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Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, at the De- 
partment of Agriculture, Ottawa, in the year One Thousand Nine 
Hundred and Three, by The Markland Publishing Company Limited. 




The idea of producing this book originated with W. V. Brown, 
Esq., of Berwick, N. S. My acquaintance with him began in the 
winter of 1901 when he laid before me the general plan of the work, 
and desired that I would aid him with suggestions touching the 
contents, and their arrangement, and write the book in the main, but 
making such compilation from other sources as best satisfied myself. 
Not finding very much printed matter in the shape that suited my 
purpose, I have been obliged to write nearly all from beginning to 
end. It devolved upon Mr. Brown to secure the means to carry out 
the project, and this he has accomplished by the exercise of much 
energy, diligence, and intelligence. We have done our portions of 
the work, and now submit the book to the public for whom it was pre- 
pared. We are no longer young men, and the labor involved has 
severely taxed our strength. Mr. Brown has done, all the business 
connected with raising the money, securing a .publisher, and obtaining 
the photographs for illustrations. As President of the Company that 
issues this work Prof. E. M. Keirstead, M. A., D. D., of Acadia 
University, has lent his valuable name and official assistance, and Mr. 
S. C. Parker of Berwick, Secretary of the Nova Scotia Fruit-Grow- 
ers' Association, as Secretary Treasurer of the Markland Company 
has aided the business in many ways. 

There seemed to be a demand for something like what we have 
produced. It is true that there are in existence Histories of Nova 
Scotia, and no small amount of literature relating to the economic 
interests of the Province. The latter portion is not readily accessible, 
as much of it is scattered here and there in rare books, or hidden 
away in publications of societies, and newspaper files. There has not 
existed up to this date a book wherein could be found the information 
desired by men of business, by tourists, and sportsmen, and students 
of natural science. Hitherto our fine scenery away from: railway 
routes, had not been brought before the public by means of the camera 
and otherwise, in a way that extends to all parts of the Province. 

This book will show that Nova Scotia has been mightily enriched 
by nature. We have scarcely done more than make a beginning in 
the work of drawing upon these sources of wealth. To make more 



widely known our interesting history, our resources of land and sea, 
and the native charms of this choice bit of the globe, is the object in 
producing this work. We who are responsible for it, have no schemes 
to boom, no properties for sale, and no small ends to answer in this 
way. No man's money has been taken for advertisements of his busi- 
ness or of himself. To insure a more lasting character the book is 
largely devoted to subjects and topics that do not readily become 
obsolete. A word about the title "Markland." It is my own sugges- 
tion. About a thousand years ago the Norwegians who had settled 
in Iceland, and discovered Greenland, were not satisfied with such 
tame enterprises, and therefore without chart, or compass, or quadrant 
ran their intrepid prows southward into our waters. Written ac- 
counts of these voyages exist in the Icelandic language. There 
has been a good deal of controversy about the locality of the lands 
they made. Until within a dozen years or thereabouts it has been 
quite generally believed that when Captain Leif Erikson touched a 
land "covered with wood, white sands were far around where they 
went, and the shore was low, and he said this land shall be named 
after its qualities, and called it Markland," that Nova Scotia was 
thus designated. That this view is not now so generally accepted 
is due to the researches of Professor Storm, a Danish scholar, who 
has convinced himself, and some others that Nova Scotia is the 
Vinland of the Norse explorers. However, the name is a pleasing 
word, and for all that any one surely knows to the contrary may be 
the very one that Leif bestowed upon these wooded shores and sandy 
beaches. At any rate it will be a restful variation from Acadia, which 
is another word of doubtful meaning if we are to listen to some re- 
spectable critics. This is the "Woodland" where the forests primeval 
still shelter the moose, and caribou, and bear and other wild things, 
and for the purposes of this book "Markland" may stand with pro- 

For my own part I would have been pleased had the choice of a 
writer fallen upon one who could have excelled my performance. It 
is beyond my expectation to please all my readers, but to that end I 
have spared no pains, and shirked no duty in the matter, and in the 
words of Apocryphal Scripture, "If I have done well, and as is fitting 
the story, it is that which I desired ; but if slenderly and meanly, it is 
that which I could attain to." 

Brookfield, Queens County, Nova Scotia, July, 1902. , 




I. History of Nova Scotia 9 

t II. Geology of Nova Scotia 53 

III. Introduction to the County Histories 58 

IV. History of Annapolis County 60 

* V. Gold Mines and Gold Prospects 69 

VI. History of Halifax County 89 

4 VII. Hunting and Fishing 99 

VIII. History of Lunenburg County 195 

-/ IX. Coal Mines and Coal Measures : 120 

X. History of Yarmouth County (yp 

XI. Indians of Nova Scotia 166 

XII. History of Cape Breton County , ; . 176 

XIII. History of Guysborough County 185 

~> XIV. Iron Mines and Iron Prospects 194 

XV. History of Hants County 224 

XVI. History of Kings County 234 

XVII. Nova Scotia as a Locality for a Vacation 247 

XVIII. History of Digby County 257 

f XIX. The Sea Fisheries 265 

XX. History of Shelburne County 297 

XXI, History of Queens County 309 

' XXII. Copper Mines and Copper Prospects 318 

XXIII. History of Colchester County 324 

XXIV. Apple Culture in Nova Scotia 339 

XXV. History of Pictou County 350 




* XXVI. Agriculture 361 

XXVII. History of Antigonish County 384 

XXVIII. Institutions of Learning 392 

XXIX. History of Cumberland County 447 

XXX. Timber and Lumber Resources 463 

XXXI. History, of Victoria County 469 

' XXXII. Paper Pulp Resources 478 

XXXIII. Quarries of Various Kinds 481 

XXXIV. History of Richmond County. 492 

XXXV. History of Inverness County 493 

XXXVI. Birds of Nova Scotia 51 1 

XXXVII. Game Law for Nova Scotia 573 

XXXVIII. Institutions for the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb 581 

XXXIX. Manufacturing Concerns 586 

XL. How Nova Scotia is Governed 590 

XLI. The Common School System of Nova Scotia 593 

Appendix 601 




In the order of Nature warfare is an ordained factor of prime 
importance in the animal world. In human affairs it has often seemed 
that nothing short of the arbitrament of the sword could settle ques- 
tions of great interest to mankind. 

Any country where such epoch-making struggles have been thus 
decided, is thereby invested with unusual interest. 

Geography destined Nova Scotia to become the arena where issues 
of the gravest national importance to future generations were to be 
decided by the ordeal of war. Less than one hundred and fifty years 
ago it was not determined whether French, or English rule should 
dominate North America. No human foresight could see what de- 
cision the "Tablets of Destiny" contained on their hidden faces. A 
question so pregnant with mighty issues for unborn generations of 
people must have been decided by the inscrutable will of Providence. 
If France could have kept what she had claimed -in America, and thus 
held the whole of it except the fringe of English Colonies along the 
Atlantic Coast, from Massachusetts southward, then we may be con- 
fident that there would have been no Revolutionary War to gain inde- 
pendence of England, only to be swallowed up by a people foreign to 
them in blood, in laws, in religion, and in the common usages of social 
and public life. Indeed it is quite certain that in the event of French 
occupancy of all other portions wherein she had fastened her hold, 
that these > British Colonies would have been added by conquest to 
that vast domain, and their populations scattered and lost in the gen- 
eral masses. In other words, less than a century and a half ago 1 it 
was, so far as human power could discern, an unsettled question, 
whether or not there was to be a United States, and a British Canada. 
"Great doors turn on small hinges." Apparently the decision oscillated 
in the balance, and might have been easily decided against English 

Nova Scotia stands out like a great wharf into the restless Atlantic. 
Its coastline is a succession of harbors inviting the early explorers to 
shelter and new supplies of food, wood, and water. 

We shall never know whose were the human voices that first broke 
the solitudes of this region ; whose was the hand that opened hostilities 



upon the innocent wild things that ranged the unbroken forest with- 
out dread of such armed, and tireless, enemies as mankind. He may 
have been a "rugged type of primal man," whose kinsmen left their 
stone implements where they were buried in the glacial gravels of 
Trenton, New Jersey,, while they retreated before this invasion of 
ice, at a time so distant that the Niagara gorge was not begun. If 
these were the original explorers of Nova Scotia, then the time came 
nearly one hundred thousand years ago, when the^ slowly increasing 
cold and accumulated snow, drove them from this peninsula that be- 
came a world of arctic desolation for thousands of years. Whether 
the primeval men of pre-glacial America, who retreated southward 
before the ice-sheet till beyond its reach, survived in their decendants 
and camped again on their old lines of retreat in after ages as they 
returned northward, is a matter of speculation for the present. Out 
of that stock may have sprung the rude sons of the forest who 
greeted the first white men, and were so long in the land that their 
fathers had named the natural aspects of the country in a musical 
tongue that was a mimicry of the murmuring streams and the whisper- 
ing winds in the restless pines. These Red Men were in the Stone 
Age of their history ; further progress was barred until iron ore could 
be melted and forged into implements. Here they dwelt, not without 
some virtues, but not greatly in advance of the bears and the moose, 
save in point of intelligence. They called the peninsula Acadie, mean- 
ing a land of plenty. 

Surely it was no Canaan flowing with milk and honey ; but there 
were fresh fish, and game, and berries, and nuts, and roots. They 
hailed with delight the Frenchmen who brought hatchets and guns, 
and knives, and bartered them for skins of beavers, bears, and moose. 
They did not perceive that the superiority of the men who furnished 
these weapons would inevitably make them the rulers of the land. 
Here on these Acadian shores was begun the New France that once 
bid fair to rival the glories of the Motherland. Here was poured out 
the treasures of a nation to build a Fortress Town to scare the British 
ships from adjacent seas, and make hopeless all attempts to overthrow 
her power. The utter ruin and pathetic desolation that marks the site 
of that city is a stern rebuke to human pride and national ambitions 
of conquests. Such a challenge as Louisburg constituted did not 
pass unheeded by her only rival on these shores. Before English- 
men had settled at Jamestown or Plymouth the French had begun 
colonization at least at two points, and when the Mayflower with 


her pilgrim passengers in 1620 sailed into Plymouth there had been 
for fifteen years a post and plantation at Port Royal or Annapolis. 
Nature at this point had furnished a most admirable site and noble 
surroundings for a city. No wonder the locality was pitched upon 
for such a purpose. Its great land-locked basin fringed with ample 
meadows, and fenced by lofty hills that rise almost to mountain 
magnitude and clothed with noble forests to their summits, are but 
leading lineaments of a scene calculated to charm the eye and win 
the approbation of the remarkable men who named it Port Royal 
and began its permanent settlement before Henry Hudson had dis- 
covered the noble river that bears his name, or Jamestown was 
founded, or any colony planted north of Spanish dominions at St. 
Augustine, Florida. Hereabouts was shed the first blood in the 
long conflict that was to decide whether France or England should 
hold this Continental Domain from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's 
Bay. No less than t'hree armaments commanded and manned by 
New Englanders have sailed into this peaceful haven to lay in ruins 
the forts and settlements, and a Virginian half-freebooter, sailing 
under orders, struck the infant colony within ten years of its found- 

For a long time the history af Annapolis is the history of Nova 
Scotia, for the most part, and there is no proper understanding to 
be had of the founding of Anglo-Saxon rule in America without 
careful study of the annals of this province. 

Beyond question the Norsemen- touched these shores a thousand 
years ago. It is almost a certainty that Sebastian Cabot in 1498 
made a, landing on this peninsula. Very probable that Jacques 
Cartier in 1534 saw the coast of Cape Breton. French fishermen 
and fur-traders frequented the Atlantic seaboard from then till the 
beginning of the next century, but made no real attempt to form a 
permanent settlement. Thus matters stood until 1604 when Henry 
Fourth of France appointed a Governor-General of this country in 
the person of Pierre du Guast Sieur de Monts, a native of Saintonge, 
a man who had distinguished himself in the service of the King and 
gained his confidence. This enterprising gentleman had already 
made a pleasure trip across the ocean four years previously with the 
Sieur Chavin on a trading voyage to Tadousac on the St. Lawrence. 
His commission extended from the 4Oth to the 46th degree north 
latitude, and he was "to people and cultivate said lands, search for 
gold and silver, build forts and towns, and grant lands," etc. He 


and his associates, certain merchants, had the exclusive right to 
trade in furs and other merchandise in all this wide region. This 
looked like what in modern parlance we call a gilt-edged business 
proposition, and there were not wanting men of large means and 
uncommon ability to furnish the financial sinews, for the concern 
had no government backing in money. They fitted out ships and 
got together a large company of men from various walks of life from 
a baron to a blacksmith. The Baron Jean de Poutrincourt was to 
become a notable figure in this enterprise, but a man of historic fame 
was in that group no other than Samuel de Champlain of Brouage 
on the Bay of Biscay, the founder of Quebec, who gave his name to 
the great lake, surveyed and made maps of the Canadian coast, wrote 
invaluable history of his voyages, and died in his bed after all his 
perilous adventures on land and sea. The four vessels sailed from 
Havre de Grace on the 7th day of April, and on the i6th day of 
May three of the ships had put into Liverpool Harbor and there 
de Monts found an opportunity to exercise his authority. An ad- 
venturous and thrifty countryman of his was there with his vessel 
carrying on a trade in fur with the natives, which he had a right to 
do so far as he was aware, or it was possible for him to learn. The 
news had not reached him that de Monts and his associates had 
the exclusive right under a royal permit to all this trading them- 
selves. De Monts showed a callous disregard of proprieties and 
failed in showing a decent respect for the wholesome opinions of 
mankind. He confiscated the vessel of this fellow-citizen in a lone 
land; took her supplies to help out his failing stock, and sailed away 
to the westward in search of some goodly territory yet to be dis- 
covered within the limits of his 'ample patent. Rossignol was the 
name of the man he had distressed. It was for a time retained by 
the harbor and now lingers as a designation of the largest lake in the 
province, on the 'waters of the Liverpool River. 

The vessels rounded Cape Sable and dallying in St. Mary's Bay 
pushed out into the Bay of Fundy. They named it the La Baye 
Francois, and found their way into the spacious Annapolis Basin, 
that they called Port Royal. Poutrincourt, the baron who was look- 
ing for some place to make a home in the new world, was so much 
pleased with this locality that he requested and obtained a grant of 
it from de Monts, and the King confirmed his title two years later. 

The expedition did not tarry long at beautiful Port Royal, and 
the River Dauphin, but sailed out and up the bay into the Basin of 


Minas. That was the name they bestowed upon a locality in which 
they had discovered copper. Wherever they had landed a search 
was made for mines as they were bound to do by the terms of their 
charter. The imagination had enriched these unknown strands with 
precious things. At St. Mary's Bay they had lost and left in the 
woods Father Aubry, a priest with an enthusiasm for the new things 
of this unexplored world. By good luck the poor man was dis- 
covered weeks afterwards and restored to his companions. 

One of their pilots turned chief prospector and picked out of a 
rock a smooth blue stone, an amethyst, and generously broke it in 
two and presented the halves to de Monts and the Baron, who were 
so pleased with these pretty specimens of quartz that they presented 
them to the King and Queen after a goldsmith "had adorned them in 
settings of gold. They would be of great interest now in our 
Provincial Museum, and they have doubtless survived among royal 

Failing to discover a mine did not prevent them from fixing the 
name on the Basin, and they stood across the Bay of Fundy and 
discovered a great river on the 24th day of June, the festival of St. 
John the Baptist, and named the noble stream after this ancient 
worthy. They made some explorations and were greatly pleased 
with the scenery, the fish, and the game, but were so hard to suit 
that they set sail again and stood up the western coast not many 
leagues to the River St. Croix. Selecting an island in the river 
they began to make preparations to spend the winter there. Cer- 
tainly they had left behind* them situations far better adapted to 
their purposes and their needs, as they learned to their sorrow- 
when wood and water failed. Baron Poutrincourt took passage for 
home in one of the vessels, but de Monts and most of his party spent 
a tedious winter on that undesirable spot where thirty-five men per- 
ished of scurvy and other ills. In the spring they sailed westward 
to Cape Cod and returned to St. Croix, where they were happily 
joined by the vessel that sailed in the autumn for France, under 
Pontgrave, who brought out forty men and new supplies. 

They concluded to abandon St. Croix and return to Port Royal 
for a settlement. Placing Pontgrave in charge of this work, de 
Monts, seeing it well forward, sailed for France, leaving the after- 
wards famous Champlain to pass another rather uncomfortable winter 
there, and charged them to explore the country as best they could. 
Not till the next 27th of July, 1606, did de Monts return, and by that 


time many misfortunes had befallen them, but when they met again 
there was a great jubilation. The Baron had come, and with him 
Lawyer Marc Lescarbot, a handy learned man to whom we are 
indebted for a history for what befell th^m in all these times. 
He says the Baron opened a hogshead of wine and set up 
the drink in a fashion so lavish that "Some were so drunk that their 
caps turned round." A very practical man was this Parisian advo- 
cate, for he found them grinding their grain in hand-mills, and 
grumbling over the wretched toil. He devised a mill, the first in 
the province to be turned by water power, and aided in many other 
ways the material needs of the settlement. 

Baron Poutrincourt had a taste for agriculture and a desire to get 
this place into a condition inviting to his family, so he had cleared 
ground and sown wheat in the fall. Meantime de Monts with M. 
de Champdore for master set sail for home again. 

The winter was passed in comfort; they built two small vessels 
in the spring for their convenience and anxiously awaited the return 
of de Monts. He did not come, but a vessel brought letters inform- 
ing them that the King had been induced to remove the terms of 
the patent by which he had exclusive rights of trading with the 
Indians, and thus the bottom dropped out of the enterprise before 
it had got on its feet. The King acted upon the advice of the Min- 
istry to whom fishermen and traders made bitter complaints of the 
failure of their business, owing to de Monts forbidding their barter 
with the natives. One is at liberty to believe that the treatment of 
poor Rossignol in Liverpool Harbor was largely resented and the 
penalty, though long delayed, was not escaped. 

Thus ended the attempt to make great fortunes in a short time. 
De Monts and his associates could do nothing but withdraw from 
such a venture and make the best of a bad bargain. Port Royal was 
abandoned and de Monts engaged Champlain to make a settlement 
in Quebec. Thus we see that at the close of 1607 this settlement 
was a deserted locality. Baron Poutrincourt had a" grant of that 
place and was determined not to give up without an effort what 
had been so well begun. He was back again in the early summer of 
1610 and with him came a priest, Messire Josse Flesche, who bap- 
tized several Indians shortly after the arrival. This event was 
deemed of so much importance, from a business point of view, that 
the Baron dispatched the vessel with his son Biencourt to France 
with the welcome news to the King, and on the resulting flood-tide 


of good feeling expected to obtain some aid for the colony that he 
was founding out of his own none-too-deep pocket. 

After many trials this young man returned the next June, 1611, 
and with him two Jesuit Fathers, Pierre Biard and Raimond Masse. 
There were in all thirty-six people on board this small craft of sixty 
tons that had been the plaything of the Atlantic since the 26th of 
January. They saw great icebergs, and singularly enough fell in 
with Champlain as he was making his way to Quebec and was de- 
tained by the ice, but arrived at Tadoussoc on the St. Lawrence 
May nth. The Baron was not overjoyed with the results of the 
trip. Thirty-six were added to his family of twenty-three, besides 
the old Mic-mac Chief, Membertou, and his relatives, who had not 
become Christians out of religious considerations alone. This vener- 
able man, who considered himself more than one hundred years of 
age, was obliging enough to die that summer, and then there were 
a few mouths less to fill. 

The very next month the Baron sailed away for home to secure 
further aid, and there he carried out a transaction by which a woman 
secured a grant of the whole Province of Nova Scotia, Port Royal 
excepted. She was Madame la Marquise de Gucherville, lady of 
honor to the Queen, the wife of the Sieur de Liancourt, first esquire 
of his Majesty and Governor of Paris. This grand lady, once 
renowned for grace and beauty, was deeply interested in missions, 
and was instrumental in sending out the Jesuit Fathers with young 
M. Biencourt. To this woman the Baron went directly for assist- 
ance. She had already invested some money there as a missionary 
venture, and she was now persuaded to drop a thousand crowns 
more into this pious enterprise that the enthusiastic Poudrincourt 
represented in glowing colors. The noble madame concluded to 
look a little closer into this proposition, and the result was that she 
found de Monts yet held the Province except Port Royal, and 
although he was not very active still he had vessels there at that 
very date. She obtained from de Monts a release of his rights, and 
the King gave her a grant of the whole region from the St. Lawren'ce 
to Florida, excepting Port Royal. The Baron remained at home 
and naturally fell out with the madame. He dispatched a vessel to 
Port Royal that made the voyage in twenty-three days, arriving on 
the 23d of January, 1612. Matters at Port Royal were far from 
prosperous or harmonious, and meantime the Marchioness fitted out 
a ship and dispatched it to form a new settlement in her ample 


domain, that extended westward to Cape Cod. There were forty - 
eight in all. They landed at Cape Le Heve on the i6th of May, 
1613. A fishing station was existing at that point, and there unex- 
pectedly were found Biard and Masse, the two missionaries, with 
three others from Port Royal, where it was no longer desirable to 
remain on account of short rations and dissensions. Taking with 
them these two Fathers, they sailed westward to the entrance of 
the Bay of Fundy, and thence further west along the coast to near 
Mount Desert, in the vicinity of the Penobscot River, where they 
began to make a settlement, not without considerable contentions. 

Now we come to an event of some real historical interest. At 
this point was fired the first gun in the contest between England and 
France for the possession of this western world, that was to have 
its final decision on the Plains of Abraham nearly a century and a 
half later. 

The Englishmen who had been making a settlement during the 
last seven years in Virginia claimed to northward all the coast and 
lands, including Acadia. This claim was not new, but dated from 
the voyages of the Cabots in 1497 an d 1498. 

These Virginian pioneers were an enterprising community, and 
they were soon harvesting the seas for fish on the coasts of Maine. 
It chanced in that very summer of 1613 there sailed into these 
northern waters Captain Samuel Argall with an armed vessel con- 
voying a fishing fleet. This was the very man who captured Poca- 
hontas and brought her to Jamestown, where she married Mr. Rolfe. 
Innocently an Indian told him of the white men and their doings 
not far away. The Captain was a man of action, troubled with no 
fine scruples about making an attack upon Frenchmen at a time 
when the parent states were at peace. He rather liked the prospect 
of an encounter with these invaders of British territory, as he wished 
to believe. He lost no time and soon had them at his mercy. The 
valiant Frenchmen, taken unawares by a ship of fourteen guns and 
sixty men, made some resistance, but surrendered after a loss in 
dead and wounded. This is a long story, of which we have the 
details, but the upshot of the affair was this about one-half of the 
people were permitted to sail away in their own shallops and get 
home again if they could, and they succeeded. The other half were 
taken to Jamestown and treated badly by the colonists. Among 
these were Captain Flury, who was master of the French ship, and 
three Jesuit Fathers. 


The Governor of Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale, was so well pleased 
with the success of this expedition that he at once dispatched Argall 
on another, with three vessels, to destroy the settlement of P'ort Royal 
and everything of French occupancy he could discover. Argall 
took with him Captain Flury and the Jesuits, and cleared for Acadie 
with this roving commission to carry fire and sword into the disputed 
territory. The first landfall he made was at St. Sauveur, the scene 
of his late victory, where he had not made as clean a sweep of all 
improvements as suited his taste in such matters. There he pulled 
down a cross, to gratify his religious feelings, and burned the build- 
ings, and doubtless would have sowed the clearing in salt, after the 
Oriental custom, if that article had been on hand. In the old 
Norman fashion he made a lavish use of the firebrand and left noth- 
ing that would burn. 

He stood across the bay to Port Royal and there all was deserted. 
The few who lingered took to the woods at sight of the enemy in 
such force. However, they ventured back and Biencourt, son of 
the Baron, failed to make terms of peaceable trade, and Argall 
destroyed the fort and houses that had cost a hundred thousand 
crowns, and even picked out of the stone the names of de Monts 
and his official associates, and sailed away in triumph. To the Baron 
this was the last straw that was to break the back of the enterprise 
that he had abandoned, and he then entered the service of the King 
and managed to get honorably killed in a besiegement where a fellow 
"wickedly moved a catapult and struck him on the breast, and the 
subsequent proceedings interested him no more," 1615, in the fifty- 
eighth year of his age. He was a notable and interesting figure in 
the earliest annals of our Province. Captain Argall was getting on 
in the world. He was realizing that nothing succeeds like success. 
The Earl of Warwick for mercenary reasons took him under his 
influential patronage, and he was made Deputy Governor of Vir- 
ginia, where he enforced the Sabbath laws with edifying rigor. Had 
there been another French settlement" in all Acadie when he had 
wiped out Port Royal we may be sure it would not have been spared. 
There were no longer any homes of white men in all this region. 
While a serious check had been placed upon French colonization by 
this act of Argall's, still the fishermen and fur traders continued 
their vocations in no very small way. More than five hundred 
vessels sailed annually from France to these western waters to 
engage in fishing and trading with the "sauvages" as they were always 


called, even after they had become Christians, but the word did 
not refer to their dispositions but to their life in the forests. Bien- 
court, in a measure, rebuilt his ruined post, and in 1618 wrote to 
the authorities of the city of Paris urging upon them the advantages 
of establishing fortified posts in Acadie to defend it from the incur- 
sions of the English, who continued hostile. It was very evident 
that French occupancy of this continent was not to be had without 
a stern contest with English* claimants, who fell back upon Cabot's 
discoveries as the moral ground of their contention. In 1621 
James I was King, and Sir William Alexander, a favorite courtier, 
could get most anything he dared ask for. He was a younger son 
of a large landed proprietor in Scotland, and having some talent 
for writing dramas and verses was able to flatter the pedantic mon- 
arch by praising the royal performances in that line. In 1621 Sir 
William applied to the King for a grant of Acadie, for the purpose 
of colonizing it on a large scale. He had no difficulty in securing 
what no one but himself and his associates wanted; and in his 
patent the region was called Nova Scotia for the first time, in a 
formal fashion. It was then a large unlimited domain, of which 
neither the King nor anyone else in the British Isles knew very 
much; but they had stores of misinformation. Before this scheme 
got into practical shape Jahies paid the debt of nature, and Charles 
reigned in his stead. He confirmed the grant of his father and 
founded the order of the Knights of Nova Scotia, that resulted in 
neither good nor harm. This was in 1624. It is currently reported 
that at this date an expedition had been sent out and made no 
landing, but returned with the report that the French were every- 
where strongly in possession. If that was the case, matters were 
later in better shape, and a new start was made by certain London 
merchants under the patronage of Alexander. Among them was 
Gervase Kirke, an Englishman of Derbyshire who had long resided 
in Dieppe, and there married a French woman, who bore him at least 
three sons of more than ordinary spirit and enterprise. Three small 
armed ships were fitted out and commanded respectively by the 
three brothers, David, Lewis, and Thomas Kirke. Letters of marque 
were obtained and the adventurers were authorized to drive out the 
French from Acadia and Canada. Many Huguenot refugees were 
among the crews. Having been expelled from New France as 
settlers, the persecuted sect embrace.d this opportunity to return 


as enemies. Ties of blood and patriotism combined were not so 
powerful as the sentiment of religion, and thus it is always. 

The plucky little outfit got away in the year 1627 and had a good 
run of luck, capturing several vessels but doing nothing at coloniz- 
ing, unless it was to clear the adjacent seas of the enemy. Annapolis 
was taken as a matter of course, and in all Nova Scotia there was no 
other settlement worthy of attention. The next summer David 
Kirke was before the little Fort of Quebec summoning the great 
Champlain to surrender. But that he did not do such conduct was 
not in his line. Doubtless there would have been no other course, 
had it not been to the interest of Kirke to be elsewhere to intercept 
the enemy's unarmed vessels of which he had gained some tidings. 
The next summer the three captains sailed up the St. Lawrence. 
David, who was in command of the armament, tarried at Tadoussac, 
a busy fishing station, and sent forward his brothers to Quebec to 
demand its surrender. Sickness and hunger had made resistance 
useless, and Champlain offered no resistance. It was a bitter reward 
for the dangers and indescribable hardships of nearly a quarter of 
a century. His country had shown but little appreciation of his 
heroic and patriotic services. This surrender was one hundred and 
thirty years before it was taken by Wolfe. The French had been 
dislodged everywhere by the Kirke captains, and when all was done 
King Charles, by the Treaty of Saint Germain, 1632, returns it to 
France. It will be of interest to know how much had been accom- 
plished toward the settling up of Acadie and Canada in the twenty- 
eight years since de Monts had made the beginning. Charlevoix, 
writing a little more than a hundred years later, says: "Cape Breton 
at that date, 1632, was of but little importance the fort at Quebec, 
surrounded by some inferior buildings, and some sheds, "two or 
three cabins in the Island of Montreal, perhaps as many more at 
Tadoussac and other places on the River St. Lawrence, the begin- 
ning of a settlement at Three Rivers, and the ruins of Port Royal 
in these consist New France, and all the fruits of the discoveries 
of Verazoni, Jacques Cartier, Roberval and Champlain, of the great 
expense of the Marquis de la Roche and M. de Monts, and of the 
industry of a great number of Frenchmen, which might have made 
there a great establishment, if they had been well conducted." This 
was a poor showing indeed. It had not been due to anything so 
much as bad management. Commercial greed and religious strife 
had been active factors from the day of de Mont's arrival. At any 


rate, the country was worth the conquest and a good deal more, but 
the men who furnished the money and the pluck never were repaid. 
David was knighted and Sir William Alexander was created an 
Earl, and these decorations did not cost King nor country a farthing. 
The King did not value this western domain very highly, for we 
are now aware that he traded it away for the balance of his Queen's 
dowry, about two hundred thousand dollars. Had the British crown 
kept these possessions it would have prevented incalculable blood- 
shed, and suffering, and waste of property during more than a 
century, to end at last on the Plains of Abraham, so recently that 
our old people have conversed with those who witnessed the death 
of General Wolfe. It is depressing to consider how often the course 
of human history has been turned hither and thither by the whim of 
a vain woman, the obstinacy of a stupid monarch, the vice of a royal 
tyrant, the barking of a dog, and the cackling of geese! There 
seems to be more order and proper direction in an ant-hill than there 
is in the history of the human race. I do not say there is, but it looks 
that way. For twenty years after this treaty the French were undis- 
turbed in the western world and wrought as they would. A dozen 
years before the treaty was signed, the historic Mayflower landed her 
passengers on Plymouth Rock: this was the beginning of the end of 
French rule on this continent. The Puritan stock took firm root in 
that New England region and grew apace. They had no liking for 
their French neighbors, since they were separated from them by 
religion, race, and language. The Puritans of England and their 
coreligionists in America had never looked with favor upon the 
surrender of all the northern country by the Treaty of Saint Ger- 
main, so it turned out that when Cromwell, who was of their own 
gloomy faith, came to rule, he did not wait for a declaration of war 
with France, but having a little business in that line with the Dutch 
in New York in 1654 he sent out ships to Boston, to be there 
reinforced, and after their main business was over they were to 
proceed to the French settlements and reduce them to British 
authority. The- Dutch encounter did not come off, as the matter 
was meanwhile settled by treaty; but under Major Sedgewick, of 
Charlestown, and Captain Leverett, of Boston, they were soon away 
on their errand of war. The result is all we can notice. Everything 
went as they desired, and soon all Acadie was in English hands'again. 
France protested against this Cromwellian policy, but all in vain,, 
for Oliver stoutly asserted that the cession of that country by Charles 


was a piece of unbearable folly, that he took upon himself to set right 
again. Sir Thomas Temple, Charles la Tour and others obtained 
patents'from the Protector, and set to work to develop the resources 
of the Province in a way that would eventually replenish their own 
pockets, if all went as they hoped. They had been two years making 
ready for permanent business, when the stout heart of the Protector 
stood still forever. He died on the anniversary of his great victories 
of Dunbar and Worcester. In less than two years after this notable 
event in English history Charles II became King in title, but there 
was nothing kingly in him, and but a poor substitute for the man 
whose genius had raised England from a low estate to unparalleled 
power and influence in the world. Temple and his partners were 
actively at work repairing the forts and regulating the fish business 
and other affairs, and all the time spending large sums of money, 
and as yet getting no full return for their outlay. Charles had 
neither knowledge nor interest in this wild, bleak land beyond the 
ocean. He had more interest in decorating his mispresses with fine 
titles than he did with the affairs of state. In the seventh year of 
his reign he concluded a treaty with the French, at Breda, by which 
he restored to that 1 nation "all the country called Acadia, situated in 
North America, which the most Christian King had formerly 
enjoyed." The result was that Temple was commanded to hand 
over all the forts and improvements to the representative of France, 
Chevalier de Grand Fontain, an act that he performed with bad 
grace, after a delay of more than two years that brings us to 1670. 
At this time there was but a very thin population scattered along 
the rivers that empty into the Bay of Fundy. The outlook for much 
increase in this direction was not encouraging. The eager expecta- 
tion of discovering rich mines had long ago been given up. Consid- 
ering how fairly common in many parts of this Province gold-bearing 
quartz was scattered on top of the ground, and the precious metal 
plainly to be seen with naked eyes, it is unaccountable that the 
Indians had not noticed it, and that white men were equally blind 
to its existence till within the last forty years. The farming lands 
were njat extensive; the marshes could only be dyked at considerable 
expense and special skill. Add to these circumstances the hostility 
of spirit between the New Englanders and the French, and the pros- 
pect was very dark for the settlement of Nova Scotia. During the 
twe'nty years succeeding the treaty of Breda, there was but little 
done in the way of improvement. Small groups of peasants occa- 


sionally arrived from France; yet the population did not reach one 
thousand, and in all New France there were less than six thousand 

No events of importance transpired till we reach the date of 1689, 
when war was declared between France and England. James II 
had played the hypocrite, the coward, and the tyrant with such 
admirable talent that he was deprived of his crown, and Mary, his 
daughter, and William, her cousin and husband, reigned jointly in 
his stead. War with the old-time enemy soon followed, for the 
fugitive King had found an aid and safety in the French court. At 
that date New England had reasons enough for making haste to 
settle up accounts that had accumulated during a score of years, 
during which her border settlements had suffered unspeakable hor- 
rors from the attacks of Indians, who were instigated and rewarded 
by the French in Quebec. In less than erne year there sailed out of 
Boston a frigate of forty guns, a ship of sixteen guns, and another 
of eight guns, together with transports for 700 men, and 'this fleet 
cleared for Port Royal under the command of Sir William Phipps. 
This man was a remarkable character. He was born in the State 
of Maine, 1650, son of a gunsmith and a mother who had twenty- 
six children, and William was one of the youngest. While yet a 
child his father died, and the boy was hired to herd sheep, and con- 
tinued in this most peaceful of all employments till he was eighteen 
years of age, when he was apprenticed to a shipbuilder, with whom 
he learned the trade and built some vessels on his own account. 
He was a restless spirit, and sailed away in his ship and kept at it 
until he was captain himself. When he was thirty-seven years of 
age he found a sunken Spanish treasure-ship off the Bahamas, from 
which was taken nearly one million dollars, and of this sum about 
sixty thousand fell to the discoverer, and he was knighted by James 
as a further reward for his intelligent energy. He was appointed 
Governor of Massachusetts in 1692. His fiery temper soon got him 
in collision with the collector of customs, for which he was demanded 
in England to answer for his conduct. He died there in 1695. This 
was the man who cleared his ships from Boston on the 28th day of 
May, 1690, or May 9th as we now reckon it. M. de Menneval was 
the Governor of Acadie and resided at Port Royal, where he had 
a garrison of only eighty-six men, and there were only eighteen 
unmounted cannon, while the forts were insignificant affairs. We 
may well believe there was no- small degree of consternation when 


this formidable armament sailed into the peaceful Basin. M. de 
Menneval surrendered without attempting a defence. It was a case 
of where he might as well come down at once. In common parlance, 
Sir William had the drop on him, and there was nothing left to do 
but secure the best possible terms, and this was accomplished very 
adroitly. No one was hurt, the Governor was comfortably carried 
away, and some of his people shared his captivity. A few inhabitants 
nearest the fort were sworn allegiance to William and Mary. A 
sergeant was left in charge, and after ten days the ships departed 
with considerable plunder that must have seemed trifling to the man 
who had seen a million fished out of a Spanish wreck, buried in 
water, sand, and seaweed. The New Englanders were well pleased 
with the bloodless expedition, although the result was not very 
important; in reality the French occupancy was only interrupted for 
a little while at one or two points. Fighting went on for a half 
dozen years with a good deal of savagery on both sides. The battle- 
field extended from the frontiers of New York, through the forests 
and settlements, to central Maine. Frenchmen of noble blood did 
not hesitate to accompany the Indians on these expeditions against 
the English settlements and become parties to, and participants in, 
the attacks where women and children were murdered, and scalped, 
or dragged away to torture, or imprisonments. That such orgies 
of cruelty could have been witnessed and instigated by men who 
considered themselves Christian gentlemen seems almost incredible. 
The redskins wore crucifixes about their swarthy necks, that were 
often dabbled in the blood of babies whose mothers' scalps, gouted 
in gore, were stuck in the girdles of the murderers. The naked savage 
might plead in defence his ignorance and bad breeding, but the well- 
tailored savage at his side, who had been daintily cradled in the lap 
of European civilization, could not avail himself of such a defence. 
An hundred years later this thin veneer of savagery was thrown aside, 
and the world witnessed with uplifted hands of horror the deeds of 
the French Revolution, that showed an unparalleled aptitude for 
wholesale cruelty. The only defence ever urged for it is, that it was 
the reaction of even greater atrocities. Is it true that one need not 
scratch deeper than the skin in any nationality to start the savage 

Retaliation took what shape it could, and one of the forms was 
to equip Col. Ben Church, of Plymouth, to harry the coast where- 
ever the enemy could be found. This leader was a seasoned veteran 


of the terrible Indian war of Phillip that had sorely crippled New 
England in men and money. His services had been repeatedly 
solicited in the later French-and-Indian war, where he had proved 
his courage, energy, and intelligence. Our school history for Nova 
Scotia contemptuously remarks that "a fitting instrument of revenge 
was found in old Ben Church, who had many years before gained 
renown in Indian war." In fact he was but fifty-five years of age- 
ten years younger than General Roberts when he won his best rep- 
utation. Church was so far from being considered a back number 
that his services were sought eight years later in another raid on the 
ancient enemy in Acadia, and he did not fail to remind them of a 
former visit. Church was no carpet knight, but a man of action, 
who did not turn pale at sight of blood. He had looked upon fearful 
sights in his day, the results of Indian atrocities. In his life, written 
by his own hand, they are related in graphic detail, too shocking 
for these pages. He felt justified in fighting fire with fire, and about 
concluded "that there are no good Indians but dead ones," as the 
western pioneer came to believe long afterwards. In the summer 
of 1696 Church sailed eastward in a fleet of whaleboats and shallops, 
and made it a memorable occasion at St. John, and Beau Basin, 
in Cumberland county. Not so many were killed, but great was 
the number scared by even the name of this intrepid soldier. He 
was most intent on killing Indians, but his anger was greatly kindled 
by the French tactics that employed these merciless natives in their 
warfare. To show them how fine a thing it was, he brought along 
two or three score of these red men who had gone over to him in 
Phillip's war long ago. These he called "our savages," and he 
caused his French prisoners at Beau Basin no small degree of terror 
by reminding them how easy it would be to give them more than a 
taste of the tender mercies that these fellows would be pleased to 
exhibit on a word from him. Colonel Church evidently believed that 
he had shown mercy wherever it could be prudently extended; that 
he had conducted himself like a Christian and a patriot. We should 
not tread on dead lions! 

On the 25th of September, 1697, was ratified the treaty of 
Ryswick by William III, and by its terms Nova Scotia was again 
admitted to be French territory and its boundaries were to be fixed 
by a commission. The treaty had no sooner gone into effect than 
Governor Villibon put forth a manifesto claiming everything east of 
the Kennebec River, together with the fisheries. But little attention 


was paid to his large pretensions, because he was not able to enforce 
them at the cannon's mouth. Fighting continued on sea and land 
and the English frontier suffered never more severely from French 
and Indians combined. War was again declared in 1702, but whether 
it was declared or not, armed hostilities went on the same. It was 
an irrepressible conflict. These nations, with all their ancient feuds, 
and radical racial differences, could not peaceably divide this land 
between them. The question of ultimate possession must be settled 
by the sword, but not necessarily with the horrid adjuncts of fiendish 
tortures, the tomahawk, and scalping knife. The burden of main- 
taining and extending English settlements fell almost wholly on New 

They had the true Anglo-Saxon turn of temperament that rooted 
them to the soil through all their known history. They stood 
stubbornly above their furrows like their forefathers of old, and 
fought for home, a word that cannot be fully translated into the French 
language; le foyer is not the equivalent of HOME, that may embrace 
a whole kingdom, a city, a village, or a cottage. It has a moral 
quality that does more than suggest a cookery or a huddling place 
for shivering bodies. The Saxon home-instinct' strongly inclines 
him to indoor comforts of floors and furniture and general tidiness, 
in strong contrast to the Celtic usages. An Englishman will take 
more pains to make himself comfortable in a place where he expects 
to stay but a- year than a Highland crofter or an Irishman will in 
a house where he intends to remain for a natural lifetime. An Isle 
of Skye fisherman will spend all his indoor days weeping in a reek 
of smoke that has no escape but a hole in. the roof that it finds after 
every corner is full. An Irish peasant will not be inconvenienced by 
the presence of a pig in the living room at his discretion, when a 
Saxon in the. same station of life would not tolerate tire beast on 
any terms. Among the French peasantry, if we are to believe good 
authority, there is the same lack of tidiness and comfort. Since 
ever these Saxon men of the soil touched England, some fifteen 
centuries ago, they have exhibited this important disposition and 
determination to attach themselves to the soil, wherever they made 
what was taken to be a permanent halting place, and there make 
them homes to be kept inviolate from conquest if possible, and if 
not possible, then to get the best terms within reach, but still cling 
to the plow and the hoe and the sickle. That was no alien stock 
that within four months from the date of their landing from the 


Mayflower, in December, 1620, had invaded the stingy soil with 
their hoes and mattocks; and Governor Bradford, who was a partici- 
pant, writes: "Afterward they, as many as were able, began to plant 
their corne, in which service Squanto stood them in great stead, 
showing them both ye maner how to set it and after how to dress 
and tend it." This early example in tilling the soil was characteristic 
of the people, and the beginning of their ultimate conquest of all 
that was in dispute. It showed that, in their estimation, to hold the 
soil by means of agriculture was of first importance. The axes of^ 
vigorous pioneers rung out on the frosty air of the wood-crowned 
heights that overlooked the distant coasts, and ever further, and 
further receded the sounds of peaceful conquest that dared the 
dangers of skulking savages, and faced the toil and poverty of the 
situation to make homes for themselves and their children's children. 
With all this thriftiness went the unfailing Saxon love of inde- 
pendence, that got itself expressed in the common law of England 
and again in Magna Charta. The town meetings among the bleak 
hills of Massachusetts and New Hampshire were but the lineal 
descendants of the ancestral Folkmote, or folk-meet, wherein every 
person had a right to be heard. These New Englanders were 
farmers, sailors, fishers, mechanics, and tradesmen, but everywhere 
and always a citizen, a somebody to be reckoned with in public 
affairs. They knew that every kingdom or state must be founded in 
agriculture if it was to be a permanent institution. Meanwhile New 
France was invaded by keen and greedy traders in furs, who had 
even opened the graves and stripped the dead of their ample robes 
of peltry. When every Indian encampment from Penobscot to 
Quebec was not without a French trader, adventurer, or loafer, there 
was not an Englishman voluntarily among these redskins in all New 
England. They never said, "I will wed a savage woman; she shall 
rear my dusky race," but the bluest blood of old France was min- 
gled in the veins of these children of the forest. Such differences 
are unbridgeable chasms. They are constitutional, and the results 
of their activities will work out on lines of precision as rigid as Fate, 
which is only another name for natural laws. French dominacy was 
foredoomed in the very nature of the problem to be worked out on 
these western shores. These embattled Anglo-Saxon farmers were 
determined not to be conquered by garrison troops, by trappers, 
and traders and Indians combined. They struck their blows, now 
here and now there, and then returned to their furrows and their 


several vocations, and hung up their muskets and their powder- 
horns, till the next demand for their services. Among their French 
adversaries there was no lack of courage, and devotion to- King and 
country. Of the pioneers, Champlain stands easily at the 
head, and yet so lightly were his great services appreciated 
that his now honored dust lies in an unknown grave. Not only 
for great services on field and flood and in the lonely forests, but 
for wise counsel that .went unheeded, did this fine hero deserve great 
things from his country. He saw the vast importance of agricul- 
tural pursuits in this new world, and set the example in that line. 

We have paused a moment here in the recounting of raids and 
counter raids, and treaties and declarations of war, to point out what 
seems to be the most important features in the enactment of the 
great historical drama in this western world. The marvelous spread 
of the English language and British power till 130,000,000 people 
express their thoughts in the language of Shakespeare and Milton, 
and more than one-quarter of the population of the world live under 
the tricolor of Britain, demand some adequate explanation, and I 
believe it will be largely found in the virtues of the Saxon stock 
that have been scarcely more than mentioned in this connection. 

That I may not seem to be viewing the situation through national 
prejudice, it may be well to remark that within three or four years 
a notable book appeared in Paris written by an eminent author, 
M. Edmond Demolins, entitled, in English, "Anglo-Saxon Superi- 
ority; to What It Is Due." This book fan through a dozen editions, 
and got itself translated into other languages. The author could 
be quoted at great length, to show that he attributes Anglo-Saxon 
superiority, that has manifested itself by overspreading one-quarter 
of the populations of the world, and carrying with it the best features 
of the civilization of today, to the qualities I have here pointed 
out. Great was the comment of the French journals on this bold 
and startling production. It will be well to notice here and there 
an expression from these sources. The famous critic and writer, 
Jules Lemaitre, in "Le Figaro" said: "An infinitely painful book 
is that of M. Demolins; but we must swallow the bitter cup to the 
dregs. The book ought to be read." From "La Depeche Coloniale" 
the editor says: "M. Demolins has just worked out on a large scale 
a study which every one who has lived in our colonies has dreamt 
to accomplish locally: Why is England successful with her colonies, 
whilst we get nothing out of ours?" It would be easy matter to 


fill a goodly volume with extracts of this quality, all bearing witness 
to the inefficiency of French methods and means of colonization. 
The closer we look into the matter, the clearer become revealed 
the causes of their ultimate defeat in America. The history of this 
little peninsula of Nova Scotia takes us upon the arena where great 
questions of national destiny were settled forever. History as a 
mere relation of royal successions, court intrigues, military march- 
ing, and battles by sea and land, is scarcely worth reading; but it 
is the philosophy of history that sets us to thinking, the moving 
why they did thus and so, why empires rise and fall, why a handful 
becomes a great nation, why national ambitions are humbled in 
the dust, and "right doing exalteth a nation." 

To resume the thread of the narrative: The hostilities grew even 
more intense and disastrous as the means for carrying them out 
increased with property and population. In 1704 Colonel Church 
was again sent to Nova Scotia to inflict what injury he could upon 
the enemy. He visited Minas, or Horton, and destroyed their 
dykes and some other property; called in at Beau Basin to renew his 
previous acquaintance, and left them the poorer for his visit. 

Three years later a rather formidable armament was despatched 
to capture Port Royal. It was under the command of Colonel 
March, who was aided by two of her Majesty's ships of war, but 
the expedition proved a failure. The fort was commanded by the 
brave Subercase, who was well equipped to receive the enemy. The 
attack was conducted in a way that reflected no credit on March or 
his advisers, and there was nothing to do but return and face the 
ridicule and contempt of those who despatched them on such 
weighty business. Their reception, as it proved, was not one to be 
envied. Meantime the enemy was extremely active and successful 
on sea and land. Their privateers had captured no less than thirty 
Boston vessels, with valuable cargoes and many prisoners. New 
England was thoroughly aroused, and agents were sent to England 
to represent their condition and procure some substantial aid. The 
result was that on the 29th of September, 1710, a fleet of British 
and New England warships and transports, having on board regi- 
ments of soldiers, and altogether in such strength that it was sure to 
prove irresistible if once it got safely into the Basin of Port Royal. 
Colonel Nicholson was in command, and with him were Samuel 
Vetch and Paul Mascarene, both of them to become well-known 
figures in the history of this Province. Governor Subercase knew 


that he had no adequate opposition to offer this array of war, that 
was now in competent hands; but he made an heroic defence during 
a whole week, and thus called into action the best resources of the 
enemy. When he had exhausted all means, then honorable terms 
were secured, and the Union Jack again floated over the walls of 
this historic outpost where it was destined to remain to this 
day. The garrison was sent home to France. Samuel Vetch had 
in his pocket a royal commission, made in anticipation of this con- 
quest, by which he became Governor of Annapolis Royal. He was 
a Scotchman, the son of a Presbyterian clergyman. He had seen 
service in the continental war, he had taken part in a scheme to 
found a city on the Isthmus of Darien, that turned out a failure, 
when he took passage to New York, where his excellent family 
connections enabled him to make a prosperous match with a daugh- 
ter of Livingston, the Secretary for Indian Affairs. He was a 
trader in Boston and got on in the world, not without being accused 
of making profit by trading with the Acadian French. This was 
the new Governor, who was left to represent her Majesty in Nova 
Scotia, an able, worthy man, who remained in office six or seven 
years, and after many efforts to secure pay for his services died a 
prisoner for debt in the King's Bench, London, 1732. 

Beyond an unsuccessful attempt on the part of French and 
Indians to capture the fort, there is nothing of much importance to 
recount for the next three years, and at the end of that time, 1713, 
Acadia was ceded to the Queen of Great Britain by the treaty of 
Utrecht and ever since it has remained a dependency of the British 

When by the treaty of Utrecht, 1713, Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland were ceded to England, then was the beginning of the 
end of the contest that left France in less than a century without a foot 
of territory on the North American continent. 

She had remaining Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island, to 
guard her fisheries and the entrance of the St. Lawrence, as a kind 
of bulwark of Canada, where at this late date there were but two 
towns of any importance, Quebec and Montreal, and their total 
population did not equal that of Boston. In fact the entire popula- 
tion of Canada did not exceed thirty-five thousand souls only 
about one-half that of Massachusetts and their commerce was 
insignificant compared to that of the English colonies. Their only 
trade was in furs, and while there was no lack of adventurous spirits 


like Joliet, Marquette and La Salle, to explore the vast West and 
the Mississippi Valley and River, there was lacking the true coloniz- 
ing spirit that their English neighbors were everywhere exhibiting 
on land and sea. It was very evident that Cape Breton and Prince 
Edward Island, or L'Isle St. Jean, as they called it, would not long 
remain a French possession, unless extraordinary means were taken 
to resist an enemy in force. The first intimation of war between the 
parent states would be the signal for the hostile New Englanders 
to seize those coveted islands. Now that Nova Scotia and New- 
foundland were most convenient accessories, offering shelter and 
supplies of one kind and another, the danger was apparent to even the 
authorities, to whom had been pointed out years before, by compe- 
tent men, the desirability of erecting a great stronghold at Louis- 
burg, if all was not to be lost of this great New France, that had 
in no wise justified its grand name. 

Seven years after the treaty, in 1720, was begun the "Dunkirk 
of America/' the namesake of the King of France; and Cape Breton 
was renamed in the same spirit Isle Royal, and St. Peters became 
Port Dauphin. In all this there was a good deal of the grand flour- 
ish that can never be the equivalent of lowly and useful qualities 
that keep close to the ground and well at work along lines of 
economic laws and material principles. 

It is most interesting and instructive to note that nation-building 
goes on with a distinct understanding on the part of the Power that 
operates as Nature, that prosperity and endurance shall not be the 
results of outraged principles. It is surely an indispensable quali- 
fication of statesmanship to recognize and respect the soundness 
and integrity of natural laws applied to the local and political life of 
mankind, and never attempt to accommodate principles to the de- 
mand of the hour, as if it were a light thing to have a demand that 
cannot be accommodated to the trend of principles. 

History of mankind is only worth relating on account of the 
moral significance of its various phases; otherwise one might as well 
chronicle cock-fights and ant battles. The French Revolution was 
not a suddenly generated cyclone, but the awful culmination of a 
long series of events, and ever since that country has been in a 
state of unstable equilibrium, and her birth rate falling behind her 
death tally is Nature's response to the tyrant who robbed the land 
of the best men and sacrificed them to aggrandize himself and sat- 
isfy the national vanity. Pity that a state so great in science, and 


art, and literature should have lacked the proper strength of moral 
fiber to carry her forward to some high destiny. Greece, Rome 
and Egypt are the tragical examples that assure us of the truth that 
no excellence of art, no flights in literature, and delving of phil- 
osophy are adequate equivalents of right conduct, neither in the 
individual nor the nation. 

Here was a continental dominion to be awarded to one, or the 
other of two contestants. It had long been evident that there could 
be no peaceful division of the territory, vast as it was. France, 
although crippled by disastrous wars, and dissolute courts, was not 
in the least minded to give up the Isle Royal without a, struggle. 
The government had come to realize its importance to the Canadian 
domain, and Louisburg was the visible sign of this realization. The 
locality was selected with good judgment, and the best military 
engineering skill of the nation was employed, and six millions of 
dollars were expended on the fortifications, and defences of one 
kind and another, together with public buildings. 

This great naval and military station became both a menace and 
a challenge to the English colonies, although all the plans of the 
engineers had not been carried out in twenty-five years from the 
beginning; still it had long been a walled town that well merited a 
comparison with the great fortress that threatened the English in 
their own waters. 

From 1713 to 1744 there were no stirring events in the Penin- 
sula of Nova Scotia. It was a time of peace, and beyond the mili- 
tary post of Annapolis, where a lieutenant-governor resided, and a 
few soldiers and petty officials and some French families retained 
their homes, there was but little other evidence of English posses- 
sion. The Acadian peasants, numbering 2,500 souls in all the Prov- 
ince, were for the most part settled about the marsh lands of Annap- 
olis, Cornwallis, Horton, Windsor and Amherst. A few in Port La 
Tour, Shelburne County, and others in Pubnico, and Barrington, and 
Bedford and* Pictou. They were a simple minded people entirely under 
the guidance of their priests, who, if they had taught them as wisely 
touching their duties and obligations to the British sovereign as 
they did in the affairs of social and religious life, there never would 
have been enacted the tragedy of nearly a half century later, to be 
defended, denounced and deplored: the subject of moving verse and 
heated disputes without end. When the ownership of the Province 
changed hands for the last time in 1713, these people were doubtless 


placed in a sore strait, for all their sentiments were wounded and 
traversed by this new arrangement, that did not take into con- 
sideration the feelings of a few settlers in remote districts of a far- 
away province. Hearts are breaking all the time; a few, more or 
less, are not to be considered in the deliberations of international 
affairs. They took the oath of allegiance with mental reservations 
and unexpressed wishes and resolves. Very naturally they preferred 
the rule of their own country to that of the English, and they just 
as naturally hoped for a release from this undesirable condition. 
That people thus situated would improve every safe opportunity to 
bring about what they most ardently desired is but a rational supposi- 
tion. No man can serve two masters; the result of their attempt in 
that line is a sorrowful instance in proof of the saying. 

When Annapolis was taken in 1710 Samuel Vetch became Gov- 
ernor, and held that office till October, 1712, when he was dis- 
placed by the connivance and influence of his old companion in 
arms, Col. Francis Nicholson, who was a false friend, and a most 
undesirable person to place in charge of affairs at Annapolis. He 
never made but one brief visit, and that to ruin Vetch if he could, 
and his term of office expired January 20, 1715, and not 1717, school 
historians and all others to the contrary notwithstanding. But 
Vetch was again commissioned Governor, and held the office with- 
out returning to Nova Scotia, till Col. Richard Phillips, son of Sir 
John Phillips, of Picton Castle, in North Wales, was appointed 
Governor of Nova Scotia and Placentia. He remained five years in 
this Province and returned to England, where he continued to draw 
his salary for twenty-seven years, and meantime the affairs of the 
Province were administered by a lieutenant governor and his 
council. The first of these officials was Captain Laurence Arm- 
strong, who had been connected with military affairs of the 
Province. His term of office began in 1725 and he ended it in 1739 
with his own sword in a fit of melancholy. His successor was Paul 
Mascarene, a picturesque figure of those days. He was a French 
Protestant of the Huguenot sect, whose parents had been driven out 
of France by the events which followed the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes. His life had been spent in the English military service. 
He filled the new post in a very acceptable way during ten years, till 
the coming of Lord Cornwallis to found Halifax in 1749, and the 
end of all came to him in 1760. 

During the years of peace between France and England, from 



1713 to 1744, the Indians of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Maine were hostile and caused a great deal of suffering and diffi- 
culties by their raids here, and there. They declared that they were 
not a party to the treaty, and the whole land was theirs. The 
French authorities of Quebec and the peasant Acadians supported 
them in this contention, and through all their conduct we may see 
the preparations for the scenes of 1755, when the long account was 
settled with a heavy hand, that left naked chimneys and yawning 
cellars, where had been the homes of a prosperous but misguided 
people. In 1744 the peace was broken. War was declared by the 
French against the English on March 2Oth of that year, and the 
news did not reach Boston till June 2d, but it had been sent by a 
special fast sailing craft to Louisburg, where it thus became known 
much earlier, and while I am writing these lines Marconi towers 
are being erected with Louisburg almost in sight from their summits, 
and there the first message will be received as it leaps the span of the 
Atlantic. Let us hope this wireless mystery will never be degraded 
by the transmission of declarations of war. In fact, had the finer 
sentiments kept pace in their development with the achievement of 
the intellect, we would now be as far advanced from war as this new 
telegraphy exceeds the old ocean greyhound that brought the war 
news to Louisburg. 

To be thus informed of the hostile attitude of the parent states 
so long in advance of the English colonies was taken to be of some 
advantage by a few hot-headed parties. Accordingly several small 
vessels carrying seventy soldiers and three hundred militia, under 
the command of M. Duvivier, aide-major of Louisburg, were dis- 
patched to Canseau, where they were joined by^ three hundred 
Indians. At that point there was not much to be captured beyond 
a fisherman-built blockhouse, a small garrison, and a village, and 
that business was soon accomplished. The next move was to cap- 
ture Annapolis, but that ended in failure. A naval force had also 
been sent to take Placentia in Newfoundland, but that met with no 
better fate. Although these efforts to regain their old domain had 
in two instances failed, still it was evident that better fortune might 
well crown a determined effort that would not hesitate to attack the 
colonies to the southwestward. 

Although these New Englanders had actively traded with the 
French as they built their fortress town, yet they had looked with 


deep concern upon the massive walls of Louisburg, whose towers 
rose like giants above the northern seas. 

This summer of 1744 was a season of great unrest and depression 
of business among the people of New England. They had been 
driven from the fisheries of Newfoundland, and Canseau was wiped 
out. Privateers fitted out from Louisburg captured their vessels 
almost in sight of home, and Boston might be called upon any day 
to meet an irresistible force. "Courage mounts with occasion;" 
the people were made of stern stuff. They knew what it meant to 
leave their plows in the furrows and fight for their homes. They 
acted at once. Sent aid to Annapolis; declared war against the 
Indians east of Passamaquoddy, who had taken part in the hostili- 
ties against Canseau and Annapolis, and put their coast defences in 
order. At this juncture a most heroic measure was proposed. It 
was nothing less than the audacious project of capturing Louisburg 

There are several claimants for the honor of having first sug- 
gested the expedition against the' city. The fact is, the project was 
almost in the air. It was well known that the great fortress was in 
no condition to withstand a determined and well conceived attack; 
the soldiers were mutinous, and the officers incompetent. Very 
likely that William Vaughn of Damoriscouta was the original sug- 
gester of a movement of this kind; but Governor Shirley of Massa- 
chusetts it was who gave it official recognition as a feasible project, 
and brought it before the Massachusetts Legislature in secret ses- 
sion, where it was rejected as foolish and chimerical in the extreme. 
But Shirley was not the man to be discouraged by a rebuff of that 
kind, and he set about at once and got a numerously signed petition 
of New England merchants and traders, wherein were recited the 
injuries received by them from the privateers of Louisburg. Armed 
with this the Governor called the Legislature, or General Court, to 
reconsider their previous determination, and then by one vote his 
project was carried. He then sent circular letters to all the colonies 
as far south as Pennsylvania, asking their support. But every- 
where outside of New England it was regarded as a wild, imprac- 
ticable scheme. Passing over much of detail, the expedition was 
formed under the command of William Pepperell, and was ready to 
sail on the 23d of March. It consisted of 4,070 men, of whom 
Massachusetts contributed 3,250, New Hampshire 340, Connecticut 
516. Maine was not then separated from Massachusetts, and con- 


tributed nearly one-third of the whole force. The Colonial fleet 
was composed as follows: Massachusetts frigate, 24 guns; Shirley 
galley, 24 guns; Caesar, 20 guns; beside there were one galley, three 
ships 16 guns each, one sloop 12 guns, one of 14 carriage guns and 
12 swivels, one of 14 guns, two of 8 guns each, a private of 20 guns, 
and a large number of transports. 

Before the expedition sailed a day of fast and prayer was held 
throughout Massachusetts, to invoke the blessing of Heaven on 
the enterprise. Whether this proceeding moved Heaven or not, it 
moved the men who went up against the stronghold of the enemy 
and made them a formidable host. It is worth something to feel 
assured that the stars in their courses do not fight against you, that 
your efforts are in line with all the destiny-controlling powers. It 
seemed like going up against the walls of "Jericho with ram's horns, or 
attacking Leviathan with darts, to challenge the might of this north- 
ern stronghold. It is not a part of my purpose to relate the affairs 
of this memorable siege, but, in short, they accomplished their pur- 
pose. Fortune favored them at every turn; good luck was with 
them throughout. The siege lasted forty-seven days, and deserv- 
edly ranks as one of the greatest exploits ever achieved by a body of 
undisciplined volunteers. 

Great was the rejoicing in England and New England when the 
news of the capture of the famous stronghold reached them. France 
heard the tidings with startled concern. It seemed incredible that 
a body of farmers, fishermen, mechanics and sailors, with slight aid 
from the royal navy, had dealt such a blow to the interests of New 
France. The nation was thoroughly aroused, and a plan speedily 
matured by which not only Cape Breton, but Newfoundland and 
Nova Scotia, were to be recaptured, while Boston and other English 
seaports were to> feel the sharp retribution of war on a formidable 
scale. To this end a vast fleet sailed away the next summer under 
the command of the Duke d'Anville, an illustrious nobleman, but 
an incompetent sailor. 

Almost from the start began the disasters anc^ fatalities that are 
quite phenomenal. If the New Englanders in their attack on 
Louisburg were given the advantage of every imaginable turn of good 
luck, to a degree that rationally supported their belief that Heaven 
was with them from beginning to end, then on the other hand with the 
French it seemed that nothing had been lacking to show the disap- 
proval of Providence. Eleven ships of the line mounting from fifty 


to sixty guns each, twenty frigates and about thirty-four transports, 
together with 3,000 soldiers, and abundant arms and ammunition, 
sailed out of Rochelle late in June, after being detained by head 
winds. Before it got out of the Bay of Biscay great gales had 
made havoc of much sails and rigging, and several ships were struck 
by lightning, and a number of men killed and injured. Sickness 
broke out in the overcrowded quarters and hundreds perished on the 

The fleet did not reach our coast till early in September. When 
in the vicinity of Sable Island a storm broke upon them, and several 
vessels were lost; and when, a little later, he arrived at Chebucto 
(Halifax), the chosen rendezvous of the fleet, only one vessel was 
there, and in all only four battered ships, and of the rest no account 
could be given. Under the strain of such adversity the Admiral 
broke down, and died in his own cabin very suddenly. The same 
day arrived the vice-admiral with some of the missing vessels. More 
than a thousand men had been buried at sea, and they were yet 
dying fast every day. The vice-admiral, d'Estournel, then in charge, 
was so perplexed and disheartened that he ran his sword through 
his body. The command, by his dying order, fell upon the Marquis 
Tonguiere, governor-elect of Canada. More than one thousand 
men died in their rude encampments on the shore. The crippled 
fleet sailed away on the I3th of October, casting dead bodies over- 
board as it went out of the harbor. Its destination was Annapolis, 
and on board there were fifty volunteer Acadians from that region, 
who had come across by way of Windsor, and were ready to pilot 
the fleet into the basin. This is the spirit that resulted in the 
deportation of the Acadians less than ten years later. 

The season was tempestuous; gale succeeded gale, and sickness 
raged, and the battered remnant never reached Annapolis, but got 
away to Port Louis, and thence to France. Had the fleet met with 
anticipated success, the subsequent history of North America would 
have been different, so far as human vision can penetrate. Before 
the fall of Louisburg it was evident that France intended to confine 
the English to the narrow region embraced between the coast and 
the great bend of the Alleghanies, no doubt with the expectation of 
making conquest of that domain at a later date. While this plan 
had been rudely shattered by the fortunes of war, it was by no 
means abandoned. In two years from the October that witnessed 
the clearance from our coast of d'Anville's fleet, the unexpected 


happened. The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war to a 
close and actually restored Louisburg to the French,, in exchange 
for comparatively worthless considerations. It reveals even at that 
late date the utter ignorance among English statesmen of the great 
value of Cape Breton from many points of view. 

No wonder that the New Englanders were irritated, and even 
enraged at the paltry spirit shown at home, where their great con- 
quest had never been, and has never been, appreciated and duly 
acknowledged. And there was begun the "little rift within the 
lute": the misunderstanding that widened into the breach of the 
Revolution thirty years later, when these "embattled farmers'* 
turned their muskets on the red-coats and never desisted till the 
British sovereign was thrown across the sea. And oh the pity of it, 
that blundering kings and pig-headed advisers should separate so 
long what in the nature of things must be one people. This treaty 
really settled nothing; in pugilistic phrase, it was only "sparring for 
wind" on both sides. 

The next step of interest to Nova Scotia was the decision of the 
Home Authorities to establish a naval and military station at Hali- 
fax, and this matter was so speedily arranged that within nine 
months of signing the treaty Lord Cornwallis sailed into Chebucto 
harbor with men and means to make a vigorous beginning of this 
new departure. This step announced the resolution of Britain to 
hold Nova Scotia. It was quite time for some sign of awakening 
interest, for she had nothing more to show for the thirty-nine years' 
occupancy of the peninsula than the military post at Annapolis, and 
the ruins of a fishing station at Canso. Meantime the Acadians had 
greatly multiplied, and were far from being friendly British subjects. 
Whoever wishes to get a further glimpse of the founding of Hali- 
fax can find it in this work, where the history of Halifax County is 

We see that the Indians proved a sore trouble in this enterprise, 
and were beyond question on terms of good understanding with the 
Acadians, as indeed they had ever been. Not only at Halifax and 
Dartmouth, but at Lunenburg, where a body of German immigrants 
were making a settlement, these savages were a constant source of 
suffering. None doubted but they were welcome visitors at the 
homes of the Acadians when they returned with the scalps of Eng- 
lish victims in their belts. When the day of reckoning came there 


were those who had good reason for closing their ears to the cry for 

The next year after the founding of Halifax the French began 
to build a formidable fort on the western banks of the Misseguash 
River, that now forms the line separating Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick. This was one of the chain of forts that reached from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to the St. John River. Meantime the English 
were at work on the opposite side of the river, building a strong- 
hold to check any future inroads. Thfcre were settled many French 
families in this fertile and beautiful locality that they well named 
Beaubassin, and where they would not have been disturbed, but 
their evil genius in the person of the priest La Loutre, prevailed 
upon these thousand people to quit their homes and then sent his 
Indian converts to set them on fire. Here were two forts, Beause- 
jour and Lawrence frowning across the low fertile .acres; both of 
them were garrisoned. Meantime Governor Lawrence, who had 
succeeded Cornwallis, was very desirous of settling the country with 
people of British stock. He could not prevail on the Acadians, 
who now numbered 10,000 people, to take the oath of allegiance, 
unless it was qualified by the condition that they should not be 
obliged to bear arms. It was very well understood that peace could 
be of short duration, and in no case would there be occasion to meet 
other than a French foe. This point the Acadians had in view, and 
they did not intend to be found in arms against their countrymen. 
Lawrence was quite well aware that they would not remain neutral 
when a contest was urged. Of their incapacity for that attitude 
they had given ample evidence already in their conduct with the 
Indians. Beyond all doubt it was a perplexing problem. Had a 
plague swept them swiftly out of existence it would have been a 
happy solution of the difficulty. 

Lawrence and Governor Shirley were both Englishmen who did 
not stick at trifles, nor faint at the sight of blood, and they laid 
their heads together with the result that the fiat went forth that' 
these Acadians should no longer endanger British interests. They 
were to come up by the roots this (ime, when a real radical policy 
took hold of them. They did not wait for declarations of war in a 
formal fashion in those days in America, so in this instance there was 
not much delay. New England was the main reliance for carrying 
out a measure of this kind. They had long been the sufferers from 
these Acadians, who in more ways than one provoked their indig- 


nation. Massachusetts especially considered that her fate was 
bound up with the Acadian region. These two men, Lawrence and 
Shirley, are responsible for the expulsion of the Acadians. They 
acted like men who foresaw an impending blow, and meant to make 
the first move in the struggle. Colonel Monckton was dispatched by 
Lawrence to Boston to confer with Shirley, and, if possible, raise an 
expedition to join forces with the garrison at Fort Lawrence and 
capture Fort Beausejour, and then pass up the bay to the Basin of 
Minas, and so on to Grand 'Pre and other adjacent points, and col- 
lect the people as best they could; place them aboard of transports 
that would carry them away to the English colonies where they 
might in some way manage to live. 

Colonel Monckton was in command, and by the 3d of May, 1755, 
the expedition sailed from Boston with two thousand men. They 
were reinforced at Annapolis by three hundred regulars from that 
garrison, and then proceeded up the Bay to Chignecto, and landed 
at Fort Lawrence on the 3d of June, and on the i6th the fortress 
surrendered. Captain Rouse was at once dispatched with an armed 
vessel to drive the French from the mouth of the St. John River. 

The New England volunteers were under the command of 
Colonel Winslow, of old Puritan stock. His journal has come 
down to us. We know the details of his movements. Colonel 
Monckton assigned to Winslow the unenviable job of deporting the 
Acadians, and destroying their homes. There are many proofs in 
his journal that his heart was touched by the scenes that were 
inseparably connected with such a task. He looked upon it as a 
piece of surgery that must be carried out if the English were to 
be left standing room in North America. He did his work orderly 
and thoroughly; there was no needless cruelty, unless it was in the 
separation of families. This very likely arose from lack of careful 
attention at every point, more than it did from any desire to inflict 
needless suffering. We must not be over captious in these mat- 
ters concerning the hardships of three or four thousand people, 
when at this very date far more distressing scenes are being enacted 
in South Africa and the Philippine Islands by this same world- 
dominating Anglo-Saxon stock. Such dreadful experiences are 
incidental to the progress of the world; they are the growing pains 
of the race. Jeremiah of old cried his eyes out in imperishable 
lamentations over the sack of Jerusalem and the captivity of the 


people by Nebuchadnezzar, and yet this Gentile monarch is declared 
by the same prophet to be "the servant of the Lord." 

The expulsion of the Acadians has been made the most of in 
song and story. It was a mere fly-bite compared to thousands of 
experiences incidental to such work, or arising out of perverted ideas 
of religion. And while all right feeling persons will regret the 
cruel scenes, perhaps not one of us placed in the circumstances of 
Shirley and Lawrence would know what better course to take. In 
a short time the Acadians were quite content to return and comply 
with the conditions required of them, and very largely they found 
their way back, and began anew to make homes in Digby, Cumber- 
land, Halifax, Yarmouth Counties, and in parts of the Island of 
Cape Breton, and their descendants are numerous among us. 

It was clearly perceived by Lawrence that settlers must be 
induced to- make homes in this Province. With the exception of a 
body of Germans who had come over under the administration of Corn- 
wallis and settled in Lunenburg County, there had been no attempts 
to form villages and towns. The year 1755 closed on a gloomy 
prospect. All the Acadian settlements had been laid waste, and 
hundreds of the younger men had fled to the woods, where they 
joined the Indians, to become a terror to every family exposed to 
them. Hand in hand they went with the red man, both had griev- 
ances and both were quite willing to square accounts in a barbarous 
fashion. Lawrence issued a proclamation, inviting British settlers 
to take the confiscated lands of the Acadians, or select any desirable 
point, and come along. There was a response from New England, 
but it was tardy. For six years the fields and furrows of the 
expelled settlers lay unclaimed, and then people came from the 
State of Connecticut and took possession of the region of Grand 
Pre, Canard and Habitant, and they were joined into the Township 
of Cornwallis. 

In 1760 Liverpool was founded by settlers from Plymouth, 
Chatham, and adjacent towns. About this time Colchester County 
secured many families from Londonderry, New Hampshire, and also 
from the North of Ireland. Amherst and that region was settled 
by New England families, and Pictou County had some pioneers 
from Philadelphia and Scotland. Shelburne and Yarmouth Coun- 
ties, and a few other localities had thus made beginnings of settle- 
ments in 1760 and- a little later. 

We must now retrace our steps for a moment and get upon the 


main trend of historical development, in which this Province played 
a conspicuous part. The ''Seven Years War" between France and 
England began in 1756. It was the result of a vast European 
muddle, wherein blockhead statesmen, unscrupulous kings, and 
corrupt courts had come to blow r s all around. It is a consolation 
to find two real men of steel and brain, stride out of the distressing 
mediocrity of the day: Frederick the Great, and William Pitt. One 
with a drop of King Alfred's blood in his veins, and the other blend- 
ing in his line, the wide commonalty of England, for whom he became 
"The Great Commoner." But for his master spirit it is difficult to 
see what would have prevented the complete domination of North 
America by the French. Their plans in that direction were laid 
with consummate skill and were fast maturing. Virginia and 
Pennsylvania were determined that the Ohio Valley should not 
become closed to them, and with equal resolution the French 
declared that it was theirs by every proper right, and they were 
prepared to hold it against all comers. There was no waiting for 
declaration of war at home, and the struggle began in 1754, two 
years before that event. With at least dramatic interest we see the 
figure of George Washington emerge from the smoke of the first 
volley for which he had given his little company the word to fire. 

One year later, in June, he was at the side of Braddock when he fell 
amid a hail of bullets, wherein there was not one for him a man 
of destiny, whose hour had not yet come. We must bear in mind 
the fact that Braddock was dead and his army wiped out but four 
months previous to the expulsion of the Acadians, and English 
reverses at other points had been quite sufficient to cause much 
alarm throughout the colonies. Disasters followed close on one 
another. The military genius of Montcalm was nowhere matched 
by the English officers. Great preparations for the destruction of 
Louisburg were made by Earl Loudpn, who actually had in the 
harbor of Halifax fifteen ships of the line and three frigates and 
twelve thousand troops. Yet all this outlay was wasted through 
official incapacity. 

The forts at Oswego had been destroyed, Fort William Henry 
had fallen, and, in short, at the close of the year 1757 the English 
had been worsted everywhere, and her prestige humbled by the 
incapacity of Braddock and Shirley and the cowardice of Webb at 
Fort Edward and London and Holbourne the admiral. 

At this critical juncture the genius of William Pitt came into 


play. He was equal to the occasion, his plans directed, and his spirit 
animated the achievements of the British arms in all directions where 
they were engaged. It was either a deep design of Providence, or 
a great piece of good fortune for England, that such a man was in 
a position to control her destiny at such a momentous period of her 
history. WitrTmarvelous foresight he discerned the quality of men. 
Clive and Wolfe, Amherst and Boscawen, and others, stood the test 
of his rigid demands. The result was soon felt, for Louisburg with 
its garrison of 5,000 men surrendered after a siege of seven weeks 
under Amherst, Wolfe and Boscawen, in 1758. 

The next year in northern New York General Amherst captured 
Forts Crown Point and Ticonderoga. Fort du Quesne, on the site 
of Pittsbur-g, was taken by Farlies and Washington, and Armstrong, 
and this great gateway of the West bears the name of the'' most 
prominent statesman of the day. 

In the next summer there were 50,000 British and Colonial 
forces under arms, and Parliament voted twelve million pounds to 
carry on the war. There was to be a complete conquest of all 
Canada if the ambition and desire of Pitt could be carried out; not 
a smoldering ember was to be left according to the program. 
Quebec and Montreal were marked out for the next actions, and on 
the 25th of September Quebec surrendered, but Wolfe and Montcalm 
were no more; a little within one year after Montreal had beet? 
captured. Practically this completed the conquest of Canada, but 
the war lingered on in naval actions during three years more. Then 
the Treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763, was concluded, and by its 
terms the French King lost his possessions in the western world. 
The cherished dream of a "New France" had passed away in a rude 
awakening, and so far as human vision can penetrate the world has 
been the better for the decision that gave this vast domain to the 
Anglo-Saxon people, the best stock to be entrusted with a responsi- 
bility so vast and vital to human interests. Throughout the enact- 
ment of this historic drama, extending across the centuries, we have 
shown that Acadia and Cape -Breton have been localities where often 
centered tragic interests, and the scenes wherein figured great char- 
acters, and momentous events. 

A convenient point to close a chapter was the date of the Treaty 
of Paris, 1763. By its terms were ceded to England "Canada with 
all its dependencies, as well as the Island of Cape Breton and all 
other islands and coasts on the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, and in 


general everything that depends on the said countries, islands, and 
coasts; with the sovereignty, property, and possession, and all rights 
acquired by treaty or otherwise which the most Christian King and 
the Crown of France have had till now over the said countries." 

From that date till the present these possessions have remained 
continuously under the British flag. The island qf Cape Breton 
was annexed to the government of Nova Scotia by proclamation of 
King George the Third, October 3, 1763; but it was little more 
than an empty performance, as there were no legal voters on the 
island to elect a member to the Legislature. At that time there 
were not more than one thousand people in Cape Breton, and they 
were a mixed lot, in which there was but very little material well 
calculated to found a colony. The peninsula of Nova Scotia was 
in no very promising condition. Halifax had then been in exist- 
ence fourteen years, and was a small garrison town of five hundred 
families, where the principal business was rumselling among com- 
mercial people, and wrangling and squabbling over political matters 
among the officials. The total number of white families for the 
whole Province was 797, and-divi'ded as follows: 

Halifax 500 

Lawrence Town 3 

Chester 30 

Lunenburg 300 

New Dublin 50 

Liverpool 100 

Barrington 50 

Yarmouth 50 

Annapolis 60 

Granville 50 

Cornwallis . 128 

Horton 154 

Falmouth 80 

Newport - 65 

The total population of the Province was estimated to be about 
13,000 whites, and one-fifth of these were French Acadians. This was 
no great showing after more than one hundred and fifty years of occu- 
pancy by French and English. There were no carriage roads; the 
settlements were isolated and poor, where the pioneers were struggling 
with great privations and difficulties. The Indians were not trusted 
and the Acadians were held in but little better estimation. The 
Governors of the Province had been desirous of securing loyal 
British stock for this region, but there were no great inducements 


to offer such people. They must come from Great Britain or the 
American colonies where they were already settled in reasonable 
comfort. Here was no paradise of plenty, no golden strand, no 
delightful clime; but quite otherwise. However, there are always 
adventurous spirits, and thus it was that slowly came the families that 
dared be pioneers in districts where now their descendants scarcely 
know of the struggles of their ancestors but three or four generations 

There is very little to set down in a general history of Nova 
Scotia after the Treaty of Paris during a dozen years. The popula- 
tion had increased by a couple of thousands, but there was a hard 
struggle in the backwoods to keep the wolf from the door while 
the settlers got a footing on the soil that would make some proper 
return for their labors. 

In these days there were perilous trials in the home land. The 
old British ship of state had no longer at the helm the peerless pilot 
of 1758 who declared: "I am sure that I can save this country, and 
that nobody else can do it," and save it he did. There came a time 
in the history of the Jews when King Saul resorted to a witch in 
his extremity, declaring that the "Lord answered him not, neither 
by dreams nor by Urim, nor by prophets." So it was in England in 
those days. There was neither oracle nor prophet. Statesmanship 
was at a low ebb. Political corruption was rampant among all 
parties. The genius of Pitt was not quenched in death, but was 
under a deep eclipse of ill health, and declining powers, from which 
it never again emerged. By a series of unwise enactments, discon- 
tent had been bred in New England. Commercial restrictions had 
already been a heavy burden, not borne without resistance; but the 
attempt to tax these colonies in a more direct fashion was the last 
straw to break the camel's back. 

With nothing but commonplace material from which to make a 
selection, a dull, obstinate King pitched upon Lord North as a 
proper person to place at the head of the Government at this critical 
period. He was quite ready to humor the temper and w 7 hims of his 
royal master. The end of it all was the entire independence of the 
American colonies that had for years been in armed rebellion against 
the mother country. Sooner or later this was sure to come, but it 
is much to be regretted that the animosities then engendered have 
continued to actively 'exist more or less on both sides up to the pres- 
ent moment. 


During this struggle from 1775 to 1783 Nova Scotia was outside 
of the storm center that tore wildly through the neighboring colo- 
nies. It is true that American privateers caused some loss of prop- 
erty, and there were signs here and there that the revolutionists were 
not without sympathizers among their countrymen in this Province. 
Indeed it is quite certain that no great effort would have been 
required to draw Nova Scotia into the struggle for independence. 
There is abundant evidence that a majority of the American settlers 
favored the cause of t'he revolutionists, and there was no military 
force of any importance at Halifax or Annapolis. Early in the 
struggle the attention of Washington was directed to this ^Province 
by those who were informed of the temper of the people, and the 
defenceless conditions where any opposition might be expected. 

In reply to a formal proposition to make conquest of this region, 
Washington reported as follows, with his usual good sense: 

"Camp at Cambridge, Aug. nth, 1775. 
" Gentlemen : 

"I have considered the papers you left with me yesterday. As to 
the expedition proposed against Nova Scotia by the inhabitants of 
Machias, I cannot but applaud their spirit and zeal, but after con- 
sidering the reasons offered for it, several objections occur which 
seem to me unanswerable. I apprehend such an enterprise to be 
inconsistent with the general principle upon which the colonies have 
proceeded. That Province has not acceded it is true, to the meas- 
ures of Congress, but it has not commenced hostilities against them, 
nor are any to be apprehended. To attack it, therefore, is a measure 
of conquest rather than defence, and may be apprehended with very 
dangerous consequences. It might perhaps be easy, with the force 
proposed, to make an incursion intothe Province, and overcome 
those of the inhabitants who are inimical to our cause, and for a 
short time prevent them from supplying the enemy with provisions; 
but to produce any lasting effect the same force must continue. As 
to furnishing vessels of force: you, gentlemen, will anticipate me in 
pointing out our weakness, and the enemy's strength at sea. There 
would be a great danger that with the best preparations we could 
make, they would fall an easy prey either to the men-of-war on that 
station, or to some that would be detached from Boston. I have 
been thus particular to satisfy any Gentleman of the Court who 
should incline to adopt the measure. I could offer many other 
suggestions against it, some of which I doubt not will suggest them- 


selves to the honourable Board. But it is unnecessary to enumerate 
them, when our situation as to ammunition, absolutely forbids our 
sending a single ounce of it out of the camp at present. 
"I am Gentlemen, &c., 

"Go Washington." 

As the war dragged on from year to year stragglers frm the 
scene of conflict were making their way into this Province, where 
they would be at least safe from the incidents of war. Some of 
them were Britishers who had no taste for dangers, others there 
were too old for active service, or otherwise inclined. To the gen- 
eral reader there is not much of interest to relate in the history of 
Nova Scotia after the capture of Louisburg. Her affairs no longer 
have vital connections with great historic movements. The growth 
of population has been slow, and the development of natural 
resources until very recently has been on a very restricted scale. 

When the American war closed in 1783 there were but 14,000 
white inhabitants. A large proportion of these were Americans who 
had come a score of years before. At this date the population was 
suddenly increased twice over by the arrival of a multitude from 
the United States, where the able-bodied men had fought in the 
royal regiments and lost not only their cause, but their homes. 
Over there they were called "Tories" and "traitors;" over here they 
were dubbed "Loyalists." For the most part they must have fol- 
lowed their consciences. When the war was over they were 
strenuously urged to find a shelter beneath the flag they fought for, 
instead of remaining as a dangerous element while the new ship of 
state was trying to "find itself" amid the perils of national con- 
vulsions a task that required all the tact and skill the occasion 
could command. 

This was not magnanimous treatment, but there was no great 
show of this fine virtue among the nations in those times. Mag- 
nanimity signifies at bottom, greatness of mind, and it depends on 
rare and complex conditions. It is not like common honesty or 
hospitality, whose existence is fairly to be presumed; but rather is 
it a virtue that however often it exists as bud, or promise, but 
rarely comes to fruit. Among savages it has no place; it requires 
a strong imagination and lively sympathy, and a large measure of 
unselfishness. Smallness of mind is the common order of things, 
and the more pinched, and poor, and ignorant the people, the less 
are the chances for magnanimity. Half starved men on floating 1 


wrecks snap and snarl like dogs, and finally kill and eat each other 
as a matter of course. "Skin for skin; all that a man hath will he 
give for his life." We mtist judge people by their times and cir- 
cumstances. King David sawed asunder his prisoners of war; he 
dragged them under harrows; he cast them into hot brick kilns, 
and this an a large scale; but he did not invent these atrocities, he 
merely practiced them in common with his neighbors, and was 
neither better nor worse than those about him. When the British 
colonies gained their independence they were in no mood for mag- 
nanimous treatment of men who had suffered from the same hard- 
ships that had goaded them into open hostilities, and yet took sides 
with the King who had been the author of all their woes and indig- 

No unprejudiced person with the facts before him can fail to see 
that the grievances imposed upon these colonies by Great Britain 
were more than men of spirit could well endure. But a few years 
before they were a patriotic people, shedding their blood freely in 
the interest of King and country. Even Washington was at the 
right hand of Braddock when he fell in the forest massacre, and 
Franklin was employing his fertile genius and risking his fortune to 
help on the ill-starred campaign. It must have been a grave 
affront to manly sensibilities that estranged these American English- 
men and turned their powder-seasoned muskets against the Royal 
regiments. Some of our historians would have us believe that Sam 
Adams, after failing in shopkeephig in a Boston suburb, raised a 
ruction in his own interest and drew into it a few scamps like 
Warren, Otis, and Hancock, as if a large percentage of the population 
was not smarting under injustice, and ripe for insurrection. 

The Continental Congress that met in Philadelphia to consider 
what course to take in this dire extremity was composed of men 
of extraordinary talent. It was no hole-in-the corner meeting of an 
intriguing cabal, but it was a collection of men such as the English 
speaking world alone could furnish. Said the illustrious Lord 
Chatham: "I must avow and declare that in all my reading of 
history and it has been my favorite study I have read Thucydides 
and admired the master states o>f the world that for solidity of 
reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusions under such 
a complication of circumstances, no nation, or body of men, can 
stand in preference to the General Congress assembled in Phila- 
delphia." This was the representative body that directed the 


American Revolution. They had not come together to hatch 
treason, nor to inflame popular prejudices, but to devise some way 
by which they might honorably escape from unbearable burdens that 
a stupid King and a corrupt ministry had imposed upon a free peo- 
ple. They sought in vain to conciliate their English brethren. In 
one of the most remarkable state papers ever written they rehearsed 
the history of their wrongs, and demanded nothing but to be 
restored to the condition in which they were in 1763. Appealing 
at last to the justice of the British nation for a Parliament which 
should overthrow the "power of a wicked and corrupt ministry," 
they used this admirable language: "Permit us to be as free as 
yourselves, and we shall ever esteem a union with you to be our 
greatest glory and our greatest happiness; we shall ever be ready to 
contribute all in our power to the welfare of the Empire; we shall 
consider your enemies as our enemies, your interests as our own. 
Put if you are determined that your Ministers shall sport wantonly 
with the rights of mankind, if neither the voice of justice, the dic- 
tates of the law, the principles of the constitution, nor the sugges- 
tions of humanity can restrain your hands from shedding blood in 
such an impious cause, we must tell you that we will never submit 
to be hewers of wood or drawers of water for any Ministry or 
nation in the world." 

It took more than a thousand years of English experience to 
breed the spirit that glows in that language. I set this much down, 
because we have had over-much praise of the Tories who found 
refuge and rations within our borders, and took care to transmit 
to their posterity an ill-mannered detraction of their own brothers 
and fathers, and other kin, who had struck the blow for freedom, 
that they from mixed motives would never sanction. That they 
had a keen remembrance of the discomforts that went with a losing 
cause is no matter of wonder, for, as Dr. Johnson remarked: "One 
will have no difficulty to remember the man who kicked him out 
of doors!" These Loyalists more than doubled the scanty popula- 
tion of the Province, and on the whole were good material for 
settlers; but there were many soft handed gentlemen among them 
who were hankering for a chance to hold down an office chair rather 
than looking for an opportunity to tackle some bit of forest 
primeval. They are responsible for a narrow prejudice long exist- 
ing among our people that held in small esteem the "Yankee" over 
the line. Until the coming of this Loyalist migration there was 


no such sentiment in this Province, for by far the greater portion 
were either New Englanders by birth, or but a generation removed. 
They had been foremost in every step that advanced the interests of 
Nova Scotia. For many reasons they might well look upon this 
country as a mere extension of their own borders, as it had been 
for years the battleground where contending interests had called 
them forth to bloody conflicts. 

When it became necessary in 1754 to organize a court of law, 
Governor Lawrence called upon the son of a Massachusetts Gov- 
ernor in the person of Jonathan Belcher to become the Chief 
Justice, and this man of varied accomplishments, who had been 
graduated at Harvard College, and trained at the English bar, has 
never been excelled by any of his successors. He it was who 
directed the attention of the lords of trade to the important con- 
N stitutional question, whether the Governor and Council of Nova 
Scotia had the power to pass laws without an Assembly. 

Lawrence withstood this encroachment on his prerogative, but in 
vain. The question was decided against him by the home authori- 
ties, and he was obliged to call upon his Council to take action in 
the matter. This they did in January, 1757, and their names are: 
Belcher, Green, Morris, Collier, and Grant. Benjamin Green was 
a native of Massachusetts, a scholarly men of affairs, son of a Salem 
minister, secretary of the expedition against Louisburg in 1745, 
where he remained as manager of finances. Charles Morris was a 
native of New England, and was also at the siege of Louisburg, 
under Pepperell, and was one of two engineers to lay out the town 
of Halifax. These three New Englanders in the Council became 
well-known in the after history of the Province for valuable and 
honorable services; and they were the men who insisted upon the 
rights of the people to a representative assembly. 

With Cornwallis, when he came to found Halifax, were certain 
gentlemen looking for remunerative offices, but the new Governor 
appointed his Council, and here are the names: Col. Paul Mas- 
carene, long time lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia, a Huguenot, 
who spent his life in the service of England, and died in Boston, 
even though he was not born there; Col. John Gorham, a native of 
Massachusetts, who had seen service at Louisburg; Benjamin Green, 
(just noticed) ; Captain Edward Howe, from the same region, an 
accomplished and valuable man, who soon lost his life through the 
treachery of La Loutre; John Salisbury, an Englishman, worthless 


in the extreme, who soon returned to England to live on the bounty 
of his relatives, who must have been delighted at an opportunity to 
attend his funeral a slight interest attaches to him as the father of 
Mrs. Thrale, the friend of Dr. Sam Johnson; and, last of all, Hugh 
Davidson, who came with Cornwallis, was the first Provincial Sec- 
retary, and returned to England after one year under charges of 
trading in the supplies and stores of the settlers. Who can doubt 
but these New England men were the only serviceable persons in the 
Council, and year after year they left their mark for good in the 
history of the Province. 

During many years from the establishment of an House of Assem- 
bly to 1848, there had been popular government only in name. There 
was an upper branch of the Legislature, consisting of a council of 
twelve, in which were the Chief Justice, the Bishop of the English 
Church, the Attorney General, the Provincial Secretary, and some 
other high officials. This * Council exercised both executive and 
legislative functions. They sat with closed doors, and every act 
passed by the House of Assembly must receive their sanction. This 
was not a government by the people, but in reality a government 
by a clique, responsible to no one, and the greatest difficulty they 
encountered was, not to be found out. Macaulay observes that cer- 
tain politicians could be tracked after the fashion employed with 
moles, which are sure to cast up a heap of dirt at intervals along 
their burrows. The home authorities were very reluctant to grant 
popular rights after they had their experience with the thirteen run- 
away colonies in a bunch, in which such privileges existed. 

In Halifax the big-bugs were quite content with the old order of 
things remain; they were well taken care of, and reforms were not 
in their line or their interest: "Doth the wild ass bray while there is 
yet grass." 

In 1828 a young printer, twenty-four years of age, became owner 
and editor of a weekly paper called the Nova Scotian. He was the 
son of a British Tory, born in Boston; a Loyalist refugee. This 
young man was Joseph Howe, and he gave his time and splendid 
talents during nearly a score of years to securing a form of respon- 
sible government, which we have enjoyed during more than half a 
century. While he was engaged in the leadership of that reform 
his father, brothers, and all others of English proclivities voted 
against him or his measures. Let us remember that this man was 
a New Englander by an ancestry of several generations, and the 


mere matter of Halifax birth in no way raises a claim for the liberal 
spirit that belonged to'the land from which his father came. Without 
entering into details in this Direction, we may briefly recall other names 
of notable Nova Scotians of New England derivation : Thomas Chan- 
dler Haliburton, the judge, historian and humorist; Sir Samuel Cu- 
nard, who won fame and fortune by his intelligent enterprise; Gover- 
nor Sir John Wentworth; Bishop Inglis; and General Inglis; Bishop 
Binney; Sir Charles Tupper, whose eminent services have been 
recognized in many ways; Herbert Huntington, the sturdy aid of 
Howe in his contest for responsible government; Hon. W. S. Field- 
ing, the clever minister of finance; Hon. J. W. Longley, these many 
years Attorney General of Nova Scotia, orator, and writer of repute; 
Dr. Borden, Minister of Militia; Dr. Silas Rand, eminent scholar, 
who deserved more honors than he received; Governor Alfred Jones, 
long distinguished for valuable services in Parliament; Dr. Gesner, 
geologist and writer on our natural resources. This list might 
readily be greatly lengthened, but here are enough names to 
show that the history of Nova Scotia cannot be written without 
giving a large place to the so-called Yankee element. It is far 
from my thought to claim for this New England stock superiority 
over that derived from Great Britain; but simple justice demands 
a recognition of our debt, and good manners requires that we who 
are altogether or in p^art of the same blood as our neighbors shall 
not disparage their virtues nor magnify their faults. 

Our people have been drawn from several sources, but let it 
be remembered that this New England blood far exceeds in quan- 
tity all the others combined, and to its virile qualities we owe the 
largest share of blessings we enjoy as a free people. In spite of 
political rancor and false representations, our sons and daughters 
have" left us by tens of thousand during many years, and made their 
homes in the United States. They are to be found over 
all the wide country engaged in many industries and many pro- 
fessions; and as a rule giving a good report of themselves. 
Perhaps we are now to see a development of our great re- 
sources that will tempt our young people to stay at home. 
We have lacked enterprise in that direction; but there are now 
unmistakable signs that Nova Scotia is entering upon an era of 
industrial prosperity, and the future historian will be able to write 
the chapter in which will be related the founding of great works, 
the development of mines and quarries, the planting of vast orchards, 


the harnessing electrically of myriad water-powers that will enrich 
and adorn a long-neglected but highly- favored portion of the world. 

From the cloSe of the Revolutionary War, in 1783, to the War 
of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States, there was a 
slow but steady development of the Province. Villages grew into 
towns; the population increased everywhere; public roads were built 
and new districts opened up. 

The war caused some stir and flutter of excitement 'here and there. 
Old blockhouses were repaired, cannon were mounted at the entrance 
of some of the harbors, privateers were sent against the eifemy, and 
Halifax fairly awoke from a long slumber to find the port thronged 
with warships and prizes. After a couple of years the strife was 
all over, and both parties, like two tipsy combatants, could hardly 
tell what it was all about ; if they could, they did not mention it when 
it came time to put up their guns and stop their foolishness. 

"Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war," says Milton, 
and the one to be chronicled for Nova Scotia was the opening up 
of a few miles of railway between Halifax and Windsor, in February, 
1855. It was the beginning of railway construction. Great had been 
the contention over the project and the work, for the scheme, that 
seems to have originated with Mr. Howe, got into politics, where 
there was next to no end of disputes. Since then a good deal of 
railroad has been constructed in the Province* where there is still a 
demand for considerable extension on the Atlantic slope of the penin- 
sula. Before July i, 1867, there was no Dominion of Canada known 
to the world of politics. Before that date Nova Scotia stood alone; 
since then she is a member of a confederation of Provinces that 
stretches across the continent. In many ways it was a bad bargain 
for her, but the step was inevitable sooner or later. In this union there 
is strength. A forecast of the future can hardly fail to see this great 
Dominion become an independent nation, a powerful factor in the 
great Anglo-Saxon confederacy that seems destined to long direct 
the affairs of the human race. 



The material for many volumes has been assorted to make a choice 
of the matter for this chapter. Not much beyond broad outlines and 
prominent features have been discussed. A century ago there was no 
geology; the infant Science was cradled amid fierce disputes over the 
nature and age of fossils and strata. Religious dogmatists became 
alarmed. We smile at their idle fears while we read their irrational 
and obsolete tirades. All this has passed away ; the lamb and the lion 
have lain down together, and the lamb is not inside the lion, either. 

Geology has its honored teachers in all seats of learning, and every 
civilized nation has organized and supported geological surveys that 
have proved to be of great economical value. These surveys have 
employed men Of exceptional ability, and their reports and maps have 
widened the horizon of knowledge and generously contributed to the 
available wealth of the world. This chapter will have a meaning to 
those who are acquainted with the elements of this Science. Here 
they may learn something of a history that must have begun more than 
fifty million years ago, and has been actively continued to the present 
moment. We will find it convenient now to leave the Island of Cape 
Breton out of our considerations. The oldest rocks of this penin- 
sula are the Slates and Quartzites of the Atlantic slope covering about 
5,000 square miles. By common consent they are placed at the very 
remote time of Lower Cambrian, and this is provisional. Later they 
are not, earlier they may be. In this formation are the gold fields 
where considerable work has been carried on sometimes to a depth 
of several hundred feet, and not a certain trace o<f living thing has 
been found. 

This formation is naturally divided into two groups. The Lower, 
where Quartzites are interbedded with slates to a thickness of about 
three miles ; and the Upper or Slate group, about two miles in thickness. 
These 'rocks were deposited as sediment in the ocean, and were, of 
course, originally horizontal. Ages ago this formation was subjected 
to a force that pushed it and folded it into a succession of waves till 
it came to occupy about half the area that at first was covered. The 
movement was exceedingly slow and thus the crests of the rock waves 
were attacked by erosive agencies and scoured away to several miles 



in depth. The result is that the denuded surface now presents a 
series of anticlinal ridges and synclinal valleys with a general east and 
west direction that approximately corresponds with the coast. The 
gold mines are all located in these anticlinals that extend from end^ 
to end of the Province, Cape Breton excepted. . These mines are inter- 
esting features to the geologist, who will find a further account of 
them in a succeeding chapter. This Cambriarr Formation extends 
under the Atlantic, but to what distance is not known. It is surely 
made from the wreck of a land that very probably lay eastward, where 
now the sea has possession. If we go inland from the Atlantic shore, 
the land gradually rises between there and the Bay of Fundy to an 
elevation, varying from four to six hundred feet in a distance of forty 
and -fifty miles. The surface is covered with forests, meadows, bogs, 
barrens, hills of gravel, and mud and sand. Granite boulders rounded 
and smoothed on the unexposed sides are scattered over this Atlantic 
slope. The outcrops of bed-rock are numerous and sometimes exten- 
sive, and the ledges are often planed and grooved and scratched by 
glacial action. 

How far inland this Cambrian formation once extended we cannot 
know, because long after it was crowded and buckled into waves, and 
quartz veins were formed, there was a great theatre of profound dis- 
turbance along the axial crest of the peninsula and reached trie eastern 
coast in the counties of Halifax, Lunenburg, Shelburne and Yarmouth. 
The fact is that the slates and quartzites, as a rule, at distances from 
five to forty miles came into contact with granite. The line of junc- 
tion is very uneven in its course and ragged and broken in detail. 
The sedimentary rocks have been apparently invaded by an extensive 
outbreak of granite that occupies by far the greater portions of 
Annapolis and Kings Counties, extends in a large area into Digby, 
Lunenburg and Halifax, and appears as isolated outbreaks in Shel- 
burne, and Southern Queens and Guysborough. The contact of the 
Cambrian slates and quartzites with this granite is marked with many 
features due to heat, suffering great alterations and in some instances 
graduating into mica schists and gneiss. The granite often extends 
into the older rocks on the southern border in long tongues and veins, 
but does not overflow them as a lava would have done had it broken 
forth on such a scale, for the granite covers about 4,000 square miles. 
Some discussion has arisen as to the origin of this granite. Both 
theory and facts strongly support the view that it is a highly altered 
condition of the Cambrian formation. It is evident that the granite 


invasion did not take place till after the other rocks through their 
miles of thickness had been crowded and crumpled and thrust into 
anticlinals and synclinals. What can we imagine to have previously 
occupied the present granite area but the northward extension of the 
Cambrian slates and quartzites that were invaded by great heat that 
accomplished the changes in the rock structure that is now a striking 
feature in the Geology of Nova Scotia? 

