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Full text of "Marylebone and St. Pancras; their history, celebrities, buildings, and institutions"

00 




MARYLEBONE AND ST. PANCRAS. 




ST. MARYLEBONE CHURCH. 



\ r 



MARYLEBONE 



AND 



ST. PANCRAS.- 



THEIR HISTORY, CELEBRITIES, BUILDINGS, AND 

INSTITUTIONS. 



BY 



G K O R G K C L I N C H 

(Of the Department of Printed Books, British Museum), 
Author of " Bloomsbury & St, Giles's," &c. 




Mitb numerous Jlluatratlpna. 



LONDON : 

TRUSLOVE & SHIRLEY, 143, OXFORD STREET, W. 

1890. 



i'>'7C 



PRINTED BY 

TRUSLOVE AND BRAY, KNIGHT'S HILL ROAD, 
WEST NORWOOD, S.E. 



PREFACE. 

THE wide area occupied by the districts of Marylebone 
and St. Pancras contains rich and extensive materials 
for a book of local history. Indeed it would be 
impossible to put a detailed and exhaustive history of these 
most interesting places in a volume of the size which is now 
before the reader. Such a work would require, not one, but 
many such volumes. 

To tell the truth, the author has not attempted anything 
of the nature of an exhaustive history. He has endeavoured 
to make a selection from the large mass of material at his 
disposal, using such parts of it as seemed likely to be 
generally and permanently acceptable to his readers ; and, 
while no important branch of the subject has been omitted 
intentionally, many branches have been treated with brevity 
in consequence of the obvious limitations of space in a volume 
of this scope and size, and some, upon which one would 
desire to linger awhile, have, for the same reason, been 
condensed and modified. 

It may be explained here that only the southern portion 
of St. Pancras has been included in this book, the great 
historical interest which centres in and immediately around the 
old church, demanding too much space to allow of any account 
of the more northern portions. 

The accounts of the Royal Toxophilite Society and the 
Foundling Hospital are, to some extent, based upon accounts 
which have recently appeared in " Bloomsbury and St. Giles's," 
by the present writer. 

It is a frequent complaint that life is not long enough 
to allow of as much reading as one would like, or, rather, 



vi. PREFACE. 

that so much is crowded into one's life as to leave time only for 
limited literary recreation. I is for this reason that the present 
writer hesitates to occupy as much of his readers' time and 
attention as the subject might seem to demand ; and, in 
attempting to meet this popular wish for a summarized account, 
he humbly begs the indulgence of those who may have 
expected a more elaborate and comprehensive book upon two 
most important and influential metropolitan districts. 

In attempting to shape his book to this end, the author 
has received the greatest and most valuable help (especially 
in the pictorial part) from his friend, Mr. A. Bernard Sykes, 
several of whose sketches, specially executed for the purpose 
from old water colour drawings in the Grace Collection, British 
Museum, are used in the illustration of the volume. 

The author cannot allow the present opportunity to pass 
without expressing his sincere thanks to those kind friends who 

have afforded him information and useful hints ; and, without 

7 ' 

singling out for mention any particular name, he feels that it 
would be unpardonable were he not to record his deep thanks 
and hearty appreciation of the many kindnesses he has received 
in this way. 

It would be equally ungracious were he to omit a brief 
reference to the authorities he has made use of in the 
compilation of this work. Stow, Lysons, Cunningham, Thomas 
Smith (Topographical and Historical Account of Marylebone), and 
a valuable collection of drawings, cuttings, and documents 
relating to the parish of St. Pancras, gathered together by 
Mr. R. Percival, and now preserved in the British Museum 
Library these, and many other sources, have provided material 
which is indispensable for such a book as that with which the 
author has essayed to amuse or instruct his readers. 



CONTENTS. 



MARYLEBONE. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

EARLY HISTORY: Ancient name of Marylebone. Domesday Account. The Manor. 

Marylebone Park. Fox-hunting and hare-hunting. Marylebone Manor-house. Oxford 
House, and the Harleian Manuscripts. The Tybourne. The Hole-bourne. The 
Westbourne. The source and ancient course of the Tybourne River. Conduits. 
Annual inspection of the Conduits. The Lord Mayor's Banqueting House. Origin of 
the name Tybourne. Thorney Island 3 

CHAPTER II. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY : - St. Marylebone Old Church. The site of St. John's Church. 
Thefts of Church Goods. Rebuilding of the Church. Dedication to St. Mary, the 
Virgin. Hogarth's picture of the interior of the Church. " The Rake's Progress." 
Vault of the Forset Family. Demolition of the Church in 1740. Rebuilding of the 
Church in 1741. Inadequate accommodation. Suggestions for a new Church. 
Epitaphs, &c., in Marylebone Old Church. Sir Edmund Douce. James Gibbs, 
architect. Baretti. Storace. John Allen, apothecary. Caroline Watson, engraver. 
Celebrated names in the Burial Register. St. Marylebone New Church. Architectural 
features. St. Mary's Church. All Souls' Church. Holy Trinity Church. Christ 
Church. St. Peter's Church, Vere Street. St Paul's Church, Great Portland Street. 
St. John's Wood Chapel. Dissenting Chapels. French Chapel 15 

CHAPTER III. 

MARYLEBONE GARDENS, TAVERNS, &c : Marylebone Gardens. The French Gardens. 
Illuminations, fireworks, and music, at Marylebone Gardens. "The Forge of Vulcan." 
Dr. William Kenrick's lectures. The Marylebone Spa. James Figg and "The 
Boarded House." Bowling Greens. "The Rose of Normandy." "The Queen's Head 
and Artichoke." "The Yorkshire Stingo." "The Old Farthing Pie House." "The 
Jew's Harp " 31 



viii. CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 



I'AGE 



MODERN HISTORY :- Regent's Park. Old Marylebone Park. Willan's Farm. Other Farms. 
Construction of "the Regent's Park." Proposed Triumphal Arch. St. Dunstan's 
Villa. Regent's Canal. St. John's Wood. Lisson Green. Lisson Fields. The New 
Road. Cavendish Square. Portman Square. Manchester Square. Dorset Square. 
Blandford Square. Bryanston and Montague Squares ..."-. 50 

CHAPTER V. 

TYBURN TREE AND PRIMROSE HILL: The name Tyburn. "Deadly Never Green." 
Fuller's derivation. The journey to Tyburn. St. Giles's Bowl. Tom Clinch. 
Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw. Celebrated Executions : Holy Maid of Kent, Robert 
Southwell, Mrs. Turner, John Felton, Hacker, Axtell, Okey, Barkstead, Corbet, 
Thomas Sadler, Sir Thomas Armstrong, John Smith, Jack Sheppard, Lord Ferrers, 
John Wesket, Dr. Hensey, John Rann, Dr. Dodd, Elizabeth Gaunt, John Austen. 
Hangmen : Derrick, Gregory Brandon, " Esquire Dun," John Ketch. Primrose Hill 
and Barrow Hill. Green Berry Hill. Murder of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey. Duels. 
Capt. Macnamara and Col. Montgomery. Barrow Hill. Origin of name . . 67 

CHAPTER VI. 

SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS: The Marylebone Volunteers. The Royal York St. 
Marylebone Volunteers. The Royal Toxophilite Society, Regent's Park. Sir Ashton 
Lever. The Archers' Hall. The Marylebone Cricket Club. Thomas Lord. M. 
Garnerin's balloon ascent The Zoological Society. The Royal Botanic Society's 
Gardens, Regent's Park. The Middlesex Hospital 79 

CHAPTER VII. 

MARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES, &c. : Joanna Southcott. Mrs. Siddons. Anecdote of Handel. 
Thomas Holcroft. Horatia "Nelson." Marylebone Celebrities: Mary Lamb, 
Edward Gibbon, Henry Fuseli, " Berners Street Hoax." Faraday, Wilkie, Flaxman, 
James Barry, Dr. Johnson, George Romney, John Constable, Thomas Hood, Landseer, 
Thomas Moore, Barry Cornwall, Lyell, Leigh Hunt, Dickens, Macready, Nollekens, 
Anna Jameson, Samuel Lover, Benjamin West, Thomas Stothard, J. M. W. Turner, 
Thomas Campbell, Frederick Marryat, Sydney Smith, J. G. Lockhart, Sir Walter Scott, 
Henry Hallam, Admiral Lord Hood, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, William Pitt, 
Lady Hester Stanhope. Miscellanea. Cato Street Conspiracy. Verley's Charity. 
Marylebone Rates, &c 93 



CONTENTS. i x . 

