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Full text of "Maryland historical magazine"

GENEALOGY COLLECTION! 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 
975.2 
M365HM 
1919 



Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/marylandhistoric1 91 9brow 



Vol. XIV MARCH, 1919 No. 1 

MARYLAND 

HISTORICAL 

MAGAZINE 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



ISSUED QUARTERLY 

.ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $3.00-SINGLENUMBEBS,75cM. 



DALTMiDRE 



Entered as Second-Class Hatter, April 24, 1017, at the Poatofflce, at Baltimore, Varrlaad, 



ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND 

Pxiblished by axitliority of the State 



VOLUME XXXVIII 



This volume is now ready for distribution, and contains many Acts 
of the General Assembly of the Province from 1694 to 1698, and 
from 1711 to 1729, hitherto unprinted. The Acts had never before 
appeared in print, and their very existence had been lost sight of 
for many years, so that they were omitted, when the Proceedings 
and Acts of the General Assembly were previously printed by the 
Society. Having recently been recovered, they are now included in 
the Archives, and make the publication of the Acts substantially 
complete, down to the year 1732. Many of these Acts are private 
laws, but they are important for such reasons as that naturalization 
laws are useful for genealogists, and the laws curing defects in the 
title to real property will be found of value to conveyancers. There 
are also a large number of Acts with reference to insolvent debtors, 
to the Provincial and County Courts, to tobacco trade, etc. The 
Appendix contains some interesting documents with reference to the 
Anglican Church in Maryland, and to the early History of Education 
in the Province. 

The attention of members of the Society who do not now receive 
the Archives is called to the liberal provision made by the Legisla- 
ture, which permits the Society to furnish to its own members copies 
of the volumes, as they are published from year to year, at the mere 
cost of paper, press-work, and binding. This cost is at present fixed 
at one dollar, at which price members of the Society may obtain one 
copy of each volume published during the period of their membership. 
For additional copies, and for volumes published before they became 
menibf.TB, the regular price of three dollars is charged. The volume 
is edited by Bernard C. Steiner, Ph. D. 



THE MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



INCORPORATED 1843. 



OFFICERS. 

President, 

EDWIN WARFIELD. 

Vice-Presidents, 

W. HAT.L HARRIS, HENRY STOCKBRIDGE, 

DeCOURCY W. THOM. 

Corresponding Secretary, 

RICHARD H. SPENCER. 

Recording Secretary, 

GEORGE L. RADCLIFFE. 

Treasurer, 

HEYWARD E. BOYCE. 

THE COUNCIL. 
The Genebal Officers 

AND 



G7S9'7! 



J. APPLETON WILSON, 
JOHN M. VINCENT, 
RICHARD M. DUVALL, 
f HILLIPS L. GOLDSBOROUGH, 



McHEJSRY HOWARD, 
RUXTON M. RIDGELY, 
JAMES McC. TRIPPE, 
DR. BERNARD BROWNE. 



1866. 
1892. 
1909. 
1915. 
1916. 
1916. 
1916. 



BENEFACTORS OF THE SOCIETY. 

GEORGE PEABODY, Gift, . . 

J. HENRY STICKNEY, Bequest . 

ISAAC F. NICHOLSON, .... Gift, . . 

MENDES COHEN, Bequest, 

ISAAC HENRY FORD, Bequest, 

ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, Gift, 

MRS. MARY WASHINGTON KEYSER, 



$20,000 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Gift of the H. Irvine Keyser Memorial Building 



FORM OF LEGACY. 
" I give and bequeath to The Maryland Historical Society the 
sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I>rDICATION OF THE H. IBVINE KeYSEB MEMORIAL BUILDING, - 1 

Presentation by the Rt. Rev. John Gardiner Murray, - - 1 

Acceptance by President Edwin Warfield, . . . . g 

Address by Governor Emerson Harrington, ... - 7 

Address by Bernard C. Steiner, Ph. D., - - - - 10 

Address by John M. Vincent, Ph. D., 26 

TsoiLAS Johnson. Hon. Edward 8. Delaplaine, - - - - 33 

The Endowment Fund — An Appeal, 66 

Passage of the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment thbough Bal- 
timore, April 19, 1861. Matthew Page Andrews, - - 60 

Jonb:s Bible Records, 76 

Notes and Cobbections, 80 

lasT op Members of the Society, 81 



Committee on Publications 

SAMUEL K. DENNIS, Chairrrum. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, BERNARD C. STEINT.R. 



LOUIiS H. DIBLMAN, 
Ednior. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. XIV. MARCH, 1919. No. 1. 



DEDICATION OF THE H. IRVINE KEYSER 
MEMORIAL BUILDING 



The H. Irvine Keyser Memorial Building was dedicated on 
February the eighteenth, nineteen hundred and nineteen, in 
the presence of a large and distinguished company of members 
and guests. 

The Historical Society of the State of Minnesota was repre- 
sented by Dr. Bernard C. Steiner, a Corresponding Member 
of that Society; the ISTew York Historical Society, by Mr. 
Paul Gibson Burton of this city; the Columbia Historical 
Society by Mr. Allen C. Clark, and the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania by Mr. Thomas Willing Balch. Honorable Henry 
Cabot Lodge, the representative of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, wrote regretting his inability to leave Washington at 
the time. 

The Right Reverend John Gardiner Murray, Bishop of 
Maryland, in making the presentation on behalf of Mrs. Mary 
Washington Keyser, spoke as follows: 

President Warfield, Members of the Committee, Ladies and 
Gentlemen: 

Among the many precious privileges continually vouchsafed 
me, that which I this moment enjoy is supreme. 

We have assembled to open these stately buildings as a memo- 

1 



2 ^fARYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

rial to the life work of Mr. H. Irvine Keyser, and to dedicate 
them as the home of the ^Maryland Historical Society. It is an 
auspicious occasion with a timely purpose. 

As the representative of Mr. Keyser's family in puWicly con- 
simimating the presentation of this gift to the Society, and. 
through the Society to the City of Baltimore and the State of 
Maryland, I desire first to quote what Mrs. Keyser has had 
inscribed on the tablet at its entrance : 

this site and these buildings 

were presented to 

The Maryland Historical Society 

as a memorial to my husband 

H. Irvine Keyser 

OF BALTIMORE 

OBIT MAY 7, 1916 

A MEMBER OF THIS SOCIETY 

1873 TO 1916 

Then I must respect what I feel would be the wish and honor 
what would be the will of my deceased friend, who was a man 
of few words but many works, were he here in person to express 
the one and exercise the other. " Crescite et Multiplicamini," 
the motto of Maryland written over the entrance to the Library 
Building of this Memorial group, will serve not only for the 
inspiration of the Society itself, but also as a legitimate expres- 
sion of the accomplishment of him who for forty-three years 
was one of its most interested members. But " Multum in 
Parvo " must characterize our present portrayal of that accom- 
plishment in words. 

And so, Mr. President, let me briefly say, for preservation in 
the Archives of the Maryland Historical Society in the record 
you shall make of these opening exercises, that in all the rela- 
tionships of the three Institutions — Home, Church, and State — 
which together comprise every activity of human life, the con- 
duct of H. Irvine Keyser was always that of a man with splen- 
did vision, of proper perspective, and constructive endeavor. 




H. IRVINE KEYSER. 

(Front f.orlfdll by Tlntu.n.s ('. C, 



rr.) 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 3 

He was an intelligent, accomplished actor on the stage of all 
honorable human affairs. Nothing was foreign to him that was 
native to his fellow man. 

" Kindly affectioned," he was given to hospitality and con- 
tributed to all legitimate necessity. He found pleasure in 
proper social diversion, and at the time of his death was second 
eldest living member of the Maryland Club. " Kot slothful in 
business," he was ever interested in the welfare of youthful 
beginners, and many successful men in our community today 
owe their start in life to him, and received subsequent instruc- 
tion and encouragement from him, when they were passing 
through the sifting processes that try young men's souls and 
demonstrate the stuff and fibre of their manhood. 

Patriotic in purpose and consistent in practice, he was always 
on the side of political integrity, and measured up fully to every 
responsibility of good citizenship. 

" Fervent in Spirit," his service for the Lord was unostenta- 
tious, natural and practical. Believing that the " fear of the 
Lord " grew out of the " instruction of wisdom," he was inter- 
ested and active in educational affairs. As a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Gilman Country School from 1897 to 
1909, and Vice-President for ten years of that time, he largely 
directed the policy of the School, and strongly influenced his 
associates on the Board in his advocacy of sane treatment of 
all educational questions in contrast with visionary fancies and 
fads. 

In his Church relationship, the diocese of Maryland owes 
much to Mr. Keyser in many different departments. In his 
own parish he was a devout communicant, and most efficient and 
faithful in the discharge of his duties as a vestryman. In dio- 
cesan affairs he filled positions of responsibility and was a wise 
counsellor and progressive leader. Being a member of the Dio- 
cesan Committee of Missions for six years, he was in close touch 
with the missionary work of the whole diocese and was ever 
ready to contribute of his time, means and talent for its success- 
ful prosecution. As one of the original Trustees of the Cathe- 
dral Foundation, humanly speaking, it was due him more than 



4 MAKYLA^'D IIISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

anyone else that this great Community Christian enterprise 
was inaug\irated. At its very inception the clearness of his 
vision dispelled all doubts, and by his generous provision the site 
which enabled the project to take complete form was secured. 
His suggestions from time to time were helpful and encouraging, 
and his ideas were so uniformly practical that they were ever 
received with favor by the other trustees and inspired them to 
persevering endeavor. 

His wise, patient and persistent efforts in all these different 
relationships of life naturally and logically developed in him a 
strong stalwart manhood, well rounded, satisfactory and satis- 
fying, for the accomplishment of that legitimate work which 
represents in its best sense the full purpose of God concerning 
man, who is not only the creature of His hand to illustrate His 
power, but also the child of His love to do His will. 

We thank God for the example of bis life and take fresh 
courage in our endeavor to be honest, pure and manly as was he. 

It is eminently proper that to such a man in any community 
there should be erected a memorial monument of earthly mate- 
rial. It is still more proper that such a memorial monument 
should be like this one — a medium of service for Community 
and State. But the supreme memorial monument for such a 
man is the perpetuation of his influence for good, in the com- 
munity in which he was born, lived and died, through the gene- 
rations to come. For the tangible realization of this supreme 
purpose, no material structure could have been more discrim- 
inatingly erected than these classic buildings, and no intellectual 
agency more wisely chosen than this distinctive and distin- 
guished Society which is now entitled to designate this place by 
that most sacred word in any language — Hbme. What buman 
love has thus offered and buman wisdom provided may Divine 
love sanction and Divine power use. 

Let us Pray. 

O Almighty God, with whom do live the spirits of those who 
depart hence in the Lord, and with whom the souls of the faith- 
ful, after they are delivered from the burden of the flesh, are in 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 5 

joy and felicity; We give thee hearty thanks for the good ex- 
amples of all those thy servants who, having finished their course 
in faith, do now rest from their labours. Especially do we 
praise thee for the life of H. Irvine Keyser, with its hlessed 
memory of work well done for the welfare of humanity and thy 
glory, beseeching thee, that we, with him and all those who are 
departed in the true faith of thy holy l^ame, may have our per- 
fect consummation and bliss, both in body and soul, in thy 
eternal and everlasting glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
Amen. 

Blessed be thy l!^ame, O Lord, that it hath pleased thee to 
put into the heart of thy servant to give and dedicate these 
buildings, as an expression of her love for the departed, and for 
the use of humanity in the days present and years to come. 
Accept, we pray thee, this offering of thy servant, and let thy 
blessing so rest upon it, that it may serve the purpose for which 
it is intended. Grant that in it and through it brotherly love 
and true fellowship may ever abound, and the members of the 
Maryland Historical Society so encourage one another in every 
proper and patriotic work that not only they, but also all others 
who shall come under their influence, may so contribute to the 
purity of the Home, the integrity of the State and the piety of 
the Church, that human life shall be exalted and thy divine 
glory enthroned; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

O Lord, our Heavenly Father, the high and mighty Ruler of 
the universe, who dost from thy throne behold all the dwellers 
upon earth; most heartily we beseech thee with thy favour to 
behold and bless thy servants the President of the United States, 
the Governor of this State, the Mayor of this City, and all others 
in Authority. And as for them so do we pray thee for ourselves, 
thy people everywhere, our Senate and Representatives in Con- 
gress assembled, and the members of the World Peace Congress 
now in session ; that thou wouldst he pleased to direct and pros- 
per all our consultations, to the advancement of thy glory, the 
good of thy Church, the safety, honour and welfare of the world ; 



6 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that all tilings may be so ordered and settled by our endeavours, 
upon the best and surest foundations, that peace and happiness, 
truth and justice, religion and piety, may be established among 
us for all generations ; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who hath 
taught when we pray to say : 

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy Name. Thy 
kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. 
Give us thy day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, 
as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not 
into temptation ; but deliver us from evil ; for thine is the king- 
dom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 

President Edwin Warfield, in accepting the gift, said : 

I have the honor, and esteem it a very great privilege, Bishop 
Murray, to accept through you these splendidly equipped build- 
ings, the H. Irvine Keyser Memorial, as a gift from Mrs. Mary 
Washington Keyser to the Maryland Historical Society, for its 
future home. 

Mrs. Keyser by deed dated December I7th, 1917, conveyed 
to the Society the Pratt residence and adjoining lot, with the 
understanding that she would erect on said lot a building con- 
taining rooms furnished with modem fire-proof equipment, in 
which to house the valuable books, documents, priceless manu- 
scripts and historic data owned by the Society, and a Gallery in 
which to exhibit our historic paintings and portraits. This gift 
was made by Mrs. Keyser as a memorial to her husband, Mr. H. 
Irvine Keyser, who was an honored member of the Society for 
nearly half a century. The Society then gratefully accepted the 
property and left to Mrs. Keyser the sole supervision of all im- 
provements and the approval of all plans for the building. The 
consummation of her skillful and intelligent direction we see 
here tonight. Now our valuable collections are safe from 
destruction by fire. 

You, Bishop Murray, have in dignified and feeling language 
set forth the activities of Mr. Keyser during his life and his 
high ideals, his public spirit and his services for the welfare of 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 7 

humanity and this community. We will preserve in an endur- 
ing form your address so that it may be an inspiration to our 
members. 

This is truly a fitting and enduring memorial to a most 
worthy citizen of this State. We feel deep and sincere gratitude 
to Mrs. Keyser for her splendid gift. It will enable the Society 
to increase and multiply its historic activities and patriotic 
work, and thus inure to the glory of our state. 

President Warfield then presented His Excellency Emerson 
C. Harrington, Governor of Maryland, who spoke on " The 
Society as the Custodian and Publisher of the Archives of 
Maryland " : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The presentation of this fine building to the Maryland His- 
torical Society excites in the heart of every true Marylander the 
strongest feelings of gratitude and appreciation at the splendid 
gift and at the spirit of pride and patriotism which the giver 
thereof must feel for this grand old Commonwealth of ours. 

The great war which has but just been brought to a close has 
presented a splendid opportunity .to the people of America to 
demonstrate to ourselves as well as to the world that the spirit 
of our illustrious fathers still lives in undiminished vigor, and 
that the ideals for which they fought and died are still cher- 
ished and revered in every quarter, not only of the thirteen 
original Colonies or States, but in every section of this great 
country of ours. 

But we do feel, sir, that Maryland from the manner of her 
settlement and foundation and from the part which our forebears 
took in the early struggles :of our country for independence and 
for the foundation of our Government is privileged to be proud 
of our traditions and proud of our history. 

'Eo one can ever take away from us the just fame of our 
colony as a sanctuary, as the first place in the whole world where 
true civil and religious liberty was proclaimed and practiced. 



8 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Battles of Long Island, Camden, Guilford Court House 
and Eutaw Springs attest the gallantry and bravery of Mary- 
land officers and Maryland men. 

A Maryland man, Thomas Johnson, had the honor of nomi- 
nating General "Washington as the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Continental forces, and a Maryland man, Colonel Tench Tilgh- 
man, had the honor as Washington's aide to carry the news of 
Comwallis' surrender to the Continental Congress at Philadel- 
phia and to stand with the immortal Lafayette by Washington's 
side when in the old Senate Chamber at Annapolis, General 
Washington gave back his commission to the Continental Con- 
gress there assembled and retired to private life. 

The honor is Maryland's to have given to the country the 
land where is located the Capital of the country, and it was upon 
Maryland's motion that all of the ^Northwestern territory out of 
which so many States have been carved was ceded to the 
National Government 

And then again, in the War of 1812, when the citizen soldiery 
of Baltimore City had successfully turned the tide of war, a dis- 
tinguished Maryland citizen amid the shot and shell of battle 
looking out upon our flag as it waved above Fort McHenry, 
gave birth to the " Star-Spangled Banner," our National An- 
them. We are likewise proud of our own State Anthem, 
" Maryland, My Maryland," recognized throughout our country 
almost as a National Anthem. 

And then in the old State House at Annapolis the flag known 
as " Old Glory " which was carried by Maryland troops in the 
battles of the Revolution, is the oldest if not the only Revolu- 
tionary flag extant. And it is a matter of no small pride that in 
the beginning of the present war, it was a Maryland man, Wm. 
Tyler Page, who gave us the American Creed. 

I am aware it would take me too long to attempt to recount 
the brave deeds of our ancestors, and when the United States 
entered the world war, there was never a question as to where 
Maryland would stand. We quickly filled our National Guard 
with volunteers and while I am sure that no one will misunder- 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMOEIAL BUILDING. 9 

stand me because I stood behind the Selective Draft, yet I want 
to pause to pay a tribute to our National Guard and to those 
red-blooded boys of ours who needed but the call of our country 
to offer their services during the war. I am proud of the part 
played by our officers and our men. I am proud of that notable 
band of distinguished physicians of Maryland, every one of 
them offering their services to the Government, and some of 
them being called upon both at Washington and on the battle 
front to be the very heads of their respective departments. I am 
proud of the men called from Maryland into the Railroad service 
of the country, proud of our Draft Boards, our Medical Advisory 
Boards, of the Legal Advisory Boards, all of those who took 
part in placing Maryland over the top in all their drives, Lib- 
erty Loan drives, Red Cross drives, and in fact of all the war 
activities of the State. When the history of this war shall have 
been correctly reported I am confident that Maryland will 
occupy an honorable place in the galaxy of the forty-eight States 
of this Union. We have been already at work getting the data 
which will furnish correct information for the future historians 
to write up Maryland's part in this war. The Government is 
likewise arranging to have the history of this war as a whole, 
as well as the history of each State properly written up, and all 
the data which they gather and all the data which our people 
gather will be given to the State to be handed over to the Mary- 
land Historical Society for safe keeping to become a part of 
the archives of the State. We want the Maryland data to be 
fair and complete. We want to make sure that here with this 
Society will be the facts and data which will ever be preserved 
where our children and our children's children may be able to 
know what part their forebears or ancestors took in the greatest 
war and for the highest ideals for which our ISTation or mankind 
ever waged war. And in this hour of our victory and in this 
hour of our rejoicing it touches us deeply to know that a Mary- 
land woman has been inspired to give this grand memorial for 
the service of the State, and I now, on behalf of the people of 
the whole State, wish to express our gratefulness and our high 



10 iTARYLAXD IIISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

appreciation of this magiiiticent gift and tribute, so splendid a 
building, for tie use of the Maryland Historical Society. I am 
contident we shall all want to be recorded here, and again, on 
behalf of ourselves and of our descendants yet unborn, I wish 
to express the great debt which the people of our State will ever 
owe to Mrs. Marv Washington Keyser, your and the State's 
benefactress here tonight. 

I cannot conceive of any higher memorial or tribute that she 
could oifer to her distinguished husband, than such a memorial 
as this, that will be a constant reminder to the people of our 
State of her kindness and generosity. 

The President then presented Dr. Bernard C. Steiner, who 
delivered the following address on " Maryland History and 
the Maryland Historical Society " : 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

In 1608, a three-ton barge left Jamestown to explore the 
waters of the Chesapeake, and Maryland History began. Verraz- 
zano may have trodden the soil of the State ; Indian tribes had 
lived here for long centuries, but, with the advent of Captain 
John Smith and his little crew, began the continuous history 
of this part of the world. Down the Susquehanna from the 
North, the Indians brought their furs, and to trade for these, 
a Virginian, William Claiborne, established a factory upon 
Kent Island in 1G31. A shrewd and skilful man, Sir George 
Calvert, First Lord Baltimore, wearying of the cold days and 
barren soil of Avalon, in Newfoundland, also came hither, and, 
charmed with the bay and its fertile shores, successfully asked 
them from King Charles I, as a Province, to be granted him 
with the broad powers of a palatinate. Courtier as Calvert 
was, he gave his new possession the name of the English Queen, 
neririetta Maria, the daughter of Henry IV of Navarre, and 
the Terra Mariae of the Latin charter, being translated, became 
Maryland. The first Lord Baltimore sickened and died, before 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 11 

the charter passed the seals, and his son, Cecil, named for 
the great Lord Burghlej, his father's chief, became the first 
Lord Proprietary. A wise and cool-headed business man, pro- 
fessing the Roman Catholic faith, he had a great territory to 
develop, and he desired to benefit those who believed with him. 
He was landlord and niler of a wide domain, which he was 
destined never to visit, and for which he needed colonists. 
From the first, therefore, he established grants of land upon 
liberal terms, and gave free exercise of religion for all Chris- 
tians. His brother, Leonard Calvert, sent with the Ark and 
the Dove — vessels of well-omened name — began the Colony on 
March 25, 1634, Our Lady's Day. It was the beginning of 
the New Year in those days, and it was the commencement of 
spring. Vicissitudes followed ; the Province was thrice wrested 
from Proprietary rule; the original religious toleration was 
succeeded by an established Protestant Church; blit, at the 
end of the first century of Provincial History, we find the 
Proprietary rule again restored. The settlers, dwelling, with 
their indentured servants and negro slaves, on their plantations, 
which were stretched along the shores of the bay and its tribu- 
tary rivers, had taken little time to think of their history. In 
1727, there came as Governor a gentle, scholarly man, a friend 
of Heame, the antiquary, Benedict Leonard Calvert, the brother 
of Charles Lord Baltimore, Fifth Proprietary. He had made 
the grand tour of Europe, and, although too soon cut off by the 
dread disease — consumption — in the few years of his governor- 
ship, he gathered around him our first literary circle. William 
Parks had his printing press at Annapolis and John Peter 
Zenger was at Chestertown. R. Lewis, master of King William 
School, was editing and translating Latin poetry, and Eben 
Cook, Poet Laureat, was composing the Hudibrastic " Sot 
Weed Factor." It was an important epoch in Maryland history 
for many reasons. Then was passed the act establishing the 
town of Baltimore, and, if Governor Calvert had crossed Parr's 
Ridge into the valley of the Monocacy, he would have seen there 



12 MARYI.AND HISTORIC AL MAGAZINE. 

the vanguard of the German-speaking immigrants whose settle- 
ment of Western Maryland had such important results. At the 
first session of the Assembly under his governorship, Calvert 
found that a Commission had already been appointed to 
" inspect and amend the ill condition of our public records " 
and recommended a " Separate repository for the old records " 
to " secure us from a total loss of all, in case of fire or other 
unavoidable accident." 

The years of the Provincial Period passed by. In the French 
and Indian War, the Colonies, for a first time, perceived a 
common peril from a foreign foe, and soon afterwards, they 
felt another foe to their liberty — in their mother country. The 
first historical research in the Province was that of lawyers, 
who, throughout the eighteenth century, were searching English 
history, and the manuscript records of the Province, in the 
endeavor to prove that Marylanders possessed the rights of. 
Englishmen, that English Statutes extended to Maryland, that 
the British Parliament had no right to tax the Provincials, that 
the Governor of the Province had no right to fix fees by procla- 
mation. Together with the lawyers, such as Daniel Dulany, 
must be mentioned a clergyman, Rev. Thomas Bacon, whose 
edition of Maryland laws, printed at Annapolis, was not only 
the noblest product of any printing press in British North 
America, but, by its thoroughness, and accuracy, has set a 
standard for Maryland investigators to follow, and put all 
subsequent students in his debt. 

The stirring years of the Revolutionary War, in which Mary- 
land regretfully overthrew the rule of the Proprietary and the 
King, and stepped forth as a sovereign State, were times when 
men acted, rather than wrote, history, and so, in the following 
years, when the Articles of Confederation and perpetual union 
were being made more perfect through the establishment of a 
National Government under the Constitution, Maryland men 
had their thoughts fully occupied with the events of the passing 
day. Not until after the nineteenth century had well begun, did 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 13 

Jolin Leeds Bozman delve among the manuscripts in Annapolis 
and, with marvelous skill and correctness, draw therefrom the 
materials which he used for his History of the Province, extend- 
ing his researches, unfortunately, only until 1657. He was 
followed hy another lawyer, John V. L. McMahon, whose con- 
stitutional view of the History of Maryland showed profound 
and minute research, so little appreciated by the people of the 
State that, in discouragement at the reception of the first 
volume, printed in 1831, he never completed a second one, 
and part of the stock of this first volume remained on the 
shelves of the publisher, until consumed in the great Baltimore 
fire of 1904. 

Another lawyer, John H. B. Latrobe, fitly honored in later 
years by this Society, recorded that, on October 23, 1835, he 
was one of three, who first " proposed to get up a Historical 
Society in Maryland" (the other two were (Reverdy?) John- 
son and (John J.) Donaldson). The proposal was somewhat 
premature, though two centuries had elapsed since the settle- 
ment of the Province. 

Eight years later, others had taken up the idea, and, on 
January 27, 1844, a meeting was held at the Post Office Build- 
ing on the xsTortheast corner of Fayette and North streets^ in 
the rooms of the Colonization Society, of which organization 
Latrobe was president. At this meeting a committee was 
appointed to draft a Constitution for the Maryland Historical 
Society, on motion of Brantz Mayer, " to whose zeal and exer- 
tion," the records inform us, " the organization of the Society 
is mainly attributable." Mayer was then 34 years old, and had 
recently returned from Mexico, where he had held a diplomatic 
position, and had collected material for one of the best historical 
works ever written upon that country. The Society was at once 
organized, adopting a Constitution and By-Laws, which Mayer 
had drafted. The legislature was then in session, and on March 
8, the Governor signed the " Act to incorporate the Maryland 
Historical Society, for the purpose of collecting, preserving, 
and diffusing information relating to the civil, natural, and 



1-i MABYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

literary history of this State, and to American history and 
biography generally." The charter members were: Brantz 
Mayer, John P. Kennedy, John H. B. Latrobe, Robert Gilmor, 
John V. L. McMahon, Charles F. Mayer, Frederick William 
Brune, Jr., Sebastian F. Streeter, John L. Carey, George W. 
Dobbin, John Spear Smith, Bernard TJ. Campbell, William G. 
Lyford, Stephen Collins, Fielding Lucas, Jr., John J. Donald- 
son, Robert Cary Long, William A. Talbot, S. Teackle Wallis, 
Charles J. M. Gwinn, Joshua I. Cohen, John S. Sumner. It 
was a remarkable list of the most prominent citizens of Balti- 
more, and the devotion of these men to the interests of the 
Society may be seen from the fact that the first four presidents 
thereof, who served it for the whole of its first half-century, 
were among the incorporators. For some unknown reason, 
James Hall, J. Morrison Harris, George William Brown, and 
Robert Leslie, who are recorded as present at the first meeting, 
were not included among those named in the charter, although 
they were also founders of the Society. The last survivor of 
these was the Honorable J. Morrison Harris, who, by a peculiar 
fitness, was selected to deliver the address at the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the Society's foundation. 

On February 1, 1844, the permanent organization was made, 
by the election of the following officers: John Spear Smith, 
president ; John V. L. McMahon, vice-president ; Brantz Mayer, 
corresponding secretary ; Sebastian F. Streeter, recording secre- 
tary; John J. Donaldson, Treasurer, and Stephen Collins, 
librarian. The membership was increasing, and the new Society 
procured a large room, adjoining that in which it had been 
organized, and met there from the spring of 1844, for four 
years, until possession was taken of the quarters on the upper 
floor of the Athenaeum Building, at the Northwest comer of 
Saratoga and St. Paul streets. About a score of years later, 
the Society's meetings began to be held in the large central 
room on the lower floor, a dignified and spacious apartment, 
left only now, after some fifty years of occupancy, for the 
building where we meet tonight. 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMOEIAL BUILDING. 15 

General John Spear Smith, the first President, was a son of 
General Samuel Smith, and had been one of his father's aides 
in the defense of Baltimore in 1814. He had later served as 
Charge d'affaires in London, and was long Chief Judge of the 
Orphans' Court. A dignified, courtly gentleman, he spent much 
time in the Society's rooms and did the honors to visitors. By 
annual reelection he was continued in the Presidency until his 
death in 1866. 

The Society having been organized, chartered, and provided 
with an abiding place, it introduced itself to the people of the 
State (for the founders entertained the hope of a chapter in 
each county) by having delivered a " First Discourse," by 
Charles F. Mayer, on June 20, 1844. This address was printed 
by the Society, and heads a list of some fifteen pages of titles 
of books and pamphlets bearing the Society's imprint, recorded 
in the Report of the American Historical Association for 
1905 — ^so prolific has been the activity of the organization. 
Mr. Mayer discussed the Province's history, and said that: 
" To illustrate Maryland in all her merits, by gathering and 
cherishing materials for her frank and ample chronicles, is the 
office of the Society that has honored me as its representative 
before the people of Maryland. We all must feel solicitous 
to award to her her appropriate rank in the civilized world, 
and especially among the States who have, by arduous toil and 
patient energy, achieved their eminence. . . . The Society 
proposes to invite, as to their genial and improving home, all 
the details and remembrances of the past days of Maryland, 
that, from her infancy to indefinite futurity, she may live in 
the eyes and to the generous pride and the rich instruction of 
her sons. Our friends of the Maryland Historical Society . . . 
are the wardens of Maryland's Historic lore and the Ministers 
of her fame. As such, they may claim to be cherished by the 
people of Maryland. Let them be cheered and aided in unfold- 
ing her and keeping her unveiled in all her importance and 
capacities, that, knowing her well and better, we may value 
and cultivate her resources and keep unsullied her name." 



16 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Society next proceeded to take three important forward 
steps. First, it began to collect a library of books and manu- 
scripts, a gallery of works of art, and a museum of historical 
objects. The second step was to prepare to erect a building for 
a permanent home. The venerable Baltimore Library Company 
had been organized in 1796, and was the first Public Library 
to be established in the city. At this time, Brantz Mayer was 
its President. It was easy for the two Societies, which had so 
many leaders in common, to join forces in this matter. Within 
a year of the beginning of our Society's life, a plan of operation 
was being considered, and in February, 1845, a circular was 
issued, calling for public subscriptions toward such a building 
as a free gift to the two organizations. It was decided to call 
the edifice the Athenaeum, because it was to be the abode of 
letters in Baltimore, and, at the December session of 1845, the 
General Assembly passed an act of incorporation of its trustees. 
Before the building was completed, the ground floor was leased 
to the Mercantile Library Association, which occupied it until 
about 1880. For a time, all Baltimore's important public 
libraries were under one roof. So great was the popular interest 
in the project that twenty of the well-to-do citizens subscribed 
$500 each, and, within the year, $45,000 had been given and 
expended in the purchase of the lot, and the erection of the 
building. The architect of the Athenaeum was Robert Gary 
Long, one of the charter members of the Society, and the fine 
proportions of the structure do him great credit, and have long 
been among the ornaments of the city. The formal dedication 
occurred on October 23, 1848, with an address by Brantz 
Mayer, entitled : " Commerce, Literature, and Art." The 
orator emphasized the fact that the donors were mostly com- 
mercial men who had freely given the building to literature, 
history, and art, and spoke of the usefulness of the Society's 
library, as a place " into which the honest and industrious 
student may freely come, and carefully collate the discordant 
materials that have been accumulated, with commendable 
industry for future use." It has been one of the glories of the 



DEDICATIOlSr OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 17 

Society, from that time to this, that its collections have been 
used for research by historical students. 

The third step of importance, taken very early in the history 
of the Society, was the establishment of such relations with the 
State that documents might be deposited in our safe keeping 
which could be more accessible and more securely guarded here 
than in Annapolis. David Ridgely, the patient antiquary, as 
State Librarian, had made report to the General Assembly in 
1835 concerning manuscript materials in the public oflSces, and 
by Resolution of the legislature, passed at its session of Decem- 
ber, 1846, a considerable number of these manuscripts were 
placed in the custody of the Society. 

In the Athenaeum Building, the Society led a prosperous 
life for many years. Large additions came to its collections, 
the Gilmor Papers, which included many from Governor 
Horatio Sharpe; the papers of General Mordecai Gist, the 
Towson collection of coins, the index to Maryland records in 
the State Paper Office, London (given by George Peabody) — 
all these and many more had been accumulated, when the 
Society published its Catalogue in 1854. An annual historical 
address was delivered by one of the Society's members, an 
Annual Exhibition of paintings was held and soirees and din- 
ners were given, occasionally, with the generous refreshments 
for which Baltimore was famous. The Baltimore Library 
Company went out of existence in 1852, transferring all its 
books and its interest in the Athenaeum Building to the Society. 
George Peabody was so impressed with the work of the Society 
that he intended at first to make it the centre about which 
should be built his Institute ; but, when difficulties arose in the 
carrying out of that project, he determined that the Institute 
should be an independent organization, while he gave the 
Society an endowment fund of $20,000, the income of half of 
which should be used for the purposes of publication. This 
Publication Fund, from 1867 to 1901, paid for thirty-seven 
distinct publications and has been used of recent years toward 
meeting the expenses of the Society's magazine. 
2 



18 MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

Then came the Civil War, and, while interest in the Society 
naturally fell off, the meetings were kept up, although attended 
by only eight or ten members. After the return of peace, the 
Society resumed its formal gatherings, and in 1866 Dr. Lewis 
H. Steiner spoke upon the U. S. Sanitary Commission, and the 
Hon. "VVm. F. Giles on Col. John Eager Howard. 

Shortly after peace came, General Smith died and Brantz 
Mayer was elected as the second President, in 1867. In 1871, 
his duties as an officer in the army caused him to remove to 
California, whence he later returned to Baltimore, where he 
died in 1878. 

Upon Mr. Mayer's removal, John H. B. Latrobe became the 
third President and continued to serve as such until his death 
in 1891. A man of wonderful memory, of a wide experience 
of life, and of fine powers of description, when there was no 
paper appointed to be read, he would entertain the members 
present at meetings with his recollections of men of past days, 
especially of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, whom, in youth, he 
had known well. 

In 1860, John H. Alexander had sent a report to the Gov- 
ernor of the State " on certain documents touching the pro- 
vincial history of Maryland," in which report he recited how 
he had secured the compilation of these documents by Rev. Dr. 
Ethan Allen and called attention to the imperative need of 
taking greater care of them. Nothing was done then ; but, in 
1866, and again in 1878, Brantz Mayer brought the matter to 
the attention of the State authorities. Interest grew and, 
finally, the General Assembly at its session in 1882, passed the 
first act which provided for the publication of the Archives of 
Maryland. An annual appropriation of $2,000 was made for 
that purpose, which appropriation has continued until this day, 
making possible the printing of thirty-eight large octavo vol- 
umes, containing the Proceedings of the Provincial Council, 
the Proceedings and Acts of the Provincial Assembly, the Cor- 
respondence of Gov. Horatio Sharpe, the Proceedings of the 
Provincial Court, the Proceedings of the Revolutionary Council, 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 19 

and the Muster Rolls of Revolutionary Soldiers. The series 
has added much to the reputation of the Society and to the 
knowledge of the Provincial and Revolutionary History. The 
editor of thirty-one of the thirty-eight volumes was the courteous 
and careful historical student, Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, to whose 
work much of the success of the series is due. When he died, 
Clayton C. Hall, Esq., took up the work with equal accuracy, 
but his life ended so soon that his name appeared on the title 
page of only three volumes. The present editor has seen four 
volumes through the press. 

In order to make the manuscripts at Annapolis available for 
the preparation of the Archives, the Act of 1882 provided that 
" any and all pulblic officers " in whose possession might be 
any " records, archives, and ancient documents of the Province 
and State of Maryland, of any date prior to the acknowledge- 
ment of the independence of the United States by Great 
Britain," may transfer these manuscripts to the Maryland 
Historical Society, as their custodian. The Society shall 
" agree that such records and documents shall be safely kept, 
properly arranged and catalogued, and that such of them as 
are of historical importance, shall be edited and published, 
under the supervision of the Society, and provided that said 
records shall, at all times, be accessible to the inspection of the 
people of this State, free of all charges and fees." 

From the Commissioner of the Land Office, from the Clerk 
of the Court of Appeals, and later from the Secretary of State 
have been received great numbers of books and papers, for 
whose safe keeping a fire-proof room was provided in the 
Athenaeum. These records are now all safe here in the new 
fire-proof Library building. 

In the late seventies, the Library of the Maryland Historical 
Society became the place where the Historical Seminary of the 
Johns Hopkins University began its sessions under the direc- 
tion of Austin Scott and later of that inspiring teacher, Herbert 
B. Adams. It is a pleasant reflection that the Society gave its 
first home to that department, from the researches of whose 



20 - MAETI^ND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

students so many advances in historical knowledge have come. 

In 1887, through the initiative of Mr. Mendes Cohen, then 
Corresponding Secretary of the Society, negotiations were 
begun with Col. Frederick Henry Harford of Dovni Place, 
near Windsor, England, a grandson of Henry Harford, the last 
Lord Proprietary, through which negotiations the Society, by 
the liberality of some of its members, became the possessor of 
an extremely valuable collection of Calvert Papers, comprising 
all the extant documents relating to Maryland from the collec- 
tion made by the Lords Proprietary. This collection of papers 
was formally presented to the Society, at its meeting on Decem- 
ber 10, 1888, and portions of the collection have since been 
printed. It is a pleasant reminiscence of the speaker that my 
first appearance at a meeting of the Society was upon this occa- 
sion, when my father brought me, a graduate student under 
Professor Adams, to listen to the exercises attending this pre- 
sentation. It was my privilege, a few months later, to read my 
first paper before the Society, Mr. Latrobe presiding at the 
meeting. Mr. Latrobe died on September 11, 1891, and special 
exercises in his memory were held a month later. His versa- 
tility, his ability as a lawyer, and his philanthropic interest 
in negro colonization have recently been recounted in his biog^ 
raphy, written by one of our members, John E. Semmes, Esq. 

Hon. S. Teackle Wallis, clarum et venerable nomen, eminent 
as a lawyer, fearless, upright, and a ripe scholar, was elected 
as the fourth President in 1892, and continued in that position 
until his death on April 12, 1894. His ill health prevented 
him from attendance at the meetings over which Mr. Vice- 
President Henry Stockbridge, Sr., usually presided with dig- 
nity, but it was felt by the members that his name as President 
gave lustre to the Society. During this period, the semi-cen- 
tennial of the organization of the Society was observed with an 
address by the Hon. J. Morrison Harris, the last survivor of the 
founders. 

The fifth presidency lasted for even a shorter period than 
the fourth. At the election of February, 1895, Rev. John G. 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMOEIAL BUILDING. 21 

Morris, D. D., was chosen to that office. At the meeting held 
on Novemiber 14, 1893, the Society had already recognized the 
ninetieth birthday of Dr. Morris, then one of the Vice- 
Presidents. He was the son of a Revolutionary soldier, the 
surgeon of Armand's Partisan Legion, and was a Lutheran 
clergyman of wide repute, having written many works of a 
religious or historical character. Having been the first Libra- 
rian of the Peabody Institute, he was induced to become the 
honorary librarian of the Society in 1891 and to accept that 
Presidency also, as Mr. Wallis' successor. 

In April, 1895, I took two young librarians from Philadel- 
phia to see the Society's rooms and to meet Dr. Morris. A few 
days later he came into my office to ask the names and addresses 
of my friends, as he intended to deliver an address in Philadel- 
phia shortly and wished to return their call. He died on 
October 12, 1895 ; but his vigor was such that, within a fort- 
night of that time, he wrote me in reference to a book upon the 
microscope, as he expected to pursue some researches with that 
instrument during the coming winter. His large form and 
bluff, frank manner will long be remembered. 

At the election of officers in 1896, Hon. Albert Ritchie was 
advanced from the Vice-Presidency to the Presidential office. 
He was a Judge of the Baltimore Supreme Bench, a man of 
strikingly handsome features and fine presence, possessing an 
almost imperturbable urbanity as a presiding officer, and show- 
ing a genial courtesy to all. During his presidency, the Society 
went outside the limits of the State in its desire to honor 
Marylanders and erected a monument to the Maryland Line of 
the Continental Army on the Guilford Court House battlefield 
in North Carolina. Judge Ritchie died on September 14, 1903, 
and, at the succeeding election of officers, Mr. Mendes Cohen 
was advanced from the corresponding secretaryship to the 
presidency. Mr. Cohen was a remarkable man, reminding one 
of the ancient Romans. After a distinguished career as a civil 
engineer, he had retired from active practice of his profession 
and devoted much time to the Society's interests. Shortly after 



2S MARYI^AIH) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

he took up the presidential office, a revision of the Constitution 
established the Council, which has relieved the Society's meet- 
ings of much of the detail of business. The Maryland Histori- 
cal Magazine, at first under the scholarly editorship of Dr. 
William Hand Browne and, latterly, under the wise and skilful 
conduct of Mr. Louis H. Dielman, was established in 1906, its 
publication being made possible by the gift of a considerable 
guaranty fund from the members. This quarterly periodical 
has been of great value, not only as a medium between the 
Society and its members, but also because it has contained many 
papers read before its meetings and many valuable historical 
sources which otherwise would not have seen the light. 

Mr. Cohen died on August 13, 1915, and at the memorial 
exercises held by the Society, Judge Henry Stockbridge paid 
him a fitting tribute, speaking of his " painstaking accuracy, 
even in matters of small detail," of " his wide and varied 
experience, his extended knowledge and scientific attainments," 
which " had served to develop a broad scholar of ripened judg- 
ment, and a thorough gentleman." 

As his successor and, in accordance with his wishes, in 1913, 
the Society chose as its executive officer its present President, 
Gov. Edwin Warfield. His administration has been marked by 
a very considerable increase in membership and by the removal 
of the Society from the Athenaeum Building to this place. 

It was my good fortune to be present at the meeting of the 
Society on October 9, 1916, when, to the delighted amazement 
of all, Mr. Douglas H. Thomas and Hon. Henry Stockbridge 
disclosed to us the generous purpose of Mrs. H. Irvine Keyser 
to buy the former residence of Enoch Pratt and present it to 
the Society, after building in the rear of the house a fire-proof 
structure, as a library and a picture gallery. The Athenaeum 
was not fire-proof, nor was it arranged as a modem library 
building is, and the prospect of a widely extended usefulness 
for the Society through this great gift has been one toward 
which every member has looked with pleasant expectancy, from 
that day to this, when we find ourselves happily enjoying the 
completed gift. 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 23 

Mr. Enoch Pratt, whose residence of nearly fifty years on 
this spot has caused it to he filled with memories of him for 
many of those here present, was himself a long-time member of 
the Society, and our records bear his terse and characteristic 
reports as chairman of the finance committee. 

Mr. Keyser, in whose memory these buildings and grounds 
were given, was a member of the Society from March 10, 1873 
until his death on May 7, 1916. He was bom in Baltimore 
on December 17, 1837, his parents being Samuel Stouffer 
Keyser and Elizabeth Wyman Keyser. He was educated at 
St. Timothy's School, Catonsville, and in 1855 entered the firm 
of Keyser, Troxell & Co., iron and steel merchants, of which 
his father was the head. After the death of his father he con- 
ducted the business together with his brother, William Keyser, 
under the firm name of Keyser Brothers. He served also as a 
director of several important banking and business institutions 
in Baltimore. In 1864 he married Miss Mary Washington of 
Jefferson county, West Virginia, a great-grandniece of George 
Washington. He was one of the founders of Grace Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and was personally active in many philan- 
thropic organizations. These buildings are his fine and lasting 
memorial. 

Nearly three centuries have gone since the first settlers sailed 
up the Potomac River and landed at St. Mary's. When we 
consider the wonderful development of Maryland during those 
centuries and what manner of men have been here; when we 
look forward with confident hopefulness to the continued pros- 
perity and happiness of the people of the State in future gen- 
erations ; when we remember the vast mass of manuscripts and 
printed pages here collected to illustrate that history ; and when 
we reflect upon what will be the result of the study of this 
history through the resources here provided, we can do no 
better than to say with Jesus, the son of Sirach : " The Lord 
hath wrought great glory by them, through His great power 
from the beginning. There be of them that have left a name 
behind them, that their praises might be reported. And some 



24 MAKYLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 

there be which have no memorial. But with their seed shall 
continually remain a good inheritance, and their children are 
within the covenant. The people will tell of their wisdom, and 
the congregation will show forth their praise." 

Through these seventy-five years, the Society has kept true 
to its purposes: to inspire interest in history, to collect and 
print mat-erials for history, to aid and encourage those writing 
history. While its main field has been Maryland history, it 
has not narrowly limited itself, and the lists of addresses read 
before it show titles of papers on other portions of American 
history, and even on the history of the other hemispheres. In 
the new days of reconstruction which are to follow the great 
war, the Society's opportunity will be all the greater in its new 
buildings. There " yet remaineth much land to be possessed," 
many books and manuscripts to be collected, many unwritten 
parts of history to be studied, the accounts for many epochs to 
be rewritten, many men to be presented in new light by fresh 
biographical study. Except in the way of sources, there is no 
such a thing as definitive history. Rightly did the Greeks, with 
their fine sense of the fitness of things, place the goddess of 
history, Clio, among the Muses; for, while history may be a 
science, history always should be an art and prove herself a fit 
companion for Apollo. Rightly also did they represent Clio as 
writing, for history can never be complete. The revolving years 
open fresh pages in her book and the record of the past years 
must be restudied, over and over. Fresh discoveries in archae- 
ology, further investigations in the history of other peoples, 
unexpected recovery of unknown historical sources, broader 
knowledge of mankind, will make it necessary again and again 
to place in a new perspective the events of by-gone days. What 
a marvellous study it is ! to become acquainted with men of 
generations gone, so as to know them better, it may be, than one 
knows his contemporaries. How thrilling is the contact with 
the very paper upon which were set down those words whose 
reading solves some riddle of the past! 

Three-quarters of a century have gone since the foundation 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 25 

of the Society, and during the intervening years work of great 
permanent value has been done. We, entertain the hope that 
with improved equipment, with enlarged resources, and with 
increased membership, the Maryland Historical Society may 
make even greater progress in the years that are now to come 
than it has made during all the years of its honoralble past. 

Aristotle said man is a political animal, organizing into 
groups. Others have distinguished him from the rest of crea- 
tion by calling him a fire-making, or a tool-forming animal. 
May we not call him an historical animal ? For no other creature 
records the past of his kind. From the beginning, on skins of 
animals and on carvings in the rock, man has sought to leave 
a record of himself, so that coming generations may not only 
inherit the culture of their ancestors, but may also know how 
it was acquired. How marvellous a record it is, from the rude 
beginning even until now ! Lord Bolingbroke was so struck by 
the value of this record as a guide of men that, following the 
thought of an ancient Greek, he called history " philosophy 
teaching by examples." Flrom the experience of the past, he 
found that one could often forecast what would be the likely 
result of actions of a later date, whether these actions were 
performed by men or by nations. The historian should verily 
be a reverent man, for he beholds the long course of ages, with 
the rise and fall therein of puissant empires and mighty races 
of men. He finds that the Greeks were not wrong when they 
thought that overweening haughtiness and pride — v^pi^ as 
they called it — ^brought down upon a man, or a state, the wrath 
of the Olympian gods and led to a sure downfall. History 
truly teaches humility, that one should " not be high-minded 
but fear," since those who had too high conceit of themselves — 
a Charles XII, a Napoleon, a Wilhelm II — 

" Left a name at which the world grew pale, 
To point a moral, or adorn a tale." 

The student of history, as its wonderful panorama unfolds 
before him, beholds, as from an eminence, the age-long combat 



26 MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

of good and evil; of man's free will, so clearly exhibited 
as to delight any Arminian, and as clearly governed by the 
sovereignty of a Higher Power as to convince any Calvinist. 
He finds that men for a time seem successfully to rough-hew 
their ends ; but that, finally, their efforts are in vain, for there 
is a Divinity who shapes these ends, whether or not men so 
desire. If history has any lesson it is this, that " righteousness 
exalteth a nation ; but sin is a reproach to any people " ; and that, 
as Kepler, when he studied the laws of the solar system, ex- 
claimed, " I am thinking God's thoughts after Him " ; so may 
the historical student well say with Dr. J. W. Nevin that history 
is " the way of God in the world." 

The President then presented Professor John M. Vincent, 
of the Johns Hopkins University, who spoke as follows: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

You have been hearing in brief the honorable history of this 
institution, and it now falls upon me to say something about the 
possibilities of the future. In view of the previous career of 
the Society it might appear to be sufficient to rely upon its past 
in the confidence that it would continue to live up to its acquired 
reputation. Such confidence I do possess, but this occasion calls 
for a brief review of the functions of a State Historical Society 
and its opportunities for greater usefulness. The exhilaration 
which I share with every one in the events of this hour has been 
condensed into a few everyday suggestions. 

The duties of an historical association have been variously 
interpreted according to the relations of that body to the gov- 
ernment of the state. In Wisconsin, for example, the Historical 
Society is closely identified with the State Library, and the 
managers have been able to combine the motives of the historian 
with the motive force of the public treasury in the acquisition of 
materials and the use of a noble building for their housing. As 
a rule, however, and notably in the older states, the historical 
society is a private corporation depending on the subscriptions 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 27 

of its members, with now and then a modest endowment fund. 
It is in this class that Maryland belongs. 

Originating in the desires of private citizens to perpetuate 
the history of the Colony and the State it now enters a new home 
through the munificence of one of its members. While it is a 
great credit to a state to support such an institution by taxation 
the immense value to a commonwealth of a body of citizens who 
are willing to contribute, of their private means for the preserva- 
tion of the past must not be overlooked. The larger the roll of 
those who periodically subscribe to the objects of this Society 
the more substantial will be the spirit of order and reasonable 
conservatism in this state. 

At the same time the private society is obliged to consider 
the scope of its duties. Of these the first that comes to every 
mind is the collection and preservation of historical materials. 
The duty is self-evident, but I may be pardoned if I give some 
moments of attention to the subject, for, although the archives 
and safes of the Society have accumulated much valuable mate- 
rial, there are quantities still outside. There are family papers 
paying storage in safe deposit vaults which might just as well 
be here. In the houses of the owners there are other documents, 
highly thought of, but subject to the risk of fire. There are col- 
lectors who are keeping choice specimens in unsafe places. All 
of these are conscious, more or less, of the historical value of 
their possessions and there is hope that sooner or later their 
papers will be placed where they may be utilized by scholars. 
It is the business of this society to impress upon the owners of 
such materials the safety and convenience of these new quarters 
and their duty in respect to preservation. The uncertainty of 
fire protection in the old building may have hindered the gen- 
erous impulses of some who will now make their documents 
available. 

On the other hand, we should be as much or more concerned 
about the materials which the owners neglect, or do not appre- 
ciate. This will apply in some cases to public documents. If I 
am not mistaken there are still in various counties important 



28 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

records in dangerous condition of risk and neglect. If fire, 
mold, dampness, or dessication fail to do their work, the rodents 
are always there, and the rats and mice of Maryland will with 
warm appreciation decorate their abodes with fine old historical 
tapestrv. It is a matter worth serious consideration, whether 
an arrangement cannot be made with county or local authorities 
where protection is inadequate whereby the Maryland Historical 
Society shall be made the depository of such records as are no 
longer necessary to the conduct of government and of the courts. 
The value of this centralization to historical investigators is 
obvious, and even if the deposit should include a class of records 
occasionally needed at the present time the certainty of finding 
them at a given point must be apparent to the authorities and 
to the local student of county history. Even court houses will 
have accidents, and if so, how much less impressive are the 
safety appliances of the back offices and wood-sheds of county 
magistrates. 

Within this range of vision lie also the papers, bills, and other 
communications which are stored in the attics, lofts, or cellars 
of private citizens of this State, who have kept these accumu- 
lations, partly because they looked old, and partly because they 
have never been obliged to experience the three moves which 
are as good as a fire. This material may not belong to the 
colonial period. When a document or letter bears an aged look 
the simplest of us are impressed by a remote date, and the 
paper has a chance of being kept as a relic. On the other hand 
the more recent things may seem to be " nothing but a lot of old 
letters," and in the course of time and house cleanings they meet 
the fate which we hope the writers escaped. 

It is in this material that the social and economic history of 
Maryland as a state will find its illumination. That economic 
history has not been written except in fragments. Documents 
for the history of government or of wars can be had, but the 
account of actual and practical social conditions is yet to come. 
It is the papers which look commonplace, the accounts which 
are closed, the letters which seem ordinary, which will reveal 
the every day life of the past. 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMORIAL BUILDING. 29 

The Historical Society should take up for itself the task of 
finding and saving this class of evidence. It needs a salaried 
officer who can devote time to the search of the counties for 
valuable material which the owners do not sufficiently esteem, 
and to cultivate the acquaintance of those who do understand 
the value of their papers. This means that in addition to a 
librarian with an efficient force for the care of things there 
should be an outside secretary for the detective work I have 
described. Hitherto the Society has been the grateful receptacle 
for gifts which fell out of the sky. It has occasionally spent 
effort in obtaining copies of records in foreign countries. Its 
editors, especially the latest, have shown wonderful acuteness 
in tracing certain lost records to the places where they ought to 
have been all the time. E^ow is the time for an aggressive search 
of the State for historical material. In certain progressive 
western regions this is done with less history to warrant the 
effort. The search should not be a spasmodic campaign of a 
few weeks, but through a standing agency which should insure 
a steady flow toward this depository. 

The organization of the Society is comprehensive enough for 
its purposes. The need is for additional forces to extend and 
enliven its activities. More assistants for the cataloguing, care 
and display of the materials now on hand; an agency for the 
discovery and acquisition of new; the upkeep of enlarged and 
modern quarters will require greater expense. It is evident that 
an endowment fund will be the proper and necessary way to 
provide for the new situation. The Council already has that 
matter under consideration. 

The publications of the Society have been most worthy con- 
tributions to the history of the American colonies. The legis- 
lative and administrative records which fill thirty-eight volumes 
of Archives are used and respected by investigators every- 
where. The Fund Publications contain special groups of fun- 
damental source material thus rendered available to wide circles 
of serious students. In the choice of editors the Society has been 
fortunate, for their marked characteristic has been meticulous 



30 MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

care for small things, an absolutely indispensable qualification 
for the reproduction of manuscript texts. At the same time it 
must not be forgotten that the means for the publication of the 
Archives have been provided by the Legislature of Maryland. 
The Society furnished the suggestion and continues its re- 
minders, but cannot claim credit for using its own funds. Gov- 
ernors, appropriation committees, and General Assemblies at 
large have all risen to this enlightened task, and the State is to 
be congratulated. 

This cooperation should be fostered and expanded, for the 
publication of the state records is by no means complete. The 
limit set in the original plan was the year 1783, and the close 
of the colonial material is now in sight. But Maryland as a 
state has had a noteworthy history. It did not disappear in 
the federal union and lose its individuality and importance. Its 
situation, its commercial enterprise, its political contributions 
to the building of the nation have been striking. The official 
materials for the earlier history of its statehood should be made 
available to the larger public. Hence it is eminently desirable 
that another section of the Maryland Archives be undertaken, 
which at first can be limited to the period ending 1815. Some 
change in the scope of the publication may be necessary, but 
there is no question but that the Society in standing behind the 
enterprise will be furthering a scientifically valuable work 
and will meet with the patriotic approval of the citizens of 
Maryland. 

The Maryland Historical Magazine is a dignified representa- 
tive of historical work within state lines. It is a valuable repos- 
itory of the less bulky materials and even of the fragments of 
the past. As a policy I should urge that its contents continue 
to be even more rigidly confined to original material. Members 
and subscribers ought not to expect this to enter the field of the 
usual monthly magazine. Speaking of historical societies in 
general, the papers which are read at the meetings are not, with 
rare exception, the things for which the files of historical maga- 
zines are consulted by later students. The original letters, 



DEDICATION OF THE MEMOEIAL, BUILDING. 31 

descriptions, documents, or the articles which closely follow or 
analyze such materials are the things which remain as a per- 
petual legacy and source of gratitude to the scholarly world. 

Let me not disparage the reading of papers, for they are sti- 
mulating and important, as I shall say further on, but they come 
under a different category of activities. For a society not 
having unlimited means the matter of printing has its limits, 
and those limits should be chiefly source material. The monthly 
meetings already have a regular formula by which they are 
enabled to apply the guillotine painlessly off stage. A vote of 
thanks to the speaker is accompanied by a request for a copy 
of his manuscript for the use of the committee on publications. 
The committee on publications has no funds. 

But it may be said that we hope some time with increased 
membership to have more money to spend. Shall the Society 
then devote itself to the popularization of Maryland history by 
means of the printing press ? If that means the dilution of 
the subject from an adult to a child's size dose, let that be left 
to the school book writers, l^o kind of bookmaking is more 
profitable. For the general public the authors of popular short 
articles are gladly admitted to the newspapers. The popular 
book or biography will find a publisher on the expectation of 
profit. It is the business of a cooperative institution like this 
to print the fundamental material in which the ordinary pub- 
lisher finds no financial return. 

The Society can popularize Maryland history by placing its 
facilities at the disposal of writers of all degrees of seriousness. 
It can render assistance to every patriotic society within the 
borders of the State. It can encourage the labors of the investi- 
gating scholar by getting and keeping the stuff out of which 
history is made. 

For the cultivation of the historical spirit in the rising gene- 
ration there is now the best of opportunity for cooperation with 
the schools, so that their instruction can be supplemented by 
occasional contact with the real materials out of which the his- 
tory of Maryland is made. Pointing out the value of these 



32 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

documents will assuredly assist in the voluntary preservation 
with these materials in the future. 

For the display of its treasures and for the utilization of its 
materials the Historical Society is now wonderfully equipped 
in its new building. It has an opportunity to he seen and to 
make itself felt in the education of the Commonwealth such as 
it never before enjoyed. It is within a few steps of the Peabody 
Library, one of the most distinguished reference collections 
in the country. With this there may be expected to be coopera- 
tion and understanding so that in the purchase of books the 
overlapping of fields may be avoided and the resources of both 
be made complementary for the use of historical readers. Situ- 
ated within one hour of the Library of Congress there would 
seem to be little lacking in facilities for research. 

These attractive halls will give new inpulse to the meetings 
of the Society, where the results of historical research are pre- 
sented from time to time. The discussion of historical questions 
is essential to the life of the organization. By word of mouth 
the investigator can impart the results of his work with stimu- 
lating effect upon his fellows and chastening effect upon himself. 
With the archives close at hand, with the portraits of the an- 
cients on the walls, and surrounded with reminders of the past, 
the assemblies which gather here will drink deeply of its his- 
toric atmosphere. 

Finally I bring you the congratulations of the Department of 
History of the Johns Hopkins University. Cooperation be- 
tween these forces has been the rule from the beginning. The 
one has placed valuable documents here on deposit, the other has 
opened wide its resources to aspiring investigators. With the 
expansion of the activities of the Society there comes an alluring 
prospect for American History and the advancement of sound 
learning. 

At the conclusion of the addresses, the President invited the 
members and their guests to partake of a light collation. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 33 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON 

Edward S. Delaplaine, 
* Of the Frederick Bar 



[Thomas Johnson, one of the greatest sons of Maryland, died in 
1819, and the Centenary of his death will occur on the 26th of 
next October. Despite the passing of a hundred years, there has 
never been written a thorough biography of this distinguished 
statesman, Mr, Edward S. Delaplaine, whose home is in Frederick, 
where Governor Johnson is buried, is now preparing a complete 
study of the first Governor's executive, legislative, and judicial 
career; and herewith are published the Introduction and the first 
two Chapters, presenting the Life of Johnson up to the time he 
first entered upon the public stage. Among the relatives of the late 
Governor are members of many prominent Maryland families, 
including the Johnsons, Dennises, Bosses, Smiths, McPhersons, 
and others, to whom this story of the Ancestry, Birth, and Early 
Life of Governor Johnson ought to be particularly interesting. — 
The Editor.] 

INTRODUCTION 

It is strange, indeed, that Thomas Johnson, of Maryland, 
who took such an important role in the drama of the American 
Revolution, is accorded such a scanty mention in the history of 
the United States. Both in America and in Europe, he was 
recognized during the days of the struggle for independence, 
as one of the most prominent leaders of the American cause. 
The extent of his influence during the early stages of the dispute 
with the Mother Country was acknowledged unwittingly by a 
British officer in a letter to his friends in England, in which 
he declared with pretended scorn that they should not be 
alarmed by " all this noise in the Colonies," for it was nothing 
but " the vaporings of a young madcap named Tom Johnson." 
A more impartial estimate of the part Mr. Johnson played in 
the outbreak against the oppressions of King, Ministry, and 
Parliament was rendered by John Adams, when asked why it 



34 MAEYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

was that so many Southern men occupied positions of influence 
in the War with Great Britain. " Had it not been for such 
men as Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, 
and Samuel Chase and Thomas Johnson, of Maryland," said 
Adams, " there never would have been any Revolution." 

But the life of Johnson should be interesting to the people 
of America not only because of the importance of the role which 
he was called upon to assume during the Colonial days, the 
Revolution, and the early years of the Republic, but also on 
account of the intimate friendship that existed between him and 
the " Father of His Country." Warm friends from early man- 
hood, George Washington and Thomas Johnson loved each other 
and admired each other's abilities; in both public and private 
life, in both war and in peace, their lives were closely associated 
in their supreme desire to serve their common country. 

Born in the same year on opposite sides of the Potomac, Mr. 
Johnson and Col. Washington served together at Philadelphia 
as members of the Continental Congress ; and on June 15, 1775, 
the Delegate from Maryland won for himself a distinction, and 
rendered to his country a service, by nominating Washington 
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. A year after 
the immortal Virginian first took command of the military 
forces, Mr. Johnson shared largely in the work of securing, by 
vote and voice, the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. 
Later, when the winter of '76-'77 was approaching, and General 
Washington began to grow alarmed at the feeble condition of his 
troops ; his trusty friend left his seat in Congress, and repaired 
to Western Maryland, where he raised between 1,700 and 1,800 
men, equipped them the best way he could, marched at their 
head in January, 1777, to Philadelphia and from thence hur- 
ried to the relief of Washington in New Jersey. Elected Gov- 
ernor of ^faryland in February, Johnson hastened to Annapolis 
for his inauguration. During the next three years, in the 
glwjmiest period of the war, Governor Johnson rendered an 
inestimably valuable service, in the rule of the new Common- 
wealth in those turbulent times and in the assistance he ren- 
dered to the Commander-in-Chief. 



B7B&79 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 35 

When the American cause ultimately triumphed, Mr. John- 
son was one of the first and foremost supporters of Washington 
for President of the United States. The office was open for him, 
if he would serve ; Alexander Hamilton and others had already 
implored him to accept. It is interesting to observe that it was 
the appeal of Thomas Johnson which, more than any other, 
attracted the attention of Woodrow Wilson when he was making 
his study of Washington's life, and in his George Washington, 
Wilson quotes from one of Mr. Johnson's letters on this subject, 
dated October 10, 1788. President Wilson, in his book, makes the 
following statement ^ concerning the first President's election : 
" The new Constitution made sure of, and a time set by Congress 
for the elections and the organization of a new government under 
it, the country turned as one man to Washington to be the first 
President of the United States. ^ We cannot, sir, do without 
you,' cried Governor Johnson, of Maryland, ' and I and thou- 
sands more can explain to anybody but yourself why we cannot 
do without you.' To make anyone else President, it seemed to 
men everywhere, would be like crowning a subject while the 
king was by. But Washington held back, as he had held back 
from attending the Constitutional Convention. He doubted his 
civil capacity, called himself an old man, said ' it would be to 
forego repose and domestic enjoyment foir trouble, perhaps for 
public obloquy.' . . . Washington of course yielded, like the 
simple-minded gentleman and soldier he was, when it was made 
thus a matter of duty. When the votes of the electors were 
opened in the new Congress, and it was found that they were 
one and all for him, he no longer doubted. He did not know 
how to decline such a call, and turned with all his old courage 
to the new task." 

The elevation of Washington to the Presidency did not with- 
draw in any measure the intimacy which existed between him 
and the ex-Governor. Mr. Johnson often visited Mount Vernon, 
and the President was not a stranger at Rose Hill, where John- 
son spent the latter portion of his life. 

^Woodrow Wilson, George Washington (1896), p. 261. 



36 MAKTLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

Time and again Washington importuned his friend to accept 
some high public office ; and on several occasions the Marylander 
did give up, with reluctance, the tranquillity which retirement 
and the bosom of his family afforded. 

In 1791, Mr. Johnson was appointed Associate Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court, and, one week after the appoint- 
ment was confirmed, he presided as one of the judges in the 
celebrated British Debt case {Ware, Administrator v. Hylton 
et al.),^ in the United States Circuit Court at Richmond, 
wherein Patrick Henry appeared as one of the counsel for the 
defendants. The trial attracted wide attention and is regarded 
as the most important legal cause in which Mr. Henry ever 
participated. In 1792, Mr. Justice Johnson sat, with Jay, C/., 
Iredell, Cushing, Blair, and Wilson, //., in another important 
British debt case (Georgia v. Brailsford et al.),^ in which his 
dissent constitutes the first opinion printed in the reports of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. At this time, Mr. 
Johnson was holding another position, to which he had been 
appointed by President Washington: for a period of four 
years — from early in 1791 until the fall of 1794 — he served as a 
member of the Board of Commissioners of the Federal District, 
appointed to build the Capital City. Feeling, however, that, 
on account of his advancing years, he could not, with credit to 
himself and with justice to his positions, serve in this dual 
capacity, he resigned as a member of the Supreme Court in 
1793. It may be added in this connection that it was Mr. 
Johnson and his two associates on the Federal Commission who 
settled upon Washington as the name for the Federal City. 

In 1795, when the Union was shaken by excitement over the 
Jay treaty and Secretary of State Randolph resigned. President 
Washington offered his final tribute to Mr. Johnson by appeal- 
ing to him to enter the Cabinet. But Mr. Johnson, on account 
of his failing strength, declined the portfolio. 

Four years later, on December 14, 1799, Washington passed 

» 1 Curtis Decisions, 164-220. 
• 2 Dallas, 402, 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 37 

away; and on the 22(i of February, 1800, the grief-stricken 
Johnson made his final public appearance at a mock funeral of 
the great soldier-statesman of Virginia. On this occasion, held 
at Frederick, Maryland, the former Governor, after a long 
funeral procession, delivered an historic eulogy on the character 
and public services of the lamented President — a touching 
tribute to his beloved compatriot. 

CHAPTER I 

Ancestry 

About the time of the " Glorious Revolution " in England — 
when William of Orange appeared at the head of a Dutch Army 
to save England from Tory regime, and King James II fled to 
France, after which William and Mary jointly in 1689 ascended 
the throne — a vessel, commanded by Captain Roger Baker, 
clandestinely set sail for America. Among those on the vessel 
were Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Johnson, a newly married couple, 
who were leaving their native land forever. 
****** 

Mr. Johnson was a barrister of Norfolk county and had 
sprung from an honorable English family, the members of which 
had taken a conspicuous part in the affairs of Yarmouth for a 
century. Great Yarmouth — distinguished from the suburb. Little 
Yarmouth, on the opposite bank of the River Yare — has been 
settled since the days of the Roman invasion, and is now a port 
of over 50,000 inhabitants, and the chief centre of the English 
herring fishery. For many years its population consisted mainly 
of hardy sailors and fishermen of the N'orth Sea, who traded, 
smuggled, and plundered along the coasts of England and 
Scotland. Pirate rulers, euphemistically styled " vikings," 
governed Yarmouth until the reign of King John, when the 
town was given a charter incorporating it as a borough with 
the privileges of self-government. As an example of the leader- 
ship inherent in the Johnson family, tradition points to the 
fact that several members of the family commanded vessels in 



38 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the fleet sent out from Yarmouth to meet the Grand Armada, 
fitted ont in 15S8 by Philip II of Spain against Queen 
Elizabeth. 

Shortly after the time of the destruction of the " Invincible 
Armada,'' James Johnson was chosen one of the bailiffs of 
Yarmouth. Being the chief magistrates, the bailiffs were the 
most influential citizens of the borough. Mr. Johnson and his 
fellow bailiff, John Wheeler, distinguished themselves in 1589 
and 1590 bv erecting, for the protection of Yarmouth, sea-walls 
which were far more substantial than any that had ever been 
built before. A few miles above the mouth of the Yare, the 
town stands on a slip of land, a mile and a half wide, washed 
on the east by the l^orth Sea and by the River on the west. 
Back in the early days, sea-walls had been again and again 
constructed, only to be destroyed ; so Johnson and his colleague 
devised the scheme of building two walls, inner and outer. 
The improvement was acclaimed exerywhere, even in verse, as 
a great triumph of foresight and skill. So durably were the 
walls built that the ravages of three centuries were powerless 
completely to destroy them. When Bradley T. Johnson, a 
Confederate General in the Civil War, visited Norfolk county 
in 1873, he saw at Yarmouth some of the remains of the sea- 
walls erected by his ancestor in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Thomas Johnson, the son of James, followed in the footsteps 
of his father by serving, in 1624, as one of the bailiffs of Yar- 
mouth. In 1625, he occupied a seat in the first Parliament of 
Charles I, which the new king speedily dissolved, when the 
Commons refused to grant him the full measure of support he 
demanded for the conduct of the war with Spain. In 1635 and 
1636, Mr. Johnson served again as bailiff of Yarmouth. 

The " Great Rebellion " between the Royalists, or Cavaliers, 
and the Parliamentary forces, called Roundheads, — destined to 
divide the nation on account of religion, — was now approaching. 
In the eastern counties the Roundheads formed an organization 
which raised a well-disciplined army under the command of the 
Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell. One of the promi- 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 39 

nent members of the " Eastern Counties Association " was 
Thomas Johnson, Jr. Chosen bailiff of Yarmouth in 1644, 
shortly after his father had held this office, the younger Thomas 
was selected by the Earl of Manchester in the same year to 
command the Yarmouth militia. In his " Life of Cromwell," 
Thomas Carlyle makes a special reference to Captain Thomas 
Johnson, Jr., of the Revolutionary forces, and quotes Oliver 
Cromwell as saying that, he was afraid Capt. Johnson and his 
troops of horse were ready to cut his throat because he had 
employed '' such common men in places of rank." The Com- 
monwealth and Protectorate, commencing when Charles I was 
beheaded in 1649, continued until 1660. Thought to have been 
disgusted at the execution of Charles I, Capt. Johnson espoused 
the cause of the Royalists. He was confirmed in his command 
as Captain by Sir Edward Walker, the Lieutenant of the King, 
and when the new Parliament in 1661, following the coronation 
of Charles II, passed an act which disqualified the incumbent 
bailiff of Yarmouth, Capt. ^ Johnson was appointed to take his 
place. For defending Yarmouth against the complaints of 
Lowestoft, a neighboring port, he was presented with a piece 
of plate as an evidence of the grateful appreciation of the people 
of the borough. 

The gratitude of the Crown for Captain Johnson's separation 
from the Revolutionary forces is evidenced by the granting to 
him in 1661 of alteration and confirmation of arms by the 
Herald's College, through Sir Edward Walker, in recognition 
of the Captain's " great suffeiring and loyalty." The pedigree 
and arms of Capt. Johnson were recorded a few years later. 
Thus, since the early days of the Restoration, the Johnson 
family arms have been learnedly described by the language of 
heraldry : 

" Argent; a fess, counter-embattled; between three Hern's 
heads, erased, gules, ducally crowned, or. Crest: a leopard's 
head, gules, issuing from a ducal crown, or." 

The Johnson coat of arms may be described in plainer lan- 
guage as : "A silver shield ; across the centre, drawn hori- 



40 MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

zontally, a band broken alternately above and below like battle- 
ments ; between three red lion's heads, with jagged edges as if 
torn off the bodies, and with golden coronets. Crest: a red 
leopai'd's head issuing from a golden ducal crown." In the 
United St-ates the membei's of the Johnson family have used the 
words, " Confide et Certa " or " Trust and Strive," in connec- 
tion with the coat of arms; but General Bradley T. Johnson, 
on his return from England, declared that, while the arms as 
used in America by the descendants of Captain Thomas Johnson 
otherwise correspond with the description emblazoned in the 
Herald's Office, there is no authentic record of any motto in 
connection with the arms. 

Captain Johnson left two sons, Thomas and James. James, 
the younger, was destined to make a mark in his generation. 
He was deputed by the corporation to receive King Charles II, 
when he visited Yarmouth in 1671, and the sovereign was 
entertained by Mr. Johnson at his home on the South Quay. 
His Majesty showed his appreciation by knighting him. In 
1681, during the reign of Charles II, he served as member of 
Parliament; but he declined to accept the wages or expenses 
which at that time it was the custom of the boroughs and shires 
to pay to their representatives. After the Duke of York was 
proclaimed James II, upon the death of Charles II in 1685, 
Sir James Johnson stood in confidential relations with the 
Court. Early in 1687, for example, he produced a royal order 
in council displacing some of the aldermen and common council- 
men and another order appointing their successors. His arms 
and pedigree are recorded in the College of Arms, in London, 
among the Knights of Sir William Le Neve, who carried the 
proclamation of Charles I to the Earl of Essex the day after 
the first pitched battle of the " Great Rebellion." After recit- 
ing the pedigree, the record in the College of Arms adds: 
'' James Johnson of Yarmouth aforesaid, knighted as above, 
lived well, spent much, died poor." 

Early in life, many years before he was knighted. Sir James 
was appointed to serve on a committee to settle some differences 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 41 

that had arisen relative to the appointment of a curate; and, 
when the dispute broke out again several years later, he was 
appointed to serve as a member of a delegation to journey to 
Norwich to present the claims of Yarmouth before the Lord 
Bishop. It was here that Sir James found his wife. He mar- 
ried Miss Dorothy Scotlowe, the daughter of Augustin Scotlowe, 
Mayor of l^orwich. Sir James and Dorothy Johnson were the 
parents of two sons, James, born in 1650, and Thomas, born in 
1656. Thomas died, unmarried, at the age of 28. 

James Johnson, the elder son of Sir James, married, and one 
of his sons, during the turbulent reign of Anne, was elevated 
to a responsible position in the Office of Foreign Affairs. 
Another of James's sons, who took up the study of law, fell in 
love with a chancery ward named Mary Baker, and married her 
without the consent of the Lord High Chancellor. Inasmuch 
as abduction and marrying of maids in chancery constituted a 
high misprision, punishable with heavy fine and imprisonment 
as a contempt of court, the young lawyer and his wife decided 
to flee from England. They appealed for help to Captain Koger 
Baker, the bride's father, who was a mariner of Liverpool, and 
he agreed to assist them in their romantic escape by allowing 
them passage on his boat bound for the ISTew World, as explained 
at the beginning of the chapter. 

****** 

After the long journey across the Atlantic, Capt. Baker 
steered his ship up the Chesapeake to the mouth of St. Leonard's 
Creek, where Capt. Thomas Clagett, from the parish of St. 
Leonard's, London, had settled some years before. Here, in 
Calvert county, in 1689 or 1690, the immigrants landed. This 
was a year or more before Maryland was established as a Royal 
Province and Sir Lionel Copley chosen as Governor. 

Thousands of miles away from the grip of the stem British 
law, young Mr. Johnson felt that he was safe from arrest for his 
illegal marriage ; but it was not long before his impulsive nature 
and stubborn will brought him, charged with a penal offense, 
before the bar of justice. The commission of this crime came 



42 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

as a result of his deep political convictions. His grand- 
father. Sir James Johnson, knighted by Charles II, having 
been held in high favor at the Court of James II, it 
was natural that the young Marylander sympathized with 
King James, who had been compelled to llee to France, 
rather than with William of Orange, who came at the 
head of the Dutch Army to rescue England, it was said, 
from arbitrary rule and Catholicism. Whilst the majority of 
the Convention, which William summoned in 1689, was fiercely 
Whig, the Tory admirers of James II vigorously prot^ted 
against the deposition of the sovereign who was entitled by 
divine right to be King. The Tories accordingly proposed the 
plan of allowing James to reign nominally as King and William 
of Orange to govern as Regent; but the Convention took the 
position that James, by reason of the fact that he had left Eng- 
land, had abdicated and hence William was lawfully entitled 
to ascend the vacant throne. And so when the " Declaration of 
Right," denouncing many of James's acts as illegal, was ratified 
by William and Mary, the throne was offered to them as joint 
sovereigns. Their accession exploded the old Tory theory of 
Divine Hereditary Right. iSTow a sovereign was subject to 
ejection, if he failed properly to perform his duties. The 
seventeenth-century struggle between king and subjects had 
ended : Parliament was now the strongest element in the English 
state. Young Tom Johnson, however, in far-away Maryland, 
retained his loyalty to James II, and as late as " the Sixth 
yeare of the Reign of our SoveraigTi Lord & Lady William & 
Mary King &; Queen of England," Mr. Johnson was arrested 
for uttering treasonable words against the King and Queen. 

When the accusation was made against Johnson, the govern- 
ment of the Colony was in a very unstable condition. Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, whom William and Mary had chosen for 
Secretary of Maryland, had been impeached by Copley's Admin- 
istration and thrown into prison. When Governor Copley died 
in IGO'J, the Governor of Virginia seized the government of 
Maryland and assumed the authority of making Col. Nicholas 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 43 

Greenberry, President of the Council, acting Governor. Later, 
however, the impeachment proceedings against Lawrence were 
declared illegal and he was " appointed " by the Governor of 
Virginia as the President of the Council and acting Governor 
of Maryland. Francis Nicholson, lawfully appointed Governor, 
did not arrive in Maryland to assume control until July, 1694, 
and so when the Council met at Battle Town, in Calvert county, 
in June, 1694, it consisted of both Sir Thomas Lawrence and 
Col. Greenberry as well as Thomas Tench, Esq., Capt. John 
Addison, Capt. John Courts, and Thomas Brooke, Esq. At the 
second session held on the 14th of June, commencing at 5 o'clock 
in the evening, a warrant was issued to the sheriff of Calvert 
county to arrest Thomas Johnson and to bring him forthwith 
before the Council " to answer to such things as on their 
Majesties' behalfe shall be objected against him." He was 
apprehended immediately and brought before the Council. A 
deposition, sworn to by Dr. Symon Wotton, was read aloud. It 
accused Johnson of uttering the following words : " All the 
people are rogues to the Government, and I will never swear to 
any king but King James ! " The Council ordered ^ the accused 
to be kept in the sheriff's custody until he entered himself into 
recognizance in the sum of 500 pounds sterling and his two 
security in the sum of 250 pounds each for his appearance at 
the next Provincial Court " and in the mean time to be of good 
behaviour." Dr. Wotton also had to give bond in the sum of 
200 pounds that he would appear as a witness for the Crown. 
It is believed that Johnson skipped his bail. On July 21, 
1698 — after a lapse of four years — John Broadhurst, another 
Calvert countian, appeared before the Council in Annapolis to 
testify relative to the rebellious utterance. A day later, Capt. 
Richard Smith was haled before Governor Nicholson and his 
Council, under the charge that he was in his own home when 
the utterance was made by Johnson and that he " countenanced 
him by laughing and grinning thereat." The Council required 

* Proceedings of Council, 20 Archives, 72. 



44 MAEYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

Capt. Smith to give security for his appearance at Court in 
2,000 pounds sterling. 

Forced once more to flee for safety, Mr. Johnson trafficked 
in furs with the Indians. Some years later, when his brother 
had gained considerable influence at the Court of Anne, who 
became Queen in 1702 upon the death of William III, he 
decided to endeavor to make his way back to England. Believ- 
ing that he could now visit England without any danger of 
arrest for his illegal marriage many years before, and taking 
with him a lot of fine furs and a quantity of gold, he set sail. 
But at this time a journey on the Atlantic was unusually 
perilous. Within a few weeks after Queen Anne^s accession, 
war had commenced : England, Germany, and Holland formed 
an alliance against France and Spain — a conflict which saw no 
end until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which marked an epoch 
in the history of England and of Europe. Sea and land were 
paraded by belligerents. While on the Atlantic, the vessel in 
which Johnson was traveling was captured by the Spaniards, 
and all on board were robbed of everything they had and 
imprisoned. After a considerable length of time, Johnson man- 
aged to escape on a Canadian ship. In a destitute condition, 
about the year 1714, he finally found his way to Canada. Long, 
dreary years of solitude as a wanderer and prisoner having made 
him anxious to get back to Calvert county to see his wife and 
child, he was reduced to the necessity of tramping all the way 
to Maryland on foot. When he came to the end of his long 
journey, he found that his home had been set on fire by the 
Indians. From anxiety and grief, Mrs. Johnson pined away; 
while her husband, weakened by exhaustion and exposure, fol- 
lowed her a short time later to the grave. They were buried 
side by side at Back Creek, near the spot where they had first 
set foot on the soil of America. 

Thus ends the pathetic story of the Johnson fugitives — the 
Yarmouth barrister and the ward in chancery. Their name 
was perpetuated, however, ])y an only son, Thomas, born on the 
]9th of February, 1702. Left an orphan at the age of twelve, 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON", 45 

the youngster was given food and clothing by kind-hearted 
friends. The boy was given a good education, for, when the 
Assembly in 1723, during the administration of Governor 
Charles Calvert, passed the Act " for the encouragement of 
Learning and erecting Schools in the several Counties within 
this Province " — the School Law that became the nucleus of 
the County Academies — Thomas Johnson, Jr., was named as 
one of the seven " visitors " or trustees in Cecil county to carry 
out the provisions of the Act. This list of seven trustees for 
each county, embodied by the Assembly in the statute, shows 
who were considered " the better and more intelligent sort of 
people at that early period." ^ 

At the age of twenty-three — on March 12, 1725 — ^young Mr. 
Johnson was married to Dorcas Sedgwick, a girl of nineteen 
summers, who was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joshua Sedg- 
wick, of Calvert county. The Sedgwicks — the name was orig- 
inally Sedwick, but is now often seen as Sedgwick or Sedge- 
wick — were Puritans who had come down from Connecticut to 
Virginia, and when forced to leave Virginia settled in Mary- 
land. Shortly after his marriage, Mr. Johnson was sent as a 
Delegate from Cecil county to the Lower House of the Mary- 
land Assembly, and was re-elected from year to year up until 
about the time of the birth of his distinguished son, his name- 
sake, the first Governor of the State of Maryland. 

Thus, the favoring influence of heredity in the case of Gov- 
ernor Johnson is quite apparent. It is quite true, as Theodore 
E. Burton admits, in his biography of John Sherman, that: 
" N^either inherited predilection for a public career nor the 
prestige of a family name has been a requisite for gaining 
exalted official station. Along with the unequaled possibilities 
which our country affords, there also exists the nearest approach 
to equality of opportunity, and the highest political rewards 
have been obtained by industry, ability, and the possession of 
popular qualities." Washington, Adams, Polk, and Van Buren 
were sons of the soil; Lincoln, Jackson, Clay, and Garfield 

' Neill, Terra Mariae, p. 189. 



46 MARYLAND IIISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

wei-e the children of povertv. " There is another list, however," 
continues Senator Burton, '' quite as numerous, which tends to 
show that an inherited bias for public service is not without 
advantage. It is made up of those whose fathers held office, but 
in a theatre of action verv limited in area, in many cases includ- 
ing only a township or a county, preferment having been given 
because of their sturdy common sense and unswerving integrity. 
Whatever inspiration descended to their sons, impelling them 
to participate in public affairs, was derived from such sources 
as the town meeting, the coimty court, the colonial or state 
legislature, or the command of the local militia." On account 
of the fact that his mother came from fine, Puritan stock and 
his father was well educated, and served as a school trustee and 
a member of the Colonial Legislature, and in consequence of 
the heritage of his ancestors, Governor Johnson deserves to be 
placed, in the latter class, along with Jefferson, Marshall, 
Henry, Webster, Calhoun, Seward, Sherman, and Blaine. 

CHAPTER II 
Birth And Early Life 

Thomas Johnson, the fifth child of Thomas and Dorcas 
(Sedgwick) Johnson, was born on the 4th of November, 1732, 
on his father's farm near the mouth of St. Leonard's Creek, 
destined to be the scene some years later of the " Battle of the 
Barges," in which Commodore Joshua Barney, commanding 
the Chesapeake flotilla during the War of 1812, met the British 
frigates. Being situated high upon an eminence, the Johnson 
home commanded a fine view of the Patuxent as far as Point 
Patience. 

The year 1732, memorable as the date of the birth of George 
Washington, is also the date of the birth of Richard Henry Lee, 
another distinguished patriot who })ecame a friend of Johnson. 
It was Mr. Lee who, while serving as a member of the Continen- 
tal Congress, offered the famous Resolution, " That the United 
Colonies are and ought to l>e free and independent States ; that 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 47 

they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown ; and 
that all political connection between them and the state of Great 
Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved." Mr. Lee's great- 
grandfather had emigrated from England to Virginia during 
the reign of Charles I, and Washington's great-grandfather set- 
tled in the same Colony during the Protectorate several years 
after the execution of the King. Although the Old Dominion 
lays claim to both George Washington and Richard H. Lee, 
their birthplaces, in Westmoreland county, are within a radius 
of a few miles from the home of Thomas Johnson on the north- 
ern side of the Potomac. The birthplace of Mr. Johnson, it 
may be added here incidentally, was destroyed by fire some 
years later, and there was left remaining only one small out- 
building, built by his brother, James, for a bakery, where ship 
biscuit was made to supply the vessels that lay in the creek. 

The first child of Thomas and Dorcas Johnson, born Decem- 
ber 13, 1725, and christened Thomas — a name that had been 
used in the family through many generations — died when very 
young. All the other children — seven sons and four daughters — 
grew to maturity, remaining on the farm in Calvert county until 
they were able to take care of themselves. 

The following were the eleven surviving children : 

(1) Benjamin, the eldest, was born July 6, 1727, and served 
as a Major in the Maryland forces during the Revolutionary 
War. He was twice married ; having two children by his first 
wife and six by the second. 

(2) Mary, the eldest daughter, was born May 5, 1729. She 
was married to Walter Hellen, Esq., and left three children. 

(3) Rebecca was born on the 3d of November, 1730. She 
became the wife of Thomas McKenzie, Esq., but died, on March 
1, 1767, soon after the marriage. 

(4) Thomas. 

(5) Dorcas was born October 17, 1734. In August, 1783, 
when nearly 49 years old, she became the wife of Col. Josiah 
Clapham, of Loudoun county, Virginia. 

(6) James was born September 30, 1736. He married 



48 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Margaret Skinner, of Calvert county, and went to Indian 
Spring, in Frederick (now Washington) county. After con- 
structing tlie '' Green Spring " Iron Furnace, about a mile from 
Fort Frederick, he settled in 1774 within the present borders 
of Frederick county. With the aid of his brothers, he managed 
" Catoctin '' Furnace, " Bush Creek " Forge, " Johnson " Fur- 
nace, near the mouth of the Monocacy River, and the " Poto- 
mac " Furnace, in Loudoun county, Virginia, opposite Pt. of 
Rocks. He served as the Colonel of a Battalion of infantry in 
the Flying Camp raised by his distinguished brother and served, 
in 1779, with Upton Sheredine and Alexander C. Hanson, as a 
member of the Court Martial, which tried and ordered the 
execution of a number of Tories in Frederick Town. 

(7) Elizabeth was born on the 17th of September, 1739. 
She became the wife of George Cook, who commanded a Mary- 
land war-ship during the Revolution, Capt, Cook is described 
as " a bold, blustering Scottish sea captain " with short queue 
and cocked hat, with many eccentricities, albeit honest and 
industrious and a good husband. 

(8) Joshua was born June 25, 1742. He entered a counting- 
house in London and eventually became a large dealer in 
tobacco. When the American Colonies declared their independ- 
ence, he took up his residence in I^antes, France, and during 
the Revolution served as American Agent in France. From 
1790 to 1797, he served, under the appointment of Washington, 
as the first American Consul at London. In 1797, his second 
daughter, Louisa Catherine, was married to John Quincy 
Adams, who was at that time Ambassador to the Court of Berlin. 
On his return to America, Joshua was appointed by President 
John Adams as superintendent of stamps, in Washington, a 
position which he held until the time of his death. 

(9j John, born August 29, 1745, became a physician, and 
for some time occupied an oflSce on West Patrick street, in 
Frederick Town. He served as a surgeon in the Maryland 
Line during the Revolution. 

(10) Baker was born on the 30th of September, 1 747. After 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 49 

studying law in the office of his brother, Thomas, at Annapolis, 
he settled in Frederick to engage in the practice of his pro- 
fession. He commanded a Battalion with the rank of Colonel 
in the Brigade of his brother, and was at the Battle of Paoli, 
near Philadelphia, famous for the slaughter of Wayne's men. 
He married Miss Catherine Worthington, the daughter of Col. 
Nicholas Worthington, of Anne Arundel county, by whom he 
had eleven children. 

(11) Roger, the " baby " of the family, was born March 18, 
1749. After studying under his brother, Thomas, he settled in 
Frederick county to engage in the iron business. With the aid 
of his brothers, he built " Bloomsbury " Forge, on Bennett's 
Creek, in Urbana District, and also managed the Forge on Bush 
Creek, at Biehl's Mill, in the northern part of the District. He 
had the rank of Major in his brother James's Battalion. He 
was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Thomas, of 
Montgomery county, by whom he had eleven children. 

The good, Puritan mother who raised these eleven children 
lived long enough to see her youngest son, Roger, pass the age 
of twenty-one. Her death occurred on the 11th of December, 
1770, several years before her son, Thomas, was chosen the first 
Governor of the Commonwealth. Thomas Johnson, Sr., died 
on April 11, 1777, thus living only three weeks after his 
distinguished son was first inaugurated Chief Executive of 
Maryland. 

Thomas Johnson, Sr., was characterized by obstinacy of 
temper, an apparently ineradicable family trait, but possessed 
incorruptible integrity and purity of character. He was devoted 
to his family. The deep concern which he had for his eleven 
children after they had grown to maturity is shown by the 
following interesting letter written by him, after his wife's 
death, to his son, James, who was at that time conducting the 
iron furnace near Fort Frederick : 



60 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Jemme Johnson. 
Dear Child— 

I wrote you and Eoger some short time since by Wm. 
Skinner which expect is come to hand before the receipt of 
this. Baker has given me the welcome news of your having 
been in Annapolis during the snow storm, for which I am 
glad and thankful it so happened. I am sorrey for your 
loss of your hoss he being the most Beautiful one according 
to my tast ever I saw com from your parts. 

The winter has been and is very sevear and this snow 
excells the year forty though remarcable all over Europe. 
Our stocks of Com runs low and fodder near exosted so 
that in all probility our stocks must be minished very low 
to all appearance. At present, through marcey, our family 
are all on foot at present. Darkey (Dorcas) is gone dovsm 
to Becey (Rebecca). Her time is near come according to 
womans judgment. George Cook is up in Calvert now 
driving away after subscriptions for a ship in the London 
Traid. Pray write me how you got home and have had 
your health after your journey. I am doubtful it was a 
very unpleasant one. 

Should take it kind of you to let me know how Johnny 
pretends to proceed what vocation he intends to follow to 
gette a living. I asked him the Day he went away he 
made me an abroubt worded answer he didn't know. I am 
doubtful his obstinate temper will never gain him credit 
nor any of the family but pray let me hear in particular 
his attempts and how he pretends to proceed. 

I wish you all the comforts this life affords — this from 
your ever loving affectionate Father Thos Johnson 

21 March 1772. 

The Johnson children received elementary instruction at a 
school at St. Leonard's. At that day, the schools in America 
taught nothing more than " the three R's," but the Johnson 
parents, although enabled to live in comfortable circumstances, 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 61 

were precluded by the expense of raising sucli a large family 
from the possibility of affording their children a classical edu- 
cation in Europe. 

Whilst the educational advantages in all the Colonies were 
of a very unpretentious character, the Johnsons were happily 
located within a few miles of Annapolis, the Capital of Mary- 
land, which was, socially, intellectually, and commercially, one 
of the leading centres of American civilization. Thither — ^to 
the " Athens of America " — Thomas Johnson, the younger, was 
sent at an early age to make his living. 

The history of Annapolis dates back to 1649, when it was 
settled by Puritan refugees from Virginia, who came to Mary- 
land to enjoy freedom of worship ; but it was not until the year 
1683 that the settlement was erected into a town, becoming the 
Capital of the Province in 1694. Between 1750 and the out- 
break of the Revolution, Annapolis saw its most brilliant days. 
The following old record of Annapolis, preserved since 1749, 
indicates that the Puritanical character of the town had dis- 
appeared by that day : 

" The outlook of the city was fair and promising, its 
merchants had secured the chief trade of the province; 
ships from all seas came to its harbour ; its endowed school 
(King William's) educated its citizens for important posi- 
tions; its thought made the mind of the province. The 
gayety of its inhabitants, and their love of refined pleasure 
had developed the race-course, the theatre, the ball-room; 
their love of learning, the Gazette and King William's 
school; creations and enterprises that made the province 
famous in after years as the centre of the social pleasures, 
of the culture and of the refinement of the American 
colonies." 

Annapolis of pre-Revolutionary days has been described in 
detail by William Eddis, one of the commissioners of the loan 
office of Maryland, who wrote great volumes of letters to his 
relatives and friends in England. In October, 1769, this pro- 
lific letter-writer paints the following picture of Annapolis ; 



52 MAKYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

" At present the city has more the appearance of an 
agreeable village, than the metropolis of an opulent pro- 
vince, as it contains within its limits a number of small 
fields, which are intended for future erections. But in a 
few years, it will probably be one of the best built cities 
in America, as a spirit of improvement is predominant, and 
the situation is allowed to be equally healthy and pleasant 
with any on this side the Atlantic. Many of the principal 
families have chosen this place for their residence, and 
there are few towns of the same size, in any part of the 
British dominions, that can boast of a more polished 
society. 

'' The court-house, situated on an eminence at the back 
of the town, commands a variety of views highly interest- 
ing; the entrance of the Severn, the majestic Chesapeake, 
and the eastern shore of Maryland, being all united in one 
resplendent assemblage, vessels of various sizes and figures 
are constantly floating before the eye; which, while they 
add to the beauty of the scene, excite ideas of the most 
pleasing nature." 

Another interesting bit of description of the gay life in 
A.nnapolis prior to the Revolution has been presented as follows 
by S. G. Fisher, in his " Colonial Men, Women and Manners " : 

" The men and women, who, like the rest of the Mary- 
land gentry, ordered champagne from Europe by the cask, 
and madeira by the pipe, also dressed expensively in the 
latest English fashions, and French travellers said that 
they had seldom seen such clothes outside of Paris. They 
had French barbers, negro slaves in livery, and drove light 
carriages, — an extremely rare indulgence in colonial times. 
The clubs got up excursions, picnics, and fishing parties. 
Balls were given on all the great English anniversaries, and 
the birthday of the proprietor and saints' days were used 
as excuses." 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 53 

Upon arriving at the Capital, Thomas Johnson, Jr., was 
turned over to Thomas Jennings, the Register of the Land Office 
under the proprietary. The lad's first employment, as a writer 
in the office of the Clerk of the Provincial Clerk, presented him 
the opportunity not only of becoming acquainted with court 
procedure, but also of hearing some of the most brilliant Ameri- 
can lawyers, headed by Daniel Dulany, the foremost lawyer of 
the New World, then engaged in active practice in Annapolis. 

Young Johnson, deciding to take up the study of law, was 
given the privilege of studying in the office of Stephen Bordley. 
" As a lawyer," says Scharf, concerning Mr. Bordley, " he 
stood high in the Province and in Europe, and many distin- 
guished lawyers of the Province studied under him." Although 
born in Annapolis, Mr. Bordley received his education in Eng- 
land. After a preliminary education at school followed by the 
study of law for a period of four years in the office of an 
English barrister, he sojourned for several years within the 
classical precincts of the Temple. In 1736, when he was 27 
years old, his father, Thomas Bordley, one of the most profound 
lawyers of his time, died ; and Stephen, the eldest son, thereupon 
began to assume a commanding position at the Colonial Bar. 
He served as a member of the Assembly, in the Council, as 
Commissary General, Il^aval Officer at Annapolis, and as 
Attorney-General of the Province. While Daniel Dulany was 
recognized both at home and in Europe as the foremost lawyer 
in the 'New World, Mr. Bordley was considered his nearest 
professional rival. Indeed, in the reports of the Court of 
Appeals of the Province and of the High Court of Chancery, 
his name appears almost, if not quite, as frequently as that of 
the great Dulany. 

A very interesting glimpse into the character of Mr. John- 
son's preceptor is presented by Governor Sharpe in his letters 
to Cecilius Calvert, the Secretary of Maryland. The following 
is an extract from a letter,^ written July 7, 1760, in which the 
Governor describes the personnel of his Council : 

•9 Archives, 425. 



54 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

" Of Mr. Bordley the other Gentleman who has a seat 
in the Council in consequence of my recommendation, I 
shall say the less as you seem to be already thoroughly sat- 
isfied of his ability and inclination to promote His Lord- 
ship's interest, indeed I am rather afraid that his earnest 
desire to do His Lordship acceptable service might some- 
times carry him into extremes, he being of a very sanguine 
complection, and lest he should thereby prejudice the cause 
he would wish to serve than lest he should be deficient in 
point of duty. His abilities as a lawyer cannot be ques- 
tioned and by this means he will I suppose be ever a check 
on Mr. Dulany of whom however he is perhaps too sus- 
picious and jealous as they have always been at enmity, 
but as there is no man who is not liable to error and those 
of a warm temper are generally more liable than others, I 
shall never think it right to surrender myself up even to 
this Gentleman as to a Pilot, tho I assure you his opinion 
in matters of Law will always determine me; and his 
advice in other affairs will have great weight unless upon 
examining his propositions cooly and considering them 
maturely, I see good cause to decline carrying them into 
execution." 

That Bordley was regarded as a peer of Dulany is indicated by 
another letter to Calvert, written by Governor Sharpe on May 
8, 1764. 

" How he (Dulany) behaved in England I know not," 
writes the Governor, " but he affects a great superiority 
here and indeed the only person in the Council that he 
seemed to consider as an equal was Mr. Bordley and as 
that gentleman is unhappily reduced to such a state by a 
paralytic disorder as to be almost disqualified for business 
Mr. Dulany who is now in perfect health seems to think 
himself of still greater importance than ever." 

Mr. Bordley was never happier than when he was contribut- 
ing to the happiness or advancement of young people. Mr. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 55 

Johnson was only one of a number of young men whom he 
assisted on the highway to success. William Paca, one of the 
" Signers," who was eight years younger than Mr. Johnson, 
also received his legal training under Mr. Bordley. John 
Beale Bordley, a half-brother, who was about five years older 
than Johnson, was another of his disciples. 

But Stephen Bordley, though a diligent student of the 
law, was not a recluse. He had a jovial disposition and was 
famed for his hospitality. Remaining a bachelor his entire 
life, he was fond of young people's company. His home was 
constantly the scene of entertainments to the young ladies " of 
the first circle " in Annapolis, who " smiled at his primitive 
and precise politeness, but justly admired his wit, good sense, 
and good humor." '' In a letter written in 1750 to his relatives 
in England, Mr. Bordley said : " We live well, and cheerfully, 
with the enjoyment of all the necessaries and many of the little 
comforts of life. . . . We are all still single ; a strange family ! 
perhaps you'll say ; but Beale is now in pursuit of a Dove, and 
I am apt to believe will soon break the enchantment." Beale 
married shortly afterwards. He did not, however, remain long 
in Annapolis. The practice of law did not appeal to him, and 
in 1753 (the year Thomas Johnson became of age), Beale 
secured the appointment of ptothonotary, or clerk, of Baltimore 
county, and thereupon took up his residence at Joppa, where 
he remained for a period of twelve years, after which he moved 
to Baltimore. 

Mr. Johnson was admitted, in due time, as a member of the 
Bar. He had received an excellent preparation. The specimens 
of his pleading indicate that he was a diligent student and a 
thoroughly trained master of the science of law. Opening his 
office in Annapolis for the practice of his profession, he rapidly 
rose to the first professional rank in the Province. He became 
engaged as counsel in litigation arising in many parts of the 
Colony, and in 1760 he was admitted to the Bar of Frederick 
county, where Mr. Bordley had first appeared in 1755. In the 
decade preceding the Revolution, Johnson held an enviable 

' Gibson, Biographical Sketches of the Bordley Family. 



56 MAEYLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 

position in tlie legal profession, when Samuel Chase, William 
Paca, Thomas Stone, James Hollyday, Edward Dorsey, James 
Tilghman, and the Goldsboroughs adorned the Colonial Bar. 
One writer, supposed to be Eoger B. Taney, in the National 
Journal, published February 28, 1826, says that Thomas John- 
son distinguished himself " for the acuteness of his legal knowl- 
edge, sound logical disquisition, and above all for his inflexible 
honesty and integrity of character." 

Being successful in his practice, Mr. Johnson, in the course 
of time, asked for the hand of Miss Ann Jennings, the daughter 
of his one-time employer, and they were married on the 16th 
of February, 1766. 



THE ENDOWMENT FUND 



The munificent gift to the Maryland Historical Society by 
Mrs. Mary Washington Keyser, of the property at Park avenue 
and Monument street and the removal thither from the old 
quarters of its library and collections, accentuates more than 
ever its financial needs. 

A glance at the situation will convince any one of the impera- 
tive necessity of pressing to a conclusion the long contemplated 
campaign for an endowment. 

In order that these needs may be more clearly brought to the 
attention of the Society, members of several of the standing 
committees have considered them in detail, and the ways and 
means for meeting them, and, having laid their conclusions 
before the Council, now present them briefly for the considera- 
tion of the membership. 

The Society has had a long and useful career and has num- 
bered among its members the most distinguished names in the 
annals of our city and state ; but with the beginning of a new 
era in its history it is absolutely essential that the proper finan- 
cial resources shall be provided, or its usefulness will unques- 
tionably come to an end. 



THE ENDOWMENT FUND. 57 

It has brought together a very valuable collection of manu- 
scripts, newspaper files, books and publications dealing with 
Maryland History, and has accumulated numerous and valuable 
paintings, and prints, with many rare coins and relics. These 
collections are, for the first time, adequately housed in the new 
quarters, where they should be more and more used for the 
benefit of our citizens and by students of Maryland History. 
The collection of records of the State's part in the recent great 
war, and their preservation, add another opportunity and re- 
sponsibility to those already placed upon the Society. It should 
no longer hesitate to so equip itself as to be able to take its 
proper place among similar organizations, and adequately per- 
form the functions for which its wise Founders created it. To 
this end, it should at once take such measures as may secure an 
endowment of $300,000 or more, as no less an amount will be 
sufficient to meet its necessary and proper expenses. 

The policy of the Society should be confined to the collection, 
preservation and publication of material relating to the History 
of Maryland in its widest and most comprehensive aspect, com- 
prising documentary, iconographic, bibliographic, biographical 
and genealogical sources. It should not attempt to duplicate 
the work of other institutions, or to go beyond the scope of its 
chosen and limited field. 

Its employes should be persons of character and ability, 
chosen solely with a view to personal fitness for the positions 
they fill, and their compensation must be commensurate with 
their several abilities. The Society must develop an efficient 
staff to do its work effectively, and must maintain the necessary 
mechanical equipment. For this purpose it must have an 
adequate permanent income, not dependent upon the dues of a 
fluctuating membership alone. 

The Library and Gallery should be open every secular day 
of the year, with the exception of Christnaas day, and the Fourth 
of July, and for nine months of the year, from 9 a. m. to 10 p. m., 
and during the summer from 9 to 5 or 6 o'clock, with a staff 
large enough to observe such hours, without hardship to any of 
them. This staff should include: 



58 MAETLAIiTD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1. A Librarian or Executive Secretary, qualified by tact and 
training to meet the members and its visitors in a manner to 
create and foster an interest in the Society and its activities. 
He should be interested in and conversant with the History of 
the State and of its people, trained in library work, a good 
administrator and intellectually alert. He should be qualified 
to act as Editor of the Magazine, and of the Archives, and as 
an adviser of students visiting in the Library. He should keep 
track of publications relating to our chosen field, and advise 
as to purchases by the Library Committee. He should be old 
enough to have proved his worth by experience, and young 
enough to carry out a well considered, long continued develop- 
ment with enthusiasm. 

2. An Assistant Librarian, who should be thoroughly trained 
and progressive, competent to carry on the technical work of the 
Library, and to act as executive in the absence of the Librarian. 
Much of the work of preparing a proper card catalogue would 
fall to him, and he should have direct supervision over it. 

3. A Desk Assistant, in charge of reading room, and the use 
of books by borrowers. He should look out for current, publica- 
tions and assist the Cataloguer with routine work. 

4. Library Attendant. During the period of arranging the 
books, recataloguing and shelving, there will be much manual 
labor, which must be done by one who is familiar with the 
material. 

5. Archivist, who shall have charge of the copying of the 
original Archives of the State, their publication, distribu- 
tion, etc. 

6. Stenographer and Secretary to the Librarian, who will 
look out for the business details of correspondence, membership 
dues, tickets to lectures, etc. 

7. Typist, who will transcribe such manuscripts as are 
frequently called for, when a copy is as useful as the original, 
and who should assist in preparing catalogue cards when not 
otherwise engaged. 

8. Two Attendants, to be on duty in the front building or in 



THE ENDOWMENT FUND. 59 

the Gallery. They would answer questions and act as messen- 
gers for the officers when required and escort visitors through 
the buildings. 

Beside these, the proper physical care of the buildings will 
require a janitor, at least one scrubwoman and a fireman. 

Light, fuel and upkeep expenses will have to be met, in 
addition to the foregoing salaried employees. The dues from 
membership and the income from any present assets would be 
used in the purchase and repair of books, binding of periodicals 
and newspapers and supplying of office equipment. 

It may be thought that the foregoing program is too ambitious, 
but a critical examination will prove the contrary. Few mem- 
bers of the Society realize the value of our collections, nor do 
they appreciate the vast amount of labor that will be necessary 
to properly exploit them and make them thoroughly available 
for use. 

The value of any library depends almost as much on the 
adequacy of its catalogue, as on the character of its collection ; 
few persons have the time or patience to spend days in search 
of the data which it is the province of the catalogue to afford. 
It is equally true that only those who have had experience in 
such work know and appreciate the amount of time, skill and 
industry necessary in order to produce a good working catalogue. 
This is especially true of the historical library, on account of 
the varied elements to be considered in making proper entries 
in the case of " association books," local imprints, and the like, 
which in ordinary circulating libraries are not taken into 
account. Good cataloguing, while its importance cannot be too 
strongly emphasized, is an expensive proposition, costing from 
25 to 50 cents per volume, and sometimes a single page of 
manuscript may cost as much as a printed volume. 