On the northern boundary of the granite in the Counties of Digby, 
and Annapolis, there are at least two exposed areas where Silurian 
and Devonian rocks form the line of contact. These formations are 
determined by their abundant fossils. The positions of these slates, 
and their metamorphic equivalents, like the Cambrian of the Atlantic 
side, were sharply inclined and complexly folded before the appearance 
of the granite, as the numerous tongues and veins and altered rocks 
completely testify. Dawson says of this locality: "This junction is 
of great interest as showing the gradual alteration of slaty beds hold- 
ing fossils into gneissose rock with garnets, within the distance in 
some places of a few hundred feet." Again, he says: "It would 
appear that the* general direction of the dip is toward the granitic 
mass, as if the Devonian and Upper Silurian beds had sunk into a 
cauldron* of molten granite," and continuing his remarks he adds : 
"The intrusion of this great mass of granite without materiaj dis- 
turbance of the strike of the slates conveys, the impression that it has 
melted quietly through the stratified deposits, or that these have been 
locally crystallized into' granite in Situ." With this evidence before 
him, yet Daw r son was not entirely persuaded that the granite was but 
the highly altered stratified rocks. 

In the County of Yarmouth the granite is wholly in contact with 
the Cambrian formation and nearly all the County of Digby presents 
a similar line of junction. Elsewhere on the northerly side, with the 
exception of a small isolated area at Nictaux, the contact of the 
granite is with the New Red Sandstone of the Triassic Period, a 
formation that extends from the Basin of Minas to the Annapolis 
Basin and beyond to St. Mary's Bay. In the Nictaux River, that 
has made a fine exposure of the" strata of the South Mountain, the 
Devonian rocks with their characteristic fossils are seen to emerge 
from beneath the New Red Sandstone. Although the Coal measures 
are only from fifty to seventy-five miles distant in Cumberland County, 
where they give extraordinary proof of great duration in forming so 
many seams, still the Annapolis Valley has no recognized Carbonif- 


erous formation. It is very certain that during that age there was 
no South Mountain, and no North Mountain, and the sea extended 
over this region. The later Devonian fossils cannot be held to a hard 
and fast line that they are not also early Carboniferous. 

To the northward, the New Red Sandstone forms a contact with 
the great Trap ridge called the North Mountain over 100 miles in 
length, that did not exist in the Carboniferous Age, that was followed, 
or perhaps more properly described as closed, by great disturbances. 
The New Red Sandstone, while belonging to the Secondary or Meso- 
zoic Age, was evidently at this point well within the theatre of great 
changes that had been at their maximum elsewhere long before. The 
Bay of Fundy in those days rolled unobstructed to the South Moun- 
tain, and the Sandstones derived from, that shore were distributed by 
the tides over what is. now the Annapolis Valley and far northward 
into the bay beyond where now is the North Mountain. The bottom 
of the bay was a subsiding trough, and the crust broke along the major 
axis of this depression, and lavas issued from them under the water 
and built a frowning wall of black basalt from Blomidon to Briar 
Island, that through the millions of years from then till now has been 
a sheltering rampart to that bit of territory that has become famous 
in song and story, and also gained the title of the ''Garden of Nova 

The Granite occupies about one-half of Kings County on the 
south; almost reaches the Avon River on the east, where it makes a 
contact with the Cambrian gold-bearing series, and turns abruptly 
southward in a broad belt about fifteen miles wide, its eastern contact 
running westward of Halifax a few miles, and extends to the coast 
and forms the" shore-line from Sambro to the vicinity of Chester, in 
Lunenburg County. Thus about one-third the area of Hants is 
granite, about one-third Cambrian, and the other third Carboniferous 
and Devonian. The adjoining County of Colchester to the eastward 
and northward is outside the granite outcrop, and Silurian, Devonian 
and Carboniferous formations are the "Country rocks" of the region. 
Cumberland County is an extension of Colchester on the north. The 
pre-Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Upper and Lower Carboniferous 
formations are exposed at various points. The Cobequid range of 
mountains offered problems in classifications not readily solved, but 
the Geological Survey assigns the region to the undelimited field of 

Fictou County, joining Colchester on the northeast, has* the fol- 




lowing strata as tabulated by the Geological Survey : Triassic, Per- 
mian, Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, Cambro-Silurian ; these, it 
will be observed, are in an unbroken descending order. On the 
southern boundary the Cambro-Silurian rocks most abound and evi- 
dently underlie all the other formations. 

Antigonish County is a continuation to the northeast of Carbonif- 
erous and Devonian formations that appear on the Cape Breton shore 
of the Strait of Canso. The southern portion of the County has the 
outcrop of the old Cambrian rocks that continue into Guysborough 
County, where they are more or less overlain by Devonian and Car- 
boniferous formations on its northern border, w 7 hile the southern region 
bounded by the ocean is entirely Cambrian of the gold-bearing series, 
with intrusions of granite areas at various points. Continuing west- 
ward along the shore in Halifax County we have the Cambrian 
formation w r ith extensive tracts of granite, in one instance thirty-five 
miles in length and from five to fifteen in width, extending from near 
Sheet Harbor to Waverley, running nearly parallel with the coast. 

We now cross the Strait of Canso to Cape Breton with a land 
area of 4,376 square miles. This is divided into four counties. The 
Island is very largely occupied with the Carboniferous and Cambrian 
formations. The Carboniferous extends on the western side from 
Canso to Cape North on the other extremity of the Island and includes 
the Coal Mines at Broad Cove. The high lands of the northern por- 
tion are Cambrian, or perhaps older, and make up the greater part of 
Victoria County. ' The Devonian of Guysboro-ugh underlies the Strait 
of Canso and covers large areas of Richmond County where the 
Carboniferous and Cambrian rocks disappear. Cape Breton County 
contains the famous coal mines of Sydney, and there also the other 
formations common to the Island are outcropping over large tracts. 

The writer of this sketch is well aware how mere an outline it is, 
but the design of this book does not permit a more extensive notice, 
in this chapter at least, and the County Histories of this volume con- 
tain additional information. 



It has been thought advisable to write a brief history of each 
county. In this way information is arranged in desirable and con- 
venient groups, and the pictorial illustrations fall into their natural 
places. The Nova Scotians who live abroad, and own this book, will 
readily find in compact form a good deal of information about the 
portion of this Province that was once their home. 

Tourists who are contemplating a visit to our shores will be aided 
by consulting these brief histories. 

After due consideration, I have concluded to give an outline of 
the geological formation of each county. A keen sense of the value 
of this feature has induced me to supply it, although its omission 
would have brought me no reproach. 

Says Sir William Dawson: "It is scarcely too much to say that 
absolute ignorance of the structure and history of the earth, and more 
especially of the geology of the district in which we reside, is scarcely 
compatible with the mental health of any educated man, as it is quite 
inconsistent with any intelligible comprehension of the geography 
and resources of our country. Every traveler who wishes to under- 
stand the topography, scenery, productions, history, and modes of life 
of the countries which he may visit, should know something of 

This earth is a solid globe of metals and minerals. Three-quarters 
of its surface is covered by oceans and lakes. All the land would be 
naked rocks if it were not that they are more or less slowly disinte- 
grated by air and water, heat and cold, by which agencies are made 
the sands, and gravels, and clay in which vegetation finds a rootage. 
This surface is never very deep, and the bed-rocks in ledges and moun- 
tain flanks protrude like bones through the gaunt hide of some living 
thing. These rocks are of various ages and origins. They may 
belong to the most ancient of all known formations, or they may have 
come into existence but a million years ago. Even in Nova Scotia, a 
comparatively small area, there is no little diversity in the rocks, and 
each county has important and distinctive features that are due to the 
underlying bed-rock. The soil, the forests, the bogs, barrens and 
lakes, the industries, the scenery, the birds and beasts, all these and 



more, are largely affected and determined by the geology of the district. 
A feature so important deserves to be noticed, but it is so genera!ly 
neglected that I am constrained to make this word of explanatiun for 
taking another course. 

The Geology of each County will, go no further than outlines, and 
technical names will be avoided as far as possible. 

The oldest known rocks are called Laurentian; the next age is 
Cambrian, the next Silurian, the next Devonian, the next Carbonif- 
erous, the next Mesozoic, the next Tertiary, the next Quarternary. 

To reach our times many million, years must be allowed for each 
Age. THe more distant the Age, the more extended the time within 
its limits. For some Counties it has been a matter of considerable 
difficulty to obtain knowledge of their early settlement, but in all cases 
these histories contain valuable information that has not all been 
gained by resort to- books. In other instances I have been greatly 
aided by County Histories and other sources of written information. 



This county takes the first place in the alphabetical order, but it 
has a natural priority by reason of its historical importance. The 
town of Annapolis is the most ancient permanent settlement north 
of Florida on this continent. At Canso and other points there were 
fishing stations, for temporary accommodations, but no attempt was 
made to make preparations for homes till Seur de Monts cleared 
ground on the Annapolis Basin in 1605. He had been the first to sail 
into those waters a year before, but concluded to look further to see 
if there was not a locality more inviting for his purpose. He was not 
"on pleasure bent," but there was speculation in his eyes, and he hoped 
to make a great fortune out of a Royal Patent that enabled him alone 
to barter glass beads, iron tomahawks, and other trinkets, for the fine 
furs that the natives desired to exchange for these articles. He was 
also quite confident that valuable mines could be discovered in this 
region where their imaginations had located exhaustless treasures of 
precious metals. 

In view of the fact that a large portion of this peninsula is gold- 
bearing, and also that the gold in considerable nuggets may often be 
seen in quartz boulders and outcrop of veins, it is rather remarkable 
that the Indians had no specimens to show these eager adventurers, or 
their successors. A few specimens would have kindled a great flame 
of excitement then and there. However, De Monts did not tarry long 
in the beautiful Basin ; his pilot was Samuel Champlain, the greatest 
mariner of his age. He had sailed the southern seas, and visited the 
City of Mexico; he had been up the St. Lawrence, and everywhere 
he had made extensive notes of his voyages, and constructed charts 
of the new coasts. With such a restless spirit on board, De Monts was 
not likely to settle down on the first bit of fine scenery he came upon. 

Champlain was in his element. Here were unexplored coasts and 
unsailed seas. They stood up the bold North Mountain shore and 
entered the Basin over whose entrance Blomidon stands guard, and 
there they found, as we may today, pretty specimens of amethyst 
and bits of native copper. We may well believe that Sieur De Monts, 
Champlain, Baron Poudrincourt, Champdor, and Portgrave, the lead- 
ing persons in this enterprise, were all in fine spirits on these June 



days, as they saw the new coastlines enclosing the ample Bay that 
invited to new discoveries. 

How eagerly must they have entered the . great river that they 
piously named the St. John because they found it on the 24th of June, 
the day set apart in honor of St. John the Baptist. It is a noble 
stream, and these explorers did not leave it without considerable 
examination. They sailed southwestward along the coast until they 
reached the Passamaquoddy Bay, where a bad selection was made for 
a fort and winter quarters. After a dismal, and to many of them, a 
fatal experience, they returned to Port Royal in the Spring, and there 
began in earnest to get a permanent footing by constructing a fort 
and erecting suitable buildings. 

The experiences of this town are related in some detail in the 
portion of this volume devoted to the history of Nova Scotia, and will 
not be repeated here. English and French monarchs were granting 
charters of the same territory, vesting large rights and privileges to 
royal favorites with itching palms, and adventurous spirits. In such 
a state of affairs there were clashing interests among unscrupulous 
people by no means reluctant to fight. The to\vn of Annapolis was 
founded at this time, when the greater its prosperity the more certain 
its destruction by the English. During nine years to 1614 consider- 
able progress had been made, and word to that effect readily reached 
the ears of the Governor of Virginia in his one settlement of James- 
town, and he despatched Captain Argall with orders to destroy all 
the French settlements in Acadia, And this thinly disguised bucca- 
neer, who was not new to this kind of business, laid Port Royal in 
ruins, although there was no war at the time between England and 
France. From this event till the treaty of Utrecht, a full century, 
there had been many claims and counter claims of Acadia; and Port 
Royal, as the French called it, became famous as the spot where the 
fierce disputes concentrated in besiegements, assaults and surrenders, 
till the town had no rival in that kind of business on the whole 
Continent. It has been taken by force five times by the English by 
Argall 1614, by Kirk 1621, by Sedgewick 1654, by Phipps in 1690, 
and by Nicholson in 1710. It was by them abandoned or restored 
to the French four times by Argall, by the treaty of St. Germain 
1632, by treaty of Breda 1667, and by treaty of Ryswick 1697. It 
was unsuccessfully attacked by the English three times by Ben 
Church 1694, by March 1707, and by Wainwright in 1707. It was 
unsuccessfully attacked by the French and Indians twice 1 in July, 


1744, by Abbie De Loutre, and in September, 1744, by Duvivier. It 
was taken, sacked and abandoned twice once by pirates in 1690, and 
once by United States Revolutionary forces in 1781. 

Considering that it is less than three hundred years old, this is 
an extraordinary record. And now that it is side-tracked by the 
railroad, its cup of grievances is full; but nothing can stale the 
variety of its charms, or detract from the interest of its historic 
memories. While the world endures, the investing waters, and moun- 
tains, and islands, and meadows, and groves will continue to please 
the eye with their varied combinations that put on new aspects of 
beauty with the passage of the seasons and the hours of the day. The 
imagination, enriched by a knowledge of its early history, restores the 
ancient activities and environments, sees the leading characters that 
acted their part in the stirring dramas of the day ; sees French nobles, 
famous navigators, and grave Jesuits; sees 'military captains, naval 
commanders, and strenuous adventurers whose names are indelibly 
intermingled with the history of Anglo-Saxon America; sees Cham- 
plain, the chivalrous gentleman, the bold mariner, and brave soldier, 
as he paced the outworks that commanded the ample bay, and longed 
for the return of De Monts, that he might lead some great enterprise 
of discovery and colonization, and thus lay the- foundation of future 
Commonwealths. Space forbids me to call the roll of noted men 
whose presence on this scene bespoke the importance of the locality 
as a storm center of clashing interests of international importance 
and continental dimensions. 

If nature did not intend this place for a brisk commercial center, 
she nevertheless dowered the spot with riches that no art can furnish, 
and no money can buy. It remains for human enterprise to utilize 
these advantages and make the old town so comfortable, so inviting, 
that it can never be neglected while there are tired mortals in search 
of refreshing scenes that appeal to the eye, and the intellect, and the 
imagination of intelligent people. 

It was on that ground was grown the first wheat ever raised in 
America, and in the rocky suburbs was constructed the first water- 
wheel to turn a millstone on this Continent, and the builder, Le 
Escarbot, a Parisian lawyer, proved more useful in the New World 
in his mechanical employment than he would have been in the Old 
World in a more genteel vocation. In spite of many discouragements 
from 1605 to 1755, the French population, and there was no other 
European, had vigorously multiplied in this goodly land, and made 


for themselves comfortable homes in the choicest localities. By the 
treaty of Utrecht they had become subjects of England. This was 
repugnant to their most sacred sentiments of religion and patriotism. 

At any rate, right or wrong, the French were to go. The "mailed 
fist" of unrelenting authority made short work of these "vermin," 
as General Amherst termed them three years later in an order to 
General Wolfe. Their deserted lands and the ashes of their homes 
were the unwritten records of a tragedy for which there are some 

About sixteen hundred people in this County were either de- 
ported, or settled among the Indians in the forest. Their settlements 
extended east to the Township line. The next Summer of 1756 the 
whole scene from end to end of the valley, from Basin to Basin, was 
one of desolation, and vividly suggestive of suffering on a great scale. 

New England troops had carried out the work of destruction, and 
they were best calculated for the task, if we are to believe Captain 
Alexander Murray, in charge of a garrison at Windsor, who wrote 
to Colonel Winslow at Grand Pre, a month before the deportation 
began there: 

"FORT EDWARD, 8th. Sept. 1755. 
"Dear Sir: 

"I received your favor and am extremely pleased that things are 
so clever at Grand Pre, and that the poor devils are so resigned. When 
I think of Annapolis I applaud our thoughts of summoning them in. 
I am afraid there will be some lives lost before they are got together. 
You know our soldiers hate them, and if they can find a pretence to 
kill them they will." 

Having cleared the land of these undesirable owners, the next step 
was an effort to find other occupants who would give the Government 
no trouble in the matter of allegiance. With the departure of the 
Acadians from all their settlements in the peninsula south of Canseau, 
the white population was reduced to less than 1,000 in Halifax and 
about 1,500 Germans in Lunenburg. The French were in possession 
of Cape Breton. Only a half dozen years since Cornwallis had made 
a beginning at Halifax, and but two years since ground was broke 
at Lunenburg. Both settlements had suffered severely from Indians, 
who were quite willing to indulge their cruel propensities and receive 
rewards from their French friends. 

Both Shirley and Lawrence were not only desirous of ridding the 
Province of the troublesome Acadians, but to replace them by settlers 


whose presence was a guarantee of security to English interests. The 
French were not expelled in order that their property might be di- 
vided among greedy adventurers who longed to possess their fertile 
lands and fruitful orchards, as we are sometimes informed. So there 
are certain wiseacres who tell us that the present war in the Trans- 
vaal is but a scramble on the part of Great Britain to secure the gold 
and diamond fields of that region. Had it been designed to deport 
the Acadians in order to bestow their inheritance upon covetous 
friends, then there would have been a reasonable effort made to protect 
their holdings and occupy them the next season, The firebrand was 
liberally used, and every house and barn belonging to them laid in 
ashes, and the land was largely injured in the interval before other 
hands were there to plow and sow and fence once more. These 
people never would have been expelled in order to despoil them of their 
property, but, having designed to get clear of them for other reasons, 
it was clearly the intention to bestow them upon more desirable 

Writing while the deportation was going forward, Lawrence says : 

"Though every means was used to point out to the deputies [of 
the Acadians] their true interest, and sufficient time given them to 
deliberate, nothing could induce them to acquiesce in any measure 
consistent with H. M. honor and the security of the province. 
As soon as the French are gone, I shall use my best endeavours to 
encourage people to come from the Continent to settle their lands, and 
if I succeed in this point we shall soon be in a condition of supplying 
ourselves with provisions, and I hope in time be able to strike. off 
the great expense of victualling the troops. This was one of the 
happy effects I proposed to myself from driving them off the Isthmus ; 
and the additional circumstance of the inhabitants evacuating the 
County will, I flatter myself, greatly hasten this event, as it furnishes 
us with a large quantity of good land ready for immediate cultivation." 

During four years, from 1755 to 1760, these fields lay waste and 
rapidly decreasing in value. The orchards were unpruned, weeds 
ran riot in the gardens, unclaimed cattle, dazed with their new condi- 
tions, wandered over unfenced farms in Summer, and secured a living 
in the shelter of the forests in the Winter, after the manner of moose 
and caribou. The old Town, so long the capital, had been outgrown 
in importance by Halifax, and, deprived of that distinction, fell into 
a second place. 

Several families of British origin continued to reside there, and 






it remained with a garrison and all its concomitants of commissary 
and chaplain, etc. 

It became evident that the new settlers for these lands must be 
tempted from the rural districts of New England. The whole story 
of the expulsion of the Acadians was familiar to them. With the 
exception of Annapolis, this work had been carried out either entirely 
as at Grand Pre, or very largely elsewhere, by men from Massachu- 
setts and nearby States. The wretched business had not been "done 
in a corner." 

So far as New England was concerned, there is no evidence that 
the farmers of that region were eager to possess those lands that 
Lawrence, in a proclamation issued on the I2th day of October, 1758, 
inviting settlers from the old Colonies, describes as "one hundred 
thousand acres, of which the country had produced w r heat, rye, barley, 
oats, hemp, flax, etc., without failure for the last century; and an- 
other hundred thousand acres had been cleared and stocked with 
English grass, planted with orchards, and embellished with gardens, 
the whole so intermixed that every individual farmer might have a 
proportionate quantity of plowed land, grass land, and woodland." 

This tempting bait, officially dangled before the eyes of men who 
were wresting a livelihood from the stingy soil of New England hills, 
got something more than a tentative nibble. Agents came to Halifax 
from these localities to know what more was to be thrown into this 
offer. There must be guarantee of civil and religious liberties, and 
explicit statement of terms of occupancy, before these desirable settlers 
would quit their homes. Governor Lawrence, in response to this de- 
mand, issued another proclamation on the nth of January, 1759, that 
satisfied the interested parties, and active preparations went forward 
to bring the new pioneers. In the next May, 1760, came forty-five 
of these people, with some live stock and utensils for the farms. They 
came on a vessel called the "Charming Molly," and their names are 
of sufficient importance to be given here : Jonathan Thayer, Gideon 
Albe, Isaac Kent, Stephen Rice, Daniel Summer, Joseph Marshall, 
Thomas Hooper, wife and sons and three daughters, William Wil- 
liams, John Hill, Abner Morse, Nathaniel Rawson, Samuel Perkins, 
Ebenezer Felch, Thomas Damon, John D'amon, Edmund Damon, Wil- 
liam Curtis and wife, Daniel Moore, Samuel Bent, Uriah Clarke, 
Samuel Morse, Jonathan Church, Benjamin Mason, Michael Spurr 
and wife, three sons and three daughters, John Winslow, John Whit- 


man, Michael Law, John Bacon, Daniel Felch, Benjamin Rice, Beriah 

Later in the season arrived the following persons: Captain 
Phineas Lovitt, O'badiah Wheelock, Aaron Hardy, Moses Thayer, 
Joseph Daniels, Benjamin Eaton, Thomas Smith, Job Gushing, Ebe- 
nezer Perry, John Baker, William Jennison, Paul Hazeltine, William 
Bowles. The work of settlement went steadily forward. Other 
houses were built and other homes were made on the goodly acres of 
the expatriated Acadians, who were dying by hundreds of homesick- 
ness, want and fear in the midst of inhospitable strangers. The more 
hardy of these deported people were venturing back to their beloved 
Acadia. After eight years, in 1768, a census was taken, and the re- 
turns show a population of 513 ; among them are four French families. 
The present population of this county is largely composed of the 
descendants of these families from New England. The population 
was strongly increased between 1775 and 1783 by the arrival from the 
Colonies, that afterwards became the United States, of many people 
who are known as "Loyalists." The greater portion of these came at 
the latter date when they were expelled by the victorious party. The 
newborn nation was not minded to have in their midst an obstructive 
element, that had almost proved fatal to their cause in the long struggle 
for independence. So with genuine Anglo-Saxon bluntness they were 
made to distinctly understand that their room was better than their 
company, such a policy resulting in great hardships. Much of the 
best brains and culture was turned out of doors, and Nova Scotia was 
greatly enriched by the portion of these refugees that fell to her share. 
Their descendants are numerous in Annapolis County, where their 
thrift and intelligence have left a distinctive mark upon that portion of 
the Province. The thrifty villages and fine farms of this region 
bespeak a superior population. To describe these localities in much 
detail is not possible within the limits of this brief history, but the most 
notable must claim a word of description. 

Annapolis Town is the county capital. It is situated at the head 
of Annapolis Basin, and has a population of about 6,000. It is a 
trading center for the adjacent district and by rail and shipping it is 
in touch with general outside business; a delightful locality for sum- 
mer visitors, who can enjoy the tempered sea air, the pleasant drives 
and walks, and find opportunities for sailing, fishing and other diver- 
sions. About 28 acres are covered with the old fortifications, now 
fallen into desuetude, but still replete with memories of distant days, 


when there were stirring times among the pioneers who were so often 
obliged to defend by force of arms their slender holdings that they had 
wrested from Nature. Here are churches, good schools, a newspaper, 
and comfortable hotels. 

Bridgetown is fourteen miles from Annapolis up the valley, and 
at the head of navigation on the river. It is in the midst of a favored 
farming district, and has a population O'f about 1,000. It lacks the 
water outlook of Annapolis, and the interesting history of that town, 
but we cannot live on scenery, however much it contributes to our 
enjoyment. Bridgetown has its own charms, and is central to fine 
fishing in the streams to the southward. The town is on the D. A. R. 
line of railroad, and has a newspaper, several churches, good hotels, 
and other evidences of - prosperity and promises of comfort to those 
who seek her hospitalities. 

Paradise, Lawrencetown, and Middleton, in .the above order, extend 
eastward up the valley on the line of railroad. They are all prosperous 
towns situated amid fine farms and extensive orchards. From Para- 
dise a road crosses the North Mountain to Port Williams, distance 
about seven miles, on the Bay of Fundy, where some three hundred 
people are principally engaged in fishing. 

From Middleton the Central Railroad crosses the South Mountain, 
and extends to Lunenburg Town on the Atlantic Coast. Southward 
from Middleton, four miles on this line, is Nictaux, a farming village 
largely on the hills, where there are immense deposits of valuable iron 
ore. The present outlook is favorable for extensive operations in this 
mining district. The Nictaux River, a considerable stream, descends 
into the valley over a precipitous course from the upper regions of the 
watershed, and thus makes available a large store of power to be' 
utilized in the mining industry. To the southward of Nictaux are the 
rural villages of Springfield, New Albany, and Dalhousie. The small 
villages and hamlets are too numerous to describe, but they all have 
merits and charms of their own in this sheltered and fertile region of 
the valley. Returning to the Annapolis Basin, we come to Granville, 
on the north shore, where the first settlement was made by Sieur De 
Monts. This is a considerable township, delightfully situated. Com- 
munication with the town of Annapolis is maintained with a ferry- 
boat, but a bridge should be built for that purpose. On the south shore 
of the basin is Clementsport, a beautiful village, and Deep Brook is a 
most inviting locality. Bear River is on the county line, and the 
thriving town among the hills is famous for cherries, steep roads and 


religious gatherings. A large portion of the county on the southern 
side is a forest, valuable for lumber and pulp. This soil is not suitable 
for farming purposes. On this extreme border, adjoining Queens, 
are the small villages of Maitland, Milford, and Northfield, while Mil- 
ford and Greywood are intermediate hamlets on the highway between 
Annapolis and Liverpool. We come now to consider the general 
geological features of this county. About three-quarters of the 
county is granite; the remainder is Triassic red sandstone, De- 
vonian and Silurian quartzites and shales, and Cambrian quartzites. In 
more detail, we may say, from the southern edge of the valley to the 
Queens County line all is granite except a small area of Devonian 
strata wherein are the Nictaux and Torbrook iron mines, and about 
fifty square miles of the same formation in the southwestern extremity 
of the county, 'through which run Deep Brook and Bear River in a 
portion of their courses. From Qementsport to the Digby County 
line, and from the shore of the basin southward five or six miles, the 
older or underlying Cambrian quartzites occur. The Annapolis Val- 
ley is very near the western extremity of the granite axis 
of the Peninsula of Nova Scotia. It is discussed somewhat 
in the chapter on the Geology of Nova Scotia. The valley it- 
self is also remarkable for the few exposures of the bed rock, which 
proves to be red sandstone of the Triassic Age, that are certainly not 
so old as the North Mountain, where portions of this formation may be 
seen at the "Devil's Kitchen," some three hundred feet or more above 
the general level of the valley. The remaining area is covered by the 
North Mountain, which is an extrusion of lava that once issued from a 
fracture in the trough of the Bay of Fundy. These varied geological 
features result in a corresponding variety of scenery and economic 



The gold-bearing rocks extend_JromJth^Stmit of Canso to the 
western extremity of the^rpymce, with a breadth varying from ten to 
flirty-five miles, and with an area of 6,000 square miles. This forma- 
tion of slates and quartzites is bounded on the south by the ocean, 
on the north by a granite contact. Thus much for a mere outline, 
but it will be worth while to dwell a moment on the origin of these 
rocks. A diagram representing the succession of geological Ages, one 
over another, will have the Cambrian, or Lower Silurian, at the very 
bottom of the undisputed fossiliferous rocks, and to this formation 
the gold measures of Nova Scotia have been provisionally assigned. 
They have not yielded for certain a single trace of life, although mani- 
festly of sedimentary origin, not altered by heat to a degree destructive 
to fossils, and of a nature fairly well calculated to preserve even deli- 
cate organisms. Further investigation may well classify them as Pre- 
Cambrian. At any rate they are made from the ruins of an older land 
whose site they largely occupy. The ceaseless assault of the wallowing 
waves, the myriad-handed agencies of sun, air, and water, reduced 
the frowning naked rocks to sand and mud; and the under-tow of 
the broken billows, and the tireless tides, distributed these sediments 
along the coast in the same way that they are now, after so vast a time, 
being redistributed before our eyes. 

Nothing need be clearer than the sedimentary origin of the_goid- 
bearing rocks. Beyond all intelligent question they were once before 
in form of solid formations, and then reduced to sediments. From 
reliable data, this series o>f rocks is estimated to be about three miles 
in thickness. 

There is not now, nor ever has been, a coast where the surround- 
ings at once fell into such abysmal depths as that. The explanation 
is that the plastic crust of a newer world yielded to the weight of sedi- 
ment and slowly subsided as the strata accumulated, and the adjacent 
land may well have been elevated in a corresponding degree. To-day 
these old sands, mud, and clay are quartzites and slates, but they are 
no longer in horizontal beds. They are standing on edge at all angles, 
showing everywhere that they have been operated upon by a force that 
pushed them into an area of about one-half they once occupied. In 




other words, the very foundations on which as sediments they were 
deposited shrank into vastly smaller dimensions, and this shrinkage, 
as a matter of course, must result in folds, and waves, and many 
complications of structure. Very likely these movements were due 
to cooling of the crust of the globe. A marked feature of these rocks 
is a succession of east and west waves running roughly parallel to the 
Atlantic coast, and with a marked* general regularity. These rock 
waves were so slow in their elevation that perhaps they were never to 
be seen as actual undulations, for the erosive agencies of air, and heat, 
and wind, and water leveled them as they rose, and we have now 
before us the scored away crests, and the once profound depth, open 
to investigation. The ordinary structure of this formation is plainly 
shown in Fig. i, copied from a map of the Geological Survey of the 
County of Halifax, and originally made from actual observations. It 
is a vertical section of about one-half mile in depth and nine miles in 
length, with a north and south course across the dips or inclinations of 
the denuded waves of the strata. No observations have been made to 
this depth, but the planes of stratification, as they appear at the various 
and extensive outcrops above the surface drift, are abundant evidence 
of the nature of the deep structure. The dotted lines above and below 
the diagram are intended to show about where the crumpled rocks 
would have reached, some five to eight miles in altitude, had they not 
been largely worn away by erosive agencies as they arose above the 
general level. The dotted lines below indicate in a general manner 





\^ Nj \ JvL 

the characteristic features of the deeper portion of the formation. It 
will be noted that the truncated or cut-off crest of these waves or folds 
are called anticlinals. Such important localities may be quite readily 
found where there are occasional exposures of the bed-rock above the 
ground, and other loose material, and to the prospector it is a matter 
of prime importance to locate the anticlinal. These rocks are all 
formed in layers, or strata, varying in thickness from a few inches to 
many feet, and when we find them on opposite sides of a bit of country 


a mile, more or less, in width, dipped or slanted away as they go down 
from a line, or axis, drawn easterly and westerly through that middle 
ground somewhere, then we are certain that the anticlinal axis is, 
roughly speaking, where there is no dip. One may see this illustrated 
in Fig. i in all the three anticlinals. Between two waves, whether of 
rocks or of water, there must be a valley. In the rock formation we 
must bear in mind that it is continuous and everywhere responds, as a 
whole, to the forces that acted upon it, as a human hand would ma- 
nipulate a lump of dough. Therefore the same strata that buckle and 
fold along some line of least resistance, and push their fractured crests 
towards the clouds, must have their corresponding areas of depression, 
and these are the synclinals, where the dips of the strata are towards 
a synclinal axis, the very reverse of the anticlinal. An examination 
of Fig. I will reveal the fact that the deepest rocks that are exposed 
on the surface are to be found on the axes of the anticlinals, and this 
also is a fact of the first importance to the prospectors and miners, as 
we shall see in the proper connection, for all the gold mines are located 
on these anticlinals. 

Another geological feature of great practical importance to those 
engaged in gold mining is the fact that this^4HiiS_jomia_tioiL4s 
naturally divided into an upper and lower. There is no line of un- 
conformity between them, but there is a difference in the rocks them- 
selves. While both are of sedimentary origin, they were manifestly 
made up of different varieties of sediments that were deposited under 
different conditions, the depth of water being an important factor. 
The lower division is principally quartzite, with thin beds of slate 
between the strata of this harder rock. Quartzite is an altered or 
metamorphic sandstone. The thickness of this lower group is esti- 
mated to be about three miles by Mr. Faribault, C. E., of Geological 
Survey, and he is better qualified to express an approximate estimate 
than any other person. 

The upper division is slate of different varieties, and estimated by 
Mr. Faribault to be two miles in thickness. These figures, of course, 
are to be applied to the original beds before they were folded into their 
present condition, and not taken as an estimate of the perpendicular 
depths of these folded and enormously eroded formations. We may 
with entire confidence believe that even the perpendicular measurement 
would extend beyond the limits of mining. 

Having briefly discussed the rock formation, we come now to con- 
sider the quartz veins. Gold in small quantities is widely distributed. 


It exists as a dissolved chloride in all sea-water, and is found in the 
rocks of all the geological divisions as a small part of their metallic 
contents. Gold in quantitie^that ca.n^be profitably mined is found 
either as loose particles in sand and gravel, or_jn_ veins and dikes. 
These alluvial or surface washings are either on the beds of living, or 
dead rivers, or on the present seashore or on some ancient shore, like 
the conglomerates of South Africa. In all ^ these instances , the gpJ4 
has been derived from veins of quartz, or dikes of intrusive rocks, but 
the latter source is but an exception to a rule. Beyond reasonable 
doubt, all the gold worth getting out of the earth has once been 
scattered broadcast through the rocks as invisible particles, and from 
that condition collected into cracks and crevices with other metals and 
minerals, till a vein is formed. The great body of these veins consist 
of quartz, or silica, and that mineral is an oxide of silicon, that con- 
stitutes about one-third of the earth's crust. Although so hard that 
it scratches glass, so refractory that it is melted with difficulty, still 
it is dissolved in water everywhere; minute creatures in countless 
millions secrete it for their shells, and plants take it up through their 
roots from the water of soil and use it in their own way in their 
structures. Even in rocks there is water in circulation, and as a rule 
it will, under such conditions, have quartz dissolved arfd mingled with 
it. Nothing is more common than to see fragments of rocks by the 
wayside or the streets with veins of quartz running through them. 
Sometimes they are mere threads, or the thin sheet is cut across. Na- 
ture has used this enduring material to heal the numberless gaps, and 
gashes, and fissures that have resulted from the shrinking of this globe. 
The mineral crust has rested uneasily on the viscous and ever-changing 
foundations, where Titanic forces accumulate and then break forth till 
earthquakes record in a shudder the tremendous occurrence. As the 
heat is lost in the cold of space, the fact is registered deeper and deeper 
into the fiery heart of our planet. Slowly and ceaselessly responsive, 
the cool crust is crowded into smaller areas, and finds relief in wrinkles 
and folds, and faults, and thrusts, and fissures, till the oldest forma- 
tions seem almost cruelly contorted in age-long agony. Deep hidden 
from all eyes, vast strata bend, and arch, and break on a scale so gi- 
gantic that an earthquake records the disaster, and the sea responds 
with a wave that crosses the Pacific. As a result to this shrinking 
the ocean bed has here and there risen above the waves with the accu- 
mulated sediments of ages, miles in depth, and tilted them into moun- 
tain summits above the limits of eternal snow. 



When the gold-bearing rocks of Nova Scotia were thus forced 
from their horizontal position they would have out-distanced the high- 
est peaks of the loftiest known ranges, reaching an altitude of eight 
miles, as we may determine from the downward dip or angle of strata 
as we find them exposed. To what altitude they actually arose we can- 
not decide, but it is most probable that the eroding agencies held them 
in check from extreme heights. The sediment resulting from this con- 
stant denuding must have been transported to the synclinal valleys, 
where it is reasonable to suppose that we have it in the now upper slate 
group, as we see it indicated in Fig. i, in the synclinals of St. Mary's 

Bay and Sherbrooke, where we can readily see by the diagram that 
its position is above the quartzite division where the gold-yielding 
veins occur. 

Since the gold is confined to the vicinity of these anticlinal axes, 
it is of vital importance to know how often they occur. La-ar-4istaQe 
of thirty-five miles across the formation in Halifax County there are 
nine of these folds that appear, as I have said, as truncated waves, 
billows of rocks scored away to a level with the old valleys between 
them. They are running nearly parallel with the coast, and more or 
less out of line, as the result o>f "faults," or breaks and dislocation of 
the strata on a great scale. Fig. 2 is a reduced map in general fea- 



tures from the Geological Survey of portions of Halifax and Guysboro 
Counties. There the anticlinals are indicated, also the faults, the 
discovered mines, and granite areas. The latter are but portions of a 
formation that marks a contact with the auriferous 
Cambrian rocks throughout the Western Counties. We 
may note on this map that the anticlinal folds are on 
an average about four miles apart, and the mines thus 
far located upon them are distant from each other 
from ten to twenty-five miles. The ordinary veins of 
this formation are inter-bedded between the various 
layers or strata, and generally are found at the point 
where quartzite and slate once came into contact till 
wrenched apart by the folding movement. It is very 
desirable that a clear idea of these veins be conveyed 
to the ordinary reader for such persons I am writing 
so we will resort to an illustration : If we take a 
couple of dozen sheets of colored wet blotting paper 
and place at intervals a few sheets of writing paper 
separated by three or four sheets from one another, and 
then double all till the outer edges nearly meet, we 
will then have the writing paper in the position 
of the veins, only with more regularity than usual- 
ly found in nature. Now if we remove with 
some sharp instrument the upper portion of this fold, 
the edges of the writing paper that represent the veins 
will be exposed in the horizontal section and they will 
be dipped away from the anticlinal axis. Unless all 
the sheets are cut away, which is not desirable, then 
the writing paper may be seen to be continuous over 
the crown of the anticlinal, forming a saddle with two 
legs inclined outward.' In some instances, notably at 
Oldham, this structure is to be seen in the rocks. If 
the veins were continuous for miles, then we should 
'be sure that they all crossed the anticlinal axis at one 
time before the crest was eroded, and that deeper min- 
ing would discover all of them still unexposed folded 
over the axis. In spite of much fracturing and dis- 

location of the strata, this is the general plan of the arrangement of 
these leads. I introduce here Fig. 3 to illustrate this plan ; it is. copied 
rrom a Geological Survey made of the Oldham District in the County 


of Halifax. These veins could not have been formed until the strata 
had been folded and dislocated to a degree that resulted in openings be- 
tween the tilted beds along the region that yielded to the pressure and 
doubled into these anticlines. That the formation of the veins began be- 
fore these disturbances closed is probable in theory and borne outby ap- 
pearances. The process, beyond reasonable doubt, extended over mil- 
lions of years, and for the most part was carried on far beneath what 
is now the surface. The gold coming mostly from a great depth was 
brought to the higher levels in a state of solution, and the same watery 
solvent held the silica or quartz and the base metal sulphides. It is a 
very common experience to find the enclosing wall-rocks of the quartz 
veins containing abundance of iron sulphides, and sometimes gold is 
found in the slate and quartzite walls where they come in contact with 
the quartz, or very near to that junction. Pieces of wall-rock are found 
enclosed in the quartz now and then, showing that it was once plastic. 
These veins vary in width from a half inch to several feet, but the 
usual thickness of working leads is from four inches to' a foot. These 
leads generally occurring between beds of .slate and quartzite, have the 
advantage of the slate as a "working belt," and thereby greatly facili- 
tating the mining operations. 

The gold in paying quantities is almost entirely confined to certain 
portions known as "pay streaks" or "ore chutes." This valuable 
ground will extend along the vein from one hundred to several hundred 
fet;~-ks downward boundaries are quite abrupt, and generally are not 
perpendicular, but dip eastward or westward with considerable regu- 
larity throughout the district. The aggregating of these values into 
smaller areas is one of the fortunate aspects, for had the same amount 
been scattered throughout the vein, mining would be out of the ques- 
tion. The same lead in some instances will have more than one such 
gold zone or "pay streak." The depth of such ore bodies has never 
been tested. Even within the limits of this chute there are compara- 
tively barren areas, and others of phenomenal richness. A further 
study of them is desirable, to throw additional light on their origin. 

The precious metals have certain affinities that are not satisfied by 
chemical union, and thus it turns out that they are always 
more or less intimately associated in the mines with sulphides 
of iron, and lead, and zinc, and "white iron," or mispickel, a 
chemical combination of arsenic, iron, and sulphur. The latter 
mineral is very common. Quartz veins in which one or 
more of these minerals are not to be found will carry no gold. 


These minerals, as I shall notice further on, are all enriched with invis- 
ible gold. Often the precious metal is embedded among the crystals of 
these base ores, that chemistry alone can deal with. As a rule, and 
rather a rigid one in Nova Scotia, quartz in which no gold can be 
seen with the naked eye will have no value worth attention. It often 
turns out that these common minerals exist abundantly, but no gold 
can be found in the quartz. It will, however, be a great mistake in 
prospecting to conclude that a vein is valueless because no gold is found 
in one or even many trials along its outcrop or exposures, for very 
often gold abruptly makes its appearance within a few feet of barren 
ground. These interbedded veins belong, all of them, to one system, 
but there are others known as "angulars" or "cross-leads." In mining 
the "regular" interbedded leads, the common experience is that small 
veins emerge from the walls at all angles. As a rule they do not extend 
very far into the rocks, and when they carry gold the main lead will 
be enriched at the junction of these "angulars." They evidently had 
their origin in the general fracturing and dislocation that made possible 
the interbedded leads. 

There is also> another system of lodes that may properly be termed 
fissure veins, for they were formed in extensive cracks that traversed at 
various angles the "strike" of the formation. These veins are among 
the most productive,' and they occur all over the gold districts. 

Thus far we have described the great east and west folds because 
they are the most conspicuous and important geological feature of this 
gold-bearing formation. 

Due to some agency, apparently pressure, there are at intervals of 
ten and fifteen miles along the anticlinal folds, certain areas where the 
surface of the rock pitches away eastward and westward at a low angle 
with the horizon along the axis of the anticlinal, and thus elliptical 
"domes" are formed in which are located the gold mines of the Prov- 
ince. It is only in exceptional instances that veins can be located 
entirely around the dome, but a clear knowledge of their relation to* it 
is an item of importance in prospecting and mining. 

Hitherto, and up to this time, the rock-structure has been neglected 
to the great detriment of the gold-mining industry. Says Mr. E. R. 
Faribault, C. E., who has for several years been in charge of a portion 
of the Geological Survey, mapping the gold fields of Nova Scotia: 
"The study of the structure of these rocks over that region has afforded 
an opportunity of acquiring important data and facts by means of 
which gold mining may be carried on with more confidence, under 



more exact conditions and with greater economy. A thorough knowl- 
edge of the anticlinal folds becomes necessary to locate the gold-bearing 
quartz deposits on the surface and to develop them in depth." 

These important statements from this source are in direct contra- 
diction to the opinions of the average prospector of this region, who 
solemnly asserts that "gold is where you find it, just as the Bible 
says," and thus, as he supposes, brings Scripture to support his position. 
This old saying originated in placer "diggins," where the gold was 
washed from old river beds where it had been the sport of the currents, 
and lodged here and there in favoring localities that no science or ex- 
perience could locate and the pick and shovel alone could tell. When 
gold is in veins there is no such field for the haphazard miner. These 
deposits have been formed within the lines of natural laws, and order 
reigns amid apparent disorder. 

Although the existence of gold in Nova Scotia has been known 
about forty years, arifl the returns frave comparpH w^11 w jth p-old mines 
in various parts of the world, still tfrp prospprtinpr ^nH mining, as a 
rule, have not been prosecuted with much energy or good judgment. 
Provincial capital was in the hands of men afraid to invest it in this 
new kind of speculation, and outside companies distinguished them- 
selves by notorious bad management in many directions, but notably 
in the selection of officials who were utterly inexperienced or otherwise 
incompetent for their positions. Failures have again and again resulted 
from causes that would have insured the like disastrous termination 
had they existed in any other line of business. Intemperance, extrava- 
gance, ignorance, this wretched triplet includes the signal sins of 
foreign companies, and the visible monuments of their evil activities 
are to be seen all over the Province in abandoned shafts and dismantled 
mills. Not a company or individual has had the intelligent enterprise 
to sink to a depth of 1,000 feet perpendicular and explore by cross-cuts 
the axis of an anticlinal to w'hich science and outside experience have 
pointed as most inviting ground. Capital sufficient for this purpose 
has often been squandered in expensive plants and unsystematic search 
for bonanzas near the surface. Whether the gold-bearing zones along 
the anticlinal axes extend to a great depth is a problem on the solution 
of which largely depends the prosperity and perpetuation of the gold- 
mining industry of Nova Scotia. This fact affords ample reasons for 
discussing the question in these pages' that are intended to afford 
reliable information to those who take the trouble to consult 'them. 
Without in the least yielding to the common fallacy that greater depth 



will be likely to yield higher values of precious metal, still we may 
say that natural conditions may so far alter cases that this very thing 
may be true, or at any rate the ore will not depreciate with depth. 

Mr. E. K. Faribault, C. E., whom I have already introduced as of 
the Canadian Geological Survey, is the person best calculated to give 
a sound opinion on this question. He has in 1899 published a pam- 
phlet devoted to aspects of this problem, and comes to a favorable 
conclusion. We will, by quotations and use of some of his diagrams, 
enable our reader to follow his reasoning. When veins are formed 
between the bedding planes of folded strata, it is evident that they 
may or will continue over the apex of an anticlinal fold ; at that point 
the ore-body is called a "saddle," and the extensions downward on 
each side are termed "legs." 




M //fK\ ?! 

* 5. \ / /^ t. \ \ ** 



-:; x \ \ \ //j^K^s^r^/ \\\\ /ivAYv 


Fig. 4, constructed in the main by Faribault from actual surveys, 
shows us the structure of the rocks and the location of the mines on 
the anticlinal folds. All above the "surface" line is an ideal formation 
based upon the dip of the rocks as we now have them. That the sum- 
mits of the great folds were over eight miles higher than now is not 
at all probable, but they would have been had there been no denuding 
agencies to attack them. Beyond question the old surface was once 
far higher than now, and the veins that are today outcropping were 
once deeply entombed in the earth. 

If we can point to> gold mines in other quarters of the world under 
general conditions very like those in Nova Scotia, that have proved 
profitable to a depth of more than 2,000 feet, and the end not reached, 



then we have a strong argument from that quarter in favor of deep 
mining in Nova Scotia. A notable instance of this kind is found in 
Bendigo, Australia. 

In Fig. 5 we have a section to scale of this folded formation, show- 
ing the mines on the anticlinal folds as they are in this Province, and 
v the recurring ore-bodies at different levels. In 

Fig. 5 we have a diagram from actual measure- 
ments to a depth of 2,000 feet, in which the 
ore-bodies appear as "saddles" and "legs" be- 
striding the anticlinal axis or fold. These 
saddles constitute the "saddle-reefs" of that 
country. "They are at Bendigo not only of 
great size and of remarkable persistence in 
length, but are also notable for recurring in 
depth one below the other. At the Lazarus 
Mine there are from the surface to the 2,200- 
foot level no less than twenty-four of these 
saddle reefs, thirteen of which are auriferous 
to a payable degree and some of great size. At 
Bendigo, on the 3ist of December, 1897, six 
mines were worked over 3,000 feet in depth, 
and twelve over 2,700 feet, the deepest was 
down 3,352 feet, and these are all worked on 
the anticlinal folds." Continuing, says Fari- 
bault : 

Nb operation has yet been carried to any 
depth through the arch-core of the folds in 
Nova ScotiaHbut the development done along 
the anticlinal axis at Salmon River, the Rich- 
ardson Mine, Waverly, O'ldham and Moose- 
land should be sufficient to convince the most 
skeptical that quartz saddle-reefs and legs may 

(^---'^^' be found underneath one another, to even a 

greater depth 'than in Bendigo. 

Mr. Walter H. Prest, formerly a valued 
^5 member of the Geological Survey, and of long 

^ experience in our mines, and of natural apti- 

tude, has given special attention to this problem of deep mining in Nova 
Scotia, and in a published monograph reaches the following conclu- 
sions : 





"ist. The probability of the hydro-thermal origin and resulting 
great depths of our mineral veins and pay streaks. 

2nd. That the original was far above the present surface, and 
even the upper beds of the series show evidence of great erosion and 
still higher beds. 

3rd. That what are now called surface deposits were then many 
thousands of feet deep. 

4th. That denudation (or geological deep 
mining) has already exposed our pay streaks to 
a depth of 25,000 feet below the original surface. 
5th. And finally, modern mining has only 
exposed those pay streaks 500 or 600 feet lower 
down, thus only slightly extending the former 
geological work. When the question of deep 
mining is fully considered in all its varied geo- 
logical relations, I cannot see why .there should 
exist any doubt as to its successful prosecution. 
Judging future mining from past geological work, 
there is no evidence that our auriferous leads 
either decrease in size or richness with increasing 

The first report of Samuel Creelman, the first 
Chief Gold Commissioner for the Province of 
Nova Scotia, bears date of 1862. 

By way of introduction we are therein in- 
formed that "The earliest discovery of gold in 
the Province, made known to the public, occurred 
during the summer of 1860, at a spot about 
twelve miles north from the head of Tangier Har- 
bor, on the northeast branch of the Tangier 
River, Halifax County. The discoverer, John 
Pulsiver of Musquodoboit, was induced from what he had heard 
of the gold-bearing quartz of California to search for the same 
substance amongst the rocks on the upper waters of the Tan- 
gier River ; and while in company with some Indians whom he 
had hired, Mr. Pulsiver found several pieces of gold in quartz 
in a brook, at a place known as Mooseland Diggings. This 
discovery being known, a number of persons from various parts 
of the Province gathered to the spot during the summer and succeed- 
ing autumn for the purpose of prospecting ; but gold not being found 



in remunerative quantity, the place was abandoned before the close of 
the year. 

''In the month of October of the same year, Peter Mason, a fisher- 
man and land-owner near the head of Tangier Harbor, concluded that 
he had found the precious metal there. 

"On the nth of April, 1861, the Government took possession of 
the district." 

This report of 1862 gives the returns from Tangier, Wine Harbor, 
Sherbrooke, Stormont, Oldham, and Renfew. The total number of 
tons of ore 1,294, yielding gold to the value of $49,707. During the 
intervening years from 1862 to 1901 about fourteen million dollars 
have been won from the mines. During several years the business was 
carried on by crude methods and subjected to many disadvantages in 
other ways. Many failures were not due to natural causes, but to the 
ill-considered attempts of men to become suddenly rich. As in other 
affairs, something has been learned by such failures and disasters, and 
real progress has been made in treatment -of ores and in some instances 
in the management of mines. 

The following table, copied from the Report of the Department of 
Mines for 1900, will give a general idea of the output of the mines 
from their discovery till now : 






Value at 
$19.00 Per Oz. 







Caribou and Moose River 
Montague . . 




138', 406 













$ 794,472.42 


Renfrew . . ... 

Sherbrooke .... 

Stormont .... 

Tangier . ....... 


Salmon River 



Lake Catcha 

\Vine Harbor 

Fifteen Mile Stream 

Other Districts . . 








The surface of the gold-bearing formation is quite generally cov- 
ered with gravel, clay, sand, loam, rocks, and black mud. The latter 
is largely of vegetable origin, but all the other materials are the prod- 
ucts of ero-sion. They are contributions from the slates and quartzites 
of the gold measures and from the granite area that makes a contact 
on the north. Granite boulders, rounded and smooth, and often 
weighing a dozen tons, are plentifully scattered over this Atlantic slope 
of Cambrian rocks. Ice and water have been the agencies at work 
upon all this material. The frequent bed-rock exposures are grooved, 
and- scratched in parallel lines with a southeastward direction that have 
their evident origin in a glacial movement. The gravels, sands, etc., 
are about where the subsiding waters left them, arranged in hills and 
knolls, or distributecj over level areas, where loose rocks cover a stra- 
tum of compact clay and gravel. These latter are generally grown up 
in small trees and shrubs, such as wire birches, poplars, whortleberry, 
etc. The hills and knolls are naturally covered with forests of hard- 
wood oak, beeches, birches, and maples being the principal trees. 
Extensive forests of coniferous trees pines, hemlocks, spruces, firs- 
are found in areas of rather level, damp, rocky, clayey soil. Bogs 
occupy ancient lake beds that have been gradually filled with vegetable 
matter grown on the spot. Swamps are a conspicuous feature and 
cover such lower portions of the old rock surface as favored certain 
forms of vegetation that preferred a damp or even wet situation. 
These areas are grown up in meadow grass, black spruce, swamp maple, 
alders, choke cherries, ilex, and lowly shrubs and plants. 

At the beginning of the Glacial Period the quartz veins had been 
stripped to> some extent by natural erosion that left them in some 
instances standing a few feet above the surface; in other cases they 
had cracked along planes of crystallization and tumbled down in frag- 
ments on the strike or course of the vein. When the snow had accu- 
mulated to glacier dimensions of thousands of feet in depth in ice, it 
began to move down to the low incline O'f 600 feet in 35 miles to the 
Atlantic seaboard. Protruding quartz veins were broken off by this 
imperceptibly crawling ice sheet. Under such enormous pressure the 
friction produced heat enough to melt the ice next the bed-rock. Thus 
by means of ice and water the fragments of the veins were trans- 
ferred, along with gravels and sands, to the southward, to distances of 
a quarter of a mile, or even several miles in some instances. These 
fragments of quartz are known as "float" or "drift;" they are the tell- 
tales of the hidden .treasure somewhere, not very distant, in a vein. 


The fragments or "float" furthest away from the parent vein are on 
the surface, and as the source is approached they are to be found 
embedded in the ground, deeper and deeper, till the vein is reached. 
A competent prospector coming upon good "drift" on the surface does 
not begin there to dig, but he searches on the surface to the northward ; 
when he can find no more in that way, he will begin a north and south 
trench, but never going to bed-rock, as a rule, while he can find the 
quartz, which he will readily recognize, although other veins will be 
represented in the excavation. When this float is found on the bed- 
rock in the bottom of the trench, then one may expect the desired vein 
is quite or nearly reached. Having thus followed the float to the 
source, it may turn out that the vein is barren at that point, for no 
vein is gold-bearing to a profitable degree throughout its whole course, 
as I have previously explained. The "pay streak" may stop quite 
abruptly, and consequently the experienced prospector will test it by 
cuttings at short intervals of fifty feet or less. 

In some instances the "float" may have had its origin in a "cross" 
or fissure lead, with a strike or course at a considerable angle across 
the strata and their regular interbedded veins. In a case of that kind a 
north and south trench might fail to uncover the vein that had fur- 
nished the "drift" quartz. In dealing with such an occurrence, the 
float will itself , quite often have some peculiarity, or there will be 
clinging to it a portion of the wall rock, or some other clue will be 
noted by experienced and observant eyes that will generally put one 
on the right track. 

In rare instances the "float" is found to the northward of its vein 
for a short distance of a hundred feet or thereabouts, its unusual loca- 
tion being due to a backset o>f the current or a thrust of an upturned 
ice-cake, but one will of course direct his operations by the rule, but 
with a knowledge of exceptions. 


I have already made it plain that the veins dip at various angles 
from almost perpendicular to 45 degrees, rarely more where worked. 
Generally there is a stratum of slate on one side of the veins, and 
forms a cheap working belt. The walls are kept secure by scaffolds 
of poles arranged on stout "stulls" or cross-sills that are fitted into 
"hitches" cut in the wall-rock. These scaffolds are loaded with the 
waste rock of the mine. The foot-wall affords a good opportunity 
for a skip-way used in hoisting the ore and rock. 


The cost of mining will very largely depend upon management, 
upon width of vein, and hardness of the working belt. 

Miners' wages from $1.25 to $1.40. 

Dynamite from 22 cents to 25 cents. 

Cordwood $2 to $3 per cord. 

Blacksmiths and carpenters about $1.75 per day. 

The numerous waterfalls in all this gold-bearing region are sources 
of sufficient energy to operate all tne mines and mills if they were 
electrically harnessed to the work, but up to this date (1901) not a 
wheel has been turned by electrical transmission of this power. Within 
three and four miles of quartz mills, now expensively operated by 
steam, there are hundreds and even thousands of horse power in water- 
falls that are absolutely unused. Intelligent use of capital will put a 
stop to this short-sighted policy and place many mines on a paying 
basis that are now lying idle. 


Either from ancient river bed, from sea-shore or living river banks 
and bottoms, mankind obtained the first gold. Doubtless the pretty 
particles attracted the attention long before the art of milling metals 
was known. The gold of all these localities had its origin in quartz 
veins that have been broken up on the surface by natural agencies that 
set free the particles and nuggets of gold. These agencies were 
air, frost, heat, running water, and ocean waves. Gold-bearing quartz 
in rapidly running streams would be crushed, and the gold by its great 
weight would collect in natural receptacles among the rocks. The 
early mines of California, 1849, were all of this description. At Cape 
Nome, in Alaska, great quantities of gold are being recovered from 
the seashore, where the waves have trampled down the gold-bearing 
rocks, and their ancient conquest of the land has been elevated above 
the water by oscillations of the crust of the earth. The gold of the 
Klondyke is all alluvial gold and has its source in the bed-rock schists 
of that region. 

Theoretically Nova Scotia should have rich and extensive alluvial 
gold mines. The highest authorities agree that denudation on an 
enormous scale has taken place on the gold measures since the veins 
were formed miles in depth eroded and swept away into the ocean. 
Whatever might have become of the sand and mud, the gold did not 
go far, except in a very fine condition. As a rule the gold of Nova 


Scotia is coarse and nuggety, in many instances to a degree not ex- 
ceeded elsewhere in rock mining. 

The rivers of these gold fields have an average fall of about 500 
feet in 35 or 40 miles, and their courses are across the veins. But 
these rivers are not located where the pre-glaciai drainage of this area 
found a way to the sea, and in them, if we knew where they are, might 
be the gold that belonged in the anticlinal domes that were planed down 
for thousands of feet millions of years before the advent of the Age 
of Ice. One ancient river bed carrying gold in paying quantities, and 
belonging to a drainage system of pre-glacial times, may be seen at 
the village of Coldstream, six miles from the Shubenacadie railroad 
station, in Colchester County. In the opinion of Sir William Dawson, 
Dr. Honeyman, C. F. Hartt, and the Canadian Geological Survey, this 
deposit belongs to the lower Carboniferous, a very far away epoch,, 
before there was even a creature on land so lowly as a lizard, and fishes 
were the head of creation. This river-bed deposit is a conglomerate 
formed from the debris of the rocks over which it ran, and these are 
Cambrian slates of the go-Id measures. Now it is a most interesting 
fact that when the river ran, those slates were already folded into 
anticlinal s, that had been scored away miles in depth, and left the 
upturned edges of the strata standing at sharp angles, forming steep 
ledges, and these were penetrated by longitudinal fissures or seams 
across the cleavage of the slates. The river ran at right angles to these 
ledges, and filled these fissures of crystalline origin, that were less than 
an inch in width, with mud and sand and gold. This was a rapid 
current, carrying along large fragments of rocks, and in once instance 
a quartz boulder weighing 500 pounds or more, and smooth in every 
part almost as a kidney, a shape it rather resembled. The writer 
speaks from personal experience while in charge on this ground. The 
veins from which the gold was derived have not been discovered, but 
we get a glimpse into that far-away age and see that agencies were at 
work then, as now, to form gold-bearing alluvia. 

Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, in his Report on Gold Fields of Nova Scotia, 
1868, says: "The existence in Nova Scotia of gold-bearing alluvions 
older than the boulder clay is a contingency not to be lost sight of; 
the presence of considerable quantities of gold at Gay's River in 
Colchester County, in conglomerate beds at the base of the Carbonif- 
erous series, which are nothing more than consolidated alluvions of 
that period, shows the great antiquity of alluvial gold in this region." 

In the Province of Quebec the boulder-clay is generally destitute of. 


gold, but in his report on the gold of that Province, Geological Survey, 
1866, Mr. Michel has shown that beneath this sterile clay is an ancient 
deposit of alluvial gravel, abounding in gold, of which the rich wash- 
ings of the Gilbert River, in the Chaudiere District, are an example. 
Analogous conditions are presented by the rich alluvial deposits of 
Victoria, Bolivia, and California. Mr. Michel, therefore, insists upon 
the importance of carefully searching in certain parts of Nova Scotia 
for similar ancient alluvions beneath the boulder clay or glacial drift. 
Such deposits, when we consider the abundance of gold in the quartz 
lodes of the region, may reasonably be expected to be of great richness. 

Pay gravel has been discovered in the glacial drift and worked at 
Moose River, Isaac's Harbor, Wine Harbor, Tangier, Gold River, the 
Ovens, and other localities in the Province. 

Carefully conducted prospecting, backed with an adequate capital, 
would doubtless result in other discoveries of more importance in these 
later accumulations. 


The gold-bearing quartz contains Iron pyrites, Copper pyrites. 
Arsenical iron or Mispickel, Lead sulphide or Galena, and Zinc sul- 
phide. These are more or less intimately associated with the gold. 
The precious metal is often found imbedded among the iron crystals, 
or mingling with the cubes of galena. They all huddle together in a 
sort of gregarious fashion. The proportion by weight of these base 
metals varies from one to thirty per cent ; the average would be about 

These minerals carry very fine gold in their structure. It must 
have been present in a form or condition favorable to' be included as 
native gold in the crystal structures of these sulphides and arsenides 
of iron and lead. Whatever its mode of entrance into' this chemical 
combination as an outsider in it, but not of it, we do not know, but 
we do know that this gold cannot be saved in a stamp mill. It is too 
finely divided ; very little of it is set free, and that is lost in the flow 
of sand and water. By passing the whole amount of sands or tailings 
from, the end of the plates over concentration machines, these metallic 
substances can be secured, and they are known as "concentrates." 
From different veins they have different values, running from $15 to 
several hundred per ton ; an average of $25 would probably be near 
the mark. This gold can be won from the concentrates by chemical 
processes. There is but one chlorination plant in the Province for this 


purpose, and that is at North Brookfield, Queens County, where a large, 
well-equipped concern treats the concentrates from the premises and 
will treat the shipments from other localities that arrive on the comple- 
tion of a railroad now in course of construction. 


The ore is crushed in mills of from five to fifty stamps, weighing 
in the later plants about 900 pounds, and run at a speed of 70 to 100 
drops a minute. The gold, as a rule, is coarse, and by far the greater 
part is lodged in the mortars, becoming packed in the gravel among 
the dies; the remainder is splashed through the wire screen by the 
action of the stamps as they strike the water in the mortars. This 
fine gold is amalgamated with quicksilver as it passes over copper 
plates prepared for that purpose. There is always some loss of the 
finest gold, that is carried away in the tailings or battery sand. These 
mills, no matter how well built, are clumsy contrivances doing unde- 
sirable things that result in waste, but nothing better has come to stay, 
out of the many devices of rollers and wheels, etc. 

The Island of Cape Breton contains 4,375 square miles, and four 
counties of the Province of Nova Scotia are included in this area. 
The geological structure of the Island presents many points of differ- 
ence from the main peninsula. The slate and quartzite gold measures 
of the Atlantic slope that we have discussed are not certainly identified 
there, and consequently the gold that has been discovered occurs under 
different conditions. 

Quartz veins carrying free gold have been found at Middle River, 
and other localities, as Wycocomah and Chetticamp, have yielded the 
precious metal in placer or gravel washings, and associated with pyrites 
and arseno-pyrites in veins. To this time, however, no mines have 
been operated. 

The Provincial Government owns the gold mines. They are Crown 
property, but the Crown does not get the gold. A mining area is 230 
feet by 150 feet. The Government will give a prospecting license good 
for one year for fifty cents per area, and one hundred areas may be 
included in one such license, but the number of licenses is not limited 
for one person. These areas may be on lands owned in fee simple, 
to whom damages will be awarded if there is proper ground for such 
action. The Government will also lease for forty years, a hundred 


areas or less, for the consideration of $2 cash down and 50 cents 
annual rental for each area. 

A royalty tax of two per cent is exacted on the gross yield of the 
mines in gold. 



The history of this county begins with the founding of Halifax 
City, in 1749. This was carried out at Government expense under the 
charge of Col. The Hon. Edward Cornwallis, M. P., who was officially 
designated as Captain General and Governor of Nova Scotia. During 
36 years since the Treaty of Utrecht, by the terms of which this Prov- 
ince became a portion of the British dominions, no progress had been 
made in its colonization. The importance of this territory had scarcely 
dawned upon the authorities. At this date there was a small garrison 
of two or three hundred troops at Annapolis Royal, where the Gov- 
ernor resided. All the rest of the population, numbering a few thou- 
sand, were Acadian French peasants, settled around the Basin of 
Minas, Annapolis Basin, and intermediate points. A few of them 
were in Cumberland County, and at Canso was a handful more of 
these people. More than a thousand Indians, hostile to English inter- 
ests, were ready to act with the Acadians, to whom they were already 
allied more or less by ties of blood and religion. 

It was high time that some active measures were taken to protect 
British interests in this quarter of the world. The French Governor 
of Canada claimed all the country from the St. Lawrence to Maine. 
Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, clearly perceived the necessity 
of some effectual check upon this spirit of aggression. Now that 
Louisburg was restored to the French, there was an ample base of 
action. That stronghold had been a menace to New England till her 
yeomanry had seized it only four years previous to the treaty that 
returned it to the ancient enemy ; a paltry concession that in less than ten 
years bore such evil fruit that English arms reduced it to a possession, 
where it, with the whole of Cape Breton Island, has ever since re- 
mained. In the midst of such a turmoil of affairs the city of Halifax 
had its beginning. The claim is made that Governor Shirley and other 
Boston men had long suggested the erection of a military and naval 
station on this fine harbour so central to the whole peninsula. At any 
rate, the project was long in the air before it took shape in a material 
form. The Board of Trade and Plantations finally matured the plan 
that received the approbation of the Government. George Montague, 
Earl of Halifax, was President of the Board, and active in the support 


of the scheme, hence the name of the new city. The Government very 
well knew that desirable settlers would not venture into that houseless 
wilderness to make their homes unless special inducements were of- 
fered. These were speedily forthcoming. Settlers would be con- 
veyed there free of all charges, and maintained at public expense during 
twelve months. They were to be supplied w r ith arms and ammunition 
and implements for clearing the land, building houses, and prosecuting 
the fisheries. Officers and private men lately discharged from the 
army and navy were particularly designated as desirable persons. The 
speedy response was 1,176 volunteer settlers, together with their fami- 
lies, making a total of 2,576, and of this number 500 were man-of-war 
sailors. There were three majors, six captains, and nineteen lieuten- 
ants in the army, three ensigns, twenty-three midshipmen, one attor- 
ney, one clergyman, and several "gentlemen." 

Cornwallis considered them a poor lot when he got them all to- 
gether. He wrote to the Lords of Trade "that the number of active 
men proper to carry on a new settlement is very small. Of soldiers 
there are only 100; of tradesmen, sailors, and others willing to work, 
not above 200." 

He lumped the balance as idle and worthless, who took up with 
the opportunity to get lodged and fed a twelvemonth free of all charge. 

There was evident lack of foresight, or such a state of affairs would 
not have occurred. Cornwallis, however, was not a man to be dis- 
couraged by ordinary difficulties. He was obliged to fight the battle, 
with a broken sword. His own reputation and the safety of British 
possessions in America depended upon the successful founding of this 

Within six months winter would be upon them, and shelter must 
be provided without delay. Boards and hewed timber were brought 
from Boston at a high price to meet the first demands. Excellent 
citizens came from New England. From Louisburg, just then evacu- 
ated by the English, camie considerable numbers, and 116 came from 
England in August. Within one month a good start had been made. 
One of the settlers writing at that time (July 25th, 1749) to England, 
says : "On our arrival we found the Sphinx, of twenty guns, which 
had come into harbor a few days before us ; as I write the transports 
are entering the harbor with the two regiments of Hopson and War- 
burton on board from Louisburg. We have already cleared about 
twenty acres, and every one has a hut by his tent. There are already 
several wharves built, and one gentleman is erecting a saw mill. 


Public storehouses are also building. We have received constant 
supplies O'f plank and timber for building, and fresh stock, and rum 
in great quantities, twenty schooners frequently coming in one day. 
We have also 100 cows, and some sheep brought down to us by land 
from Minas. In short, everything is in a very prosperous way. But 
I should be equally unjust and ungrateful were I to conclude without 
paying the tribute which is due to our Governor. He seems to have 
nothing in view but the interest and happiness of all." 

Before the middle of October 350 houses had been completed and 
two of the square forts built. The Indians came and made treaties 
for the sake of the presents that went with them. In reality they were 
hostile and completely under French influence from Quebec and the 
Acadian settlements. Their outrages were numerous and terrifying. 
They lurked in the cover of the woods with deadly purpose, and fatal 
results to those who* ventured within their power. The Governor, 
before the first winter was over, offered ten pounds sterling for every 
Indian scalp or prisoner. The bounty was not often claimed, but the 
scalps were forthcoming now and then, as witness when John Connor 
and James Grace came in with six of these gruesome trophies and 
were not required to make it clear who had owned them. It was- a 
harsh measure, but one must sometimes fight fire with fire. The red- 
skins knew where to> find a market for this human peltry among their 
French friends. They were not out for their health; neither were 
they crouching hungry and cold ini the forest for the mere love of 
killing a fellow mortal. To the shame of white men, these ignorant 
people were used to further ends of conquest, and one might well wish 
that in a later struggle the English had not resorted to the same means. 

At the expiration of one year, 1749, Cornwallis had expended 
76,000, and 40,000 was rated for the next year. There was no little 
haggling and fault-finding by the Lords of Trade over this demand 
for money, that far exceeded their original intentions. As matters 
turned out, there was never made a better national investment. In 
reply to their complaints the Governor writes to them : 

"Not a pound shall be expended by me unnecessarily, but without 

money you could have" no town. 'Tis very certain the public money 

cleared the ground, built the Town, secured it, kept soldiers and sailors 

from starving with cold, and has brought down over 1,000 settlers 

"from the other Colonies." 

The first winter was moderate and the spring opened early, but it 
had been a tedious and heart-breaking time to many of them. About 


a thousand persons had been carried off by an epidemic in the autumn. 
There had been a, constant state of preparation for an attack by the 
French and Indians, and, last but not least, there was great disorder 
created by the sale of rum, in spite of stringent regulations and penal- 
ties, including the stocks and the whipping post. In fact, this cause 
of intemperance has ever since been the greatest enemy to the prosperity 
of this town. 

Occasional glimpses of the early days o<f Halifax reveal the great 
extent of this evil. Here, for instance, is an extract from a letter 
written by Mr. Grant, a member of the Council, to Rev. Dr. Stiles of 
Boston, dated May, 1760, when the place had been eleven years in the 
making : 

"We have upwards of 100 licensed houses, and perhaps as many 
more which retail spirituous liquors without license ; so that the busi- 
ness of one-half of the town is toi sell rum, and the other half drinks 
it. You may, from this single circumstance, judge of our morals, 
and naturally infer that we. are notventhusiastic in religion/' 

Twenty-two- years later Murdoch says of it: "The moral condi- 
tion of the town had become dreadful in the extreme. Eight or ten 
thousand soldiers, sailors, and prisoners of war let loose in a little 
town of less than 10,000 inhabitants can well be imagined." 

The world has improved since those days, and Halifax has rather 
sldwly moved forward in response to the spirit of the age. It was 
founded as a naval and military station, and for that purpose it has 
been of incalculable value to British interests, but this very fact was 
not favorable to- some other important phases of civic and commercial 

The conservative spirit has been very pronounced, but the spirit of 
the age is effectually dealing with ancient evils, and the city with its 
abundance of elbow room, and fine surroundings, and magnificent har- 
bor, will never be less than a city of great importance to British 
America. In spite of the dark side of its early existence, there was no 
lack of heroic and patriotic spirits who* were determined that English- 
men should not be crowded out of this new world by her ancient 
enemy. The second summer great progress was made in laying out 
and building the streets, and in increasing the fortifications and provid- 
ing accommodations for new arrivals. Cornwallis after two and one- 
half years resigned the government, and Hon. Peregrine T. Hopson 
was appointed in his stead. His greatest difficulties were the result of 
French hostilities. In a letter to the Board of Trade during the first 


year in office he says : "Your Lordships may imagine how disagree- 
able it is to me to see His Majesty's rights encroached upon, and those 
encroachments openly avowed and supported by the Governors of 
Canada and Louisburg, when it is not in my power to prevent it. I 
have barely sufficient force to protect the settlers from insult of an 
Indian war, under pretense of which the French take an opportunity 
to commit hostilities upon His Majesty's subjects. I am informed that 
the French have often been mixed among them in the expeditions, and 
am convinced past doubt that they are fed and protected from our 
pursuit, and are encouraged to disturb us as openly and in as great a 
degree as in time of war." In two or three years after the above was 
written, the Acadian French were removed from this Province, and 
one can readily see by this letter that there was a sharp demand for 
heroic treatment for this unbearable disorder. 

The old proverb has it that no one becomes suddenly bad ; neither 
did the Provincial Government become suddenly bad. One must know 
the provocations that have resulted in great severity before one can pass 
upon its merits or demerits. It is very evident that the Acadians were 
unconsciously preparing for themselves a landslide of calamities, to 
be told in song and story to the end of time. Their tale of woes will 
always excite pity in tender hearts, and their mischievous conduct will 
afford a large measure of excuse for Lawrence and Shirley, who saw 
no other way out of the difficulty but to thrust out of the country, 
root and branch, this constant menace to British interests that de- 
manded just then a great effort, or there would be an end of them, 
on this continent. 

From the mass of expelled Acadians there escaped to the woods, 
and found sustenance among the Indians, about 500 young men of the 
most hardy and audacious of the villagers. They fled when the alarm 
was given. If they were hostile to the English from patriotic senti- 
ment before the expulsion, they were now deadly enemies, eager to 
retaliate for the deeds done upon their homes and their families. The 
actual danger from these outlaws and their red allies was very great. 1 
Atrocities were reported from various directions, until Lieutenant- 
Governor Lawrence, with the advice of the Council, on the I4th day 
of May, 1756, offered a reward of thirty pounds for every male Indian 
prisoner above the age of sixteen years brought in alive; for scalps 
of such male Indian, twenty-five pounds ; for every Indian woman or 
child brought in alive, twenty-five pounds. Said General Sherman, 
"War is hell," and this was one illustration. 


It was an instance of a skin for a skin. It is said that the scalps 
brought in were not carefully examined to decide whether they be- 
longed on French or Indian heads. 

In the year 1755 a census of Halifax reports only 1,755 inhabitants, 
and of this number more than half were women, and 256 masters of 
families. This was far from encouraging. The people very largely 
went to New England or some other portion of the old colonies to the 
southward, until not one-half of the original number remained, and 
they were dependent on the money put in circulation by the Govern- 
ment through the army and navy. 

In a half dozen years'this town had cost the British nation 560,000 
sterling, and not a. penny oi it returned to the British taxpayer, but it 
was the thing to- do if Anglo-Saxon supremacy was to be maintained 
on this continent. 

On May 8, 1758, Halifax was aroused by the arrival of an English 
fleet destined for Louisburg, and 12,000 soldiers belonging to that 
expedition. The Dunkirk of America was doomed. Lawrence went 
with them, and left Colonel Monckton in charge. "It's an ill wind 
that blows no' one any good," and the sack of the Cape Breton city 
enriched Halifax in men and means. 

From the founding of the city, the Governor and Council were the 
seat of authority, and possessed both executive and legislative powers. 
Lawrence, who had a keen liking for his office, and all its concomitants 
of this kind, was strongly disposed to maintain this state of things. 
He was obliged to yield to superior opinion, and take steps to secure a 
representative system. A resolution to' that effect passed the Council 
January, 1757, and the General Assembly met on Monday, the 2nd of 
October, 1758, in the Court House in Halifax. 

Lawrence yielded with a bad grace to> this natural demand of 
British subjects. Only five days previous to the meeting of this As- 
sembly he wrote to the Lords of Trade that he hoped he should not 
find in any of the representatives a disposition to embarrass or obstruct 
His Majesty's service, or to dispute the royal prerogative. And he 
further observes "that too many of the members chosen are such as 
have not been the most remarkable for promoting unity or obedience 
to H. M. Government here, or indeed that have the most natural at- 
tachment to the Province." 

All the representatives came from, Halifax and Lunenburg 16 
from the former and 4 from the latter locality. There were no other 
places where there were fifty qualified electors. 


Their names and standing are as follows : 

Joseph Gerrish, William Fay, 

Robert Sanderson, William Nesbitt, 

Henery Newton, Joseph Rtmdell, 


William Best, William Pantree, 

Alex Kedie, Joseph Fairbanks, 

Jonathan Binny, Phillips Hammond, 

Henery Ferguson, John Fillis, 

George Suckling, Lambert Falkers, 

Robert Campbell, Phillip Knaut, 


They made Sanderson Speaker, and got down to business and 
found that the duties on spirituous liquors from 1751 amounted to 
7,045, of which a balance remained of 2,204, and this was drawn on 
to build a lighthouse at Sambro and a workhouse in the town. 
Through the use of these liquors the latter building became necessary ; 
thus it was very appropriate- to use the money for that purpose. In 
1759 the Province was divided into five counties Annapolis, Kings, 
Cumberland, Lunenburg, and Halifax. The latter division comprised 
all the mainland and islands lying easterly of the County of Lunenburg 
and southerly and easterly of Kings County, and all the other lands 
and islands within the Province of Nova Scotia not already included 
a sort of "common count" for the possible benefit of Halifax is this 
last clause. 

At this date New Brunswick region was included in Nova Scotia 
and the separation was not made till 1784. These were stirring and 
decisive times, in which important history was rapidly enacted. In 
1759 Quebec had fallen and before the end of September of the next 
year the conquest of all Canada was complete. Surrender of .French 
and Indians was the order of the day, and Governor Lawrence was 
deeply occupied with this business when he suddenly died on October 
ii, 1760. He had been eleven years actively employed in the affairs 
of the Province, and nearly all this time as Lieutenant Governor or 
Governor. He was not a person of kindly graces: He did not flinch at 
sight of blood, but was withal a man for the place and times, vigorous, 
patriotic, and intelligent. A little later in the same year passed away 
at Boston, in a ripe old age, Col. Paul Mascarene, a Huguenot refugee, 
an English military officer, and Lieutenant Governor of the fort at 
Annapolis and Administrator of the Government of Nova Scotia from 


1740 to 1749. This chivalrous gentleman had all the virtues that 
Lawrence lacked. 

The administrations of Cornwallis and Lawrence cover the 
actual founding of Halifax, but it is outside my purpose here to 
follow in detail its further history. It did not come into existence 
as a natural result of economic features, like Winnipeg and Toronto', 
and most other towns and cities, but it was born out of the 
political exigencies of the times. A good harbor for the navy, a 
shore well adapted to fortifications, were the first considerations. 
Neither the soil nor its products, nor the rocks and their contents, were 
taken into consideration. For these reasons the town was a military 
and naval station dependent for years wholly on English guineas and 
always largely leaning on that support. There were no ample streams 
contributory to its harbor to afford water-power and a cheap highway 
for timber. The only good times were when there was war on the 
carpet. For years the place dozed and slept, ruled by a Council who 
slammed their chamber doors in the face of the public. In 1817 there 
were only 11,000 inhabitants. What money they did not get from 
England as grants for public purposes they realized out of lotteries, 
and taxes on rum. The conservative spirit struggled hard under the 
new order o>f things that comes with steam and electrical devices. 
There have been no leaps and bounds in its growth. And never were 
there any frisky antics that resulted in rapid improvements. But in 
spite of many opposing elements and features there has been for a 
half century or more a continuous betterment until Halifax can boast 
of many objects and institutions to its credit. It is distinguished for 
its charitable institutions, its beautiful public gardens, and charming 
scenery at Point Pleasant Park and other localities. 

A large business is now carried on in the fisheries, and many 
vessels are fitted out by the city merchants. Halifax is also the com- 
mercial center of the Province, and railroad and steamboat connections 
of later years have given new life to mercantile business. 

With this extended notice of the city, we cross over to Dartmouth, 
on the eastern side of the harbor, and find there a prosperous and 
pretty town. It was laid out the next year after Halifax was founded. 
A settlement was begun and a sawmill built, but the Indian soon 
carried death and destruction among these pioneers. Little was done 
to make another beginning for nearly thirty years, till Governor Parr 
in 1784 encouraged thirty families to remove thither from Nantucket 
to carry on the whaling business. In less than ten years, however, 






these families went to England and matters were at a low ebb. Since 
then it has slowly grown, and now has a population of about 3,000. 

Among the attractive features of Dartmouth are its beautiful lakes. 
They are a portion of a waterway that extends to the Bay of Fundy 
waters, in connection with the Shubenacadie River. Three-quarters 
of a century ago a company was formed to open up this to canal 
navigation. The Legislature voted 15,000 for that purpose, and 
work was begun, but both money and enthusiasm were soon lacking, 
and the project ended in failure. There are a number of thriving 
manufactories in Dartmouth, and the lakes yield valuable crops of ice, 
which are duly harvested. Many people engaged in business in Halifax 
have fine residences in Dartmouth. On the west shore of Bedford 
Basin, a capacious and beautiful extension of Halifax harbor, is the 
village of Bedford, a delightful summer resort on the Intercolonial 
Railroad, where there are first-class hotel accommodations, fine 
scenery, good boating and fishing, and the enchantments of unspoiled 
forests at the very doors. Beginning at the seaboard and going east- 
ward, there are more harbors and coves than there is space here to 
enumerate. All of these are centers of population, the homes of fisher- 
men, farmers, miners, traders and mariners. The Musquodoboit River 
and its productive region were known, and in some measure set- 
tled by the French a half century or more before the founding of 
Halifax, but appears, to have been deserted at that time. In 1692 the 
King confirmed a grant to Sieur De Gautiers of one league above and 
one below the mouth of the river, and two leagues wide going up the 
river and the harbor. The Indian name is Mooskudoboogett, mean- 
ing, flowing out square. 

At Chezzencook, a few miles from Halifax and near Musquodoboit, 
are settled some Acadian French. When Halifax was. founded Mr. 
Morris, the Government surveyor, found there and at Musquodoboit 
the deserted buildings of the French. From. Halifax westward to St. 
Margaret's Bay the coast line is rugged in the extreme, and settled 
by fishermen wherever there is a coign of vantage for their business. 

The geology of this county in general outline is very simple. In 
the) matter of area it is about equally divided between the Cambrian 
slates and quartzites of the one part, and granite intrusions of the 
other, with the exception of a patch of Carboniferous on the upper 
Musquodoboit. To the westward of Halifax all is granite. Begin- 
ning at Waverly a broad belt of granite extends eastward and inland 
almost to Sheet Harbor, within ten miles of the county line of Halifax 


and Guysborough. Within the area of the Cambrian formation are 
the gold mines of this county. They are located on the anticlinals of 
the formations that may be considered as the denuded crests of rock 
waves running easterly and westerly, from nine to ten miles apart. The 
richest of these mines is at Montague, some half dozen miles from 
Halifax. Other mines are at Oldham, Waverly, Caribou, Fifteen 
Mile Stream, Tangier, Killag, Oxford, Moose River, Gold Lake, 
Beaver Dam, Salmon River, and Lawrence Town. 

There are many other points 1 where gold has been discovered, but 
these are the principal localities in which mining has been carried on, 
only however in such a small way that a depth of a thousand feet has 
not yet been reached. The Carboniferous area in the Musquodoboit 
region overlies these gold-bearing rocks, and they may be productive 
of coal, when properly explored. 



Nova Scotia has natural game preserves that are now well stocked 
with wild animals. Nothing more will be required to keep up this 
state of things than wise laws strictly observed. When the age of 
glacial ice and water closed in this Province many thousand years ago,, 
it was evident that a great portion of the peninsula would never be 
used for agricultural purposes. Hundreds of square miles scattered 
here and there in areas of that extent, were strewn with boulders 
and ribbed with ledges. These in the long run became barrens that 
supported a vegetable life of hardy shrubs, and stunted trees. These 
areas were diversified with hills, and hillocks, and long banks or 
kames composed of gravel, and sand and stones on which have grown 
oaks, beeches, maples, birches, and other northern species of trees. 
There were portions far more extensive of flat clayey wet land now 
covered with cone-bearing trees. The area of the Province is 20,000 
square miles, about two-thirds of this surface is covered with barren- 
ground growth. This territory will never be brought under the plow. 
It is not adapted to agricultural purposes, and as matters stand, it is 
more valuable for its forest products. 

Over this region roam (moose, caribou, wild-cats, and foxesj and 
the swamps abound with hares. The ruffed grouse is common, spruce 
grouse is rare except in certain localities, but they are protected by 
law all the time. Nova Scotia abounds in lakes; and during the 
autumn, a sportsman will be able to vary his bill of fare with black- 
ducks and wood-ducks, and woodcock. Moose are quite common 
over all the Province in favorable localities, but caribou are rare, now 
only to be found in the back portions of Queens, Digby, Shelburne, 
Cumberland, and Yarmouth Counties, and the northern parts of Cape 
Breton. One might well expect them to be more plentiful, as they 
are so keen of scent, so wary and fleet of foot that they are seldom 
killed. They eat the trailing moss, or more properly lichens, that 
grow on the branches of cone-bearing trees, and on the bogs they feed 
upon another species of this nutritious group of vegetation. 

With the invention of modern firearms, all game is more seriously 
threatened than ever before. The law aims to give them adequate 
protection, and every true sportsman is their natural guardian; but 


many people who carry guns into these woods find pleasure in killing 
almost every wild thing. Nothing short of eternal vigilance on the 
part of game wardens and sportsmen will save our large animals from 
extinction in the near future. At present not only are the woods 
stocked with game, but the seashore affords excellent duck, and snipe 

The best localities for large game are, of course, in the districts 
most remote from settlement. Beginning at the western extremity 
of the Province, we first note a large area of wild land containing about 
a thousand square miles, wherein there are no houses. It abounds in 
lakes, and the following streams take their rise in this elevated wilder- 
ness, viz : The Liverpool, or Mersy, Broad River, Sable River, Jordan 
River, Rose way River, Clyde River, Tusket River, Sisiboo River, and 
Bear River. From Liverpool, or Shelburne, or Yarmouth, or Annapo- 
lis, sportsmen can be readily guided to this unfenced domain o>f rugged 
and unspoiled beauty. The whole southern portion of Annapolis and 
Kings Counties is a game country. Halifax County is the largest, con- 
taining 2,000 square miles. By far the greater part is forest abounding 
in large game, with good shooting on the shores. In the back settle- 
ment of Lunenburg and Hants and Cumberland Counties moose are 
not uncommon, especially in Cumberland. 

Guysborough and Antigonish are not without large game, but these 
localities are not the most favorable hunting grounds. Crossing the 
Straits of Canseau to Cape Breton and pushing northward to Baddeck, 
one will be on the border of a great wilderness that stretches sixty 
miles to Cape North along the water divide, and all the way without a 
human dwelling. This region is the home of moose and caribou, and 
has been but little hunted. 

There are more men who find amusement with rod than the gun, 
and here is a word for those who are casting about for some promis- 
ing pools and sylvan streams where they can indulge their liking to 
some purpose; but for my own part I am suited in sentiment with 
Foss when he writes that, 

I go a-gunning, but take no gun, 

I fish without a pole, 
And I bag good game and catch such fish 

As suits a sportsman's soul, 


For the choicest that the forest holds, 

And the best fish of the brook, 
Are never brought down by a rifle shot, 

And are never caught with a hook. 

So away for a hunt in the fern-scented woods 

Till the going down of the sun ; 
There is plenty of game still left in the woods 

For the hunter who has no gun. 
So away for the fish by the moss-bordered brook 

That flows through the velvety sod, 
There are plenty of fish still left in the streams 

For the angler who has no rod. 

The woods were made for the hunters of dreams, 

The brooks for the fishers of song; 
To the hunters who hunt for gunless game 

The streams and the woods belong. 

There are thoughts that moan from the soul of the pine 

And thoughts in a flower-bell curled, 
And thoughts that are blown with the scent of the fern 

Are as new and as old as the world. 

If a reader does not like the look of this bit of verse he can skip it, 
but I am sure that he who finds in himself some response and sanction 
to the sentiment they contain will get the most out of his fishing and 

It is really a fine thing to whip the waters in vain for fish and 
all the time enjoy the charm of beautiful surroundings. Nature is 
communicative on the Marconi system of telegraphing. She is per- 
petually dispatching in every direction all manner of marvelous com- 
munications, but one must have a receiving instrument within himself 
in order to intercept and record them. Isaac Walton, in his "Complete 
Angler/' quotes the famous Sir Henry Wotton as saying that "An- 
gling after tedious study was a rest to his mind, a cheerer of his 
spirits, a diverter of sadness, a calmer of unquiet thoughts, a moder- 
ator of passions, a procurer of contentedness" ; and "that it begat habits 
of peace and patience in those that professed and practiced it." Says 
Walton : "Indeed, my friend, you will find angling to be like the virtue 


of humility, which has a calmness of spirit and a world of other bless- 
ings attending upon it." 

Unless men who come from business offices and stock boards can 
leave behind them the telephones and tickers at the gates of the forest 
they will make no connections with their finest opportunity, though 
they return with big catches and sun-bronzing, galore. 

Says Emerson : "The tempered light of the woods is like a per- 
petual morning, and is stimulating and heroic. The anciently reported 
spells of these places creep on us. The incommunicable trees begin 
to persuade us to live with them and quit our life of solemn trifles." 

Now we will proceed to tell of some localities where there are 
trout and salmon in Nova Scotia. To mention them all requires more 
space than we can afford. If one land in Yarmouth, the most likely 
place, because the most convenient, he will find good fishing not far 
away on the Tusket River waters, where trout and salmon may be 

The numerous lakes on this stream and their many tributaries 
afford excellent opportunities for good sport. In fact, the upper waters 
of all the larger rivers are stocked with trout, but as a matter of course 
some are better than others. The Liverpool, near the mouth, is fished 
for salmon with good results, and on all its higher points and exten- 
sive system of lakes and tributaries there is excellent trout fishing, 
notably so at the Indian Gardens, the Eel weir, and far out to Mil ford 
on the Annapolis and Liverpool road. On the Port Medway River, 
Queens County, there is probably the best salmon fishing in the Prov- 
ince, from the mouth upward some twelve miles to Greenfield, where 
there is a pretty village at the foot of the Ponhook Lake. About 
eight miles of this distance the river runs through an unbroken forest 
of unusual beauty. Along the banks there is a good carriage road, 
and wholesome accommodations are to be had at Mills Village and 
Greenfield, the two extremes of the fishing ground. 

The Lahave River at various points affords good salmon fishing. 
In the days of early settlement this stream was famous for the great 
abundance of this fish. 

From the ocean to Bridgewater, about fifteen miles, the river is 
a succession of fine views and navigable all the way. 

Gold River, near Chester, in Lunenburg County, is also a large 
stream, with numerous lakes and well worth a sportsman's attention. 

In Halifax County the Musquodoboit River has the reputation of 
good fishing grounds whereon trout are to be had for the effort. At 


Sheet Harbor, in this county, the East and Middle Rivers and their 
tributaries are well stocked with trout and are but little fished. The 
village of Sheet Harbor is easily reached both by steamer from Halifax 
and stage from Shubenacadie, on the Intercolonial Railroad, every day. 

Cumberland County has a large area of secluded forest and many 
streams where trout are plentiful. 

In Guysborough County the Saint Mary's and Salmon Rivers pene- 
trate the wilderness and are sure to repay a visit to those who are in 
search of opportunities to cast their lines in pleasant and promising 

Crossing the Straits of Canso to Cape Breton one has entered a 
region far famed for its historic interest and economic wealth of mines, 
and forests, and fisheries. If its fine salmon and trout fishing are not 
to be reckoned among the natural riches, they certainly deserve no 
second place among the many attractions of the island, that has re- 
sources enough for an independent kingdom of no mean importance. 

The Margaree River, in Inverness County, is easily reached by dif- 
ferent routes, and once there good accommodations may be readily 

On the Northeast Margaree is an angler's ideal spot for enjoyment 
of his sport. Samuels, in his fine book entitled "The Rod and Gun," 
has this to say of that region: "Here may be found a comfortable 
stopping place at one of the farm-houses, and the angler may obtain 
such sport as he perhaps never dreamed of. The Margaree is one of 
the finest rivers in America. It abounds in sea trout of great size and 
gaminess, and salmon occur in goodly numbers. It is, moreover, so 
easily fished that one may almost dry-shod for many miles of its 
length cast the fly in many grand pools which are scattered along its 
length. For upwards of thirty miles the river flows through meadows, 
pastures, and cultivated fields, and its angling possibilities are unsur- 
passed. In leaving Northeast Margaree the angler will do well to 
return to Baddeck by way of Wycocomah, yisiting Lake Ainslie on 
the journey. Here he will find near the head of the lake a large, 
deep pool at one end of the inlet, which is in the summer sometimes 
literally packed with sea trout and salmon. So numerous are the sea 
trout in this pool that before it was protected from the attacks of the 
poachers a single jig-hook has taken out upwards of three barrels in 
one day !" 

Aspy Bay, in the extreme north of the island, has the reputation 
of exceptionally good fishing for sea trout. It is a most delightful 


locality, reached by post-road from Baddeck or by steamer from 

On the St. Lawrence side of the island northward of Mar- 
garee are several streams of good repute and but little fished. There 
are other localities in this famous island where anglers may indulge in 
their favorite sport, but these are places of local fame, and a little 
enquiry will discover those not so well known yet deserving a call or a 
visit. At any rate, Cape Breton is worth seeing even if there were no 
fish to be had. 



Lunenburg County is bounded by Queens, Annapolis, Kings, 
Hants, and Halifax Counties, and the ocean. It contains 1,116 square 
miles, and has a population of about 30,000. This county is a highly 
favored region. The natural scenery is unsurpassed in the Province. 
The soil is fertile, the forest varied and thrifty, the sea a never-failing 
source of wealth in its fine fisheries. Farming, ship-building, fishing, 
these have been the ordinary industries ; of recent years gold mining 
has added a new item that bids fair to become a business of consider- 
able magnitude and profit. The La Have River is a broad, beautiful 
stream, navigable to a distance of about 1 5 miles for ordinary shipping, 
and extending northward beyond the county line, affording ample 
water-power for saw-mills, and pulp-mills, and other machinery, and 
forming a cheap highway for the timber that grows abundantly near 
its source. Throughout nearly the whole distance, this river runs 
through a fertile region, and is bordered by fine farms and good 
houses. The lakes are numerous, and the drainage by the river sys- 
tems admirably adapted to the convenience of the people. 

The coast is greatly diversified with bays and harbors and inlets, 
making one hundred and fifty miles of actual seaboard, although in a 
straight line the county is but forty miles in width. 

Islands in great number, either inhabited or clad in forests, greatly 
heighten the picturesque effects of this delightful scene. 

Such, in brief, is the county as Nature made it. 

We now turn to its occupation by white men. From 1604 to 1713 
the Province had been largely in the hands of the French, but not 
without counter claims on the part of the English and actual treaty 
rights. Neither France nor England showed a proper appreciation of 
the country. The New England colonies looked upon the French 
settlements as a menace to their safety, and did not hesitate to deal 
sturdy and ruinous blows on more than one occasion. The French 
were never good colonizers, and they were not at their best in those 
times and in this Province, In Lunenburg County they had estab- 
lished a fishery at Malagash or Merliguesche, the site of the present 
town of Lunenburg, where some old cellars long furnished the only 
trace of the settlement. We have not space to follow in any detail 



this period of county history. In it there is but little of the charm 
of romance, nor much that is of any practical value in the life of today. 
The real colonization of Nova Scotia by the English begins with 
the gazetting of the Hon. Edward Cornwallis as Governor of Nova 
Scotia, on May 9, 1749. He founded the city of Halifax, and the 
township of Lunenburg was the next oldest settlement formed by the 
English Government in Nova Scotia. The next year, 1750, steps were 
taken to secure settlers from Germany. To this end notice was set 
up in several towns and cities in that country, offering very liberal 
terms to those who would come to this P'rovince. The result was that 
Germans and Swiss to the number of 1,615 landed in Halifax between 
the I3th of July, 1751, and early in 1753. They had been subjected 
to great hardships on the voyage, and* the new country and hostile 
savages filled their hearts with regrets for their venture and fears for 
the future. After some casting about for a suitable locality, Governor 
Hopson decided upon the present site of Lunenburg. The name was 
that of the old home of many of these settlers. Lunenburg, a town of 
Hanover, they left behind, and they set to work with no lightness of 
heart to create a namesake on these new shores. For the most part 
they were farmers, but they had not been accustomed to clear up the 
primeval forests and face the dangers and difficulties that met them 
on every hand. They were inadequately provided with* tools and agri- 
cultural implements, ana destitute of cattle and other live stock till the 
next year, when the Government distributed gratis among them 74 
cows, 967 sheep, 1 14 swine, 164 goats, and much poultry. Rations dur- 
ing the first year of their settlement were supplied by the Government, 
and they were continued to the aged and sick. From the same source 
each family received 700 feet of boards, 500 brick, and nails in propor- 
tion. Matters were bad enough with them without the crowning dis- 
tress of savages lying in wait for their lives and their persons. Many of 
them suffered torture, and death, and captivity. Governor Lawrence 
became exasperated at these and other outrages and proposed a stern 
remedy. By proclamation he offered a reward of thirty pounds for every 
male Indian over sixteen years of age, and twenty-five pounds for the 
"scalp of such a savage, and Haliburton says there was a proportionable 
reward for scalps of women and children, or captured alive. The 
price was liberal and the desire to win the money was not lacking, 
but the Indians had so much reluctance tx> parting with their lives or 
their persons that not one of these settlers ever claimed the bounty. 
These natives 'were not fighting for their homes nor their country; 


they were set on by their French friends, and were not unwilling to 
gratify their ferocity. The day of reckoning for these misguided 
Frenchmen was near at hand. During seven years these Indian out- 
rages continued, and they were so fatal that the population had- only 
increased by seven persons in that period. From this date hostilities 
ceased in a large measure, and the people ventured further away from 
the town of Ilunenburg and founded various settlements in the county. 
During one hundred years these people for the most part retained 
their German speech and national, usages, and many women had com- 
mand of no other language. In some households older members of 
the family still cling to this tongue, but it is corrupted by English 
words and other agencies, and will soon be heard for the last time 
in this region. Until the establishment of a common school system, 
nearly forty years ago, the people had but small opportunities of learn- 
ing to even read and write, but they were a vigorous stock and managed 
to supply their actual needs during years of hard times. The older 
people still retain more than a mere suggestion of their nationality, and 
might be set down in their ancestral home across the ocean and found 
to fit exactly into their surroundings. Superstitions that were once 
believed by everybody, and that have been; for the most part dislodged 
by the schoolhouses, are still found nestling in the minds of the oldest 
portions of this community. The "witch doctor" is not unknown. 
Horseshoes over the barn doors, and lucky days for many of the agri- 
cultural undertakings are still common enough. In 1891, out of a 
population of about 50,000, 8,854 could neither read nor write. Now 
schools are established in every community ; all the children are taught 
English and ordinary branches of learning. The present genera- 
tion of young married men and women have also had these advantages, 
and the result has been to fertilize their minds with new ideas and 
separate them from the older generations about to leave the stage. 
That they may not lack the sturdy worth of their fathers is a most 
desirable wish. Many of the young men and women have gone to the 
United States, where some have made permanent homes, and others 
are looking around for opportunities of profitable employment. Who- 
ever will drive through this county, up, and down, and across, will 
be impressed with the general air of neatness and thrift, and in some 
localities of a high degree of prosperity. This is especially discernible 
on the lower portion's of the La Have River, where the fisheries have 
proved veritable bonanzas for the intrepid men who follow this calling. 


With this general review we will pass on to notice the towns and 
villages in brief mention. Writing in 1828, Haliburton said: 

"Lunenburg Town is situated on a peninsula and is built on the 
side of a hill of moderate ascent, and when approached by water pre- 
sents a neat and pleasing appearance. The harbor is about a quarter of 
mile deep and half a mile wide, of easy access and possessing good 
anchorage. It is sheltered by Cross Island, which is near its entrance, 
and is about thirty feet high, containing 253 acres. Inside of this 
island the water is deep, decreasing as it approaches the wharves, along- 
side of which it is from twelve to fourteen feet. The town is con- 
structed on a regular plan, the streets crossing each other at right 
angles. It contains upwards of 230 dwelling houses, stores, and other 
buildings, many of which are spacious, substantially built, and neatly 

In the census of 1891, the latest no>w accessible, the population 
of this town is returned as 4,894. Haliburton would not now recog- 
nize Lunenburg by his description. Because of its pre-eminence in 
the fisheries it has been well named the Gloucester of Nova Scotia. The 
latent energy of the old stock has been aroused by the spifit of the 
age, and this quaint old German outpost, that dozed and dreamed 
amid vacated blockhouses and cabbage yards for a century, awoke to 
its opportunities, and Lunenburg is full of life, and thrift, and hope, 
and beautiful for situation, as it overlooks the restful view of ocean, 
and islands, and headlands that fade into the dim perspective of dis- 

The Lunenburg fishery business has grown to such proportions 
that an extended notice will be acceptable to all who take an interest 
in our natural resources, and their intelligent and energetic use of 
them. To this end I insert letters written for the Halifax Herald of 
November, 1901, by gentlemen well entitled to attention. The first is 
from the pen of Col. C. E.Kaulbach, M. P., and runs as follows : 

(Written for the special South Shore edition of the Halifax Herald 

by Lieutenant Colonel Kaulbach, M. P.) 

