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Full text of "Marks and monograms on European and Oriental pottery and porcelain with historical notices of each manufactory : Preceded by an introductory essay on the vasa fictilia of the Greek, Romane-British, and mediaeval eras"

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Mrs. Robert M. Hogue 



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OTHER WORKS BY MR. CHAFFERS 

PUBLISHED BY' REEVES &> TURNER. 



A New Edition, considerably Augmented and carefully Revised 
by the Author. 

HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE, 

Illustrated, with Revised Tables of Annual' Date Letters 
Employed in the Assay Offices of the United Kingdom. 
316 pp., royal 8vo, cloth, gilt top, 16s. 

This (seventh) edition contains a History of the Goldsmith's trade 
in France, with extracts from the decrees relating thereto, and 
engravings of the standard and other Marks used in that country 
as well as in other foreign states. The Provincial Tables of Eng- 
land and Scotland contain many hitherto unpublished Marks ; all 
the recent enactments are quoted. The London Tables (which 
have never been surpassed for correctness) may now be considered 
complete. Many valuable hints to Collectors are given, and cases 
of fraud alluded to, Sec. 

THE COLLECTOR'S HANDBOOK OF MARKS AND 
MONOGRAMS ON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN OF 
THE RENAISSANCE AND MODERN PERIODS, 
selected from his larger work. Tenth Thousand. 204 pp., 
post 8vo, cloth gilt, 6s. 

The Companion to " Hall Marks on Gold and Silver Plate." 

GILD A AURIFABRORUM, a History of English Gold- 
smiths and Plateworkers and their Marks stamped on Plate, 
copied \n facsimile from celebrated Examples and the Earliest 
Records preserved at Goldsmiths' Hall, London, with their 
Names, Addresses, and Dates of Entry ; 2500 Illustrations ; 
also, Historical Account of the Goldsmiths' Company and 
their Hall Marks and Regalia ; the Mint Shop Signs ; a 
Copious Index, &c. 267 pp., royal 8vo, cloth, 12s. 



llPS^^cTl^^i 



^gP&!®pd@£&cS^' 



MARKS AND MONOGRAMS 



ON 



POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. 




an e o p ) 



JHarfcs anti JHonosrams 



ON 



EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL 

POTTEF^f AND PORCELAIN 



!pi#tortcal Jftottcca of cacfi Manufactory 

PRECEDED BY 

AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON THE YASA FICTILIA OF THE GREEK, 
ROMANO-BRITISH, AND MEDIEVAL ERAS. 



BY 

WILLIAM CHAFFEE 

AUTHOR OF " HALL MARKS ON GOLD AND SILVER PLATE," " GILDA AURIFABROKl M. OH A HISTORY 

OF LONDON GOLDSMITHS AND THEIR MARKS ON PLATK," "THK KERAMIC GALLERY, WITH 

UPWARDS OF 500 ILLUSTRATIONS," " PRICED CATALOGUE OF COINS," "OBJECTS OF 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTEREST AT THE NATIONAL EXHIBITION OF WORKS OF ART AT 

LEEDS IN 1S68, ILLUSTRATED BY PHOTOGRAPHS," "CATALOGUE OF THE SPECIAL 

EXHIBITION OF LOANS AT THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM IN 1862 ( POTTERY. 

PORCELAIN, PLATE, ETC.)," CATALOGUES OF THE SLADE COLLECTION Ol 

GLASS, THE LONDESBOROUGH COLLECTION, THE MELTON CONSTABLE 

COLLECTION, THE FORMAN COLLECTION, AND MANY OTHERS 

PRIVATELY PRINTED, ETC. ETC. 



Seventb E&ttton, revises ano considerably aucmtenteo. 

WITH UPWARDS OF 

3000 POTTERS' MARKS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LONDON 
REEVES AND TURNER, 196 STRAND. 

1891. 

[A// 7tghts rese>fed.] 



First Edition (8vo), i86j ; Second Edition, 1866 ; Third Edition {Royal 8vo), 
1870; Fourth Edition, 1872; Fifth Edition, 1874; Sixth Edition, 1876; 
Seventh Edition (greatly augmented), 1886 ; Reprinted, i8gi. 



JUS 21 1943 



.CAW 




PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 




gNCE again I have the pleasing task of introducing 
to my numerous kind readers a revised edition 
of the " Marks and Monograms on Pottery and 
Porcelain. " 

In a work of this description it is necessary to be an 
courant with all the recent discoveries, and to consult all local 
histories treating on the subject. The system I have adopted 
from the commencement is, to have always before me an 
interleaved copy of my book, ready to receive notes of any 
information which my correspondents may favour me with, 
literally exemplifying the saying — 

NULLA DIES SINE LINEA. 

The unprecedented encouragement this work has received 
from Amateurs, Collectors, and the Public generally urges me 
on to increased exertion to maintain its popularity and deserve 
well of my patrons. The book does not profess to be a general 
history of Pottery and Porcelain, but still retains its original 
simple title of " Marks and Monograms," and is essentially one 
of reference and practical utility, containing more than 300c 
illustrations of potters' marks ; it is to the Keramic Art what 
Brulliot's exhaustive work is to Painting and Engraving. The 
Index, which has claimed a great degree of care and attention, 
comprises all the names of factories and potters referred to in 



viii PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 

the body of the work. In its various stages, the size of the book 
has increased in the following ratio, commencing with 

A sheet of Potters' Marks ; followed by the 
i st Edition of 270 pages in 1863. 
2nd Edition of 570 pages in 1866. 
3rd Edition of 780 pages in 1870. 
4th Edition — a reprint of the same in 1872. 
5th Edition of 1000 pages in 1874. 
6th Edition of 1030 pages in 1876. 
7th Edition, greatly augmented, 1886. 

It is a remarkable and very significant fact, probably un- 
exampled, that copies of previous editions are seldom to be 
obtained at less than the published price, which is frequently 
exceeded at auction sales ; this proves that the work is a 
desideratum and fears no rival : prettier illustrated books, with 
more showy exteriors, may be laid by its side, which for the 
time will please the superficial observer ; but the amateur who 
desires to consult facts and discard theories will naturally choose 
the less pretentious volume of more intrinsic value. 

This success has well repaid me for my continual care, and 
in conclusion I may remark — 

LABOR IPSE VOLUPTAS, 

which sentiment is embodied in the words of Longfellow : — 

" No endeavour is in vain ; 
Its reward is in the doing." 

WILLIAM CHAFFERS. 




PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION. 




i HIS Edition has been largely augmented by several 
entirely new articles on European and Oriental 
Pottery and Porcelain. Foremost among these is 
the history of the important manufactures of Japan. 
Much light has been thrown upon this hitherto obscure subject 
by the numerous importations of rare and curious specimens 
of ancient and modern wares. The most valuable and trust- 
worthy information is derived from the Report which accom- 
panied the Japanese Historical Collection exhibited at Phila- 
delphia, and subsequently purchased by the authorities of the 
South Kensington Museum. By the kind permission of the 
Director, I was enabled to examine it piece by piece and copy 
the marks of the various fabriques, assisted by an exhaustive 
catalogue, ascribing origin and approximate dates, written by 
an intelligent antiquary of Japan. I have classified these into 
Territories, Provinces, and Towns, where factories existed, 
denoting the various wares and the principal potters therein. 
I may here also tender my thanks to Mr. A. W. Franks, 
F.R.S., F.S.A., for permission to copy some of the marks on 
pieces in his possession (which were exhibited at Bethnal 
Green), whose catalogue was published by the Science and Art 
Department in 1878. The section descriptive of the fayence of 
Delft has been entirely rewritten, derived principally from the 



x PREFACE TO THE SEVENTH EDITION. 

researches of M. Havard, whose work, " Histoire de la Fayence 
de Delft," has furnished me with the most complete history yet 
written of the several fabriques, gleaned from the Meester- 
boeck of the Guild of St. Luc at Delft, wherein the names 
of the potters were enrolled, with dates of admission, and their 
marks carefully registered from 1611 to 1715, which includes 
the period of its greatest prosperity. 

An entirely new classification has been adopted of the 
so-called gres de Flandres, never before seriously attempted. 
The Exhibitions of the gres cerame at Dusseldorf and Brussels 
havino- instigated excavations in various localities where debris 
of the gres had been found ; and researches being made in 
the records, Messrs. Schuermans, Dornbush, and Schmidt dis- 
covered the principal centres of the manufacture of stoneware 
in the sixteenth century in the Pays-Bas and provinces of the 
Rhine. 

Many other articles have been rewritten and revised, and 
various sites of ancient potteries discovered. 

WILLIAM CHAFFERS. 

March 1886. 





WORKS OF REFERENCE. 



Antoine {Paul). " CEuvres Completes de Bernard Palissy, avec des Notes et 

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Alt {W.J.) "Catalogue of Collection of Japanese Art at the Bethnal Green 

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Artis {E. T.) " Durobrivse of Antoninus Identified and Illustrated." Fol. 1828 
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Arts." Lond. 1852 

Arnoux. "Report on Pottery and Porcelain at the Paris Exhibition of 1867." 
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Barbet de Jouy. " Les Delia Robbia." Paris, 1855 

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Geology." (Second edition, 187 1.) Lond. 1855 

Beausobre. " Einleitung in die Kenntniss der Politik, &c." Vol. L pp. 210-218. 

Riga, 1773 
Bassano, 



Bassagio {J. B.) " Maioliche di Bassano." 

Birch {Samuel, B.S.A.) "History of Ancient Pottery." 

Bohn {Id. G.) "Appendix to the Bernal Catalogue." 

Bonghi {Diego). " Intorno alle Maioliche di Castelli." 

Borlase. " Natural History of the County of Cornwall." 

Brongniart {A.) " Traite des Arts Ce'ramiques." 2 vols. 

Brongniart et Riocreux. " Musee Ceramique de Sevres." 

Boyer. " Manuel du Porcelainier, du Faiencier et du Potier de Terre." 

Paris, 1 



Lond. 1858-73 

Lond. 1857 

Naples, 1856 

Oxford, 175S 

Paris, 1844 an d 1854 

2 vols. Paris, 1S45 



xii WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

Broc de Seganges (L. du). "La Faience, les Faienciers et les Emailleurs de 
Nevers." Nevers, 1863 

Binns (R. IF., F.S.A.) "A Century of Potting in the City of Worcester." 

Lond. 1865 
Beuter (Dr. P. Antonio). "Cronica Generale di Spagna." Venezia, 1556 

Spanish Ed. (South Kensington Library), 1600 
Burty (Philippe). "Chefs d'CEuvre des Arts Industriels." Paris, 1866 

English translation, edited by W. Chaffers. Lond. 1869 

Campori (Giuseppe). " Notizie Storiche e Artistiche della Maiolica e della 
Porcellana de Ferrara nei Secoli XV e XVI." Modena, 1871 

Cherubini (G.) " Dei Grue e della Pittura Ceramica in Castelli." 8vo. 

Naples, 1865 
Christie (J.) " Painted Greek Vases." Lond. 1825 

Chardin. "Voyages en Perse." About the year 1650 

Chaffers ( William, P.S.A.) " Catalogue of the Special Exhibition of Loans at 
the South Kensington Museum." (Sevres Porcelain, European Pottery and 
Porcelain, and English Pottery and Porcelain.) Lond. 1862 

Chaffers (William, F.S.A.) "The Keramic Gallery, comprising 500 illustra- 
tions of examples of Pottery and Porcelain, from the earliest times to the 
present, with historical notices, &c." 2 vols. Lond. 1872 

Chaffers (William, F.S.A.) "Notes on Mediaeval Earthenware Vessels" in the 

British Archaeological Journal, vol. i. 
Chaffers (W.) " Handbook of Marks and Monograms." Lond. 1875 

Champfleury. " Histoire des Faiences Patriotiques sous la Revolution." 

Paris, 1867 
Church (A. H.) "Catalogue of English Pottery." 1870 

Clement de Pis (L.) " Notice des Faiences Franchises." 1871 

" Cookzvorthy (W), Memoirs of," by his Grandson. Lond. 1854 

Delisle (L.) " Les Fabriques de Faience de Rouen." 1865 

Demmin (A.) "Guide de l'Amateur de Faiences et Porcelaines." Paris, 1863 
Davillier (J. C.) " Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Moresques." Paris, 1861 
Davillier (J. C) "Histoire des Faiences et Porcelaines de Moustiers, Mar- 
seille et autres Fabriques Meridionales." Paris, 1863 
Davillier (Baron J. C.) "Les Porcelaines de Sevres de M me Du Barry." 

Paris, 1870 
Darcel (Alfred). " Notice des Fayences Italiennes, &c, Musee du Louvre." 

Paris, 1864 
Dennistoun (J.) " Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino." Lond. 185 1 

Duhamel du Monceau. " L'Art du Potier de Terre." Paris, 1773 

Delange (G.) " Recueil de Toutes les Pieces connues jusqu'a ce Jour de la 
Faience Francaise dite de Henri II. et Diane de Poictiers." Paris, 1861 
Delange et Borneman. " Recueil des Faiences Italiennes des XV., XVI., XVII. 
Siecles. Lithographie'es en couleur." Paris, 1869 

Delange (H.) Appendix to the Translation of Passeri. Paris, 1853 

Delange et Borneman. " Recueil des Faiences Italiennes." Paris. 1867 



WORKS OF REFERENCE. xiii 

Dillon {Talbot). " Travels through Spain." Lend. 1780 

Donovan (E., F.L.S.) " Excursions in South Wales and Monmouthshire in 1804 

and Three Preceding Years." Lond. 1805 

Drake ( W. F., F.S.A.) " Notes on Venetian Ceramics." Lond. 1868 

Dossie's " Handmaid to the Arts." Lond. 1764 

DornbusJi. " Annales de la Socie'te' du Bas-Rhin (Ores de Flandres)." 1873 

Engelhardt (A. M.) " F. F. Bottger, Erfinder des Sachs Porcellans." 

Leipzig, 1837 
Fabroni (Dr.) " Storia degli Antichi Vasi Fittili Aretini." Arezzo, 1841 

Faujas de St. Fond. "Travels in England and Scotland." 
Ferriere Percy (Le Comte de la). "Une Fabrique de Faience h. Lyon." 

Paris, 1862 
Fillon {Benjamin). " Les Faiences d'Oiron. (Une Lettre a M. Riocreux;." 

Paris, 1862 
Fillon (Benjamin). " L'Art de Terre chez les Poitevins, suivi d'une Etude sur 

rAnciennete - de la Fabrication du Verre en Poitou." Niort, 1864 

Frali (Luigi). " Un Pavimento in Maiolicha neila Basilica Petroniniana di 

Bologna." Bologna, 1853 

Frati (Luigi). " Di un' Insigne raccolta di Maioliche dipinte," &c. 

Bologna, 1844 
Franks (A. W., F.S.A.) Brochure on the Manufacture of Porcelain at Chelsea. 

(Archaeological Institute Proceedings.) Lond. 1862 

Franks (A. IV.) Catalogue of his Oriental Pottery and Porcelain (Bethnal 

Green). Lond. 1877 

Fortnum (C. Drury E.) Descriptive Catalogue of the Maiolica, Sec, in the 

South Kensington Museum. Lond. 1873 

Ginori (C. Marchese). "La Manifattura Ginori a Doccia." 1867 

Gosselin (M. E.) "Glanes Historiques Normandes, les Potiers, Briquetiers, 

Tailliers et Emailleurs de Terre de Rouen (XV. et XVE Siecles)." 

Rouen, 1869 
Garzoni (Tomaso). Article on Maiolica in the "Piazza Universale." 1585 

Gillinguiater's " History of Lowestoft." Lond. 1790 

Gioanetti (Vittorio Amadeo). " Discorso sulla Fabbrica di Porcellana stabilita 

in Vinovo." Turin, 1859 

Graesse (Dr.) " Guide de l'Amateur de Porcelaines et de Poteries, ou Collection 

des Marques de Fabriques," &c. (3rd edition), 1872. Dresden, 1864 

Greslou (Jules). " Re'cherches sur la Ceramique." Chartres, 1S63 

Grosley. " Tour to London." Lond. 1773 

Havard (Hetiry). " Histoire de la Faience de Delft." With illustrations by 

Goutzwiller. Paris, 1878 

Hoffmami (Dr.) " Me'moire sur la Porcelaine du Japon."' Paris, 1S56 

Hoffmann 's (Dr.) "Japanese Grammar." Leiden, 1S6S 

Houdoy (Jules). " Recherches sur les Manufactures Lilioises de Porcelaine et 

de Faience." Lille, 1S63 

Humbert (Aime). " Le Japon Illustre." 2 vols. Paris, 1870 



xiv WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

Japanese Historical Collection, exhibited at Philadelphia, now in the South 

Kensington Museum. (Catalogue and Report.) 
Julien (Stanislas). " Histoire de la Porcelaine Chinoise." Paris, 1856 

Jacquemart et Le Blant. " Anciennes Faiences Franchises." (" Gazette des 

Beaux- Arts" for May 1859.) 
Jacquemart et Le Blant. " Histoire de la Porcelaine." Paris, 1861 

Jacquemart (A.) " Les Merveilles de la Ce'ramique." Paris, 1868-70 

Jewitt (Llewellyn, F.S.A.) "The Wedgwoods." Lond. 1865 

Jewitt {Llewellyn, F.S.A.) " Notices of English Potteries " in the Art Journal. 
Kazmpfers " History of Japan." Lond. 1727 

Kingsborough (Lord). "Antiquities of Mexico." Lond. 1831 

Klemm (Dr. Gustave). " Die Koniglich Sachsische Porzellan sammlung im 

Japanischen Palais." Dresden, 1841 

Klaproth. " Chemical History of the Fossils of Cornwall." 1787 

Kuglcr (F.) "Beschreibung der Koniglichen Kunstkammer in Berlin vorhan- 

denen Kunstammlung, &c." 
Labarte (Jules). " Introduction to the De Bruge Dumesnil Catalogue." 

Paris, 1847 
Labarte (Jules). " Handbook of the Arts of the Middle Ages and Renais- 
sance." Lond. 1855 
Laborde (L. E. S. de). "Notice des Emaux, &c, du Louvre." Paris, 1853 
Lazari (Vicenzo). "Notizia delle Opere d'Arte e d'Antichita della Raccolta 

Correr." Venezia, 1859 

Lavoix (H.) " Les Azziministes." (" Gazette des Beaux-Arts," vol. xii. p. 64.) 
Lejeal (Dr. A.) "Note sur une Marque de Faience Contested." 

Valenciennes, 1868 
Lejeal (A.) " Les Manufactures de Faience et de Porcelaine de Valenciennes." 

- 1868 

Lenormant et De JFitte. " Elite des Monuments Ceramographiques Mate'riaux 

pour lTntelligence des Moeurs de l'Antiquit£, &c." 
Lister (Dr. Martin). "Journey to Paris." Lond. 1699 

Lysons (Daniel). " Environs of London." Lond. 1795 

Mareschal (A. A.) " Les Faiences Anciennes et Modernes, leur Marques, &c." 

Beauvais, 1868 
Marry at (Joseph). " History of Pottery and Porcelain." Third edition, edited 

by Mrs. Palliser. Lond. 1869 

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Liverpool, 1855 
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Minicis (Raffaele de). "Cinque Lettere sulla Raccolta Delsette." Bologna, 1845 
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Meteyard (Eliza). "Wedgwood and his Works." Lond. 1873 

Meteyard (Eliza). " Choice Examples of Wedgwood Art." Lond. 1878 

li Malmesbury (Lord), Correspondence of." Lond. 1779 

Milly (Comte de). " L'Art de la Porcelaine." Paris, 1 7 7 1 



WORKS OF REFERENCE. xv 

Owen (Hugh, F.S.A.) "Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol." Illustrated 

with 1 60 engravings. 1873 

Palliser (B.) "The China Collector's Pocket Companion." Lond. 1874 

Passeri (Giambatisla). " Histoire de Peintures sur Maioliques a Pesaro et les 

Environs." Translated by Delange. Paris, 1853 

"Patents relating to Pottery and Porcelain." Published by the Patent Office. 

Lond. 1863 
Parmentier. "Archives de Nevers, ou Inventaire Historique des Titres de la 

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Prideaux. " Relics of William Cookworthy." 1853 

Piccolpasso (Chevalier). "Li Tre Libri dell' Arte dell Vasaio." MS. of the 

sixteenth century, in the South Kensington Museum. 
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Franchise par M. Claudius Popelyn." Paris, 1841 

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Paris, 1861 
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Rome, 1857 
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Smith (C. Roach, F.S.A.) "Collectanea Antiqua." 

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from 1852 to 1867." Vol. i. Lond 1868 

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Siebold's "Voyage en Japon." Paris, 1858 

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Expositions at Brussels and Dusseldorf of the Gres-Cerames in 18S0." 



xvi WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

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de Faience (Alsace et Lorraine)." Strasbourg, 1868 

Tainturier (A.) " Notice sur les Faiences du Seizieme Siecle dites Henri II." 

Paris, 

Torteroli (Tommaso). " Intorno alle Maiolica Savonese." Torino, 1856 

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l'Art Gaulois." Paris, i860 

Turgan. " Les Grandes Usines de France." Paris, 1840 

Theophilus. " Diversarum Artium Schedula. Tenth Century." Translated by 

M. le Comte l'Escalopier. Paris, 1843 

Vasari {Giorgio). "Vita di Battista Franco e di Luca della Robbia," &c. 
Villiers (M. A.) "Jean Baptiste Nini, ses Terres Cuites." Blois, 1862 

Ward's " History of Stoke-upon-Trent." Lond. 1848 

Warmont [Dr. A.) " Recherches Historiques sur les Faiences de Sinceny, 

Rouy et Ognes." Paris, 1864 

Willemin. " Monuments Francais Inedits." The text by Andre Pottier. 

Paris, 1839 
Wedgwood {Josiah). " Catalogue of Antique Ornaments," &c, on sale by him. 

Lond. 1777 and 1778-87 
Wallis (Alfred) and Bemrose (William, jun.) "The Pottery and Porcelain of 

Derbyshire." Lond. 1870 





INTRODUCTION. 



PART I. 



ancient pottery. 




T would be a vain attempt to endeavour to particu- 
larize any country, or race of people, from whence the 
art of making pottery took its rise. It is one of the 
oldest branches of human industry, and sprang from 
the requirements of man, desirous of finding a con- 
venient mode of conveying the fruits of the earth 
to his mouth, that the appetite might be appeased 
and life sustained : one of the first laws of nature. 
Earth, the commonest of materials, was ready to his hand ; he could not 
fail to observe that the rain falling upon the clay would soften and render 
it plastic, while the influences of the sun and air would dry and harden 
it. It is therefore reasonable to suppose, that the primeval races of man 
would naturally fashion the soft clay into rude cups or bowls, and dry 
them in the heat of the sun. Subsequently, as the human race became 
dispersed over the face of the globe, either by conquest, colonization, or 
other causes, peculiar methods of mixing the clays, conventional forms 
and ornamentation, would be manifested by each, and we should thus 
be enabled to trace most of the vessels to their source and appropriate 
the varied productions of keramic artists with some degree of certainty. 

" Like the history of all other arts, the history of pottery has not 
escaped the blending with it of a large amount of apocryphal anecdote 
and romance. Perhaps pottery — the art of moulding and hardening clay 

A 



2 ANCIENT POTTERY. 

— may claim to be the mother of all the arts. Necessity would soon 
prompt the attempted manufacture of a vessel to hold liquids ; for neither 
of the methods of satisfying thirst adopted by Gideon's men would long 
sufiice. Convenience and refinement would alike urge an improvement ; 
and the first footmark in the clay, hardened by a Mesopotamian sun, 
would suggest the material and manner of its construction ; and from 
Eve's first rude pipkin to the latest production of Wedgwood or Cope- 
land, it would simply be a series of improvements. Thus to draw upon 
the apocrypha of pottery, a servant boils brawn in an earthen pipkin, 
and carelessly permitting it to boil over the fierce fire, the alkali combines 
with the earthenware, and the result is a vitreous surface — the first 
specimen of glass-glazing. 

"The first historic records of fictile clay are the bricks of Babel; 
the next the brickmaking of the Israelites, indicating an advanced and 
systematic art. 

" The inventor of pottery, artistically so called, was Coroebus of 
Athens, in whose honour the aesthetic Greeks struck medals and erected 
statues. Phidias himself designed vases for the Athenian potters. 

" Dibutades of Sicyon observed upon a wall the profile of his daughter's 
lover, traced by her from the outline of his shadow. He filled it with 
clay, which he hardened with fire, and this was the first specimen of 
modelling in relief. Talus of Athens is said to have invented the potter's 
wheel, and so to have provoked thereby the jealousy of Daedalus, that he 
threw him from the Acropolis and killed him." (Allou.) 

The potter's wheel was an early invention, and a great improvement 
upon the methods previously adopted in fashioning the rude sun-dried 
vessels by the hand alone. It enabled the potter to make symmetrically a 
great variety of forms and every combination of circular, oval, spherical, and 
cylindrical shapes, in true proportions. Its origin is unknown, although 
it has been ascribed to several nations where excellence in the potter's 
art has been attained ; thus Athens, Corinth, and Sicyon, the three great 
rivals in the keramic art, have all been mentioned as inventors of this simple 
machine, but we must look to a still more remote period for its origin. 

M. Brongniart assigns it to the Chinese, and infers that after leaving 
China, where it had been long known, it passed into Egypt, thence into 
Scythia, and nearly at the same time into Greece and its colonies in 
Southern Italy, reaching Etruria at a later date, and that it then penetrated 
the whole of Southern Europe, Rome and its colonies, Spain, &c. ; as 
these countries became civilized and acquainted with the arts of the East, 
stopping at the southern part of Germany, and only partially entering it, 
and that while penetrating into Gaul, it remained unknown among the 
ancient Scandinavian nations. All the early vases of Greece bear traces 
of the lines of the wheel, except in some later specimens where moulds 
alone were used. The representations of the potter's wheel in the tombs 



ANCIENT POTTERY. 3 

at Thebes show that the general method of using it in ancient times was 
much the same as at the present day. 

Modelling by the hand and moulding were both frequently employed 
for raised ornaments, and bronze or baked terra-cotta stamps for impress- 
ing devices and patterns have been discovered. These ornaments were 
moulded or stamped on round or square cakes of clay, and applied while 
moist to the terminations of the handles or lips of the vases. Borders 
and zones of small patterns in relief were impressed by cylindrical stamps 
revolving in a frame or handle and passed round the vessel. 

We will first briefly advert to the nature of clay as regards the change 
it undergoes in the process of manufacture. Suppose we take a lump 
of clay or earth, soaked in water sufficiently to render it plastic, and then 
form it into a brick or tile, and lay it in the sun to dry : as the moisture 
evaporates the brick hardens and the particles adhere slightly together ; 
but we have produced simply a brick of dessicated clay, which may, by 
adding the quantity of water taken from it, be again converted to its 
original state. But if we place this brick in a kiln, the nature of the 
clay is altogether changed ; the high temperature melts all the parts and 
cements them together, effecting a great chemical change, the substance 
being so altered from its original state, that water could never mix with 
it, so as again to form clay. 

During this operation of baking the clay in the kiln, the object into 
which it is made decreases materially in bulk ; this is termed the 
shrinkage, and arises, first, from the drying up of the moisture, amount- 
ing to even 15 per cent, or more; and secondly, by the fusion of the 
substances, the component particles draw closer together, causing a 
considerable diminution in size. To illustrate this, let us suppose the 
potter wishes to make a bust or statuette in earthenware. The original 
model is placed in his hand, which he proceeds to mould in plaster ; 
into this hollow mould he presses the clay, which shortly contracts itself 
so as to become detached from the sides ; he then dries it in the air, 
and again its size diminishes, and one hardly understands how it can be 
a strict reproduction of the original. Another ordeal follows ; it is sub- 
jected to the high temperature of the kiln, and it is still more sensibly 
reduced. 

A beautiful exposition of the shrinkage of clay is exemplified in the 
modern Dresden and other china figures, which are veiled with a fine 
keramic network in close imitation of lace. The process, however, is 
simple when the method of performing it is known. A piece of lace is 
steeped in diluted clay or slip, termed by the French barbotinc ; thus pre- 
pared, it is thrown over the statuette ; when dried in the air the bulk of 
the keramic coating decreases. But it is in the kiln the magic effect is 
accomplished ; the great heat entirely destroys the vegetable fibre, which 
formed the network and flowers ; the paste thus freed from its nucleus 



4 ANCIENT POTTERY. 

is contracted to such a degree that the outer covering becomes more 
delicate than the thread which it surrounded. 

The proper selection of clays for making pottery is a most important 
matter, as some contain a greater proportion of moisture or more fusible 
materials than others ; it is therefore evident, that if the clays are not 
all of the same composition, or not well kneaded and mixed together, 
the shrinkage of the vessel in baking will be irregular, and cause it to 
be distorted or cracked. While speaking of the nature of clay and its 
fitness to be moulded or fashioned into form and to receive impressions, 
I may mention one or two curious facts in connection therewith. 

In London and various other parts of England, on the sites of 
ancient Roman buildings, there are frequently found Roman tiles with 
footprints of dogs, wolves, and other animals, the feet and claws of 
monstrous birds and various creatures which inhabited this island nearly 
two thousand years since, many of which are now extinct ; these impres- 
sions were made when the tiles were in a plastic state and placed out in 
the fields to dry, by animals prowling about at night in search of their prey 
and trampling over them. In some instances also the perfect impression 
of a man's caliga or nailed shoe is discovered ; these tiles being subse- 
quently baked, the imprints were indelibly marked upon their surfaces. 

A curious property in clay is that when a potter commences to work 
the clay into the desired form, it may happen that during the operation, 
by some accident the surface of the vessel comes in contact with a seal, 
a figured button, or perchance a piece of money ; the workman, to efface 
the defect, presses the impression inwards, and smooths it over with his 
hands. The heat of the kiln brings again to the surface the figure it 
had before received. Hence Roman vessels have been discovered bear- 
ing the impress of a medal or a coin, with which it had inadvertently 
come in contact. 

The most extraordinary fact connected with the keramic art is, that 
notwithstanding the fragility of the specimens and their liability to injury 
by damp or friction, our Museums throughout Europe abound with per- 
fect and uninjured examples of ancient art, not only of pottery, but 
of the still more fragile material — glass. These have not been handed 
down to our times from generation to generation by hand, subject to the 
incessant care and anxiety of the persons from time to time in charge 
of them. Such a thing would be next to impossible, considering the 
chances of utter demolition which would necessarily attend them. But 
we are indebted for the preservation of all these fragile and elaborate 
works of art to the simple piety of the ancients, for we learn from 
various authorities, as well as from actual observation, that it was 
customary, according to their rites of burial, to place in the grave those 
objects which the deceased esteemed most during his lifetime ; thus we 
find by the side of the skeleton, in the simple tumulus of earth or in 



ANCIENT POTTERY. 5 

the stone sarcophagus, and (when cremation has been adopted) by the 
side of the cinerary urn, gold and silver personal ornaments, fictile 
vases, and other keramic remains, glass vessels, weapons, &c. And 
this is the source of our possession of such valuable testimonies of the 
habits and customs of the ancients ; for without exception all the relics 
preserved to us have been discovered either in places of sepulture, or in 
the exhumation of long-buried cities, devastated by conquest or over- 
whelmed by volcanic eruptions. 

In our endeavours to trace the earliest examples of the potter's art, 
we must necessarily consult ancient histories of Oriental countries, but 
these are so mixed up with traditions and fables, that it is extremely 
difficult to elicit the truth ; and it is only by comparing such statements 
with actual discoveries on the sites of cities coeval with them that we 
can verify the assertions of ancient writers. For instance, it is related 
by Herodotus that the city of Ecbatana, the capital of Media, was 
surrounded by seven walls, painted in seven different colours : the first 
and largest, of a white colour, was nearly equal in extent to the city of 
Athens ; the second was black ; the third purple ; the fourth blue ; the 
fifth orange ; and the two innermost in different colours, the battlements 
of the one being plated with silver, the other with gold. If there be 
any truth in this relation, the walls were probably of brick, the surfaces 
being enamelled in colours, a custom adopted in many towns of China 
and India. 

A building of similar character is described by Sir Henry Rawlinson 
as still existing in Chaldaea, called Birs Nimriid, which, from the custom 
of placing cylinders in the corners of the storeys, is ascertained to have 
been restored by Nebuchadnezzar the king (606 B.C.), who designates it, 
" The stages of the seven spheres of Borsippa." This structure con- 
sisted of six distinct platforms or terraces, each about 20 feet high and 
receding 42 feet towards the summit, so arranged as to form an oblique 
pyramid, and upon the top a vitrified mass which has caused much dis- 
cussion. Each storey was dedicated to a particular planet, and vitrified 
or glazed with the colour attributed to it by astrologers in this order : 
the lowest stage, 1st, was black for Saturn ; 2nd, orange for Jupiter ; 3rd, 
red for Mars; 4th, yellow for the Sun; 5 th, green for Venus; 6th, blue 
for Mercury ; and the temple on the summit probably white for the moon. 

Recent investigations on the site of another celebrated city of old, 
Babylon, have brought to light bricks covered with enamel glazes of 
different colours, showing that the use of oxides of copper, antimony, and 
tin in producing their colours was known as early as the eighth or 
seventh century before our era, and proves that the opaque white 
stanniferous enamel was used at that early period, although generally 
supposed to be a comparatively recent invention, and ascribed to Lucca 
della Robbia in the fifteenth century. The glazed Babylonian bricks 



6 ANCIENT POTTERY. 

formed the innermost coatings of walls, and the patterns upon them 
are rosettes, palmette ornaments, circles, trellis-work, men, animals, 
trees, &c. 

Mr. W. Kennett Loftus {Travels and Researches in Chaldasa, &c.) 
gives us an interesting account of a ruined city, called Warka, in 
Mesopotamia, which had been a cemetery of the Chaldseans ; he found 
quantities of enamelled earthenware lamps, cups, jugs, and figures 
(some of good work) ; but he says, all these relics sink into insignifi- 
cance when compared with the glazed earthen coffins heaped piles upon 
piles, to the depth of 45 feet, in the mounds at Warka, proofs of 
successive generations by whom this method of burial was adopted, 
from its foundation until the place was abandoned by the Parthians ; 
a period probably of more than two thousand years. 

These remarkable coffins are slipper-shaped, like a covered bath, 
with a large oval aperture at its widest part, by which the body 
was admitted ; a lid was placed upon it and cemented down ; at the 
lower extremity a small semicircular hole was pierced, to allow the 
condensed gases to escape and prevent the bursting of the coffin ; the 
upper surface was covered with elevated ridges forming square panels, 
each containing an embossed figure of a warrior, with an enormous 
head-dress of very curious appearance, bearing a striking resemblance 
to the heads on the coins of the Parthian and Sassanian periods. The 
whole visible surface of the coffin is covered with a thick glazing of rich 
green enamel on the exterior, and of blue within the oval aperture ; it is 
made of yellow clay mixed with straw and half baked. Three of these 
are now in the British Museum. Mr. Loftus remarks, it would be too 
much to say positively that Chaldaea was the necropolis of Assyria, but 
it is by no means improbable. The two great rivers, the Tigris and 
Euphrates, would afford an admirable conveyance from a distance, even 
from the upper plains of Assyria. 

Pottery was an important branch of the domestic arts in Egypt, 
in which the potters displayed great skill. Coptus was the chief seat 
of this manufacture ; vessels were made to hold the waters of the 
Nile, and for numerous household purposes ; also to hold mummies 
of sacred animals. Earthenware deities and emblems were made in 
immense quantities, their composition being a sort of silicious earth 
or frit covered with a greenish blue glaze. These small objects were 
frequently made of steatite dipped in blue glaze, which substance with- 
stood the heat required for its fusion. The forms of their vases are 
well known by the representations on the catacombs and monuments ; 
the favourite ornamentation being derived from the sacred flower of the 
Nile, the lotus, its buds and flowers ; the borders and details being 
derived from the petals, stems, and divisions of the calyx. The material 
of which the earliest specimens were made was a sort of stoneware or 



ANCIENT POTTERY. 7 

frit, resembling porcelain biscuit, and has therefore been called Egvptian 
porcelain ; these were covered by a thin glaze. Some of the small deities 
must have been made at a very remote date. On good authority, as 
well as from the sacred writings, we learn that the most flourishing 
period of the Egyptian art goes back as far as two thousand years before 
our era. The period of the Ptolemies is known by a marked influence 
of Greek artists ; the silicious frit gives place to a pottery, coarse and 
soft, sometimes painted on the plain surface, and sometimes glazed ; this 
was continued down to the second and third centuries of our era, when 
Egypt was under Roman domination. (Keramic Gallery, figs. I and 2.) 

The Greek fictile vases found in large quantities in the sepulchres of 
Etruria during the last century were erroneously called Etruscan, and 
continued to be so called even after they were discovered, still more 
abundantly, in the sepulchres of Magna Grsecia, Sicily, in Attica, and in 
the islands of the iEgean. It is indisputable that the vases found in 
Etruria are the productions of Greek artists, and the style of painting, as 
well as the designs, completely Greek ; and it has been observed that 
although the Etruscans have inscribed every work of art with their own 
peculiar characters, no painted vase has yet been found with any other 
than a Greek inscription. So also the Greek vases found in Campania 
and Sicily and the south of Italy : they invariably came from Greece, 
and are the works of Greek artists. They are the earliest monuments 
of Greek civilization, ranging from the eighth or tenth century to the 
second century before our era. 

Eor the purpose of classifying these vases according to the styles of 
decoration, we may divide them into five periods, assigning approximate 
dates of their antiquity : — 

1st. Archaic period, previous to the eighth centuiy B.C. 

2nd. Archaic period, from the eighth to the seventh century B.C. 

3rd. Archaic period, from the seventh to the sixth century B.C. 

4th. The finest period, from the sixth to the fourth century B.C. 

5th. The Decadence, from the fourth to the second century B.C. 

1st. Archaic Period, previous to the Eighth Century b.c 

The earliest specimens of Greek fictile art are those discovered at 
Athens, Corinth, Melos, and other parts of Greece, Camirus in Rhodes, 
and some from Etruria ; most of these are exceedingly rude, painted in 
brown or black on ash-coloured ground, with chevrons, concentric circles, 
meanders, stars, chequers, &c, and primitive representations of men and 
animals. The shapes of the vases are peculiar, and differ materially 
from those of the later periods. A very interesting and probably 
unique specimen discovered at Camirus is a terra-cotta coffin of oblong 



8 ANCIENT POTTERY. 

quadrangular form, painted round the margin with lions and bulls and a 
helmeted head ; now in the British Museum. 

2nd. Archaic Period, from the Eighth to the Seventh Century b.c. 

The vases abundantly supplied from Camirus in Rhodes show a 
great improvement in the drawing of the figures ; they are usually of 
cream-coloured clay, painted with crimson and white, sometimes black 
and crimson, and red on black, the details being scratched with a point. 
The forms are still peculiar, but approaching to the best period : the 
amphora, cenochoe, and small vessels like the alabastron, bombylios, &c. ; 
the style of ornamentation being composed of two or more rows of animals 
(real and imaginary), birds, harpies, &c. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 3.) 

On a pinax of this class, in the British Museum, is represented a 
combat between Menelaus and Hector over the wounded Euphorbos, 
with their names inscribed in Greek characters : this is the earliest vase 
from Camirus in which writing is introduced. 

3rd. Archaic Period, from the Seventh to the Sixth Century b.c. 

The next period is still of a very severe style of art, but more artistic 
than those which precede it ; the figures are in black on a red ground, 
heightened with a reddish violet, and the flesh of the females painted 
white to distinguish them from the men ; the outlines of these figures 
are usually graved with a point, and present silhouette sort of divinities, 
mythological and heroic subjects. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 4.) 

These are among the most valuable of the Greek vases, and the 
patterns on the necks, handles, and borders are very elegant and 
characteristic. The designs are not painted all over the vase, but are 
confined to a tablet between the handles, the rest of it being painted 
with a lustrous black varnish ; more complicated subjects are found — 
quadrigae and chariots and groups of figures ; symbols are introduced 
in the field, such as a dolphin to indicate the presence of water, and a 
flower or tree to represent land. Inscriptions in Archaic Greek letters 
are traced in the same colour; the white was not used for inscriptions 
until about the middle of the fourth century b.c. 

The Fourth Period, from the Sixth to the Fourth Century b.c 

We come now to the best period of Greek art. In criticising these 
beautiful productions, we must bear in mind the fact that all these 
drawings were executed on the moist clay before the vessel was baked, 
so that great freedom of touch and unhesitating decision as regards the 
object to be represented was essential, for the mark of the pencil once 
made could not be obliterated or retouched, and a complete and perfect 
line was to be traced without taking the brush from the surface. The 



ANCIENT POTTERY. 9 

white and other colours used upon these vases are not enamels, but 
coloured clays painted upon them after the design was made. The 
outline was first sketched upon the clay, and the black background 
carefully filled in, leaving the figures in red ; the details of costume, 
features, and anatomical delineations were effected by thick or thin 
strokes and touches as required. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 5.) 

Sometimes we find black subjects on red, and red on black, on the 
same vase, forming a sort of transition from the Archaic to the more 
artistic period. 

The Panathenaic amphorae are of great interest, being given as 
prizes to the victors in athletic sports. On these we usually find on 
one side Pallas Athene holding a spear and shield, and on the other 
representations of wrestling, running, boxing, chariot-racing, and other 
games of the circus, inscribed occasionally with the name of the artist. 
A very fine vase in the British Museum is inscribed TON AGENE0EN A0AON 
(The prize given at Athens.) The subjects on others are derived from 
mythology or from divine and heroic legends of the Greeks, and occa- 
sionally domestic scenes and actual life, as displayed in indoor amuse- 
ments and occupations, &c. {Keramic Gallery, fig. 6.) 

In Greek art, gods, heroes, and mortals are constantly represented in 
the attire and costume of the period when the painting was executed ; they 
all consequently more or less depict the manners and customs of the 
Greeks themselves. Most of the vases of this period come from Vulci, 
Canino, Cervetri, and other parts of Etruria. To about the same date 
we may refer the vases of Campania, of which so many have been 
discovered at Nola. These, which are distinguished by a brilliant black 
glaze, are also celebrated for the elegance of their forms and the beauty 
and finish of the subjects represented ; they are in red on black ground ; 
many being entirely covered with this black varnish, which has been 
conjectured to be due to volcanic ashes spread over the surface of the 
vessel, and then exposed to a heat sufficient to fuse it. They are fre- 
quently ribbed and impressed with elegant patterns. [Keramic Gallery, 
fig. 8.) 

The Fifth Period, from the Fourth to the Second Century b.c. 

This may be called the Decadence, and dates from the accession of 
Alexander the Great, b.c. $$6 to 186 b.c, when it is presumed the fabri- 
cation of painted vases altogether ceased ; shortly after the edict of the 
Roman Senate against the celebration of the Bacchanalian festivals in that 
year. As we approach the second century b.c, we find less freedom of 
design and a certain mannerism in the drawing, as well as a greater pro- 
fusion of ornament. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 7.) 

It now remains for us to notice another description of ancient potter}' 



to ANCIENT POTTERY. 

in which it may be said painting gives way to sculpture, excepting in the 
application of simple colours to heighten the effect of the relief. These 
vases are of a grand and imposing character, and are modelled in a 
masterly manner, evidently intended from their fragile nature to be seen 
from an elevated position and out of reach of the ordinary spectator. 
These religious vases have seldom any apertures, and could not contain 
liquids or be used for domestic purposes ; they are modelled in terra- 
cotta, only slightly baked, and painted over with white, pink, blue, or 
other light colours. The usual form is a sort of hydria or askos ; the 
spout rises perpendicularly from the front, and from the bottom of the 
neck the handle arches over the globular body and is fastened at the back ; 
this handle on the larger specimens is surmounted by a lofty draped 
female figure, supported on each side by winged genii resting on the 
body of the vase ; in front, on each side of the spout, are projecting sea- 
horses or tritons, and under the imbricated spout is placed in relief the 
head of Medusa surmounted by a small Victory. They vary in height 
from three to five feet, and are discovered in Magna Graecia, especially 
in Apulia; at Cumae in Campania, and other places. From being found 
at these places, they are sometimes called Cumcean and sometimes 
Apulian; but although possibly the work of Greek artists, they are of 
the Roman era, that is, about 200 B.C., and succeeded the painted vases, 
a branch of art which was never cultivated by them. 

Within the sepulchral chambers of Etruria are discovered, arranged 
in niches round the sides like the Roman columbaria, small oblong quad- 
rangular urns, about two feet long, and about the same height, including 
the cover, used to contain the ashes of the dead. In places where stone 
was abundant, they were of stone or of tufa, which from its soft nature 
was easily carved, sometimes of alabaster, but most frequently of terra- 
cotta. In the front of these sarcophagi is generally carved in relief an 
allegorical subject, such as a mortal conflict, with winged genii bearing 
torches, and on the cover a recumbent figure of the deceased, his or her 
head resting on the left hand ; most of these earthenware urns bear 
traces of colour, especially blue, brown, and pink, and frequently have 
Etruscan inscriptions. 

In many of the sepulchres of Etruria bronze specula or mirrors are 
found in juxtaposition with the Greek vases ; they are doubtless the 
work of Etruscan artists, and not Greek. They are circular discs of 
bronze with long handles of the same metal, terminating usually in 
animals' heads ; one side is polished, the other engraved with mytho- 
logical or heroic scenes. These hand-mirrors formed a real part of the 
toilet of the ladies of Etruria, and, according to ancient custom, having 
been constant and valued objects during life, were consigned as com- 
panions in death. Fibulae, hairpins, gold wreaths, and other articles 
of female ornament are also frequently discovered. 




PART II. 



THE VASA FICTILIA OF ENGLAND. 



ftomano^iSritifiif) Pottery* 




H|F the hundreds of thousands who daily traverse the crowded 
streets of this great metropolis, how very few are aware 
that from twelve to fifteen feet beneath them lies concealed 
the debris of a Roman city, remains of buildings, tesselated 
pavements, domestic utensils, personal ornaments, household 
gods, and coins innumerable, actually remaining in that position which 
accident had placed them upwards of 1 500 years ago; and having been 
covered over in succeeding ages, their existence was forgotten and 
unknown. Every generation has left some token of former habitation, 
however insignificant, and traces of the early British, Roman, Saxon, 
Norman, and early English races may be discovered by the attentive 
observer. 

The surface of the ground in densely populated cities is raised by 
traffic, pulling dow 7 n and rebuilding houses, the consequent waste of old 
material, and a variety of other causes, about on an average a foot in 
every century. Thus, the area comprised within the old Roman wall 
of London has, beneath the present level, a series of strata of former 
occupiers of the soil. 

A section of a cutting, exhibiting these strata in a very marked 
manner, was sketched by the author in Cannon Street in the year 185 1, 



12 ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 

and is here given, showing the relative position of the Roman and early 
English pottery discovered in London. 

Fie. i. 




2^3 e 



o 

=a FEET 



A is the present level of the street, with the remains of buildings, &c, which have 

accumulated since the great fire in 1666. 
B is the paved roadway in situ before the fire of London. 
C is the ground in which Norman and early English pottery is discovered. 

D. In this stratum we have a sort of transition between the Roman and Saxon, 

and towards the bottom a piece of Roman tesselated pavement. 

E. The Roman stratum is easily distinguished by the black soil, and it is more thickly 

embedded with remains than the others ; here may be seen the lustrous red 
ware, drinking cups, tiles, and all sorts of domestic and personal implements. 
F is the natural soil, a fine clay resting upon G, the gravel. 

The earliest specimens of British pottery found in England are prin- 
cipally funereal, discovered in the burial-places of the ancient Britons, 
under mounds of earth called barrows, or heaps of stones called cairns ; 
these are the most primitive kinds of sepulchral interment. The 
barrows are mostly seen on elevated situations, either on downs or 
uncultivated spots, and the investigation, although interesting, yields in 
general little to repay the antiquary for his trouble, as they seldom 
contain more than the rude sun-dried urn, filled with the ashes of the 
dead, mixed with the charcoal of the funeral pile, cremation being 
universal at that early period. These urns are sometimes ornamented 
with chevrons, semicircles, and longitudinal lines, cut or scratched on 
the vessel. We shall not enter into any lengthened description of 
these early British vessels, but proceed to give the reader an account 
of the more artistic productions of the Roman settlers in Britain, who 
brought with them improved methods of making and decorating pottery 
as well as other manufactures. 



SAMIAN WARE 



'3 



The author's attention was directed some years since, by accidental 
circumstances, to the antiquities discovered in the city of London, in 
consequence of the numerous excavations made in the metropolis for the 
construction of sewers, and in clearing the sites for the erection of some 
large buildings, especially the Royal Exchange, which afforded oppor- 
tunities of saving from destruction many interesting relics of ancient art, 
and objects illustrative of the manners and customs of the Romans in 
Britain. His researches brought him in contact with others working in 
the same field, foremost among whom was Mr. C. Roach Smith, whose 
advice and assistance on all matters of antiquarian interest the writer is 
glad to have an opportunity of acknowledging. 

The illustrations, therefore, in this brief and imperfect sketch of the 
vasa fwtilia of England, will be supplied almost entirely from specimens 
discovered by the author in the metropolis. 

Evidence of Roman occupation is always manifested by the discovery 
of numerous fragments of vessels of a beautiful coralline red ware, 
commonly known as Samian. These are discovered from twelve to 
fifteen feet below the present level of London city, among undoubted 
Roman remains. 

From the quantity of this lustrous red ware which has been observed 
on the sites of Roman cities and villas, it has been conjectured that it 
is the identical Samian spoken of by Pliny and other authors as used 
by the Romans at their meals and for other domestic purposes. It is 
indeed expressly stated by Pliny that the ware made of Samian earth, 
and which came from the island of Samos, was much esteemed by them 
to eat their meals out of and display upon the board. That it was in 
common use we have abundant authority; in fact, we find it proverbial, in 
the same manner as we at the present day make use of the simile "as 
brittle as glass." Plautus (Mcnccch. A. ii. sc. 2), " M. Placide pulta." 
" P. Metuis credo, ne fores Samiae fient." Again the same author 
says (Bacch. A. ii. sc. 2) — 

" Vide qureso, ne quis tractet illam indiligens, 
Scis tu, ut confringi vas cito Samium solet." 

Pliny says that the Samian ware was transported into foreign 
countries, and that most nations under heaven used it at their tables. 
If such be the case, we ma}' reasonably ask : What has become of the 
numerous vestiges which must necessarily have been deposited wherever 
the Romans dwelt, if this red ware we are now considering be not 
identical with it ? No other red ware, at all corresponding with the 
descriptions given by ancient authors, has been discovered. We are 
not disposed to say that the ware found in England was actually made 
at Samos, but it is a curious coincidence that the table ware used by the 



14 



ROMANO-BRITISEI POTTERY 



Romans in Italy, and that used by the Roman settlers in Britain, should 
have been both of a red colour. Martial says — 



And Persius- 



" Cui portat gaudens anc'iWa. paropside rubra 
Alecem." 



" Rubrutn que amplexa catinum 
Cauda natat thynni, tumet alba fidelia vino." 



The paropsis rubra and rubruni catinum, here mentioned, both refer 
to dishes used by the Romans at their meals, such as Pliny speaks of 
as Samian. The former was a dish to hold vegetables (the paropsis 
leguminis of Suetonius), and the other to hold larger viands, such as, 
in this instance, a large fish. The rubrutn catinum is also termed by 
Lucilius Samium catinum — 

" Et non pauper uti, Samio, curtoque cat/no." 

The term Samian was probably applied to all vessels used at the 
table, much in the same way as in the present day china is a term used 
indiscriminately for all descriptions of ware, whether porcelain or fayence, 
European or Oriental. Two of these Samian bowls are engraved in 
Montfaucon (vol. v. pp. 124, 144), and are placed among the " Batterie 
de Cuisine." Speaking of the ware he says, " C'est fort creux, et peut 
avoir servie a mettre des sausses ou de la bouillie." 

Tibullus alludes to these vessels — 

" At tibi laeta trahant Samise convivia testae, 
Fictaque Cumana lubrica terra rota." 

Fig. 2 is a large and elegantly formed vase of the lustrous red 
ware, ornamented in relief with scrolls ; on the bottom of the interior 

is the potter's name, OF. 
VITAL., meaning Offi- 
cina Vitalis : from the 
workshop of Vitalis. It 
was found in St. Martin's- 
le-Grand, August 1845. 
(Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 
295.) 

The most remark- 
able fact connected with 
this ware is its uniform 
colour wherever found, whether in France, Germany, or England, and 
this circumstance has caused considerable discussion as to the locality 
in which it was originally manufactured. M. Brongniart {Traite des 




S AMI AN WARE. 



'5 



Fig. 3. 



Arts Ctramiques), speaking of it, says : This resemblance in respect to 
the texture, the density, and above all the colour of this ware in every 
country, is a sort of enigma difficult to solve in a satisfactory manner ; 
for when we consider the number of places at a great distance from each 
other where it is discovered, and the difference of soil in each, the 
difficulty arises how the Roman potters could everywhere make a paste 
so exactly similar, with materials necessarily so different ; for it cannot 
be supposed they would carry with them their paste for making these 
vessels. It may, however, be presumed that, choosing a spot where 
they could procure a clay, colourless, and adapted to furnish a paste 
sufficiently dense, they gave it the nasturtium red colour by introducing 
a proportion of red ochre. 

Fig. 3 is a perfect bowl of Roman red ware, found at Cologne : 
design, a soldier in armour, with sword and shield, engaged in combat 
with a retiarius, holding on 
his left arm a net with a 
sword, and in his right hand a 
three-pronged spear. There 
is also a draped figure pre- 
senting a palm branch to an 
emperor seated on a curule 
chair. The subject of the 
retiarius armed with a net 
and three-pronged fork, fight- 
ing with a secutor (Geol. Mus. 
Coll. Chaffers, E. 204), fre- 
quently occurs on the red 
pottery found in England. 

M. Brongniart mentions the discovery at Rheinzabern, a town in Alsace 
(Taberna Rheni), of several hundreds of fragments, as well as some 
moulds of a lion's head, a wild boar, &c, and a vase with figures and 
animals, with a border of the usual pattern of festoons and tassels, and 
potter's name, COBNERTVS. 

He also gives a plan of a kiln for the manufacture, as he supposes, 
of this red pottery at Heiligenberg, near Strasbourg, discovered by M. 
Schweighaeuser, as well as sixteen moulds for making the vessels, but 
the patterns are not of the same character as the Samian, nor of so 
good a finish. The author had several of these terra-cotta moulds in his 
possession, discovered at Cologne, which are now in the British Museum. 

The plan adopted by the Roman potters in German}', where these 
moulds are discovered, is somewhat after this manner. Stamps, with 
handles either of bronze or baked clay, were modelled in relief with 
patterns, devices, and potter's names ; these were employed to impress 
an incuse pattern on the interior of a general mould of soft clay, capable 




i6 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY 



of containing the vessel in one piece, the interior being first rounded 
smoothly into a perfect form by the lathe. The mould thus covered 
with the required pattern was fired, and became perfectly hard for future 
use. The moist paste, of which the vessel itself was to be made, was 
then pressed into the mould by hand, so as to obtain a perfect impression 
of all the minute details. The irregular surface of the interior was 
smoothed by being turned in the lathe (for the lathe-marks are always 
visible), while yet in a soft state, and before it was removed from the 
mould, thus preventing any injury which might otherwise happen to the 
ornamental vase by handling. Both the mould and vase inside it were 
then placed in the kiln and baked : the former, having been already fired, 
would not shrink, but act as a seggar to protect it from smoke and 
regulate the heat ; the latter would necessarily shrink during the baking, 
and be easily removed when finished. The moulds would then be kept 
for future use. Dr. Fabroni, in his work on the Aretine Vases (Storia 
dcgli Antichi Vast Fittili Arctini, Arezzo, 1840), gives a plate of some 
moulds for ornamenting the ware made at Arezzo, in one of which the 
bowl still remained, having been fired but not removed. 

The plain red paterae were simply turned in the lathe, and sometimes 
ornamented round the flat edge with ivy leaves laid on in slip of the 
same colour. In the annexed woodcut will be seen the potter's name, 
VRSVLVS, impressed across the centre, which is the usual position in 
the red ware ; occasionally the name is found outside the vase. The 

names of the potters have so close 
an affinity with each other, whether 
found in Italy, Germany, France, or 
England, that we may reasonably infer 
they had one common origin, but where 
that locality was has not yet been satis- 
factorily ascertained. In England no 
kilns for making it have been dis- 
covered, but in France and Germany 
kilns have been found, and moulds also, 
which it had been supposed were used 
for the manufacture of this particular 
ware, but the evidence is not clear 
enough to affirm positively that it 
actually was so. The moulds hitherto 
discovered appear to be for the manufacture of a coarser description of 
pottery, and the ornaments certainly not of so high a finish ; in fact, they 
are just such imitations as we should expect to find in a distant colony. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith is of opinion that this elegant ware w r as made 
in Gaul and Germany, derived from the earlier and more artistic models 
of Italy, and finds among the names of the potters many which he 



r'/v, 




DESIGNS AND PATTERNS. 



'7 



considers of Gaulish origin, as Dagodubnus, Dagomarus, Divicatus, 
Cobncrtus, Tasconus, &c, whilst others are derived from a mixture of 
races; but the greater part are obviously Roman, as Severus, Albanus, 
Cassius, Atilianus, Censorinus, Domitianus, Felix, Vitalis, &c. Mr. C. 
Roach Smith (Collectanea Antiqna, vol. v. p. 157) records the discovery 
of a monument erected to the memory of the daughter of a Romano- 
Gaulish potter, whose name occurs on a vessel of this red ware found in 
London. It represents in relief a young girl holding a mirror and a 
basket of fruit; above her head is this inscription : d.m. axvla cintvgeni 
figvli filia. Axula, the daughter of Cintugenus the potter. 

A long list of several hundred potters' names, including those formerly 
in the author's collection, is given in Mr. C. Roach Smith's Illustrations of 
Roman London, a work to which the reader is referred for more detailed 
information on this most interesting subject. (Geol. Mas. Col. Chaffers, 326. ) 

Fig. 5 is a large fragment of a Samian vase, gl in. in diameter, en- 
riched with elegant scrolls 

and festoons. Potter's mark, Fi & 5- 

OF. RVFINI; found in^ 
London. 

Some of the patterns 
with which this ware is 
decorated are exceedingly 
beautiful and interesting, 
illustrating the Roman my- 
thology and the different 
games they were accustomed 
to celebrate : gladiatorial 

combats; conflicts between men and beasts in the arena; hunting subjects, 
and field-sports. On one fine fragment found in Lad Lane, London, is 
represented in the first compartment a seated figure drinking from the 
small end of a horn, held above his head ; in the next are two male and 
female figures dancing, the one playing on the double pipe (tibiae pares), 
the other holding a tambourine (tympanum) over her head ; another figure 
is beating time to the music with the castanets (crumata) in his hands, 
and an instrument called the scabellum under one foot; another division 
exhibits two pigmies armed with spear, sword, and shield, attacking their 
inveterate enemies the cranes, who invaded their corn-fields ; hounds and 
rabbits are introduced in another compartment. The patterns formed 
of the vine, its tendrils, leaves, and grapes, are tastefully grouped. On 
other vases are seen bas-reliefs of the heathen deities, Mars, Mercury, 
Apollo, Vulcan, Venus, &c. ; some modelled from existing statues. 

The vase (fig. 6) represents the Venus de Medicis, repeated, as a 
border; found at St. Mary-at-Hill, London, in 1845. (Geo/. Miis. Coll. 
Chaffers, 328.) 




i8 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



Fig. 6. 




In general the ornaments are moulded as before explained, but in 

some few instances the figures 
in relief appear to have been 
east in a mould and carefully 
finished previous to their being 
affixed to the surface of the 
vase. Mr. C. Roach Smith 
gives a sketch of a beautiful 
specimen of this variety for- 
merly in his collection. {Illus- 
trations of Roman London, p. 97.) 
Some fragments of vessels of precisely the same material, colour, and 
glaze have been discovered, having incuse patterns cut into the surface of 
the vase with great sharpness and skill, evidently by the lathe, as our cut 
glass of the present day ; but no perfect example has yet been met with. 
The general forms of the Samian ware are bowls and dishes, or 
paterae, of various sizes and of considerable thickness, to bear the con- 
Fi stant wear to which it was 

subjected in being repeatedly 
moved on and off the board 
at meals; unliketheAthenian 
vases, which were for orna- 
ment only, and the chief ex- 
cellence of which consisted 
in their extreme lightness. Fig. 7 is a plain bowl of this red ware, 
nearly perfect, 9 inches in diameter ; potter's mark TITIVS enclosed in a 

circle; found in Queen Street, City, 1850. 
Drinking cups of the red lustrous ware 
are never found in England. The small 
open bowls may perhaps have been occa- 
sionally used to drink out of, but they 
would be inconvenient for the purpose. 
An elegant poculum with two handles, or 
small amphora, for passing round a table 
from one to another of the guests, is 
annexed, fig. 8 ; it is the red ware, orna- 
mented in relief with a peacock amid ivy 
leaves laid on in slip of the same coloured 
paste, *j\ in. high. Found at Cologne. 
(Geol. Mas. Coll. Chaffers, E. 204.) 

The large ornamented bowls and plain 
paterae were used to place the viands and 
substantial part of the repast in, while the small plain Samian cups 
of the same red ware were those described by ancient authors as the 





ARETINE WAKK. 



•9 




salinum, or salt-cellar, and the acetabulum, or vinegar-cup, which were put 
on the board to dip the lettuce and viands into, or to hold occasionally 
pickles, sauces, or other condiments. 

The acetabulum was used as a measure, as we should say a tea-cup 
full. The cyathus or ladle held one-twelfth of a sextarius or pint, the 
acetabulum one-eighth of a pint. The Romans divided 
the sextarius into twelve equal parts, called cyathi; there- 
fore the cups were called sextantes, quadrantes, trientcs, 
&c., according to the number of cyathi they contained. 
Fig. 9 is an acetabulum of the Samian ware, with 
potter's mark ; found in London, 1849. 

A circumstance connected with these cups may not be unworthy of 
notice, as it shows the antiquity of the "thimble-rig" of the present 
day. The use of the acetabulum for this purpose is distinctly men- 
tioned ; they placed three of these cups on a three-legged table, and 
underneath each were put pebbles, which were removed from one to the 
other by sleight of hand or abstracted altogether, to the great astonish- 
ment and amusement of the spectators, who found the stones under 
different cups from those which they expected. These persons were 
called acctabularii because they played with the acetabulum. 

Aretium, in Italy, is one of the towns mentioned by Pliny as cele- 
brated for the finer description of earthenware. Dr. Fabroni has pub- 
lished a work descriptive of this ware (Storia degli Antichi Vasi Fittili 
Aretini, Arezzo, 1840), which is altogether distinct from the lustrous 
red ware called Samian, differing both in colour and execution ; the 
ware of Arezzo being of a darker red, and the reliefs, although, as 
before noticed, produced in the same manner, are of higher finish. The 
potter's names, too, are generally impressed in a sort of footprint, or 
else outside the vase. 

Figs. 10 and 11 represent a cup 
of Aretine manufacture, found in Lon- 
don in 1 841, with the maker's name 
impressed at the bottom ; it has a 
sort of engine-turned pattern round 
the top. Isidore of Seville speaks of 
a red ware as being the manufacture 
of Aretium ; the passage runs thus : 

"Aretina vasa, ex Aretio municipio Italiae, dicuntur ubi fiunt, sunt enim rubra. 
De quibus Sedulius — 

' Rubra quod appositum testa ministrat olus.' 

Samia vasa quidam putant ad oppido Samo Graecias habere noraen, alii, dicunt 
cretam esse Italiae, qua; non longe a Roma nascitur qua? Samia appellat." — 
{Isidore, 20 — 4.) 




20 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



Here Isidore is doubtless speaking of two red wares, and even in 
his time (;th century) there appears to have been a difference of opinion 
as to the locality of the Saniian ware; the quotation from Sedulius 
would not solely apply to the Arezzo ware, but to any dish of red 
colour. 

The pattern round the top of the Aretine vases is evidently the 
ovolo, or egg and arrow decoration, similar to that depicted on Greek 
vases (vide Hamilton), but unlike the border on the Samian, which is 
formed of festoons of drapery, with a cord and tassel pendent between 
each, appearing somewhat similar at the first glance, but the difference 
being easily detected upon close inspection. 

Figs. 12 and 13 represent a cup of red pottery of Arezzo ; it exhibits 
the higher style of art employed in ornamenting this kind of ware in 



Fig. 13. 



Fig. 





Roman Italy. The two views show the side and base of the cup ; 
2i inches high, 5 inches diameter. 

The Samian vessels we have just described are so very superior to 
those which follow in texture, quality, glazing (Geo/. Mas. Coll. Chaffers, 
1028), and decoration, that we may liken them to fine porcelain as 
compared with coarse earthenware ; they were of home manufacture, 
and although no kilns have been discovered in this country in which the 
red lustrous ware was manufactured, yet, on the other hand, several have 
been exhumed in which the more common description of vessels remained 
as placed hy the Romano-British potters for baking, and the productions 
of each particular pottery may be recognised. Although these fictile 
vases are of common material, still a peculiar elegance of form may be 
observed in their outlines, and the ornamentation, though rude, has a 
good effect. 

Upon the banks of the Medway, near the village of Upchurch, there 
was, in the time of the occupation of Britain by the Romans, a very 
extensive pottery. Along the shore for many miles may be observed 



UI'C'IIURCII WARE. 



21 



vast quantities of Roman ware in fragments ; in fact, the mud or clay 
when the tide is out is found to be completely filled with Roman pottery. 
The pottery is of a fine and hard texture ; its colour is usually a blue 
black, produced by baking it in the smoke of vegetable substances. The 
ornaments are simple but diversified ; they appear to have been effected 
by means of a flat stick notched at the end, which was passed over the 
surface of the moist clay in parallel, zigzag, or crossed lines, leaving the 
pattern incuse. In some, the ornament consists of small dots or pellets 
encircling the vessel in squares, circles, and diamond patterns, which 
appear to have been stencilled on the surface, usually of a different 
colour to the bod)' of the ware, but mostly white. Some of the vessels 
found here are of a red colour, bottle-shaped, having been subjected to 
a greater degree of heat in the burning. 

Fig. 14 is a globular vase of reddish paste with black glaze ; the 
pattern is formed of stencilled dots ; it was found in Queen Street, 
Cheapside, June 1850, and is probably from the Upchurch manufactory. 

There is another description of ware, which is, no doubt, of native 
manufacture, but scarce and seldom found entire ; it is of a light brown 



Fig. 14. 








Fig. IS- 


~-- ; 


--&QC, 


tJC f^t^^ ~i5*lf<Kt) 




v^372~ 


















^- :^y 



or ash-coloured clay, with crinkled ornament in relief round the edges 
and unglazed. Fig. 15 shows the usual form of this singular kind of 
pottery ; the pattern is made with a tool ; it was found in St. Martin's-le- 
Grand, October 1845. 

A more ornamental kind of drinking cup was made at Castor, in 
Northamptonshire. The discoveries of Mr. Artis in that neighbourhood 
revealed quantities of this ware in the kilns, as placed by the potters 
for baking. This gentleman traced the potteries to an extent of 
upwards of twenty miles on the banks of the Nen (see Artis 1 Durobriva? 
of Antoninus Identified and Illustrated). These vessels are ornamented in 
relief with hunting subjects, representations of fishes, scrolls, foliage, and 
human figures ; the mode of operation seems to have been by means of 
sharp and blunt skewer implements and a slip of suitable consistency. 
These implements were of two kinds, one thick enough to carry sufficient 



22 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



slip for the head, neck, and body of animals, and another small enough 
to delineate the details, as the tongue, eye, lower jaws, legs, and tail. 
There appears to have been no retouching after the slip trailed from the 
implement. These vessels were glazed after the figures were laid on, 
which are usually of a different colour to the body of the ware, as white 
on a light brown or chocolate ground. {Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 234 
and 707.) 

Fig. 16 is a poculum of the Castor ware of white paste, dark brown 
glaze with a metalloid lustre, representing hounds hunting a stag, laid on 
in slip after the vase was turned, and then glazed ; a sort of engine-turned 
tool-work is seen at the bottom ; height \\ inches ; found in Cateaton 
Street, London, January 1845. 

Another elegant drinking cup of the Castor ware is annexed, fig. 17. 
It is 8 inches high : yellowish brown paste. The glaze on the largest 
upper portion is black, with the scroll ornament in slip of a white pipe- 



Fig. 17. 



Fie. 16. 





clay ; it has two bands of tool-work made before glazing ; the stem of 
the vase has a red glaze ; found at Winchester. Some others of a 
higher artistic order, with subjects from the heathen mythology, have 
been found ; one at Bedford Purlieus, by Mr. Artis, had a representation 
of Hercules delivering Hesione from the monster ; another at Colchester 
with a hunting subject, two gladiators and two men leading a bear. 
These all have their names written over their heads, and are wonderfully 
well done, considering they are laid on in slip with a sort of skewer and 
not moulded (Gro/. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, E. 214 and 2 19.) 

This kind of pottery has been occasionally discovered in Holland 
and Germany, where they were perhaps imported from England. Fig. 
18 is introduced for comparison ; it was found on the banks of the Rhine ; 



DRINK INC CUPS. 



2\ 



it is 4! inches high, of a white paste covered with a metalloid glaze, 
representing dogs chasing a deer, worked in slip or barbotine in the way 
before mentioned. A drinking cup of another pattern, but of similar 
ware to that found at Castor, is here given, fig. 19. It is 5 \ inches 
high, of a white body covered with a red glaze ; the mode of ornamenta- 
tion is pleasing, and appears as if obtained by overlapping cut pieces of 



Fik 




Fig. 19. 




Fig. 20. 



clay before glazing. The usual form of the wine cups will be seen from 
the foregoing specimens ; they are almost invariably smaller at bottom 
than top, and many, formerly in the author's possession, which are now 
in the British Museum, have short convivial words laid on in relief, as 
imple, reple, bibe, vivas, ave, da vinum, vita, &c. ; they contain about 
half a pint of liquid ; others again are so pointed as not to be able to 
stand on a table, but must when once filled be emptied of their contents. 

Fig. 20 is a vase or cup 4^ inches high, 
of greyish white body and black glaze. The 
pattern is formed of small bosses laid on in 
white slip, after turning, and before glazing 
and firing. (Geo/. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, E. 221.) 

There are many other places in England 
where kilns for making pottery have been dis- 
covered. Mr. J. Conyers, an antiquary, met 
with some in digging foundations north-west of 
St. Paul's in 1677 > he states the depth to have 
been 26 feet, and gives sketches of the urns 

found in them (Shane MSS., 958, fol. 105) ; there were also lamps, 
bottles, and urns of the coarser sort. Remains of extensive potteries 
have been found in the western district of the New Forest, in Hampshire. 
(Archceologia, vol. xxxv.) 

Fig. 21 is a drinking cup, 6 inches high, of red clay, covered with 
a blackish glaze, the red tint being seen through it ; the sides are com- 
pressed into seven compartments, and a pattern in bands produced by 




24 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



tool-marks after turning on the lathe. Found in Lothbury, 1847. (Geo/. 
Mits. Coll. Chaffers, 173, and E. 90.) 

Fig. 22 is a small bottle, 6§ inches high, of yellowish white body, 
painted in black in the manner shown; from Castor, 1826. 



Fig. 21. 




Fig. 22. 




Fig. 23 is a small vase of unglazed brownish red pottery ; found in 
London. (Geol. Mas. Coll. Chaffers, 119.) 

Among the culinary utensils used by the Romans in this country 
was a broad shallow vessel termed a mortarium ; it had on the bottom 
of the interior sharp angular pebbles embedded in the ware, for the 
purpose of triturating vegetable substances, or bruising them with liquids, 
being provided with a spout to pour off the mixture when rubbed to the 
required consistency ; it had a broad rim, which turned over outwards 
about half way, apparently for the purpose of concentrating the heat 

Fig. 24. 





round the vessel when placed upon the fire ; on this rim is generally 
found the name of the potter. These mortaria are exceedingly numerous, 
not only in London, but in other parts of England, wherever Roman 
buildings have been discovered ; at Headington, near Oxford, Mr. 
Llewellyn Jewitt found fragments of at least two hundred of them. They 
vary in size from 7 inches to nearly 2 feet in diameter, and are about 
5 inches deep ; most of them, when found, give evidence of great wear, 
having generally a hole rubbed through the bottom. 

Fig. 24 is a mortarium, io^' inches diameter, of light brown ware, 



AMIMIOk.K. 



~~> 



unglazed ; the potter's mark, ALBINVS, may be observed stamped upon 
the rim. It was found in Smith field in April 1844. 

Mortaria are sometimes found of the red lustrous ware called 
Samian ; these arc provided with spouts of lions' heads or masks, 
through which the liquor was poured, and the grains of hard stone forced 
into the paste inside it as usual, for the purpose of trituration. (Geo/. 
Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 380 and 631.) 

Fig. 25 is of this red ware, and bears the potter's name VLIGGI, M., 
or Manu ; made by the hand of the potter Uliggus ; it was found in 
London. The next cut, fig. 26, is a fragment of a vessel of uncommon 



Fig. 25. 




Fig. 26. 




Fig. 27. 



external form, of the red lustrous ware, for heating liquids, with a broad 
projecting belt turned downwards to concentrate the heat round the bottom 
of the pan ; found in London. 

Large amphorae have been discovered, capable of holding ten or twelve 
gallons, mostly in fragments; they were 
in general use for storing wine, oil, or 
other liquids. Two of them were found 
perfect in an excavation in Alderman- 
bury, one of which came into the 
author's possession, and is now in the 
Jermyn Street Museum. It is 2 ft. 9 in. 
high, its largest diameter 2 ft.; it is of 
a very thick light brown clay, and un- 
glazed, the form as annexed (fig. 27). 
(Geo!. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 989.) 

These large vessels were fre- 
quently used to contain funereal de- 
posits, the upper part being cut off 
and fitted on again as a cover ; glass 
cinerary urns, filled with charred bones 
collected from the funeral pyre, are 
found within them. In the Charles's 
Museum at Maidstone are two of these, 
discovered in a walled cemetery at 
Lockham Wood, and others were recently exhumed at Colchester, con- 
taining similar deposits, now in the Museum at Colchester Castle. 




26 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



Smaller amphorae are common amongst remains of Roman domestic 
vessels found in the metropolis, some of elegant forms. Fig. 28 was found 



Fig. 28. 




Fig. 29. 




in digging the foundation of London Bridge; it is 17 inches high, and 
unglazed. {Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 135 and 718.) 

Fig. 29, another amphora-formed vessel of a light red ware, was found 



Fig. 3°- 




Fig. 3 1 - 




in Cannon Street, London ; and fig. 30, also of a red body, painted with a 
zigzag band round the upper part, is from Old Broad Street. Fig. 31 is a 



LAMPS. 



V 



small flattened amphora, used to carry at the side, suspended by the handles 
round the neck : it is unglazed, with red markings round the sides ; found 
in Moorgate Street in 1835. (Ccol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 962 and 713.) 

The lamps found in England are seldom of bronze, but almost 
invariably of terra-cotta, with small projections at the sides instead of 
handles; they were usually placed upon flat earthenware trays, with 



Fig. 32. 



Pig- 33- 






Fig- 35' 



upright ridges and handles, into which they fitted, and were thus carried 
about. These lamps are, with few exceptions, of a rude character, being 
mostly without ornaments or potters' names. Figs. 32 and 33 are speci- 
mens of the ordinary lamp, the former found in 
Queen Street, Cheapside, the latter in Lad Lane, 
in 1842. (Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 237, 255, 
and 249.) Fig. 34 has a hole through its centre 
for placing on a point ; it is of black glaze 
ornamented with red bands, found in London. 

Sometimes they are found with two or 
more burners ; these larger lamps were suspended from the top of a high 
tripod or stand with a very long stem. {Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, E. 222.) 

Fig. 35 has eight burners, and is provided with three small loops on 
the inner circle ; it was suspended 
by small bronze chains ; it is of 
a reddish clay, ji inches diameter; 
discovered at Cologne. 

Tiles were made of a red clay, 
very compact and well fired, and 
moreover extremely durable ; for 
those made upwards of 1 500 }^ears 
since are as firm at the present day 
as when first made. Bonding tiles 
were used to bind the courses of 
stone firmly together, and in the 
walls of Roman buildings we 
usually find several courses of 
Kentish rag or other stone, and 
then a double row of these bonding 
tiles. They were also used to form the arches over doors and windows. One 
of these tiles in the author's possession measures 15/0 inches in length, io/y 




28 



ROMANO-BRITISH POTTERY. 



Fig. 36. 



inches in breadth, and Iy^ of an inch in thickness. They are generally 
marked with semicircles at one of their ends. The hypocaust tiles are 

square, and were used for constructing the 
pillars which supported the floor above the 
hypocaust, and between which the flames of 
the furnace permeated. They are frequently 
stamped with the name of the legion or 
cohort which was at the time stationed at 
Londinium. Fig. 36 is a hypocaust tile, 
inscribed P. PR. BR. : it was taken from a 
Roman building in Queen Street, Cheapside, 
in 1850: size 7§ inches square. (Geo/. 
-J| Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 745.) 
T^llf Flue-tiles are of various dimensions, but 

usually quadrilateral, long and hollow, with 
lateral apertures for the heated air to pass through. They were placed one 
upon another, end to end, along the inner sides of the walls, to convey 
hot air from the hypocaust to distant rooms. They are generally orna- 
mented with incuse patterns of geometrical figures, and diagonal or wavy 
lines, the object of which was to make the cement adhere more firmly. 
(Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, 117.) 

Fig. 37 was discovered in London in August 1846. Large quanti- 
ties of tubular draining-tiles have been discovered in and about London, 
fitting into each other, and cemented, as at the present day. Roof-tiles 

Fig. 37. 





Fig. 38. 



were made with longitudinal edges turned upwards ; these, when placed 
side by side, were fastened together by semi-cylindrical tiles, larger at the 
lower end, which overlapped the narrow end of that 
placed next to it. 

Cinerary urns are more frequently found without 
the city walls : the usual form is like that annexed. 
Fig. 38 contained bones, charcoal, and wood ashes. 
Another vase, found with this by the author in Wells 
Street, Jewin Street, a few yards from the circular 
bastion of the old Roman wall (which may still be seen 
in Cripplegate Churchyard), contained about seventy 
silver denarii, ranging from the Emperor Galba to the Empress Faustina 




ROMAN TERRA-COTTA. 



29 



Senior. They were all well preserved ; those of the early Emperors were 
slightly worn from circulation, but the later coins of Antonius Pins and 
Faustina seemed fresh from the die ; from which circumstance we may 
infer that they were buried in the reign of Faustina, a.d. 140. — Vide 
British Archaeological Journal^ v. ii. p. 272. 

The next illustration (fig. 39) is a Roman terra-cotta figure of a boy 
on horseback ; another, found by the author, was a rattle in form of a 



Fig. 39- 



Fig. 40. 





helmeted head. Clay statuettes are also discovered of heathen deities, 
but the penates are usually of bronze. Another terra-cotta figure of a 
child (No. 40) is of much better work than the preceding : the drapery 
hangs in graceful folds round the upper part of the figure. This was 
found also in the metropolis. (Geo/. Mas. Coll. Chaffers, 715 and 250.) 





PART III. 



jflfUtJta^al Carttjentoave Vessels. 




ROM the seventh to the fifteenth centur}', a period of nearly 
eight hundred years, but few examples of pottery that can 
with certainty be appropriated have been handed down to 
us ; and when they do occasional^ appear in the excava- 
tions in and about the metropolis, they possess so few 
distinctive characteristics, that it is almost vain our attempting to iden- 
tify them with any particular century within this wide range. We will, 
however, endeavour to clear up a portion of the mystery which has 
hitherto enveloped these mediaeval earthenware vessels. It must be 
remarked that we are to consider them merely in regard to their utility 
and domestic economy, and not to their elegance of form or fineness 
of material ; for in those respects they present a lamentable decline from 
the Greek and Roman periods, when even vessels of the coarsest clay 
had a pleasing effect. We do not, therefore, speak of them as works 
of art, but as of homely manufacture and for domestic use, which, from 
their fragile nature and comparative insignificance as to value, have in 
few instances withstood the shock of time, or been thought worthy of 
preservation. These fictile vessels are extremely rare, and it is a matter of 
considerable difficulty to appropriate them to their particular era ; it is only 
by comparison that we are likely to arrive at any satisfactory result. 

As a reference to the Norman and early English manuscripts will 
materially assist us in our inquiries, a few of the more striking forms of 



MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



'»' 



Norman earthen cups are selected from various manuscripts,* which, by 
comparison with many of those hereafter engraved, will enable us to 
identify them as belonging to that period. 



Fig, ^ i . 



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MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



A point that requires investigation is the glazing on these vessels, 
and when it is probable this mode of application, either as a means of 
decoration or utility, was revived, if it were ever entirely lost ? The 
green glaze appears to have been intended more for use than ornament, 



Fig. 42. 




as it seldom covers the entire surface of the vessel, but only round the 
inside of the lip and upper portion of the exterior, where the liquids 
would come in immediate contact, or might be spilt over ; this could not 
result from accident or decay. Imperfections or blemishes in the ware 
are generally covered over with a spot of glaze. 



Fisr. 



43- 




Fig. 44- 




It is surprising the great depth at which these fictile vessels with 
a light green mottled glaze have been found in excavations ; in some 
instances they have been discovered mixed with Roman remains. Fig. 
43 is a water-pitcher, with mottled green glaze on the upper part ; it is 



MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



33 



Fig- 45- 



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34 MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

ten inches high, and was discovered at a depth of twelve or fourteen 
feet, in Queen Street, Cheapside, in August 1842. {Coll. Chaffers.) 
Vessels of similar form are represented in an illuminated manuscript of 
the eleventh century {Cotton MSS., Nero, C. iv.), where servants are 
taking pitchers from the cupboard, filling them with water, and carrying 
it to the Saviour to be changed into wine, at the marriage at Cana. Mr. 
Wellbeloved, in his Eburacum, says, that with undoubted remains of 
Roman earthenware he frequently found fragments and entire vessels of 
a coarse sort, generally of a yellowish white clay, with a strong glaze of 
various shades of green, and adduces several instances ; he states, that 
at Carlisle, fifteen feet below the surface, and beneath several fragments 
of Samian ware, were discovered two ancient pitchers, which inclined 
him to regard them as the work of Roman potters. Without admitting 
these pitchers to be Roman, these circumstances tend to prove the great 
antiquity of the particular sort of glazing in question, and that it was 
used much earlier than has been supposed. An Etruscan or Roman 
lagena here given, with one handle, is evidence in favour of that opinion. 
The mouth of this jug is pinched at the sides into the shape of a leaf, 
forming a spout for the liquor to be poured off in a small stream ; the 
front is ornamented by lines (cut with some sharp instrument), repre- 
senting a fish, the fins of which are coloured with a green glaze, as 
also the lip and the wavy pattern which runs down from the top to the 
bottom ; the ground is of a black glaze. A Roman cinerary urn, found 
in Queen Street, Cheapside, in 1842, had on the inner surface of the 
mouth a green glaze, and a spot or two on the exterior, as though some 
had been accidentally spilt ; and a Roman lamp, the inner part of which 
is evenly and brilliantly glazed of a green colour, the outside having 
been so originally, but now partially rubbed off. To the latter two it 
may be urged, that this appearance was the result of vitrification, caused 
by intense heat ; and such may perhaps have been the fact : but the 
jug is more conclusive, as it is very improbable (even supposing it to 
have been subjected to a great heat) that it should be coloured in a 
pattern. 

Fig. 46 is a very early specimen of a pilgrim's bottle, partaking much 
of the form of the short and flat Roman amphora, No. 31, before given. 
It is of cream-coloured ware, unglazed, 10 inches high. The two sides 
of this bottle are separately turned and joined together in the line of 
the two handles. Found in Cannon Street, 185 1. (Gcol. Mus. Coll. 
Chaffers, F. 1.) 

Fig. 47 is a tall early English jug of the Norman form ; it is of light- 
coloured clay, partially covered with a yellow glaze, quite perfect, and 
of large capacity, being 16^ inches high; found in Cannon Street, 1853. 

Fig. 48, a jug, 8 inches high ; cream-colour body, upper part covered 
with transparent glaze spotted with black; found at London Wall, 1844. 



MEDIEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



35 



A jug of this form was discovered in Friday Street with pennies of 
Henry III. and Edward I.; its date may therefore be assigned to the 

Fig- 47- 



Fig. 46. 





latter part of the thirteenth century. (See C. R. Smith's Catalogue of 
London Antiquities, p. 114.) 

Fig. 49, a costril, 10 inches high, with two projections on each side, 



Fig. 48. 



Fig. 49- 





pierced for passing a cord or strap, for suspension, like a pilgrim's 
bottle ; red body, glazed in a marble pattern with white and red ; found 
in London, August 1850. (Geol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers, F. 6, 10, 20.) 



36 MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

The gourd, pumpkin, cocoa-nut, and other fruits with a hard rind 
or shell, were undoubtedly the most primitive vessels, being naturally 
formed ready for use ; and most of the forms of the fictile ware are 
derivable from this source. It would be an interesting task to pursue 
this subject further. We should probably find, that in those countries 
where a particular fruit was most abundant, the fictile vessels would 
partake of its figure and ornamentation. The gourd and cocoa-nut were 
in common use in England ; there are frequent allusions to them. " A 
standing gilt nut " is mentioned in the will of Sir Thomas Lyttleton, 
a.d. 1480, and in certain inventories of Wolsey, Queen Elizabeth, &c. 
In Chaucer (Canterbury Tales), the manciple says to the cook — 

" I have here in my gourd a draught of win." 

In the " Comptes Royaux de France," 1391, we read, "Pour ij seaux 
et j courgc ferrez, pour porter l'eaue es chambres de Madame Ysabel et 
Madame Iohanne de France xs. ; " and in the inventory of Margaret cf 
Austria, 1524, "Deux grosses pommes et ung concombre de terre cuyte, 
paincts." 

The annexed cut represents a gourd-shaped bottle of brown earth, 
_. unglazed ; perhaps a costril, used 

by travellers to carry liquids ; it 
is slightly flattened on one of its 
sides to prevent it rolling, but can- 
not be placed in an upright posi- 
tion. 

The pomegranate and pine- 
apple were favourite objects of imi- 
tation for cups ; many of which, 
from their expensive workmanship, 
having withstood the general wreck consequent upon the change of 
fashion. The following is a description of one presented to Queen Eliza- 
beth : "A cuppc of silver guilt, shutting and opening in the middest, 
pomegranade fashion, the handle being a wheat eare." In like manner, 
other natural productions, such as horns of beasts, eggs of ostriches, 
shells, &c, were formed into drinking cups, and were the types of 
earthenware vessels, which partook more or less of their form. 

From the recent examination of Saxon graves, much valuable infor- 
mation has been gained for the historian and antiquary with regard to 
the manners and customs of that people. The earthen vessels which 
have been discovered are generally of a very rude character, with some 
few exceptions ; but this is not the case with the glass cups, which pos- 
sess a degree of elegance in their form and design. The late Mr. Rolfe 
of Sandwich had one in his possession, discovered in a Saxon grave 




MEDIEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



37 



near Ramsgate,* and a similar specimen was found by Mr. Dennct in 
the Isle of Wight. t One peculiarity of these glasses is, that they can- 
not be placed upright upon the table, but must be held in the hand 
until emptied of their contents ; they seem to partake of the character 
of the horn in their elongated and pointed form. 

The descriptive notices of earthenware vessels by which they can be 
identified, or from which we can ascertain the name of any particular 
form, are very scanty. Earthen bowls and dishes were, no doubt, 
common ; but we rarely meet with notices of them ; for, by reason of 
their comparative insignificance, they were seldom enumerated or de- 
scribed in inventories. Bowls are frequently alluded to without men- 
tioning the material of which they were made ; earthen pitchers and 
pots were in very general use amongst all classes during the Middle 
Ages. 

In the payments of the executors of Eleanor, wife of Edward I., 
in the thirteenth century, is the following entry : — " Item, Julianae La 
Potere, pro ccc. picheriis viijs. vid." And in the same document we 
have a record of the payment: "Item Johanni Le Squcler\ pro M le et 
D. discis, tot platellis, tot salseriis, et cccc. chiphis xlijs." 

Some earthenware vessels have been discovered in England, which, 
although of a rude character, have certain peculiarities enabling us to 
appropriate them to their approximate 
date. The glazed earthenware pitcher, 
fig. 51, was found in making an excava- 
tion at Lewes : it is in the form of a 
mounted knight, and is 10 inches high 
by \\h inches long; its capacity is about 
a quart, and has evidently been used to 
contain liquids, which could be introduced 
at the crupper of the horse and discharged 
through the mouth, while the hole at the 
top of the rider's head served as a vent. 
The figure has a flowing beard, long-toed 
chausses and prycke spur of the early 

part of the thirteenth century, for which abundant authorities will be 
found from Henry III. to the earlier part of Edward I. The vessel 
was originally covered with a coarse green glaze, much of which has 
been worn away by use ; the horse's legs were probably never longer 



F*g* 5i 




* " Archaeological Album," by Thomas Wright, Esq., p. 207. 

t "Transactions of the British Archaeological Association at the Winchester Congre-->, 
p. 152. 

+ The squeler was a seller of esquelles, from the French word ecuclle, a porringer, dish, or 
basin. Hence, the department in large establishments where these vessels were kept and 
cleaned was termed a sqwellery (scullery). 



3« 



MEDLEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



It is in the possession of Mr. 



W. Figg, of 



Fig' S 2 - 



than they are now 
Lewes.* 

The next illustration, fig. 52, represents a curious early English jug 
of the fourteenth century, found in an excavation in Cateaton Street in 
1 841, belonging to Mr. A. C. Kirkman.t It is also of earthenware, 

entirely covered with a coarse green glaze ; 
its capacity is equivalent to about a quarter 
of a pint ; under the lip is a face, the re- 
semblance of which to the heads represented 
on the English coins of the three first 
Edwards is too obvious to escape attention ; 
and when it was shown to Sir Samuel 
Meyrick, he at once pointed out the reverse 
curls of the beard as the fashion in the time 
of Edward II., and referred to the effigy of 
that King figured in Stothard's Monumental 
Effigies, in corroboration of this opinion. 
In the Salisbur}' Museum is a vessel of 
greenish glaze, in the form of a mounted 
knight, with pear-shaped shield, cylindrical 
helmet and prick spur, of the end of the 
twelfth century ; and in the Scarborough 
Museum are several rude vessels of the 
same date, in forms of animals. Specimens of fictile vessels of the 
Mediaeval period are extremely rare, and although the fabrication of 
such as have hitherto been brought to light is rude and coarse, they 
possess a high degree of interest, from the circumstance of their repre- 
senting, for the most part, something the artist was accustomed to see 
and imitate to the best of his ability : this is evidently the case with 
these two specimens. 

In the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, jugs were very 
commonly ornamented with heads beneath the lips or spouts ; we have 
given an illustration of one of the fourteenth century, and the Bellar- 
mines of the sixteenth will presently be spoken of; an allusion to a 
similar vessel, from an inventory of the Duke of Burgundy in 1467, is 
here quoted, which was sufficiently valued to be mounted in silver and 
gilt :— 

" Ung hault goblet de tcrrc, ouvre et chiquete a ung visaige d'un 
heremite, garny au dessus et au dessoubs d'argent dore, et le couvercle 
aussi d'argent dore." 

A very interesting discovery was made at Lincoln of some terra- 
cotta moulds which had been used by a potter of the fourteenth century 




" Brit. Arch. Association Journal," vol. ii. p. 343. 



t Ibid., vol. iii. p. 63. 



MEDIEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



39 



for impressing these ornamental heads on the glazed jugs of the time ; 
they were found with numerous fragments of pottery near the remains of a 
kiln. From the head-dresses and disposition of the hair and beard they 
evidently belong to the reign of Edward III. The mode in which these 
heads were applied is shown by an impressed fragment of glazed ware 
found with them ; they are in the collection of Mr. Arthur Trollope at 
Lincoln. 

In the Manners and Household Expenses of Sir John Howard, [466, 
there occurs the following entry : " Wateken bocher of Stoke delyverd 
of my mony to on of the poleirs of Ilorkesley ivs. x'ui. to pay hcmselfe 
and is felawes for xi dosen potes." 

The Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland, in 15 12, gives 
us a pretty correct idea of the manner of living at the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, which, for such a noble family, astonishes us at the 
humble and unostentatious display made at the table ; hence, it appears 
that treen, or wooden trenchers and pots of earth, were commonly used 
at the tables of the dependants. The former were not easily to be 
broken ; but the case was different with the earthen pots, which, from 
their fragile nature, were, it seems, a continual source of expense ; it was 
therefore ordered that — " Whereas erthyn potts be bought that leddcr potts 
be bought for them for serving of lyveries and meallys in my lord's 
hous." 

Estienne Perlin, in his Description des Royauhncs d'Anglcterre et 
d'Ecossc, published in Paris in 1558, sa}'s : "The English drink beer, 
not out of glasses, but from earthen pots, the covers and handles made 
of silver for the rich. The middle classes mount theirs in tin ; the 
poorer sort use beer pots made of wood." 

Harrison,* who wrote about the year 1579, gives us an account of 
the earthen pots which were in use in his time; he says: "As for 
drinke, it is usually filled in pots, goblets, jugs, bols of silver in noble- 
men's houses, also in fine Venice glasses of all forms, and for want of 
these elsewhere in pots of earth of sundrie colours and moulds, whereof 
many are garnished with silver, or at the leastwise in pewter." 

In the books of the Drapers' Company t there is a description of an 
election feast in the year 1522, where, after describing the order in which 
they sate, and other matters, goes on to inform us that — "At the said 
high board were salvers of bread, pears, and filberds, placed upon the 
tables before they sat down ; as also green pots of ale and wine, with 
ashen cups set before them at every mess ; but they had gilt cups for 
red wine and ipocras." The green pots here mentioned were doubtless 
earthenware pitchers ornamented with a green glaze ; for we read in the 
Losely MSS. (Kcnipc, p. 300), that in the sixteenth century " the gentle- 

* " Description of England,'' Book II. cap. 6. t Herbert, vol. i. p. 442. 



4 o MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

men of the Temple drank out of green earthen pots made from a white 
clay found at Farnham Park." 

An English costril, or flat round bottle, of the time of Henry VIII., 
with four loops, made of a fine description of pottery, and covered with a 
bright green glaze, was found in London, and formed part of Mr. Roach 
Smith's collection now in the British Museum ; it is ornamented in relief on 
one side with the royal arms (England and France quarterly) within a 
double rose, surrounded with the garter and surmounted by a crown ; 
the supporters are a dragon and a greyhound, and the inscription, " dne 
salvum fac regem REGixAM et regnum." On the reverse side of the 
bottle are four medallions, one contains a heart and three daisies, with the 
motto "leal," another the monogram "I.H.S," and the others radiated 
ornaments ; from the mottoes and supporters it is clearly of the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

Pepys in his Diaiy (29th October 1663) — being present at the Lord 
Mayor's dinner — says : " I sat at the merchant strangers' table, where 
ten good dishes to a mess, with plenty of wine of all sorts ; but it was 
very unpleasing that we had no napkins nor change of trenchers, and 
drunk out of earthen pitchers and wooden dishes (cups)." 

From these quotations, it appears probable that pitchers and large 
pots were usually made of earth and leather ; while the cups or dishes, 
out of which the liquor was drunk, were of ash ; or sometimes, among 
the more opulent, from cups or tankards of silver. 

" His cupboard's head six earthen pitchers graced, 
Beneath them was his trusty tankard placed." — Dryden's Juvenal. 

In the orders and regulations for the royal household of Edward 
IV.,* " The orders for the picher house " are — " The butler for the monthe 
delyverythe nightly, at the buttery barre for the kynge for all nyght ; 
with the ale in new ashen aippes and two other for the watche, which of 
ryghte should be delyvered againe at the cupborde in the mornynge 
with the pottes to serve men of worshippe in the halle ; when other men 
of worshippe bring to this office theyre old soyled cuppes of ayshe, to 
have new." And again, in the Expenses of Sir John Howard,t in the 
fifteenth century : " Item, paid to a nother turnere for \]c drynkng 
bolles, viijs." 

We have before observed, that although earthenware is frequently 
found, and was made, in England at a very early period in the form of 
pitchers, jugs, and occasionally drinking cups, yet it does not appear to 
have been applied to the fabrication of plates. The Romans had their 
paterae as well as bowls for use at their tables, usually of the fine red 
ware called Samian, but we rarely find them amongst the de'bris of table 

* '• Liber Niger," p. 78. t " Manners and Expenses of England," p. 527. 



MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 4 r 

ware of the Middle Ages. Thin plates, of such earthenware as the jugs 
were made of previous to the sixteenth century, would be liable to break 
with the least violence, and some more durable material would be 
selected, as metal or wood, and we accordingly find the latter in vogue 
for ordinary purposes. In the houses of the nobility these were of gold 
or silver, as now ; but trenchers of wood were in general use among all 
classes. In the Dictionary of John de Garlandia, A.n. 1080, they are 
described " Rotundalia, gallice taillieurs (trencheurs) et dicuntur a 
rotunditate." These plates were so called because they contained the 
tranche or slice of bread on which the meat was placed by the ecuyer 
trenchant, or carver, and passed to the guests. Instructions are given 
in the Menagier de Paris, 1393, and in the Boke of Kervying, as to the 
manner of cutting the bread ; the latter says what the duty of the butler 
and pantcr is : " Ye must have three pantry knives, one to square trencher 
loaves, another to be a chippcre, the third shall be sharp to smooth 
trenchers; then chyppe your sovereign's bread hot, and all other bread 
let it be a day old, household bread three days old, trencher bread four 
days old." In the same book much stress is laid upon the cutting of 
bread into trenchers or slices, in the placing of which the estimation of 
the guest was to be borne in mind ; a person of high degree had five, 
another of lower station four, and so on. 

The price of these wooden trenchers was about four shillings the 
hundred. In the Household Expenses of Sir John Harrington, 1467 : 
" Paid to a turnere for iijr platters, price the C iiijs. ; " and in the Privy 
Purse Expenses of Henry VIII. , 1532: "Item paied to one of the 
marshalls of the kinges halle for xxviij dosen cases of trenchars delivered 
to the pantry xlvjs viija?." 

The fruit trenchers were also of wood, carved or painted with orna- 
ments and foliage, containing devices and rhyming sentences ; they were 
usually fitted in a case which contained a set of six. (1589.) "There 
be also another like epigrams that were usually sent for new year's gifts, 
or to be printed, or put upon banketting dishes of sugar plates — we call 
them poesies, and do paint them now a-days upon the back sides of our 
fruit trenchers of wood." * 

About the end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century 
vessels of pewter almost superseded the use of treen or wood for the 
ordinary use of the household. There were two sorts, the common pewter 
and the counterfeit vessels, the latter being plated or washed with silver, " a 
facon d 'argent." England furnished the best pewter, and the reason why 
it attained such celebrity was the establishment of a company in 1474, which 
had the power, granted in 1534, of inspecting and stamping all articles 
manufactured in England in a similar manner to gold and silver plate. 

* "Art of English Poesy." 



42 MEDIEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

Harrison in his Description of England, 1570, says—" Our countriemen 
in time past imploied the use of pewter only upon dishes, pots, and a few 
other trifles for service here at home, whereas they now are growne into 
such exquisite cunning, that they can in manner imitate by infusion anie 
forme or fashion of cup, dish, sake, bowl or goblet, which is made by 
goldsmith's craft, though they be never so curious, exquisite and artifi- 
cially forged. Such furniture of household of this metal as we commonly 
call by the name of vessel, is sold usuallie by the garnish which doeth 
containe xij platters, xij dishes (cups), 12 saucers, and those are either 
of silver fashion or else with brode or narrow brims, and bought by the 
pound, which is now valued at six or seven pence, or peradventure at 
eight pence." 

The cruskyn or cruske, — called also cruce, creuse, and croise, — was 
a drinking cup of earth. Roquefort thus gives the signification of the 
old French word — "Creusequin: Coupe, gobelet, vaisseau servant a boire." 
The cruskyn of earth is frequently mentioned in inventories of the four- 
teenth century: thus in the Kalendar of the Exchequer, 1324: " Un 
crusekyn de terre garni d'argent, a covercle souz dorrez od iiij escuchions 
as costes de divers armes du pris, viijs." "" " Un cruskyn de terre 
blank hernoissez d'argent endorrez ove covercle embatell, enaymellez 
dedeins ove j babewyn pois ij lb." t In a manuscript in the possession 
of Sir Thomas Phillipps, we have also a little cruskyn of earth, with the 
foot and cover gilt and enamelled ; and a pot of silver, " au guyse d'un 
cruskyn." 

The same word is still used in Ireland to denote a small pot or cup, 
thus — " a cruiskeen of whiskey." In O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, the word 
is rendered " a small pot or pitcher," een being the Irish diminutive ; 
hence a small cruisk or cruske. The final syllable was omitted subse- 
quently, and it was called a cruce. 

"They had sucked such a juice 
Out of the good ale cruce, 

Wherein they found no dregges, 
That neyther of them his head 
Could carry home to his bed 

For lack of better legges." — The Unluckie Firmcntic. 

The modern French word cruche comprises all earthenware pitchers 
and jugs. The crock was larger than the cruce ; it is spelt crokke in 
Piers Ploughman ; i and Chaucer thus uses the word : § 

"And when that dronken was all in the crouke" 



* " Kal. Exch.," vol. iii. p. 12S. t lb. iii. 319. 

+ " Vision," line 13,516 § " Reeves' Tale," line 4166. 



m i :i ) i . k v ,\ l i ■: a k'N 1 1 ;\ w a k i : v i :ss i :ls. 



43 



The godet was, according to Cotman, " an earthen bole, a stone cup 
or jug ; " it seems to have been a small earthenware cup or tankard. 
The calix of a flower is called in the French language godet; the name 
occurs in several inventories of the fourteenth century. Among the 
stores for the king's ship The George, in 1345, is an entry for nine 
godettes, called " flegghes," vs. in//. ; and a large godctt for the king, 
xijd* 

It was in succeeding times called a goddard. Stowe, speaking of 
" Mount Goddard-street, in Ivie-lane," says, " It was so called of the 
tippling there ; and the goddards mounting from the tappe to the table, 
from the table to the mouth, and sometimes over the head." Gayton t 
mentions — 

" A goddard or anniversary spice bowl 
Drank off by the gossips." 



Fig- 53- 



Florio (p. 80) has " a wooden godet or tankard ; " and the following 
quotation {temp. Henry VI.) shows it partook of the form of the wooden 
mazer : " Also ij litil masers called godardes covered, and another litil 
maser uncovered." i. 

The costrel was a portable vessel or flask of earth or of wood, having 
projections on either side, with holes, through which a cord or leathern 
strap passed, for the purpose of suspending it from the 
neck of the person who carried it. It is spelt costret 
in MS. Lansd. 560, fol. 45 ; also, in Richard Cociir de 
Lion : § 

" Now steward, I warn thee, 

Buy us vessel great plente, 

Dishes, cuppes, and saucers, 

Bowls, trays, and platters, 

Vats, tuns, and costret." 



It is derived from the old French word costeret, from its 
being carried by the side ; and was probably a measure 
or allowance of beer carried by a traveller, or given to a 
working man for the day. Fig. 53 is a very early speci- 
men of such a vessel ; it has been originally covered with 
a bright red glaze, variegated with white streaks, and on 
each side are two projections, and holes for suspension 
by means of a leathern strap or cord ; it holds a pint, 
and is 1 1 inches high. (Gcol. Mus. Coll. Chaffers.) 

The other cut (fig. 54) represents a variet}' not quite so early ; the 




* Sir H. Nicholas' " History of the British Navy," vol. ii. p. 173. 

t ' ' Festivous Notes on Don Quixote. " 

+ "Kal. Exch.," vol. ii. p. 251. § Ellis, "Met. Rom.," 300. 



44 



MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



Fig. 54- 



upper part is covered with a green glaze ; it also contains a pint. These 

were carried by pilgrims, travellers, and shep- 
herds, pendent by their side along with the 

scrip : 

" A bolle and a bagge 
He bar by his syde, 
And hundred of ampulles* 
On his hat seten." — Piers Ploughman. 




Sometimes it was carried at the end of the 
bourdon or staff, which had a crook to receive it. 
The wooden barrel which the labourer carries 
with him when he goes to work is called at 
the present day in the Craven dialect a costril. 

The jubbe spoken of by Chaucer was a sort of jug, which held about 
a quart or more : 



Again 



With bred and chese and good ale in a. jubbe, 
Sufficing right ynow as for a day." t 

" A jubbe of Malvesie." + 



The juste, according to Roquefort, was a vase, pot, or a sort of 
measure for wine : — these vessels were of earth, but more frequently of 
silver ; sometimes of gold. In the Kalendar of the Exchequer, temp. 
Henry IV.: " Item, j autre joust d'argent enorrez ove les scochons des 
diverses armes ove botons de curall et cristall ove une covercle rouge sur 
le sumet." S And in an inventory of Charles V. of France, a.d. 1379, 
under the head of "Golden vessels," we have — "Six grandes justes a un 
email rond de France exxviij marcs." 

Oriental porcelain was known in Europe at a very early period : the 
first positive mention we have of it occurs in an inventory of effects of 
the Queen of Charles le Bel, King of France, who died 1370 : "Item, 
un pot a eau de pierre de porcelaine, a un couvercle d'argent et borde 
d'argent dore, pesant j marc, iiij ounces, xvij estellins, prisie xiiij fr. d'or." 

Among the original letters edited by Sir Henry Ellis, || we read of a 
present of " iij potts of erthe payntid callyd porce/and." It is also dis- 
tinctly spoken of in 1587 as a present to Queen Elizabeth, mounted in 
silver and gold ; " Item, one cup of grene pursselyne, the foote, shanke, 
and cover silver guilte, chased like droppes." " Item, one cup of pursselyne, 
th'one side paynted red, the foote and cover silver guilte." " Item, one 



* The ampulles were small oblong vessels of glass, carried by pilgrims in the Middle Ages, 
sewn to the hat and other parts of their dress, in token of having visited some particular shrine, 
t Chaucer, line 3628. + Chaucer, line 13,000. 

§ " Kal. Exch.," ii. 86. || Vol. ii. p. 242. 



MEDLEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 



45 



porrynger of white porselyn, garnished with golde, the cover of golde 
with a lyon on the toppe thereof, 38 oz." 

It was doubtless at this time much esteemed, on account of its 
scarcity; and this may be inferred from Shakespeare's allusion to it,* — 
" Your honours have seen such dishes ; they are not china dishes, but 
very good dishes." 

It did not at this time come direct from the East Indies, but from 
Venice. "China mcttall " is described in Minsheu's Spanish Dialogues 
as "the fine dishes of earth, painted, such as arc brought from Venice." 
China ware was not generally imported until 163 1, when the East India 
ships made it an article of commerce, shortly after which a heavy duty 
was laid upon it by Cromwell, viz., twenty shillings on every dozen under 
a quart, and sixty shillings on those of a quart and upwards. 

Ben Jonson t says: "Ay, sir! his wife was the rich Chinawoman, 
that the courtiers visited so often." In his time the China trade had 
not long been opened, and " China houses " were much resorted to for 
the purpose of purchasing the ware for presents ; they are also frequently 
mentioned by writers of the time as places of assignation. 

The following vessels, from an inventory of the jewels, &c, in the 
Castle of Edinburgh, 1578, were probably China ware ; the Anglo-Saxon 
word Lame, or Laim, signifying loam, mud, or clay : " Twa flaconis of 
layme anamalit with blew and quheit, and ane all blew." And in another 
account of the Queen of Scot's "moveables" under " vesshelis of glasse," 
1562 : " Item, a figure of ane doig maid in quhite laym." "i basing and 
lair with aips, wormes, and serpents." " One lawer with a cowp and a 
cover of copper enamellit." 

The Bellarmin, or long-beard, here represented, was a description of 
jug of stone ware, which being of 
peculiar ornament and form, has mis- 
led many, from its antique appearance. 
One was engraved some time since 
in the Illustrated London News, and 
attributed to the Saxon era. This 
vessel, which, from the reasons here- 
after stated, we have called the 
Bellarmin, was a stone pot or jug 
with a wide spreading belly and a 
narrow neck, on the top of which 
was represented a rudely-executed 
face with a long flowing beard, and 
a handle behind. The belly in front 
was ornamented with a device, or a coat of arms of seme town in 



Fig. H- 



Fig. 56. 




* " Measure for Measure," act ii. sc. 2. 



t "Silent Woman," act i. sc. I. 



4 6 MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

Holland or Germany ; sometimes only a crest ; of a mottled brown 
colour, glazed all over, and being of stout substance and hard texture, it 
was exceedingly durable. 

These vessels were in general use in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries at public-houses and inns, to serve ale to the customers. The 
largest, or "galonier," twelve inches high, contains eight pints; the 
next, or " Pottlepot," about nine inches and a half high, holds four 
pints; another, eight inches and a half high, a quart; and the 
smallest, six inches in height, one pint. Fig. 55 (a pottlepot) bears 
a shield quartered, with the arms of Cleves, March, Ravensburgh, and 
Moeurs. One of these vessels bears the date 1589, struck upon it above 
a coat of arms ; another, which was in the possession of the late Mr. 
Kempe, had a venerable bearded visage, and underneath a shield (which 
bore on a pale three mascles) was the date 1594. An interesting fact 
connected with this was its being found on the site of the Old Boar's 
Head Tavern, in Eastcheap. Some have the arms of Amsterdam, — 
gules, on a pale, or, a pale sable, charged with three saltires, argent, — 
others of Prussia, Germany, &c. They are frequently alluded to in old 
plays ; and the following description can leave no doubt as to its identity, 
and will justify us in christening it anew, as we have done. It occurs 
in the Ordinary, act iii. scene 3 : — 

"Thou thing, 
Thy belly looks like to some strutting hill, 
O'ershadowed with thy rough beard like a wood ; 
Or like a larger jug, that some men call 
A Bellarmine, but we a Conscience j 
Whereon the lewder hand of pagan workman 
Over the proud ambitious head hath carved 
An idol large, with beard episcopal, 
Making the vessel look like tyrant Eglon." 

Another passage in the same play again alludes to this jug ; where a 
man, after having partaken rather too freely of its contents the night 
before, is advised thus in the following couplet : — 

" First to breakfast, then to dine, 
Is to conquer Bellarmine ;" 

meaning, that the effects of the previous evening's potations and excesses 
are not dissipated until after a breakfast and a good dinner. 

In Epsom Wells (act iv. sc. 1), Clodpate, after pushing about the cups 
of true English ale, says : " Uds bud, my head begins to turn round ; 
but let's into the house. 'Tis dark ; we'll have one Bellarmine there, 
and then Bonus Nocius." 

This jug was so named after the celebrated Cardinal Robert Bellarmin, 



MEDLEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 47 

who about that time made himself so conspicuous by his zealous opposi- 
tion to the reformed religion. lie was born a.i>. 1542, and died 1621. 
He was sent into the Low Countries to oppose the progress of the 
Reformers, and he consequently received his share of hatred and 
derision from the Protestants, and there were few men of talent who did 
not enter the lists against him. The controversy was maintained with 
great vigour, and its rancour was manifested by satirical allusions, like 
this of the bottle. His biographer Fuligati says, " He was very short of 
stature and hard-featured," and that "his soul was conspicuous in ever}' 
feature of his face." If we can in any way rely upon the portraits 
of him thus handed down to posterity, he must indeed have been 
exceedingly hard-featured.* 

Ben Jonson, in Bartholomciv Fair (act iv. sc. 3), says of a man who 
was overcome with liquor : " He hash wrashled so long with the bottle- 
here, that the man with the beard hash almost streek up hish heelsh ; " 
and to the same vessel he also compares a host in the New Inn : — 

" Who's at the best, some round grown thing a jug, 
Fadd with a beard, that fills out to the guests." 

In the Gipsies Metamorphosed, the same author gives the following 
humorous derivation of the form of these stone jugs. In the Induction, 
one of the gipsies thus apostrophises the audience : " Gaze upon this 
brave spark struck out of Flintshire, upon Justice Jug's daughter, then 
sheriff of the county, who running away with a kinsman of our captain's, 
and her father pursuing her to the marches, he great with justice, she 
great with jugling, they were both for the time turned stone, upon the 
sight of each other here in Chester : till at last (see the wonder), a jug 
of the town ale reconciling them, the memorial of both their gravities, — 
his in beard, and hcr's in belly, — hath remained ever since preserved in 
picture upon the most stone jugs of the kingdom." 

Cartwright also, in the Lady Errant, mentions them : — 

" The greater sort they say 
Are like stone pots, with beards that do reach down, 
Even to their knees." 

Bulwer, in the Artificial Changeling, 1653, speaks of a "formal 
doctor," that " the fashion of his beard was just for all the world like 



* A similar instance may be cited in the well-known " Bourdaloue," or oval vase de unit, 
made of fayence, painted with an eye at the bottom, or other device, usually surrounded with 
some free legend. L. Bourdaloue was a Jesuit preacher, born 1632, died 1704, who was sent 
into Languedoc to convert the unfortunate Protestants after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes ; and being the confidant of many, and mixed up with all the secret intrigues of the time, 
this vessel, of an abject and secret use, was maliciously designated by the name of Boitrda'.ouc. 



48 MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

those upon your Flemish jugs, bearing in guise the forme of a broome, 
narrow above and broad beneath." 

These passages, which have hitherto appeared obscure to the com- 
mentators, are henceforth easily explained. 

We find in Lansdowne MSS. (108, fol. 60) a letter relating to them 
(which, as it seems a curious document, is here quoted at length), from 
a person of the name of Simpson, praying he may be allowed the 
sole importation of stone drinking pots ; it is addressed to Queen 
Elizabeth : — 

" The sewte of William Simpson, marchaunt : — Whereas one Garnet 
Tynes, a straunger livinge in Aeon, in the parte beyond the seas, being 
none of her ma ties subjecte, doth buy uppe all the pottes made at Culloin, 
called Drinking stone pottes and he onelie transporteth them into this 
realm of England, and selleth them : It may please your ma" e to 
graunte unto the sayd Simpson full power and onelie license to provyde, 
transport, and bring into this realm the same or such like drinking 
pottes ; and the sayd Simpson will put in good suretie that it shall not 
be prejudiciall to anie of your ma ties subjects, but that he will serve them 
as plentifullie, and sell them at as reasonable price as the other hath 
sold them from tyme to tyme. 

" Item. He will be bound to double her ma" es custome by the year, 
whenever it hath been at the most. 

" Item. He will as in him lieth, drawe the making of such like 
potte into some decayed town within this realm, wherebie manie a hun- 
dred poore men may be sett a work. 

" Note. That no Englishman doth transport any potte into this 
realm, but only the sayd Garnet Tynes ; who also serveth all the Lowe 
Countries and other places with pottes." 

From the quantities which have been found among the debris of the 
great fire of London, and throughout England, it is evident they were 
in very general use, which their durability and small cost would tend to 
ensure. 

We are not informed whether Simpson was successful in his suit, 
but stoneware jugs in imitation of the German Bellarmines were actually 
made in this country in the reign of Elizabeth, which fact is proved 
by a mottled brown stoneware Bellarmine of the same form in Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber's collection. On the neck beneath the spout is a 
bearded head or mask, and on the body three medallions, that in the 
centre has the royal arms of England with supporters and E.R. 
(Elizabeth Regina) surrounded by the garter and motto " Honi soit," 
&c, that on the left has a Tudor rose crowned, and the other has a 
portcullis and date 1594 — height Sh inches. 

About thirty years later, another application for the same purpose 
was made by Thomas Rous and Abraham Cullyn, to whom letters patent 



MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 49 

were granted on the 24th of October 1626. The preamble to it is 

interesting, and runs thus : — 

" Whereas we have been given to understand by our loving sub- 
jects, Thomas Rous (or Ruis) and Abraham Cullyn, of the City of Lon- 
don, Marchants, that heretofore and at this present, this our Kingdom 
of England, and other our dominions, are and have been served with 
stone pottes, stone jugges, and stone bottells out of foreign partes, 
from beyond the seas, and they have likewise shewed unto us, that by 
their industry and charge, not onely the materials but also the art and 
manufacture may be found out and performed, never formerly used 
within this our Kingdom of England by any, which profitable invention 
they have already attempted and in some good measure proceeded in, 
and hope to perfect ; by which many poore and unprofitable people 
may be sett on worke and put to labour and good employment. We 
therefore grant our Royal priviledge for the sole making of the stone 
pottes, stone juggs and stone bottells, for the terme of fourteene yeares 
for a reward for their invencion, and they have voluntarily offered unto 
us for the same a yearly rent of five pounds towards our revenue, soe 
long as they have benefitte by this our grant, ne}'ther doe they desire 
by virtue of such grant to hinder the importacion of these commodities 
by others from foreign parts." 

This was evidently the first exclusive permission to make stone 
pots and jugs in England. Judging from their names, they were both 
foreigners — Rous or Ruis and Cullyn ; the latter probably was a native 
of Cologne, and took his name from the city. 

These vessels differed from the Bellarmines above described, with 
their full-flowing bearded heads, but were of a sort of mottled grey or 
brown, with plain necks, and were called " cullings." J. Conyers, the 
antiquary, speaking of a discovery in St. Paul's Church Yard (before 
alluded to), says he picked up some pots like cullings. {IVrcris Paren- 
talia. ) 

The tyg was a cup of coarse earthenware coated with a dark choco- 
late-coloured glaze, sometimes decorated with buff-coloured ornaments. 
These cups were of various forms, with two or more handles, so that 
they could be passed round a table for three or four persons to drink 
out of; each person taking hold of a different handle, brought his mouth 
to another part of the rim to that previously used. Many of them are 
dated, varying from 1600 to 1 680. They are still called by this name 
in Staffordshire. The word tyg is of Saxon derivation, signifying an 
utensil made of earth for conve}dng drink to the mouth. (Vide Keramic 
Gall. fig. 301.) 

The maker of drink-cups was named tygcl zvyrthan, a worker of tygs. 
The word tile is derived from tygel; and tygcl wyrihan, tilewright or 
tellwright, has given the name to a numerous race in Staffordshire. 

D 



5 o MEDIAEVAL EARTHENWARE VESSELS. 

To give our readers some idea of the various ramifications of a 
single piece of earthenware before it arrives at completion, we may note 
that at the present day, to produce the commonest painted bowl, used 
by the poorest peasant wife to contain the breakfast for her rustic 
husband, the clays of Dorset and Devonshire, the flints of Kent, the 
granite of Cornwall, the lead of Montgomery, the manganese of Warwick- 
shire, and the soda of Cheshire must be conveyed from those respective 
districts, and by the ingenious processes, the results of unnumbered 
experiments, be made to combine with other substances, apparently as 
heterogeneous, obtained from other nations. (Shaw.) 

The following is a description of the process adopted in the manu- 
facture of earthenware in the last century in the Potteries : — 

A piece of the prepared mixture of clay and ground flint, dried and 
tempered to a proper consistence, is taken to be formed into any required 
shape and fashion, by a man who sits over a machine called a wheel, on 
the going round of which he continues forming the ware. This branch is 
called throwing, and as water is required to prevent the clay sticking to 
the hand, it is necessary to place it for a short time in a warm situation. 
It then undergoes the operation of being turned and made much smoother 
than it was before by a person called a turner, when it is ready for the 
handle and spout to be added by the branch called handling. 

Dishes, plates, tureens, and many other articles are made from 
moulds of ground plaster-of-paris, and when finished, the whole are 
placed carefully (being then in a much more brittle state than when 
fired) in seggars, which in shape and form pretty much resemble a 
lady's bandbox without its cover, but much thicker, and are made from 
the marl or clay of the neighbourhood. The larger ovens or kilns are 
placed full of seggars so filled with ware, and heated by a fire which 
consumes from 12 to 15 tons of coal; when the oven has become cool 
again, the seggars are taken out and their contents removed, often 
exceeding in number 30,000 various pieces ; but this depends upon the 
general sizes of the ware. In this state the ware is called biscuit, and 
the body of it has much the appearance of a new tobacco-pipe, not 
having the least gloss upon it. It is then immersed or dipped into a 
fluid generally consisting of white lead, ground flint, and a stone from 
Cornwall burnt and ground, all mixed together, and as much water put 
to it as reduces it to the thickness of cream, which it resembles. Each 
piece of ware being separately immersed or dipped into this fluid, so 
much of it adheres all over the piece, the water being absorbed by the 
biscuit, that when put into other seggars and exposed to another 
operation of fire, performed in the glossing kiln or oven, the ware 
becomes finished by acquiring its glossy covering, which is given it by 
the vitrification of the above ingredients. Enamelled ware undergoes 
a third fire after it has been painted, in order to bind the colour on. 



MED I /EVA L EA KTI I EN W A R E V ESS E I ,S. 



>■ 



A single piece of ware, such as a common enamelled teapot, mug, 
jug, &c, passes through at least fourteen different hands before it is 
finished, viz., the Slip-maker, who makes the clay ; the Temperer or 
Beater of the clay ; the Thrower, who forms the ware ; the Ball-maker 
and Carrier; the Attendant upon the drying of it; the Turner, who 
removes its roughness; the Spout-maker; the Handler, who puts on 
the handle and spout; the First or Biscuit Fireman; the person who 
immerses or dips it into the lead fluid ; the Second or Gloss Fireman ; 
the Dresser or Sorter in the warehouse ; the Enamellcr or Painter ; 
the Muffle or enamel Fireman. Several more are required to the com- 
pletion of each piece of ware, but are in inferior capacities, such as 
the turner of the wheel, turner of the lathe, &c. 



^&A4£ 





MARKS AND MONOGRAMS. 



N.B.— Many of the examples alluded to in the following descriptions are represented in "The 
Keramic Gallery of Illustrations," by W. Chaffers. London, Chapman & Hall, 
1872. The abbreviations " Ker. Gal.," &c, with the number of the object, refer to that work. 



MAIOLICA. 



•jftalj?. 




ESS3|\HE Keramic art was patronised here by the princely House 
of Urbino for two hundred years, and it arrived at great 
perfection under Duke Frederic de Montefeltro in 1444, 
his son Guidobaldo, and Francesco Maria della Rovere, 
Guidobaldo II., and Francesco Maria II., who died 1631, 
with whom died also the art of making pottery in Urbino. 

"We understand by majolica, a pottery formed of a calcareous clay 
gently fired, and covered with an opaque enamel, composed of sand, 
lead, and tin. This enamel, although melted at rather a low temperature, 
is much hardened by the oxide of tin it contains, and adheres perfectly 
to the biscuit. The biscuit has generally a light yellow colour, dis- 
appearing under the opacity of the enamel ; and one of its main char- 
acteristics is to effervesce when tried by acids." (Arnoitx.) 

Before proceeding to the Marks of the various manufactories, it may 
be found useful to know the Italian terms given to the forms of the 
vessels, and to the peculiar decorations upon them, as described by 
many writers, and their equivalents in the English language. Piccol- 
passo of Castel Durante, in his manuscript Dell' Arte dell Vasain, now 
in the Library of the South Kensington Museum, gives a description of 
most of them, accompanied by drawings of the patterns ; these examples, 
which belong to the year 1548, must not be taken as types of all the 
early Italian maiolica, but rather of its decadence. 



MAIOLICA— ITALY. 53 

Scudella or tazza, a flat cup or bowl with high stem and foot. 

Ongarescha or piadcnc, a cup mounted on a low foot. 

Taglierif a flat plate or trencher. 

( anestrella, a fruit basket, made in a mould or pierced. 

Bacile, a deep bowl plate. 

Tondino, a plate with a wide rim and a deep cavity in the centre 
{cavctto). 

Coppa amatoria, a bowl or cup, on the bottom of which is painted 
a female bust. 

Albarello, a drug pot of cylindrical form, the sides slightly concave, 
to enable a person to hold it more conveniently. 

Vast di Spezicria, pharmacy vases. 

A maiolica service much in fashion in the sixteenth century as a pre- 
sent to a lad} r in her confinement consisted of four pieces fitting one above 
the other ; it was painted inside and out with the birth of some deity or 
an accouchement. The lowest piece was called the scudella, to receive broth, 
eggs, or other viands ; this was covered by the taglieri or trencher to hold 
the bread ; above this the ongarescha was inverted, and within its foot 
was placed the salicra or salt-cellar, and its cover, copcrchio. 