The treatment of manuscripts is difficult and expensive; 
each should be calendared and abstracted, and in the case of 
documents often called for should be reproduced to guard the 
original against destruction by much handling. The installa- 
tion of a photostat outfit is an essential part of the equipment 



60 MARYIvAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of a modern library and especially of one rich in manuscript 
collections. Such manuscripts should be printed as soon as 
possible, and it is here that the Ma-gazine demonstrates its value. 
Such publications rarely return their cost in money, but as they 
are the only direct point of contact for perhaps 90% of the 
membership, and bring in " exchanges " largely in excess of 
their publication cost they must be classed as assets rather than 
as liabilities. 

It therefore, is apparent that dependence can not be placed in 
the funds received from fluctuating membership dues as in- 
creased membership means increased liabilities and responsi- 
bilities. The work of a historical society is continuous and 
progressive and can be successfully carried on only when ade- 
quately endowed. It is the duty and it should be the pleasure 
of every member to contribute to such a fund to the fullest 
extent of his financial ability. 



PASSAGE OF THE SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS REGI- 
MENT THROUGH BALTIMORE, APRIL 19, 1861 

Matthew Page Andrews 



There never was a house divided against itself in sharper 
contrast than Maryland in 1861. Marylanders loved the Union 
as it was, because Marylanders had so largely made it what it 
was. With patriots of the !N'orthem States and of the Old 
Dominion, the inheritors of " Carroll's sacred trust " and of 
" Howard's warlike thrust " were striving to awaken that spirit 
of conciliation toward the far South which had animated Burke 
toward the protesting colonies of Great Britain. 

From the secession of South Carolina in December, 1860, to 
April, 1861, the efforts and hopes and prayers of the best 
citizens of Baltimore were directed toward the saving of the 
Union. Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas 
had not yet seceded. Maryland stood firmly with these, prob- 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. 61 

ably with less secession sentiment within her borders than any 
of them. Yet Maryland, certainly the more populous and influ- 
ential Eastern half with its stronger Revolutionary inheritance, 
was ever a Southern State, and she was linked with the South 
by the closest ties of commercial, social, and historical relation- 
ship. On the other hand, Baltimore was the single city south of 
Mason and Dixon's line that had large manufacturing interests. 
These interests tended to link the city with the Congressional 
majorities of the North, whose protective tariff policy was the 
burden of complaint in the agricultural South from nullification 
in 1832 to secession in 1860. 

Such was the unique position of Baltimore in the beginning 
of a crisis wherein the highest authorities of the national Gov- 
ernment had been standing confused and irresolute for months. 
We read in history of the outbreak of April against the Federal 
troops as represented by the Massachusetts regiment, but strong 
sentiment prior to this was exhibited in similar though bloodless 
violence against any public manifestation of partiality for the 
Southern Confederacy. The records show that prior to April, 
1861, the appearance of a Confederate emblem was frequently 
the signal for attack, and up to the time of the Federal call for 
troops of April 15 it seems that citizens of Baltimore had of 
themselves successfully prohibited the display of a secession 
flag. This open hostility to Confederate emblems extended even 
to the shipping of the harbor ; and while in ISTorthern ports ships 
for some time flew the Palmetto flag of South Carolina with 
impunity, at Baltimore it was torn down with violence. 

The foregoing historical exposition based upon the complete 
partisan records of the time and the more or less nonpartisan 
reviews of later date, is not, however, so paradoxical as it would 
seem ; yet, if Baltimore could offer no adequate explanation for 
this apparent fickleness of heart, she would give to history a 
fitting parallel to the picture in literature of that volatile popu- 
lace in Rome as portrayed by Shakespeare in " Julius Caesar." 

In reality, the explanation is not as difficult as it appears. It 
does riot lie in the mob itself, nor yet in Baltimore, but in the 



62 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

very origin and nature of the American Union. This Union 
had been formed by an agreement between practically inde- 
pendent and self-governing commonwealths. It was framed by 
their consent, and it was earnestly hoped and believed that it 
would continue by their consent. Thus, in consenting to the 
Constitution, possible secession was recognized by all the 
Colonies, but committed to writing in the ratification of the 
Constitution by Virginia and !N"ew York alone. In formulating 
this agreement Maryland played a most conspicuous and his- 
torical role. Undaunted in the stand she had taken in making 
the Union possible, she could not sanction coercion therein for 
herself or for others. 

Hence, however weak and unstable such a government may 
seem to us in the light of our national growth today, coercion of 
a State against its consent had not been provided for in the 
Constitution. Although the opinions of men had been modified 
by time and by national expansion to favor a stronger central 
government, Maryland, mindful of her historical inheritance, 
prayed against secession, but rebelled against coercion. This 
was the stand of Virginia, I^Torth Carolina, Tennessee, and 
Arkansas, and it was the stand of thousands of others in the 
loyal States whose effort to avert fratricidal strife will yet be 
recognized as reflecting a patriotism differing in kind only from 
that of many of those who first responded to the call to arms. 

Events moved more rapidly after the bloodless capture of Fort 
Sumter on April 12, 1861. A few days before this occurred, 
the newspapers, including the organ of the Administration, had 
widely published the news that the Federal authorities would 
deliver the fort to the State of South Carolina. On April 7 
Secretary of War Seward had written to Justice Campbell, of 
the United States Supreme Court, a confirmation of an official 
assurance to this effect which he had previously given. At the 
same time vessels were on the way to Sumter carrying with them 
supplies and men for holding the fort. 

The confusion of political thought and opinion throughout 
the country is unparalleled in modern history. It extended from 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS KBGIMENT. 63 

the humblest citizen to the highest authorities in the Federal 
Government. Nor was it otherwise in Baltimore. John P. 
Kennedy, the Maryland novelist and an ex-Secretary of the 
Kavy, was proposing, in elaborate exposition, a confederation of 
the border States, which should act as an intermediary between 
the Northern States and the seven Southern States that had then 
seceded. 

Incidents illustrative of political confusion might be multi- 
plied indefinitely, but from the attack on Sumter a clear-cut 
issue was framed by the Federal Government. This " firing 
upon the flag of the nation " was made the immediate pretext for 
aggressive measures against the Southern Confederacy. As so 
heralded, it served to inflame the hearts of thousands in the 
Korth who seemed not to have noticed or to have forgotten, as 
it is forgotten today, that this was not the first firing upon the 
Stars and Stripes. The Union flag had been fired upon from 
the coast of South Carolina as early as January 9, 1861, for the 
same reason as that which provoked attack upon it at the later 
date of April 12. 

However, three days later, or on April 15, the issue was 
definitely drawn in the form of a Federal call for 75,000 volun- 
teers, to compel the seven " Cotton States " to return to the 
Union. Several States refused to honor the requisition for 
troops for this purpose, and four more forthwith withdrew from 
the Union. Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri expressed official 
disapproval of the order through their Governors or civil author- 
ities ; Indiana in the opposition of her Legislature ; while Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas passed ordi- 
nances of secession. 

In Baltimore, after April 15, public sentiment crystallized at 
once into a spirit of active opposition to any proceedings leading 
to an aggressive war upon the South. This sentiment was 
opposed not only to the raising of troops in Maryland to coerce 
the Southern States, but also to the passing of other troops 
through the State for this purpose. 

On April 18 the vanguard of invasion arrived in Baltimore, 



64 MAKYLAXD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

consisting of several linndred Pennsylvania militiamen and two 
companies of United States artillery. These came by the 
Northern Central railroad to the old Bolton Station and 
marched through the city to the Washington depot amid 
evidences of a popular disapproval that was restrained from 
actual violence only by the vigilance of the police under Marshal 
Kane. 

Governor Hicks, on the afternoon of the 18th, issued a procla- 
mation important chiefly in that it sought to assure the people 
of Baltimore that no troops would be sent from the State except 
for the defense of the national capital against attack. 

There was strong belief in the minds of some that the troops 
were to be used solely in the defense of Washington. Attempts 
were made so to represent the case, in order to allay excitement 
and avoid clashes. Comparatively few, however, were convinced 
by this reasoning, because the language of the call to arms 
clearly indicated aggressive war measures as the first duty of 
the troops. Therefore the great majority of the people of 
Baltimore believed that the men were enlisted for invasion, and 
they then expressed themselves in a representative convention 
assembled on the evening of the 18th, in which the proposed 
forcible retaking of the forts in the seceded States was strongly 
denounced. On motion of Mr. Ross Winans resolutions were 
drawn up to this effect and signed by A. C. Robinson, chairman, 
and G. Harlan Williams, and Albert Ritchie, secretaries. 

There were frequent clashes of partisans throughout the 18th, 
for the most part around the newspaper offices of different — and 
differing — journals of the day, where exciting bulletins were 
being received telling of further secessions and of the rumblings 
of impending war. Business was almost wholly suspended and 
Baltimore was tense with the conflicting feelings that were to 
precipitate the first loss of life on the morrow. 

April 19, 1861, was the eighty-sixth anniversary of the battle 
of Lexington, which marked the beginning of the great civil 
ronflict between the colonies and the mother country. It is said 
that nature seemed to smile in her brightest springtime glory on 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS EEGIMENT. 65 

Baltimore on this second 19th that was to find Massachusetts 
militia in a position partly parallel to 1775, partly the reverse. 

]^o clear understanding of the events that followed may be 
had without an appreciation, first, of the serious blunder in the 
change of plans which placed all of these Massachusetts troops 
in an unnecessarily dangerous position, and some of them in an 
extremely critical one. Second, we must have knowledge of the 
Federal negligence which prevented the civil authorities in 
Baltimore from making proper arrangements for protecting the 
troops from violence. ISTo one, acquainted with the facts, can 
have a reasonable doubt that, if either one of these mistakes 
had not been committed, there would have been no bloodshed, a 
bloodshed which helped to send perhaps 10,000 additional 
Mary landers into the Confederate armies. N^o explanation 
seems to have been offered for either mistake. 

For the exposition of the first of these mistakes, it is necessary 
to take the view of the troops that were to play a part in the 
bloody drama. The Sixth Massachusetts was the first fully 
organized and equipped regiment to respond to the call of the 
President. In a triumphal passage through jSTew York they had 
been wildly cheered. Reaching Philadelphia on the night of the 
18th, they were notified (according to President Felton, of the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad Company), 
that instead of an ovation in Baltimore, they were likely to meet 
with serious opposition. Col. Edward F. Jones, the command- 
ing officer, caused " ammunition to be distributed and arms 
loaded." He also directed : (1) That the regiment was to march 
through the mile or more of Baltimore streets from station to 
station in a body; (2) that the men were not to notice insults, 
abuse or even the throwing of missiles; (3) that if, however, 
they were fired upon, the officers would give the order to fire, not 
promiscuously, but in the direction of the point of attack. This 
order, in all its parts, is to be highly commended; in no part 
was it entirely carried out. The first and most serious mistake 
was to change the plan so as to prevent the troops from efficient 
self-protection by dividing them up into companies and even 
5 



66 MABYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

parts of companies for transportation across the city in cars 
dra"vvn hj liorses. Such a move seemed to invite attack, if attack 
were but half intended. 

This is the simple statement of the first great blunder. For 
an understanding of the second it is necessary to take the view 
of the much harassed civil authorities of the border city in 
its unhappy attempts at maintaining its intended position of 
neutrality. It is certain that, whatever may have been the 
expressed opposition to the passage of troops through the city, 
the civil authorities of Baltimore were determined to protect 
the troops that might pass during the time their protests were 
under consideration by the Federal Government. 

In order to be prepared to afford this protection it was essen- 
tial that the police should know when fresh troops were due to 
arrive, at what points and in what number. On the 19th the 
civil authorities of Baltimore were utterly unable to secure this 
information in any particular until too late to provide adequate 
protection for the soldiers. This was the second great blunder. 
No record has been found that assigns any reason for this 
negligence, although attempts were made by the Marshal of 
Police to secure the information by telegraphing repeatedly to 
the offices of the railroad company in Philadelphia. With this 
twofold explanation in view the narrative of actual conflict may 
be taken up, and the bloody events that follow seem less amazing 
and more the natural outcome of circumstances subject to some 
degree of accountability. 

The Massachusetts troops, together with seven unarmed 
Pennsylvania companies, arrived at the President Street Station 
of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad about 
noon. As intimated above, it was then the custom to convey 
passengers from this station to that of the Baltimore and Ohio 
for Washington in detached railroad coaches drawn by horses. 
This plan of passage through the city was adopted by the troops 
after their arrival, instead of following the original order of 
marching in one body. 

The route lay along President street northward to Pratt street 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. 67 

and west for about a mile to Howard street, and then to Camden 
Station of the Baltimore and Ohio. Seven companies, in about 
nine cars, were successfully conveyed through the city without 
casualty, although all the cars were jeered and hissed at times, 
and the last of these thus getting through was damaged by 
missiles and some of the soldiers were injured. 

As the troops were being thus drawn through the city, the 
news of their arrival spread. The number of people along the 
route increased, and measures were quickly taken to obstruct 
further passage. !N'ear the corner of Gay and Pratt streets a 
load of sand was seized and dumped upon the track. Merchants 
and their clerks, aided by negro sailors from the South, dragged 
anchors from the nearby dock and placed them across the rails. 
A pile of cobblestones added to these made a formidable 
barricade. 

The next car was effectually stopped by these obstructions. 
The frightened driver hitched his horses to the rear and drove it 
back as rapidly as possible toward the President Street Station, 
turning back the following cars as he met them. The troops 
thus turned back consisted of four companies, numbering about 
220 men. These forthwith formed at the station, and the order 
was given to march forward to Camden. The crowd threatened 
and pressed upon the soldiers ; and, in the face of this opposition, 
it is probable that but for the active intervention of the police 
force that chanced to be at this point the troops would not have 
been able even to form in companies. Men that had become 
detached from their places regained the ranks through the 
efforts of the police, and the march was begun. 

Almost immediately there occurred an incident that is, 
perhaps, unique in history. Some Southern partisans produced 
a Confederate flag, and in a spirit of grim humor and derisive 
intent displayed it at the head of the soldiers, compelling them 
to march behind it for about the distance of two squares. This 
action aroused the ultra-Northern partisans in the crowd, who 
forthwith attacked the standard-bearers, and in two attempts 
partially destroyed the flag. This brought down upon the former 



68 • MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the wrath of the greater part of the crowd, and they sought 
refuge behind the [Massachusetts troops, who then, by accident 
or design, were stoned. The attack upon the soldiers became 
general and one was knocked do^vn at Fawn street. The more 
brutal part of the mob following set upon the wounded soldier, 
but he was happily rescued by the police. At the corner of 
Stiles and President streets, one block farther, two soldiers were 
knocked down by flying stones; both regained their feet, one 
was rescued by a police officer and the other escaped. Curiously 
enough, the muskets thus far lost by the soldiers were turned 
over to the police, who again warded off the on-pressing crowd. 
By this time the order to "double-quick " having been given, 
the soldiers were running at good speed toward the Pratt street 
bridge. Perhaps it was here that the first firing by the soldiers 
was begun ; some accounts say " accidentally," others say " in a 
desultory manner and wildly," and still others " by command 
of the officers." As the troops were certainly firing at will when 
Jater they were met and accompanied by Mayor Brown, it is 
not improbable that they fired at will from the first and not by 
definite command. 

The Pratt street bridge was then undergoing repairs, but the 
workmen had gone to their dinner, leaving joists, scantling and 
sawhorses half blocking the bridge. Some say that stumbling 
over these obstructions caused the accidental discharge of two 
muskets; but it seems certain that the firing of the soldiers 
became general shortly after the crossing of the bridge. The 
first citizen shot was Francis X. Ward, a young lawyer, and 
afterward a captain in the Confederate Army. The mob then 
again rushed upon the soldiers and attempted to seize their 
muskets. In two instances the attempt was successful, in one 
of which the soldier was run through with his own bayonet, 
said to have been thus killed by the very citizen at whom he had 
shot. 

By this time, Mayor Brown, who, with Marshal Kane and a 
strong police force, had been protecting the troops at the Camden 
end, learned that other companies were attempting to cross the 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. 69 

city under a fierce attack. Sending word to Marshal Kane to 
follow, the Mayor hastened alone to the scene of the greatest 
danger. Having ordered the removal of obstructions along the 
route of march, he found troops running before the mob just 
west of the Pratt street bridge. 

In his account, published in 1887, under the auspices of the 
Johns Hopkins University . Studies in History and Political 
Science, Mayor Brown makes the unexpected statement that, 
while " the uproar was furious," the mob did not seem to be a 
large one. This assertion would seem incredible; and yet the 
even more remarkable statement is made by C. W. Tailleure, in 
the Boston Herald in 1883, that there were about 250 in the 
attacking party at the first, and 500 was the maximum at any 
stage of the march. Mr. Tailleure was an eye-witness of the 
fray, and was then an editor on the staff of a local paper. 

Whatever may have been the size of the mob it was now 
thoroughly angry and was pursuing the soldiers " with shouts 
and stones," to which the soldiers replied by firing wildly, some- 
times backward over their shoulders. Immediately upon his 
arrival at the scene of conflict, Mayor Brown introduced himself 
to the captain in command, and at once objected to the double- 
quick as a movement likely to provoke assault. For a while the 
presence of the Mayor had a quieting effect, but blood had been 
shed, the mob was revengeful, and the attack was renewed with 
reckless violence. Stones flew thick and fast, and, although 
nearly one-tenth of the troops were killed or seriously wounded, 
it is remarkable that so many escaped. The soldiers continued 
to fire at will without orders, and entirely contrary to the 
instructions which Colonel Jones had given them while en route 
to Baltimore. 

At the corner of South and Pratt streets several citizens were 
seen to fall, killed or wounded. At the comer of Light street, 
two squares to the west, a soldier fell mortally wounded, a boy 
on a vessel in the dock was killed and the head of the advancing 
column fired into a group on the sidewalk with fatal effect. 

At the latter corner Mayor Brown called to the soldiers at his 



70 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

side not tx) shoot. Then, seeing his own helplessness against 
further disaster, he retired from the line of march, but not 
before a bov in the crowd handed him a discharged musket 
which a soldier had dropped. 

The action of the boj gave rise to the story incorporated in 
Colonel Jones' official report, and still in circulation, that the 
Mayor had " seized a musket from the hands of one of the men 
and killed a man therewith." The boy was in symapthy with 
the troops, and may have been the youth who is said to have 
joined the regiment during this fight, and, not only went with 
them to "Washington, but to the war itself — if his story on record 
in the Maryland Historical Society and reported in Boston 
papers after the war, be a true one. 

As above stated, the retirement of the Mayor from the head 
of the troops was due to his perceiving that he was helpless to 
protect either the soldiers or the citizens, among whom the 
greater loss of life fell upon non-combatants and bystanders. 
The soldiers seem to have fired but little and at random behind 
them at the pursuing mob, but in front they fired with deadly 
effect. Evidently the raw recruits were irresponsible from fear 
and shot at all citizens wherever grouped as active or potential 
foes. 

The troops had now reached a point between Light and 
Charles streets. Four had been killed and 36 wounded. Eleven 
citizens had been killed, while an indefinite number had been 
more or less seriously shot in the fray. The temper of the mob 
had become thoroughly aroused and a third of the distance to 
Camden had yet to be covered before the detached companies 
could join their companions. They were in a critical position. 

But effective intervention was now at hand, and in brief 
follows a chapter which will always be a bright one in the annals 
of the Baltimore police. About 40 bluecoats, with the gallant 
Marshal Kane at their head, were now seen coming from 
Camden Station at a run. With revolvers drawn and in good 
order, they quickly placed themselves in the rear of the S'oldiers 
and in front of their pursuers. Marshal Kane adding emphasis 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS KEGIMENT. 71 

to the action by shouting: " Keep hack, men, or I shoot! " One 
leading rioter, a young man of excellent reputation in the com- 
munity, tried to force his way through the line, but the Marshal 
himself stepped forward and seized him. 

The fight was now ended, and, under escort of the police, the 
troops soon joined their comrades at Camden Station. 

At the station there was. much confusion, with attempts at 
violence. The blinds of the coaches were ordered closed by 
Colonel Jones, and the train started for Washington at about 
1 o'clock amid the hisses and groans of the crowd. But the 
death record for the day was not yet complete. A well-known 
merchant of Baltimore was standing with two friends beside the 
railroad tracks at the edge of the city. As the train passed 
by the merchant, ignorant of the events in the city, shook his 
fist at the troops. He was immediately fired upon from a car 
window and fell forward into a small ditch, shot through and 
instantly killed. 

News of this last casualty flew through the city, and more 
than all else, seemed to arouse the people. Many now rushed to 
the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore station, vowing 
vengeance. The band of the Massachusetts regiment was still 
at the President Street Station, together with the unarmed 
Pennsylvania troops. A number of these, alarmed by the 
increased hostility of the crowd assembling about the station, 
scattered through the city, some successfully seeking police 
protection. The remainder were sent homeward by special 
arrangement with the railroad company. 

As the news spread the excitement was intensified. But, 
however much their opinions differed otherwise, all citizens 
seemed to be agreed on one thing — that no more troops could 
pass through the city without precipitating even worse blood- 
shed, and that immediate and decisive steps should be taken to 
avoid further conflict. The military was called out and 
Governor Hicks, Mayor Brown, S. Teackle Wallis and others 
addressed an immense assemblage in Monument Square. 

Governor Hicks not only assented in the general opposition to 



72 MAKYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the passage of troops througli Baltimore, but gave indorsement 
to his previously expressed vehement opposition to the raising 
of troops in Maryland on behalf of the Federal Government. 
In view of Governor Hicks' subsequent reversal of political 
position, it is interesting to quote him on this occasion in the 
following passage : *' I am a Marylander ; I love my State and 
I love the Union, but I will suffer my right arm to be torn from 
my body before I will raise it to strike a sister State." 

Mayor Brown endeavored to quiet the citizens by informing 
them of the efforts of the Governor and himself to prevent the 
further passage of troops through the city. A letter signed by 
Mayor Brown and indorsed by Governor Hicks was written to 
President Lincoln and borne to him by Messrs. Hugh Lennox 
Bond, George W. Dobbin and John C. Brune, urging that the 
Federal troops be not sent through Baltimore. 

iSTo definite information could be obtained from the Federal 
authorities for nearly 24 hours. In the absence of any response, 
the city authorities determined upon the burning of railroad 
bridges in order to prevent the approach to the city of any inore 
troops. This was accordingly ordered to be done before the 
eventful day ended, Governor Hicks assenting. 

Early the next morning, no reply as yet having been received 
from Washington, the City Council assembled and appropriated 
$500,000 to put the city in a state of defense. Following this 
the banks of the city held a meeting and Bank Presidents Johns 
Hopkins, John Clark and Columbus O'Donnell placed this sum 
at the disposal of the Mayor. These proceedings were indorsed 
by the editors of The Sun, American, Oerman Correspondent, 
South, Exchange, Clipper and others. More money was privately 
contributed in considerable sums. 

Some time in the morning of the 20th the following letter was 
received from President Lincoln : 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS EEGIMENT. Y3 

Washington, April 20, 1861. 
Governor Hicks and Mayor Brown: 

Genti-emen — Your letter by Messrs. Bond, Dobbin and 
Bnine is received. I tender you my sincere thanks for 
your efforts in the trying situation in wbicb you are placed. 
For the future troops must be brought here, but I make 
no point of bringing them through Baltimore. 

Without any military knowledge myself, of course I 
must leave these details to General Scott. He hastily said 
this morning, in the presence of these gentlemen, " March 
them around Baltimore, and not through it." 

I sincerely hope that the General, on fuller reflection 
will consider this practical and proper, and that you will 
not object to it. 

By this a collision of the people of Baltimore with the 
troops will be avoided unless they go out of the way to seek 
it. I hope you will exert your influence to prevent this. 

Now and ever I shall do all in my power for peace con- 
sistently with the maintenance of government. 

Your obedient servant, A. Lincoln. 

This letter explains itself, and Baltimore saw no further 
passing of troops until the city was overawed by the military 
power of the Federal Government, General Butler taking 
possession of Federal Hill on the night of May 13, in the midst 
of a violent storm. While no one opposed him or thought of 
so doing at the time, he regarded this exploit as the capture of 
Baltimore. He was forthwith made a major-general, and the 
city, by his proclamation, was placed under martial law. 

Such is the story of the fight in Baltimore, April 19, 1861, 
and of the events which led up to it. In the telling of the story 
the temptation to digress from the simple narrative are most 
alluring, because a great number of accompanying incidents 
throw a powerful light on the issues and events involved. Some 
of these are given below. But first it may be pertinent to pre- 



74 MAKTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

sent the sources whence this chapter of American history is 
derived. Proceeding from those based upon the specific narra- 
tive to those treating of cause and effect, the authorities are, 
in part: 

Reminiscences in manuscript of Richard D. Fisher, J. Morri- 
son Harris, William Piatt, Henry C. Wagner, Frank X. Ward, 
William Keyser, and Ernest H. Wardwell, the Baltimore boy 
that was adopted by the Sixth Massachusetts on the day of the 
fight ; reports of Col. Edward F. Jones, and of Marshal Kane, 
reports of the Baltimore and Ohio and of the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroads, address of Gov. John A. 
Andrew at the dedication of the Ladd-Whitney monument, 
Lowell, Mass., June 17, 1865 ; the files of the Baltimore news- 
papers, broadsides of the day, letters of citizens of Baltimore, 
journal of the City Council, proceedings of the Legislatures of 
Maryland and Massachusetts. Accounts of eye-witnesses now 
living: George William Brown's "Baltimore and the 19th of 
April, 1861," De Francais Folsom's "Our Police," Jacob 
Frey's " Reminiscences of Baltimore," John W. Hanson's 
(chaplain Sixth Massachusetts) " Historical Sketch," Frank 
Moore's " The Rebellion Record," John C. Robinson (com- 
mandant Fort McHenry) article in Magazine of American 
History, September, 1885 ; J. Thomas Scharf's " History of 
Maryland " and " Chronicles of Baltimore," James Schouler's 
" A History of Massachusetts in the Civil War," addresses of 
Benjamin F. Watson, lieutenant-colonel Sixth Regiment; " The 
Stain at Baltimore," Charles S. Smith ; Charles Francis Adams, 
H. A. White, A. T. Bledsoe and James Ford Rhodes, on the 
causes of the war ; Herbert B. Adams and John Fiske, on Mary- 
land and her part in the formation of the Union ; Edward Ingle, 
T. P. Kettell, and Thomas H. Benton, on the protective tariff 
and the sectional conflict. 

^Vmong the accounts collected for the Maryland Historical 
Society relative to the events of the 19th is an interesting 
anecdote by Mr. Richard D. Fisher. Mr. Fisher saw the conflict 
from an upper window of a building near the corner of Pratt 



SIXTH MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. Y5 

and Gay streets. With him at the time was a Spanish sea 
captain, whose vessel was then in port. Turning to Mr. Fisher, 
the Spaniard remarked : 

" You seem much agitated ; this is nothing ; we frequently 
have these things in Spain," 

" In Spain," Mr. Fisher replied, " this may mean nothing ; 
in America it means civil war." 

Not only did the civil authorities of Baltimore journey to 
Washington to consult with the President in the day or two 
following, but it seems that delegations of citizens did likewise. 
In the editorial columns of The Sun of April 23 appeared this 
account of a remarkable interview with President Lincoln : 

" We learn that a delegation from five of the Young Men's 
Christian Associations of Baltimore, consisting of six members 
from each, yesterday proceeded to Washington for an interview 
with the President, the purpose being to intercede with him in 
behalf of a peaceful policy and to entreat him not to pass troops 
through Baltimore or Maryland. Rev. Dr. Fuller, of the 
Baptist Church, accompanied the party by invitation as chair- 
man. 

" Our informant, however, vouches for what we now write. 
He states that upon the introduction they were received very 
cordially by Mr. Lincoln, and Dr. Fuller sought to impress 
upon Mr. Lincoln the vast responsibility of the position he occu- 
pied, and that upon him depended the issues of peace or war: 

" 'But,' said Mr. Lincoln, ' what am I to do ? ' 

" 'Why, sir, let the country know that you are disposed to 
recognize the independence of the Southern States and war,may 
be averted.' 

" To which Mr. Lincoln replied : ' Then, what is to become 
of the revenue ? I shall have no government — no resources.' " 

This fatherly counsel of Dr. Fuller may seem strange to us 
now, but issues were by no means clearly joined in April, 1861. 
Mr. J. Morrison Harris, a well-known citizen of Baltimore and 
an ardent " Union man," was one of the second committee of 
citizens who waited upon President Lincoln on April 20. In a 



76 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

paper read before the Maryland Historical Society in later years 
Mr. Harris states that "' Salmon P. Chase was present during 
the discussion at the War Office, and in talking over the condi- 
tions of affairs generally, expressed to me with much earnest- 
ness the opinion that the best way out of the difficulty would be 
to let the Cotton States go and trust to arrangements of amity 
and commerce for the preservation of peace and their ultimate 
return to the Union." 

As given in the newspapers of the time, the list of citizens 
killed is as follows: Robert W. Davis, Philip S. Miles, John 
McCann, John McMahon, William R. Clark, James Carr, 
Francis Maloney, Sebastian Gill, William Maloney, William 
Reed, Michael Murphy, Patrick Griffith. 

The Massachusetts troops, on the evening of the 19th, were 
quartered in the Senate chamber of the Capitol, " the herald of 
the mighty hosts which have since gathered to defend it," as 
Gov. John A. Andrew described them in the address he delivered 
in 1865 at the dedication of the Lowell monument raised to the 
soldiers killed in Baltimore. The names of those soldiers were : 
Sumner H. Needham, of Lawrence; Addison O. Whitney and 
Luther C. Ladd, of Lowell, and Charles A. Taylor, of Boston. 



JONES BIBLE RECORDS 



A small leather-bound book among the papers of the late 
Edmund Law Rogers has the following memorandum on the 
cover, written by him : 

** The following is written by Rachel Jones, daughter of 
Philip Jones Junior, who must have copied it from her Great- 
Grandfather George Saughier's Bible." 

My Dear and loving Father George Saughier, born in "New 
port in y« Isle of Wight A^ Dom" IGOO in March. 

And arrived in Virginia in DecemV 1620 



JONES BIBLE RECORDS. 77 

And Departed this life y^ 24 Dec. 1684 and was buried y^ 
day following being y^ Christmas Day. 

Margaret Saughier was born in Virginia at the trimbell 
Spring in the new y^ 11th 1646 about 6 o'clock in y® 

morning — baptized by Mr. Grimes, minister ph^ Garlington 
and Mordecai Cook Godfather's — Mrs Fox and Mrs Dedham, 
Godmothers. 

And married March y® 5th Thomas Beson Jun. in 

South River, Maryland. 

Thomas Besson Jun son of Thomas and Margaret Besson 
was born y^ of December A^ Dom. 1667 upon a Monday 
Night about two hours within Night. 

Baptized y^ 22nd day of February 1673/4 by Rich. Atkinson 
minister. Departed this life A^ Dom. 1702 ult. Dec. about 1 
hour within night and buried Jan y** 3^ 1702/3 

Ann Besson Daughter of Thomas and Margaret Besson was 
born y^ 2Q^^ of Dec 1670 about 4 or 5 of y« clock in y^ 
morning — baptized y^ 22 of Feb 1673/4 by Richard Atkinson, 
Minister. 

Married y^ 26 of October 1697 to Mr. Richard Cromwell of 
Baltimore county and was delivered of a son y^ 15 August 
about one of y^ clock in y^ morning 1698 and departed this life 
the 29*^ August 1698. 

Margaret Besson daughter of Thomas and Margaret Besson 
was born y^ 31^^ of Jan 1673/4 between 12 and 1 of y« night — • 
baptized y^ 22<i Feb 1673/4 by Rich. Atkinson, Minister. 

Married y^' 30*^ Dec. 1701 to Mr. Jno. Rattenbury and 
delivered of a still child y* 26^^ day of Dec. 1702 

Hannah Rattenbury daughter of John and Margaret Ratten- 
bury was born the 30*^*^ of October Anno Dom". 1704 about 
eleven o'clock in the morning. 

Ann Rattenbury daughter of John and Margaret Rattenbury 
was Born October 20*^ 1706 about two o'clock in the morning. 

Nicholas Besson son of Thomas and Margaret Besson was 
born ye 22<i of Dec 1677. 

My Dear and Loving Mother Margaret Rattenbury departed 



78 MAKYLAIfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

this life 22°*^ Jan>' 17-iO and being on a Thursday night about 
12 o'clock and was buried y® third day of February at Mr 
Philip Jones in Patapsco Neck. 

John Rattenbury son of John and Margaret Rattenbury 
departed this life March y^ 30 1745. 

Elizabeth Besson Daughter of Thomas and Margaret Beson 
was born y^ last of 1683. 

l^^icholas Crumwell, son of Rich Crumwell and Anne his 
wife was bom y* 15*^ of August 1698 about one of y® clock in 
y^ morning and dyed the 10*^ of July 1715. 

John Rattenbury son of John and Margarett Rlattenbury 
was bom Sept. 12 1708 about 4 of y^ clock in y*^ afternoon. 

Hannah Rattenbury was married to John Cromwell y^ 23 
day of August 1723. 

Margaret Cromwell Daughter of John and Hannah Crom- 
well was born y^ 21 day of August 1724 and departed this life 
6 day of November, 1740, it being on a friday night and was 
buried 10 day of y^ month at Curtis Creek. 

John Cromwell son of John and Hannah Cromwell was bom 
February 11*^ day about 1 o'clock in y^ morning in y® year of 
our Lord 1726. 

Hannah Cromwell daughter of y^ above John and Hannah 
was born y* first day of April in the year of our Lord 1729. 

Ann Cromwell daughter of y^ above was bom y^ fifth day of 
November in the year of our Lord 1733. 

Philip Jones and Anne Rattenbury was married the 2"^ day 
of October 1727. 

Henrietta Jones, daughter of the above was born the 19 day 
of August 1728 died in Baltimore. 

Philip Jones son of the above was born 2^ day of March 1729. 

Rattenbury Jones 2*^ son of the above was Born the 3^ of 
March 1735 

Rachel Jones, 2^ daughter of the above was Bora 22"*^ of 
April 1731 — died in Burlington N. Jersey. 

Thomas Jones S^ son of the above was born the 1 2 of March 
1735. 



JONES BIBLE KECOEDS. 79 

Nichs. Jones 4*^ son of the above was born the 12*^ May 
1737 (died) 

Hannah Jones Daughter to Philip and Anne Jones was born 
4th March 1740 (died) 

Anne Jones Daughter to the above was born on the 4*^ of 
August 1746 

John Jones Last son and child of the above was born the 12*^ 
of Aug. 1748 (died) 

Philip Jones son of the above Philip and Anne Jones, died 
the 4 of Oct. 1749 (died in Baltimore.) 

Rattenbury Jones 2*^^ son of the above Philip and Anne 
Jones died in Antigua the 11 of Sep. 1754 new stile. 

My Dear and loving Father Philip Jones, Departed this life 
the 22 of Dec 1761 between the hours of eight and nine in the 
mom — aged 60 years 2 months, 6 days. 

My Dear and loving Mother Anne Jones departed this life 
the fifth Day of March 1763 betwixt the hours of 8 and 9 at 
night aged 56 years, five months wanting one day. 

Rachel Jones. 

John Jones last son of the above named Philip and Anne 
Jones died in Christopher, in the West Indies on his return 
from Grenada to Antigua where he had been to sell a cargo 
consigned to him, aged about 35 years. 

John Worthington, son of William Worthington and Hannah 
his wife, was born IN'ovember the 1735. 

Thos. 'Worthington son of the above William and Hannah 
was Born the 25*^ of October 1740 

William. Worthington, son of the above William and Hannah 
was born in September 1737. 

Hellen Worthington Daughter of the above William and 
Hannah was Born April y^ 7*^ 1743. 



80 MAEYLAIfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



NOTES AND CORRECTIONS 



Corrigendum. 

Vol. xiii, p. 323, " Old Mr. Devereux " was John Devereux, 
father of Thomas P. Devereux (A. B., Yale, 1813). See Yale 
Biographies, Vol. vi, p. 548, by Eranklin P. Dexter, who calls 
attention to the incorrect identification of Thomas P. Devereux 
made in the Magazine. 



Cromwell Family. 

Correction. 

In the December, 1918, issue of the Maryland Historical 
Magazine (Vol. xiii, p. 397), a clause in the will of John Crom- 
well of Wiltshire, was inadvertently omitted. It follows certain 
bequests to his wife, Edith Cromwell, and reads thus: 

" To my Sonne Thomas, the Halle w'the the chamber over 
wherein Ellinor the wife of Phillipp Cromwell my sonne now 
dwelleth and also the lofte over the noste and 2 best kine next 
to those given my wife, one halfe himdred of cheese and 4 
bushells of malte and one halfe householde stuffe not already 
given." 

On page 399, lines 4 and 7, Richard Cromwell should be, 
Philip Cromwell. 

Francis B. Culver. 



LIST OF MEMBEES. 



81 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF 
THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



* Died, 191S. 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

Bbyce, James, LL. D. ( 1882) London, England. 

Mabden, R. G. ( 1902 ) 13 Leinster Gardens, London, Eng. 

LIFE MEMBERS. 

^ mc T._ T» t■,f^^f^^ i Care Dr. J. R. Bridges, 

BBIDGES, MBS. PBisciLLA B. (1910) . . . j ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ Charlotte, N. C. 

Calveet, Charles Exley (1911) 34 Huntly St., Toronto, Canada. 

„ ,, _ o „. /im^\ ( Care of Mrs. D. E. Waters, 

Hills, Mbs. William Smith (1914) .. i ^ t, j n-r- v 

( Grand Rapids, Mich. 

HowABD, Miss Elizabeth Gbay ( 1916) . . 901 St. Paul Street. 

Nicholson, Isaac F. ( 1884) Albion Hotel. 

NoBBis, Isaac T. ( 1865) 1224 Madison Ave. 

ZwiNGE, Joseph, S.J Loyola College. 

Williams, Miss Nellie C 814 Riverside Drive, N. Y. City. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 

Aldebman, E. a., LL. D. (1893) University of Va., University, Va. 

. _ ,,„„^, (35 Southampton Ave., 

•Applegabth, a. C. (1895) j ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ p^ 

Battle, K. P., LL. D. ( 1893 ) Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Bell, Hebbebt C. ( 1899) R. D. Route, No. 4, Springfield, 0. 

BrsBT, Wm. K. ( 1907 ) j King's Highway and Lindell Ave., 

( St. Louis, Mo. 

Black, J. William, Ph.D. (1898) 56 Pleasant St., Waterville, Me. 

Bbock, R. a. ( 1875) 257 2l8t St., Philadelphia, Pa, 

Bbooks, William Gbay (1895) 257 S. 21st St., Phila., Pa. 

Bbown, Henby John ( 1908 ) 4 Trafalgar Sq., London, W. C, Eng. 

Bbuce, Philip A, (1894) Norfolk, Va. 

BuEL, Clabence C. ( 1887) 134 E. 67th St., New York. 

CocKEY, Maeston Rogebs (1897) ]17 Liberty St., New York. 

De Witt, Fbancis ( 1857) Ware, Mass. 

Eable, Geobge ( 1892 ) Washington Ave., Laurel, Md. 

Ehbenbebg, Richabd ( 1895 ) Rostock, Prussia. 

FoBD, WoBTHiNGTON C. (1890) 1154 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

Gabdineb, Asa Bibd, LL. D., L. H. D. ) tt • m v. vt -.t i 

y Union Club, New York. 

Hall, Hubebt ( 1904) Public Record Office, London. 

6 



82 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Harden. William ( 1891 ) 226 W. President St., Savan'h, Ga. 

Habt, Charles Hexbt (1878) 472 West End Ave., N, Y. 

Hkbsh, Grier ( 1897 ) York, Pa. 

^ T /inrtox S New Haven Court, Cromer, Norfolk, 

Lakpson, Oliver Lockeb (1908) ■< Eld 

MuNROE, James M. ( 1885 ) Savings Bank Bldg., Annapolis, Md. 

Nicholson, John P. ( 1881 ) Flanders Bldg, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owen, Thomas M. ( 1899 ) Montgomery, Ala. 

_ „ ,„^., S 2,34 Prince George St., Annapolis, 

Riley, E. S. (1875) j " ' Md. 

Snowden, Yates ( 1881 ) University of S. C, Columbia, S. C. 

Stevenson, John J. (1890) 215 West End Ave., New York. 

Tyler, Lyon G., LL. D. (1886) Williamsburg, Va. 

Weeks, Stephen B. ( 1893) Bureau of Education, Wash., D. C. 

Winslow,Wm. Copley, Ph. D., D. D., ) ,,25 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

LL.D. (1894) ' 

Wood, Henry C. ( 1902) Harrodsburg, Ky. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 

Andrews, Charles Lee ( 1911 ) 42 Broadway, New York, 

^ ,,„,-, \ Care Babcock & Wilcox Co., 

ASHBURNER, THOMAS ( 1917 ) ] ^.^^^^^ jjj 

Baltzell, Henry E. ( 1914) : Wyncote, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

Baltzell, Wm. Hewson (1915) Wellesley, Mass. 

Bell, Alex. H. ( 1916) 313 John Marshall PI., Wash., D. C. 

_ „ T /imn\ f 330 North Maple Avenue, 

Benson, Harry L. 1910) i t^ ^ ^ >t t 

I East Orange, N. J. 

BoDDiE, John G. (1918) 58 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Bond, Beverly W., Jr. (1909) Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

T, ir „ A r^ ^ /imi\ \ 'il56 Westminster Place, 

Bourqeoise, Mrs. A. Calvert (1911) < ,,, . . ^^r 

i St. Louis, Mo. 

Brereton, Miss Grace P. (1915) 1364 Oak St., N. W., Wash., D. C. 

Brumbaugh, Gaitjs Marcus, M. D. j ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^_ ^ ^^^^ j5 ^ 

(1915) ( 

Buchanan, Brio. Gen. J. A. (1909) 2210 Massachusetts Av., Wa8h.,D.C. 

_ rrr ■»«■ /irki^\ ( 1200 Liucolu Bank Bldg., 

Bullitt, William Marshall (1914) ] ^ ^.' .„ _ 

( Louisville, Ky. 

Callahan, Griffin C. ( 1902) 1012 S. 60th St., Phila., Pa. 

-, ,, ,,. ,^n1■^\ | Care Mrs. Sarah W. Linsley, 

CoBBALEY, Miss Vavbina (1917).... ] ,, T,r . ,,, 

' Mt. Washington, Md. 

CovTNOTON, Prof. Habby F. (1914) . . . . I'rinceton, N. J. 

Davies, G. C. (1917) 44 Langdon St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Dent, 1x)UI8 A. ( 1905 ) 2827 15th St., Washington, D. C. 

Devitt, Rev. Edw. I., S. J. ( 1906) Georgetown College, Wash'n, D. C. 

DuvALL, Henby Rieman (1916) 32 Nassau St., New York. 

Eaton, G. G. ( 1894) 416 N. J. Ave., S. E., Wash., D. C. 

FiT7,ut;oii, E. H. ( 1908) Neptune Park, New London, Conn. 

Flower, John Sebastian (1909) 611 18th St., Denver, Colorado. 



LIST OF MEMBEKS. 83 

FOT, Miss Maby E. (1913) Box 90, R. D. No. 1, Los Angeles,Cal. 

GiFFOBD, W, L. R. (1906) St. Louis Merc. Lib. Assoc, Mo. 

GoBEiGHT, Mes. Fbancis M. (1917) . . . .213 Park Road, Carnegie, Pa. 
GOBDON, Mbs. Bubgess Lee (1916) ... .601 7th Ave., Spokane, Wash. 
GuiLDAY, Rev. Peteb, Ph.D. (1915) .. .Catholic University, Wash., D. C. 

Habbison, Wm. Pbeston (1906) 1021 Laurence St., Chicago, 111, 

Hendebson, C. E. ( 1907 ) Easton, Md. 

Hexky, Mbs. Effie L. ( 1917 ) 3019 N St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Hoffman, Samuel V. (1910). ...258 Broadway, New York. 

Hopkins, Samuel Govee ( 1911) 923 Chestnut St., Phila., Pa. 

Janin, Mbs. Violet Blaib (1916) .... 12 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. 

Johnson, B. F. ( 1916) 926 Penna. Ave., N. W., Wash., D. C. 

Johnson, Fbedebick T. F. (1915) McGill Building, Washington, D. C. 

Lake, Richabd P. ( 1900) Bank of Commerce, Memphis, Tenn. 

Leach, Miss May Athebton (1907) . . . .2118 Spruce St., Phila., Pa, 

Little, Rev. Fbancis K. (1916) Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

LiTTLEJOHN, Mbs. Malcolm (1916) .. .Flushing, L. I., N. Y. 

McFadden, Chas. (1906) 40 Walnut St., Phila., Pa. 

McPhebson, Mbs. Robebt W. (1916) ...1240, 19th St., N. W., Wash., D, C. 

Mabtin, Mbs. Edwin S, ( 1905) New Straitsville, Ohio. 

Mobse, Willabd S. ( 1908) Seaford, Del. 

Moss, Jesse L. ( 1906) Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

Newling, C. G. ( 1918 ) 309 McHachlan Bldg., Wash., D. C. 

NoBBis, Octavius J. (1916) 905 Cathedral St. 

Owen-Chahoon, Mbs. M. D. (1913).. \^^^^ ^- ^- Henderson, 1420 Chest- 

( nut St., Phila., Pa. 

Phillips, Mbs. A. Latimeb (1910) Shepherdstown, W. Va. 

PiEBCE, Mbs. Winslow S. (1915) "Dunstable," Bayville, Long Island. 

Rayneb, Willlam B. (1914) 2641 Connecticut Ave., Wash., D. C. 

RoQEBS, James S. ( 1910) Adamstown, Md. 

Scott, Miss Cobinne Lee ( 1918) 52 E. 54th St., New York City. 

Sellman, John Henby (1917) 38 Beechcroft Rd., Newton, Mass. 

Sheib, S. H. (1907) Sonora, N. C. 

Spenceb, John Thompson (1907) 1507 Spruce St., Phila., Pa. 

Stevenson, Geo. Ubie (1915) 1600 Broadway, New York City. 

Stewabt, Fosteb (1917) 1^"^ Universal Film Mfg. Co., 106 

I N. F St., Wellington, Kan. 

Thbuston, R. C. Ballaed (1917) Columbia Building, Louisville, Ky. 

Williams, Miss Louisa Stewabt ( Care Winslow Pierce, Bayville, L. 

(1916) ( L, N. Y. 

Wilson, Samuel M. (1907) Trust Co. Building, Lexington, Ky. 



84 MABYI.AND HISTOKICAX MAGAZINE. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS 
Where no P. 0. Address is given, Baltimore is understood. 

Abebcbombie, Db. Ronald L. (1916) ... 18 W. Franklin St. 

Aoxrs, Felix ( 1883 ) American Office. 

Albebt, Talbot J. ( 1917 ) Stafford Hotel. 

Ames, Joseph S. (1910) Charlcote Place, Guilford. 

•Ammidox, Daniel C. ( 1916) 4014 Greenway, Guilford. 

Andbews. C. McLean, Ph.D. (1907) .. .Yale Univ., New Haven, Conn, 

Andbews, Matthew Page ( 1911 ) 849 Park Ave. 

Appold, Lemuel T. ( 1902 ) Care of Colonial Trust Co. 

Abmistead, Geobqe ( 1907 ) 1025 Cathedral St. 

Atkinson, Alfbed ( 1917 ) 106 South St. 

Atkinson, Robebt A. ( 1914) 7 Clay St. 

Atwood, William 0. ( 1917) 18 E. Lexington St. 

Bagby, Geobge p., Jb. ( 1916) 716 Continental Bldg. 

Baily, G. Fbank ( 1908) 1025 St. Paul St. 

Bakeb, J. Henby ( 1910) 225 Law Bldg. 

Bakeb, William G. ( 1916) Care of Baker, Watts & Co. 

Baldwin, Summebfield .(1899) 1006 N. Charles St. 

Ball, Saba Janet ( 1918) De Vere PI., Ellicott City, Md. 

Babclay, Mbs. D. H. ( 1906) 14 E. Franklin St. 

Babbett, Henby C. ( 1902) "The Severn." 

Babboll, Hope H. ( 1902) Chestertown, Md. 

Babboll, L. Wethebed (1910) 609 Keyser Bldg. 

Babboll, Mobbis EIeene (1917) Chestertown, Md. 

Babby, Samuel H., (1916) 715 Greenmount Ave. 

Babtlett, J. Kemp ( 1900) 2100 Mt. Royal Ave. 

Babton, Randolph ( 1882 ) 207 N. Calvert St. 

Babton, Randolph, Jb. ( 1915) 207 N. Calvert St. 

Bassett, Mbs. Chas. Wesley (1909).. 2947 St. Paul St. 

Bayabd, Richabd H. ( 1914) 707 Gaither Estate Bldg. 

Bayless, Wm. H. ( 1915) 1101-2 Fidelity Building. 

Beacham, Robebt J. (1914) Kmerson Tower Bldg. 

Bealmeab, Hebman (1916) 1610 W. Lanvale St. 

Beatson, J. Hebbebt (1914) Fidelity Trust Co. 

Beatty, Mbs. Philip Asfobdby (1910) .229 E. North Ave. 

Beck, Howabd C. ( 1918) .3222 Elgin Ave. 

Benjamin, Roland ( 1915) Fidelity and Trust Co. of Md. 

Benson, Cabville D. (191.3) 1301 Fidelity Building. 

Benson, Chas. Hodges ( 1915) 515 N. Carrollton Ave. -^ 

Bebkeley, Henby J., M. D. (1906) 1.305 Park Ave. 

Bebby, Miss Chbistiana D. ( 1907) ... .322 Hawthorne Road, Roland Park. 

•Berby, Jaspf.b M., Jb. (1907) 225 St. Paul St. 

Bebby, Thomas L. ( 1909 ) 702 Fidelity Building. 

BcvAN, H. Cromwell (1902) 10 E. Lexington St. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 85 

BiBBiNS, Abthue Babneveld (1910) .. .2600 Maryland Ave. 

BiBBiNS, Mbs. a. B. ( 1906) 2600 Maryland Ave. 

BicKNEix, Rev. Jesse R. (1910) 117 W. Mulberry St. 

BnjJSTEiN, Nathan ( 1898) The Lord Balto. Press. 

Bibckhead, p. Macaulay (1884) Chamber of Commerce. 

Bishop, William R. (1916) 5 E. 27th St. 

BixLEB, De. W. H. H. ( 1916) 418 N.Potomac St.Hagerstown, Md 

Black, H. Cbawfobd ( 1902) 1113-17 Fidelity Bldg. 

Black, Van Leak ( 1902 ) 1113-17 Fidelity Bldg. 

Blacecfokd, EtTQENE (1916) 200-4 Chamber of Commerce. 

Blake, Geobge A. ( 1893 ) 301 Law Bldg. 

Bland, J. R. (1902) U. S. Fidelity & Guaranty Co. 

BoNAPABTE, Chas. J., LL. D. (1883) 601 Park Ave. 

Bond, Cabboll T. (1916) 1125 N. Calvert St. 

Bond, G. Mobeis ( 1907 ) 315 P. 0. Building. 

Bond, Miss Isabella M. (1918) 1420 Bolton St. 

Bond, James A. C. ( 1902 ) Westminster, Md. 

Bond, Thomas E. (1910) 726 Reservoir St. 

BoNSAL, Leioh (1902) 511 Calvert Building. 

Bobdley, De. James, Jb. (1914) 201 Professional Bldg. 

BosLEY, Mbs. Abthue Lee (1912) 1406 Mt. Royal Ave. 

Bouldin, Mrs. Chas. Newton (1916).. The Homewood Apts. 

Bowdoin, Henby J. (1890) 1000 Maryland Trust Bldg. 

BowDoiN, Mbs. Wm. Gbaham (1916) . . . 1106 N. Charles St. 

Bowdoin, W. Geaham, Je. (1909) 401 Maryland Trust Building. 

BowEN, Heebebt H. (1915) American OflBce. 

BowEN, Jesse N. (1916) 825 Equitable Building. 

BowEES, James W., Jb. (1909) 16 E. Lexington St. 

BowEBS, Thomas D. ( 1916) Chestertown, Md. 

BowcE, Clabence K. (1916) 3020 N. Calvert St. 

BoYCE, Feed. G., Je., ( 1916) 11 E. Chase St. 

BoYCE, Heywaed E. ( 1912) 3 N. Calvert St. 

BoYDEN, Geobge A. ( 1911 ) Mt. Washington. 

Beadfobd, Samuel Webstee ( 1916) Belair, Md. 

Bbandt, Miss Minnie (1908) .11 E. Read St. 

Bkattan, J. Y. ( 1902 ) American Office. 

Bbent, Mbs. Alice Habbis (1916) The St. Paul Apts. 

Bbent, Miss Ida S. ( 1900) 1116 Bolton St. 

Bbent, Robebt F. ( 1908) 10 E. Lexington St. 

Beown, Alexandeb ( 1902) 712 Cathedral St. 

Bbown, Edwin H., Jb. ( 1904) Oentreville, Md. 

Bbown, Fbank ( 1896) 16 W. Saratoga St. 

Bbown, John W. (1890) 201 Ridgewood Rd., Roland Park. 

Bbown, Kibk ( 1897) 1813 N. Caroline St. 

*Bbown, Mbs. Lydla B. ( 1902) 1412 Bolton St. 

Bbown, Mbs. William T. (1916) Chestertown, Md. 

Bbowne, Aethub Lee ( 1913 ) 215 E. Fayette St. 



86 MAKYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Bbowne, B. Bebnabd, M. D. (1892) 510 Park Ave. 

Browne, Rev. Lewis Beeman (1907) . . .St. John's R't'y, Havre de Grace, Md. 

Bbcce, Oliveb H. (1913) Wester nport, Allegany Co., Md. 

Bbuce, Oliveb H., Jb., ( 1913) Cumberland, Md. 

Bbcce, W. Cabell ( 1909 ) 8 W. Mt. Vernon Place. 

Bbdne, H. M. ( 1902 ) 841 Calvert Building. 

Buchanan, Thomas Gittings (1917).. 116 Chamber of Commerce. 

BucKLEB, Thomas H., M. D. (1913) 1201 St. Paul St. 

BuBQAN, Rev. H. W. ( 1910) Annapolis, Md. 

BuBTON, Paul Gibson ( 1913) 108 E. Lexington St. 

BuzBY, S. Stockton ( 1902) 1214 St. Paul St. 

Caldwell, Chables C. ( 1917 ) Liberty Grove, Md. 

Calwell, James S. (1911) 220 St. Paul St. 

Cabey, James ( 1913 ) 2220 N. Charles St. 

Cabey, James ( 1917 ) 838 Park Ave. 

Cabey, John E. ( 1893) "The Cedars," Walbrook. 

Cabboll, Chas. Bancboft ( 1915) Doughoregan Manor, Howard Co., Md. 

Cabboll, Douglas Gobdon (1913) The Washington Apt. 

Caby, Wilson Miles ( 1915) 18 E. Eager St. 

Catob, Fbanklin p. (1914) 13-15 W. Baltimore St. 

Catob, Geobqe ( 1911 ) 803 St. Paul St. 

Catob, Samuel B. ( 1900) 711 N. Howard St. 

Chapman, James W. Jb. (1916) 2016 Park Ave. 

Chapman, W. J. ( 1916) 2306 Eutaw Place. 

Chestnut, W. Calvin (1897) 1137 Calvert Building. 

Clabk, Miss Anna E. B. (1914) The St. Paul Apartments. 

Ctx)SE, Philip H. (1916) Belair, Md. 

COAD, J. F. ( 1907) Charlotte Hall, Md. 

CoALE, W. E. ( 1908) 109 Chamber of Commerce. 

CocKEY, Edwabd a. (1917) Glyndon, Md. 

Cohen, Miss Bebtha ( 1908) 415 N. Charles St. 

Cohen, Miss Eleanob S. (1917) The Latrobe. 

Coleman, Willlam C. (1916) 16 E. Eager St. 

Coloan, Edwabd J., Jb. (1915) 330 E. 22d St. 

Colston, Fbedebick M. ( 1911 ) 3 N. Calvert St. 

Colston, Gfobge A. (1914) 3 N. Calvert St. 

CooNAN, Edwabd V. (1907) 121 W. Lafayette Ave. 

CooPEB, Miss H. Fbances ( 1909) 1415 Linden Ave. 

CooPEB, J. Cbossan ( 1912) Stock Exchange Building. 

Coppeb, William B. ( 1916 ) Chestertown, Md. 

Cobbin, Mas. John W. (1898) 2208 N. Charles St. 

CoBNEB, Geo. W. (1917) Hopkins PI. and German St. 

CoBNEB, Thomas C. (1913) 269 W. Biddle St, 

Cotte.v, Bbuce ( 1912 ) Gylburn, Sta. L., Mt. Wash. 

Cottman, J. Hough ( 1885 ) 812 Keyaer Building. 

Cottman, Thomas E. ( 1917) Chattolanee, Md. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



87 



Cotton, Mbs, Jane Baldwin (1896) ... 239 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Cowan, David Pinknet (1915) 1602 Eutaw PI. 

r, ^ /^f.no^ ( 17tli floor, Munsey Bldg., 

Chain, Robebt (1902) j ^^^^^ ^ ^ 

Cbapsteb, Ebnest R. ( 1916) 15 E. Saratoga St. 

Cbanwell, J. H. ( 1895 ) Waynesboro, Pa. 

Cromwell, B. Fbank (1918) 401 Garrett Bldg. 

Cbomwell, Mbs. W. Kennedy (1916).. Lake Roland. 

Cboss, John Emobt (1912) 209 Oakdale Rd., Roland Park. 

Culveb, Fbanois Babnum (1910) 2203 N. Charles St. 

Dabnet, Db. William M. (1916) Ruxton, Md. 

Dallam, Richabd ( 1897 ) Belair, Md. 

Dalsheimeb, Simon ( 1909 ) The Lord Baltimore Press. 

Dandbidge, Miss Anne S. (1893) 18 W. Hamilton St. 

Dashiell, Benj. J. ( 1914) Athol Terrace, P. O. Station. 

Dashiell, N. Leeke, M. D. (1904) 2927 St. Paul St. 

Daughebty, William Gbant ( 1893) . . . .505 Maryland Trust Building. 

Davis, Db. J. Staige (1916) 1200 Cathedral St. 

Davis, Septimus ( 1907 ) Aberdeen, Md. 

Davison, Geosge W. ( 1877) 11th floor, Garrett Building. 

Dawkins, Walteb I. (1902) 1119 Fidelity Building. 

Dawson, William H. (1892) Law Building. 

Day, Miss Maby F. ( 1907 ) Bradshaw, Md. 

Dean, Maby, M. D. ( 1913 ) 901 N. Calvert St. 

Deems, Clabence (1913) The Plaza. 

Defobd, B. F. ( 1914) Calvert and Lombard Street. 

Defobd, Mbs. B. Fbank, (1916) Riderwood, Md. 

Dennis, James U. ( 1907 ) 2 E. Lexington St. 

Dennis, Samuel K. ( 1905 ) 2 E. Lexington St. 

Denny, James W. ( 1915) 1900 Linden Ave. 

Dickey, Chables H. (1902) \ Maryland Meter Company, 

( Guilford Av. and Saratoga St. 

DiCBaiY, Edmund S. (1914) Maryland Meter Company. 

Dielman, Louis H. (1905) Peabody Institute. 

Dobleb, John J. ( 1898) 114 Court House. 

DoDSON, Hebbebt K. ( 1909 ) 2206 N, Charles St. 

Donnelly, William J. (1916) Commerce and Water Sts. 

Doyle, James T. ( 1916) 204 Augusta Ave. Irvington. 

Duffy, Henby ( 1916) 135 W. Lanvale St. 

Dugan, Hammond J. (1916) 16 E. Lexington St. 

Duke, W. Bebnabd ( 1909) Seaboard Bk., Chas. & Preston Sts. 

Duke, Mrs. Kathebine Mabia ( 1908 ) . . Riderwood, Md. 

DuLANEY, Henby S. (1915) Charles St. and Forest Aves. 

DuNTON, Wm. Rush, Jb., M. D. ( 1902) , . Towson, Md. 
DuvALL, Richabd M. (1902) 16 E. Lexington St. 



88 MAKYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Earle, Swepson (1916) 612 Munsey Building. 

Easter, Abthtb Milleb (1918) 2410 N. Charles St. 

Eaton, Paul, M. D. ( 1917) 1306 W. Lexington St. 

EixicoTT, Charles E. (1918) Melvale, Md. 

Elliott, Mrs. Lilt Tyson ( 1915) 522 Park Ave. 

Elmer, Lewis S. ( 1916) 2011 Callow Ave. 

Evans, H. G. (1918 ) 818 University Parkway. 

Fahnestock, Albert ( 1912 ) 2503 Madison Ave. 

Falconer, Chas. E. ( 1915 ) 1630 Bolton St. 

---. ^— <!»"> r^- '"^°°"' ^WUdwood. N. ,. 

Fenhagen, G. Corner ( 1918) 11 E. Pleasant St. 

Ferguson, J. Henry (1902) Colonial Trust Co. 

Field, S. S. ( 1918 ) 220 St. Paul St. 

Fisher, D. K. E. ( 1916) 1301 Park Ave. 

Fisher, Miss Grace W. ( 1907 ) 1610 Park Ave. 

FrrcHETT, Thomas H. ( 1916) Merc. Trust and Deposit Co. 

Ford, Miss Sarah M. ( 1916) 1412 N. St., N. W., Wash'n, D. C. 

Foster E. Edmunds ( 1917 ) 924 Equitable Bldg. 

Foster, Mrs. E. Edmunds ( 1917 ) 23 E. 22nd St. 

Foster, Mrs. Reuben (1909) 3507 N. Charles St. 

France, Dr. Joseph I. ( 1916) 15 W. Mt. Vernon Place. 

France, Mrs. J. I. (1910) 15 W. Mt. Vernon Place. 

Freeman, Bernard ( 1916) Orkney Road, Govans, Md. 

Freeman, J. Douglas (1914) Orkney Road, Govans, Md. 

Freeman, Mrs. Julius W. (1917) 2731 St. Paul St. 

Fbick, Geoboe Arnold (1914) 906 Maryland Trust Bldg. 

Fbick, J. Swan ( 1895 ) Guilford. 

Frick, John W. (1916) 835 University Parkway. 

Fbiez, Julien M. ( 1917) The Homewood. 

Friez, Lucien L. ( 1917 ) The Homewood. 

Furst, Frank A. (1914) Liberty Road and Chestnut Ave. 

Furst, J. Henry ( 1915) 23 S. Hanover St. 

Gage, Mrs. Emma Abbott ( 1911) Annapolis, Md. 

♦Gaitheb, Thomas H. ( 1892) 815 Gaither Building. 

Gaither, Thomas H., Jr. (1916) 508 Cathedral St. 

Gallagher, Mrs. Helen M. P. (1916) ..1017 N. Calvert St. 

Gambel, Mrs. Thos. B. (1915) 2017 St. Paul St. 

Gantt, Mrs. Harry Baldwin (1915) .. .Millersville, Md. 
Gabdiner, Asa Bibd, Jr. (1912) .'520 N. Calvert St. 

Gardner, P. H. ( 1917 ) \ ^P''^^^ ^^'°* *° ^^"^^^ 

I Custom House, New Orleans, La. 

Gab.nett, J. Merceb ( 1916) 1239 Calvert Building. 

Gabbett, .John W. (1898) Garrett Building. 

OARRfrrr, Robert ( 1898 ) Garrett Building. 

Garrett, Mrs. T. Habbison (1913) " Evergreen " Charles St. Ave. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 89 

Gabt, E. Stanley ( 1913) 722 Equitable Building. 

Gabt, James A. ( 1892) 1200 Linden Ave. 

Gault, Matthew ( 1914) 1422 Park Ave. 

GiBBS, John S., Je. (1914) 1026 N. Calvert St. 

Gibson, W. Hoppeb ( 1902 ) Centreville, Md. 

GiBDWooD, Allan C. (1916) Union Trust Bv.ilding. 

GiTTiNGS, James C. ( 1911 ) 613 St. Paul St. 

GiTTiNGS, John S. ( 1885) 605 Keyser Building. 

Glenn, John, Jb. ( 1915 ) 12 St. Paul St. 

Glenn, John M. ( 1905 ) 136 E. 19th St., New York, N. Y. 

Glenn, Rev. Wm. Lindsay (1905) Emmorton, Md. 

GoLDSBOBOTJGH, A. S. (1914) 2712 St. Paul St. 

Goldsbobough, Chables ( 1908) 924 St. Paul St. 

GoLDSBOBOUGH, Louis P. (1914) 35 W. Preston St. 

Goldsbobough, Mubbay Lloyd (1913) ..Easton, Md. 

Goldsbobough, Phillips Lee (1915) . . .7 Midvale Road, Roland Park. 

Goodnow, Db. Fbank J. (1916) Johns Hopkins University. 

GooDBiCH, G. Clem ( 1916) 110 E. Redwood St. 

GoBDON, Mbs. Douglas H. (1916) 1009 N. Charles St. 

*GoBDON, Douglas H. (1896) 25 E. Baltimore St. 

GoBE, Clabence S., D. D. S. (1902) 1006 Madison Ave. 

GoBTEB, James P. ( 1902) 128 Court House. 

Gosnell, Fbank (1917) 700 Md. Trust Building. 

GoucHEB, John F., D. D. (1908) 2313 St. Paul St. 

Gough, Mbs. I. Pike ( 1916) 1730 St. Paul St. 

Gould, Clabence P. ( 1908 ) Univ. of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio. 

Gbace, John W. ( 1917 ) 1227 Linden Ave. 

Gbaham, Albebt D. (1915) Citizens' National Bank. 

Gbaves, Miss Emily E. (1916) 304 W. Monument St. 

Gbeenway, Miss Elizabeth W. (1917) .2322 N. Charles St. 

Gbeenway, William H. (1886) 2322 N. Charles St. 

Gbegg, Maubice ( 1886) 719 N. iCliarles St. 

Gbesham, Mbs. Thos. Baxteb 815 Park Ave. 

Gbieves, Clabence J., D. D. S. (1904).. 201 W. Madison St. 
Gbiffis, Mbs. Mabgabet Abell (1913). 702 Cathedral St. 

Griffith, Mbs. Maby W. (1890) Stoneleigh Court, Wash., D. C. 

Grindall, De. Chables S. (1916) 5 E. Franklin St. 

Gbiswold, B. Howell, Jb. (1913) Alex. Brown & Sons. 

Habighubst, Mbs. Chas. F. (1916) 1620 Bolton St. 

Haman, B. Howabd (1912) 1137 Calvert Bldg. 

Hambleton, Mbs. F. S. ( 1907 ) Hambledune, Lutherville, Md. 

Hambleton, T. Edwabd (1914) Hambleton & Co., 8 S. Calvert St. 

Hammond, Edwaed M. (1914) 803 Union Trust Bldg. 

HAMMOND, JOHN MaRTIN (1911) ...A -'^^ ^'^ ^^^^^^^ ^^°^' 

( Germantown, Pa. 

Hance, Mbs. Tabitha J. (1916) 2330 Eutaw Place. 



90 MAKTXAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

Hancock, James E. (1907) 2122 St. Paul St. 

Hanx, Samuel M. ( 1915) 108 E. Elmhurst Rd., Roland Park. 

Hansox, Mrs. Aquiixa B. (1907) Ruxton, Md. 

Habuln, Hexby D,,, LL. D. (1894) Fidelity Building. 

Hablan, \Yiluam H. (1916) Belair, Md. 

Harley, Chas. F. (1915) Title Building. 

•Harlow, James H. (1916) Darlington, Md. 

Habbington, Emebson C. (1916) Annapolis, Md. 

Harris, W. Hall ( 1883 ) Title Building. 

Harris, William Babney (1918) Ten Hills. 

Harris, Wm. Hugh (1914) 1219 Linden Av^. 

Habbison, Geobge ( 1915) 1615 Eutaw PI. 

Habbison, J. Edward ( 1915) 1601 Linden Ave. 

Hart, Robebt S. ( 1915 ) Fidelity Building. 

Hatden, William M. ( 1878) Eutaw Savings Bank. 

Haywabd, William H. ( 1918) 110 Commerce St. 

Haywabd, F. Sidney (1897) Harwood Ave., Govans, Md. 

Henderson, Robert R. (1918) Cumberland, Md. 

Henry, J. Winfield ( 1902) 107 W. Monument St. 

Henry, Mrs. Roberta B. (1914) Waterbury, Md. 

Henby, W. Laibd ( 1915) Cambridge, Md. 

Hilken, H. G. ( 1889 ) 4 Bishop's Road, Guilford. 

Hill, John Philip ( 1899 ) 712 Keyser Building. 

Hinkley, John ( 1900) 215 N. Charles St. 

HisKY, Thomas Foley (1888) 215 N. Charles St. 

Hobbs, Gustavus Warfield (1917) ... .Editorial Dept., The Sun. 
Hodgdon, Mrs. Alexander L. (1915) .. .Pearsons, St. Mary's Co., Md. 

Hodges, Mrs. Mabgabet R. (1903).. \ ^^^ Duke of Gloucester St., 

( Annapolis, Md. 

Hodson, Eugene W. (1916) Care of Thomas & Thompson. 

Hoffman, J. Henry, D.D.S. (1914) 1807 N. Charles St. 

Hoffman, R. Cubzon (1896) 1300 Continental Trust Building. 

Hollandeb. Jacob H., Ph.D. (1895).. 1802 Eutaw place. 

HoLLOWAY, Chables T. ( 1915) Normandie Heights, Md. 

Hollow AY, Mbs. R. Ross (1918) Normandie Heights, Md. 

Homer, Charles C, Jr. ( 1909 ) Mt. Washington. 

Homer, Francis T. (1900) 40 Wall St., New York, N. Y. 

Homer, Mrs. Jane Abell (1909) Riderwood, Baltimore Co. 

Hopkins, John Howard (1911) Sta. E, Mt. Washington Heights. 

Horsey, John P. (1911) 649 Title Building. 

Howard, Charles McHenry (1902) 1409 Continental Trust Building. 

Howard, Charles Morris (1907) 901 St. Paul St. 

Howard, Harry C. ( 1907 ) 939 St. Paul St. 

Howard, .John D. (1917) 209 W. Monument St. 

Howard, McHenry ( 1881 ) 901 St. Paul St. 

Howard, Wm. Ross (1916) Guilford Ave. and Pleasant St. 

HUB3ARD, Wilbur W. (1915) Keyser Building. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 91 

Hughes, Adbian (1895 ) 4104 Maine Ave, West Forest Pk. 

Hughes, Thomas (1886) 1018 Cathedral St. 

Hull, Miss A. E. E. ( 1904) The Arundel. 

Hume, Edgab Erskine, M. D. (1913) .. Johns Hopkins Club. 

Humeichouse, Harry H. (1918) 465 Potomac Ave., Hagerstown, Md. 

Hunter W. Carroll (1916) White Hall, Md. 

Hunting, E. B. ( 1905) 705 Calvert Building. 

HUBD, Henry M., M. D. ( 1902) 1023 St. Paul St. 

HuBST, Charles W. ( 1914) 24 E. Preston St. 

Hurst, J. J. ( 1902) Builders' Exchange. 

Hyde, Enoch Pratt (1906) 223 W. Monument St. 

Hyde, Geo. W. ( 1906) 225 E. Baltimore St. 

Iglehabt, Fbancis N. ( 1914) 14 E. Lexington St. 

Iglehaet, Ibedell W. ( 1916) 10 S. Calvert St. 

Iglehabt, James D., M. D. (1893) 211 W. Lanvale St. 

Iglehabt, Mrs. James D. (1913) 211 W. Lanvale St. 

Ijams, Mrs. George W. (1913) 4509 Liberty Heights Ave. 

Ingle, Edwabd ( 1882) The Cecil. 

Ingle, William ( 1909) 1710 Park Ave. 

Jackson, Mrs. George S. (1910) 34 W. Biddle St, 

Jacobs, Mrs. Henry Barton (1916).. 11 W. Mt. Vernon Place. 
Jacobs, Henby Barton, M. D. ( 1903 ) . . 1 1 W. Mt. Vernon Place. 

Jamab, Dr. J. H. ( 1916) Elkton, Md. 

James, Norman ( 1903 ) Catonsville, Md. ' 

Jenkins, E. Austin ( 1880) 1300 St. Paul St. 

Jenkins, George C. ( 1883) 16 Abell Building. 

Jenkins, Thos. W. ( 1885) 1521 Bolton St. 

Johnson, J. Altheus (1915) Seat Pleasant, Prince Geo. Co., Md. 

Johnson, J. Hemsley (1916) 225 W. Monument St. 

Johnstone, Miss Emma E. (1910) ... .855 Park Ave. 

Jones, Abthub Lafayette (1911) . . . ] ^^""^ «* '^- ^^ ^^^^«°^ C"" 

' Calvert Building. 

Jones, Elias, M. D. (1902) Custom House. 

Jones, T. Babton (1914) 1213-14 Fidelity Bldg. 

Judik, Mbs. J. Henry ( 1918) 1428 Madison Ave. 



I 8 W. Hamilton St. 



Kabb, Harry E. ( 1913) 1301 Fidelity Bldg. 

Keech, Edw, p., Jr. ( 1909) 000-901 Maryland Trust Bldg. 

Keene, Miss Mary Hollingsworth 

1917) 

Keidel, Geo. C, Ph.D. (1912) 300 E. Capitol St., Wash't'n, D. C. 

EIennedy, Joseph P. ( 1915) Charles and Wells Sts. 

Keys, Miss Jane G. ( 1905) 208 E. Lanvale St. 

Keyseb, Mbs. Maey Washington } 

ilQQ4.\ ^104 W. Monument St. 

Keyseb, R. Brent (1894) 910 Keyser Building. 



92 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

Ketseb, W. Irvine (1917) 206-7 Keyser Building. 

KiLPATBiCK, Mbs. Rebecca H. (1917).. 1027 St. Paul St. 

KiBK, Hexby C. ( 1908) 207 Longwood Road, Roland Park. 

KiBK, Mbs. Henby C. (1917) 207 Longwood Road, Roland Park. 

KiBKLAND. Ogden A. ( 1889) Belcamp, Md. 

Kt.txefelteb, Mbs. Emily Hendbix )/-,,. x ,,, 

,,--_, [^ Chestertown, Md. 

( 1915) ) 

Knapp, Chables H. ( 1916) 1418 Fidelity Building. 

*K>-OTT, A. Leo ( 1894) Stafford Hotel. 

Koch, Chables J. ( 1905 ) 2915 E. Baltimore St. 

KxAPP, Chables H. (1914) Fidelity BIdg. 

Knox, J. H. Mason, Jr., M. D. (1909) . .The Severn Apts. 

KooNTZ, Miss Maby G. (1917) 307 Augusta Ave., Irvington, Md. 

Lacy, Benjamin ( 1914) 1630 Linden Ave. 

Lanahan, Mbs. Chas. M. (1915) Washington Apartments. 

Lankfobd, H. F. ( 1893 ) Princess Anne, Md. 

LATANfi, John Holladay, Ph.D., LL. D, (1913) Johns Hopkins Univ. 

Leakin, J. Wilson ( 1902) 814 Fidelity Building. 

Ledebeb, Lewis J. (1916) Marine Bank Building. 

Lee, H. C. ( 1903) Franklin Bldg. 

Lee, John L. G. ( 1916) 511 Calvert Building. 

Lee, Richabd Lavps (1896) 232 St. Paul St. 

Lego, John C, Jb. ( 1916) 110 E. Redwood St. 

Lehb, Robebt Oliveb (1916) 302 Exchange Place. 

Le\'ebing, Edwin W. (1916) Calvert and Redwood Sts. 

Levebino, Eugene ( 1895 ) 26 South St. 

Levy, William B. ( 1909 ) 1 Itli floor. Fidelity Building. 

Linthiccm, J. Chables (1905) 705 St. Paul St. 

LiNviLLE, Chables H. ( 1918) 1935 Park Ave. 

Livezey, E. ( 1907) 22 E. Lexington St. 

LjimosTEiyr, Mbs. A. O. ( 1915) \ ^^^^^ ^^^^^' ^- ^^ 

i Box 46, Route 3. 

Lloyd, C. Howabd ( 1907 ) 1120 St. Paul St. 

Lloyd, Henby ( 1902 ) Cambridge, Md. 

LocKwooD, William F., M. D. (1891).. 8 E. Eager St. 

Lucas, Wm. F., Jb. ( 1909 ) 221 E. Baltimore St. 

Lyell, J. Milton (1916) 1163 Calvert Building. 

Lyon, Miss Maby A. ( 1916) 1209 Linden Ave. 

Lytle, Wm. H. ( 1908) 12?0 St Paul St. 

McAdams, Rev. Edw. P. (1906) 31 Augusta Ave. 

McAllisteb, Fbancis W. (1916) 520 Woodlawn Rd., Roland Park. 

McClellan, William J. (1866) 1208 Madison Ave. 

McCoixjan, Charles C. ( 1916) 12 E. Lexington St. 

McCoRMicK, RoBEBDEAU A, (1914) McCormick Block. 

McCoBMicK, Thomas P., M. D. (1002) . . 1421 Ewtaw Place. 
MoElboy, Mb.s. Elizabeth M. (1917) . . . 1619 McCulloh St. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 93 

McEvoT, James, Jr. ( 1909) 533 Title Bldg. 

McGaw, George K. ( 1902) Charlea and Mulberry Sts. 

Macqill, Richard G., Jr. ( 1891) 110 Commerce St. 

Machen, Arthur W. (1917) 1109 Calvert Building. 

MclLVAiNE, Miss E. C. ( 1917) 512 Park Ave. 

Mackall, W. Hollingsworth (1909) . .Elkton, Md. 
Mackenzie, George Norbury (1890).. 2 E. Lexington St. 

Mackenzie, Thomas (1917) 607 Continental Building. 

McKeon, Mrs. E. H. ( 1910) 12 E. Eager St. 

McKiM, Mrs. Hollins ( 1916) 975 St. Paul St. 

McKim, S. S. ( 1902 ) Savings Bank of Baltimore. 

*Mackubin, Miss Florence (1913) . . . .The Brexton. 

McLane, Allan ( 1894) Garrison, Md. 

McLane, James L. ( 1888) 903 Cathedral St. 

Macshebry, Allan (1914) 104 Charkote Road, Guilford. 

Magruder, Caleb C, Jr. (1910) Upper Marlboro, Md. 

Maloy, William Milnes (1911) 1403 Fidelity Building. 

Mandelbaum, Seymour (1902) 619 Fidelity Bldg. 

Manly, Mrs. Wm. M. (1916) 1109 N. Calvert St. 

Marburg, Miss Emma (1917) 19 W. 29th St. 

Marbuby, William L. (1887) 700 Maryland Trust Building. 

Marine, Miss Harriet P. (1915) 2514 Madison Ave. 

Marriott, Telfair W. (1916) Buford Apts. 

Mabsden, Mrs. Charles T. (1918) 1729 Bolton St. 

Marshall, Mrs. Charles (1917) The Preston. 

Marshall, John W. ( 1902) 13 South St. 

Mabye, William B. ( 1911 ) Upper Falls, Md. 

Massey, E. Thomas (1909) Massey, Kent Co., Md. 

Mathews, Edvpabd B., Ph. D. ( 1905 ) . . Johns Hopkins University. 

May, George ( 1916) Maryland Club. 

Meekins, Lynn R. (1908) 2418 N. Charles St. 

Meiere, T. McKean ( 1916) 1724 N. Calvert St. 

Merchant, Henry N. (1915) 119 E. Baltimore St. 

Mebritt, Elizabeth ( 1913) 3402 W. North Ave. 

Middendobf, J. W. (1902) Stevenson, Md. 

Miles, Joshua W. ( 1915) Custom House. 

MiLLEB, Charles R. ( 1916) 2216 Linden Ave. 

MiLLEB, Mbs. Chables R. ( 1916) 2216 Linden Ave. 

Miller, Decatur H., Jb. (1902) 506 Maryland Trust Building. 

MiLLEE, Edgar G., Jr. ( 1916) Title Bulding. 

Miller, Paul H. ( 1918) 1224 N. Charles St. 

MILLER, Walter H. (1904) \ <^^" °^ ^"^*°° ^'-o^-' 

/ 348 Broadway, N. Y. 

Milligan, John J. ( 1916) 603 N. Charles St. 

Mitchell, Joseph B. (1917) 2123 N. Calvert St. 

Moody, W. Raymond (1911) Chestertown, Md. 

Moore, Miss Mary Wilson (1914) 2340 N. Calvert St. 



94: MAEYI.AND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Morgan, John Hubst (1S96) 10 E. Fayette St. 

MuLLEX, Rev. Albert Oswald (19 12).. 329 E. Lafayette Ave. 
MuLLtN-, Miss Elizabeth Lester (1916) 206 E. Eager St. 

MuLLER, Miss Amexja (1917) 807 W. Fayette St. 

Murray, Daniel M. ( 1902) Elk Ridge, Md. 

Murray, Rt. Rev. John G. (1908) . . . . Chas. St. Av. and Univ. Parkway. 

Myers. William Starr ( 1902) 104 Bayard Lane, Princeton, N, J. 

Myers, Willis E. ( 1911 ) 10 E. Fayette St. 

Nash. Charles W. ( 1908) 117 S. Broadway. 

Neal, Rev. J. St. Clair ( 1914) Bengies, Baltimore Co., Md. 

Nelligan, John J. (1907) . .' Safe Deposit and Trust Co. 

Nelson, Alexander C. ( 1907) 210 E. Redwood St. 

New<x)MEB, Waldo (1902) National Exchange Bank. 

NicoDEMUS, F. Court?tey, Jr. (1902) . .43 E. 18th St., New York, N. Y. 

NicoLAi, Charles D. ( 1916) 4105 Pennhurst Ave. 

NoRBis, Jefferson D. ( 1914) 128 W. Lanvale St. 

NoBRis, Lloyd ( 1917 ) Patterson Park. 

Obeb, Gustavus, Jb. ( 1914) 1217 N. Charles St. 

Obeb, J. Hambleton ( 1915) 1101 St. Paul St. 

Odell, Walter George ( 1910) 3021 W. North Ave. 

O'DoNOVAN, Charles, M. D. (1890) 5 E. Read St. 

O'Donovan, Rev. Loms (1918) 31 N. Fulton Ave. 

Offutt. T. Scott ( 1908 ) Towson, Md. 

Oliver, Thomas H. (1890) 41 University PI., Univ. of Va. 

Oliver, W. B. ( 1913 ) Ist floor, Garrett Building. 

Olivier, Stuart ( 1913 ) The News. 

O'Neill, Thos. ( 1907 ) S. W. Cor. Charles & Lexington Sts. 

Osborne, Miss Inez H. (1917) Havre de Grace, Md. 

Owen, Franklin B. ( 1917) 804 Guardian Bldg., Cleveland, 0. 

Owens, Albert S. J. ( 1912) 1408 Fidelity Building. 

Owens, Edwabd B. ( 1915 ) 130 S. Charles St. 

Paca, John P. ( 1897 ) '>20 Munsey Building. 

Pache, Joseph ( 1917) 1532 Harlem Ave. 

Page, Wm. C. ( 1912) Calvert Bank. 

Pagon. W. Waiters ( 1916) S Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot, 

/ South Baltimore P. O. 

Pabke, Francis Neal (1010) Westminster, Md. 

Pabkeb, John ( 1916 ) Peabody Institute. 

PARKra, Mrs. T. C. ( 1918) 103 W. Monument St. 

Pabb, Mbs. Chas. E. ( 1915) 18 E. Lafayette Ave. 

Pabban, Mbs. Fbank J. ( 1908) 144 W. Lanvale St. 

Pabban, William J. ( 1903) 124 S. Charles St. 

Passano, Edwabd B. ( 1016) Towson, Md. 

Pattebson, J. LeR. ( 1909 ) 802 Harlem Ave. 

Patton, Mbs. James II. (1913) Guilford Manor Apts. 

Paul, Mbs. D'Abcy ( 1909) "Woodlands," Gorsuch Ave. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 96 

Peaece, James A., LL. D. ( 1902 ) Chestertown, Md. 

Peabbe, Aubrey, Jb. ( 1906) 207 N. Calvert St. 

Pegbam, Wm. M. { 1909 ) U. S. Fidelity and Guaranty Co. 

Penniman, Thos. D. ( 1911 ) 922 Cathedral St. 

Pennington, Db. Clapham (1917) ... .1530 Bolton St. 

Pennington, Josias (1894) Professional Building. 

Pennington, Mes. Josias (1916) 1119 St. Paul St. 

Pebine, E. Glenn ( 1882) 18 E. Lexington St. 

Pebine, Mbs. E. Glenn ( 1918) 512 Cathedral St. 

Pebine, Mbs. Geobge Coebin (1916) ... 1105 Cathedral St. 

Pebine, Washington (1917) 607 Cathedral St. 

Pebkins, Elisha H. (1887) Provident Savings Bank. 

Pebkins, William H., Jb. ( 1887 ) 1010 Munsey Bldg. 

Peteb, Robeet B. ( 1916) Rockville, Md. 

•Phelps, Chaeles E., Jb. (1903) 1028 Cathedral St. 

Pitt, Fabis C. (1908) 912 N. Charles St. 

Pitt, Heebebt St. John ( 1915) 912 N. Charles St. 

Pleasants, J. Hall, Jb., M. D. (1898) .201 Longwood Road, Roland Park 

Pollitt, L. Ibving ( 1916) 1715 Park Place. 

*Pope, Geobge A. ( 1902) 214 Chamber of Commerce. 

Post, A. H. S. (1916) Mercantile Trust and Deposit Co. 

PouLTNEY, Waltee De C. ( 1916) St. Paul and Mulberry Sts. 

Powell, Wm. C. (1912) Snow Hill, Md. 

Powell, Mbs. Wm. S. (1916) Ellicott City, Md. 

Peeston, James H. ( 1898 ) City Hall. 

Peettyman, Chaeles W. (1909) Rockville, Md. 

Pbice, Db. Eldeidge C. ( 1915) 1012 Madison Ave. 

Peice, William H. J. (1917) 825 Equitable Building. 

PuEDUM, Beadley K. ( 1902) Hamilton, Md. 

*Raboeg, Chbistophee ( 1902 ) Hotel Rennert. 

Raborg, Edwabd L. (1918) Hotel Rennert. 

Radcliffe, Geo. L. P., Ph.D. (1908) .. .615 Fidelity Building. 

Ranck, Samuel H. (1898) Public Lib'y, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Randall, Blanchaed (1902) 200 Chamber of Commerce Bldg. 

Randall, Daniel R. (1917) 841 Calvert Building. 

Randolph, Geobge F. ( 1916) B. & 0. Building. 

Rawls, W. L. (1905) 700 Maryland Trust Building. 

Rayneb, A. W. ( 1905 ) 8 E. Lexington St. 

Redwood, Mbs. Maby B. (1907) 918 Madison Ave. 

Reed, Mbs. Emilie McKim (1909) 512 Park Ave. 

Reese, Mbs. J. Evan (1917) 110 Edgevale Road, Roland Park. 

Reifsnidee, John M. (1895) Public Service Commission of Md. 

Remsen, Tea, LL. D. ( 1901 ) Johns Hopkins University. 

Revell, Edwabd J. W. ( 1916) 1308-09 Fidelity Bldg. 

Rich, Mbs. Edwabd L. ( 1915) Catonsville, Md. 

Rich, Edwabd N. (1916) Union Trust Building. 

Richaedson, Albeet Levin (1902) ... .2127 N. Charles St. 



96 MAKYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

RiCHABDSON, Mbs. Hesteb D. (1901) .. .2127 N. Charles St. 

Richmond, Miss Sarah E. ( 1915) 603 Evesham Ave., Towson, Md. 

RiDGELY, Miss Eliza ( 1893 ) 825 Park Ave. 

RiDGELY, Mbs. Helen ( 1895) Hampton, Towson, Md. 

RiDGELY, John, Jb. ( 1916) Towson, Md. 

RiDGELY, Mabtin E. ( 1914) Wilna, Harford Co., Md. 

RiDGELY, RuxTON M. ( 1892 ) 707 Gaither Building. 

RiKMAN, Mbs. Chables Ellet (1909) / ^'^'"^^''to^ F*™^, 

I Rodger's Forge P. 0., Md. 

RiEMAN, Chables Ellet (1898) 14 N. Eutaw St. 

RiGGS, Clinton L. { 1907) Riggs Bldg., Charles and Read Sts. 

RiQGS, Lawbason ( 1894) G32 Equitable Building. 

RiOBDAN, Chables E. ( 1907 ) 204 Exchange Place. 

Ritchie, Albebt C. ( 1904) 601 Title Building. 

RiTTEB, William L. ( 1878) 541 N. CarroUton Ave. 

Robebts, Mbs. John B. (1916) 1116 St. Paul St. 

Robinson, Ralph ( 1894) 1310 Continental Building. 

Robinson, William Champ (1917) 32 South Street. 

RoQEBS, Mbs. Henby W. (1914) Riderwood P. O., Balto. Co., Md. 

Rollins, Thornton (1911) \ ^^- National Bank, 

( Baltimore and Calvert Sts. 

Rohbeb, C. W. G., M. D. (1910) Lauraville Sta., Baltimore, Md. 

Rose, Douglas H. ( 1898) 10 South St. 

Rose, John C. ( 1883 ) P. 0. Building. 

Ruth, Thos. De Coubsey (1916) 1918 F St., N. W., Wash., D. C. 

Ryan, Wm. P. ( 1915) 1825 E. Baltimore St. 

Ryland, Samuel P. ( 1909 ) 810 American Building. 

Sadtleb, Mbs. Geo. W. (1908) 26 E. 25th St. 

Sadtleb, Howabd p. (1915) 1163-69 Calvert Bldg. 

Sadtleb, Mbs. Rosabella (1902) 1415 Linden Ave. 

Sampson, Mbs. Leila B. (1912) Sandgates, St. Mary's Co., Md. 

Sanfobd, John L. (1916) 317 Mimsey Building. 

Sappinqton, A. DeRussy ( 1897) 733 Title Building. 

Seabs, Thomas E., M. D. (1894) 658 W. Franklin St. 

Sellebs, Matthew B. ( 1915) 801 N. Arlington Ave. 

Sellers, Samuel Campbell (1914) 801 N. Arlington Ave. 

Sellman, James L. ( 1901 ) Merchants-Mechanics Nat'l. Bank. 

Semmes, John E. ( 1384) 10 E. Eager St. 

Semmes, John E. Jb. (1916) 825 Equitable Building. 

Seth, Fbank W. (1914) 382 Custom House, N. Y. City. 

Seth, Joseph B. ( 1896) Easton, Md. 

Shippen, Mbs. Rebecca Lloyd Post.. ) 2202 Q St N W Wash D C 

(1893) ) ' ■' " * ' 

Shirk, Mrs. Ida M. (1914) Indianapolis, Ind. 

Shriveb, J. Alexis ( 1907 ) Wilna, Harford Co., Md. 

Shower, George T., M. D. ( 1913) 3721 Roland Ave. 

•Shybock, Thomas J. ( 1891 ) 1401 Madison Ave., P. O. Box 717. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 9.7 

Sill, Howabd (1897) 11 E. Pleasant St. 

Simmons, Mbs. H. B. ( 1916 ) Chestertown, Md. 

SioussAT, Mbs. Anna L. (1891) Lake Roland, Md. 

SioxjssAT, St. George Leakin (1912) ..Brown Univ., Providence, R. I. 

Skinneb, Mbs. Haery G. (1913) Mt. Washington, Md. 

Skinnee, M. E. ( 1897 ) 1103 Fidelity Bldg. 

Skibven, Pebcy G. ( 1914) 3900 Cottage Ave. 

Sloan, Geobge F. (1880) Roland Park. 

Smith, Mbs. Walter Prescott (1913) ..18 E. Madison St. 

Smith, Rev. Chester Mansfield (1912)925 Cathedral St. ; 

Smith, Fbank O. (1913) Washington, D. C. 

Smith, Henbt Lee, M. D. ( 1912) 2701 Calvert St. 

Smith, John Donnell ( 1903) 505 Park Ave. 

Smith, Rush W. Davidge (1917) 3600 Reisterstown Road. 

Smith, Thomas A. ( 1909 ) Ridgely, Caroline Co., Md. 

Smith, Tunstall ( 1917 ) The Preston. 

Snowden, Wilton ( 1902) Central Savings Bank Building. 

SoLLEBS, Somebville ( 1905 ) 1311 John St. 

SoPEB, Hon. Mobbis A. (1917) The Marlborough Apts. 

Spencee, Richabd H. ( 1891 ) Earl Court. 

Stablee, Edwabd, Jb. ( 1876) 610 Reservoir St. 

Staee, Rt. Rev. Wm. E. (1914) 102 W. Lafayette Ave. 

Staton, Mary Robinson ( 1918) Snow Hill, Md. 

Steele, John Mubbay, M. D. (1911) .. . Owings Mills, Md. 
Steele, Miss Margaret A. (1917) . . . .Port Deposit, Md. 

Stein, Chas. F. ( 1905 ) S. E. Cor. Gourtl'd & Saratoga Sts. 

Steineb, Bebnaed C, Ph. D. (1892) 1038 N. Eutaw St. 

Stebung, Geobge S. ( 1902) 228 Light St. 

Stevenson, H. M., M. D. ( 1904) 1022 W. Lafayette Ave. 

Stewabt, David ( 1886) 1005 N. Charles St. 

Stewabt, Redmond C. (1916) 207 N. Calvert St. 

Stibling, Reae Admibal Yates ( 1889 ) . . 209 W. Lanvale St. 

Stockbeidge, Henby ( 1883 ) 11 N. Calhoun St. 

Stockbeidge, Henby, 3d ( 1917 ) Ten Hills, Md. 

Stone, John T. ( 1894) N. W. Cor. Baltimore & North Sts. 

Stoek, John William ( 1914) 424 N. Charles St. 

Stoby, Fbedebick W, ( 1885) 217 Court House. 

Stean, Mrs. Kate A. (1900) 1912 Eutaw Place. 

Stbickland, C. Hobaet ( 1916) Guilford Apts. 

Stttabt, Miss Saeah Elizabeth (1915) .Chestertown, Md. 
Stump, Maby Febnandez de Velasco ) g , . -w- , 

(1917) j; e , . 

Stubdy, Henby Fbancis (1913) Annapolis, Md. 

Sudleb, Miss Cabolina V. (1915) 2602 Shirley Ave. 

Summebs, Clinton ( 1916) 101 Roland Ave. 

SuMWALT, Mbs. Maby H. ( 1909) 2921 N. Calvert St. 

♦Swindell, Mbs. Waltee B. (1913) 506 Roland Ave., Roland Park. 

Symington, Wm. W ( 1916) Catonsville, Md, 

7 



98 MAETIiAlSD HISTORICAIi MAGAZINE. 

Talbott, Mbs. Bertha C. Haix (1913) . Rockville, Md. 

Tayix)B, Abchibald H. ( 1909) 405 Maryland Trust Building. 

Thateb, W. S., M. D. (1902) 406 Cathedral St. 

Thiblkeld, Rev. L. A. (1918) 2705 Presbury St. 

Thom, DeCoxjkct W. ( 1884) 405 Maryland Trust Building. 

Thom, Mbs. Lea ( 1902) 204 W. Lanvale St. 

Thomas, Mbs. Annie Hobneb (1914).. 2110 Mt. Royal Terrace. 

Thomas, Douglas H, (1874) Merchants-Mechanics Bank. 

Thomas, Geo. C. ( 1915) 2426 N. Charles St. 

Thomas, James W., LL. D. (1894) Cumberland, Md. 

Thomas, John B. (1910) S. E. Cor. Charles and 33rd Sta. 

Thomas, William S. ( 1915) 211 N. Calvert St. 

Thomas, Ikliss Zaidee T. (1916) 1302 Eutaw Place. 

Thompson, H. Olives (1895) Title Building. 

Ttlqhman, Oswald ( 1906) Easton, Md. 

TiLGHMAN, Lieut. Samuel H. (1917) .. .War Dept., Washington, D. C. 

Todd, W. J., M. D. ( 1902 ) Mt. Washington, Md. 

Tolson, Albebt C. (1916) 82-83 Gunther Building. 

TowEBS, Albebt G. (1917) 7 W. Chase St. 

Tbippe, Andbew C. ( 1877 ) 347 N. Charles St. 

Trippe, James McC. ( 1918) 347 N. Charles St. 

*Tbippe. Richard ( 1917 ) 1116 Munsey Building. 

Tboupe, Mbs. Calvin Febbis (1914) ... .St. Paul Apartments. 

Tboupe, Rinaldo W. B. (1914) 2322 Eutaw Place. 

Tbundle, Mbs. Wilson Bx^ns (1914) .2414 Madison Ave. 

Tubman, Robebt E. ( 1915) 117 W. Lombard St. 

TuBNBCLL, Mbs. Chesteb B. (1916) . . . Cedarcroft, Hollen & Sycamore Sts. 

TuBNBULL, Ednvin L. ( 1916) 12 E. Lexington St. 

TuBNBULL, Lawrence ( 1889 ) 1530 Park Ave. 

TuBNEB, Howard (1916) Betterton, Kent Co., Md. 

Tubneb, Rev. Joseph Bbown (1915) 75 Main St., Port Deposit, Md. 

TuBNEB, J. Fbank ( 1903 ) 23 East North Ave. 

Tyson, A. M. ( 1895 ) 207 N, Calvert St. 

Ttson. Mbs. Florence MacIntybe 1 251 W. Preston St. 
(1907) < 

Van Bibbeb, Armfiei.d F., M. D. (1918) Belair, Md. 

VicKEBT, E. M. (1913) 1223 N. Calvert St. 

Vincent, John M., Ph. D. ( 1894) Johns Hopkins University. 

Walkeb, Mbs. Cathebine F. (1915) . . . .Chestertown, Md. 

Wallace, Chas. C. ( 1915) 804 Union Trust Bldg. 

Walters, Henry (1880) Abell Building. 

Wabfield, Edwin ( 1879) Fidelity Building. 

Wabfield, Edwin, Jb. (1914) Fidelity Building. 

Wabfiet.d. Geoboe (1913) 624 N. Oarrollton Ave. 

Wabfield, John ( 1916) 15 E. Saratoga St. 

Warfieu), Ridoely B., M. D. (1907) 845 Park Ave. 

WABfiELD, 8. Da VIES ( 1902) 40 Continental Trust Building. 



'LIST OF MEMBEES. »» 

Watebs, Francis E. (1909) 905 Union Trust Building. 

Waters, J. Seymour T. ( 1902) 222 St. Paul St. 

Waters, Miss IVIary E. ( 1916) 2028 Mt. Royal Terrace. 

Watts, J, Cunton (1914) 2035 Guilford Ave. 

Watts, Sewell S. ( 1916) Calvert and Redwood Sts. 

Weaver, Jacob J., Jr., M. D. (1889) Uniontown, Md. 

Wells, Jacob Bier ( 1918) 1323 Park Ave. 

Welsh, Mrs. Robert A. (1916) Millersville, A. A. Co., Md. 

West, Harry ( 1916 ) Hanover and Fayette Sts. 

Wetter, John King ( 1917) 1631 N. Calvert St. 

White, Julian Le Roy ( 1887 ) 2400 W. North Ave. 

White, Miles, Jr. ( 1897 ) 607 Keyser Building. 

Whiteley, James S. ( 1901 ) 510 Keyser Building. 

Whitridge, Morris ( 1890) 10 South St. 

Whitbidge, William H. (1886) 604 Cathedral St. 

Whitridge, Mrs. Wm. H. (1911) 604 Cathedral St. 

Wilkinson, A. L., M. D. (1910) Raspeburg, Balto. Co., Md. 

Will, Allen S. (1910) 2620 N. Calvert St. 

Wlllabd, Daniel ( 1913 ) B. & O. Building. 

Williams, Miss Elizabeth Chew i "Woodcliffe," 39th St., and Univ. 

(1916) ) Parkway. 

WiLLiAMG, Fred R. ( 1914) 213 Courtland St. 

Williams, Henry W. ( 1891 ) 1113 Fidelity Building. 

Williams, N. Winslow (1896) 1113 Fidelity Building. 

Williams, Miss Nellie (1917) 814 Riverside Drive, N. Y. 

Williams, Raymond S. (1917) 1109 Calvert Bldg. 

Williams, Stevenson A. (1914) Belair, Md. 

Williams, T. J. C. ( 1907 ) Juvenile Court. 

Williamson, R. E. Lee (1918) Maple Lodge, Catonsville, Md. 

Willis, George R. ( 1902) 213 Courtland St. 

WiLLSON, Mrs. Notley (1917) ^ Rock Hall, Md. 

Wilson, J. Appleton (1893) SOT) Law Building. 

Wilson, Mrs. Letitia Pennell (1917) .3910 Cottage Ave. 

Wilson, Mrs. William T. (1898) 1129 St. Paul St. 

Winchester, Marshall (1902) Fayette & St. Paul, S. W. 

Winchester, William ( 1880) 1108 American Building. 

*Wise, Henby a. (1882) 11 W. Mulberry St. 

WooDALL, Casper G. ( 1909) American OflSce. 

Woodruff, Caldwell, M. D. (1914) Hyattsville, Md. 

Woods, Hiram, M. D. ( 1911 ) 842 Park Ave. 

Wootton, W. H. ( 1905) 10 South St. 

Worthington, Claude (1905) 110 Chamber of Commerce. 

WoRTHiNGTON, Ellicott H. ( 1917 ).... 1531 Bolton St. 

Wroth, Lawrence C. ( 1909) 215 E. Preston St. 

Wyatt, J. B. Noel •( 1889) 1012 Keyser Building. 

Young, Andrew J. Jr. (1916) 814 Fidelity Building. 

Young, Louis F. (1916) Cor. Ridgeley and Bush Sts. 

Young, Mrs. Sarah J. Gorsuch (1917) .214 Chancery St., Guilford. 



Maryland 



Historical Magazine 



PUBLISHED UNDEK THE AUTHORITY OF 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 




Volume XIII 



BALTIMORE 

1918 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIII 



PAGE 

The Retreat fbom Petersburg to Appomatox. Joseph Packard, 1 

Hon, Daniel Dulany, 1685-1753 (The Elder). Richard Henry 

Spencer, 20 

Committee of Observation for Elizabeth Town District. From 

Mss. in possession of the Society, .... 28, 227 

The Carroll Papers. From mss. in possession of the Society, 54, 171, 249 

Proceedings of the Society, -._... 77^ i83 

List op Members of the Society, 84 

Kilty's Manuscript Travesty of the Iliad. H. L. Koopman, 103 

Ghies* Justice Roger B. Taney ; His Career at the Frederick 

Bar. Edward 8. Delaplaine, 109 

Hon. Daniel Dulany, 1722-1797 (The Younger). Richard Henry 

Spencer, 143 

Taney Letters. From mss. vn possession of the Society, - - 160 

The Washington Monument and Squares. McHenry Howard, 179 

Early Settlers of the Site of Havre de Grace. William B. 

Marye, 197 

Pulaski's Legion. Richard Henry Spencer. .... 214 

The South Atlantic States in 1833, as seen by a New Eng- 

lander. Henry Barnard. Edited by Bernard C. Steiner, 267, 29 

The Cromwell Family. Francis B. Culver, .... 386 



INDEX TO VOLUME XIII. 

(Names of Authors, Titles of Contributed Papers and Original Documents 
in small capitals; book titles noticed or reviewed are in italics.) 



Abbeville, S. C, 354. 

Abercrombie ( Abercrumway ) , John, 
387 

Acton, John, 231, 238, 239, 247, 248. 

Acton, Richard, 38, 39, 47, 228, 229. 

Adair, John, 235 ff. 

Adams, John Quincy, 302. 

Adams, Samuel, 217. 

Adams, William, 48. 

Addison, Daniel, 154. 

Addison, Henry, 154. 

Addison, Rev. Henry, 25. 

Addison, Rachel (Dulany) Knight, 
25. 

Ager, Ann (Cromwell), 400. 

Ager, Benjamin, 400. 

Ahearn, Ellen, 103. 

Airhart, Philip, 40. 

Alder, , 247. 

Alexander, Gen. Edward P., 17. 

Alexander, Major John, 383. 

Alexander, Philip, 156. 

Alexander, William, 242. 

Allegany Co., Md., 21, 125. 

Allen, Rev. Bennett, 25, 154. 

Alsop, George, 206. 

American Loyalists, 156. 

Anderson, Franklin, 137. 

Andrew, Isaac, 226. 

Andrews, Matthew Page. " The 
Founders of American Democ- 
racy," 184. 

Andrews, Robert, 48. 

Annapolis, Md., 22, 154. 

Anne Arundel County, Md., 123, 203, 
204, 387, 388, 389. 

Anne Arundel County, Md., Boun- 
dary line, 393. 

Antilon, pseud, of Daniel Dulany, 
150, 151. 

Appleton, Nathan, 291. 

Appomattox, Va., 1. 

"Arcadia," 115. 

Arche, Robert, 397. 

Armand, Gen. Marquise de la Roue- 

rie, 218, 219, 223, 224, 225, 226. 
Arnold, Capt., 15. 
Ashburner, Thomas, elected, 77. 



Ashman, Elizabeth (Trahearne) 

Cromwell, 390. 
Ashman, George, 207, 210, 390, 391» 
393. 

Ashton, , 63, 64. 

Ashville, N. C, 349, 350, 352. 
Association of Freeman of Mary- 
land, 151. 
Atwood, William 0., elected, 77- 
Augusta, Ga., 340, 354, 355, 356, 

357, 365. 
Avery, A. C, 345. 

Col. Clark M., 345. 
Col. Isaac T., 345, 346, 347. 
Waightstill, 345. 
Avey, Henry, 245. 
Bachley, Isaac, 245. 

Samuel, Jr., 245. 
Back River, 205. 
Baird, William, 29 ff., 235, 246. 
Baitting (Bailling), Capt., 222. 
Baker, Dr., 59. 

Capt. Abraham, 39, 42, 52, 

235, 236, 238, 247. 
Capt. Evan, 47, 50, 232, 248. 
Isaac, 244. 
Samuel, 246. 
William G., 83. 
Baldesqui, Joseph, 221. 
Baldwin, Col., 7, 8, 9, 14. 
Ball, William, 389, 390. 
Baltimore, Cecilius Calvert, 2d lord 

116, 149. 
Baltimore, Charles Calvert, 3d lord. 