57. PA NCR AS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EARLY HISTORY: The Brill; Dr. Stukeley's theory of its having been a Roman camp 
Defensive works in 1643. Pastoral character of the district. Value of land. The 
name St. Pancras. Manors of Cantelows (Kentish Town), Totenhall, Pancras, and 
Ruggemere. King John's Palace. The Adam and Eve. "The Paddington Drag." 
The Pinder of Wakefield. Battle Bridge and King's Cross 115 

CHAPTER IX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY-: The old Church of St. Pancras. Quaint description in 1593. 
Antiquity of St. Pancras Church. French Refugees. Benefactions to the church. 
Renovation in 1848. Altar Stone. Epitaphs. Epigram in St. Pancras Churchyard. 
Anecdote of the Poet Chatterton. The New Church of St. Pancras. St. James's 
Church, Hampstead Road. Whitefield's Tabernacle. "Resurrection-Men." Monu- 
ments. Demolition of the Tabernacle, 1890. Presbyterian Church, Regent Square. 
Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon Square 129 

CHAPTER X. 

SPRINGS AND WELLS OF ST. PANCRAS: Lamb's Conduit. William Lamb. Public 
rejoicings. The Lamb Public House. The River Holebourne. Black Mary's Hole. 
Bagnigge Wells. The Pinder of Wakefield. Nell Gwynne. Properties of the 
waters. Bagnigge Wells Tea-gardens. "The Bagnigge Organfist." Pancras Wells 
The Adam and Eve, Pancras. St. Chad's Well. Portrait of St. Chad. Tottenham 
Court Fair. Smock Race ... 144 

CHAPTER XL 

POPULAR EXHIBITIONS AND ST. KATHARINE'S HOSPITAL: The Colosseum. Panoramic 
View of London. The Swiss Cottage. The Glyptotheca. Classic Ruins. Stalactite 
Cavern. Cyclorama of Lisbon. The Diorama. The Cosmorama. The Royal Hospital 
of St. Katharine: foundation, benefactions, statutes, &c. Raymond Lully. The 
Hospital Church. Removal to Regent's Park . . 164 

CHAPTER XII. 

INSTITUTIONS, THEATRES, &c.: University College. St. Pancras Volunteers. The Royal 
Panarmonion Gardens. Thorrington's Suspension Railway. The Tottenham Theatre. 
The Cabinet Theatre 179 



X. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PAGE 

CHARITIES, HOSPITALS, &c. : Charities: Heron's Charity; Miller's Gift; Stanhope's Gift; 
Charles's Gift ; Cleeve's Gift ; Coventry's Gift ; Platt's Gift ; Church Lands ; Donor 
unknown. Ancient Bequests. Charity School. The Foundling Hospital. Thomas 
Coram. Hatton Garden Premises. William Hogarth's Pictures. Raphael's Cartoon. 
G. F. Handel. "The Messiah. "-Benjamin West, R.A. The Small Pox Hospital. 
The Royal Free Hospital. North London, or University College Hospital . . . 186 

CHAPTER XIV. 

CELEBRITIES AND MISCELLANEA : St. Pancras Celebrities : Frank Buckland, John Leech, 
Barry Cornwall, Charles Dickens, Charles Darwin, Thackeray, Shelley, Charles Kean, 
Samuel Warren, Dr. Dodd, George Smith. Anecdote of Toplady. Miscellanea; 
Capper's Farm, Pugilism, Items from Old Newspapers 207 



Index 



215 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 



ST. MARYLEBONE CHURCH ....... Frontispiece. 

PAGE 

PLAN OF MARYLEBONE ESTATE, WHEN PURCHASED BY THE DUKE 

OF NEWCASTLE, 1708 ....... facing 4 

PLAN OF THE ESTATE OF LORD HARLEY AND LADY HENRIETTA 

CAVENDISH HOLLES HARLEY, 1719 . . . . facing 6 

MARYLEBONE MANOR HOUSE, 1791 ,, 8 

THE SCHOOL HOUSE AT MARYLEBONE ,, 10 

MAP OF MARYLEBONE AND ITS VICINITY, FROM MORDEN & LEA'S 

MAP OF LONDON, 1732 ...... facing 12 

INTERIOR OF THE OLD CHURCH OF MARYLEBONE (FROM HOGARTH'S 

" RAKE'S PROGRESS ") . . . . . . . facing 16 

OLD MARY-LE-BONE CHURCH, BEFORE 1740 ..... 17 

VIEW OF. St. MARYLEBONE CHURCH, 1750 .... facing 18 

CHURCHES, &c., IN MARYLEBONE AND ST. PANCRAS . ,, 28 

PLAN OF MARYLEBONE GARDENS, 1756 .....,, 32 

THE GRAND WALK, MARYLEBONE GARDENS, 1755 . ,, 34 

THE QUEEN'S HEAD AND ARTICHOKE, 1819 ....,, 40 

THE OLD ROSE OF NORMANDY 43 

THE ROSE OF NORMANDY, 1840 44 

ROSE OF NORMANDY, BUILT 1850 44 

THE QUEEN'S HEAD AND ARTICHOKE, 1796 45 

YORKSHIRE STINGO, 1770 46 

THE OLD FARTHING PIE HOUSE, 1724 47 

JEW'S HARP INN, REGENT'S PARK, 1784 48 

PLAN OF THE REGENT'S PARK facing 50 

VIEW IN REGENT'S PARK ...... . ,, 52 

VIEW IN REGENT'S PARK ,, 54 

MAP OF THE PARISH OF ST. MARY-LE-BONE, 1833 . ,, 64 

THE IDLE TRENTICE EXECUTED AT TYBURN ....,, 72 

PASTIMES OF PRIMROSE HILL ,, 76 



I/ 



Xll. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS. 



THE ENTRANCE OF GREAT PORTLAND STREET, l8o8 ... 78 

VIEW IN THE REGENT'S PARK : SUBSCRIPTION ARCHERY ROOMS facing 84 

BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, REGENT'S PARK . ,, 88 

ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS ,, 88 

PORTRAIT OF JOANNA SOUTHCOTT 94 

JOANNA SOUTHCOTT'S SEAL, 1806 95 

MRS. SlDDONS IN THE CHARACTER OF THE TRAGIC MUSE (FROM AN 

ENGRAVING AFTER SlR JOSHUA REYNOLDS) . . facing 98 

DEVONSHIRE PLACE AND WIMPOLE STREET, 1799 . . . ,, 106 

PORTRAIT OF ARTHUR THISTLEWOOD ....... 107 

THE STABLE IN CATO STREET, 1820 108 

CESAR'S CAMP AT ST. PANCRAS 

THE BRILL, NEAR THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL 

PART OF OLD TOTTENHAM COURT facing 

KING JOHN'S PALACE, NEAR TOTTENHAM COURT . . . ,, 

PART OF THE ADAM AND EVE, 1811 

CORNER OF GRAY'S INN LANE AND BATTLE BRIDGE . facing 125 

ELEVATION OF KING'S CROSS, 1830 ,, 126 

S.W. VIEW OF ST. PANCRAS CHURCH, 1750 130 

A SOUTH VIEW OF THE CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS . . facing 132 

NEW CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS ,, 137 ^ 

TOTTENHAM COURT ROAD TURNPIKE, ABOUT 1800 (FROM AN 

ENGRAVING AFTER ROWLANDSON) .... facing 138] 

WHITEFIELD'S NEW CHAPEL, 1764 ,, 140 

THE EAST SIDE OF FITZROY SQUARE, 1807 143 

OLD BAGNIGGE WELLS TEA GARDENS 152; 

SAINT PANCRAS WELLS, FROM AN OLD DRAWING IN BLACK AND 

WHITE facing 156] 

ST. CHAD'S WELL, GRAY'S INN LANE, 1850 159] 

SMOCK RACE AT TOTTENHAM COURT FAIR (1738) . . facing 162' 

THE COLOSSEUM, REGENT'S PARK ,, 166 

ST. KATHARINE'S HOSPITAL ,, 176, 

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, 1833 ,, 180' 

THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, 1750 ,, 194 

THE INOCULATING HOSPITAL AT PANCRAS ,, 



MARYLEBONE. 