No description of Lunenburg is complete that does not deal with its 
chief industry the fisheries. The history of this industry as now con- 
ducted the deep-sea, or bank fishery dates back to the early sixties. 
Previous to that time the fishing industry of Lunenburg was entirely 
confined to the Labrador and shore fishery, and trawling, and trap- 
netting was an unknown art to Lunenburg fishermen. \In 1865 the 






first banker the "precursor" of our splendid fleet of today was fitted 
out by Benjamin Anderson for the western banks. The venture was 
a new departure and was not looked upon with favor by the fishermen 
of that day. So doubtful were they of its success that Mr. Anderson 
was compelled to guarantee the crew wages equivalent to the earnings 
of a Labrador trip. But the voyage being a successful* one, he was 
followed the next year by others, thus opening up a wider and richer 
field which the enterprise of Lunenburg fishermen was not slow to 
grasp. From such small beginnings has developed her present gigantic 
fishing industry, exceeding in value that of any port in the Dominion, 
and outstripping in number of vessels engaged in deep-sea fishing the 
once famous fishing fleet of the New England States, until today 
Lunenburg is justly entitled "The Gloucester" of Canada. The vessels 
composing the fleet are of the finest type of marine architecture, com- 
bining speed, safety, and utility. Up to 1895 the average fishing vessel 
was about 70 tons burthen, costing about $3,000. Since then the* 
tendency has been and is to build larger vessels, as is evidenced by the 
fact that the present average is 93 tons, valued at about $4,500. 


As an evidence of the growth of this industry within the thirty 
years since its inception we have only to show that, compared with the 
one solitary vessel then, we have today a fleet of 153 bankers, em- 
ploying crews to the number of 2,745 men! A record surely to be 
proud of. To this fleet additions are being made every year. Last 
year there were launched from the ship yards of this county thirty-six 
beautifully modeled fishing crafts, and there are now on the stocks 
and engaged to be built (in time for the coming fishing season) as 
many more. As this article is supposed to deal exclusively with the 
fishing industry of Lunenburg, I shall make no comment with refer- 
ence to the fleet of vessels registered at this port, except to say that 
the total number of vessels (sea-going) owned and employed is far in 
excess of that of any other county in Canada, and that Lunenburg 
has built and registered more vessels within the last three years than 
any other port in Canada. 


The value of the fishing industry to the county of Lunenburg can 
scarcely be estimated in dollars and cents. The total value of vessels 
engaged represents $800,000, to which is to be added $250,000 for 


, outfits, which is certainly a large showing of capital invested, the 
return for which is estimated this present year at $1,016,000* The 
catch for 1901 being upward of 254,000 quintals. In addition to the 
deep-sea fishery we have to reckon as a part of Lunenburg^s great fish- 
ing industry the shore fisheries. According to the fishery report for 
1900 (the latest available statistics) this much of the industry repre- 
sents a value of $222,830 in boats and fishing gear, with a catch valued 
at $250,000. This estimate, however, does not include another branch 
of this same industry, the lobster fishery. Unfortunately there are 
no statistics of the value of outfits employed in this business, but the 
yield is valued in the fishery report for 1900 as $29,409. This 
would give, as a grand total, the value of the fishing industry of 
Lunenburg as $2,568,239. Certainly a grand showing, the indirect 
benefits of which cannot be estimated in dollars and cents, embracing 
as it does every other industry, and giving employment to farmers, 
lumbermen, artisans, and laborers of every class. It is also the basis 
of our foreign trade, and is to the people of this country the one great 
primal, central source of a wealth and prosperity unsurpassed by few, 
if any, of the counties of Nova Scotia'. 


In connection with the further development of this great industry 
of fishing, it has occurred to me that the establishment of a biological 
station on our coast would be a very important factor in the interest of 
the fisheries, and as Nova Scotia has pushed the industry of fishing 
with grand results, making what I have described it, I feel that a scien- 
tific laboratory should be founded in Nova Scotia to make possible the 
still greater prosecution of fishing and marine researches similar to 
those promoted with signal success in other countries, by which the 
more technical and complex features, now very doubtfully understood, 
can be the more easily grasped and carried into practical vise. It is a 
significant fact that the artificial propagation of marine food fish is 
rapidly extending among all nationalities having extensive fisheries, 
and encouraged and supported by governments planting marine hatch- 
eries at various intervals along the coasts of their territories. 

The decrease in the supply of food fishes as population increases 
by reason of the improved methods of catch, is the experience of all 
fishing countries, and practical and scientific men and governments 
are everywhere giving increased attention to artificial propagation as a 
means in promoting and increasing the wealth of the sea. 



To give an idea of the commercial value that would accrue to> a 
country were artificial cultivation of the products of the sea cared for 
by the use of fish hatcheries, formed by natural ponds, indentations of 
the coast, where the tide ebbs and flows, or by incubators in charge 
of good, practical men, paid by the Government for their services, 
who will receive all mother-fish and dispose of them as he considered 
best if for the incubator, to strip them of their eggs, whether they 
be lobster or cods, excepting all unripe lobsters, which should be 
returned to the sea incalculable benefits would be derived in the sea's 
reproduction of fish, for. the food and wealth of the fisherman. Every 
twelve-inch lobster contains by actual count on an average 22,000 
eggs ; allow 2,000 less for stripping and bad eggs, and you have 20,000 
net return from each lobster. The average of cod ova is about the same 
as that of the lobster, which will given an idea of the immense beneficial 
results that would accrue were the Government to adopt the methods 
I suggest, whereby the waters would be recuperated or fructified and 
the fishermen benefited. 


We have, as I stated, 2,745 men engaged as fishermen in this 
county Lunenburg a, class of hardy men, inured to a life upon the 
sea, quick of thought, keen of intellect, robust of body, ready in 
resource, sturdy in purpose, perfectly fearless and, in my opinion, un- 
surpassed in the world today for bravery: expert boatsmen, capable 
of enduring hardship, competent in all things pertaining to the sea, 
and from this source we in Lunenburg mainly depend for competent 
and skillful masters and mates in our mercantile marine service, which 
is no small benefit when we consider that this source of supply is from 
the fishermen who at the present time man our Lunenburg fishing fleet, 
Which Commisioner Prince, in a speech, delivered before the School 
of Science the past summer, described as the finest fishing fleet in 
the world. Therefore, as a means of developing this class of men, 
encouraging shipbuilding, and developing and sustaining the fisheries, 
not only of Lunenburg, but the Atlantic coast, I would urge upon the 
Government the adoption o-f the principles and views which I have 
advanced in this article. C. E. KAULBACH. 

Lunenburg, November, 1901. 


(Written for the special South Shore edition of the Halifax Herald by 

Mr. W. C. Acker.) 

The bank fishing in the county of Lunenburg, from a small begirir 
ning, has. increased until today this county stands pre-eminently at the 
head of that business on the continent. 

In 1865 the Lunenburg banking fleet consisted of four small ves- 
sels, which fished on the Banks only during April and May, after 
which they went to Labrador for the remainder of the fishing season. 
From that insignificant attempt at Bank fishing, the industry has devel- 
oped to the splendid proportions we find it at the present time. 

Bank fishing in those early days was done from the deck, hand 
lining, so called, although Yankee and Western Nova Scotia vessels at 
that time did traw-l fishing in a small way, by the method known as 
"hauling and setting." 

Mr.- Benjamin Anderson, who was the master of one of the first 
four vessels, can truthfully be said to be the pioneer trawler and the 
father of Bank fishing as carried on from this county at the present 


About the year 1871 he fitted the schooner "Dielytris" with dories 
and trawls, and decided to spend the whole season on the banks instead 
of going to Labrador, as formerly. 

He saw other fishermen using the trawl "hauling and setting," 
and he conceived the idea that that method could be improved on, 
and by experimenting evolved the "under-running" method of trawl 
fishing as used today by the Lunenburg fleet. It might be said that 
the introduction of that easy and scientific way of fishing has been the 
lever which has raised Lunenburg to the prominence she now occupies. 

Mr. Anderson was successful, others quickly followed, the fleet 
increased year by year, and is still growing. Mr. Anderson followed 
fishing up to about twelve years ago, when he retired, and is today 
enjoying the fruits of his labors. He earned for himself more than 
a local reputation as the pioneer trawler and a most successful fisher- 


From that small beginning thirty years ago has grown the splendid 
fishing industry of Lunenburg County, which this year consisted of a 
fleet of 158 vessels, employing 2,745 men. 

Gloucester and other New England towns, about fifteen years ago, 


had some 200 vessels, employing 3,800 men, engaged in salt cod 
fishing. Last year that fleet consisted of about 60 vessels and 1,000 
men, and it is said these are fishing with no profit, which will tend 
to lessen that fleet, while ours continues to grow steadily. We have 
no great manufacturing, mining, or farming interests, but the heritage 
of the sea is ours, and "what we have we hold." No other section of 
the continent can compete with us. So long as the succulent codfish 
frequent the Banks our men and vessels will be there to catch them. 
Judging from experience, the fish are there for all time. Our fishermen 
found the fish as plentiful the past season as in any previous year (a 
report from Yankee fishermen to the contrary notwithstanding). It 
would take a generation for any other section to develop the class of 
men suitable for Bank fishing. Our men are born, bred, and reared 
to the calling, usually making their debut as "throaters" or "headers" 
when mere boys. 


They are a "home" people, and few, if any, of our fishermen go 
from the county to fish in foreign vessels. From these original German 
farmers who settled in Lunenburg County some one hundred and forty- 
eight years ago, have come these hardy men of the sea, who are equal, 
if not superior, to any other class O'f working men in the world. 

A more intelligent, industrious, courageous, temperate, and moral 
people as a whole cannot be found. The splendid churches in every 
town and village in the county emphasize the latter fact. In the spring, 
when some fifteen hundred men at one time are about our streets, where 
the ardent is easily procurable, drunkenness and quarrelling are rare. 

The toilers of the sea are everywhere a people renowned for indus- 
try and courage, daily risking their lives with no great pecuniary re- 
ward. Our fishermen are no exception. The splendid cottages owned 
and occupied by our fishermen throughout the county testify to their 
frugality and industry. 

They are as a class intelligent readers, generally well informed, 
and ready to adopt any improved method to their work. Men from 
amongst them occupy positions in town and county government with 
credit to themselves and their constituents. 


P'erhaps, before closing this article, it would be well to endeavor 
to give an idea of how the Bank fishing industry is conducted. All 
the essential elements of co-operation exist in the way the business is 


carried on. The owners furnish the vessel's fishing outfit and provi- 
sions, and receive one-half the catch. The men fish on shares, the 
cook and two boys being the only hired hands. The captain, or 
"skipper" as he is called, receives an equal share along with the men, 
besides a percentage of from two and one-half to four per cent, com- 
mission 011 the value of the gross stock. The business is fairly remu- 
nerative for the time employed, $200 being about the average share 
per man for the season, $350 being the maximum and $150 the min- 

All the captains and many of the men are stockholders in the vessels 
in which they fish, giving them a double interest in the trip. The fleet 
usually starts about the first of April and continues fishing up to about 
the 20th of September, although many arrive home with full fares the 
first part of September. 

Winter fishing is not prosecuted from this county, it being con- 
sidered too dangerous to property and life for the remuneration. The 
men are occupied when not fishing in various ways, such as ship- 
building, lumbering, farming, fish-drying, seagoing, and shore-fishing. 

The total catch for the past season was about 245,000 quintals, 
valued at about $980,000. WM. C. ACKER. 

Lunenburg, November, 1901. 

Trie educational facilities of this town are a credit to* the people. 
The Lunenburg Academy is one of the finest wooden buildings in 
the maritime provinces. It was erected in 1895 at a cost of $30,000. 
It occupies a commanding site and is visible for several miles distant. 
There are twelve class rooms, separate entrances, halls and cloak 
rooms for boys and girls, a laboratory, a library, and a large assembly 
hall. The Smead-Dowd heating, ventilating, and sanitary system 
gives perfect satisfaction. The laboratory is well sup-plied with phys- 
ical and chemical apparatus and all students are required to carry on 
practical laboratory work. The library contains three of the best 
physiological and geographical charts published. There is a very 
creditable cabinet of minerals and a good collection of fossils. 

This is a great change in three-quarters of a century. One of the 
old teachers, Mr. Thomas, who died in 1881, related his experience 
as follows to Judge Des Brisay : 

"I have had, in some sections where I have boarded, nothing but 
Indian meal, without milk or sweetening; in other families, fish, 
potatoes, and mangel tops for my dinner. Slept on hay and straw 







beds on the floor where mice, fleas, and bugs could be felt all hours 
of the night. I have frequently found one, two, and three mice 
crushed to death lying under me the straw not even put in a sack, 
and my covering old clothing. I suffered all this, so great was my 
wish to give instruction to the poor and rising generation. Yea, many 
families of poor children have I educated and never received a far- 

The town of Chester is on the eastern border of the county, and 
forty-five miles from Halifax by highway. It is quite widely known 
as a locality of scenic beauties and refreshing climate in the same 
season. Nothing short of a troubled conscience should prevent a 
person of leisure and good bodily health from greatly enjoying a 
vacation in this locality. Unless all indications fail, Chester will 
rapidly become a famous resort for Americans, who cannot find on 
their seaboard such a combination of delightful and desirable features. 
In the spacious bay are 365 islands, and the hills to the water's edge 
afford admirable opportunities to- take in the splendid view, from the 
empty dories tied and tilting on the ripples, to the glint of a sail on 
the far horizon. Already tourists have discovered the attractions of 
this locality, and all accommodations are readily taken up during the 
summer months. This township was erected in 1760, three years 
after the beginning at Lunenburg. It was a perilous proceeding to 
venture even thus far from the main settlement, but there -were men 
and women who took the risk, and a little later some thirty families 
from New England landed there with cattle and implements of 
husbandry. Their descendants are residing in fhis township in goodly 

Within this township are promising gold fields, fine fisheries, 
good timber and agricultural lands. A railway connection with the 
outside is now the greatest need, and this bids fair to be soon supplied. 
Population of this township in 1891 was 3,050. 

About twelve miles to the westward o>f Chester is the delightful 
village of Mahone. It is situated at the mouth of the Musha-Musha 
River on tidewater at the head o'f Mahone Bay of most charming 
features. The village or town is nestled among trees. The houses 
are neat and commodious, and a general air o*f well-to-do 1 people is 
over everything. Fishing, ship-building, and farming are the prin- 
cipal occupations, outside of mercantile pursuits. Large shipments of 
cordwood are made from this port. It is reached by the Central 
Railway, and is rapidly increasing in importance. The population 


of 1,500 for the mast part is of German stock. The settlement was 
founded in 1754 by Capt. Ephraim Cook, a man whd made trouble 
for Lord Cornwallis in Halifax, commanded one of the vessels that 
brought out the Halifax emigrants., was captain of a schooner that 
helped to transport the Acadian French from Grand Pre, lost a leg 
at Schenectady, N. Y., 1759; settled in Yarmouth; died there in 
1821; a native of Kingston, Mass. At any rate, the settlement was 
located by a man who had a keen eye for natural advantages, and 
the place was assured of distinction from the beginning. Fishing, and 
farming, and lumbering, and gold-mining, and ship-building, and 
cordwood trade, all these were centered on that spot in the nature 
of things. Add to these the most charming scenery of the island- 
studded bay, and the long reaches of lapping waters, the wooded 
shores, the embowered cottages, and we may well consider Mahone 
to be richly dowered with the good things of the world. A trip in 
the little steamer to Chester on a fine day affords a continuous pano- 
rama of beautiful views. A sail in a boat, a drive, or a stroll among 
the people are enjoyable amusements to those who come to rest and 
recruit for future labors. Here are good hotels, fast teams, and 
obliging people. 

On the La Have River, about fifteen miles from the mt>uth, is 
the town of Bridgewater. It is a close rival of Lunenburg in busi- 
ness importance. It is< ajt the head of tide, and accommodates ordinary 
shipping at the wharves. If this town had been built on the eastern 
side of the river, no other in the Province would outclass it for 
beauty of situation. It seems impossible that men, made choice of 
the present site. As matters stand, it is a town of wide outlooks. 
The street commanding the river is especially charming, and there are 
other fine bits that are somewhat hidden in the rear of the business 
portion. There are several commodious residences, delightfully situ- 
ated, and a general aspect of reasonable comfort is readily discovered. 
There are good hotel accommodations, and opportunities for boating 
on the river, and very pleasant drives along its banks. This town is 
the commercial center of a large agricultural district, and one may 
see in the streets some quaint arrivals from the country where much 
of usages and fashions of the good old days are still in existence. 

The largest lumber business in the Province has long been con- 
ducted by the firm of E. D. Davison & Sons at Bridgewater. The 
N. S. Central Railway passes through Bridgewater, making this point 
easily accessible to tourists and general travel. 


Within a dozen miles of the town are promising gold mines, some 
of them in active operation. Further developments and better meth- 
ods of working will doubtless result in much profitable business in 
this line. Agricultural opportunities are good in the outlying dis- 
trict, and the whole region is provided with natural resources of 
prosperity. The population is about 2,000. There are six churches, 
a good court house, three public schools well housed, two banks, and 
other necessities and conveniences to meet reasonable expectations. 
The town is incorporated, and has a system of electric lighting, and 
a collection of interesting and valuable articles collected by the late 
Judge M. B. DesBrisay, the author of the History of Lunenburg 
County, that must have been entirely a labor of love on his part, and 
will continually increase in value. I am indebted to him for items 
not readily accessible elsewhere, and time will continually add to the 
value of his public-spirited performance. 

Bridgewater is comparatively a new town. The second house 
was erected there in 1812 by Gerhart and Frederic Wile. 

Eighteen miles above Bridgewater, on the river, is New Germany, 
an agricultural and manufacturing center of growing importance. 
The N. S. Central Railway passes through this district. Near the 
depot is a pulp mill and stave manufactory. This point is a stave 
market and distributing center for the thriving villages of Foster's 
Settlement, Ohio, and Hemford, and Nineveh. This district was 
founded about 100 years ago by John Feindel; being a remote point 
from markets, the growth was slow -until the coming of the railroad 
a few years ago. Since then the increasing of population and busi- 
ness has been quite rapid. Church of England, Baptists, and Meth- 
odists have suitable places of worship, and the schools are well 

Lunenburg County was from the earliest times famous for its 
fine fisheries. The French settled at Lunenburg, Fort Point, Petite 
Reviere, more than a century before 1753, and sent shiploads of fish 
to Europe. The German settlers were mostly agriculturists, and were 
obliged to gradually learn the business and handicraft of harvesting 
the ocean. 

It is not the purpose of these sketches of county history to de- 
scribe all the villages, and one must regretfully pass over interesting 
and pleasing localities with little or no mention. New Dublin, on 
the western shore of La Have River, near the mouth, is a place of 
great natural beauty that eventually will make it a conspicuous resort 


of tourists who will enjoy the drives on Crescent Beach, the surf 
bathing, and many other strong attractions. 

Petite Reviere, adjoining Dublin on the west, is one of the points 
of early French occupancy, and traces oi their habitations are still to 
be seen, and by some freak o>f chance their name of the locality has 
never been exchanged for another. 

Blockhouse, on the road between Bridgewater and Mahone, is a 
pretty, thriving village, and the seat of a promising gold-mining 

Northfield is a thrifty agricultural settlement eight miles above 
Bridgewater. The first settler was Peter Mackay, a Highland Scotch- 
man who had been a British soldier and was paid o<ff in Halifax in 


Riversdale, ten miles above Bridgewater on the N'. S. Central 
Railway, is a well-to-do' farming locality on the river. The original 
settlers were Daniel and Jacob Mossman. 

Between Blockhouse and New Germany is New Cornwall, a back 
district, but not without its abundant charms and excellent resources 
of soil and forest products, and sportsmen, speak well of the region. 
Andrew Rafuse, Michael Brum, Thomas Hollomere were first 

To the westward from' Bridgewater a post-road runs to North 
Queens. On this route and its branches are Baker Settlement, Water- 
loo, Chelsea, all of them thriving farming localities. Lower Pleasant 
River and the New Germany Road settlements of Nineveh and Ohio 
bear witness to the industry and courage of these pioneers of the 

Here I must come to an end of these notices, having already 
overrun the limits of my space. 

As a rule, the people one meets outside the towns in this county 
have more or less of German accent. It will soon disappear alto- 
gether, as the young generation have no liking for this peculiarity 
of speech. 

Many of them are Lutherans, but other denominations have gained 
much grounci among them. 

In the outside agricultural districts much attention is given to 
raising live stock. The best oxen in the Province are found in those 
localities, where they are well bred and well trained, sleek and clean. 

The people are industrious and economical, not greatly given to 
strong drink. They are tenacious of opinions, and O'ften obdurate. 







Greatly given to settle their disputes in a court house, seeming to 
relish the fray of a lawsuit, although it always proves an expensive 
luxury. This practice has ruined many men, and brought many 
others from prosperity to poverty. They take a great interest in 
party politics, and follow their leaders with an unwarranted confi- 
dence. One of these old-type specimens, who could neither read nor 
write, assured me "dat a Liberal and a Luteran I was born, and a 
Liberal and a Luteran I vill die, because and because!" Such pig- 
headed politics is by no means confined to this county, and the more's 
the pity. 

The geology of Lunenburg County is not very complicated. All 
the western portion, embracing about two-thirds the whole area, is 
but an extension of the Cambrian slates and quartzites of Queens 
County, and the whole Atlantic slope, with few exceptions where 
granite appears. The other third is granite, being an eastern ex- 
tension of this formation that forms, the western watershed from 
Yarmouth County to Windsor. In these Cambrian rocks of Western 
Lunenburg are the gold mines of Vogler's Cove, Millipsigate, Pleasant 
River Barren, Block House, and Gold River. On the northern border, 
from New Germany to the Annapolis line, there are more or less 
granite areas along the ragged and uneven contact of the two kinds 
of rocks. 

Very little prospecting has been done on the promising gold- 
bearing anticlinals, and no one entitled to> an opinion in such matters 
would be surprised if gold mining became an extensive and prosperous 
industry in this county. 

Sir William Dawson is authority for the statement that a patch 
of carboniferous rocks occurs at Chester and another at Margaret's 
Bay, an interesting but not a surprising feature. Very likely it is 
but a remnant of a formation that extended northward to the coal 
areas of Cumberland. 



Before we discuss the coal measures of Nova Scotia it may be of 
interest to some readers, if a page or two is devoted to the making 
of coal mines in general. 

Beyond all reasonable doubt, coal is the product of vegetation. 
In considering the manner in which coal mines have been formed, it 
will aid us to know something of the nature of the vegetation that 
was finally entombed beneath the rocks. Fortunately we have ample 
material to fully determine this matter. Not only have whole trees 
been found complete in the form of coal, but wonderful imprints of 
leaves, and fronds and bark, and spore-cases have been discovered in 
profusion. In point of numbers of species, ferns take the first rank; 
in many mines they include about one-half the coal flora, but did not 
contribute very largely to the actual production of coal. The main 
part of the material for coal-making was produced by three orders 
of trees. These were, first, the Lepidodendrids, or scale trees, that 
were gigantic relatives of our dainty club-mosses, and like them were 
propagated by spores; second, the Sigliarids, or seal trees, allied to 
the former, and the Calamites or rush trees than have dwindled to 
our puny Equisetum, or scouring rush. These three groups grew 
to lofty trees, and they, and all their associates in the coal seams are 
natives of the swamps where they must have flourished under very 
favorable conditions. On the elevated ground, grew a species of pine, 
and that was the highest type of vegetable life in the world. No 
flower had yet bloomed, to shed its fragrance on the air, no bee had 
yet appeared. Wherever there are coal mines, there were once wide 
forests covering inland swamps and sea-shore marshes. Vegeta- 
tion will not decay under water, and it constantly accumulated, as 
it has done in peat bogs, and even in our common bogs. But there 
was another factor that was indispensable to coal-making. It must 
be buried under great pressure. To accomplish that end the ground 
whereon it grew must be overflowed by waters carrying with them 
mud and sand in sufficient quantities to form a stratum of rock in the 
course of time. That was the actual method taken by nature. In 
those days the crust of the earth was far more unstable than now. 



The shrinking crust was subject to more frequent movements in the 
earlier epochs O'f its development. 

The coal forests grew on lowlands not far above the level of the 
seas and great lakes. Again and again these lands were submerged 
after centuries and in some instances thousands of years of undis- 
turbed growth and accumulation of vegetable matter. The inflow of 
waters brought mud and sand that buried the forest growth. In 
the course of time this new deposit was elevated above the water, 
and quickly sown by the spores that were borne on the wings of the 
wind. This process was repeated many times. Every seam of coal 
represents a distinct submergence. The stratum of rock that over- 
lays it is the sediment brought in by the overflowing waters and 
streams. The roots and standing trees of the under-clay are clear 
proofs of the growth of the material where we find it. In South 
Wales there are one hundred seams of coal in succession, one above 
the other, showing that there were as many old forests buried, and 
new ones grew over the same area. In Nova Scotia there are at 
least seventy such seams. An average thickness of coal, taking all 
the seams together in coal mines, would be about one hundred feet, 
but extremes would take us to 150 feet. Careful computations make 
it about one million years to one hundred feet of coal. In some mines 
the coal seams are about horizontal, thus remaining as they were 
formed. In others the enclosing strata have been more or less folded, 
with the result that the coal is deep buried in the earth. In some 
instances coal was probably formed from the accumulation of drifted 
trees and the like at the mouths of rivers. The coal-making process 
continues to our own time, as the peat bogs are still in the making, 
but the great bulk of it was formed during the time known as the 
Carboniferous Age. It was produced almost from pole to pole. In 
Nova Scoti^ grew vegetable forms requiring a tropical climate, and 
within the Arctic Circle are veins of coal. The atmosphere loaded 
with carbon dioxide and saturated with moisture must have greatly 
modified the climate. As the atmosphere became cleared of the excess 
of this poisonous gas, the climate was cooler and not so favorable to 
vegetable life, but better adapted to higher orders of animals than 
reptiles. We are not surprised to learn that when the Coal Age 
closed there was not yet on the earth a warm-blooded animal; no 
beast that suckled its young, and no creature with feathers. Reptiles 
stood at the head of creation. Shakespeare has it that "Nature hath 
framed strange fellows in her time." Very strange fellows indeed 


were the creatures that first introduced the backbone and skull upon 
the dry land. They carried a very distinct smack of the sea in their 
structures, that in certain aspects pointed to a higher development in 
a distant future. Any competent person would expect to find in the 
fossil record of the Carboniferous Age the remains of creatures that 
were not true fishes, but departed from that type towards a structure 
adapted to the land. The coal mines of Ohio have furnished thirty 
species of animals with lizard-like heads, long, limbless bodies covered 
with bony scales, the whole structure and aspect suggesting both 
ganoid fishes and lower reptiles. From the Bavarian coal measures 
we have the fossil remains of a creature of lizard-like general form 
of body, with four limbs equipped with paddles, strong jaws fur- 
nished with ganoid fish teeth, the body covered with bony scales. 
Professor Owen, the late great master in these matters, named it 
Ganeocephalus, meaning thereby that its head was like the ganoid 
fishes. The coal fields of Nova Scotia have yielded the fossil remains 
of several species of air-breathing vertebrates, all of them belonging 
to the sub-class of reptiles known as amphibians. They varied in 
dimensions from one toi twenty 'feet in length; all of them were 
provided with limbs adapted to walking or swimming, and their 
backbones were of the bi-concave structure of fishes. Writing of one 
of these, Sir William Dawson, who had discovered it, says : "This 
ancient inhabitant of the coal swamps of Nova Scotia was, in short, 
as we often find to be the case with the earliest forms of life, the 
possessor of powers and structures not usually in the modern world 
combined in a single species. It wa certainly not a fish, yet its bony 
scales and the form of its vertebrae and of its teeth might, in the 
absence of other evidence, cause it to* be mistaken for one." All of 
these animals here mentioned are included in one group, a sub-order 
of Amphibians, and the name for them is Labyrinthodonts, meaning 
labyrinth-toothed, because when the tooth is cut across in thin trans- 
parent sections, a labyrinth structure is shown. Through all the later 
portions of the Coal Age our shores and marshes were inhabited by 
great numbers and varieties of these primitive reptiles. They fed 
upon each other in a large measure. It was a very different world 
from what now meets the human eye as it surveys "the features of 
the globe. The great mountain ranges were as yet unborn. Every 
species of vegetable was different from our own, and the same was 
true of animal life. All the carbon of all the coal mines and all the 
existing vegetation was once in the atmosphere, and unless it was 


withdrawn this planet could not become the home of the human race 
nor of the higher animals of mammalian structure. In every mole- 
cule of carbon dioxide there are two atoms O'f oxygen and one of 
carbon. It was not always thus. Those atoms were once free, but 
later were chemically combined with oxygen by the force of some 
vast energy, electrical, or in some other form. To tear them asunder, 
and retire the carbon from circulation, and set the oxygen free, was 
the problem of Nature. The sun was the only agent equal to that 
task, and it operated through vegetable organs to that end. So far 
as the microscope can reveal, this work is done as a rule in the leaves, 
where the cells of protoplasm are occupied by grains of chlorophyll 
that play an indispensable part, in conjunction with light and heat, 
to separate the carbon from the oxygen. The former is built into 
wood, and the latter escapes to be ready for other activities. If we 
char the wood and thus drive away the moisture, we get the char- 
coal as a result, and that is all carbon, excepting a small proportion 
of minerals that were taken up through the roots. If we burn a bit 
of this charcoal, that will mean that we give it an opportunity to 
become oxidized into carbon dioxide gas, and thus set free in the 
air again. If a tree is left to ordinary conditions to die of old age, 
it just as surely becomes oxidized. Nature has after her own methods 
charred immense quantities of the ancient vegetable world in the 
form of coal mines. We may now see how vast was the work per- 
formed through the agency of "nothing but leaves." By their activi- 
ties this planet became able to support the higher orders of life, and 
at the same time there was laid up a mighty storehouse of energy 
for Man who was destined to be the crown of creation. All the 
energy that was employed to tear asunder the carbon dioxide molecule 
was somehow lodged in the carbon or coal. Energy is the power to- 
do work, and one cubic foot of hard coal contains sufficient energy, 
if wholly utilized, to raise a weight of 3,269 tons one hundred feet. 
It turns out that coal is the identical vegetable product of many 
million years ago, and its associated energy is the actual product of 
the sunshine that cast the shadows of those trees and ferns that reared 
their fluted trunks and spreading fronds through the millenniums 
that have no record but the "testimony of the rocks." 

If it turns out that some who consult these chapters have no 
interest in the foregoing introduction, it will be an easy matter to 
skip it altogether. It has seemed to me that so large a bounty of 
Providence is worth some other attention than may be prompted by 


commercial values. A coal miner is a rational beimg of a high order, 
and he should know more of the origin of coal than a gopher does 
of the earth in which he burrows. The men who are engaged in 
buying and selling this material should not be ignorant of its history. 
We do well to remember the dictum of Scripture that "there is gold 
and a multitude of rubies, but the lips of knowledge are a precious 

If there was no coal in Nova Scotia, still her natural resources 
would be very great. Added to her long list o>f economic values 
that are not the work of men's hands, there are 685 square miles of 
known coal fields and many more almost sure to be discovered, and 
the world may be safely challenged for another area of twenty thou- 
sand square miles of equal richness and variety. All these values are 
greatly increased by physical features and geographical position that 
could not be improved on the face of the whole earth. Almost an 
island, and everywhere provided with harbors; located in the north 
temperate zone, stretching far out toward the British Isles, that lie 
still further northward; out of the range of desolating hurricanes 
and tornadoes, and the ravages of malaria and other diseases of mpre 
southern climes these are surely no far-fetched values, but are 
distinctly among first considerations. 

There is a great deal of literature on the Nova Scotia coal fields. 
Before me are the following : Dawson's Acadian Geology, containing 
369 pages devoted to* the Carboniferous system ; The Coal Fields and 
the Coal Trade of Cape Breton, by Richard Brown, 1871; The In- 
dustrial Resources of Nova Scotia, by Abraham_Gesner^ 1849, several 
pages on coal; portions of various reports of the Canadian Geolog- 
ical Survey ; papers in the publications of the Nova Scotian Institute 
of Science, and articles in newspapers and other miscellaneous pub- 
lications. To get the most needed portions of all this material into 
a brief chapter is the problem before me. In such a position no two 
persons who would undertake it at all, would begin alike or end 
alike. I have no intention of writing an essay on the coal measures 
of Nova Scotia, but it is my desire to bring into a convenient form 
a body of instructive and authoritative information that will not be 
out of date and demand during the present generation. 

Beginning with the most important of our coal fields, we will 
take up those of Cape Breton, It will be a matter of interest to some 
readers to learn a little of the early history of these now famous coal 
fields. To answer this demand I can do no better than to quote 


from rather a scarce book, "The Coal Fields and Coal Trade of Cape 
Breton," by Mr. Richard Brown, a recognized authority. 

"The first printed notice of the existence of coal in Cape Breton 
is met with in the 'Description geographique et historique des Costes 
de 1'Amerique Septentrionale,' by Nicholas Denys, published in Paris 
in 1672. In the preface of his book he says: There are mines of coal 
through the whole extent of my concessions, near the sea coast, of a 
quality equal to the Scotch, which I have proved at various times on the 
spot, and also in France, where I brought them for trial.' He adds : 
'At Baie des Espagnols (Sydney) there is a mountain of very good 
coal, four leagues up the river/ and 'another mine near the little 
entrance of the Bras d'Or Lakes;' also that 'at Le Chadye, on the 
northwest coast (probably Mabeu), there is a small river suitable for 
chaloups, where there is a plentiful salmon fishery and a coal mine.' 
Being almost exclusively engaged in the fisheries and fur trade, Denys, 
during his long residence in Cape Breton, made no attempt to work 
the coal seams, for want, probably, of a market. After his departure, 
in 1672, it appears that unauthorized persons helped themselves to 
whatever coal they needed from the cliffs, without permission from 
his sons, whom he left in charge of his property. Denys' patent seems 
to have been revoked in 1690." 

"The importance of the coal of Cape Breton was fully recognized 
in a memoir submitted in 1708 to the French Government by M. 
Raudot, intendant of the finances, and his son, intendant of the marine 
of Canada, recommending the establishment of an entrepot on the 
seaboard, open at all seasons of the year, where the productions of 
Europe and the West Indies could be stored ready for shipment to 
Canada. The Messrs. Raudot recommended that a port in Cape 
Breton should be chosen for this purpose, "as the island could furnish 
old France with coal, codfish, oils, plaster, and timber of its own 
growth and produce." 

The next notice of the coal of Cape Breton occurs in the journal 
of Admiral Hovenden Walker, who commanded the unfortunate ex- 
pedition sent to reduce Quebec in 1711. Several ships and nearly a 
thousand men having been lost at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, 
owing, as it was alleged, to the ignorance of the pilots, it was decided 
at a council of war to give up the enterprise and proceed to Spanish 
Bay (Sydney), which had been selected as the most convenient ren- 
dezvous in case of the fleet being dispersed. Admiral Walker says: 
"The island had always, in time of peace, been used in common both 


by the English and French for loading coals, which are extraordi- 
narily good here, and taken out of the cliffs with iron crowbars only, 
and no other labor." The English, who took coal in common with 
the French, were most likely New England colonists, who fished on 
the coast in summer and carried away a few tons of coal on their 
homeward voyage; the same, probably, that helped themselves some 
years before without permission from M. Denys. The first attempt 
at mining in anything like a regular form was made upon the ten- 
foot seam on the north side of Cow Bay in 1720, when it was found 
necessary to obtain a supply of fuel for the host of officers and 
soldiers, mechanics, traders, and laborers who went out to lay the 
foundations of the celebrated fortress of Louisburg. Some relics have 
been found recently in the old workings, but they may have belonged 
to a later period. Cargoes of coal were, about this time, exported 
from Cow Bay to Boston; for although, direct trade between the 
French and English colonists was forbidden by the treaty of neutral- 
ity, the New England traders, notwithstanding, carried on an active 
clandestine trade with Louisburg, receiving French products in ex- 
change for bricks, lumber, and provisions. 

After Cape Breton had been twenty-two years in the undisputed 
possession of Great Britain there was not yet a regular mine opened. 
In 1784 the first Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Col. Frederick 
Wallet Desbarres, commenced mining operations in the "Six Feet" 
or Sidney Main coal, as it was called, on the north side of the harbor. 
During the next three years the mines were worked on Government 
account. To follow the further development of these coal fields in 
detail is not within the purpose of this chapter, and we will there- 
fore pass over all the ups and downs till the mines were more 
extensively worked in very recent years, and that portion we leave 
for the present and take up the description of these measures from 
the best sources of information. The following is extracted from a 
publication of the Geological Survey of Canada, entitled a "Descrip- 
tive Note on the Sydney Coal Field of Cape Breton, to accompany a 
revised edition of the geological map oi the coal field, being sheets 
133, 134, 135, N. S. Summarized from the reports of the Geolog- 
ical Survey of Canada, with the addition of later observations, by 
Hugh Fletcher, B. A. 1900:" 

"The land area occupied by the productive coal measures in the 
eastern or Sydney coal field may be estimated at 200 square miles, 
being about 32 miles in length from, northwest to southeast by about 


6 miles in width. It is limited on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean, 
and towards the southwest by the outcrop o>f the subjacent Lower 
Carboniferous rocks. This area forms the southern extremity of an 
extensive trough or basin, which is for the most part hidden under 
the ocean, and which has been corrugated by numerous subordinate 
folds, bringing the same coal seams repeatedly to the surface along 
the northeast coast of the island, under the most favorable conditions 
and circumstances for their extraction and shipment. 

The whole coast is deeply indented by bays and channels approxi- 
mately coinciding with the axes of these folds, and affording in the 
sea cliffs numerous natural sections of the strata and exposures of 
the coal seams. Some of these bays also constitute excellent harbors, 
one of which Sydney Harbor situated towards the center of the 
district, ranks among the finest and most commodious on the Atlantic 
coast of North America. The cliffs are generally from- thirty to 
eighty feet high, standing perpendicularly, or frequently overhanging 
the sea. The country inland is o>f a gently rolling character, the 
maximum height being about 250 feet. Such advantages, combined 
with its highly favorable geographical position, point to this district 
as probably the most important in the Dominion for the supply of 
fuel to steamships navigating the Atlantic. During the few months 
of winter, when the more northerly harbors are closed or obstructed 
by ice, an outlet is afforded by the railway connecting many of the 
collieries with Louisburg, a fine harbor, open and safe for shipping 
at almost any season. 

The aggregate thickness of coal in workable seams, outcropping 
on the shore, and for the most part exposed in the bays and cliffs, is 
from forty to fifty feet; the seams vary from three to nine feet in 
thickness. They generally 'dip at a very low angle, and appear to 
be very little affected by faults or disturbances. As the strata all dip 
seaward, much of the coal will be available in the submarine as well 
as the land areas. From experience at the Sydney mines it has been 
fully established that, with due caution and care, these submarine 
areas may be worked to a large extent. 

The coal is of the bituminous, or soft, variety, with comparatively 
little diversity in the quality of the different seams, all of which yield 
a fuel exceedingly well adapted for general purposes, 'while that of 
some of "them is especially applicable to the manufacture of gas. As 
compared with the Pictou coal, it is characterized, on the whole, by a 


greater proportion of ash, but on the other hand it usually contains 
a greater amount of sulphur. 

The rocks of this district are affected by three anticlinal and four 
synclinal folds, approximately parallel to one another, the latter named 
respectively the Cow Bay, Glace Bay, Sydney Harbor, and Bras d'Or 
basins. The several folds are, as already stated, marked by the oc- 
currence of bays and channels running in a direction nearly parallel 
to their axes. The subdivisions are thus geographically, as well as 
geologically, well marked. 

The strata associated with the coal seams may be described under 
the following heads : ( i ) Argillaceous shale ; (2) Arenaceous shale; 
(3) Red and green marl; (4) Sandstone; (5) Under-day; (6) 
Limestone; (7) Black shale; (8) Coal. Detailed sections of the 
alternations of these beds in the various basins are given in the report 
for 1874-75. 

(i) Argillaceous Shales. These strata, together with the arena- 
ceous shales (2), into which they pass by insensible gradations, and 
red and green marl (3), from which they differ chiefly in color and 
in the general absence of lamination in the marls, constitute upwards 
of one-half of the total thickness of the measures. They no 1 doubt 
originally consisted of fine mud, with more or less sand intermixed, 
and are of a gray or bluish-gray color. Some o>f the beds contain 
much iron pyrites, and nearly all are charged with argillaceous iron- 
stone, sometimes in thin, regular layers, but generally in spherical or 
ellipsoidal nodules or concretions. They generally contain a great 
variety of fossil plants, chiefly ferns, the most delicate and fragile 
fronds and stems of these being often beautifully preserved. 

Many trunks of erect and prostrate Sigillariae, in some cases with 
their Stigmaria roots attached and penetrating the coal seams, are 
found in the shales ; and these appear to be confined to no particular 
horizons. The largest, observed trunk was nearly five feet in diame- 
ter, but the usual size is from two to three feet, the bark being con- 
verted into coal matter. Some of the beds are very copiously charged 
with a small bivalve shell of the genus Naiadites associated with plant 
remains. The argillaceous shales are not always persistent, but often 
become arenaceous and sometimes pass into' sandstone. Occasionally 
the change is so sudden as to give to the beds the appearance of 
being faulted. 

In taking a general view of the mode of occurrence of the coal 
seams in this field, it appears that, although local variations are neither 


few nor small, their similarity of conditions and persistency over great 
areas is very remarkable. The disturbances which the strata have 
undergone are not of such a nature or amount as to occasion any great 
uncertainty in regard to the equivalency of the various seams at dif- 
ferent points. In a few instances the coal seams are split by the gradual 
thickening of their clay partings. Some seams which are of workable 
thickness and good quality at one place become from similar causes 
unworkable at no great distance. Taking the average of all the 
sections measured, the total number of seams in the productive meas- 
ures is twenty-four, of which six are three feet and upward in 
thickness, and the total average thickness of coal may be stated at 
forty-six feet. 

The Cow Bay Basin. On the north side of this basin the strata 
dip at a low angle. On the south side the angle of inclination is 
35 to 42. Trie entire series of strata (which does not, however, 
include the upper portion of the productive measures developed in 
other parts of the field) is exposed within a distance of three miles 
and a half measured along the north side of the bay. The average 
breadth of the basin at the shore, between the outcrops of the lowest 
seam, does not exceed two miles and one-third, and it terminates to 
a point less than nine miles from the shore. Two seams, the Block- 
house and the McAulay, have been worked in this basin. 

The Sydney Harbor Basin. In the further extension of the coal 
measures westward, the next basin which comes under notice includes 
the Lingan, Low Point, and Sydney mines district, and extends from. 
Indian Bay and Bridgeport Basin as far as Point Aconi, embracing 
all the coal seams in the field. An anticlinal axis that skirts the north 
shore of Bridgeport Basin, and runs thence westerly to the vicinity 
of South Bar on Sydney Harbor, divides this basin from that of 
Glace Bay. On the north side of this axis the rocks dip at angles 
varying from 12 to 16 at Lingan, increasing to 40 at the Victoria 
Mines. The sea-coast follows the fold of the strata in such a manner 
as to bring the entire volume of the coal measures upon the cliffs in 
several fine sections. From Low Point lighthouse to Lingan the 
strike of the rocks is nearly parallel to the shore. 

The Bras d'Or Basin. A little to the west of the Little Bras d'Or 
a low incline, running from Point Aconi to Saunders Cove, deflects 
the strata to the south to form, the Bras d'Or Basin, which includes 
on opposite sides the Bouladerie and Cape Dauphin districts. 

Mr. Robb has estimated that the total quantity which this field 


is capable of yielding, exclusive of any that may be obtained from 
seams of a lesser thickness than four feet, is probably not less than 
one thousand million tons." 

It is well understood that this coal field extends beneath the ocean, 
where in all probability the greater portion exists. Mr. Poole, in his 
report to the Commissioner of Mines for the year 1877, discusses 
this submarine area in a very interesting way as follows : "Assuming 
for the present a contour line three miles from shore to the boundary 
of profitable working, and four thousand feet the available depth, and 
that no seam under three feet will be worked, then taking into con- 
sideration the minimum cover of solid measures required by our 
present law, the reduction to be made on account of known anti- 
clinals, and the average thickness of the seams along their shore crops, 
the submarine coal field of Cape Breton, ,from Mira Bay to Cape 
Dauphin, will yield 1,866,000,000 tons. This estimate assumes that 
after allowing one-fourteenth for unavoidable loss and waste in 
working, 1,400 tons may be obtained from each foot acre, as was as- 
sumed in the inquiry by the Royal Commission to ascertain the quan- 
tity of coal remaining unwrought in Great Britain. What proportion 
of the submerged field will be worked can only be roughly conjectured, 
for so many unknown quantities enter into the calculation. The 
thickness and quality of the seams, the faults and troubles to be met 
with in the workings, the cover to be left for security, the proportion 
of salable coal obtained, the increased cost, the engineering difficulties 
to be surmounted as depth and distance from the operating centers 
increase, the relative value of labor to that of fuel produced, these and 
other considerations have to be better known before an approach to 
accuracy in any estimate can be made. But basing a calculation on 
our present knowledge and our prospective ability to meet the antici- 
pated difficulties within a reasonable limit of distance and depth, some 
idea of the future value o>f our sub -marine coal fields may be deduced, 
and the necessity demonstrated even' now so conducting all inshore 
mining, that ultimate deep-sea mining may be safely prosecuted/' 

The Sidney coal field has become of so much importance and is 
destined to become a factor of dominating interest in the business 
affairs of Nova Scotia that it seems worth while to add the excellent 
description given by the late Richard Brown in his Coal Fields and 
Coal Trade of Cape Breton : 

"The coal field of Sidney the most extensive and, it may be 
safely asserted, the most valuable in the Province of Nova Scotia 


extends from Mira Bay on the east to Cape Dauphin on the west, 
a distance of thirty-one miles, being bounded on the north by 
the sea coast and on the south by the millstone grit formation. 
This tract of country, occupying an area of 200 square miles, is 
intersected or indented by several bays and harbors affording ex- 
posed sections of the coal measures in the cliffs, which, with the 
exception of a few sand beaches, extends along the whole coa"st from 
Mira Bay to Cape Dauphin. From these cliffs, varying from twenty 
to one hundred feet in height, the land rises gradually towards the 
interior, rarely attaining a greater elevation than 1 50 feet at a distance 
of one mile from the shore. Viewed from the sea, the general aspect 
of the country is undulating, low valleys proceeding inland from the 
bays and harbors, separated by gently swelling hills, terminating in 
headlands on the coast. There can be no doubt that at no distant 
day (in geological time) the coal country extended far to> the northr 
ward, and occupied a considerable area now covered by the sea, as 
the scarped cliffs, composed of alternate beds of sandstones and shale, 
present but a feeble bulwark against the incessant attacks of the 
waves of the Atlantic. When the island last emerged from the sea, 
a low gravelly beach not a cliff naturally constituted the coast line; 
this beach, exposed to the abrading action of the surf, soon gave 
place to an incipient cliff, which has been steadily and gradually 
receding inland from that day to the present time. If not arrested 
in its progress by artificial means, in the course of time the whole 
of the coal lands will become the prey of the restless ocean. In 
some cases this wasting of the land must have proceeded at a more 
rapid rate than at others. 

The Sydney Mines District, lying between Sydney harbor and the 
Little Entrance of the' Bras d'Or Lakes, occupies an area of about 
ten square 'miles. Partial sections of the coal measures are visible at 
many places in the interior and on the borders of the district, but 
nowhere in such perfection as in the cliffs on the northwest shore of 
Sydney harbor, which exhibits a complete section at right angles 
to the line of strike three miles in length and 1,860 feet in depth, 
extending from Cranberry Head, at the entrance of the harbor, to 
Stubbert's Point, where the lowest beds of the coal measures may be 
seen lying conformably upon the millstone grit. All the principal 
seams of this district, except that at Cranberry Head, which runs into 
the sea, can be traced across the country from Sydney Harbor to 
the Little 'Entrance of the Bras d'Or Lakes. The Lloyd's Cove 


seam certainly is not quite continuous, as it crops out on the coast 
a quarter of a mile to the westward of Cranberry Head and runs 
into the sea, but owing to undulations in the measures at right angles 
with the strike the seam is deflected to the west, and rising out of 
the sea again appears above high-water mark near Bonar's Head, 
from whence it has been traced running nearly due north to Plant's 
Point. It maintains a tolerably uniform section until it nearly 
reaches Plant's Point, when, owing to a rapid increase in the thickness 
of the clay-parting, it is- split into two distinct beds, separated by 
fifteen feet of shale. The two beds forming the lower seam at 
Chapel Point, sixteen and four inches thick, were both met with in 
sinking the Queen Pit three-fourths of a mile to the westward. They 
are visible in the cliff at Black Point, and also at Oxford Point. At 
the latter place the upper seam is four and the lower two feet six 
inches in thickness, .separated by fifteen feet of shale. 

The "six-foot," or main, seam maintains its full thickness as far 
as the "Big Portd," gradually bending round to the northward as 
it approaches the undulation in the measures in that locality. It has 
been traced by means of boring and sinking from Cox Hill on, the 
north side of the Big Pond, as far as Kidd's Point on the Little 
Entrance of the Bras d'Or, or a distance of three miles, but between 
those two places its thickness nowhere exceeds four feet; at Kidd's 
Point it is only three feet six inches. The quality of the coal, however, 
shows no signs of deterioration. The Indian Cove seam has been 
worked at a pit one mile to the westward of Indian Cove, and at 
a place about one mile further in the same direction. It has also 
been proved at a trial pit and boring near the Little Entrance. 

There -is little variation of thickness at all these places. Its' 
roof of bituminous shale, containing Modioloe, Cypriotes, fish scales, 
etc., clearly establishes its identity from Indian Cove to the Little 
Entrance. On the shore of the Little Entrance there is another bed 
of coal four feet ten inches in depth, lying 200 feet below the preceding, 
which is probably the equivalent of the Stony seam of the Sydney 
mines section. 

The inclination or dip of all the seams is about seven degrees, 

but its direction gradually comes around from the northeast on the 

, shore of Sydney Harbor to nearly due east at the Little Entrance. 

The amount of dip has, however, been found to decrease rapidly 

toward the northeast in the underground workings at Sydney mines, 


where at the distance of one mile from the outcrop of the seam it 
does not exceed^five degrees. 

The Boulardrie District, bounded on the east and west by the 
Little and Great Entrances respectively, and on the south by the 
millstone grit, occupies an area of about eight square miles, containing 
several valuable seams of coal. Though separated from the Sydney 
Mines District only by the narrow channel of the Little Entrance, 
where it is not more than one hundred yards wide, the connection of 
the coal seams on each side of this channel cannot, owing to serious 
disturbances caused by faults, be satisfactorily determined. On the 
northwest side of the island of Boulardrie, fortunately, there is less 
disturbance, and a continuous section is visible in the cliffs from 
Point Aconi to the millstone grit, a distance of about six miles, 
interrupted at only two or three places by low shingle beaches. The 
three upper seams have been clearly traced by borings and trial pits 
across the northern end of Boulardrie Island, but those below have 
only been seen at the place marked on the map by black lines. There 
is, however, every reason to believe that they continue without inter- 
ruption from the northwest shore in a southeasterly direction. 

The Cape Dauphin District, at the northwestern extremity of the 
Sydney coal field, is separated from that of Boulardrie by the waters 
of the Great Entrance O'f Bras d'Or Lakes. Though occupying an 
area O'f little more than two square miles, all the formations of the 
Carboniferous series are here found between the southern flank of 
the Syenitic Hills of St. Ann's and the Great Entrance, perfect sections 
of the members of each formation being visible at Cape D'auphin and 
Kelly's Cove, the northern and southern ends of the district. At 
both of those places the strata are inclined at an angle of sixty degrees, 
dipping to the east, but midway between them the strata are nearly 
vertical, being squeezed or compressed within very narrow limits at 
their outcrops by the upheaval o*f the Syenitic rocks. The coal meas- 
ures, as shown in the map, occupy an area of one square mile, in 
the form of a segment of a basin or trough similar to that of Cow Bay, 
at the eastern extremity of the coal fields. Two seams of coal in a 
vertical position have been discovered midway between Cape Dauphin 
and Kelly's Cove one four feet, the other six feet in thickness, 
separated by eighty feet of strata. The six feet, which is the lowest 
seam, has also been discovered in a vertical position half a mile to the 
eastward, and the four feet, or upper, seam in a deep ravine half a 
mile to the southward, dipping easterly at an angle of twelve degrees. 




As the coal measures in. the eastern division, between Mira Bay 
and Sydney Harbor, are most fully developed in the vicinity of Glace 
Bay, it will be best to describe them in the first instance; we shall 
then be better prepared, taking the Glace Bay series as a starting 
point, to define the mutual relations and establish the identity of the 
seams in the adjoining district. The coal seams are disposed in the 
form of an elliptical basin or trough, of which the longitudinal axis 
runs in a nearly east and west direction from Table Head towards the 
town of Sydney. By far the greater portion oi this basin lies under 
the sea; the western end only, extending from' the coast to the mill- 
stone grit, being available for mining purposes, though workings 
may at a future day be continued some distance under the sea. This 
contingency, however, is not likely to occur very shortly, as the coal 
measures of the Glace Bay basin, bounded on the east and west by 
the seacoast and the millstone grit, and on the north and south by the 
anticlinals of Lingan and Cow Bay, underlie a land area of at least 
sixty square miles. 

The Hub seam, the highest in the series, is followed in succession 
by the Harbor, Three Foot, Back Pit, Phelan, Spencer or Ross seam, 
McRury seam, Lorway seam, Gardener seam, Not Named, Martin's 

The Hub and Harbor seams are confined to the promontory 
bounded by the shores of Glace Bay and Indian Bay, where they run 
under the sea and do not reappear. All the others, down to the 
McRury seam, continue to the eastward as far as the north head of 
Cow Bay, where they also* run under the sea. 

The Cow Bay basin is separated from that of Glace Bay by an 
anticlinal axis formed by an undulation in the coal measures, running 
in a westerly direction from the north end of. Long Beach to its ter- 
mination at a point three miles to- the westward of Sand Lake, where 
it runs out. Its course is indicated by opposite dips* of the strata on 
its north and south sides, and, occasionally, by blocks of weather-worn 
sandstone scattered along the surface, which probably have been de- 
tached from a thick bed of that material cropping out at Long Beach, 
and along the line of the undulation or upheaval of the strata." 

Witho-ut the diagrams and maps of Mr. Brown one cannot follow 
his description further, and it would be of but little satisfaction to do 
so because many of his remarks are given as conjectures. We may say 


that the description already given here by Mr. Fletcher covers the 
ground very well in a general way, and the same is true of the Lingan 
and Low Point District. 

These magnificent coal fields have been worked in a small way, 
comparatively speaking, until they attracted American capital and 
enterprise, and then a new order of things began over a large portion 
of the district. It was officially reported as follows in the Report 
of the Department of Mines for 1893 : "Since the date of my last 
report negotiations have been concluded by which a company called 
the Dominion Coal Company, Limited, has acquired the properties 
known as the Cowrie, Ontario, Caledonia, Reserve, International, 
Glace Bay, Sword, and Gardener collieries, embracing an area of about 
forty square miles. This leaves the Sydney Mines and Victoria as 
the only independent collieries working in Cape Breton County. The 
collieries of the new company have been connected with Sydney 
Harbor by extension of the International Railway, and the railway 
is being extended to Louisburg with the intention o<f utilizing the 
harbor as a winter port. The general, manager of the new company 
is Mr. D. Mackeen, M. P., well known for his successful manage- 
ment of the Caledonia colliery." 

By this new arrangement there were left but two coal-producing 
concerns in the Sydney coal field. The other was the General Mining 
Association. In 1892 the total output of nine collieries was 922,869 
tons. The mines report for 1900 contains this important item : "The 
property of the General Mining Association of London, generally 
known as the Sydney Mines, was acquired by the Nova Scotia Steel 
Company. By this sale the General Mining Association has disposed 
of the last of it* lease properties, and now disappears from the mining 
record of the Province. It is a matter of common knowledge that the 
acquisition of the mines of this Province by this company led to the 
first practical development of our coal resources. About the year 1827 
they opened the collieries at the Joggins v New Glasgow, and North 
Sydney. Their operations, conducted on a large scale, contributed 
materially to the prosperity of the country, and set a high* standard 
of business integrity. It is understood that the Nova Scotia Steel 
Company has in contemplation the erection of blast furnaces at North 
Sydney." The Report of the Department of Mines for 1901 informs 
us that the production of the Dominion Coal Company was for that 
year 2,352,567 tons as compared with 1,930,425 tons in 1900. 

In connection with the coal industry these two powerful companies 


are large producers of iron and steel. It would require a daily bulletin 
to keep abreast of their progressive movements, and in view of this 
fact it would seem desirable to> publish here an authoritative expres- 
sion of their plans and aims, and this we are able to do by extracting 
two contributions from the Cape Breton edition of the Halifax Herald 
of August, 1901. Here then follows an article entitled, "The Hopes 
and Aims of the Dominion Coal Company, by Cornelius Shields, Sec- 
ond Vice President and General Manager." 

"Briefly stated, the aims o-f the Dominion Coal Company are three- 

"(i). To develop the Cape Breton coal field, one of the largest 
and best in the world. 

"( 2 ) To give profitable employment to an ever increasing num- 
ber now 5,500 Canadian miners and workingmen. 

"(3) To aid in the industrial growth of the country by the eco- 
nomical production of fuel, and to add to the importance of the coal 
trade itself by exporting the surplus to foreign markets. 

"With these objects in view the collieries have been equipped with 
the best and most modern mining machinery. The machinery installed 
for the automatic handling of coal, from the time it leaves the miner 
until it is loaded into the ship's hold, is up to date and equal to the 
best in the United States. 

"The Sydney & Louisburg Railway, owned by this company, 
has been modernized by the addition of steel coal cars of 50 tons capac- 
ity, which are hauled by the largest type of consolidation locomotives, 
capable of moving a train of 1,500 tons of coal, over a solidly built 
road bed, with all the structures of steel and masonry, and laid with 
80 pound steel rails. 

"The shipping piers are situated at Sydney and Louisburg. These 
piers have a larger capacity than the present requirements, and were 
constructed to handle a largely increased output. On a single day this 
season the shipments from the piers reached 16,095 tons, and when the 
necessity arises the shipping facilities already provided are sufficient 
to ship 40,000 tons daily. 

"Sydney Harbor has a world- wide reputation, and naval author- 
ities are agreed that it is one of the finest harbors in the world, and that 
it shares this proud distinction with its Australian namesake. Situated 
at the entrance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it is singularly free from 
fog, and has an established reputation as a cheap and convenient coal- 
ing station for trans-Atlantic steamers. No port can be approached 


and entered with greater ease and security by soundings, and unchar- 
tered ships leaving Europe are usually addressed to Sydney for orders. 
The Do-minion Coal Company has made provisions at the International 
Pier to supply ocean steamers with bunker coal promptly on arrival 
The despatch given in this respect is equal if not better than that 
obtained at any other port in the world. 

Apart from its historic interest, Louisburg Harbor is also* safe and 
easily accessible. The pier is now used chiefly by steamers carrying coal 
to Boston and other United States ports. The loading facilities for 
giving despatch to steamers are similar to those at the International 
Pier, and in addition there is a conveyer, or belt, for loading small coal 
from storage bins. This conveyer has a loading- capacity of 750 tons 
per hour. The Black Diamond Steamship line is owned by the Do- 
minion Coal Compa'ny. The fleet now in commission consists of seven 
ships, which are owned by the company, and fourteen operated under 
charters. The capacities of these steamers varies from 1,700 to 6,000 
tons gross. The company also owns and operates several barges. At 
Montreal, discharging towers for the rapid unloading of ships, have 
been erected. These towers have a maximum capacity of 10,000 tons 
per day, thus giving prompt dispatch to steamships. 

The Cape Breton coal field, comprising an area of 500 square miles, 
is already known to contain five workable coal seams, varying in thick- 
ness from 1 five to nine feet. Only two seams are now worked ; the other 
three are practically undeveloped. At a time when economists are dis- 
cussing the rapid exhaustion of the coal reserves of Great Britain, and 
the impetus thus given to American coal and iron industries, the great 
coal resources of this part of the British Empire have been overlooked. 
Already, the policy adopted by the Dominion Coal Company, has made 
possible the creation of an iron and steel industry, which is capable 
of further expansion, will prove a rival of the great corporations of 
the United States. The interests of both the steel and coal companies 
here, as elsewhere, are closely allied. The success of these valuable 
.properties is now assured. With the present output of the collieries of 
10,000 to t2,ooo tons daily, the yearly production should exceed 3,000,- 
ooo tons. To utilize the present workings to the best advantage, a 
further increase may be gradual. Though the Canadian market may 
be expected to absorb an increasing quantity of coal from year to year, 
the geographical position of the western inland provinces, bordering on 
the coal producing states of the neighboring republic, will in a large 
measure exclude us from that territory. With our collieries situated on 


the Atlantic seaboard, at the door of a waterway reaching all parts of 
the world, and with cheap transportation, we expect to export large 
quantities of coal to the markets of Europe and the Mediterranean. 
To do this successfully, however, a new business must be created, and 
another fleet of steamships of large coal-carrying capacity will be re- 

Within the past year American coal has gained a foothold in the 
European market. Sydney is 1,000 miles nearer Europe than either 
Norfolk or Newport News, the principal shipping ports for American 
coal and the quality of Cape Breton coal is equal to that of American 
coal. We should therefore, in time, be successful in building up a large 
export trade. Our coal is, however, yet unknown abroad, and it may be 
pointed out as an instance of the prejudice existing in Great Britain and 
fostered by the British coal owners, that the warships of the British 
fleet on the North Atlantic Station, continue to* import and use Welch 
coal at double the price for which Nova Scotia coal, equally serviceable, 
can be bought. 

When the class of ships required has been supplied, probably by 
shipyards in our own province, and with Cape Breton coal better 
known, and its excellent qualities appreciated abroad; and when the 
iron, and kindred industries are more firmly established, the coal trade 
of Cape Breton should enter upon an era of substantial prosperity and 
provide employment for a large population of prosperous and contented 
workmen. "' 

The following article entitled "Hopes and Aims of Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company," is by Mr. John F. Stairs, President : 

"The Nova 'Scotia Stee'l and Coal Company, Limited, have pur- 
chased the properties and business of the Nova Scotia Steel Company, 
Limited, and they will carry on the business in all its branches, includ- 
ing the. coal mines of Sydney Mines, C, B., a brief account of the 
business recently purchased and w)iat the company purpose doing in 
the near future may be of interest to your readers. For the purposes 
of this letter the business of the company may be divided into four 
principal branches mining and selling iron ore, mining and selling 
coal, smelting pig iron and making steel. For some years past iron 
ore has been shipped from the company's mines at Wabana, Conception 
Bay, Newfoundland, and a good demand exists for it in Germany, 
Great Britain, and the United States, besides what the company uses 
in its own operations at Ferrona, Pictou County. The output of the 
mines during the shipping season is about 300,000 tons. The efficiency 


of the plant is evidenced by the fact that over 3,500 tons have been 
mined in a day, and that a steamer carrying 7,300 tons has been loaded 
in five hours, and as much as 21,000 tons have been loaded within thirty 
hours. Shipments are now being made to Germany, the United States, 
and Scotland. About 270,000 tons have been sold for shipment this 
year, and 125,000 tons have been sold for delivery each year up to 1905. 

'The company now operate the coal areas lately owned by the 
General Mining Association at Sydney Mines. It is estimated that 
these areas contain upwards of 200,000,000 tons of coal a suffi- 
cient supply, even with a largely increased output over that pro- 
posed, to last for many generations. The reputation of the coal 
shipped from Sydney Mines is so well known that it only need be 
referred to. The output of the mines for some years averaged about 
250,000 tons per year, and about this quantity is now being taken out. 
It is expected that 100,000 tons of this coal will be. made into coke 
yearly at the coke ovens, which are now being erected at the Sydney 
Mines. This coke will be used at the company's blast furnaces, 
at Ferrona. The coal from these mines has been proved to be very 
suitable for making coke for cold blast furnace use. The company 
having tried many of the coals produced in Nova Scotia and Cape 
Breton, has not found any so well suited for making coke as that 
which is taken from the old Sydney Mines. In fact it is largely 
because this coal was found to make coke so much superior to that 
from any other of the Nova Scotia or Cape Breton coals that the 
company purchased the property. Those who purchase old Sydney 
Mines coal for household and other purposes may depend upon getting 
a thoroughly screened coal, as the slack is all retained at the mines 
for coke making. The company also own coal areas near Trenton 
which are now being opened up, the output of which will supply 
the coal required for steam and heating purposes at the Trenton Steel 
Works. The other two branches of the company's business, viz., 
smelting pig iron and making steel, are carried on at Ferrona, and 
with the iron ore from Wabana, and from the company's other, mine 
in Nova Scotia, the limestone from Pictou County, and the coke from 
Sydney Mines, the pig iron is produced. 

''Some of this is sold as foundry pig iron throughout the Dominion, 
but the largest portion is used for the manufacture of steel at Trenton. 

"The business of the various works and mines now owned and 
operated by the company has been very successful and profitable. The 
Nova Scotia Steel Company paid a dividend of 8 per cent, upon its 


preference stock, and frequently paid dividends varying from 8 per cent, 
to 1 6 per cent, upon its common stock. A dividend of 8 per cent, for 1899 
and 10 per cent, for 1900 was paid upon the common stock; and for 
many years past the Sydney Mines as operated by the General Mining 
Association paid large dividends to its shareholders. For the past three 
years the average profit of the business now carried on by this com- 
pany was $512,215 per year. It is the intention o>f the company to 
improve the plant at North Sydney and New Glasgow as experience 
may show to be expedient, so that the production of iron and steel 
may be increased and the cost reduced. It is the intention of the 
company to. open up immediately further seams at Sydney Mines. 
The present working will also be developed and the plant improved 
by the addition of machinery for increasing the output and reducing 
the cost of mining. When the improvements contemplated are effected 
and the new seams opened up, the mines will give an output of 
1,000,000 tons per annum. As a large portion of this coal will be 
shipped by water, and as dispatch in loading is one of the vital 
points in connection with cheap transportation, a new shipping pier, 
equipped with the very best rapid-loading facilities, will be built. 
The commercial manager of the company last winter visited all the 
principal Mediterranean coal-importing ports of France and Italy, 
where last year a considerable quantity of American coal was sold, 
and the company are now in possession of reliable detailed informa- 
tion relative to that trade. With large steamers, designed for rapid 
discharging, it is not unlikely that "Old Sydney Mines" coal may soon 
be exported in considerable quantities to these markets. When the 
company undertakes this business the experience already gained by 
its officers in rapid loading, transporting, aand discharging of large 
shipments of iron ore to Great Britain, Germany, and the United 
States will be of the greatest service to the company." 

We will now turn to Inverness County and give a description of 
the coal outcrop on the gulf shore of the island. The account given 
by the late Mr. Richard Brown of the general features runs as follows : 
"Although the lower Carboniferous rocks extend, without interrup- 
tion, along the western coast of Cape Breton, from Seal Cove Bay, 
at the southern end of the Gut of Canseau, to Cheticamp, on the 
shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence a distance of eighty miles small 
patches of the productive coal measures have only yet been discovered 
at Port Hood, Mabou, Broad Cove, and Chimney Corner in the 
county of Inverness, and at Seal Coal Bay in the county of Rich- 


mond. At all of these places the measures consist of sandstone and 
shale, similar toi those of the Sydney coal fields, resting upon the 
millstone grit, and containing several seams of coal of considerable 
thickness, but of small extent, being evidently detached portions of 
a large coal field lying under the waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
separated from each other in most cases by the undulations of the 
Carboniferous rocks projecting into the sea. As the lower member 
of the Carboniferous series extend from the coast at least ten miles 
inland towards Margarie River and Lake Ainslie, it is very probable 
that small basins of the coal measures may some day be discovered 
in the interior. Two thin seams of coal have indeed been discovered 
on the eastern flanks of the conglomerate hills near the mouth of the 
Middle River, which runs into the Bras d'Or Lake, but they probably 
are of older elate than the coal measures on the Gulf shore, being 
apparently members of Carboniferous formation. They are of no 
economic value." 

To follow Mr. Prown further here would be misleading, for the 
reason that explorations since the date of his writing have thrown 
new light on the coal areas he discusses. Dr. E. Gilpin, in his Report 
on the Mines and Mineral Lands of Nova Scotia, 1880, mentions 
this region in the following terms : "From Cheticamp to Judique, 
on the western shore of Cape Breton, there extends a narrow and 
broken line of productive measures, forming the edges of great basins 
of coal which have long ago disappeared beneath the Gulf of St. 

"At Chimney Corner Professor Hynd reported two groups of 
seams, nothing being known of the lower. The upper gave the fol- 
lowing section. 

Feet. Inches. 

Thin seams i 6 

Strata 300 o 

Coal 3 o 

Strata 88 o -1 

Coal 5 o 

Strata 200 6 

Coal 3 6 

"The measures here form a sharp synclinal, about three-quarters 
of a mile wide, giving an estimated land area of about five square 
miles. However, but little is yet known of the extent of the seams of 
the lower group. 


"At Broad Cove, about ten miles to the southwest, the following 
section of seams, contained in about 2,000 feet of strata, is said to 
exist, and is given on Mr. A. Wright's authority : 

First seam 2 feet. 

Second seam 2 feet. 

Third seam 3 feet. McKinnon Brook. 

Fourth seam 4 feet. McKinnon Brook. 

Fifth seam -. . . 12 feet. 

Sixth seam 7 feet. Seam now worked. 

Seventh seam 4 feet. Big River. 

Eighth seam 3 feet. 

"The extent of the productive measures here is not yet known 
positively, but areas embracing about twenty square miles, believed 
to hold workable coal, have been secured by various parties. 

"Another o-f these small but valuable coal fields occurs at Mabou. 
Here the outcrop of the following beds are reported, namely, a 4 foot 
bed, a 13 foot bed about 20 feet above the first, a 7 foot seam 
1 20 feet higher, and a 5 foot seam. There are also 1 several other 
seams, the size and extent of which are unknown. The usual basin 
shape is presented here with an area somewhat smaller than at Broad 

"At Port Hood one seam only has been definitely tested, although 
the presence of several others has been proved. Here the strata run 
more nearly parallel with, the shore and extend along it about two 
miles. The seam, opened has, a thickness of about 6 feet. Workings 
were pushed a short distance under the sea, but are discontinued. The 
outcrop of another 6 foot seam is known at low water. Coal occurs 
again at Little Judique, in close proximity to gypsum and limestone." 

In a Summary Report of the Canadian Geological Survey for the 
Year 1900 occurs the following mention of these coal areas : "Nearly 
eight weeks were spent in Cape Breton, principally in re-examining the 
coal measures of the western or Inverness coal field between Margaree 
Harbor and Little Judique, to the development of which an impetus 
has been given by the construction of a line of railway from Port 
Hastings to the Broad Cove mines. At Port Hood mines the slope 
is now down about 1,150 feet, the dip being throughout about twenty- 
four degrees and the coal about 7 feet thick. Levels have been turned 
away north and south and balances and crosses begun. The manager, 
Mr. Johnson, is of the opinion that the present output of one hundred 
tons a day can be increased to four hundred tons by the first of June. 


"Active work on a large scale has also begun at Broad Cove mines. 
(The coal seams all border on the shore and are not known to extend 
far inland. Both at Port Hood and Broad Cove the workings will 
be largely under the sea, and the question of the conditions under 
which the sea areas can be won becomes one of great importance." 

The Report of the Department of Mines for the Year 1902 shows 
a good deal of activity in the way of preparation for work on a large 
scale, both at Broad Cove and Port Hood. 


This area is well described by Mr. Richard Brown as follows: 
"It is situated at the southern extremity of the island, between the 
river Inhabitants and the Gut of Canseau. The Carboniferous rocks 
in this district cover an area of about twenty square miles, and contain 
several workable seams of coal. In the cliff on the western shore 
of Seal Cove Bay, close to the southern end of the Gut of Canseau, 
there is a seam eleven feet in thickness, composed of alternating layers 
of coal and bituminous shale; another, four feet thick, clear coal; 
and a third, five feet and a half thick, including a fifteen inch layer of 
shale in the middle. All these seams occur within very narrow limits, 
dipping to the southwest at an angle of eighty degrees. 

"At Little River, a small stream running into Seal Cove Bay, two 
miles and a half to the northeast of the preceding locality, there are 
two seams, one three, the other four feet in thickness, nearly in a 
vertical position, separated by 154 feet of sandstones and shales. 
Traces of coal have also been seen at two places to the eastward, near 
the mouth of the river Inhabitants. The measures in. this coal field are, 
however, so much disturbed by faults that the extent and relative 
position of the several seams cannot be made out. Any attempt to 
ascertain the true position, extent, and consequent value of the seams 
will be attended with much expense, as the country is low and there 
are few cliffs or natural sections. The outcrops of the strata are also 
concealed by a thick deposit of boulder clay. -The seams all occur in 
situations favorable for shipment." We now take leave of the Cape 
Breton coal fields, and proceed to give some account of the valuable 
deposits in the peninsula, beginning with those in Pictou County. For 
this purpose we will quote from Dr. Gilpin's Government Report on the 
Mines of Nova Scotia, 1880: 

"The Pictou coal field lies immediately south of the town of New 
Glasgow. The area of the field may be estimated at about thirty-five 


square miles, and it extends from a point near Sutherland's River to 
the Middle River of Pictou. This area, although comparatively limited, 
contains a large amount of coal, owing to the unusual size of the beds 
and the good exposure of the crops. The district may be roughly 
described as forming a main east and west synclinal, disturbed and 
shifted by minor north and south undulations, which expose the out- 
crops of the seams in irregular curves and basins. 

"The former extent of this coal field must have been very consid- 
erably larger. It now forms an irregular basin, let down on all sides 
among rocks of an older age. When we consider that in the Albion 
mines district there is a section of measure 2,450 feet in vertical 
thickness, holding one hundred feet of coal, lying at an angle eighteen 
degrees denuded to a horizontal plane, it is evident that this great. mass 
of sediments, when lying undisturbed, must have stretched a consider- 
able distance over what are now the boundary rocks. 

"From the information at present available, the seams of this 
district may be divided into an upper and lower group, all included 
in 5,567 feet of measures, according to Sir William Logan. The upper 
group contains the following beds : 

Captain seam 4 feet thick. 

Millrace , . 4 feet. 

Geo. McKay 4 feet 10 inches. 

Seam 6 feet. 

McBean seam 8 feet thick. 

Pottery seam 2 feet 9 inches thick. 

Stewart McLennan 4 feet thick. 

"The first three mentioned seams occur as a small basin, in the 
eastern part of the district, and they are also believed to occur again 
as a small basin immediately in the rear of New Glasgow, while it 
is not yet settled whether the six and eight foot seams crop in the 
interval between the two basins, or reappear only near New Glasgow. 
This uncertainty is owing to the fact that little exploratory work has 
been done in this part of the coal field. 

"The upper group is represented on the western side of the East 
River by the small seams lying along the axis of the Albion Synclinal 
and not at present considered as occupying an area requiring extended 

"The lower group, hidden in the eastern district by the measures 


holding the seams just described, has been extensively worked to the 
west of the East River, and present the following section : 

Main seam 34 feet 7 inches. 

Deep seam 22 feet 1 1 inches. 

Third seam 5 feet 7 inches. 

Purvis seam 3 feet 6 inches. 

Fleming seam 3 feet 3 inches, 

McGregor 12 feet. 

Stellar seam 1 . . . . 5 feet. 

Seam A n feet. 

Seam C 10 feet. 

"There are other underlying seams. 

"The general form, of the main seam is that of an irregular 
synclinal, the north edge of which has been proved on the Montreal 
and Pictou area, opposite New Glasgow. The seam opened at Culton's 
Mill Pond, to the southeast of the Intercolonial Colliery, is believed 
to represent the extreme southerly extension of the main and other 
seams in that part of the district. The coal from this seam at the 
Albion Mine is well known as a very good steam coal, and also yields 
a coke of good quality. There are within the limits of the district 
several large and valuable undeveloped areas ; and in the event of an 
extension of trade the output of this coal field could be largely in- 
creased. No complete estimate has yet been made of the coal contents 
of this district, as there is so large a portion of it untested. An idea 
of the immense quantity of coal contained by the thick seams of this 
field in a limited space may be gathered from the fact that the area 
of the Halifax Company is estimated to contain 67,365,000 tons of 
available coal, after making every deduction for faults, lost pillars, etc. 

"The northern extension of this coal field is cut off at New Glasgow 
by a bed of conglomerate believed to have been brought up by a 
fault from the upper part of the millstone grit. This is succeeded to 
the north, in the district between New Glasgow and Pictou, by the 
upper non-productive measures. It is the opinion of Dr. Dawson and 
others that the true coal measures are beneath this covering of new 
strata. Attempts were made to prove this by a bore hole some years 
ago*, but the operation was not carried far enough to allow of a 
decision. The truth of the opinion, which certainly is based on good 
grounds, should be carefully tested. If the anticipations proved cor- 
rect, an immense coal field would be opened up under and around 
Pictou Harbor, the value of which could scarcely be estimated." 

The production of the Pictou County coal mines has been lim- 


ited by the demand, and not by the opportunities to obtain the coal, 
which are equal to an immense output. Says Prof. Leslie: 'The 
Albion Mines beds are very extraordinary deposits; they form an 
exception to all the phenomena of coal in the British provincial coal 
regions. Nothing like' them has ever been discovered in the Prov- 
inces. The thickest beds discovered in Cape Breton, East Coast, are 
never over twelve feet thick, and usually under nine feet; but here 
we have one bed the main seam thirty feet six inches thick, of 
which twenty-four feet are good coal, the other portion poor coal 
and black shale in intermediate layers. The enormous quantity of 
coal here presented can only be estimated properly by those who have 
been used to the vast operations on the gray ash part of the anthra- 
cite, where the regular thirty feet vein yields at least twenty millions 
of tons to the square mile after all deductions have been made." 

The total coal production o<f Pictou County for the year 1901, 
as given in the Report of the Department of Mines, is 490,168 tons, 
against 538,884 tons in 1900. The Acadia Company raised 271,145 
tons, and the Intercolonial Company raised 219,023 tons. During 
the summer the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company opened a 
colliery on one of the seams oi the marsh group between New 
Glasgow and Thorburn. 

To describe in any detail the fine equipments of the companies 
operating the coal mines of this district would require not only a 
good deal o>f space, but in these days of rapid changes resulting in 
the amalgamation of large concerns my story might easily become a 
bit of ancient history before it got out of the publisher's hands. Be- 
fore me lies a finely illustrated circular setting forth the management 
and many merits of the Drummond Colliery, that in the last thirty- 
two years of its operation the proprietors have paid out in wages 
$3,544,000, for goods purchased $1,090,000, and for royalty on coal 
to the Government of Nova Scotia $239,000. Here too before me 
is no lack of material descriptive of the great works of the Nova 
Scotia Steel and Coal Company at Ferrona and Trenton in this 
county. Something of the history of this huge concern may be found 
in the chapter on iron in this volume. In connection with the "Stella" 
and other measures has sprung up the thriving community of Stellar- 
ton, where large mining operations are carried on at the Albion 
Mines. Whoever desires to see a detailed history of the various 
companies and their operations in this county will find much in that 
line in Dr. Patterson's excellent History ctf Pictou County. Enough 


has been set down here to show the vast quantity of coal that is 
lying within the limits of this district. The early settlers there, who 
suffered great hardships, little thought that under their feet were 
national bonanzas and kings' ransoms that had been getting into 
conditions suitable for human use during some twenty million years. 
The Pictou collieries have been very unfortunate in destructive fires 
and fatal explosions. Owing to many causes, during the last twenty 
years there has been but little gain in the amount of output, but the 
prospect is now -very encouraging for a notable enlargement of the 
business. This county long stood at the head of our coal producers, 
but in 1 88 1 Cape Breton County forged ahead by a long distance, 
and ever since has made competition for first place entirely hopeless. 

We come now to consider the coal fields of Cumberland County. 
The total output for the year 1901 was 478,226 tons, a little falling 
away from the production of 1900. It should be borne in mind that 
the output in all cases is mostly governed by the amount that can 
find a market, and in this respect is unlike the metallic mines that are 
generally worked to their full capacity. 

We will refer now to Dr. Gilpin's Government report made in 
1880 for general information concerning the coal areas of this county. 

" Cumber land County has only recently begun to take its place 
among the coal-producing districts. The first openings were made at 
the Joggins by the General Mining Association on two seams four and 
six feet thick. The extension of these seams inland forms what is 
considered the northern edge of the coal field, and openings have 
been made at several points on seams considered their equivalent. 
The identification of the seams, however, is not yet settled, as the 
continuity of the measures is broken by faults. At the River Herbert 
a five-foot seam has been opened, holding two partings, sixteen and 
ten inches thick, of shale. At Maccan only two seams have been 
found of workable size, the lower being four feet four inches thick, 
and the upper two feet four inches thick." 

A dozen years before Dr. Gilpin made his report from which I 
have quoted, some small discoveries of coal had been made at Spring 
Hill, that has since become a famous mining locality. In the Report 
of the Chief Commissioner of Mines for 1868 there is' the following 
mention made of this locality: "No new coal operations of any 
moment have been begun in this county, with the exception of some 
explorations at Spring Hill on the areas held by Mr. Black, by whom 
six shafts have been sunk, varying in depth from twenty to forty 
feet. These have been put down at intervals over a distance of about 


three-quarters of a mile, and have proved a very fine seam of coal, 
the thickness of which is eleven feet three inches ; it is being worked 
for land sale purposes. Other seams have also* been found on the 
property, which have not yet, however, been fully opened. They 
appear to be of a workable thickness. Total expenditure, $1,438. 
The settlement of the Intercolonial Railway, which is now under- 
stood will pass within three or four miles of the mines, and more 
particularly the speedy commencement of its construction, will tend 
to hasten the development of this district ; and a very important addi- 
tion to the coal-producing capabilities of the Province, it may be 
reasonably expected, will in no long time ensue. The position of 
this coal field in relation to the seaboard, and the facility of trans- 
mission thence of its produce, must give, it some advantages over 
more distant localities." 

It may be of interest to note from year to year the progress 
of this prospect to a mine of great importance, producing nearly 
one-half million tons annually. The report of the next year, 1869, 
remarks that "the operations at Spring Hill have been chiefly of 
an exploratory character. On the same seam opened last year by 
Mr. Black, levels have been driven a short distance from one of 
the shafts, and coal has been worked for land sale purposes. East- 
ward from the shaft, explorations have for some time been carried 
on for the purpose of proving the positions of the beds of coal 
before fixing on a site on which to establish works of an extensive 
and substantial character. These explorations have been made both 
on the property of Mr. Black and also on the areas belonging to the 
Hon. A. McFarlane; and although not yet completed, they have 
proved an uninterrupted range of the seams for some distance in an 
easterly direction. The openings have been made both on the crop 
of the seam in which mining has been carried on, and on that of 
one to the north of it, the thickness of which is thirteen feet three 
inches. Other seams have also been struck, the coal in all of them 
being of excellent quality. The subjoined analysis of the coal from 
the eleven foot three inch seam, the one at present worked, was 
recently made by the Geological Survey of Canada : 

"Volatile matter, water included 35-39 

Fixed carbon 60.46 

Ash 4- l S 

The expenditure for prospecting $ 807.34 

A joint expenditure is returned of 1,711.22" 


In the Commissioner's Report for 1873 ne savs : "Important 
additions to our knowledge of the resources of the Spring Hill dis- 
trict have been made. The Black or eleven-foot seam has been proved 
to the westward to lie in a. straight line as far as Miller's Hotel, 
where it bends somewhat suddenly around to the southward. The 
continuation appears to be further deflected until at a distance of 
one mile from the Spring Hill Colliery, it, or a seam very similar in 
character, is found trending still more to- the eastward and with a 
southerly dip. Should subsequent explorations prove the correctness 
of this surmise, and determine the lay of the seam, untroubled by 
serious faults, a rapid development of the coal trade in this county 
may be anticipated. The thirteen-foot seam, originally discovered 
on: the General Mining- Association's property, has been proved, to be 
an overlying seam, but has not yet been traced beyond the bend. In 
anticipation of the facilities of transit which the trade of this county 
must require when the collieries now being started are fully devel- 
oped, and when the output exceeds the local demand along the line 
of the Intercolonial Railway, a company has already begun to build 
a railway from Spring Hill to ParrsborO'. By this branch road the 
mines will be put into communication with the tidewater at the 
nearest and most convenient point of shipment, and the operators be 
enabled to compete in the market of New England, at present chiefly 
supplied from Cape Breton," 

Passing over several years during which there was a continuous 
verification of the good predictions made for this* property, we find 
that the report for 1886 has this item of interest concerning Spring 
Hill: "The Cumberland Railway and Goal Company have greatly 
enlarged their operations during the year. The output was 416,769 
tons, compared with 335,955 in 1885." 

We come now to consider the Joggins coal field on the Ghignecto 
Channel. They are not remarkable for their output of coal, but they 
are famous in the world of science. Nowhere is there known such 
a section, of coal measures exposed as the shores of this district pre- 
sent. Sixty years ago 1 the greatest geologist, in the person; of Sir 
Charles Lyell, visited and examined this locality, and thereby con- 
tributed very largely to a better understanding o>f the more difficult 
problems involved in the structure, and directing attention abroad to 
our coal measures by his own published accounts of his observations. 
He was accompanied by Mr. John William Dawson, afterwards Sir 
William D'awson, who was then a young man of great promise, and 


later on published a most exhaustive account of this locality. With 
them was Dr. Abraham Gesner, whose account of this section pub- 
lished in his "Geology and Mineralogy of Nova Scotia," had first of 
all directed Ly ell's attention to the place. Writing in 1828, Hali- 
burton gives: some account of this shore and its remarkable display 
of the coal seams. Dawson is the best guide and interpreter in this 
region, and we will follow his description as it occurs in the first 
edition of hia Acadian, Geology, 1855 : "This remarkable section, 
well known to geologists as the South Joggins section, extends across 
almost the whole north side o>f the Cumberland trough, and exhibits 
its beds in a continuous series', dipping south twenty-five degrees west 
at an angle of' nineteen degrees ; so that in proceeding along the coast 
from north- to south for a distance o'f about ten miles, we constantly 
find newer and newer beds, and these may be seen both iri bold cliff 
and in a clean shore, which at low tide extends to a distance of 
200 yards from its base. We thus see a series of beds amounting to 
more than 14,000 feet in vertical thickness, and extending from the 
marine limestone of the Lower Carboniferous series to the top of 
the coal formation. In the cliff and on the beach more than seventy 
seams of coal may be seen, with their roof-shales and under-clays, 
and erect plants appear at as many distinct levels; while the action 
of the waves and of the tide, which rises to the height of forty feet, 
prevents the collection of debris at the foot of the cliff, and continually 
exposes new and fresh surfaces of the rock." 

Probably no other coal section in the world affords at the same 
time such ample evidence of its origin and such an exhibition of 
vegetable and animal life of that age. The section may well be 
compared to the leaves of a mighty book on which are inscribed in 
one way and another th'e records of succeeding events that covered 
more than a million years, when as yet there was no higher creature 
in all the world than an imperfect lizard. In these strata one may 
see fossil trees rooted in the under-clays, turned to coal where they 
stood. One may see the unmistakable proofs of the submergence of 
forest after forest, to. be covered with sand and mud that formed 
another soil when it emerged above the waters again. The once 
hollow stumps of those coal trees have yielded reptilian remains of 
great interest, and in fact they were the first of their kind discovered 
in American coal measures when found there by Dawson and Lyell. 

Sir Charles Lyell, in his "Travels in North America," remarks 
that "I was particularly desirous, before I left England, of examining 


the numerous fossil trees alluded to by Dr. Gesner as imbedded in 
an upright position at many different levels in the cliffs of the South 
Joggins, near Minudie. I felt convinced that, if I could verify the 
accounts of which I had read of the superposition of so many different 
tiers of trees, each representing forests which grew in succession on 
the same area, one above another, if I could prove at the same time 
their connection with seams of coal, it would go farther than any 
facts yet recorded to confirm the theory that coal in general is de- 
rived from vegetables produced on the spots where the carbonaceous 
matter is now stored up in the earth. At Wolfville I hired a schooner 
which soon carried us across the Basin of Mines to Parrsborough. 
At that place I was joined by Dr. Gesner, and we went together to 
Minudie." I cannot, for lack of space, follow Sir Charles into the 
details of his examination, but it may be remarked that his own eyes 
confirmed the written accounts of Haliburton and Gesner, and he felt 
himself well repaid for this tedious detour from his. main journey. 

From the year 1862 there has been issued regularly a report of 
the Commissioner of Mines, and the first mention of the coal mines 
occurs in that of the year 1866, and therein is the first and earliest 
item within my reach of the operation of the Joggins Colliery, and 
'it runs in this way: "Joggins Colliery. Notwithstanding the well- 
deserved fame to which the extensively developed section of the coal 
measures on this coast has given rise, and the presence in it of over 
seventy beds of coal, only two seams are worked; the others being 
too thin to be worth opening. The principal workings are in the 
seam opened some years ago by the General Mining Association, and 
locally known as the King's seam. It dips to the southwest at an 
angle with the horizon of 19 degrees. On the surface the erections 
consist of a small steam engine of nine horse power for drawing the 
coal up the shaft, screens for cleaning the coal, and thirty-five work- 
men's houses and workshops, etc. The coal is taken in wagons 
carrying one and one-half ton to the shipping wharf near the adit. 
Situated 1,500 yards to the north of the crop of the King's seam 
is the other seam worked by this mine, and locally termed the 'Hard 
Scrabble' or 'Cumberland seam/ ' 

From the date of this report work has been continuous at this 
colliery, but at no time a large producer. Through the courtesy of 
Robert Archibald, Esq., the late manager of the Canadian Coals and 
Railway Co., Limited, that operates the Joggins Mines, I am enabled 
to give the following items of interest: "Our property is twelve 


square miles in extent. The seam varies in thickness, and its present 
working face is from four feet and a half to five feet and a half. 
The economic working of the seam is hindered somewhat by a band 
of fireclay situated in the center of the seam, varying from one foot 
to four feet in thickness. There are two slopes in operation, each 
sunk to a depth of 2,500 feet, and one of them is being sunk an 
additional depth of 600 feet. The coal is of good quality, and finds 
a ready market, principally in St. John, N. B. Trie property has 
been much improved lately. The mine is situated about twelve miles 
from Maccan on the Intercolonial Railway, and one mile from the 
shore, where a wharf and breakwater have been built ; and schooners 
carrying from 70 to 200 tons of coal are loaded there for Bay of 
Fundy ports. The average daily output at present, 1902, is about 
350 tons, and is being rapidly increased. The coal is practically 

The other small collieries of this district, according to official 
reports, are irregular producers. Their locations and interelations 
are described by Dawson as follows in his second edition of Acadian 
Geology, 1 878,: "Since the expiry of the exclusive privileges of the 
General Mining Association attempts have been made to obviate this 
disadvantage by opening mines on the Herbert and Maccan Rivers. 
Six companies have opened t works in this part of the district, under 
the names of the Victoria, Maccan, Chignecto, Lawrence, St. George, 
and New York and Acadia Mines. The beds which they work seem 
to be of a similar character with those of the Joggins, of which they 
are the direct continuation." 

It is very evident that Cumberland County is exceedingly rich in 
coal, and we may be sure that the small amount of prospecting has 
not yet revealed what the future investigator of the carboniferous 
system will yet bring to light. 

In Antigonish County there is a small area of coal measures 
where several seams have been discovered varying in thickness from 
three to six feet, accompanied by beds of oil shale. No collieries are 
in operation there, but the future, with other economic conditions, 
will doubtless make this district of value. 

Here we come to an end of the chapter on coal, that has already 
outrun its assigned limits. I hope it contains something that some- 
body will like to consult. At any rate, here is the proof that Nova 
Scotia contains vast stores of a form of wealth that must always be 
in demand. At no point is it possible for a colliery to be far removed 


from a seaport. It may be confidently expected that the productive 
area of Cape Breton coal measures will be greatly extended when the 
millstone grit formation has been thoroughly prospected. It may be 
a matter of interest to know that during twenty-five years ending in 
1900 the total output of the coal mines o>f Nova Scotia was forty- 
three million tons, an average of 1,720,000 tons per anitum, but this 
amount has since been far exceeded, as I have already shown. If 
the Provincial Government will take an interest in bringing to light 
the vast deposits of iron ore, especially in Cape Breton, it will be an 
intelligent policy almost sure to be followed by great economic results. 



This county has an area of 736 square miles, and this is within 
two counties of being the smallest in the Province. The population 
of 21,884 is not f ar behind the foremost in that respect. It is triangu- 
lar in shape and bounded by Digby, Shelburne, and the ocean. The 
physical aspect is not strikingly different from the Atlantic Counties 
of the Province. Fishing, farming, lumbering, ship-building, and 
mercantile business of one kind and another are carried on in this 
region. Yarmouth was visited by De Monts and Champlain in the 
summer of 1604; the latter named the entrance to the harbor Cape 
Forchu, a designation that it still bears. He says of the harbor : "It 
is very good for vessels as regards its entrance, but further up, it is 
almost dry at low tide, with the exception of a small river all sur- 
rounded by meadows which render the place very agreeable." His 
own words are : "Ce port est fort bon pour les vaisseaux en son entree, 
mais au fond il asseche presque tout de basse mer, hors le cours d'une 
petite riviere, tout environnee de prairies qui rendent ce lieu assez 
agreable." Campbell, in his history of Yarmouth, says: "This is 
certainly a highly flattering account of our mud flats, to describe them 
as meadows, and as rendering the place very agreeable. No doubt 
to the casual visitor in the spring of the year, and when the long fresh 
eel-grass was undisturbed by the keels of vessels and the hoe of the 
clam-digger, it would present a much more pleasing object than it does 
now, although it requires some exercise of imagination to speak of the 
flats as meadows." 

There was an older discovery of America than that of Columbus ; 
almost 500 years before, the Scandinavians of Iceland, who were 
fairly in league with the sea, drove their venturous prows into these 
strange waters when they had neither compass, quadrant, nor chart. 
The account of their voyages is preserved irl Icelandic writings. That 
they somewhere landed in Nova Scotia as they coasted from Green- 
land is a very reasonable expectation; that they made the port of 
Yarmouth seems to be indicated by the narrative. As if to confirm 
this latter conjecture, there have been discovered two inscribed stones 
within the limits of the harbor. One of them was found nearly a 
hundred years ago, the other only four years ago. They were about 





one mile apart and several hundred pounds in weight. The writing 
is cut into a hard quartzose rock in straight lines, and seems to be in 
the old Runic characters employed by the Scandinavians. An expert 
in such matters, Mr. Henry Phillips interprets the brief -record as 
follows: "HARKUSSEN MEN VARU" (meaning "Harko's son 
addressed the men"). This may not conclusively settle the matter 
of their origin and import, but it raises a strong presumption that 
they are genuine records of those intrepid voyagers. More light is 
desirable and it would be no matter for surprise if other records are 

The first white settlers of Yarmouth County were French. I find 
no exact date of their coming, and very likely there is none outside 
of France. In 1625 Charles de la Tour was living not far to the 
eastward on a harbor that still bears his name, where he had built 
a fort; very likely that his people began to make them homes in 
Yarmouth County about that time. Before the general expulsion of 
the Acadians in 1755 there were evidently several points where these 
people had made small settlements at Chebogue, Chegoggin, Eel 
Brook, Tusket, Pubnico, and Vaughan's Lake. As a rule they shared 
the fate of the other Acadians, and their old cellars long remained 
as grim and yawning monuments of the odd days and their pathetic 
hardships. A half dozen years later New Englanders began to arrive 
for permanent settlement. The history of Yarmouth County may be 
said to have then its beginning. The older occupancy came to a 
tragical end, the details of which had better be forgotten than kept 
alive by any persons or publications. The present generation is not 
responsible for the provocation nor the punishment. We can never 
mend the past. What's done is done, but we can improve upon the 
record. Given now such a choice, the Acadians would take some 
other course, and given such a problem the Government would employ 
a less drastic remedy for its solution. Many of these unfortunate 
people were able to return not long afterwards under a better under- 
standing and make them new homes. How well they have succeeded 
in becoming an important element in the county we shall see later on. 

In 1759 Governor Lawrence by proclamation invited desirable 
people to come here and settle in the Province where the Acadians 
had made improvements, or anywhere they desired. It had become 
evident that there must be an English population if the country was 
to be held for the English. There were several grants issued on the 
application of New England people before an actual beginning was 


made to settle the locality. On Tuesday, the Qth day of June, 1761, 
the first vessel arrived, having on board three families who all came 
.from Sandwich, Cape Cod. These were Sealed Landers, Ebenezer 
Ellis, and Moses Perry. On the following Thursday Jonathan Crosby 
and Joshua Burgess arrived with their families; they came from 
Connecticut. During the summer eight other families arrived, and 
they all returned within a year. Eighty people passed the first winter 
in this new home, and it was a sad and memorable one to them all. 
An expected vessel that was to have brought supplies failed to make 
her appearance, and the result was very serious. Almost half of 
them returned within a year. However, there were not lacking others 
more stout of heart to step into the breach, and the next summer we 
find these names added to the list and apparently all new arrivals, viz. : 
John Crawley, Captain Ephraim. Cook, Josiah Beal, Seth Barnes, 
Josiah Tinkbam, Benjamin Darling, Patrick Go wen, Samuel Harris, 
Phineas Durkee, Hezekiah Bunker, Richard Rose, Ebenezer Corning, 
Samuel Wood, and Ebenezer Moulton. Among these men Captain 
Ephraim Cook is a figure of more than ordinary interest, and a sketch 
of his career may well find a place in this connection. In the course 
of my reading, this vigorous character has turned up here and there. 
Murdoch says that Cook commanded one of the transports that 
brought out the emigrants to Halifax in 1749, and became a settler 
there. He appears to' have been a man of means, spending many 
thousands on his lots in the new town, and becoming a magistrate 
and a judge in the Court of Common Pleas. In the course of a 
couple of years he had fallen under the displeasure of Governor 
Cornwallis for insulting the judges and persisting in exercising the 
powers of a magistrate. He was twice imprisoned a few days; on 
one occasion he made an apology, on the other the case went to 1 trial 
and a jury acquitted him. Five years after the beginning at Halifax 
we find Cook engaged in making a settlement at Mahone Bay, where 
he erected a blockhouse, secured grants of land and a guard of sol- 
diers. So far as I know he did not do more than make a beginning, 
for he was the next year in command of a transport engaged in carry- 
ing away the Acadians. He was in Capt. Gamaliel Bradford's com- 
pany in 1758, and lost a leg at Schenectady by an accident and received 
a pension. In 1762 he turns up as one of the pioneers of Yarmouth. 
Almost twenty years later he was still there, as the following inter- 
esting documents will show. They are extracted from a -book entitled 
"The Annals of Yarmouth & Barrington," by Edward Duval Poole, 


., ..... 



1899. The author copied the contents of this volume from the 
archives of Massachusetts, where they have remained almost unknown 
and altogether unnoticed. Mr. Poole deserves much praise for his 
intelligent interest that has given us this interesting and instructive 
book, by which we can gain a true view of the condition and the 
political sentiment of the settlers during the stirring period of the 
War of the Revolution. 

"To the HONble the Senate and HO'Nble House of Representatives of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in General Court As- 
sembled at Boston June 1781 

"The petition of Ephraim Cooke, Esqr, of CaperSue in the Prov- 
ince of Nova Scotia, Humbly Sheweth 

/'That your Petitioner formerly belonged to Kingston within this 
Commonwelth where he now owns a Real Estate: from whence he 
moved to Nova Scotia, some years since, and he was a pensioner to 
this Government having lost his Leg in their service, but has never 
received his pension since the Commencement of the present War. 
That your pet'r lately came up to> settle his affairs and take care of 
his estate in Kingston. And is now about returning home if he can 
obtain a permit from your Honors. 

"He therefore humbly prays your Honors would be pleased to grant 
him a permit to return back to CaperSue and that he may have 
liberty to carry with him two barrels of sugar, one barrel of Rum 
and a barrel of Cyder. And also> that he may be permitted to, return 
here again & bring with him Fish, Beaver and other Furs. 

"Boston June 15 1781 Ephraim Cooke" 

The result of the petition was that he might take the provisions, 
liquid and solid, and go home, but he should not return. At any rate, 
he got on in the world. I notice that he was Registrar of Deeds 
in 1784, and the first captain of militia; always a man of influence, 
the founder of the fishing trade. He knew the locality of Yarmouth 
well before he came there to make a home. From his name, the 
place of his birth, and his marked traits I take that he was a de- 
scendant of Francis Cooke, a Mayflower Pilgrim. There was a 
strong dash of fighting blood in his stock. Eiphraim died in 1821, 
leaving many descendants. He had nine children in 1763. 

During several years the settlers struggled with many hardships 
and difficulties that were not unexpected. There were no roads; the 
soil was rocky and stingy; the winter season required stores of pro- 
visions to* meet its demands. A small grist mill and a rude saw 


mill were built, the former by Sealed Landers, the other by Ephraim 
Cooke. According to law a return of all the settlers in the township 
of Yarmouth was made in June, 1764, three years after the begin- 
ning. These names will always be matters of interest to people in 
\ and from that locality, and that is reason enough for their appearance 
>in this place. 

John Crawley, Ephraim Cooke, George Ring, Benjamin Darling, 
Ebenezer Haley, John McKinnon, Consider Fuller, Roger Merithew, 
Timothy Merithew, Wells Moreton, Samuel Wood, Moses Perry, 
Joshua Burgess, Sr., Joshua Burgess, Jr., Jonathan Crosby, Benjamin 
Crosby, Seth Barnes, Peleg Holmes, Samuel Godfrey, Prince Godfrey, 
Ebenezer Ellis, William Curtis, Edward T'inkham, Benjamin Robbins, 
Cornelius Rogers, Moses Scott, Samuel Aderton, Nathan Nickerson, 
Patrick Gowen, James Robbins, David Hersey, Moses Gowen, David 
Hersey, Jr., Lemuel Churchill total at Chebogue. 