116, 117. 
Baltimore, Charles Calvert, 5th 

lord, 23. 
Baltimore. Frederick Calvert, 6th 

lord, 145. 
Baltimore, see also Calvert. 

County, Md., Boundary 

line, 393. 
Museum, 219. 
Banner of Pulaski Legion, 217 218 
219, 220. a ' , , 

Barber, William, 393. 
Barbour, Cornelia. 166, 378. 

James, 378. 

Philip B. 

409 



410 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Baring, Charles, 351. 

John, 351. 
Barkman. Jacob. 241. 
Barnard, Mrs., 369. 

Chauncey. 2l5Sff.. 207. 
Barnard, Henry. 'The South Atlan- 
tic States in 18SS as Seen by A 
yetc EngJander. Ed. hy B. C. 
Steiner, 267. 295. 
Barnes, Nathan, 53. 
Barney, Hannah, 400. 

Jacob, Sr., 400. 
Barry, W. T.. 164. 
Barton. Major Randolph, 2. 
Bavnam, Margaret, 398, 401, 402. 
Beall, Col. Samuel. 38. 242 ff. 
William Murdock, 140. 
Bear. John, 48. 
Beard, Major John, 335, 337. 
Beare Point. 205. 
Beattv, Philip, 222. 
Beaulieu, Lt., 222, 223. 
Beaves, Issacher, 241. 
Beck, vs. Thompson and Maris, cited, 

128. 
Beckett, John, 399. 

Margaret. 399. 
Becraft. Peter. 66. 
Bedaulx, Charles Frederick, 221. 
Bedkin, Henry, 221, 224, 226. 
Beecher, Edith (Cromwell) Gist 

Williams, 396. 
Beecher, John. 396. 
Begerhoff, Ludwic, 224. 
Bell, Charles, 242. 

Capt. Peter, 28, 29. 30, 32. 
Bellecour, Capt. Jerome LeBrun de, 

221, 224, 225. 
Belt, Thomas, 242. 
Bend. Rev. .Toseph G. J., 158. 
Bennet, Capt. John. 231, 232, 234. 

Robert, 247. 
Bennett, Caroline, 342, 343. 
Richard, 198. 
Titus, 342, 343. 
Bentalon, Col. Paul, 2 IS, 219, 220, 

•221. 
Bentley, John, 226. 
Benton, Thomas Hart, 167, 168, 291, 

292. 
Berger, George, 232. 
Berkley, Henrv J., 186. 
Berkley, Va., 318. 
Berkman, Jacob, 242. 
Berrier. John M., 162. 
Berry, Jasper M., Jr., 193. 
BesBon, Margaret, 395. 

Margaret (Saughier). 394, 
395. 



Besson. Nicholas, 395. 

Thomas, 395, 396. 
Bibb. George M., 276, 297, 304. 
Bilmire, Leonard, 43, 238. 
Bingham, William J., 330. 
Binney, Horace, 287. 
Bird's River, 207. 
Bissel, Edward, 342. 
Bissell, H., 338, 339. 
Bishop, Charles, 157. 

Frederica Emma, 157. 
Black Hawk, Indian Chief, 371, 372. 
Bladen, Gov. Thomas, 22, 143. 

Ann, 155. 

Isabella (Fairfax), 155. 

Nathaniel, 155. 

William, 155. 
Blair. Francis P.. 160, 166, 301. 
Blakely, William, 243. 
Bland. Theodoric, 170. 
"Blueskin," 157. 
Bodwin, Henry, 225. 
Bomberger, John, 245. 
Bond, George, Sr., 240 

Thomas, 222, 226. 
Bonnet, Capt. John, 232, 234. 
Boovey, Michael, 246. 
Biordley, John Beale, 151. 
Stephen, 145, 159. 
Thomas, 28. 
Boring, John, 389. 
Bose, Lt.-Col. Baron Charles de 

218, 221. 
Boucher, Rev. Jonathan, 154, 156. 
Bourn Creek, 203. 
" Bourne," 203. 
Bowman, Aaron, 241. 
J6hn, 245. 
Joseph, 245. 
William, 225. 
Boyer, Frederick, 226. 
Braddock, Oen. Edward, 78, 79, 145. 
Bradley, Thomas, 34, 35, 39. 
Brander's Bridge, 4. 
Brandywine, Battle of the, 215. 
Branatator, Andrew, 246. 
Brawner, Catherine Maria, 132. 
Breckenridge, Oen. J. C. 13, 14, 15. 
Brent, Col. William, 285, 
Brewah, Peter, 246. 
Brewer, Ashwell C, elected, 77. 
Brice, Elizabeth, 25. 
John, 25. 

Sarah (Fri«by), 25. 
BridgM, Tliomas. 103. 105, 106. 
Bright, Ooorge, 241, 242, 
Broad, John, 392. 
Broderick, Richard, 237. 
Bronville, James de, 221. 



INDEX. 



411 



Brooke, Thomas, 36 ff., 228, 238. 
Broombaugih, Jacob, 245. 
John, 245. 
Brown (A.) & Sons, 162. 
Brown, Archibald, 48. 

Dr. Gustavus, 81. 
James, 53, 
John, 225. 
Thomas, 211, 225. 
Browne, B. Bernard, 186. 
Henry, 59. 
John, 391. 
Capt. Thomas, 211. 
Brunnen, John, 241. 
Bryson, Archibald, 223. 
Buchanan, Pres. James, 112. 

John, 133, 252, 258. 
Philpot, 61. 
Thomas, 121. 
Buckner, Alexander, 292. 
Bulkley, Caroline, 339. 
Bunch, Anne, 399. 
Edith, 399. 
Bunker, James M., 326. 
Burden, Thomas Legare, 368, 369. 

Burgess, , 227. 

Thomas, 397. 
Tristram, 293, 296, 314. 
BuTk, Thomias, 132, 134. 
Burke, Edmund, 147. 
Burket, Christopher, 44, 45, 50, 
228 ff. 
Stophel, 34. 
Burnes, Michael. 48. 
Burr, Aaron, 110, 133, 134, 135. 
Burwell, Robert, 9, 10, 11. 12, 13, 

15. 
Bush River, 197, 198, 199, 202, 

207, 209. 
Butler, B. F. [1795-1858], 168. 
Col. E. G. W., 79. 
Francis Parke (Lewis), 79. 
Capt. Henry, 36, 43. 
Joseph. 225. 
Bverlr, Joseph, 245. 
Bynain's Run. 207. 
Cain, John. 222. 
Caldwell. Joseph, 324, 325, 326, 

327. 
Calglesser. Henrv, 245. 
Calhoun. John C.. 271 ff., 301 ff. 

Fort, 372. 
Caloco, Bartholomew, 240. 
Calvert, Benedict. 23, 151. 
Cecil, 24. 

Gov. Leonard, 206. 
see also Baltimore, lords. 
Countv, Md.. 123, 185, 

387,' 388, .391. 
Papers, cited, 145. 



Camalier, Judge B. Harris, elected, 

82. 
Cambreling, C. C, 292, 293. 
Camden, Charles Pratt, 1st earl, 

148. 
Camp, Marie R., elected, 77. 
Campbell, Alexander, 373. 
Arthur, 317. 
Charles, 316, 317. 
Elizabeth, 373. 
Elizabeth Moore, 317, 

318. 
John Wilson, 316. 
Mrs. John Wilson, 316, 
317, 318. 
Canova, Antonio, 321. 
Cap, Gov., 164. 
Carcand, David, 154. 
Carlisle, Brig., 264. 
Carroll, Charles, of Annapolis, 206. 
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 76, 
80, 116, 124, 125, 139, 
150, 151, 159, 162, 167. 
Dr. Charles, 145. 
Daniel, 176, 178, 179, 249, 
250, 252, 254, 258. 
Cabboll Papebs. Extracts (From 
M88. in the possession of the 
Society), 54, 171, 249. 
Carson, Samuel P. cited, 291. 
Carter, Anne Bill, 317. 

Hill, 317, 318, 319, 320. 
Mrs. Hill, 319, 320, 373. 
James, 222. 
Richard, 33. 
Cary, John, 59. 

Wilson M., 392. 
Cathedral Burying Ground Record, 

195. 
Caton, Miss, 162. 
Celeron, Louis, 221. 
Cellar, Capt. John. 29, 33, 49, 239. 
Ohainey, Nathan, 44. 
Chalmers, George, 154. 
Chambers Town, Pa., 238. 
Chapel Bill, N. C, 322, 325 327 

328, 329. 
Chaplain, Capt. Joseph, 36, 37, 38, 

241, 242, 243. 
Charles I, King of Great Britain, 

149. 
Charlottesville, Va., 375, 378. 
Chase, Jeremiah Townley, 109 ff. 

Samuel. 159, 160". 
Cheney, Richard, 226. 
Chcioicee Indians, 279. 
Chesapeake Bay, 197, 198, 199, 200 

205, 314. 
" Chestnut Neck," 198. 
Chew, Henrietta Maria (Lloyd), 25. 



412 



THE MAETLAND HISTOEICAI. MAGAZINE. 



Chew, Samuel, 25. 
Chief Justice Roger B. Tanet: 
His Cakeeb at the Fbedebick 
Bar. Edioard S. Delaplaine, 109, 
1S4. 
Choate, Rufus, 282. 
Choptank Bay, 387. 

River, 206. 
Civil War, see U. S. Civil War. 
Claiborne, Capt. William. 206. 
Clapsaddle, Capt. Daniel, 51, 236. 
Clark, James, 28 ff., 40 /f., 228 /f. 
Robert, 228, 
Thomas, 390. 

Clarke, , 198. 

Robert, 355. 
Clarkson, Robert, 392. 
Clausen, Jacob, 204. 
Clay, Henry, 167, 170, 270, 271, 27G. 
277, 279, 280, 284, 286, 288, 
292, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 
308, 311, 312, 313. 
Henry. Land Bill. 276, 280, 
281, 285, 291, 292. 
Cla>-ton, John M., 299, 300. 
Clingman, Thomas Lanier, 330. 
Cloward, Jacob, 48. 
Coharn, Levy, 31. 
Cole, William, 393. 
Coll, George, 246. 
Collins, Elizabeth. 288. 

John, 222. 
Colston, Frederick M., 3 ff. 
" Come by Chance," 207. 
comsrittee of observation fob 
Euzabeth Town District. 
[Washington County.] From 
MS8. in Possession of the Society, 
227. 
Concord Point, 205. 
Conoway's Gut, 201. 
" Content," Ann Arundel Co., 394, 

395. 
Continental Congress, 215. 
"Coodies," 126. 
Coogle, Christian. 245, 246. 
Cook, Frederick, 226, 
Cooke, — , 251. 

Elouthorofi, 274. 
Coop, Deobert, 224. 
Cooper, Eleanor. 398, 399, 402. 

I«aac. 31, 50, 240. 
Copley, Lionel, 207. 
Coram, William, 226. 
Corban, Nicholas. 39.3. 
"Cordwainer'fi Hall," 394. 
Comer, George W., Jr., elected, 77. 
Comwallis family, 205. 
Thomas, 205. 



" Comwallis Mannor," 205. 
Correspondence of William. Pitt, 

Earl of Chatham, cited, 147. 
Cotz, Mrs., 248. 
Coughinour, Jacob, 245. 
Council of Safety, 28, 31, 45. 
Courts, Charity, 25. 

Col. John, 25. 
Couterie, Lt. La Hoye de, 225. 
Cox, John, 31. 
Cresap, Major Thomas, 24. 
Cromwell Family. Francis B. 

Culver, 386. 
Cromwell, Agnes, 400, 402. 

Ann, 387, 400, 403. 

Anne. 398, 402. 

Dorothy Kenriiston, 398, 

399. 
Edith, 386, 387, 392, 396, 

397, 398, 400, 402. 
Eleanor (Cooper), 398, 

399, 402. 
Elizabeth, 398, 401, 402. 
Elizabeth (Besson), 395. 
Elizabeth ( Trahearne ) , 

390. 
Frances (Ingram), 392. 
Gershom, 387. 
Hannah (Barney), 400. 
Hann ah ( Ratteitbury ) , 

396. 
Henry, 386. 
Jane, 400, 402. 
Jemima (Morgan) Mur- 
ray, 391. 
John, 386, 387, 388, 390, 
391, 392, 395, 396, 397, 
398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 
403. 
Joshua, 391, 392, 394, 
395. 

Joshua, 391. 

Margaret, 39S, 399. 402. 
Margaret Beckett, 399. 
Mary, 398, 401, 402, 403. 
Mary Lemon, 399. 
Mary iWoolgist). 391. 
Milicent. 400, 402. 
Oliver. T/nrrl Protector of 
England, 386, 400, .ini 
rhilip. 397. 398, 399, 400. 
Rebecca, 387. 
Richard. 386 fT. 
Richard. Jr., 395. 
Thomas, 386, .390, 391. 

.398, 399, 400. 
Col. Thomas, 395. 



iin>EZ. 



413 



Cromwell, William, 386, 387, 388, 
389, 390, 395, 396, 401, 
403. 
William, Jr., 389, 390. 
"Cromwell" Tract of land, 387. 
"Cromwell's Addition," 39^. 
"Cromwell's Adventure," 388, 390, 

391, 392. 
" Cromwell's Leaze," 398. 
Cromwell's Point, 387. 
Cromwell's Range, 394. 
Crossley, William, 241, 
Crummy, Andrew, 243. 
Crumwell, see Cromwell, 397. 
Cruss, Dr., 31. 
CtTLVEB, Francis B. The Cromwell 

Family/, 386. 
Curtis, Benjamin R., 142. 
Curtis Creek, Md., 388, 389, 390, 

391, 392. 
Custer, Gen. George Armstrong, 16, 

17. 
Custis, George Washington Parke, 
288. 
Nellie, 79. 
Daemon, Charles, 222. 
Dallam, Bryan, 222. 
Dallas, George M., 303. 
Daniell, Benjamin, 59. 
Darnall, Richard, 177. 
Darnall portraits, 190. 
David Brown, ship. 367, 368, 369. 
" David's Fancy," 389. 
Davidson's orchard, 171. 
Davies, Amos, 34. 
Dennis, 44. 
John, 237. 
Davis, John, 270, 274, 285. 
Luke, 56, 59, 66, 68. 
Col. Richard, 34, 44, 45, 244. 
William, 390. 
Dawson, Moses, 160, 161. 
Day, Jeremiah, 328. 
Edward, 199. 
John, 199. 

— ^ (Maxwell), 199. 
Day's Point, 201, 202. 
Deards, William, 55, 56, 66, 171, 

172. 
Dearling, Christian, 224. 
DeKalb, Baron Johann, 214. 
De la Borderie, Lt. Joseph, 218, 221. 
Delane, see Dulany. 
Delaney, see Dulany. 
Delany, see Dulany. 
Delaplaine, E. S. Chief Justice 
Roger B. Taney. His Career at 
the Frederick Bar, 109, 185. 



De la Serre, Ann (Dulany), 155. 

Rebecca Ann, 155, 156, 
159. 
Delaware Indians, 211. 
Delaware, ship, 162, 315. 
Delf Creek, 202, 203. 
Delf Farm, 203. 
Delf Island, 203. 
Denison, Richard, 29. 
Deport, Martin, 207. 
Devereux, Thomas Pollock, 323. 
Dick, Peter, 31. 
Dilman, Christian, 224. 

Dimondidier, , 393. 

Dixon, James, 131, 

Dodd, , 369. 

George, 363. 
Doile, Adam, 243. 
Donaldson, Samuel, 38, 43. 
Donelson, John, 241. 
Donington, James, 68. 
Donnelly, Edward, 222, 223, 225. 
Donovan, Daniel, 48. 

Dorsey, , 120, 129, 142. 

Anna Vernon, 81. 

Caleb, 267. 

Clement, 80. 

Edward, 28, 159. 

John, 66, 68, 258. 

Mrs. Katherine Costigan, 79, 

80. 
Leaken, 244. 
Vernon, 80. 
Vernon M., 81. 
Douglass, Robert, 246. 
Samuel, 246. 
Downey, James, 242. 
Drayton. William, 302. 
Dugan, Hammond J., 186. 
DcTLANY, Daniel, the Elder. Rich- 
ard Henry Spencer, 20. 
DtTLANY, Daniel, the Younger. Rich- 
ard Henry Spencer, 143. 
Dulany, Ann. 153, 154, 155. 
Benjamin, 156. 
Benjamin Tasker, 155, 157. 
Charity (Courts), 25. 
Daniel, 147, 150, 151. 
Daniel, the Elder, 20, 25, 

143. 
Daniel, the Yotmger, 20, 

25, 143. 
Daniel, Jr., 155. 
Mrs. Daniel, the Yovnqer, 
156. 

Dennis, 25. 
Elizabeth (Brice), 25. 
Elizabeth (French), 155, 

157. 
John Thadeus, 21. 



414 



THE MAETLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Dulany, Lloyd, 25, 154. 
Margaret, 25. 
Mary (Grafton), 25. 
Dr. Patrick, 20. 
Rachel, 25. 
Rebecca, 25. 27. 
Rebecca Ann, 155. 
Rebecca Ann, of Virginia, 

156. 
Rebecca (Smith). 25, 143. 
Rebecca (Tasker), 25, 155, 

156. 
Walter, 24, 25, 151, 154. 
Maj. Walter, Jr., 25. • 
Dunkards, 245, 247. 

Dun lap, , 166. 

Dunlop, Colin. 240. 

Dunlop, Va., 7. 8. 

Dunn, George, 241. 

Duvall, Judge Gabriel. Ill, 117. 

Duvall, Richard M., 78, 83, 186. 

Dwight, , 324. 

Eaglestone, John, 393. 
Eakel, Christian, 240. 
Eablt Settlers of the Site of 
Ha\-be de Grace. William B. 
Marge, 197. 
Easter, Arthur Miller, elected, 183. 
Eatele, Nannin, 240. 
Eaton. Capt. Benoni, 388, 401. 
Deborah. 388. 
Major John Henry, 164. 
Nathaiel, 388. 
Rebecca. 388. 
Theopholis. 388. 
Eckle, Harmon, 241. 
Eddis, William, 152. 
Eden, Gov. Sir Robert, 117, 149, 150. 
151, 159, 254, 255, 256, 257, 
258, 259, 260, 261. 
Mrs. Robert, 257. 
Edmiston, Rev. William, 154. 
Edmonds, Thomas, 394. 
Ed-wards, Jonathan, 323. 
Elk River, 205, 206. 

Ellis, , 311. 

Ellsworth, William W., 274. 
Elton, George, 221. 
Emerie, Samuel, 225. 

Bmmett, i , 115. 

England, Rt. Rev. John, 365. 
Erden, Christopher, 242. 
Btting, Solomon, 115. 
EuBtis, Col. Abraham, 372. 
Evans, H. G., elected, 184, 
Everett, Edward, 288. 
Evitt, Woodward, 131. 



Extracts from the Carroll Pa- 
pers. {From M8S. in possession 
of the Society), 54, 171, 249. 
Ewing, Thomas, 283, 287, 311, 
Fackler, John, 239. 

Capt. Michael, 29, 33, 241, 
242, 243. 
Fairfax, Ferdinando, 156. 

Lady Frances, 155. 
Isabella, 155. 
Sir Thomas, 155. 
Sir William, 155. 
The Fairfax, ship, 315. 
Falkland Islands, 176. 
Farmer, Capt., 46, 49, 233. 
Feller, Andrew, 240. 
Ferell, John, 224. 
Ferry, George, 393. 
Ferry land, 214. 
Finley, Samuel, 35. 
"First Citizen," 150, 151. 
First Methodist Church, Baltimore, 

Md. Records, 195. 
Fisher, Charles, 335. 

Charles F., 335. 
Jacob, 53. 
Fitzgerald, Mrs. J. E., elected, 184. 
Fitzhugh, Daniel Dulaney, 81. 

Margaret Murray (May- 

nadier), 81, 
William, 151. 
Fitz Patrick, Hugh, 223. 
Joseph, 224. 
Fitzsimmons, Nicholas, 394. 

Flanigan, , 62. 

Floyd, Gov. Jahn, 374. 
Foard, Henry, 48, 227, 228. 
James, 48. 
Robert, 48, 227, 228. 
Fogg, Joseph, 226. 
Follett, Joseph, 225. 
Ford Point, 198, 200. 
Formshall, William, 226. 
Forsyth, Gov. John. 355. 

John, 166, 292, 305, 309. 
Company of Volunteers, 
219. 
Forsythe, Samuel. 48, 228. 
Fort Calhoun, 372. 

Conquest, 205, 206, 
McHenry, 113. 
Plantation, 20O, 201. 
Point, 198, 200. 
Point Gut, 200, 201. 
Fortress Monroe, Va., 314. 
Fort Washington, 314. 
Foster, E. Edmund, elected, 77. 
Mrs. E. Edmund, 77. 



INDEX. 



415 



Fowler, , 29. 

John, 44. 
Joshua, 44. 
Frainemaker, Francis, 224. 
" Frame Point," 199, 200. 
Francis, Sir Philip, 28. 

Richard, 28. 
Frank, Henry, 8r., 41. 
Franklin, Benjamin, 215. 
Frederick, Philip, 223. 
Freeth, Ann (.Cromwell), 403. 

Richard, 403. 
Frelinghuysen, Tlieodore, 297. 
French, Daniel, 157. 

Elizaibeth, 155, 157. 
Thomas, 154. 
Frey, Ba/ron, Charles de, 222. 
"Friendship," 207. 
Frisby, Sarah, 25. 
Frizell, James, 211. 
Funday, John, 228. 
Funk, David, 245. 

Henry, 246. 

Henry, Jr., 246. 

John, 246. 

Joseph, 245. 

Martin, 245. 

Samuel, 246. 

Furjishield, , 226. 

Gainsberger (Gansbergers), Angel, 

30. 
Peter, 30, 49. 
Gales, Joseph, 226, 323. 

Mrs. Joseph, 323. 

Joseph, Jr., 323. 

Rebecca, 387. 

Richard. 386 fT. 

Washington, 323. 

Winifred (Marshall), 323. 
402. 
Galespie, George, 241. 
Gansinger, Abraham, 245. 
Gaphart, Jacob, 241. 
Garbar, Michael, 245. 
Garnett, James M., 3. 
Garrachem, James, 237. 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, 134. 
Gay, John, 393. 
Geather, Richard, 244. 
George, Andrew, 223. 
George III, King of England, 236. 

237. 
Germantown, Battle of, 215. 
Gibson. Elizabeth, 394. 

Thomas, 394. 
Gildersleeve, Basil L., 1. 
Gillespie, David, 246. 
Gilliland, Hugh, 48, 227, 228. 



Gist, Christopher, 392, 393, 396. 
Edith, 393, 394, 395. 
Edith (Cromwell), 392, 396. 
Richard, 393, 394, 395, 396, 

397. 
Zipporah (Murray), 394, 397. 
"Gist's Rest," 394. 
Glasson, Garrett, 51, 229, 233, 236. 
Gobright, Mrs. S. M., elected, 77. 
Goldsborough, Charles, 159. 
Robert, 159. 
Good, Abraham, 245. 
Christian, 245. 
George, 241, 243. 
Jacob, 35. 
John, 245. 
William, 43. 
Gordon, Charles, 154. 

Gen. John B., 15, 16. 
Gorsuch, Charles, 394. 
Gould, Judge William Tracy, 355, 

356. 
Gouldsmith, Blanche, 208. 
Samuel, 208. 
Major, Samuel, 203. 
Gouldsmiths Hall, 203. 
Grafton, Mary, 25. 

Richard, 25. 
Grant, Gen. U. S., 16. 
Grauer (Graver), Jacob, 33^., 

227^. 
Green, DuflF, 311. 
Greenbury, Col. Nicholas, 207. 
Gresham, Mrs. Thomas Baxter, 

eledted, 183. 
Grimki, Thomas Smith, 269, 362, 

364, 366, 368, 373, 379. 
Groome. Samuel, 208, 211. 
Grove, David, 241. 
Gruber, Rev. Jacob, 136. 137. 138. 
Grundy, Felix, 283, 299, 300, 310, 

311. 
Guest, see Gist. 
Guinn, Evan, 229. 
Guire, Edmond, 48. 
Gull, Baltzer, 35 f., 227 if . 
Gundry, Benjamin, 199. 

Mary (Harmon), 199. 
Gunpowder Neck, 198, 199. 201, 202, 
Gunpowder River, 197, 198, 199, 

200, 201, 205, 207. 
Hafe, Jacob, 242. 
Hager. Michael. 24.3. 
Haibsior, David, 240. 

Hall, , 2.50. 

Maj. Henry, 145. 
John, 159." 
Rachel, 143. 



416 



THE MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 



Hamilton, Dr. Alexander, 25. 

Got". James, 358, 361, 

363. 
John, 224. 

Maxgaret (Dulany), 25. 
Hammond, Billy, 62. 
Hamon, Peter, 43. 
Handwood, Robert, 225. 
Hanson, Alexander Contee, 153. 

John, 76. 
Hardesty, Francis, 241. 
Harford, Henry, 117. 
Harman's Town, 214. 
Harmer, Godfrey, 197, 198, 199, 200, 
201, 202. 
Mary, 199. 

Mary (Spry), 198, 201, 
202. 
" Harmer's Addition," 199. 
Harmers Swan Town, 197. 
Harmers Town, 197, 202, 203, 204, 

205, 206, 212, 213. 
Harpers Ferry, 375, 382, 385. 

Harris, , 104. 

W. Hall, 82, 186. 
William Barnie, elected, 
184. 
Harris Creek, 387. 
Harrison, Robert Hanson, 153. 
Samuel, 156. 
Thomas, I'lG. 
Harry, David, 234. 

Martin, 235, 236, 239. 
Hart, Dr. Noah, 29, 31, 32, 34. 
Hathome, Major William, 399. 
Hatkinson, Martin, 224. 
Hatteras, Cape, 371. 
Havbe de Grace. Early Settlers 
OF THE SrxE OF. William B. 
Ma/rye, 197. 
Hawes, Rev. Joel, 328. 
Hawkins, Thomas, 387. 
Hayden, Wm. M.. 78, 185, 186, 195. 
Haves, Michael, 240. 
Hayne, Robert Y., 271. 309, 311. 

Hayward, . 252, 253. 

r. Sidney, 83, 186. 
William, 151. 

Haywood, . 252, 253, 254. 

Hazel Valley, 74. 
Hcam, Christian, 230, 234, 237. 
HearHchman, Andrew, 40. 
Heath, .Jamf's Paul, 25. 

Rehecoa (Dulany), 25. 
Hellcn, David, .39. 40. 
Helm, Joseph, 239. 
Hendr-rson, Archibald, 334, 335, 33G. 
3.37, 338, 344. 



Henry, Effie L., elected, 77. 
Robert Jenkins, 23. 
Col. Robert Jenkins, 145. 
Henry, Cape, 371. 
Herdey, Joseph, 244. 
Herlity, William, 222. 
Herman, Augustine, 198, 202, 205. 

John, 42. 
Hermanson, Gotfred, 202. 
Herr, Jacob, 245. 
Hess, Jacob, 238, 245. 
Hesse, Godfried, 224. 
Heyser (Hessir, Hisser, Hizer, Hy- 
ser), Ca/pt. William, 241, 242, 243, 
244. 
Hickory Nut Gap, S. C, 350, 352. 
Higdon, Joseph, 225. 
Hill, Isaac, 301. 

Roger, 201. 
Hillsboro, N. C, 329, 330. 
Hobbs, Gustavus Warfield, elected, 
77. 
John, 68. 
Hodges, Mrs. George W., 78. 
Hoffman, R. Curzon, 181. 
Hog Pen Creek, 205. 
Hogg, Thomas, 31. 
Hogmire, Conrad, 239 ff. 
Holland, George, 389. 
Hollyday, James, 159. 
Holmes, John, 271, 273, 299. 
Holt, Michael, 330. 

Dr. Michael W., 330. 
Dr. William R., 330. 
Hon. Daniel Dulany, 1685-1753 
(The Elder). Richard Henry 
Spencer, 20. 
Hon. Daniel Dulany, the Younger 
(1722-1797). Richard Henry 
Spencer, 143. 
Hooker, Thomas, 394. 
Hooper, John, 223. 

William, .327. 
Hoover, Christian, 245. 
Honry, 246. 
Jacob, 245. 
John, 245. 
John, Jr., 245. 
Olcrick, 245. 
" Hopewell," 198. 
"Hopewell Marsh," 199, 200. 
Hoppe, Joremie, 223. 
Horton, .Tosoph, 224. 
Hosier, Honrv, 388. 
HoHs, Capt. .John F., 219. 
Hoult, Thomas. 222. 
Housor, Abraliam, 245. 
irouseholder, .Tohn. 34. 
Hover, Martin, 240. 



INDEX. 



417 



Howard, Dr., 267. 

Caldwell, 264. 
Cornelius, 68. 
George, 154. 
James, 61. 

Col. John Eager, 179, 180. 
HowABD MoHenby. The Washington 

Monument and Squares, 183. 
Howard, Michael, 28. 
Philip, 228. 
Howard vs. Moale, cited, 121. 
Howard's Park, 179. 
Howe, Lord, 37, 39. 
"Howell's Deceit," 213. 
Hudson, 58, 59, 62, 63, 64. 
Huflfer, Jacob, 245. 
Hugen, Hindrick, 202. 
Hughes, Daniel, 31, 228. 

Capt. Samuel, 28, 29, 30, 
31, 32, 33, 34, 234, 239, 
246. 
Huie, Miss, 335. 

Warren G., 333, 334, 337, 338. 
Hunter, Frederick Emma (Bishop), 
157. 
Rebecca Ann ( Dulany ) , 

155, 156. 
Sir Richard, 155, 156. 
" Hunting Quarter," Baltimore Co., 

389, 390. 
Huntington, Jabez W., 270, 271, 274, 

275, 276, 279. 
Hunting Ridge, 152. 153, 154, 394. 
Hurst, Joseph, 48, 229. 
Hyatt Charles, 240. 

Elisha, 240. 
Hyeard, Elisha, 244. 
Hyple, Christian, 246. 
Ingersoll. Ralph I., 276, 
Ingram, Frances. 392. 

John, 31. 
Innes, Ignatius, 240. 
Island Creek, 387. 
" Island Point," 199. 
Jackson, Pres. Andrew, 141 ff., 
268 ff., 300 ff. 
James. oaS. 

Gen. Stonewall, 3 ,111, 179. 
Jacoby, Conrad, 248. 
Jacques, Denton. 32. 33, 49, 227, 228. 
James, George, 48. 229. 

Robert. 223. 
James' Run. 207. 
Jamestown Va., 315. 373. 
Jarrett, Roger. 397. 
Java, ship. 315. 

Jefferson. Pres. Thomas, 134, 375. 
376, 377, 384. 



Jenifer, Daniel, 151. 
David, 285. 
Michael, 28. 
St. Thomas, 151. 

Jennings, , 250. 

Edmund, 23, 28, 150. 
Thomas, 159. 
Johnson, Aaron, 391. 
B. F., 184. 
Gen. Bradley T., 324. 
Dr. Edward, 104. 
James, 54. 
John, Attorney-Gen., 120, 

121, 133. 
John. Chief Justice, 170. 
Joseph, 178. 
Margaret, 391. 
Reverdy, 132, 141, 170. 
Richard M.. 298. 
Thomas, 68, 114, 177, 178, 
250, 251, 254, 256, 258, 
259. 
Gov. Thomas, Jr., 159, 160. 
Judge William, 324. 
Johnston, Benjamin. 226. 
John Stoney, ship, 356, 357. 
Jones, David, 394. 

Jonathan, 48. 
Thomas, 209, 210, 211. 
Gen. Walter, 135, 288. 
Jones' Falls, 139. 
Judik, Mrs. J. Henrv, elected, 184. 

Kane, , 286. 

Elias K., 276. 

Keating, , 62. 

Keady, Henry, 246. 

Keefer, Alexander Warfield, elected, 

80. 
Keller, Capt. John. 46, 47, 50, 240. 
Kelley, Patrick. 48. 
Kelty, John, 240. 
Kemp, John, 68. 
Kennedy, vs. Browne. 139. 
Kenniston (Kynaston), Allen, 399. 

Dorothy, 399. 
Kent, Henry. 222. 

Gov. .Joseph, 124. 
Kent Island, 206. 

Kerlevan, , 222. 

Kerr, Henry, 241. 
Kershmer, John, 29, 40. 

Capt. Martin, 235. 
Kestor, Phillip, 242. 
Key, Anna Phebe Charlton, 114, 140. 
Eliza, 81. 
Francis, 74. 
Francis Scott, 110, 114. 115, 



418 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 



lis. 119. 121, 122, 130, 139, 
140, 164, 284, 
Key, John Ross, 139. 

Philip, 28, 145. 154, 212. 
Philip Barton, 110. 120, 121. 
Keyser, Mrs. Mary Washington, 187. 
Kiernan, Nick, 240. 
Kiger, Frederick, 31, 41. 
Kilty, Elizabeth (Middleton), 104. 
Kiltv, Ellen (Ahearn). 103. 
John, 103. 
William, 103, 170. 
Kilty's Manuscbifi' Travestt of 

THE Iliad. H. L. Eoopman, 103. 
King Coody, 126. 
Kinnoad, Henry. 8r., 46, 49. 
Henry, Jr., 46, 49. 
King William's School, Annapolis, 

Md., 22. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 1. 
Kirkpatrick. 'Michael, 23o, 237. 
Kline, Philip, 241. 
Knave, Abraham, 35, 38, 39. 
KneflF, Abraham, 35, 42. 44, 50, 52, 

228, 230 ff. 
Knight, Rachel (Dulany), 25. 

William. 25. 
Knode, Henry, 8r., 233. 

John, 238. 
Knott, Gen. A. Leo, 79, 83. 
Knox, James, 243. 
Kobatsch (Kowatsch), Col. Michael 

de, 217, 220. 
Kolkowski, Count, 221. 
KoopMAN, H. L. Kilty's Manuscript 

Travesty of the Iliad, 103. 
Kosciuszko, Thaddeus, 214. 
Kotz. Catharine, 53. 
Kowatflch, see Kobatsch. 
Kowatz (Kowatsch), see Kobatsch. 
Krauper, Adam, 223. 
Kryelich, Frances, 241. 
Kyjiaston. see Kenniston. 399. 
Lafayette, Marquis de, 214, 219. 
Laird, Richard, 226. 
Lampson. 0. Locker. 156. 
Lansborough, Frederick Emma 

(Bishop), Dulany, 157. 
Tvantz, Christopher. 241. 
Jjara, brig. .368, 369. 
T^roque, Isaac, 395. 
Latrobe, John H. B., 80, 151. 
T>aritherback, John. 223. 

I.,awrfnce. , 133. 

Lazf-ar, Hyatt, 241. 
Laziinf, Thomas, 240. 
T^eakin, J. Wilson. 83. 
I>aland, John, 223. 
Ijcavo, Ludwic, 224. 



Lebrue, , 167. 

Lee, Ann Matilda, 288. 

Elizabeth (Collins), 288. 

James, 208. 

Jobn, 247. 

Richard, 151. 

Richard Bland, 288. 

Oen. Robert E., 3, 12, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 179, 317. 
Zaccheus Collins, 284, 288. 
Lego's Point, 198. 
Leiday, John, 38, 53, 248. 
Leigh, Benjamin Watkins, 298, 299. 
Lemaster, Abraham, 241. 

Absom, 240. 
Lemon, Mary, 399. 

Robert, 399. 
Lentz, Christian, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33. 

34. 
Leshir, Jacob, 245. 
Levincz, 118. 
Lewis, Capt., 64. 
Major, 161. 
Benjamin, 237. 
Frances Parke, 79. 
Mrs. Lawrence, 79. 
Lidey, Abraham, 245. 
Lighter, John, 42. 
Lightfoot, Ann, 393. 
John, 393. 
Thomas, 392, 393. 
Limer, Peter, 225. 
Linck, Capt. Andrew, 30, 31, 32, 33, 
34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42, 44, 
45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 227, 
228, 229, 230, 231, 246 f. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 111, 112, 113, 133. 
Lindsay, Jesse H., 331. 
Line, Jacob, 247. 
Martin, 43. 
Lingan, Oen. James, 130. 
Linville, Charles H., elected, 184. 
List of Members, 84. 
Little, George, 241. 
Little Egg Harbor, N. J., 218. 
" Little Sancho," 123. 
Livingston, Edward. 162, 164, 279. 
Lloyd, Edward, 145. 

Henrietta Maria, 25. 
Philemon, 25. 
Ivockwood's Point, 207. 
Logman, .James, 225. 
Long, Robert Carey, 180. 
Thomas, 51, .390. 
William L., 321. 
Ix)ng Acre, Froflorick Co., 1.30. 
" I^ng Point," .39*. 
T>ongstreet, Gen. .Tames, 16, 17. 



INDEX. 



419 



Looton, (Lotten), Elizabeth, 211, 
212, 

Jacob. 204, 206, 208, 209, 
210, 211, 212. 

Mrs. Jacob, 209. 

John, 212. 

Mary, 212. 
Lossing, Benjamin J., 219. 
Lotten, see Looten. 
Love, Ck)rnelius, 224. 
Lowe, Bazil, 225, 
Lower, Peter, 238. 
Lowndes, Miss, 153, 
Lucket, Samuel, 243, 
Lunn's Lot, 179. 
Lydny, John, 240. 
Lyn, John, 48. 
Lynn, David, 125. 
McGardle, Patrick, 227. 
McClealahan, James, 240. 
Macomb, Gen. Alexander, 164. 
MoCowen, Andrew, 223. 
McCoy, James, 234, 243. 
MeCulloh, James W., 115. 
McCullough, Charles, 48. 
McDonald, George, 48. 
McDuffie, George E., 277, 279, 284, 

291, 293, 302, 311, 313, 358, 
Macedonia, (ship), 315. 

McGilley, , 256. 

McKee, John, 46. 53. 
McKern, Michael, 32. 
Mackubin, Miss Florence, deceased, 

183. 
MoLane, Louis, 279. 
MoMachan, Barnabas, 48. 
McMahon, John V. L., 144, 148, 159. 
McPheeters, Dr., 324. 
Madison, Pres. James, 111, 125, 135, 
269, 299, 378. 379, 380, 381, 382. 
Madison, Mrs. James, 379, 380, 382. 
"Maiden's Dairy," 394. 
Maifet, William, 227, 
Magruder, John, 130. 
Mangum, Willie P,, 300, 309, 321, 

330, 350. 
Marburg, Emma, elected, 77. 
Marchant, Roland R., elected, 77. 

Maroni 55, 56. 

Marshall, Col. Charles, 16. 
Marshal, John, 37, 38, 39, 
Marshall, John, 323, 

Chief Justice John, 115. 

1.34, 142, 170, 374, 
Richard H., 132. 
Winifred, 323. 



Martin, James, 243, 

Judge James, 336. 
Luther, 110, 120, 121, 122, 
127, 128, 129, 133, 134, 
135, 137, 139, 142, 169. 
Nicholas, 35, 
Marte, William B, Early Settlers 
of the Site of Havre de Grace, 197. 
Maryland boundary line, 23, 145. 
Maryland, Herman's Map of, 1670, 

205. 
Maryland Legion, 220. 

Loyalists, 154. 
Mary's Bank, 202. 
"Mary's Banks," 199. 
Mascall, Richard, 390, 391. 
"Mascall's Hope," 389, 390, 392. 
Mash, John, 392. 
Mason, Jchn Thompson, 110, 119, 

120. 
Mason and Dixon's boundary line, 

23, 24. 
Massah, William, 40. 
Masson, Nicolas, 224. 
Master, Leigh. 154. 
Matthews, William, 48, 229. 
Maxwell, Michael, 242. 
Maxwell family, 199. 
James, 199. 
Col. James, 199, 207, 208, 

209, 210. 
Marv ( Harmer ) Gundry, 
199. 
"Maxwell's Conclusion," 199, 200, 

201. 
Mayer, Brantz, 219. 
Maynadier, Ausrusta D. (Schwartz), 
81. 
Daniel, 81. 
Eliza, 82. 
Eliza (Key), 81, 
Col. Henrv. 81. 
Dr. Henry, 81. 
Margaret Murray. 81. 
Mary (Murray), 81. 
Mrsl T. Murray, 81. 
Mays, Andrew, 241, 
Meade, Everard, 9, 10, 
Medding, Mordecai, 243. 
Melchoir, Adam, 221. 
Melott, Joseph, 241. 
Men of Maryland Specially Hon- 
ored BY TiTE State or the 
United States. 76. 
Mennonites, 245, 247. 
Menser, Michael, 240. 
Mereness, Newton D., cited, 24. 
Merryman, .John, 112, 113. 
Messersmith, Vallentine, 242. 



420 



THE MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 



Micokberger, John, 246. 
"Middle Ollives." 198, 200. 
Middle River, 205. 
Middlecalf, John. 43, 238. 
Middleton, Elizabeth, 104. 
Miller, Abraham, 245. 
Allen, 53. 
Andrew, 42, 240. 
David, 245. 
G^rge, 232, 234, 244. 
Henrv, 247. 
Jacob, 241, 242. 
John Solomon, 232, 234. 
Martin, 224, 226. 
Paul H., elected, 184. 
Peter, 226. 

Stephen D., 289, 303, 309. 
Mills, Elijah, 48. 
Jacob, 48. 
Michael, 48. 

Mitchell, , 169. 

Elisha, 326, 327, 328. 
Mrs. Elisha. 326, 328. 
Dr. Lueco, 335. 

. (North), 326, 328. 

Monk's Marsh. 200, 201. 
Montgomery, James, 323. 
John, 154. 
Rev. Thomas H., 27. 
Moore, George, 33. 
Moran, Edmond, 234. 
Moravian Sisters of Bethlehem, Pa., 

217, 218, 219, 220. 
Morgan, Jemima, 391. 
Thomas, .391. 
Morgantown, N. C, 342, 345, 349. 
Morris, Robert, 3b4. 

Capt. Thomas, 205. 
Morrow, Thomas, 240, 241. 
Mosbv. Col. John Singleton, 14. 
Mt. Vernon, 314. 
Mountford. Cnimt Julius de, 220. 
Muhlenberg, Henry A.. 292. 
Mulledy, Rev. Thomas F., 289. 
Muneen, uMp, 359. 
Murdock, Margaret (Dulany) Ham- 
ilton. 25. 
William, 25, 225. 
Murphy, Daniel, 239. 
Murray, Jabez, 395. 

James, 223, 391, .394. 
Marv, 81. 
Matthias. 225. 
^fr/l. T.. 81. 
Wm. Vans, 81. 
Zir.porah. 394, 307. 
Miirson. riaspnrd. 224. 
Myer, Adam, 230. 
John, 226. 
Rimon, 53. 



Nash, Gov. Abner, 329. 
Francis, 329. 
Judge Frederick, 329, 3B0. 

Natural Bridge, Va., 373, 375, 380. 
383, 384, 385. 

Nead, Matthias, 29 ff., 227 ff. 

Neguire, Peter, 222. 

Neilson, Greorge, 162. 

Nelan, Thomas, 240. 

Nelson, Dr., 343. 

Nesbott, Nathaniel, 242. 

Newbold, David N., Jr., elected, 77. 

Newcomer, Christian, 245. 

Newling, C. G-., elected, 82. 

Nicholl, Jacob, 53. 

Nicholls, John, 387. 

Noll, Benjamin, 246. 

Norfolk, Va., 313, 314, 315, 372, 373. 

Norris, Joseph, 31. 

North East River, 205. 

Norwood, Peter, 326. 

Norvell, Ellias, 223. 

Nugent, Benjamin, 238. 

Obings, Moses, 241. 

Obrian, John, 241. 

Odber, Capt. John, 201. 

O'Delany, see Dulany. 

O'Donovan, Dr. Charles, 185. 

Rev. Louis, elected, 184. 

O'Dullany, Felix, bp. of Ossory, 21. 

Ogle, , 257. 

Gov. Samuel. 22, 24, 143. 

Oharrow, Arthur, 241. 

"Old Fort," 199. 

Old Fort Plantation, 200, 201. 

Old Point Comfort, Va., 314, 368, 
369. 

"Ollives," 198. 

Oilman, Andrew, 223. 

O'Neill, , 221. 

Orindorf, Maj. Christian, 31, 36, 37, 
42, 53, 229, 240. 

Orme, Capt. Robert, 79. 

Otter Creek, 209. 

Otto, Matthias, 48. 

Owen, Franklin Buchanan, elected, 
77. 

Owings, Roger, 222. 

Ox, George, 223. 

Paca family, 203. 

William, 159, 160. 

Packard, Josei'U. The Retreat from 
Petersburg to Appomattox — Per- 
sonal Recollections, 1« 

Paige, John, 240. 

Palmer, Peter, 240. 

William, 221. 

Palmer's Island, 203, 206. 

Papers road bi-forc llie Society, 196. 

" Paradise Regained," 205. 



INDEX. 



421 



Park, , 29. 

Parker, George, 389. 
Paschke, Frederick, 221. 
Patapsco Hundred, 393. 
Patrick Henry, ship, 373. 
Patton, John M., 302. 
Peabody, George, 182, 192. 
Peale, Edmund, 219. 
Pendall, Jacob, 48. 

Philip, 48. 
Pennington, Dr. Clapham, elected, 
77. 

Perkins, , 61, 64. 

Peter, Michael, 41. 

Petersburg, Va., 1, 4, 316, 317, 318, 

320, 322, 373. 
Pettete's Old Field, 393. 
Philips, Joseph, 223. 

Thomas, 48. 
" Philip's Fancy," 389. 
Phillips, Prof. Charles, 328. 

James, 395. 

Prof. James, 328. 

Samuel, 328. 

Philpot, , 65. 

Phippen, Ann (Cromwell) Ager, 400. 

David, 400. 
Pickering, Jane (Cromwell), 400. 

Jonathan, 400. 
Pifer, Adam, 245. 
Pigman, Beene S., 137, 
Pinkney, William, 128, 135, 139, 

142, 144, 169. 
Pipe Creek, 139. 
Piper, Elizabeth, 237. 
Pitt, William, Lord Chatham, 144, 

147, 148. 
Planter's Paradise, 205. 
Plater, Col. George, 20, 21, 23, 151. 
Pleasants, J. Hall, Jr., 83. 
Poindexter, George, 285, 287, 309, 

310, 311. 
Poinsett, Joel R., 362. 369. 372. 
Point Conquest, 204, 205, 206. 
Poland, John, 224. 

215. 
Polk, Miss, 335. 

James K., 287. 
Col. William, 335, 336. 
Poole's Island, 205. 
Postalor, Andrew, 245. 
Potts. Judge Richard. 124. 
'•' Powdersbv," 197, 198. 
Powel, Thomas, 240. 
Power, Frederick, 44. 
Prather, Col. Thomas, 31. 
Praybury, , 165. 



Price, , 165. 

John, 222. 
Walter, 399. 
Pringle, John Julius, 366. 

Mrs. John Julius, 366, 367, 
368. 
Printz. Gov. Johan. 202. 
Prior, Benjamin, 222. 
Proceedings of the Committee of 
Observation for Elizabeth Town 
District. [Washington County], 
28, 227. 
Proceedings of the Society: 
November meeting, 1917, 77. 
December meeting, 1917, 79. 
January meeting, 1918, 82. 
February meeting, 1918, 183. 
Annual meeting, 1918, 185. 
March meeting, 1918, 183. 
April meeting, 1918, 184. 
Proprietary Government, 143, 144. 
" Prospect Hall," 157. 
Public Alley, Baltimore, 216. 
Pulaski, Gen. Casimir, 214, 215, 216, 
217, 220, 225. 
Count Joseph, 214. 
Pulaski's Banner, 217, 218, 219, 220. 
Pulaski's Legion. Richard Henry 

Spencer, 214. 
Quick, James, see Quigg, 234. 
Quigg (alias Quick), James, 234, 
237. 

Quin, , 48. 

Quincy, Josiah, Jr., 150. 
Eamer, Frederick, 232, 234. 
Randall, Daniel R., elected, 80. 
Randolph, John, 311, 384. 
Dr. P. G., 164. 
Rastall, 118. 

Rattenbury, Hannah, 394, 396. 
Dr. John, 396. 
Margaret, 394, 395. 
Raymond, 117, 132. 
Reaplogle, Philip, 231, 234. 
Reiley, Moyles, 237. 
Rennestrick, John, 43. 
Rench (Rentch), Andrew, 28, 29, 30, 
31, 32, 35, 36, 240. 
John, 239, 240. 
Joseph, 35, 235, 236. 
Reports of Committees: 
Addresses, 196. 
Art Gallery, 189. 
Athenaeum Trustees, 188. 
Finance, 189. 

Genealogy and Heraldry, 195. 
Library, 190. 
Membership, 194. 
Publication, 191. 



422 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



The Retreat from Peteksbubq to 
Appomattox — Personal Recol- 
lections. Joseph Packard, 1. 
Revolutionary War, see U. S. War 

of the Revolution. 
Reynolds, Capt. John, 43, 51. 

John, 8r., 33, 40. 
Rhodes. Ezekiel, 53. 
Richards, Richard. 48. 
Richardson, Capt., 207, 210, 211. 
Nathaniel, 154. 
Col. Thomas, 208. 
Ricketts, Benjamin, 199. 

(Maxwell), 199. 

Samuel, 201. 

Thomas, 201. 

Ricketts Point. 109, 200, 202. 

Riddle, Henry, 154. 

Ridenour, George, 246. 

Martin, 246. 

Matthias, 29, 33, 34, 35, 
40, 44, 45, 50, 52, 53, 

228 jgp. 
Ridgeley, Major, 174, 175. 

, 121. 

Charles. 66. 

John, 68. 

Ruxton M., 83, 185, 189. 

Ridout, , 257. 

John, 151. 
Riggins, Ebenezer, 223. 
Ringgold, Samuel, 129. 
Ritchie, Thomas, 165. 
Rives, William Cabell, 304, 307, 308. 
Road, Jacob, 245. 
Paul, 245. 

Robbins, , 374. 

Franklin. 363. 
Fred, 322. 
Mrs. Lydia, 322. 
Samuel, 322. 
Robins Point, 200. 
Robinson, James. 197. 

John, 239, 393. 
Robotham, George, 388. 
Rochp«ter, Nathaniel, 125. 
Ropk Run, 214. 
R4jckbridge battery, 2. 
Rogers, — — , 249. 
Rohrer, Jacob, .')2. 245. 
John. 245. 
Martin, 245. 
Rollins, Isaac, 223. 
RoIIb, .Tames, 226. 
Rolph, William, 222. 
Romney Creek, 203. 
Rondcrfjush, .John, 240. 
Roof, Matthias, 2.i2, 234. 
Nicholas, 232, 234. 



Root, Jacob, 245. 
Ross, John, 23, 205. 

Mrs., 216. 
Roth, Francois de, 221. 
Rouerie, Marquis de la. Sec Armand. 
Rowland, Jacob, 39, 51. 
Ruffin, Edmund. 374, 375. 
Ruger. Frederick, 226. 
Rumlev Greek, 203. 
" Rupalta," 203. 
Russell, Edward, 393, 
Rutter, Edmund, 241. 
Ruxton, Nicholas, 389. 
Ryland, Nicholas, 222. 
Sack, Joseph, 224. 
Sailor's Creek, Va., 12, 19. 
St. Anne's Church, Annapolis. 26, 

156. 
St. Elme, Gerard de, 221. 
St. John's College, Annapolis, 22. 
St. Paul's burial ground, 158. 
Sampson, Richard, 393. 

Thomas, 198. 

Wm., 48. 
" Samson," 198. 

Sanderson, , 240. 

Sanford, John L., 185. 
Saughier, George, 394, 395. 

Margaret, 395. 
Saimders, Romulus Mitchell, 324. 
Saurier, Madam, 278. 
Scharf, Thomas J., 219. 
Schley, Frederick A., 131. 

William, 141. 
Schnebley, Dr. Henry, 28 ff. 
Schoekey, Abraham, 230. 

Christian, 231, 234, 238. 

Isaac, 229, 230, 231, 234, 
238. 

Isaac Christian, 247. 

Valentine, 231. 
Schwartz, Augusta D.. 81. 

Dr. Edward, 82. 

Margaret Murray (May- 
nadier), 81. 
Scott, Mrs. C. L., elected, 183. 

William, 53, 2.37, 238. 
Sea Island Cotton plantations, 360. 
Seaton, William W., 296, 323. 
Seawell, Judge Henry, 350, 352. 
Secession, 315. 
"Second Citizen," 149, 150. 
Segond, James de, 221. 
Seister, Michel, 241. 
Seitzler, William, 51, 233, 236. 
Sekien, Dr. William Boswell, 31.5, 

373. 
Semmes, Raphael T., 191, 195. 
Sept, William, 225. 



INDEX. 



423 



de Sequid (de Segond), , 216. 

Sergeant, John, 286, 287, 293. 
Serurier, 277. 
Seth, William, 223. 
Seydelin, John, 221. 
Schaaf, Arthur, 110 flf. 
Shaffer, Nicholas, 242. 
Shalley, Peter, 50. 
Shank, Christian, 245. 

Michael, 245. 
Sharer, Jacob, 41. 
Sharpe, Gov. Horatio, 22, 26, 143, 

145, 176, 257. 
Sharpsburg, 242, 243. 
Shaw, 156. 

John, 223. 
Shee, John, 224. 
Sheridan, 144. 
Shewall, Wm., 48. 
Shiply, Richard, 252, 256. 
" Shirley," Va., 317, 318, 373. 
Shoop, Adam, 245. 
Shrader, John, 226. 
Shryock, Col. Henry, 29, 46, 47, 
52, 234 f. 
Jacob, 42. 
John, 244, 246. 
Gm. T. J., deceased, 183. 
Shuler, John, 226. 
Shultz, George, 247. 
Silliman, Prof. Benjamin, 328. 
Simm, George, 244. 
Simms, Ignatius, 46, 53, 240, 241, 
243. 
Thomas, 29, 240. 
Skills, William, 241. 
Skinner, Wm., 48. 
Skirt, Patrick, 223. 
Skoop, Henry, 224. 
John, 224. 
Slade, William, 270, 274. 

Sloane, , 315. 

Smallwood, Gev. William, 45. 
Smith, Albert, 361. 

Dr. Ashbel, 332, 333, 334, 

335, 337, 338, 339, 341. 
Edmund, 359, 365. 
Edward, 226. 
James, 239. 
Capt. James, 42, 44, 45, 46, 

53. 
John, 3d, 226. 
Joseph, 222. 

Col. Joseph, 31^., 232 f. 
Nicholas, 28, 29, 30, 38, 39 

228 f. 
Rachel (Hall), 143. 
Rebecca, 25, 143. 



Smith, Robert Barnwell, 361, 362. 
365. 
Thomas, 31, 38, 42, 44, 45. 
Gov. Thomas, 364. 
Col. Walter, 25, 143. 
William, 397. 
Smithly, Mathias, 240. 
Snider, Frederick, 48. 

John, 48. 
Snyder, Gasper, 232, 234. 
John, 229. 
Joseph, 224. 
Peter, 226. 
Solomon, Samuel, 238, 247. 
Somerset, Lady Joanna Maria, 81. 
Sommerlott, William, 226. 
Sook, Henry, 44. 
Jacob, 247. 
Jacob, Jr., 247. 
South, Benjamin, 241. 
The South Atlantic States in 
1833 AS Seen by a New Eng- 
LANDEJB. Henry Barnard. Ed. by 
B. C. Steiner, 267, 295. 
Souther, Rudolph, 240. 
Spangler, Matthias, 43. 
Sparrow, Capt. Jacob, 34. 
Spenceb, Richard Henry. Pulaski's 

Legion, 214. 
Spenceb, Richard Henby. Hon. 
Daniel Dulany, the Elder (1685- 
1753), 20. 
Spenceb, Richard Henry. Hon. 
Daniel Dulany, the Younger 
(1722-1797), 143. 
Sperling, 241. 
Spesutia, 204. 

Island, 202, 205, 
Parish, 209. 
Spoor, Ludwic, 224. 
Sprague, Peleg, 311. 
Sprigg, Joseph, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33, 
34, 47 if. 
Thomas. 46, 48, 50, 228, 
229, 230. 
Spry, Johanna, 202. 

Marv, 198, 201, 202. 
Oliver, 198, 200, 201, 202. 
Spry's Island, 199, 200, 202. 
Staley, Thomas, 396. 
Stanislaus, Augustus, King of 

Poland, 215. 
Stansbury, Luke, 205. 

Tobias, 205. 
Stanaby, Capt. John, 199. 

Mary, 199. 
Staton. Mrs. Mary Robinson, elected, 

82. 
Stauffer, Matthias, 245. 



424 



THE MARYLAND HISTORICAX MAGAZINE. 



Steadmans, G. E., 269. 
Stears, Earnest. 223. 
Steel, John, 225. 2-40. 
Steele. Elisha. 225. 

John, 225. 
Steineb. B. C, editor. The 8outh 
Atlantic States as Seen by a New 
Englander by Henry Barnard, 267, 
295. 
Steuart, Dr., 58. 

George, 151. 
Col. Richard Davis, 244. 
Steuben, Baron von Frederick Wil- 
liam, 214. 
Stevenson, A., 165. 

Daniel, 154. 
Dr. John, 216. 
Stewart, Andrew, 274, 295. 

Anthony, 154. 
Stey, John, 221. 
Stiles, Nathaniel, 198. 
Stockbridge, Judge Henry, 78, 82. 

Henry, 3d, elected, 80. 
Stockett, Francis, 203. 

Henry, 202, 203. 
Thomas, 202, 203, 206. 
Capt. Thomas, 203, 204. 
Stokes, George, 213. 

Humphrey Wells, 212, 213. 
John, 212, 213. 
Col. John, 212, 213. 
Rebecca, 214. 
Robert, 213, 214. 
Susanna (Wells), 212. 
Stokes's land, 214. 
Stonebraker, Garrett, 241. 
Stonsifer, John, 240. 
Stonewall Brigade, 3. 
Stophel, Isaac, 230. 
"The Stopp," 203. 
Store, Frederick, 46. 

Gasper, 46. 
Storrs, William L., 270, 271, 274, 

286, 292. 
Story, Justice Joseph, 117. 
Stover, Jacob, 245. 
" Strawberry Hill," 207. 
Strom, Henry, 240. 
Stuart, Gilbert, 380. 
Studebaker, Jacob, 245. 
fitull, Col. John, 28 /f., 47, 53, 231. 

Mrs. Mary, 4.3. 
Stydinger (Steydenger), Frederick, 

28/7., 227 ;f. 
Styer, Goorgf, HI. 
Sue'H Creek, 205. 
Susquehanna Fcrrv, 212, 214, 
Fort, 202. 
Indians, 202, 204, 206. 



Swain, Oov. David Lowry, 322, 323. 
Swan, John, 239, 244. 
Swan Creek, 197, 203. 
Swearingen, Maj. Charles, 41, 44, 45. 

Samuel, 44. 
Swengle, George, 240. 
Sweringer, Charles, 239. 
Swinger, George, 241. 
Swingley, Capt. George, 34, 39, 40, 
41. 
Peter, 34. 
Tadis (Faddis), Dr., 330, 
Taney, Anne Pheibe Charlton (Key), 
114, 140. 
Maria, 171. 

Michael, 113, 130, 131. 
Octavius, 131. 

Roger Brooke, 109, 144, 161, 
162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 
171, 182. 
Sophia, 171. 
Taney Letters. From the Society's 
Collection, 160. 

Barry to Taney, 164.. 
Benton to Taney, 167. 
Blair to Taney, 166. 
Carroll to Taney, 161. 
Clay to Taney, 166. 
Dawson to Taney, 161. 
Forsyth to Taney, 165. 
Jackson to Taney, 160. 
Livingston to Taney, 162. 
Stevenson to Taney, 164. 
Taney to Wayne, 167. 
Taney to daughter Sophia, 

171. 
Van Buren to Taney, 168. 
Tasker, Ann (Bladen), 155. 

Benjamin, 20, 24, 25, 155, 

391. 
Benjamin, Jr., 23, 145. 
Rebecca, 25, 155. 
"Tasker's Chance," 24. 
Taylor, Oen. Zachary, 78. 
Taylor's Island, 203. 
Tazewell, Littleton Waller, 315, 373. 
Teams, Peter, 223. 
Tecterich, Jacob, 238. 
Tedford, John, 222. 
Tedrow, John, 229, 230, 231, 238, 

247. 
Thomas family, 195. 

Christian, 245. 
Jacob, 245, 246. 
James W. FoBT Cumber- 
land, 82. 
Major John, 207. 210, 393. 
John Hanson, 125, 126, 134, 
13.5, 1.36. 



INDEX. 



425 



Thomas, Michael, 43, 246. 
Nicholas, 153. 

Peter, 247. 
Gen. Philemon, 299. 
Thompson, John, 46, 225. 

Joseph, 48. 
Thomson, George, 224. 
Thornburgh, Rowland, 389. 
Thurston, Col. Thomas, 203, 207, 

208, 210, 211. 
Tilghman, James, 159. 

Matthew, 145, 151. 
Tippett, Notley, 222. 
Todd, Dr., 307. 
Tom, Michael, 241. 
Tomlinson, Gov. Gideon, 278. 
Tootwiler, Henry, 243. 
Town Nec"k, 198. 
Trahearne, Eliza;beth, 390. 

Trammell, , 257. 258. 

Troup, George M., 315. 
Troxall, Abraham, 229, 232 ff. 
Troye, Francois Antoine de, 221. 
Trugard, William, 222. 
Trumbull, John, 280. 
Tucker, Henry St. George, 316. 
" Turkey Hill," 207. 
Tyler, James, 299, 304. 
John, 281. 
Dr. John, 125, 144. 
Samuel, 170. 
U. S. Civil War, 1, 2. 
U. S. War of the Revolution, 214, 

215. 
University of Virginia, 375, 376, 377, 

378 
" Upper Ollives," 198, 199. 
"Upper Stockett's," 203. 
Utie, Capt. George, 203. 

Col. Nathaniel, 203, 205. 
" Uptopia," 394. 
Van Buren, Martin, 169, 272, 304, 

307, 308. 
Verdier, Baptiste, 221, 224. 

Verney, , 221. 

Verplanck, Gulian C, 271, 272. 

Vestry Act, 1701-2, 149. 

Vinton, Samuel F., 291. 

" The Vision of Don Crocker," by 

William Kilty, 104. 
Vulgamet, Samuel, 245. 
Vulgamutt, Mary, 240, 241. 
Walker, Henry, 226. 
Wallace, Michael, 104. 
Wallen, Capt. James, 34, 35, 41, 247. 
Wallis, Severn Teackle, statue, 182. 

Waltham, (Maxwell), 199. 

Thomas, 199. 



War of the Revolution. See U. S. 

War of the Revolution. 
Warm Springs, S. C, 350, 352. 
"Warrington," 198. 
Washabaugh, John, 245. 
Washington, Ann Matilda (Lee), 
288. 
Gen. George, 46, 48, 
49, 78, 79, 134, 156, 
157, 215, 218, 236, 
321. 
Mrs. George, 154. 
The Washington Monument and 
Squabes. McHenry Howard, 183. 
Washington Place, 180. 
The Wasp, brig, 218. 
Waterton's Creek, 202. 
Watkins, John N., 104. 
Watkings, Francis, 393. 
Watkins, Dr. Tobias, 285, 310. 
Watson's Creek, 202. 
Wayne, Justice, 167. 

James M., 270. 
Webb, Dr. James, 329, 331. 

Mrs. James, 329. 
Webster, Daniel, 115, 117, 135, 279 ff. 
Weeks, Dr. Stephen B., 321, 323, 330. 
Weirs, Cave, Va., 375, 378, 380, 385. 
Weisman, Joseph, 337. 
Welch, William, 48, 221. 

Dr. William H., 1. 
"Welcome," 394. 

Weldy, Chrisley, 245. ' 

Welles, Gideon, 311. 
Wells, Blanche (Gouldsmith), 208. 
Col. George, 208, 211, 212, 213. 
Richard, 208. 
Susanna, 212. 
Wertzbough, Frederick, 244. 
West, Thomas, 241. 
Wharfield, Vachel, 68. 
Wheat, Joseph, 242. 
Wheler, Basile, 223. 
White, Edward D., 287. 
Jerome, 391. 
Miles, Jr., 83. 
Whittaker's Hill, 200. 

Spring, 200. 

Wilcox, , 311. 

Wilde, A., 291. 

Richard H., 290, 291. 
Wile, George, 46. 
Wilkins, William, 296, 297, 303. 
Wilkinson, Gen. James, 134, 135, 

136. 
Williams, 139. 

Capt., 227, 232. 
Alpheus S., 363 
Alyn, 81. 



42B THE MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

Williams. Mrs. Alvn. 80. Wolby, Dr., 40. 

Anna Dorsey, 80. Woltz, Dr. Peter, 34 ff., 227 ff. 

Anna Vernon (Dorsey), Woodpecker Road, 3. 

81. Woodside, James S., 78. 
Capt. Bazil. 34, 51, 52, 53. Woolgist, Arthur, 391. 
Benjamin, 396. Margaret (Johnson), 391. 
Edith (Cromwell) Gist, Mary, 391. 

396. Wordeman, Major, 367. 

John, 394. Worthington, Ellicott H., elected, 77. 
Jonas, 394. Thomas, 54. 

Jonathan, 394. Wroth, Lawrence C, 83. 

Joseph, 396. Yancey, William L., 330. 

Miss Nellie C, elected, 77, Yate, George, 388, 391. 

82. Yates, George, 203. 
Thos. J. C, 83. Yohe, George, 226. 

Willits, John, 75. York, Elizabeth Looton, 212. 
Willmot, John, 390. William, 212, 213. 

Willson, Robert, 394. Young, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33. 
Wilson, J. Appleton, 83, 188. Ebenezer, 270, 274, 296. 

Robert, 389. Jacob, 46. 213. 

Walter, 43. Ludwick, 35, 244, 246. 

Pres. Woodrow, 148. Miss Sara J. Gorsuch, elected, 

Winder, 139, 142, 169. 80. 

Windley, Richard, 201. Col. William, 214. 

Windley's Forrest, 201. Zeller, Henry, 241. 

W^irt, William, 115, 116, 134, 135. Ziegler, George, 226. 

Wise, Adam, 39. Zielinski, Capt. John de, 220, 224. 



^M^iMiMlMtartiHaMMa 



Vol. XIV JUNE, 1919 No. 2 

M\RYLAND 

HISTORICAL 

MAGAZINE 



PUBUSHEDBY 

THE MARYLAND fflSTORICAL SOCIETY 



ISSUED QUARTERLY 

.ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $3.00-SINGLE NUMBEfiS, 75ctsI, 



BALTIAWRE 



Entered as Second-Class Matter, April 24, 1917, at the Postoffice, at Baltimore, Maryland, 



ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND 

Published by authority of the State 



VOLUME XXXVIII 



This volume is now ready for distribution, and contains many Acts 
of the General Assembly of the Province from 1694 to 1698, and 
from 1711 to 1729, hitherto unprinted. The Acts had never before 
appeared in print, and their very existence had been lost sight of 
for many years, so that they were omitted, when the Proceedings 
and Acts of the General Assembly were previously printed by the 
Society. Having recently been recovered, they are now included in 
the Archives, and make the publication of the Acts substantially 
complete, down to the year 1732. Many of these Acts are private 
laws, but they are important for such reasons as that naturalization 
laws are useful for genealogists, and the laws curing defects in the 
title to real property will be found of value to cgnveyancers. There 
are also a large number of Acts with reference to insolvent debtors, 
to the Provincial and County Courts, to tobacco trade, etc. The 
Appendix contains some interesting documents with reference to the 
Anglican Church in Maryland, and to the early History of Education 
in the Province. 

The attention of members of the Society who do not now receive 
the. Archives is called to the liberal provision made by the Legisla- 
ture, which permits the Society to furnish to its own members copies 
of the volumes, as they are published from year to year, at the mere 
cost of paper, p.-ess-work, and binding. This cost is at present fixed 
at one dollar, at which price members of the Society may obtain one 
copy of each volume published during the period of their membership. 
For additional copies, and for volumes published before they became 
members, the regular price of three dollars is charged. The volume 
is edited by Bernard C. Steiner, Ph. D. 



THE MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



INCORPORATED 1843. 



OFFICERS. 

President, 

EDWIN WARFIELD. 

Vice-Presidents, 

W. HALL HARRIS, HENRY STOCKliRlDGE, 

DeCOURCY W. THOM. 

Corresponding Secretary, 

RICHARD H. SPENCER. 

Recording Secretary, 
GEORGE L. RADCLIFFE. 

Treasurer, 
HEYWARD E. BOYCE. 

THE COUNCIL. 

The General Officers 

AND 

J. APPLETON WILSON, McHENRY HOWARD, 

JOHN M. VINCENT, RUXTON M. RIDGELY, 

RICHARD M. DUVALL, JAMES McC. TRIPPE, 

PHILLIPS L. GOLDSBOROUGH, DR. BERNARD BROWNE. 



1866. 
1892. 
1909. 
1915. 
1916. 
1916. 
1916. 



BENEFACTORS OF THE SOCIETY. 

GEORGE PEABODY, Gift, . , 

J. HENRY STICKNEY, Bequest , 

ISAAC F. NICHOLSON, .... Gift, . , 

MENDES COHEN, Bequest, 

ISAAC HENRY FORD, . . . . . Bequest, 

ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, Gift, 

MRS. IMARY WASHINGTON KEYSER, 



$20,000 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Gift of the H. Irvine Keyser Memorial Building 



FORM OF LEGACY. 
" / give and bequeath to The Maryland Historical Society the 
sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS. 



a PAGE 

ly Memobiam: 

Zadoc Morton Katz, 101 

George Buchanan Redwood, 103 

John William Saxon, 104 

Harry J. Selby, lOf) 

John Galen Skilling, 107 

James Henderson Spafford, 108 

Frank Browne Turner, - - - 109 

The Battle of Long Island, 110 

WiLLiAK Francis Bband (Autobiographical Sketch), - - 120 

Extracts from the Cabroll Papers, 127 

The Battle of the Severn. B. Bernard Browne, M. D., - - 154 

Elegy on the Death of William Lock. Ebenezer Cook, ■ - 172 

The Life of Thomas Johnson. Edward 8. Delaplaine, - - 173 



Committee on Publications 

SAMUEL K. DENNIS, Chairman. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, BERNARD C. STEINER. 



LOUIS H. DIELMAN, 
Editor. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. XIV. JUNE, 1919. No. 2. 

IN MEMORIAM 

" Fob our tomoeeows, they gave theie today." 



Zadoc Morton Katz^ Private, 1st Class; Co. I, Intelligence 
Department, 313th Infantry, A. E. F. 
Born in Baltimore, Md., January 15, 1890. 
Killed in action, Montfaucon, France, September 27, 1918. 

He received his early education in the Public Schools, the 
religious schools of the Oheb Shalom Congregation, and the 
Preparatory Department of the Peabody Conservatory of Music. 
In 1906, at the age of 16, after three years' course, he graduated 
from the Baltimore City College, winning the third $100 Pea- 
body prize in a class of 119. 

Katz then entered the employ of his father, and at the age 
of 21 became a member of the firm. He was soon recognized 
as one of the ablest and most progressive young men in the 
commercial life of the city. Though strenuously engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, for three years prior to his death, he attended 
night classes of the Johns Hopkins University, taking courses 
in English, economics, corporation finance, psychology and 
philosophy. He was a member of the Masonic Fraternity, City 
Club, Progress Club, Suburban Club, and a member of the 
Executive Committee of the Alumni Association of the Balti- 

101 



102 MARYLAJSTD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

more City College. After building himself up physically by 
boxing and other athletics for several months, he requested his 
Draft Board to induct him into the service months in advance 
of his numerical time. He went in training at Camp Meade 
and embarked for France, July, 1918. 

He was killed during the heavy fighting in the American line 
September 7, 1918. According to a letter received by his par- 
ents, Private Katz is believed to have met his death while in 
" No Plan's Land " on a reconnoitering expedition. He was 
a member of the 3d Battalion, Intelligence Staff, Company I, 
" Baltimore's Own," 313th Infantry. During the operation of 
the American forces that branch of the service was instrumental 
in obtaining information as to the enemy's strength, identifica- 
tion, and other data, which is among the most hazardous duties 
in the army, the men being frequently obliged to visit the enemy 
trenches. It was on one of these scouting expeditions he was 
killed, immediately after accomplishing a heroic deed which 
probably saved many boys' lives. 

In his will Katz bequeathed $500.00 to charitable institu- 
tions of Baltimore. To honor his memory many donations were 
made to the Federated Jewish charities of Baltimore, one for 
$2,500.00 by a friend from ISTew York. The Lodge of the Ma- 
sonic Order, of which he was a member, paid a special tribute 
to him in a booklet issued by it. A group of friends presented 
to the Johns Hopkins University the Z. Morton Katz Memorial 
Fund of $3,000.00, through which, annually, a member of the 
graduating class of the Baltimore City College is awarded a 
scholarship to the Johns Hopkins University. 

Such was the useful life and heroic death of Zadoc Morton 
Katz. In letters from his comrades and articles which appeared 
in the press, many tributes were paid to him. All agree that 
he was a man of extraordinary ability and character, a fearless 
eoldier and one of the most beloved of men in his regiment. 



IN MEMORIAM. 103 

George Buchanan Redwood, 1st Lieut., 28th Infantry. 
Born at Baltimore, Maryland, September 30, 1888. 
Killed at Cantigny, France, May 28, 1918. 

George Buchanan Redwood was the son of the late Francis 
T. Redwood and Mary Coale Redwood, and brother of Francis 
T. Redwood, Jr. 

He received his early education at Gilman Country School 
from which he graduated in 1906. He then enrolled at Har- 
vard University at which institution he received distinction, 
graduating in 1910 with degree of B. A. From 1910 to 1917 
he was real estate editor of the Baltimore News. 

Immediately following America's declaration of war in April, 
1917, Lieut. Redwood enlisted in the U. S. Infantry and was 
at once ordered to attend the Fort Meyer Training Camp for 
officers, and was commissioned Lieutenant of Infantry. 

On September 7th, 1917, Lieut. Redwood sailed for France, 
His first assignment was to the British 4th Army School for 
sniping, scouting, and observation, passing with the highest 
possible grade, 100 per cent. From here he was assigned to 
the 28th Division as Intelligence Officer. He served continu- 
ously with this Division until his death. May 28th, 1918. 

He was awarded the D. S. C. for extraordinary heroism in 
action at Seicheprey, France, March 28th, 1918. With great 
daring he led a patrol of men into a dangerous portion of the 
enemy's trenches, where the patrol surrounded a party nearly 
doubling their own strength, captured a greater number than 
themselves, drove away an enemy rescuing party, and made 
their way back to their lines with four prisoners from whom 
valuable information was taken. 

Lieut. Redwood was also awarded an Oak Leaf Cluster, to be 
worn with the D. S. C, for the following act of extraordinary 
heroism at Cantigny, France, May 28, 1918. He conducted 
himself fearlessly to obtain information of the enemy's lines, 
which were reported to be under consolidation. While making 
a sketch of the German position on this mission, he was under 
heavy fire and continued his work even after being fatally 



104 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

wounded until it was concluded. The injuries sustained at this 
time caused liis death. He also received the Croix de Guerre 
with palm. 

The following letter from his General Commander, shows 
him to be an officer whose high example of all that is best in 
American manhood, is a heritage of honor and pride which his 
Division shares with his native city: 

" Coblenz, Germany, Jan. 22, 1919. 

My dear Mrs. Redwood: 

This command sends to you through me this expression of 
pride shared with you in the record of your son. 

'No finer example of our nation has given his life for the great 
cause. 

In our memory he marches in the van of the bravest and best 
— those who sought the posts of highest honor — ^nearest the 
enemy. 

Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) Frank Parker, 

General Commanding." 



John William Saxon, Co. K., 115th Infantry. 
Born at Alvin, Texas, ISTovember 5, 1897. 
Killed at ISTollville Farm, France. 

John William Saxon was the son of Jesse W. Saxon and Han- 
nah W. Saxon, and brother of Thomas L. Saxon, Mary Saxon, 
Ruth Saxon, Xaomi Saxon, Samuel M. Saxon, and Jesse J. 
Saxon. 

His early life was spent in Alvin, Texas, moving with his 
family to Washington, D. C, in 1907, where he entered the 
public school at Chevy Chase. In 1918 the Saxon family took 
up residence in Hyattsville, Md., remaining only two years, 
when they moved to Kensington, Md. While at Kensington, 
John Saxon attended Central High School, Washington, D. C. 



IN MEMORIAM. 105 

In June, 1916, he enlisted in the Maryland National Guard, 
1st Regt., Company K, and was immediately sent to the Mexi- 
can border, remaining there until November, 1916. At the out- 
break of the war with Germany his Regiment was called and 
sent to Camp McClellan, Anniston, Ala. After six months 
intensive training they were sent overseas as the 115th TJ. S. 
Infantry, arriving in France the latter part of June, 1918. 

Only a few days after -Sergt. Saxon's Company got into line 
he was awarded a divisional citation for courage and skill in 
reconnoissance preliminary to a raid on the German trenches 
August 30th and 31st, 1918, when he had the high honor of 
being the first man of his division to enter the enemy trenches 
in his attack. 

In October, 1918, he was awarded posthumously, the D. S. C, 
for the following act of extraordinary heroism in action near 
Verdun, France: 

" In the advance on Eechene Hill he showed great courage 
and judgment in leading his platoon and wiping out several 
machine guns that were holding up the advance. He was killed 
while gallantly leading his men against the last of these." 

He was buried with full military honors in the American 
Cemetery at Consenvoye Meuse, France. 



Hakky J. Selby^ Capt. 18th U. S. Infantry. 

Bom at Ivory, Howard County, Maryland, Dec. 15th, 1894. 
Killed in Argonne Drive, France. 

Harry J. Selby was the eldest son of John W. Selby and 
Addin Selby, and brother of John R. Selby, W. B. Selby, Grace 
Selby, Jane Selby, Mrs. H. P. Makel and Mrs. Florence Igle- 
hart. 

He attended public schools and high school until he was 18 
years of age when he enrolled at St. John's College, Annapolis, 
Maryland. At this institution he received the highest honors 
both in scholastic and military affairs. Besides this he was a 



106 makyla:nd historical magazine. 

prominent athlete, being chosen for the all-Maryland foot-ball 
and basket-ball teams for three consecutive years. 

After his graduation he enlisted in the 1st. Maryland Ma- 
chine Gun Company in which he saw service on the Mexican 
border. In December, 1916, he was commissioned in the Regu- 
lar Army and detailed to Fort Leavenworth. From here he 
was assigned to the 18th Infantry, sailing for France with the 
1st. U. S. Contingent on June 14th. 

His first duty was as instructor at Gonducourt school. Re- 
joining the 18th on July 3 he took part in the Cantigny drive. 
Capt. Selby was wouned near Soissons, July 18th. He return- 
ed to duty with the Regiment on September 4th in time to take 
part in the drive started September 11th. While in the Ar- 
gonne, the Major of his battalion was gassed. Capt. Selby was 
immediately put in command of the battalion and led it for 
three days of the hardest fighting. 

Besides being cited in Division orders December 8th, 1st. 
Division, A. E. F., the Marshal of France, Commander in 
Chief of the French armies of the East, cites in the order of 
the Army: 

" Capt. H. J. Selby, 18th Regt., U. S. Infantry, displayed 
great bravery and coolness at the head of a battalion which he 
brilliantly led to the attack, October 4, 1918. He did not spare 
himself during the days following, encouraging his men by his 
great calm under the fire of enemy guns and machine guns. 
Fatally wounded October 9, 1918." 

(Signed) Petain, 

Commander-in-chief." 

Capt. Selby won the admiration and friendship of every 
officer in the Regiment, and all the men under his command 
say he was the bravest man they ever saw. Capt. Selby was 
buried with full military honors at Exemont, France. 



IN MEMORIAM. 107 

John Galen Shilling, 1st Lieut. Medical Corps. 
Born at Lonaconing, Maryland, February 22d, 1894. 
Killed at Mouzon, France, November 7th, 1918. 

John Galen Skilling was the son of Dr. William Q. Skilling 
and Lottie (Kuhn) Skilling, and brother of William K. Skilling 
and Charlotte Skilling Carter. 

His boyhood days were spent in Lonaconing, Maryland, 
where he attended public schools. At the age of 13 he entered 
Central High School of Lonaconing, from which he graduated 
in 1911. He then took two years of pre-medical work at the 
University of Pennsylvania, going thence to the University of 
Maryland, from which institution he graduated as Medical 
Doctor in 1917. Subsequently he was appointed resident physi- 
cian at Maryland General Hospital, Baltimore. On August 
1st, 1917, he received his commission in the U. S. Medical 
Corps. Shortly afterwards he married Jessie B. Robinson of 
Cumberland, Maryland. 

Lieut. Skilling was assigned to Camp Greenleaf, Oglethorpe, 
Ga., at which place he received his training. On April 16th he 
went overseas and on his arrival was assigned to Field Hospital 
13, 1st. Division. He also served with Ambulance Company 
No. 3, and at the time of his death was Battalion Surgeon of 
1st. Battalion, 26th Infantry, 1st Division. 

Lieut. Skilling saw active service with his regiment during 
the battles of Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, and both the 
Argonne Forest drives, besides all the other 1st Division engage- 
ments. 

The Major of his Battalion, L. R. Wheeler, writes the fol- 
lowing : 

" I commanded the Lieutenant's Battalion, 26th Infantry, 
from late July to September 18th. Skilling was the Battalion 
Surgeon, and was as efficient professionally as he was lovable 
personally. His calmness and clear insight under conditions 
of stress were of the utmost value to the command. He was 
beloved by the men and respected by the officers." 



108 MABYLAN"D HISTORICAL MAGAZIITE. 

The last heard of Lieut. Skilliiig was when he walked up to 
Battalion Headquarters to inform them that they were in great 
need of stretcher bearers and stretchers. He then left to return 
to the wounded, where his duty was, and in crossing over the 
exposed ground was struck by one of the enemy's large shells 
and it is doubtful if his body was ever recovered. 

" A great sorrow for his family was his death, but also an 
imperishable honor in his giving truly, efficiently, bravely, 
his life for our country — and they were the best we had, the 
men who did not return — ," 



James Henderson Spafford, Lieut. 2nd Regt. Engineers, 2nd 
Division. 
Born at Baltimore, Md., October 9, 1892. 
Killed at Suippes, France, October 9, 1918. 

James Henderson Spafford was the only son of James A. 
Spafford and Susanne I. Spafford and brother of Mrs. Edgar G. 
Carlisle of Philadelphia. 

Lieut. Spafford received his early education at the Baltimore 
Polytechnic Institute, graduating in 1911. He then spent two 
years in the Engineering Department of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad and one year in Engineering Department of the 
Southern Railroad, going thence to the Civil Engineering 
School of Cornell University, with the class of 1917. 

When America declared war, Lieut. Spafford entered the 
Officers' Training Camp at Fort Myer and was commissioned 
2d Lieut, in August. The following month he left for France 
and after spending about eight months in more specialized 
training at Versailles, was sent to the firing line in May and 
was made 1st. Lieut, soon thereafter. 

For the following act of extraordinary heroism in which he 
made the supreme sacrifice Lieut. Spafford received both the 
D. S. C. and the Croix de Guerre with palm. Seeing a combat 
patrol suddenly fired upon by an enemy machine gun nest and 



IN MEMORIAM. 



109 



hard puslied, Lieut. Spafford went to its relief, courageously 
leading an attack on the machine gun nest. Although wounded 
in the arm during the attack he continued in action until he 
received a second wound. He was then taken to the hospital 
at Suippes, where he died two hours later. 

He fought in the battles of Belleau Woods, Chateau-Thierry, 
Soissons, St. Mihiel and Blanch Mont. He was recommended 
for a Captaincy shortly before his death. He fell in battle on 
his twenty-sixth birthday. 



Fkank Browne Turner, First Lieutenant, U. S. Army, 
Aviation Corps, A. E. F. 

Bom at " l^orwood," near Wicomico, Charles County, Mary- 
land, September 22, 1895. 

Killed near Tours, France, January 30, 1918. 

Frank Brown Turner was the youngest son of Robert Hall 
Turner and Mary Keech Turner, and brother of Robert Alan 
Turner, William Carlyle Turner and Mrs. Francis A. Martin. 

His boyhood days were spent at " ITorwood " and his early 
schooling was obtained at the public school nearby. In his 
thirteenth year he enrolled at the Oilman Country School, near 
Baltimore, remaining for two years, then attended the Brown- 
ing Preparatory School in !N"ew York City, going thence to the 
Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, with the Class 
of 191Y. 

Immediately following America's Declaration of War, in 
April, 1917, Lieutenant Turner enlisted in the Aviation Section 
of the Signal Corps, at Fort Myer, Va. He was ordered to 
the Ground School at Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
for preliminary training. During this period he returned to 
New Haven and received his degree. From the Ground School 
he was sent to Mineola for intensive training in flying, and in 
a short time was pronounced an efficient pilot and awarded a 
commission of First Lieutenant, Aviation Corps. 

In October, 1917, Lieutenant Turner sailed for France in 



110 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

charge of one hundred cadets, whom he was to assist in training 
on arrival overseas. While engaged in this w'ork, and also 
undergoing special training for combat work, his plane was run 
into by that of Cadet Hopkins, of Newark, N. J., and both 
flyers killed instantly. 

The funeral of Lieutenant Turner, near Tours, France, was 
most impressive. According to eye witnesses, during the funeral 
one hundred planes went through formations over the grave, 
and over the procession, which was half a mile in length. His 
comrades were so anxious to contribute for flowers that the 
amount had to be limited. The flowers were brought by special 
plane from a nearby city. 

Lieutenant Turner was popular with all who knew him and 
held in high esteem by his fellow fliers, as is evidenced by the 
remarks of a friend and eye-witness to the accident: " I want 
to let his Mother know how much the crowd really thought of 
him ; there wasn't anybody better liked." 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND 



[In 1916 a special Committee, consisting of Messrs. Andrew C. 
Trippe, Eichard M. Duvall and Francis B. Culver, was appointed 
to investigate the records with a view to establish the personnel 
composing the " Maryland Four Hundred " who, at the Battle of 
Long Island, 27th August, 1776, checked the British advance 
during the successful retreat of Washington's main army. The 
result of the investigation is herein presented. — Editor.] 

The "■ Maryland 400 " at Long Island. 

After the evacuation of Boston, Washington led his army to 
New York, which he feared would next be assailed, for New 
York was commercially important, and a strong Tory element 
existed in its vicinity. 

Hurried preparations were made to complete the fortifica- 
tions, troops were enlisted for three years, a bounty of ten 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. Ill 

dollars was offered to encourage recruiting, and about twenty- 
seven thousand men were finally collected, of whom a little over 
one-half were fit for duty. 

On the first of July, 1776, General Howe arrived at Staten 
Island from Halifax, and was soon after joined by his brother, 
Admiral Howe, from England, and by Clinton from the British 
defeat at Fort Moultrie. The enemy had thirty thousand 
admirably disciplined and equipped troops, including about 
eight thousand of the dreaded and detested Hessians. 

The British fleet consisted of ten ships-of-the-line, twenty 
frigates, and four hundred ships and transports, which were 
moored in the bay, ready to co-operate. 

Parliament now proclaimed pardon for all those who would 
return to their allegiance. Lord Howe desired a restoration of 
peace and sought an interview with his old-time friend, 
Benjamin Franklin. But it was too late. The colonies de- 
manded independence, which England refused to grant. Noth- 
ing but war could settle the question. 

Companies were mustered forthwith, and Maryland took 
measures to rush more than 3,900 troops on to l^ew York, the 
anticipated theatre of war. A letter from the Council of Mary- 
land to the Maryland deputies in Congi-ess, bearing date the 
16th of Aug*ust, 1776, reads: " We shall have near 4,000 men 
with you in a short time — this exceeds our proportion for the 
Flying Camp, but we are sending all we have that can be armed 
and equipped, and the people of New York, for whom we have 
great affection, can have no more than our all." ^ 

The Maryland Contingent consisted of the following com- 
mands : 

Smallwood's battalion — 9 companies (76 each) 684 

Capt. Veazey's Company 100 

Capt. Hindman's Company 100 

Capt. Thomas' Company 100 

Capt. Beall's Company 100 

Capt. Gunby's Company 100 

> Md. Arch., xn, 212. 



112 ^rA^YI.A^'D historical imagazixe. 

Capt. Woolford's Company 100 

Capt. "Watkins' Company 100 

Griffith's battalion — 9 companies (90 eacli) . . 810 

Colo. Carvell Hall's battalion, " " .. 810 

Colo. Ewiug's, 3 companies 270 

Eastern Shore battalion, 7 companies 644 

Total number of men 3,918 

Towards the last of August, Clinton crossed over the Narrows 
and on the 27th of August, 1776, was fought the bloody battle 
of Long Island. Washington had sent a large part of his 
eifective fighting streng-th under Generals Putnam and Sullivan 
to hold Brooklyn Heights on Long Island. 

Brooklyn was fortified by a series of intrenchments and forts 
extending from Gowanus Bay to Wallabout. Here were 
stationed Generals Sullivan and Alexander (otherwise known 
as " Stirling," from his Scottish title). General Greene being 
ill, General Putnam was placed in charge of the defense. 
Against these Howe dispatched a force of 20,000 men, who 
turned the American flank and " the battle was won before it 
was begun." 

By a fatal oversight, one of the three roads by which the 
British could advance, namely, the Jamaica road, cutting 
through the hills by the Bedford and the Jamaica passes, was 
left unguarded, and the enemy was not slow to take advantage 
of this circumstance. 

Hundreds of Americans were killed and captured, " but the 
bravery and determined resistance of some 400 Maryland 
troops checked the British advance." This, says an historian, 
together with a heavy storm and the British slowness of move- 
ment, " saved this portion of the Continental Army, and enabled 
Washington to rescue the remnant of his forces two days later." 
(See also Amcr. Archives 5°, ii, 882.) 

Stedman, the British historian, ^ays: " The Maryland regi- 
ment .suffered most severely, having lost upwards of 260 men, 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 113 

which was much regretted, as that regiment was composed of 
young men of the best families in the country." ^ 

The Maryland battalion was led by Major Mordecai Gist, 
who commanded it in the absence of Smallwood, the latter 
having been detained in I^ew York, by orders of General 
Washington, upon a Court Martial. 

Major Gist, Captain Kamsey and Lieutenant Plunkett were 
within 100 yards of the enemy's muzzles, when they were fired 
on by the latter. It is said that Stirling, at the head of three 
companies, attempted to force his way through the enemy. The 
records show that the principal loss sustained by the Mary- 
landers fell upon the companies of Captains Daniel Bowie, 
Benjamin Ford, Barton Lucas, Peter Adams and Ediuard 
Veazey, consisting in all of about 400 men. 

The killed and wounded amounted to about 260 men, includ- 
ing 12 officers, or about three-fifths of the number of Maryland 
troops engaged in checking the British advance. Captain 
Edward Veazey was killed and the following were reported 
either killed, wounded or missing: Captain Daniel Bowie; 
Lieuts. Joseph Butler, Hatch Dent, William Sterreti, Edward 
Praul, Edivard DeCourcy, Samuel Turhutt Wright, Walter 
Muse; Ensigns William Ridgely, James Fernandis and Williain 
Courts; besides 13 sergeants and 235 privates.^ 

Adjutant Brice was taken prisoner by two oflBcers of Light 
Horse and was delivered to a private, who told him he was his 
prisoner, which Brice denied, and immediately shot him and 
got free. 

The following are mentioned as prisoners with the enemy 
who, under a flag of truce, sent for their baggage and cash: 
Wright, Bowie, Butler, Muse, Ridgely, Sterrett, Courts, Fer- 
nandis and Dent. Congress at once took measures for the 
redemption and exchange of the prisoners on Long Island 
(Amer. Arch. 5°, i, 1251). 

^ ;Memoirs of Long Island Historical Society, n, 205. 

'American Archives, 5°, i, 1233, 1194. Memoirs of the Long Island Hist. 
Society, n, 520-522. 



114 maryla:xd historical magazine. 

A subsequent " return " of the First Regiment of Maryland 
Regulars and of six Independent Companies, shows the fright- 
ful havoc which had been wrought in their ranks. The follow- 
ing tabulated statement of the five companies enumerated above 
will illustrate this : 

Original Fit for 

Companies. Muster. Returned, duty. 

Capt. Bowie (dead) 76 9 6 

Capt. Ford 76 24 13 

Capt. Lucas 76 15 8 

Capt. Adams 76 17 6 

Capt. Veazey (dead) 100 31 2 



404 96 35 

It has been impossible to discover an exact and complete list 
of the men composing the " Maryland 400 " as they stood on 
the 27tli of August, 1776, the date of the battle of Long Island. 
We know, however, the respective companies that deserve the 
honor of special mention in connection with that memorable 
historical event, and rather than suffer the names of all of these 
heroic ^Nfarylanders to pass into oblivion, we have appended the 
original lists of the companies of Captains Bowie, Ford, Lucas, 
Adams and Veazey.* 

In the case of Capt. Edward Veazey's Independent Company 
of Militia of Kent and Queen Anne's Counties, the entire muster 
roll is missing, only the roster of the officers being preserved 
(see Md. Arch., xii, 358, 488). 

Attached hereto will be found the lists referred to in the 
foregoing introductory statement. 



* These lists include enlistmonts from January to about the middle of 
May, 1776, and the rolls as they stand were probably completed in July and 
August of that year. 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 



115 



" Maryland Four Hundred." 

Major Mordecai Gist, Commanding. 

First Company. 



John Hioskins Stone, Captain. 
Daniel Boivie, 1st Lieut. ^ 
John Kidd, 2nd Lieut. 
James Fernandis, Sergeant 
John Mitchell, Sergeant 
Samuel Jones, Sergeant 
Charles Smith, Sergeant 
Thos. Simpson, Corporal 

Privates — 
Andrew Ross Lindsay 
Andrew Green Sims 
Thomas Norris 
Ignatius Doyglass 
William Smoot 
Edmund Cox 
William Wheatly 
John Boon 
John Hopson 
John Adams 
Thos. Way Connell 
Joseph Cheatham 
James Thompson 
Samuel Thompson 
John Plant 
Thomas Smith 
Jonathan Chunn 
George Thomas 
James Sims, Jr. 
Samuel Wheatly 
Bernard IsTash 



William Courts, Cadet 
Henry Ridgely, Cadet 
James Sims, Sr., Corporal 
Samuel Hanson, Corporal 
Samuel McPherson, Corporal 
Henry Walworth, Drummer 
Dennis Broderick, Fifer 

Privates — 
John McPherson 
Clement Edelen 
Patrick Brady 
Francis Sherhard 
Samuel Kurk 
Francis Green Baggott 
Charles Green 
Charles Griffin 
John Ward 
Richard Sheake 
Edward Edelen 
Saml. Hamilton 
Francis Ware Luckett 
Matthew Garner 
ISTathaniel Downing 
Josias Miller 
John Shaw 
Edward Smith 
John ISTorris 
Joseph Jason Jenkins 
James Hoge 



' Captain, in command, at Long Island. 



116 



MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



John I^eal 

Luke Matthew Sherhurn 
Samiiel Lnckitt 
John Skipper 
Thomas Burrows 
Samuel Granger 
Alban Smith 
Edward Green 
John Smith 



Benjamin Gray 
Richard Smith 
John Smoot 
William Clark 
John ISTeary 
Samuel Vermillion 
Truman Hilton 
Gilbert Garland 
Mark McPherson 



Second Company. 



Patk. Sims, Captain 
Benj. Ford, 1st Lieut.® 
John Burgis, Cadet 
Walter Cox, Cadet 
John Richardson, Sergeant 
Peter Clarke, Sergeant 
Edward Spurrier, Sergeant 
Alexius Conner, Sergeant 

Privates — 
Jonathan Robinson 
John Lindsay 
Coxon Talbott 
Lawrence Querney 
James Mitchell 
Peter Gallworth 
Bozely Wright 
Milburn Cox 
John Willey 
James Adams 
Hugh Tomlin 
Amos Green 
Christr. l^nimbarglier 
Thomas Simpkins 
Elisha Everit 



John Beans, 2nd Lieut. 
Henry Gaither, Ensign 
Michael Burgis, Corporal 
Gazawaj Watkins, Corporal 
John Elson, Corporal 
Henry Leek, Corporal 
Benj. Lewis, Drummer 
Thos. Horson, Fifer 

Privates — 
Thos. Conner 
John Russel 
John Edelin 
Danl. Rankins 
James Perry 
Richard Cox 
Joseph Steward 
Thomas Walsh 
John Walker 
Chas. Burroughs 
Philip Jinkins 
Ben. Burroughs 
Francis Thompson 
Francis Osborne 
Michael Barnitt 



•Captain, in command, at Long Island. 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 



117 



Willm. Skipper 
Willm. Heyder 
Philip King 
Richd. Johnson 
John Veach 
Patrick ISTowlan 
Moses McKew 
Jacob Penn 
James Byzch 
Ben. Vermillion 
Richd. Lowe 
Robt. N^elson 
Basil Ridgly 
Michael Waltz 
Willm. Evans 
John Grant 



Paul Hagarty 
Elias Perry 
Veach Bnrgis 
Jacob Holland 
Middleton Marlow 
John D. Lanham 
John Mills 
Thos. Perkins 
Henry Lanham 
Edward Blacklock 
John Rodery 
Robt. Sapp 
Thos. Daws 
Edmd. Carroll 
Edwd. Jones 



Third Company. 



Barton Lucas, Capt.^ 
Wm. Sterrett, 1st Lieut. 
Peter Brown, Sergeant 
James Burnes, Sergeant 
Zacha. Tannahill, Sergeant 
Levin Will Coxen, Sergeant 
Saml. Hamiltone, Corporal 

Privates — • 
John Cissell 
Zacha. Tilly 
Christopher Beal 
Leonard Watkins 
Thomas Scott 
Daniel McKay 
John Baker 
John Dunn 



Alex. Roxburgh, 2nd Lieut. 
Wm. Ridgely, Ensign 
Benedict Woodward, Corporal 
Benjn. Warner, Corporal 
Zacha. Cray, Corporal 
Geo. Rex Leonard, Drummer 
Joshua Saffell, Eifer 

Privates — 
Abijah Buxtone 
ISTathan Peake 
Timothy Collins 
Jeremiah Owings 
Joseph Barry 
John Armstrong 
George Wright 
Philip Weller 



'Reported " sick" at time of the battle (Mem. L. I. Hist. Soc, n, 527- 
628. 

2 



lis 



■MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Hugh Conn 
Kobt. Lesache 
J(.ihn Brown 
Benjn. Kelly 
Josias Connally 
Khody Hoiisly 
James Murphy ® 
George Knott 
John Enright 
Thos. ^lurray 
William Pearce 
Charles Jones 
Josiah Hatton 
Richard Stone 
Samuel Ray 
(jeorge Hamiltone 
John Fleming 
John Wood 
Richard Brookes 
Zacha. Willing 
Richard Wade 
John O wings 
Alex. Jackson 
John Murphy 
John Jackson 
John Flint 



Amos Allen 
John Hughes 
Thos. Forguson 
Obediah Sumers 
Absolam Stevenson 
John Halsey 
Thos. Windoni 
James Smith 
George Evauns 
Thos. Shannen 
George Leadbarn 
Michl. Catons 
James Hurdle 
Francis Cole 
Alex. Allen 
Wm, Baker 
Garret Brinkenhoof 
eTohn Rex Leonard 
Bazil Jenkins 
Bartholom^ew Finn 
Roddey Owings 
George Read 
James Gardiner 
Patk. Collins 
Zachariah Hutchins ( ?) 



Sixth Company. 



Peter Adams, Captain® 
Nathl. Ewing, Ist Lieut. 
Joseph Elliott, Sergeant 
Edward Edgerly, Sergeant 
Thomas McKeel, Sergeant 



Alex, Murray, 2nd Lieut. 
John Jordan, Ensign 

Privates — 
Thos. Cooper 
Saml. McCubbin 



' T»Ht left leg and was captured. 

•Reported "sick" at time of the battle (Mem. L. I. Hist. Soc, n, 
527-528). 



BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND. 



119 



Thomas Dwyer, Sergeant 
Danl. Dwigens, Corporal 
Saml. Dwigens, Corporal 
Jas. Rogan, Corporal 
Danl. Floyd, Corporal 
Robert Ross, Drummer 
Chas. McKeel, Fifer 

Privates — 
John Clark 
Zacha. Xicholson 
Henry Covington 
Wm. Laighton 
Wm. McDaniel 
George Jackson 
John Hatton 
Alex. Wright 
John Floyd 
Elijah Floyd 
Moses Floyd 
John McFadon 
Carbry Bum 
John McClain 
John Johnson 
Jas. Kelly 
Willm. McGregor 
Thos. Fisher 
John Povrell 
Joseph Pirkens 
Joseph Bootman 
Hugh Wallace 
Willm. McDaniel 2d 
James Bell 
Henry Clift 



Wm. Glover 

John Bryan 

Wm. Holms 

Wm. Ray 

Thos. Laffy 

Jas. Kirk 

Wm. Leeson 

John Lowry 

John McClain, of Harford 

Alex. Fulton 

Jas. Craig 

Robert Man 

Patk. Quigley 

Wm. Locke 

Wm. ^agle 

John Lynch 

Hugh McClain 

Jas. Carmichael 

Thos. Williams 

John Kerby 

Jas. Gibson 

Jno. Galway 

Robt. Ritchie 

Wm. Aitken 

Hugh Galway 

John Morrow 

Geo. Dowling 

Wm. Clark 

Wm. Temple 

John Phelps 

James Barkley 

Crisenberry Clift 



120 mabyland historical magazine. 

Seventh Independent Maeyland Company. 
Queen Anne's and Kent Counties. ^^ 

Edward Veazej, Capt. 
William Harrison, 1st Lieut. 
Samuel Turbutt Wright, 2nd Lieut. 
Edward DeCourcy, 3rd Lieut. 



WILLIAM FRANCIS BRAND 

[An Autobiogbaphical Sketch] 



Of an irascible impatient temper my early life was very 
unhappy ; and habits then formed and tendencies then strength- 
ened have influenced subsequent life. When quite young I lost 
my mother, a woman of decided intellectual ability and deep 
piety, active in all charitable works. She must have given a 
religious bias to my mind for I recall the reflections that 
checked my flowing tears the day she died. I said to myself — 
" "VMiat right to be crying for my mother when she has gone to 
heaven ? " All my life through the picturing of my mother has 
been — is even now — a guide and restraint. My loving father 
was indulgent but like most busy men failed to perceive the 
heart needs of a motherless boy. Neglected and lonely I became 
moody and resentful ; my Arab spirit made me bad in many 
ways, yet I was always truthful. I had a right to be resentful. 
I was soon sent to school, and was changed from one to another. 
In one of these a brute thrashed me on the bare back with a 
window sash cord — when my only offence was that over a Latin 

"• Veazey's mufiter rolls, papers and personal effects were directed to hia 
father by mistake, instead of V)eing forwarded to the Council at Annapolis. 
It appears that they were lost in tranftit. The writer knows the name of 
only one private in thin company, namely, William Sheild, of Kent County, 
Md., whose widow, living in 18r)4 aged about 90 years, stated that her 
husband had served under Capt. Edward Veazey six months (F. B. C). 



WILLIAM FRANCIS BRAND. 121 

verb I had fallen into a nervous fit of crying — " Cried for 
nothing " the brute said. Under his lash my eyes were dry — 
tears were burnt up by rage and hatred. In a large French 
boarding school I had no right recognized by larger boys; — 
they took what was mine, treated me as they pleased and found 
constant pleasure in setting other boys on the " dam Ameri- 
caine." Here I lived in a ceaseless fight. — Worse ! I saw here 
in open day every lascivious act that can be imagined but not 
spoken of. In another school I was once pointed out to the 
French Bishop visitor as '' the lieutenant of the lazy ones " 
when I was bright and willing to learn if not in a state of 
hostility. In this school I one day broke out in open rebellion 
against the teacher's injustice — never went back to his room, 
and was not missed from the class. I do not mean that my 
boyhood was wholly unhappy, but what I endured and what I 
lacked bred anger and resentment and idleness and secretiveness. 

By God's grace I was kept from the wicked filth in the 
midst of which I had, at one time, lived ; but the remembrance 
of what I saw and heard is like the impress of a finger on a 
fresh coin. I early found solace in reading. Don Quixote 
was my first delight. My first novels — I was still a boy — were 
Smollett's and Fielding's. When I was about eleven, not 12 — 
I was sent to a private school near Lexington, Ky. Here my 
education began. A loving and wise, as well as learned, old 
man made me his companion. If his discipline had been 
stricter it would have been better for me. My easy free life 
did not strengthen me against what my friend, rather than 
schoolmaster, called " the seductions of the siren Desidia." 
I had always — strangely proprio motu, not from the leading of 
others — been religiously inclined: While at this school I 
became what was called " a professor of religion " ; without 
any knowledge of dogma, I simply felt it to be a duty to con- 
fess Christ. 