The patterns and decorations of maiolica were : — 

Trofci, trophies, composed of weapons and musical instruments ; 
these were made principally in the State of Urbino, at the price of an 
escu ducat the hundred. 

Rabesche, arabesques, or Oriental designs copied from damascened 
metal-work, executed principally on white ground. Made more fre- 
quently at Genoa and Venice ; at the latter the price was one florin 
the hundred ; at Genoa, four livres, which was considered a high price. 

Cerquate, oak leaves, employed in compliment to the Delia Rovere 
family, then reigning at Urbino, such as branches of oak with leaves 
and acorns interlaced, with a central cartouche enclosing a bust, &c. ; 
some at ten carlini the hundred, others an escu ducat the hundred. 

Grotcsche, grotesques or chimerae, with bodies terminating in foliage, 
on coloured ground. The price in Urbino, two florins the hundred ; at 
Venice, eight livres. 

Foglic, leaves, groups of leaves, coloured on white ground, some- 
times in camaieu on coloured ground. Made mostly at Venice and 
Genoa ; price, three livres the hundred. 

Fiori, flowers, roses, tulips, &c, intertwined, among which are birds 
perched or flying, painted in camaieu on blue ground. Made at Venice ; 
price, five livres the hundred. 

Frutti, fruit, of the same character and price. 

Foglic da dozzena, leaves by the dozen, a common sort of decoration 
of flowers and foliage covering the surface of the plate. Half-a-florin 
the hundred ; at Venice, two livres. 



54 MAIOLTCA— ITALY— URBINO. 

Paesi, landscapes. Those made at Castel Durante, Genoa, and 
Venice cost six livres the hundred. 

Porcellana, porcelain, executed in slight blue outline with scrolls and 
flowers in colour upon white ground. Cost two livres the hundred. 

Tirata, interlaced ornaments or strap-work in colour on white ground, 
similar to the last. Cost two livres the hundred. 

Sopra bianco, white upon white, palmette ornaments of opaque white 
enamel upon milky white ground. Cost a half-escu the hundred. 

Sopra aznrra, the same decoration on blue ground. 

Ouartiere, quartered, this common decoration consists of large rays 
dividing the plate into compartments of coloured designs, in the centre 
of which are sometimes busts, &c. Cost twenty bolognins or two to 
three livres the hundred. 

Candelliere, candelabra, very similar to grotesche. In the example given 
by Piccolpasso, it appears painted on white ground, with an ornament 
composed of male or female figures or busts, with bodies and arms of 
branches and foliage symmetrically interlacing each other. These cost 
two florins the hundred ; at Venice, eight livres. 

Sgraffiato, incised ware with the outlines of the subject cut or 
scratched on the surface. 

In some extracts from a Book of Expenses of Wilibald Imhoff of Nurem- 
berg from 1564 to 1577, preserved among the archives of that city, we 
find in his account for the year 1565 that this wealthy and ostentatious 
patrician obtained his artistic maiolica direct from Venice. 

Forty pieces of white maiolica painted with arms, and other maiolicas, 
cost eleven florins. 

In 1567 an Urbino maiolica jug and cover, four florins. 

A large cistern for water in the form of a ship, which cost nine florins. 
Two basins of white fayence with ewers, four florins the pair. 

It will be seen by the comparative value of money that these objects 
of art were dearly paid for, even at that time ; for twenty francs for a cistern 
or large basin then, represents in our time at least 300 ; and what some 
writers say about the low price of maiolica when it was originally made 
refers only to the common articles of commerce. 

URBINO. 

In Urbino, or its immediate neighbourhood, at a place called Fer- 
mignano, existed at the latter part of the fifteenth century a manufactory 
of maiolica. Pungileone cites a certain potter of Urbino named Giovanni 
di Donino Garducci in the year 1477, and a member of the same family, 
Francesco Garducci, who in 1501 received the commands of the Cardinal 
of Carpaccio to make various vases. Ascanio del fu Guido is also men- 
tioned as working in 1502 ; but the works of all these have disappeared, 
or are attributed to other fabriques, and it is not until 1530 that we can 



MA KHJCA — URBINO. 55 

identify any of the artists named by Pungileone : Federigo di Giannan- 
tonio ; Nicolo di Gabricle; Gian Maria Mariani, who worked in 1530 ; 
Simone di Antonio Mariani, in 1542, to whom M. V. Lazari attributes a 
plate in the Museum of Padua, signed S. A. ; Luca del fu Bartholomeo, 
in 1544; Cesare Cari of Faenza, who painted in 1536 and 155 1 in the 
botega of Guido Merlino. 

The workshop of Guido Durantino was celebrated in the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, for the Connetable de Montmorency, an amateur 
of works of art, commanding in 1535 a service, of which several pieces 
bearing his arms are still extant : one is in the British Museum, and 
others from the same atelier are mentioned below. About the same time 
flourished the distinguished Francesco Xanto Avelli da Rovigo, whose 
works are so well known and so highly appreciated ; he usually painted 
after the designs and engravings of Raphael, not always adhering strictly 
to the same grouping of the originals. He also borrowed subjects from 
Virgil, Ovid, Ariosto, &c. 

Of the same school was Nicolo di Gabriele or Nicolo da Urbino. 

Another celebrated painter of maiolica of the middle of the sixteenth 
century was Orazio Fontana, originally of Castel Durante, whose family 
name appears to have been Pellipario, Fontana being a surname taken in 
consequence of the profession of several members of the family. The 
first whose name occurs is Nicolo Pellipario, who was alive in 1540, and 
had a son Guido, named in a notarial document as early as 1520; the 
latter had three sons, Orazio, Camillo, and Nicolo. 

Guido, the father, survived Orazio, and his name is found on the 
plateau in the Fountaine Collection, which states that it was made in 
Urbino, in the shop of Maestro Guido Fontana, vase-maker. Orazio 
remained with his father up to the year 1565, when he separated and 
set up a botega on his own account in the Borgo San Polo ; he died 
in 1 57 1. Camillo, his brother, appears to have been invited to Ferrara 
by Duke Alfonso II. in 1567, to assist in resuscitating the maiolica 
manufacture of that city, founded by Alfonso I. many years before. Of 
Nicolo, the third son, little is known, except that his name is incidentally 
mentioned in a document dated 1570. 

Examples. 

A salt-cellar of triangular form, on dolphin's head and feet, painted 
with rich ornaments of cupids and negroes' heads, inscribed " fra. xanto," 
&c, dated 1532; was purchased at the Bernal sale for the British 
Museum for £61. 

A superb dish in vivid colours, Pompey and Cleopatra, cupids, &c, 
and armorial bearings ; at the back a description and " fra. xanto a da 
rovigo in urbino, 1533," now in the South Kensington Museum; sold at 
the Bernal sale for £$0. 



56 MAIOLICA— URBINO. 

A fine dish ; subject, Olympus with Apollo in the centre, above a 
choir of amorini ; is in the South Kensington Museum ; £60 

A fine basin and ewer, painted with grotesques and cameos on white 
ground, elegant handles, of Urbino fabrique, best period, circa 1 5 50 
(SoltykoffColi); £136. 

Two plates signed by Xanto : Hero and Leander and Metabus, with 
metallic lustre (Soltykoff Coll.) ; £116 each. 

A fine Urbino vase, oviform with high handle, ornamented with a 
sphinx and masks, the body painted in bright colours with the brazen 
serpent, circa 1550; was purchased at the Bernal sale by the late Mr. 
A. Barker for ^220. Another, similar, with subject of a metamorphosis, 
was bought by him at the same sale for ^"200. 

A fine dish in the Bernal Coll. ; subject, Pan playing upon the pipes 
and two kneeling figures bearing shields, with a beautiful arabesque 
border; was (although broken) bought for the British Museum for £62. 

An Urbino plateau ; subject, Moses striking the rock, with arabesque 
border on white (Soulages) ; is in the 5. Kensington Museum ; cost ^"ioo. 

Two others of Leda and the swan, and Roman soldiers attacking a 
bridge (Soulages), in the same collection, cost £$0 each ; and two 
Urbino vases, painted with mythological subjects, cost £55 each. 

We must not omit to mention (although no mark is to be found 
upon it) a very beautiful and unique specimen of painting on maiolica, 
the well-known oviform vase, the handles and foot of it being restored 
in silver ; round the body is a continuous frieze of nude figures fighting 
on a black background, after Giulio Romano, the shoulder and neck 
painted with arabesques, &c, en grisaille on blue ground, gadroon 
ornaments at bottom. This exquisite vase has been attributed to Orazio 
Fontana, but is unlike any of his known works. (There is another, 
similar, but of inferior merit, in the Brunswick Museum.) It was for- 
merly the property of Mr. Gray, of Harringer House, at whose death 
it passed into the Stowe Collection for £35. At the Stowe sale it was 
purchased for fifty-one guineas only, by Mr. Mark Phillips, Warwickshire, 
and would at the present time probably realise ten times that amount. 

In the Montferrand Collection, No. 5 5, there was a very interesting dish, 
representing the celebrated group of the Laocoon. The antiquity of this 
painting is evident from the fact that the right arm of the High Priest 
is wanting ; it is a copy of the group as it was actually discovered in 
1506 in the vineyard of Felix de Fredis, near the gate of St. Jean de 
Lateran. It is believed that the arm now seen on this antique group 
was added by Michael Angelo. 

.trj* Urbino. The initials of Francesco Xanto Avelli 

*' da Rovigo in Urbino; inscribed on a plate, subject, 

•/• Jk./\,.iy Pyramus and Thisbe. In the Museum of Art, South 
• / Ijr^ino. Kensington. {Bernal Coll.) 




MAIOLICA— URBINO. -- 

Urbino. Francesco Xanto Rovigcnse. In- 
scribed on a plate in the Museum of Art, South 
Kensington. 

Ukbino. By Xanto. On a plate ; subject, the 
Sword of Damocles. In the Collection of the late 
Mr. H. G. Bohn. 

Urbino. By Xanto. On a tazza, with ara- 
besques, dark blue and white (sopra azurro). 

Urbino. The letter X. for Xantho is at the 
end of an inscription on a plateau dated 1540, 
painted in lustre colours with the Rape of Helen, 
marked in blue, but the letter N. is in red lustre, 
which proves that he sent his plates to be lustred either to Vincentio 
or Censio, at Gubbio, or to Nocera, whichever the letter may signify. 
Louvre Coll. 

Urbino. Tazza with mythological subject, *^\lA,>iljji" 

bearing the mark of Xanto. i| 

Urbino. By Xanto. On a dish, with por- 
trait of Laura, on blue ground. 

Urbino. Francesco Avello Rovigense pinxit. s* . 

On a plate, representing the Fall of Daedalus, Jty\yi?/\lUl(Q J^yTT" 

finely lustred. In Mr. Amhurst T. Amhurst's 
Coll. 



X-H 



Urbino. By Xanto. On a plate, dated 
1531. Bernal Coll. An old man, cupid, and F " X ' ' 
female with a lute ; in the centre a coat of 
arms, with Hercules ; cost £j. 



*S3*- 



Urbino. On a plate; subject, ^Eneas and 
Anchises. Bernal Coll., now in the British 
Museum; cost ^"14. 

Urbino. The signature of Xanto on a deep 
lustred plate ; subject, Hero and Leander. In 
the Louvre. The same occurs on a richly 
lustred plate, painted with Astolfo on Pegasus 
attacking the Harpies. 



FRANCESCO XANTO. 
AVELLI DA ROVIGO. 
URBINO PINSE 1531. 

"H^-ntoAc/* 
Inn o w i>H 



58 



MAIOLICA— URBINO. 



*/V^t>*XXX)tr 






"\irh-no' 




Urbixo. This mark of Fra. 
Xanto Avelli da Rovigo in Ur- 
bino, 1533, is on the beauti- 
ful circular dish, painted with 
the marriage of Alexander and 
Roxana, now in the S. K. Mu- 
seum, purchased at the Ber- 
nal sale for £50. The letters 
X. H. A. are on a soldier's 
shield in front. A facsimile is 
given in Chaffer's Keramic Gal- 
lery, fig. 41. 



Urbino. A monogram of Xanto, on the border of a 
plate painted with Diana and the Transformation of Actaeon 
into a stag ; the subject inscribed on the back and dated 
1^4-4 I 544> which is the latest date of this artist's work we have 
met with. In Mr. H. A. Neck's Collection. 



X 



M 



Urbixo. Xanto occasionally painted in front of his 
plates, on some part of the subject, various large Greek 
characters in white enamel. The most complete example 
here given is from a plate signed by the artist, representing 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife. On the bed-curtains are the 
accompanying monograms. In the late Mr. Evans Lombe's 
Collection. 



Urbixo. On a plate dated 1537 ; subject, the Rape of 
Helen ; belonging lately to Mr. Addington. 



Urbixo. This mark is on a hanap 
or ewer in the Museum of the Uni- 
versity at Bologna, having the arms of 
Gian. Francesco Gonzaga impaling those 
of Isabella d'Este (married 1490; he died 
I 5 19 ; she died 1539). 




MAIOUCA— URBINO. 






Urbino. On a plate; belonging to M. Salo- 
mon de Rothschild. 

Urbino. On a plate ; subject, the Flight of 
Xerxes; signed by Xanto. In Mr. Fortnum's Coll. 

In these inscriptions the Greek alpha and omega may be traced more 
or less perfect ; and the upsilon traversed by a sign/a. 

Monsieur A. Jacquemart is of opinion that they were fabricated at 
the end of the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century by Biagio of 
Faenza, at Ferrara. This potter was in possession of a manufactor\ T at 
Castel Nuovo in 1501 and in 1506, and refers the pieces to that early 
date. We quite agree with M. Jacquemart that these inexplicable ciphers 
were not adopted by Xanto, as some have supposed ; but they are 
evidently of his time, and not so early as M. Jacquemart places them. 
They are found on pieces dated 1537, as that above mentioned, and we 
have given above another instance bearing Xanto's mark of an X on the 
back. We are therefore inclined to retain these ciphers as belonging to 
Urbino rather than Ferrara, until we have more certain data to authorise 
the alteration. 



Urbino. On a plate in the British 
Museum, representing a sacrifice to 
Diana, by Nicola or Nicolo da Urbino. 

Urbino. This mark is reduced from 
the original, which is found on a large 
circular dish in the Bargello at Florence, 
representing the Martyrdom of Sta. 
Cecilia, painted by Nicolo da Urbino. 
On the reverse is the monogram, varied 
from the others by connecting the up- 
right lines of the letter N by a cross line 
to form an H. (Nicholo). 

Mr. Fortnum says : " The inscrip- 
tion proves his connection with the 
Fontana fabrique, and also, we think, 
with that family ; " and he is of opinion 
" that he was the Nicolo Pellipario of 
Castel Durante, who came to Urbino 
with his son Guido and there established 
a botega, in his son's name ; " he also 
inclines to the supposition that Guido 
Durantino and Guido Fontana of Castel 
Durante are one and the same. 



■V- 





{ 



mria decern Acl 

W*cfaca(?X 
cwranfc 



6o 



MAIOLTCA— URBINO. 




da Vrblno 




Urbixo. The monogram of Nicolo da Ur- 
bino. On the back of a plate, painted with 
Mount Parnassus, after Raffaele, in the Sauva- 
geot Coll., Louvre. M. Darcel attributes this 
mark to Nicolo di Gabriele, of whom we have 
before spoken as working about 1530 at Urbino, who signed the plate 
"A Sacrifice of Diana," " Nicola di V." In the British Museum. 



Urbixo. Another mark of Nicolo da Urbino, 
bearing date 1521. On a plate representing 
Charles V. ; in the possession of M. de Basil- 
ewski. 

Urbino. This mark occurs on the back of 
a beautifully painted plate. The date is on a 
stone in front ; subject, the Judgment of Paris, 
with Mercury and Cupid, and a Victory flying 
above. 

Urbixo. On a dish ; subject, David and 
Goliath, after Raphael, attributed to one of the 
Fontana family, or rather to the workshop of 
Fontana (Louvre). The same name is on a plate 
painted with the Parcae or Fates, seated, spinning; 
in the Soane Museum. 

Urbixo. On a dish, with Jupiter and Semele. 
Bernal Coll., now in the British Museum. 



In (sot<La<\>4\ M 

+LTIQ 

1532 

NELLA-BOTEGA 

1)1 GVIDO DVRANTINO 

IN VRBINO I535. 



Urbixo. This inscription occurs on a very 
fine plate in the possession of Baron Sellieres, 
representing the Muses, from a painting by 
Perrino del Vaga, which is considered a veri- 
table chef-d'ceuvre of art, and may be considered as a prototype of the 
Fontana artists. 



FATTO IN URBINO IN 
BOTEGA DI M° GUIDO 
DA CASTEL DURANTE 

X 



francesco dvrantino 
vasaro 1553. 



Urbixo. On a cistern, painted with subjects 
after Giulio Romano. Narford Collection. 



nTi55' 

B Urbixo. This inscription and date are on a 

CTtcjCX plateau, with the subject of Judith and Holo- 
fernes. (Campana Collection). In the Louvre. 






MAIOLICA— [JKBIXO. 



6. 



Urbino. On a dish, with the signs of the 
zodiac round the rim ; signed at the back. M. 
Demmin erroneously states that this was made 
at Bologna, arising from his mistaking the word 
Botega for Bologna. 

LJrbino. On a large dish ; Mark Antony 
and a Naval Engagement. 
Museum. 



FATE l\ BOI EGA 
IM GVIDO MERLIG 
VASARO DA URIM 
IN SAX POLO 
ADJ. 30 DI MARZIO T542. 

FATE IN BOTEGA 

In the Brunswick di GUIDO m nerligno. 



U rbi no. Made in Urbino in the 
workshop (botega) of Maestro Guido 
Fontanel, Vase-maker; he is presumed 
to be the son of Nicolo Pellipario and 
brother of Orazio Fontana. This in- 
scription is on a plateau in the late 
Mr. Andrew Fountaine's Collection at 
Narford Hall ; subject, the Siege of 
the Castle of St. Angelo. (Illustrated 
in Delange's "Recueil de Faiences 
Italienncs" plate 81.) In the recent 
sale of the Fountaine Collection, June 
1884, this plateau realised ,£315. 



Mm in VrliKo 



j VI 



jn Jbokgv/e 



FATE IN BOTEGA DI 

M° ORAZIO FONTANA 

IN ORBINO. 

FATE IN BOTEGA 
DI ORAZIO FONTANA. 



Urbino. On the triangular plinth of an ovi- 
form vase, painted with the Triumph of Amphi- 
trite. In the Collection of M. le Baron Sellieres, 
formerly exhibited in the Sevres Museum. 

Urbino. By the celebrated Orazio Fontana. 
This mark was on a vase formerly in the Straw- 
berry Hill Collection, with serpent handles, and a subject painted after 
Giulio Romano. The pair then sold for £1 10. The late Mr. A. Barker had 
a similar vase by Orazio Fontana, and another is in the Sevres Museum. 

Urbino. These labels, with O. F. and the 
date 15 19, are on the front of an 8-inch maiolica 
plate, painted with the armed bust of Pompey and 
four labels on the border, two of which are here 
given ; the three letters at the bottom are in- 
scribed on the back in blue " Ponpeo. o. f. v." 
There is a decided assimilation to the succeeding 
mark given by Passeri, which he reads Orazio 
Fontana Urbinate. If this be the correct reading, 
it follows, either that Nicolo Pellipario must have had two sons, Guido 
and Orazio, who both settled at Urbino before 1520, and adopted the 



K 1 5 l 9 a 

pernio 

o-f-v 



62 



MATOLICA— URBINO. 



I $44- 



* 




o| i f £-4^ b 



surname Fontana ; or the more celebrated Orazio must have come with his 
uncle about the year 15 19, a much earlier date than is generally assigned. 
The period in which he is considered to have flourished at Urbino by 
Passeri and others, was between 1540 and 1560, and he died in 1 57 1. 

Urbino. The initials of Orazio Fontana 
"V\ Urbino, fecit. This mark is given by Passeri. 

O Tl ^' ^" J aca i uemart thinks these initials have no 

-p m reference to Orazio Fontana, and that this, as 

well as the preceding mark, must remain classed 
among the monograms of unknown artists. The same remark will also 
apply to many of those which follow, attributed to Orazio Fontana. 

Urbino. The monogram of Orazio Fontana. 
This mark occurs on a fine plate, representing 
the Rape of a Sabine Woman. Saracini Col- 
lection. 

Urbino. The monogram of Orazio Fontana, 
accompanied by the date 1544, on the back of a 
plate ; painted with the Chase of the Calydonian 
Boar. From the Bernal Coll., now in the British 
Museum ; purchased at £8, 5s. 

Urbino. Orazio Fontana. This mark is 
attributed by Mr. J. C. Robinson to this artist. 
It occurs on a magnificent plate in the Louvre ; 
subject, the Massacre of the Innocents. 
y~~ZZ ^ ~~~A Urbino. Orazio Fontana ; so attributed by 

/ * Cl/ ' ^L ' wfflL Mr. J- C- Robinson. This mark is on a plate, 
painted with St. Paul preaching at Athens, in the 
Narford Coll. At the sale, June 1884, it was 
sold for ;£ioo. 

Urbino. Orazio Fontana. This mark, simi- 
lar to the preceding, is found on a tazza, painted 
with David and Goliath, in the Narford Coll. 



— 4Sftt 
\ 

Urbino. This signature is on a plate, painted 

with statuary and a coat of arms, architectural 

subject in the background ; it is finely painted 

by one of the Fontana family. Inscribed at back Vitruvio de architedura 

principe, &c. In Mr. H. A. Neck's Collection. 




<t—— 





Urbino. This mark is on a fruit tazza in 
the Correr Museum at Venice, and is attributed 
by Sig. Lazzari to Flaminio Fontana ; subject, 
the Judgment of Paris. 



MAIOLICA— URBINO. 



63 



Urbino. On a plaque in Mr. Franks' Coll., 

painted witli a fine figure of St. Paul ; on a 

stone in the foreground, the subject and date 

1583. It has all the manner of the Fontana school, and has probably 

equal claim with the preceding. 

Urbino, 1542. On a highly coloured plate, 
painted with St. Jerome plucking a thorn out 
of a lion's foot, inscribed on the back with de- 
scription of the subject and "Urbino, 1542." 
Collection of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 

Urbino. On a plate, No. 345, Campana 
Collection; subject, Joshua commanding the sun 
to stand still, painted in the manner of Fontana. 
The abridged name of some artist unknown. 



F^F 






Urbino. On a plate ; subject, David and 
Goliath, dated 1533 ; the description and signa- 
ture on the back. Louvre Collection. 



\Jrl)iri0 — 

L 



N<?t Anno cle It 

TYi.C<XUVt~LO n.J 

2.6" cU [tiglCo 



Urbino. This curious inscription, which 
does not bear any allusion to the subject painted 
on the front, representing St. Mark, before whom 
a priest is kneeling, is on the back of a plate ; 
similar inscriptions relating to contemporary 
events are occasionally met with : a piece in 
the South Kensington Museum, representing a 
female, wounded, leaning against a buckler, before her two weeping figures, 
is inscribed on the reverse " di tua discordia italia, il premio hor hai." 
This is dated 1536, and probably refers to the same event recorded above. 

Urbino. On a square Urbino maiolica 
plaque, height 10 in. by j\ in. wide, painted 
in blue camaicu with the Temptation, Eve offer- 
ing to Adam the forbidden fruit, copied from 
Marc Antonio's print after Raffaelle. In front 
is a tablet and date, 1523 ; on the reverse, a 
weaver's shuttle and distaff, probably a rebus 
of the painter. It is beautifully painted, and 
the finest specimen known to exist. In the 
Collection of the late Mr. R. Napier of Shandon. 
Mr. Robinson (Catalogue of the Shandon Coll., 
No. 3008) suggests that it may be by the Master 
of Forli, and describes the mark as a weaver's 
distaff and shuttle. Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue of the South Kensington 
Museum, p. 557) classes it as Forli, but he says it bears "as great a 
similitude to a brush and painter's palette" as to a shuttle and distaff. 




64 MAIOLTCA— URBINO. 

Urbino. This mark is on a vase ; subject, 

FATTO IN VRBINO , . ,. . . ' . T - T ., , 

the Israelites gathering Manna in the Wilder- 
-p r> p ness ; of good design, but feeble in colouring. 

De Bruge Coll. 
a j^ j, Italy. Unknovvnmaster (Andrea di Bono?), 

painted about 1500. The mark occurs on a 
plate ; subject Horatius Codes defending the Bridge. Bernal Coll., now 
in the South Kensington Museum; cost £6, 15s. 

Urbino. A crescent and the initials E. F. 
B., dated 1594, is on tne stem of an ewer, beau- 
tifully painted with yellow scrolls on blue ground, 
-p"pTD and a pelican encircled with the following in- 

/jt) if scription, " ymasqve de bvona cana ; " in the 

possession of M. de Rothschild of Paris. 

Urbixo. The mark of an unknown master 
of the sixteenth century. 




G + B+F 



< 1630- 
*G*B*F 



Urbino. The initials of an unknown master, 
on the back of a large maiolica dish, raised 
centre, with Charity and a border of arabesques 
and cupids, 18 in. 



Urbixo. Battista. Franco. Urbini. Fece. 
g p y p The mark of one of the most celebrated painters 

on maiolica ware. 

7* Vr6inondf(V Urbino. This inscription and date are on 

^bobtzq cCi franceico tl , , c c , , • . , -,i 

^1 &h*.7, ' -^ tne Dac k °' a very hne plateau, painted with 

the Storming of Goleta, engraved in Marryat. 
It has the mark of Fra. Xanto Avelli. 



:m":d 'Xxxki 



VRBINI 
1606 



Urbino. The mark of Alfonzo Patanazzi. 
On the border of a large dish, painted with the 
subject of Romulus receiving the Sabine Women. 
In the Museum of Art, South Kensington. 



The signature in full is en the reverse of the same dish. {Keranuc 
Gallery, fig. 49.) 



MAIOLICA— URBINO. 



6.5 



Urbino. Presumed to be the mark 
of Alfonso Patanazzi, but no description 
is given of the subject or the name of 
the collection where it is to be found. In 
Mr. Fortnum's Catalogue of the Maiolica 
in the South Kensington Museum (p. 
369)- 



Urbino. The same artist; so signed 
at length on a plate mentioned by Passeri. 

Urbino. "Alfonzo Patanazzi made 
this at Urbino, in the manufactory or 
workshop of Johannes Batista Boccionc." 

Urbino. The initials of Alfonzo 
Patanazzi, on a maiolica plate. 

Urbino. This mark is on an ink- 
stand with the four greatest poets at 
the corners, the body decorated with 
grotesques ; from the collection of M. 
D'Azeglio, now in the possession of 
Mons. H. Delange. 

Urbino. The mark of Francesco 
Patanazzi. On a plate in the Delsette 
Collection. 




ai.fonso patanazzi 

vrbini fe. 

alfonso patanazzi ii 

vrbini in botega di 

ios batista boccione. 

1607. 

VrGiiji Pat ana 
i-ecit cvn->\o [^84- 



Urbino. Another mark of 
Francesco Patanazzi, 1608. On 
a large triangular cistern ; sub- 
ject, Adam and Eve driven out 
of Eden, and border of gro- 
tesques. Fountaine Collection. 
In the recent sale at Christie's it 
was sold for £1 10. 






Urbino. On a plate mentioned by Passeri, 
painted by Vincenzio Patanazzi, at the age of 13. 

Urbino. Vincenzio Patanazzi, aged 12. 
Mentioned by Paseri. 



vincenzio patanazzi 

da vrbino di eta 

d'anni tredeci del 

1620. 

VINCENTIO PATANAZZI 
DE ANNI DODECI, 

E 



66 MAIOLICA— URBINO. 

Urbino. On a plate in the possession of Monsignore Cajani at Rome; 
subject, the Expulsion from Paradise. "Vincentio Patanatii de Anni 12." 

y — \ / ' * suDject, uiana ana /\ctaeo 
Ul/Ol llj of the Marchese d'Azeglio 



Urbino. Marked on the back of a plate ; 
subject, Diana and Actseon. In the possession 



FATTO IN URBINO. 



<Zi 



Urbino. On a large vase painted with an 
historical subject. Soulages Collection. 



^ *^ySj% ^«% •» W >• Urbino. On a plate, painted 

f w 'JR. ™ with arabesques, mentioned by 



(/\ Y Is )// •— -T^/^> A tne same P amt er and date is on 




M. Riocreux. Another mark of 

toe 



\W 



a bowl in the Museum of Art, 
South Kensington ; on the border 
are six oval sunk pools in the 
manner of Palissy, painted en 
grisaille with amorini ; cost ^"40. 



w 



Urbino. This mark is on a plate of old 
white maiolica (Falcke's sale, No. 2880), marked 
j r^/ in blue. 

G.V.V.D. Urbino. The arms of the Duke of Urbino. 

mvnvs. f. andrea The initials of the inscription may be read, Guido, 
e volaterrano. Ubaldo, Urbino, Dux. Presented to Frater 
Andrea of Volterra. Passeri quotes two plates of this service : subjects, 
Coriolanus and the Deluge ; two more, one representing the Sacrifice of 
Jacob, the other the Burning of Troy, were in the Delsette Collection, 
whence they passed into that of the late Mr. A. Barker ; two in the 
Geological Museum : subjects, the Triumph of Trajan, and Mutius 
Scaevola ; three in the Marquis of Bristol's Collection at Ickworth : 
subjects, Aaron the High Priest, Camillo, and Men and Women at a 
stream ; one, a flutted tazza, is in the British Museum ; one is in the 
Rothschild Collection at Paris ; and one in the Museum of the University 
of Bolosrna. 



MAIOLICA— URBINO. 



67 




15^3 






WCCL 

tto__CO 



Urbino. This mark is on a plate, 
subject, Diana and Actaeon, mentioned 
by Delangc, attributed by some to Luca 
Cambiasi, a painter of Genoa, by others 
to Girolamo Lanfranco of Pesaro. 

Urbino. A mark on a maiolica 
plate ; subject, Diana and Actaeon. In 
the Campana Collection. 

Urbino. On the back of a plate, 
painted with St. Luke seated on a bull 
in the clouds, and holding an open 
volume. In the possession of Mr. 
Fortnum. 

Urbino. This mark occurs on the 
front of a large Urbino dish, painted 
with the martyrdom of St. Lawrence ; 
the description and date 1 5 3 1 is on the 
back. It was sold at Lord North wick's 
sale for 295 guineas. 

Urbino. This mark is on a large 
dish in the Narford Collection, admirably 
painted with the Conversion of St. Paul, 
attributed to Orazio Fontana. 



Urbino. Tazza (ellip- 
tic), strap-work in relief on 
each side and end, which 
terminate in blue masks, 
surrounding two medal- 
lions : one represents Moses 
striking the Rock, the other 
the Return of the Spies 
from the Promised Land ; 
on reverse, strap and scroll- 
work and four lions' masks 
in relief; beneath the foot 
F. G. C, circa 1580. South 
Kensington Museum. 

Urbino. On a very fine plateau, 16 in. diameter; _^ 

subject, the Last Judgment, and long inscriptions signed * J_j"r *" 
both on the front and back. In the Collection of the . r~cri 
Marquis of Bristol, Ickworth. ^ 




68 



MAIOLICA— URBINO. 





TESAVRVS 
CARBONES ERANT. 



These two marks are given 
by Jacquemart as belonging to 
Urbino {Mervcillcs de la Ccra- 
miquc, p. 349). 



Urbino. This curious inscription is on the 
back of a large dish of the middle of the six- 
teenth century, and a representation of a mine, with several lumps of 
coal and a hatchet. It relates either to a scarcity of coal at that time, 
or more probably it records the successful use of that mineral as a sub- 
stitute for wood in heating the kiln. On the front of the dish is painted 
a Roman sacrifice. 

Urbino. The mark of a painter, on a 
highly-coloured dish ; subject, a Lion Hunt, 
after Marc Antonio. It has been suggested 
that the initials stand for Francesco Lanfranco, 
Rovigo. Berney Collection. The same letter, in conjunction with the 
signature of Maestro Giorgio, dated 1529, are on a plate ; subject, Jupiter 
and Semele. Addington Collection. 

_ .^ Urbino. On a plate ; subject, Hector and 

1 1 TO ( Ti f) — I 1 Achilles in the River Xanthus, well-coloured. 
Berney Collection. 

T txt nAi7 T7 Urbino ? Denistoun {Memoirs of the Dukes 

of Urbino, iii. 391) observes that he saw "at 
Urbino, in 1 845, a feeble plate in colour and design, signed F. M. Doiz 
Fiamengo fecit, a proof that it was no despised production of the time." 
The mark in the margin was on the front, at the base of a specimen in 
the Gowen sale, No. 1 12, but the name sounds very much like one of 
the Delft artists. 



fhfc 







lished himself at Urb 

COSt ;£l2. 



Urbino ? This may probably be the mono- 
gram of Cesare Cari of Faenza, who painted in 
the botega of Guido Meiiino, from 1536 to 1 5 5 1 
(see p. 55). 

Urbino. Fayence with stanniferous enamel. 
This inscription is on the bottom of a sliding 
pillar lamp with four burners, painted in the 
style of Moustiers, from which place, or from 
Marseilles, M. Rolet probably came and estab- 
ino ; it is in the South Kensington Museum ; 



MAFOLICA— GUBBIO. 6y 

GUBBIO, 

in the Duchy of Urbino, is known to us principally by the works of 
Maestro Giorgio Andreoli, who seems to have monopolised the ruby 
metallic lustre with which he enriched not only his own productions, 
but put in the finishing-touches in metallic colours on plates of other 
artists from Urbino and Castel Durante. 

Giorgio was son of Pietro Andreoli, a gentleman of Pavia, and was 
established at Gubbio when young, according to Passeri, with his brothers 
Salimbene and Giovanni. 

In 1498 he obtained the rights of citizenship and filled some muni- 
cipal offices. He was a statuary as well as a painter of fayence, several 
of his sculptures in marble being extant. His early pieces, mentioned 
below, are without the lustre which subsequently rendered him so famous. 
The first piece on which his metallic lustre is revealed to us by his 
signature is dated 15 19, his last is dated 154 1 ; quoted by Mr. J. C. 
Robinson from a piece in the Pasolini Collection, signed by M°. Giorgio, 
which he says cannot implicitly be relied on. 

In 1537 his son Vincentio or Cencio, the only one who followed his 
father's profession, was associated with him in his works. Vincentio is 
supposed to be denoted by the N seen on some of the Gubbio plates. 

Perestino was another successor of M°. Giorgio, whose mark is found 
noticed below, but we have no certain information respecting him. 

A plaque, with St. Sebastian in relief, of early lustre ware, 1501, is 
perhaps one of the earliest dated specimens extant ; it is in the South 
Kensington Museum. In the same Collection is a large plate of Maestro 
Giorgio, with the arms of the Brancaleoni family, and border of arab- 
esques (Soulages) ; cost £120. 

A plateau from the Bernal Collection, having in the centre a Saint 
and two dogs, and the initials S. L., bordered with serpents, scrolls, and 
amorini ; ^"150. There is a fine series of Gubbio lustre plates, which cost 
from £30 to £60 each. One of the finest specimens, however, of Giorgio 
is the plate painted with the Three Graces, dated 1525 ; sold in Mons. 
Roussel's sale for 400 guineas to the late Mr. A. Fountaine of Narford. 
At the Fountaine sale, 1884, it brought £766, 10s. 

Gubbio. This mark is supposed to be that of Andreoli ; 
it is on the back of a lustre plate in the possession of Mr. I. 
Falcke. 

Gubbio. Attributed to Giorgio Andreoli. On the back of 
a lustre plate ; subject, King Solomon. Campana Collection. 

Gubbio. Giorgio Andreoli, before he was ennobled as 
Maestro. The mark, in gold lustre, is here reduced ; it is 
on the reverse side of a plaque, representing St. Jerome 
seated. Soulasfes Collection. 




7° 



MAIOLICA— GUBBIO. 



Gubbio or Faenza. These monograms 
and date are on a circular plaque, in white 
enamel on deep blue ground ; in the centre is 
the sacred monogram Y.H.S. Museum of Art, 
South Kensington. M. Darcel reads the monogram, Giorgio Andreoli, 
although no similarity exists between this example and any of his known 
works. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 52.) 



^1*4* gl* 




Gubbio. The initials of Maestro Giorgio. 
On a tazza, painted with a male and female 
figure seated, and a cupid. Soulages Collec- 
tion. 

Gubbio. The initials of Maestro Giorgio, 
with a merchant's mark between ; on a plate ; 
subject, Balaam. 



Gubbio. Another mark 
given by Passeri. 



of Maestro Gior- 



Gubbio. On a small plate of early period ; 
in the centre the half-figure of a bishop (St. 
Petronio), after Perugino ; border of leaf orna- 
ment, drawn in blue outline and lustred with 
ruby and gold ; now in the possession of 
onsignore Cajani at Rome. (Fortnum.) 



Gubbio. This monogram 
occurs in lustre colours on the 
back of a plateau, with female 
profile bust on a raised centre, 
of the well-known early type, 
richly lustred, which has been 
ascribed to Pesaro and Deruta. 
It is the only known instance of 
a mark on similar pieces. In 
the British Museum. (Fortnum.) 



MAIOLICA— GUBBIO. 71 

Gubbio. On the back of a tazza, said by 
Brancaleoni to be in the " Casa touch " at Gubbio, Q £, (££ £ «T cU 

and referred to by Passeri ; foliage and arab- 
esques in blue, yellow, and ruby lustre. The 
form of the G is very similar to that on the 
small plate just described with the figure of St. 
Petronio. 

Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio. On a lustrous 
dish, with arabesques in blue ; in M. de Mon- 
ville's Collection, Paris. 

Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio. His works date <f?T^i> 

from about 15 18 to 1541. Marked on a plate; L<&?Aom<\ 

subject, St. Francis; in the Museum of Art, VflaVquGfo/ 




South Kensington; cost £30. ^^J^^ 



Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio, 1520, with a 
merchant's mark. On a lustrous plate, painted 
with Aurora in a biga, and two winged attend- t\/\ XSO ' 

ants on the water. In the late Mr. A. Barker's ^evmfliwto 

Collection. 



2^0 



Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio, 1520. On 
flat plate, richly lustred gold ground, painted in t^) 

the centre with a shield of arms of three fleurs- 
de-lis in chief and three crowns, supported by 
three cupids, candelabra, trophies, &c. 






Gubbio. This curious inscription is written j/<> Giorgio. 1520. Adj 
in blue on a piece of maiolica in the possession 2 di Otobre B.D.S.R. 
of M. Dutuit of Rouen, differing materially from In Ugubio. 

those we are accustomed to refer to Gubbio. The design is the Judgment 
of Paris, finished with great care in sober colours ; the metallic lustre is 
subordinate to the rest ; quoted by M. Jacquemart. The letters preceding 
the name of the place refer probably to the appellation of his manufactory, 
11 Botega di S. R.," but we must leave the two last to be hereafter deciphered. 



plate, with a half-figure of \ A p. oJ ^\> 
i, ruby lustre, belonging to ^J Xl^OLUfl CPtOl 



Gubbio. On a 
St. John in the centre, ruby lustre, belonging to 
M. Leroy Ladurie, Paris 



Gubbio. Another mark of Maestro Giorgio, . 

with the date 1537. In the late Mr. A. Barker's (\A r\('/ * 
Collection. tf <*}? OlW 



72 



MAIOLICA— GUBBIO. 



;r 



^^ 






Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio, 1525. On a 
plate, painted with " The Stream of Life," from 
an early print by Robetta. Narford Collection. 
It was purchased at the Bernal sale for ^142, and 
was formerly in Passeri's possession. {Keramic 
Gallery, fig. 57.) In the recent sale of the Foun- 
taine Collection, 1884, it brought ^820. 

Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio, 1526. On a 
plate, subject, an Amorino swinging on the 
branch of a tree, painted en grisaille, richly 
lustred with ruby and gold colours. Soulages 
Collection. 

Gubbio. Maestro Giorgio. On a lustred 
plate, representing the Death of Dido, from an 
engraving by Marc Antonio. In Mr. Amhurst 
T. Amhurst's Collection. 

Gubbio. This mark of a signature and date, here reduced to half 
its size, is painted in gold lustre, the flowers in the cornucopiae being in 
ruby ; occurs on the back of one of the finest works of Maestro Giorgio 
known to us, a dish of the largest size, having in the centre a group of 



1 ifVi 

fa0 



M 




)jWk Oiota 



tff 



^^#PJ 





nymphs bathing, with a border of the richest groteschc. This noble piece 
is figured in Delange's Recneil, pi. 65, and at that time it belonged to the 
Baronne de Parpart, having been formerly in the Collection of Prince 
Bandini Giustiniani of Rome. This masterpiece of Giorgio is now, we 




>r j i 



MAIOLICA— GUBBIO. 73 

are happy to say, in England ; it was sold for Madame Parpart at £880, 
and has since been acquired by Sir Richard Wallace at a price nearly 
doubling that amount. 



Gubbio. A curious 
variety of the signature of 
Maestro Giorgio da Ugubio, 
dated 1527, on the back of a 
plateau in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum. A similar mark 
is given by Fortnum in his 
Catalogue of Maiolica (p. 200) 
which occurs on another piece 
by the same artist. 

Gubbio. The mark of M°. 
Giorgio of Ugubio, as it was 
formerly spelt ; it is dated 1 5 3 1 . 
From the Collection of Signor 
Marnelli; painted by an Italian 
maiolica artist, and sent to M°. 
Giorgio to be touched with his 
far-famed lustre colours of gold 
and ruby. The latter pigment 
remained a secret with him, and 
has never been surpassed, or 
even equalled. Thisaddedcon- 
siderably to the value of such 
pieces, as was evidenced at the 
sale of the Fountaine Coll. in 
1884, where fine pieces realised 
from £500 to ;£8oo each. 

Gubbio. This interesting 
mark (reduced) is on a mag- 
nificent circular dish in the 
Museum of the University of A 

Bologna. The whole surface O 

is covered with the subject, 
the Presentation of the Virgin, 
admirably drawn and richly 
lustred in gold and ruby. The 
inscription on reverse beneath 
the signature is remarkable, 
and the only instance recorded. 



/> *d2 



0^.0 



^q* » i°f 



,f J 



'Mr' Q*> . 



74 



MAIOLTCA— GUBBIO. 




M-6 




Gubbio. This interesting mark, with the date 
1543, may probably be referred to Guido Fontana. 
It occurs on a slightly lustred tazza of Urbino 
character, in Mr. Fortnum's Collection. The sub- 
ject, somewhat coarsely painted, is Constantine 
crossing the bridge and seeing the Cross in the 
sky ; the mark is on the reverse in gold lustre. 



Gubbio. This mark and date are on the back 
of a plate which came from Paris and was pur- 
chased by Mr. J. Webb. It is probably an im- 
perfect signature of Maestro Giorgio. 

Gubbio. This mark occurs on a plate having 
on the border four medallions, two of which bear 
these initials ; in the centre the Virgin between 
two angels. These letters have been considered 
to be the initials of Maria Gloriosa, but M. 
Darcel reads them Maestro Giorgio, and says the 
plate is identical with one in the Louvre, exe- 
cuted by the same hand, lustred and signed by 
that artist. In the South Kensington Museum. 

Gubbio. This mark is on a plate ; subject, 
Abraham visited by the angels, in metallic lustre; 
attributed to Maestro Gillio. Louvre Collection. 



Gubbio. This singular device is painted in 
colours, and beautifully lustred by Maestro 
Giorgio in the front of a tondino or deep plate. 
The initials are probably those of a merchant 
prince or noble, the hand pointing to his trade 
mark, and sent by him to be lustred at Gubbio. 
The design is here greatly reduced from the 
original. It is dated on the back 15 18, and is a 
very choice specimen of Giorgio's art. In the 
British Museum. 



MAIOLICA— GUBBIO. 



/ :> 



Gubbio. The name illegible, but in the style 
of Maestro Giorgio. From Passcri ; attributed 
to Maestro Gillio. 

Gubbio. This inscription, hastily and incor- 
rectly drawn, has been attributed to Maestro 
Giorgio Andreoli, as well as to Cencio ; subject, 
Two hunters with dog and hare ; border of 
trophies, in metallic lustre. Sauvageot Collection. 

Gubbio. The letter N. and I 539 on a plate ; 
subject, Diana and Actaeon, with metallic lustre. 
In the Campana Collection, Louvre. 

Gubbio. School of Maestro Giorgio. Mr. 
J. C. Robinson attributes this to Vincentio or 
Maestro Cencio ; some have given it to Nocera, 
a branch of the Gubbio manufacture. It occurs 
on a plate, with the head of John the Baptist in 
a charger. (Soulages Coll.) The same letter is 
on a lustred plate, with an amorino holding a 
bow, in the South Kensington Museum. 

Gubbio. The painter of the Giorgio school 
signing himself N., as in the preceding example. 

Nocera (Via Flaminia), a branch of the 
Gubbio manufactory. The pieces are usually 
marked N. The mark of N G, as in the 
margin, is in metallic lustre on the back of a 
plate, No. S3 in the Campana Collection. 




14 2* 







.J fc 



KIG 



Z Ctl£l6_t 




\*3Q 



Gubbio. This signature of Perestino, con 
siderably reduced here, is on a square b 
relief, representing the Virgin and Child, p.^,,-* 
painted in metallic lustre ; the name on the "<* Jv. 
reverse is in red lustre. (Campana Coll., 
Louvre.) The semicircle above is not a C, as 
Mr. A. Darcel supposes, but the handle of the tablet. The idea that 
this letter is the initial of Cencio or Vincentio Andreoli, and the word 
underneath is a surname given him from his expertness and celerity in 
working, is too visionary; it is not "prestino" but without a doubt 
Perestino. 



76 



f 



MAIOLTCA— GUBBIO. 

Gubbio. Probably Maestro Perestino. On 
a vase in the Campana Collection ; attributed in 
the catalogue to Maestro Giorgio. 



\X7 . 

in, dCivLo J? motto 
<t r)\a\ivo preftinv 



Gubbio. Maestro Perestino or Prestino. 
Signed on a plate, painted in ruby and gold 
lustre, with Venus and Cupid ; in the posses- 
sion of Mr. I. Falcke. 



rp. 



^^ *2 0% Gubbio. The mark, probably, of Maestro 

w ^^ *j *% Perestino. It is on a plateau, painted from a 
lost work of Raphael ; the subject is the Re- 
demption of Solomon and the establishment 
of the throne of David. King David is seated 
on a throne, like that of Solomon, spoken of in the tenth chapter of 
Kings, ver. iS ; on a lion tripod table before him is the flaming chafing- 
dish ; a golden cup, holding the five shekels of silver ; a priest holds 
the infant Solomon on the table, and inquires of Queen Bathsheba, who 
stands by his side, "Is this thy son?" &c. (Numb, xviii. 15). There 
are two attendants, one on the King, the other on the Queen. In the 
background is the type of the future temple ; and in the distance is seen 
the tabernacle and the hill of the Lord, with two trees, on which are 
hanging the two sons of Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare 
unto Saul, and the five sons of Michal, the daughter of Saul ; " and they 
hanged them in the hill before the Lord" (2 Sam. xxi. 9). In the 
Bracon Hall Collection. 



^t 



m 



Gubbio. This mark occurs on a piece in 
the Campana Collection : a forked L and a sort 
of naked branch. 

Gubbio. This monogram is on a fine plate, 
having the Torregiano arms, and foliage, 
trophies, &c. ; sold at Mr. Galliardi's sale for 
£104. 




Gubbio. This monogram is on a lustred 
plate ; subject, Abraham and the Angels. 
Campana Collection ; perhaps an imperfect 
monogram of Maestro Giorgio. 



MAIOLICA— GUBIW). 



Gubbio. This mark has been attributed to 
Maestro Ccncio (Vincentio), son of Giorgio 
Andreoli, but the mark is in direct contradiction 
to the assertion. Passeri says that Giorgio 
was assisted in his manufacture of maiolica by 
his brothers ; it is more likely to be the monogram of Salimbene, who 
we are told was one of them. One was in the possession of M. Sauva- 
geot, of Paris ; another in the Campana Collection. 



1 



Gubbio. This mark occurs on a plate, sub- 
ject, Hercules and Cerberus, in the Campana 
Collection, Louvre. Another, without date, is in 
the Museum of Art, South Kensington ; the latter 
being rather indelicate in composition. Such is 
also the case with a plate bearing the same 
mark, having above the letters F R, dated 1535, 
given by Greslou. 

Gubbio. On a bowl ; subject, the Virgin 
and Child, painted in lustre colours. Narford 
Collection. 

Gubbio. Marked on the back of a plate, of 
yellow ground, with trophies, shaded in blue ; in 
the centre is a shield of arms of two storks, 
dated 1540. In the Barker Collection. 

Gubbio. Marked in lustre colour on the 
back of a plate ; subject, Cupid with sword and 
shield, blue border and scrolls. 

Gubbio. These letters are on a plate, dark 
blue ground, with male and female heads in cos- 
tume of the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
within wreaths, trophies, &c. (Bernal Coll.), South 
Kensington Museum ; cost £26, 10s. 

Gubbio. A plate of the sixteenth century, 
having in the centre the bust of a warrior, inscribed 
as in the margin ; on the border four coats of 
arms of yellow ground, and beneath Y. A. E. In 
the Collection of M. Meusnier, of Paris. 

Gubbio. This curious mark was on a lustred 
plate by M°. Giorgio in Mr. Bernal's Collection, 
but was not catalogued with the others at the 
sale in 1855 ; subject, Abraham's sacrifice. 



1536 




M.A.l.M. 



i;arrikl da cubbio. 




78 MAIOLICA— GUBBIO— PESARO. 



D 



f 



i ' 



3 




& 



Gubbio. This mark appears on a vase having, in 
relief, the Virgin and Child, and also on a vase painted 
with ornaments in metallic lustre, and a large initial letter 
L ; both in the Campana Collection. 



Gubbio. On a portrait plate, with arabesques, as 
practised by Giorgio Andreoli, but ol inferior merit. Cam- 
pana Collection. 



Gubbio. Perhaps the mark of Maestro Cencio. It 
occurs on a plate in the De Monville Collection ; also on a 
plate in relief, No. Ji in the Campana Collection. 

Gubbio. Umbria. Manufacturers of maiolica, Messrs. 
Carocci, Fabbri, & Co., exhibiting specimens of lustred 
colours in imitation of that of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, in yellow, ruby, and other metallic lustres, at the 
International Exhibition, 1 862 ; marked in centre on the 
back. M. Pietro Gay, the director, is the artist who per- 
sonally attends to this lustre, for which he obtained the 
medal. 

PESARO. 



We are indebted for all we know of this fabrique to Giambattista 
Passeri, who has striven to do all honour to his native country ; and as 
its history was not written until nearly two centuries after its establish- 
ment, we must make allowances for his amour propre. Many of the 
pieces of ancient style with yellow metallic lustre, formerly attributed to 
Pesaro, are now by common consent referred to Deruta. 

Passeri quotes a certain Joannis a Bocalibus of Forli, who in 1396 
established himself at Pesaro. 

In 1462 mention is made of the loan of a large sum for the enlarge- 
ment of a manufactory of vessels. The borrowers, Ventura di Mastro, 
Simone da Siena of the Casa Piccolomini, and Matteo di Raniere of 
Cagli, bought in the following year a considerable quantity of sand 
" du lac de Perouse," which entered into the composition of fayence. 
To this date Passeri places the introduction of the manufacture of 
maiolica. 

In 1546, an edict was passed in favour of Pesaro by Jean Sforza, 
forbidding the introduction from other fabriques of any but common 
vessels for oil and water ; to the same effect were two other edicts of 



MAIOLICA— PES ARC). 79 

1508 and 1532, and another by Guido Ubaldo in 1552; in this last 
the potters of Pesaro, M°. Bernardino Gagliardino, M°. Girolamo Lan- 
franchi, and M°. Rinaldo, " vasari et Boccalari," engage to supply the 
town and country with vases, and pieces painted with historical subjects, 
under certain conditions. The M°. Gironimo, vase-maker, who signs 
the plates in the margin (page 80), is probably the Girolamo Lanfranchi 
here mentioned; his son Giacomo succeeded him, who in 1569 invented 
the application of gold to maiolica, fixed by fire. 

Another corroboration of Passeri's statement, and of the importance 
of the Lanfranchi establishment, occurs in an anonymous document 
published by the Marquis Giuseppe Campori {Notizie dclla majolica c della 
porcellana di Ferrard). It is preserved among the archives of Modena, 
and is dated Pesaro, 26th October 1660. It relates how the Duke of 
Modena had been entertained at the house of the Signora Contessa 
Violante, " con hitta qnella domestichezza" which he desired ; how he 
was presented with six bacili filled with delicacies made by the nuns, 
sent to him by the daughters of the Countess, and which were kept in 
the dishes. That some of his family wishing to buy majoliche painted 
by Raffaelle of Urbino, a great quantity of bacih s'and tazzoni was brought 
to them, not b}' Raffaelle, but painted by a certain ancient professor of 
that kind of painting denominated " il Gabica'o" — " le furono portate gran 
quantita di bacili c di tazzoni o fruttcrc, non gid de Raffaelle ma dipinti da 
un tale antico Professore di tali pitture denoniinato il Gabiccio," who, as the 
Marquis Campori suggests, was probably that Girolamo di Lanfranchi, 
the maestro of the establishment at the Gabice. It then goes on to 
relate that these dealers in antiquities, like some of their brethren of the 
present day, asked too much money, to wit, a hundred doble for a rinfres- 
catorc or cistern ; certainly well painted, but for which they offered 
twelve ! and that they only succeeded in acquiring another rinfrescatorc, 
and a large turtle that would serve as a basin or a dish, painted with 
grotesques and figures on the bowl and cover, for which they paid 
twenty-two doble. The Marquis Campori observes that the cover of this 
tartarnga was sold not long since in Modena to an amateur, and when 
last in Florence the writer learnt that such a piece was then in the hands 
of Signor Rusca of that city. He had himself seen at Rome the lower 
portion of a large turtle or tortoise shaped dish in the Palazzo Barberini. 
which may perchance belong to the cover in Florence, or be the other 
half of a similar piece. (Fortnum.) 

We had an opportunity, a few years since, of inspecting a perfect 
tartarnga, which is still in the possession of a friend, answering exactly 
the description given above, ornamented on the interior with elegant 
arabesques of grotesque animals, modelled from life in form of a tor- 
toise, of which a photograph was taken at the time, and is now in our 
possession. 



> 



80 MATOLICA— PESARO. 

This inscription is on a fruUiera or tazza 

with the subject of Cicero expounding the law 

Qeevonc ef-juUtCefav before j ulius CaeSRV) a composition of six figures : 

cutxdo ukte U Uat I&L Cicero in the centre holds a folio before Caesar, 

in(a6oteacic£inasho who is seated on a throne; the inscription is on 

♦ / C/ J / / • the reverse. In the possession of Mr. Fortnum. 
o It bears the signature of Girolamo of Gabice, 

/ v 1542, mentioned by Passeri, whose name is so 

stated in an edict of 1552, probably the same 
as Girolamo Lanfranco. In 1569 a privilege was granted to him for 
the application of gold to fayence, fixed by the fire. About 1590 he 
was succeeded by his son Giacomo, who ceded the manufactory in 1 599 
to his sons Girolamo and Ludovico. 

Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue S. K. Museum, p. 158) remarks, that in this 
inscription we have a ver} r interesting example, corroborating the records 
given by Passeri of the Lanfranchi fabrique and of its locality. This is 
the Maestro Girolamo di Lanfranco of Gabice, a dependency of Castillo, 
six miles west of Pesaro, and thus mentioned in a register : — 

"1560 Mastro Girolamo di Lanfranco delle Gabice, vasaro, possiede 
una casa, &c." " 1598 gli succede Giacomo suo figlio." " 1599 gli suc- 
cedono Girolamo e Ludovico figli di Giacomo." 

In the Montferrand Collection, No. 162, there was a plate represent- 
ing the Martyrdom of St. Maurice, the Tribune of a Roman Legion ; on 
the border were the arms of Cardinal Giustiniani ; it was heightened 
with gold, and the work of Giacomo Lanfranco, 1569. 

This mark is on the re- 

_ f A verse of aplate in the Museum 

Tfl/fc U* Vyd^O I J 4 2- of the University of Bologna, 

' y representing nymphs at the 

>\ dote oak mo g/ronitno „ th \ V7 mo ' fT ° r 

Jp A ,v Maestro Girolamo, ratto in 

l/dC/iV /t Pesaro 1542 in bottega di 

/ Ma ro Gironimo Vasaro, Jac- 

* I homo pinsur. (In the second 
(CLCpO rTlO pt y \fl(y*' Hne of the inscription, the 

/ ' painter has transposed the 

letters d and b.) 
There was in the Collection of M. Mathieu Meusnier, Paris (now 
dispersed), a fine Italian fayence plate, with reflet mctallique ; in the centre 
a man on horseback in armour, praying, in the manner of Albert Dilrer, 
and on the border a number of square tablets linked together like a 
chain, each tablet containing a letter, thus : — iomarechomadoadio. Six- 
teenth century. 

Passeri does honour to Guido Ubaldo II. della Rovere (who became 



MAIOLICA— PESARO. 



Hi 



FATO IN PESARO. 



Duke of Urbino in r 5 3 <S ) for his patronage of the fabrique of Pesaro. 
On the death of Guido Ubaldo in 1572, the pottery began to decline, 
and when Passeri returned to Pesaro in the year 17 18, there was only 
one potter, who made ordinary vessels. Some years after, in 1757, he 
sent a painter from Urbania and recommenced the manufacture on an 
improved plan ; some of these later pieces are noticed below. 

Pesaro. On the back of a dish, circa 
l 535> subject, Apollo and Argus. Bernal 
Collection ; cost £6, 10s. A similar inscription is on another dish, of 
Picus and Circe, also from the Bernal Collection; cost .£11. Both in 
the British Museum. 

The greater part of the early maiolica is 

not marked. One piece of a man on horse- T . „. , _. ... 

. . , , , , ... , . , JJe risauro ed Cnamillo. 

back, in gold and red metallic lustre, is quoted 

by M. Jacquemart. 

Pesaro. On a dish ; subject, Horatius 
Codes ; mentioned by Passeri. Another large 
plateau — subject, the Triumphal March of the 
Emperor Aurelius — was in the Soltykoff Col- 
lection, with the same inscription, but dated 
1552; sold for sixteen guineas. 



FATTO IN PESARO. 
1541. 



Pesaro. Made in the workshop of Master 
Gironimo, maker of vases, in Pesaro ; quoted 
by Passeri. 

Pesaro. This inscription is on a plate> 
subject, Mutius Scaevola, of good design, but 
coarsely painted, blue, green, and yellow pre- 
dominating. In the Marquis d'Azeglio's Col- 
lection. 

Pesaro. This mark is given by Passeri 
as occurring on two pieces, which he assigns 
to this place. 

Pesaro. Made in the workshop of Maestro 
Balthasar, vase-maker of Pesaro, by the hand 
of Terenzio, son of Maestro Matteo, bocale- 
maker, I 5 50. This inscription is found on a 
plate having a cupid in the centre, with a 
border of musical instruments and trophies on 
blue ground. An open music-book has the 
title of a song : 



NELLA BOTEGA DI 

MAESTRO GIRONIMO 

VASARO. I. P. 



MVT\ S CTJE a 

OtA 

QUESTO PIATTO FU FATTO 

IN LA BOTEGA DI MASTRO 

BALDASSAR VASARO 

DA PESARO. 

E FATTO PER MANO DI 

TERENZIO FIOLO DI 

MASTRO MATTEO 

BOCCALARO 

TERENCIO FECE I550. 

F 



82 MAIOLICA— PESARO— CASTEL DURANTE. 

O bel fiore 
Amore mio bello, 
Amor mio caro 
La Grisola, la grisola. 

It is mentioned by Passeri. This artist was known as // Rondolino. 

pesaro Pesaro. The manufacture of pottery was 

callegari e casali revived about the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
ottubre 1786. tuV y ty[. A. Jacquemart says that two artists 

of Lodi, Filippo Antonio Callegari and Antonio Casali, were manufac- 
turers here, but the precise date is unknown. There was another 
fabrique established by Giuseppe Bertolucci of Urbania in 1757, and it 
is known also that in 1763 Pietro Lei, a painter of Sassuolo, took the 
direction of one of these, probably the former. Their signatures at 
length, as in the margin, are found upon a soup-tureen in imitation of 
Sevres, bleu de roi ground, with gold arabesques and medallions of 
flowers and landscapes. 



J ejclyo 



Pesaro, 1765. This mark, in violet, is be- 
neath a fayence plate with stanniferous enamel, 
painted with a rose and forget-me-nots in the 
centre, and a border of birds and flowers in 
relief and coloured. The ware is very much 
like that of Marseilles, as is also the decoration. 
In the possession of Mr. Fortnum. {Keramic 
Gallery, fig. 37.) 



An c'cuellc, with green and gold leaves and scrolls, has the letters 
C C and Pesaro without a date. 

The letters C C stand for Callegari and Casali, and those at the 
end for Pietro Lei, before named. 

. . —^ Pesaro ? On a late maiolica medicine 

Clt'P'jtt^AjUjyS 1 /. vase » subject, Adam and Eve driven out of 

Paradise. 

Pesaro. On a jug, blue ground, painted 

/ 0cA /V T^V^/yVy w ' tn ^ owers on a wn i te medallion; one of the 
/ / ' latest of the maiolica productions in Italy. De 
Bruge Collection. 

CASTEL DURANTE. 
M. Giuseppe Raffaeli (Mcmoircs Historiqnes sur les Faiences de Caste! 
Durante) mentions the existence in 1361 of a certain Giovanni dai 
Bistuggi, or John of Biscuits, that is, the earthenware after having 
received one baking, before it was enamelled and painted, which was 
more than seventy years before its supposed invention by Luca della 



MAIOLICA— CASTEL DURANTE. H3 

Robbia. He also speaks of a certain Maestro Gentile, who furnished 
the Ducal palace with vessels in 1363. The most ancient dated piece 
is the beautiful bowl which belonged to Mr. II. T. Mope, dated 12th 
September 1508. 

At a later period, a potter named Guido di Savino worked at Castel 
Durante, who, according to Piccolpasso, transported to Antwerp the 
knowledge of the manufacture of Italian maiolica. 

It was also from Castel Durante that Giovanni Tesio and Lucio 
Gatti, in 1530, introduced it into Corfu, and in 1545 that M". Francesco 
del Vasaro established himself in Venice. 

About 1490 the following artists were working : Pier del Vasaro ; 
the Sabatini ; Picci ; Superchina ; Savini ; Bernacchia ; Marini ; Morelli. 
The manufacture was at its perfection in 1525-30, and continued to pro- 
duce good wares even till 1580. In connection with istoriati pieces and 
mythological subjects, the following artists are recorded : Luca and 
Angiolo Picchi ; Pier Francesco Calze ; Ubaldo della Morcia ; Simone 
da Colonello ; the Fontana, &c. ; also the Appoloni ; Giorgio Picci ; 
Lucio, Bernardino, and Ottaviano Dolci. 

Piccolpasso, a potter of this place, in his interesting book describes 
all the various wares and patterns, illustrated by drawings in pen 
and ink, as well as its manufacture, processes, utensils, &c. About 
1623 it was created a city, and took the name of Urbania after Pope 
Urban VIII. 

In 1722 Urbania was the only fabrique which existed in the Duchy 
of Urbino, where articles of utility only were made ; but Cardinal 
Stoppani brought painters from other places, and endeavoured to put 
fresh life into the trade of Urbania. 

The best artists at Urbania were the Lazzarini, the Frattini, and the 
Biagini, who painted from prints by Sadeler, Martin de Vos, the Caracci, 
Bassano, Tempesta, &c. The arabesques with grotesque heads, fre- 
quently on blue ground, are boldly drawn ; cornucopise, &c, designed 
and shaded with light blue, touched with yellow and orange, brown and 
green, mostly on a large scale of pattern. For the names of the designs^ 
and forms of the vases, see page 53. 

A plate of Castel Durante maiolica, painted with Mars, Vulcan, and 
Venus, circa 1530 (Bernal Collection), is in the South Kensington 
Museum; cost ^"44. 

Castel Durante. This inscription is on . r 1— 

the bottom of a large and very fine bowl, sur- rS* \ r» - 1* n-*r\ --L 
j j 11 u li 11 u-. TrtWfcfutteTOlOWW 

rounded externally by blue scrolls on white; > J _ ^ ' . «». — »* 

inside are painted the arms of Pope Julius II., \) 

supported by cupids with arabesques, &c, on ^^ 

deep blue ground. This important piece was made on the 12th of 

September 1508, and painted by Giovanni Maria, vasaro or vase-maker. 



»4 



MAIOLICA— CASTEL DURANTE. 






La£o\e 



In the Collection of the late Mr. H. T. Hope. The vro at the end of 
the inscription has been deciphered Urbino, but it is probably intended 
for vasaro. 

I / "p A, Castel Durante. On a plate ; subject, a 

rm y *r >v ' j | King distributing wine and bread to some 

A^\ ICt I iCl L)lf soldiers; in front are four vases, and a larger 

OH TnIt* one ^ e< ^ w ^ tn l° aves - Marquis d'Azeglio's Coll. 

Castel Durante. Sebas- 
tiano Marforio, in whose work- 
shop this piece was made on 
the nth of October 15 19, at 
Castel Durante. Inscribed on 
a large pharmacy vase, with 
scrolls, chimerae, arabesques, &c. 
Bernal Collection, now in the 
British Museum ; £23. There 
is one similar in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. 

Castel Durante. Inscribed in yellow 
colour on a dish ; subject, Dido and Ascanius. 
Bernal Collection; ,£13. Also on one in the 
Campana Collection, dated 1525 ; subject, the 
Rape of Ganymede ; and on another, subject 
Marsyas. Sauvageot Collection. 

Castel Durante. An inscription on a 
pharmacy vase: In Castel Durante, near Urbino. 
In the Museum at Sevres. 




,52* 

IN castello duranti. 
apreso a urbino. 

miglie 7. 1555. 



A de sei d maggio 
1550. afaro in 
stvdi durantias. 



Castel Durante. Inscribed on a phar- 
macy vase in the Marryat Collection. 

■ — ^-x Castel Durante. Inscribed on a vase in 

(rfafoinUradurtinh J the Hotel de Cluny at Paris : Made of the earth 

— of Castel Durante, near the city of Urbino. 

Castel Durante. Francesco Durantino, 
vase-maker. On a cistern ; subject after Giulio 
Romano. 

Castel Durante. The Chevalier Piccol- 
passo, director of a botega for making pottery, 
circa 15 50, wrote a treatise on the art of making 
and decorating maiolica, whilst this manufactory was under the patronage 
of Guidobaldo II. This manuscript has been secured by Mr. J. C. 
Robinson for the library of the Museum of Art, South Kensington. It is 
illustrated with pen-and-ink sketches of the mode of manufacturing the 



FRANCESCO DURANTINO 
VASARO. 1553. 



FATTO IN BOTEGA 
DI PICCOLPASSO. 



MAIOLICA-CASTKL DURANTE. 



85 



maiolica, and patterns of the ware made at Castel Durante. A transla- 
tion, with copies of the drawings, has recently been published in Paris. 
M. Delange, in his translation of Passeri's work, speaks of a vase inscribed 
with Piccolpasso's name. 



Castel Durante. A vase painted 
with grotesques, dated in front 1562, 
by Maestro Simono in Castello Durante; 
in the possession of M. Cajani of 
Rome. Passeri mentions Maestro 
Simone da Colonello (see p. 83). It 
is figured in Delange's Recneil, pi. 75. 



Castel Durante. This curious 
mark is on a dish decorated with 
trophies, in the Museum of the Uni- 
versity of Bologna ; the scroll is divided 
into two folds, on the upper one is 
inscribed Picrro or Pietro da Castel 
(Durante) ; the lower portion has fece 
or fecit, with some illegible characters 
above. 



-it) \a.fn(t Curate 



Castel Durante. On a plate in 
the Narford Collection ; subject, the 
Arrest of a Cavalier, painted with 
great care by Francesco Durantino. 




Castel Durante. On a 
tazza in the British Museum ; 
subject, Coriolanus met by his 
Mother. 



Castel Durante. These marks 
are on a plate of this manufacture ; 
subject, the Rape of Helen ; from the 
Bernal Collection, now in the British 
Museum ; cost £6. 



I i 4-4" 



86 



MAIOLICA— CASTEL DURANTE. 




Castel Durante. On a pharmacy vase 
in castello duranto, (Albarello), painted with trophies, grotesques, &c, 
1 541. and the bust of a man ; the name is on a cartouche 

at back, on a blue ground. (Louvre, G. 244.) 

Castel Durante. Plate 
painted with a draped female on 
horseback, armed with shield and 
spear, in the act of charging a 
man seated on a rock and rest- 
ing against his shield ; cupid 
above in a biga of doves. In 
brown grisaille. Reverse, strap- 
work and waved lines, and a 
monogram which is repeated on 
the woman's shield ; perhaps the 
name of the person to whom it 
was given. Date circa 1540. 
South Kensington Museum. 

Castel Durante. This painter must have 

been engaged here in the seventeenth century, 

"H ' ftllilfO^O A\!j oTcl &1K f° r tne name °f tne pl ace was changed to Urbania 

"PhWf^YLfi^HrcuUR m l ^3$> * n com P nment to P°P e Urban VIII. ; it 

is on a plate, subject, the Triumph of Flora, &c. 

Campana Collection. 

fatta in urbania n -p. r, . r . .. 

Castel Durante. On a piece ol maiolica ; 
nella botega del signor . . r 

pietro papi 1667. tne mark is given by M. Jacquemart. 

Castel Durante. These seven monograms 
or merchants' marks occur on pharmacy vases ; 
they probably belong to the druggists for whom 
the vases were made, and not the painters or 
makers. The last of them is on a fine cylindrical 
pharmacy vase, with a large oval medallion of 
warriors in classical costume, and scroll border ; 
at bottom is a negro's head, and at the top the 
annexed mark, probably a pontifical cipher of 
Pope Julius II. On the back is the early date 
of 1 501. Bernal Collection, now in the British 
Museum. Mr. H. G. Bohn, in his Monograms, 
which forms a supplement to the priced catalogue 
of the Bernal sale, has ascribed this mark to P. 
Incha Agricola, and adduces as evidence of the 
existence of a painter of that name, No. 1949 in 
the Collection : but he has doubtless been misled 




MAIOLICA— CASTKL DURANTE 



»7 



by the erroneous reading of the inscription 
on that specimen given by the compiler of the 
catalogue (who was not ait fait with the subject) 
— which is really the name of the place where 
it was made — thus P. In chafaggiitolo. This 
absurd error has been perpetuated by M. Jules 
Greslou, Rc'cherches sur la Ce'rauiirjite, p. 196. 

Castel Durante. On a picture of a land- 
scape, mentioned by Mr, Marryat. 

Castel Durante. On a maiolica phar- 
macy vase ; subject, St. Martin dividing his 
cloak ; marked in blue at the back. This is 
probably an owner's mark ; it is surmounted 
by a crown. 




GIOVAN'N'I PERUZZ] 
DIPINSE 1693. 




169 b 



Castel Durante. Piccolpasso in a manu- /**•/"«, r 
script (now in the library of the South Ken- \DUld>0 ^dluaaaLO 

sington Museum, written in 1548) speaks of a 

certain Guido di Savino of Castel Durante, who had carried to Antwerp 
the art of making fayence. This Savino has been confounded by M. A. 
Demmin with a certain Guido Salvaggio, through his misreading of an 
inscription on a plate in the Louvre, " Guidon Salvaggio," which, instead 
of being the signature of a painter, is only the description of the subject 
depicted, viz., a character of Ariosto's, Guido the Savage, shipwrecked in 
the Isle des Femmes. 

Perugia. The name of this ancient city _^ ^ ^ . 

is in Greek II epovcria, in Latin Perusia, and EY&/)\cdco s ULiY<ulno 

formerly in Italian Peroschia or Pcroscia ; it is t , , a — » r> /. 

1 ■* .u v 1 fo • .u Vafavro Amote, Drtd no L< 

a populous city, the capital of rerugino, in the Z7 --O 

States of the Church. The inscription reads "X\*pYoTci.CL*— < *\ t ) l y5 < 
" Francesco Durantino, vase-maker, at the ^ 

Mount Bagnole of Perugia," probably the same as that on page 84. 
It occurs on an oval cistern, painted with subjects after Giulio Romano. 
Fountaine Collection. 



Castel Durante ? On the back of a plate 
of blue enamel, with dark blue arabesques and 
masks, touched with white and yellow round 
the rim, and Europa in the centre ; probably of 
the seventeenth century. Mr. H. A. Neck's Col- 
lection. 



s, 



¥ 



88 MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 



FAENZA. 

Faenza was the most important, and probably the most ancient, of all 
the manufactories of maiolica in Italy. 

The earliest piece which we have attributed to Faenza is the plate 
in the Hotel de Cluny, which heads our list, dated 1475 ; then comes 
the tile inscribed Nicolaus Orsini, 1477, and the plate signed by Don 
Giorgio, 1485. 

A most interesting specimen, from its bearing the name of the place 
as well as the date, is an enamelled tile in the church of St. Sebastian 
and St. Petronia at Bologna, inscribed " Bologniesus. Betini. fecit : 
Xabeta. Be. Faventcie : Cornelia ; Be. Faventicie : Zelita. Be. 
Faventicie : Petrus. Andre, de. Fave.," and the date 1487. 

There are two tablets of earthenware, covered with stanniferous 
enamel, white ground, with letters painted in black, in the South Ken- 
sington Museum ; one is inscribed "Simonetto. di. Chorso. dall. Arena. 
P A- m.d. xii.," above a shield of arms ; the other is an oblong tablet 
with this inscription, " Giovanni. Salvetti. P a - et C" - m.c.c.c.c.l.iiii. 

ET MlCHELE. SVO. FlGL. (FlGLUOLO) P A ' M.D.X.IIII." 

The Musee de Cluny possesses a pharmacy vase dated 1500, the 
companion to which has the name Faenza. In 1485 Tomasso Garzoni 
in the Piazza Universale praises the ware of Faenza as being so white 
and so brilliant. 

In 1548 Piccolpasso, the director of a rival manufacture at Castel 
Durante, and who wrote about the time when Urbino and Gubbio pro- 
duced their finest works, gives the preference to the ware of Faenza. 

The mark of a circle intersected by cross barfe, with a small pellet 
or annulet in one of the quarters, has been found in connection with the 
signature of a Faenza fabrique (Casa Pirote), and it is therefore presumed 
that the pieces bearing it are from that manufactory. 

Vincenzo Lazari speaks of a plate in the Museum of Bologna repre- 
senting the Coronation of Charles V., bearing on the reverse " Fato in 
Faenza in Caxa Pirota." He also records that one Cesare Cari, a potter, 
went from Faenza to Urbino. 

Among the decorators of Faenza the same author notes Baldesara 
Manara, who signed his pieces frequently B.M. as well as his name at 
length. There is a celebrated painter who signs himself F.R., as noticed 
in the text ; these pieces generally have on the reverse decorations in 
blue and orange. Another peculiarity among the painters of Faenza is 
a fine red colour employed by them ; Piccolpasso says it is found espe- 
cially in the workshop of Maestro Vergilio of Faenza, and Passeri 
describes the way to produce it. The backs of the pieces are usually 
ornamented with concentric circles or spiral lines in lapis blue on clear 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 89 

light blue, and when the reverse is white, the imbrications or zones are 
alternately blue and yellow. 

The early pieces are archaic in character, the decorations arc v ry 
ornamental, especially the grotesques or arabesques in camaieu on blue 
or yellow ground, or alternately on the two colours. The fabrique of 
Faenza does not appear to have adopted the yellow metallic lustre. 
The following are in the South Kensington Museum : — 
A plateau with raised centre, the surface grounded in dark blue, with 
the coat of arms in the centre, around which is a band of dancing 
amorini and arabesque border, circa 1520. Soulages Collection ; £%o. A 
Faenza plate with arabesque border on blue, and medallions of profile 
heads, in the centre, amorini in a grotesque car, circa 15 10; Bernal 
Collection, £36. A fruttiera, subject, the Gathering of Manna in the 
Wilderness, copied from an engraving by Agostino Veneziano, after 
Raffaelle ; £100. 

Faenza. This inscription is round Ni0 OlKV§^E'RASNOlIS 
a maiolica plate, having in the centre T^l>-H0'NQRIlM , I5EfET 
the monogram of Christ in Gothic char- <?lvNCTM.?CHTk."EL{S- 
acters, surrounded by garlands in blue, JECJT'FIEREKNO'I*?,/ 
on white ground : Nicolaus de Ragnolis 

ad honorem Dei et Sanct. Michaelis, Fecit Fieri Ano H75- ^ n tne 
Musee de Cluny ; one of the earliest dated pieces known. 

Faenza. On the rim of a maiolica 
plate ; in the centre is represented Christ LaUJN j3±U £\OI U 

in the tomb, with emblems of the Passion. T4-5£ Q 

The name of Don Giorgio, 1485, is pro- 
bably that of Maestro Giorgio, before he went to Gubbio and was 
ennobled. In the Sevres Museum. 



NiniMlW&SNI 



Faenza. The annexed inscription 
occurs on an oblong escalloped tile in 
the Sevres Museum. At the top is MIIU77 

"Nicolaus Orsini;" at the bottom, "1477. JlBT4-c)I ftENAlO 

The 4th day of June," and between are 

the Orsini arms, supported by cupids. It is extremely interesting, 

being of so early a date. 






Faenza. Andrea di Bono. This 
name is written on a scroll in the 
centre of a circular maiolica plaque, 
dated 1 491, bearing a shield with a lion rampant, and a small shield 
round its neck, enclosing a fleur-de-lis. Formerly in the Montferrand 
Collection, now in the South Kensington Museum. {Keramk Gallery, 
fig- 54-) 



9° 



MAIOr.ICA— FAENZA. 



it:*. 



;aigyhtA 



Faenza. A very early plate, circa 1470, 
with the Virgin and Child painted on a dark 
blue ground, has on the back this mark in blue. 
Fountaine Collection, Narford. This curious 
signature has never yet been deciphered. It is 
figured in Marryat, p. 104, third edition. 



Faenza. This mark is on the back of a 

small plate, with border of masks, cupids, and 

ITSI BViEXTCi-^- arabesques, in yellow on dark blue; in the 

centre Christ bound. Early sixteenth century. 
Henderson Collection. 

Faenza. On a plate ; subject, Samson pull- 
ing down the pillars of the Temple ; the back 
covered with coloured ornaments. Marryat 
Collection. 







Faenza. The letter F of different forms 
probably indicates the Faenza manufacture. It 
occurs on plates with ornamented backs, in blue 
or yellow, of circles, foliage, imbrications, &c. 

Faenza. This mark is on a repousse dish, 
with festoons of different colours, ornamented 
in arabesques ; mentioned by Delange. 



FATOIN EAEN,3A 
1NCAXAPJRDTA 



Faenza. On the reverse of a plate 
in the Museum of the University of 
Bologna, representing the Coronation 
of Charles V. in that city in the year 
1530, the probable date of the piece. 




Faenza. This inscription reads FATE. 
IN. FAEnza. IOXEF. In. CAsa PI ROTE, 
1525. Made in Faenza at the workshop of 
Pirote. The word Ioxef, which is also repeated 
on the interior of the plate, designates the sub- 
ject, which is Joseph's Cup. In the possession 
of Baron Gustave de Rothschild. 



Faenza. On a plate painted in blue camaieu, 
an amorino in the centre, and border of dragons 
and trophies. Barker Collection. 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 



9' 



Faenza. On a plateau, dark blue 
ground, in the centre a half-figure of 
a lady richly dressed, a banderole in 
front inscribed "Susanna Bella P.V.," 
border of flowers, &c, circa 1500—10 
on reverse, concentric lines of orange 
and blue, the mark in blue. South 
Kensington Museum. 



Faenza. On the reverse of a fragment 
painted with allegorical subject by the artist who 
signs F. R. The mark is a pink, similar to the 
rebus adopted by Benvenuto Tisio, called Garo- 
falo, and the design for the piece may have been 
by that painter. In the Basilewski Collection. 



Faenza. On a plate, with portrait of Laura, 
and arabesque border. This mark was formerly 
attributed to Pesaro. 




Faenza. On a plate, with arabesques painted 
on blue ground. ^~ O 




Faenza. This mark is on a plate cited b}- 
Bronsrniart. 



Faenza. On a large plateau, painted with 
the Judgment of Paris, surrounded by a border 
of arabesques on blue ground, dated 1527. 




9 2 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 




Mccccctnv 




^u -#^ *&Mf&!& > 




n 



Faenza. On a small shallow bowl repre- 
senting the Saviour in a sarcophagus, border of 
cherubs' heads, grotesques, &c, designed in white, 
and shaded in yellow brown on dark blue ground. 
In the British Museum. 



Faenza. This unknown mark of the wing 
of a bird is on a maiolica tazza, inscribed 
" Nerone che fa barare la matre." 



Faenza. An unknown mark on a maiolica 
plate ; subject, a woman bathing. 

Faenza. On a large dish ; in centre, St. 
Francis, encircled with rich arabesques on orange 
ground, white borders, painted in blue and yellow 
palmettes. These letters are on the back. Solty- 
koff Collection. 

Faenza. On a large dish, representing 
Christ rising from the tomb ; on each side are the 
Maries, coloured on deep blue ground. On the 
tomb is inscribed, " Cesaro Roman Imperatore 
Augusto," the date 1535, and s.p.o.r. The 
portrait annexed is on the lower part, and is 
introduced here to show the curious characters 
which surround it. Soltykoff Collection. 

Faenza. This monogram is on the back of 
a bowl, with interlaced knots of blue and orange ; 
in front is a medallion of a rosette, surrounded 
by yellow flutings, edged with blue, in brilliant 
colours; circa 1520. Uzielli Collection. 

Faenza. Marked in blue, surrounded by 
rings, on the back of a very rare plate, with deep 
blue background, and allegorical subject of a 
Centaur bound to a pillar by three cupids, with 
emblems of love, war, music, &c. It is now 
mounted in an inlaid marble frame of flowers 
and fruits. Barker Collection. 



MAIOLTCA— FA ENZA. 



9.* 



Faenza. This letter, B with a paraphe, is 
on the back of a plate, with flowers, &c. On 
the front are arabesques and scrolls {sopra aznrro) 
en grisaille, in the centre a cherub, and dated 1520. 
Probably the mark of Baldesaro of Faenza. 

Faenza. Maiolica plate of the sixteenth 
century, sopra bianco border, boy and wolf in the 
centre ; marked in front. Collection of Marchese 
d'Azeglio. 

Faenza. On the back of a plate surrounded 
by a border of foliage ; on the front a border of 
fruit and flowers ; on the sunk centre, supported 
by two amorini, a shield azure between three 
mullets, two and one or, an owl azure armed or. 
In Mr. H. A. Neck's Collection. 



Faenza. Mr. Fortnum says, "This mark and 
early date, 1482, is on the face of one of seven- 
teen plates of a service by the same hand, in the 
Correr Museum at Venice, representing Solomon 
adoring the idols ; they are of remarkable beauty. 
Signor Lazari read this monogram as composed 
of the letters G. I.O., the O being crossed by the 
I, but they appear more like T.M. in mediaeval 
character, followed by a small q or p." 



Faenza. On a drug pot 
in the Collection of Mr. A. W. 
Franks, painted with the head 
of Camilla on a coloured me- 
dallion, trophies in grey and 
green ; date 1549. 



Faenza. On a fine plate, representing a 
fete in honour of Neptune, correctly drawn 
and elegant in style, with the arms of Sforza 
and Farnese. In the Campana Collection. 




m 



94 




MILLE CINQUE CENTO 
TRENTASEl A Dl TRI 

DI LUIE 
BALDESARA MANARA 
FAENTIN FACIEBAT. 

AVDXX 

XIIII 

F>ATNAN 
A$IV,$ 





3 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 

Faenza. On a maiolica dish of uncertain 
manufacture, with a diapered border, and a 
figure in the centre. 

Faenza. Painted by Baldasara Manara in 
1536. This inscription is on the back of a cir- 
cular plaque ; subject, a Standard Bearer of 
the Duke of Ferrara. British Museum. 

Faenza. The signature of Baldasara Ma- 
nara on the back of a plate, circa 1540; sub- 
ject, Pyramus and Thisbe ; in the Collection of 
the Marquis dAzeglio. Another, similar, but 
with the word fan (Faenza) ; subject, Time 
drawn by stags ; in the Fortnum Collection. 

Faenza. Plate, painted probably by Bal- 
dasara Manara, the initials of his name appearing 
with the date 1534. There are several pieces 
of this service extant ; one is in the Geological 
Museum, Jermyn Street ; another, formerly 
Bernal's, in the British Museum, cost £13, 
2s. 6d. ; and a third is mentioned by Delange. 

Faenza. This monogram is on the back 
of a fine plate in the British Museum, orna- 
mented in blue and orange ; on the front is a 
landscape, with a diapered border, and figures 
playing on viols. The mark is much reduced 
in size. Formerly in the Bernal Collection, 
where it was sold for ^43, is. 

This monogram is on a plate painted with 
portraits, dated 1583. In the Collection of Mr. 
A. W. Franks. 

Faenza. A mark of the same painter ; on 
the back of a square plaque, well painted with 
the Resurrection of Christ en grisaille, heightened 
with blue and yellow, after Durer ; circa 1520. 
Mentioned by Passed ; formerly in the Pour- 
tales Collection; sold in Paris for £126 in 1865. 

Faenza. On a plate, painted with boys 
and animals on blue ground, arabesque borders, 
brilliant colours. Perhaps Baldasara. 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 95 

Faenza. On a plate, painted by Nicolo da 
Fano: subject, Apollo and Marsyas. Maestro KAI ° NELLA B0TKGA '" 

' •> ' v J MAESTRO VERGILLIO 

Vergilio is mentioned by Passen ; probably the hA FAENZA 

same as Nicolo da Urbino, whose monogram is nicolo da fano. 

given on page 60. 

Faenza. These initials are on the front 

of a large plaque, date about 1530, painted in r — - — 

rich deep blue, with green, yellow, and brown ; \\ * r A rV 
subject, Christ bearing the Cross, and numerous 
figures, called " Lo Spasimo di Sicilia," after 
Raffaelle. Museum of Art, South Kensington ; 
cost £57, 4s. 

Faenza. A mark by the same painter. «"^-f 

On a plate ; subject, St. Jerome ; painted with a. L A IJ v 

a rich deep blue, like the preceding ; in the J. J_ % 

Narford Collection. A beautiful plate, subject, 

Dido stabbing herself, with the same initials, is in Mr. Barker's Collec- 
tion ; and another, subject, the Holy Family, is in Mr. Addington's 
possession. 

The following marks have long wanted a resting-place ; they have 
wandered from Ferrara, Pesaro, Urbino, Venice, and have at length 
settled at Faenza. 




This mark is on a tazza belonging to the 
Marquis d'Azeglio; subject, St. Francis receiving 
the stigmata. Mr. Fortnum attributes it to 
Urbino, reading the first monogram as Urbino. 
M. Jacquemart reads the second monogram as 
Faenza, which is borne out, he says, by the 
mark given below. It is on a basin painted 
with arms ; in the Sevres Museum. 

M. Jacquemart says, "En 1567 le navire 
La Pensee amenait a Rouen trois coffres bahuts 
pleins de vaiselle blanche et peinte de Faenze" 
Of this pottery the Sevres Museum possesses 
a cup, and another example, marked as in 
margin. 

Faenza. This mark, which M. Jacquemart 
thinks solves all difficulty in the appropriation 
of the monogram AF, is on a fine bowl, blue 
ground with white arabesques, arms in centre ; 
he concludes that the A and F are the marks 
of the locality, the others those of the artist. 



Vl-K 




9 6 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA. 



P£-^ : 



Faenza or Venice ? This mark occurs on 
a moulded dish painted in outline with Mercury, 
and a border of flowers, in the South Kensington 
Museum. It seems, however, to us still a doubt- 
ful question, for both these monograms are found 
on Venetian pottery, the AF and the VE for Venice. Another moulded 
fruttiera in the British Museum has a similar mark, which Mr. Fortnum 
thinks may be read In Faenza Vergilio, or Favcnza, or Nicolo Fano 
Vergilio, but which, he adds, may have some other reading. Knowing 
that this moulded ware was frequently made at Venice, we are not 
inclined to alter our former attribution from the slender and unsatis- 
factory evidence adduced to the contrary. 



f-D 




Afc 



1 AENZA 

GrOVANO BRAMA 

DI PALERMA 

IN FAENZA 

1546. 




MMI)C' 



<W&\ 



^ 



Faenza. On a plate, with cavaliers, signed 
at the back. Fountaine Collection, Narford. 



Faenza. On a dish, dated 1525 ; subject 
Diana and Actaeon, with a border of monsters, 
cupids, and scrolls. Narford Collection. 



Faenza. The monogram AMR above 
the word Faenza, is on a maiolica dish of the 
sixteenth century. 

Faenza. This inscription of a painter's 
name appears on a superb plate now in the 
Museum of Sigmaringen ; subject, the Descent 
from the Cross. 



Faenza. The first of these marks is on a 
maiolica plate with s. p. q. r. ; the second on 
a tazza cited by Brongniart, dated 1548. They 
are doubtless all marks of the same painter. 

Faenza. Both probably the same mark, 
one being reversed. The first is on a plate, 
with raised border and arabesques on a deep 
blue ground ; the second on a metallic lustre 
portrait plate, " Pulisena." Uzielli Collection. 



MAIOLICA— FAENZA— VERONA. 97 

Faenza. " Ennius Raynerius F.F. 1575." On a plate representing 
the Baptism of Christ, shields of arms, and I.B.R. The reverse is orna- 
mented with yellow lines ; Gio Baptista R. painted in blue; the name 



W*A)>y mA 



k 



^. Plate, on 

white 'beard*: *®J^]f H UK » M *% %. 

"itten Joannes. v^^ ^^F 



Ennius Raynerius in black. Campana Collection, in the Louvre. The 
F.F. following the name may be deciphered as Faventino faciebat or 
Fecit Fieri ; probably Faenza, 

Faenza. Plate, on 
which is a 
man with a 
around is written 
Bap. Rubbeus ; on the re- 
verse is written, twice, the name of Rainerius, with and without the Y. 
Campana Collection, in the Louvre. A third piece is in the Louvre, 
subject, Jesus and the Woman of Samaria, the latter part of the inscrip- 
tion only remaining. 

Faenza. On a very choice plate in Mr. 
A. Fountaine's Collection, satyrs and gro- 
tesques, and the motto, " Auxilium meum 
a Domino," figured by Delange, plate 23 ; the 
labels occur among the ornaments. In the 
recent sale of this Collection at Christie's, 
this superb plate realised ^920. 

This ancient centre of maiolica would naturally remain among the 
last to manufacture this description of ware ; and there were several 
makers in the seventeenth century, but we know little of them. Some 
pharmacy vases of 1616 are signed Andrea Pantaleo pingit ; and accord- 
ing to written documents Francesco Vicchij was proprietor of an im- 
portant fabrique in 1639. 

VERONA 

is mentioned by Piccolpasso as having considerable fabriques of maiolica 
in his time (about 1 540), but this is the only piece we have been able to 
identify. 

G 




> 




oH MAIOLICA— VERONA— DERUTA. 

Verona. The subject of this unique 

j £./* -» plate, from the manufactory of Verona, is 

• „7 r Alexander liberating the Wife and Family of 

^Vrt'^° * Darius; it bears a shield of arms, supported 

*iio q'louawJ&dK'ffa by flying amorini or > on a fess ar -> a lion 

/ 4 ^z J passant, with a sceptre in his paw az., in chief 

<W» J&" c** an eagle displayed sa., the base paly^/z. The 

7 1jL M M ^ interesting inscription on the reverse informs 

us that it was painted by Franco Giovani 
Batista, signed in contraction, and somewhat 
injured. The Rev. Mr. Berney, to whom the 
plate belonged, thought it an original design 
by Batista Franco, which would confirm the 
statement of Nagler, Kunstler Lexicon, that this artist did not die till 
1580. The first three letters of the name have been read as Gin 
(Giuseppe), and not Fco (Franco), but it still remains a matter of 
opinion. 

DERUTA. 

The maiolica of yellow lustre edged with blue, which was formerly 
attributed to Pesaro, has been recently classed among the wares made 
at the manufactory of Deruta, near Perugia, from the circumstance of a 
plate in the Pourtales Collection, subject, one of Ovid's Metamorphoses 
(No. 242), signed by El Frate of Deruta, 1541, being similarly decorated 
with the yellow lustre. 

The plate in the Hotel de Cluny, representing Diana and Actaeon, 
after Mantegna, designed in blue, heightened with yellow lustre, marked 
with a C having a paraphe, is also attributed to this fabrique. 

The earliest dated specimen, if this attribution be correct, is a relief 
of St. Sebastian within a niche, the saint painted in blue, the arcade of 
this peculiar yellow lustre ; on the plinth is inscribed "a. di. 14. di. 
lvglio. 1501." The 14th July 1501. 

Deruta. These initials occur on a dish 
painted in metallic lustre, with the arms of 
Montefeltro ; in the Collection of the Comte 
de Niewerkerke. 



CB 



f Deruta. This mark is on a dish of 

FXTI blue camaien with metallic lustre ; subject, 

I Y Diana at the Bath, finely designed. Sixteenth 

^y^ century. Musee de Cluny. 

fatta in dirvta Deruta. On a plate painted with ara- 

1525. besques on blue ground. Narford Collection. 



MAIOLICA— DERUTA. 

Deruta. D with a pa raphe, painted with a 
subject from the Orlando Fnrioso. Mrs. Palisser's 
Collection. 

Deruta. D with a paraphe, and the initials I A 

G. S. ; on a plate, subject, two Lovers seated 
under a tree. Museum of Art, South Ken- 
sington. 



w 



99 



Deruta. The initials, probably of Giorgio 
Vasajo, whose name occurs on a piece of ware 
belonging to Count Baglioni of Perugia. 



1539 

G'S 

GV 






Deruta. On a plate in the possession of in dervta 

Signor Raff, de Minicis of Fermo. EL FRATE PEXS,; - 

Deruta. Inscription on the back of a plate, Ca^ 

subject, the Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana ; "cWuIcl ^ p 

in the possession of Mr. A. Barker. %\ (lav. pern (i 

Deruta. On the reverse of a plate, painted 
in front with a Roman triumphal procession ; on 
the pedestal of the arch is written ant. lafreri. 
This name is considered to be that of the en- 
graver or editor of the print from which this 
subject is copied, and has nothing to do with 
the painting on the maiolica. M. A. Jacquemart says there was an 
artist of this name established at Rome from 15 50 to 1 575» celebrated 
as editor of engravings. Several of Marc Antonio's engravings are signed 
by " Antonius Lafreri Roma: Excud." others have " Ant. Lafrerius 
Sequanus R." Campana Collection, in the Louvre. 

Deruta. On a very fine plate be- 
longing to the Baron Salomon de Roths- 
child, representing Apollo pursuing Daphne, 
on the reverse the description of the 
subject is traced in blue over the letter 
P in golden lustre, perhaps the name of 
the artist or the person who lustred it. 
Perestino of Gubbio ? 

Deruta. A tazza in the Collection * ^^ 

of Mme. la Comtesse de Cambis-Alais, re- >^ " 

presenting Apollo with Cupid and Daphne p CO-\\ I' * 

and other incidents in the life of the god, |T^1V U * &L fi I- 

bearing the painter's name, Francesco of ^J 'l* dL p \ IX, fc f\s 
Urbino. 




IOO 



MAIOLICA— DERUTA. 



4 S 4-Y- 



Deruta. The mark of Frate on 
a plate ; subject, Rodomont carrying off 
Isabella, from the Orlando Furioso of 
Ariosto. Louvre Collection. 



/it/, /J.//. 



On a plate in the Pourtales Col- 
lection, painted with one of Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, designed and shaded 
with blue, heightened with yellow 
metallic lustre. This and another in 
the Louvre, G. 575, "Birth of Adonis," 
also lustred, enables us to place many 
other pieces, unsigned, to Deruta. 



JTAMf **cBAG:Ni REA 

ri 




Deruta. An inscription on a 
large dish, under a painting of the 
Holy Family ; in the Museum of Art, 
South Kensington. " Io Silvestro 
Dagli Otrinci da Deruta. Fatto in 
Bagniorea 1691." 

Deruta. A mark on two phar- 
macy vases with portraits. 

Deruta? This monogram is on a 
pharmacy vase or bottle ; on one side 
a medallion with a male portrait and 
the monogram, the date 1579 on a 
cartouche above ; on the other side a 
coat of arms with yellow arabesque 
tracery on dark blue ground. 

Deruta. On a plate, the surface 
entirely covered with a composition of 
grotesque birds, foliage, mask, &c, 
outlined with blue on blue, green and 
yellow ground ; monogram and date 
on the reverse. In the South Ken- 
sington Museum. 



M AIOLICA— FABRI ANO— Rl M [NI. i o i 

Deruta. This mark of a recent 
r c r / • ?■ r \ FABRICA \)l MAJOLICA 

manufactory of fayence (mmohca find) 

is on a plate in the possession of M. caselli in deruta 1771. 

Paul Gasnault of Paris. 

FABRIANO. 

This manufactory is revealed to 
us by a magnificent tazza which was 
sent to the Paris Exhibition in 1867. 
The inside of the tazza is painted Jig 
with a composition after Raffaelle : fcXap* FVfcta \ ^\ *kT\ i\ 
in a saintly crowd the Virgin and St. |d ^\ 1 *^V » P •^ 
Anne are ascending the steps of I ^ ^^ 
a temple, advancing towards our f W, 

Saviour, who is seated under the 
portico. It is of a grand style and 
well painted ; underneath is written 
in blue " Fabriano, 1527." It was 
purchased by Signor Castellani of 
Naples, and subsequently sold by 
auction on May 12, 1 871, to Mons. 
Basilewski for £1 14. 






RIMINI. 

Piccolpasso mentions fabriques of maiolica here, but nothing is 
known of their early history, and the only records are the reverses of 
the pieces here given. M. Darcel observes a peculiarity in the land- 
scapes, the trees being more natural, the trunks being in brown shaded 
black — not altogether black, as in the Urbino ware ; the foliage is of a less 
glaring green, and hangs below the branches ; the enamel has a more 
brilliant glaze. The dates on the pieces are 1535 ; one is quoted as late 
as 1635. 

Rimini. This mark is on a plate ; subject, |/t«*'' ' ^ 
the Fall of Phaeton. In the British Museum. 



J 



Rimini. On the back of a plate ; subject, 
the Expulsion of Adam and Eve; Hotel de in rimino 

Cluny ; and on another, without date, men- r 535- 

tioned by Delange. 

FATO IN 

Rimini. On a plate mentioned by Delange. ariminensis 

1635- 



io2 MAIOLICA— RIMINI— FORLI. 



1A0EX 



t 



Rimini. This mark in blue is on a bowl 
(No. 96) in the Louvre, which M. Darcel attri- 
butes to Rimini, from comparison with other 
signed pieces. The subject is God appearing 
to Noah. NOE refers to this ; the Z and dead 
branch of a tree may probably be the painter's 
rebus, Zaffarino, Zampillo, or some such name. 



FORLI. 



According to Passeri, this place had fabriques of maiolica in the 
fourteenth century. He speaks of a document of the year 1396, in 
which this passage occurs : " Pedrinus Ioannis a bocalibus de Forlivio 
olim et nunc habitator Pensauri " — "John of the potteries, formerly of 
Forli, now at Pesaro ; " and Piccolpasso, in the sixteenth century, speaks 
of the painted maiolica of Forli. Its contiguity to Faenza exercised a 
great influence on the decoration of the ware, and the patterns, both on 
the obverses and reverses, being similar, many of the pieces of this 
fabrique are attributed to Faenza. In the South Kensington Museum is 
a kite-shaped plaque of the fifteenth century, with the arms of the family 
of Ordelaffi of Forli. 

Forli. A plate ; subject, Croesus, inscribed aurum. sitis. aurum. 
bibe. ; and another, the Murder of the Innocents, in Campana Collec- 






WMs 



tion ; another, David and Goliath, circa 1530, in the Museum of Art, 
South Kensington. 



MAIOLICA— FORLT. 



,r .) 



Forli. There is a scodella, admirably 
painted in a yellow grisaille with an allegorical 
subject of many figures by the painter of the 
Forli tiles, in the South Kensington Museum. 
The smaller mark is on the face of the pieces 
in the foreground, the larger is on the reverse. 
This rare example passed from the Castellani 
Collection to that of M. Basilewski, at the high 
price of £ 1 80, on the 12th of May 1871. 

Forli. Leuchadius Solombrinus of Forli, 
painted in 1555. On a very fine plate, of the 
Marriage of Alexander and Roxana. From 
the Dellesette Collection, in the possession of 
the late Mr. A. Barker. 



-*5iS 




LKOCHADIUS 

SOLOBRINVS 

PICSIT 

FOROLIVIOMECE 

M.D.L.V. 




/q 5 farina j 




Forli. This signature and 
date are on the reverse of a basin 
in the University Museum at 
Bologna, painted with the Supper 
at which Mary Magdalen washes 
Jesus' feet. Leuchadius Solo- 
brinus pincksit m.d 64. an.d. 
(Anno Domini 1564.) The in- 
scription, with his name and ap- 
proximate date on the preceding 
plate, enable us to assign this 
painter to Forli with some degree 
of certainty. 



Forli. On a fine plate ; subject, Christ 
among the Doctors, painted in blue, relieved 
with white, the edge filled with trophies of 
musical instruments ; in the South Kensington 
Museum, which, with another unimportant 
piece, cost £80. It reads " In la botega di 
Maestro Jeronimo da Forli." (Kcramic Gallery, 

fig- 30.) 

A plate by the same artist, the centre painted in blue camaieu, with 
a crowded composition of uncertain signification surrounded with a 
border of trophies on dark blue ground, and medallions with busts and 
inscriptions, is in the possession of Mr. S. Addington ; and another fine 




^f7aGo£e^*£/j 




104 



MAIOLICA— FORLI. 



specimen, a plate, painted with David and Goliath and similar border, 
dated June 1507, belongs to the Marchese d'Azeglio, formerly in the 
Collection of Mr. Hailstone of Walton Hall. 

Forli. Tiles forming a pavement, painted with various coloured 
devices, coats of arms and portraits, among them one initialed P.R. and 
D.O. with the inscription "Ego Pigit. Petrus. inmagina. sua. et imagine, 
caceleris. sue. Dionisi. Bertino Rio. 15 13." From a villa at Pieve a 
Quinto, near Forli. In the South Kensington Museum ; £88. They are 
painted in an orange pigment, heightened with white, on a yellow ground, 
or on one of a nearly similar tint in camaieu, and are bordered with blue 




arabesque foliage. The tile in the vignette is supposed to bear the 
portrait of the painter with his initials P.R., and that of a Cancelliere, his 
chancellor or secretary, initialed D.O., with the inscription and date. 
Among other portraits on these tiles we have Niron ; Chamilo ; Sase ; 
Charlomn ; Stephanus ; Nardinus ; Cechus de Rubeis ; a Doge with 
inscription Prencipus que Venecia; Ugolinus music; and the painter 
Melotius, pictor of Forli ; also a Carolina and a Leta. 

Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue of the Maiolica, South Kensington Museum) 
says, " There can be no doubt that this pavement is the handiwork of the 



MAIOMCA— FORM— VITERBO— RAVKNNA. 



10- 



painter who executed the large plate in blue camaieu of Christ disputing 
with the Doctors, signed by Maestro Jeronimo of Forli (4727 59), and 
the bowl (837-70), both in the South Kensington Museum ; but the 
inscription above given leaves us in doubt as to whether these examples 
were painted by the Maestro himself, or by one Pietro R." ike. There 
seem, however, to be some difficulties in the way of a satisfactory attri- 
bution, and how the writer of the catalogue arrives at the conclusion 
that P. R. means actually Pietro Rocca, the reader must refer to the 
Catalogue (page 557) to form his own judgment. 



tf 



Forli. This mark is on a maiolica plate, 
finely painted ; quoted by M. A. Jacquemart. 

Viterbo. A maiolica dish, dated 1 544 ; 
subject, Diana and Actseon, with a border of 
arms and trophies ; a man at the bottom is hold- 
ing a scroll inscribed "Viterbo Diomed 1544." 
Museum of Art, South Kensington. (Keramic 
Gallery, fig. 31.) 

Ravenna. A most interesting maiolica tazza of the commencement 
of the sixteenth century has lately come into the possession of the Baron 
J. Chas. Davillier, with the name of the place inscribed upon it in large 
characters; inside is represented, in blue camaieu, Arion playing on the 





lyre, supported on the waves by three dolphins, with a ship in the back- 
ground from which he has been cast, and the city of Corinth. The 
subject has been wrongly described as Amphion : it is from a painting 
of the fifteenth century (figured in Delange's Rccucil, pi. 46). 



Ravenna ? This mark occurs on a maiolica 
jug, square spout and one handle, ornamented 
with cupids and scrolls, on a dark blue ground 
coat of arms in front. Mr. J. Henderson's 
Collection. 



1; [jISSCS^ 



ic6 



MAIOLICA— TREVISO— PISA— CAFFAGIOLO. 




Treviso. This inscription is at the bottom 
of a deep plate or bowl, surrounded by ara- 
besques, on blue ground ; on the interior is 
painted the Sermon on the Mount, with the 
disciples asleep. The legend surrounds a por- 
trait supported by cupids. In the Addington 
Collection. 



An inferior incised ware was made at Treviso in the last century, 
something of the same character as that made at La Fratta A plate of 
atrocious execution in this style is inscribed " Fabrica di boccaleria alia 
campana in Treviso, Valentino Petro Storgato Bragaldo jo figlio fabricator. 
Jouane Giroto Liberal figlio fecie. Matteo Schiavon inciso e delineator 
Anno dni. cic. ic. cclix." (1759.) 



PISA. 

The city of Pisa was, about the middle of the sixteenth century, the 
centre of a considerable trade in the exportation of Italian fayence into 
Spain, and especially Valencia, in exchange for the golden metallic lustre 
ware of that country. Antonio Beuter, about 1550, praises the fayence 
of Pisa with those of Pesaro and Castelli, but we have only the specimen 
here noticed, which can with certainty be attributed to it. 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century, a Florentine artist carried 
into Spain the art of maiolica, and many bas-reliefs and azulejos have 
been noticed which are attributed to him by M. le Baron C. Davillier, 
some of which decorate the facade of the church of Santa Paula at Seville 
and Santa Anna at Triana. This artist is Niculoso Francesco of Pisa, 
whose works are in the style of Luca della Robbia. Large pictures, 
formed of a number of tiles fitting together, are signed by Niculoso, and 
dated 1504 and successive years. 

Pisa. A large vase, of fine form, with serpent 
PISA. handles, covered with arabesques on white ground, like 

the maiolica of Uibino. The word " Pisa " is written 
on a cartouche under one of the handles. Baron Alphonse de Roths- 
child's Collection. 



CAFFAGIOLO. 

This manufactory was. of early origin, and although it is not mentioned 
by Piccolpasso, its existence is revealed by the inscriptions on numerous 



MAIOLICA— CAFFAGIOLO. 



107 




plates ; the name, spelt in various ways, is frequently given at length, 
accompanied by the cipher of a large P with a paraphe or bar through 
the lower part of the stem, and the upper loop of the letter curved 
over the stem in form of an S ; sometimes the pieces bear the cipher 
only. 

The most ancient dated pieces are two plates belonging to M. le 
Baron de Rothschild, one dated 1 507, the other 1 509, both decorated 
with grotesques in the style of Faenza, and remarkable for the red colour 
displayed in its tints. 

Among the ornaments of this ware are frequently tablets bearing the 
letters S.P.Q.R. and s.p.q.f. (Florentinus), and on several the mottoes 
Semper and Glovis, and the arms of Pope Leo X., who assumed the tiara 
in 1 5 13. 

.The motto "Semper" was adopted by Pietro de' Medici in 1470, 
meaning that every action of his life should be done with the love of 
God. It was continued by Lorenzo the Magnificent. 

The motto and device of a triangle, enclosing 
the six letters " Glovis," was adopted by Giuliano 
de' Medici, third son of Lorenzo, in 15 16, which, 
read backwards, form " Si volge," // turns, mean- 
ing that fortune, which had previously frowned 
upon him, had turned in his favour. 

Another characteristic of this fabrique is the deep blue backgrounds 
of many of the pieces, and the method in which it is coarsely but boldly 
applied by the brush, the hairs of the brush being visible, although it 
adds greatly to the effect. 

The fabrique lasted probably throughout the sixteenth century, with 
various differences in orthography as regards the marks. 

M. Darcel in his Catalogue of the Louvre Collection has, we think, been 
too liberal in his attribution of specimens to this fabrique ; he includes 
thirty tiles from the Petrucci Palace at Siena, and a number of pharmacy 
vases, none of which bear the mark of the fabrique. The Louvre does not, 
in fact, appear to possess one signed piece of undoubted Caffagiolo out of 
the sixty described. 

There are several very fine pieces of this ware in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, besides those mentioned in the text. A plateau with a 
triumphal procession in the style of Mantegna, painted in vivid colours 
on dark blue background, dated 15 14, from the Montferrand Collection; 
cost £49, is. 6d. Another is a plate with the St. George of Donatello, 
from the bronze statue in the church of " Or San Michele," Florence ; 
Bernal Collection; cost ,£61 (Kcramic Gallery, fig. 29); and the cele- 
brated plate in the Soulages Collection, with a portrait of Pietro 
Perugino, with wide border of foliage and four medallions of birds, 
cost £200. 




108 MAIOLICA— CAFFAGIOLO. 

Caffagiolo. This mark is on the cele- 

^ma^^ brated plate from the Stowe and Bernal Col- 

K "^ lections, representing an artist in his studio 

^^^^^V painting a maiolica plate, whose progress a lady 

1 L J and gentleman, seated opposite, are intently 

^*\ watching. At the Stowe sale it brought £4., 

^^ and at Mr. Bernal's it was purchased by the 

Museum of Art, South Kensington, for ^"120. 

Caffagiolo. This inscription is found 
upon a deep plate, with a griffin in the centre, 
and arabesques, on deep blue ground. It was 

1~p • \ purchased at the Bernal sale by the Baron A. 
1*CLa^CWJ<JV\M)l0 de Rothschild for £90. The compiler of the 
Bernal sale catalogue has made a ridiculous 
mistake, by reading it as the signature of a certain P. Incha Agricola. 
Such an error, unless pointed out, is necessarily calculated to mislead 
the more erudite inquirer, as will be seen by referring to page 87. 

Caffagiolo. This mark, of a trident and 

# f M an annulet, is on the back of a plate, painted 

^3^^* with an imbricated pattern, blue and orange ; 

/ \J on the front is a cupid, seated, playing a 

flageolet ; the border of the plate is painted 

with masks and scrolls in orange, shaded with 

red, on a ground of dark blue, and the date 1 53 1 . Narford Collection. 

In the recent sale of the Fountaine Collection it brought ,£120. 

c~r Caffagiolo. This inscription is interesting, 

,_ I ^7^ • 1 combining the marks which appear frequently 

rVV (MyCit CVC|CHW<)»0 separate on pieces of this fabrique, enabling us 

'^'C'y*—^ thereby to identify them as made here. It is 

^"~" on an elegant plate, painted with arabesques, 

and a label with s.p.q.r. ; the back ornamented with ovals and stripes in 
blue and yellow. Lord Hastings' Collection, Melton Constable. 

Caffagiolo. On a plateau with arabesques 
and diaper ornaments, in white and yellow enamel 
on dark blue ground, in imitation of the Venetian 
enamels. There are two by the same hand, 
and marked alike with this trident, in the South 
Kensington Museum. Date circa 1530. 

Caffagiolo. A plate, with Diana surprised 
in gafagizotto. in the bath by Actaeon, has the annexed in- 

scription in a cursive character. The name of 
the place is fiequently misspelt in this way; and it is evident, from a 




MAIOLICA— CAFFAGIOLO. 



IOy 



comparison of the finish of the paintings of this fabrique, that inferior 
artists were also occasionally employed. Musee de Cluny. 



IN CHAPAGGIOLO 

FATO ADJ 2 1 Dl JUNIO 

1590. 



Caffagiolo. On a large dish, mentioned 
by Delange in the Appendix to his translation 
of Passeri, dated 1590. The mark is not in 
facsimile. 

Caffagiolo. This monogram is upon a 
dish ; subject, Coriolanus, with border of tro- 
phies, &c, and a tablet with s.P.Q.R. ; dated 
1546. 

Caffagiolo. This occurs on a plate, with 
cupids in the centre, and a border of musical 
trophies, &c. 

Caffagiolo. On a yellow lustre jug, with 
blue lines. The mark is below the handle. 
In the possession of Mr. Jno. Henderson. 



Caffagiolo. On a large dish, painted with 
the Carrying off of Helen from Troy, numerous 

figures, ships, boats, &c. Barker Collection. /■ . . / 

Another piece, apparently by the same hand, J*-+* fnf^f^Okq 

in the South Kensington Museum, is inscribed 
"In Gafagio/o," the interlaced S. and P. and 
the initials A. F. ; cost £2, 2s. The two first 
letters of the name of the place are evidently 
intended for Ch, which in Italian writing looks 
like a letter g. 




& 



Caffagiolo. These marks, believed 
to be of this place, occur on a fine plate 
belonging to Baron Gustave de Roths- 
child. It has in the centre a shield of 
arms and arabesque border, and is dated 
1 507. They appear to be a combination 

of the letters P. L. O., and is the earliest dated piece of this botega 
we have met with. 




Caffagiolo. This mark is on the back of 
a dish in the Fortnum Collection. The stroke 
of the loop of the P prolonged into an R and 
the bar across. 



— f 




no MAIOLICA— CAFFAGIOLO. 

Caffagiolo. On a plateau painted with a 
portion of a triumphal procession after Mantegna ; 
musicians, a jester, &c, precede two harnessed 
horses, at whose sides men carry golden vases ; 
on dark blue background, the numeral I under- 
neath. Reverse, concentric lines in blue, a 
mark, and the date 15 14. In the South Ken- 
sington Museum. 

Caffagiolo. Galliano was probably a village or hamlet near this 
place. The inscription occurs on a plateau, painted with Mutius Scaevola 
before Porsenna, and a border of dogs hunting wild animals in a woody 





^jfkn* tfd&W 




J&S* 



landscape ; in the possession of Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum. It is accom- 
panied by the well-known monogram of S. and P. interlaced, a small 
G. and the initials A. F., and "In Galianonell ano 1547." From the 
Montferrand Collection. 



& 



Caffagiolo. On a dish of the first half of 
sixteenth century, painted with the Maccabees 
offering presents to Solomon. M. A. Darcel 
thinks this mark signifies Gafifagiolo. Louvre 
Collection. This letter is also on a plate in the 
same collection, G. 153, Hercules and Antaeus. 



MAIOLICA— CAFFAGIOLO. i i i 



G 



Caffagiolo. The large G is 
probably the initial of Giovanni 
Acole, 1509; it is placed on the in- 
terior of an inkstand composed of a 
group of figures representing La 

Creche. The name at length, written ¥ECE*SlOVANNI'AGGlJL 

in black, is here reduced to about a 

third of the actual size. In the Col- f f O Q 

lection of Baron C. Davillier. * 

Caffagiolo. This mark (reduced) is on 
the large plateau of a procession of Pope Leo 
X., who is seated on a rich portable throne 
borne upon men's shoulders, preceded by an 
elephant surrounded by cardinals on mules, 
guards, &c. ; on reverse, concentric lines of blue 
and the mark. In the South Kensington 
Museum; £80. Leo X. was elected in 15 13, 
when this plate was probably executed. 

Caffagiolo. On a dish, with three-quarter 
portrait in costume of sixteenth century ; on a 
scroll, " Antonia Bella Fiore Dequesate," so 
attributed by M. Darcel. Louvre Collection. 

Caffagiolo ? or Deruta. On a piece of 
very early maiolica, given by M. A. Jacquemart. 




Caffagiolo. On a plate painted with an 
arabesque border. Fortnum Collection. 

Caffagiolo. This monogram is on two 
dishes in the Louvre, painted with a cornucopia 
and a vase of flowers in medallions, attributed 
by M. A. Darcel to this fabrique, but showing 
the decadence of the art. 

Caffagiolo. These marks are given by 
M. A. Jacquemart as belonging to the first epoch 
of ornamental maiolica with vivid colouring : 
some of these monograms are found upon a 
plate belonging to Baron Gustave de Rothschild. 

It has in the centre a shield of arms and arabesque border, and is dated 
1507, the earliest dated piece of this botega we have met with. 



£4 



112 



MAIOLICA— BORGO SAN SEPOLCHRO. 



BORGO SAN SEPOLCHRO. 

This name is upon the reverse of a plate, painted in blue on white 
ground, with a stag-hunt in a landscape ; in the South Kensington 
Museum; diameter 15] inches. 

Gio. Battista Mercati of Citta Borgo San 
GFO*B«^TA : M£Rr'-A»r» Sepolchro is spoken of by Lanzi as a painter 
_ >- A _ of some note in the seventeenth century, and 

some of his works in the churches of Venice, 
Rome, and Leghorn are mentioned. 

A curious lamp on a foot with long stem 
reveals the existence of this manufactory in the 
eighteenth century ; it is mounted in silver. 
M. Rolet's name is also on a similar lamp found 
at Urbino. 



T649 



Citta Borgo S Sepolcro 

a 6 Febraio 1771 

Mart. Roletus fecit. 



ctfootnano 
in ^7. Sputrico. 



ST. QUIRJCO. 

St. Quirico (Marches of Ancona). This 
inscription, on a plaque in the Louvre, reveals 
the existence of a manufactory established by 
the Terchi family of Bassano, under the protection of Cardinal Chigi, 
about 1 7 14. It represents the Striking of the Rock by Moses, and 
resembles the works of the Castelli fabrique ; seventeenth century. Mr. 
Fortnum says, " Its productions were not sold, but given as presents by 
the Cardinal." Jacquemart says, " One Piezzentili, a painter, was the 
director appointed, having especially studied the works of Fontana." 
After him Bartolomeo Terchi from Siena succeeded, and Ferdinando 
Maria Campani of Siena also painted some of the ware. 



San Quirico. This mark 
occurs on a basin painted with 
a group of Hercules seated be- 
tween Venus and Vulcan, Cupid 
behind with an empty quiver. 
The letters S Q above the arms 
of the Chigi family without a 
shield, and below the date 
1723 ; probably painted by B°. 
Terchi, who worked at this 
establishment for some time. 
South Kensington Museum. 




MAIOLTCA— SIENA. mj 



SIENA. 

The earliest specimens known of this important manufactory are 
some wall or floor tiles of the commencement of the sixteenth century. 
These tiles are of fayence, covered with stanniferous enamel, and orna- 
mented with polychrome designs of chimerae, dragons, amorini, masks, 
birds, &c, in brilliant colours, especially orange and yellow on black 
ground, beautifully painted. They average about five inches square, but 
vary in shape and size, some being triangular, pentagonal, &c, to suit the 
geometrical designs of the wall or floor they covered. A series of several 
hundreds of these tiles is in the South Kensington Museum, which came 
from the Petrucci Palace at Siena ; some are dated 1509, and are painted 
with shields of arms and elegant arabesques. There are some in the 
Sauvageot and Campana Collections in the Louvre. A pavement of similar 
tiles, dated 15 13, still exists in situ in a chapel of the Church of San Fran- 
cisco at Siena ; there is also a frieze of them in the Biblioteca of Siena. 

These are attributed by Mr. Robinson to Faenza, and by M. A. 
Darcel to Caffagiolo, but they were most probably executed at Siena, 
where they are discovered in such quantities in the very buildings for 
which they were originally designed. 

A circular plaque, of the same artist and date, is in the possession of 
Mr. Morland ; the surface is entirely covered with a composition of beau- 
tiful arabesques in brilliant colours, relieved by a black ground ; others 
are in the collections of Mr. O. Coope, Mr. Franks, and Mr. Bale ; and 
a plate, apparently by the same hand, is mentioned below in Mr. Hen- 
derson's possession. A plate with sunk centre and rich orange colour 
border, with blue and white arabesques, having in the centre the Virgin 
and two cherubs, was purchased by Mr. Bale at the Bernal sale for £±\ ; 
it has on the back the initials I. P. 

There is a beautiful plate with sunk centre of the Siena fabrique, 
formerly in the Marryat Collection, purchased for the South Kensington 
Museum at £27, with a border of grotesques on orange ground ; in the 
centre, a full-length figure of St. James (the Great) in a landscape, inscribed 
" S. Jacobus M." Reverse, scale-work border in orange spotted blue, 
the letters I. P. in the centre; date about 15 10. Mr. Fortnum coincides 
with our opinion that the tiles and other pieces here noticed belong to 
Siena, as well as this example, which, from the mark I. P. and the asser- 
tion of Passeri that these initials represented /;/ Pesaro, have generally 
caused all indiscriminately to be so attributed, although that mark was 
occasionally used by the Pesarese artists. Mr. Fortnum says, "A com- 
parison of this specimen with the drug pot, dated 1501, in the South 
Kensington Museum, the pavement tiles and the plate in the same collec- 
tion, with St. Jerome, to which we have alluded below, and all with each 

H 



H4 



MAIOLTCA— SIENA. 



other, leads to the belief that Maestro Benedetto of Siena was the pro- 
ducer of all these pieces." 

On a plate, date 1542. Two others, with 
similar marks, both dated 1520, were in the 
Bernal Collection ; one with St. Bartholomew 
is now in the British Museum, cost ^"41. 
The letters stand for Iachomo Pinxit. 

Siena. " Made in Siena by Maestro 
Benedetto," circa 15 10—20. On the reverse 
of a plate, with foliated and interlaced orna- 
ment in blue camaieu on white ; in the centre, 
St. Jerome in the desert. Museum of Art, 
South Kensington ; ,£10. {Keramic Gallery, 
fig- 32-) 



Siena. Marked on the back of a very 
fine plate ; subject, Mutius Scaevola, with 
border of arabesques on blue, finely designed. 
From M. Rattier's Collection ; purchased for 
;£i20, and lately in the collection of Mr. 
Henderson. 

Enamelled statues of the school of Delia 
Robbia were also produced at Siena. In the 
Louvre there is a bas-relief of the Entombment of this character ; the 
inscription is unfortunately defaced, and the date cannot be read. 

terenzio romano siena Siena. Terenzio Romano. On a piece 

1727. of maiolica in the Chamber of Arts, Berlin. 

Siena. Bartclomeo Terenzio Romano. 
On a pair of plaques ; subjects, Neptune and 
Europa, after Annibale Caracci. Eighteenth century. Montferrand Col- 
lection, now in the South Kensington Museum. We suspect both these 
marks have been wrongly read, and are actually Terche, not Terenzio 
or " T/iercfe." 

Siena. On a vase of the eighteenth century, 
with a painting after one of the old masters. 

Siena. Another variation of Bartolomeo 
Terchi's signature ; on a plate in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

Siena. Bartolomeo Terchi Romano ; on the 
companion vase to the preceding. It is probably 
the same artist as the Bartolomeo Terenzio Romano of Siena mentioned 




FR* BERNARDINUS 
DE SIENA. IN. B. S. S AIUS 



BAR. THERESE ROMA. 



TERCHI. 



Bar Tare 
Romano. 



BAR. TERCHI. ROMANO. 



M A IOLICA— SI FNA— V ENICE. 



"5 



JHrtafef* 



above ; there being so great a similarity between the words Teri/e and 
Terche, as written at that time, some confusion may have arisen. 

Siena. Ferdinando 
Maria Campani of Siena, 
painted in 1733 ; he was 

called the Raffaelle of / ^tWd&WJl 

maiolica painters. On / A a 

a plate in the British ^/ U % , 



Museum, " God creating ^Jtfcjg QljAl 

the stars," after Raffaelle. / 

Siena. Ferdinando Campani. On two 
plates ; subjects, Galatea, after Annibale Caracci, 
and Juno soliciting yEoIus to let loose the 

• j o .1 t- at /j^ • SIENA. 1736. 

winds. Soutli Kensington Museum. (Kcranuc 
Gallery, fig. 35.) 



FERDINAND CAM TAN I 




Siena. This mark is on a fayence dish of 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, em- 
bossed and escalloped border, painted with blue 
scrolls and flowers. In the centre a bouquet. 
Perhaps the mark of Ferdinando Campani. 