CHAPTER I. 
MARYLEBONE: EARLY HISTORY. 

Ancient name of Marylebone. Domesday account. The Manor. Marylebone Park. Fox-hunting 
and hare-hunting. Marylebone Manor-house. Oxford House and the Harleian Manuscripts. 
The Tybourne. The Hole-bourne. The Westbourne. The source and ancient course of 
the Tybourne River. Conduits. Annual inspection of the Conduits The Lord Mayor's 
Banqueting House. Origin of the name Tybourne. Thorney Island. 



N ANCIENT times the name of Marylebone 
was Tyburn, a name derived from a stream 
so called which flowed through it. The 
manor of Tyburn, containing five hides of 
land, is described in the Domesday Book 
as parcel of the ancient demesnes of the 
abbess and convent of Barking, who held 
it under the Crown. The land, says the 
survey, is three carucates. Two hides are 
in demesne, on which is one plough ; the villans employ 
two ploughs. There are two villans, holding half a hide, 
one villan who holds half a virgate, two bordars* who 
have 10 acres, and three cottars. There is pasture for 
the cattle of the village, woods for 50 hogs, and 40^. 
arising from the herbage. In the whole valued at 525. ; 
in King Edward's time at loos. 

Robert de Vere, who held this manor under the Abbey 
of Barking, gave it in marriage with his daughter Joan, 
to William de Insula, Earl Warren and of Surrey, whose 
son John dying without issue, it descended to Richard 
Earl of Arundel, son of his sister Alice. 
After the death of Richard the succeeding earl, who was beheaded 
m J 394> his estates became the joint property of his daughters and 

* Bordarij, in the Domesday Survey, meant persons supposed to be inferior to the villani, as 
>emg limited to a small number of acres. Bordarii were also servants employed about the house 
in fetching wood, drawing water, grinding corn, and the like domestic duties. 






4 MARYLEBONE. 

co-heirs. William Marquis of Berkeley, who had an interest in this 
inheritance, as descended from Joan Fitzalan, through the Mowbrays, 
is said to have given the manor of Marylebone to Sir Reginald Bray, 
prime minister to King Henry VII. ; but probably it was only 
his share in it ; for it appears that Thomas Hobson, about the 
year 1503, purchased three parts of this manor of Lord Bergavenny, 
the Earl of Derby, and the Earl of Surrey. It is most likely that he 
purchased the remaining part of Sir Reginald Bray. In the year 
1544, Thomas Hobson, son (it is supposed) of the last-mentioned Thomas, 
exchanged this manor with the King for some church lands. Queen 
Elizabeth, in 1583, granted a lease of the manor of Tyburn to Edward 
Forset for 21 years, at the yearly rent of 16 us. Sd.; and in 1595, 
to Robert Conquest and others (trustees, it is probable) on the same 
terms. 

In the year 1611, King James granted the manor, with all its 
appurtenances, excepting the park, for the sum of 829 35. jd., to Edward 
Forset, Esq., in whose family it continued several years, and then passed 
into that of Austen, by the marriage of Arabella Forset with Thomas 
Austen, Esq. In the year 1710, it was purchased of John Austen, Esq., 
afterwards Sir John Austen, Bart., by John Holies, Duke of Newcastle. 
A plan of the Marylebone Estate, showing the fields, with their names 
and sizes, and the projected streets to be built over them, is here 
reproduced, from a valuable manuscript plan in the Grace Collection 
of topographical views, maps, and plans in the British Museum. It i< 
dated 1708, which is probably the time when the preliminary negociationj 
for the sale were being carried on. 

The Duke's only daughter and heir married Edward Harley, Earl 
of Oxford and Mortimer, and thus the manor came into possession of 
the Harley family. 

The manor came into the possession of the Portland family by th( 
marriage of Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley with William, 2nd Duke ol 
Portland. About the year 1813 an exchange was effected for some lands ; 
in Sherwood Forest valued at "40,000, and thus the Crown became 
again possessed of the manor of Marylebone. 

The manor house of Marvlebone, which was taken down in the vear 



1791, during the time it was vested in the Crown, is said to have bee 






FOX AND HARE HUNTING, 5 

used as one of the royal palaces. It will be found more particularly 
described below. 

In early times a large tract of ground in Marylebone parish appears to 
have been used for hunting purposes. An early (probably the earliest) 
notice of the park, which was anciently known as Marybone Park, refers 
to its being used for that purpose. " The 3d of February, 1600-1, the 
Ambassadours from the Emperour of Russia, and other the Muscovites, 
rode through the Cittie of London, to Marybone Park, and there hunted 
at their pleasure, and shortly after returned homeward." - The Pro- 
gresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth. By John Nichols, F.S.A., 
Vol. III. p. 519. 

It is extremely probable that some provision was made for hunting 
in and around this neighbourhood at an earlier date than that just 
mentioned. Stow gives an account of hare-hunting and fox-hunting 
in this district upon the occasion of the visitation of the conduits at 
Tyburn by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London in the year 1562. 
"And after dinner," he says, "they went to hunting the fox. There 
was a great cry for a mile, and at length the hounds killed him at 
the end of St. Giles's." 

When King James I., in 1611, granted the manor of Marylebone 
to Edward Forset, Esq., he reserved the park, called Marybone Park, 
in his own hands. It continued in the possession of the Crown until 
the year 1646, when King Charles, by letters patent, dated at Oxford 
(May 6), granted it to Sir George Strode and John Wandesford, Esq., 
as security for a debt of 2318 us. gd. due to them for supplying 
arms and .ammunition during the troubles. After the King's death, 
when the Crown lands in general were sold, this park, without any 
regard to the claim of the grantees above mentioned, was sold to John 
Spencer of London, Gentleman, on behalf of Col. Thomas Harrison's 
regiment of dragoons, on whom Marybone Park was settled for their 
pay. Sir John Ipsley was at this time ranger, by authority of the 
Protector. The purchase money was 13,215 6s. 8^., including 130 
for the deer (124 in number, of several sorts) and 1774 & s - f r the 
timber, exclusively of 2976 trees marked for the navy. 

On the restoration of Charles the Second, Sir George Strode and 
Mr. Wandesford were re-instated in their possession of the park, which 



6 MARYLEBONE. 

they held till their debt was discharged, except the great lodge and 
sixty acres of land, which had been granted for a term of years to 
Sir William Clarke, Secretary to the Lord General, the Duke of 
Albemarle. A compensation was made also to John Carey, Esq., for 
the loss of the rangership which he had formerly held. The site of 
the park (for it was disparked before the Restoration, and never after- 
wards stocked) was leased in 1668 to Henry Earl of Arlington ; in 
1696 to Charles Bertie and others, in trust for the Duke of Leeds ; 
in 1724 to Samuel Grey, Esq. Mr. Grey's interest in the lease was 
purchased by Thomas Gibson, John Jacob, and Robert Jacomb, Esqrs., 
who renewed it in 1730, 1735, and 1742. In 1754, a lease was granted 
to Lucy Jacomb, widow, and Peter Hinde, Esq., In 1765, William 
Jacombe, Esq.,. had a fresh lease for an undivided share, being 15 parts 
in 24. The term of this share was prolonged in 1772, and again in 
1780, for eight years, to commence from January 24th, 1803. In the 
year 1789, Mr. Jacomb sold his interest in the estate to the Duke of 
Portland. In 1765 and 1772 Jacob Hinde, Esq., had new leases of 
the remaining undivided share, being 9 parts in 24. These leases 
expired in 1803. The Duke of Portland's lease expired in January 1811. 

About the year 1813, the manor came again into the possession 
of the Crown, an exchange being effected for land of the value of 
40,000, situated in Sherwood Forest. 