I spent some months in JSTew Orleans under hurtful circum- 
stances, and was then sent to Charlottesville, Va., to enter the 
University. I was too young by a year, and was but little the 



122 MAEYLAISTD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

better prepared — when I reached the statutory age which is 
sixteen. From 15 I was h^rd of myself with no restraint 
stronger than self will. At the University I took two degrees. 
My course was broken by resentment of what I still think gi*oss 
injustice on the part of a professor: and so I am without an 
academic degree. I would not attend the classes of the man who 
wronged me, and was forced to resign. In his idea of the 
University on which he prided himself Jefferson overlooked the 
needs of boys — a boy I was at nineteen when I left Virginia. 
The next six months were passed in an architect's office in 
Philadelphia, Penna. Then I was recalled to New Orleans, 
and was not long after sent to France. Whatever may have 
been expected this was the result. Without stint as to money, 
and responsible to myself only I did but little study in Paris, 
and then passed some 18 months in pleasant travel and sight 
seeing. On my return home my father wisely concluded that 
I was not fitted for his business ; and faute de mieux I drifted 
into a lawyer's office. Perhaps I might have preferred to be a 
doctor — I wished to know something about the human frame, 
and went to hear a friend lecture ; the first time I went into the 
dissecting room I was laid hold upon by varioloid and never 
returned. In the course of time I was examined in full court 
and the judges had the hardihood to declare me to be " learned 
in the law." While at the Bar I assisted my brother-in-law in 
the preparation of " Harrison's Condensed Reports." Would 
I have ever succeeded at the Bar? An experienced man said 
to me — I was a quasi help in his office — " Brand, you will 
make a lawyer one of these days; and I'll tell you when. It 
will be when you hear your children cry. There are two motives 
that make a lawyer; one is ambition: you have not any; the 
other is love of money: of this you have less." I did not wait 
for the stimulus that made a chancellor of Erskine. Before 
very long I determined to change my course in life. My father 
bad long feared that such would be my choice and when I told 
him that I had determined to be a clergyman I had every reason 
to suppose that I would now have to care for myself. To my 



WILLIAM FRANCIS BRAND. 123 

surprise he told me that he would provide for me as he had 
always done. In the guise of a rich young man of the South 
I entered the General Theological Seminary in New York, 
being the first candidate for orders in the Diocese of Louisiana. 
I cannot but remember the impression made on me when I was 
told that the potatoes and onions which I saw at the door of the 
building belonged to a student who cooked his own food. Could 
gentlemen live in this way ? is what I thought. The course at 
the Seminary is one of three years. It was the middle of my 
second year when, without previous intimation, I received 
notice that I must no longer draw for money as I had thus far 
done; that my drafts could no longer be honored. I cannot 
here state the cause of this surprise. In fact I never too care- 
fully enquired. Only I must say that it was through no lack 
of love or generosity on the part of my father. I had then 
eleven and a quarter dollars in my pocket. I at once wrote to 
my Bishop asking what I should do. I did not hear from him. 
Instead there came, after a time^ a letter from the rector of 
St. Paul's parish in JST. Orleans in his own name, offering me 
money on certain terms. From him personally I would accept 
nothing. When I saw Bp Polk — gentleman that he was — he 
approved my refusal, and was much mortified that his provision 
for me, which I would have accepted, had been perverted by a 
man who did not appreciate the feelings of a gentleman. It 
was then too late to change plans that had been formed. With 
11.25 in store what could I do? I cannot tell of different pro- 
posals. Only I venture to say of myself that with a trusting 
cheerful heart I looked upon the blank future. At first, I did 
not try cooking potatoes and onions, but I did live on crackers 
and cheese with an occasional egg and a quart of milk furnished 
me by a dealer who was teacher in the Sunday school of which 
I was superintendent. Then, on his having learned from a 
fellow student that I was breaking down. thi*ough lack of food — 
I had actually fainted — good Dean Turner procured for me, 
in a girls' school to which he sent his daughter, the place of 
teacher of French. My terms with the mistress were " You 



124 maeyla:!cd historical magazine. 

*\vill give me something to eat, and make out of me what you 
can.-' 

Before the end of the seminary year I had been persuaded by 
a very near friend to allow him to care for me during the 
remainder of my course. In 1842 I was graduated with no 
special distinction. I was not, and am not, a scholar. I had 
been transferred from Louisiana to New York: on the of 
September 1842 I was made Deacon by Bishop B. T. Onder- 
donk. Soon after I went to my friends in Maryland. Bp. 
Whittingham had been my friend as well as professor at the 
seminary. He said to me: "I would not keep you from 
Louisiana but if you are not going back, I have a claim on you." 
I consented and before the end of the year he sent me to a 
vacant parish — All Hallows, Anne Arundel Co., one of the 
original pai-ishes established in 1692. The vestry accepted me, 
curtly saying " Mr. Brand, we have agreed to engage you." 
Xothing was said about the terms of the engagement. When 
I gave myself to God's service in the n,iinistry I believed in His 
declaration that " the labourour is worthy of his hire," but I 
determined to trust Him for the care of His servant. This 
trust was tried during my stay at All Hallows. I had nothing 
to live on but free gifts. These were very in'egular. Sometimes 
I had abundance, and at times very little ; my family, i. e., 
my wife, a widowed sister and two children have had on the 
table nothing but mush and molasses. The brave women never 
complained ; and the truth was not known to my kind but 
thoughtless people. At the end of six or seven years my wife's 
family proposed that I should go to their neighborhood. They 
would build me a church, and they shewed a probability of 
gathering a congregation. I sent them to the Bishop. He 
promptly bade me go! Thereupon I resigned my parish with 
sincere regret. The year or more that followed was without 
clerical duty. This gave me what was absolutely necessary, for 
my health had been broken by malaria. In time a church was 
built, a plain stone structure with a solid open roof. In the 
lapse of 4!) years this has been made a much admired building, 



WILLIAM FKANCIS BRAND. 125 

all its windows filled witli best Englisli glass ; one representing 
the crucifixion, unsurpassed in the United States, nine oil 
paintings in the chancel, and everything in accord. And all 
this free offerings. The first service was on the day of the 
consecration (which implies that the building was paid for). 
On this day, 25 May 1851 the five men whom I had induced 
to act as vestrymen, chose me to be their rector. I had called 
them, even as in the days that followed, I gathered the congre- 
gation of St. Mary's Church, Harford Co., Md. Here through 
more than half a century I have remained, rector of a small 
country parish. 

Here is my estimate of myself. He who wrote " They also 
serve who only stand and wait," had been a man of much labour 
in many ways. Even in his blindness his " one talent " was 
not " lodged with him useless " : he was ever energetic, his mind 
active. It has not been so with me. At best I have but been 
among them that only stand and wait. To wait upon the Lord 
is a virtue ; but not one to attract the notice of men. I have 
not even been zealous in my calling. 'Not many have served, 
after whatever fashion, so long, as I have. They must be few 
who can say with me " I have never had a salary." Probably 
there is none other in our Church of whom it can be said 
" He never had a call from a vestry." This may be true of 
me because my light has been dim. I have not been wanted. 
-But it is also true I have never sought advancement in the 
Church, euphemistically called " a wider field of usefulness." 
Ten years ago the 17th June happened to be Sunday. I 
preached on the 90th psalm. When I came to the words " Tho' 
men be so strong that they come to four score years jet is their 
strength then but labour and sorrow," I said " Brethren the 
words of the psalmist are not without exception ; I am this day 
eighty years old, and I am a happy old man." I would say 
this now — a decade later. N^ot because life has ever been with- 
out trials ; but because God has blessed me with a thankful 
trusting heart. In the habit of tracing every enjoyment to the 



126 MARYLAND HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

author of every good gift I am prepared to accept, with more 
than submission, sorrow sent by the same loving Father. 

It has been more than intimated that the memorial of me 
that is to appear in " The Men of Mark " will be other than 
the obituary notice given in a Church Almanac, and I have 
been asked to save him the trouble of search. A biographer 
seeks to know u'hat his subject is. I have therefore wi'itten, 
for his eye only, openly, what I might say to near friends 
desirous to know what I am and what has made me what I 
am through the grace of God. 

December 5th, 1904. 

[Doctor Brand was born in New Orleans, La., June 17th, 1814, 
and died in Harford county February 18th, 1907, nine days after 
the death of Mrs. Brand. Early in the forties he moved to Mary- 
land and engaged in the ministerial work in which his whole life 
was subsequently passed. He was admitted to the diaconate of the 
Episcopal Church in September, 1842 ; in 1843 he married Sophia 
McHenry Hall, and in March, 1844, was ordained to the priest- 
hood. 

For many years he conducted a school for young men whieh was 
largely patronized until about 1878, when, owing to the advanced 
age of Doctor and Mrs. Brand, it was given up. 

Doctor Brand was a man of profound learning. He was an able 
theologian and a forceful writer. One of his principal works was 
the life of Bishop Whittingham, a delightful work and a valuable 
contribution to Maryland Church history, published in 1883. A 
second edition, with additions, was published in 1886. 

Besides many contributions to periodical literature he published : 
A sermon preached on the death of William F. Barnard, n. p. 1864; 
A personal explanation involving history and dogma, Baltimore, 
1879 ; Sketch of the life and character of Nathaniel Ramsay, Bal- 
timore, 1887.] 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 127 



EXTRACTS FHOM THE CARROLL PAPERS 

(Continued from Vol. XIII, p. 267.) 



Aug* 30th 1771 [171] 
Dr Charlev 

I have both j^^ of the 27*^^ ins*, those w^ the Boy dropt are 
not Come to hand tho I may probably get them on the return 
of the Wagon. I shall send to Shipley to Come to me. I shall 
send to M*" Hammond Do : Houstons Ace* to know whether He 
Deliverd the Shingles Charged. I Cannot properly Answer 
what you wrote Relating to the Decree & must therefore refer 
it untill wee meet Fell & Bond Sligh's securities died I appre- 
hend in good Circumstances, I suppose the Ex^'^ or adm^^ may 
be proceeded ag*, I think there was Judgment ag* Fells Ex^^ 
or adm^^ where assets, Consult Johnson on this before the Pro- 
vincial!, Carry a shed the whole length of the Old & I^ew Coach 
House, half the shed to Contain two stalls for Running Horses, 
the other ^ will Conveniently hold 4 Cowes: The loft of the 
Coach Houses being lay'd will Hold Hay w^ may be let into 
the Racks of the sheds by stripping of the Plank, which boxes 
up the tends of the Joice & Rafters, you will find the sheds 
Convenient & it would look oddly to have only i/o the Coach 
House sheded. As you Begin y'" Journey northward the 1^* 
of Octo'^ I will be with you on the 21^* of Sep^. I Received 
the sample of P : J : wheat. Ca^ Dorsey has been & is at Linga* 
nore, so th* Do^ Howard has not had an opportunity of Asking 
Him who profer'd Him 7/ for wheat, I think He had no such 
offer. My Advertisements at Baltimore Towne Have not yet 
induced anyone to Apply to me. 

We have had severall Refreshing showers this month. One 
last tuesday night, those in the Beginning of the month 
Retarded the stacking of my Oates & Hay. These showers 
Have rather kept things alive than promoted their growth. 



128 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Our Corn docs not fill well, if we had had a soaking shower 
about the 10 or 15 of this month we should have made a great 
Crop of Corn <Sr toh<^ the want of it will I think at all Places 
shorten the Corn at least 200 Barrills & the tob^ in Proportion 
they are the Worst of, at Organars & Glens. But if we have 
As good Kain in 4 or 5 days I hope to make a Tolerable Crop 
of Corn & tobo Maybe 1800 Barrills of Corn. E'othing but 
Eain is wanting to make the Oldfield tob'' before the House 
very good, it has been ploughed since Planted four times each 
way, & they are now going over it with their Hoes the 3^ time, 
the ground was twice Ploughed & well with the seed Plough 
this spring before it was Planted, if we have rain soon & the 
frost keeps away untill the last of Sepf it will be good tob° 
for it is now of a good Colour & a great deal of it pretty forward 
the tob*' in Valentines meadow is large & Promises well, the 
new grained tob^ is pretty good but not so large & substantial! 
as it would have been with more Rain, it will be Housed next 
week at Least the gi-eatest part of it. The wheat & Rye is 
sowed every where but at the Folly, they had 32 Bushells in 
there last night & I expect they will sow all their Corn ground 
to-morrow. The Clover fields Can Hardly be sowed before the 
15*^ of next month as the Clover Cannot be Cut Cured & 
Carryed of before the last of next week the seed not being Ripe. 
Clark is there & forwards Business much, I think He will turn 
out a usefull man. You did not Answer me about Employing 
'M^ Clarks Brother at Annapolis Quarter. We have been hard 
pushed to get thro our Business with so sickly a Gang, some- 
times not less than 4 or 5 of our working Hands at this Place 
being downe at a time, the disorder is a lax attended with a 
griping k feavours & in many it has been a Flux, it has in no 
instance been bad, owing I suppose to its being attended to in 
time. My IMan Will is much out of order. He has been Com- 
plaining 3 Weeks past of feavours & 3 or 4 days of a Pain in 
His side, a Blister was applyed to it last night which has risen 
well. I am sorry to say M" Darnell is this day very unwell. 
She was taken with a Lax last night, she has taken a Vomit this 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 129 

morning & will follow the Regimen w^ lias been Successful 
with others & hope she will soon get rid of the Disorder. She 
Cannot write but gives Her love to you & Her Mama. Y^ 
Horse is much mended. He gathers flesh, His Flanks are much 
fallen, the swelling in His Spavin'd leg is quite downe But He 
still rises with much difficulty, from this I think the Chief Seat 
of His disorder to be in His Loins. He feeds standing & lays 
downe not much more than other Horses. I Have not seen the 
Farrier since the 18*^ ins*. He has been over in Baltimore. 
I once thought to send y^ Horse downe in the Wagon, But I 
did not know how Molly would have taken it. Nimble has too 
great a Belly. I have ordered Him to be taken up I think He 
will be in good travelling order ag* you want Him. Give my 
Service to M^' Deards & desier Him to send 1 Coarse lime sifter 
1 dp fiver & 1 hand saw with what Osnabrigs & Cotton the Cart 
Can Conveniently bring & to Give Himself the trouble to order 
my Cloaths to be aired & my Wiggs Combed out & Rebuckled. 
I am just told th* there is but one Bottle & i/o of spirit in the 
House, therefore be pleased to send me 2 D^n of Spirit. Send 
also 2 D™ of BurgTindy & 2 D™ of Cote Roti, I don't want any 
Hermitage, the other sorts may sute some who Call Here & 
may like the Wine for the sake of its name. I am told the 
Wagon will Carry you 4 Barrills of fine flour 2d^ of Seconds 
& Eight Bushells of Gates. I am well. My love & Blessing 
to you all. I hope to Hear that you are well. I am D^ Charley 

Y^Mo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 
P. S. Can you tell when Coll 
Sharpe will be up. the 
last of my tob° went yesterday 
to the Landing Vzt. 8 hgds. 

Aug. 26th 1771 [172] 
D^ Charley 

The boy lost the letters you gave him I hope they Contained 
nothing you would desier to be secret. He tells me you are 
all well. I shoi^ld have been glad to have heard th* from you. 



130 MAKYLAXD IIISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

I Have seen the Pensilvania Journall, send me The Pensilvania 
«S: our Gazct. 

Pray press Wiilhice to treat with Howard I Hear one of the 
Hammonds is in treaty with Howard to Exchange Lands, if 
Howard sells to th™ no hopes of Getting the Land from them. 
Wallace may be indolant, are not you more so in not Con- 
stantly pressing Him to treat w^^ Howard. I Have sent downe 
54 hgds they weigh 55434 net. I have 8 still Here which will 
go downe to Morrow or Wednesday bnt 3 of them would not 
pass the inspector, Simpson owes one for w^ I expect a note 
to Morrow. Johnson, Lias delivered M^ West notes for 49 
Hgds weighing 50.152 & He writes me He shall Dteliver Him 
10 more. Johnson is to be with me the 5^^ of Sep^ to settle. 
As you did not send up y^ Riding Horse I suppose He is better. 
!May I not Expect you about the Beginning of Sep^ if so when ? 
We are very dry, tob^ does not grow. My love & Blessing to 
you ]\[olly & my little Darling, tell Molly to write particularly 
about Her to Her Mama. I am D'" Charley 

y-mo: Afft Father 



P. S. My Service to M"" Deards if 
He wrote His letter miscarried 
with y'"^ 

Dr Charlev 



Cha: Carroll 



Sep'^2:l771 [173] 



I find the Lamb was not sent by the Wagon. I must see th* 
it is sent by the next opportunity otherways they may again 
forget to send it. M'" lligges was with me this day. Lie asks 
£45 ster. I must give it. He is to be here again this week to 
View the Plantations which are to be immediately under His 
Care. His snperintcndance is to be Extend to all. We had a 
very Seasonable & Soaking Rain last night, it will greatly Help 
everything, tob° Wheat sowed, Pastures, it is rather too late 
to help the Corn much. M'"'* Damall is much better, but very 
weak. We lost a Girl y""^ old at Frosts. Joiner Jack is ill 



EXTKACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 131 

with the Flux, I hope not Dangerously. I drew this Day on 
Perkins &c to Pay Peter Beecraft £31 : 3 : 3 ster. Pray note 
it in y^' Blotter & advise it. I this Day payed An Acc^ of 
W"! Hammond ag^ me £22 : 6 : 2 & M^ Brown £41 in Part of 
£71 : 7 : His ace* ag* me. I have not 10/ in the House but 
I expect a Supply this week from Jos: Johnsons, Endeed I 
Avant it for with Browns Ball^^ I owed £70 odd Pounds beside 
Frosts & Turnbulls wages w^ will be due early in the winter 

6 wages to some Hierlings I have employed to Carry on my 
Vineyard &c &c. My love & Blessing to you Molly & my 
Darling. I am D^ Charley 

Yr mo : Afft Father 
p g Cha: Carroll 

Monday iSTight. The Wagon is not Come at % an hour after 

7 a'Clock. I do not expect it untill midnight or later as I think 
the Rain kept it untill past 8 this morning. 

Sep'^ 4tli 1771 [174] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^^ of the 1^* & 2^ ins*. I approve of the Additions 
to the Coach House, money layed out in usefuU & lasting 
improvements is well layed out. When it is layed out in things 
of shew it is flung away. If you intend to ever to put Carriages 
into the Cow House will not the 6 feet folding Doors be too 
small ? 

j^^imble was taken up 3 or 4 days before I received- y^^. The 
Stallion is only put up in the night. He had better on all Acc*^ 
be out in the Day it will give Him Flesh «S: a Belly & He wants 
Both, i^imbles Belly is taken up. He will be in very good 
order for y^ Journey. I think you will do well not to send for 
them before the 21^* or 22 ins* they will only be a Charge to 
you if sent downe sooner. I propose when my tob° is Housed 
& Fother got in to Cart to the Head of the River 4 or 500 
Bushells of Gates if I find they Can be spared & to get th™ to 
Annapolis before y^ Return. 

Pray Give my Compliments to the Gov'^ & His Brother tell 
th™ I shall be very Glad to see th™ & think myself Honoured 



132 MARYLA^iTD HISTORICAI. MAGAZINE. 

by their Company. I do suppose Coll Sharpe will Come with 
th™. You gave the 1^^ Intelligence of Miss Digges match w*^ 
T : Lee to be depended on, M^ S : Brooke told us of it, but I 
looked upon it only as a Report. 

I wrote to Brown by the 20*^^ post & desiered Clem^ Brooke 
to send an Express with it. I suppose His of the 20*^ post 
was wrote after He Received myne altho He takes no notice 
of the Receit of myne. I Have appointed Him to be with me 
in Annapolis the 2^ of Octo^'. The Cottons & Osnabrigs were 
opened & dryed. Our Wheat Comes up well. The Clover Lay 
-at Heesons about 24^ which is all the Wheat ground w^ Remains 
to be sowed will be sowed before the 15*^^ ins*. The old field 
tob° before the House growes finely, I think it will in Generall 
be good & th* if it does not all Come to the House the deficiency 
will not amount to 3000 Plants. Since my last I Have deliv- 
ered 5 more hgds of tob° to M'' West net 4625. I have 3 hgds 
at the Landing w'^ Have been Refused net 257'7. I expect One 
hgd more from Simpson a Tenant. 

I sent for the letters th* were lost & I just got th"^. As M^ 
Lewellin has no title it is not worth purchasing, many others 
have as good a title as Lewellin & if you Purchase y^ Peace 
from Him you must expect to do so from all the others or to 
be perpetually molested. However you may Acquaint M^ Neale 
th*^ you Cannot listen to any Vague proposall, th* if M^ Lewellin 
will Come to you & be Particular you will give Him an Answer 
& th*' in the mean time the Matter may be Postponed to the 
next Provincial! after this Sep^*. If Lewellin will Come to you 
let Him Come sometime in January or early in Febru: when 
I shall Ije in Towne. A Reference is lyable to the same objec- 
tions. Lewellin is tierd of an Expence w^ He sees to be a 
fruitless one. 

M"" Jos. Johnson is just Come I must dispatch Him & there- 
fore shall say no more than th* I give my love & Blessing to 
you !Molly & my Darling & wish you all Health & Happy ness. 
I am D*" Charley 

Y^- mo : Aff t Father 

Cha: Carroll 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 133 

Sepi-5:1771 [174] 
Dr Charley 

Johnson Eeceived & Has payed to M^ West 59857 toh^, He 
paid to me £124 : 17 : 8 Curr*. His Commissions on the tob° 
money, the Cost of a Wagon, money paid some tenants for small 
tob^ Ballances due to th™ & some other small Acc*^ Amounts 
to £40: 14: 11 so th* the net sum Received is but £84: 2 : 9. 
Simpson has p*^ His hgd. M^'^ Darnall Had the Cholick last 
night, she is not yet up. But ISTancy tells me she is easy this 
morning. She dined with us yesterday & goes about but is 
much Reduced I thank God I am in good Health May He 
Grant the same Blessing to you Molly & my Darling. I am 
D^ Charley 

Yr mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 
P. S. Geo : Scot late sherif of 
Frederick died of the flux 
at Frederick Towne last Tuesday. 
Joiner Jack is Better 

Sep^ 13th 1771 [175] 
Dr Charley 

I answered the greatest part of y^^ of the 8*^ ins* By M'^ 
Loury. I yesterday Received y^^ of the 10*^ by M^ Rossiter. 
Great Care is taken of ISTimble & the Spavin'd Horse, the 1^* 
is fat, as slick as a Race Horse & in Excellent order, the 2^ is 
much as I last wrote to you if you desier it I will order Him 
to be led to Towne after the Wagon the 21^* ins* you may then 
judge what to do with Him ; He is Certainly better than when 
He Came Here. I have not seen the Farrier since last Sunday 
was 3 weeks, He is in Baltimore County. Did you Pay H: 
Brown £30 : 7 : my Ball^ to Him. Do^ Houston's Ace* is 
Right Ball^ due to Him £27 : 8 : 9 w^ I desier you will Pay. 
I dont doubt but you will provide money to pay for Leather &c 
bought by M^ Harding for us. 
3 



134 MARYLAND niSTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Anionut of Tob^ Delivered He: West at Eock Creek 59857 
d'' from E. Kidiie 60059 



119916 



Simpsons Hgd at d" Weight not yet knowne 

I hgd at Rock Creek last year 1004 

"Poplar Island tob^ 19159 



140079 



I Have 3 hgds at the Landing Refused beside the above 2577 
net. I need not say anything to you about Craycroft & Gardiner 
as their Acc*^ will tell yon all I know on th* Subject. Shipley 
has been with me I want the Courses of the Land Lie Mortgaged, 
they are in the deed Hammond made to Him, which deed is in 
the County Office send for it as soon as this Comes to y^' Hand 
& Copy the Courses from it & send th'" to me. Shipley Consults 
I should sell the Land & if it does not Pay what He owes He 
will give His Bond for the Eall^. I expect Hourly Jos. Dorsey 
to take up His Protested Bill & Edw^ Dorsey to Give Bills for 
Chris'' Scwalls Ball^*". Our new ground tob^ Here has been 
Housed 3 or 4 days past, Wc have begun this day to Cut the 
Old field tob** before the House, what is standing growes well, 
but the dry weather in Aug*" obliged us to top it too low. We 
finished sowing wheat at the Folly last Tuesday & Harrowing 
it in last night. Our Wheat & Rye is Come ^ip well every 
where. Jenny is mending & none of our People in Danger, tho 
very many of th"^ unable to work out. Charming Pastures. 
Will the Gov'' & His B'' Come or not? I suppose not, if Loury 
Deliver'd you my letter. Borrow of M''^ Eden Yo a D*" or 
more of Her Latest English news Papers, I will Return th™ 
when I Come to Annapolis. M'*'* Darnall is much better. I am 
well. My love & Blessing to you Molly & my little Darling. 
God grant you all perfect Health. I am D'' Charley 

Yi- mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 135 

Sepr 15 1111 [176] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^^ of the 11*^ & 12*1^ by Johny I return you D. D^ 
opinion. M'' Igna^ Digges has Given me & you a great deale 
of trouble, it is just He should in His turn meet with some 
Mortification. 

I never liked y^' northern Jaunt but I did not Chuse to thwart 
]\rollys inclination tho I think she will when it is over be of 
opinion th* the Pleasure will not Answer the Expence fatigue 
& other Inconveniences attending it, you Cannot be well spared 
from Annapolis fr it will be very Hurtfull to our interest Here 
for me to be so long absent at this Season. 

When I see the farrier I will put y'^ Eiding Horse into His 
hands. You will have it th* my People are not well fed, it is 
true they do not live so well as our House negroes, But full as 
well as any Plantation negroes & think I Can safely sa}'' no man 
in Maryland Can shew in proportion to our number, such likely 
well looking slaves. You are out in attributing the present 
Disorder to the want of food, others & many round me are in the 
f^ame Condition, & Do^ Wharfield last night told me th* on 
Linganore only He had upwards of 70 Patients with the same 
Complaint. 

T Cannot see any good end Can be Answered by treating with 
Lewellin, it will but encourage other Claimants. If He should 
Come it will be proper to Ask Him whether He will give a 
General warrant if He Refuses as no doubt He will. He may 
be told th* nothing but th<^ Could induce us to treat with him. 
M'' W : D. does not Accept my days of Grace Put the Papers 
immediately into M^ Cooke's hands. I do not file a Bill ag* 
Him to Expose Him. But to Eecover a debt w^ I am Convinced 
Cannot be got by any other means, this 20 odd years Experience 
Evinces ( ?) Can any thing but a Bill put an end to His 
Evasient delays, Has He ever shewn an inclination to Pay? 
I Eeturn His letter which I desier you will put with the Eest. 
I believe you will find ISTimble to be in very fine order & Hope 
v^ Horse will be so as* v'^ Eeturn. . . . 



136 maryijlnd historical magazine. 

Nov'^ Q^'^ 1771 [177] 
D' Charlev 

I got here yesterday a ^/4 after two a Clock. I this morning 
walked round the Plantation &- fonnd every thing in pretty good 
order & 1 am told it is so at all the other Plantations. I have 
order'd a Cow to be sent you on friday. Ellick goes w*^ this to 
wait on jM^^ Darnall w^ I hope on Mollys acc't will be soon. 
I will send my Chair to meet Her when & where she shall direct. 
By the Cow driver I Hope to Hear th* you Molly & our little 
Girl are well & what is doeing in the Assembly, I must owne I 
do not expect anything will be done if the Upper House adhere 
to their proposition Relating to the Clergy. If you Receive any 
letter from Ja^ Hunter send me a Copy of it & advise Clem* 
Brooke what Hunter says to His proposall. I would Accept 30 
Barrills of Hunters Pork at £3 : 15 : Our Currency if He does 
not offer it Cheaper. . . . 

Nov^ 8th 1771 [178] 
D' Charley 

I have y'"^ of the 6*^ by Jack. I have order'd Squires to go 
downe to morrow with the Cow driver, if He should push of let 
me know it, but I do not expect He will. Between us I think 
the Upper House by their proposition about the Clergy act in 
a most impudent maner, we may Publickly disapprove their 
Conduct but not in such harsh terms, because it may be preju- 
dicial! to us without answering any good End, former Gov^^ 
used to Place the Councill as a Screen between themselves & the 
People, the Case is Reversed, if the Gov^ acknowledges instruc- 
tions not to Clip the 40 p^ Poll. 

I had the Opinion about Escheats w^ you mention it was in 
the Walnut tree press w^ stood in the Pasasge between the two 
Houses, if you have moved it thence it may be in the old 
secretare in the C'happeJl, if you did not with other Papers 
move it into Deards press in the Study. It is in a Bundle or 
Bundles with other opinions & Papers Relating to Lord Balti- 
mores affairs, or to the Roman (.'atholicks, or my Fathers Com- 
missions & instructions from JJ^ Baltimore, I think I saw it 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 137 

when I looked for an opinion about the Secretarys tenths, w'^ 
opinion I Could not then find tho Certain I am th* I once 
Had it. . . . 

Nov^ 13th 1771 [179] 
D'- Charley 

I Have y'"^ of the 8*^ I question whether Fowlers Ball & 
Emitt & Cochrans Ballanee Can be Recovered the note of Fowler 
being out of Date & Many owing the Ball^^ due from Emit 
Cochran: I have wrote often to th™ & lately but Cannot get 
th™ to Come to me Dilling lives about 20 miles from me. He 
will pay next Summer or may be sooner. A pair of Cart wheels 
6 Inches tred are made & allmost tired. A pair 5 Inches tred 
were made for you long ago & as M^ Ireland says by y^ direction. 
Does not the Corporation Law require Broader tred than 6 
Inches ? Consider well before you give directions. You will 
see by M^ Brashes's letter inclosed th* He Cannot take Hunters 
Pork on the terms He offers it at, nor Can I, but I will take the 
30 Barrills He Has directed His Brother to purchase for me 
with thanks & desier it may be sent as soon as possible & th* 
He will let us know^ when wee may expect it. It may be proper 
to send Him a Copy of what Brooke says relating to the Pork. 
I am very glad to Hear there is a prospect of getting the Inspec- 
tion Law & I am abliged to you for being so particular about 
what the Assembly is doeing w^ I desier you will Continue. 
What is like to be done with the Bill to prevent the sale of 
Offices &; the Clerks paying tenths ? . . . 

March 11*^ 1772 [180] 
D^ Charley 

We were 7 hours &. a Vl getting here, the latter part of the 
road being Chiefly Clayey made travelling Heavy. The day 
was as good as we Could Expect at this Season. On Monday in 
the Afternoon I rode about this Succys Plantation, yesterday 
I went by Reads to the Folly, Frosts, the Pool meadow & the 
Sawmill, I every where found more work done than I Expected. 
There is so much new ground Cleared Here & at Sueky's that 



138 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

I shall plant the Greatest part of the Pasture old field in Corne 
(for Corne ground is most Wanted) the rest I shall lay downe 
in Gates & Clover. Valentines Meadow M^ Riggs proposes to 
lay dowiie with Flax Hemp & Timothy. We Have Reserved 

00 Bushells of Gates to sow & shall put them in good gTound. 
It began to snow this morning between 4 & 5 a Clock, I meas- 
ured it at 9 a Clock in one of the Walks & it was 9 Inches deep 
so that for the time it must have fallen in more abundance than 
the great Snow in January, it is now 12 a Clock & it Continues 
to snow, but moderately with an appearance of its Ceasing. But 
the ground being Here full of Water & this addition will I am 
fearfull prevent Ploughing for at least 10 days to Come w^ we 
want much to be about, it will also be difficult to get fier wood 
as the ground is Exceedingly Rotten & Spungy. The Quarry 
turns out Plentifully. I am in Hopes it will prove a good 
Wheat year as I perceive little or none of it tO' be spewed out 
of the ground, But it makes little or no shew at a distance, as 
the hard frosts after the thaw have parched the Blades. Y^ 
Gates were Ready yesterday & were to be sent to morrow, but 
this snow I believe will make it impracticable, they shall goe 
with this as soon as Possible. If Coll Sharpe has sent the 
Alpine Strawberries & Vine Plants, send th™ to me by the Carte. 

1 suppose you sent my letter to M'' West. If the Cart does not 
get downe before Saturday, I expect the news Papers by M*" 
Cooke or Tilghman, I hope y'' debauch at the Gov'"^ has not 
Hurt you, I hear the Company was Highly Entertained & 
diverted by an Altercation lietween Do^ Stcuart & Major Jenifer 
on their Independance, as it is a Subject on w^ the Do^ had 
great scope to shine, I beg you will give me a particular Ace* 
of what past between them. What little I have Heard of it, is 
from M'" Ashton, who you know is not the most exact intelli- 
gencer. . . . 

March 17th 1772 [180] 
D*" Charley 

I Received y*"^ of the 10*^ ins* by M'' Macrae. If you remem- 
ber, my letter to West mentioned as a Condition of future 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 139 

dealings Hobsons pleasing ns in the Purchase of our goods. I 
shall order the Carts & wheelbarrowes you want to be made as 
soon as Possible, Consistently with our wants here. Riggs I 
think will answer my Expectations. M'" Ireland is better, He 
sets up, but Can only make a shift to ^'et from His bed to a 
Chair. I hope Hammond Has not bought the Land in Dispute 
between us & Howard, I think you neglected pressing Wallace 
as often as you ought, Scheming & thinking without action will 
never bring Business to a wished for Conclusion, you hate to 
stir from Home. I have not got my Wheat to the Landing nor 
sold it When I shall get it downe I know not, very little of the 
snow being gone & it now Blowing & freezing hard. It snowed 
Here the 12*^ or the 13*^. I sent my man into the woods to 
measure the snow and found it to be 17 inches deep. I may 
say the Planters Here have lost two months work, & I apprehend 
the loss in stocks of all sorts will be great, I believe I shall not 
Suffer much as I had a great store of Hay. If the roades will 
permit it, I will send y^' seed Oates & some flour next week, this 
I intend by a Boy next Saturday, by whome I will write again 
if any thing Materiall occurs. I have not been out of the House 
since the 10*^ My love & Blessing to you all. Tell Molly to 
Give my little Darling a 1000 kisses for me. I am y''^ &c. 

C: C: 

March 20^^ 1772 [180] 
Dr Charley 

I propose to send this to morrow with the two precedent, if 
the Weather will permit. I went to M^ Irelands on Wensday 
morning & found Him Chearfull & free from pain & He desiers 
to be Remembered to you & Molly, it snowed all th* afternoon, 
it began to snow again Yesterday & has Continued to snow to 
this time (I write at 11 a Clock in the morning) & no appear- 
ance of its leaving of as the Wind is at N: E: Little of the 
snow which fell on the 11*^ being gone I think with this addi- 
tion it is at least 20 Inches deep. It has been warme from the 
20th -^h makes me think, insted of snowing it Rains with you 



140 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

We have lost Here 10 Lambs since the h^st snow. Ely Dorsey 
«!c ^['■'^ Waitield as I Hear had between them 70 lambs & have 
only 7 alive. Severall if I may Credit Eeports Have at this 
time fother of no sort for their Cattle. I shall only send you 6 
Biish^ of Gates, I wish I may make my Corne Hold out untill 
Rye Comes in. Y^ Carts & Wheelbarrows will be done in time. 
God knowes when we shall be able to Plough, all Plantation 
Business will be so Baclavard as hardly to be brought up. I 
never knew so much Snow & wet weather in March, all but the 
Ploughed fields were Covered w*^ snow when I Came here. 
I want exercise & were it not for M"^ D'Estouches Plays &c I 
should be quite moped by my Confinement, yet it is best for me 
to be Here as Riggs kc Have often Recourse to me on many 
Occasions, M''^ Darnall is of great service to the sick, they Com- 
plain Chiefly of Great Colds I shall Return Molly the wine 
Cask filled with good Cyder. 

I desier M^" Deards may Pack 10 or 12 D^" of the Cask Wine 
th* Came from France, Cote Rotie & Burgundy that is 3 or 4 
D^" of Each of those Sorts. Let Him take Care not to send 
Hermitage insted of Cote Rotie, you like the Hermitage, I am 
well Satisfyed with the Cote Rotie & I like the Burgundy very 
well, I have drank since I came up my share of two or 3 bottles 
S: it is to me a Palatable & an agreeable wine. , . . 

P. S. 4 a Clock P: M: it has (.'cased snowing about two 
Hours, the wind at N. W. & I suppose it will Freeze to night, 
tho it thaws fast at present, it will not be mild & settled weather 
untill the wind goes Regularly Round from N to E, S & West. 
Some Ships may be arrived send me what news you Can, I Hear 
the late Lord B^ will is at length in the London Papers : Are 
any steps taken in London to Contest it ? I long to Hear from 
you k Hope to see you early in Aprill. 

March 26: 1772 [181] 
J)' Charley 

I have y" of Severall dates from the 12^1^ to the 22^ ins*. 
When Plummer Comes shall Conclude with Him if He will 
enter into Articles before He surveys the Land. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 141 

Brice Released to Sam: Howard Chance, whether Sam: 
Howard Remortgaged Chance to Brice. It would be proper to 
let Fish Hammond know yon Claim th* part of Chance not 
included in Howards Inheritance & that you will prosecute y*" 
Claim, by doeing so you will know what Hammond intends to 
Purchase of Howard. ... I return you the list of deeds of 
Lots in Annapolis, I take it th^ by the Act of 1718 for laying 
out Annapolis the then possessors titles were Confirmed, By th* 
new Survey the lots were not numbered as in the first Survey, 
so th* you must if necessary have Recourse to the original plat 
of Annapolis (which is in the House) to find the IST^ of the lot 
leased to Bryant & Maw. If you Cannot find th*^ Plat you will 
find one in the Towne Clarks office; knowing the originall n° 
you may know from whome my Father purchased it if nec- 
essary. ... If Deards had Considered the Invoice Book He 
would Have seen Chain Traces almost Constantly wrote for, we 
Can no more doe without th™ Here than at the Island, we use 
no other Tell M^ Deards to make a N^ to send for Chain Traces 
& to begin to make out the next invoice, let Him notice what 
we Have & Have not in the Store if He reflects, He must after 
the Experience He has Had, know every Common Article th* 
will be wanted you should all so know it, & be able to make out 
Proper Invoices. I return you Hunters letter. Clem Brooke 
who is Here tells me you Have only ten Ton of Pigg Iron, may 
be M^ Carroll's Clerk may sell to Hunter as you do, if so let 
Him give an order to Brooke & specify the Quantity th* Hunters 
Vessell may have a back freight. You will do well if you Can 
sell y^ Bar to the scotch factors at the Price you mention to 
Hunter. March 27*^ the Wagon goes of to morrow if fair, 
among other things I send you 200 Cabbage Plants, I mention 
them for fear y^ Lazy Gardener should not plant them out. I 
hope to see you next week. If no more bad weather we shall 
employ the Ploughs on Monday. . . . 



142 MAEYLAUD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Aprill lOtii 1772 [182] 
Dr Charley 

We make the best use we Can of this fine Weather, I shall 
begin this day to sow Gates in my Orchard & Hope to finish 
eowimr all my Gates at this Plantation next week. I have 
ordered a steer to be sent to you next Monday or Tuesday it is 
the last you will Have from Hence, by the steer drivers send 
me 6 pair of Chain traces if the steer drivers Cannot bring all 
the traces send the rest by Ellick who will go downe the 18*^ 
instant with ^M'"^ Darnall. The Chain traces must be bought, I 
Cannot do without th™. I sent to B : Towne but none were to 
be got there. Ned returned last night from !Fredeirick Towne 
Gary says Hfe Could not get me any Horses & to mend the 
matter the Grey Horse you saw at the Folly was last night stole 
out of the stable there, the Ploughs mentioned in Jo : Sears M" 
shall be ready to be sent by the Carts you bespoke when they 
(the Carts) are ready, & when I Can spare Horses to Carry the 
Carts which will not be before the last of this month. . . . 

Aprill 14: 1772 [183] 
Dr Charley 

You may Have two 5 year old unbroke Gxen whenever Sears 
will Come for them, the Plough He wants shall be finished as 
soon as Possible, if I can I will name the Day before I close 
this. You Have an Answer to Scots letter, seal it. My Wheat 
is not sold, when it is I think I Can spare you £80. We are 
this day sowing Gates in the Grchard, it was too windy yes- 
terday & not much better to day. Business in generall goes on 
well, the Weather Has put us much Back, but Rigges says He 
Hopes to bring all into order in good time. He says Frost is 
much forward in His Business than Himself, no wonder for a 
Home Plantation, with a Master who has Many Jobs on Hand 
is a Great Hindrance. 

Aprill 15 M"" Kigges told mc this Day th*^ Gne of the little 
Carts & two or more of the Ploughs will be finished this week 
no th* if Sears Comes up with a Team next Tuesday or Wensday 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 143 

He may Carry downe the Cart & His ploughs & the youiii;' 
Oxen for they have been kept yoaked some days past & I suppose 
will leade well after the Cart. M^'s Darnall will tell you what 
a trick Do^' Slmttleworth or His Man has served me, it is now- 
night & as the Horse is not yet Come Home, it's not improbable 
that the man is gone off with the Horse the Do^^ Portmanteau 
& what Cash was in it the Servant is a Convict as Will tells me 
(Sr the Do^ promised to send the Horse from Frederick towne 
this morning by Breake of Day. . . . 

27«^ May 1772 [184] 
Dr Papa 

Capt. Frost arrived here last Saturday from London, which 
he left the 29*^ March: By him I have received a copy of 
ace* of Sales of 41 Hd's shipped to Philpot, and copy of a 
letter, the originals whereof were sent by the Adderton Capt. 
Haw: the letter you have inclosed, it ought to be dated 12*^^ 
June 1771 & not 1772. 

You will observe that Philj)ot says he has accounted for the 
10 lb p^ Hhd Kings allowance, because the 410 lb to which that 
allow-ance amounts is not taken off the weight of my Tob*'. 
This is true, but then he accounts only for those 410 lb at the 
same price, for which the rest of the Tob^ was sold, and not at 
the rate, at which they were really sold. 

The netted pounds of these 41 Hhds according to the King's 
beam come to 39256 : the netted pounds on the credit side of the 
account of sales amounts to 39081 : the difference between these 
two sums is 175 lb, as Philpot makes it: the following sums 
over and above the said 175 lb, viz* for damage 390 lb for 
draft & sample 164 lb, for Trett 1482 in all 2211 are to be 
deducted from 39256 netted pounds on the ace* of sales, and 
leave a balance of 37045 lb, for which quantity only he has in 
fact accounted at the several following rates viz at 3^ at Sy^ 
at 2^%. These 41 Hhds weighed in Maryland 41186 lb the 
real loss therefore on the weight by shipping comes to 4141 lb. 
Be pleased to return me this letter; the observations in it w^ill 



144 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

be of use to me when I write to Philpot: Philpots letter must 
also be returned to me. 

I have bought a gardiner from Capt. Frost : I gave £23 Cury 
for him ; he is not above 21 years of age, appears to be healthy 
<S: stout and orderly ; he says he understands a Kitchen garden 
pretty well ; M'' Carroll's gardener examined him : he has 4 
years to serve. 

Capt. Frost brings no fresh intelligence: Henrick sailed a 
week before him, & may be hourly expected, the barrister I 
know has wrote to me by Henrick: by him also I expect my 
coach & Plate from Deard's brother. 

Molly has not been well these several days past: the little 
ones are perfectly well, and Molly growes a fine girl full of life 
*S: prattle. 

I hope your leg is well, or much better than when I left you. 
Tf it should not I think you ought to take a little more Physic, 
indeed this is Doctor Scott's opinion & I hope you will follow 
his advice. 

iNTeither the Gov^ or M''^ Eden are yet returned to town. 
Smith told me he expected them to day. . . . 

Pray be attentive to the Stallions, they were in wretched 
condition when I left them & utterly unfit to Go to Mares. I 
am really uneasy about them ; I did not care to press the matter 
when with you as it seemed to fret you, but I was very desirous 
& am still, of having them here. 

It is impossible to get them in good order without hard food, 
give them as much lucerne as you please ; and allow that grass 
all the wonderful qualities ascribed to it by the writers on 
agriculture. 

2S^'^ May 

Capt, Herrick arrived here yesterday but as he sailed before 
Frost has brought no fresh intelligence. The plate we wrote for 
is come in — the Coach I expect will come with the barrister, 
who writes me he shall be in before the fall. 

I send along with this by Paul the model of the truck. You 
have a inonioranduiii relating to it which you took with you 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CAEEOLL PAPEES. 145 

when you was down the memorandum contains the scale by 
which the model was made, & some directions about the wheels, 
which are to be made like the fore wheels of a chariot. If 
William understands the scale, he can't be at a loss in taking 
off the proportions. . . . 

Sunday morning. 

The things you wrote for shall be sent up in the wagon. 
Inclosed you have — Jn° Deard's shop note for plate, which we 
have received by Henrick: also James Capstack's Bill and a 
letter from Doc^ Scott. I would advise you, unless your leg 
should heal soon to take a little more physic. I wish your leg 
was well, besides the irksomeness of the confinement which it 
occasions, I am afraid the want of exercise may be prejudicial 
to y*" health. 

Molly is better : she will write by the wagon ; she is now fast 
asleep. 

I have sent inclosed more particular directions about the 
truck. If William understands taking off the proportions from 
the scale he cannot possibly go wrong. You have herewith the 
newspapers. ISTothing new. My love to M''^ Darnall. I am 

Y^ affectionate son, 

Ch. Carroll of Carrollton. 

P. S. You may send down the two Jobbers next Monday. 
My Pork is not yet arrived from the furance, but I expect it 
daily. I shall send Paul to Dooheragen when the wagon goes up. 

June l^t 1772 
Dr Gharly 

I have y^s from the 27*^ to the 31»<^ past, w^ I return to you. 
The difference between the weight of the 41 hgds sent to Philpot, 
Here & at the Kings Beam viz, 1930 lb is great & must be 
noticed when you write to Him, Buchanans Acc^^ of Sale may 
be quoted. I say nothing to y^ other Remarks as they are just. 
Philpot ought to ace* for 39256 insted of 39081. You tell me 



140 MARYL^VXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

at what prices the 41 hgds sold hnt joii do not mention the sum. 
they Produced nor did vou send me Philpot's letter. Examin 
Perkins Ace* of Sales as you have done Philpots & let me know 
the Result. When you write to them Consider my letter to 
Buchanan on the same Subject. For my Health I refer you to 
my letter to Do^ Scot w^^ you will seal & send. The model of 
y'" Truck with both y^ memorandums Relating to it I have 
deliver'd to Rigg's & directed the Wheelwright to Consult me if 
He did not understand the Directions. We want Rain for noth- 
ing but a Planting Season, the Earth being in good Condition 
for what is gTowing, But if our Wishes Could be indulged we 
should desier a good Sober Soaking Rain once a week. I return 
you M^ Deards Shop note of Plate with some Remarks w^ will 
shew How Ridiculous & foolish it is to lay out Money th* way 
for any thing but spoons, for they seem to me the only necessary 
Plate Article. A rich side board Elegant & Costly furniture 
May gratify our Pride & Vanity, they may Excite the Praise & 
admiration of Spectators, more Commonly their Envy But it 
certainly must give a Rationall Parent infinitely more Satisfac- 
tion to save the money so dissipated as a Provision for younger 
Children, & an Ample Provision it would prove to be, in a 
Saving of 30 or 40 years for Severall. Enjoy y^' Fortune, keep 
an Hospitable table. But lay out as little money as Possible in 
dress furniture & shew of any Sort, decency is the only Point 
to be aimed at. T send downe Longo Will & Stephen Jobbers, 
if you dislike Stephen (which you may do from His looks & 
Raggnedness, tho as fit for a meer Labourer as any one) you 
may Return Him & keep Paul. I shall send downe the Wagon 
next Saturday tli* the Horses May Rest with you on Sunday. 
To speak with Certainty 1 just now viewed the stallions & I say 
they are in as good order as I would desier them to be for Cover- 
ing or any other use, they were not in so good order when you 
was here, nor was there any necessity for their being m tho had 
we Plenty of Corn, its probable it would have been flung away 
upon them to make th"* unnecessarily as fat & as slick as Moles. 
It is not ray Care only to want Corn, the Price it in Generall 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 147 

bears shews the want to be generall & in such a want it would 
not be Reasonable to Pamper my Horses & Pinch my slaves, 
under these Circumstances you need not Wonder I was fretted 
to Hear you Complain of the Condition of the Stallions, you 
sometimes speak without deliberation, y"" Expedient of taking 
the Horses & leaving the Mares uncovered was in my opinion, 
not a prudent one. I wish for Plentifull Crops of Corn as much, 
as you, I endeavour what I Can to obtain th™ if I do not suc- 
ceed, if my Neighbours succeed no better, I have Patience & 
spin out what I have as far as possible, immitate me. 

I was very glad to Hear by y^ last Date, th*^ Molly was better 
& I hope to Hear by y'" next th* she is perfectly well. By what 
you say of my little darling Molly you Cannot be too fond of 
Her, when I say this it is Confiding you will not spoil Her. 
My love & Blessing to you Molly & the little Ones. 1 am D'^ 
Charley Y^ mo : Aff* Father 

P. S. I sent last Saturday the Sorrell Mare to Figure ; Miss 
Doe & Slamakin to M^ Goughs Dray Horse 

June 5tli 1772 [186] 
Dr Charley 

The Wagon sets of to morrow she will Carry you 3 Barrills 
of Flower &: 15m lOd nails- as M^" Deards wrote to me they 
would be wanted by you, they will send as many Wheelbarrows 
as they Can stow in the Wagon. Beside the things wrote for in 
my last Pray order 35 fathom of Prize Eope & two Dozen of 
Broad Hoes. You forgot to send me an extract of that Part of 
^l^ Bro^vne's of Cork Letter Relating to the money advanced by 
Him on Ace* of M'"^ Clarke & Her sons passage. In a letter of 
yrs of the 30*^ of Octo^" 1769 you say M^ Rumsey told you He 
knew a Gent" who Could Establish the Bounds of Derrykeel 
1900a; What step Have you taken in Consequence of th* infor- 
mation? if none, do not forget it. We Had a Moderate rain 
last Thursday Evening, it did not make a good Season, However 
Yesterday they Planted Here at Sucky's & Jacobs about 140000 



14S MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

Plants,, But M^ Rigges thinks yesterday's & this day's Cold 
blowing & drying wind will destroy half of what is Planted. 
Yesterday I had & this day I have a fier & find it necessary, 
strange Weather for June our Corn looks Green & well, Is very 
Clean but does not Grow. Even the Grass in the Meadow grows 
very slowly. I have observed more smutted Wheat than is Com- 
mon in our Wheat fields, th* is W^heat with Black & Perished 
Heads, Our Rankest & best wheat Vzt. at the Folly in the field 
next to the Mill is the fullest of it, I have not seen the Wheat 
fields since last Wensday, the Wheat was then only beginning to 
Ear, I hope what was or is still to shoot may be freer from the 
smut. 

My Leg & Toe are allmost quite well or want but very little 
of Being quite so, & the Humor in my Ears seems to be goeing 
of, they Have dryed much for the three days Past. My love & 
Blessing to you Molly & the little ones, Kiss my Darling & tell 
Her her Grandpapa sent Her th* Kiss. I have put the things 
sent you «S: those which you are to send me on an inclosed Piece 
of Paper. I Hope by the Wagon to Hear you are all perfectly 
well, God grant you May all long very long Continue so. I am 
Dr Charley Yr mo : Afi[* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

June 9^^ 1772 [187] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^« of the 7**^ by the Wagon. Philpot's Sales if I 
remember are the Lowest, turning out not quite £8 p^ hg^ When 
plate Costs nigh as much for Fashion as for the Silver it is a 
folly to Purchase it, especially when the Plate is not substantiall, 
as the Change of it is thereby necessarily more frequent. As I 
am not a Competent Judge of Workmanship I wont say the 
Charge for the Fashion is Extravagant, but I will say th^ Charge 
is greatly beyond what T used to be Charged, w^ you may see by 
Comparing y'' last Invoice with former Invoices of Plate. Sub- 
stantiall Plain & neat Plato (if Plate is necessary) is the only 
Plate w^ ought to be bought as an imposition in the Article of 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 149 

Fashion as sooner noticed. I have enquired & Have not Heared 
th* Corn has been sold Lower than 3/9d, at B : T : it has Retailed 
there at 4/, & at 4/6 at E: R Landing. It froze Here last 
Thursday night or Friday morning, it bit the Leaves of the 
English Walnut tree in the Pasture & my Lucern. We have 
Plenty of Plants, if the Fly does not again Attack them, the 
Cooleness of the day makes me apprehend it, We want a Season, 
th* is a soakeing warme Rain. I took a tour this morning by 
Jacobs, Suckys, Moses's, the Folly & the Pool meadow Our 
Fields every where in good order, most of the Corn thrice 
Ploughed Over, But it is very Low for the Season, I Can Hardly 
perceive the Grass to have stir'd for ten days past in the Pool 
meadows the smut has Ceased in the Wheat fields, the for- 
wardest Wheat & th* on weak Lands was most af ected, I attribute 
it to the Cold & Frosty Weather, I think in some fields the 
damage may Amount to a 15*^ 

I think for the Reasons you mention, we shall be able to sell 
our tob° at a Guinia p^' C* M^ Ploughman I am informed has 
given th* Price for some Linganoa tob^ M^ Rumsey will informe 
you what Steps you are to take to Establish the Bounds of Derry 
Keel, as I think He must be Acquainted with their mode of 
Proceeding in such Cases in Pensilvania^ I take Merryweather 
to be a narrow gripeing fellow & think His office may be bestowed 
on one much more deserving. I have left the Sale of my Wheat 
to C : Brooke, I do not Hear that He has sold it. By the Pensil- 
vania Journall of the 21^* Past Wheat was there at 8/ p^ Bush^ 
I Have kept Rob* to new lay my Back Porch, I hope He will 
finish it by 10 a Clock to morrow Morning. I think M^ Pots 
has used us ill, I have this day sent to B : Towne for 150 lb of 
the best Clayed Sugar & if you Can borrow or Purchase any 
good spirit I desier you will send me 12 Bottles by the 1^* 
Dutch Wagon. My Leg & Toe are quite well & I Can walk, as 
usuall without the least Inconvenience. My Ears Continue to 
Run but not as much as formerly. I conceived on their Ceasing 
to Run th* I felt a Heaviness in my Head, But if so, perhaps it 
might be owing to a Cold or some other Cause th* I Cannot Ace* 
4 



150 MAKYLA^fD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

for: ^P"" Darnall prescribes 10 or 12 Dozes of the Flour of 
Brimstone, a tea spoon fnll to be taken each day in milk, she 
says it Corrects Acrid Hunionrs & is a great sweetner of the 
Blood, I shall follow Her Prescription as I believe she is as 
knowing as some of the Pretended sons of Esculapiiis. I am 
mnch Pleased with M'' Eiggs He is a thinking active man He 
proposes the saw ^lil shall work by Day & the Grist Mil by 
night, by w^ method they may both work Constantly & Have a 
sufficient supply of water, to this end I sent for a lamp w^ I 
suppose ^I*' Deards forgot. Molly gives us Hopes we shall see 
you all by the Middle of next month the sooner the Better, for I 
lonff to Embrace vou Mollv & mv Dear little Grand Children. 
My love & Blessing to you all. God grant you all perfect Health 
&" a long Continuance of it. I am D'' Charley 

y mo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. I shall write to you next Friday by M^ Ashton. Make 
my Compliments to Do'' Scot & His Lady. I shall then also 
write to M'' Deards to whome I desier my Compliments. 

June 12th 1772 [188] 
D^" Charley 

Nothing Materiall has occurred since I wrote you by Kob* 
Gethings. We had a skirting Rain yesterday in the Afternoon 
they Planted a little w^ I think will not stand as we now have 
a Cold drying Wind. M'" Rigges thinks a 3^ of our first planting 
stands. Our Corn makes little or no progi'6ss, Our Corn fields 
are in very good order, for as nothing growes they are Clean & 
thrice Ploughed, we shall goe over them again before Harvest. 
We want a good Season much, most of our tob^ ground being 
Scraped. They are mowing the Clover at the Folly w^ is next 
to the main Roade. Our Oates in the Orchard & low ground" 
look well, the others but indifferent T sent to M'" Croxall's the 
2'* Instant to know liow Ho dicl they write He is something 
U'tter than usuall, they Desier their Compliments to yon & 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 151 

Molly. M^' Aslitoii Came thence last Wendsday. The gout has 
left Cap" Ireland He is weak & much fallen awa3^ I apprehend 
from His meagre Regimen, Bnt in good spirits: His wheat is 
very good & free from the smut, I walked thither last Wensday. 
Our Bridge over Patnxent is at last finished. Pray desier Moll;> 
to send my Ring by M^' Ashton. I miss a Browne Holland 
Wastecoate, it may be in the Chest in the Chappie among my 
other Cloaths, as I wrote to M"^ Deards, or it may be stolen as 
there are some light fingered People in y*' Family, for Will last 
October had two new white shirts & M^^ Darnalls had an Osna- 
brigs Peticoate stolen from them, w^ I knew not untill lately. 
My Cloaths are not secure in the Chappie unless a Lock be put 
on the Chest. Pray tell Molly to take Care to Have my Cloaths 
frequently aired & the Chest well Cleaned every time before 
they are Replaced in it. Pray send me the net weight of the 
Hg-^ payed last year by Rich*^ Simpson, it was sold to West, the 
mark R S 

I am very well, But I think One of my Ears run more yes- 
terday than Ever, I again apply Do^ Scots white ointment & 
Began last night to take the Flour of Briinstone. My love & 
Blessing to you Molly & the little Ones I hope to Hear you are 
all perfectly well. If you wont, tell Molly to kiss the little Ones 
for me. Does Molly ever talk of Her Grand Papa ? I am D^' 
Charley Y^ mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. M»' Ashton saw Clem* Brooke last Wendsday at B : 
Towne, who told Him He had sold my wheat at 7/4<i to W™ 
More son of More who owes us money. Brooke told me He is 
good Pay, if you ask M^ Ashton He will be more Particular. 

June 17 1772 [189] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^'s by M^ Cooke & M"" Ashton. If I mistake not W'" 
Browne's Beards &c's Bond is out of Date, if not, put it in suit. 
I have Wrote to Dilling, & shall write to the Stoners when I 



152 MAKYLAND HISTOKICAI. MAGAZINE. 

Can learn where they live. Rob* Davis has not yet Run out 
Shipley's Land & nothing Can be done with Him untill th* is 
done. I know not How to Proceed ag* Conrade Bott, you know 
it is a Mortgage, the Land was taken up in Maryland by Jo: 
Digges it is now in Pensilvania, Bot is Runaway & did Convey 
after His Mortgage to a Person I know not, who is in Possession, 
M^ W™ Digges Can give you information, when you have His 
information. Proceed as you shall be advised. M^^ Darnall 
Intends this summer to Pay a Visit to Her Mother, I shall then 
write to Cha^ Neale & inclose a Bill of sale. If D : Dy advises 
a Bill to be filed ag* me, it must be with a View to Create fees 
in His Office for I think it will appear by my Books th* all the 
Compound interest was discounted when Ja^ Heath past His 
Bond for His Fathers Debt. I think 20 Guineas a very Gen- 
erous offer to Goldsborough the Cause is far from being an 
Intricate one & He has not had any trouble in drawing or 
Writing I shall send you some Bran by the little Cart next 
Saturday. Yesterday & this day are very Cold, I Could well 
bear a fier. Corn makes no Progress, But if we have Rain in 8 
or 10 days as the fields are Clean & in good order, I shall Hope 
to make a good Crop of Corn Our Potatoes make as poor an 
Appearance as the Corn, but the Meadows make the Worst, 
should we Hence forward Have seasonable Weather, I think 
our Crop of Hay will be a very short one : I apprehend the Cold 
weather does more Damage than the Drought. Our Wheat in 
Generall looks well but is too thin, the Damage from the smut 
will not be a 15*^^ as I wrote you, most of the smutted Wheat, 
shot the earliest, w^ had a very bad Appearance, what has 
speared since is free from smut, the Cold & frosts I apprehend 
afected the Earliest Wheat. In the list of things ordered to 
Come by my Wagon a Lamp was mentioned, it is so at least in 
the Duplicate I kept of th* List I shall send for one to B : Towne 
I need not tell you I shall be glad to see you & Molly as soon as 
you Can Conveniently Come, you in Particular I should be glad 
to see oftner, as the Exercise & Change of air must be very 
Beneficiall to you. As Cooke and Tilghman Came here last 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 163 

Sunday Evening & went away early on Monday I Could not 
write by them to any of the Persons mentioned in the fore part 
of this letter. C* Brooke in a letter to me dated the 30*^ past 
says I shall send the 10 Barills of Pork, to y^ son in a few days 
by M^ Carroll's schooner. I wrote yesterday as you desier'd to 
forward th°^ M^ Ashton tells me you have got them. Pork as 
Cap^ Hanrick tells me sels at B : Towne at £6 p'^ Barrill, so th* 
if you have more than you want, you may sell it to advantage, 
Warrent Acct in Li: T goes no Lower than Dec^ 25*^ 1767, He 
was Charged with a Double Eent Dec^ 25*^ 1765, so th* He must 
be Charged with another Double Kent Dec'^ 25*^ 1770. This 
Article is the only one in y^ last w^ Requir'd an Answer. I 
hope the Running of my Ears is gone of as I have not in the 
least been troubled with it for 3 days past, nor doe I find any 
disorder from a stopage of the Humor. I shall inclose a list of 
what I send & what I want by the Cart. I Could not get any 
Clayed Sugar at B : Towne, therefore send me at least 150 lb 
by the Cart the Bottles of spirit you got of M^^ Pots will do for 
the Present. I suppose you have got y'* Sugar &c from Pots. 

June 18*^ 8 a Clock in the Evening. ISTo ace* of M'' Deards 
yet, I suppose He Cannot leave His Friend Douglass. I 
immagin you know th* H : Browne is Come in, He arrived from 
Cork at B : Towne last Sunday, Hendrick told me this Day, th* 
the Irish goods Browne was directed to Purchase Have been in 
B : Towne 3 weeks past strange no letters Came to our hands. 
Rachell presents Her love to you all, so do I with my Blessing 
I am well & shall Write to you to Morrow to goe by the Cart on 
Saturday. I am D'" Charley 

yr Aff^^ Father 
Cha: Carroll 

June 19*1^ 1772 [190] 
Dr Charley 

I wrote to you the 17*^^ & 18*^ instant, M"^ Tilghman will 
deliver it this morning. As we want Osnabrigs Cotton &c I 
send the Wa2:on insted of the little Cart. Inclosed is a list of 



154 MARYLA^TD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

what I seud cV what I want. Law: Robinson says He left a 
Saddle with some of your People, I desier'd it might be sent by 
the Wagon when it went last, it did not Come, did yon enqnier 
for it ? Carbin Lee I hear is Removed by order of the Owners, 
from the works under His Management: Has He answerd y'" 
letter about His Protest ? if not put the Bill in suit unless He 
offers undoubted Security & gives it in a very short time. It is 
odd Hen : Browne should send our goods & th* we had no notice 
of it, Hanrick as I wrote you, told me they have been in B: 
Towne 3 weeks past: I expect Him here in a day or two; As 
He Came from Cork I suppose y*" Claret is Come with Him & 
th* y^ Sugar &c from Pots is or will be in y^' Store Before this 
will be with you desier Deards to note in His Blotter to write 
for the best files & Tools of all sorts, the files sent are very bad : 
I suppose He is gone back to Annapolis. My love & Blessing 
to you Molly & my little Girls. Molly I imagine begins to be 
very Chatty & good Company. I wish you all perfect Health 
& as much Happyness as this World Can aford & I am D^' 
Charley Y^ mo: Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN 

ITS ANTECEDENTS ANiD OONSEQUENGES 
1651-1655. 

B. Bernard Browne, M. D. 



In ancient times all roads led to Rome, so during the Colonial 
period all Maryland history leads to England. 

During the Civil War in England, a large number of those 
who sympathized with the King and who were threatened as 
enemies by parliament emigrated to Maryland and Virginia, 
both of which Colonies maintained the royal standard and were 
under the rule of governors who affiliated with the royal cause. 

In Maryland, Charles II was proclaimed King by Governor 



THE BATTLK OF THE SEVERX. 155 

Green on 15th of September, 1649, and the Virginia House of 
Burgesses refused to acknowledge the rule of parliament. 

On the 26th of September, 1651, the Council of State of 
England, in carrying out the provisions of the Ordinance of 
parliament passed on October 3rd of the preceding year (1650), 
prohibiting trade with Barbadoes, Virginia and Bermuda which 
was intended as a punishment for the rebellion of those Colonies 
against the English parliament, and which stated '' that the 
islands and other places in America, where any English are 
planted, are and ought to be subject to and dependent upon 
England and must be subject to such laws, 'orders, and regula- 
tions as are and shall be made by the parliament of England." 

This parliament was not in the habit of uttering empty 
words ; but followed the declaration up with this ordinance of 
September 26, 1651, appointing Captain Robert Dennis, Mr. 
Thomas Stagge, Captain Edmund Curtis, who were then officers 
in the navy, and Richard Bennet, and Captain William Clay- 
borne, then residents of Virginia, to be Commissioners for 
reducing all the plantations within the Bay of the Chesapeake 
to their due obedience to the parliament of the Commonwealth 
of England. 

They were empowered to use, in the first place, persuasive 
and lenient measures, but if necessary all the arts of hostility 
that lie in their power. 

The three Commissioners who were in England, Dennis, 
Stagge and Curtis, with a small fleet and a regiment of 700 men 
sailed for Virginia where Captain Curtis arrived on the ship 
" John " in March, 1652, Captain Dennis and Mr. Stagge 
having been lost on the voyage on the ship " Admiral." 

After an ineffectual resistance on the part of Governor 
Berkeley, he agreed to capitulate and surrender the Colony to 
the three Commissioners, which he did on the twelfth of March, 
1652. 

After the surrender of Virginia the Commissioners proceeded 
to Maryland and arriving at the seat of Government (St. 
Mary's), on the 29th of March, issued a proclamation which 



156 MAEYLAJfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Stated, that having offered to Governor Stone and the Council 
that thej should remain in their places, conforming themselves 
to the laws of the Commonwealth of England. This they 
refused to do and the Commissioners thereupon demanded 
Goveraor Stone's commission, and published orders for the 
future government of the province, which stated that all writs, 
warrants, and process whatsoever be issued forth in the name 
of the keepers of the liberty of England by authority of parlia- 
ment; and that they be signed under the hand of one or more 
of the Council hereafter named, viz., Robert Brooke, Esq., 
President and Acting Governor, Col. Francis Yardley, Mr. Job 
Chandler, Captain Edward Windham, Mr. Richard Preston, 
Lieutenant Richard Banks. 

Soon after the Commissioners completed the reducement of 
Maryland, they returned to Virginia, where, on the 30th of 
April, the burgesses organized a new government for that 
province and unanimously elected Richard Bennet their Gov- 
ernor, and Captain William Clayborne, Secretary of State ; thus 
Bennet became practically Governor of Maryland and Virginia 
at the same time, being a Commissioner under parliament he 
was in a position to exercise great authority and extraordinary 
power in both provinces. 

After a short time Captain Stone changed his mind in regard 
to his refusal to issue the writs, etc., as required by the Commis- 
sioners, and requested to be reinstated as Governor. 

Accordingly two of the Commissioners, Governor Richard 
Bennet and Captain William Clayborne, with the advice and 
consent of the Council and other inhabitants, issued their order 
or proclamation bearing date 28th June, 1652, appointing 
Captain Stone Governor, and Mr. Thomas Hatton, Mr. Robert 
Brooke, Captain John Price, Mr. Job Chandler, Col. Francis 
Yardley, and Mr. Richard Preston, Council for the province, 
who were to govern, order and direct the affairs thereof in all 
matters according to the former order and proclamation of 
March 29th, 1652. 

Governor Stone being now reinstated, he continued to play an 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN". 157 

important part in the affairs of Maryland up to the time of the 
battle of the Severn in which, as we will see, he was engaged on 
the losing side. 

He was born in ISTorthamptonshire, England, and settled on 
the Eastern Shore of Virginia, about 1632, he was a prominent 
Protestant, was Justice of Accomac in 1633, and Sheriff of 
Northampton in 1640 ; he owned large tracts of land on Hun- 
gars and Mattawoman creeks, which he inherited from his 
father, Captain John Stone, who was killed by the Pequod 
Indians in a battle on Connecticut River. 

He married Virginia Cotton, daughter of the Rev. William 
Cotton, an non-conformist minister, of Hungars, in Northamp- 
ton. Rev. William Cotton, Hooker and Roger Williams, all 
zealous clergymen, came to Salem and Boston in 1630, with 
John Winthrop. 

On August 6, 1648, on the promise of bringing 500 people of 
English or Irish descent into the province, he was commissioned 
bv Lord Baltimore, " our LieAiteriant , Chief Governor, General, 
Admiral, Marshall, Chief Captain and Commander hy sea and 
land" He was the ancestor of Thomas Stone, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and who was 
present when General Washington resigned his military com- 
mission into the hands of Congress, 23rd December, 1783, at 
Annapolis. Governor William Stone died at his plantation, 
" Avon," in Charles County, in 1695. 

After the reinstatement of Governor Stone, Governor Bennet 
and Mr. Clayborne left the government of the province, thus 
organized, entirely in the management of Governor Stone, and 
the Council, and Captain Clayborne returned to Virginia. 
Governor Bennet was immediately engaged in a very important 
public transaction of the province, the treaty with the Susque- 
hanna Indians, a fierce and warlike tribe (Iroquois Nation). 

This tribe had for a long time (even previous to the settle- 
ment of Leonard Calvert), been at war with the Indians of the 
Patusent, and the Piscataways (Algonquins), and indeed con- 
sidered themselves conquerors of all the territory from the Sus- 



158 MARYr.A^TD HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

qnehanua to the Potomac, or at least to the Patuxent. It is 
most probable, therefore, that they resented the settlement of the 
English at St. ^larv's, and more especially the settlement of the 
Puritans at the Severn. If we remember that up to 1649, Lord 
Baltimore's settlements were confined almost entirely to the 
lower part of St. Mary's, and had barely extended to the 
Patuxent and not north of that river. Therefore, we must recog- 
nize the fact that the 500 settlers brought in by Governor Stone 
were a great addition to Lord Baltimore's Province, and also to 
his revenue. Even a greater benefit to him was the settlement 
of the Puritans at the Severn, ^vho acted as a barrier and protec- 
tion to all of his territory north of the Patuxent, and made it 
possible for him to colonize that section. 

As a recent writer has said, " Lord Baltimore was an ener- 
getic and active Colonizer,'' and, no doubt, stipulated with the 
Puritans that if they would become settlers he would guarantee 
religious toleration by an act of Assembly, which he did in 1649. 
On the same day that Governor Stone was reinstated, the 
Court held at Saint Mary's — present Governor Stone, Mr. 
Thomas Ilatton, Secretary, Mr. Robert Brooke, Col. Francis 
Yardley, ^fr. Job Chandler, Mr. Richard Preston, took the 
following action : 

" Whereas, this Court is informed that the Susquehanna 
Indians have a long time desired and much pressed for the 
conclusion of a peace with the government and inhabitants of 
this province, which, as is now conceived, may tend much to 
the safety and advantage of the inhabitants here, if advisedly 
offectod: it is, therefore, ordered, and the Court hereby gives 
full power and authority unto Richard Bennet, EdAvard Lloyd, 
Captain William Fuller, Thomas Marsh and Leonard Strong, 
or any three of them of which Richard Bennet to be one, to 
consult and treat with the Susquehanna Indians and to conclude 
a league and peace with them." 

All the alK)ve named except Mr. Richard Bennet, were inhab- 
itants of the new Puritan settlement on the Severn, recently 
oalled Ann Arundel, formerly and soon again to be called Provi- 
dence. 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN. 159 

They immediately went from St. Mary's to the Severn, where 
they entered upon their diplomatic duties and on July 5th, 7 
days afterwards, a treaty was made and articles of agreement 
signed at the river Severn, and as traditions say under the old 
poplar or Liberty Tree, still standing. 

The articles gave the English all the land from the Patuxent 
River to Palmer's Island, on the western side of the Chesapeake, 
and from the Choptank River to the northeast branch which lies 
northward of Elk River on the eastern side of the bay, excepting, 
however, the Isle of Kent and Palmer's Island which belong to 
Captain Clayborne. 

Although this treaty secured peace with all the Indians of 
the western shore and down to the Choptank River on the 
eastern shore, we soon find that the Nanticokes and Wicomicoes, 
who were not included in the treaty, commenced making attacks 
upon the inhabitants of the Isle of Kent, and even cross the 
bay to make depredations upon the citizens of St. Mary's. To 
meet this invasion Governor Stone and the Council appointed 
Captain William Fuller, Commander-in-chief, and Captain 
General of the militia, to proceed in an expedition against these 
Indians, to make war upon and through God's assistance, by 
all possible means, to vanquish, destroy, plunder, kill or take 
prisoners all or any of the said Indians, either by sea or land, 
and being so taken to put them to death by the law of war, or 
to sell them as slaves, and if necessary, pursue them beyond the 
limits of this province ^ (Invading a neutral State). He had 
only recently come to the province, having previously been an 
officer in Cromwell's army, and was said to have been engaged 
in the battle of Dunbar, in which Cromwell defeated and cap- 
tured a vastly superior army by attacking it in the rear, which 
we will see was the tactics pursued by Fuller in the battle of 
the Severn. Both Cromwell and Fuller claimed that the Lord 

^ This order must have proceeded upon this ancient principle, it being at 

.that time strictly conformable to the laws of nations; as appears from 

Grotius (De Jure Belli et Pacis, lib. ill, chap. 7), who wrote this celebrated 

work some short time prior tothe year 1625, when it was first published at 

Paris, under the auspices of Louis XIII. Bozman, vol. n, p. 457. 



16CV MARYLAIfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Avas on their side. The battle cry of the former being " The 
Lord, the Tx)rd of Hosts he has delivered them into mine hands, 
let God arise and let his enemies be scattered," and his whole 
army joining in a chorus singing 117th Psalm. 

Fuller's battle cry was " In the name of God fall on, God is 
our strength." 

In consequence of certain instructions received by Governor 
Stone from Lord Baltimore, he proceeded on the seventh of 
February, 1654, to a very important measure, which became the 
ostensible and alleged cause of the Civil War in the province, 
which shortly afterwards ensued. 

To carry these instructions into effect, he issued a proclama- 
tion, of the date last mentioned (7th February, 1654) ; in the 
cormnencement of which he takes care specially and expressly 
to state his authority for so doing. 

" According to the special direction and appointment of the 
right honorable Cecilius Lord Baltimore, etc., these are in his, 
the said Lord proprietary's name, to give notice and declare to 
all and every one of the inhabitants of this province, and others, 
whom it does or may concern, that whereas his said Lordship 
understands that divers persons inhabiting in this province, 
have not sued out their patents in due time for the lands which 
they claim to be due unto them here, nor have taken the oath of 
■fidelity (as they ought to have done), according to his Lordship's 
condition of plantation, whereby they claim such land." (A 
distinguishf'd historian has said that the imposition of this oath 
was an illegal stretch of the prerogative — an oath of his own 
coining and was the cause of all the bloodshed which subse- 
quently ensued in the Province.) "Yet his Lordship, out of 
good affection to them, is not willing to take such advantage, as 
he justly might, there up against them, without giving them 
first fair warning, by this proclamation, of their error therein, 
but is contented that all such persons, who claim any land due 
unto them respectively by virtue of his Lordship's conditions of 
plantation dated 2nd July, 1649, shall, notwithstanding their 
Paid default, have the said lands granted unto them as if no 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN. 161 

such default had been made. Provided always, that they do 
respectively, within three months now next ensuing, tahe the 
said oath of fidelity, according to his Lordship's declaration 
hearing date the sixth of August, 1650, and his instructions, 
hearing date the 17th of February, 1653, and also, within the 
said time make their rights to said land appear to his Lordship's 
Secretary here, and sue out their patents, and pay to his Lord- 
ship's receiver general here, or his sufficient deputy, all such 
arrears of rent as are due to his Lordship for the said landsi 
respectively from the time such patents ought, by the said condi- 
tions to have been sued out by them respectively, and also to 
pay unto his Lordship's officers here such fees as of right belong 
unto them respectively for the same. 

" And these are further also, in the said Lord proprietor's 
name, and by his special direction and appointment as aforesaid, 
to declare and give notice, that in case such person or persons, 
so claiming any land due as aforesaid, shall not tahe the oath of 
fidelity, or not sue out their respective patents, or not pay the 
said arrears and fees within the time aforesaid, they shall be 
forever after debarred from any right or claim to the said lands, 
and in that case his Lordship's Lieutenant here is by the said 
Lordship's special direction, required to cause to he entered and 
seized upon to his Lordship's use. Given at St. Mary's in the 
said province of Maryland, the seventh day of February, Anno 
Dom. 1654. William Stone." 

It will be noticed that these instructions of Lord Baltimore, 
dated 17th February, 1653, were not received by Governor 
Stone until the early part of 1654, as evidently they had not 
been received on ^November the 7th, 1653, for on that date he 
adjourned the provincial Court to January 10th, 1654, because, 
as he stated, " no English shipping had yet arrived here," this 
delay most probably was caused by the war with Holland, as 
about this time the Dutch fleet under Von Tromp had defeated 
Admiral Blake, and had complete control of the English 
Channel, sailing up and down with brooms tied to their masts 
to indicate that they were making " a clean sweep." 



1()2 MARYLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Long Parliament did not adjourn until 20th April, 1653, 
nearly two months after the instructions were written and 
Cromwell was made Lord Protector 16 December, 1653, ten 
months after thev were written and two months before they 
were received by Governor Stone. 

We must also remember the several orders drawn up and 
published at Saint Mary's the 29th of March and the 28th of 
June. 1652. by which the province of Maryland was reduced 
and settled under the authority of the Commonwealth of 
England by the commission from parliament, and was left in 
the hands of Governor William Stone and others who were 
recjuired and promised to issue all writs in the name of the 
Keepers of the liberty of England, according to the instructions 
from parliament. 

And now we find Governor Stone by a special order from 
Lord Baltimore, is persuaded and induced to go away from his 
obligation and the trust reposed in him, and issues writs and 
all other i)roccsses in the name of Lord Baltimore, displaces 
members of the Council and imposes an oath upon the inhalv 
itants contrary to and inconsistent with their engagement and 
oath to the Commonwealth of England, upon penalty of for- 
feiture of their lands. 

This caused great discontent and disturbance among the 
inhabitants besides being in opposition and rebellion to the 
Commonwealth of England and to his highness the Lord 
Protector. 

Early in March, Governor Bennct received petitions from 
Edward Lloyd and 77 persons from the Severn and from 
Richard Preston and 60 persons from the Patuxent complaining 
of Governor Stone's action and asking protection. They stated 
that they were encouraged and invited to remove their estates 
into this province by Captain Stone, who promised them liberty 
of conscieiifc, and nothing was ever said about taking an oath 
to Lord Baltimore. On the 12th of March (1654) Bennet 
replies to them that he has received confirmation and approval 
from parliament of the action of the commission in reducing 



THE BATTLK OF THE SEVERN. 163 

Maryland and Virginia, and bids them to stand fast in their 
obedience to parliament and not to depart from it on their peril. 

Governor Richard Bennet was a statesman, a diplomat and 
a military man; he came to Virginia about 1620, and soon took 
a prominent part in the political life of the Colony. He was a 
leading member of the Puritan settlement in Virginia, and in 
1649, at the solicitation of Governor Stone, he established the 
Puritan settlement at Providence. He was on April 30, 1652, 
unanimously elected Governor, returning to Virginia as we have 
seen. He was Major General of the Virginia forces 1662-1672, 
and also member of the Council. He largely shaped the history 
of Virginia and influenced that of Maryland for many years. 
He died in 1676. iVmong his descendants in Virginia are: 
John Randolph of Roanoke, Richard Bland, member of the 
.First Congress at Philadelphia; Theodoric Bland, Colonel in 
the Revolutionary Army ; Henry St. George Tucker, President 
of the Virginia Court of Appeals; John Randolph Tucker, 
Attorney General of Virginia; Lighthorse Harry Lee, of the 
Revolutionary Army; Major General Fitzhugh Lee and Gen- 
eral Robert E. Lee, of the Confederate States Army. 

Speaking of General Lee and of Governor Bennet, a recent 
historical writer has said: " When from his chosen place with 
kindling eye, he saw his ragged boys in gray in a hundred 
battles sweep the Federal lines from the field, it was the blood 
of Richard Bennet that thrilled in the veins of Robert E. Lee. 
His was the hand that first sowed the seeds of both civil and 
religious liberty in the soil of Virginia. He quickened into life 
the spirit of independence, which a century afterward fired the 
soul of a Patrick Henry and drew forth the sword of Wash- 
ington. 

Richard Bennet was the first, and one of the greatest of all 
the friends of liberty Virginia ever nurtured on her bosom, and 
who, preceding them all by a century, made possible their heroic 
achievements." " 

Abovit the last of April, 1654, Governor Stone received 

' See Hennings Statutes. 



104 MAKYLAND HISTOEICAL. MAGAZINE. 

letters of instruction from Lord Baltimore, among other things 
ordering the displacement of Robert Brooke from the Council, 
etc., which Governor Stone effected on July 3rd. He also 
issued, July 4, a proclamation repudiating the reducement of 
the Province by Bennet and Clayborne in 1652, and charging 
these commissioners and indeed the whole Puritanic party, 
mostly of Ann Arundel, with drawing away the people and 
leading them into faction, sedition, and rebellion against Lord 
Baltimore. Induced by this proclamation of Governor Stone 
and urgent solicitation from the inhabitants of the Severn and 
Patuxent, the Commissioners, Bennet and Clayborne, about the 
middle of July, returned to Maryland, coming to Providence 
with the intention of effecting another reducement of the pro- 
prietary government of the Province. 

They applied themselves in a peaceable and loving way to 
Captain William Stone, the Governor and Council of Maryland, 
to persuade them into their due and promised obedience to the 
Commonwealth of England. 

Governor Stone, returning only opprobrious language, calling 
them " Wolves in sheep's clothing," etc., at once mustered his 
whole power of men and soldiers in arms intending to surprise 
the commissioners and to destroy those who had refused to take 
the unlawful oath and who had kept themselves in their due 
obedience to the Commonwealth of England, under which they 
were reduced and settled by the parliament's authority and 
conmiission. Upon this display of resistance the commissioners, 
with some of the people of the Patuxent and Severn, crossed 
over the river, where they received a message from Captain 
Stone that the next day he would meet and treat in the woods ; 
but being fearful of a party coming from Virginia he concluded 
to surrender at once and to lay down his power lately assumed 
from T>ord Baltimore. It will be recollected, that Mr. Bennet, 
one of the commissioners now regulating the affairs of Mary- 
land and now advancing in hostile array against Governor 
Stone, was at this very time also Governor of Virginia. 

It seems, therefore, that this party to come from Virginia, 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVEKN- 165 

had been preconcerted and directed by Governor Bennet's 
orders, so as to afford timely support and aid to the Puritans 
from the Severn and the Patuxent, then under his own special 
command. With the Puritans from the Severn in his front and 
the Virginia soldiers from the northern neck in his rear, Gov- 
ernor Stone thought it most prudent to submit. 

The commissioners then issued their order or declaration, 
dated at Patuxent river in the Province of Maryland, 22 July, 
1654, appointing the following commissioners " for the conser- 
vation of peace and public administration of justice within the 
province of Maryland: Captain William Fuller, Mr. Richard 
Preston, Mr. William Durand, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Captain 
Tohn Smith, Mr. Leonard Strong, Mr. John Lawson, Mr. John 
Hatch, Mr. Richard Wells, Mr. Richard Ewen. All Puritans 
or any four of them, whereof Captain William Puller, Mr. 
Richard Preston, or Mr. William Durand, to be always one, 
to be commissioners for the well ordering, directing and govern- 
ing the affairs of Maryland under his highness the Lord Protec- 
tor of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions 
thereof, and in his name only and no other." 

The Commission also authorized them to appoint and hold 
courts of justice and to proceed therein as near as might be, to 
the laws of England, and also that they summon an assembly to 
begin on the 20th of October. William Durand was appointed 
Secretary of the Province and upon the Commission was written 
an order signed by Bennet and Clayborne, and addressed to Mr. 
Thomas Hatton, the Secretary of the Province, appointed by 
Lord Baltimore, requiring him to deliver the records of the 
Province and all the papers concerning the same unto Mr. 
William Durand. 

Captain Fuller and his fellow commissioners complied with 
their orders in summoning an assembly to meet on the 20th of 
October. This assembly was held " at Patuxent," the residence 
of Mr. Richard Preston, which was now fixed upon as the seat 
of government and all the records of the province were deposited 
there and " The Patuxent " continued to be the Capitol of the 
province until 24th March, 1658, a period of four years. 

5 



166 MARYLAND HISTORICAL I^IAGAZINE. 

This Assembly enacted and declared in the name of his high- 
ness, the Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, and 
the dominions thereunto belonging, and by the authority of this 
present general assembly, " that the reducing of this province of 
Maryland by power of the Supreme Authority of the Common- 
wealth of England, committed to Richard Bennet, Esq., and 
Colonel William Clayborne, and the Government as it is now 
settled by commission gTanted to Captain William Fuller, Mr. 
Richard Preston, Mr. William Durand, Mr. Edward Lloyd, 
Mr. Leonard Strong, Mr. John Hatch, Mr. John Lawson, Mr. 
Richard Wells, Mr. William Parker, Mr. Richard Ewen is 
acknowledged by this assembly, and freely and fully submit- 
ted unto, and that no power, either from the Lord Baltimore 
or any other ought or shall make any alteration in the govern- 
ment aforesaid as it is now settled, unless it be from the supreme 
authority of the Commonwealth of England, exercised by his 
highness the Lord Protector immediately and directly granted 
for that purpose ■ ' ; that all persons denying the present govern- 
ment or who either in word or deed, vilify or scandalize the 
same or by actions secret or open, disquiet, oppose or disturb the 
same government, shall be accounted offenders against the Lord 
Protector of the Commonwealth of England, the peace and 
welfare of this province, and dealt with according to their 
offense. 

That no commission or power shall be owtied or received in 
this province other than that which is already settled therein, 
but that which is the supreme authority of the Commonwealth 
of England shall immediately and directly grant and confirm; 
and whosoever shall publish any commission, proclamation, 
order or declaration, writ or summons which is not from the 
Supreme Authority, so granted as aforesaid, shall be counted 
an offender against the public peace and welfare of this province 
and dealt with accordingly. 

This is evidently an act of recognition of Cromwell's just 
title and authority ; because from him it had derived its present 
power. 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN. 167 

At this session of the Assembly the act of 1650, whereby the 
settlement of Providence on the Severn had been erected into a 
County under the name of Ann Arundel it was now directed 
that it be called and recorded by the name of the County of 
Providence, this being the first name by which it was known. 

On July 30, 1650, Governor Stone visited Providence and 
organized the County of Anne Arundel, appointing Edward 
Lloyd Commander, and the following Commissioners, all of 
whom were Puritans: James Homewood, Thomas Marsh, 
George Puddington, Edward Hawkins, James Merryman, 
Henry Catlyn. 

Another act passed at this session is a declaration against the 
proclamation of Governor Stone, of the 7th of February, 1654, 
which has been before noticed. 

" Whereas by a proclamation, published and recorded in this 
province, by special order and command from the Lord Balti- 
more, all the inhabitants, that will not within three months, 
take that oath, which is imposed by his lordship, requiring them 
to acknowledge him to be an absolute Lord of this province, and 
to have royal jurisdiction here, shall have their lands seized to 
his said Lordship's use; and whereas likewise the said Lord 
Baltimore hath declared such as have not or shall not comply 
with his government to be rebels, which is also upon record; 
this assembly doth declare, that the said proclamation and 
declaration aforesaid made by the said Lord Baltimore and 
recorded, is null and void, and of none effect to such intents 
and actions as are mentioned therein; and that act of recogni- 
tion confirmed by the assembly and expressed in the act is firm 
against all or any such declaration." 

Captain William Fuller, who is now placed at the head of 
the Commission for governing the province, as before stated, 
was a military man and kept his little band of militia well 
drilled and always ready for service, he held his position for 
about four years (until March 24, 1658), during which time 
he was acting governor of the province. 

Bichard Peston, who was chosen as speaker of this General 



16 S MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Assembly (Oct. 20, 1654), was known as the fighting Puritan 
and Peaceful Quaker, his house on the Patuxent, which is still 
standing, and is probably the oldest brick house in Maryland, 
was the " St^te House " for a period of 4 years. 

William Durand the Secretary, was a Puritan elder in Vir- 
ginia and may be considered a fighting parson. 

The province was now quiet until the latter end of January 
(1655), at which time the ship " Golden Fortune," Captain 
Tilman being Commander, arrived in Maryland; on this boat 
Mr. William Eltonhead brought letters of instruction to Cap- 
tain Stone blaming him for having resigned his government to 
the Lord Protector in July last, and accusing him of cowardice 
in surrendering without striking one stroke, appointing Captain 
Luke Barber to take command in case Captain Stone refuses. 
Instigated by this he reassumes his office of Governor and issues 
military commissions, and organizes an armed force in St. 
Mary's for the purpose of taking possession of the government. 

He dispatched a party of armed men headed by Mr. Elton- 
head and Captain Josias Fendall to the house of Mr. Richard 
Preston, at Patuxent, to seize the records and carry them to 
St. Mary's ; this he did wothout showing any authority by which 
he acted. But in threatening speeches declared that he would 
have the government, and hang the parliamentary Commis- 
sioners and all those appointed by them. Captain Fendall and 
Eltonhead, with 20 armed men, were sent to surprise and 
capture Mr. Preston, but were not successful, although they 
robbed the house and carried away a number of guns and much 
ammunition. 

Captain Stone about March 20, started from Saint Mary's 
with his little army of about 300 men and 10 or 12 boats, some 
of the men went by land and some by water, using the boats to 
ferry the men over the rivers. After they left the Patuxent, 
Captain Stone sent Colonel Henry Coursey and Mr. Luke 
Barber to Providence with a proclamation addressed to the 
people of Ann Arundel, commanding them to deliver themselves 
up in a peaceful manner. This they refused to do saying " they 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN. 169 

would rather die like men than live like slaves," and the mes- 
sengers returned. 

Col. Henry Coursey received grant for a thousand acres of 
land for his services in Lord Baltimore's cause at the battle of 
the Severn, and the widow of William Eltonhead received a 
grant of 10,000 acres. 

Josias Fendall was, in 1658, appointed Governor by Lord 
Baltimore, and later was in rebellion against him. 

On several occasions after the seizure of the records about 
March 5th, Captain EuUer offered to resign the government of 
the province to Captain Stone if he could show him any 
authority from the Lord Protector or from England justifying 
his action. This Stone refused to do. 

On the evening of March 24, Captain Stone, with his little 
fleet and army had arrived within the outer harbor of Provi- 
dence (Annapolis), and was within range of the shot of the 
" Golden Lyon." Captain Boger Heamans fired a shot at him 
to bring him or some messenger on board. No attention was paid 
to this signal, but arriving within the mouth of the Creek (Spa) 
he proceeded to land his men on the peninsula which lies on the 
southern side of both the river and creek. Hereupon Captain 
Heamans fired another shot upon the boats of Captain Stone 
as they were rowing to the shore, the shot landing somewhat 
near to them Captain Stone sent a messenger to the Golden 
Lyon to know the reason of the firing upon them, saying that 
Governor Stone thought the Captain " had been satisfied," to 
which the captain replied " satisfied with what," I never saw 
any power Captain Stone had to do as he hath done. 

Previous to this a special warrant drawn up by Captain 
Puller and his Council was afl&xed to the mainmast of the 
Golden Lyon by Secretary Durand, ordering Captain Heamans 
in the name of the Lord Protector and the Commonwealth of 
England to put his ship's company and ammunition to the 
service of the Commonwealth and if he failed so to do would 
answer at his peril. 

Captain Stone, having landed his men, moved his boats 



170 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

further up the creek. But Captain Fuller, with much prudence 
and forethought, fearing that they might come out at night and 
do much damage, ordered Captain John Cutts, Commander of 
a small New England ship with two cannon then lying in the 
river, to put his vessel across the mouth of the creek, so as to 
blockade it against Captain Stone's vessels and thus shut them 
up and prevent their coming out. The next morning at the 
break of day, being Sunday, 25th of March, 1655, Captain 
Stone appeared with his army in military parade on the eastern 
side of Spa Creek, marching with drums beating and colours 
flying (the colours were black and yellow, Lord Baltimore's) ' 
they were shouting " come on ye Rogues, come on ye Rogues, 
you roundheaded Dogs, we will show you what Lord Baltimore 
will do to you." Captain Stone now brought out whole bagfuls 
of chewed bullets rolled in gun powder and gave them to liis 
men telling them to fall on the Roundhead Dogs, saying " the 
devil take him that spares any." 

The Captain of the Golden Lyon now fired two shots upon 
them which forced them to retire further back from the creek 
out of range of his guns, which killed one man. 

Captain Fuller perceiving that the time admitted of no delay, 
resolved to go against the enemy, but having neither drums or 
flags in his party, sent for the English color used aboard the 
ship in the service of the Lord Protector, these were bent and 
fixed to a half pike for his use. 

With his army of about 120 men he embarked on his boats 
and went up the river to the next creek (College or Dorseys), 
and up this creek a few miles toward what is now Bay Ridge 
Junction and about 4 miles from the enemy. He immediately 
sent away all his sloops and boats, thus burning his bridges 
behind him. He now marched directly for the enemy, going 
around the head of Spa Creek in the rear of Captain Stone's 
army. Here he pitched his colors, being those of the Common- 
wealth of England, which he believed might cause the enemy to 

• See article on " The Provincial Flag of Maryland," Maryland Historical 
Magazine, September, 1914. 



THE BATTLE OF THE SEVERN. 171 

incline to a parley and thus prevent the shedding of blood. 
Captain Stone's men, however, fired upon the standard of the 
Commonwealth and killed the ensign bearer, William Ayres. 
iTow Captain Fuller ordered his men to charge and gave the 
battle cry " In the name of God fall on ; God is our strength " ; 
this was the battle cry for Providence — " Hey for Saint 
Marie's " of Captain Stone's men. The charge was fierce and 
sharp for a time, but the enemy could not endure and were so 
effectually charged home that they were all routed, turned their 
backs, threw down their arms, and begged for mercy ; about 40 
were slain upon the field, formerly called " Papist Pound/' and 
many wounded, only 4 or 5 escaped who ran away to carry news 
to their confederates. All the rest were taken prisoners ; among 
them Captain Stone, Colonel Price, Captain Gerrard, Captain 
Lewis, Captain Kendall, Captain Ginther, Major Chandler and 
all their other officers, also all their vessels, arms, ammunition 
and provisions were captured. Captain Fuller lost two killed 
and two died of their wounds. 

Leonard Strong, the Puritan, who was in the battle, says, 
" God did appear wonderful in the field and in the hearts of 
our people, the praise of God was in every soldier's mouth. 
Captain Fuller and all the Company sang ' Give God the Glory/ 
' Bles&ed he the name of the Lord/ " 

Thus ended the battle of the Severn fought on Sunday, March 
25th, 1655. 

1. Being the first battle ever fought between American 
soldiers on American soil. 

2. Being the first battle in which Dum-Dum bullets were 
used. 

3. Being the 21st anniversary of the landing of Leonard 
Calvert on the soil of Maryland (Colonists day). 

4. Being also the first battle in which the provincial flag of 
Maryland was used. 



172 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



AN UNPUBLISHED POEM BY THE AUTHOR OF 
THE SOT WEED FACTOR.' 



From the copy in the Library of Congress in the Bozman Papers. 

Dignum laude virum, musa vetat mori. Tlorat, 

And is that Lamp gone out, extinguisli'd. quite, 

Which in the Western Circuit shone so bright ? 

Has Lock refined his Tenement of Clay, 

And to some unknown Somewhere wing'd his way ? • 

And shall he buried in oblivion lye ? 

Is there no Bard to wing his Elegy ? 

So are the Muses drop't asleep, since they 

To Calvert's Ghost did their devotions pay ? - 

If so, I here will venture to be bold. 

Invoke the melancholy Maid grown old, 

Who, like the Turtle Dove, delights to sing, 

And strike a Chorus, on the mournful string — 

Awake, Melpomene ! — behold the Dire 

Decree of Fate ! See on a sable Bier 

(O mournful sight) he's quite deprived of Life, 

The most impartial Judge of human Strife, 

That ever yet, with an unbias'd hand, 

The Scales of Justice held in Maryland. 

Of whom, this may be said in brief — ('tis true). 

He more of Galen, than of Bracton knew. 

And though there on the Bench remained a Levin,^ 

Yet to the Maid this Prophecy is given, 

' An Ele^ on the death of the Honorable William Lock, Esq., one of his 
Ixirdship's Provincial Justices, who departed this Life at his Seat in Anne 
Arundel County, May, 1732. By Ebenezer Cook, Poet Laureate. For Cook's 
other poems see the Society's Fund Publication, No. 37. 

* Probably an allusion to a lost poem concerning the death of Gov. Bene- 
dict I>conard Calvert. 

• Doubtleisrt an allusion to Col. Levin Gale, another judge. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 173 

When Lock departed, Justice fled to Heaven. 
Pardon my Muse, if here she soars too high 
But 'tis her resolution none shall die 
Who do deserve to live in Elegy. 

His Epitaph. 

Here lies the Corpse of William Lock, Esquire, 
Sometime Provincial Justice vp'as in Eyre; 
In full assurance at the great Assise, 
With Christ, our Judge and Advocate, to rise. 
Thou, Reader, as Lock is, prepare to be ; 
Death's Power is absolute on Land and Sea. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON 

Edward S. Delaplaine, 
Of the Frederick Bar 

Contents — Part Second 



[The Maryland Historical Society in March printed two chap- 
ters of Mr. Delaplaine's " Life of Thomas Johnson," in which the 
career of Governor Johnson was traced up to the time he entered 
the public stage. For the faithful presentation of the ancestry and 
early life of the Revolutionary War Governor of Maryland, the first 
installment made a very favorable impression. We take pleasure in 
presenting another installment, containing Chapters III, IV and V, 
which describe Johnson's first participation in politics, from 1762 
to 1774, as one of the delegates in the Provincial Assembly. — The 
Editor.] 

CHAPTER III 

Protests Against the Stamp Act in the Maryland 

Assembly 

At the age pf 29, Thomas Johnson, Jr., recognized already as 
one of the most prominent of the younger members of the Bar 
of Maryland, was elected one of the Delegates from Anne Arun- 



174 maktla:xd histokical magazine. ' 

del County in the Provincial Assembly. When he took his seat 
in the old Colonial Court House at Annapolis on the seventeenth 
of March, 1762, he started on a career in public life that cov- 
ered a period of thirty years — a career which, for length, versa- 
tility and value of service, is unparalleled in the annals of the 
State. The member of Assembly, during the Colonial days, 
occupied a very exalted station. Champion, as he was, of the 
people's cause, he unfailingly received, if he tried faithfully to 
perform his duty, the gTatitude and the veneration of his con- 
stituents, if not, indeed, of all the subjects in the Province. 
The delegates who were true to their constituents deserved their 
popularity, for they were the only public officials who repre- 
sented the people and, as such, they did what they could to stem 
the tide of oppression that flowed from Crown, Ministry and 
Parliament and from Lord Proprietary, Governor and Council. 
It is true, under the Proprietary form of Government, Mary- 
land, when compared with the other Colonies, had a Charter 
which operated with unusual beneficence. Unlike Virginia, a 
Eoyal Province, under the direct control and domination of the 
King, Maryland belonged to one person — the Lord Proprietary 
— to whom the Crown delegated full control of the Province. 
Holding his domain as the patrimony of the family, the Pro- 
prietary stood in the relation of a pater farmlias to his Colony, 
which, if properly managed, would reflect glory to his name 
and bring wealth to his progeny. The comparative success of 
the Government of Maryland was thus largely attributable to 
the fact that the Province, like that of Pennsylvania, was vested 
in one family, for if these Colonies had been owned by several 
co-proprietors of different families, they would not have acted 
with the same sense of liberality and pride which animated a 
Proprietary, the name of whose family and the happiness of 
whose posterity were to be determined to a large extent by the 
wealth and prosperity of his Province. But even in Maryland, 
the subjects were at the complete mercy of the Proprietary and 
they looked to their chosen representatives as the guardians of 
their liberty. The Charter, which King Charles I granted to 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 175 

Cecilius Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore, on June 20, 1632 — - 
the most comprehensive grant of civil power that ever came 
from the throne of England — gave the Lord Proprietary the 
right to appoint not only the Governor hut all the officers of the 
Province. Then, too, the Upper House of the Assembly — the 
Council — ^was composed of men who were on intimate terms 
with the Proprietary Governor and hence were necessarily often- 
times antagonistic to the will of the people. " The existence of 
the Upper House," says John Y. L. McMahon, " as a co-ordi- 
nate branch of the Legislature constituted one of the most 
objectionable features of the Assembly. It had all the disad- 
vantages without the advantages of the House of Peers. The 
latter, if it is independent of the people, is also independent of 
the Crown ; but the Upper House of the province, consisting of 
councillors appointed by the proprietary was an aristocracy of 
the worst kind — an aristocracy wholly independent of and irre- 
sponsible to the people, and at the same time the mere creature 
and dependant of the proprietary." 

But further than that, for twenty years prior to the corona- 
tion of George III, the Lower House of the Maryland Assembly 
itself had been in control of a powerful group of men, who, 
although pretending to be " patriots," really deluded their con- 
stituents in order to keep in power and were actually inimical 
to the best interests of the Colonists. This faction, led by Phil 
Hammond, was composed of men of very inferior calibre ; and 
their obstinate tempers and uncouth manners made their pro- 
ceedings nothing short of disgusting. They did all they could 
to harass the Proprietary Governor. It was, accordingly, not 
long after Horatio Sharpe took the oath of office as Governor 
in 1753 that he warned the Lord Proprietary there were " too 
many instances of the lowest persons, at least men of small for- 
tunes, no soul, and very mean capacity, appearing as represen- 
tatives of their respective Counties." Thinking that perhaps 
the drudgery of electioneering may have deterred the better 
class of citizens from running for the Legislature, Governor 
Sharpe suggested that possibly, if the " canvass for seats " were 



17G MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

made less frequent, there iniglit result an improvement in the 
House personnel. The interim between elections, however, was 
never lengthened. 

On top of all this, in 1760, George III — one of the most 
despotic, and withal stufbborn and stupid, monarchs that ever 
wore a crown since the dawn of civilization — ascended the 
throne of England. Fortunate, indeed, therefore, were the 
people of Maryland, when shortly after the accession of George 
Til, men of the calibre of Thomas Johnson, Jr., secured control 
of the Lower House of the Provincial Assembly. The notorious 
Phil Hammond, the Opposition Leader in the House for over 
twenty years, died in 1760 — the same year George was crowned 
King — and when the Assembly convened at Annapolis in 
March, 1762, as Thomas Johnson, Jr., took his seat in the 
House chamber for the first time, there was a change in its per- 
sonnel that was most remarkable. The improvement was so 
noticeable that Governor Sharpe wrote to England : " We have 
had a general election, at which many well-behaved, sensible 
men were chosen in the stead of such as I have never desired 
to see again in the House." ^ Thus, the Eadical faction was 
supplanted by a body of able and faithful Conservatives. The 
soi-disant patriots had given way to real patriots. The mem- 
bers of the Assembly were no longer demagogues : but, instead, 
the conscientious guardians of the people's liberty. Erom this 
time on until the outbreak of the war for independence, the 
names of Tilghman and Hollyday, Johnson, Chase and Paca, 
Ringgold, Lloyd, Goldsborough, Worthington, Ridgely, and other 
prominent Maryland families added dignity to the proceedings 
and lustre to the annals of the Colonial Legislature. For an 
entire decade, Thomas Johnson served continuously as a Dele- 
gate from Anne Arundel County. In this period, most of the 
members were men of considerable brilliance. Mr. Eddis, the 
Englishman who served at Annapolis as Surveyor of the Cus- 
toms, wrote the following description of the personnel of the 
As.sembly in the day of Delegate Thomas Johnson: 

* Sharpe'H Correspondence, Vol. iii, p. 24. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 177 

" The Delegates returned are persons of the greatest conse- 
quence in their different Counties, and many of them are fre- 
quently acquainted with the political and commercial interests 
of their constituents. I have frequently heard subjects debated 
with great powers of eloquence and force of reason; and the 
utmost regularity and propriety distinguished the whole of 
their proceedings." 

When early in the reign of King George III, the Parliament 
began to consider the expedience of passing an act to raise 
taxes in the British Colonies of Korth America, Governor 
Sharpe, aware of the " great powers of eloquence and force of 
reason " of the members of the Provincial xissembly in Mary- 
land, was very slow in calling together the Assembly. Under 
the Maryland Charter, the Lord Proprietary had the right to 
convene, adjourn, prorogue and dissolve the Provincial Assem- 
bly; and this prerogative was delegated to the Governor, who 
used it as a sword over the heads of the Assemblymen. If the 
Delegates were likely to cause trouble for the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment, they were not called together ; if in session, they were 
speedily prorogued. This use of prerogative however, in- 
stead of driving the people from their convictions, generally had 
the effect of making them all the more defiant and their repre- 
sentatives eager to rally more loyally to accomplish the desires 
of their constituents. But while James Otis, in Massachusetts, 
and Patrick Henry, in Virginia, were " touching the chord of 
puiblic feeling, already tremblingly alive," the Maryland House 
of Delegates was prevented from officially pronouncing a single 
word of resentment. 

Even the high dignitaries in England looked upon Maryland 
with suspicion. During the French and Indian War, brought 
to an end by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the requisitions for 
men and money recommended by the Governor of Maryland, 
were disregarded by the Assembly. Maryland's passive course, 
however, was due neither to selfish disregard nor to timid aban- 
donment of the common cause. She was ever anxious to pro- 
vide for the general defense and to promote the welfare of her 



178 MARYI^AND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

sister Colonies. But, at the outbreak of the French and Indian 
War, when George Washington, Thomas Johnson and Richard 
Henrj Lee were just arriving at man's estate, there unfortu- 
nately arose a dispute in Maryland over the modus operandi of 
raising the revenue to provide for the defense appropriations. 
Lord Baltimore claimed exemption from taxation and the repre- 
sentatives of the provincials insisted that the Proprietary ought 
to pay his share. Whilst deeply sensible of the obligations rest- 
ing upon them to provide for the common defense, the members 
of Maryland's Colonial Legislature felt that to safeguard their 
constituents from the tryanny of unjust taxation was a more 
sacred duty ; and they refused to suffer the discharge of a duty 
to the Orown and the sister Colonies depend upon their disre- 
gard of the very birthright of the British subjects whom they 
represented. As " the power to tax is the power to destroy," 
the members of the House and, indeed, the people everywhere 
felt that upon the preservation by the Assembly of the power 
to impose taxes depended the very liberty of the Colonists. The 
demands of the Upper House could not have been granted with- 
out a surrender of those principles to which the Delegates stood 
unalterably pledged. A deadlock resulted and the appropria- 
tions were defeated. 

The expenditures of the British Government in the prosecu- 
tion of the War had added greatly to the debt of the Empire ; 
and the Ministry took the position that the Colonists, for whom 
the war had been waged, could well afford to relieve England of 
a portion of the expense of running the Royal Government. 
But while imposed to help pay England's heavy indebtedness 
resulting from the conduct of the war and the payment of sub- 
sidies to the Xing of Prussia, the Stamp Act was also an experi- 
ment, prompted in large measure by the failure of several of 
the Colonies — particularly Maryland — to comply with the re- 
quisitions of the King during the French War, to pave the way 
for more complete supremacy of the Crown over the recalci- 
trant Colonies. Indeed, William Pitt himself — later one of the 
champions of American liberty — was so incensed at Maryland's 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 179 

apathj that lie avowed his intention of bringing the Colonies 
into such a state of subjugation that the Royal Government, 
upon the restoration of peace, would be enabled to compel obedi- 
ence to every requisition of the Crown. It was natural, there- 
fore, that the able representatives in the popular branch of the 
Maryland Assembly should have been watched with grave sus- 
picion at the time Parliament was preparing to place a tax on 
all the Colonies. 

In the House of Commons, the celebrated Stamp Act was 
passed by a majority of 5 to 1, and in the House of Lords the 
vote in favor of the measure was unanimous. Seized by a fit 
of insanity, George III was unable to sign the bill, but a Board 
of Commissioners, acting on His Majesty's behalf, on March 22, 
1765, gave the Royal assent. 