Siena. On a pair of plaques ; subject, the 
Vintage. Montferrand Collection ; and one in the ferdinando ma. campani 
South Kensington Museum. (Keramic Gallery, dipinse IN siena 
fig. 34-) 

Siena. Ferdinando Campani. On a plate -p ^ 

of the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
painted with arms and trophies en grisaille. South Kensington Museum. 

VENICE. 

From the interesting researches of the Marquis Giuseppe Campori 
we are enabled to throw some light on the early fabriques of Venice in 
the latter half of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

In the archives of Modena we find that in 1520, Titian, who was 
always in great favour with Alphonso I., Duke of Ferrara, was desired 
by this Prince to order a large quantity of Venetian glass from Murano, 
and some maiolica vases for the Duke's dispensary. Tebaldo, his agent, 
thus writes to his patron : "The 1st June 1520; by the captain of the 
vessel, Jean Tressa, I send your Excellence eleven grand vases, eleven 
of smaller size, and twenty little pieces of maiolica with their covers, 
ordered by Titian for your Excellency's dispensar\\" 

To the Venetian keramists we may refer the maiolica pavement in 



ii6 



MAIOLICA— VENICE. 




the vestry of St. Helene, given by the Giustiniani family, and bearing 
their arms, about 1450-80. 

Also another bearing the shield of arms of 
the Lando family, still existing in the church 
of St. Sebastian at Venice, which, with the 
date 15 10, bears the monogram V T B L, 
enclosed in the letter Q in large capitals. 

In another letter, of the 25th May 1567, 
Battista di Francesco, writing to the Duke of 
Ferrara for the loan of three hundred crowns, 
on condition of giving him his services, says 
that he is a master-potter, and makes very 
noble maiolica vases, of the best as well as 
inferior qualities; he lives at present atMurano, 
in the district of Venice, with his wife and 
children, and possesses a shop well stocked 
with vases and other productions of similar character, and having heard 
of the magnanimity and reputation of his Excellence from noblemen and 
gentlemen of Venice, he has a desire of serving him in his calling as a 
potter, and fix his residence at Ferrara. He desires an answer addressed 
to M°. Battista di Francesco, maker of maiolica vases, Rio delli Verrieri, 
at Murano. 

There were many manufactories of terra-cotta and earthenware in 
Venice in the fifteenth century, carried on by the guild of the Boccalcri 
(pitcher-makers) and Scudaleri (plate or dish makers), probably for 
domestic use alone. They had the exclusive privilege of manufacturing 
earthenware, and every effort was made by the State to protect this guild, 
and numerous decrees were issued to prevent the importation of foreign 
wares from the fifteenth down to the eighteenth century. 

From the manuscript of Piccolpasso we know that the Durantine 
potter, Francesco or Cecco di Pieragnolo, established a kiln at Venice in 
1545, and had taken with him his father-in-law, Gianantonio da Pesaro. 
Piccolpasso visited it in 1550, and describes the mills for grinding, also 
the patterns frequently made there, the arabesques, grotesques, land- 
scapes, fruit, &c. 

One of the earliest pieces, although undated, was probably made 
about the year 1540. It is the plateau described page 120 ; the inscrip- 
tion, there much reduced, reads, " In Venetia in cotrada di St° Polo in 
botega di M° Ludovico," and beneath, a Maltese cross on a shield. 

There are two other pieces of maiolica, evidently painted by the same 
Maestro Ludovico of Venice ; one painted in blue camaieu with a mer- 
maid, belonging to Mr. Fortnum, has the inscription, " 1 540 adj. 16 del 
mexe de Otubre" (the 16th of the month of October); and the other, in 
the South Kensington Museum, has "Adj. 13 Aprile 1543," followed by 



MAIOLICA— VENICE. 



117 



a word we cannot interpret, ao. lasdinr, and a dish by Jacomo da Pesaro, 
made at St. Barnaba in Venice, described page 1 19. 

The next in order of date is the dish painted with the Destruction 
of Troy, in Mr. Fountaine's Collection, inscribed, " Fatto in Venezia, in 
Chastello, 1546," which tells us where the manufactory was situated. 

In the Brunswick Museum another plate is noted, "1568, Zener 
Domenigo da Venecia feci in la botcga al ponte sito del andar a San 
Polo." Signor Domenico, of Venice, made in the fabrique at the bridge 
situate on the road to St. Polo ; probably that which belonged to Maestro 
Ludovico. A specimen of maiolica, about the same date, bears the name 
of Io. Stefana Barcella, Veneziano ; but he may, perhaps, although a 
Venetian, have worked in some other locality. 

The next marks which attract our attention in order of date are very 
curious, and we shall see, in describing the pieces on which they occur, 
and the long intervals between their use, that they belong to a locality and 
not to a painter. The mark is a sort of fish-hook, in form of the letter C, 
and it is so intimately allied to the creeper, or grappling hook with three 
points, generally allowed to belong to Venice, that we are warranted (until 
further information is obtained) in placing it as a Venetian mark. 

On a fountain in the Musee de Cluny, with masks and garlands of 
flowers, in relief, and painted with bouquets, we find this fish-hook intro- 
duced several times ; and on a plate representing the Salutation is the 
same mark, with the date 1 571, and another in the Berlin Museum bears 
the date 1622. The next time we meet with it is on a plate painted with 
six horses, belonging to M. Roger de Beauvoir, but in this instance it is 
accompanied by a name as well as the date, — L. Dionigi Marini, 1636, 
between two fish-hooks. 

We now arrive at a description of maiolica of a totally different class 
to that we have been considering, and possessing so many peculiarities, 
that we are justified in assigning the pieces to one particular manufactory, 
the secret of producing it being lost on the death of the proprietor. The 
ware may be briefly described as follows : — It is very thin, and extremely 
light for the size, and is compact and as sonorous as if it were actually 
made of metal. The borders of the dishes are moulded into masks, flowers, 
festoons, fruit, &c.,and the reliefs are thrown up from the back, like repousse 
metal-work. On the back of these dishes may frequently be seen three long 
marks, where it rested in the kiln, and leaves, cursively traced, in colour. 

The marks on the back consist of letters or monograms, such as 
A F, A R, G, J G, &c, the meaning of which we are unable to discover ; 
these letters are frequently combined with a sort of anchor, called by the 
French grappin, and by the English grapnel or creeper* 



* Johnson defines a creeper as "in naval language a sort of grapnel, used for recovering 
things that may be cast overboard." 



n8 MAIOLICA— VENICE. 

M. Jules Labarte {Histoire des Arts Indnstriels an Moycn Age et a 
V Epoqac de la Renaissance) says, "A manufactory of maiolica at Venice 
in the seventeenth century produced some specimens inferior in point of 
art, but curious as records of keramic execution ; these are dishes, the 
rims of which are generally loaded with fruits in relief, and the centres 
decorated with slight and very inferior painting. What renders this 
fayence singular is, that it is very thin, very light, and so sonorous as 
to be commonly mistaken for sheets of copper enamelled and repousse. 
The Museum of Sevres possesses very fine specimens. This manufac- 
ture was of short duration." 

M. Yicenzo Lazari attributes these pieces to an unknown manufac- 
turer of the end of the seventeenth century, and M. Jacquemart is rather 
inclined to place them in the same century ; but on due consideration we 
are still of opinion they were made by the Brothers Bertolini, the glass- 
makers of Murano. 

The following account is extracted from Sir W. R. Drake's Notes 
on Venetian Ceramics, p. 25 : — 

"In 1753 (not 1758, as erroneously stated by Lazari) a manufactory 
of maiolica was set up in Murano by the Brothers Gianandrea and Pietro 
Bertolini, who, previous to that date, had carried on in that island a 
privileged manufacture of painted and gilt enamel, imitating porcelain. 
In their petition to the Senate the Bertolini stated that they proposed to 
establish a new manufactory of maiolica in Murano, having, after many 
costly experiments, at last obtained such perfection in their work, that, 
as to whiteness, lightness, and design (candidezza, leggerezza, e pittura), 
they had nothing to envy in any other manufacture of the State, and 
they therefore proposed to open a shop in Venice to facilitate their sale. 
The petitioners alleged that their intentions were interfered with by the 
privileges which had been granted to Antonibon of Nove, and Salmazzo 
of Bassano, which exempting them from import and export duties, they 
were enabled to sell their maiolica at a lower price than the Bertolini 
could do, although the merits of their manufactures were in no way 
inferior." 

A decree of the Senate of 14th April 1753 authorised them to open 
a shop in Venice, with exemption for ten years from import and export 
duties. 

The Murano manufactory of maiolica did not succeed so well as the 
promoters anticipated, and it was probably discontinued about the year 
1760. The concession was annulled by a decree of the 2nd April 1763. 

The marks, therefore, of a double anchor or creeper we may safely 
assign to this firm. The letters A F, so frequently found (as well as the 
others), are at present unintelligible, but may be the initials of the painters, 
interwoven with the trade mark. There is one mark in particular which 
seems to call for a remark, viz., the A F and a Maltese cross between 



MAJOLICA— VENICE. 119 

two palm branches saltire, surmounted by a coronet. A similar Maltese 
cross on a shield is on the dish of M°. Ludovico of Venice, made in the 
sixteenth century, two centuries earlier ; we may also call attention to 
the same letters followed by V E for Venice. 

Venice. On a maiolica I { 4S ^ 

dish of Urbino character ; 
subject, the Destruction of -. 

(figured in Delange's Re- *S ^ IS 

cueit, plate 80). Fountaine \+1 / C h<Z»l\*£ l/o 

sale, £325, 10s. <! \J % C,tV 

Venice. A large plateau, with sunk centre, having four medallions, 
bearing portrait heads of" Semiramis," " Portia," " Zenobia," " Fi:l\ta," 

between which are arabesques, foliated border. Reverse with the date 
13th April 1543, and a name as given above. In the South Kensington 
Museum. 

" E- M n a nich 



Venice. On a dish 
20 in. diameter, of pale 
grey ground, white orna- 
mentation of lace-work, 
scrolls, &c, with four 
medallions of heads on 



t^rifed^ 1 *S*\: ** f 



Omero, Faus- GL 



IT 1 o% 



CRETIA 

tina, Ovidio ; in the 
centre are a fish and a 

mask, &c. This piece X~S ft* ^*Q 

records the establish- 
ment of another Pes- 
arese artist at Venice. I 

In the possession of Mr. 
H. Durlacher. 



120 



MAIOLICA— VENICE. 



// 



i It. ™ i\r)p<^ ffy^ 



(L 



71* 



■eciUjjl 



Vo tiqa. cL'i \Al IxuLru. Leo 



Venice. On a drug 
pot ; pale blue ground, 
covered with leafage in 
a darker tint ; on a cen- 
tral ribbon, " diafena 
^^ nicol" in black letter, 
a shield of arms be- 
neath ; on a label be- 
hind is the inscription " Jacomo Vasellaro a ripa granni fecit 1593." Mr. 
Fortnum says this is a potter named Jacomo who worked on the Ripa 
Grande at Venice in 1593. This could hardly be that M°. Jacomo da 
Pesaro who was working fifty years before at St. Barnaba. 

Venice. On a plateau, circa 1540; light 
blue ground and arabesque border in blue ; in 
centre, an amorino carrying a vase of flowers. 
Museum of Art, South Kensington. Another 
plate, supposed to be by the same artist, is in 
the Collection of Mr. Fortnum, dated 1540, 
painted with a mermaid, before alluded to. 

Venice. This inscription is on the back 
of a dish ; subject, Moses and Aaron entreating 
Pharaoh ; with a rich border, and medallions of 
the first four months of the year. In the Bruns- 
wick Museum. This is probably the shop of 
Maestro Ludovico before named, and Domenigo, 
the painter attached to the establishment. 

Venice. On a plate, painted with the 
Salutation of the Virgin. Uzielli Collection. 
Mr. Fortnum doubts the correctness of this 
date, but we copied it while in the possession 

Cof the late Mr. Uzielli, and no imperfection in 
. the glaze then existed ; it was clearly 1 57 1 * an d 

J Q /J not 1 67 1, as he suggests. The latter mark is 
on a plate in the Berlin Museum. 




zener domenigo 

da venecia 
feci in la botega 
a i. pontes1to del 
andar a san poi.o. 

1568. 




/6ZI 

loo Tefan i3 <xycq\ 



ox 



Venice. The mark of Dionisi Marinus, and 
the date 1636. On a plate painted with six 
horses ; in the Collection of M. Roger de 
Beau voir. 

Venice. The mark of Io. Stefano Barcella, 
a Venetian painter only. The last word is 
perhaps intended for pinxit, although not very 
clear. 



MAIOLTCA— VENICE 



121 



Venice. This mark represents a creeper 
or grapnel, with the letters A F, and perhaps 

C C, interlaced. On dishes, with landscapes 
in brown, blue, yellow, and green, and ara- 
besque borders executed in relief, of the eight- 
eenth century, by Bertolini. Some specimens 
in the Sevres Museum with this mark ; another 
in the British Museum. 

Venice. Marked in dark red, on a piece 
of fayence in the author's possession : a creeper 
with the letter R on the stem. 

Venice. This mark of a creeper is on a 
Venetian dish, eighteenth century, with shells 
and scrolls in relief on the border, outlined in 
brown and green ; in the centre a landscape in 
brown, blue, yellow, and green ; on the back are 
six leaves touched in brown. The same mark 
also occurs on a very fine dish painted with 
a classical subject. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 65.) 



Venice. One of the fanciful marks of the 
Bertolini fabrique ; in the centre of the flower 
are the letters A F in blue ; it is on a fayence 
plateau of octagonal form, in the Baron C. 
Davillier's Collection. It represents a pink 
(garofalo), and is perhaps a rebus of the painter's 
name, like that of Benvenuto Tisio (see ante, 
page 91). 



Venice. This mark is on a fayence plate 
of the eighteenth century, of the Bertolini fab- 
rique, painted with a coat of arms, surrounded 
by amorini. The same device is on a plate in 
the British Museum ; another of the same set 
having the double anchor or creeper. 








ttJU 




122 MA10LIC A— VENICE. 






c^ 



v 



•en 



pn 



W 




S--G4-B 



Venice. This monogram of C. S. L. is a 
mark on Venetian maiolica, quoted by M. A. 
Jacquemart. 

Venice. Another variation of the letters 
A F, so frequently seen on Venetian fayence, 
followed by V E for Venice. It occurs on a 
moulded dish, painted in outline with Mercury 
and a border of flowers. M. Jacquemart attri- 
butes similar marks to Faenza (see page 96). 

Venice. On a plate, similar in character 
to the preceding ; subject, Judith and Holo- 
fernes, with an embossed border of scrolls and 
masks. In the Collection of the late Mr. Bel- 
ward Ray. 



Venice. Venezia. This mark is frequently 
&, seen on old Venetian pottery, as well as porce- 

+ lain. 

Venice. This shield, from its similarity to 
that shown above as being identified with this 
city, is thus placed. It occurs on a plate, 
painted in blue and white, with a coat of arms 
at top ; very much like the pottery of Savona ; 
circa 1700. 



Venice. On a specimen, coloured blue, of 
Judith and Holofernes, and coat of arms above ; 
another is in the Museum of Art, South Ken- 
sington. 

Venice. On an earthenware dish, rudely 
painted with landscape, embossed border ; for- 
merly in Captain Langford's Collection. Eight- 
eenth century. 

Venice. On a Venetian dish, rudely painted 
in blue, yellow, and green, with brown out- 
lines, a gadroon border in relief of these three 
colours, and in centre a castle, hare, and bird in 
yellow; date about 1750. 



MAIOLTCA— BASSANO. 123 

BASSANO. 

The first pottery at Bassano, near Venice, was, according to V. 
Lazari, founded by a certain Simone Marinoni, in the suburb called the 
Marchesane, about 1540, but it does not appear that his productions 
were of a very artistic character, for Lazari speaks of a plate dated 1555, 
representing St. Anthony, St. Francis, and St. Bonaventura, which was 
badly painted, and failed both in the colours and in the glaze. 

Towards the end of the sixteenth and the commencement of the 
seventeenth century, the same fabriquc produced maiolica services, many 
of which have been preserved to our time ; they bear the names of 
Bartolomeo and Antonio Terchi, two brothers from Rome, who appear 
to have travelled from one place to another, and painted or worked for a 
great number of establishments. The iron crown is not, however, the 
special attribute of Bassano ; we find it on the maiolica of other towns. 
The manufacture appears to have ceased in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, at least we have no record of its existence until a centurv 
afterwards. 

Sir W. R. Drake (Notes on Venetian Ceramics) informs us that about 
1728 a manufactory of maiolica and latesini (a term applied to earthen- 
ware vessels) was carried on at Bassano by the Sisters Manardi, as 
appears from the petition of Giovanni Antonio Caffo, presented to the 
Senate in 1735, in which he states that he had been for many years 
engaged in their manufactory, and as the end of his time of service was 
about to expire, and he had a quantity of manufactured goods (of the 
value of more than 3000 ducats) on hand, besides many outstanding 
debts, he prayed he might be allowed to continue the manufactory, and 
to retain the workmen well skilled in the art, whom he had at very great 
cost obtained from foreign countries, and with that view permission 
should be granted to him to erect a furnace in the suburbs of Bassano 
for the manufacture of maiolica and latesini similar not only to the 
manufactures of Lodi and Faenza, but also like those of Genoa, praying 
for exemption from duties, &c. Caffo's petition was remitted to the 
Board of Trade, who said that there was no necessity for requesting 
permission to erect a furnace for earthenware, as such a thing was never 
forbidden to any one, and referred to the proclamation of the 24th July 
1728, which invited the erection of furnaces, so as to prevent the great 
injury to the State by the large amount of money which constantly went 
to Milan, to the Romagna, and to Genoa, for the purchase of earthen- 
ware. They also stated the favour of exemption from inland dues had 
already been granted to Giovanni Battista Antonibon of Nove, and to 
the Sisters Manardi of Bassano, and advised that his petition be com- 
plied with. This report was adopted by the Senate on the 3rd October 
1736. 



124 MAIOLICA— BASSANO— NOVE. 

Previous to 1753 Giovanni Maria Salmazzo had established at 
Bassano a manufactory of maiolica, in competition with Antonibon's 
establishment at Nove. At that time it would appear Antonibon's was 
the only fabrique for making maiolica in the Venetian dominions ; this 
fact is alluded to in the report of the Board of Trade to the Senate of 
17th August 1756. The State had refused an application made by 
Antonibon for an exclusive right to make earthenware, but a decree in 
his favour had been made, prohibiting workmen quitting his establish- 
ment from taking service in any other for two years. Salmazzo com- 
plained in his petition to the Senate that the Antonibons having ruined 
two competitors, had endeavoured to ruin him ; by bribing some of his 
workmen to " disobedience and mutiny," had compelled him to dismiss 
them, and they were immediately taken into Antonibon's service. The 
Board of Trade, after alluding to the high reputation which Antonibon's 
maiolica had gained, as also to the wealth he had acquired, advised the 
Senate to grant equal privileges to all, but declined to enter into the 
quarrels between them. The decree was made accordingly. 

It is probable the maiolica fina of Salmazzo was continued for many 
years. We have seen many examples of this peculiar Italian fayence, 
which cannot be attributed to any other locale ; some of these bear the 
initials G. S., which may be attributed to Giovanni Salmazzo. 

~ £, This mark of Giovanni Salmazzo, in gold, 

is on an e'cuclle, richly gilt and painted in me- 
dallions of figures in Italian landscapes, very much in the style of Nove 
fayence ; in the possession of J. W. Crowe, Esq. 

* Bassano. A plate, representing Lot and his 

r\ HL D7\( p i£y c C • Daughters leaving the city of Sodom; the 

\ft name of the artist is given as in the margin. 

wi^^^/ Seventeenth century. (Louvre.) Also on a 

/fl s -vx small saucer of the seventeenth century, 

Mr j 5 [u lu painted with a view of the gates of Bassano. 

Bassano. Bartolomeo Terchi. On the 
A back of a maiolica vessel, with a landscape. 

Seventeenth century. In the Collection of M. 
BaSSanO LeBlanc. 



NOVE, near Bassano. 

M. V. Lazari says the fabrique in the village of Nove, near Bassano, 
which was established at the end of the seventeenth century, and 
advantageously known in Italy in the first years of the eighteenth 
century, was much more praised than that of Marinoni of Bassano. Of 
the fabrique of the Antonibons there are still preserved entire frames 
or panels of the finest and most ornamented maiolica, made in 1743—44. 



B°Terc^i 



MAIOLICA— NOVK. 125 

The first notice we have, however, in the State records is in 1728. 
Sir W. R. Drake {Notes on Venetian Ceramics) has supplied us with the 
following information : — 

In 1728 Giovanni Battista Antonibon established in the village of 
Nove, in the province of Bassano and near the town of that name, a 
manufactory of earthenware {terraglie), and on the 18th of April 1732 
the Senate granted him the privilege of opening a shop in Venice for the 
sale of his manufactures for two years, which on the 2nd of June 1735 
was extended for a further period of ten years. In 1741 the manufactory 
was in a prosperous state, and it was then carried on by Pasqual 
Antonibon, who finding that the shop he had in Venice was not sufficient 
for the sale of his goods, petitioned for leave to open another, which was 
granted on the 6th of July 1741. Mis father's name was still continued 
as proprietor, as shown in the piece referred to below. 

The " Inquisitor alle arte," in his report to the Venetian Senate in 
1766 concerning the Antonibons' manufactory of maiolica and earthen- 
ware, thus describes it : It consists of three large furnaces, one small 
furnace and two kilns {furnasotti, probably muffle kilns); 120 workmen 
of various provinces are employed in it, and his trade extends to the 
territories of the Friuli, Verona, Mantua, Trent, the Romagna, the Tyrol, 
and other places. Persons from all parts flock to Nove to make pur- 
chases, and they have also two shops in Venice, which are provided with 
a great variety of specimens, always new, and whose whiteness (can- 
didezza) doubtless exceeds that of any other foreign manufactory. He 
would yet have more extended his business, had not his attention and 
capital been harassed by his experiments in waxed cloth {tele cerate) and 
porcelain. 

In 1762 Pasqual took his son Giovanni Battista into partnership, 
and they carried on their works for the manufacture of maioliche fine or 
fayence, and terraglia or terrc de pipe, as well as porcelain, together until 
6th of February 1781, when they joined in partnership with Signor Parolini, 
still continuing the fabrication "con sommo onore dell' arte," until the 
6th of February 1802. 

In February 1802 the Antonibons let the fabrique on lease to Gio- 
vanni Baroni, and it was carried on by him for about twenty years by the 
name of the " Fabbrica Baroni Nove," at first successfully, but it did not 
continue long in a prosperous condition, and by degrees it was allowed 
to go to decay, and in 1825 it was entirely abandoned by Baroni. 

On the 1st May 1825, Giovanni Battista Antonibon again took 
possession of the works, and, in partnership with his son Francesco, 
resuscitated them, until their productions arrived at their former excellence 
in maiolica fma, terraglia, and porcelain. In 1835 they discontinued 
making porcelain, and confined their attention to fayence and terraglia, 
making principally copies of the best productions of other European 



126 MATOLICA— NOVE. 

fabriques. Rietti, a dealer at Venice, has the monopoly of the sale of 
everything made at Nove, and the firm is still called, as in the last cen- 
tury, " Pasqual Antonibon e figli, antica fabbrica, terraglie, maioliche fine, 
ed ordinaire in Nove, Di Bassano." 

Alluding to the manufacture of the eighteenth century, Sir W. R. 
Drake adds in a note, " Figures and groups, some of them of large size, 
were manufactured by Antonibon out of a fine pipeclay {terraglid), and 
are remarkable for their good modelling. Very fair imitations of this 
manufacture are now made in the neighbourhood of Venice, and there 
sold by the dealers as old specimens. The imitations lack the sharpness 
of modelling, and are considerably heavier than the originals." 

Nove. The mark of Giovanni Battista 
\\P Antonibon of Nove. On a fayence tureen of 

N ^lf rjl the middle of the eighteenth century, painted in 

• C^^^ blue, with masks, flowers, and scrolls ; the shell- 
_^ ^■^•A «T% shaped handles and figure of Atlas on the cover 
I t.KM'K,' are mottled purple. {Keramic Gallery, fig. 62.) 
The star forms part of the ornament, which was 
adopted by him as a mark. In the South Kensington Museum. The 
letters signify, without doubt, Giovanni Battista Antonio Bon : the B 
cannot be intended for Bassano, as the name of Nove is placed above. 
Antonibon has also written his name at length as Antonio Bon on a piece 
of porcelain belonging to the Baron Davillier, postca, where it is described 
with others in the same Collection. 

Nove. This mark of Anton ibon's fabrique 
De/la faun ca at . r r , , , . . t , . 

Gio Bate Antonibon ls on P art of a fa y ence table service, painted in 
nelle nove di Decen polychrome. From the manufactory of Giovanni 
1755. Battista Antonibon, the ninth of December 1 75 5- 

Nove, near Bassano. On a splendid pre- 
Falf Baroni Nove. r - r vi 

sentation iayence vase, oviform, with square 

pierced handles and pierced neck, of bleu du roi ground with medallions 

painted in colours, of Alexander and the Family of Darius, and another 

classical subject after Le Brun ; small circular medallions between, of 

classical heads, two in each, elegant gilt scrolls and borders. This very 

effective vase, evidently a chef d'osuvre of the manufactory, is 2 ft. 5 in. 

high. The name is written on each side of the square pedestal ; date 

from 1802 to 1810: by Giovanni Baroni, successor of Antonibon. It 

was purchased by a dealer at Venice and sent to Geneva, but not finding 

a customer, it was carried to Paris, where it was seen and secured by Mr. 

Reynolds.* (Keramic Gallery, fig. 62.) 



* M. A. Jacquemart {Histoire de la Ceramiqite, p. 584, Paris, 1873) has made a grand mis- 
take in the reading of the inscription on the vase, which he says is " Bracciano alle Nove" 
repeated four times on the base, instead of " Fab"- Baroni Nove" thereby creating an ideal 



MAIOLICA— CANDIANA— FLORENC K. 127 

Candiana. The name of a manufactory, CANDIANAj r r, 20 . 

perhaps near Venice, where they enamelled 

earthenware with Persian designs. There is one in the Sevres Museum, 
signed as in the margin ; another is mentioned by Mr. J. C. Robinson, 
with the date 1 637. 

Candiana was noted for its imitations of ^ y ; . • 

Persian ware, with tulips, pinks, and other 

flowers ; usually of the first half of the seventeenth century. These 

letters are given by M. Jacquemart, found on a tazza of good form ; on a 

bandelette or scroll is written MS. DEGA, which probably refers to 

the person for whom it was made. 

Candiana? Paolo Crosa. This name is ^ A ^n/^c-A 

..... , ... . PA. LKUbA. 

on a cylindrical vase, blue ground, with yellow 

scrolls and white medallions, with flowers in imitation of Persian. 

Seventeenth century. In the possession of the Marquis d'Azeglio. 

This mark in blue is on a pair of 

hexagonal potiches, finely painted in blue 

cmnaicu, very much like Delft, in Baron 

C. Davillier's Collection. 



jfyte*** 



FLORENCE. 

Florence. Luca della Robbia, born a.d. 1400, commenced his 
career as a goldsmith, but afterwards became a sculptor, and attained 
considerable eminence in that profession. He subsequently discovered 
the art of covering his bas-reliefs of terra-cotta with a thick stanniferous 
enamel or glaze, which rendered them impervious to the action of the 
elements, consequently extremely durable. His early relievos consisted 
of scrolls, masks, birds, and designs of the Renaissance taste, which are 
usually white on blue ground ; he subsequently coloured the fruit and 
flowers in natural tints, but white and blue appear to have been his 
favourite colours. There is a set of the Twelve Months painted en 
grisaille on blue ground, with husbandmen engaged in seasonable opera- 
tions for each month, on separate enamelled terra-cotta medallions, \2\ 
in. diameter. These medallions are ascribed to Luca della Robbia (Gigli 
Campana Collection), now in the South Kensington Museum. 

There is a very fine altar-piece of the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, the Adoration of the Magi, in high relief, coloured with portraits 
of celebrated artists of the time of Luca della Robbia. In the South 
Kensington Museum ; height 7 ft. 8 in. (See Keramic Gallery, fig. 82.) 

potter. He continues, " II resterait a savoir si Bracciano etait le Directeur de l'etablissement ou 
le peintre. " Such mistakes cause a great deal of confusion, and this is the more inexcusable as 
he quotes our account in the last edition, where it is correctly given, but prefers reasoning upon 
his own false reading;. 



i 2 8 MAIOLICA— FLORENCE. 

He died in 1481, and was succeeded by his nephew, Andrea della 
Robbia, born 1437, died 1528, who is known to have executed bas-reliefs 
in 15 1 5. After his death, his four sons, Giovanni, Luca, Ambrosio, and 
Girolamo, continued making the same description of coloured reliefs, but 
greatly inferior to those of their ancestor, the inventor. Girolamo went 
to France, and was employed by Francis I. in decorating the Chateau 
de Madrid, in the Bois de Boulogne, called ironically by Philibert 
Delorme, the architect, the "Chateau de Fayence," and died there about 
the year 1567. 

This chateau abounded with enamelled terra-cottas ; unfortunately 
none of them are preserved to our time. When this beautiful villa was 
demolished in 1762, the terra-cottas were sold to a paviour, who made 
them into cement. With Girolamo, the last of the Delia Robbias, de- 
parted also the secrets of the art. Mr. J. C. Robinson {Catalogue of the 
Sou/ages Collection) says : " Generally speaking, the earlier works of Luca 
and those of Andrea after his (Luca's) death can be distinguished. 
The specimens which are only partially enamelled, i.e., in which the 
nude details of the figures are left of the original colour or surface of the 
clay, appear to be of the earliest time, i.e., the period of Luca himself. 
The pieces entirely covered with the white or white and blue enamels, 
were, however, doubtless after a time executed simultaneously. The for- 
mer specimens are interesting as pointing to the origin of the ware. The 
flesh in these pieces was originally in every case painted of the natural 
colours in distemper, the draperies and accessories only being covered 
with the enamel glaze (in the then state of the keramic art it was im- 
possible to produce flesh tints in enamel colours), and his invention 
consisted in applying the stanniferous enamel glaze to the terra-cotta 
sculpture, which had previously been executed in distemper." Luca 
della Robbia had many scholars and competitors ; one of these pupils, 
Agostino da Duccio, has in his works a great analogy of style. There 
is a facade by this artist in the church of San Bernardino. 

Florenxe. This mark is on the back of 

a medallion of the Virgin and Child at the 

\^\ \ \ I C\ /""\ Museum of Sigmaringen, which is described in 

J~y *■— • J /V J the Catalogue as Luca della Robbia ; it is graved 

-j-r a ~ rp -q A'T"* m tne c ' a y> but seems of very doubtful authen- 

' <** ^-* ft 4-X£"~\ J. ticity. The work is at least a century later, 

and has nothing of the character of Della 

Robbia. 






Florence. Luca della Robbia. This mark, 
graved in the moist clay before baking, is on a 
group of the Virgin and Child ; formerly in 
Cardinal Fesch's Collection. 



MAIOLICA— FLORENCE— PADUA, 



29 



Florence. FlRENZE. We are not acquainted _^ _^_^ < 

with the early marks on the maiolica made here, m* M ' r 
It is said to have been mostly in relief, like the 

Luca della Robbia. Fine fayence of the eighteenth century is found 

with the letter F, which has been assigned to this city ; but it has 

the honour of being the first, under the Medici, to have successfully 
imitated the Oriental porcelain as early as 1580. 

PADUA. 

Vincenzo Lazari informs us, that in a street 
which still retains the name of Bocaleri (makers 
of vases), a few years since were discovered 
traces of ancient potters' kilns, and some maiolica 
triangular wall tiles of blue and white alternately, 
of the end of the fifteenth or beginning of six- 
teenth century, among which was a plaque, 20 
in. in diameter, of the Virgin and Child between 
S. Roch and S. Lucia in slight relief, surrounded 
by angels and a coat of arms. It is taken from 

a cartoon by Nicolo Pizzolo, a painter of Padua, pupil of Squarcione ; 
on the summit of the throne is written Nicoleti, the name he usually 
adopted. It is now preserved in the Museum of that city. 

A plate with figures after Carpaccio of the fifteenth century {sgraffito) 
is in the possession of the Baron Schwiter at Paris, which, although 
unsigned, was sold to him as an authentic work of Nicoleto of Padua. 

This city is spoken of by Piccolpasso as possessing manufactories of 
maiolica in his time (1540), and several examples are here given. 

There are some plates in the South Kensington Museum : one, of 
foliated scroll-work and flowers on blue ground, with a camel in the 
centre, circa 15 30; Bernal Collection; cost £6. Another, with ara- 
besques on blue ground, a coat of arms in the centre, reverse marked 
with a cross, circa 1550; also from the Bernal Collection. 

Padua. On a maiolica plate, subject, 
Myrrha. Museum of Art, South Kensington. 
(Keramic Gallery, fig. 40.) 




PADVA. 
1548. 



Padua. On a plate, subject, Polyphemus 
and Galatea. Bernal Collection, now in the 
British Museum. 

Padua. On the back of a plate, painted with 
Adam and Eve, in the late Mr. A. Barker's Col- 
lection. The Paduan signatures are usually 
accompanied by a cross. 



A. 



PADOA ►!« 
1564. 



a bacCo£t_y 






130 MAIOLICA— CASTELLI. 



CASTELLI, near Naples. 

Castelli is a town or hamlet in the Abruzzi, north of the city of 
Naples. No time can be assigned for the commencement of the work- 
ing in pottery, but it was one of the first to take advantage of the 
improvements of Luca della Robbia in the fifteenth century, and the 
maiolica of Castelli equalled, if it did not surpass, that of Pisa and 
Pesaro. Passeri quotes the testimony of a contemporary author to prove 
that both Pesaro and Castelli were celebrated for the excellence and 
beauty of their manufactures of pottery. Antonio Beuter, a Spaniard, 
who wrote in 1540, says: " Corebaeus, according to Pliny, was the 
inventor of pottery in Athens. He did not make them better, nor were 
the vases of Corinth of more value, than the works of Pisa or Pesaro, or 
of Castelli in the Sicilian valley of the Abruzzi, nor of other places, for 
fineness and beauty of work." It is on the site of the ancient city of 
Atrium, and coins, fragments of Greek pottery, and other remains have 
been frequently exhumed. The traditions of other ages, the fine models 
of Greek art discovered in the neighbourhood, the facility for making 
pottery — from having the requisite clay, water, and wood, as well as its 
proximity to the sea for traffic — have all contributed to the keramic 
industry of Castelli. The manufacture of pottery and porcelain was 
able to keep in activity thirty-five manufactories, and to employ nearly 
all the population of the neighbourhood. No specimens of the maiolica 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries can be now identified. The 
colours alia Castcllana seem always to have been held in great esteem. 
Few of the manufactories of Italy, which were so famous for their 
maiolica, survived much beyond the beginning of the seventeenth 
century ; Castelli alone appears to have stood its ground, and towards 
the end of the seventeenth century was as flourishing as ever in this 
particular branch of industry. Francesco Saverio Grue, a man of letters 
and science, became about this time director of the Neapolitan maiolica 
fabrique at Castelli. The ware was ornamented with subjects of an 
important nature, correctly designed and brilliantly coloured, to which 
also was added the introduction of gilding the borders of the ware ; 
sometimes the landscapes were also touched with gold. His sons and 
brothers continued to add lustre to his name, and many distinguished 
artists proceeded from his school, amongst whom may be noticed Gentile, 
Fuini, Capelleti, and Giustiniani. The manufacture was patronised by 
the King, Carlo Borbone, and his son Augusto, who, emulating the Medici 
of Tuscany, raised the keramic art of the kingdom of Naples to great 
celebrity. 

Castelli. This mark is given by Passeri, 
on a piece of the eighteenth century. 



MAIOLICA— CASTELLI. 



3 1 



Castelli. Naples. On an earthenware 
plate of the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
painted in blue, with cupids and flowers. 

Castelli ? Naples. On a cup and saucer, 
rudely designed, of a countryman under an 
arcade. 

Castelli. On a specimen in the Collection 
of Signor Raff de Minicis of Fermo. 

Castelli. This name is signed on a pair 
of circular plaques, 10 in. diameter, painted with 
the Holy Family, and a female in a bath ; in the 
possession of Dr. H. W. Diamond. 

Castelli. On a plaque ; subject, the Ado- 
ration of the Magi, in Mr. Marryat's Collection. 
Another, in the Collection of Signor Bonghi of 
Naples, is dated 1718. 

Castelli. On a vase of the maiolica char- 
acter ; subject, Apollo and Marsyas, in Lord de 
Tabley's Collection. 

Castelli. On a plaque, painted with a 
landscape and a bridge ; on the keystone is a 
shield of arms, and at the foot of the bridge, on 
a wall, this tablet of the painter's name and date. 
In Mr. H. A. Neck's Collection. 

Castelli. This mark is on the companion 
plate, painted with a landscape, in Mr. H. A. 
Neck's Collection. 

Castelli. Saverio Grue, a maiolica painter 
of the eighteenth century, of classical subjects 
and mottoes. 

Castelli. Saverio Grue Pinxit. These 
initials are on plaques, illustrating mottoes — as 
" Perseverantia fructus," in Lord Hastings' Col- 
lection ; another " Virtutis vere liberalitas," in 
Mr. Attree's Collection. 

Castelli. In the cabinet of M. le Comte de 
Montbrun there are two plaques painted with 
children and landscapes. 




^77- 



0SNESGRV5 FECIT. 










>/7^tAje/. 



*-9-* 



'749* 



I 3 2 



MAIOLICA— CASTELLI. 




Castelli. The monogram of Saverio Grue, on a plaque 
-fc with military figures, inscribed " Fortitude et Innocent," 
J in the Sevres Museum ; also on a plate mentioned by 
M. A. Darcel, dated 1753. 

Castelli. On a bowl and cover, 
painted with nude figures after Anni- 
bale Caracci ; of the eighteenth century 
(Liborius died in 1776), in the South 
Kensington Museum. (See Keramic Gal- 
lery, fig. 73.) This curious mark has the 
nondescript ornament at the beginning 
in a line with the name. 

Castelli. The mark of Luigi or 
Liborius Grue, on some plates painted 
with landscapes and figures, heightened 
with gold ; circa 1720. 

Castelli. Gentili Pinxit. On a tile 
painted with a pastoral subject of the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. 
Signor Bonghi of Naples has a fine col- 
lection of examples of Bernardino Gentili or Gentile ; one two feet 
high, representing the Martyrdom of St. Ursula, is richly coloured and 
heightened with gold. A plate, painted with a satyr surprising a nymph, 
and a border of cupids, &c, en grisaille, circa 1700, by Gentili, is in the 
South Kensington Museum (No. 4345, 57). In the Museum Catalogue of 
1868 this plate is so described, but Fortnum in his description in 1873, page 
637, states that it is by L. Grue, and places its date seventy years later. 
Another specimen, painted with the Crucifixion, is quoted by Jacque- 
mart, bearing this inscription : " Qitesto crocifisso del carmine lo fece Ber- 
nardino Gentile per sua divozionc, 1670." He died in 1683. 




(2enfou 



<LS&*-e 



Castelli. This minute signature is 
on a plaque painted with a landscape ; in 
the foreground, among the ruins, is St. John with a lamb. Mr. H. 
A. Neck's Collection. 

Castelli. On a plaque ; subject, 
the Triumph of Amphitrite. Louvre 
Collection. 



4/.R 



Castelli. Another mark of Saverio 
Grue, given by Jacquemart ; died in 1806. 

Castelli. On a large and fine square 
plaque in the Berlin Museum. 



MAIOLICA— CASTELLI— PALERMO— NAPLES. 



'.;.; 



&. Mocco di %'asLclli. 




Castelli. On a round plaque, painted 
with the Baptism of Christ, in the Berlin 
Museum. 

Castelli. This mark is from a fine 
dish brought to England by Signor A. 
Castellani, painted with a battle, vigor- 
ously sketched, and a border of scrolls. 
The signature of the artist, Carlo Cocco- 
rese, is on a stone in the foreground ; 
the date, 1734, is on the border; the D 
being omitted as usual at that time. On 
the horse trappings, two crossed C's 
crowned. 

This signature occurs on a piece in the pos- 
session of Monsignore Cajani. It is cleverly 
painted in the style of the Castelli or the later 
Sienese pieces, with a group of male and female 
satyrs gathering grapes. 

Castelli ? This artist is of the 
school of Grue ; signed on a plaque, 

painted with ruins in a landscape and a J-VC'^JfL, OlCLltCCO XT. 
shepherdess leading a cow and sheep; j T^f 

in one corner is written the name Luca 
Antonio Ciannico. 






PALERMO. 

The Baron C. Davillier has discovered this 
inscription on an albarello or drug vase, of good 
style, somewhat like the maiolica of Castel 
Durante. 



FATTO IN 

PALER. MA 

1606. 



NAPLES. 

Of the maiolica of the city of Naples we have no mention in the 
sixteenth century, nor have we met with any specimens of so early a 
date, although, as we have seen, Castelli in the kingdom of Naples is 
honourably mentioned, nay, even comparable to Athens, by Antonio Beuter, 
in 1540. M. A. Jacquemart says: "La confusion la plus absolue regne 
parmi les produits de l'ancien royaume de Naples," &c. He continues, 
" C'est encore a l'avenir qu'il faut laisser le soin d'eclairer ces questions. 
Quant a Naples, nous trouvons son nom sur des ouvrages de la fin dn 
seizieme siecle, empreints du style de l'epoque, et qu'il eut ete facile de 
confondre avecles poteries du nord de l'ltalie." He then describes three 
vases of colossal proportions, composed for decoration, only one of their 




i34 MAIOLICA— NAPLES. 

sides being painted, caryatid handles, painted in blue camaieu with 
religious subjects ; " la touche est hardie et spirituelle," &c. 

As, however, there seems to be a diversity of opinion on the matter 
of dates upon these vases, we must give the result of our reference to 
the two great Parisian keramic authorities, and form our own opinions 
of their respective merits as reliable sources of information. 

The works from which we quote are Les Merveilles de la Ccramiqne {Re- 
naissance Italiewie), par Albert Jacquemart, Paris, 1868, p. 252, and Guide de 
V Amateur des Faiences ct Porcclaines, par Auguste Demmin, Paris, 1868. 

Naples. A lofty vase, painted with the 
Sermon on the Mount, inscribed, according to 
M. Demmin, "Fran Brand, Napoli, Casa Nova," 
with the initials B. G. crowned, as in the 
margin. M. A. Jacquemart gives a similar 
mark on the same vase, but he reads it thus : 
" Franc co Brand, Napoli, Gesu Novo." The 
second vase, painted with the Last Supper, M. 
Demmin describes as being inscribed " Paulus Franciscus Brandi, 1684." 
M. Jacquemart, on the other hand, reads it thus : " Paulus Fran cus 
Brandi, Pinx . . 68 ," and puts down the date as 1568. 

The third and most important vase, the 
Miraculous Draught, causes the same difference 
of opinion. M. Demmin gives us a facsimile, 
which we reproduce in the margin. M. Jacque- 
mart exclaims, " Un dernier vase positivement 
date a ete fait par un artiste du meme atelier 
dont voici la signature, ' P. il Sig. Francho, 
Nepita, 1532.' " * 
We must, with this conflicting testimony before us, judge for ourselves, 
and looking at the style of the monograms, which assimilate with those 
of Savona, Venice, and others of the end of the seventeenth century, 
there can be little doubt these vases are of the same date, and clearly not 
of the sixteenth century ; the description given shows the decadence of 
the art. There are four large vases of the same character in Mr. Barker's 
possession, which, although effective enough for the purpose of decora- 
tion, are as works of art below criticism. 

* Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue of South Kensington Museum, p. 631) has been misled by the 
erroneous reading of M. A. Jacquemart of the dates of these three Neapolitan vases, which he 
places a hundred and fifty years earlier than are actually recorded upon them. The vase he 
mentions signed "P. il Sig. Francho Nepita 1532," painted with the Miraculous Draught of 
Fishes, is really 1682. Another subject, The Last Supper, Demmin reads 1684 ; Jacquemart 
reads 1568, and Marryat reads 1654, all, be it remembered, describing the same vase; the third, 
The Sermon on the Mount, is by the same maker, but not dated. The remark, therefore, that we 
have examples of the first half of the sixteenth century to confirm "Antonio Beuter," is not 
borne out by these specimens. 



^S^EfcaSfc 




MAIOIJCA— NAPLES. 



'35 



H. F7 



Naples. These initials frequently occur on 
plates of a maiolica pattern of the eighteenth 
century, which M. Brongniart places as Neapo- 
litan. Mr. Fortnum (sec Catalogue of Maiolica, 
South Kensington Museum, p. 632) says, " Some- 
pieces of the last century, painted with figures, 

landscapes, &c, in very pale colours, and marked at the back with the 
letters H. F. or HF combined, arc of Austrian and not of Italian origin ; " 
but as he gives no reason for the remark, we prefer the attribution of 
M. Brongniart as we now place them. 

Naples. F. Del Vecchio ; stamped on pieces u j \f 

of fayencc in the Etruscan style, on a white and " __ 

gold service of the eighteenth century. J_\j 



Naples. Giustiniani. On vases, chiefly of 
Etruscan pattern ; eighteenth century. 

Naples. Giustiniani in Napoli, On Etrus- 
can patterns, the mark impressed on the ware. 

Naples. This mark is given by Brongniart 
as Neapolitan ; it is on a maiolica plateau in the 
Sevres Museum. 

Naples. This mark is on a fayence jug, 
painted with flowers ; eighteenth century. 



Naples. M. Jacquemart refers all these 
with the enclosed crown to this city ; those with 
the open crown to Bassano. 



Naples. These two marks probably belong 
to the same artist, B. G., whose initials are 
quoted by Jacquemart as belonging to the six- 
teenth century ; but there can, we think, be no 
doubt he has misread the inscriptions, and that 
they are actually of the end of the seventeenth 
century. 




vua/rw 



I *N 




B.C 



] 3 6 MAIOLICA— NAPLES— LODI— MONTE LUPO. 



Naples. On a maiolica plate of the eighteenth 
century, with raised pattern on the border ; sub- 
ject in centre, a landscape, painted in blue. 




UVt C 



Naples. Makers of modern pottery in imita- 
F. 6° G. Colontiese tion of the ancient Etruscan ware like that of 
Naples. Giustiniani. Specimens in the South Kensington 

Museum. 
M. Jacquemart says that when Charles III., King of Naples, estab- 
lished a manufactory of porcelain at Capo di Monte, near Naples, in 
1736, fayence was also occasionally made, and describes a magnificent 
piece, " Une fontainc de Sacristic" modelled with the Dove of the Holy 
Spirit, cherubs issuing from clouds, &c, painted in colours and richly 
gilt, bearing the N crowned and the words " Capo di Monte." 

"Mo 10 ." 



M 



Lsch \f6ii. 






LODI. 

Lodi. A large fayence dish, rudely painted 
with a fish, lemons, apples, &c, bears this 
mark in blue. The Lodi manufactory, estab- 
lished early in the seventeenth century, ceased 
towards the end of the eighteenth century. 
There are some specimens also in the Nevers 
Museum. 

Lodi. These two monograms of A.M. 
occur on separate pieces of Lodi fayence, 
one painted with blue, yellow, and red decora- 
tions ; another with a cottage and peasant. 
One peculiarity of this ware is that there are 
three cockspur marks, each of three points, 
underneath. A piece belonging to M. Os- 
mont of Paris is signed Ferret Lodi ; quoted 
by Jacquemart. 



MONTE LUPO. 

The plates and dishes of coarse heavy earthenware, rudely painted 
with large caricature figures of soldiers and men in curious Italian cos- 
tumes of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in menacing and 
warlike attitudes, striding across the plates, holding swords, spears, and 
other weapons, are usually attributed to Montelupo, near Florence, but 



MAIOLICA— MONTI-: LUPO. 



'.37 



they also produced chocolate brown vases of a more artistic character in 
the style of Avignon. The manufactory is still in existence. 



Monte Lupo, near Florence. The an- 
nexed mark is on a fluted tazza, painted with 
three standing cavaliers. Montferrand Col- 
lection, now in the South Kensington Museum. 
(See Keramic Gallery, fig. 68.) 



Monte Lupo. So attributed by M. 
Jacquemart, but of doubtful attribution. 



RAFAELLo 

GiROLAMO 
JPECiT 

it?? 



h 



T^mn" 



Monte Lupo. This curious inscription 
occurs on a fayence plateau with raised centre, 
painted with a coat of arms, from which 
radiate flutings filled in with grotesques, fleurs- 
de-lis, &c, in yellow, green, and blue. The 
reverse is dated 16th April 1663, Jacinto or 
Diacinto Monti of Montelupo. 



Montelupo. This inscription occurs on 
a tazza of the decadence, painted in colours, 
with figures and foliage of ordinary and hard 
design, in the Sevres Museum. 



^DiltfDlXPft 

DIACINTO 
MONTI Dt 
M.QNJE CYPO 



Dipinta Giovinale 
Tereni da Montelupo. 



Monte Lupo. On a plateau, with raised 
centre and radiated flutings, like the preceding. 
Museum of Art, South Kensington. 



Monte Lupo or Monte Feltro. On 
a maiolica dish of Urbino character, six- 
teenth century ; subject, the Rape of Helen, 
after Raphael. It is in the Hotel de 
Cluny, and it is stated in the Catalogue 
to be the production of Monte Feltro, but 
the reason is not given. 



M 

3-6 27 



$fa% 




*3» 



MAIOLTCA— SAN MINIATELLO— MILAN. 



SAN MINIATELLO, near Florence. 



Sl-PECE- QVESTO P/ATEL .' 
IN-BOTTECHA&l'BECHONE 
DELNANO/N-SAMiN/ATELO 
CHVESTOTZ-nn-AGHOSHNO 
Dl-MO.A.'DI-CiNQE.bl' 
&YGNJO. I5&I . 



This very curious and interesting in- 
scription has been sent by a correspon- 
dent. It occurs on an Italian maiolica 
plate, thus translated : This small plate 
was made in the workshop of Bechone of 
Nano at San Miniatello by Agostino di 
Mo. on the 5th of June 1581. 



JL 



it asrvo 



MILAN. 

Milan. On a set of fayence plates 

Jf I . / with creamy glaze ; subjects, figures, ani- 

y /f/f///j'y]/l mals, and insects. Eighteenth century. In 

the possession of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 

Milan. On a dinner service ; the 
tureen thus marked in red, painted with 
flowers in Oriental style, and coats of 
arms ; the motto " Timidus ut Prudens ; " 
eighteenth centur}' ; and on some pieces in the possession of Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber. {Kcramic Gallery, figs. 79 and 80.) The initials 
are supposed to be those of " Felice Clerice," a name which occurs on 
a piece painted in the Chinese style, dated 1747. 

Milan. On two dishes and four plates, painted 
with Japanese patterns, of fine fayence. Eight- 
eenth century. In the Museum of Sigmaringen. 

Milan. The name of this manufacture 
appears at length on a jardiniere in the Collec- 
tion of M. Gasnault at Paris. 



Milan. This mark occurs on a fayence 
plate, purchased at Milan, from the Duke Litta's 
Collection, indicating Fabrica Pasquale Rubati 
Milano ; in the possession of Sir W. R. Drake. 



Pasquale Rubati 
Mil . 




3. 



Milan. The next mark of the same fab- 
rique is on a fayence plate, painted with Chinese 
flowers, in the Marchese d'Azeglio's Collection. 
Eighteenth century. 



MAIOLTCA— MILAN— TURIN. 139 



o/fjj/k 




Milan. This mark is on a fine plate deco- 
rated with bouquets of flowers, blue and orange 
predominating, in the Bordeaux Museum. 

Milan. From the similarity of style and 
colouring, this signature, hitherto unexplained, ff/^ zi^^J s 

is attributed by Jacquemart to Milan. It occurs m f 7/f /v/> ff /? i/ 
on one piece of a fine service, decorated in lake , ~ > ^ 

colours, like the Dresden gilt borders. 

St. Chrystophe, near Milan, Lombardy. ^ ^> 

Manufacturer, Giulio Richard. On modern 

earthenware services ; also on some early imitations, stamped with 
Wedgwood's name, in the Sevres Museum. This national manufacture 
of pottery is still carried on by Giulio Richard & Co. 

TURIN. 

From the royal archives of Turin, M. le Marquis Campori has ex- 
tracted some notices of the payments of money for maiolica, in which the 
name of Orazio Fontana occurs more than once, and he is styled Chief 
Potter of the Duke of Savoy, and he thinks Orazio was actually in the 
service of Emmanuel Philibert, but which M. Jacquemart observes could 
not be the case, as from the year 1565 he had opened at Urbino a 
fabrique, which he carried on until his death in 1 57 1, and considers it 
an honorary title, showing the great esteem in which he was held by the 
Prince, by placing him above the potters he had called together to inaugu- 
rate the manufacture of maiolica at Turin. However, one fact is clear, 
that Savoy possessed at least one maiolica manufactory in 1564. 

In the Registre du Compte de la Tresoreric Generate we read : " Item, 
two hundred scudi or crowns, of three lire each, paid to Maestro Orazio 
Fontana and to Maestro Antonio of Urbino, the price of certain earthen- 
ware vases brought to his Highness, as appears by his order, given at 
Nice the 6th January 1564." 

"Item, the 15th August, paid to Antonio, potter, of Urbino, twent\- 
crowns, of three lire each, to defray his expenses in accompanying the 
maiolica sent to his Highness in France." 

" Item, 20th August 1564, two hundred crowns, of three lire each, paid 
to the very Reverend Signor Jerome della Rovere, Archbishop of Turin, 
on account of Maestro Orazio of Urbino, chief potter of his Highness, 
for two credences or cabinets of maiolica, which this master has delivered, 
as appears by a mandate given at Turin, the 23rd of April 1564." 

Pungileoni mentions a certain Francesco Guagni who was in the 
Duke's service ; he was a chemist, and endeavoured to discover the 
secret of porcelain at the Court of Savoy about 1577. The earliest speci- 



]40 



MAIOLICA— TURIN. 



mens we have met with is the frutiera mentioned below. It was con- 
tinued through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, although we 
have no particular information as to the names of the potters. In the 
eighteenth it was under royal patronage. 



^Tdtta in 

/Torino qdfl 
1^7 7 




'Torino Q 



Turin. On a fayence fruit dish with 
pierced sides of crossed bars, painted on the 
inside with a boy carrying two birds on a 
pole, marked underneath in blue ; in the Mar- 
quis d'Azeglio's Collection. {Keramic Gallery, 
fig. 76.) 

Turin. On a maiolica plateau, painted in 
blue on white, with horses, birds, and hares. 
Seventeenth century. Mark, a cross on a shield 
crowned, the arms of Turin. In the possession 
of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 

Turin. Maiolica of the eighteenth century ; 
flowers painted in colours on white. This mark 
is on the back of the rim of a large dish in the 
Marchese d'Azeglio's Collection ; in the centre 
at back is a monogram of F.R.T. for Fabrica 
Reale Torino ; all the marks are in blue. 



Turin. On a large maiolica dish of the 
C3Ji/\XAR^GJjl A beginning of the eighteenth century, painted 
.FEvHAVR. ' w * tn Susanna and the Elders, in the Marchese 

d'Azeglio's Collection. 



v" 

DG 







Vineuf (Turin). There was a manufac- 
tory of fayence here, as well as porcelain, under 
the direction of M. D. Gioanetti, established 
about 1750. 

Turin. A mark of a shield, crowned, of 
the end of the seventeenth or commencement of 
the eighteenth century ; quoted by M. Jacque- 
mart. 

Turin. This shield, without a crown, is 
in blue, on the back of a plate, painted with a 
cherub's head ; of the same period. 



MAIOIJCA— TURIN— LAFOREST— FERRARA. 141 

Turin ? This mark is impressed on a pair 
of vases, 21I in. high, of very light and resonant 
ware, with rich maroon-coloured glaze. The 
mark is a shield, with a large T and small b 
above, surmounted by a sort of mural crown. 
In the possession of Mr. Jackson of Hull. 

Laforest, in Savoy. This mark is upon a , , T r . 

J-^dtOV6St 611 
finely painted specimen, quoted by M. Jacque- 

mart, but nothing is known of the manufactory 

beyond this inscription and date. 



FERRARA. 




Savoye 
'75 2 - 



From researches among the Ducal archives the Marquis Giuseppe 
Campori has discovered various allusions to the manufacture of pottery, 
reaching so far back as the end of the fifteenth century, which gives us an 
insight into the history of the maiolica of Ferrara, its patrons and artists. 

It seems that the art was imported into Ferrara by artists from 
Faenza. The first whose name is recorded is Fra Melchoir, Maestro di 
Lavori di Terra, 1495. In 1501 payments were made to Maestro Biagio 
of Faenza (who had a shop in the Castel Nuovo), for various earthenware 
vessels and ornaments. 

Alphonso I. became Duke of Ferrara in 1505, and being fond of 
chemistry, he had discovered the fine white enamel glaze {bianco allattato), 
and in the following year Biagio is mentioned as being in his service. 
From this date until 1522 nothing further is recorded in the archives; 
but from another source we learn that in consequence of his war with 
Pope Julius II., being pressed for money, he deposited, for the purpose 
of raising the required sum, all the jewels of his wife, Lucrezia Borgia, 
as well as his plate, and used earthenware vessels, which were the products 
of his industry. 

In 1522 Antonio of Faenza was appointed potter, at twelve lire per 
month, with food and lodging, and he was succeeded b}' Catto of Faenza 
in 1525, who died in 1528. Some distinguished painters, to whom 
Ferrara owes its reputation, are vaguely mentioned in the archives. In 
1524 a payment of twelve soldi to a painter named Camillo, for painting 
vases for the potter. The brothers Dossi (Battista and Dosso) were 
employed by Duke Alphonso to decorate his palace with pictures and 
frescoes, and they occasionally designed subjects for the potters. In 
1528 two lire were given to Dosso Dossi for two days' work in tracing 
designs, and his brother Battista received one lire for models of handles 
for vases. To them may be attributed the grotesche or arabesques and 
Raffaelesque designs which were painted about this time, with the arms 



i 4 3 MAIOLICA— FERRARA. 

of Gonzaga and Este, for Francis II., Marquis of Mantua, who in 1490 
married Isabella, daughter of Hercules I., Duke of Ferrara, the sister of 
Alphonso, probably made by the before-named Biagio of Faenza. 

We have hitherto only spoken of the fabrique called the Castel Nuovo, 
under the patronage of Alphonso I., but M. Campori adduces another, 
under the protection of Sigismond d'Este, brother of the Duke of Ferrara, 
where, installed in the Palace of Schifanoia, were the potter Biagio 
Biasini of Faenza, from 15 15 to 1524, and three painters, El Frate, 
Grosso, and Zaffarino. 

M. Campori is of opinion that porcelain was invented by some person 
unknown to Ferrara in the time of Alphonso I., and quotes a letter 
addressed to the Duke by his ambassador at Venice, but it only refers 
to an imperfect, over-baked " ecuelle de porcelaine contrefaite " presented 
to him, which, to our view, means only an imitation of real porcelain. 
From 1534 to 1559, during the reign of Hercules II., the son and 
successor of Alphonso, maiolica was little encouraged, and there is only 
one potter named in the archives, Pietro Paolo Stanghi of Faenza. 
Alphonso II. gave a fresh impulse to keramics. The two names most 
frequently met with are those of Camillo of Urbino, and of Battista, his 
brother, both painters on maiolica. M. Campori gives cogent reasons 
that this Camillo was not a member of the Fontana family, as supposed 
by Pungileoni and others; he was accidentally killed in 1567 by the 
bursting of a cannon. In the person of Camillo we have another aspirant 
to the honour of being the inventor of porcelain. Bernardo Canigiani, 
ambassador of the Grand Duke of Florence, writing to his Court, says, 
" Camillo of Urbino, vase-maker and painter, and in some degree 
chemist to his Excellence, is the veritable inventor of porcelain." But 
this (like many similar assertions) only refers to experiments, and no 
pieces of this Ferrara porcelain are known, while those of Florence are 
found in many collections. In 1759 Alphonso II. married Margherita 
di Gonzaga, and it is reasonable to suppose he would employ his own 
potters and artists to complete the maiolica marriage service for his 
household, specimens of which are well known, bearing on a shield his 
emblem, expressive of his devoted attachment — a burning heap of wood, 
and the motto, Ardet Al or Eturnum. There are several pieces of this 
service in the Soulages Collection ; others in the Louvre, &c. 

Ferrara. On a large dish, painted with 
*Th M il tne Triumph of Bacchus, in lake colours, of the 

O^ ~> A t beginning of the eighteenth century. Mont- 

wrrarienjet ferrand Collection, now in the Museum of Art, 
South Kensington. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 6 1 .) 



MAIOLICA— GENOA. 



M3 



GENOA. 



We have scanty information of the early manufacture of maiolica at 
Genoa. It is spoken of by Piccolpasso in 1548 as a great mart for this 
ware, as well as Venice. lie gives us the prices charged and the 
principal patterns, such as foglie or coloured leaves on white ground ■ 
paesi, landscapes ; rabesche, arabesques, &c. Its early productions 
like those of Venice, are confounded with others of the unsigned 
specimens, which are left solely to conjecture. Towards the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century it partakes of the character of the 
Savona ware. 

The mark of Genoa is a beacon, by some erroneously called a light- 
house, from which some object is suspended on a pole, which projects at 
an angle. Swinburne, describing the tower of signals at Barcelona 
(p. 48), observes : " If one ship appears, a 
basket is hung out, if two or more, it is raised 
higher, and if a Spanish man-of-war, they hoist 
a flag." Perhaps the object usually seen on 
the beacon is a sort of basket. 

Genoa. This mark in blue is underneath 
a fayence jug, painted with blue scrolls, leaves, 
and a bird, with double loop handles, of the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, mounted 
in silver. Henderson Collection. The mark 
reduced. Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue South Ken- 
sington Museum) says this mark is intended 
for a trumpet with the banner of Savoy, and is 
Savonese, not Genoese ; but the design is so 
rude, that we confess it looks " very like a whale " or some other fish. 

Genoa. This is on a bottle, painted in 
blue, with birds and ornaments ; in Mr. C. W. 
Reynolds' Collection. This mark is usually 
very large. The beacon itself is still to be 
seen in the harbour of Genoa. (Keramic 
Gallery, fig. 70.) 

Genoa. Maiolica of the middle of the 
eighteenth century. This mark, of a beacon, 
is on a vase in the Bernal Collection. It was 
placed by Brongniart as a mark of the Savona 
manufactory, but some have thought it more 
properly belongs to that of Genoa. 






144 



MAIOLICA— GENOA— SAVONA. 



ft) db 
B-L Cc 




Genoa. These marks, of a crown, with 
signs and initials of the painters beneath, are 
on coarse fayence dishes, with lake designs, 
purchased at Genoa ; in the Collection of the 
Marchese d'Azeglio. Other pieces of the same 
service are in the possession of Dr. Diamond, 
marked with the beacon. 

Genoa. This mark of a fish, here greatly 
reduced in size, is on a bottle, painted in blue 
camaicti with branches and animals, in the pos- 
session of M. Demmin. Another is in the 
Sevres Museum, attributed to Genoa. 

Unknown, but probably Genoa. On an 
Italian maiolica dish of the eighteenth century, 
with border moulded in relief, scrolls, &c, 
painted in blue camaicu with small birds, animals, 
&c. ; in the centre a man on horseback. The 
mark is much reduced. 



SAVONA. 

Albissola. The manufacture of maiolica or fayence was carried on 
at Albissola, a village situate on the sea, near the town of Savon a. This 
place has always possessed fabriques of fayence, the " faience de Savone " 
being well known throughout Italy and France in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. It was a native of Albissola, Domenique Conrade, who introduced 
the art into Nevers. 

In the parish church of Albissola there is a picture, two metres 
high, formed of plaques of fayence joined together, representing in poly- 
chrome the Nativity; it is inscribed " Fatto in Arbissola (sic) del 1576 
per mono di Agostino .... Gerolamo Urbinato lo dipinse" The sur- 
name of the potter is obliterated and the words Morto impenitente sub- 
stituted by the intolerance of the clergy. The painter's name is Girolamo 
of Urbino. 

Savona. The Rev. Thomas Staniforth, of 
Storrs, Windermere, has two specimens with the 
letters G. A. G. and G. S., as in the margin, — 
perhaps the name of the artist, Gian. Antonio 
Guidobono of Castel Nuovo, a maiolica painter 
at Savona in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. His sons, Bartolomeo and Domenico, 
succeeded him. 



1 »>i/» 1 



MAIOLICA— SAVONA. 

Savona. The principal mark seems to be a 
shield of arms of the town. The first is from 
Brongniart ; the second on a vase in the late Mr. 
Uzielli's Collection. 



ew' 45 



S.A.G.S 



Savona. These letters are on a cartouche, 
in the centre of a perforated dish, coarsely 
painted with scrolls in blue, yellow, and brown, 

by Guidobono. Seventeenth century. In the Museum of Art, South 
Kensington. (Kcramic Gallery, fig. 66.) There was another important 
manufactory coeval with these, that of Gian Tomaso Torteroli, but we 
are not acquainted with his mark. 



Savona. On 
white ground. 



a dish with blue figures on a 



JBttC 



Savona. This name occurs on some maiolica AGOSTINO RA.TTT 
of the eighteenth century, in the Chamber of SAVONA. 1720. 
Arts, Berlin. 



Savona. This mark 
bottom of a fayence bottle. 



in blue is on the 



Savona. This mark has the initials of 
Girolamo Salomone, a celebrated artist, who 
flourished in 1650. 

Savona. This mark, called " the knot of 
Solomon," being two triangles placed one upon 
the other, is generally attributed to Salomone of 
Savona. 

Savona. On a dish in M. Edouard Pascal's 
Collection, Paris. 




Savona. On a fayence dish painted with 
sculpture and children, surrounded by arabesques. 
Montferrand Collection, No. 232. 




Savona. This shield is on the back of a 
plate, painted with a hare leaping, in Mr. Willet's 
Collection. 



\S-*tX 




K 



146 



MAIOLICA— SAVONA. 




Savona. A mark given by M. A. Jacque- 
mart, probably that of Girolamo Salomone, with 
the sun placed above his initials ; occasionally the 
sun alone is found as the mark of the factory. See 
below. 

Savona. Another mark, which is also attri- 
buted to Girolamo Salomone, with the sun in its 
splendour above an S. 

Savona. This mark is given by Jacquemart 
as an uncertain mark of Naples, but it is believed 
on good authority, from the quality and decora- 
tion, to belong to Savona ; it is called there the 
" Falcon mark." 

Savona. This is called the " Tower mark," 
and may safely be attributed to Savona, the ware 
on which it occurs being evidently Savonese. On 
a saucer painted with figures. 

Savona. The " Anchor mark " occurs on 
a plate painted in brown, with a cottage and 
small Callot sort of figures. 

Savona. On a blue and white circular dish 
of Italian maiolica, with a raised pattern of shells 
on the border ; three figures in the centre, of 
warriors, round these are six small compartments, 
with landscapes, figures, and animals ; diameter 
2i| in. The mark in blue much reduced. Rev. 
J. Sadler Gale, Bristol. 

Savona. On a large plate, painted in blue, 
with a faun, woman, and cupids ; in the pos- 
session of Dr. Belliol of Paris. 

Savona ? or perhaps Turin. The name 
]\ /F> 1 1 ' T j. occurs on a cylindrical maiolica jar, painted on 

±VT_> oYK-eiL I lnuGTLt one s i^ e w j t h a nava i engagement, one of the 

T> A(* ships on fire, and numerous boats and figures, 

J.UI/X. iO { o • yellow and blue colours predominating; signed 

at the right-hand corner. The name is repeated 

in large letters at the back : " Primum Opus M. Borrelli Mense Julij 

1735." In the possession of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 



F 





MAIOLICA— SAVONA— ESTE— ROMK. 147 

Savona. The initials N. G. surmounted by 
a coronet. On a dish in M. Edouard Pascal's 
Collection, Paris. 

JV?G. 

Savona. Jacques Borrelly of Marseilles 
appears to have emigrated to Savona ; other /**"* Vorelly Savonne, 

. . . • , , . t 1. • 1 1779, 24 Septembre. 

specimens are signed with his name Italianised, 

as Giacomo Borelly. This inscription is on a large vase decorated in 

green camaicu. 



Savona. This mark, in black, with the s 
well formed, leads us to infer that the name 
was Boselli and not Borelli. It is on a seau 
painted with arms, and Baron Davillier has 



rujyftfiftfk 



some other pieces with the name so spelt, as well as a plateau of 
Marseille fayence signed Boselli. 




Savona. This mark, in blue, is on a 
fayence jug, mounted with silver, painted with 
blue camaiett birds and scrolls, similar to the 
preceding. It appears in this instance to 
represent a trumpet with a short flag, not a 

beacon, and having a cross upon it. Dr. Diamond, the owner of the 
piece, refers it rather to Savona than Genoa. 

Este, a town between Padua and Ferrara. T ^ r ^ r ^„ 

Little is known of the fayence manufactories 
of Este and Modena, and their productions are 

rare. This mark is impressed on a fayence boat-shaped ewer and basin, 
shell pattern, with rococo scrolls and ornaments in relief, of cream- 
coloured ware, circa 1770, in Lady C. Schreiber's Collection. 



ROME. 

There is no authentic account of maiolica being made at Rome until 
the year 1600, of which year we find the two pharmacy vases described 
below. The style is of the Urbino grotesque decoration of the Fon- 
tana fabrique. These are quoted by Mr. Fortnum, and Delange speaks 
of others with similar marks, which are probably the same, although 
there is a slight difference in the inscriptions on his " deux grands 
plats." There was a fabrique of white glazed earthenware estab- 



j 4 8 



MAIOLICA— ROME— LORETO. 






lished by a famous engraver, 
Giovanni Volpato of Venice, 
in 1790, and a large sum of 
money was expended, there be- 
ing at one time no less than 
twenty experienced artists em- 
ployed in modelling the ware. 
They could not, however, com- 
pete with other wares made in 
England and France. He died 
in 1803, and the fabrique was 
carried on for a short time by 
his son Giuseppe ; at his death, 
a few years after, his widow 
married Francesco Tinucci, the 
chief modeller, who conducted 
the business until 18 18 ; it was 
discontinued in 1831. The 
early pieces bear the name of 
G. Volpato Roma, impressed 
in the clay. These two marks 
are on the front of a pair 
of vases, with snake handles, 
painted with grotesques on a 
white ground, in Mr. Fortnum's 
Collection. 

This mark is on a large 
circular dish in the possession 
of Mrs. Lockwood, long resi- 
dent in Rome, the central me- 
dallion subject is the Tempta- 
tion of Adam by Eve, and is 
surrounded by a border of 
grotesques in the Urbino style 
on white ground. 



LORETO. 

In the Santa Casa at Loreto are still preserved upwards of 300 
maiolica vases, mostly with covers, painted with designs from Raffaelle, 
Giulio Romano, Michael Angelo, and others. They were made by order 
of Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino : they represent scenes from the Old 
and New Testaments, Roman History, the Metamorphoses of Ovid, 
&c. They are not, as commonly said, by Raphael, but by Raffaelle 



MAIOLICA— LORETO. 149 

Ciarla, a clever copyist on fayence of the works of the great masters. 
(Valery, vol. ii.) All these, which are arranged in two large rooms, 
came from the " Spezieria," or Medical Dispensary, attached to the 
Palace at Urbino. 

The last Duke of Urbino, Francesco Maria II., in his dotage, had 
abdicated his duchy in favour of the Holy See, and dying in 1631, his 
heir, Ferdinand de Medicis, removed the more ornamental pieces of 
maiolica to Plorence. The vases from the Spezieria he presented to the 
shrine of Our Lady of Loreto, called the Santa Casa. This splendid 
collection of maiolica did not consist alone of vases for containing drugs, 
and it became the envy of more than one crowned head ; the Grand 
Duke of Florence proposed to give in exchange for them silver vases 
of equal weight ; Queen Christina was heard to say, that of all the 
treasures of Santa Casa, she esteemed them the most ; and Louis XIV. 
is said to have offered for the four Evangelists and the Apostle Paul 
the same number of statuettes in solid gold. 

Loreto. "Con polvere di Santo Casa." /-q N .oqt ny-SCAS A 
(With the dust of the holy house.) This inscrip- 
tion is found upon small maiolica cups or bowls, beneath a representation 
of the Lady of Loreto and Infant Saviour, with a view of the sanctuary. 
These cups were made of clay, mixed with the dust shaken from the 
dress of the Virgin and walls of the sanctuary, and in this form pre- 
served by the faithful. {Keramic Gallery, figs. 71 and 72.) Occasionally 
some of the holy water from the shrine was sprinkled on the dust, 
thereby to impart a still greater sanctity. A cup in Mr. Fortnum's 
Collection is inscribed "Con pol et aqua di S. Casa" (With dust and 
water of the holy house). Sig. Raffaelle thinks they were made at Castel 
Durante for the establishment at Loreto. The seal of the convent was 
placed underneath in red wax.* 

* Sometimes these cups are painted only with the Virgin and Child and the Santa Casa, the 
inscription being omitted, but they are soon recognised by their peculiar type. 

The labour of conveying the stones of which the Santa Casa was built to Loreto and its 
construction was believed to have been due to supernatural aid, and that angels, not mortals, were 
ihe masons engaged in the work. Pilgrims flocked from distant parts to visit the shrine of our 
Lady of Loreto, and to that reverence for it was due the presentation of the vases of the 
Spezieria. 



150 MAIOLICA— CASTELLO. 



^grafltati or Jnctect) Mare. 

CITTA DI CASTELLO, PAVIA, LA FRATTA, &c. 

Earthenware, with stanniferous enamel, sgrajfiato ware, — plates, 
vases, &c, graved and decorated on cngobc ; that is, the object before 
being glazed is entirely covered with a second coating of slip or engobe, 
on which is graved the ornament or design, after it has merely been 
dried by the air, leaving the first coating of enamel in champ /eve, after- 
wards baked. The sgrajfiati of Citta di Castello are generally enamelled 
in yellow, green, and brown. There are three specimens in the Musee 
de Cluny. In the Louvre is a large cup ornamented in relief, on a 
triangular foot formed by three lions and two figures, graved at the 
bottom. In the South Kensington Museum is a plateau of brown 
glazed earthenware, with a shield of arms in relief in the centre, encircled 
with scroll foliage ; of the seventeenth century. A plateau in the 
British Museum, of incised pattern, with figures in costume of the end 
of the fifteenth century : a man holding a shield and a woman playing on 
a viol, near her a shield with armorial bearings ; from the Bernal Col- 
lection ; £4%, 2s. A plateau in the South Kensington Museum, incised 
pattern of an amorino with griffins, within a rich arabesque border ; 
on the reverse a stag ; from the Bernal Collection ; £\0. Another 
plateau in the South Kensington Museum has an incised group of a 
lady and two cavaliers in costume of the fifteenth century, and festoons 
of leaves ; £40, 10s. A large bowl, also in the South Kensington 
Museum, of this sgrajfiato ware, is supported by three seated lions ; and 
an inkstand, in Earl Spencer's Collection, is supported by three winged 
lions. A sgrajfiato ware plate, with arabesques, and in the centre an 
escutcheon of arms of the city of Perugia, circa 1530, is in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

Citta di Castello. A plateau on a low 
foot of sgrajfiato ware of quadrate interlaced 
ornament and mouldings, in cream colour on 
buff ground : in the centre a horse's head in 
purple colour ; reverse plain with P. G. incised 
in the clay; about 1520-40. This is the only 
instance we know of a mark occurring on this ware of a maker ; the in- 
cision is in places filled in with the cngobc, showing it is contemporary 
with the manufacture. In the South Kensington Museum. 




MAIOLTCA— PA VI A— UNCERTAIN MARKS. [51 

Pavia. This inscription is found on a 

r PRESBYTER ANTONIUS 

peculiar sort of earthenware, of a brown glaze, MARIA cutius PAPIENSIS 
decorated on both sides with leaves, scrolls, &c, prothonotarius 

slightly raised, on a hatched ground ; the letters IPOSTOLICVS fecit 

are incuse Roman capitals; in addition, these anno dominic* 1695. 

PAPIJE iuOy 

pieces have usually mottoes and emblems. 

One in the author's possession had a pear in the centre, and the motto 
" Fractos reficiens, non reficiar fractus ; " this was dated 1693. One in 
the South Kensington Museum, with the portrait of an ecclesiastic, has 
the motto " Timete Dominum " and " Libera me Domine ab homine malo 
et a lingua injusta." Another, in the Dellesette Collection, had " Sola- 
mente e Ingannato chi troppo si Fida, 1695." Another, in the South 
Kensington Museum, has in the centre the portrait of an ecclesiastic, 
surrounded by a similar inscription, but dated 1694. These are probably 
the work of an amateur, Presbyter Antonius Maria Cutius of Pavia, who 
appears to have executed numerous examples. All the large pieces 
have inscriptions, which include his name. 

An inferior description of ware is still made at La Fratta : a modern 
basket-shaped pot, with bucket handle, in red glazed earthenware, 
recently made, is in the South Kensington Museum. 

UNCERTAIN MARKS. 

M. le Marquis dAzeglio possesses a fine covered vase with handles 
and foot, the subjects painted on it being historically interesting. On a 
medallion in front is a Pope censing the Holy Virgin ; above and below 
are written the following legends : " Clemens XL Virg. sine labe con- 
cepts FESTUM CELEBRANDUM EDICIT." " NEC SOLIS INSTAR SOLA REGNAT 

illustratque ; " on the reverse a man is pouring oil upon a flaming 
altar, and this inscription, " Clemens XL poxtifex creatur — olem super 
lapidem rectum." This piece is therefore commemorative of the fete of 
the Immaculate Conception founded by Pope Clement Albano, 1709-21. 

Italy. This name is impressed on a fayence 
plate of the end of the eighteenth century, printed CARLO ALDROYAXDI. 
with a flying figure, inscribed beneath " Gani- 
mede." 



-S6~-76 
Of 



Italy. On the front of a plate ; subject, St. 
Peter upon the water, and four Apostles in a ^* m fH Qj 

boat. Campana Collection, Louvre. 

Italy. On a plate painted with a shield of 
arms, blue outlines and yellow metallic lustre. 
M. A. Darcel classes it with the Italo-Moresques. 
Louvre. 



& 



I ^2 



MAIOLICA— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 



Italy or Spain. This curious mark is on 
the back of a metallic lustre dish, 12^ in. 
diameter, border of scales and flowers in blue 
and yellow; I.H.S. in the centre. 

Italy. This mark, of an uncertain manu- 
factory of the middle of the sixteenth century, is 
given by M. A. Jacquemart ; it occurs on the 
back of a portable spice-box of rectangular form 
with a handle at the back : on each side of the 
handle is this ducal coronet, traversed by two 
palm branches and one of laurel, probably belonging to the Grand Duke 
of Tuscany, Cosmo de Medicis, created 1569; it is decorated simply in 
pale blue and yellow. The piece is made for two burettes, olio and 
aceto, with four receptacles for zucher, sales, pepe, and spezio — oil, 
vinegar, sugar, salt, pepper, and spices. 



Italy. This uncertain mark is on the re- 
verse of a plate in Mr. Falcke's Collection. 




1— / 



61S 



^A 



Italy. On a fine maiolica plate of Urbino 
character ; subject, Alexander at the Tomb of 
Achilles. Melton Collection. 



IE* 



Italy. On a maiolica bowl, painted with 
arabesques of the seventeenth century, in the 
Sevres Museum. 




Italy. This large asterisk or star is fre- 
quently met with on maiolica plates of the six- 
teenth century. 

Italy. On a small sunk-centre plate ; 
painted with arms, and boys playing upon the 
bagpipes, vases, fruit, &c, on deep blue, 
useum of Art, South Kensington. 

Uncertain. Fortnum Catalogue of the South 
Kensington Museum Maiolica, p. 649. 



MAIOLICA— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 153 

Uncertain. Given by Mr. Fortnum, Cata- japrico. $\ 

logue, p. 652, without description or reference. T) • 



:m 



Uncertain. Given by Mr. Fortnum, Cata- 
logue, p. 651, without any description or refer- 
ence, dated 1540, with initials, probably those of 
the potter. 

Uncertain. Given by Mr. Fortnum, Cata- 
logue, p. 651, without description or reference. 



1f4o 

TJE, 

my 



Uncertain. These marks are found on an 
Italian maiolica plateau, dated 1547, with the 
potter's initials ; the word refers to the subject £ C ^ Q f\J £~ 
painted upon it. From Fortnum's Catalogue of 
the South Kensington Museum, p. 65 1 ; without 
description or reference. 



BE 
MBB 

G>L*p 

A cup on a foot with fruit in relief. J^, /S^ 4/760 

Covered vases with ovolos in relief and 
twisted handles, polychrome decoration with ~F 7J*» 

rococo medallions and garlands of flowers. 

Dishes and plates. Milan style, chrysan- 
themum pattern. Services of the same origin, P ' C~ p 
famille rose stvle. 



These initials and monogram of an un- 
known locality are on a plateau, apparently of 
the commencement of the seventeenth century, 
of Italian manufacture and decoration. 

These initials are on a large plate in the * 
British Museum, painted in dull blue camaieu 
with the decollation of St. John. It may per- 
haps be attributed to Urbino, a work of the 
later period. 



Plate of fine fayence decoration in blue, 
yellow, and pale green. Qf 



A vase and cover, having floreated stalks 
in relief in natural colours. 



fytti 



154 MAJOLICA— UNCERTAIN MARKS— SPAIN. 

_ Large gourds, citron, yellow ground, with 

■l* \J » aj. floreated branches in relief in natural colours. 




L 



.A-D-.P- AC 



Pieces with reliefs, polychrome decoration, 
in which a brilliant green and red prevail. 
The colours and style indicate an Italian 
fabrique. 

On a fountain decorated on the interior 
with bouquets, Moustiers style, and fishes 
swimming at the bottom ; outside arabesque 
in polychrome. 



arms. 



Tp rL Vases for drugs, blue ground with ara- 

t-x-tQ besques and brown trophies, medallions of 

-P-R-/VP 

3 



DA 



A service of fine fayence, decorated in 
violet camaicu with bouquets, birds, and insects. 

A cabaret of rocaille form with reliefs ; 
decoration of bouquets of tulips in blue heigh- 
tened with gold. 

Cache-pots with mask handles, decorated 
in blue with ornaments and bouquets. 

SPAIN. 



The early pottery made in Spain has been usually termed Hispano- 
Arabic, and it was not until 1844 that M. Riocreux, the Conservator of 
the Musee Ceramique de Sevres, distinguished this particular class of 
maiolica from that of Italy, with which it had previously been confounded ; 
since then it has been considered that the term Hispano-Moresco would 
more correctly designate the epoch of its manufacture. The Moorish 
style is of course derived from the Arabic, but they are distinct, and 
it is desirable and important not to confound them. The Mosque of 
Cordova, built in the eighth century by the Arabs, is an example of the one; 
the Alhambra of Grenada, built in the thirteenth century, of the other. 
The Spanish pottery of which we are about to speak cannot, therefore, 
be attributed to an earlier period than the end of the thirteenth or be- 
ginning of the fourteenth century. 

It is the case with Hispano-Moorish pottery, as with many other 
industrial arts, that for ages their very existence and their localities 
were entirely unknown ; thus the enamels of Limoges were scarcely 
known during the last century ; fifty years ago the now famous Henri II. 






MAIOLTCA— HISPANO-MORESQUE. 



'55 






ware was not generally known to exist, and the Medici porcelain of 
Florence of the sixteenth century was only identified in 1859 ; the history 
of the pottery of Persia is still involved in obscurity. 

The Arabic pottery, therefore, is of much earlier date than the 
Moorish, and from numerous specimens, dating previous even to the 
eighth century, it is evident that a plumbo-stanniferous enamel was in 
existence and in general use down to the " azulcjos " of the Alhambra 
in the thirteenth century ; hence the stanniferous enamel, which is gene- 
rally supposed to have been invented by Luca della Robbia, was only a 
revival, made applicable by him to the purposes of architectural orna- 
ments and statues. (Kcramic Gallery, figs. 85-87.) 

The tiles {azulcjos) at the Alhambra are the oldest and most interest- 
ing existing in Spain, for the great variety of design, colour, and the 
delicacy with which they are inlaid ; they are very generally used in Spain 
for dados and wainscotings and in different modifications of architecture. 

The Hispano-Moresque pottery is common, and, in point of art, not 
to be compared with the Italian, being only an imitation. The ornaments 
usually consist of Moorish designs, arms and fantastic animals, fre- 
quently of an heraldic character, painted in brilliant metallic lustres of 
gold or yellow and copper colour. {Kcramic Gallery, fig. 89.) 

Little has hitherto been written on the subject, and we are indebted 
to the Baron J. C. Davillier for an interesting essa}', entitled Histoire des 
Faiences Hispano-Morcsqncs a Reflets Mctalliqucs, Paris, 1861, from which 
pamphlet many of the particulars here noticed are extracted. 

Hispano-Moresque. A very fine vase in 
the Henderson Collection (British Museum) 
bears this mark of a cross within a circle. In 
the quarters are the abbreviations which may be 
thus interpreted, " Illustrissimo Signore Cardinal 
D'Este. In Urbe Romano," being part of a 
service painted for the Cardinal. 

Hispano-Moresque. These marks are on 
the backs of two small plates with sunk centres, 
painted in the centre with shields of arms, 
bearing a crowned eagle with open wings, in 
blue, the rest of the surface diapered with 
leaves and interlaced tendrils of golden lustre. 
In Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum's Collection. 




Hispano-Moorish plate in the Campana 
Collection. Fifteenth century. 



T) 




156 MATOLTCA-MALAGA— MAJORCA. 

Hispano-Moorish dish, covered with red- 
dish gold lustre arabesques, circa 1480. In 
the centre is the annexed curious mark. In 
the possession of Mr. Amhurst T. Amhurst. 

Malaga. In the account of the travels of Ibn Batoutah, who visited 
Grenada about 1350 (translated by Defremery, Paris, 1858), we read, 
" On fabrique a Malaga la belle poterie ou porcelaine doree que Ton 
exporte dans les contrees les plus eloignees." This traveller speaks of 
Grenada itself, but says nothing of any manufacture of pottery there, 
and we may therefore take it for granted that Malaga was the grand 
centre of the fabrication in the kingdom of Grenada. It is therefore 
probable that the celebrated and well-known vase of the Alhambra, the 
finest specimen of Moorish fayence known, as well as the most ancient, 
was made here. The history of this vase is worthy of note. We learn 
from the Promenades dans Grenada, by Dr. Echeverria, that three vases 
full of treasure were discovered in a garden at Adarves, which was 
put in order and tastefully laid out by the Marquis de Mondejar in the 
sixteenth century, with the gold contained in the vases, and to perpetuate 
the remembrance of this treasure- trove they were arranged in the garden ; 
but the vases, being exposed to public view unprotected, sustained con- 
siderable injury by being rubbed and handled, and eventually one got 
broken, and every traveller who visited the garden took a piece as a 
souvenir, until all of it was gone. In 1785 two were yet preserved 
intact, but about the year 1820 another disappeared altogether, and of 
the three only one is now extant ; it measures 4 ft. 7 in. in height. The 
colours of the decoration are a pure blue enamel, surrounded or heightened 
with a gold lustre on white ground. In the Musee de Cluny there are 
two other specimens, as well as the vase in the Soulages Collection. 
{Keramic Gallery, fig. 84.) 

Majorca, one of the Balearic Isles in the Mediterranean, near the 
east coast of Spain, was, after Malaga, one of the most ancient places in 
Spain where pottery was made ; indeed it is well known that the term 
maiolica is derived, or rather corrupted, from the name of this place. In the 
sixteenth century it was termed maiorica, and subsequently maiolica, and 
was used in Italy to designate fayence in general. M. Davillier refers its 
antiquity in the ceramic art to the first half of the fifteenth century, and 
quotes several ancient authors who have spoken of the island and its com- 
merce with Italy and other countries in lustred pottery. The expression 
"Maiolica allaCastellana/'used byPiccolpasso and Passed, did notevidently 
apply to the Castilian maiolica made in Spain, as some have conjectured, but 
to that made at Castelli, in the kingdom of Naples, situated twelve miles' dis- 
tance from Teramo (Abruzzo Ultra), the Atrium of the Romans, and is 
mentioned by Pliny as celebrated at that time for its vases of pottery. 






MAIOLICA— VALENCIA— M ANISES. 1.57 

Valencia. Saguntum (now Murviedro), near Valencia, was noted in 
the time of the Romans for its manufacture of jasper red pottery, and 
is described by Pliny. It is impossible to trace the origin of the lustred 
pottery of Valencia, but it was probably about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, and it became the most important in Spain. 

Lucio Marineo Siculo in 15 17 {Memorable Things of Spain) says: 
" In Spain, earthenware vessels are made of various forms, and although 
they are excellent in many parts of Spain, the most appreciated are those 
of Valencia, which are very well worked and well gilt, and at Murcia 
much excellent pottery is made of the same kind, and at Morviedro and 
Toledo much is made, which is very thick, with white, green, and yellow, 
with gilding, and is employed for daily use ; the kind most esteemed 
is glazed with white." 

The Senate of Venice issued a decree in 1455 that no earthenware 
works of any kind should be introduced into the dominions of the 
Seigniory, either within or without the Gulf of the Adriatic ; but an 
exception was especially made in favour of the crucibles {correzolt) 
and the maiolica of Valencia, which it was declared might be freely 
introduced. {Drake's Notes on Venetian Ceramics.) There is a large bowl 
and cover in the South Kensington Museum, painted with scroll diaper 
in gold lustre and blue, the cover surmounted by a cupola-shaped orna- 
ment in gold lustre, probably of Valencia manufacture ; cost £§0. 

Valencia has from time immemorial been celebrated for its azulcjos 
or enamelled tiles. There are many houses of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries still existing in the ancient cities of Spain, the rooms being 
lined up to about 5 or 6 feet with tiles in borders and patterns of elegant 
geometrical designs and scrolls; the celebrity of this manufacture is 
maintained even to the present day. In the Chapter House of the 
Cathedral at Zaragoza is an elegant example of flooring, the tiles 
averaging about 8 inches square, decorated with scrolls and medallions 
of landscapes and flowers : it is inscribed " Real s Fabricas de D a Maria 
Salvadora Disdier, Brit P Ano 1808." In 1788 Gournay mentions three 
fabriques of tiles at Valencia ; Disdier, Cola, and Casanova. In the 
Sevres Museum is a still later example, with landscapes and figures, 
with this inscription : " De la Real Fabrica de Azulejos de Valencia Ano 
1836." Fayence of every description was extensively made in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Manises. At a later period an English traveller named Talbot 
Dillon {Travels through Spain, London, 1780) says : "About two leagues 
from Valencia is a pretty village called Manises, composed of four 
streets. The inhabitants are mostly potters, making a fine fayence of 
copper colour, ornamented with gilding. The people of the country 
employ it both for ornament and domestic use." 




158 MAIOLICA— MANISES— TALAVERA. 

Manises. On a Spanish maiolica dish, ornamented with 
rich copper lustre approaching to ruby, in Oriental patterns 
on drab ground. In the centre a hand and date, here much 
reduced in size ; on the back M° in large lustre letters and 
i\Qs\ annulets round. Formerly in Mr. Reynold's Collection. 
I A/ l The same mark, M° on the back and 161 1 in front, is on a 
I " 1 similar plate. 

This important manufactory was in existence before the sixteenth 
century. The lustred ware made there was held in great request by the 
Pope, cardinals, and princes. It has continued, although in a state of 
dilapidation and decay, until the present day, and is characterised in the 
latter times by the copper red tones of the lustres. 

Talavera la Reyna, near Toledo, was celebrated for fayence in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; in fact, the word Talavera was 
used to express all fayence, in the same manner as fayence in France and 
delft in England. 

Baretti, writing in 1760, says, "Talavera is a populous place, and of 
much business ; besides the silk there are several other manufactories ; 
one in particular of earthenware is much esteemed throughout the country, 
and gives employment to some hundreds of people." 

The fabrication of fayence at Talavera prospered down to the end of 
the last century ; it is now fallen completely into decay, and only pro- 
duces common earthenware. M. Charles Casati has written a Note stir 
les Faiences de Talavera la Reyna, but which adds little to our previous 
scanty knowledge ; he states that he has met with a description of fayence 
in the vicinity of a different character to any other, the distinctive char- 
acter being the light green tinge of the glaze ; the designs are in bold 
outline, slightly coloured, bearing a certain analogy with the wares of 
Genoa and Savona, but less artistic. He also speaks of a ware similar 
to Delft which was produced here. 

Talavera was one of the most important manufactories of pottery in 
Spain. In a MS. history of this place, dated 1560, quoted by M. Riano, 
mention is made of " white, green, blue, and other coloured Talavera 
ware. In a report drawn up by order of Philip II. in 1576 it is stated that 
Talavera produced fine white glazed earthenware, tiles, and other pottery, 
which supplied the country, part of Portugal, and India." In another 
MS. history of the year 1648, there are numerous details of the Talavera 
pottery, which " is as good as that of Pisa, and that a large number of 
azulejos were also made to adorn the fronts of altars, churches, gardens, 
alcoves, saloons, and bowers, and large and small specimens of all sorts. 
Two hundred workmen worked at eight different kilns ; four other kilns 
were kept to make common earthenware. Red porous clay vases and 
drinking-cups were baked in two other kilns in a thousand different 



MATOLICA— TOLEDO— SEVILLE. 159 

shapes, in imitation of birds and animals, and brinquiftos for the use of 
ladies, so deliciously flavoured, that after drinking the water they con- 
tained, they eat the cup in which it was brought them." Madame 
D'Aulnois in her Voyage (VEspagne mentions the custom of ladies eating 
this fine porous clay. In another MS. history written about the same 
time it is said they made there "perfect imitations of Oriental china, and 
that this pottery was used all over Spain, and sent to India, France, Italy, 
Flanders, and other countries, and was esteemed everywhere for the per- 
fection of the colouring and brilliancy of the glaze." 

A specimen of the Talavera fayence of the latter half of the eighteenth 
century is in the Sevres Museum. It is a plate well painted, with four 
subjects emblematical of the four divisions of the day ; inscribed Mane. 
Meridies.Vespera. Nox. ; and in the centre "Soi de JuanaZamoreA. 1786." 

Toledo. In a MS. of 1648 the red earthen pottery {bucaros) of 
Toledo is spoken of. In Larruga's Memorias Economicas, written in 
1787, he says that the manufacture of pottery continued in a brilliant 
state until 1720 ; that in 173 1 they obtained certain privileges, and re- 
gained the importance they had partially lost, but at the end of the 
century the pottery made there was very inferior. M. Riano quotes a 
letter dated 1422 from Saragossa by Donna Juana de Aragon to the 
Abbess of St. Domingo el Real de Toledo in which she gives orders for 
" yellow, black, white, and green tiles, which were made at Toledo," and 
mention is made also of painted tiles made there. Marineo Siculo in his 
Memorable Things of Spain devotes a chapter to the pottery of Toledo 
made there in the sixteenth century. In the South Kensington Museum 
is the brim of a well of Toledo pottery, with a bold cufic inscription 
in green on white ground, one of the most ancient specimens existing 
of this ware. 

Alcoy, in Valencia, fabricated great quantities of fayence. Laborde 
says the ware was transported into Catalonia, Aragon, Murcia, and 
Castile ; he adds, the inhabitants of Madrid purchase large quantities, 
probably for domestic purposes. We do not know its characteristics. 

Onda, in Valencia, produced fayence for local use. 

Seville, in Andalusia, is cited by Laborde as possessing an important 
manufactory of fayence and long established. M. Jacquemart says he 
has met with ware which bears a great analogy with that of Savona, 
the predominating colours being orange and brown, in figures of good 
style, ruins and garlands of flowers. The mark of an S surmounting a 
star of five points, which has been attributed to Salomone of Savona, or 
one very similar, he thinks belongs to Seville. Some pieces of this 
character, in the possession of M. Arosa, are painted with figures dancing 
the fandango, some bulls being led to the arena, and with the arms of 
the Cathedral of Seville and a view of the Tour de l'Or. 



i6o 



MAIOLICA— SEVILLE— ALCORA. 





& 



Seville. The Cartuja manufactory, M. Fran- 
cesco de Aponte and Pickman & Co. Of 
recent manufacture, with a view of the Tour de 
l'Or and a lion, enclosed within a garter. On 
a specimen in the possession of the Rev. H. 
Harper Crewe. 

Seville. Two marks of 
Pickman & Co. On separate 
pieces, made early in the pre- 
sent centuty From the collec- 
tion of the Rev. Harper Crewe. 

This mark at the bottom of a cup painted with 
Spanisharms; ontheinsideof the saucer, date 1728. 
In the possession of the Rev. H. Harper Crewe. 

Alcora. There were some important pieces of fayence made at the 
Comte d'Aranda's manufactory (principally, perhaps, for presents) in 
the eighteenth century. Mr. Reynolds recently obtained from a palace 
in Spain twenty-four fayence plaques, with frames of rococo scrolls and 
masks in relief, the medallions and frames in one piece, some of large 
size. The paintings are very much in the style of Castelli, of mytho- 
logical subjects, the Seasons, and Spanish costumes ; one is inscribed, 
" Arquebuceros de Grassin. Infanteria." Another has on the back the 
word Peris, probably the name of a painter. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 94.) 
These are now dispersed. 

Alcora. " Fabrica de Aranda." This mark 
is on a lofty fayence fountain and cover, white 
glaze with a circular medallion on each side of 
ruins, painted in colours, and delicate scroll bor- 
ders, the top in form of an animal's head. 

This mark is on a pair of earthenware plaques 
RA with embossed frames of the time of Louis XV., 

In 




FABRICA REAL DE ALCOR 



painted in blue, with cupids after Boucher, 
the Baron C. Davillier's Collection. 

Alcora. A Spanish fayence cup, painted with 
forget-me-nots, inscribed " dominico soy de el 
pf t r mariano rais," may be referred to this place. 
In black, under a jug of Alcora fayence with 
a portrait, about 1750, and the inscription on a 
banderolle, " Soy de la Yll e (ilustre) S ra D? Fer- 
nanda Condesa de Croix j'appartiens a l'illustre Senora Dona Fernanda, 
Countesse de Croix." Baron C. Davillier's Collection. 



ano 1735. 



A 

J\T- 






MAIOLICA— VALLADOLID— BARCELONA. 161 

A very fine fayence cup, representing the family < _, 

of Darius before Alexander, after Le Brun, is thus A LCORA ESPANA 

. bohva. 

marked underneath. This painter's name is also 

found on Moustier ware. In the possession of M. Ie Baron C. 
Davillier. 

Triana, near Seville. There were several fabriques here — one for the 
manufacture of the spires or ornaments of earthenware with which the 
edifices were crowned ; another for azulejos or tiles, so much in use 
in Spain for walls and floors ; and others for fayence. There is a very 
curious figure, in the costume of the eighteenth century, of a lady en 
grande tenuc, forming a bottle ; at the back is an inscription in Spanish ; 
an authenticated specimen of Triana fayence. {Kcramic Gallery, fig. 92.) 

Valladolid (Prov. of Leon). A correspondent in Notes and Queries 
(4th S. iv., Nov. 13, 1869) states that he has a Madonna in pottery, 
part of a presepio. It is very artistically moulded, drapery coloured 
and gilt, mantle fastened with a crystal. Inside, on the rim, is the 
word Vega. He bought it at Seville as having been made at Valladolid, 
where man}' years ago a fabrique of pottery and porcelain existed. 

The word Vega refers to the person for whom it was made. A name 
somewhat similar, M. S., Dega, occurs on a tazza which M. Jacquemart 
refers to Candiana. 



Sargadelos. The Royal Manufactory of 
MM. De la Riva & Co., on ware of modern 
manufacture, in the possession of Rev. H. 
Harper Crewe. 




%A^ $ 







Villa Felice, in Aragon. Laborde notices the fact of a manu- 
factory of fayence whose products were well known in the vicinity. 

Buen Retiro (Madrid). Established by 
Charles III. in I/69, but principally for the 
manufacture of porcelain. The mark is two 
C's under a crown, and must not be confounded 
with that of Niderviller, which consists of the 
same letters under a Count's coronet. 

Barcelona (Prov. of Catalonia). The Corporation of Potters existed in 
the thirteenth century. In 1 3 14 a regulation was passed on the mark 
and stamp with which the masters were to seal their pieces, and the quality 
and other conditions which were to belong to them. From that time 
until the seventeenth century many other regulations have reached us 

L 



i6i 



MAIOLICA— SEGOVIA— PORTUGAL. 



relating to this corporation. Excellent lustred pottery was made at the 
end of the sixteenth century. 

Pottery was made at Murcia, Morviedro, Zamora, Denia, Sara- 
gossa, Gerona, and many other towns of Spain. At Biar (Valencia) 
alone there existed fourteen manufactories of earthenware in the sixteenth 
century. 

At Andujar, Ximenes Paton, writing in 1628, says, "The white 
unglazed earthenware of the towns of Andujar and Jaen are very remark- 
able for the curious manner in which they imitate different figures of 
animals, such as porcupines, fish, syrens, tortoises, &c." These models 
are continued at the present day. 



Segovia. The annexed mark of an ancient 
Roman building existing in this place is found on 
Spanish pottery, but is probably of recent date. 
It is stamped in the paste on a white leaf-shaped 
plate belonging to Sig a Dona Emilia Riano, of 
Madrid. 




PORTUGAL. 

Portugal. We have hitherto known but little of the fayence of 
Portugal, but the travels of M. Natalis Rondot and the Paris Exposition 
of 1867 have thrown some light upon the subject. There is no doubt 
that from the fifteenth or sixteenth century to the present time it has 
been extensively made, both in vessels for domestic use and in azulejos 
for the decoration of palaces and private houses. 

Of the more modern period we know of many examples. In the 
hotel of the Comte d'Almada au Raio are some azulejos commemorating 
the principal events of the revolution of 1640, which separated Portugal 
from Spain, battles, processions, &c. 

The Church of St. Mamede at Evora is decorated with arabesque 
tiles, and the College of St. Jean l'Evangeliste has subjects on a large 
scale painted by Antonio d'Oliveira. 

Lisbon. The principal fabrique here was the Manufacture Royale de 
Rato, which supplied a great variety of wares, some on white ground 
with arabesques in colours, others in the style of Rouen. At the Paris 
Exposition of 1867 there was a vase in form of a negro's head, dishes 
and vessels with vegetables, fish, &c, in relief, candlesticks with dolphin 
stems, and escutcheons of busts of " Maria I. and Pedro III., Portugalliae 
Reeibus." 



MAIOLICA— PORTUGAL. 163 

Lisbon. This mark is found on an oval 
water-pot and cover, and on other specimens in "1 A |^J | ^ «• 
the Sevres Museum, presented in 1833. This M •£ ^ ^ J ^g**^ 
pottery is made in the suburbs of Lisbon. 

There is also at Cintra a manufactory of pottery where statuettes 
are made ; the glaze upon them is usually green, brown, or black. 

Caldas, Portugal. Mafia, maker of modern ~u~ 



*Sf 



imitations of Palissy ware : nineteenth century. 

J CALDAS 

PORTUGAL 

Porto. There were several manufactories here ; they made, among 
other things, pharmacy bottles painted with arms, &c. A plate in the 
Paris Exposition, painted with flowers and a fountain in the centre, 
had a medallion inscribed, " Na Real Fabrica do Cavaquinho." The 
fabrique of St. Antoine of Porto was also represented there by a lion 
similar to the animals of Luneville and other pieces. 

Porto (Oporto). Manufacture of M. Rocha Soares. , , p 

Sometimes the mark is miragia. porto., one word 
above the other, below a crown. The letters in the margin are on a 
teacup painted with landscapes in blue and violet in Oriental style. 
In the Sevres Museum. 

Malta. This mark impressed is on two modern 
triangular stone jars with incuse patterns. In the 
Sevres Museum, presented in 1844. 

Coimbra also produced fayence. An inkstand and tea service of 
black glaze of very delicate fabric were exhibited at the Paris Expo- 
sition. 




Note. — As we have arranged the manufactories geographically rather than chrono- 
logically, we have considered it desirable, for the sake of reference, to keep 
the fayence of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of Italy and Spain 
under the general headings maiolica, the terms maiolica and fayence being 
synonymous, the former applicable especially to Italy and Spain, the latter to 
France and Germany, thus separating earthenware into two principal divi- 
sions, pottery and porcelain. 




FAYENCE. 



Persia. 




HIS beautiful and very characteristic ware is undoubtedly of 
Oriental origin, and from the peculiar national patterns with 
which it is decorated, and the combination of colours em- 
ployed, evidently points to Persia as the locality whence it 
emanated. The designs remind us of the embroideries 
and rich stuffs produced there, and the manuscripts and illustrated books 
of that country confirm us in this opinion, in preference to a recent 
theory referring the ware to a Rhodian origin. The material is a fine 
description of fayence, the paste or body being of a brilliant white, and 
may be defined as a ware between fayence and porcelain, but not having 
the properties of true porcelain. Chardin in his Voyage en Perse, about 
1650, calls it porcelain, but no specimen of Persian porcelain has ever 
come under our notice, and the ware he describes is actually Persian 
fayence. He says, " La terre de cette faience est d'email pur, tant en 
dedans qu'en dehors comme la porcelaine de la Chine. Elle a le grain 
tout aussi fin et est aussi transparente," &c. He states, " On en fait 
dans tout la Perse, la plus belle se fait a Chiras, capitale de la Perside ; 
a Metched, a Yesd, a Kirman en Caramanie, et principalement dans le 
bourg de Zorende." 

The Persian fayence is identical with the Gombroon ware, so called 
in England. Mr. Marry at thinks the Gombroon ware was Chinese por- 
celain, because it came from a port of that name in the Persian Gulf, 
where the East India Company had an entrepot, but the only two writers 
who have spoken of it make a distinction between them. Martin Lister, 
A Journey to Paris in 1698, says, " I expected to find the St. Cloud 
china to have been equal to the Gomron ware, but was much surprised 



FAYENCE— PERSIA. 165 

to find it equal to the best Chinese porcelain." Horace Walpole, who 
knew well what Chinese porcelain was, notices " two basins of most 
ancient Gombroon china, a present from Lord Vere out of the Collection 
of Lady Elizabeth Germaine." 

This Gombroon ware was that made in Persia itself, which was 
shipped from Gombron, a port in the Persian Gulf opposite Ormuz, 
where the English East India Company about the year 1600 formed 
their first establishment ; from there also the great bulk of Chinese 
porcelain was exported, and this indigenous pottery was occasionally 
shipped with it. The Gombroon ware or Persian fayence must have 
been at that time as much prized as the Oriental. Two very remark- 
able specimens of Persian fayence were exhibited at the Loan Collection 
in the South Kensington Museum in 1861 ; one was a jug, painted with 
a diapered pattern of oval painted leaves, shaded red on a green ground, 
tastefully mounted on silver gilt, decorated with strap-work, cherubs' 
heads, &.C., in the Elizabethan style, bearing the English hall-mark for 
the year 1596; from the Collection of Mr. Sambrooke. The other was 
a similar jug, decorated with green and white vertical stripes, mounted 
in silver, of English manufacture about the same date belonging to Mr. 
C. Winn ; a proof how much this ware was prized here towards the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

It has been urged by some recent authorities, that because compara- 
tively little of this ware is now to be found in Persia, it was not origi- 
nally made there ; but this theory is far from correct. As an example we 
may mention the scarcity at the present day of maiolica in the places 
in Italy where it was made; also the Hispano-Moorish lustred wares, 
which are rarely met with now in Spain itself. 

M. Salzmann, French Consul at Rhodes, formed an extensive collec- 
tion of this ware in the island, and he asserts that a tradition prevails 
that it was made at Lindus. He has made a few converts to his 
Rhodian theory, but the secret of its plenteousness at that particular 
spot may be referred to the fact of a ready purchaser of fine specimens 
of Persian fayence residing in that locality ; had he settled in Persia 
itself, he would probably have been equally fortunate in finding them. 
However, a very extensive collection was made, which has been recently 
sold in Paris and London ; the choicest pieces have found their way into 
the cabinets of Mr. Louis Huth and others. 

The Persian fayence is distinguished by the great brilliancy of its 
enamel colours, the principal of which are a deep lapis-lazuli blue, tur- 
quoise, a vivid emerald green, a red of a dark orange tone, an orange 
or buff, purple, olive green and black ; the lustres are a rich orange gold, 
a dark copper colour, and a brass lustre. 

The principal collectors of Persian fayence are Mr. Huth, Mr. Franks, 
Mr. Fortnum, Mr. Henderson, and Mr. Nesbitt. 



i66 



FAYENCE— PERSTA. 






This mark is on a Persian fayence milk-jug, 
the mark indented. 



'Jb> 



Y 



We give the following marks on Persian and Rhodian ware on the 
authority of Mr. Fortnum (Catalogue of the South Kensington Museum, 
pp. 12—13). Marks rarely occur on these varieties. 

Inside a pot with cover, spout, and loop 
handles, in Mr. Franks' Collection, decorated 
externally in red lustre on a rich blue ground, 
and internally, on the white, is the maker's name, 
" Hatim." 

This is given by Mr. Marryat (p. 318, 3rd 
edition of his work), an ornate Greek cross on 
pieces of Lindus ware in Mr. L. Huth's Collec- 
tion, and is thought to be the cross of the Order 
of Jerusalem at Rhodes. 

This monogram, which reads " Hasin Ali, 
1 261," corresponding to our a.d. 1845, is on a 
shallow basin of modern Persian ware, in Mr. 
Franks' Collection, painted with a rude landscape 
in blue on the white ground. 

Another basin of modern Persian fayence, 
with a landscape in character of the willow 
pattern, is also marked at the back with name 
and date, " Muhamed Ali, 1278," corresponding 
with a.d. 1 861. Franks' Collection. 

On a flask, with deer among foliage, in cobalt 
blue on white ground. In Mr. Fortnum's pos- 
session. 





F A Y E N C E. 



jfrance. 




LN the Archives dc la Prefecture dc la Nievre we find the 



following list of the manufactories of fayence established 
in the kingdom of France in the year 1790, which does 
not comprise the ordinary manufactures for common use, 
but only those of reputation, taken from a petition of the 
faienciers of France to the National Assembly, stating their grievances 
in consequence of the injury done to their trade by the treaty of com- 
merce between France and England, and the importation of English ware 
into France in immense quantities, also the increase in the price of lead 
and tin, which came principally from England. We have added within 
brackets the more recent divisions of departments, so far as the places 
can be identified. 



Paris (Seine) . . .14 
Sceaux (Seine) . . .1 
Bourg la Reine (Seine) . I 
Chantilly (Seine) . . I 
Melun (Seine-et-Marne) . I 
Montereau (Seine-et-Marne) 2 
Rouen (Seine-Inferieure) . 16 
Havre (Seine-Inferieure) . 2 
Bourvalles . . i 

Nevers (Nievre) . .12 
Marseille (Bouches-du- 

Rhone) . . . n 

Lyon (Rhone) . . .3 
Tours (Indre-et-Loire) . 1 
St. Omer (Pas-de-Calais) . 1 
Aire (Pas-de-Calais) . 1 



Lille (Nord) . 
Valenciennes (Nord) . 
Douay (Nord) . 
Dijon (Cote-d'Or) . 
Macon (Saone-et-Loire) 
Orleans (Loiret) 
Apray (sic) (Haute-Marne 
Grenoble (Isere) 
Montpellier (Herault) 
Moustier (Basses-Alpes) 
Varages (Var) . 
Nismes (Card) . 
Saintes (Charente-Inferieure) 2 
Toulouse (Haute-Garonne) 2 
Limoges ( Haute- Vienne) . 1 
Dieu le-fit (Drome) . . 1 



St. Yallier (Drome) . 
Marthe (Haute-Garonne) 
Rennes (Ille-et-Yilaine) 
Nantes (Loire-Inferieure) 
Quimper (Finistere) . 
Marinial (Haute-Garonne 
Renac (Ille-et-Yilaine) 
Mones (Haute-Garonne) 
Bazas (Gironde) 
Angouleme (Charente) 
Bourg en Bresse (Aisne) 
Rouanne (Loire) 
Poitiers (Yienne) 
La Rochelle (Charente 

Inferieure) 
Langres (Haute-Marne) 



Besangon (Doubs) 
St. Cenis (Aisne) 
Luneville (Meurthe) 
St. Clement (Meurthe) 
Bordeaux (Gironde) . 
Moyat 

Rambervillier (Vosges) 
Epinal (Vosges) 
St. Guye . 
Toul (Meurthe) 



FA YEN CE— FRANCE. 

| Danniere . . . . i 

Bechaume . . . i 

Bois Depausse (Marne) . I 

Clemont ) ^ A , 

(Puy-de-Dome) 5 

Magonne \ J ' 3 

Montaigu (Vendee) . . I 

Vaucouleur (Meuse) . . I 

Verneuil (Eure) 

Nidreville (Meurthe) 

Haguenau (Bas-Rhin) 



Thionville (Moselle) 
Ancy le Franc (Yonne) 
Mont Louis (Seine) . 
Boulogne (Pas-de-Calais) . 
Laplume (Lot-et-Garonne) 
Montauban (Tarn-et-Ga- 
ronne) .... 
Ilardes .... 
Bergerac (Dordogne) 
Espedel (Basses- Pyrenees) 



The following poem, written by Pierre Defranay in the beginning of 
the eighteenth century,* forms a suitable introduction to the subject of 
French fayence, explaining allegorically the various processes then in 
vogue at Nevers, as well as at Moustier, Marseille, Rouen, and other 
places. The explanatory notes are arranged principally from the work 
of M. du Broc de Seganges. 

LA FAYENCE. 

Chantons, Fille du Ciel, Phonneur de la Fayence, 
Quel Art ! dans PItalie it recut la naissance, 
Et vint passant Ies monts, s'etablir dans Nevers, 
Ses ouvrages charmans vont au dela des mers, 
Le superbe Plutus trop fier des ses richesses, 
Meprisoit de Pallas et le gout et Paddresse ; 
L'argent plait par lui-meme, et les riches buffets 
A la beaute de Por doivent tous leurs attraits. 
Ainsi parloit ce Dieu prive" de ta lumiere. 
" Je me passerai bien de ta riche matiere," . 
Dit Pallas, "que sert Por au besoin des humains ? 
L'argile le plus vile este prise"e en mes mains/' 
Pallas dans le courroux dont son ame est saisie, 
De deux terres compose une terre assortie,t 
La prepare avec soin, la place sur le tour, 
La presse des ses mains qu'elle etend a Pentour, 



* This poem, which is characteristically French, was published in the MerctirS de France 
of July 1735. A translation of it into Latin verse appeared in the number for September of 
the same year, headed " Vasa Faventina " with the initials T. D. B. J. 

t The paste or body of the Nevers fayence was composed of two parts clay [argile figiiline) 
and one part marl [marne). These earths mixed together were placed in barrels half filled with 
water, and workmen with long poles beat and turned it about until it was reduced to a fine 
creamy pulp : this pulp was let out at the bottom of the barrel, passing over a sieve and falling 
into a reservoir : it was then again stirred about with a pole having a transverse piece of wood 
at the end until thoroughly mixed. "When the earth from mechanical suspension had gradually 
subsided, the water was withdrawn ; the earth, being about the consistence of dough, was cut into 
pieces and placed on shelves to dry, and subsequently thrown into a cave or cellar, where it 
remained a year before it was considered fit for use. 



FAYENCE— FRANCE. i6y 

Elle anime du pied la machine tournante, 

Et forme celte argile avec sa main scavante, 

I)e ce fertile tour (en croirai-je mes yeux), 

Sortent dans un instant rent vases curieux ; 

Ces vases sont d'abord faibles dans leur naissance, 

Sexhant avee lenteur, ils prennent consistance. 

Puis du feu par degre's, ('prouvant les effets, 

Deviennent a la fois plus durs et plus parfaits,* 

Ces ouvrages encore n'ont rien que la figure, 

II y faut ajouter l'email et la peinture ; 

Cet email dont le"clat et la vivacite 

Dcs rayons du soleil imite la beaute*, 

Pallas qui de Plutus dddaignc la richesse, 

Compose cet email par son unique addresse ; 

Dans l'etain calcine, dans le plomb, vil metail, 

Joints au sel, au sablon, elle trouve un email ; 

Le tout fondu, devient plus dur que roche ou brique, 

Le broyant, elle fait une chaux metallique 

Un lait, qui n'est jamais de poussiere obscurci, 

Elle y plonge le vase en la flamme endurci,t 

Le peintre ingenieux, de figures legeres, 

Embellit cet dmail, y trace des bergeres, 

Des grotesques plaisans, d'agreable festons, 

Des danses, des Amours, des jeux, et des chansons, 

Des temples, des palais, des superbes portiques, 

Respectables debris des ouvrages antiques. 

Du rouge, que Pallas montre a ses favorisPJ 

* When it was removed from the cellar, the earth was again trodden and kneaded until it 
became of suitable malleability. The potter, sitting at his wheel, which he set in motion with 
his foot, then took a ball of earth proportioned to the size of the piece he wished to fabricate, 
and fixing it on the girdle or circular revolving board, with his left hand (the thumb being 
forced into the middle of the lump) he hollowed it out, his right hand, first dipped in barbotine, 
or the same earth mixed with water, was passed round the exterior, his left hand pressing out 
the inner surface ; thus the turner could enlarge, reduce, or lengthen the piece as desired ; when 
nearly finished he took a tool to form the contour of the vessel more correctly. The piece being 
thus perfectly formed, was placed to dry, and then put in the kiln for the first baking, where it 
remained two or three days. The paste in this state was called biscuit, which, although a 
misnomer, having only been once baked, is invariably so termed, perhaps from its similarity to 
the baker's biscuit. 

t When the pieces had been baked, they were dipped into a stanniferous enamel : this 
enamel owes its opacity and whiteness to the oxide of tin ; the base is obtained by the calcination 
of ioo parts of lead and 20 parts of tin, prepared in a special furnace. The result of this first 
operation is a yellow powder insoluble in water ; it is then mixed with proportions of sand and 
salt, and fused ; when cold it becomes a solid mass of opaque white glass : it is then broken and 
ground in water, and placed in a large bucket ; into this liquid enamel the pieces were plunged, 
taking up a sufficient quantity of the enamel to entirely cover the surface, which was then ready 
for the decorator or painter. 

% The red was seldom or never employed in the Xevers fayence — cobalt blue, antimony 



I70 FAYENCE— FRANCE. 

Que vois je ? j'apercois sur nos heureux rivages, 
L'etranger chaque jour affrontant les orages, 
Se chargeant a l'envi de Fayence a Nevers, 
Et porter notre nom au bout de l'univers. 
Le superbe Paris, et Londres peu docile, 
Pavent, qui le croira ! tribut a notre ville. 
Les toits de nos bergers, et les riches palais, 
De Fayence parees, brillent de milles attraits, 
Aux tables, aux jardins, la Fayence en usage, 
Meuble le financier, et le noble, et le sage ; 
On estime son gout et sa simplicity 
Et l'eclat de l'argent cede a la proprete. 
Trop jaloux des succes de l'heureuse Fayence, 
Plutus en son depit exprime sa vengeance, 
" La Fayence," dit il, " n'a que freles attraits. 
Mais Pallas de Plutus repousse ainsi les traits, 
La Fayence est fragile ! en est-elle moins belle 
Le plus riche cristal est fragile comme elle, 
Un e'mail delicat et qui charme le yeux. 
Par sa fragilite devient plus precieux ; 
La porcelaine enfin ou le bon gout reside, 
Se feroit moins cherir en devenant solide. 
Plutus, ne blames point cette fragilite" 
L'argile toutefois a sa solidite, 
Mieux que l'or elle garde et sa forme et sa grace, 
Sur Targile jamais la couleur ne s'efface, 
Non, le temps qui detruit la pierre et le metail, 
Ne scauroit alterer ni Fazur, ne l'email." 
C'est ainsi que Pallas etablit la Fayence, 
Pallas par ce beau trait signale sa vengeance, 
Mortels, vous profitez du celeste courroux, 
Pallas en sa colere a travaille pour vous. 

Pierre Defranay. 



yellow, and chrome green will not change by the excessive heat of the kiln, but red, from the 
protoxide of iron of which it is made, is converted into brown or black. Thus in the time of the 
French Revolution, when the figure La Republique had to be represented, the Phrygian bonnet 
was painted yellow as a substitute for the redoubtable " bonnet rouge." 



FAYENCE— IIKXRI II.— 01 RON. 



17' 



HENRI II. WARE 




<TD 



Oiron (Deux Sevres). 1520 to 15 50. This 
elegant ware is of a distinct character and orna- 
mentation to every other class of pottery. It is 
only by a recent discovery that we have been 
able to assign this manufacture to its original 
source. It was supposed by many that it was 
produced in France, and, from the devices and 
arms depicted thereon, that it was first ushered 
into existence under the fostering patronage of 
Francis I., and that it continued increasing in 
beauty and excellence during a portion of the 
reign of Henri II., until its extinction. In cor- 
roboration of this was adduced the circumstance 
that the emblems of these two princes alone are 
found upon it ; a period, therefore, of about 
thirty years comprised the duration of this pecu- 
liar branch of manufacture. The marks in the 
margin are not those of the fabrique, but emblems 
found designed or painted on the ware. 

It seems to have been the opinion of all the most able writers on the 
subject that it was made in Touraine. The first who promulgated it 
was M. Andre Pottier of Rouen, in Willemin's Monuments Inc'dits, &c, 
1839. He says that of the twenty-four pieces then known, about one- 
half came from Touraine, and especially from Thouars. M. Brongniart, 
in Traite des Arts Ce'ramiques, 1844, states that the majority of the thirty- 
seven pieces came from the south-west of France, from Saumur, Tours, 
and Thouars. M. Jules Labarte, in his Introduction to the De Bruge- 
Dumesnil Catalogue, 1847, also refers the greater number to Touraine 
and La Vendee. Le Comte Clement de Ris, of the Museum of the 
Louvre, in an article in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, i860, confirms the 
statement of M. Brongniart, that in all ten or twelve pieces have come 
direct from Tours, and that the original place of their production was 
betwixt Tours, Saumur, and Thouars. A pamphlet, in form of a letter, 
addressed to M. Riocreux, Director of the Sevres Museum, by M. Ben- 
jamin Fillon of Poitiers, recently appeared in Paris, promising a solution 
of the mystery which has hitherto enveloped the origin of this pottery. 
Our space will not allow us to insert the letter entire, but we extract a 
few of the leading points of discover}'. It is headed " Les Faiences 
d'Oiron," and the writer says that these wonders of curiosity, which 
have turned the heads of so many amateurs, were actually fabricated at 



172 FA YENCE— HENRI II.— 01 RON. 

Oiron, near Thouars (Deux Sevres), with clay from the immediate 
neighbourhood. 

Two artists assisted in the work — a potter named Francois Char- 
pentier, and Jean Bernard, librarian and secretary of Helene de Hangest 
Genlis, widow of Artus Gouffier a superior woman and cultivator of the 
arts. After the decease of this lady in 1537, they both entered the 
service of Claude Gouffier, her son, Grand Ecuyer de France, who had 
inherited the tastes of his mother, and who, moreover, collected a vast 
number of works of art (a catalogue of which, with the prices realised 
after his decease by auction sale, is still preserved). The librarian had, 
whilst in the service of Helene de Hangest, furnished designs for the 
ornamental binding of books and frontispieces, specimens of which are 
annexed to M. Fillon's letter, etched by Octave de Rochebrune. 