The various leases which had been granted by the Crown falling 
in during the regency of George IV., Marylebone Park began to be 
laid out by Mr. James Morgan in 1812, from the plans of Mr. John 
Nash, and in honour of the Prince Regent, was called the Regent's 
Park. 

MARYLEBONE MANOR HOUSE. 

This mansion, which was attached to the royal park of Marylebone, 
was originally built in the reign of Henry VIII., and was occasionally 
used as one of the royal palaces during the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. 
The earliest representation of the house is supposed to be a drawing 
made by Joslin, dated 1700, which was formerly in the possession of 
the Duke of Buckingham. It comprehends the field-gate and palace, 
its surrounding walls and adjacent buildings in Marylebone to the 



MARYLEBONE MANOR HOUSE. 7 

south - west, including a large mansion, which in all probability had 
been Oxford House, the grand receptacle of the Harleian Library. An 
engraving of the view was published 2Oth September, 1800, by J. T. 
Smith, of Great Portland Street. 

It stood on the south side of what is now Marylebone Road, 
the exact site being that which is now occupied by Devonshire 
Mews. The following lines from J. T. Smith's " Book for a Rainy 
Day," may assist us to realize the exact form of the house : " This 
house consisted of an immense body and two wings, a projecting 
porch in the front, and an enormously deep dormer roof, supported 
by numerous cantalevers, in the centre of which there was, within a 
very bold pediment, a shield surmounted by foliage with labels below 
it." The back or garden front consisted of a flat face with a bay 
window at each end, glazed in quarries, and the wall of the back 
front terminated in five gables. The first flight of the grand staircase 
consisted of sixteen steps, and the handrails were supported with richly 
carved perforated foliage, the date of which is ascribed by Mr. J. T. 
Smith to the period of Inigo Jones. The decorations of the staircase 
were executed in tessellated work. The mansion was wholly of brick, 
and surmounted by a large turret containing the clock and bell. 

In the year 1703 a large school was established here by Mr. De la 
Place. That gentleman's daughter married the Rev. John Fountayne, 
Rector of North Tidmouth in Wiltshire, and the latter succeeded Mr. 
De la Place in the school. The school is said to have attained a 
considerable reputation among the nobility and gentry, whose sons 
there received an educational training previously to their removal to 
the universities. 

There were at one time above a hundred pupils in Mr. Fountayne's 
establishment, and on Sunday morning as they walked to St. Maryle- 
bone Church, two and two, some in pea - green, others in sky - blue, 
and several in the brightest scarlet, and many with gold - laced hats, 
and flowing locks, they are described by an eye-witness as a sight 
worth seeing. 

The school appears to have been continued until the year 1791, 
when the house was taken down and some livery stables were built 
on its site. Over the western entrance to these stables was placed a 



8 MARYLEBONE. 

clock, which had originally occupied a. prominent position in the old 
mansion, but which was removed some time before the year 1833. 
The old mansion was demolished under the superintendence of a Mr. 
John Brown, a builder who resided in the parish upwards of fifty 
years, and who died at the advanced age of eighty. 

In the hall of this old manor-house there was many years ago a 
parrot, so aged that its few remaining feathers were for years confined 
to its wrinkled skin by a flannel jacket, which in very cold weather 
received an additional broadcloth covering of the brightest scarlet, so 
that Poll, like the Lord Mayor, had her scarlet days. Poll, who had 
been long accustomed to hear her mistress's general invitation to 
strangers who called to enquire after the boarders, relieved her of that 
ceremony by uttering, as soon they entered, " Do pray walk into the 
parlour and take a glass of wine," but this she finally did with so 
little discrimination, that when a servant came with a letter or a card 
for her mistress, he was greeted by the bird with equal liberality and 
politeness. 

OXFORD HOUSE AND THE HARLEIAN MSS. 

It has been erroneously supposed by some that the ancient manor 
house of Marylebone was indentical with Oxford House. Jesse, in his 
work, entitled "London: its celebrated characters and remarkable places," 
so . speaks of it. He says, " Oxford House, the ancient manor house 
of Marylebone, and the residence at a later period of the Harleys, 
Earls of Oxford, stood as late as the year 1791, on the site of Devon- 
shire Mews, New Road." It is improbable that the Earls of Oxford 
ever resided at Marylebone Manor House ; but their noble library of 
books and manuscripts was deposited in a house built for that purpose 
in High Street, about 120 yards south of the Manor House. A drawing 
of the Manor house by Joslin about the year 1700, shows the house 
itself, its surrounding walls and adjacent buildings in Marylebone to 
the south-west, including a large mansion which was considered, by 
Mr. John Thomas Smith (author of "A Book for a Rainy Day") to be 
probably Oxford House, the grand receptacle of the Harleian Library. 

After the removal of that library to the British Museum, Oxforc 
House was nearly rebuilt, with a modern front, by Mr. John Browr 




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THE HARLEIAN MANUSCRIPTS. 9 

of Clipstone Street, and occupied as a boarding school for young 
ladies. 

The celebrated Harleian Collection of Manuscripts, which now forms 
one of the many valuable collections in the Library of the British 
Museum, was collected in the latter part of the i7th century by Robert 
Harley, of Brampton Bryan, in the County of Hereford, Esq. ; who on 
the nth February 1700, was chosen Speaker of the House of Commons; 
on the 24th May, 1711, was created Earl of Oxford and Mortimer; 
and five days afterwards promoted to the important station of Lord 
High Treasurer of Great Britain. The Harley family appears to have 
been remarkable for an appreciative taste for literature. The Earl's 
grandfather, Sir Robert Harley, Knight of the Bath, had at his seat 
at Brampton Bryan Castle, a library of manuscripts and printed books, 
collected from one descent to another, and valued at 1000. This 
together with the castle and church of Brampton, c., was, during the 
troublous times of the civil war, destroyed by the parliamentary army. 

After his retirement from public business, the Earl of Oxford spent 
the remainder of his days in unwearied application for the gaining 
accessions to his library, not sparing any expense for that purpose. 
He kept many persons employed in purchasing manuscripts for him 
abroad, giving them such written instructions for their conduct in that 
respect, as sufficiently manifest the exact knowledge he had acquired 
as well of every curious manuscript as of the person, circumstances, 
and residence of its possessor. By these means the manuscript library 
was, in the year 1721, increased to near six thousand books ; fourteen 
thousand original charters ; and five hundred rolls. 

At his death, which occurred on the 2ist May, 1724, his son and 
successor, Edward, the second Earl, followed his noble example, and 
devoted a great part of his fortune to the completion of what had been 
so auspiciously commenced. Upon the death of the second Earl, in 
June, 1741, the library became the property of his daughter and heiress, 
Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland, and on the institution of the 
British Museum, in 1753, it was purchased of the Duke and Duchess, 
by the country, for the sum of 10,000. The collection contains 7639 
volumes, exclusive of 14,236 original rolls, charters, deeds, and other legal 
instruments. 






10 



MARYLEBONE. 



The " Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum," 
a monument of industry and learning, was originally commenced in 1708, 
by Mr. Humphrey Wanley, the librarian to Robert and Edward, the first 
and second Earls of Oxford. He was employed on it until his death, 
in July, 1726, by which time he had reached No. 2408. It was resumed 
in 1733, by Mr. Casley, Keeper of the Cottonian Library, who continued 
it to No. 5709. Soon after the death of the Earl of Oxford, in June, 
1741, the catalogue was committed to the care of Mr. Hocker, the Deputy 
Keeper of the Records in the Tower, who, in less than two years, 
completed it as far No. 7355. In this state the catalogue remained 
until the 22nd of July, 1800, when, at the express desire of the Record 
Commission, the Trustees engaged Rev. Rob. Nares, under librarian 
of the MS. Department, to revise and correct the latter part of the 
catalogue, beginning at No. 3100. This task, and the revision of the 
previous part of the catalogue, between Nos. 2408 and 3100, was per- 
formed by him, with the assistance of Rev. Stebbing Shaw and Mr. 
Douce ; and the first three volumes were printed and published in 1808. 
The fourth volume, which consists of Indexes, was compiled by Rev. 
Thomas Hartwell Home, and was published in 1812. 