The Stamp Act provided that all legal documents in the 
Colonies had to bear British stamps. Colonial publications 
and advertisements were taxed, and contracts of every nature, 
unless written on paper bearing the Royal stamps, were de- 
clared to be unenforcea,ble. The Act kindled the patriotic flame 
in the breasts of the Colonists. Soon after the news of its 
passage reached America, the resentment of the Colonists be- 
came malignant. Benjamin Ftanklin wrote to a friend: " The 
sun of American liberty has set. I^ow we must light the lamps 
of industry and economy." Immediately came the reply: " Be 
assured that we shall light torches of another sort ! " This pre- 
diction, as Ridpath affirms, reflected the sentiment of the whole 
country. And it was a true prediction. 

Nowhere in America, was the resentment more bitter against 
Taxation without Representation than in Maryland. Her Char- 
ter declared that the subjects residing within the limits of the 
Province were entitled to all the liberties of British freemen. 
Accordingly, Marylanders contended that the covenants in the 
Charter expressly exempted them from taxation by Great Bri- 
tain. And although Thomas Johnson and his colleagues in 
the Assembly were prevented by repeated prorogations, from 
making an official remonstrance before final action had been 



ISO MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

taken by Parliament, the people throughout Maryland coura- 
sreouslv indicated their indignation. When the news of the 
arrival of Zaehariah Hood, an Annapolis merchant, whom the 
British Ministry had appointed stamp distributor for Mary- 
land, spread through the Colony, the people in Annapolis, 
Frederick Town and elsewhere burnt him in effigy. Chief 
Judge James McSherry once described the treatment of 
Zaehariah Hood in the following manner : " His effigy was 
placed upon a one-horse cart like a malefactor and was hauled 
through the streets of Annapolis while the bells tolled a knell; 
and after being placed in the pillory it was hanged to a gibbet 
and a tar barrel underneath of it was set on fire and the effigy 
fell into the flames and was burned to ashes." On the second 
of September, the subjects again demonstrated their hostility 
to Hood by assembling at Annapolis and completely demolish- 
ing his house. The hated stamp official Vas forced to flee from 
the Province. He made his way to New York, where he later 
resigned his commission as stamp distributor. Zaehariah Hood 
was the first and the last stamp agent in Maryland. 

Although the Maryland Assembly was in session only five 
weeks during the year 1762 and seven weeks in 1763, Governor 
Sharpe failed to convene it at all during the year 1764. 

Finally, nearly six months after the Stamp Act had been 
imposed, Governor Sharpe issued a call for the Assembly. The 
people assembled at various places, soon after this news was 
received, for the purpose of instructing their Delegates-elect to 
protest against the Stamp Act in the Maryland Assembly. In 
Anne Arundel County, for example, the freemen, assembling 
on September 7, 1765, passed a set of Instructions for their 
representatives in the Lower House — Brice T. B. Worthington, 
Henry Hall, John Hammond and Thomas Johnson, Jr. — basing 
the claim to exemption from taxation by Parliament upon their 
rights and privileges as British subjects, the express provisions 
in the Maryland Charter and the uninterrupted precedent es- 
tablished in the Province. Taxes could be imposed, they con- 
tended, only with the consent of the subjects themselves or their 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 181 

chosen representatives. " And," they continued, " we do unani- 
mously protest against our being charged in any other manner, 
and by any other other powers whatsoever; and we do request 
of you, our Representatives, that this Protest may be entered, 
and stand recorded, in your Journal, amongst the proceedings 
of your House, if it may be regularly done." Mr. Johnson 
and his colleagues were requested, in addition, to move an 
Address of Thanks to General Conway and Col. Isaac Barre 
for asserting the liberty of the Colonists and to advocate, in 
accordance with the proposal from the Assembly of Massachu- 
setts Bay, the appointment of a Committee to attend a General 
Congress in !N^ew York, tO' consider the state of affairs in the 
Colonies and to join in a Memorial to the Crown. 

The members of the House met September 23, 1765, in a 
spirit little short of revolutionary. The fiat of public senti- 
ment in uncompromising hostility to the Stamp Act had been 
issued, and the Delegates, after two years of inactivity, re- 
quired little time for deliberation concerning the most expedi- 
ent course to pursue. As soon as the House came to order, the 
members took up for consideration the Circular Letter from 
the Massachusetts Assembly; and the plan, on the following 
day, was unanimously endorsed. With the concurrence of the 
Council and the approval of Governor Sharpe, the Assembly 
appropriated £500 to pay the expenses of Maryland's Delegates 
to ISTew York. The Assembly selected Col. Edward Tilghman, 
of Queen Anne's, Thomas Ringgold, of Kent, and William 
Murdock, of Prince George's — ^three of the most brilliant and 
experienced statesmen of their day — as the Delegates from 
Maryland. 

Up to this time, young Mr. Johnson had served only about 
70 days, in all, as a Delegate in the Provincial Assembly; but 
in this short time his sound judgment had already been dis- 
played. When, therefore, the Assembly appointed a Commit- 
tee of Seven, vdth the able James Hollyday, of Queen Anne's 
County, as chairman, to draft a set of instructions for Mary- 
land's representaties in the General Congress, the young An- 
6 



182 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

iiapolis lawyer was choseii one of the members. The other 
members of the Committee were: John Hammond, of Anne 
Arundel; John Hanson, Jr., of Charles; John Goldsborough, 
of Talbot ; and Edmmid Key and Daniel Wolstenholme, of St. 
Mary's. The seven Delegates framed their instructions with 
great haste, for on September 25, 1765, they brought in their 
report to the House. Tilgiiman, Ringgold and Murdock, they 
recommended, should repair immediately to the General Con- 
gress at New York " there to join in a general and united, 
dutiful, loyal, and humble representation to his Majesty and 
the British Parliament, of the circumstances and condition of 
the British Colonies ; and to pray relief from the burdens and 
restraints lately laid upon their trade and commerce, and espe- 
cially from the taxes imposed by the Stamp Act, whereby they 
are deprived, in some instances, of that invaluable privilege of 
Englishmen and British subjects, trials by jury ; and to take 
care that such representation should humbly and decently, hut 
expressly, contain an assertion of the right of the Colonists, 
to be exempt from all and every taxations and impositions upon 
their persons and property, to which they do not consent in a 
legislative way, either by themselves, or their representatives 
freely chosen and appointed." The Committee's rcommenda- 
tions, it is needless to say, were accepted. 

The plan of holding a General Congress of the Colonies hav- 
ing been speedily endorsed, the Maryland Assembly thereupon 
determined to enunciate, with more solemnity and with due for- 
mality, " the constitutional rights and privileges of the freemen 
of the Province." Again, Thomas Johnson was honored by 
being placed on this important Committee. Colonel Tilghman 
and Messrs. Binggold and Murdock — the Delegates who were 
preparing to leave for New York to represent Maryland at the 
General Congress — were named to assist in the preparation of 
the Resolutions. The other members of the Committee were: 
James and Henry Hollyday, Samuel Chase, Brice T. B. Worth- 
ington, John Hammond, Edmund Key, Daniel Wolstcnholme, 
Samuel Wilson, Charles Grahame and John Goldsborough. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 183 

The Committee reported its " Bill of Rights " on September 
28, 1765, and it was adopted without a single dissenting vote. 
Referring to these Resolves, Mr. McMahon says : " Pre-emi- 
nent amongst all the legislative declarations of the Colonies, 
for the lofty and dignified tone of their remonstrance, and for 
the entire unanimity with which they were adopted, they form 
one of the proudest portions of our history." ^ If there were 
any doubts in the minds of the British Ministry as to whether 
Maryland M'ould concur with the refractory Colonies, such 
doubts were now dispelled. Maryland had, in bold and uncom- 
promising language, officially asserted her position. 

This done, the legislators refused to entertain any other busi- 
ness and requested Governor Sharpe to give them " a short recess 
of a few weeks." This request was most undoubtedly made, for 
the purpose, although not expressly avowed, of awaiting the 
issue of the General Congress at New York. The Governor 
indicated that he was willing to grant them a recess, but, in 
his Message to the Home, he added that inasmuch as the British 
stamps would arrive before they re-convened and as Zachariah 
^ood, the stamp distributor, had fled from the Province, he was 
anxious to have the AssembljTnen's advice as to what to do with 
the stamps when the British vessel anchored. Immediately 
upon receiving this inquiry, the House selected eleven of its 
most able members to draft a reply to His Excellency. And 
once again Mr. Johnson was honored by being chosen to serve 
on a committee with Edward Tilghman, Thomas Ringgold, 
and William Murdock. Their associates were: James and 
Henry Hollyday, Samuel Chase, John Hammond, Daniel Wol- 
stenholme, William Allen and John Goldsborough. The Com- 
mittee recommended the following Reply : " We should think 
ourselves extremely happy were we in circumstances to advise 
your Excllency on so new a subject; but it being a matter of 
importance, and such as we do not think ourselves at liberty to 
advise in, without the instructions of our constituents, which 

•John V. L. McMahon, Historical View of the Government of Maryland 
(1831), p. 345. 



184 MAETLAKD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

we cannot now obtain, we hope your Excellency will think us 
excusable for declining to offer you any advice upon the occa- 
sion." On September 28, 1765, after being in session only six 
days, the Assembly was prorogued. When the British sloop-of- 
war Hawl'e arrived with the stamped paper aboard, there was 
no person to receive it and no place in Maryland where it could 
be stored in safety. Governor Sharpe, in accordance with the 
suggestion of his Council, directed the commander of the vessel 
to keep it on board until instructions could be procured from 
the British Ministry concerning the disposal of the stamps. 
]^one of the British stamps were ever used in Maryland. 

When the Assembly re-convened on November 1, Tilghman, 
Ringgold and Murdock presented a report of their course of 
action at the Congress in New York. The Congress had con- 
vened with 28 delegates in attendance at the City Hall in New 
York on the 7th of October, 1765. All the Colonies, with the 
exception of New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina and 
Georgia, were represented, and these four, although unrepre- 
sented, sympathized with the general cause. The Congress 
adopted a Declaration of Rights, an Address to the Crown, and 
a Memorial to Parliament. The course of action pursued at 
New York by Maryland's Delegates was heartily endorsed by 
the Maryland Assembly and a vote of thanks was given them 
for the able and faithful discharge of their duties. 

The Stamp Act was to have become effective on the first day 
of November, 1765, but nowhere were any British stamps to be 
found in the Province. How was business to be carried on, if 
unstamped documents, under the Act of Parliament, had no 
legal value ? This problem was soon to be solved by the Fred- 
erick County Court. The November Term of Court convening 
on the nineteenth of the month, the " Immortal Twelve," on 
the 23rd of November, 1765, after the Clerk of the Court had 
refused to issue any papors without British stamps, decided that 
the Stamp Act should be repudiated, i. e., that " all proceedings 
shall be valid and effective without the use of stamps." Their 
decision was revolutionary. The Parliament of Great Britain, 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 185 

possessing the sovereignty of the country, has had the power to 
pass arbitrary and unjust enactments, because there has never 
been a written Constitution from which its authority is derived 
or by which the Courts can test the validity of its will. What 
Parliament doth, said Sir William Blackstone, no authority on 
earth can undo. Everywhere throughout the Province the defi- 
ant action of the Court was acclaimed with great rejoicing. One 
of the most memorable demonstrations was that held at Fred- 
erick Town, where the people held a mock funeral of the Stamp 
Act, at which the effigy of Zachariah Hood, the would-be stamp 
distributor, officiated as the sole mourner. After a burlesque 
funeral oration, the offensive document and the effigy of Hood 
were buried together " amid loud cheers and ruffs of the 
drums." 

The Assembly, which convened ^tTovember 1, 1Y65, continued 
in session nearly until Christmas. Considerable time was spent 
in wrangling over the payment of public claims, and so exas- 
perating did the dissensions between the two Houses become 
that a report came to Governor Sharpe on the tenth of Decem- 
ber that Col. Thomas Cresap, one of the members of the Pro- 
vincial Assembly from Frederick County, who had been instru- 
mental in October in effecting an organization of the " Sons of 
Liberty " in Frederick County, had assembled in Frederick 
Town between 300 and 400 men, " many of them armed with 
guns and tomahawks," with the intention of marching to An- 
napolis in order to bring the law-makers to their senses. As 
soon as he received the report. Governor Sharpe warned the 
Assembly. When it assembled at two o'clock on the afternoon 
of December 10, 1Y65, the Message from His Excellency was 
read and a Committee of five of the ablest Delegates was 
appointed to frame a Reply. Mr. Johnson was chosen to serve 
as Chairman of the Committee. His associates were: JameS 
Hollyday, Thomas Ringgold, William Murdock, and Brice T. 
B. Worthington. Colonel Cresap was an intimate friend of 
Mr. Johnson. A few years before, the Colonel had been chosen 
one of the directors of the Company, formed with the aid of 



186 MARYLAND HISTORICAX MAGAZINE. 

George Washington and Thomas Johnson to improve the navi- 
gation of the Potomac. The House adjourned to meet eight 
o'clock the following morning, when Mr. Johnson submitted 
the following Reply: "In answer to your Message of last 
J^'ight, we assure your Excellency, we are very sensible of the 
bad Consequences of large Bodies of People coming hither, 
with a view to Intimidate either Branch of the Legislature, 
or to lay them under any Restraint. We shall therefore imme- 
diately take every Step in our Power to prevent any Measures 
that may have such Tendency: To which End, we pray your 
Excellency to lay before us the Evidences you have received of 
the Arming or Assembling of any Bodies of People with that 
Intention. 

'' We are very sorry to find such an Imputation on a Member 
of our House, as that laid on Col. Cresap ; and we yet have 
Hope, your Excellency's Information, in that Particular, is 
without just Foundation, as it appears by our Journals, that he 
has not attended the House since the 22d of November, at which 
Time we conclude he left this Place ; and when it could not be 
foreseen that any Difficulties would arise between the Two 
Houses in relation to the Payment of any Public Claims. 

" As we should be very far from Countenancing, in any of 
our Members, a Conduct tending to disturb the Public Peace, 
and deprive any Branch of the Legislature of that Freedom of 
Debating and Judging, which is essential to the Constitution, we 
think it a Justice to the Public, as well as to Col. Cresap, that 
this Charge against him should be examined and set in a True 
Light; and therefore hope your Excellency will communicate 
to this House the Evidence on which the Charge contained in 
your Message, is founded." 

Mr. Johnson read the Report aloud to the House, and after 
he delivered it at the Speakers' table, it was adopted and en- 
grossed for delivery to the Governor. The House adjourned 
until two o'clock, when another Message from the Executive, 
presenting copies of depositions, was presented to the Assem- 
bly. The rumors were groundless. All apprehensions were 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 187 

set at rest on December 14tli, wlien a resident of Frederick 
County testified at the bar of the ITouse that Frederick Town 
was calm and that Colonel Cresap himself averred that he ex- 
pected the troubles in the Assembly proceedings to be removed 
and the Journal to pass. It does not appear that " Cresap's 
Army " ever marched to Annapolis. 

So bitterly did all the Colonies condemn the Stamp Act that 
Parliament at an early date took up the question of its repeal. 
Lord Mansfield stubbornly aflSrmed the absolute supremacy of 
the British Parliament in realm and dominions, but Camden 
and Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, pointing to the distinction 
between taxation and legislation, denied the right of Parliament 
to tax the Colonists. It is interesting to observe in this con- 
nection that in the great Stamp Act debate on January 14, 
1776, in the House of Commons, when Edmund Burke made 
his maiden speech, William Pitt quoted freely from the argu- 
ment, and even from the language, of the essay published in 
Annapolis, Maryland, on October 14, 1765, by Daniel Dulany, 
that brightest of all the stars in the legal firmament, not only 
in Maryland, but in all America, whose talents young Mr. John- 
son had the opportunity to observe at close range for many 
years during his residence at Annapolis. Woodrow Wilson has 
paid the following tribute ^^ to the great Dulany and his essay 
on the Stamp Act : " Mr. Daniel Dulany's ^ Considerations on 
the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies for 
the Purpose of Raising a Revenue by Act of Parliament,' sup- 
plied the great Pitt with the chief grounds of his argument 
against taxing America. A Maryland lawyer had turned from 
leading the bar of a province to set up the true theory of the 
constitution of an empire with the dignity, the moderation, the 
power, the incommunicable grace of a great thinker and genu- 
ine man of letters." The Grenville Ministry having been suc- 
ceeded by the Rockingham Administration, the famous Stamp 
Act, on March 18, 1766 — almost exactly one year after its 
passage — ^was repealed. 

^Woodrow Wilson, History of the American People (1902), Vol. iii, 
p. 87. 



188 MAKYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

Maryland, on account of the prorogation of her Assembly by 
Governor Sharpe until the autumn of 1765, was late in filing 
her official Remonstrance ; but, when once made it was, indeed, 
" pre-eminent amongst all the legislative declarations of the 
Colonies." And Thomas Johnson, Jr., of Annapolis, emerged 
from the controversy, at the age of 33, one of the ablest and 
most conspicuous champions of the American cause. 

CHAPTER IV 
One of the Builders of the State House 

Horatio Sharpe was Proprietary Governor of Maryland for 
a period of fifteen years. Having served prior to the appoint- 
ment of General Braddock, as commander-in-chief of the Royal 
forces operating against the French on the Ohio, Sharpe was 
by nature militaristic ; but, notwithstanding his impetuous and 
arbitrary disposition, he commanded, on account of his effici- 
ency and integi-ity, the respect of the people of Maryland. His 
long Administration gave them as much satisfaction as could 
have been expected under the Colonial Government. Under 
the age of 21 years at the time Sharpe arrived in Maryland, 
Thomas Johnson, Jr., grew during the Sharpe administration 
from a youth to a mature statesmen, fully prepared to lead the 
cause of the people in the struggle for American independence. 

On the first of August, 1Y68, Frederick Calvert, the Lord 
Proprietary of Maryland, commissioned his brother-in-law, 
Captain Robert Eden, then only 28 years of age. Governor of 
the Province. Young Sir Robert sailed the Atlantic in the / 
spring of 1769, arriving in Maryland on the fifth of June. 
When the Provincial Assembly met on the I7th of ISTovember 
for the first time in his Administration, he had a number of 
experienced men in his Council, to advise him, chief among 
whom were Daniel Dulany, Benedict Calvert and Richard Lee. 
In the popular branch Mr. Johnson was surrounded by a 
brilliant array of Colonial statesmen — men like Matthew and 
Edward Tilghman, James Hollyday, Chase and Paca. As soon 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 189 

as they assembled, the two Houses received a Message from 
Governor Eden, to which they returned Addresses couched in 
such courteous language that the young Governor, a few days 
later wrote to Lord Hillsborough that indications pointed to an 
end of all trouble with the Colonists ! 

Up to this time the members of the Assembly held their 
sessions in the old Provincial Court House, on the site of the 
present State Capitol, while the Governor and his Council met 
in the tiny building used for many years afterwards as the 
(office of the State Treasurer. In a letter to his friends in 
England in October, 1769, Mr. Eddis described the Colonial 
Court House and the Council building in the following manner : 

" In the Court-house, the representatives of the people as- 
semble, for the dispatch of provincial business. The courts of 
justice are also held here, and here likewise the public offices 
are established. This building has nothing in its appearance 
expressive of the great purposes to which it is appropriated, 
^nd by a strange neglect, is suffered to fall continually into 
decay, being, both without and within, an emblem of public 
poverty, and at the same time a severe reflection on the Gov- 
ernment of this country, which, it seems, is considerably richer 
than the generality of the American provinces. 

" The Council-chamber is a detached building, adjacent to 
the former, on a very humble scale. It contains one tolerable 
room, for the reception of the Governor and Council, who meet 
here during the sitting of the Assembly, and whose concurrence 
is necessary in passing all laws." 

One of the first steps taken by the Maryland Assembly in 
Governor Eden's Administration was to provide for the erec- 
tion of a State House. The plan having been adopted to select 
seven members of the Assembly to superintend its construction, 
the great Dulany, the leader in the Governor's Council, and 
Thomas Johnson, now one of the most prominent members of 
the Lower House, were chosen to serve together on this Com- 
piittee. The other five were: Lancelot Jacques, Charles Wal- 
lace, William Paca, John Hall, and Charles Carroll, barrister. 



190 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

An appropriation of £7500 Sterling was made by the Assembly 
to carry on the work, while the Building Committee was given 
the power to draw on the Treasurer of the Eastern or the West- 
ern Shore for anv further amount that might be necessary to 
complete the building. Any four, being a majority, were 
authorized to proceed with the purchase of material and employ- 
ment of workmen and to exercise general supervision over the 
construction of the building. The fact that Mr. Johnson was 
one of the Delegates who built the Maryland State House is 
memorable, because of the historic fact that within its walls 
his distinguished friend, George Washington, resigned his com- 
mand as Commander-in-'Chief of the Continental Army, a 
command to which he was nominated by Johnson at Philadel- 
phia in 1775. 

The corner-stone of the Maryland State House was laid by 
Governor Eden on March 28, 1772. It was a beautiful spring 
day, when the trees of ancient Annapolis were just beginning 
to bud. Although there was not a cloud in the sky, traditiofi 
says that at noon when Governor Eden rapped the corner-stone 
of the future State House with his mallet, there came from 
the heavens a violent clap of thunder. Dr. Bernard C. Steiner 
views this alleged meteorological phenomenon with suspicion, 
for in his biogi-aphy of Governor Eden, he says that the news- 
paper account of the corner-stone laying in the Maryland Ga- 
zette recounts the " three cheers " given by the workmen, the 
collation and the toasts, but makes no mention of the tradi- 
tional noise of thunder. 

The State House, erected under the direction of Dulany, 
Johnson, Jacques, Hall, Carroll barrister, Wallace and Paca, 
was built upon plans characterized at once by stateliness and 
simplicity. It was beyond the range of anyone's imagination 
that a member of the Lower House, or, indeed, any provincial, 
would in a few years occupy this building as Governor of a 
free and independent State. But on a March day, five years 
later, !Mr. Johnson was inaugurated within its walls as the first 
Governor of the State. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 191 

After the War of the Revolution, a dome was added to the 
State House and at this point mention should be made to the 
death of Thomas Dance, who executed the fresco and stucco 
work on the interior of the dome. Losing his hold just as he 
had completed the centre piece, the artisan slipped from his 
scaffold and was killed on the floor below. The Maryland State 
House, enlarged and beautified during the administration of 
Grovernor Edwin Warfield, still stands as one of America's most 
beautiful specimens of Colonial architecture. 

CHAPTER V 

Champion of Maryland's Remonstrance Against the 
Arbitrary Regulation of Officers' Fees 

Taxation, under the regime of the Proprietaries, was the 
cause of frequent controversies in Maryland between the Pro- 
prietary Governor and the people. As early as the year 1650, 
the sacred principle of No Taxation Without Representation 
was recognized by the Maryland Provincial Assembly in a 
decree that no taxes should be levied without the assent of the 
people themselves or their representatives. Privileged to wor- 
ship God in their own way, the British subjects in Maryland 
felt that the imposition of taxes in a manner objectionable to 
the Lower House constituted a species of economic slavery. 
Taxes, duties, licenses, fees, fines and forfeitures, imposed to 
support the Proprietary Government, each gave rise from time 
to time to some important controversy. With each succeeding 
session of the Provincial Assembly, the Maryland freemen 
became more positive in their demand that the Lord Proprie- 
tary or the Governor should not interfere with the right of the 
people to regulate the taxes imposed within the Province. In 
1743 — when Thomas Johnson, Jr., was a lad only ten years of 
age — Daniel Dulany was protesting to Governor Bladen and his 
Council that the only measure that could possibly save the 
tobacco industry from threatened ruin in Maryland — the 
Tobacco Inspection Act — ^was prevented from being passed on 
account of bitter wrangling over Officers' Fees. 



192 MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZUSTE. 

In the Colony, public officials received fees, instead of regular 
salaries, for their services. The fees were specified in Acts of 
Assembly, and therefore the people regulated, through their 
legally authorized representatives, the compensation of the 
public officials of the Province. In the Assembly of 1763 — the 
second session in which Mr. Johnson was a member — one of 
these Fee Bills was passed and it was continued, from time to 
time, until October 1, 1770, when the fee controversy in which 
Mr. Johnson took a prominent part began to grow acute. 

Johnson's first practical experience with the probbms of taxa- 
tion came in 1765. Chosen in the second Assembly session of 
that year to serve as chairman of a committee to examine the 
account of the Clerk of the Council, he made a thorough investi- 
gation of the monies arising at common law for the support of 
the Proprietary Government. On the morning of December 10, 
1765, Chairman Johnson presented his report to the House. 
The fines, forfeitures, etc., Mr. Johnson reported exceeded 
100,000 pounds of tobacco. Discussion of the subject was post- 
poned several days, when the House decreed that the Clerk of 
the Council should thereafter be allowed no fees for (a) writing 
Inspector's Commissions, (b) recording bonds of Naval Officers, 
or (c) filing nominations of Vestrymen and Church Wardens. 
Delegate Johnson stood with the majority in the first instance, 
but in the second and third instances, he voted in favor of 
allowing fees for the clerk. 

Delegates Samuel Chase and Thomas Johnson, Jr., at the 
Assembly session of 1769, assailed the Fee Bill; but only about 
one-third of the delegates voted against the measure and, accord- 
ingly, it was extended for another year. 

When the Assembly met on September 25, 1770, the Fee Bill 
was again presented to the House for renewal. But it was 
contended that many of the Proprietary officials — especially the 
Provincial Secretary, the Commissary General, the Judges and 
the Ttegister of the Land Office, all of whom were members of 
the Upper House, or Governor's Council — were receiving exces- 
sive fees; and the members of the Lower House were rather 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 193 

indignant. Message after message, indicative of bitter ani- 
mosity, went back and forth between the two chambers. The 
members of the Lower House soon realized that it was impossi- 
ble to fix the fees in accordance with their own wishes, and they 
entertained the suspicion that the members of the Council were 
designing to end the deadlock by having Governor Eden issue 
a proclamation regulating the fees of all Provincial officers. 
The delegates thereupon proceeded, as if it were possible to 
forestall such a step, to resolve that a proclamation of this 
character would be unjust and illegal. Accordingly, on Novem- 
ber 1, 1770, the Lower House passed a resolution declaring 
that the representatives of the freemen of Maryland, with the 
assent of " the other part of the Legislature," had the sole right 
to impose taxes and fees, and that the imposition thereof by 
the Lord Proprietary or the Gnovernor or any other person not 
the representative of the people was " arbitrary, unconstitu- 
tional and oppressive." 

But the Governor, acting on the advice of his Council, utterly 
disregarded the resolution of the Lower House. After nearly 
two months of bitter wrangling, the Assembly was prorogued 
on N'ovember 21, 1770, without effecting a renewal of the Fee 
Act, and on ITovember 26, 1770, Governor Eden issued his 
Proclamation, re-establishing the Fee Act of 1763. 

Throughout the length and breadth of Maryland, Governor 
Eden's Proclamation aroused great indignation. Assembly 
leaders of the stamp of Mr. Johnson, other prominent men in 
the Province, arose to the occasion and denounced the Gov- 
ernor's assumption of power. 

Governor Eden did not call the Assembly together until the 
2d of October, 1771, when he carefully avoided, in his address 
to the Assembly, all reference to the hated Proclamation. 

The formal Kemonstrance was delayed several days by the 
notable contest of Jonathan Hager for his seat in the House. 
The eligibility of Mr. Hager, the founder of Hagerstown, Mary- 
land, was questioned by reason of the fact that he was not a 
natural-born subject. The Elections Committee having reported 



194 MABYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that he " came into America and was naturalized/' the matter 
was set down for full discussion on Tuesday, October 8, when 
Mr. Hager was represented by able counsel. Although the law 
seemed to be clearly against Mr. Hager, Delegate Thomas 
Johnson, Jr., made a stubborn fight, probably on account of 
personal friendship, to have him seated. Like Colonel Cresap, 
]\Ir. Hager had been chosen in 1762 as one of the directors of 
the Potomac Company, and he was a prominent and popular 
citizen of Western Maryland. William Paca and William 
Smallwood — two brilliant young men, who were destined to add 
lustre to the annals of Maryland in the War of the Revolution 
and as Governors of the State — were lined up with Mr. Johnson 
in behalf of Mr. Hager. The contestants were led by Samuel 
Chase, later a member of the United States Supreme Court, 
who contended that an incontrovertible provision of the British 
law rendered Hager ineligible to sit as a delegate in the Pro- 
vincial Assembly. The contest aligned the " Progressives " 
against the ''Conservatives." While the debate was in progress, 
Mr. Hager looked on ; but when the Speaker was ready to put 
the question to the House, he was requested to withdraw from 
the chamber. At that time, the House consisted of fifty-eight 
members — twenty-eight from the Eastern Shore and thirty from 
the balance of the Colony. Delegate Johnson mustered only 
eight votes from the Eastern Shore and fifteen from Western 
Maryland, where Hager was well known. By a vote of twenty- 
four to twenty-three, the House declared Jonathan Hager ineli- 
gible. After the ballot had been taken, Mr. Hager was called 
to the bar of the House and politely informed by the Speaker, 
that the House discharged him from any further attendance. 

Jonathan Hager was not rejected from the Assembly by 
reason of any personal antipathy. The issue was based on the 
construction of the law. This was plainly indicated three days 
later, when there appeared a bill to repeal that portion of the 
law forbidding a naturalized subject to have a seat in the Pro- 
vincial Assembly. Samuel Chase, who led the fight against Mr. 
I lager, was himself one of the delegates who brought in the bill. 



THE LIFE OV THOMAS JOHNSON. 195 

The measure was expeditiously passed, and ou October 16, 
1771 — eight days after Jonathan Hager was dismissed — the 
Speaker left his chair and repaired, in company with the mem- 
bers of the House, to the council chamber to present the bill to 
Governor Eden, who forthwith signed and sealed it on behalf 
of the Lord Proprietary. So speedily was this Act passed and 
approved, that Mr. Hager was enabled to take his seat in the 
House before the close of the session. Ke-elected a delegate 
from Frederick county, he qualified as a member of the Assem- 
bly on the 16th of November, 1771, in time to vote for tlie 
celebrated Kemonstrance against the Fee Proclamation. 

This memorable Protest was prepared by Thomas Johnson 
after it became plain that the passage of a new Fee Bill was 
impossible. Early in October, soon after the Assembly had con- 
vened, the Committee on Grievances reported that the fees of 
the Provincial officers were excessive and a Fee Bill was passed 
by the Lower House for submission to the Council. The mem- 
bers of the Upper House, on October 30, 1771, rejected the bill 
but suggested that conferees be appointed to take the matter 
under consideration. ISTotwithstanding the fact that Thomas 
Johnson, William Paca, Samuel Chase, Tilghman and Small- 
wood were opposed to this proposition, the Lower House, by a 
vote of twenty-eight to nineteen, decided in favor of a confer- 
ence, and then selected Delegates Johnson, Chase, Tilghman, 
Hall, Hammond, Grahame and Dennis to act as the conferees 
of the Lower House. 

On account of the uncompromising position of the delegates, 
on the one side, and the grim determination of the councillors 
to support Governor Eden and his Proclamation, on the other, 
the conferees clashed in deadlock. On the 4th of ISTovember, 
1771, the members of the Council submitted a list of proposals, 
which was not entirely satisfactory to the Lower House; and 
two days later they submitted a second list, which was immedi- 
ately rejected. The Council and the House in turn asked that 
the conference be discontinued, but proposals continued to fly 
back and forth between the two chambers. At last, on the 



196 MAHTLAJSTD HISTOEICAI. MAGAZINE. 

2 2d of I^ovember, the conference came to an end. The attempt 
to settle the controversy bj compromise had unquestionably 
failed. 

It was on the following day — the 23d of N"ovember, lYYl — 
that the Lower House took under consideration the memorable 
Address to His Excellency, prepared by Delegate Thomas John- 
son, Jr., of Anne Arundel county, as a Remonstrance against 
the Fee Proclamation. 

Mr. Johnson contended, in this masterly Protest, that the 
levying of fees for public officials constituted a tax upon the 
people; and, in support of his contention, quoted from Coke's 
Institutes and the Statute de tallagio non concedendo. Under 
the common law, officers of justice, he claimed, were paid out 
of the revenues of the Crown, and there was no precedent, he 
asserted, for the regulation of fees by Proclamation. Inasmuch 
as the power to tax was reposed in the legislative branch of the 
Government, Delegate Johnson argued with great force and 
effect that the arbitrary regulation of fees by Governor Eden 
was " unconstitutional in the matter and shadowed in the man- 
ner, with the assigned reason to prevent extortion by the officers, 
in imitation of the practice of arbitrary kings, who, in their 
proclamations, which have been declared illegal, generally cov- 
ered their designs with the specious pretence of public good." 

Delegate Johnson made it plain that the members of the 
Lower House were convinced that, although issued by Governor 
Eden, the Fee Proclamation had been schemed by ulterior 
advisers. " The advisers of the Proprietary," declared Mr. 
Johnson, " are enemies of the peace, welfare and happiness of 
this Province and of the laws and Constitution thereof ! " He 
challenged the Governor to disclose to the Assembly the names 
of the men who had advised him to issue the Proclamation, or 
else issue a denial. 

In a brilliant conclusion, worthy of Marshall or Webster, 
Mr. Johnson presented the following logical argument : 

" This act of power is founded on the destruction of consti- 
tutional security. If the Proclamation may rightfully regulate 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 197 

the fees, it has a right to fix any quantum. If it has a right to 
regulate, it has a right to regulate to a million ; for where does 
its right stop ? At any given point ! To attempt to limit the 
right, after granting it to exist at all, is contrary to justice. 
If it has a right to tax us, then, whether our money shall con- 
tinue in our own pockets depends no longer on us, but on the 
prerogative." 

Concerning Mr. Johnson's Remonstrance, Doctor Steiner has 
written the following well-deserved tribute : 

" The masterly logic of this Address reminds us of that used 
by Marshall in his decision in the case of McCulloh versus 
Maryland and is one of the many proofs of the thorough legal 
education of the patriotic leaders of the Province." 

The Report of Thomas Johnson, Jr., was adopted with only 
three members dissenting. The positive language, in which the 
Remonstrance was couched, gave evidence of the indignant feel- 
ing of the Colonists. By adopting the Remonstrance as written 
by Johnson, the Assembly took an unwavering and courageous 
stand. 

Within six days — on IN'ovember 29, 1771 — ^Governor Eden 
issued a reply, in which he attempted to justify his position. 
The Executive declared that with the right to appoint public 
officials, the Lord Proprietary had the right, by implication, to 
determine their emoluments. Governor Eden pointed to prece- 
dents, in other dominions, for the regulation of officers' fees by 
Royal prerogative. He also denied that a Jury had the right 
to fix the qucbntum of fees when not established by law ; and in 
support of this contention he declared that under the Maryland 
law, an action could not be brought before a Jury, if the amount 
in controversy were below 600 pounds of tobacco or fifty shil- 
lings, current money. 

Like Delegate Johnson's Remonstrance, Governor Eden's 
reply was skilfully framed. It presented the case of the Lord 
Proprietary in the best light possible. And it indicated, beyond 
peradventure, that a compromise of any kind was an impossi- 
bility. Every Eee bill proposed by the Lower House was 
7 



198 MARYLAND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

speedily rejected by the Council. Indignant and exasperated, 
the Delegates were now ready to leave for their homes, and on 
the 30th of November, 1771, Governor Eden prorogued the 
Assembly. 

For the following year and a half, there was no session of the 
Provincial Assembly. During this time, some of the people of 
Maryland paid the fees under protest, while others absolutely 
refused to pay. The smouldering fires of discontent broke out 
into a flame early in 1773, when Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
under the name. First Citizen, published in the Maryland 
Gazette a powerful attack against Governor Eden's Proclama- 
tion. His article was answered by Daniel Dulany, as Antilon. 
Having been appointed to the lucrative office of Provincial 
Secretary, Dulany had no other course to pursue than to 
endeavor to uphold the justice and the constitutionality of the 
Proclamation. Rebuttals and surrebuttals came from the pen 
of Carroll and Dulany. Eeplete with gems from the classics 
and bulwarked with the most powerful arguments, and marked 
by bitterness restrained by the bounds of courtesy, the articles 
are masterpieces of logic and legal learning. They thoroughly 
aroused the people of the Colony. They made Charles Carroll 
of Carrollton a hero and they spelt the doom of the popularity 
of the great Dulany. In Annapolis, a tumultous crowd assem- 
bled in May, 1773, after the closing of the polls at the election 
for Delegates — the last election held under the Proprietary 
Government — and held a demonstration to indicate publicly the 
hostility of the people to the Proclamation. In accordance with 
the ancient Colonial custom, they decided to bury the despised 
Fee Proclamation at a mock funeral. The following descrip- 
tion ^* has been written concerning this quaint ceremony: " To 
the sound of muffled drums, with the Proclamation in a coffin, 
with banners that bore inscriptions condemning it, with weap- 
ons of war and with a grave digger, the march was made from 
the polls to the gallows, where the offensive document was 
banged, cut down, and buried, the ceremony being accompanied 

" Mcrenesfl, Maryland aa a Proprietary Province. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 199 

by a discharge of musketry." Thereupon the four Delegates- 
elect of Anne Arundel county — Johnson, Chase, Worthington 
and Hall — were instructed to thank Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton for his articles in behalf of the liberties of the subjects. 

In accordance with this request from their constituents, the 
Anne Arundel Delegates wrote the following note of thanks to 
Mr. Carroll, indicative of the determination of the people of 
Maryland never to tolerate the Governor's usurpation of taxing 
authority ; 

Anne Arundel County, May 26th, ITTS. 
To The First Citizen: 
Sir— 

The freemen of Anne Arundel County, on the day of our 
election, gave us in charge to return you their thanks, for your 
nervous and masterly defence of the Constitution, against the 
late illegal, arbitrary and oppressive Proclamation : an exertion 
of prerogative which in a land of freedom will not, must not, be 
endured. Be assured. Sir, it gives us the sincerest joy to see 
your merit so generously understood and so frankly acknowl- 
edged, by men who must be confessed to have nothing in view 
but the general good ; and we gladly execute the commands of 
our constituents, in thus publicly returning you their thanks, 
for your spirited and distinguished opposition to the Procla- 
mation. 

We are. Sir, with great respect, 

Your most obedient servants, 

Price T. P. Worthington 
Thomas Johnson, Jr 
Samuel Chase 
John Hall 

As soon as the Assembly re-assembled on the 15th of June, 
the House once more denounced the hated Proclamation. Some 
of the Delegates proposed to bring the young Governor and his 
obdurate councillors to their senses by refusing to make needful 



200 MAEYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

regulation of the tobacco industry. Calmer members, including 
Thomas Johnson, Samuel Chase and William Paca, opposed 
this method of retaliation, but on the 18th of June, the House, 
by a vote of twenty-four to twelve, determined to refuse to bring 
in the Tobacco bill. It was not long, however, before it was 
perceived that this hasty action was ill-advised, and five days 
later the House reconsidered its action and decided to appoint 
a committee to prepare the measure. But, at the same time, 
another committee was appointed to prepare a new Fee bill. 

One measure after another, upon being passed by the Lower 
House, was killed in the Council. Even the bill for the support 
of the clergy.' — providing that every minister in Maryland, fol- 
lowing the principle of equality adopted in Virginia, should 
annually be granted 32,000 pounds of tobacco, exclusive of his 
glebe and regardless of the size of the parish — met with dis- 
approval and was rejected in the Upper House. The Delegates 
were reduced to such a state of desperation that Governor Eden 
deemed it best to resort again to the penalty of prorogation. 
Thus, on the 3d of July, 1773, after being in session scarcely 
over a fortnight, the Assembly, for many im^portant reasons, 
was prorogued. 

During the summer and fall of the year 1773, there was a 
brief respite in the controversy. The Assembly convened on 
the 16th of November, but adjourned, on the 23d of December, 
without producing any change in the situation. 

The final session of the Assembly under the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment convened on March 23, 1774. Once again there was 
a deadlock, and on the 19th of April the Provincial Assembly 
adjourned — never to meet again in the history of the Colony. 

Governor Eden and his Council stood firm against the Eemon- 
strance. Yet, while the freemen viewed the Proclamation with 
indignation, they hated the counsellors of the Governor far more 
than the young executive himself. Sir Robert seems to have 
been accorded, to a remarkable degree, the respect and esteem 
of the people of Maryland. " Easy of access, courteous to all 
and fascinating by his accomplishments," John V. Ij. McMahon 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 201 

explains, " he (Governor Eden) still retained his hold upon the 
aifections even of his opponents, who, for the qualities of his 
heart and the graces of his manners, were willing to forgive the 
personal errors of his government." 

Without an Assembly to serve as a safety valve by which to 
exhaust their resentment, the provincials had to rely upon the 
press and public meetings to display their hostility to the Proc- 
lamation. One illustration of the hostile sentiment of the people 
on the subject of taxation in Maryland prior to the Revolution 
was the institution of a suit for damages, in which the plaintiff 
contested the tax familiarly known as the Forty Per Poll. It 
had been collected, under the provisions of a statute passed in 
1702, and the imposition of the tax had for many years caused 
great dissatisfaction. Joseph H. Harrison, who had served as 
a member of the Assembly from Charles county, determined to 
test its legality and he refused to pay the tax. He was arrested, 
and when Richard Lee, Jr., the sheriff of the county, threat- 
ened to imprison him, he paid the tax under protest. There- 
upon, Mr. Harrison sued the sheriff for £60 for assault and 
battery and for false imprisonment. His lawj'ers were Thomas 
Johnson, Samuel Chase and William Paca. Mr. Johnson's 
younger brother, Baker Johnson, also assisted. Sheriff Lee, 
through Thomas Stone, John Rogers and Cook, his attorneys, 
pleaded " ISTot Guilty " and set up, for his defense, the Act of 
1702. As no aggravating circumstances, such as actual incar- 
ceration or ill treatment at the hands of the sheriff, were con- 
nected with the alleged assault, no punitive damages were asked. 
Indeed, the purpose of the law suit was to test the constitu- 
tionality of the tax. " Tet," says Scharf, " such was the idea 
which the Jury entertained of the liberty of the subject that 
they looked upon the sheriff's arrest and execution of the Forty 
Per Poll as an offence of the first magnitude against the rights 
of Englishmen, and brought in a verdict for the plaintiff, and 
gave him £60 damages, which was the whole sum in the declara- 
tion." 12 

'' J. T. Scharf, History of Maryland, Vol. ii, p. 127-8. 



202 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

After Mr. Dulany had ceased to champion the Proclamation, 
there were several prominent men in the Colony, like John 
Hammond, who were willing to defend the cause of the Pro- 
prietary Governor. Thomas Johnson, Jr., Samuel Chase and 
William Paca championed the freemen's cause. They prepared 
a paper in reply to the great Dulany. In this masterly argu- 
ment published in the Gazette, the trio of brilliant young 
patriots laid down the dictum that the freemen of the Province 
— not the Crown or the Proprietary — ^were the ultimate source 
of authority. They took the position that the people themselves, 
or their representatives, had, therefore, the power to pronounce 
final judgment on any question of government. In the opinion 
of Bernard C. Steiner, the Johnson-Chase-Paca reply to Daniel 
Dulany was superior to the argument advanced by Charles Car- 
roll of Carrollton. Says Doctor Steiner : " The popular opinion 
has been that Charles Carroll had much the better of the argu- 
ment with Dulany. In this opinion I do not join, though I 
admit most readily that in Carroll, Dulany found a worthy 
antagonist and that Carroll's success in arousing the people was 
most noteworthy, especially when we consider his religious faith. 
The last was by no means popular in Maryland at that time, 
and I regret to have to record the fact that Dulany strove in an 
unworthy manner to use that fact to Carroll's prejudice. My 
conclusion is that Dulany 's arguments found their best refuta- 
tion in the paper written by William Paca, Thomas Johnson, 
and Samuel Chase." 

By this time, the controversy over Officers' Fees became over- 
shadowed by the impending storm-cloud of the Revolution. 
One of the final things Mr. Johnson did in this connection was 
to send to his friend at Mt. Vernon in the summer of 1774 — 
when the troubles around Boston were beginning to assume 
serious proportions — a copy of one of the issues of the Mary- 
land Gazette containing the last " Controversial Piece " on the 
subject. 

" I am sorry," Johnson wrote to George Washington, " to 
hear that your abrupt Dissolution has thrown you into diffi- 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 203 

eulties about Officers' Fees. We have unhappily been for some 
time much enibarrassed about the Fees of Office here and as 
you may remember have had some Controversial Pieces on the 
subject. I preserved a paper which contains the last, no Answer 
having been yet given to it, and inclose it to you — as, indeed, 
I would all on the subject if I had them — not from any opinion 
the matter may not be as well handled in Virginia as with us, 
but from an apprehension that any thing on the subject which 
may tend to an investigation of the truth will at this time be 
agreeable to you." 

Thus, throughout the Fee controversy in Maryland, both in 
and out of the Assembly, Thomas Johnson, Jr., played the most 
prominent role of all the patriots of that day as the champion 
of the liberty of the people. True, the Proclamation was never 
repealed. But, as Mereness well says in his Maryland as a 
Proprietary Province, " It is not improbable that the Proclama- 
tion, had the Proprietary Government continued a few years 
longer, would have fallen before this view as to the Ultimate 
Source of Authority ; but, as it was, discontent was in a measure 
temporarily pacified by the revival of the old Inspection Act, 
without the table of fees, and then the Eevolution soon fol- 
lowed." And, furthermore, in making the Remonstrance, the 
patriot leaders, chief among whom were Thomas Johnson, Jr., 
Charles Carroll of CarroUton, Samuel Chase and William Paca, 
did a valiant service in arousing the people of Maryland to a 
realization of the part they would have to play in resisting the 
oppressions of the Crown. 

(To he continued) 



MARYLAND COUNCIL OF DEFENSE 
HISTORICAL DIVISION 



The Historical Division of the Maryland Council of Defense is 
enjoying the hospitality of the Maryland Historical Society in the 
use of pleasant and commodious quarters on the third floor of the 
Society's building. The association with the Historical Society 
•vdll undoubtedly prove very beneficial to the Historical Division. 

The Historical Division was organized by the Maryland Council 
of Defense for the purpose of compiling the records of Maryland in 
the war, to be preserved as a permanent Maryland War History 
Collection. Mr. George L. Radcliffe, Eecording Secretary of the 
Historical Society, is chairman of the Historical Division. 

The scope of the undertaking of the Historical Division is very 
comprehensive. The records to be compiled include : 

1. The " "War Service Record " of every Marylander (estimated 
at 60,000) in the military or naval forces of the U. S. or of the 
Allies in the war against Germany. 

2. A similar record of every Marylander in any other line of 
war activity, in governmental service or in any private war agency. 

3. Histories and records of the special military units composed 
largely of Marylanders, of the important camps and other military 
establishments in Maryland, and of Maryland war industries. 

4. Histories and records of the many non-military war agencies, 
governmental and private. 

5. Material on topical subjects in relation to the war and its 
effects — financial, commercial and industrial, medical, public 
opinion, music, education, religion, etc. 

6. Collections of photographs, trophies, and other war exhibits. 
In fact, it is desired to collect any and all material in relation 

to Maryland in the war. Obviously, any considerable measure of 
success in such an undertaking can be realized only through the 
interest and co-operation of a great many persons. The Historical 
Division especially invites such co-operation on the part of the 
members of the Maryland Historical Society. 

The roll of Marylanders who died in the service is pretty well up, 
but the compilation of the " War Service Records " for the general 
military roster has not been started. An organization in the coun- 
ties of the State is now being j)erfected, however, for this purpose 
and for the historical work generally. 



Vol. XIV 



SEPTEMBER, 1919 



No. 3 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL 



MAGAZINE 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE MARYLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



ISSUED QUARTERLY 

.ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION, $3.00-SINGLENUMBEfiS.75cTS. 



BALTIMORE 



Entered as Second-Class Matter. Aoril 24. 1917. at the Postofflce. at Baltimore. Marvland. 



Ex-Soldiers, Sailors, Marines 

Don't give up your GOVERNMENT INSURANCE. 
If you have allowed it to lapse, reinstate it — protect your 
loved ones. 



Secretary of the Treasury Carter Glass, on July 25, signed a 
decision of momentous importance and interest to discharged 
soldiers, sailors, and marines. 

In the decision (T. D. 47, W. R.) the Secretary ruled that dis- 
charged soldiers, sailors and marines who have dropped or can- 
celled their insurance may reinstate it within eighteen months 
after discharge without paying the back premiums. All they 
will be asked to pay will be the premium on the amount of 
insurance to be reinstated for the month of grace in which they 
were covered and for the current month. 

Thus, for example, if a man dropped $10,000 of insurance in 
January, 1919, and applies for reinstatement the 1st of Sep- 
tember for $5,000, all he will have to pay will be the premium 
for January (the month of grace) on $5,000 and the premium 
for September on $5,000. Or, if he applies for reinstatement of 
the full $10,000, he will pay a total of two months' premiums 
on $10,000, one for January and one for September. He will not 
have to pay premiums in either case for the intervening months. 

The decision stipulates that the former service man applying 
for reinstatement be in as good health as at date of discharge. 

Former Treasury Decision 45, W. R., and other prior regula- 
tions in conflict with the new decision are revoked. 

Director R. G. Cholmeely-Jones, of the Bureau of War Risk 
Insurance, following the signing of the decision made the fol- 
lowing statement: 

" The present decision is one of the most important to former 
Bervice men that has been made in the lustory of the bureau. 

" Many service men have been deterred from availing them- 
selves of the former and less liberal reinstatement privileges by 
reason of the relatively large amount of money represented by 
accumulated overdue premiums, and because it would seem that 
they were paying for something that they never actually had, 
which, in fact, was the case. 

" Under the new decision a man is relieved of the burden of 
overdue premiums. He has an opportunity to rehabilitate him- 
■elf financially after getting out of the Army, Navy, or Marine 

{Continued on third page of cover) 



ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND 



IHiblished "by aiatliority of the State 



VOLUME XXXVIII 



This volume is now ready for distribution, and contains many Acts 
of the General Assembly of the Province from 1694 to 1698, and 
from 1711 to 1729, hitherto unprinted. The Acts had never before 
appeared in print, and their very existence had been lost sight of 
for many years, so that they were omitted, when the Proceedings 
and Acts of the General Assembly were previously printed by the 
Society. Having recently been recovered, they are now included in 
the Archives, and make the publication of the Acts substantially 
complete, down to the year 1732. Many of these Acts are private 
laws, but they are important for such reasons as that naturalization 
laws are useful for genealogists, and the laws curing defects in the 
title to real property will be found of value to conveyancers. There 
are also a large number of Acts with reference to insolvent debtors, 
to the Provincial and County Courts, to tobacco trade, etc. The 
Appendix contains some interesting documents with reference to the 
Anglican Church in Maryland, and to the early History of Education 
in the Province. 

The attention of members of the Society who do not now receive 
the Archives is called to the liberal provision made by the Legisla- 
ture, which permits the Society to furnish to its own members copies 
of the volumes, as they are published from year to year, at the mere 
coat of paper, press-work, and binding. This cost is at present fixed 
at one dollar, at which price members of the Society may obtain one 
copy of each volume published during the period of their membership. 
For additional copies, and for volumes published before they became 
members, the regular price of three dollars is charged. The volume 
is edited by Bernard C. Steiner, Ph. D, 



THE MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



INCORPORATED 1843. 



OFFICERS. 

President, 

EDWIN WARFIELD. 

Vice-Presidents, 

W. HALL HARRIS, HENRY STOCKBRIDGE, 

DeGOURCY W. THOM. 

Corresponding Secretary, 

RICHARD H. SPENCER. 

Recording Secretary, 

GEORGE L. RADCLIFFE. 

Treasurer, 

HEYWARD E. BOYCE. 

THE COUNCIL. 

The General Officebs 



ASD 



J. APPLETON WILSON, 
JOHN M. VINCENT, 
RICHARD M. DUVALL, 
PHILLIPS L. GOLDSBOROUGH, 



McHENRY HOWARD, 
RUXTON M. RIDGELY, 
JAMES McC. TRIPPE, 
DR. BERNARD BROWNE. 



1866. 
1892. 
1909. 
1915. 
1916. 
1916. 
1916. 



BENEFACTORS OF THE SOCIETY 

GEORGE PEABODY, Gift, . . 

J. HENRY STICKNEY, Bequest . 

ISAAC F. NICHOLSON, .... Gift, . . 

MENDES COHEN, Bequest, 

ISAAC HENRY FORD, Bequest, 

ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, Gift, 

MRS. MARY WASHINGTON E:EYSER, 



$20,000 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Gift of the H. Irvine Keyser Memorial Building 



FORM OF LEGACY. 
" 7 give and bequeath to The Maryland Historical Society the 
sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Edbis and Virginia Berkley Memorial Collection of 

Washington Pbests. Henry J. Berkley, - - - - 205 

A Notice of Some of the First Buildings with Notes of Some 

OF the Early Residents. Mrs. Rebecca Key, - - - 258 

Extracts from the Carroll Papers, 272 

In Memoriam. II, 293 

Notes, 303 



Committee on PuhUcationa 

SAMUEL K. DENNIS, Chairmtm. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, BERNARD C. STEINER. 



LOUIS H. DIELMAN, 
Editor. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. XIV. SEPTEMBER, 1919. No. 3. 



THE EDRIS AND VIRGINIA BERKLEY* MEMORIAL 
COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS 



[The social, moral and political impression made by the " Father of His 
Country," not only upon his own, hut upon all sulbsequent times down to 
the present, has occasioned a degree of interest in him in the public mind 
unequalled by any other man that has lived in ancient or present days. 

As a result this popularity, and particularly from the fact that Wash- 
ington Ideals constitute the highest forms of Liberty, comprehended in the 
aJbility of an individual to use his brain and brawn to the best advantage 
for himself and for his State, has been recognized not only in numerous 
portraitures from life, but also in the reproduction from these, by processes 
of engraving, of more likenesses of Washington than of any other man the 
world has ever seen: Over seven hundred copper plates are known, and to 
these several hundred variations are to be added, making the total list 
well over a thousand. 

The inspiration for the present collection, now tendered as a permanent 
loan to the Maryland Historical Society, came from the late Richard D. 
Fisher, gentleman of the old school, bibliophile, litterateur, and ardent 
member of the Society, at a time when the writer was invalided for several 
months, and was looking for some indoor occupation and amusement a 
little out of the ordinary run, and accordingly fraught with new interests. 
Mr. Fisher started the collection himself by presenting me with several 
Washington Prints taken out of scrap-books belonging to his father, and 
by placing me in communication with such dealers in engravings as he 
knew to be reliaible. Out of this modest beginning the collection gradually 
arose ; and many Summer vacations had zest added to them hunting prints 
in the shops of Boston, Salem. Newburyport, Canaan, Annapolis, Philadel- 
phia and other towns. Philadelphia and its environs were found to be a 



Of Fairfax County, Va. 

205 



206 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

truly wonderful liunt#r's paradise ; alas, now departed like most of the good 
things of this life, for as the years have passed fewer and fewer prints were 
to be found, and eventually they almost disappeared. 

However, it would seem that the writer entered the Washington print 
field at a propitious moment, as in comparatively a few years a consider- 
able number were brought together. Additions were made from the auction 
sales, and the Mitchell, Carson and Whelan collections all have representa- 
tives in the present one. This collection is particularly fortunate in 
including nearly all the Maryland imprints, also in containing the beautiful 
quarto-sheet by Gimbrede ( 69 ) , found in New Orleans in perfect condition ; 
the Haines and the Hinton mezzotints colored in oils (120-202), the three 
Heath prints, known as the regular, the fake and the American (123 
et seq.), the Savage (122), called the Frog Washington, from some fancied 
resemblance to the head of that amphibious animal, and so on through a 
considerable list. It is deficient in examples of the C. W. and James Peale, 
also in the Edward Birch types, and it is to be hoped that owners of single 
examples of these engravers not now in the collection will be induced to add 
them, and gradually establish a Washington Room in the building of the 
Historical Society, not alone for prints, but also for furniture, silverware, 
porcelains, and other memorials of Colonial Days. — ^Henby J. Bebklet.] 



CHARLES W. PEALE TYPE 

1. Gen. Washington. Full bust in nnifonii, head to left, 

the right hand, gloved, thrust in the breast. Circle with 
border upon a pyramidal base, in a rectangle to represent 
stonework. 

Height 5 13/16", width 3 11/16". Line. 

Wm. Angiis Sc. Pub. Sept. 23rd, 1788, by J. Fielding, Pater 
Noster Row. [History of the War with America, etc., by John An- 
drews, Tjondon, 1785.] Baker 3. 

2. Washington at the Age of Twenty-five. Bust in uniform. 

Head to right. Oval. 

Height 2 13/16", width 2 5/16". Line. 

J. de Mare, Se, From a miniature on ivory presented by Wash- 
ington to his niece, Harriet, and now belonging to her daughter's 
family. [Life of Geo. Washington, by Washington Irving, 1851.] 

Z. Duplicate, Proof. Baker 8. 



BERKLEY COLLECTIOIV OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 207 

4. 6r. Washington in 1772, aet. 40. Three-quarter length in 

the uniform of a Colonel in the Virginia Service. 
Vignette. 

Height 5 14/16", width 3 8/16". Stipple. 

C. W. Peale, Px. J. B. Forrest, Sc. Original in the possession of 
G. W. P. Custis, Esq. N. Y., G. P. Putnam and Co. [Life of George 
Washington, by Washington Irving. 1856-59.] Baker 11. 

5. Le General Washington, Commandant en Chef des Armees 

Americaines, ne en Virginie en 1733. Bust in uniform, 
head to right. Oval, with a border in a rectangle, resting 
upon a tablet, in which is a representation of the surrender 
at Yorktown, inscribed, " Journee memorable du 19 Oc- 
tobre 1781, a York en Virginie." Title within the border. 

Height 7 13/16", width 5 8/16". Une. 

Grave d'apres le tableau de N. Piehle peint d'apres Nature a Phila- 
delphie en 1783. [Lavater's Essais sur la Physiognomie, la Haye, 
1781.] Rare. Baker 14. 

6. 8. E. George Washington, General en Chef des Armees des 

Etats TJnis de VAmerique. Full bust in uniform, full 
face, the right hand gloved, thrust in the breast. Oval 
with border, resting on a base in a rectangle. 

Height 10 5/16", width 7". Line. 

Le B. pinx. J. L. Se. [Lavater's Essais sur la Physiognomie, la 
Haye, 1781-86.] Baker 18. 

7. Georges Washington, Esqr. General en Chef de VAnnee 

Anglo- Americaine. Nome dictateur par le Congres en 
Fevrier 1777. Full bust in uniform and cocked hat, head 
to left, a drawn sword partly seen on the left. Oval with 
border in a rectangle, resting upon a base, the Title in a 
tablet upon the base. 

Height 6 4/16", width 4 8/16". Line. 

Desrais del. Le Beau Sc. A Paris ehez Esnaults et Rapilly, rue 
St. Jaques, a la Ville de Coutances. Rare. Baker 19. 

8. George Washington. Commandeur en Chef of y. Armies 

of y. United States of America. Bust in uniform, with 



208 MABYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

black neckercliief, head to left. Oval witli border in a 
rectangle over a tablet in whicb is the title. Over the oval 
a rattlesnake and Liberty with the legend, " Don't tread 
on me.'' On the side olive and laurel branches, etc. On 
the flag to the right 13 stars. 

Height 6 3/16", width 4 7/16". Line. 

Engraved by W. Sharp from the original picture. Pubhshed in 

London according to the act of ParUament, Feb. 22d, 1780. [A 

poetical Epistle to his Excellency George Washington, Esquire, etc. 

From an inhabitant of the State of Maryland, etc. Annapolis, 1779. 

London: re-printed, 1780.] Very rare. Baker 35. 

9. Genl. Washington. Bust in uniform, with black handker- 

chief. Head to right, vignette. 

Height 2 4/16", width 2". Stipple. 

Jas. Newton Sc. Rare. Baker 25. 

10. Washington act. JfO. Three-quarter length in the uniform 
of a Colonel of the Virginia Service, a landscape back- 
ground. 

Height 4 11/16", width 3 13/16". Line. 

Eng. by J. W. Paradise from a picture by J. W. Chapman after 
Peale. [The writings of George Washington. By Jared Sparks. 
Boston, 1834.] Baker 27. 

11. Washington m 1772, aet. Jf-0. Three-quarter length in the 
uniform of a Colonel in the Virginia Service. 

Height 5 9/16", width 4 5/16". Line. 

Painted by a Dickinson. Eng. by J. W. Steel [Graham's Maga- 
zine, 1S33]. Baker 36. 

12. General Washington. Bust in uniform, head to right. 
Oval, with border in a rectangle, engraved to represent 
stone work. Beneath the oval a tablet and the Washington 
arms, with the motto " Exitus Acta Probat." 

Height 6", width 3 10/16". Line. 

.J. Trenchard Sc. Columbian Magazine, Philadelphia, Jany., 1787. 
Hare. Baker 37. 



BEEKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PEINTS. 209 

13. G. Washington, General Der Noord-Americaanen. Bust 
in uniform, head to left. Inclosed in a border resembling 
a picture frame suspended over a pedestal (in a rectangle) 
upon which lies a hat, baton, etc. A curtain hangs over 
and conceals the upper corner of the frame. 

Height 5 10/16", width 3 8/16". Line. 

Reinr. Vinkeles Sculpt, naar een origineel Schildery by den Wei. 
Ed. Heer P. Van Winter Nic : Z. [ Vaderlandische Historie, Vol. 1, 
pg. 50. Amsterdam, 1786.] Baker 39. 

14. Washington (Georges), President de la Repuhlique des 
Etats TJnis D'Amerique Du Nord 1799. Full length in 
uniform, standing to the right, leaning by the left hand 
upon a field piece. In the rear an attendant with a horse 
and a flag partly displayed, upon which, in a circle 13 
stars. In the left distance a building with a cupola (Z^as- 
sau Hall, Princeton), with some troops in the middle 
ground. 

Height 9 11/16", width 6 6/16". Mixed. 

Tableau du Temps. Grave par Wolfl. Dessine par Girardet, 
Galerie Historique de Versailles. (Paris, 1833). Baker 40. 

15. Genl. Washington. Bust in uniform with black handker- 
chief. Head to right. Vignette. 

Height 4 6/16", width 3 10/16". Stipple. 

Pub. Nov. 1st, 1784 by Whitworth and Yates, Bradford street 
(Birmingham). Probably a modem impression from a very old 
plate, the paper used is, however, of the eighteenth century. 

Baker 42. 

16. George Washington, Commander in Chief of the American 
Army. Oval with a border upon a base, in a rectangle. 

Height 5 11/16", width 3 6/16". Une. 

Engraved for the Universal Magazine. Printed for J. Hinton at 
the Kings Arms in Paternoster Row. Baker 43. 

16%. Le General Washington. Ne Quid Detrimenti Capiat 
Res Publica. FitII dress in uniform. Standing to left in 
front of a tent, in his right hand a roll displaying sheets 



210 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

inscribed '^ Declaration of Independence," " Treaty of 
Alliance, etc." His left hand gloved is thrust into the 
breast. Beneath his feet are various torn documents 
marked " Protection to Rebels," " Conciliatory Bills," etc. 
In the rear a negro servant with a horse, and in the ex- 
treme right distance, on the lower ground, an encampment. 

Height 16 10/16", width 12 11/16". Line. 

Peint par L. le Paon. Grave par M. le Mire. Baker 21. 

CHARLES W. PEALE TYPE NOT FOUND IN BAKER 

17. Genl. Washington. Bust in uniform, head to right, vig- 
nette. On the same sheet with a portrait of Dr. Franklin. 
Bust, head to left with fur cap. Vignette. 

Each height 2 5/16", width 2". Stipple. 

Very rare. Carson 69. 

18. Genl. Washington. Bust in uniform with black necker- 
chief. Head one-quarter to right. Oval, surrounded by a 
black border. 

Height 4 15/16", width 4 5/16". Mezzotinto. 

Pub. 15th July, 1784 by Whitworth and Yates, Birmingham. Un- 
known to Baker or Carson, possibly a modem impression of an 
unused plate, though the paper is Dutch ante 1800. Very rare. 

Similar to Carson 70 though differing in size and lettering. 

19. Washington's First Interview with Mrs. Custis. Wash- 
ington in full uniform with sword at side, holding chapeau 
under left arm, bowing before Mrs. Custis, who is standing 
on the steps of her mansion. Negro servant with white 
horse in the background. 

Height 6 1/16" width 3 7/16". Line. 

Drawn by F. 0. C. Darley. Eng. by W. H. Ellis for Godey's 
Lady's Book, 1846. 



BEEKLET COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 211 



REMBRANDT PEALE TYPE 

20. Washington. Bust three-quarters to right. Vignette. 

Height 4 3/16", width 4 6/16". Stipple. 

Rembrandt Peale. H. B. Hall, New York, G. P. Putnam. [Life 
of George Washington, by Washington Irving. New York, 1856.] 

Baker 381. 

21. Washington. Bust, head three-quarters to right. Vig- 
nette. 

Height 4 3/16", width 4". Une. 

Eng. by H. B. Hall, New York, 1865. After a painting by Rem- 
brandt Peale. [Washingtoniana. Hough, Roxbury, Mass., 1865.] 

Baker 382. 

22. G. Washington. Full bust, head three-quarters to right. 
Oval, with border surrounded by an oak wreath in a rect- 
angle, the whole engraved to represent stone-work. A cloak 
or mantle hangs over the front of the oval, with a colossal 
antique head as keystone. Beneath the oval, the words 
" Patriae Pater." 

Height 19", width 15 2/16". Mezzotinto. 

Rembrandt Peale, Pinxt. Adam B. Walter, Sculpt. Published by 
C. N. Robinson, no. 248 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. Baker 384. 

REMBRANDT PEALE LITHOGRAPHS 

28. O. Washington, Bam Feb. 22nd, 1732, Died Dec. IJfth, 
1799. Bust, head three-quarters to left. 

Height 7 10/16", width 5 1/16". Lithograph. 

Rembrandt Peale, Pinx. Lith. of P. Haas, Washington City, 
1838. Early and most excellent specimen of the work of this early 
artist on stone. 

24. George Washington. 

Height 5 14/16", width 5". Autotype. 

From the original painting by Rembrandt Peale never before 
engraved. E. Bierstadt, New York. 



212 MAKYI^ND HISTORIC AI. MAGAZINE. 



JAMES PEALE TYPE 

25. G. Washington. Bust in uniform. Head nearly in pro- 
file to riglit. Vignette. 

Height 3 4/16", width 3". Line. 

Eng. by H. B. HaU, New York, 1865. J. Peale, Pinx, 1788. 
(Private plate.) Baker 111. 

26. Peale Type. An-gelica Peale Crowning Washington. 

Height 4 13/16", width 6 14/16". Woodcut. 

A. Bobbett. Darlej^, Pinx. 

ROBERT E. PINE TYPE 

27. Washington. Half length in uniform, head three-quarters 
to left. The right hand rests upon a walking stick. Vig- 
nette. 

Height 5 8/16", width 4". Stipple. 

H. B. Hall. From the original picture from life by Robert Edge 
Pine taken in 1785. [In possession of J. Carson Breevort, Esq., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Eng. for Irving's Washington. New York, 1856.] 

Baker 98. 

28. G. Washington. Bust in uniform, head three-quarters to 
left. Oval, in a frame adorned with laurel leaves, resting 
in a base in a rectangle. At the top of the frame " E Plu- 
ribus Unum," and beneath it an open scroll containing fac- 
simile autographs of the signers. 

Height 8 9/16", width 6 4/16". Stipple. 

Painted by A. Chappel. Eng. by G. R. Hall. From the original 
portrait by Pine in the possession of J. Carson Breevort, Esq. 
(Copyright 1856.) 

29. Duplicate. 

Baker 99. 



BEEKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON FEINTS. 213 



WILLIAM BIRCH TYPE 

30. Geo. Washington. Full bust, head three-quarters to right. 
Oval, with narrow border, in the upper part of a rectangle. 
An eagle with a laurel wreath, rests upon the top of the 
oval, and around the sides and base are flags, laurel 
branches and war emblems. Over the eagle a circlet with 
ten stars. The title in a tablet in the rectangle. 

Height 6 6/16", width 3 13/16". Stipple. 

Edwin Sc. [American Artillerist's Companion, or Elements of 
Artillery. By Louis de Tousard. Philadelphia, 1809.] Baker 385. 

31. George Washington, Ne a Bridges Creeh le 22 fevrier 
1732, Mort le IJi- decembre 1799. Bust, head three-quar- 
ters to right. Oval, with border, in the upper part of a 
rectangle, above a tablet in which is the title. 

Height 5 11/16", width 3 11/16". Line. 

A Paris, chez Menard & Desenne, rue Git-le-Coeur, No. 8. 

Baker 388. 

32. George Washington. Full bust, head three-quarters to 
right. Oval. 

Heigh 3 10/16", width 3 14/16". Modern process. 

Reproduced in the original size from the miniature owned by the 
heirs of Dr. James McHenry. Copyright 1907, the Burrows Bros. Co. 

MADAME DE BREHAN TYPE 

33. George Washington. Ne en Virginie le 11 fevrier 1732. 
Profile head to left, laureated. Circular medallion in the 
upper part of a rectangle. The title in a tablet. 

Height 5 12/16", width 4". Stipple. 

Grave apres le camee peiiit par Madame de Brehan, a Newj'ork en 
1789. Dirige par P. F. Tardieu. Grave par Roger. [Voyage dans 
la Haute Pennsylvania, etc. Paris, 1801.] Rare. Baker 113. 



214 MARYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL TYPE 

34. General Washin.gton. Bust in uniform and cocked hat, 
head three-quarters to left. Oval, with border engraved to 
represent stone-work. 

Height 4 4/16", width 3 6A6". Line. 

Eng. for Murray's History of the American War. Printed for T. 
Robson, Neweastle-upon-Tyne. (London, 1782.) Baker 56. 

35. Gen. George Washington. Full bust in uniform, head to 
right. Oval with a square border upon a base, in a rect- 
angle engraved to represent stone-work. A wreath tied by 
a ribbon, extends from the top of the border down each side. 

Height 5 9/16", width 3 7/16". Line. 

[The History of America from its First Discovery by Columbus 
to the Conclusion of the late War. By William Russell, LL. D. 
London, 1779.] 

36. George Wdshington, Esqr. General en Chef de VArmee 
Anglo- Anieriquain^, noninie Dictateur par le Congres en 
fevrier, 1177. Full bust, in uniform and cocked hat, a 
drawn sword partly visible on the left. Oval, with border 
in a rectangle, ornamented with war emblems, etc. 

Height 6 4/16", width 4 8/16". Line. 

A Paris, chez Esnauts et Rapilly, rue St. Jacques, a la Ville de 
Coutances, A. P. D. R. Rare. Baker 58. 

GUISEPPE CERACCHI TYPE 

37. Washington. Bust, upon a pedestal, head nearly in profile 
to left. Vignette enclosed by a single line. 

Height 3 9/16", width 2 14/16". Stipple. 

Drawn by J. O. Chapman from the original bust by Ceracchi, 
Eng. by .J. F. E. Prud'hommo. [A Life of Washington. By James 
K. Paulding, New York, 1835.] Baker 167. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 215 



WILLIAM DUNLAP TYPE 

38. George Washingto-n. Full bust in uniform, head three- 
quarters to right. 

Height 3 12/16", width 2 6/16". Mezzotinto. 

Robin Sc. From the picture in possession of S. C. ElUs, New 
York. EUas Dexter, 564 Broadway, New York. Baker 73. 

JEAN ANTOINE HOUDON TYPE 

39. Washington. Profile head and bust, to right in a rectangle. 

Height 5", width 4". Stipple. 

Drawn by J. Wood from Houdon's bust. Eng. by Leney. Pub. 
by Joseph Delaplaine, Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 1814. [Dela- 
plaine's Repository of the Lives and Portraits of Distinguished Am- 
erican Characters. Phila., 1815]. Sides cut close. Baker 103. 

40. Geo. Washington. Full figure in uniform, standing upon 
a pedestal. Head in profile to left. The right hand rests 
upon the folds of a military cloak thrown over the ends of 
a bundle of fasces, and the left upon a walking stick. 
Vignette. 

Height 6", width 2 8/16". Stipple. 

From the statue by Houdon in the Capitol, Richmond, Va. Da- 
guerrotyped from the statue. Geo. Parker. G. P. Putnam & Co. 

Baker 105. 

41. G. Washington. Profile head and bust, to right. Vignette. 

Height 2 8/16", width 1 8/16." Stipple. 

From Houdon's bust. Eng. by G. T. Storm. [Life of Washing- 
ton, by Jared Sparks. Abridged by the author. Boston, 1840.] 

Baker 107. 

42. G. Washington. Head in profile to left, the hair flowing 
and tied by a ribbon. Circular medallion. Title on the 
left. 

Diameter 3". ' Line. 

Dessine et grave d'apres Houdon par Alexander Tardieu. Depose 
a la Bibliotheque National le 9 Vendemaire an. 9. A Paris, chez 



216 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Alex. Tardieu, Gr. de la Marine, rue de rUniversite no. 296 au Depot 
National de Machine. Rare. Baker 108. 

43. Georgia Wasliin-gton. Svpremo Dvci Exercitvvn Adser- 
tori Lihertatis. Comitia Americana. Profile head and 
bust to right. Circular medallion in a ruled rectangle. 

Height 4 7/16", width 3 5/16". Line. 

W. L. Ormsby Se. Washingtoniana Vita. Carson 205. 

44. Georgia Washington. Svpremo Dvci Exercitvvn Adser- 
tori Lihertatis, Comitia Americana. Profile head and 
bust, to right. Circular medallion. 

Diameter 2 10/16". 
Machine engraving. Title page of " The National Portrait Gal- 
lery," 1834. D. A. Vivier. Paris, France. Carson 206. 

CHRISTIAN GULAGER TYPE 

45. George Washington. Head and bust, three-quarters to 
right. Oval in a rectangle. 

Height 4 10/16", width 3 13/16". Une. 

Eng. by W. E. Marshall from a portrait by Gulligher belonging to 
E. Belknap, Esq. [Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, 1855.] Baker 115. 

GILBERT STUART TYPE 

46. Washington. Bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 4 12/16", width 3 8/16". Line. 

From the original painting by Stuart, taken from life, in the pos- 
session of the Boston Athenaeum. Eng. by Joseph Andrews, 1843. 

Baker 177. 

47. G. Washington. Bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 3", width 2 10/16". Line. 

Eng. by V. Balch from a painting by Stuart. [The Presidents of 
the United States, their Memories and Administrations, New York, 
1850.1 Baker 179. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON FEINTS. 217 

48. G. Washington. Full bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 5 8/16", width 4 8/16". Stipple. 

Painted by G. Stuart. Eng. by J. G. Bather, Jr. Baker 182. 

49. G. Washington. Bust to right, head turned to the left. 

Height 4 8/16", width 3 3/16". Line. 

Dalla Libera Px. J. W. Bauman Set. Miinehen. Printed and 
pub. by A. Lange et Darmstadt. Baker 183. 

50. G. Washington. Full bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 5", width 4 4/16". Mezzotinto. 

G. Stuart. Eng. by J. C. Buttre. Baker 188. 

51. General Washington. Bust in uniform, head to right. 

J. Chapman So. Pub. as the Act directs Mch. 1st, 1800. Stipple. 
Early state of this plate. Baker 193. 

52. Georgia Washington. Full bust to right (Lansdowne). 

Height 5", width 3 9/16". Line. 

Stuart px. Dair Acqua Inc. [Storia della Guerra dell' Indepen- 
denza degli Stati Uniti. Carlo Botta. Milano, 1809.] Baker 197. 

53. Washington. Bust, head to left (Lansdowne). Vignette. 

Height 3 8/16", width 3". Etched. 

Vernier del. Lemaitre dir. Delaistre Sc. Baker 199. 

54. George Washington. Full bust, head to right (Lans- 
downe). 

Height 5", width 3 11/16". Une. 

Stuart pinx. Dupreel Sc. Baker 205. 

55. Washington. Full bust, head to left. Oval with arab- 
esque border; beneath the representation of a battle 
(Trenton). 

Height 8", width 5 8/16". Stipple. 

Stuart. Edwards. London, George Virtue. Baker 207. 

55. Duplicate. 



218 MARYLAND HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

06. . Bust, head to left Oval. 

Height 4 14/16", width 4 2/16". 
D. Edwin fecit. Philadelphia. Pub. January 1st, 1800, by A. 
Dickens. [Geo. Washington to the People of the United States An- 
nouncing his Intention of Retiring from Public Life. Phila., 1800.1 
Also " Washingtoniana," Lancaster, 1802. Baker 209. 

57. G. Wdshinc/fon. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 4 11/16", width 3 2/16". Stipple. 

D. Edwin So. [Life of Washington by John Marshall, Phila., 
1804.] A re-engraved plate. Var. Baker 210. 

58. Geo. Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 4 13/16", width 4". 
D. Edwin Sc. [Life of George Washington, Commander-in-Chief 
of the American Forces, etc. By John Marshall. Philadelphia, 
1804.] Baker 210. 

59. Washingtov. Full bust, head to left. Ornamental border. 

Height 8", width 5 6/16". Stipple. 

Edwin. Phila. Pub. by Joseph Parker. Baker 211. 

60. Washington. Full bust, head to left. Ornamental border. 

Height 8", width 5 6/16". 
Edwin. Eng. from Stuart's painting. Late impression. 

Var. Baker 211. 

01. George Washington. General and Commander in Chief 
of the American Revolutionary Army and First President 
of the Fnited States. Bust, head to right. Oval. 

Height 4", width 3 5/16". Stipple. 

Edwin Sc. [An Essay on the Life of Washington, Commander- 
in-Chief, Etc. By Aaron Bancroft, A. A. S., Worcester, 1807]. 

Baker 212. 

62. Washington. "A Nation's Joy." Full bust, head to left. 
Height 2 13/16", width 2 2/16". Stipple. 

Edwin Sc. [The Life of General George Washington. By John 
Kingston, Baltimore, 1813.] Cut close to margin, no lettering. 

Baker 213. 



BBBKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON FEINTS. 219 

63. General George Washington. Bust, head to right. 

Height 2 10/16", width 2". Line. 

Painted by Stuart. Eng. by William Ensom. London, pub. for 
the proprietor, Sept., 1822. [Walmsley's Physiognomical Portraits. 
London, 1824.] Baker 219. 

64. George Washington. Half-length, head to left (Lans- 
downe). 

Height 8 14/16", width 6 9/16". Line. 

From the original painting by Stuart. John Tallis and Co., Lon- 
don. Var. Baker 222. 

65. Georgius Washington. Bust to right, head to left. 

Height 7", width 5". Line. 

G. Longhi dis. G, G. Felsing inc. Proof without letters. 

Baker 223. 

66. George Washington, First President of the United States 
of America. TSill bust, head to left. 

Height 5 8/16", width 4". Line. 

Stuart Pinx. Fittler Sc. Engraved by John Fittler, A. R. A., 
from the original picture by G. Stewart in the possession of the most 
Noble, the Marquis of Lansdowne. London, Pub. as the Act directs, 
May 15th, 1804, by Richard Phillips, no. 71 St. Paul's Church Yard. 
[Life of George Washington, by John Marshall. London, 1804.] 

Baker 226. 

67. G. Washington. Half-length, head to right. 

Height 4 8/16", width 3 8/16". Stipple. 

(The engraving of Washington by Freeman, without name of 
engraver.) Painted by Stuart. Baker 227. 

68. His Excellency George Washington, Lieut.-Genl. of the 
Armies of the United Staters of America. Three-quarter 
length in uniform, seated. In the lower margin an eagle 
displayed, with shield, and motto " E Pluribus Unum." 

Height 11", width 8 10/16". Stipple. 

F. Bartoli pinx. J. Galland Sc. Baker 228. 



■220 MAKTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

69. . Full bust in uniform, head to right. The upper 

one of a group of portraits in ovals, in an oblong quarto 
sheet, of Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and Madison, 
with a draped background. Over the Washington is a star 
containing thirteen lesser ones, and above it the words, 
"American Star." 

Height 4", width 3 5/16". Stipple. 

Whole plate, height 8 9/16", width 10 7/16". 
New York, designed, engraved and pubHshed by Thomas Gimbrede, 
Jany, 30th, 1812. Printed by Andrew Maverick. Magnificent bril- 
liant impression found in New Orleans. Baker 231. 

70. Genl. George Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 3 10/16", width 3 1/16". Stipple. 

Stuart px. Gimbrede sc. [The Biography of the Piincipal Amer- 
ican Military and Naval Heroes. By Thomas Wilson, New York, 
1817.] Baker 232. 

71. George Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 7 3/16", width 6 2/16". Stipple. 

Drawn by B. Trott. Eng. by C. Gobrecht. [Cyclopaedia of Arts 
and Sciences. Abraham Rees. 9th Am. edit., Phila., 1821.] 

Baker 235. 

72. Washington, A Nation's Joy. Bust, head to left, on left 
breast the Order of the Cincinnati. 

Height 2 13/16", width 2 13/16". Stipple. 

C. Gobrecht fe. [The New American Biographical Dictionary. 
J. Kingston, Baltimore, 1810.] Rare. Baker 234. 

73. G. Washington. Bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 4", width 3 8/16". Etched. 

From the painting by Gilbert Stuart. Etched by H. B. Hall and 
Sons, New York. Baker 241. 

74. Washington. Head to left. Vignette, with background 
ruled to a rectangle. 

Height 4 8/16", width 4". Etched. 

Etched by Alice Hall. Aet. 18, 1866. Baker 245. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 221 

75. Wasliington. Full length, standing. The Tea-pot por- 
trait. Fully described in the print by J. E. Hills. [Cf. 
Baker 252.] 

Mezzotint. 
6, Stuart Pinx. Eng. by J. Halpin. From the original picture 
in the State House at Hartford, Conn. Columbian Magazine, 1848. 
Pub. by Albert Muller, New York. Baker 246. 

76. General Washington. Full length, standing, head to left. 
The right arm extended as if in speaking, and a dress 
sword in the left hand, is held to his side. To the left, a 
table partly covered with a cloth, upon which an ink-stand 
and books ; beneath the table, are also some books. To 
the right a little in the rear, an arm chair, and in the back- 
ground two rows of pillars, between which, is a curtain 
partly drawn up. Line. 

Height 18 13/16", width 13". 
Painted by Gabriel Stuart, 1707. Eng. by James Heath, Histori- 
cal Engraver to His Majesty, and to His Royal Highness, the Prince 
of Wales. From the original picture in the collection of the Marquis 
of Lansdowne. Pub. Feby. 1st, 1800 by Jas. Heath, no. 42 Newman 
street. Messrs. Boydells, Cheapside, and G. P. Thompson, Great 
Newport street, London. CopjTight secured in the United States 
according to Law. Baker 250. 

77. Ge7iJ. Washington. Bust, head to left (Lansdowne). 
Oval. 

Height 3 12/16", width 3". Stipple. 

Eng. by J. Heath from an original picture by Stewart. Pub. Oct. 
16th, 1807 by Cadell and Davies, Strand, London. [Ramsay's Life 
of Washington, London, 1807.] Baker 251. 

78. . Full length, the Lansdowne portrait. The cen- 
ter of a quarto sheet with the portraits of the Presidents 
to Jackson. 

Height 2 7/16", width 1 9/16". Line. 

J. H. Hills, Sc. The Presidents Messages. Baker 253. 

79. Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 5", width 4". Stipple. 

Eng. by W. Humphries. From a picture by Gilbert Stuart in the 
2 



_l'_ MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

possession of T. B. Barclay, Esqr., of Liverpool, under the superin- 
tendence of the Society for the diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Lon- 
don, pub. by Charles Knight, Ludgate street. [The Gallery of Por- 
traits with Memoirs, 1833.] 

SO. George Washington. Bust, head to right. Vignette. 

Height 3", width 2". Stipple. 

D. C. Johnson Sc. [The Life of George Washington, First Presi- 
dent of the United States. Aaron Bancroft, Boston, 1826.] 

Baker 266. 

81. . Head to left. Oval with a narrow scroll border. 

Heading to an imperial folio sheet entitled " The Declara- 
tion of Independence and Portraits of the Presidents." 

Height 3", width 2 6/16". Stipple. 

Engraved and printed by Illman and Son, 603 Arch street, Phila. 
Ledger Carriers' Annual Greeting to their Subscribers, 1859. 

Baker 264. 

82. Duplicate. Baker 264. 

83. G. Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 4 9/16", width 3 12/16". Stipple. 

Painted by Stuart. Eng. by T. Kelly. Pub. by Samuel Walker, 
Washington street, Boston. Baker 268. 

831/^. Washington at Valley Forge. Full figure on horseback 
in Military Costume. Face, nearly full to left. To the 
right two soldiers in Continental Costume. In the back- 
ground a bastion upon which stands a sentinel. 

Height 18", width 12". Line. 

Eng. by F. 0. C. Darley. Eng. by Hinselwood. Presented to the 
Sabscribers of the Eclectic Magazine [n. d.] Carson. 

84. Gecyrge Washington. Full length. The " Tea-pot por- 
trait." Arched top. The centre of a folio sheet entitled 
" The Presidents of the United States " and surrounded 
by nine oval medallions containing portraits of Adams, 



BEEKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 223 

Jelferson, Madison, Monroe, J. K. Adams, Andrew Jack- 
son, Van Buren, Harrison and Tyler. 

Height 6 12/16", width 4 14/16". Une. 

G. Stuart del. Designed by C. H. H. Billings. Eng. by D. Kim- 
berley. Pub. by Charles A. Wakefield, no. 56 Comhill, Boston, 
(1842). Baker 270. 

85. G. Washington. Bust, head to left. Oval, with border in 
a rectangle. Beneath the oval upon a base, a helmet, 
sword and baton with oak and laurel branches. 

Height 6 7/16", width 4". Une. 

Barelet direxit. Lawson Se. Pub. by R. CampbeU and Co. From 
a copy painted by J. Paul. [Continuation of Hume's History, by a 
Society of Gentlemen. Phila., 1798.] Early impression. 

Baker 273. 

86. Duplicate. 

86%. His Excellencif George Washington, Lieut. -Genl. of the 
Armies of the United States of America. Three-quarter 
length in Uniform, Sitting, the Order of the Cincinnati on 
the left breast. A Sword lies in the right forearm and a 
Chart in his hand, the left hand resting upon a part of it 
which is upon a table. A curtain drawn up at the right, 
reveals an encampment in the distance. In the lower mar- 
gin an Eagle displayed, with Shield and Motto, " E Pluri- 
bus Unum." 

Height 11 3/16", width 8 10/16". Stipple. 

F. Bartoli, Pinxt. D. Edwin, Se. Respectful^ dedicated to the 
Lovers of their Country and firm Supporters of its Constitution. 

Baker 216. 

87. Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 3 8/16", width 2 14/16". Stipple. 

Stuart px. Leney Sc. Engraved for the Washington Benevolent 
Society, New York, 1808. [Washington's Farewell Address to the 
People of the United States.] Baker 275. 



224 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

SS. George Washin.gt(y)i. Bust, head to left. Vignette. 

Height 4", width 4". Stipple. 

Eng. by J. B. Longacre from a miniature by Mr. Trott. [Uni- 
versal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. By Abraham 
Kees, D. D., F. R. S.,lst Am. edit., Phila., 1821.] Very fine example 
of Longacre's work. Baker 278. 

89. WasJiington. Bust, head to left. Ornamental border. 

Height 4 10/16", width 2 12/16". Stipple. 

Painted by Stuart. Eng. by J. B. Longacre. [Carey's History 
of Virginia.] Baker 279. 

90. Duplicate except it bears the additional lettering C. S. 
Williams, Xew Haven, Ct. 

91. Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 4 4/16", width 3 3/16". Stipple. 

Engraved by J. B. Longacre from a painting by Stuart. [Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery, Phila., 1834.] Baker 280. 

92. Washington {Georges), Ne a Washington, le 11 fevrier 
1732, Mort le lUh Decembre 1799. Bust to right, head 
turned to left. Vignette. 

Height 2 13/16", width 2 6/16". Line. 

Pubhe par Blaisot. Baker 283. 

93. George Washington. Full bust, head to left (Lansdowne). 

Height 3 8/16", width 2 10/16". Stipple. 

Grave par Macret. Rue des Fosses le Prince, no. 18. [Vie des 
Georges Washington, General en Chef des Armees des Etats Unis 
pendant la Guerre qui a etabli leur independance, etc., par David 
Ramsay. Paris, 1809.] Baker 285. 

94. Washington. Bust, head to right. Vignette. 

Height 3 4/16", width 3 8/16". Line. 

Stalstich von Carl Meyer. Stuttgart, J. Scheible's Buchhandlung. 
Druck von Carl Meyer, Nbg. Rare. Baker 289. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 225 

95. Washington. Full length, the " Lansdowne portrait." 

Height 5 5/16", width 3 9/16". Line. 

Eng. by J. H. Nesmith. Pub. by Hezekiah Howe; Darrie and 
Peck, New Haven, Conn. [Hist, of the U. S. of America from 1763 
to March, 1797. By Timothy Pitkin, New Haven, 1828.] 

Baker 293. 

96. Washington. Half len^h, head to left (Lansdowne). 

Height 7 7/16", width 6 2/16". Line. 

W. L. Ormsby Sc. Boston, pub. by S. Walker. Baker 296. 

97. Washington. Half length, head to left (Lansdowne). 

Height 7 7/16", width 6 2/16". Line. 

Similar to Baker 296. 

98. Washington. Half leng-th, head to left (Lansdowne). 

Height 7 7/16", width 6 2/16". Line. 

W. L. Ormsby sc. Boston, pub. by S. Walker. [The History and 
Topography of the U. S. of America, etc. By J. Howard Hinton, 
A. M. 1st Am. ed., Boston, 1834.] Baker 296. 

99. Washington. Full length, the " Lansdowne Portrait." 

Height 20 2/16", width 13". Line. 

Painted by Gilbert Stuart. Eng. on steel by W. L. Ormsby, N. Y. 
J. H. Reed, pub. 140 Fulton street. New York. "Presented to the 
subscribers of the Family Circle and Parlour Annual who pay $2.00 
for two years' subscription." Baker 297. 

100. Washington. Bust, head to left. Border resembling a 
picture frame, suspended by a ring. 

Height 5 2/16", width 4 6/16". Stipple. 

Eng. by Mel. Pekenino, Phila., 1822. From an original portrait 
by G. Stewart. Baker 300. 

101. Washijigton. Full length, the " Lansdowne Portrait." 

Height 20", width 13". Line. 

Painted by Gilbert Stuart. Eng. by 0. Pelton. Pub. by Gordon 
Bill, Springfield, Mass. Var. Baker 301. 



226 MARYLAND HISTORICAL, MAGAZINE. 

102. Washington. Full length, the " Lansdowne Portrait." 

Height 29", width 13". Line. 

Painted by Gilbert Stuart. Eng. by 0. Pelton. Pub. by E. R. 
Pelton, Office of the Eclectic Magazine, no. 5 Beekman street, New 
York. Baker 301. 

103. Geo. Washington. Bust, head to left, rectangle sur- 
rounded by a narrow border of two lines. Civil dress. 
Over engraving. '' Engraved for the Washington Benevo- 
lent Society." Beneath " George Washington." Very 

rare. 

Height 3 11/16", width 3 1/16". Stipple. 

A. Reed, sc. E. W(Ladsor), Con. Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress to the People of the U. S. Pub. by the Washington Benevo- 
lent Society, E. Windsor Conn, and by Thos. M. Pomeroy. Evi- 
dently an earlier print than that described by Baker, but by the same 
engraver. Not in the Carson Collection. Var. Baker 308. 

104. G. Washington. Full length, the " Lansdowne Portrait." 

Height 19 14/16", width 13 4/16". Mezzotinto. 

Painted by G. Stuart. Eng. by J. R. Rice. Pub. by Pohlig and 
Rice, Phila. Baker 309. 

105. G. Washington. Full length, the " Lansdowne Portrait." 

Height 11 3/16", width 7 10/16". Mezzotinto. 

Eng. by E. A. Rice. Smith and Holden, Pub., 82 W. Baltimore 
street, Baltimore, Md. Proof before letters. Baker 310. 

106. General Washington. YvM bust, head to right. Oval. 

Height 4", width 3 8/16". Stipple. 

Eng. by W. Ridley, from an original picture in the possession of 
Saml. Vaughan, Esqr. European Magazine, pub. by J. Sewell, 32 
Comhill, April 9th, 1800. Rare. Baker 311. 

107. G. Washington. Full length, standing, head to left, right 
hand on an upright book upon a table to the left. The left 
hand upon the hilt of a dress sword, the point on the 
ground. The background formed by an alcove and pillars, 
and in the rear, to the right, an arm chair. 

Height 26 6/16", width 19 10/16". Mezzotinto. 



BERKLEY COLLECTIOlSr OF WASHINGTON PEINTS. 227 

P. F. Rothermel px. A, H. Ritchie sc. Pub. by R. A. Bachia and 
Co. (Wm. Bate, Fulton street, Chambers street, New York. (Copy- 
right 1852). Baker 312. 

108. George Washington. Nearly full length (Lansdowne). 

Height 5 7/16", width 3 13/16". Mixed. 

J. Rogers Sc. 381, B. W. N. Y., D. Appleton & Co. [Memoirs 
of Washington. By Mrs. C. M. Kirkland. New York, 1869.] 

Baker 316. 

109. General Washington. Born Feh. 22, 1732. Died Dec. 
IJf, 1799. Bust, head to left. Oval. 

Height 2 10/16", width 2 2/16". Stipple. 

Pub. by M. Carey (Scoles sc). [The Life of George "Washington 
with Curious Anecdotes, etc. M. L. Weems. Phila., 1808.] Rare. 

Baker 328. 

110. George Washington. Bust, head to left. Oval. 

Height 2 11/16", width 2 3/16". Stipple. 

Scoles sculpt. [The Life of George Washington, First President 
and Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. of America. By John Corry, 
New York, 1809.] Not in the Carson collection. Rare. Baker 329. 

111. Genl. George Washington. Bust, head to left. Oval. 

Height 2 12/16", width 2 4/16". Stipple. 

J. R. Smith. [Washington's Farewell Address, etc. Worcester, 
Mass. Printed by Isaac Sturtevant, 1813.] Rare. Baker 331. 

112. G. Washington. Head to left, full figure standing, in 
military dress, holding a cane in the right hand, chapeau 
in left hand. To the left Mt. Yernon, in the background 
a landscape. 

Height 22 2/16", width 17". Mixed. 

Painted by T. Hicks, R.A. Eng. by H. Wright Smith. 

Var. Baker 334. 

113. George Washington, LL. D. {1790). Bust, head to left. 
Oval. 

Height 3 8/16", width 3". Stipple. 

G. Stuart. R. Soper. Pub. by J. C. Buttre, N. Y. Baker 335. 



228 MAKTLAIJfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

114. Washington. Bust, head to right. Oval, in a rectangle, 
the title in a tablet below the oval. 

Height 3 3/16", width 2 6/16". Stipple. 

B. Tanner Se. [Biographical Memoirs of the Illustrious General . 
TVashingtou. 3rd edition. Phila., R. Folwell, 1801. Pub. by J. 
Omerod, 11 Chestnut street.] Baker 338. 

115. George Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 4 6/16", width 3 8/16". Stipple. 

Painted by G. Stuart. Eng. by J. Thompson. Baker 342. 

116. George Washington. Inaugurated President 17 89. Bust, 
head to left. Vignette. 

Height 2 5/16", width 2 5/16". Stipple. 

A. Willard. [Goodrich Hist, of the U. S., Hartford. Pub. for 
the subscribers, 1823.] This is an earher and much rarer print than 
that described by Baker, and differs slightly from it in the dimen- 
sions. Not in the Carson collection. Var Baker 352. 

117. Washington. Bust, head to left. Circular medallion, 
heading to an imperial folio sheet entitled " In Congress, 
July 4th, 1776, the Unanimous Declaration of the Thir- 
teen United States of America," surrounded by fifteen 
smaller medallions, two of which contain busts of Adams 
and Jefferson, the others, coats of arms of the thirteen 
original States. 

Diameter 3 6/16". Line. 

Whole plate, height 25 4/16", width 18 4/16". 
(Unlettered) Wm. Woodruff, Phila., 1819. Baker 353. 

118. . Bust, head to left. Oval with l)order. 

Height 4", width 3 8/16". Line. 

Trott, del. Wright, engraver, N. Y. [Book of the Constitution. 
Williams, N. Y. Pub. by Peter Hill, 1833.J Baker 356. 

110. WashtngtoTu Bust, head to left. Circular. 

Diameter 3 10/16". Stipple. 

Pub. by J. Price Jr., Philadelphia. [A new American Biograph- 
ical Dictionary. Thomas Rogers, Phila., 1829.] Very early im- 
pression. Baker 365. 



BEKKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON FEINTS. 229 

120. General Washington, Late President of the United States 
of America. Half length, head to left. Oval with border 
in a rectangle. 

Height 12", width 9 12/16". 

Mezzotinto, colored from the hack in oils. 
London, pub. Mch. 1st, 1801, by Haines and Son, no. 19 Rolls 
Bldgs., Fetter Lane. Excessively rare and unique in this state. 
( This portrait of Washington was for 101 years in the possession of 
the Orr family,, near Portsmouth, N. H., and was sold by the estate 
in 1903. The coloring has been done by an artist of great skill.) 

Baker 369. 

121. General Washington. Full bust, head to left. 

Height 5 6/16", width 4 11/16". Stipple. 

London, published by Riehd. Evans, 17 Paternoster Row. 

Baker 373. 

122. George Washington, Esqr. Late President of the United 
States of America. Full length, standing, the right hand 
upon a scroll upon a table to the left, inscribed " Declara- 
tion of Independence." To the right an arm chair, and 
in the background a curtain drawn up at the left, shows 
some pillars and the open sky. 

Height 18", width 13". Mezzotinto. 

Engraved from an original drawing by Savage. Excessively rare. 

Baker 375. 

STUART TYPE NOT FOUND IN BAKER 

123. Washington. Full length, standing. (Fully described 
in the print by Jas. Heath, Baker 250.) 

Height 20", width 13 1/16". Line. 

Painted by Gabriel Stuart, 1797. Engraved by Jas. Heath, His- 
torical Engraver to his Majesty, and to his Royal Highness, the 
Prince of Wales. The engravers work is much coarser than in the 
Heath engraving or in what is knowm as the " Fake Heath." It is 
probably the work of an American engraver, and is excessively rare. 
There is no lettering on it than that given above. From the Rosen- 
thal collection. Similar to Carson 638. 



:230 MARYLAND HISTORICAl, MAGAZINE. 

124. George Washington^ Bust, head to left. Vignette at 
the bottom of a large engraving entitled " The representa- 
tion of Peter Francisco's Gallant Action with Nine of 
Tarleton's Cavalry in Sight of a Troop of Four Hundred 
Men, took place in Amelia County, Virginia 1781." " It 
is respectfully inscribed to him by James Webster and 
James Warrell." 

Height 1 2/16", width 12/16". Stipple in colors. 
Whole plate height 19 12/16", width 25 10/16". 
Designed bj' Warrell, drawn by Barrelet. Edwin Se. Pub. Dee. 
1st, 1814, by Jas. Webster of the State of Pennsylvania, Edwin's 
largest work. Fine impression, but has been varnished. 

Casron 659. 

125. . Full length in Masonic Regalia advancing to 

the front of a room in a Masonic Temple leading two little 
orphans by the hand, at the head of a long line of orphan 
children. On either side, standing numerous masonic char- 
acters of all Xations, including General Lafayette. 

Height 13 6/16", length 20 7/16". Stipple. 

Stothard del. Kearney Sculp. To the Grand Lodges of the Uni- 
ted States. This print representing the Distinguished Characteristics 
of Masonic Charity bestowed on proper subjects is respectfully dedi- 
cated. Pub. by T. C. Story and J. How, Phila. Copyright, Phila., 
Sept., 1839. An earUer print than that of the Carson Collection. 

Similar to Carson 661. 

126. . Half length, head to left. (Lansdowne.) 

With ruled background. 

Height 6 7/16", width 4 11/16". Stipple. 

No lettering. Carson 709. 

127. WasJiingtcni Resigning His Commission. Full length 
standing, head to left. (In Congress.) With arms ex- 
tended toward a table on the left, upon which lies a book, 
inkstand, and holding in his hand a scroll. To the right 
portraits of several Congressmen. 

Height 7", width 4 12/16". Stipple. 

H. T. Stephens. Augustus Robin, N. Y. Carson 720. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 231 

128. Washington. Full length seated, head to left. The right 
hand resting on an upright book on a table to the left. 
A dress sword lying on the left arm, which is resting on 
the arm of a chair; in the right hand corner books. A 
curtain in the background is partly drawn aside and reveals 
pillars. 

Height 7 8/16", width 5 7/16". Mixed. 

Chappel. Johnson and Fry, N. Y. (Copyright 1863.) 

Cf . Carson 714. 

129. George Washington, 1789 to 1797. Bust to right, head 
to left; the centre one of sixteen oval medallions of the 
Presidents to Lincoln, surrounding a larger one in the 
centre containing the bust of Washington. The background 
composed of stars and olive branches, over the top an eagle 
and flags and underneath a flowing ribbon upon which is 
the inscription " The Presidents of Our Great Republic." 

Height 5 10/16", width 6 14/16". Line. 

Sold by Lange and Kronfield, 201 William street. New York. 

Similar to Carson 732. 

130. Washington. Bust, head to left. Oval medallion, the 
upper one of a group of five, in an ornamental border. 
Vignette. The others contain the portraits of Adams, Jef- 
ferson, Madison and Monroe. 

Height 2", width 1 7/16". Stipple. 

Variation of Baker 218. Carson 739. 

131. Washington. Full bust, head to left, in an ornamented 
border resembling a frame, rounded at the top. In the 
lower portion of a sheet entitled " Washington's Farewell 
Address " surrounded with seven ornamented vignettes of 
scenes from his life, the upper one being a representation 
of the battle of Monmouth. 

Height 3 4/16", width 2 14/16". Stipple. 

Whole plate, height 16 12/16", width 11 14/16". 
PubHshed and engraved by J. G. Buttre, 48 Franklin street, N. Y. 
Border drawn by Momberger. (Copyright 1856.) Carson 759. 



232 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

132. G. ^yashin■gta}l. Full length in imifoiin on horseback 
with military cloak thrown over the shoulder, the left arm 
extended, holding a chapeau in the hand, acknowledging a 
salute; in the background the outlines of soldiers and 
cannon. Vignette. 

Height 4 10/16", width 4 1/16". Stipple. 

J. "Warr. [Title page to the Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1841.] 
A. Hart, late Carey and Hart, Philadelphia. Carson 777. 

133. . Full bust, head to right. Oval, upon a back- 
ground covered with laurel branches and surrounded by 
figures of Liberty and Justice. 

Height 2", width 1 10/16". Line. 

[Ceremonies on the Completion of the Washington Monument, 
"Washington. "Washington, D. C, Jan. 14th, 1885.] Bureau of En- 
grav-ing and Printing. Carson 798. 

13-1. . Bust, head to left. 

Height 12/16", width 13/16". Line. 

Probably a specimen of the work of the Bureau of Engraving. 

Similar to Carson 808. 

135. . Bust, head to left, oval medallion surrbunded 

by diverging rays. On either side the bust of Washington 
after Hon don, in the centre the full length figure of 
" Washington at Dorchester Heights," on the right of 
which is the full length figure of Washington after the 
Lansdownc portrait, and to the right a full length statue 
of Washington, underneath a back and front view of 
Canova's Statue of Washington. 

Height 1 6/16", width 1 2/16". Line. 

[Memorials of Washington.] Carson 813. 

STUART TYPE UNKNOWN TO BAKER OR CARSON 

130. . Head three-quarters to right, the centre of an 

advertising sheet of the American Bank Note Co. of N. Y. 
Vignette surrounded l)y a wreath of laurel leaves. 

Height 2", width 12/16". Line. 



BEEKLET COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 233 

137. . Bust, head to left, the upper one of a group of 

four, Gilbert Stuart 1796, Houdon 1785, C. W. Peale 
1772, Trumbull 1792. Vignette. 

Height of each portrait 2 14/16", width 1 5/16". Line. 

138. Washington and Hamilton, First Meeting. Washington 
is standing beside a white horse in full uniform, chapeau 
ion head. Hamilton to the right in military costume hold- 
ing in the hands chapeau and sword. In the foreground 
implements and fascines. In the background men throw- 
ing up an entrenchment. 

Height 7 4/16", width 5 6/16". Line. 

Painted by Alonzo Chappel. Eng. by Thomas PhilHbrown. Mar- 
tin, Johnson and Co., N. Y. (Copyright 1856.) 

139. Washington's First Interview ivith Mrs. Custis. Wash- 
ington and Mrs. Custis, full length standing by the fire- 
place of a room, the two Custis children playing on the 
floor. At the open door a servant holding two horses with 
a negro child standing beside him. The head of Washing- 
ton somewhat resembles the Peale Type. 

Height 4 15/16", width 6 14/16". Mixed. 

From an original painting by Alonzo Chappel. J. Halpin, en- 
graver. Martin, Johnson and Co., Pub., N. Y., 1856. 

140. Washington a7id Lafayette. Valley Forge. Soldiers at 
Valley Forge around a camp-fire, Washington and Lafay- 
ette in full uniform standing on an elevation beside them. 

Height 5 5/16", width 7 1/16", Mezzotint. 

Painted by A. Chappel. Eng. by H. B. Hall. A. D. 1858, John- 
son, Fiy and Co. 

141. Washington Resigning His Cow/mission at Annapolis. 
Dec. 29th, 1783. 

Height 6 4/16", width 6 4/16". Lithograph. 

Painted by John Trumbull. Copyright 1900 by Elser, Boston. 



234 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

142. ^yashin■gt(y}l at the Battle of Pnnceton. 

Height 7 5/16", width 5 8/16". Line. 

Chappel px. Johnson, Fry and Co., Pub., N. Y., 1857. 

143. The Death of ]Yashington. 

Height 4 13/16", width 7". Etched. 

A. Babbet Sc. 

144. . Bust, head to right. Oval in a rectangle ruled. 

Height 3 4/16", width 2 6/16". Stipple. 

[B. Tanner sc. Biographical Memoirs of the Illustrious Gen. Geo. 
Washington, 3rd edition, Phila., R. Folwell, 1801. Pub. by J. 
Omerod, 11 Chestnut street.] Extremely rare. Similar to Baker 
338. 

145. . Head to left, with white handkerchief. Vig- 
nette. 

Height 8 4/16", width 8 2/16". ' Etched. 