It has been noticed by Le Comte de Ris, in the Gazette des Beaux- 
Arts (January i860), that a great resemblance exists betwixt the inter- 
laced ornaments of the Henri II. ware and the bookbindings of Grolier 
and Maioli. M. Fillon (by the aid of the monograms, ciphers, and arms 
which occur on this ware) has chronologically arranged them from the 
published drawings, and comes to the conclusion that the earliest pieces 
were executed under the direction of Helene de Hangest herself, in the 
latter part of the reign of Francis I. ; afterwards by her son Claude 
Gouffier, and other hands, down to the accession of Charles IX. The 
arming of the Protestants put an end to a fabrication which could no 
longer maintain itself; for this reason, that its only object being to 
supply the dressoirs and furnish the chapels of one family, their relations 
and personal friends, and not for commercial purposes, it followed the 
fortune of its patrons in a country menaced like Poitou with the horrors 
of a religious war. We will briefly notice the monograms and initials 
placed upon the fayence of Oiron, viz. : — The sacred monogram ; that of 
the Dauphin Henri; of Anne of Montmorency; of Claude Gouffier, 
"composed of an H, in memory of his mother, and a double C, which 
has been confounded with that of his master." Mr. Magniac's ewer has 
the letter G repeated several times round the body, which is the initial 
of Gouffier's name ; and round the foot of the candlestick belonging to 
Mr. Fountaine may be observed the letter H, repeated as a border, being 
the initial of his mother's name, Helene de Hangest. The arms upon 
this pottery are those of the King ; of the Dauphin ; of Gilles de Laval, 
Seigneur de Bressieure ; of the Constable Anne of Montmorency; of 
Francois de la Tremouille, Viscomte de Thouars ; of another, unknown ; 
and of William Gouffier. This last occurs on a plate now in the South 
Kensington Museum, which has in its centre an escutcheon, surrounded 
by fruit and cherubs' heads and flaming rays, all in relief; in the centre 
are the arms of William Gouffier, third son of Admiral de Bonnivet, when 
he was a Knight of Malta, that is to say, before he was raised to the 



FAYENCE— HENRI II.— OIRON. 173 

episcopal chair of Beziers in 1547. The emblems are the salamander 
of Francis I. and the crescents of Henri II., which were never used by 
Diane de Poictiers, as is generally supposed. M. Fillon remarks that 
the cup which was shown to Bernard Palissy, and which he so much 
desired to imitate, was doubtless of the faience d'Oiron ; indeed, several 
of those pieces, with lizards, frogs, snakes, tortoises, &c., in relief, upon 
them, might have suggested his celebrated figuline rustiquc. 

The distinguishing characteristics are, in the first place, the body or 
constituent part of this ware, which is very light and delicate, and of a 
pure white terre de pipe, of so fine a texture that it did not require, like 
the ordinary Italian fayence, any coating of opaque coloured glaze or 
enamel, but merely a thin transparent varnish. Its fabrication appears 
to have required great care and diligence, for it is supposed, from the 
examination of a fractured vase in the Museum at Sevres, that the 
foundation was first moulded by the hand, not turned in a lathe, quite 
plain, and without the least relief or ornament, the rough surface hatched 
with cross lines, and a thin outer crust, or cngobe, of the same clay laid 
completely over the whole vessel ; the ornaments were then cut out of 
the field (in the same manner as the champ live enamels) and coloured 
pastes introduced ; the superfluous clay was removed by a sharp chisel, 
and the surface tooled to an uniform smoothness, it being subsequentlv 
baked and varnished. On carefully examining these specimens, it will 
be seen that all the furrows in which the coloured pastes have been 
inserted are depressed to a slight degree, as though they had sunk in 
the furnace, thus differing essentially from the painted earthenware, 
which would rather produce a low relief. A section of the broken vase 
before referred to is a convincing proof that the coloured pastes were 
actually encrusted, the sharp angles presenting too regular an appearance 
to have been caused by the mere absorption of colouring matter applied 
externally with a brush. 

Secondly, the decorations are what is usually termed " Renaissance" 
introduced by Francois I. in the commencement of the sixteenth century, 
and consist of interlaced scrolls and devices, tastefully arranged with 
great precision, partaking greatly of the early Moorish or Arabian 
character, the colours employed being usually yellow ochre and brown 
of different shades, with occasional touches of red, green, and yellow on 
the raised figures. Independent of the beautiful encrustations, the vessel 
was also richly decorated with figures, marks, garlands, mouldings, &c, 
in high relief, modelled with great care, and harmonising well with the 
ground- work. 

M. B. Fillon {Art de Terre chez les Poitevini) describes the pavement 
in the chapel of the Chateau at Oiron. It is of square tiles, fitting 
together so as to form one pavement ; each tile bears a letter, a monogram, 
or an escutcheon ; each of these letters is painted in violet brown on 



J 74 



FAYENCE— HENRI IE— OIRON. 



blue arabesques, and so disposed as to form the device of Claude Gouffier, 
hic terminus haeret. The monograms are of the same colours as the 
letters, and are those of Claude Gouffier, and of Henri II. before he was 
King of France. The arms are those of Gouffier, quartered with Mont- 
morency and Hangest-Genlis. The composition of the paste of these 
tiles having been analysed by M. Salvetat, is found to be identical with 
that of the Henri II. ware. 

Two examples of this curious ware — the candlestick now in the 
South Kensington Museum, and the biberon belonging to Mr. Andrew 
Fountaine, are represented in the Keramic Gallery, figs, ioo and 101. 

M. B. Fillon instances various other pieces of a later period than those 
referred to in the subjoined list, of a much coarser character, and tells 
us in whose possession they now are, being principally in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Oiron and Thouars. 

Henri II. Ware. This mark occurs on a plateau in 
the South Kensington Museum. It is scratched in the clay, 
under the glaze, and is an original mark or symbol of some 
kind or other, whether of the maker or not it is impossible 
now to determine. It is the only mark hitherto discovered 
on the ware. 




LIST OF HENRY II. WARE. 



IN ENGLAND.— 26 PIECES. 



26 



Description. 



Large ewer 

Large ewer 

Large ewer 

Candlestick 

Hanap 

Tazza 

Cover of a cup.. 

Bouquetiere 

Candlestick 

Biberon 

Salt cellar 

Biberon 

Salt cellar 

Tazza 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Part of ewer 

Small ewer 

Small ewer 

Biberon 

Salt cellar 

Tazza and cover 

Tazza 

Candlestick 

Salver 

Salt cellar 



Owner. 



H. Magniac, Esq 

Sir Anthony de Rothschild 



Whence obtained. 



184: 



Andrew Fountaine, Esq.... 



Odiot Sale, 1842 

Strawberry Hill Coll. 

De Monville Coll 

Preaux Sale, 1850 

De Bruge Sale, 1849 

Preaux Sale, 1850 

Unknown 

i Bought of a Curd at Tours , 
Purchased a century ago ... 



Cost. 



20 
140 
208 

20 

44 



Baron Lionel de Rothschild Bought of Madame Delaunay 

Strawberry Hill, 1842 

Duke of Hamilton I Prdaux Sale, 1850, ,£52; Rattier, 1859 

,, ,, 1 Rattier Sale, 1859 

George Field, Esq 1 Unknown 

H. T. Hope, Esq 1 De Bruge Sale, 1849 



M. T. Smith, Esq Bought as Palissy 

J. Malcolm, Esq Pourtales Sale, 1865 

South Kensington Museum Soltvkoff, 1861, to Napier 

PrdauxS., 1850, ^62; Soltykoff, 1861 
Bought at Poitiers for 50s., Delange 
Lassayette, ^400 ; De Norzy Sale ... 

Espoulart, 1857, for ^140 

Addington Coll 



280 

80 

16 

20 

1 100 
268 

45o 
180 
640 
180 



5 J 
•a < 

&>_ 

£ 

1500 

1200 

1200 

1000 

500 

500 

150 

800 

1000 

800 

500 

800 

300 

500 

300 

300 

300 

600 

600 

I IOO 

300 
500 
180 
750 

400 

300 



FAYENCE— HENRI II.— OIRON. 



l 15 



LIST OF HENRY II. WARE— {continued). 



IN FRANCE.— 26 PIECES. 



Description. 



Tazza 

Cover of cup 

Pilgrim's bottle. 
Tazza and cover 
Tazza and cover 

Salt cellar 

Jug or canette .. 

Small ewer 

Candlestick 

Hanap 

Tazza 

Biberon 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Tazza 

Salt cellar 

Tazza 

Tazza 

Cover of a cup.. 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Salt cellar 

Cover of a tazza 
Biberon 



Owner. 



Will a E OBTAINED. 



Le Ducd'Uzes Unknown 



Cost. 

\~£~ 



M. Huttenu d'Oiigny 

Musee de Cluny 

Baron Alph. de Rothschild 



Baron Gust, de Rothschild 



Bought by M. Thord, in 1798, for... 20 
Unknown 

Bought by Strauss for ,£600, sold for 800 

1'ii'riux Sale, 1850 44 

Unknown 



Baron Jas. de Rothschild. 
Museum of the Louvre.... 



South of France, i860 

Sauvageot, from Tours 

Sauvageot, from M. Lehrie\ 1824 

Sauvageot, from Troyes 

Sauvageot 

Sauvageot, bought as Palissy 

Revoil Coll., 1828 



480 



Sevres Museum. 



Madame d'Yvon .. 
Comte de Tussau . 



M. B. Delessert. 
Unknown 



Unknown 



South of France, by Rutter 
Unknown 



53 ' Biberon . 



IN RUSSIA.— i PIECE. 
Prince Calitzin I Pr£aux Sale, 1850. 



5 3 
'S < 



£ 

500 

150 
800 
500 
500 
300 

1000 
500 

1000 
500 
500 
800 
300 
300 
300 
500 
300 
500 
500 
150 
300 
300 
300 
300 
150 



100 ' 800 



Total known: — In England 26") 

In France 26 v 53 Pieces. 

In Russia 1) 

Note. — Several of the above important pieces have been sold recently by auction in London. 
At the "Hamilton Palace" Sale in 1882, No. 14, the tazza, ^1218, Rollin ; the salt cellar, 
No. 15, ^840, Attenborough. At the Fountaine Sale in 18S4, No. 9, the candlestick, £5675, 
Dutuit of Rouen, who also bought No. 10, the biberon, for ^1060; No. 11, the salt cellar or 
mortier a cire, as it was termed, ^1575, was sold to M. Manheim of Paris. 



Thouars or Oirox (Deux Sevres). The manu- 
factory of fayence at Thouars, hitherto little known, 
has recently acquired great importance by the attri- 
bution of the Henri II. ware by M. B. Fillon to which we have 
before alluded. The fabrique was continued for making less impor- 
tant objects for more than a century. M. Fillon speaks of two tiles, 
one bearing the salamander of Francois I., the other the crescent of 



L. A. 
1676. 




176 FAYENCE— LYON. 

Henri II., still preserved over the doorway of the manor-house, which came 
from the chapel of the Chateau of Thouars. There are two lozenge- 
shaped tiles in the Louvre (G. 706, 707), which also came from the same 
chateau, bearing the arms of Marie de la Tour d'Auvergne of a later 
date. They are dated 1676, and have on the back the initials of the 
artist, L.A. ; they are gh in. by 8 in. There are also some specimens 
in the Sevres Museum. 

M. B. Fillon has given an emblematical figure 
found underneath a fayence vase, Voie de la plainc 
de Thouars, which is probably and simply an 
allusion to the sovereignty of the Lords of Oiron. 

Lyon, circa 1530. A document has recently been discovered in the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale which reveals the existence of a manufactory of 
fayence here in the reign of Francois I., founded by an Italian artist of 
the name of Francesco of Pesaro. The charter alluded to contains a 
request from two other potters, Julien Gambyn and Domenge Tardessir, 
both natives of Faenza in Italy, to Henri II. It states, " Qu'ils ont la 
cognoissance et experience de faire les vaisselle de terre, facon de 
Venice." One of them, Julien Gambyn, had already practised his art 
at Lyons " soubs Jehan Francisque de Pesaro, tenant botique en icelle 
ville," and claims the privilege " de dresser train et mestier de la dite 
vaisselle, comme chose libre et de tout temps permise aux etrangers 
apportans en France moyen et pratique de quelque art ou mestier en- 
cores peu cogneu." Francesco of Pesaro opposes the application, and 
urges that " il a souffert de grandz frais durant vingt ans qu'il a exerce 
comme il fait de present." It goes on to say that, so far from having 
suffered, he has, by the monopoly so long enjoyed by him, greatly en- 
riched himself. The two supplicants set forth their ability, and state 
that they are better cognisant of the art than Francesco himself. Henri 
II. 3 by the advice of his Council, permits them to exercise the trade with 
the same liberty and facility as other artisans, and charges the Governor, 
M. D. Mandelot, to see that Francesco does not annoy them, under 
heavy penalties. 

Another document, discovered among the " Actes Consulaires de la 
Ville de Lyon " (1556), informs us of the establishment of another manu- 
factory " d'ouvrages et de vaisselle de terre," by a Genoese merchant 
named Sebastian Griffo, whereby certain privileges and immunities are 
granted him for two years, provided he resides continually in Lyons and 
brings hither workmen from Italy, because the said manufacture is new 
in the city and in the kingdom of France. He is desired to employ 
"des enfans de l'haulmosne " (charity children) to work in the said 
manufactory. Hence it will be seen that three manufactories of fayence 



FAYENCE— EPERNAY— BEAUVAIS. 177 

were actually in operation simultaneously in the first half of the sixteenth 
century at Lyons. The products are unknown to us at the present clay. 

The foregoing extracts are taken from a pamphlet lately published 
by M. le Comte de la Ferriere- Percy, entitled Unc Fabrique de Faience a 
Lyon sous le Regnc de Henri II. , and he suggests the probability of one of 
these being the source of the celebrated faience d' Henry II. ; but as 
regards the two first, alluded to as of the " facon de Venice," the expres- 
sion does not certainly convey to us sufficient to identify the ware ; and 
as to the third, from Genoa, in which charily children were to be em- 
ployed, we seem to be still further from solving the enigma as to its 
origin.* However, the discovery of these documents opens a wide 
field for the researches of the historian of French fayence, and we doubt 
not will be made available in the pursuit. 

The manufacture of fayence was continued, but we have very little 
information of its more recent owners. From the documents collected 
by M. Rolle, keeper of the records, we learn that on the 31st March 
1733, Joseph Combe, originally of Moustiers, and manufacturer at 
Marseilles, obtained, in conjunction with Jacques Marie Ravier of Lyons, 
a privilege of ten years for carrying on ''a la Guillotiere une manu- 
facture royale de faience." The undertaking proving unsuccessful, a 
woman obtained a decree on the 22nd of April 173S ; her name was 
Francoise Blateran, dame Lemasle, and she showed great courage and 
perseverance; so much so, that in 1748 it was renewed for another term 
of ten years. 

On the 22nd of April 1766 another maker of fayence, le Sieur 
Patras, obtained a decree. 

In the list of potters who petitioned the National Assembly in 1790, 
we find three then existing there (p. 167). 

In 1800 there was a fabrique carried on by M. Merck, and in 1856 
another by M. Chapeau Revol, specimens of which are in the Sevres 
Museum. 

Epernay. There was a manufactory here about 1650 to 1780. It 
is an enamelled fayence, something like that of Avignon ; the colour is 
a chocolate brown. A large oval dish and cover, ornamented in relief, 
with Epernay in raised letters on the top, is in the Sevres Museum. 
Frequently unmarked. 

Beauvais (Saveignies) was celebrated for the manufacture of decora- 
tive pottery in the fourteenth century, frequently mounted in silver. 
In the inventory of Charles VI. (1309) we read of "Un godet de terre 
de Beauvais, garny d'argent ; " and again, in the Comptcs Royaux de 
France (1416), "Pour plusieurs voirres godez de Beauvcz, et autres 
vaisselles a boire, xxxs." Hence the old French proverb, " On fait des 

* Since this account was written M. Fillon has cleared up the mystery (see p. 172). 

M 



];8 FAYENCE— BEAU VMS. 

godes a Beauvais et des poeles a Villedieu " (Leroux de Lincy, Pro- 
verbes Francais). In 1500, Rabelais speaks of the "poteries azurees " 
of Beauvais. Palissy, speaking of the potter's clay, says, "There is a 
kind at Savigny, in Beauvoisis, which I think has not in France its 
like, for it endures a marvellous fire without being at all injured, and 
has this advantage also, that it allows itself to be shaped more slenderly 
and delicately than any of the others ; and when it is extremely baked 
it takes a little vitricative polish (polisscmcnt vitricatif), which proceeds 
from its own substance, and that causes that the vessels made with the 
said earth hold water quite as well as glass vessels." 

Estienne (Robert) also speaks of the pottery of Beauvais in his 
work De Vasciilis Libellis, edition of 1543, p. 22. . . . " Quemadmodum 
vulgus Italorum maiorica vasa appellat, quae in altera ex insulis Baleari- 
bus hunt, quam vulgus maioricam appellare solet, itidem et nos eadem 
ratione vasa Bellovaca dicemus potz de Beauvays." 

There is a flat pilgrim's bottle in the Sevres Museum, with the arms 
of France ; on each side are the fleur-de-lis and " Charles Roy " in 
Gothic letters. It was found in the Somme, and was probably made 
here in the time of Charles VIII. There is also in the same collection 
(Sevres) a plate of red earthenware, covered with white eugobe, red and 
green mottled glaze, the design graved through ; in the centre a branch 
of three lilies, surrounded by square compartments, and on the border, 
inscribed in Gothic characters of the fifteenth century, these words, "Je 
suis plante pour raverdir, vive Truppet." 

A plate of green enamel, with escutcheons of 

jfvit'tT\ > ti£££TCLhTe tne arms °f var i° us provinces of France, between 
j~_ vy , which are emblems of the Passion in relief, and 

kl/V'XX • a long inscription round in old black letter be- 

ginning " O vos omnes qui transitis per viam," 
&c, and ending with the date 1502, as in the 
margin. In the Soltykoff Collection, sold at the 
sale for ;£i 2. One of these escutcheons contains 
the arms of France ; another, France quartered 
with Brittany ; a third, France and Dauphiny ; 
and a fourth, that in the margin, containing two 
stars and a stake, part of the arms of Beauvais, 
and the name Masse, probably the name of the 
artist. 
The archives of Beauvais furnish us with several instances of presents 
of the pottery of Saveignies being made to Royalty when passing 
through the city. On the 17th October 1434, a vase of Saveignies was 
presented to the French King. In 1520, Francis I. journeying to Arras 
through Beauvais with his Queen, they gave her " des bougies et des 
vases de Saveignies," and in 1536 they presented him with a "buffet de 




FAYENCE— BEAUVAIS— AVIGNON. i 79 

Saveignies." In January 1G89, a like present was offered to the Queen 
of England when she passed through Beauvais in her flight from London 
to Saint Germain. 

Saveignies (Oise). There are several more recent manufactories of 
grcs, which were in existence towards the end of the last century, men- 
tioned by M. Brongniart, specimens of which are in the Sevres Museum : 
M. Laffineur, 1806; M. Delamarre, 1806; Madame Veuve Patte, 1806; 
and M. Bertin, 1833. There were two other manufactories of fayence 
carried on here by M. Gaudin and M. Michel towards the end of the 
last century. Specimens are in the Sevres Museum, acquired in 1806. 

Beauvais (Oise). At Pont d'Allonne, near Beauvais, a fabrique of 
stoneware, salt glaze, was founded about 1842 by Messrs. Joye & 
Dumontier, but they did not equal that of Voisinlieu. Messrs. Clerc 
& Taupin, the present proprietors, have produced some artistic stone- 
ware in Ziegler's style. 

Avignon. This pottery is of a reddish brown, with a fine metalloid 
glaze, like bronze or tortoiseshell. The ewers and bottles are usually of 
elegant form, like those of Italy ; they are sometimes perforated, some- 
times with raised masks, &c, in yellow. It flourished from about 1650 
to 1780; it is generally without a mark. There were potteries here 
early in the sixteenth century. M. P. Achard (archiviste of the depart- 
ment of Vaucluse) mentions several early potters whose names occur in 
the archives : — 

Maitre Calle Monteroux, poterius, 1500, au puits des Tournes. 

Maitre Veran Merlesius, potier, 15 17, dans la paroisse St. Agricol. 

Maitre Guilhermus David, poterius, 15 19. 

M. Petrus Bertet, 1539, Rue de la Pailhasserie. 

M. Johannes Roqueti, potier, 15 51, Portalis Matheronis. 

M. Antoine Castan, potier, 1596, Rue St. Marc. 

M. Louis Fauquet, potier, 171 5, Rue St. Sebastien. 

The Brothers Ruel and the Brothers Blanchard. 

In 1694 M. Montclergeon, and earlier, M. Vauceton. 

An earthenware cruche, brown glaze and ornaments in relief, seven- 
teenth century, sold at the Bernal sale for ^10, 10s., and a fine ewer in 
the Soltykoff sale brought £14.. There are two good specimens in the 
Soulages Collection, South Kensington Museum. 

Lheraule (Canton of Songeons), sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
was the seat of an ancient pottery, contemporary, it is stated, with that 
of Palissy, but the productions bear no comparison. They are, like the 
later productions of Saveignies, of clay covered with enamel, of green 
or morone colour, with ornaments in yellow, red, or white. The pieces, 
in forms of statuettes of saints, crucifixes, and benitiers, are rudely 
fashioned. 



i8o FAYENCE— GOINCOURT— VOISINLTEU. 

Goincourt (Oise), 1795. Near this place, in the environs of Beauvais, 
a manufacture of enamelled fayence called " L'ltatienne" was established 
in 1795 by MM. Michel. The statuettes and groups, virgins, saints, 
bishops, animals, &c., are frequently found in Picardy, but the manu- 
facture has ceased many years. 

J£ '^f/aftenne Fayence of the end of the eighteenth century, a 

or common description of ware painted with flowers, &c. 

L'lTALIENNE. The name stamped in the ware. 

,, p \ t t t Saint-Paul (Oise). Fayence of the eighteenth 

and nineteenth centuries. Of ordinary quality, mostly 
designed with pricked paper (a ponds), bouquets, &c, in colours. Mark 
stamped in the clay. 

Sarreguemines (Moselle). A manufactory of great importance, 

established about 1770 by Paul Utzchneider. This beautiful fayence is 

in imitation of porphyry, jasper, granite, and other hard marbles, some- 

~ . times cut and polished by the lathe, frequently with 

Sarreguemines. . . . , i , . ,' , 1 j 

white raised figures on blue and other coloured 

grounds, very much in the style of Wedgwood, and red ware like the 

Japanese. There are many specimens in the Sevres Museum. The 

name impressed on the ware. 

£ J^S] Sarreguemines. Messrs. Utzchneider & Co. still 

Uv&CvifJ ma ke fayence and porcelain of every description. 

Saint-Samson (Oise). A manufactory for crucibles, 
E\. L. B. & C-) j n whitish paste. Paris Exposition, 1834. 

Chatillon. The following notice occurs in the Intelligcnzblatz, 
Leipzig, 1766 : — "Since everybody has sent silver services to the Paris 
mint, the manufacturers have invented all sorts of fayence and imitations 
of porcelain. It would be useful to visit the different fabriques to know 
the best sorts, and provide a stock of the best models. At Chatillon- 
sur-Oise there is a fayence manufactory ; the wear resists heat and 
becomes red-hot rather than break ; all sorts of vessels for actual use 
are made here ; it is transported by the Canal de Briare on the Seine 
to Paris." 

Voisinlieu, near Beauvais (Oise). Established 
about 1839 by an artist named Jean Ziegler for the 
manufacture of stoneware with figures and ornaments 
in relief, mostly of a brown colour, which met with 
great success ; the paste is hard and sonorous, and 
takes all colours. This establishment having passed 

into the hands of M. Mansart, increased at first very much, but soon 

declined, and ceased altogether in 1856. 




FAYENCE— CREIL— MONTEREAU. 1 8 1 

Creil (Oise). Established in the last century by r"T?KTT 
some English potters, and continued by Le Beuf, 
Milliet & Co., and M. de St. Criq & Co. The paste is a sort of 
demi-porcelain and opaque cream-coloured ware, like that of England. 

CRI3DL. 

The word Crf.il is impressed on the ware, and s^ITH'i^. 

the initials, in cipher, of the agent, stencilled — Messrs. ^ f~1Tf<\'s 

Stone, Coquerel et Le Gros, of Paris. The author ^ All ^ 

has several plates with lightly printed views of the \ VJJ&^ "^ 

principal edifices of Paris. <£ PARIJ5 ^ 



Montereau (Seine-et-Marne). On the 15th March 1775 we find 
the letters patent of the establishment of this fabrique, from which we 
give the following extract : " Sur la requete presentee par les Sieurs 
Clark, Shaw & Co., natifs d'Angleterre, contenant qu'ils ont commence 
a etablir a Montereau une fabrique de faience anglaise, que les essais 
qu'ils ont faits des terres a pipes, argiles et glaises qui se trouvent dans les 
environs de cette ville leur ont tres-bien reussi pour la fabrication de la 
faience anglaise dite queens ware; que ces terres sont de nature a faire 
cette espece de fayence beaucoup plus parfaite meme que celle d'Angleterre 
puis qu'on peut lui donnez le plus grand degre de blancheur ; qu'en con- 
sequence les suppliants se proposent de monter en grand leur manufacture 
et de former a cet effet des ouvriers et apprentifs du pays qu'ils dresseront 
a ce travail afin de fournier au public de cette sorte de faience qui est 
d'une composition plus parfaite et plus durable que toutes celles du 
royaume et qu'ils etabliront a meilleur compte que toute ce qui s'y est 
fabrique jusqu'a present ; que les suppliants, que ont tous femmes et 
enfants et qui, avec deux autres ouvriers qu'ils sont encore obliges 
de faire venir d'Angleterre, forment ensemble le nombre de dix sept 
personnes, n'ont pu se deplacer sans beaucoup de frais ; que d'ailleurs 
une entreprise de cette espece, dont le capital formera par la suite un 
objet considerable, devant leur occasionner des depenses infinies .... 
ainsi que les pertes qu'ils ont deja eues et qu'il aura encore a essuyer 
avant qu'ils puissent etre bien au fait de gouverner le feu de bois, attendu 
qu'on ne brule en Angleterre que de charbon de terre, etc. . ." They 
therefore demanded various privileges, which were accorded, with per- 
mission to establish the works. A second arret of 15th March 1775 
conceded to them from the 1st of January of the said year an allowance 
of 1200 francs a year for ten years. This English ware had a very 
extensive sale, and its introduction was a great blow to the manufacture 
of French fayence ; it soon spread itself through the South of France, 
and was made especially at Toulouse and Sarreguemines. In the list of 



182 FAYENCE— SARREGUEMINES— ST. CLOUD. 

fayenciers who petitioned the National Assembly in 1790, two manu- 
factories are alluded to at Montereau. It was afterwards carried on by 
M. de St. Criq about 18 10, and subsequently by MM. Lebeuf and Thibaut, 
1829. Gratien Milliet was director about 1836. It was subsequently 
united to that at Creil. 

Courbeton, near Montereau (Seine-et-Marne). A fabrique of gres, 
carried on by M. H. Mamet ; specimens in the Sevres Museum, acquired 
in 1839. 

T ^ ^j Menecy-Villeroy. We are inclined to include this 

as a fabrique of fayence from having seen specimens 
marked with D. V., the same as on porcelain, the mark painted as well 
as impressed. M. A. Jacquemart quotes the existence of a water-pot 
painted in blue in the Rouenais style, with arms in pale blue, and under- 
neath the words " Pinte de Ville-Roy, 1735 ;" also a plate in blue with 
arabesques in the same style, signed D. V. 

Choisy. Demi-porcelain or opaque cream-coloured ware was made 
here, very similar to that produced at Creil, and decorated with trans- 
fer prints. Porcelain was also made here. 

St. Cloud, near Paris, 1690. This establishment was founded by 
Chicanneau pere et fils, for the manufacture of fine fayence and porcelain, 
and in 1702 exclusive privileges were granted for twenty years to the 
heirs of Chicanneau, his son having the direction. 

Abraham de Pradel in his Almanack of 1690 says, "II y a une 
fayancerie a St. Cloud ou Ton peut faire executer tels modeles que Ton 
veut," doubtless alluding to this establishment. In 1722 Henri Trou 
became director. This fayence is generally in blue camaieu, and similar 
to that of Rouen of the first period. 

There are several pieces of fayence of this period preserved ; one 
belonging to M. Fleury, a plate decorated in blue with elegant ara- 
besques, and marked with Trou's initial, like that on the porcelain ; 
another is in the Sevres Museum, marked, and others without marks are 
also assigned to St. Cloud by the late M. Riocreux. 

Before the discovery of the Moustiers manufacture, 
that ware was attributed to St. Cloud. In 1698 the 
fabrique was visited by Dr. Martin Lister, who gives an 
account of the porcelain made here, and in 1700 by the 
Duchess of Burgundy. The royal family took great 
interest in the works, and the Duke of Orleans, who had a laboratory 
of his own, suggested many improvements. There are specimens in 
the Sevres Museum. 



St 



T 



Paris (established about 1550). Francois Briot was a celebrated 



FA YENCK— PARIS. 183 

artist, modeller, goldsmith, and manufacturer of fayence. His works in 
gold and silver have disappeared with the other superb jewels described 
in the inventory of Henry II. in 1 560, but some of his works are pre- 
served to us in tin and in pottery. Briot was, although a goldsmith, 
what was termed a potter iVestaignc, and worked both in metal and in 
pottery ; in fact, all the goldsmiths of the sixteenth century were neces- 
sarily acquainted with the potter's art of moulding in clay, for the pur- 
pose of reproducing their works in the richer metals. The two arts of 
the goldsmith and the potter were intimately connected together, the 
designs for important pieces of gold or silver plate being first modelled 
in terra-cotta or clay hardened by the fire. Those great artists, Luca 
della Robbia and Benvenuto Cellini, like most of the Italian artists, 
commenced their career by studying as goldsmiths, then, as their eminent 
talents developed themselves, they struck out into sculpture in marble 
or bronze. Andrea del Verrochio was a goldsmith, and in his studio or 
workshop was moulded the mind of Leonardo da Vinci. Pollajuolo, 
Ghirlandajo, and La Francia were at the same time goldsmiths and 
painters. 

Benvenuto Cellini praises the extremely fine quality of the sand or 
extrait du rivage de file de la Sainte-Chapelle (la cite), which he says "a 
des proprietes que ne possedent point les autres sables." It was of this 
material that Francois Briot composed his fayence, some superb examples 
of which still remain to show his extraordinary talent. His enamelled 
earthenware vessels have been erroneously attributed to Bernard Palissy, 
but they are evidently a distinct manufacture, and were executed under 
the immediate superintendence of Briot himself in a rival establishment. 
The enamel of these pieces is more vitreous and transparent, the colours 
more brilliant and of a higher finish than any ever produced by Palissy, 
and resemble more nearly enamel on metal. 

We are consequently compelled to differ from the opinion of M. 
Jacquemart, who says that " la pluralite des plats reproduits de Briot 
a tous les caracteres des emaux et de la terre du potier des Tuilleries." 
A comparison of the salver of Sir E. M. Elton and others in this 
country with Palissy's productions will be a convincing proof of the 
difference of manufacture both in material and enamel. 

The salver in the possession of Sir E. M. Elton, Bart., a cir- 
cular earthenware dish, which is supposed to be the finest of its kind 
extant, enriched with very elaborate arabesque ornamentation in relief, 
is enamelled with the most brilliant colours ; in the centre a figure of 
" Temperantia," surrounded by medallions of the four elements, terminal 
figures between, and round the border eight others impersonating the 
arts and sciences ; diameter 16} in. In the Fountaine Collection at Nar- 
ford is a ewer of enamelled earthenware to match this salver ; the plateau 
is said to have been brought to England by an ancestor of the present 



1 84 FA YENCE— PARIS. 

possessor, who was a student at Padua, more than two hundred years 
ago.* M. Calixte de Tussau has a fine example of a plateau of similar 
design : at the feet of Temperantia is the monogram of Francois Briot, 
stamped with a separate mould, as shown in the margin. It 
| 73)) may be observed that this stamp is not to be found on the 
I lj) salver of pewter as made originally by Briot, and which would 
have appeared if it had been moulded together with the rest 
of the relief, but the letters F.B. are evidently stamped in the clay after- 
wards. Another in the Soltykoff Collection, sold for ^400 to the Baron 
Selliere, was also finely enamelled ; the reverse, which was mottled in 
colour, had in the centre the letter F, the initial of Francois, engraved 
in the paste before it was fired. Another in the Soltykoff Collection, 
not so fine, sold for ^200. There were also three smaller enamelled 
earthenware plates by Briot, representing the Earth and the Air per- 
sonified, and the Judgment of Paris ; the last was sold for about £jo. 
In the celebrated Forman Collection at Dorking is an earthenware 
plateau of the same pattern, but of less highly finished execution than 
that previously described ; it is probably the work of one of his 
successors. 

Paris (Pont-aux-Choux, 1740). The Manufacture Royale de Terre 
d* Angleterre was established opposite the porte of Pont-aux-Choux, at 
the corner of the Rue St. Sebastien. It was directed in 1749 by Edme, 
who in August of the same year married Marie Claude Serrurier, daughter 
of a draper of Nevers. 

Heringle, who established a manufactory at Lille in 1758, states in 
his request that he had worked for seven consecutive years at this esta- 
blishment. We find it mentioned in L! Almanack general des Marchands 
of 1772 under the name of Manufacture Royale des terres de France, a 
limitation de celles d 'Angleterre. It was directed by M. Mignon, who 
undertook the manufacture of the choicest pieces to order, and forwarded 
them in the kingdom and abroad. It is mentioned in several other works 
of the period — L'Indicateur Parisicn and in Le Guide des Amateurs et des 
Etrajigcrs par Thiery. This pottery, which was also called terre anglaise, 
was probably an imitation of the cream-coloured or Queen's ware, so 
much in vogue at that time. However, the vases of this material were 
of considerable elegance, and were purchased by the King and the nobility, 
and esteemed worthy of being mounted in gilt bronze of the finest work. 
Many sculptors of great talent were engaged, especially Sigisbert Adam, 
the brother of Clodion. There is a glazed fayence bust of Louis XV. 
on a square pedestal of the terre d Angleterre, made here about 1740, in 
the Sevres Museum. 



This beautiful ewer was sold by auction in the Fountaine sale, 1882, for ^1565. 






A/R/& 



FAYENCE— PARIS. 185 

Paris (Seine). Fayence of the end of the ^.r tt/tI7T? 

eighteenth century, called fabrique generate de . da pre 

faience de la Re'publique. This mark is stamped 

in the paste on a plate, painted with revolutionary emblems and motto. 
Not knowing how to produce the red, the bonnet rouge is painted yellow. 
This Olivier is probably the same as the maker of the earthenware stove 
in the Sevres Museum representing the Bastille. 

Paris. Fayence de Claude Reverend. This fayence, although 
exactly similar to that of Delft, is supposed to have been made in Paris 
by Reverend, who was for a long time established in Holland as a 
potter; and he obtained letters patent in 1664 to fabricate "fayence and 
imitation porcelain" in France. His fayence was called " crnci/ei'es." 
The pieces marked as in the margin are attributed to him, forming R. 
A. P. (Reverend a Paris ?), and they frequently bear French inscriptions. 
The decoration is polychrome and in blue, in 
imitation of the best pieces of Delft, with a firm 
white glaze and bright colours. There is a 
specimen in the Collection of Mr. C. W. Rey- 
nolds (marked in blue) ; and a splendid dish given to the Sevres Museum 
by M. Sauvageot seems to have been specially made as a present to 
Colbert by Reverend to show his successful imitation of Oriental porce- 
lain ; it has in the centre the arms of Colbert. M. A. Jacquemart quotes 
a decree of the year 1664 granting to Claude Reverend the privilege of 
making fayence and imitating porcelain ; the exact words are, " De faire la 
faience et contrefaire la porcelaine aussi belle et plus que celle qui vient des 
Indes Orientales," evidently one and the same thing; he goes on to say 
that this secret manufacture he had accomplished and brought to perfec- 
tion in Holland, where the greater portion of his stock still remained, 
which he wished to transport into France. This is clearly a manufac- 
ture of fayence in imitation of porcelain, and not porcelain itself, as M. 
Jacquemart infers, which hypothesis is decidedly untenable. Claude 
Reverend does not say " qu'il fait une porcelaine veritable, translucide 
et aussi belle que celle qui vient des Indes Orientales," but " il contrefait 
une porcelaine aussi belle," &c, and not a word is said about its trans- 
parency or any other quality possessed by porcelain. 

Paris (Rue des Trois Couronnes). Established in 1833 by M. 
Pichenot for the manufacture of enamelled fayence, under the direction 
of a German named Loebnitz. In 1843 he patented his " c'inail ingcrcablc." 
His widow ceded the manufactory to Jules Loebnitz, son of the director. 
It was remarkable for the great size of its products. In the Sevres 
Museum is a large cistern of one piece, enamelled inside and out ; large 
tiles and vases, from the Exposition of 1844; the pieces are marked 
" Pichenot, 7 Rue des Trois Couronnes." 



186 FAYENCE— PARIS. 



W 



a 



eorj 



Paris (7 Rue des Recollets). Keramic 
painter. M. Hippolyte Pinart, painter of faience 
artistique. He obtained a medal at the Inter- 
national Exhibition in 1 862, where his talent was 
appreciated and his fayence quickly sold. 

Paris (11 Rue de Sevres). Faiences artis- 
tiques, A. Jean, manufacturer ; imitations of 
maiolica, &c, established 1859. There were 
numerous specimens in the International Exhibi- 
tion, 1862, for which he obtained a medal. 



Paris (Avenue des Pares aux Princes, Bois de Boulogne). The 
Brothers Deck were first induced to imitate the Persian wares by M. 
Adalbert de Beaumont, a traveller and artist who collected innumerable 
designs and copies of detail or of general effect. Since that time he 
took a practical chemist into partnership, M. Collinot, and erected a 
kiln for the production of his "cloisonne" wares in Arabian and Persian 
style, and traces his designs on the ware with aquafortis filled in with 
coloured enamels in flower-pots, vases, tiles, dishes, &c. 

Paris. Manufactory of faiences d'art, by 

m^y-^ Theodore Deck, 1859, Magasin, 12 Rue Halevy. 

!■— J 1 There were some specimens of his encrusted 

■ *^ ware in the International Exhibition, 1862, 

which sold very freely to English amateurs, and 

he deservedly obtained a medal. This beautiful ware has coloured 

pastes inserted in patterns on the body of the ware, like the Henri II. 

ware, sometimes in Persian designs, and paintings of artistic subjects of 

great beauty and originality. Among the artists engaged at this fabrique 

may be noted Messrs. Anker, Ranvier, Legrain, Gli'ick, Ehrman, Hirsch, 

Schubert and Benner, and Madame Escallier. 

Paris (Rue de la Roquette, Faubourg St. Antoine), 1675. In a 
memorial of Jean Binet, ouvrier en faience brune ct blanche, at this manu- 
factory, presented in 1753 (Me moires de Mannory, Paris, 1764), we have 
an account of some other potters who preceded him. The first was 
Frangois Dezon in 1675, a maker of earthenware, who carried on the 
works with his sons. Genest was the name of his successor in 1730, 
who for twenty years was " fabricant de faience" in the same house. In 
1750 Genest sold the concern to Jean Binet. 

Paris (Rue de la Roquette). There is a medicine jar of the Rouen 
style in the Sevres Museum, painted with arabesques and arms of the 
Orleans family ; said to have been made by M. Digne in the middle of 



FAYENCE— PARIS. 187 

the eighteenth century. He was succeeded by M. Gauthier, who in 1830 
sent some fayence services to the Museum. 

Paris (Rue de la Roquette). Fabriquc dc M. Tourasse, 1823. 

Paris (Rue de la Roquette). Fabriquc de MM. Masson freres, 1839. 
This fayence is praised by Brongniart on account of its brilliant blue 
enamel. 

Paris (Vaugirard). M. Pull, formerly a P TT T T 

soldier, then a naturalist, undertook in 1856 the 
manufacture of pottery in the style of B. Palissy, 
and produced some clever imitations. He has Pull. 

copied " La Nourrice " and " Le Joueur de Vielle," 

and also produced moulded plates from the white metal salvers of 
Francois Briot (which Palissy himself had copied) ; these are so highly 
finished and so brilliantly enamelled that several connoisseurs have been 
deceived by them : one was sold at a shop in Paris to a rich banker for 
6000 francs (,£240). M. Lasteyrie says of this artist " que ses produits 
sont tellement bien imites, qu'il est devenu le desespoir des collectioneurs 
du Palissy." His mark is sometimes in black enamel, sometimes in 
relief or incuse. 

Paris. M. Victor Barbizet. Established 1850. R v 

Enamelled earthenware in imitation of B. Palissy, 

produced in great variety and at a low price ; occasionally marked incuse 
with the letters B. V. 

Paris. M. E. Lessore, a painter on fayence, 
formerly employed at Sevres, which he left in 
1850, and established himself at 16 Rue de 
l'Empereur, aux Batignolles. In 1859 he left 
and came to England, and was attached principal!}' 
to the Wedgwood manufactory, but also painted / n c r n > 
for other firms. A dish by him, executed at 
Minton's, in imitation of maiolica, is in the South 

Kensington Museum ; purchased for ^30. Some other imitations or 
decorations of unsaleable biscuit figures by him, in the style of Italian 
ware, have deceived collectors, a practice which ought not to be coun- 
tenanced by respectable potters, and is no less derogatory to the artist. 
Lessore returned to France a few years since, and now resides at Fontaine- 
bleau, where he still executes commissions for Wedgwood and Minton. 

Paris. The potter Vogt, from Nuremberg, y ve . t^tjaTac 
established himself at 66 Rue Fontaine au Roi 66 rue Fontaine _ au _ Roi . 
about 1790, in the manufacture of stoves, &c. 
In 1834 he decorated tiles with encrusted or inlaid patterns of coloured 





1 88 FAYENCE— PARIS— SEVRES. 

clays covered with a plumbiferous glaze. Madame Veuve Dumas, his 
daughter, still continues making some beautiful pieces, many of which 
are marked with her name and address. M. Theodore Deck was 
formerly manager of this fabrique, and there learnt the art of nielloed 
earthenware. 

I Paris (Montrouge). M. Joseph Devers, an 

J Italian by birth, formerly a painter, pupil of Ary 

Scheffer, commenced a fabrique of fayence here 
about 1853 : terra-cotta vases and groups in the 
Delia Robbia style, large medallions and all sorts 
of artistic pottery. In 1862 he received a medal 
from the International Exhibition for decorative 
pottery. 

Paris (Rue de Charenton, 1766). In the Intelligenzblat of Leipzig 
of this year we read : " Rue Charenton, Faubourg St. Antoine, vis a vis 
l'ancienne manufacture de velours, se trouve actuellement une manufacture 
de faiences bronzes qui va au feu ; on fait toutes sortes de vaisselle." 

Paris (Rue Basfroy, pres la Roquette, 1766). In the Intelligenzblat 
of Leipzig of this year we find the following : " Rue Basfroy, pres la 
Roquette, on fabrique dans la manufacture de M. Roussel des faiences 
qui sont interieurement blanches et exterieurement de couleur olive. On 
elle fait toutes sortes de services complets. Cette faience va au feu, est 
tres legere et a meilleur compte que celle faite en terre de pipe Anglaise : 
la douzaine d'assiettes se vend de 3 a 5 livres." 

Paris. This talented artist has with great 

Ji. bouquet. success turned his attention to painting on earthen- 
ware au grand feu. The subjects usually selected 
by M. Bouquet are landscapes and woodland scenery ; these are painted 
on plaques of coarse earthenware, similar to what we call Stourbridge 
clay, capable of bearing an intense heat, and at one baking the whole 
process is completed. Considerable chemical knowledge is essential for 
this kind of decoration, as but few colours will stand the great heat of 
the kiln, and skilful manipulation is required in painting on the treacherous 
surface of the clay, which must be executed offhand, without any pos- 
sibility of retouching. The plaque is then placed in the furnace, a 
monotonous and almost indistinguishable sketch ; it is taken out a 
finished picture, rich in colour, artistic, and imperishable, not affected by 
the action of the atmosphere, and consequently suitable for exterior as 
well as interior decoration of houses and gardens. 

Sevres (Seine-et-Oise). This mark is impressed on the back of 
two fayence plates of light fabrique, very much like the demi-porcelain 
plates made at Creil ; on them are also stencilled shields inscribed " Par 
brevet d'invention," surrounded by the words " Impression sous email." 



FAYENCE— SEVRES— AVON. 189 

The subjects are printed in brown, of Time and Cupid and " La Ceinture 
de Venus," &c. 

Sevres. There were several manufactories of fayence here. A 
large and fine vase (style Louis XIV.) by a potter named Lambert, 
of about 1790, is in the Sevres Museum, but it has no mark. Another 
manufacturer was M. Levasscur, about the end of tbe last century, and 
M. Clavareau, 1806; specimens in the Sevres Museum. 

Avon (Seine-et-Marne), near Fontaincbleau. M. A. Jacquemart has 
signalled forth another manufactory of pottery at this place, and quotes 
from the journal of Herouard, Doctor of the Dauphin (Louis XI II.). To 
this fabriquc he refers the pieces marked B B, " La Nourrice," and small 
animals, as well as many others subsequent to Palissy. Herouard says : 
" Le 24 Avril 1608, la Duchesse de Montpensier vient voir a Fontaine- 
bleau le petit Due d'Orleans, second fills de Henri IV., et lui mene sa 
fille, agee d'environ trois ans. Le petit prince l'embrasse et lui donne 
une petite nourrice en poterie qu'il tenait." . . . " Le Mercredy, 8 Mai 
1608, le Dauphin etant a Fontainebleau, la Princesse de Conti devait 
danser un ballet chez la reine, puis venir dans la chambre du Dauphin. 
On lui proposa de faire preparer une collation des petites pieces qu'il 
avait achetees a la poterie, il y consent. Apres le ballet, qui est danse 
a neuf heures du soir, le Dauphin mene Madame de Guise a sa collation, 
il sont suivis de tous ceux qui avaient danse le ballet, et de rire, et a 
faire des exclamations ; e'etaient des petits chiens, des renards, des blere- 
aux, des bceufs, des vaches, des escurieux, des anges jouant de la musette, de 
la flute, des vielleurs, des chiens couches, des moutons, un assez grand chien 
au milieu de la table, et un dauphin au haut bout, un capucin au bas." 

The two B's occur on works of secondary 
importance, as on a group of " La Samaritaine," 
two dogs and a snail, in the Sevres Museum, 
and on " La Nourisse." 



Ill LtlUUV-lU CIU4 L/t*0. 

c 




This mark, V A B. C, of an unknown potter, 
is found on a plate of agatised ware, representing 
the infant Bacchus, in the style of Palissy. 

Clerici or Clerissy of Fontainebleau was also an imitator of Palissy 
in the first half of the seventeenth centui-y. In March 1640 he had 
letters patent to found royal glassworks at Fontainebleau. M. Jacque- 
mart thinks he must have been one of the principal artisans of the 
fabrique at Avon, patronised, as we have seen, by the Court. 

At the Soltykoff sale in Paris in 1861 we remember to have seen 
two large dishes of enamelled fayence of the seventeenth century ; they 
were of a bronze colour. In the centre was a shield of arms and the 



190 FAYENCE— SAINTES. 

device " Sia laudato il santissimo sacramento," the letters in the inscrip- 
tion being reversed ; the rest of the dish, including the border, was filled 
with rich arabesques, all in relief. It was of an unknown manufacture, 
somewhat similar to that of the Citta di Castello or La Fratta. The 
reverse of one of these dishes had the escutcheon of France and this 
inscription, " du chasteau de fontainebleau." 

J2 Avon les Fontainebleau. Messrs. Godebski & Co., china 

"\ yr manufacturers, of recent origin, and at No. 17 Rue Paradis-Pois- 

jrs. sonniere, Paris. This mark, used since 1874, registered as a 

\3Qj trade mark in London, 1876. 

Saintes, near Rochelle and other places. Bernard Palissy. This 
artist made a peculiar kind of ware, which has rendered his name cele- 
brated over Europe. He was born at La Chapelle Biron, in Perigord, 
a.d. 1510; he was originally a painter on glass. In 1539 he married 
and established himself at Saintes. After many years of diligent research 
and patience under trying circumstances, including the reproaches of his 
wife — which might naturally be expected, for it is related he actually 
burned his tables and chairs to heat the furnace for his experiments in 
perfecting the pottery — he at length succeeded in discovering the enamel 
which decorates his ware. It is recorded of him that in his pleasant 
moments he used to say, in reference to his trade as a potter, that he 
had no property whatever except heaven and earth. His rustic pottery 
and other beautiful productions were soon appreciated, and he rose to 
opulence; he made large pieces, such as vases and statues, for Henri II. 
and his Court, to ornament their gardens and decorate their palaces and 
mansions. Being a Protestant, he was, after the Edict of 1559, taken 
under the protection of Catherine de' Medicis, and settled in Paris, thus 
escaping the Massacre of Saint-Bartholomew. In 1588, however, he 
was confined in the Bastille for his religious opinions, and lingered in 
those dungeons until his death, which happened in 15S9. He had two 
nephews, Nicolas and Mathurin, who were associated with him in his 
keramic productions, notably in the decoration of the grotto of the 
Tuilleries. His continuators were Jehan Chipault and Jehan Biot, in 
the sixteenth century, but they executed very inferior specimens. The 
natural objects found upon the Palissy ware are true in form and colour, 
being mostly modelled from nature ; the shells are all copied from tertiary 
fossils found in the Paris basin ; the fish are those of the Seine, and the 
reptiles and plants such as he found in the environs of Paris. We 
recognise one of Palissy's vases of the figuline rustique treasured up in 
the Collection of the Duke of Lorraine in 1633 : " Un goublet antique de 
terre rustique." 

A large round basin, representing Diana leaning on a stag, with dogs 
around her, after the celebrated relief in marble of Diane de Poitiers, 



FAYENCE— SAINTES— MONTBEUN.UiE. 



j o i 



en chasscressc, by Jean Goujon, brought in the Soltykoff sale .£292 ; 
another oval basin, with masks and flowers, £160; a pair of salt cellars, 
of two sirens, ^80 ; and two statuettes of mercury and a player on the 
bagpipes, .£103. A very fine circular dish, with a lizard in the centre 
and rich border, was sold in the Bernal sale to Baron Gustave de Roths- 
child for .£162 ; it was bought in a broken state in Paris for twelve 
francs, and after being restored was sold to Mr. Bernal for £4. There 
are several fine specimens in the Soulages Collection, South Kensington 
Museum, and in the Collections of Mr. Magniac, Mr. Addington, and 
others. {Keramic Gallery, figs. 104—107.) 

Saintes (Charente-Inferieure). This in- 
scription is on a large hunting-bottle of white p p 
fayence, decorated in blue, with loops for sus- 
pension, painted with roses and tulips, and in a I/irr\>rrp M D 
the centre, within a wreath, on one side is the *•* 
name Alexandre Beschet, and on the other {\ o&AVX tCS 
the inscription in the margin, meaning the sign I ff Ko 
of the image of Notre Dame at Saintes, quoted 
by M. B. Fillon. 

La Chapelle des Pots, near Saintes. It was here that Bernard 
Palissy learned the first elements of his trade ; here also, after his death, 
an extensive manufacture of ware of a similar character was continued 
until the middle of the seventeenth century. A great variety of forms 
was produced, plates, dishes, bells in the shape of women with hooped 
petticoats, puzzle jugs, drinking cups in form of the sabot, barrels, 
benitiers, candlesticks, &c. Vast quantities of defective pieces and frag- 
ments of the ancient manufactory are dug up. At the present day 
common pottery is made here. 

Brizambourg (Charente-Inferieure), near Saintes. There was another 
fabrique of fayence here (as appears from a document quoted at length 
by M. B. Fillon, Art de Terre chcz les Poitcvins, of the year 1600), in 
which we find that Enoch Dupas, maistre faiancier de Brizambourg ct 
y demenrant, claimed from Rene Amaud, escuyer, seigneur de la Garenne, 
la somme de six vingt escus (120 crowns) prix et rayson de vaisselles 
impressees de ses armes, moderee par le jugement a celle de soixante 
et quinze escus (75 crowns). 

Moxtbernage (Faubourg de Poitiers). About 1776 a fabrique was 
founded by M. Pasquier, who was associated with Felix Faucon, son of 
a printer at Poitiers. In the Sevres Museum there is a plate, painted 
in blue, which bears the mark of two F's and a falcon in a cartouche, 
which is considered to refer to Faucon. It is probable that the latter 
remained sole director at Montbernage, and his associate Pasquier esta- 
blished himself at Poitiers. 



192 FAYENCE— POITIERS— ST. VERAIN— NANTES. 

■A ]Y10^RT?Il1 I\P Poitiers (Vienne). A. Morreine was a 

' ^ ^ * modeller of figures in tcrrc dc pipe ; his name is 

f\ ' C' r found traced with a point both before and after 

j~J \yK o baking. This mark is on the figure of a monk 

yySl. praying. 

Le Sieur Pasquier, fabricant dc faience emaille at Poitiers, claimed in 
1778 the protection of the Minister Bertin for the liberty to dig clay, 
which had been refused by the owners of the land. 

s> p * St. Verain. In the neighbourhood of 

TfWcttJiCj /Tiny Nevers there was a fabrique of gres. M. 

-, f n Renault of Lucon has an inkstand with this 

if* inscription ; it is covered with a thick enamel 

J^AP tO)l\tJbl 106c °f a ^ ne ^ me colour. The mark is traced 

' before firing, underneath the piece : Made the 

>-JT f*/\ . •» ah of May 1642, by Edme Briou, living at 

tm^AJ w<^? | t Verain ; 

Naxtes (Loire-Inferieure). There was an ancient establishment 
for the manufacture of fayence of white enamel created by Jean Ferro, 
gcutilhommc vcrricr, in 1588. Two other fayence-makers of the same 
town are mentioned in the archives of the Chamber of Nantes in 1654, 
named Charles Guermeur and Jacques Rolland. This ware was also 
white, sometimes with fleurs-de-lis in relief, specimens of which are 
frequently met with in the neighbourhood. 

M. B. Fillon gives this mark, which is on 
T^R+PAlVArlT^AV* ^ ie back °f a P^ ate > painted in blue camaicu, 

with four medallions of a lion, a stag, a 

10 4:/ serpent, and a horse, and in the centre the 

Massacre of the Innocents, copied from a print 

by Mark Antonio, after Raphael, which he attributes to Nantes, and 

says it is very similar to that made by Clerissy of Moustiers, painted by 

Gaspard Viry. 

On the 7th March 1752, a fabrique of fayence was founded by M. 
Leroy de Montillee and a company, which was successfully carried on for 
some years, but having passed into the hands of M. Delabre, in conse- 
quence of heavy losses sustained by him, it was sold in 1771 to Sieurs 
Perret and Fourmy, under whose management it again became prosperous 
and superior to what it had been under their predecessors ; its products 
were in such high estimation that in 1 774 it obtained the title of Manu- 
facture Royale de Nantes. The original arret is given at length by M. B. 
Fillon {Art de Tcrre chez les Poitevins), and it accords to Joseph Perret 
and Mathurin Fourmy royal patronage and liberty for the servants to 
wear royal livery. 

Nevers (Nievre). In the year 1590 the alchemist Gaston de Cleves 



FAYENCE— NEVERS. 193 

dedicated a book to Louis of Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers ; in the dedicatory 
epistle he extols this prince for having brought into his states expert 
artists and workmen in the arts of glassmaking, pottery, and enamel. 
The quotation from this scarce book is given by Marryat at some length : 
"Hinc vitrarioe figulinse et encausticse artis artifices egregii jusso tuo accer- 
sisti," &c. About this time the name of Scipio Gambyn is found in the 
parish registers as godfather in 1592 ; he is there described as " pothier." 
A relation of his, probably a son or a brother, Julien Gambyn of Faenza, 
obtained authority to establish a manufactory of fayencc at Lyons, but 
the earliest evidence of one at Nevers is that founded by Domenique 
Conrade, a gentleman of Savona, a native of Albissola, where the fayence 
of Savona, well known in Italy, 1560 to 1600, was made; in 1578 he 
obtained letters of naturalisation from Henri III., and about this time 
founded his fabrique at Nevers. 

In a brevet according privileges to Antoine Conrade at a later period, 
by Louis XIV. and his mother the Queen Regent, it is stated, " Estant 
bien informe de son industrie et grande experience a faire toutes sortes 
de vaisseaux de fa'ience, quel science rare et particuliere etait reserve 
secrettement de pere et fils en la maison Domenique de Conrade." 

In July 1602, Domenique Conrade's name first appears on the parish 
registers with the simple qualification of " Maistre potier demeurant a 
Nevers." His brothers, Baptiste and Augustin, are frequently mentioned 
from 1602 to 161 3, and were doubtless associated with him. 

Antoine Conrade of the second generation appears as " Fa'iencier de 
la maison clu roi " in 1644. Domenique Conrade of the third genera- 
tion is styled in the registers of 1650—72 " Maistre fa'iencier ordinaire de 
S. M." 

Up to 1632 no other potters are spoken of, but in that year Bar- 
thelemy Bourcier founded a second manufactory. 

In 1652 appeared successively two other fabriques, one by Nicolas 
Estienne at the " Ecce Homo," and the other by Pierre Custode and 
Esme Godin at the sign " de l'Autruche." 

From 1632 Pierre Custode is designated " Maistre potier en vaisselle de 
faience," and he probably came from Savona with the Conrades, working 
under their direction until 1652, when he himself became a director. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, in consequence of the 
success of the Conrades and Custodes, several other manufactories were 
started, and in 1743, by un arret de conscil, the number was restricted to 
eleven. Upon earnest solicitation in 1760 a twelfth was permitted by 
royal ordinance, which was in consequence called " La Royale." 
The twelve fabriques were as follows : — 
1. — 1608. Fabrique des Conrades, 12 Rue Saint-Genest, founded by Domenique 
Conrade ; successors, Garilland, Nicholas Hudes, and his widow 
Champroud. 

N 



1 94 FAYENCE— NEVERS. 

2 . — 1652. Fabriques des Custodes, 11 Rue Saint-Genest, first called l'Autruche, 
founded by Pierre Custode and Esme Godin, subsequently Enfert 
alone. 

3. — 1652. Fabrique l'Ecce Homo, 20 Rue Saint-Genest, founded by Nicolas 
Estienne, Louis Thonnelier de Mambret, and Jean Chevalier Le- 
stang. 

4. — 1632. Fabrique, 4 Rue de la Tartre, founded by Barthelemy Bourcier, suc- 
ceeded by Dumont Champesle and Pierre Moreau. 

5. — 1760. Fabrique de Bethleem, 6 Rue de la Tartre, Messrs. Prou, Joly, Levesque 
& Serizier. 

6. — \-j6o. Fabrique Halle, 12 Rue de la Tartre. 

7. — 1749. Fabrique Boizeau Deville, 14 Rue de la Tartre. 

8. — 1761. Fabrique Ollivier, 26 Rue de la Tartre. 

g. — 1 7 16. Fabrique Gounot ou Merceret, 1 Rue de la Cathedral. 
10. — 1725. Fabrique de Prysie de Chazelle ou de Bonnaire, Place Mosse. 
II. — 1750. Fabrique du Bout-de-Monde, 10 Rue du Croux, by Perrony. 
12.— 1760. Fabrique la Royale, 13 Rue du Singe, Gautheron and Mottret. 

In 1790 these were all in active operation, but shortly after this 
time, in consequence of the French Revolution and the treaty of com- 
merce between France and England, by which the English potters had 
the opportunity of pouring in their earthenware at so cheap a rate that 
the French could not compete with them ; added to this, the price of 
lead and tin, which came principally from England, was raised ; all these 
disadvantages came so quickly upon the fabriques of the south of France 
that a panic ensued. In 1797 we read that at Nevers six had abso- 
lutely suspended their works, and the other six were reduced to half 
their number of workmen. On page 167 will be found a statement of 
the principal manufactories of France, which was attached to a petition 
from the fayenciers to the National Assembly. 

Nevers has always been famed for the sand used in the manufacture 
of fayence. We are told in the Encyclopcdie Me'thodiqae, Paris, 1783, 
that Lille in Flanders, Saint-Cenis (Sinceny), Lyons, Nantes, and Rouen 
all obtained their sand from Nevers. 

The fayences of the first epoch have been frequently confounded 
with Italian maiolica, but a little study will soon show the great points 
of difference. In the Nevers ware the figures are always yellow, either 
clear or opaque, on blue ground ; the Italian figures are usually painted 
blue on yellow ground. At Nevers they never employed red or metallic 
lustre, and the outlines are always traced in manganese violet, never in 
purple or black ; for example, on a plate painted in polychrome, with the 
four tens of a pack of cards, the clubs and spades are violet, the hearts 
and diamonds yellow. A particular sign on the monochromes of Nevers 
is the decoration on the reverse. 

During the second epoch the ground was a peculiar lapis-lazuli blue, 



FAY E N C K— N E V E RS . 1 95 

like the Persian, called bleu de Perse, spotted or painted with white, the 
vases and jugs being occasionally ornamented with masks and twisted 
handles (which was also imitated at Delft by an artist signing A. P. W.) 

The Chinese patterns arc in light blue en camaieu on white, some- 
times intermixed with a sort of brown lilac. 

Those of the other periods, in the style of Rouen and Moustiers and 
the Saxon style, are well known ; some also of the latter time have verses 
and inscriptions of a popular character, and revolutionary sentences, such 
as the following : — 

"Aimons nous tous comme freres, I793-" 

"Ah ! ca ira." " La Liberie", 1791." 

" Au bon laboureur Francois Simonin, l'an 4 de la liberte." 

" Le malheur nous reunit " (a noble and a priest shaking hands). 

"Aux manes de Mirabeau, la patrie reconnaissante, 1790." 

" Le serment civique." "Vivre libre ou mourir." 

" Je jure de maintenir de tout mon pouvoir la constitution." 

" Dansons la carmagnole, vive la carmagnole, I793-" 

" Vive le roi citoyen ! " " Le lis ramenent la paix." 

" Bourrons les aristocrates." " Indivisibility de la Re'publique." 

" Guerre aux tyrans et paix aux chaumieres." 

[The above are in the collection of M. Champfleury.] 

" La Nation, la loi." " Vive la Constitution." 

" Mirabeau n'est plus" (written on a tomb). 
" Fraternite, egalite ou la mort." 
" Vive la joye, la paix est_faite." 

There is a large punch-bowl or saladier, dated Nevers, 14th February 
1758, decorated in polychrome, which is particularly rich with verses; 
the subject is " L'Arbre d' Amour " — six women at the foot of a tree, upon 
which are perched nine men, and on the top a cupid, " le trompeur." 
Recently in the collection of Mr. C. W. Reynolds. 

The classification of Nevers fayence by M. du Broc de Segange is 
here given ; each epoch comprehends three divisions — polychrome, caiuaiat 
(in monochrome), and sculpture e'maillces : — 

1st Epoch, 1600 to 1660. Tradition italienne. 

2nd Epoch, 1650 to 1750. Gout chinois et japonais. 

1630 to 1700. Gout persan. 

1640 to 1789. Gout franco-nivernais. 

3rd Epoch, i7coto 1789. Tradition de Rouen. 

1730 to 1789. Tradition de Moustiers. 

4th Epoch, 1770 to 1789. Gout de Saxe. 

5th Epoch, 1789. Decadence de l'art. 

M. du Broc de Segange, director of the Nevers Museum, in his 



t 9 6 FAYENCE— NEVERS. 

book La Faience et les Faiencicrs de Nevers, Nevers, 1863, has thoroughly 
sifted all the available documents which could throw light on the early 
history of Nevers fayence. He has searched the parochial registers, 
and has thus been enabled to fix certain dates on the earliest specimens ; 
he gives, in fact, a genealogical tree of every potter who has lived at 
Nevers, his date of birth, marriage, and decease. This work is illustrated 
with coloured engravings of the most celebrated specimens in the Nevers 
Museum, which collection already numbers more than five hundred pieces. 

In the Musee de Cluny are two very fine ewers of the seventeenth 
century, with hunting and mythological subjects, Nos. 2147 and 2148; 
a ewer and basin, with the Triumph of Amphitrite, 2149 and 2150; also 
a very fine plate, 1235. At the South Kensington Museum, a pilgrim's 
bottle of the first epoch, subject Apollo and Daphne, and a Bacchanalian 
scene, in polychrome on a blue ground, cost £15, 4s. 6d. ; and another 
bottle, with bleu de Perse glaze, enriched with white enamel flowers, £g. 

A pair of very large Nevers ware pilgrims' bottles, with flowers and 
foliage in white, on metal plinths, \6h inches high, in the Bernal Collec- 
tion, was purchased by the Earl of Craven for £53, 6s. 

Nevers. This mark occurs on a plate, 
painted in blue, Chinese style, in the Nevers 
Museum, of the end of the seventeenth or be- 
ginning of the eighteenth century. M. du Broc 
de Segange attributes it to Nicolas Viode. 

Nevers. These marks were attributed by 
Brongniart to Senlis, but M. du Broc de Segange 
has rectified the meaning, and states them to be 
the monogram of Jacques Seigne, a celebrated 
fa'iencier of the eighteenth century. A mug, in 
form of a crown, with border of the vine painted 
in blue, is in the Sevres Museum, and another in 
that of Cluny. 

Nevers. This mark is on a compotier, blue 
and orange ; given by M. Brongniart. 

Nevers. This name of J. Boulard is on a 
Y V? II gxknn* statuette of the Virgin and Child, of fayence, 
painted in colours ; at the bottom, in front, is 
written F. Simon Lefebvre, and on the back 
the potter's name, who was a contemporary of 
AfT\<\ the Conrades. In the possession of M. B. 

Fillon. 





<y 



jXjuuOA^ 



F A Y E N C E— N E V E RS. 197 



Nevers. Domenique Conrade, the third of 
the name; from 1650 to 1672. He is styled 
in the parish register " Maistre Faiencier Or- 
dinaire de S. M. le Roi." This signature is 
on a plate in the Sevres Museum, painted in 
blue figures, with birds, figures, stags, &c. ; in 
the centre a man on horseback riding over a 
bridge. 




Nevers. The initials of Henri Borne, on 
the back of a figure of St. Henry, 21 j inches 
high ; the companion statuette of St. Etienne, 
dedicated to his wife, is inscribed " E. Borne, -ipj _^ 

1689." Jb Joornc 



dbconrad 

HB 



Nevers. Jehan Custode, of the first epoch, 
1602 to 1660, who painted at the age of twel 
On pieces in the Collection of M. A 
Pottier. 



Nevers. Jacques Bourdu, first epoch, 1602 
to 1660. So attributed by M. du Broc de 
Segange. 



Nevers. Denis Lefebvre, 1636. So attri- 
buted by the same author, who has a specimen 
in his Collection. 



Nevers. This mark is in white, in the 
centre of a bleu de Perse plate, painted with 
white scrolls and leaves. In the possession of 
Mr. A. W. Franks. 



Nevers. On a fayence jug, white ground, 
with small yellow and green flowers, blue 
striped handle. Seventeenth century. 



16^9 

a 



1656 
Jl. 



198 



FAYENCE— NEVERS— ROUEN. 



* 



Nevers. On a large plate, with ancient 
blue decoration and coarsely designed figures 
of a female draped figure, a countryman and 
his ass, a man on horseback, &c, is found this 
mark of three mullets (trots molettes d'eperon) 
or spur rowels, which are found on the shield of arms of the Conrades. 
The name of Haly is met with on plates painted in bouquets, having 
also olives, eggs, and fruit in relief, probably the work of Philippe Haly, 
son of the turner Francois Haly. The name of " F. Haly, 1734," is found 
on an equestrian figure of St. Hubert in the Museum at Varzy. 

Nevers. Claude Bigourat and Jeanne 
Bigourat. Both occur on a benitier, painted 
in blue camaieu, with their patron saints. Col- 
lection of M. du Broc de Segange. 

Nevers. The signature of Francois Rod- 
rigue {dit Duplessis) on a benitier in blue 
camaieu, of the Virgin and Child. Collection of 
M. du Broc de Segansre. 



Claude Bigourat 
1764. 



F. R. 1734- 



IVv AHD0<iu 



ViN 



Nevers. 
Seasons. 



Borne. On a dish with the Four 



HS 



T? 




Nevers. At the present day there is still 
one manufactory of great commercial importance 
at Nevers, that of M. H. Signoret, a manu- 
facturer of pavements, encrusted tiles, garden 
ornaments, medallions, balustrades, flower-pots, 
bouquet-holders, decorated with deep blue on 
white ground, &c. 

Marzy, near Nevers (Nievre). About the 
year 1850, M. Tite Henri Ristori, an Italian 
K^fo(Vt/ZZ/ f /(fitCV^Cj sculptor, founded a manufactory of fayence ; 
</~. . the paste is almost of eggshell lightness and 

& do substance, and the vessels are very elegant in 

form and beautifully painted. At the Paris Exhibition the ware was 
much admired, and he obtained a first-class medal in 1856. In the 
South Kensington Museum are ten pieces, bought at that time for £16 
and ,£8 ; the others at less price. 

A "POTTFNT Rouen (Seine-Inferieure). There was an estab- 

lishment for the manufacture of pottery at Rouen 
Jt+ *" early in the sixteenth century, which was evidently 

in great prosperity in 1542. There are two remarkable pictures, which 
now decorate the walls of the conservatory at the mansion of H. R. H. 



FAYENCE— ROUEN. iq9 

the Due d'Aumale, Orleans House, Twickenham ; they formerly formed 
part of the pavement of the Chateau d'Ecouen, bearing the arms of Mont- 
morency. These pictures are formed of a number of tiles placed in 
juxtaposition, representing the stories of Marcus Curtius and Mutius 
Scaevola, and on them is written "A Rouen, 1 542;" they each measure 
5 feet 3 inches high by 6 feet 4 inches long. 

M. E. Gosselin {Glanes Historiques Normandes : les Potters, Briquetiers, 
Titillicrs et Emailleurs de Terre de Rouen, XVicme ct XV Heme Siecles, 
Rouen, 1869) quotes several documents, wherein is named a certain 
Masseot Abaquesne who is styled "esmailleur en terre." Masseot or 
Masso was at that time a sort of nickname for Thomas. In one of 
these acts, dated May 1545, Masso Abaquesne, "esmailleur en terre," 
treats with an apothecary of Rouen to supply him with enamelled earthen 
utensils necessary for the " estat d'apothicairerie ; " the order is for 346 
dozen pots of all sorts, and as the potter is interdicted from supplying 
any other person during the delivery and for six weeks after, it is pro- 
bable the apothecary purchased them for sale. 

The next important document is of March 1548. It is the receipt 
for " cent escus d'or soleil " remitted to " Masseot Abaquesne, esmailleur 
en terre, demeurant en la paroisse Notre Dame de Sotteville-lez-Rouen, 
par un notaire royal, au compte de hault et puissant Seigneur Messire le 
Connestable, grand maistre de France, pour certain nombre de carreaux 
de terre esmaillee que le dit Abaquesne s'estoit soumis et oblige a faire 
au dit Sieur Connestable." The receipt is signed by Masso Abaquesne, 
by his wife Marion Durand (a cross), and their son Laurent. 

In 1564, Masso Abaquesne being dead, his widow, Marion Durand, 
treats in her own name with the Abbe of a monastery in Normandy 
" pour la fourniture de quatre milliers de carreaux emailles de couleurs 
d'azur, blanc, jaulne et vert, bon, loyal et marchand ; suivant un patron 
paraphe et signe, au prix de trente six livres le mille." 

In 1543 there is an act of the placement of an apprentice with 
Masseot Abaquesne, qualifie de bourgeois et de marchand, moyennant la 
nourriture et le logement, en plus d'une somme de vingt quatre livres 
tournois. From this period until the middle of the seventeenth century 
no notices of the Rouen fayence have been discovered. The descriptions 
of pottery are very varied, and there were many establishments ; among 
them we find a grant of privilege for fifty years accorded to Nicolas Poirel, 
Sieur de Grand val, in 1646. The mark in 
the margin, " faict a Rouen, 1647," is attributed Q ' C \\ 
to him. It is on a circular plate in blue J *-\J 

camaicn ; in the centre is a female centaur, and 1 \D 4/ 

a border of four octagonal medallions and 

flowers, in the Persian style (Collection Gouellain at Rouen). It is 
found also on a vase in the Collection of M. Pettier, of the same city. 



2co FAYENCE— ROUEN. 

The fayence of Poirel de Grand val was in imitation of Delft, and he 
brought his workmen from thence. Another grant of privilege was 
given to Edme or Esmon Poterat of St. Sever, Sieur de St. Etienne, in 
1673. According to a deed recently discovered by M. Pottier, he died 
in 1687, and was succeeded by his son, Louis Poterat, who had carried 
on a rival establishment at Rouen. 

Decrees were also granted to Le Vavasseur, Pavie, Maletra, Dionis, 
Lecoq de Villeray, Picquet de la Houssiette, and De Bare de la Croizille. 
Gournay, in his Almanack General du Commerce, mentions Belanger, 
Dubois, Flandrin, Hugue, Valette, Dumont, Jourdain, La Houssiette, and 
Vavasseur ; in the English style, M. Sturgeon. In none of these, how- 
ever, do we find Dicu or Gardin, whose names appear on the ware. 

The fabriques which have imitated more or less the Rouen style are 
Lille, Paris, Sinceny, Marans, Nantes, Moustiers, and Nevers, which are 
in some instances very difficult to distinguish. 

The following list of potters is taken from the notes of the late M. 
Andre Pottier, published by his executors. 

RUE D'ELBEUF. 

Edme' or Esmon Poterat, 1644; remplace par M. de Villeray en 1722 ; puis 

Dionis en 1740. 
Charles Thomas Antoine Mouchard, 1749. 
Pierre Dumont, 1774. 

Guillaume Heugue, 1774, associe" a sa mere en 1775. 
Michel Antoine Guillaume Heugue. 
Seraphine Heugue. 
Hubert Le Tellier, 1781. 

Louis Jean Baptiste Picquet de la Houssiette, 1788. 
Pierre Charles Le Page, 1798. 
Guillaume Tharel, 1798. 
Anne Jeanne Le Boullenger. 
Nicholas L' Homme. 

RUE DU PRE. 

Louis Poterat, Sieur de St. Etienne, 1675. 

Madelaine de Laval, veuve de St. Etienne, 17 10. 

Jean Bertin, 1720; Veuve Huet Bertin, 1740. 

Nicolas Fouquay, 1720; successeur Girard de Raincourt, 1742. 

Guillaume Frangois Heugue, 1720, se transporte Rue St. Julien. 

Michel Mathieu Vallet, pere et fils ; Mathieu Vallet ; Mathieu Amable Vallet ; 

Pierre Alphonse Vallet, 1756. 
Jean Baptiste Francois Augustin Heugue, 1774. 
Marie Adelaide Julie Heugue, 178S. 
Pierre Paul Jourdain, 1788. 
Claude Legrip, 1798. 



FAYKNCK— ROUKN. 201 



RUE TOUS-VENTS. 

Jean Guillibaud, 1720; Veuve Loue Guillibaud, 1740. 
Jacques Nicolas Levavasseur, 1743 ; veuve, 1755. 
Marie Thomas Philemon Levavasseur. 
Amaddc Lambert and Adrien Heugue. 

RUE ST. SEVER. 

Cauchois, 1712 ; Andre - Pottier, successeur. 

Jacques Nicolas dc lc Mcttarie, 1 7 19. 

Pierre Jacques de la Mettarie. 

Pierre Paul Caussy, 1720. 

Pierre Guillaume Abraham Heugue, 1722. 

Faupoint, 1722 ; Carre, 1722. 

Jean Baptiste Antoine Flandrin, 1740. 

Pierre Mouchard, 1746; associe" en 1757 a Debarc de la Croisillc ; Gabriel 

Sas, successeur. 
Jean Baptiste Francois Heugue, 1774. 
Charles Framboisier et Veuve Framboisier, 1774. 
Jean Nicolas Bellenger fils ; Louis Cornu. 
Jacques Charles Noel Dubois ; Charles Guillaume Dubois. 
Jean Baptiste Dupray ; Jean Mathieu Vallet. 

RUE ST. JULIEN. 

Pinon, 1722 ; Maugard or Maugras, 1722. 

Guillaume Francois Heugue, 1740, venant Rue du Pre. 

Francois Henri Heugue, Francois Philippe Heugue. 

Nicolas Louis Francois Macarel, 1740. 

Pierre Michel Macarel, 1749. 

Nicolas Roch Macarel, 1774. 

Pierre Nicolas Robert Macarel. 

Nicolas Maletra, 1740; Veuve Maletra, 1749. 

Robert Thomas Pavie, 1754, mort en 1777. 

William Sturgeon, 1770. 

This list is far from being complete; among others we may note :— Gabriel 
Fosse, established in 1739, succeeded by his widow. Breard, about 1720. A 
decree of 7th July 1781 authorises Messrs. Macnemara, William Sturgeon, Simon 
de Suzay and Letellier to establish a manufacture royale. Specimens were made 
in 1783, but the opposition of other manufacturers stopped the enterprise. The 
number of fabriques was limited to eighteen ; some of these had three kilns, so that 
the quantity produced need not be wondered at. Pierre Chapelle, whose pieces 
are hereafter mentioned, were signed in 1725, and made at the fabrique of Madame 
de Villeray ; these are perhaps the finest known ; he died in 1763, at the age of 
seventy-five. He had a brother, a son, and a nephew, who also painted on fayence. 
Claude Borne, 1736 to 1757 ; and many others. 



20: 



FAYENCE— ROUEN. 



We are inclined to think there was really no special mark of this 
fabrique. There was no rival and no competitor which would make it 
necessary to have a distinctive sign. It is true the fleur-de-lis was 
occasionally used, but the pieces so marked form the exception, and the 
monograms so frequently found on the Rouen ware are probably those 
of painters. 

At the commencement of the eighteenth century, especially during 

the epoch of a keramic painter named Guillebaud, about 1730, the 

Chinese style pervaded all the Rouen fayence, but it was transformed or 

travestied, and possessed a special physiognomy ; 

«j^ the subjects were landscapes and buildings, with 

^jy %\ figures, fantastic birds, dragons, and marine 

animals, in blue, yellow, green, and red, bordered 

with the square Chinese ornaments. Mr. Jules Greslou places this (sans 

grand certitude) as the mark of M. Guillebaud ; it is on a porlc lutilier, 

covered in floral arabesques in red and blue, finely painted. 



Briunent 
1699. 




A bowl, which has descended by inheritance 
to a family named Le Brument, of Rouen, has 
this signature ; it is ornamented with designs of 
cartouches, scrolls, and leaves. 

When Louis XIV. sent his silver plate to 
the Mint to assist in defraying the expenses of 
the war, he had a service made at Rouen, which 
bears the mark of the fleur-de-lis. 



Another mark of a fleur-de-lis, quoted by M. 
Jacquemart. 




CM, 




These pieces were made in the forms of birds 
and animals, such as were served at table, as 
pheasants, hares, ducks, &c. Mr. H. G. Bohn 
has one specimen, of a turkey, marked as in the 
margin, with two batons crossed beneath. 

The mark of M. Guillebaud about 1730, de- 
coration a la come — Guillebaud a Rouen. 

The paste of the Rouen fa} r ence is heavier 
and thicker than that of Delft, but the designs 
and ornaments are full of taste, decorated in blue 
camaieu and in polychrome, some in the Nevers 
style, of white on blue ground, but of paler 



FAYENCE— ROUEN. 203 



PAo„aPP 




■f-'f 



colour. It is the most artistic of all French 
fayences, by reason of the national character of' 
its decorations ; the pieces were often of large 
size, as fountains, vases, &c. There are many' 
fine specimens in the Museum at Sevres, some 
painted with arabesques and armorial escutcheons. 
There are four splendid terminal busts of the 
Seasons in Hamilton Palace, the chefs (Vauvre of 
Vavasseur, potter of Rouen. The finest collec- 
tions are those of M. Leveel of Paris, recently 
purchased for the Museum of the Hotel de 
Cluny ; and that of M. Pottier of Rouen. The 
letters on the ware are very numerous ; some of 
them are given in the margin. In the Collec- 
tion of M. Edouard Pascal are the following : — D V : P P : B B : P D : 
MD:D:LD:L:AD:HV:DZ:G:FD, &c. A salad-bowl 
in the same Collection has the name of " Nicolas Gardin, 1759." 

The mark of Nicolas Gardin about 1760, 
on a plate painted with trophies of torch, arrows / \ ' 

and quiver, called fayence an carquois, scrolls on J KJ IW> 

the border. Two fine polychrome plates, 20 

inches diameter, in the Dejean Collection, Paris, for which he paid £60, 
painted with Judith and Holofernes, and Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria, have the signature of the potter Lcleit. 
This mark is on a large octagonal plate, painted 
in red and blue border of arabesques ; in the 
centre a basket of flowers. 

Rouen. On an earthenware tureen with a 
group of dead game in relief on the cover, but 
of inferior quality to the Rouen fayence generally; 
in the South Kensington Museum. There is T TV 

also a Rouen fayence ewer, painted with " St. J[^ 

Jeanne" and a landscape, dated 1737. 

In the petition of the faienciers to the National Assembly in 1790 
(see p. 167) there were sixteen fabriques of various kinds of fayence 
in active operation, being more than w T as allowed in any other city in 
France, — there being at Paris, 14; at Nevers, 12; at Marseilles, 11 ; 
Bordeaux, 6 ; Moustiers, 5. 

There are some specimens of modern Rouen fayence in the Sevres 
Museum, from M. Letellier in 1809, M. de la Metterie in 1823, and 
M. Amadee Lambert in 1827 ; but we do not know when or by whom 
these establishments were founded. 

There is a very fine specimen of Rouen ware of the beginning of 
the eighteenth century — a bust of Flora, on a long pedestal, the draper}- 



R 



2o 4 FAYENCE— ROUEN— NIDERVILLER. 

and pedestal diapered with flowers and arabesques, height 7 ft. 3 in., 
presented by the late Duke of Hamilton to the Kensington Museum. 

This mark, within a wreath, is on a celestial 

-A!x\OI/EiN globe, with the constellations in colours, supported 

*iy2-0* on a pedestal, cherubs' heads on the four angles, 

PJBINx ^/VR. an d between the four elements. The companion 

PIERRE * s ^ ie terrestr i a l globe, similar, but with the Four 
PHjAPF^IE Seasons on the pedestal, and stand of four lions' 
heads and shoulders ; about 4 feet high. These 
very fine spheres were exhibited in Paris at the Exposition of 1867, 
painted by Pierre Chapelle in the fabrique of Madame de Villeray, 
Faubourg St. Sever at Rouen, and they decorated the vestibule of the 
Chateau de Choisy-le-Roi. 

Niderviller (Meurthe). Established about 1760 by Jean Louis, 
Baron de Beyerle. The pottery is in the German style, in consequence 
of German potters being employed, and is remarkable for the richness 
and delicacy of its decoration ; it is most frequently painted with flowers 
in bouquets and garlands. The buildings were constructed after his 
own plans, and being a good chemist, he brought the wares to great per- 
fection. He was associated with a German named Anstatt or Anstette, 
and no expense was spared to ensure success ; the fine fayence figures 
and groups are well modelled. About 1780, four years before his death, 
the estate was purchased by General Count Custine, and carried on by 
him, under the direction of M. Lanfray, principally in the manufacture 
of porcelain. 

It is probable that Custine became proprietor before this date, for 
a plate with the date 1774 bears the mark of two C's crossed, and in 
front the same monogram surrounded by palm branches, with the motto 
" Fais ce que tu dois, advienne ce qui pourra," evidently made for his 
own use. In the Collection of M. Meusnier. 

The following document, quoted by M. A. Jacquemart {Mcrveillcs, 
(St., part hi. p. 78), seems to disprove the assertion of its German origin, 
the names being rather of a French character. 

F.tat Exact de Tons les Exempts de la Subvention qui sont actuellement dans ce 
Lieu de Niderviller, leurs Noms et Sumo ins, et cela pour PAnnee 1759. 

Le Sieur Frangois Anstette, controlleur de la manufacture, gagne environ trente 

sols par jour. 
Le Sieur Jean Baptiste Malnat, directeur de la meme manufacture, a cinq cens 

livres par an de gage. 
Michel Martin, peintre, gagne environ vingt sols par jour. 
Pierre Anstette, peintre, gagne environ vingt quatre sols par jour. 
Joseph Secger, peintre, gagne environ vingt sols par jour. 
Frederic Adolph Tiebauld, gar^on peintre, gagne environ vingt quatre sols par jour. 



FAYENCE— NIDERVILLER— D'ANNET. 205 

Martin Schcttler, garc_on peintrc, gagne environ quinze sols par jour. 

Augustin Herman, gar^on peintre, „ „ vingt ,, „ 

Daniel Koope, garcon peintre, „ „ douze ,, „ 

Michel Anstette, gar<;on peintre, ,, ,, vingt quatre sols par jour. 

Jean Pierre Raqucttc, „ „ dix huit „ 

Nicolas Lutze, garcon peintre, „ ,, vingt ,, 

Deroy, garcon mouleur, „ ,, vingt „ 

Charles Lemire, gargon sculteur, ,, „ vingt quatre ,, 

Jean Thalbotier, garcon peintrc, ,, „ vingt „ 

Philip Arnold, garcon sculteur, „ „ vingt ,, 

Signed by the Mayor, Syndic, and cchevin at Nidervillers, 1759. 

The sculptor Charles Sauvade dit Lemire, from the fabrique of 
Luneville, was the author of those charming statuettes to which 
Nidervillers owes so much of its reputation. This artist had, durin" - 
more than twenty years, the artistic direction of the fabrique. At first 
he was employed in the manufacture of fayence, and modelled some 
of those graceful figures which Cyfle had brought into fashion ; he 
also made them in porcelain. Lemire remained at Nidervillers until 
1806 or 1808. 

Niderviller. The monogram of M. de r \\/9 

Beyerlet of Niderviller or Niderville. ty \j 

Niderviller. General Custine succeeded 
Beyerlet. This mark was the first used under /T^ f 

his direction. Op*\J 

Niderviller. Another mark of General Cus- € 

tine, on fine fayence as well as on porcelain, — the \' ^ -§ 

two C's with or without a count's coronet : used ~"^"* 

about 1792 ; he was beheaded in 1793. The >*w 

two C's are also found on the German porcelain *"^lf""' 

of Louisberg, but surmounted by an Imperial If 

crown with a cross at its apex. There are 

several specimens in the Sevres Museum ; and on jugs of white fayence 
with coloured designs. 

Niderviller. On an oval fayence dish 
painted with flowers, rococo border of yellow, JV / \r* J 

blue, and lake, green leaves; marked in blue an ' \ \t 

grand feu. 

Besancon (Doubs). M. Bulliard, fabricant, sent some services in 
1809 to the Sevres Museum of ordinary white and brown fayence. 

D'Annet (Chateau). Italian school ; fine r — -> 

fayence. M. Brongniart gives this mark from I !■ ( 

an enamelled tile for pavements or walls, in the - {_ , ^ Z^j- 

Sevres Museum, from the Chateau d'Annet. / | 

Sixteenth century. ^™ 



2o6 FAYENCE— LUNEVILLE— NANCY. 

Luneville (Meurthe). Established 173 1. The most ancient fabrique 
of fayence was that established in one of the faubourgs at Wilier by 
Jacques Chambrette towards the end of the reign of Leopold, to whom 
the Duke Francois III. accorded privileges by letters patent on the 10th 
of April and 14th June 173 1. The proprietorship passed into the hands 
of Gabriel Chambrette, his son, and Charles Loyal, his son-in-law, as 
shown by the letters patent of the 17th of August 1758. These docu- 
ments speak of them as being directors of the manufactory at Wilier for 
making ordinary fayence and tore de pipe, and accord to it the title of 
the Royal Manufactory or Manufacture Stanislas. In 1778 it was sold 
jT- o /-* to Messrs. Keller & Guerin ; they made fayence 

_ TT . T * .... * „ of blue decoration like Nevers, and rose and 

LUNEVILLb. ... .. . - ,, c . . .. . .... 

green like that of old Strasbourg; it is still 

carried on by the grandson of M. Keller. Schneider was a celebrated 

potter who worked at Luneville. Large figures of lions, dogs, and other 

animals, sometimes of the natural size ; pierced fruit baskets, like the 

German, &c, were made here in the eighteenth century. The name of 

the town is frequently printed at length, as on two large dogs in the 

Musee de Cluny. In 1790 there were three fabriques in active operation. 

Blois. There was a manufactory of fayence here in the seventeenth 

and eighteenth centuries. M. Ulysse Besnard, director of the Blois 

t- t^ A T:) ^ T T r. -p Museum, informs us that it was of a superior 
LLbAKU U L 1 . ... ... , ., . -r i 

~ quality, with pure white stanniferous glaze, 

decorated with enamel colours, equal to the most successful productions 

of Nevers and Rouen ; some specimens are signed Lebarquet. 

This mark, of recent date, occurs on each of 
a pair of candlesticks, painted with scrolls, masks, 
mermen, &c, in purple, orange, and green, in the 
South Kensington Museum ; it is engraved in 
the Kcramic Gallery, fig. 103 ; the numerals refer 
to the date, 1866. 



Blois. Maiolica, decorated with arabesques in 
the style of the sixteenth century, and crest in 
centre of a dog, and a crown above a fleur-de-lis ; 
well painted on yellow ground. 



Nancy. On the nth January 1774, the Sieur Nicolas Lelong was 
authorised to establish a fayence manufactory in the Faubourg de Saint- 
Pierre. This decree, dated 24th April 1774, was not the only one 
granted ; for the biscuit de Nancy is frequently referred to. 




FAYENCE— BELLEVUE— STRASBOURG. 207 

Rambervillers (Vosgcs). This fayence manufactory is spoken of by 
Gournay, and is also in the list of 1791 : " Ses faiences tiennent le feu, 
elles ont une blancheur et une beauts qui approchent de TCmail ; on les 
orne de peintures fines." Carried on by M. Gerard. 

Arbois (Jura), Franche-Comte. A manufactory of fayence existed 
here early in the eighteenth century. In the Sevres Keramic Museum 
there is a bowl with two flat handles, rudely painted with a cock, 
inscribed Joseph Laurent d'Arbois, 1746. The Almanack de Gournay 
in 1788 speaks of a fabrique here directed by a potter named Giroulet. 

Bellevue, near Toul (Meurthe). A person named Lefrancois first 
established a manufacture of fayence here in 1758. On the 1st May 
1 77 1, he disposed of it to Charles Bayard and Francis Boyer, who by an 
arret of Council of 13th April 1773 were thereby authorised to carry it 
on ; of which the following is an extract : " Sur la requete presentee au 
Roy, etc. . . . par Charles Bayard, ci-devant directeur de la manufacture 
royale de fayance et de terre de pipe a Luneville, et Francois Boyer, 
artiste dans le genre de fayancerie, Sa Majeste a autorisee l'etablissement 
forme a Bellevue, ban de Toul, generalite de Metz, d'une manufacture de 
fayance et terre de pipe fine et commune, et leur a permis de continuer 
a y fabriquer, vendre, &c, pendant quinze ans," &c. Three months later 
another arret extended their privileges and permitted them to use the 
title of Manufacture Royale de Bellevue. Cyfle and other celebrated artists 
furnished some charming models ; subsequently Francois Boyer was 
sole proprietor, and carried it on until 1806, when he was succeeded by 
M. Georges Aubry. 

Toul (Meurthe). A manufacture, we are informed by the Almanack 
de Gournay, was carried on here in 1788 by MM. Bayard, pere et fils. 
It is therefore probable that Charles Bayard quitted Bellevue about that 
time. The objects produced here in fayence and terre de pipe are 
therein much extolled : groups, figures, busts, vases painted and gilt, 
medallions, &c, after the designs of the great masters. 

Strasbourg (Bas-Rhin). The name of Hannong or Hanung has 
been associated with this important fabrique from its commencement to 
its close. The first potter of this name was a maker of stoves of green 
enamel, ornamented with subjects in relief, like those of Nuremberg. 
Towards 1709, Charles Francois Hannong created in the Rue du Foulon 
a manufactory of pipes ; ten years later, a German fugitive, Jean-Henri 
Wackenfeld, came to Strasbourg and tried without success to found a 
porcelain manufactory. Charles Hannong, taking advantage of this 
circumstance, took Wackenfeld into his service in September 1721, and 
being well versed not only in the process of porcelain but also of fayence, 
this association proved successful in developing both. 

In 1724, the works not being sufficiently large for the increasing 
business, a second fabrique was taken at Haguenau in the same depart- 



208 FA YENCE— STRASBOURG. 

ment. Charles Hannong being advanced in years, remitted the two 
manufactories into the hands of his two sons, Paul Antoine and Balthasar, 
who had long been associated with him, on payment of a certain annuity, 
by an agreement dated 22nd September 1732. The old man died 19th 
April 1739, aetatis seventy. In 1737, Balthasar, having dissolved partner- 
ship with his brother, took for his share the establishment at Haguenau, 
leaving Paul Antoine alone at Strasbourg. The latter continned per- 
fecting his productions, which had a very extensive sale. In 1744 Paul 
had discovered the art of applying gold to his fine white enamel, and 
profited by the occasion of a visit of Louis XV. to Strasbourg to present 
him the first specimens. 

This prosperity was not destined to last long, for Paul Hannong's 
successful attempts to make porcelain aroused the jealousy of the Royal 
fabrique, and in February 1754 a decree was issued prohibiting the manu- 
facture and sale of porcelain in France, and he was compelled to remove 
to Frankenthal in the Palatinate. Pierre Antoine, one of the sons of 
Paul, took the fayence works at Strasbourg on the death of his father in 
1760, and the eldest son, Joseph Adam, inherited those at Frankenthal. 
Paul Adam Hannong died at Strasbourg, 31st May 1760, in the sixtieth 
year of his age ; he was twice married, and had fifteen children. The 
two sons here named were his successors in the fabriques of Strasbourg 
and Haguenau. Not being a man of business like his father, and enter- 
ing into speculations, Pierre Antoine sold to Sevres the secret of making 
hard porcelain, and abandoned the direction of his works to the Widow 
Lowenfinck, and subsequently ceded them to his brother Joseph ; and 
when the decree of 1766 permitted the fabrication of porcelain decorated 
in blue or camaicu, he made that and fayence simultaneously. Eventually 
difficulties arose relating to the payment of dues to the Receiver-General 
of the Bishopric of Strasbourg for funds advanced to the potter, which 
caused his ruin. The Prince-Bishop seized and sold the works, after 
having imprisoned the debtor, and, notwithstanding his strenuous efforts 
to re-establish his credit and his reputation, the unfortunate Joseph 
Hannong was obliged to fly into Germany, where he died. Thus the 
kilns of Strasbourg ceased work altogether in 1780. {Tainturier.) 

The ware is generally decorated with flowers 
in red, rose-colour, and green ; a clock-case, in 
STRASBOURG t ^ ie Leveel Collection, Paris, has the name of the 
town at lensrth. 



pj-H-m 



Si 

47Z 



Strasbourg. Joseph Hanung. This mono- 
gram is on a pair of fayence bottle-stands (porte 
huiliers) in Captain Langford's Collection. 



FAYENCE— STRASBOURG— MONTIGNY. 2cy 



Strasbourg. Hanung. On the figure of 
a bagpiper, of coarse white ware, artistically 
modelled ; the mark is in pale blue. In the pos- 
session of the Rev. R. Waldo Sibthorpe. 



8 



HC 



Strasbourg. This mark in blue is found S^J /w 

upon the early pottery. Ilanung's father was a jft 

tobacco-pipe maker. A vv 

The marks of the Ilanungs are frequently accompanied by a number, 
and sometimes a letter indicating the pattern, to enable the merchants 
to give their orders to the manufacturers without making any mistake ; 
a plan also adopted at Delft in many fabriques. 

Strasbourg. This monogram of Joseph 
Hanung is on a fine plate, with designs in blue, 
green, and yellow, somewhat similar to the fay- 
ence of Marseilles or Moustiers ; marked in blue 
under the glaze. 

The fayence of Strasbourg has been imitated in the South of France, 
especially at Marseilles. They are much alike, and frequently without 
marks, but may be known by this peculiarity : the fayence of Strasbourg 
has quite a plain surface where the colours have been laid on, whilst 
that of Marseilles has nearly always the colours in slight relief, and may 
be known by passing the hand over the decorated portions. German 
workmen were employed. 

Haguenau. Established in 1724 by Charles Hannong, and continued 
by his son Balthasar in 1737. Paul Antoine Hannong subsequently 
had the works, and in 1752 he engaged the services of a certain H. E. 
V. Lowenfinck. On the death of Paul in 1760, the establishment be- 
came the property of Pierre Antoine Hannong, who took as a partner 
Xavier Hallez ; it was eventually ceded to the Widow Anstett, and in 
1786 the firm was Anstett fils, Barth & Vollet. It is now difficult, if 
not impossible, to separate the marks of Strasbourg and Haguenau, as 
the same marks were probably used at both. 

Vaucouleurs (Meuse). This fabrique was founded by Sieur Girault 
de Berinqueville by an order of council, December 16, 1738. The pro- 
ducts were a very fine and well-worked fayence, richly decorated in 
the Chinese style of Strasbourg, with rock- work and flowers. There 
were some pot-pourri vases at the Paris Exposition, surmounted by 
flowers in relief and handles formed of groups of flowers. This fabrique 
is mentioned in the list of fayenciers in 1790 (p. 167). 

Montigny (Meuse), near Vaucouleurs. Two fabriques are alluded to 
in the letters patent of January 1743, which were registered in 1745, 
Mansuy-Pierrot and Francois Cartier, quoted at length in M. Jacque- 

O 



2io FAYENCE— MOUSTIERS. 

mart's Mcrvcillcs, &c, part iii. p. 88. Neither the marks nor the pro- 
ducts are known. 

Les Islettes (Meuse). This establishment, probably of still earlier 
date, was in 1737 under the direction of a M. Bernard, at which time 
Joseph Le Cerf, a painter of renown, decorated the ware ; he afterwards 
went to Sinceny. We are not able to identify its earlier products. At 
the Paris Exposition some pretty specimens of recent work were exhi- 
bited by M. Maze Sencier. 

Moustiers (Basses-Alpes), Midi. Fine fayence, 1686 to 1800. We 
have no record of the origin of this important fabrique ; but a manuscript 
read before the Academy of Marseilles in 1792, now preserved in the 
library of that city, gives us an insight to its history. It informs us 
that the fabrication of fayence in Provence commenced at Moustiers, and 
that the Spanish Government, wishing to improve their own manufacture, 
and knowing the importance of that already existing in Provence, the 
Comte dArenda, then Minister (1775 to 1784), engaged workmen from 
Moustiers and Marseilles to go to Denia, where, having expended a 
great deal of money in re-establishing the pottery and in making ex- 
periments to improve the colours, especially the blue, hitherto only 
known in France, it proved unsuccessful and was abandoned. One 
of the artists, of the name of Olery, returned to Moustiers and estab- 
lished himself there, where Clerissy had already made beautiful fayence, 
and was making a rapid fortune. With the knowledge he had acquired 
in the employment of colours and by introducing new forms, he soon 
surpassed Clerissy ; but not being prudent, economical, or rich, his secrets 
became known, and he sank into mediocrity. 

It is only within a few years that the fayence of Moustiers has 
become known to amateurs, and M. Brongniart makes no mention of 
it in his Treatise on Pottery in 1844. It has been indiscriminately 
attributed to Rouen or Marseilles, and by some even to St. Cloud, but 
the researches of M. Riocreux of Sevres, Messrs. Jacquemart and Le 
Blant, Dr. Bondil of Moustiers, M. Davillier, and others, have thrown 
considerable light upon its early history. According to M. Davillier, 
in the archives of Moustiers the name of Pierre Clerissy occurs in 1677 
and 1685, without any mention of his profession, but in the year 1686 
is found the baptism of Anne, daughter of Pierre Clerissy, "maitre 
fayansier." This is the earliest record of a manufactory here. In 
subsequent registers he is called " marchand faiencier," and on the 
25th of August 1728 his death is recorded at the age of seventy-six. 
About the year 1686, therefore, at the age of thirty-four, he probably 
founded this manufactory, which he directed for forty-two years. A 
second Pierre Clerissy, son or nephew of the first, born in 1704, having 
made a large fortune in the same business, was in 1743 ennobled by 
Louis XIV., under the title of Baron or Comte de Trevans. He 



FAYENCE— MOUSTIERS. 211 

associated himself with Joseph Fouque, to whom the fabrique was 
eventually ceded between the years 1740 and 1750, an d it has been 
continued uninterruptedly by members of the same family until 1S50. 

In the same archives for the year 1727, a certain Pol or Paul Roux 
is mentioned as "maitre faiencier" of this town ; and in the year 1745 
is the entry of the death of Marie, daughter of Joseph Olery, " maitre 
fabriquant en fayence." 

We have, therefore, evidence of at least three manufactories of 
fayence existing in 1745. From the middle of the eighteenth century 
other fabricants, prompted by the prosperity of Clerissy, Olery, and Roux, 
came to establish themselves at Moustiers. In 1756 we are informed 
there were seven or eight, and in 1789, according to Dr. Bondil, these 
were increased to eleven : their names were Achard, Berbiguier et 
Feraud, Bondil pere et fils, Combon et Antelmy, Ferrat f re res, Fouque 
pere et fils, Guichard, Laugier et Chaix, Mille, Pelloquin et Berge, 
Yccard et Feraud. 

M. lAbbe Feraud, in a letter to M. Davillier, mentions also the 
Brothers Thion as possessing a very fine fabrique, and he adds that the 
Fouques were the last who attempted to revive the manufacture of 
painted fayence. M. Fouque, a descendant of the above, speaks also 
of another faiencier named Barbaroux. 

The products of the Moustiers fabricants may be divided into three 
periods : — 

1st Epoch. Towards the end of the seventeenth century; the sub- 
jects are hunting scenes, after Tempesta, Frans Floris, &c, painted in 
blue en camaieu, escutcheons of arms, champetre scenes, and figures in 
the costume of Louis XIV., mythological and biblical subjects, with ara- 
besque borders of the same colour. The outlines are sometimes lightly 
indicated in violet of manganese. These early specimens of Pierre 
Clerissy have no marks or signatures. 

2nd Epoch. From the commencement of the eighteenth century to 
about 1745. The specimens of this period are better known to amateurs, 
and not so rare ; they are also decorated in blue camaieu in the style of 
Jean Berain and Andre Charles Boulle, with highly finished and graceful 
interlaced patterns, amongst which are cupids, satyrs, and nymphs, ter- 
minal figures, garlands of flowers, masks, &c, and canopies resting upon 
consoles or brackets, from which hang drapery, bordered or framed with 
foliage, and hatched spaces, mythological personages, vases of flowers, 
fountains, and other designs being frequently introduced : the centre 
subjects are classical or champetre figures in costume of the time, some- 
times coats of arms. Some of the fayence of this period is painted in 
cobalt blue in the Chinese style, which M. le Baron Davillier attributes 
to Pol Roux, and refers to a similar plate in the Sevres Collection bearing 
the arms of le grand Colbert. The former he assigns to Clerissy. None 



212 FAYENCE— MOUSTIERS. 

of these bear the mark of the potter, but a few have the initials of the 
decorator. 

3rd Epoch. From 1745 to 1789 the fayence is mostly painted in 
polychrome ; some specimens are found in blue camaicu, but they are 
exceptions, and seldom in the Berain style of arabesques ; the colours 
are blue (which prevails), brown, yellow, green, and violet ; on some, 
which are rarely met with, a red is introduced which sinks into the 
enamel in a furrow. The decorations on this ware are garlands of 
flowers, fruit, and foliage, finely painted, sometimes with mythological 
subjects, medallions enclosing cupids, busts of gods and goddesses, 
warriors, &c. 

Other patterns of this period consist of grotesque figures or carica- 
tures, sometimes in green and yellow, and sometimes en grisaille in the 
style of Callot ; men with asses' ears playing upon their noses, which are 
shaped like trumpets ; apes dressed in extravagant costume, riding upon 
impossible animals, chimeras, &c. These are by Joseph Olery, and may 
be easily recognised, as they nearly always bear his trade mark, an O 
traversed by an L, the first two letters of his name, frequently accom- 
panied by the initials of the decorator. 

The population in 17S9 was more than 3000, but at the present day 
it does not amount to above 1300, and there are only two manufactories 
of ordinary white fayence, that of M. Feraud and of Messrs. Jauffret 
& Mouton. 

The outlines of the designs were transferred to the surface of the 
ware before it was painted, by means of paper patterns pricked with a 
fine needle and powdered with charcoal, so that the subject could be 
reproduced as often as required. Many of these pricked paper patterns 
are in the Sevres Museum, and M. le Baron Davillier has about eighty 
more, some dated 1752 to 1756 (their authenticity is proved by the paper 
mark), the subjects too being of the same character as on the ware just 
described. 



n 
s 



Moustiers. These marks are found sepa- 
rately upon the blue camaieu pieces ; possibly 
the F may be intended for Fouque, successor 
of Clerissy. A great many other letters are 
found upon this ware, but as we cannot tell 
with any degree of certainty whether they 
denote the potter's or painter's names, it is 
useless to reproduce them. 



^ * »«. s I fA Moustiers. Another mark given by M. 

M-C-AI?4<M-A le Baron DavilIier . 



FAYENCE— M01 S II ERS. 213 

Moustif.ks. This is one of the earliest 
marks known, painted by Gaspare! Viry for yl>iryf.a.ySrfonsficrj. 
Pierre Clerissy. Mis name frequently occurs - 

in the minutes about the year 1698, where he Cri6^ QwWjy 

is styled painter ; it occurs on a dish painted 

in blue, with a boar-hunt after Tcmpesta, with arabesque border, in the 
possession of M. le Baron C. Davillier. The name of Jean Baptiste Viry, 
" peintre faillancier," also occurs on the register. 

Moustiers. These names of painters, -S^-fl \\i(i 

apparently Spanish, occur on some pieces 

painted in polychrome in the possession of M. t^t jri I 01 ')), f^f 

Le Veel, M. E. Pascal, and other collectors. 

M. Davillier thinks they formed part of a "r-j ^ 

service which, according to tradition, was £ O \J\CITLQQtj 

made for Madame de Pompadour about 1745, (p 

" au chiffre de dix mille livres," by Pierre 

Cleriss}\ 



Moustiers. (Olery.) Other specimens in 
which blue predominates, accompanied by other 
colours, as brown, yellow, green, and violet. 



cvios 
O Y 



Moustiers. The mark of Olery, being 
the first and last letters of his name. There 
is a basin, made on the occasion of the battle 
of Fontenoy in 1746, richly decorated in poly- f 

chrome, with flowers, cupids, &c. ; Victory in 
the centre, holding two flags ; on one is written, " Ludovicum sequitur," 
on the other " Cum Ludovico delectatio," and a scroll held by cupids, 
with " Victoria." In the possession of M. le Baron C. Davillier. 



Moustiers. (Olery.) The first two marks 
are on a piece painted in blue camaicu; the 
other is sometimes found alone. 

Moustiers. (Olery.) With painter's 
initials, on a specimen in the Sevres Museum. 

Moustiers. (Olery.) On a piece painted 
in blue camaicu; accompanied by painter's 
marks. 






2i 4 FAYENCE— MOUSTIERS. 

Moustiers. (Olery.) On a very fine dish, 
painted in polychrome with a classical subject 
and elegant borders. 

Moustiers. Uncertain marks, probably 
subsequent to Olery. The monogram P. A. is 
the name of the potter ; the other letters refer 
to the painter. 

Moustiers. This mark, with the name of 
J>^/NijOUO'&T<r,^\^ the town on a flag, is on the interior of a plate 

representing a view of Moustiers. In the 
Baron C. Davillier's Collection. 

/ _,. Moustiers. Ferrat is the name of a 

J-^r^aT TrvCTM^UyCnO manufacturer of this place about 1760, on an 

oval dish with flowers in polychrome, in the 
Sevres Museum. Ferrat Freres are mentioned by Dr. Bondil as potters 
still carrying on business in 1789. 




Moustiers. The name of Pierre Fournier 



\ \i>-~ de Monstiers, 1775, in a circle, occurs on the 

^ Sj. body of a gourd-shaped vessel, painted in 

^ *» polychrome, with garlands of flowers, intended 

^i— q/ probably for the name of the person for whom 



N 77 5 



•^c O '»' it was made. 



.<* 




Moustiers. On a polychrome plate dated 
1778, when the decoration was in its decadence. 



,: Cv.-;;,' :f~"'i t Moustiers. The initials perhaps of Gui- 

/ \]-.'} ] 'Z--?\ '4" A chard the potter. It is on a vessel with a 

.v"' v -**. 1 1 I'/'--' handle and spout, called in Provence gargouline, 

■••-:' ■; , --'^' ,;::i'3 painted with flowers ; the mark is pounced in 

v "'//;. \ JJ .-■>:•, the manner before described, applied by means 

'-' ■:;;■: f CQ..Q "'' of paper pricked with a needle. 

Moustiers. A potter of the name of Thion 

T/iion a Moustiers. is mentioned by M. l'Abbe Feraud as having 

a fine manufactory here. This mark is on a 

tureen of the eighteenth century, painted in colours ; in the possession 

of M. St. Leon, Paris. 



FAYENCE— MOUSTIERS— MARANS. 215 

Moustikrs. A jug inscribed " Vive la A . . ^ . , , 

. „ T , ,, . r m, ^1 Antoinc Gitichard, 

paix, 1763. In the collection ol M. Champ- , ., ^ 

„ i, . , , mi -i 1 • • " c Moushers, 1763, 

fleurv. Guichard still carried on business in , „,„. 

J k IO A 

I789. 

Moulins (Allier). This mark occurs on 

an octagonal plate of the eighteenth century, / % 

painted with figures, flowers, and birds in the CX/ T?\ O L\ J ( T\ S 

Chinese style of the Rouen school, styled a la 

come. In the Sevres Museum. There are some pieces of white fayence 

and stoneware of more recent date from the manufactory of M. Massieu, 

1809, in the same museum. 

cftolltk' fefih 

Moulins. There exists in the Museum of »*' . 

this place a statue of St. Roch, much in the Qi£, TTL^V-llCn Yl 
Nevers style; behind it is written the name of I'TL/'L- 

the modeller, Chollet, and underneath that of the *. , 
painter M ogain; on the pedestal are his initials (}IU(?^'MC TTlOCfCUU 
and the date (Jacqucmart). 

Poupre (Midi). There is a village near 
Moustiers of this name. This mark is found Ay f)C4^/j/(^ 

on the bottom of a fayence jug, painted with ' ' 

figures and flowers in purple and blue, circa ^ l £(/)6>A^l 6 
1750. Sevres Museum. J / 3 

Marans, near La Rochelle (Charente-In- \/t'/P)/\ Kf" 

ferieure). The fayence manufactory at L'lle / l^XaC\i» 
d'Elle being closed, another was established . ^ 

at Marans about 1740 by M. Jean Pierre Rous- * f J Ly 

sencq from Bordeaux, but they continued to y-% 

draw the clay from the same place. There is R 

a fountain in the Sevres Museum in the style 
of Rouen, painted with arabesques and designs ^ — 

in blue, red, and yellow, with the monogram of / l/f 

Roussencq, 1754. A vase of this fabrique is J If L 

in M. Mathieu Meusnier's Collection ; it is 3 ft. 

high, ornamented with garlands and acanthus leaves in relief. Some of 
the pieces are simply marked with M, as in the margin. Roussencq 
died on the 17th of May 1756; the manufactory was then removed 
from Marans to La Rochelle. 

Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne). In the list of fayenciers in France 
in 1790 (see p. 167) we find one manufactory cited. 



2i6 FAYENCE— ARDUS— APT. 

Ardus (Tarn-et-Garonne). There existed a manufactory of fayence 
at Ardus, near Montauban, under the direction of a family named La 
Pierre. The ware produced was very coarse, in the style of Moustiers 
and Marseilles. M. Forestie, of Montauban, is publishing a work on 
the fayence of Montauban and Ardus ; he has a large collection of the 
ware of the district, among which are two plates signed "D'Ardus, 1739." 

La Tour d'Aigues (Avignon). This fabrique was, according to 
M. A. Jacquemart (Merveillcs, part hi. p. 155), created by the Baron de 
la Tour d'Aigues, M. de Bruni, in his own chateau. We do not know the 
date, except that it was previous to 1773, for in that year he applied for 
permission to join the fabrication of porcelain to that of fayence. A very 
curious piece made here is in the possession of M. Pechin, decorated in 
green camaieu with finely designed landscape and figures, inscribed under- 
neath " Fait a la Toar d'Aigues." 

M. Ed. Pascal has also a charming oil and vinegar cruet-stand with 
arabesques in the style of Moustiers ; it bears the mark of a tower, which 
we also find on a dish painted with flowers and bouquets in violet 
camaieu, and on another interesting piece belonging to M. Jules Ganonge 
of Nimes : it is an oblong dish, representing bubbling water in relief; 
in the centre is inserted a piece in form of a duck ; the mark of the toivcr 
is in the middle of the dish, and inside is the date 1770. M. Bonnet 
of Apt has another specimen from this fabrique, presented by one of the 
Baron de Bruni's family. It was abandoned in 1793- 

Dieu-le-Fit (Drome). A manufactory of glazed earthenware towards 
the end of the last century ; the name occurs in the list of fayenciers who 
petitioned the National Assembly in 1790. In 1834 it belonged to M. 
Vignal, who sent specimens to the Exposition in Paris in that year ; also 
in 1847. Sevres Museum. 

St. Clement (Meurthe). Established about 1750. There are some 
specimens in the Sevres Museum, and others of later date, 18 19 and 
1823. In 1834 M. Cosson, the manufacturer, sent some fayence services 
to the Paris Exposition. There was an extensive manufactory here in 
the last century, co-existent with those of Niderviller and Luneville, of 
a sort of pipeclay called bisquit, closely imitating china. In the Chronique 
des Arts ct de la Citriosiic was published in 1865 a list of the moulds 
which still exist at St. Clement — the Belisarius, the Shoemaker, the Paris 
Street- Criers, the Pleasant Lesson, the Leda, Venus and Adonis, &c. &c. 

Apt (Vaucluse), twelve leagues from Avignon. About the middle 
of the eighteenth century the fabrication of fayence commenced here, 
principally in imitation of jasper and brocatelle marble ; it acquired con- 
sideiable reputation. The manufacture of M. Bonnet was established 
about 1780, and is spoken of as imitating marbles; it is still carried on 
by his successor, producing vases of yellow clay with ornaments in relief. 
A vase made by M. Moulin in 1780 is in the Sevres Museum, with orna- 






FAYENCE— VAL-SOUS-MEUDON— DESVRE. 2 r 7 

merits in relief and festoons of various coloured pastes ; in the same 
museum are some specimens by Veuve Arnoux in 1802. In 1806 the 
fabricants of Apt sent to the Exposition of National Industry at Paris 
specimens of their marbled ware. M. Reyraud was a potter there in 
1830. 

Val-sous-Meudon (Seine-ct-Oise). There was a manufactory of 
fayence here in the beginning of the eighteenth century, which existed 
in 1818, but only produced latterly a common 

description of ware. A saladier or punch-bowl, Claude Pelisie, 
belonging to M. Marne (formerly Mayor of this 1726. 

place), was made for his grandfather, who was 
locksmith to the King ; it is painted in blue M. Sansont. 

with a representation of a locksmith's shop and l 73°' 

a man at the forge, inscribed " Claude Pelisie." 

Another plate in M. Michel Pascal's Collection is inscribed " M. San- 
sont, 1738." M. Lamasse of Meudon also has a specimen decorated in 
blue, similar to the Rouen ware. 

Val-sous-Meudon. Manufactory of Messrs. 
Metenhoff & Mourot ; stamped on plates, &c. 

Arras (Pas-de-Calais). There are some specimens of glazed earthen- 
ware in the Sevres Museum, produced by M. Fourneaux previous to 
1809, but we do not know the date of its establishment. 

Desvre (Pas-de-Calais). A manufactory of pottery was established 
in the sixteenth century by Ceesar Boulonne at Colombert, a village near 
Boulogne. It was subsequently transferred to Desvre, and carried on 
by Dupre Poulaine up to 1732. The earliest specimens we have seen 
are painted in blue. One in Mr. C. W. Rey- 
nolds' Collection has a portrait of a Bishop with Desvre. 
mitre and crozier, inscribed "S. Nicolas. P.P.N.;" 
this is of the middle of the seventeenth century. 
Later pieces are painted with Chinese subjects, 1^ T~J 
flowers and birds, in a coarse manner, the backs JLr 1 
of the plates being brown, figures of pup-dogs, C ul -vaJD 
birds, &c. ; a bird in the same collection has in r\ 
front the initials D.P. for Dupre Poulaine (as in 

the margin) ; another has the name of the place, the colours emplo} r ed 
on the polychrome pieces being claret of various shades, blue, yellow, and 
green. Mr. Reynolds obtained his specimens from the descendants of 
the family at Desvre. In 1764 Jean Francois Sta established a manu- 
factory of fayence of a very common description, being an attempted 
imitation of that of Rouen. There were several other towns in the 




2i 8 FAYENCE— ST. OMER— HAVRE. 

vicinity where fayence was made, but we have no reliable information 
respecting them. 

Bethune (Pas-de-Calais). There is a specimen of fayence in the 
Sevres Museum, acquired from the proprietor, M. Croizier, in 1 809. 

St. Omer (Pas-de-Calais). After attempting to found at Dunkerque 
a fayence manufactory, but which at the request of Dorez of Lille was 
abandoned, the Sieur Saladin obtained authorisation to establish one at 
St. Omer. The terms of the arret are as follow : — " Our well-beloved 
Louis Saladin, tradesman of Dunkerque, has informed us that he pos- 
sesses the secret of making fayence as fine and good as that of Holland, 
and stoneware equal to that of England, and being informed that there 
is not in the vicinity any such establishment, he proposes to carry one 
on at St. Omer, it being fit for such an enterprise, from its canal and its 
proximity to the sea. We therefore permit Sieur Louis Saladin to 
establish in the town of St. Omer, or at the faubourg of the Haut-pont, 
a manufacture for twenty years, to the exclusion of all others within 

three leagues of the spot. Granted the 
S&i?1/6-0mer 9th January 175 1." At the Paris Exposi- 

tion there was a finely executed soup- 
7 /59. tureen, in form of an open cabbage, and 

the button at top was a snail, coloured after 
nature ; it was signed as in the margin. There was a manufactory still 
remaining in 1791 at the time of the petition against the English treaty 
of commerce. 

Havre (Seine-Inferieure). There were two manufactories of fayence 
here in 1790, as appears from the petition to the National Assembly, 
and there are some specimens in the Sevres Museum forwarded by the 
proprietors, viz., M. Delavigne in 1809 and M. Ledoux Wood in 1837. 

., r* -. . ■ Sainte-Foy. This fabrique is noticed 

ran par mot , ,, A T ,„, .„ n 

T r f r> ■ . by M. A. Jacquemart (Merveules &c, p. 

Laroze fi/s, a Semite- \ , L , , .. , . , 

y „ ' „ 35), but he hesitates where to place it, 

S' being of opinion rather that it was near 

Dieppe. The inscription in the margin is on a gourd-shaped vase, 

painted with flowers and figures in the costume of the time of 

Louis XV. 

Aulnay (Savoy). There was a fabrique of fayence here towards 
the end of the last century, conducted by M. G. Muller ; some pieces 
were sent to the Sevres Museum in 1809. 

Zurich. Pottery was made here as well as porcelain ; the manu- 
factory was conducted by M. Ncegeli, who in 1830 sent some specimens 
to the Sevres Museum. 

Forges-les-Eaux (Seine-Inferieure). There was a manufactory 
here towards the end of the last century of English stoneware, which 
originated, according to Dr. Warmont {Faience de Sinceny, p. 40), with 



FAYENCE— DOUA I— VAEENCI ENX ES. 2 j 9 

some pupils from the establishment at Douai, worked by the Brothers 
Leach from England. There are some specimens in the Sevres Museum 
contributed by the following proprietors — M. Mute! & Co. in 1823, M. 
Ledoux Wood in 1823, and Messrs. Dcstrees & Damman in 1849. 

Douai (Nord). Established 1782. Two brothers of the name of 
Leach, from England, were engaged by M. George Bris of Douai to 
superintend the manufacture of English stoneware and faycnce ; vast 
buildings were erected expressly and kilns constructed to carry on the 
pottery on a large scale in the Rue des Carmes (now a Normal School). 
This manufactory, of which the products are much sought after by 
amateurs on account of their elegant forms, was the first of the kind 
established in France ; it was directed by Messrs. Houze de l'Aulnoit 
& Co., who afterwards ceded it to a M. Halsfort. In 1788 Gournay 
mentions him as director. The chief workmen, who came originally 
from England, instructed pupils, who carried the new process to Mon- 
tereau, Chantilly, Forges, and other places in France. 

In the petition to the National Assembly in 1790 there were two 
potteries here, and a recent manufactory was conducted by Messrs. 
Vincent, Nachet, & Co., of which specimens were sent to the Sevres 
Museum in 1832. 

Angouleme. It was not actually in Angouleme, but in the Faubourg 
de l'Houveau where the manufactory was situated, under the direction, 
in 1784, of Vcave Sazerac, Dcsrochcr & fils. The Museum at Limoges 
possesses a curious lion holding a shield of the arms of France ; round 
the base is placed in Roman capitals A Angouleme de la Fabrique de 
Madame V. S. D. et F. 28 Aout ; behind the shield is the date 1784. It 
was still at work in 1791, and is now owned by M. Durandeau. 

A manufactory of enamelled fayence by M. Glaumont is noticed in 
1843. Sevres Museum. 

Vendeuvre (Aube). A manufactory of earthenware, carried on by 
M. le Baron Pavee de Vendeuvre ; there is a specimen in the Sevres 
Museum, acquired in 1 826. 

Maubeuge (Nord). There was a manufactory of fayence here in 
1809, the proprietor being M. Delannot ; a specimen is in the Sevres 
Museum. 

Hesdin (Pas-de-Calais). There was a fabrique of fayence here in 
the beginning of this century, carried on by M. Pled; a specimen is in 
the Sevres Museum, acquired in 1809. 

Beaumont-le-Chartif (Eure-et-Loir). A manufactory of fayence, 
by M. Lejeune, in 1827. 

Valenciennes. About 1735 Francois Louis Dorez, son of Barthelemy, 
fayence-maker at Lille, founded in the town of Valenciennes a keramic 
fabrique, which he directed until his death, which happened in 1 739. It 
was continued successfully by his widow for a few years longer. In 






220 FAYENCE— ST. AMAND-LES-EAUX. 

1742 Charles Joseph Bernard succeeded, but his incapacity compromised 
the affair, and in 1743 Claude Dorez, another son of Barthelemy, dis- 
placed him, and carried it on till 1748. Dr. Lejeal 
experiences some difficulty in distinguishing the works 
of Louis and Claude Dorez, but proposes, as the mark 
of the former, the cipher in the margin : an italic D is 
also attributed to one of the two ; they occur on pieces 
of the Rouenaise character. There is such a close analogy between the 
fayence of Dorez, of Lille, and Valenciennes, and that of Delft, Brussels, 
and Tournay, that it is difficult to determine their products. 

From 1755 to 1757 another fabrique was started by Picard, which 
was also well encouraged. The last fayence-maker of Valenciennes was 
M. Becar, 1772-79. 

St. Amand-les-Eaux (Nord), near Valenciennes. This manufactory 
was founded about the year 1750, or a little earlier; the first notice we 
have of it is in that 3 r ear. (See Hondoy, p. 61.) 

In the Calendrier du Gouvernement de Flandre de Hainault et de 
Cambrcsis for the year 1775 we find — "II y a a St. Amand deux belles 
manufactures de faience qui egalent celles de Rouen, et une manufacture 
de porcelaine (le Sieur Fauquez fils, manufacturier)." In 1778 the 
Inspector of Manufactures reports the satisfactory state of the faience 
fabrique of St. Amand. In the Calendrier for 1780 we read — " II existe 
a St. Amand une belle manufacture de faience, qui egale celle de Rouen, 
et qui est conduite par M. Fauquez fils." 

In 1775 Fauquez married a sister of Lamoninary of Valenciennes; 
he occupied himself especially with the gilding of his ware ; and his 
neighbours said he melted all his louis-d'ors and nearly ruined himself 
by his experiments. 

On the 24th May 1785, M. Fauquez obtained permission to establish 
a porcelain manufactory at Valenciennes, but he continued to carry on 
the fayence manufactory at St. Amand simultaneously. In the Revolu- 
tion of 1789 he emigrated and his goods were confiscated. 

In the year X. he attempted to revive the fabrique; and in the 
Annonces of the 15th April 1807 we read — "On previent le public que 
la manufacture etablie a St. Amand est remise en activite, on y fabrique 
de la faience blanche, de la brune facon de Rouen," &c. 
Fauquez went to reside at Tournay, where he died. 
Three painters are named who were attached to this fabrique — Bas- 
tenaire-Daudenart, Desmuralle, a flower-painter; but the most skilful 
was Louis Alexandre Gaudry, born at Tournay, died at St. Amand in 
1820 ; he was a landscape-painter. Joseph Sternig, a relation of Fau- 
quez, was one of the artists who worked at St. Amand and at Valen- 
ciennes. 