Samuel Harris, Joseph Sanders, Sealed Landers, Joseph Pitman, 
Eleazar Butler, Phineas Dtirkee, Samuel Oats, Jonathan Woodberry, 
James Philpot, William Haskell, Eben Moulton, Joseph Stewart, 
Jonathan Baker, Elishama Eldridge, Judah Agard, Benjamin Brown, 
John Perry, Robert Haskell, Robert Durkee total on Cape Fochue 

In the whole township there were 246 people, and their live stock 
was as follows : Cattle, 267; sheep, 161 ; hogs, 195. Three schoon- 
ers were owned among them.? By some mischance there were several 
names omitted in this return; among them belong the following: 

John Richardson, Andrew Durkee, Levi Horton, Eleazar Hibbard, 
Josiah Beal. 

In three years after this return is dated, the township grant was 
drafted, and during that time there had been seventy new arrivals, 
very likely all of them from New England. Such a group of Puri- 
tans would not be long without public worship, and for the most part 
they were of the old Congregational faith. It is said that Eleazar 
Moulton was the first preacher and Samuel Wood the next. Their 
meetings were held in private houses till 1776, when a meeting-house 
was built in the township of Yarmouth. They had cause to remem- 
ber the verse of garbled Scripture that runs in this way : 
"Unless the Lord doth build the house 

The builders work in vain ; 
Unless the Lord doth finish it, 
'Twill tumble down again," 


for it was seven years from the time it was boarded before the out- 
side was finished and the pews were built. This indicates their lack 
of means, and not their want of interest in religious affairs. 

Haliburton in 1828 said in his history that "Yarmouth has always 
been in a state of steady improvement, and from its local advantages, 
and the enterprising spirit of its inhabitants, it promises to become a 
most flourishing and wealthy place." 

In 1790 there were 1,300 souls. 

In 1808 there were 2,300 souls. 

In 1822 there were 4,000 souls. 

In 1827 there were 4,350 souls. 

Of these, there are forty families belonging to the Church of 
England, amounting to 200 souls, and families of- Catholics amount- 
ing to 40, and 720 families of Dissenters of different denominations. 

The historian's prediction- was verified touching the future pros- 
perity of Yarmouth. It has become second only to Halifax in com- 
mercial importance. Even when there were no* railroad connections, 
still there was the sea, and Boston only distant but a short run of a 
day or two. The stage lines kept them in touch with the other 
portions of the Province. Fishing and ship-building were prosecuted 
with remarkable intelligence and energy by these transplanted Yan- 
kees. Later the railway communication gave a new impulse to 
business and prosperity. The Yarmouth Steamship Company during 
several years, and until within a few months, provided the public of 
the whole Province with first-class steamship accommodations between 
their own port and Boston. This concern deserves to be held in 
grateful remembrance, not only by the people of Yarmouth, but by 
the thousands whoi were given safe passages and comfortable ac- 
commodations by their efforts. The present steamship service by 
the Dominion & Atlantic Railway is the successor to the old line. 
The railway, that now extends to Barrington, has proved to be rightly 
located, and therefore contributes not a little to< the prosperity of 
Yarmouth. That it will soon be extended to Shelburne and east- 
ward to Halifax is Almost a certainty. 

To give a good idea of the present condition of the fishery busi- 
ness in this town, which has become of more importance than any 
other, I can do* no better than insert some portions oif letters that were 
written for the Halifax Herald, November, 1901, by A. W. Eakins, 
President of the Yarmouth Board of Trade, and W. A. Killam, Sec- 
retary of the Harbinger Steam Trawling Company. 


Mr. Eakins says : "During the last twenty years the fish export 
business of Yarmouth has undergone a complete change. At the be- 
ginning of the period named, and for a decade or more previous to 
that, a fleet of about twenty-five brigantines and schooners was em- 
ployed in carrying cargoes of dry and pickled fish, and lumber, to 
the different markets in the West Indies and British Guiana; today 
there is but one vessel in the business. Yarmouth still exports a good 
many thousands of quintals and barrels of fish, but the business is 
done in a safer and more profitable way. Whereas formerly the car- 
goes were sent out on shippers' account and placed in the hands of 
commission merchants to be sold for what buyers chose to pay 
frequently netting; shippers a heavy loss today the fish are nearly 
always sold before they are shipped, and at prices made by the sellers. 
Some' of the orders are from the West Indies direct, but much the 
greater part are from New York dealers and exporters, the fish going 
though the United States in bond for export to Cuba, Hayti, San 
DomingO', Porto Rico, and elsewhere. The improvement in steam 
communication between; Yarmouth and Boston which has been going 
on during the period mentioned has greatly favored the change noted. 
A direct line of steamers between here and New York would, of 
course, be of the greatest advantage to the business, and would with 
the tourist business develop a paying business on its own merits. It 
is to be hoped we may have such a line in the not too distant future. 

"The export of fresh fish to Boston with some shipments to New 
York has developed with the shipping facilities. This is more es- 
pecially true of the item of live lobsters, commencing with a half 
dozen barrels packed in wet moss and shipped once a week in the 
'Old Dominion,' back in the seventies, and growing to a total of 
fifteen thousand crates of 140 pounds each during a season. Mackerel 
are in some years shipped to Boston in ice by the thousand barrels; 
other years the catch is almost a total failure. The fish come up the 
Atlantic coast of the United States in the early spring, and about the 
tenth of May in each year they strike across from Cape Cod to Nova 
Scotia ; they skirt the shore from Black Point around Cape Sable and 
east to the Straits of Canso, thence through to the waters of North- 
umberland Straits to the Bay of Chaleur and that region, where they 
stay and grow fat. During the months of May and June, and some- 
times July, while passing this shore, they are taken in nets and traps, 
but the business is uncertain and sometimes a losing one. 

"A new departure has just been taken in the fresh fish business 




by a Yarmouth company in the building of a couple of fine steam 
trawlers for fishing on these shores. The first of these steamers, 
the 'Harbinger/ has been about a month in service, and seems to be 
doing well. The fish are landed every day or two and sold fresh, 
the buyers converting the haddock into 'finnan haddies,' for which 
there is a large and growing Canadian market, and salting or ship- 
ping the rest fresh, as may be deemed best. The second steamer, the 
'Messenger/ has just been launched, and is being fitted with her 
machinery. If this venture proves to be the success that is hoped 
for it, it will be the means of making Yarmouth the most important 
fish-distributing port in the Province, because, without doubt, other 
steamers will be added as the business warrants." 

Mr. Killam writes as follows: "In compliance with your re- 
quest, I will give you my views* of the fresh fish industry of Yar- 
mouth. Yarmouth today ships more fresh fish to the United States 
markets than any other county in the Province; including their 
Canadian shipments, from six to seven million pounds, including shell 
fish, annually for the past few years, would be a fair estimate. This 
includes half a* million pounds from West Port and St. Mary's Bay 
ports, and one million pounds from Shelburne County, chiefly Cape 

"It is not because we have better fishing grounds, but it is because 
we have such splendid freight service to Boston and New York, our 
best markets. We can put our fish on T wharf, Boston, in sixteen 
hours, and at Fulton Market, New York, in thirty-six hours. This 
is why we are ahead of the South Shore counties in fresh fish. Let 
the South Shore have railroad service to Yarmouth and you will soon 
see that one boat a day to Boston will not do the work. . 

"The fishing grounds from Cape Sable to Sambro are among the 
best. But there is no encouragement for fish people to strike out 
unless they have facilities for shipping fish fresh, and that means 
railroad or daily steamship service to Yarmouth." 

With this notice of the town of Yarmouth we must pass on to 
other localities within the county that space forbids an extended 
mention. We pass on to notice the township of Argyle. On the 
6th of July, 1771, it was resolved by the Council that the lands lying 
between the townships of Yarmouth and Barrington be erected into 
a township to be called Argyle. The name was given by Captain 
Ranald McKinnon, a soldier pioneer of that locality. Had he been a 

Campbell one could better account for his choice. The region had 


been sparsely settled by the French before the general expulsion. 
Preacher John Frost and several other families settled there in 1771. 
Haliburton three-quarters of. a century ago gives this account of the 
township: "Argyle lies between Yarmouth and Barrington, and is 
bounded on the south and west by the several courses of the sea coast. 
It includes all of the islands in front of it, and contains altogether 
120,000 acres, or about 187 square miles. This township affords 
many good situations for farming, and contains extensive marshes, 
particularly on the Tusket River at Abutic, PubnicO', and the harbor 
of Cobuiquit. The upland is somewhat inferior to that of Yar- 
mouth. At the mouth of the Tusket River there are about three 
hundred islands, called the Tuskets, many of which are well culti- 
vated and afford good shelter and anchorage for schooners. There 
are two French settlements in Argyle one at Pubnico, the other at 
Eel Brook; and at both of which places the people bear the repu- 
tation of being temperate, industrious, and hospitable. They keep 
good stocks of cattle, and are in general very comfortably settled." 

A correspondent of the Yarmouth Herald in 1875 says: "In the 
township of Argyle, except the traders and office-holders, every man 
almpst is a shipwright or a fisherman. Every able-bodied Frenchman 
there can handle a broad-axe or a fishing line with equal skill. They 
can build or repair their fishing craft in the winter a'nd man them in 
the summer season." Writing again in May, 1882, he says: "Yar- 
mouth County in her fishery product already holds a foremost place; 
and that portion of it known as Pubnico is not surpassed by any 
settlement in Nova Scotia in the thrift and independence of its people, 
whose neat and cheerful cottages, trim enclosures, and well-cultivated 
farms greet, the visitor upon either side of their beautiful harbor; 
and be it remembered this happy condition has been attained through 
a persevering prosecution of the fisheries, undaunted by an occasional 
failure and disappointment." Brown, in his history of Yarmouth, 
says: "The steady growth of Yarmouth in commercial importance, 
and the increase of her foreign trade, during the last half century have 
been largely due to the industry and enterprise of the people living 
upon the banks of the Tusket and Argyle Rivers, at Eel Brook, and 
at Pubnico. They themselves built the fishing vessels from the timber 
their own lands supplied. The fish these vessels brought to market 
enabled the port of Yarmouth to maintain and extend her commerce 
with the West Indies, and in a lesser degree with the United States." 

During the American War of the Revolution there were many 


arrivals at Yarmouth of persons known as Loyalists. Some of them 
were doubtless for King and country, and true British; but many of 
those who fled to Halifax and other portions of the Province were 
desirous of getting out of a region where there was something more 
than a mere scrimmage. It was, not loyalty in many instances. It 
is a very noticeable fact that during the war the American settlers 
in Nova Scotia, and nearly all of English blood were of that na- 
tionality, were largely in favor o>f the American cause. This may 
readily be seen by referring to the letters of Governor Legge written 
from Halifax in those times. 

Writing to the Earl of Dartmouth, Secretary of State, date of 
July 31, 1775, he tells him: "Our inhabitants of Passamaquoddy 
and St. John's River are wholly from New England, as are a greater 
part of the inhabitants of Annapolis River and those of the townships 
of Cornwallis, Horton, Falmouth, and Newport, some of which are 
not forty miles from this town; that by reason of their connection 
with the people of New England little or no dependence can be placed 
on the militia there to make any resistance against them ; that many 
in this town are disaffected, on whom likewise I can have no great 
dependence." He furthermore tells his Lordship that the House of 
Assembly was composed of several persons disaffected to the Gov- 
ernment. We also know that in the counties of Cumberland and 
Colchester most of the able-bodied men refused to serve in the militia 
and declared in a petition that it was a great hardship to demand 
"their services against their own countrymen and relatives," They 
refused to take the oath of allegiance when magistrates were sent there 
from Halifax to swear them. However, there were many true Loyal- 
ists who made sacrifices for what they believed to be a good cause 
and became valuable additions to Nova Scotia and other portions of 
Canada. There was a good deal of whining over the treatment they 
received at home, and considerable sympathy has been shown for them 
by writers hereabouts ever since. Let it be remembered that, had 
the revolutionists lost their cause, that the British heel would have 
rested hard on the necks of the rebels. I am not yet an old man, 
but can well remember when English soldiers blew rebellious Sepoys 
into fragments from the mouths of cannons ; and we need not go so 
far away in date, when reconcentrado camps on the African veldts 
are repeating the horrors of Weyler in Cuba. "War is hell" we 
can afford to repeat it and the old Loyalists had more than a taste 
of that article. Their cause was lost in the nature of things; there 


was no other reasonable solution of the problem. The great American 
Anglo-Saxon nation could not be longer delayed in its birth ; nothing 
could overlay it. Destiny makes very cheap a good deal of simper- 
ing stuff that gets into books as historical studies. Men who 1 find 
themselves on the wrong side of political or religious questions in all 
good conscience must learn, like St. Paul did, that a conscience may 
be a mighty poor guide on some occasions. The loss to the Ameri- 
cans of good material for national purposes was a gain to these 
northern provinces inj more ways than one. These very people had 
been, from time out of mind, when at home, great sticklers for personal 
liberty; even in religion they must worship after Congregational 
fashion, and did not relish the touch of any kind of a harness. 

We owe the Americans who came before the Loyalists a debt of 
gratitude for their sturdy insistence of the enjoyment of privileges 
that were reluctantly granted by English Governors in Halifax. 

The original center of Loyalist population in this county was in 
Tusket, and thence- they finally spread into the surrounding districts. 
They arrived there about 1785, and first consisted of twenty-five 
families, viz. : Hatfield, Lent, Blauvelts, Sargents, Smith, Andrews, 
Tboker, and others whose names are now household words. Many 
of them brought their negro slaves with them. At the time they 
settled, there were vestiges of the Acadian homes in the locality. 

The coast of Yarmouth County is rugged- and picturesque, and 
wherever there is a settlement a tourist will be sure to find during 
the milder months a cool and delightful resting place beside the surge 
of that "old mother ceaselessly rocking." Where all these quiet re- 
sorts are so healthful and pleasing, one does not care to point out 
particular localities, and to describe them all is beyond my limit of 
space. Port Maitland, Chebogue, Tusket Islands, Argyle, and Pubnico 
are important points. Milton and Hebron, near the town of Yar- 
mouth, are thriving and pleasing localities. In the more central 
region are Carleton, Kemptville, Deerfield, and Canaan, where lumber- 
ing and farming are the principal occupations. The whole county to 
an unusual degree is diversified with beautiful lakes and streams that 
in the remoter districts make a sportsman's paradise that we hear 
about now and then. He who desires to know more of this county 
from books can get his fill of "endless genealogies," and they are not 
to be despised, and details of early days and ancient people in the 
two histories written by Rev. J. R. Campbell and George S. Brown, 
Esq., the first in 1876, the other in 1888. I am indebted to both 


authors, who deserve credit for their work, that will increase in 
value as the years pass away. 

The geology of this county is. very like that of Shelburne in 
general features, as one might expect with nothing but an arbitrary 
line between them. About one-fifth of the area is granite; it occurs 
in a long tongue extending from Shag Harbor up the county line 
more than half its length. At the extreme northeastern point of the 
county there is another area of some sixty or seventy square miles, 
and Tusket Wedge is also granite. All the other portions belong to 
the Cambrian formation, and include quartzites, slates, gneisses, and 
schists. Gold-bearing strata occur at Cranberry Head and Kempt 
and other localities, but paying mines have not yet been operated. 
The prospecting has been very inadequate to test the discoveries 
already made, to- say nothing of coming upon new finds ; but it may 
be safely said that the sea is the best gold mine this locality will 
ever enjoy, and unless this magnificent heritage is despoiled by greed 
and ignorance, the supply of riches will last as long as men will be 
there to need them. 



Said a pagan Roman, "Nothing that is human is foreign to me." 
Surely the earliest inhabitants of Nova Scotia deserve to be noticed in 
a large book devoted to that Province. They were not only human, 
but interesting and instructive. Their history ought to furnish some- 
thing worth knowing, something from which to draw lessons of moral 
worth, or educational value. The mounds of Palestine are ransacked 
with pick and shovel for some fragment of the Hittites, who have 
been extinct almost as long as the mammoths. Books are written to 
describe their crude writings, and in vain attempts to interpret their 
meaning. All this is well, but it is equally wise to acquaint ourselves 
with the history of the people who were first to enter our land after 
the glacial period had reconstructed its surface, and wild beasts and 
birds had made their homes in this northern retreat. The white pio- 
neers called them savages French, sauvage meaning people who 
dwelt in the woods, as the word heathen referred to people who lived 
on the heath, and pagans, to those who dwelt in villages. To Chris- 
tian ears, these terms have now a new significance, detrimental and 
degrading, and by no means deserving. Thus the Indian was not only 
a savage, but a heathen, and pagan, besides. Let us briefly pass in 
review the aborigine of Nova Scotia as he was before the touch of 
degrading, tendencies reduced him to basketry, and beggary, to shan- 
ties, and cook-stoves. 

If it is worth while to reconstruct the ancient brutes from their 
fossil bones, and show what were their appearances, and habits, then 
it is surely more desirable to get a correct idea of these people who 
greeted the white strangers, and welcomed them to the land that had 
been theirs beyond the limits of all traditions. Let us get a definite 
notion of the situation. Here was a country during half the year sub- 
jected to cold and snow. Beyond a few nuts, and berries, the land was 
fruitless. There were wild, animals in the forest, and food fishes in 
the rivers and sea. The problem was to get food and shelter out of 
this environment, with no tools but sharpened stones, no weapons but 
bows, and arrows, and clubs, with which to get clothing from the 
backs of wild creatures, and sew it into garments. This people con- 
tended with these and many more difficulties, and came out ahead. 



They built beautiful boats of bark ; they made comfortable houses of 
the same material. They fashioned needles and fish-hooks of bone, 
and to have thus equipped themselves with material implements they 
could not have been slack in mental endowments. In a close contest 
of that kind neither idiots nor sluggards could survive. Add to 
these requirements the demand for protection against his own spe- 
cies who prowled in these distant forests on the war path, and we 
must see that the Indian needs be hunter, fisher, and fighter. He 
must know something of distant tribes and their country, and he did 
know from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the Great Lakes, and 

southward to the Hudson River. The adult Indian must have known 

this Province as but few white men know it today. He could map 
its coast, and lakes, and streams, and canoe carries. He knew how 
to find his way through forests without a compass, and even in the 
cloudy night could feel his course by the moss on the south side of 
the trees. He knew when and where to fish and hunt, knew when 
the wild beasts brought forth their young, and when the fishes 
spawned. All four-footed mammals and all birds were his intimate 
acquaintances, and he was familiar with their haunts and dispositions 
and instincts as. one brought up with them. The moose in their 
winter yards had no habits of lying down, and going hither and yon, 
that this keen-eyed man had not learned to a nicety. The caribou on 
the open bogs and high barrens had inventories made of all their 
timorous tactics that turned on the acuteness of their noses and the 
fleetness of their limbs. The beavers working on their dams and 
houses under cover o>f darkness had not eluded the observations of 
this silent spy, who jotted down every item of their practical doings 
and domestic economy. Thus it ran through the whole range of 
natural history. Every living thing, from insects to whales, he knew 
and appropriately named. His life depended upon the superiority of 
his wits when measured with the wild creatures about him. He 
must have their skins for clothing and bedding, and their flesh for 
food, and these could only be gotten by skill in hunting and dexterity 
with bows, and spears, and fish-hooks, and canoes. The Indian boy 
began his nature studies early. He would have a stern demand for 
all he could learn from his elders and from the use of his own eyes 
and ears. There were no school houses, but there were pupils with- 
out books or slates who could have shamed the high school youth by 
their proficiency in knowledge of natural things. It is very true that 
they did not know the dimensions of the moon and sun and their 


distances from the earth, and had no knowledge which planet was 
Jupiter or Saturn, or what were their dimensions; and neither do 
the first fifty white men we meet in our streets today. 

All the trees, and plants, these stone age people had named, and 
their uses, and properties, and virtues were matters of common in- 
formation. The lakes, and streams, and harbors, and headlands were 
appropriately designated in a language so soft and liquid that it 
seemed to be borrowed from the notes of the hermit thrush and the 
far-away tinkling of woodland brooks. People like these, who- conr 
tended successfully against such odds of circumstances, were no 
weaklings in body or mind. Their language bears ample testimony 
to their mental superiority. Says Dr. Rand, the author of the Micmac 
Dictionary, Reading Book, and other related publications: 'The 
Micmac, like most if not all the North American languages, is re- 
markable for its copiousness, its regularity of declension and conju- 
gations, its expressiveness, its simplicity of vocables, and its .melliflu- 
ousness. In all these particulars and others it will not suffer from a 
comparison with any of the most learned and polished languages of 
the world. A language which contains, besides the tens of thou- 
sands of forms in their inflections and conjugations, forty thousand 
ground forms and more." 

These Stone Age men had not only observed and named the 
objects about them, but they had lifted up their eyes to the heavens 
and noted the constellations and named them. The conspicuous 
planets had also their proper designation, as Ganoose, the leader of 
the host, for Venus as evening star ; Ootatadabun, the herald of dawn, 
for the morning star. Beyond all question these people were not 
lacking in healthy curiosity and its accompanying intelligence. Had 
they discovered the art of smelting iron ore, and of writing, a thousand 
years before the coming of their pale-faced conquerors, then their 
historical libraries would have lacked nothing of interest that others 
of the kind now possess. That they did not make these discoveries 
does not argue against their intellectual vigor. For thousands of 
years, from the Euphrates to the Pillars of Hercules, there were 
people with great nations in their loins who* had not gotten beyond 
the picture writing of North American Indians. We have no more 
than a mention of them by Cartier in 1534 until Marc Lescarbot in 
1609, who had lived in Annapolis a year or two at that period, gives 
us some account of them. During this interval nearly a century 
had passed, in which they had been more or less in contact and trade 


with French, Portuguese, and Biscayan fishermen, and fur traders. 
They had then thrown aside their bows and arrows, and stone 
weapons, and fur clothing for the superior arms and cheaper garments 
of their foreign friends. These would seem to have been great ad- 
vantages, but they were not. It was a sudden liberation from the 
ancient bondage imposed by necessity to be ever at work in some 
directions. No more slow fashioning of stone tools, no more long 
tasks of chipping and cutting with such wretched implements. More 
game could be secured in one day with a musket than in many days 
with bows and arrows and traps. The skins of a few beavers and 
otters readily taken could be exchanged for clothing that would have 
required weeks of labor to tan and soften for wear. A man could 
make several canoes with the use of steel knives ancj axes while he had 
been constructing one of a ruder build with his old contrivances. 
All of these apparent advantages gave him. 1 more leisure which he 
could not employ in any way to his profit. His idle brain sought out 
undesirable channels for amusement. The men who sold him useful 
inventions also introduced him to the deadliest enemy of mankind, 
to that to which he had been heretofore an entire stranger. They 
made him acquainted with firewater, and he took to it as if it had 
been his mother's milk. He had been for at least three generations 
under the agencies of degradations that came with white men before 
we have more than the merest mention of him. Had he discovered 
and invented the better conveniences of life, and slowly given place 
to them in the natural way, the result would have been sure improve- 
ment; but it was a very different result when into their hands and 
arms dropped knives, and axes, and firearms, and tools, and cloth, 
and leather, and jewelry, as if the apron strings of some overgracious 
Providence had suddenly given way over their heads, and deluged 
them with unheard-of riches. Such a surfeit of good things was 
sure to operate to their degradation. The firm fiber of their old 
energies slackened and grew flabby. The keen senses of sight and 
hearing falling out of sharp demand, lost their fine edge that once 
vied with the fowls of the air and the brutes in their coverts. 

However, after he had been nearly a century on the down grade, 
let us see what are the glimpses we get of him. Physically he was 
of medium size, high-shouldered, light-limbed, well-arched instep, 
fleet of foot and long-winded as a moose. Jet black hair, cut square 
across the forehead, and the other portions of it suffered to grow to 
considerable length. Ochre-red skin, black eyes, obliquely set under 


an intelligent brow and connected with goodly brain dimensions; 
nostrils wide, high nose, especially among adult men; beardless faces, 
square jaws, and lips that well expressed determination, but were no 
strangers to smiles. The testimony is all to the effect that they 
were very fond of their wives and children, took care of the helpless, 
and were hospitable almost to a fault. They had no system of religion, 
but held to some vague beliefs in spirits of various kinds. Of a future 
life there was no definite faith, but apparently a general belief in a 
ghost world, where this life had a shadowy continuance. They 
readily became attached to Roman Catholicism, as they had nothing 
to give up nor turn away from, for there was no* priesthood, no 
temple, no sacred books, no venerated altars, nor any trace or tatter 
of a religious creed. Their French friends had brought them many 
very useful things, and what more natural than the supposition that 
this religion was equal to the rest of them. In fact it was admirably 
suited to them. It had been long before adjusted to such needs as 
theirs. It was picturesque and authoritative, appealed toi the moral 
sense and religious sentiment, and they became what .they have always 
been ever since, adherents of the Roman Church, and all attempts 
to separate them from that faith have been deservedly futile. 

We must not suppose that the Indians who greeted the first white 
men were a lot of cruel wretches unrestrained by any sense of duty 
or any sentiments, of natural affection. It is true that they were 
sometimes at war, just as Christian nations are today and were then. 
It is related that an Indian rebuked Captain Argall and Biencourt 
when they were quarreling over the right to Annapolis, that the 
former had just laid in ruins, telling them that "such superior nations 
should be ashamed to be engaged in quarrels that were not becoming 
even to savages." They had no law books and no law courts, but 
they had unwritten lawsi and public sentiment sufficient to punish 
offenders. Theft and murder were almost unknown among them. 
The women behaved with modesty, and the men had a respect for the 
common proprieties of life. They lived, and loved, and had a fair 
measure of enjoyment, as one may infer that their Maker intended 
they should. They were not overlooked in the large order of things. 
Scarcely a vestige of them is left but their inferior descendants, who 
are disappearing as a degraded remnant. The same resistless fate 
that stifled with sand the glories of hoary Egypt, and buried the 
splendors of Babylonian dynasties under shapeless mounds, has left 
us no record of the people who lived and died by hundreds of thou- 


sands during their long occupancy of our land. Their graves are 
hidden away in forest solitudes, by the shores of lonely lakes and 
streams. In such localities were their "God's acres," where they 
were laid to rest in their garments of fur and their birch-bark coffins. 
The white men were not above robbing these graves for the peltry 
that wrapped the dead. 

Many years ago a friend of the writer, and also a friend of an 
Indian who 1 accompanied him, chanced to' be encamped for the night 
on an islan,d in a lake that lies far from the haunts of men in the 
western border o-f Queens County. The Indian was a man o>f middle 
life. When the fire was kindled and supper was done he .told his 
companion that he had not been on that place since he was a small 
lad, when he landed there one afternoon with his father and mother 
and younger brother, who was taken sick in the night and before 
morning was gone forever. The next day his father made a grave 
and fashioned a bark coffin, and the dead child was pillowed on moss, 
the grave covered with flat stones, and left to the care of Him who 
marks the sparrow's fall. While he told the story of this gray trag- 
edy his emotions choked him to almost inaudible speech. The next 
morning the Indian led the way to a low hilltop that overlooked the 
lake, and after several adjustments of himself with old trees and 
rocks on the main shore he said, "We buried him here." And he 
was right. Covered deep under leaves were the stones, and a ring 
of smooth, pretty pebbles from the beach encircled the small grave. 
They had been placed tenderly there by hands that could not see their 
work for tears, and this untutored Indian wept, after all the lapse of 
years, for the lost playmate of his boyhood. And thus we see one 
"touch of nature makes the whole worldx kin." 

From the first, the Indians and the French were on excellent terms. 
They often intermarried, and there was no interruption of their 
friendly relations. When it became evident, as it did in a half dozen 
years after the settlement of Annapolis in 1605-6, that the English- 
men were disputing the claims of Frenchmen to this land of Acadie, 
and carried fire and sword into their settlements, then the red men 
stood by their friends, as might have been expected. When in 1749 
Halifax was founded, and it was thus clearly the intention of the 
English to do something more than keep a Governor and a squad of 
soldiers at Annapolis, the Indians became a weapon in the hands of 
the French at Louisburg and Quebec. The French population of 
Acadie could not, and dared not make an uprising against the English 


treaty rights, but the Indians could be used as instruments of death 
and destruction. They were instigated to- commit depredations and 
paid for their atrocities. They were told that this was legitimate 
warfare. Their religious teachers, especially iru the notable instance 
of. La Loutre, fortified their courage with approval that held good 
for more worlds than one. There were raids and scalpings at Dart- 
mouth, and Chester, and other localities, till successive Governors 
placed a cash bounty on Indian scalps and prisoners. These natives 
were not the kind of men that more than two hundred years before 
greeted Cartier. It is easy to go down hill. They had been on a 
toboggan slide of degradation for six generations. They had been 
men without a. country, without chiefs, without organization. They 
had dropped into the condition of mere hangers-on to the French con- 
querors. They had lost their arts and their manners. They had no 
cause at heart, no land to defend, no homes to guard, for no' one 
threatened them- at the beginning. 

After the French expulsion in 1755 they were joined by fugitives 
who had escaped the general deportation. For a time this combina- 
tion was harassing, but in 1761 a treaty was signed at Halifax and 
peace declared. Louisburg was in ruins, Quebec had fallen to the 
English arms, and all was over for France in this New World. The 
Indians then numbered! about 2,000. The Government assisted them 
with provisions, ammunition, and clothing. They hunted, trapped, 
and made baskets. 'They lived in birch-bark wigwams, dressed in 
their own fashion, that had more than a touch of barbarism in it. 
An observer in Halifax in 1779 says: "Lieutenant Governor Frank- 
lin had many Indians in his train arrayed in all their tinsel finery, 
amongst whom was a sachem who wore a long blue coat adorned by 
a scarlet cape, and bound closely about his loins by a girdle." During 
the American-English war of 1812 some of these Indians actually got 
quite into fighting trim, and so* far as sentiment went took sides with 
the Americans. It was only big talk among restless spirits who 
still chafed over the loss oi their hunting grounds. Within thirty-five 
years an aged Micmac told me with no little show of spirit that 
"all these lands belonged to his people, who had been robbed by white 
men." Within the last forty years they have rapidly adopted the 
usages of other people around them. Small houses and shanties have 
taken the places of the picturesque bark wigwams, their campfires 
have given way to old stoves, and men and women, are largely clad 
in the cast-off garments of their white neighbors. Some of them try 


to farm a little ; others act occasionally as guides, or build canoes, or 
catch salmon and trout; a few of the younger men are employed at 
times in the lumber woods and on the timber drives. They are not suc- 
cessful in the occupation of white men. They are lacking in steadiness 
of purpose and proper ambition. The old fiber and energy that be- 
longed to' their forefathers centuries ago is no longer in them. The 
blood of white men circulates in the veins of many of them, but such 
commingling of races has not been attended with happy results; the 
pure-blooded Indian was a better man. All the less desirable traits 
of the Caucasian seem lost in this amalgamation. There are now 
about 1,500 of these people in this Province, distributed over its whole 
extent. They are so thoroughly communistic in their usages that no 
one of them is much better off than another. Whoever claims hos- 
pitality among them must have it ; that is the unwritten law. They 
are well informed about their family connections, even to remote 
degrees of kinship, and a windfall of luck will be very likely to secure 
a visit from some of them. There is no hope of any great improve- 
ment among them. A well-devised educational plan might rescue a 
remnant, but that is out of the question in these times when larger 
interests are clamoring for attention. The leopard cannot change his 
spots nor the Ethiopian his skin, nor can these people change their 
natural characteristics. It takes more than a dash of white blood 
to make one of them walk and run like a white man. A certain 
limberness of the knees, and gliding softness of step are characteristic 
touches wrought into their muscles and geared into their joints by 
their hunter's mode of life that goes back through tens of thousands, 
perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, to the beginning o-f the 
human race. He walks stealthily on the broad highway in daylight. 
He speaks in subdued tones in his board shanty because his language 
was evolved in the presence of game that he needed and human foes 
that he feared. He laughs in silence, for the most part, because a 
loud indulgence would have betrayed his presence to animals that he 
hunted or enemies who hunted him. Much of their ancient usages 
and history are still to be seen in their bodies and their movements 
and manner of life. For a long time we have not treated them very 
well, and now they have been handed over to> the "tender mercies," 
which are "cruel," of the Indian Department at Ottawa. No provi- 
sions are made for them in the poorhouses. No pauper's aid is ex- 
tended to- them in any way. *A sick or otherwise disabled Indian 
must either perish or throw himself on the charity of his people, who 


are always on the verge of want. The department will neither feed 
nor clothe him, and this to the shame of white Christians who taught 
him by word of mouth, and printed book that all men are brothers, 
and then proceeded to give him a practical illustration of the parable 
of the man who fell among thieves, with the part of Good Samaritan 
left out. 

The following verses on the Indian names in the Province were 
written by Mr. Richard Huntington of Yarmouth and will be appre- 
ciated by all who take an interest in this brief account of the aboriginal 
inhabitants : 

" The memory of the red man, 

How can it pass away 
While their names of music linger 

On each mount, and stream, and bay? 
While Musquodoboit's waters 

Roll sparkling to the main ; 
While falls the laughing sunbeam 

On Chegogin's field of grain. 

While floats our country's banner 

O'er Chebuctos' glorious wave, 
And the frowning cliffs of Scatarie 

The trampling surges brave; 
While breezy Aspotogon 

Lifts high its summit blue, 
And sparkles on its winding way 

The gentle Sissibou. 

While Escasoni's fountains 

Pour down their crystal tide; 
While Inganis's mountains 

Lift high their forms of pride; 
Or while on Mabou's river 

The boatman plies his oar, 
Or the billows burst in thunder 

On Chicaben's rock-girt shore. 

The memory of the red man, 

It lingers like a spell 
On many a storm-swept headland, 

On many a leafy dell; 


Where Tusket's thousand islets 

Like emeralds stud the deep, 
Where Blomidon a sentry grim 

His endless watch doth keep. 

It dwells round Catalone's blue lake, 

Mid leafy forests hid 
Round fair Discouse, and the rushing tides 

Of turbid Pisiquid. 
And it lends Chebogue a touching grace 

To thy softly flowing river, 
As we sadly think of the gentle race 

That has passed away forever/' 



The Island of Cape Breton has not lacked for historians. We have 
the following in English : "A History of the Island of Cape Breton, 
by Richard Brown, Esq., London, 1869," now out of print and scarce; 
"Cape Breton, Illustrated, Historical, Picturesque, and Descriptive, 
by John M. Gow, Esq., Toronto, 1893"; "Historical and Descriptive 
Account of the Island of Cape Breton, and of Its Memorials of the 
French Regime, with Bibliographical, Historical, and Critical Notes, 
by J. G. Bourinot, Montreal, 1892." About all there is of much histor- 
ical interest can be learned from these sources. 

Cape Breton enjoys the distinction of containing within its bound- 
aries vast commercial interests of world-wide importance, and the 
historic ruins of Louisburg. 

Who among white men first discovered this island will never be 
known, and perhaps that knowledge, if we possessed it, would not be of 
more service than the gratification of fruitless curiosity here and there. 
Very likely the Norsemen sighted it a thousand years ago. There is 
a strong probability that Basque and Breton fishermen crossed the 
Atlantic before Columbus, and drew their catch of cod or "baccalaos," 
as they called them, from Cape Breton waters, and sold them in the 
European market. The Cabots, in 1497, must have made some ac- 
quaintance with the coast, even if they never set foot upon the shores. 
Early in the sixteenth century Basque fishermen were there, and with 
them a little later French, Spanish, Portuguese, and English were 
fishing and fur-trading in Newfoundland, Cape Breton, and Nova 
Scotia. Anthony Parkhurst, a merchant of Bristol, in 1578 reported 
that he had made four voyages to that part of the world, or more 
particularly to Newfoundland, and he has this to say of the latter place, 
that there were generally more than 100 sail of Spaniards taking cod, 
and from twenty to thirty killing whales ; fifty sail of Portuguese ; 1 50 
sail of French and Bretons, mostly very small ; but English only fi-f ty 
sail. From 1600 to 1700 there was on the island a great deal of clash- 
ing of rival concerns engaged in fishing and fur-trading, but no serious 
attempt to found a colony. In 1690 there were only 806 white people 
in the peninsula of Nova Scotia, and in Cape Breton not a single fam- 
ily of European descent. The fishermen frequented the island as usual, 




and fur traders swapped their hatchets, and knives, and glittering 
gewgaws for valuable pelts that found a ready market in the Old 

By the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht the English had undisputed 
possession of the whole Atlantic coast from Florida to Hudson's 
Bay, including Newfoundland, and the only exception was the island 
of Cape Breton. It had become evident that France was losing her 
grip on this great domain that she had with proper pride named 
New France. Too late did she awake to the value and importance 
of these coast possessions. It become evident at last that it was 
absolutely necessary to hold this island for the protection of her fish- 
eries and for maintaining communications with the St. Lawrence. 
The most direct and portentous menace came from that fringe of 
English colonies to the southward called New England. They were 
a sturdy race, that did not stick at trifles, and very early discovered 
that North America, north of the torrid zone, was to be either English 
or French, and it fell to their lot, as they understood the problem, to 
be no feeble factors in furthering the plans of Providence. It was 
very evident that this island would not long remain a French pos- 
session when it stood thus alone. The first appearance of a quarrel 
between the parent States would be the signal for these New England- 
ers to seize Cape Breton. They had not suffered Port Royal or 
Annapolis to exist as a stronghold, and now with Nova Scotia and 
Newfoundland under the British flag Cape Breton was fair game on 
the first excuse. The Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, was the visible sign 
that France had met with serious reverses at home; it was the begin- 
ning of the end that saw her driven from this continent in less than 
a half century from that date. Thenceforth the destiny of the English 
in this quarter of the globe became manifest. A half dozen years 
after this treaty was concluded the French had perceived that nothing 
short of a vast effort on a national scale could prevent the red cross 
of England from floating over this Isle Royal, that in spite of a fine 
name had been shamefully neglected. In order to hold it there was 
not much choice of means. The natural suggestion was a fortified 
town that should be both a military post and a naval station, and 
after some casting about for a proper locality they hit upon the 
Havre a TAnglois, but not without considering the claims of St. Ann's 
and Sydney. In 1720 the work was begun, and for more than twenty 
years the French Government devoted great energy and immense re- 
sources to this one object, the completion of the work, that cost 


thirty millions of livres, or about six million dollars, or, taking into 
account the greater value of money in those days, over ten million 
dollars of our money, and even then/ the fortifications were never 
completed. The New Englanders were not in the least averse to 
taking advantage of the brisk times that resulted from such a great 
outlay of hard cash so near their own doors. They found a ready 
market for boards, timber, brick, and other products of their country. 
They knew the work would go on whether they furnished the material 
or not, so they pocketed all the French coin they could get in ex- 
change for their cargoes. Twenty-five years after the founding of 
this fortress town, these audacious New Englanders farmers, me- 
chanics, sailors, and traders appeared before Louisburg with a de- 
mand for its surrender. There was to be no more trading, but 
stubborn fighting. These fellows' had turned soldiers with wonderful 
readiness, and were not long in securing -this focal point of mischief, 
that was nothing less than a constant menace to their peace and 
prosperity. Some o>f the leading features of this expedition I have 
written out in the brief history of Nova Scotia in another portion of 
this volume. Three years later, in 1748, Cape Breton was restored 
to the French by the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in ex- 
change for Madras, on the other side of the globe. The next year 
the British founded Halifax in order to more securely hold the 
Province of Nova Scotia in a future struggle that was not far under 
the horizon at that time. Within eight 'years war was declared, but 
not till after Braddock's defeat and the fall of Beausejour and other i 
bloody hostilities had taken place without this formality. On. the 
27th of July, 1858, the British flag floated once more over the ram- 
parts of Louisburg, where Amherst, Wolfe, and Boscawen had dis- 
tinguished themselves. To prevent further trouble from that source 
the famous stronghold was destroyed, with the exception of a few 
residences. Three years later Cape Breton, with all other French 
possessions in this region, were ceded to the English by treaty, and 
this island domain by royal proclamation was Annexed to the Govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia. Two years later, in 1765, the population was 
only one thousand, consisting of French and half-breeds for the most 
part, scattered here and there, camping with the Indians., or in some 
other way picking up a precarious living. In 1783 another change 
was made and Cape Breton was made a distinct province. The first 
Governor was Major Frederick Wallet DesBarres, an English officer 
who had won his spurs at Louisburg and Quebec. He fixed his abode 


at Spanish River and renamed it Sydney, in honor of Lord Sydney, 
who had been instrumental in making this separation. The next 
year a number of persons styling themselves "Associated Loyalists*' 
sailed in three vessels for Sydney with about one hundred and forty* 
passengers who were in search of a locality where they could make 
new homes and be happy, if possible, under the old flag, on short 
rations and in rude shanties that were neither protection against the 
winds of winter nor the rains of all seasons. After some looking 
around they concluded to remain at the seat of government, where 
the Governor himself was making the best of the situation and living 
in a mere hut. The town was laid out by Mr. Taite, and barracks 
erected for the soldiers. That year settlers came in rapidly. Loyal- 
ists who had fought on the losing side in the Revolution were swarm- 
ing over Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada in search of some 
goodly land, and they did not overlook Cape Breton. The first year 
of the Governor's residence was very encouraging, and he fancied 
that the authorities in Nova Scotia were looking on him with the 
green eye of jealousy. His troubles soon came thick and fast, and 
most of them arose from his own tactless proceedings. His glory 
was short-lived, lasting only three years, and he was then dismissed 
from office and his place filled by another. His temperament did not 
agree with the position. He appears to have been a humane man in 
dealing with his inferiors, but withal a captious martinet who en- 
joyed the distinction of commanding, and carried a high hand in 
many directions. He was succeeded by Lieutenant Colonel Macor- 
mick, who* remained in office till 1795, and much of the time involved 
in distressing quarrels with members of his Council and others with 
whom he came in contact. He was glad to get away to England, and 
never returned. At that time Sydney had but eighty-five houses, and 
a large portion of the^m were deserted, and the entire population was 
only 121 persons, among whom were many so ill content with their 
lot that they were packing to go away. It is not my purpose to follow 
up the petty squabbles of those who thought themselves somewhat 
in that infant province. Human nature shows at a disadvantage amid 
such greedy scrambling for pelf and power. 

Affairs became so bad that the island was reannexed to the 
Government of Nova Scotia in 1820 as one county, with the privilege 
of returning two members to the House of Assembly, who were duly 
elected for the first time in the persons of Richard John Uniacke and 
Lawrence Kavanah. 


Later the island was divided into four counties. Of these, Cape 
Breton is most associated with matters of historic interest and eco- 
nomic importance. It has an area of 1,169 square miles and a 
population of 48,361 for the year 1901, but the new works of various 
kinds that have recently started up on a large scale have greatly 
increased the number of people since that census was taken. In the 
vicinity of the Sydneys and the coal mines a new face is put upon 
the localities almost every day, and any description I might give here 
for the present would not answer for tomorrow. The coal mines of 
this county have received considerable notice in the chapter devoted 
to that subject, and in the portion treating of iron ores there are 
descriptions of the smelting industry, that is continually assuming 
larger proportions. The indications certainly point to a great future 
for this district, that has been so vastly enriched by nature. The 
full extent of its wealth is not yet revealed, but enough is known to 
found immense industries and sustain them for generations. 

The island of Cape Breton is pre-eminently Celtic or Highland 
Scotch, and I will here quote Mr. Richard Brown at the point where 
he tells how it all came to pass : 

"On the return of peace in 1763 a great number of troops were 
disbanded, among the rest some of the Highland regiments which 
had seen service in America. Many of the Highlanders, with that 
prudence and foresight peculiar to their countrymen, who had noted 
with observant eyes the fertility of the provinces in which they had 
served, in every respect SO' much superior to the bleak and barren hills 
of their native land, determined to make them their future home. 
Those who settled in Canada, Nova Scotia, and St. John's Island, sent 
home to their friends such glowing accounts of their new homes, about 
the year 1773, that the latter prepared to join them as soon as pos- 
sible. It so happened that just at the time these accounts reached 
Scotland from the colonies many of the Highland chieftains, who had 
discovered that the raising of cattle and sheep afforded greater profits 
than the letting of their lands to miserable tenants, were dispossessing 
the latter of their farms and holdings. This harsh treatment, o>f course, 
gave a great impetus to the emigration, and thousands- left almost 
every district in the Highlands to join their friends in the colonies. 
In the course of twenty or thirty years following 1773, whole baronies 
were turned into' sheep-farms, and hundreds of families were driven 
across the Atlantic to look for a home in the backwoods of America. 
Many of these who had friends in the colonies, and knew what to 




expect, emigrated at once, but thousands, who had no such desire, on 
the contrary, the greatest repugnance to leave the land of their 
fathers, the familiar hills and the green slopes of Lochabar, were 
heartbroken at the idea of being separated from them by a thousand 
leagues of sea. Many, it is true, especially the young men, gladly 
embraced the offers of their landlords to assist them in emigrating 
to a country where labor was abundant and remuneration ample, and 
where they could with common industry soon acquire a comfortable 
subsistence; but the old people, who had passed all their lives in their 
native glens, clung to< their birthplaces with a tenacity known only to 
the Celts. 

"The 'Hector/ the first ship that arrived in Pictou with emigrants 
in I773> was followed' by others in such rapid succession that in the 
course of eight or ten years not only the country bordering on the 
harbor and rivers of Pictou, but also the coast to the eastward as far 
as Merigomish, was taken up and occupied. So far all the emigrants 
who had arrived at Pictou were Presbyterians, but two ships having 
arrived there in 1791 with Roman Catholics from the Western Islands, 
they were persuaded by the Rev. - - McEachern, of St. John's Island, 
to leave Pictou and settle along the gulf shore towards Antigonish. 
Some of these, dissatisfied with that location, crossed over to Cape 
Breton and settled upon the northwest shore at several places between 
the Strait of Canso and Margaree, where they found a more congenial 
soil and greater facilities for prosecuting the sea fisheries, in which 
they had been engaged in the Western Islands. The favorable accounts 
of the country, sent home by these wanderers, induced many of their 
countrymen; to find a passage to the western shores of the island, 
where they settled chiefly about Judique and Mabou. There were, 
of course, no roads, not even a blazed track through the forests, from 
the seacoast to the Bras d'Or Lakes, at that time; nevertheless some 
stragglers were not long in finding their way to the fruitful, sheltered 
shores of the lakes, whose innumerable bays, arms., and creeks offered 
such desirable places for settlement that the emigration agents who 
had furnished ships for conveying the people hitherto to Pictou or 
Canso were induced to send their vessels direct to the Bras d'Or 
Lakes. The pioneer ship on this route arrived at Sydney on August 
16,1802, with 299 passengers, of whom 104 were heads of families, 
the remainder children. From this time the tide of emigration 
gathered strength as it advanced, until it reached its highest point 
in 1817, when it began gradually to decline. The last emigrant 


ship arrived in 1828. The great influx of Scottish emigrants (said 
by some authorities to have exceeded 25,000 souls) gave quite a new 
complexion to the population of Cape Breton, if it can with propriety 
be said that it was, before their arrival, distinguished by any com- 
plexion whatever. The island is now decidedly Scotch, with every 
probability of its continuing so to the end of time," 

The following extract is taken from the Cape Breton edition of the 
Halifax Herald of August, 1901, being a portion of an article con- 
tributed by G. H. Dosson, Esq. : 

"The nearest first-class harbor to Europe is Sydney, which com- 
prises the ports of Sydney and North Sydney. It is one of the most 
spacious and safest in the world. Its arms are five and seven miles 
long respectively, and the average depth of water is fifty feet. At 
Sydney are the coal piers of the Dominion Coal Company, which are 
of the largest and most modern type, fully equipped with machinery 
and chutes, with a loading capacity of 20,000 tons per day. In addi- 
tion to the facilities provided for rapid loading of large steamers, there 
is also an auxiliary equipment of buckets which are worked . by 
hydraulic towers, and are so placed that ships of any height or draught 
are loaded at any time of the tide. These piers have been so planned 
as to meet the requirements up to a capacity of 40,000 tons per day, 
whenever the output of the collieries will warrant the increase of 
force and the additional machinery. In fact the International piers 
are among the largest in the world, and with one exception, the largest 
on the Atlantic seaboard. Steamers of 6,000 tons capacity are loaded 
within twenty- four hours of docking. At North Sydney are the 
piers of the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company. Here new piers 
of modern equipments for the largest class of shipping are being 
designed. The Dominion Coal Company has also splendid shipping 
facilities at Louisburg, which is used for shipment to the United States, 
and also for Southern trade during the winter months. The Louis- 
burg pier is also of the largest and most modern type, and has a con- 
veyor and storage bins for loading slack at the rate of 750 tons per 
hour, or 18,000 tons per day. Steamers drawing twenty-four feet 
of water carry this coal to Boston, making two trips per week. 

"The Sydney & Louisburg Railway, which is owned by the Do- 
minion Coal Company, has a total length, including branches, of 
forty-six miles. This line connects Sydney and Lo-uisburg with the 
six large collieries now in operation/' 

From the same edition of the Herald the following paragraph is 




extracted : "North Sydney is centrally situated, with a splendid har- 
bor in front, and the agricultural sections of Bras d'Or ?.nd Boulardarie 
in the background. Only two miles away are the famous Nova Scotia 
Steel and Coal Company properties. The shipping piers of the coal 
company are in the center of the town, which is connected with the 
railway system of the continent by the Intercolonial Railroad. It is 
the Canadian terminus of the Newfoundland railway and steamship 
system. North Sydney has advanced in trade and population more 
rapidly than any other town in the Province which has not experienced 
a boom. The census figures, showing an increase of 84 per cent.' in 
ten years, speak for themselves. The assessor's books show a corre- 
sponding increase/' 

Glace Bay is the name of a place that is central to the mining 
operations near Sydney, and within a very short time has grown to 
comparatively large dimensions. The following extract from the Glace 
Bay Gazette of January 18, 1901, gives an idea of the prosperity of 
this town that has come to stay : "It is the town's first birthday. One 
year ago we were a struggling, straggling, muddy village. To-day 
we are a town of at least 10,000 people, with streets, sidewalks, electric 
lights, a fire department. We have our own town, government, we 
have a board of trade, we are to have a water supply. 

"Apparently there is nothing the matter with Glace Bay, and it 
is bound to grow by virtue of natural laws. It is the headquarters of 
the Dominion Coal Company in Cape Breton, the center of the 
extensive collieries of that concern. In the vicinity are the Bridge- 
port, Reserve, Caledonia, Dominion and other mines, employing sev- 
eral thousand men. The pay roll of the company has. amounted to 
$125,000 in one month. The town is located on the Sydney & Louis- 
burg Railway. It is impossible within my limited space to even men- 
tion the localities beyond a few of the most importance. Scores of 
places might be described that are either beautiful for the eye to rest 
upon or inviting as points of economic interest. Cape Breton County, 
by virtue of its mineral wealth, its geographical position, and scenic 
beauties, has no equal on the American continent within the same 
area. It was first discovered four hundred years ago, but within ten 
years it has been rediscovered by capitalists, and henceforth it will 
be heard from throughout the civilized world." 


About three-quarters of the area of this county is included in the 
Carboniferous system. The other quarter is made up of Silurian and 


pre-Silurian measures that are not very exactly determined so far as 
classification is concerned. A comparatively small portion is of the so- 
called "productive" coal formation, according to the maps of the Geo- 
logical Survey. Dr. Gilpin has conclusively shown (see paper in the 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science, 
Volume IX, Part 2) that the "millstone grit" contain workable seams 
of coal ; for instance, the Mullins Gardener, Long Beach, and Tracey 
seams in the Sydney district. With this understanding, the really 
productive or possibly productive area is vastly enlarged, and will 
doubtless eventually be much extended. 

This county is now attracting a great deal of attention among 
capitalists, and prospecting for coal, iron, and copper is carried on 
with rapidly increasing energy. Nothing I can say here, within this 
brief space, will be needed to call attention to that now famous locality. 

To describe all the various areas that are laid down on the maps 
of the Survey would answer for this locality, at present, no practical 
purpose. Those who desire more information in this direction need 
not be at a loss for aid. The ground is all covered by geological maps 
drawn on a scale of a mile to the inch, and there is enough explana- 
tory text to throw additional light upon them. However, a few good 
calyx drills well located would be of great practical value in this 
promising field. 





This division of the Province, together with Antigonish, was at 
first included in the bounds of Halifax County, but in 1784 the area 
now included in them was erected into the county of Sydney, and 
later this name was dropped and the region formed the two- counties 
of Antigonish and Gu'ysborough. The later, now under consideration, 
contains 1,656 square miles, being exceeded in extent in only one in- 
stance, that of Halifax. It' is bounded by the Strait of Canso, the open 
sea, and the counties of Antigonish, Pictou, and Halifax. The pop- 
ulation is 18,320. The figures are from the census of 1901, and show 
a steady gain over other returns, an item that is not true but of only 
one-half the counties in the Province. A notable feature of this divi- 
sion is its relation to the Strait of Canso, one of the remarkable 
waterways of the world, a natural canal of immense importance to the 
commerce of a wide region ; not only giving a safe entrance by a short 
cut to the gulf waters, but affording a secure shelter at various points 
within its limits. Such a locality was not likely to be long passed over 
by the white men who were first to invade its waters with sail and 
keel. It would be quite easy to make word-pictures of this beautiful 
locality, which abounds in views of striking features wherein sea and 
shore, passing' ships, and fisher folk in tossing boats, and sun and 
cloud furnish ample materials. We must pass over this inviting field 
and leave it to the imagination of the- reader, till he sees for himself; 
and even then what he perceives of beauty will depend upon what he 
has in 'him that is responsive to what his eyes behold. D'eep answers 
to deep. 

From its convenient location at the entrance of the strait, the 
harbor of Canso was sure to be taken advantage of by the earliest 
European fishermen, who appear to have been either there or in the 
vicinity only a dozen years after Columbus "crossed the ocean blue." 
Since then it has passed through a varied experience that would require 
a sizable volume in which to relate it, and tell of the deeds of Indian 
scalping parties, the capture by French forces,, and the raiding by pri- 
vateers, its building, and its burning, and other tales of long ago. At 
this point it is convenient to draw upon Haliburton, who wrote as 
follows : 



"Canseau is situated at the southeastern extremity of the county, 
about twenty-five miles from Guysborough. It has an excellent 4iarbor, 
accessible at all seasons of the year. The strait is called Little Can- 
seau, and is navigable for the larger ships, and affords safe and con> 
modious anchorage. The town plot of Wilmofr is situated on its south- 
western side. It was laid 'out during the administration of Governor 
Wilmot. A great proportion of the district bordering on Canseau, 
and indeed the whole of the promontory that terminates at this place, 
is a naked granite rock, with the exception of a few solitary hills of 
good land, that appear to have been left us as monuments of the general 
deluge, while the surrounding country has been swept to its founda- 

Canso is an important place in 1 connection with the fishing business. 
The population numbers about 1,500 people, who are looked upon as 
a prosperous community. 

Guysborpugh is the shire town, situated at the head 1 of Chedabucto 
Bay. The population is in the vicinity of 1,500 people, who are en- 
gaged in the various occupations that the locality suggests. One does 
not read very far in Nova Scotian history before coming upon the 
name Chedabucto, and with it scenes of violence in which Indians, 
French, and New Englanders have in turn had their parts. 

It would be a long story to relate the recorded doings of all these 
parties, with a pirate ship now and then thrown in to enliven the scene. 
Here was settled Nicholas Denys, a notable character of the early days 
of sixteen and thirty-six] and later; a man of great enterprise and 
probity, admirably suited to the needs of a new country, and deserving 
of marked success, but far otherwise did it fare with him; he was 
beset by rapacious scoundrels of his own nation, who thwarted his 
industrial efforts, destroyed his property, imprisoned his body, and 
drove him from- the Province. Among his enemies the chief was 
the detestable D'Aulnay, who executed Madame La Tour's little gar- 
rison, and forced her to witness the atrocity with a rope about her 
neck. There is some consolation to know that an Indian whom he 
had wronged upset him from a canoe in the mouth of the Annapolis 
River, amid the swirling mud and racing eddies of the great tides that 
bore his carcass to some fitting resting place, to either feed the crows 
tKat patrol the beaches, or stay the hunger of the scavengers of the 
deep ! We all feel that the death of Quilp was just the taking off that 
he deserves after his course of heartless brutality. Dickens relied 
upon a wholesome indignation in his readers when he told the story of 


his frightful death. Nicholas Denys de Fronsac, pioneer, man of 
business, author of an interesting book concerning this part of the 
world, deserves a monument in this Acadian land, and old Chedabucto 
is just the place for it to stand. Perhaps the future will thus com- 
memo'rate him. 

About 1690 Sir William P'hipps, in command of some armed ves- 
sels that had recently captured Annapolis, called in at Chedabucto one 
fine morning 'early in June and demanded of Montorgieul a surrender 
of the place. He was given to understand that nothing short of a 
fight would be required to gain what he wanted. Sir William was 
a man of spunk, and energy, and combativeness, who did not mind a 
little blood-letting and the chances of getting a scratch or two himself. 
He was one of a family of twenty-two* children, more or less, all 
dependent upon the efforts of a blacksmith father in New England 
to provide for their needs, who apprenticed William to a shipbuilder, 
where he acquired the trade of constructing vessels, and then he took 
to the sea to learn the art of sailing and navigating them,. He was 
determined to get on in the world, and having observed that money 
was the key that unlocked the way to great places and preferments, he 
set about to get it by the ton and not by the dollar. He learned that 
Spanish ships bearing great treasures in precious metals had some- 
times gone to the bottom in the shallow West Indian seas, and he 
undertook to locate one or more of them. Twice he failed ; the third 
time he won the prize, and more than a million dollars fell into the 
hands, of himself and his associates, some thirty tons of silver. It 
never rains but it pours, so the next thing William knew he was. Sir 
William, and finally became Governor of his native State of Massa- 
chusetts; got into great trouble through his bad temper; went to 
England to defend himself, and before he had made an end of that 
business death made an end of his life in 1693. Well, this was the 
man, just then forty years of age, who dropped into Chedabucto Bay 
on the King's business, and that was, to get possession of Nova Scotia, 
and having already done up Port Royal, there was no other settle- 
ment worth a cannon shot but the one he was now before. The 
Frenchman acted the man, and put up a stiff fight, and then Sir 
William 1 resorted to the old Norman fashion that lingered in his blood, 
and applied the firebrand, and then it was either "turn or burn," as 
the old conditional offer of salvation went, and a surrender on honor- 
able terms was effected. The little garrison of a score of men was 
sent to Newfoundland, the valuable stores seized, and the place de- 


stroyed. Twenty-three years afterwards the Province by treaty fell 
to the English and has ever since remained there, and it is not known 
that the French ever attempted to rebuild the establishment at this 
point. Three-quarters of a century afterwards, when great efforts 
were made to settle the Province with English subjects, old Cheda- 
bucto was not forgotten, and in 1765 a grant of land was issued to 
Richard Smith, and in 1780 another to Joseph Hadley, and in 1790 
others to Benjamin Hallowel, the Cooke brothers, etc. 

Here we can follow Haliburton again, who says: "The township 
of Guysborough reaches from Crow Harbor to the northern bounds 
of the district, and contains, according to the original patent, 100,000 
acres, 53,850 of which were granted to Nathan Hubbel and 278 other 
persons. These people belonged to the Civil Department of the Army 
and Navy, and at the evacuation of New York were settled in the 
year 1783, at Harbor Port Mouton, in Queens County, under the 
superintendence of Colonel Molleson, wagon-master general to the 
forces. Having suffered much at that place, 200 of them with their 
families, were removed during the ensuing spring, at the expense of 
the Government, to the shores of Chedabucto Bay, where they found 
a part of the Duke of Cumberland's Regiment, that had been landed 
there about one month. The town and township of Guysborough were 
laid out soon after the arrival of these Loyalists, and were thus named 
in honor of Sir Guy Carleton, the then Commander in Chief of his 
Majesty's forces in North America. To each of the settlers both a 
town and farm lot were assigned, and also a share jn the rear division. 
At first they all erected houses and settled on the town plot; and dur- 
ing the succeeding winter cut down the adjoining timber. In attempt- 
ing to burru the wood the fire spread with such violence and rapidity 
that most of the houses were destroyed, and they were compelled to 
seek refuge from its fury in the water. Notwithstanding this disas- 
trous occurrence, they were still unwilling to separate and settle upon 
their farm lots, but rebuilt their houses and remained together until 
the Government allowance of provisions ceased, when many, appalled 
by the difficulties of subduing the wilderness, removed from the 

'Those who remained were compelled to make the attempt, after 
suffering the severest privations, in consequence of the difficulty of 
procuring supplies from Halifax, and in a few years the town was 
nearly deserted. In this derelict state, inhabited by only a few mer- 
chants and mechanics, it continued until within the last ten years, 



during which it has partaken of the general growth of the county. 
Guysborough harbor, or Milford Haven, is situated at the head of 
Chedabucto. This extensive bay is formed by Cape Canseau on, the 
west and Cape Hogan on the east. It is, fifteen miles in breadth, 
from Fox Island to the southern end of the Gut of Canseau, and about 
twenty-five miles in length from Canseau to Fort Point, at the entrance 
of Guysborough harbor." 

Here follows an interesting account of the fisheries of this locality 
seventy-four years ago, and surely nothing short of human greedi- 
ness and stupidity are responsible for the great falling off that has 
taken place in the quantity of these valuable articles of food supply. 

"The fisheries of Chedabucto Bay are perhaps as productive as any 
in the known world. Codfish, and pollock or scale-fish, are taken early 
in the season near the shores and even in the harbors. In Milford 
Haven they are sometimes caught in great quantities in and about the 
narrows, a distance of about five or six miles above the entrance of 
the harbor. Herring of a superior quality are abundant in summer 
and in early part of autumn. They are found in all parts of the bay, 
and in small quantities in the harbors. But the shoals of mackerel 
that traverse the coast in spring and autumn are immense. In May 
and the early part of June they reach the northern shores about St. 
Peter's and; the River Inhabitants, and sometimes enter Guysborough 
harbor in such quantities that several thousand barrels are caught in 
one day. But at this season there is no appearance of fish along the 
southern shore; nor do they begin to arrive on that side until about 
the first of August. From that time to the end of 1 October or the 
middle of November is generally the season of fall fishing, and so 
abundant are the mackerel in some years that from 800 to 1,000 bar- 
rels are often taken by a seine at one draught. In the years 1824 and 
1825 the catch, at Fox Isfand amounted to upwards of 20,000 barrels; 
and including Crow harbor and Canseau Island, which comprise only 
a space of twelve miles of coast, it is probable 50,000 barrels were taken 
in each of those years. They are either sold fresh to traders, who 
resort thither in great numbers with supplies for the fishermen, or 
are cured and sold to> the merchants, or shipped to Halifax and the 
West Indies." 

The historian continues this account with some minor details we 
need not repeat, and closes by relating a state of affairs that reflect no 
credit upon the Government of the day, and giving us a glimpse of a 
pack of greedy rascals, reaping where they had not sown., that is 


far from pleasant reading, but not to be left out in this connection,, so 
here it is : 

"In former years the occupation of the lands adjoining Crow harbor 
and Fox Island were for all necessary purposes connected with the 
fishery alike free to all his Majesty's subjects, but these lands were 
subsequently granted by Government to certain individuals, who 
thereupon claimed a percentage of all fish hauled upon the shores of 
their respective locations, and also a ground rent for fishing huts, 
yards, and places to spread seines., etc. This claim was at first resisted 
by the fishermen, and in consequence thereof a suit was commenced 
and tried at Guysborough, before one of the judges of the Supreme 
Court, in the year 1811, and determined in favor of the proprietor of 
the soil, since which decision the claim has been recognized and the 
restrictions in some instances greatly increased. At the commence- 
ment of the season the fisherman generally obtains permission from the 
proprietor or his agent to erect his hut; and if he is a seine owner, 
to occupy a certain space for his boats and sheds, etc. At the end of 
the season, or before he leaves the ground, he pays a barrel of cured 
mackerel, or its value, for the rent of his hovel, and an additional quan- 
tity or price, in proportion to the ground he occupies. For every hired 
man he pays five shillings ; and if he has either a partner or associate 
in his hut, he pays an additional barrel of mackerel for each of them. 
Besides these exactions the proprietor not only claims, but enforces, the 
right of sending two free "dippers" into every seine that is hauled; and 
has also one-tenth part of the seine's share after the fish are dressed 
that is, one-twentieth of the whole draught the sharesmen or assist- 
ants being entitled to one-half for their trouble. In 1825 Patrick 
Lanigan, Esq:, received 1,200 barrels; of mackerel for rent from Wa- 
terloo beach and a portion of Fox Island." 

A portion of the shore between Craw harbor and Guysborough 
was settled or assigned to the Sixtieth Regiment, Hessians, disbanded 
about 1785. 

Manchester, opposite the town of Guysborough, was called for the 
Duke of Manchester, father or brother of Lord Charles Greville Mon- 
tague, who was patron of a corps called the "Montagues," who settled 
the baeklands of this section. Benjamin Halloiwell had a large grant 
here in 1765, before referred to. He had been an official in the Boston 
Custom House. 

That portion known as "The Intervale" was in part allotted to the 
Seventy-first Regiment in 1785. 


On the Atlantic coast are numerous harbors and settlements on 

Next to Canso is Whitehead, a fine port that seems 'to invite some 
large enterprise that has never materialized. 

Around the shores of Tor Bay there are the following villages: 
Coal Harbor, Charles Cove,' Larry's' River. The inhabitants are 
mostly Acadian French engaged principally in fishing. Isaac's Harbor 
has come into some local prominence during the last forty years on 
account of some gold discoveries that were made by white men and 
Indians, The first settler was Isaac Webb, whose name is perpetuated 
in that of the place. 

Country Harbor occupies a central position on the county coast. 
It is a fine port, navigable for eight miles. In 17,85 the King's Caro- 
lina Rangers, some 300 in number, were settled there: Gold mines are 
worked thereabouts. 

Wine Harbor is another locality best known for its gold mines, 
that were discovered in 1861. A Portuguese vessel laden with wine 
was cast away on this place, and hence the name that commemorates 
the disaster. 

St. Mary's River is one of the largest in the Province, being navi- 
gable for ordinary vessel to a distance often miles. The mouth opens 
out to the dimensions of a bay. Early as 1654 there was a French 
fishing and trading establishment at the head of navigation where 
now is the village of Sherbrook. It was a few years later destroyed 
by the English. There are good farming lands in this vicinity, and 
Goldenville and Cochran Hill are important gold-mining centers. A 
large timber district is tributary to this river, and lumbering has been 
one of the leading industries of the St. Mary's District. This river 
was once noted for its valuable salmon fisheries. In 1765 Jonathan 
Binney and others received a grant there of 150,000 acres. This is 
our old acquaintance who figures largely in the early history of 

Liseomb River is noted for its fine timber district and excellent 
water power. Melrose is eleven miles inland from Sherbrooke, where 
there is a scattered farming community. 

On the far northeastern corner of the county is Port Mulgrave on 
the Strait of Canso, the land terminus of the Intercolonial Railway, 
that is resumed in Cape Breton. 


A line drawn from the mouth of the Salmon River to the vicinity 
of Trafalgar, near the southwestern corner of the county, will have 


on the southern side the Cambrian slates and quartzit'es, with granite 
intrusions here and there. On the northern side appear the later 
formations of Devonian and Carboniferous, with patches here and 
there of trap or dolorite. The Salmon River has its channel almost 
continually along the contact of Cambrian and Devonian formations. 
The slates and quartzites of this Atlantic slope contain the gold 
mines of the county that have been already mentioned. 

The principal granite areas are at Canso, Forest Hill, Ingersoll 
Lake to the Strait vicinity of Tor Bay, a little back from the coast, 
Sherbrook and Cochoran Hill, making in all about one-quarter of the 
county. The godd never occurs in this rock throughout the Province. 
The northern portion of the county, from the line of the Salmon River 
contact, has been the scene of considerable controversy among geolo- 
gists. When all the needed facts are brought together, doubtless 
there will be a substantial agreement among them. The tattered and 
distorted record is not readily arranged in the natural order. 

From the Survey Report of 1887, Fletcher and Faribault, I take 
the following items: "Lower Devonian strata run from Guys- 
borough Harbor to South River Lake, and are also found about Cape 
Porcupine. A broad belt of rocks, similar to those regarded in New 
Brunswick and Newfoundland as Devonian, extends from the Strait 
of Canso to Lochaber, thence keeping south of the East River of 
St. Mary's and of the East River of Pictou to strike the Intercolonial 
Railway near Glengarry, to form the high land south of Truro, and 
pass unconformably beneath the Carboniferous of the Stewiacke 
River. A second belt of the highest member of this series extends 
from the Arisaig trunk road westward to Bailey's Brook. The strata 
of the first belt are separable into three distinct groups, corresponding 
closely with those of New Brunswick, as follows: 

"Lower conglomerate group, equivalent to Bloomsbury conglom- 

"Middle gray sandstone and slate group, equivalent to Dadoxylon 
sandstone and Cordaite shale. 

"Upper red slate and sandstone group, equivalent to Mispeck group. 

"A zone of the lowest group, five or six miles wide, runs due 
west from Guysborough Harbor to South' River Lake, keeping south 
of Roman Valley to the Strait of Canso, Upper Tracadie and Mer- 
land, to the westward of Lochaber, where it is only a half mile wide, 
increasing, however, to four miles at Kerrogware, and still more to 
the westward. The upper group, nowhere exceeding six miles in 






width, runs from Merland to the westward of Lochaber. .At the 
base of this, or at the top of the preceding group, or possibly forming 
an independent subdivision, is a belt of greenish and red slates and 
rusty weathering, flinty, gray sandstone containing iron ore which 
has been worked at several places." 

The following paragraphs descriptive of the scenery in certain 
parts of this county are extracted from the same report from which 
I have just quoted: 

"The coasts of Canso, Dover, and the islands in the vicinity are 
wild and romantic, presenting to the ocean rough bold cliffs, mostly 
granite, the surface being either barren or supporting a few scraggy 
spruces, cranberries, and other low-growing plants. Trie most north- 
erly of the Cranberry Islands, called the 'Frying Pan,' is the home of 
innumerable sea-gulls. Extensive barrens lie between C'ansoi and Tor 
Bay,; but hay marshes fringe some of the brooks, and small spots of 
cultivable land are found on the shore. Towards the head of New 
Harbor mossy spruce land, interspersed with clumps of birch and 
maple, occupies the valleys and also some of the hills, on which, 
however, much of the timber is blown down. 

"The valley of New Harbor River to the head of tidewater is 
very beautiful, the hills on either side being high. Above the salt 
water, it is wide and easy to follow. On Isaac's Harbor River fine 
meadows and marshes occupy a narrow belt about the lakes, while 
higher up the river flows through a well-wooded valley from which 
a large quantity of timber for ship-building has been obtained, but 
which is otherwise unproductive. 

"The scenery of the St. Mary's River at Melrose is picturesque 
in its well-cultivated meadows and numerous small lakes enclosed by 
rough woody hills. Many of the lakes which empty into this river 
are rocky and beautiful, bordered with hardwood and evergreens." 




The human race could have become civilized, and made a conquest 
of the material world without the precious metals of gold and silver. 
In fact, if the preciousness depends upon the intrinsic value, then 
iron is the most precious of all metals. It has been the greatest 
economic factor in bringing about the civilization of mankind. When 
we consider that there could be no proper keen-cutting instrument 
without it, then we may the better realize how indispensable it was to 
human progress. The quantity used by any nation to-day is considered 
as an index of its grade of civilization. The total product of the 
world, China excepted, reaches the enormous figure of forty-three 
million tons of pig iron in 1900, and out of a portion of this there 
is made twenty-eight million tons of steel. Of this vast amount the 
United States produced 13,941,842 gross tons of 2,240 Ibs. of pig 
iron. , and 27,650,285 tons of steel; only so far back as 1870 the total 
product of pig iron for that country was 1,665,179 tons, by com- 
parison we may perceive at a glance how rapidly this industry has 
assumed its immense proportions. Great Britain produced in the same 
year, 8,959,691 gross tons of pig iron, and 5,050,000 tons of steel; 
and Russia's contribution was 16,137,736 tons of pig iron and 1,830,- 
260 gross tons of steel. Germany reports 8,520,390 gross tons of pig 
iron, and 6,365,529 tons gross of steel. These figures furnish the rea- 
sons for calling this the Age of Iron. The Golden age is in the future, 
we will have reached it when steel and iron are no longer used to con- 
struct ships of war, and cast black-lipped cannons. The existence 
of iron ore in such inexhaustible quantities to furnish means of human 
conquest over natural obstacles, seems surely to more than suggest 
that a providential Forethought had us in view, when as yet we were 
being made "in secret, and curiously wrought in the lower parts of 
the earth." We do not know when iron was first melted from its ores 
by the art of man. The most ancient tombs of Egypt contain tools 
and weapons of stone, but no trace of iron. Their date is about 
O,ooo years ago. Mankind has probably looked upon Sun, and Sea 
for a period remotely beyond ten thousand years, and all this weary 
while, up to within four or five thousand years ago, he was fighting 
the battle of life at an immense disadvantage, with weapons and tools 



of stone and wood and bone. It was a pathetic struggle with wild 
beast and elemental forces. The thing he needed was at his hand, 
but it must be mixed with brains before it could be used. Copper, 
and gold, and silver could be sparingly found in nuggets, but iron 
as metal uncombined with other elements did not exist. The excep- 
tion would be that stones falling out of the sky, sometimes in pieces 
weighing hundreds of pounds, are in many instances very largely 
composed of metallic iron. These may have furnished the first bits 
of this metal used by mankind ; at any rate they have been found in 
the possession of savage people. We may readily see that a fiery 
body falling out of the heavens, and striking the earth in the presence 
of witnesses, would provoke their curiosity to the extent of examin- 
ing its make-up and securing any detachable portions. But this 
would not lead to the discovery of smelting iron from its ore. Metal- 
lic iron in lumps and nuggets has been found in the ash of a burning 
coal seam accidentally on fire. A find like that would be a very 
broad hint that a man might get the ore and melt it himself. That 
mankind should have remained so long in ignorance of this most 
useful and common metal is difficult to explain. Up to within the 
memory of living men it remained a scarce article, and steel of good 
quality was so dear that it was used with the greatest care and 
economy. We are safe in assuming that mankind knew the art of 
making iron five thousand years ago. The discovery of a process to 
convert it into steel was made at a date beyond all historical knowl- 
edge. The human mind five thousand years ago was acute, strong, 
and curious, and has been ever since. Yet the manufacture of iron 
and steel during all this time, almost to this generation), never got 
beyond primitive methods. There could not be much progress until 
the advent of the steam engine and the science of chemistry. In 
order to have cheap iron it must be made in large quantities. So 
long as charcoal was the only fuel for smelting, the price must be 
high and the product very limited. The iron furnace for the pro- 
duction of pig iron from the ore demands three materials ore, coal, 
and limestone. These are never assembled by Nature within gun- 
shot or carting distance of each other on a scale calculated for large 
operations. There are iron deposits in the coal measures, often 
enough, but their percentage of metal is either very low or the coal 
is not well adapted toi become coke to be used in smelting. Never- 
theless these mines have been, and in several places are still worked, 
but they do not produce on a large scale, and will be sure to drop 


out of the business in the stress of competition with great concerns 
that are placed with nice discrimination where vast amounts of the 
raw material can be assembled at the cheapest possible rate, and ship- 
ping facilities are favorable. At these focal points of the iron- 
smelting business is the best opportunity for the production of steel. 
So long as this material was made by a process that no one could 
explain, there was little or no advancement in its mode of production 
during thousands of years. Chemistry at last penetrated toi the cause 
of its hardness and strength, and therein lay the way to new inven- 
tions that have given us steel rails, steel ships, steel bridges, steel 
frames for great buildings, and other steel structures in almost endless 
variety. The demand has led to the discovery of new iron mines, 
and competition in the United States among producers ended in a 
billion-dollar trust, wherein warring interests are extinguished in a 
policy designed to> be profitable to' all within the gigantic combination. 
The demand for iron, and steel has increased with marvelous strides. 
No seer of the business world a generation ago could have foreseen 
this new order of things. "It is the unexpected that happens." There 
has always been recognized the presence of certain elements in iron 
ore that were either detrimental or fatal to its utility. These are 
sulphur, phosphorus, and titanic acid. They were devils that refused 
to 1 be cast out, even by the ordeal of the fiery furnace ; they turned up 
in the pig iron product as ruinous ingredients, even though the per- 
centage was less than one. Science has grappled with these enemies 
and-largely overcome' them. Phosphorus was the most objectionable, 
as an extremely small quantity rendered the pig product useless for 
Bessemer purposes, wherein the object is to make a grade of steel 
for structural uses at a cheap figure. Human ingenuity has been 
equal to the problem, and ores that very recently were worthless are 
now profitably treated, and the phosphorus is driven into the slag, 
that at once becomes valuable for fertilizing purposes, where it enters 
the farm products and reaches the brains of men who dislodged it 
from a position hostile to human interests and turned a curse to a 
blessing. Surely this was a marvelous circuit. The ability to treat 
successfully those hitherto' undesirable ores is no small item in dealing 
with the value of Nova Scotia iron mines. So rapid have been the 
improvements in the last few years in connection with the making 
of iron and steel that we may be confident that other important dis- 
coveries and inventions within the next decade will make some of 
the present methods and machinery mere back numbers in this won- 





derful story of human triumphs over the obstacles of Nature. An 
iron mine in Nova Scotia in the nature of things cannot be remote 
from coal and limestone, nor have a long haulage to a harbor; the 
country is too small for that. The counties of 
Yarmouth, Shelburne, and Queens are the most dis- 
tant from the coal measures, and they are occupied 
by Cambrian slates, quartzites, and granite areas, 
in which there are no iron mines. The geography 
of the Province makes it impossible to get beyond 
forty miles from the coast and shipping facilities. 
The great iron and steel plants in Sidney have for 
the present thrown somewhat into the shade the 
claims of Nova Scotia iron mines, but it can be 
scarcely more than a temporary eclipse. That any- 
thing here in this line can compete with the advan- 
tages of the ores of Bell Island treated in Sidney 
may seem an extravagant estimate of our iron 
deposits. They will doubtless need to come up to 
severe exactions to match the favorable features of 
this new iron and steel metropolis. The increasing 
demand for these products of varied qualities can 
scarcely fail to draw upon iron resources so favor- 
ably located and so* enormous in metallic contents 
that they are national bonanzas awaiting skill, and 
capital, and energy to send their abundant riches 
into the business circulation of the country. 

We come now to a notice of such mines and 
prospects, and make a beginning with the Nictaux 
and Torbrook deposits. These for the present may 
be considered as different outcrops of the same 
system of veins. The locality is in Annapolis 
County, through which from east to west runs an 
elevation known as the South Mountain, with a 
general altitude of about 600 feet; it is parallel to 
what is called the "North Mountain," a low ridge 
of sandstone and igneous rock of Triassic times, 
forming the southern coast of the Bay of Fundy and 
reaching an altitude of some 600 feet. These mountains are some 
ten miles apart, and between them is the fruitful Annapolis Valley. 
The South Mountain alone concerns us here. It is in reality the 



rather abrupt northern border of the granite upraise and axis of the 
Province. On the southeast it forms a contact with Cambrian slates 
and quartzites of the Atlantic slope. On the opposite side the con- 
tact is with Devonian slates and quartzites that are melted and other- 
wise metamorphosed at the junction, and lie along the valley side 
of this great granite uplift. In this Devonian formation are the iron 
mines under discussion. The situation will be made clearer by the 
slight diagram, No. i, showing a section from the Bay of Fundy to 
the Atlantic, not strictly to 1 scale. The actual distance is 70 miles; 
of this, 40 is Cambrian, 8 is granite. 

The following map of Annapolis County, showing the rock struc- 
ture, on a scale of eight miles to> an inch, is taken from the Govern- 
ment Geological Survey. 

The iron mines occur as veins in the Devonian strata that appear 
as the upturned edges of synclinals. These veins run conformable 
to the course of the strata, or, in other words, they are mineralized 
zones or beds that were once in a horizontal position, and the profound 
folding and denudation have exposed them as nearly perpendicular 
veins, with a strike or course northeasterly and southwesterly, thus 
roughly corresponding to the trend of the mountain. These veins are 
either of red hematite or magnetite, and vary in width from two to 
twenty feet at the outcrop, and several of them have been traced 
about six miles, from Torbrook to Nictaux. At the former locality 
about twelve years ago the Torbrook Iron Company was organized 


and began work on one of these hematite veins. This new work 
was reported on as follows in the report of the Departnient of Mines 
of Nova Scotia for the year 1891: 

"About the beginning of March last, active operations were first 
commenced at Torbrook, Annapolis County, on the bed of red 
hematite ore discovered there during the previous year. The ore 
extends along the base of the South Mountain, the strike being about 
north 60 degrees east, and has been traced on the surface from- Nic- 
taux Fallst eastward to the Kings County line, a distance of four 
miles, The lead has an average thickness of 5^ feet, clear ore, and 
is tilted up, to dip at an angle varying from 70 to 80 degrees. Both 
the hanging and foot walls are of a variegated talcose slate, very 
light in color, and between 1 8 to 24 inches thick. These walls form 
a fairly good support for the time being, although slightly soft. The 
country rock is of a dark bluish slate, probably o<f Upper Devonian 
Age. A fair sample of the ore yields about .60 per cent phosphoric 
acid, 0.3 per cent sulphur trace. All the ore is shipped via Windsor 
Junction to Londonderry, N. S. Last month 1,650 tons! we're 

The next year 27,114 tons were mined and smelted at London- 
derry. The Government report of mines for 1895 was as follows: 

"The Torbrook Iron Mining Company worked steadily during the 
season, its output being divided between Ferrona and Londonderry 
furnaces. The vein was found on the Holland property, about three- 
quarters of a mile to the westward of the mine, to be uniform, of 
good quality, and four feet thick. The main shaft at the Torbrook 
mine is now 350 feet deep. The angle of inclination of the bed of 
ore, which was about 80 degrees at the surface, is now 45 degrees, 
and the vein has increased in thickness from 6 to 12 feet." 

In 1897 the mine was closed, but not for lack of ore. The 
Government report for that year says : "The Torbrook mine worked 
up to July, producing 19,944 tons, which was sold to Londonderry 
and Ferrona. When closed doiwn the mine was in good working 
order, with a, large amount of available ore." Since that date there 
has been considerable activity in that locality, and the 'Mines Report 
for 1900 informs us that "The Torbrook areas in Annapolis County 
have received a good deal of attention. A large bed from 6 to 10 
feet thick has been traced from Black River, near the county line, 
westward, and passing a short distance south of the Leckie lead, is 
believed to represent the well-known 'shell bed.' " 


Several other leads of workable dimensions have been opened; 
the horizon represented by this bed is over a distance of between 
five and six miles. The ores run from 48 to 1 55 per cent of metallic 
iron. Late in the fall the five-inch-core calyx drill was secured, and 
the bed drilled through at a depth of 300 feet beside the Tbrbrook 
road. At this depth the bed was about nine feet thick. The drill 
has been working in almost vertical slate and quartzite, and has given 
satisfactO'ry results. These explorations have shown a wonderful 
regularity in the measures at Torbrook, and there is no doubt of a 
large amount of ore in the properties tested, running intoi many million 
tons. Near the western portion of this district, in the valley of 
Nictaux, are outcropping beds of iron ore. One of these attracted 
attention in the first decade of this century, when; a small Catalan 
forge produced some bar iron from, the ores of Nictaux. It is even 
said that the French had forestalled this undertaking. This ore bed 
was remarkable for the fossil shells that it contained. Dr. Gilpin 
describes it as "a highly fossiliferous peroxide of iron, associated 
with dark slates." 

In 1855 a company erected quite extensive works, and during a 
few years continued operations with the ores from this shell bed. 

In 1858 the quantity of iron exported was 744 tons, value $2,375, 
and in 1859 1,125 tons of the value of $14,790 ("How's Mineralogy 
of Nova Scotia"). 

This must have been, nearly the last output, for the writer recalls 
that he saw these furnaces in 1860 closed down for good and all. 
In the report of the Department of Mines, 1877, there is a quotation 
from Dr. Jackson, 1855, State Assayer for Massachusetts, relating 
to the Nictaux ores, as follows: 

"One cannot fail toi be surprised at the enormous quantities of 
ore already exposed by the numerous openings which, have been made. 
There are several distinct and parallel beds of iron ores which we 
examined, from 4 to' 10 feet in width, extending certainly no less 
than five miles continuously. The supply of iron ore at Nictaux is 

The quantity of ore ini this district is very great ; all whose opin- 
ions are of value are agreed upon that point. Dr. Gilpin, than whom 
there is no better authority, says: "As to the quantity of ore there 
can be no> question. The amounts above the water levels of the 
Torbrook and Nictaux Rivers must be enormous." Another vital 
question is the cost of getting ore and its transportation to a proper 


locality for treatment. On this Dr. Gilpin remarks : "The mining 
and transportation of these ores would be cheaper than from almost 
any other district in Nova Scotia, and the preliminary outlays for 
machinery, drills, wire tramways, etc., be reduced to a minimum by 
the facilities available for utilizing water power for generating 
electrical power." 

These extracts are taken from a paper published in the trans- 
actions of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science, Vol. 9, part i, to 
which I am also indebted for the following analyses -of ores from 
this district: 


No. i. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. 

Metallic iron, 54-22 39. n 53-14 54-96 

Silica I 4-97 11.64 11.12 

Sulphur 069 .09 trace 

Phosphorus 36 .17 .172 .192 

Alumina 5.53 " .314 

Lime 2.70 5.88 

Magnesia 41 2.01 

Manganese 86 


Metallic iron 58.05 57-93 ^-47 

Silica 17.21 33.50 

Sulphur .03 




Manganese .980 


This Devonian formation outcrops again some thirty miles west 
of Nictaux on the south side of the Annapolis Basin, at Moose River. 
Dr. Gilpin describes it thus : "At Clementsport there are two 1 beds 
of ore running nearly east and west, and underlying to the south at 
angles of 75 to 80 degrees. The" highest of these, the Milner bed, 
varies in thickness from two to four feet. It is specular ore meta- 
morphosed with magnetic, properties and still retaining casts of 
Virelebite, Spirifers and associated mollusks. The ore, which is of a 
fair quality, yields about 33 per cent of metallic iron. The Potter 
bed is a magnetite (?) and presents the following section where 

worked : 

Feet. Inches. 

Ore ' 3 

Slate 2 6 

Ore 3 6 


It is stated to yield 15 per cent more iron than the Milner bed. 
(See "Mines of Nova Scotia," page 55.) In 1828 Messrs. Jackson 
and Alger, very competent American gentlemen, contributed to the 
American Journal of Science an article on the mineralogy and geology 
of Nova Scotia, the result of very able pioneer work in this Province. 
The next year they visited and re-examined the ground, and enlarged 
their essay, and communicated to the American Academy, and it was 
printed in book form in 1832. These men had an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the Clementsport and Moose River iron ores, and their 
account is interesting and instructive, and in the main it is here 
reproduced : 

"Having thus far described the appearances and productions of 
the South Mountains, we shall now advert to ore beds at Clements, 
the last place along the range where it is known to appear. This bed 
is three miles from the mouth of Moose River, and several extensive 
openings having been made into> it during the past season from which 
many hundred tons of the ore have been removed, peculiar facilities 
are afforded for its examination. Its width is about 6 feet, but from 
the intimate union of the ore with the contiguous slate it is very 
difficult to discover the line of separation between the one and the 
other. By the assistance of the compass this ore may be traced for 
the distance of two; miles towards Bear River, so powerful is its 
magnetic influence on the needle. This ore is fine-grained, of a bluish 
gray or steel gray color, and possesses a glistening metallic luster; 
when reduced to powder its color is similar. It is highly magnetic, 
as we have before observed. Its specific gravity is 4.5, and it yields 
by fusion in the assay furnace 65 per cent of soft cast iron. But 
when reduced in the smelting furnace it has hitherto yielded less, 
owing to its admixture with the slate, from which it is difficult to 
separate it. The cast iron obtained fromi this ore is a good quality 
for strength and softness, while that of a harder nature containing 
less carbon is readily converted into* malleable iron, which, to give it 
the praise it deserves, is equal to the best of this description: made 
in the United States. The pure iron has been also converted into 
blistered steel, which on trial was found equally as useful for the 
purposes to which the foreign article had been applied." The Mr. 
Alger of this report had an ample opportunity toi know whereof he 
wrote, as he was one of the gentlemen largely interested in the iron 
works at Moose River. The report of the Department of Mines, 
1874, has, what I take to be a sort of "dying declaration" about these 


works, and runs as follows : "The Annapolis iron mines at Clements- 
port have passed into the hands of the New York & Nova Scotia 
Iron & Coal Mining & Manufacturing Co., who have employed some 
eight men only, during the year, mining ore. The furnace is out of 
blast undergoing repair." Dr. Gesner, in his "Industrial Resources 
of Nova Scotia," 1849, says: "At Clements, in the County of An- 
napolis, and three miles from the mouth of Moose River; brown 
hematite outcrops and may be traced a mile on the surface, with an 
average thickness of 9 feet 6 inches. It yields from 33 to< 40 per 
cent o>f cast metal, and the quality of the iron is superior. The river 
affords abundant water power to propel machinery, and the harbor 
at its mouth communicates with the beautiful basin of Annapolis." 

On the North Mountain, that long upraise of sandstone and trap 
that stretches unbroken from Blomidon to- Digby, there are veins of 
iron ore of good quality, but thus far the quantity discovered is. not 
sufficient to attract capital. In various parts of the Province there 
are small deposits of iron ore, but from an economic point of view do 
not come within the scope of this chapter. 

So far as known the Cambrian slates and quartzites are destitute 
of iron mines. For this reason the counties of Digby, Yarmouth, 
Shelburne, Queens, Lunenburg, and Halifax are not to be reckoned 
among present or probable producers o>f iron. We pass on to' the 
county of Colchester, where geological conditions have changed, and 
the extensive Londonderry deposits occur. Sir William Dawson, in 
his Acadian Geology, 1855, gives a detailed account of this iron 
mine, and Prof. How, in his Mineralogy of Nova Scotia, 1868, has 
abridged Dawson's account and added some notes of his own, and I 
will quote from How : "The iron worked (at Londonderry) is found 
in a vein of ferruginous magnesian limestone, a variety of magnesia 
which extends; along the south slope of the Cobequid Hills, and 
which has been most carefully explored in the vicinity of Folly, and 
Great Village, Rivers. At the site of the Acadia mine furnace, in 
the western bank of the Great Village River, at the junction of the 
carboniferous and metamorphic rocks, a thick series of gray and 
barren sandstones and shales, dipping to the south at an angle of 65 
degrees and 70 degrees west, meets black and olive slates, nearly 
vertical and with a strike north 55 degrees east. The vein is well 
seen in the bed of the stream, and also in the excavations in the west- 
ern bank, which rises abruptly 327 feet above the river bed. In the 
stream bottom it presents the appearance of a complicated network 


of fissures penetrating quartzite and slate, and rilled with ankerite, 
with which is a smaller quantity of red ochery iron ore and micaceous 
specular ore. In ascending- the stream the vein appears to* increase 
in width and in the quantity of the ores of iron. In one place it 
showed a breadth of 20 feet. In some parts o>f the vein the ankerite 
is intimately mixed with crystals and veinlets of yellowish spathose 
iron. The red ochery ore occurs in minor veins and irregular masses 
dispersed in the ankerite. Some of these veins are two yards, thick, 
and the shapeless masses are often' of much larger dimensions. 
Specular iron ore also* occurs in small, irregular veins and in dissemi- 
nated crystals and nests. At one part of the bank there appears to 
be a considerable mass of magnetic iron ore mixed with specular ore. 
The general course of the vein at the mine and further east is south 
98 degrees west, the variation being 21 degrees west. At the mine the 
course deviates about 33 degrees from the containing rock ; elsewhere 
the deviation is less, and there is- an approach to 1 parallelism between 
the course of the vein and that of the rock formation of the hills as 
well as that of the junction of the carboniferous and metaniorphic 
systems. The vein for a space of seven miles along the hills is always 
found at the distance of from 300 yardsi to a third O'f a, mile north- 
ward of the last carboniferous beds, and always in the same band 
of slate and quartzite. Westward of the Acadia mine the course of 
the vein is marked by the color of the soil for about a mile, as far 
as Cook's Brook, where the outcrop of the ore is not exposed, but 
large fragments of specular iron have been found, and a shaft sunk 
on the course of the vein has penetrated more than 40 feet of yellow 
ochre, containing a few rounded masses and irregular layers of 
ankerite. Specimens of specular ore and ankerite have been received 
from' the continuation of the same metamorphic district as far west 
as Five Islands, twenty miles distant from the Acadia mine. Ori the 
east side of the west branch of the Great Village River the vein is not 
so well exposed, but indications of it can be seen on the surface as 
far as the west branch of the river, in the. bed of which it has' been 
found jto continue. Further eastward, on higher ground, between 
the Great Village and Folly Rivers, indications of iron ores have been 
found, especially near the latter, where in two places small excava- 
tions have exposed specular and red ores, and where numerous 
fragments of brown hematite are found on the surface. On the 
elevated ground east of the Folly River the vein is again largely 
developed. At one point 10 feet -of red iron ore were seen without 


exposing the north side of the vein. The width here exposed was 
15 feet, and neither wall was exposed. Still further east, on the 
property of C, D. Archibald, Esq., on equally, elevated ground, three 
excavations have shown a, still greater development of the vein. One 
trench fifty-three feet long, nearly at right angles to 1 the course of 
the vein, shows in its whole length a mixture of red and specular 
ores with ankerite. In the bed of the Mill Brook, about two miles 
east o>f Folly River, the vein attains a great thickness in the eastern 
bank. Here it consists of a network of fissures filled with ankerite. 
It was found in the bank o'f another brook still further to the east, 
and, though not traced further, there was not doubt entertained of 
its continuance to a great distance in that direction. 

I visited the mines in 1861 and saw with great interest the 
admirable arrangement by which a large amount of work was being 
done, and, having requested E. A. Jones, Esq., the manager, toi favor 
me with some descriptive details, I received the following valuable 
account of the history, progress, and nature of the establishment : 
"The Acadian works were commenced in 1849, an d tne nrst i ron 
was made by the Catalan forge in 18501 In 1852-3 a blast furnace 
was erected for the manufacture of pig iron, the Catalan forge being 
abandoned. Up to the time of my arriving in the Province, in the 
summer of 1857, there had been made altogether about 1,000 tons 
of iron, from about 4,000 tons of ore. 

"Since that time to the present, 1861, we have made about 4,000 
tons of iron, using about 9,000 tons of ore. Our present make of 
bar iron is at the rate of 1,200 tons, of an economic value of about 
24,000 pounds per annum. The ores we use are a hematite yielding 
about 48 and a brown and red oxide yielding about 40 per cent of iron. 

"The ores are somewhat refractory; this arises mainly from the 
presence of a stone mechanically mixed through the ore, which is 
very difficult to act upon in the blast furnace. It requires about 160 
bushels, imperial, of charcoal, and 200 bushels of limestone (this is 
found in the vicinity), used as a flux, to smelt one ton of pig iron, 
and about 3^ cords of wood to convert the pig into' bars. The wood 
used is required to be perfectly dry. We have one blast furnace and 
three puddling furnaces, with one reheating furnace. The pressure 
of the blast is about four ounces to the square inch. We now employ 
about 230 men; our expenditure for wages, etc., at the works will 
average about 1,200 a month. The iron made compares very favor- 
ably with the best brought to market from any part of the world for 
the same purpose, namely, the manufacture of steel." 

Writing in 1868, Prof. How says : "In all, there have been made 
at the Acadia works 15,000 tons of pig iron and 7,000 tons of bar 


iron, of tne aggregate value of -$1,090,000," In the report of the 
Department of Mines, 1874, we have this record: "The Acadia iron 
mines at Londonderry have changed hands and become the property 
of the Steel Company of Canada (Limited), having a capital of 
500,000 sterling. According to the prospectus, the property consists 
of fifty-five square miles of freehold lands, together with the mines 
thereunder and the works and buildings thereon. It was purchased 
for 82,000 in cash and 120,000 worth of fully paid up founders' 

From this date to 1897 the company is reported by the Department 
of Mines from year to year as a producer. Without quoting in full, 
here are a few items. Report for 1890: "The Steel Company have 
continued their operations the past year, and reached an output of 
50,696 tons of iron ore mined, against 28,889 tons m 1879. There 
were also 4,773 tons of ankerite quarried for flux." This: seems to> 
be the high tide of operations. In 189*2 the report gives 37,223 tons 
of ore mined, 27,114 tons of ore treated from Torbrook. 

In 1894 the report gives 9,214 tons of ore mined and some "sup- 
plies" from Torbrook. Since that date very little work has been 
reported from Londonderry- but now in January, 1903, these mines 
are being opened up again. 

It is not within the design of this* book to relate the particulars 
of business concerns, but to describe the natural resources, together 
with general facts connected with the work done in connection with 
them. We no'W proceed to give some account of the iron deposits 
of Pictoti County. In Dr. Gilpin's Report on the Mines and Mineral 
Lands of Nova Scotia, before referred to, is the following description : 


"The iron ores of this district are probably more varied and of 
greater extent than elsewhere in the Province, and from their relation 
to fuel, flux, and shipping are destined to play an important part in its 
future development. 

Although the existence of iron ores oh J:he East River of Pictoti 
was known, for many years, it was not until 1872 that any systematic 
attempts were made to test their extent. As early as 1828, or shortly 
after the General Mining Association of London opened their Pictou 
collieries, a blast furnace was erected at the colliery and a small 
quantity of red hematite and limonite smelted; but the expense of 
hauling the ore twelve miles soon put a stop to the work. Nothing 
was then done until in- 1872-3 extensive explorations were carried on 
under the supervision of Dr. Dawson and continued for several years 
from that date by the writer. Taking the ores in descending geolog- 


ical order, the first to be noticed are the bog ores. These are scat- 
tered over many parts of the county, notably on the West Branch 
and the headwaters of River John. Several small deposits have been 
found near French River, of which an analysis by the writer is given 
below. They also- occur north of New Glasgow, and are apparently 
derived from the conglomerate already referred to as limiting the 
coal field. We have next to notice the clay ironstone ores of the 
Pictou coal field. $ They form irregular beds from. 5 to 40 inches 
thick, and are found everywhere in the coal measures, in some cases 
forming part of the seams. But little attention has yet been paid to 
them. From the writer's analysis given below it will be seen that 
they are of good quality, and it is considered that they will prove an 
important addition to the older ores. 

At French River, in the marine limestone formation ( ? ) , are 
numerous beds of clay ironstone carbonates and hydrated peroxides 
on beds from 6 inches, to 4 feet in thickness. The discovery is a 
recent one, and little is yet known about the deposits. The following 
analysis is by the writer: 




3og Ore, 
ench River 




. Coal Field. 

Black Band, 
Coal Field. I 


Drench River. 

Water of comp . . 
Sulphur .... 


-586 * 



Phosphoric acid . . 
Manganese .... 


. Trace 

Magnesia .... 





Carbonic acid .... 

Iron protoxide . . 


Iron oeroxide . 

66. mo 

100.019 67.502 99.852 
Metallic iron... 46.557 35.000 28.000 25.160 

Passing to the westward, a large deposit of spathic ore is found 
at Sutherland's Brook, held by the Pictou Coal & Iron Company. 
The containing strata were formerly considered of millstone grit age, 
but from the proximity of gypsum and limestone they would seem 
rather to belong to the marine limestone formation. As far as can 
be judged from a rough survey, this ore is found at a horizon 800 
feet lower than the ironstone of French River. 

The bed dips south at an angle of 60 degrees, and varies in thick- 


ness from 6 to io l /2 feet, and has above and below a small bed of the 
same, 6 to 10 inches thick. The ore is a sparry carbonate of iron, 
holding peroxide in places, with a variable proportion of manganese 
and very little sulphur and phosphorus. Superficially it is rusted, 
but where un weathered of a pearly gray color. From surface indi- 
cations it appears probable that this ore extends over a considerable 
district, and the writer is inclined to consider it characteristic of a 
horizon low down in the marine limestone. 

From Springviile for several miles up the East River the line 
of contact of the Marine limestone and Silurian follows closely the 
course of the river. At several points along this line a fine deposit 
of limonite has been proved. On the property of the Halifax Com- 
pany, some years ago, the writer proved it to have a thickness of 
21 feet 6 inches, and recent researches have proved it to be 15 feet 
thick on the Saddler area of the Pictou Coal afid Iron Company, 
and an equal development at other points. The ore is compact, 
concretionary, and fibrous, with considerable quantities of gravel 
ore. At two points ore has been proved to rest on the Silurian 
clay slates, and has limestone on the hanging wall, usually with a 
gouge of red clay, frequently holding concretions of manganite and 
pyrolusite intervening. The ores are very pure, and appear to be 
much more free from phosphorus than the Londonderry limonite, the 
average of five analyses of the East River ore giving .118 phosphoric 
acid, or .083 phosphorus, in 100 parts of iron. 

These ores in places hold notable quantities of manganese, and 
resemble closely the Spanish limonites imported into England. The 
following analyses of large averages by the writer will show the great 
purity of these ores, and their manganese contents: 


Water 7.702 12.530 

Iron peroxide &7-9 2 5 48.223 

Alumina trace 

Silica 3.000 25.130 

Manganese binoxide . . trace 14.410 

Lime trace 015 

Magnesia 500 trace 

Sulphur trace 480 

Phosphorus trace 020 

97.127 100.908 

Metalic iron 65.54 33-826 


The belt holding ore is 600 yards wide at several places, as shown 
by surface indications, and it appears probable that there is a large 
amount of it in the valley. The limonite may have been derived, 
like the limonite of the Cumberland district and other localities in 
Pennsylvania, as a residual precipitate from disseminated iron sand 
grains of the Upper Silurian strata as well as a deposit from the 
gradual dissolution of the Marine limestones. In view of this it 
may be stated that in this district the rocks of both ages contain 
considerable quantities of iron "as carbonate and peroxide, and that 
the erosion has been on an enormous scale. This has been fully 
treated by the writer in a paper read February, 1879, Institute of 
Natural Science, Halifax. 