THE TYBOURNE. 

The well-known names of Holborn, Marylebone, Tyburn, and West- 
bourne, owe their origin to, and preserve the memory of three streams 
or brooks, arising in the high ground about Hampstead and Highgate, and 
flowing in a south-ward direction to the Thames. Traces still remain 
of the streams, but in the crowded streets of London, except in the 
local names, little remains to be seen of them, although it is pretty 
certain that they have played an important part in the physical geography 
of the districts through which they ran. 

The " Hole-bourne," from whence we get the ancient name Oldburn, 
and the modern name Holborn, arose in and around the ponds at 
Hampstead and Highgate, and after a meandering course through Kentish 
Town, Camden Town (where the two main branches united and made 
one channel), Somers Town, Battle Bridge, Farringdon Road, and 
Farringdon Street, and so into the Thames at the place where Black- 
friars Bridge spans the river. It was subsequently called the Fleet River. 




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THE TYBOURNE. n 

The " Westbourne " had its origin in several small streams in the 
neighbourhood of West Hampstead, from whence it flowed through 
Kilburn, Bayswater, Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, and into the 
Thames at the Hospital Gardens, Chelsea. 

The " Tybourne," or Tyburn, in which we are more particularly 
interested, occupied an area lying between those through which the 
" Hole-hourne " and the " Westbourne " ran. Like them its source was 
in the northern heights of London, and its course was southward. It 
had two main sources ; one at Shepherd's Well Conduit, now Fitzjohn 
Avenue, Hampstead ; and the other near the site of Belsize Manor 
House. The streams flowing from these two sources united in the 
neighbourhood of Barrow Hill and Primrose Hill, and the course from 
thence was through Regent's Park, the water being conveyed across 
Regent's Canal by means of an aqueduct. The Tybourne formerly 
supplied the artificial waters of Regent's Park. From thence it proceeded 
across the boundary of Regent's Park and across Baker Street and 
Marylebone Road, where a depression is to be seen marking the channel. 

The ancient church of the parish, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, 
was situated near the present courthouse, in the erection of which, in 
1727, the site of the churchyard, indicated by remains of interments, 
was discovered. In the fourteenth century it fell into a ruinous state 
from neglect, its lonely situation rendered it subject to dilapidations, and 
its bells and ornaments were frequently stolen. Robert Braybrook, Bishop 
of London, therefore granted a license to the parishioners, on petition 
dated October, 1400, to build a new church near where a chapel had 
been erected. This was dedicated to St. Mary, and remained until May, 
1740, when being ruinous it was taken down. This new dedication gave 
a new name to the manor and parish, for being built near the stream, 
the name of Mary-le-bourne was given, which has become changed into 
Marylebone. In earlier times the name seems to have been simply 
Marybone, and it was sometimes written Marrow-bone. 

From Marylebone Road to Oxford Street the course of the Tybourne 
is not marked in any known map, except one of great interest accom- 
panying Mr. J. G. Waller's paper on " The Tybourne and the West- 
bourne" (Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archceological Society, 
Pt. I. of Vol. VI.) To this map, and the valuable paper which it 






iz MARYLEBONE. 

illustrates, we are much indebted for information and hints. A portion 
of the Tybourne is represented in a map by William Faden, 1785, as 
taking a sweep westwards, bending round again to the east, and 
terminating at the then stables of the Horse Guards, as near as 
possible that of Baker Street Bazaar. From hence it may be faintly 
traced towards Marylebone Lane (which accommodates itself to the curves 
of the stream), when it becomes again visible in the maps of Lea and 
Glynne and others. 

The Tybourne was tributary to the ancient water-supply of the 
metropolis. In the 2ist year of Henry III., liberty was granted to 
Gilbert Sandford to convey water from Tyburn by pipes of lead to the 
city, and there were subsequent extensions showing the early importance 
that the citizens of London attributed to a pure water-supply. Conduits 
about nine in' number were here distributed, many of which are marked 
in the map of Lea and Glynne. One was nearly opposite South 
Street in a field east of Marylebone Lane ; another close to what is 
now the police station, and a few years back still in use ; another in 
the rear of the Banqueting House, now Stratford Place ; and others 
on the south side of Oxford Street. 

The Lord Mayor's Banqueting House was used by the city 
authorities for entertainments when they came to visit and inspect the 
conduits in the vicinity, and this ceremony was a day of some recreation 
to the mayor and aldermen, with their wives. It was usually held on 
the i8th of September, the citizens journeying upon horseback, and 
their ladies in waggons. Upon one of these occasions, in 1562, it is 
recorded by Strype that " The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and many 
worshipful persons rode to the conduit-heads to see them according to 
old custom ; then they went and hunted a hare before dinner and 
killed her; and thence went to dinner at the Banqueting House, at the 
head of the conduit, where a great number were handsomely entertained 
by their chamberlain. After dinner they went to hunt the fox. There 
was a great cry for a mile, and at length the hounds killed him at 
the end of St. Giles', with great hollowing and blowing of horns at 
his death ; and thence the Lord Mayor, with all his company, rode 
through London to his place in Lombard Street." 

After the establishment of the New River system the Corporation 



THORNEY ISLAND. 13 

leased these conduits, which became part of a system of water-supply, 
called Marylebone Waterworks, and there was a large reservoir, called 
Marylebone Basin, north of Cavendish Square and parallel to Portland 
Place. Portland Chapel, afterwards St. Paul's Church, was built upon 
the site which the reservoir formerly occupied. The Banqueting House, 
was pulled down in 1737. Traces of the former course of the Tybourne 
are to be seen in the names Brook Street, Conduit Street, &c., and in 
the direction which certain streets took in order to avoid the course of 
the river. Good illustrations of this are visible in South Street, part of 
Marylebone Lane, and South Molton Lane. 

The stream flowed a little to the east of Berkeley Square, and, 
crossing Piccadilly, into the Green Park. Buckingham Palace is built 
upon a portion of its old course, and at a point a little south of that 
building the stream separated into two arms, one falling into the Thames 
a little south-west of the Houses of Parliament. The fall of water here 
was utilized for the Abbot's mill, hence the name Millbank, by which 
the spot is known to this day. The other arm, anciently forming the 
boundary of Westminster, fell into the Thames a little west of Vauxhall 
Bridge. The tract of ground bounded by these arms of the Tybourne 
and by the River Thames was called Thorney Island, the abundance of 
water around it in former times having been sufficient to give it a claim 
to the designation of an island. Mr. Waller considers the name to be 
equal to "the Isle of Thorns," and probably to have been derived from 
the whitethorn, which is very common still in our marshes, by the sides 
of ditches. Upon the space which represents the area of this ancient 
island stand the venerable building of Westminster Abbey, the ancient 
royal Palace of Westminster, and the more modern Houses of Parliament. 

There is some reason to suppose that the name Tybourne, or 
Tyburn, was derived from the circumstance of the brook being double in 
its sources and in the latter part of its course. Another good explana- 
tion of the origin of the name is that it took the first part of the 
name, Ty, from the delta-like area of ground which the two arms 
bounded, and which, as we have already said, was known in olden 
days as Thorney Island. In the old English language " tye," "tigh," 
or "teage" indicated an enclosure of land, and as such the name 
would be specially applicable to a stream which enclosed an island 



I 4 MARYLEBONE. 

between its branching arms, as this enclosed Thorney Island. The 
stream is referred to as " Teoburna " in a charter of King Edgar, dated 
951, and for many years it gave the name of Tyburn to the manor 
through which it ran, and which was afterwards called Marylebone in 
allusion to its situation upon this very stream. In old records this 
stream was referred to under the name of Aye-brook, or Eye-brook, a 
name which might easily have become corrupted to Tyburn. 



