pen wirh thefc 
already reheatfed, and think to have written fufticicntly, touch- 
ing the application of grounds, and office of the Plow-man. 

The End (^/^arkham'i fAurvellto Hmhundryi 


.mff iJjC 



\ • 

The Table. 

tkffv #9% Afv t!Sf9 tf©^ ctV^ tXff t^fs 

035S aJtii ijji 2;S!s Sas aS itw ' 



The Tabfe and general Contents of 

the. whole Book. 


TH E Nature of Grounds in 
general pag, i 

The kjtojvkdge of barren grounds. 

p. 2. 

CHAP. 11. 

7be Ordering^ "^^^^'^g-, ««^ ^^^f- 

fing of all barren clayesj fjmple 

9r compound. ' p. 3 . 

7he fr^ inriching of barren 

grounds. p. 3. 

The manner ofpkmng. p. 4. 
The hackings fanding^ and timing 

of grounds P. 4, 5- 

Additions. The ufe and profit of 

lime. p, 5. 

The manuring^ofgrounds, p. 6. 
The times forafriabonrs. p. 6. 
Ihe fecond plowing^ p. 7, 

Usefecond hackings p. 7. 

Thefirfi harrovping, p. 7. 

OffovetHg the feed: p. 8. 

jJhefecond harrovping* ib. 

Faults in the earth, ib. 

The clotting, of grounds. p. ^. 
Another manner of dotting, p. i o. F^n-i^g of grounds ^ 
Weeding. P* l ' ♦ Making fif Baits, 

An objeCiion and anjjver. p. 12.! Breaking of Baits t . 
The ordering of earths where fand 1 flowing, 

vfantethf ib.^ 

^Sovping of Salt, P-^S* 

7 he excellency of fait, ib. 

Of jleeping feed in brine. p» ig. 

CHAP. in. 

0/^/:?^ ordering^ tilling^ anddref- 
(mg of all rough barren clay , 
fimple or compound^ boing over- 
run rvith Curfcj Broom^or^ &c^ 
p. I+. 

7I?e defiroying ef weeds. p. 1 6, 

Burning ofBait^ ib. 

7he hre<i\^ng oj the burnt earthy 


2he caufes ofunfruitfulnefs, 1 7. 

An excellent manure, ib. 

7he plowing. ib. 

Of divers manures. 18. 

Of weeding. ib. 

7he time of Weeding* ib. 

The gathering ofjhnes- p. p. 

Of the order wg^ f^^^g, "^ ^^^f' 
fing of barren clayes^that are e- 
yer-run with Whins, p. 20. 

fflfat whins are ib. 

p. 21 


p. 22. 


The Tabic. 

Hjrruwifig^ jveedibgj & the fro- \0f Manures 
fits p. 24 

Ofirierlng^ iillifig, and dre^ng 
all barren cla\J -rciHcb are c- 
Tty-ran SffithLin^, ^i<i Hca-t h. 
p. 24. 
Vejlroyht^flf Hcatl\ p. 25. 

Another hHrnbigofhait, p. 25. 
Offset ding. P- 27. 

Of the erdtring, triTtimwg , and 
dreffing cf all barren Sands , 
bearingnotbhighttt m''[fiegrafs 
p. 28. 
Of Plopping. 
Of Marling. 
What Marl is. 
Of Cha\ and thi mJ^. 
7he pofit. 


P- 5^' 

Of harronnng^ and othei labours. 

p. 40. 






CHAP. iX. 

Theflwifig^ tillhtg^ atf^m-JhriMg 
of jands^ ladtn tt-hh moorifh 
{linking grajs. ^. 41^ 

Grounds for fijh-pundst P» 4 2 , 

Tlje drai»ingcjiv€t grounds. 

P' 43- 

The harron-iKg, p. 44. 

Ihe weediytg. p-45« 

Adiiuons. CHAP. X. 

A general rvayfr the enriching of 
ajy arable grjxnds , ertbtr 
Cl^ rr Sand^ rvitb lefs charge 
tluMfrmerly, P*45« 

Steepngif Sced-corn^or $ny Pu^ 

\ >.4<^, 

Shjiii'gs efhem ib» 

\Hc(fs »fCatteU ib. 

X)f the floppifTg^t tilings jrtd dref. OtWxad, ^ '^'42, 

fing of all barren Sands, ihat^Jhe eHrichlkg of ortlinaf^' jifj' 

■ are (jer-rnnn'ith^ak^n.Fem^^ HKre. ib. 

- or Heatbt^^"'''-^^'^ - 
Ofjand.rg and limbtg. 
Offl Tvmg and Ivrfivg. 
Labcurs .ifterfon-trt^. 
Of raeedi'fg. 

:\.i'^W: CHAP, vm 

-p. 3^.iAd'ditroTi5. CHAP, XI. 
p. 3^« Hojv tomrich frc.r4) anyharrtn 
p. 37.! rcu-hnwydypvund^bn'Mgrtew' 
tK i ly jiuhhed -Ht, p. 4^. 

p. 28^, 'Additions. C^hV. Xn. 