It may be mentioned here that some of the East River limestones 
may be found valuable iron ores. An analysis of a bed 12 feet thick 
near Springville giving the writer the following results: 

Moisture 400 

Lime carbonate 55-28o 

Magnesia 10.150 

Iron v . . 24.110 

Manganese I -^>3S 

Alumina 4-3OO 

Sulphur 168 

Phosphorus - none 

Residue 5.000 ' 


The district extending from Sunny Brae nearly to the Spathic 
ore on Sutherland's Brook is occupied by gray and brownish quartz- 
ites, olive and gray slates with calcareous bands, usually coarse and 
unevenly bedded, and containing the fossils of the Arisaig group, a 
series considered equivalent to the Lower Helderberg of American 
geologists, and perhaps in its specific forms more related to the 
English Ludlow. The following are among the more common fos- 
sils of this district: Favosites, Zaphrentis, Chonetes tenuistriata, 
Spirifer rugoecosta, Strophomena pro'funda, Rhynchonella spirata, 
Atrypa reticularis, Athyris didyma, Megambonia striata, trilobata, 
Orthoceras sev. sp., Cornulites, Dalmania Logani, etc. The chief 
ore of this formation is bedded in red hematite found in four prin- 
cipal deposits. The most northerly of these is known as the Mc- 



Kenzie red hematite. It appears from the surface indications to be 
of large size, but no> work has yet been done to> test it. 

The next bed, known as the Webster ore, has been carefully 
trenched and tested at several points, and extends about three miles. 
Its thickness varies from 15 to 30 feet, its dip being generally north 
at angles varying from 25 to 60 degrees. This ore follows the crest 
of a hill, cut transversely by the valley of Sutherland's River, and 
admits of adit drainage to a depth of 300 feet. The ore is compact, 
non-fo'ssiliferous, and brick-red when weathered. The third ex- 
posure is known as the Blanchard great bed. No attempts have yet 
been made to trace it beyond the natural exposures, which extend 
about half a mile. It varies in width from 20 to 100 feet, measured 
across a dip nearly vertical. It is also situated on elevated ground, 
and would yield a large amount of ore. 

At a geological horizon about 700 feet higher than the last 
mentioned bed is a conformable range of red hematites forming the 
fourth series. This ore appears to 1 form a synclinal trough. On the 
west side the ore is 12 feet thick ; at the apex there appear the outcrops 
of two other beds 8 and 3 feet in thickness, the larger possibly repre- 
senting the great bed at Blanchard. On the east of the synclinal only 
one bed has been opened, varying in width from 3 to 5 feet. Underly- 
ing this bed, and on a line where the great bed would show its east- 
ern outcrop, are large boulders, precisely similar in appearance to 
the ore on its western outcrop, and it is expected that it will shortly 
be found here. It is considered by some geologists that the large 
single beds were originally one, and owe their present' disjointed 
condition to faults and erosion; no detailed survey, however, has 
been made to prove the correctness of this opinion, and at present 
it can only 4}e said that they are apparently contained in a limited 
vertical range of strata.* The outcrops of other red hematites have 
been detected,- but no work has yet been done to allow of details. 
These red hematites are all of the same class, being of a red color, 
with earthy to steely luster, compact or laminated, sometimes oolitic, 
owing to the peroxide forming minute concretions around grains 
of sand. In places these ores contain fossils, but the larger propor- 
tion are quite free from them. They are excellently adapted for 
mining, being on high ground, with good roof, and requiring little 
or no dead work. Similar ores, called fossil red hematites, are found 
in Pennsylvania, in strata of the Clinton age, and extensively worked 
near Tyrone, for mixture with red hematites and magnetites. The 


following- analysis will show its relation to the Pictou ores, of which 
analyses are given further on: 

Sesquoxide of iron 38-48 

Peroxide of iron 4.37 

Silica 37.99 

Alumina 9*56 

Lime i .08 

Alkalies 2.89 

Phosphoric acid 1.48 

Sulphur trace 

Volatile ' 4.50 

Metallic iron 3-34 

P'assing to the west side of the East River, the carboniferous is 
found resting on a broad belt of black and olive slate, with bands 
of quartzite, dipping almost vertically to the south. In these meas- 
ures considered by Dr. Dawson the equivalents of those holding the 
Londonderry ores is a large vein of specular ore. The exact rela- 
tion of these measures to those holding the red hematites is not 
easily ascertained, as no fossils have yet been found in them, but 
they appear to occupy a lower position. 

The vein shows ore varying in width from 5 to 20 feet; in places 
there are intercalated masses of quartzite and ankerite. The Pictou 
Coal and Iron Company own over two miles of this vein, in addition 
to large and well selected areas on the Limonite, and the Webster 
and other red hematites on the east side of the river. At two points 
a vein oi a mixture of specular and magnetic ore, one to two* feet 
thick, has been met, but no work has been done to test its value. 
The main vein is cut by several ravines, and for some distance runs 
close to the brow of a hill 200 feet high, which would be found 
advantageous in mining. About two and a half miles to the west- 
ward, and nearly on the strike of the specular ore, a large body of 
reddish quartzite is found in similar black slates, and holds several 
veins of limonite from i to 3 feet in thickness. The bed rock has 
been traced for some distance, and is capable of yielding a considera- 
ble quantity of ore above water level. The ore is compact, of a 
chocolate color, with small cavities lined with crystals and plates of 
the same mineral. Near Glengarry specular ore is again met in 
small veins, m a yellowish-gray quartzite, but no work has yet been 
done to test its extent. 

At numerous other points in the county, rocks of Silurian and 
Carboniferous age, and some of the traps, contain crystals and vein- 




.01 97.52 



93.09 81.19 
1. 10 .20 









.91 .63 





.16 .06 

,.68 3.20 
..4i 68.^ 


4.80 4.26 




lets of specular and magnetic ore, as traces of metamorphic action, as 
well as indications of permanent deposits; but little attention has 
been paid to them beyond the district described. The following 
analyses, by the writer and others, will show the very high character 
of the ores just described: 

Oxides of iron 92.01 

Oxides of magnesia. ... 2.16 

Alumina 21 

Carbonate of lime 1.27 

Carbonate of magnesia. 

Phosphoric acid 08 

Sulphur 1 6 

Silica 3.68 

Metallic iron 64.41 

On the St. Mary River are reported large beds of limonite. At 
Arisaig, in the Upper Silurian strata, a bed of red hematite, 3 feet 
thick, has been found. From specimens that the writer has seen, it 
appears similar in character to the bedded hematites just described, 
but less silicious. This bed is found at the eastern end of the Lower 
Helderberg strata just referred to>, and in the long range intervening 
new discoveries may be confidently anticipated. A large amount 
of money has been expended in testing the iron ores of Pictou, and 
it is to be hoped that at no distant date smelting operations will be 
started. Every visitor to the iron beds is astonished at their extent 
and value. 

A half dozen years later than the date of this report prospecting 
operations were begun on these properties, and some 342 tons of 
ore shipped to Londonderry smelters. 

After the formation of various companies from this date onward, 
large plants were constructed, a railway built, and smelting carried 
on at Ferroma. In 1895 the Ferrona plant owned by the New Glas- 
gow Iron, Steel and Railway Company, was amalgamated with the 
Nova Scotia Steel Company of Trenton, in the same county of 
Pictou, and thenceforth this Nova Scotia Steel Company became a 
leading business enterprise in Canada. They purchased Bell Island, 
Newfoundland, where the experts reported 6,000,000 tons of ore 
of a superior quality and cheaply mined. This company has now 
valuable properties in Pictou, Cape Breton, and Newfoundland. A 


brief history and a list of the properties now owned by this concern 
is here extracted in full from an official statement published Nov. 
21, 1901: 


"The Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company's undertaking devel- 
oped in the following- way: 

"In 1872 a business was established at New Glasgow, Nova 
Scotia, under the name of the Nova Scotia Forge Company, for the 
manufacture of railway and marine forgings. The enterprise pros- 
pered, and in 1882 the proprietors decided to establish another con- 
cern to engage in the manufacture of steel. The Nova Scotia Steel 
Company was therefore formed to manufacture steel from imported 
pig iron and scrap steel, by the 'Siemens-Martin Open Hearth' 
process. Seven years later, namely, in 1889, to insure economy in 
working, these two concerns were amalgamated as the Nova Scotia 
Steel and Forge Company, Limited, and extensions and additions 
were subsequently made to the plant. In 1891 a company was 
incorporated called The New Glasgow Iron, Coal and Railway Com- 
pany, which built a* blast furnace for making pig iron at Ferrona y 
near New Glasgow. 

"In January, 1895, tne Nova Scotia Steel Company acquired the 
interests of the New Glasgow Iron, Coal and Railway Company and 
of the Nova Scotia Steel and Forge Company, and carried on the 
business previously conducted by these companies until the present 

"In the year 1900 the Nova Scotia Steel Company purchased as 
a going concern the business and property of the General Mining 
Association. The general Mining Association was formed by deed 
of settlement in 1829, and (inter alia) took over the lease of the 
Duke of York's extensive coal areas in Nova Scotia. In or about 
1858, by arrangement with the Provincial Government of Nova 
Scotia, the association released some of its rights and secured the 
exclusive right to* all coal seams in certain areas. The leases have 
been renewed, and are now held under the general law of Nova 
Scotia. Th association had disposed of some of these coal areas 
before the property was purchased by the Nova Scotia Steel Com- 
pany, but had retained the Sydney mine and Point Aconi areas, 
which contain a superior quality of coal, with good facilities for ship- 
ment. The Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company, Limited, has 


acquired the whole business, property and assets of the Nova Scotia 
Steel Company, Limited, as a going concern. 


"The properties now owned by the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal 
Company, Limited, consist of: 

"i. All the lands, shafts, buildings, plant "and railways used 
in connection with the coal mines, together with the leases of the 
coal areas which were acquired by the Nova Scotia Steel Company 
from the General Mining Association. These areas extend from 
Sidney Harbor to- the entrance to the Great Bras d'O'r, and com- 
prise : 

"a. The Point Aconi and Sidney Mine areas of 11,700 acres, 
which contained in 1871, according to the estimate of the late Mr. 
Richard Brown, 155,000,000 tons of coal. 

"b. The Sidney Mine submarine areas of 3,200 acres, estimated 
by the same authority, in 1871, to contain 66,000,000 tons of coal. 
Since 1871 about 5,000,000 tons only have been worked out of the 
Sidney mine and Sidney mine submarine areas. The Point Aconi 
have not yet been worked. 

"2. About 7,824 acres of freehold land in Cape Breton. 

"3. A freehold iron ore mine situated at Bell Island, Conception 
Bay, Newfoundland, and several deposits of iron ore held by the 
company in fee simple or by lease in Nova Scotia. 

"4. Leases of coal areas containing two co>al seams of good 
quality, one of which is now being opened up, situated within six 
miles of the steel works at Trenton. 

"5. A standard gauge railway, 12^/2 miles in length, with 3.87 
miles of siding, with rolling stock, in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, 

"6. About 1 60 acres of freehold land at Ferrona, Nova Scotia, 

"7. A blast furnace, coal washing and coking plant, built in 
1892, at Ferrona, with a capacity of 100 tons of pig iron per day. 

"8. About 50 acres of land at Trenton and New Glasgow, on 
which are the steel works, consisting of four steel melting furnaces, 
together with the rolling mills, forges, and other plants, capable of 
turning out 100 tons of finished steel per day. Over 4 acres are 
actually covered with buildings, and the tramways in and about the 
works aggregate about 4 miles in length. 

"9. Large limestone and dolomite properties of excellent qual- 
ity in the County of Cape Breton. 


"10. Net assets represented by cash balances, book debts and 
stock in trade, these amounted to $635,789.48 on the first day of 
January, 1901." 


Trie coal deposits owned by the company in Cape Breton alone 
are estimated to contain 216,000,000 tons of coal. 


The iron and steel produced by the company has always found 
a ready market in Canada, large quantities being shipped to the 
Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It is expected that the Canadian 
market will in the future continue to take the larger part of the 
company's output, but if any surplus should be produced the com- 
pany is in as good a position to sell in the foreign markets as any 
other company in Canada. 

A good deal of work has been done on these Pictou iron mines 
by the Pictou Charcoal-Iron Company. This concern, according to 
the report of the Department of Mines for 1891, have located them- 
selves at Bridgeville, on the line of the New Glasgow Company's 
railway, and the object of their work may be gathered from the fol- 
lowing remark of Mr. E. J. Spotswell: "Our object is to establish 
a charcoal-iron plant here at Bridgeville, and to use the brown ores 
principally, and to produce a charcoal iron especially adapted for car 
wheel making and also for specially strong machine castings. With 
this object in view we have purchased mining rights of iron ore, of 
limestone and manganese ore, and some 6,000 acres of hardwood 
land. The size of our furnace will be n feet bosh, and 50 feet in 
height, and the estimated output for the first few years 5,000 tons 
per annum." 

"The Mines Report for 1892 says this company started their fur- 
nace late in the fall. They report having mined about 3,000 tons 
of ore and 459 tons of limestone. They smelted 415 tons of iron 
ore, with 56 tons of limestone and 33,461 bushels of charcoal, and 
made 211 tons of iron. 

"After operating a half dozen years, I find this item in the 
Report of the Department of Mines for 1899: The Mineral Prod- 
uct Company worked for some time with the Bridgeville Charcoal 
furnace, making ferro-manganese. It was stated, however, that 
operations would be continued next year/ But the 'next year* there 
is no report on this concern." _ * 



From Gilpin's report on the mines of Nova Scotia: 

"At Whycocomah, on the Bras d'Or Lake, on the property of 
the Inverness Coal and Iron Company mine, deposits have been 
exposed, and proved to form beds in measures of the Laurentian 
Age. They were traced some hundreds of yards, when further 
explorations were stopped by the heavy covering of soil. The ore 
appears to be a mixture of red hematite and magnetite in varying 
proportions. From the analysis of the late Dr. How and Prof. 
Hays the ore appears to be free from all impurity except silica, the 
proportions of sulphur and phosphorus being small. A great 
point in favor of these deposits, and what are supposed to be their 
continuations in the district, is the presence of deep water within 
a few hundred yards of the ore, which would allow vessels of large 
burden to load for distant markets, while it can be carried in scows 
or barges to any part of the Bras d'Or Lake." 

In the report of the Department of Mines for 1900 occurs the 
following paragraph : 

"Mr. Neville reports visiting Whycocomah at the close of the 
year. A number of pits and trenches have proved sound during 
the season, and have the extension of the iron ore on the property 
of the Cape Breton Iron Company for a distance of nearly two> miles. 
Previous reports have stated that a number of beds have been opened 
in this district. The additional work done this year has been on a 
bed of very good quality running from 5 to 7 feet in thickness. It 
is to be desired that this locality should at an early date be thor- 
oughly prospected. The deposits are very large and of a good 
quality. Should the explorations turn out as anticipated, this dis- 
trict would furnish a cheap and valuable source of iron ore." 


I take the following extract from a paper read before the Nova 
Scotia Institute of Science, 1899, by Dr. Edwin Gilpin, Jr.: 

"The district lying between Little Bras d'Or Lake and East Bay 
in Cape Breton County is traversed diagonally by lower Silurian 
strata, and by felsite and limestone divisions of the pre-Cambrian, 
which are flanked by lower Carboniferous strata. The presence of 
iron ore near the junction of the Georges River limestone and lower 
Carboniferous has long been known near Gillie's Lake, and outcrops 
are known at Upper French Vale and near the mouth of the 


Barosois River, emptying into the Little Bras d'Or Lake. At the 
latter place the Silurian slates are literally soaked with iron oxide- 
and at several points they present deposits which may on further 
investigation prove of economic value. To the southwest of the 
railway bridge at Barosois,, o>n a line running towards Eskasonie on 
the East Bay, are several large outcrops of magnetite. As yet but 
little work has been done to test the value of these deposits. Should 
they prove free from titanic acid, they should, judging from the fol- 
lowing analysis, be available for the operation of the miner: 

Oxide of manganese and aluminum 600 

Lime no 

Magnesia 100 

Sulphur 050 

Phosphoric acid 040 

Silica 2.120 

Volatile 840 

Metallic iron 67.298 

The existence of iron ore at many points in Cape Breton is 
already known. The attempts made to find deposits, and to test 
them, are scarcely worth noticing. In the forest and swamp-covered 
tracts there may be masses of iron ore worth an empire's ransom. It 
must, however, be remembered that these deposits, to be of any 
value, must be pure, extensive, and capable of cheap mining and 
shipping. The output must be large and the expense low to enable 
the Cape Bretoner to enter the world's competition in selling iron 
ore in the markets of the world." 


At Brookfield, in the Township of Truro, is a bed of iron ore, der 
scribed as follows in Gilpin's Report on the Mines of Nova Scotia: 

"At Brookfield, ten miles south of Trun>, in measures of the 
same age, viz., Carboniferous, and near the contact of the older 
strata, are extensive surface indications of limonite. As yet but little 
has been done to test the deposit. An engineer of some repute said, in 
reporting upon the property: 'I consider that the indications of 
an extensive deposit are greater than even at the Londonderry mines.' 
This deposit is very favorably situated, being only two miles from 
the Intercolonial Railway and about forty-five miles from the Pictou 
coal field. The ore is of an unusually good quality, as will be seen 
from this analysis of Dr. How, of Kings College : 


Water 1 1 .36 

Silica and gangue '. . 1.54 

Phosphoric acid trace 

Sulphuric acid none 

Magnesia trace 

Peroxide of iron 87.00 

Metallic iron 60.00" 

, The report of the Mining Department for 1888 has this record: 

"The limonite deposit of Brookfield was worked by Mr. R. 
E. Chambers, who took out about 1,000 tons. The vein was cut 
and proved to be from 18 to 20 feet wide. The ore hitherto ex- 
tracted has been smelted at Londonderry. It is of excellent quality 
and very accessible, being within two and a half miles of the rail- 

Other shipments followed, but all is closed down now. At 
Arisaig, in Antigonish County, are extensive deposits of iron ores 
that have been worked to some extent. At present the locality 
is attracting -considerable attention of capitalists engaged in the iron 
business in Sydney. 

There are many other deposits of iron ore in this province, but 
so far as known are not of great magnitude and purity. Further 
developments will doubtless sooner or later show some of them to be 
of economic value. The ever increasing demand for iron and steel 
will bring to light our available resources. The vast bodies of 
superior ore obtained in Michigan and Newfoundland have made it 
impossible for many smaller smelting concerns to continue opera- 
tions. It would be no surprise to those best informed if the Island 
of Cape Breton came to the front with an iron mine to match the 
rich stores of coal that are now so largely used in the treatment of 
Newfoundland ores. 

The London Economist in the issue of Nov. 10, 1901, discusses 
the coal and iron resources of Nova Scotia, and has this to say 
of iron: 

"The general result of our inquiry is the conviction that Nova 
Scotia is seamed throughout with some of the most valuable iron 
deposits in the world. It follows that with coal and limestone also 
at hand, this province should become one of the world's chief sources 
of iron supply. The question which, however, presents itself to 
our mind is whether Nova Scotia should not be our resort for sup- 


plies of mineral iron in place of the diminishing supplies and deterio- 
rating quality of the Spanish mines. This matter of ore supply is 
the great problem which faces the British iron industry at present." 
Greater progress has been made in 1900 and 1901 in the devel- 
opment of the iron and steel industries of Canada than in all pre- 
vious years. Complete statistics for 1900, and in part for 1901, are 
herewith given in sufficient detail. 


The production of pig iron in the Dominion of Canada, as ascer- 
tained from the manufacturers by' the American Iron and Steel 
Association, amounted in the calendar year 1900 to 86,090 gross 
tons, as compared with 94,077 tons in 1899, 68,755 tons in 1898, 
53,796 tons in 1897, 60,030 tons in 1896, 37,829 tons in 1895, and 
44,791 tons in 1894. Our statistics do not go back prior to 1894. 
Of the production in 1900, 70,349 tons were made with coke and 
15,741 tons with charcoal. The production of Bessemer pig iron in 
1900 included above amounted to 3,781 tons. Neither spiegeleisen 
nor ferro-manganese was made in 1900. On Dec. 31, 1900, the 
unsold stocks of pig iron in Canada amounted to 12,465 gross tons, 
as compared with 9,932 tons at the close of 1899 and 9,979 tons at 
the close of 1898. Of the unsold stocks on Dec. 31, 1900, 6,900 tons 
were coke pig iron and 5,565 tons were charcoal pig iron. 

On Dec. 31, 1900, there were 10 completed furnaces in Canada 
and four furnaces were in the course of construction. During 1900 
one new furnace was completed at Midland, Ontario, by the Canada 
Iron Furnace Company, Limited. It was blown in on Dec. 4, 1900. 
The other furnaces referred to were all being erected by the Domin- 
ion Iron and Steel Company, Limited, at Sydney, Cape Breton, 
Nova Scotia. One of the furnaces was completed early in 1901 
and was blown in on Feb. 4 of that year. Two additional furnaces 
have since been put in blast. 

The production of pig iron in Canada in the first half of 1901 
amounted to 95,024 gross tons, exceeding by nearly a thousand tons 
the production in the whole of any preceding year. Of the total 
production in the first half of this year, 17,577 tons were Bessemer 
pig iron and 13,292 tons were basic pig iron; the remainder was 
foundry and forge pig iron. No spiegeleisen or ferro-manganese 
was made. Of the total production 86,430 tons were made with 


coke and 8,594 tons with charcoal. The unsold stocks on June 30, 
1901, amounted to 28,711 tons, of which 21,367 tons were coke pig 
iron and 7,344 tons were charcoal. 


The steel industry in Canada may be said to be to-day in a state 
of preparation for important results. The fulfilment of great expec- 
tations would seem indeed to be near at hand. Several steel-making 
enterprises are in a more or less forward state of completion at the 
present time, the most advanced of which is the open-hearth plant 
of the Dominion Iron and Steel Company, which is erecting at 
Sydney ten 5o-gross-ton open hearth furnaces of the Campbell tilt- 
ing type, at which both acid and basic steel will be made. It is 
expected that a part of this plant will be in operation early in 1902. 
Its rolling-mill products will embrace blooms, slabs, billets and rails. 
Early in 1900 William Kennedy & Sons, Limited, of Owen Sound, 
Ontario, erected at that place one 2-ton Tropenas converter for the 
manufacture of steel castings. Steel was first made in May, 1900. 
The total production of steel in Canada in 1900 was 23,577 g r ss 
tons, against 22,000 tons in 1899, 2 1,540 tons in 1898, 18,400 tons in 
1897, 16,000 tons in 1896, and 17,000 tons in 1895. Both Bessemer 
and open hearth steel ingots and castings were made in 1899 and 
1900. Of the total production of open hearth steel in 1900 about 
one-third was made by the acid process. The production of open- 
hearth steel rails in 1900 amounted to. 700 gross tons, against 835 
tons or open-hearth and iron rails in 1899; structural shapes, 4,674 
tons, against 2,899 tons in 1899; cut nails made by rolling mills and 
steel works having cut nail factories connected with their plants, 
117,186 kegs of loo pounds, against 235,981 kegs in 1899; plates 
and sheets, 2,100 tons, against about 2,220 tons in 1899; all other 
rolled products, excluding muck and scrap bars, blooms, billets, sheet 
bars, etc., 87,984 tons, against 94,153 tons in 1899. Changing the 
cut nail production from kegs to gross tons, the total quantity of 
all kinds of iron and steel rolled into finished products in the Do- 
minion in 1900, excluding muck and scrap bars, billets, and other 
intermediate products, amounted to 100,690 tons, against 110,642 
tons in 1899, 90,303 tons in 1898, 77,021 tons in 1897, 75,043 tons 
in 1896, and 66,402 tons in 1895. The number of completed rolling 
mills and steel works in Canada on Dec. 31, 1900, was 18. 

We now present a chronological record of the leading events in 


the development of the iron 'and steel industries of the United States 
and Canada down to the close of the nineteenth century. 


1619 In this year the Virginia Company sent to Virginia a 
number of persons who were skilled in the manufacture of iron to 
"set up three iron works" in the colony. The enterprise was under- 
taken in that year and the works were located on Falling Creek, a 
tributary of the James River. 

1620 In this, as stated by Beverly in his History of Virginia, 
"an iron works at Falling Creek, in James River, was set up, where 
they made proof of good iron ore." In this and the following year 
the enterprise languished. On March 22, 1622, the works were 
destroyed by the Indians and all the workmen were massacred. The 
works were not rebuilt. 

1642 In this year "The Company of Undertakers for the Iron 
Works" in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, consisting of eleven 
English gentlemen, was organized with a capital of 1,000. x 

1643 I n ms History of Lynn (1844) Alomzoi Lewis says that 
in 1643 "Mr. John Winthrop, Jr., came from England with workmen 
and stock to the amount of 1,000 for commencing the work. A 
foundry was erected on the western bank of Saugus River," at Lynn, 
in Massachusetts. This foundry was a small blast furnace, com- 
pleted in 1645. It was the first successful iron enterprise in the 
thirteen colonies. Bog ore was used. For a hundred years after 
its settlement in 1620 Massachusetts was the chief seat of the iron 
industry on this continent. 

1645 A small iron pot, holding about a quart, which is still 
preserved, was cast at the Lynn foundry in 1645. It was tne ^ rs t 
iron article made from the native ore in America. 

1658 In 1658 Captain Thomas Clarke, in company with John 
Winthrop and others, put in operation an "iron worke" at New 
Haven, Connecticut. This enterprise embraced a blast furnace and 
a refinery forge. 

1675 Rhode Island made iron soon after its settlement in 
1636, certainly at Pawtucket and elsewhere as early as 1675, when a 
forge at Pawtucket, erected by Joseph Jenks, Jr., -was destroyed by 
the Indians in the Wanpanoag war, as well as other iron works and 
infant enterprises. 

1679 In the Statistics of Coal, by Richard Cowling Taylor, pub- 


lished in 1848, it is stated that the earliest historic mention of coal 
in this country is by the French Jesuit missionary, Father Hennepin, 
who saw traces of bituminous coal on the Illinois River in 1679. In 
his journal he marks the site of a "coal mine" above Fort Crevecoeur, 
near the present town of Ottawa, Illinois. 

1682 In an account of the province of East Jersey, published 
by the proprietors in 1682, it is stated that "there is already a smelt- 
ing furnace and forge set up in this colony, where is made good 
iron, which is of great benefit to the country." This enterprise was 
located at Tinton Falls, in Monmouth Co., New Jersey. Other 
authorities definitely establish the fact that the Shrewsbury works, 
as they were called, were established before 1676. They were the 
first iron works in New Jersey. 

1692 In 1692 we find the first mention of iron having been 
made in Pennsylvania, It is contained in a metrical composition 
entitled "A Short Description of Pennsylvania," by Richard Frame, 
which was printed and sold by William Bradford, in Philadelphia, in 
1692. Frame says that at a "certain place about some forty pound" 
of iron had then been made. This was doubtless an experimental 


1703 Abraham Lincoln's paternal ancestry was identified with 
the manufacture of iron in Massachusetts. The head of the Amer- 
ican branch of his father's family, Samuel Lincoln, emigrated in 
1637 from Norwich, England, to Massachusetts. Mordecai Lin- 
coln, son of Samuel, born at Hingham on June I4th, 1657, followed 
the trade of a blacksmith at Hull, from which place he removed to 
Scituate, where he "built a spacious house and was a large con- 
tributor toward the erection of the iron works at Bound Brook" in 
1703. These iron works made wrought iron directly from, the ore. 
Mordecai Lincoln had two sons, Mordecai, Jr., and Abraham, who 
settled in Berks Co., Pennsylvania. Mordecai, Jr., was the great- 
great-grandfather of Abraham Lincoln. 

It is worth noticing in this connection that in 1732 Augustine 
Washington, the father of George Washington, was engaged in 
making pig iron at Accokeek furnace in Stafford County, Virginia, 
about fifteen miles from Fredericksburg, when his famous son was 
born. This furnace had been built by the Principio Company, com- 
posed of English capitalists, as early as 1726, on land owned by 


Augustine Washington, aggregating abqut 1,600 acres and contain- 
ing iron ore, Mr. Washington becoming the owner of one-sixth 
of the furnace property in consideration of the transfer -of his land 
to the Company. 

Connecticut was probably the first of the Colonies to make steel. 
In 1728 Samuel Higley of Simsbury, and Joseph Dewey of Hebron, 
in Hartford County, represented to the Legislature, that the first 
named had, "with great pains and cost found out and obtained a 
curious art, by which to convert, change or transmute common iron 
into good steel, sufficient for any use, and was the very first that 
ever performed such an operation in America." It was doubtless 
cementation steel. 

The first iron works in New York were "set up" a short time 
prior, to 1740 on Ancram Creek, in Columbia County, about four- 
teen miles east of the Hudson River, by Phillip Livingston, the 
owner of the Livingston manor, and the father of the signer of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

The iron industry of New Hampshire probably dates from about 
1750, when several bog-ore bloomeries were in existence on Lamper 
Eel River, but were soon discontinued. About the time of the 
Revolution there were a few other bloomeries in operation in New 

I have extracted these statistics, and items on the early history 
of the iron industry in America, from The Annual Statistical Report 
of the" Iron and Steel Association, Philadelphia, 1901. 



This county, like Kings and Annapolis, was settled by the French 
at an early date, before the founding of Halifax. It was an inviting 
field to these Acadians, where they found fertile lands, fine rivers, and 
abundance of timber. What is now called Windsor was then known 
as Pisiquid, an Indian word signifying the junction of two rivers. 
Furthermore, as a matter of great convenience, this point was readily 
reached by water from the old settlements of Minas and Port Royal, 
and the trail from across country to Halifax Harbor, or Chebucto, as 
it was then called, was the shortest and most accessible from this place. 
It was a route well known to the Indians, and often used by the Aca- 
dians as they journeyed to and from the small settlements on Bedford 
Basin and Musquodoboit. 

The area of the county is 1,179 square miles, and the population 
is 20,066. Between 1749 and 1755 the English established a military 
post at Windsor, and by the name of Fort Edward it figures in the 
annals of the Province. One reads much of it in the dark days 'of the 
French Expulsion. Here is an item that vividly recalls the past. 
It is from the Journal of Col. Winslow, who was in charge of the 
forces that ^removed those unfortunate people from the region of 
Grand Pre. He and his men had embarked at Amherst, or Fort Cum- 
berland as they called it then. 

"1755 August 1 7th came to sail, stood down Chignecto Bay & 
dobled the Cape of that name, stood up the Bay of Mines, anchored 
near the mouth of the river Pisiquid. i85TH i8TH i8th came to sail 
and stood up the river Pisiquid to Forte Edward at which we arrived 
at Eleven o'Clock in the Forenoon, Found it to be a Fine, Pleasant 
Scituation. The Forte of Great Strength, waited on Capt Murray and 
Dined with him & the Gents the officers, and from Whome I 
received the following Minnets Directed to Captain Murray viz." 
These "minnits" were directions from Governor Lawrence, instruct- 
ing Capt. Murray how to deal with the Acadians in his vicinity, and 
also containing instructions for Col. Winslow when he came to deal 
with the Horton and Cornwallis communities. They show Lawrence 
to have been a man of "blood and iron/' firmly determined that Nova 
Scotia from that date should be British in fact as well as name. Here 




is a specimen of his instructions: "Show these Memoranda to Col 
Winslpw as Soon as he arrives, take an opportunity of Acquainting 
the Inhabitants that if any attempt by Indians or others to Destroye 
or otherwise Molest his Majesty's Troops, you have my orders to 
take an Eye for an Eye, a Tooth for a Tooth and in Shorte Life for 
Life from the nearest Neighbours where such Mischief is Per- 

We have not the space to enter into details of the Acadian set- 
tlement or their complete uprooting. With the exception of those 
who escaped to the woods and lived with the Indians, all were sent 
away a sharp remedy for a sore evil. 

The English occupancy naturally grew up around the fort, and 
from that starting point extended to other localities. Writing of 
Windsor in 1828 Haliburton says: "This place is distant from 
Halifax forty-five miles, the road to which, by many late alterations, 
is level and in an excellent state of repair. This locality was held in 
great estimation by the French, on account of its extensive and 
fertile meadows, which they enclosed with dykes, and brought into 
a high state of cultivation. The crops of wheat which they raised 
were so superabundant, that for many years previous to the war 
of 1756 they exported a great quantity to the Boston market. 
Although immediately occupied by the English after the removal 
of the French, it underwent no material changes until within the 
last twenty years. The most valuable lands were granted to gen- 
tlemen residing in Halifax; among them were many of His Majesty's 
Council. That portion of it which fell into the hands of resident 
proprietors, was divided among a few individuals, and thus was 
introduced a system of tenancy in Nova Scotia, which neither con- 
tributed to the improvement of the soil, nor the profit of the land- 
lord. Under these circumstances the appearance of the place re- 
mained stationary for several years, until in the progress of time, 
the transfer of property, and the increase of population gradually 
worked a change in this defective system. The dyke lands, of which 
there are 2,544 acres, are decidedly the best in Nova Scotia, the 
deepest, richest, and, most productive. The rise and fall of the 
river at Windsor is about twenty feet at neap, and thirty at spring 
tides. The whole of the salt water flows and reflows, and the bed 
of the river at times is totally exposed. The whole of the neigh- 
borhood of Windsor is extremely beautiful. The luxuriance of the 
meadows, the frequent changes of scenery, the chain of high hills 



on the south and west, clothed with trees of variegated foliage, and 
the white sails of vessels passing rapidly through the serpentine 
windings of the Avon and the St. Croix, are some of the leading 
features of this landscape. There was a small military post at Wind- 
sor, named in honor of his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, which 
is much out of repair, and now scarcely tenable." 

From the days of Haliburton the growth of this town has not 
been by "leaps and bounds," as the politicians describe their kind 
of progress; but it has been steady and healthy. It has long been 
in railway commu'nication with Halifax and other localities. Re- 
cently it has suffered most severely from a fire, that perhaps in the 
long run will not be looked upon as altogether a calamity, although 
it has fallen with great severity on many people of this generation. 
The oldest college in Canada is to be found in this town, King's 
College was founded in 1787 and chartered by King George III. in 
1802. A more extended notice of this institution occurs in another 
portion of this book devoted to educational matters. 

The Township of Newport lies on the eastern side of the River 
St. Croix. It was granted in the year 1761 in seventy shares, and 
consists of 58,000 acres. It abounds in gypsum, and has valuable 
freestone quarries. It is a well cultivated district, and was peopled 
at first by New England settlers. 

The Township of Falmouth lies between Horton and Windsor. 
The grant bears, date July 2ist, 1759, and contains 50,000 acres. It 
contains a good deal of diked lands, and altogether is a delightfully 
located and thriving community. 

The Township of Kempt is situated on the Basin of Minas, 
between the Kentecook River and Cobequid Bay. It consists 
mostly of upland, a great portion of which is productive. Chiverie, 
Cambridge, and Pembroke are thriving communities along the 

Walton is a small township containing six or seven square miles, 
and was formerly a portion of Douglas, and lies between that divi- 
sion and Kempt. Within its bounds have been worked some very 
promising deposits of manganese, a metal much in demand. 

Douglas embraces a region on the south shore of Cobequid Bay, 
and west of the Township of Shubenacadie, that has also been 
clipped from its ample bounds since 1828, for Haliburton included 
both it and Maitland, and Walton in the Township of Douglas. As 
it stands it is a large district of excellent farming lands, and contains 


vast supplies of gypsum, limestone, and freestone. The new Mid- 
land Railway crosses the entire width of this section and opens up' 
a fine country. The Acadians were settled at Noel, as one may 
guess from the name, which has not been displaced by something 
less pleasing, as it often turns out in this Province. 

Maitland township includes the western shore of the mouth of 
the Shubenacadie River, and extends westward to the Douglas line. 
Maitland village is a place of some shipping trade, and a commer- 
cial center for the region round about. The eastern boundary of 
the county is the Shubenacadie River, a strong tidal stream arising 
in a large lake from which there is a connection with the Atlantic 
coast by way of the Dartmouth lakes. About seventy-five years 
ago there was a great effort made to construct a canal along this 
spindling waterway that would admit of the passage of schooners 
and other crafts, but after a large sum of money had been squan- 
dered on the childish project it was abandoned, and the present 
generation hardly knows that such a work was ever begun by our 
fore-fathers. In his history Haliburton has much to- say of this 
scheme, that was just then a topic of great interest. He gives us 
a map of the whole distance, showing all the lakes and streams, and 
altitudes, made from the notes of a careful survey, and tells us that 
a "Chain of lakes in this township, connected withMhe source of 
the Shubenacadie River, suggested the idea of uniting the waters 
of the Basin of Minas with Halifax harbor, by means of a canal. 
Of these Lake Charles, or the first Shubenacadie Lake, is distant 
from Halifax about three miles and a half. It extends from north 
to south 4,300 yards, and occupies the higher portion of a valley, 
which reaches, with irregular breadth, and elevation, from the Basin 
of Minas to Dartmouth, dividing the province by a well-defined line 
of separation into two parts of nearly equal extent. The project 
having been decided by a competent engineer to be not only prac- 
ticable, but attended with fewer obstacles than usually accompany 
works of that description, an Association was formed, denominated 
the Shubenacadie Canal Company, and on the ist of June, 1826, 
it was regularly incorporated. As it was supposed that the resources 
of the Province would be developed by this work, and that the 
public would also>, in the event of a war, be much benefited by this 
internal navigation, the Legislature granted to the adventurers the 
sum of fifteen thousand pounds. Thus encouraged the company 
commenced the work upon a scale adapted to schooners. Accord- 


ing to the plan finally agreed upon, the canal will be sixty feet in 
width at the water level, and thirty-six feet at the bottom, the slopes 
being one and a half horizontal to one perpendicular, and the depth 
sufficient to admit vessels drawing eight feet of water. The locks 
will be ninety feet within the chambers, nineteen feet and a half in 
width, and 125 between the extremity of the wing walls. The 
artificial communication is confined to a few places, advantage being 
taken, when practicable, of navigating the lakes and the channel of 
the river; when completed, small steamboats, of twelve or fourteen 
horse-power, will be employed for towing, each boat performing the 
passage from Halifax harbor to the mouth of the Shubenacadie in 
fifteen hours, and carrying each four trade boats of thirty tons' 
burden. The whole distance of this inland navigation will be fifty- 
three miles and 1,024 yards, and will be completed, according to the 
estimates, of 75,000 p'ounds." 

The canal was commenced on Monday, the 24th of July, 1826, 
with great ceremony in the presence of a notable assembly. His 
Excellency, the Earl of Dalhousie, then on a little visit, was pressed 
into the services of the occasion, and with him were also the Gov- 
ernor, Sir James Kempt; Sir Howard Douglas, Sir John Keane, the 
members of the Council and officers of 'the army and navy, a num- 
ber of citizen^ and the Masonic lodges. His Lordship, the Earl of 
Dalhousie, broke the ground and made the following hopeful little 

"Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

"It is to me a most pleasing compliment to have been called 
upon to assist here. to-day, in the first operation of this public work, 
so long desired so important to this province. Persevering in- 
quiry has now overcome all doubts of the practicability of this work, 
and the spirit of enterprise and improvement has contributed the 
funds on which to make a beginning. The Legislature has afforded 
that liberal support which, I trust, will encourage, and lead to a 
speedy and successful accomplishment of this great undertaking. I 
am happy, Sir James, to see such convincing proof as this affords of 
the progress of improvement in Nova Scotia. I have always 
thought that the advancement of these young countries ought not 
to be forced, but leaving the march to the increasing of time and 
rising spirit, a few years comparatively would bring changes far out- 
doing what we can anticipate in human foresight. I think I have 





been right as regards this work, for now I feel convinced that we 
not only commence the canal, projected so many years ago, but 
in this act we also lay the foundation of many and various improve- 
ments that will spring up in connection with it. 

"Mr. Wallace' permit me to congratulate you personally on this 
occasion, for you are amongst the first whose public spirit sug- 
gested this work, and whose constant pursuit of public improve- 
ment has never permitted the subject to be dropped, until it has 
been brought to this point." 

"The best laid plans of mice and men" often come to naught. 
Dalhousie's fine predictions proved to be based on his hopes, rather 
than on his knowledge of the enterprise. The Government with 
judicious prudence agreed to pay in small installments as the work 
went forward, and private subscriptions never reached much more 
than one-quarter of the whole estimated cost of the work, and so 
the project died a natural death at an early stage. 

The Shubenacadie River has some historical connections that 
are not without interest to those who find pleasure and profit in 
turning over such matters. The region about the lower portions 
of the river was a favorite camping ground of the Indians, who 
found there a central location in the midst of good hunting and 
fishing. To them was sent a missionary from France in the person 
of the Abbe Louis Joseph de la Loutre, who* reached them in 1740 
after having been three years in the Province. During a portion 
of each year for fifteen years he remained with them, and in his 
communications calls it "my mission," although it seems that his 
principal residence was at Missiquash, near Fort Lawrence, in Cum- 
berland County. In Shubenacadie his residence was about a mile 
below the railway bridge in the village of the same name and in 
Hants County. This man was the evil genius of the Acadians. 
Beneath the garb of a priest beat the heart of a vain, cruel adven- 
turer, the moral inferior of almost every savage he met. It is quite 
probable that there would have been no expulsion of the French 
peasants had it not been for the advice and tireless activities of this 
deadly enemy of the English interests. He was in Fort Beausejour 
during its besiegement in the fall of 1755, and escaped in disguise 
before its surrender. The Bishop of Quebec bitterly reproached 
him for meddling with temporal affairs, and charged him with being 
the cause of serious misfortunes. The next year, after the deporta- 
tion of the Acadians, when he saw that his occupation was gone, 


he made ready to leave the scenes of his varied misdoings. A half 
dozen years before Lord Cornwallis was so exasperated with him 
that he offered a reward of 100 for his head, and sent after him the 
redoubtable Captain Silvanus Cobb, who had seen no little of the 
rough side of life, and was yet to take an important part in the cap- 
ture of Quebec. Here is the order: 

"To Captain Silvanus Cobb: 

"Having certain information that one Le Loutre, a French 
priest at Chignecto, is the author and adviser of all the disturbances 
the Indians have made in this Province, and that it is he as their 
chief, excites, directs, and instructs them, and provides them from 
Canada with arms and ammunition,* and everything necessary for 
their purpose. 

"You are hereby ordered to apprehend the said Priest Le Loutre 
wherever he may be found, and deliver him up to me at Halifax or 
into any English fort, where he may be secured, that he answer the 
crimes laid to his charge." 

However, even Cobb could not secure this desirable prize, and 
he was reserved for further mischief. When all was over, and hav- 
ing some concern for safety, he embarked for France in 1756, but 
was unlucky enough to be taken by a British ship and carried to 
England, where he found there was already a knowledge of his 
career, and he was accordingly imprisoned in the Isle of Jersey, 
where he remained eight years, and narrowly escaped assassination 
at the hand of one of his guards, who declared that when he was a 
soldier in Nova Scotia and -was taken prisoner by Indians, that this 
priest ordered him to be scalped, and even marked the circle on 
his head with a knife, but he escaped the cruel fate by some fortu- 
nate turn of affairs. Le Loutre finally returned to France, where, 
of course, he had friends, and died in obscurity. 

The Township of Uniacke evidently perpetuates the name of a 
notable man in the early history of the Province. There is a station 
on the railway between Halifax and Windsor in this township called 
"Mount Uniacke," and from that point one may see across the small 
lake, and near its margin a large old-fashioned house that was built 
by Richard John Uniacke as a quiet retreat in his autumn of life. 
He was born in Castletown, County of Cork, Ireland, son of a 
country gentleman of some means, with whom he had a serious fall- 
ing out when he was but twenty years of age. He had begun the 


study of law, but he impetuously ended that arrangement and soon 
put the Atlantic Ocean between himself and his father. After a brief 
tarry in the West Indies, he landed in Philadelphia to seek his for- 
tune in some way yet to be discovered. Before he left the wharf, 
as the story goes, he met Mr. Moses Delesdernier, a Swiss gentle- 
man, whose home was in Amherst, N. S. They by chance got 
into conversation, with the result that the fine-appearing young 
Irishman went home with his new friend to become useful in some 
capacity suitable to his ability. He had not been many months with 
his employer before he married his daughter, who was not yet thir- 
teen years of age, and he not yet one and twenty. This was in 1775, 
when the American Revolutionary war was simmering in the early 
stages. The next year Uniacke was suspected of being concerned 
in the toy rebellion, led by Jonathan Eddy, and placed under arrest 
and brought to Halifax, where he seems to have in some way 
avoided a trial and got away to> Ireland, where he studied law three 
years and returned in 1781 and began the practice of his profession 
in Halifax, in which he met with great success from the very first. 
The .next year he was commissioned Solicitor General, and a year 
later he was a member of the House of Assembly from Sackville, 
now in New Brunswick. He soon became a leading spirit in that 
body, where there was need of his trenchant tongue and honest pur- 
pose to correct abuses. He had not long to wait for another turn 
of the wheel of fortune, and he was commissioned as Advocate 
General in the Vice Admiralty Court, a lucrative office. In 1797 he 
was appointed Attorney General, and remained a member of the 
House of Assembly till 1808. His wife had died three years before, 
greatly to his sorrow. She was the mother of six sons and six 
daughters, eleven of whom were living at the time of her death. 
The family was remarkable for the even dozen, the equal division of 
sexes, and the bodily excellence and exceptional talents of several 
of its members. 

It was an object of ambition with Mr. Uniacke to become Chief 
Justice of the Province, but in this he was not to succeed; a disap- 
pointment that he bore with no very good grace when a Boston 
Loyalist lawyer secured the coveted prize. 

When he was sixty-two years of age he was devoting a large 
portion of his time to his estate at Mount Uniacke, where he had 
grants covering 5,000 acres. He had an inherited tendency to 
become a country gentleman after the manner of his fore-fathers, so 


in 1813 he built the large house I have mentioned, and in which he 
resided till his death in 1830. 

Little did the old Attorney General think as he walked over his 
broad acres of stones and ledges, that there were gold mines under 
his feet, and nuggets of the yellow metal on the surface, scarcely 
hidden by the leaves and brush. People are most likely to discover 
what they are seeking, and while it was gold that the proprietor 
wanted, yet he never looked for it in any other shape than a coin 
of the realm, and so he never saw what was in sight for him who had 
the eye for that sort of thing. Thirty years after Mr. Uniacke's death 
prospecting licenses were taken out, and in a year later the roar of 
a stamp mill broke in upon the sylvan quiet of the locality. Since 
then the miners have had a variety of experiences, as usual with 
them ; some have been good, and some quite the reverse. At present 
there are on the spot parties full of hope, assaulting the ledges and 
veins in search of bonanzas that may or may not be there to reward 
them for their efforts. Very likely that the prospecting has been 
quite inadequate to secure the best prizes, as no great depth has 
anywhere in the Province been reached to penetrate the saddles of 
the productive anticlinals. 


It would require a bulky volume to contain the details of the 
rock structure of this county. If a few of the general features can 
be here set down it will be quite withinmy present purpose. 

Here are granite, Cambrian slates, Devonian or Horton series, 
and carboniferous shales and other sediments of that time, each one 
representing great epochs in the history of the globe. Here are 
gold mines in the Cambrian ' slates, manganese mines in the car- 
boniferous limestone, and gypsum quarries on all sides. The granite 
is an extension of the outcrop of that rock that appears along the 
divide of the Province, reaching out here and there to the Atlantic 
coast. It makes a contact on the southeastern side of the county 
with the Cambrian slates on the county line, then in a long deep 
fold it meets the Horton series to near the Avon River, where its 
contact is with the carboniferous formation for a distance of five or 
six miles, where it again encounters the Cambrian slates and quartz- 
ites that extend over the southern side of the county, and include 
the gold-mining district of Rawdon. All the rest of the county 
has for its surface rock the carboniferous formation, with the ex- 


ception of a p'atch of the Horton series that extends across the 
Avon between Avonport and Horton Bluffs, and continues to the 
eastward and northward, forming the shore line nearly to Walton, 
with the exception of a carboniferous exposure west from Chivere 
Creek to near the coast in the direction of Indian Point. 



It is rather surprising that no one has yet written a history of this 
county. In the first place, it has been the scene of events that will 
live long in the annals of the British Empire, and in the second place, 
a college has long existed in this locality, and one might naturally 
expect that some scholarly graduate from that institution, and that 
, section, would have taken up this inviting theme, and got it into print 
long ago. For my own part, I have levied on Haliburton, and Murdoch, 
and Winslow's Journal, Herbin's Grand Pre, and other sources here 
and there, that have amply furnished me with material for my present 

In the matter of area, Kings is among the small counties, having 
but 81 1 square miles within its lines. The population is 22,389. It 
is bounded by the Bay of Fundy, the Basin of Minas, the Avon River, 
and Hants, Lunenburg, and Annapolis Counties. It will be readily 
seen by reference to the map that Annapolis Valley is extended through 
Kings, and the North and South Mountains maintain their characteris- 
tics through both counties. To the southward of the South Mountain 
there is a considerable area of timber land, and some agricultural facil- 
ities, but the fruit-growing industry, the dyked lands, and the delight- 
ful scenery, are -the leading features in this division of the Province. 
They are permanent values. The apple-raising business, although 
large, is yet but in its infancy. The day cannot be distant when the 
land that is suitable for that purpose will all be covered with orchards. 
The dyked lands should support a large dairying business. The scen- 
ery is so happily arranged by Nature that the hand of man can scarcely 
deform or* deface it. It is not dependent upon forests that can be 
chopped away, nor on rivers that may be largely diverted from their 
courses, or ori any other feature within the vandal tendency of human 
nature, and thus its fine views are safe while the present order of the 
world endures. In fact, it has turned out in this instance that mankind 
in their ordinary operations have heightened the beauties of the land- 
scapes. Fine orchards, and fine houses, and wide dykes, are suggestive 
of comfort, and order, and thrift, and they give a pleasing variety as 
material objects. The outlooks from many of the most elevated points 
are admirable pictures of rural loveliness. Notable among them is the 



"Lookout" on the North Mountain, from which portions of five 
counties are visible, and the eye ranges some ninety miles westward 
till it reaches the shores of the Annapolis Basin, and the whole 
intermediate distance. When seen in the early October haze of a 
beautiful day it is a panorama of unforgetable charms. One has 
but to turn his head from this view of the valley in order to take 
in the historic Basin of Minas framed in green and azure, fretting 
the wide curves of its shores with far-famed tides that race over the 
tawny flats, back and forth from age to age. Another turn of the 
head from this Lookout and we have in view the Minas Channel, 
and on its farther shore the bold hills of Greville Bay and Spencer's 
Island and the frowning cliffs of Cape D'Or. We must not tarry 
to describe the fine scenery of this county, although it is no small 
item in its attractions. 

The history, of course, begins with the earliest French occupa- 
tion, and thereby hangs a tale of woe that I have treated at some 
length in the pages devoted to the history of Nova Scotia in this 
volume, and need not be repeated here at length. The French set- 
tlements were in Horton, Cornwallis, Gaspereaux and Grand Pre. 
In the fall of 1755 there were no houses nor barns, and unclaimed 
cattle roamed over the desolate scene. The New England men 
who removed the Acadians saw these forfeited lands, and knew they 
could soon have them at a mere nominal cost; but they were evi- 
dently not greatly pleased with the prospect, or they would have 
taken early steps to have secured them. Men who had very humble 
homes in New England might well take a second thought before 
leaving them for the chances of bettering their condition in this 
remote district. Houses and barns must be built, live stock must 
be brought over, together with all tools and farming implements. 
There were no saw-mills, nor grist-mills, and they had no experience 
with mending the mud walls that kept at bay the unrivalled tides. 
No wonder that for six years there was no one induced to grapple 
with these difficulties for the sake of the* prize there was in view. 
Unreasonable partizans have sometimes said that the Acadians were 
rooted up because the New Englanders coveted the rich lands that 
their skill and industry had won from the sea. This is a mere idle 
surmise. The people were taken away because it was determined 
by Lawrence and Shirley that Nova Scotia should remain a British 
colony, and that it was not likely to< do unless some vigorous meas- 
ures were employed beyond keeping a few soldiers in Halifax, An- 


napolis, Windsor and Fort Lawrence. There seemed to be no* other 
way to secure this end than to clear the Province of those who 
could not be trusted as British subjects while their countrymen 
were in possession of all Canada, Cape Breton and Newfoundland. 
Had every Acadian been a Britisher true blue, still it would have 
been problematical if this Province could have held out against the 
enemy if a well-directed effort had been made to seize it. Much 
greater was the uncertainty when the Acadians kept in touch with 
Quebec and Louisburg, and suffered themselves to be guided by the 
treacherous and fanatical Le Loutre. It was very hard and dreadful 
for these poor Acadians to be caught in the storm center of such 
warring interests, and however much we pity them and regret any 
measures of needless cruelty, still it must seem to many of us the 
only way out of a difficult position. 

After a half dozen years settlers came from Connecticut at the 
expense of the Government, bringing with them cattle and furni- 
ture, and made a beginning in Horton and Cornwallis. Haliburton 
says: "From the removal of these Acadians, in 1755, the country 
remained unsettled until the year 1760, when two hundred emigrants 
from Connecticut were invited to remove thither and take posses- 
sion of it. They found the dykes very much dilapidated and most 
of the meadows under water. As they were ignorant of the man- 
ner of rebuilding these embankments they contented themselves 
for many years with gathering salt grass and such other herbage 
as the higher parts of the Grand Prarie still afforded. As they 'in- 
creased in population and acquired experience they at length suc- 
ceeded in shutting out the tide from all the land that had been 
formerly enclosed. But it was not till the year 1810 that that exten- 
sive meadow which is bounded by the Grand Prarie on the east and 
Wolfville on the west was finally encircled by a substantial dyke." 
This account is in a measure misleading, for the fact is that there 
were a number of Acadians in the vicinity, wandering hither and 
thither over the desolate acres, who had fled to the woods in the 
general expulsion, and were employed by these Yankees to take 
charge of repairing and rebuilding the embankments and aboiteaux. 
We may learn this from a letter written by Governor Belcher to 
Colonel Foster under date of June 18, 1761, in which he says: 

"Sir, By representations made to me from the new Settlements 
in this Province, it appears Extremely necessary that the inhabitants 
should be assisted by the Acadians in repairing the Dykes for the 






preservation and recovery of the Marsh Lands, particularly as on 
the progress of this work, in which the Acadians are the most skil- 
full people in the country, the support and subsistence of several 
hundred of the inhabitants will depend." 

Three years from the beginning of the settlements the following 
returns were made: 

Horton Families, 122; persons, 689; wheat, 991 bushels; rye, 
172 bushels; Indian corn, 1,070 bushels; potatoes, 4,613 bushels; 
horses, 99; oxen, 159; cows, 302; young cattle, 469; sheep, 369; 
swine, etc., 395. 

Cornwall Families, 125; persons, 656; wheat, 1,759 bushels; 
rye, 368 bushels; oats, 2,900 bushels; potatoes, 12,569 bushels; 
horses, 123; oxen, 195; cows, 395; young cattle, 469; sheep, 495; 
swine, 395. 

This is a good showing that indicates the thrifty quality of this 
Anglo-Saxon stock that loves to get rooted in the soil; they can 
fight, but prefer to farm. 

The present inhabitants of Kings County are very largely the 
descendants of New England settlers. Their lines fell in pleasant 
places, and they have given a good account of themselves, at least 
from an industrial point of view, and such persistent workers were 
reasonably safe from moral delinquencies, for have we not learned 
that "Satan finds some mischief still for idle hands to> do?" 

The three principal towns are Kentville, Wolfville and Canning. 
They are all charming localities, and a stranger likes each one best 
as he visits them one after another. Kentville is the shire town 
and therefore has an official importance over the others. Haliburton 
says: "At the upper part of this township, and near its junction 
with Cornwallis, is situated the village of Kentville, containing sev- 
eral well-built private houses, the Court House and jail. It is dis- 
tant from Halifax about seventy miles and from Annapolis sixty, 
forming the central point a f which the stage coaches meet that run 
between these two towns. There is a good grammar school at this 
place, and it is said that the Baptists of Nova Scotia have it in con- 
templation to found an academy within a few miles of it, which shall 
be open for the reception of the youth of every denomination, but 
under the particular control of the General Association. The views 
in this neighborhood are remarkably fine, and the formation of the 
land such as to present a great variety in the landscape." 

This was written seventy-five years ago or thereabouts, and 


has a smack of ancient history about it. The town has now a popu- 
lation of 1,781, and is a railway station of considerable importance, 
where there are repair shops and the head office of the Dominion 
and Atlantic Railway, and also a terminus of the Cornwallis Rail- 
way that extends to Canning and King-sport. There are good hotel 
accommodations and most delightful drives in all directions. The 
town is also a commercial center of a large district devoted to farm- 
ing 'and fruit raising in a very profitable way. The streets are 
shaded with fine trees, and the Cornwallis River adds a charm to the 
locality that only a lake or a stream can give. 

Wolfville was named after the De Wolfs of that locality, of 
whom Nathan was one of the first, if not the only pioneer of the 
family. The town is situated on a small tributary of the Cornwallis 
River, entering it near the .mouth on the basin of Minas. Small 
vessels come up this creek or stream to- wharves in the vicinity. 
The population is 1,412, and it would be difficult to find that num- 
ber of people in any other part of the world settled down amid more 
of the comforts and delights of life. The climate is not severe; 
there are no malarial diseases to rack a poor body 'with chills and 
fevers; tornadoes are unknown; turn where it will the eye is pleased 
with the prospect, whether it be across the wide dykes and the 
brown Basin to the hills of Parrsboro, including the bold bluffs of 
Blomidon, or whether it takes in the long stretches of the embow- 
ered streets and cosy cottages, or looks down upon the beautiful 
valley of the Gaspereaux. 

Wolfville is not only a trading center to a considerable district, 
but it has the distinction of being a college town; caps and gowns, 
and grave professors and retired clergymen are the commonplaces 
of the locality. Since 1829 the Horton Academy has been in opera- 
tion, and since 1838 Acadia College, starting with small beginnings, 
has continued to disseminate the higher learning. The Ladies' 
Seminary has long been another feature of academic life in the place, 
and recently a Manual Triuiiing School and a School of Horticul- 
ture have been added to the list of useful institutions, of which more 
is set down in another portion of this book where educational mat- 
ters are treated at some length. 

Canning is a surprise to one who drives for the first time across 
the Cornwallis region from Wolfville or thereabouts, especially in 
the summer or autumn, when the orchards are in fruitage. One 
comes abruptly upon pretty streets, shaded with fine trees, stores 



and wharves and tall spars, and flapping sails almost in the shade of 
overhanging branches. The schooners with their hulls hidden in 
the narrow channel appear to be sailing on dry land through dykes 
and fields as they follow the great tides that follow the moon around 
the world. 

This place is readily reached by rail from Kentville, or by steamer 
from Kingsport at the mouth of the river, or by wagon roads from 
many directions. My own chief experience suggests the apple- 
picking season, on a fine day, going by team from Wolfville, with 
the drive continued to the Look-off. Nothing short of some acute 
malady should prevent one from a keen enjoyment of the whole 

Port Williams is a station on the D. A. R. line between Wolf- 
ville and Kentville. It is about one-half mile from the railway, on 
the Cornwallis River, a place of some trading importance, where 
vessels freely enter on the high tides and depart on the ebb. 

Berwick is a beautiful and enterprising village about a. dozen 
miles west of Kentville, in the midst of a fertile region well adapted 
to farming and fruit-raising, and the people are alive to the natural 
advantages of the locality. 

The county is divided into three townships, Horton, Cornwallis 
and Aylesford. The latter extends in a belt across the entire western 
end of the county, and a village of the same name is a station on the 
Dominion and Atlantic Railway. On the Bay of Fundy side of the 
county there are precarious shelters known as Harborville and 
Hall's Harbor, where there is some shipping trade carried on in 
small vessels. There are many other villages and hamlets scattered 
over the region under discussion, for which there is no> room for 
extended description. These are Waterville, Cambridge, New 
Minas, Greenwich, Gran Pre, Hortonville, Avonport, all of them on 
the line of railway, and each one with points of interest and excel- 
lence worthy of attracting the attention of tourists, and persons in 
search of a place to make comfortable homes. 

I have not forgotten that here is the land of Evangeline, the 
heroine of Longfellow's famous poem, but it seems to me that our 
Province has been overmuch advertised by means of this mythical 
maiden in "cap and kirtle." When it is well understood that a poet 
is drawing on his imagination for his characters and incidents, then 
he is not likely to deceive any one, but when he mingles truth and 
fiction in such a manner that all seems to be true, then he deceives 


while he delights, and kindles our indignation over fancied wrongs. 
In the main features "Evangeline" is taken to be true by the great 
majority of its readers, and therefore it places British subjects either 
in the attitude of defense or apology. The author intends to- make 
his readers angry, he hopes to make them weep, therefore he tells 
all the affecting hardships for which he can find any warrant in his- 
tory, or furnish from his fancy, without a word of the culpabilities of 
the sufferers that ended in such tragical results. The motif of the 
poem would not have been weakened had he given a few lines to 
the causes that led up to this expulsion, and a few more introducing 
us to the officers and men who carried out the order that separated 
his Evangeline and Gabriel. In that case his readers might have 
learned that this wholesale banishment is far from being indefensible 
in view of all the circumstances, and whatever we may now think 
of it, or feel about it, the fact remains that there must have been a 
sore evil to have called for such drastic treatment by men who were 
not considered monsters in their day. The poet very skilfully keeps 
out of sight the fact that Governor Shirley of Massachusetts not 
only sanctioned this expulsion, but he originated the remedy that 
Lawrence also had hit upon as the only means of holding the Prov- 
ince for the English. 

When the poet relates that 

''Then uprose their commander and spake from the steps of the 

Holding aloft in his hands, with its seals, the royal commission," 

Why not have given a little piquancy to the personality of the com- 
mander, who is made to stand on the steps of the altar, although in 
his journal he says otherwise, by adding: 

And this was none other than Colonel John Winslow of Marshfield, 
But third in descent from Edward, the Mayflower Pilgrim, 
Who enobled his family by virtues both public and private, 
Till the name seemed like a title bestowed for high service, 
And marking the owner with certain distinction. 

These lines may or may not have as many poetic feet as the 
verse of Longfellow, but they show that much light might have 
been thrown on the situation in a few words, and he could have con- 
sistently gone somewhat further and told his readers that every 
armed man who came on those transports was a volunteer, and a 
New Englander who enlisted for the distinct purpose of capturing 






Beausejour and inflicting other damages oil the French at adjacent 
points, in a manner not specified in detail, for the period of one year 
for the sum of "fifteen pounds old Tenor pr Man." Surely if there 
was anything infamous in these proceedings then the blame belongs 
with those who were willing for a very small money-consideration 
to carry them out; and allowing that neither Colonel Winslow, nor 
one of his men, knew they were expected to be the direct instru- 
ments of expelling the Acadians, still there is not a word in that 
officer's journal indicating that he, or any of his volunteers, objected 
to the business as no part of 'what they considered a soldier's duty. 
To heighten the atrocity of the expulsion, the poet gives us a de- 
scription of the Acadians that reads very smoothly in this fashion: 

"They dwelt together in love, these simple Acadian farmers, 
Dwelt in the love of God and man. Alike were they free 
From the fear that reigns with the tyrant, and envy the vice of 


Neither locks had they to their doors, nor bars to their windows, 
But their dwellings were open as day and the hearts of their 

There the richest was poor, and poorest lived in abundance/* 

There is proof in plenty that these people were neither better 
nor worse than other peasant folk of their nation, and in fact there 
is no reason why they should exhibit any special virtues. They had 
seen enough of human, blood not to turn pale at the sight of it. 
They had entertained and shielded over and over again the Indians 
who came with English scalps in their belts, and their tomahawks 
dabbled in the color of their murderous work. They had long 
listened to the brutal harangues of Le Loutre, who had himself 
wielded the scalping knife to gratify his revenge. From childhood 
they had been accustomed to scenes and recitals that could do no 
less than dull the keen edge of sympathies and blunt the finest affec- 
tions. By their hearthstones had slept the swarthy savages who 
had beguiled the evening hours with the tales of their murderous 
affrays in Dartmouth, and Lunenburg, and elsewhere, wherein neither 
babes at the breast, nor white-haired matrons, escape'd the fierce 
ordeal that secured them .a dripping trophy a.s evidence of their 
courage. They had harbored traitors to their sovereign; proved 
false friends to the flag under which they were born, and one that 
secured to them such rights and privileges as no other nation pre- 



tended to grant, much less to defend. We shall not readily believe 
that these people were the guileless innocents the poet portrays. 

If these Acadians were so amiable, loving and pious in 1755, 
then they seem to have lost all trace of such saintly dispositions a 
half dozen years later, according to official records of our Province, 
that are not fairly to be taken as hysterical memoranda of mere 
alarmists. Here follows an extract from an address of the House 
of Representatives to Governor Belcher in 1761: 

"The lenity with which these people (the Acadians) have been 
treated by the Government, since they have been prisoners, in allow- 
ing them the liberty of working at high wages, furnishing them with 
provisions and retaining them so> long in the province, we conceive 
has been done on a presumption, that these measures would show 
them the sweets of the English Government and incline them to 
become real good subjects; but we had reason to be convinced that 
this can never be effected, at least while they remain in the prov^ 
ince; for no sooner was the Spanish war declared, and the junction 
of Spain with France known, than they assumed fresh courage, and 
began to be insolent to. the Settlers in the Townships where they 
were at work, telling them that they should soon regain possession 
of their lands and cut every one of their throats! At a meeting of 
the Council holden at Halifax the 26th of July 1762, they were of 
the opinion that, Some late threats and Insults of numerous bodies 
of the Indians, assembled in various parts of the province to the 
Terror of His Majestys Subjects in the New Settlements, has been 
occasioned by the Stimulations and artful Insinuations of the 
Acadians. That the Council apprehend that there cannot be any 
hope of a sincere Submission of the said Indians to His Majestys 
Government while the said Acadians are suffered to remain in this 
Province, they being connected by intermarriage with them, and 
thereby maintain a considerable Influence over them at all times. 
That it had lately been discovered that the said Acadians had col- 
lected and Concealed in Secret Places in Kings County in this Prov- 
ince a considerable Quantity of Ammunition for Small Arms. ' That 
at this Time the necessity of drawing all the troops together at 
Halifax, had stripped the new Settlements so effectually of Protec- 
tion, that, except the very small Garrisons at Annapolis, St. John's 
River, and Fort Cumberland, not amounting in the whole to one 
hundred men, there was no protection to any of the Settlements. 
The Interior Part of the Country being entirely destitute of any, 


and the Garrison at Fort Edward wholly occupied by the Militia of 
that County to the great detriment of the Inhabitants, who are 
forced to neglect their* husbandry; and so much to their Terror that 
not only one hundred and fifty of the Settlers have on this Alarm 
quitted one of the new Towns in the Country, but others are pre- 
paring from other parts to follow them." 

There is an old Latin maxim to the effect that no one suddenly 
becomes very bad. Had these Acadians been the community of 
saints, as the poet represents them, dwelling in the love of God 
and man, and found themselves through some dark dispensation of 
Providence called upon to suffer the loss of home and friends they 
would have said, 'The Lord giveth, and the Lord taketh away, 
Blessed be the name of the Lord!" Instead of striking back, they 
would have turned the other cheek to the smiter; they would have 
exclaimed, "Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth," and remem- 
bered that "the meek shall inherit the earth," as the promise runs. 
Had they been so pious and simple of heart they would have "hung 
their harps on the willows" and cried "The Lord is good unto them 
that wait for him, to the soul that seeketh him, for the Lord will 
not cast off forever: but though he cause grief, yet will he have com- 
passion according to the multitude of his mercies, for he doth not 
afflict from his heart nor grieve the children of men." 

Quite otherwise was their conduct. They fled to the woods in 
great numbers and there joined hands with the Indians for no 
peaceful purposes. Many of them came from their banishment to 
their old homes, but no one molested them, but quite otherwise 
they were given remunerative employment by the new settlers, but 
they were still in hopes that a turn of national affairs would restore 
them to the land they once occupied but never owned. In June, 
1762, the French made a spasmodic effort and captured St. Johns, 
Newfoundland, and the news inspired the Acadians with fresh hope 
that the day of their deliverance was nigh, and they began to make 
the threats that resulted in their confinement in Halifax and Wind- 
sor, and finally many of them were again sent away to Boston to, be 
ultimately scattered here and there. 

In all this they conducted themselves very much like ordinary 
mortals, but not in the least like people whose proper home was 
Heaven, and not earth! Says Sir Adams G. Archibald in a paper 
read before the Historical Society of Nova Scotia: 

"There is not a doubt that these Acadians were a very quarrel- 


some and litigious people. Their commercial transactions were too 
trifling to occasion many disputes. But they had, to be sure, but 
little personal property to fight about. But they had in the titles 
and boundaries of their lands, material for numberless quarrels. 
They did not hold their lands by grant from the British Crown. 
They claimed under French absentees who were supposed to have 
grants from the King of France; but these absentees were them- 
selves aliens, and could not own lands under the treaty. The occu- 
pants claimed under oral agreements, without definite descriptions 
or boundaries. When these lands descended to heirs, and became 
divisible among children, whose shares were held without division 
or description, the boundaries necessarily became still more com- 
plicated. Under these circumstances there could not but be an 
infinite Dumber of disputes, and we hardly need the assurances of the 
authorities of British and French officials and travelers of both 
nations to- be certain that the people of every Acadian village were 
in a state of chronic quarreling about their lands. But the position 
was made still worse by the reluctance of the British courts to take 
cognizance of these disputes. In the eye of the law the occupants 
were all squatters together, and the courts did not care to give a 
quasi legal title by deciding in favor of either claimant. This work 
therefore fell to the priest, who> spent most of his time in mediating, 
and if that failed, in adjudicating between the parties. It was an 
imperfect jurisdiction, and judgment could be enforced only by 
spiritual weapons. The erring party was deprived of the sacra- 
ments; and if that was not enough, the terrors of excommunication 
were held over him. Even these were not always successful. In 
some cases the litigant braved the threats of eternal punishment, 
rather than submit to a loss of temporal rights. Is it any wonder 
that quarreling and litigation were rife in every Acadian village?" 

So long as people are made to believe that the Acadians were 
an ideal community of blameless souls, just so long will they see the 
Expulsion in a false light. It was all sad and terrible, but let us 
remember that it was a mere fly-bite compared to some of the out- 
rages within the range of Christian history. 


The rock record of this county is particularly varied and accord- 
ingly instructive and interesting. Much has been written about it, 
and yet the last word explanatory of the formations remains to be 


said. The students of geology, and its most closely allied sciences, 
can all find in this small area ample field for valuable work. Here are 
the granite, slates, sandstones and trap, representing several of the 
great primary divisions of the earth's crust; here are beautiful speci- 
mens of amethysts, agate, jasper, chalcedony, zeolites, magnetite, 
selenite and many other desirable finds in this direction. Here are 
fossil shells, fossil rain-print, fossil ripple-marks and other instructive 
and curious, mementoes of the ages left behind us by millions of 

Much has been written on the geology of this county. Before 
me are the following: "Jackson and Alger on the Mineralogy and 
Geology of Nova Scotia, 1832;" "Gesner's Remarks on the Geology 
and Mineralogy of Nova Scotia, 1836;" "Gesner's Industrial Re- 
sources of Nova Scotia, 1849;" VDawson's Acadian Geology, Edi- 
tions of 1855 and 1878;" Dr. Honeyman's paper on "Nova Scotian 
Geology" in Nova Scotia Institute of Science, Vol. V, Part I; paper 
by Prof. Ernest Haycock, entitled "Records of Post-Triassic 
Changes in Kings County, N. S.;" in publications of the Nova Scotia 
Institute of Science, Vol. X, Part 2; Summary Report of Geo- 
logical Survey Department 1901, with map. These sources of in- 
formation are mentioned for the possible benefit of beginners in this 
field who' would wish to avail themselves of the services of those 
who> have already gone over the ground, a matter never to be 
neglected without regret. In the summary report just mentioned 
there is a geological sketch map of portions of Kings and Hants 
Counties, and this will largely be my authority for the distribution of 
the formations. 

The extreme southwestern portion of the county is occupied 
by the intrusive granite axis of the Province, to which no definite 
age has been assigned, mutually agreeable to all who have looked 
into the matter. Not unlikely that it is an highly metamorphosed 
sedimentary formation that was once continuous with our provis- 
ionally called Cambrian slates and quartzites: in that case the granite 
is the core of a vast alpine uplift that has disappeared by the opera- 
tions of denuding agencies continued through many million years, 
and left us but the tattered and ragged edges of the strata that once 
rose to form the now vanished arch. If this is a guess, then it adds 
not greatly to the varied speculations about this interesting outcrop 
of granite. This granitic area makes a contact with the lower 
Cambrian gold-bearing series of slates and quartzites near Meadow 


Brook and Little River. This latter formation is not very exten- 
sive, embracing about forty square miles, almost reaching the 
Gaspereaux River, and coming in contact there with the Silurian 
formation, and to the eastward bounded by the newer, Horton 
series. These latter are set down on the map as "Devonian," and 
very likely with good reasons, for Mr. Hugh Fletcher is responsible 
for the classification. At any rate it is an interesting outcrop that 
may be roughly bounded as follows: Beginning on the county 
line next to Hants, at a locality known as "Halfway," and continu- 
ing to the Avon River, and thence down the stream to a mile below 
the Horton Bluffs, and thence westward crossing the Gaspereaux 
near the railway bridge and running nearly parallel with the -railway 
a mile to the southward up to Wolfville; thence southward to the 
place of beginning. Sir William Dawson has described these Hor- 
ton Bluffs that are rich in fossil fish scales and fish teeth and fine 
plant impressions. He has placed this formation in "the very lowest 
part of the Carboniferous System." Since that position would be 
inseparable from the highest or most recent of the Devonian, it 
becomes a very delicate question as to where one ends and the other 
begins. How delightful to* think that we are not going to solve all 
the problems of nature in a hurry, and leave nothing for intellectual 
research along those lines. 

From Hants County extends down the River Avon a narrow 
wedge of Carboniferous limestone that almost reaches Blue Beach. 
Triassic sandstones occupy the valley from the Silurian border, or 
contact, near Wolfville, Greenwich, and Kentville on the southern 
side, to the North Mountain, where they underlie the igneous over- 
flow of trap that extends over the summit area where it has acted 
like a protective shield against the erosive agencies that scooped 
out the valley from the softer sandstones. On the bay shore near 
Broad Cove there occurs a remnant formation of limestone that 
may by further study turn out to be a tattered leaf from the 
Cretaceous times, an interesting item, if it can be thus identified. 

These are the naked generalities of a region deserving more 
attention than it has ever received from students, although college 
classes have long been graduated in the midst of this tempting field. 



For a certain class of tourists, Nova Scotia has no attractions'. It 
is destitute of such human antiquities as may be found in most other 
portions of the globe. Here are no buried cities, nor feudal castles, 
and blood-stained battlefields. Professional globe-trotters will find 
here but little to tickle their jaded appetite for wonderful things. 

Raving thus made a clean sweep of all lofty pretensions, we may 
honestly bring out our wholesome attractions for ordinary mortals 
who are seeking a good locality for a vacation, and we confess to a 
sense of modest pride in the variety and abundance of good things at 
our disposal. We have twenty thousand square miles of country. 
While this is not of startling dimensions, still there is ample room 
for natural features in great variety. It equals in area Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and New Jersey combined, and these are no mean Com- 
monwealths at present, with room for large expansion in population, 
property, and influence. This territory is in the shape of a narrow 
peninsula about 350 miles in length, and over 50 in average breadth. 
The whole circuit of the coast might have been made with a uniform 
line of 1,000 miles, but owing to its great irregularity, it is 2,500 
miles in length; wherein there are 100 harbors to say nothing of 
sheltering coves. Every one of these places offers to the tired and 
over-heated people of American cities a delightful, cool, and healthy 
retreat. The rock formation from Canso to Yarmouth, 250 miles, 
in a direct line, meets the ocean in naked ledges of Cambrian quartz- 
ites, broken here and there by intrusions of Granite. 

The Bay of Fundy shore lacks the savage surge of the wide sea, 
but makes ample amends in view of matchless tides, and the quiet 
charm of land-locked basins. On all this coast, in every harbor and at 
intervals between, dwell hospitable people. They are fishers, ship- 
builders, farmers, traders, mariners, and lumbermen; and not infre- 
quently several of these vocations are followed by one person. No 
handier people can be found anywhere. They are resourceful to a 
remarkable degree. There are highways not far from the coast, 
around a large portion of the Province. Persons desiring a bit of 
seclusion where none intrudes, within sight and sound of "the sand 
and the sea" and the "wild uproar,/' can readily find free accommo- 



dation in such localities where they may pitch their tents on 
unclaimed lands, and yet within easy reach of telegraph, telephone, 
and stage accommodations. The whole south shore of the penin- 
sula proper, from Shelburne to Canso, is adapted to such purposes. 

People who prefer the towns will find one or more in all the 
eighteen counties, and always one situated on tide-water and offer- 
ing comfortable accommodations at reasonable rates. There are 
churches, and schools, cultivated people, and pleasant drives with 
many other enjoyable features. No matter what town in this Prov- 
ince that a tired, overheated refugee from an American city happens 
to reach, he would be deliciously cooled and tenderly ministered to 
by natural agencies around him. 

From the Atlantic coast there is a gradual ascent for about forty 
miles where the watershed or "divide" is reached at an average 
elevation of some 600 feet. This may be looked upon as an inclined 
plane of slates and quartzites, folded into great waves until the 
once horizontal beds are now standing on their edges at various 
angles, and the crests of the waves have been scored and denuded 
by agencies that have operated upon them during some fifty million 
.years. For the most part this surface is covered with vegetation. 
There are extensive forests of spruces, pines, and firs; there are 
large areas of exposed ledges and broken rocks, known as barrens, 
where small shrubs and scrub oaks and pines manage to live. Other 
portions are occupied by tracts of hardwood hills, and meadows, and 
bogs, and lakes. There are hundreds of squares miles in which 
there is not a human habitation, and the moose and caribou and 
bear are its most important inhabitants. All this interior region is 
very inviting to those who are pleased with beautiful lakes, and quiet 
streams, and fine old forests where they may sleep within earshot 
of the loon's weird cry, and the owl's "Too Whoo," as if the night 
itself had found voices in these wild things of flood and forest. Peo- 
ple with enthusiasm for natural sciences will* find in these inland dis- 
tricts many things to gratify their taste and curiosity. 

The botanists will not be unrewarded for their "walks abroad." 
The bogs and meadows and barrens that will have but little interest 
to others will contribute to their knowledge and their pleasure at 
the same time. They will find the Rhodora spreading its "leafless 
bloom" over wide areas of rocky lowlands, and the rose pogonia 
making the boggy meadows blush with their abundant blossoms. 
The twinflower finds in these cool forest solitudes a congenial home, 


where it luxuriantly carpets the ancient aisles with a living green, 
and fills all the air with an incense befitting the gods. 

The student of birds, coming here from the southward, will con- 
gratulate himself for being in the midst of SO' many pleasant experi- 
ences. It would be a pleasure to give in some detail the delights 
that await him, but space forbids more than a glimpse of all of these 
good things. He may watch the solitary vireos weave their pendant 
cradles of birchen strands, and hear them scold him for intruding 
upon their privacy. He may listen to the wondrous notes of the 
ruby-crowned kinglet, and perhaps will find his snug warm nest in 
the covert of thrifty fir or spruce. He may find prizes in the nests 
of yellow-bellied flycatchers, mourning warblers, and three-toed 
woodpeckers. He can make close acquaintance with the Hudson- 
ian chickadees, the pine grosbeaks and crossbills, and many other 
feathered creatures of forest, lakes, and shores. 

On this southeastern watershed, stretching from Canso to Cape 
Sable, the geologist will discover many features of great interest in 
the ancient Cambrian rocks, now tilted and pushed into anticlinal 
waves and synclinal valleys, but denuded to the heart of mighty folds 
in which are stored the gold mines of the Province. 

He will find on these naked areas, the scratches, and grooves, and 
polishings of glaciers that about a score of thousand years ago cov- 
ered all this peninsula, and far beyond, a mile or more in depth in 
solid ice that crawled down this low incline to the sea and floated 
away in towering icebergs to be melted in warmer seas, return to 
the air, and perhaps fall again on the ice-cap of Nova Scotia, and 
repeat a former experience. The trained imagination can recon- 
struct the Age of Ice, and the educated eye will see its footprints 
in hills, and lakes, and rivers, and boulders, that are eloquent with 
this ancient story of death and desolation, that was more than once 
enacted, and may again overtake all temperate eastern North 
America. Tourists with likings for geology will be gratified to a 
greater extent in the counties of Annapolis, Digby, Kings, Hants. 
Colchester, Cumberland, Pictou, Antigonish, and portions of Cape 
Breton. Rocks of other ages, existing under other conditions, with 
vast contents of iron and coal, and interesting fossils will engage 
their attention and enrich their stores of knowledge. They can 
saunter anywhere to advantage with open eyes, a hammer and a 
note book. There are features of special interest to sportsmen of 
rod and rifle, and these are treated in another chapter, but the natu- 


ralist at large, the lover of the various fields of living things, people 
who are not making collections 'of birds, or butterflies, or beetles, but 
still have a keen interest in nature, will find this northern peninsula 
far richer in forms of life than many a tropic region. The great 
Congo forest yielded to Stanley's starving company hardly more 
than fungus for food. Brazilian forests over great extents are 
sparsely populated with beasts and birds and insects. True th'ere 
are creatures new to northern eyes in their native haunts. There 
are monkeys and parrots, and great serpents, and gorgeous trogons, 
and toucans, and creepers, and flycatchers. Of all these brilliant 
birds not one is gifted with musical ability. This delightful talent 
is withheld from aM birds of prey, from professional flycatchers, from 
woodpeckers, from butcher-birds and crows, and ravens and vul- 
tures and jays. No ravenous creature red in tooth and claw can 
yield a musical note. Thrushes, warblers, finches, these are the 
principal groups that are truly vocal, and our northern woods and 
pastures, and shores and waysides are rich in these delightful crea- 
tures. We can add to these, the vireos, and the ruby-crowned king- 
let, and somewhat rarely the marvelous winter wren. 

Rabbits, squirrels, porcupines, muskrats, minks, woodchucks, 
beavers, and moles are the principal small mammals that contribute 
an agreeable interest to< those who love the woodland walks, or 
find delightful retreats in old pastures, and by the plashy brinks of 
meadow brooks, and shores of lonely lakes. Let no one despise an 
intimate acquaintance with these fellow-mortals who live so close 
to the bosom of nature, who> have not sought out many inventions 
to their hurt, who art not toothless, and bald, and bespectacled, 
and dyspeptic, and drugged, and slashed with surgeons' knives, and 
besotted with opium and alcohol; but every one of them fitting into 
his place and acting his part with reasonable contentment and admir- 
able foresight. No wonder that Job of old exclaimed, "Ask now the 
beasts and they shall teach thee, and the fowls of the air, and they 
shall tell thee, or speak to the earth and it shall teach thee, and the 
fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee." 

Says Walt Whitman: 

" I think I could turn and live with animals, 
They are so placid and self-contained, 
They do not sweat and whine about their condition, 
They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins, 
No one is dissatisfied not one is demented with the mania of 
owning things." 


It is a sad reflection that so many people are more desirous of 
wantonly taking- the lives of these innocent creatures, than they are 
to learn from them the useful lessons they are competent to teach. 
In these days a large percentage of tourists and vacationists take 
along- with them a camera. No one coming to Nova Scotia with 
that outfit will be likely to regret the trouble. There is to be found 
a great variety of scenery if one cares to zig-zag here and there to 
find it. Many forms of industries are open to the photographer and 
may be captured in full action. These are to be found on the farms, 
and in the shipyards, and sawmills and pulp mills, and quartz mills, 
and smelters, and gold mines, and coal mines, and other localities too 
numerous for recital. Bits of charming landscapes with all the 
adjuncts of rural life are of common occurrence. There are villages 
of Acadian French, hamlets of fisher folks, and encampments of 
Indians. All of them with some phase of special interest. 

The artists of pencil and brush will not be at a loss for subjects 
that will demand all their skill. In the Cape Breton portion of the 
Province they will discover that Scotland, at her best, cannot out- 
rival the rugged beauties of her namesake. One of the pleasing and 
assuring aspects of this region is the fact that no venomous creatures 
are to be found within its limits. The serpents are small and harm- 
less, and not numerous. Even New England has its rattlesnakes 
on the Blue Hill and Mt. Thorn, and great black snakes that climb 
trees, and get under foot and scare people half to death, if they do 
not bite them. There are here interesting turtles and salamanders, 
but with neither desire nor capacity to- harm man, woman, or child, 
unless a turtle might be tormented into* taking a justifiable nip in 
self-defence. The very fact that he lives in a shell is a glaring 
notice to all comers that he does not intend to fight. ' He pulls into 
his shell, head, and tail, and legs, on the appearance of danger. He 
is as toothless as a babe, and bites with the sharpened edges of his 
shell as best he can in a hard cutting grip that no one need feel if 
the animal is not tortured by them. 

Porcupines are quite numerous, but are unable to "shoot their 
quills," as the popular notion goes. In fact their whole make-up 
assures us that they do not intend to pick a quarrel with anything. 
They are very confident of safety from such attacks as ordinary ani- 
mals can make. Wild-cats, foxes, and bears have a wholesome fear 
of their barbed quills, and well they may, for they are so^ constructed 
with numerous curved booklets at the tip, that once they are stuck 


on the skin of an animal, they will by aid of the muscular motion 
go anywhere through him. In fact bone will not always turn them 
aside, as I have seen for myself. Porcupines are quite aware of their 
safety, and do not take much trouble to get out of the way of man 
or beast. In case of a movement that looks like close pursuit, he 
stops, and with a. rustling sound his quills stand on end, his head 
drawn down, his tail clad ferociously in spines, twitches and jerks 
from side to side, and if one brings a stick within reach it receives 
a smart blow, and a lot of quills are left sticking in it, that a living 
thing would have received in place of it. He can bite, and will, 
with a vengeance, if cornered by some human action, but he has no 
fear of man. All his inherited habits have been formed without 
reference to this strange new animal on two legs who carries a bow, 
or a bludgeon, or a gun. He humps himself for defence against a 
man with a rifle as he would before, a hungry wolf or lynx that was 
tempted to make a meal of him. Mankind came upon the scene of 
his activities hundreds of thousands of years after his instincts had 
been formed with reference to other creatures. A very interesting 
animal he is, dead or alive, and it is greatly to be regretted that so 
many people are ready to murder this innocent aborigine whose 
claim on the land and its native products, antedate by thousands of 
years the earliest of red men. I had only meant to say a word for 
the benefit of timid people, but have been tempted to overrun my 
intention, with such a suggestive and delightful topic for discussion. 
At any rate the presence of such a real native reasonably common 
is one more reason why a person who came here to rest may not 
be without profitable diversion. There are bears in the Nova 
Scotia woods, and village skirts, but they are far more desirous of 
getting out of reach than coming in contact with people. They are 
very intelligent and in this unlike the porcupine which are stupid in 
the extreme. The reasons for this difference is largely to be found 
in their food and the means of procuring it. Porcupines live on the 
bark of trees, of which there is always a plentiful supply; a clump of 
hackmetacks will afford plenty for weeks together. The ability to 
climb trees and gnaw and digest the bark is all required of them. 
There are no long journeys and varied experiences. Add to this the 
feeling of security against enemies who dread their quills and the 
result will surely be a stupid creature. The same great law holds 
in the world of human life. Mental inactivity ends in mental 
incapacity. Too easy conditions of life result in degradation. 


Bears are suggestively human. They not only can walk on their 
hinder feet on their soles, and use their forefeet and legs like arms, 
but they are large-brained and think in a manner and measure like 
ourselves. The following instance is easily verified. I received it 
from a man as truthful as George Washington, a^nd the bear and the 
hunter were natives of this Province. It was a warm sunny day 
in the last of March. A party of moosehunters set out from Port 
Jolie on the snow crust; after a few miles they came to an open 
spot strewn with bits of broken ferns, the tall bracken species. The 
snow was trampled with bear tracks, and beneath the trunk of a 
wind-fall that formed a roof was a fine bed of these ferns, that had 
been taken out the day before and dried in the sun, and then carried 
back again. The bear was soon espied sitting on her haunches not 
far away, watching the movements of these men who' actually killed 
this intelligent fellow creature. I had as soon taken deadly aim on 
my grandmother! The bear is among animals what the crow is 
among birds an all around creature. His teeth were formed for 
eating flesh and capturing large animals. The time came in his 
history, as a, family, that there was not meat enough to maintain 
them, within their ability to get it. It was a question of extermina- 
tion or adaptation to new circumstances, and the bears rounded that 
critical corner, and their brain cells multiplied with their new 
demands. See now our fine fellow with a mouthful of teeth that 
suggest meat and blood and struggling moose and deer, contenting 
himself in the early spring with black-ash sprouts, and later with 
blueberries and chokecherries, and suckers from the brooks, and 
sheep, or heifer, or calf moose, if he can have the luck to secure the 
thing. He will even descend to tickle his palate with ants, tearing 
up their mud nests and their houses in old trees. There is formic 
acid to be had from these insects, from which it gets its name, and 
bears find therein a fine relish worth the trouble of securing. He 
discovers the honey of bumble bees in deserted mouse-nests. He 
comes upon nests and eggs, and young of birds, and makes a tooth 
some meal on beechnuts and oaknuts. From all these "going 1 up 
and down in the earth" and to and fro in it, searching out his food, 
there has resulted a larger and better brain than his distant ancestors 
possessed. He plans now and thinks like the rest of us. He will 
avoid by one artifice or another a whole rural neighborhood for 
weeks together armed with guns and provided with traps, and all 
the while help himself to cattle and sheep. He knows the dangers 


of a steel trap and understands how it operates. This knowledge 
he shows by avoiding the spot where it is covered in leaves, or taking- 
it up out of the way, that 'he may secure the bait hanging over it, 
or by actually springing the trap under the jaw. The occasional 
presence of such an .intelligent animal On all fours, with no disposi- 
tion to encounter mankind, is a pleasurable feature to many people 
who like the prospect of seeing such a true native of the Province. 

People who would pitch their vacation tents in the outer wilds for 
a few weeks will hardly be able to miss the sight of moose that are 
still fairly common in such localities. Such parties would be pro- 
vided with canoes, and by that means, in a very pleasing way explore 
large areas of country along the streams and over the numerous 
lakes. The best region of this kind is the interior of Queens, Shel- 
burne, Yarmouth and Digby Counties, as they unite to form a 
natural game preserve of one thousand square miles, in which there 
are no human habitations, and the land is barren, and meadows, 
and bogs, and swamps, and cone-bearing' forests, and lakes, with 
occasional hills of hardwood, and will therefore always remain in this 
wild state. 

The moose and caribou are protected by law during a portion 
of the year. Their better protection should be the reluctance of 
people to kill these noble animals, in time, or place, or manner, or 
number unbecoming the best sportsmen; and when the man of the 
Stone Age is evoluted out of our constitutions there will no longer 
exist a desire to kill them at all, but I greatly fear that all the game 
will be exterminated before the last sportsman dies. 

Before closing this chapter something must be said about the 
climate. In the United States it is eminently respectable to be 
ignorant about all that pertains to Nova Scotia. A writer in 
"Recreation" not long age designated it as an "island" although he 
had been here on a hunting trip. The average New Englander, 
although college-bred, knows next to nothing of this neighboring 
Province with which the early history of his State is bound up in 
battle, and blood and military exploits a Province very largely 
settled by Yankees, and where I can name Mayflower descendants 
by the hundreds within the limits of a single county. 

Considering the population of about four hundred thousand, one 
may safely say that no community of equal number within the limits 
of the United States has produced more men of commanding talents, 
and unusual ability, than this land of the "Blue-noses" has* to its 


credit. Several thousand citizens of New England who had minds 
of their own and courage of their convictions, were expelled from 
New England at the close of the War of the Revolution, and took 
refuge beneath the British flag in this Province. Like many other 
transplanted stock, it rather improved by the new conditions. There 
was no taint of criminality in their conduct at home, but it was, as it 
turned out, an unfortunate affair to be on the losing side, among a 
people who had so narrowly escaped defeat of their cause that they 
failed to be magnanimous enemies, although they had been rocked 
in the same cradles. In one generation came Joseph Howe from 
the loins of John Howe, a Boston loyalist printer, and New England 
will needs be ransacked to find a fellow for that statesman, orator 
and poet, who left the indelible mark of his genius on the political 
institutions of his Province. In three generations was born Sir 
Charles Tupper, Bart., whose distinguished career in the political 
field has made his name familiar over all the British Empire. Scores 
of conspicuous examples could be given of the fertility and superior 
quality of this Pilgrim and Puritan stock, that has taken firm root 
in this ancient colony. There is a prevailing belief among Ameri- 
cans that Nova Scotia is within the Arctic Circle, either literally or 
figuratively, and the result is continuous cold, fog, and almost con- 
stant snow. After a residence of more than twenty years of adult 
life in t'he United States, in various localities, I am confident that the 
following statement is true. The fact is about what might be 
expected from our latitude and almost insular position. The worst 
thing to be said of the weather is that it does not exceed in disagree- 
able qualities the same article in New England, and during the sum- 
mer months is much to be preferred. There is considerable difference 
in the length and intensity of the cold season at Yarmouth, on the 
southwest extremity, and northern Cape Breton. In the former 
locality the spring vegetation is about two weeks behind the vicinity 
of Boston, at the northeastern extremity it is at least four weeks 

If one desires to< spend a vacation amid the finest scenery of the 
Province, then go to Cape Breton in the vicinity of Bras d'Or 
waters, or drive to St. Ann's Bay, the North River, and on by the 
wild shore to Ingomish, and Aspy Bay. Railway communication is 
direct to Sydney, and steamers are run in various directions to 
accommodate the public. 

There is plenty of room for all who care for the advantages 


offered. At present there are but twenty people to the square mile, 
so there is no immediate danger of tumbling over each other. 
There are so many advertisements and folders describing routes and 
rates that anyone with gumption enough to come without a guar- 
dian can find out the best way to make a landing, and the most 
desirable localities to visit. 





Whoever desires to prepare a brief history of this county need not 
be at a loss for material. This is not true of several other counties. 
There are two published histories of Digby, one by Isaiah Wilson, 
Esq., the other by the Rev. Allen Massie Hill. The former is by far 
the fuller work. The author deserves more thanks than he will ever 
receive. It is fortunate that men can be found to voluntarily perform 
such tasks, wherein there is neither cash nor compliments for all their 
pains. The latter book is intended to preserve some bits of history, 
and some local incidents and genealogy not to be found in the other. 

This county is bounded as follows: On the northwest and west 
by the Bay of Fundy, on the south by Yarmouth County, and on the 
east by Annapolis and Queens. The area is 1,021 square miles, and 
the population is about twenty thousand. 

In point of picturesque features, this county is not excelled in all 
the Province. Nature has lent her varied charms of sea and land to 
beautify the locality. The historic and delightful Annapolis Basin 
swings its great curves for many miles for boundary lines, and invites 
the eye by its ample dimensions, that are set round about with hills, 
and meadows, and villages, and orchards. During many thousand 
years no human eye rested upon all this ; no light canoe of dusky sav- 
age, nor white sail of his conqueror disturbed the placid waters, that 
reflected only the natural aspects of sky, and land. The graceful gulls 
screamed, and laughed in storm, and shine, and the wild creatures of. 
wood, and wave, came arid went, and no human beings had appeared 
to make them afraid. "Beauty is its own excuse for being," and so 
we may understand that through the thousands of years before the 
coming of man to this region there was no lack of lovely scenes, no 
stinting of autumn's gorgeous foliage, no faltering notes of feathered 
songsters; but the maples hung out their flaming banners, and the 
hermit thrush, from his hidden retreat, sung down the sun, and sung 
in the dawn. Had the scene been clustered with human eyes and ears, 
the leaves would have been decked with no richer colors, and the bird- 
notes had no added charms. Such is Nature's amplitude, such her 
incalculable wealth, that she arranges her rpagnificent landscapes, 
17 257 


introduces her delectable dainties of flowers, and songs, and sunsets, 
where there are none to admire and none to praise. 

" Mysteries of color duly laid, 
By morn and eve in light and shade; 
And sweet varieties of chance, 
And the mystic seasons dance," 
all these in affluent measure, are never withheld but 

" The harp at Nature's advent strung 
Has never ceased to play, 
The songs the stars of morning sung, 
Have never died away." 

But we will get back to the "sea, and the sand, and the shore, 
and the wild uproar" that lies outside the narrow gateway that leads 
to the tempestuous bay, where the great tides chase each other up 
the far-famed waters, where the fishers are tilting in the frail crafts, 
praying "Him whose ocean is so large to care for them whose boat 
is so small." 

Turning from this gateway southward, we have for nearly fifty 
miles a rugged and storm-swept coast. Unless the most competent 
people who have visited the locality have been far astray in their 
estimates this strip of land abounds in such attractions as no other 
portion of North America sea-board of the same extent is likely to 
equal. To the artist, the naturalist, the geologist, the tourist, it 
offers no ordinary inducements. If I were to extract from the writ- 
ings of eminent men the passages that treat of this noted "Neck" 
there would be no space for further notice of this county here. 
However, it is but justice to the locality to lay before my readers 
somewhat f the descriptions from competent hands. Let us begin 
with Sir William Dawson, who says, "This long promontory, 
though only from two to three miles in width, consists of two ridges, 
one forming the cliffs that front St. Mary's Bay; the other sloping 
toward the Bay of Fundy; while between them there is a narrow 
and almost level valley, with several little lakes and ponds arranged 
in a line along its bottom. The rock in this valley appears to be 
amygdaloid, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that the 
valley has been scooped out, while the edges of the beds of more 
compact trap remain as ridges. This at least is the explanation 
which appears most probable from the structure of all parts of the 
ridge that I have visited, except the very singular and romantic spot 


named Sandy Cove. At this place a deep cove penetrates about 
one-fourth across the ridge from the south, between precipitous 
cliffs of trap resting on amygdaloid, and apparently with a southerly 
dip; or at all events without that decided dip to the north which 
prevails over the greater part of this trappean ridge. Opposite 
the southern cove there is on the north side of the ridge a 
shallower cove, and between is a little lake, on either side of which 
rise lofty beetling cliffs of basaltic trap, which appear to be a part 
of a thick bed dipping to the northward. Can this be a volcanic 
crater? Whatever the cause of its present appearance, Sandy Cove 
is more like something a poet or a painter might dream of than like 
an actual reality in our usually tame Province of Nova Scotia." 

Writing long since Dawson, only a half dozen years ago Prof. 
L. W. Bailey, of the University of New Brunswick, and long time on 
the geological survey of Canada, has this and much more to say 
of the region: "Of the more readily accessible portions of Nova 
Scotia there is probably none less frequently visited, or of which less 
is known by ordinary travelers, than the peninsula commonly known 
as 'Digby Neck.' Thus while hundreds, or thousands, are, in the 
course of every summer, whirled along the rails from Yarmouth to 
Digby, and vice versa, or are forced into expressions of admiration 
as they steam through the wonderful passage of Digby Gut, few 
ever think it worth while to visit and study the long curious neck 
of land whose eastern end forms one of the pillars of that famous 
gateway, and which stretching thence to the westward as a narrow, 
and yet almost mountainous ridge, separates the waters of St. 
Mary's Bay from those of the Bay of Fundy. Even professional 
naturalists and geologists, usually upon the alert for whatever is 
new or instructive in the world of nature, would seem in but few 
instances to have visited Digby Neck, except that portion imme- 
diately adjacent to the town of Digby, and observations upon its 
structure, physical features, mineral contents, or floral characteris- 
tics, are alike few. And yet it may be safely said that, with the 
exception of Blomidon, no area of equal extent is to be found in 
Nova Scotia, and probably not in eastern America which presents 
such peculiar features of scenery, geological structure, plant dis- 
tribution, or mineral associations, as are here met with. The total 
length of this belt of high land, from the Gut to the extremity of 
Briar Island, is forty-four miles; and for much of the distance the 
breadth p varies but little from a mile and three-quarters. The maxi- 


mum elevation of the hilly range is about 350 feet. As regards its 
physical features it is a district of bold contrasts, including long and 
prominent ridges, separated in some places by broad and open 
valleys, in others by narrow troughs, while across both at intervals 
stretch transverse depressions always relatively deep, and in some 
instances sinking far below tide level. In these latter cases espe- 
cially at Sandy Cove, and in the Petite Passage, the whole structure 
of the peninsula is admirably exposed, and in the craggy bluffs that 
border them is discovered scenery which in many respects may 
well be compared with much of that in the vicinity of the Giant's 
Causeway in Ireland. So 'high indeed, and so steep is much of the 
shore, particularly upon the southern side, that a safe descent to the 
beach, if beach there be, is often hard to find, and in some places 
quite impossible." 

These extracts are taken from the Transactions of the Nova 
Scotia Institute of Science, Vol. IX, Session 1894-95, wherein the 
locality is treated in a very instructive manner. This paper has been 
published separately, and doubtless could be furnished to those who 
care to have it, by Prof. Bailey himself. 