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CHAPTER II. 
MARYLEBONE : ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

St. Marylebone Old Church. The site of St. John's Church. Thefts of Church Goods. 
Rebuilding of the Church. Dedication to St. Mary, the Virgin. Hogarth's picture of the 
interior of the Church. "The Rake's Progress." Vault of the Forset Family. Demoli- 
tion of the Church in 1740. Rebuilding of the Church in 1741. Inadequate accommo- 
dation. Suggestions for a new Church. Epitaphs, &c., in Marylebone Old Church. Sir 
Edmund Douce. James Gibbs, architect. Baretti. Storace. John Allen, apothecary. 
Caroline Watson, engraver. Celebrated names in the Burial Register. St. Marylebone 
New Church. Architectural features. St. Mary's Church. All Souls' Church. Holy 
Trinity Church. Christ Church. St. Peter's Church, Vere Street. St. Paul's Church, 
Great Portland Street. St. John's Wood Chapel. Dissenting Chapels. French Chapel. 



ST. MARYLEBONE OLD CHURCH. 

ROBABLY the earliest church in Marylebone, 
and certainly the earliest of which we 
possess any record, was one dedicated to 
St. John. In the year 1400, Bishop 
Braybroke, the Bishop of London at that 
time, granted a license to the inhabitants 
upon their petition (dated October 23, 
1400), to remove that old church, called 
"the old church of Tybourn," Tyburn 
^ being the name by which the place was known in early 
times. The site of the old church of St. John has been 
identified by topographers with the site of the court- 
house, at the corner of Stratford Place, where great 
numbers of old bones were dug up some years since. 
The spot seems to have been a lonely one, as the 
church was subject to the depredations of robbers, who 
frequently stole the images, bells and ornaments. The 
license also provided for the building a new church of 
stone or flints, near the place where a chapel had 
been then lately erected, which chapel might in the 
meantime be used. The Bishop of London claimed the 




if> MARYLEBONE. 

privilege of laying the first stone. The old churchyard was to be 
preserved, but the parishioners were allowed to enclose another adjoining 
the new church. 

This church, dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, became ruinous 
and dilapidated in the first half of the i8th century, as may be seen 
in the plate representing the marriage in Hogarth's " Rake's Progress" 
a view which is regarded as the best representation of the interior 
of the old church. 

Dr. Trusler's " Hogarth Moralized," 1813, contains the following 
description of Hogarth's picture : 

" The rake is here exhibited embracing the happy opportunity of 
recruiting his wasted fortune by a marriage with a deformed and super- 
annuated female, ordinary even to a proverb, and possessed but of one 
eye. As this wedding was designed to be a private one, they are 
supposed to have retired for that purpose to the church of St. Mary-le- 
bone (which at that time was denominated a small village, in th( 
outskirts of London) ; but as secret as he thought to keep it, it die 
not fail to reach the ears of an unfortunate young woman whom he 
had formerly seduced, and who is here represented entering with her chik 
and mother, in order to forbid the solemnization. They are, howeve 
opposed by the pew-opener, lest, through an interruption of the ceremony 
she should lose her customary fee, and a battle consequently ensues- 
a manifest token of the small regard paid to these sacred places. Bj 
the decayed appearance of the walls of this building, the torn belief, 
and cracked commandments, our author would humorously and effectually 
intimate the great indifference shewn to the decency of churches in 
country parishes. 

" The only thing further to be noticed, is that of the poor's box, 
whose perforation is humourously covered with a web, where a spider 
is supposed to have been a long time settled, not finding so good a 
resting place before ; and it is probable she might have continued there 
much longer had not the overseer, in private, searched the box, with 
a view of abstracting its contents. Hence are we given to understand, 
that dissapation so far prevails as to drive humanity from the heart; 
and that so selfish are we grown, as to have no feeling for the dis- 
tresses of our fellow-creatures; a matter which, while it disgraces the 




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THE OLD CHURCH. 17 

Christian, even degrades the man." Adverting to this incident, as also 
to the cracked commandments, and the creed destroyed by the damps of 
the church, Mr. Ireland observes: "These three high-wrought strokes of 
satirical humour, were perhaps never equalled by an exertion of the 
pencil; excelled they cannot be." 



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OLD 



The inscription, denoting the church to have been " beautified " when 
Thomas Sice and Thomas Horn were churchwardens, was not fabricated 
for the purpose of ridicule (though it might well have served that 
purpose, when contrasted with the ruinous appearance of the church), 
but proves to have been genuine. 

The following amusing poetical description of the scene is taken 
from " The Rake's Progress ; or the Humours of Drury Lane " : 

" Only themselves and Chambermaid, 
In Hackney Coach to Church convey 'd. 
Near Oxford Road, O ! Omen dire ! 
Where Criminals daily expire. 
The advent'rous Hero leads her on 
To the fam'd Church of Marybone; 
The Clerk who neither said nor sung, 
The Parson with Lip under hung, 
Of the true ancient Bull - dog Breed, 
Cou'd hardly either spell or read. 



1 8 MARYLEBONE. 

The Altar all adorn'd with Bays, 

The ragged Boy who the Hassock lays, 

To raise her Foot equal to his, 

And to receive the Ring in Bliss. 

Some Hero's Trophies dismal sad, 

In Tatters waving o'er their Head : 

The Sword, the Glove, and Coat of Mail, 

Impendent fast'ned by a Nail ; 

His Knightly Qualities proclaim : 

And if they cou'd would speak his Fame 

For it is a custom due to P s, 

And every man who Honour bears, 

To have these Things hang in the Church 

Which when alive he durst not touch : 

Below, how much he gave is told, 

In shining Letters all of Gold ; 

At which each thoughtless Booby stares, 

And heeds it much more than his Pray'rs. 

Th' Apostle's Creed, tho' painted plain, 

Is quite rubbed out with keeping clean : 

And the Commands, tho' plain to view, 

From Top to Bottom are crackt thro' ; 

A Spider finding out a Place 

Where he could hope to be at Ease, 

On the Poor's Box his Web he weav'd, 

And three Months undisturb'd had liv'd ; 

And still had liv'd, but th' Overseer, 

In private, took out all was there." 

Hogarth's plate was published in 1735, and the ill-spelt verses, 
pointing out the vault of the Forset family, were accurately copied 
from the original, as follows : 

THESE : PEWES : VNSCRVD : AND : TAN : IN : SVNDER 

IN : STONE : THERS : GRAVEN : WHAT : IS : VNDER 

TO : WIT : A : VALT : FOR : BVRIAL : THERE : IS 

WHICH : EDWARD : FORSET : MADE : FOR : HIM : AND : HIS 

This inscription, the letters of which were in relief wood-work, w; 
preserved with great care, and in the church which was erected in 
1742 they were placed in the front of a pew directly opposite the 
altar. Thomas Smith, writing in 1833, says : " The first two lines of 
this Inscription are the originals, the last two were restored in 1816, 
at the expense of the Rev. Mr. Chapman, the Minister. The Vault 
is now occupied by the Portland Family." 

The ruinous condition of the church became so serious that the 
structure had to be pulled down. This work was commenced in May, 




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THE OLD CHURCH. ig 

1740, and in less than two years another church was built upon the 
same site. The new building was opened for service in April, 1742. 
A writer, speaking of it a few years later, describes it as having been 
built in as plain a manner as possible, with two series of small arched 
windows on each side, the only efforts at ornamentation consisting of 
a vase at each corner, and a turret, wherein hung the bell, at the 
west end. It was constructed of brick, was an oblong square in plan, 
and had a gallery on the north, south, and west sides. The altar 
occupied the east end of the church, and several of the monumental 
slabs which had decorated the former church, and which are portrayed 
in Hogarth's engraving, were preserved and transferred to the walls of 
the new church. 

The entrance doors to this church were formerly at the east and 

west ends, but upon its being converted into the Parish Chapel in 

1818, by Act of Parliament, some judicious alterations were made : the 

, entrance at the east end was blocked up, that at the w r est only 

; remaining. The pulpit and reading-desk were separated, and removed 

near the east wall, and the pews were re-arranged. The organ was 

placed in the west gallery. 

The following inscriptions still remain on the exterior wall of the 
east end of the chapel : 

" REBUILT IN YE YEAR 1741. 

WALTER LEE {churchwardens." 
JOHN DESCHAMPS > 



" Converted into a Parish Chapel, 
By Act of Parliament, LI. George III. 

on the iv. Feb. MDCCCXVII. 
The Day of Consecration of the New Church." 