^ _.. ;V>^ «5/>^ mannfr 'f rf(hierir^\ d*f^ 

^^r J hwiJig:^ iiilitfg. <tt:d r)rdejif,^ < bringing itnfh thth firfi ^r)7- 
s of gil barren S(tHdsJridr>tvpitb\ Uiou ^ all ftfrts rf ^ vcniif 
. itn'itd\ attd n^d Bryary^^^ \ - whiih i\ive been oi'tr-f.^vrtd 

p. 5^. * tTf^ledhyfah-rvaiet^cr^ei' 
.C/»f dtfiroying oftwk^ sndvry- ' • brtach^^iiour arabhe , cr M 


ib. - ^Jtkre^ ^ gffi iheenfichhfr\r 

T!ie Table. 

heiterh^ sfihe C^nie* p. 50. 

Addition?. CHAP. XlII. 

Amlhcr fPi*)' to enrich harren pa- 
Jhre^ or meadcvv^ trithout the 
htlp ofrfjter, p. 5^. 


Hoxp to enrich or tnal^ ihe mofi 
barrm Joyl. to- bear excelettt 
good pjjture or meadoiv. p. 62 . 

Oj wall riig grounds. p. 6^. 

The help in watertug, rb. 

Of Gfallor.fftrs. i^. 

Of Mules ^ and the cure p. 80. 
Qffemes jrcm the injluence of. 

Heaven. p. 8j. 

^fftnnttinefs or mildetfj^ mid the 
■ Cure. • '■"'-'"'- ^''^- 

Addition?. ' ib. 

Of Hail and th cure» ib. 

Of Lighumg , Frofts^ , ^hfis , 

fogsattdblajhngs^aHd the cure 
82. ^5, 

ll^en and hirv to ufjter. ib. [ C()rn rf'aprrpfl^ afid the. cure, 83. 
1^i>e b€\\ feafo'nfdY rpattrirtg Tp.SyOfn^aJJk corn. p. S3, 


Jhe enriching barren ground j^, for 
Hemp or Flax, p. 6^. 

Black^clay for Himp. p. ^7. , 

life nUfking ill earth hear H(m%, 

p. 6%'. 
TJyerveedntg, p. 6^ 

The manner offtackin^ all kind of 

Jo l^ierf rvafht corn. p. 84. 

How t9 k^efall manner of Gram 
thrafht or unthrjfht the longeji 
time^and horp t^.^referve it^&c, 

p. 8^; 

Of Garners. p, 87. 

\0fHji4.i'hef and thtir ufes p. 

Grain ruith Icali l7fs^ 

CHAP, xvir 


To p-ejerve Wheat, p, 8p, 

Jo preferve Rye. p^ p^, 

Jofreferve Beans, ib„ 

Jhe difeafes and impcrfeVuons\Jnprefinie Ft aje or Retches. gK. 
rrhich happen •to all maimer of To preferve Lentils orLupins.pB, 
Grain* ip.jz.^To pre fen-e Oats. ,d. 

Crorvs^FidgeonSy or Birds ^and the | Jo preferve Oai-meaU . p. P5?, 
Cure. p. 73t't^^ prfewe any mead. p. ido. 

Additions. . p. 7-t. Jh^pr^fervingofallfrpallfeeds^ 

Of Tifm'.ns and Veres, rvith th 
rure, p.75w^- 

Of field Rats and Mice^ and the 
Cure. p. 77. 

Of rvnrm s audi he cure* . p . 7 8 1 

Of Rye not to be veet, 


p. lai. 

Hovp to keep Grain cither for tran- 
,. _^ortaiion^or^&c, p. iGi. 
Jhe'ufc qf Grain. p. ro2. 

\h.pffulfe, ib.. 

P* 7P- Of Rice and the ufe \h. 

I Of 

The Tabic. 

Of Ifljeat^a-nd the up. p. 103. 1 

OfOjt'Weal, andthenjc. p,i04.| 

OfBarky^ and the ufe, p. 105 . 

Oj' Buck^^ and the ufe. ib. 

Of Ptilpy and the ufe, p. 106. 

OfFrench-heans. ib. 

Of the Kidney 'he an, ib. 

Of common field beans, ib. 

Of Peaje, and their ufe, ib. 

Siveralfortsofpeafe, p. 107, 

Ta tranjport Grain, ib. 

Additions. CHAP.. XX. 

The enriching of barren Grounds, 
and to mak^ itfruitfull to bear 
Boffs, p. icp 

Abating aid encreafmg of fer- 
tility, ib. 

Choice of grounds, ib. 

Cafiing the hills. p. 1 1 o. 

Fref.rring the Allies^ and Plan- 
tingihelis^p, ib. 


A general computation ofm:n& 
cattels labours^ &c* p. 1 2 2 « 
OfPhvetug^ Sowing.^ and Movo- 
ing ib. 

Of Ke aping and gathe.i-g Graint 
p. 113. 
Of Ditching, Hedging, Plajhing 
p. 114. 
Of Delving and thrailnng. 114, 
The particular expences of a Day, 


The particular labour ofCatteh 

p. 117. 


The applying of Htuhandry to the 

feveral Countries. p. 11 8, 

The Carters office. p« i ip» 

Of Cattel for the Draught. 121. 

The feveral labours of the feveral 

hlontht, p. 121. to 126. 


An Excellent tpay to take Mules, and to freferve goad 
Ground from fitch Annoyance, 

lilt Garlick, Onions, or Leeks, into the mouths ofthe holes, 
and they will come out quickly, as amazed. 


•■>■'' ^^J*"- *kj« •