In 1832 there was published in Cambridge, Mass., a book 
entitled "Remarks on the Mineralogy and Geology of Nova Scotia, 
by Charles T. Jackson and Francis Alger." These American gen- 
tlemen were the pioneers in this field in Nova Scotia, and were well 
equipped for their work, especially in those early days of geological 
science. They made themselves well acquainted with this region, 
and here follows a very small part of what they wrote about it: 

"Digby Neck is a continuation of the North mountain from 
Annapolis Gut, and extending thirty miles to the westward, is 
bounded on the north by the Bay of Fundy, and on the south by 
St. Mary's Bay, which separates it from the main territory. At 
its western extremity are situated Long Island and Brier Island; the 
former separated from the latter by Grand Passage, and from the 
main peninsula by Petit Passage; but geologically considered, they 
are a continuation of the neck of land, with which, though separated 
from it by these narrow channels, they are identical in structure and 
composition. They are composed of trap, under its different modi- 
fications, to the entire exclusion of every other rock; and, like most 
islands of a similar nature when freely exposed to the ocean, they 
present scenery of unrivaled grandeur and magnificence. On the 
south side of Brier Island near the entrance of the channel, the cliffs 


present a very striking assemblage of neat and regular columnar 
masses, which sometimes descend in lofty and continuous ranges of 
steps for many hundred yards into the sea; their serrated ridges 
rising up here and there from beneath its surface, and appearing at 
first sight like so much pierwork reared in defence of the island." 

Space forbids further quotation, but we trust enough has been 
said of this interesting and instructive portion of Digby County 
to add a little to its deserving reputation. The area of this county 
is not the largest in the Province, yet it has 135 miles of coast and 
over the whole length there is no- lack of variety of scenery, occu- 
pations, and people. 

It would be difficult to tell who was the first white man to> settle 
within the limits of this county. We know by various indications 
that here and there near the basin the Acadians had made them- 
selves homes. They were always on good terms with the Indians, 
and had nothing to> fear from their visits in the remotest locality. A 
cloud of disaster was forming over their heads that burst in 1755 
in the general expulsion. From that date till 1764 these exiles 
wandered hither and thither, and many perished in various ways; 
but by this time they were at liberty to return to their native land, 
but to find their old homes occupied by New England settlers. In 
1768 a. remnant of them finally reached St. Mary's Bay in Digby 
County and began the settlement that grew into the thrifty District 
of Clare, which has grown into a chain of villages that for more than 
a half century has been a separate municipality. Its extreme boun- 
dary is a little below Weymouth, and extends westward along" the 
coast to Beaver River, with this as a. baseline, its southward exten- 
sion very nearly forms a triangle, one side touching the Yarmouth 
County line, and the other bordering on the municipality of Digby. 
Its water front is a little more than thirty miles, and its greatest 
breadth south is about fifteen miles. Within these limits is a popu- 
lation of nearly 9,000 souls. The great majority are French, and 
their everyday speech is the language of their fathers. They are 
engaged in fishing, farming, and lumbering. Meteghan, Salmon 
River, and Church Point are fair-sized villages. A newspaper, 
printed in French, at Weymouth, finds the most of its patrons in th^s 
region. These people were greatly favored during many years by 
the presence of Father Sigogne, who came there from France in 
1799, having lived two years in England immediately before his 
arrival in Clare. He was a man of noble spirit and many parts, and 


became their spiritual guide, their lawyer, historian, and referee; and 
he left the mark of his character in these people, whose fathers would 
never have figured in a tragical expulsion had they been under the 
guidance of such as he, instead of the fierce and cruel Le Loutre, 
the principal author of their woes. 

The Town of Digby is of first importance in the county. After 
the expulsion of the French the first settlers in that vicinity were a 
small company of Americans, who came in 1776, led by William 
Mac Dermott; but they were greatly harassed by privateers a few 
years afterward, and were scattered here and there. Trie settle- 
ment of the locality from which the present state of affairs is in 
unbroken succession, began with the coming of the Tories, or 
Loyalists, from New England and adjacent regions in 1783. It was. 
a fortunate thing for them that Nova Scotia had not been included 
in the new Republic, as might readily have been the case, for there 
was scarcely any organized resistance to oppose them, and sympa- 
thizers with their cause were in a majority in the Annapolis Valley, 
in Colchester, Cumberland, and Yarmouth Counties. 

These Tories, as they were called at home, or Loyalists, as they 
were termed abroad, had in them excellent material for colonizing 
purposes. For the most part they were men of convictions, and of 
good Anglo-Saxon stock. They had taken sides in a great ques- 
tion and lost. It was fixed in the nature of things that the Revolu- 
tion should end in that way. When Quebec surrendered to Wolf, 
and French dominion on this Contment came to an end, a long 
stride was taken toward American independence although the great 
question lay yet beneath the historical horizon. 

This congenery of lusty young colonies, peopled with British 
blood, and animated with the spirit that had been forged in the 
contests of centuries of British history, were not to accept the 
humiliating terms imposed by a narrow-minded King and incompe- 
tent advisers. If an attempt of that kind could be made with the 
present generation of Canadians, they would spring to arms as one 

When the war closed in 1783 there was no mistaking the temper 
of the victors toward those among them who had helped to draw 
out the struggle through years of acutest suffering. The Northern 
Colonies offered a refuge arid opportunities to make new homes 
under pioneer conditions. Digby County was favorably situated 
for settlement, where many of their countrymen were already to be 


found in the Annapolis Valley. The name of the county and town 
is in honor of the Honorable Robert Digby, a British Admiral, who 
superintended the transportation of many of these Loyalists. 

The Town of Digby, situated on the west side of the Annapolis 
basin, possesses one of the best harbors in the Province, and attracts 
many tourists by its fine scenery, delightful drives and cool summer 
climate. It is doubtless destined to become a famous resort for 
overheated multitudes to the southward of us. The town site was 
selected with excellent judgment. The locality was known as Con- 
way, and the grant from the Governor bears date of February 20, 
1784, and runs to some three hundred persons whose names would 
appear in this place but for the fact that more than one-third of the 
grantees failed to occupy their lands, and a large number arrived 
who were not named in the patent. Great confusion prevailed over 
the distribution of lots, and very soon there was a cry of hunger 
went up from the multitudes because the promised rations had been 

In the spring of 1784 they petitioned the Government for assist- 
ance, and Mr. John Robinson was appointed to enumerate all these 
settlers. He reported in July of the same year, and this document 
informs us of the. names of all the heads of families so far as the 
men are concerned, and the number of each family. This record 
has a real interest to those who desire to look into their ancestral 
lines, and one may find it complete in Wilson's History of Digby 
County; it is too long a list for insertion here. 

The township grant of Digby covered one hundred thousand 
acres and included Long and Brier Islands. The growth of this 
town has been slow to within a few years. The present population 
is 1,100, and the prospect for the future is very good. Railway and 
steamboat services make it easily accessible to Americans, who 
already are becoming favorably acquainted with the many attrac- 
tions of all this region. 

To write even a very brief notice of this country and not make 
special mention of Bear River would be scant justice to a charming 
locality. Not only has nature been lavish with scenic attractions, 
but the people have not marred her fine effects. One must take it 
for granted that visitors will have the good taste to go there in the 
warm season when the beauty of the foliage contributes so much to 
the many attractions. The drive from the railway station affords 
a succession of pretty pictures, and when the village is reached it 


turns out to be in excellent keeping with the locality. The houses 
are neat and tasteful, embowered amid giant cherry trees that have 
found there a most congenial home. The main street swings up 
the high hill with curves that please the eye however much they de- 
mand strength and wind from the climber. Here come staunch square- 
rigged vessels to load with lumber, almost poking their yards into 
the cherry-orchards, and when the tide is out they lie naked in the 
mud like stranded whales, but within a few hours they will be float- 
ing like swans, or standing down the river under a bit of sail on their 
voyage to some distant port. The best way to get acquainted with 
this choice bit of the Province is of course to go and see for your- 
selves, gentle readers. 



The Province of Nova Scotia may be considered richly endowed by 
nature, even if we confine ourselves to the land, the mines, and quar- 
ries, and timber, and fruit-growing, and agricultural facilities, are of 
themselves phenomenal in variety for one small province, but in addi- 
tion to all of these, the sea is an added domain of unfailing wealth on a 
great scale. 

It might seem at "first glance that any part of the sea would be 
inhabited by fishes, but the truth is very far from that state of things. 
Expeditions from England and America, first, and afterwards from 
other countries, have spent years in dredging the sea bottoms. They 
have trailed their drag-nets across the widest oceans, sounded their 
abyssal depths, taken their temperatures miles deep, and secured speci- 
mens from all the forms of life that could be found in those localities. 
The results of these expeditions have been to open up a new realm of 
research, a dark continent of wonders whose immensity has only been 
skirted by the pioneers of these researches. Already the great muse- 
ums of the world have been vastly enriched by the new specimens 
captured by the English ship "Challenger," and the American ship 
"Albatross." We have learned from their work that the sunlight is 
very feeble at a depth of 1,200 feet, and ceases altogether not much 
beyond that point. The deepest soundings reach almost six miles, and 
that is in the Pacific ocean. Plant life has not been found deeper 
than light extends. Sixty-two per cent of the sea area is somewhat 
more than two and a half miles in -depth. Deep dredging shows that 
most of the sea bottom is a region of cold, the temperature of the 
water even at the equator being sometimes below the freezing point 
of fresh water. This is due to deep currents from the polar zones 
creeping to the equatorial latitudes. The pressure at the deepest 
known soundings is six tons to the square inch. As a rule from the 
shore outward to a depth of 600 feet and an average distance of 200 
miles from the shore, there are deposits of sand and gravel, worn from 
the land by the action of waves and rivers. On the vast sloping plains 
beyond this shore margin, the bottom is covered with dull blue, green, 
and red muds, clays, and organic ooze. In medium depths these muds 
and oozes are made up of the shells and skeletons of minute animals 



which once lived in the waters above. Descending these plains of 
the sea into greater depths where the bottom is from two to six 
miles from the surface, these shells disappear, and there succeeds an 
immense stretch of soft red clay, covering fully half the entire ocean 
floor. There the shells have fallen so far through the water that 
they have been crushed and dissolved, and the bottom deposit is 
made up of volcanic ashes that have sifted through the depths in the 
course of millions of years, having been first thrown high in the 
atmosphere through the volcano's throat. Mingled with this 
material there is meteoric dust, the ashes of shooting stars, like we 
may see any clear night, but in reality these bits of mineral, mostly 
iron, are all the time coursing through our atmosphere, where they 
are heated by the friction of the air, and oxidized to dust, and this it 
is that has fallen upon trie sea and from age to age accumulated on 
the undisturbed floor. There also are found the ear-bones of whales 
and the teeth of huge sharks, covered with a deposit of manganese. 
Some of these remains are from extinct species, but they are dredged 
'up with those of living forms. 

Even in the depths of two, three and four miles, where the water 
pressure is so great and the temperature is nearly ice cold, and 
darkness, so far as the sunlight is concerned, is complete, there are 
hordes of living creatures. Fishes and crustaceans abound, and the 
eye of man never rested on them or their kind till they came up 
entangled in the dredge that had dragged through their domain, that 
man alone could find means to invade. Many of these fishes are 
equipped with living lights of different colors. When brought to 
the surface they are already burst asunder and dead; once the pres- 
sure was largely removed the result was fatal. Our fishes of the 
upper waters would fare no better if they were taken to> even the 
two-mile limit where pieces of tarred rope used on the make-up of 
the dredges are compressed to half their previous diameter. 

In the sharp struggle for existence in the ocean there has been a 
natural selection of individuals from many species that could live 
at greater depths than others. When pursued they escaped into the 
deeper water, where the pursuer could not follow them. There they 
were safe from many of the marauders of the upper region. In this 
way the great deeps must have been invaded, and became the 'home 
of many forms of life, that for the most part are yet unknown to 
science. In order to live they must turn upon one another there 
as elsewhere and enact the old tragedies over again. We find that 


many of them are toothed and jawed in fiercest fashion. The largest 
of them yet taken was five feet in length; but with suitable dredges 
there may well be brought to light huge creatures of startling aspect. 
When these fish are handled they are soft and flabby objects com- 
posed more largely than usual of water, and thus adapted to with- 
stand the pressure of their haunts, where they are not lacking in 
firmness. We can readily see that even if it were feasible to fish 
in waters a mile or more in depth, still the flesh of such fishes as one 
might secure would be of little or no value for food. 

It is a matter of common knowledge that all the fisheries of 
these regions are within the areas of certain localities called Banks. 
In other words the food-fishes and their enemies frequent the shal- 
low waters that do not much exceed in depth one-quarter of a mile, 
while for the most part it is very much shallower, for all species but 
the hallibut, that are partial to about 1,200 feet. 

To get something to" eat, and to get away from the eater, are 
the problems of fish existence. Every scale is a visible notice of 
onset or defence, or both. To swallow, and to be swallowed, 
with that understanding the game of life is played, and it is very 
certain that not one of them will ever get a chance to die of old age. 

The sea is a tremendous battlefield, where there is never a cessa- 
tion of hostilities, never a truce. There, all visible living things at 
once find themselves in the midst of great dangers that threaten their 
existence. In such circumstances every advantage of color, of form, 
of swiftness, of spines, of scales, of ability to exist on certain foods, 
all counts for something vitally important. To be colored like lob- 
sters to match the rockweed of their haunts, or to mimic the sea 
floor like flat-fish, or resemble the gulf-weed like the mouse-fish and 
the pipe-fish, and hundreds of others, are all of them advantages in 
the never-ending struggle. The prodigious fecundity of fishes 
announces the dangers and fatalities that beset the eggs and young. 
The progeny of a single codfish, if they could find enough to eat, 
and escape being eaten themselves, might within a few hundred 
years brim the Atlantic from surface to bottom. Out of a half 
million eggs of one of these fishes produced in a season, less than 
one on an average comes to maturity; all the others are for the most 
part devoured either as eggs or young. To ^provide against this 
onset of rapacious jaws, in which the parents take a part, is the mean- 
ing of the multitude of eggs there is no sentiment in the sea. Any 
failure on the part of these creatures to keep themselves adapted 


to their surroundings will surely be a fatal step, and thus we find in 
the rocks that were once sea-bottoms, hundreds of fossil fishes that 
have no living representatives; their names have been "blotted from 
the book of life." The spiritual law holds good in the natural 
world, and the promise ever is "to him that overcomes" more life 
shall be the reward. It is well for mankind to know that they hold 
these food-fishes on precarious conditions, even though no devices 
of their own were employed to capture them. They might go the 
way of so many other species that had their day long before the 
human race appeared. Now that we have interfered and thrust our 
greedy, clumsy hands into the problem, the danger of extinction is 
vastly increased. 

It is only within recent years that there has been an adequate 
realization of the great value of fishes. Indeed they are almost 
indispensable as a portion of the world's food supply. The rapidly 
increasing population of the globe, and thTe widespread interest in 
natural history have resulted in fishery commissions and biological 
stations, and extensive hatcheries, and through their investigations 
and operations very much has been learned of the habits and 
instincts of the food fishes and their enemies that prey upon them, 
and the creatures that the food fishes need for their subsistence. 
We have learned that these fishes we so much value do not roam 
here and there for thousands of miles as the old belief held, but 
each species has its own local area, that includes different depths 
of water over a few thousand square miles. Indeed the practiced 
eye of our fishermen will distinguish a fish from a particular locality, 
especially of certain species. The best authority, like Professor 
Prince, Dominion Fish Commissioner, tells us that it is not difficult 
to tell the difference between a St. John River salmon and one from 
the Miramachi and one from the Restigouche if we have the 
examples to compare. Even the herring on the Scottish coast are 
in most cases easily distinguishable. A menhaden caught on the 
coast of Maine can with facility be distinguished from a Long 
Island menhaden, a Chesapeake, or a Florida one, by certain inde- 
scribable characters, easy to perceive but difficult to define. That 
the same species present these subtle variations is complete proof 
that they do not roam very far from the environment that has in the 
long run effectually put its mark upon them. There are doubtless 
instances in which an unusual shortage of food, or an unusual num- 
ber of enemies, or some other phenomenal occurrence, may cause 


them to wander far outside of their native haunts. Similar causes 
are in operation on the land. A notable instance among- birds is 
found in the snowy owl, whose native haunts are within the Arctic 
Circle, but in the year 1876 they appeared in great numbers in Can- 
ada and the New England and Middle States, and this has occurred 
again the present winter 1902, and two of their number, shot on the 
Grand Pre dyke, have fallen into my hands. Although fish can see 
no further than a few yards, yet they are able to find their way to 
spawning places and feeding grounds with great accuracy. It seems 
that they are endowed with a sense of direction that governs their 
movements. It must be something akin to the power exercised by 
migrating birds that enables them to accomplish feats almost beyond 
belief, as for examples the snipe-like tattler, Heteractitis incanus, and 
a sanderling Calidris arenaria that nest in islands in the Bering Sea, 
and spend the winter in the Fanning and Hawaiian islands, distant 
some 2,000 miles; and as the birds are not swimmers they must make 
the distance without resting. 

Another bird, the American golden plover, Charadrius dominicus, 
breeds in arctic America and then flies the entire length of North 
and South America to its winter home, and we must remember that 
this journey is made by young birds as well as old ones. While our 
fishes do not go so far, still they doubtless cover two or three hun- 
dred miles in exchanging their feeding-grounds and seeking their 
accustomed spawning-places, and in this feat they cannot be aided 
by their eyes, so far as the course is concerned, which may not be 
true of birds that do not go very far at a flight, like our robins and 
sparrows, except when they cross from the western end of Nova 
Scotia to Boston which is a common practice. I have seen them 
come aboard the steamer in quite thick weather, and after a rest 
start out again as true on their course without a compass as the ship 
held her way with the aid of that instrument. On the land they 
very likely have no need to use this directing sense; but out to- sea 
they are guided by it in some way we have not learned. At any 
rate the last word of science on this fascinating subject has offered 
no other explanation. 

It is considerable satisfaction to know that the fishes of our 
region are our own, that they are as much at home as the birds 
of our woods and fields, that they have no inclination to stray into 
strange depths, nor wander wide from their native haunts. On this 
point we have a clear statement from the late Prof. Spencer F. Baird, 


a most competent authority, and one to whom we owe much for his 
intelligent energy used for the protection, preservation and study 
of our valuable fishes. He says: "In all discussions and considera- 
tions in regard to the sea fisheries, one important principle should be 
borne in mind, and that is, that every fish that spawns on or near the 
shore has a definite relationship to a certain area of sea bottom: 
or in other words, as far as we can judge from experiment and 
observation, every fish returns as nearly as possible to its own birth- 
place to exercise the function of reproduction, and continues to do 
so, year by year during the whole period of its existence. It is an 
established fact that salmon, alewives and shad, both young and old, 
have been caught on certain spawning beds, and after being prop- 
erly marked and allowed to escape, have been found to reappear in 
successive years in the same locality. The principle is rather more 
difficult to establish in regard to marine fishes, but experiments have 
been made by competent men on our coasts and elsewhere which 
prove the existence of the same principle in relation to them." 

Several factors have contributed to the making of our superior 
fishing grounds. They have been for ages in the process of forma- 
tion and are most largely the result of the ceaseless action of the 
waves on the shore lines that once extended far out to sea. At 
present the relative geographical positions of the peninsula of Nova 
Scotia, the Island of Cape Breton and New Foundland, and the 
gulf stream and Bay of Fundy tides have each and all a part to play 
in the making and preservation of these fishing banks. It is well 
to know that our fishermen who seek the cod and hallibut go off to 
the "Banks" for that purpose. Now it will be desirable for the gen- 
eral reader to know something about these ocean areas where baited 
hooks bring up the vast supplies that are derived from this source. 

If we unroll a mariner's chart of these coasts and waters it will 
throw a flood of light on the subject, for thereon we will find marked 
the various depths and soundings and the "Banks" outlined and 
named. In order to better understand this portion of the ocean floor 
that so much concerns our welfare, let us imagine that the water is 
withdrawn to a depth of 250 feet over all this region from Long 
Island Sound to Labrador. By this occurrence the dry land would 
be extended into the Atlantic Ocean from our shores about fifteen 
miles on an average. We would find the new territory for the most 
part a sandy surface strewn with more or less rocks that had been car- 
ried there by the agency of the ice. The new coast line would fall off 


quite rapidly to three or four hundred feet depth, where it would 
reach the bottom of a muddy valley running roughly parallel with the 
present coast-line. On the eastern side of the valley the ascent con- 
tinues till the bottom emerges at one point eighty-five miles from 
Canso in the bit of land now known as Sable Island, which in reality 
is but the crest of the great Sable Island Bank, that is exposed by this 
imaginary subsidence of the sea, and shows its area of 14,000 square 
miles. To the eastward we would see the island of Newfoundland, 
vastly enlarged by the emergence of its costal sea-bottom, and a 
narrow channel off Cape Race would show a southern border formed 
by a portion of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. That would be 
out of water here and there over its whole area of about 25,000 
square miles. Between the Grand Banks and Cape Breton is an 
area of about 5,000 square miles, known as J3anquerp; this would 
be all under water, a desert of sand. To the northeast of its border 
would be seen a narrow channel separating it from St. Pierre Bank, 
an equally large area near the coast of Newfoundland, that would 
no longer be hidden under the waves. This narrow channel would 
extend northwest between Cape Ray and Cape North, and open into 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. To the southwest of Cape Sable about 
loo miles, a large area of some 4,000 square miles, known as Georges 
Banks, and now famous fishing grounds, would be in place sixty feet 
above water, and the dry land would extend with but slight interrup- 
tions to Nantucket Shoals, and the mainland of New England. 

Suppose that there was a further falling of the waters of 750 feet, 
making 1,000 in all. We might then walk from the northeastern 
extremity of the Grand Banks to Boston; the*Bay of Fundy and the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence would be dry land. From this new shore line 
fronting the Atlantic, the sounding lead would abruptly sink into 
profound depths of from 1,000 to 7,000 feet, and even 12,000 feet. 
A vast ocean desert, so far as the needs of man are concerned. 

With this study of the locations and relations of these fertile 
"Banks," we can go further, and show that the sandy materials of 
which they are composed is a shore product. It has come from the 
washing- of the rocky coast lines that have been lashed and buffeted 
by the waves through untold ages. The tides and ocean currents 
have carried the sand away and every grain of it has found its 
lodging place through the action of great natural forces, and the 
resistance of the various coast lines, and contours of sea-bottom. 
They will remain till the sea has devoured Newfoundland, Nova 


Scotia and Prince Edward Island, an event on the great program 
that will come to pass if the present order of the world is main- 
tained, in about a million years. By that time we may not need fish 
for a subsistence. At any rate we have the fishing grounds, and if 
we act like rational creatures we are not likely to be deprived of the 
fish. It is not to be anticipated that their existence is seriously 
threatened by any agencies but those of human contrivance. But 
before we look into that aspect of the case, let us get a, proper esti- 
mate of the value of these fisheries not only to ourselves, but to 
those who procure their products. The Canadian fisheries are the 
largest in extent of area, the most prolific, and the most varied in 
the world. They comprise an immense extent of maritime coast, 
and almost innumerable lakes and rivers in the interior of the prov- 
inces which form the Dominion. It is the good fortune of Nova 
Scotia to lead all the other Provincial divisions in the value of her 

The annual report of the marine and fisheries departments shows 
the total value of the catch in Canada for the year 1900 was $21,- 
557,639. The Provinces shared as follows: 

Nova Scotia $7,809,152 

New Brunswick 3,769,742 

British Columbia 4,878,820 

Quebec 1,989,279 

Ontario 1,333,294 

Prince Edward Island 1,059,193 

Manitoba and N. W. Territory 718,159 


It will be seen that Nova Scotia, stands for over one-third of the 

These fig'ures speak for themselves in a brief, but instructive 
manner. We will now take up the matter in somewhat of detail. 
The branch of this great industry that is the most remunerative, 
curiously enough has nothing to do with fish, but refers to the lob- 
sters that are crustaceans, pure and simple, and are no closer related 
to fishes than they are to birds. In saying that the lobster catch 
is the most remunerative I have not agreed with the Government 
figures. The explanation for this will be found in the following 
contribution to the Halifax Herald of November 22, 1902, special 
South Shore Edition, by M. H. Nickerson, Esqr., of Clarke's Har- 
bour, Shelburne County, a member of the late Government Com- 


mission to investigate the conditions of the lobster fishery, and a 
gentleman entitled to serious consideration on any subject which he 
chooses to treat seriously. The entire article is interesting and 
instructive reading, and it is given here complete: 

"Forty years ago lobsters were canned on a very limited scale 
at points widely separated from each other on the South Shore of 
Nova Scotia. That was the humble beginning of a business which 
has spread and flourished to a wonderful extent, reaching out every- 
where; that also was the real start of a fishery almost wholly 
neglected till then, a fishery whose expansion both in product and 
values has indeed been remarkable. No other resource of our coast- 
waters has been so rapidly developed, or yielded better returns to 
nearly eighteen thousand fishermen engaged in it steadily or for the 
most part along the whole Atlantic seaboard from ' Westport to 
Scattarie. It is the staple industry within that range. It has cre- 
ated good, wholesome activity in trade over the same territory, and 
as a natural consequence it has brought a fair degree of prosperity, 
which otherwise would have been quite impossible to many of the 
shore settlements. 

"The two divisions of this industry are canning and the live 
export trade. The latter began scarcely twenty years ago. It was 
at first carried on with little regularity, for the American sail-smacks, 
which visited these shores to buy lobsters in the shell, made trips far 
between. They bought at prices slightly above the factory rate, 
so the fishermen were not greatly in pocket by the new departure. 
At present by means of rapid transportation afforded by lines of 
steamers to Boston, the business not only rivals in value the work of 
the canneries, but since 1896 Jias actually surpassed it, with the 
exception of one year on the part of coast now under considera- 
tion. In the official report for 1899, the latest returns available, the 
total value of the lobster industry for the whole Province is put 
down at $1,639,790, (a considerable drop, by the way, from that of 
the previous year), of which the live export counts, according to 
the same authority, $672,310. But the year before the whole amount 
was $2,673,623, of which more than half was realized from live 
sales, all' but a very small portion of which is credited to the South 
Shore. Besides, it must be remarked that in all government re- 
turns for recent years, lobsters exported alive are estimated strange- 
ly enough, at only $5 per hundredweight. Now that is altogether 
too low. 



"The Boston market, to which live shipments chiefly go, fluc- 
tuates, of course, at certain seasons, but the top figures have some- 
times been $25 a crate, and they seldom went below $12 last winter. 
It would be entirely within bounds to place the average at $10 per 
hundredweight through the season, which would rightly add an- 
other million of dollars to the lobster yield of the Province, mostly 
that of the South Shore. This fact is worth bearing in mind, and 
it certainly should appear in the statistics if the same rate is main- 
tained in the future. It places the annual yield from lobsters ahead 
of all of that of any other fishery in Nova Scotia, not excepting the 
shore and bank cod fishing combined, although the latter is now 
prosecuted more vigorously than ever, especially in Lunenburg 
county, whose fleet of schooners fine as ever rode the billows, 
manned by stalwart and active crews now number well on to two 
hundred, and bring in an immense quantity of fish every season. 

"This comparison may help one to realize what a source of wealth 
lies almost at our very landings, and what possibilities there are 
in it for future generations if only due caution is observed in ex- 
ploiting it. The lobster man's gains count up fast. A crate contains 
the bulk of say two quintals of codfish. That quantity of lobsters, 
put ori the market right, often nets $20, and the cash return is 
prompt. That quantity of codfish with all the labor of curing, may 
be worth $6, and the proceeds from delayed shipments, and' other 
causes is of necessity somewhat slow. This is the difference which 
makes itself apparent in some places at the conclusion of the re- 
spective seasons. There were some instances among us last year 
where a lobster fisherman cleared over $1,000 from his season's 

"The canning business in some respects has kept pace with the 
general advance. Improved methods of packing are to be seen in 
most factories. Almost every year has witnessed an increasing 
number of men engaged in fishing and using more effective gear 
than formerly. A wider European market for the canned article 
created a brisk demand and prices abroad have until quite recently 
been extremely good. These things were tempting enough to 
allure capital in big or small blocks, and of late there has been a 
tendency to overcrowd the business. Factories have sprung up 
almost at every available spot, so that the number which stood at 
about loo on the South Shore some few years ago is now increased 
to fully 220, and still there is a planning for more, especially in the 
western counties. As might be expected, some inferior packing is the 


result, which has been found slightly detrimental to the trade. To 
remedy this and put the industry on the basis of genuine enterprise 
is the object of the convention shortly to be held by the packers of 
recognized standing from as wide a territory as may be practicable. 
If their views are carried out, there is still an ample field and a hopeful 
future awaiting this division of a great industry. 

"The growth of the lobster fishery has led to many improve- 
ments in connection with it, and given a lively impulse to traffic of 
various kinds. The boats now owned by the more pushing fisher- 
men are models of beauty and marvels of seaworthiness. They cost 
about $200 each, and resemble a yacht in lines and rig more than 
anything else. They safely weather the winter gales and play over 
the waves like a duck. No other style of craft of that size could be 
used in the stormy season. 

"A numerous class of small coasting steamers has been called 
into' existence by the requirements of the lobster trade. Many of 
them combine general freighting with the carrying of lobsters to 
the ports of shipment abroad chiefly Yarmouth and Halifax. They 
collect the catches, crated up for transport at the different stations 
along the shore, and the regularity with which they make these 
trips to> and fro is not the least wonderful part of the vast system 
by which that special product of the sea is forwarded with all dis- 
patch to the American markets. At the busiest periods those boats 
have been known to* carry to Boston 2,000 crates per week as the 
aggregate shipment from both the above named ports. At $10 per 
crate, such export would bring $20,000 to be distributed in cash 
among the fishermen of the South Shore. 

'This brief survey may afford some idea of the importance of 
lobster fishing to the shore population of Nova Scotia. It is already 
the leading factor in their commercial and industrial activity. As 
a branch of productive labor, it calls for as 'much attention as farm- 
ing or lumbering, if not more. There has been a question as to 
whether the supply would continue, considering the enormous drain 
from year to year, and it must be said, the persistent violation of 
laws intended to preserve it. It is evident that overfishing and in- 
discriminate slaughter must work some mischief, but the area ex- 
ploited, especially in the west, is exceedingly prolific. Every care 
should be duly taken by all concerned to husband and protect the 
resource on which the economic welfare of so many thousands of 
our people is dependent. M. H. NICKERSON. 

"Clark's Harbor, November, 1901." 


This much for the lobster industry of the southwestern end of 
Nova Scotia, and in order that we may have a fair opinion of the 
other extremity, I have extracted complete the following contribu- 
tion by H. Harris, Esq., of Gabarus, Cape Breton, to a special Cape 
Breton edition of the Halifax Herald of August 31, 1902. The ar- 
ticle was prepared at the request of that journal: 

"When the limited extent of our coast line is considered, the 
lobster fishery of Cape Breton is probably the most valuable one 
in the world. The annual crop is about seven and one-half million 
lobsters, preserved and canned, .worth $12.50 per case for 25,000 
cases, $312,500, to which may be added about 350,000 of loj-inch 
ones exported alive to Boston and valued at $50,000 or more. Every 
harbor and cove along the coast is studded with factories in which, 
during the fishing season, several thousand men, women and chil- 
dren are employed. 

"During the season of 1899 seventy-four factories were in, op- 
eration and turned out 1,200,000 pound' cans, equal to 25,000 cases. 

"The fishing season is limited to three months out of the year. 
No spawn or berried lobsters are supposed to be taken and none 
under eight inches in length. 

The canneries are visited several times weekly during the sea- 
son by experienced officials whose duty it is to see that the law is 
enforced. In addition to these officers, speedy cutters patrol the 
coast, the commanders of which unexpectedly appear on the scene 
of operations and make things very uncomfortable for any packer 
caught violating the regulations. The impression among many is 
that the lobster is doomed to early extinction, but no indication of 
depletion or even scarcity of the supply is noticeable in Cape Breton. 

"Here the size is well maintained,. no falling off in the pack oc- 
curs, and it is safe to say that with the legal season as at present, 
there is no possibility of destroying this valuable article of food in 
our waters. In fact, if some more efficient method than that now in 
vogue were adopted for protecting the spawn lobsters, it would only 
be a question of a few years when the supply would greatly in- 
crease. The necessity for protecting the lobsters carrying eggs is 
emphasized by the fact that the eggs of one of such represent ten 
thousand young ones. Yet I regret to say that thousands of these 
egg carrying lobsters are taken from the traps, the eggs washed 
off and the lobsters sent to canneries in apparently legal condition. 
If returned to the water when caught these lobsters would restock 


the ground with millions of young. The only way to restrict this 
wholesale destruction of these mother lobsters is to* license the 
fishermen, and to- have each man so licensed made a sworn official of 
the law to the extent that he will return to the water the berried 
or spawn ones that may come to his trap, and will report to the 
inspector of fisheries any violation of this law on the part of others 
that may come to his notice. There should be no charge for the 
license and no charge for the services of the fishermen. Any man 
desirous of fishing lobsters could do so by simply taking out a free 
license from the local fisheries official, in return for which he must 
become an officer of the fisheries to the extent above referred to. 
Let any violation of the law be punished by cancelling the offender's 
license. Now let us see how this would work. 

"Say twenty men leave the shore in the morning to haul their 
traps, and that these men are licensed as suggested. Any one of 
them is in sight of the remaining nineteen, and any attempt on the 
part of one to wash the eggs off a lobster would be detected by 
some of the others. It is, I am sure, safe to figure that out of 
twenty men some would respect the oath of office. Under the 
present system only one officer is appointed to look after over a 
hundred men, and the washing of the eggs occurs at sea, far beyond 
the reach of this official. Under the system suggested every fisher- 
man would be an official and no washing could be done without 
being detected by several of the other officials. In the United 
States the Government purchases the egg lobsters and hatches the 
eggs by artificial means. It is, however, doubtful whether these 
young lobsters ever mature, and the safer way would be to return 
the egg lobsters to their native grounds to hatch their eggs in the 
natural way. 

"The inspector of fisheries for Cap Breton is putting forth 
every effort to enforce the laws, and the good he has done is well 
known to all. The adopting of the license system as suggested 
would so strengthen his hands that I venture to say in five years the 
supply in Cape Breton waters would increase 50 per cent, and those 
of the fishermen who might for a time consider the license as severe 
would in a short while be the first to recognize its merits. 

"Some 1,500 fishermen in Cape Breton are engaged to catch the 
lobsters, while 2,000 to 2,500 hands are employed in the factories 
to can them; 150,000 traps are used, to make which 60,000,000 of 
laths are required, 60,000 pounds of nails, 18,000 pounds of twine 


and 10,800,000 feet of rope. About 1,200 boats are used, while 
in a few instances steam smacks convey the lobsters from the fish- 
ing grounds to the canneries or connect with the steamers of the 
Plant line from Sydney and Hawkesbury to Boston, in which the 
live ones are forwarded to that city. 

"The material for making and sealing- the 25,000 cases of cans 
annually packed consists of 3,300 boxes of tinplates, 50,000 pounds 
of solder, 15,000 pounds of nails and 300,000 feet of pine lumber. 

"The cost to place these 25,000 cases of lobsters in Halifax may 
be estimated as follows: 

7,500,000 lobsters at $2.50 per 100 $187,500 

Labor and smacks 50,000 

Cans, solder and linings 40,000 

Freight, insurance, fuel and sundry expenses 15,000 

Total $292,500 

"These figures are based on last season's work. The markets 
for the present season are lower by about 75 cents per case, which 
has necessarily caused a small reduction in the. prices being paid for 
lobsters along the coast. 

"The pack in Cape Breton is about the same as last season's to 
this date. H. E. BAKER. 

"Gabarus, C. B., June 14, 1901." 

The following extract is taken from a booklet entitled "Shoot- 
ing and Fishing," issued by the Dominion of Canada, 1900: 

"It is hardly more than a. quarter of a century since the birth of 
the lobster industry in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, particu- 
larly in the Bay of Chaleur and in many of the rivers of the Cana- 
dian Labrador, and at that time one could procure, in most of these 
districts, lobsters of medium size for five cents each. About 1870 
an enterprising citizen of New Brunswick came to Prince Edward 
Island and founded a factory for the preserving of lobsters. The 
investment succeeded from the first year, and was soon followed 
by other capitalists, who invested considerable money in the indus- 
try, which progressed from that time with astonishing rapidity. 
Prince Edward Island in 1871 had an output of 67,000 boxes o! 
lobsters, but four years later there were packed 151,248, and in 
1882 the number of boxes had increased to 6,300,000. This same 
province, which in 1871 possessed only one factory, now has 120 


in full activity. The same increasing progress is apparent in New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia. In 1870 the proprietor of the only 
lobster factory then existing in New Brunswick placed upon the 
market some 20,000 boxes of lobsters; twelve years later, in 1882, 
about 6,000,000 boxes left New Brunswick for the United States 
and Europe, and Nova Scotia, which in 1870 could only offer 30,000 
boxes, exported in 1883 nearly 5,000,000. Today 740 lobster fac- 
tories can be counted in the Maritime Provinces, and the value of 
the output in 1897 was estimated at 17,500,000 francs, the Province 
of Quebec only accounting for little more than 1,000,000. The 
lobster industry employs, according to the last statistics, 15,165 per- 
sons, of whom 1,870 are in the Province of Quebec. The value of 
lobsters canned was 11,130,000 francs, which represent an average 
of 15,000,000 pounds contained in 11,130,554 boxes. England is 
the best market for the Canadian lobster. She buys three-quarters 
of the canned lobster, the other quarter going to France, Germany, 
Brazil and the West Indies. Besides this export, enormous quan- 
tities of lobsters are shipped in the natural state to the interior and 
the United States." 

I am fortunate to have at hand several of these letters from 
very competent men who discuss the various items of the fishery 
business from an up-to-date standpoint. The next communication 
is from A. W. Eakins, Esq., President of the Yarmouth Board of 
Trade. It was written by request of the Halifax Herald for the 
Special South Shore Edition, 1902: 

"During the last twenty years the fish export business of Yar- 
mouth has undergone a complete change. At the beginning of the 
period named and for a decade or more previous to that a fleet of 
about twenty-five brigantines and schooners was employed in car- 
rying cargoes of dry and pickled fish and lumber to the different 
markets in the West Indies and British Guiana; today there is but 
one vessel in the business. Yarmouth still exports a good many 
thousands of quintals and barrels of fish, but the business is done 
in a safer and more profitable way. Wliereas formerly the cargoes 
were sent out on shippers' account and placed in the hands of 
commission merchants to be sold for what buyers chose to pay 
frequently netting shippers a heavy loss today the fish are nearly 
always sold before they are shipped, and at prices made by the 
sellers. Some of the orders are from the West Indies direct, but 
much the greater part are from New York dealers and exporters, 


the fish going through the United States in bond for export to 
Cuba, Hayti, San Domingo, Porto Rico and elsewhere. The im- 
provement in steam communication between Yarmouth and Boston 
which has been going on during the period mentioned, has greatly 
favored the change noted. A direct line of steamers between here 
and New York would, of course, be of the greatest advantage to 
the business, and would, with the tourist business, develop a paying 
business on its own merits. It is to be hoped we may have such 
a line in the not too distant future. 

"It may be of interest to note in passing some of the reasons 
why the quantity of dry fish shipped from Yarmouth has diminished 
in recent years. Probably the cause contributing most to this re- 
sult has been the enormous increase in the production of beet sugar 
in France ancl Germany and other European countries, such in- 
crease having been brought about by the artificial stimulus of Gov- 
ernment aid. Cane sugar that sold at from 4^ to 5 cents a pound 
dropped in a few years to 1^/2 to 2 cents. Such a depreciation in 
the market value of its chief article of export could but have the 
effect it did have on many of the West India Islands. Planters 
were impoverished and in many instances ruined, estates were sold 
under foreclosure of mortgage, and many of them abandoned as 
sugar producing estates. All this, of course, meant the loss of 
employment for laborers and others, and the general stagnation 
and business paralysis usually resulting from such a condition. A 
lessened purchasing power made -it necessary to do with less im- 
ported foodstuffs, and to buy in much smaller quantities at a time. 
; Another cause operating in the same direction was the closing 
against us in the year 1893 of the large fish consuming markets of 
the French islands of Martinique and Guadaloupe. In that year 
a protective duty amounting to absolute prohibition was adopted 
by those colonies under pressure from the home government. The 
object was to give the French fishermen of St. Pierre, Miquelon, the 
exclusive supplying of these markets, and this object has been at- 
tained. When it is considered that the two islands named consumed 
about 10,000 quintals of dry fish a month, and that Nova Scotia 
used to furnish the most of the supply, it will be seen what a serious 
blow this was. 

"The export of fresh fish to Boston with some shipments to 
New York has developed with the shipping facilities. This is more 
especially true of the item of live lobsters. Commencing with half 


a dozen barrels packed in wet moss and shipped once a week in the 
"Old Dominion," back in the seventies, and growing to a total of 
15,000 crates of 140 pounds each during a season. Mackerel are 
in some years shipped to Boston in ice by the thousand barrels; 
other years the catch is almost a total failure. The fish come up the 
Atlantic coast of the United States in the early spring, and about 
the loth of May in each year they strike across from Cape Cod to 
Nova Scotia; they skirt the shore from Black Point around Cape 
Sable and east to the Straits of Canso, thence through to* the waters 
of Northumberland Straits to the Bay of Chaleur and that region, 
where they stay and grow fat. During the months of May and 
June, and sometimes July, while passing this shore they are taken 
in nets and traps, but the business is uncertain and sometimes a 
losing one. 

"A new departure has just been taken in the fresh fish business 
by a Yarmouth company in the building of a couple of fine steam 
trawlers for fishing on these shores. The first of these steamers, the 
'Harbinger/ has been about a month in service, and seems to be 
doing well. The fish are landed every day or two and sold fresh, 
the buyers converting the haddock into 'finnan haddies,' for which 
there is a large and growing Canadian market, and salting or ship- 
ping the rest fresh, as may be deemed best. The second steamer, 
the 'Messenger,' has just been launched, and is being fitted with 
her machinery. If this venture proves to be the success that is 
hoped for it, it will be the means of making Yarmouth the most 
important fish distributing port in the Province, because, without 
doubt, other steamers will be added as the business warrants. 

"Since the abrogation of the fishery clauses of the Washing- 
ton Treaty, and the re-imposition by the United States of a heavy 
duty on our fish, many of our best fishing skippers and men have 
gone to Gloucester each season to fish in United States vessels, 
and thus get the benefit of the higher prices ruling in that market 
by reason of the exclusion of foreign caught fish. 

"Indeed, so large has this annual exodus become, it has been 
asserted that fully half of the Gloucester cod fishing fleet is manned 
by Nova Scotians. As far as concerns these fishermen and their 
families, they are probably making a better living by this Change 
of base than they could make at home, but other interests on this 
side suffer we lose the building and outfitting of the vessels, the 
curing and packing of the fish, and the profit of selling them. We 


lose also the other advantages which result to< a community from 
having its members remain at home and take part in the industrial 
and social life. 

"In this connection it is worthy of passing notice that the 
people of the United States tax themselves 84 cents per quintal 
on codfish, $2 a barrel on -mackerel and $i a barrel on herrings, in 
order that a few thousand fishermen half of them Nova Scotians 
may be assisted in making a living. Seventy odd millions of the 
people pay the tax, either directly on imported fish, or indirectly 
in the increased price of domestic caught, and probably less than a 
quarter of a million get any benefit from it. It has apparently not 
yet occurred to the politicians who make the tariff that it would 
be much cheaper to board these few beneficiaries of the fish duties at 
hotels, and furnish them with clothes arid pocket money, than thus 
to tax the whole nation to help them get a poor living by fishing. 
But there are even now some encouraging signs that the people 
are becoming aware of the absurdity of the situation and that a 
change is not far off. 

"It is undeniable that a treaty of reciprocity between the United 
States and Canada, which, while giving American fishermen equal 
privileges with our own in our waters and ports, would give us the 
freedom of United States markets for our fish, would be an ex- 
cellent thing for this Province, but it would also be an excellent 
thing for consumers of fish in the United States. It would be par- 
ticularly beneficial to the trade of the cities of Portland, Boston and 
New York by putting these cities in a position to act as distributors 
of our fish to the millions of consumers who look to them for sup- 
plies. New York, under free trade in fish, would become the great 
depot for the supply of dry fish to the West Indies and Central and 
South America. Its facilities for shipping by steam, frequently and 
in small lots, as wanted by dealers, would put New York in the best 
position to do the business. At present the custom house expenses, 
bonded warehouse charges and red tape generally are a great draw- 
back and hindrance. 

"It may also be safely asserted that even Gloucester the very 
cradle of the protected infant fishing industry would be benefited 
by the change. Her fish curing, cutting and distributing firms are 
now limited to the fish caught by their own fishing vessels, and, as 
frequently happens, by reason of a short catch (the present season 
is an instance) they have to pay high prices for their supplies, and 


charge a correspondingly high price for the marketable product, 
thus curtailing consumption and lessening both percentage and 
amount of profit. With the door open to provincial caught fish, 
millions of pounds of our green fish would be sold in Gloucester for 
her dealers to cure and market. A. W. EAKINS. 

"Yarmouth, November, 1901." 

The next letter was written for trfe same edition of the Herald 
by W. A. Killam, Secretary of the Harbinger Steam Trawling Com- 
pany, Yarmouth, N. S. 

"In compliance with your request I will give you my views of 
the fresh fish industry of Yarmouth. Yarmouth today ships more 
' fresh fish to the United States markets than any other county in 
the Province; including their Canadian shipments from 6,000,000 
to 7,000,000 pounds, including shell fish, annually for the past few 
years, would be a fair estimate. This includes half a million pounds 
from West Port and St. Mary's Bay ports, and 1,000,000 pounds 
from Shelburne county, chiefly Cape Island. 

"It is not because we have better fishing grounds, but it is be- 
cause we have such splendid freight service to Boston and New 
York, our best markets. We can put' our fish on T wharf, Boston, 
in 16 hours, and at Fulton Market, New York, in 36 hours. This 
is why we are ahead of the South Shore counties in fresh fish. Let 
the South Shore have railroad service to Yarmouth and you will 
soon see that one boat a day to Boston will not do the work. 

"The fishing grounds from Cape Sable to Sambro are among 
the best. But there is no encouragement for fish people to< strike 
out unless they have facilities for shipping fish fresh, and that means 
railroad or daily steamship service to Yarmouth. 

"The American markets are what we have to cater for, and fresh 
fish is what they want. Give the South Shore shipping facilities. 
Get a reduction on fish duty, do away with the license fee of $1.50 
per ton on American vessels, and allow the American fishing fleet 
free access to our ports for shipping fares and refitting, and the 
money and business this fleet of four hundred sail vessels would 
leave along our shores would make this one of the best countries 
on earth. 

"Canada is a large country, but not a very large market for 
salt water fish, outside of finnan haddies; New York City alone 
uses more fresh fish yearly. Digby leads the finnan haddie business 


at present. Last year's output amounted to one and a half million 
pounds, mostly to Canada. Give Shelburne and Queens a chance 
of shipping and they can better this as they have bettered haddock- 
ing along their shores, and there is no danger of overstocking the 
American markets with this article. 

"If our government would substitute a few fertilizer factories and 
give our fishermen a small bounty on dog fish it would benefit the 
fishermen much more than the bait freezers will, as you will find 
many of the latter will not be of any benefit, as they are not in the 
right localities. Dog fish, unless they are made a marketable fish, 
will in a few years ruin our Bay of Fundy fishery, as they are in- 
creasing very fast, and during the summer season hinder fishermen 
from fishing more than the scarcity of bait does. A bounty of one 
cent on each dog to the fishermen and factories to buy them, with 
the oil and jelly, would make them as valuable as our scale fish. 

"The same subsidy at each fishing port for a factory that they are 
giving the freezers, would induce people to go into the business; it 
would give lots of employment on shore and be a paying business 
and no doubt would in a few years clean out the dog fish nuisance. 


"Yarmouth, November, 1901." 

The following brief letter is well worth reading in this connec- 
tion. It was written by W. H. Troop, Esq., of Halifax, for the South 
Shore Herald: 

"How many people in Nova Scotia, aside from those directly 
interested in the business, realize that a splendid fleet of schooners, 
of the most modern type, sail from our coast every spring to prose- 
cute what is known as bank fishing? Yet hundreds of thousands 
of dollars are invested in this business, thousands of men earn a 
living, and a catch of considerably over a million dollars is annually 
marketed. Surely an industry such as this is worth much to the 
Province, and especially to the ports where most of the vessels 

"Lunenburg harbor, for from that port a large portion of the 
fleet fits out, presents a busy scene from about the middle of March 
till the vessels get away. 

"The importance of this business can be realized when the sup- 
plies needed to prosecute the voyage are taken into consideration. 
Each vessel, and there are about 200 sail, carries a crew of fifteen 


to seventeen men, and requires in provisions alone from $800 to 
$1,200 for the season. To these are to be added hawsers, trawl 
gear, cordage, lines, hooks, salt, (a most important item, usually 
Liverpool or Trapani), and the thousand and one things needed 
for the vessels and men. 

"The fleet usually makes two trips, one called the spring, and 
one, the more important, the summer. A catch of from 300 to 500 
quintals per vessel would be a fair average for the spring trip, and 
for the summer from 1,000 to 1,400 quintals, though some vessels 
hail for as high as 2,000 quintals. 

"The crew r s are all young men, and well it is so \vhen the hard- 
ships and exposure endured are taken into consideration. The 
work on the Banks is very hard, but the men, are well fed, well clad, 
and of a sturdy build, well able to withstand the exposure to wet 
and cold so unavoidable in such a calling. The loss of life from our 
fleet is surprisingly small when the risk involved is considered. The 
vessels are of good model, well found, not oversparred, and han- 
dled with great skill by their skippers, as the captain is usually 
called. He, by the way, is usually part owner of the vessel. 

"The general custom among the 'trawlers' is that the crew takes 
one-half the proceeds of the catch, the other being taken by the 
owners, who pay all'the bills, save such as may be contracted by 
the men for their personal use. 

"Nova Scotia has reason to be proud of her fishing fleet and 
the men who man them and whose toil helps to enrich the province 
by the sea. W. H. TROOP. 

"Halifax, November, 1901." 

From booklet "Fishing and Shooting," issued by the Dominion 
of Canada, the following is extracted: 

"The infinitely numerous species of fish have, in general, two 
characteristics in common, namely: fecundity and voracity, and it 
is necessarily so, because the different species incessantly devour 
each other, and man also performs his part in the consumption of 
incalculable numbers of the fish which form such a large factor in 
his daily wants. The cod is. amongst the number of those species 
whose reproductive powers are greatest. A Dutch naturalist counted 
as many as 9,334,000 eggs in one female. The cod is often called 
the 'bread of the sea.' Certain it is that the cod takes the place 
of bread in countries too cold for wheat growing purposes. If there 


is. an article of food that may be called inexhaustible, it is fish. Far 
from failing, the demand grows every year, and the production will 
doubtless finally become three or four times greater than it is today, 
and if southern countries, such as Brazil, Spain, the West Indies, 
etc., could be supplied with cold storage facilities, the cod and other 
fish exporting industries would be considerably benefited thereby. 
The inhabitants of warm climates regard dried codfish as an indis- 
pensable article of diet, while pickled fish has an enormous sale in 
Europe, the United States and West Indies, and the quantity of 
dried cod exported to these countries is placed on an average of 
35,000,000 francs. The cod fishing industry gives employment to a 
vast number of persons, and without taking into consideration the 
millions of pounds consumed on the spot by the 20,000 families of 
fishermen occupied in the capture of these fish, or the enormous 
quantities disposed of in the markets of the interior, the cod occu- 
pies first place in the list of food fish, as well as for the oil, which is 
known the world over. This oil, which is extracted from the liver 
of the fish, is used for many industrial purposes, lubricating- ma- 
chinery, preparing skins, etc., and it is also largely utilized medici- 
nally in the treatment of scrofula and other diseases of a debilitating 
nature. The swimming bladder furnishes a glue which is quite 
equal to that of the sturgeon. The eggs also are preserved for the 
table, unless they happen to be in a bruised condition, when they 
become an object of commerce, like the intestines, and are used as 
bait in the sardine and anchovy fisheries. Finally the bones and 
entrails of the cod, submitted to certain chemical processes, are 
converted into a fertilizing manure, the qualities of which resemble 
the celebrated guano of Peru. 

"Yet, in estimating the value of the codfish, the tongues and 
livers are often overlooked. These are by no means unimportant 
details of the economy of this fish, for the livers yield as much as 
350,000 gallons of oil, which, added to the number of pounds of 
pickled tongues, bring in about 1,000,000 francs per annum. Fur- 
ther, the price of codfish bait represents each year a sum equal to 
a quarter of the value of the codfish yield. The sale of the salted 
intestines forms another article of commerce which it is well to 
study. For instance, in France and Spain, where the sardine and 
anchovy fishing is carried on, 50,000 barrels of cod intestines are 
consumed every year. Now Norway in the best fishing years can 
only furnish 35,000 barrels, and generally she exports 25,000, there 


remain the 25,000 barrels which Canada can supply, and from which 
the Dominion can extract another million of francs, each barrel of 
cod intestines being estimated at 50 francs. Cod is found in all 
the seas of the northern hemisphere comprised between the 4Oth 
and 6oth degrees of latitude. Since the fourteenth century cod has 
been the object of an extremely active fishery with all the mari- 
time nations; nevertheless, there is not the slightest apprehension 
that the supply can ever diminish. The general rendezvous of the 
cod seems to be on the great Banks of Newfoundland, which is a 
submarine projection of 300 miles in length and 180 in breadth. 

"Cod fishing lasts till the end of November, and is pursued on 
the great Banks either in decked vessels, varying in dimensions 
from 60 to 100 tons, or in small open boats at a short distance from 
the shore. From ten to twelve hands generally man the decked 
vessels fishing on the Banks. The Bank codfish is much larger than 
the cod nearer the coast; they are, besides, a better quality, and on 
an average thirty codfish from the Bank when dried are sufficient 
to make one hundredweight. The fishing done in open boats is 
carried on off the small Banks, distant from the shore some ten to 
thirty miles. These boats, perhaps the best of their kind in the 
world, are made by the fishermen themselves, and their dimensions 
vary from 20 to 30 feet in length. Two of these boats were shown 
at the International Fisheries Exhibition of London in 1883, where 
they attracted the attention of connoisseurs. Canada consumes a 
large quantity of haddock, a small variety of cod, for which the 
taste is more marked than for the real cod, and which, like it, does 
not- bring satiety." 

The following letter, also written by request for the Cape Breton 
edition of the Herald, deserves careful perusal by those who are 
interested in our fisheries : 

"The value of the Island of Cape Breton for cod fishing was well 
known to the Spanish and Portuguese, as well as to< the French 
fishermen, as early as the latter part of the fourteenth century. 
When in 1714 the removal of the French settlers of Placentia to 
Louisburg took place the conclusion arrived at by the official re- 
ports sent to Paris was that the, value of Cape Breton for fishing 
and commercial purposes far exceeded that of Newfoundland, and 
St. Anne's Harbor is described as possessing great advantages, 
easily fortified, and codfish abounded there more plentifully than at 
any other part of the island. 


"A writer in 1719 speaks of the French in Cape Breton as 'im- 
proving" rapidly in wealth and in numbers, being very prolific, and 
in a few years likely to become very numerous;' and the writer 
adds : 'It is by all accounts the best and most convenient fisheries 
in any part of the King's dominions.' 

"According to a report sent to the Lords' Commission of Trade in 
1740 there were 48 schooners and 393 shallops and 2,443 men em ~ 
ployed in the fisheries of Cape Breton. Of these 54 shallops were 
fishing at Ingonish. The total catch for that year was 117,050 quin- 
tals. The cod store houses were full of fish by the time the ships 
arrived from France laden with provisions and other goods sold by 
the merchants to the fishermen in exchange for their fish. Vessels 
from the French -colonies of St. Domingo and Martinique brought 
to Louisburg tobacco, sugar, coffee, rum, etc., and returned loaded 
with fish. To such an extent had this industry grown when Louis- 
burg was taken in 1758 that the previous year 15,000 men were 
employed in fishing, scattered all over Cape Breton. There were 
726 decked vessels and 1,335 shallops, and the number from each 
station fully given from Egmont Bay, now Cape North, to Canso. 
Ingonish Bay and Cove sent out 245 shallops with a crew of from 
six to eight men in each. From St. Anne's went out to the Banks 
close to Bird Island 100 decked vessels, and the total catch exported 
from Cape Breton was 974,700 quintals. No wonder it was a great 
loss to France when Cape Breton became a British colony, and the 
catch of fish and the whole trade connected therewith never again 
reached anything like what it was under the industrious rule of its 
French inhabitants. 

"What an object lesson have we here for the people of St. Anne's 
and Ingonish, when even today the ruins of houses and the stone 
foundations of their fish piles can be seen in abundance! French 
people have settled in Richmond, Cape Breton and Inverness, where 
they still follow fishing for a living and with varied success. Con- 
trast Cape Breton, with its extensive and expansive fisheries under 
French rule, with results under the English protection, when in 
1757, 974,700 quintals were exported and in 1770 the exported 
quantity was only 26,020 quintals. In 1785 there were several en- 
terprising firms prosecuting the cod fisheries, as the export for that 
year was 30,580 quintals. 

"Coming to more recent times and to the early recollection of 
the writer, codfish and mackerel were abundant closer to the shore 


than* found now. As soon as the drift ice moves from the lakes 
and coast the spring" herring in large bodies frequent the whole 
coast of Cape Breton and up into every creek and corner of the 
Bras D'Or Lakes, where they remain for only a short time to spawn 
and then disappear again. Spring herring are suitable for bait, and 
are used by the bankers for that purpose. They are generally fol- 
lowed by the codfish that come closer to the shore in May than at 
any other season of the year. From the 26th of May until the mid- 
dle of June is the spring mackerel season full of spawn and poor, 
thin quality. Halifax papers speak of No. i mackerel in May and 
June, but October and November are the months for fat No. i 
mackerel. Until very recent years mackerel used to trim the shores 
of Richmond, the southern coast of Cape Breton County, then 
striking along the north shore, Ingonish, Neil's Harbor, and then 
to the Magdalen Islands, where they deposit their spawn. 

"By causes not yet explained the movements of the spring 
and fall mackerel for the last fifteen or twenty years have changed, 
and they pass north in as large bodies as ever without coming near 
the shore in the places regularly frequented before now. Various 
reasons are assigned, such as being frightened with purse seines or 
regulated by the action of the wind. In bright, clear weather, with 
westerly winds, they may be seen passing outside the range of nets, 
and if the weather should be dark and foggy, with easterly winds, 
they usually hug the shore closer. My theory is that mackerel fol- 
low the small fish on which they feed. Summer mackerel, now so 
uncertain on the Cape Breton coast, used to be seized in large quan- 
tities in and around St. Anne's harbor, but with the exception of a 
few taken with hooks, very few summer mackerel are secured now 
in any part of Cape Breton. The mackerel going north in the 
spring return rolling in fat in the fall, and used to be caught in large 
quantities in Aspy Bay, Ingonish and around Scatarie and other 
fishing stations, but of late years they appear to pass outside of 
their former ports of call, so that very few of these valuable fat 
mackerel are secured by our fishermen. After the disappearance 
of the spring mackerel comes the large fat July herring, usually 
striking the northern shore of Victoria and gradually working south- 
ward towards Richmond County. From causes unknown the quan- 
tity and quality of these excellent fish, for which a market was found 
in all parts of the Province, has not been for the last ten years equal 
to what it used to be before that time. Last year there was con- 



siderable improvement. Soon again they may attain their former 
standard of being the highest quality of herring coming to the 
Halifax market. July herring are too< fat for export except to the 
northern States, where there is always a good demand for fat her- 
ring. In September large sized herring are taken along the Cape 
Breton coast, but the quality is not equal to those fished in July. 

" Salmon, the king of fish, frequent the large creeks and river en- 
trances of the whole coast, and are noted (or their fine flavor and 
superior quality compared with those of British Columbia. As a 
rule they are larger in size and considered better quality than those 
coming from Newfoundland. Cape North Bay, Ingonish and St. 
Anne's are stations where salmon are yearly taken. The United 
States market has been so well supplied with British Columbia sal- 
mon that prices have fallen to half the value obtained there a few- 
years ago. The great object now is to supply the Canadian and 
United States markets with fresh salmon packed in ice. This trade 
is increasing, and to follow it up successfully,' rapid transit by 
steamer and by rail is necessary to secure the salmon reaching the 
best markets in good condition. Salmon run up the Bras D'Or 
Lakes later than they do along the outer coast. The rivers they fre- 
quent to spawn are Salmon River, Bay St. Lawrence, the three Cape 
North Rivers, Qyburn Brook and other streams in Ingonish. Indian 
Brook, Barrachois, North River, St. Anne's, Mill Brook, Big Bras 
D'Or, then Baddeck, Middle River and Washabuckt River, streams 
near Cheticamp and other places in Inverness, and particularly the 
Margaree River, are places where salmon work up to deposit their 
spawn in the uppermost parts of these streams, and as far as possi- 
ble from the disturbance of man. 

"There are several Cape Breton streams, such as Mira River, 
W'here salmon ascend to spawn, but the local knowledge of the writer 
is unable to give particulars. With the large expenditure of money 
on river guardians in the Island of Cape Breton there should' be a 
marked yearly increase in the catch of salmon, but it is to> be feared 
that in some cases these guardians, whose duty is to see the salmon 
ascend to their respective spawning resorts, are not as watchful and 
alive to their duty as they should be. Even some of themselves re- 
^quire careful watching. 

"It is impossible in the short space allotted me to write of had- 
dock, pollock, hake, alewives, etc., etc., which' form part of the Cape 
Breton fisheries, and to touch upon the proper method of curing 


pickled and dry fish, more than to say that inferior prepared fish 
in barrels or in bulk are not fit for the Halifax or other markets, 
Fish, particularly the best quality, will always meet a fair market. 
Next to our codfish catch comes the lobster business, and there is 
no vacant place now around the whole island of Cape Breton where 
lobster traps are not set, and Cape Breton well packed lobsters find 
a market equal, and in many instances better than some parts of the 
Province that might be mentioned. So particular are they in Lon- 
don and other markets that the quality readily sold a few years back 
cannot now find a market. Never before was it so necessary to at- 
tend to careful packing in order to> find a fair market as it is now. 
The highest prices have been reached last year, and the tendency 
will be to lower prices. 

"Next to our codfish export comes the lobsters, and the con- 
tinuous drain of fishing from the middle of December until the ist 
of July must in time largely reduce the catch. The season in most 
parts of Cape Breton is from May to August i, and there being no 
winter fishing, there will be lobsters there when other parts of the 
Province are depleted. The number of men and boats employed in 
lobster fishing has tended largely to reduce the catch of codfish; 
still the cash circulated for lobsters has proved a rich blessing to 
poor people in all parts of the island of Cape Breton. 

"A very industrious class of fishermen from Newfoundland 
have settled in Ingonish, Neil's Harbor and New Haven, who confine 
their time to cod fishing and have succeeded in having comfortable 
homes and make a good living. Of recent years winter cod fishing 
has been sucessfully followed in Ingonish, Neil's Harbor and New 
Haven, from November until sometimes the loth of January. These 
large fat fish are salted down in kenches and washed out and dried 
in the spring, when the market is generally better than at other 
seasons. The winter cod fishing is extending, as there is no other 
fishing followed at that season. 

"With the south harbor of Ingonish open, the breakwater at 
North Bay and the breakwater under contract at Neil's Harbor, a 
larger class of fishing boat will be successfully used. Under proper 
management fishing vessels from 20 to 30 tons should be built and 
manned by our fishermen. ; It is doubtful if a large export trade of 
dry fish can be successfully carried on in Cape Breton, the quantity 
not being large enough without banking being prosecuted. This 
trade requires heavy capital to begin with, business men of experi- 


ence to conduct it, with perfect knowledge of the fish suitable for 
the different markets. Bankers from Lunenburg, J^ockeport, etc., 
can fit out earlLer than it could be done in Cape Breton, with no 
drift ice to obstruct them, and exporting every month in the year. 
Fishing banks in and out extend along the whole coast from Scat- 
arie to ingonish, and inner banks now frequented by our fishermen 
prove beyond question that no part of the Province can excel Cape 
Breton in the value of its fisheries, which could certainly be ex- 
tended with industrious fishermen uniting their interests and build- 
ing during the winter months a larger and better class of boats and 
schooners than are now used. W. ROSS." 

It is very evident that Nature has dealt very bountifully with 
us, and whether we are long to enjoy what she has provided or 
whether our portion is to be cut off forever will depend upon our 
conduct. If greed and stupidity are to direct our actions, instead 
of unselfishness and intelligence, then there will be an end to our 
portion at no very distant day. We have 'seen in one generation 
the immense herds of bison almost disappear from this continent 
before the rifle bullets of men who shot them down by the hundreds 
of thousands for their hides and the mere sport of killing such noble 
creatures, as if they were not far more interesting as splendid living 
animals than they could be as dead hulks of carrion. If a few men 
who love the wild creatures had not interfered there would not be a 
living bison at this moment. Even the few small bunches that are 
wards of the nation are not safe from prowling pot-hunters, who 
would pick off the last survivor without the least hesitation. The 
last moose in the state of Vermont was shot a year or two ago, and 
the miscreant who did the deed was never punished. The moose 
in our own woods are doomed to speedy extinction, unless some 
effectual steps are taken to prevent their destruction. They are 
not only hunted with rifles, but are set upon by dogs and also caught 
in snares; by this latter means many are killed every season by 
people who will not take the trouble to look after their snares, and 
the animals are often allowed to starve and rot. 

The same kind of men who do that mischief will strip the eggs 
from the female lobster and throw her into their catch for a male, 
without a care for the result, that must surely be a reduction in the 
number of the very creatures they wish to catch. 

Nothing short of eternal vigilance will preserve our fisheries. 
The following is what Prof. Pierce has to say of the destruction of 




mackerel by an invention calculated to line the pockets of a few 
hundred people at the expense of a great and needed industry: 

'The decay of the mackerel in the North Atlantic, and espe- 
cially in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, can be traced to' the use of most 
destructive gear, precisely when the fish were schooling for spawn- 
ing purposes. In spring and early summer an examination of speci- 
mens of schooling mackerel shows how near ripeness these myriads 
of fish are. When the eggs are perfectly translucent they are cast 
out on the surface of the waters of the open sea, where they are 
fertilized and float for a week or two* until the young fish are formed 
and burst out of the thin, transparent* shell. Every female mackerel 
produces not less than 750,000 eggs on an average and as the purse- 
seiners were able to* enclose entire schools of these breeding fish, 
numbers of eggs beyond human computation were destroyed, and 
the mackerel cut off more or less completely. Other methods of 
fishing gill-nets, inshore traps, jigging, hooks and lines though 
formerly remunerative enough, were comparatively hartnless com- 
pared with the completely exterminating character of the purse seine 
which was used out in the open sea precisely where the mackerel 
finds the appropriate conditions; clear, rippling sea-water of some 
depth, absence of rocks, hurtful objects, pollutions, etc., access to 
sunlight and the necessary modicum of heat, all necessary for the 
incubation of these most delicate floating ova." 

No doubt but there are disturbing natural causes that produce 
considerable irregularity in the appearance of fish at certain locali- 
ties. They are exposed to* diseases peculiar to each species, that 
doubtless on occasions takes a violent and widespread form. Then 
again if their natural enemies are reduced in numbers by disease or 
any other cause, there will be an unusual supply of food fishes, but 
in the long run Nature will take care of these affairs if left to her- 
self; but this long-headed fellow who 1 invents purse seines and builds 
weirs, and saw mills, and quartz mills, comes along and thrusts his 
greedy hands into this nice problem and brings destruction to eggs, 
and young, and adults, and then drops his lip and grumbles if the 
catch is not up to his expectations. It is surprising that such an 
intelligent inventor should be so short-sighted about many affairs 
that are of the most vital interest to himself. A most aggravating 
feature in these matters is the fact that the innocent suffer with the 
guilty. Nature has gotten into- operation in many animals an 
instinct by which they are moved to lay up something against the 


winter, but man is the most improvident of animals he scarcely 
needed to be seriously reminded that he was not to take thought 
for the morrow, for as a rule he is quite content to live a day at a 
time. If he can get his quota of fish this year, though it is gotten 
by the most destructive means, there will always be found some way 
to justify his conduct in his own eyes. As another instance of this 
reckless greed I quote the following from Professor Prince: 

"The disappearance of that small smelt-like salmonoid, the 
caplin, from considerable stretches of the coast of Canada may be 
attributed to destructive methods of capture. The cod regularly 
came close inshore along the Labrador and northern coasts of the 
maritime provinces, in order to feed on their favorite food, the 
caplin. When the caplin no longer appeared the schools of cod 
disappeared, too. Now along the shores in question, especially 
along the estuary of the River St. Lawrence, traps or weirs built 
of brush or fine wickerwork were placed at every available point. 
These became filled to excess with hosts of caplin which crowded 
in with the flowing tide, and were left high and dry when the tide 
receded. These valuable little fish were used for manure to some 
extent, but visits to these weirs or Peches showed that for one ton 
of dead fish thus utilized twenty tons were left to rot and waste 
away. Masses of decayed caplin several yards deep were thus piled 
up, day by day, involving not only the grossest and most criminal 
waste of fish, but the production of widespread pollution in the 
neighborhood and the cutting off of the supplies of natural food 
which brought the valuable cod almost up to low water mark. 
So eager were the schools of cod in their quest of caplin that large 
fish were continually running on shore and were left stranded when 
the caplin were moving along. It may be added that the caplin 
came close inshore for the purpose of spawning, as an examina- 
tion of caplin from the Labrador coast showed. A great run of 
cod, usually called the "caplin school," as a rule touched the Labra- 
dor coast about the middle of June, near Natashquan, and moved 
east to disappear from the shore a month later. In 1898 no sign 
of this school was apparent, and the total absence of the caplin may 
be regarded as a sufficient explanation. 

"The gaspereaux (also known as alewives or kiaks) attracted the 
cod inshore in western Nova Scotia in a way similar to> that of the 
caplin schools referred to, and the disappearance to a considerable 


extent of the cod from the littoral waters south of the Gut of CansO 
is no doubt largely due to the destruction of the gaspereaux, a de- 
struction due to causes described on another page." 

The Dominion Government is dealing with this great industry 
in a commendable manner that looks to its protection and perpetu- 
ation. For the regulation of the business Nova Scotia is divided 
into three districts, namely: No. i, co'mprising the four counties of 
Cape Breton; No. 2, including the Counties of Cumberland, Col- 
chester, Pictou, Antigonishe, Guysboro, Halifax and Hants; No. 3, 
covering Kings, Annapolis, Digby, Yarmouth, Shelburne, Queens 
and Lunenburg. 

Inspector A. C. Bertram, North Sydney, controls the first 
named of these divisions; Inspector Robert Hokins, Pictou, the 
second; and Inspector L. S. Ford, Milton, Queens, the third. Each 
of these head officials is assisted by overseers, but the number 
assigned to them respectively does not appear to depend upon 
extent of territory, or volume of business, since Mr. Ford has in 
his jurisdiction only about fourteen of the sixty-two overseers in 
the Province. These again are reinforced by an army of special 
guardians 167 strong- located for the most part in the eastern 
and middle divisions. The table which follows is for the year 1901, 
the latest official returns to hand. We have put the counties of 
each inspectoral district in a separate group, with their earnings; also 
the totals for the divisions, and the grand totals for all. In this 
manner the reader can see at a glance the comparative value of the 
fisheries in the different parts of the Province: 

DISTRICT NO. i. Counties. Amount. 

Counties. Amount. Hants 5>9 8 7 

Cape Breton $260,106 Pictou 118,914 

Inverness 225,081 DISTRICT NO. 3. 

A R ,! d ; m . 0nd 4 5 6 '444 Annapolis 

Victoria... 130,455 Digby P 

Kings 29,231 

Antigonish 74,648 Lunenburg 1,563,071 

Colchester ......... 44^35 Queens 208,105 

Cumberland 128,799 Shelburne 804,689 

Guysboro 711,117 Yarmouth 470,802 

Halifax 1,028,423 

Total $7,809,152 



The following lines from the gifted pen of Moses H. Nickerson 
could be written only by one who has hauled a line, and knows at 
first hand the ways of fisher folk': 

It haunts them yet that autumn day 

Of moaning seas and leaden skies; 
That schooner beating up the bay 

And watched by scores of eager eyes. 
The last arrival from the Banks 

For which she sailed three months before: 
An absence filled with fears, but thanks 

To pitying Heaven, she comes once more! 

With thoughts that common toils inspire, 

Troops down thei mingled village train; 
The glow of many a cottage fire 

Lights up the cold and cruel main. 
As fast as flies the snowy gull, 

Still onward stands the gallant craft, 
With all her towering spread of full 

And flowing canvas sheeted aft. 

The curving waves are sharply cleft 

And stream astern in swirling foam; 
She rode them lighter when she left 

The port than in returning home. 
She brings a fare, but does she bring 

Her hardy crew in safety back? 
Twas answered when they saw her swing 

Quick-rounding on the starboard tack. 

What evil news did ever lag? 

It wanted none to give it tongue 
It trembled in the drooping flag 

That half-way down the topmast clung. 
The burly north wind, keen and strong, 

That with the angry surges shid 
Had kept the dreaded signal long 

Behind the white gaff-topsail hid. 

Each anxious moment seemed an hour, 

But when the vessel reached the pier 
The pallid captain had no power, 

Or need to say, "He is not here." 
And she who stood among the rest, 

With tearless eye and bloodless cheek, 
And lips in agony compressed 

What voice could like that silence speak? 




Shelburne County is bounded by Queens, Yarmouth and the At- 
lantic Ocean. It has an area of 948 square miles, and a population of 
14,000. This county has two points of especial historic interest, viz., 
Port Latour and Shelburne Town. The first locality is connected with 
stirring events of French occupancy ; the latter has a unique and trag- 
ical record of English settlement. Among the very early French ad- 
venturers who came to this Province and settled at Port Royal, or An- 
napolis, were Claude Turgis De St. Etinne Sieur de la Tour, and his son 
Charles, a boy of fourteen years. They were here in 1606, and seven 
years later Annapolis was destroyed by Captain Argall of Jamestown. 
The young man took refuge with the Indians in company with several 
of his countrymen, among them young Biencourt, son of Jean de Bien- 
court, Baron de Pbutrincourt, who held a grant of Annapolis. This 
young man died in 1624 and bequeathed all his rights inherited from 
his late father to Charles. At this date we find young La Tour at 
Cape Sable, or Port La Tour, as we call it, and his father Claude with 
him. The French interests in Acadia were seriously imperiled not 
long after, in 1627, and Charles wrote to Louis XIII. and requested 
to be appointed commandant in all the coasts of Acadia. His father 
undertook to deliver this letter, but before he reached France, Kirk 
had taken Port Royal and threatened Quebec, and returning to Eng- 
land, by chance fell in with the vessel on which the elder La Tour had 
taken passage for the return trip to Acadia. Everything was fish that 
got into Sir David Kirk's nets. La Tour was made a prisoner and 
carried to England. He was a Protestant and a nobleman, and soon 
met influential friends of his own religious faith, who presented him 
at court. He married one of the maids of honor, and both he and 
his son were made baronets of Nova Scotia. He renounced all alle- 
giance to the French King, and for substantial considerations 
received from Sir William Alexander he agreed to serve the English 
interests and win over his son to the new arrangement. He was 
provided with two warships and, taking his wife, sailed for Cape 
Sable. He was doomed to bitter disappointment by the unex- 
pected manliness of his son. who refused all his fine offers, and 
declared he would stand for his country and King to the last breath. 



This was an awkward dilemma for the* father. Pie dared not return 
to England, and he could not remain there without his son's per- 
mission unless he could drive him out of the fort. Thus he was 
reduced to the necessity of making war on him or accept his terms 
of remaining near him, but outside of the fort. He chose the atti*- 
tude of war, and the ships opened fire and were met with such 
resistance that several men were killed on the part of the English, 
and they withdrew from the encounter. The elder La. Tour was 
glad to accept an offer to remain, and his wife most dutifully shared 
his lot in adversity. Charles La Tour had married before going to 
Cape Sable. He had chosen Frances Marie Jacquelins, who twenty 
years later defended her husband's fort on the St. Johns River 
during his absence with such valor as to win a place for her among 
the heroines of history. 

A few French settlers were located at, or near, the present town 
of Barrington, but in the general expulsion of the Acadians in 1755 
the whole region was left to the Indians and quite a number of 
young Acadians who had escaped the general "round-up" cast in 
their lot with the red men. Not without cause they became a 
desperate element over all the Province. 

The French had early made a. settlement near the entrance of 
Shelburne harbor, but between the pirates and hostile New Eng- 
landers life became too wretched for endurance, and all was de- 
serted. Years afterward, in 1765, Col. Alexander McNutt, who was 
a very active agent in procuring settlers, secured a grant of a. large 
tract of land at Port Raizor, as Shelburne harbor was then called. 
He named the place New Jerusalem and induced some Scotch-Irish 
families to come there and make it a place worthy so fine a name. 

Haliburton says that McNutt having wholly failed to comply 
with the conditions of his grant, it was escheated to the Crown. 
Doctor Smith, in his account of the Loyalists at Shelburne, says the 
grant was escheated "just before the arrival of the Loyalists." 
Murdoch, in his history, says this New Jerusalem was "the site of 
Shelburne." The impression conveyed by all other writers is to 
the effect that the locality was deserted when the Loyalists came to 
Shelburne. There is apparently some new light thrown on this 
point by the publication last year of the "Annals of Yarmouth and 
Barrington, by Edmund Duval Poole." The book is made up of 
papers copied from the Massachusetts Archives. Among them is 
the following document: 


"State of Massachusetts Bay, In The House of Representatives 
June 22 1780 On the memorial of Alexander Me Nutt Praying 
Leave to 1 carry Certain Articles to Port Roseway in Nova Scotia, 

"Resolved that Alexander McNutt be & he is hereby permitted 
to export from the State to Port Roseway in Nova Scotia for the 
benefit of fourteen families residing there, Sixty Bushels of Grain, 
One hogshead of Molasses, i barrel of Rum one loaf of Sugar and 
several small articles of crockery ware such as Milk pans Porringers 
and Butter pots for said families. 

Sent up for Concurrence. 

John Hancock Spkr. 
In Council June 22 1780 

READ and Concurred John Avery D, Secty." 

It is reasonable to suppose that there were at least one hun- 
dred people in. these fifteen families. It is not probable that they 
all disappeared in less than three years, and if they had not, then 
the Loyalists had something of this New Jerusalem to begin with, 
and all was not a howling wilderness. 

In 1783, at the close of the long struggle for independence by the 
American colonists, there were a great many people who had 
favored the English in the desperate encounter, and when all was 
over they were considered very undersirable persons to* have in 
the new nation that had "come forth out of great tribulation" and 
"escaped by the skin of the teeth." New York City had during 
these years of war been in the possession of the British, and thou- 
sands of their sympathizers had flocked there for protection till 
the end Would come. Qn the surrender of Cornwallis their hopes 
were crushed. After two years of distressing delay, caused by the 
slow movement of those who were negotiating treaties, it became 
evident that their old homes would shelter them no longer. They 
had become exceedingly obnoxious to the new nation that was 
preparing to treat them with needless harshness, as we see matters 

At this crisis was born the movement that ended in the build- 
ing of the town of Shelburne. One hundred heads of families in 
New York bound themselves by an agreement to- settle in Nova 
Scotia. This was in the autumn of 1782. Joseph Pynchon and 
James Dole were selected to act as agents for this association, and 
they were sent to< Halifax to confer with Governor Parr and secure 
the best terms possible. They were instructed to secure lands at 


or near Port Roseway. The agents were met more than half way 
by the Governor, who> promised substantial assistance o<n a generous 
scale. They returned home with visions of a city that would soon, 
as they believed, become the capital of the Province. At this time 
the leaders in this movement had been directed and advised to 
settle on the shores of the Bay of Fundy. They distrusted the 
motives of their true friends and went forward with their rosy 
project that in the nature of things must end in disaster. When 
spring opened in 1783 no less than 470 heads of families in New 
York were included in the association and preparing for a move- 
ment. There was a. general break-up and separation among the 
Loyalists there, who* numbered about thirty thousand. They were 
scattering in all directions over the British colonies. No less than 
eighteen brigs and many schooners were loaded with those destined 
for Port Roseway. They entered the harbor on the 4th of May, 
five thousand in all. They were soon actively at work on the town- 
site, under the directions o<f professional engineers. The location 
was of the finest, the harbor was unsurpassed on the Atlantic coast 
of America. There were salmon, and trout, and alewives, in the 
river, and cod, herring, mackerel, lobsters and other good things to 
eat in the sea. The flag of England was over them, the ground 
was theirs by royal grant, and altogether this seemed more like the 
founding of a, New Jerusalem than the dream of McNutt. On the 
sightly town lots handsome residences were built by men of means. 
Marble mantels and fine furniture adorned them. 

These people were all respectable, and some of superior social 
rank. No family had been admitted unless some member could 
vouch for its good reputation. After four months this satisfactory 
state of affairs was rudely disturbed by the unexpected arrival of 
five thousand Loyalists froim New York, who had tarried there till 
the eve of embarkment of the British troops, when they made haste 
to get away lest a worse thing befall them from the hands of their 
angry countrymen. Among these were not a few undesirable 
characters mere camp-followers in search of free rations. How- 
ever, witty Government aid, much exertion and hardships, the peo- 
ple got through the fall and winter, but not without an ominous 
graveyard. Rations were issued during this time to about nine 
thousand people by the British Government. Great dissensions 
arose over the allotment of lands; the imposition of heavy duties 






by the Provincial Government was another sharp grievance. Open 
riot was the result. 

Within a brief period three newspapers were successively printed 
in the town, and the last issue of the last of the lot was in 1787. 
Some of the numbers are yet in existence. The names were as 
follows: 'The Royal American Gazette," published by James 
Robertson. The second was the 'Tort Roseway Gazeteer and 
Shelburne Advertiser," published by J. Robertson, Jr., and T. & J. 
Swords. The third was the "Nova Scotia Packet and General 
Advertiser," published by James Humphrys. 

Shelburne was built on a boom and it soon gave way.~^ Natural 
laws in the business world are as unavoidable as they are in all 
other directions. It is one thing to build a town by means of 
capital derived from outside sources, but it is quite another matter 
to obtain a livelihood after the houses are built, unless there are 
opportunities for remunerative labor. Shelburne was wrecked by 
natural laws. Here I cannot follow her rapid decline, but it cor- 
responded with her artificial rise. There were good houses for 
sale within two years after the beginning, and after four years Gov- 
ernment" rations ceased, and then there was a stampede of people 
who could not live without them. After seven years nearly all the 
families of means had deserted their fine houses. Sell them they 
could not at any price. After thirteen years there were on the 
rate rolls but 125 .names out of 710 that were there, ten years 
before. In a quarter of a century, that is in 1808, it was a town of 
deserted, dilapidated houses, and ten years later there were living 
there but 300 people. This was about the lowest tide. A few of the 
oldest families remained, notably that of Mr. Gideon White of the 
Mayflower Pilgrim stock, whose sons, Thomas and Cornelius, were 
long its respected representatives. Haliburton, writing in 1828, 
says: "Shelburne is at present in a most dilapidated state. It is 
said within these few years past it seems to be emerging from the 
obscurity into which it had fallen." The emergence was very slow, 
but in thirty years after that paragraph was written the place was 
quite a prosperous shipbuilding center. Old buildings had largely 
disappeared and there was an air of prosperity in the locality. In 
1864 a commodious academy was erected and the writer of these 
lines may be pardoned if he here recalls the incident that he was 
the first teacher to open the school in this new building with the 
encouraging presence of Rev. Dr. White, Rev. G. M. Clarke, Rev. 


T. Watson Smith, who has since published an admirable account 
of the founding of Shelburne, to which I am indebted, and all of 
them have gone to the "land of no return." To this very moment 
the town bears the marks of deliberate construction. There are 
none of the ordinary irregularities indicating that streets were 
evolved from cow-paths and from short-cuts across lots to neighbor's 
houses and stores. That imaginary old lady Mrs. Partington, who 
had a genius for saying the wrong thing on purpose, remarked that 
she "had often been impressed by the goodness of Providence 
arranging that large rivers should run through great cities." There 
must be natural advantages if there is to be a great city properly 
founded. There are dead cities built by ancient kings who had 
enriched their treasuries with the plunder of nations. But the great 
capitals like Rome, Alexandria, London, Paris, New York, will last 
while the w^orld endures. 

At present Shelburne has about one thousand inhabitants. 
Shipbuilding, fishing and trade with the outlying country are the 
principal industries. A railroad is expected soon, and if that 
expectation is realized there will be a large increase of business. 
The safe and beautiful harbor, the fine location of the town, and 
opportunities for fishing trips, pleasant drives, and many other 
diversions combine to make the locality an ideal resting-place for 
people who wish to escape from heat and city turmoil. 

Of the Township of Barringtoii, Haliburton. has this to say in 
his History, written in 1828: "Barrington lies between the Town- 
ship of Shelburne and Argyle and includes Cape Sable Island. It 
was granted in 1767 to one hundred and two persons and contains 
fifty two thousand acres, one-third part of which is covered with 
barrens and bog. The remaining portion is clothed with spruce 
and fir, intermingled with maple and birch and occasionally with 
red and grey oak. Barrington, like Yarmouth, was originally in- 
habited by French, although there were but few families in this 
township. In the year 1761, 2 and 3, it was settled by about eighty 
families from Nantucket and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The former 
were induced to settle to carry on the whale fishery, but being dis- 
appointed in their object, some returned at the commencement of 
the Revolution, and others removed into the District of Maine; so 
that in a short time Barrington was abandoned by nearly one-half 
of its inhabitants. The latter were attracted by the cod fishery, 
and finding it equal to their expectations, continued to remain there. 


The population of the township now amounts to 2,186 souls. 
Formerly almost every male was employed in the fishery, and the 
catch for many years amounted to over twenty-two thousand quin- 
tals, but latterly many of them have quitted this branch of business 
and engaged in other pursuits. There are now owned in Barring- 
ton sixty-nine vessels, whose united tonnage amounts to 2,780, 
exclusive of four square-rigged vessels on the stocks. Two brigs 
and four schooners are employed in the West India trade, fifteen as 
coasters, eight in the Labrador, and forty-one in the shore fishery. 
The latter business employs besides these vessels sixty-two boats. 
The village of Barrington consists of an inconsiderable cluster of 
houses, the inhabitants of the township being dispersed throughout 
the whole coast for the convenience of carrying on the fishery. 
Barrington River, which falls into the harbor, takes its rise in a lake 
about nine miles distant, called Sabim." 

Since the above was written Barrington has become a thriving 
place of about one thousand inhabitants, very neat and pretty of 
aspect, where the people are engaged principally in fishing and the 
coasting trade. The recent arrival there of the locomotive from 
Yarmouth will doubtless do much to increase the population and 
prosperity of the locality. It is a very desirable place for a vacation 
among excellent people and picturesque surroundings of land, and 
sea, and river, and lakes. 

In the old burying ground rests in an unmarked grave the 
remains of Mrs. Israel Doane, who was the maternal grandmother 
of John Howard Payne, the author of "Home, Sweet Home," and 
she, too, was the great-great-grandmother of our own poet and 
scholar, Moses H. Nickerson. This woman was a daughter of the 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Osborne, of Glasgow, k Congregationalist minister. 

Burchtown is a settlement of colored people between Shelburne 
and Barrington. These people for the most part originate^ from 
the slaves who escaped into the English lines in New York during 
the war of the American Revolution. At its close they were sent 
to this unpromising spot, where it must often have been difficult to 
keep soul and body together. Many of the first arrivals were sent 
by the British Government to Sierra Leone in Africa, where they very 
largely went to the bad. With the Loyalists of Shelburne came 
several hundred black servants, who were in reality slaves. Some 
of them and their descendants have lived in and about the town 
even since. By hook and by crook they managed to get along 


when white people, with pride and dignity to maintain, were obliged 
to go away to either hide their poverty or mend it as best they 
could. There is, as we may see, some advantage of being at the 
lower end of the scale, where, as Burns says, "we can no* further 
fa." Many of these negroes have been honest and useful persons. 

Haliburton says: "Port La Tour is separated from Cape Negro 
by a peninsula and is only capable of sheltering small craft. The 
tide leaves a great part of the head of it dry. The lands in the 
neighborhood are barren, but a small portion of the marsh enables 
the settlers to keep a few head of cattle. The remains of the fort 
erected at this place previous to the Treaty of St. Germain in 1632 
are still visible." 

The locality since that was written has not changed in natural 
features, but there is a thriving village, a good school, and churches 
and other evidences of prosperity. It will always be a spot of his- 
toric' interest, and if it were not somewhat outside of the beaten 
track of travel there would be more visitors to view the scenes so 
intimately connected with stirring and romantic incidents of our 
early history. 

Port Clyde, between Barrington and Burchtown, is a small set- 
tlement of thrifty families in the midst of interesting and pleasing 
surroundings. It is at the mouth of a beautiful river that extends 
about forty miles into the interior, and connects with many lakes. 
On it there are settlers with good homes, and the region is famed 
for its excellent fishing and hunting opportunities. 

In front of the township, and southwest of Barrington harbor, 
is Cape Sable Island. It is seven miles long, and from two to three 
miles wide, and separated from the mainland by less than a mile. 
About 1786 a few settlers from Barrington made a beginning in 
the wilderness of stunted firs. The French had been there long 
before, but beyond one or two cleared spots they had left no trace 
of their occupancy. Shortly after the Barrington pioneers had 
gotten a precarious footing they were joined by a few straggling 
Loyalists, probably from Shelburne, but they did not remain long, 
and w.ent in search of a mo-re pleasing and promising locality. No 
wonder they were discouraged at the prospect where the savage 
sea alone promised an existence to those who would dare its dan- 
gerous moods. The original settlers who remained were made of 
sturdy stuff, and fought the battle of life at a great disadvantage. 
They were not only obliged to contend with natural obstacles, but 


were unjustly dealt with by human regulations that originated in 
the old Court of Sessions. During almost a century there was but 
a slow progress. A new dispensation of prosperity began about 
twenty years ago and dates from the beginning of the lobster indus- 
try, and has kept pace with the development of that business, which 
by putting in circulation a large amount of money has brought about 
many salutary .changes both in the way of trade and in the manner 
of living. The nearness to the United States' market and the fine 
transportation facilities for the catch are great advantages. As a 
rule the fishermen transport live lobsters on their own account, get 
prompt returns, and have nothing to do with the middle men. 

Cape Island has now a population of 2,570, of which 1,534 are 
in the Clarke's ftarbor District. The island is divided into six 
school sections. The school of Clarke's Harbor has four depart- 
ments, and is overcrowded at that; of the others one is a graded 
school, with two departments. There are nine regular postoffices. 
Clarke's Harbor is a common landing port, and the bulk of the 
business is transacted there by about ten general stores. There are 
excellent hotel accommodations, coasting steamers call several 
times a week, and a steam ferry is is operation between the island 
and the mainland. The locality is noted for. its extensive and beau- 
tiful beaches, affording the finest of wheeling for teams and cycles 
almost within touch of the sounding 1 sea. In the proper seasons 
sportsmen find the best of shooting among the shore birds. 

Eastward from the Town of Shelburne, about twenty-five miles 
by wagon, is Ragged Island Harbor, at the head of which is a vil- 
lage of about four hundred inhabitants, engaged in fishing* and 
farming. On the west side of the harbor is Lockport, a place of 
considerable activity in the fishing business. In recent years there 
has been a decline from the hustling" days when the little town was 
distinguished for its energy and prosperity. It is still the residence 
of about eight hundred people, who do a considerable business on 
the old lines, exporting about seventy thousand quintals of fish a 
year, and carry on a general trade with the outlying villages. I 
have no> exact dates for the first settlement of this locality, but it 
was about 1763. At any rate there were some permanent resi- 
dents there in 1779 during- the war of the Revolution, and they 
were in sympathy with the uprising, although they were supposed 
to be patriotic subjects of the King. They felt the more aggrieved 
therefore when a crew of American privateers from their native 



land came ashore and looted their premises in spite of all protesta- 
tions of sympathy for their cause, and declarations of actual services 
to escaping" prisoners of war. Thinking that there must be some 
remedy for such an outrage, they laid their case before Col. Alex- 
ander McNutt, who* was then in Boston, and he brought the matter 
to the notice of the Honorable Council of the State o>f Massachu- 
setts Bay. Here is their letter, lately copied from the Massachu- 
setts archives: 

Raged Islands Sept W 25 1779. 

These lines comes with my respect to you & to- acquaint you of 
the Robery done to this Harbour, there was a guard of men placed 
upon every house and the houses stript, very surprising- to us, they 
came here early in the Morning on the 2Oth day of August last and 
said they were from Penobscot and were tories bound for hali- 
fax, they come to my house first and wanted some refreshments 
accordingly we let them have what they wanted; and they then went 
away and stayed on an island till the tide run so> that they could 
Come at my Boat, then they come and took by Boat and put a 
guard upon my house and went a Robing" they took about 19 
quintals of Codfish and Four Barrels of Salt, three Salmon Netts 
60 Ibs of Butter, one Green Hyde, five dressed Skins and some 
Cheese and a Great many other Things. The Boat Cost me fifty 
pounds Halifax Currency, then they went to Mr Matthews and 
there Robed him, then went to Mr Haydens, and Robed him, then 
went Mr Locks and Robed him. these thing's are very surprising 
that we in this Harbour that have done so much for America, that 
have helped three or four hundred prisoners up along to America 
and Given part of our living to them, and have Concealed Privateers 
& prizes too from the British Cruisers in this Harbour. All this 
done for America and if this be the way we are to> be paid I desire 
to see no more of you without you Come in Another Manner, but 
I hope the America gentlemen that Grants out Commissions or are 
Bondsmen would take these Notorious Rascalls in hand for this 
Robery. Sir be so kind as to Inform some of the Council of the 
affair, that we might have some restrictions, otherwise we shall not 
be able to help the American prisoners any more Sir, if you find 
out who these be, and whether we are like to have anything, be 
pleased to write. 


William Porterfield 
John Matthews 
Thomas Hayden 
Jonathan Lock 


Colonel McNutt ascertained the names of these "Robers" who 
came in three whale boats from Coakset River, near New Bedford. 
It is very doubtful if they were punished for making this raid in the 
enemy's country, but it is quite probable that the victims received 
some substantial redress for their grievance as that had been done in 
other instances since the war began. McNutt resided near them on 
an island at the entrance of the harbor that still bears his name, and 
as he had been "held up" the year previous he knew how it was 
himself. These American privateers whom he called "armed ruf- 
fians" had robbed him of "superfine Scarlet, and Blew cloth, books, 
Silver Spoons, Silver Buckles, Gold Lace, Diamond Rings, and 
other articles of much value," as he stated. This he had suffered 
in spite of the fact that he had been an active friend of the rebellious 
Yankees, that is, as active as he dared be, considering that he had 
been the recipient of several royal grants of land of no mean value 
and on very favorable terms. He had caused the authorities in 
Halifax to distrust his loyalty, and in Massachusetts had been 
arrested as a possible spy. Defending himself in a memorial to the 
Council of Massachusetts Bay, he says: "How I can be Justly Con- 
sidered in a Double Capacity and treated as both Whig and tory 
seems a Paradox to me. I have always spoken my sentiments 
Clearly, and would have readily added Actions to words had I had 
a call in providence so to do, being well convinced that the cause 
of God will admit of no neutrality, and I Challenge even enmity 
itself to produce one single Instance in which I have deviated from 
the Resolves of Congress Since 1774." 

All of which goes to show that the Colonel was having an eye 
to the main chance of advancing his own interests and keeping his 
skin whole. 

Another brief word about Lockport: The town is built on an 
island and connected with the mainland on the east by a fine 
crescent-shaped beach about three-fourths of a mile long, and at the 
nearest point by an iron bridge. The main beach, which lies just 
below the town, is admirably 'adapted for bathing purposes. In the 
immediate vicinity there are a number of pretty country places 
where many visitors would find delightful retreats for summer rest. 
These are Brighton, Osborne, Allendale, and Bay Head, all within 
five miles of Lockport. A little to the eastward of Ragged Island 
Harbor is Jordan Bay, where there is a scattered settlement of 
farmer-fishermen living in reasonable comfort as a. result of industry 


and sobriety. The Jordan River enters the head of this bay and 
up the stream a few miles is the village of Jordan Falls, where for 
many years there has been conducted a flourishing lumber busi- 
ness and considerable shipbuilding. Extensive forests on this river 
and its tributaries will long continue to supply a great amount of 
material for manufacturing purposes. The mills are operated by 
means of a fine water-power that has been largely the making of 
the village. To the eastward of Jordan Bay is Sable River, where 
there is a settlement of farmers, fishers, shipbuilders, and lumber- 
men, the same men often doing good service in all these industries. 
The post road from Liverpool and all points eastward runs through 
the head of this settlement, as it also does that of Jordan Falls. 

About one-quarter of the area of this county is granite. It 
includes the upper portion of Shelburne Harbor around to Church- 
over and across to Burchtown, and up the river about ten miles in a 
narrow strip. It occurs in Barrington, following the shore and 
reaching up in a wedge shape on the county line half way to its 
junction with other lines. An area of some seventy square miles is 
found at the extreme inland point of the county. Between Jordan 
Falls and Sable River is a small outcrop of granite, and another 
between Sable and Port Herbert. All the other rock may be con- 
sidered as more or less altered portions of the Cambrian slates and 
quartzites of the Atlantic coast, and water shed. The quartzites 
greatly predominate. Profound metamorphosis or alterations have 
taken place with these ancient sediments that were deposited in the 
ocean many million years ago. At Jordan Falls the rock abounds 
with staurotide crystals that are an assemblage of silica, aluminum, 
iron and magnesium. Gneisses, that are stratified granite, occur at 
various localities, as Green Harbor and lower Jordan Bay. No gold 
mines have been discovered in Shelburne County, and very likely for 
the reason that there are none. 



Queens County has an area of 1,065 square miles and a popu- 
lation of about 11,000. It is reckoned among" the western counties 
of the Province. It is bounded by Shelburne, Annapolis, and Lunen- 
burg, and the ocean. The coast is very rugged and rocky. There 
are three harbors, viz., Liverpool, Port Medway, and Port Mouton. 
Intoi each a considerable river is discharged. These streams take 
their rise in the unsettled back country, where lakes are very nu- 
merous, the largest in the Province, Rossignol, being among them. 
From the coast to the northern boundary the distance in a straight 
line is about thirty miles, and a gradual elevation reaches at that 
point some 500' feet. The southern portion of the county, embrac- 
ing about one-half its area, is rather flat, and where fires have not 
run is covered with "softwoods," or cone-bearing trees. The extreme 
northern/ part of the county is diversified with "hardwood" hills, 
meadows, bogs, barrens, brooks, and lakes. How long the red men 
had made their homes in these solitudes before they were disturbed 
by the coming of Europeans, we shall never know, but it was long 
enough to give names to lakes and streams and harbors. In 1604, 
Rossignol, a Frenchman, had his vessel in Liverpool harbor, and 
conducted a trade with the natives for their furs. His name is borne 
by the large lake on the Liverpool River. Thirty years later there 
was a fishery established on Liverpool harbor by a French concern. 
No settlement was. made of any importance by Frenchmen, although 
for a long time they were acquainted with the locality. The history 
of the county, so far as its occupation by white men is concerned, 
begins in 1759, when Liverpool was founded by New England pio>- 
neers of the Pilgrim stock. They came principally from Plymouth, 
Kingston, Eastham, and Chatham, and adjacent townships. They 
were a rugged people, who* had been accustomed to contend with a 
stingy soil and a tempestuous sea for the means of a livelihood. There 
was no better material in the world to undertake such an* enterprise 
as they enteretf upon at Liverpool. 

At that date Nova Scotia was a particularly lonesome place; 
five years before the Acadian French 9 had been expelled, and the 
ruins of their homes formed a line of desolation from end to end of 



the Annapolis Valley, and extended far eastward and westward. 
Halifax had been founded ten years. Annapolis was a small military 
post, and Windsor another. At Lunenburg the wretched Germans 
had been a half dozen years contending with great difficulties; and 
more than these, there were hostile Indians, and refugee Acadians 
who lived with the savages, and all eager to pay off the old score 
of revenge. 

Work must have gone forward rapidly, for in August oif 1760, 
only one year, Governor Belcher visited Liverpool, and reported of 
that place : "They are now employed in building three vessels for the 
fishery, and have laid in hay for the winter fodder of their cattle, 
and have raised a considerable quantity of roots, and erected a grist 
and saw mill. They have sixteen sail of fishing schooners, and al- 
though several of them came late in the season, they have caught near 
400 quintals of fish, the principal owners of which have gone back 
to the Continent to dispose of it, and will return, in the spring for a 
further supply of stock for their lands. From these circumstances 
I flatter myself your Lordships will entertain a favorable opinion 
of this settlement." The population is not given, but in the township 
grant that was issued four years later, there appear the names of 142 
proprietors, and the number of inhabitants was 500. In 1762 the 
book of records was begun in these words : "Liverpool, February 
2Oth, 1762. These births, deaths, marriages, to be mentioned or to 
be registered by me, Elisha Freeman, Proprietors' Clerk." 

It is a matter of deep regret that this book was not kept in a more 
orderly manner, as to dates. People dropped in and told of their 
marriage, or of a birth in their family, or a death, and the item was 
recorded when convenient. However, that was better than no record 
at all. In the course of five months from, the beginning, Mr. Free- 
man, the clerk, registered his own marriage to- Mary Waterman, 
widow of Elkanah Waterman, and daughter of Silas West. The men 
who. settled in Liverpool could have had for the asking rich, cultivated 
lands of Grand P're and Annapolis. One of their leaders, Capt. Syl- 
vanus Cobb, knew that country well. He had been master and owner 
of a vessel that had assisted in deporting the original proprietors. At 
any rate their choice of a new locality indicated that they were men 
of courage and natural resources. Some of them had visited this 
region on their fishing trips and their voyages to Lunenburg. Even 
the aspect of Nature was stern and forbidding, with rock-bound coast, 
boulder-strewn shores, overhung with somber forests of spruce and fir. 