M. le Dr. Lejeal {Note sur une Marque de Faience Contestee) mentions 



FAYENCE— ST. AM AND— DANGU— AIRF 



221 



a plate of fayence, beautifully painted with flowers, which belonged for 
eighty years to the same family, given by Fauquez himself. Bastenaire- 
Daudenart the painter acknowledged it to be the finest piece ever pro- 
duced there. This piece bears the mysterious mark given below, which 
has hitherto caused so much discussion. 

St. Amand (Nord). Dr. Lejeal, for the reason before named, so 
attributes this mark, which he says is an imitation of that of Sevres, 
and may be deciphered thus : — the two F's in- 
terlaced and the two L's are the initials of Fau- 
quez, and perhaps Lamoninary, his wife. This 
mark was thought by M. Houdo'y to be Feburier 
of Lille, reading it like Dr. Lejeal as F. L. M. 
Riocreux, who considered specimens bearing this mark as belonging to 
the Department du Nord, suggested Picardy, Aire, or Aprey. 

St. Amand. Another mark of this fabrique, 
in which the F's are more distinctly traced, and 
the letters at the side corroborate the opinion 
of Dr. Lejeal as the initials of the place. 

St. Amand. Another mark, approaching 
nearer to that of Sivres. 




St. Amand. 
by Jacquemart. 



Another variety, so attributed 




St. Amand. Another variety of the mark, 
with the initials of the name of the fabrique 
and makers. O 

Dangu, near Gisors (Eure). From the documents brought to light 
by M. Andre Pottier we find that a fayence manufactory existed here, 
belonging to M. le Baron Dangu, who on the nth July 1753 let it to 
Domenique Peleve, a potter and painter, Adrien Levesque, modeller, and 
Jacques Vivien, of Rouen. In default of payment of rent a seizure 
was made on the 24th January 1755, and in April 1757 the stock was 
sold publicly at the fabrique for the benefit of the Baron de Dangu and 
other creditors. Whether Peleve or Pelleve continued it, or whether it 
passed into other hands, we do not know, but it was subsequently carried 
on ; the fayence was in the style of Rouen and Sinceny. M. Gasnault 
has a pitcher inscribed "Jacques Vaillaux," and under the handle is 
written "Dangu, 1759." 

Aire. This town possessed a fayence manufactory, which was in 



222 FAYENCE— LIANCOURT— SINCENY. 

activity from 1730 to 1755, founded by Sieur Prudhomme, but we know 
very little about it, except that it was still in existence in 1790, being 
mentioned among those who petitioned the National Assembly against 
the treaty of commerce between France and England. Gournay tells 
us that in 1788 it was the property of M. Dumez, who still retained it 
in 1791. 

Liancourt (Oise). A manufactory of fayence, established under 
the patronage of M. le Due de Rochefoucauld ; a specimen in the Sevres 
Museum, acquired in 1806. 

Milhac de Moxtrox (Dordogne). A manufactory of fayence, by 
M. Delanoue, in 1834; there is a specimen in the Sevres Museum. 

Fourneaux, near Melun. A manufactory of fayence : proprietor 
M. Gabry, 1834. 

Longwy (Moselle). A manufactory of fayence : proprietor M. Huart 
de Northomb, 1839. 

Rouy, near Sinceny (Aisne), Picardy. A manufactory of fayence 

was established 1790 by M. de Flavigny, Seigneur d'Amigny Rouy, who 

perished on the scaffold in 1793. It was sold by his widow to Joseph 

Bertin, who in 1804 was succeeded by his son Theo- 

Mouy. dore : he enlarged the works, and this was the epoch 

of its greatest prosperity. It employed five turners, 

five painters, three modellers, and a score of workmen. Being worked by 

the same workmen, and of the same clay, it much resembles the Sinceny 

fayence. Some few pieces have the name at length, as drinking cups, &c. 

It was bought by the proprietors of Sinceny, and demolished in 1834. 

D'Ogxes or Chauny (Aisne), near Sinceny. Established about 1770 
by M. de Fosseliere, but lasted only a short time, and little is known of 
its products. There is a flower-vase, painted in blue camaiea in the 
Chinese style, in the Sevres Museum, presented by a descendant of one 
of the persons connected with the works. 

Sixcexy (Aisne), Picardy, formerly written St. Cenis, situated in the 
valley of the Oise, near Chauny. Established in 1733 by Jean Baptiste 
de Fayard, Gouverneur de Chauny et Seigneur de Sinceny. Dr. A. 
Warmont {RccliercJics Historiqucs sur les Faiences de Sinceny, &C, Paris, 
1864) divides the products of this manufactory into three periods : 

1. Rouennaise, 1734-75. 

2. Faience au feu de reverbere, 1775-89. 

3. Decadence de l'art, 1 789-1 864. 

In 1737 letters patent were granted to M. de Sinceny for the estab- 
lishment of a manufacture of fayence at Sinceny, which sets forth that, 
having found in his park the various sorts of clay suitable for the purpose, 
and experiments having been made by himself and other potters, which 
had perfectly succeeded, and there being an almost inexhaustible supply 



FAY ENCE— S I NCEN Y. 223 

of material ; which fayence had already a great sale, and means of trans- 
port by the river Oise to Paris, Chauny, Moycn, Compiegne, &c., pro- 
poses to send it into the provinces of Picardy, Ilaynault, Champagne, 
and Burgund)', in which places there is not one manufactory of fayence, 
and having a good supply of wood for the kilns ; permission was granted. 
The first director was Pierre Pelleve. 

This mark, with the name of the director, 
Pelleve, is on a fayence jardiniere in the Col- • Vy. ngtt&YP/ 

lection of M. Pascal of Paris. >-' ' 

Among the painters were Pierre Jeannot ^__^ 

(who placed his mark in the parish register as ^T~\~^ 

in the margin), Philippe Vincent, Coignard \ 

and his brother Antoine, Leopold Maleriat, 

who in 1780 was director, Alexandre Daussy, Julien Leloup, Pierre 
and Antoine Chapelle, Josh. Bedeaux, Andre Joseph le Comte, Pierre 
Bertrand, Frans. Joseph Ghail, and Joseph Lecerf. Bertrand's initials 
(as in the margin) are on a cup, in the Rouen 
style, in the Sevres Museum ; and that of Le T~\ f I A 

Cerf, on a basket of the second period, painted 1J „ 1 • 

in blue camaieu, inscribed " L. J. L. C. Pinxit 

1776." The earliest pieces were painted in blue ; the next in blue touched 
with red or green and yellow, and decorated with lambrequins (mantlings) 
a la come (cornucopias), birds and butterflies, and Chinese figures, which, 
from their frequent repetition in the same outlines, were doubtless stencilled 
by means of charcoal powder and pricked papers. Two early pieces, one 
dated 1734, and the other signed in blue with 
the S and two dots, like the first in the margin, ^? # 

are quoted by M. Warmont ; the second mark, *J 

also blue, is on an c'cuellc in the Sevres 
Museum ; the third, which from its ortho- ^ ^^«. 

graphy is supposed to be about 1745, is in *^ 

blue on an inkstand of white fayence. M. 1 

Warmont mentions of this period large cider ^ \X\*f'*tU?A 



gln-c/^ 



jugs, small drinking- cups in the form of 
Bacchus astride a barrel, and a hand-warmer 
to hold hot water in the form of a book, on /\1 J* 1 *-/"■> 
the back of which is written " Liber Ludovici. ^ 
Guilbert, 1758." Some statuettes and figures were also produced about 
1 760 by a modeller named Richard ; a statuette of St. Nicholas, and a group 
of three children, made for the Chapel of the Brotherhood of Fa'ienciers at 
Sinceny ; small figures of soldiers on horse and foot for children to play 
with ; a gardener, sweep, &c, of about the end of the eighteenth century. 
About 1775 a great improvement was perceptible in the fayence of 
Sinceny ; the paste was finer in quality, the colours more varied and 



•S.c.u. 



224 FAYENCE— SINCENY— BORDEAUX. 

brighter, in more exact imitation of the porcelain of Japan. This was 
accomplished by what is called an feu de re'verbere, in contradistinction to 
the old process, an grand feu, the latter being only one baking, while in 
the other the ware was placed a second time in the kiln, and the pig- 
ments not exposed to so great a heat, allowing the employment of 
brighter colours. This new process was very costly, and required, as 
it were, a fresh apprenticeship, and the proprietors were compelled to 
procure hands from Lorraine, where it seems to have originated. They 
produced table services, decorated in polychrome with branches of roses, 
sometimes in green camaicu ; delicate wicker-baskets ; watch-stands, &c, 

painted with Chinese figures, rococo and other 

ornaments. The mark S. c. y. was used at 

this period ; and an inkstand, painted with 

yellow roses, bears the inscription at length, 

% as given herewith. M. Chambon was director 

ct* -m-OTLSieur about this time. M. Bosc d' Antic, in a paper 

^- .. read before the Academy at Dijon (vide Ency- 

O clopedie Mcthodique, Paris, 1783), says: — "The 

OL CtH.ceTC u fayence of St. Cenis, in Picardy, was formerly 

^ , <r\ . much sought after on account of its excellent 

ctrt plCdVC/f .5 . quality, which has lately deteriorated, but now 

begins to re-establish its former reputation." 
From 1789 the fayence an fen de re'verbere was discontinued, on account of 
its expensive character and the introduction of English ware at a lower 
price ; but still both descriptions were occasionally made. The greater 
proportion of the products of the Sinceny works were white fayence, with 
little or no decoration. The original manufactory, founded by M. de 
Fayard, was purchased in 1864 by M. Bruyere, who still carries it on. 

A manufactory was created at Bosquet-lez-Sinceny in 1824 by MM. 
Lecomte and Dantier, for making fayence ; some of their products are 
marked " L. et D. ; " and another at Sinceny by MM. Mandois (father 
and son), who marked their wares with the name at length, "Mandois." 
A recent manufactory of porcelain also exists here, carried on by 
MM. Moulin, father and son, the former an experienced fayence-maker, 
and the latter a pupil of Sevres. It is not extensive, but the articles 
produced are of excellent quality. 

Bordeaux (Gironde), 1720. We have very little information about 
the manufactories of fayence which were established in this city, although 
it must have been one of its chief trades. In a document among the 
archives of Lille soliciting royal patronage for the celebrated manufactory 
of fayence of Jacques Feburier, he instances the Manufacture Royale de 
Bordeaux, founded by Jacques Hustin, which was in operation in 1729. 
There is a seau painted in polychrome with festoons and masks, in the 
Sevres Museum, inscribed Cartus. Burdig. (Cartusia Burdigalensis), the 



FAYENCE— BORDEAUX— MARTRES. 225 

Chartreuse or Convent of Bordeaux, which is in the style of the Rouen 
pottery, made apparently about 1740 or 1750. In the list of manufac- 
turers in France in 1790 (p. 167) we find that 
no less than eight fabriques of fayence or 
porcelain were then existing at Bordeaux. A j^ 

later manufactory established in 1829 by M. I j 

de St. Amand, associated with Messrs. Lahens 
and Rateau, which lasted a short time ; it was 

re-established by M. I). Johnston, an Englishman, who marked his ware 
with the name of the town in full ; he also made English porcelain. 

Bordeaux. A fabrique of pottery was carried on here by M. Boyer 
in 1830, and another by Madame Veuve Letourneau about the same time. 

Limoges (Haute- Vienne). By a decree of the 8th of October 1737, 
Le Sieur Massie was authorised to establish at this town a fabrique of 
fayence ; subsequently, on the discovery of kaolin at St. Yrieix, Massie 
associated himself with M. Fourneira and the Brothers Grellet, and on 
December 30, 1773, obtained another decree, authorising them to join 
the production of porcelain to fayence. 



Limoges. J. Pouyat, manufacturer of modern 
earthenware services ; some specimens are in the 
Sevres Museum. 



•X+/1 



V 



Limoges. On an allegorical dish in QS 

the Moustiers style, Limoges Museum; f fl J U ^^ « v 

time of Sieur Massie. ^ ' ° m ^j 



J 74 J 



Tavernes (Var), near Varages. A fabrique ^^^ 

of fayence was established here about 1760 by M. dpf- | »-t^ 

Gaze, which ceased in 1780. One of his descen- ^^^fl 

dants has presented a specimen to the Sevres 
Museum ; it is a plate painted with bouquets of 
flowers in blue, something like the common ware 
of Varages ; the mark is G, as in the margin. 

Martres (Haute-Garonne), Languedoc. A 
manufacture of common fayence in imitation of faite a Jllarh'es, 
Moustiers; a piece, painted with flowers in blue, 18 Scptembre, 
yellow, green, and violet, and signed as in the l 775' 

margin on one side, inscribed Marie Thereze 
Conte on the other, is in the possession of M. Pujol of Toulouse. 

P 



9 



226 FAYENCE— MONTPELTER— SAMADET. 

Montpelier (Herault), 1710. In a book published in this town in 
1758 we are informed that there existed in the faubourgs " des manu- 
factures d'une tres belle fayence." This is confirmed by a document in 
the archives of Lille, in which Jacques Feburier, a fayencier, solicits 
royal patronage ; he instances the Manufacture Royale de Montpelier, 
founded by Jacques Ollivier, as being at that time in operation, namely, 
in 1729. In 1718 M. Ollivier made an application to the Minister to be 
permitted to receive from abroad lead and tin for the use of his fabrique, 
which was granted, and he was allowed to introduce 200 quintals of lead, 
and fifty quintals of tin. 

We also learn that in 1750 M. Andre Philip, from Marseille, was 
established at Montpelier, and that he was succeeded by his sons Antoine 
and Valentine in the manufactory, which ceased in 1828. One of his 
grandchildren, Madame Gervais, perfectly remembers the royal arms 
over the door; she has presented to the Sevres Museum some speci- 
mens of the ware, which are in imitation of the polychrome fayences of 
Moustiers and Marseille. 

Mr. Parkes in his Chemical Essavs says, " There is also a consider- 
able establishment for the manufacture of porcelain at Montpelier, a 
descriptive account of which, together with the process for making the 
peculiar glaze which was employed there, was published in the Annales 
de Chimie, torn. ii. p. J^." On referring to the paper, however, we find 
that it only relates to some experiments made by M. Chaptal on the clays 
of the neighbourhood to find suitable materials in the construction of a 
laboratory, and that he succeeded in making a sort of porcelain biscuit 
capable of resisting the fumes of hot acids, which appears to be similar 
to that previously discovered by Wedgwood, and a cheap sort of salt 
glaze ; but there does not appear to have been a manufactory of porcelain 
at Montpelier. 

/^y \£\ Montpelier. A manufactory of stoneware 

h>f \\J Jpo) by Le Vouland. Crucibles, &c, were sent to the 

\N^<_^/y Paris Exposition in 1834. 

Marignac (Haute-Garonne). M. de Lafue, Seigneur du lieu, esta- 
blished in 1737 a manufactory of fayence which was regularly authorised 
by the Council in March 1740, and continued at work for eighteen years, 
when it was given up from the difficulty of finding faithful workmen.. In 
1758 a M. Pons obtained privileges, and the manufacture was carried on 
by others until 1 791, as shown in the list of fayenciers of that date 
(p. 167). 

Samadet (Landes), situated near St. Sever. This fabrique was 
worked in 1732 by virtue of a privilege accorded to M. TAbbe de Roque- 
pine, and was very successful, having been renewed twenty years after- 



FAYENCK— VARAGES— MARSEILLE 227 

wards. M. Jacqucmart has discovered some authentic specimens of the 
Samadet fayence in the possession of M. Labeyric ; the ware is similar 
to that of Moustiers and Marseille ; the fabrication was continued to 
recent times. The Abbe" de Roquepine was succeeded by M. Dizes, 
who played an important part in the French Revolution and under the 
Empire. The Marquis de Poudens was the last proprietor. 

Varages (Var), six leagues from Moustiers, 1730 to 1800. There 
was a manufacture of fayence early in the eighteenth century, founded 
by M. Bertrand before 1740, whose descendants still occupy the same 
premises, known as the " Fabrique de St. Jean," from having been built 
on the site of a church of that name. The following five fabriques were 
established at Varages in the last century, but ceased about the end 
of it : — 

1. Bayol, dit Pin ; at a later period Gregoire Richeline. 

2. Faber ; later Bayol. 

3. Clerissy, who was succeeded by Grosdidier. 

4. Montagnac. 

5. Laurent ; later Guigou. 

This fayence is coarsely painted in the same style as that of Moustiers, 
the outlines being frequently traced in black ; also in the style of 
Strasbourg and Marseille, in which the green, rose, and yellow prevail. 
There are still four manufactories here, making ordinary white fayence. 



Varages. The mark of the fabrique was in the last 
century a. cross traced in black, blue, or red, and the only 
one used ; hence the ware was called " Faience a la croix " 
at the famous fair of Beaucaire, where it was annually for 
sale. 

Varages ? On a French fayence plate, painted with a 
landscape and figures after Wouvermans, crimson and green 
flower border, about 1770. South Kensington Museum. The 
mark is in red. 



+ 



Varages. Some specimens of fayence are in the Sevres Museum, 
made by M. Brouchier in 1837. 



Varages. Style of Moustiers ; so attributed by Marryat. 



y° 



Marseille (Bouches-du-Rhone). The manufacture of fayence must 
have been in activity early in the seventeenth century in the South of 
France, especially in Marseille, for in several of the laboratories are still 
seen the drug vases made at that time, and the Hospital of Narbonne is 
entirely furnished with them. M. le Baron Davillier has in his possession 
a plate which proves the existence of a pottery at Marseille in the } r ear 



228 FAYENCE— MARSEILLE. 

1697 ; it is inscribed "A Clerissy a St. Jean du Dezert a Marseille, 1697," 
which is the name of a quartier adjoining the city. This is the earliest 
authenticated piece known with name and date. 

M. A. Mortreuil, in his Notice sur les Anciennes Industries Marseillaise 
(not knowing the piece just alluded to), says, " Le plus ancien fa'iencier 
dont le nom soit connu a Marseille est un nomme Jean Delaresse, etabli 
des 1709. A cette epoque la fabrication de la faience ne devait pas 
avoir un grand developpement ; puisque cette meme annee deux barques 
venues de 1'entranger, sans designation speciale de provenance, importaient 
a Marseille huit mille douzaines de pieces de faience. Mais un peu 
apres le milieu de XVIII siecle, on comptait douze fabriques de poterie 
en activite, dont neuf de faience emaillee." In the Guide Marseillaise we 
read their names were : Agnel et Sauze, pres la porte de Rome ; Antoine 
Bonnefoy, pres la porte d'Aubagne ; Boyer, a la Joliette ; Fauchier, 
hors la porte dAix ; V ve Fesquet, hors la porte Paradis ; V ve Perrin et 
Abellard, Joseph Gaspard Robert, and Honore Savy, hors la porte de 
Rome ; Jean Baptiste Viry, aux allees de Meilham. Three other fabri- 
cants, Batelier, Eydoux, and Massuque, made only common pottery. 

The Revolution of 1789 gave the same blow to the keramic industry 
of Marseille as to Moustiers. The twelve fabriques occupied 250 work- 
men ; in 1805 there were only three, employing twenty hands; in 1809 
only one, that of M. Sauze. 

Of Jean Delaresse, before spoken of, no document concerning him, 
or specimen of fayence which can be attributed to him, have yet been 
discovered. From 1709 to 1749 nothing is known of the state of the 
fayence manufactories, but in the last-named year we hear of Honore 
Savy being established at Marseille. In 1765 he applied to the Minister 
for a privilege of making porcelain, which was refused him, as several 
similar applications had already been made. From one of these docu- 
ments we learn that he had been " maitre et fabricant de faience depuis 
seize ans," and that he had found a green superior to any other, 
and which he alone knew how to employ ; this was called le vert de 
Savy. 

On the 2nd January 1762, a letter from M. Bertin of Versailles to M. 
de la Tour, Intendant de Provence a Aix, on the subject of the grievances 
and complaints made in the previous year by the ouvriers faienciers of 
Marseille, says : " They complain of the great number of apprentices 
which the fabricants take, some as many as twenty-four, at a salary of 
five sols per day, payes en faience, which mode of payment deteriorates 
the quality, and causes the workmen to emigrate to Genoa." In reply 
to his letter the Intendant says, " The fabrication being perfectly free, 
the number of apprentices cannot be limited, but they should in future 
be always paid in money." In the complaint of 1761 above referred to, 
they say that the importation of Genoese fayence into Languedoc and 



FA YENCE— MARSEILLE. 229 

Provence, from whence they were spread over the rest of the kingdom, 
is absolutely ruinous for the manufacturers of these two provinces, and 
for those of Marseille. 

Among the artists who went to Italy may be mentioned Jacques 
Borelly or Boselly, whose name is frequently found on the Marseillaise 
pottery ; his christian name is sometimes Italianised to Giacomo Boselly, 
and on two large vases, decorated in green en catnaicu, we find "Jacques 
Boselly, Savonne, 1779, 24 Septetnbre." 

M. Rolet of Marseille also emigrated to Urbino ; his name is found 
on a fayence sliding lamp with silvered pillar in the South Kensington 
Museum, bearing the following inscription, " Fabrica di Maiolica fina 
di Monsieur Rolet in Urbino, a 20 Novembre 1772." These facts suffi- 
ciently explain the resemblance which exists between the fayences of 
Italy of the eighteenth century and those of Marseille. There is, how- 
ever, one peculiarity about the Marseillaise fayence which at once fixes 
its identity, and this is the three green leaves or marks on the backs 
of plates and dishes, so placed to hide the imperfections in the enamel, 
caused by the pcrnetles, or points of support on which they rest in 
the kiln. 

In the Journal des Fetes donne'es a Marseille en 1777, on the occasion 
of the visit of the Comte de Provence (afterwards Louis XVIII.), we read 
that Monsieur, went to the fabrique de faience of Sieur Savy ; all the 
workmen were at their posts, and the Prince was shown all the various 
operations of the manufacture, from the commencement to the final 
perfection of a piece. He was introduced into the grand gallery, where 
he saw an immensity of fayence of every description, which he much 
praised, and permitted Savy to place the manufacture under his pro- 
tection, and to place in the gallery a statue of the Prince, which was to 
be forthwith made. It was styled "Manufacture de Monsieur frere da 
Roi, hors de la porte de Rome." It will be observed that no mention 
is made of porcelain, which, if Savy did make, must have been of quite 
secondary importance, and none has been identified as of his make. 
When the Comte de Provence, however, inspected the works of Joseph 
Gaspard Robert, he especially admired the porcelain, and a large vase, 
of which the design and modelling fixed his attention, and remarked, 
" Ceci merite d'etre vu," and paid the most flattering eulogiums to Sieur 
Robert. He noted with pleasure that a beautiful porcelain service, com- 
plete, was destined for England, and admired the execution of different 
porcelain flowers, which were as delicate as natural flowers. 

Another celebrated manufactory was that of the Veuve Perrin and 
Abellard, probabty the most important, as to the quality of fa}-ence and 
great number of its products ; they also made porcelain, but no speci- 
mens have been found. The fayences of this firm are more frequently 
met with than any other. 



230 FAYENCE— MARSEILLE. 

In the petition of fayenciers in 1790 there were eleven manufactories 
then existing. 

In the South Kensington Museum are a pair of cups and covers of the 
eighteenth century, and a coffee-pot in embossed and painted earthen- 
ware. The fayence is the same character as that of Moustiers, and also 
of Strasbourg ; the decorations are frequently in red or green, some- 
times with Chinese designs, and in the style of Louis XV. 

Marseille. A. Clerissy, 1697. This cut 
represents the back of a plateau, 24 inches in 
diameter, representing in front a hunting scene 
after Tempesta — a lion attacked by three cava- 
liers, a fourth taking flight. It is painted in 
blue en camaieu, clear violet outlines on bluish 
white enamel ; the marly, or rim, painted with 
bouquets and birds, in the Oriental style, some- 
thing like Nevers ware of the sixteenth century. 
The mark in blue is much reduced, and the 

initials of Clerissy's name cursively traced round the under side of the 

rim. In the possession of M. le Baron C. Davillier. 




•fa 



M.1734 

f 



Marseille. Honore Savy is supposed to 
have adopted this mark after the Comte de 
Provence's visit in 1777; it occurs on a large 
tureen in the Sevres Museum, but the same 
mark has been adopted by many other fabriques 
of a totally different character, sometimes ac- 
companied by the letters C.and S, which, how- 
ever, are not Savy's initials. 

Marseille (Bouches - du - Rhone). This 
mark is found on fayence of the middle of the 
eighteenth century, attributed to Savy ; on a 
plate painted with flowers. 

Marseille. On a pair of fayence vases, 
painted in gold and colours, with two shields 
of arms. Dr. Diamond's Collection. 

Marseille. This mark in brown is on a 
sucrier and cover, painted with green camaieu 
flowers in the colour called " vert de Savy." 
Dr. Diamond's Collection. 

On a fayence oval dish, painted with flowers ; 
the initials of J. Robert. 



F A YENCE— MARSEILLE. 23 J 



R 



Marseille. The mark of Joseph Gaspard 
Robert, on fayence, generally in black, — an R, 
with or without a dot, as found upon his por- 
celain. The first is upon a plate, painted with 
bouquets of roses in natural colours, in the 
Sevres Museum. The same Collection possesses 
a tureen, the cover having fish, well modelled, 
the decoration consisting of flowers, birds, and 
fish, in green shaded with black, with his name in full length, " Robert 
a Marseille." A certain sign by which some of his pieces may be 
known is the presence of gilding of remarkable finish and brilliancy. 
The service anx insectcs and the service aux poissons were favourite 
patterns. The fabrique of Robert, according to M. Mortreuil, ceased to 
exist in 1793.* 

Marseille. Veuve Perrin. These marks 
are sometimes found on pieces which bear the 
initials of Veuve Perrin, but on many others also ; 
they may therefore be other marks of the fabri- 
cants of Marseille. They are also found upon 
contemporary pieces of Milan. 

Marseille. Antoine Bonnefoy. M. Laurent 
Sauze, the last of the Marseillais fabricants, has 
some specimens of his works so marked in 
yellow ochre. 



Marseille. Veuve Perrin. This mark gene- 
rally in black, but sometimes in violet or brown. 
The first mark is on some plates, with landscapes 
and cattle, in the possession of the Marchese 
d'Azegiio ; the second on a moutardier. 

Marseille. J. Fauchier. This mark, in 
blue, is on a large plateau with handles, of elegant 
form, painted with flowers and insects in natural 
colours, in the possession of M. le Baron C. 
Davillier. 



B- 

v° 

V 3 



* In the Montferrand Collection (Nos. 538 and 539) were two plates, of octagonal form, of 
unglazed French fayence of the eighteenth century ; one was a landscape, the other the Grotto 
of Posilipo. These paintings were by an artist named Robert, who was a painter of landscapes 
and architecture, and considered one of the best of his time. During his later years, when he 
went to dine with a friend, he brought with him his plate, on which was a sketch in colour. These 
small paintings are generally of a greyish tint, and suffer from the advanced age of the artist. 
He was perhaps the same here spoken of. 



232 FAYENCE— MARSEILLE— SAINT-LONGE. 

Marseille. Jacques Boselly. On two fay- 

y m fXrm //" ence P' ates > P a,n ted with flowers, in the Collec- 

\ n J /]/) / tion OI " tn e Marchese d'Azeglio. M. Demmin 

** ^ has in his possession a cup, decorated a jour, 

painted red and green, dated 1781. 

Aubagne is in the Arrondissement of Marseille. The Tableau General 
du Commerce de Gournay for 1788 says: "II y a a Aubagne seize 
fabriques de poterie, et deux de faience fort belle, 011 Ton fait tout ce 
que Ton peut desirer dans ce genre. La consommation et l'exportation 
des unes et des autres se font aux lies de l'Amerique, et a Aix, Marseille 
et Toulon." It is probable they were established some little time after 
those of Marseille, as we have seen others spring up near the celebrated 
manufactories of Moustiers, and their products were in imitation, no 
doubt, of the rival fabriques with which they are now confounded. 

Manerbe (Calvados), near Lisieux, in Normandy. There was a 
manufactory here in the second half of the sixteenth century. M. Ray- 
mond of Bordeaux, -Bulletin du Bouquiniste (i er semestre, 6° annee), quotes 
a passage from the 7th volume of Ancicn Geographic : "La vaisselle de 
terre de Manerbe, pres de Lisieux, se rapporte a celle de Venise par son 
artifice et sa beaute." The elegant glazed earthenware pinnacles which 
adorn the gables of the old mansions about Lisieux and other parts of 
Normandy were made here ; they are about 5 or 6 feet long, with a 
series of small ornaments placed one upon another on an iron rod, and 
partake of the character of the figulines rustiques of Palissy, and have 
been frequently sold as such. Similar ornaments were made at Mali- 
corne ; a specimen is in the Nevers Museum. 

Malicorxe, near Pont-Valin (Sarthe). The glazed earthenware 

pinnacles for decorating the gables of old houses, similar to those of 

Manerbes, were also made here. There is a curious specimen, with 

grotesque figures, in the Collection of M. Champfleury of Paris ; and in 

the Sevres Museum is another. An e'cucltc, in the same museum, is 

classed as being made at Malicorne. This manufacture of epis or estocs, 

as the French term them, was carried on formerly at Infreville, Chatel- 

la-Lune, and Armentieres, in Normandy. 

catmt t avpp Saint-Longes, near Mamers (Sarthe). M. 

SAINT-LONGE. ' „ v . 

L. Lamasse, of Meudon, near Paris, possesses 

a fountain, 22 in. high, in the style of Louis XVI., oviform, w T ith a land- 
scape and garlands of fruit and flowers in relief, like the fayence of 
Lorraine ; on the back is stamped " Saint-Longe." 

Auxerre (Yonne). Fayence of the ordinary style of the Nevers 
ware of the end of the eighteenth century. About 1798 there was a 
potter named Boutet, who signed his name in full. M. Chantrier, of 
Nevers, has some specimens. 

Aiezy (Yonne). There are some specimens in the Nevers Museum, 



FAYENCE— MEILLONAS— SCEAUX-PENTHIEVRE. 233 

attributed to this place, of the end of the eighteenth century, in the 
ordinary Nevers style, without marks or monograms. 

Meillonas (Ain). Gournay, in his Almanack, I/S8, thus refers to 
this fabrique, " Manufacture de fayence forte estime. Proprietaire, M. 
Marron, Seigneur de lieu." It was established between 1740 and 1750 
by Madame la Baronne de Meillonas in her chateau, where she erected 
a furnace, and not only painted pieces herself for presentation, but em- 
ployed other able artists. There are many specimens preserved in the 
vicinity, some of which are marked AR. They are usually decorated 
with garlands of flowers and ribbons and in the centre landscapes finely 
painted, but generally unmarked. M. Jacque- j ): , _ - 

mart mentions some jardinieres charmantes be- v n/r ,• 

1 • *«• tt mi j • j • .1 a Miliona. 

longing to Mons. Voillard, signed as in the 

margin. M. Pidoux was a painter of the establishment. It passed 

through different hands, and is now carried on by M. Joly. 

Courcelles (Sarthe). Established by a surgeon named Guimonneau- 
Forterie. There are some pieces signed by him and dated 1762 and 
1774 in the Collection at Mans, and a tureen on which is stamped " Par 
G. Forterie, chirurgien a Courcelles, 1783," and a syphon jug is inscribed 
"Forterie pere, ancien chirurgien a Courcelles, 1789." 

Clermont-Ferrand (Puy-de-Dome). A 
notice of this manufactory occurs on a large 

ewer in the Collection of M. Edouard Pascal 0l&rmont qPerrand 
of Paris, inscribed as in the margin, orna- 773-4 

mented with arabesques and an allegory of 
Time, in blue camaieu, in the style of Mou- 

stiers fayence. It was conducted by a M. Chaudessolle in the Rue 
Fontgieve ; its duration cannot be ascertained except by the pieces 
referred to. On a similar vessel of this fabrique is inscribed " Con- 
valescence de M. Rossignol, Intendant dAuvergne, M. Cellier, Tresorier 
de 1'Ordre, 26 Mars 1738." 

Clermont-Ferrand. This inscription 
occurs on the foot of a Rouen ware ewer, ^ » _C 

blue camaieu, with scrolls and flowers, ex- ^«v;lTvo^jeTratlO 
hibited at the Pans Exposition, 1867, by *i t /duitr 1756 
Mons. Grange of Clermont. 

Clermont. There was a manufactory ^ T ^-n ^t^n^t- 

u • *u g <. u if f *u ■ u, fu CLERMOM. 
here in the first half 01 the eighteenth 

century. The ware was mottled brown, in imitation of tortoiseshell, and 

of Italian forms. 

Sceaux-Penthievre (Seine). In a decree dated June 1753 we read 

that, upon the request of Sieur Jacques de Chapelle, stating that he had 

established, about two years since, at the village of Sceaux, a manufactory 

of fayence, of which he alone possessed the secret ; that the ware made 



2J4 FAYENCE— SCEAUX-PENTHIEVRE. 

there was appreciated by the public on account of its good qualities and 
properties ; that the sale kept on increasing daily, and that a great number 
of workmen were engaged ; he was consequently permitted to continue 
his trade. Nothing is said about making porcelain, but M. Riocreux 
quotes a document, or rather an interdiction from the Sevres authorities, 
about 1752, that he was to confine himself to the manufacture of fayence, 
and it was not until the Due de Penthievre became proprietor of the works 
that they resumed the making of porcelain. This ware is in the style 
of Strasbourg, the rose colour and green prevailing, painted with flowers 
and bouquets, but more carefully finished : landscapes on jardinieres, &c. 
After ten years' labour in bringing his fayence to a high state of 
perfection, he let his manufactory in June 1 763 for a period of nine 
years to one of his painters, M. Jullien, who had worked for him since 
1754. The latter took into partnership Charles Symphorien Jacques, a 
clever sculptor, turner, and modeller. It is difficult of explanation how 
Messrs. Jacques and Jullien, who had purchased of Babin the porcelain 
manufactory of Menecy under the protection of the Due de Villeroy, 
could carry on at the same time two works of such different character 
and so far apart, but from existing documents this appears to have been 
actually the case. 

On the 29th of April 1772, the term having expired, M. Chapelle 
definitively sold his fabrique to Richard Glot, of Rue St. Denis, porte 
St. Sauveur. Glot was a clever sculptor, and in the purchase stipulated 
for all the secrets and processes of his predecessor as well as the 
materials. He greatly extended the works and multiplied the figures 
and groups, which were executed in the highest taste. 

In 1775 Glot obtained the protection of the Due de Penthievre, High 
Admiral of France, and from that moment the fabrication of porcelain pate 
tendre was taken up with great activity, but the fayence still continued in 
demand, and was considered the finest and best painted ware in France. 

The mark S X was not used on the fayence, 
but was the usual mark on porcelain. The 
anchor was adopted by Glot in honour of the 
High Admiral, traced in colour, surmounted 
occasionally by the word Sceaux ; the letters 
S P above the anchor, stand for Sceaux-Pen- 
thievre. The mark in the margin is on a 
covered vase in the Collection of M. Paul Gas- 
nault of Paris. The word Sceaux alone is 
sometimes found on fayence of the time of the 
Revolution. On the 14th July 1795 the works 
were sold to Pierre Antoine Cabaret, and the 
artistic character of the ware came to an end, 
and only vessels of utilit}' were made. 



SP 



FAYENCE— RENNES— APREY. 235 

Rennes (Ille-et-Vilainc). In the Abbey of St. Sulpicc-la-Foret are 
preserved some funeral tablets of fayence of the seventeenth century, 
supposed to have been made here ; one of these bears the following 
inscription : " Cy gist le corps de defeunte janne Le Bouteiller, dame 
du Plecix coialu, decedee 29™ Janvier Tan 1653 agee de 50 ans." 
At a recent exposition in this city, Messrs. Aussant and Andre" 
collected many curious pieces of fayence made in the vicinity ; one 
was a jug of glazed earthenware, inscribed " Fait a Rennes, Rue 
Hue, 1769." At a sale in the neighbourhood, M. Edouard Pascal 
obtained a piece with the same inscription, dated 1770. A white 
fayence group of Louis XV., with Mygeia on his left and Brittany 
personified on his right, surrounded by attributes, was exhibited, signed 
" Bourgouin, 1 764." 

The first positive date recorded is the authorisation, on the nth 
July 1748, to Jean Forasassi, called Barbarino, a Florentine, to establish 
a fabrique of enamelled pottery in the Quartier des Capucins. This was 
carried on several years, and the other fabrique in Rue Flue was on a 
large scale. 

In the Almanack General du Commerce of Gournay, 1788, mention is 
made of the two manufactories of La Veuve Dulatty and Jollivet at 
Rennes. In the Gazette des Beaux- Arts, vol. xv., several of the specimens 
are given by M. A. Jacquemart, which he thus describes : " La fa'ience 
de Rennes est bonne, son email est pur et blanc : voila deux qualites qui 
la mettent au niveau des oeuvres de Nevers et du midi de la France. 
Cuite au grand feu, elle ne peut avoir, ni les delicatesses de Stras- 
bourg, de Niderville et de Sceaux, ni les tons frais de la peinture a 
reverbere." 

Castilhon (Gard). Fayence in imitation of Moustiers was made 

here in the eighteenth century. A plate, in the 

Collection of M. Edouard Pascal, painted with a ^ , ■,, 

. , , , Lastillion. 

grotesque personage, bouquets and garlands m 

green, heightened with manganese, is signed in full, 

" Castilhon" 

Aprey, near Langres (Haute-Marne). Established about 1750 by 

Lallemand, Baron d'Aprey, and it acquired some reputation. Ollivier at 

first directed the works, and afterwards became proprietor ; under his 

direction an artist named Jary or Jarry gained great reputation as a 

painter of birds and flowers. About 1780 it was conducted by M. Vil- 

haut for the manufacture of a superior kind of fayence. In a letter 

read before the Academy of Dijon by M. Bosc d'Antic on an improved 

method of making fayence, he fully describes the process adopted by M. 

Vilhaut at Aprey as being the best then existing ; the paper is given in 

extenso in the Encyclopedic Mcthodique, Paris, 17S3, sub voce " Faience." 

The earl}' style is that of Strasbourg, with rose colour, green, and yellow 



236 FAYENCE— LE CROISIC— LE PUY. 

predominating. One peculiarity of the Aprey fayence is, that its designs 

are rarely traced by a dark or black-coloured out- 

f\ J^\ line ; it is still carried on by M. Louis Gerard. 

\J\ \y\- The mark in the margin (preceded by a potter's or 

painter's initial) is on some early specimens in the 

Sevres Museum ; other pieces are in the Collections of MM. Edouard 

Pascal and Mathieu Meusnier of Paris. 

On a fayence porte huilia; painted with blue 
C CX/^XC W anc ^ ^ a ^ e borders, and edged with green ; marked 
J J in black. The name is sometimes stamped on 

the ware. 

Le Croisic (Loire-Inferieure). A manufactory was established here in 
the sixteenth century by a Fleming named Gerard Demigennes. Horatio 
Borniola, an Italian, succeeded him in 1627, leaving it at his death to 
Jean Borniola and Beatrice his sister, wife of a person named Davys, 
but nothing is known of their productions. 

Auch (Gers). In 1758 Messrs. Allemand, La Grange, Dumont & 
Co. solicited privileges for the establishment of a fayence manufactory 
in the garden of La Grange ; their productions were sought for at the 
time and well spoken of, but no examples have been identified. 

Chateaudun (Eure-et-Loir). Jacquemart says that the Due de 
Chevreuse had obtained a privilege for creating a fabrique of fayence in 
this town ; in 1755 Pierre Bremont and Gabriel Jouvet were directors. 
It is mentioned by Gournay in 1788, but is not in the petition of fay- 
enciers in 1790. 

Mathaut (Aube). A fayence fabrique was 
established here, but its products are unknown to 
us. The letters patent are dated 14 October 
1749, and run thus: "The Sieur Gedeon-Claude 
Lepetit de Lavaux, Baron de Mathaut, a parish situate in Champagne, on 
the river Aube, having represented that he has found clay suitable for 
making fayence near the forest of Rians, and that such an establishment 
would be of great utility in the country, there being no factory of the 
same character within twenty-five leagues;" permission was accorded on 
the 26th May 1750, and a prohibition for ten years against any other 
within three leagues of Mathaut. 

Le Puy (Haute-Loire). This fabrique of fayence was not exactly 
here, but first established at Orsilhac, then at Brives, by M. Lazerme, 
about 1780. In 1783 the States-General of Languedoc agreed to 
accord a gratification de six cents livres an Sicnr Lazerme, negotiant 
de Pity, " qui a etabli a grands frais, dans son domaine de Orsilhac, 
une fabrique de faiencerie, dont les ouvrages sont de la plus grande 
utilite, cet etablissement etant d'ailleurs unique dans le Velay." It is 



FAYENCE— CHAMOUNT-SUR-LOIR 237 

mentioned in 1785 in the Almanack (iciu'ral des Marchands, &c, and 

in 1788 by Gournay. 

Bourg-la-Reine (Seine). The manufactory at Bourg-la-Reine was 
established in 1773, under the protection of the Comte d'Eu, by Messrs. 
Jacques & Julien ; it was removed hither when the works at Menecy 
were closed. 

Bourg-la-Reine. There is a specimen of fayence in the Sevres 
Museum, sent by the manufacturers, MM. Benoist & Mony, in the year 
1819. 

Bourg-la-Reine. A fabrique of fayence is still carried on by M. 
Laurin, who uses the old mark placed upon the porcelain. Besides the 
white fayence for domestic use, more artistic pieces are produced, painted 
on the enamel after it has received a slight baking ; it 
is principally in imitation of the Italian. The painter •O- 



attached to the manufactory of Bourg-la-Reine is a 
pupil of Sevres named Chapelet, who marks his decora- 
tions with a chaplet as here shown. 

Bourg-la-Reine. On a plate and jug, of white 



fayence, in the Sevres Museum. 

Bourg-la-Reine. This mark is more frequently 
found upon fayence than porcelain ; it is in blue, on a C} I ^D 
specimen in the Sevres Museum, and on a set of eight I - 

fayence plates, beautifully painted with exotic birds and 
trees, insects on the borders, much in the Chelsea style of painting of 
about 1750 to 1760. 

Chaumont-sur-Loir (Loir-et-Cher). A chateau near Blois. Terra- 
cotta ; 1760 to 1786. Jean Baptiste Nini was born in Lombard}' about 
1716; he at first established himself at Charite-sur- Loire, and about 
1760 entered the service of M. Leray, possessor of the ancient chateau 
of Chaumont, as an engraver on glass and fayence in his manufactory 
there. There are some glasses extant engraved by him with extreme 
delicacy, and a great variety of terra-cotta portrait medallions of fine 
work, displaying great care in the execution of the details. His moulds 
in copper, graved with a burin, were bought in 1S20 by a founder of 
Blois, and melted down into ingots. All his medallions, which are now 
getting scarce, are signed in small letters, graved in the soft paste : Nini 
or I. B. Nini. F., accompanied by the date ; they are usuall} 7 of two sizes, 
6 inches and 9 inches in diameter. The most esteemed portraits are 
those of Louis XV., Louis XVI., Franklin (of whom there are six dif- 
ferent sizes), some with the date in relief; Voltaire, Madame de la 
Reyniere, Marie Therese, Empress Catherine II. of Russia, and about 
seventy others known, dated from 1762 to 1781, which will be found 
described at length in M. A. Villier's work on /. B. Nini; scs Tcrres 




238 FAYENCE— UZES— VINCENNES. 

Cuttes, Blois, 1866. ' Several of these busts were reproduced by Wedg- 
wood in his blue and white jasper, and Nini's name may be found upon 
some of them. 

Uzes (Gard). Francois Pichon, manufac- 
turer. A specimen of fayence was presented by 
the maker in 1837 to the Sevres Museum. 

Nimes (Gard). Manufactory of MM. Plantier, 
P. B.C. Boncoirant et Co. ; stamped on plates, &c. Speci- 

mens in the Sevres Museum, acquired in 1831. 

Rubelles (near Melun). Fayence of opaque 
Rubelles. shaded enamel. The design is formed by the 

different thicknesses of the paste, in one or more 
A.D.T. colours. This was invented b\' M. le Baron de 

Bourgoing, and registered in 1856; he was asso- 
ciated with M. le Baron de Tremble ; it ceased in 1858. It has somewhat 
of the Palissy character ; table services, chimney-pieces, &c. ; sometimes 
marked A.D.T. or " Rubelles," both impressed on the ware. 

Vincennes (Seine), 1767. The existence of this manufacture is 
made known to us by a patent of 31st December 1767, from which it 
appears that M. Maurin des Aubiez was desirous to undertake a manu- 
facture of fayence in the manner of Strasbourg, it being notorious that 
there did not exist in France any manufacture of fayence comparable in 
beauty and solidity to that of Strasbourg ; being therefore desirous to 
establish one similar, he had purchased the secret, and brought to Paris 
a staff of workmen who had been engaged there, and had already ex- 
pended 100,000 francs to arrive at that degree of perfection which it had 
now attained, specimens of which fayence had been submitted to and 
approved by the pubic. He also included in his request the manufacture 
of porcelain, and that he required a large and commodious building for 
the purpose, which he could not obtain without a great outlay of capital. 
It was accordingly decreed that the said Maurin des Aubiez should have 
accorded to him the possession for twenty years of the Chateau de Vin- 
cennes, in a square enclosure, which had formerly been employed for the 
ancient manufacture of porcelain, with a building and outhouses opposite, 
and a convenient residence for him and his family ; permitting *' the said 
Aubiez to make or cause to be made in our said chateau, fayence in the 
style of Strasbourg of every kind, as well as porcelain." Pierre Antoine 
Hannong appears to have been engaged as director of the "Manufacture 
Royale de Porcclaine a Vincennes" and the manufacture was carried on for 
four years, until 1 77 1, when Hannong petitioned for assistance, having 
got into difficulties in consequence of the undertakers having ceased to 
furnish funds necessary to carry on the works, and which had unfor- 



# 



FAYENCE— VINCENNES— ORLEANS. 239 

tunately altogether ceased ; the petition also stated that he had taken a 
smaller establishment at Vincennes on his own account, but in a few 
months this also failed. From a document in the archives at Sevres, 
Hannong himself applied at first for the privilege which was accorded 
subsequently to Maurin des Aubiez, but he was refused ; he, however, 
made fayence, and was signalled at Sevres as endeavouring to make- 
porcelain and to entice away the workmen from the Royal Manufactory. 
In 1766 an order was given to interdict his works, but from some high 
patronage he was allowed to continue under certain restrictions. 

The marks used by Hannong on his porce- 
lain are supposed to be the same as those he 
afterwards used at the Faubourg St. Lazare, here JLjL 

given in the margin. There are some pieces 
attributed to this manufactory in the Sevres (i~TS 

Museum : one of these is a high teapot decorated 
in rose-coloured camaieu ; the monogram is P. 
H. in blue. 

Orleans (Loiret). According to M. A. Jacquemart, the first esta- 
blishment of which we have any record is that authorised by a Council 
of the 13th March 1753 in favour of Sieur Jacques Etienne Dessaux 
de Romilry, privileged for twenty years to make " une faience de terre 
blanche purifiee;" it was called the Manufacture Roy ale. In 1755 Sieur 
Leroy directed the works, and was succeeded in 1757 D Y Charles Claude 
Gerault Deraubert ; this fabrique produced glazed statuettes tinted some- 
thing like the Italian. 

Only one piece has come under the notice 
of M. Jacquemart which bears the mark indi- 
cated in the arret, an O crowned in blue (see 
margin) ; it is a Chinaman seated, holding in his f J 

hands two branches of a tree, unfortunately ^^ 

broken, but forming part of a candlestick, like 

Dresden ; these were executed by Jean Louis, who came from Strasbourg 
and Sceaux ; this was soon converted into a porcelain manufactory; in 
1760 fayence was still made at Orleans, especially large figures from 4 
to 8 feet high, of which Bernard Huet was the author ; his name is some- 
times found written retrograde T3VH. The Almanack de Orleans, 17 76, 
does not mention the fabrique of Gerault, Rue de Bourdonblanc, but only 
those of Meziere, pere et fils, in the Rue de la Grille, and aux Dames de la 
Croix ; two years later Fedele made fayence in Rue du Devidet ; in 179° 
there were two in existence, but in 1797 all had disappeared, and the Widow 
Baubreuil erected a fayence manufactory in imitation of the English w T are. 

Orleans (Loiret). Enamelled fayence, about ort FANS 
1780. Another manufactory of fayence was 
carried on about the same time by a potter named Barre. There 



240 FAYENCE— TOULOUSE— TOURS. 

was a fabrique of stoneware carried on by M. Laurent Gilbert in 1834, 
and another of fayence and marbled ware by M. Gaumont in 1830; 
specimens of these are in the Sevres Museum. 

Toulouse. A manufactory of fayence was 
LAUrEYlS + BctSSO* established here early in the eighteenth century ; 
4 C'otlCoitfT'Cl tne ware * s ver y mucn in the style of the early 
•-» . - •" R° uen - There is a large hunting-bottle with 

c^Lc/ /4" TTtay jj oO- eight loops in four rows at the sides for sus- 
pension, painted with blue flowers, and round 
the neck the annexed inscription, belonging to Mr. C. W. Reynolds. 
In 1790 there were two manufactories, as appears by the petition of the 
fayenciers to the National Assembly in that year, but we have no par- 
ticulars respecting them. M. Vinot of Paris has some pieces painted 
with arabesques and the word Toulouse in full. 

Toulouse (Haute-Garonne). Established 

■11 1820. Fouque, Arnoux, & Co. ; on enamelled 

jj\ fayence, both white and coloured. They still 

M V make all sorts of ware, from terra-cotta to fine 

porcelain ; being conducted by M. Fouque. 

Quimper (Finistere), near Brest. In a document deposited at Sevres 
mention is made of a fayence manufactory in the style of Rouen estab- 
lished here about 1690. In a recent exposition of ancient fayence at 
Rennes, in Brittany, there was a large plate of this manufacture, dated 
1700, similar to that of Rouen and Moustiers, painted with emblems and 
bordered with scrolls, on blue ground. 

Quimper. A manufactory of glazed stone- 
ware, grey and brown, by De la Hubaudiere, 
1809. It has the appearance of being much 
^\ earlier in date ; the mark stamped. 

Quimper. Another manufactory of stoneware, by Messrs. Elowry & 
Porcher, 1840. 

Quimper-Corentin (Finistere). On fayence 
of the eighteenth century, early part, some- 
thing in the style of Rouen ; flowers, common 
quality. 

Montet (Saone-et-Loire). A manufactory 
near Charolles, directed by M. Laurjorois ; 
stamped on white stoneware. Paris Exposi- 
tion, 1819 and 1830. 

Tours. Established about 1770 by Thomas Sailly at the Faubourg 
St. Pierre-des-Corps, for the manufacture of fayence and glazed earthen- 





FAYENCE— TOURS— G I FW 



241 



ware; after his death in 1782 it was carried on by his son, Noel Sailly. 
Porcelain was also made here in the same year. 



On a fayence pilgrim's bottle, v . , J. . 

he arms of France, crowned ; the V ac ^ a Co ""-S Co 



Tours. 
painted with th 

centre is pierced through; the name is pro- 21<-AtcL7Ji JjSZ 

bably that of the person for whom it was made. LoviS: : LlAVTE 

Sevres Museum. 



Tours (Indre-et-Loire). Established in 
1842 by Victor Avisseau for the reproduction 
of pottery in the style of Bernard Palissy, 
which he successfully imitated; he died 1861, 
and was succeeded by his son, M. E. Avisseau. 
In the International Exhibition of 1 862 three 
specimens were exhibited, for which he de- 
servedly received a medal : two were imitations 
of the Henry II. ware; the third, a group of 
a stork and snake, which, for truthfulness to 
nature, surpassed any work of Palissy. M. 
Landais of Tours, the nephew of M. Avisseau, 
is also a successful imitator of Palissy ; there 
are several specimens in the South Kensing- 
ton Museum, which were exhibited in Paris in 
1855. 

Tours. Some of F. M. Landais' pieces 
bear his name at full length ; others have 
simply his monogram, as in the margin. 



Langeais (Indre-et-Loire). M. Ch. 
de Boissimon &: Cie. On a pair of vases 
and baskets of fayence with open work and 
coloured fruit and flowers in relief. 




JT 



alou\ 

l%55 



L 



CH. de BOISSIMON et Cie. 
a LANGEAIS INDRE & LOIRE. 



Casemene, near Besancon. The mark of a 
manufactory, stamped, founded by Lafleche- 
Paillard at the beginning of this century, and 
lasted but a short time. 

Gien. A manufacture of maiolica has been 
recently established here, in imitation of that of 
Italy of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
and other varieties of early wares. 




242 



FAYENCE— PREMIERES. 



36 




Premieres (Cote-d'Or), near Dijon, esta- 
blished in 1783 by a brickmaker named Lave] 
or Laval, who was instructed in the making of 
fayence by an Italian monk named Leonardi, 
then travelling through the countr} 7 . His grand- 
son, Dr. Lavalle, still continues the works in 
a more artistic style ; the modern marks are 
sometimes pencilled in this character, or sten- 
cilled. 

Premieres (Cote-d'Or). Dr. J. Lavalle, 
on a fayence plate, painted with Cupid holding 
a cornucopia of flowers. 



Premieres (Cote-d'Or). Dr. J. Lavalle, 
on a plate painted in blue camaieu, with trees 
and flowers ; the mark within an ornamented 
circle. 



Premieres (Cote-d'Or). There was another fabrique of fayence 
carried on by M. Pignant, who in 1826 sent specimens to the Sevres 
Museum. 

Musigny (Cote-d'Or). Established about 1790 by M. Bosc, for the 
fabrication of gres; mentioned by M. Brongniart. 

Vaudancourt (Marne). A manufactory of gres by M. A. Bodelet 
in 1836 is mentioned by M. Brongniart. 

Giey-sur-Anjou (Haute-Marne). A manufactory of gres and por- 
celain, carried on by M. Guignet, of which specimens are in the Sevres 
Museum, acquired in 1827 and 183 1. 




FA Y E N CE— UNC E RT A I N M ARKS. 2 43 



FRANCE— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 
From " Les Merveilks de la Ccraniique" by A. Jacquemart. 

AC 4JL , 

These marks are on a plate in the Mar- ~ ^l(a)( ~ 

seillc style. ( ^ ^^ 

On a table fountain in the Rouen style. yAl EyC 4 72 4* 

On a fountain in blue camaieu with ara- -T /I 7 T * -/- 
besques. Poitiers. •-/ » -*w III C/L 

On a bemticr with twisted columns, three 
yellow fleur-de-lis at the top, pierced panels, CI m! 1d^ lF\ H 

the bowl decorated in polychrome. ,^«> 

On a bas-relief of the Crucifixion, fine J >(J Q. / \M.(\r(i' 

enamel border of arabesques in blue. -1 /" /v /~ 

On a plate in blue camaieu in the Nevers f\ 

style. o'ean goxiy 

This mark is on a barrel fixed on its 
stand, surmounted by Bacchus on horseback, 
blue and yellow circles, blue decoration out 

inblack - L,e/eu)"ve v 

♦ T730<- 

On a canette in the Rouennaise style, with T\TT(~(")J fl On y 
Chinese figures, brilliant colours. T "VZ O 

On an earthenware plate : on the border 
ornaments in brown and dull green ; in the 
centre a family are reciting the Bcnc'dicitc 
(1629). 




e ^ ack : +L eqer 

ithned ^) 




244 



FA YENCE— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 



AN 


13 

GAA 


24 


36 

JIM 


25 

OIP' 


A 2 
F. 


v 14 

GOG 

1780 

2 
2 


37 

S- Gil- 


A 3 

A 
__ 


26 

OS 


38 

SP 


15 

M 


PH 27 


4 


16 


28 

_ 


39 

TXJ_- 

1793 ofi4'C 


CB 5 


17 

H G 


■c- 6 

US'- 


29 


40 

VM 


18 

K 


* ' 


61 3 ° 


41 

w 

z 


F 8 


9 ffl 
JL 


PR M 


42 

W 
H 


9 

P. C- 1661 


■II- " 


pv 32 


•P- 


10 


21 


n A 


TT-T 11 

AE. 


22 

J8> 


p 


• 44 

Po 

5 

■ V 

1661 


if * 

_____ — — — 


23 

a-E-5 


RL 35 



i. Cream-jug, yellow ground with a medallion painted in blue. 

2. Large vase of terre de pipe, raised in blue, the cover surmounted by a pine- 
apple and four leaves. 

3. Style meridional. Service a margins varices. 

4. Fayence, yellow ground with medallions of coloured flowers. 

5. Sauce-boat, polychrome flowers. 

6. Tankard of Italian form, serpent handle, blue decoration like Nevers. 

7. Dish with bouquets of flowers— Strasbourg style. 



FA YENCE— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 24,5 

8. Plates of red clay and heavy decoration of flowers in the style of Kennes, 
but with bright red. 

9. Large dish, like Marseilles. 

10. Fayence mug, birds and flowers- Rouen style. 

11. Plate, very white enamel and flowers — Marseille style. 

12. Portions of a service of fine fayence, rococo reliefs, finely painted with 
landscapes and flowers ; the rose-coloured tone by its freshness resembles Nidervillers. 

13. Tureen, bouquets of flowers — Marseille style. 

14. Covered cup and saucer, Pompadour style, light manganese colour. 

15. Dish with bouquets of flowers, polychrome style — Franco- 1 lollandais. 

16. Baskets painted with forget-me-not and other small flowers, like the South of 
France style, royal arms in the centre. 

17. Perfume-burner, painted in colours with flowers. 

18. On fayence, with leafy handles and buttons, painted with flowers in bright 
< olours. 

19. Plates, heavy and thick, polychrome Chinese subjects. 

20. Dish with garlands and grotesques, in the Moustiers style. 

21. Christ at the pillar, coarse design, in blue on white enamel. 

22. Plates painted in blue shaded with grotesques and flowers. 

23. Dish in Strasbourg style, with finely painted flowers. The F incuse. 

24. Dishes with mythological subjects — Moustiers style. 

25. Pieces of fine fayence with reliefs. 

26. Soup-tureen — Marseille style ; decoration of bouquets. 

. 27. Fayence vase of complicated pattern, flowers, masks, &c, in relief. 

28. Milk-jug, painted with flowers. 

29. Small tureen, surmounted by an apple, painted with flowers — style of 
Strasbourg and Marseille. 

30. Thick and heavy fayence, sometimes in blue and sometimes in pale colours 
with flowers. 

31. Jardinieres with bouquets in pale violet, butterflies, &c. 

32. Compotier, four-lobed, blue decoration, the border in the Chinese style : 
bouquet in centre, Marseille style. 

33. Thick plates, painted, with flowers and fruit in bright yellow. 

34. Plate with polychrome decoration in the Marseille style. 

35. Plate, escalloped, with flowers in the style of Lorraine. 

36. Small cistern of thick fayence, polychrome decoration of grotesques, in pale 
colours, imitation of Moustiers. 

37. Service in fine fayence, meridional, in the centre subjects in camaicu — Le 
Depart pour la Chasse, Le Retour, Don Quichotte, Josue" arretant le Soleil ; rococo 
borders in blue and pale green, touched with manganese. 

3S. Very fine fayence, beautifully painted with arabesque borders and bouquets 
of flowers, as good as porcelain. 

39. Fayence mug decorated with characters of the Italian comedies. 

40. Plateau, rococo style, garlands, arabesques and bouquets. 

41. Tureen, surmounted by a branch with fruit and leaves, coloured, decorated 
with flowers in the style of Rouen. 

42. Compotiers, pierced and gadrooned with bouquets, like Strasbourg. 

43. Cruet-frame, representing a vessel sailing on the sea. 

44. A plateau of coloured masks, and border of reddish-brown enamelled 
flowers, &c. 




Russia, ^toetien, anti ©emnarft. 



^A^^BOUT the year 1700 the Czar Peter the Great, during 



his 
stay at Saardam, induced some potters of Delft to emigrate 
v$j to St. Petersburg, where he established them. Some fine 
|^^%3^ll stoves were made here, but we have little information on 
the subject, except the following notice in the Connaissanccs 
Politiqiics of Beausobre, published at Riga, 1773 : "There is also among 
the porcelain manufactories at St. Petersburg a fabrique of fayence, on 
the other side of the Neva, where they make every description of vessels 
in large quantities, of correct design and in good taste. They have a 
magazine at St. Petersburg, where table services may be had complete 
for 24 or 30 roubles, and even at lower prices. A private gentleman 
of Revel has also established at his own cost, near this city, a fabrique 
of fayence, and has obtained potters and painters from Germany." 



RORSTRAND AND STOCKHOLM. 

On the 20th May 1 725, Baron Pierre Adlerfelt, the Swedish Minister 
at Copenhagen, requested permission for the potter Jean Wolf to found 
a porcelain manufactory in Sweden, which was accorded, and 200 silver 
dollars were sent in July of the same year for travelling expenses and 
200 rixdollars to buy 200 pounds of cobalt blue from Saxony, and to 
bring specimens of the porcelain which he had made at Copenhagen. 
Wolf estimated the necessary capital at 7000 rixdollars specie, or 28,000 
rixdollars,* and he stated that at Copenhagen 48,000 rixdollars had been 
granted for a similar establishment ; after which Wolf was " remercie et 



* A rixdollar specie, equivalent to four rixdollars, was divided into three silver dollars or 
nine copper dollars. 



FAYENCE— RORSTR AND— STOCKHOLM. 247 

congedie." On the 15th of September Wolf paid a second visit, accom- 
panied by Andre" Nicolas Ferdinand, and they exhibited several speci- 
mens of their art, viz., " a statuette, a plateau on four feet, vases, and 
other objects all made of white clay, well and neatly executed, painted in 
blue, also some moulds called hirda, made of the English tin and metal 
of Prince Robert." This was before the use of plaster-of- Paris or 
gypsum moulds had become known. 

On the 13th June 1726, a society of twenty members was formed of 
the leading men, among whom were Messrs. Cameen, Bunge, Gyllengrip, 
&c, and the State of Stockholm granted the use of a building in that 
part of the city called Stora Rorstrand (Great Rorstrand) for the manu- 
facture of porcelain (fayence). Wolf was dismissed in 1728. He was 
succeeded by Christophe Conrad Hunger, who had worked at Meissen 
as gilder and enameller, and afterwards at Vienna, from which place he 
probably came into Sweden ; he is. described as one of the first master- 
potters in Europe, and was made chief of the manufactory ; but he did 
not succeed in gaining the confidence of the society, for he left in 1733, 
after which Wolf's associate, Andre Nicolas Ferdinand, was appointed, 
who retained the post until 1739. Jean George Taglieb, also a German, 
was his successor, but he did not please his employers, and left in 1741, 
when a Swede named Andre Fahlstrom became master and director, and 
under his auspices the manufactory began to develop itself, but it was 
several years before satisfactory results were obtained. On the 4th 
February 1729 letters patent w T ere granted giving an exclusive privilege 
for twenty years, and exemption from all duties of the articles employed in 
the manufacture, and permission to import and sell wholesale and retail the 
products at all fairs and in all towns of the kingdom free from the octroi 
and other taxes. The directors promised to produce ware equal in all 
respects to that of Delft, and in sufficient quantity to supply the wants of 
all the kingdom ; after expending large sums of money, it was, however, 
many years before the simplest products could be successfully made. 

Christophe Conrad Hunger, who was dismissed in 1733, in 1741 ad- 
dressed the deputation of commerce and manufactures for the privilege of 
making the veritable porcelain of a clay which he said he had found in Dale- 
carlia, " et de faire des pots aux drogues et des formes aux pains de 
sucre," employing another clay of a brownish red colour dug up near the 
city, presenting at the same time specimens, which they found "translucide, 
assez beaux et etincelant comme la vraie porcelaine quand on le battait 
avec le briquet." In consequence of a supposed interference with the 
interests of the Rorstrand manufactory of fayence and its privileges 
granted in 1735, his offer was rejected, but he obtained the right of 
making on his own account for twelve years the drng pots and sugar- 
loaf moulds ; but receiving no encouragement, want of funds compelled 
him to leave Sweden, to which country he never returned. 



248 FAYENCE— RORSTRAND- STOCKHOLM. 

A deputation was appointed in July 1743 to inspect the Rorstrand 
manufactory and report upon its administration, which was far from 
satisfactory. They found there neither master nor book-keeper, the 
building had become ruinous within and without, and immediate repairs 
were necessary; finishing their remarks with the observation: " Every- 
thing leads us to believe that the works are conducted without energy 
and proper surveillance." In 1753 a decisive alteration was effected, 
both in the condition of the fabrique and the quality of its productions. 
A new society was formed in January of that year, composed of eighteen 
members, but the one who exercised the greatest influence was Elias 
Magnus Ingman, afterwards ennobled by the name of Nordenstople ; he 
died 23rd January 1773, sole possessor of the Rorstrand fabrique. Under 
his zealous patronage it was greatly extended, as shown by the following 
analysis: — In 173 1 were produced finished pieces of the value of 700 
copper dollars ; in 1734, about 5000;. in 1740, 37,000 dollars; in 1753, 
53,000; and in 1755 it was increased to more than 76,000 silver dollars 
(or 200,000 copper); and in 1765, to nearly 100,000 silver dollars (or 
300,000 copper), employing 128 workmen. Ingman or Nordenstople, 
just previous to his decease, sold the Rorstrand works to his son, Elias 
Magnus Nordenstople, proprietor of the Marieberg fabrique, which he 
had acquired by purchase ; shortly after this the fabrication of fayence 
with a stanniferous glaze was discontinued, and what was called porcelain 
de si/ex, or English stoneware, substituted, being covered with a trans- 
lucid plumbiferous glaze. The heirs of Nordenstople sold the fabrique 
in 1797 to B. R. Geyer, which has since then changed hands several 
times. 

During the first period, from the date of its foundation in 1726—59, 
the products were chiefly imitations of Oriental and Delft ware, some- 
times, but rarely, of French fayence ; the forms were simple, occasion- 
ally ornamented in relief, but usually in blue camaicu. The master- 
potters were Jean Wolf, 1726-28 ; Christophe Conrad Hunger, 1728-33 ; 
Andre Nicolas Ferdinand, 1733-39; and Andre Fahlstrom, 1741—60. 
Two Swedish painters whose initials are frequently found on the early 
fayence were Daniel Hillberg and Carl Herweghr. 

The second period, 1760—82 or '8^, when the fayence with stan- 
niferous glaze was abandoned, the ware was of fine quality, the forms 
and decorations being copied principally from that of Strasbourg and 
Marseille, the fruit, flowers, and leaves in relief, the colours being nearly 
always applied upon the glaze in the rococo style. The master-potters 
of this period were Jonas Taman after Andre Fahlstrom's death, 1760 ; 
Eric Fahlstrom, 1761 ; Jacob Orhn or Orn, 1761—82 ; and Philippe 
Andre Schirmer, who attended solely to the English stoneware. Among 
the painters were two who distinguished themselves, Henri Sten and 
Andre Stenman ; the former came to Rorstrand in 1755, and in 1767 



FAYENCK— RORSTR AND— STOCKHOLM. 249 

went to Mariebcrg ; Stenman introduced the art of printing on fayence, 
and afterwards carried out his inventions at Marieberg. 



The marks and signatures of the first 



jr-£ 



period, when Rorstrand had no rival, were Yl 

Stockholm, or sometimes St. or S. only, accom- 



panied by the date of fabrication, the price, and 
the initial of the painter, traced in blue under- 
neath each piece ; on a plate painted wi 
flowers, in the Sevres Museum. The ma 
in the margin bears the initials of the painter, 
Andre Fahlstrom. 



of 



J3S. 



The next mark has the date 22nd August 
175 I, and the painter's initials, Daniel Hillberg ; jJoTTmuLm^r /7r/ 
this mark in blue is on a punch-bowl of ena- 7^ T^ 

melled fayence ; on the inside is written " Alia ^ 

wakra flickors skal." — " Here's a health to all good lasses." Later, 
after the foundation of the fabrique of Marieberg, and apparently to 
distinguish the products, the mark was changed •> 

to Rorstrand, or an abbreviation of the word, /lorTf/fcLm 
retaining the other marks, traced in brown, y* ' 

black, or blue. During the transition we find ■ — ^7^/' 

both Stockholm and Rorstrand, the name of the 
capital as well as that of the fabrique, as in the 
margin, dated 14th August 1759. 



A mark of Rorstrand, written at length, 
and dated 25th June 1 765 ; given by Strahle 
in his account of the Rorstrand fabrique. 2._aL- &S~ 




:, (Jlcrft; 

in IS 



Rorstrand, dated 4th December 1769, on 
fayence tureen, scroll border, edged with green, 
yellow, and purple, and bouquets of flowers ; in 
the Sevres Museum. ^ , 

/z 6$ 

These marks are found impressed on ware 
in imitation of Wedgwood and other English Rorstrand & Rorstrand. 
fabriques ; about 1 780. 



2^0 



FAYENCE— MARIEBERG. 



MARIEBERG. 



The first idea of establishing a manufacture of fayence and porcelain 
here originated with Jean Eberhard Louis Ehrenreich, dentist to King 
Adolphe Frederick in 1758. Marieberg consisted of a few small houses 
in the mountains near Stockholm. In the spring of 1758, Ehrenreich 
requested of the King, after presenting specimens of his fayence and por- 
celain, the privilege of producing " differentes especes de porcelaines fines 
et ordinaires, vraies et fausses, ainsi que des gres cerames," soliciting an 
indemnity of 10,000 silver dollars. A society was formed and the privi- 
lege granted on the 28th May 1 759. The principal supporter of this new 
enterprise was the Baron Charles Frederick Scheffer, afterwards Count, 
a rich and influential person. The Marieberg property was bought in 
his name. Among the rest were the brothers Benoit and Pierre Bergius, 
George Henri Conradi, Henry Konig, Jean Westerman, afterwards Lil- 
jencrantz, &c. The building was erected in October 1758, and in the 
following April, Ehrenreich commenced his works, but in May the whole 
fabrique was destroyed by fire. In September the new fabrique was 
completed, and in April 1760 operations were commenced afresh. Ehren- 
reich engaged Jean Buchwald as master-potter in 1761, which post he 
held until 1 765. One hundred and thirty workmen were employed, and 
in the following year the number was increased to two hundred and fifty. 
The fabrique went on prosperously until 1766, when Ehrenreich aban- 
doned the directory, for reasons unknown to us, and in the following 
year he went to Stralsund. He was succeeded by Pierre Berthevin, who 
had been employed in France in a fabrique of porcclahie tendre, but whether 
this means fayence or the veritable porcelain it is difficult to determine. 
The fabrication decreased considerably, and in 1769 Berthevin quitted 
Marieberg, returning to France. Henri Sten succeeded as director, which 
situation he retained until 1782, when the fabrique was sold to Major 
Nordenstople. In 1784 a German named Philippe Andre Schirmer 
displaced Henri Sten; Dortie, a Frenchman, 1778-82, assisted in the 
production of true porcelain, but as this new fabrication did not produce 
any revenue it was renounced. 

In 1780 many of the shares of the works had been sold at Stock- 
holm, and Baron Liljencrantz becoming nearly sole proprietor, he sold the 
whole to Major Nordenstople of Rorstrand in July 1782. After his 
decease in 1783, his heirs continued the manufacture a few years, prin- 
cipally in English fayence, and it altogether ceased in 1788 to 1789. 
An eminent painter named Henri Frantzen was engaged here from 1761 
until his death in 1 78 1 ; his works are usually signed F. ; he had two 
sons, Jean-Otho and Francis-Henry Frantzen, who also painted at Marie- 
berg. Under Berthevin the art of printing on fayence was successfully 



FAYENCE— MARIEBERG— STRALSUND. 251 

introduced by Andre Stenman, who came from ROrstrand in 1766, 
bringing with him the secrets of his art. 

The fayence of Ehrenreich has a clear white glaze. A journal of the 
27th September 1762 advertises that "the fabriquc of Marieberg exposes 
for sale in the magazine at Stockholm various sorts of fayences porcc- 
laines, blue, blue white, Marseille, enamelled plates, tureens, dinner, tea 
and coffee services, and objects of decoration and ornament ; " the pre- 
vailing style is rococo, imitating Strasbourg and Marseille, and the paint- 
ing was over the glaze. Sometimes statuettes are found representing 
characters in the French comedies, Scapin, &c. 

The earliest dated pieces of fayence are 1763 ; the latest we have met 
with are 1780; the English pottery subsequently made, is sometimes 
stamped with the name at length. 

Marieberg. This mark is on an enamelled v£ 7 / 

fayence tureen, like Strasbourg. The three ^_— — - ^ 

crowns are the arms of Sweden, M. B. for J'ljjft *-*4" 4 ^>i 

Marieberg, E. Ehrenreich the director, and F. mmmm ~ j . -* 1 

the initial of the painter Frantzen ; the other £77 - Or ^ 

letters and figures denote the date, 24th Novem- L.« /? i/O.'^^'oS^ 

ber 1764, and the price. V»"— "V 

Marieberg. Another mark with the three 
crowns, the initials of Berthevin, and the name 
of the place. 

Marieberg. Enamelled fayence like Delft, 
with Berthevin the director's initial, dated 14th 
October 1768. 



ABB 

10 




Marieberg. A mark of the 14th Septem- - — yt a~"> 

ber 1770, with the initial of Sten, who was for Sl\2)' v ^ , 

many years a distinguished painter at Ror- /A^ # f £/ 

strand, and succeeded Berthevin as director *4 \X/ """" 

here about the year 1769. C/ 



</ 



^ 



STRALSUND. 



Stralsuxd. This manufactory of fayence was established early in 
the eighteenth century, for it is recorded that one Jean Paskovitz, who 
had been engaged at Rorstrand, where he only remained a month, went 



2.52 FAYENCE— STRALSUND— KIEL. 

to Stralsund on the 20th May 1 73 1 . According to Count Bielke, who 
furnishes no date, it was founded by M. Von Giese, a counsellor of com- 
merce, who obtained his materials from the island of Hiddenso, near the 
Isle Rugen, but its early history is unknown, as' well as its products. 
Ehrenreich, who quitted Marieberg in 1 766, went in 1767 to Stralsund, 
accompanied by some workmen of Marieberg and Rorstrand, to work at 
this manufactory ; but it received a severe shock in 1770 by the explosion 
of a powder-mill, which destroyed a great portion of the fabrique ; it was 
carried on with varying success until 1786, when it ceased altogether 
from want of funds. 

Count Bielke possesses many specimens of Stralsund fayence, which 
are very similar to those of Marieberg. The ware bears the mark of the 
arms of the town, viz., three radiating lines under a crown ; sometimes 
the capital E, the first letter of Ehrenreich's name, follows, accompanied 
by the date. 

/p 2j Stralsund. This mark is on a specimen 

<£ 2,0* / u C7>(7* ln tne Gasnault Collection ; it has underneath 
7 vG , v>J r s the signature of an artist who also painted at 
Rorstrand — Carl Herveghr. 







Stralsund. The arms of the town, three 
radiating lines under a crown, followed by E for 
y fl^* Ehrenreich, and date 25th May 1770, with the 

^"~ ^~* price. 

2 Note. — This mark, which comprises all these 

£C~ seven characters, and the next, of January 1768, 

are placed in one line, not in two as here given. 



&• 



70 



¥ 69 



Stralsund. A similar mark with Ehren- 
reich's initial, dated 20th January 1768. On a 
tureen painted with flowers, in the Sevres 
Museum. 



Kiel. A manufactory of fayence was in existence at Kiel, on the 
shores of the Baltic, towards the latter half of the last century, under the 
direction of M. Buchwald ; one of the principal painters being Abraham 
Leihamer. Jean Buchwald had been engaged as master-potter under 
Ehrenreich at Marieberg, 1761 to 1765 ; a few 3'ears after, probably in 



FAYENCE— KIEL— KUNERSBERG. 2,-3 

1767 or 1768, he became director of the Kiel fabrique ; we see by his 
signed and dated pieces that he was at Kiel in 1768 and 1769. The 
ware made here was very similar to that of Strasbourg with coloured 
scroll borders. 



Kii.l. This mark is on a fayence vase and 
cover, painted with peasants and rural scenery ; 
similar to the Strasbourg style, about the year 
1770. 

Kiel. On a fayence vase, circa 1770, globu- 
lar, with raised borders, edged with brownish 
green and sprigs of flowers, and flowers in full 
relief on the cover ; marked in red. This, and 
some other pieces of Copenhagen fayence, were 
brought from the Baltic. 

Kiel. This mark, with the initials of 
Buchwald, the director, and Leihamer, the 
painter or maker, is found on some fine camaiai / P\&l 

paintings of bright green, heightened with 
black and touched with gold ; the date is 1769. 



' (77 

n 

3(U 



Kiel. The mark in the margin is on a bowl 
with a cover in form of a mitre, probably used 
for " bishop," a sort of punch or spiced wine ; it /~\ y jO)| 
is painted with ladies and gentlemen seated at a QijLLtft ^ Cite. 
table drinking bishop out of a bowl of the same n /l/. r 'Gr/da ill€ r/eci/. 
form ; on the reverse, soldiers skirmishing. ^C^' 

Gustafsberg, near Gothenberg ; about GITSTATSBERG- 

1820— 1860. Godenius, manufacturer of earthen- 
ware services, usually in blue and gold, like 
Staffordshire ware. 



rSTAFSBE: 



Helsinberg (Scandinavia). A manufactory 
of stoneware was established about the year 

1770, and produced a good quality of ware for HELSINBERG 

domestic purposes ; at a later period moulded 
ornaments for the external decorations of edi- 
fices were also made. 

Kunersberg. This name in full is met -p • 

with on fayence. In the Collections of M. YiLLllPViSUCTCl 

Gasnault and M. E. Pascal of Paris are some ^^/ 

specimens painted with flowers, &c, in violet 
camaicu. 



254 FAYENCE— KUNERSBERG— COPENHAGEN. 

*£, a^o .» Kunersberg. A mark so attributed by 

|^" f m ~ri M. Jacquemart. 

Copenhagen. There was a fayence manufactory here early in the 
eighteenth century, but we have no precise information by whom it was 
founded. In the account of the Rorstrand fabrique, Strahle states that 
on the 20th May 1725 the Baron Pierre Adlerfelt, Swedish Minister at 
Copenhagen, sent Jean Wolf from the Copenhagen fayence manufactory 
to form a similar establishment at Stockholm. Wolf, estimating the 
probable cost, stated that at Copenhagen the sum of 48,000 rixdollars 
had been expended in its construction. About 1770 porcelain was made 
and artists of great talent were employed, who painted both that and 
fayence : the names of three of these artists were Gilding, Seipsius, and 
Ruch. 





FAYENC E. 




f&ollantj, Belgium, anti <^tnnanj). 

AYENCE with stanniferous enamel was known from the 
earliest times. Theophilus (Diversarum Artium Schedula) 
devotes a chapter to the art of painting earthenware vessels 
with various vitrified colours, and a commentator on his work 
relates the fact of this glaze (of which he gives the com- 
position) having been used at Schelestadt, in Alsatia, as early as 1278. 
In the Annates Dominicanorum Colmariens (1283), Urstis. Script, rcrum 
Germ., v. ii. p. 10, we read : " Obiit figulus Stelztatt qui primus in 
Alsatia vitra vasa fictilia vestiebat." M. Piot (Cabinet de /' Amateur) cites, 
as a proof that the stanniferous enamel was well known in the com- 
mencement of the fourteenth century, a receipt given in the Margarita 
Preciosa, a treatise written in 1330: " Videmus, cum plumbum et stan- 
num fuerunt calcinata et combusta quod post ad ignem congruum con- 
vertuntur in vitrum, sicut faciunt qui vitrificant vasa figuli ; " and it is 
not stated to be an invention or a novelty, but merely as a fact known 
to the potters of that time. Hence it is evident that the art of covering 
earthenware vessels with an opaque enamel made of lead and tin was 
used long before Lucca della Robbia's time, and that he merely applied 
it to sculpture in terra-cotta, which had previous!}' been executed in dis- 
temper. The Moors of Spain applied this enamel to their pottery in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries ; the Arabs before them, even in the 
eighth century, were acquainted with it, and the azitlcjos, or tiles of the 
Alhambra, of the thirteenth century, are well known ; while some even 
go so far as to assert that the tiles discovered at Nineveh are enamelled 
in like manner, and not merely glazed. The instances, therefore, given 



256 FAYENCE— HANAU— TEYLINGEN. 

by M. Demmin of similar enamelled fayences existing at Leipzig and 
Breslau of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, show that it actually was 
adopted about that time in various parts of Germany, but does not prove 
that it was invented there ; but he is entitled to as much consideration as 
others who attribute its invention to Italy. 

Hanau. Quality unknown. Circa 1650. In a MS. of 1707, in an 
inventory of a Nuremberg mansion, are mentioned " Zween weiss und 
bloue Hanauer Krug mit Zinn beschlagen ; " and in the Handbuch der 
Erfindungen von Bnsch we read that towards the middle of the seventeenth 
century two Dutch merchants established a fayence fabrique at Hanau, 
which was purchased at the commencement of the eighteenth century by 
Simon von Alphen. 

Teylingen. This place has become celebrated in keramic history 
from its association with the unfortunate Jacqueline, Countess of Hainault 
and Holland, and the manufacture of a sort of earthenware jug called the 
Jacoba Kamietje. This princess, born about 1400, became wife of John, 
Duke of Brabant, and after many severe trials, abdicated in 1433, and 
retired to the Chateau de Teylingen, about five hours' journey from 
Rotterdam. While here, according to the tradition, she employed her 
leisure in superintending the manufacture of stone pots or cruches, and 
is said to have thrown many of them into the fosse of the chateau 
as souvenirs to posterit}', that in after-ages they might be considered 
works of antiquity ; for this reason these particular cruches found in the 
fosse, and others similar, are called Jacoba Kannctjes. Such is the legend 
in Holland, which is in some degree verified by the actual discovery of 
a vast quantity of them on the spot, proving at least that there was a 
manufactory. However, it is probable the same description of pottery was 
made for common use simultaneously in other parts of Holland and in 
Germany. This manufacture therefore goes back to the commencement 
of the fifteenth century. Some archaeologists are of opinion that these 
vessels were placed before the guests at table, used only once, and, when 
empty, thrown into the moat of the castle. This stoneware is of a cheap 
character and common quality, of coarse grain, and not enamelled or 
coloured, but still hard and impermeable ; the forms of these cruches are 
generally globular, with a small handle and a foot, the body and neck 
being marked by circles or rings with the lathe, and the foot escalloped 
as if pinched by a finger or thumb ; they are otherwise plain and without 
any ornamentation. Some idea of them may be formed by referring to 
Nos. 1, 8, and 11 on p. 31, found in London. The Jacoba Kannetje 
figured by Marryat in his " History of Pottery " is a superb Raeren ware 
canette of the sixteenth century, with designs and ornaments in relief. 
Nothing less resembles the real Jacoba than the specimen there given, 
which is nearly two centuries later in date of manufacture. 

Utrecht. Fayence with stanniferous enamel. A manufactory of 



FAYENCE— UTRECHT— HAMBURG. 257 

tiles, "carreaux de revetcment," decorated in blue or violet en camaieu, 
was founded in the eighteenth century, and carried on by the following 
proprietors in succession : — 

1760. — The founder, Albertus Prince. 

1798. — Hendrick Jacob Kraane-Pook and Gerrit Bruyn. 

1823. — Hendrick Jacob Paul Bruyn and Pieter Ambrose Bert. 

1824. — Baudewyn and Jacob Van der Mandere. 

1839. — Baudewyn, Jacob Van der Mandere, David Hendrick and Franciscus 

Marinus Royaards. 
1844. — The Brothers Royaards and Hendrick Camerlingh. 

The manufactory was closed in 1855, having worked with two kilns and 
about fifty workmen ; they imitated the ancient tiles of Delft, and having 
no mark, they are often sold for real Delft. There are still two manu- 
factories at the Hallsteig Barrier, one belonging to M. Ravenstein, the 
other to M. Schillemans, for making tiles in imitation of Delft. 

Overtoom. A manufactory of fine fayence was established in 1754 
in the parish of Amstelveen, near Amsterdam, in a theatre where French 
performances were formerly given ; the Barons Van Haeren and Van 
Palland were the proprietors, Ariel Blankers, director, and Wollen Tusnig, 
modeller. The constructions were called Blankenburg, after the director's 
name. The fayence, though rather heavy, was of a fine white enamel, 
very hard, and of good forms ; besides table and tea services, they made 
some pretty groups of birds, modelled from nature, statuettes, vases, &c. 
They are now very scarce, as the works were limited ; it ceased in 1764, 
having lasted only ten years ; no mark is known. The machinery and 
materials were bought by the Count Van Gronsfeld, who removed the 
manufactory to Weesp. 

Houda (North Holland). Gaberil Ven- 

gobechea. This mark, stamped, is on fay- Gaberil Vengobechea 

ence plates with coarsely painted violet riouda. 

scrolls ; there are three triple cockspur 

marks round the border underneath. 

Hamburg. The name of this artist Yr r\u~ f /I 

, . , , . , , . . .. xJohann Uuo Jc//tL 

occurs on a four-sided tea-caddy, artistically , . ^ 1// 

painted in blue, with figures of lovers and SudpfUztbJLn*\t'. 

rococo scrolls, gilt borders ; in Mr. H. G. "7/ / // • 

Bonn's Collection. This interesting sped- ^"mburc, fUnfts 
men is the only one we have met with <s<z>uta.ry -inn 0/736 
made at Hamburg ; our first impression was 

that the vessel was made at Delft and painted at Hamburg, but the 
words sculpsit et pinxit clearly prove that it was both made and painted 
at Hamburg. 

Bailleul (Nord), or Beilex, in Holland. The inscription has been 

R 



258 FAYENXE— BAILLEUL— AMSTERDAM— DELFT. 

read differently, but the Dutch town is probably intended. M. A. Jacque- 
mart attributes to this place a soup-tureen in the Musee de Cluny. 
Gournay in his Almanack General du Commerce says: "The fayence of 
this locality equals in beauty that of Rouen, and has the advantage of 
bearing the most violent heat, and is sold at a moderate price, the work- 
manship being cheap." We have not met with this variety, but the 
tureen, M. Jacquemart says, is decidedly of French fayence, not German ; 

it is decorated with shields of arms and Dutch 
Ghtmaeckte tot Belle inscriptions ; the cover has lions and heraldic 
C. Jacobus Hennekens emb l ems in relief, and is inscribed " Ghe- 

maecke tot Belle C. Jacobus Hennekens 
1 '' anno 1 7 1 7 ;" made at Bailleul. This piece 

and inside was r ead by Demmin {Guide de V Amateur 

Belle C.I.H. de Faience) " GJiemaeckt tot Bcile," ard attri- 

buted by him to Beilen, near Assan, Holland. 

Amsterdam. A German Jew of Breslau, named Hartog, known by 
the adopted name of Hartog Van Laun (maker of the planetarium 
described by Professor Van Swinden, and purchased by the Society Felix 
Mentis in Amsterdam), in conjunction with another named Brandeis, 
established a manufactory of fayence about 1780 at " Flacke-feld, near 
the Gate of Weesp, at Amsterdam." It ceased about 1785. The ware 

is heavy, not very artistic, and usually in 
blue camaieu decorations. A piece given by 
a son of Brandeis to M. Demmin bears this 
mark. M. Brandeis has still at his residence, 
419 Rapenburger Straat, several pieces of 
the ware made here. A fruit-dish, painted 
in lilac camaieu with peasants dancing, has 
""^ this mark of chanticleer proclaiming the 

dawn. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 166.) 

Delft.* The ancient town of Delft is situated between the Hague 
and Rotterdam, and few names are better known, especially to the col- 
lectors of pottery. 

In the sixteenth century Delft was celebrated throughout Europe for 
its excellent beer, which was attributed in a great degree to the quality 
of the water. There were nearly three hundred breweries along the 
sides of the canal ; all these were destroyed in the great fire which 
devastated the town in 1536; but owing to the consideration shown to 
them by Charles V., in relieving the brewers from all taxes on the 
materials they employed for twenty years, they were quickky reinstated, 




* Reprinted from the author's communication to the Art Journal of October and November 
1S84, to which the reader is referred for the illustrations which accompanied it. 



FA YENCE— DELFT. z- :) 

and in fifty years the trade became more flourishing than ever. The 
opulence of the brewers of Delft was proverbial. 

It was destined, however, to give way to an industry of a more 
artistic character, but how the change was effected must remain a 
mystery. The brewers, with the trades in connection, such as coopers, 
boatmen, &c, numbered more than one-third of the entire population. 
In the commencement of the seventeenth century the celebrated breweries 
of Delft were gradually discontinued, and by 1640 they had all closed, 
one after the other. 

Bleswick (Beschryvinge der Stadt Delft, &c, Delft, 1677) styles 
the Delft ware Ddfschc porceleyn, by which term it was always known, 
being the nearest approach to the Oriental or true porcelain made at the 
time he wrote, and usually imitating the Japanese designs. The inter- 
course with Japan was carried on solely by the Dutch vessels, which con- 
stantly arrived from Decima to the East India Company's depot at Delft, 
the cargoes being largely supplemented by quantities of Japanese wares ; 
from thence they were dispersed throughout. Europe. The cities of Delft 
and Rotterdam each contributed a sixth of the capital of this celebrated 
company. The brilliant actions of the Dutch mariners have been 
extolled by many writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The exploits of one of their vessels, called " The Devil of Delft," are 
mentioned by Dudley Carleton ; this vessel engaged and captured a vast 
amount of treasure from the Spanish galleons. Les Delices de Pays 
Bas, 1679, relates that Admiral Piet Hein, a native of Delft, captured in 
one year " sept millions deux cent mille livres d'argent, trois millions 
six cent mille livres de marchandises, quatre millions en canons et autre 
equipages. Cette annee la, les associes de la compagnie recurent cinq 
cents pour cent, de leur mise, et encore n'eurent-ils que la moitie des 
tresors captures." 

It is to the end of the sixteenth century that the first attempts to 
make fayence can be traced, and in the commencement of the seven- 
teenth century it assumed a commercial aspect. Hence the origin of 
Delft fayence may be fixed about 1600. Bleswick says: " C'est a 
l'epoque ou les brasseries si renommes de Delft declinerent et disparurent 
que les fa'ienceries commencerent a fleurir." 

This brings us to the consideration of the origin of the manufacture 
of fayence at Delft. All the books which treat of the industries of the 
Netherlands are silent as to the fayence of Delft before 1650, and it is 
not until 1667 tna t Bleswick mentions it, and he evidently considered it 
of small importance, for out of nine hundred pages he only devotes 
to it about fourteen lines. The Dcliccs de Pays Bas, in 1678, is also 
silent as to the importance of this manufacture. 

M. Havard, Histoirc de la Fayence de Delft, to whom we are 
indebted for the most complete history yet written, and whose instructive 



260 FAYENCE-DELFT. 

and beautifully illustrated work is now before us, has thrown consider- 
able light upon its hitherto obscure origin, and by his perseverance has 
furnished us with a biography of all the keramists of Delft. He has, 
moreover, corrected many errors and exaggerations which have been 
advanced without due consideration or authority, and which rest entirely 
on the crude and imaginative remarks of persons unqualified to reason 
with discretion or prudence, yet arbitrary and partial in the highest 
degree. 

M. Havard refutes the absurd pretensions and gross errors of an 
author who endeavours to assign to the fifteenth century the introduc- 
tion of fayence into Delft. The proofs M. Demmin adduces {Guide de 
r Amateur de Faience, &c.) are two pieces of Delft fayence : one repre- 
sents a horse fully caparisoned and saddled, painted in colours ; on this 
he finds the letters I.H.F., and under them the number 1480, which he 
mistakes for a date ; for there is nothing in the piece indicating an earlier 
period than the eighteenth century, and the Arabic numerals, which he 
erroneously imagines were used in the fifteenth century, are merely the 
ordinal number of a fabrique called "The Fortune," I.H.F. signifying 
In het Fortuyn, where the practice was to mark their pieces in that 
way. A mark of the same fabrique has the number 1 1 85 ; according to 
this method of reasoning, he might have fixed it at the twelfth century. 

Great exaggerations have been made by authors as regards the 
population of Delft ; it was for a century and a half the most important 
manufacturing town in Europe. In the year 1680, when at its greatest 
prosperity, the population did not exceed 24,000, and the number of 
persons employed in the fayence fabriques were not more than 1500 
or 2000 at most, and the number of fabriques did not exceed thirty. 
In 1659 and 1 664 the official documents in the archives only mention 
twenty-three. In 1780 they were reduced to half that number, and in 
1794 to ten. In 1808 there were only seven: the Lampetkan, the Por- 
celeyne Fles, Bloempot, Klaauw, the Greekse A, Drie Klokken, and the 
Roos. By degrees these also disappeared, the Lampetkan in 18 10, the 
Bloempot in 18 16, the Greekse A and the others a few years later. 

We may here also allude to the erroneous statements of prices paid 
to decorators of fayence. M. Havard says : " Everybody has read the 
gross exaggerations of the prices paid to these clever artists. It will be 
seen by the following document it was by sous, and not florins, that the 
decoration of various objects was computed ; and in the same ratio we 
need not be surprised at the low prices named in their tariff. A very 
fine polychrome bottle belonging to M. Fetis of Brussels is inscribed 
" G. N. H. 7st. ; " this, which at the present day would realise perhaps as 
many pounds, was actually sold for seven stivers, that is, seven Dutch 
sous, equal to fourteen sous of the present day. An order is quoted 
from a dealer at Tournay to Zacharias Dextra, of the Drie Astonnen, in 



FAYENCE— DELFT. 261 

1758, whose fine works are well known, thus : — For decorated pieces the 
prices were as follows per dozen : 



6 douzaines de grand plat fon bleu et en couleur des nouveaux 
dessains a ...... 

6 douzaines dito moien plat bleu et en couleur a 
2 douzaines salladier a cartiez den bleux a 
2 douzaines salladier a cartiez den bleux a 
100 douzaines de tassc a caffee bleux est en couleur rouge 



Sol-. 

SO 

40 

50 

34 



In an early register preserved at Delft, the only person whose name 
appears as Plateelbacker (master-potter) is an entry on the 1st September 
1584 of the marriage of Herman Pietersz, fayence-maker, widower, born 
at Haarlem, with Anna Cornelisz. He had doubtless learned his trade 
at Haarlem, where many potters then resided, making a coarse descrip- 
tion of pottery (so indeed was all that was made in the sixteenth 
century), viz., a red ware covered with lead glaze. The true Delft 
fayence of yellow biscuit, with stanniferous enamel, which constitutes 
real Delft, was not known until the seventeenth century. 

The source from which M. Havard derives his information as to the 
names of the Plateclbackcrs, or master-potters who had passed their 
examination and received a diploma, is from the Mccstcrboek of the Gild 
of St. Luc, in which their names are enrolled. It forms two volumes, 
and was recently discovered in the Royal Library at the Hague, and 
contains entries from 161 1 to 17 1 5 . In addition to this there is a list 
of marks deposited in 1 680 by a decree of the magistrates of Delft ; a 
list of master-potters made in 1759, and a register of potters' marks 
deposited in 1764, all of which are in the archives at Delft. Our 
diligent author, M. Havard, has also searched the registers of births 
and marriages in Delft from 1 575 to 1808, contained in more than 150 
volumes, to complete his biography of all the keramists of Delft. 

This Mccstcrboek of St. Luc commenced in 16 1 3, and the first eight 
names mentioned are : 1st. Herman Pietersz, 2nd. Pauwels Bouseth, 
3rd. Cornelis Rochus Van der Hoek, 4th. Egbert Huygens, 5th. Michiel 
Noutsz, 6th. Thomas Jansz, 7th. Abraham Davitsz, and, 8th. Symon 
Thonisz. 

It was doubtless between 1596 and 161 1, the epoch in which the 
Gild of St. Luc was founded, that the origin of the fayence of Delft may 
be traced, and that Herman Pietersz was the great promoter of it. 

In the Rccucil Delft no mention is made of Plateclbackcrs. In 1596 
there is a list of all the professions allowed and exercised within the 
walls of Delft, but in that no mention is made of makers of fa}'ence. The 
Mccstcrboek of St. Luc must, therefore, be our starting-point of information. 

The Gild of St. Luc consisted of eight bodies of artists and workmen, 
grouped together in rather a heterogeneous manner: — I. Painters of 



262 FAVENCE— DELFT. 

ever}' kind, whether in oil or water, pencil, or otherwise, no distinction 
apparently being made between the artist and the whitewasher or house- 
painter ; 2. The painters and engravers upon glass, glassmakers, and 
glaziers ; 3. The fayence-makers and painters upon fayence ; 4. Uphol- 
sterers and makers of tapestr} 7 ; 5. Sculptors in wood, stone, and all 
other substances ; 6. Sheath or case makers, who at this time were 
real artists ; 7. Art painters and librarians ; and, lastly, 8. Dealers in 
paintings and engravings. All the trades which involved the arts of 
design were here represented. 

The Gild had absolute power over every article produced by these 
trades; no person could execute or cause to be executed any object 
appertaining to them without the authority of the Syndics, and every 
infraction of their rules was visited by a fine of ten florins and forfeiture 
of the object executed. Any unauthorised person attempting to w T ork 
at any of these trades, even putting in a pane of glass, for instance, was 
subject to a fine of twelve florins and confiscation. Nobody could sell 
a painting, a glass, or a piece of fayence, without being a member of the 
corporation. Before becoming a master-potter, every person had to 
serve an apprenticeship of six years, and at the end of every two years 
the contract had to be renewed until the full term was completed, which 
involved a fresh payment. This course being accomplished, the apprentice 
had to submit proofs of his capability in order to pass his examination. 
In fayence, the painter, Plateclschildcr, and the thrower, Platecldrayer, 
were required, before obtaining their diplomas, the former to decorate a 
dozen large dishes, and a fruit dish entirely covered with ornament ; 
the latter to throw upon the wheel an ewer, sirooppot, a salad-bowl, and 
a salt-cellar with a hollow foot out of a single piece of clay, in the 
presence of two deacons of the craft, and was locked up in a room while 
at work ; then both thrower and painter had to form and paint a pile 
of thirty small plates. If not approved, they had to serve a year and six 
weeks longer before they could again offer themselves for election. 
The droits de maitrise were heavy for the period : for a native of Delft 
6 florins, for a stranger 12 florins, for the son of a potter 3 florins. 
M. Havard relates that Jan Van der Meer and Pieter de Hooch, the 
two celebrated painters of the Dutch school, not being able to pay the 
charge, were forced to solicit the indulgence of the Burgomaster, and pay 
by instalments, their friends becoming surety. 

There were several good points in the management of the Gild. A 
school of design was established, which all the apprentices were obliged 
to frequent, and annual meetings for the distribution of prizes to the 
most efficient. As early as the middle of the seventeenth century, each 
trade raised a fund for mutual help to the sick and needy, and alms- 
houses for those incapable of work. 

In 1764 an edict was issued compelling all master-potters to send 



FA YENCE— DELFT. 26.5 

into the Gild of St. Luc a description of their sign, with the mark they 
were accustomed to place upon their wares, and prohibiting any persons, 
under a fine of six hundred florins, from counterfeiting the marks of 
other potters. These were entered in a register which is still preserved, 
and this was until recently the only official document known relating to 
the history of the Platcclbackcrs of Delft, except a short list of marks 
sent by some potters in 1680 to protect themselves against counterfeits. 

Scarcely any of the most talented keramists who took the lead in this 
movement were natives of Delft ; neither Albrccht de Keizer, who was 
the first Syndic of the trade, nor Abraham de Kooge, nor Frytom, nor 
Fictoors, nor Kleynoven were natives. Among the families which form 
a sort of dynasty of potters there are not more than five or six of Delft 
origin — the Mesch, De Milde, Kam, Brouwer, and one or two others. 
The two Cleffius were from Amsterdam ; the Hoppestein, the Eenhoorn, 
and the Pynacker families did not belong to Delft, and in becoming 
master-potters were obliged to acquire the right of citizenship ; and in 
1680, of the seven potters who deposited their marks to protect them- 
selves from counterfeits, only two were natives of Delft. 

There is a difficulty in tracing the genealogy of many of the potters. 
M. Havard says : " In those times, indeed, the workmen, the labourers, 
and others of low condition, were not accustomed to retain their family 
name distinct ; they restricted themselves, according to the custom of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to making their Christian names precede 
that of their father." Thus, in the case of Herman Pietersz, founder or 
promoter of the Gild of St. Luc in 161 1, Herman being the son of Peter, 
was called Herman Pieterszoon, or Pietersz by abbreviation. The son 
of Herman, christened Gerrit, was styled Gerrit Hermansz ; and his 
children, Herman and Annetje, were styled, for the same reason, Herman 
Gerritszoon and Annetje Gerritsdochter, that is, the son or daughter of 
Gerrit, and by abbreviation Herman and Annetje Gerritsz. But if good 
fortune arrived, or there was some motive for distinguishing themselves 
from the common, they adopted a surname, which was chosen from their 
profession, from physical or moral qualities, a colour, or a talent, or they 
appended to their prenomen the place of their birth or their property. 
In looking over the Mecsterbock, out of the thirty names which first 
occur, we shall scarcely find six which are anything else than direct 
patronymic indications. In artistic professions, on the other hand, the 
surname was generally used ; so that in the registers of St. Luc the 
names of painters, librarians, glass and tapestry makers, have a sort of 
aristocratic appearance, while the modest potters seem to be disinherited. 
In the middle of the seventeenth century all this was changed. The 
trade had increased and prosperity was at its height ; Delft fayence 
became celebrated and orders were received from all countries. It was 
then that the master-potters became great and influential, and took upon 



264 FAYENCE— DELFT. 

themselves some distinctive surname. This Jacob Wemmertsz added 
the high-sounding name of Hoppestein ; Pieter Jansz styled himself Van 
Kessel ; Jacob Jacobszoon became Dukerton ; and so on of twenty others. 
Some sonorous appellation was chosen when fortune or reputation made 
them distinguished. In 1650, when Quiering Aldersz married and was 
elected master-potter, he was content to use that name alone ; but when 
he became Syndic in 1659, he was transformed into M. Van Kleynoven. 

The early keramists of the seventeenth century are peculiar from 
the immense number of figures crowded into their compositions. One 
signed by Tomes Jansz (1590— 161 i), representing the Last Judgment, in 
the Collection of M. Loudon of the Hague, is so intricate that M. Havard 
in his work could find no means of reproducing the four hundred figures 
which compose the picture and its elaborate border. Two others by the 
son of Herman Pietersz (Gerrit Hermanszoon, 1614) are nearly as 
intricate. One is a charge of cavalry, in the Slaes Collection, dated 
1634; the other, a kermesse, dated 1640, is in the Evenepoel Collection. 
Some, however, are of a more quiet and harmonious character, and not 
so crowded, being mythological subjects after the paintings by Goltsius. 

About 1650, a great change was made in the decoration of fayence, 
and painters of greater merit, as well as potters of a higher character, 
entered upon the scene, whose names we will briefly introduce to our 
readers, omitting for want of space those whose works are not so well 
known. The dates immediately following the names indicate their 
admission to the Gild of St. Luc as licensed potters. 

Abraham de Kooge, 1632, was a painter in oil, but he also painted 
on fayence. He produced those splendid plaques of landscapes in blue 
camaieit, which have never been surpassed. Examples of them are in 
the Loudon and Evenepoel Collections. 

Albrecht Cornelis de Keizer, 1642, was the first to imitate the 
designs on the Japanese porcelain, but he did not confine his talent to 
this particular style. His works are of very high finish, and usually 
painted in blue. A lofty vase a jacinthe, of elegant form, of his second 
period, cir. 1660, representing a garden scene and figures, and round the 
top a frieze of cupids, 2 feet 10 inches high, is an heirloom in the 
possession of Walter Moseley, Esq., of Buildwas Park, Shrewsbury. 
His son, Cornelis de Keizer, and his sons-in-law, Jacob and Adrian 
Pynacker, were equally eminent in carrying out his wonderful imitations 
of the Japanese porcelain. 

Frederick van Frytom, 1658, an excellent artist, preferred blue 
camaieu to polychrome. A plaque representing an extensive landscape 
with figures is preserved in the Royal Hague Museum. 

Wouter van Eenhoorn, established in 1658, and his sons, Samuel 
and Lambartus, who succeeded him, devoted themselves to polychrome, 
in which they excelled. 



FA YENCE— DELFT. 265 

The Kams, numbering five fine artists, were accustomed more 
especially to paint in blue with Japanese subjects. 

Piet Vizeer, 1752, emulated the choice polychromes of Lambartus 
Van Eenhoorn. No potter, in fact, ever managed his colours so admir- 
ably an grand feu, nor infused so much vigour and intensity into his 
works. 

Gysijrecht Vkrhaast, 1760, was a careful artist, and composed some 
fine tableaux upon a beautiful enamel. He painted Dutch scenes after 
Teniers and Brouwer. 

The two Dextras, Zachariah, 1720, and Jan Theunis, 1769, both 
imitated the Dresden decoration, and excelled in fountains, tureens, and 
other important pieces, in polychrome and gilding. 

Four members of a patrician family of Delft, the Van* der Hoeves, 
were elected as Plateclhachers in the Gild of St. Luc — Cornelis Rociiusz 
Van der Hoeve, one of the founders, in 161 1 ; Jan Gerritz, admitted 
in 1649; and the two Cornelis in 1662 and 1698. This family bore 
in their arms three violins sable on a field argent. M. Havard suggests 
that these four keramists desired to leave to posterity tangible emblems 
of their shield, which seems probable, as the only four genuine violins 
known are by different hands and of successive dates. 

Augustijn Reygens or Reygensburg, 1663. His productions were 
decorated with the beautiful red and gold so much in vogue ; Albrecht 
de Keyser and Jan Kulick, who possessed the secret, being connected 
with him in the manufacture. 

Arij Jan de Milde, 1658, was the maker of the red ware teapots 
so much then in use. They were of the Japanese form, and were also 
made at the manufactory of L. Van Eenhoorn, stamped with "The 
Unicorn," a rebus on his name ; by M. Gouda, of " The Roman," and 
others, and subsequently copied by the Elers of Bradwell. Bottcher 
of Meissen produced similar articles about 17 10. 

Louis Fictoor, 1689, was established at "the Dubbelde Schenkkan." 
His beautiful products soon attracted attention ; his elegant bottles and 
jugs were frequently ribbed and richly decorated in colours with Oriental 
designs. 



LIST OF POTTERS. 

With dates of election to the Gild of St. Luc, and references to the annexed 

Table of Marks. 



1. Gerrit Hermansz, 1614. 

2. Isaac Junius, 1640. 

3. Albrecht de Keizer, 1642. 

4. Jan Gerrits Van der Hoeve, 1649. 

5. Meynaert Garrebrantsz, 16 16. 

6. Quiring Alders Kleynoven, 1655. 



7. Frederick Van Frytom, 1658. 

8. Jan Sicktis Wan den Houk. 1659. 

9. Jan Ariens Van Hammen, 1661. 

10. Augustijn Reygens, 1663. 

11. Jan Jans Kulick, 1662. 

12. Jacob Cornelisz (Vanden Burg), 166: 



266 



FAYENCE— DELFT. 



i3- 

14. 
'5- 
16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 

2 1. 



24. 

25. 
26. 



Willem Kleftijus, 1663. 

Arij Jans de Milde, 1658. 

Piet Vizeer, 1752. 

Gysbert Verhaast, 1760. 

Arend de Haak, 1780. 

Dirk Van Schie, 1679. 

Pieter Poulisse, 1690. 

Lucas Van Dale, 1692. 

Cornells Van der Kloot, 1695. 

Jan Baan, 1660. 

Jan Decker, 1698. 

Arij Cornells Brouwer, 1699. 

Leonardus of Amsterdam, 1721. 

Paulus Van der Stroom, 1725. 



De Metale Pot. 

This manufactory was founded in 1631 
by P. J. Van Kessel, which soon be- 
came flourishing and assumed great 
importance. 

27. Jeronimus Pieters Van Kessel, 16155. 

28. Lambertus Cleffius, 1678. 

29. Lambartus Van Eenhoorn, 1691. 

30. Factory mark. 

De Griekse A {The Greek A). 
Founded in 1645 by G. L. Kruyk. 

31. Gisbrecht Lambrecht Kruyk, 1645. 

32. Samuel Van Eenhoorn, 1674. 
2,2,. Adrianus Kocks, 1687. 

34. Jan Van der Heul, 1701. 

35. Jan Theunis Dextra, 1759. 

36. Jacobus Haider, 1765. 

De Dubbelde Schenkkan {The 
Double Bottle). 

Established by Samuel Pererius Van 
Berenvelt, 1648. 

yj. Factory mark (initials). 

38. Amerensie Van Kessel, 1675. 

39. Louis Fictoor, 1689. 

40. Hendrik de Koning, 1721. 

T 'Hart {The Stag). 
Founded in 1661 by Joris Mesch. 

41. Factory mark. 

42. Matheus Van Boegart, 1734. 

43. Hendrick Van Aliddeldyk, 1764. 



De Paaw, 165 1 {The Peaeock). 
Founded by C. J. Meschert and others. 

44. L T sual mark of the factory. 

T'Oude MORIAANS Hofft {The Old 
Moor's Head). 

Founded in 1648 by Abram de Kooge. 

45. Rochus Jacobs Hoppestein, 1680. 

46. Antoni Kruisweg, 1740. 

47. Geertruij Verstelle, 1764. 

De Ki.aew ( The Claw). 

Founded in 1662 by Cornells Van der 
Hoeve — the mark is intended for the 
claw of a bird. Its productions, 
mostly in blue, had an extensive sale. 
Continued by the Schoenhoves from 
1668 to 1705, when it passed to Pieter 
Oosterwick ; in 1740 to Kornelis Van 
Dyk. 

48. Lambertus Sanderus, 1764. 

De Boot {The Boat). 

Established in 1667 by Harmen 

Groothuysen. 

49. Dirk Van der Kest, 1698. 

50. Johannes den Appel, 1759. 

De Drie Klokken {The Three Bells). 
Established by Simon Mesch in 1671. 

51. The usual mark of the factory of 

the three bells. 

De Romeyn {The Roman). 
Established in 167 1 by Martinus Gouda. 

52. Reinier Hey, 1696. 

53. Factory mark of Japanese characters. 

54. Factory mark of Japanese characters. 

56. Petrus Van Marum, 1759. 

57. Johannes Van der Klo9t, 1764. 

De 3 Porceleyne Flessies {Three 
Poreelaiti Bottles.) 

No. 10 shows the sign. Established in 
1668 by Albrecht de Keizer, whose 
mark was AK in a monogram (Table, 
No. 3). 

58. A tripartite mark of Cornells de 



FAYENCE— DHL IT. 



267 



59- 



Keizer (CK in mono- ram) and 
liis two sons-in-law, Jacob and 
Adrian Pynacker, deposited in the 
Gild in 1680. 
Adrian Pynacker alone, 1690. It 
passed eventually to Hugo 
Brouwer, in 1764. 



De DRIE ASTONNEN {The Tree Ash 
Barrels). 

Established 1674 by Gcrrit Pieters Kam. 

60. G. Pieters Kam. 

61. Factory mark. 

62. Zachariah Dextra, 1720. 

63. Hcndrick Van Hoorn, 1759. 

DE PORCELEYNE SCHOTEL {The Porce- 
lain Plate). 

Established about 1700. 

64. Johannes Pennis, 1725. 

65. Jan Van Duijn, 1760. 

De Roos {The Rose). 

Established 1675 by Arendt Cosijn. The 
products of this factory are justly cele- 
brated for richness of colour and 
elegant forms. 

66. Factory mark. 

67. Factory mark. 

68. Dirck Van der Does, 1759. 

De PORCELEYNE Biji. {The Porcelain 
Hatchet). 

In 1679 Huibrecht Brouwer was esta- 
blished here. The products of this 
factory are well known and very varied. 
The mark of a hatchet was invariably 
used, those of the potters being rarely 
added. 

Joris Van Torenburg, 1697. Initials. 
Justus Brouwer, 1759. Initials. 
Hugo Brouwer, 1776. Initials. 

69. The Factory mark. 

De Porceleyne Fles {The Porcelain 
Bottle). 

Founded by Jacobus Pynacker about 
1680. 

70. Johannes Knotter, 1698. 



71. Pieter Van Doorne, 1 759- 
Dirk Harlees, 1795. 

De Star {The Star). 

Established by Theodorus Witsenburg 
in 1690. 

72. Factory mark. 
J2,- Cornells de Berg. 

74. Jan Aalmes, 1 73 1. 

75. Justus de Berg, 1759. 

76. Albertus Kiell, 1763. 

T'FORTUIX {Fortune). 
Founded in 1691 by Lucas Van Dale. 

TJ. Factory mark. 

78. Factory mark. 

79. Factory mark. 

80. Paul Van der Briel, 1740. 

81. Paul Van der Briel, 1740. 

De Vergulde Blompot {The Golden 
Flower-Pot). 

Established in 1693 by P. Van der 
Strom. 

82. Factor}' mark. 

83. Matheus Van Bogaert. 

84. Pieter Verburg. 

De Twee Wildemans {The Two 
Savages). 

Established 17 13. 

85. William Van Beek, 1758. 

De Twee Schepjes {The Two Ships). 

86. Anthony Pennis, 1759. 



T'Jongue Moriaan's Hofft {The 

\ \neng Moor's Head). 

87. Johannes Verhagen, 1728. 



D E L A m pet ran ( The Ewer). 

88. Gerrit Brouwer, 1756. 

89. Abram Van der Keel, 1780. 

Discontinued about 1813. 



268 



FAYENCE— DELFT. 



TABLE OF AUTHENTICATED POTTERS' MARKS. 






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FAYENCE— DELFT. 269 



TABLE OF POTTERS' MARKS ON FAYENCE. 

In the accompanying list of potters, and the table of their marks on 
fayence, there are many meriting more notice than the bare mention of 
their names. We will briefly point out several artists who have dis- 
tinguished themselves, and are not previously noticed in our preliminary 
remarks, but whose works are diligently sought for by discriminating 
collectors. 

No. 1. — Gerrit Hermansz. The pieces attributed to him are 'usually painted 
with battles and historical subjects, very crowded with figures, in blue camaieu. 

No. 2. — Isaack Junius, originally a painter in oil, painted subsequently on 
fayence. Two of his plaques represent, in blue, the tomb of Guillaume le Taciturne, 
Prince of Orange, the first Stadtholder after the War of Independence, who was 
assassinated in 1584 — whose tomb was visited in this year (18S4), being the ter- 
centenary of the expulsion of the Spanish from the Netherlands. 

Nos. 66 and 67. — Arendt Cosijn, of the fabrique u d la Rose" is celebrated for 
his vases, which may be ranked among the choicest products of Delft, being deli- 
cately and artistically decorated. 

No. 69. — The products of "The Hatchet" are very varied and well known; 
usually painted in blue. The whale and herring fisheries, and subjects of an 
industrial character, frequently occur. 

Nos. 35 and 62. — The two Dextras, Zachariah of the " Drie Astonnen" and 
Jan Theunis of the "Griekse A," both imitated the Dresden decoration on large 
pieces, as fountains, tureens, and vases. 

No. 19. — Pieter Poulisse, the manager of Adrian Pynacker's fabrique, introduced 
the vivid red and gold in his paintings with great effect. A superb piece, with 
pastoral scenes, is in the Loudon Collection. 

No. 28. — Lambertus Cleffius, of the " Metal Pot." The Haarlem Gazette, of 
1678, announces that he had discovered the secret of imitating Oriental porcelain 
successfully. 

No. 52. — Reinier Hey, of the " Roman," was a very talented artist. A plaque 
painted with shipping, after Van der Velde, is in the Loudon Collection. 

No. 89. — The " Lampetkan," or Ewer, and its last potter, Abraham Van der 
Keel, are noticeable as the last of the celebrated fabriques of Delft, being demolished 
about 18 1 3. 

This is the end of the list of potters at Delft as officially known to 
us by the archives, and by a reference to the books of the Gild of St. 
Luc. The marks which follow are upon specimens of Delft in the Dutch 
style that have come under our observation, and can of course be con- 
siderably increased in number. 



Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 

D. V.X.I 



Unknown ; marked in blue. Chinese de- 
signs in blue. 

Unknown ; marked in blue. Chinese de- 
signs in blue. 



AS, 



270 




i*D*p 

H.S.J 



C. Zachtleven Fa. 
1650. 




ATB 

A A/ HO 

/77* 



FAYENCE— DELFT. 

Unknown ; marked in gold ; early gilding. 
Unknown ; marked in gold. 



Delft. Mark unknown ; the date 1629 ; 
painted in polychrome in the Oriental style. 



Delft. On oblong and octagonal plates, 
painted in blue camaieu, in the Chinese style. 

On a square canister, the ground painted 
with blue flowers, figures and interiors ; on the 
sides Justice and Plenty in blue camaieu. 



Unknown. Japanese designs in colours. 

Cornelius Zachtleven, born at Rotterdam 
1612, died 1690. M. de Vilestreux of the Hague 
has two oval plaques with polychrome borders ; 
subjects sketched in violet en camaieu, of two 
men in the style of Teniers, one holding a scroll, 
on which is Zachtleven's name. 

Unknown. On plates, &c, in imitation of 
Faenza ware. 



Unknown. Plaques ; blue en camaieu, 
coloured borders. 



Unknown ; marked in blue. On a plaque, 
in imitation of a cage of canary birds. 



Unknown. Canettes, with figures and 
foliage, flowers, &c. 



Unknown. On a triangular plateau ; blue 
Chinese designs. 



FA YENCE— DELFT. 271 

CIXG. 



Unknown. On oblong and octagonal plates ; 
painted in blue camaieu. 



GOG 

1779 



Unknown. On shaped pieces ; blue mono- T~\ /\/J 

chrome. 



Unknown. On shaped pieces ; blue mono- 



J.G.V 

chrome. /f 6 & 

On a crocus-pot, in form of a fish; blue X/V/T^ 

designs. " "• J " - ^* 

On a canette or jug, in blue camaieu. y\ |L# 

IG 
D 

M.Q. 

RT.C 



On a canette or jug, in blue camaieu. 

On a tureen and plate ; blue dragons ; 
Chinese patterns. 

On a plate of blue decoration, of the De- 
cadence. 

On a butter-dish, forming a bundle of 
asparagus on a plate. 



On a plaque, in blue en camaieu: The Last ^t T •f/LZQ 
Supper. -rV.-J_,7fcC<J. 



On a canette {stortenbeker), in blue en 
aieu, with 
God above all." 

On a plate, painted in blue en camaieu. 



On a canette {stortenbeker), in blue en ^ ._ _ 
camaieu, with Loo/t Godt buven alle — " Love |^ JV1, I//-O1 



/E 
Vfc/_ 

On a dish painted in colours. vR VT 

BF5 



On a dish, with figures in blue, coats of 
arms and cupids, coloured border. 



On a canette or jug, painted in blue en 
camaieu. 



On a dish with festooned border, also on a 
tea-service. 



272 FA YENCE— DELFT. 

HvS 



//<?/ 



On a dish, blue : Flight into Egypt. 



- I /— — I vi/ On compotiers, in form of fruits, and on 

y[ lO^^^ plates, in blue camaieu and Chinese patterns. 



IK 



^ On a small bust of William III., King of 

1/ England and Stadtholder of Holland, with an 

> ^^ — ermine mantle and a crown on his head, well 

modelled, decorated in blue camaieu. 

On a plaque, painted in blue camaieu, repre- 
y£- senting an inundation at Schevening, inscribed 
L>LAst/^ Is i ^ th November 1775, " De Overstroming voor 
J//S^ Sc/icveuingcu." In the Queen of Holland's 

possession. 



y\ CLL 




Aalmes, keramic painter. A plateau, be- 
1 1 1 i^J longing to a cabaret, painted with a Dutch 
/ drinking-scene, is marked thus. In the Col- 

lection of M. de Vilestreux, at the Hague. 

This mark is found on fayence jugs covered 
with imitation Chinese lacquer. 



This monogram and date was on a vase and 
cover in the Montferrand Collection, No. 240 ; 
the cover was surmounted by a lion and the 
vase enriched with arabesques. 

John Theobald Frantz. On a large plaque, 
f ToBaxvn^C9V0.^irQ.liti w ^ tn a ' DUSt °*" ^- Peter, painted in blue. South 
* X/YVj^ '^ Kensington Museum. The mark at the back in 
' blue. 

Heindering Waanders was a potter at 

Heinderinz Waanders Delft > his name occurs on a mone y- bo *> P ainted 
in blue camaieu, with ornaments in yellow, 

signed on the foot ; in the Collection of M. 

Demmin. 



1781. 



R 

R->I 
rf6S 



On a plate, decorated, with Chinese landscapes 
in blue. In South Kensington Museum. 



I A y ENCE— BRUSSELS— A N I ) I A' NES. 273 

On a coffcc-pot, with Chinese figures outlined in J""~| J\ 

blue, embossed with rococo scrolls, circa 1760; in the 
possession of Mr. Hailstone, Walton Hall. 



On plates, painted with flowers in yellow and 
green. 



J± 

II 

R 



BELGIUM. 

Brussels. We have the evidence of the Journal de Commerce of 
March 1761 that at least one keramic manufactory of importance then 
existed : " Philippe Mombaers, manufacturier de fayance de S. A. Roy!, 
fabrique a Bruxelles toutes sortes de fayances, consistant en plats 
d'epargnes, terrines ovales et rondes en forme de choux, melons, artichots, 
asperges, pigeons, coqs, dindons, poules, anguilles, pots a beurre, saucieres, 
cafeticres, fontaines, saladiers, assiettes, paniers a fruits, services de 
table, &c. Cette manufacture est preferable a celle de Delft et de Rouen, 
n'est point chere et est parfaitement bien assortie. Le tout a l'epreuve 
du feu." Many of these have doubtless been attributed to Delft and 
other now better known fabriques. Besides Philippe Mombaers, there 
was at Brussels a Widow Mombaers and a Widow Artoisonnez ; of the 
latter there is a fine example in the style of Rouen, now preserved in 
the Sevres Museum. 

Liege. We only know of the existence of this fabrique by the 
mention of it by Gournay in his Almanack of 1788 : " Le vernis de cette 
faience est beau, blanc, et peu sujet a s'ecailler. Entrepreneur M. 
Bousmar." He was, perhaps, a son of M. Boussemart of Lille, who 
died in 1778. 



JOW. 



Andennes (Namur). A. D. Yander Waert. 
Services ; the mark impressed. Sevres Museum, 
presented in 1809. 

Andennes (Namur). B. Lammens & Co. ; 
impressed on fine enamelled fayence tea-services. 
Presented to the Sevres Museum in 1S09. 

Tourxay. There was a manufactory of fayence existing here 
before the year 1696; allusion is made to it in a document among 
the archives of Lille. Jacques Feburier petitions for permission to 

S 




274 FAYENCE— TOURNAY— LUXEMBOURG. 

establish a fabrique of ware "a la facon dHollcuide" and of much finer 
quality than that of Tournay. M. Jacquemart says that when Fenelon 
was intrusted with the education of the Duke of Burgundy, the intendants 
or comptrollers were called upon to furnish memoirs of their districts, 
that the Prince might become acquainted with the complete organisation 
of the kingdom. The intendant or Lord-Lieutenant of Hainault thus 
expresses his opinion about keramics : " But the fayence is not of the 
first order, although made of the same earth as that made in Holland, 
which they draw from the village of Bruyelle, a league from Tournay." 
He continues, " La commodite que les fayanciers de Tournay ont d'avoir 
cette terre est tres grande et devrait les exciter a perfectionner leurs 
ouvrages. Cependant les Hollandais viennent chercher cette terre pour 
en fabriquer leurs fayances qu'ils envoient ensuite vendre dans tous les 
pays conquis." Who then was the manufacturer that called forth these 
reproaches ? M. Lejeal tells us that it was Pierre Joseph Fauquez, 
alread}' established at St. Amand, and who, after his death in 1741, was 
buried in the church of Notre Dame at Tournay, his native town, where 
he had also a fabrique, which his son Pierre Francois Joseph inherited. 
On the conclusion of the peace at Aix-la-Chapelle, Fauquez junior estab- 
lished himself at St. Amand and ceded the Tournay fabrique to Peterynck 
of Lille, who raised it to the highest rank among keramic establishments. 
The marks used by Fauquez and Peterynck on their fayence are not at 
present identified, and it is very difficult to distinguish between the 
French and Dutch fabrications. 



6 * 



Tournay ? This mark is on a large dish 

of fine fayence painted in bright blue camaicit, 

figures in the centre and ornaments in the 
Flemish style. 