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1807, gives the following 
details of the inconvenience arising from the miserably insufficient 
accommodation for public worshippers in Marylebone : 

SIR. . . I was lately called upon to visit a parish church towards 
the north-west end of the town. It is a very small edifice, much 
smaller than chapels of ease generally are ; I believe I may say it 
is the smallest place of worship attached to the Church of England 
in the metropolis. Small, however, as it is, it is the only church 



20 MARYLEBONE. 

belonging to the largest and most opulent parish in this capital, or 
in any part of His Majesty's dominions a parish which on the lowest 
computation contains 70.000 souls ; there is no font for baptism, no 
room for depositing the dead bodies on tressels, after the usual way ; 
no aisle to contain them They are placed in the most indecent 
manner on the pews. At the time I visited this scandal to our church 
and nation, there were no fewer than five corpses placed in the 
manner described ; eight children with their sponsors, &c., to be 
christened ; and five women to be churched ; all within these con- 
tracted dimensions. A common basin was set upon the communion 
table for the baptisms, and the children ranged round the altar ; but 
the godfathers and godmothers in pews, in so confused and disorderly 
a manner, that it was impossible for the minister to see many of 
them, or address and require them to make the responses, which the 
Rubrick directs. Not to mention the danger of the dead and the 
living being thus confined together, and the peculiarly delicate situation 
of women immediately after child-birth ; all reverence for the sacrament 
of baptism ; all solemn and awful reflections from hearing one of 
the finest services ever composed, and on an occasion the most interest- 
ing to the heart that can be imagined, are entirely done away, and 
the mind filled with horror and disgust. 

"A CONSTANT READER" 

When Regent's Park was laid out it was proposed to build a churcl 
in order to remedy this serious defect to some extent. The suggested 
site was the centre of a circus to be constructed at the end of Portland 
Place, and the Vestry having received a communication from the Secretary 
to the Treasury, and believing that there was an intention to confer upon 
them this site, together with five acres of land to surround their projected 
building, applied for and obtained an Act of Parliament for the diversion 
of the New Road, as the Marylebone Road at that time was called. 
No sooner, however, were their efforts attended with success, than 
difficulties were interposed and new portions of land pointed out. 

An Act was, however, passed in the Session of 1810-11, entitled 
" An Act to enable the Vestrymen of the Parish of St. Mary-le-bone, 
in the County of Middlesex, to build a new Parish Church, and two or 
more Chapels ; and for other purposes thereto ;" by which all the former 
Acts were repealed, and new powers given to the Vestrymen and their 
successors (who derive their authority from an Act of the 35th of 
George III.) to purchase lands not exceeding ten acres, for the above 
purposes ; and in which there was a clause, providing that no sum 
shall be given for any one site for the said Church or Chapels exceeding 
6000." About the end of 1812, Mr. White, jun., the District Surveyor 



EPITAPHS. 21 

of the Parish, presented the Vestry with a design for a double church, 
upon a new principle, having for its object the accommodating of a large 
number of persons, and at the same time admitting a magnificence of 
exterior ; which design was meant as an accompaniment to his father's 
plan for the improvement of Marylebone Park. 

Shortly after the delivery of the design above mentioned, the Vestry 
offered premiums, by public advertisement, to architects, as they had done 
in the year 1770, for plans and elevations of a parish church ; but about 
a fortnight previous to the time of receiving such plans and elevations 
from the artists, they gave public notice that the designs were not to 
be proceeded with ; it should appear, on account of the difficulties which 
had arisen in obtaining the ground which the Lords of the Treasury had 
proposed to grant them. A triangular piece of ground was, however, 
granted to the Parish by the Treasury, on the south side of the New 
Road, near Nottingham Place, and the Vestry proceeded to erect a 
chapel capable of containing a considerable number of persons ; the 
foundation was laid on the 5th of July, 1813, and the fabric was 
proceeded with nearly to its completion. At that period, however, the 
work was stopped, and the Vestry came to a resolution to convert the 
intended chapel into a parochial church. This occasioned a consider- 
able alteration to be made in the original design, and particularly in 
regard to the exterior of the building. The principal front, next to the 
New Road, underwent a very important change, a more extended portico 
and a steeple were substituted for the former design (which consisted of 
an Ionic portico of two columns, surmounted by a group of figures and 
a cupola) ; and other alterations were made in order to give the edifice 
an appearance more in harmony with the character of a church. 

EPITAPHS. 

Among the numerous persons commemorated by inscriptions in old 
Marylebone Church are the following : 

Sir Edmund Douce, of Broughton, Kt., " cup-bearer to Ann of 
Denmark, Queene to Kynge James, and to Henryetta Maria of France, 
forty yeares a servant in his place : never maryed. At the writinge 
hereof he was aged three score and three years, in Anno Dni. 1644." 



22 



MARYLEBONE. 



James Gibbs, Esq., "whose skill in Architecture appears by his 
Printed Works as well as the Buildings directed by him. Among othei 
Legacys and Charitys, he left One Hundred Pounds towards enlarging 
this church. He died August 5, 1754, aged 71." 

Thomas Smith, in his History of Marylebone, appends the following 
foot-note to this inscription : " Posterity is indebted for the preservatior 
of this inscription, Sampson Hodgkinson, Esq., an ardent lover of 
antiquities, and sidesman of the parish church, who, at his own expense, 
had these letters repainted in 1816 ; but no satisfactory account of the 
expenditure of the bequest mentioned on the monument can be 
discovered in the Vestry Minutes. The above gentleman, who has 
resided in the parish from his infancy, possesses a fund of genuine 
entertaining biographical anecdote, an excellent collection of minerals, 
and a curious and splendid library, which in the most kind and 
obliging manner is rendered accessible to those who require local in- 
formation." 

One of the first works upon which this celebrated architect was 
engaged was the church of St. Mary-le- Strand, one of the fifty new 
churches. It has been justly observed that the delicate beauty of that 
church is suggestive of the influence of Wren. In 1719, Gibbs added 
the steeple and the two upper stages to the tower of W r ren's church 
of St. Clement Danes in the Strand. His next ecclesiastical work was 
" Marybone Chapel," better known as St. Peter's, Vere Street, begun 
in 1721, by Harley, Earl of Oxford. His chief works, however, were 
the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, and the building for the Radcliffe 
Library at Oxford. He was buried, by his own wish, within the old 
church of Marylebone, where, on the north wall below the gallery, is 
yet remaining a simple marble tablet to his memory, with the inscrip- 
tion above referred to. It has been said of him that " his portraits 
and busts indicate thoughtfulness, penetration, and self-control, but 
scarcely great power. His architecture shows fine discernment rather 
than fine invention. His reverence for classic architecture led him to 
an excessive respect for tradition, but his work is lifted far above the 
level of mere imitation, and has a distinctive style of its own. He 
never fell into the vagaries of some of his contemporaries, and made 
no attempt at Gothic. His good taste may be attributed to his Italian 



EPITAPHS. 23 

training, which also narrowed his art to the mere consideration of fine 
composition and proportion. Although, as Walpole says, his designs 
want the harmonious simplicity of the greatest masters of classic archi- 
tecture, he deserves higher praise than Walpole gave, and is now 
regarded as perhaps the most considerable master of English architecture 
since Wren." 

" Near this place are deposited the remains of SIGNOR 
GUISEPPE BARETTI, a native of Piedmont, in Italy, Secretary for 
Foreign Correspondence to the Royal Academy of Arts, of 
London ; Author of several esteemed Works in his own and the 
Languages of France and England." 

Baretti was the author of several works, but his name is perhaps 
best known in connection with the Italian and Spanish Dictionaries which 
he compiled. 

" In memory of a life devoted to the Study of Musical 
Science, and shorten'd by unremitted application and anxiety in 
the attainment of its object, this marble is inscribed with the 
name of STEPHEN STORAGE, whose professional talents commanded 
publick applause, whose private virtues ensur'd domestic affection. 
He died March 16, 1796, aged 34, and is interred under this 

Church. 