W. Howland Sc. 

146. Geo. Washin^gion. Full bust with white collar, head to 
left. 

Height 4 10/16", width 4 2/16". Stipple. 

Taken from Life, 1794. Painted by Stuart. Engraved by Ilman 
and Bros. [The National Art Gallery, Centennial Exhibition.] 

147. Go. Washington. Full bust, head to left. Civilian cos- 
tume with white neckerchief and rosette. 

Height 4 8/16", width 4 1/16". Mixed. 

No lettering. 

148. Washington. Head to right in civilian dress, the head- 
ing to a quarto sheet containing the portraits of St. Clair, 
Stark* Jackson, Harrison, Scott, Lafayette and Steuben. 

Height 1 3/16", width 5 1/16". Une. 

The ornamental borders are etched. 

149. Washington, The Prayer at Valley Forge. Full figure 
of Washington kneeling under trees, the arms outstretched 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 235 

with palms extended upward, sword and chapeau on the 
ground. Trees and a figure garbed as a Quaker in the 
background. 

Height 4 13/16", width 3 8/16". Line. 

J. Kyle. W. G. Armstrong. Painted by H. Quig. 

150. Duplicate of above. 

151. . Head three-quarters to right. Oval, sur- 
rounded by a frame of intertwined olive leaves. 

Height 15/16", width 12/16". Line. 

Somewhat resembles Tanner's work. Cut close. This portrait of 
Washington was found in a scrap book of the father of the late R. 
D. Fisher of Baltimore. The last entry in the book was 1813. 

152. . Full length standing (the Tea-pot portrait), 

in the centre of a sheet with the coats of arms of the thir- 
teen original states. Above the portrait is the representa- 
tion of an eagle with outstretched wings holding a scroll 
in its beak, above is a figure of Liberty seated. Below the 
portrait are two cornucopias. 

Height 2 9/16", width 1 11/16". Line. 

Drawn and eng. by J. A. Adams, New York. 

153. • Full bust, head slightly to left. 

Height 3 4/16", width 2 4/16". Line. 

[Continental Bank Note Co., New York.] 

154. Washington. Full bust, head to right in a circular frame 
with portrait of Washington at the top. Above the frame 
an eagle, below a sword and two cornucopias, at the back 
divergent rays. 

Height 1 14/16", width 1 15/16" . 
Woodcut taken from on old clock, dated Philadelphia, 1814. 

155. . Hospitality. Washington seated at a table 

with arm extended holding a tea-cup in his hand. Lady in 



236 MARYLAND HISTORICAX, MAGAZINE. 

the dress of the period receiving the cup. In the back- 
ground a fire-place, etc. 

Height 4 14/16", width 3 4/16". Line. 

G. Dallas Del. C. Burt Se. 

156. . Badge. The Washington Temperance Society. 

Printed on satin. Vignette. 

Height 2 3/16", width 1 3/16". Line. 

" We bear a Patriot's honored name 
Our Country's Welfare is our aim." 

157. . Engraved representation of Patrick's and 

Greenough's Statues of Washington. 

Height of each 4 8/16", width 2 14/16". Line. 

158. Wdshingion. In an ornamental border of leaves, head to 
left. At the upper portion of the border-frame are inter- 
twined the numerals 1813. 

Height 2 3/16", width 1 8/16". Mixed. 

Cut close, very fine engraved work, probably by Am. Bank Note 
Company. 

159. Wdshingion the Surveyor. 

Height 5", width 3 14/16". Etched. 

J. G. C. Designed and etched for Bancroft's History of the 
United States. 

160. Washington. Head three-quarters to left. Vignette. 

Height 5 12/16", width 4 2/16". Line. 

Eng. by J. A. Lowell and Co., Boston, 1901. [Pub. for the Balto. 
and Ohio Ry. with view of the dome of the Capitol in Washington, 
D. C] 

161. George Washington. Head three-quarters to left in an 
ornamental border resembling a frame. Above an eagle 
with extended wings, l>elow a shield with sixteen stars. 
Bom Feb. 22nd, 1732; Died Dec. 14th, 1799. Vignette. 

Height 1 5/16", width 1 2/16". Line. 

Am. Sunday School Union, 1847. Rare. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 237 

162. Washington. Full length standing, beside a white horse. 
In the hand an open letter with " Washington, Victory is 
Ours, Paul Jones." 

Height 6 2/16", width 4 2/16". Line. 

[Copyright 1871, by Cofl&n and Altemus.] 

ARCHIBALD ROBERTSON TYPE 

163. Geo. Washington. Bust, head three-quarters to right. 
Oval, with border upon a pedestal, in a rectangle, a large 
open scroll in front. To the right a sword and scales, and 
to the left a Liberty cap, and oak branches. 

Height 7", width 4". Une. 

Grainger Sc. Pub. as the Act directs July 1st, 1794, by H. D. 
Symonds, Paternoster Row. [View of the American United States. 
W. Winterbotham. London, 1795.] Baker 163. 

164. Geo. Washingtmi. Bust, head three-quarters to right. 
Oval. 

Height 3 10/16", width 2 13/16". Line. 

W. Grainger Sc. Pub. as the Act directs July 1st, 1794, by H. D. 
Symonds, Paternoster Row. [View of the American United States. 
W. "Winterbotham. London, 1795.] Baker 164. 

165. George Washington. Bust, head three-quarters to right. 

Height 3 5/16", width 2 9/16". Stipple. 

Nach Frey gest. V. Krethlow. Zwickau b. d. Geb. Schumann, 
1818. Baker 165. 

WALTER ROBERTSON TYPE 

166. G. Washington. President of the United States. Full 
bust in uniform, with black neckerchief, head to right. 
Oval. 

Height 3 13/16", width 2 14/16". Stipple. 

Rollinson Sc. Pub. by T. Reid, N, Y., 1796. [W. Winterbotham's 
Historical, Geographical and Philosophical View of the United States 
of America. 1st Am. Ed., N. Y., 1796.] Baker 172. 

167. Duplicate. 

3 



238 MARYLAND IIISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

JOHN RAMAGE TYPE 

(Not in Baker or Carson) 

168. . Bust in military uniform, head to left. 

Height 2 14/16", width 2". Etched. 

John Ramage px. Albert Rosenthal se. Pub, by Henry T. Coates 
& Co., 1896. Proof one of 50 and plate destroyed. 

JOHN TRUMBULL TYPE 

169. G. Washington. Half length in uniform, head tOi left. 

Height 4 10/16", width 3 10/16". Mezzotinto. 

J. Bannister. Early copy, but cut close to margin. Baker 138. 

170. Washington. Full bust in uniform, a cloak thrown 
around the left shoulder. Head to left. 

Height 8 6/16", width 6 6/16". Line. 

Dessine par Couder. Grave par Blanchard. Dedie a S. E. le 
General Jackson, President des Etats-Unis d'Amerique Par Son tres 
respecteux admirateur le Typographe N. Bettoni. Baker 139. 

171. Washvngton. Half length in uniform, head to left. Vig- 
nette. 

Height 4 4/16", width 3 4/16". Etched. 

Burt So. [Washington and His Generals. By J. T. Headley, N. 
Y., 1847.] Baker 140. 

172. Washington. Full length in uniform. 

Height 5 2/16", width 3 7/16". Stipple. 

Eng. by A. Daggett. From the original painting by Colonel 
Trumbull. [History of the War of Independence of the United 
States of America. Botta.] New Haven, 1834. Nathan Whiting. 

Var. Baker 143. 

173. George Washington. Half length in uniform, head to 

left. 

Height 4 8/16", width 3 10/16". Line. 

Eng, by A. B. Durand from the full length portrait by Co. Trum- 
bull belonging to Yale College. (Copyright 1834.) [The National 
Gallery of Distinguished Americans. Phiia., 1834.] Baker 144. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 239 

174. George Washington. Bust in uniform, head to left. 
Vignette. 

Height 4", width 4 4/16". Une. 

Eng. by H, B. Hall and Sons, N. Y., from the painting by Col. 
Trumbull. Japan proof. Baker 149. 

175. G. Washington. Full length in uniform standing upon 
an eminence, near a river. 

Height 6 4/16", width 3 3/16". Line. 

J. Trumbull Px. J. le Roy Scuplt. [Essais Historique etc. sur la 
Revolution d'Amerique Septentrionale par M. Hilliard D'Auberteul, 
Bruxelles, 1781.] Copy in reverse of the Valentine Green print. 

Baker 151. 

176. George Washington. Full length in uniform. (Fully 
described in the Cheesman Print, Baker 141, but now in 
reverse. 

Height 6 14/16", width 4 8/16". Line. 

Eng. by W. E. Tucker from an original painting. [Pictorial Life 
of Geo. Washington. By J. Frost, Phila., 1848.] Baker 157. 

177. Gen. Washington. (On the Battle Field at Trenton.) 
Full length in uniform, head to left, a field glass in the 
extended right hand, the left on a sword hilt by his side. 
In the rear a soldier with a horse, and in the extreme back- 
ground the representation of a battle. 

Height 24 3/16", width 17 8/16". Mezzotinto. 

Eng. by W. Warner from the original painting by Col. John Trum- 
bull in the possession of Yale College, New Haven. (Copyright 
1845 by John Dainty.) Pub. by Wm. Smith, 706 S. Third street, 
Philadelphia. Baker 158. 

178. Genl. Washington. Full length in uniform. (Chees- 
man print, Baker 141.) 

Height 6 9/16", width 4 9/16". 

Eng. by John Rogers from the picture by Col. Trumbull. New 
York, Virtue, Emmins and Co. Carson 324. 



240 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

EDWARD SAVAGE TYPE 

179. Washington Fmnily. Washington, nearly full length 
sitting, with legs crossed at a table to the right, upon which 
is a hat with a large rosette. A chart lies upon the table 
and is held by the right hand ; the left one rests upon the 
shoulder of G. W. P. Custis. To the right are Mrs. Wash- 
ington and jSTellie Custis. Further to the right is a negro 
servant. The backgi'ound is formed by a curtain which is 
drawn to the left showing a view of the Potomac River 
with ships in the extreme distance. 

Height 18 2/16", width 24 12/16". Lithograph. 

Savage Pinx. Hoffy Execudit. Pub. by A. Hoffy, Phila., 1858. 
A close copy of the Washington Family, Baker 120, and a beautiful 
piece of lithographic work. Cf. Carson 275a. 

179%. Washington Family. Geo. Washington, his Lady, and 
her two Grandchildren, by the name of Custis. Le Famil- 
le de Washington. George Washington Son Epouse et ses 
deux petits Enfants du Nom de Custis. Full figure in 
Military Costume, Seated to the left of the print. His 
right arm rests on the shoulder of the boy who is standing, 
while the left, is upon a chart extended on a table, to a 
part of which Mrs. Washington points with a fan. 

Height 18 6/16", width 24 6/16". Stipple. 

E. Savage Px. et Eng. Pub. March 10th, 1798, by E. Savage and 
Robt. Wilkinson, No. 58 Comhill, London. Cut close. 

Baker 120. 

180. Washington. Bust in uniform. Head three-quarters to 
right. Vignette. 

Height 3", width 3 4/16". Line. 

Marckl. Del. Bertonnier Sculpt. Drouart imp. r. du Faure 11, 
Paris. (Differs from Baker in the lettering.) Baker 121. 

181. George Washington. President of the United States of 
America. Nearly full length, sitting at a table to the 
right, with crossed legs. 

Height 4 13/16", width 3 12/16". Line. 



BEEKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 241 

I Scoles del et sculp. Pub. by Smith, Reed and Wayland. [Win- 
terbothams' Historical View of the United States, etc. 1st Am. Edi- 
tion, N. Y., 1796.] Baker 134. 

182. Oeorge Washington. President of the United States. 
Bust in uniform, head three-quarters to left. The order 
of the Cincinnati on the right breast. 

Height 4 14/16", width 3 12/16". Stipple. 

Savage pinxt. RoUinson Set. [Epistles Domestic, Confidential, 
and Official, from General Washington, New York, 1796.] Rare. 

Baker 132. 

183. G. Washhigton. Full bust in uniform, head three- 
quarters to the left. Oval. 

Height 4 12/16", width 3 12/16". Stipple. 

Savage pinx. Tanner Sc. " Engraved for the Washingtoniana." 
[The Washingtoniana. Baltimore, Printed and Sold by Samuel 
Sower, 1800.] Baker 135. 

184. Washington Family. George Washington seated to the 
right of a table, upon which is spread a map, with sword 
resting upon it ; to the left in rear l^^artha Washington, to 
the right G. W. P. Custis, in the rear [N'ellie Custis ; in the 
right front corner a globe, etc. 

Height 13 5/16", width 9 14/16". Mezzotinto. 
Painted by F. B. Schell. Engraved by A. B. Walter. PubHshed 
by John Dainty, 15 S. 6th street, Philadelphia. Carson 274. 

185. Washington Family. Description similar to above. 

Height 10 1/16", width 8 1/16". Mezzotinto. 

Eng. by A. Robin, N. Y. Pub. by G. W. Massee, 1869. 

Similar to Carson 274. 

DU SIMETIERE TYPE 

186. Washington. Bust in uniform, head in profile to left. 
Circular medallion suspended by a ring over a base in a 

rectangle. 

Height 4 15/16", width 3 7/16". Une. 

Drawn from the life by Du Simetiere in Philadelphia. Eng. by 
B. L. Prevost in Paris. Baker 67. 



242 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

187. Washin-gton. Description similar to above. 

Height 5 2/16", width 3 8/16". Line. 

Dessine d'apres Nature par Du Simetier a Philadelphia. Grave 
par Adam. [Complot d' Arnold et de Sir Henry Clinton contre les 
Etats-Unis d'Amerique et contre le General Washington, Septembre 
1780. Paris, 1816.] Baker 63. 

188. G. Washington. Ne in Virglnie Anne 177 S. Cam- 
mandant et Chef des Armees et President du Congres 
D'Amerique. Full bust in uniform, head in profile to 
left. Oval. 

Height 4 2/16", width 3 5/16". Stipple. 

F. Bonneville del. Ruotte Sculpt. Paris, rue St. Jacques no. 
195. Baker 69. 

189. Duplicate. 

SILHOUETTES 

190. Washington. Bust, profile to left. 

Height 3 15/16", width 2 12/16". 

From the original cut with scissors by Miss De Hart, Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., 1783. Presented by Mrs. Washington to Mrs. Duer, 
daugther of Lord Stirling. 

JAMES SHARPLESS TYPE 

191. G. Washington. Full bust, head in profile to left. Vig- 
nette. 

Height 3 14/16", width 4". Stipple. 

From a portait by Sharpless presented by Washington to Col. 
Talmadge. Eng. by H. B. Hall and Sons for the Magazine of Ameri- 
can History. Carson 892. 

DE SAINT MEMIN TYPE 

192. . Profile bust in uniform to right. Oval, sur- 
rounded by laurel bran<'hc8 with diverging rays; at the top 
a pen and sword crossed, and beneath on a ribbon " First 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 243 

in War, First in Peace, First in the Hearts of his Coun- 
trymen." 

Height 10/16", width 8/16". Stipple. 

[Valedictory Address to the People of the United States. Phila., 

1810.] Cut close but an early impression of this extremely rare 

print. This copy was found in a scrap book of the father of the 

late Richard D. Fisher; the last entry in the book being dated 1813. 

Baker 396. 

193. Washington. Profile bust in uniform to left. Vignette. 

Height 4 2/16", width 3". , Stipple. 

From the St. Memin crayon in the possession of J. Carson Bre- 
voort, Esq. Eng. by H. B. Hall and Son, New York. Carson 910. 

JOSEPH WRIGHT TYPE 

194. General Washington. Full bust in uniform, in profile 
to right. Oval. 

Height 3 10/16", width 2 4/16". Line. 

T. Holloway Sculpt. Literary Magazine. Pub. as the Act directs 
1 Aug. 1792, by C. Forster, Poultry. Rare. Baker 87. 

195. General Washington. Full bust in uniform, in profile 
to right. Oval. 

Height 2 1/16", width 1 8/16". Line. 

From an original drawing. George Murray Sculpt. Pocket 
Magazine. Pub. by Harrison and Co., Oct. 1st, 1795. Rare. 

Baker 91. 

196. Washington as he appeared ivhile reviewinc/ the Conti- 
nental Army on Boston Common 1776. Bust in uniform, 
in profile to right. Oval medallion in the centre of a rec- 
tangle ruled vp^ith waved lines, and enclosed by a border. 

Height 5 14/16", width 5". Stipple. 

Drawn by N. Fullerton. Eng. by G. A. Smith. Boston, 1851. 

Baker 96. 

197: G. Washington. Bom in Virginia Fehry. 11th. 1732, 
General of the American Armies, 1775, Eesigned 1783, 



244 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

President of the United States 1789. Full bust in uni- 
form, in profile to left. Circular. 

Diameter 3 9/16". Stipple. 

Baker 97. 

WILLIAMS TYPE 

198. Washington. Half length in Masonic dress, as a Past 
Master, head to right. Vignette. 

Height 5", width 4". Mixed. 

O'Neill, New York. Engraved from the portrait painted from Ufa 
by WiUiams for Alexandria Washington Lodge no. 22. Virginia, 
1794. Masonic Pub. Co., N. Y. [Washington and His Masonic 
Compeers, by Sidney Hayden, New York, 1866.] Baker 168. 

MEMORIAL DESIGNS 

199. Gen. George Washington. "Departed this Lnfe Deer. 
IJfth. 1799, Aet. 67. and the Tears of a Nation Watered 
His Grave." Full bust in uniform, head to right. Oval, 
with border; in the upper half of the border, the words 
" Sacred to the Memory of the Brave," in the lower half, 
eighteen stars. The oval rests upon a base, upon which 
two lines 

" Washington's no more, hy silence grief's express' d 
Lol here he lies, his worhs proclaim the rest." 

A medallion upon the base, contains the title, etc. 

Height 4 12/16", width 4 3/16". Stipple. 

P. Maverick, Newark, N. J. Sc. From a folio sheet containing 
verses, etc., engraved in script, entitled, " Eulogium, Sacred to the 
memory of the Illustrious George Washington, Columbia's Greatest 
and Successful Son, Honored be his name." Designed, written and 
published, by Benjamin 0. Tyler, Professor of Penmanship, New 
York, 1815. The head is after Stuart. Baker 404. 

200. Apotheosis of Washington. Full figure surrounded by 
clouds rising from a tomb, supported by Time and Immor- 
tality, the latter pointing upwards. To the left figures of 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 245 

Faith, Hope and Charity. In the foreground to the right, 
an Indian with bowed head, and to the left. Liberty with 
"War Emblems, at her feet. On the tomb " Sacred to the 
Memory of Washington, Ob. 14th. Dec. A. D. 1799, Aet. 
68." I. J. Barralet, fecit. 

Height 24", width 18 6/16". Stipple. 

Philadelphia, Published by Simon Chaudron and John J. Barralet. 
Jany., 1802. Baker 406. 

201. Duplicate. Impression in colors. 

Drawn and engraved by J. J. Barralet, and pubUshed 22nd Feby., 
1816, by B. Tanner, engraver, no. 74 S. 8th street, Philadelphia. 

Var. Baker 406. 

202. Wisdom supported by Liberty presenting Genl. Wash- 
ington with a Code of Laws for Establishing America/n 
Independence. Oval in a rectangle. Washington is repre- 
sented in uniform seated in an armchair holding in his 
hands a scroll, presented to him by Wisdom, represented 
as a full length figure, standing to the right. In the centre 
between Washington and Wisdom, the fuU length figure of 
Liberty, supporting a Liberty cap on a pole; in the back- 
ground, a curtain, drawn aside reveals the rays of a rising 

sun. 

Height 12 12/16", width 9 14/16". 

Mezzotinto in oil colors. 

Pub. Nov. 5th, 1801, by I. Hinton, 44 Wells street, Oxford street, 
and P. Stampa, 91 Leather Lane, Holbom. Excessively rare. 

Carson 945. 

203. Sacred to the Memory of the Illustrious G. Washington. 
Bust, head to right. Oval medallion with border of olive 
leaves, on the side of a monument over which hangs a 
weeping willow ; underneath the oval the inscription " G. 
Washington," on the base of the monument " There is rest 
in Heaven." To the left of the monument are three figures, 
one of Hope, the other two weeping. The whole is enclosed 
in an ornamental border in a rectangle engraved to repre- 



-•i6 MARYLAIS^D HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

sent stonework ; beneath the circle a tablet in which is the 
inscription. 

Height 8 4/16", mdth 8". Stipple. 

T. Clarke Sc. 1801. Boston. Rare. Carson 948. 

-04, , Bnst, head to right, on a pedestal in front of 

the busts of Franklin, Hamilton, etc. in a landscape. In 
the front distance the figure of America supporting a 
shield, to left dictating to a winged figure of History ; to 
the right, for whom a cherub is holding an ink well. An 
eagle to the right of the figure of America. Vignette. 

Height 6 3/16", width 6". Line. 

Birch del. Eng. by Lawson. [For Delaplaine's Repository, Rogers 
and Ester, printers,] Carson 955. 

205. Washington. Bust, somewhat resembling the Stuart 
Type, being crowned by Liberty. The bust is on a pedestal, 
at the base of which is an eagle holding a shield. To the 
right the figure of Liberty holding a rod with a Liberty cap. 

Height 1 6/16", width 1". Line. 

Cut close, no lettering. Not in Baker or Carson. 

FICTITIOUS PORTRAITS 

206. Washington Receiving a Salute on the Field of Trenton. 
Full figure in uniform on horse-back, advancing to the 
right, a drawn sword in extended right hand. The hat 
resting on the forearm is held by the left hand. 

Height 24", width 17 10/16". Line. 

John Faed, R. S. A. Wm. Holl. Published exclusively for sub- 
scribers by the " National Art Association," New York, 1865, 

Baker 416. 

207. Washington. Full length, in uniform, standing, head to 
left, a field glass in the right hand. To the left a mounted 
cannon, and to the right, partly in the rear, a horse led by 
a soldier. In the distance to the left, on the opposite bank 
of a river, fortifications. 

Height 25 4/16", width 21". Line. 



BEKKLET COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 247 

Eng. by Laugier, 1839. Painted by Cogniet, 1836. "The head 
from the original painting by G. Stuart in the Athenaeum, Boston.'' 

Baker 417. 

208. George Washington. Full figure, in unifoirm and chapeau 
on horse-back, advancing to tlie left, a drawn sword in ex- 
tended right hand. A palm tree in the background to the 
left, and some negroes and low buildings on the right. The 
landscape Southern in character. 

Height 5 14/16", width 4". Line. 

H. Pinas Sc. Extremely rare. Baker 421. 

209. Washington, as a Mason. Full length standing, in 
Masonic regalia, the right hand on an upright book (upon 
a table), labelled "Ancient Masonic Constitutions," the 
left holding a mallet upon a pedestal. Oval. 

Eng. by A. B. Walter. Pub. by John McCurdy & Co., Phila. 

Mezzotinto. Baker 425. 

210. . Full length, head to left, the right hand resting 

on a plough, a cocked hat in the left, sheaves of wheat at 
his feet, on a pedestal with a tablet inscribed, and with a 
representation of " Cincinnatus." 

Height 8 10/16", width 6". Line. 

Drawn by A. Chappel. Eng. by J. Smillie. [Life and Times of 
Washington, vol. II. Copyright 1859.] Carson 1013. 

211. . Full length, seated in a chair on a pedestal, the 

right hand extended, holding a scroll, the left arm resting 
on the back of the chair, the hand holding a cocked hat. 
On either side vignette scenes in the life of Washington. 

Height 9", width 6". Line. 

Drawn by A. Chappel. Eng. by J. Smillie. [The Life and Times 
of Washington by J. F. Schroeder, D. D. Johnson, Fry and Co., 
New York. Copyright 1857.] Carson 1014. 

212. Washington at the Battle of Princeton. Full length 
figure on horse-back, head to left, holding a flag in the 



248 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

extended right hand; advancing from the left in front of 
his troops against the British. 

Height 5 12/16", width 4 12/16". Line. 

MacLenan del. J. Rogers Sc. Virtue, Emmins & Co., Kew York. 
Copyright 1866. Carson 1015. 

213. Washington Delivering His Ina/agural Address, April 
17 S9 in the Old City Hall, N. Y. Full length in civilian 
dress, the right hand pointing to a scroll, on a table to the 
left, the left hand holding a dress sword, etc. 

Height 18", width 25". Mixed. 

Px. by T. H. Matteson. Eng. on steel by H. J. Sadd. " From the 
original picture painted expressly for this engraving. Pub. by John 
Neale, 49 Carmine street, New York, 1849." Carson 1049. 

214. Washington Passing the Delaware, the Evening Previous 
to the Battle of Trenton, Dec. 25th. 1776. Full figure in 
uniform and cocked hat, on horse-back, to the left soldiers 
embarking, and about to embark; to the right officers on 
horse-back, etc. 

Height 14 8/16", width 18 11/16". Line. 

Painted by T. Sully. Etched by W. Humphries. Eng. by G. S. 
Lang. Phila., pub. by Samuel Augustus Mitchell, May 20, 1825. 
An earlier print than that described by Carson. Shghtly torn. 

Carson 1030. 

FICTITIOUS PORTRAITS 

(Not in Bakee oe Caeson) 

215. The Courtship of Washington. Mrs. Washington and 
the two Custis children to right. 

Height 15 2/16", width 22 7/16". Line. 

Eng. by J. C. McRae, New York. (Copyright 1860.) 

216. Washington, full length on horseback in 1775, at the time 
of his taking Command of the Army. 

Height 7", width 5". Line. 

Johnson, Fry and Co., Pub., N. Y. (Copyright 1858.) Rare. 



BEEKLEY COLLECTION OP WASHINGTON PBINTS. 249 

217. Washington at the Battle of Princeton. On horse-back, 
a flag in the right hand urging his troops against the 
British. 

Height 5 12/16", width 4 12/16". Line. 

Ma«Leman del. J. Rogers sc. [Washington, A Biography, by 
Rufus Wibnot Griswold. New York, Virtue, Emmins and Co., 1856.] 
Similar to Carson 1015, lettering different. 

218. Washington's Intervi&w with Howe's Messenger. 

Height 5 3/16", width 7 12/16". Line. 

M. A. Wageman. Joseph Stoncliffe. Virtue and Co., Pub., New 
York, 1861. 

219. Washington Crossing the Delaware. 

Height 4 10/16", width 7". Line. 

Pub. by Martin and Johnson, New York. Painted by E. Leutze. 
Eng. by J. C. Buttre. 

220. Washington on His Mission to the Ohio. Full length 
figure on a black horse, with guide to the right. In the 
distance a number of horsemen. 

Height 7 4/16", width 4 11/16". Line. 

From the original painting by Chappel in the possession of the 
publishers, Martin, Johnson and Co., New York, 1857. 

221. Washington Crossing the Allegheny River. Representa- 
tion of Washington on a raft crossing a turbulent stream. 
Hills in the distance. 

Height 5 3/16", width 6 10/16". Line. 

Ptd. by D. Huntington. Eng. by D. Kimberley. 

222. Washington Taking Command of the Ai^iiy at Cam- 
bridge, 1775. Full figure on horse-back, surrounded by 

his staff. 

Height 4 8/16", width 7 7/16". Line. 

Wageman px. J. Rogers sc. Virtue and Co., Pub., New York. 

223. Washington at the Battle of Monongahela. Vignette. 

Height 3", width 3 8/16". Line. 

Groome. Tucker. 



250 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

224. . Full length in uniform with sword in left hand, 

in the right hand an open letter, with Geo. Washington at 
the headline and signed bj Hancock. Washington is stand- 
ing on a pavement, in the background a column with partly 
drawn curtain, behind it and in the distance a landscape 
showing stacked arms, an American flag, and in the ex- 
treme distance a mansion resembling Mt. Vernon. 

Height 4 13/16", width 3 3/16". Lithograph. 

Houdon. On the same sheet a similar engraving, which has the 
Stuart head, but has no lettering. Two curious and rare lithographs. 
Both are of similar design, but with heads of dissimilar types. The 
one resembles Stuart, the other though lettered Houdon resembles 
Savage. Lith by E. Weber & Co., Baltimore. 

225. Washington's JRetreat at Long Island. 

Height 4 2/16", width 7 4/16". Une. 

Wageman. J. C. Armytage. Virtue and Co., Pub., N. Y., 1860. 

226. The American Eagle Guarding the Spirit of Washington. 
Circular medallion in a ruled rectangle, with the outline of 
Washington's head lying on clouds, with figure of an eagle 
to the right. 

Height 9", width 7 12/16". Line. 

Thom. Rogers. Dedicated to the Mt. Vernon Association by the 
Cosmopolitan Association. 

227. Washington Raising the British Fla^ at Fort du Quesne. 

Height 4 15/16", width 7 8/16". Line. 

J. R. Chapiu. T. B. Smith. Virtue, Emmins and Co., New York, 
ia59. 

228. Washington and Family at Mt. Vernon. Full length on 
horse-back, with negro servant at side of horse. Mrs. 
Washington is standing by a pillar on the portico, the two 
Custis children are playing on the steps. 

Height 5 10/16", width 7 8/16". Line. 

Painted by Chappel. Eng. by Phillibrown. Johnson, Fry and 
Co., Pub., New York 1858. 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 251 

229. Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge. 

Height 5 5/16", width 7 6/16". Line. 

Painted by A. Chappel. Eng. by H. B. Hall. Johnson, Fry and 
Co., New York, 1855. 

230. Washington and His Mother. Full figure in uniform 
seated to the left of a table, conversing with his mother, 
who is seated to the right. 

Height 15", width 21". Mixed. 

Px. by H. Brueckner. Eng. by John McRae. Pub. by John 
McRae, New York. Cut close to margin. 

231. Washington's Benevolence. Full figure seated at a table 
writing. 

Eng. especially for Godey's Ladies' Book by J. Gross, 1846. 

Mezzotinto. 

MARTHA WASHINGTON PRINTS 

232. Martha Washin-gton. Full bust, head to the right 

Height 6", width 4 10/16". Line. 

Painted by Jalibert. Eng. by W. Wellstood. Eng. expressly for 
the Ladies' Repository. 

Martha Washington. 

Height 2 9/16", width 2 8/16". Stipple. 

Painted by G. Stuart. 

233. Martha Washington. 

Height 7 5/16", width 5 5/16". Une. 

From the original painting by Chappel in the possession of the 
publishers. Johnson, Fry and Co., New York. (Copyright, 1872.) 

234. Mrs. Martha Washington. 

Height 4 4/16", width 3 7/16". Stipple. 

Engraved by J. B. Longacre from an original miniature by Rob- 
bertson in the possession of G. W. P. Custis, Esq. [National Por- 
trait Gallery, 1834-1 



I'OZ MAETLAIfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

235. Marth^i Vi'asliingtoii m Her Early Days. 

Height 7 1/16", width 5 10/16". Une. 

From the original by Alonzo Chappel in the possession of the pub- 
lishers, Johnson, Fry and Co., New York. (Copyright, 1857.) 

Bushrod Washington. 

Height 5 14/16", width 4". Line. 

Etched by Albert Rosenthal, 1891. 

236. Dr. James Craih, Washmgton's Physician. Head in 
Profile to right. Woodcut. 

VIEWS OF MT. VERNON AND WASHINGTON CITY 

237. Washington City. 

Height 5 5/16", width 7 14/16". Line. 

Drawn by J. R. Smith. Eng. by J. H. Neagle. 

238. ToTThb of Washington, 

Height 4 14/16", width 8". Line. 

Washington Head, del. Lith. by P. Hass, Washington (1834). 

239. N. W. View of the Mansion of George Washington, Mt. 
Vernon. 

Height 5 12/16", width 10 5/16". Lithograph. 

G. Washington Head del. Lith. by P. Hass, Washington City. 

240. The President's Home from the River. 

Height 4 14/16", width 7 1/16". Line. 

W. H. Bartlett, Del. W. Radclyffe, Se. 

241. Duplicate. 

242. The Front of Mt. Vernon. 

Height 6", width 5". Line. 

H. H. Billings, after Bartlett. E. Gallaudet Sc. New York, Lea- 

vitt, Traw and Co. (The Gem of the Season). W. L. Ormsby, 
Printer. 



BEKKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 253 

243. Washington s House, ML Vernon. 

Height 4 13/16", width 7 7/16". Line. 

W. H. Bartlett. J. N. WeUmore. 

244. The Tomb of Washington, Mt. Vernon. 

Height 2", width 2 14/16". Line. 

Duthie. New York, J. Putnam. 

245. Birds Eye View of Washington City. 

Height 5", width 7 4/16". 
J. Wells, New York. J. C. Armytage. 

246. The Tomh of Wa^shington at Mt. Vernon. 

Height 7 4/16", width 4 11/16". 
W. H. Bartlett. A. Cousens. 

247. The Birthplace of Washington. 

Height 7 4/16", width 4 4/16". Line. 

Ptd. by J. G. Chapman. Eng. by Rawdon Wright. Hatch and 
Smillie. Columbian Magazine. 

248. The Birthplace of Washington. 

Height 7 4/16", width 5". Lme. 

Painted by B. G. Chapman. Eng. by Rawdon. Wright, Hatch 
and SmiUie. A Book of Surveys, July 22nd, 1749. 

249. Facsimile Writing. Copied from a manuscript in the 
handwriting of Washington aet 17. 

C. W. Boynton Se. 

250. General Washington. Gold watcli and seal. The watch 
has the lettering I. E. Pine. Manufact. Paris. The 
eng. of the seal has the lettering " Exitus Acta Probat." 

251. General Washington's Carriage (as it appeared in the 
procession of the United Order of American Mechanics in 
N. Y. Feb. 22nd. 1872, on the 140th. Birthday of the 
Eather of His Conntry. 

Width 9 15/16", height 5 11/16". Lithograph. 

Beneath is the coat of arms of the Washington family. Pub. by 
A. C. Crane, Boston, Mass. 
4 



254 MAEYLAIS'D HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

252. Duplicate. 

253. General Washington s Carriage. 

Width 3 8/16", height 1 12/16". 

254. ^Vashington's Booh Plate. 

WashiTigton's Visiting Card. Etched. 

WASHINGTON BOOKS MAINLY WITH ENGRAVINGS 

Mount Vernon, A Poem, being the Seat of his Excellency 

George Washington, in the State of Virginia; Lieut. 

General and Commander in Chief of the Land Forces of 

the United States of America. 

" This rural, romantic and descriptive poem of the seat of so great 
a character it is hoped may please." " With a copper plate likeness 
of the General." " It was taken from an actual view on the spot br 
the author, loth May, 1799." " By John Searson, formerly of Phila- 
delphia, Merchant." Philadelphia, Printed for the Author by Folwell. 
Frontispiece, George Washington, Esqr., by Savage. Very rare. 

Carson 271. 

The Illustrated Life of Washington. Giving an account of his 
early adventures, enterprises, etc., with vivid paintings of 
Battles and Incidents, Trials and Triumphs of the Heroes 
and Soldiers of Revolutionary Times. 

By J. T. Headley; together with an interesting account of Mount 
Vernon as it is by Benson J. Lossing. New York: Published by J. G. 
& F. Bell, 1859. Frontispiece, a woodcut of Washington. 

The Life of George Washington, v^ith Curious Anecdotes 

equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to His 

Young Countrymen. Embellished with six engravings. 

By M. L. Weems, formerly rector of Mount Vernon I*arish. 

Philadelphia: Published by .Joseph Allen, and sold by J. Grigg, So. 9 

N. Fourth Street, 1831. Frontispiece of Washington. 

The Life of Washington, with curious anecdotes equally 
Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to His Young Coun- 



BERKLEY COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 255 

trymen. Twenty-ninth edition, greatly improved and em- 

bellished with eight engravings. 

By M. L. Weems, formerly rector of Mount Vernon Parish. Frank- 
ford, near Philadelphia: Published by Joseph Allen, 1826. Frontis- 
piece of George Washington. 

History of the War of Independence of the United States of 
America. 

By Charles Botta. Trans, from the Italian by Geo. Alex. Otis. 
Ninth Edit, in II Vols. Cooperstown, N. J. : PubUshed by H. and E. 
Phinney, 1847. Frontispiece of Washington by Daggett after 
Trumbull. 

Facsimiles of Letters from Ms Excellency George Washington, 
President of the United States of America to Sir John 
Sinclair, Bart., M. P., on Agriculture and other Interest- 
ing Topics. 

Engraved from the original letters, so as to be an exact facsimile 
of the handwriting. Washington, D. C. : Published by Franklin 
Knight, 1844. 1st Edit. Frontispiece, Washington. Full bust, 
head to left. Vignette. 

Height 4 8/16", width 4''. Stipple. 

Eng. by J. Sartain, 1844. This is an earlier plate than that 
described by Baker, his plate having been pubhshed with the Second 
Edition, 1847. From the Grim Sale. Rare. Var. Baker 22. 

The Life of Washington, by Jared Sparks. Published by Tap- 
pan and Dennet, Boston, 1843. 

Illustrated by numerous maps and engravings, including the por- 
traits of Martha Washington by Kellog, and George Washington by 
Paradise. , 

Frontispiece of Washington by Durand. 

Leavey's Sketches. The Declaration of Independence. 
Frontispiece of Washington by Storm. 

History of North America, Comprising a Geographical and 
Statistical Review of the United States and the British 
Canadian Possessions, etc., in II Vols. 

Printed by Davies and Co., No. 48 Vicar Lane, Leeds, 1820. 
Frontispiece, General Washington. 



256 MAETLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 

Height 4 6/16", width 3 4/16''. 
Painted by Stuart. Eng. by S. Topham. Baker 346. 

Lebensverschreibung des Georg. Washington, mit merkwur- 
diger Anecdoten begleifef. Yon M. L. Weems, Ehemali- 
ger Prediger der Mt. Vernon Kirclie. 

Height 3 9/16'', width 2 14/16". 

Philadelphia, Gedruckt und verlegt von Edward T. Schelly, 1838. 
Frontispiece a crude woodcut of General Washington. 

The History and Topography of the United StaJtes, by John 
Howard Hinton, assisted by Several Literary Gentlemen 
in America and England. 

Height 7 7/16", width 6 2/16". . 

Illustrated with a series of views. A new Edit, with corrections 
and additions by Samuel L. Knapp (in II vols.). Printed and pub- 
lished by Samuel Walker, Boston, 1834. Frontispiece, Washington, 
by Ormsby. Baker 296. 

Memoirs of Washington by Mrs. C. M. Kirkland, with illus- 
trations. 

New York, D. Appleton and Co., 346 Broadway; London, 16 Little 
Britain, 1857. 

The Diary of George Washington from 1Y89 to 1791 ; Embrac- 
ing the opening of the First Congress, and his Tours 
through New England, Long Island and the Southern 
States, together with His Journal of a Tour to the Ohio 
in 1753. 
Edited by Benson J. Lossing. New York, Charles B. Richardson 

& Co., MDCCCLX. 

A Political History of the United States of America from the 
year 1763 to the close of the Administration of President 
Washington in March, 1797. Vol. I. 

By Timothy Pitkin, published by Hezekiah Howe, Dunie and Pick, 
New Haven, 1828. 



BEEKLET COLLECTION OF WASHINGTON PRINTS. 257 

Washington s Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States. 
Printed by John L. Cook, Baltimore, 1810. 

Washington's Farewell Address to the People of the United 
States. 
Published for the Washington Benevolent Society. Windsor (Vt.). 
Printed and sold by Thomas M. Ponnoy, 1812, with the Constitution 
of the United States as an addenda. 

Message of the President of the United States to Congress rela- 
tive to France and Great Britain. Delivered Dec. 5, 1793, 
with the papers therein referred to. (Published by order 
of the House of Representatives.) 

Philadelphia, Printed by Matthew Cary, No. 118 Market St., Oct. 
24, 1795. 

The Washingtoniana, containing a Sketch of the Life and Death 
of the late Gen. George Washington, with a collection of 
Elegant Eulogies, Orations, Poems, etc., Sacred to his 
Memory ; also an Appendix comprising all the most valua- 
ble Public Papers, and his Last Will and Testament. 
Lancaster (Pa.). Printed and sold by William Hamilton, Franklin 
Head m West King St., 1802. 

Official Letters to the Honorable American Congress written 
during the War between the United States and Great 
Britain by his Excellency George Washington, Commander 
in Chief of the Continental Forces, now President of the 
United States. 

Copied by special permission from the original papers in the office 
of the Secretary of State, Philadelphia. New York, Printed and sold 
by James Rivington, No. 156, and Samuel Campbell, No. 124 Pearl 
Street, mdccxcvi., II Vols. 

Biographical Memoirs of the Illustrious Genl. George Wash- 
ington, Late President of the United States of America, 
etc, etc. ; containing a History of the Principal Events of 
his Life, etc. ; also a Sketch of his Private Life. 



258 MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

Third Edit., enlarged. From the press of Richard Folwell, Phila- 
delphia, 1801. 

Life of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armies 
of the United States of America, throughout the War 
which Established their Independence, and First President 
of the United States. 

By James Ramsay, M. D. Fourth Edit. Six engravings. Balti- 
more, Published by Joseph Cushing, Benjamin Edes, printer, 1815. 
Frontispiece, Washington. " Firm as the Surge Repelling Rock." 



A NOTICE OF SOME OF THE FIRST BUILDINGS 

WITH NOTES OF SOME OF THE EARLY 

RESIDENTS 

By Mrs. Rebecca Key. 



II 

Annapolis at my first recollection. 

[The notes herewith presented have been in the possession of the collabor- 
ator since 1905, at which time it was deemed desirable to obtain some 
information as to Richard Harrison,* of Anne Arundell County, who died 
in 1761, and was the subject of some interesting correspondence between 
Cecil ius Calvert in London, and Governor Horatio Sharpe, of this Province. 
As there was at that time no suflQcient evidence of connection with the 
Harrison family furnished in the sketch, and no clue as to the identity of 
the writer, it was thought well to hold it for more definite authentication. 

Through the courtesy of Robert Garrett, Esq., the Harrison papers lately 



* CeciliuB Calvert to Governor Sharpe. 

" Mr. Harrison whom I've mentioned afore is represented by all here as 
a gentleman of good character and has been serviceable in the late pro- 
prietor's affairs in elections and is desirous to show his Interest in regard 
to the present Lord and you in contributing all in his power to your ease 
and satisfaction in Government. So soon as it is in your power, I hope 
you will give him testimony of your friendship. It will be agreeable to 
my Lord and I shall esteem it an obligation. His wife is a relation to our 
family." 



FIEST BUILDINGS AND EARLY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 259 

placed in his possession have made it possible to estafblish the necessary 
historical connection and to afford these unique glimpses of bye-gone days. 

Mrs. Rebecca Camplbell Key, the writer of these " notes," was a resident 
of Annapolis during her long and interesting life. Born in 1754, the 
daughter of John Campbell II, and Frances Hammond, her paternal grand- 
father, John Campbell I, is registered as a Scotsman and Planter, who 
arrived in the Province of Maryland after the uprising of the /15 and 
whose will is probated in 1735. Her father, John Camptbell II, appears 
as a vestryman of St. Anne's Parish, 1767-69, and occupied various posi- 
tions of trust in the days preceding the Revolution. In his will, probated 
in 1777, he mentions his daughter Rebecca Key. 

She had married an Englishman, Robert Key, architect, who also appears 
in the annals of St. Anne's Parish as sharing the fortunes of Church and 
State, especially those of the church, in its most critical period of dilapida- 
tion to its temporary abandonment in those troublous times. 

The gentlemen of the Vestry, having leased from Mr. Douglas, the 
manager of the theatrical performances for which Annapolis was far-famed, 
the ground on which the Play House was built, Robert Key, with John 
Hesselius, is instructed "to take down the organ, pack same in proper 
boxes as the Reverend Rector, Mr. Lendrum, and Vestry agree that in the 
ruined condition of the Church building, the Play House be fitted up for a 
Place of divine Worship and that the clerk erect a pulpit therein." 

Mrs. Rebecca Key, however, became after the death of Mr. Key, an 
ardent convert to the Roman Catholic Faith, as shown by a note written 
to one of the Ministers of the day arraigning him for statements made from 
his pulpit as to the errors " of that Church of which I have the happiness 
to be a member." The correspondence is quite interesting as showing the 
controversial spirit of the times. 

iShe lived until the year 1840, and before her death gave her wedding 
ring to Mary Harrison, at whose death in 1857 it passed to Rebecca 
Harrison called for Mrs. Key. Letters written to her show in the phrasing 
of their old-fashioned courtesy the esteem and affection in which she was 
held. 

Her " notes " were evidently dictated in her later years to someone not 
conversant with the Chronicles of the Center of Government, the Court 
Circle and the faithful if miniature reproduction the Mother Country found 
in the Annapolis of that day. 

It is greatly to be regretted that this paper, numbered II, ending so 
ahruptly, seems to be one of a series of which no other traces have been 
found, and it is hoped that its publication may attract the attention of 
someone who can throw light upon records which we can ill afford to lose. 

AxNiE Leakin Sioussat. 

The size of Annapolis at my first recollection was apparently 
as large as it is now. 



260 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Among the early buildings stood some old and ruinous ones 
near where the present Episcopal parsonage ^ now stands occupy- 
ing the corner as well as the middle of the lot. Among these some 
were large as if inhabited by people of some condition. All 
were built of wood, as were also a range opposite where the 
ball-room now stands; these were all said to have belonged to 
the Xeutral French.- They remained in a ruinous condition 
until considered a nuisance and were destroyed soon after Gov. 
Eden came into the Province. 

City Hotel. Dulam.es. — The present City Hotel was then 
standing; it was the property of a widow Dulany and was 
inherited by her son Lloyd Dulany, from whom it was confis- 
cated,^ and it has since, I think, always been occupied as a 
hotel. 

Lloyd Dulany went to England where a quarrel which had 
begun in America between himself and a Parson Allen, ter- 
minated in a duel, in which he was killed. Hie left an inter- 
esting young widow whose case being presented to Queen Char- 
lotte, she settled upon her three hundred pounds sterling a year. 
She afterwards married the cousin of her husband Walter Du- 
lany whose estates in America were also confiscated. 

Government House. — The original Government House, the 

' Veatry Proceedings of St. Anne's Parish, page 17. " All that lot of 
land . . . lying on the south and west of Hanover street and distinguished 
on plot by letter K, conveyed by Phillip Key and Tlieodosia, his wife 
(formerly widow of Reverend John Humphries), in 1759. The Rectory was 
in use until within a few years ago. 

*Nine Hundred and Three of these unfortunates arrived in Annapolis 
December 9th, nSii, and, said Daniel Dulany: "have almost eat us up." 
Governor Eden came in 17G9 (June 5) and left the Province in June, 1776. 
The sojourn of the French seems not to have been so permanent nor their 
quarters so substantial as in other places; some of their buildings having 
been in good preservation in Baltimore so late as 1824 and after. 

* The Dulany estates were confiscated, but were partially restored to the 
three daughters of Walter Dulany, Mary Fitzhugh, Margaret Montgomery, 
and Kathcrine Belt, who remained in the Province and received from the 
Government, 400 acres each in what was anciently known as the Valley of 
Jehosaphat, now known as Dulany 's Valley. Their tract was known aa 
Epping, the reproduction from the English Epping Forest. 



FIRST BUILDINGS AND EARLY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 261 

central part of the present one, was built by a Squire Jennings ^ 
and sold to the Proprietary Government ; it must be more than 
a century old. My mother recollected when in her childhood it 
was occupied by S. Jennings. It was afterwards always used 
as a residence for the Governor and received the additional 
buildings in the time of Governor Eden, It was confiscated 
during the Revolutionary War and made the residence of the 
Republican Governor from that period. 

Garrison. The Du Laneys. — The central building in the 
garrison was built by the same architect Mr. Duff, who came 
from England to commence a new Government House where 
St. John's College now stands and was his property until it was 
purchased by a Dulaney. It was occupied by a Dulany until 
the Revolutionary War. The mother of W. and D. Dulany, an 
excellent lady, died in it. It was confiscated and the sons went 
to Europe. 

Walter Dulany and Grafton Dulany, sons of Walter, all went 
to Europe. Grafton had a commission in the British Army and 
died in Jamaica from being overheated in dancing. The young- 
est of three daughters of the same Walter married a parson 
Montgomery ^ who afterward absconded and went to England 
where he was well received, had a parish given him and was 
admired for his talents at preaching. He was called " The 
Beauty of Holiness " from his interesting appearance. The 
second daughter married a Fitzhugh and settled in Baltimore 
County and died there. The eldest married a Mr. Addison 
of Oxen Hill upon the Potomac, ancestor of the family who 
now live in Georgetown. (My great grandmother was wife 

* Edmund Jennings. 

^ The Reverend John Montgomery, rector of St. Anne's, married Margaret 
Dulany and departed to England early in the da}^ Their home in London 
was one of the centers of hospitality for the Maryland Loyalists, from 
which point he wrote to his mother-in-law, Mrs. Walter Dulany, " We have 
found an acquaintance here both male and female eminently respectalble 
and our situation is far from uncomfortable." It is said that his unsuall} 
elegant deportment tempted Thackeray to use him as his study for the 
Reverend Mr. Honevman. 



262 MAKTLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

to the Mr. Duff ^ -who first occupied that building and she there 
breathed her last.) 

College. Parties. — Mr. Duff, architect, came from Scotland 
at the instance of Cecilius Calvert (but I am not sure). Hi© 
brought with him a plan of building of the Provincial Govern- 
ment House, an Act of Assembly having granted the land 
whereon St. John's College now stands. Under his direction 
the walls of the present main building were erected, joists laid 
and scaffolding prepared for roofing it in. The original design 
was to have had wings — united by a colonnade of pillars on 
each side — but in consequence of a difference betwen the two 
parties it was never executed. There were always two parties, 
the one called themselves the Country Party, the other was 
called the Court Party, and a large quantity of white marble 
was imported to finish off this building in handsome style. 
Small slabs for paving the Hall beautifully white and pure and 
black also — large fine slabs for the steps, etc. They were taken 
to the building — some were in the cellar and others piled on 
the outside. When the Country party, who were taxed to supply 
all these things in common with the other party, would not 
permit the building to proceed, declaring that the Province 
would be ruined, and that not another nail should be driven. 
The Court party argued that they had funds in England which 
might be drawm upon, but they would not permit them to be 
touched, and the building was left in that condition. The fine 
marbles were at the disposal of whoever chose to appropriate 
them and were consequently scattered about in various direc- 
tions, the chimney pieces and hearths were of very superior 
quality and nobody knew what ever became of them. During 
the encampment of the French on the Green in the Revolution- 
ary War, an officer of that Army expressed his surprise at seeing 
a much finer building than any most in the city, apparently in 

• Simon Duff was certainly in the colony before 1728, as at that date he 
was one of a Committee of the Parishioners to petition the Vestry to allow 
the improvement and extension of St. Anne's Church previously ordered 
by them to proceed. He died according to the Harrison papers in 1769. 



FIRST BUILDINGS AND EARLY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 263 

ruins ere it had been finished, and on being told the cause it is 
said, shrugged his shoulders and said : " the folly was not en- 
tirely monopolized by the Court party." '^ After the Revolution 
it was taken possession of and appropriated to literary purposes 
and now stands as St. John's College. 

Old Court House, now State House. — The old Court House ^ 
stood where the State House now stands. It was a very neat 
little brick building, but might have been enclosed in the walls 
of the present State House. An oblong square in form, the en- 
trance a hall opposite which, two or three steps from the floor, 
was the judges' seat, and on each side were apartments used as 
jury rooms. Over the judge's seat was a full length picture of 
Queen Anne presenting the Charter, which was presented at 
full length. On the upper floor were three apartments, the two 
largest were used for the Upper and Lower House of Assembly 
and the other was the apartment for the mace-bearer and the 
other officers depending thereon. A handsome cupola sur- 
mounted the building, surrounded by a bannister and furnished 
with seats for those who chose to enjoy the prospect. This 
building was surrounded by a palisade within which the troops 
used to parade ; and at the time of the proclamation of the peace 
between the Colonies and the French after what was called the 
Old French War, the windows were filled with ladies to witness 
the rejoicings; but on other occasions they were not seen there. 
It was pulled down not because ruinous but because a larger 
building was needed, being defective in Council Chamber and 
other conveniences. 

Parties. — Jennings, a young Englishman, having committed 
at home some wild prank which made it admissible for him to 
leave the country for a while, fixed in Annapolis, and being 
young and of fine talents he associated with young men, students 
of the bar, among who was Samuel Chase, then very young. 
These young students stood perusing the charter which Queen 

'' The forlorn ruin herein alluded to has always been known as " Bladen's 
Folly." 

' Built 1704-06. Cf. Ridgely's Annals, p. 106. 



264 MAKTLA^^) historical magazine. 

Anne held in her hand in the Court House, found that it was 
violated in almost everv particular by those in authority, and 
being of frolicsome character they had a very neat little walnut 
wood coffin in which they laid a copy of the violated charter. 
Upon it was written a very witty epitaph stating its death and 
burial. This was found at the foot of the full length portrait 
of Queen Anne and a great excitement and much mirth attended 
the general turnout of the citizens to see it. From this circum- 
stance arose a long quarrel betwen the citizens who thus found 
themselves imposed on by those in authority, which resulted in 
a triumph for the Country party who again had their rights 
conferred upon them by the Charter committed to their keeping. 
The Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council were once more 
in the gift of the people. 

My father was one of the first chosen Aldermen on this occa- 
sion. (Jennings made a fortune in Frederick and afterwards 
returned to Annapolis.) 

The two parties were always at varianec and very busy in 
newspaper controversies. A man, just before the Revolution, 
seeking to recommend himself to the people assured them on 
one occasion that they might rest assured " that he would always 
be plump against the Government." He was much plagued 
about this saying. The picture of Queen Anne was destroyed 
during the war. 

Free School. — The Free School stood on the south side of the 
State House, a plain building containing school rooms and a 
habitation for the teacher and his family. The Fund was sup- 
plied by Great Britain, the number of charity scholars not 
known, but some were educated on the foundation among the 
last of which was William Pinckney, the orator. It supported 
two masters who had been sent from IJngland and at the Revo- 
lution returned to their native country. 

Armory. — The Armory stood at the north side at an equal 
distance from the Court House, a large hall, the walls covered 
with arms above the seats which wore all arniind the room. A 
seat opposite the door for the Governor and his lady over which 



FIRST BUILDINGS AND EAELY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 265 

hung a full length portrait of Queen Anne. Nearly opposite 
to this picture hung another, a full length portrait of the Pro- 
prietor, Lord Baltimore, in his flowing rohes.® Being used for a 
ballroom as well as an armory, a wooden gilt chandelier de- 
pended from the vaulted roof and the lights interspersed among 
the arms, gave it on ball nights a very splendid appearance. 
Three other apartments were appropriated one to the card par- 
ties, one to the supper, and the other to the armorer. The 
Armory was also used as a Council Chamber when the Assem- 
bly sat.i« 

Other Buildings. — There were also a stack of old buildings 
below Mr. Green's near where Mr. Henshaw has lately built, 
called Calvert's Old Buildings, and were in sufficiently good 
repair to be used as exhibition rooms by Mr. Peale within my 
recollection. The old Market House stood just below the 
present Gun House, it was about half the size of our present 
market house, but very commodious. The Church was enclosed 
by palisades and white railing and the yard was the grave-yard 
of Annapolis. 

Episcopal Church. — Apparently co-eval with these was the 
old Church on the site of the Episcopal Church. The only one 
in the place originally, it was in the form of a T, a part added 
to it made it in the form of a cross. It was neatly finished 
inside, the principal entrance to the east ; it was in a ruinous 
condition previous to the Revolution and the last minister often 
remonstrated with his congregation but did not prevail until 
the building of the Hallam Theatre ; he published a little poem 
in the Gazette which had a better effect than all his previous 

• In the correspondence of Governor Sharpe, Volume 3, page 273, 23r(i of 
February, 1766, Frederick Lord Baltimore writes : " I have embarked by 
this occasion a whole length portrait of myself, Putt it up with those other 
portraits of my ancestors you have in the Province and inform me of whom 
they are. I have also sent some arms well painted which you will place 
in the Council Chamber, or wherever you think fitt." 

" Cf. E-idgely, 107. It is apparent from the similarity of this and another 
paragraph, that Mr. Ridgely had access to these notes or referred to Mrs. 
Key when speaking " within the memory of persons now living." 



266 MAETLAISTD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

labor. The old cliiircli was torn down, but the Revolution break- 
ing out just then nothing further was attempted, and the The- 
atre was used as a church, forum and whatever else convenience 
dictated. 

The Hallam Theatre stood above the bank, built of brick. 
(A note here in the copj sajs " uncertain.") It was afterward 
used for a school. The place was occupied as a residence stand- 
ing on the brow of a hill, between the Court House and the 
Creek was the carriage house of Daniel Dulany. This building 
was similar to the original building of the City Hotel belonging 
to Lloyd Dulany and was called the " White House." On the 
hill overlooking the creek and nearly opposite the residence of 
P. Clayton stood a large building similarly constructed, the 
residence of the Tascar family. Both these buildings were 
burned to the ground, the latter was purchased by Mr. Charles 
Wallace and modernized. It has been burnt within the last ten 
years. The house appropriated to the Cashier of the Farmers' 
Bank was, during my early recollection, used as a tavern. It 
was occupied by William Reynolds. The small building on 

Street belonging to the bank was once endeavored to 

be converted into a stocking manufactory but it did not succeed. 
My father took me to see the looms which were considered to be 
quite a curiosity at that time. 

The building occupied by Mrs. Anne Harwood is one of the 
most ancient in the city. It was originally the printing office 
of the Gazette. The same paper has been under the same title 
in the same family, edited and established by Jonas Green, a 
New Englander, an ancestor of the present proprietor. 

The building now owned by Giistavus Barber, commanding 
a fine view of Annapolis Harbor was always the property of the 
Protestant head of the Carroll family. ^^ The house occupied 
by Charles Carroll is of more modem date and built for a 
family residence. An upper room of this house was used as a 
Catholic Chapel during his residence and afterward till this 
chapel was built. The priest had a room in his house — there 

" Charles Carroll, Barrister. 



FIRST BUILDINGS AND EARLY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 267 

was once a resident priest in the family but not for a few years 
previous to Mr. Carroll's removal. The building next to the 
priests' present room was one among a room known as Mac- 
jSTamara's buildings; they were in possession of the Carroll 
family until the gTound was given for the present Catholic 
Chapel. 

The buildings occupied by Dr. Ridout were erected by John 
Eidout, Secretary to Gov. Sharpe. There w^as a building on 
the hill, still known as Powder House Hill, in which powder 
was kept. 

The house now occupied by Mr. R. Chase was built by J. 
Brice and used as his family residence. The building now occu- 
pied by Mrs. Lloyd was built and occupied by Gov. Ogle, but 
had many improvements by his son. 

Shipyards. — When Annapolis possessed commerce there was 
a merchant named Wolstenholm lived on the bank of the Severn 
below Mr. Selby. He had a long range of warehouses ; no ves- 
tige of these has remained for many years back. A wooden 
platform supported by wooden posts served this merchant in- 
stead of a wharf. Within the point of land projecting between 
the College and Graveyard was water deep enough to launch 
ships. The building yard was to right of the graveyard and 
where the ships were launched is now shallow and almost dry. 
The owner of the shipyard was named William Roberts -^^ — he 
was a large importing merchant, reckoned to bring the best 
Madeira wines. His importations extended to London, Bristol, 
and other English and Irish ports. He built and occupied the 
house now of Col. Maynadier. This gentleman had a blacksmith 
shop to the north of his dwelling on which was a steeple in 
which hung the only bell in the city — ^below this stood his sail- 
makers' shop — he always had all things necessary to his business 
made here. The builders of the ships were Kirkwell and Black- 

" William Roberts presented his account in 1769, 1770 and 1775 for 
certain sums for the use of his bell by St. Anne's Church, which account 
was approved and ordered to be paid by the Sheriff. 



268 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGA2INE. 

well. The first died early and was industrious and clever, as 
also the last. 

The only vessel whose name I recollect was called " The 
Lovely I^ancy '" after llrs. Roberts, an intimate acquaintance 
with whom I used to play in childhood. I remember the name 
from an incident connected with the launching. She was on 
the stocks and a large concourse of people assembled to see the 
launching. An old woman named Sarah McDaniel (white), a 
fortune-teller and witch, who was standing by said: "The 
' Lovely JSTancy ' will not see water to-day." She moved finely 
for a while but stuck at last and Captain Slade with his sailors, 
fully under the impression that the vessel had been bewitched, 
determined to duck the old woman. They searched for her 
busily two or three days during which time she lay secreted in 
my father's kitchen, which stood adjacent to his dwelling on the 
lot opposite to Mrs. Walshe's residence. He removed from it 
to the lot adjoining Mrs. Ws. The house was used as a hospital 
during the Revolution and was burned down afterwards. The 
" Lovely Nancy " did finally leave stocks and made several pros- 
perous voyages.^^ The last recollected except one vessel was built 
by Mr. S. Chase and called the " Matilda." It was launched 
in the creek on the southwest side of Annapolis. The last was 
the " Lady Lee " fitted out by Gov. Lee ; it was built elsewhere. 
My brother was the mate. She sailed to France. During the 
War the shores of the Bay were guarded by galleys. I do not 
remember the number. Commodore Gresham,^* ancestor of A. 

"Of. Ridgely, p. 119. 

"Commodore Thomas Grason. Acts of Assembly, Ch. 31, April Session, 
1783: " III. And be it enacted, That the aforesaid Maria Grason, daughter 
of the said Thomas Grason, shall be maintained and educated at the expence 
of this state, until she arrives to the age of twenty-one years, or marriage 
SifUtT her arrival at the age of eigliteen years, which shall first happen; 
and on such marriage or arrival to twenty-one years, there shall be paid 
by this state, to the said Maria Grason, the sum of five hundred pounds 
current money; and the governor of this state for the time lieing ia 
requested to give his directions concerning the maintenance and education 
of the said Maria Grason, and to act as her guardian on behalf of this 



FIEST BUIL,Di:?TGS AND EAKLY RESIDENTS OF AlfNAPOLIS. B69 

J. Davidson (now Waters), was at the head of the service. He 
died in the service and his daughter was a State orphan. Other 
merchants traded from Annapolis. A large block-making estab- 
lishment stood where Mr. Goodman now keeps store. 

West Street — was called Cowpen lane. The most consider- 
able building was a tavern kept by a widow McCloud — it was 
afterward used for a circulating library and kept by Mr. Rind 
(related to the Pinkney family). This was in 1Y62 or 63. I 
was taken there when a child by my sister ; it was the resort of 
the wits and the literary. It did not succeed and Mr. E,. re- 
ceived an invitation to Williamsburg. The house fell into the 
possession of Mr. Quinn.^^ Afterward it was modified by Mr. 
Harris ; it is now the residence of Mr. J. Johnson. The only 
other house was Mr. McParlin, also the tavern. The lot occu- 
pied by Lockerman had on it in the center a large house. The 
corner also had buildings upon it. 

I do not remember in what year the present Episcopal Church 
was built. Mr. Key was the architect and builder. 

Governor Eden. Incidents, Etc. — Governor Eden was in 
England after the commencement of the War. He was ques- 
tioned by the Parliament respecting the condition of the State 
and the probability of the people long continuing the conflict. 
His replies differed from those of Gov. Hutchinson of Massa- 
ehusets. He told them he believed the people would not easily 
be subdued but that they would hold out to the last. He re- 
turned to this city and narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. 
The Council of Safety sent a deputation down to the Govern- 
ment House for that purpose. He was at the moment on board 

state, to see that she receives proper female education and accomplishments, 
OS the adopted child of the state.'* 

This same act made provision for the education and maintenance of 
Thomas Walley, son of Capt. Zedekiah Walley who was killed on one of 
the State barges; both of these children were known as " the orphans of 
the state" or "children of the state." By Ch. 25, Acts of 1785, Joseph 
Handy, son of Capt. Joseph Handy of the barge Protector, was likewise 
provided for, but apparently was not formally adopted. No other like 
instances are known to the editor. 

" Allen Quynn, for many years one of the vestrymen of St. Anne's. 

5 



270 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a vessel which lay at the bottom of his garden, and Mr. Key 
who was returning to the house to get something for him, seeing 
the deputation and suspecting their purpose, returned and gave 
them warning to be off. They immediately rowed from shore 
and made their escape — pursuit would have been in vain. The 
vessel in which he made his escape was either the "Annapolis," 
his brother's vessel or a government vessel, I know not which. 
His attachment to the Province was very great, his plans re^ 
specting the permanent welfare at Annapolis were very liberal. 
He was a favorite of the people and a very fine person, tall and 
commanding. General Washington previous to the period of 
his escape always staid with him when in this city. They re- 
sembled in stature. I had seen them walk arm in arm. He 
changed before death, took the sacrament, and at his death he 
requested to be buried in S. R. Churchyard.^*' After the embar- 
kation of the Governor, Mr. Key was banished 10 miles from the 
city (for his activity I presume) ; he was an Englishman and 
his predilections were for his country. On the Governor's 
return Mr. Key, then residing in Baltimore, came down to see 
him. He had under Governor Eden's direction improved the 
ball-room very much. Governor E. regretted he could not pay 
him, but left him the chandeliers which he himself imported at 
£1200 sterling to sell and remunerate himself. The Committee 
of Safety seized them and appropriated them. A rumour with- 
out foundation stated that arms were secreted in the Governor's 
house. In searching for them the chandeliers were found and 
taken. Their vigilance was very great. Mr. Key heard on one 
occasion of my illness and came to town to see me. He had not 
been in the house 15 minutes ere the Committee were there 
insisting that he should leave town. Tea being just ready, my 
mother said : " Why not let him take a cup of tea first ? " They 
consented to stand at the window until he took tea and they saw 
him safely across the river. 

"South River All Hallows Church, one of the oldest of which we have 
record before 1692, where Sir Robert Eden, according to his expressed 
wiflhee, is said to have been buried. 



. FIRST BUILDINGS AND EARLY RESIDENTS OF ANNAPOLIS. 271 

Indians. — The last Indians I recollect were a tribe on the 
Potomac. They exchanged their lands with the Calvert family 
for Baltimore County lands, v.-hcre game vra?; more plentiful. As 
the white population increased, they retired to the Susquehanna. 
The Eastern Shore tribes used to visit Annapolis previous to 
the Revolution. They were civilized and Christianized and I 
recollect the venerable appearance of King Abraham and Queen 
Sarah as they sat upon the steps of the old State House. The 
pond to the east of the Ice House Hill was called Deep Pond. 
My father has found fine oysters there and since the Revolu- 
tionary War Captain Prendergast was therein drowned. He 
.had married previous to the Revolutionary War secretly. On 
his return he tried to obtain an interview with his bride, but her 
father prevented it. A few days after, his body was found, it 
was supposed he had drowned himself from vexation. Miss 
Mabury ^"^ was the lady. She lived in the house next to Judge 
Brewer's ; her father cast her off when he discovered her mar- 
riage. She afterward married Mr. Onion of Harford Co. 

Fortificdtions. — There was no fortification that I know of. 
The batteries at Sun Point excepted. The two points, Horn 
and Greenbury's were covered with trees until during the Revo- 
lution — ^they were cut down to erect fortifications. 

The present State House — was originally built much lower 
the steeple and covered with copper. During 
the equinoctial gale the copper was torn off and rolled up like a 
scroll. It then received its present form. On the site of Mrs. 
Bowie's stood the tavern of " The Three Blue Balls," kept by 
John Ball — the property of Mr. West an opulent merchant, who 
emitted bills in his own name,, called Stephen West's money. 
He resided at the Wood Yard and owned much property in this 
city. Mrs. B. Hyde purchased from him and erected from 
there down to G. Mackubin's. 



" Portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Onion may be seen at Mount Clare, the 
property of Miss Winn and Mrs. Arthur B. Keating. 



272 MABYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS 

(Continued from Vol. XIV, p. 154.) 



June 20*11 1772 [191] 
D^ Charley 

Praj write to M"^ Harding to send me as soon as possible 30 
Sides of Upper & 30 sides of Soal Leather for negroe shoes 
directed to the Care of M^ H. Browne in Baltimore Towne, & 
th*^ vou may not forget it & that the letter may goe by the next 
post, write it at j^ first Leisure after you have perused this & 
Pay the Postage of it. What goods has Cap" Ireland had from 
Perkins k Comp* since Janu: 18*^ 1768? Have you any 
Articles ag* Him since Sep^ l^t 1768 ? I have His Ace* to th* 
Date. I think I ordered some sheet Lead for Malvel last year, 
is it Come in ? We had a little Rain last night, & this morning 
from 8 to l/o an Hour past 12 we have had a gentle Rain, w^ 
was much wanted & will be of great service: All our People 
began to Plant about 9 ; The Rain has not penetrated quite 3 
Inches in the light tobo. Hills, but it looks as if we should have 
more rain. I write at one a Clock, The Corn looks pert & 
green the dust being washed from it. My Ears began to run 
again yesterday evening, I shall wash the™ with Milk and water 
& use the white Ointment. 5 a Clock P. M. it has not Rained 
since ^/> an hour past 12 but Continued thick & Misty with an 
appearance of more Rain. 8 P. M. We have had another 
pretty Rain it thunders & Lightens & looks like more Rain the 
wind being Easterly, this last Rain will secure this days 
Planting, all the new ground & the ground Behind the dry 
well is Planted: What is done elsewhere I know not. I sup- 
pose they will borrow a Piece of to-morrow morning. God bless 
you all. I am D^ Charley Y^^ &c. 

Cha: Carroll 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 273 

June 23^d 1772 
Dr Charley 

Bv y" of the 20*^ & 218* i^gt j perceive myne of the 20*^ 
had not reached you, it was sent by M^ Cooke, who I suppose 
got to Annapolis before 12 o'Clock as He went from Hence 
very early on the 21^*. We have pitched above 9 tenths of our 
Crop, it will all stand if the ground worme will let it. Our 
Corn & Meadows allready shew the Effects of the Rain, But 
the Corn is very low for the Season, an early frost would Hurt 
it as it is so Backward. Bigges says there is ground enough in 
tendance to produce above 2000 Barrills of Corn at all the 
Plantations. I took a tour this morning to Jacobs, the Folly 
& by the Pool meadow, all my Fields smiled on me: this Rain 
will fil the wheat w^ is promising the ears being of a good size 
rather large. Our Potatoes are also thriving, I am in hopes I 
may make 4000 Bushels, & a very good Crop of tob^. Rigges 
tells me we shall this day Finish stripping, it is very late to 
Have such work on hand. It began to Rain at % an hour past 
one & Continued, to two a Clock, a fine soakeing Rain. I write 
at % an hour past 3 & we have another soft Rain & it looks as 
if the Afternoon or rather Evening would be rainy. I spoke to 
Beard & think you may give up th* debt. He said He was 
only a Security. The step you took, w*^ Brownly was proper 
If you want more flour let me know when you would have it 
M"" Deards Came Here last Sunday morning & proposes to leave 
me on thursday. I shall tel H. Browne when I see him to goe 
to you. Calculate the Int* from the Day Buchanan Payed the 
money. I shall return the Phamphlets when I have perused 
them. I Cannot part with the Horses until you actually want 
th°^ they are in good order & I will Exercise th™ in my Chair 
until you Call for them. Have you paid the 30/ to the French 
woman, if not pray pay it & let me know you have done so, I 
promised Her th* sum. The Runings of my Ears is again 
stopped. I am in hopes it will at last go quite away. June 
24th ^Q }^2Ld another good rain yesterday in the Afternoon. We 
have done Planting Here & I suppose they have done so at all 



274 MAKYLAJND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

otlier Plantations. I do not like this days Higli wind it drys 
the ground too fast. My love and Blessing to you Molly & the 
little ones: God grant you all Health & a long Continuance of 
it. I am D^ Charley 

yr mo : Aift Father 

Cha: Carroll 

June 26*1^ 1772 [193] 

D^ Charley 

We have had a full 24 hours of a solid sober soaking Rain 
(I write at i/^ an hour past 11 A: M) for little in Comparison 
of what fel run of the Ground. I suppose it has penetrated 
deep &: th* the Corn, & tob^ Planted, will not suffer for want of 
moisture for 3 weeks to Come tho the surface of our Land with 
three days sun may appear Parched. This Rain is very Season- 
able for every thing but wheat w^ did not want it & some appre- 
hend it may Occasion the Rust, but as the weather is Cold I do 
not apprehend th* Consequence. The Rain I think will be very 
Benificiall to our Gates, for tho they are low, I think they will 
Feather & fill well, and our Pasturage & Meadows must be 
much improved by it. It begins to Clear it Blowes fresh & I 
fear a Cold high wind. I have a letter from M^ Brooke dated 
the 2S^ wherein He tells me He had sold my wheat at 7/4 to 
Moore who is to take it from my warehouse at His owne 
Expense, He also says He thinks I may depend upon good 
Payment. 300 & odd Bushells were delivered on the 24*^, the 
Rest would have been delivered this day if fair. I expect the 
Cash next week & will send you £130 or £140 Pounds, as I 
think, I Can make a Shift with the Remainder untill I see Jo^ 
Johnson. My love & Blessing to you all. May be Molly has 
determined on what day to Come up, if so, let mo know it. I am 
D*- Charley Y^ mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 275 

June 30th 1772 [194] 
D'- Charley 

I have j^^ of the 22^ to the 27*^ ins*^ both dates inclusive. I 
have informed H. Browne th* I expect leather from M^^ 
Harding. I inclose you Ireland's Ace* it is the only one I have, 
Return it with a Copy of any Additionall Ace* you may have 
ag* Him, I took when at Annapolis A M^ of the £4:10:3 p^ 
Clapham. If I do not find a safe Conveyance for y"* Letter 
to Line I will send a Messenger with it. Redick is Removed 
to B^e County. In a letter of y^^ ^o me dated June 2^ 1769, 
you say Hance Wandle Hovel has past His Bond to Jo : Redick, 
for nigh the sum Redick owes us, He is to take up Redieks Bond. 
John Shryer is Hovel's Father in Law. Hovel last year prom- 
ised to be with me this Flal. I will write to Him by the 1^* 
opportunity. By the Receit it appears I did not Convey to 
Brownly nor will I if He pays Bills. He Cannot expect it as 
they may meet with the fate of Lees Bills, you may tell Him 
this. I have not yet got my goods or a letter from H : Brown, 
I have sent EUick this day to B : Towne to know the Reason 
of it. I hope our next years importation will Consist of few 
Articles beside Plantation goods, if we do not restrain our 
Imaginary wants, no sum will satisfy them. The Wheat is sold 
to Moore's Son, Brooke thinks Him good Pay & have wrote to 
C : B to know when I may Expect the Cash ; I have also wrote 
for Intelligence about the Mares, Considering Ridgelys Char- 
acter I would not swear th* they are not Concealed by Him. 
I believe I shall write as you advise about the Vignerons. I 
know not how it Happens th* y^ flour is so bad our Bread is 
not the best But it is good and very Eatable. I have drove or 
used the Leaders twice, they goe very Gently, but neigh upon 
seeing Mares but are no way unruly. M^ Tho^ Buchanan 
Came Here last Sunday, He asked for tob^ whether I intended 
to sell I told him I did, But th* I believed I should sell to West, 
if I did not, He should know it when I found a Price fixed. We 
were both free & easy. By Him I wrote to you th* last Satur- 
day the People I think 70 Enterd into an Association not Pay 



276 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

more than 4/ to our Parson & desiering you to Pay no more. 
Jo: Dorsey desiers to know y^ Lowest Price for Thirty Tonus 
of Bar Iron, He wanted it on freight, I told Him y'^ Kesolution 
wag to sel. 

July 1^* Mr Lewis Came Here yesterday, He will forward 
my letters about the Vig-nerons ans. Back th™ I have made the 
Alterations you advised: He brought the inclosed. This will 
be delivered you by M'" Bear, by whome I desier you will send 
5 Dozen of sickles if you have th°^ not in the store they must 
be bought by the same opportunity send the Clayed Sugar if it 
be Come to hand. Ellick is not yet Returned from the Works. 
My love & Blessing to you all, M^^ Darnell presents Her's also 
she will write by the Boy next Saturday. M^ Lewis presents 
His Compliments, He Has an intermitting feavour & has had 
it for ten days past. I intend to M^ Croxall's next Monday, 
say something kind about Him in y^^ to me by George Bean — 
I am 
Dr Charley Y^ mo : Aff : Father 

Cha: Carroll 

July 2d 1772 [195] 
D"- Charley 

Being in a Hurry when Bear Called I forgot to send you M'^ 
Ireland Acc*^ w^ I now Inclose. C* Brooke in a letter dated 
the 30*^^ past says y^ Wheat is not all delivered as yet to M^ 
Moore, His boate is now at the Landing for the last Load. I 
Could not see M"" More He being from Home, But His Clerk 
says I may Expect the Cash in a few days. I suppose I shall 
>>e able to send you what I Can spare next Saturday Sen-night 
by M"" Ashton. I likewise inclose my Additionall letter to M'* 
Williams & my letter of advice to M"" Buchanan. Get M'" 
Deards to Enter the last in the letter Book & return both to me. 
The English mare & M'' Irelands are found & I shall send for 
them next Tuesday. The goods H : Browne bought are at the 
Landing k I shall send for them to morrow — July ^^ Bigges 
says we want Rain allready, I do not think so. As a planter 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CAHEOLL PAPERS. 277 

I think a Soaking Shower once a week would sute iig. As a 
farmer Eain might bring a Mildew or a Eust, there is no 
appearance of either or any Blight as yet, the Wheat looks very 
well has a full & Rather large ear & I think it will turn out 
a large Heavy & Plump grain, but in generall it is too thin: 
we shall not I think begin our wheat Harvest before the 13*^ 
if so soon w^ we shall Quickly finish as Rigges proposes to 
Have 100 Reapers in the field. The ground worme hitherto 
has done little or no damage, the Plants in generall stand very 
well. Our Corn especially where the ground is good Comes on 
as well as can be Expected. The Gates except in the Meadows 
are lowe but have a strong Verdure & I think will turn out a 
pretty good Crop, & our Hay Harvest will be much better than 
I expected. The Potatoes Come on well & I hope will produce 
a good Crop. Pray send the Boy back early on Sunday morning 
as I shall be glad to Hear how you do before I set of for M^ 
Croxall's from whence I shall return on Thursday. I suppose 
you will at farthest by M^ Ashton appoint a day for sending 
you the Leaders, I long to see you all. My love & Blessing to 
you Molly & the little ones, God Grant you all perfect Health 
& a very long Continuance of it. I am 
D^ Charley Y^ mo: Aff* Father 

Chas Carroll 
P. S. 8 o'clock P:M: 

I have y^^ by Bearer. I wish you had sent all the sickles. 
I Rec<^ the Goods mentioned in M'' Deards former letter & p'^ 
7/6. I shall write to Dorsey about y'' Iron & speak when I 
see you about Trammel 

July 10*^ 1772 [196] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^^ -of the 3*^ & 4*^ ins*^. I have ordered Rigges to 
Reserve between 5 & 6 of my Worst tob<> for the Parson w^ in 
Case of necessity I will order to be distributed into as many 
tob*^ Houses as I have got & it shall be such as shall be deemed 
Marchantable as it shall be of the Value of 10/ Cur p'" C* at 



278 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

least. I shall let van know How our sickles prove on tryall. 
We began to reap our Wheat this morning. You have given 
away j^ Barr. You do not give y^ self the trouble to enquier 
How it sels. I am informed it goes of at £28 p^ Ton in Phila- 
delphia. Ymi do not want money, Even a want of th* would 
not Justify y"" selling so low. I offrd y^ Iron to Dorsey at 
£16:10:0 ster I have not had His answer. The Leaders goe 
downe by Clem & I shall dayly Expect Molly & the little ones 
& you if you Chuse to Ride j^ Trotter so far. Pray present 
my Compliments to Do'' Scot & thanks for the Turnip seed I 
have not Received any Money from Moore, C* Brooke knew 
I was from Home & I Hope th* is the Reason He did not send 
it, if I get it before Johny Returns, I will send what you want 
by Him. I returned yesterday from M'" Croxall's, I found 
Him I think better than I have seen Him since His Disorder, 
but any surprise sets Him a shaking & trembling, as it did when 
He Received me. His nerves will never Recover their strength 
but He may probably live several years under His disorder: 
He is much obliged to you for y^ kind Remembrance of Him 
& intended Visit, w^ I am Certain will give Him great satisfac- 
tion, for He says we are His only Friends in whome He can 
entirely Confide. He began His Harvest on Monday w^ will 
be a good one, But His Wheat as myne is too thin & that is 
the Case of all the Wheat between this & the Garrison, but the 
grain is fine & I think will prove very weighty: I have not 
Heared th* the Wheat is any where touched with the Rust, 
Mildew or a Blight. We had Here a refreshing shower last 
Tuesday evening, more at the Folly & lower Quarters, it will 
help our Corn & tob<* the 1^* Rigges tells me is very good at 
all the Quarters some of this old Field ground, th* is the poorest 
of it Excepted, which is but very indifferent. I have not Heared 
that the ground Worm has done much Damage I did not Ask 
Rigges, I only saw Him last night. He is now w*^ the Reapers 
at the Folly. I expect our Rye & Wheat Harvest will be over 
by Tuesday night every where; Dorseys Meadow, the Long 
Meadow next to Irelands & th*^ below the Orchard are moved 



EXTEACTS FROM THE CAEROLL PAPERS. 279 

the two 1^* in stack, the two last produce but a thin Crop but 
the Hay very good, so is the Hay below the Orchard. I have 
not seen Dorseys Meadow since it was mowed But Rigges says 
it yielded pretty well & the Hay very good ! Frost has mowed 
and stacked His grass meadows & stacked it a good Crop. 
Chas : Ridgely wrote to me the 20*^ Past to send for my Mares, 
I sent Accordingly last Monday to the works, C*^ Brooke as 
old l^ed tells me said they had not got the mares but that they 
had Heared where they were. Ridgely I suppose to Answer 
His owne ends persuaded Hamilton to send His Horse to Him 
& Care not whether Hamilton or those who send Mares are 
served: As Clem must walk Home I Cannot expect any 
Clayed sugar by Mim, Molly may Perhaps Contrive to Bring 
up 25 or 30 lb with Her. My love & Blessing to you all. 
Wishing you perfect Health & a very long Continuance of it 
I am 

Dr Charley Yr mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

8 o'clock post M: I have been at the Folly, they have got 
downe about 60 Acres of Wheat & most of it is shocked, there 
is 16 or 18^ which is left untill Tuesday being too green it is 
really fine Wheat there were about 80 Reapers in the Field. 
We shall have a good Crop of Gates tho our upland Gates are 
Low & too thin our Meadow Gates are so stout & Rank th^ I 
fear they will lodge should we have Heavy Rains. Gur Potatoes 
in Generall look well, upon enquiery I Hear the Ground 
Worme has not done much damage : Frost has Replanted, Rigges 
not, thinking the season not good enough. 

Aug. 14th 1772 [197] 
Dr Charley 

I have j^^ of the 9^^ ins* by M^ Ashton By the tenor of 
my letter to Jo : Buchanan you will see He ought not to have 
Charged me with the Credit given tO' D: Carroll, My letter 
will not bear such a meaning. Write Him so by Cap^ Eden & 



280 MARYIiAJSTD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

th* voii have or will draw on him as if He had not made the 
Charge. I have not nor shall I mention what you desier may 
be a secret. The English & M'^ Irelands mare were taken up 
within 4 miles of B: Towne the 10th ins* & Carryed to M^ 
Eidgelys who sent them to M'' Brooke & I received them the 
12*^. We had a pretty brisk rain Last Sunday in the After- 
noon it lasted ^ an hour & was of great Service to everything 
but to the Corn in particular. This morning about two a Clock 
we had a smart rain Here, w^ did not last above three minutes. 
A soaking Rain is much wanted Especially for the tob*^ & to 
Enable us proceed in sowing our Wheat & Rye w^ we have 
discontinued for fear of fiering our Corn: 38 Bush^ of Wheat 
are sowed in the Corn field next to the House & 35 Bush: of 
Rye in the Poorest of the Ground of the Corn field next adjoin- 
ing: Riggs talks of sowing 300 Busli^ of Wheat including all 
the Plantations & says He shall be able to Manage the Harvest- 
ing of it with ease. I have y^^ by Sam who got Here about 
3 o'clock P. M. Johny shall set of to morrow early with Hen 
White the new Gardener who handles His tools well & I think, 
will make a good Kitchen Gardener & an orderly serv* if you 
keep him Constantly employed & do not spoil Him by too much 
indulgence & suffering him to goe into Towne & keeping Idle 
Company. Sam says you had a fine Rain last night & this 
morning. We have some Apearance of a gust now at 5 a Clock. 
We expect to see you & M''^ Ridout on Tuesday. We are all 
well & give our love to you & Compliments to our Friends 
Especially to M''^ Eden We again Wish Her a pleasant & 
short passage Health &; all the Happiness she wishes. I am 
Dr Charley Y^ mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

Sepr 2d 17Y2 [198] 
Dr Charley 

This is my Dear little Polly's birthday I shall drink Her 
Health, it is odds you will not do so. I sent y'" letter to John 
Lino at York last Sunday by M^" Faulk & I expect an answer 



EXTRACTS PROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 281 

by Him in a few days. The last of our tob** was sent last 
Saturday to the Landing vzt 64 hgds weighing net 64913 
beside two Trash hgds w^ are not yet sold. I am told tob** 
is falling at E: E. Landing & th* last Saturday the best sold 
at 30/ Cw*. We had a little sprinkle of Eain last night, it 
helps on the tob'^ w^ is in a thriving way. We began to House 
yesterday at this place 12 Cart Loads were brought in. We 
Received from Phi^ 30 Sides of Soale & 27 d° of Upper leather 
as you wrote for 30 of each, let me know what is Charged, 
Pray send me M^ Crookes letters & M^^ about Hugh Eiellys 
Lands w^ P rather &c treated about. 

Sep'" 4 the little Cart goes downe to morrow with some flour, 
Bridget, Anna & part of Mollys & the Childrens Baggage, I 
shall note at the Bottom of this the things we want. Cap'^ 
Ireland & M'' Deards went to D: C:^ last Wednesday they 
proposed to return Hither to Morrow or Sunday. I have 
delivered a Copy of the inclosed to Cap'^ Hanrick send this 
by Ship sailing before or after Hanrick, it incloses a letter to 
M^ Williams. I close this at 8 a Clock P. M there seems to 
be a Gust with you I am 

D^ Charley Y^^ mo : Aif^ Father 

Cha: Carroll 
Send by the Cart 2°i 2/ iN'ails 
200 K) English Soale Leather 

Sep^ 6*^ 1772 [199] 
Dr Charley 

I have y" of the 31^^ past & the l^t & 4:^^ instant. I am 
sorry to hear you was so unwell, but Hope by Will to Hear 
you are quite recovered or at least much better. Let me know 
the Courts determination Hoxton v^ Gardener. When you are 
well & at leisure send me the other Papers relating to :N"ew- 
foundland. Without reflection I gave y^ letter to me to Molly, 
I am sorry for it as the Ace* of Her Fathers being Executed 
made Her low spirited & y^ being unwell. We have had no 
Rain since you left us, it is wanted & would be of Great 



2S2 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Service to the Young Corn & tob"^. If our last Rains had Come 
8 or 10 days sooner I think they would have added a 5*^ to our 
Corn & tob^ as it is we shall make a good Crop of Both. We 
have tilled six Houses & got fiers in them. If you Eesolve to part 
with old Seers M^ Kiggs Recommends an Overseer, determine 
soon & if you do not part with Seers threatten him hardly & 
speak to Him roundly about His Drinking abusing the People 
&; every body about Him, M^ Ashton & in Particular & His 
supplying His Children on the E" Shore with Provisions; By 
His agreement He was not to keep more than 20 hoggs on the 
Island. You would do well to speak fully to His son on these 
Heads & to desier Him to let His Father know fully y^ Resolu- 
tion from what Johny may say you may Judge whether old 
Seers sells or gives away Provisions. I send you by Molly 
5iA Joes & inclose you £10 Pounds w^^ will nigh Pay my 
Parson at 4/ p^' Pol w^ M"" Clapham told me He would take 
as I payed Him 5/ last year I Can spare the money & may be 
you may want it, delay not this as I have sold three & will 
sel 2 more thrash hgds. If you are well I am Happy, God 
grant you Molly & our little ones perfect Health & a very long 
Continuance of it, it is the Hourly wish & Dayly Prayer of 
Dr Charley Y^ mo : Aff<; Father 

Chas, Carroll 

Sepr 10th 1772 [200] 
D"" Charley 

I have y*" two letters of the 6^^ & 8 ins*. I received the 
things you sent by the Cart. Where docs Creamer Load? 
knowing th* you may be more Particularly informed about y*" 
Jack Ass, Vzt. when & by what Vessel you may Expect Him: 
I suppose He will Come to N. York or Philadelphia; If He 
Comes safe Ho will Ix) well worth y^ money, if of the size you 
mention. You may be assured D: D: saw the Whole Will As 
Gardener told you He shewed it to Him, Gardener is sufficient 
to Establish the fact, But if you Can Coroberate His say so, so 



EXTEACTS FROM THE CAEROLL PAPERS. 283 

much the better. I will write to Dilling. If I Can prevaile 
on Eob* Davis I will send Him to Run out Carrolls Forrest. 
I am glad to hear Manins promises to doe well, as to His Speed 
no Judgement Can be formed of it untill He is well tryed. I 
Can spare Gates, but Cannot promise to send th"i as you may 
want them. ISTow to y^^ of the 8*^ I am very Glad to Hear 
that Molly & the little ones are well, I miss Her & them much. 
But they are where they should be. You may perhaps Recol- 
lect where you put the Papers relating to Newfoundland. It 
is too late to sow the Ground before y^ House, I will not sow 
my Meadow at the Bath tho moist ground this fall; I will 
reserve White Clover & English Grass seed for you to be sowed 
in the Spring. I shall let Eiggs know you intend to keep 
Seers. Will Could not bring up both the Stallions, Clem who 
Carries this will bring up the other: Jacob shall dress & feed 
th™ as you desier, I have spoke to Riggs to see th* He does so. 
I am glad to Hear y'' Claret is Come, but infinitely more so th* 
you are well. I suppose Goldsborough will Come in Octo^ to 
the Chancery Court for His Hgd: settle the Point with Him. 
I suppose there will be a Judgement ag* Worthington this 
Court, order an Execution, I doubt not but the Judgement will 
be for Principall & interest. I send you Lines & sights letters, 
I wrote for the Ace* some time past if they should Come they 
may Reasonably Expect the Ace*. Return the letter & send 
the Ace* by Clem, I have a M^ th* Botts's Balance was on the 
23<i of May 1771 £SSQ:S'A% Ster, If Sights Pays it of this 
month, it will amount to nigh £700 Curr*. Jos : Johnson Came 
to me last Monday, from 3 o Clock P : M : untill 10, & from 6 
in the Morning on Tuesday untill 2 P: M: I was Closely 
Employed to dispach Him. You will see by the inclosed th* 
y'^ Estate at Monnoccasi has Produced this year upwards of 
£680 ster. I send you £110 as p'^ the inclosed List. We had 
a skirting Rain last night w^ lasted about 5 minutes, it now is 
Cloudy & looks like Rain w^ is very much Wanted. Has 
Henderson payed y^ order to West? if so & the Quantity be 
5000, we shall sell 127113 lb Vz* Elk Ridge 64913, Monoccasi 



2S4 MAETLAND HISTOBICAL MAGAZINE. 

57200 lb, I intend to bring tbe Receits with me to tbe Race* 
unless yon want them sooner Sept 11*^ it began to Rain last 
night about 11 o Clock & Continued with some short inter- 
missions untill nine this morning it was a fine Sober soaking 
Rain. Another Rain some time Hence may be wanted for the 
youngest or smalest tob^. We have at all the Plantations filled 
9 Houses, & Have fiers in them so Riggs told me last night 
M^ Ashton has fretted His Guts to Fiddle strings about M'' 
Lucas's Pranks, We have teazed Him not a little. Have Com- 
passion on Him. We are well, I hope to Hear th* you MoUj 
& the little ones are so : My love & Blessing to you all & I am 

Dr Charley Y^ mo: A& Father 

Cha: Carroll 

1772 Cur. Ster. 

Sepr 8 To Cash of Jos : Johnson 61:16:10 72:1:5 

To £72:1:5 Ster: is 120: 0: 



181:16:10 



By His Commission on 

£181:16:10 at 5 p'' C^ 9:1 :10 



172:15: 
By do on Receiving 57200 lb 12:10: 



160: 5: 



By my order to Balser Heck 

for a Horse 14:10: 



145:15: 



By p^ a Judgement to Caspar 

Shaaf 15: 5: 

130:10: 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 285 

By pd Simdries for 11321b tob^ 
w^ they overpayed in their 
hgds to make them Heavy at 
30 pr C* 16:19: 6 



113:10: 6 
By p<i Waggoning 2 hgds 0:15: 



112:15: 6 



By Cash to my son by M*" 

Ashton 110: 0: 







2:15: 


6 






Cash sent by 


Mr 


Ashton 








17 Half Joes 






£51: 


5: 





3 Guineas 






5: 


5: 





Cash inclosed 








10 8 Dollar Bills 






30: 


0: 





5 6 Dollar d^ 






11: 


5: 





4 4 Dollar d^ 






6: 


0: 





8 2 Dollar d^ 






6: 


0: 





1 Dollar do 






0: 


7: 


6 


1 Third of a Dollar 






0: 


2: 


6 




£110: 


0: 






Sept nth 1772 4 a Clock P. M. [201] 
Dr Charley 

We have had two or three little Rains since nyne in the 
morning. All the Rains have been Accompanyed with thunder, 
tho not loud severe or nigh us. I believe these Rains have been 
pretty Generall & it looks as if we should have more. It is 
fine Warme growing Weather. I have made a Walk between 
the Bath & the bottom of the Vineyard, Whenn Completed it 
will look well, it extends all along the Bottom of the Vineyard. 
If Clem Can Conveniently bring it send me a Piece of Hair 
6 



286 MAEYLAI^D HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Cloth & let me know liow many yards in a Piece. Our Wheat 
& Rye are Come up well & will in a few days make our Corn 
fields look like meadows. I am 
Dr Charley Y" &c 

Cha: Carroll 
P. S. Cap" Hanrick took His leave 
of us yesterday 

Pray make my Compliments to M^ Rob* Goldsborough if He 
Can spare the time & it is agreeable to Him it would give me 
Pleasure to see Him Here. Tel Him this is not a meer 
Compliment, I think the Jaunt would do Him good 

SepJ- 17*^ 1772 [202] 
Dr Charley 

I gave Rigges orders to get y'^ Rammers & Iron wedges ready, 
as soon as possible. Robert Davis is the only Surveyor within 
my reach. If you make a Continued slope from the Gate to 
the wash house, I apprehend the Quantity of AVater in great 
Rains going th*- way may prove very inconvenient, I think 
you should make as much of th* Roade as you Can with a fall 
to the Street. We have not had the least frost Here but a very 
fine Rain all yesterday & it being very warm to day everything 
but Corn will be greately benefitted by it, & the youngest Com 
may be helped. Tob*' growes surprizingly, so does the Wheat 
& Rye. 'The Corn field before the House looks like a meadow 
the Wheat entierly Covering the ground, the Tops & Blades 
in th* field are gathered. I desiered you to lay by for me 6 
Bushels of Spelts, if you have forgot it, get th™ Ready before 
the Races, th^- they may Come up in my Waggon. As you say 
nothing about it, I fear you did not take the trouble to make 
my Compliment to M^ Goldsborough, I wish you had. Old 
Christie & Do'" Lyon left me this morning, they stayed two 
nights. The Boy Antony who was so ill when you was Here 
dyed this morning, Howard opened Him & told me He was 
filled w*^ worms, it is od the Faculty Cannot stumble on an 
EffectTiall Vermifuge, most negroes are killed by them. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CAEEOLL PAPERS. 287 

Sepr 18<^^ I went to Ellicotts Mil this morning, He said it 
did not sute His Business to Grind at a Certain price by the 
Bushell, He offerd to grind for Tol with the Stones w^ doe 
Country Work but the flour then would not be of the best, I 
therefore bespoke two Barrills of Superfine w^ I will send you 
before the Races. Y^ stone Wedges are not done the Smiths 
being out a Coaling: to prevent Mistakes either send a Model 
or the dimentions of th°^ vzt how many Inches long How Broad 
& the thickness of the Head. I hope to Hear th* little Molly 
& all of you are well. My love & Blessing to you all. 

I am 

Dr Charley Y^ Mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. Is there a Judgement ag* Worthington? Have we been 
successful in the Lottery? our iN'umbers Run from 3621 to 
3640 inclusive 

SepJ* 22<i 1772 [203] 
Dr Charley 

I have y^^ of the 19^^ by Clem. The fall in y'" yard as you 
describe it, is as I would have it. I wish you had delivered 
my Message to M^ Goldsborough for altho He Could not Come 
the invitation must have been agreable to Him as He must 
have thought it (as it really was) Cordiall. You or M^ Deards 
forgot to send the last Maryland Gazet, Magazines, «& English 
news papers w^ you say you send by Clem, However I have 
seen the Parody & the Regulator, they in my Opinion Contain 
much abuse & very little or no reasoning. Consequently I 
think the Authors will gain no Credit by them but will make 
personall Enemies. I suppose the Register in Chancery if 
appointed to state the Acc*^ between Digges & me, was so by 
Petition or Motion from Digges, for I think the Chancellor 
would not have done it Suo Moto. If the Court is not over, 
Pray tell Johnson earnestly to press for interest on Worthing- 
tons debt, it is as I am informed the Practice of the Courts 



288 MAETLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

to give it on Merchants open Acc*^ from the end of the usuall 
Credit. Wheat is a ready money Commodity & of Course the 
Interest should be allowed from the Delivery of it. As Worth- 
ington has staved of Judgement as long as Possible, I hope 
M^ Johnson Has not taken a Judgement with a stay of Execu- 
tion as soon as the Court is over. Pray present my Compli- 
ments to M^ Carroll & His Lady & tell th"^ I rejoice on their 
safe arival, if He has given you any news or Anecdotes Com- 
municate them in j^ next. I will send you some Gates by the 
Wagon or little Cart the 3^ of Octo'". But Riggs says few if 
any more Can be sent, as the working Horses at all the Plan- 
tations & strangers Horses have been fed with the Common 
Gates, & the best Gates are reserved for seed at all the Plan- 
tations. I am glad to Hear Marius grows a fine Horse & Hope 
He will Reimburse y^ Annuall subscription to the Jockey Club. 
The Iron Wedges are done. I shall with this send as many of 
them as the Boy Can Conveniently Carry. The wood is got 
for y^ Rammers as I suppose they are not immediately wanted 
the wood had better lay as long as may be to season, the Rings 
otherways will be apt to slip off. I am pretty Certain I shall 
sel my Wheat to Ellicot, but then what will you do for 2^^^ i}^q 
2^^ of the Wheat ground for us is used Here, & Gur fine flour 
makes as good Bread as I wish for. Gur Crops of all Sorts 
are promising, it now Rains & is warmer, if it Breaks up so 
wo shall have a good Crop of tob*' may be between 80 & 100 
hgds. If Pacas Goldsborough's &c opinion should prevail, it 
will doubtless prove a Happy incident to Maryland, th* the 
Parsons Have been so Craving. You promised to send me 
Conrad Botts Ace*, Pray let me Have it by the Bearer. 

Sep^: 25*^^ It rained hard Tuesday evening last & almost 
all th* night w^ we did not want; It did some small damage 
to the turfing of my Ditches at the Vineyard Meadow & washed 
our tob*' so thin th* we have been obliged to discontinue Housing 
tob° untill this day, to give it time to Recover its substance, 
little of it will be standing tomorrow Senight if the weather 
prove dry. We Have at this time as Riggs tells me Housed half 
th* Crop: We shall get in all our Corn Fothcr by the middle 



EXTKACTS FROM THE CAJEIROLL PAPERS. 289 

of next week or near all. Jos: Elgar Came Here last Monday 
& went away yesterday at noon. He has set my Cyder Mill 
to Rights She Grinds at a great rate & well, ten times more 
than I Can press in a day, my press at present is inconvenient 
being Placed too high that defect I can rectify by sinking it 
about 3 feet & I intend to doe it ag* next Season. Our wheat 
& Rye every where looks Charmingly. I am apprehensive it 
will be too thick & Joint if the weather proves warme, I think 
it promises at present to Prove so. If you want turnips say 
so, I can send some very good ones. I shall send you nigh a 
Bush : of Walnuts a Veal an Ox &c &c. the Ox will goe Hence 
the 29*^ ins*. I was sorry by Mollys to Her mother to hear 
she was out of order, by the Boy I hope to Hear you are all well. 
I at present propose to be with you the 2^ of Octo''. My love & 
Blessing to you all. I am 

Dr Charley Yr Mo: Aff<^ Father 

Cha: Carroll. 

Sep^ 28*1^ 1772 [204] 
D^^ Charley, 

I have y^ of the 26*^ ins* by Clem. I think Ja^ Brooke 
will be a proper person to state the Acc*» between Digges & me 
I will reserve 15 Bushels of my best Oates for you to sowe. 
I hope to find Molly quite well, I Heartily wish Her so. Benj. 
Sights was with me the 26*^ instant, it was lucky He did not 
insist on a Sight of Botts Ace*, which Came to Hand yes- 
terday. He payed me £185 Curr*. I will pay you £100 part 
of it, the Rest I hope will serve me until next Spring: Under- 
neath you Have Botts Acct. stated to settle y^" Books. A fine 
Ox sets of tomorrow, He as they tell me has been fed since last 
fall & of Course will turn out very fine meat. We are well, I 
hope this will find you all so. My love & Blessing to you all 
& to Molly in Particular & tell Her to Kiss our dear little Girls 
for me. I am D^ Charley, 

yr Mo: Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll. 



290 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1772 Conrade Bott D^ 

Mav 23^ To Ballance £409: 12: 1 

Sept. 26. To 4 months 3 days int* thereon 8: 7: 11 



1772 Cr 418: 0: 



Sepr 26 By £185: 0: Curr* is at 66% 

Exchange 111: 0: 

By Ball* Charged p^" C^ 307 : : 



418: 0: 



Octor: 14: 1772 [205] 
Dr Charley, 

I send you the enclosed Acc*^ by w^ you may settle those 
Accts. with you. Poor Billing had got the money ready last 
fal to Pay me But Broke His leg by a fall from ITis Horse, He 
spent all the money on Doctors who at last Cut of His Leg, He 
proposes this fall to Mortgage His Land to me as a better 
security. On the Back of the Acc^^ you will see some things 
I want Pray do not forget to write for th™ to Come with the 
Goods Marked ER. you forgot to give me the Courses of the 
Original tract on w^ the Resurvey of the widows Cost was 
Founded: I Gave you the Certificate of the Widows Cost 
return it with the Courses of the Original tract — Send me 
Dilling's Bond, I will Carry downe His New Bond. 

Octo'" 16*^ Inclosed you Have, an Ace* of Wheat & Rye 
sowed & tob<* Housed. The 27^/2 Houses I think will turn out 
upwards of 80 hgds as 6 Houses under Riggs's Care Have been 
Rehung & all the Houses under His Care very well filled as 
He says. Whether any of the Houses's under Frosts Care are 
rehung I know not. Our Tops & Blades worn ovory where in, 
when I Came Homo & all the tob<* Could Have been Housed, 
But the Weather favouring they let it stand to be quite Ripe. 
Every day we have had very damp foggy mornings, fiers Have 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CARROLL PAPERS. 291 

been kept to prevent House burning. Rigges has nigli stripped 
a House a good deal of it fine as you will see by the Samples I 
send you : You will take an opportunity of shewing it to West, 
Riggs says He thinks we shall have severall hgds of fine. "Kext 
week we shall begin to take up our Potatoes, I think there will 
be a good Crop of them. The walk at the Bottom of the Vine- 
yard is finished & the slope from it towards the meadow Turfed. 
The turfing of the Ditches is Repaired & I hope will stand as 
this growing Weather will enable the Roots of the grass to take 
a strong Hold of the Banks all our grain Sowed looks well & 
so does the Indian Corn where the ground is tollerably good & 
I am in Hopes we shall make a good Crop of it. Our next 
Business is to prepare for the Ensuing Crop by Grubing Clear- 
ing Ploughing &c &c. I shall be short in Cyder, My apples 
wer stolen & much diminished by my Absence: A man whose 
dependance is on the Produce of His Plantation, Cannot I see 
be long or often absent from it. As I want 2 Pieces of Cotton, 
Wool Madeira wine I send the wagon. If you Have Bottled y^ 
Claret let me 12 Bottles as Coll Sharp may Call, it will be 
enough to last me untill I goe downe for the Winter: I write 
to M^ Deards for these things I Hope to Hear you are all well 
& th* Molly has got rid of Her Cold & Recover'd from the 
Fatigiie of Her Company & Rakeing. I miss you all my D'* 
little Molly wanted to Come with us My love & Blessing to you 
all May you enjoy Good Health & be perfectly Happy, th* is 
as happy as Mbrtalls Can be. I am T>^ Charley 

yMo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll. 

P. S. I hope the shoes now sent will doe service Rigges tels 
me they are very good Pray give the inclosed Ace* to M^ John- 
son & desier Him to send a Writ & Declaration immediately 
ag* Masters, th* my Claim may be brought as soon as Possible 
to a determination 



292 MAEYULND HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

1771 Jos. Elgar D' 

May S^^ To Ball^ £82 : 13 : lOi^ 

Oct. S^ To 5 months Int* thereon 2 : 1 : 4^4 

1771 C^ 
Octo'^ 8 By Building a Syder Mill press &c 

1772 Dr 
Octo"" 8 To one years Int* thereon 



84: 
30: 


15: 21/2 
: 0: 


3: 


5: 8^ 


58: 
2: 


0:11 

Curr* 
;16: 8I4 



1771 James Billing D^ 

Aug* 9^ To one years Int* thereon 

50: 1: 8V2 
1772 C 

Aug* 9 By yr Bond for Ball^ £50 : 1 : 81/2 

two substantiall Square Mahogany tables each 4 feet 4 Inches 
Broad & 5 feet 6 Inches long Exactly of a Height & so Con- 
trived as upon Occasion to be fixed togeather & make one table 
with substantiall leggs. 

1 Ps of fine Irish Holland at 4/6 about 20 yards 
5 yards of yard wide fine & thick Musling 
E: K 

If you have not a good many drum lines by you or have not 
wrote for th™ doe so. I shall want a Dz» for my Ditchers, at 
the Vineyard &c. Send me two by the Bearer. 

innc^ \ A t £ -vKT-i. i. IT) Tobacco Tobotobe Wheat Rye 
1772 An Ace* of Wheat and Eye Housed Housed Sowed Sowed 



Oct. 15. Sowed, tob^ Housed & to be 






Housed 


Bush 


Bush 


At Frosts 


20 


20 


At Organers & Glens 141/2 


10 


10 


At Marshalls 


14 


8 


At Sams 


10 


10 



IN MEMOEIAM. 