Tournay ? On a fayence cruet-frame, with 
marks, and finely decorated in bright colours 
with Chinese landscapes ; the initial is, perhaps, 
Peterynck. 



^V ^-s Tournay. A fayence compotier of similar 



<% a 



decoration, with a better-defined mark. 



Luxembourg. Established at Sept Fontaines in 1767 by the Brothers 
Boch, who previously were manufacturers of common pottery at Audun- 
le-Tiche in France, commenced about 1730. In 1767, encouraged by the 
Government, they founded this important fabrique, which has been con- 
tinued to the present day with great success ; besides this at Luxem- 
bourg, the Messrs. Boch carry on the ancient manufactory of Tournay 
and others in Germany. 



FAYENCE— LUXEMBOURG— BRUGES. 



75 



i 



B. L. or 



E 



Luxembourg. M. Boch. This mark is on 
some specimens in the Sevres Museum, presented 
in 1809. 

Luxembourg. M. Boch ; painted in violet 
on the figure of a boy, in Mr. C. W. Reynolds' 
Collection. 

Luxembourg. Another mark, used before 
the Revolution, at which time the works were 
destroyed by the French ; but they were rebuilt, 
and assumed even greater importance than ever. 
The mark must not be confounded with that of 
Brancas Lauraguais. The mark since the Revo- 
lution is usually impressed. 

Luxembourg. This mark is impressed on a 
mug of cream-coloured or Queen's ware, in Mr. 
W. Chaffers' Collection. 



Tervueren, near Brussels. A manufactory of fayence was estab- 
lished here about 1720, under the protection of the Duke Charles IV. 
of Lorraine, Austrian Governor of the Pays Bas. 
An authentic specimen is in the Museum of the 
Porte de Halle, at Brussels — a vase ornamented 
with garlands of flowers in relief and the arms 
of Charles of Lorraine, marked under the foot 
as in the margin. 




ccc 

cjp. 



Bruges. Towards the end of the eighteenth century a manufactory 
of fa}'ence was established by Henry Pulinx, examples of which are now 
rare. M. Em. Dullaert, the present proprietor, in the Rue du Yieux 
Bourg at Bruges, possesses some specimens, and has forwarded us the 
photograph of a tureen of fayence, painted in 
colours, with grapes, melons, &c, which has the ±± 

founder's monogram, H.P., as in the margin. 

Lille. There are documents in the municipal archives of Lille 
which prove the existence of a manufactory here in the year 1696. 
It was founded by Jacques Feburier of Tournay and Jean Bossu of 
Ghent, the first a modeller of twelve years' experience, the second 
a painter of fayence for twenty years. By the petition they promise 
to make ware a la /aeon dHollandc, and of much finer quality than 



2;6 FA YENCE— LILLE. 

that made at Tournay. Jacques Feburier died in 1729, and the manufac- 
tory was carried on by the Veuve Feburier and her son-in-law, Francois 
Boussemart ; it was at this time in a very flourishing state, and they were 
anxious to obtain royal patronage. We quote the following extract, as it 
alludes to two other royal establishments, of which we have as yet no 
further information. The document commences by stating that the manu- 
factory is " sans contredit la plus importante du royaume," and " ils ont 
lieu d'esperer que sa Majeste ne leur refusera pas la grace de l'eriger en 
manufacture royale, comme elle a erige celle etablie a Bordeaux par 
Jacques Hustin et celle fonde a Montpellier par Jacques Ollivier." In 
1732 we find they had three kilns for baking fayence, making every year 
1,287,600 pieces. In 1776 M. Boussemart's manufactory employed sixty 
workmen, and at his death in 1778 he was succeeded by M. Petit. 

The second important manufactory of fayence was established in 171 1 
by Barthelemy Dorez and his nephew, Pierre Pelissier, for the manufac- 
ture of fayence and porcelain. It continued in active work for nearly 
a century, but the products, like those of Feburier and Boussemart, 
cannot be identified, owing to the absence of the marks of the fabriques. 
The decorations were principally in the style of Delft, Chinese patterns, 
and frequently similar to those of the South of France. The manufac- 
tory was carried on by the children of Barthelemy Dorez, Claude and 
Francois Louis, who subsequently left Lille to establish a fabriqite 
de faience at Valenciennes. About 1748, a grandson, Nicholas Alexis 
Dorez, was proprietor; between 1750 and 1755 it became the property 
of Messrs. Hereng & Boussemart, and in 1786 it was ceded to Hubert 
Francois Lefebvre, who continued the works until about 1801. 

A third fayence manufactory was founded in 1740 by a Mons. 
Wamps, a maker of Dutch tiles ; after his death Jacques Masquelier 
became director of the works, and was proprietor in 1752 ; he obtained 
on the ioth of May 1755 permission to add to his works the fabrication 
of fayence " a la maniere de Rouen et des pays etrangeres." This 
appears to have been carried on in the same family until 1827, when it 
altogether ceased. 

A fourth was established in 1774 by M. Chanou, who made "ouv- 
rages de terres brunes appeles terres de St. Esprit a la facon dAngle- 
terre et du Languedoc," but we do not know how long it lasted. 

A fifth appears by another document to have been established for 
the manufacture of fayence stoves by a person named Heringle in 
1758 ; he was a native of Strasbourg, and had worked seven conse- 
cutive years at the " Manufacture Royale de la terre dAngleterre a 
Paris." 

A sixth manufactory was originated by an Englishman named Wil- 
liam Clarke in 1773, for earthenware facon cF Angleterre. The document 
states that he was "natif de Newascle (Newcastle) en Angleterre, disant 



FAYENCE— LILLE. 



-77 








LILIE^ 
7167 



^Mw 



qu'il possede le secret d'une cspccc dc faience que nc se fait qu'en Angle- 
terre, qui est a pen pres aussi belle que la porcelaine, et que a la pro- 
pridtd de resister au feu sans sc fdler, que la terre dc cctte fayence se 
trouve dans le royaume menic a portee dc cctte province." Authorisation 
was accorded in March 1773. 

A mark of Bousscmart, composed of the 
initials F. B. L., and accompanied by the name 
of the place at full length ; on some plates, 
decorated in the Rouen style, in the Patrice 
Salin Collection, Paris. 

Lille. This mark, in a coloured wreath 
crowned, the letters in black, is on the back of 
a fayence plate painted with rococo scrolls and 
flowers, and a banderole, supported by two 
cupids, inscribed " Maitre Daligne," in the 
Sevres Museum and in Baron Davillier's Col- 
lection ; it probably emanates from the Royal 
Manufactory founded by Feburier, and was 
painted by Boussemart for M. Daligne ; it is 
very similar to the Rouen ware. 

Lille. Nicolas Alexis Dorez, grandson 
of the founder, Barthelemy. The name occurs 
underneath a large vase intended as a present 
to an association of lace-makers ; it is of ele- 
gant form, with twisted handles : in the front, surrounded by scrolls, 
is a medallion representing a woman seated, making lace on a pillow, a 
child by her side. In M. Jules Houdoy's possession. 

Lille. This mark is on a tea-service with 
polychrome decoration, in the possession of M. 
Leveel of Paris ; marked under the cover, and 
probably belongs to the manufacture of M. 
Masquelier. 

Lille. The name of a painter who worked 
in the manufactory of Masquelier ; it occurs on 
a bowl of similar decoration in M. Houdoy's 
possession. 

Lille. Jacques Feburier. These marks 
occur on a portrait altar in the Sevres Museum, 
decorated in blue camaiat, altogether in the 
Dutch style. The name of the Borne family 
as keramists seems to have been well known ; 
it occurs both at Rouen and Nevers. 



N : A 
DOREZ 

1748. 



&U&, 7?68. 



CAM BR A V. 



Fecit IACOBUS FEBVRIER, 

Insulis in Flandria, 

Anno 17 16. 

Pinxit MARIA STEPHANUS 
BORNE Anno 17 16. 



278 



FAYENCE— LILLE 







Lille. This mark is on a plate painted 
in blue catnaieu in the style of Rouen. The 
initials are of Francois Boussemart, son-in-law 
of Jacques Feburier, and his successor. 

This mark, probably of a painter, is under- 
neath the F. B. given above. 

Lille. Another mark on a plate of blue 
camat'eu, of the Rouen design, attributed to 
Boussemart. 



Lille. This mark is attributed to Mas- 
quelier, son-in-law and successor of Lefebvre ; 
on a plate, painted in blue catnaieu. 



Lille. On an earthenware salt-cellar, 
painted with a blue bird in the centre and 
flowers, marked underneath in blue, and attri- 
buted to this manufactory. 

Lille. A Delft ware painted female figure of the eighteenth century, 
in Oriental costume, seated on four bales of merchandise (one of them 
having the name of I. Speder, the others the initials only), was bought 
at Lille, and believed to have been made there. 

Manufacture unknown. Sixteenth century. Terra-cotta without 
glaze, Dutch or Flemish. We must not omit to mention some orna- 
mental red terra-cotta bricks used formerly in the construction of the 
large chimney-pieces of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The ornamentation is in relief on one side only, of subjects from 
Scripture history, and armorial bearings, chiefly of Dutch and Flemish 
origin ; Renaissance ornaments, and designs for borders, of continuous 
patterns. Three of these, in the author's possession, selected from 
upwards of a hundred, which came from an old house at Ipswich, called 
Cardinal Wolsey's Palace, have the story of Susanna, soldiers marching, 
and medallions of classical busts ; these measure — length 5 h by 3§, and 
are 2\ inches thick. Two others, in M. Demmin's Collection, are dated 
1578 and 1598, and bear the arms of Philip II., son of Charles V., from a 
palace he occupied near Bruges. In the Cluny Museum is one similar, semi- 
circular, bearing the arms of Holland, Zetland, and Friesland, dated 1575. 

There is a Flemish Renaissance chimney-piece in the South Ken- 
sington Museum, which cost ,£1 10; it came from an old house at Antwerp: 
the back of the fireplace is constructed of 168 bricks, with various Scrip- 
tural subjects in relief; on the top is a large triangular-headed brick with 
the arms of Charles V., the motto " Plus oltre," and the date 1532. 



FAYENCE— BAYREUTH— NUREMBERG. z;<j 



GERMANY. 

Bayreuth (a town in Bavaria). There was a manufactory of pottery 
here in the sixteenth century, of a hrown stoneware, with Renaissance 
medallions, arabesques, &c., in relief. At a later period fine fayence was 
produced, usually painted in blue camaicu ; the designs are delicately 
traced with a brush, as fine as if with a pen, on a line paste; the forms 
are canettes, jardinieres, &c. This mark is on a ^^ fm . . 

large vase, with handles, in the Sevres Museum ; JjCll) t,^Ll|/?£ 
the monograms beneath are perhaps those of - ' '^if " 

the decorator. On other specimens are the K <ZsLllm 
marks N.F. and BK. C, &c. ; but frequently 

without any marks. Two spice-plates, numbered 3007 and 3008, in 
the Hotel de Cluny, marked K. ; a large plaque of this manufacture, 
46 inches long by 2J\ inches wide, is in the Collection of M. Meusnier, 
at Paris, and a great many pieces in blue camaicu are at the Chateau 
de la Favorite, near Baden ; a bottle at the Museum of Sigmaringcn 
is dated 1524. 

Bayreuth. There are some specimens of 
fayence of the eighteenth century with this mark 
in the Sevres Museum, which M. Brongniart 
bought at Nuremberg; considered to be of this 
manufacture. 



£? 



B < 



Bayreuth. On a fayence plate with flowers 
in blue camaicu ; sometimes the letter C is found 
instead of H. ^-f 

There was a fabrique of fayence at Bayreuth carried on early in this 
century by a M. Schmidt, some of the products being in imitation of 
Wedgwood. There are five specimens in the Sevres Museum bearing 
the counterfeit mark of " Wedgwood." 

Holitsch (Hungary). On a plate painted .,- 

with flowers in brilliant colours, reputed to be | — I 

of this fabrique. 

Nuremberg. The celebrated Veit Hirschvogel of Schelestadt was 
born at Nuremberg in 1441, and died in 1525, contemporary with Luca 
della Robbia, the Florentine, who was born in 1400 and died in 148 1. 
The painted glass of four windows in the church of St. Sebald at Nurem- 
berg, representing the Margrave Frederick of Anspach and Bayreuth, 
with his wife and children, were executed by Veit Hirschvogel in 15 15. 
He was succeeded bv his sons and continuators in the manufacture of 



280 FAYENCE— NUREMBERG. 

pottery. In the Berlin Keramic Museum, M. Kolbe (the director of the 
Royal Porcelain Manufactory) has recently placed a jug of Hirschvogel 
of the 3'ear 1470. This authentic specimen was purchased at the Minutoli 
sale for eight^'-three thalers ; it is somewhat like the Italian maiolica, but 
easity distinguished by the bright colours and fine quality of the enamel. 
It is ornamented in Relief with the Crucifixion ; beneath are three niches, 
containing statuettes of Faith, Hope, and Charity, painted in colours, 
amongst which the green predominates, as usual in the German school. 
In the Dresden Museum is a pitcher of green glaze, with a Scripture 
subject in relief, of excellent moulding, by Hirschvogel, dated 1473. The 
chimney-pieces and tiles of the early Nuremberg make are frequently 
met with ; there is a large collection also in the Berlin Museum, from 
the Minutoli sale, of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. 
The finest chimney-piece known is one still existing in its original position 
in the Chateau de Saltzburg, of the fifteenth century, for which, it is 
said, an English amateur recently offered the sum of 36,000 francs, 
or nearly £1500 ! In the Hotel de Cluny is a bas-relief, of the seven- 
teenth century, of green enamel, with busts of Julius Caesar, Charlemagne, 
and other worthies, and a group of St. George, and a relief of Wolffgang, 
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. In the Sauvageot Collection in 
the Louvre are some tiles of the fifteenth century. In the South Ken- 
sington Museum is a fine cruche, with raised figures of Adam and Eve, 
enamelled with blue, yellow, green, white, and manganese, by Veit 
Hirschvogel, of the fifteenth century ; and another by his successors. 

Nuremberg. This mark is on a very fine 
stove, with portraits in relief, in black and gold, 
quoted by M. Demmin. 

Nuremberg. This name is on a very fine 

Hans Kraut stove of green earthenware plaques with religious 

subjects in relief, and pilasters ; by the side of 

J ^/"* the stove is a raised seat ascended by three 

steps. In the South Kensington Museum. 




r ]7zi: 

QUi 



trc/ 



Nuremberg. On a fayence dish, with blue 
scrolls, yellow and pink leaf medallions ; in the 
centre is the Ascension, with soldiers and rocky 
landscape. Gluer is probably the name of the 

LCY. artist - 

ol)cL* Nuremberg. This mark of Strobe!, 22, 10 

bris (December) 1730, occurs on a large dish, 



q^ 5^^ £-£ir . painted in blue, with arabesque borders, birds 

~*^l» ^Wv-'Ao- anc j { ru [t j n t] ie centre. In the Sevres Museum. 



FAYENCE— NUREMBERG— SCHAFFHAUSEN. 28. 

Nuremberg. There arc two plates of the 
eighteenth century in the Sevres Museum, one C. F. Greber 
in imitation of Fncnza, the other an allegory of Anno 1729. 

Luther; they arc marked as in the margin. Nuremberg. 

There is also a large bell, which still has a ,v> ' 

fine ring, decorated in blue camaieu, with the 
arms of Nuremberg, and an inscription in Ger- ^^ Nn?rm/ 
man: "The town of Nuremberg of the Holy 
Roman Empire," and the signature of the pot- *7 2 4- 

ter, " Strobel." The mark here given is not a Strobel. 

facsimile. 

Nuremberg. A service painted with coats 

of arms, made in 1741, gives us the name of a p. ^ . ■, _, 

potter written at full length on one of the pieces, V ~ *v oS de n b uj C n . 

the others having his initials only, as shown in w I/., 

the margin. M. A. Jacquemart thinks it pro- vJJlv. 
bable from the frequent recurrence of his initials 

that he was an eminent potter at whose estab- AD Krj KD«, 

lishment Strobel painted. Some of the pieces — rrf ■=* 

marked K bear also the initials of the city, as **■" — *-\ • 
here shown. 

Nuremberg. This name is on a jug of VCCDIICV* 

white enamel painted with scrolls and large 17 7 I 

flowers, attributed to this city by M. Jacquemart. • n-f- • 

Anspach (Bavaria). The existence here of 
a fayence manufactory is revealed by a very fine T^Gl "ff 111 CL^ 
table-service with elegant mouldings, decorated -^ 

in blue camaieu scrolls in the style of Rouen. . IvOoU. 

The inscription leaves no doubt either of the im« TvTVSpClLjJ 
place or name of the potter. {Jacquemart.) 

Badex. About 1799 Charles Stanislas Hannong, grandson of Bal- 
thasar, whom the Republic of France had condemned to exile, founded 
a fabrique of fayence and terre-de-pipe. 

Schaffhausen. There was a manufactory here 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century. This CiC/iapliuysen. 
mark is on a dish, of brown ground, with white Genrit Euers 
and blue figures, representing the Flagellation, and 

a German inscription with the name of the potter, Genrit Evers, and in 
another part his initials, G. E. ; it is in the Musee de Cluny. There is 
a date on the piece, but unfortunately the figure denoting the century 
is partly obliterated. It is probably 1695, fr° ni tne costume; it is 



282 FAYENCE— STREHLA— AUGSBOURG. 

certainly not later, but has been quoted by some as 1495, which reading 
is quite erroneous. 

Strehla, and other places in the valley of the Elbe. Earthenware, 
both of lead and tin glazes. This place has been known for its 
manufacture of pottery of all sorts for many centuries. A pulpit of 
enamelled earthenware still exists at Strehla ; it is supported by a life- 
size figure of Moses, and is ornamented with eight plaques of religious 
subjects and the four Evangelists ; at the bottom is inscribed : " Im Jahre 
Christi Geburth 1565 ist diese Kanzel Gott zu Ehren gewacht durch 
Michael Tatzen, Topfer und Bildschnitzern zu Strehla, meines alters im 
24 Jahr." 

Leipzig. In the Convent of St. Paul, which was built in 1207, 
there was a frieze of large bricks or tiles, covered with stanniferous 
enamel, representing, in high relief, heads of Saints and the Apostles, 
15 by 20 inches square, 2\ inches thick. On the demolition of the 
convent, some of these were taken to the Museum at Dresden, the others 
sold. They are of Byzantine character, and evidently of the twelfth or 
thirteenth century, showing the early use of this enamel in Germany. 
The enamel is green, shaded gradually with black, very thick and dur- 
able ; the hair, beard, and eyes are coloured, the ground also enamelled. 
(Dentmin.) 

Breslau, capital of Silesia (Prussia). Earthenware, with stanni- 
ferous enamel, of the thirteenth century. In the Kreutzkirche (Church 
of the Cross), built in 1280, is the monument of Henry IV. of Silesia, 
the founder, erected after his death in 1290. On a sarcophagus reposes 
the full-length life-size figure of the Duke ; the head is natural and full 
of expression ; he is clad in a coat of mail ornamented with Silesian 
eagles, and partly covered with an ermine mantle, on his brow a ducal 
coronet, and he holds a shield of his arms. All the details are minutely 
portrayed ; the colours of the enamel clear and bright, the red is 
brilliant, and the green, which predominates, is of the same shade as 
that of Nuremberg. Round it is the Latin inscription : " Hen. quartus 
mille tria C. minus X. obiit ille egregiis annis Silesiae Cracov. Sandomirise 
Dux. nocte Joannis." The artist is unknown. M. Demmin cites these 
instances at Leipzig and Breslau as incontestable proofs of the knowledge 
of the Germans in the art of enamelled earthenware sculpture on a grand 
scale nearly two centuries earlier than it was known to the Italians. 

Augsbourg. Some recent excavations in the gardens of the ancient 
Convent of Carmelites have brought to light a quantity of small terra- 
cotta figures, mostly broken and imperfect. It is supposed they were 
made here in the beginning of the fifteenth century (1420-60) ; they 
are curious from the variety of costumes of all classes — equestrian 
figures, warriors, artisans, the Virgin and Infant Saviour, &c. — all finely 
modelled. Many of these are in the Berlin Museum. 



FAYENCE— OBERDORF— HARBURG. 283 

In the Hotel de Ville at Augsbourg arc three very large monu- 
mental stoves, covered with a black stanniferous glaze, ornamented with 

figures in high relief, the work of Adam Vogt, 1620, signed by him ; he 
was born at Landsberg. 

Oberdorf (Frontier Bavaroise). Hans Seltzmann, potter. Avery 
fine stove of stanniferous enamel, of Gothic design, green ground and 
yellow ornaments, is in an ante-chamber of the I Iodic Schloss of 
Fuessen, in Bavaria, bearing the following inscription : " Dieser Ofen 
wol gestalt wuurd gemacht da man zallt 15 14 jaar, bey Hansen Seltz- 
mann Vogt zu Oberdorf." (This stove, so well designed, was made by 
Hans Seltzmann, Mayor of Oberdorf, in the year 15 14.) 

Memmingen (near Kaufbcrn, in Bavaria). Earthenware and fayence, 
with stanniferous enamel. Some very fine stoves were made at this place, 
sometimes moulded, sometimes modelled, of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, of which many museums contain specimens. The fayence 
plates and dishes are usually in blue camaieit, of Renaissance patterns, 
with wide borders similar to the Italian, for which they are sometimes 
taken ; some have coats of arms. The fayence of the last century is of 
common quality, with coloured flowers, in the style of that of Marseille. 

Bunzlau (Silesia). Gres, or stoneware, was made here in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The products of the last century 
are distinguished by ornaments in relief, flowers, coats of arms, &c, 
sometimes gilt. At the present time a great trade is carried on in the 
manufacture of chocolate and coffee pots, usually of brown glaze lined 
with white. The late King Frederick William IV. of Prussia always 
used this in preference to more costly ware. In the townhall of 
Bunzlau there is preserved a great coffee-pot hooped like a barrel, nearly 
15 feet high, made in the last century. The manufactory is still con- 
tinued by Lepper & Ki'ittner, principally for vessels of domestic use. 

Harburg (on the Elbe, opposite Hamburg). Johan Schaper was 
born towards the end of the sixteenth century, and flourished here from 
1620 to 1670, the date of his decease. His exquisite paintings of land- 
scapes and figures are usually in Indian-ink or brown en grisaille, the 
colours being fixed by heat ; his name is frequently found minutely 
written, so as to be scarcely perceptible without a magnifying-glass. 
His fayence mugs are generally of white stanniferous enamel, painted 
in brown, shaded, the lights being scratched in with a point, carefully 
and delicately drawn ; he also painted on glass in the same style, of 
which there are several examples in the South Kensington Museum. 
{Kcramic Gallery, fig. 160.) 

Harburg (Hanover). German jug, painted in ^ Schaper. 
grey camaieit, with a landscape signed by the painter ^ 

(Marryat Collection). In the South Kensington Museum. The mono- 
gram I.S. interlaced is sometimes found on Schaper's works. 



284 



FAYENCE— GENNEP— HOCHST. 



Gennep (Luxembourg). There are three fayence plates of the 
eighteenth century, with stanniferous glaze, in the possession of Mr. 
Swaab of the Hague ; they are 24 inches in diameter, of yellow, brown, 
and green enamel ; one represents the sacrifice of Abraham, dated 17 12 ; 
another the Holy Family ; and a third La Vierge de Kevelar (near Cleves). 
These two last are inscribed with the subject, and the name of the 
potter, "Antonius Bernardus von Vehlen," 1 770-7 1. 

Scherzheim (near Elvangen, in Wurtemberg). The Wintergursts, 
father and son, were celebrated potters here, and made fayence with 
stanniferous enamel from the beginning of the seventeenth century to 
about 1 8 10. It is from this manufactory that the table-services, of which 
each piece represents an animal or vegetable, were made. At the 
Chateau de la Favorite, at Baden, parts of a service may be seen in the 
forms of a ham, head of a wild boar, &c. 

Proskau (Prussia). M. Jacquemart gives 

G. Manjack fectt us this mark, which is stamped in the clay, on 

PROSKAU a CU P an< ^ saucer of glazed brown ware with 

silvered ornaments in relief, and the arms of the 

Grand Duke of Mecklenburg and inscriptions, dated I2th December 1817, 

and the name. 

Goggixgf.n (Bavaria). Established circa 
1750. Fayence with stanniferous enamel. It 
is usually decorated in blue with flowers, leaves, 
and ornaments, something in the style of Mous- 
tiers signed at length ; several examples in the Collection of the Historic 
Society at Augsburg. The mark in the margin is on a specimen painted 
with arabesques in blue, and a genius supporting a medallion ; below are 
the initials of the artist. In M. Pascal's Collection. ' 

^ Popplesdorf (near Bonn). M. L. Wessel, 

nT" manufacturer of fayence and porcelain ; mark 

I stamped. An anchor is sometimes found on 

^Ll^^y the fayence of Mettlach (Prussia) with the name 

^8^ in full. 

Hochst, near Mayence, principality of 
Nassau ; founded by Gelz of Frankfort in the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. Its pro- 
ducts are of an artistic character, the figures 
exquisitely modelled and painted. The mark is 
a wheel of six spokes, taken from the arms of 
the Archbishop of Mayence, protector of the 
fabrique. The arms of the Electoral See being, 
gules, a wheel with six spokes, argent, first 
assumed by Archbishop Wittigis, who was the 
son of a wheelwright. 



no<jc/tncferi, 





FAYENCE— HOCHST— ARNSTADT. 285 

Hochst. An artist of the name of Zeschin- 
ger sometimes signed his name at length, but A *% ^7" 

more frequently his initials only. Other letters ^ t) 

are found accompanying the wheel, but in such ' 

an important manufactory there were many 
other artists whose names are unknown to us. The early marks must 
not be confounded with those used at a later period by Dahl. 

Huchst. The original manufactory was de- 
stroyed by General Custine, and it altogether 
ceased in 1794 ; but a potter named Dahl having 
purchased many of the moulds, subsequently 
established one in the vicinity, using as his mark 
the wheel and letter D. There are some figures 
of characters from Schiller's plays with this mark, 
and many other statuettes of considerable merit. 




M 



Mayence ? Found on fayence pieces of the 
eighteenth century, painted with flowers, fine "^L 

colouring. . ' 

b 

Louisbourg, in Wiirtemberg. Previous to the arrival of Ringler, 
who established the fabrique of porcelain, fayence was made here. M. A. 
Jacquemart describes a piece of elegant form, violet marbled ground, 
which had a medallion, the eagle of Germany, and an escutcheon with 
two C's crossed, and beneath the date 1726. 

Arnstadt (Gotha). Established about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, where porcelain , — . 
was also subsequently made. This inscription Jl'nx'it Uu' jlceoe I 
is on a fayence jug, painted in blue camaieit, S 

with St. George and the Dragon, coloured flowers JirTltXcbO td\'.Q JAcLU 
on sides, purple and green check border at top. ,^-» ^ 

In the Collection of the Rev. T. Staniforth. 
{Keramic Gallery, fig. 164.) 

M. Jacquemart (Merveittes, Szc, part iii. p. 207) quotes a piece in the 
possession of M. Paul Gasnault, finely painted with fruit and flowers, 
inscribed, as he says, " Pinxit F. G. Fliegel, St. Georgen Amsee R 3 
Noffember 1764," which he attributes to Saint Georges in Bavaria; but by 
comparison with the mark in the margin it is clearly Arnstadt at the sign 
of St. George, which subject is also depicted on Mr. Staniforth's jug, the 
unintelligible word Amsce being probably an erroneous reading of Arnstadt. 

Arnstadt (Gotha). This mark of two pipes 
crossed has been assigned to this place by 
Marryat. 






286 



FAYENCE— ALTENROLIIAU—TEINITZ. 



A.N. 




Altenrolhau, near Carlsbad. A manufac- 
tory conducted by A. Nowotny ; the mark im- 
pressed. Some specimens presented to the 
Sevres Museum. 

Moravia (Frain). Besides the usual stamp, 
the ornamented pieces have an anchor, ribbon, 
and leaves in colour. 



Marburg (Hesse). There was a pottery here in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, which has been continued to the present day. The later specimens 
are terra-cotta with lead glaze, having patterns of coloured earths laid on 
in relief or encrusted, which, although very effective, are produced at a very 
cheap rate. Conrad Amenhauser, the potter, has issued some pretty models. 

Frankenthal. Paul Hannong, driven from Strasbourg in February 
1754, in consequence of the Sevres monopoly and his persecution on 
account of the knowledge he possessed of making the true porcelain, 
founded a manufactory here, which became very successful, especially 
for porcelain, but fayence was also made. Carl Theodor, the Elector, 
having conceded him a large fabrique and a grant of money, he em- 
ployed the same marks he had adopted in France, and when his son, 
Joseph Adam, succeeded in 1759, the same plan was followed. In 1761 
it was purchased by Carl Theodor. 



H 
#872 



The ware was coarse and generally decorated 
with flowers, called " Poterie du Rhin." The 
last mark has the F for Frankenthal, and a number 
relating perhaps to the pattern. 



Marks of Paul and Joseph Hannong. 



7? 

DALWITZ. 



This mark is impressed upon an oil and 
vinegar cruet-stand of German fayence with 
dolphin handle, in the Collection of Sir Charles 
C. Domvile, Bart. 

Teinitz (Bohemia). A small town and castle, 
with a fine menagerie and convent, belonging 
to Count Trautmansdorf, under whose protection 
this manufactory is carried on by a potter named 
Welby ; we do not know the date of its estab- 
lishment. This mark is stamped underneath a fine fayence plate, very 



W&hr\ 



p a Y E N ( ! E— (INC E RT A T N (J K R \ I A \ A I A R K S . 



287 



well painted in bistre camaieu, with the discovery of Callisto by Diana, 
an elegant border in grey, with alternate square and oval white medallions 
of richly gilt designs ; the gilding equals that of Vienna, which it closely 
resembles; date about 1 800. In the Collection of the Rev. T. Staniforth. 
(Keramic Gallery, fig. 163.) 



GERMANY— UNCERTAIN MARKS. 



Germany. Unknown mark. On a fayence 
plate in the Collection of M. Perillieu of Paris. 

Germany. Unknown mark. On a fayence 
scent vase in the Saxon style, painted in 
colours. 

Germany. Unknown mark. Fayence of 
a German fabrique. 



A. F. 

1687. 



TT1.9A 
X7 6*L 




CB 



On an inkstand in form of a fortress, 
painted with polychrome arabesques in the 
Renaissance style. 

On a mug of white enamel, painted with 
arms, probably Swiss. 

On a plate, escalloped edge, the border of 
foliage and landscapes ; in the centre a female 
seated in a landscape with ruins. In the style 
of Marseille. 

On vases decorated on white enamel, with 
arabesque borders and polychrome medallions, 
in which red and blue predominate. 

On a plate, escalloped edge painted with 
a Chino-Francais subject of the style of Louis 
XIV. — a lady and Chinese attendant. 

On a mug, with polychrome decoration in 
crude colours, outlined with black. 



A'B 

1638 

? yi al untln 3Jcn wnfjraQ, 
ZiBurcf. 

G14EDT 

1779 

G.C-P. 
1750 



288 



FAYENCE— UNCERTAIN GERMAN MARKS. 



On a fayence plate, rudely painted with a 
quaint subject. 



of 7 .- <Ja fit :• 

_ , , On a small pitcher, twisted handle and 

J\l XO J 5 1 M. Q Ci ' godrons in the form of S, with blue figures, 

A \^7-y f garlands and birds of a good style. 

Tlnno l (<J 



TABLE OF UNKNOWN GERMAN POTTERS' MARKS. 



1 


•H.H 


9 


AT 19 


28 

T. 


hEM 


10 


Tvl 20 
"6 


A 2 
P 


29 
J DR 


PP. 
Go 


11 


r-r, 21 

N- 


VH 30 
3 


B 3 
s 


oF u 


31 

w 


HI< 


12 


4 *bj> 


23 

PH. 


•H§: 


13 


w 32 


«s> 


5 
+ 

F 


.K. 


14 


M 
6? 


i 00 

Tb. 


34 
90 a 




15 


RR 25 

E 


f 6 

• 


NO 3S 


16 

HV XX 


55. K 2B 


: M W 36 


7 

H 


^ 


17 


37 


8 

• 


i- 


18 


27 

cA Jo. J/J 



1. Dish, escalloped, rococo relief on the border, grapes and fruit, in which 
manganese colour prevails. 

2. Basket, plaited and pierced, glossy white enamel, at the bottom a poly- 
chrome bouquet of flowers — like Marieberg. 



FAYENCE— UNCERTAIN GERMAN MARKS. 289 

3. Cup ornamented on ihe outside with bouquets and garlands of flowers in 

relief, and coloured. 

4. Candlestick, greyish enamel, decorated in polychrome. 

5. Tureen, the cover surmounted by fruit and leaves, blue decoration. 
Rouenais style. 

6. Pilgrim's bottle, blue ornaments and flowers of German fabrique. 

7. Pot-pourri, with garlands of flowers in relief and coloured. 

8. Trembleuse cup and saucer, yellow ground, with medallions of flowers. 

9. Plateau, with grotesques in green camaieu. Moustiers style. 

10. Bottles of fayence, green enamel decorated in blue. 

11. Vegetable dishes, with flower knobs and polychrome flowers. 

12. Juys of fine fayence, Chinese decoration, rose-colour heightened with gold. 
( icrman or Italian. 

13. Large dish, blue ground, with playing-cards placed irregularly. 

14. Fayence of very fine paste, decorated with highly finished figures, in pale 
colours. 

1 5. Plates, with Rouenais decoration. 

16. Jugs, painted with flowers in pale yellow and manganese. 

17. Large dish, blue decoration ; in centre a landscape. 

18. Plate, blue decoration. German. 

19. Jug, painted with a landscape in blue. 

20. Tureen, on the cover a lemon with leaves. Painted with bouquets of flowers. 

21. Tureen, with a branch on the top, painted with flowers. Nuremberg? 

22 Dish, escalloped edge and a German inscription between two palm branches. 

23. Small dish, with border of plaited branches ; in the centre a flower. Baireuth ? 

24. Large dish, decorated in shaded violet with a large rose, flowers and butter- 
flies. Perhaps Sweden. 

25. Cup, with bouquets of flowers. Strasbourg or Sweden ? 

20. Cream-jug, in light fayence, decorated cursively with bouquets, manganese 
prevailing. 

27. Pieces of fayence, decorated in blue-black camaieu with bouquets. Probably 
Stockholm. A somewhat similar mark is attributed to Boussemart of Lille. 

28. Large basket-dish. Nuremberg style. 

29. Compotiers, with polychrome bouquets, highly finished. Saxon style. 

30. Night-lamp, decorated with bouquets, detached in sombre tones of colour. 

31. Canette, with polychrome decoration. 

32. Plates, decorated in the Strasbourg style, white enamel reliefs. 
23- Saucer, painted in the Strasbourg style. 

34. Pieces with polychrome decoration, heightened with white. 

35. A flask, painted in the Oriental style. 

36. A punch-bowl, similar to the Marseille decoration. 
27- A dish, with German characters and flowers. 



GRES. 

Stoneware with transparent glaze is called in France Gres or Grls 
c;f:rame, and in Germany Steingut ; but the former term is most fre- 
quently used in alluding to it. The classification of the stoneware vases 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries has never hitherto been 
seriously attempted, but the whole series of the gres ceranie has been 

T 



190 



GRES. 



placed under one unsatisfactory heading, Gres de Flaxdres. From 
the compact and almost imperishable nature of the material, and its 
capability of receiving impressions of subjects in relief, more or less 
artistic, by means of moulds at a comparatively cheap rate, these stone- 
ware vases have been preserved to our time in considerable quantities. 
It must be borne in mind that these vessels are not always made in the 
year indicated, for the moulds were used successively through a series 
of years, and it is no uncommon occurrence to find two different dates 
on the same specimen. 

An attempt has been recently made to localise the places of manu- 
facture, which has been generally adopted on the Continent, and we are 
bound, in the absence of more reliable information, to lay before our 
readers the result of researches made on the probable sites of the 
fabriques in the Netherlands and the Rhenish Provinces. 

At the recent Exhibitions of Brussels and Dusseldorf in 1880, 
a grand display of vases of the gres ccramc was collected from all 
available sources, including some of the finest from the South Kensington 
Museum. Mons. H. Schuermans of Liege, at the request of the Presi- 
dent, wrote a descriptive account of these vessels, he having previously 
made a catalogue of the numerous specimens in the Museum of the 
Porte-du-Halle at Brussels. 

From unwearied investigations in excavations on the sites of disused 
fabriques and from written records, aided by a careful comparison of 
examples in various public and private collections, M. Schuermans 
may be considered a competent authority. He has ventured to pro- 
mulgate an entirely new classification, based not only on his personal 
researches, but upon the discoveries of M. Schmitz at Raeren in 1874 
and of M. Dornbusch of Cologne in 1873, with others who have paid 
especial attention to the subject. His arrangement of localities where the 
fabriques of gres existed has been generally adopted by collectors and 
directors of museums abroad. 

The usual designation of this stoneware was formerly Gres Flamand 
or Gres de Flandrcs, but the appellation has been considered incorrect, 
inasmuch as there were several fabriques of similar stoneware on the 
borders of the Rhine. Flanders, as at present constituted, could' not 
have produced this particular gres, for in the valley of the Scheldt the 
necessary materials for its manufacture are not to be found. But in the 
sixteenth century, w 7 hen this industry flourished, Flanders comprised 
geographically all the Low Countries (Pays Bas), including that portion 
now ceded to France. All these fabriques, therefore, whether in Brabant 
or Limburg, or in the counties of Hainault and Namur, were at that 
time considered Flemish. 

It is proved by documents, as well as by discoveries of debris of 
potter}' and the remains of kilns, that stoneware was made at Verviers, 



GRfcS— RAEREN. 291 

Dinant, Namur, Buffioulx, Chatelet, and other places, many doubtless 
being of inferior quality, all of which arc situated in the valleys of the 
Sambrc and the Meuse. The most important factory, however, was at 
Raeren near Aix-la-Chapelle. The Rhenish Provinces of Germany 
furnish us with numerous fabriqucs, the more important being at 
Frechen in the vicinity of Cologne, Siegburg, opposite Bonn, Grenz- 
hausen and Hohr near Coblentz. A peculiar variety of stoneware was 
made at Crcussen near Baireuth in Bavaria. 

It is worthy of note that the earliest and most important collections 
of this gris made in the beginning of the present century were purchased 
at Ghent, notably those of M. d'Huyvetter, M. Verhelst, the Comte 
de Renesse, and M. Minard ; the last was recently presented to the city 
of Ghent. M. Schuermans has consequently arrived at the conclusion 
that some of the finest examples of the gres <;erame were fabricated in 
the Netherlands, especially at Raeren, where numerous kilns have been 
found and vast quantities of fragments of gris exhumed. 

Raeren is in the ancient Duchy of Limburg, about two leagues 
from Aix-la-Chapelle. Until the treaty of 18 14 Raeren was part of 
the Pays Bas. When this industry commenced is unknown, but 
it certainly flourished throughout the sixteenth century. The vases 
made here were usually of cylindro-spheroidal form, with a central 
band containing subjects in low relief (and frequently inscriptions), 
such as dances of peasants, shields of arms of states, princes, and 
nobles, illustrations from the Old and New Testaments, especially the 
history of Susanna. This was a favourite subject in Flanders, and these 
were probably made expressly for that country. It is seen on the fine 
chimney-piece at Bruges, and on the terra-cotta bricks found in the 
old houses of Ghent and Bruges, the inscriptions on these vases being 
in pure Flemish, differing materially from the Low German on others 
made in the Rhenish Provinces. The necks are ornamented with 
medallions, and the groundwork with Renaissance strap-work, guilloche 
borders, &c, the colours being usually brown, sometimes greyish-white 
with reliefs in blue. Some of the vases are of annular shape, called 
Ringkruge, with portraits in relief, and frequently bearing the marks of 
the Raeren potters. The most celebrated makers were the Mennickens, 
especially Baldem (Baldwin), Jan Emens, Engel Kran, &c, whose names are 
found in ancient documents, and are still borne by many of the present 
inhabitants of the locality. The most important example of the Raeren 
stoneware is the noble ewer formerly in the D'Huyvetter Collection, now 
preserved in the South Kensington Museum, which clearly indicates the 
origin of this particular girs de Fktndres. The spout is in form of a 
lion's head, and a similar ornament is at the bottom of the handle ; on the 
central band are represented in relief personifications of the seven virtues 



292 GRES— RAEREN— FRECHEN. 

and the seven liberal arts ; below these are the following inscriptions : — 
Wan . Got . Wil . So . 1st . Mein . Zill . Mester . Baldem . Mennicken . 

POTTENBECKER . WoNEDE . Zo . DEN . RORREN . In . LeIDEN . GeDOLT . 1577- 

(/ submit to God's will. Master Baldem Mennicken, potter, dwelling at 
Rorren. Patience tinder suffering.) On each side is a circular medallion 
of the arms of England, inscribed Wapen. Von. Engellant. Ao. yj. It 
has also the following abbreviations, found on many other Raeren 
vases: — H.S. (Hungrigen speiseri) ; D.DR. (Durstigen dranckai); N.K. 
{Nackten kleiden), GEF.T. (Gefangenen irosten), &c. A canette of pyra- 
midal form, with incuse flowers and a medallion in front of figures 
in relief, has the name of Ian. Baldems. 1596. Another cruche, with 
the history of Susanna in relief, bears the maker's name, Engel. Kran. 
A° 1584 ; and a canette, with the history of Esther, maker Fant. Genat. 
All these are in the South Kensington Museum. 

The celebrated Collection of M. d'Huyvetter of Ghent was dis- 
persed after his death. Many of the best pieces were bought by M. 
Weckherlin of Brussels ; others found their way into public museums. 
There is a good collection in the museum at the Porte-du-Halle, Brussels, 
especially a candelabrum, dated 1550, one of the earliest dates we have 
met with. 

The Vicaire Schmitz, emulating the example of M. Dornbusch, who 
discovered the white stoneware of Siegburg, commenced the excavations 
at Raeren about the year 1872, and continued his explorations until 1874. 
He was rewarded by finding large quantities of this identical gre's of pre- 
cisely the same types, bearing dates from 1 560 to 1 620, and the remains 
of numerous kilns at Raeren and its immediate environs. Among the 
more highly finished vases of the sixteenth century were also exhumed 
others of a more remote period, similar to the legendary Jacoba Kannetjc, 
of a very rude character. 

It is supposed that the decadence of this industry at Raeren took 
place in or about 1618, the commencement of the Thirty Years' War, which 
put an end to the exportation of this ware to German}', where it had 
found so ready a sale. 

Frechen. The fabrication of gre's in this locality probably com- 
menced at the epoch when the municipality of Cologne, in order to avoid 
the frequent fires which occurred within its walls, interdicted the stone- 
ware potters from continuing their industry therein, and it was then 
carried on in the vicinity. 

From the commencement of the sixteenth century, or perhaps earlier, 
the gres of Frechen took an artistic character. The jugs and vases are 
mostly spherical, bearing frequently a central band with Gothic letters 
and moral sentiments, sometimes alphabets, and on the belly medallions 
or other detached ornaments. Towards the end of the sixteenth century 
arms were introduced in rosettes, with spots of blue enamel on brown 



GRfcS— SIEGBURG GRENZHAUSEN. 193 

ground. The brown stoneware jugs so well known from their frequent 
occurrence in excavations in the metropolis were probably made for 
general use at Frcchen, as we learn from the petition of William Simp- 
son to Queen Elizabeth, before alluded to (p. 48). These vessels had 
bearded heads under the spouts, which we were able to identify as the 
Bellarmin so frequently alluded to in old plays; but jugs of a similar 
ware were also made, called Bartmann, the mask being more elongated ; 
the variation, however, is more easily recognised than described. 

Siegburg. The fabrication of gres is very ancient in this locality. 
The oldest (thirteenth and fourteenth centuries) are often in brownish- 
grey with pinched feet like the Jacoba Kannetje. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury, however, the ware assumed a more artistic character, and a fine 
whitish-grey clay was the material used, sometimes styled terre de pipe. 
The usual forms are cylindrical canettes, called in Germany Snel, with 
handles and long oblique spouts rising from the central bands, attached 
to the neck by a scroll or flat piece of clay. These are known as Toot- 
kruik, Schnabc/krug, &c. The ornamentation in low relief consists of 
elaborate Renaissance arabesques, with masks, coats of arms, &c. 

In 1873 M. Dornbusch commenced his researches in order to dis- 
cover the origin of the grcs, and exhumed a quantity of debris of an 
ancient Rhenish fabrique at Siegburg, opposite Bonn, on the Sieg, the 
other side of the Rhine. Following up his discoveries of this peculiar 
ware, he consulted the archives, and found documents proving that a 
large manufactory formerly existed there, which had previously been 
erroneously adjudged to the category of gres de Flandres. His experi- 
ences were published at ' Cologne in the Annales de la Socie'te Historiquc 
dn Bas-Rliin. 

The white earth of Siegburg has been used in the present century 
by a potter of the locality named P. Lowenich, and the vessels may be 
confounded by some inexperienced persons with the old, being of good 
finish. 

Grenzhausen (Nassau), near Coblentz, and Hour, are both situ- 
ated in the country called Kannenbackcrlandclicn, and to these localities 
are attributed the gres of a fine quality which is in imitation of the more 
ancient stoneware of Raeren, for which it is easily mistaken. Some of 
the vessels made here bear the initials G.R., which refer to Guillaume 
III. of Orange-Nassau, King of England. A keg or barrel of greyish- 
blue, of the incontestable Nassau fabrique, bears the letters G.R., with 
portraits of William III. and Mary of York, his Queen, with the device 
" An . Onsen . Hollanssen . Tuyn . Soo . Bloein . Oranie . Apellex . Ex . 
Roosen." (/;/ our Dutch garden thus flourish the oranges and roses.) 
These were made for the English market. 

From some documents recent!}' published by W. Muller (Das Nas- 
sauische Krug und Kanncubackcrland und seiner Industrie) it is shown 



294 GRES— CREUSSEN— LAUENSTE1N. 

that the Counts of Wied and Isenburg sent to Siegburg and other places 
for potters, to give a fresh impulse to the keramic industry of Grenz- 
hausen. 

The decoration of a more recent date consists of a fine blue enamel 
on grey, with cliamp-leve or incuse ornaments on engine-turned ground 
in leaves, flowers, rosettes, &c. 

The fabrication of gres has still more recently been revived in 
Nassau, imitating the ancient gres of the locality. 

Creussen, near Baireuth, in Bavaria. The keramic industry of this 
locality was of longer duration than those we have before spoken of. 
Many of these vessels have a simple dark-brown glaze, but the greater 
part are covered with brilliant colours and painted enamel inscriptions. 
The varieties are called in Germany Trauerkruge or mourning jugs, 
being ornamented with guilloches and bands in white and black, some- 
times partly gilt ; Planeten-, Jagd-, and Apostel-kriige, in allusion to the 
subjects, planetary, the chase, and our Saviour and the Apostles ; some- 
times oviform, but usually cylindrical, in all shades of the prismatic 
colours. 

The following anecdote shows the German characteristic of these 
Apostle-jugs, which were so popular in that country ; it is from a comic 
poem called the Jobsiade, by Korttim of Mulheim, published in 1784. 
The student Jobs presents himself for examination, and in answer to 
the question, " What is a bishop ? " he replies, " An excellent liquor 
composed of wine, sugar, spices, and orange-juice." Then to the next 
question, "What is an apostle?" he says, "An apostle is a large 
jug, which will contain a sufficient quantity of wine or beer, from which 
at banquets, or in the country, the students quaff when thirsty." The 
manufacture was discontinued about the beginning of the last century. 
One of these tankards in the Museum at Brussels bears the date 17 10. 
It may be observed, as a caution, that a great number of these mugs 
have come from the manufactory of an uniform brown colour, the orna- 
ments and figures not enamelled in colours ; these have been subse- 
quently painted in oil colours by dealers ; but the fraud is easily 
detected by scraping them with a knife, which will remove the paint, 
while the enamel resists. 

Lauenstein, near Coblentz. Established about 1760. The gres or 
stoneware of grey and blue, ornamented with flowers and other orna- 
ments in incuse patterns graved on the surface, is still made in large 
quantities, and is carried by the Rhine boats to the markets in Holland, 
where it meets with a ready sale. There were also manufactories of 
gres in the vicinity of Coblentz, at Niederfell, Langerwche, and Vallendar, 
still existing towards the end of the last century, specimens of which are 
in the Sevres Museum, acquired in 1809. 

Mettlach (Rhenish Prussia). A modern fabrique by M. Villerot, 



GRES— REGENSBURG— UNKNOWN MARKS. 



29: 



gres with platinee ornaments, examples of which arc in the S< 

Museum. 

Regensburg (Ratisbon). Gres or stoneware was made here at an 
early period. The first specimens were of a brown common earth, made 
of clay from Abensburg, with ornaments and mythological subjects : the 
ware was subsequently much improved. Jerome Iloppfcr, an engraver ol 
the sixteenth century, who lived here, signed his gres with the initials 
I. II. There are some specimens in the Berlin Museum, and two large 
vases, dated 17 15, in the Historischen Verrein at Ratisbon. In the 
eighteenth century earthenware was made here of both lead glaze and 
stanniferous enamel. 

Dryhausen, near Marieburg, in Hesse. There were manufactories 
here from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century for the gres or stone- 
ware, but we have no particulars respecting them. The Hessian wares 
were largely imported into England in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries. 

Hubertsberg, in Saxony (1784). The Count Marcolini established 
a manufactor}' of earthenware with salt glaze in the character of English 
pottery, where Wedgwood was also imitated. 



GRES— UNKNOWN MARKS. 



A jug of white stoneware, 1 3 inches high ; 
subject, The Prodigal Son ; Nuremberg Museum, 
and M. Milani's Collection, Frankfort. 

A canette, with three coats of arms and 
arabesques ; South Kensington Museum, £$. 

A jug, with portraits of the Kings and 
Queens of France, Hungary, and Prussia ; and 
another, in the Sauvageot Collection, bearing the 
same mark. 

A canette, with medallions of David, Venus, 
Lot, and the Crucifixion, in the South Kensington 
Museum. 

Jug, with medallions of dancing figures and 
German inscription ; Louvre Collection, No. 416. 

A jug, of conical form, with medallions and 
bands, months of the year, &c. ; Louvre Collec- 
tion, No. 402. 

A gourd, with long neck, of white ware, in 
the Weckherlin Collection. 

In the Sauvageot Collection and South 
Kensington Museum. 



F. T. 1559. 




M. G. 1586. 
L. W. 



2y6 



GRfcS— UNKNOWN MARKS. 



W. T. 

R.V.H 
MM' 

M. O. 



I. E. 

I. R. 1588. 

M. G. 1586. 

B. M. 




H. W. 



4. 

4* *I* 



Drinking-cup, in the form of a book ; Sau 
vageot Collection. 

Blue and grey jug, of the seventeenth cen- 
tury ; Sauvageot Collection. 

Blue and grey jug, with medallion of the 
Electors of Saxony ; Sauvageot Collection. 

These initials are found on some of the finest 
pieces in the Weckherlin Collection ; also on a 
canette, dated 1594, in the South Kensington 
Museum ; a cruche, same date ; and one in the 
Louvre, No. 411. 

With the arms of Saxon}', of brown ware ; 
Weckherlin Collection. 

A gourd, with long neck, of white ware, in 
the Weckherlin Collection. 

The initials of Baldem Mennicken, sixteenth 
century; Louvre Collection, No. 415. 

A vase, in blue and grey, with three handles ; 
sixteenth century ; Louvre Collection, No. 425. 

On a jug, of the sixteenth century ; Louvre 
Collection, No. 455. 

Cruche, with masks and arabesques, and 
medallions of the arms of the Electors ; Sauvageot 
Collection, No. 417. 

Enamelled fayence tea and coffee services of 
the eighteenth century, marked with three anchors, 
the manufacture of M. L. Cremer. 




ORIENTAL PORCELAIN. 



Clnna. 




N giving the marks on Chinese porcelain, we must own our 
obligations to that eminent scholar M. Stanislas Julien, who 
has thrown a great deal of light upon the early history of 
Oriental porcelain by his translation of a Chinese history 
of the Imperial Manufactory of King-te-tchin, which is pre- 
faced by a valuable introductory essay on the subject, with extracts from 
other Chinese authors. M. Stanislas Julien is of opinion that the por- 
celain of China was made about 185 b.c. The Chinese have historical 
annals from the remotest period of antiquity ; the first notice they have 
of pottery is, that it was invented in the reign of the Emperor Hoang-ti, 
in the year 2698 before the Christian era ; but porcelain was first invented 
under the Han dynasty, between 185 and 80 b.c, or 1600 years before 
it was known to the Western nations of the globe. Before this period 
the Chinese used articles of bronze and potter}'. Its progress was at 
first slow, but, from the patronage of succeeding Emperors, it gradually 
increased. 

The word "pourcelaine" has existed in the French language since 
the fourteenth century, consequently long before the introduction of china- 
ware into Europe ; the word was applied formerly to the calcareous con- 
cretion which lines the interior of marine shells, which we call mother- 
of-pearl. In the inventories of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries the word pourcelaine has this signification, and certainly does 
not apply to porcelain in our acceptation of the term. This appellation 
was probably given to the ware by the Portuguese in the beginning of 
the sixteenth century. It is supposed by some to have been derived 



298 CHINA. 

from pocellana, a cup or dish, from the Latin pocillnni, a little cup ; others 
have thought it was so termed from its similarity to marine shells, and 
is derived from porccllana, a word they apply to cowrie-shells, which 
represented Oriental money, and resembled, as they thought, the backs 
of little pigs, and because it conveyed a good idea of their milky-white, 
glossy, and translucent appearance. Or perhaps they may have imagined 
that the ware was actually made from a composition of those very shells ; 
in fact, this was a very general impression at that time, for Edoardo 
Barbosa, who died 1576, says that it was made from marine shells and 
egg-shells buried in the earth for eighty or a hundred years. Jerome 
Cardan and Scaliger both state that such was the method of making 
porcelain adopted by the Chinese. They kept the composition of por- 
celain a profound secret, and endeavoured to deceive foreigners by all 
manner of wonderful tales. It was only in 15 18 that the Portuguese 
obtained their settlement at Macao, and through them Europe obtained 
its first specimen of China-ware. The word porcelain is unknown to 
the Chinese, who call the ware Tse-ki. Another term is Yao, first used 
in a.d. 618, before which it had been called Tao. 

The empire of China is called by the Chinese Tchong-koitc, or the 
Middle Kingdom ; the Western Moguls call it Catay; the Mantchew 
Tartars, Nican-courou ; the Japanese, Than; the people of Cochin-China 
and Siam, Cin; from the last of which the appellation China is probably 
derived. There are numerous manufactories of porcelain in China. M. 
Stanislas Julien enumerates fifty-six, but the principal establishment is 
that of King-te-tchin. This was established as early as the sixth centur} r , 
and was then known as Nantchang-tchin ; but its great importance dates 
from the time of the imperial patronage accorded to it in the King-te 
period, when it was called King-te-tchin, or the borough of King-te ; 
this was in a.d. 1004. The Pere d'Entrecolles, a Jesuit, who went into 
China to establish missions in many of the provinces, collected some 
valuable details of the manufacture of porcelain. These he fully describes 
in a letter to Pere Orry in Paris in 17 12, accompanied by specimens 
of the two principal ingredients, kaolin * and petuntse. He visited the 
Imperial Manufactory, and gives the following interesting account : — 
" King-te-tchin wants only to be surrounded by walls to deserve the name 
of a city, and will bear comparison with the largest and most populous 
cities of China. There are eighteen thousand families, and more than a 
million of souls : it is situated on the bank of a fine river. The expense 
of procuring materials is very- considerable, for everything consumed here 



* Kaolin is the name of a native earth found in China, answering to our China clay ; 
petuntse is a siliceous stone found also in China, answering to our Cornish granite or China 
stone. The word kaolin is said to be derived from kaou-ling (lofty ridge), the name of a hill 
where some of the material is found. 



CHINA. 299 

has to be brought a great distance — even the wooJ for the furnaces 
has to be taken a hundred leagues ; provisions also are very dear, yet 
numerous poor families find employment who could not subsist in the 
neighbouring towns ; the young and the old, the lame and the blind, all 
find work at which they can earn a livelihood by grinding colours or 
otherwise." " Formerly," says the History of Feou-lia)ig, " there were 
only three hundred furnaces, now there are nearly three thousand." 
King-tc-tchin is situated in a vast plain, surrounded by high mountains 
from which issue two rivers, flowing into each other, and form a wide 
open basin ; here are seen two or three rows of boats, tied together 
stem and stern ; these are employed either in ascending the river for 
materials, or in descending it to take the porcelain to Iao-tcheou. 

It is astonishing that in so densely populated a place — so abounding 
in riches, so much poverty, and such an infinity of vessels — not sur- 
rounded by walls, that it should be governed by only one Mandarin 
without the least disorder. But the police is excellent : each street is 
superintended by one or more officers according to its length, and each 
officer has ten subalterns, who each take ten houses under their especial 
charge ; if they do not keep strict watch the bastinado is liberally applied. 
The streets are barricaded, and few, if any, strangers are allowed to 
sleep in King-te-tchin, but must retire to their boats unless they can find 
some well-known inhabitant to be answerable for their honesty and good 
conduct. 

Lord Macartney, ambassador to the Emperor of China in 1792—94, 
says that not far from the route taken by the English on their way to 
Canton there was an unwalled cit} r called King-te-chin, where three 
thousand furnaces for the baking of porcelain existed, all lighted at the 
same time, which at night presented the appearance of a town on fire. 

After reading the foregoing account of the grand centre of the 
porcelain manufacture of China, it is with feelings of regret we close its 
history by stating that King-te-tchin is now a heap of ruins. In the 
course of the recent disturbances which have convulsed that country, the 
rebels (Taepings) sacked and pillaged the village, destroying all the kilns 
and workshops, giving a fatal and irrecoverable blow to this particular 
industry in China. 

We find a notice of porcelain in the travels of Ysbranti Ides, am- 
bassador to China from Peter the Great in 1692. He states that " the 
finest, richest, and most valuable china is not exported, or at least very 
rarely, particularly a yellow ware, which is destined for the Imperial use, 
and is prohibited to all other persons. The}' have a kind of crimson 
ware, which is ver}' fine and dear, because great quantities of it are 
spoiled in the baking. They have another sort, of a shining white 
purfled with red, which is produced by blowing the colour through a 
gauze, so that both the inside and out are equally beautified with crimson 



300 CHINA. 

spots no bigger than pins' points, and this must be excessively dear, 
since for one piece that succeeds a hundred are spoiled. They have a 
china purfled in the same manner with gold; also a kind of china which 
looks like mosaic work, or as if it had been cracked in a thousand places 
and set together again without cement. There is another kind of violet- 
coloured china, with patterns composed of green specks, which are made 
by blowing the colours at once through a frame pierced full of holes, and 
this operation succeeds so rarely, that a very small basin is worth two or 
three hundred pounds. Specimens of white porcelain are found engraved 
or painted with designs in the very body of the paste in such a manner 
as to be only seen w 7 hen held up to the light, in the same manner as the 
watermark upon a sheet of paper, or become visible when the vase is 
filled with liquid, when the imperial dragon, animals, birds, or fish are 
distinguished, having no traces whatever on the surface." 

There is considerable difficulty in distinguishing glazed vases of 
Chinese pottery from true porcelain, as the coloured glaze in many cases 
conceals the material, and the thickness prevents their being translucent, 
a distinguishing quality of porcelain. The substance of many of the 
vases is coarse, sometimes grey or even red, and such as would, in 
European fabrics, be termed stoneware. 

The most curious vases with respect to manipulation are the reticu- 
lated patterns, an exterior coating being entirely cut out or perforated in 
patterns, and placed over another vase, generally blue. The cups so 
made are for drinking tea or hot liquids, as they may be held in the hand 
without burning the fingers. These have been successfully copied at 
Dresden, and more recently at Sevres. 

Another remarkable decoration is produced by piercing designs of 
flowers, leaves, and rosettes on the paste, and filling in the spaces with 
glaze, giving the effect of an elegant transparent pattern — this is termed 
" grains of rice," from the usual form of the perforations. This descrip- 
tion of ornament is most frequently found on Japanese porcelain. The 
modern Japanese egg-shell china is occasionally seen painted with land- 
scapes and interiors, in which the windows and fruits are cut out and 
filled in with a transparent coloured varnish of a pleasing appearance 
when held up to the light. 

Some other curious examples of manipulation are occasionally met 
with, movable bands made so as to turn round on the vase, and vases 
made of two pieces, which, although separate, cannot be removed ; the 
wonder is that, in the baking, the edges in juxtaposition should not have 
become cemented together. The " Cup of Tantalus " is a small white 
china cup, with a statuette standing up in the middle, the water is poured 
into it, but just as it reaches its mouth the cup is emptied by means of 
a syphon placed inside the figure. Puzzle-jugs, in which by means of 
a concealed syphon the liquid recedes from the mouth of the drinker, and 



CHINA. 301 

is spilled over his clothes ; also a cup which appears to contain an egg 
pierced at its upper extremity, and when filled, a small figure jumps out 
of the aperture ; tortoises which swim and turn on the surface of the 
water, &c. 

But, as the Rev. Henry Allon says in a lecture On Palissy the 
Poller, " the most remarkable development of the potter's art pertains to 
those queer incarnate types of antiquity, the Chinese. While the art of 
tempering and glazing was disappearing in Europe, the Chinese and their 
neighbours the Japanese had been for centuries making that peculiar- 
porcelain with which, in its grotesque determination to put down all 
tyrannical laws of proportion and perspective, you are all familiar. Who 
is there that has not daguerrcotyped upon his brain every line and dot of 
the immortal blue willow pattern ; so called from its astounding willow, 
with its four bunches of triple princes' feathers for foliage, and its 
inconceivable root growing out of an impossible soil ; and its magical 
bridge suspended, like a leaping squirrel, between heaven and earth ; and 
its three Chinese mermen, working themselves upon their tails in some 
inscrutable way or other, into the funny little temple in the corner ; and 
the allegorical ship that sails in mid-air over the top of it, and just under 
the baseless floor of an aerial blue villa, through which it threatens to 
thrust its mast ; and its two nondescript birds, which would defy even 
the anatomy of Owen, billing and cooing in their uncouth Chinese fashion 
beside the strange blue tree with round plum-pudding leaves, a permanent 
puzzle to botanists, and which grows out of the top of another temple 
with three deep-blue columns, and beneath which a mysterious stream 
flows, and which sublime landscape, for millions of ages and upon tens 
of millions of plates, has represented to the world the artistic ideas of 
the Raphaels of the cerulean empire ? 

" But to such perfection of colouring and glazing did the}' attain, 
that we can but imperfectly imitate them, even to this day. How many 
thousands of myriads of years, according to Chinese chronology, they 
have been manufacturing porcelain it is impossible to say ; it is an 
institution of the empire, and of course, therefore, like all its other 
institutions, it never had a beginning. No doubt a teacup was the 
vessel, and tea the liquor employed in the very first libation of Yoo-tsou- 
she, when 3000 years before Christ he induced his savage horde to 
build their first hut ; and when his successor, Swee-gin-shee, discovered 
fire by the accidental friction of two pieces of dry wood,, there can be 
no doubt that the first use of the Promethean discovery would be to boil 
the kettle." 

An argument in favour of the remote antiquity of porcelain has been 
adduced from the circumstance of Chinese bottles of porcelain having 
been found in the Egyptian tombs at Thebes. These bottles of common 
ware are painted on one side with a flower, and on the other with a 



3 02 CHINA. 

Chinese motto ; they are about two inches high, and eight of them have 
been found in as many Theban tombs. Rosselini found one in a tomb 
which he referred to the Pharaonic period, about 1 500 years before the 
Christian era. These are now known to have been placed there by the 
Arabs for fraudulent purposes and exported from China ; or, as Marryat 
suggests, they may have belonged to an itinerant Chinese quack-doctor, 
who accidentally died, and his body (bottles and all) were placed in the 
tomb of the Pharaohs. Sir Gardner Wilkinson himself is prepared to 
abandon all notion of the antiquity of these bottles. 

The Chinese seals discovered in Ireland have, like the Chinese snuff- 
bottles found at Thebes, caused much discussion. The}' are generally 
of pure white porcelain, in the form of a cube, about half an inch square, 
and the handle of a seated monkey ; sometimes Chinese inscriptions and 
mottoes are found pressed at the bottom. The question how the}'' found 
their way into the bogs has never been satisfactorily explained, but they are 
supposed (as was the case with the bottles) to have been surreptitiously 
deposited by the navvies to test the credulity of archaeologists. 

A great part of the white porcelain made at King-te-tchin and Fo-Kien 
was sent from thence in the white state, and afterwards decorated either 
at Nankin or at Canton to suit the tastes of the purchasers. The deco- 
rations of the former place are of greater delicacy, and far superior to 
those of Canton ; the most frequent patterns arc arabesques and flowers, 
figures and landscapes, setting all laws of perspective and rules of design 
at defiance ; Chinese deities (notably the god of porcelain, with a very 
prominent belly), fabulous monsters, and fantastic personages, accom- 
panied by inscriptions, being maxims or quotations from poems. The 
Chinese pheasant, the Imperial tiger, the Celestial dragon, which on pieces 
destined for the Emperor's use specially is represented with five claws, 
for princes four, and for commerce with three only ; but with all these 
incongruities they possess the knowledge of producing many brilliant 
enamel colours and glazes of peculiar tones, which our most skilful 
chemists have hitherto been unable to imitate successfully. 

A favourite ornamentation on ancient vases is the crackle, the method 
of producing it being kept a profound secret. This consists of a series 
of cracks on the outer surface of the vase in irregular designs, the fissures 
being sometimes filled in with red. The smaller sort, that is when the 
network is very minute, is called by the French truitce, and much prized 
by collectors ; the larger is called craqaelc'es. 

Dr. Klemm is of opinion that, although the glaze seems at first sight 
to be cracked, and has quite the appearance of stoneware cracked or 
marked by long use, yet on close observation it will be found that the 
surface is perfectly smooth, and that the vein-like numberless cracks are 
under the glaze and in the material itself. 

Crackled vases were called Tsui-khi-vao under the Southern Sung 



CHINA. 303 

dynasty (1127-79), aiK ^ are thus described in the History of King-tc- 
c l-,j n : — "The clay employed was coarse and compact, the vases were thick 
and heavy, some were of a rice white, others pah blue. They used to 
take some Hoa-chi (steatite), powder it, and mix it with the glaze. The 
vases exhibited cracks running in every direction as though broken into 
a thousand pieces. The cracks were rubbed over with Indian-ink or a 
red colour, and the superfluity removed. Then was seen a network of 
charming veins, red or black, imitating the cracks of ice. There were 
also vases on which blue flowers were painted on the crackled ground." 

A different mode of making the crackles is described in another 
Chinese work, and is as follows : — "After covering the vases with glaz< , 
they are exposed to a very hot sun, and when they have become hot, 
they are plunged into cold water for a moment. On being baked they 
appear covered with innumerable cracks." The way in which the size 
of the crackle is regulated seems to be indicated in one of the receipts 
for making crackle vases given in the History of King-te-chin (p. 214), 
from which we learn that the material of the glaze was to be finely or 
coarsely washed, according to the size of the crackle required. 

The egg-shell china is so called because of its very slight texture, 
and although extremely thin, yet it is formed into large vases, and 
usually beautifully enamelled ; the plates of this make generally have on 
the back rose-coloured borders. 

Egg-shell vases are usually beautifully painted, the borders being of 
exquisite patterns and highly finished subjects in medallions, of extremely 
light texture and necessarily very fragile. In Mr. Franks' Collection 
there are a few dated pieces of the Yung-ching period (1723—36), and 
one with a cyclical date of Kang-he in 1721 ; and judging from the char- 
acter of decoration, few pieces can be attributed to an earlier date than 
the Kang-he period (1661 — 1722). 

During the long and peaceful reign of this Emperor (extending to 
sixty-one years) a great impulse was given to the keramic arts, and 
many improvements were made and new colours and designs introduced. 

These highly finished and purely decorative egg-shell plates cannot 
be earlier than the seventeenth century. It has been suggested that 
they were imitations of the admirable porcelain of Japan, which, accord- 
ing to the authorit}' of certain missionaries, was brought to China in 
the seventeenth century to decorate the sumptuous dwellings of persons 
of high rank, and intended as presents. They are certainly not contem- 
porary with those of the Young-lo period (1403—25), or even of the Houng- 
tchi (1488— 1505), when it is supposed egg-shell china was first made, 
although the paste was equally fine and of good decoration, but of 
materially different character and of a grander style. 

The charming plates, so well known and now so highly appreciated, 
enamelled with colours and gilding, having in the centre a domestic scene 



3 o 4 CHINA. 

in a leaf-shaped panel surrounded by six borders of various widths of 
pink, blue, and lilac, the border at the back of the plate being of a deep 
pink colour, are perhaps the finest examples. These are styled among 
collectors the "plate with the seven borders." 

There is a large manufactory of porcelain at Chaou-king-foo, west of 
Canton. 

The kaolin used in making porcelain is much softer than the petuntse 
when dug out of the quarry, yet it is this which, by its mixture with 
the other, gives the strength and firmness to the work. The Pere 
d'Entrecolles relates that some Europeans having procured some petuntse 
privately in China, upon their attempting to make porcelain when they 
returned to their own country, could not succeed for want of the kaolin, 
which the Chinese being apprised of, said, humorously, that " the 
Europeans were wonderful people to go about to make a body whose 
flesh was to sustain itself without bones." There was more in this 
saying than even the witty Chinaman himself imagined ; he of course 
spoke figuratively, little thinking his remark would be literally followed 
by the admixture of bones with the paste.* 

The Chinese themselves are great amateurs, and there are many 
collectors who pay high prices for ancient examples of porcelain, especi- 
ally if made by a renowned potter; as much as 10,000 francs is some- 
times given at a public sale for a choice piece of china-ware. 

Our account of Oriental porcelain would be incomplete if we 
omitted to notice the porcelain tower at Nankin. This pagoda was not 
so ancient as has been generally supposed, but there was a previous 
tower on the same spot ; of what materials, however, it was built we 
have no record. The porcelain tower of Nankin was constructed by the 
Emperor Yong-lo (1403—24); it was outside the town, and called by the 
Chinese " The Temple of Gratitude." The tower was octagonal and 
consisted of nine stages, elevated on a pedestal of the same form ; the 
wall was 12 feet thick at the base and 8£ at the top; it was built of 
brick, encased with tiles or bricks of porcelain, enamelled on the exterior, 
the quality of the ware being equal to that of which the ordinary vases 
were composed ; each stage had a cornice of 3 feet, and at each angle was 
a bronze bell, making eighty in all — when agitated by the wind they 
produced at a short distance a sound like an yEolian harp ; its height 
was 261 feet, and was ascended by a spiral stair of 190 steps in the 



* The following analysis of English porcelain, by Aitken, in 1840, shows how largely bones 
enter into its composition, giving transparency according to the quantity used :— 

Cornish or Devonshire kaolin . . . . . .31.0 

Cornish china-stone ........ 26.0 

Flint 2.5 

Prepared bones 40.5 



CHINA. 305 

interior. The Emperor Khang-hi visited and repaired it in 1664. This 
celebrated structure, once the pride of Nankin, has been completely 
demolished by those dangerous rebels the Taepings, who also sacked the 
town and devastated the whole country. 

In Oliphant's Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and 
Japan (vol. ii. p. 456) he gives an account of his visit to Nankin in 1 858 : — 
" We passed the spot on which formerly stood the porcelain tower, but 
not a fragment is left to mark the site of this once celebrated monument." 

This celebrated pagoda was not built entirely of porcelain. It con- 
sisted of nine storeys faced with enamelled bricks of five colours ; the 
only bricks made of porcelain were the white cornices, the rest being 
merely glazed pottery. 

The representations upon the vases, as well as the ornamentation, 
must be regarded in many instances as symbolical, and they convey to 
us information as to the philosophy and metaphysics of the Chinese ; it 
is therefore necessary to make a few remarks on their religious tenets to 
enable us to understand the symbols and devices so frequently met with. 
The Chinese theogony, like most primitive religions, is very obscure in 
its definitions, but it acknowledges two fundamental principles — the Yang 
and the Yn, one active, the other passive. The Yang, the creative force 
and moving matter, has under its dominion the heaven and all which is 
male and noble. The Yn, inert matter, plastic, the female principle, which 
governs the earth and inferior creations. TV, the spirit of heaven, and 
Che, the spirit of the earth, constitute, in fact, two deities, corresponding 
to the two principles before named ; these are represented by symbols. 
Thus the sun is represented by a circle, the earth in form of a square ; 
the Yang and the Yn are expressed by the same symbols ; the sun, fire, 
and all the phenomena of the most elevated order, are indicated by that 
which is circular or oval ; the moon, the earth, governed by the female 
principle and of inferior order, is represented by the square or rectangle. 
Thus those vases which are of a round shape are called Yang, which 
means literally the active principle, while those of a square form are 
denominated Yn, the female energy or passive principle. 

The most ancient as well as the most esteemed vases, &c, in China 
are the blue camaieu, painted under the glaze, consequently not to be 
deteriorated by the action of the elements, being, in fact, indestructible in 
that respect. It is on the blue porcelain that we find the greatest num- 
ber of marks of periods (Nien-hao) of the Emperors, as well as the symbols 
or honorific inscriptions. The vases of the Hong-wou period, 1368—98, 
and those of the Young-lo, 1403—24, are very rarely met with. Under 
Siouen-te, 1426-35, the paste and decoration were of remarkably fine 
quality, but in the Tching-hoa period, which lasted until 1487, the art 
was at its highest point of excellence, and more pieces bear this date than 
of any other period. Great care is nevertheless required in examining 

U 



306 CHINA. 

them, as the marks were so frequently copied in aftertimes by Chinese 
potters themselves. 

It may here be well to note a custom in China with regard to colours. 
Nothing in that country is left to caprice or fancy. Such a building, with 
green tiles, could not have been covered in blue or red ; that door, painted 
yellow, indicates the rank of the owner of the house, and any newcomer 
must paint the doorway a different colour according to his rank. M. 
Jacquemart quotes from the romance of two Chinese literary ladies, in 
which a description is given of an Imperial chateau : — "The walls of the 
enclosure glistened with bright vermilion." A bonze, on being asked 
the name of the possessor, replied, " You see there the country-house of 
the Emperor. Have you not observed that the roof is covered with green 
enamelled tiles ? Where is the magistrate, prince, or earl who dares 
usurp a similar decoration ? " The dynasties had their own peculiar 
colour. The Tai-thsing, now reigning, affects yellow, and the royal 
vases have this prevailing colour. The dynasty of Ming adopted green ; 
but this is not universal in porcelain, where the elements and other things 
are symbolised by certain colours. 

There are also symbolical colours which ancient Chinese manuscripts 
clearly indicate. The fundamental colours correspond to the five ele- 
ments (water, fire, wood, metal, earth) and to the cardinal points ; red 
belongs to fire and corresponds to the south ; black to water and the 
north ; green to wood and the east ; white to metal and the west. In the 
Tcheoa-li (the Rites of Tcheou, twelfth to the eighth century B.C.), " The 
work of embroidering consists in combining the five colours : the eastern 
side is blue ; the south red; the west white ; the north black; the heaven 
is blackish or shaded blue; the earth is yellow; its special form is square ; 
the heaven varies according to the seasons. Fire is represented by a 
circle ; water is represented by the figure of a dragon ; the mountains by 
a deer ; birds, quadrupeds, and reptiles, by their natural forms." 

To the character Woo, or number five, the Chinese pay great respect, 
and it seems to have more influence with them than any other ; thus 
they have five great virtues : charity, justice, good manners, prudence, 
and fidelity ; the five blessings are happiness, riches, a long life, a 
natural death, and the love of virtue ; they have five domestic spirits, 
five elements, five primitive colours, five seasons of the year, over which 
preside the five spirits, five planets, five points of the compass, five sorts 
of earth, five precious stones, five precious metals, five degrees of punish- 
ment, five kinds of dress, &c. 

The number of vases used in sacrificing varied according to the 
quality of the person using them ; the Emperor used nine vessels, a noble 
seven, a minister of state five, and a literary person three. The materials 
of which they were made also differed — the Emperor using gold, the 
ministers copper, and the literary men brass or iron. In later times 



CHINA. 307 

porcelain vessels were occasionally allowed to be used, but enamelled 
copper was more frequent. 

The altar upon which these sacrificial vessels were ranged was a 
table, placed generally before some religious paintings containing the tings 
or vases to burn perfumes ; the vases containing a small shovel and 
stick of bronze to stir up the burning embers ; the cups to contain the 
wine for offerings, and other cups of particular forms for libations ; 
candlesticks and vases for flowers. 

In 1877 the Trustees of the British Museum acquired by purchase 
a copy of the great Chinese Encyclopaedia known as Kin-ting-ku-kin 
t'u-shu-tsih-ch'eng, or "Complete Collection of Writings and Illustrations, 
Ancient and Modern, drawn up under Imperial Sanction." It is com- 
prised in 5020 volumes, and was bought for £1500. It consists of the 
entire mass of Chinese literature (novels excepted) extant at the date of 
its publication, ranging from 1150 b.c. to about the year 1700 a.d. It 
was compiled in the early part of the eighteenth century by an Imperial 
commission under the orders of the Emperor Khang Hi. Their labours 
extended over forty years, terminating in 1726. This Emperor was a 
great writer as well as a poet; he reigned sixty-one years, from 1662 to 
1723, so that it was begun and completed entirely under his auspices. 
The work entitled the Se-tsing-koo-kcen was published by his successor, 
Kien-long, 1736-95, who was also a poet. 

Mr. Thorns remarks that amidst the hundreds of representations 
afforded by the work entitled the Po-koo-too, from which he makes his 
selection, there does not occur a single instance of the personification 
of a god, although a state religion — the worshipping of the great powers 
of heaven and earth — existed at that time with much superstition among 
the lower classes of the people. 

Tseo (noble). A vase with a handle (in the 
form of an inverted huntsman's cap), resting on a-+- 

three feet, with a long lip on each side, used I* J 

exclusively by the nobility in sacrifices ; on it are generally represented 
one or more eyes, as though looking at the worshipper. It is a vessel 
of great importance in the national rites ; its service was required when 
worshipping the god of heaven, also on ceremonial visits. 

Yew. Vessels for containing fragrant wine, 
with handles over the mouth. 

Ting (vase). These vessels have a handle 
on each side attached to the rim. 

Tsun (wine-jug). A wine vessel without a 
handle, also employed in sacrifices, and on these 
occasions two were commonly used to contain 
wine. 



3o8 CHINA. 

p - The E vessels, containing water and the fra- 

Vry grant wine, with a handle on each side. 

Hoo. Vessels like teapots, and also wine bottles. 

Tung. Small slender vessels with wide mouths. 

In addition to these we may here briefly notice other vessels, mostly 
made of bronze. The ringed vases, usually globular, with broad wide 
necks and small Kylin or lion handles, ornamented with loose rings placed 
in rows round the vase, the larger numbering ioo or 101 ; on smaller 
ones we have counted 68, 84, 42, 26 rings. In Mr. H. T. W. Holt's 
Collection there were several of these extraordinary vases. There are 
many Chinese legends concerning them, but none even of their most 
important works make any mention or give illustrations of them. They 
are very ancient, and are rare even in China. 

The Toiv-lioos are a remarkable class of Oriental bronzes, having a 
number of short cylindrical tubes placed at different angles on a long 
stem. The purpose of these quaint and richly ornamented bronzes was 
for an ancient pastime indulged in in ages past by the Imperial Court. 
Placed between two well-matched parties, standing equidistant from 
one of these, the object was to hurl reed lances with such precision that 
they should pass through one or other of the cylinders, which are so 
arranged that an equal share is presented on each side. 

The Chinese appear, from the remotest epochs of their empire, to 
have entertained the same admiration of the mystical properties of 
numbers that Pythagoras imported from the East. Distinguishing num- 
bers into even and odd, they considered the former as terrestrial, and par- 
taking of the feminine principle, Yang; while they regarded the latter 
as of celestial extraction, and endued with the masculine principle, Yn. 
The even numbers were represented by small black circles, and the odd ones 
by similar white circles, variously disposed and connected by straight 
lines. The sum of the five even numbers, two, four, six, eight, and ten, 
being thirty, was called the number of the earth ; but the sum of the five 
odd numbers, one, three, five, seven, and nine, or twenty-five, being the 
square of five, was styled the number of heaven. The nine digits were 
likewise grouped in two different ways, termed the Lo-chou and the 
Ho-tou. The former expression signifies the Book of the River Lo, or what 
the Great Yu saw delineated on the back of the mysterious tortoise which 
rose out of that river. It may be conceived from this arrangement : — 



NINE 




FOUR 


TWO 


THREE FIVE 


SEVEN 


EIGHT 


SIX 



ONE 

Nine was reckoned the head, and one the tail of the tortoise ; three 



cfifna. 



3°9 



and seven were considered as its left and right shoulders; and four and 
tivo, eight and six, were viewed as the fore and the hind feet. The num- 
ber five, which represented the heart, was also the emblem of heaven. 
We need scarcely observe that this group of numbers is nothing but the 
common magic square, each row of which makes up fifteen. 

As the Lo-chou had the figure of a square, so the Ho-tou had that of 
a cross. It is what the Emperor Fou-hi observed on the body of the 
horse-dragon which he saw spring out of the river Ho. The central 
number was ten, which, it is remarked by the commentators, terminates 
all the operations on numbers. 



SEVEN 
TWO 
FIVE THREE TEN FOUR NINE 
FIVE 
ONE 
SIX 



Another, called the thirty-four puzzle, also of Chinese origin, is here 
introduced ; whichever way the numbers are added together, in hori- 
zontal, vertical, or diagonal lines, the sum total is thirty-four. 



I 


H 


15 


4 


8 


I I 


10 


5 


12 


7 


6 


9 


13 


2 


3 


16 



An Emperor of China, Chi-hoang-ti, about 300 years after the death 
of Confucius and 200 years before the birth of Christ, who was cele- 
brated for his valour, and still more for the great wall which he had 
built to protect his states from the irruptions of the Tartars, resolved to 
extinguish the arts and sciences by the burning of all books relating 
thereto. His vanity was not sufficient^ gratified by the comparison 
between him and his predecessors ; he pretended to have eclipsed all 
their glory, and, that posterity might only speak o( him, he determined to 
destroy every vestige of their memory. As it is more particularly in the 
Ou-king and in the books of Confucius that the virtuous deeds of their 
illustrious Emperors are recounted, Chi-hoang-ti resolved to prevent 
their being handed down to posterity. The edict was executed with great 
rigour, but the books being dispersed over so vast a territory, this anni- 
hilation could only be partially carried into effect. 



3 to CHINA. 

The five books of the Ou-king are as follows : first, entitled Chou- 
king, was a collection of the annals of different princes, the earliest of 
whom reigned about 2000 years before Christ ; the second, the C/iy-king, 
is a collection of odes, sonnets, and maxims ; the third, Y-king, compre- 
hends the famous trigrams of Fou-hi, which are reputed to be the first 
attempt at Chinese writing ; Fou-hi pretended that he saw these elemen- 
tary figures traced on the back of a dragon which arose from a river ; 
the fourth, Chonn-choii, is the history of four Chinese princes of the 
kingdom of Lu, great part of which is written by Confucius ; the fifth is 
Y-ky, a treatise on ceremonies and moral duties. 

In the eighteenth century the custom of placing the dates or periods 
of manufacture on the bottom of vessels appears to have fallen into dis- 
use, and seals or square stamps were substituted, except in the case of 
imitations of ancient products ; we frequently find at this time verses, 
legends, or odes written on the exterior, which are occasionally illus- 
trated. 

The Emperor Kien-long is well known in Europe on many accounts, 
but chiefly from the length of his reign and for his poetic talent ; he 
ascended the throne in 1736 and reigned till 1796. The celebrated 
Chinese Encyclopaedia, profusely illustrated, entitled Se-tsing-koo-keen, 
was published under his auspices, a copy of which is now in the British 
Museum, brought hither from St. Petersburg. His poems have been 
published, and are frequently seen on Chinese porcelain cups and mugs. 
Voltaire addressed a letter in verse to this Emperor, beginning — 

" Recois mes complimens, charmant Roi de la Chine, 
Ton trone est done place" sur la double colline. 
On sait dans l'occident que malgre mes travers, 
J'ai toujours fort aime les rois qui font des vers. 
David meme me plut," &c, &c. 

M. A. Jacquemart gives the translation of one of his poems or odes, 
pencilled outside a teacup, which appropriately describes the tea-plant 
and the benefits it confers on those who partake of the infusion. Another 
ode, also found on a cup, is entitled, The Reflections of Ly-tang, trans- 
lated by Mr. S. Weston. The translator quaintly remarks, " The Chinese 
language is either mandarin or popular, such as it is spoken at court or 
in the provinces. It has no letters, and can only be learnt by oral 
practice, which cannot be well acquired out of the country. As it 
has no letters, of course no syllables, but characters that stand for 
words, and, with affixes and suffixes, represent whole sentences ; and 
although they can badly express the shades of difference between 
antea and dudnm, demutn, tandem, and denique, yet they abound in the 
conciosiacosaches of the early Italians and the verumenimveros of the 
elegant Latins." 



CHINA. 311 

Ly-TANG, idle and unemployed, in a vacant and joyless hour, spake 
thus : — 

Behold the sun, star of the morning, rise on my furnace and illumine 
my hall under an Imperial dynasty. 

Great is the beauty and high the antiquity of sacred vases, simple 
but exquisite in their form, which it requires time to go in quest of, and 
opportunity to possess, and length of days to arrange and set in order, 
as incentives to the pursuit of virtue and the performance of good 
deeds. 

With rude health and a clear complexion, you may sport and 
play, but it is not permitted to drink of the source of indulgence to 
excess. 

The perfection of a just man is to prepare himself so as to appear 
bright and illustrious at a distance in after-times, and clear in the present 
moment. 

You may gather flowers in abundance, and plunge into the ocean in 
search of pearls, but cold and fatigue will be the end of both. 

See the fowls how they feed from a bason beneath the rosy flowers 
of the tree-like peony (jnoutan or peony). 

In a fine morning in the spring, when the sun shines bright and the 
wind is hushed, the cocks wait upon the hens and display their tails 
variegated with gold, and strut proudly in their iron spurs, amidst the 
feathered throng. 

But man, proud zealot, lord paramount to all, seeks with his 
divining-rod what the earth conceals, and goes in quest, through foreign 
climes, of animals which eye has not seen nor ear heard ; and he is 
called illustrious, artificer of things emblematical of good, that neither 
perish nor decay ; but he is in haste to leave the beauties of his own 
climate to run after a change of seasons. I, alone and unassisted, with 
fearful heart, give to the world these verses, without venturing to look 
back to the reputation I may have acquired or to repose in the enjoy- 
ment of my present labours. 

The composition of the Emperor Kien-long in the forty-first year of 
his reign and the fifty-third of his cycle. 

The ode is given in seventeen columns, of which we givf the 
first and last, to show the method of writing and the difficulty of trans- 
lating it : — 



3 1 * 



CHINA. 



$> 


Ly 


Ly 


* # # # 


# * * * 


# ^ # flt # 




Tang 


Tang 


tt 


Kien 


Kien 


tt 


yue 


said 


% 


Long 


Long 


X*t2 
^7 


Ky 


tool 


\f) 


ping 


' 53 y ear of 
the cycle 


>*v 


Jin 


Man 


* 


xin 


41 year of 
his reign 


sa 


hien 


idle 


Jty 


Yu 


Imperial 




vu 


not 


i£ 


Ty 


Composi- 
tion 


^L 


siao 


cheerful 









The marks found upon porcelain are of two sorts ; one in Chinese 
words or letters, designating the period or reign in which it was made ; 
the others by letters or paintings, indicating the painter of the piece, its 
special use, or the place of its manufacture. 






CHINESE DYNASTIES, 

FROM A.D. 25 TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

Tung-han 



A.D. 

25 



4^. / b=l T1 , 

</«S '* Hou-han 221 

'3. '% 



OH 

1=1 



Tsin 264 

M l» Tung-tsin 317 



sS 






v- 
* 



^ 

* 

% ^ 



A.I>. 



(NINA. 

q K 7J? Pet-sung 420 

T*LRm C/// 479 

Leang 502 

Tsin 557 

Sui 589 



3 l l 



363 Tang 618 

•f/O. *>p^ Hou-lcang 907 

A ^ /^F Hou-tang 924 



■i/w |=] Hou-tsin 936 



%~£j K S Hou-han 947 

1 ^ I ^2/ Hou-chao 95 1 



Sung 960 

Nan-swig 1127 

• Yuan (Tartar) 1279 

^ ^ Ta-ming 1368 

4^ ]m Tai-thsing 1644 



314 CHINA. 



NIEN-HAO. 

MARKS INDICATING A PERIOD OF A REIGN, 

Or Mottoes of various Emperors of China, from the time when the Manufactory 
of Nan-tchang-tchin [originally established in the sixth century) became an 
Imperial Manufactory in the King-te period, a.d. 1004. 

In the Celestial Empire, a man passing from private into public life 
modified his name so as to harmonise with his new functions or to 
express his dignity, but the sovereign, in ascending the throne, lost his 
individuality, the better to wield the great power thus conferred upon him. 
Thus, as M. Jacquemart says, when the illustrious founder of the Ming 
dynasty was yet an obscure private gentleman, his name was Tchon- 
youan-tchang ; when he commanded the troops, who soon proclaimed 
him their chief, he was called Tchou-kong-tseii ; becoming conqueror of 
Kiang-nan, he took the title of Ou-kone-kong, that is to say, " Prince of 
Ou." Eventually his commemorative tablet designated him the great 
founder of the dynasty Ming-tai-tsou, " Emperor by the force of arms." 
On his accession to the throne, he renounced his personal name, which 
nobody could repeat without incurring the penalty of death. The sove- 
reign designated the period or years of his reign with a significant 
epithet which served to distinguish himself; he expressed his power by 
the words Hong-zvoit, " Great warrior." Such was termed Nien-hao. 
Sometimes after the Emperor's death another title was bestowed 
according to his merit, called Miao-hao, by which he was described in 
history. 

His successor, CJm-ty, being chosen Emperor without a contest, 
having laid aside the sword and caused the arts to flourish, was styled 
Kian-wen-ti, the " Emperor restorer of literature." 

So in later times, Tao-koitang, the title assumed by Meen-ning on 
ascending the throne in 1821, signified " Reason's lustre; " Hien-fong, in 
185 1, "The glory of the right way;" Tung-che, in 1862, "Universal 
abundance ; " and Koiiang-sliiit, in 1875, the present Emperor, " Inherited 
lustre." 

The Chinese characters which follow representing periods are placed 
from left to right, as we are accustomed to read, but the Chinese 
invariably read from right to left vertically ; the length of the column is 
arbitrary, but on the vases inscriptions of six words are disposed in 
three columns of two, or in two columns or three words, always 
commencing at the top right-hand corner downwards. Sometimes the 
two first characters indicating the dynasty are omitted, and they are 



CHINA. 



i 1 •", 



reduced to four. The 
characters, thus :^— 

^ g *- 

A A Mill w™ 1 

^ s 

of the distinguishing 
once the Emperor and 



full dynastic inscription consists usually of six 



Ta-ming tching-hoa nien-tchi. 

" In the reign of Tchun-ti, of the 
great Ming dynasty, in the Tching- 
hoa period" (1465 to 1487). 

Ta-ming siouen-te nien-tchi. "In 
the reign of Hiouan-tsoung, of the 
great Ming dynasty, in the Siouen- 
te period" (1426 to 1435). 

These two words, nien-tchi, signifying a num- 
ber of 3'ears or a period (nien, " year " or " period," 
and tchi, u made "), are found following the name 

appellation assumed by the Emperor, denoting at 

the period of his reign. 




PERIODS. 

SUNG DYNASTY, a.d. 960 to 1127. 






* 1° 

mm. 






NAMES OF PERIODS. A.I>. 

King-tc 1004 

Tai-chung-hsiang-fu 1007 



Tien-shing 



Ming-tao 



Cking-yu 



y 102 



Chia-yu 

Pao-ynan 

Chi-ping 1064 



316 



CHINA. 



is* 



» * •» 






£§ J* 



NAMES OF PERIODS. 

Hsi-ning . 



1068 



Yuan-fung . 

Yuan-yu 

Thao-shing. 
Yuan-fu 

I-ho . . . 
Chitng-ho . 
Chcng-ho 
Chien-chung 
Ching-huo . 



v 1086 



Tsung-ning 



Ta-chuaji 



y 1 10 1 



Ching-kang 



1 101 



1 120 



NAN-SUNG DYNASTY, a.d. 1127 to 1279. 



If W 

PS M 
ft & 



NAMES OF PERIODS. 

Chien-tan . 



Shao-hsing 



Lung-hsing 



Chien-tao 

Tun-hsi 



1127 



1 163 



CHINA. 



3 ! 7 












oz 



t 3 r 1 - 

±i< ex 

2vr, T 

& IK 

•nod. »* * ' 



jr. 






i 195 



*W 



NAMES OF PERIODS. A "- 

S/iao-Iisi i'9 r -> 

(Juug-yuan 

Chia-tai 

Kai-yu 

Kid-ting 

Pao-ching 

Shao-ting 

Tuan-ping 

Hai-Jisi 

Hsien-tiui 

Te-yu 

Ching-tan l2 77 

Chcang-lising I2 7° 



1225 

1225 

1265 
1275 



YUAN DYNASTY (Tartar), a.d. 1 279-1368. 



NAMES OF PERIODS. 

Chi-yuan . 



1279 



;gt jr Chi-ta '303 



Yuan-tso 
Ta-te 



1295 



3 i8 






CHINA. 

NAMES OF PERIODS. 

Chcng-yu . 



* m 






Hucwg-chiiig . 
CJii-yu . 

: -tiug-chi-]io 
Tien-li . 



Chi-shnn 



Yuan-fung . 



Chi-ynan 

Chi-chciig 

TA-MING DYNASTY. 



1312 

1321 

1324 
1329 

1330 
1333 





NAMES OF PERIODS. 


A.D. 


EMPEROR. 


&« 


Hoang-woii 


1363. 


Tai-tsou. 


A-k 


Kian-wen . 


1399- 


Chu-ty. 


** 


Yonng-lo . 


1403. 


Tching-tsou. 


& m 


Houng-hi . 


1425. 


Jin-tsoung. 


W IS 


Sioiicn-ie . 


1426. 


Hiouan-tsoung 


jJL tE. 


Tching-tiuig . 


1436. 


Ying-tsoung. 




King-tai 


1450. 


King-tai. 


m iin 


Ticn-chun . 


1457. 


Ying-tsoung. 



CHINA. 



319 



urn 



vJgJf 



JIP to 

Hast 



^s 



7TT l/Liii 



NAMES OF PERIODS, A.D. EMP] 

Tching-hoa . . 1465. Tchun-ti. 

Houng-tchi . . 1488. Hiao-tsoung. 

Tching-te . . . 1506. Wou-tsoung. 

Kia-tsing . . . 1522. Chi-tsoung. 



Loung-khing . 

JVan-li 

Tai-tchang 

Ticn-ki 

Tsoung-tsu 

Chun-tchi . 

Tsoung-kwang 
Tschao-won . 
Loung-wou 

Yung-ly . . 



1567. Mou-tsoung. 

1573. Chin-tsoung. 

1620. Kouang-tsoung. 

1 62 1. Tchy-ti. 
1628. Hoai-tsoung. 
1644. Chi-tsou. 
1644. 

1646. 

1646. Thang-wang. 

1647. Kouei-wang. 



TAI-THSING DYNASTY. 

NAMES OF PERIODS. A.D. EMPEROR. 

Ticn-ming. . . 1616. Tai-tsou. 
Ticn-tsouug . . 1627. Tai-tsoung. 
Tsoung-te . . . 1636. Id. 



3 20 



CHINA. 



jEft 
% IE 




NAMES OF PERIODS. A. I). EMPEROR. 

Khang-hi .. . . 1662. Ching-tsou. 

(He reigned 61 years.) 

Yung-tching . . 1723. Chi-tsoung. 



Kih 1- long . 
(He reigned 60 years.) 

Kia-king . 
Tao-kouang . 
Hien-fong . 
Tung-tchi . 
Kouang-shiu . 



1736. Koa-tsoung. 

1796. Jin-tsoung. 

1 82 1. Meen-ning. 

1851. 

1862. 

1875. 



SEALS. 

These characters of the square seal form (Siao-tchouan) were from 
the commencement of the eighteenth century used on porcelain instead 
of the inscriptions in regular characters (Kiai.) 

Although we have not met with any earlier seals of this character on 
porcelain, they are frequently found impressed on bronzes of the Ming 
dynasty. On a subsequent page we reproduce one of the King-tai 
period, 1450-57, and another of the Siouen-te period, 1426-36. 

These signs, composed of rectangular lines, are better adapted for 
seals or stamps, the lines of the ordinary characters being lengthened, 
and made angular instead of curved, to suit the squareness of the seal. 
This form of the words is very difficult to read, even by the Chinese 
themselves, unless they are taught ; but there is a certain similitude 
which will assist us in deciphering them. 

As a general rule, all marks in the angular seal character on porce- 
lain anterior to the present dynasty of Tai-Thsing or the Great Thsing 
(a.d. 16 16) may be regarded as forgeries. The dates on earlier examples 
are generally written in the plain character. The three principal modes 
of writing which have been used in China are, first, the Tchouan or seal 
character, of which there are many varieties ; second, the Kiai-siao or Shu, 
the plain character, employed for books and careful writing ; third, the 
Tsaon-siao, " grass text " or rapid hand, used in common writing, and 
very difficult to decipher. 



CHINA. 



3 21 



In the orthography of words representing Chinese and Japanese 
characters, some confusion arises, each author spelling them according 
to his nationality, so as best to convey the pronunciation in his native 
tongue, French, German, or English. Thus siao, " seal," is sometimes 
written shu; siao-tchouan, " seal character," shu-chuan ; cheou, "longevity," 
show; /die, "made," tchi and chc ; young as yung, and so on. We have- 
given the preference to Stanislas Julien's method of spelling, he being 
par excellence the one who has thrown the greatest light upon the sub- 
ject of Chinese inscriptions on porcelain. 




IMPERIAL SEAL-MARKS. 

Ta-sung King-te Nien-tchi (a.d. 1004 to 1008). 
" Made in the King-te period of the great Sung 
dynasty." This inscription is in gold on a vase 
which cannot be more ancient than the last cen- 
tury. Franks Collection. In the history of the 
manufactory of King-te-tchin, it is recorded that 
the Emperor Chin-tsung, who founded it, ordered 

that the four words King-te Nien-tchi should be inscribed under the 
foot of all vases made for the palace. 



Young-lo Nien-tchi (a.d. 1403 to 1425). " Made 
in the period Young-lo of the great Ming dynasty." 
In the Shu character, on a bowl in the Franks 
Collection. 

Ta-niing Sioncn-te Nien-tchi (a.d. 1426 to 1436). 
" Made in the period Siouen-te of the great Ming 
dynasty." The porcelain of this date has been 
frequently imitated. The vase on which this mark 
occurs is probably modern. It is sometimes en- 
graved in the paste on a square seal, so that the 
characters are in relief. Franks Collection. 

Ta-thsing Chun-tchi Nien-tchi (a.d. 1644). 
" Made in the period Chun-tchi of the great Thsing 
dynasty," which only lasted one year. 

TscJiao-ivou Nien-tchi (1646). (Dynasty of 
Ming omitted.) On an old crackle vase, blue and 
white, subsequently decorated in colours with ani- 
mals, flowers, &.c, probably by the Dutch. In the 
possession of Mr. T. L. Winthrop of Southampton. 








322 



CHINA. 




Ta-thsing Khang-hi Nien-tchi (a.d. 1662 to 1722). 
" Made in the period Khang-hi of the great Thsing 
dynasty." This Emperor's name was Ching-tsou ; he 
reigned sixty-one years. 

Ta-thsing Yung-tching Nien-tchi (a.d. 1723 to 1736). 
" Made in the period Yung-tching of the great Thsing 
dynasty." On a bottle-shaped vase, pale red glaze. 
Franks Collection. 



£5 

ran 

^Uhxi Xien £oi\y T&en J/ismj 
6 5 4 3 2 




M. A. Jacquemart (Les 
Merveilles de la Ce'rantique, p. 

105) gives an inscription on 
a cup belonging to the Kien- 
long period, 1736 to 1795, 
in the Siao-tchouan or seal 
character, employed in a 
horizontal line from right to left, which is easily divisible into distinct 
characters. The same inscription in its square form reads thus : — 

" Tchi made Nien 
in the period Kien- 
long of Kien-Iong " 
1 736- 1 795. (Nicn-hao, 1736 to 
1 795)- Ta-thsing 
of the dynasty of 
Thsing. 



3 
Nicn 




1 
Ta 



Thsing 



This inscription reads, 



n_n 

Tchi 
6 



yd 



^ 5 ^Sr^ 



Nicn 
5 



Kinp Kca 



4 



11 ±1 

dm 

Thsing 



I . - " Teh 

H P erio 
MM 1821 



Ta 



" Tchi made Nicn in the 
period Kea-king " (1795 to 
:). Ta-thsing of the 
great dynasty of Thsing. 

These Siao-tchouan char- 
acters are in a horizontal 
form as here given, on a vase, red ground, with flowers, scrolls, &c, in 
possession of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh. 



^^ 



Kea-king (1775 to 1 821). Grouped in a square 



ocxri jrj £a form, without the name of the dynasty or termination. 




Modern porcelain. The Imperial seal, stamped in 
red, of the Kea-king period, 1795 to 182 1. This 
Emperor's name was Jin-tsoung. 



('NINA. 



3 2 3 



Tao-kouang period (1821 to 185 1). Without the 
name of the great Thsing dynasty. 

Modern porcelain. Tao-kouang period of the 
great Thsing dynasty (1821 to 185 1). 

Modern porcelain. The Imperial seal, stamped in 
red, of the Tao-kouang period of the Thsing dynasty 
(1821 to 1851). 

Hicn-fong period ( 1 85 1 to 1 862), of the great Thsing 
dynasty. 

Ta-thsing Hicn-fong Nicn-tchi (1851 to 1862). 
" Made in the period Hien-fong of the great Thsing 
dynasty." On a sixfoil-shaped bowl, green inside, 
painted outside with a gentleman alighting from a horse, 
accosting three ladies, and attendant with luggage. 
Franks Collection. 

Ta-thsing Tang-tchc Nicn-tchi (1862 to 1875). 
" Made in the period Tung-tche of the great Thsing 
dynasty." On an octagonal bowl, green inside, outside 
ornaments in low relief of the trigrams, known as the 
Pa-kwa, fret border. Franks Collection. 



friii a 




DDn 

r»-n -J t— 



ig 




VARIOUS SEAL-MARKS. 

Fuh-kivci-kia-ki. " A fine vase for the rich and 
honourable." On a blue and white bottle with medallions 
of fabulous animals, ground diapered with white wicker 
pattern. Franks Collection. 



I-Shing. " Harmonious prosperity." On a crackled 
stoneware saucer, mottled brown and grey. Franks 
Collection. The mark stamped in relief. 

Io-Shin Chin-tsang. " Deep like a treasury of 
gems." On a blue and white saucer, painted with a 
gentleman riding and a lady in a wheel-chair, with 
attendants. Franks Collection. 




3*4 



CHINA. 







Koh-ming-tsiang-chi. " Made by Koh-ming-tsiang." 
On a piece of ancient ware, the body of a dense red 
stoneware, said to be as ancient as the Sung dynasty, 
a.d. 960 to 1 127. Franks Collection. 

Hcae-chuh Choo-jin Tsaou. " Made by (or for) the 
lord of the Heae bamboos." On a rice-bowl, enamelled 
with ladies in fantastic boats, a crane and a kylin. 
Mark in red. Franks Collection. 

Modern porcelain. These marks were copied on 
Worcester china, in imitation of the Chinese. 

Modern porcelain, probably the seal of a Mandarin. 





Show or cheou. " Longevity " or " Long life." Seal 
characters. This character is represented in many dif- 
ferent ways and often occurs on porcelain, and frequently 
enters into the external decoration in circular, oval, and 
elongated forms. Sometimes a piece of pottery or 
porcelain is marked with a hundred or more ; these are 
called the " Hundred Show." The formation of the 
character Cheou in the Kiai or plain writing differs 
materially. (See page 329.) 



SIAO-TCHOUAN OR SEAL-MARKS ON METAL. 

These seal-marks of Chinese dynasties and periods are occasionally 
found stamped or cut upon bronzes and enamels, on copper as well as 
porcelain, as shown in the following examples : — 

A pair of lofty Chinese cloisonne enamel pilgrim's bottles, of flat 
circular form, with flowers, birds, &c, on dark blue. In the South 
Kensington Museum. 




Dynasty of Ta-thsing. 
Period of Khien-long. 
Made during Nien-tchi (1736 to 1796). 



CHINA. 



3 2 o 



Chinese enamel gourd-shaped bottle, blue 
ground, white and red flowers, gilt handle and 
spout. Mr. I. Falcke's Collection. 

"Made during Nien-tchi " (1450 to 1457). 

" In the period King-tai." 

The dynasty of Ming (omitted). 




A seal at the bottom of a small bronze fluted 
vase ; not deciphered. Holt Collection. 




This seal is on a bronze plaque of Ta-ming 
Sieuen-te Nien-tchi (a.d. 1426 to 1436). 

" Made in the Sieun-te period of the great 
Ming dynasty." 



Stamp on a bronze toad attacked by a viper, 
apparently of early work. Chinese or Japanese 
of the fifteenth or sixteenth century ? In the 
Collection of Jno. Rhodes, Esq., Leeds. 



CHINESE CYCLICAL DATES. 

There was another method of computing time, which is said to 
have come into use during the reign of the mythical Emperor Hwang-ti 
(b.c. 2697). Its invention has been placed in the eighth year of his 
reign. This method was by cycles of sixty years, and there is little 
doubt it was adopted for reckoning years after the reform of the calendar 
in b.c. 104. This system was indicated by two sets of characters ; the 
first of ten stems, called celestial ; the second of twelve branches, called 
terrestrial. The ten stems in the first row (as shown on next page, 
No. 1) are double characters derived from the five Chinese elements, 
wood, fire, earth, metal, and water (No. 2). The twelve branches in the 
third row (No. 3) form the Chinese Zodiac, viz., the rat, bull, tiger, 
hare, dragon, serpent, horse, goat, monkey, cock, dog, and pig. The first 



326 



CHTNA. 



year of the cycle is denoted by the first character in each column (Nos. 
I and 3), and they are used in regular order, the eleventh year being 
denoted by the first stem and the eleventh branch, the thirteenth year 
by the third stem and the first branch, and so on in rotation till the 
first two come round again in juxtaposition on the sixty-first year, as 
shown in the following tables : — 



No. 1. 




No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Stems. 




The Five Elements. 


Branches. 


1., 9 
2 L 


Kia ] 

Yih j 


Correspond to /j\ Wood. 


1 * 

2 a 


3 ft 

4 7 


Ping \ 

Ting J 


*X> Fire - 


3- % 

4- 0) 


6 - e 


Wu ) 

Ki j 


,, ^ Earth. 


5 ' 1 


* ft 

8. $ ( 


Keng \ 

Sin j 


» ^ Metal. 


7- * 

8 * 


9. £ 
10. §§ 


Jen ) 
Kwci J 


^ Water. 


9 t£ 
.0. gj 








I2 - ^ 






All these inscriptions may be known as dates by the 
characters which usually terminate the inscription : Nien, 
year ; and tchi, to make, form, or fashion. 

Sometimes other characters are used : Nien-tsaou, made 
in the year indicated. 

In order to indicate a precise date the number of the cycle should be 
given, but on porcelain this is generally omitted, and the date has to be 
fixed by the style of decoration or other circumstances. In the follow- 
ing, seventy-sixth cycle, the two characters in No. 23, represent the 
present year, 1886, and so on to No. 60, a.d. 1923. The preceding 
four cycles include these dates : — 



The 72nd, a.d. ,^ 4 ; the 73rd, A.D, 
168; 



; the 74th, a.d. T ? 44 the ?sth A „ 1804. 
1743 1803 ° 1863 



CHINA. 



3 2 7 



THE SEVENTY-SIXTH SEXAGENARY CYCLE, 

COMMENCING A.D. 1 864. 

From " Mayers' Chinese Header's Manual." 




This system, also in Chinese characters, is adopted in Japan, the 
names of them being differently pronounced. 



328 



CHINA. 




Example. — Wo-shin-nien Lean g-ki- shoo. " Painting 
of Leang-ki in the Wo-shin year." The fifth year of 
the seventy-fifth cycle, a.d. 1808. Chinese porcelain 
painted in green enamel, with floral devices on a brick-red 
srround. Franks Collection. 



NUMERALS ADOPTED BOTH IN CHINA AND JAPAN. 





Chinese 
Ordinary 
Numerals. 


Pronunciation. 

Yih 


Chinese 

Merchants' 
Numerals. 




One . . . 


.-a. 


1 


One 


Two . 




Urh 


If 


Two 


Three 
Four . 




San 
Sze 


Iff 

X 


Three 
Four 


na 


Five . 


s: 


Ngdo 


j 


Five 


Six 


^ 


Lyeu 


> 


Six 


Seven 


-fc 


Ts'hih 


=bt 


Seven 


Eight . . 


A 


Pah 


«—». 


Eight 


Nine . . . 


/L 


Kew 


* 


Nine 


Ten . 


+ 


Shih 


H* 


Ten 


A hundred . 


w 


Puh 


il-H 


Twenty 


A thousand . 


f 


TsJiyen 


I'l-h 


Thirty 


Ten thousand 




Wan 


0-h 


Forty 
Fifty 



CHINA. 



329 



In the Chinese and Japanese ordinary numerals, the numbers eleven, 
twelve, &c., are represented by putting the several marks for one, two, 
tVc, the excesses above ten, immediately below its symbol ; but to denote 
twenty, thirty, tS:c., the marks of the multiples, two, three, &C., are placed 
above the symbol for ten. This distinction is pursued through all the 
other cases. Thus, the marks for two, three, &c, placed over the 
symbols for a hundred or a thousand, signify so many hundreds or 
thousands. The character for ten thousand, called Wan, appears to have 
been the highest known at an early period of Chinese history, since, in 
the popular language at present, it is equivalent to all. In China, Wan- 
wan signifies ten thousand times ten thousand, or a hundred millions, 
though there is also a distinct character for this high number. 

Thus "j* II — J-* 21 IIj 51 yv 6° E3 20 ° and so on. 



THE FOLLOWING INSCRIPTIONS ARE OCCASIONALLY 
FOUND ON CHINESE PORCELAIN. 



Jin-ho-kouan. " The house of Humanity and 
Concord." These words indicate certain white 
vases of the Ting-tcheou period. 1 1 1 1 to 12 15. 

Tchoii-foa-yao. " Porcelain of the palace." 
The first two words, written on the inside of 
vases, indicate porcelain made for the Emperor's 
use of the dynasty of Youen (the Mongols of 
China). 1260 to 1367. 

Marks of the Siouen-te period. " Three 
fishes." 1426 to 1435. ' >*; 

— -* I 1 j 

"Three fruits." 1426 to 1435. — *. ~ ~aT ; 






Three mushrooms." 1426 to 1435. 



2: 



5 w 



tn 



Fuh. The word " Happiness " repeated five 
times. 1426 to 1435. T7. J|'fi| 

Cheou or Show. " Longevity " or " Long 
life." 1426 to 1435. Written in the Kiai or 
plain character. 

Thsicou. " Wine." This word, painted in 
the centre of a small white cup, indicates one 
of the cups for the use of the Emperor Chin- 
tsong. 1 52 1 to 1566. 



P-r- 



33° 



CHINA, 




kasu. r=] CD 






Tsao-fcmg. "Dates in syrup" or "Chow- 
chow." These two words, painted in the centre 
of a small white cup, denote an inferior quality 
used by the same Emperor. 1522 to 1566. 

Kiang-fang. " Decoction or syrup of ginger." 
These two words are on cups of a common 
description used by the same Emperor. 1522 
to 1556. 

Ou-in-tao-jin. " Ou, the old man who lives 
in solitude." These four words, painted on the 
foot of a vase, designate the porcelain of the 
celebrated potter Hao-chi-khie-ou. 1567 to 1619. 

Fuh-kwci-chang-ming. " Happiness, riches, 
and a long life." These three are the most com- 
monly invoked of what are termed " the five 
blessings," the other two being " the love of 
virtue" and "a natural death." This Chinese 
inscription occurs on two rare porcelain cups, 
green ground, with pencilled gold designs in 
the Persian taste ; in the Collections of Mr. J. 
Henderson and Mr. A. W. Franks. 

Woo-fuh. " The five blessings," mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph. 

Woo-fuh-lin-mun. " May the five blessings 
enter in at this door," is an expression com- 
monly written on the doors of Chinese houses. 






Fuh - kwei - chang - tchun* "Riches, high 
rank, and an eternal spring." 



TcJiing-liiig-kiim. Vase destined for cele- 
brated feasts in the district of Tching-ling. 



Cheou-pi-uan-chan. Fou-jou-toung-hai. "(I 
wish you) a longevity comparable to the moun- 
tain of the South, and happiness (great) as the 
sea of the East." 



* This and the Chinese characters following are placed in their correct positions, and are 
to be read from right to left vertically. 



CHINA. 



33' 



TcJwuang-yourn-ki-ti. "May you be able to 
obtain the title of Tchouang-youcn." 

"Souvenir of Ing-chin-youci." 



" Me ! I am the friend of You-tchouen." 



Chciig-ycou-ya-tsi. " A distinguished reunion 
of holy friends." 



Pou-kou-tchin-ouan. " Curious objects for con- 
noisseurs of antiques." 



Oitan-yu. "Precious objects of jade." 



Tchin-ouan. " A precious object of pearl." 



Tai-yu. Pate de jade. 



Khi-tchin-jou-yu. " A gem rare as jade." 



Tchoui-ouan. " A precious object to offer." - 

Fuh-kwei-kia-khi. " A fine vase for the use of 
the rich and noble people." A bottle with this in- 
scription, painted with blue dragons and wicker 
ground, is in the Collection of Mr. A. W. Franks. 







a a da 



3,3 2 



P *S FT 



a. 



>\ 



lb /_ 



i 



<^ 



m- i 



^ nfi 



$ 


is 


& 


IS 


-■th 




JADE. 


PEARL. 



CHINA. 



Ting-chi-tchin-khi-chi-pao. " Ting, a rare and 
extraordinary precious stone." 



Yu-thang-kia-khi. " A fine vase of the Hall of 
Jade" (the Imperial Academy). 



Khiya-thang-tchi. " Made in the Hall of 
rare Jade." 



Tse-thse-thang-tchi. " Made in the Hall of the 
Violent Thorn." 



Tchi-thang-yoncn-fou. " Made in the Hall of 
the Source of Happiness." 



Tchi-thang-Jiien-mao. " Made in the veiled 
Celestial Hall." 



Yu-ya-kin-hoa. " Splendid as the gold of the 
House of Jade." 



Yu-kouo-tien-tsing. " When the rain has 
- ceased, the sky becomes clear." On blue porcelain, 
of the date 954. 



Pei-tching-tien-kien-ki-tsao. " In the shop of 
Pei-tching (this is sold), made by Kien-ki." 



The Chinese characters signifying jade (Yu) 
and pearl (Tchin) are sometimes met with alone 
on porcelain. 



CHINA. 



333 



This mark reads Ta-ming-tching hoa-nien- 

tchi. " Made in the Tching-hoa period of the 
Ming dynasty," 1465 to 14S7, and is found on 
some plates, representing the siege of Rotter- 
dam. Oriental china painted in Holland. In 
the Japanese Palace, Dresden. 



Specimens of Chinese porcelain, with these 
six marks, the subjects painted in blue mono- 
chrome, are much esteemed in Holland, and 
bring high prices ; called " Porcelain of six 
marks." On a specimen mentioned by M. 
Demmin. 



Six marks on Imperial yellow porcelain, 
of the Ming dynasty of the Wan-leih period, , 
1 573 to 1620. Japanese Palace, Dresden. 



A seal mark of show " longevity," known in 
Holland as the spider mark, on blue porcelain, 
painted with a crab. Japanese Palace, Dresden. 



Six marks of the Ming dynasty, Kea-tsing 
period, 1522 to 1567, on a cup, painted red. In 
the Japanese Palace, Dresden. 



Four marks on a hemispherical bottle of the 
crackle porcelain, painted with a large blue 
dragon. Tching-tc-niai-tchi. " Made in the 
Tching-te period of the Ming dynasty," 1506 
to 1522. 





I* 





334 CHINA. 

SUBJECTS PAINTED UPON PORCELAIN, 

WITH APPROXIMATE DATES AND PERIODS WHEN THEY WERE USED. 



In a former edition we gave the Chinese characters by which these subjects were designated, 
but as they do not actually appear as marks on the porcelain, wc omit them, lest they 
should cause confusion. 

The acorus, an aquatic plant, painted under the foot of a vessel, 
designates it as being of the manufacture of Kiun, of the finest quality, 
from 960 to 963. 

Two fish painted under the foot of a vessel indicate the porcelain of 
Long-thsiouen. 96910 1106. 

A long thin iron nail projecting beneath the foot of the vase, covered 
with enamel, indicates certain porcelain of Iou-tcheou. 969 to 1 106. 

The sesame flower painted beneath the foot also indicates the Iou- 
tcheou porcelain. 969 to 1106. 

Two lions playing with a ball, painted in the centre of vases, indicate 
the porcelain of the first quality of the Young-lo period. 1403 to 1425. 

Two mandarin ducks (male and female), which, among the Chinese, 
are emblems of conjugal affection, painted in the centre of bowls or cups, 
indicate the porcelain of the second quality of the Young-lo period. 
1403 to 1425. 

A flower, painted in the centre of a cup, indicates the third quality 
of the Young-lo period. 1403 to 1425. 

A handle ornamented with a red fish is found on cups of the Siouen-te 
period. 1426 to 1436. 

An extremely small flower, of dead or matted colour, painted in the 
centre of a cup, denotes a piece of the Siouen-te period. 1426 to 1436. 

The fighting of crickets was in fashion during the Siouen-te period. 
1426 to 1435. Ta-sieou is the name of a girl renowned for her talent 
in depicting these crickets on porcelain vases during this period. 

An enamelled dragon and a phcenix, painted extremely small, designate 
vases of the Siouen-te period for the Emperor's use. 1426 to 1435. 

A hen and chickens mark the Tching-hoa period. 1465 to 1487. 

Fighting cocks. Of the Tching-hoa period. 1465 to 1487. 

A sort of grasshopper. Of the same period. 1465 to 1487. 

Grapes in enamel. Of the same period. 1465 to 1487. 

The fruit of the Nelumbium spcciosum is the mark for wine vases of 
the same period. 1465 to 1487. 

The flower Pceonia moutan, beneath which are a hen and chickens. 
Porcelain of the same period. 1465 to 1487. These are also found 
upon the porcelain of Ting-tcheou, the first year of the Sung dynasty 
in 960. 



CHINA. 



335 



A branch of the tca-trec, painted in enamel in the centre of a small 
white cup, denotes one of the cups of the finest quality used by the 
Emperor Chi-tsoung. 1522 to 1566. 

Bamboo leaves, on vases with blue flowers, made in a street of King- 
te-tchin. 1567 to 1619. 

A bouquet of the cpidendrum. This ornament also designates the 
same fabrique. 1567 to 1619. 

Cups, on which children are seen playing at see-saw. 

Cups of the great literati, representing two poets sitting opposite a 
chrysanthemum. 

A small branch with white flowers, on a certain porcelain of Corca, 
of pale blue, but little esteemed. 

THE FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTIC DEVICES ARE FOUND 
UPON ORIENTAL PORCELAIN. 

Some of these devices are occasionally mixed with the general orna- 
mentation on the exterior of a vase, either painted or in relief. The 
signs, CIwoii, longevity, the IVoo-fith, or five blessings, viz., happiness, 
riches, long life, the love of virtue, and a natural death, are one or more 
of them depicted on the vase ; and even the handles are sometimes 
formed in the Chinese character, simple or ornamented, and many others 
in the following list : — 




The Pa-kwa, or eight trigrams of 
Fou-hi, by which he and his followers, 
as we are informed, attempt to ac- 
count for all the changes and trans- 
mutations which take place in nature. 

Tsang-kie was the inventor of 
the first characters, and Fou-hi, 3468 
years B.C., first traced the Pa-kzva — 
the eight symbols here given, so fre- 
quently seen on square vases — in 
relief, accompanied by the circular 
ornament, composed apparently of 
two fish, w T hich forms the centre of 
two trigrams on each side of the 
vase. These Buddhist symbols were 
also introduced by the Japanese in 
their decorative wares. 





r^ 



CHINA. 



M. Jacquemart is of opinion that they also refer to the two principles 
or forces, the Yang or active, represented by a circle, and the Yn or passive, 
by a square, to which we have before alluded. 



* 




This sign denotes a religious consecration of 
everything so marked, called by the Chinese 
IVan-tsc, the ten thousand things, the creation ; 
and is identical with the Indian Swastika. It is 
found on the breast of that graceful figure of a 
Chinese virgin (Kouan-in) in white glazed por- 
celain, so frequently met with.* 

A pearl, the emblem of talent ; a mark used 
on vases destined for poets or literary persons. 

A sonorous stone or Chinese musical instru- 
ment ; a mark used on vases destined for religious 
worship. 

Kionei. A stone of honour ; this mark is 
found on vases destined for the use of the 
magistracy. 

Kiouei. A stone of honour ; used, as in the 
previous case, on vases destined for functionaries 
as an emblem of dignity. 



Jacquemart calls it the sacred axe ; a mark 
found on green porcelain, destined for warriors 
and military persons. 



Precious articles, paper, pencil or brush, ink, 
and the muller or stone to grind the colours. A 
mark found on rose-coloured porcelain. 



* This cross, called the Fylfot or hammer of Thor, was frequently introduced in decoration 
and embroidery during the Middle Ages. It occurs on monumental brasses anterior to the reign 
of Richard II., and is found on the girdle of a priest A.D. IOII, and was introduced into Europe as 
a mystic symbol about the sixth century, called in the Greek Church gammadion. In ordinary 
heraldic works it is styled the croix cramponne, from its similarity to an iron cramp used in 
masonry. 



CHINA. 



337 



Instruments, an ornamental sceptre of lon- 
gevity, a curved trumpet, and a flute. A mark 
found on antique blue vases. 



A hare or rabbit, an emblem of longevity. A 
mark found in blue or red on green porcelain, or 
with the Nankin glaze. 

Two fishes. Choang-yu. A mark found upon 
the chrysanthemum and paeonia patterns, or on the 
porcelain of Longthsiouen. 969 to 1 106. 

A butterfly, or some other small insect. 






This mark is on a plate of imperial blue, gilt ; 
at the bottom is represented a gold-fish. 




Univalve shell, helmet, or official head-dress. A 
mark found on blue or green enamelled porcelain. 
It is a well-known Buddhist symbol, but may be 
also the emblem of a prosperous journey. 



A flower, representing the lotus, generally found 
on porcelain of good quality, pencilled in blue on 
a basin and cover, painted with utensils on drab 
ground. 



A sort of fungus, the emblem of longevit}'. A 
mark found on green and blue porcelain of good 
quality. 



A sesamum flower, an Oriental plant giving oil ; 
so described by Jacquemart. 



Ou-tong. The leaf of a plant mentioned by 
poets ; not the tea-leaf. 







c~n 



338 



CHINA. 









This mark of two fishes conjoined is on a 
Chinese porcelain basin, painted in blue, with 
landscapes and figures ; marked in blue at the 
bottom. A pair of fishes bound together by 
fillets is a Buddhist symbol, as well as an 
emblem of domestic felicity. 



This mark, in the Tsaoii-shu character or 
grass text, of FuJi, " Happiness," on a Chinese 
porcelain basin, painted in blue of a slight 
purple tinge, with flowers, wild geese, moun- 
tains, &c. ; a fine specimen. 



This mark of a modelling table, or a four- 
legged vase with a high ear on each side, is on 
a Chinese porcelain basin, painted in blue, with 
rocky landscape, boat, &c. It was also copied 
on Derby porcelain. 