Still there were fishes in the sea and river, game in the woods, and 
chances of one kind and another to wrest a livelihood from the local- 
ity. To men less sturdy and less 1 inured to hardships, there would 
have been no visions of prosperity in these uninviting features before 
them. Not without many hardships and fatalities was a footing 
gained. They could not live on fish. The land was covered with 
woods, that must be chopped, and burnt, and cleared before hay and 
grain could be raised. The soil was very poor and filled with stones. 
Flour was so dear that it was almost prohibited by the price. 

Haliburton is authority for the statement that one winter "they 
were compelled to subsist wholly upon wild rabbits." I fancy the 
menu was varied with fish, and dried blueberries, and portions of 
moosemeat, and a little bread for the weaker members of the com- 
munity. For the most part they built comfortable houses, and evi- 
dently had come to stay as long as the "wild rabbits" held out. Quite 
a. number of the faint-hearted returned when called upon to face the 
discomforts of the situation, but the great majority held their ground 
and mastered the obstacles. Twenty-seven years after the arrival 
of the pioneers, on May 7, 1787, Col. Simeon Perkins wrote in his 
journal : "I finish my return of the inhabitants and militia. There 
are 283 men, 234 women, and 449 children in Liverpool, making a 
total of 966 white inhabitants; and 19 men, 10 women, and 19 chil- 
dren, making a total of 48 black inhabitants. In the county there are 
449 white men, 320 women, and 615 children, making a total of 1,384. 
There are 20 black men, 1 1 women, and 19 children, making a total 
of 50 in the county. The militia of Liverpool, officers included, 249; 
militia in the county, officers included, 414." These "black people" 
were not slaves, although they might have been, so far as the law of 
the land was concerned, and several of their race were in actual bond- 
age at this date in Nova Scotia. There is preserved a lot of names 
of the proprietors of the Township of Liverpool, but all of them did 
not cast in their lot with the community. Here follows the list, and it 
is interesting to note how the English element overruns all the rest. 
There is a portion of the best of New England yeomanry, one hundred 
and fifty years after the landing of the "Mayflower," and many of 
them were lineal descendants of that illustrious band of Pilgrims who 
landed on Plymouth Rock, and defied the stern obstacles, and cruel 
elements that laid half their numbers in their graves in that first win- 
ter, while the courageous survivors proceeded to lay the foundation 
of a great commonwealth: 


Elisha Freeman, John Dagget, Nathan Tupper, Samuel Dogget, 
the heirs of Jas. Godfrey, the heirs of Jno. Young, the heirs of Joshua 
Harding, the heirs of Elkanah Waterman, Ebenezer Nickerson, Jos- 
eph Headley, Cornelius Knowles, Ebenezer Dogget, Benjamin Cole, 
Samuel Dolliver, Samuel Freeman, John Hopkins, Joseph Collins, 
Jabez Gorham, John Mathews, George Fancy, Peleg Dexter, Prince 

Snow, Nickerson, Thomas Brown, John Peach, Barbara CufTy, 

Theodosius Ford, Benjamin Parker, Thomas West, Robert Slocomb, 
Henry Young, Nathaniel Godfrey, William Murray, Jonathan Cro- 
well, Wm. K. Cahoon, Stephen Smith, Jacob Cobb, Peter Coffin, 
Samuel Hunt, Thomas Padderson, Elisha Nickerson, Elisha Ken- 
ney, Jeremiah Nickerson, the heirs of Samuel Cobb, the heirs of 
Elkanah Nickerson, Joseph Feebk, Edward Doten, Joseph Dryeter, 
Zephaniah Eldridge, Benjamin Holmes, John West, Paul Doten, 
John Wall, Acus Tripp, Howes Stewart, Jonathan Brerer, Elisha 
Freeman, Prince Knowles, Simeon Freeman, Barnabas Freeman, 
Robert Placeway, Luther Arnold, Joseph Bartlett, Edward Foster, 
Jonathan Locke, John Giffin, Robert Hebest, Isaac Tinkham, Samuel 
Battle, John Ryder, Israel Tupper, Gorham, Stephen Paine, 
Stephen Gullison, Richard Kempton, Samuel Hunt, Timothy Bur- 
bank, William Mitchell, Thomas Foster, Joseph Whitford, Abraham 
Copeland, Thomas Gardiner, Enoch Aleyter, Samuel Eldridge, George 
Briggs,; Thomas Gordon, Ebenezer Thomas, Jeremiah Nickerson, 
Thomas Brehant, Thomas Burnaby, Seth Drew, Hezekiah Freeman, 
Smith Freeman, John Foster, Jonathan Godfrey, Daniel Torry, Eben- 
ezer Dexter, Obadiah Albree, Robert Harlow, John Lewin, Jonathan 
Darling, Nathaniel Toby, Cyrenius Collins, George Winslow, William 
Gammon, John Waterman, Jesse Warner, Lemuel Drew, Joseph 
Burnaby, John Dolliver, Joseph Woods, Abner Eldridge, Simeon 
Perkins, William Foster, Alden Sears, Benjamin Godfrey, Thomas 
Osgood, Thomas Bee, Osgood Hilton, Samuel Crowell, Thomas 
Hayden, Nathan Hetly, Abner Doaty, Nathaniel Freeman, Nathan 
Tupper, Jr., Robert Millard, James Nickerson, Elisha Nickerson, Jr., 
William West, Wire Morton, John Peach, Nathaniel Knowles, Jos- 
eph Collins, Jr., Enoch Randall, Nathan Sears, Ebenezer Simmons, 
William Tripp. 

Many of these names do not appear in the county records. Quite 
a number of those who came went away from the dreary outlook. 
By a kind of natural selection the fittest remained, and fought it out 
with hard conditions and secured some of the humble comforts of life 




out of the struggle. Thus matters went on, with them till the War 
of the American Revolution broke out, after they had been a quarter 
of a century settled in their new homes. 

All of them had near relatives and friends in New England, 
and even there the people were by no- means of one opinion and Loyal- 
ists were everywhere. "It's an ill wind that blows no one any good," 
and the thrifty Yankee of Liverpool concluded to make hay while 
the sun shines. So in due time they had a fine fleet of privateers 
harrying the New England waters for the spoils of war, and the 
practice was returned, but these Nova Scotians got the better of the 
game, and several families, who were very plain people before, became 
persons of consequence on this money that had been taken from their 
own flesh and blood. "All was fair in love and war," was a maxim 
that quieted tender consciences, if there were any. The town shared 
in the prosperity in some measure, and the War of 1812 proved 
another blessing, for privateering was the order of the day. Since 
those times they have had their ups and downs, but the mark of a 
superior lot of men and women for pioneer work was impressed on 
the town early in the last century. Haliburton, writing in 1829, 
says : "Liverpool is the beSt-built town in Nova Scotia, The houses 
are substantially good and well painted, and there is an air of regu- 
larity and neatness in the place which distinguishes it from every 
other town in this Province." The locality is well 'chosen at the 
mouth of a goodly river, where Nature offered a townsite not read- 
ily excelled for business accommodations, home conveniences, and 
picturesque surroundings. Very early after their arrival these pio- 
neers explored the adjacent country and began other settlements at 
Brooklyn, on the eastern side of the harbor; at Milton, two miles 
above Liverpool, on the river; at Port Mouton, ten miles to the 
westward ; at Port Medway, eight or nine miles to the eastward ; at 
Mills Village, on the river that enters the Medway harbor. All -of 
these are now thriving communities. Milton was for a long time 
noted for the manufacture of lumber. Of late years the supply of 
timber has been limited, but two pulp mills are constantly in opera- 
tion, giving employment to many people and making a demand for 
a class of wood not hitherto utilized. This village is pleasantly 
located on the head of tidewater, and the inhabitants are prosperous. 
Mills Village is a pretty little town built up around saw mills, and 
has an air O'f thrift in its make-up that commends it to> the eye of a 
stranger. It is noted for salmon fishing, and the river for a dozen 


miles attracts the lover of the rod and fly, for trout and salmon. 
Port Medway has the best harbor in the county. With the decline 
of lumber manufacture on the river, business has somewhat fallen 
off. Within sixteen miles there are 1,400 horse power running to 
waste in the falls. Chances are that enterprising capital will trans- 
mit that energy electrically to some point near Port Medway where 
it can be used in the manufacture of pulp. A nice, quiet, pretty 
place is the "Port," where one can find rest and pleasant walks, 
drives, and sails, and sniff the caller air, and listen to the surf in 
the offing. 

Port Mouton has a history in the old French occupation, and 
later, in 1784, when an attempt w r as made toi settle a lot of disbanded 
soldiers at that point. A fire devoured the beginning of a town ; the 
inhabitants were scattered, many of themi going eastward near Caso 
to Guysborough, a name they had bestowed upon their Queens 
County township in honor of Sir Guy Carleton. Port Mouton is 
now a fishing and farming village, a picturesque locality. Brooklyn 
is older than Liverpool, if one reckons from French occupancy. It 
is a thriving and attractive locality, where the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in various pursuits. Some are captains, some are ship-builders, 
others are occupied in lumber and mercantile enterprises. 

Forty years after the founding of Liverpool a move was made to> 
occupy the northern, end of the county, distant from twenty to thirty 
miles through the forest. The pioneers of this movement were well- 
seasoned men, the pick of the southern district in pluck and energy. 
William Burke was the first settler. A succession of pretty villages 
extend over this region, that is known as the "Northern District." 

The Medway River and many beautiful lakes contribute very 
much to the interest and attractiveness of that locality. Fine farms, 
orchards, and mills, and good houses are everywhere in evidence of 
the fair prosperity of the inhabitants. The whole region is con- 
venient to excellent hunting grounds of moose and small game, and 
streams, for trout fishing. Caledonia, South Brookfield, North 
Brookfield, Westfield, Pleasant River, Molega, Harmony, and Kempt 
are the names of the villages. To these must be added Greenfield, 
at the foot of Ponhook Lake, distant from Mills Village about twelve 
miles. This is a delightful locality, and famous for its salmon fishing. 

There are several gold mines in the Northern/ District. Some of 
them have been in successful operation on a large scale for seven 


or eight years, and it is safe to say that this industry is but in 
its infancy. 

From a letter contributed to the Halifax Herald by C. U. McLeod, 
November, 1901, this extract is clipped: 

'This is essentially a farming, lumbering, and gold mining dis.- 
trict. The majority of the inhabitants are farmers, possessed of 
good lands and capable of working them in an intelligent manner. 
The 'upland' soil is well suited to raising hay, grains, root-crops, 
apples, grapes, plums, and quinces. Currants, gooseberries, straw- 
berries, blueberries, raspberries, and cranberries thrive with little 

"Of late years attention has been turned to apple culture with 
gratifying success. This fall three thousand barrels of marketable 
fruit has been gathered, experts pronouncing them as second to 
none produced in the Province,. Much of our lowland is available 
for cranberry raising, and doubtless this will some day become a 
profitable industry. In the manufacture* and export of lumber lies a 
goodly share of our future prosperity. To give exact figures is next 
to impossible, but an approximate estimate is conservative at four 
hundred thousand acres of green woods north of the 'Hervey line/ 
to this one can well add one hundred thousand acres of growing tim- 
ber on the farming lands. Hemlock, spruce, and pine predominate, 
much of it first class pulp wood. 

"Oak, beech and birch grow in abundance. This is the best 
material for shipbuilding, stave making, and the numerous articles 
manufactured from these hard woods. The northern district alone 
has an area of one hundred and twenty-five square miles of fresh 
water, vastly more than any other portion of the Province. It is 
a network of lakes, rivers and streams. Here are innumerable 
facilities for driving timber, and the requisite water powers for con- 
verting it into finished product ready for the market." 

Along the shores are settlements of farming fishermen, where 
the tourist will find pleasure in the people and their surroundings. 
Such are Black Point, White Point, Hunt's Point, Summerville 
all westward of Liverpool while to the eastward are Beach 
Meadows, Eagle Head, West Berlin and Ragged Harbor. 

After this general survey we return to Liverpool, the shire 
town, as the natural center of attraction to outside parties. The 
town is lighted by electricity and supplied with water by a good 
system of works. There is a marine slip, operated by electric power 


derived from a waterfall in Milton. There are several ship yards, and 
wharves, and a lighthouse, and another on Coffins Island at the 
entrance of the harbor. The shipping registered in the port is : 

No. Tons. 

Barquentines 2 595 

Brigantines 3 688 

Schooners 68 4,282 

Steamers 4 160 

77 5>725 

A line of railway about three miles in length, built by the people 
of the town for the most part, is in operation from Liverpool to the 
tipper pulp mill above Milton. There are good schools of different 
grades and church accommodations for everybody. Episcopalians, 
Congregatiorialists, Methodists, Baptists, Roman Catholic and Sal- 
vation Army, all are represented. Hotel accommodations have 
thus far proved ample. Steamers call at this port that ply between 
Halifax and Yarmouth and intermediate ports. Mail coaches are 
run daily eastward and westward and northward, and railroad con- 
nection will soon be accomplished. Two banks, a board of trade, 
an iron foundry, and a fine machine shop are evidences of life in this 
town that has been on the increase steadily during the last ten years. 
Ship building, shipments of lumber and pulp, fishing and general 
trade with the outlying country are the principal industries of the 

The geology of the county is the key to its surface appearance, 
its land products and coast line. The seaboard is a. frowning ram- 
part of granite and allied schists. Passing inland they rapidly but 
gradually change to quartzite and slates, and belong to the Cam- 
brian formation, or perhaps older still, the Laurentian, the oldest 
of the known rocks. They were once sediments eroded from an 
ancient shore, and if there was any life in the ocean of that time it 
must have been so small and delicate that no impression of it 
could be preserved in these beds of mud and clay, for these rocks 
are destitute of fossils, although they were several miles in depth. 
They are no longer in level beds, but have been thrown by lateral 
pressure into great folds and corrugations, and these folds were 
w^orn away by the elements as they arose, and we have the rocks 
now on edge at various angles. This formation extends from 


Canso to Yarmouth on the Atlantic slope of the peninsula and con- 
stitutes the gold-bearing rock of Nova Scotia. 

On the northern border of Queens County these Cambrian slates 
came into contact with the granite axis of several miles in width, 
forming the divide of western Nova Scotia. Over all the county is 
the covering of sand, and gravel, and mud, and rocks. All of it the 
ruins of the underlying slates and quartzites and adjacent granites. 
In many localities the bed-rock crops out in ledges. The depres- 
sions are swamps and lakes, the naked portions are "barrens," 
where blueberries, grow in abundance. . This in brief is the small 
County of Queens, about which much more could be said with 
truth and to its credit. 



The following paragraphs are from Gilpin's report to the Gov- 
ernment on "The Mines of Nova Scotia:" 

"The trap of the Bay of Fimdy has, as already noticed, from the 
earliest days of our history yielded grains and lumps of metallic 
copper, sometimes weighing fifty pounds. Attempts were made, 
some years ago, to mine it near Margaretsville, on the shore of the 
Annapolis County. The copper occurred associated with zeolites 
and other infiltrates, but it proved to be too irregularly scattered in 
the matrix to< permit systematic mining. It is found at many other 
places, among which may be mentioned Cape _D'Or, JSpencers 
Island, Five Islands, Briar Island, etc. 

"The trap of this locality is considered to differ widely in age 
from that associated with the Huronian copper-bearing strata of 
Lake Superior, which has yielded the metal from pre-historic times. 
But when it is found in the Bay of Fundy trap, at so many localities, 
there will always be a strong inducement to test the more promising 
exposures; and it may be found in places to be scattered in the 
trap in fine grains, in quantity sufficient to allow of its being "profit- 
ably extracted. 

"It may be mentioned in this connection that I have observed 
metallic copper in dendritic forms in the copper ores of Antigonish 
County, and Mr. Barnes reported finding it near Cheticamp, Cape 

"The upper and lower coal measures of Pictou, Cumberland and 
other counties frequently show outcrops of nests and layers of the 
vitreous sulphuret and green carbonate of this metal, associated with 
jet-like coaly matter. These deposits are believed to> have orig- 
inally consisted of accumulations of vegetable matter in the swamps 
and estuaries of that age, and afterwards when the strata became 
solidified that the ores of copper were deposited from the aqueous 
solutions through the not yet clearly understood medium of the 
carbonaceous matter they have now partly or completely replaced. 

"Such deposits have been observed and tested at many points 
in the Province, among which I may mention the East River of 



PictO'U, near Hopewell, and below Springville, West River, near 

"In Kings County, at East Dalhousie, a lode of quartz associated 
with granite in pre-carboniferous measures has been sunk on during 
the' past year to a depth of about ninety-five feet. The ores are 
vitreous and gray, sulphurets, and blue and green carbonates. 
Assays show the presence of silver up to twenty-five ounces per ton 
of two thousand pounds. At many points through the district 
strong indications of copper ore are found, and should the present 
prospecting show workable deposits they would probably also 
receive attention. 

"Mr. Poole, in his report on the Western Gold Fields, in 1862, 
mentions finding copper pyrites in slates at Blanford Cove, Lunenr 
burg County, HillsborO' Brook, Westville Brook, Geyser's Hill, 
Jebouge Point. It is also a common mineral in the gold-bearing 
lodes, of the Province. 

"In the vicinity of the Garden of Eden several localities have 
been observed holding veins of spar up to several feet in thickness, 
with crystals of copper pyrites. The only deposits which have been 
tested to any extent are those of Antigonish County, where large 
sums of money have been spent and a considerable tract of county 
proved to be cupriferous. At Lochaber, on the property controlled 
by Messrs. McBean, Eraser and others, of New Glasgow, the explor- 
ations so far as carried show a series of veins, cutting at oblique 
angles black and red shales and quartzites, and thrown for a short 
distance 30 degrees out of an east-and-west course by a dyke, 
apparently a diorite containing talc and serpentine. 

"The quality of the Lochaber ore is unusually good; the chief 
variety met is copper pyrites, with a small admixture of carbonate 
of copper and erubescite. The gangue at Lochaber is chiefly 
micaceous iron ore, with a little spathic ore; at Poison's Lake, exclu- 
sively the latter. 

"In Cape Breton a large number of places are noted in the 
reports of Mr. Fletcher, of the Geological Survey, as holding copper 
ores, as traces and deposits possibly of workable extent. Thus he 
mentions the metal as occurring in traces as copper pyrites in the 
crystalline rocks of Benacadie, the White Granite Hills; in quartz 
veins in the Lower Silurian felsites of Gillis' Brook, as green car- 
bonate; in Lower Carboniferous Conglomerates, Spruce Brook, 
Bras d'Or. In his report 1867-77, he says: 'Mention has already 


been made of a number of places showing traces of copper glance, 
oxidized to carbonate, impregnating a conglomerate often as its 
contact with an overlying bed of limestone, as at Irish Cove, East 
Bay, Washaback, Middle and North Rivers.' 

"Three assays of samples from the Washaback Conglomerate, 
near Crow Point, are said to have yielded Dr. Hayes: 

"i. 5 dwts. of gold per ton. 

"2. 3-10 of copper, and 19 dwts. 4 grs. of gold per ton. 

"3. 16 dwts. 8 grs. of gold, and 6 dwts. 12 grs. of silver per 

"Although in some cases these deposits may be the remains of 
plants replaced by metallic ores, as pointed out by Professor Hydn, 
in a report on the district, the mineral often forms the matrix of the 

"Yellow copper pyrites occurs on the farm of Angus McDonald, 
on the French Road, near Garbarus, as nodules and layers in a com- 
pact felsite, occupying a considerable tract of country. 

"Copper pyrites occurs at Eagle Head, in Gabarus Bay, in a belt 
of laminated quartz, some twenty-five feet thick, intermixed with 
soft felspathic rock. The quartz layers are of various thickness and 
carry the ore in irregular quantities. Associated with the band is 
a whitish green soapstone with arsenical pyrites, bismuth glance, 
iron pyrites, molybdenite, and traces of gold. The copper is also 
met in a light colored felsite, containing vugs lined with crystals of 
quartz, and appears to be generally distributed through the neigh- 
boring felsites. Shafts have been sunk at the Eagle Head and 
French Road deposits by Mr. F. Ellershausen, and it is under- 
stood that well defined and promising veins have been found. 

"On the Gillis Lake road an excavation made by Mr. J. 
McKenzie, of Sydney, disclosed a soft, Sectile, soapy rock, impreg- 
nated with calcspar, drused with a talcose hematite, and holding iron 
and copper pyrites and green carbonate in a compact grey and pink 
felsite. Similar ores occur at other places, as at Boisdale and Cox- 
heath Hills, but have not yet been tested sufficiently to allow of 
estimates of their value. 

"At Cheticamp, about fifteen years ago, a good deal of work was 
done on a vein five inches thick, holding chrysocalla, blue and green 
carbonates and grey ores, but the results were presumably unsatis- 
factory. During the fall of ^870, fresh discoveries of a number of 
small veins holding copper pyrites were reported from this locality; 


but owing to the prevailing neglect displayed in making returns by 
those holding licenses from the crown, I can give no details. At 
numerous other points in the vicinity of Cape North, the northern 
part of the island, specimens of copper ore are found, but no work 
has been done to test their value. 

"Although in this Province no copper mines have yet been sys- 
tematically worked, and many of the deposits have not repaid the 
prospectors' labor, the indications are so widespread, and many 
parts so well adapted, geologically speaking, for workable copper 
lodes, that we may reasonably expect to see it form a regular article 
of export before many years. And so long as so many promising 
indications are met there will always be an inducement to test their 
adaptability for working." 

In the annual report of the Canadian Geological Survey is the 
following item concerning a copper mine in Cape Breton County: 

"Traversing the country in a northeasterly direction and con- 
stituting the great mass of the Coxheath hills is a large body of 
felsitic rocks very much broken and fissured, carrying large and 
small masses and veins of copper, and iron pyrites containing small 
quantities of gold and silver, and, it is said, entirely free from anti- 
mony, arsenic or any other refractory materials. Small quantity 
only of quartz and calcite is noticeable in the ore in the dumps. 
The belt of cupriferous felsite is about 1,500 feet wide following the 
general trend of the hills, about northeast and southwest. Six dis~ 
tinct veins from two to twenty feet wide are said to have been 
located and exploited, work having been carried on to a depth of 
176 feet in No. i shaft, and 320 feet in No. 2, and a considerable 
extent of ground opened up by means of cross-cuts, levels, winzes, 


At Cape D'Or, Cumberland County, is the finest mining plant 
and the best constructed mining work both on the surface and 
underground to be found in the Province, coal mines excepted. 
The purpose of it all is to mine and mill copper ore and otherwise 
treat it for shipment in the form of metallic copper, and this on 
a very large scale, from a locality whereon the first prospector ever 
went in search of the precious metals in Nova Scotia. That event 
takes us back to a day in June, 298 years ago, when the first sail 
ventured into these waters, and Sieur De Monts, Samuel Cham 



plain, Baron Poutrincourt and a motley crowd of adventurers might 
have been seen scrambling over the tide-washed sand and boulders 
in search of gold. In spite of the fact that they never saw a grain 
of it, they left the name that still survives of the "Golden Cape." 
They found pieces of bright metallic copper and seem to have taken 
them for some kind of alloy of gold. From time to time ever since 
people have reported their finds of copper in this locality; and who- 
ever has written about the mines and minerals of this Province has 
told us something of this promontory that defiantly breasts the sav- 
age tides and turmoil of the sea. 

We read as follows from Dawson's Acadian Geology, 1878, 
''Beyond Cape Sharp, with the exception of the isolated mass of 
Spencers Island which I have visited, we see nothing of the trap or 
red sandstone till we reach* Cape D'Or, the last and noblest mass 
on this coast. At Cape D'Or as at t^ive Islands, a great mass of 
trap rests on slightly inclined red sandstone and this again on dis- 
turbed carboniferous rocks, while from beneath these last still older 
slates rise into mountain ridges. Cape D'Or thus forms a great 
salient mass standing out into the bay, and separated from the old 
slate hills behind by a valley occupied by the red sandstone and 
carboniferous shales. The upper part of the cliff consists of 
amygdaloid and tufa, often of a brownish color, while beneath is a 
more compact trap showing a tendency to columnar structure. 

"Cape D'Or derives its name from the native copper which is 
found in masses varying from several pounds in weight to the most 
minute grains in .the veins and fissures that traverse the trap. ' It 
is sometimes wedged into these fissures, along with a hard brown 
jasper, or occupies the center of narrow veins of quartz and calc- 
spar. At first sight these masses and grains of pure copper appear 
to have been molten into the fissure in which we find them. On 
more careful consideration of all the circumstances and those of the 
associated minerals it seems more probable that the metal has been 
deposited from an aqueous solution of some salt of copper, in a 
manner similar to the electrolytic process. Why this should have 
occurred in trap rocks more especially does not appear very obvious; 
and indeed when we take a piece of native copper from Lake Supe- 
rior or Cape D'Or, with the various calcareous and silicious min- 
erals which accompany it, nothing can be more difficult to account 
on chemical principles for these assemblages of substances, either 
by aqueous or igneous causes. The valuable discoveries which 


have been made on the shores of Lake Superior have in late years 
caused increased importance to be attached to the appearance of 
copper in trap rocks, and perhaps this and other cupriferous locali- 
ties in the trap of Nova Scotia may deserve a more careful examin- 
ation than they have yet received." 

About two years ago this copper region was brought to the 
notice of certain American capitalists who were induced to send 
experts on the ground who- made favorable reports. The outcome 
of these and further investigations was that the Colonial Copper 
Company took hold of the property. In order that I might learn the 
truth or falsity of , current reports concerning their operations I 
spent a couple of days on the ground last October. Beyond all 
question they had shown that this native copper was almost entirely 
confined to certain strong, well denned veins from fifty to seventy 
feet in width that had been exploited by blasting for the most part 
at low tide, at considerable distance from the perpendicular wall 
of lofty cliffs that form the shore line. These veins extend out 
under the sea in one direction and backward under the Cape in the 
other. The cliffs are more than two hundred feet high and are 
formed of stratified rocks about which there is considerable diversity 
of opinion touching their mode of formation. The stratified planes 
showing as lines on the face of the cliffs are not level, but some- 
what inclined, forming synclinal depressions where the rocks are 
more or less broken in the axis of deepest depression, and at these 
points the copper appears. It is very evident that these two fea- 
tures, the synclinal trough and the concurrence of copper there, are 
of no small significance in ascertaining the manner and means by 
which this metal was mingled with the rocks. Since this work of 
the Colonial Copper Company is the only serious attempt to- mine 
copper in Nova Scotia on a large scale and because Cape D'Or is 
the only place on the continent that native copper is to be found 
with the exception of the far-famed Kee\vana Point in the State of 
Michigan, I have thought proper to devote considerable space to 
the enterprise. 



There are but three larger counties than Colchester. It has an 
area of about 1,308 square miles, and a population of 24,899, a sur- 
prisingly small number for a district so advantageously situated, 
and with distinct advantages of natural resources and delightful 
resorts. It is bounded on the south by Cobequid Bay and Halifax 
County, on the west by Hants County, on the east by Pictou, and 
on the north by Northumberland Straits and Cumberland. 

It was early settled along the shore of Cobequid Bay by the 
Acadian French. On the present site of Masstown, then called 
Cobequid, was a considerable village, with a church building of 
dimensions that indicated quite a numerous population. At Onslow 
and Truro were other settlements. They were all destroyed in 
1755, when the Acadians were expelled from the Province. 

In writing these county histories the greatest difficulty is found 
in deciding what shall be left out of the material at hand. 

Taking up the townships, towns, and villages for brief notice, 
we may properly begin with Truro. 

Since Haliburton's History is not a common book, it will be 
of interest to read his description of the locality, written in 1828. It 
runs as follows: 

"Truro is nominally divided into upper, and lower, villages, but 
the designation of village belongs with more propriety to the former, 
the latter being merely a continuation of farm houses at moderate 
distances, situated on the uplands that rise gently from the marshes. 

"The upper village consists of about seventy dwelling houses, 
and these are in general compact enough to merit the appellation. 
Both are situated on the south side of Colchester Bay, near its 
head, with no evident separation but a small creek, near which 
stands a Presbyterian meeting-house, placed intentionally to accom- 
modate the inhabitants of both. The upper village is built upon 
what may be called tableland of about a quarter of a mile in width 
and three-quarters in length, and is laid out in two parallel streets, 
running east and west. These terminate on the west by a square 
surrounded with houses two stories in height, in which are also the 
court house and jail. From this square diverge the Halifax, Pictou, 



and Lower Village road. In pursuing the road leading to Pictou, 
the whole front street is traversed, and near its head stands the 
Episcopal Church, a very beautifully proportioned building with a 
spire and bell. Near this place the street terminates in two roads, 
the Eastern, leading directly up the Salmon River, and its rich in- 
terval toward Pictou; the Northern crossing Salmon River by a new 
and most ornamental bridge toward Cumberland, and a division of 
the village denominated from its situation 'the Hill/ which is ex- 
actly one mile from the court house. No doubt the alluvial lands 
which here extend between the Salmon and North Rivers for 
nearly two miles, first led to the erection of dwelling houses on this 
part of the village, the number of which is now twenty, and daily, 

"The situation is one of the most consummate beauty. From the 
hills another road, and the most frequented, leads to Pictou, and 
from it also the Cumberland road may be said to commence through 
the township of Onslow and Londonderry. Whether originating 
in accident, taste, or convenience, this is the place where public 
business is transacted, all the law offices, the custom house, post- 
office, the Masonic Hall, and the two principal inns being situated 

"In this township there are four grist mills. One of them is in 
the center of the upper village, and the second, which is not far 
from it, has also a carding machine and a fulling mill attached to it. 

"Independent of these, all of which have kilns for drying oats ; 
there are nine saw mills. 

"The aspect of Truro, when neared from the elevated land on the 
northeast, is highly pleasing. The whole sweep of the Basin of 
Minas, as far as Cape Blomidon, embracing a space of more than 
sixty miles, is distinctly visible, while the two villages into which 
the township is mainly divided, with their level marshes relieved by 
finely swelling upland, and backed with woods and undulating hills, 
compose the foreground of this beautiful landscape." 

The town was incorporated in 1875, when there were about 
3,500 people within the lines proposed to enclose the municipality. 
At that time the assessed value of real and personal property was 
$185,150; now there are 6,500 population, and the taxable prop- 
erty valuation is $2,440,257. 

The water supply is of the best and abundant, the reservoir 
containing 31,000,000 gallons, and located 200 feet above the rails 
in the depot. 


Streets, dwellings, and stores are lighted by electricity. There 
are eleven churches and two superior hotels. Victoria Park is 
one of the attractions of Truro that deserves to be seen. I have 
before me an elaborate description wherein the writer can hardly 
keep his feet for the tendency to take flight. Here, too, at my hand 
are half-tone views of rustic summer loveliness as they were caught 
by the camera, and thy fill me with "longings for spring." Here 
are driveways fpllowing the cycloidal sweeps of a curve system that 
has delved under the sheltering hillside, where it frets the roots of 
ancient trees, and gets itself tented under their friendly branches. 

It is very evident that the spell of the place is on me also, and to 
stop while I can is prudent. But surely this park is a feature of 
justifiable pride to all the- good -people of Truro. 

Here is an educational center of excellence and interest. In 
1855 the Government established in Truro a normal school for the 
training of teachers. During the first thirteen years of its exist- 
ence Rev. Alexander Forrester was the principal. He was suc- 
ceeded by J. B. Calkin, M. A., who held that position till June, 
1900, when David Soloan, B. A., was called to 'preside over this 
institution, that had not only maintained an existence, but had 
grown in dimensions and efficiency from the beginning. 

In 1878 new quarters were provided in the way of a handsome 
and convenient brick building, erected at a cost of $40,000. New 
departments have been added from time to time to meet the new 
demands. At present the faculty is adequate to all reasonable ex- 
pectations. Teachers are provided for the following studies: Prin- 
ciples of Pedagogy and Method in Language, Psychology and Prac- 
tical Mathematics, Chemistry and Natural Science, Drawing and 
Calisthenics, Manual Training. 

The attendance of students has increased from an average of 
about sixty during the first twenty-four years, to that of 153 dur- 
ing the last twenty years, the enrollment during the session of 1899- 
1900 being 220. 

The annual cost of maintenance has increased from $3,200 in 
the earlier years to $12,000 at present. 

This is really a very small outlay for an institution of the kind. 
There seems to be something niggardly about its dimensions when 
one considers the object and work of the school. While it is quite 
true that to a large extent teachers are like poets, born, not made, 
still there are not enough of the natural kind to go around, so there 




should be a systematic attempt to train from slender aptitudes a 
respectable efficiency for this responsible and vital work of teach- 
ing" in the common schools. 

The County Academy building is a credit to the town, and its 
equipments are of a high order. It has a staff of seven teachers, 
and an annual enrollment of about 250 students. Of these about 
one-half are from beyond the town and represent almost every 
county in the Province. The course of study embraces English, 
Mathematics, Science, History, Classics, and Modern Languages. 

The academy has a good laboratory and is well equipped with 
apparatus for scientific work. A Conservatory of Music is among 
the later institutions of the town, and is reported to be in a flour- 
ishing- condition. 

Included in the public school is a kindergarten and the McDon- 
ald-Slayd School of Manual Training. The work of the common 
school is carried on in four buildings under the direction of eighteen 

Situated at the head of Cobequid Bay, Truro is a seaport, where 
there is carried on some fishing and shipbuilding. 

Quite a number of manufactories are in successful operation. 
There is the Truro Foundry Company, the Truro Knitting 1 Mills 
Company, the Truro Condensed Milk and Creamery Company. 

This town is also a railway center of considerable importance, 
being on the Intercolonial Line, also the point of departure for 
Pictou and all points in Cape Breton. Recently the Hants Central 
Railway has been opened to Truro, and it will doubtless add not 
a little to the business importance of the place. 

We will now go back to the forefathers and foremothers of the 

Alas that the mothers are so often overlooked in the records 
of people, and often, in the written lives of illustrious sons. John 
Stuart Mill wrote his life and never once mentioned his mother, 
who was a worthy woman, and did more for him than his father, 
whom he never tires of admiring. From Mr. Thomas Millar's 
"Historical and Genealogical Record of the First Settlers of Col- 
chester County," I have taken the following names and connected 
data in a somewhat abbreviated form. They are the names of the 
earliest and principal permanent settlers of Truro and vicinity: 

Alexander Miller, of New England. His father of Belfast, Ire- 


Anthony Elliot, a soldier with Cornwallis at the founding of 

Matthew Staples, a blacksmith with Cornwallis. 

David Archibald, Esq., of Londonderry, Ireland. 

Matthew Taylor, Sr., of New England. 

John Taylor, son of Matthew. 

James Dunlop; no mention of his birth. 

Janet Logan and two sons from Londonderry, Ireland. 

Hugh More; came with his brothers, sisters, and their husbands 

George Scott, James Rutherford, Alexander Nelson, of Ireland. 

James Wright. 

Captain William Cock; born in Scotland. 

Captain John Morrison, of New Hampshire; came with first 
company in 1760. 

Captain William' Blair, of New England, of Scotch ancestry. 

Francis Blair, a brother of William. 

Robert Barnhill, of Donegal, Ireland, came with Colonel Mc- 
Nutt's settlers, 1761. 

Alex. Deyarmond, of Ireland. 

James Crow and six sons from Londonderry, Ireland. 

William Corbett, a Scotchman with General Wolfe at the taking 
of Quebec. 

John Smith, of Scotland, not an early settler, 1776. 

Eliakim Tupper, of New England, probably from Sandwitch, came 
to Truro 1773. 

Colonel Thomas Pearson, an English officer, came in 1784. 

Dr. John Harris, of Philadelphia, came 1767. 

John Christie, of Roxburyshire, Scotland. 

David McCullum, early settler of Onslow, 1775. 

John Dickson, an early settler of Onslow, born in Scotland. 

John Oughterson, early settler of Truro. 

Colonel Jonathan Blanchard, of New Hampshire, came to Truro 


Samuel Fisher, of North of Ireland, but of Scotch ancestry. 

James Johnson, of North of Ireland, came with six sons and four 
daughters, 1761, settled in Lower Village of Truro. 

James Yuill, of Clydesdale, Scotland, came in 1761 to Nova 
Scotia; settled at Clifton, then called "Old Barns," because there 
were two old French barns in the field at the east of Mr. Ebenezer 


Archibald's house, and an old grist mill standing on the bank near 
John Yuill's shop; for more tthan eighty years this village was 
called Old Barns, and had no other name. 

Robert Hunter, of Ireland, one of the first settlers. 

Andrew Gammell, a first settler. 

William Kennedy, came with the first settlers. 

Charles Cox, first settler. 

Adam Dickey, of New England. 

Charles McKay, came from New England; returned there after 
a brief period. 

John Fulton, of Ireland, who came from New England. 

John McKeen, born in Londonderry, Ireland. 

William McKeen, son of John. 

John McKeen, son of John. 

William Fisher, of Londonderry, Ireland, early settler. 

John Jeffry, among the first settlers. 

James Gourley, of New England. 

Samson Moore, of Ireland, came in 1762 from New England. 

James Downing, of New England. 

Joshua Lamb, a grantee of Onslow Township, returned to New 

James Whidden, a first settler, born in New England. 

James Kent, of Scotland. 

Robert Hamilton, of Armagh, Ireland. 

James Fulton, of Ireland. 

Samuel Creelman, of Ireland. 

Jacob Synde, early settler in Cobequid, native of Ireland. 

Charles Dickson, from New England, among first settlers. 

Mr. Miller has not in all cases given the birthplace with the 

These appear to be good material for a new country. It is 
quite certain that no coward or laggard would volunteer for such 
service as this pioneer work demanded. It appears that during 
the Revolutionary War these people were largely in sympathy with 
the Americans, and caused no small amount of worriment to Gov- 
ernor Legge, who managed between imaginary ills and needless 
quarrels to have his cup of distress running over all the time. From 
Sackville, Amherst, Truro, and Onslow were sent up to the Gov- 
ernor strongly signed petitions asking that they be excused from the 
operations of the militia law. 


From Amherst the petitions said: "Those of us who belong to 
New England being invited by Governor Lawrence's proclamation, 
it must be the greatest piece of cruelty and imposition for them to 
be subjected to march into different parts in arms against their 
friends and relations." 

From Onslow a petition of a like import was signed by fifty- 
six men, and from Truro by sixty-three, and Samuel Archibald 
heads the list, as Joshua Lamb did in Onslow. 

Legge sent these memorials to the Secretary of State, and 
wrote in connection: "The same spirit of these petitioners subsists 
in all the out-settlements, and that it will require the most diligent 
attention to prevail upon them and prevent their joining with the 
enemy in case of invasion" 

A year later, "in, 1777, two> justices of the peace were sent from 
Halifax to Truro, and Onslow, and Londonderry, to tender the oath 
of allegiance, and there were but five persons willing to take it. 

"When their Representatives went to the House of Assembly 
the next session, they were not allowed to take their seats on 
account of the people being suspected of disloyalty." This from 
Murdoch. It looks very much as if the suspicion was well founded 
in reason.' 

Meantime, in 1776, Lieutenant Governor Arbuthonot visited 
these three settlements and reported home to England that they: 
"Were a strong, robust, industrious people, bigotted dissenters, and 
of course great levellers. But, my Lord, how can it be otherwise, 
for to my astonishment no Governor had ever visited these poor 
people, or sent any person among them, so as to form a judgment 
of the necessary steps to make these men useful subjects; but, on 
the contrary, they have been left the parents of their own works. I 
found full 500 men capable of bearing arms, the finest men in the 
Province, settled on the best land, and the most flourishing, because 
they are the most industrious." 

This much for a glimpse of the old times and the old spirit; and 
we pass on to other points. 

A post road runs west from Truro, between the Cobequid Moun- 
tains and the tide water of the Bay and Basin, passing Masstown at 
ten miles, Folly Village at fourteen miles, Great Village at eighteen 
miles, Highland Village at twenty-one miles, Port Au Pique at 
twenty-three miles, Bass River at twenty-seven miles, Upper Econ- 
omy at twenty-eight miles, and Five Islands at forty-five miles. 




This is a delightful region, pleasing to the eye by its natural 
beauties of scenery and the evidences of prosperity. From the Town 
of Truro the post road runs down the shore of the bay, through a 
pleasing and thrifty country of Lower Truro, Clifton, Beaver Brook, 
and Princeport, the latter on the Shubenacadie River. The, Town- 
ship of Onslow is an important part of the county. I am indebted 
for my information here set down to a chapter in the "History of the 
Township of Onslow, Nova Scotia/' by Israel Longworth, Q. C., 
of Truro, published in the collections of the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society, 1893-95; a valuable contribution to local history, of which 
only a few items can be used here. 

"It is believed that the Government of the day named the Town- 
ship of Onslow in honor of Arthur Onslow, an English statesman, 
who was born in 1691. The erection of the township was ordered by 
Governor Lawrence in Council, 24th July, 1759. The formation 
took .place upon the application of Joseph Scott and Daniel Knowl- 
ton, for themselves and fifty others of the Massachusetts Bay, for 
a tract of land at Cobequid. Several were of the Port Cumberland 
expedition of the previous year. The fifty-two* proposed grantees 
with their families represented 309 souls. A grant of fifty-two 
shares or rights in the township to these persons passed the Gov- 
ernor and Council 26th July, 1759- The township was stated as 
being at the head of Cobequid Basin, to extend upon the north 
side of 'said Basin, and to run westerly six miles, from thence north- 
erly about twelve miles, thence easterly about twelve miles, thence 
southerly twelve miles, thence to Cobequid Basin, six miles. 
All to be laid out on the north side of Cobequid River. Scott 
and Knowlton and their associates were to have twenty-six acres; 
half were to settle in October, 1760, and the remainder in May, 
1761. The names of the first settlers in the order they appear 
in the township grant are as follows: 

"Richard Upham, William Hamilton, Anthony Elliot, Thomas 
Stephens, James Lyon, John Steel, James Wilson, Francis Blair, 
Jonathan Higgins, Joseph Scott, John Carter, William Tackles, 
Hugh Tackles, Jacob Stephens, William McNutt, and the heirs of 
Jacob Lines, Nathaniel' Gallop, Edward Brooks, David Hoar, Mar- 
tin Brooks, William Blair, Ephraim Howard, Joshua Lamb, David 
Gay, David Blackmore, Abner Brooks, Carpenter Bradford, George 
Howard, Ephraim Scott, John Poly, Samuel Nichols, Peter Rich- 
ardson, Ephraim Howard, Jr., Robert Crowell, Abijah Scott, David 


Cutting, Isaac Ferrel, Daniel Knowlton and Mary Knowlton, Eliz- 
abeth Blackmore, Abigail Upham, Caleb Putnam, Nathan Upham, 
Richard Upham, Jr., Nicholas Blanchard, James Tackles, John 
Cutting, Solomon Hoar, William Blair, Jr., William Whippy, 
Peter Wilson, James Brown, the heirs of Jabez Rude, Joseph 
Pierpont, John Howard, Daniel Calf, the heirs of Samuel 
Whippy, the heirs of Joel Camp, the heirs of Benjamin Brooks, 
Asa Scott, Francis Harris, John Barnhill, Samuel Bencraft, 
John Hewett, John Polly, Jr., Reuben Richardson, William Crowell, 
Jonathan Higgins, Jr., Mercy Brooks, Hugh Acton Tackles, Chris- 
topher Stevens, Jacob Stevens, Jr., Abner McNutt, Jacob Lines, Jr., 
Silvanus Brooks, Edward Brooks, Jr., Ebenezer Hoar, John Blair, 
and Deborah Wright. 

These settlers were called upon to endure great privations, 
especially the first few years in their new home. It is related that 
one man actually died of starvation, although we must believe 
that in a new country abounding in fish and game, that there was 
no need of great hunger. The Government came to the rescue, 
and supplied them with corn. Within a reasonable time these 
people took root and prospered. Haliburton says that on the arri- 
val of the settlers, they "found the country laid waste to prevent 
the return of the Acadians, but 570 acres of marsh land was still 
under dyke, and about forty acres of upland around the ruins of 
houses were cleared, though partially overgrown by young shrubs. 
Remains of French roads are still visible, as also parts of their 
bridges. Near the sites of their buildings have also been found, 
at various times, farming implements and kitchen utensils, which 
they had buried in the hope of being permitted at some future 
time to return to their possessions." 

Mr. Joshua Lamb was the first Registrar of Deeds, and he 
was in 1770 returned a member from the Township of Onslow to 
the House of Assembly. Later on by a half dozen years he became 
a notable figure thereabouts for his expressed sympathy with the 
Americans, and he left the Province altogether and returned to his 
own country, where he was at larger liberty to aid the cause of 
independence. One might very well expect that among these men 
and women so recently removed from New England, where many of 
their relatives still resided, and had doubtless enlisted in the Revo- 
lutionary service, that there would be more or less of them whose' 
hearts were with the men who believed they had a grievance that 
justified taking up arms against the mother land. 


There was no little dissatisfaction in Onslow over the terms of 
their grant, that were not up to the promises of Governor Lawrence, 
and far less liberal than that of Truro. That fact, no doubt, had its 
effect in creating some measure of disloyalty. It is worth remarking 
that Lamb was an intelligent and influential man, and Colonel 
MacNutt was another who expressed most earnest sympathy with 
the Americans. See his recently published letters in Mr. Poole's 
book on the Annals of Yarmouth and Barrington; see also the his- 
tory of Shelburne County in this volume. In the heat of the con- 
flict in the Colonies the inhabitants of Onslow refused to take the 
oath of allegiance, every one of them, thirty-nine in all. This is 
0od evidence of spunk and independence of spirit that had done 
well to outlive such grinding hardships as fell to their lot. This 
township is well watered by the North River of the Salmon and its 
tributaries, and the Chiganois and its branches. On these streams 
are extensive settlements in charming localities. 

The Township of Londonderry, or the larger part of it, was 
granted to James Fulton, Esq., and nineteen others; five shares 
each, and to Robert Barnhill and forty-eight others, certain rights 
or shares. This grant was for 53,000 acres, and bears date of 
March 6, 1775. Mr. Fulton was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1740, 
and married Mary Campbell of the Folly in 1771. Robert Barn- 
hill came from the north of Ireland with his wife in 1761 with 
Colonel McNutt. Haliburton says of Londonderry: "This town- 
ship lies between Onslow and Parrsboro. It extends twenty miles 
in length, and is bounded in front by the Basin of Minas, in the 
rear by the county of Cumberland. This part of the Province was 
originally settled by the French, who were attracted by its exten- 
sive marshes, its facility of communication by water with the other 
settlements, and the superior quality of its upland. Some idea may 
be formed of the .extent of their population by the size of the 
chapel, which was one hundred feet in length and forty feet wide. 
This spacious building, together with their dwelling houses, was 
destroyed by the Provincial troops, on the dispersion of the Aca- 
dians in 1755. It was subsequently settled by the exertions of 
Alexander McNutt, Esq., an enthusiastic adventurer from the north 
of Ireland, to whom and his associates there were granted in differ- 
ent parts of Nova Scotia upwards of a million acres. The first 
attempt at settlement was in 1761 by twenty families, who gave it 
the name of the place of their nativity. Londonderry contained 


2,000 acres of dyked lands, and 1,000 acres of salt marsh. The 
upland consists of two varieties of soil, which bear an equal propor- 
tion to each other, one half being -clay, the other light and dry loam, 
and both generally free from stone. The upland produces birch, 
beech, maple, and elm, and a small quantity of pine." 

The iron deposits of Londonderry are described at length in this 
book under the head of Iron Mines. The scenery, especially along the 
shore of the Basin, is very picturesque and interesting, as indeed it is 
from around the entire coast line from St. John to Brier Island. 

Brookfield was first settled by families from Truro in, 1786. 
Prominent among the first of these were William Hamilton, Daniel 
Moore, William Downing, and John Hamilton. The first church 
erected there was Presbyterian, and was built in 1833, and there was 
no other till 1857, when the Baptists were numerous enough to 
provide accommodations for separate worship. This is a pros- 
perous farming community, and a station on the Intercolonial Road. 
A very promising iron mine has been prospected here and the 
ores sent for treatment to Londonderry. 

The Shubenacadie River forms the western boundary of Col- 
chester County. This is a turbulent tide-swept stream almost to 
its source. About twenty miles from the mouth is the thriving 
village of Shubenacadie, on the Intercolonial Railway. It is cen- 
tral to a large farming and dairying region, in a fertile district, 
noted for its productive hay lands. This is a point of departure for 
the stage line to Upper and Middle 'Musquodoboit, and Sheet 
Harbor and other eastern points. 

Some twenty miles of the northern boundary of Colchester is 
formed by the Straits of Northumberland. This portion is in- 
cluded in the Township of Tatmagouche. The town of the same 
name is situated at the head of a large harbor, and has about 
1,500 inhabitants. Some shipbuilding and shipping traffic, to- 
gether with farming, make up the principal occupation of the com- 
munity. In 1775 Governor Lawrence wrote to Colonel Monckton 
as follows: "I would have you give orders to the detachment you 
send to> Tatmagouche to demolish all the houses they find there, 
together with all the shallops, boats, canoes, or vessels of any kind 
which may be lying ready for carrying off the inhabitants and their 
cattle, etc.; by this means the pernicious intercourse and intelligence 
between St. John's Island and Louisburg and the inhabitants of the 
interior part of the country will be in a great measure prevented." 


We see by these words that the French had settled at this place 
in considerable numbers, and what their miserable fate would be 
is easily read between the lines of this grim message. Within a 
year from this date, the place that had once known them knew them 
no more, and within a few years their conquerors began to resettle 
the locality. 

Within this township is Brule Harbor, a large village, pic- 
turesquely situated, where one may cool in dog days, and find 
much on sea and land to employ his leisure in restful diversion. 

Between Tatmagouche and Truro is the Township of Sterling 
on the more elevated region, where most of the streams arise. 

Earltown and New Annan are the principal villages of a dis- 
trict that has attracted attention by its promise of economic re- 
sources and pleasing natural scenery. 

About one-third of the area of this county is included in the 
Stewiacke District in the southern portion; through it runs the 
Stewiacke River; it is for several miles a tidal stream. Rich and 
extensive interval lands are characteristic of this region. There are 
but few finer agricultural tracts in the Province. It is well settled 
with thrifty and enterprising people, who are very largely the de- 
scendants of Truro, Onslow, and Londonderry pioneers. In this 
Stewiacke District are several villages that we can do no more than 
mention: Upper and Lower Stewiacke, Fort Ellis, Gays River, 
Colclstream, South Branch, Meadow Vale, Goshen, Wittenberg, 
Newton Mills, Pembroke, Eastville, Greenfield, Boisdale, South- 
field, Otter Brook, and, Cross Roads. On the heads of Salmon 
River is the township of Kempton, a farming district quite well 
settled in the vicinity of the Pictou branch of the Intercolonial 
Railway. The iron and coal deposits of this county are described 
in the chapters dealing with these metals. 

The gold-bearing slates and quartzites occupy but a small area 
on the southern border, and with but a few unimportant exceptions 
are not productive of gold. 

At Coldstream, near Gays River, there is a notable deposit of 
conglomerate that has attracted attention and capital by its gold 
contents. It is the bottom of a dead river that flowed millions of 
years ago, over the Cambrian formation f slates, that even then 
was thrust into anteclinal waves and penetrated with auriferous 
veins. In fact there is no indication that these Cambrian rocks 
have undergone any change of position since the river bed was 


formed either in or near the Carboniferous Age. This deposit of 
conglomerate is formed of sand, gravel, smooth boulders, and rough 
fragments of slate that have been detached, from the banks and bed 
of the stream. It varies in depth from a few inches to fifteen feet; 
the inequalities of the bottom determines the thickness. Gold in 
particles, varying in size from a grain of gunpowder to a large bean, 
is scattered throughout this deposit in the shape of smooth, flattened 
grains, to the average value of $4 to the ton of rock. Richer 
deposits have been found in the joints or seams of the ledges that 
run across the current; these forming natural riffles, or stops, 
when occurring on the up-stream side, and the gold slid down the 
slant of the crevice and there remained packed in the fine sedi- 
ment that has become stone, that can be extracted in pieces several 
inches in area and from one-quarter to an inch in thickness, inlaid 
with particles of gold. Some of the best of these crevices yielded 
$2,000 dollars to a half dozen men, in as many weeks. This form 
of gold mine when found in a living river, or in loose sand and 
gravel of their beds in dry seasons, or after the water has been 
turned aside by dams, is called a "placer mine." In this instance 
it is a fossil placer. A change of level, due to extensive oscillations, 
caused the river to disappear. We cannot here follow the vicissi- 
tudes of its history; but at any rate, over this ancient river bed, 
at present, there is, first, a stratum of coarse sandstone, from a few 
inches to several feet in thickness. Upon that is another layer of 
conglomerate, in places thirty feet thick, and this is spread over 
the adjacent district, but it carries no gold. Upon that again is 
a stratum of gravel, sand, and stones, varying from nothing to 
twenty feet in depth. Thus far no gold-bearing quartz veins have 
been discovered in the bedrock of this old placer, and it has been 
a rare occurrence that a bit of quartz with gold, in, it has been 
found. Thus the indications are that the source of the precious 
metal is not in that immediate vicinity. It is very evident that some- 
where in its course, at no very distant point, rich veins of quartz 
were encountered, broken up by the action of moving stones, and 
thus the gold was set free as the mere sport of the current. More 
than probable that the veins were very thin, or the gold would not 
have been so completely released from the quartz. It may be a 
long time before the bonanzas of this mine are discovered, but in 
the nature of things there must be places where the gold was 
brought together by the force of the stream in favoring cavities and 


eddies. Every attempt to prospect this interesting and promising- 
field has ended in failure. It is very easy to misunderstand the geo- 
logical problems it presents, but enough has been done now to make 
it plain, and some day, not likely to be distant, this mine will be 
opened at the right spot. It may be the result of chance, or it 
may be the reward of skill. 

Among the good things claimed for this county is a lead mine 
at Smithfield. An attempt to smelt galena there in 1883 and '84 
ended in failure. In 1894 the Dominion Smelting and Refining 
Company took over the property on the strength of some favorable 
reports, and after considerable prospecting all work came to an end. 
Mr. John Hardman, S. B., a very competent expert, in a published 
paper describing this deposit that he had examined professionally, 
concludes in these words: "The mode of occurrence of these small 
and scattered patches of ore, their irregularity, and the failure of 
any of the deep bore-holes to locate any deposit at depth, led to the 
conclusion that the property does not possess lead ore in quantities 
for a commercial venture. The similarity of this occurrence of 
galena with the deposits of lead ore in southwestern Missouri, 
might lead one to expect larger and perhaps profitable deposits 
along the lines of these mineralized strata, and it is possible that 
extended explorations may yet discover them, and form the basis of 
a lead industry. 


The oldest rocks in this county are the extensions and outcrops 
of the Cambrian strata of the Atlantic slope. Overlying this forma- 
tion are various areas of Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, and 
Triassic strata. There are outbreaks and intrusions of granite and 
other igneous rocks. This is the barest general view. We will 
consider the matter in brief detail. 

Carboniferous limestone occupies a considerable portion of the 
basin of the Stewiacke and Shubenacadie Rivers. Devonian fos- 
siliferous strata are largely developed south of the East River of 
Pictou, and thence without interruption run far to the westward of 
Truro, on the south side of Cobequid Bay and the Basin of Minas. 
They appear again in Water's Hill and MacCulloch's Brook and 
Mount Thorn, and form with the series of igneous rocks which are 
everywhere found to cut and alter them, the axis of the Cobequid 

Hills. They include the iron ore series of Londonderry, and are 


similar to the metamorphic rocks of Antigo-nish and Guysboro 
Counties. A considerable area of Carboniferous rocks skirt the 
south side of the Cobequid Hills. 

On the southern border forming the county line there is a 
narrow area two or three miles in width of the gold-bearing slates 
of the Lower Cambrian series forming a contact with the Carbon- 
iferous limestone, where there are many deposits of gypsum. 

The upper beds, of the Upper Devonian, are most widely dis- 
tributed in a tract which lies north of Stewiacke River, and 'south 
of the railway between Riversdale and Truro stations, and in the 
country south of Cobequid Bay. 

Devonian rocks are well exposed in all the streams flowing into 
Cobequid Bay from the north. Beginning with the North River, 
and ending with the Parrsboro, this formation is continuous, al- 
though the variety of rocks are many, and Carboniferous and Tri- 
assic formations are represented, and igneous dykes are numerous. 

Carboniferous limestone occupies the Stewiacke from its mouth 
to the top of the settlement at Eastville. The rock structure of 
this county is complicated, and much careful work by competent 
men must yet be done before the "ifs and buts" and '"probables" 
will disappear from the Government Geological Reports. 

I have quoted here and there from these reports by Mr. Hugh 
Fletcher, B. A., and some portions, particularly at Gay's River, are 
the results of my own experience on the ground. 



To write about apples seems a goodly theme to one who was a 
country boy in a locality, and at a time when they did not greatly 
abound, as they do now. There must have been something about 
them that stimulated the imagination, for they managed to get them- 
selves packed away with many a pleasing fancy and long-lived inci- 
dent. They had a subtle charm for the youthful eye, with their varied 
tints and shades, where green and gold kissed each other as they met 
from opposite sides, and rich color schemes in pink and red came out to 
find the waiting leaves to give them the advantage of harmonious set- 
ting. Then we remember the very forms and dimensions oi the fruit 
of each tree in a small orchard; we could have selected, and placed 
these ungrafted mongrels in the dark, by their flatness, or roundness, 
or longness, or bigness, or smallness ; but above all, for the endurance 
oi impression of them, outlasting a half century, comes the smell of 
the plump, firm, unctious beauties, that got furtively hidden away in 
the hay mow, where the exact location was supposed to be known only 
to him who had stowed them there, till the evidences of a high-handed 
raid became beyond all question. 

Like all our grains, and roots, and fruits, the apple has been cap- 
tured, and tamed, and improved for the use of mankind. Nature had, 
through long processes of evolution, surrounded the seed receptacle 
with an edible pulp, that was an invitation to birds, and squirrels, and 
other animals to help themselves, and thus get the seed distributed; 
for they can stand the passage of the digestive tract, and fare all the 
better in the way of planting by that experience. Man took what was 
intended by nature for other creatures. He cooked the fruit, and thus 
ruined the seed. The very device that worked to perfection with other 
animals was the means of destroying the seeds in the hands of this fire- 
making fellow, who took it for granted that everything was made for 
his use. However, in this case his gumption came to his rescue ; he 
knew enough to plant the seed, and raise the trees at his convenience. 
He must have very soon discovered that there were varieties of taste, 
some sour, others sweet, and some were larger than others; but the 
embarrassing difficulty lay in the fa'ct that they could not bring forth 
"after their kind" ; the seeds of the sweet apple were not likely to pro- 



duce a tree of that variety, but in a seeming whimsical obduracy 
Nature did as she pleased. This order of things was a serious draw- 
back to primitive apple culture, and it was doubtless a stretch of 
many thousand years before it was discovered that a scion could 
be cut from a desirable tree and successfully grafted into the stock 
of a healthy but undesirable one, and by this simple process the scion 
would grow up to a tree and yield after its kind and not after the 
stock that supplied the sap. Had the scion taken root in the 
ground, like a slip of willow, then one might well expect the fruit 
would be like the tree from which it was taken; but to be nourished 
on the very life blood of -the stock, and then show no trace of this 
operation would be contrary to general expectation, and it is diffi- 
cult to imagine how the discovery of grafting was made. As proof 
that it did not lay on the surface to be readily found out we may 
mention the Indians of the Northwest who from time immemorial 
have eaten the wild crab-apple Pyrus rivularis, taking pains to 
keep them by one means and another for seasons of scarcity, in 
winter, and yet no* attempts at grafting were made among them. 
The art was practiced in the region of the Mediterranean more than 
two thousand years ago. 

St. Paul mentions the process of grafting, but singularly enough 
seems to be in error of the" true nature of it, "and if some of the 
branches be broken off, and thou being a wild olive tree, wert 
graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and 
fatness of the olive tree." The illustration would have been capital 
had the facts been different; at all events he knew there was an 
operation by which one tree was made to be nourished by another 
and that seemed near enough for his purpose, and so it was. 
Nearly a century before his time Virgil said: "Often we see the 
boughs of one tree transformed with no disadvantage, into those 
of another, and a pear tree, being changed, bear ingrafted apples, 
and stony cornels grow upon plum stocks." 

The Old Testament Scriptures in English are made to mention 
apples more than once as "the apple of the eye," "comfort me with 
apples," and "apples of gold in pictures of silver," and "as the 
apple tree among the trees of the wood." Very likely a citron well- 
known thereabouts is the fruit referred to in these passages. 
"Apple of discord" is an expression one reads often enough, as if 
there was some discreditable story tacked to this beautiful fruit, 
but the fact is, the saying has a complimentary origin, inasmuch that 


the Greek myth set forth that Eris, the goddess of strife, at a gath- 
ering of the celestial four hundred, flung among them a golden apple 
on which was inscribed "To the Fairest," and in the scramble 
Venus secured it, to the great jealousy and displeasure of the others. 
It was sacred to this goddess whose statue sometimes bears an 
apple in one hand and a poppy in another. For this reason a 
present of these orchard beauties was considered a mark of affection, 
and so it was considered a tender expression to throw them at 
friends; hence Virgil in his Bucolics says, "What I could I sent to 
my boy, ten golden apples gathered from a tree in the wood." 
And again he says, "Galatea, wanton girl pelts me with apples, and 
flies -to the willows, but wishes first to be seen." Was it because 
the apple was sacred to the goddess of love and beauty that Milton 
represents it as the forbidden fruit "of fairest colors mixed, ruddy 
and gold," and so firmly did Milton's genius weld this assertion 
into the Genesis account that there is a current belief to the effect 
that the forbidden tree was no other than our orchard favorite. 
We need not resent the poet's selection; he did not make it with- 
out due consideration we may be sure. There was no other fruit 
tree that he knew so* likely when bending under its "burden to 
catch the eye and salute the olfactories with appetizing odors, hence 
the Tempter says: "I nearer drew to gaze; when from the boughs 
a savoury odor blown, grateful to appetite, more pleased my sense, 
than smell of sweetest fennel." 

Thus much to introduce our notable orchard product, and if any 
reader does not care for the introduction, then he can pass on to 
facts and figures of a more practical nature, but we must not neglect 
the poetical elements of nature and life; man cannot live by bread 
alone. "Consider the lilies how they grow" is imperative as the 
Golden Rule, and yet it has in it no hint of practical material reward: 
consider the apples how they grow is a fair exchange for the lilies, 
and he who is not moved in deep and holy places by the splendor 
of blooming orchards, the mysteries of growing fruit, and bounties 
of gracious gatherings, has missed the very best there is to apple 
culture ! 

Although our apple orchards are derived from European stock 
and represent many varieties secured from natural variation and 
grafting yet there are at least four species indigenous to temperate 
North America, viz. : Pyrus angusti folia, Pyrus coronaria, Pyrus 
soulardi, Pyrus rivularis. Besides these there are many family con- 


nections, not to be included in this real apple genus of crabs, for 
that they all are to begin with. The Almighty did not make an 
apple fit for anyone to eat, but he made a beginning and gave us the 
intelligence to do* the rest, and surely that was good enough. Also 
at large in the woods of many portions of the United States are 
the descendants of orchard trees now but little better than crabs. 
It is easy to go down hill by running back to almost the original 
crab condition. So it is everywhere among plants and animals, man 
included. Dogs allowed to interbreed result in the yellow, jackal 
type, from which have been probably derived all the varieties from 
the great mastiffs to the tiniest lap-dog. The different varieties of 
domesticated pigeons, pouters, fantails and all, if permitted to 
freely interbreed, arrive at the parent stock, viz.: the blue rock- 
pigeon species. Domestic cattle soon become wild in habits and 
aspect; with cultivated fruit trees the same great law holds. Only 
one of our American indigenous crabs has been improved and 
turned to economical account, and this "Soulard" crab is rated an 
hybrid, a cross between a common apple and a wild species, and 
this was an accidental occurrence. The fruit is sometimes two 
inches in diameter, and is prized for preserving purposes. 

Although apples have been so long known and appreciated, still 
their cultivation on a large scale, with due attention to selecting 
and improving the best varieties, is of quite recent date. Many 
causes operated to restrain any tendency to get beyond a small 
orchard for home use. Not until railroads and steamboats became 
common was it possible to market this fruit at a profit beyond a few 
miles, and there would be little or no sale for them near where they 

In the United States a great impetus was given to apple raising 
when means were provided to land their orchard product in good 
condition, at a cheap rate, at points where none were raised. Very 
soon all aver the Union orchards were planted, and old trees were 
grafted and cared for as never b.efore. In spite of the apparent 
advantages of the older Eastern States they have been far exceeded 
in yield by Missouri, Texas, Kansas, California, Oregon and 

The aggregate of these States for 1901 was twenty-five million 
barrels, against the forty million average yearly product. These 
figures give us a proper idea of the great magnitude of this busi- 
ness. From Texas to Nova Scotia is a long cry across the lines 


of latitude, and yet at both extremes, and all between, this fruit in 
some of its many varieties finds congenial soil and climate. I have 
seen them in the Republic of Mexico doing as well as could be 
expected with no care, within a half mile, and at the same altitude, 
of a prosperous orange grove. The Tarhumar cave-dwellers of the 
Sierra Madre Mountains of that region raise apples enough for 
family use, and have a few to spare. So once a year, in March, a 
scarce time for fruit, the men take each a. bushel on their backs 
and travel an hundred miles over mountains and gulches to make 
a sale at the rate of one dollar and fifty cents a backload of small, 
shrivelled fruit, and this money is used to purchase needles, pins, 
thread, knives, hoes, and other small articles. These apple farm- 
ers are quite contented, and perhaps get as much enjoyment out 
of life as some of our people who have acres of orchard and a railway 
depot at their doors. 

Taking into consideration the great adaptability of the apple 
tree and its large number of varieties, one might fairly expect that 
here in this Province some kinds would prosper better than else- 
where, and this turns out to be. the case. Writing recently to the 
Maritime Homestead, Mr. J. W. Bigelow, President of the Nova 
Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, gave some account of his experi- 
ence at the Pan-American Exhibition. He says: "I must first 
note the fact that in each State and Province, and in different 
localities in each, apples of certain varieties will reach greatest per- 
fection if adapted to the different soils and climate. The Ben 
Davis, Wealthy, Wolf River, Jonathan and others are grown in 
the west, perfect in flavor, size and color, and compare favorably 
with our Gravesteins, Blenheim, and Nonpareil, which reach their 
greatest perfection in Nova Scotia, and experience proves that each 
locality must grow fruit best adapted to it to insure success. 

* * The standard varieties of English apples are grown to 
perfection here." 

Surely nothing within reasonable expectation has been denied 
us in this line, when "standard varieties of the most desirable apples 
can be grown to perfection here." All through life we have so often 
to regret that there is something the matter with everybody to 
prevent perfection, and it is difficult to find a perfect crystal or a 
perfectly symmetrical leaf; but there certainly can be perfect apples 
where the imagination cannot create them more shapely in contour, 
more beautiful in colors and tints, or more delicious to the taste. 
Having been proved that such goodly fruit can be produced here 


with ordinary care, the next question that comes up is, how many 
of them can we raise? 

Within forty years it has been discovered that this Province was 
enriched by Nature with extensive areas of land admirably adapted 
to apple orchards. In a pamphlet prepared by the Fruit Growers' 
Association of Nova Scotia, and widely circulated, is a good deal of 
valuable information from a reliable source, some of which may be 
properly introduced at this point. 

"The favorite fruit region of Nova Scotia is the Annapolis Valley. 
This "garden of the Continent" is protected from the cold north and 
west winds which blow from Maine and New Brunswick, by the 
North Mountain, a range composed of trap rock resting on a sand- 
stone formation. The valley is about one hundred miles long, and 
the soil consists of sand, sandy and clayey loam, based on the sand- 
stone formation, sandy loam predominating throughout. At its 
eastern extremity the rise and fall of tides from time immemorial 
have worn away soil and rocks and have produced those rich and 
extensive marshes and dyke lands; these produce from year to year, 
hay, grain and pasture, without any renovating substance or manure 
of any kind, and still continue productive even after the lapse of one 
hundred and fifty years; the Grand Pre, as in the days of Long- 
fellow's poem, is still covered with abundant crops, and in the 
autumn months with numerous herds as in the days of Gabriel and 
Evangeline. On the south side of the valley, and distant six or 
eight miles from the North Range, is the South Mountain; the val- 
ley between is comparatively level, and throughout its whole extent 
of one hundred miles, is of good soil, easily cultivated, well watered 
by streams and rivers, and is one of the most fertile and productive 
belts of land in the world. Here the apple, pear, plum, cherry, 
grape and peach grow and attain perfection. In other parts of the 
Province, in Lunenburg, Yarmouth, Queens, Pictou, in fact in every 
county in the Province, apples and other fruit are produced in 
favored localities in great abundance. Near the coast as a rule 
apples are not a great success, but plums and cherries and other 
small fruit grow and produce large crops near the sea coast, where 
the salt breeze is daily felt. 

The apple attains a large size in Nova Scotia, and is of fine 
flavor, well ripened and colored. This is owing largely to the 
beautiful autumn months of September and October the heat of 
the sun and the warm dry weather being a peculiarity of our climate 
at this season of the vear. 


In the Annapolis valley there are about 250,000 acres of land 
adapted to the cultivation of fruit. Probably not more than 5 per 
cent of this area is already set with trees, while tens of thousands 
of acres of choice orchard land wait the incoming of capital and 

Orcharding- in Nova Scotia is yet in its infancy. True we have 
trees bearing an annual crop of apples that are over one hundred 
years old, and thousands of trees are annually planted, but it is 
only within a few years that the people even of this favored district 
have become alive to the immense possibilities of apple culture. 
During the past five years the acreage of young orchards has 
doubled -and in five years to come will quadruple in extent. There 
is no investment open to capitalists that will yield such abundant 
returns for a period of fifty or one hundred years, and there is 
nothing to hinder any industrious man from having an orchard of 
ten acres that will yield a fair income in ten years, while for capital 
a hundred acre orchard means uncounted wealth. 

To prove the truth of these assertions we will place before you a 
few figures based upon actual experience to show the possibilities in 
orcharding. We will present an estimate prepared by Mr. J. W. 
Bigelow, of Wolfville, President of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' 


25 acres of land @ $30 per acre $750 

1,000 apple trees @ 2oc each ..>.... 200 

Setting out 1,000 trees @ loc each. 100 

Fertilizing 100 

Fencing and Sundries 100 

8 years' interest on $1,250 at 5 per cent 500 

Cultivating 8 years at $100 a year 800 

Manuring, mulching, replacing dead trees, etc 450 

Total cost till 8 years old $3,000 

All expenses after eight years are paid by other crops and value 
of apples over net sales. 


Yield Qth and previous years, say 500 bbls. @ $i net $500 

Yield loth to I5th years, average 1,000 bbls. @ $i net 5,ooo 

Yield 1 5th to 45th years, average 2,000 bbls. @ $i net 60,000 

Total income in 45 years $65,500 


This orchard will produce same results for one hundred years. 

This estimate was presented to the Association in 1888, pub- 
lished in the annual report and in five years past has never been 

When we consider that the fruit belt of the three counties, 
Annapolis, Kings and Hants, contains over four hundred square 
miles of the best orchard land in the world, and that of this area 
not 20 per cent has been cultivated and not 5 per cent has been 
set in orchards, and as is shown by the following statistics that no 
other investment will give such profits when reckoned over a term 
of one hundred years, it is to be wondered at that labor and capital 
have not long since secured this rich inheritance, and it will be a 
greater wonder if in this age of large combines and the inquiry for 
profitable investment this vast territory is not immediately acquired, 
and on business methods be made to yield as it can, an income of 
from twenty to thirty millions of dollars per year. No other coun- 
try in the world can offer more favorable inducements to the settlers 
with moderate means. With lands at from five to one hundred 
dollars per acre, intersected with railway and navigable rivers, 
affording the cheapest outlet to the markets of the world the 
healthiest and most invigorating climate, the soil best adapted to 
fruit culture, with an inexhaustible supply of fertilizer brought to 
our doors by every rise of the Bay of Fundy tides, and the most 
desirable social and religious conditions, the seeker for a home finds 
the most desirable conditions for a happy and prosperous develop- 
ment of human -life. 

But some may ask why it is that if orcharding in the Annapolis 
Valley is so enormously profitable, more and larger orchards have 
not been planted, or why indeed the whole Annapolis Valley is not 
one continuous orchard. The reply is as stated before, that this 
industry is yet in its infancy here. It is only within a very few 
years that even our most progressive farmers have come to realize 
the great importance of this industry, and it is only within a com- 
paratively few years that the supreme adaptability of the Annapolis 
Valley to the raising of apples and other fruits has become thor- 
oughly recognized even by the more progressive fruit growers. 

Now, indeed, our more advanced and enterprising farmers are 
devoting all the attention possible to this branch of their business, 
and it may be confidently asserted that before the end of the first 
quarter of the next century every available acre of this remarkable 
fruit belt will be clothed with orchard. 



"Will not the increased production lower the price?'* 

Our most experienced fruit growers think not. Prices are bet- 
ter now on the average than when our product was only one-tenth - 
of what it now is, and with the increasing demand for our fruit in 
the English and Continental markets, and with the enlarging 
demand for canned and evaporated fruit, it is not probable that 
with the fulfilment of our largest possibilities in the way of produc- 
tion in this valley present prices will be permanently lowered. 

As we have already stated there are thousands of acres of land 
in Nova Scotia as well adapted to fruit growing as the best of this 
which yields such abundant returns; and the fruit growers of Nova 
Scotia will gladly welcome tens of thousands of intelligent inhabi- 
tants to utilize the vacant lands. 

We have a magnificent climate, beautiful scenery, and a most 
charming country, and nowhere in the world do men and women 
live more comfortably and happily than among the orchards of 
Nova Scotia. 

Any information will be gladly supplied on application to J. W. 
Bigelow, President of the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Association, 
Wolfville, Nova Scotia, or S. C. Parker, Secretary, Berwick, Nova 

Professor Saunders, Director of the Dominion Experimental 
Farm at Ottawa, says: "In Nova Scotia you have some of the 
finest apple orchards in the Dominion. Indeed, I know of no local- 
ity where trees bear so abundantly and continually as in your 
favored Annapolis Valley." 

Professor Hind, of Kings College, Windsor, an eminent author- 
ity on fruit growing, says: "This valley with its soil and climate, 
particularly adapted to the development of this great industry, 
meets with no successful competition on the American Continent." 

Judge Weatherbee, of Halifax, who has found time amid his 
professional duties to plant and superintend one of the largest 
orchards in the valley, says of our possibilities in the line of apple 
culture: "We have a belt containing about four hundred square 
miles, capable of producing an annual revenue of thirty million 
dollars. There is no land in the world that will yield like this 
valley, and we should plant the whole of it. There is no fear of 
raising more apples than are required. We can raise them more 
profitably than in any part of the world." 

Mr. C. R. H. Starr, of Wolfville, writes in the Maritime Home- 


stead that in 1880 the total export of apples from Nova Scotia to 
England had not reached 25,000 barrels, but five years later records 
'show the export to have doubled, and in 1886 were exported 121,- 
ooo barrels. The following season, however, the crop was small, 
and the export dropped to 57,000. The next five years the varia- 
tion in quantity was not so great, averaging about 103,000 per 
season, and not exceeding 120,000 any season." In 1896 there 
were shipped 369,000 barrels and this figure has not yet been 
repeated. The crop for 1901 is estimated by Mr. Bigelow at 300,- 
ooo barrels, that will yield nearly one million dollars." 

While this favored region has been recently awakened to a 
sense of its great advantages for apple, raising, it is by no means 
the only portion of the Province to be aroused to an effort in this 
direction. The movement has been general and the results most 
encouraging*. In "ye olden time," not so far back but some of us 
can remember, it was considered the proper thing to plant a few 
apple trees on a new farm, and after a year or two they were 
expected to very largely, or altogether, shift for themselves, and 
whatever they yielded, sweet or sour, big or small, many or few, 
was received as the natural product* of each tree, a sort of "mani- 
fest destiny" of the thing, and it could not do otherwise "so help 
me!" Sometimes the branches were gingerly lopped away, if they 
.were dead for sure, and no thought was given to the cause of 
death. Woodpeckers tattooed the bark in long vertical lines of 
holes as if they were working out a pattern in their brains for 
amusement, and nothing else. That these trees must have a favor- 
able position of sun and soil and fertilizer did not seem to be enter- 
tained. Some people live in this world, and many there are who 
simply hang on, merely exist, and the same thing may be seen with 
trees. There is a great difference between thriving and holding 
on by the "skin of the teeth." The poorer the care of the apple tree 
the more they were set upon by mosses and fungi and insects, like 
vermin that most abound on ill-fed, badly wintered calves. Deter- 
mined to get something for nothing, the first sign of awakening 
interest was manifested in grafting the old tree-tops, with a view to 
make these monuments of neglect and abuse furnish the sap and 
substance for the goodly fruit of the new scion, but the great law 
holds everywhere, that you shall not take out of anything riches 
and power without giving an equivalent. Apple trees are long 
lived and hardy, but like everything else that lives, there comes an 


end at last. To profitably maintain grafted tops they must be 
ministered to in a way new to all their past experience. The next 
move has been to set out grafted stock sent out from the nurseries, 
and this has been done all over the Province. The result is that 
the apple belt that once was supposed to be confined to the area 
between the North and South Mountains, has been extended over 
all the peninsula, even to Cape Breton. All the Bay of Fundy 
counties are coming forward with good reports, and what was not 
expected, the Atlantic shore region produces apples second to none. 
In Yarmouth, North Queens, Lunenburg, are fine orchards, yield- 
ing good returns in fruit sold in the English market. 

The gold mines of Nova Scotia have excited more interest than 
apple culture, but that is due to the fact that fortunes are some- 
times quickly accumulated from that source, but whatever the 
economical value of these mines, it is far exceeded by the natural 
advantages afforded for raising apples in Nova Scotia. 



The county of Pictou lies on the southern shore of the Straits of 
Northumberland, along which it presents a length of about fifty miles. 
It extends into the interior to a distance of over twenty miles, being 
bounded on the south by the county of Guysborough, on the east 
by the county of Antigonish, and on the west by the county of Col- 
chester. It was set off from the county of Colchester in 1792. It is 
divided into three townships Pictou, Egerton, and Maxwelton. 
Their areas are as follows : 

Pictou Township ' 215,360 acres 

Egerton 239,600 acres 

Maxwelton 222,4001 acres 

Pictou harbour is the largest and best on the northern shore of 
Nova Scotia. There is a bar at its mouth, but even at low tide, ves- 
sels drawing twenty feet can pass over in safety to the capacious 
basin. It is generally frozen .over from the middle of December till 
the last of April. A few miles to the westward is the small harbour 
of Caribou, that has two principal entrances. About fifteen miles fur- 
ther to the westward is the only other harbour on that' side of the 
county; this is the estuary of the River John, where there is some 
shelter from easterly and southerly winds. 

Proceeding to the eastward from Pictou, we pass other harbours, 
known as Chance, Boat, Little, and Merigomish. The coast is gener- 
ally low, scarcely in any place forming cliffs.' The nature of the sand- 
stones causes them to yield readily to the buffeting of the waves, that 
are rapidly changing the aspect of this whole shore. Even within the 
memory of aged people the inroads of the sea are very readily pointed 
out. The French made some small attempts at settlement in the eight- 
eenth century, but when the American pioneers came, in 1 767, all their 
belongings had long since been deserted. A few cellars and apple tr,ees 
at the head of French Channel, and at the mouth of French River, 
together with rusted and broken implements, afforded the only visible 
evidence of their former occupancy. 

The history of the people of this county begins with these settlers, 
whose descendants form a large proportion of the present population. 

After the peace of 1763, when there was no longer French posses- 





sions to contend with, there was a determined effort made by the 
Government to settle the Province, and Pictou was not neglected. 
There was a good deal of granting land to speculators, in which 
Col. Alexander MacNutt took an active part, as he had done in 
Colchester, but his activity did not help the settlement, and his 
grant was escheated. Parties in Philadelphia organized into a com- 
pany that dispatched a vessel in May, 1767, with six families of 
settlers. They were Dr. Harris and wife; Robert Patterson, who 
came as a surveyor for the company, his wife and five children; 
James MacCabe, with wife and six children; John Rogers, wife and 
four children; Henry Cumminger, wife and four children; and as 
sixth a family whose name is uncertain. 

They reached Pictou Harbor on the loth of June. These peo- 
ple endured many hardships, far more than they expected, as it 
most always turns out. After some delay they got into communi- 
cation with the settlers of Truro by cutting a road through the 
woods, a difficult operation for a few persons. 

Slowly arrived other venturesome men from Philadelphia and 
Truro, and after a half dozen years but little progress had been 
made, and it was not for lack of sturdy courage of those who began 
the work. In 1773 arrived the ship Hector with a number of High- 
land Scotch emigrants, and this was a notable event in the annals 
of the county. There were thirty-three families, making in all 
about two hundred people. Most of them had come from Rossshire. 
After a voyage lasting ten weeks the vessel dropped anchor in 
Pictou Harbor on the I5th of September. This was the begin- 
ning of Scotch immigration to these lower Provinces, that has 
proved of the greatest importance to their progress. These High- 
landers who came in the Hector had been deceived by the agent, 
who had painted in glowing terms the advantages of the new coun- 
try. They were not looking for the soft side of things, but were 
not adapted to the work that must be done. They were not axe- 
men, but here was the forest to be cleared, before a crop could be 
raised. The lands assigned to them lay two and three miles from 
the coast, and the way to them was over a trackless wilderness. 
Squire Patterson and Dr. Harris, the agent of the Company, lived 
near Brown's Point, almost a half mile above the town site, and 
there they had erected a small store in which they kept the supplies 
of the Company. At this place the Highlanders were landed with- 


out provisions and without shelter, other than the rudest camps. 
Many of them wept, and all were sorely tried by hunger and 
exposure. They refused to settle on the lands of the Company, and 
for that reason were denied rations from the store. Their moun- 
tain blood was challenged and they took by force what they most 
needed, and could not be had by milder means. The Government 
came to the rescue of these people, but ,many of them went away to 
Truro and other parts. The other -portion wintered as best they 
could and became the principal factors in the settlement of the 

About seventy years ago there was a list of those passengers of 
the Hector drawn up by the late Mr. William McKenzie, of Loch 
Broom. It is not complete, but it runs as follows: 


Mr. Scott and family. Unknown. 

George Morrison and family. Settled on Barney's River. 

John Patterson. Settled at Pictou. 

George McConnell. Settled at West River. 

Andrew Main and family. 

Charles Frazer. Descendants at West River. 

John Stewart. Unknown. 

Andrew Wesley. Unknown. 


William McKay and family. Settled on the East River, where 
he died March, 1828. 

Roderick McKay and family. Settled on East River. 

Conlin McKay and family. Settled on East River. 

Hugh Eraser and family, from the parish of Kiltarlity. Settled 
on East River. 

Donald Cameron and family. Settled on East River. Re- 
moved to Antigonish. 

Donald MacDonald and family. Settled on Middle River. 

Colin Douglas and family. Settled on Middle River. 

Hugh Eraser and family. Settled on West River. 

Alexander Eraser and family. Settled at Middle River. Said 
to be a relative of Lord Lovat, Chief of the Clan Eraser. 

James Grant and family. Settled finally on East River. 

Donald Munroe. Settled on west branch of East River. 





John Ross, agent. History unknown. 

Alexander Cameron and family. Settled at Loch Broom. Died 
1831, aged 103 years. 

Alexander Ross and family. 

Alexander Ross, son of the above Alexander. Settled on East 
River. Said to have reached the age of 104 years, and his child 
Duncan was on board the Hector, and died in 1871, the last of the 

John Munroe and family. History unknown. 

Kenneth MacRitchie and family. Unknown. 

William McKenzie, a schoolmaster. Settled at Loch Broom. 

John McGregor. History unknown. 

John McLellan. Settled on a brook of that name. 

William McLellan, a relative of the last. Settled at West River. 

Alexander McLean. Settled at East River above Irishtown. 
One son settled on McLellan's Mountain. 

Alexander Falconer. Settled near Hopewell. 

Donald McKay. Settled at East River, just above the mines. 

Archibald Chisholm. Believed to be the same person who 
settled at East River. 

Charles Matheson. History unknown. 

Robert Sim. Never married. 

Alexander McKenzie. History unknown. 

Thomas Eraser. History unknown. 


Kenneth Eraser and family. Settled first at Londonderry, but 
afterwards on Middle River. 

William Eraser and family. History unknown. 

James Murray and family. Settled in Londonderry. Descend- 
ants are there. 

Walter Murray and family. Settled in Merigomish. 

David Urquhart and family. Settled at Londonderry. 

James McLeod and family. Settled at Middle River. 

Hugh McLeod and family. Settled on West River. 

Alexander McLeod and family. He was drowned in the Shu- 
benacadie River. His descendants are at West River. 

John McKay and family. History unknown. 

Phillip McLeod and family. Uncertain. 



Donald McKenzie and family. Probably settled at Shuben- 

Alexander MJcKenzie and family. History unknown. 

William Matheson and family. First settled at Londonderry, 
but afterwards came to Pictou. Settled at Roger's Hill. 

Donald Grant. History unknown. 

Donald Graham. History unknown. 

John McKay, piper. Unknown. 

William McKay. Name changed to McCabe. 

John Sutherland. Settled at the mouth of Sutherland's River. 

Angus McKenzie. Settled finally at Green Hill. 

From 1776 to 1783 was the period of the American Revolu- 
tionary War, and the settlements of Pictou, although far away 
from the scene of the conflict, were nevertheless not a little dis- 
turbed. Most of the American settlers strongly sympathized with 
their countrymen at home who had taken up arms against England, 
while the Scotch maintained their attachment to the British Gov- 
ernment. But one may w r ell believe that there was no 1 great hearti- 
ness about their allegiance, since it had been only a trifle over 
thirty years since Highlanders on Culloden's disastrous field had 
tried conclusions with the Duke of Cumberland's forces, and some 
of these pioneers were on that bloody field where the last blow was 
struck for king and country by the kilted mountaineers. 

Rev. Dr. Patterson, in his History of the County of Pictou, an 
excellent work, to- which I am largely indebted, says: "From the 
facts that have come to my knowledge regarding these people in 
Colchester, and the few settlers in Pictou who had come from the 
old colonies, we can positively assert that they generally sympa- 
thized with the Americans, and that a number were ready to take up 
arms to manifest their sympathy if there had appeared a favorable 
prospect of serving their cause." 

Some of those who had come to Pictou, as well as to other parts 
of the Province, had brought negro slaves with them, and as a 
matter of interest here is a copy of a document to be found on the 
records of Pictou County: 

"Know all men by these presents that I Archibald Allardice, of 
the Province of Nova Scotia, mariner, for and in consideration of 
the sum ol forty pounds currency to me in hand paid by Dr. John 
Harris, of Truro, have made over, and sold, and bargained, and by 





these presents do bargain, make over, and sell to the aforesaid Dr. 
John Harris, one negro man named Sambo, aged twenty-five years 
or thereabouts, and also one brown mare, and her colt now sucking. 
To have and to hold the said negro man, and mare with her colt, as 
his property, for and in security of the above sum of money until 
paid with lawful interest. And at the payment of the above men- 
tioned sum with interest and expenses, the aforesaid Doctor John 
Harris is by these presents firmly bound to deliver up to the afore- 
said Archibald Allardice the said negro man, named Sambo, with 
the mare and colt, (casualties excepted). But if the said negro 
man, mare, or colt, should die before the said money should be 
paid, then in such proportion, I, The said Archibald Allardice, 
promise to make good the deficiency to the said Dr John Harris. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty six, and in 
the twenty sixth of our Sovereign Lord, George the Third's. Reign. 

Archibald Allardice, L. S. 
Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of 
James Phillips, 
Robert Dunn." 

Immediately after the close of the American war in 1783 the 
County of Pictou received considerable accessions to its popula- 
tion from disbanded regiments. These men for the most part were 
Highlanders of the Eighty-second or Hamilton's Regiment and the 
Eighty-.fourth, known as the Royal Highlanders. Many of them 
came and looked over the prospect, or made some half-hearted 
attempt at settlement, and then went away to try their luck in other 
quarters. They were unmarried men, for the most part, and there 
were no opportunities to secure wives among the settlers, who had 
demands for all their girls. 

A small number of families from Lunenburg, not well pleased 
with their outlook, had been induced by Colonel Des Barres to settle 
in Tatmagouche, where he had a grant of land, but he did not treat 
them well, and the sons of these pioneers and their families settled 
on the River John in Pictou County. 

After a score of years a Presbyterian minister was secured in 
the person of Rev. James McGregor. He landed in Halifax, went 
to Truro, and rode over a path to Pictou. He says: "When I 
looked around the shores of the harbor I was greatly disappointed 
and cast down, for there was scarcely anything to be seen but 


woods growing down to the water's edge. Here and there a mean 
timber hut was visible in a small clearing, which appeared no bigger 
than a garden compared to the woods. Nowhere could I see two 
houses without woods between them." 

We will get a good idea of the state of things by reading Dr. 
McGregor's account of his first religious public services as follows: 

"Squire Patterson gave orders to lay slabs, and planks, in his 
barn for seats to the congregation; and before eleven o'clock next 
morning I saw the people gathering to hear the Gospel from the 
lips of a stranger, and a stranger who felt few of its consolations, 
and had but little hope of communicating them to his hearers. 
None came by land except certain families who lived a few miles 
to the right and left of Squire Patterson's. Those who came from 
the south side of the harbor, and from the river, had to come in 
boats or canoes, containing from one to seven or eight persons. 
The congregation, however was not large; for numbers could not 
get ready for the notice was so short. I observed that the conduct 
of some of them, coming from the shore to the barn, was as if they 
had never heard of a Sabbath. I heard loud talking and laughing, 
and singing and whistling, even before they reached the shore. 
They behaved, however, with decency so long as I continued to 
speak, and some of them were evidently much affected. I endeav* 
ored to explain to them in the forenoon in English, 'This is a faith- 
ful saying, and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came 
into the world to save sinners;' and in the afternoon, in Gaelic, The 
Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which is lost.' The 
first words which I heard after pronouncing the blessing were from 
a gentleman of the army, calling to his companions, 'come, come, 
let us go to the grog shop;' but instead of going with him, they came 
to me, to bid me welcome to the settlement, and he came himself at 

This was surely a field in great need of earnest workers. The 
good minister made choice of two very comforting texts, that seem 
to mean that all the lost will be saved somehow somewhere through 
the operations set in motion by the gospel. This was the beginning 
of Presbyterian preaching thereabouts in the county, and since 
that date there has been a goodly array of ministers of that faith. 
Other denominations gradually got a footing as the population in- 
creased. Dr. Patterson, writing twenty-five years ago, gave the fol- 
lowing statistics: 


Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces. . . 14,105 

Church of Scotland 12,250 

Roman Catholics 2,065 

Church of England 1,47 

Wesleyan Methodists 797 

Baptists 345 

All others 193 

Through much tribulation Pictou Academy was founded in 1817 
with the Rev. Dr. McCulloch as President, and instructor in Greek, 
Hebrew, Logic, Moral Philosophy and Natural Philosophy. This 
admirable and most useful man came from Scotland in 1803, and 
died in Halifax in 1843. This institution was the cause of much 
discussion, as it seemed to the Episcopalians a menace to< Kings 
College, and something to be sternly discouraged by loyal sub- 
jects of the king. In one sense it was but a tempest in a teapot, 
but it is now a matter of some interest to see how much of the 
old "grounds" of bigotry and intolerance was roiled up to the sur- 
face by the commotion that involved bishops, grave councillors, 
governors and judges. Here is an extract from a speech in the 
House of Assembly by Thomas C. Haliburton (Sam Slick), who 
was a member of the Church of England and a graduate of Kings 
College?, but kept his head above the level of sectarian malaria 
and its deplorable accompaniments: "I will never consent that 
this seminary of education for Dissenters shall be crushed to satisfy 
the bigotry of a few individuals in this town, who have originated, 
fostered and supported all the opposition to Pictou Academy. I do 
not mean to say that they directly influenced those gentlemen in 
this 'house who oppose the bill, but their influence reaches to people 
who are not conscious of it themselves. They are in a situation 
to give a tone to public opinion. Few men take the trouble to form 
just conclusions on any subject, but adopt the sentiments of those 
whose judgment they respect. In this manner they hint, 'ambi- 
tious Scotchmen at Pictou/ 'sour sectarians,' 'disloyal people/ 
'opposed to church and state.' Their hints circulated from one to 
another, men hear it they know not where, adopt it they know not 
how, and finally give it as their opinion; until you find honest and 
honorable men, as you have heard to-day, pronounce a judgment 
evidently tinctured by the breath of poison, which they are wholly 
unconscious of having inhaled." 

Haliburton, in his History of Nova Scotia, written in 1828, says 
of this institution: "As a dissenting academy, it has encountered 


much opposition, and although it has always received the support 
of a very large and respectable majority of the House of Assembly, 
the Council rejected last year not only the bill for its permanent 
endowment, but also the annual allowance of four hundred pounds, 
and even a vote to discharge a. part of the debt which the trustees 
had incurred in its progress. It is now left to .struggle with these 
difficulties, and the salaries of its officers are raised by the voluntary 
contributions of its friends. It is foreign to the design of this 
work to enter into local politics; we shall therefore not detail the 
particulars of the controversy, nor the reasonings of the contending 
parties, but it may be permitted us to express a regret that the 
opposition of a few individuals should have succeeded in withhold- 
ing the funds from an institution that is both useful and respectable, 
and one that has always enjoyed the decided approbation of the 
representatives of the people." 

Says Dr. Patterson in his History of Pictou County: "To 
avoid exciting the jealousy of the friends of Kings College, who 
were really all powerful in the Government, it was resolved not 
to seek the. right of conferring degrees or the other privileges of a 
college. Hence the name, Pictou Academy, though from the first 
it was intended to impart the education usual in colleges." 

Perhaps it will give a keener edge to the enjoyment of our 
liberties and privileges if we are not allowed to forget wfyat they 
cost to the brave men who fought for them. To come in contact 
with the conduct of those dead lions gives a fillip to the nerves, and 
makes the fingers tingle, to tackle some fortified abuse without 
gloves. We read that the dead body of a certain .man was hastily 
let down into the tomb of Elisha the prophet and when it happened 
to touch his bones "he revived and stood upon his. feet." The 
bones of our modern Elishas are not without virtue, and to come 
in contact with such men as Dr. McCulloch may well cause a thrill 
to run through a man who is very much of a corpse, and yet able 
to be up and about. The demand for men of this stamp will never 
cease. We are not face to face with the bigotry that cast its 
armed tentacles about his noble efforts, but we are beset with other 
dangers to the state that call for valiant service. We need men who 
can stand before a demagogue 

"And damn his treacherous flatteries without winking; 
Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty and in private thinking." 





With this little aside we proceed with a word more about our 
subject. The town of Pictou occupies a commanding" position on 
a hillside over a small cove on the north side of the harbor, and 
nearly opposite; the basin is divided into three arms, into* which 
flow the East; Middle, and West Rivers. The population is 3,235. 

The town of New Glasgow, situated on the East River in the 
midst of many natural advantages, is one of the most prosperous 
in the province. The population is now 4,447, and has been for 
several 'years rather rapidly increasing. The coal mines of this 
county have been described in the chapter on coal to be found 
in this volume and therefore need not be repeated here. Dr. Pat- 
terson says: "Farming is still the leading industry of the country, 
the number engaged in it, according to the census of 1871, being 
more than equal to the number employed in all other lines of busi- 
ness. Altogether we may set down Pictou as the first agricultural 
county in the province, the only one which can compete with it 
being Kings. 


If one follow Sir William Dawson's geological map of 1863 he 
will find the rock distribution as follows: The Carboniferous area 
of Cumberland extends over the county line between the coast and 
the Cobequid uplift, and continues along the shore to the Anti- 
gonish line, the latter half of this distance in a belt about five miles 
wide. With the exception of two shall granite areas all the rest of 
the county is set down as Silurian. 

One of the privileges that a man has over those enjoyed by a 
donkey is the ability to change his mind, or, in other words, his 
conclusions as the result of new facts or new feelings. Sir William 
could do that in every direction but the one where his theological 
dogmas were involved, and there he seemed to hold that it was 
so much the worse for the facts if they did not agree with him, 
thus maintaining with Josh Billings, that "When a feller is right 
he can't be too conservative." In the third edition of his Acadian 
Geology, 1878, Dr. Dawson introduces a sketch map that admits 
an area of the Devonian formation, and this was something to be 
expected. In 1889 Sir William published his hand-book of Canadian 
Geology, in which he says of a portion of Pictou County: "Cross- 
ing over to Nova Scotia, we have in the Cobequid Mountains a 
great series of slates, quartzites and volcanic rocks, evidently under- 


lying the Silurian Wen.tworth series, but destitute of fossil remains. 
These, with their continuation in the district extending eastward 
from the Cobequids to the Strait of Canso and into Cape Breton, 
were characterized by me in 1850 as consisting of various slates 
and quartzites, with syenite, greenstone, compact feldspar, claystone 
and porphyry, and were named in the Acadian Geology the "Cobe- 
quid group," and their age defined as intermediate between that 
of the lower Arisaig fossiliferous series and the Gold series (Cam- 
brian) of the Atlantic Coast. As they had afforded no fossils, and 
as there seemed to be a lithological and statigraphical connection 
between them and the lower part of the Silurian, they were placed 
with that series as a downward extension, or, in part, metamor- 
phosed members of it. The arrangement of these rocks in the 
central part of the Cobequids, and also between the East River of 
Pictou and the east branch of the St. Mary's River, may be thus 
stated: There is a central mass of red intrusive syenitic granite, 
usually having a large predominance of red orthoclase, with a mod- 
erate quantity of hornblende and quartz; this sends veins into the 
overlying beds, and is itself penetrated by dykes of diabase. On 
this central mass rests a great thickness of felsites, porphyries, 
felsitic agglomerates, and diorite, evidently of volcanic origin. Upon 
these are gray, black, and reddish slates and quartzites, with a bed 
of limestone penetrated by metallic veins. The lower volcanic por- 
tion and the upper more strictly aqueous parts might perhaps be 
separated as a Lower and Upper Cobequid series; but the difference 
appears to depend rather on mode of disposition than on any great 
difference of age. Along the northern side of the Cobequids, and 
between Pictou and Arisaig, these beds are seen immediately to 
underlie the Silurian rocks, which have been disturbed with them, 
and are penetrated by the same igneous dykes. I have no doubt 
of the identity of the greater part of the altered and volcanic beds 
of the hilly country extending through Pictou and Antigonish Coun- 
ties, and underlying the Silurian, with the Cobequid series." 

The Canadian Geological Survey has extended the formation 
series by adding the Permian areas, so that we have a portion of 
the geological order in the Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Carbon- 
iferous and Permian. Evidently there is yet a fine field for geolog- 
ical work in this county, especially in the oldest outcrops, where 
more fossils might well give a desirable definiteness to existing ten- 
tative classification. 



Nova Scptia is so rich in the products of forests, sea, mines, and 
quarries, that she might be considered well endowed by Nature, even 
though the soil were stingy and unproductive of agricultural products ; 
but taking into consideration the practically insular location of the 
Province, the temperate latitude, the variety of rock-formation, and 
all the physiographic factors, it follows that there must be valuable 
agricultural districts where farmers can plant and sow to their profit. 
No one expects to find here opportunities for raising vast quantities 
of grains, and roots, in fields of thousands of. acres in extent; but it 
is true that available resources for successful cultivation of the soil 
have been as yet turned to comparatively small account. The science 
of agriculture has been one of the latest contributions of the Spirit 
of the Age. There could be nothing worthy this designation, until 
chemistry was able to analyze the soils, and fertilizers, and structural 
botany by the aid of the. microscope had penetrated the secrets of plant 
life, and learned what elements, and combinations of elements, were 
demanded for their healthy growth. It is now generally recognized 
that in vital importance no industry can take precedence of the agri- 
cultural pursuits, that prevent the human race from starving. Min- 
isters of Agriculture are rather late acquisitions to governmental 
cabinets. The civilized world with its greatly increasing populations 
has awakened to the importance of scientific agriculture. Scores of 
chemical laboratories in Europe and America are now supported by 
public funds, and are entirely devoted to the problems of agriculture. 
Farmers as a class have been slow to take up with the discoveries and 
suggestions that have cost them nothing. They have gone from 
generation to generation, since man first planted seed, in practices that 
had iu them a good deal of hit or miss, and thus they often laid to 
bad luck what in reality was the natural results of ignorance of the 
laws that governed the growth of their crops, or of indolence in supply- 
ing the evident means of success. The old practices have passed, or 
are rapidly passing away. A new dispensation has broken full upon 
this ancient brotherhood that tilled the soil with crude implements and 
weary toil, till they urged the artistic genius of Millet to picture him 
on the rocky acres he does not own, grasping with toil-crooked fingers 



his rude hoe, over which he painfully stoops, while he gazes vacantly 
about him. This is the "Man With a Hoe" who moved to 
immortal verse the muse of Markham, in which he called the world 
to note this figure as 

" Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans 
Upon his hoe and gazes, on the ground, 
The emptiness of ages in his face, 
And on his back the burden of the world." 