293 


At Eiggs's 5 Rehung 


5 


1 46 


50 


At Moses's 


2 


12 


20 


At Suckjs 1 Rehung 


2 


7 


14 


At Clarks 




96 




At Jacobs 


3 


215 


132 


6 Bush^ of Spelts are sowed 


261/2 


1 




at Frosts 


11 

271/2 






Bush^ of Barlev sowed 








at Clarks 









IN MEMORIAM 



II 

Olive Thoimas Beauchamp, 1st Lieut., 27tli Aero Squadron, 
U. S. A. 
Born at Princess Anne, Md., I^oveinber 5, 1897. 
Killed in action, jSTesle Woods, France, August 1, 1918. 

Olive Tho'mas Beauchamp, was the son of the late Olive 
Beauchamp and Ida I. Beauchamp and brother of Mildred 
Beauchamp, L. Preston Beauchamp, J. Roger Beauchamp and 
Sydney H. Beauchamp. 

He received his early education from the public school of 
Princess Anne, Md. He then enrolled at Tome Institute, Port 
Deposit, Md., and after remaining two years, entered Mercers- 
burg Academy, Mercersburg, Pa. Subsequently he took a 
course at Puree Business School, Philadelphia, Pa., which 
school he was attending at the time of enlistment. 

One month after the declaration of war he enlisted in the 
Aviation Corps as a cadet (flying status), and was assigned to 



294 ilAKYLAOT) HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

Ohio State University at whicli institution he received his 
ground training in preparation for flying. 

On October 8, 1917, he sailed for Europe with one of the 
flrst Aero Squadrons landing at Liverpool, England, October 
22nd, and after a short training went to France where he com- 
pleted his course and was commissioned 1st Lieutenant. 

Lieut. Beauchamp immediately took up active service, his 
first assignment l)eing in defense of Paris. While engaged in 
this work he had numerous perilous escapes and is credited 
with two Boche planes. 

On July 23rd, he was transferred to the 27th Aero Squadron, 
1st Pursuit Group and took part in the drive at the second battle 
of the Marne, on which front he was killed August 1, 1918, 
while attacking a G-erman formation of forty planes, falling 
well within the German lines. 

On August 17th, a grave was found with a small cross marked 
with Lieut. Beauchamp's name. This grave was near a small 
town named Dole, about six kilometers northeast of Fere-en- 
Tardenois. Lieut. Beauchamp's grave was fenced in and a 
large wooden cross placed on it by members of the 27th Aero 
Squadron. 



Chaeles J. Blankfard^ Jr., Corporal ll7th Trench Mortar 
Battery. 

Bom at Baltimore, Md., November 8, 1898. 

Killed in action. Baccarat, France, April 28, 1918. 

Charles J. Blankfard, Jr., was the son of Charles J. Blank- 
fard and Julia A. Blankfard <jf 3404 Windsor avenue, Balti- 
more, Md,, and brother of Madeline F. Blankfard, F. Byrne 
Blankfard, George G. Blankfard, and Roger J. Blankfard. 

Ife attended the public schools of Baltimore city graduating 
from the Baltimore City College in 1916. For one year he was 
employed by a construction engineers firm, enlisting at the 
outbreak of the war in the 117th Trench Mortar Battery. He 



IN MEMORIAM. 295. 

sailed for France October 18, 1917 as a member of the famous 
Rainbow Division and arrived at St. ISTazaire October 31. 

He was killed at Baccarat, France, April 23, 1918 and was 
awarded (posthumous) the following Divisional citation. 

" The late Corporal Charles J. Blankfard, 117th Trench 
Mortar Battery : — that his conduct on the occasion of an enemy 
raid on our trenches on the morning of March 5, 1918 when he 
directed the fire of his piece until all ammunition on hand was 
exhausted and then led his men through the barrage along a 
communicating trench, a distance of at least fifty meters, where 
he reported to the French commander and continued with his 
squad to carry ammunition for the French during the remain- 
der of the engagement had been brought to the Divisional Com- 
mander's personal attention and that he considers Corporal 
Blankfard's performance of duty on this occasion worthy of the 
highest commendation. He regards his action in the face of 
the enemy gallant, an example to his comrades in arms and 
characteristic of that splendid standard upon which the tradi- 
tions cf our military establishment are founded. 

" Walter E. Powers, 
" Major, N. G., Adjutant-General; 

Divisional Adjutant, 4:2nd Division." 



Feedekick Campbell Colston, Captain, 155th Art. Brigade, 
A. E. F. 

Born in Baltimore, Md., January 25, 1884. 

Died of pneumonia, Fromereville, France, J^ov. 19, 1918. 

Frederick C. Colston was the son of Frederick M. Colston 
and Clara C. Colston, and brother of George A. Colston, John 
A. Colston, Mrs. Hugh H. Young, Mrs. John B. Whitehead, 
Mrs. Wyatt W. Randall, and Mrs. Wm. Ellis Coale. 

He received his early education at the University School, 
Baltimore, and the Lawrenceville School, N. J. He then at- 
tended Yale University, graduating in the class of 1904, later 



296 MAETIiAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

taking the law course at the University of Maryland, where he 
received his diploma in 1906. From 1906 until the outbreak 
of tlie war he was a member of the law firm of Venable, Baetjer 
& Howard. 

Captain Colston was a former member of Battery A, and 
obtained his discharge to become a member of the First Officers' 
Training Schol at Fort Myer, from which he graduated with 
the rank of Captain. He spent the winter of 1917 at Camp 
Lee, Virginia, leaving for overseas service with the Eightieth 
Division, to which his regiment was attached and he was in 
nearly all of the important actions on the Argonne front during 
the last six months of the war. 

There are few Baltimoreans who had more friends or whose 
interests and sympathies were more selected than those of 
" Fred " Colston, as he was known to his intimates. He had 
achieved national reputation as tennis player, first at Yale, 
where he distinguished himself in intercollegiate matches and 
later in tournaments, notably those at Newport and Longwood. 
For several years he held the tennis championship of Mary- 
land, and he was considered at one time to rank fifth among the 
amateur players of the country. He was one of the most prom- 
ising young lawyers in Baltimore and devoted much attention 
to his profession. At the same time he found it possible to 
enter into many social pleasures and to cultivate a real taste 
and discriminating appreciation for all that was best in music 
and art. 

He died of pneumonia eig'ht days after the armistice and it 
is thought by his family that the hardships incident upon the 
last days of the battle had probably undermined his strength. 
He was buried at Fromereville, France. 



IN MEMOKIAM. 297 

Cykil Augustine Emory, Private, Battery B, 128th Field 
Artillery, 35tli Division. 

Born in Baltimore, Md., 1891, 

Killed in action, Charpentry, France. 

Cyril Augustine Emory was the only son of Augustine Walsh 
Emory and the late Rose Cassidy Emory and brother of Mrs. 
Bniard L. Maguire. 

He received his early education at Calvert Hall, Baltimore, 
and on his graduation, entered Loyola College going thence to 
N^iagara University of isTiagara Falls, E'ew York. In the spring 
of 1912, he enlisted in the army and was assigned to the 13th 
Cavalry serving on the Mexican border for three years, being 
honorably discharged from the service in January, 1915 at El 
Paso, Texas. On his return to Baltimore he became associated 
with the firm of G. A. Hax & Company remaining with them 
until enlisting in the Field Artillery February 6, 1918. While 
he was in Baltimore he was a member of the Immaculate Con- 
ception Church and also a member of the Baltimore Council, 
Knights of Columbus, and an active member of the Christmas 
Club. 

Due to his previous military experience. Private Emory was 
soon sent to France as a member of Battery B, 128th Field 
Artillery, leaving l^ew York on May 20th and arriving in Eng- 
land, June 4th. From England the battery moved to Fenain, 
France, at which place they were trained and became efficient 
in the TSmm. machine gun. Leaving this area on August 15th 
they proceeded to Gerardmer (Vosges Sector) and on the 21st 
went into their first gun position. During the next two months 
Private Emory saw active service both on the St. Mihiel and 
the Argonne Sector. 

On the afternoon of September 20th near Charpentry while 
fusing and carrying ammunition he was struck in the temple 
by a flying shell fragment. Private Emory was buried in a 
courtyard at Charpentry by Father Tiernan of the 129th Field 
Artillery. A small lot containing about thirty Americans is 
marked at that village and a cross has been placed over the 
grave by his comrades. 



298 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

German Horton Hunt Emory, Major, 320 Infantry. 

Born . 

Killed in action, iSTovember 1, 1918. 

German H. H. Emory was the son of the late William H. 
Emory and Mrs. Emory of " Grey Eiock," Baltimore County, 
and brother of William H. Emory, Jr., John Brooks Emory, 
Laura Hunt Emory, Mrs. William Westervelt, and Mrs. S. 
Proctor Brady. His wife was Miss Lucy S. Stump. She 
survives him, with their three children, German H. H., Jr., 
Eichard, and Morris Soper Emory. 

Major Emory was educated at schools in Baltimore, and at 
the Hill School, near Pottstown, Pa., and then entered the law 
school of the University of Maryland. He was graduated from 
that institution before reaching 21 years of age. He had imme- 
diate success at the bar, and for a time was Assistant City Soli- 
citor. About eight years ago he formed a partnership with 
Morris A. Soper, now Chief Judge of the Suprepie Bench of 
Baltimore City. When Judge Soper went on the bench, Major 
Emory became a member of the fi.i*m of Frank, Emory & Beeuw- 
kes, his associates being Eli Frank and C. John Beeuwkes. 
Major Emory was offered the Democratic nomination for Judge 
of the Supreme Court last year. He had entertained for several 
years an ambition to go on the bench, but he declined to become 
a candidate, stating to the lawyers who called on him that he 
expected to enter the Army. That was at the time when he had 
applied for the Fort Myer camp. 

Major Emory was one of the few men who came out of the 
first officers' training camp with captaincies. He was ordered 
to Camp Lee, Va., where he spent nearly a year. While at 
Camp Lee, he was promoted to Major. In the late spring, when 
troops were being rushed to France his contingent was sent over. 

On November 1, 1918, he was killed while leading his bat- 
talion up the north slope of the Ravine aux Pierrcs through 
heavy machine gun and shell fire. 

For his extraordinary heroism during the attack he was 
awarded the D. S. C. on November 20, 1918. 



IN MEMORIAM. 299 

All of the local courts which were in session adjourned in 
respect to his memory and memorial services were held in the 
United States District Court. 



Charles Joseph Holmes, Ensign, U. S. Navy. 
Born at Boston, Mass., August 16, 1873. 
Lost on !N"avy collier " Cyclops." 

Charles Joseph Holmes, son of the late Walter Holmes and 
Mary Holmes, of Liverpool, England, is survived by his wife, 
Iva Ami Holmes and three hoys, Harold K., J. Milton, and 
Charles Joseph. He also was the brother of Alfred S. Holmes. 

First went to sea when he was eleven years old as a mid- 
shipman on the ship Stratton Audley, where he served for six 
years, until he reached the position of chief mate. When he 
left this ship he became Captain of the sailing ship " Glory of 
the Seas." Made run from Shanghai, China, to ISTew York in 
72 days, a record never equalled before or since. Later went 
to the Great Lakes and served two years on the Charlemagne 
Tower, Jr., then took command of the steamer Calluta, the 
largest freighter on the Lakes. During the war between Hayti 
and Santo Domingo he was Admiral of the Haytian Kavy and 
as such defeated the Navy of Santo Domingo. During the win- 
ter of 1896-1897, Captain Holmes was in command of the fili- 
buster Libre, carrying arms and ammunition from the United 
States to Cuba. Went to Alaska in 1907 with some of the first 
gold-hunters. Was Captain of the Eoyal Mail steamer, " Wil- 
lie Irging," carrying mail on the Yukon River from Dawson 
to White Horse Rapids. Later commanded the yacht laler on 
the Great Lakes which went down in a cyclone with many of 
those on board. After this went on a treasure-hunting expedi- 
tion to St. Pierre, Martinique and other West Indian ports. 
Later took up newspaper work and made a second gold-hunting 
trip to the South Seas. 

At the outbreak of the war he enlisted in the Navy and was 
soon appointed boatswain, acting in this capacity for six months 



300 ^rAKTLAXD HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

when he was promoted to the rank of ensign and assigned to the 
collier, Cvclops, which was lost at sea between March 4 and 
April 15, 1918. 



Walter J. Rogers, Sergeant, 313th Infantry. 
Born at Baltimore, Md., October 2nd, 1895. 
Killed in action, Montfaucon, France. 

Walter J. Rogers was the son of William C. Rogers and 
Lillian May Rogers and brother of Edwin A. Rogers, Mrs. 
Stella Nedwell and Edna Lackard. 

At the time of his induction into the service he was a machin- 
ist at the Bartlett Hayward plant where he had been employed 
since 1914. He reported to Camp Meade on September 28, 
1917 being amongst the first contingent of drafted men to 
report. Immediately being assigned to Co. L, 313th Infantry. 
After nine months' training he was sent overseas as Sergeant 
having been twice promoted. 

He was killed exactly one year after entering the service at 
Montfancon, France, while gallantly leading his company up 
the north slope of Mont Faucon, he having taken charge of the 
company due to the fact that all the officers had either been 
killed or woimded. 



Raymond Edgar Ross, Private, 313th Infantry, Co. G. 
Bom at Aldino, Harford Co., Md., March 22, 1895. 
Killed in action at Montfaucon, France, October 14, 1918. 

Raymond Edgar Ross, son of S. Lindley Ross and Ada Won- 
ders Ross of Hartford Co., Md., and brother of Roy W. Ross, 
Shirley L. Ross, Bertha E. Ross, Hazel G. Ross, Lena A. Ross, 
and H. Ellsworth Ross. 

His early life was spent on his father's farm in Harford Co., 
Maryland where ho continued to reside until his twenty-second 
birthday at which time ho obtained a position as mechanic in 



IN MEMOKIAM. 301 

the Baxtlett & Hayward ammuiiition plant, remaining there 
until drafted the latter part of May, 1918. He was sent to 
Camp Meade and assigned to the 313th Infantry. After a 
six weeks' course he sailed for France on the Leviathan, July 
8, 1918 arriving at Brest, July 15. 

Due to his adaptability he was made a scout and served as 
such with absolute fearlessness and made a fine record as a sol- 
dier. He was killed in action at Montfaucon, October 14, 1918. 



William Matthew Ruaek, Corporal, Machine Gun Co., 
110th Infantry. 

Born at Cambridge, Md., 1890. 

Killed in action, October 4, 1918. 

Williami Matthew Buarh was the son of William W. Kuark 
and brother of Luke W. Ruark, Beulah M. Ruark, Julia S. 
Ruark, and Olive Ruark. 

He received his early education in the public schools of Cam- 
bridge, Md., and at the age of ten he entered Goldey College, 
Wilmington, Del., graduating in 1910. For two years he re- 
mained in this city when his firm transferred him to Chester, 
Pa., in which city he remained until enlisting in the National 
Guards of Pennsylvania, June 1917. For one year he went 
through intensive training at Augusta, Georgia, sailing for 
France in August 1918. 

Corporal Ruark after a short intensive training in France 
was assigned to the 110th Infantry and was in the heaviest of 
the fighting in the Argonne offensive, fighting for eight days 
and nights without rest. After the 110th obtained a two-day 
rest they were ordered back into battle. On the second day at 
dawn Corporal Ruark was killed instantly by a bursting shell, 
October 4, 1918. 



302 MAKYLAXD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

John Reading Schley, 1st Lieutenant, Aviation Signal Corps 
Service, U. S. A. 
Born in Frederick, Md., October 12, 1894. 
Killed at Issoudun, France, October 22, 1918. 

John Reading ScJiley, was the son of Steiner and Lililan F. 
(Knnkel) Schlej. His paternal grandparents were Dr. Fair- 
fax and Anne Eebecca Louisa (Steiner) Scblej'-, and bis mater- 
nal grandfather was Jobn Baker Kunkel of Catoctin Furnace. 
On bis motber's side be was descended from Jobn Reading, one 
of tbe Colonial Governors of New Jersey. His motber and a ^ 
sister survive bim. 

He received bis early education at tbe Frederick Academy, 
legally known as Frederick College, from wbicb be was gradu- 
ated at tbe bead of bis class in 1912. He completed bis pre- 
paratory course at Mercersburg, (Pa.) Academy, wbere be was 
graduated in 1915. As a boy be became a member of tbe Evan- 
gelical Reformed Cburcb of Frederick and be was mucb inter- 
ested in tbe work of tbe Y. M. C. A., spending several summer 
vacations at a camp conducted by one of tbe Secretaries of tbat 
organization on Lake George, 1^. Y. He was strong, well built, 
and excelled in atbletic sports. Popular among bis associates 
be was bigb-minded and bonorable. In tbe autumn of 1915, be 
entered Lebigb University, expecting to take a four years' 
course in electro-metallurgy. He was initiated into tbe Sigma 
Pbi Fraternity. At tbe end of bis fresbman year, trouble witb 
his eyes caused bim to intermit bis studies and to take up work 
in one of tbe foundries in Soutb Betblebem, Pa. 

War witb Germany was declared on April 6, 1917 and on 
April 12 be enlisted in tbe New York Naval Reserves as cox- 
swain on a submarine cbaser. He became very weary waiting 
to be placed on active duty and, at his request, be was trans- 
ferred to the Aviation Signal Corps Service at Fort Myer, Va., 
on August 18, 1917. He was then sent to tbe United States 
School of Aeronautics at tbe Georgia Institute of Technology 
at Atlanta and received his diploma as flying cadet, from the 
Department, on October 19, 1917. On October 26, he was sent 



NOTE. 303 

to France to be trained to fly but as no American aeroplanes 
were in France and no arrangements had been made witb the 
French government to supply them, he was held in camp, at 
Tours and St. Maxient, until the spring of 1918, when arrange- 
ments were made to train him and other flying cadets on the 
French flying fields. He was commissioned First Lieutenant 
on May 18, 1918 and spent the summer and autumn at Cha- 
teauroux and Issoudun. He returned from a short leave spent 
on the Eiviera, and was instantly killed at Issoudun on October 
22, 1918, when his machine struck the ground on his return 
from a practice flight. 



NOTES 

Through the kindness of Professor Archibald Henderson, of 
the University of ISTorth Carolina, we are able to identify 
another of the persons mentioned by Dr. Henry Barnard in 
his narrative of his travels in the South Atlantic States in 1833, 
which was recently printed in the Magazine. On pages 336 
and 337 of Volume 13 in the number for December 1918, refer- 
ence is made to Mrs. General Street and her granddaughter, at 
Salisbury, I^. C. The name Street is evidently mistakenly read 
for Stiele or Steel. Mrs. Steel was the widow of General John 
Steel, who was a member of Congress and Comptroller of the 
United States Treasury under Washington, Adams and Jeffer- 
son, and died in 1815. Mrs. Steel died on August 19, 1843. 
Her granddaughter, born December 30, 1819, was Mary Steel 
Ferrand. 



Vol. XIV DECEMBER, 1919 No. 4 

MARYLAND 

HISTORICAL 

MAGAZIINE 




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ETC., REQUIRED BY THE ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912, 



Of Maryland Historical Magazine, published quarterly at Baltimore, Md., 
for October 1, 1919. 

State of Maryland, City of Baltimore, ss. 

Before me, a Notary Public, in and for the State and county aforesaid, 
personally appeared Louis H. Dielman, who having been duly sworn ac- 
cording to law, deposes and says that he is the Editor of the Maryland 
Historical Magazine and that the following is to the best of his knowledge 
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by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
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Sworn to and subscribed before me this 20th day of October 1919. 
[Seal] 

Edwin T. Sickel, 

Notary Public. 



ARCHIVES OF MARYLAND 

Ptablislied. by axitlaority of the State 

VOLUME XXXIX 



This volume is now ready for distribution, and contains the Acts 
and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the Province, during 
the Sessions held from 1732/3 to 1736. During this period, Samuel 
Ogle was Governor, and he met difficult situations with tact and 
firmness. In 1733, a very important act was passed for emitting 
bills of credit, under which a considerable amount of paper money 
was issued, with such wise measures for the establishment of a 
sinking fund, that the bills were finally redeemed. An important 
militia act was passed, as also was one for the improvement of the 
navigation of the Patuxent River. Towns were erected at Elkridge 
Landing, on the site of Princess Anne, etc. A general law for the 
relief of insolvent debtors completes the important legislation of 
the Session. 

The Session of 1733/4 lasted only six days, when the Governor 
dissolved the Assembly, because the Lower House expelled four 
members, who had accepted office from the Proprietary. 

A year later, a new Assembly was convened without great change 
in the membership. It did the surprising act of electing Daniel 
Dulany, one of the expelled members, as its speaker, and, when 
he declined, chose James Harris, a new member, though Colonel 
John Mackall, the old speaker had been re-elected to the Assembly. 

A general naturalization law was then passed, and the importa- 
tion of negroes, "Irish Papists," and liquors was restricted. The 
act concerning ordinaries was revised, and a license was required 
from peddlars. A duty was laid for the purchase of arms and 
ammunition. 

In 1735/6 a second Session, styled a Convention, was held with- 
out any legislation, since the Houses fell out with each other, 
over the question of allowances to the Councillors. After a proroga- 
tion of ten days, the Houses re-assembled, and, in a short time, 
passed a considerable number of laws, some of which had been 
discussed at the earlier meeting. Among these, were acts to 
remedy the evil conditions of the Annapolis jail by building a new 
one, to erect Georgetown and Fredcricktown on the Sassafras 
River, to encourage adventurers in iron works, and to amend the 
laws in regard to the inspection and sale of tobacco. The ques- 
tion as to the Councillors' allowances was settled by a compromise, 
and the disturbances along the Pensylvania boundary line, which 
are associated with the name of Captain Thomas Cresap, find echo 
in the legislative proceedings. 

The attention of members of the Society who do not now receive 
the Archives is called to the liberal provision made by the Legis- 
lature, which permits the Society to furnish to its own members 
copies of the volumes, as they are published from year to year, at 
the mere cost of paper, press work, and binding, this cost is at 
present fixed at one dollar, at which price members of the Society 
may obtain one copy of each volume published during the period 
of their memhership. For additional copies, and for volumes pub- 
liwhed before they became members, the regular price of tliree dol- 
lars is charged. 



THE MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



INCORPORATED 1843. 



OFFICERS. 

President, 

EDWIN WARFIELD. 

Vice-Presidents, 

W. HALL HARRIS, HENRY STOCKBRIDGE, 

DeCOURCY W. THOM. 

Corresponding Heoretary, 

RICHARD H. SPENCER. 

Recording Secretary, 

GEORGE L. RADCLIFFE. 

Treasurer, 

HEYWARD E. BOYCE. 

THE COUNCIL. 

The Genebax Officees 
Ain) 



J. APPLETON WILSON, 
JOHN M. VINCENT, 
RICHARD M. DUVALL, 
PHILLIPS L. GOLDSBOROUGH, 



McHENRY HOWARD, 
RUXTON M. RIDGELY, 
JAMES McC. TRIPPE, 
DR. BERNARD BROWNE. 



1866. 
1892. 
1909. 
1915. 
1916. 
1916. 
1916. 



BENEFACTORS OF THE SOCIETY. 

GEORGE PEABODY, Gift, . . 

J. HENRY STICKNEY, Bequest . 

ISAAC F. NICHOLSON Gift, . . 

MENDES COHEN, Bequest, 

ISAAC HENRY FORD, Bequest, 

ISAAC TYSON NORRIS, Gift, 

MRS. MARY WASHINGTON KEYSER, 



Gift of the H. Irvine Keyser Memorial Building 



$20,00t) 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
1,000 
1,000 



FORM OF LEGACY. 
" 1 give and bequeath to The Maryland Historical Society the 
sum of dollars." 



CONTENTS. 



PAGB 

RoBEBT Smith and the Navy. George E. Davies, - • - 305 

In Mehobiam, III, Compiled hy John O- Fell, .... 322 

The Life of Thomas Johnson. Edward 8. Delaplaine, - - 329 

Mes. B. I. Cohen's Fancy Dbess Party, 348 

EXTBAOTS FBOM THE CaBBOLL PAPEBS, _ . . - - 368 

Extracts fbom the Dulany Papebs, 371 

Some Eably Colonial Maeylandebs. McHenry Houoard, - • 384 

Notes, 400 



Committee on Puhlicationa 

SAMUEL K. DENNIS, Chairman. 
JOHN M. VINCENT, BERNAKD C. STEINER. 



LOUIS H. DIELMAN, 
Editor. 



MARYLAND 
HISTORICAL MAGAZINE 

Vol. XIV. DECEMBER, 1919. No. 4. 

ROBERT SMITH AND THE NAVY 

Geoege E. Davies 



Robert Smith, born, Lancaster, Pa., 1757 ; died, Baltimore, 
Md., November 26, 1842 ; Secretary of the l!^avy, July 9, 1801, 
to April 1, 1809. Appointed Attorney-Gleneral Marcb 3, 1805, 
to August 7, 1805, but continued to act as Secretary of the 
N'avy. Secretary of State from March Q, 1809, to March, 
25, 1811. 

Much has been written of John Barry, Paul Jones, and 
Edward Preble; these are our l^aval heroes. Much less has 
been written of the men who made it possible for these Captains 
to win their victories. Every naval victory is based upon 
preparation in men and ships ; in money and supplies ; in Navy 
Yards and guns. In this preparatory work in our early Navy, 
Robert Smith is prominent. He was the second Secretary of 
the Navy and it was under his direction that we waged one war 
and prepared for a second. 

In 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected the third President of 
the United States, and a new party came into power. It has 
often been said that this party, the Republican, found its 
greatest strength among the land-owning gentry of Virginia. 
But there was also a commercial element in this new party 

305 



306 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

■vrhich demanded representation in the party councils. Balti- 
more and Philadelphia at this time ranked third and fourth in 
the size of their commerce, and each of them had returned 
Republicans to the Seventh Congress; so it was natural that 
Jefferson should offer the position of Secretary of the 'Naivj to 
the acknowledged leader of the Maryland Democracy, Samuel 
Smith." 

There were personal as well as political reasons for this offer. 
Samuel Smith was one of the largest ship owners on the Atlantic 
Coast. The " Peggy," the " Sally," and the " Unicom " ^ bore 
their owner's flag to Leghorn, London, and Cadiz, and brought 
back news and numerous casks of wine, both of which Samuel 
Smith shared with his friend, the new President. Judged by 
the standard of that time, Samuel Smith was well qualified to 
fill the post offered him, but he chose to decline the offer, stating 
that his duty " to his constituents and to his private affairs " 
made this necessary.^ Instead, he suggested the name of John 
Mason, or "if no merchant would accept — a gentleman from 
some other profession," evidently having in mind his brother 
Robert. A few days later he suggested the curious arrange- 
ment that was finally adopted.^ Henry Dearborn, the Secretary 
of War, was appointed acting Secretary of the N^avy, but did 
none of the work. Samuel Smith, without any appointment 
whatever, and without salary, acted as Secretary of the !N"avy. 
Meanwhile, the place was offered to two Philadelphia gentle- 
men, and on their refusal, to Robert Smith.^ 

It was this delay in filling the place that enabled Henry 
Adams, the historian of this period, to say that Robert Smith 
was " an amiable and respectable person, but not of much 
weight, except through his connections by blood or marriage." '^ 
These are hardly fair words to apply to a man of forty-four, 

* Baltimore Customs " Registry," 1800-1809, 
•J. MSS., Mar. 17, 1801, s. 2, v. 76, No. 66. 
■J, M88., Mar. 20, 1801, b. 2, v. 76, No. 76. 

* J. M.ss. Mar. 24, 1801, s. 1, v. 8, No. 79; also Mar. 26, Mass. State Hist. 
Soc, J. MS.S., V. 1, 8. 7, p. 97. 

•Adaraa: Gallatin: 277. . 



ROBERT SMITH AJ^D THE NAVY. 30^ 

who had acquired the largest admiralty practice of his time,^ 
who had been offered the position of Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Maryland, and who had had ten years' experience in 
the Maryland Assembly. Perhaps Robert Smith's best qualifi- 
cation for his new office lay, as Jefferson phrased it, " not in his 
reading of Coke-Littleton — ^but in the fact, that from his infancy 
he must have been so familiarized with naval things, that he 
would be perfectly competent to select proper agents and to 
judge of their conduct." '' Jefferson's expectations seem to have 
been fulfilled, for Goldsborough says of him, " he was particu- 
larly happy in discovering the merits of the most promising 
young officers, and in bringing forward our Decaturs, Sommers, 
Lawrences, Trippes, and Perrys." ^ 

When the Republicans took office, they found that they were 
not as free to carry out their naval plans as they had fancied. 
Our I^avy, at the close of the war with Prance, consisted of 
thirteen frigates and seventeen smaller vessels. By the law of 
1800, Congress authorized the sale of all but six of the frigates, 
and Benjamin Stoddert, the Federalist Secretary of the I^avy, 
had by April 1st fulfilled this provision of the law, receiving 
for the twenty-five ships sold some $275,000. Thus the policy, 
which naval writers have often attributed to Jefferson, was in 
reality the policy of the Federal party. This reduction of the 
Navy, considered at the time a great mistake, was in reality a 
wise move ; for the vessels sold were mainly converted merchant- 
men which were not strong enough to bear the long 24-pound 
cannon and carronades which were just then coming into use.^ 

One important question that confronted the new Government 
was : the disposal of the small remnant of a ^^Tavy that was left. 
Under the law, only three frigates might be retained in active 
service. To what point, then, should they be sent ? Gallatin's 
answer to this question was typical of the man. He believed 

• Bait. Dist. Ct. Reds. 1799-1800. 

» J. Mss. 8. 1, V. 8, No. 140a, July 9, 1801. 

• Naval Chron. 212. 

•J. MSS., s. 3, V. 1, No. 120. 



308 MARYLAJSTD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that the most pressing need of the Government was the payment 
of its debts. A government, he argued, should be run like a 
private business and should have no debts. A l^avy was a use- 
less luxury. " Spain," he said, " had a N^avy, but no commerce; 
while Holland, without a Navy, had large commercial interest.^® 
On the other hand, Robert Smith declared again and again that 
our best policy lay in maintaining a large naval force. " Such 
a nation as Spain would not have dared to have committed such 
aggressions against our rights had she not been under the impres- 
sion that we were utterly unprepared for war." ^^ At another 
time he writes : " Peace will only come with fear, and that can 
only be excited by a respectable squadron. I am inclined to 
believe that nothing but a formidable squadron will prevent all 
the Barbary powers from making war against us. A feeble 
force will subject us to the suspicion of purchasing a peace." ^^ 
Jefferson maintained an attitude of neutrality on this subject. 
Though he had pledged that the ISTavy should not be further 
reduced, he liked to humor Gallatin's economical foibles. On 
the other hand, he allowed Smith to carry on his plans prac- 
tically without a check. The result of this division in the 
Cabinet was unfortunate : Smiths' recommendations for supplies 
were usually cut down by half; and, when he persisted in 
carrying out his plans, we see the unhappy Secretary of the 
Treasury, bitterly complaining that he had no means of raising 
the money. The Government actually waged a foreign war at 
a distance of 3,000 miles from home on an appropriation that 
was meant to cover only the maintenance of three frigates upon 
our own coast. The figures for a single year will illustrate how 
badly this financial game of cross purposes worked: in 1803, 
Congress appropriated $114,000.00 for oak timber for new 
frigates; $174,000.00 was spent; for gunboats, there was a 
deficit of $46,000.00. There was a total deficit of $306,000.00 
in an expenditure of $1,215,000.00, or about one-fourth of the 

"Adams: Gallatin: 157. 

".J. Mss., B. 3, V. 2, No. 54. Sept. 9, 1805. 

» J. M88„ 8. 3, V. 1, No. 38. Sept. 4, 1802. 



EOBEET SMITH AND THE NAVY. 309 

total. These figures may be taken to show either bad manage- 
ment on the part of the Treasury or of the l^avy, according to 
the sympathies of the writer, but in either case, they show bad 
team work in the Government. ^^ 

To return to our question — ^the disposal of our fleet — it was 
finally decided to send the squadron to the Mediterranean. At 
that time we sent about 100 ships a year to Italy and to 
Smyrna.^* To protect them we paid the Barbary powers about 
$100,000.00 a year. To Algeria we paid an annuity of 
$21,000.00. Biennially, we paid $17,000.00 and, besides all this, 
there were lesser fees of $5,000.00. As General Smith explained 
in a letter to Commodore Truxton: " The object of the expedi- 
tion was instruction to our young officers — and because it was 
conceived that a squadron cruising in sight of the Barbary 
powers would have a tendency to prevent them seizing on our 
commerce whenever passion or a desire of plunder might incite 
them thereto." ^^ On May 20th, the final instructions were sent 
to Commodore Dale, who commanded this, the first squadron 
ever sent out to a foreign station : " It is the positive command 
of the President " — the words are significant of the spirit of 
independence which was to animate our new N'avy — " that on 
no pretence whatever are you to permit the armed vessels under 
your command to he detamed or sea/rched, nor any of the officers 
or men belonging to her to be taken from her, by the ships of 
any foreign power." ^® In addition. Dale was to cruise along 
the Barbary Coast, returning in December if no one of the 
powers had up to that time declared war upon us.^'^ 

It is not the purpose of this paper to follow out the course 
of the war that followed with Algiers and Tripoli. The unsuc- 
cessful voyages of Morris, the final successes of Preble, and 
Chauncey; the gallant acts of Lawrence, Decatur, and Trippe 
are all too well known to need further description. It is rather 

"State Papers: Fin. 2, 350. Mar. 9, 1803. 
" G. A. Barbary Corsairs : p. 69 and 56. 
«Sec. Letters to: Apr. 10, 1801. 
^*S,QC. Letters to: May 20, 1801. 
" G. A. Barbary Corsairs ; 92. 



310 MAETLAIO) HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

mv intention to show what part the Secretary played in the war 
by sending out men and supplies. 

The department over which Robert Smith presided was not 
the large and intricate establishment of today. There were 
only three clerks, two of whom were mainly occupied in copying 
into large books the letters that were received from the Captains 
and Contractors. Of incoming letters there are some twenty 
volumes, of the outgoing as many more ; all these Robert Smith 
read and answered, showing an energy and industry that amazes 
the student of the present day. Details of the smallest character 
all had to be decided by the Secretary : an order for % augers 
instead of % inch ; the furlough of a sailing master ; the remak- 
ing of spoiled powder; were all matters which required the 
Secretary's attention. 

There were at that time six ITavy Yards. They had been 
purchased in 1799 at a cost of about $170,000.00. Little had 
been done to improve them, but a good deal of live oak timber 
had been collected to season against the day when we should 
build the new and larger frigates, known as the 74's. This 
could be found only along the Southern seaboard. Especially 
famous for its timber was the Eastern Shore of Maryland, and 
many interesting letters remain to tell us of the difficulties 
which the contractors faced in cutting the timber, hauling it to 
tidewater, and in shipping it to the nearest !Navy Yard. 

In charge of each 'Navj Yard there was a Navy Agent, whose 
duty it was to recruit men for ships that were to be put in com- 
mission, to buy stores and to guard the Navy's store of timber 
and hemp. At Baltimore, Colonel Strieker was the agent, and 
he seems to have been one of the most active of these officers. 
As the most of the boats sent out stopped at Baltimore for their 
final outfits, he was kept busy hiring men and buying provisions. 
The Navy rate for seamen was $10.00 per month, and as the 
prevailing rate for merchant vessels was $12.00 or $15.00, he 
was often compelled to offer a bounty of $10.00 or $20.00 for 
enlistment. 

The Navy ration consisted of beef, pork, bread, and beans, 
and for luxuries, vinegar, cheese and rum. To replace this 



EGBERT SMITH AND THE NAVY. 311 

beverage by the more patriotic whiskey was one of Robert 
Smith's first efforts. Because of the large crews which a frigate 
carried (some 400 men) she could carry provisions with her for 
little more than three months, and as the voyage to Gibraltar 
occupied two months or more, our boats were always compelled 
to revictual there at a large cost. Even if the beef held out, 
the cheese was sure to run low, and as the crews were inclined 
to be mutinous when deprived of this ration a wise Captain 
was compelled to put into port for this luxury. 

From Gibraltar to the coast of Tripoli or to Malta the distance 
is about 1,500 miles ; to the coast of Algiers, 500 miles. This 
gives us the terms of the problem which faced Robert Smith. 
To maintain a blockade on a hostile coast 1,500 miles from a 
base would be declared by ISTaval experts today as impossible. 
That Robert Smith solved this problem and did it in the face 
of Congressional opposition served only to render his achieve- 
ment greater. 

Three courses were open to him: he could establish credits 
at London and allow ship Captains to purchase their supplies at 
the nearest ports, Malta and Syracuse ; he could send out supply 
ships ; and he could established a regular supply depot at Malta 
to which Government supplies could be sent. All three plans 
were tried, but it was not till after the third was adopted that 
we were able to keep ships off the coast of Tripoli for more 
than a month at a time. 

Robert Smith opened our !Naval account abroad when on 
September 11, 1801, he sent to his brother in Baltimore 
$7,000.00 with instructions " to purchase Bills of Exchange on 
London at not more than 60 days to the amount of £1,500, 
which you will remit to Messrs. I. Mackenzie and Andrew 
Glennie of London, with direction to pass them to the credit of 
the ITavy Department, charging the customary commission 
upon purchases of this kind." ^^ 

Later Smith and Buchanan reported that the bills which they 
had bought from Oliver Brothers were worthless, as the firm on 

"Gen'l Letters. Sept. 11, 1801, vol. 4. 



312 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

which the bills were drawn had failed. In this case the loss 
teas made good hy Oliver Brotliers.^^ This evidence is impor- 
tant, because later in 1807, when Gallatin and Robert Smith 
quarrelled, the Secretary of the Treasury charged that Robert 
Smith knowingly purchased worthless Bills of Exchange from 
his brother. The charge was made soon after the failure of 
Degan and Purviance, our N'aval Agents at Leghorn. It ia 
true that as soon as the failure became known in Baltimore, 
John Donnell and Hollins and McBlair offered bills on Leghorn 
to the l!^avy Department,"*^ but Robert Smith refused both these 
offers and this r<^fusal, to the writer's mind at least, disproves 
Gallatin's charges. 

Another example of a similar sort might be given: January 
18, 1805, John Donnell wrote to Robert Smith: " I have a ship 
arrived at Annapolis, a few days since with a cargo of coffee 
from Mocha; from thence I mean to dispatch her to Leghorn; 
the proceeds of the cargo will leave in London, after furnishing 
the ship with capital for another voyage, about $70,000.00. 
The intention of my addressing you is to know if you will pur- 
chase Bills at 60 days sight on Leghorn." ^^ 

Over a million dollars was in this way sent to our fleet and 
less than i/^% was lost. But the system was at best a bad one. 
There was no way of checking the Commodores in their expendi- 
tures, and both Ohauncey and Morris were constantly over- 
drawing the sums allowed them. At times the Department 
owed McKenzie and Glennie as much as $150,000. For that 
reason, in 1803 and 1804, Robert Smith turned to the supply 
boat system. 

The first supply sent out was by the brig Courtney. It left 
N'orfolk, July 6, 1802, and arrived at Malta, October 2.^2 
Daniel Bedinger, the Norfolk Agent, had loaded her with an 
immense quantity of provisions, 400 bbls. of beef, 350 of pork, 
120 of flour, 18,000 of suet, 120,000 of bread, 1,300 gals, of 

" Gen'l Letters. Sept. 20, 1802. 
"Gen'l Letters. May 18, 1807. 
"Misc. Letters. Jan. 18, 1805. 
■Capts. Letters. Oct. 2, 1807. 



ROBEET SMITH AND THE NAVY. 313 

vinegar, a similar quantity of molasses and 8,000 lbs. of cheese. 
This voyage is typical of many that followed.^^ The flour and 
much of the beef spolied on the way.^^ As a result of this 
difficulty in transportation the system was abandoned in 1805 
and the third plan was tried. 

Naval agents were appointed at Leghorn, ISTaples, Syracuse 
and Malta. Funds were sent to them and they purchased the 
supplies for the squadron. The Captains drew these supplies 
upon regular requisitions, as on the Home Station, and in this 
way the Department was able to control expenditures. For 
many years this system remained in use and was perhaps 
Robert Smith's most valuable contribution to the development 
of the Navy. 

The problem of the control of the movements of our ships in 
the Mediterranean offered another difficulty. The distance 
which separated the Secretary from his Captain is well pictured 
in the following letter by Captain Murray: 

"Accomplished more than 2/3 of our passage in 12 days, 
when near the Western Islands, we met with head winds which 
hung upon us for four weeks, and at times blew very heavy, at 
other time very baffling and lig'ht, so that our progress was slow 
indeed. — I intended to have called at Gibraltar, but when off 
that place, the wind blew so heavy from the Westward that I 
was fearful to trust my ship there with a single anchor." ^^ 

Since it required six months for letters to come and go, 
Smith's orders were necessarily of the vaguest sort. " Arrived 
at Gibraltar, the John Adams and Adams shall convoy the New 
York (w'hither, we ask) and if no American vessel wants convoy, 
the enterprise shall be employed to best advantage " (But 
how?)^® Such orders required men of great independence to 
execute them. Even when the orders were of a more definite 
sort, as when Captain McNeil was ordered to join Dale's 

^ Gen'l Letters. Dec, 22, 1803. 

==« Misc. Letters. Feb. 25, 1804. 

^ Misc. Letters. Apr. 30, 1802. U. S. Constellation, Murray to R, S. 

*• J. MSS, s. 3, V. 1, No. 49. Mar. 30, 1802. 



314 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

squadron, the Captain was able to disregard the orders with 
safety, under the plea that he could not find the squadron.^'^ 

But there were occasions when Eobert Smith could issue 
prompt and definite orders. During the summer of 1802, 
Jefferson was at !Monticello, four days travel from Washington. 
For that reason, when bad news arrived from Tripoli, Smith at 
once ordered Commodore Morris to retain the Boston in the 
Mediterranean, had the N'ew York prepared in two weeks time, 
and sent out in her 100 gun carriages, as a gift to the Emperor 
of Morrocco. And all this was done by the man whom Henry 
Adams describes as the " weak and amiable Robert Smith." ^^ 

There were men as well as money difficulties. Congress had 
limited the number of Captains in the ISTavy to nine, and of 
Lieutenants to 36. This law was never obeyed by Robert Smith. 
In 1805 there were in active service 12 Captains and 5Y Lieu- 
tenants. The matter came to a crisis in 1806. Trouble with 
Tunis, as well as with Tripoli, had begun and Robert Smith 
was anxious to reinforce our squadron by sending out the Chesa- 
peake, but was prevented by a Law of 180G, which limited the 
number of seamen to 925. Eventually Smith avoided this diffi- 
culty by refusing to count the men employed in the Mediter- 
ranean as a part of the !N"aval force.^® In this way the 412 men 
for the Chesapeake were secured, but it was not till March 3, 
1807, a year later, that Congress legalized his action by author- 
izing 1,425 seamen for the Navy.^^ Such action on the part 
of a Secretary might have resulted in impeachment, but Smith 
evidently preferred personal danger to failure in our ISTavy. 

Perhaps the greatest difficulty in carrying on the blockade of 
Tripoli is best told in the words of Captain Murray: "We 
cannot keep their small galleys in port, they being in every 
respect so like all the small craft that navigate these soas ; the 
best security for our commerce will be to offer convoy from port 

" G. A. Barbary Corflairs. Oct., 1801. 

"J. M88. B. 3, V. 1, No. 30. Aug. Ifl, 1802. 

»J. M8S. B. 1, V, 11, No. 184. Apr. 22, 1806, Also Goldeborough , 

•• State Papers, Naval, i, 161. 



EOBEET SMITH AND THE NAVY. 315 

to port, and if we are still to carry on this kind of warfare, be 
assured, Sir, that it will be necessary to increase our force with 
brigs or gunboats which will be fully adequate to any force they 
can have to encounter with " . . .^^ Murray's plan of buying 
small vessels that could follow the Tripolitan vessels close in 
shore was followed the next year when two gunboats were leased 
from the King of N'aples, who was on bad term with the Tripoli- 
tans. The next year, 1804, Edward Preble used the gunboats 
in bombarding the Tripolitan forts. That Fall he returned to 
the United States full of enthusiasm for this new I^aval weapon. 
The gunboat as he pictured it was a small boat, some 47 feet 
long and with a beam of 18 feet, and a draught of 5 feet. It 
mounted but one gun, a heavy 24-pounder ; a gun, so heavy in 
proportion to the size of the vessel, that whenever stormy 
weather was expected the gun had to be unshipped and placed 
in the hold to prevent capsizing. 

The situation which faced the country in 1806 was very 
similar to that of the present day. Two great European ISTations 
were engaged in a deadly struggle. Both had declared blockades 
of the enemies coast and were violating our neutral rights. It 
seemed inevitable that we should declare war on one or the 
other power. The problem was, how should we defend our 
long coast line from an enemy's fleet. Robert Smith urged the 
need of a large mobile force and Admiral Mahan has sustained 
his judgment that this is our best means of defense. But Jeffer- 
son inclined (probably from motives of economy) to the build- 
ing of gunboats. Such small boats could be built in every 
harbor of our coast, he urged, and a fleet of one hundred gun- 
boats would be ready while we were building three frigates. 
Robert Smith was far less enthusiastic. " If you think," he 
wrote to Jefferson, " that gunboats are indispensably necessary 
for the protection of merchantment in calms, you may pur- 
chase or build them and draw upon this Department for the 
amount." ^" His fears were realized. In the shallow bays of 

«Capts. Letters. July 30, 1802. 

"J. MSS., s. 3, V. 1, No. 34. Aug. 31, 1802. 



316 MAEYLAIO) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the Barbary Coast or on Lake Poncliartrain, they were success- 
ful; but, in the deep harbors of our Atlantic Coast, they soon 
showed wherein their weakness lay. 

Congress, nevertheless, proceeded to authorize the gunboats. 
In 1S03, 15; in 1804, 25; in 1805, 50; and in 1806, 188 
more.^^ It is only fair to say that this gunboat building was 
only part of a general program laid down by Eobert Smith for 
the extension of the ISTavy. In 1805 he asked that " all the 
frigates should be put in commission, that we should build the 
six 74's, already started, and six more to reinforce them." ^* 
Had this part of his program been followed, we would have been 
much better prepared for war in 1812 than we actually were. 

Something was radically wrong with the Navy. As Commo- 
dore Preble angrily declared in 1805: " Of the 11 frigates still 
retained only one (the Constitution) was in good repair." ^^ 
The truth of the matter was that all the money appropriated by 
Congress for a number of years had been spent on the Tripolitan 
war. As a result expenditures on the Navy Yards and on the 
vessels sent home from the Mediterranean had everywhere been 
cut down to the last degree. Less than $10,000.00 had been 
spent in improving the various Navy Yards and this was far too 
small a sum, as was afterwards found, to prevent the Naval 
stores from rotting where they lay. Jefferson had determined 
that Washington should be as much the center of Naval as of 
Governmental activities. His choice was unwise and illustrates 
again the folly of civilian interference in technical problems. 
The Eastern branch contained barely 18 feet of water, and it 
was only on the highest tide that the frigates could come up to 
their dock. Still, something might have been made of the place 
had the plan of Mr. Benjamin H. Latrobe (which Mr. Semmes 
has 80 well described) for a dry dock been adopted. Under 
this plan there was to have been an upper and a lower basin, 
the former for repairing and the latter for storing ships.^® But 

■J. MSB., 8. 3, V. 2, No. 54. Sept. 9, 1805; also R. S. MSS., Sept. 18, 1805. 
**.J. MSB., B. 3, V. 2, No. 55. Sept. 10, 1805. 
»J. MSB., 8. 3, V. 2, No. 10. Jan. 1, 1805. 
» J. MSB., 8. 3, V. 1, No. 40. July 13, 1802. 



ROBERT SMITH AND THE NAVY. 317 

Congress failed to appropriate money for this scheme, and the 
ships lay rotting in the mud of the Eastern Branch. 

The most interesting part of the gunboat building lies in the 
fact that nearly half of them were built on the waters of the 
Ohio. The Western attitude of mind is indicated by Henry 
Ford's to build submarines. ISTothing seems easier than to build 
a boat : in reality, nothing is more difficult. The Western gun- 
boats that were built were " badly built and the seams were 
uncommonly wide owing to the plank being unseasoned when 
put on." ^"^ Half of them were condemned as unfit for use or 
were partially rebuilt. The decision to build these boats on the 
Western waters resulted in a greater waste than can be esti- 
mated. 

There were two reasons why contracts were let to men on the 
Western waters : one, strategic ; the other, political. If war came 
with either France or Spain, it was feared that i^Tew Orleans 
would be the first point of attack, and gunboats built on the 
Ohio could reach there sooner than those built on the Coast. It 
was thought, too, that they could be built for less money. But 
cheap timber was offset by the high cost of labor, and in addition 
all the rigging and ironwork had to be carried over the moun- 
tains on muleback. A gunboat which cost $7,000.00 in Balti- 
more, cost $12,000.00 in Cincinnati. 

The real reason was a political one. Kentucky was sup- 
posedly rebellious: Aaron Burr was mysteriously moving up 
and down the Ohio. It was thought that if contracts were let 
to staunch Republicans in that part of the country, that these 
men would serve as rallying points to hold Kentucky safe. 
When it was finally decided to arrest Burr, orders for his arrest 
were sent to Matthew Lyon, to Henry Carberry and John Smith, 
all of w'hom had been engaged in building gunboats. They 
obeyed the orders ; Burr's scheme failed ; and thus perhaps the 
building of the Western gunboats was justified.^^ 

Meanwhile, British frigates were hovering on our coast and 

"Capts. Letters. Sep. 4, 1806. 

«Misc. Letters. Jan. 15, 1807. J. Mss., s. 3, v. 2, No. 31, Jun. 11, 1805. 



318 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Robert Smith was compelled to pray that " some strong equi- 
noctial wind might force them for a time from our coast." ^^ 
The next year, 1S05, there were Spanish pirates on the coast. 
The supply ship Huntress was taken within the waters of the 
Chesapeake and had to be ransomed from the pirates.^^ 

While our coast was thus bared of defence, Robert Smith had 
collected in the Mediterranean the largest fleet that was to be 
gathered under a single flag until the days of the Civil War. It 
was not failure against Tripoli that induced us to make peace 
in the Mediterranean, but the desire to protect our own coast. 
This desire was increased by the fear of a war with England. 
The Chesapeake affair took place on July 7th and a week later 
the final orders for the withdrawal of our fleet were sent. But 
it was not till six months later that Robert Smith was relieved of 
his anxiety for the fleet, by the arrival of the last of Captain 
Chauncey's vessels at Baltimore.^^ ^- 

The Affair of the Chesapeake deserves more than a passing 
mention; from an American point of view, it was a shameful 
affair. An American frigate (the Chesapeake) had been fired 
upon by a British man-of-war. Four of the Chesapeake crew 
had been removed by force. It did not seem possible that war 
could be avoided. The cause of this outbreak was the presence 
on the Chesapeake of four men whom the British claimed as 
deserters from the Melampus. It has generally been assumed 
that the British had no justification for their action. 

But a study of the records shows some curious facts. Robert 
Smith had ordered that the case of the three men in question 
shoul dbe investigated before the Chesapeake sailed.^^ Capt. 
Barron of the Chesapeake had written to Robert Smith before 
sailing that he was deficient " nearly one hundred men in our 
crew — who had deserted." ^* Furthermore, when Robert Smith 

•• J. MSB., 8. 3, V. 2, No. 6. Sep. 14, 1804. 

«• J, MSB., 8. 3, V. 2, No. 23c, Jun. 12, 1805; No. 24, Jun. 24, 1805. 

" G. A. Barbary Corsairs, 223. 

«»I>ett€r Book, Jul. 14, 1807. 

*»Paullin: Rogers, 184. 

♦*Capt«. Letters: Jun. 11, 1807. 



EOBEET SMITH AND THE NAVY. 319 

issued his orders (N'ov. 17, 1807 ^^ that " all aliens should be 
discharged from our ships," Stephen Decatur hastened to pro- 
test that it was impossible to determine the nationality of our 
sailors. When the Constitution reached Baltimore, her crew 
consisted of 419 men. Of these, 241 claimed that they were 
Americans, 52 were English, 97 were Irish, and the rest were 
of various nationalities.*^ It is no wonder that with these facts 
against him. Secretary 'of State Madison found it hard to main- 
tain his claim for indemnity for the men of the Chesapeake. 
Jefferson had decided on the policy of Embargo, and Non-Im- 
portation, in preference to war, and from this time on till 1812 
the ISTavy acted as a police to prevent violations of the Embargo. 

Robert Smith's order of June 6, 1808, to Stephen Decatur is 
typical 'of this exceedingly unromantic period : He is to proceed 
to St. Mary's, Ga., where there is a " combination between some 
American citizens and British subjects for carrying of supplies 
and introducing British goods into this country." *'' Deer Is- 
land, off the Maine Coast, was another of these obscure points 
to which British vessels came to receive American produce in this 
illegal way. The practice was hard to stop, and the despised 
gunboats here made themselves useful. In shallow bays and 
inlets from Passamaquody to Beaufort, they guarded the shore 
and checked the illegal traffic. 

The special permissions issued by the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, allowing vessels to sail in spite of the embargo, did not 
make this policing any the easier. In 1808 there were at Balti- 
more at least 20 such cases of evasions of the law which the 
'NsiYj could not prevent.*^ That these boats were sent to Vera 
Cruz to bring back specie ; that this money was sent to England 
and helped to maintain our balance of trade does not alter the 
fact that Albert Gallatin was violating the law.*^ As in the 
quarrel between Gideon Welles and Chase in 1862 over the 

«Capts. Letters: Nov. 17, 1807. 

«Capts. Letters: Jan. 13, 1808. 

« Letters to Capts. Jun. 6, 1808. 

*» Bait. Customs " Departures." Also Letters to Captains, Dec. 28, 1808. 

« S. S. to A. G. July 19, 1807. 



320 MAEYI.AND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

issue of permits to trade in cotton, the ISTavy stood for a strict 
enforcement of the law, while the Treasury stood for its evasion. 
Such action on the part of Gallatin could only have caused 
trouble in the Cabinet. 

It has always been the policy of the l!^avy to aid inventors 
and men who were pushing forward new industries. In this, 
as in so many other Naval activities, Eobert Smith established 
a precedent. Before the Revolution, Paul Revere had been a 
manufacturer of copper in a small way. In 1801, he applied to 
Robert Smith for a loan of $10,000.00 to enable him to procure 
machinery for rolling the copper into sheets. This was granted 
and after several years of struggle, the ISTavy was able to sheathe 
its vessels with American copper manufactured in this coun- 
try.^*^ In a similar way encouragement was given to the Du- 
Pont Powder Works; the Roosevelt Copper Plant; and to the 
Mt. Pleasant Iron Foundry, where Samuel Hughes cast shot 
for the ISTavy.^^ In Kentucky the building of the gunboats 
stimulated the manufacture of " iron, tar, tools, and liquors." 

About the same time Robert Smith secured $5,000.00 for 
Robert Fulton's experiments with torpedoes. Fulton's idea was 
essentially that of the modern torpedo. A small, swift boat, 
aided by oars, was to carry the torpedo close to the vessel which 
was under attack. Once within range the torpedo was to be 
fastened to the doomed vessel's side by means of an ordinary 
harpoon. In that day of wooden vessels and expert whaling 
masters, this was no mean weapon; and this weapon, through 
the agency of Robert Smith, belonged to the United States. 

The writer realizes that he has not been able to draw a per- 
sonal portrait of his hero. Robert Smith left few personal let- 
ters and contemporary opinion is silent with regard to his work 
as Secretary of the Navy. Only two accounts of him have come 
down to us. The one by the French Ambassador, Serurier, pic- 
tures Robert Smith, then Secretary of State, as the equal of 
Gallatin; the other, by Randolph of Roanoke, pictures Robert 

"Misc. Letters. Apr. 17, 1801. 
" MUc. Letters. Mar. 18, 1805. 



BOBEKT SMITH AND THE NAVY. 321 

Smith as quailing in ignorance before Randolph's questions, 
" like a whipt schoolboy." This last picture like all pen 
sketches by Randolph can not be accepted by the modern writer 
with any degree of veracity on account of Randolph's well- 
known love of exaggeration, and invective. The possible ex- 
planation is that Robert Smith preferred, for Departmental 
reasons, not to answer Randolph's questions.^- 

When Robert Smith left the Department, the officers united 
in wishing him well, and in thanking him for his nine years of 
service. Commenting on this, James Fennimore Cooper says: 
" He rendered himself justly popular with the service .... 
and left behind him the feeling that (the interests of the ISTavy) 
were intrusted to one well disposed to serve his country and the 
J^avy." ^^ Jefferson bade him good-bye with a thought of the 
many years in which they had been " connected in service and 
in society " and thanked him for " the aid and relief in an 
important part of the public cares." ^^ 

The writer's own opinion of Robert Smith is one of sincere 
respect. With inadequate means, he waged a successful war 
abroad which trained our young officers for the later War of 
1812. He made one great mistake, it is true, in not opposing 
the policy of gunboat defence, but it must be remembered that 
this policy was urged on him by Jefferson and others and was 
adopted with reluctance, and even from this policy benefit was 
derived in the days of Kentucky's unrest and "New England 
separatism. Had Robert Smith's energy not been diverted by 
this unfortunate policy, he would have been remembered as one 
of the greatest of our Secretaries. As it is, in one of the most 
trying periods of our country's history, he kept alive a proper 
esprit de corps, and to the last remained popular with the sever- 
est of all ^avy critics — the officers and men. 

The lack of success of the last part of his administration has 
been attributed to the weakness and faulty organization of the 

"Adams Life of Randolph; p. 211, R. to Nicohlson. 

«J. F. C. Navy, I, 301. 

"J. Mss., s. 1, V. 12, 796. June 10, 1809. 

2 



322 ilAEYI^AJNTD HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

Department.'*^ The writer believes rather that they should be 
attributed to the lack of harmony and confidence between Robert 
Smith and Gallatin. Jefferson's farewell letter closed with the 
wish that in the new administration peace and harmony might 
prevail. How far that wish was fulfilled is still an unknown 
chapter. 



IN MEMORIAM 

Compiled by John C. Fell 



III 

Fbancisco Augusta Anza^ Private, 19th Battalion, Middlesex 

Regt 
Bom at Puerta Plata, Santo Domingo, West Indies, October 

6, 1896. 
Killed at Archiet-le^rand, Prance. 

Francisco Augusta Anza was the son of J. C. Anza and Louisa 
Anza of Puerta Plata, Santo Domingo, West Indies, and 
brother of Jose B. Anza, Luis Anza, Mana T. Anza, and Mrs. 
Angela Progson of ISTew York. He was the husband of 
Marguerite K. Anza of Port Deposit, Maryland. 

He received his early education in European countries, com- 
ing to the United States in 1909. He then spent three years 
at Tome Institute, Port Deposit, Md. On graduation from this 
institution he became associated with the firm of Charles Hires 
Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa., where he was employed in the 
chemical laboratory. He left this position to enlist in the 
British Army. 

In ^March, 1916, he enlisted in the British Army at Liver- 
pool, England. After a short period of training he was sent 
to the western front with the 19th Battalion, Middlesex Regi- 
ment, where he saw active service until he was badly wounded 

"G. A. Barbary Corsairs. 216. 



IN MEMOEIAM. 323 

in the right leg, in September, 1916. After six months in a 
hospital he went back to Flanders for four months, when he 
was again wounded, this time in the head, causing him to re- 
main eight months in the hospital. 

Private Anza was then offered a discharge, but refused the 
same, as he desired to get back into action. In the fall of 1917 
he was sent to the Italian front and served there until the spring 
of 1918, when he returned to France and was mortaUy 
wounded on IMarch 24, 1918, when the big spring offensive 
started toward Paris. 



Geoege McIntike Bakee, Second Lieutenant, Company I, 
313th Infantry, Y9th Division. 
Bom at Chicago, 111. 
Killed at Montfaucon, France, September 26, 1918. 

George Mclntire Baker was the son of the late Samuel 
Baker and the late Louise M. Baker and brother of James H. 
Baker, Katherine B. Houston and Elizabeth B. Symington, 
all of Rodger's Forge, Md. 

His early education was received at the Lawrenceville School, 
"New Jersey, going thence into the banking business in Chicago, 
remaining there only a short while, when he took up the real 
estate business in l^ew York, after which he came to Maryland 
and lived with his sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Symington, of Rod- 
ger's Forge, Md. 

Shortly after the outbreak of the war he volunteered his 
services and was sent to the First Officers' Training Camp, 
Fort Myer, Virginia, graduating as a second lieutenant of 
infantry in May, 1917. He was assigned to Camp Meade, 
where he subsequently became a member of Company L, 
313th Infantry, 79th Division, sailing with the organization 
on July 5, 1918. 

The following extract from a letter of Lieut, Col. Janney's 
to his sister fittingly describes his last action : 

"I want to tell you how wonderfully George Baker fought 



324 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and died. He was commanding his platoon when the word 
came to go over. He took his platoon on and on without a 
halt or pause, through wire and trenches and hostile fire. Just 
as the order to halt was given George's Sergeant was wounded 
by the machine-gnn fire and fell by his side. George refused 
to go to a safe place and under fire deliberately and tenderly 
boimd up the Sergeant's wounds. Just as he finished two 
bullets from the same machine gun struck him and he died 
instantly. His example was an inspiration to his men and 
they were devoted to him. No one could hope for a finer end, 
out in front fighting, and even then forgetting his own safety 
to help a fallen comrade." 



Earl Scott Buchanan, Private 135th Machine Gun Bat- 
talion of 37th Division. 
Born at Barrellsville, Md., February 13, 1896. 
Killed at Olsene, Belgium, October 31, 1918. 

Earl Scott Buchanan was the son of Howard Buchanan and 
Elizabeth Buchanan and brother of Alex. R. Buchanan, George 
D. Buchanan, Wm. E. Buchanan, Walter H. Buchanan and 
Sarah Kathryn Buchanan. 

His boyhood days were spent at Barrellsville, Md., and his 
early schooling was obtained at the public school nearby. He 
continued his education until he was 18 years old, when he 
became interested in the lumber business, going into his father's 
firm. 

On April 26, 1918, he was inducted into the Army by the 
Local Board of Frostburg, and was sent to Camp Meade, 
Maryland. After remaining three weeks at this camp he was 
transferred to Camp Lee, Virginia, being assigned to the 135th 
^Machine Gun Battalion of the 37th Division. After three 
weeks of intensive training his battalion received orders to 
proceed to the port of embarkation, leaving Hoboken on June 
11, on board the S. S. Leviathan. 

Private Buchanan fought with the 135th Machine Gun 



IN MEMOKIAM. 325 

Battalion as dispatch carrier in the Baccarat Section until 
September 25th, when the Division was taken to the North of 
Verdun, where they were used in the Mouse Argonne offensive. 
Later they fought at the St. Mihiel Sector at Wieltje Bel, 
near Ypres, where they were attached to a division of the 
French Army at the disposition of the King of Belgium. 
Altho the Division encountered stubborn resistance they ad- 
vanced to Olsene, where on the morning 'of October 31, 1918, 
Private Buchanan was killed while going over the top. 



Galloway Grinnell Cheston^ First Lieutenant TJ. S. Air 
Service to the 206th Aero Squadron, Koyal Flying 
Corps. 

Born at West River, Md., May 3, 1896. 

Killed in action, Oourtrai, Belgium, July 29, 1918. 

Galloway G. Cheston was the son of the late Galloway 
Cheston and Henrietta McCulloch Cheston and the step-son 
of Commodore T. Porter, U. S. 1^. 

He attended private schools in Annapolis, Maryland, until 
fifteen years old, when he enrolled at St. John's College, An- 
napolis, Maryland, and would have graduated in June, 1917. 
He enlisted in the First Officers' Training Camp at Fort Myer, 
Virginia, May 3, 1917, and after the completion of this course 
was assigned to Cornell University Ground School, graduating 
with honors in September, 1917. He then sailed for Eng- 
land, September 17, 1917, where he took the remainder of 
his training for Pilot. On March 1, 1918, he was commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant of Aviation. After finishing this 
training he was assigned to the 206th Aero Squadron of the 
Royal Flying Corps, which was located about half way be- 
tween Boulogne and St. Omer. 

Lieutenant Cheston took part in a number of air raids 
before he was killed, showing extreme bravery and fortitude. 
One of his comrades relates in the following manner the story 



326 MASTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of his death: "The day that 'Chess' did not return our squad- 
ron was very hard hit. They set out to bomb Courtrai rail- 
road station and yards, which at that time were at least fifteen 
miles beyond the front lines. ' Chess ' had been having a little 
engine trouble for two or three days preceding, but it was not 
serious enough to prevent his crossing the lines. On this 
raid about 4 P. M. they had to run through a pretty stiff 
'archie' barrage, but as they approached the target at about 
fourteen thousand feet altitude the barrage died away. They 
dropped their bombs, and as the formation turned it was 
noticed that 'Chess' was slightly lower than he should have 
been, but not seriously out of his position in the formation. 
Just as they were turning they were attacked by about three 
thnes their number of Huns, and from there on it was a 
running fight back to the lines. Several pilots and observers 
noticed that one machine seemed to be losing altitude, as if 
the engine was not giving its full power, and it was assumed 
that the pilot was depressing the nose of his machine in order 
to keep up his speed and not fall behind the others, thus keep- 
ing under the formation for protection. Each machine was 
engaged in desperate fighting all this time and making for 
the lines, so that no one really had an opportunity to look 
about him to see how the others were faring. However, one 
pilot states that he saw 'Chess' ' machine, which was getting 
lower and lower, though still under control, and the last any- 
one saw it was surrounded by five or six Huns, and was 
manoeuvering desperately to get away or beat them, but obvi- 
ously the odds were too great." 

The honors heaped upon some who have returned is only 
possible by the efforts of those that died, and the glory accorded 
to them is but the reflected glory of those that were sacrificed. 



IN MEMOKIAM. 327 

Stanley L. Cocheane^ Second Lieutenant, 166th Aero 
Squadron. 
Bom at Crisfield, Md., December 14, 1894. 
Killed in air battle over tbe German lines, October 31, 1918. 

Stanley L. Cocbrane was tbe son of Arthur B. Cochrane 
and Amy W. Cochrane and brother of Arthur B. Cochrane, 
Jr., Ada B. Cochrane and Mary H. Cochrane, all of Cris- 
field, Maryland. 

His early life was spent at Crisfield, Maryland, where he 
graduated from the Crisfield High School in June, 1911. 
He then took up the study of law at the University of Mary- 
land, completing his course in June, 1914. Prom this time 
until he entered the Army he practiced law at Crisfield, where 
he also took an active part in Democratic politics. 

Stanley L. Cochrane enlisted on May 4, 1917, for instruc- 
tion at Fort Myer, Virginia, and was admitted to the Oflficers' 
Training Camp at Fort Myer on May 8th. After sei*ving the 
full term of three months he was recommended for the avia- 
tion ser\dce and was ordered to Cornell University for pre- 
paratory training, and on it^'ovember 11, 1917, sailed for the 
aviation fields of France to complete his training. 

On June 1, 1918, he was commissioned Lieutenant and was 
assigned for active duty on June 6, 1918, and took part in many 
air raids, exhibiting remarkable courage and daring. 

He was officially connected with the 166th Aero Squadron 
and his last work was done while stationed in the Argonne 
Mouse Sector. He met death on October 31, 1918, while par- 
ticipating in a air raid over the German lines. The aeroplane 
in which he was flying was compelled to leave the formation 
due to engine trouble and the German pursuit planes in the 
vicinity immediately attacked him in large numbers and forced 
his machine to the ground, though not until he had shot down 
two German planes. Lieutenant Cochrane's bravery in oper- 
ating the guns even after he was mortally wounded enabled 
his pilot to escape. 

For his action in this battle he was cited for extraordinary 



32S MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

bravery by his commanding officer and was i-ecommended for 
the Distinguished Service Cross. He was buried at Providors- 
Sur-Meuse. 



Hexey Gilbert Costin, Private Company H, 115th Infan- 
try Eegiment. 
Bom at Baltimore, Md., Jime 15, 1898. 
Killed in the Argonne Forest, France, October 8, 1919. 

Henry Gilbert Oostin was the son of the late Hythron J. 
Costin and Lizzie Coston and brother of Paul M. Costin, 
Osborne Costin and Mrs. Miskel McGill, all of Baltimore 
City. He married Miss Hythron Johnson August 13, 1917, 
who was the daughter of Capt. G. C. Johnson, of the U. S. 
Coast Guard. 

On his graduation from Baltimore City College in 1915 
he joined the firm of J. R. Dunn Mercantile Agencies. After 
being with this firm for a year he enlisted in the Maryland 
National Guard June 17, 1916. A few days later the regi- 
ment, which was then the old Fifth, left for the Mexican bor- 
der, where he served for seven months. 

On the return of the regiment they were mustered into the 
Federal Service, then sent to a Mobilization Camp at Annis- 
ton, Alabama (Camp McClellan). After a period of ten 
months training he sailed for France as a member of Com- 
pany H, 115th Eegiment, 79th Division. 

On September 17, 1918, Oostin and sixty of his companions 
were caught in a German gas attack while holding a part of 
the Alsace front and Costin, forgetting his own danger, admin- 
istered first aid to his comrades before he fell semi-conscious. 
He was sent back to the hospital and awarded the Croix de 
Guerre. 

Ho returned to the trenches on October 6, just as the 115th 
was going into action above Verdun, when two days later he 
was killed. The Congressional Medal was awarded on rec- 
ommendation of General Pershing, " for conspicuous gal- 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 329 

lantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in 
action with the enemy near Bois de Consenvoye, France, 
October 8, 1918." When the advance of his platoon had been 
held up by machine gun fire, and when a request had been 
made for an automatic rifle team to charge the nest, Private 
Costin was the first to volunteer. Advancing with his team 
under a terrific fire of the enemy artillery machine gun and 
trench mortar, he continued after all his com|panions had 
become casualties and he himself had been severely wounded. 
He operated his rifle until he collapsed. His act resulted in 
the capture of about one hundred prisoners and several 
machine guns. 

He succumbed to the effect of his wound shortly after the 
accomplishment of his heroic deed. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON 

Edward S. Delaplaine 

Paet Third 



CHAPTER VI 

With George Washington. Endeavors to Promote 
ISTavigation on the Potomac 

The year 1732, which saw the birth of George Washington 
and Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Johnson, also witnessed 
the first step in the development of the western territory of 
Maryland. For in that memorable year vast areas of the fertile 
soil in the western part of the province were offered by Charles 
Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore, to the subjects residing in tide- 
water. A number of wealthy men eagerly took advantage of 
Lord Baltimore's offer. Patrick Dulany acquired the soil upon 
which the city of Frederick now stands ; Charles Carroll, father 



330 ^rAKYiAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the Signer, secured possession of 15,000 acres in Carrollton 
Manor; Benjamin Tasker received a patent for Tasker's Chance, 
embracing over 8,000 acres; and the renowned Daniel Dulany 
likewise obtained thousands of acres of the fertile soil in the 
vallev of the Monoeacy. 

The following picturesque description of the forest land along 
the upper Potomac at the time of the birth of Thomas Johnson 
has been written by J. Thomas Scharf in his History of 
Western Maryland: 

" The early settlers of Maryland and Virginia kept to the 
navigable streams, and it was many years afterwards before the 
fertile lands in the valleys in the neighborhood of the Blue 
Ridge and Alleghany Mountains began to be dotted with the 
log cabins of an advancing frontier. jSTo pioneer had ventured 
into these solitudes, whose sleeping echoes were only waked by 
the scream of the eagle or the whoop of the painted warrior. 
Xeither Gist nor Cresap had yet seen the wilds of Western 
Maryland. The Potomac then flowed in solitary grandeur for 
more than three hundred miles through an unbroken wilderness, 
its gentle surface only disturbed by the wing of the wild-fowl 
or the dip of the savage paddle." 

Sixteen years later all that portion of the colony now known 
as Western Maryland — the Sixth Congressional District, com- 
prising Garrett, Allegany, Washington, Frederick, and Mont- 
gomery counties, as well as much adjacent territory — was erec- 
ted by the Provincial Assembly as Frederick County. Some 
time between the birth of Thomas Johnson and the establish- 
ment of Frederick County by act of Assembly commences the 
story of the effort to secure an easy means of communication 
between the Eastern settlements and the West. The narrative 
begins about the year 1Y40, when Thomas Cresap, a sturdy 
pioneer from Yorkshire, England, built himself a fortified stone 
house near a deserted village of the Shawnees a few miles above 
the junction of the ^NTorth and South branches of the Potomac. 
" The English colonel " — as Cresap was called — was sent to the 
back country by Charles Calvert to guard the interests of Lord 
Baltimore against the claims of Lord Fairfax, and in the treaty 



TPIE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 331 

of June 30, 1744, between the Six N^ations and tlie Province of 
Maryland, he is mentioned as the owner of a cabin about two 
miles above the uppermost fork of the Potomac. 

The year 1Y48, marking as it does the origin of Frederick 
County, Maryland, also marks the first vision George Wash- 
ington caught of the western section of Maryland. The future 
President was born at Wakefield, in Westmoreland County, 
Virginia; lived from 1Y35 to 1739 on the estate now known 
as Mount Vernon, and was taken at the age of seven to a home 
on the Rappahannock. His father, Augustine Washington, 
died in the spring of 1743 and in his will devised his estate 
on Hunting Creek, near Alexandria, to Lawrence Washing- 
ton, a son of his first wife. This beautiful country seat 
stretched for miles along the Potomac and bordered the estates 
of the Fairfaxes, the Masons and other distinguished families 
of Virginia. Lawrence Washington married the daughter of 
Hon. William Fairfax, cousin of Lord Thomas Fairfax, in 
1743, and erected a substantial mansion upon the highest 
eminence along the Potomac front of his domain and named the 
spot " Mount Vernon " in honor of Admiral Vernon, under 
whom he fought in the South American expedition in 1741- 
1742. When Lawrence was fairly settled with his bride, little 
George came as a frequent visitor to Mount Vernon. It was 
at this time that Thomas Johnson, according to the accepted 
tradition in the Johnson family, commenced his lifelong 
friendship with the Father of His Country. Young George had 
already been a steadfast friend of Richard Henry Lee, a bright 
lad one month his elder. From earliest childhood Washington 
and Lee had been intimate and the letters written between them 
at the early age of nine are supposed to be the very earliest 
epistles of these American statesmen. On his visits to Mount 
Vernon, George Washington met the children in the Fairfax 
family. Lord Fairfax, who had been educated at Oxford but 
who had been made surly and misanthropic by disappointment 
in love, was at that time sojourning with William Fairfax on 
the beautiful estate, " Belvoir," and on the Lord's vast domain 
young Washington did some of his first surveying, running 



332 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the lines with admirable precision. At the age of 16 he was 
public surveyor of Culpepper County and thenceforward he 
lived regularly with his half-brother at Mount Vernon. During 
leisure hours he hunted the fox. The tradition that Thomas 
Johnson, junior, was a companion and playmate of Washington 
when about 1-i or 15 years of age, is handed down by Mrs. Corra 
Bacon-Foster, of Washington, D. C. In her admirable paper 
on the " Ohio Company," which she read on December 14th, 
1909, before the Columbia Historical Society, she said: 

" Meantime, about 1747, two young gentlemen, George Wash- 
ington and George William Fairfax, were amusing themselves 
in surveying fields and outlying lots about Mount Vernon and 
Belvoir on the lower Potomac ; an occasional companion was a 
slim lad of about the same age with a pleasant, refined coun- 
tenance lighted by a pair of wonderful dark eyes ; he cared 
little for horses and athletic sports, but was reading law in Mr. 
Bordley's oflBce at Annapolis ; this stripling was Thomas John- 
son, Maryland's greatest son. Thus early commenced the life- 
long friendship between these men. The cynical Lord Fairfax, 
who was at the time visiting his cousin, became interested in 
the surveying and in the young man who arrived at such accu- 
rate results, and who he was told had his own fortune to seek. 
He chose the shy, awkward and overgrown lad for his com- 
panion on many excursions, to the amusement of a bright lady 
of the family, who remarked that the two must be congenial 
company, ' as the Lord never spoke at all and George only when 
addressed.' " ^^ 

When Lord Fairfax sent out an experienced surveyor to 
explore his territory and locate his northern lines, he employed 
the two young gentlemen to go along as assistants, paying each 
the goodly sum of a daily doubloon. Thomas Cresap, being a 
surveyor, had located the western boundary of Maryland, and 
in March, 1748, the party of Virginians crossed the Potomac 
into ^Maryland to pay their respects to " the English colonel." 
On Friday, March 18th, according to Washington's diary, the 
river was six feet higher than usual and was still rising, due 

"Bacon-Foster, Patomao Route to the West (Columbia Historical Soci- 
ety), page 13. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 333 

to the heavy rains which were bringing down the melted snow 
from the mountains. The party camped out in the field at 
night, and on Sunday evening, finding the river not much 
abated, they swam their horses over to Charles Polk's, in Mary- 
land, for pasturage ; and on Monday morning they paddled over 
in a canoe and traveled all day in a drenching rain until they 
arrived at Colonel Cresap's — a distance of 40 miles over " the 
worst road that ever was trod by man or beast." 

In his diary Washington explains how it rained until 
Wednesday afternoon, March 23rd, when " we were agreeably 
surpris'd at y. sight of thirty odd Indians coming from War 
with only one Scalp. We had some Liquor with us of which we 
gave them Part it elevating there Spirits put them in y. 
Humour of Dauncing of whom we had a War Daunce." Hence, 
on this early trip, several months before Frederick County was 
created, Washington, by " climbing rugged hills, swimming his 
horse through turbid torrents, sleeping in the open woods beside 
the lonely camp-fire," not only built up a robust health and a 
great store of strength and endurance, but also caught his first 
vision of the upper Potomac and the West. Moreover, Lord 
Fairfax was pleased with the young surveyor's work and soon 
appointed him surveyor-in-chief with headquarters at his hunt- 
ing lodge in the Shenandoah Valley. " In the three years thus 
occupied," says Mrs. Bacon-Foster, " Washington had constant 
opportunity to become very familiar with the upper Potomac 
in its various stages of drouth and high water. He must have 
often visited the depot of the Ohio Company at Will's Creek 
and the two-storied, stockaded home of Thomas Cresap." 

It was in 1748 — the year of Washington's surveying trip — 
that the famous Ohio Company was organized. And in the 
following year this company, composed of a small number of 
wealthy subjects of Virginia and Maryland, secured from King 
George II, through the Governor of Virginia (the colony which 
claimed all the territory to the west as far as Lake Erie), a 
charter and grant to 500,000 acres of land west of the 
Alleghanies. The Ohio Company acquired the land free of rent 
for ten years on condition that they select 200,000 acres imme- 



334 AIAEYLA1SD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

diatelj upon "wliich they were required to erect a fort, maintain 
a garrison and induce the settlement of one hundred families 
within a period of seven years. If these terms were complied 
with, the company was to receive the further grant of 300,000 
acres. Thomas Lee, at that time President of His Majesty's 
Council in Virginia, held two of the 20 shares and was the presi- 
dent of the company. John Hanbury & Company, of London, 
holding two shares, were the London agents. John Mercer, one 
of the most distinguished lawyers in America, was chosen secre- 
tary and counsel. George Mason was the treasurer. Augustine 
and Lawrence Washington also held shares. Three shares were 
held in Maryland. Thomas Cresap became the manager in the 
field. Upon the advice of Colonel Cresap, Christopher Gist wa? 
engaged to select the vast tract of land by actual observation and 
to endeavor to secure the friendship of the red men. The or- 
ganization of the Ohio Company was a signal of alarm for the 
French. The embers of hatred between Great Britain and 
France, w'hich had been smoldering for many years as a result 
of conflicting territorial claims, burst forth into a flame when the 
frontiersmen of these two nations attempted to colonize the Ohio 
Valley. So the great contest for supremacy between the Courts 
of Paris and London was destined to be decided in America. 

Undaunted, the members of the Ohio Company commenced 
at once eagerly to explore the country. In 1750 a storehouse 
was constructed at Will's Creek — the present site of Cumber- 
land — and it was stocked with goods which they ordered from 
London to be bartered with the Indians. The following year 
Colonel Cresap selected an Indian to lay out a road froin thence 
to the mouth of the Monongahela. Robert Dinwiddle became 
Crown Governor of Virginia in 1752 and the next year he 
heard the news of the imprisonment of a number of British 
traders and the order of the French military commanders to 
erect forts from Lake Erie to the headwaters of the Allegheny. 
All students of American history are thoroughly familiar with 
the aftermath — how Governor Dinwiddie, now a prominent 
member of the Ohio Company, picked George Washington to 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 335 

carry the message of warning to the French against further 
intrusion of the Ohio Valley. On account of the firm friend- 
ship existing from an early age between Washington and John- 
son — a friendship which casts illumination upon both charac- 
ters — it is appropriate at this point to visualize Washington as 
he appeared on his dangerous mission across the Alleghanies. 
He has been admirably described at this stage of his career by 
Mr. Edward S. Ellis in the following words : 

" The person whom he (Gov. Dinwiddle) had selected was 
about twenty-one years old, six feet two inches in height, and 
the swiftest runner, the longest thrower, the best wrestler, the 
most skilful horseman, the strongest swimmer, and the finest 
athlete in all the country round. Besides these striking physical 
traits, he was truthful, high-minded, a fine soldier and an expe- 
rienced surveyor, and withal the soul of honor, a person, in 
short, who from his earliest boyhood lived in accordance with 
the Golden Eule." 

Frederick County, Maryland, it should be noted in this 
connection, was crossed by Washington in ISTovember, 1753, on 
this memorable journey to Lake Erie, where General St. Pierre, 
the commander of the French forces in the West, was statioued. 
France, it will be remembered, claimed the valley of the Ohio 
by virtue of discovery and occupation; and St. Pierre replied 
that he was acting under military instructions. Of Washing- 
ton's return trip, most of the time with Christopher Gist as 
his sole companion, Mr. Ridpath gives the following vivid 
description : 

" It was one of the most solitary marches ever made by man. 
There in the desolate wilderness was the future President of 
the United States. Clad in the robe of an Indian, with gun 
in hand and knapsack strapped to his shoulder, struggling 
through interminable snows; sleeping with frozen clothes 
on a bed of pine-brush; breaking through the treacherous 
ice of rapid streams ; guided by day by a pocket compass, and 
at night by the North Star, seen at intervals through the leaf- 
less trees; fired at by a prowling savage from his covert not 
fifteen steps away; thrown from a raft into the rushing Alle- 
gheny; escaping to an island and lodging there until the river 



336 MAEYi.A]sri> histokical magazine. 

was frozen over ; plunging again into the forest ; reaching Gist's 
settlement and then the Potomac — the strong-limbed young 
ambassador came back without wound or scar to the capital of 
Virginia. For his flesh was not made to be torn with bullets 
or to be eaten by the wolves. The defiant despatch of St. Pierre 
was laid before Governor Dinwiddle, and the first public service 
of Washington was accomplished." 

Upon reaching Williamsburg, January 16, 1754, Washington 
made a report to the Governor and Council, and doubtless sug- 
gested the great importance — from a military, however, ratheT 
than from a commercial standpoint — of opening a communica- 
tion between tidewater and the western settlements. 

Thus, George Washington at an early day conceived the idea 
of connecting the East and the West. Frequently, he explored 
the territory of Frederick County along the Potomac and while 
Thomas Johnson was busily engaged in his work under Thomas 
Jennings and Stephen Bordley at Annapolis, the young Virgini- 
an was gaining a clear and comprehensive vision of the possibili- 
ties of the West. The fact must not be overlooked that Frederick 
Town itself — the seat of Frederick County, near which Thomas 
Johnson took up his residence during the Revolution to spend 
the latter half of his life — was quite familiar to George Wash- 
ington during the days of the French and Indian War. It was 
at Frederick on the 24th of April, 1755, that Governor Sharpe 
met General Edward Braddock, Benjamin Franklin and Wash- 
ington. Mr. Franklin was then the British Postmaster-General 
of the American Colonies and he came to Frederick to aid in 
forwarding supplies to the frontier. This was the first time 
that the Philadelphia philosopheir clasped hands with the great 
soldier-statesman of Virginia. 

In the same year Stephen Bordley, Mr. Johnson's legal pre- 
ceptor, was admitted to the bar of Frederick County, but it was 
not until five years later — 1760 — that Thomas Johnson was 
admitted to practice at Frederick Town. The Frederick County 
Court was at that time in its very infancy. The lawyers who 
first put in their appearance at Frederick were Daniel Dulany 
and William Cumraing, who were admitted in 1749, one year 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 337 

after the county was established. Then came Edward Dorsey 
and Henry Darnall in 1752. No other lawyers appeared until 
the arrival of Mr. Bordley^ Richard Chase and Lloyd Buchanan 
in 1755. Five years later came Eastburn BuUit and Thomas 
Johnson, Jr. 

On this trip to Frederick Town in his twenty-eighth year, 
Thomas Johnson was deeply impressed with the beauties and 
the wonderful latent resources of Frederick County and it was 
not long afterwards — on March 20', 1761 — ^that he exhibited 
his faith in the future of Western Maryland by purchasing a 
piece of Frederick County land.^* Whilst it was a small invest- 
ment — only 6 acres at one pound per acre — the deal was the 
beginning of a career in realty transactions unparalleled in the 
land records of Frederick County. 

Before the close of the French and Indian War, Mr. John- 
son was considering the subject of promoting " water carriage " 
on the Potomac. About a month before he entered the Provin- 
cial Assembly as a Delegate from Anne Arundel County, there 
appeared in the Maryland Gazette, in the issue of February 11, 
1762, the following announcement: 

" The opening of the river Patowmack and making it 
passable for small craft, from Fort Cumberland at Will's Creek 
to the Great Falls, will be of the greatest advantage to Virginia 
and Maryland, by facilitating commerce with the back inhab- 
itants, who will not then have more than 20 miles land carriage 
to harbour, where ships of great burthen load annually, whereas 
at present many have 150 ; and what will perhaps be considered 
of still greater importance, is the easy communication it will 
afford with the waters of the Ohio. The whole land carriage 
from Alexandria or George Town will then be short of 90 miles ; 
whereas the Pennsylvanians (who at present monopolize the 
very lucrative skin and fur trades) from their nearest sea port 
have at least 300 : a circumstance which must necessarily force 
that gainful trade into this channel, should this very useful 
work be affected ; and that it may, is the unanimous opinion of 
the best judges, and at moderate expense compared with the 

"Liber G, folio 142. 

3 



338 MAETLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

extraordinary convenience and advantages which must result 
from it." 

The forceful style of this announcement indicates that it 
might have been written by Thomas Johnson himself. Be that 
as it may, it is a certainty that Mr. Johnson was associated with 
Washington from this time — at least one year before the French 
and Indian War was brought to a close by the treaty of 1763 — 
in the project of making the Potomac Eiver navigable. The 
communication in the Gazette announced that 22 managers had 
been appointed — 11 for the colony of Maryland and 11 for the 
colony of Virginia — and that subscriptions would be solicited 
from the public. On the 10th of June, 1762, the Gazette con- 
tained the following announcement : 

" The managers have now the pleasure to inform the public, 
that subscriptions are filling very fast, and that people in 
general, but more especially in the back countries, and those 
bordering on the Patowmack, discover so much alacrity in 
promoting the affair, that there is not the least doubt that sum 
will be raised, sufficient to carry on the work by the day 
appointed for the meeting, 20th of July next." 

The promoters of the celebrated Ohio Company, according 
to Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, assembled at Frederick Town in 
1762 and there discussed the ways and means of opening the 
western lands to tidewater. Many of the wealthiest and most 
influential men in the Southern colonies became interested in 
the " affair." Chief among these were Lord Dunmore of Vir- 
ginia and Governor Try on of North Carolina, afterwards of 
New York. They appointed Lawrence Washington manager 
and George Washington and Thomas Johnson, Jr., then in their 
thirtieth year, were associated together in the project. Mr. 
Johnson's brothers were also interested in the company. 

Credit is given to Thomas Johnson and his brothers for being 
the first men in America to advocate the formation of a company 
for the purpose of improving the navigation of the Potomac 
River. " Projects for clearing the channels in the Potomac 
River," says Mrs. Bacon-Foster, " began to be agitated in the 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 339 

sixties. Probably the Johnson brothers, at Frederick, were the 
first to suggest organizing a company to improve the navigation. 
They had early settled in that rich valley, had prospered, were 
progressive and public-spirited citizens. Thomas Johnson was 
doubtless interested with them in many enterprises and joined 
them in the county in 1779. Studying the noble river that 
sweeps in graceful curves past the valley it was not strange that 
they should become impatient of the heavy toll to be paid on the 
wagon transportation to Baltimore of the products of their 
farms and furnaces, and seek another outlet, so Thomas Johnson 
appears to have attempted to organize a company to raise the 
means for improving the navigation of the Potomac." 

Shortly afterwards Washington and Johnson heard with 
amazement and alarm reports of outrages committed by the 
savages in the western part of Frederick County. After the 
treaty of Paris brought the contest between England and France 
to a close, the British traders began again to move westward 
over the Alleghanies. This vanguard aroused Pontiac, an 
Ottawa chief, who journeyed stealthily among the tribes and 
obtained their solemn pledge to massacre the white men in order 
to put a stop to the encroachments. In June, 1763, the blow 
was struck. 

" Another tempest has arisen upon our frontiers," wrote 
Washington, " and the alairm spreads wider than ever. In short, 
the inhabitants are so apprehensive of danger that no families 
remain above the Conococheague road, and many are gone 
below. The harvests are, in a manner, lost, and the distresses 
of the settleracDts are evident and manifold." In a state of 
misery and destitution, the fugitives crowded to Frederick 
Town, where they received food and shelter. The Maryland 
Assembly convened in the fall of 1763. It was Delegate John- 
son's second session. 'Grovernor Sharpe pictured the outrages 
in vivid language, and the Lower House made further provision 
for the protection of the western settlers. 

Even as late as July, 1764, the Indians committed a number 
of massacres along the Conococheague, and in the same month 



340 MAEYI.ANT) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

an expedition of five hundred men was sent to reinforce Fort 
Pitt, which had been cut off from all communication with the 
interior. In this expedition against the Delawares, Mingoes 
and Shawnees, there were two companies of Matryland volun- 
teers. And the colonel who led them wrote to Governor Sharpe 
the following ]!^ovemher, urging that he request the Assembly 
to pay these gallant volunteers for their military services. " As 
such a public spirit ought to be encouraged in our Colonies," 
said the Colonel, " I beg leave to recommend them to your 
notice, that they may obtain pay, if possible, from your 
Assembly." 

As a member of the Provincial Assembly, Delegate Thomas 
Johnson, Jr., was one of the most liberal of all the members 
in making appropriations. Mr. Johnson deeply appreciated 
the hardships of the pioneers who ventun-ed out into the Alle- 
ghanies. When, for example, a motion was made in the House 
on the 16th of November, 1765, to make an appropriation to 
Capt. Evan Shelby as a testimony of the Assembly's apprecia- 
tion of his " spirited conduct " in the war. Delegate Johnson 
eagerly voted in favor of the appropriation. The motion pre- 
vailed by the close vote of 22 to 19. A motion was then offered 
by the parsimonious faction that Capt. Shelby should be allowed 
only 200 pounds. Believing that the appropriation to Capt. 
Shelby ought not to be restricted to this amount, Mr. Johnson 
opposed the reduction and voted in the negative. The sum of 
200 pounds, however, was all that the House allowed. 

About this time commenced a friendship between Thomas 
Johnson and a Huguenot named Lancelot Jacques. Coming to 
America as a refugee, Jacques settled at Annapolis, where his 
industry and inherent business acumen brought him consider- 
able success. Messrs. Johnson and Jacques became associated 
in business enterprises and together they secured from the 
proprietor vast tracts of land in Frederick County. They 
obtained out of the High Court of Chancery a writ of ad quod 
damnum, directed to the sheriff of Frederick County, command- 
ing him, by the oath of twelve men, to inquire into the mineral 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 341 

lands lying on Green Spring Run, about two miles below 
"Fort Frederick, " as might be the most convenient for setting 
up a Forge Mill and other conveniences, as shall be necessary 
for carrying on an Iron Work." The sheriff returned an inqui- 
sition to the Court on December 23, 1766. Johnson and Jacques 
gave security that they would erect a forge mill on the land 
within the time limited by the act of the Assembly, 

The lands acquired by them had been found to contain iron 
ore, and Johnson and Jacques took up their western tracts, not 
far speculation, as Dulany, Carroll and other wealthy men of 
tidewater had done, but to start smelting furnaces. On April 
11, 1768, Governor Sharpe countersigned Lord Baltimore's 
patent for 15,000 acres at Indian Spring (now in Washington 
County) to the two Annapolitans, as tenants in common; and 
here Mr. Jacques came to reside, not fair from Fort Frederick. 
They erected Green Spring Furnace and the pig iron which they 
manufactured here was pushed down the Potomac to George 
Town by a crew of trusty negro slaves. 

Later Mr. Johnson, together with Leonard Calvert, obtained 
a patent from Lord Baltimore for 7,000 acres of mineral land 
in Frederick County, constituting the Catoctin Furnace prop- 
erty. Accordingly, about the time of the arrival of Sir Robert 
Eden to take up the woirk of proprietary governor, Thomas 
Johnson, as well as Washington, had become thoroughly im- 
pressed with the mineral wealth and the immense productivity 
of the soil in the valleys of the Monocacy and the Antietam. 
Both Washington and Johnson were impressed, too, by the utter 
desolation of the back country. They saw that with the excep- 
tion of rude trails — and even they were impassible a great part 
of the year — there was absolutely no means of communication 
with the country west of the Alleghanies. ISTaturally, therefore, 
with clear perception of the future possibilities of the western 
wilderness, George Washington, in Virginia, and Thomas John- 
son, in Maryland, were the leading advocates of the project to 
make the Potomac River the means of communication between 
the East and West. The governor and the Igislature of both 
colonies were exhorted to give backing to the project. But, se- 



342 MABTT^ND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

curing little encourageanent from the legislatures of Maryland 
and Virginia, Thomas Johnson, on June 18th, 1770, during a 
long recess of the Provincial Assembly of Maryland, sent from 
Annapolis to Mount Vernon a communication proposing to 
Washington for his consideration the scheme for promoting the 
navigation of the Potomac by means of private subscriptions. 
Washington's reply, found among the papers of the Potomac 
Company, was loaned to Congressman Andrew Stewart for his 
report to the House of Representatives in 1826 on the subject 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal. 

" The committee," said Congressman Stewart, from the Com- 
mittee on Roads and Canals, " have obtained possession of a 
variety of letters, reports, maps, and papers, connected with this 
subject, in the hand writing of General Washington, extracts 
of which are annexed to this report. . . . Among the manu- 
scripts referred to, the committee find a report in the hand 
writing of General Washington, dated in 1754, stating all the 
difficulties and obstructions to be overcome in rendering the 
Potomac navigable." ^^ The report in General Washington's 
handwriting is entitled : " Summary of the Reports of Mr. 
Johnson, Mr. Semple, and George Washington, respecting the 
navigation of Potomac River." Washington, according to this 
authority, observed in 1754, the condition of the river from the 
mouth of Patterson's Creek, to Shenandoah Falls, to Seneca 
Falls. Mr. Semple reported on the condition of the Potomac 
from Widow Brewster's — two miles above Great Falls — to 
Seneca Falls, to Payne's Falls, to the spout, to Harper's Ferry, 
to Shenandoah Falls, to Fort Cumberland. Mr. Johnson's re- 
port is as follows: 

" From a little below Fort Frederick, to Caton's gut, little 
or no obstruction. House's fall, another rift, between that and 
Antietam, and what is called Sheppard's falls, a little below 
Shepherdstown, being the only obstructions, and which might 
easily be removed at very small expence. From Caton's gut to 
Payne's falls (about five miles)." 

*» Hotue Reports, 19th Congresa, Ist Session No. 228. 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 343 

Washington's letter replying to Thomas Johnson's communi- 
cation of June 18, 1770, is not published either by Ford or 
Sparks. On account of its importance, it is printed herewith 
in full: 

Virginia, 20th July, 1770. 
Sir: 

I was honored with your favor of the 18th of June, about 
the last of that month, and read it with all the attention I was 
capable of; from that time till now I have not been able to 
inquire into the sentiments of any of the gentlemen of this side 
in respect to the scheme of opening the inland navigation of 
Potowmack, by private subscription, in the manner you have 
proposed — and, therefore, any opinion which I may now offer 
on this head will be considered I hope as the result of my own 
private thinking, not of the public. 

That no person concerned in this event wishes to see an 
undertaking of the sort go forward with more sincerity and ar- 
dour than I do, I can truly assure you ; and I will, at all times, 
give any assistance in my power to promote the design; but I 
leave you to judge from the trial, which before this you have 
undoubtedly made, how few there are, (not immediately bene- 
fited by it,) that will contribute any thing worth while to the 
work; and how many small sums are requisite to raise a large 
one. 

Upon your plan of raising money, it appears to me there will 
be found but two kinds of people who will subscribe much 
towards it. Those who are actuated by motives of public spirit ; 
and those again, who from their proximity to the navigation, 
will reap the salutary effects of it, clearing the river. The 
number of the latter, you must be a competent judge of ; those 
of tte former, is more difficult to ascertain; for which reason 
I own to you, that I am not without my doubts of your scheme 
falling through, however sanguine your first hopes may be 
from the rapidity of subscribers, for it is to be supposed that 
your subscription papers will probably be opened among those 
whose interests must naturallv incline them to wish well to the 



344 MAKYXAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

undertaking, and consequently will aid it; but when you come 
to shift the scene a little, and apply to those who are uncon- 
nected with the river, and the advantage of its navigation, how 
slowly will you advance ! 

This, sir, is my sentiment, generally, upon your plan of 
obtaining subscriptions for extending the navigation of the 
Potowmack; whereas I conceive, that if the subscribers were 
vested by the two legislatures with a kind of property in the 
navigation under certain restrictions and limitations, and to 
be reimbursed their first advances with a high interest thereon, 
by a certain easy toll on all craft proportionate to their respec- 
tive burthens, in the manner that I am told works of this sort 
are effected in the inland parts of England — or upon the plan 
of turnpike roads ; you would add thereby a third set of men, 
to the two I have mentioned, and gain considerable strength 
by it. I mean the monied gentry; who, tempted by lucrative 
views, would advance largely on account of the high interest. 
This, I am inclined to think, is the only method by which this 
desirable work will ever be accomplished in the manner it ought 
to be; for, as to its becoming an object of public expense, I 
never expect to see it. Our interests (in Virginia, at least), 
are too much divided. Our views too confined, if our finances 
were better, to suffer that, which appears to redound to the 
advantage of a part of the community only to become a tax 
upon the whole — though in the instance before us, there is the 
strongest speculative proof in the world to me of the immense 
advantages which Virginia and Maryland might derive, (and 
at a very small comparative expence) by making the Potowmack 
the channel of commerce between Great Britain, and that im- 
mense Territory ; a tract of country, which is unfolding to our 
view the advantages of which are too great, and too obvious, I 
should think, to become the subject of serious debate, but which, 
through ill-timed parsimony and supineness, may be wrested 
from us and conducted through other channels, such as the 
Susquehanna, (which I have seen recommended by some 
writer) the lakes, &c. How difficult it will be to divert it 
afterwards, time only can show. Thus far, sir, I have taken 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 345 

the liberty of communicating my sentiments on the different 
modes of establishing a fund, but if from the efforts you have 
already made on the !N'orth side of the Potowmack, it should be 
found that my views are rather imaginary than real, (as I 
heartily wish they may prove), I have no doubts but the same 
spirit may be stirred up on the South side, if gentlemen of 
influence in the counties of Hampshire, Frederick, Loudoun 
and Fairfax, will heartily engage in it, and receive all occa- 
sional sums, received from those who may wish to see a work 
of this sort undertaken, although they expect no benefit them- 
selves from it. 

As to the manner in which you propose to execute the work, 
in order to avoid the inconvenience which you seem to appre- 
hend from locks, I profess myself to be a very incompetent 
judge of it. It is a general received opinion I know, that, by 
reducing one fall, you too frequently create many; but how 
far this inconvenience is to be avoided by the method you speak 
of, those who have examined the rifts — the depth of water 
above, &c. must be infinitely the best qualified to determine. 
But I am inclined to think, that, if you were to exhibit your 
scheme to the public upon a more extensive 'plan, than the one 
now printed, it would meet with a more general approbation; 
for so long as it is considered as a partial scheme, so long will 
it he partially attended to — whereas, if it was recommended to 
the public notice upon a MORE ENLARGED PLAN, AND 
AS A MEANS OF BECOMING THE CHANNEL OF 
CONVEYANCE OF THE EXTENSIVE AND VALU- 
ABLE TRADE OF A RISING EMPIRE; and the operations 
to begin at the lower Landings, (above the Great Falls), and 
to extend upwards to as high as Fort Cumberland ; or as far 
as the expenditure of the money would carry them ; from whence 
the portage to the waters of Ohio must commence; I think 
many would be invited to contribute their mite, that otherwise 
will not. It may be said the expence of doing this will be 
considerably augmented. I readily grant it, but believe that 
the subscribers will increase in proportion ; at any rate I think 
that there will be at least an equal sum raised by this means, 



346 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and that the end of your plan will be as effectually answered 
by it. G. W. 

Despite this reply from Washington — a reply all but encour- 
aging — Mr. Johnson continued with enthusiasm his efforts to 
clear the Potomac and with the aid of his friend, Lancelot Jac- 
ques, secured numerous private subscriptions. 

Johnson's scheme of opening the Potomac to navigation is 
probably the undertaking referred to by J. Thomas Scharf 
in his " History of Maryland," in Volume 2, at page 258, 
although the date, 1762, as given by Mr. Scharf is, in the 
opinion of Mrs. Bacon-Poster, an error. The managers of this 
company, as given by Scharf, were: 

For Maryland — Thomas Cresap, Jonathan Hager, Robert 
Peter, Evan Shelby, Dr. David Ross, Christopher Loundes, 
Benjamin Chambers, John Carey, Casper Schaaf, Rev. Thomas 
Bacon and Thomas Prather. 

For Virginia — ^Col. George Mason, Jacob Hite, Abraham 
Hite, James Hamilton, John Hough and John Patterson. 

Col. George Mercer and Col. Thomas Prather were elected 
treasurers. 

On August 18, 1770, Rev. Dr. Jonathan Boucher, who was 
a personal friend of Thomas Johnson and other Assembly 
leaders and was for some time chaplain of the Lower House, 
wrote a letter to Washington in which he explained the excellent 
results Thomas Johnson and Lancelot Jacques were obtaining 
in the sale of subscriptions of stock at Annapolis. The clergy- 
man also announced in his letter that the two stock salesmen 
were ready to set off on the morrow for Frederick Town to seek 
further subscriptions in that town. 

" They are still going on," Rev. Dr. Boucher wrote Wash- 
ington, " with their Subscriptions for clearing the Potomac, 
and, as I am told, with spirit. Four hundreds pounds are 
subscribed in this City; nor have they got all they expect. 
Messrs. Jacques and Johnson set off for Frederick tomorrow, 
and talk of fixing a day for a general meeting, before they 
return. Will it be convenient and agreeable to you to attend — 



THE LIFE OF THOMAS JOHNSON. 347 

about a montli hence, if you have notice in time — at the Spot, 
i. e., at, or near Semple's ? " 

The trip to Frederick Town — a long and tiresome journey 
at that day from the capital of the colony — ^was made by Mr. 
Johnson and his French companion in accordance with the 
announced plans. That they arrived safely at their destination 
is evidenced by the land records of Frederick County, which 
show that Thomas Johnson, Jr., of Annapolis, made his appear- 
ance on August 22, 1770, before " two of His Lordship's 
Justices of the Peace for Frederick County." 

In the same year Washington sent a letter to Governor Eden 
pointing out the great benefits that would accure to Virginia 
and Maryland if the Potomac River were made a channel of 
commerce between the Atlantic Seaboard and the Western terri- 
tory. But Thomas Johnson and George Washington and their 
business associates found out that they were undertaking a 
gigantic task. The people were apathetic, skeptical, even antag- 
onistic. The Maryland Assembly refused to take any action 
in support of Johnson's plan and the Virginia House of Bur- 
gesses likewise failed to render any assistance. But Washington 
remained staunch in his conviction that the opening of a com- 
munication from tidewater to the great country west of the 
Alleghanies was vitally important to ISTorth America from a 
social, commercial and political standpoint, as well as from the 
standpoint of military defense. And Thomas Johnson, too, like 
the immortal Virginian, looked upon the scheme to make the 
Potomac River navigable as an altogether patriotic enterprise, 
second to none in the ]^ew World, and although the assemblies 
of Maryland and Virginia turned a deaf ear to their pleas, 
Mr. Johnson, like Col. Washington, cherished the idea of con- 
necting East and West with undiminished fervor. 

The following letter from Thomas Johnson to George Wash- 
ington (in which was enclosed a note for Washington's " Lady," 
from Mr. Johnson's brother, John, then a twenty-six-year-old 
physician) is presented because it shows not only that the 
Washington and the Johnson families were by this time on very 
intimate terms, but also that George Washington and Thomas 



348 MAEYI^AND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Johnson were very closely associated at this period in the enter- 
prise to open the Potomac to navigation and were keeping in 
constant touch with the proceedings of the assemblies of Mary- 
land and Virginia: 
glf.. Annapolis, 26 March, 1772. 

I inclose you a letter from my brother John to your Lady. 
He was at my house last week and intended then to have sent 
it but the post made so little stay that tho' my brother went to 
the Office several times he slipped him. — 

There were some expenses on the Bill passed last Session in 
favor of Mr. Semple. It is usual here in imitation of what I 
think a bad proceeding in England to tax fees on private Bills — 
this was taxed 

To the Speaker 6. . 

the Clerk of the Lower House 3. . 



common money, i. e., dollars at 7/6 — and I believe in the Upper 
House as much. I should be obliged by your having the money 
remitted as I have paid part of it and promised to write to you 
on the subject. 

I am sir. Your most humble servant, 

Th^ Johnson, Jun'^. 
(To he continued) 



MRS. B. L COHEN'S FANCY DRESS PARTY ^ 

Thuesday, Febeuaey 2, 1837 



' Letter from James M. Nicholson to his mother Rebecca Lloyd of " Wye 
House," wife of Judge J. H. Nicholson. 