This unknown mark, probably that of a 
potter, is on two open-mouthed cups, blue 
enamel ground and pink mayflowers. 



This mark of a plant is found on two 
basins, painted in blue camaieu on the exterior 
with large flowers. It is probably the lotus, 
usually found on good porcelain. 



Another ornament, found or marked on 
Chinese porcelain, the head of the sceptre of 
longevity, Joo-e, derived from the fungus. 



CHINA. 



339 



Ornament marked on porcelain, of chrysan- 
themum and pceonia pattern. This is a variety of 
the fish symbol, but which Jacqucmart describes 
as " une sort dc bijou, sans doute, resemblant a 
un insect artificicl." 

Another ornament, found on Chinese porcelain, 
in form of a knot with a pearl in the centre. 

Another ornament, found on Chinese porcelain, 
a Buddhist symbol (" Chang, intestines ") indicat- 
ing longevity. 

Another ornament, found on Chinese porcelain, 
a similar emblem of longevity. 



This mark of a tripod or three-legged incense- 
burner {ting) is pencilled in blue underneath three 
blue Nankin saucers, painted with flowers and 
birds and flowered border, in the Belgian Mini- 
ster's Collection, St. Petersburg. 



This mark, apparently a cornucopia, occurs on 
a set of five very fine jars and beakers, of blue 
Nankin porcelain, painted with rocks, flowers, and 
birds, in the Collection of the Belgian Minister, 
St. Petersburg. It may be intended to represent 
the Che, a kind of fungus, an emblem of longevity. 



On blue Nankin porcelain, the mark placed 
between two circles or lines of blue, in the Col- 
lection of Colonel H. Hope Crealock. 










34° 



CHINA. 



MARKS ON SPECIMENS IN THE JAPANESE PALACE, 

DRESDEN.* 




* I have obtained the Chinese marks which follow from Dr. Graesse's Collection des Marques 
de Fabriques, who, from his position as Director of the Japanese Palace at Dresden, has had 
opportunities of copying them from the specimens in that rich collection, and which doubtless 
may be relied upon as correct. In fact, this is the only portion of his brochure which contains 
any marks hitherto unpublished. He speaks in his " Avant Propos " of having accidentally 
seen the first edition of Marks and Monograms by W. Chaffers while his list was in the press ; 
but he has found time to copy the whole of them without any acknowledgment. His pamphlet 
is literally a collection of marks of fabriques, without letterpress, or the slightest attempt to 
give a history of the manufactories, or dates of any kind, and is consequently of little value, 
even as a work of reference. 







CHINA. 

& 



34' 





$r 








CTMrO 






a 



O L 





34* 



CHINA. 




Note. — The preceding marks occur on Chinese porcelain of various kinds, but the meagre 
descriptions of them given by Dr. Graesse are not sufficiently explicit to enable us to give our 
readers a separate account of each piece ; or whether any particular mark occurs upon a 
member of the famille rose, famille bleu, or famille verie, so ingeniously, though somewhat 
diffusely, defined by M. A. Jacquemart in his Histoire de la Porcelaine. 



CHINA. 



34.5 



On a saucer with flowers in red and gold, 
blue and green leaves, in Lady Crewe's Collection. 



On a plate, dark blue mottled with five white 
medallions, landscape, birds, flowers, and dragon, 
Chinese figure in centre, in Miss Lovell's Col- 
lection. 






fapan. 




IE native name of Japan is Nipon, or Dai Nipon, Great Nipon, 
i.e., the Land of the Rising Sun. 

It may be desirable to give a brief account of the form 
of government in Japan, the more especially as important 
recent changes have been made, altering the constitution 
very materially. The sovereign power was lodged in a supreme head or 
ruler, but the greater part of the country was subject to vassal princes or 
Daimios, who paid tribute or rendered military service to the lord para- 
mount. Every office was hereditary, descending from 
father to son. There was a single race of sovereigns, re- 
puted to have descended from the gods, who governed the 
empire through successive centuries down to a.d. 1195, 
when the late singular government arose, the then com- 
mander of the army usurping the greater part of the 
secular power, leaving the lawful sovereign little more 
than spiritual power. The spiritual sovereign was known 
by the title of Mikado, and his court by that of the Dairi, or assembly of 
native princes. The temporal or actual sovereign was called the Siogun or 
Shogun. Both sovereigns had their separate courts and capitals, the 
spiritual chief residing in Miako, the temporal chief in Yedo. The Mikado, 
although nominally supreme, had not a particle of temporal power, being 
literally shut up at Miako, in his little principality of Kioto, with the 
revenues of which and presents sent him by the Siogun he was com- 
pelled to rest satisfied. 

The laws of Gongen-Sama, the great founder of the dynasty ( 1 593— 
1606), denounced as high treason, with death for the penalty, any one 
harbouring a foreigner within the dominions of the Siogun ; all who had 



B 



DAl-M-PON. 



JAPAN. 345 

been cast ashore or made the attempt were either killed or imprisoned, 
and no Japanese was allowed to leave his island home. 

After the expulsion of the Spaniards and Portuguese from Japan and 
the first massacre in a.d. 1590 of upwards of 20,000 Christians, followed 
in a. i). 1637 by a second, in which 37,000 were put to death in one- 
day, the following decree was passed, which isolated Japan from the rest 
of the world, and which was fully acted up to for more than two 
centuries : — " No Japanese ship or boat whatever, nor any native person, 
shall presume to go out of the country. Whosoever acts contrary to 
this shall die, and the ship, with the crew and goods aboard, shall be 
sequestered till further orders. All Japanese who return from abroad 
shall be put to death. Whoever discovers a Christian priest shall have 
a reward of 500 schuets (^381), and for every Christian in proportion. 
All persons who propagate the doctrine of the Christians, or bear this 
scandalous name, shall be imprisoned. The whole race of the Portuguese 
and whoever belongs to them shall be banished to Macao. Whoever 
presumes to bring a letter from abroad or to return after he has been 
banished shall die with all his family, also whoever presumes to intercede 
for him shall be put to death. No nobleman nor any soldier shall be 
suffered to purchase anything of a foreigner." 

The Dutch, a few years after the expulsion of the Portuguese, 
succeeded in obtaining the confidence of the Japanese, and were per- 
mitted to reside on an island called Desima, near the port of Nagasaki, 
in the province of Hizen, where they erected a factor}', and had an 
exclusive right of trading there, which was carried on surreptitiously 
and to a limited extent with the Japanese, and by their non-interference 
with the religion of the people they retained the privilege for more than 
two hundred years. 

In 1868, however, this anomalous state of things was altered, a 
revolution broke out, and the office and power of the Siogun were 
abolished. He had been usually but erroneously called by a Chinese 
title, the Taicoon or Tycoon (which dates only from 1858), but the 
Mikado was in 1868 restored to his ancient supremacy. He is regarded 
as the source of power and property. "There is no single thing exist- 
ing in the land which is not the Emperor's : the water in which the 
child is washed at its birth, and the earth in which it is buried, are all 
his. The rice we eat, the money we use, the clothes we wear, the cap 
we put on, the staff which supports us, are all the produce of the 
Emperor's land. He is the father and the mother of the empire." 

Under the influence of these principles a marvellous national move- 
ment has taken place. The Da'imios, or territorial princes, who, under 
the Siogun, exercised almost absolute sway within their territories, have 
almost unanimously surrendered their lands and titles to the Mikado, 
from whom the}- are to hold their possessions henceforth in dependency. 



346 JAPAN. 

and are no longer to be styled Da'imios, but simply Kazoku (nobles). 
The majority of" these had voluntarily given in their adhesion in 1869, 
being reappointed Chiji, or governors of their respective provinces. 

The Mikado received in great state the Duke of Edinburgh at 
Yedo, the first known instance of the reception of a foreign prince 
(except Chinese). 

It is only within a few years that examples of Japanese enamel have 
been exported from Japan, and the principal museums of Europe were 
without specimens. This ignorance of the art manufactures of Japan 
and the scarcity of examples in this country is easily accounted for. 

Until very recently Japan had been under a form of government 
which encouraged the feudal system, and the Da'imios, or hereditary 
princes, possessed almost unlimited power in their principalities, doing 
homage to the supreme head by supplying military assistance when 
required. These feudal lords had extensive possessions and large 
retinues, and out of their great wealth they had accumulated in their 
residences the choicest works of art executed in their country ; and their 
estates as well as their titles being hereditary, these were handed down 
as heirlooms through many generations ; and any objects made specially 
for the Mikado or his court were strictly retained and guarded, and if 
found in the possession of persons out of their sphere, their doom was 
sealed, and they suffered death. 

But the revolution of 1868 subverted all this feudal system, and to 
support the Mikado or supreme governor, these territorial princes volun- 
tarily resigned the greater part of their possessions, and in thus reducing 
their princely establishments and limiting their expenditure, all the luxu- 
rious objects for which they had no further use were sold, and many of 
the choicest pieces found their way into Europe. 

The finest collection of Japanese art seen in the Western world was at 
the International Exhibition at Paris in 1867, sent over by the Tycoon the 
year preceding his deposition, which was dispersed piecemeal to visitors. 
To this succeeded the Japanese Court at Vienna in 1874, which contained 
superb pieces of the rarest and finest work in porcelain, enamel, and 
lacquer, principally examples of modern manufacture. Among the lacquer- 
work at Vienna may be especially noted two cabinets, valued by the 
Japanese Commissioners at ^938 and £730 each; these and other fine 
specimens were recalled to form a National Art Museum in Japan. Many 
choice pieces were, however, secured for private collections in this country 
from these exhibitions ; but, unfortunately, the Director of the Museum 
of Art at South Kensington neglected the opportunity of selecting some 
choice and wonderful examples of Oriental art, hitherto unknown to us, 
but which, from a fortuitous course of events in the land of the Rising 
Sun, were permitted to leave that country and to be sent to Europe, thus 
losing a chance which may never again occur ; for it must be borne in 



JAPAN. S 47 

mind, that although any quantity of modern wares can be made to meet 
the demand, yet the fine old pieces can never be reproduced, having been 
mostly preserved as family possessions in the palaces of the Tycoon and 
princes, and sold as a matter of convenience or necessity. The Inter- 
national Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876 was, in a historical point of 
view, of far greater interest, from the fact of more ancient examples being 
exhibited ; and as the chief intent of making such a collection became 
evident to the intelligent antiquaries of Japan, very careful catalogues 
were prepared, and we are consequently enabled to assign localities and 
approximate dates to the ancient as well as the more recent examples. 

The system of Japanese writing is directly the reverse of ours ; 
they, like the Chinese, write from top to bottom, and from right to left 
in perpendicular lines, and their books begin where ours end. They 
have three modes or systems of writing : the first consists of Chinese 
characters ; and although no approach to fusion has ever taken place 
between the two nations, yet the Japanese did adopt at some distant 
period the Chinese system of writing ; but the difference of the language, 
although it carries the same impression to the mind, is expressed in 
other sounds. The second and third consist of two alphabets known 
as the Katagana and Hiragana, phonetic systems adopted at a later 
period, but not altogether displacing the first ; thus it is not uncommon 
in books to find the three systems written on the same page. 

The Sinto is the original religion of the Japanese, and Tensio Dai 
Sin is the supreme of all the gods of the Japanese, and patron and 
protector of the empire. On this are engrafted the two religions derived 
from China — Buddhism and Confucianism. 

The Japanese use no other furniture in their rooms than rugs or 
mats, and a pillow or padded rest for their heads, lacquered or inlaid 
cabinets with porcelain vases, &c, among the wealthy ; but beds, tables, 
and chairs are superfluities. The greatest Da'imio holds these as encum- 
brances and altogether insufferable, being only fit for foreigners. 

The travelling equipage of the Japanese Diplomatic Mission, in their 
visit to the several Powers of Europe in 1862, numbering thirty-five 
in all, including the envoys, ministers, subordinate officers, secretaries, 
doctors, accountants, cooks, barbers, and servants, with baggage and 
provisions, &c., to match, consisted of fifty crockery teapots, 500 cham- 
pagne bottles of so} r , a service of five porcelain cups for every individual, 
with saucers innumerable to serve as plates, &c. There were also fifty 
hebatchis, or vessels for burning charcoal, to warm the rooms, and heat 
water or other liquids. 

Sir Rutherford Alcock says : " In all the mechanical arts the Japanese 
have unquestionably achieved great excellence. In their porcelain, their 
bronzes, their silk fabriques, their lacquer, and their metallurgy generally, 
including works of exquisite art in design and execution, I have no hesi- 



34§ JAPAN. 

tation in saying they not only rival the best products of Europe, but can 
produce in each of these departments works which we cannot imitate or 
perhaps equal. Their enamels are quite equal to those of China, which, 
at the Great Exhibition of 185 1, were for the first time seen in England." 

In metal-work the Japanese cannot be surpassed ; their bronzes inlaid 
with designs in coloured metals are wonderful, but they excel in all the 
varieties, whether in casting, carving, damascening, or tempering. Of 
late several chefs d'eeuvre have been brought into this country ; we 
may mention the bronze incense-burner presented by the Mikado to 
H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, lately exhibited at South Kensington. 
The Department of Art has recently purchased for the sum of £1000 
a wonderful example of ancient Japanese metal-work : it is a life-sized 
group of an osprey or sea-eagle, with wings expanded, settling on a 
rock, about to seize its prey. It is executed in wrought iron ; the 
feathers are all engraved, and in separate pieces fastened on to the solid 
body ; the sharp multangular rock is bound together by rivets. This 
work is attributed by its late owner, Mr. Mitford, to a celebrated artist 
workman of the sixteenth century, Miyochin Mune'haru, thus extolled in 
the Japanese Cyclopaedia : " Under heaven there never was a smith the 
equal of Miyochin Muneharu." In lieu of jewellery for personal orna- 
ment they have minute metal-work called Syakfdo or Shakudo, in which 
various metals are blended and combined in elegant patterns, producing 
an effect much resembling enamel ; this is used for girdle-clasps, buttons, 
studs, boxes, sword-hilts, &c. 

The Japanese are unsurpassed by any other nation in the manipula- 
tion of bronze and other alloys of metal. The shakudo, an alloy of gold 
and copper, and the shibiiichi, an alloy of one-fourth silver to three-fourths 
copper, are encrusted on bronze with beautiful effect. The mountings of 
swords (always considered badges of nobility in Japan) are frequently 
profusely ornamented with gold and silver damascened work. Of these 
swords the larger was called " Katana," the shorter one " Wakizashi." 

The Japanese cloisonne enamel was unknown in England until within 
the last thirty years, when it was sent over to the Great Exhibition of 
185 1, and attracted universal attention. The art was of great antiquity 
in Japan, and the vases and other objects decorated with enamel were 
jealously guarded, and not allowed to leave the country. Like most 
other works of art, the oldest are the best, being of more minute and 
intricate designs, finer in colour, and of a superior finish. Japanese 
warehouses, salerooms, and the customs' bonded warehouses in Billiter 
Street are inundated with modern enamels, but they will not bear com- 
parison with the old. These differ considerably from the Chinese, which 
are executed on thick copper plates or cast copper foundations, while the 
Japanese cloisonne is laid on thin beaten copper grounds, and are very 
light. Some examples, although enamelled on both sides, do not exceed 



JAPAN. 349 

I- 1 6th of an inch in thickness. The cloisonne enamels come principally 
from Owari, Osaka, and Kioto. 

One of the most beautiful productions of the keramic artists in Japan 
is that of covering porcelain with a coating of cloisonne enamel in intri- 
cate patterns, like that on thin plates of metal, the base being porcelain. 
The metal fillets which separate the colours are fixed edgeways on the 
surface and the interstices filled in with coloured powder or pastes, 
again placed in the kiln to fuse the enamel, and polished down to the 
edges of the fillets. This is probably a new manufacture in Japan. 
One example in the Franks Collection has a view of the Fusiyama 
mountain, &c, on turquoise ground, marked underneath, " Made at Sedo 
in Great Japan." Sedo is in the province of Owari. Another has the 
motto " Enlightenment and civilisation," alluding to the great changes 
which have taken place in the government of the country. 

Other examples of eggshell porcelain are coated externally with finely 
plaited wicker or basket work, the object being to prevent the heated 
liquid from burning the fingers, instead of a handle, or an insulated net- 
work, which is seen upon others, to answer the same purpose. These 
are perhaps from Fuchiu in Suruga, or Sheba in Tokio. Some porcelain 
vessels again are coated externally with lacquer, chiefly black or dark 
green, decorated with gold and colours or inlaid with mother-of-pearl. 

The Japanese are, in all probability, the originators of the manufacture 
of lacquer ware, and this branch of their art has never been surpassed 
in any other country, not even in China, where they do not appear to 
possess the materials or skill necessary, nor can they even make a near 
approach to fine specimens of old Japanese lacquer. The colours most 
frequently used are scarlet, dark green, crimson, brown, and black ; the 
last is generally used for grounds, and scarlet for the interiors of boxes 
and trays ; sometimes gold powder is dispersed over the surface to imitate 
the avanturine. The gilding on many pieces is extremely rich, and 
appears like actual gold-leaf laid upon it, which makes it even in Japan 
a very expensive object ; but apart from its intrinsic value, the old lac is 
extremely rare, and cannot be equalled at the present da}\ It was con- 
sidered precious enough in the luxurious times of Louis XIV. and XVI. 
to be mounted in gold and set with jewels, as in the tabaticres and etuis 
of that period. It is frequently inlaid with mother-of-pearl (laquc bur- 
gaittc), ivory, coral, and solid pieces of gold and silver, and occasionally 
used to cover the surface of porcelain, and is employed as a rich decora- 
tion on ivory, tortoiseshell, and mother-of-pearl. 

The Japan Mail quotes from a Consular report an interesting account 
of one of the oldest industries of that inventive people. According 
to the native chroniclers, the art of lacquering was discovered in the 
year 724 a.d. By the end of the thirteenth century it had attained such 
perfection that a distinguished member of the craft is recorded to have 



35 o JAPAN. 

then started a particular school of painting in lacquer. The materials 
used in the work consist of the sap of the urushi tree {Rhus vcrnix), a 
plant cultivated partly for its sap and partly for the fruit, from which a 
vegetable wax is obtained. These trees attain their prime of life in the 
short space of five or six years, when the sap is drawn from them by an 
elaborate process requiring great judgment and experience, and in which 
the inhabitants of a particular district are celebrated for possessing a 
special skill. After the sap has been fully extracted during the four or 
five autumnal months, the tree is condemned and cut down. But its 
usefulness does not even then cease, for its wood is so light, and at 
the same time durable, as to be used very generally for making floats 
for fishing-nets, and for many other purposes. As for the process of 
lacquer-painting, it is rather elaborate, but it consists in the main in 
applying successive layers of varnish, gold powder, and paint, followed 
again by varnish, and lastly rubbed successively with a particular kind 
of charcoal, polishing powder, and horn-dust. The manipulation of all 
these various ingredients and appliances may well be believed to be a 
delicate matter, requiring manual skill and neatness as well as good taste. 
Mr. W. J. Alt has a set of twelve dishes in gold lacquer on deep-red 
ground, used by the wealthy at their meals, illustrating the months of 
the year, or Japanese calendar. 

i. Skd gwats, decorated with budding weeping willow, emblem of the new year. 

2. Ni gwats, the sakura or flowering cherry. 

3. San gwats, mume or plum blossom * and pheasants. 

4. Shi gwats, illustration of fourth month. 

5. Go gwats, the Iris and cranes. 

6. Rok gwats, fishing by torchlight 

7. Schi gwats, eagle on a bridge. 

8. Hachi gwats, wild geese. 

9. Kin gwats, chrysanthemum flowers. 

10. Jia gwats, maples. 

11. J in- Ichi gwats, illustration. 

12. Jiu-ni gwats, an old pine-tree. 

The objects selected by the Japanese artists in decorating their wares 
are generally birds and flowers, artistically and naturally drawn, enclosed 
in medallions of various forms, and never adhering to the principles 
adopted by Europeans of centres surrounded by circles and well- 
balanced lateral ornaments, making the two halves of a subject corre- 
spond. These notions of taste are completely set at defiance ; the borders 
even of the same medallion are of irregular form, sometimes divided in 
halves or quarters, and set in the sides, corners, or edges of a piece, in 

* The mume or plum tree (primus) forms the decoration of the porcelain erroneously termed 
" mayflower or hawthorn pattern." 



JAPAN. 351 

What we might call the most admired disorder; their flowers are natural, 
and without the stiffness we are accustomed to see. On the other hand, 
the human figure is always treated in a conventionalised type. Among 
birds we find represented the stork, pheasant, falcon, hawk, poultry, &c, 
and especially a species of beautiful duck with richly coloured plumage, 
called kinmodsui. The flowers and plants are numerous, but the favour- 
ites are the Pawlonia imperialis and the chrysanthemum, both being 
imperial emblems ; the camelia, the lotus, the bamboo, the pine-tree, the 
sakura or flowering cherry, the butan or peony, the wisteria, the peach, 
the wild vine, gourds, the fungus, &c. Small animals are frequently 
introduced, such as dogs, cats, foxes, monkeys, and rabbits,* and a great 
variety of fishes and insects. Among them the doogame, or common 
tortoise, the minogame, or tortoise with a feathery tail, the toko, or cuttle- 
fish. A favourite object in landscapes is the sacred mountain Fusiyama 
(an extinct volcano), represented as seen from Ycdo. Among the 
chimerical birds the principal is the foo or bird of paradise, with a 
peacock's tail and rich plumage, whose appearance upon earth denotes 
some extraordinary event, as the birth of a prince or accession of an 
emperor. The dja or dragon, whose dwelling is in the depths of the 
sea, is a huge, long, four-footed snake, scaly all over the body like a 
crocodile, with sharp prickles along its back, the head monstrous and 
terrible ; it has but three claws on each foot, whereby it is distinguished 
from the Chinese imperial dragon, which has five claws. In some of 
the Japanese Emperor's furniture, hangings, &c., this dragon is repre- 
sented holding a round jewel or pearl in the right fore-claw. 

The kirin of Japan (unlike the kylin of China) is a winged quad- 
ruped of incredible swiftness, with two soft horns standing before the 
breast and bent backwards, with the body of a horse and feet of a deer. 
To the kirin is attributed extreme good-nature, and it takes especial care 
in walking not to trample on any plant, nor to injure the most incon- 
siderable worm that might chance to be in its way. 

The deities, demi-gods, &c., are here briefly given : — 

Fukurokuju, the god of knowledge, seated on a stork. 

Dai-kuhu, the god of plenty, whose hammer has the miraculous pro- 
perty of turning everything it strikes into something precious. 

Jia-ro-jin, " Oldest of men," the god of good-luck and happiness, 
riding on a deer. 

Hotai, the god of happiness, holding a wine-cup. 

Yebisit, the fisher-god of Japan. 

Benten, the madonna or guardian goddess of the mountain Fusiyama, 
sometimes seated playing on a lyre. 



* The Japanese are particularly successful in portraying the expression of birds and 
monkeys, especially the latter, with distorted limbs, humorous positions, and comical faces. 



35 3 JAPAN. 

Kami-nan, the thunder-demon, sitting on a cloud with a drum on 
his back. 

Kintokn, a sort of infant Hercules, who at three years of age was 
able to hold a powerful bull by the horns. 

Daruma, a follower of Buddha, who by long meditation in a squat- 
ting position lost his legs from paralysis and sheer decay. 

S/ioiki, the strong man, who is represented fighting with a demon. 

Watanabc, fighting with a ghoul. 

These are frequently represented on Japanese pottery and porcelain, 
but there were many other household gods (Kami), and every house 
possessed a kami-dana or " shelf for the gods," on which were placed 
shrines, lighted up during the period of family devotions, morning and 
evening, — the god of the kitchen, the Shinto gods (Kami), the Hotoke or 
Buddhist deities, the god of punishment and revenge (Fudo-soti), and 
patrons of all sorts of personages, &c. Among the emblems the most 
commonly used are those of Longevity, which is one of the Woo-fuh or 
five blessings. The word show (Japanese ju or zyti), " Longevity," 
is the most frequent, and is represented in endless variety. A set 
of a hundred forms of this character is on a roll in the British 
Museum. 

Professor T. C. Archer, who visited the Vienna Exhibition with a 
view of reporting upon the art manufactures, in an article on Oriental 
Art in the Art Journal, January 1874, with especial reference to the 
collection of Japanese enamels, &c, of Mr. James Lord Bowes, and other 
contributors, exhibited at Liverpool, has noticed many striking pecu- 
liarities of the artistic works of the Japanese craftsmen, and his apposite 
remarks on this interesting people, with whom we have so recently 
become acquainted, induce us to quote freely from his paper. He says : 
— " One of the most remarkable of all the social phenomena which has 
happened in this latter half of the present century is the outburst of the 
Japanese nation from that strange seclusion in which they have rested 
for ages. As a race they are singularly gifted ; they have a keen appre- 
ciation of all the phases of art — so keen, indeed, that there is reasonable 
ground for fear that in their admiration for art and their want of bigoted 
adhesion to their own style especially, they may, like children in a fresh 
field, be carried away by strange flowers, and almost forget those they 
leave behind. It is a mysterious fact, but certainly it is one, that Japan 
and China, as well as Europe, and we may add Africa, have passed 
through similar eras in art, and the present in each is one only of revival. 
Neither modern Chinese, nor modern Japanese art, any more than modern 
European art, is equal to that of the period we call the Middle Ages, or 
with them the fourteenth century — in fact, during the Ming dynasty, 
which commenced about 1370 and terminated in the middle of the seven- 
teenth century. Then art was a national feeling, and everything left to us of 



JAPAN. 353 

that period has, from its superior taste, a superior interest to us. From 
that time until the second quarter of the present century, art declined 
and a general deterioration took place, but from what immediate causes it 
is impossible for us to be well informed. There is a Goddess of Fashion 
which rules in art as well as in other matters, and we can look back to 
the time when the connoisseurs regarded all but Greek art as beneath 
their notice. Fashion at another time ruled that Italian art was to be 
worshipped, and so it was; but somehow or other Italian art ramified, 
and sent off branches into France and Germany, and the critics learned to 
go into raptures over the works of Raphael and Albert Durer, and to 
shudder at the orthodox productions of China and Japan. And yet 
there is as wide a difference between the almost mathematical precision 
of the pure Greek and the realistic freedom of Albert Durer as there is 
between the Raphaelesque and the Japanese ; whilst in the art of colour 
arrangement it is possible that, when prejudice has subsided and a better 
acquaintance with the best works of our new Oriental acquaintances has 
been acquired, we shall give the palm in that respect to them. . . . 
Now, if art means the expression of a nation's genius and feelings pictori- 
ally, as we believe it to do, certainly there are few which have a better 
right to be considered artists than the Japanese ; for, with a greater power 
than any nation on earth, the Japanese artist can, with the least laboured 
effort — in fact, with so few touches of his pencil that the facility is mar- 
vellous — depict all the human feelings, especially the ludicrous, in which 
he delights. . . . Perhaps the greatest drawback to an instant apprecia- 
tion of Japanese and Chinese art by the European mind is that conven- 
tionalism, especially of the human figure, which is so prominent in their 
works. But there was no want of a conventionalism quite as idealistic 
in the art representations of mediaeval artists in Europe, and even now a 
section of our own school of painting strives hard to convince us that 
our road to improvement is backward over the same ground. Perhaps 
if they would give a touch of the rollicking humour which is so striking 
in Japanese pictures to their lugubrious faces, they would be more for- 
tunate in their efforts to convert the world to their notions." 

Mr. Audsley (Catalogue of Mr. Bowes' Collection) in speaking of the 
Japanese method of decoration says : — " It is a somewhat remarkable 
fact that in all the varieties of ornamentation applied to such materials as 
porcelain, textile fabrics, paper, and in pictorial illustrations generally, the 
Japanese never resort to shadows for the purpose of giving the effect of 
relief; yet they are passionately fond of relief in everything, and adopt 
it whenever it can be properly used. My last words explain all : they 
acknowledge the great law in decorative art that flat surfaces should not 
appear to be relieved, but be treated as flat surfaces, and adopt relief only 
where it can be effectively introduced. 

" When relief is wanted, the Japanese artist has countless expedients 

z 



354 JAPAN. 

for securing it ; in porcelain he moulds it from the clay, or applies it by 
lac ; in metal-work he casts it, sculps it, or beats it up ; in ivory and 
wood he carves it ; in lacquer-work he brings it up by coat after coat of 
varnish ; and in embroidery he plies thread over thread with patient care 
until the relief is gained." 

The following announcement from the Daily News for November I, 
1882, will be read with interest : — " The Japan Mail records with sincere 
sorrow the death of Ninagaiva Noritane, a well-known Japanese antiquary, 
who is stated to have been the greatest authority of his time upon all 
subjects connected with the keramic arts in Japan, and the author of a 
work on this subject entitled Kwanko Dsu Setsu, which is described as 
1 an imperishable monument of industry and research.' The deceased 
gentleman fell a victim to cholera, ' that terrible scourge,' adds the same 
authority, ' which threatens to become in Japan a yearly visitor.' " 

We shall have frequent occasion in the following pages to refer to 
the Catalogue of Japanese pottery recently purchased and now exhibited 
at the South Kensington Museum. This historical Collection was sent 
to Philadelphia for exhibition in 1876 by the Japanese Government, and 
much information can be gleaned from it relating to the localities of 
manufactures in Japan. We are indebted to the kindness of the Directors 
of that establishment for permission to examine the Collection piece by 
piece and compare them with the original Catalogue which accompanied 
it. The report contains the most valuable and trustworthy information 
hitherto obtained on the subject, gleaned from sources in the country 
itself, which have not before been available to the keramic student. 

The Portuguese traded with Japan as early as the year 15 34 J hut in 
consequence of their attempts to convert the inhabitants to Christianity, 
their intrigues and secret conspiracies against the Government, and last, 
not least, their interference with the decoration of the porcelain by painting 
upon it (or rather inducing their proselytes so to do) sacred subjects, — 
such as legends of Saints, Scripture histories, &c, — they were eventually 
expelled the country in 1641, and some forty thousand of their Christian 
converts proscribed and massacred. The Dutch, on the expulsion of the 
Portuguese, succeeded in obtaining the confidence of the Japanese, and 
founded a monopoly of the trade with them, deriving from that source a 
most lucrative branch of commerce, exporting porcelain to all parts of 
Europe, to the exclusion of every other European power, which, by their 
non-interference with the religion or government of the people, they 
retained for more than two hundred years. 

Pottery seems to have been made at Japan from time immemorial, 
and is found on the sites of ancient burial-places dating from pre-historic 
times. These antiquities are called magatama, discovered in graves, and 
consist of stone beads and rude personal ornaments ; the fictile ware is 
called magatama tsubo. Outlines of many of these ancient vessels are 



JAPAN. 355 

given by Siebold (" Nippon," iii. pi. 4), and one will be found in the 
Japanese Historical Collection at the South Kensington Museum, No. [6 >, 
which is thus described : — 

" Jar, magatama tsubo. Coarse reddish ware, with incised wavy 
ornament on the body. For use at religious festivals. Japanese, 640 B.C. 
Height 6 1 in., diameter 6$ in." 

According to tradition, about this time an official was ordered by the 
Emperor to make pottery for use in the temples ; this was hand-made 
and baked in a pit in the ground, which from the rude process was 
coloured in patches. 

Dr. Hoffmann of Leyden has written a memoir on the principal por- 
celain manufactories of Japan, derived from the Japanese Encyclopaedia 
of 1799, which is appended to M. Stanislas Julien's account of those of 
China. He fixes the date of the introduction of porcelain into Japan at 
about 27 b.c, at which date the followers of a prince of Sinra in Corea 
came to Japan and founded a colony, which in a.d. 720 formed a corpora- 
tion of porcelain-makers. The assertion that porcelain was introduced 
into Japan so early as 27 b.c. is probably erroneous ; the learned professor 
has fallen into the error, so frequently perpetrated by writers on this 
subject, of confusing the terms used by native writers, and not sufficiently 
discriminating between pottery and porcelain ; the same Jap- 



anese word, Yaki, "ware," applies to both. That introduced by X== 
the Coreans was pottery of a very rude and coarse character. 
According to written documents, it is narrated that in the pro- 
vince of Idsoumi in Japan, in the first century a.d., a certain potter named 
Nomino Soukoune made earthenware vases, and especially human figures, 
to substitute them for the slaves who, according to the custom of that 
time, were buried with their masters. Nomino Soukoune received as a 
reward authority to take as a family name Fazi, or potter par excellence. 
It is a matter of Japanese history that in the reign of the Mikado 
Tcu-tsi (in the seventh or eighth century), a bonze or Buddhist monk named 
Gyogui, or Giyoke, whose ancestors were Coreans, introduced among the 
inhabitants of the province of Idsoumi the secret of making translucid 
potte^. The village where he established himself was called Td-ki-Moura, 
the village of porcelain vessels. He is also said to have introduced the 
use of the potter's wheel into Japan, and a specimen of ware named 
after him — " Giyoke ware " — of the eighth century will be found described 
in the Catalogue of the Japanese Historical Collection. Giyoke was a bonze 
of the temple at Sugarawaji, province of Idsoumi, and belonged to the 
Takashi family, descended from a king of Kandara. He was born a.d. 
674, and died a.d. 749. Under Sei-wa (a.d. 859-876) the number of 
potteries increased considerably, and in 859 a.d. two places, Kawaji and 
Idsoumi, in the province of Hizen, disputed the right to a mountain in which 
they desired to bake the porcelain and cut down wood to heat the kiln. 



35 6 JAPAN. 

Dr. Hoffmann adds : — It was not until the thirteenth century, in the 
reign of Siyoun-tok (1211— 21), that any decided improvement was made, 
which he ascribes to the circumstance of a Japanese potter named 
Katosiro-Ouyc-Mon, who, attended by a bonze or Buddhist monk, under- 
took a journey to China, with orders from his Government to make himself 
acquainted with all the secret processes of the manufacture, which was 
at that time brought to so great a perfection there. On his return, he 
made such important improvements in the composition and decoration 
of porcelain, that henceforth it became superior, in many instances, to 
the Chinese, especially in the fabrication of the best specimens, on which 
much time and labour were bestowed. 

Katosiro's previous productions were of a very rude description, 
consisting of vessels to hold tea, which, for want of a better process, 
were placed mouth downwards in the kiln, which gave them the appear- 
ance of having been used before, and they were termed Koutsi Sakata 
(pieces used or damaged at the orifice). 

The manufacture of stoneware did not commence until a.d. 12 10. 
Most of these wares are of a coarse substance, strongly baked, and 
glazed irregularly in various colours, being occasionally inlaid with white 
clay, as at Yadsushiro in the province of Higo. The more ornamental 
kinds of pottery were produced chiefly at Kioto, and in the province of 
Satsuma. 

From the Japanese Sectional Catalogue of the Philadelphia Exhibi- 
tion of 1876 we extract the following account : — 

" The making of real porcelain in Japan began under the direction 
of Gorodayu Shonsui, a native of Ise, who went to China for the 
purpose of studying this art. After his return, between a.d. 1580 and 
1590, he settled in the province of Hizen, at present the most important 
centre of the porcelain industry. With the excellent material found in 
this country he succeeded in making all the different kinds of porcelain, 
which, even to-day, form the staple produce of Hizen, viz., Somc-tsuki, 
or blue ware, painted with cobalt oxide under the glaze ; the Kanyu or 
Hibi-yaki, i.c. } the craquele ; the Sciji, or Celadon ware ; the Akaije or 
Agaijc, the red ware ; and the Gosai, which name means in reality the 
five colours, and was used for the porcelain painted with vitrifiable 
colours upon the glaze ; this ware is now called ' Nishikide.' The old 
Hizen, or, as it is sometimes called, the Imari porcelain, chiefly manu- 
factured in Arita, is decorated with a very limited number of colours, — 
blue under the glaze, black for the outlines of the ornamentation, then 
red, green, and gold. For a short time after the introduction of this 
new industry, the articles were marked, generally, with the name of 
Shonsui, indicating that the ware was made in accordance with his style. 
About this time, after the Corean war (1592), several Corean porcelain- 
makers were brought over to Hizen by Naoshige, Prince of Nabesima, 



JAPAN. 357 

and contributed greatly to the development of the new industry. There 
are yet many descendants of these Coreans living in Arita, but they have 
entirely amalgamated themselves with the Japanese." 

Another passage recounts the bringing of other Corean captives 
about the same time to Kngoshima, a point somewhat farther south 
than Arita, in the province of Satsuma, who originated the " Satsuma 
ware." 

Some of the minerals used in Japan are : — Shi)ia-tschi, plastic clay ; 
tsitji-tschi, for best thin porcelain, used without other admixture ; ota- 
kayatna, used as a slip to whiten the body at Arita. Una-tschi is used for 
transparent glaze with the addition of wood-ash, cobalt ore, &c. 

Satsuma, Awata, and Kioto pottery is of a cream-coloured body 
crackled. The practical inconvenience of a cracked glaze, namely, that 
the body absorbs liquids through the cracks (which, if organic, are 
slowly decomposed), limits its use to decorative pieces, boxes, &c. 

It will be remarked in examining the Japanese Historical Collection 
how many of the examples of ancient pottery are destined for the pre- 
servation and use of tea ; they are mostly of coarse manufacture and 
rudely ornamented, but they were evidently prized for their antiquity 
and fitness for the purpose, real or imaginary. In this we must allow 
the Japanese to be the best judges of their qualities, for it is scarcely 
competent for Europeans to express an opinion, having comparative!}'-, at 
so recent a period, become acquainted with the beverage. These jars 
or bottles are frequently covered with ivory lids, sometimes of w r ood, and 
are used to contain the tea-leaf, either freshly cropped and dried or 
ground. A jar for ground tea was made at Seto or Sedo in Owari in 
the fourteenth century, and there are many others of the seventeenth 
century. 

Old Bizen tea-vases were in demand, as were also " Raku " ware, 
tea-bowls from Kioto ; others of " Shigaraki " ware (province of Omi) 
were used for keeping rice-seed to be steeped in water ; ash bowls for 
ceremonious tea-parties of " Hitasuki " ware, and "Takatori" ware tea- 
bowls of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. For drinking the 
spirit called Sake, " Soma yaki " cups were used. Many other varieties 
will be noticed in speaking of the productions of the provinces under 
their respective headings. These common and slight!}' ornamented wares 
were used principally by the tea-clubs formed for drinking powdered tea. 
The ceremonies connected with this usage were numerous ; the vessels 
were to be of a coarse and archaic character. The tea used was the 
finest green, ground to powder and frothed up with a brush or whisk 
made of bamboo. It was passed round in a bowl made for the purpose 
of rude pottery, and various solemn forms had to be adhered to ; even 
the size of the room was prescribed. The Raku ware was much in 
vogue among the tea-clubs. 



35 8 JAPAN. 

The Japanese, says Kaempfer, preserve the crops of ordinary tea 
in large vases with narrow orifices. As to that of a superior quality 
destined for the use of the Emperor and Princes, the tea is preserved in 
Murrhine vases or porcelain, and especially, if they can be procured, 
in those small and choice vases prized for their antiquity, which they 
call Maa-tsubo (veritable vases). They suppose that these vessels not 
only preserve the tea but improve its quality, which increases in value 
the longer it is enclosed in them. 

The ficki-tsia, even when reduced to powder, retains its aroma for 
several months ; on exposure to the air it recovers all its fine flavour. 
For this reason, persons of high rank seek to obtain these vases at any 
price, which rank among the most costly utensils of the luxurious tea- 
drinker. Their celebrity induces me to relate a legend which has never 
yet been exceeded anywhere. The Maa-tsubo were made of an exceed- 
ingly fine clay at Mauri- ga-Sima, that is to say, the island Mauri, which, 
according to tradition, had been entirely destroyed and submerged by the 
gods on account of the dissolute manners of its inhabitants. At the 
present day there are only a few rocks visible at low tide. This island 
was near Teyovaan or Formosa, the spot being marked in hydrographic 
charts by asterisks and points, indicating a shoal covered with sand- 
banks and quicksands. Let us hear the account the Chinese give of the 
matter. 

Mauri-ga-sima was in ancient times a fertile land, where was found, 
among other treasures, an admirable clay for making Murrhine vases, 
called at the present day porcelain vases. 

The immense riches at the command of the inhabitants led them 
into all manner of excesses. Their vices and. contempt of religion 
irritated the gods to such a degree that they resolved by an irrevocable 
decree to submerge Mauri-ga-Sima. A dream sent by Heaven revealed 
this terrible sentence to the chief of the island, named Peiruun, a religious 
man without blemish. The gods warned him to prepare to embark, 
when he perceived the countenances of two idols placed at the entrance 
to the temple covered with blushes. 

The King immediately published the danger with which the island 
was threatened and the disaster about to be consummated, but he found 
among his subjects only derision and contempt for what they termed his 
credulity. 

Shortly afterwards a buffoon, in mockery of the advice of Peiruun, 
approached the idols during the night, and, without anybody perceiving 
him, daubed their faces over with a red colour. Being informed of this 
sudden change in the complexion of the idols, which the King attributed 
to a miracle and not sacrilege, he took flight with everything belong- 
ing to him by boats towards Foktsju, a province of Meridional China. 
After his departure, the buffoon, his accomplices, and all the incredulous, 



JAPAN. 



359 



whom this precipitation did not alarm, were swallowed up with the 
island, together with the potters and their magnificent Murrhine vases. 
The Chinese of the south celebrate the remembrance of this miracle by 
a fete. 

As regards the vases which disappeared, they seek for them at low 
tide upon the rocks to which they have become fixed, and remove them 
with great caution lest they should get broken, covered with a crust of 
shells, which the workmen remove, leaving a portion to attest their 
origin. These vases are transparent, of the rarest tenuity, of a white 
colour tinged with green. They have for the most part the form of a 
capsule or small barrel with a narrow short neck, as of old, since their 
origin destined them to contain tea. They are brought to Japan at long 
intervals by merchants of the province of Foktsju, who buy them of the 
divers. The commonest are sold for twenty taels ; the second sort, one 
or two hundred taels ; those which attain this value no person dare buy, 
being destined for the Emperor, w r ho from his ancestors has amassed a 
collection of inestimable price in his treasury. 



THE CRESTS OF THE MIKADO. 




1. The Mikado has two crests; the first Imperial 
ensign is called the Guikmon or Kiku, representing 
the back or under side of the chrysanthemum flower, 
and has been used since it was first adopted by the 
founder of the family, who ascended the throne of 
Japan b.c. 667. 

2. The second crest represents the Kin or 
Pauloivnia imperialis, with its leaves and flowers. 
It is the official ensign, the mark of power, seen on 
coins, and was seen on the bread and cakes served 
at the receptions of the Dutch Ambassadors. 

These two marks, together or separate, are frequently seen on por- 
celain vases and other objects for Imperial use, sometimes accompanied 
by the three-clawed dragon, or the chimerical bird Foo or H0-J10. 

These arms or crests of the Mikado and the Daimios are unchange- 
able ; the names of the inheritors may vary according to the mutations 
assumed by the family or its title, but the crest remains the same. 
Their retainers have these cognisances worked on the backs or sleeves of 
their tunics, and the crests are frequently found on porcelain, enamels, 
and laquer-work made specially for the use of the nobles. 




\6o 



JAPAN. 




THE CRESTS OF THE SIOGUNS. 



I. The crest of Minamoto Yoritomo, the founder 
of the Minamoto family, and the first who usurped 
the temporal sovereignty of Japan, 1 185— 1202. 
This crest continued in use until 1586. 



Fide Yosi, surnamed Taikosama, was Siogun in 1586, but the period 
only lasted until 1593. 

2. The crest of Jyeyas, surnamed Gonghensama, 
the head of the Tokoungawa family, 1593— 1606. 

The fifteen succeeding Sioguns were of the 
same family. 

This Minamoto crest of three mauve or marsh-mallow leaves was 
used until the extinction of their power in 1868. 




THE CREST OF THE REGENT OR GOTAIRO. 

3. The crest of Ikamon-no-kami, the Prince of 
Hicond. The late Regent was assassinated in i860. 
The office of Regent was assumed whenever a 
minor filled the Siogun's throne. He resided at 
Yedo. Sir Rutherford Alcock says, " Over the 
gates, in copper enamel, is the crest of the noble 
owner (an orange on a branch with three leaves), 

the chief of the house of Ikamon, in whom is vested the hereditary 

office of Regent." 




THE CRESTS OF THE THREE GREATEST DAIMIOS. 
4. The Prince of Kanga. 



oRo 

(TO 



DC 



5. The Prince of Satsuma (viceroy of the island 
of Kiu-Siu). 



JAPAN. 



361 



6. The Prince of Shcndai. A mirror-case of 
lacquer-work bears this crest. In Mr. J. L. Bowes' 
Collection. 




DAIMIOS OR PRINCES OF SECONDARY RANK. 

There are as many as 278 Da'imios, each having his crest ; we give 
only some of the more important of them. 




8. Aki. 




9. Bizen. 




10. Arima. 




1 1 . Kouroda. 




12. Simosa. 




1 t,. Wakasa. 




14. Tanga. 

affio 




15. Ossoumi. 




16. Yamasiro. 



362 



JAPAN. 




17. Satake. 




1 8. Souwo. 




19. Sinano. 




20. Nanbu. 




21. Tsikueo. 



22. Akita. 




23. Kuwana. 



J U 



24. Asiu. 



[^==Th 



25. Hicone. 
26. Owadzima, or Owajima. 




27. Prince of Hizen. 

cfib 

28. Prince of Kanga. 



JAPAN. 



3 6 3 



POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF JAPAN. 

Japan is divided into eight administrations or territories, and subdivided into 
sixty-eight provinces, governed by Da'imios or native hereditary princes. 

(Fro/// a map of the sixteenth or seventeenth century in Kampfer i & " History of Japan") 

i. The Gokinai consists of the five provinces of the Imperial revenues, appropriated for 
the support and maintenance of the Imperial Court. 

2. Tokaido is the South-Eastern tract. 

3. Tosando, the Eastern mountainous tract. 

4. Foku-rokudo, the Northern tract. 

5. Sanindo, the Northern mountainous or cold tract. 

6. Sanyodo, the Southern mountainous or warm tract. 

7. Nankaido, Western coast tract. 

8. Saikaido, the Southern coast tract. 

The Imperial demesnes or crown lands, that is, the five chief maritime or trading towns in 
the Empire, are: — Miaco, in the province of Yamasiro, the residence of the Mikado; Yedo, in 
the province of Musasi, the residence of the Siogun or Tycoon ; Oosaka, in the province of Setzu ; 
Sakai, in the province of Jassumi ; Nagasaki) in the province of Hizen. 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 



i. Yamasiro. Miaco, or 
the principality of 
Kioto, is in this pro- 
vince. Aw at a, Uji, 
Kiyomidsu. 

2. Yamato. Koriyama. 



3. Kawatsi or Kawaji. 
Hiogo, Awadji. 



4. Idsoumi. F/tshi/ni. 



t ^ 5. Setsou or Sidzu. 
I "3^ Oosaka, Saki. 



r*4 

M 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



\ ° 



o 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 



1. lira. 



2. Ise or Isye. 
kaichi. 



Yok- 



Sima. 



4. Owari. Ohasahi, Scto, 
Shinoyama, I/iaki- 
mura. 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



O 

— 

M 
O 

H 



o 



3^4 



JAPAN. 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



<v)\. 5- Mikawa. 




"ft 

m 



s 



1£ 
3- 

f 



6. Tootomi (Toho- 
domi). Shitoro- 
mura. 



7. bourouga. 



8. Kahi or Kii. Waga- 
yama. 



9. Idsou. Simoda. 



10. Sangami. Fusiyama 
mons. 



11. Mousasi. Yedo, 

Tokio, Yokohama, 
Asakusa, Imado, 
Kenmmc-mura. 



12. Awa. 






3. Kadsousa. 



O 14. Simosa. 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



3£ 

rr] 15 h 

p 4 



o 



5. Hitatsi. 



^ 



r- 1 .« 



. <5 

O ^ 



^ 



o 

"rt 
-^ 
O 

H 



£ 



1. Oomi. Z^, A7///- 
pozan. 






2. Mino. 



lib 




ft 

~wsL 



3. Hida or Fida. 



4. Sinano. 



^ c. Kotsouke. 

? 



~F 




1JQ 



6. Simotsouke. 



7. Moutsu. 



8. Dewa. 



\ 



o 



O 



o 



JAPAN. 



3*5 



Provinces and Principal lactones. 


Admini 

strati ve 


Provinces and Principal Factories. 


Admini- 
strati ve 




Circle. 




Circle. 


£ 




|5J T , 


aj_ i. Wakasa. 


\ 


4- Imaba. 




7QS 

"*— * 2. Yetsizen. 




1^ 

'-f/ 5- Poki or Hooki. 


,1! 


T) Q 




JLXJ 6. Idsoumo. Madsuye, 


1! 
J, 

O 


■ti 3. Kanga. Kutani, Ohi- 
npi machi. 




<^fc? Sagai. 


> -a 





■c^ 


'5 

rt 


Kb. 


p 


M 


>-• 
3 

> i 


V 7. Iwami or Iwaki. 
JH Nagamura, Soma. 


6 


/ 7^ 4- Noto. 


O 

P=H 

4 


'Krv 8. Oki (Island). 




^2^_^ 5- Yetsisiou. 


0" 


ȣ- 


> 




ni EEj N 1. Arima or Halima. 


> 


)*' .• 6. Yets i go. 




"pj^-c, h'imeji 




\^ 




C^i 2. Mimasaka. 




*fe 




% 




;^j=?» 7. bado (Island). 


/ 


f 1$ 3- Bitsiou. 




c 

rt 




^ * 1. Tanba. 


•\ 


cp 


«o 


ft- 





1^25 4. Bizen. Imbe. 





y| J5* 2. Tango. 


► c£ 






un 


I )B 5- Bingo. 




lR T 


O 




a- 3. Tatsima. 


j 


n, 





366 



JAPAN. 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



-¥r 



6. Aki. 



-^ 



^J 7- Souwo. 



8. Nagato. Bagi, Madsu, 
;£rj; Toyo-ura-yama. 



# 
«- 




i. Awadsi or Awaji 
(Island). 



Awa. 






Sanouki. 



4. Iyo. 



Tosa. 






m 



1. Bouzen or Budsen. 



2. Tsikousen. Sobara- 
mura, Yanagawa. 



o 
o 



o 



o 



I 



o 

T3 



o 



Provinces and Principal Factories. 






ft 



;. Tsikouncro. 



4. Boungo. 



Hizen, in the Island 
ofKiu-Siu. Imali, 
Matsoura, Arita, 
Nagasaki, Desiina, 
Karatsu, Okawaji, 
Mikawaji. 



6. Fk r o or Hilto. 



7. Fiouga or Hiouga. 



Ohosoumi orOsumi. 
Chiusa. 



Admini- 
strative 
Circle. 



V 



M 



o 









Satsuma. Nawa- 
shiro-gawa. 



o. Iki (Island). 



B£ 



=•=5 11. 



Tsousima (Is'and). 



JAPAN. 



3*7 



JAPANESE SEXAGENARY CYCLE. 
(Hoffmann's "Japanese Grammar.") 

The Japanese, like the Chinese, employ cycles of sixty years 
putation of time, being also in Chinese characters. 

Ten Series Cycle 
ro i. Ki no ye 



£j 2. Ki no to 

f£-t 3. Fi no ye 

T~ 4. Fi no to 

f% 5. Tsutsi nbyt I 

2 6. Tsutsi no to j 

l=|f 7. Kane no ye 

^ 8. Kane no to 



Ki, Wood . jf^ 

^W, Fire . . !£ 

7j«/«, Earth -£ 

Aa/tf, Metal ^ 



•41 9. Midzu no ye I 

- L ' \Mzdzu, Water Tfc 



^ IO. J//i/ 



S# tt<? /0 j 



J 

1 



Twelve Series Cycle. 

i. Ne 



2. Usi . 

3. Tor a . 

4. U. . 

5. Tatf . 

6. Mi . 

7. J////tf 

8. Fitsi'rJ 

9. -Stfrw . 
10. Tori . 

/>Aj 1 1 . ///// 

^ 12. / . . 



do 

E 



in corn- 
Mouse. 
Bull. 
Tiger. 
Hare. 
Dragon. 
Serpent. 
Horse. 
Goat. 
Ape. 
Cock. 
Hound. 
Swine. 



The cycle of ten series is derived from the five elements — wood, fire, 
earth, metal, and water — which, each taken double, are distinguished as 
masculine and feminine, or, after the Japanese conception, as the elder 

and younger brother tl 1 ye, and ^3 1- to. 

The cycle of twelve series has relation to the division of the zodiac 
into twelve equal parts, and bears the name of the Chinese zodiac, for 
which Japanese names of animals are used, as above. 

If both series are let proceed side by side till both are run out, then 
the sixty series cycle is obtained, of which the first year is called 
[Tj ^Z- *2fc , Kino ye ne no tosi, and the sixtieth, r =£ "£? ^1 , Midzu no 

to i no tosi. The first year of which may thus be explained : kino (wood), 
ye (elder), nc (mouse), no tosi (of the year). The last or sixtieth : midzu 
no (water), to (younger), / (swine), no tosi (of the year;— no, "of," the 
genitive termination). 



3 68 



JAPAN. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE SEXAGENARY CYCLE. 
The first year of the cycle now current answers to 1864, as in China. 





¥ 


Z, 


& 


r 


& 


B 


ft 


* 


£ 


1 

7JL 


? 


/ 




/J 




If 




3/ 




«? 




B- 




z 




/<r 




u 




^ 




<To 


S3 


«T/ 




J 




/.r 




z/ 




J? 




on 




fl 




^ 




/6 




zg 




AsO 


M 


V/ 




5~3 




5~ 




'/ 




V 




e. 




^2 




s~^ 




6 




'8 




3o 


4 


J/ 




*3 




s~r 




7 




'? 




* 




32 




^4, 




sz 




? 




Zo 


* 


2/ 




JJ 




«r 




*v 




? 




ds 




Z2 




3^ 




u£ 




ft 




/o 


tit 


/' 




Z3 




3r 




*/ 




r 9 




£ 


yz 




2-4 




3C 




48 




60 



JAPANESE PERIODS. 

The Japanese system of dates is somewhat like the Chinese Nicn-hao, 
and is written in the same characters, Kiao, differing only in the names of 
the periods, which are assumed by the emperors when they ascend the 
throne. In Japan these periods were more frequently changed in each 
Mikado's reign. They are called Nengoo, and complete lists may be found 
in " Kaempfer's Japan," in " Hoffmann's Grammar," and another has 
been privately printed by Mr. E. Satow. The character of a Nengoo is 
composed of two, seldom of more figures, which must be taken from a 
particular table, selected specially for this purpose, consisting of sixty- 
eight characters. 

The ordinal numbers used by the Japanese are similar to the Chinese, 
but differently pronounced in each country. (See page 328.) 

Note. — Inscriptions in the Chinese character are frequently found on 
Japanese wares. 



JAPAN. 






mm 

iE/lft 



"NliNOOO" OR JAPANESE PERIODS. 

A.I'. 

■37° 
[ 37 2 



93X 






Ken-tok 
Bun-tin 

Ten-du 

Ko-wa 
Gen-fin 
Mei-tok the IV. 
O yet . . 
Show-tiyo 
Yei-kiyo . 
Ka-kitsu . 
Bun-an . 
Ko-tok 

Kiyo-tok . 

Ko-show . 
Chiyo-rok 
Kzvan-show 
Bun-show 
O-nin 
Bun-met . 
Tiyo-kiyo 
En-tok . 
Mei-o . . 
Bun-ki . 
Yei-show 
Dai-jci . 
Kiyo-rok . 



'375 
1380 
1380 

!393 
*394 
1428 

1429 
1441 
1444 
1449 

i45 2 

1455 
1457 
1460 
1466 
1467 
1469 
1487 
1489 
1492 
1501 

i5°4 
1521 

1528 



>8SL 

►-»-) ,-x- 

*# 

3?& 



fo^ 



\ 



3t7G 
ft* 



Di-yei . 
Ko-dsi . 
Yei-rok . 
Gen-ki . 
Ten-show 
Bun-rok 
Kei-chiyo 
Gen-wa . 
Kwan-jei 
Show-ho 
Kei-an . 
Show-o . 
Mei-reki 
Man-dsi 
Kwan-bun 
Yem-po . 
Ten-wa . 
Tei-kiyo 
Gen-rok 
Ho-yei . 
Show-tok 
Kiyo-ho . 
Gen-bun 
Kwan-po 
Yen-kiyo 
Kwan-yen 



a.h. 
'53 2 - 

1555- 

1558. 

'573- 
I59 2 - 

1596. 
16.5. 
1624. 
1644. 
1648. 
1652. 

1655- 
1658. 

1661. 
1673. 
1681. 
1684. 
16S8. 
1704. 
1711. 
1717. 

1736. 
1741. 

1744- 
1748. 



2 A 



37° 



JAPAN. 



fay\ 

)£j ^7 Buns 

1& F *"* 




m m. 

Ml TIC 



Ho-reki . 
Mei-wa . 
An-jei . 
Ten-met . 
Kwan-sei 
Kiyo-wa 

Bun-kwa 



if. jg 

m » 

% % 

i -ft 

m w 

m * 



A.D. 

I75 1 - 
1764. 
1772. 
1781. 
1789. 
1801. 

1804. 

1818. 
1830. 



fXj tjh Koo-kwa 

A\ fe Ka ' yd 

j£/^ 3g An-sei 

j{£ jf^ Man-en 

y^ y£ Bun-kin 

fp JC Gen-dzi 

^fe ^S. Kei-00 . 



&£* rw j/^/y/, 1868 to 

/P Tfl time. 



A.D. 
1844. 

1848. 
1854. 
i860. 

l86l. 
1864. 

1865. 

present 



EXAMPLES OF DATES. 



Gen-ki nen-sei. " Made in the period Gen-ki," a.d. 1570 
t0 1 573- On a bowl painted in colours and gilding, with 
flowers and panels of figures, &c. Franks Collection. 

Ten-show. " Seventh year," corresponding with a.d. i 579. 

Show-o " Second year," corresponding with a.d. 1653. 

Eul-soui Yang-ing. "Second year of the period Yang-ing," 
a.d. 1653. This mark (same as the preceding) is given by 
M. A. Jacquemart, who reads it differently, but arrives at the 
same date. 

Yem-po nen-sei. " Made in the period Yem-po," a.d. 
1673 to 168 1; On specimens of Nabeshima porcelain, made 
at Iwayagawa, province of Hizen. Franks Collection. Two 
circular trays painted with fans, blossoms, &c. 

Bun-kua nen-sei. " Made in the period Bun-kua," a.d. 
1804 to 181 8. On porcelain painted blue, from Hizen, a 
square vase painted with figures. Franks Collection. 

Mei-ji-nen To-ycn-sei. " Made by To-yen in the Mei-ji 
period," .1868 to the present time. On a blue and white 
porcelain saucer with phoenixes, &c. Franks Collection. 



JAPAN. 



37 * 



JAPANESE NUMERALS. 





k Ordinary. 


Pronunciation. 


One . . . 


I 


— - 


//»'. 


Two . 


2 


=s 


A 7 /. 


Three . 


3 


\ 


Saw. 


Four . 


4 


El 


St. 


Five . 


5 


H 


Go. 


Six 


6 


/C 


Roku. 


Seven . 


7 


£, 


Silsi. 


Eight . . . 


8 


A 


Fa/si. 


Nine . . . 


9 


/i 


Kew. 


Ten . 


IO 


+ 


Ziyi i. 


Hundred . 


IOO 


M 


Fiyak. 


Thousand 


IOOO 


^ 


Sen. 


Ten thousand 


10,000 




Man or Ban. 


Eleven 


II 


± 


The mark for one is placed below 
that for ten. 


Twenty-one . 


21 


jL 


] To denote twenty, thirty, &c, the 
marks for the multiples are 


Fifty-one . 


5i 




j placed above the symbol for 
ten. 


Sixty . . . 


6o 


7sT 

-r* 


The symbol for six placed above 
ten. 


Two hundred 


200 


§ 


The symbol for two placed above 
one hundred, and so on. 



3/2 



JAPAN. 



JAPANESE WARES. 

ARRANGED IN TERRITORIES, PROVINCES, AND TOWNS, WITH THE NAMES OF 
THE PRINCIPAL FABRICS AND POTTERS THEREIN. 

Notes. 

The Japanese characters denoting the provinces, here given as head- 
ings, are copied from a map of the seventeenth century, quoted by 
Kaempfer (" History of Japan," Lond. 1727). There may, therefore, be 
occasional variations in the type from those adopted at the present day, 
as well as changes in the names of the provinces, the orthography 
varying according to the phonetic sounds of national interpreters. 

The references are principally to the Catalogue of the Japanese 
Historical Collection of pottery and porcelain exhibited at Philadelphia 
in 1867, now preserved at the South Kensington Museum, descriptive 
tablets being affixed with corresponding numbers. These are alluded to 
as Jap. Hist. Coll. 

We may here again remark that the Japanese word Yaki is a general 
term, used indifferently to signify pottery or porcelain, and has misled 
many, by comprehending the word in its latter sense. Hence Dr. Hoff- 
mann, and after him M. A. Jacquemart, formed erroneous opinions as to 
the origin of porcelain-making at Corea as well as Japan. 



CONTENTS. 
PRINCIPAL DIVISIONS.— TERRITORIES. 



1. Gokinai (Imperial Revenues) . 

2. Tokaido (South-Eastern tract) 

3. Tosando (Eastern mountain tract) . 

4. Fokourokoudo (Northern tract) 

5. Sanindo (Northern mountain tract) 

6. Sanyodo (Southern mountain tract) 

7. Nankaido (Western coasts tract) . 

8. Saikaido (Southern coasts tract) 



PAGE 

374 
3*3 
395 

395 
399 
401 
404 
405 



SUBDIVISIONS.— PROVINCES. 



Vamasiro ..... 374 

Yamato ...... 380 

Idsumi 381 

Setzu 382 




383 
385 
389 
389 

392 



JAPAN. 



37 3 



SU15 DI VISIONS— {Continued). 



( Minn 












PAGE 

• 395 


( Ilarima 












PAGE 

. 4OI 


* ( Simodsuke ..... 395 


6. 1 Bizen 
( Nagato . 










. 402 
• 403 


\ Yetsizen 395 


I Awaji (Islan( 
7 ' i Toza . 
/ Tsikousen 
Higo 


) 








4O4 

• 404 

• 405 

• 405 




8. < Hizen . 










. 406 


5- ] Idsumo 399 


1 ( Ihosoumi 










. 4I6 


( Iwami ...... 400 


* Sat sin n a 










416 


DENOMINATION OF WARES (Yaki). 


PAGE 


IA(,K 


Kioto 374 


Shitoro-mura 389 


Fushimi 












• 375 


Kishiu . 










389 


Asahi 












• 375 


Saurakuyen 












390 


Sai Kiyo 












• 375 


Shigaraki 












390 


NarutakJ 












• 375 


Getaha . 












391 


Ken-Zan 












• 376 


Iga 












391 


Ninsei . 












• 376 


Same 












391 


Raku (Kiyo) 












• 376 


Zeze 












391 


Yeiraku . 












• 377 


Tokio (Yedo) 












392 


Kiyomidsu 












378 


Sheba . 












392 


Ninsei . 












■ 378 


Yedo Banko 












393 


Kanzan . 












379 


Imado . 












393 


Aw at a . 












379 


Raku (Yedo) 












393 


Agahada 












380 


Ota 












394 


Gensai . 












3Si 


Makuzu . 












394 


Minato . 












381 


Mino 












395 


Giyoke . 












382 


Mikuni . 












395 


Osaka . 












382 


Kabasaki 












395 


Raku (Setzu) 












3S3 


Kutani . 












396 


Ise 












383 


Ohi Machi 












399 


1st' Banko 












383 


Tanba . 












399 


Yokkaichi 












384 


Idsumo . 












399 


Kuwana 












384 


Madsuye 












399 


Mokune 












384 


Fushina . 












400 


Sedo 












385 


Soma 












4 co 


Ki Sedo 












385 


Tozan . 












401 


Shinoyama 












386 


Migakite 












402 


Kuro 












386 


Bizen 












402 


Gen Min 












386 


Ilitasuki 












403 


Oribe . 












386 


Imbe 












403 


Inn Yama 












386 


Tokonabe 












403 


Horaku . 












386 


1 lagi . 












403 


Goraku . 












387 


Madsumoto . 












403 


Ruri 












387 


Toyomura 












404 


Sometsuke 












387 


Awaji (Island) 












404 


Sedosuke 












387 


Sanpei . 












404 


Kito Sedo 












3 SS 


Minpei . 












404 


Sedo 












388 


Odo 












404 


Nagoya . 












388 


Takatori 












405 


Mida . 












389 


Sobara-mura . 












405 



374 



JAPAN— YAMASIRO. 



DENOMINATION OF 


WARES— {Continue 


4 








FACIE 


PAGE 


Yanagawa ...... 405 


Nabeshima 412 


Yadsushiro 










405 


Shinpo . 










413 


Hizen . 










406 


Zoshun . 










413 


Tanaka Mura 










407 


Sampo . 










414 


Karatsu . 
Jiraku . 










409 
410 


Chiusa . 
Kameyama Mura 










416 
416 


Okugoma 










410 


Madsugaya 










416 


Imari 








412, 414 


Shiro-ishi 










416 


Arita 








413. 4i5 


Shida . 










416 


Mikawaji 








. 410 


Satsuma 










. 416 


Ilirado . 








. 411 


Kagoshima 










418 


Okawaji 








. 411 


Nawashiro-gawa 










. 418 


Kushide 








. 411 















GOK1NAI (Territory ok the Imperial Revenues). 






YAMASIRO. 



This province is situated in the northern central part of Japan, 
and is one of those appropriated for the support and maintenance of 
the Imperial Court. 

Kioto or Kiyoto, a principality in the province of 

Q Yamasiro, was formerly called Miaco, which in Japanese sig- 

* nifies a city, and was so called by way of pre-eminence, 

iy being the residence of the Da'iri, or hereditary ecclesiastical 

Emperor and his court, and on this account reckoned the 

capital of the whole Empire, but since the removal of the court to Yedo 

it has been officially called Kioto. 

Miaco, which was in Kaempfer's time called the Imperial City, is 
thus spoken of by him in his History of Japan, 1727: — "Miaco is the 
great magazine of all Japanese manufactures and commodities, and the 
chief mercantile town in the Empire. There is scarce a house in this 
large capital where there is not something made or sold. Here they 
refine copper, coin money, print books, weave the rich stuffs with gold 
and silver flowers. The best and scarcest dyes, the most artful carvings, 
all sorts of musical instruments, pictures, japanned cabinets, all sorts 
of things wrought in gold or other metals, the finest tempered steel 
sword-blades and other arms, are made here in the greatest perfection, 
also the richest dresses, and other things too numerous to be mentioned. 
In short, there is nothing that can be thought of but what may be found 
at Miaco, and nothing, though never so neatly wrought, can be imported 
from abroad, but what some artist or other in this capital will undertake 
to imitate. Considering this, it is no wonder that the manufactures of 




JAPAN— YAMASIRO— KIOTO. 375 

Miaco are become so famous throughout the Empire as to be easily pre- 
ferred to all others, though perhaps inferior in some particulars, only 
because they have the name of being made at Miaco," now called Kioto. 

Fusiiimi-Yaki. Fushimi-mura, in the province of 
Yamasiro, was a town where pottery was made at a re- 
mote period. In or about 1620 a man named Koycmon 
commenced to make human figures with plastic clay, which 
is continued to the present time as a trade by the people. 
The figures are made in a clay mould, each part separately, 
then joined together and painted, but not glazed. In the 
Japanese Historical Collection, No. 258 is a group of a 
blind man and a child moulded in whitish clay, made at 
Fushimi in imitation of the figures produced by Koyemon 
in 1620 by an artist in 1840. On the back of the figure 
is the inscription given in the margin. In the same neigh- 
bourhood, at a village called Fuka-kusa, unglazed vessels 
are made for religious festivals. 

Asahi-Yaki. This factory was founded 1644—47, anc ^ 
is situated in Uji, province of Yamasiro. The word Asa-hi Jgn 

is derived from its colour, and means "the morning light," ^ 

similar to a famous Corean bowl used for ground tea. 

Kobori-masa-uki, a founder of one branch of the tea-ceremony, gave 
a seal to mark the works. 

Tamara-yaki was founded about the same time. 

Uji is the centre of tea-cultivation in Japan. 

The only example of this ware in the Japanese Historical Collection, 
No. 213, is a tea-bowl or cup of grey ware with greenish-brown glaze, 
stamped with a seal at the bottom as in the margin, about the year 
1700, made at Uji. 

Sai-Kiyo-Yaki (Kiyoto), including Ninsei-yaki, Awata-yaki, Kiyo- 
midsu-yaki, Yeiraku-yaki, &c. 

A potter of the family of Monomura named Harima Daiyo, Fuji-wara- 
no Fuchi-masa, and titled Niusci, who lived about 1644-51, erected kilns 
in different places— Awata, in the eastern part of the city, where the 
Awata ware is now made ; Woro, in the north part, where he resided ; 
Mizoro ; Kinkozan, from which place the renowned maker Kinkozan 
Sobeye derives his title ; Sei-kanji, whence originates the Gogosaka and 
the Kiyomidsu factories; and Iwakurazan. Jap. Hist. Coll., 261-263. 

Since that time other manufactories were established at Narutaki, 
Yoshita, Takamine, Oshino-koji, Komadsu-tani, &c, which are all discon- 
tinued except the two first named. 

Narutaki- Yaki. The kiln at Narutaki was erected by the brother of 
the famous painter Ogata Korin, named Shin-sho, who amused himself by 
making tea materials after the Ninsei fashion. Jap. Hist. Coll., 269, 270. 




376 JAPAN— KIOTO. 

The village of Narutaki was situated at the foot of the hill of Atago, 
to the north-west of the Emperor's palace, a direction known as Ken ; 
hence this potter obtained the sobriquet of Shinsho or Shisui Kenzan 
(" beautiful blue hill to the north-west "). His works are therefore marked 
Ki n-Zan. 

Ken-Zan-Yaki. A bowl of drab glazed ware, 
crackled, painted with snow-covered pines in enamel 
colours and traces of gilding — imitation of ware by 
Ogata Shinsho at Awata, east of Kioto. This mark 
in black (" Made by Ken-Zan ") is on the bottom, 
a.d. 1730. Jap. Hist. Coll., 270. 

k Ken-Zan-Yaki. A fire-pan of buff glazed ware, 

f^tT ■ \ painted with flowers and an inscription, in which is 
1 Q the square mark here given ; on the bottom is the 
^J other mark, " Made by Ken-Zan at Kiyomidsu in 
Kioto," a.d. 1750. Jap. Hist Coll., 271. 

The Ninsei wares are of different kinds of fayence or semi-porcelain. 
They are divided into two branches, Awata ware and Kiyomidsu ware. 

There are twelve families which follow the ancient tradition ; the most 
distinguished are Kinkozan-Sobeyei, Tanzan-Seikai, Hozan-Bunzo, Tai- 
zan, Yohegei, and Iwakurazan-Kichibeye, who make only a kind of 
fayence known as Arita ware, except Taizan, who also makes porcelain. 

In the beginning of the present century Takahashi-Dohachi, Wage- 
Kitei, and Midsukoshi-Yasobei commenced to make the Some-tsuke or 
blue painted porcelain like the Arita ware. 

There are now eleven porcelain-makers, among whom the most im- 
portant are Kanzan-Denshichi, Maruga-Sabeye, and Kamuga-Bunpei, 
and twenty-one fayence-makers, including the well-known Dosen and 
Kisei. Besides these, thirteen potters make both pottery and porce- 
lain ; the most distinguished are Takahashi-Dohachi (second generation), 
Wage-Kitei (second generation), Kiyomidsu Shichibeye, Kiyomidsu- 
Rokubeye, Seifu, Yohei, and Zoraku. 

Raku-Yaki. This ware was introduced in the period of Yei-Raku 
(1550), by a Corean named Ameya, who came to the old capital of Kiyoto. 
He commenced the work with a clay found at a place called Shii'aku, a 
port of Kiyoto. The famous Taiko-Hideyoshi honoured the manufactory 
by giving a gold seal on which the character Raku, meaning " enjoyment," 
was engraved ; hence its name. Ameya, whose work is very rare and 
much appreciated, died in 1574, leaving a son called Tanaka-Chojiro, who 
succeeded him, and his descendants in the eleventh generation still con- 
tinue the trade. 

This " Raku," which is only a common black earthenware with a lead 
glaze, is made into small vessels, each of which is baked separately. The 



JAPAN— KIOTO. 



377 



principal articles made formerly were the tea-bowls used by the clubs, 
shaped by hand. It is much esteemed by connoisseurs from b< Ing 
smooth in contact with the mouth and keeping the water hot. Brazil rs, 
water-pitchers, and other tea materials were also made. The son 
of Ameya-Chojiro, who is known as first of the family, used this gold 
seal to stamp his tea-bowls ; but the seal being lost in the time of the 
second Chojiro, each manufacturer used his own seal. The tenth gene- 
ration, named Tan-Niu, was honoured with a seal from the Prince of Kii, 
and used it for marking his own work, while the other seal with the 
character of Raku was impressed in a double circle. The Japanese 
Historical Collection, now in the South Kensington Museum, includes 
specimens made by each generation of the family, Nos. 237 to 248. The 
present maker, Kichizayemon, is the representative of the family. No. 
247 was made by a sword connoisseur named Honami-Koidsu, who died 
in 1637; he was fond of the " Raku" ware and erected a small kiln. 

A native of Kioto named Hirai-Ikkan makes a sort of papier-mache 
vessels covered with lacquer. Jap. Hist. Co//., 248. 

Raku-Yaki. These two marks are 
on a cup of " Raku " ware, coarse, but 
with a rich black-brown glaze. Stamped 
at bottom with a seal on each side, the 
" Raku " and maker's name ; the lower 
part of the stamp defaced. Made at Kioto, 
A.D. 1840. Jap. Hist. Coll., 246. 

Raku-Yaki. Water-jar, cream-coloured glazed ware 
embossed with fishes leaping out of waves, gilt. This seal 
is stamped " Yeiraku " ware, made by the tenth Yeiraku- 
Zengoro at Kioto, a.d. 18 10. Jap. Hist. Coll., 277. 

Raku-Yaki. A brazier of porcelain, painted in red 
and green with dragons. " Yeiraku " ware, made by the 
twelfth Yeiraku-Zengoro at Kioto. This seal is stamped ; 
a.d. 1850. Jap. Hist. Coll., 280. 

The Yeiraku family in Kioto made formerly earthenware only until 
the tenth generation. Zengoro-Riyozen first made porcelain in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. He successfully imitated the 
ancient wares of China and Japan, and decorated his wares in red and 
gold in a very effective manner called Yeiraku-Kinrante. The twelfth 
Zengoro went to Kutani to instruct the potters in making porcelain and 
its decoration. The present maker, Kichizayemon, is of the thirteenth 
generation. It is stated that his grandfather, Zengoro-Yeiraku, obtained 
from China the iron red or " Bengara " colour which is still used. This 
splendid colour is most effective, and has usually ornaments in gold laid 
upon it. 





378 JAPAN— KIOTO. 

Kiyomidsu-Yaki. A pair of flower- 
"2k *~^ JL_ vases of brown glazed ware, basket- 
l( ^L ^% "^^ P attern - " Kiyomidsu " ware, made by 

i ^£> Dohachi, a.d. 1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 

371. 

Kiyomidsu-Yaki. Cup of common stone-coloured 
■rlggft glazed ware, made by Dohachi at Kiyomidsu in Kioto, a.d. 

*^^v^ 1830. The mark of the maker impressed. Jap. Hist. 

Coll., 276. 
The present Takahashi-Dohachi makes vases, flower-pots, tea and 
coffee services, both in porcelain and earthenware. At Philadelphia in 
1876, among other examples, he exhibited specimens of a process intro- 
duced into Japan after the Vienna Exhibition by Mr. K. Notomi, of 
" reservation of design on the ground by means of a material which 
gives way in the firing and leaves the ornament clear on the body of 
the glaze." 

** i* 

\rA /A- Kiyomidsu-Yaki. A pair of flower-vases of white 

■^ l^ porcelain embossed with the plum-tree in blossom ; marks 

^M^ 1 in blue, painted on the foot " Kiyomidsu " ware ; made 

s£ /\V by Sei-fu, a.d. 1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 370. 



IE 




Ninsei-Yaki. Nin-sci is the name of a potter at 
Monomura, who in 1644—51 erected kilns at various 
places near Kioto ; his name was given to the ware by his 
descendants. The mark here given is on an incense-box 
of drab ware with crackled glaze in form of a swan ; seal 
stamped ; a.d. 1690. Jap. Hist. Coll., 263. 
Specimens of the Ninsei fabric are frequently seen in pottery stamped 
with his name, painted in colours and gilding, old ware of the seventeenth 
century, mythological figures, and gobular boxes representing balls of 
coloured silk or string. His tea-bowls have usually a triangular nick 
cut out of the foot rim, like the old Kioto and Corean vessels. 

Ninsei-Yaki. Ninsei made buff ware decorated with gold chrysan- 
themums and other flowers, plants, and geometrical patterns. There 
are several fine examples in the Japanese Historical Collection, all of the 
seventeenth century, Nos. 592-594. 

Ninsei-Yaki. A cake-box of white ware with crackled glaze, serrated 
wings and painted and gilt decoration. The cover is pierced and the 
inside of the body gilt. The Japanese name for this form is " Hoshi," 
meaning "Precious Ball," made by Monomura-Ninsei at Kioto, a.d. 1690. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 262. 

Kanzan-Yaki. Kanzan-Denshichi, Kioto, porcelain-maker; he is 





JAPAN— KIOTO. 379 

celebrated for his decoration in gold and bronze on red ground, imitation 
damascene-work in gold and silver and iron, beautifully executed in 
flowers and ornaments, which appear as if inlaid in a style called " Zogan," 
originated by himself; he also copies the Yciraku ware, and coats some 
of his porcelain with cloisonne enamel. This family have a kiln at 
Kiyomidsu, near Kioto. 

Kan-zan-Yaki. A teapot of porcelain, painted to imi- 
tate iron, with thickly laid gold decoration of storks and 
blossoming trees ; made by Kanzan of Kioto. Gold mark 
under on brown, a.d. 1860—70. Jap. Hist. Coll., 589. 

Note. — This mark differs from those here given as that of Kanzan, 
but it is so stated in the Catalogue. 

Kan-zan-Yaki. Dai Nipon Kanzan-sci (the mark of yA jT 
Kanzan-Denshichi of Kiyomidsu), in blue under a porcelain 
bowl coated with cloisonne enamel, yellow figured ground, 
with compartments of flowers. 

Tanzan Seikai of Kioto makes porcelain and earthenware like the 
" Awata," using bright colours ; but attempting to introduce European 
tints, they lack the harmony of native art. 

Siiimidzu Rokubei of Kioto is a manufacturer of vases, bowls, and 
tea-ware, &c, with bright colours on brilliant white ground. 

Shimidzu Kameshichi of Kioto is a maker of "Awata" ware, toilet 
and tea services. 

Nashimidzu Zoroku of Kioto is a maker of porcelain painted in blue 
under the glaze, for which colour the Kioto manufacturers are celebrated ; 
also celadon wares. 

Awata- Yaki. Awata is a district of Kioto, where fayence 
only is still made in large quantities, in imitation of the old J- 
Satsuma ware, to which, as a rule, it is much inferior, both in 'I 
the quality of the paste and in the decoration, and very fragile 
from being so slightly baked. A great deal of this ware is sent to 
Tokio to be decorated, where a school of art has recently been established. 
In the Japanese selection at the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, a 
large assortment of Kioto-Awata fayence was included at very moderate 
prices, but the market has been lately inundated with inferior specimens 
to meet the commercial demands of foreigners, consequently the artistic 
merit is much deteriorated from the really beautiful specimens sent over 
to the International Exhibitions of Paris, Vienna, and Philadelphia. 

It is usual in Japan to place the name of the principality or province 
before that of the town or district ; hence we find Kioto-Awata, Hizen- 
Arita, Kanga-Kutani. 



;}8o 



JAPAN— KIOTO— YAM ATO. 






Awata-Yaki. The mark of Tai-zan, the principal potter 

here, whose imitations of the Satsuma ware are exported to a 

great extent at very low prices ; but there are some very fine 

specimens in the Collections of Mr. J. L. Bowes and others, 

quoted below. 

The Taizan family were of Mizoro near Kioto, and one of them, 

Taizan Yohoyei, recently removed thence to the neighbouring factory of 

Awata. He also coats his ware occasionally with cloisonne enamel. 

Awata-Yaki. This mark is on a large earthenware 
hibatchi or vessel for heating liquids, with geometrical borders 
and floral designs, with the kiku or chrysanthemum crest ; the 
mark is impressed. The name of place, Itsi-gaya, at top ; the 
lower half is the seal of the potter Tai-zan. In the possession 
of W. J. Audsley, Esq. 

Awata-Yaki. Stamped on a hibatchi of fine workman- 
ship, painted with flowers and the two crests of the Tenno, 
Kiku and Kiri ; the maker's name, Tai-zan, impressed. In the 
possession of G. A. Audsley, Esq. 

Awata-Yaki. The mark of Den-ko, a potter, impressed 
on a tall bottle with fan-shaped medallions, filled in with 
landscapes. In the possession of J. Franks, Esq. 



• Ut f- 




f^®J\^ 




Awata-Yaki. A yellow-glazed earthen- 
ware plate, crackled, with a raised spur in- 
side and five Chinese characters impressed 
in the angles, signifying the five blessings, 
shoiv, keih, full, die, and lull, "long life, 
riches, health, the love of virtue, and a 
natural death." Made at Awata in Kioto, 
early nineteenth century. Mark under 
impressed. Jap. Hist. Coll., 584. 



3-c 



YAMATO or AMATO (Province). 






"yfi 



Agahada-Yaki. The kiln is situated at Koriyama, 
county of Soi-Shimo, province of Yamato, founded about 
1644—48. Formerly only tea materials were made, but it is 
now considerably developed, and the ware is decorated with 
exquisitely modelled objects. It was customary to engrave on the early 
pieces the characters in the margin. Those pieces with the second mark 
are more recent, and were mostly made according to the order of the 
prince of the place. 



JAPAN— YAMATO— IDSUMI. 



381 



Agahada- Yaki. (Aga-hada, " Raw flesh.") Examples 
— A brazier of buff ware with white crackled glaze resting (^ y jfifi* 

on three feet, a seal stamp impressed on the bottom, a ^* 

specimen of the "Agahada" ware made in the county of Suishimo at 
Koriyama, a.d. 1 840, Jap. I list. Coll., 231 ; and an incense-box of buff 
ware in form of a pot-bellied dwarf, glazed brown drapery ; the same 
ware made also at Koriyama, 1840. Jap. Hist. Coll., 232. 



Agahada- Yaki. Made at Koriyama in the county of 
Soishimo, founded in the seventeenth century, province of 
Yamato. A koro or brazier on three feet with thick crackled 
glaze of red and white mottled wares, made by J ' an-sat- 
su-(lo ; the name painted on one of the feet. Jap. Hist. 
Coll., 604. 



Agahada- Yama. On a stoneware tea-bowl with olive- 
brown glaze, impressed inside with figures and trees, marked 
with the name of the fabric ; followed by a circular seal, 
Boku-haku, the maker at Koriyama. The ware is stated to 
resemble that of Hagi, but composed of a different clay. 
Franks Collection. 




IDSUMI (Province). 



Minato-Yaki. This factory is situated near the town of Sagai, pro- 
vince of Idsumi, of remote origin. " It is said that Giyogi or Giyoki, the 
inventor of the potter's wheel, commenced making pottery here in the 
eighth century." Since then a great change and development has taken 
place, and the condition of the kiln has assumed quite a different feature. 
The articles made about 1 5 70 were a kind of biscuit, very brittle. A 
specimen, No. 233 Japanese Historical Collection, is of stone-coloured 
ware lightly glazed, ornamented with hatched lines and leaves applied in 
white slip; it is an ash-bowl, used at tea-parties of about 1770. 

Gensai-Yaki. There was another kind, called Gensai-yaki, similar to 
the Minato-yaki founded by Hachita-Gensai about 1570, who made the 
fire-vessels (koro) for the tea- clubs. There were many other kilns 
formerly, but none are now visible. 



382 JAPAN— SETSOU. 

Giyoki-Yakl A grey bottle in form of a pilgrim's flask, with hooked 
handles, and with plaited bamboo arrangement for suspension. For use 
at religious festivals, and of the kind of ware called " Giyoki," from the 
name of the person who is said to have introduced the potter's wheel 
into Japan in the eighth century, a.d. 730. Height 8|, diameter 7^ in. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 161—177. 

Minato-Yaki. A teapot and a nautilus cup, the former 
in form of a tortoise, the tail forming a handle and the head 
a spout, of glazed pottery, bears this seal, which reads Sen- 
shui, the province called also Idsumi ; Sagai, the name of the 
place ; tnoto, original ; Minato-yaki, Minato ware ; Kichi-ye- 
nioii, the maker's name. Franks Collection. 



SETSOU or SIDZU (Province). 




m 



Osaka, which has been termed the Venice of Japan, is in the central 
portion of Japan, in the province of Setsou, adjacent to Yamasiro, and is 
the centre of trade in Japan. Hiogo is the shipping-port of Osaka, lying 
about thirty miles distant on the banks of a river, both being now open to 
foreign trade. The ancient name of Osaka was " Naniwa." A teapot of 
trefoil shape of grey stoneware with ornaments in white slip has at the 
back an inscription, " Nani-wa cha-mise Matsu-no-o." " The Matsu-no-o 
(Old Fir-tree) Tea-house at Naniwa." Franks Collection. Osaka is cele- 
brated for its beautiful eggshell porcelain and other descriptions of china ; 
the former is made extensively ; hence porcelain is frequently called Mo/10- 
saki, literally saki products, or things made at Osaka. The mountain of 
Fusiyama, venerated by the Japanese, is seen from Osaka as well as from 
Yedo, and is frequently represented on their ware.* Sunsets, birds, trees, 
&c, are lightly sketched on it, and touches of a beautiful cobalt blue show 
above all other colours. Those delicate cups, covered with minutely plated 
wicker, and sometimes with lacquer, are from Osaka. 

Sir Rutherford Alcock, when visiting the shops at Osaka, having in 
view the purchase of objects for the International Exhibition (1862), says, 
" Of bronzes I saw little to compare with the choice there is in Yedo 
and at Yokohama, where foreigners create a large demand. In a lacquer- 
ware shop we found only a very indifferent show, and the prices were 
altogether fabulous. We were more fortunate in our search after pottery 
and porcelain, and priced and appropriated a perfect wealth of ' Palissy ' 
pottery with raised fishes and fruit. Certainly this was the only harvest 

* Krempfer describes it as " mons excelsus et singularis," which in beauty perhaps has not its 
equal, for which poets cannot find words, nor painters skill or colours sufficient to represent the 
mountain as the Japanese think it deserves. 



JAPAN— IS E. 



3«3 



I was enabled to secure ; many of the objects were unique in kind, and 
nothing like them could be found in Yedo or Nagasaki. Some very 
perfect eggshell was also picked up here, remarkably fine and surprisingly 
cheap." 

Osaka as well as Kioto, being both in the vicinity of royal palaces, 
were the chief places of manufacture for the choicest examples of all 
descriptions of art-work, including porcelain, lacquer, enamels, bronzes, 
embroidery, &c, being made for the use of the emperors and princes. 

At Sanda in this province a kiln was erected in 1690 on the Arita 
system by the Prince of Setsou, to imitate the Chinese celadon, in which 
it was successful. 

Raku-Yaki. A figure of fine ware, painted and glazed, 
representing Fukoroji seated on the ground holding a fan in 
his left hand, was made by Kissu-ko, of the city of Osaka, 
a.d. i860. His work is finer and more delicate than other 
Raku ware, but is not favoured by the tea-clubs so much as 
commoner ware. Jap. Hist. Coll., 256. 




= B 

mm 



TOKAIDO (Territory). 
^^K ISE or ISY£ (Province). 

"A 

Ise-Yaki. There are in the Japanese Historical Col- 
lection a porcelain plate and tea-bowl, fluted and painted 
with blue designs, made by Gorodayu Shonsui, in the 
province of Ise, circa 1580. Seal mark stamped, signifying 
Fou-kou, " Happiness." Jap. Hist. Coll., 324. 

Ise-Banko-Yaki. This pottery was founded about 
thirty years since by a potter named Yu-u-sedsu, who 
afterwards assumed the name of Banko ; a native of the r — 1 
village of Obuge, near Kuwana, he was still living in 1876, ^jfc 
but too old to produce any more ware. This particular 
kind of stoneware was originally unglazed, or but very rarely glazed. 
The material used for the greater part of this ware is a brown clay, of 
such toughness that the pots and other small articles can be made 
extremely light and thin. It is decorated with paintings done in opaque 
enamels. White biscuit is also made in the same place of a very pure 
clay, and in later years a kind of marbled ware has been produced by 
mingling the white and brown cla}\ The smaller articles are made upon 
wooden moulds, by stamping, in all sorts of fanciful shapes. 1840 to 
1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 318-322. 



3*4 



JAPAN— ISE. 




Ise-Banko-Yaki. Red biscuit ware, with 
two handles and four feet, round the neck 
dragons in relief in white, on one side 
enamelled flowers, on the other an inscrip- 
tion cut through the red glaze. On the 
bottom the stamp impressed. "Ise Banko" 
SI ware, made in the province of Ise. a.d. 1875. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 322. 

Ise-Banko-Yaki. A set of earthenware plates with Jap- 
anese deities holding emblems, thickly enamelled in colours 
on grey ground, stamped. Lazenby & Liberty. 



Ise-Banko-Yaki. A teapot and cover of biscuit ware, 
with pale green crackled glaze, painted with flowers in 
enamel. " Ise Banko " ware, made in the province of Ise. 
This mark is impressed on the side, the space not being 
enamelled, a.d. 1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 320. 



9 

g 

Kuwana-Yaki. M. Nakayama of Kuwana, in this province, is a 
maker of Banko ware ; a dish with crayfish, crabs, &c, cleverly modelled. 
Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Yokka-ichi-Yaki. A porcelain cup or small bowl, cream colour, 
painted and gilt inside and out, with groups of figures ; made at Yokka- 
ichi in the province of Ise in 1780. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Mokume-Yaki. Shitomi-Sohei, a potter of Yokka-ichi, makes por- 
celain, earthen and stone ware, the last called " Banko-yaki," after the 
inventor — pieces of various colours potted by hand, not thrown or 
moulded ; also vases and other specimens, in which two or more 
coloured clays are blended together throughout the body, producing a 
singular mottled or marbled effect, called " Mokume " ware ; in some 
pieces white porcelain clay is inserted by perforation of the body, in- 
scriptions being thus inlaid so as to show through the entire thickness 
of the vessel ; tea wares of extreme thinness, the handles being made 
movable on a pivot ; the enamel colours on white slip are stated to be a 
peculiarity of this factory. 

Banko-Yaki. Y-Mori of Yokka-ichi makes earthenware dishes 
cleverly decorated with flowers. He is the successor to the inventor of 
Banko-yaki, who was his ancestor, and whose name he continues ; he 
was the master of Shitomei Sohei. 




JAPAN— O WAR r. 385 



OWARI (Province). 



Sedo-Yaki. This ware is made at Sedo in the province of Owari ; 
its origin is unknown. It is, however, stated that in the period of Yengi 
(a.d. 927) a sort of pottery was offered to the Emperor, but none is pre- 
served. Great progress was made by Kado Shirozayemon, who went to 
China in 1223 and studied there for five years ; on his return he went to 
Hizen, and thence to Yamasiro, and attempted to make porcelain ; also at 
Owari and Mino, but did not succeed. Having found suitable clay at 
Sedo, he erected a kiln called Heishi-kama. The articles made from the 
clay he brought from China is called by the tea-clubs Karamono, " China 
clay," while that from Sedo clay is called Ko-sedo, " Old Sedo." These 
are not real porcelain, but a kind of stoneware called by the Japanese 
Shaki. His works are scarce and valuable. Kado-Shirozayemon was 
abbreviated to " Toshiro," and his descendants retained this name to the 
fourth generation. 

In 1801 a potter named Kado-Tamikichi went to Arita in Hizen to 
study porcelain-making, and returned after five years to Sedo in Owari, 
where he succeeded in making Sometsuke, or porcelain decorated in blue 
under the glaze, which has kept on improving up to the present day. 
The best makers at the present day are Kawamoto-Hansuki and Masu-kichi, 
the latter especially in producing large pieces in plates and table-tops from 
five to ten feet in diameter, and lofty vases. Jap. Hist. Coll., 169—174. 

Ki-sedo-Yaki. Coarse brown stoneware, buff glazed, made in imitation 
of ancient pieces of the fifteenth century, called " Ki-sedo " (yellow Sedo), 
which continued to be made in 1770 of various forms. Flower- vases, 
cups, and figures of the seventeenth century of the " Ki-sedo" ware are 
in the Japanese Collection ; a cup (mended) is described as a specimen 
of " Ki-sedo" ware made at Sedo in 1770 in imitation of the productions 
of that fabrique in the fifteenth century. Jap. Hist. Coll., 175. 

Ki-sedo-Yaki, so called from the yellow glaze, was first made about 
1467-86 by Hakuan, of which only six pieces are known. There are 
some of a later period in the Japanese Historical Collection of the dates 
1670, 1770, and 1800 (Nos. 175-177), decorated with the primus or 
plum-blossom, chrysanthemum, and grass ; these are much appreciated 
by the tea-clubs. 

Ki-sedo-Yaki. At Sedo in the thirteenth century brown stoneware 
partly glazed was made by some potters of the name of Toshiro. A 
specimen in the Japanese Collection of a tea-jar with four loop handles 

2 B 



386 JAPAN— OWARI. 

was made by the third Toshiro in 1310 in imitation of the productions 
of the first. Height 10 inches, fap. Hist. Coll., 169. 

Shino-Yaki is made at Shinoyama in the province of Owari, of brown 
stoneware with a white crackle glazed, generally powdered over with gold. 
There are two teacups, a.d. 1570, in the Jap. Hist. Coll., 178. 

Kuro-Yaki. This pottery was made by Hirasawa-Kuro, a native of 
Sedo, about a.d. 1780. He was skilled in imitating ancient pottery. A 
flower-vase of red ware with mottled brown glaze, boat-shaped, is num- 
bered 182 in the Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Gen-min-Yaki. Gen-min was a Corean who settled at Sedo about a.d. 
1590. This pottery is painted roughly with a cobaltic material under the 
glaze, now very scarce. Jap. Hist. Coll., 179. 

Gen-min-Yaki. An earthenware tea-bowl with greenish ornament 
and drab crackled glaze, made by the Corean Gen-min, a.d. 1590. Jap. 
Hist. Coll., 1 / -g. 

Oribe-Yaki. This ware is made at a factory in Owari founded 
about the beginning of the seventeenth century ; it is a coarse ware with 
various coloured glazes ; the most valuable are painted with the plum- 
blossom and latticed bars, which is the crest of the Shogun, Furuta-Oribe- 
nosho ; tea materials and other inferior articles are still made here. A 
pair of plates of a.d. 1670 are in the Jap. Hist. Coll., 180. 

Inu-yama-Yaki. This factory is situated at Inaki-mura, county of 
Niwa, province of Owari, but its origin is unknown. In 1810 an imitation 
of Chinese porcelain called Agave, signifying " Red " ware, decorated with 
red ochre and cobalt, was made there. The trade is still flourishing, both 
in pottery and porcelain. 

Inu-yama-Yaki. A porcelain bowl, pentagonal, rudely 
painted with red and green flowers of " Inu-yama " ware, 
made at Inaki-mura in this province, in imitation of old 
Nankin ware, in i860. This mark in red underneath. Jap. 
Hist. Coll., 183. 
Horaku-Yaki. The factory was erected on the Raku system in 
1820 by Toyosuke, and is situated near the town of Nagoya, in the pro- 
vince of Owari. Latterly a ware covered with lacquer-painting came into 
favour, called "Toyosuke" ware; it is not used by the tea-clubs, but for 
domestic purposes and dinner services. 

Ho-Raku, the name of a fabric (" Profuse enjoyment "), 
stamped in a circle on a round box and cover, of crackled 
pottery coated with black and green lacquer, ornamented 
in red and gold, a medallion in the centre of two chrysan- 
themums and panels enclosing fish. Mark stamped in the 
seal character. Franks Collection. 





JAPAN— OWARI. 387 

Goraku-Yaki. Go-raku yen-set. " Made at the Go- 
raku (Deferred Pleasure) House," stamped with characters 
in relief on a rough red bowl with semi-transparent glaze, 
sometimes attributed to Agahada. The name of the house 
is taken from the Chinese classics. Franks Collection. 

Goraku-Yaki. On a specimen of the Raku ware, 
a cylinder vase with a dragon in relief, on brown 
stoneware, probably by Sei-ni, at Nagoya in Owari. 
H. Doulton, Esq. 

Ruri-Yaki. There are in the Japanese Historical Collection some 
vessels in porcelain, of fine quality, called " Ruri " ware, but the name of 
the province is not stated ; it is probably made at Sedo. No. 595 is a 
Ruri ware cup and cover of deep blue glazed porcelain, with a dragon 
in gold, and another thus described : — " One of the special distinctions 
noticeable in the Ruri ware is the brilliant deep blue enamel glaze, on 
which white spaces are sometimes left of flowers, &c, in low relief, 
cherries, and fruits." 

Ruri-Yaki. A bowl for washing glasses, " Haisen " porcelain, cylin- 
drical form, with raised bamboo leaves and white Japanese characters on 
deep blue enamel ground ; the inside is painted with flowers in blue. 
The inscription in the Hirokana character or running hand is Aki- 
kaze-shi-yu-cJiiri, meaning " The autumn winds brown the leaves of the 
bamboo, and appear to cover them with the dust they raise." A speci- 
men of Ruri ware. Jap. Hist. Coll., 607. 

Owari (second only to Hizen) is the province where the most im- 
portant manufactories of porcelain are carried on ; one of the principal 
manufactories being probably at Okasaki, noted for its fine white por- 
celain. 

Hepburn says, " At Sedo, a town in Owari, much porcelain 
is made. Scdo-mono signifies crockery generally, being derived |bq 
from Sedo, the name of the place, and mono, articles or things." s a 
It was noted for its fine blue and white porcelain (Sowctsukc). a 
Large and massive porcelain greenhouse pots and vases for 
exotic trees and plants are made in Owari, with fine cobalt blue deep 
borders and flowers, which being under the glaze, is impervious to the 
effects of the atmosphere. 

Eggshell porcelain is produced in great perfection at Okasaki in 
this province, as well as the exquisite vases and plateaux with cloisonne 
enamel ornamentation on the porcelain body, some in coloured lacs, 
others in pastes like enamelled metal. 

Sedo-Suke-Yaki. This porcelain was first made by a native of 
Owari, who, about 1764-80, went to Yokkaichi in Ise. A teacup in the 



388 JAPAN— OWARI. 

Japanese Historical Collection, No. i8i,is painted and gilt inside and out 
with figures and bands of ornament. The art has been promoted and 
developed by Tamikichi, who studied at Hizen. 

jm e 

■^5 ^^ Sometsuke-Yaki. Plate of porcelain painted with 

/•& blue flowers, known as " Sometsuke " ware, was made 

I'd&A at Sedo early in the nineteenth century ; mark in blue. 
<5R J a p. Hist. Coll., 582. 



£ 






V 



. Kito-Sedo-Yaki. Ki-to-ken Hoku-han-sci. " Made 

W by Hokuhan at the Kito (Curious Pottery) House." On 

din |^| a blue and white porcelain dish, with river scene and 

gentleman and lady in a boat, with verses above and 

i?M. $t inside. Franks Collection. 

Sedo-Yaki. Kawamoto Masukichi of Nagoya, province of Owari, at 
the Philadelphia Exhibition was commended for a most important col- 
lection of decorative porcelain, some of which were in the highest degree 
remarkable for skill in potting, also for excellent decoration. It reads, 



Nipon-Sedo-Kaivamoto-Masukichi-tzo, "Made by Kawa- 
)\t _!2- moto Masukichi of Sedo in Japan." A porcelain table, the 



9 



yr 1^ stem and foot in one piece, the top in another, 2 ft. 6 in. 

-2tL//m diameter, 2 ft. 4 in. high, is painted with fishes and waves 

vp ^ in a rich blue, the decoration designed by M. Notomi 

K£r / It is now in the .South Kensington Museum. Cost -fix 



Z5 



It is now in the South Kensington Museum. Cost £S3- 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 173. There were several important pieces 
at the Philadelphia Exhibition, notably a table-top 6 feet in diameter and 
some vases 6 feet high, grand examples of the potter's art, designed by 
the same artist in the conventional style of Japan. 

Sedo-Yaki. Reading, Dai Nipon Sedo sei, " Made at 

*JtM ~$C Sedo in Great Japan." On a porcelain bowl covered ex- 

/ ^ > ternally with cloisonne enamel ; on the inside is a landscape 

CZm tl painted in blue and gold and coloured pendants, the outside 

* *~- 1 consists of three medallions, one of which represents the 

ml'i) 1 famous volcanic mountain Fusiyama and diapers on tur- 

?flP< ^r* quoise ground. Franks Collection. 

Nagoya- Yaki. Shippo Kuwaisha of Nagoya in Owari 

_\ makes porcelain coated with cloisonne enamel, with rich 

V effect and harmonious combination. In the Philadelphia 
tt~\ 
r±D Exhibition of 1876 he was commended for successfully 

S manufacturing some ingenious designs skilfully carried out 

with good effect. 






JAPAN-OWARI— KM. 389 

In some of this Nagoya work silver cloisons are also employed, and 
inlaid portions of the same metal. One vase, ornamented with marine 
animals, as the octopus, prawn, &c, is mentioned as a most remarkable 
specimen of skill in carrying out a difficult design in this not very tract- 
able material by Shippo Kuwaisha. Ilansuke of Sedo at the Philadelphia 
Exhibition, 1876, was commended for his decorative porcelain, for good 
potting, and delicate decoration. 

Sedo-Suke-Yaki. Dai Nipou Hansuke set. " Made ,±, ^C_ 
by Hansuke of Great Japan." On a pair of porcelain cups 
coated with cloisonne enamel in medallions and diapers on ^V^ 
a lilac ground, a.d. 1876. Franks Collection. 



4- 



Mida-Yaki. A porcelain kiln was erected at Mida-mura by the 
Prince of Setsu about 1690, for the purpose especially of imitating the 
Chinese celadon, which is much admired, and had a considerable sale, 
but the works have lately declined. 

Mida-Yaki. In the Japanese Historical Collection there is a brazier 
of celadon porcelain in form of a cock, made in 17 10 (No. 363), and 
an open-work cage, also of celadon porcelain, resting on a tripod vase, 
made in 1767 (No. 364). Both these examples are called u Mida" ware, 
but the name of the province is not given. 




TOTOMI or TOOTOMI (Province). 

Shitoro-Yaki. This ware was first made about 1644—47 in a 
village called Shitoro-mura, in the province of Totomi, where the manu- 
facture of tea materials, Sec, is still continued. 

Shitoro-Yaki. In the Japanese Historical Collection is a koro or 
brazier of red ware, glazed, in form of an elephant, made at Shitoro- 
mura, in the province of Totomi, a.d. 1760. Jap. Hist. Coll., 210. 



KII or KAYEI (Province). 



Kishiu-Yaki. This factory is situated at Wagayama, province of 
Kii, and is stated to have been founded 200 years ago. Since the before 
named Yeiraku-Zengoro went there by order of the Prince of Kii for the 
purpose of promoting the art, great progress has taken place. In the 
Japanese Historical Collection is a porcelain vase, 15! inches high, with 



39° 



JAPAN— KIT— OOMI. 




IS 


7»» 


IE 


W 


M 


7C 


Hi 


* 




impressed ornament, the interspaces coloured purple, the 
whole covered with a crackled glaze ; a specimen of 
" Kishiu " ware, made at Waga-yama in this province, 
a.d. 1800; it bears this mark, Kai-raku yen-sei, "Made 
at the Kairaku (Mingled Enjoyment) House." The mark 
stamped. Jap. Hist. Coll., 289. 

Kishiu-Yaki. Ka-yei git an nen Nan-ki Otoko-yama 
set. " Made at Otoko-yama in southern Kii, in the first 
year of Ka-yei," corresponding with a.d. 1848. On Jap- 
anese porcelain, with designs outlined in relief, slightly 
crackled, dark violet ground and floral pattern. It is called 
" Kishiu " ware. Franks Collection. 

Kishiu-Yaki. A mark reading Nanki Otoko-yama, on 
some small basins, turquoise glaze outside, white within, 
of Kishiu porcelain ; made at Otoko-yama in Southern 
Kii. Messrs. Lazenby & Liberty. 

Sanrakuyen-Yaki. A dish with a cover, " Tata- 
mono," of Kishiu porcelain, of flattened spherical form, 
with moulded flower ornament, one of the forms of 
Chcoit, " Long life," glazed turquoise and purple. A 
specimen of San-raktt-yen ("Three enjoyments") ware of 
the nineteenth century. Jap. Hist. Coll., 586. 



TOSANDO (Territory). 



*X 



OOMI (Province). 



Shigaraki-Yaki is made at Nagano-mura in Shigaraki, county of 
Koya, in the province of Oomi ; origin unknown, but supposed to be the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. The old ware, Ko-Shigaraki, of the 
fifteenth century, are Nos. 202, 203, Jap. Hist. Coll. In the beginning of 
the sixteenth century the ceremony of the tea-clubs flourished, and a 
renowned tea-drinker called Sho-ott encouraged the making of tea-vases 
and flower-vases simply for the tea-clubs : these were called Shott-ou Shi- 
garaki. It is a stoneware, very hard and glazed, with enamel of a deep yel- 
lowish-red colour. It was favoured by these clubs from its resemblance 
to the Corean. Some of this ware has beautifully modelled objects in 
relief, fishes in all attitudes, tortoises, frogs, and water-plants, faithfully 



JAPAN— OOMI. |qi 

copied from nature, full of life and vigour, in natural colours. A very 
fine example is in Messrs. Lazenby & Liberty's Collection. 

The ware made between 1610 and 1650 is called Solan Shigaraki, 
from the name of one of the tea-clubs, Jap. I list. Coll., 204, made 
of white clay and fairly glazed ; and the tea-ceremony being then at 
its height, the factory was started to supply the utensils. Subsequently 
a ware called Gctalia was produced, the name being impressed on the 
bottom of the ware — "a mark like the teeth of a wooden clog" (wheel ?). 
In 1828 the Taikun of Tokugawa ordered a teapot called Koshishiro- 
tsuke-mimi, since which they have become celebrated for preserving the 
flavour of the tea. In the vicinity are eight villages, the most prominent 
being Kamiyama, with Teshi, for inferior wares. 

Same-Yaki. Some specimens of Shigaraki ware have a rough sur- 
face, with drops of glaze to imitate shark's skin, whence it is called Sanic- 
Yaki, or shark's-skin ware. 

Shigaraki-Yaki. A jar for keeping rice-seed to be steeped in water, 
of grey stoneware, with mottled brown glaze, and an incense-burner 
of light red ware, beehive shape, are described as " Shigaraki " ware, 
made in this province, a.d. 1420 (No. 203). Other specimens of the same 
ware date about 1660 and 1800. Jap. Hist. Coll., 601. 

Iga-Yaki. Two other specimens of coarse earthenware, glazed, are 
called "Iga" ware, made in the province of Oomi in a.d. 1650. This 
factory, adjoining Shigaraki, was founded about the same time and for a 
similar purpose. Two examples of the seventeenth century are in the 
Japanese Historical Collection, Nos. 205 and 207. 

Iga-Yaki. A penholder, " Fude-tale." A cylindrical 
earthenware vase, thickly enamelled with a floral design in 
blue and other colours. Specimen of " Iga " ware made at 
Kimpozan, a famous mountain in the province of Oomi. 
Stamped mark at the bottom. Height 5] inches. South 
Kensington Museum, 605—677. 

Zeze-Yaki. This is produced at Zeze, near the Lake of Oomi, 
founded about 1644—47 t0 make on an extensive scale tea- vessels of a 
sort of stoneware glazed. Two jars, for ground tea, with ivory lids, 
are exhibited in the Japanese Historical Collection. Incense-boxes and 
flower-vases are in the same collection, dating from 1650. 

It is a red stoneware, partially coated with a dark-brown glaze and a 
yellow streak. 




392 JAPAN— MOUSASI-YEDO. 

^ MOUSASI (Province). 

Tokio (Yedo) is on the east coast of Niphon, and Yokohama, 

.=fc its shipping port, is about sixteen miles distant. Yedo was for- 

_ffi merly the residence of the Shogun, or, as he was subsequently 

/fc called, the Tycoon, the temporal Emperor of Japan ; but since 

the revolution and downfall of the Tycoon it has become the seat 

of Government and residence of the Mikado, and it may therefore now 

be called the capital of Japan. Tokio is a suburb of Yedo, where the 

principal commerce is carried on, and is a great mart for all Japanese 

produce. The collection of Japanese art at the Alexandra Palace was 

selected and consigned to England from a large depot called Kirm-Kosho 

Kuwaisha, " The First Japanese Manufactory and Trading Company 

at Tokio," and there is now established a school of art styled "The 

Association of Painters of Porcelain at Tokio." We see by the invoice 

that a great portion of the pottery, porcelain, and other wares from the 

manufacturing districts were sent there to be decorated. 

The shops at Yokohama being so much frequented by foreigners, are 
plentifully stored with all sorts of porcelain, lacquer-work, enamels, 
bronzes, embroideries, &c, at moderate prices, and are eagerly purchased 
by those who cannot detect the difference between the showy, coarse 
work and the fine, highly finished rarities. These inferior articles are 
exposed on the lower floor, and can be reproduced in any quantity to 
meet the demand. The choicest are kept in the upper rooms in lac and 
inlaid cabinets. The oldest examples are, as a rule, much superior in 
point of excellence; they are highly prized, and even sought for by the 
wealthy natives themselves. The prices asked for them would frighten 
any but an experienced collector ; they are not in common demand and 
cannot be multiplied. Lately many fine examples, which had remained 
as heirlooms in the possession of the Da'imios, have been sent to the 
shops at Yokohama for sale. 

Sheba-Yaki. A factory near Tokio produces the elegant eggshell 
cups decorated in gold and colours, sometimes enveloped in minute wicker- 
work, which are known as Sheba-yaki. The manufacture of eggshell por- 
celain is said to be only recently introduced into Japan. A set of Saki 
cups, in the Franks Collection, of eggshell porcelain, painted and gilt, 
with busts of Japanese ladies, has on each the artist's signature, Sho- 
getsu-ro-jin, " The Old Man Shogetsu," and a seal signifying " seventy- 
two years old," of Sheba ware, made at Tokio, No. 1 1 18. 

Another eggshell, set with landscapes, artist's name, Getsu-ho, and 
three others with the name Shitn-zan. 



JAPAN— YKDO. 



193 



Yi do-Banko-Yaki. About the year 1680 a man named Banko 
Kichibeyc established a kiln at the village of Kcmumemura, on the 
boundaries of Tokio, which was considered a branch of the Kutani, in 
the province of Kaga. The articles from the kiln, the character and 
ornamentation of which resemble in some degree the Satsuma ware, are 
now known as Yedo Banko. Jap. Hist. Coll., No. 315 of 1690, and No. 
316 of 1759. This establishment is discontinued, and the articles 
known as " Bamboo " ware are made at Kuwana, Yokkaichi, or their 
surrounding districts, in the province of Ise. 

Yedo-Banko-Yaki. A stoneware water-jar, thick and heavy, with 
polychrome decoration of landscapes, dragons, flowers, and various 
diapers. A specimen of the "Yedo Banko" ware, made by Banko 
Kichibeye at Kemumemura, a.d. 1C90. Height, 12 in. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Yedo-Banko-Yaki. A stoneware vase, crackled glaze, 
painted in red with buildings, round the neck a band of 
spikes. This mark imprinted on the bottom. " Yedo Banko " 
ware, made at Kemumemura, a.d. 1750. Jap. Hist. Coll., 316. 

Yedo-Banko-Yaki. A fan-shaped dish of stoneware, 
crackled glaze, painted with a coast scene of colours, some 
being enamel. This first mark impressed on the bottom ; 
made at Kemumemura, a.d. 1750. The lower mark is in 
front in the diapered border, and may refer to the name of 
the harbour. Jap. Hist. Coll., 317. 

Imado-Yaki. In the northern part of Tokio, called Imado-machi, 
are numerous kilns for making an inferior pottery for domestic vessels, 
tiles, &c. A mottled ware of black and white clay, and a kind of fa}'ence 
with a glaze like the Raku ware, w 7 as made here a few years ago. 

No. 259 is a brazier of black glazed earthenware, the bottom engraved 
with a seal, carried by a red silk sling ; made at Imado in the northern 
district of Tokio, 1840. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Raku-Yaki. In the Middle Ages a lacquerer in Kioto 
named Haridsu made a splendid lacquer encrusted with 
flowers and insects on the Raku ware, made by himself. 
This art of modelling was followed by a native of Kiyoto 
named Miura-Kenya, who went to Tokio about twenty years 
since, and still retains the Raku factory in Asakusa in the north of Tokio. 
A bowl of thick brown ware, partly covered with a rich green glaze, the 
rest of the surface filled with flowers, which have the appearance of being 
inlaid. His works are close imitations of Nature. The traditions of 
Haridsu have been followed by Benshi and Kenzan of Kioto. Jap. Hist. 
Coll., 251. 





g 6> 



394 JAPAN— YEDO. 

Raku-Yaki. On the bank of the river Sumida-kawa in Tokio lives 
a potter named Kozawa Benshi, who was much interested in making the 
Raku ware. In later years he modelled figures in terra-cotta from 
designs in children's picture-books, with the help only of the spatula and 
knife ; thus he resuscitated the art practised by Miura-Kenya, who is still 
living at a very advanced age. In the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876 
his terra-cottas were commended for great force of expression and 
singular skill in conveying the meaning of the groups of figures. A tray 
of red and black lacquer, inlaid with small earthenware shells and a young 
crab ; made by Kozawa Benshi in Tokio, a.d. 1850. Jap. Hist. Coll., 252. 

Raku-Yaki. Kozawa-Benshi excelled in portraying ex- 
pression in the human countenance and illustrating legendary 
subjects in fine white ware, partly coloured and glazed. No. 
— •"■ /$\ 253 is a man seated holding a fan ; No. 254 represents 
*f ^£ jk ^ e ^evil disguised as a grandmother, seated on the ground, 
>7v /J\ with an expression of terror in her countenance ; one of 
the disguises he assumed (according to the legend) in his 
search to recover his lost arm. No. 255 is a small box 
of punctured ornament containing an object resembling a 
human arm, probably that he was in quest of. All these bear the seal 
of Kozawa Benshi, a.d. 1875. J a P- Hist. Coll. 

To the same potter we may attribute a box containing a collection 
of imitation shells in enamelled ware, remarkable for truthfulness to 
Nature and skill in colouring, in the possession of Mr. D. R. Holt of 
Liverpool. In the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876 were two groups of 
an old woman essaying to kill a girl, who is protected by her prayers to 
her deit}', and of Chinji Hachelo, a hero of great strength, who required 
three strong men to bend his bow. 

Ota-Yaki. The kiln at Ota, near Yokohama, was established after 
the opening of the harbour, by a merchant of Yokohama named Suzaki 
Yasubeye, for the purpose of imitating the Satsuma ware. He brought 
from Kiyomidsu a porcelain-maker named Kozan. The imitation was so 
successful as to materially reduce the value of the original Satsuma. 

pjk ti» Makuzu-Yaki. Ma-kuzu-yo Ko-zan-tzo. " Made by 

^ Ko-zan at the Makuzu kiln." Found on porcelain with 

LLj ^ details in relief in biscuit. One of the Kozan family from 

,24b gw Makusu-gahara, near Kioto, went to Ota near Yokohama, 

*^ = ^ a.d. 1S75. Franks Collection. 



13I 



I 



.^|;T Tokio-Yaki. Hiyochiyen of Tokio, a decorator of 

P (H porcelain of the finest character, 1875, made at Ovvari, 

Ti ^u \Z Arita, and other places ; some are designed by Mr. Notomi. 

S?ft| 



JAPAN— MINO— SIMODSUKE— YETSIZEN. , y - 



TOSANDO (Territory). 
cfffa MI NO (Province). 

Mino-Yaki. This ware was made at several villages in the province 
of Mino, especially at Tajimimura. During the seventeenth century the 
Emperor encouraged the manufacture ; it was confined to earthenware 
until 1810, since which time the real porcelain, called Sliin-sei, "new 
thing," was made. There are still 110 kilns making porcelain decorated 
with cobalt under the glaze. 



Mino-Yaki. A pair of porcelain flower-vases with 
reticulated ornament painted in blue, with handles in form 
of fishes, made by Kado Gosuke of Tajimimura, in this 
province, a.d. 1875, are in the Jap. Hist. Coll., 184. 



T 

SIMODSOUKE (Province). 




Kabasaki-Yaki. At Kabasaki, in this province, a potter named 
Hashimoto Chiwhei has latterly established a kiln where he produces a 
ware similar to Banko Yuusedsu, with whom he studied, from materials 
found in the vicinity, but the copies do not equal the originals. 



FOKOUROKOUDO (Territory). 
YETSIZEN (Province). 



Mi-kuni-Yaki. " Three Kingdoms," the name of a place in 
the province of Yetsizen. This mark is on an oblong stand, 
containing a small pot of grey stoneware ; the upper part is 
covered with a deep green glaze, red border, the sides pierced 
and edges gilt. Marked in red. Franks Collection. 



39 6 JAPAN— KANGA, 



n a. 



KANGA or KAGA (Province). 



This ware is a porcelain of close compact fracture and very durable, 
the enamel colours being fixed at a great heat, the glaze is seldom 
crackled, and the reds as well as all the other colours firmly burnt in. It 
is of a very superior description to the fa3'ence of Satsuma ; in fact, alto- 
gether distinct both in body and decoration, although both have been so 
recently brought to our notice. It is richly ornamented on a border or 
ground of brick red and gold, with irregular compartments of figures and 
flowers ; the painting is infinitely more minute and laboured than the 
Satsuma, but perhaps not so artistic, which may be accounted for by the 
difference of material on which the artist has to work, and greater freedom 
of touch can be displayed on the fayence, subject only to a lower degree of 
heat in the kiln than on porcelain, which requires a more ardent firing. 
This ware is much prized in Japan on account of its fine enamel colours 
and elaborate ornamentation, frequently depicting historical and religious 
subjects, battles, &c, in which multitudes of figures are grouped together, 
flowers, birds, &c. A sort of stoneware is occasionally met with on early 
specimens, but is the exception to the rule. The province of Kanga is 
situated on the north-west of the island of Nipon, and is subject to the 
Prince of Kanga. The manufactories are in a district called Kutani or the 
Seven Valle}'s, and in an old map of the sixteenth century, copied in 
Kaempfer's work, the seven mountains are clearly defined. 

Kutani- Yaki. This ware received its name from the place where the 
clay was found, viz., Kutani-mura, in the province of Kanga, but which is 
unsuitable from its climate for the establishment of a factory. Its origin 
dates from about the end of the sixteenth century, and is said to have 
been founded by a subject of the Prince of Daigogi named Tamura-Gon- 
zayemon, who learned porcelain-making at Hizen. The early wares were 
a kind of Sometsuke or blue painted heightened with gold ; afterwards, 
still progressing, deep green, light purple, or yellow colours came into 
use. Kuzumi-Morikage, a talented painter, went to Kanga, and greatly 
promoted the art. In 1650, Godo Saijoro, who invaded Corea, brought 
over a number of porcelain-makers with their families, who settled 
first at Kagoshima and afterwards at Chiusa, province of Osumi, when the 
Ko-Chiusa-yaki was made. Eventually they settled at Nawashirogawa 
near Kagoshima, and after many experiments succeeded in making the 
Satsuma ware. Until a few years ago the Coreans were kept entirely 
separate from the Japanese population, intermarriage being strictly pro- 
hibited, thus preserving to a certain extent their customs and language. 



JAPAN— KANGA. 



397 



Since the establishment of the Central Government, however, they enjoy 
the same rights and liberties as other Japanese subjects, and all of them, 
numbering about 1450, are engaged in making pottery. Another kind of 
ware was introduced from the Corca, made of a grey-white clay, decorated 
by inlaying white clay in various designs like the pottery of Yadsu-shiro. 
Jap. Hist. Co//., 299. 

Kutani-Yaki. Godo Saijoro erected a kiln at Kutani about 1650 
and commenced the well-known manufacture of porcelain of red ground 
heightened with gold, which is at the present day so highly esteemed. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the factory declined, and 
no fine work was produced. 

About 1S04— 17 a potter named Yoshitaga erected a kiln at Yama- 
shiro-mura, and endeavoured to restore the ancient trade ; and forty years 
ago a porcelain-painter named Shozo resumed the ancient style of painting 
practised by Morikage in the sixteenth century and Saijoro about a.d. 
1650. Since then it has greatly advanced, and there are at present 
about ten kilns at Terai-mura and at Kanazawa-cho, in the counties of 
Yenuma and Nomi. Fresh progress was made when, seventeen years 
ago, the porcelain-maker Yeiraku went there, assisted by Shozo and 
Ywzan, in the ornamentation called " Kinzan." It may be noted that 
porcelain in the white has frequently been sent from other factories to be 
decorated at Kutani, especially from Arita, which will account for the 
Kutani mark being found on porcelain of varied composition. 

Kutani-Yaki. On a large basin of beautiful deco- 
ration and workmanship, with central radiating design, ^^ 
and eight circular medallions of figures and birds, inside T7 Tj LJ 

and out, in red and gold. From the Paris Collection, . 

• • 1/ \ f 

1867, now in the possession of Mr. J. L. Bowes. This ^OsL f 

has the Kutani mark as well as the name of the pro- ^ V 
vince of Kanga. 




Kutani-Yaki. On a covered basin, deep red 
ground with gold scrolls. In the centre of the interior 
is a man fishing, and on the exterior are eleven medal- 
lions, with drawings of figures, birds, and foliage. The 
Kutani mark is accompanied by that of the province of 
Kanga. In Mr. J. L. Bowes' Collection. 



Kutani-Yaki. The two upper characters read 
"Kutani" (the seven valle}'s); the lowest is Tzo, "made 
at." On a polychrome plate with flowers and two 
quails. 




39» 



JAPAN— KANGA. 



4 




x * 
a h 
« 



** ;& 



Kutani-Yaki. Bowl of brown earthenware with 
patches of enamelled diaper in red and yellow, irregu- 
larly placed on the brown unglazed ground. The 
mark stamped at the bottom. Jap. Hist. Coll., 613. 

Kutani-Yaki. A deep dish of Kutani porcelain, 
i6h in. diameter, is in the Japanese Historical Collec- 
tion, No. 309, the centre painted with firs and bamboos 
in green and purple on a yellow ground ; the hollow with 
trellis and wave ornament in the same colours, thick 
rich glaze; painted mark at the bottom, meaning Fou- 
kon, " Happiness," frequently found on this ware ; the 
date ascribed to it is a.d. 1620. 



Kutani-Yaki. Dai Nipon Kutani-tzo. " Made 
at Kutani in Great Japan." On a cup painted with 
flowers in black, red, and gold. Franks Collection. 



In the Japanese Historical Collection is a dish of yellow glazed 
stoneware painted in red and gold, with a peacock and flowers ; marked 
in red, Dai Nipon Kutani Ka-cho-kin-sei, " Made by Kachokin of Kutani 
in Great Japan." 



*. 



1-4-* 



Kutani-Yaki. The Kutani and maker's 
marks on a basin of Kanga ware, richly deco- 
rated with three large medallions of a figure, a 
landscape, and a bouquet of flowers. In posses- 
sion of Mr. G. A. Audsley. 




Kutani-Yaki. A pair of porcelain flower- 
vases decorated with flowers and birds in colours 

vl$& and gold, bear the painted mark of Ywzan at 
Kutani. Mark in a circle, commencing at top 

£~ and reading to the left — Dai Nipon Kutani, &c. 
a.d. 1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 313. 



Kutani-Yaki. Another pair of porcelain vases, 16 
inches high, painted with dragons and flowers in colours 
and gold ; on the lower part a medallion with inscription, 
and on the bottom a red seal. Made by Uchiumi at 
Kutani. a.d. 1875. Jap. Hist. Coll., 314. 