The poet with the license of his craft overdrew the wretchedness 
of the class, here and there, but we have only to go to enlightened 
Germany and Austria and other portions of Europe to see women 
yoked with beasts, to plows, and harrows, and in the oriental world 
the lot of the agricultural laborer is even more severe and degrad- 
ing. Until recently in England, for a thousand years his lot has 
been one of grinding hardships, and for the most part but little bet- 
ter than slavery. His utmost exertions on his landlord's estate 
could neither furnish him with the most ordinary comforts of life 
nor keep him fro<m ending his days as a pauper. To raise rabbits, 
deer, pheasants and grouse seemed of vastly more importance to 
English legislators than it did to give the men who raised their 
bread a chance to make homes on the lands designated by Nature 
for the use of human beings. Writing in 1821, Robert Owen, the 
reformer, expressed in the following words the farmer's future, as 
he saw it, and we are witnessing the fulfilment of his prediction: 

"Agriculture, instead of being, as heretofore, the occupation of 
the mere peasant and farmer, with minds as defective in their culti- 
vation as their soils, will then become the delightful employment 
of a race of men trained in the best habits and dispositions, familiar 
with the most useful practices in the arts and sciences, and with 
minds fraught with the most valuable information and extensive 
general knowledge capable of forming and conducting combined 
arrangements in agriculture, trade, commerce and manufacture far 
superior to those which have yet existed in any of these depart- 
ments, as they have been hitherto disjoined and separately con- 
ducted. It will be readily perceived that this is an advance in civ- 
ilization and general improvement that is to be effected solely 
through science of the influence of circumstances over human 
nature and the knowledge of the means by which those circum- 
stances may be easily controlled." 


. This new dispensation is now at our doors: it is being ushered 
in with all manner of labor-saving devices. The oldest sickles have 
been found in Egyptian tombs that antedate the use of iron, and 
'they are but crooked curves of wood in which are set teeth of flint; 
from that implement to the fully equipped harvester of to-day is a 
vast stride of progress, but the strangest part of it is the fact that 
our sickles are still hanging about the old barns and* attics. The 
flint sickles gave place to iron about five thousand years ago, and 
there matters rested until the last decades of the last century. With 
surprising suddenness agricultural implements made their appear- 
ance. With the new inventions have come the new sciences, that 
contribute to* the success of agriculture in a marked degree; in fact 
they were essential to its success. 

The researches of chemists, naturalists and geologists are daily 
contributing to the elucidation of agricultural principles and prob- 
lems. The farmer will find ample use for all his intellectual learning 
that a college course may have secured in an occupation that is at 
once an art, a science and a business. In every farming cofhmunity 
there should be, and there will be, local museums where all plants, 
insects; birds, rocks, minerals and soils of the region will be col- 
lected and preserved as specimens and the new farmer will find that 
in more ways than one it will pay to "consider the lilies how they 

In order to show in a connected manner a general view of the 
farming . resources of Nova Scotia, I have here introduced the 
official report for 1898 of the Secretary of Agriculture, B. W. Chip- 
man, Esq* It is contemplated that this volume will be largely cir- 
culated outside of our Province, where in pamphlet form the report 
would never reach. This should be read with the chapter on fruit 
raising and other items related to agriculture in order to get a fair 
idea of the prospects afforded by this locality for intelligent, indus- 
trious people who are looking for opportunities in a healthy climate, 
under the British flag, to make them homes and a living by cultiva- 
tion of the soil and its products. 


''Having in the preceding pages given a general outline of the 
geographical position, physical features, general resources, popula- 
tion, educational and social advantages of Nova Scotia, I purpose, 
with the aid of the map enclosed in this pamphlet, to give a bird's- 


eye view of the agricultural progress and capabilities of the Provr 

ince east and west, making Halifax, the provincial capital, the start- 
ing point, and following the lines of railway which radiate from it. 
One of these, the Intercolonial, pretty well covers the central and 
eastern counties of the Province, and the other one, the Dominion 
Atlantic, with its connections, covers the larger portion of the 
western counties. They both use a common line as far as Windsor 
Junction, fourteen miles from the city, and then radiate east and 
west respectively. Following the Intercolonial we find the country 
rocky, barren and unproductive, but exceedingly picturesque 
through the lake region, until we reach Oakfield, where the soil 
begins to show evidence of being productive. 

At Enfield, twenty-eight miles from Halifax, the farms are all 
well adapted for raising hay, grain and all sorts of roots and vege- 
tables. Two miles further on Elmsdale is reached, a village of 
about two hundred inhabitants. Here the extent of farm lands 
widens, running west into the fertile county of Hants and east in a 
good farming region in Halifax County. The land is uniformly 
good; farms range in size from seventy-five to two hundred acres, 
with comfortable buildings, and in value from $1,000 to $4,000. 

Milford, six miles further on, is a small village with a population 
of 175 inhabitants. This is about the head of the tide-waters of the 
Shubenacadie River, a sinuous stream which has its start in the 
Grand Lake and empties its waters in Cobequid Bay. It is enriched 
by the tidal waters of the bay, which bring up a rich deposit, peri- 
odically overflowing the land and keeping it in a permanent state 
of fertility. The dike-lands on this river are as rich as *any land 
in the world, as are all the lands in Nova Scotia drawing their fer- 
tility from the same source. No artificial or other fertilizers are 
ever used or needed in these lands, the natural conditions making 
them practicably inexhaustible. At Milford there are several fine 
farms. Excellent upland farms extend east and west into Halifax 
and Hants Counties respectively. The land is of a naturally good 
quality, and is susceptible of a high state of cultivation. It can be 
purchased at a moderate price. 

Crossing over the Shubenacadie River at this point and going 
east two or three miles, Gay's River is reached, a fine settlement 
of thrifty farmers,. Gay's River district embraces Lake Egmont, a 
small lake which constitutes its source, Antrim Settlement and 
Dutch Settlement. All this region possesses good, cultivable lands, 


and on the margins of Lake Egmont, and this river and small tribu- 
tary streams are fine intervale lands. Farms and lands can be 
bought in this section at very reasonable rates. The land is admir- 
ably adapted for the grazing of sheep and cattle. Continuing east 
we strike the rich and fertile region of the Musquodoboit Valley, a 
very fertile belt of land following the course of the river for several 
miles. This region embraces the Lower, Middle and Upper Set- 
tlements, the Taylor Settlement and Meagher's Grant. The land in 
all this section of country is of high class quality, and mostly kept 
in a fine state of cultivation, though in many instances there is 
marked room for improvement. There are few more thrifty and 
attractive agricultural communities in Nova Scotia than the Middle 
Settlement of Musquodoboit. A railway is projected and route 
surveyed through this fine section of country, \vhich when built, 
as it doubtless shortly will be, will greatly enhance the profits of 
farming in this region. Farm lands and properties can now be 
bought at prices ranging from $1,000 to $8,000. 

Coming back to the Intercolonial Railway at Shubenacadie, four 
miles east of Milford, we strike a flourishing and prosperous village 
of 350 inhabitants, having all modern conveniences, including elec- 
tric light. It is situated in the midst of a splendid agricultural dis- 
trict, embracing hundreds of acres of rich dike marsh and fine 
uplands. The farmers here are mostly engaged in supplying milk 
for the Halifax market, the abundance of fodder enabling them to 
keep fine herds of milk cows. Hay is produced here in large quan- 
tities, and grains, and all sorts of roots and vegetables grow and 
mature abundantly. Farms can be bought here for from $2,000 to 
$10,000. There are several adjoining settlements well adapted for 
farming, nearly all upland, and much of it well wooded. Farms 
and lands in these outlying districts may be had at moderate 
prices, which with intelligent cultivation could soon be brought up 
to first class condition. 

The next station is Stewiacke, in Colchester County, a thrifty 
and growing village, with a population of 250. It has a foundry 
and a large steam saw mill, the latter of which gives employment 
to a large number of men. The dike land here is of the same 
quality as at Shubenacadie. The village is on the river of the 
same name, and the tide flows up three or four miles above the 
station. The river drains a large and fertile region of country, 
possessing the same characteristics as the Musquodoboit Valley. 


The Stewiacke Valley, about thirty miles 'in length, is a rich and 
beautiful section of country, and contains many prosperous and 
well cultivated farms. The different settlements, Upper, Middle 
and Lower, Pembroke, Springside, Eastville, and Otter Brook, 
have all the accessories of advanced agricultural communities. 
Upper Stewiacke maintains a creamery. A railway is projected, 
and will probably be in operation in this valley in a few years, which 
will greatly enhance the value of farms. They can now be bought 
at prices ranging from $1,000 to $5,000. 

After leaving Stewiacke, Brookfield is the next station of agri- 
cultural importance on the line of the Intercolonial. It is a com- 
munity of some two hundred inhabitants, and is a very fine farming 
section of Colchester, possessing a large acreage of fine bottom 
lands, and uplands of excellent quality. It is well adapted for dairy- 
ing, and has a cheese and butter factory, which has been operated 
for some years with encouraging success. The hay grown on its 
broad acres is of excellent quality, and all kinds of grains, roots and 
vegetables grow well. The hills by which it is surrounded form 
excellent grazing and pasturage for both cattle and sheep. It is 
only eight miles from Truro, the shire town of the county, and one 
of the most prosperous and progressive towns of the Province. 

Truro is situated in the heart of the fine agricultural County 
of Colchester, at the head of Cobequid, is an important railway 
center, and possesses foundries, carriage factories, a hat factory, a 
peg factory, furniture factories, and several smaller manufacturing 
industries, and also* the largest milk condensing factory in the 
Dominion. It is an educational center, being the seat of the Pro- 
vincial Normal School, where the great bulk of the teachers of the 
common schools of this Province, and a great proportion of the 
teachers of the other Maritime Provinces, receive their training. 
The Provincial Government maintains a farm quite near to the 
town, in connection with a school of agriculture, where young men 
are fitted for practical and scientific farming without any tuition 
fees. Truro has a population of about six thousand, and affords a 
ready market for farmers within its radius. It is surrounded on 
three sides by magnificent farm lands, the most of which has been 
brought to a high state of cultivation. It is on the Salmon River, 
which empties its waters into Cobequid Bay, the tides from which 
have formed the rich dike lands containing many hundreds of acres 
which lie along its banks. The districts of Upper and Lower 


Onslow, and Fort Belcher and Clifton, all of which may fairly be 
called -outlying portions of Truro, are all illustrations of prosperous 
husbandry carried on under the most favorable conditions. The 
places named lie to the west and south of Truro. Their broad dike 
lands and marshes are most prolific in the production of hay, and 
of hay of the very best quality. As before mentioned, these dike 
lands never require any artificial fertilizers, and produce a most 
luxurious growth from generation to generation, without exhibit- 
ing any signs of exhaustion. To the north and east lie the North 
River and the Salmon River districts, both of them fine agricul- 
tural districts. The farmers in all these sections are thrifty and 
prosperous, and have comfortable homes, big barns and out-build- 
ings for stock, etc. Prices range from $2,000 to $10,000. 

Following down the western shore of the Cobequid Bay from 
Truro, we find an excellent farming country for many miles, where 
rich dike lands and undulating upland and hills abound. First, 
Masstown, a good agricultural district; next, Folly Village; then, 
Great Village. All this region presents a splendid field for raising 
stock for either beef or dairy purposes, while farming can be and is 
conducted with a degree of success fully equal to the efforts put 
forth. Masstown has a population of 150; Folly, of 400; and Great 
Village, 600. Below Great Village are Economy and Five Islands, 
both good agricultural districts, but where a good many of the 
inhabitants lead a mixed life of farming, and fishing in the bay. 
Farm prices, $1,000 to $3,000. 

Three or four miles northeast of Great Village lies Acadia 
Mines, the seat of a large iron industry, with a population of 1,800, 
and thus affording a good local market for the surrounding country. 
Not far from Acadia Mines, on the borderlands of Colchester and 
Cumberland Counties, chiefly in Cumberland, are the Westchester 
Mountains, where there is an immense section of grazing lands, 
capable of maintaining many thousands of sheep. It is a mag- 
nificent forest region, as well, and these lands can be bought very 

Lying to the north of Truro are Earltown, New Annan, Waugh's 
River, Tatamagouche, and Brule. Tatamagouche is a village on 
the Northumberland Straits, which separate this Province from 
Prince Edward Island, and is in the midst of a fine agricultural 
section, famous for its hay, grains, and capital grazing lands. 
Waugh's River possesses many good farms, as does Earltown and 


New Annam. Apples and plums are successfully cultivated in this 
region of Colchester. This is what is called the northern section 
of the county, and embraces an area of many thousands of acres, 
large portions of which only wait the hand of industry to make 
it blossom as the rose. Where the land is occupied and tilled the 
people are thrifty and prosperous, with good dwelling-houses and 
outhouses. In all the districts named there are stores and churches, 
and excellent common schools. Farms range in prices from $1,000 
to $5,000. Farm and forest lands, without buildings, may be bought 
at exceedingly low prices. 

Again coming back to Truro and following the line of the Inter- 
colonial as it proceeds into Cumberland County, after passing Bel- 
mont, Debert, East Mines, Londonderry, and Folly stations, all of 
which are in Colchester County, we will pass all intermediate sta- 
tions in Cumberland until we reach Amherst, the chief town of that 
great agricultural county, and near the border line between this 
Province and New Brunswick. Amherst has a population of 3,981. 
It contains foundries, machine shops, car works, boiler and engine 
works, a boot and shoe factory, and other factories, giving employ- 
ment to a large number of people, and furnishing a good local 
market. Amherst lies in the midst of a splendid agricultural dis- 
trict, having vast stretches of dike marsh land embracing thousands 
of acres. The districts of Nappan and Maccan, lying four and eight 
miles, respectively, east of Amherst, are made up largely of these 
prolific and exhaustless dikelands, and the adjoining uplands are of 
a very rich quality. At Nappan is situated the Dominion Experi- 
mental Farm for the Maritime Provinces, where tests are made 
of roots, vegetables, fruits, grains, stock, etc., best adapted for 
our soil and climate. The Maccan River, west of Amherst, eight 
miles, is bordered by dikelands of great value, and proceeding 
westerly we strike River Hibbert, also a dikeland region of consid- 
erable extent. A few miles further west is the Minudie River, with 
the "Elysian Field," as the great dike of Minudie has been called. 
The Maccan, the Hibbert, and the Minudie Rivers all empty their 
waters in the Bay of Fundy, from whose rich tides they draw the 
fertilizing element which makes the lands on their margins of 
such exhaustless quality. The sections enriched by these streams 
are all thickly settled and prosperous farming communities. From 
Minudie, going westerly, we reach Southampton, West Brook, and 
Half Way River, and thence to Parrsboro, a town of 1,900 inhabi- 


tants, about thirty-six miles distant from Amherst. The country 
along this route is dotted with excellent farms, good buildings, and 
supports a thrifty population generally. Farms range in value from 
$2,000 to $10,000. 

Following the shore from Parrsboro, through Diligent River, 
Spencer's Island to Advocate Harbor, we pass through a section of 
country, forty miles in extent, somewhat hilly, but containing a 
great deal of good farm land and a large quantity of excellent timber 
land. In the days of wooden ships a great many vessels were built 
along this shore. 

Pugwash is an important town of Cumberland County, about 
thirty miles from Amherst. following the line of the post road, which 
carries one through the thriving agricultural settlements of Shini- 
micas and River Philip. This is all a good farming country, mostly 
upland, with good interval lands along the margins of the streams, 
comfortable farm houses and outbuildings, and prices ranging from 
$1,000 to $3,000. 

Following the Amherst shore to Pugwash, we take in the settle- 
ments of Tidnish, Northport, and Linden, a distance of about forty- 
five miles, thickly settled with good farms all along the route. 

Pugwash has a population of 700. For many years it has been 
noted for the shipment of immense quantities of deals to the Old 
Country, and it still continues to do so. A large amount of business 
is transacted in this town. It is surrounded by admirable farms, 
which cut vast quantities of hay and carry a considerable quantity 
of stock. The River Philip runs into the harbor at Pugwash. 

Continuing along the gulf shore for ten miles, Wallace is 
reached, another important shipping place, noted for its extensive 
freestone quarries, and surrounded by splendid farm lands. Passing 
Wallace and continuing along the shore, through a fertile and pro- 
ductive country, Tatamagouche is reached, before mentioned in our 
brief sketch of Colchester County. 

I may here add that a branch of the Intercolonial, called the 
Short Line, shoots off at Oxford Junction, crosses through a fairly 
well settled section of Cumberland County to Pugwash, on to Wal- 
lace, Tatamagouche and Brule, and thence to River John, in Pictou 
County, and on to Pictou, the chief town of that county, about 
twenty miles from River John. River John is a pretty village, where 
formerly an extensive shipbuilding business was carried on. When, 
owing to the introduction of iron ships, the business of building 



wooden ships declined here as elsewhere in Nova Scotia, the people 
of this section of the country turned their attention to farming and 
to lobster-fishing. The farm lands in this section are good, and with 
proper tillage could be brought into excellent condition, but, as 
the people have never made a special business of agriculture, farms 
with comfortable and useful buildings may be purchased at very low 
prices. Pictou town contains a population of 3,000. It is a town 
of considerable wealth, and is a shipping place of importance, having 
daily steamship connection with Prince Edward Island and other 
maritime Province ports. 

A few miles from Pictou lies the lively and bustling town of New 
Glasgow, being the principal trade center of the county. New Glas- 
gow had population in 1891 of 3,776. It has grown considerably 
since that date. Within a radius of eight miles of New Glasgow are 
the thriving towns of Ferrona and Hopewell, Stellarton, Westville, 
Trenton, and Thorburn, the combined populations of which reach 
about 10,000. These towns have been largely built up through the 
coal and iron mines and the steel industries which have grown out 
of the production of the mines. They furnish, in conjunction with 
New Glasgow, a capital local market for the farmers of the county. 
Pictou County has long been an important seat of the great coal- 
mining industry of the Province. The production of iron is a later 
growth. Of the country generally as an agricultural field it may 
be said to take high rank. It is intersected in every direction with 
rivers and streams, along the margins of which are fine interval 
lands. It is filled with hills and valleys, the soil of which is generally 
fertile and much of it very productive. It is admirably adapted for 
grazing, and is capable of keeping immense flocks of sheep. The 
population is distinguished for thrift and intelligence, and the county 
is dotted all over with comfortable homes and good farms. It is 
a' large county, and much of it remains still open for settlement. 
It is quite capable of sustaining in comfort three or four times its 
present population. Prices of farms, with good buildings, range 
from $1,500 to $8,000, according to size, quality, and location. 

From New Glasgow, following the Eastern Branch of the Inter- 
colonial Railway, and passing through a section of fine farming lands 
and more or less prosperous districts, the beautiful town of Antigo- 
nish is reached, a town of 3,000 population, and the shire town of 
the county of the same name. Antigonish is a fine agricultural 
county, but the inhabitants a considerable section of it lying on 


the sea combine fishing with farming as a regular employment. 
Antigonish has a. splendid acreage of good uplands, and stretches 
of magnificent intervals. It is one of the best grazing counties in 
the Province, and is capable of producing large numbers of cattle 
and sheep. It is noted for the excellence of its dairy products, and 
has now in operation several cheese factories. Farms range in value 
from $500 to $4,000. 

Adjoining Antigonish County is the County of Guysboro, 
chiefly noted for its extensive and rich gold mines and its valuable 
shore fisheries. Yet there are two very fine farming sections in 
the county, capable of much greater development. The west end 
of the county, known as St. Mary's District not many miles from 
Sherbrooke, a town of 1,000 inhabitants contains farm lands of 
great fertility. Along the St. Mary's River are stretches of splen- 
did intervals, and the farmers are generally thrifty and prosperous. 
The section lying east of this, and covering about forty miles to 
Guysboro town, can hardly be ranked as first-class farming land. 
Sheep-farming could be profitably conducted on a great deal of 
this part of the county: It is pretty well settled, and prices range 
low. Guysboro town is the capital of the county, and has a popu- 
lation of i, 800. It is a seaport town and is devoted to general 
trade. Opposite Guysboro, a magnificent harbor lying between, 
is the village of Manchester, surrounded by a fine section of coun- 
try similar in quality to the beautiful lands of St. Mary's District. 


Following the Intercolonial Railway through Antigonish County 
and a small portion of Guysboro, the Strait of Canso is reached, 
which separates the Island of Cape Breton from the mainland. The 
strait is about a mile wide and is crossed by steamers run in con- 
nection with the Intercolonial. Landing at Port Hawkesbury, 
which is situate near the dividing line between the counties of 
Inverness and Richmond, and proceeding by rail and passing by 
River Inhabitant, West Bay, River Denis, crossing the Grand Nar- 
rows, following the shore of the Bras d'Or Lakes to North Syd- 
ney, thence following the North West Arm, we reach Sydney Town, 
the terminus of the Intercolonial Railway in the Island of Cape 

The island is divided into four counties, namely, Richmond and 
Cape Breton, lying to the northeast and Inverness and Victoria, 


lying to the southwest. Of these Inverness is the largest, and be- 
yond all doubt the best agricultural county. If we start from Port 
Hawkesbury, we soon reach River Inhabitant, River Denis, and the 
head of West Bay. River Inhabitant and River Denis traverse fine 
agricultural districts, containing many excellent farms, having large 
stretches of fertile interval lands. Prices are exceedingly low, con- 
sidering the intrinsic value of land from an agricultural standpoint. 
Farms with more or less comfortable buildings can be had at prices 
ranging from $800 to $2,000. If we follow the strait from Port 
Hawkesbury, passing Port Hastings and continuing the shore, we 
reach Port Hood, the capital of the County of Inverness, and con- 
taining a population of 1,500. Proceeding thence, we come to 
Broad Cove, where coal mines of vast extent are now being opened 
up, and which in all probability will soon be the seat of a mining 
town. At Broad Cove and Strathlorne excellent farms are found, 
with splendid intervals, capable of producing great crops of hay and 
grain, and all other farm products. Prices range from $1,000 to 

Ten miles from Port Hood is the village and farming settle- 
ment of Mabou, an exceedingly fich and fertile district; in fact, 
taking it for all in all, and barring fruit, it cannot be surpassed by 
any other district in the Province. And even the cultivation of fruit 
might, with proper attention, become a profitable pursuit in this 
district, as apples and plums are grown to some extent, and I have 
seen fairly well-matured grapes on vines at Mabou that were grown 
and ripened in the open air. Leaving Mabou and passing Hills- 
boro and Brook Village, both fine farming districts, we reach pic- 
turesque Whycocomagh, at the head of a section of Bras d'Or Lake. 
The scenery is magnificent, the farms are good, and recent gold 
discoveries have drawn great attention to the district. Continuing 
east about twenty-five miles, we come to Baddeck, in Victoria 
County. But continuing Inverness, through the best farming dis- 
tricts, we would touch Lake Ainslie. Along the margin of this 
lake for about fifteen miles on either side are excellent farms, and 
to be had at very low prices. 

Passing Lake Ainslie, we come to South West Margaree, a 
beautiful stream which we follow quite a number of miles to Mar- 
garee Forks, where the waters of the North East Margaree join the 
waters of the South West and thence they flow onward until they 
enter Margaree harbor. These two branches of the Margaree River 


are noted for the beautiful scenery through which they flow, and 
also noted for the trout and salmon which abound in them. They 
constitute a veritable paradise for sportsmen, who flock there in 
great numbers in the fishing season, not only from Halifax, but from 
the United States as well. The beautiful intervals and fine upland 
farms to be found along their banks are the admiration of all who 
taken an interest in stock-raising or dairy-farming. Farms may be, 
had from $1,000 to $4,000. 

The entire shore of Inverness County from Port Hawkesbury to 
Cheticamp constitutes a valuable fishing ground. 

As this county possesses large sections of valuable agricultural 
lands, and is not thickly settled, it offers a. capital field for the 
thrifty, industrious, and intelligent agricultural emigrant, who at 
the cost of a very moderate outlay would soon find himself in the 
possession of a comfortable and prosperous farm with pleasant and 
picturesque surroundings. 

From North East Margaree, in this county, before referred to, 
we drive for several miles, through a section of country in which 
there are not many farms to note, but which is characterized by 
very beautiful scenery. The road passes between two forest-clad 
mountains and skirts the margins of a lovely chain of lakes until 
we reach the head of Middle River, in Victoria County. Follow- 
ing down the river, the valley between the mountains widens and 
the fertile intervals expand. For upwards of fifteen miles prosperous 
farming settlements are found on each side of the river. The valley 
of the Middle River presents a charming picture to the eye by virtue 
of its bewitching scenery, and the excellent farms attest to the com- 
fort and prosperity of the farmers. It is a favorite resort of tourists 
from the United States, the excellent trout-fishing in the river form- 
ing an extra attraction. Farms in this valley range in price from 
$1,000 to $2,000. 

Leaving Middle River valley and driving about eight miles 
through picturesque scenery, Big Baddeck is reached. The farms 
on the Big Baddeck are good, the soil is rich, with large stretches 
of intervals. Crossing another ridge of good upland we reach the 
beautiful town of Baddeck, the capital of the county, with a popu- 
lation of 1,700. It is a shipping port, beautifully situated in the 
Bras d'Or Lakes, and is surrounded by hills. There are many fine 
farms in the vicinity of Baddeck, and much good land that could 
easily be brought into a state of excellent cultivation. Baddeck 


is a center of summer tourist travel from the United States from 
which searchers after health, sport, and romantic and picturesque 
scenery spread all over the Island of Cape Breton. Going west 
from Baddeck and passing many fine farms, we again come to 
Whycocomagh, in Inverness County, before described. Thence go- 
ing east fifteen miles, the headwaters of St. Ann's, in Victoria 
County, are struck. St. Ann's is an arm of the sea, noted for its 
excellent fisheries. Boularderie, an island in the Bras d'Or Lake, 
part of which is in Victoria County, is covered with capital farms, 
and the waters by which it is surrounded are excellent fishing 
grounds. It is twenty-two miles long and seven miles broad. 

A large coal mine is being operated in this county near the shore 
of the Bras d'Or Lake. 

Cape Breton County, which lies southeast of Victoria, is noted 
chiefly for its immense coal deposits. It is the seat of the operations 
of the General Mining Association, a wealthy corporation, mostly 
controlled by British capital, which has been carrying on coal-mining 
in this county for a great many years, and also the Dominion Coal 
Company, which in 1893 acquired leases of many valuable collieries 
in the county, and having an immense capital, is conducting the 
work on a very extensive scale. This company last year, 1897, 
raised 1,262,484 tons of coal, and gave employment to 20,196 men. 
The company is composed of United States and Canadian capitalists, 
and since its organization has displayed great energy and enter- 
prise in carrying on its business. The great coal-mining industry 
has been the means of building up in Cape Breton County many 
flourishing towns and villages, chief among which are Sydney 
Mines, Sydney, and North Sydney, the two latter towns being ship- 
ping places of considerable importance, and they constitute the 
termini of the Intercolonial Railway in the Island of Cape Breton. 
Cape Breton contains the, historic town of Louisburg, and other 
towns of importance are Little Glace Bay and Port Morien.- There 
are several smaller villages, and all these communities combined 
constitute a valuable market for the farmers of the county and the 
island generally. There are several good agricultural districts in this 
county. The land in close proximity to Sydney and North Sydney 
is of good quality. There are good stretches of interval lands 
at Sydney Forks, and also at East Bay, on the Mira River especially, 
and at other points. The fishing industry of Cape Breton County 
is quite an important one. The eastern end of Boularderie Island, 


before referred to in the brief sketch of Victoria County, as an 
island of fine agricultural fertility, belongs to this county. As the 
mining and fishing industries of this county give employment to a 
large number of men, it will be seen that the farmers have the advan- 
tage and stimulus of a home market for their products. 

The remaining county in the island is Richmond, which lies 
south of Cape Breton County, and with the Atlantic and the Strait 
of Canso on its southwestern shores. It is largely a fishing county, 
although along the shore of the Bras d'Or Lakes on its northern 
side and along the Grand River, and that portion of the county 
adjoining Inverness County near West Bay, there are some good 
agricultural settlements. Here farms are cheap, and as the land is 
of good quality, much improvement can be made in its agricultural 
production. Arichat is the capital, with a population of 2,000. 

In closing this bird's eye description of the Island of Cape Bre- 
ton, I cannot do better than to quote from an interview with Pro- 
fessor Macoun, naturalist, of Ottawa, who 1 visited and spent some 
months on the island during the past summer. 

Professor Macoun, naturalist to the Geological Survey for Can- 
ada, returned last evening from Cape' Breton Island, where he was 
investigating plant life. Mr. Macoun says: "I went to Cape Breton 
with a view to establishing the relationship to the plants of New- 
foundland and Labrador. I did not find one plant which indicated 
low temperature in summer. I consider Cape Breton the gem of 
Canada. The climate is grand. During the summer it ranges from 
60 to 80 degrees; never too hot, never too cold. A large number of 
Americans spend the summer there, but very few Canadians. Agri- 
cultural developments are very meager, while the soil and climate 
are such as to make it become one of the grandest of Canada." 


Having completed our sketch of the eastern and central sec- 
tions of the Province, including the Island of Cape Breton, we now 
return to the place of beginning on the Intercolonial at Halifax, and 
will proceed to give a sketch of the western counties from an agri- 
cultural standpoint. At Bedford, at the head of Bedford Basin, the 
Sackville River, which traverses a fairly good agricultural section 
of country, though somewhat limited in extent, empties its waters. 
Following the line of the railway to Windsor Junction and 
branching to the west, we pass through an exceedingly sterile 


and rocky section, including Mount Uniacke, where gold min- 
ing on a fairly extensive scale, and with intensely varying 
results, has been conducted for nearly thirty years, and reach 
Hartville, formerly called Ellershouse, where the land on this 
route first begins to show evidence of fertility. The land improves 
in quality until we reach Windsor, the capital of Hants County, 
forty-five miles from Halifax. Windsor is one of the oldest towns 
in the Province, and is in the midst of a magnificent agricultural 
country. The town was almost totally swept away by fire last year, 
but the pluck, energy, and substantial wealth of the community is 
attested to by the fact that rebuilding immediately began, and it 
is now assuming its normal condition, with a complete outfit of new 
and improved buildings. This town is the seat of King's College, 
one of the oldest colleges in British North America, and the only 
one possessing a Royal charter, it having been 'granted one by 
George III. There is also a ladies' seminary at Windsor, the col- 
lege and seminary drawing their chief support from the adherents 
and members of the Church of England. Windsor was formerly 
famous among Provincial towns for its shipbuilding industry, which 
there flourished greatly in the days of wooden ships. It has always 
been and still continues to be largely engaged in the shipment of 
gypsum from the immense, and apparently inexhaustible, quarries 
which lie contiguous to it. It is situated on the Avon, a. tidal river, 
along the course of which are thousands of acres of diked marsh 
lands, .the finest in Nova Scotia, The upland is light and easily 
tilled, and well adapted for the growth and cultivation of fruit. The 
dike marsh lands extend up the Avon, and if we go in the opposite 
direction we cross the St. Croix and Kennetcook Rivers, which 
contribute their waters to the Avon, both streams being noted for 
the fertile lands through which they flow. There are large stretches 
of diked marsh land on each side of them. Many fine and well cul- 
tivated farms dot the course of the Avon and its tributary streams. 
Following the shore and along the headwaters of the Bay of Fundy 
into Maitland, excellent farms are found, ranging in value from 
$1,000 to $4,000. If we take a central course from Windsor, we 
pass through Newport, with its excellent farms and dikelands. Next 
are the Rawdon Hills, where there are fine grazing lands, especially 
for sheep. Then there are Gore and Nine Mile River, both fine 
settlements for general farming, and several other fine farming set- 
tlements in East Hants. 


Returning to Windsor, following the Dominion Atlantic Rail- 
way, and crossing the Avon, we reach Falmouth, a rich agricultural 
district, with abundance of diked marshed land, and then Hantsport, 
formerly a seat of the shipbuilding industry, surrounded by excellent 
farms and having fine orchards. 

Adjoining Hants County on its western limit is Kings, and next 
to that again Annapolis, which counties, with the western part of 
Hants, contain the great fruit valley of Nova Scotia. For a distance 
of upwards of eighty miles in length, and ranging from four to eight 
miles in breadth, lying between what are called the North and South 
Mountains, this great and fruitful valley extends. It possesses the 
requisite soil and climatic conditions which easily place it first among 
the fruit-growing districts of the Dominion of Canada, and unsur- 
passed in the United States for such fruits as obtain their most 
perfect development in the temperate zone. The apple production 
is not confined to the valley, for on the slopes of the mountains, 
both North and South, splendid orchards are found. The annual 
production of apples in this valley is now about three-quarters of 
a million barrels, which, with the new trees now rapidly coming 
into bearing, and others being planted every year, will soon be very 
largely increased. It is estimated by careful and conservative 
authorities that within the next two decades the production of apples 
and other fruits in this valley will reach twenty-five or thirty million 
barrels. Though apples are the principal fruit crop, large quantities 
of plums, pears, and cherries, and in a lesser degree quinces and 
peaches, are cultivated, together with an infinite variety of small 
fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, etc., 
all of which grow in great abundance. 

This valley also possesses large quantities of excellent land for 
general farming. Kings County has vast stretches of dike marsh on 
the rivers which flow into the Basin of Minas. It is admirably 
adapted for stock-raising and dairying. In the western section of 
the county, hitherto waste bog lands are rapidly being utilized for 
cranberry culture. Those who have engaged in this industry have 
found it to be quite profitable. 

Kings is noted for the superior quality of its potatoes, and their 
prolific growth, running from 200 to 350 and even 400 bushels to 
the acre. All kinds of roots grow well in its rich and fertile soil. It 
is dotted over with thriving towns and villages, and the scenery is 
varied and picturesque. Taking into account its many advantages, 


I do not consider the price of farms in this beautiful county at all 
high. Good farms may be purchased at prices varying from $3,000 
to $15,000. 

Kentville is the shire town and a center of business activity, 
with a population of 1,700. Wolfville is the next town of impor- 
tance, being the seat of Acadia College and the Nova Scotia School 
of Horticulture; Canning and Berwick may also be mentioned as 
busy and beautiful little towns. All of these towns are centers of 
prosperous agricultural districts. 

Annapolis County, like Kings, is noted for its fruit and general 
agricultural capabilities. The eastern section of the county has the 
same characteristics as the western part of Kings, which it adjoins . 
being well watered with rivers and streams coming from the moun- 
tains, along whose courses are rich interval lands, and as we follow 
down the western part of the county we find rich dike marsh 
bordering the Annapolis River. Farms through this valley, in addi- 
tion to their immense fruit production, are especially adapted for 
dairying, almost every farm having an excellent stream of pure 
water running from the mountains. The principal towns are Annap- 
olis (the shire town), population 2,000; Bridgetown, population 
1,400; Paradise, population 350; Lawrencetown, population 600, and 
Middleton, population 700. Over the North Mountains, about 
eight miles from the center of the valley, is the Bay of Fundy, the 
tidal waters of which wash the northern shores of Annapolis and 
Kings. There are shipping ports every few miles along the coast, 
and formerly large quantities of wood were shipped, the mountain 
forests being the source of supply. The range of mountains, all 
the way from Blomidon in the east to Digby Gut on the west, 
present excellent opportunities for sheep-raising. These lands can 
be purchased remarkably cheap. Cultivated farms in the better 
portions of this fine country range in price from $3,000 to $10,000. 

From Annapolis going west we pass into Digby by crossing Bear 
River, which is the county line. If we follow up the river a few 
miles from its mouth in Digby Basin we pass through beautiful 
scenery, the immense 'hills being dotted with a most luxurious 
growth of cherry trees. The village of Bear River was formerly 
an extensive shipping port, and is still a place of considerable busi- 
ness activity. Following the line of railway along the shores of 
Digby Basin the town of Digby, population 1,800, is reached. It 
is placed nearly opposite the Gut, as the passage which forms the 


outlet to the Bay of Fundy is called. Digby is the capital of the 
county and is prettily situated; it does a flourishing business, and is 
a fashionable resort for summer tourists from the United States. 
Continuing west by rail about twenty miles along St. Mary's Bay, 
we come to Weymouth, a beautiful village on the Sissiboo River. 
Here cherries abound in their season, as well as in Digby, Bear 
River, and intermediate places. St. Mary's Bay divides the county 
proper from Digby Neck, a long strip of land, bounded on the north 
by the Bay of Fundy, settled by a thrifty and industrious population. 
The railway from Digby to Yarmouth passes a few miles south of 
the shore of St. Mary's Bay. New farms are being brought into 
cultivation along the line of railway, but the most populous part of 
the county lies along the shore of St. Mary's Bay. This part of 
the county is settled by a very thrifty and intelligent population, 
nearly all French Acadians. For almost thirty miles the settlements 
constitute a continuous village. The people are progressive and 
well-to-do, with comfortable homes and surroundings. Every eight 
or ten miles there is a large church. On Church's Point is situate 
St. Anne's College, a valuable institution of learning in connection 
with the Roman Catholic faith, which is the religion of the French 
Acadians. There is also a convent here. 

Digby County, although not strictly speaking an agricultural 
county, has, nevertheless, many well-to-do farmers. Farming, fish- 
ing, and lumbering constitute the chief employments of the inhabi- 
tants, and between these three occupations a good living is assured 
and enjoyed. 

From Digby by rail, we soon reach the beautiful and enterprising 
town of Yarmouth, the capital of the county of the same name, 
and the terminus of the Dominion Atlantic Railway; or if we follow 
the shore of St. Mary's Bay, we find thickly settled villages all the 
way to the town. The town of Yarmouth has the largest population 
of any town in the Province, with the exception of Halifax, and 
has always been noted for its enterprise. It is wealthy and pros- 
perous to a remarkable degree, and its people have fostered and 
illustrated a most enlightened public spirit. Whatever Yarmouth 
undertakes to do, it accomplishes on broad lines, having a clear and 
distinct light of the definite ends in view. In the heyday of wooden 
shipbuilding, Yarmouth was the leading town in the Province in 
this industry. Yarmouth ships and Yarmouth captains were found 
on every sea and every port in the world. In those days were 


laid the foundation of its wealth. When that industry declined, 
while still retaining a great interest in shipping, under changed 
conditions, Yarmouth turned its attention to manufacturing, and 
factories, foundries, etc., take the place of shipyards. Yarmouth is 
also largely interested in the fisheries, and does a flourishing business 
in general merchandise. It is noted for its beautiful and costly pri- 
vate residences, surrounded by well-trimmed lawns and hedges, 
graperies and fruit trees, which make them exceedingly attractive 
and pleasing to the eye, and give assurance not only of comfort, 
but of luxury. Although Yarmouth is not one of our best agricul- 
tural counties, farming operations are conducted in several sections 
of the county with signal success. It is noted more especially for 
dairying, sheep-raising, and fruit growing. Farmers are particular 
about their stock, generally insisting on pure breed, and in this 
way they attain the best results. Farms are well tilled, and many 
of them are. brought into a high state of cultivation. The town 
affords a good local market all the year around. 

While Yarmouth town is the terminus of the Dominion Atlantic 
Railway, it is also the terminus of the Shore line now in course of 
construction, part of which is now in operation, on the south shore. 
It is surveyed through Shelburne, Queens and Lunenburg to Hali- 
fax, and will no doubt be completed and in operation within a few 
years. In addition to its railway facilities, present and prospective, 
Yarmouth has lines of steamships with Halifax and intermediate 
ports, with Bay of Fundy ports and with Boston. 

Shelburne County is the next county to Yarmouth on the south 
Atlantic coast, tying towards Halifax. The shire town, Shelburne 
(population 2,000) has one of the finest harbors in the Province, 
being ten miles long and three in width, offering a perfect shelter 
for vessels, and surrounded by scenery of the most picturesque char- 
acter. It formerly took high rank for shipbuilding, and still con- 
tinues the construction of fishing vessels. Fishing is the great 
industry of Shelburne County, taking first rank in this calling in 
the Province, after Lunenburg, the adjoining county east. The fish 
catch of this county last year was upwards of $800,000 in value. 
Agricultural pursuits are not followed to any extent in this county, 
although in the intervals from fishing the people in favored localities 
raise considerable farm products for their own use. The settlements 
and towns are chiefly along the shore,' the principal of which are 
Shelburne, already mentioned, Barrington, Clyde River, Jordan 


River, and Lockeport, all of which are places of considerable impor- 
tance. Lumbering is carried on to a considerable extent on the 
Jordan River. 

East of Shelburne lies Queens, of which Liverpool is the shire 
town, with a population of 2,700. Milton, population 1,000, is close 
by, and to the east are Port Medway, population 600, and Mill 
Village, population 400, all coast towns. The coast line, like that 
of all the shore counties, is rocky and ill-suited for farming. Fishing 
and lumbering are the chief industries. Pulp mills have been estab- 
lished recently near Liverpool, which is the chief port of shipment 
for the product of the mills. This industry, together with fishing 
and lumbering, make the shore ports places of considerable impor- 
tance. If we drive north from Liverpool over some twenty-five 
miles of barren and rocky country we come to Caledonia and Brook- 
field, two good farming^ sections in the northern part of the county, 
where apples and other fruits are successfully cultivated, and farmers 
are making forward steps in advanced agriculture. In this section 
gold mining is carried on to a considerable extent and with fairly 
satisfactory results. , This belt of fair farming lands extends east 
through the greater part of Lunenburg, the adjoining county east, 
and lying between it and Halifax. 

In Lunenburg County gold mining is conducted to a more or 
less extent, while fishing is conducted to a greater extent than in 
any other county in the Province. The River La Have, which has 
its source in Annapolis County, runs through Lunenburg, and along 
its course are good farming lands and large lumber forests. The 
lumbering industry is conducted on an extensive scale on the La 
Have, whose banks are dotted with gang saw mills at several points. 
The La Have is one of the largest and most important rivers in 
Nova Scotia, and is navigable for steamers and other large craft as 
far as Bridgewater, population 3,500, fifteen miles from the coast. 
The scenery along the La Have is so grand and picturesque that 
it has been called the "Nova Scotia Rhine." Bridgewater is the 
great lumber shipping port of the county, and is otherwise a busy, 
go-ahead town. Twelve miles from Bridgewater is Lunenburg, pop- 
ulation 4,000. Here, also, a large shipping business is conducted, 
especially in fish to the West Indies. It is the outfitting port for 
many fishing vessels, and having a good agricultural country to the 
back of it, is a good town for general business. Taking the Nova 
Scotia Central Railway, which passes by Mahone Bay and Bridge- 


water, and runs across the country -to Middleton, in Annapolis 
County, connecting with the Dominion Atlantic Railway system, 
we take in New Germany, in the northern part of the county, 
which is a fine agricultural district. From New Germany station 
a long belt of rich farming lands runs both east and west, and 
farmers with modern notions and appliances are bringing up old and 
worn-out farms to a high state of cultivation. Adjoining this region 
are Springfield and Albany, two thriving and prosperous settlements 
in Annapolis County not previously noted. 

Mahone Bay is situate seven miles east of Lunenburg. It is a 
thriving town and was formerly a large shipbuilding place; it still 
owns and builds fishing vessels, and does a flourishing business with 
the farmers of the fine agricultural country by which it is surrounded. 

A drive of thirteen miles through beautiful scenery, round Ches- 
ter Basin, with its numerous islands, brings us to the old town of 
Chester, picturesquely built upon a peninsula, and having a superb 
view of the scores of island gems which dot the surface of the mag- 
nificent basin. Chester was early laid out for a large town, but has 
not grown up to the full expectations of its founders. It is, however, 
very much admired for its splendid scenery, and is a favorite health 
and pleasure resort in summer, not only for the people of Halifax, 
but for tourists from the United States, who come every year in 
increasing numbers. Following the . shore a distance of forty-five 
miles, and passing through the beautiful districts of Hubbard's Cove 
and St. Margaret's Bay, both in Halifax County, we reach the city 
of Halifax, the place of beginning, having made the circuit of the 
Province of Nova Scotia, and noted its agricultural resources and 

In view of all that is here set forth by a competent hand, it is 
evident that Nova Scotia affords opportunities for many thousand 
farmers to make comfortable livings here on their own lands, and 
have homes that belong to themselves and their children. The 
home is the unit of the nation: it must be an aggregate of homes or 
it cannot be at all. No place becomes so truly a home as a farmer's 
house. Men and women born and bred therein never lose their 
interest and love for the buildings, the trees, and all local surround- 
ings. A homing instinct is begotten there that brings back the 
wanderers from the ends of the earth, if it be only to take a last 
look of scenes that are interwoven with earliest and tenderest recol- 
lections, and sacred to memories of dear hearts and hands that are 


still, and clasped forever. The solution of the slums problem is to 
be found in settling up the country till there are no slums. With the 
means we now have for rapid transportation there is no necessity for 
poor people being huddled in festering masses in the filthy and 
loathsome tenements, where poverty begets rags, and rags beget 
degradation of every wholesome sentiment. The city must ever be 
replenished by the brains and brawn of the country or it would soon 
come to an end. A cottage of logs in a Nova Scotia hamlet, re- 
moved as far as possible from a town, is endowed with riches com- 
pared with a one-room tenement in a city. Fresh air, clear water, 
the fields, and forests, and flowers, are worth all the wealth of baro- 
nial castles, and cheapen every contrivance of man for the better- 
ment of his race. We do not greatly need large cities, but we do 
need more farm-homes, and our invitations can well afford to bring 
us large numbers of industrious, sober people, who will not look in 
vain hereabouts for opportunities to get in touch with the soil, where 
there are no cyclones, no pestilences, no drouths, no venomous rep- 
tiles, nor any enemy to make them afraid. 



This is the smallest county in the province, and I believe the 
last one to be erected, but it is proverbial that "good things are 
done up in small parcels," and this holds true of the division now 
under consideration that has but 552 square miles within its bor- 
ders. The population is 13,617, or 24 to the square mile, which is 
above the average of the counties, Annapolis having but a fraction 
over 14, and Hants but 16, both of them old and exceptionally 
favored regions. In the earliest division of the province the county 
of Halifax included the whole eastern section of Nova Scotia proper, 
but in 1784 the eastermost part was formed into the county of 
Sydney, whose eastern boundary was set at the River St. Mary, 
but in 1822 the line was extended westward to the Ecum-secum 
River. This new county of Sydney contained the townships of 
Arisaig, Dorchester, St. Andrew, Tracadie, Manchester, Guysboro, 
and St. Mary's, that was afterwards divided into the Upper and 
Lower Districts, and these eventually became the counties of Anti- 
gonish and Guysboro. 

Haliburton in his history describes* as follows the "Upper," or 
what is now the Antigonish division: "This district forms a trian- 
gle, its south side being 36 miles long, its western 25, and its sea- 
coast, including the circuit of St. George's Bay, about 50 miles. 
The first settlement was made by the English in the year 1784, by 
Lieut.-Colonel Hierlihy, Major Monk (afterwards Judge Monk) and 
other officers and soldiers of the Nova Scotia Regiment. At that 
period there were no inhabitants in this district but a few families 
of Acadians at Pomquet, Tracadie, and Harbor Au Bushee, whose 
descendants now occupy the principal part of the front lands on St. 
George's Bay. The first material addition to their numbers was 
made in the years 1795 and 6, by the arrival of emigrants from the 
Highlands and isles of Scotland, who were, with a few disbanded 
Highland soldiers, located by the Government along the coast from 
Meregomish to Antigonish. In 1801 the settlement was greatly 
extended into the interior by the arrival of a numerous body of the 
same hardy race, with those whose labors had already made many 
inroads upon the forest, and converted a large portion of it into 




fertile fields, By subsequent arrivals of emigrants from Scotland, 
Newfoundland and New England, every part of this important dis- 
trict is now filling up with an industrious and hardy population the 
amount of which already exceeds 7,000. The interval, or alluvial, 
soil of this district is equal, and the upland is superior, to that of 
any other portion of the Province." 

This Highland population prospered and multiplied till in the 
year 1881 the population was 18,000. In ten years afterwards it 
fell to 1,614 an d in I 9 I it was still further reduced to 13,617. This 
record goes to show that more people were reared there than cared 
to remain when the way out in the wide world of opportunities 
was open and inviting them. The great law expressed in the 
formula of "greatest gain for least effort" operates continually every- 
where that there is life in any form. This great sociological fac- 
tor both elevates and degrades, both builds and destroys; it oper- 
ates to found great nations and produce that night-side of Nature, 
the world of parasites. It is responsible for the leafless dodder 
that winds its snaky coils about its kindred and sucks the ready- 
made juices that cost but the slightest effort: it started on the 
down grade the bugs and beetles that now infest birds, beast and 
people; a wretched community of fallen structures! Obedient to 
the workings of the same law started the Angles, the Saxons, and 
Jutes from the shores of the Baltic to harass the strange coastlines 
of Britain and seize the fertile acres that never cost them a blow 
with their mattocks that they wielded with skill when occasion 
required. I throw this remark in by the way, in hope that it may 
reconcile some people who are much inclined to grumble over the 
fact that our young men and women will not all stay at home, 
instead of going away to the United States. They have simply 
acted under the influence of a great law, and when we have suffi- 
ciently made known our natural resources and varied attractions 
there will be a reversal of the migrating stream and then outsiders 
will come here to see if peradventure they may not secure "the 
greatest gain for the least effort." Already this very movement has 
made a strong beginning in the far western portion of the Domin- 
ion. The Town of Antigonish is the county seat and has the repu- 
tation of containing many attractions for people who enjoy natural 
scenery and the wholesome comforts of a small town. The popula- 
tion is 1,528, very largely of Highland Scotch origin. The arrival 
of the Intercolonial Railway that extends to Sydney and passes 
through this place, at once put it in closer relations with the out- 



side communities from which it had been a good deal isolated, 
except by water. The town is situated at the head of a long and 
shoal harbor, near St. George's Bay. One of the additional attrac- 
tions of the locality is the excellent institution of learning, St. 
Francis Xavier's College, that has grown from small beginnings in 
1855 to be an object of justifiable pride to the community and the 
Province at large. In another section of this book one can find 
an extended account of this college. The Cathedral of St. Ninian 
is counted among the objects of interest that reflect credit on the 
people whose religious zeal made it possible. "It is in the Roman 
Basilica style, 170 by 70 feet in area, and is built of blue limestone 
and brick. On the facade, between the tall square towers, is the 
Gaelic inscription, Tighe Dhe' (the house of God). The arched 
roof is supported by fourteen Corinthian columns and the interior 
has numerous windows of stained glass. There is a large organ, 
and also a chime of bells." 

Here is a bit from Warner's "Baddeck and that sort of thing." 
"The sun has set when we come thundering down into the pretty 
Catholic Village of Antigonish, the most homelike place we have 
seen. The twin stone towers of the unfinished cathedral loom up 
large in fading light, and the bishop's palace on the hill, the home 
of the Bishop of Arichat, appears to be an imposing white barn 
with many staring windows. People were loitering' in the street; 
the young beaux going up and down with the belles, after the 
leisurely manner of youth in summer. Perhaps they were students 
from St. Francis Xavier's College, or visiting gallants from Guys- 
borough. They look into the postoffice and the fancy store; they 
stroll and take their little provincial pleasure, and make love, for all 
we can see, as if Antigonish were a part of the world. How they 
must look down on Marshy Hope, and Addington Forks, and Tra- 
cadie. What a charming place to live in is this." 

Haliburton's history affords us this account of. the locality, 
written three-quarters of a century ago: "Antigonish is a shire 
town of the district, and the largest and most flourishing in the 
county. It is situated about a mile' above the head of the naviga- 
tion on Antigonish River, and a short distance beyond the junction 
of the north and west branches, on a spot of ground that is elevated 
but a few feet above the streams that environ it. It is one of the 
prettiest villages in the eastern section of Nova, Scotia, and the neat- 
ness and simplicity of its appearance amply compensates for the 
absence of bolder scenery. It has but one principal street, which 


is serpentine, extending half a mile from east to west, and contain- 
ing about forty-five dwelling houses, exclusive of other buildings. 
The court house is built on a hill of moderate ascent and commands 
a pleasing view of the whole village, the adjacent intervals, the 
harbor and the mountains of the gulf shore. The Roman Catholic 
Chapel stands on the same side of the street with the Court House, 
and only a short distance from it. It is by much the largest and 
most respectable looking building in the county, and perhaps in 
the eastern division of the Province. The length of this edifice 
is 72 feet, its breadth 45, and the height of its spire no feet. It is 
capable of accommodating eight hundred people. There is also 
in the center of this village a small Presbyterian meeting house, 
and another of larger and more convenient dimensions (54x36) is 
now erected and partly finished. In this vicinity is a small Baptist 
meeting house, in which missionaries of different denominations of 
dissenters occasionally preach, and where a part of the inhabitants 
meet regularly every Sabbath for religious worship. Dorchester 
Village (meaning Antigonish), from its central situation, is the prin- 
cipal trading place in the district, having roads of communication 
to Guysborough, Morristown, the Gulf Shore, St. Mary, Addington 
and Merigomish. The entrance of the harbor which is eight miles 
from the village, is narrow and rather difficult of access, there being 
only nine feet of water on the bar at high tides. Two miles from 
its mouth are the gypsum rocks, which afford employment for the 
vessels of Arichat and the adjoining ports. At the first settlement 
of the district an attempt was made to build a town on a spot of 
ground near the harbor, which is still designated as 'Town Point/ 
but which failed, like every other attempt to make the formation 
of villages precede the cultivation of the land." 

Haliburton's History has become a scarce volume, and it has 
seemed to me that it would be a matter of interest to see the place 
as he saw it so long ago. The> natural features have, of course, 
remained the same, and those who are familiar with the locality will 
in reading these extracts have an opportunity to note the changes 
that have been wrought by the hand of man. With this word of 
explanation, we will continue a little further with the historian's 
description: "Twelve miles westward of Cape George, and twenty- 
one eastward from the entrance of Pictou harbor, is Arisaig Pier, 
which was projected by the late Rev. Alexander McDonald, for 
the purpose of affording shelter to boats and small vessels from the 


sudden and violent gales of wind that prevail upon this coast dur- 
ing the spring and autumn. It forms the only harbor from Antigon- 
ish to Merigomish, and is of infinite service to the trade of Canseau, 
Cape George, Pictou, and the intermediate coast. The principal 
roads in the district are the Gulf road, Manchester road, Canseau, 
St. Mary's, and Morristown roads. The former is the post road to 
Malignant Cove and Pictou. It passes through the settlements on 
the coast for several miles, and presents an extensive view of the 
Northumberland Strait, parts of Cape Breton, and Prince Edward's 
Island, and the Highlands of Pictou and Mount Tom. The Man- 
chester road traverses a part of the elevated land that lies between 
the north and south branches of the Pomquet, affording splendid 
views of the valley of the South and West Rivers, and the country 
bounded by the Highlands between St. Mary's and the Merigomish. 
This chain bounds the view to the northwest, and terminates with 
majestic boldness at St. George. Eastward of the cape St. George's 
Bay is seen over the gently declining lands in the rear of Pomquet 
and Tracadie, and beyond are the Highlands of Cape Breton, 
stretching northward until they are lost in the distance. The St. 
Mary's road leads through nearly the centre of the tract that lies 
between the south and west branches of the Antigonish, or College 
Lake, and along the margin of that beautiful body of water, for six 
miles. The land on both sides of this lake, particularly toward its 
upper extremity, rises' from it with abruptness to a considerable ele- 
vation, but without rocks or precipices. The water is nearly as pure 
as a spring and of great depth; it is never frozen, with the exception 
of a small piece at its head, until after several weeks of severe frost. 
In addition to these lines of communication, there are several other 
main roads, all of which are again intersected by cross roads. This 
county is now very readily accessible, and the great enterprises now 
on foot in Cape Breton have very much increased the passenger 
traffic through this highly favored region. There will not be lacking 
men among them who will have an eye to the advantages of one kind 
and another of the natural resources of the county in iron, plaster, 
copper, agricultural lands, fisheries, grazing and other openings for 


Dawson, in his "Acadian Geology" edition of 1878, has given 
quite an extended paragraph 1 to the rock structure of this county. 
It can hardly be misleading to any extent, and more detailed ac- 


counts can be found in the reports of the Geological Survey. It is 
here introduced as follows: 

"The Pictou district is bounded on the south by an irregular 
tract of slaty and syenitic rocks, forming the hills of Merigomish 
and those extending toward Cape George. In the coast section, the 
last and lowest rocks of the Pictou Carboniferous district are seen 
near McCara's Brook to rest unconformably on slates to be subse- 
quently described, and which are of Silurian age. Passing these, 
towards Malignant Cove, the Lower Carboniferous conglomerates 
and sandstones are again seen, but very much disturbed and altered 
by heat. It is a very instructive study to compare the soft con- 
glomerates and their interstratified trap at McCara's Brook with 
the continuation of the same beds eastward of Arisaig Pier, where 
they appear fused into hard quartzose rocks, in some of which the 
original texture is entirely obliterated. 

"The conglomerate and sandstone seen at Malignant Cove con- 
duct us through a gap in the metamorphic hills, or round by Cape 
St. George, to the gypsiferous rocks of the neighborhood of Anti- 
gonish. These run along the south side of the metaphoric hills with 
general southerly dips, from Cape St. George to the western ex- 
tremity of this district, and exhibit a very large development of the 
gypsums and limestones, the latter containing some of the fossils 
already noticed in other localities. 

"At Cape St. George the Lower Carboniferous conglomerates 
appear to be largely developed, and associated with these are sand- 
stones and shale containing fossil plants, and also a bed of gypsum. 
The shale and the fossils are precisely similar to those of Horton 
Bluff. Similar scales occur farther to the westward holding the same 
fossils, and are stated to be so rich in bituminous matter that hopes 
are entertained of utilizing them as a source of coal oil. In the vicin- 
ity of Morristown there are red sandstones, conglomerate, and gray 
sandstone, the latter containing Catamites Sternbergia, and other 
coal formation fossils, and no doubt higher in the series than the beds 
last mentioned. Near Morristown these beds dip to the northeast, 
and have been disturbed by a spur of trappean or altered rock, con- 
taining kernels of epidote, and associated with contorted dark shales, 
probably Lower Carboniferous. Beyond this interruption, the coast 
shows soft reddish sandstones and shale, with some beds of gray 
sandstone and conglomerate, dipping to the S. S. E. at an angle of 
fifty degrees, and on these rests a bed of limestone nearly one hun- 


dred feet thick; in its lower portion laminated, the laminae being 
occasionally broken up so as to give it a fragmentary or brecciated 
appearance; in its upper part compact, and penetrated by small gyp- 
sum veins. On this, limestone and gypsum, above which is a great 
thickness of pure flesh-colored gypsum; on this again white fine- 
grained gypsum with minute grains of carbonate of lime. The 
whole thickness of the gypsum is about 200 feet and it forms a beau- 
tiful cliff fronting the sea. This gypsum and limestone can be traced 
with scarcely any interruption to the village of Antigonish, about 
five miles distant, where the same beds are seen in the banks of 
Right's River. Near the mouth of this river, at the head of Anti- 
gonish harbor, is a thick bed of white gypsum, dipping to the south- 
west. Succeeding this in descending order, after a small interval, is 
a bed of dark-colored limestone, in which, at different points where 
it appears I found Productus semirectulatns, with other shells occur- 
ring in the East River ; and Productus Cora, a shell not yet met with 
in the East River limestones, but very characteristic of the Gyp- 
sife.rous formation in other parts of the Province. Below this lime- 
stone there is another break, also showing traces of sandstones and 
a bed of gypsum, and then a thick bed of dark limestone, partly 
laminated and partly brecciated, without fossils, and containing in 
its fissures thin plates of copper-ore. Beneath this limestone is a 
great thickness of reddish conglomerate, composed of pebbles of 
igneous and metamorphic rocks, and varying in texture from a very 
coarse conglomerate to a coarse-grained sandstone. In one place it 
contains a few beds of dark sandstones and shales. These are suc- 
ceeded by red, gray and dark sandstones and dark shales in a dis- 
turbed condition, but probably underlying the conglomerate. They 
contain a few fossil plants, especially a Lepidodendron, which ap- 
pears to be identical with the species already mentioned as found in 
a similar geological position at Horton and Noel. 

"On the west side of the Ohio River, about fifteen miles from 
Antigonish, this Carboniferous district terminates against the meta- 
morphic hills, which here occupy a wide surface, and send off a long 
branch to Cape Porcupine in the Strait of Canseau. This branch 
consists in a great part of slates older than the Carboniferous system, 
but it also appears to contain altered carboniferous rocks. It bounds 
this district on the south. Along its northern side, the Lower Car- 
boniferous limestone and gypsum appear at the north end of Loch- 
aber Lake, at the South River, and at the northern end of the Strait 


of Canseau, that are probably continuous, or nearly so, between these 
points. In the coast between the places last mentioned and Anti- 
gonish, carboniferous rocks, principally sandstones, appear in several 
places; and toward Pomket and Tracadie, in the ceneral part of the 
district, the coal formation, probably its lower portion, is seen; and 
small seams of coal have been found in it. . I have had an oppor- 
tunity of examining' them, but have no doubt that they form the 
southern edge of the coal field underlying St. George's Bay, and 
the eastern side of which appears at Port Hood in Cape Breton. 

"The Antigonish area thus appears to be of triangular form, with 
the Lower Carboniferous beds extending along its western and 
southeastern sides, and the coal formation occupying a limited space 
on the northern side. It is rich in limestone and gypsum, and has 
that fertile calcareous soil which so generally prevails over the rocks 
of the gypsiferous series. 

"Until recently it was supposed that all the carboniferous rocks in 
the vicinity of Antigonish harbor were referable to the Lower Car- 
boniferous; but I learn from a manuscript report of Mr. J. Campbell 
that a limited, though productive, coal-field has been discovered in 
the vicinity of South Lake Brook, extending northeasterly from the 
road to Malignant Cove." 




The following papers on the educational institutions of Nova 
Scotia were contributed by the writers who were in close touch with 
their subjects. 

The Rev. Dr. Trotter, the President of Acadia, prevailed upon 
the Rev. Dr. Saunders to speak for that college. 

Inasmuch that Mt. Allison of Sackville was largely supported and 
patronized by the Methodists of Nova Scotia, and being located 
almost on the line between this Province and New Brunswick it was 
deemed proper to include it among our colleges with the under- 
standing that it was by no means all ours. Mr. Archibald was the 
choice of that institution when selecting a proper person to repre- 
sent its history and equipments. 

Rev. Dr. Thomson, Rector of St. Francis Xaviers, has made a 
brief contribution for his college that might have been extended, 
had he cared to take up the space accorded to him for that purpose. 
In fact, I am persuaded that he has been far too modest in the mat- 
ter. This institution, founded as a theological school, has very 
much widened the scope of its work, and has in fact given itself to 
secular education with much earnestness and ability. 

Dalhousie College has been represented by Professor Walter C. 
Murray, who has given somewhat more of a detailed account than 
I had purposed for this book, but it is the result of much painstak- 
ing work, and has a local historical value that should make it a wel- 
come contribution. 

Professor De Mille of Kings has spoken for the oldest of 
Canadian colleges and doubtless has done her ample justice. 

The Superintendent of Education, Dr. A. H. Mackay, has given 
us a valuable paper on our common schools that, after all, are the 
most important educational institutions upon which the great mass 
of our people must depend for their book learning. 

Superintendent Eraser has given us a lucid account of the School 
for the Blind to which he has given the labor and devotion of his 
life these many years. 



Mr. Patterson of the Acaciaville' School has given an account of 
their work and their ability to continue it. 

St. Andrews School at Annapolis would have had a fuller notice 
but for the absence of Head Master Bradford. 

Lack of space has prevented a notice of all the deserving schools 
in our Province. The Halifax Ladies' College, in connection with 
the Presbyterian Church, is well worthy of honorable mention. It 
is under the control of twenty-one Directors, and the President of 
that Board is Rev. R. Laing. The Principal of the college is Miss 
Ethelwyn Pitcher, B. A. (McGill) with whom is associated a staff of 
twelve teachers. 

Another opportunity for the fair sex to obtain educational ad- 
vantages is afforded by the Church School for Girls, Edgehill, Wind- 
sor. It was established by the authority and under the patronage 
of the Synod of the Diocese of Nova Scotia, and the Synod of the 
Diocese of Fredericton, Incorporated (Limited) 1891. Lady Prin- 
cipal, Miss LeFoy, from Cheltenham Ladies' College, England, and 
with her are associated ten excellent teachers. 

Under the direction and patronage of the Roman Catholic 
Church is the Academy of The Sacred Heart, Spring Garden Road, 
Halifax, for boarders and scholars. The community numbers 
forty, of whom fifteen conduct classes each day in various branches. 
The French and German languages are taught by natives of both 
countries, as well as all the branches of an English education. A 
school with an excellent reputation. 

A school for the education of the deaf and dumb has been forty- 
three years in operation in Halifax. It provides for the education of 
the deaf and dumb of all the maritime Provinces. Pupils from the 
Province of Nova Scotia between the ages of six and eighteen are 
admitted free. Both the manual and the oral methods are employed 
in the institution. 

James Fearon, Esq., is the Principal and the President is Hon. 
D. McN. Parker, M. D. 

My thanks are due to all who have so readily responded to my 
invitation that placed a space at their disposal. I am thinking that 
their work in the following pages will long remain a source of refer- 
ence to students of our educational affairs. 



Written for Markland by Professor Walter C. Murray, of Dalhotisie College. 

On the 26th of August, 1814, Lieutenant Sir John Sherbrooke, 
Governor of Nova Scotia, and Admiral Griffiths sailed out of Halifax 
with a small force to take part in the war between Britain and the 
United States. On September ist they captured the port of Castine. 
Subsequently that part of Maine between the Penobscot and New 
Brunswick was in the possession of the British. When peace was 
declared and the British left in 1815 they brought with them to 
Halifax 11,596 i8s. 9d., the amount of the duties collected at Cas- 

In a letter to Sir John Sherbrooke, written on the loth of Octo- 
ber, 1815, Lord Bathurst, the Colonial Secretary, requested him to 
suggest any improvement which it might be deemed expedient to 
undertake in the Province, and to which these funds might be 
devoted. Sir John seems to have found it no easy matter to deter- 
mine which objects were the most important and beneficial to the 
Province. At a meeting of the Council, held on the 22d of June, 
1816, he recommended that the matter be left over for his successor. 

The Earl of Dalhousie, after distinguishing himself in the Penin- 
sula campaign and again on the field of Waterloo, was appointed 
Governor of Nova Scotia on the 24th of July, 1816. Exactly 
three months later he arrived at Halifax and took the oath 
of office. Apparently he also found it difficult to decide upon the 
best object for the appropriation of the fund. But, as befitted a son 
of Scotland, his thoughts turned to education. On the nth of 
December, 1817, the Council unanimously approved of his proposal 
to use the funds for the establishment of a seminary for the higher 
.learning, and for the Garrison Library. On the I7th of the same 
month he wrote to Lord Bathurst for the Prince Regent's approval. 

There were present at the Council, that day, the Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Chief Justice Blowers, Justice Stewart (all Governors of 
King's College), Justice Halliburton, Chas. Morris, Surveyor Gen- 
eral; Mr. Wallace, Provincial Treasurer; Chas. Hill, "an opulent and 
respectable merchant": Thos. Jeffrey, Collector of Customs, and P. 
Wodehouse, Dockyard Commissioner. Of these the Governor and 
Messrs. Wallace and Hill were members of the Church of Scotland. 
Bishop Stanser, who was ill in England, Attorney General Uniacke, 
and J. Black, a Scottish merchant, were absent. 


Through all the vicissitudes of its fortunes, save one, Dalhousie 
has remained true to the principles laid down by Lord Dalhousie 
in his communication to the Council. So important is his statement 
of the objects of the college that it deserves to be quoted: 

"I wish again to call the attention of his Majesty's Council to 
the subject of the Castine duties which still lay unappropriated. I 
have given it the most anxious consideration. I do not agree with 
Sir John Sherbrooke in his suggestion of a House of Industry, nor 
with that of almshouses. I think these rather offer a retreat for the 
improvident than encouragement to the industrious part of society. 
"The Shubenacadie Canal would prosper better as the work of 
a private company. These works are always done by that means. 

"I formerly thought that it might be applied to the removal of 
Kings College to a situation here more within our reach, but I am bet- 
ter informed now and I find that if that college were in Halifax it is 
open only to those who live within its walls, and observe strict 
college rules and services. 

"A seminary for the higher branches of education is certainly 
wanted in Halifax, the capital of the Province, the seat of the Legis- 
lature, the courts of justice, the military and mercantile members of 
society. It has occurred to me that the founding of a college or an 
academy on the same plan and principle as that in Edinburgh is an 
object more likely than any other I can think of to prove imme- 
diately beneficial to this young country. 

"The Edinburgh College provides for the higher branches or 
classes of Greek, Latin and mathematics. Professors are appointed 
on small salaries, having privileges of lecturing in open class to 
students who take their admission at one, two or three guineas for 
the whole course or term. 

"Their classes are open to all sects of religion, to strangers pass- 
ing a week in town, to the military, to young men of the law in 
short, to all who choose to devote an hour to study in the forenoon. 
The professors are able and diligent, as on their personal exertions 
depends the character of the class and of the individual who presides 
in it. 

"Such an institution at Halifax, open to all occupations and sects 
of religion, restricted to such branches only as are applicable to our 
present state, and having the power to expand with the growth and 
improvement of society, would, I am confident, be found to be of 
important service to this Province. 


"The amount of Castine duties, after deducting a payment made 
to General Gosselin, is 10,750 currency. From that sum I would 
set aside 1,000 for another purpose. 

"I would apply 3,000 for a building of stone and sink the 
remainder for the support of the professorships. I am aware that this 
would be scarcely sufficient without an annual vote of the Legis- 

"As a situation for this institution I would suggest that area in 
front of St. Paul's Church, now the Grand Parade. 

"As trustees of the institution I would suggest officers ex officio, 
the Lieutenant Governor, the Chief Justice, the Lord Bishop of 
Nova Scotia, the Speaker of the Assembly, the Treasurer of the 

The minister of the Scotch Church in Halifax was added to the 
Trustees by Lord Dalhousie in his letter to Lord Bathurst, but his 
name does not appear in the Act of Incorporation. 

On the 6th of February, 1818, Lord Bathurst wrote in reply 
that his Royal Highness the Prince Regent had been "pleased to 
express his entire approbation of the funds in question being applied 
to the foundation of a seminary in Halifax for the higher classes of 
learning and toward the establishment of a Garrison Library." 

What reasons induced Lord Dalhousie to found another college? 
Akins in his brief account of King's College says that when the 
House of Assembly made provision in 1788 and '89 for the estab- 
lishment of a college at Windsor, "The dissenters in the House 
cheerfully united with the Churchmen to make the requisite provi- 
sion for this undertaking under the impression that the college 
would meet fully the existing requirements of the people and would 
raise the character of the Province." When the Governors were 
drawing up the statutes for the government of King's College in 
1804, Judge Croke induced a majority, in spite of the vigorous and 
continued protests of Bishop Charles Inglis, to require "every stu- 
dent in his matriculation (or joining the .seminary) to subscribe his 
assent to the XXXIX Articles of Faith of the Church of Eng- 
land," and also to adopt the following by-law: "No member of the 
university shall frequent the Romish Mass or the meeting houses 
of Presbyterians, Baptists or Methodists, * * * or shall be 
present at any seditious or rebellious meeting." 

The Bishop appealed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who 
altered the statutes, but "did not go far enough," so Bishop Inglis 


wrote to Dr. Cochran. (Hind's King's College, p. 44.) Candidates 
for degrees were required to sign the Thirty-nine Articles, and the 
obnoxious by-law was not withdrawn. 

The altered statutes were, however, not published. After the 
foundation of Dalhousie had been sanctioned, but before building 
was begun on the 8th of May, 1818, Lord Dalhousie induced the 
Board of King's College to repeal "such parts of the statutes of the 
college as required a subscription to the XXXIX Articles of the 
Church of England to be made by candidates for degrees, and also 
the statutes which direct the oath of supremacy to be taken, and 
inhibit students from frequenting the Romish Mass, the houses of 
Presbyterian and other Dissenters from the Church of England." 
But the Archbishop refused his sanction, although at the request of 
Bishop Inglis he had previously sanctioned the removal of the 
subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles from the time of admission 
to the college to the time of conferring degrees. His letter of 
refusal was dated January i, 1819. (Hind, p. 50-4.) Thereafter 
Lord Dalhousie energetically hastened the building of a college in 
Halifax to be "open to all sects of religion." 

Pictou Academy was started in 1805, the year after Croke's 
miserable statutes. Through the energy and ability of the Rev. 
Dr. Thomas McCulloch, and the generosity and loyalty of the people 
of Pictou, it had prospered greatly. In 1816, it sought incorpora- 
tion. The Council, notwithstanding the opposition of the House, 
inserted a clause requiring the "Trustees and teachers to be members 
of the English or Presbyterian churches:" Pictou became almost 
as exclusive as King's. It was at a greater distance than King's from 
the capital of the Province, the centre of the political, military, and 
commercial life of the colony. 

Lord Dalhousie had two objects in view in founding the col- 
lege "to provide a seminary for the higher branches of education," 
open to all occupations and sects of religion, "and to have this semi- 
nary at the capital of the Province, the seat of the Legislature, the 
courts of justice, the military and mercantile society. 

When the union of King's and Dalhousie under the constitution 
and government of King's, without the restrictive statutes, seemed 
probable in 1824, Lord Dalhousie wrote thus to Sir James Kempt, 
Governor of Nova Scotia: "If these proposals (i. e. the removal of 
the institution to Halifax, open lectures in college, instruction and 
honors, with the exception of Church degrees, free to dissenters 


of all classes) be finally approved, I think the very character and 
name of Dalhousie College should at once be lost in that of the 
other, so that the style of King's College should alone be known and 
looked up to." (Akins, pp. 41, 42.) 

At the first meeting of the Trustees Lord Dalhousie proposed 
St. Paul's for the name of the college. No decision about the name was 
reached until 1819, when the Earl applied for a Royal charter for the 
"Halifax College." But when it was found that a Royal charter would 
cost 600 the canny Scot concluded that a Provincial charter would 
do as well. After Dalhousie left for Canada the Provincial Legis- 
lature was asked to incorporate the Governors of the college in 
Halifax to be called "Dalhousie College." This was granted January 
13, 1821. On the I9th of December, 1818, the grant of the Grand 
Parade was made to the Trustees for a site for the college. 

On the 22d of May, 1820, Lord Dalhousie laid the corner-stone 
of the new building in the presence of the officers of the garrison 
and the Navy and the members of the Legislature. This was his 
last act before leaving for Canada, where for eight years he was 
"Governor in Chief." 

As early as 1818, plans for the new building had been prepared, 
but had been set aside. In 1819, the Legislature granted 2,000, 
and building was begun. When Lord Dalhousie left Nova Scotia 
the House voted him the usual grant of 1,000 given to retiring 
Governors. This he declined, and the Legislature granted it to the 
college that had been named in honor of him. In 1823, a loan of 
5,000 was made to the college by the Legislature. This loan gave 
rise to many bitter debates then and in, every succeeding decade, 
until the courage of Dr. Tupper and the loyalty of Joe Howe united 
in delivering the college from its enemies in 1864. 

Two rooms of the building were ready for classes in 1822. Up to 
June of that year the total cost had been i 1,806 2s. This old build- 
ing, bearing the likeness of the Provincial building, stood on the 
north end of the Grand Parade until 1887. At different times it 
held within its walls the Bank of Nova Scotia (in 1832 and until the 
Governor took the college for a hospital during the cholera out- 
break), the Post Office (1852-72), the Provincial Museum, the Me- 
chanic's Institute (1853-58), the Literary Society, and an infants' 
school. When the college was dormant its rooms were used by pri- 
vate teachers. Rooms in the basement were let for commercial 



Four attempts were made to unite King's and Dalhousie. In 
1823, at the suggestion of Sir James Kempt, King's College ap- 
pointed Dr. Inglis, Rector of St. Paul's and afterward Bishop, 
and Dr. Porter, the President, a committee to confer with 
the Hon. Mr. Wallace, Provincial Treasurer, and S. G. W. 
Archibald, Speaker of the Assembly, a committee from Dalhousie 
College, about terms of union. A bill was drafted whereby the 
colleges were to unite under the name of "the United Colleges of 
Dalhousie and King's." King's was to withdraw the restrictive 
clauses, add the Treasurer of the Province, the only member not on 
both Boards, to its Board of Governors, and come to Halifax. Dal- 
housie was to retain its name and location. The constitution (with- 
out its restrictive clauses), the officials and staff of King's were to be 
those of the new institution. Chief Justice Blowers, a Governor of 
both King's and Dalhousie, and Dr. Cochran, the Vice-President of 
King's, bitterly opposed the union. The veto of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury was successfully invoked. Meanwhile Dr. Inglis secured 
contributions in England for the use of the college in Windsor, and 
its friends now became indifferent to union. 

Four years after, in 1829, the question of union was again dis- 
cussed. This time Sir George Murray, the Colonial Secretary, 
urged union, and later the Imperial Parliament was induced 
to withdraw the annual grant of 1,000 to King's in order 
to compel that college to enter the union. Twice, in 1832 
and in 1836, the Boards of King's and Dalhousie conferred 
and practically agreed upon a basis of union. The Colonial 
Secretaries had been troubled with representations and counter- 
representations about disputes between the Council and the Assem- 
bly, principally about grants to Pictou Academy and King's Col- 
lege and the loan to Dalhousie. The Assembly supported Dr. McCul- 
loch and Pictou Academy; the friends of King's and Dalhousie were 
in a majority in the Council. Apparently the union of King's and 
Dalhousie would remove the grounds for separate grants and build 
up one strong institution. King's resisted as a unit, when the sur- 
render of the Royal charter was demanded in 1835. The Archbishop 
of Canterbury again intervened and the agitation ceased. 

Nearly half a century passed before the question was revived. 
Again the Governors decided Upon union, but this time the alumni in- 
tervened and consideration was defeated in 1885. In 1901, King's 


made overtures ; the Governors adopted a scheme ; the alumni resisted ; 
the synod divided; and the question was deferred until 1903. 


As early as May 15, 1820, the Governors of Dalhousie wrote to 
Professor Monk, of Cambridge, asking him to recommend a suitable 
man for Principal. Three hundred pounds, with class fees, was 
offered to* one qualified to teach mathematics and classics. Chill 
penury nipped the scheme in the bud. 

Again, in 1830, the Governors offered the position of Principal, 
with a salary of 300, to Dr. J. S. Menus, of Ayr. He accepted and 
intended to leave for Nova Scotia in October, 1821. Nothing more is 
known of him; with him, the Rev. Thomas Atkin, who had a private 
school in the college, was to have been associated. 

Dalhousie and King's could not work together. However, 
Pictou and Dalhousie might. So, on the 6th of August, 1838, the 
Rev. Thomas McCulloch, D. D., Principal of Pictou Academy, was 
appointed President "for the present," and Professor of Logic, Rhet- 
oric, and Moral Philosophy of Dalhousie College. Apparently the 
forces of these two institutions were united. A month later the 
Governors appointed the Rev. James Mackintosh and Alexander 
Romans to the chairs of Mathematics and Classics respectively. 
The Rev. A. Crawley, a distinguished Baptist clergyman of the city, 
a graduate of King's College, a. man of unquestioned ability and 
scholarship, had applied for the position two months before at the 
suggestion of the Governors of the college and had been promised 
the support of a majority two or three days previous to the appoint- 
.rnent. To-day there is no difference of opinion about the justice or 
wisdom of the rejection of Mr. Crawley. It led to the unfortunate 
denominational system of collegiate education which has crippled 
the Province for the best part of a century and bids fair to continue 
its blighting influence on university education. Mr. Crawley, as he 
asserts in his letters to the Nova Scotian, was an earnest advocate of 
a single university until bigotry excluded him from Dalhousie. His 
rejection led to the development of Horton Academy into Queen's 
College, afterward called Acadia. Then followed grants to the de- 
nominational colleges. These grants stimulated denominations with- 
out colleges to start them, and prevented those with colleges from 
uniting. To-day the system has produced governmental paralysis so 
far as university education is concerned. 




What produced the sudden change of mind of the Governing 
Board of Dalhousie College? There were three members present at 
the meetings the Governor, Sir Colin Campbell, who was then 
fighting liowe and the popular party in their attacks on the Council; 
S. G. W. Archibald, the Speaker of the House, Mr. Crawley's loyal 
supporter; C. W. Wallace, Treasurer of the Province, son of the late 
Michael Wallace, late President of the Council and Treasurer of 
the Province, once a bitter opponent of Dr. McCulloch. When 
Queen's College applied for a charter Mr. Crawley stated before 
the House that Sir Colin had told him that he would have been 
appointed had he been a Kirkman. Speaker Archibald dissented 
from Sir Colin's view that Dalhousie had intended his college to 
follow its model at Edinburgh to the extent of appointing to its 
chairs only members of the Church of Scotland. Wallace had prom- 
ised to support Crawley, but at the last moment he voted for 
Romans, because, so he stated before the House, he thought it 
unfair to appoint another dissenter with Dr. McCulloch. 

When Dr. McCulloch was transferred to Dalhousie with 200 
of the Pictou grant the Kirkmen were furious. The Pictou 
Observer declared it to be an imperious duty to dissuade all parents 
and guardians from placing their children or wards in contact with 
what they honestly believed to be dangerous and unconstitutional 
tenets. It urged as reasons against the appointment of Dr. McCul- 
loch the tenor of his past life, his sectarian bitterness, his political 
bias, his advanced age, his little success as a public teacher, his 
malignant hostility to the Church of Scotland, and finally it 
implored the Governor, "by the intentions of the founder, by the 
interest of the people, by the virtues of the noble dead * * * by 
the claims of your children * * * by the demands of decency, 
* * * to cancel the appointment of Dr. McCulloch and to post- 
pone the appointment of the professors for six months." The synod 
of the Church of Scotland in Nova Scotia, in a memorial to Sir 
Colin, urged delay until better men could be secured. It is said 
that they privately insisted that the professorships should be filled 
by members of the Church of Scotland. 

Sir Colin and Wallace were either strengthened in their preju- 
dice or frightened for the future of the college. If the Kirkmen 
the loyal supporters in the past were to turn against the college, 
as the Observer advised, ruin seemed inevitable. Crawley's 
appointment would put the dissenters in control, and at that time 



the Church of Scotland felt more at home with the Church of Eng- 
land than with its Presbyterian sister. It was not because they 
loved the Baptists less, but that they hated the Seceders more that 
Mr. Crawley was rejected. 

Lord Dalhousie had founded the college as a protest against the 
exclusiveness of creed and of class. It was for the people "open 
to all occupations and sects of religion." The democratic ideas of 
its founder won for it the life-long devotion of Joe Howe and 
William Young. Lord Dalhousie was a soldier, not a statesman. 
He placed the people's college in the hands of the official class. Its 
Governors were the Governor, the Chief Justice, the Bishop, the 
Provincial Treasurer, and the Speaker (the only representative of the 
people). He had fought the exclusiveness of King's, yet he placed 
his new college in the hands of the Governors of King's. For only 
one member (the Provincial Treasurer) of the Dalhousie Board was 
not on the King's Board. 

Joe Howe, in 1839, the next session after Crawley's rejection, 
introduced a bill to liberalize the trusts for Dalhousie College by 
appointing a non-sectarian and popular board. In another debate 
he thus spoke of Dalhousie' s evil fortune: 

"It appears to have been the fate of this institution to have had 
foisted into its management those who were hostile to its interests, 
whose names were in its trusts but whose hearts were in other institu- 
tions. These, if they did nothing against, took care that they did 
nothing for it; their object was to smother it with indifference. 
Surrounded by such men, and clothed with a sectarian character 
for twenty-three years, it stood a monument of folly." 

The one comforting thing in this sorry business was the fact that 
Lord Dalhousie was spared the pain of seeing his democratic 
designs frustrated by the men whom he had trusted. He had died 
six months before. 

The college opened on November ist with sixteen or seventeen 
students. Its prospects were black indeed. Dr. McCulloch was 
broken in health, and his enemies forgot nothing. Romans was a 
man of little force of character. His resignation was accepted in 1842. 
Mackintosh had conducted a fairly successful school in St. Matthew's 
and was assistant minister of that church ; but his fondness for soci- 
ety and its pleasures drew him away from his work. The hopes of 
the college collapsed with the death of Dr. McCulloch on the Qth of 
September, 1843. Classes were still conducted within it, but its life 
was gone. 



The denominational grants kept the college question before the 
public. Dalhousie's board was reorganized with William Young 
for chairman and Howe as one of the members. They abandoned 
the college idea in despair, and opened a high school in 1849, with 
Thomas McCuiloch as head master and three other teachers. Again 
in 1856 they made another attempt with Hugo Reid, a man of some 
ability and energy, as principal. He remained for four years. 


The union of the Congregational College at Liverpool, N. S., 
with Dalhousie resulted in a renewal of college work, with 
Professors Frederick J. Tompkins, M. A. ' (Lond.), and George 
Cornish, B. A., of New College, London, both of Gorham 
College, in the chairs of mathematics and classics. Within 
a year the college relapsed into a high school. Meanwhile 
negotiations with the Presbyterians had been going on at odd 
intervals. The union of the Free and U. P. Churches, and 
the movement in the Church of Scotland, headed by the Revs. G. M. 
Grant and Allan Pollok brought matters to a crisis. In 1862 Dal- 
housie agreed to appoint three professors at $1,200 each. The 
Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces agreed to support 
two, and the Church of Scotland one. The churches were given one 
representative on the governing board for each professorship en- 
dowed or supported to the. extent of $1,200 per annum. The col- 
lege was to be non-sectarian and the Board of Governors was to 
continue independent of any denominational control. The college 
as thus reorganized was opened November i, 1863, with forty regu- 
lar and twenty occasional students. 


There were two periods in the history of the college when hopes 
were high and the stimulus of new movements left deep their im- 
press upon professors and students. The first was in the early 
sixties, when a band of able and enthusiastic professors entered 
upon their duties. Professor Johnson, whose merits have not yet 
received their due share of recognition, came to the chair of Classics 
from Trinity College, Dublin, imbued with its passion for thorough- 
ness and exactness. Professor Macdonald, one of Aberdeen's most dis- 
tinguished students in the fifties, by his brilliancy as a public lecturer' 


and by his great power as a teacher, made the name of Dalhousie 
known and respected throughout Eastern Canada. Professor Law- 
son, who had been trained in Edinburgh and Germany, and had been 
professor in Queens College, Kingston, brought to Dalhousie an 
enthusiasm for scientific work that made him a leader in the applica- 
tion of scientific methods to agriculture, and placed him at the 
head of the botanists of Canada. When Professor Lyall was ap- 
pointed he was regarded as the leading metaphysician in Canada. 
The name of Professor DeMille is too well-know r n to require words 
of mine to reveal the manner of man he was. Nor need I speak of 
the large-mindedness and broad humanity of the venerable prin- 
cipal, James Ross. 

The Rev. John P'ryor, D. D., formerly President of Acadia, was 
offered the chair of Classics by the Governors, but he declined it. 
Professor Thomas McCulloch came from Truro to ^ the chair of 
Natural Philosophy. Within two years he died. At his death the 
Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces undertook the support 
of Professor Lyall, and the Governors appointed James DeMille, 
a graduate of Acadia and professor of Acadia, to the chair of 
Rhetoric and History. M. Pujol was appointed Tutor of Modern 
Languages in 1863. The next year he was succeeded by Mr. James 

The Arts Faculty has always been the strength of the college. 
In 1868 a Medical Faculty was organized, although as early as Decem- 
ber, 1863, at the suggestion of Professor Lawson, the medical 
society was approached with a view to the establishment of a medi- 
cal school similar to that at Kingston. In 1870 the Medical Faculty 
began work with Hon. M. B. Almon, M. D., as president and Dr. 
A. P. Reid as dean and secretary. Dr. Farrell was one of the active 
supporters of the school. Insufficient accommodations and the 
inability of the Governors to provide a building, led to a movement 
of the medical men to build on their own responsibility; and in 
order to do this they secured an act of incorporation in 1873, which 
made them independent of Dalhousie. In 1874 all connection with 
Dalhousie was severed, though the medical school was anxious for 
the college to grant the degrees. The Halifax Medical College has 
to this day remained an independent and distinct college, conferring 
degrees in medicine. Under its present president, Dr. M. A. Curry; 
secretary, Dr. A. Halliday, of Glasgow; registrar, Dr. L. M. Silver, 
it continues to enjoy great prosperity. In 1885 Dalhousie organized 


an examining faculty of medicine, which confers degrees after exam- 
ination upon students trained in any recognized medical school. Upon 
Dr. Lindsay and Dr. Lawson much of the work of this faculty has 

In 1877, under the presidency of Dr. Lawson, with Dr. Bayne 
as secretary, and Drs. Somers and Honeyman as officers, an 
ambitious Technological Institute was organized. In the second 
year of its existence it had 127 students. 

In 1878 Dalhousie organized a Faculty of Science, but the want of 
funds caused it to lapse until 1891, when it was re-organized by 
Dr. J. G. MacGregor. 

In 1874 the Rev. G. W. Hill proposed that the Governors of 
the different universities be invited to confer about the establish- 
ment of one central university. His suggestion was unanimously 
adopted May I4th by the Dalhousie Board; and he, Sir William 
Young, Judge Ritchie, S. L. Shannon, Rev. G. M. Grant and Mr. 
Robson were appointed to represent Dalhousie. The original 
project was to "concentrate the talents of the different faculties" and 
let the denominational colleges confine themselves to the teaching 
of theology. Two> years later the University of Halifax, on the 
model of the University of London, was incorporated. Its Chan- 
cellor was the Rev. G. W. Hill. This university was expected to 
become the Provincial university, so far as the power of conferring 
degrees was concerned. The teaching was to be done in Acadia, 
Dalhousie, Kings, Mt. Allison, St. Francis Xavier's and St. Mary's 
Colleges. These colleges refused, however, to surrender their degree 
conferring powers. Examiners in the faculties of arts, science, law, 
and medicine were appointed. A small number of degrees were con- 
ferred in each faculty, but with the withdrawal of the annual grant of 
$2,000 the university ceased to exist in 1881. 

Dalhousie held aloof from the first. Her professors bitterly 
assailed the "paper university," and held that \vlaat was wanted was 
not more examining, but more teaching. They believed that the 
effect of an Examining University would be to hamper the teacher, 
whose best w r ork is done, not according to the rigid lines of a pre- 
scribed syllabus of study. These objections apply with the great- 
est force to such subjects as philosophy and literature. 
Yet granting the strength of these arguments, there is an- 
other side. The central examining university was a means of 
bringing the colleges together. It could have become the means 


of establishing something better. Its model, the University of Lon- 
don, and its sister, the University of Manitoba, have become teach- 
ing universities. Today the University of Halifax might have had 
teaching faculties of law, science, and medicine, as well as an examin- 
ing faculty of arts. The greatest credit is due to the far-sightedness 
of Mt. Allison for the part which she took. While the other colleges 
were neutral or hostile she was friendly. 

The financial history of Dalhousie in the pre-Munro era is dis- 
tressing. In 1864 Avard Longley proposed that the House require 
Dalhousie to repay the loan of 5,000 received forty years before. 
The leader of the Government, Dr. Charles Tupper, was threatened 
with the loss of the support of Mr. Longley's following if he resisted. 
Joe Howe, the leader of the opposition, had an opportunity to score 
a victory. But the courage of Tupper and the loyalty of Howe 
routed the enemies of the college in their last serious attack. 

In 1871 the college was threatened with the loss of $700 of its 
revenue through the removal of the postoffice. A committee of 
the Governors, consisting of Sir William Young, Judge Ritchie, and 
Rev. G. M. Grant, was appointed to raise a sustaining fund of 300 
per annum for five years. They succeeded. But in 1875 the col- 
lege was in a serious state. 

When the Presbyterian Church of the Lower Provinces joined 
forces with Dalhousie ,they transferred to the college 250, their share 
of the denominational grants. ' Dalhousie received directly no part 
of the Government grants until 1875, when the Governors ap- 
pealed to the Government for a due share. They had been denied 
a grant because they were not under the control of a denomination; 
they were unfairly accused of being Presbyterians and therefore de- 
nied the support due to a non-sectarian institution. At the same time 
the Church of Scotland, in Nova Scotia, received no grant because it 
had no college. The Hill government increased the grants, and gave 
to Dalhousie $3,000; Kings and Mt. Allison, $2,400 each; to St. 
Francis Xavier and St. Mary's, $1,500 each. At the end 
of five years these grants were to cease and not be re- 
newed. About 1879 Dalhousie's finances were in a desper- 
ate condition. The salaries of Principal Ross and Professors 
Lyall and Macdonald were paid by the Presbyterian Church. Pro- 
fessors Johnson, Lawson and DeMille were receiving from the col- 
lege funds $1,500 each, while Mr. Liechti, Tutor in modern lan- 
guages, was receiving about $500 a year from the same source. The 


invested funds, so a Governor of that time has said, did not exceed 
850,000. It requires little computation to see that the withdrawal 
of the Government grant of $3,000 a year left the college in a poor 
position to meet an annual expenditure of at least $6,000. So black 
was the prospect that the Governors felt unable to grant the usual 
$400 to supplement the fund of $350 a year, raised in the first in- 
stance by Rev. G. M. Grant, for the lectureship in physics first 
held by Dr. McGregor, and later by Dr. J. J. MacKenzie. Again 
in 1880, when Professor DeMille died, it was decided not to fill the 
chair of Rhetoric and History. The night is darkest just before the 


George Munro had taught mathematics in the Free Church 
Academy in Halifax from 1852 to 1857, before going to New York, 
where he established a publishing business and made a fortune. 
Ill health forced him to seek rest and strength in Nova Scotia. 
Naturally he was deeply interested in the fortunes of the edu- 
cational institutions in Halifax. From the Rev. John For- 
rest, then a Governor, he learned of the despair of the college. One 
beautiful afternoon, as they rowed over the Arm, and were talking 
of the college, Mr. Munro asked what chair was most needed, and 
when told that Physics was the greatest immediate need, he said, 
"If you will find the man, I will find the money." An endowment 
of $40,000, yielding a salary of $2,000 a year, was promised, and 
Dr. James Gordon MacGregor was appointed August 21, 1879. In 
rapid succession Mr. Munro established the Exhibitions and Bursar- 
ies, and endowed, the chairs of History, Law, English and Meta- 
physics, gifts exceeding $320,000. Mr. Munro's liberality was then 
unparalleled in Canada. Without doubt it stimulated the wealthy men 
in Montreal to come to the rescue of McGill, and it set the wealthy 
men of Halifax thinking about the wisdom of giving to the col- 
leges. It not only saved the college, it made it strong. 

In 1883 Alexander McLeod, one of Halifax's most successful mer- 
chants, died at the patriarchal age of 92 years, and left to the college 
about $100,000, the residue of an estate valued at $210,000. With 
this sum the Governors endowed the chairs of Classics and Chemistry 
and Modern Languages. 

Sir William Young became a member of the Board of Governors 
in 1842 and chairman in 1847. He had always been very active in 


the interests of the college. He was one of the leaders in securing 
the five years' fund of $6,000 in 1871, and the fund for scientific 
apparatus in 1878. In 1886 he offered $20,000 to the new building, 
and at his death ' he 'left $4,000 for a prize, and the residue of his 
estate, about $35,000. From him the college received loyal and 
devoted service as a Governor for forty-five years, and gifts amount- 
ing to over $62,000. 

John P. Mott, one of the ablest business men, and the most 
liberal philanthropist that Halifax has even seen, bequeathed the 
college $10,000 in 1890. Other bequests were received $500 for 
a prize .from Dr. Avery, 1,000 from Mrs. MacKenzie for a bursary, 
and $2,000 as an endowment for the library from Professor Mac- 
donald in 1901. 

From 1891 to 1896 the college was in receipt of a sustaining fund 
of $20,000. Within recent years considerable gifts for scientific 
apparatus, for the Law and Arts libraries, have been received. The 
Alumni association has given over $1,700, the graduating classes in 
Arts and Science since 1894 have given over $1,000 for the pur- 
chase of memorial collections of books for the Arts library, while the 
Law faculty has given and supported an excellent law library. 

The expansion that followed the Munro gifts made a new build- 
ing imperative. In the seventies the medical faculty left for want 
of room. The new law faculty and the science classes of the col- 
lege could not be accommodated in the old building on the Grand 
Parade. For many years a most disastrous quarrel had been ragin j 
between the city and the college over the right to the Parade. As 
long as the title was in dispute neither party was willing to spend 
money in making the spot an ornament to the city. The Parade 
became a reproach and a civic disgrace. The city claimed that at 
the founding of the town the parade had been set aside for a Com- 
mon, for the use of the town, and therefore that it could not be 
used for any other purpose without the town's consent. The college 
maintained that Cornwallis had intended it for military purposes, 
as its name, the Grand Parade, indicated, and therefore Lord Dal- 
housie was well within his rights in setting aside by grant, as he 
did in 1818, a portion for the college, and in driving the military 
nearer the barracks. A test case was carried to the courts. Justice 
Weatherbe charged in favor of the college but the jury disagreed. 
A compromise was agreed upon whereby the college relinquished 
all rights to that part of the Parade south of the line fifteen feet 


from the college, and received in return an annual grant of $500 
from the city. This compromise was ratified by an act of the Legis- 
lature in 1883. Later the city wished to build a city hall, and the 
college wanted a larger building. The college offered its building 
and site for $25,000 and a site on the Common, its present site. 
Sir William Young subscribed $20,000. The city accepted the offer, 
and the cornerstone of the new college building was laid April 27, 
1887, by Sir William Young. 

The educational history of this period is most important. Mr. 
Munro's princely gifts brought a brilliant band of professors and 
students to the college. J. Gorden MacGregor, then a D. Sc. of the 
University of London, became professor of Physics in 1879, and con- 
tinued building up a strong department in Physics until his work 
brought him a Fellowship in the Royal Society of London; an 
Honorary Doctorate from the University of Glasgow, and the ap- 
pointment to the chair of Natural Philosophy in the University of 
Edinburgh. Prof. J. Gould Schurman, a D. Sc. of Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, came to the chair of Metaphysics in 1882, and reformed the 
teaching of Philosophy. After four brief years he was called to 
take charge of the Sage School of Philosophy, and later of the Presi- 
dency of Cornell University. Dr. J. W. Alexander, a graduate of 
London and Johns Hopkins, filled the English chair from 1884 to 
1889, when he was appointed to Toronto University. Mr. James 
Seth succeeded Professor Schurman. After six years of service 
here he went first to Brown, and later to Cornell, and finally to the 
chair of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh. 

The Munro endowments brought to the college the Rev. John 
Forrest, who' became Professor of History in 1881 and President in 
1885; and Dr. Weldon, who became Dean of the Law Faculty in 
1883. The Law School gathered about it an enthusiastic band of 
volunteer lecturers, among whom were Sir John Thompson, Hon. R. 
Sedgwick, Justices Graham and Townsend and J. Y. Payzant. 

The Munro Exhibitions and Bursaries had a most stimulating 
effect upon the schools. The candidates for these prizes were well 
trained, mature, and able students, several of whom attained high 
distinction in Dalhousie, and afterward went abroad for further 
study, and so highly distinguished themselves in the larger univer- 
sities of the United States that Dalhousie, in spite of mean build- 
ings, meager equipment and a small staff, was regarded as one of the 
best of the smaller colleges. In the Halifax Herald of April, 1896, 


Dr. MacGregor showed that while Dalhousie had only 7 per cent 
of the college students of Canada during the six years preceding, its 
graduates won 21 per cent of the scholarships awarded to Canadian 
students by the larger universities of the United States. 

Important changes were introduced into the course of study. 
The work of the third and fourth years became largely elective, and 
the best students were permitted to take honor courses in special 
subjects. These honor courses had been instituted in 1871, but had 
not become very useful until the eighties. 

On the Qth of July, 1881, in response to a letter of inquiry from 
Principal Calkin of the Normal School of Truro, the Governors 
agreed to admit young women to all the privileges of the college, 
"so that hereafter there shall be no distinction in regard to college 
work between male and female students." Principal Ross, Dr. Law- 
son and Mr. Munro strongly supported the application. The follow- 
ing September Miss Lillie Calkin and Miss Margaret Newcomb, the 
daughter and niece of Principal Calkin, entered Dalhousie and cap- 
tured Munro Bursaries. Miss Newcomb, after a distinguished course, 
took the degree of B. A. with honors in 1885. Miss Calkin did not 
finish her course. Since then several young women have taken degrees 
with honors, and afterwards distinguished themselves in other col- 
leges. Last session there were over fifty young women attending 

During the nineties the college passed through a period of con- 
solidation. The lines laid down by the expansive movement of the 
eighties were followed, and the strength of the staff was devoted to 
filling up the details. Several important changes in the staff took 
place, and with the death of Professor Macdonald in 1901, and the 
departure of Professor MacGregor for Edinburgh, the ties binding 
the college of to-day with the traditions of the Dalhousie of the 
sixties have been severed. The new century finds the college with 
a young staff, new problems and an assured reputation, thanks to the 
excellent work of its former teachers. 

The rapid industrial development of Nova Scotia, and the pros- 
pect of great wealth, indicate the need for a new movement. The 
college must meet the new problems or cease to claim to be dis- 
charging its duty to the state. 

At present the new movement centres around the scientific de- 
partments. A School of Mines has this year (1902) been estab- 
lished with good prospects of success, and the Governors are actively 
engaged in raising an endowment. The Alumni is active and loyal. 


This year they raised over $20,000 for a memorial to the late Pro- 
fessor Macdonald. The success of the movement is assured. 

The bitterness between the colleges which once was too prom- 
inent, has practically disappeared. The confederation move- 
ment of the eighties, which sprung from a series of events 
of which the founding of the University of Halifax was one, 
was defeated by a slight majority by King's in 1885, and 
came within a short distance of being successful so far as Mt. Allison 
was concerned in 1881 or 1882 The latter college was willing to 
surrender its degree conferring powers, but not to come to Halifax. 
Dalhousie declined the proposal of the Provincial Government to 
surrender its degree conferring powers in 1881. The recent move- 
ment to unite King's and Dalhousie is meeting with some success. 

To-day, Dalhousie has an endowment of over $340,000, buildings, 
books and apparatus worth a