The invitation cards, several of which are among the papers of Miss 
Eleanor S. Cohen, grand -daughter of the host and hostess, bear on the face 
the words of the above caption, and on the reverse " The honor of 
company is solicited at 8 P. M. Jan. 2.3d. 1837 " 

Bf-njamin I. Cohen, b. 17th Sept. 1797, d. 20th Sept, IS^'j, was a member 
of the banking firm of Cohen & Sons; he was one of the founders of the 
Baltimore Stock Board and its President at the time of his death; he was 
a botanist and horticulturist, and was a talented iunatciir violinist. Mrs. 
Cohen waa Kitty Etting, b. 25th Nov. 1788; d. 2Gth April, 1837. 



FANCY DRESS PAETY. 349 

Baltimore. Feb. Z^^ 183Y. 
My dear Motlier. 

When I wrote you a few days since, that I would give you 
some account of Mr & Mrs Cohens Fancy Ball, I thought I was 
making a promise which could be fulfilled without any diffi- 
culty ; I supposed I could easily find out all the Characters per- 
sonated, and would be able to remember, not only how they were 
supported, but to a certain extent in what garniture they were 
exhibited. Today however I find my memory considerably at a 
loss, and am afraid I shall be able to give you but a meagre 
description. As the Invitations desired, the Guests assembled 
as near 8 o'clock, as could have been expected. The three 
Booms on the first floor were thrown open for the Beception of 
the Company, the Lady of the house receiving in the large Boom 
on the right hand Side of the Hall as you enter. I need how- 
ever say nothing to you of the appearance of the Booms, as I do 
not know that the furniture was much altered from what you 
have seen it there. You remember that everything about the 
house is rich and expensive, and if anything has been added for 
this occasion, it was all in keeping with the rest. The carpets 
were up in the two Booms on the left-hand Side of the Hall for 
dancing and down every where else. In the Booms on the right 
was a beautiful Divan covered with rich silk damask and the 
Becesses were filled with flowers most tastefully arranged, and 
Seats of various kinds were arranged around the walls. Be- 
freshments were constantly passing about, borne by servants 
dressed in liveries suited to the occasion, served up in rich china 
and cut glass on Silver Waiters. The Booms were all most 
brilliantly lighted by Lamps which blazed from amidst bunches 
of flowers. 2 The Supper Booms were on the Second Floor, over 
the large Drawing Boom. The principal Table extended the 
length of the Boom decorated with beautiful China, cut glass 
and Silver all filled with every delicacy to be thought of. In 

'Both Mr. and Mrs. Cohen were enthusiastic horticulturists and large 
greenhouses in the rear of the residence supplied the flowers. 



350 MAEYLAOT) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the large Eecess stood a Second Table decorated in the same 
btyle and same Delicacies, as on the first Table. A Third Table 
was in another part of the Room on which solid Refreshments 
were served consisting of every thing to please the most fastidi- 
ous taste & served in the best style and in the greatest abundance 
as I am sure you well know. But to return to the guests. There 
was at first but little space for Dancing, and until the Evening 
had somewhat advanced, even but little inclination. For the 
first hour or two, every body seemed busily occupied — either in 
ascertaining '" Who was Who '' — or in admiring and examining 
the beautiful Dresses of the Ladies ; for many of the gentlemen 
were in mask. The Rooms were crowded almost beyond exam- 
ple in our City, th° the Washingtonians would hardly call it a 
tight squeeze, but for Fancy Dresses — an^^hing of a '' squeeze " 
— you know must be annoying — as it prevents many rich, hand- 
some Costumes being shown off to advantage. To tell you who 
was there, is no very hard task, for I might in general terms 
say — every body was there who is at all in the habit of attend- 
ing parties. 

First among your friends whom I met was Mrs Caton — she 
looked as I have always seen her look before. I think I run no 
risk in saying she was in no Fancy Costume, but wore a hand- 
some Black Velvet Dress — and Ostrich feathers in her head 
Dress. She was leaning on the Arm of Mr McTavish, who was 
arrayed in his rich Consular Uniform (as I understood) that 
was much admired. I only recollect, that there was a great 
deal of Gold Lace on the front of his Coat. 

Mrs J. G. Davis was there, I think, as Mary Queen of Scots 
— wore a handsome Dress of Black Velvet, trimmed with Pearls 
— over White Satin Under Skirt — and a tiara of rich Jewels 
on her head. 

Mrs John S. Skinner was there as a Polish Lady — and you 
may take it for granted, both of these Ladies had on rich and 
becoming Costumes the latter wore a Purple Velvet Dress over 
White Satin Polish Cap and Feathers. Amethyst jewels — very 
hand9ome Costume. 



FANCY DEESS PARTY. 351 

Rebecca Key Howcurd was there. What was she, you will 
ask ? — She was no Queen or Goddess — she represented no Char- 
acter in Shakespeare — neither was she attired in any Costume 
as a Princess — she was herself only and as herself dressed in 
some White material familiar enough to you ladies, but un- 
known to me. She paraded through those Rooms — crowded 
with all the beauty of this City of beauties — ^the acknowledged 
Queen of the Night — not that she received more attention, but 
she elicited most admiration. 

The two Williamses ^ were there looking like Angels — ^both of 
them — Mary however more so. They were dressed I believe in 
personation of some picture they had chosen as a Model — but 
I do not know who the picture represented — I only know they 
were beautifully dressed and wore beautiful jewels and if the 
Originals equaled the representations — I should like to have the 
picture hanging in our Parlors. 

Sophie CooTce also looked remarkably well, as the heroine in 
the " Bride of Abydos " — she wore a beautiful Turkish Dress — 
but I can give you no particulars. Sophie Coohe, Mary Wil- 
liams and Margaret Patterson wore, I think, the prettiest 
Dresses in the Rooms — ^and I doubt if my judgment was much 
from that of others present. Margaret Patterson was, I think 
she said, a Circassian Princess — and her Dress was in perfect 
keeping — of rich materials and beautiful jewels — & wore a 
Crown Covered with jewels — and she looked better than I ever 
Saw her. Her Cousin Charlotte Patterson was there, the 
daughter of Mrs Joe Patterson and probably you know her — 
she wore a beautiful dress — as an Italian Peasant, I believe. 

Maria Stevenson was there as the " Bandit's Bride " — a beau- 
tiful dress — and she looked so well. 

Margaret Smith, the grand daughter of the old General, was 
looking remarkably well, and your himible Servant bored her for 
the greater part of the Evening with his Society. She is looking 
remarkably pretty this Winter — and last night was not surpassed 
by many,; she told me what she represented, and she wore a 

* Mary and Elizabeth. 



352 MAEYLAND HISTOBICAI. MAGAZINE. 

beautiful Turkish Costume "of pink and white and a pinlc Turban 
with feathers — a? a " Polish Lady " I think. I am not able to 
describe all these beautiful Costumes — or the Characters they 
intend to represent — I write only to while away some of your 
sick hours, th° I think by this time you have almost wholly re- 
covered — th<^ I am able to give you the general appearance and 
general effect — it is as much as I am able to do — but I must 
continue to tell you of others there. Miss Skipwith from Vir- 
ginia — was also much admired — in a beautiful Costume as a 
" Bemeois Peasant " I believe, also there was Miss Anne Gor- 
dan of Virginia — who appeared as " Sweet Anne Page " — in 
a pink and white Costume and Pearl Ornaments. This last 
Lady is Said to be very wealthy — ^but independent of her wealth 
— her appearance is very attractive, and her lovely manners 
make her most agreeable; but I am not personally acquainted 
with her. 

Elizabeth Hall was also there — also as " Sweet Anne Page " 
— her appearance is always striking and the beautiful Velvet 
dress — I believe it was — which she wore last night — was very 
becoming and became her very much. 

Miss E. Travis was there as " Night " — she wore a rich 
Black dress Covered with Silver Stars. She is certainly a lovely 
woman — with perhaps the finest eyes (next to Julia Calverts) 
I ever saw. Her figure is not so good, the last party at which I 
saw her she was probably the Belle of the Evening. 

Serena, Barroll was there as "Rowena" — she wore a beautiful 
Costume — Cherry Colored — and a Gold tiara covered with 
jewels. I think she has the finest figure perhaps in the City — 
and I heard many speak her praises. 

The Claphams were there and looked remarkably well in 
beautiful Costumes — one I think probably from Lalla Rook. 

Mi^s Emma Meredith was there as " Queen of the Fairies " 
beautifully dressed in perfect keeping with the Character. 
^Nfany others were there — but I think I have gone through with 
most of the ladies that you know — or have heard of — and I 
must now mention at least a few of the gentlemen. 



FANCY DEESS PAETT. 353 

" Paul Pry " was there — represented by Mr R. Brent a 
stranger (from Washington I think) — who played his part well. 

Old Hagar too was there. She made her appearance and 
really the resemblance was very striking and was personated by 
Mr Wethered I am told. 

Young D^ Butler appeared as " Mrs. Trollope " and excited 
a great deal of merriment. 

Several strangers are here for the Winter, and they and the 
Beaux of the City were all very handsomely apparelled. Mr 
Campbell, who. accompanied Murray Lloyd to the Eastern Shore 
on the occasion of his Wedding, was there, and represented the 
" Corsair " — ^his dress was a costly one I understood but not a 
becoming one, he is a handsome man and probably the ladies 
thought him very handsome last night. 

Mr Middleton from South Carolina was there as an Indian 
Chief, and looking remarkably well; which was the general 
opinion which I concurred in. 

Theoderic Skinner wore a handsome Dress as a " Polish 
Lancer " and I heard many say he looked remarkably handsome 
in it — ^his Brother Frederick Skinner likewise wore a handsome 
Costume as a Greek I was told. A very rich Costume. 

Joe (Nicholson) and E. A. Brown went as Sailors. 

William Meredith represented an " Indian Chief." 

Z?^ /. H. Thomas — said to be Engaged to Miss Anne Gordon 
of Virginia — appeared as a " Kentucky Hunter " and not only 
played his part well but also looked well in that Costume. 

Mr McHenry and Mr Greenway both represented French 
Counts, gentlemen of the " Olden times " — in handsodme Cos- 
tumes ; they and many others wore masks. 

We also had a " Sugar Loaf " who was Mr Cooke — and a 
" Terrapin " who. was Mr T7"^ H. Hoffman — ^they created much 
amusement. I have not mentioned my own Character. I at 
first represented a Sailor and was in Mask — then changed my 
Dress and wore a Turkish Costume to represent " Old Nick " — 
as I heard myself called. I enjoyed this beautiful Ball as every 
one did and regret you were not well enough to be present. I 
4 



354 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

have named but few of the many present — there were many dis- 
tinguished Strangers there and Officers of both the Navy and 
Army. The presence of the Charming Host and Hostess was 
felt and acknowledged every where — ^there was no effort visible, 
every thing went on as if by Magic — and it was not until the 
small hours in the Morning the guests Shook hands and said 
Good J^ight — to Mr and Mrs Cohen — after this most delightful 
Evening. 

Hoping my letter may find you improving, and almost well 
again — I am my dear Mother 

Ever your affec* Son 

J. M. Nichokon. 

Since Writing My Letter — a Printed List — ^Giving Many 
Names of some I have not mentioned who were present at Mr 
& Mrs B. I. Cohen's Fancy Ball— Feb 2^^ 1837— and I Copy 
those I have not described and send you. 

Feinted List 

Mrs E. P. Cohen wore a beautiful French Embroidered Dress 

and Pearl Ornaments. 
Miss Graff was Dressed as a Swiss Peasant. 
Mrs Robert Gilmor wore a handsome Ball Dress with rich and 

elegant Jewels. 
Mrs Robert Gilmor jr. went as " Medora " — ^wearing a White 

Muslin Dress. No Ornaments, only her long, beautiful 
; hair flowing down to her feet, over her neck, shoulders and 

back. 
Miss Norman. A Spanish Page-Dress of Blue and White Satin 

— ^hat & Shoes to Suit. 
Miss E. O'Donnell — Diana — Dress of White and Silver, with 

Silver bow and arrows. 
Miss Sterett — Swiss Peasant. 
Miss Gill — Swiss Peasant. 

Miss Donnell — Dutch Girl — very pretty Costume. 
Miss Elizabeth Frick. Noviciate. 



FANCY DEESS PAETY. 355 

Mrs T. Oldfield. A Houri (a nymph of paradise) — beautiful 

Dress of Yellow and Gold. 
Miss E. Wethered. Sultana — very rich Dress of Blue and Sil- 
ver, Brocade — very handsome Costume. 
Miss CD.... e — ^Spanish Lady of Bank. 
Miss Hodges — JN'oviciate — Dressed in White. 
Miss Carroll. Very beautiful, Parisian Costume. 
Mrs Pennington — " Queen Caroline " — Black Velvet Dress. 
Stomacher of magnificent Jewels — Tiara of Jewels — and 
White and Scarlet plumes. 
Mrs F. Brune — Young Lady of the 15^^ Century — very rich 
Brocade Dress — with pointed Stomacher — very high heels 
on her Shoes — with Buckles — hair powdered and Cush- 
ioned — Long Curls behind, antique fan, and beautiful 
Jewels. 
Miss Agnes Gordon. Rebecca — (from Ivanhoe) — rich and 

handsome Costume and a profusion of Jewels. 
Miss C. ISTisbet. Greek Costume — very handsome Costume. 
Miss A. Nisbet — As " Polly " — A Gold Crescent with small 
gold Bells as a head-dress, and all her Costume was appro- 
priate and Ornamented beautifully. 
Miss L. Howard. A Circassian Dancing Girl. 
Miss Margaret Hughes — As French Peasant Girl. 
Miss E. Gilmor; Polish Lady. Costume Cherry Colored — 
trimmed with swans-down — over an under-dress of Gold 
& White — hat to suit. 
Miss Mary Smith — As " Rebecca " — wore a beautiful Dress. 
Mrs Greenway — Italian Peasant Girl. 
Miss C. Smith — Spanish Lady. 
Mrs B. Mayer — Queen Elizabeth — with a ruff and long train of 

Satin — ^perfect Costume. 
Miss Armstead. A Greek Girl. 
Mrs C. Tiernan. Turkish Lady, beautiful Dress of Silver and 

White — and fine Jewels. 
Mrs Somerville — ^A Highland Lady — Scotch Dress. 
Mrs Latrobe — A Highland Lady. 
Miss Martha Gray — A Gipsy. Mantle and hat all in character. 



356 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Miss Dunbar — Highland Ladj. 

Miss Rebecca R-ogers — Highland Lady. 

Miss S. Hoffman — ^Turkish Costume, very handsome Dress. 

Miss Barney — Polish Dress — very handsome. 

Miss Winter — Xormandy Peasant Girl. 

Miss Magruder — Helen McGregor — full Highland Costume. 

Miss Howard — " Flora Mclvor." very beautiful Costume. 

Miss S . . . . w. A Gipsy — handsome Dress. 

Miss Clapham — A Scotch Lassie — attracted general admiration 

by the elegance and correctness of her attire. 
Mrs F. H. Davidge. A Highland Costume. 
Miss Shubrick — ^Renee de Rieux, Countess de Chateau neuf . 
Mrs. S. W. D . . . . n. A Brazilian Lady. 

The Gentlemen — ^many of whom were in Mask as well as 

Costume. 

M. P. D n. A Pedlar. 

Mr W. Donnell. Italian Nobleman. 

Mr. W. Tiffany. Black Friar. 

Mr. H. Tiffany — Count Almavivi. 

Mr P. Kennedy. Neapolitan Fisherman. 

Mr W. Meredith — An Indian Chief — in full Costume toma- 
hawk in hand. 

Mr J. B. Williams — A Swiss Mountaineer. 

Mr G. Cook^-the " Sugar Loaf." 

Mr W. Greenway — French Count of the Last Century. 

Mr R. Brent—" Paul Pry." 

Mr L. Smith. Country Boy from Anaranold County & his 
Sweetheart " Miss " Phoebe ComstalJc " — ^his Sweetheart 
played these parts well and most amusing. 

Dr. Tom Buckler — A Country Girl. 

Mr Swan — A Sailor. 

"Sh Barroll — A Sailor. 

Mr W. Frick — Captain of the Water Witch. 

Mr. J. M. Nicholson — A Sailor — then changed Costume and 
appeared as " Mephi8toi)hele3 " — wore handsome Turkish 
Costume. 



FANCY DRESS PASTY. 357 

Mr B. H. Latrobe. Costume of Last Century — handsome Dress. 
Mr S. O. Hoffman — Court Dress of France — handsome Cos- 
tume. 
Mr. E. H. . . .n — An Irisli Boy from Tipperary. 
Mr W. H. Hoffman— The " Terrapin." 
Mr. J. Carroll — Costume of last Century. 
Mr McHenry — An ancient Costume of France. 
Mr Graff — Tyrolean Peasant. 
Mr Ludlow — A Highland Chief. 
S. Teackle Wallis — ^Mendicant Friar. 
Mr C. R. Barney. Don Juan. 
Mr Robert Gilmor jr — A Turkish Costume. 
Frederick Skinner — ^A Greek Pirate — ^handsome Costume. 
Theoderick Skinner. Polish Lancer — ^very handsome Dress. 
M. Patterson — ^A Shepherd Boy. 
Mr F. H. Davidge. A Highland Chieftain. 
Mr B. Mayer — Earl of Rochester — handsome Dress. 
Mr Davis — ^wore a handsome Uniform. 
Mr G. W. Dobbin — Brazilian Guachi. 
Mr Savage — A Page. 

Mr Bordly — Courtier of the time of Charles II. 
Mr L. Washington — A Sailor. 

Many of the Gentlemen wore Masks. 

This list — including all those mentioned in Mr. J. M. Nich- 
olson's Letter— do not include aU the guests at this famous ball.^ 

*From another contemporaneous letter, published in pamphlet form 
shortly after the " party," the above list has been corrected, and trom it 
the following names are added: 

Madame Patterson-Bonaparte, — Queen Caroline. 

Miss Virginia Williams, — Quakeress. 

Miss A. Law, — French Gardeneress. 

Miss Matilda Cohen, from Wales,— Welsh peasant. 

Miss Mary Hall,— Flora MacDonald. 

Miss Mary Cooke, — Tyrolean peasant. 

Mrs. Flora Byrne, — Young matron of 15th century. 

Mrs. Dr. Hall,— Lady of last century. 

Mrs. Donaldson, — Highland Lady. 



358 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The Residence of Mr. and Mrs. B. I. Cohen some years later 
became the residence of Dr. Alexander Robinson, who married 
Miss Wirt, and his daughters Laura, now Mrs. Robert Atkin- 
son ; Angelica, now Mrs. Robert Gamble ; Agnes, who married 
Carval Hall (both deceased), and his sons, William Wirt Rob- 
inson, Alexander Robinson, and George Robinson (all now de- 
ceased). But all this family of Dr. Robinson, from just before 
1860 — and after 1865 — made this handsome house of Mr. and 
Mrs. B. I. Cohen, on I^orth Charles and Saratoga streets, well 
known to the Maryland " Belles and Beaux " of those later 
dates, the children of many of those " Belles and Beaux " pres- 
ent at this celebrated fancy ball, Feb. 2d, 1837, and the beauti- 
ful entertainments given by Dr. Robinson and his daughters and 
sons, though not "fancy balls," were no less delightful enter- 
tainments, as many of the present day can testify, myself among 
them, from just before 1860 and after 1865. 

Rebecca Lloyd Post Shippen. 
(Mrs. Edward Shippen.) 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL PAPERS 

(Continued from Vol. XIV, p. 293.) 



Octo^ 19*1^ 1Y72 [206] 
D"^ Charley 

I have y'* by Johny. I wrote to M' Dan : Carroll the 12<^^ 
ins* to get 3 or 4 Palatines, I have not since Heard from 
Him, He was to be raarryed last thursday, th* as I suppose (as 
it is natural) at present engaged all His Attention. If among 
th« Goods Bishoprick has brought there be any for me advise 
me, I do not Recollect th* I wrote for any. By y'' Ace* I hope 
you may Secure the money due from tho^ Philpot by His 
protesting y^ Bills: I suppose the Bill to Ringgold was a large 
one, you do not mention the sum. Riggs this day set out for 
the Ohio to take up 12 or 15008- ^f Land, 3 others went with 



EXTRACTS FKOM THE CAEEOLL PAPERS. 359 

Him. He proposed to be back in a fortnight. I do not think 
He Can return under 3 weeks. I could not well refuse Him 
leave & I am in hopes by Frosts Riding twice a week round the 
Plantation under Eigg's Care th* I shall not suffer by Rigg's 
absence. The wood in the Branch in the Middle of the Folly 
Plantation is downe & most of the Underwood grubbed, the 
Plantation shews to advantage by th* Clearing. For 3 weeks 
past there has been thick, Close foggy & warm weather it is 
not only unusuall at this Season but unwholesome & very preju- 
dicial! to the tob° House. We are obliged to keep fiers in all 
Houses at no small risque (the tob° being mostly Cured) to 
prevent House burning & Mold, if this is not Generally done 
Much tob° will be spoiled in the Province. 

I lost a pair of thread Stockings when last with you, pray 
enquier for them. Nanny is not the only thief in y'" House, I 
think to Give Molly & Henry a Severe whipping when I go 
downe if my stockings are not found. I have a Cold in my 
Head it is not bad but makes me Heavy. 6 a Clock P : M : 
The wagon Came up about 3 a Clock with y'"^ of the 17*^. I 
think you will find the Courses of Trevor in some of the Mort- 
gages of th* Land if not get th™ from the office ag* next Satur- 
day let me know the Expence th^ I may Charge it to Frost. 
My Ace* ag* Masters may be proved Hereafter. M"^ Johnson 
was to Pay in Proportion for the land added to the Ground 
leased to Jennings, to have a lease of the whole for the Remain- 
der of the term Granted to Jenings, He never returned me a 
Plat by w^ the Rent was to be Ascertained, I suppose M^ 
Johnson got D: D^ Consent to the above terms, Hte must 
Remember I more than once pressed Him to do so: He knows 
D: D & th<^ He is Dilatary to say no more M^ Johnson is 
Chargeable with Tho^ or M^" Jenings's Ballance & with the 
Additional! Rent from the time He took the Land added, w^ 
must be referd to Him if you do not find a M™ of it in some 
of the Blotters Pray shew what I write on this Head to M' 
Johnson. Give my Service to M^^ Deards & thank Him for His 
letter & tell Him I am glad to Hear He is Recovered & th* 
the things He Sent by the Wagon Came safe. I am very glad 



360 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

to Hear jou are all well, may you very long Continue so. My 
love (S: Blessing to you all. I am D^ Charley 

Y^mo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 

Oct. aSJ-d 1772 [207] 
Dr Charley 

You will receive this by Giles who has leave to see His 
Mother, He is to return on Tuesday. By Him pray send the 
Certificate I wrote for & the date of Edw<^ Dorseys the son of 
Johns Bond & the sum due on it. He wants to pay the int* 
due on it. We have at last fine weather there was yesterday 
Morning a small white frost it did not the least Hurt even to 
Kidney Beans. My Cold is better & I hope goeing of. I have 
not Heared from Dan: Carroll & Consequent conclude He 
Could not get me any Palatines. We have a good Mast round 
us, the Hoggs will benefit by it & therefore will not be put up 
as soon as Biggs at 1^* proposed, I think not before the Middle 
of Nov^ My love & Blessing to you all. I am J)^ Charley 

Y^ mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. Has the Execution been served on Worthington. M"^ 
Gill pretends a promise of M'' Carroll's Lots at E : R by inclos- 
ing th™ He excludes me from access to my lot, if M^ Carroll 
would not grant such Lease without reserving an access to my 
lot He would very much oblige me. Pray make my Compli- 
ments to Him & let Him know this. He will give you an 
Answer. 

Oct. 28^^ 1772 [208] 
Dr Charley 

I have y" Dated Octo^ 21^^ and 25*^^ inclusive I have a p^ 
of Cart wheels 5 Inches tread ready made & shod for the Island. 
I read y^ directions to Biggs about shoeing the wheels w^ Hie 
Bays shall be observed & th* the wheels made for the Island are 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CARROLL, PAPERS. 361 

made & shod to y direction. You say you also want a p"^ of 
AVlieels for tlie Plantation of tlie usual tread, th* is vasrue, 
if only for tlie use of the Quarter they must be narrow Wheels, 
if for the Quarter & Towne, mention the treads: Be always 
Particular in y^ directions & you will save me & y^ self some 
writing. I am only Accountable to my Brothers Representa- 
tives for Trevor, the Addition to it I think I bought of one 
Carpenter or French. I am obliged to you for Being so Par- 
ticular about the Appointment of Auditors & y'" Remarks on 
the Decree between Digges & us, they are very Pertinent & of 
Course we must Apply to the Chancelor to have the Severall 
Points you mention & any others w^ may Occur to you or y'' 
Counsel fully Explained, before th*. I think the Auditors 
Cannot begin to Consider the Acc*^ I think Conden & Henart 
right in insisting on a Joint letter from me & Diggs to Pay th™ 
so are you to insist to know what they requier p'^ Diem for 
th™selves. Clerk, Copying Journey Expences &c &c. before we 
sign such a letter; Consult Johnson & Cooke on the Propriety 
of the letter & the above Charges. It realy gives me great 
Pleasure & satisfaction to find you are so thorough a Master 
of the Cause & Acc*^. Act with the Gov'" & Visit Him as usual, 
His fickle Behaviour & mean Condesention to the Dulanys 
Justly lessens Him in y"^^ & the Esteem of every one Acquainted 
with their Pride & Insolence & with His former Behaviour to 
th™ & what He has Heretofore sayed of them. But prudence 
directs you not to shew th* the Gov'"^ folly & want of Spirit is 
mortifying to you ; you may Resolve to live in a desart if you 
will not generally Associate with foolish Fickle mean spirited 
men: You ought not to alter y^ Behaviour to the Gov'* unless 
Compelled to it by some Evident slight or ill treatment, w*^ 
you have no Reason to Expect. I directed Riggs to look out 
for Horses as He travelled. He says He did so, th* He was 
asked £35 V* Currency for a Horse not worth more than £17. 
Many Horses I understand are Carryed to Baltimore Towne 
for Sale, I will write to D : Carroll to get 4 or 5, one of th™ 
or a mare for you. I shall advise Him to take none above 7, 
nor any upon His owne Judgement I expect Edw: Dorsey 



362 MASYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

this dav to Pay His int*. I shall Eemember the white Clover 
»&: English grass seed for you. Turnbull has little or no Carrot 
seed, for me only some yearly part of Bed for Kitchen use, I 
once tryed field Carrots under Heesons management without 
success, insted of Carrots Cultivate Potatoes they are a Certain 
Crop, excellent food for all sorts of Stock, Especially Milch 
Cowes fed on them give a rich Milk w^ makes an Excellent 
butter. I do not Hear th* Giles is Come Home, He Certainly 
got Drunk, lost or sold the Shoes, He shall be whipped. Riggs 
says He intended to send 30 p^ of shoes by the wagon but 
Could only get 24 p^ into the Bagg w^ was Carefully tyed up 
as Edw'i Clarke says. How many Pair did you Receive by the 
wagon? Riggs set out with 3 others in Company, they went 
within two miles of Coll Cressaps, He says they met with 
upwards of 100 People Returning from the Monongealla & 
those Parts who Represented the Lands tho Rich Excessively 
broken & th* the Inhabitants there were starving Having gath- 
ered & almost Consumed this summers Crop of Corn, He says 
further th* they told Him th* two forts nigh Pitsburgh were 
Blown up th* Fort Pit was undermined & to be Blown up as 
last Saturday th* the Kings stores there were to be sold by 
Vendue & the Carrison to march in. French told me He 
Heared the same thing, if it be true the Expence attending a 
Garrison there, is in England thought needless or too great, or 
they Intend to Erect other forts in the new Government. As 
you trimmed Scot, Ireland & I trimmed French last Sunday & 
Monday. He lost £3:17:6 of w^ I only got 17/6. You say 
much of y^ Happiness depends on my life, I believe you for 
you Have allways been a dutifull & Affectionate son. But "D^ 
Charley by the Course of nature I Cannot be long with you, 
think often th* T must soon leave you, th* I am persuaded will 
as much as any thing by preparing you for the Event enable 
you to bear it : I Recommend what I practice, I often very often 
think of my last day & I at present think I shall see it without 
terror & with Resignation. M"" Jos. Sprigg was last Monday 
with me to Purchase 7914* Part of Enfield Chace unsold to 
Tasker who did not Care to take it as He indexed it not Clear 



EXTRACTS FBOM THE CARROLli PAPERS. 363 

of an Elder survey. Sprigg Agrees to Give me two Guineas 
an Acre for my Eight & I promised to let Him have it at th* 
Price, If not : Young to whom I promised the Refusal! did not 
take it. Sprigg has acted Generously, M'" Young to say the 
least has been very dilatary & therefore must not know Spriggs 
Offer. The inclosed letter to Young will exculpate my sale to 
Sprigg, or will induce Young to apply to me immediately. 
Pray send it as soon as Possible by a secure hand, note in y'^ 
Blotter by whome & the day you sent it, & advise me also. 
Pray let me know How many hgds were sold to Ste: West last 
year under the following marks & the weight of them as I am 
to Pay Mr Becraft His share CCb, CCd, OCh— Seal & Deliver 
myne to the Major — Octo'* 29*^ Yesterday Evening I received 
y'"^ of the 17*^ by Giles. I have a Regular Cash Ace* in an 
old Book Here from Febru 27*^ 1731 to long after my Brothers 
Death. I will get McKensie to renew His Bond. Y'" two last 
letters shall be kept Carefully. Pray desier y^ Gardener to 
take up all the young Apple trees in the nursery at the Quater 
w^ you do not think fit to reserve & to put them into the Ground 
in Bundles Covering the Roots well so th* they may be ready 
for my Wagon w^ I think to send downe either the 6*^ or 14*^ 
of next month, she may Carry the ready made Wheels. When 
will you want flour & a Beef? we are now takeing up our 
Potatoes Ploughing Grubing & all the works of the Season. 
For 3 weeks past the Weather has been very unfavourable for 
the tobo Cured by fier very much & I suppose has House burnt 
all tobo not fierd, if it has been as Close Warrae & Foggy every 
where as with us, you may Have some Business at our County 
Court, if so I shall not expect you before the Middle or latter 
end of the week after next. The Palatines. by agreement have 
severall days to looke out for Masters & to make the Best terms 
they Can, they seldom agree untill those days are Expierd, th* 
may be the Reason th* I do not Hear from M^ Carroll about 
th™. As to the Vessell you mention with Irish Farailys unless 
there be Single men among th™ :M'" Carroll wont look at th™ 
Oct. 30*^. There is one Regan a Horse stealer in A : A : Prison 
who I Hear Confesses He stole my Horse from the Folly & 



364 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

sold Him to one Hardy on Potomack, there is a family of the 
Hardys about Piscataway inclosed is a description of the Horse 
Pray send it to M^" Eozier (first takeing a Copy of it) & desier 
Him to do you the favour to get the Horse. By applying to 
Regan by Y'^self or M"^ Deards you may get Hardys Christian 
name »&: a Certain Ace* of the place of His abode. I Hear also 
th* Regan was in partnership w*^ a gang of 13 or 14 Horse 
stealers &■ th* He has impeached th™ all on assurance from the 
Magistrate of a Pardon, I hope the Gov'' will use all Endeavours 
to have th'*^ apprehended by applying to the neighbouring Gov*"*^. 
One Cheney M^^ Frosts Brother is a Principall rogue among 
th™ & drew in Regan who I hear is not above 20 : I pity M''"^ 
Frost. We Began to take up our Potatoes on Monday, the Wet 
Weather obliged us to desist. We had a flurry of Wind & Rain 
this morning, & it looks as if we should Hiave fair Weather. I 
am very well, last Sunday I had not the least appetite nor did 
I eat, nor Could I bear the Sight of Victuals, this Happened 
without any sickness or feevour th* I Could perceive, my appe- 
tite gradually returned & I now eat as usuall. My love & Bless- 
ing to you all. Do give little Molly a kiss & tel Her Grand 
Papa sent it to Hter. I am D"" Charley 

y mo : Aff* Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. I shall be glad to Hear 
th* Coll Sharpes Mill Answers 

A darkish Grey Horse about 13 hands high His mane and 
Tail almost white. Branded on the near shoulder C C The 
Brand scarce perceivable, Trotts, & is suhject to a lameness in 
his near foot, if rode hard. 

Stole the 9*^ of April 1772. 

Nov"- 2^ 1772 [209] 
D^ Charley 

"M" Daniel wil deliver you this I am uneasy about the Child 
but I think more so about Molly. But I hope for the Best. T 



EXTEACTS FROM THE CAREOLL PAPERS. 365 

shall send the Stallions to meet you on Saturday at Stoners you 
may Come thither w*^ M^^ Darnall in y^ Curricle. If you do 
not Come on Saturday send Alie Back to let me know How the 
Child is & when I shall send the Horses. I have been some 
what indisposed by a flux w^ Has Lessened my Appetite, it was 
troublesome on Friday & Saturday, yesterday I took a Dose of 
Rhubarb w^ I think has been of Great Service I am now easy 
& I think my Complaint at an end I am much Surprised to find 
myself so little weakened Considering the discharge I have had. 
I this Day walked about two Miles without fatigue. My love 
& Blessing to you all, God Grant my little Louisa & all of you 
Health & a long Continuance of it. I ana D^ Charley 

Y^ Mo :Afft Father 

Nov 19th 1772 [210] 
Dr Charley 

I see by y^^ to Molly you'r uneasy ahout my Health, if I was 
more Grave & thoughtful when you was Here than usuall I Can 
attribute it to nothing but to Mollys uneasiness & the loss of 
Louisa, for I find myself well, it is true I do not eat as much as 
formerly & what I doe eat I do eat with so good an appetite, 
But I do not find my strength to fail me, I take as much Exer- 
cise as for some years past & without being fatigued I walked 
this Day about 5 miles. Robert Davis dined with me & went with 
me to the Post placed in the roome of a White Oake & Hickory 
Boundaries of Kendalls Delight & the Beginning of Chance. 
He told me Hfe was lately at the White Oake a Boundary of 
Dryers & Dodderige th* it is well knowne & by what He tells 
me it is as much Hammonds as it is our Interest to preserve it: 
Howard Writes you th* M^" Dorsey & He saw it this week. Let 
me know when our County Court meets to settle the Levy, I 
may then Hiave a Commission to settle th* Boundary. I think 
to send downe the Wagon the 28^^^ for the Rest of the trees, send 
yr Gardener to the Quarter to trim of the Lops leaving two 3 
or 4 Branches at the top of each tree as the trees will direct 
about a foot long to forme the Head of the tree, this being done 



366 MAETXAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

I think the Wagon may bring them all. Send the Gardener to 
Coll. Sharpe & desier Hiim to Spare me 100 or 150 Plumb 
Suckers for Stocks to Graft on. I forgot to tell you th* R* Davia 
goes next week to lay out what is Clear of Carrolls Forrest for 
"Wheeler. If Riggs & Frost Have been Exact in their Measure 
I Have made 5750 Bushells of Potatoes at all the Plantations 
the Hoggs Sz Every thing Eates th™. The Hoggs Rooted up & 
eat all in Valentines Orchard. Frost & Clarke have not got in 
all their Corn, Riggs says He thinks Frost will make at least 
1000 Barrills at the Plantations under His Care, if so I shall 
make 2000 Barrills, Riggs Has measured 820 Barrills, I sup- 
pose Clarke will make 140, if sio the Plantations under Riggs 
will amount to 960 Barrills, I shall not write to you to Morrow 
unless something new Occurs. God Bless you & Grant you 
Health. We are all well & Molly pretty Chearfull But the 
thoughts of the Meazells small Pox & being from you perplexes 
Her. I am D^ Charley 

Yr Mo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 
P. S. 

My Compliments to M'" 
Deards I will answer His by 
the Wagon to morrow. 

Not' 23d 1772 [211] 
D"" Charley 

I have y'"« of the 20*^ which I shewed to Molly, She I suppose 
has told you when she will Come to you. Little Nan has been 
whipt about M^s Moretons Shifts, She Confessed she stole them 
& said she gave th™ to Moll, search Molls Box &c privately. But 
it is probable she Has sold th™ I am determined to see Moll & 
Henry well Whipped when I go downe. Look among the Plats 
& Certificates for a Plat of Chance Dryers Inheritance Dodd- 
rige's Forest &c & if you find it, send it to me, Davis says He 
made One, but I do not Remember it. I will prepare a Petition 
to perpetuate the Bounds of Chance Dodderige & Dryer. The 
Gov"" will be in Towne this day or to Morrow, for I am told a 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE CAEROLL PAPERS. 367 

grand Councill is to be held to Morrow w^ I suppose jou forgot. 
We are all well. I am D^ Charley 

Y^ Mo: Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 

I suppose you will want very few if any Wood Cutters, you 
may employ the Jobbers who are with you, if you want more, 
let me know the number & when to send th™ 

March 12th 1773 [212] 
Dr Charley 

We got Home in 6 Hours & % all Stopages included. Y' 
Horses behaved very well, the Roades between Annapolis & Mc- 
Daniell's were very Heavy as we advanced they grew better. 
M'"^ Darnall Complained much of the Cold. I found no ill 
convenience from it nor did I feel it, perhaps it would not have 
affected Her so much had wee been goeing to, insted of Return- 
ing from Annapolis : I think she did not like to leave M^^ Soots 
Rout. This as entre nous. I have not been out this day but in 
my Garden, as far as I can see & am informed every thing Here 
is in as good Condition as I could Expect, I shall ride out to 
miorrow. I send downe a Boy as M^^ Damall tells me she Can 
send you some Butter: Let the Boy return early on Sunday, 
by Him informe me How Countenances appeared at the Rout, 
what is sayed of the 1^* Citizen & how it is Relished, I shall be 
much disappointed if it does not meet with a Generall Cordiall 
reception. Has the Gov^ received His Commission ? if so what 
is sayed about it & what steps are to be taken in Consequence 
of it ? Kiss our D^ little Molly for me again & again, desier 
Her Mother to doe the same & both of you tell Her, Her Grand- 
papa sends Her those Kisses. My love & Blessing to you all & 
may God grant you all perfect Health & a very long Continu- 
ance of it. I am D'" Charley 

Y^ Mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 



368 MABTLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

March lY*^ 1773 [213] 
Dr Charley 

Y'"s of the 13*^ instant I received about ^ an Hour before 
Ja^ Howard Came to me & deliverd me this Gazette of the 11*^ 
ins*. He acquainted me w*^ the impatience of the People to get 
it, th* the Office was a long time Crowded, th* all the stranger* 
in Towne retierd to their Lodgeings many to private places (to 
avoid interruption) to read it, that the Publick Houses were th* 
night as quiet as private Ones, that next morning every mouth 
was open in praise of the 1^*^ Citizen. M^ Green I am told ha^ 
got many subscribers in this neighbourhood by it. A Gentle- 
man told me you appeared at the County Court on Friday, th* 
the whisper immediately Ran there is the 1^* Citizen & th* every 
eye was fixed on you with evident marks of Pleasure & Approba- 
tion, that many sayed they did not know which to admire most 
y^ strength of Reasoning or y'' Calm & Gentleman like stile Con- 
bidering Antillons scurrilous & abusive provocation ; That it was 
a doubt & matter of Debate whether y^ Text or Conclusion was 
most severe, but that all agreed nothing Could be more appli- 
cable than both. On Sunday about 4 a Clock P : M : I had the 
Pleasure of M^ Johnsons Chace's & Tilghmans Company. The 
evenings Conversation yon may naturally Suppose turned 
Chiefly on the 1^* Citizens Paper, their opinion of it you Cannot 
be in doubt about; They assured me it met with a Generall & 
Warme aprobation. You tell me some have thought it too' long 
winded. I do not doubt it, the text would have been too long 
winded for such Criticks, I have not Heared that any others 
have Ooonplained of its length I Cannot shew my Approbation 
of y^ Piece better than by wishing that you may with good 
HJealth live to see a Son think as you do & express His thoughts 
with y"" force Elegance and Ease, should that Happen you will 
be sensible of the Pleasure I feel. By this time you may have 
beared How y"" Piece is Relished at Court & what is sayed of it 
by others, such Anecdotes I long to have. I suspect there are 
some in Annapolis & Elsewhere who tho' pleased in their Hearts 
with the Citizen, will not Care to say so, th* some of those wh> 
secretly like it, will openly Censure it: so goes the World. 



EXTRACTS FKOM THE CABEOLL PAPERS. 369 

I rode out tx> the Folly & Frosts, Every thing there & Her© is 
in good order for a Crop & looks well ; All the other Plantations 
I am told are in like good Condition. What small grain I have 
seen looks very well. I have 40 fine Lambs Here & a few Ewes 
yet to yeen. I have walked out but little yet, the ground by the 
night frosts & last nights Rain being too wet. I am very well. 
I embrace you all. May God grant you all perfect Health & a 
very long Continuance of it. I am D^ Charley 

Yr Mo : A& Father 

Cha: Carroll 

March 17*^ 1773 [213] 
Dr Charley 

The letter Herewith is wrote in such a Manner th* you may 
as Circumstances may fall out if you see proper Communicate 
it to Do'^ Scot E-idout & Jenifer it may make them open I 
would not have you write anything more unless y'^ last Paper 
be Attacked, as you are upon strong ground about the Proclama- 
tion it Cannot give you much trouble to Maintain it, do not by 
any means bee drawne into discuss any other Matter, it is M'^ 
Johnsons advice as well as myne. He told me His Heart is with 
you & that He will readily & Cheerfully advise you, without His 
advice do not meddle with any Law Point. I am Certain in- 
tense thought & Confinement Hurts you therefore write no more 
but in support of what you have sayed about the Proclamation. 
The Gov'' has a Ticklish part to Play, He may not see it, if 
Hartfords Guardians notwithstanding his Commission should 
be desierous to remove Him, May they not make a Pretence of 
His unpopularity & wrong step in issueing & supporting the 
Proclamation, He has owned it as His owne Act. Should He 
Recall the Proclamation & Settle the fees by a Law at a Lower 
Rate than by the last Act, will they not say He has betrayed His 
trust, will they not remove Him ? Slight Pretences are enough 
to those who seek only Pretences for doeing what they want to 
do. This is a sudden thought & I desier you not to mention it 
on any Ace* to any one I send the Boy downe this Day that I 
5 



370 MARYLAND HISTORICAL- MAGAZINE. 

may have Cliace's & Paca's Answer, to Peruse it before Chace 
Retiirn from Frederick Hither, which will be on Saturday. 
Dispatch the Boy on Friday as soon as the E"^ Post Comes in 
with the Philadelphia Paper. Pray give me such an Opinion 
as you Can forme of Chace's & Paca's Paper w^ I understand 
is to be in to Morrows Gazette. I am glad you went to see the 
Gov^ last Friday & wish you had found Him at Home, it would 
have been as I think a sort of an embaressed Tete a tete. How- 
ever a Conscious rectitude would have enabled you to behave 
with ease. Is not the text of the Citizen Misprinted ? Are not 
the words Arhitrary Counsels in Hume? if so they ought to 
have been in Italicks. The word youthfull applyed to the Gov'^. 
I wish it had been omitted it Carries too much the Significancy 
of Puerility & Levity & want of Reflection. This is the only 
Correction I would make in y^ Piece. In a week you must have 
beared some Reflections on, & Praises of y^ performance, let me 
Have them all, the meerest trifle is interesting. I am D'' 
Charley Y" &c 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. M^ Johnson is the Gentleman mentioned in my other 
letter who I say told me &c 

M'' Ashton Came just before Dinner & delivered me y^^ of the 
14*^. He tells me Antillon says He will answer the Citizen I 
send 2 Volumes Evangile du jour. 2^° Demosthenes His Ora- 
tions & Paradise lost. I Cannot find Bolts Considerations, 1 
may have lent them to French or Ireland. 
Between 12 & 2 a Clock this day we had Thunder Lightning & 
Rain. 

March 20*^ 1Y73 [214] 
D"" Charley 

Clem brought me y" of the 18*^ a little after 12 a Clock. T 
judgf as you do by Antillons Card th* He will not Answer you 
& T see He is not ashamed of keeping up His Claim to His 
Titles of a lyear & Calumniator. Whenever you have an oppor- 
tunity to the Island Pray press Seers to dispatch the Carpenters 



EXTEACTS FEOM THE DULANY PAPEES. 371 

by giving them all the Tendance EDe Can & by a Constant Eye 
to them : Kigges tells me they Can easily with good Attendance 
Build a 50 foot House in 6 weeks, if so by the last of Aprill I 
hope they will doe all the other odd Jobbs He may want done. 
My Vineyard is in good order. I shall fill it as far as my Cut- 
tings will enable me Ribbes has Cut downe a good Piece of the 
Branch at Jacobs as you goe to the Folly, about 4 Acres, when 
Cleared & layed in grass it will look prettily. I expect Johnson 
&c to Dinner at 3 a Clock it is nigh th* Hour I therefore take 
my leave of you presenting my love & Blessing to you all I am 
Dr Charley 

Y^ Mo : Afft Father 

Cha: Carroll 

P. S. March 22 The Gen*™ are leaving me, We have been 
very Cheerfull, the Politicall Papers in out Gazette have Chiefly 
furnished us with topicks of Conversation. We are well & wish 
you all so. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE DULANY PAPERS 



[Hon. Daniel Dulany, the younger, eldest son of Daniel Du- 
lany, the elder, was born in Annapolis, Md., June 28, 1773, and died 
in Baltimore, Md., March 17, 1791. Educated at Eton College 
and Clare Hall, Cambridge University, England, and entered the 
Temple. Returning to America he was admitted to the bar of 
Maryland in 1747, and soon gained the reputation both in Eng- 
land and America of being one of the greatest lawyers of his 
time. On September 16, 1749, he married Rebecca Tasker, second 
daughter of Hon. Benjamin Tasker of Annapolis. She died in 
Brighton, England, in September 1823, in her 98th year. Member 
of the Lower House of Assembly 1751-1754, 1756. Commissary 
General 1759-1761, Member of the Council 1757 and in 1761 
Secretary of the Province, which offices he held in conjunction 
until the War of the Eevolution. In October 1765 he wrote a 
powerful pamphlet against the Stamp Act, entitled "Considera- 
tions on the Propriety of imposing Taxes in the British Colonies 
for the Purpose of raising a Revenue hy Act of Parliament." 
This pamphlet was republished in London 1766. The best argu- 
ment against arbitrary taxation hitherto written it attracted wide- 



372 MARYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

spread attention and had a tremendous influence, both in America 
and in England, and furnished the basis of Pitt's great speech 
in 1766 in the House of Commons against the Stamp Act. 

In 1773 he had a poHtical controversy in the Maryland Gazette 
with Hon. Charles Carroll of Carrollton, under the respective titles 
of "First Citizen" and "Antilon," discussing the action of Governor 
Eden in establishing the fees, involving also the question of taxa- 
tion for the support of rehgion. 

Mr. Dulany consistently opposed the radical measures of the 
Patriot party, took no part in the Eevolution, and in consequence 
lost the vrhole of his vast estates in 1781 under the Confiscation 
Act, "the estates of a man who had never breathed an unfriendly 
breath and had never raised his hand in one overt act." 

After the confiscation of his property Mr. Dulany retired to 
private life. — Richaed H. Spencer.] 

(London) 

Saturday, January 22, 1743. 
Dear S"* 

I rec^ your letter last Thursday, & am very glad to hear you 
are so well. I have enquired what steps are necessary to be 
taken in order to gett my Brother ^ into the navy : & I find the 
method now in use is this. A letter must be procured from 
one of the Lords of the Admiralty to a Captain of a Man of war, 
desiring him to admitt into his ship the Person he recommends, 
allowing him the Liberty of the Quarterdeck. 

The method of getting into the navy used to be by the King's 
letter but that can't be procured now. I have not yet delivered 
your last Letter to my L^ Baltimore ^ he being so much engaged 
I was afraid of appearing troublesoone, but will wait on him 
as soon as he is a little more att Leisure. My Lord promised 
me when I first saw him since my Arrival, that he wou'^ give 
my Brother his Letter of recommendation, & asked me whether 
you had n«t rather have him near you, w*^ I find is your desire 
by your letters. I doubt not but my Lord will very willingly 
reconunend my Brother to Cap* Warren. When I have seen 

' Dennis Dulany, son of Hon. Daniel Dulany, the elder. He entered the 
British Navy in 1743, and remained in the service for several years. In 
17.'<4 he was made Clork of Kent County, Md., and died without issue. 

•Charles, fifth Lord Baltimore, 1699-1751. 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE DULANY PAPERS. 373 

My L^ Baltimore I will let you know more by the first Oppor- 
tunity. M'" Janssen ^ has sent you the Statutes at Large you 
wrote to me about by Cap* Hall. I have enquired about that 
Land as you desired. It is now in dispute, but Mr. Dash a 
Tobacconist who is one of the Gentlemen concerned has prom- 
ised you shall have it (if he got it). I have since heard that 
the Other Gentleman has or will give up his pretensions to it. 
T have had but little time to enquire into it since I rec<^ your 
letter, but will give you a more satisfactory account by the 
next opportunity. I have taken Chambers in the Temple but 
expected to have them much Cheaper than I have got them. 

The Rent is £25 per annum unfurnished. You perhaps will 
think it too much for Chambers unfurnished, but had I taken 
them furnished I shou*^ have payed as much in a few years as 
the Furniture will cost new. I hear that the Iron you sent by 
Grindall for 84 tons turns out but 81. Grindall desired me to 
let you know of it. I am very much concerned att M^ Heath's * 
Loss & My Brother's sickness. 

You will be very much surprised when I tell you, that the 
Earl of Bath ^ is now as much the Subject of Satire, as he 
used to be of panegyrick. Many People, especially in the City 
condemn as much as they used to applaud the Earl's Conduct. 
The People are very bold in their instructions to their repre- 
sentatives, and insist very much upon having their Grievances 
redressed, before they grant any Supplies. The representation 
of the City of Worcester to M'' Sandys^ is very remarkable. 
You will find it in one of the Magazines I sent you. Prague 
has at last Capitulated the Account we have f^ Vienna makes 

'Sir Theodore Janssen of Wimbleton, Surrey, England. His daughter 
Barbara married Hon. Thomas Bladen, Governor of Maryland, 1742-174^ 
and his youngest daughter Mary, married Charles, Fifth Lord Baltimore. 

*John Paul Heath of Annapolis, Md. He married Rebecca Dulany, 
the eldest daughter of Hon. Daniel Dulany, the elder. 

'William Pulteney (1684-1764). An English statesman. He entered 
Parliament in 1705. On the accession of George I, he became Secretary 
of War, retiring in 1717. He was created Earl of Bath in 1742. 

•Samuel Sandys, first Baron Sandys (1695?-1770). He entered the 
House of Commons for the City of Worcester in 1718, which he continued 
to represent until his promotion to the House of Lords in December 1743. 



374 MAEYI.AND HISTORICAl, MAGAZINE. 

the Loss of the French very Considerable, but on the other 
Hand Marshal BeUisle '^ gives out his loss is very inconsider- 
able. Every one here is of opinion that the French have suf- 
fered very great Losses. I have sent you the Papers where 
Marshal BeUisle's Letter, the Account f^" Vienna, & the Ar- 
ticles of Capitulation are inserted att length. We had a very 
Long Passage & met with very bad weather, the ship has been 
arrived att London but 10 days. M'^ Ogle * was very sea sick, 
but Mi"s Ogle was scarce an Hour sick. 

Sammy Chew ® is now in London & in good health, M'^ 
Hyde ^° desired me to look out for a school for him & (I hope) 
I have found out one that wiU suit him very well. The Master 
has the character of a very Sober & carefuU man & the distance 
of the school from London is very Convenient (it is about 10 
miles f^ London) & situated in a very good air. I shall have 
an opportunity of hearing of him frequently, as I shall see a 
Gentleman very often who has a Son att the same school. 

Cap* Loyd is taken by a Large Privateer after a very stout 
engagement, having killed 19 or 20' of the Enemy, but being 
overpowered with numbers, & having his first mate & Carpenter 
killed he was forced to submitt. The Reason I mentioned this 

^Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, Duke of Belle Jsle (1684-1761). A 
French Marshal and Politician. He shared with Broglie the command of the 
French forces in the war of the Austrian Succession and captured Prague 
Nov. 26, 1741; but was forced by the treaty of pea-ce between Austria and 
Prussia at Breslau to retreat to Eger, December 17, 1742. He became 
commander in chief of the French Army in Italy in 1746, and was Min- 
ister of War from 1757 to his death. 

*Hon. Samuel Ogle, Governor of Maryland, 1731-32, 1735-42, 1747-52. 
He married Ann Tasker, the eldest daughter of Hon. Benjamin Tasker, 
and Ann Bladen, his wife, and elder sister of Rebecca Tasker, the wife 
of Hon. Daniel Duiany, the younger. 

•Samuel Chew, eldest son of Samuel Chew and Henrietta Maria Lloyd, 
his wife, who afterwards became the third wife of Hon. Da^niel Duiany, 
the elder. Young Chew died early in life. His eldest sister Henrietta 
Maria married Hon. Pklward Dorsey. His sister Margaret married Hon. 
•John Beale Bordley, and his sister Mary married Hon. William Paca, 
one of the nigners of the Declaration of Independence. 

"" .John Hyde of Kingston Lisle, Berks. He married Hon. Jane Calvert, 
daughter of Benedict, Fourth Lord Baltimore, and sister of Charles, Fifth 
Lord Baltimore. 



EXTEACTS FROM THE DULANY PAPEES. 375 

is, because I know he was expected in Maryland wlien I was 
there. Cap*^ Pigott & Anderson are not yet arrived here, but 
have been heard of in Ireland. Admiral Vernon ^^ took his seat 
in the House of Commons last Tuesday, it is reported the 
Admiral is to be knighted for his Services. M^ & M^a Ogle 
desire their Compliments. They are both in very good Health. 
I will Follow your advice to the utmost of my Power which 
is the least I can do in return for so much indulgence. That 
this may find you well is The sincere wish & hearty Prayer of 
your Ever Dutiful! Son 

D. Dulany. 

Letter from the Temple, June Y*^, 1745. 

Hon^ 

I have wrote to you several Letters w^^ tho Prior to this in 
Date (some of thean) by some months w^^ may not probably 
reach you, before this does, thro the disappointments the mer- 
chants have met with In the Convoy they expect'd. Orders att 
least 2 or 3 months ago were given to the merchants to have 
their ships ready immediately to sail, & those that got ready 
according to those orders, have been detain'd here for want of 
Convoy till this time. I thought it quite necessary to mention 
this, (as I am inform'd some of the Ships (the Merchants 
being quite tired of so great delay) have sailed without Con- 
voy, in order to remove any uneasiness you may have been 

"Edward Vernon (1684-1757). British Admiral. He entered the Navy 
in 1700; served in the war of the Spanish Succession 1701-1713, and en- 
tered Parliament in 1722. He bombarded and took Puerto Bello in 1739, 
was repulsed before Cartagena in 1741. 

Tobias George Smollet served in the Cartagena expedition as a Surgeon's 
mate and gives a graphic description of it in "Roderick Random," and in 
his "History of England." 

Lawrence Washington, elder brother of (Jeneral George Washington, who 
also participated in the expedition, regarded Admiral Vernon very highly 
and named his estate on the Potomac River, in Virginia, in his honor. 

Innumerable medals were struck oflF in 1739, all showing Vernon's head, 
with the legend, "He took Puerto Bello with six ships." 

One of the medals is in the possession of The Maryland Historical 
Society. 



376 MAKYLAIH) HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

under att not hearing from me, if none of those Ships you have 
vrrote by, have sailed with them. 

As you ai'e att so great a Distance f^'" the Grand Scene of 
Action, it is matter of Duty in me to transmitt to you as it 
may reasonably be imagin'd it is of Expectation to you, to hear 
f'" me, some Account of the most Interesting Events that have 
happen*^ here. I have sent you a Printed Account of the 
Action in the Mediterranean, & M"^ Lestocks Justification w^ 
seems rather a Charge against M'' Matthews, than a proper 
Vindication of his own Conduct & if this Recrimination shou*^ 
Prove ti'ue, it will only shew, that misconduct as well as Cow- 
ardice, or Treachery, Contributed to that most fatal miscar- 
riage. 

We have been Here in expectation f"^ the gi-eat Vigour, the 
House of Commons showed in the Prosecution of their En- 
quiry, into the Cause of the miscarriage of our Fleet, in the 
Mediterranean that that affair wou*^, e'er now have been 
brought to a Conclusion; But notwithstanding the General 
Indignation, that miscarriage inspired all orders of men with, 
& the Rage of Resentment with w^ the whole nation was in- 
flam'd, there is att Present a Dead Calm about it; as if e'vy 
other matter of publick Concern was absorb'd in this Event w'^ 
I shall just mention to you, & refer you to the Magazines, I 
have sent you for a more Particular Account. There has lately 
been an Action between our Army under the Command of the 
Duke of Cumberland,^^ & General Konigsegg, & the French 
near Tournay, w^ Place was besieg'd by the French, (& still 
holds out Thro' the Bravery of Baron Dort.) & in our Attempt 
to Raise the Siege, we met with a most severe Repulse. As T 
don't see the following Account of the Behaviour of some of the 
Dutch in the ^fagazines I have sent & as it is pretty extraordin- 
ary, I can't forbear giving you a Relation of it. A Party of Dutcli 

"William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-1765). An English 
General, non of George II. He fought at Dettingen in 1743; commanded 
at FonU-noy in 1745; and at Culloden in 1746, was defeated at Lawfelt 
in 1747, and at TIastenbeck in 1757. The City of Cumberland, Md., is 
named after him. 



EXTRACTS FEOM THE DULANY PAPERS. 377 

Horse att the very beginning of the Action, were seis'd with 
such a Panick, that they with their Brave Commander att their 
Bead (who to he sure knew his Station too well upon this 
occasion to be in the Rear) Fled to Mons when they ariv'd 
there, this Gallant officer not thinking himself so safe as he 
cou'd wish Chose another Rout, & leaving his men to take care 
of their own safety, made the Best of his way to Brussels, where 
he told them, that the whole Army was Cut to Pieces, thro' the 
Cowardice of the English, & that he alone escap'd to tell the 
news. This Account was transmitt'd to the Ilague, where the 
Populace were so extremely incens'd, & exasperated against the 
English, that they Assembled in a most Tumultuous, & out- 
ragious manner, about My Lord Chesterfield's ^^ House : (who 
was then our Ambassador att the Hague, but is since return'd) 
& it is more than Possible if this Account had not been very soon 
after Contradicted, his Lordship's safety, wou'^ have been ex- 
tremely precarious. ISTotwithstanding this Dutchman's great 
Aversion to be so near the French, he was oblig'd to return to 
the Army, where he was tried by a Court Martial, & Broke 
with Infamy. 

We are apprehensive that the Baltimore is taken, as the 
Charles who sail'd about the same time f^"^ Maryland and was 
in Company in the Channel has been arriv'd here, about 3 
weeks & no news of the Baltimore. 

I have not heard Lately f^ Dennis, but saw a Gentleman 
about a month ago, who assur'd me, he saw him in good Health 
att Bristol. I suppose he is now on a Cruise. Sammy Chew 
is very well, & very much Grown, he desires to join with me, 
in my Duty to you, & his Mamma. 

F™ Dear Sir your 
Most Affect^ & Dutiful son D. Dulany. 

A mail just this moment arrived i^^ Holland w^ brings 
the Following Accounts of an Action in Silesia, between the 

"Philip Dormer Stanhope, fourth Earl of Chesterfield (1699-1773). An 
Englisli politician, orator and writer, famous as a man of fashion. 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1744-1746. 



378 MAEYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Combin'd Armies of Prince Charles, & the Duke of Saxe Weis- 
senfels, & the Prussians Commanded by the King in Person, 
we have not jet any Account of it publish'd here. But I 
will endeavour to give you as good an Account of it, as I can 
f™ the Dutch Mail. F^" Berlin June 8*^ new stile The Aus- 
trian Army being Form'd by the Saxons were near 80,000 
Strong, & had form'd a Design to Penetrate into Silesia by the 
Defiles thro' the mountains on the side, of Friedland, & Lande- 
shut, their view seeni'd to be, to Cut of our Communication 
f^™ the Rest of Lower Silesia, & even with Glogau, & so with 
Brandenbourgs to present this, his Prussian Majesty march'd 
to meet the Enemy^ & the next day the engagement began. 
The Austrians Composed the Enemies right, & the Saxons the 
left wing. Our Right wing kept so incesscent a Fire on the 
Saxons, that they first gave way, & their Cavalry was broke 
into the gi'eatest Confusion. The Engagement on the left & in 
the Center with the Austrians & Hungarians was more obsti- 
nate, the Austrians were several times broke, & as often rallied 
when the Right had continued thus, for about 5 Hours, that 
Part of the Enemy that was the most expos' d to the Terrible 
Fire of our Infantry, & Cannon gave way, our Grenadiers mak- 
ing the most of this Advantage by a Desperate & most vigorous 
Effort, broke them into the greatest disorder &; Confusion. The 
Enemy being defeat' d, abandon'd the Field, we pursued them 
in their Flight, for an Hour & Half 'till they were got quite, 
into the mountains. The number of the Enemy that were found 
kill'd & wounded in the Field of Battle must be & more- 

over we have made 5000 Prisoners, with 6 Generals, 36 of 
distinction, have taken 60 pair of Colours, 10 Standards, 8 pair 
of Kettle Drums & 40 Pieces of Cannon. The Enemy left 
great Part of their Baggage behind them, Our Loss amounts to 
about 1200 men. So far is the Prussian Account. 

F™ T^eipsick Tune 9*^ the following is the Dnkc of Saxe 
Weissenfels account of that Action w'^ he sent to the King of 
Poland after having given a Description of the situation & 
disposition of the Armies w^ is pretty much the same, with the 
Pnifisian Account, he proceeded to this Effect, The Prussians 



EXTEACTS FROM THE DULANY PAPEES. 379 

attack'd us witli a great deal of Spirit, & we rec^ them with an 
adequate Firmness. The Engagement began about 4 in the 
morning & ended about 10, when our Cavalry by reason of the 
unevenness of the ground, retired with design to form again be- 
hind the Foot. The Left wing being by this weaken'd, & there 
being some Confusion among the Irregular Troops, & those 
about the Artillery it was thought Proper to make a retreat w^ 
we did with great order, & took possession of the Defiles of 
Schmiedeberg & Landeshut the Enemy making a kind of distant 
pursuit. Our Loss amoimts to about 3 or 4000 men, & some 
Generals are missing ; as to the Enemies Loss it must be at least 
equal if not superiour to ours, their Cavalry having been \ery 
roughly Handled. 

If Cap* Hargrave does not sail before the 9*^ I will send 
you our Gazette where you will have 

Dear Watty 

I write this Purely to Inform You of M^ Dorsey's ^^ Death, 
who died last night at about 9 o'clock & to desire that you'll 
Communicate it in such a manner as may be the Least shocking 
to My^ Dorsey for this Purpose I suppose the best way wou'd 
Be to Inform her mother of it, whose good sense and Prudence 
as well as best Acquaintance with the Temper and Disposition 
of her Daughter will suggest to her the best means. 

M^ Dorsey's case had appear'd for a considerable Time past 
to be quite desperate to Every one but Himself But He had 
Hopes of recovering to the Last, & yesterday agreed for his 
Passage to I^ew York by water, his Disorder being a genuine 
Consumption, his Decline was & his Death without 

any the Least apparent Pain. He had left his Room, but Little 
before He Expired, to go to supper. I Left Him sitting up in 
his Chair, then He walked to his Bed, undressed Himself, 

"Hon. Edward Dorsey, lawyer, of Annapolis. Member of the Lower 
House of Assembly from Frederick County, Md., 1757-1760. He married 
Henrietta Maria Chew, eldest daughter of Samuel and Henrietta Maria 

(Lloyd) Chew. He died in Newport, R. I., in 1760, while on a trip to 

Boston for his health. 



3S0 MABYLAJSTD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

wound up his watch, & Laying his Head on the Pillow Expired 
Instantaneously. 

This Event will keep me here Longer than I Intended to see 
to, & attend his Funeral, as well as to take Care of what He has 
Left, if I have an opportunity by water I intend to send 
Phil & the Portmanteau that way, & sell the Horses, or leave 
them with some Person here to be sold — the Expence of sending 
Horses so great a Distance by Land, & the Hazard of trusting 
to the Discretion of a negro who wou'd be his own Master, & 
must have money put into his Pocket to Defray the Charges of 
travelling, wou'd be, I think, too great, as I shall act in this 
melancholy affair for the' best, I Hope it will meet with the 
satisfaction of his Friends, it seems that Funerals are cele- 
brated here with much Expence, w*^^ however I shall avoid as 
much as Decency will admit. The of which, being gen- 

erally Local, Expect some Indulgence. 

I have been the more Circumstantial in my Relation 
of M'^ Dor soy's Dying, as it must without doubt be some Con- 
solation to his Friends to hear that his death was as easy, as 
sinking into his usual Repose, & Let me add to this too that 
more Care cou'd not have been taken of him at Home, tho' He 
had not the Comfort of Haveing his nearest Relatives, about 
Him, w<^^ yet his Resignation of Temper, or those delusive 
Hopes of Recovery w^^ usually attend Persons in Consump- 
tion, & those frequent & occasional Flashes of seeming Health 
made some Amends. 

I am Dear Watty 

Your affectionate Brot^ 

Dan^ Dulany. 

218t Sept. 1T60. 
Newport in Rhode Island. 

1766. 
T>' Brother, 

There may be some Perplexity in the Expression, tho' I 
think my Ideas are clear. The Stamp Act proceeded upon the 



EXTRACTS FROM THE DULANY PAPERS. 381 

peculiar Privilege of the Ho: of Commons, & according to our 
Acc*^ M'^ Grenville ^^ endeavour'd to support it by his Notion 
of Virtual Representation — after the Act took place, the Pam- 
phlet generally attributed to M'^ Grenville, called the Regulat- 
ing of the Colonies, assumed the same principle of Virtual 
Representation; but after the Affair had been canvassed in 
America, all the subsequent writers both of Pamphlets & in 
N"ewspapers, dropped M^ Grenville's principle, & had recourse 
to that of the Supreme, unbounded. Legislative Authority of Par- 
liament — what Topics were argued upon in Parliament, when 
the question concerning the Repeal came on I don't know, the 
account we have being only of M^ Pitt's ^^ speech who ridiculed 
the JSTotion of virtual Representation & of M^ Grenville, who 
did not defend it, & true Protest of the Lords relates merely to 
the Sovereignty of Britain, & the Act V5^^ I now send you, was 
founded in the same Manner. I mean by the term Advocates, 
all who were concerned as far as we know, in the Defence of 
the Stamp Act ; for I never heard of any one after Grenville's 
Publication, who did not set up the Right to tax us by Act of 
Parliament on the foundation of the supreme. Legislative, 
Power, w^^ is lodged as well with the Lords as the Commons. 
By the relative term their I mean the last Antecedent viz — 
two advocates, whoever they were that appeared in Defence of 
the Act, after the controversy began concerning the Legality of 
it; for the Advocates I speak of in a former Passage are those 
who changed the Ground of the Framer of it, & therefore cou'd 
not mean the Members of the Ho : of Commons who concurr'd 

^ George Grenville (1712-1770) An English statesman. He entered Par- 
liament in 1741; became a Lord of the Admiralty in 1744; was a lord of 
the Treasury, 1747-1755. From October, 1761, to October, 1762, he was a 
leader of the House of Commons. He became premier in 1763, and retained 
the office until July, 1765. He opposed the repeal of the Stamp Act. 

"William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (1708-1778). A famous English states- 
man and orator. He entered Parliament in 1735. Became Secretary of 
State in 1756, and leader of the House of Commons. 

In the dispute with the American Colonies over the Stamp Act (1766) 
Pitt played a noble part, denounced the follies of Grenville and secured its 
repeal. 



382 :maryland historical magazine. 

Trith the Framer upon his own Grownd, in passing the Act, by 
the subsequent Acts, I mean the Act declaring the Dependency 
of the Colonies, & the Act imposing the Duty on Paper &c. 

But yet after all, if the sense has not clearly appeared to 
yourself, it is not likely that it will clearly appear to others, & 
therefore it is certainly not well expressed — whether the word 
Defenders in the place of Advocates wou'd point out the Mean- 
ing better, I don't know — 'tis probable that I carry with me 
some unexplained Idea, w*^ may give me a different view from 
what wou'd occur to a Reader, the introductory Part of the 
Piece was to shew, ex absurdo, that the Parliament of England 
cou'd not justly tax us; because no Principle to found such a 
tax upon can be maintained — ^that of Virtual Representation 
has I think been given up, not only in Pamphlets, but that the 
contrary is advanced in the Protest of the Lords, & the Ace* 
to preserve the Dependency of the Colonies, & that the Conse- 
quence, respecting the Power of the Lords, w*^ can't be denied 
on the other Principle, being incompatible with all our Ideas 
of the English Constitution, shews an absurdity too glaring to 
be defended. 

Again I must desire that the Paper magnet be sent, if there 
is anything obscure in it, or improper, and that you can't rectify 
to your own Satisfaction. 

I am &c D. D. 

Suppose some words to the follows Effect were to be thrown 
into a former Passage Viz. " For the Fiction (or whim) of 
virtual Representation was of a Texture too flimsy to withstand 
the Impression of an attack." 

Jennings being with me, I was obliged to Keep your Boy. 

Dear Watty, 

My sister Hedges being extremely anxious to see me, I have 
made her a visit at Wilmington, & in my Return called at 
Newark, having been informed that the school there was in 
great Reputation. M*" Davidson the principal Master, has a 
most excellent character for Learning, decent Behaviour, & 



EXTRACTS FROM THE DULANY PAPERS. 383 

Other qualities. I determined to put Benny ^'^ under his In- 
structions & writ Him a Letter, therein offering him 20£8 ^ 
annum over, & above the usual Allowance for Board, & Instruc- 
tion, with the view of engaging his particular Attention to 
Ben's Instruction. Davidson's Behaviour has been very hon- 
ourable: for this Morning He paid me a visit here, being a 
time of a few Days vacation, & told me He cou'd not in Honour 
accept my Proposal because He had resolv'd, tho' He has not 
yet communicated his Resolution to any one, but M'^ Hamilton 
& myseK, to leave IsTewark, & go into orders upon the chance of 
being a Missionary. 

I have heard M'" Addison say. He wou'd be glad to have a 
Cui'ate to assist Him upon moderate terms, & especially one 
well qualified (as Davidson undoubtedly is) to instruct his 
children — ^whether He may not have alter' d his Mind I can't 
tell ; but you can be informed by writing to Him. I have also 
understood that Brogden wants a Curate, & I believe that the 
free school in Prince George's wants a Master — can't you know 
this thro' M'" Murdock — if in neither of the above methods an 
encouragement can be given to him — cou'd He not be got into 
the free school at Annapolis, & a subscription be obtained that 
He might have a reasonable support — the Virginia Parson was 
to have come to Annapolis ; but that is over — if everything else 
shou'd fail, might He not be sent upon the terms of a Reader 
to some vacant Parish. By all I have been able to collect con- 
cerning the Man's character, & what I have observed myself, 
I am very much induced to think that all who have sons to 
educate here have great Interest in his settling in Maryland. 

My sister looks better than I ever saw her 

I am Dr Watty Your affectionate BrotV 

lltii Oct^ 1767. D. D. 

"Benjamin Tasker Dulany (1752-1816), the second son of Hon. Daniel 
Dulany, the younger. He married in 1773 Elizabeth French of Virginia, 
a ward of General Washington, who gave her away at her marriage. 

^ Rev. Henry Addison, M. A., ordained in England in 1742. Rector of 
St. John's Parish, Prince George's County, Md., for many years, and died 
in 1789 act. 72. He married Rebecca Dulany, the second daughter of Daniel 
Dulany, the elder. 



384 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

SOME EARLY COLONIAL MARYLANDERS 

McHenky Howard 



1. Reverend William Wilkinson, 1612-1663. 

In the " Visitation of Berkshire, Vol. 2 [page 228], Harleian 
Society Publications, 1908, Volume 57," is a Pedigree of Wil- 
kinson of Barnesly and Ealand, Yorkshire, England, ending in 
one line with Gabriel Wilkinson of Upper Winchingdon and 
Vicar of Bishop's Woobourne, Buckinghamshire, born 1576, 
died 17 December 1658, with children, Thomas, William, John, 
Margaret, Mary, John, Arthur, Richard, Matthew, Gabriel and 
Robert. 

See also " The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical 
Association Record Series, Vol. 9, for the year 1890 — Abstracts 
of Yorkshire Wills, xxxx, 1665, 1666," page 170. 

Foster's " Alumni Oxonienses 1500-1714 " has the following 
entries : 

" Wilkinson, Gabriel, of Yorksh., pleb. Merton College, 
matric. 25 Jan. 1593-4, aged 17, B. A. 1 Dec. 1597, M. A. 
7 July 1603. 

(S. Thomas, of Eland, Yorksh.) Vicar of Wooburn, 
Bucks. 1614 until his death 17 Dec. 1658, father of 
Thomas and William 1626 and perhaps of John 1620. See 
Foster's Index Ecclesiasticus. 

Wilkinson, William, s. Gabriel, of Bishop Coburn, 
Bucks., sacerd. Magdalen Hall, matric. entry 9 June 1626, 
aged 14, B. A. 3 Feb. 1629-30, M. A. 25 Oct. 1632, brother 
of Thomas 1626." 

In the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 
4, page 201, also Volume 6, page 94, is an abstract of a grant of 
700 acres of land, 20 November 1635, in Linhaven [Norfolk 
County] to William Wilkinson, minister, of which 50 acres was 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL MABYLANDERS. 385 

for his personal adventure and 50 acres for the personal adven- 
ture of his Wife IsTaomy and the rest for the coming of other 
named persons among whom do not appear any Wilkinson chil- 
dren. There can be little doubt that he was the William Wil- 
kinson, " sacerdos/' of the Berkshire- Yorkshire pedigree and 
Alumni Oxonienses. 

And there is little doubt it was the same William Wilkinson 
who came to Maryland in 1650. In the Land Office of Mary- 
land at Annapolis, L. O. R. Ko. 3, page 62, is the following 
entry : 

" 10 October 1650 Mr. William Wilkinson Clerk de- 
mandeth 900 acres for transportation of himself, his wife 
Mary, Rebecca and Elizabeth Wilkinson his Daughters and 
Elizabeth Budden her daughter; William Warren and 
Robert Cornish 2 men servants and Anne Stevens a woman 
servant into this Province this present year 1650. War- 
rant to lay out 900 acres for Mr. Wilkinson on PatuxenL 
River or elsewhere within this P'rovince on 1 February." 

The same entry is in Liber A, B and H, page 49 (such repe- 
titions are not uncommon), and it is printed in the Maryland 
HiSTOEiCAL Magazine, Volume 8, page 266. An apparent am- 
biguity as to Williajn Wilkinson's wife and daughters is re- 
m'oved by the acreage, the " Conditions of Plantation " being 
then 100 acres for each person ; so the demand was for 

Himself 100 acres 

His wife (unnamed) 100 " 

Eis 3 children, Mary, Rebecca, and Elizabeth 300 " 

Her daughter Margaret Budden by a former husband 100 " 

3 servants 300 " 

900 acres 

And if the same William Wilkinson to whom the land was 
patented in Virginia in 1635, he had had since then 3 children, 
his wife, ISTaomy, had died, and he had married again — a Mrs. 
6 



386 MARYLAND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Biidden. lu Land OflSce Record 'No. 4, page 5, there is another 
demand of William Wilkinson, Clerk, for land for transporting 
11 named persons in 1652. 

In the " Daj-Star of American Freedom, By George Lynn- 
Lachlan Davis " (Commissioner of the Land Office 1868), pages 
153, 155, there is an account, from the Maryland Archives, of 
the trial of Mr. Wilkinson in 1659 for uniting in marriage a 
man and a woman when the man had a wife living, an act of 
which Mr. Davis under the circumstances perhaps speaks too 
extenuatinglj. At his first arraignment he objected to the jury 
selected as being a very " weak " one and claimed to be tried by 
a Protestant jury, an objection which the Governor thought 
reasonable and postponed the trial, himself going on Mr. Wil- 
kinson's bail bond. A few days after his second arraignment 
he was freed under a general pardon which followed the acces- 
sion of Richard Cromwell in England. (See also Archives of 
Maryland, Provincial Court of Maryland Records Mar. 1658- 
Nov. 1662 [original], pages 185, 191, 200, 201.) Mr. Wilkin- 
son was living in St. George's Hundred, St. Mary's County, and 
Mr. Davis says (page 146) that he was also a planter and en- 
gaged in trade. The emoluments of a Protestant Minister in 
Maryland in those early days, before the formation of Prot- 
estant Parishes must have been small and uncertain. He is 
said to have been the first Protestant Minister settled in the 
Province. (Day-Star, page 145.) In the Archives, Vol. 10, 
p. 311, he had rendered an Recount on 6 Feb. 1653 against the 
estate of John Stringer, who had died at his house, charging for 
a " funerall Sermon, a funeral Dinner, a plank for his Coffin " 
kc. 

For some further account of the Reverend William Wilkin- 
son, see " One Hundred Years Ago ; By Elizabeth Hesselius 
Murray, 1895," page 15. 

He died between 8 July 1663, date of an unsigned " post- 
script " to his Will, and 21 September, date of its probate. In 
this Will (recorded in Wills, Liber No. 1 page 190, now in the 
Land Office, Annapolis, to which, by Act of Assembly some 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL MAEYLANDEES. 387 

years ago, these Testamentary Eecords of the old Colonial Pre- 
rogative Office were removed from the Office of the Register of 
Wills of Anne Arundel County, and an abstract of which Will 
is in Baldmn's Calendar of Marylarid Wills, Volume 1, page 
26), after devising personal property to Elizabeth Budden, 
daughter of Margaret Budden, " my last wife," and to 2 Dent 
and Hatton grandchildren, he devises I/2 of the residue of his 
estate to his son in law Thomas Dent and Rebecca his wife and 
the other % to his son in law William Hatton and Elizabeth 
his wife. It appears, therefore, that since his coming to Mary- 
land, his last wife, Margaret (Budden) and his daughter Mary 
had died. And no son being mentioned it seems that other Wil- 
kinsons in Maryland are not descended from him. 

Thomas Dent died between 28 March and 21 April 1676, 
(date and probate of his Will, 1 Baldwin, page 169), and his 
widow, Rebecca, married (Colonel) John Addison; she had 
children by both her husbands. 

A seal of the Reverend William Wilkinson, or a Will in 
England of the Reverend Gabriel Wilkinson or others, would 
probably identify him with the Yorkshire family — ^whose arms 
were. Gules, a fess vair, a unicorn cursant in chief or, within 
a bordure engrailed of the last egressed. 

A deposition of William Wilkinson on 1 May 1652 (Arch. 
10, p. 174), stating that he is " aged fifty years or thereabouts," 
and another on 13 April 1657 (page 552), stating that he is 
" aged fiftie yeares or thereabouts," are somewhat discrepant 
from each other and from the age in Oxford Alumnienses, but 
such statements of age prefixed to depositions are not material 
and were probably intended to identify the deponent in the 
community and to show that he was of capacity to depose. 

2. Colonel John Addison, 16 -1707, and some descendants. 

In her book, " One Hundred Years Ago, the Life and Times 
of the Reverend Walter Dulany Addison 1769-1848 ; By Eliza- 
beth Hesselius Murray, 1895," an Addison pedigree is given 
as follows: 



388 



MABYLAJSD HISTOEICAIi MAGAZINE. 



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SOME EARLY COLONIAL MARYLANDEES. 389 

Miss Murray — ^who was one of the descendants — says on page 
13 of her book that Col. John Addison : 

" Came to this country from England in the year 1667. 
He was brother to Launcelot Addison, Dean of Litchfield 
— father of the celebrated Joseph Addison. He also had a 
brother Anthony, Kector of Abingdon and Chaplain to the 
Duke of Marlborough. In an old note book of his grand- 
son (the Reverend Henry Addison), which he kept while 
in England, is the following entry : ' St. Helen's Church 
at Abingdon [Berkshire] is a spacious and handsome 
building in the Gothic style and decently ornamented. My 
great uncle Anthony Addison B. D., Rector of this Church, 
died in 1719 and lies buried here under the altar.' His 
brother Laimcelot ^ is buried in the Cathedral of Litchfield. 
Over a door is to be seen the Addision arms, together with 
that of a noble lady who gave the money to restore the 
Cathedral. Mr. Boucher in an article written for the 
Historia Cumbriensis tells us that he has seen, while in 
Maryland, sundry letters in the possession of Rev. Henry 
Addison, from Joseph Addison to his ancestor in which 
were frequent allusions tO' their being of one family. Mr. 
Boucher goes on to say, ' That branch which went to Mary- 
land became of note and still are so. They possess a noble 
estate on the banks of the Potomac opposite Alexandria 
and contiguous to the new Federal City. The family has 
long been distinguished for their strong sense, fine taste 
and humour and exquisite style in writing.' " 

On page 195 Miss Murray gives a copy of the " Addison 
Arms from an old Tankard," but, unfortunately, she does not 
give the hall marks, one of which would be the date letter. I 
interpret these arms heraldically : Ermine, on a bend 3 annu- 
lets, on a chief 3 leopards faces. [Tinctures not shown.] Crest, 
a unicorn's head erased, pierced through the neck by an arrow 
in bend dexter. Motto, Vulnus Opemque Fero. The nwytto, 

^Father of the celebrated Joseph Addison. 



390 



MASTLAIfD HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



" I cany a "wound (or weapon) and a remedy " refers to a 
superstition of the Middle Ages that the horn of the unicorn 
was both an offensive weapon and had also a valuable remedial 
quality. 




Miss Murray's book being written from old Addison and 
Dulany letters and family records, most of which may not now 
be in existence or accessible, its statements may properly be 
accepted; and there is corroboration. I have given the above 
extracts in full because the book is not now readily found. 

I have not seen a description of the arms in Lichfield Cathe- 
dral, but in Berry's Encyclopaedia Heraldica, Vol. 2, are Addi- 
son Arms: " Ermine, on a bend gules 3 annulets or [ ?], on a 
chief azure 3 leopards heads of the third"; and in "West- 
morland Church Notes, By Edward Bellasis," after several Ad- 
disons in Morland Parish, there is on page 192 a description of 
a monument dn the South transept of the Church to Robert Ad- 
dison Esqre of Crossrig Hall, son of Christopher and Elizabeth 
Addison of Wickerfield in this Parish, bom 13 October 1775, 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL MAEYLANDEES. 391 

died 6 April 1862, with arms, " Ermine, on a bend gules 3 
annulets argent, on a chief azure 3 leopards' faces of the third : 
Crest a unicorn's head erased transfixed by an arrow in bend 
sinister. Motto, Esto quod esse videris." [Mottoes were often 
assumed or changed at the pleasure of the user.] 

That Colonel John Addison was from Cumberlandshire, Eng- 
land, further appears from letters from the Reverend Jonathan 
Boucher, who married his great-granddaughter, and who was 
himself a native of Cumberland, published in the Maryland 
Historical Magazine. In Volume 8, page 41, he writes on 
25 July 1769 from Maryland to the Rev. Mr. James in Cum- 
berland of the desire of the Reverend Henry Addison, grandson 
of Col. John Addison, that a Curate be sent over to him from 
England, and says that he is so prejudiced in favor of Cumber- 
land " where his ancestors came from that he will have none 
but a Northern lad "; and on page 1Y9, in writing on 10 July 
1772 of his own recent marriage to a niece of the Reverend 
Henry Addison, he says, " whose ancestors were from Cumber- 
land." 

The first mention of John Addison in Maryland records (that 
I have seen) is in the Archives of Mwryland, Proceedings of the 
Council 1667-1687/8 f Vol. 5, page 334 et seq.), in a proceeding 
by Christopher Rousby, the King's Collector of Customs, 
against the master of a vessel for an alleged importation of 
goods in violation of the strict letter of the law, in St. George's 
River, St. Mary's County, in March 1777/8, and from which 
John Addison seems to be then engaged in merchandizing, and 
perhaps then coming to Maryland. 

In the same Archives (Vol. 7, page 94) his name appears in 
an Act passed October-iN'ovember Session 1678 as one to whom 
tobacco (money) is due in the late expedition against the Is'anti- 
coke Indians and other charges of the Province, but the par- 
ticular services or credits of the very many persons named are 
not stated. And, page 610, by an Act passed in October-Xovem- 
ber Session 1683 he was appointed one of Commissioners to lay 
out Ports, Towns and other places in St. Mary's County. 



392 MAETULND HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

On 22 September 1687 he was appointed a " puny " (puisne) 
Justice for Charles County, to which he had at some time re- 
moved from St. Mary's. (Arch. 5, p. 565.) Hb was re- 
appointed Justice for Charles Co. 4 Sep. 1689. (Arch. 13, p. 
243.) 

In 1689 he was appointed Captain of Foot in the upper parts 
of Charles Coimty and " Newscotland." (Arch. 13, page 243.) 
And by the same Act, page 247, he was appointed one of a Com- 
mittee for the whole Province for the allotting, laying and 
assessing the public levy of the Province. 

In March 1688/9 he is rather conspicuous in a wild Indian 
and French scare, partly as an alarmist and partly with credit 
to his better judgment. (Arch. 8, p. 74 et seq.) 

On page 138 of the same Volume he is a signer of the Con- 
gratulatory Address on 28 November 1689 of the Protestants of 
Charles County to William and Mary on their accession to the 
throne. 

In the disturbed and disorganized condition of Maryland in 
1690 he was named ion several important commissions (same 
volume, pages 199, &c.), and on 16 April 1691 he was oom- 
missioned one of a Special Court for the trial of the accused 
murderers of John Paine, the royal Collector for Patuxent Dis- 
trict — whose death had caused great political excitement in 
Maryland and had drawn attention in England. Pages 242 
et seq. 

On 26 August 1691 the British King and Queen, William 
and Mary, then ruling the Province directly — Lord Baltimore's 
authority having been set aside — appointed John Addison one 
of the Council of Maryland (same volume, page 271), and he 
continued a Member of the Council until his death, his presence 
at meetings l)eing many times noted; and on 8 April 1692 he 
was commissioned a Justice of the Provincial Court — the high- 
est Court in Maryland. (Page 307.) 

On 30 May 1692 he was appointed by the Governor and 
Council one of several Commissioners to hold a special Court 
of Oyer and Terminer for the trial of the master of a vessel in 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL MAEYLANDEES. 393 

St. Mary's River accused of illegally entering goods. {Arch. 
13, p. 320.) 

On page 433 of Proceedings of the Council 1687/8-1693 
(Vol. 8) he is abusively called, in a letter brought to the atten- 
tion of the Council 21 December 1692, " a new Castle Factor," 
which may indicate a business connection with that town in 
England. To speak disrespectfully of a Member of the Council 
was a serious offence. In the early Council Proceedings there 
is a complaint of a Member that he has been elected a Vestry- 
man and asking if it is not an indignity to a Member of the 
Council ; and the Council says that it is and orders the election 
to be annulled. 

On page 109 of Proceedings of the Council 1693-1696/7 
(Arch. Vol. 20) he is mentioned on 30 July 1694 as being 
Captain of a Troop of Horse, but on the same day, page 130, 
he was commissioned Colonel of Charles County. And on 17 
August 1695, page 281, he was commissioned Colonel of Prince 
George's County, recently formed, being taken chiefly from 
Charles County. 

In July 1696 he was by Act of Assembly appointed one of 
the first Trustees of King William's School, to be founded at 
Annapolis, afterwards St John's College. (Arch. 19, p. 421, 
and Arch. 38, p. 27.) And by an Act passed in June 1697 he 
and another were appointed to hear and determine all differ- 
ences, quarrels and controversies between the Indian Nations of 
Ackocick, l^anjemoy, Pomunky and Piscattoway and those that 
inhabit within Charles and Prince George's Counties and the 
English inhabitants thereunto adjacent. (Arch. 38, p. 104.) 

He was living in June 1705 (Arch. 25, p. 190), but on 10 
June 1707 Governor Se^rmour writes to the Board of Trade in 
London that Colonel John Addison and two other Members of 
her Majesty's Council in Maryland have died since the last 
appointment (page 265). He is said to have gone to England 
on a visit and to have died there. No Will appears at An- 
napolis. 

Colonel Addison's activities in the offices and employments 



394 MAETLAJSD HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

referred to above are very frequently mentioned in the Archives, 
and especially in connection with operations against and deal- 
ings with the Indians, his residence in Charles and Prince 
George's Counties being on or near the then frontier of the set- 
tled Province. After the Protestant Revolution of 1689 he was 
one of the leading Protestants of Maiyland, and to the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church the Addison family has been strongly 
attached ever since. 

He married — Miss Murray says in 1677 — ^Rebecca, widow of 
Thomas Dent (who died in 1676 — 1 Baldwin's Calendar of 
Maryland Wills, page 169 — and by whom she had several chil- 
dren) and daughter of the Reverend William Wilkinson of St. 
Mary's County, who came to Maryland with his wife and three 
daughters in 1650 and is said to have been the first Protestant 
clergsTnan to settle in the Colony. (Davis's Day Star, pages 
145,204.) 

Mrs. Addison survived until between 1724 and 1726 and by 
her Will, dated 5 ISTovember 1724, proved 20 August 1726 and 
recorded in the old Prerogative Office, Annapolis, in Liber W. 
D. No. 1 page 520, now in the Land Office, devises 20 lbs. 
sterling to her son Thomas Addison and the rest of her estate 
to her daughter Barbara (Dent) Brooke and her children. 

Colonel Thomas Addison, who appears to have been the only 
child of Colonel John and Rebecca (Wilkinson) Addison, was 
bom about 1679. His life activities were much like those of 
his father. The first mention I have found of him in the 
printed Maryland Archives is his appointment by the Grovemor 
and Council on 15 May 1696 as Surveyor of Prince George's 
County. (Arch. 20, p. 425.) 

On 15 October 1697 he was made Deputy to the Naval Officer 
of Potomac District. (Arch. 23, p. 253.) 

On 24 May 1705 he was appointed or nominated one of Com- 
missioners to go North and treat with the Seneca Indians. 
(Arch. 26, p. 468.) These appointments were in the life-time 
of his father. 

Colonel Thomas Addison was appointed by Queen Anne — 



SOME EAKLY COLONIAL MARYLANDERS. 395 

the Province being then under Koyal Government — a Membed 
of the (Council of Maryland, his Commission being dated in 
London 15 January 1708/9, and he took his seat 27 October 
1710. (Arch. 27, p. 496.) In his attendance thereafter he 
generally appears for some years as Lieutenant Colonel, having 
been so appointed at some time before, but after 1714 he is 
styled Colonel and was, no doubt, Colonel of Prince George's 
County, as his father had been. 

On page 320 of Proceedings of the Council 1698-1731 (Arch. 
25, p. 320) (between which years the Council records are very 
defective) he is mentioned as a Judge of the Provincial Court- 
in 1715; and he was holding the same Office 26 July 1726. 
(Arch. 35, p. 557.) 

By an Act of Assembly passed in 1718 Colonel Thomas Ad- 
dison was one of Commissioners to settle disputes about the 
boundaries of Lots in Annapolis, the Plat of which had been 
destroyed in the burning of the State House in 1704. (Arch. 
33, p. 291.) 

Under an Act passed in 1715 (Arch. 30, p. 252) to facilitate 
the ascertaining and settling the bounds of lands in the several 
Counties, Colonel Addison had been appointed one of the 5 
Commissioners for Prince George's County, and in April 1720 
a complaint was made against him of partiality in the exercise 
of his duties, an accusation which he resented so much that on 
an angry impulse he tendered a resignation of all his offices. 
And perhaps in the same connection, Daniel Dulany, then in 
the beginning of his distinguished career in the Province, calls 
him " a Little Rascalous Fellow." (Arch. 33, pp. 504, 508, 
512, 591.) But the matter seems to have been soon dropped.^ 

In 1 Harris and McHenry's Mart/land Law Reports, page 
199, he is mentioned as being Surveyor for the Western Shore 
in 1723. 

The Proceedings of the Assembly and of the Council show a 
very frequent attendance of Colonel Addison down to 1726 and 
doubtless he continued a Member of the Council until his death. 

' Subsequently the Addison and Dulany families were closely connected 
by several marriages. 



396 MAEYIiAND HISTORIC Ali MAGAZINE. 

The regrettable missing parts of the Council record, the most 
interesting series of the Archives, would give more information 
about him. 

Miss Murray — herseK a descendant and in possession of old 
Addison records and papers — sajs that he increased the large 
estate inherited from his father, and that he died in 1727. His 
^Yill, dated 9 April 1722, with a Codicil dated 2 November 
1725, was proved 28 June 1727 and was recorded in the old 
Prerogative Oflfice, Annapolis, in Liber , now in 

the Land Office, but I have not an abstract and do not remember 
its provisions. 

Colonel Thomas Addison was twice married. The Register 
of St. John's or Piscataway Parish, Prince George's County (a 
copy of which is in the Maryland Historical Society), has the 
following entries, on page 264 of the copy: 

" Thomas Addison, aged above Twenty two years 

Honorable Coll. John Addison and Elizabeth aged 15 
years of Thos. Tasker Esq'" was Joined in 

Holy Matrimony upon Tuesday the 21** of April anoq. 
1701. Their children ifollows — 

Rebeckah Addison was Borne on Monday the 3^ day of Jany 
Annoq 1703 about Eleven a clock in the Morning. 

Elinor Addison was Bom on Wensday the 20**^ of March 
Annoq. 1705 about halfe an hour after 9 a Clock in the 
Morning. 

Eliza The Mother of These Children Departed This 
Life the 10*^ Day of ffebruary Annoq. 1706. 

The Hon^b^e Coll<* Thomas Addison and Elinor Smith Second 
Daughter of Coll° Walter Smith of Patuxant River aged 
about 19 years was Joyned in Holy Matrimony The 17*^ 
Day of June Anno 1709. 

Ann Daughter to the above Thomas & Elinor was Borne on 
Munday the 18^** Day of ifebruary about two a Clock in 
the morning, 1711/12. 

John Addison son of the above Thomas and Elinor was bom on 



SOME EAELY COLONIAL, MAEYLANDEES. 397 

Wednesday the IG^^ of September 1713 at Three a Clock 
in the Morning. 

Thomas Addison, son of the above Thomas and Elinor was 
Borne Thursday the 26*1^ of May 1715 at Twelve a Clock." 

The foregoing entries were evidently put on the Parish Reg- 
ister at some time or times after the events — as was not uncom- 
mon — and they were probably made by Colonel Thomas Addi- 
son himself, or at his instance. The two blank spaces in the 
entry of the first marriage indicate torn places or lother oblitera- 
tion in the original and doubtless should be filled in with " son 
of the " and " daughter," respectively. And there were two 
other children of Colonel Thomas and Elinor (Smith) Addison 
born after the above Parish entries, Anthony and (the Rev- 
erend) Henry Addison. 

After Colonel Thomas Addison the family does not appear 
prominently in political life, but it continued influential and 
prosperous. Of the Reverend Henry Addison (youngest?) son 
of Colonel Thomas and Elinor (Smith) Addison, something has 
been incidentally written in the first part of this article. He 
was a graduate of Queen's College, Oxford University, Eng- 
land, and Foster's "Alumni Oxfordienses 1715-1886 " has the 
following : 

"Addison, Henry, s. Thomas, of Mary Land, arm. 
Queen's Coll. matric. 3 March 1734-5, aged 16, B. A. 
1738, M. A. 1741." 

He was ordained in the Church of England (Protestant Epis- 
copal) and became Rector of King George's " alias St. John's," 
commonly called Piscataway or Broad Creek Parish in Prince 
George's County, Maryland, and so continued from 1751 or 
before (Arch. 28, p. 512) until his death in 1789. He mar- 
ried Rachel, daughter of Daniel Dulany, the first of that dis- 
tinguished family in Maryland, and widow of William Knight. 
The Reverend Henry Addison was warmly interested in 
efforts in 1766, 1769 and 1770 to have an American Episcopacy 



Z9S MABYLAISD HISTOKICAL MAGAZINE. 

established for the Church. (" One Hundred Years Ago/' page 
30 et seq. and Arch. Vol. 32, p. 379 et seq.) 

He went to England at or about the beginning of the Revolu- 
tionary War and stayed there until its close. The Eeverend 
Jonathan Boucher, some of whose letters have been quoted from 
and who had married his niece, writes from London 8 January 
1776 to his friend the Reverend John James, in Cumberland: 
" I am not sure that I shall not, next week, go down to Oxford 
with Mr. Addison, about to carry his son thither, to Queen's." 
(Md. Hist. Mag. Vol. 8, p. 347.) And on page 349 Mr. 
Boucher writes from Paddington (London) to the same on 5 
March 1776 : " My friend Mr. Addison & myself purpose 
taking our Staves & Scrips in our Hands about May & setting 
out on a Pilgrimage over the Kingdom, for which, I fear, we 
shall have abundant Time before we can think of returning to 
our People in the other Hemisphere." But on 28 April 1776 
he writes: " My friend Mr. Addison is just about leaving us 
for the Summer. He sets off in great State, with a pair of 
Clever Geldings & a Servt. He goes from hence to his Friends 
the Simpsons in Hampshire & to Oxford & Bath & from thence 
will make a large Tour thro' this Kingdom, Ireland & Scotland. 
He presses Me to meet Him at your House about November 
next." (Magazine, Vol. 9, page 57.) 

While so absent in England he was presented for High 
Treason at the May Term 1781 of the General Oooirt of the 
Western Shore of Maryland, but the action was struck off at 
the May Term 1782. (Magazme, Vol. 4, page 288.) But his 
tangible property was probably confiscated. He returned from 
England to his Maryland Parish after the war and died — Miss 
Murray says in 1789. (" One Hundred Years Ago," page 131.) 

A few lines may be well here added to what has been said 
about the Reverend Jonathan Boaicher who married Eleanor 
Addison, daughter of John Addison, eldest son of Colonel 
Thomas Addison. He was a native of Cumberland, England, 
and first came to Virginia as a tutor in 1759. Going to Eng- 
land for ordination in 1762, he had successively two Parishes in 



SOME EAELY COLONIAI. MAEYI.ANDEKS. 399 

Virginia and in 1770 removed to Maryland, wliere lie was Kec- 
tor of St. Anne's Church, Annapolis. He warmly adhered to 
the side of the mother country in the Revolution and at its be- 
ginning intrepidly preached with loaded pistols on the pidpit 
cushion, in his farewell sermon proclaiming, " God save the 
King!" ("One Hundred Years Ago," page 46 et seq. and 
Md. Hist. Mag. Vol. 8, page 243.) He went to England in Sep- 
tember 1775 and never returned. In 1797 he wrote a book 
AtboTit the American Revolution and, although their former 
friendly relations had been broken off, dedicated it — and not 
ironically — to General Washington, who made a courteous ack- 
nowledgment. ("One Hundred Years Ago," page 49; Mag. 
Vol. 10, page 123.) 

He was a man of good character and abilities and literary 
attainments, strong in his convictions and vigorous in upholding 
them. A sketch of his life will be found on page 1 of Vol. 7 
of the Md. Hist. Magazine, prefixed to the publication of his 
letters. See also Bishop Meade's " Old Churches and Families 
of Virginia," article xxxvii. 

The Reverend Walter Dulany Addison, 1769-1848, son of 
Thomas (and Rebecca Dulany) Addison, son of John Addison, 
eldest son of Colonel Thomas Addison, is the chief subject of 
Miss Murray's book. 

Miss Elizabeth Hesselius Murray, of West River, Anne 
Arundel County, Maryland, was the daughter of Alexander 
Murray and his first wife Mary Young Addison, the daughter 
of the Reverend Walter Dulany Addison and Elizabeth D. Hes- 
selius, his first wife, daughter of John Hesselius, the well-known 
Maryland portrait painter. Miss Murray died some years ago. 

Oxon Hill, the Colonial home of the Addisons, probably 
named from Oxford University, at the mouth of Broad Creek 
into the Potomac about ten miles below Washington, was de- 
stroyed by fire 6 February 1895. But it had passed out of the 
family in the time of the Reverend Walter Dulany Addison. 



400 MAEYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 



NOTES 



Tahular views of Universal history, compiled by George Pal- 
mer Putnam, and continued to date under tlie editorial super- 
vision of George Haven Putnam. Peace Conference edition. 
:Nrew York, 1919. $2.50. 

The revision of this standard work maintains the standards of 
its predecessors and it is unquestionably one of the most import- 
ant " desk tools " for literary workers. Arranged in parallel 
columns, it shows at a glance what characters and what events 
were contemporaneous with each other, as well as the date of 
each. The sections dealing with the chronology of the Great 
War, 1914-1919 and the Armistice period, 1918-1919, are par- 
ticularly valuable. 

The work is ably edited and well indexed. 



The following bibliography of articles on the history of 
Catonsville by one of its former residents will doubtless be of 
interest to many readers of the Magazine. It is to be regretted 
that they have not been printed or reprinted in some more per- 
manent form as most of the material therein contained is inac- 
cessible in any other form, and it represents the expenditure of 
much time and labor — a veritable labor of love. We hope to 
secure at least some of the biographical sketches for republica- 
tion in the Magazine at an early date. 



Catonsville Articles 

BY 

George C. Keidel 



1. The Lutheran Observer (Lancaster and Philadelphia, Pa.), 

Vol. Lxvi, no. 5 (Feb. 4, 1898), p. 5, cols. 1-2: George 
C. Keidel, A Typical Language Problem: Its Solution at 
Catonsville, Md. 

2. The Argus (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xvi, no. — (July 2, 

1898), p. 4, col. — : Field Day at Catonsville. [By 
George C. Keidel] 



ITOTES. 401 

3. The Baltimore News (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. lii, no. 45 

(June 25, 1898), p. 5, col. 3 : JField Day at Catonsville. 
[Bj George 0. Keidel] 

4. The World (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. 9, no. 214 (June 30, 

1898), p. 6, col. 1 : Cluh Formed at Catonsville Working 
Hard. [By George C. Keidel] 

5. The Baltimore News (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. lii, no. 51 

(July 2, 1898), p. 9, col. 3: Field Day at Catonsville. 
[By George C. Keidel] 

6. The Baltimore News (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. lii^ no. 53 

(July 6, 1898), p. 5, col. 1: IPlays at the Catonsville 
Country Club^. [By George C. Keidel] 

7. Ellicott City Times (Ellicott City, Md.), Vol. xxs, no. 38 

(Sept. 23, 1899), p. 3, col. 1: SemirCentennial [By 
George C. Keidel] 

8. The Argils (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xviii, no. 2 (Sept. 30, 

1899), p. — , cols. — : Golden Jubilee of Salem Church. 
[By George C. Keidel] 

9. Baltimore Morning Herald (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. — , no. 

— (Oct. 2, 1899), p. 7, col. 2: Golden Jubilee. [Dic- 
tated by George C. Keidel to a reporter on Oct. 1, 1899] 

10. The Lutheran Observer (Lancaster and Philadelpliia, Pa.), 

Vol. Lxvii, no. 42 (Oct. 20, 1899), p. 6, col. 1-p. 7, 
col. 1: After Fifty Years. (Portrait and illustration). 
[By George C. Keidel] 

11. The Lutheran Observer (Lancaster and Philadelphia, Pa.), 

Vol. Lxvin^ no. — (Dec. — , 1900), p. — , col. — : Rev. 
Geo. W. Ebeling. [Recast from article by George C. 
Keidel] 

12. The Argus (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. sx, no. — (May 18, 

1901), p. — , col. — : Church Festival. [By George C. 
Keidel] 

13. Baltimore American (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. cxci, no. 

34824 (Sept. 26, 1901), p. 12, col. 4: Dr. Ebeling Dies 
at Catonsville. [By George C. Keidel] 

14. Baltimore Morning Herald (Baltimore, Md.), no. 8332 

(Sept. 26, 1901), p. 11, cols. 1-2: Rev. Dr. Ebeling'g 
Busy Life Peacefully Closes. (With Portrait). [Adap- 
ted from an article by George C. Keidel] 

15. The Sun (Baltimore, Md.), Vol. cxxix, no. 114 (Sept. 26, 

1901), p. 7, col. 3 : Rev. George W. Ebeling Dies at His 
7 



402 MABYLAND HISTOEICAL MAGAZINE. 

£"07/16 in CatonsvUle. [Adapted from an article by 
George C Keidel] 

16. The Lutheran Evangelist (Washington, D. C), Vol. xxv, 

no. 40 (Oct. 4, 1901), p. 5, cols. 2-3 : ? [Adapted 

from an article by George C. Keidel] 

17. The Argus (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xxi^ no. 2 (Oct. 5, 

1901), p. — , col. — : George C. Keidel, Tribute to Rev. 
Geo. W. Eleling, Ph. D. ( ?) 

18. The Argu^ (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xxxi, no. 15-31 (Jan. 

6-April 27, 1912), Vol. xxxii, nos. 11-28 (Dec. 7, 
1912-April 5, 1913) : George C. Keidel, The Colonial 
History of Catonsville, A Series of Articles. 'Nos. 1-35. 

19. The Argus (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xxxiii, no. 4 (Oct. 18, 

1913), p. 3, col. 5: A Catonsville Confederate: Incidents 
in the Life of Herman F. Keidel, by bis nephew George 
C. Keidel. 

20. The Valley Register (Middletown, Md.), Vol. lxviii, no. 

— , (Dec. — , 1913), p. —, col. — : George C. Keidel, 
Herman F. Keidel ( ?). 

21. The Argus (Catonsville, Md.), Vol. xxxiv, nos. 43-52 

(July 17-Sept. 18, 1915), Vol. xxxv, nos. 1-6, 8, 9 
(Sept. 25-Oct. 31, :N'ov. 13, 20, 1915): George C. 
Keidel, Catonsville Biographies (Rev. L. Van Bokke- 
len, D. D., LL. D. ; Rev. Geo. W. Ebeling, Ph. D. ; Dr. 
Adalbert J. Volck). 19 articles. 

22. The Automobile Club of Philadelphia Monthly Bulletin, 

Vol. X (1918), pp. 28-30: G.[eorge] C. K.[eidel]. 
Observations on the National Road West of Baltimore. 
[Recast by Robert Bruce] 

23. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly (Washing- 

ton, D. C), Vol. VII, no. 2 (July, 1918), p. 25, cols. 1-2: 
George C. Keidel, The Pierpont Burying Ground at 
Catonsville, Baltimore Co., Md. 

24. The Catonsville Lutheran Church, A Sketch of its Origin, 

by George C. Keidel, Ph. D., formerly Secretary of the 
Church Council, late Associate in the Johns Hopkins 
University, Language expert in the Library of Congress. 
Washington, D. C, Privately printed, 1919. 8vo., ii, 
12 pp. 



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