JAPAN— TANBA— IDSUMO. 399 

Kutani-Yaki. Tou-zan. A maker's name under a 
large Kanga-Kutani ware basin, decorated in red and 
gold ; inside a man praying at the tomb in a storm of 
lightning and rain ; outside are three figures and three 
rosettes. In Mr. J. L. Bowes' Collection. 

Oiii-Yaki. This ware comes from a kiln at Ohi _ 

Machi, on the boundary of the town of Kanazawa, province 7[>T~f\ "it" 
of Kanga. It was founded in 1C80 after the Raku system ' 

by a man named Chozayemon, and has been encouraged by some of the 
tea-clubs. It is somewhat similar to the Raku, but the clay is rather 
red and more dense ; yellowish glaze, with a sort of lustre. On some of 
these articles is engraved a mark of a whirlpool, while those made by 
Chozayemon, a descendant of the founder, bear a seal with the character 
of Ohi. Jap. Hist. Coll., Nos. 249, 250. Dates 1790 and 1820. The 
inhabitants of the village are nearly all engaged in making pottery, 
with a kiln in each house, and produce objects of domestic use. 



Ohi-Yaki. A coarse brown glazed earthenware is 
made in this province, called " Raku " ware, at Ohi Machi. 
Specimens of a.d. 1790 and 1820 are in the Jap. Hist. Coll., 
249, 250. 



SAN IN DO (Territory). 

*^ TANBA (Province). 






I&, 



Tanba-Yaki. A red stoneware like the Corean, with greenish- 
brown glaze. The specimens made between 1520 and 1580 are called 
Ko-Tanba. A water-jar, in form of the trunk of a tree, ascribed to a.d. 
1620, and a jar for ground tea, of red ware with mottled glaze, made 
about 1670. Jap. Hist. Coll., 208, 209. 






<% 



IDSUMO (Province). 

Idsumo-Yaki. This ware is made at Madsuye. The kiln was estab- 
lished in 1660 by a potter from Hagi named Genbeye, as he used the 
clay from Hagi. In the beginning of the nineteenth century an experi- 
enced potter named Hanroka, who was patronised by Prince Fumai, a 



40o 



JAPAN— IDSUMO— IWAMI. 



distinguished member of the tea-clubs, made ware in imitation of ancient 
vessels, which are highly valued for their properties and their tasteful 
make. Jap. Hist. Coll., 223. The ware from this kiln is called Raku- 
zan-yama, and consists not only of tea utensils, but other articles of 
a character similar to the ancient. 

Fushina-Yaki. This factory was established at Madsuye in Idsumo 
by Prince Fumai about 18 10. A fine clay with glaze of different colours, 
some decorated under the glaze. In later years the ware was decorated 
after the designs of Satsuma, which is now made on a large scale. Nos. 
224—230 illustrate these. Among them is a pair of candlesticks with 
celadon glaze and other varieties. 

j0 ^ Fushina-Yaki. A bucket of brown ware with red 

^^^j W glaze mottled green and brown, called " Fushina " ware, 
^ i r made at Madsuye in 1820. This mark is cut in the bottom. 

V- J a P- Hist - Co// ; 22 4- 

Fushina-Yaki. Stone-coloured ware with celadon glaze, 

Gv^iJ made at the same place in 1830. A pair of pricket candle- 
sticks and dish of Fushina ware, made at Madsuye, in the 

l^jBfj Japanese Historical Collection (No. 225), bear this seal inside 
on the foot, and pieces in imitation of Satsuma ware, 1840. 

Fushina-Yaki. On a Saki pot of buff glazed ware 
mottled with green, with vine handle twisted round with 
wire ; under the glaze is painted a gourd plant in black ; 
made at Madsuye ; outside is painted the name of the maker, 
Kano Itsu-sen-in ; date 1 840. This stamp is underneath at 
bottom. Jap. Hist. Coll., 230. 

Fushina-Yaki. Earthenware tobacco or tea jar, the 
glaze mottled red, yellow, and aventurine. The bottom 
stamped with a seal. Made in the province of Idsumo, 
eighteenth century. Jap. Hist. Coll., 581. 




SL 



IWAMI (Province). 



Soma-Yaki. This ware was made at Nagamura, province of Ivvami, 
and is a sort of grey stoneware painted with running horses and horses 
tied to stakes, in a vigorous black sketch, which is supposed to have 
been first painted by Kano-Naonobu, a distinguished artist, about a.d. 
1670. The name of the ware is derived from the family name of the 
prince who presided over the province, and the design was probably 
made by his order ; many of the pieces bear his crest or badge. Those 
made previously are not decorated with horses. Jap. Hist. Coll., 306, 308. 



JAPAN— IWAMI— HARIMA. 

Soma-Yaki. This badge of the Prince of Soma is 
found in relief on many pieces of Soma ware, accompanied 
by the stamp of Soma, given below, on pieces decorated 
with horses, &c. 

Soma-Yaki. A square basket, with a horse prancing 
in the centre tied to a stake, in relief, outlined in brown, 
open-work border. South Kensington Museum, presented 
by Mr. A. W. Franks. 

Soma-Yaki. A furnace (Jiouro) of coarse grey glazed 
ware, with a herd of galloping horses outlined in brown. 
" Made at Nagamura, in the province of Iwanii." This 
mark is painted inside, meaning Fuh, "Happiness." a.d. 
1840. Jap. Hist. Coll., 307. 

Soma-Yaki. Yen-Zan, a maker's name, stamped on a 
cup of Soma ware. Franks Collection. 

Soma-Yaki. Kane-Shige, a maker's name, stamped on 
cups of this ware, accompanying the Soma mark. Franks 
Collection. 



401 



°o° 

cWo 




SANYODO (Territory). 
HARIMA (Province). 




Tozan-Yaki. The works are situated at the town of Himeji, in the 
province of Harima. It was founded by the Sagai family as a private 
kiln, imitating the Arita porcelain. The tea-services, &c, called Migakite 
were made in imitation of the Chinese celadon and the Sometsuke or 
blue painted porcelain. 



Tozan-Yaki. A specimen of " Tozan " porcelain, 
made at Himeji, painted in blue with landscapes and orna- 
mental details. Marked underneath, a.d. 1820. Franks 
Collection. 



3*g 



Tozan-Yaki. A pair of porcelain vases of " Tozan " ware, painted 
with flowers in blue, with a blue mark underneath. Jap. Hist. Coll., 
366. Mr. Franks has a porcelain bottle of pale green celadon glaze 
with two fish handles, inscribed " Made at Himeji." 

2 c 



4 02 JAPAN— HARIMA— BIZEN. 



Tozan-Yaki. A pair of candlesticks of porcelain, 
painted in blue with landscapes and ornamental details. 
Specimen of " Tozan " ware " made at Himeji," in the 
province of Harima. The mark of the place in blue at 
bottom, a.d. 1820. Jap. Hist. Coll., 365. 



Migakite-Yaki. Made in the province of Harima, of a very solid 
and glossy character, at an early period. No. 196 is a cup of red and 
green mottled ware of a.d. 1670. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

A jar and cover of olive-coloured glaze with ribbed 
lines and studs, of a.d. 1760. It bears a stamp as in the 
margin. Jap. Hist. Coll., 197. 





ik 



BIZEN (Province). 

At Bizen is made a hard stoneware with a brown glaze in various 
forms of deities, birds, and animals, gods of the merchants, &c. Among 
others, we have seen the god of fortune (Tossitoku), with a high oviform 
cap, large ears, and long beard, holding a fan in his hand ; and the god 
of merchandise or riches (Daikoku), with large ears and long beard, 
seated on a barrel or bale of rice, holding a mallet, with one or more rats 
at his feet ; and the beardless Neptune of the Japanese (Jebis), with high 
gourd-shaped hat, holding a fish across his body, and a fishing-rod ; an 
eagle on a rock. 

Bizen-Yaki. Bizen ware is of three kinds, Bizcn-yahi, Imbc-yaki, 
and Hitasaki-yaki. Their origin is unknown, but it is supposed that a 
kind of earthenware from the reign of Shu-jin (97 to 30 b.c.) was formed 
into vessels for religious festivals. 

The manufacture of stoneware, which is still continued, commenced 
in 1 2 10, and was made into ware for germinating seeds, &c, called Ko- 
Bizen (Old Bizen). The Bizen-yaki commenced in 1580. For vessels 
of domestic use it is hard and solid, suitable for preserving liquids, 
usually of glazed red ware. 

Ko-Bizen-Yake In the Japanese Historical Collection the vessels 
called Ko-Bizen are tea-vases, water-jugs with ivory covers, of grey 
earthenware, reddened on one side, or of reddish ware with partly 
coloured glazes, dates 1370 and 1400. From the sixteenth to the eight- 
eenth century Bizen ware consisted of deities, kylins, tea-ware, incense 
vases, &c, of the same coarse red earth, partly glazed. It is continued 
to the present day. 




JAPAN— BIZEN— NAGATO. 403 



Bizen-Yaki. This mark is on a square red glazed ware 
chest of four tiers and a lid, with incised decoration. On 
the cover is a turtle with feathery tail. A specimen of Bizen 
ware made in the province of Bizen, a.d. 1840. The mark 
is incised. Jap. I list. Coll., 195. 



Hitasuki-Yaki is so called from its resemblance to a knotted cord, 
and is another variety of the Bizen ware, mottled or marked with red, of 
sandy porous clay, sixteenth century. No. 198 is an ash-bowl for cere- 
monious tea-parties, a.d. 1579. Jap. Hist. Coll. No. 199 is another bowl, 
made in 1850, of a similar character. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Imbe-Yaki is a red ware made as early as. the fourteenth century; 
and there are at the present day six families engaged in making pottery. 
No. 200 is a jar for ground tea, twelve-sided, and an ivory cover of a.d. 
1640. Jap. Hist. Coll. No. 201 is a flower- vase in form of a dice-box, 
of grey ware, partly glazed, a.d. 1720. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Tokonabe-Yaki. Vessels of rude Japanese pottery, with brown 
glaze ; so described ; made probably in this province. 



-C 



j>C NAGATO (Province). 

Ko-Hagi-Yaki. A ware made at Hagi in the province of Nagato, 
of unknown origin. Tea materials were made in 15 10. A century later 
a Corean named Rikei, called also in Japan Korai-Saiyemon, settled 
here and made fayence. One part of the raised edge on the bottom of 
the cups made by the Coreans is always cut out in a triangular form ; 
the same peculiarity is found on the wares made in the island of Fushina, 
in the province of Higo, and in the early Satsuma ware, where the art 
is said to have been introduced from the Corea. The works up to the 
period Sho-Jw (1652) are generally called Ko-Jiagi. 

At the close of the seventeenth century a prince of Mori sent to 
the Corea for workmen to assist in his fabric at Fagui in Nagato. 

Madsu-moto-Yaki. Ware made at Madsu-moto, in the province ot 
Nagato, founded by a native of Yamato called Mtwa-Kiu-Setsu, who 
was also a maker of the Raku ware, and settled here. He erected a kiln 
on the Corean system. He died about 1700 at the age of eighty. His 
descendant, Tozo, in the seventh generation, still pursues the trade. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 220, 221. 



404 JAPAN— AWAJI— TOSA. 

Tovo-ura-Yaki. Founded about 1720 for the manufacture of terra- 
cotta ash-bowls for tea-parties. The kiln is situated at the foot of a 
hill called Toyo-ura-yama, in the province of Nagato. No. 236 is a 
specimen made in 1846. The Japanese Historical Collection described 
a terra-cotta ash-bowl, mottled black, incurved rim, of a.d. 1846, made at 
Toyo-ura. A pot and cover of porcelain, crackled inside, outside of dark 
green lacquer, with decorations of a dragon, fishes, and phoenixes in 
gold, made at Toyo-ura, is in the Franks Collection. 



NANKAIDO (Territory). 



^^L AWAJI (Island). 



Awaji produces faj'ence very similar to the Satsuma and Awata 
wares in colour, paste, and decoration. Some very fine specimens were 
shown at the Vienna International Exhibition. Awaji being near Osaka, 
it was in easy communication with Awata, from which it is evidently 
copied. 

Awaji- Yaki. This ware is manufactured in a village called Iga-na- 
mura, in the island of Awaji, opposite Hiogo. The kiln was erected 
about forty years ago by Kashiu Minpei, who learned the art from Ogata 
Shinsui in Gogosaka of Kioto. It has a delicate tint like the Awata ware. 
This is sometimes called Minpei-yaki ; his son, Sanpei, still carries 
on the works ; both porcelain and cream-coloured ware are made here. 
Japanese Historical Collection No. 284 is a flower- vase of yellow glazed 
porcelain, representing a green bamboo stem, made by Kashiu Minpei, 
a.d. 1830. Height, 12 inches. No. 286, a cup by Minpei, of yellow 
glazed porcelain, partly facetted, bears the Tching-hoa mark, made in 
1830. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

?y? Q Sanpei-Yaki. Porcelain tea-service, painted in enamel 

/v. -fjr colours with flowers and fruit. On the bottom in gold the 

jM J maker's name, Kashiu Sanpei, in the island of Awaji, a.d. 

— > /V l &75 ; reading, " Ni-pon Awaji Kashiu Sanpei." Jap. Hist. 

I ££ Coll., 288. 



% 



fc. 



TOSA (Province). 



Odo-Yaki. This ware is produced at Odo, in the province of Tosa, 
founded by Sohaku, who studied with Ninsei in the seventeenth century. 



JAPAN— TSIKOUSEN— HIGO. 405 

Odo-YakI. A tea-bowl of brown ware with whitish crackled glaze, 
painted with various subjects in black-blue; a specimen of " Odo " ware, 
made in the province of Tosa, a.d. 1800. Jap. Hist. Coll., 283. 



SAIKAIDO (Territory). 
T SL^ TSIKOUSEN (Province). 

Takatori-Yaki. The factory is at Sobara-mura, in the province of 
Tsikousen, founded in the fifteenth century in imitation of the Chinese. 
The most eminent maker was Hachizo ; it is a red-colcured clay with 
marbled glaze ; tea-jars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are 
numbered 214—217, Jap. Hist. Coll. Some have a fine metallic lustre 
from oxide of iron used in the glaze ; this kind is called Yenshiu-Takatori. 

The examples of earthenware of this province are of a coarse char- 
acter, drab and red clay with brown and yellow glazes ; some are engraved 
with storks, but mostly plain. It was called " Takatori " ware, and made 
at Sobara-mura, used to hold incense, jars for water, and ground tea ; the 
dates ascribed to them are 1 520-1640, 1690, and 1770. Jap. Hi.<t. Coll., 
214-216. 

Yan ag aw a- Yak 1. A kind of terra-cotta came from this factory at 
Yanagawa, in the province of Tsikousen, which was founded in the period 
Kei-chiyo, 1596. The kiln still exists. There are two ash-bowls used 
at tea-parties, with incised and impressed ornaments of 1820 and 1841. 
Jap. Hist Coll., 234, 235. 



St, 



HI GO (Province). 



Yadsu-Shiro-Yaki is produced from a village called Shirno Toyohara, 
near the town of Yatsuhashi, province of Higo, founded about 1620-40, 
in the style of Satsuma. It is a hard porcelain of grey clay decorated 
by inlaying white clay in small designs, which is much admired. Dates, 
1 770- 1 820. Jap. Hist. Coll., 302-305. The art seems to have declined 
lately, and the fine old pieces are scarce. 

Yadsu-Shiro-Yaki. In the Japanese Collection, No. 304 
is a vase of grey porcelain with crackled glaze, incised with 
water-plants and a band of fret pattern filled in with white ; 



406 JAPAN— HIGO—HIZEN. 

on the bottom is this stamp in the Katakana character. " Yadsu-Shiro " 
ware, a.d. 1800, in the province of Higo. 

Yadsu-Siiiro-Yaki. A jar of grey-coloured porcelain, with an 
incised pattern of closely arranged parallel lines filled in with white ; 
Yadsu-Shiro ware, in the province of Higo, a.d. 1720. Height, 16 inches, 
Jap. Hist. Co//., 302. 

Mishima-Yaki. A brownish glazed earthenware bottle marked with 
white lines ; a specimen of Mishima ware. Jap. Hist. Coll., 591. 



nt 



JO HIZEN (Province). 

m 

All the well-known Old Japan porcelain, which was the principal 
exportation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, came from the 
province of Hizen in the island of Kiu-Siu, south of Nipon ; in fact, 
scarcely any other description of ware found its way into Europe. It is 
a fine white paste, of extremely hard and close texture, richly decorated 
with birds, flowers, and trees in colours — blue, red, and gold predomi- 
nating, with the occasional introduction of black. This ware found its 
way out of Japan by the seaport of Nagasaki, where the important Portu- 
guese trading settlement existed from about 1534 down to 1639, ar, d is 
one of the principal ports of the province of Hizen. Here also was 
the Dutch factory of Desima, through which, after »the year 1641, this 
Hizen porcelain was smuggled ; for the exportation was forbidden by 
the Japanese Government. Hence all the early collections of Japanese 
porcelain were derived from this source. That at the Japan Palace, 
Dresden, consists almost entirely of the Hizen china, but of high 
excellence in both quality and decoration. Mr. Audsley tells us, from 
information he received from an intelligent Japanese Commissioner of 
the Keramic Department of the Vienna Exhibition, that about 200 years 
ago a manufacturer of porcelain in Hizen made what are known by the 
name of Old Japan, and traded largely with foreign nations in contra- 
vention of the then existing law. On this being discovered by the 
Government, the manufacturer, Tomimura Kanyemon, was compelled to 
immolate himself by the hari-kari, or "happy dispatch." No doubt 
there were others besides Tomimura engaged in this lucrative trade, and 
the Old Japan of Hizen was one of the ordinary exports of the Desima 
factory. 

Dr. Hoffmann of Leyden, in his treatise attached to M. Julien's work, 
informs us that the chief fabriques, where the finest Japanese porcelain 



JAPAN— HIZEN. 407 

is made, are to be found in the province of Ilizcn, in the island of Kiu- 
Siu, and particularly in the neighbourhood of Matsoura, near the village 
of Ouresino, where the material necessary for its fabrication is found in 
abundance. As the Dutch in their journeys to Yedo usually passed through 
Ouresino on their route from Nagasaki to Kokoura, many travellers have 
noticed the existence of porcelain manufactories. 

Hizkn-Yaki. In various parts of the province of Hizen are erected 
numerous kilns, viz., Karatsu, Arita, Okawaji, Mikawaji, Shiro-ishi, 
Shida, Ko-Shida, Yoshida, Madsugaya, and Kameyama, near Nagasaki, 
with branch kilns of Arita, which are called respectively Ichinose, Hirose, 
Nangawara, Oubo, Hokao, Kuromata, &c. The oldest of these is at 
Karatsu, where only an inferior kind for domestic use is now made. 

The works at Arita are at present the most important, and form the 
principal centre of porcelain industry in Japan, founded shortly after the 
Karatsu works. The articles made at Arita and those above named, 
including the six branches, are known commonly as " Imari " ware, of 
which a brief history is here given. 

The most important progress in keramic art in Japan, and the com- 
mencement of real porcelain manufacture, is said to be due to Gorodayu 
Shonsui, a native of Ise, who went to China for the purpose of studying 
this branch of trade, and on his return settled in this province. He 
erected several kilns, and succeeded in making porcelain for the first 
time, decorated with cobalt blue, by using the excellent materials found 
in the province. It is not exactly known what part he lived in. Nos. 
324 and 325 are described as a plate and a cup made by Gorodayu 
Shonsui in 1580— 90. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

The village of Arita was previously called Tanaka-mura, and is situ- 
ated about fifty miles distant from Nagasaki, in the northern direction, 
where a Corean named Ri Sanpei first founded the establishment. Sub- 
sequently several porcelain-makers settled there and caused it to be a 
great centre of the industry. The Corean was brought to Hizen after 
the Corean war in 1592 by a Prince of Naheshima, and settled at Taku, 
pursuing the porcelain manufacture ; but not succeeding there, he re- 
moved to Tanaka-mura or Arita. Here he did not make much progress 
until he discovered a good material at Idsoumi-yama, which is still used 
for making the renowned Arita ware. 

A native of Imari named Higashi-shima-Tozayemon, together with 
Gosu-Gonbeye, having been instructed by a Chinese in the method of 
painting with verifiable colours upon the glaze, succeeded after many 
experiments. 

In the eighth \-ear of Sho-ho (1646) the export of pieces with coloured 
enamels with gilding commenced, through the assistance of a Chinaman 
named Hachi-kan, who opened a commerce with the Dutch market. 
This kind of decoration became a monopoly in supplying the foreign 



4c8 JAPAN— HTZEN. 

markets. Examples are given in the collection, Nos. 325 to 340, dating 
from 1670 to 1840, of the Imari ware made at Arita. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Arita is situated in a valley near the hill of Idsoumi-yama, where, 
imbedded in the rock, are found all the materials necessary for the 
biscuit, glaze, and other requisites. 

In the period of Ten-po, or about 1830, a rich man of Arita named 
Hiratomi Yogibeye found that the clay from Hirato was better suited 
for mixture of the glazes, as it dries quicker than the material from 
Idsoumiyama, thus saving much labour. For the same reason a clay from 
Godo Istand is used for the same purpose. He was himself an amateur 
and a talented painter, and furnished designs for much of the ware, and 
it is said that the making of flower-vases and teacups was commenced 
by him to supply the tea-clubs. He sold many pieces to foreigners at 
Nagasaki, which are marked Sanpo, his title. 

About 1660 the Prince of Sendai, Dade, sent thither a merchant of 
Tokio, and purchased some articles, made by Tsuji Kizayemon, which 
were offered to the Emperor, since which he has been ordered annually 
to supply the Court with ware used in the palace. These pieces are 
decorated with the imperial crest — the chrysanthemum. His grandson, 
named Kicheji, has been honoured with the official name of Hitaji Daijo ; 
he invented or introduced the use of seggars in baking the ware. 

Tsuji-Kadsuzo, a descendant of Kicheji, is now a distinguished 
porcelain-maker, especially in carving in porcelain. He is still maker to 
the Imperial Court. Jap. Hist. Coll., 344, 345. 

The total number of houses in Arita is 1300, with 5500 inhabitants, 
of which 120 houses are engaged in porcelain-making, and 30 in paint- 
ing, employing altogether 1 500 workmen. 

Several of these pieces of Imari porcelain, although made towards 
the end of the last and beginning of the present century, bear the marks 
of the Chinese Ming dynasty of the fifteenth century, imitating closely 
the Sometsuke or blue painted ware of the Tching Hoa period, now 
sought for so eagerly by collectors at outrageous prices, but of which in 
reality very few genuine specimens are in existence. They are so rare 
that two cups of the Tching Hoa make belonging to an officer of the 
Emperor Kea-Tsing more than 300 years ago were valued at ^300. It 
is probably to Kanghe that the oldest specimens of Chinese porcelain 
now seen (1661-1722) in collections may be ascribed, although bearing 
much earlier dates. The famous potter Chow, of whom we have before 
spoken, excelled in imitating ancient vases ; and in Japan clever repro- 
ductions were made, especially at Arita in Hizen, which were brought 
by the Dutch into Europe, and were so much esteemed that they served 
as models for the potters of Delft. It is certain, however, that at all 
times porcelain-makers copied the works of their predecessors, frequently 
succeeding in imposing upon the best judges in their own country. 



JAPAN— HIZEN. 409 

Siebold, writing in 1 826, in speaking of the porcelain works of Imari, 
states that they supplied in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the 
fine porcelain so much admired in Europe, but that they had fallen greatly 
into decay, and they now only sent out inferior porcelain to that formerly 
made, owing to a contract between the Dutch Company and the authori- 
ties at Nagasaki, by which the manufacturers were bound to furnish their 
productions at a fixed price. 

It will not be out of place to introduce here a few statements as to 
some of the effects of the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 upon the manu- 
facture of porcelain at Arita, and as to the character of the production 
of porcelain and earthenware in Arita, in Kioto, and elsewhere in Japan. 
Although the Arita porcelain had been awarded the diploma of honour 
at the Vienna Exhibition, yet the manufacturers of that place, as they 
became acquainted with the condition of the manufacture in other 
countries, acknowledged the defects of their own system of working, 
and recognised the necessity of a complete change in their mechanical 
and technical processes. 

Thus impressed, Mr. Tetsuka, an energetic, practical, and patriotic 
man, laboured for three years with great assiduity, and finally succeeded 
in associating with himself the three largest manufacturers in Arita, 
viz., Mr. Eukagawa, Mr. Fukami, and Mr. Tsuji, under the title of the 
Korcui-sha. These four united houses have formed a company, and 
are erecting large works provided with all the foreign improvements, 
machinery, &c, for the production of porcelain of high quality. 

Mr. Fukagawa is an excellent potter, and produces some of the 
largest pieces known in Japan, of which some superb specimens are shown 
in this Exhibition. Mr. Tsuji was for many years potter to the 
Emperor, furnishing the imperial household, and having a specialty for 
thin and light wares. The associates of the Koran-sha preserve the 
Japanese character of their art in decoration as well as the technics of 
painting, &c. (Report of the Philadelphia Exhibition, 1876.) 

Karatsu-Yaki. This manufactory is situated at the foot of a hill 
near the harbour of Karatsu, province of Hizen, and is stated to have 
been founded towards the end of the seventeenth century, and may be 
considered as the first glazed pottery in Japan. These early wares are 
rarely found. They are classified according to the era in which they 
were made: 1st. Previous to 1 1 50—55 a.d. ; 2nd. To the period of 
Yeiroku (1558-69), called Ko-Karatsu, meaning Old Karatsu or Yone- 
hagari (which word means a rice measure), a name given to a large 
bowl for measuring rice and grain used in former times, as fixed by the 
Emperor Monmu, 701 a.d. 

About 1555-72 the tea-clubs became numerous, and the demand for 
the Corean pottery was very great, and it became scarce. This fact 
caused the Karatsu factory to imitate the Corean vessels, which are now 



4io JAPAN— HTZEN. 

called Oku-goma, meaning Old Corean. A specimen in the Jap. Hist. 
Coll., 163. A special kind called Yekaratsu, with designs under the 
glaze, also imitating the Corean, was made about 1590 (No. 164). 

The articles made in 1600 to 1654 are known as Sui-ko Karatsu, or 
the late Old Karatsu. Jap. Hist. Coll., Nos. 165 and 166. Two bowls of 
coarse brown ware, with transparent glaze, with ivory lids. The later 
work is called generally Karatsu-yaki. Jap. Hist. Coll., 167. A cup rudely 
painted with foilage, partly covered with a stone-coloured glaze, a.d. 1720. 

About the end of the seventeenth century to 1730 a.d., the number 
of factories greatly increased ; and many skilful potters were engaged, 
viz., Taro-ye-mon, Yogibei, and Kichei-ji. These factories were confined 
to the manufacture of tea utensils, and no attempt was made to improve 
the art. The ware made at Karatsu, in the province of Hizen, is of 
coarse earthenware, with drab or brown glaze, some of which have rude 
scroll ornaments, and were more prized for their antiquity, being imita- 
tions of much older ware " made a thousand years ago," than for elegance 
of form or decoration, a.d. 1700. Jap. Hist. Coll., 162. 

Jiraku-Yaki. The " Okugoma " or Old Corean 

-^ C ware of the sixteenth century was imitated at Karatsu ; 

L- i^* •J" - it is a coarse red ware, partly covered with a mottled 

1<^ %_ drab glaze (No. 163). Other pieces of the same character 

**J -^^ Sy* were made in the seventeenth century, and a jar of 

I J ^J\ brown stoneware incised with floral designs, filled in 

with white and a mottled brown glaze, was made by a 

potter named Jiraku, or, as it is pronounced, Yeiraku, at Karatsu, a.d. 

1800. The bottom is incised with native characters as in margin ; many 

of these tea-bowls are supplied with ivory covers, some of which are 

hinged. Jap. Hist. Coll., 168. 

Mikawaji-Yaki. This place is situated near Madsu-ura, 
six miles south of Arita, and the works were established 
about 1750 by the Prince of Madsu-ura, who fixed his 
residence at a place called Hirado. 

Mikawaji-Yaki. These marks are on 
a porcelain vase decorated with enamel 
colours and gold ; on one side an unglazed 
panel with a lion in relief; on the bottom 
are the marks in the margin impressed, 
in the circle incuse ; the other marks are 
painted red. Made at Mikawaji in the 
province of Hizen, a.d. 1875. The circu- 
lar inscription commences from the lowest 

point towards the left : Dai Nipon Mikawaji-sei, " Made at Mikawaji in 

Great Japan." Jap. Hist. Coll., 361. 



P9- 




JAPAN— HIZEN. 411 

Hirado-Yaki. Hirado ware was made at Mikawaji, _ 

which is about six miles south of Arita. A factory was 4-' 

established there in 1750 by a prince of the Madsu-ura 
family residing at Hirado. The productions were only mad*: rj. 
for presentation, not for sale. Among those to be especially 
noted are pieces painted in blue with boys playing under a pine tree : the 
number of children varies from three to seven ; the greater the number 
the more valuable the example. Some are thus described: "A pair of 
plates of porcelain painted in blue with five Chinese boys under a pine- 
tree catching butterflies." Specimens of Hirado ware made at Mikawaji 
in the province of Ilizcn, a.d. 1770. Jap. Hist. Coll., 356. 

Koros or braziers of porcelain painted in blue with children and 
trees, and covers of bamboo network or pierced trellis pattern, on which 
cherry blossoms are scattered, are frequently met with of the Hirado 
ware. Jap. I list. Coll., 360. 

Okawaji-Yaki. The village of Okawaji-mura is about 
three miles north of Arita, to which place the works were yT 
removed about 17 10 by the Prince of Nabeshima from ^ — 
Iwayagawa, near Arita. The works at Okawaji-mura be- I J 
longed to the Prince, and were under his government, and Jj- 
only special pieces were made then for offerings to the 
Imperial Court or the Tycoon, and the sale was positively prohibited. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 346-348, 350, 351. As to the saucers belonging to 
the cups, the lower edges are painted with a pattern like the teeth of 
a comb in blue colour, signifying official work, and called Kushide-yaki, 
or comb-teeth ware. Jap. Hist. Coll., 347, 348, 351. 

Two kinds of celadon in imitation of Chinese, and a fine crackled 
porcelain. Jap. Hist. Coll., 349, 355. 

At present no fine pieces are made for want of efficient potters, but 
the Koransha Company of Arita is making great efforts to restore its 
former tradition. 

Kushide-Yaki. A pair of porcelain dishes painted with flowers in 
red, purple, blue, and green, on pale yellow ground, painted outside with 
ornaments and flowers in blue of " Imari " w r are, distinguished as 
" Kushide," made at Okawaji, a.d. 1770. Jap. Hist. Coll., 347. 

Kushide-Yaki. A porcelain plate painted with foliage in green and 
blue ; on the outside are flowers and a band of toothed ornament in blue 
of "Imari" ware, called "Kushide" (comb-teeth), made at Okawaji, a.d. 
1770. Jap. Hist. Coll., 34S. 

A porcelain bowl, embossed and painted with the figures of a man 
and a dragon, trees, clouds, and Japanese characters or symbols ; the 
cover surmounted by a seated figure in celadon. " Imari " ware made 
at Okawaji, a.d. 1770. Jap. Hist. Coll., 349. 



412 JAPAN— HIZEN. 

Two other dishes of porcelain painted with flowers and the peculiar 
toothed border, " Kushide," made at the same place, a.d. 1810. Jap. 
Hist. Coll., 351, 352. 

Okawaji-Yaki. There is a piece called " a paper-weight " made of 
porcelain, exquisitely modelled and coloured after nature, representing a 
plum-stem (Pru/uis), usually called hawthorn, with flowers, buds, and 
leaves of " Imari" ware, from Okawaji in 1820; length five inches. Jap. 
Hist. Coll., 354. 

Okawaji-Yaki. A brazier and cover of porcelain, ornamented with 
flowers in red and gold, the cover honeycombed ; a specimen of " Imari " 
ware made at Okawaji, a.d. 1740. Jap. Hist. Coll., 346. 

»m $ 

y/j\^ Okawaji-Yaki. Pair of flower-vases of crackled por- 

1 1 1 y\y celain decorated in rich colours and gold on a greenish- 

/J. 1 grey ground. Gold mark at bottom. " Imari" ware, made 

M * " °* - "*' " ""' * "'" "■ '"■ 

Nabeshima-Yaki was made at Okawaji, painted principally in blue 
with plants, fishes, &c, distinct from the Hirado-yaki, and apparently of an 
earlier date, made in the period Yen-po (1673). A porcelain branch of 
chrysanthemum, white flower, brown stalk, and blue leaves ; round the 
stalk is represented a paper tied with a cord ; is said to be Nabeshima 
ware. Franks Collection, and several other pieces in the same collection 
are so described ; but we have not yet met with the mark of the factory. 

Imari. Numerous as are the varieties of porcelain met 
T7 T"f* with in the different provinces of Japan, none are equal to 
that of Imari, in the province of Hizen, known by the name 
Imari-yaki. The letter r is always pronounced as / by the Japanese ; 
it is consequently called Imali. Imari is a much-frequented port ; the 
factories are not in the town itself, but on the declivity of a mountain 
called Idsoumi-yama, that is, the mountain source, whence they obtain 
the white earth for making porcelain. There are as many as twenty-five 
fabriques ; the most celebrated are the following : — 

Oho-kawaji-yama, " Great mountain between the rivers." 

Mi-kazuaji-yama, " Three mountains between the rivers." 

Idsoumi-yama, " Mountain of springs." 

Kan-ko-hira, " Beautiful upper plateau." 

Fou-ko-hira, " Beautiful principal plateau." 

Oho-taru, " Great vase." 

Naka-taru, Medium vase." 

Shira-gawa, " White stream." 

Hi)ic-koba, " Old pine-tree." 



JAPAN— HIZEN. 



413 



Akayc-machi, " Quarter of the painters in red. 
Naka-tw-hira, " Middle plateau." 
Jwaya, "Grotto on rock house." 
Naga-liira, " Long plateau." 
Minami-kawara, "South bank." 
Hoka-o f "Outward end." 
Kuromoudd) "Black field." 
Hiro-se, "Wide stream." 
Ii/i:-/io-sc, " First stream." 



Zo-shun-Saki. The same characters as the Chinese 
Fuh-kwei-chang-chun, " An eternal spring of wealth, 
happiness, and long life." On Imari ware made at 
Arita. 



Zo-shun-Saki. Zo-shun-tei Sampo-sci. " Made by 
Sampo at the Zo-shun Hall." Inscribed on Japanese 
porcelain of modern make, with chrysanthemums, Sec. 
Quoted by Dr. Graesse as a specimen of the " six marks." 




Shinpo-Saki. Hizen Shin-po-sci. " Made / 
by Shinpo in Hizen." These six marks are on 
a porcelain bottle covered outside with red lac, 
embossed with birds and flowers in gold. Also 
on an eggshell cup, cover, and saucer painted 
with children in bright colours in possession 
of Mr. John Dun of Latchford, Warrington. 




AT 

uL, 



Hizen-Arita was always celebrated for its beautiful 
blue, disposed in various shades of the same colour, with 
flowers, trees, dragons, &c, which being under the glaze, 
is imperishable. Arita still retains its celebrity, but its 
products are usually styled " Imari " ware. 



Arita- Yaki. In the Japanese Historical Collection there are some 
fine examples of Arita-yaki of different periods. A coloured porcelain 




4"4 JAPAN— HIZEN. 

figure of a youth standing, a specimen of " Imari" ware made at Arita, 
a.d. 1650. (No. 325.) 

A pair of flower-vases of porcelain, trumpet-shaped and octagonal, 
painted with trees, flowers, dragons, and diapers in irregular compart- 
ments. " Imari" ware, made at Arita, a.d. 1670. £25, ios. (No. 326.) 
Height, 23 inches. 

A lofty porcelain jar and cover, with decoration of female figures and 
flowers in rich colours and gold, in variously shaped compartments. The 
cover has been mounted in gilt metal, a.d. 1690. ,£89, 5s. (No. 327.) 
Height, 2 feet loh inches. 

An Imari porcelain koro and cover, painted with hares, flowers, and 
dotted bands, resting on three feet. a.d. 17 10. (No. 328.) 

An Imari porcelain koro in form of a cock crowing, painted and gilt, 
a.d. 1740. £7, 13s. (No. 329.) 

Two large deep circular dishes of Imari porcelain, painted and gilt, 
with trees, birds, fishes, Sec. Diameter, 22 inches. £/, 13s, each. 
(Nos. 330, 331.) 

Ko- Imari- Yaki. In the Franks Collection is described a vase of 
porcelain painted in colours and gilding ; the ground with red lines to 
represent grass, among which are flowers and plants ; round the neck a 
broad red band between smaller stripes of yellow and green ; a broad 
red band round the base. Said to be old Imari ware, made by Kaka- 
yomon. Height, 14J inches. 

Arita- Yaki. A porcelain bowl, painted and gilt, with 
'"3~ Dutch war-vessels of the seventeenth century, European 

tfj^ Jl,,,. men of the same period, and an attempt to represent 
^\ A, Western heraldry. "Imari" ware made at Arita in 
^^ V Hizen ; gilt mark, a.d. 1S00. Chinese, Cheou, "Longe- 

vity;" Dzott in Japanese. £5, 3s. Jap. Hist. Coll., 335. 

Arita- Yaki. Made at Arita in Hizen, a.d. 18 10. 
The characters are Fuh-koaci-chang-chun, " Happiness, 
riches, and a long life ; " in Japanese, Fukki choshun. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 337. 



-*% 




Sampo-Yaki. A pair of porcelain dishes painted and 

gilt with fish and flowers and patches of diapers ; it reads, 

yyp _, Zoshun-tci Sampo-sei, " Made by Sampo at the Zoshun 

Hall." A rich man of Arita, named Hiratomi Yojibeye 

n t Sampo, introduced some improvements in the manufac- 

g jE^, tory about 1 830. His son still continues the fabric. 

Franks Collection. 






T 



JAPAN— HIZEN. 



4 ' 5 



Arita-Yashi. Stoneware (yashi) is also made at Arita. In the 
Japanese Historical Collection will be found a pair of lofty jars, the sur- 
face carved or wrought in basket pattern, profusely painted and gilt with 
flowers and creeping plants ; on the shoulders are embossed medallions 
of the crest of Minamoto (three marsh-mallow leaves). The covers are 
each surmounted by two dogs or lions. Specimens of Arita ware made 
in imitation of old Satsuma ware, a.d. 1869. Height, 2 feet 6 inches. 
^20, I OS. the pair. Jap. Hist. Coll., 368. 

Hizen-Yaki. On porcelain cups with brown glaze. 
Xi-zcn-yo, " Hizen pottery," accompanied by a Japanese 
inscription, Nem-boku-an Kizo-sci, '' Made by Kizo of Nem- 
bokuan." Franks Collection. 

Arita- Yaki. K. Tsuji of the Koransha company at Arita makes 
pierced work, a beautiful pink ; also pieces with handles cast in a mould, 
a process learned at Vienna in 1870. He was formerly potter to the 
Emperor. 

Arita- Yaki. The Koransha trade-mark. A por- 
celain coffee-pot and sucrier painted with groups of ferns 
in black and gold. "Imari" ware made by K. Tsuji of 
Arita, a.d. 1S75. These bear fine gold marks underneath. 
Height, 6 inches. £\6, us. Jap. Hist. Coll., 344. 







Arita- Yaki. Porcelain dish, three 
feet in diameter, richly painted and gilt, 
with birds and flowers, from a design by 
M. Notomi ; a specimen of Imari ware 
made specially for the Philadelphia Exhi- 
bition of 1876 by Y. Fukagawa of Arita 
in 1875. The letters on the upper mark 
(No. i) are in blue under the glaze, 
reading Dai Nipon Hizen ; the other 
(No. 2), in red on gold ground, is that 
of the maker. Cost ,£30, 12s. Jap. 
Hist. Coll., 341. 





No. 1. 



Arita- Yaki. Y. Fukagawa makes large pieces of por- 
celain beautifully decorated. Plateaux and some vases as 
much as eight feet high, made in two pieces. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

Arita- Yaki. Flower-vase porcelain with red and yellow 
foliage on blue-grey ground ; a red mark painted on the 
bottom. "Imari" ware made by S. Fukami at Arita, a.d. 
1875. £5. Jap. Hist. Coll., 342. 



No. 2. 



416 JAPAN— HIZEN— OHOSOUMI— SATSUMA. 



fc 



Arita-Yaki. Pair of flower-vases of porcelain, pale 
primrose ground with points of diaper ornaments, a white 
dragon in relief round the neck. This mark is in blue, 

-^r9_ made by S. Fukami. " Imari " ware at Arita, 1875. ^10. 

'** Jap. Hist. Coll., 343. 

Arita-Yaki. S. Fukami, of the porcelain company called 

"*- Koransha at Arita, uses colours of great brilliancy applied 

-£- with taste ; he siejns the word " Kisa" as a mark. He ranks 

■■=. among the four best in Arita. Cup and saucer porcelain, 

painted in blue, red, green, and gold. 

Kameyama-mura-Yaki. This factory is situated on a hill near Naga- 
saki in Hizen ; porcelain was made imitating the Chinese Sometsuke, 
principally tea-services or Saki materials ; it is now extinct. 

Madsugaya-Yaki. This factory was established about 1710; the 
porcelain made there was very fine and excellent, but not painted ; it 
only lasted fifty years, and specimens are rarely met with. 

Shiro-Ishi-Yaki. Origin unknown, but it has become remarkably 
developed within the last twenty years. A porcelain-maker named Soba, 
from Kioto, came to improve the ware. 

Shida-Yaki. The works of Shida, Ko-Shida, and Yoshida are 
situated at a village not far from Ureshino, province of Hizen, but only 
cheap and inferior domestic articles are made. 



*. 



OHOSOUMI (Province). 



Ko-Chiusa-Yaki. There are two specimens in the Japanese Collec- 
tion. An incense-burner of fine cream-coloured ware, minutely crackled 
glaze, painted with flowers, partly gilt, a specimen of "Kochiusa" 
ware, made at Chiusa in this province, a.d. 1660, and a stand of fine 
cream-coloured ware, painted and gilt with a variety of ornaments, of 
"Kochiusa" ware, made at Chiusa, a.d. 1690. Jap. Hist. Coll., 290. 






)fc 



SATSUMA (Province). 



B 



Satsuma is a province situated south-west of the island of Kiu-Siu, 
governed by the Prince of Satsuma. The fayence made here is a sort 



JAPAN— SATSUMA. 417 

of pipeclay, usually of a buff or cream colour, soft and porous body, 
and slightly baked, with a thick transparent glaze, but imperfect, the 
surface being covered entirely with minute cracks; the ornamentation is 
upon the glaze, and many of the pieces are painted in gold and colours, 
with figures, (lowers, birds, and conventional designs, with exquisite- 
finish. The ancient examples are of a grey glaze, and have a peculiar 
waxy appearance : these are much prized. The modern Satsuma ware 
being of so soft a body, is very fragile and will not bear rough usage ; it 
is consequently more for ornament than use, and will not bear frequent 
washing, or the gold and colours, slightly baked upon the glaze, will 
quickly disappear. The body is more like that of the Henri Deux ware 
than any we have met with. The demand for Satsuma at the port of 
Yokohama has caused many imitations of the old ware to be manufactured 
at a cheap rate for the London market, especially at Yedo and Awata ; 
but the Japanese do not willingly part with the old specimens, being 
themselves great amateurs. 

Satsuma- Yaki. This ware is now made in a village called Nawashiro- 
gawa, in the province of Satsuma. The making of pottery was intro- 
duced from the Corea about 1470, when a kind of stoneware was made, 
and a white ware like the Corean white porcelain. In the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, the tea-clubs being then numerous, tea materials 
were made to meet the demand, cups, pitchers, &c, also an imitation of 
Cochin-China ware as well as the Corean. The ware with fine crackle, 
now so well known in Europe, dates from about 1592, when the Prince 
of Satsuma settled in his province several Corean potters with their 
families, first at Kagoshima, and afterwards at Chiusa, in the province 
of Ohosoumi, whence they removed to Nawashiro-gawa. About 1630 
decoration in gold commenced. 

Great quantities of modern Kioto ware are invoiced to this country 
by European agents as Satsuma fayence, catalogued and sold as such. 
These are principally made by a well-known living potter, and sometimes 
bear his impressed mark. 

The modern Kioto ware is easily distinguished from Satsuma, being 
of a full buff tint, light and porous, and covered with a bright glassy 
varnish, crackled ; the hard or semi-porcelain character of genuine Sat- 
suma is entirely absent. It is not always marked ; all those which are 
evidently imitations are, like Satsuma, unmarked. A ware in imitation 
of Satsuma has of late years been made in Ota, a suburb of Yoko- 
hama, by a potter named Ko-zan, and sometimes bears his mark in a 
gourd-shaped cartouch. 

There are ten specimens of Satsuma ware in the Japanese Collection, 
all of which are made at Nawashiro-gawa, in the province of Satsuma. 
The dates range from 1720 to 1875, when the Collection was formed, 
and examples do not, from our own observation, appear to date much 

2 D 




4i8 JAPAN— SATSUMA. 

farther back than about 150 years. This ware is too well known to 
need any full description of the separate pieces, and very few bear any 
marks of the factory or makers. The forms are incense-burners or 
koros, jars, flower-vases, teapots, and the Japanese Madonna {Bcnteii) 
seated, of the same cream-coloured ware, &c. 

Satsuma. A seal stamped on the bottom of a teapot 
and cover of coarse ware, coloured grey, with incised orna- 
ment of flying storks, the outlines filled in with white, made 
)j |f[J I I at Nawashiro-gawa, in the province of Satsuma, a.d. 1840. 
Jap. Hist. Coll., 297. 

Mr. Franks has a grey glazed stoneware bowl with three char- 
acters in high relief, Ko-ka-tsuchi, " Koka earth." On the lid of the 
box in which it is placed is written in Japanese characters, " When 
our ancient Lord Simadu Yoshiro went to Corea with the expedition of 
Toyotomi Taiko, 1592, he took water of the river Koka (in Corea) with 
him to the ship, and in order to prevent it becoming bad, the earth was 
taken up from the bottom of the river and put into the water vessel. 
On coming back to Japan, he ordered a potter to make five tea-bowls 
of this earth, of which this is one. 5th month, 15th year of Bun-kua, 
1848. Soti of Iti-zi-an, of the clan of Satsuma." 

R. Nagashima of Kagoshima, in the province of Satsuma, makes large 
vases finely decorated with imitation wickerwork. Some fine vases 
made by him were exhibited at the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1 876, 
five feet high, the whole surface incised by hand, so as to represent flat 
woven wicker or basket work, over which birds and flowers are freely 
painted. His works are of a high character, and mostly imitated from 
ancient models. 

No. 296. A pair of flower-vases of fine cream-coloured ware, with 
minutely crackled glaze, decorated with vines and squirrels in enamel 
colours and gilding. Made by R. Nagashima, a.d. 1875. Height, 8| 
inches. £9 the pair. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

No. 292. A brazier and cover of fine cream-coloured ware, with 
minutely crackled glaze, painted and gilt, with flowers and other orna- 
ments. The body has two handles and rests on three feet, the cover 
surmounted by a lion. Made at Nawashiro-gawa, a.d. 1720. £10, 10s. 
Height, 8 inches. Jap. Hist. Coll. 

In the Japanese Collection is a pair of lofty Satsuma ware vases, 
crackled glaze, with monster head and ring handles, painted with groups 
of figures in landscapes and bands of diaper ornaments. Height 2 feet 
3| inches. £35. Nos. 73%-777- 

This mark is given by Mr. J. Marryat as occurring on 
Japanese porcelain, but it is only a blundered form of the 
swastika, not of a factory. 




JAPAN— SATS UM A. 



419 



There are some marks occasionally found upon Japanese porcelain 
which are never met with upon the Chinese; they consist of thn 1 or 
more dots or points in relief upon the surface of the paste, placed thus 
on the backs of the plates or vessels : — 



or 



which are caused by the points of support or cockspurs on which the 
pieces rested in the kiln, and are commonly called "spur-marks." 



Kanga {continued from page 397). 

Since the preceding sheet was printed we have met with an interest- 
ing group of old Kutani ware of the seventeenth century, decorated with 
diaper and floral designs in green, yellow, and red, representing the 
widow Tokiwa Gozen, relict of the celebrated Japanese general, Yoritomo, 
holding in her arms the child Ushiwaha, who also became a celebrated 
general. In the Nottingham Castle Museum. Presented by Mrs. Felix 
Joseph. 





EUROPEAN PORCELAIN. 




ORCELAIN has this distinguishing characteristic : when held 
up to a strong light, it appears translucent, unlike pottery 
or fayence, which is opaque. The pate dure, or true por- 
celain, is of the whiteness of milk, and feels to the touch 
of a hard and cold nature, and is somewhat heavier than 
soft paste ; underneath the plates and other pieces the rims or projecting 
rings upon which they rest are left unpolished or without glaze. 
The properties of porcelain may be thus defined : — 
Hard. — The finest and most valuable have these essential and indis- 
pensable properties : the component earths are combined in such relative 
proportions that proper baking renders the mass translucent, fine, hard, 
dense, durable, and sonorous when struck with a hard body ; a white 
colour, approaching the tint of milk ; a grain fine and close : texture 
compact, intermediate between the closeness of glass and the obvious 
porosity of the best flint ware ; fracture semi-vitreous, and will sustain 
without injury sudden alternations of high and low temperature; the 
presence of an alkaline component possessing the quality of a flux relative 
to the others most economically brings all of them into a state approxi- 
mating to fusion, and in the kinds varies the translucency, which for- 
eigners try by every method to decrease, and the English manufacturers 
seek to increase, while preserving the fine close grain. The biscuit 
must be adapted to readily absorb water without injury. This is covered 
with a glaze, clear, white, transparent, indestructible by acids or alkalies 
or temperature, beautifully fine to the touch, smooth, and appearing 
soft like velvet, rather than lustrous or glossy like satin. When first 
applied to the ware, the water readily permeates, and on the surface the 
thin coating of components quickly dries into a solid shell, uniformly 



EUROPEAN PORCELAIN. 421 

thick in all parts, and sufficiently firm to bear handling without being 
rubbed off during removal into the seggars. 

The pate tendre has the appearance of an unctuous white enamel like 
cream, it is also to the touch of a soft soapy nature ; it is less dense, yet 
sonorous, translucent, granular, and a very fine porous fracture, harder 
and less brittle than glass, and will sustain considerable alternations of 
temperature. Not being able to sustain so great a degree of heat in the 
kiln, it is consequently softer than the other. As a rule, all painting 
upon porcelain, or enamel painting and artistic work of every description 
in colours, as well as gilding, are executed upon the glaze, and not upon 
the biscuit. An exception, however, to this rule is the well-known blue 
painted ; this and the blue printed are placed upon the biscuit under the 
glaze. 

The bleu du roi (or, as it is termed in England, Mazarin blue) of 
Sevres, Worcester, Derby, and some few Staffordshire china factories, is 
also under the glaze. The colour is painted upon the biscuit ware, after 
which it is glazed and fired in the gloss-oven ; it is afterwards painted 
in colours and gilt, and submitted to a further fire in the muffle-kiln. 

All ground colours (except the bleu du roi, and possibly one or two 
others) are upon the glaze, certainly on Staffordshire china and earthen- 
ware, many of the ground colours being too delicate to withstand the 
intense heat of the gloss-oven. 

The method of ground laying is as follows on glazed ware : — The 
artist lays even all the proper parts of the ware, with a pencil of suitable 
size, and a preparation of linseed oil, turpentine, and red lead, as a flux ; 
he then with a lock of cotton or wool applies the powder of the enamel 
colour, carefully adjusting the coating, so that all the parts may be 
equally covered ; this is then baked or fired in what is called a hard 
kiln, the heat not being so intense as the gloss-oven, but much greater 
than required for gold and enamel colours ; it is afterwards painted and 
receives another firing ; this ground is therefore laid, and not painted, as 
in the bleu du roi. 

It may be observed that Mr. Spode produced some specimens of 
rose die Barry on the biscuit with success, but great loss ensued, and it 
was discontinued. 

Colours. — The best colours now used in the art have these com- 
ponents : — 

Reds — Oxides of gold and iron. 

Purples — Oxides of cobalt, chromium, tin, and calcium. 

Pinks — Oxides of chromium, calcium, and tin. 

Browns — Oxides of chromium, iron, and manganese. 

Blues — Oxides of cobalt and silica. Mat blue — Oxides of cobalt, lime, and 

zinc. 
Yellow and Orange — Oxides of lead, silver, and antimony. 



422 EUROPEAN PORCELAIN. 

GREENS — Yellow or emerald— Oxides of chromium and silicon. Blue or 
celeste — Oxides of chromium, cobalt, silicon, and zinc. Green edge — Oxides 
of copper and chromium. 

BLACK — Oxides of cobalt, nickel, manganese, iron, and chromium.* 

The amateur must be upon his guard in collecting porcelain, and not 
place too much reliance on the marks which he may find upon the ware. 
When the mark is not indented on the paste or baked with the porcelain 
when at its greatest heat, usually in blue {an grand fen), it gives no 
guarantee for its genuineness : the mark was nearly always affixed before 
glazing. It is necessary, in forming a correct judgment of the authen- 
ticity of a piece of valuable china, such as Sevres, that many things be 
taken into consideration. First, above all, it is most important to be 
satisfied whether the porcelain be of hard or soft paste, and whether 
such descriptions of paste were made at the particular epoch represented 
by the mark ; then, if the decoration be in keeping with the style adopted 
at the time indicated, the colours, the finish, the manner of decoration, 
and various other indicia must also be taken into account. 

* Shaw's Chemistry of Pottery. 





gtaij). 




FLORENCE. 

MANUFACTORY of porcelain {soft paste) was established 
here as early as 1580, under the auspices of Francesco I. 
(de' Medicis), Grand Duke of Tuscany. He established in 
the San Marco a laboratory, where the experiments were 
made ; the manufactory was in the Boboli Gardens. He 
had the glory of being the first maker of porcelain in Europe ; not, it 
is true, so hard as that of China, — that is to sa}', composed of kaolin 
and petuntse, — but softer, and like what we call translucid, which is one 
of the principal tests of porcelain. Vasari speaks of the translucid 
pottery of the Grand Duke Francis; he tells us that he called to his 
assistance the celebrated Bernard Buontalenti, and that in a short time 
he made porcelain vases as fine as the most ancient and the most per- 
fect ; he also relates that Alphonso II., Duke of Ferrara, profiting by 
the talents of Giulio d'Urbino, applied himself 
to this industry. M. Jacquemart * gives a receipt 
for making the porcelain of the Grand Duke 
Francis, taken from a manuscript discovered in 
the Bibliotheca Magliabechiana, compiled b}' some 
person in the Duke's employ. The fabrication of 
this porcelain was abandoned after the death of 
its inventor. In the Diarie de Carte of the year 

161 3, at Florence, it is said that at a ball there, tickets were issued made 
of the porccllana regia, on one side of which were the arms of the 
Medici, and on the other a scimitar. It is called the Medici porcelain, 




Histoire de la Porcelaine, Paris, 1S60. 



4 2 4 



PORCELAIN— FLORENCE. 




some of the specimens having the arms of that family painted upon them. 

This was the first porcelain made in Europe, and is now very scarce ; 

there are not more than about thirty pieces known. The mark is painted 

in blue, and represents the Cathedral of Florence. 
The first we have here given is on the bottom 
of a large bowl, painted with small blue flowers 
on white ground, of very hard and compact frac- 
ture, now in the South Kensington Museum ; the 
second mark is on a plate of the same fabrique, 
in the possession of Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum. 
(Keramic Gallery, figs. 173, 175.) 
The discovery and identification of this porcelain is due to Dr. Foresi 

of Florence, further corroborated by MM. Piot and Jacquemart of Paris. 



Florence. The arms of the Medici family. 
On a vase in the Collection of M. Gustave de 
Rothschild, and other pieces ; the six pellets 
having initial letters which may be thus read — 
" Franciscus Medici Magnus Eirurice Dux Se- 
cundus;" one of the pellets bearing the three 
fleurs-de-lis of France. 



Florence. A fine and interesting piece has 
recently been acquired in Italy by Signor Ales- 
sandro Castellani ; it is a shallow basin, in the 
centre of which is the figure of St. Mark with 
the lion, painted in the usual blue pigment, and 
in a manner which stamps it as the work of a 
master's pencil. The monogram, composed of 
the letters G. P., is painted on the volume held 
beneath the lion's paw ; and on the reverse of the basin is the usual 
mark of the Cathedral. It has been suggested that the monogram may 
be that of Raffaelle's great pupil, Giulio Pippi detto Romano ; but, unfor- 
tunately for this hypothesis, Giulio Romano died in 1546, whereas the 
Medici porcelain does not appear to have been perfected before 1580. 
{Fortnum s Catalogue, p. lxvii. of Introduction.) 




PORCELAIN— FLOREN< K. 



42; 



LIST OF PIECES OF FLORENTINE PORCELAIN 
SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 



OF THE 



1. Vase, with handle over the top, painted with ara- 

besques, and in front the arms of the Medii i. 

2. Large dish, painted with historical subject. 

3. Another piece. 

4. Another piece. 

5. Another piece. 

6. Large bowl, painted in blue with flowers. 

7. Plate, in blue with flowers. 

8. Oil and vinegar cruet. 

9. Plateau, with arabesques. 

10. Plate in the same style. 

1 1. Large square bottle, with the arms of Spain. 

12. The companion bottle, dated 1581. 

13. Another piece (a fragment?). 

14. Hunting bottle, in Persian style. 

15. Hunting bottle, with rings. 

16. Small jug. 

17. A flacon. 

18. A large flacon of flattened circular form. 

19. Basin, with St. Mark and the lion in the centre. 

20. Plate with blue flowers. 

21. Plate with blue flowers. 

22. Plate with blue flowers. 

23. Plate with blue flowers. 

24. Bocaletto, Persian decoration. 

25. Another piece. 



Baron Gustave de Rothschild. 
'J' he same. 

The same. 

Queen of Portugal. 

The same. 

South Ken Hngton Museum. 

'The same. 

The same. 

Sevres Museum. 

The same. 

The same. 

The same. 

'The same. 

Baron Alphonse de Rothschild. 

Baron C. Davillier. 

M. A rondel. 

The same. 

Unknown. 

M. A. Castellani. 

Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 

Mr. C. D. E. Fortnum. 

M. Eoresi, Florence. 

The same. 

Baron de Monville. 

I 'nknoivn. 



Dr. A. Foresi of Florence, who claims the 
discovery of the documents in the Magliabecchi 
Librar}', and by whose research twelve of the 
pieces above described were brought to light 
and appropriated, has also become possessed 
of a trial piece, made, he thinks, in the time of 
Cosmo I. It is a porcelain hunting-bottle 
with Oriental decoration similar to No. 15, with mask loops for the cord 
to pass through ; under the foot is written Prova, as in the margin. This 
piece he considers was also the Medici porcelain. 




426 PORCELAIN— DOCCIA. 



DOCCIA. 

Doccia. This manufactory was founded in 1735 by the Marchese 
Carlo Ginori, contemporaneously with the Imperial Manufactory of Sevres. 
At this early date he commenced making experiments at Doccia, a villa 
of the family a short distance from Florence, in the vicinity of Sesto. 
The Marquis Charles, at his own expense, sent a ship to the East Indies 
to obtain samples of the materials used in the composition of Chinese 
porcelain, and in 1737 he secured the services of Carlo Wandhelien, a 
chemist, who became director of the works, and its first productions 
became articles of commerce. In 1757 Carlo Ginori died, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, the Senator Lorenzo, who enlarged the works, con- 
structed more improved furnaces, increased the number of workmen, and 
gave it the architectural appearance it now presents ; he was consequently 
enabled to produce statues, vases, and other objects of large dimensions. 
These improvements were continued and increased by his son and suc- 
cessor Carlo Leopoldo, who established a museum for models of the 
most celebrated sculptors, ancient and modern, and a school of design, 
which may be seen by the improved character of the borders and orna- 
ments, as well as the high finish of the ware of this period. A_fter his 
death, and during the minority of his eldest son, the direction of the 
manufactory was confided to the Marchese Pier Francesco Rinuccini, and 
afterwards to the Marchesa Marianna Ginori, the mother of the present 
owner of the fabrique, Lorenzo Ginori Lisci, the great-grandson of the 
founder. The early moulds of the Capo di Monte porcelain were trans- 
ferred to Doccia when that manufactory was discontinued in 1821 ; the 
consequence is, that Europe is inundated at the present day with false 
examples of Capo di Monte porcelain, and which can be purchased to 
any extent at the Doccia fabrique ; the mark being also imitated, tends 
to throw discredit on everything emanating from it. 

It may be observed that in all those countries where similar manu- 
factures were established, they were either of short duration, or were 
indebted for their prosperity to the patronage and royal munificence of 
the sovereigns in whose states they were situated, and afterwards became 
their property. Doccia, on the contrary, sustained itself by the exertions 
alone of the Ginori family, who first originated it, the sole encouragement 
it obtained from the Tuscan Government was the prerogative of being 
the only fabrique of the kind in the state, which prerogative ceased 
in 1812. 

During the last ten years the fabrication of the imitative Capo di 
Monte ware of the eighteenth century, in coloured mezzo-relievo, has 
been brought to great perfection, as well as the successful imitation of 
the maiolica of Xanto, and Maestro Giorgio of the sixteenth century, by 



PORCELAIN— DOCCIA. 



427 



the invention and introduction of the metallic lustres in the colouring. 
These important results were obtained and perfected by Giusto Giusti, 
a pupil of the Doccia school, to whom honourable mention was accorded 
in the London Exhibition in 1851, as well as in that of Paris in 1855 : 
he died suddenly in 1858. 

The Doccia manufactory is particularly distinguished by the variety 
of its productions, and successful imitations of the maiolica of the six- 
teenth century, of the Capo di Monte porcelain bas-reliefs, the reproduc- 
tions of Luca della Robbia, and Chinese and Japan porcelain. 

The principal artists from 1770 to 1800 are given by Mr. Marryat :— - 



Rigaci, miniatures. 
Antonio Valleresi, flowers. 
Angiolo Fiaschi, figures. 
Carlo Ristori, landscapes. 
Gasparo Bruschi, modeller. 
Giusep. Bruschi, modeller. 



A. M. Fanciullacci, chemist. 

Giov. Bat. Fanciullacci, miniatures. 

Antonio Smeraldi, figures and landscapes. 

Giov. Giusti, flowers and landscapes. 

Giusep. Ettcl, modeller. 

Gaet. Lici, modeller. 




Pietro Fanciullacci, painter and chemist. 

The principal artist at La Doccia is now Lorenzo Bcccheroni, who paints 
exquisite miniatures, &c. 

Doccia. This mark, in red, is on a porcelain c'cuelle, 
the dish painted in the centre with a shield on a cross of 
the order of St. Stephen, quartered with the Ginori arms 
(three stars argent on a bend or), supported by an eagle 
on each side, and festoons of flowers ; the borders are elaborately 
painted with flowers in a very effective manner ; the cover has a floral 
monogram, composed of a large M, G, L, and a C, the last in blue, being 
probably that of the Marchcsa Marianna Ginori Lisa ; the C may be in- 
tended for her husband, Carlo Leopoldo Ginori. In the Collection of 
the Marchese d'Azeglio. 



Doccia. The initials of Pietro Fanciullacci, a chemist 
as well as a painter, on a porcelain sugar-basin and cover, 
painted with peasants and landscapes, in the possession 
of the Marchese d'Azeelio. 



Doccia. Hard and soft paste. This mark is a 
star, being part of the Ginori arms ; it is in gold on the 
richest specimens. On a cup and saucer, painted with 
Florentine arms and medallions of landscapes. The 
same mark is also found on the Nove porcelain, and occasionally on that 
of Venice. 




* 



Doccia. The same star, but with more points ; 
marked in red, on a fine specimen, with landscapes and 
festoons, gilt border ; in Mr. Bohn's Collection. 



^w 



428 PORCELAIN— DOCCIA— CAPO DI MONTE. 



3 



Doccia. Another mark, of a double triangle ; stamped 
in gold on the best pieces. 



Doccia. The name of the Marchese Ginori is some- 
GINORI. times impressed, which is occasionally abbreviated, and 
only GIN. used. 

W£->« Doccia. Porcelain. This mark is on a tea-service, 

. >^i P ainte d with nymphs and satyrs. A teacup and saucer, 
in the Rev. T. Staniforth's Collection, has in addition 
y/ yA CA impressed; another has P.G. There is another in 

Mr. Napier of Shandon's Collection, and in that of the 
Marchese d'Azeglio. The same mark occurs on a milkpot, painted with 
Carnival figures and garden scene. 

These letters (N.S) are proved satisfactorily to belong to the Doccia 
iabrique ; we have seen a complete dejeuner service so marked, many 
of the pieces bearing in addition the name Ginori. These initials are 
attributed to Nicolo Sebastiano. 



2? 



£r^ 



Doccia. These marks, a mullet and double triangle, or 
a modification of the preceding, are in blue or gold on 
superior quality of porcelain. 



CAPO DI MONTE. 



Capo di Monte. Soft paste. This manufactory was founded by 
Charles III. in 1736. It is considered of native origin, as the art, which 
was kept so profound a secret in Dresden, could, at that early period, 
have scarcely had time to be introduced here, the character of its produc- 
tions being also so essentially different. The King himself took great 
interest in it, and is said to have worked occasionally in the manufactory. 
Starrien Porter, in a letter to Mr. Pitt (Lord Chatham), dated April 8, 
1760, speaking of this factory, says, "The King is particularly fond of 
his china factory at Capo di Monte ; . . . during the fairs held annually in 
the square before the palace at Naples, there is a shop or stall solely for 
the sale of his china, and a note was matutinally brought to the King of 
the articles sold, together with the names of the purchasers, on whom he 
looked favourably." On obtaining the crown of Spain, he took with 
him twenty-two persons to form his establishment at Madrid. 

The beautiful services and groups in coloured relief are of the second 
period, circa 1760. 

The earliest mark is a fleur-de-lis, generally 
roughly painted in blue, as in the margin. These 
marks have been hitherto considered as denoting 



* 



PORCELAIN— CAPO DI MONTE— NAPLES. 



429 



t 

IK 



the ware made at Madrid only, but the fleur-de-lis 
was used both at Capo di Monte and Madrid. 
In so placing these, we are guided by the opinions 
of several gentlemen well qualified to judge, and 
who, from long residence in Italy, have come to 
that conclusion. The groups and services of 
this ware yet to be seen in large quantities in 
Naples — of so common a description that they 
would not bear the expense of importation — are 
universally acknowledged by Neapolitans as the 
manufacture of Capo di Monte, and these are all 
marked with the fleur-de-lis, probably its earliest 
productions. The first mark here given has, 
indeed, been always appropriated to Capo di 
Monte, and, upon comparing it with those which 
follow, the similarity will be admitted ; it is 
really a badly-formed fleur-de-lis. The manu- 
factory was abandoned in 1821. (Keramic Gallery, 
fig. 179.) 

Naples. Second period, under the patron- 
age of Ferdinand IV., 1759. These marks stand 
for Naples, surmounted by a crown ; they are 
graved in red or blue on the moist clay. A cup 
and saucer, with a view of Naples, in Mr. Walker 
Joy's Collection. {Keramic Gallery, fig. 185.) 



Naples. This mark of the initials of King 
Ferdinand under a crown is in blue on a cabaret 
with classical figures in relief. 

Naples. This mark occurs on services in the 
Etruscan style ; the initials stand for Ferdinandus 
Rex ; used about 1780. A service with this mark, 
painted with copies of frescoes and antiquities 
of Herculaneum, inscribed " Maseo Ercolauo." 

A book in the library of Sir Charles Price gives a description of a 
service of 180 pieces, presented by the King of the Two Sicilies to George 
III. in 1787. The preface, by the Director Yenuti, states that the sub- 
jects are all copied from Greek and Etruscan specimens in the Royal 
Museum. This service is still in existence at Windsor ; it is of white 
ground with a red and black border, the subjects painted on the flat 
surface. 








430 PORCELAIN— NAPLES— MILAN. 

A leaf in gold is sometimes placed on pieces of china, 
ornamented in relief and coloured, moulded from ivory tankards 
and plaques to cover the mark of the factory where they were 
made, so as to pass them off as genuine pieces of Capo di Monte. These 
are made to order principally at Berlin ; the gold leaf being over the 
glaze, is easily scratched off, when the blue mark of the sceptre becomes 
visible. Sometimes the factory mark is eaten away by means of fluoric 
acid, but as this destroys the glaze, the leaf is added to cover the defect. 
Being mounted in silver, with engraved arms and date, the deception is 
frequently undiscovered by the unwary. 

Naples. A vase, with flowers in relief, edged with 
blue and red ; the mark in blue (for Fabbrica Reale). 
On a delicate cream-coloured cup, of soft paste. Some- 
times the cipher is found without the crown. 

-, . , Naples. This name, probably of a modeller, occurs 

indented on a fine statuette. 

Naples. This modeller's name is scratched under 
A \\ I f\\ r\ the glaze of a pair of soft-paste china figures of male 
1 and female peasants. 

Giovine in Napoli. Naples. The name of a painter marked in red. 

Naples. This monogram is deeply impressed on 
some Neapolitan china plates, inscribed " II Pescatore " 
and " Donna delV Isola di Procida," painted with 
costume figures, the views being in the Bay of Naples ; 
probably Giustiniani. 

Milan, 1665. In the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1665 
we read the following :— il Notice was lately given by an inquisitive 
Parisian to a friend of his in London, that by an acquaintance he had 
been informed that Signor Septalio, a Canon in Milan, had the secret of 
making as good porcelain as is made in China itself, and transparent, 
adding that he had seen him make some. This, as it deserves, so it 
will be further inquired after, if God permit." 

Milan. The "Manufacture Nationale de J. Richard 
& C le ," for porcelain as well as fayence, is successfully 
carried on. Their ordinary mark is in black initials ; 
they have obtained several medals at the recent ex- 
positions. 

Treviso. There was a manufactory of soft porcelain here, probably 
established towards the end of the last century ; carried on by the Brothers 
Giuseppe and Andrea Fontebasso. SirW. R. Drake has in his Collection 
a coffee-cup of soft porcelain inscribed "Fabbrica di Giuseppe ed Andrea 
Fratelli Fontebasso in Treviso, Gactano Ncgrisole Dipinse, 183 1." 




B? 





PORCELAIN— TREVISO— TURIN. 431 

Treviso. On a porcelain coffee-cup and 
saucer, the cup painted with a garden scene, 
with a man and woman holding flowers, the 

former holding a bird, the latter a cage; at *-* cis~LSO. 

bottom " Gesner Id. xiti./" the saucer gilt only, and marked underneath 
" Treviso," in blue; the other is red. (/Ceramic Gallery, fig. 187.) 

Treviso. Fratclli Fontcbasso, marked in 
gold on a porcelain ccuelle, blue ground, with r^ Tp 

gold fret borders and oval medallions of Italian _^ 
buildings, landscapes, and figures. In the pos- j * C k*rr\r\ 

session of the Rev. T. Staniforth. (Kcramic <J c r 

Gallery, fig. 186.) 

Turin. Vineuf. This manufactory was established about 1770. 
Vittorio Amedeo Gioanetti was born in Turin in 1729; he was a pro- 
fessor of medicine, and took his degree as doctor in 175 1, and a public 
testimonial was accorded to him in 1757 ; he was subsequently elected 
professor of chemistry in the Royal University, and was a successful 
experimentalist. It was about 1770 that he established a manufactory 
of porcelain at Vinovo or Vineuf; attempts had been previously made, 
but they were unsuccessful, and it was not until Gioanetti applied himself 
to the manufacture that it succeeded perfectly. In the Discorso sulla 
Fabrica de Porcellana stabilita in Vinovo, Turin, 1859, will be found a 
description of the various earths and clays of Piedmont as described by 
Gioanetti himself; it was noted for its fine grain and the whiteness of 
the glaze, as well as the colours employed. The 
cross alone in brown is on a cup and saucer, 
painted with the arms of Sardinia and gilt bor- 
ders, in Mr. Franks' Collection. 

Turin. Vineuf. Sometimes only a cross, »"t~ 

and the letter V, for Vineuf. 



+ 



graved in the paste, but sometimes coloured. T"\ rjL 

V-F 



Turin. Vineuf. The letters stand for Dr. 
Gioanetti, Vineuf. These marks are usually 



M. le Baron C. Davillier has some Vineuf 
porcelain cups with this mark in black ; they are 
decorated with flowers. 



Turin. These marks of a cross and a 
crescent are on an oblong china tray, painted 
with roses and detached flowers, lately in the 
Baldwin Collection. l77o 



+ 



432 PORCELAIN— VICENZA— VENICE. 

JL These three marks are upon an oval plateau, 

vi painted with flowers and attributes of the chase 

. in the Sevres style ; the first is in black, the 

^^^ second incuse in the paste, and the third in rose 

colour. This painter's name occurs on another 

.' 4 cup, green ground with medallions of flowers 

^V richly gilt, " Ca. pinx." in rose colour, and the 

£* Al? * # cross, V, and D.G. (as given above) in blue. 

\f In the Raron Davillipr'^ Cnllprfinn 



etc 



In the Baron Davillier's Collection. 

Vicenza. There was a manufactory of por- 
celain here, but we have no particulars respecting 
it. This mark is stamped on a dessert plate, 
and by some connoisseurs referred to this place. 



VENICE. 



The discovery of the true porcelain at Dresden (so called from being 
hard like the Oriental), which was brought to considerable perfection 
about 17 1 5, on the discovery of the kaolin at Aue near Schneeberg, 
caused an intense excitement all over Europe, and the sovereigns of the 
chief states bestirred themselves to promote and encourage the art of 
making porcelain by every means in their power. 

Vienna was one of the first to obtain the secret, which soon spread 
over Germany. Venice was not long in following the example : porce- 
lain of soft paste was made here probably about 1720. The first pro- 
clamation we have any record of was made in 1728, offering facilities 
and privileges to any person who would undertake such works, and all 
subjects or foreigners who desired to introduce into the city of Venice 
manufactories of fine earth or porcelain and maiolica, in use in the East 
or West, were invited to compete. 

At the date of this proclamation a porcelain manufactory did actually 
exist in Venice, but the exact time of its establishment is not known.* 

Mr. Rawdon Brown (quoted by Drake, Notes on Venetian Porcelain) 
tells us the " Casa Eccel nia Vezzi " was founded by Francesco Vezzi, 
who was born October 9, 165 1. He and his brother Giuseppe were 
goldsmiths, and had made large fortunes by their trade. In 17 16 these 
two "Merchants of Venice" offered the state 100,000 ducats for the 
honour of being ennobled, and in the same year they were elected and 
declared Venetian noblemen. Francesco turned his attention to the 
manufacture of porcelain. "Early in 1723 he had given up the gold- 
smith's trade, and was no longer under the protection of the 'golden 

* A soft-paste porcelain cup, painted with coats of arms, dated 1726, is quoted below. 



PO R C E L A I N— V E N I C E . 433 

dragon' which guarded the entrance to his shop: emerging from the 
plebeian rank of smelter and banker, he suddenly became a gentleman 
and a competitor with kings in an artistic and refined trade. Thirty 
thousand ducats was the sum invested by Francesco Vezzi in a porcelain 
company, amongst whose shareholders were Luca Mantovani and others, 
including, there is reason to believe, Carlo Ruzini, who reigned Doge 
from 1732 to 1735." 

Francesco Vezzi died on the 4th May 1740; the site of his manu- 
factory was at St. Nicolo in Venice. 

Sir W. R. Drake informs us that " in September 1740 we find 
Luca Mantovani (his partners Doge Ruzini having died in 1735, and 
Francesco Vezzi in 1740) paying an annual rent of 100 ducats to the 
Brothers Ruzini (the Doge's heirs), not only for rent, but also for the 
goodwill of the furnace at St. Nicolo, which had existed (probably for 
earthenware) since 1 5 1 5 . How long after Vezzi's death the manufactory 
of porcelain was carried on does not appear, but, judging from the state- 
ments made to the Senate in 1765, it did not long survive him, and the 
secret of his process for making porcelain had evidently not been dis- 
closed." 

There is evidence that in 1735 the Vezzi manufactory had been 
successfully established in the state, and had succeeded in producing 
porcelain, the specimens of which were referred to as being on a par 
with the productions of the principal fabriques of Europe. It is also 
known that the cause ascribed for that manufactory not being permanent, 
but sinking " into inactivity and decay," was the fact that it was dependent 
on the purchase of porcelain paste in foreign countries. Materials for 
making porcelain were to be obtained in the Venetian dominions, but 
not such as to produce the hard or Oriental porcelain ; they therefore 
procured it from Saxon}', and probably also some of the workmen, 
which will account for the fact that the " Casa Eccellentissima Vezzi " 
produced both hard and soft paste porcelain. 

To the Vezzi manufactory we must refer all the pieces marked in red 
or blue with Vex* or other contractions of the word Vexezia ; they 
are painted with masquerades, grotesque Chinese figures, and decorations 
in relief, flowers, birds, arabesques, and geometrical patterns in colours, 
statuettes, &c, especially in the Venetian red, which pervades all the 
decorations, the handles, borders, and moulding being sometimes covered 
with silver or platina, producing the effect of oxidised metal mountings. 
Another striking peculiarity in the decoration of porcelain of this period 
is a border of black or coloured diaper-work, formed by crossed lines, 
and in the interstices small gilt points or crosses, bordered by scrolls in 
the st3'le of Louis XV. These specimens are mostly of hard paste in 
form of bowls, plates, tureens, &c, and by some connoisseurs have been 
taken for Dresden ; but they are doubtless of Venetian make and decora- 

2 E 



434 PORCELAIN— VENICE. 

tion ; being unmarked, our only means of judging is by comparison. 
One fact is, however, clear, which has hitherto been doubted by some, 
viz., that both hard and soft paste were made, not only by the Vezzi, the 
Hewelckes, and Cozzi at Venice, but by the Antonibons at Nove. 

We are again indebted to Sir W. R. Drake for our information 
respecting the following manufacturers : — 

After the Vezzi manufactory had ceased to exist, we have no docu- 
ments to prove that any efforts were made to introduce the manufacture 
of porcelain into Venice until December 1757, when a petition was pre- 
sented to the Venetian College by Frederick Hewelcke * and Co., who 
stated that the sale, introduced and directed by them in Dresden, of 
Saxon porcelain, had been carried on in a very flourishing manner, but 
that in consequence of the then existing war (the Seven Years' War, which 
commenced in 1756) they had been obliged to abandon Saxony, and to 
seek in a foreign country a peaceful refuge, convenient for the exercise 
of their art." They prayed that exclusive permission for twenty years 
might be accorded to them to manufacture in some convenient spot 
Saxon porcelain (porcellaua di Sassonid) of every kind, form, and figure, 
with exemptions from taxes, for the exercise of their art during that 
period. The " Co." appears to have consisted of Maria Dorothea, the 
wife of Nathaniel Friedrich Hewelcke, who, with her husband, in 1758, 
presented a joint petition more in detail, asking for rigorous penalties to 
prevent persons in their employ taking service elsewhere, or giving any 
information, in order that the secret of their manufacture should not 
become known, &c. 

The report of the Board of Trade states that Hewelcke was a man 
well furnished with means and capital, and one of the conditions recom- 
mended was, that the concessionaires, the Hewelckes, should countermark 
the bottom of their works with the letter V. denoting Venice. 

On the 1 8th March 1758, the Senate granted to the Hewelckes the 
privileges they had requested. In what part of the Venetian dominions 
they established their manufactory does not appear, but when Antonibon 
Nove's application was presented in 1762, they sent a specimen of their 
porcelain which they had made in Venice. 

The privileges accorded to Antonibon in 1793 caused a great com- 
petition between the rival porcelain-makers, which the Board of Trade 
in their recommendation styled la fortnnata emulazionc. So it may have 
been to the state, but to the Hewelckes it seems to have proved even- 
tually unfortunate, and at the termination of that war which had brought 
them to Venice in 1793 they returned to their native country. 

In 1765 the Senate granted to Giminiano Cozzi, in the Contrada di 

The name in the several documents is spelt in various ways — Hewelcke, Hewelike, 
Hewecken, and Hebelechi. 



PORCELAIN— VENICE. 435 

San Giobbe, Venice, protection and pecuniary assistance in carrying out 
a manufacture of porcelain.* Cozzi's first efforts were directed to imitate 
the Oriental ware ; he states in his petition that he founded his anticipations 
of commercial success mainly on the fact that he had discovered at Tretto, 
in Vicentina, in the Venetian territory, clay suitable for the manufacture. 

The " Inquisitor alle Arti " reported upon Cozzi's fabrique thus : 
" Concerning the manufactory of Japanese porcelain {porcellana ad uso 
del Giappon), it was commenced only in 1765 ; your Excellencies were 
eye-witnesses of its rapid progress, and therefore deservedly protected 
and assisted him. He now works with three furnaces, and has erected 
a fourth, a very large one, for the manufacture of dishes. He has con- 
stantly in his employ forty-five workmen, including the six apprentices, 
whom he has undertaken to educate, and from the date of his privilege 
in August 1765, down to the middle of December 1766, has disposed 
of 16,000 ducats' worth of manufactured goods, &c. ; so that it may be 
fairly inferred that he will yet continue to make greater progress both 
in quantity and quality." This prophecy was fulfilled, and a very large 
trade was carried on for nearly fifty years. The pieces produced at 
Cozzi's manufactory were marked with an anchor in red, blue, or gold, 
and are still frequently met with, although specimens of his best products 
have become scarce ; they consist of statuettes in biscuit, in glazed white 
porcelain, and of coloured groups, vases, &c. The gilding on Cozzi's 
porcelain is especially fine, the pure gold of the sequin having been used 
in its decoration. We have imitations of the porcelain of other countries, 
Saxony, Sevres, Chelsea, and Derby; the imitations of the Oriental are 
astonishing. The Marchese d'Azeglio possesses some examples of the 
coloured groups, as well as the glazed white figures ; in fact, specimens 
of nearly all the varieties of Venetian porcelain we have been describing 
are to be found in his historically interesting collection. 

Cozzi's manufactory ceased in 18 12. Since that date there does not 
appear to have been any porcelain made in Venice, but at Nove they still 
continued making porcelain for more than twenty years later. Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber has a splendid set of five porcelain vases of the 
Cozzi period, the centre being 17 inches high, the others 13^, beautifully 
painted with bouquets of flowers, mask handles with festoons of fruit 
in relief; all these pieces are marked with the red anchor. (Keramic 
Gallery, fig. 190.) 

Venice. The mark of the "Casa Eccel ma r c 

Vezzi," from circa 1720 to 1740. This mark is \/ PT1 ^ 

found painted in red ; sometimes stamped, as on 
a cup and saucer, with raised ornaments and the arms of Benedict XIII. 



* The Senate granted him 200 ducats towards the expense of erecting a water-mill for grind- 
ing his materials, and thirty ducats monthly for twenty years. 



43 6 



PORCELAIN— VENICE. 



(Orsini), who was Pope about 1730; in the Collection of Mr. A. W. 
Franks. A similar mark is on a cup and saucer, painted with the 
Ottoboni arms, and the initials G O or P O interlaced, in the possession 
of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 

Venice. This mark, engraved and col- 
\7py| «?- A C^ ^7Qi(j oured red, is on a porcelain cup and saucer, 

painted in colour, with a large shield of arms 
of four quarterings (not heraldic), in the possession of the Marchese 
d'Azeglio ; it is the earliest dated piece of Venetian porcelain known, 
made by Vezzi at St. Nicolo. 

Venice. These letters, marked in gold, 
on a specimen in Mr. Reynolds' Collection. 



V 




m)= 




Venice. These marks are on some cups, 
with Venezia in red, painted with flowers 
and ornaments in the Persian style ; soft 
paste. The meaning of the letters C P is 
unknown ; the characters underneath are the 
price — Lire nuove 3, and Lira I, 10 soldi. 
In M. le Baron C. Davillier's Collection. 



Venice. This fanciful mark of the Vezzi 
period, in blue, is on a porcelain saucer, the 
cup having VEN A . in smaller characters, 
painted with blue birds and leaves, partly 
gilt. A cup and saucer with similar mark is 
in the possession of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 



Venice. This is another singular mark 
of the " Casa EccelP Vezzi ; " the V formed 
of flourishes in the shape of three cranes' 
heads and that of a lion, in allusion to the 
lion of St. Mark ; it occurs in red on a porce- 
lain cup and saucer. 



PORCELAIN— VENICE. 4.37 

Venice, These letters incised on a quadrangular com- 
potier, painted with grotesque animals and the mark Ven\ A f 

In the possession of Sir Kingston James. 

VENICE. These marks are scratched in the paste on / 

teapots of the Vezzi period. In the possession of Sir v- 

Kingston James. A 

Venice. Other marks found on this porcelain of the wl J 
same period. In Sir Kingston James' Collection. N f 

Venice. The signature of Ludovico 
Ortolani, a Venetian, painted at the porcelain /^y • /0 / 7» 
manufactory in Venice. This was the Vezzi i°£^ VrtoU^Venetb 
fabrique, circa 1740; it occurs on a saucer, cJUpimeTu(Lx.Ju6riatdL 
painted in lake camaieu, with a lady seated tf^rctfitna^infyeneti* 
holding a bunch of grapes, and a tazza and 

cupid (symbolical of Autumn), border of leaves, scrolls and birds. 
(Keramic G alloy, fig. 189.) 

Venice. The mark of a painter of the T , rr , . . r ., 
. , ... . f , . T ,. acobus JrielcJns fecit. 

Vezzi period, on an ccuellc painted in Indian- J J 

ink, with a naked boy looking through a telescope, and extensive land- 
scape, rococo border, etched in lines as from an engraving. In Mr. J. 
Sanders' Collection. 



Venice. The mark of a painter (Giovanni Mar- 
cone) of the Cozzi fabrique, circa 1 789, on a cup and Q ^ 
saucer painted in colours with classical subjects and 
female figures ; another plate has a similar subject, 
with border of festoons, flowers, and birds. Marcone 
appears to have painted both at Nove and Venice. 



A 



Venice. On a soft-paste cup, painted with flowers, 
in M. le Baron C. Davillier's Collection ; the letters 
are in black, the anchor in red. 






Venice. Soft paste. An anchor, painted red ; (§) 

on specimens much like Chelsea. Porcelain of the 
Cozzi period. 



*I> 



Venice. Another variety of the anchor, painted 
red. Some specimens of Venetian porcelain of the r^ 

Cozzi fabrique are so similar to the Chelsea, both as 
to the paste and decoration, as scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished. 



u> 



438 PORCELAIN— VENICE— NOVE. 



A'G" 



* 



Venice. This mark, in red, is on a porcelain cup, 
painted in the Chinese style with flowers ; the saucer, 
of the same pattern, has the Venetian red anchor 
underneath the letters instead of the star. In the 
possession of the Marchese d'Azeglio. 



/\ vv« Venice. These two marks are on two porcelain 

cups and saucers, lately in the possession of Mr. C. 
W. Reynolds. 



l.W 



N,B. The establishment of Messrs. Bertolini at Murano was, as we have seen, an important 

manufactory of maiolica, as well as of glass (p. 121). It has also been supposed they produced 
porcelain ; but the following notes will prove that none was ever made there. They certainly 
produced very clever imitations of porcelain in opaque white glass, called smalto, which have 
been frequently mistaken for porcelain, and this was apparently all they ever attempted. Early 
in the eighteenth century they obtained a decree for the sole manufacture of what they called 
canna macizza and smalto, both of which were enamelled glass, painted and gilt. Another 
decree, dated 1738, permits them to construct four additional crucibles for the same manufacture. 
In a petition for a decree for ten years, in 1753, the Brothers Bertolini state that they had invented 
the manufacture of painted and gilt enamel, in imitation of porcelain (" che oltre aver essi 
inventato le manifatture di smalto dipinte e dorate a somiglianza di porcellane "). These imita- 
tions are not uncommon. Mr. Reynolds has a smalto vase, 14 inches high, painted with Mercury 
and Minerva, and a cup and saucer with the arms of Doge Tiepolo, both of which have the 
mark " Ven a ," as on porcelain. Sir W. R. Drake (to whom we are indebted for this informa- 
tion) says the Abbe Zaneti, curator of the Murano Museum, showed him specimens of Bertolini's 
smalto, or painted and gilt enamel, with Japanese designs ; and aft,er every possible inquiry and 
search in Murano by the Abbe and other competent authorities, "it may be taken for granted 
that the Bertolini did not at any time make porcelain." 



NOVE. 

The manufacture of porcelain at Nove may be traced back as far as 
the 1 2th of January 1752, at which time Pasqual Antonibon brought 
from Dresden a certain Sigismond Fischer to construct a furnace for 
making porcelain in the Saxon style. 

From this time forward he continued his experiments, and must have 
made great progress in the art, for in February 1761 he had three 
furnaces, of which one was for Saxon (ad tiso Sassonia), the other two 
for French porcelain (ad uso Francia). It was about this time that 
Pasqual Antonibon possessed, in addition to his keramic works, a fabrique 
of waxed cloth {tele cerate), in which he had invested a large capital ; it 
was not, however, a successful speculation ; but it did not disconcert 



PORCELAIN— NOVE. 439 

his other establishments ; they continued prospering, and his porcelain 
kept on always advancing to perfection.* 

In 1762 Antonibon submitted to the Board of Trade specimens of his 
porcelain, and petitioned that the patent rights which had been conceded 
to Hewelcke should be extended to him. At that time, the report states, 
Antonibon had at Nove a manufactory, rich in buildings, machinery, and 
tools ; the capital embarked in it was estimated at 80,000 ducats, and he 
gave employment to 150 men and their families, in addition to IOO people 
employed in his retail business, carried on at his three shops in Venice, 
so great was the sale of his products. This extensive manufactory was, 
however, principally for maiolica. 

On the 7th April 1763, a decree was made in his favour, and he 
appears to have set earnestly to work in his manufacture of porcelain. 
His competitor, Hewelcke, shortly after deserted Venice ; but he had a 
more formidable rival in Giminiano Cozzi, who obtained a decree for 
making porcelain in 1765, in which Pasqual Antonibon's manufacture is 
noticed, the Senate declaring it to be the duty of the magistrate to make 
such arrangements as would lead to an amicable understanding between 
the rival manufacturers and their workmen. t 

Pasqual Antonibon and his son Giovanni Battista continued the fabri- 
cation of porcelain until the 6th of February 178 1, when they entered 
into partnership with Signor Parolini, always continuing the same manu- 
facture, con sommo onorc deW arte, until the 6th of February 1802 ; it 
was then leased to Giovanni Baroni, and he produced some very charming 
pieces, both in form and decoration ; but in a few years, from being badly 
conducted, it began to fall off, and by degrees it went to decay and was 
abandoned. The " Fabbrica Baroni," however, lingered on for more than 
twenty years. 

On May 21, 1825, the old firm of " Pasquale Antonibon & Sons" 
resumed the works, the actual proprietors being Gio. Batt. Antonibon 
and his son Francesco. They continued making porcelain until 1835, 
but all their efforts to sustain it were ineffectual ; they could not com- 
pete with the porcelain manufactories of France and Germany, so they 
were compelled to abandon the manufacture,]: since which time to the 
present they confine their attention to terraglia (terre de pipe), majolichc 
fine {faience), and ordinarie (ordinary wares), which are all monopolised 
by Rietti, a dealer at Venice. 

We have been favoured with the following interesting communication 



* Letter of Francesco Antonibon, dated August 1869, to Lady Charlotte Schreiber. 

t Drake's Notes on Venetian Ceramics, p. 33. 

X Letter from Francesco Antonibon, one of the present proprietors, to Lady Charlotte 
Schreiber, who has kindly placed it at our disposal. It forms a complete history of the Nove 
porcelain. 



440 



PORCELAIN— NOVE. 



from the Baron Charles Davillier, which we give in his own words. 
Describing a dish in his Collection, he says : — 

"Le sujet se devine : a droite Venise, caracterisee par le bonnet 
ducal, le lion de S. Marc et les roseaux de la lagune ; une femme debout 
a droite est ornee de la couronne murale ; c'est sans doute la ville de 
Bassano ; elle presente a Venise une jeune femme agenouillee que soutient 
le Temps, et qui offre a Venise des vases, plats, tasses, &c., produits de 
sa fabrique. Sur un des vases est une armoirie (une fasce rouge sur 
fond blanc), peut-etre celle de Bassano, un plat porte le 
monogramme ci-contre de Giov. Batt a- Antonibon. Voila 
done une piece certaine de cette fabrique. 

u Une assiette evidemment de la meme main repre- 

sentant Hercule qui terrasse Nessus et enlace Dejanire : 

sur la bordure, le meme monogramme, et jaune ombre de 

brun, comme ci-contre. Ces deux pieces, meilleures comme 

dessin que celles de la ceramique du temps, rappellant, par 

le style et par la couleur, les compositions de Tiepolo, alors 

en si grande vogue. Passons a une troisieme piece : c'est : — 

" Une theiere, ornee de fleurs peintes a 

larges traits : un medallion soutenu par une 

LC a. chaine et portant le meme chiffre est peint au 

Adessous du goulot, egalement en jaune ombre 
4 T") de brun : sous la theiere, ont lit ces mots en 

l\tOT\lOjL-/OT\- violet : ici le nom Antonibon se trouve ecrit en 
deux mots : il en est de meme sur un marque 
de fa'ience de la meme fabrique donnee par 

N ^jg^ M. Chaffers (page 126), c'est a dire ce qui 

• C^*fy^£ signifie sans doute Giov. Batt a Antoni Bon, ou 
bien Antonio Bon ; le B ne pouvant signifier 
Bassano, puisque le nom de Nove se trouve au 
dessus." 




H 



kntonioXJon. 

. ue 

gbab.- 



* 



Nove. The mark on the porcelain of 
Antonibon is usually a star of six rays in blue 
or red, sometimes in gold. Lady Charlotte 
Schreiber has a specimen on which the star 
is impressed, and another star by its side 
painted in red, also a vase and cover painted 
in lake camaieu of St. Roche, with N stamped 
in the clay. {Keramic Gallery, fig. 195.) A 
cup, recently in the Reynolds' Collection, has a 
red star and the letter P, probably for Parolini. 
A star is sometimes found on the porcelain of 
Venice, but rarely. 



PORCELAIN— NOYK. 



441 



,WU^£ 




Novk. This curious mark of Antouibon's manufactory i.-> on the 
centre of a set of three eventail jardi- 
nieres of porcelain, beautifully painted 
with mythological and classical subjects, 
and garden scenes, elaborately gilt borders, 
and the arms of Doge Ticpolo. The 
comet is uncommon ; the painter's name 
is Giovanni Marconi. (Keramic Gallery, 
fig. 196.) 

Novk. This mark is on a teapot, like Doccia 
ware, ornamented with raised flowers and painted 
bouquets ; it is the name of the place, in raised 
letters repeated, as in the margin. In the possession of Right Hon. W. 
E. Gladstone ; sometimes the word " Nove " is written in red. 






Novk. These two marks are also found ; 
the latter is pencilled on a porcelain jardiniere 
and stand, with green and gold bands, painted 
with bouquets, marked in gold. South Kensing- 
ton Museum; cost £\2. 

Novk. The mark of Giovanni Baroni, suc- 
cessor of Antonibon, 1802—25. On a porcelain 
vase, with two handles, coarsely painted, pink 
ground, in the Collection of Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone. 

Novk. Giovanni Baroni. On a very fine 
porcelain vase, oviform, with coloured painting 
round the body of merchants of European nations, 
merchandise, and shipping, with handles in form 
of female figures. (Keramic Gallery, fig. 197.) 



Nove 

* 

NOVE 

L/a/'drtca c/jarone. 
<jf one. 



GB 

NOVE 



ESTE + I783 + 



Novk. Another mark attributed to this manu- 
factory. 

Estk, between Padua and Ferrara. Porcelain 
was made at this town as well as fayence, and 
of a high character. We have seen many examples quite equal to any- 
thing produced at Doccia, which it much resembles. Lady Charlotte 
Schreiber has a pair of statuettes on square pedestals, modelled with 
great feeling and grace, one of the Virgin standing on the horns of the 
moon, trampling on a serpent, an apple at her feet, inscribed in front 
Immaculata, on the back Estk, incuse ; and the other of St. John holding 



442 PORCELAIN— ESTE. 

a cup containing a serpent and a book inscribed S. Joannes ; on the back 
Este+ 1783 ; height with pedestals, i$h inches. 

Giovanni Pietro Varion, a Frenchman, who had previously been a 
modeller in Antonibon's fabrique at Nove, left there about 1765 with his 
wife, Fiorina Fabris, and directed his steps to Bologna, but it does not 
appear that his patron, who desired to establish him there, was success- 
ful, or carried it on to any great extent. In 1776 and 1 777 Varion made 
several attempts to introduce the manufacture into Modena without suc- 
cess. (See Modena.) 

In 1780 Varion and his wife returned to Este. Girolamo Franchini, 
a clever artist, goldsmith, and engraver, associated himself with Varion, 
and erected a fabrique to make porcelain. They produced several im- 
portant pieces ; a stupendous group of Parnassus is mentioned as being 
much admired in the shop of Franchini at Este, as well as several pastoral 
and mythological groups of porcelain, which were distinguished by their 
extreme whiteness. 

After Varion's death his widow continued making porcelain, as shown 
in a decree of 27th August 1781 : — "Per died anni avvenire calcolabili 
dal di della pubblicazion della presente, oltre la fabbrica Cozzi, e le altre 
due gia esistenti Tuna in villa delle Nove della dita Antonibon ; e l'altra 
in Este di d. Fiorina Fabris r. del fu Gio. Pietro Varion, non potranno 
erigersi nuove fabbriche di porcellane in Venezia e nello Stato." 

By this document it is clear that the Widow Fabris had the exclusive 
right, and probably retained the secret of making porcelain. 

By a decree of the Senate, 29th March 1781, it appears that Antonio 

Costa and Fiorina Fabris were associated in a manufacture of terraglia, 

in imitation of the English ware made by Wedgwood. We have no 

notice of Gio. Battista, but he may probably have been the son of Fiorina 

Fabris above named. 

o?- <zj ,, ex s • Este. This mark is on a large porcelain 

Uto. eoaMa <jra6nj ... 



J£ 



ecce. 



vase of scroll form, painted with flowers, and 
ornamented at bottom and on the pedestal 
with leaves and flowers in low relief, with scroll handles ; 26 inches high; 
date about 1780. 

Giovanni Battista Brunello, some years before 1765, had a manu- 
factory of maiolica at Este, the productions being of an artistic character 
and much esteemed. It is said that several artists from Antonibon at 
Nove assisted him ; among them were Gio. Maria Ortolani, M. Antonio 
Verziera, and a certain Reato, the first of whom for seventeen years 
studied under Antonibon. Brunello copied the English pottery, " le 
terraglie inglcsi" of Wedgwood, which had been brought to such perfec- 
tion in 1759 at Burslem that it was sought after throughout Europe. 
Giovanni Battista Brunello died about 1780, leaving his son Domenico to 
continue his industry, who desired to add to his fabrique the important 



PO RC ELA I N— ESTE- MOD E \ A 443 

manufacture of porcelain, which had taken root at the fabriquc of Fran- 
chini, to which we shall presently allude, and had been introduced by 
M. Varion and his wife, Fiorina Fabris. In consequence of the second 
privilege accorded to Franchini in 1785, Bruncllo's trade diminished ; he 
consequently tried in 1787 to obtain a faculty to make mezze porcellane, 
which differed slightly from the porcelain of Fabris and that of Cozzi 
of Venice. Although he met with great opposition, he succeeded, by 
the employment of other materials, in gaining his point, and made both 
terraglia and porcelain. 

The fabrique of the terraglia of Brunello was in 18 10 ceded to 
Domenico Apostoli, under the direction of Domenico Contiero, formerly 
modeller to Franchini, and in 1833 it reverted to Pietro Apostoli, a clever 
artist, who produced vases ornamented in relief of a bright red and brown 
maiolica, coloured like tortoise-shell, &c. 

Este. These initials of Domenico Brunello are in- 
cised on a white porcelain teapot, with a band of key- /->>. r\ 
pattern in relief round the body, the cover surmounted J^' '$ 
by a bird. In the possession of Sir Kingston James. 

Este. Girolamo Franchini having discovered in the ip crp-p 
mountains around Este and Vicenza a suitable earth, *&££*** 

obtained in March 1782 a privilege for making terraglia 
after the English fashion, and established a fabrique at 
Este. In 1785 a second privilege was granted, annulling 
the decree made in 177 1 accorded to Costa and Fabris for making ter- 
raglia, in which, by the introduction of new materials, he had much 
improved the ware. The Franchini fabrique after the death of Girolamo 
was continued by his son Domenico, who excelled in white maiolica as 
well as in porcelain. 

Modena. In the year 1776, Gio. Pietro Varion of Paris, fabricator 
of porcelain, encouraged by the Marchese Paolucci, Minister of Duke 
Francesco III., made several attempts to introduce the manufacture of 
porcelain into Modena, but through the malicious opposition of the 
makers of porcelain at Venice he was unsuccessful. He is thus described 
in a memorial of 1776 : — Pietro Varion, native of Paris, at present residing 
in Este, manufacturer of porcelain after the manner of France, Florence, 
and Vienna, is desirous of coming to settle in Modena to introduce the 
fabrication of porcelain, &c. To prove his ability, he exhibited various 
groups, similar to that he had made for the hereditary Princess of 
Modena. In the following year he made another vain attempt. 

About five years after (1782), Giovanni Oxan, a native of Franconia, 
sent the Duke the following brief petition : — 

" Ser ma- Altezza, — Gio. Oxan desiderando di stabilirsi negli Stati di 
V.A. ed in essi introdurre la di lui arte di fabbricare la porcellana 




444 PORCELAIN— ROME. 

esercita finora in quelli di Parma,* supplica di poter cio eseguire. — Gio, 

OXAN." 

This was followed by a memorial to the Consiglio di Economia, with 
specimens and a specification of the necessary expenditure in the erection 
of a porcelain fabrique; but it was of no avail. The next day the Duke 
made known his determination in the following brief answer: — 

" Sempreche non trovi chi voglia intraprendere simile commercio 
incomba pure agli altri suoi affari." 

Rome. A manufacture of biscuit porcelain was introduced here by 
the celebrated engraver, Giovanni Volpato of Venice, in the year 1790. 
Great care was taken in the execution of groups and statuettes from the 
antique, and fine modern models after Canova, &c. ; at one time no less 
than twenty experienced artists were employed in modelling. Large 
furnaces were erected and a considerable sum of money expended in 
experiments, but the manufacture could not compete with the French 
wares. In 1803 Giovanni Volpato died, and shortly after his son 
Giuseppe also died, leaving a widow and six sons. She subsequently 
married Francesco Tinucci, the chief modeller of the biscuit figures, who 
superintended the manufactory until 1818, when her eldest son succeeded 
to the works; but in 1820 they declined. The Pope wishing its re- 
establishment, it was continued until 183 1, when Angelo Volpato died, 
and was succeeded by his younger brother, Giuseppe ; but the works soon 
ceased. Few pieces bear the mark, but occasionally they were stamped 
G. Volpato Roma, on biscuit statuettes after Canova and the antique. 

This is the first notice we have met with of the existence of a manufacture of porcelain in 
Parma. 




patn antj ^portxisal 



MADRID. — BUEN RETIRO/ 




HEN Charles III. of Spain reigned in Naples, he established 
in 1736, at Capo di Monte, the celebrated porcelain 
manufactory. The King, it is said, took great interest in 
it, and worked occasionally there. Don Eugenio Larruga, 
in his Memorias Politicas y Econouricas, vol. iv., Madrid, 1789, 
says, that " it was the King's intention to imitate the porcelain manu- 
factured at Meissen, and that in order to discover the secret process 
employed there, he engaged Don Louis Schepers, descended from a 
Belgian family, established many years in Italy and Spain." We do 
not find this statement confirmed by an}' other author : the evidence 
against it is, however, that neither the paste, the modelling, nor the 
painting of Capo di Monte porcelain are like old Dresden — one of the 
reasons why the manufactory at Naples is considered of native origin. 
The protection which Charles III. bestowed on the works at Capo di 
Monte ended on his coming from Naples, after the death of his brother 
Ferdinand VI., to take possession of the crown of Spain. He then 
determined to establish a manufactory at Madrid, where the process of the 
Italian fabrique might be continued, and which would likewise be an 
object of his attention and protection. The documents we have been 
able to examine in the Archives of the Royal Palace at Madrid, at Alcala, 
in the Ministry of Finance, and elsewhere, which now for the first time 
have been published by any Spanish or foreign writer, prove the interest 
which Charles III. took in establishing: the manufactory of Buen Retiro. 



* We have been favoured with the following historical notes on the porcelain of Br EN 
Retiro, by Don Juan Facundo Riano, of Madrid. 



446 PORCELAIN— MADRID. 

Before the King left Naples, he ordered that the following letter 
should be written to the Secretary of State at Madrid : — 

" In the same manner the workmen and the utensils used at the royal manu- 
factory of porcelain of Capo di Monte are to be embarked from Naples direct to 
Alicant, in the vessels prepared for that purpose, in order to continue from there 
the journey to Madrid. The necessary conveyances are to be provided, and the 
expenses to be charged to his Majesty's account."— Letter from the Marquis of 
Sq nil ace to his Excellency Don Ricardo Wall, Naples, Sept. 1 1, 1759. 

Charles III. landed at Barcelona on the 17th of October of the same 
year, and continued his journey by Catalonia and Aragon to Madrid, and 
neither the entertainments which he had to attend nor the business of 
all kinds which pressed upon him made him forget his plan of establish- 
ing the porcelain manufactory. 

In a letter from the Marquis of Squilace to the Secretary of State, 
Wall, dated Saragossa, November n, 1759, he tells him that the King 
had heard of the arrival at Madrid of some of the workmen of Capo di 
Monte, and gives orders that the necessary assistance should be afforded 
them, and if the director, Don Juan Thomas Bonicelli, had applied for 
money, the sum considered necessary should be given. Two days 
afterwards Wall answered Squilace, saying — 

" I will give the orders and help the workmen who are to establish the manu- 
factory, and let them have every facility to examine the different sorts of earths 
and places which may suit them, and the director, Bonicelli, shall have the money 
given him that he may require for the purpose." 

In a minute of Wall's, addressed to the Minister of Finance, the 
Count of Valparaiso, on the 22nd of November, and in several other 
documents, it appears that, by the King's orders, 300 ducats of gold 
were given to Giuseppe Gricci, " modeller of the manufactory," in the 
absence of Bonicelli, who had not yet arrived at Madrid. 

The King stayed at Saragossa for more than a month, owing to the 
illness of his wife and children, and was not able to continue his journey 
until the beginning of December. The King, however, ordered Squilace 
to write to Wall on the 21st of November, saying the King had been 
informed that a place was found near Madrid where the works could be 
established, but that he did not know the exact locality ; that his Majesty 
was anxious to be made acquainted without delay, and the plans were 
to be sent immediately. Wall answers on the 24th of November that 
Giuseppe Gricci had undertaken to draw a plan of the spot chosen for 
the porcelain manufactory. There are still documents relating to the 
same subject which passed between the King and his Ministers during 
his stay at Saragossa. 

Charles III. reached Madrid on the 9th of December, and before his 
arrival the Count of Valparaiso had paid 100 doblones of gold more to 



PORCELAIN— MADRID. 



447 



the modeller, Giuseppe Grieci, who wrote from the Batuecas on the 
5th, asking for " altro cento doppic per potere com pi re a quanto necessita 
questa Reale Fabbrica." The director, Don Juan Thomas Bonicelli, 
must have arrived at the same time, and probably treated of these 
matters with the King, for there are two communications of his, dated 
the 14th of December, both addressed to Wall. In one he says, his 
Majesty had deigned to gratify with an aid of costs the workmen em- 
ployed in the building, and begs the sum should be given to him ; and 
in the other, he includes a list of the workmen belonging to the royal 
manufactory, " who have arrived from Naples, with the salaries they have 
earned until the present time, that in sight of them the necessary arrange- 
ments should be made of what they are to receive according to his 
Majesty's orders." 

This list is most important, and we give it at full length, for it tells 
us the names of the artists and workmen who came from Naples to 
establish the manufactory of Buen Retiro. 



LIST OF THE PERSONS EMPLOYED AT THE ROYAL MANUFAC- 
TORY WHO HAVE LATELY ARRIVED FROM NAPLES. 



Cayetano Schepers, Chief Composer. 
Pablo Forni. 

Joseph Gricci, Principal Modeller. 
Carlos Gricci, his Son. 
Esteban Gricci, Modeller. 
Cayetano Fumo, Modeller. 
Basii.io Fumo, Modeller. 
. Joseph Fumo, Modeller. 
Carlos Fumo, Modeller. 
Macedonio Fumo, Modeller. 



Joseph SANTORUM, Modeller. 
Juan Bescia, Modeller. 
Bautista de Bautista, Modeller. 
Antonio Morelly, Modeller. 
Salvador Nofri, Modeller. 
Phelipe Esplores, Modeller. 
Ambrosio de Giorgi, Modeller. 
Pedro Antonio di Giorgi, Modeller. 
Pablo Frate, Modeller. 



Workme7i employed in the Kilns . 



Jenaro Bonincasa. 
Nicolas Rocio. 
Pasqual Rocco. 
Juan Frate. 
Baldo de Beneditis. 



Nincenzo Frate. 
Matheo Mayni. 

GlORCHINO AMABLE. 

Joseph Esclavo. 

Antonio Aquaviva Esclayo. 



Francisco Conte. 
Nicolas Conte. 
Angelo Lionelli. 



Workmen who pound the Colours :- 



Joseph Caramello. 

Joachim Pataroti, Carver in pietro- 

dure. 



448 PORCELAIN— MADRID. 

Workmen employed at the Wheel : — 

Joseph Grossi. Juan Remini, Gold-beater. 

Nicolas Botino. Pedro Chevalier, Mounter. 



Joseph de la Torre. 
Juan Bautista de la Torre. 
Nicolas de la Torre. 
Raphael de la Torre. 
Fernando Sorrentini. 
Mariano Nani. 
Jenaro Boltri. 
Nicolas Donadio. 



Painters : — 

Antonio Provinciale. 
Joseph del Coco. 
Carlos Remissi. 
Francisco Simini. 
Xavier Brancacio. 
Joseph Esclavo, a Black. 
Francisco Esclavo, a Black. 



Ten days after the King's arrival, on the 19th of December 1759, 
Don Carlos Antonio de Borbon, his Majesty's architect, presented to 
him the plans and design of the building required for the manufactory. 
The place selected was near the Hermitage of St. Anthony, inside 
the royal gardens of the Buen Retiro, which had been chosen for the 
purpose. 

The architect presented his estimate with the plans of the building, 
but I have been unable to find among the papers in the archives at 
Madrid the original document. The copy exists, and states that " the 
walls were to be brick and mortar, the foundations of granite, a row of 
stones two feet high on the walls, vaults to serve as roofs to all the 
rooms," &c. Ponz tells us in his Viage por Espaila, vol. vi. p. 108, that 
the building was " large and of regular architecture." 

The sum asked for the building was 179,130 reals, and 217 arrobas 
of lead for water-pipes. On the margin of the plan there is a copy of 
the King's approval on the 28th December, who gives orders that it 
should be executed without delay, and there are copies of communications 
which were written on the same day, ordering the money to be given to 
the architect. 

Don Carlos Antonio de Borbon was a black slave, who, according 
to Larruga (MetnotiaSj vol. iv. p. 213), had been captured with five 
other blacks by the seaman Barcelo during the reign of the King's pre- 
decessor (Ferdinand VI.). The Queen-mother sent them to Naples, 
and Charles III. gave them an artistic education. Don Carlos Antonio 
devoted himself to architecture, and came to Spain with the King's 
household. 

In January 1760, another architect, Don Carlos Witte, was ordered 
to make ready a paper-mill, which had been abandoned in the royal 
gardens of St. Fernando, near Madrid, that it might likewise be used for 
the manufacture of china. On the 22nd of May the work was finished ; 



I'ORCKLAIN— MADRID. 449 

the money spent on the building was 6226 reals. There are estimates, 
signed and approved of by the architect Borbon, for fresh outlays for the 
building in the Retiro, amounting to 145,000 reals and 46,168 reals. On 
the 4th of July of the same year (1760), Squilace sent orders to Wall, 
in the King's name, to build a house for the manager of the works near 
the Hermitage of St. Anthony. Larruga tells us that "the King spent 
in establishing this manufactory eleven millions and a half of reals 
(,£115,000), with a cost of two millions of reals a year to keep it up 
(£20,000). 

William Clarke, in his Letters Concerning the Spanish Nation, written 
at Madrid during the years 1760 and 1761, London, 1763, says, p. 262 : 
" At Madrid is lately set up a manufacture of porcelain in the gardens 
of the King's palace at the Retiro, wrought by artificers brought from 
Saxony ; " and there are documents existing at the Royal Archives at 
Madrid, of the years 1760 and 1761, proving that they had begun to 
work at the manufactory. The workmen employed there were to be 
attended by the doctors of the King's household, and they enjoyed several 
legal privileges. In Townsend's Journey through Spain in 1786 and 1787, 
London, 1792, he says, in vol. ii. p. 278 : — 

" I tried to obtain admission to the china manufacture, which is likewise adminis- 
tered on the King's account, but his Majesty's injunctions are so severe, that I could 
neither get introduced to see it, nor meet with any one who had ever been able to 
procure that favour for himself. I was the less mortified upon this occasion, because, 
from the specimens which I have seen, both in the palace at Madrid and in the 
provinces, it resembles the manufacture of Sevres, which I have formerly visited in 
a tour through France." 

Another traveller in Spain confirms how strict the orders were that 
no one should be allowed to visit the works — Nouvcau Voyage en Espagne, 
ou Tableau de VEtat actucl de cctte Monarchic, Paris, chez Regnault, 1789, 
vol. i. p. 233 : — 

" Le monarque actuel a etabli dans leur interieur une fabrique de porcelaine, 
dont Pentre'e est jusqu'k present interdite a tout le monde. On veut sans doute que 
ses essais se perfectionnent dans le silence avant de les exposer aux yeux des 
curieux. Ses productions ne peuvent encore se voir que dans les palais des sou- 
verains ou dans quelques cours d'ltalie, auxquelles il les envoie en presens." 

I have only been able to find mention of a permission granted in 
1800 to Citoyen Alquier, envoy of the French Republic, who is recom- 
mended most earnestly to the director to visit the manufactor}^. 

We cannot find any document proving the precise date when por- 
celain began to be manufactured at the Retiro. It may probably be 
found in one of the archives of the state, as well as details referring to 
the designers and cost of the most important pieces preserved in the 
royal palaces at Madrid. The rapidity with which the workmen were 

2 F 



45© PORCELAIN— MADRID. 

installed leads us to suppose no time was lost. Clarke, who writes in 
1 76 1, says the works were begun, and in 1764 there were already pupils 
of the manufactory who attended the classes of design at the Academy 
of St. Fernando. In a document at the archives of the Ministry of Fin- 
ance, there is a memorandum asking the Academy to send an account 
of what is due for these pupils. Larruga, in his Mcuiorias, tells us 
that as soon as the building was finished they began to make china 
under the direction of Don Cayetano Schepers, but all that was done 
during the time he was superintendent failed, much to his astonishment, 
as he employed the same process and the same workmen that he had 
done in Naples, where all had turned out successfully. Schepers attri- 
buted this to the squabbles between the Spanish and Italian workmen. 
Nothing important was made at the manufactory during Cayetano's 
direction. At the Ministry of Finance there is a series of documents, 
from 1783 until the end of the century, which proves that Sebastian 
Schepers, a son of Cayetano, was making experiments to make porcelain 
with different clays of the country. He complains constantly of the 
obstacles which meet him at every step. There is an interesting docu- 
ment at the Ministry of Finance, which Don Sebastian presents in 1797, 
giving an account of the different methods employed in other countries 
in the manufacture of china. 

In the meanwhile, the porcelain made at the manufactory during the 
first thirty years was kept for the exclusive use of the royal family of 
Spain, or to be sent as presents to foreign courts. Nothing was put for 
sale until January 1789, after Charles III.'s death, which occurred in 
1788, when Charles IV. determined that the china manufactured at the 
Buen Retiro should be sold to the public. 

The director at that time was Don Domingo Bonicelli, a son of Don 
Juan Bonicelli. Don Domingo was commissioned to look for a suitable 
place where the things could be exhibited for sale inside the Retiro 
itself, and a wareroom was prepared, which had been occupied by the 
Swiss guard, near the Hermitage of St. John. Don Manuel Machuca y 
Vargas, an architect, arranged it for the sum of 35,000 reals (£350). 
In order to facilitate the sale, another room was taken at Madrid, in the 
Calle del Turco, which is mentioned in Noticias Varias y Curiosas de 
Madrid, published by Valero Chicarro in 1792 and 1793. This estab- 
lishment cannot have given great commercial results, for in 1800 the 
director of the manufactory, Don Cristobal de Torrijos, begs the Govern- 
ment to close the warehouse in the Calle del Turco, and leave only the 
one at the Retiro open to the public, giving as a reason that " the objects 
manufactured were simply for ornament, and could only be bought by 
very rich persons," and those who could afford to buy them would not 
mind going as far as the Retiro to fetch them. In Southey's Letters 
from Spain, London, 1797, p. 118, he says: — 



PORCELAIN— MADRID. 451 

"The old palace of linen Retiro is converted into a royal porcelain manufa< tory ; 
the prices are extravagantly high, but they have arrived to great excellence in the 
manufacture, The false taste of the people i-> displayed in all the vases I saw there, 
which, though made from Roman models, are all terminated by porcelain flowers." 

In the manufactory of Bucn Retiro several kinds of china have been 
made, hard and soft paste, white china, glazed and unglazcd, or painted 
and modelled in the same style as at Capo di Monte. There are many 
specimens existing like Wedgwood, white on blue ground, and they also 
made flowers, coloured, and of biscuit, groups and single figures of 
biscuit, as well as painted and glazed porcelain. The most remarkable 
specimens existing of this manufactory are those modelled in the 
Neapolitan style. Even in Spain the specimens of this china are very 
scarce, and it is only at the royal palace at Madrid, and at Aranjuez, 
the Escorial, and La Granja, that an idea can be formed of the perfection 
to which the manufacture had arrived. The finest and most important 
specimens existing are two rooms, the one at Madrid and the other at 
Aranjuez, in which the walls are entirely covered with large china plaques, 
painted and modelled in high relief with figures, flowers, and fruits, and 
fine large ornamentation. The room at Aranjuez seems the one first 
made, and is signed "Jose Gricchi," the principal modeller of the manu- 
factory at the time it was established in 1759. Antonio Conca in his 
Descrizione Odeporica dclla Spagiia in cut Spczialmeiite si da Notizia delta 
cose spcttanti allc Belle Arti, Parma, 1793, vol. i. p. 310, says, "II Gabi- 
netto abbellito di porcellana della Fabbrica del Retiro ha meritato le 
lodi de curiosi viaggiatori." He also tells us, p. 119, " Un altro Gabi- 
netto vien chiamato della Cina pel suo principal ornato di bei putti, di 
bassi relievi, e di altre opere di porcellana della nuova Real Fabbrica del 
Retiro." Ponz describes the room at Madrid in the first volume of 
his Viage de Espafia, Madrid, 1782: "The room is covered with large 
plaques of porcelain, made at the manufactory of the Retiro. In some 
are represented figures of children, copied from good models, and between 
each compartment looking-glasses are let in." Ponz says of the room 
at Aranjuez, " The porcelain room you have already seen, and know 
how fine it is, and how remarkable are the pieces of which it is made. 
It was begun and finished in the manufactory that his Majesty has at the 
Retiro." There is every reason to suppose that a great deal must have 
been thought of these rooms at the time. 

Ever since Charles III. had established the manufactory in 1769 
until 1803, they had followed the system adopted at Capo di Monte, 
in all that had relation to the paste, glaze, and other manipulations of 
this artistic industry. At the beginning of the century, however, this 
system was considered imperfect, and the idea occurred to the persons 
in charge of the establishment to imitate the porcelain made at Sevres. 
Don Bartolome Sureda, a native of Mallorca, went to Paris, where he 



452 PORCELAIN— MADRID. 

endeavoured to learn the manner in which the Sevres manufactory was 
worked, which he did, as he tells us, after endless contrarieties and 
troubles. On his return to Spain in 1803, he was appointed director 
of the manufactory of Buen Retiro, and he began a series of experiments 
with the different kinds of earths which were to be found in Spain, in 
order to imitate the paste and brilliancy of decoration of Sevres. 

For the preparation of the important pieces which were to be deco- 
rated, two workmen were engaged from Paris, M. J. Victor Perche and 
M. Vivien, who agreed to do all that was required in this sort of work. 
M. Perche's contract began in October 1803, and was renewed until 
1809, when it ended. The wife of Perche, Dona Maria Juana Ferandini, 
agreed also to glaze the porcelain that should be given her by the 
director. 

They were not satisfied at the Retiro manufactory with copying the 
porcelain of Naples and Sevres, for they also made very fine imitations 
of Wedgwood and other of the principal manufactories of Europe. The 
finest specimens, as before stated, and which give the best idea of the 
excellence of the manufactory, can only be seen in Spain. The two 
rooms at Aranjuez and Madrid, and a magnificent clock and four large 
vases with porcelain flowers, which decorate one of the state rooms of 
the palace, are the finest things which exist in Buen Retiro. These vases 
are placed in the four corners of the rooms. Each of them, including 
the base and porcelain flowers, is about two metres high. The clock is 
decorated with large biscuit figures, and admirably modelled. It was 
made for the King's use, to decorate the room in which it is still placed. 

There are several vases at the royal palaces at Madrid, Aranjuez, 
and the Retiro of Buen Retiro china. They are very often without 
covers, and sometimes have bouquets of porcelain or muslin flowers, and 
bronze gilt handles. Among them are some imitating Wedgwood, 
although the blue is not so pure or the biscuit-work so fine as the 
English. In some cases gold is added to the blue, and a very common 
mark at the base is r. f. d. porcelana d. s. m. c. 

Among the private collections worth noting at Madrid containing 
specimens of Buen Retiro china are those of Count de Valencia and M. 
Ignace Bauer. The first of these gentlemen has collected together a 
number of groups and single figures, which form a very interesting col- 
lection. M. Bauer has four fine figures of children, the largest I have 
ever seen, measuring 32 inches in height. Two of them represent the 
seasons, Spring and Winter; the other two are black figures, evidently 
representing Africa and America. M. Bauer has also a group of Christ 
and an Apostle, made of white glazed china, modelled in the Italian 
style, about 26 inches high, and several other interesting specimens of 
the manufactory. 

As we have stated before, the porcelain made at the Retiro was not 



PORCELAIN— MADRID. 453 

exposed for sale for the first thirty years of the manufacture, and in the 
latter period the sale cannot have been great, for the establishment in 
the Calle del Turco was closed, as the one at the Rctiro was considered 
enough to meet the demands of the public. This is one of the reasons 
why, even in Spain, this china is so very rare. 

We have not been able to find any details of the room at Madrid, or 
the fine clock and vases at the palace, but consider these to have been 
made in the latter period of the manufactory. At the archives of the 
Ministry of Finance there are many papers relating to a dinner service 
which was made in 1798 for Charles IV., and presented to him on his 
birthday, and a dessert centrepiece which was made for the King at the 
same time. Some of the accounts are extant of the cost of these things, 
which were presented from 1797 until 1800. This centrepiece is pro- 
bably the same which still exists in the Casa del Labrador at Aranjuez. 
The cost of these pieces of porcelain must have been exorbitant. Some 
of the monthly accounts are in existence which were sent to the Ministry 
of Finance of the principal things made at the Retiro from 1807— 8. 

When the French made their entry into Madrid, in the spring of 
1808, they took possession of the royal manufactory. In July of the 
same year it continued in the hands of French soldiers, and during their 
stay they forced open the doors of the chemical laboratory and stole 
several of the things it contained. The director, Sureda, informs the 
Minister of Finance of what had occurred in a dispatch which is among 
the papers at Alcala. The Minister wrote to General Belliard, begging 
him to put a stop to these excesses and return the stolen things. The 
manufactory went on working during the reign of Joseph I. In Travels 
through Spain and Part of Portugal, London, 1808, p. 23, it is said — 

"The gardens of the Buen Retiro are open to the public. In the neighbourhood 
of these the royal porcelain manufacture is carried on in a large white b