Silent his lyre, or vvak'd to Heav'nly strains, 

Clos'd his short scene of chequer'd joys and pains, 

Belov'd and grateful as the notes he sung, 

His name still trembles on Affection's tongue, 

Still in our bosoms holds its wonted part, 

And strikes the chords, which vibrate to the heart. 

P. H. 

This marble is put up by a tender mother and an affectionate 
sister." 

John Allen, Esq., died on the xyth of March, 1/74. " He was 
Apothecary to the Households of King George the First, Second and 
Third ; and having employed a long life, and ample Fortune, in Acts of 
Benevolence and Charity, Liberal to others, Frugal only to himself, he 
was released from his Labours, and called to his Reward in the ninety- 
first year of his age. By his Will he gave large Benefactions to his 
Relations, Friends, and Servants. To Poor Clergymen's Widows and 
Children. To Poor House-Keepers, and the Charity Children of this 
Parish, of St. Paul, Covent Garden, and of St. James', Westminster. 



24 MARYLEBONE. 

To St. George's Hospital, of which he was a Governor from the first 
institution ; and to the Company of Apothecaries, of which he was 
most respected member. Providence seems to have protected the life 
this excellent man, as an example to show how useful a private persoi 
may be with a mind so disposed." 

" Sacred to the memory of CAROLINE WATSON, Engraver to Her 
Majesty, who died gth June, 1814. Aged 44. 

If Taste and Feeling, that with goodness dwell, 
And teach the modest Artist to excel ; 
If Gratitude, whose voice to Heaven ascends, 
And seems celestial to surviving Friends ; 
If charms so pure a lasting Record claim, 
Preserve, Thou faithful Stone! a spotless Name! 
Meek CAROLINE ! receive due Praise from Earth 
For Graceful Talents join'd to genuine worth ! 
God gave thee gifts, such as to few may fall, 
Thy Heart, to Him who gave, devoted all. 

W. HAYLEY. 

Erected by John Eardley Wilmot." 

" Here lies the Body of HUMPHREY WANLEY, Library Keeper to the 
Right Hon. Robert and Edward, Earls of Oxford, &c. Who 
died on the 6th day of July, MDCCXXVI. In the 55th year of 
his age." 

In the crypt or vault underneath the church are deposited the 
remains of several members of the Portland family, including William 
Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Duke of Portland, who died on the 3Oth 
of October, 1809. 

At the west end of the church there was a monument in lead, 
gilt, with figures in alto-relievo, to the memory of some children of 
Thomas Tayler, of Popes, in Hertfordshire, in 1689. When certain 
alterations were made in the church, in 1816, this curious monument 
was stolen, probably on account of the metal of which it was composed. 
Strange to say, no steps appear to have been taken to discover the 
delinquent. 

Among the persons whose names appear in the burial register of 
this church are James Figg, prize-fighter, buried the nth of December, 
Z 734 5 J nn Vandrebrank, painter, buried the 3oth of December, 1739 ; 
Edmund Hoyle, author of a well-known treatise on whist, &c., buried 
the 23rd of August, 1769 ; John Michael Rysbrack, sculptor, buried the 



ST. MARYLEBONE NEW CHURCH. 25 

nth of January, 1770; Anthony Relhan, author of works upon medical 
subjects, buried the nth of October, 1776 ; James Ferguson, astronomer, 
&c., buried the 23rd of November, 1776 ; Allen Ramsay, portrait-painter, 
buried the i8th of August, 1784; Rev. Charles Wesley, buried the 5th of 
April, 1788; William Cramer, musician, buried the nth of October, 
1799 ; Francis Wheatley, R.A., buried the 2nd of July, 1801 ; George 
Stubbs, painter and anatomist, buried the i8th of July, 1806. 

In 1788, Byron, at the age of six weeks, and on the 3rd of May, 
1803, Horatia, the daughter of Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton, were 
baptized within this church. 

Francis Bacon, in 1606, was married at the old church at Marylebone. 

ST. MARYLEBONE NEW CHURCH. 

This church was designed by Thomas Hardwick, a pupil of Sir 
William Chambers, and the father of Philip Hardwick, R.A., architect 
of the New Hall at Lincoln's Inn. The portico faces the north, a 
peculiarity in some measure forced upon the architect by the nature of 
the ground selected for its site. 

The north front of the church, which is extremely rich, is well seen 
from York Gate, Regent's Park. It consists of a handsome winged 
portico of the Roman Corinthian order, surmounted by a tower. The 
portico is composed of eight columns, six in front and two in flank, 
raised on a flight of steps, and sustaining an entablature and pediment. 
Within the portico are three lintelled entrances, surmounted by cornices 
and two arched windows. Above the central doorway is a panel, bearing 
the following inscription : 

This Church was erected at the expense of the Parishioners, 
And consecrated iv. February, MDCCCXVII. 
The REV. ARCHDEACON HESLOP, Minister, 

The DUKE OF PORTLAND, ) _, 

\ Churchwardens. 
SIR JAMES GRAHAM, BABT,) 

GEORGE ALLEN,) _ 

[ Sidesmen. 
JOHN RUSSELL, ) 

Above this is a long panel designed for sculpture. The ceiling of 
the portico is panelled, each panel containing an expanded flower. The 



26 MARYLEBOXE. 

wings have no windows on their northern front, the angles are guardec 
by pilasters, and the flanks are enriched with two columns. 

The tower is in three stories, and is crowned with a spherical dome 
In the interior of the building there are galleries on the sides and north 
end. Near the altar is a painting of the Holy Family by West, presented 
by the artist to the parish. 

The body of the church is 86 feet 6 inches in length, and 60 feet 
in breadth. It is calculated to accommodate between three and four 
thousand persons, and cost nearly 80,000 for building and furnishing. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Mary-le-bone, was restored 
during the years 1883-84. 

ST. MARY'S CHURCH. 

This church, situated in Wyndham Place, near Bryanston Square, 
was built from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke, and was consecrated 
on the yth of January, 1824. The plan of the church is somewhat 
singular, the principal front facing the south, and having, in its centre, 
the portico and tower. The building consists of a nave, or body, with 
side aisles, a portion of the angles having been taken to form vestries 
and lobbies, whereby the body is made longer than the aisles. 

The tower is circular in plan ; the elevation is made into three 
stories. The basement has a doorway with a lintelled architrave, and 
above it three round-headed windows. A portico, consisting of six Ionic 
columns and two antae, sustaining an entablature and attic, the latter 
ornamented with arched panels instead of a balustrade, sweeps round that 
portion of the tower which projects from the building. Above the parapet 
the circular tower is continued, and forms a stylobate to the secom 
story, which has eight semi-columns, of the early Corinthian Order, 
attached to it, with windows having arched heads in the spaces between 
the cornice is finished with a parapet set around with Grecian tiles, 
and upon this story is a pedestal, still continuing the same form, having 
four circular apertures for the clock dials, and finished with a cornice 
sustaining a circular temple pierced with eight arched openings, the piers 
between which are ornamented with antae, supporting an entablature, 
cornice, and parapet, the latter set round with Grecian tiles, and crowned 
with a conical dome, on the vertex of which is a gilt cross. The 



CHURCHES. 27 

remaining part of this side of the church is formed into two stories by a 
string course, and finished by a cornice and parapet continued from the 
portico. The lower story contains, on each side of the portico, three 
square windows with stone architraves, and the upper story contains the 
same number of lofty arched windows with architraves of stone round 
the heads, resting, by way of impost, on a string course. Within the 
portico there is also an entrance, with a window above it in the wall 
of the church. 

The west front is^ in like manner made into two stories, and also 
vertically into three divisions, the lateral ones containing windows, and 
finishing with cornices and parapets as before. The central division has 
three doorways, with lintelled heads in its basement, and three arched 
windows above. This division is surmounted by a pediment to conceal 
the roof. 

The north side of the church only differs from the south in having 
three more windows in each story, in the space which is occupied by 
the tower and portico on the side already described. 

The east front is in three divisions, the side ones similar to the 
the western ; the central division retires behind the line of the front, 
and has a square window divided into three compartments by antae, 
and finished with a pediment. The church is built of brick, except 
the tower, cornices, and other particular parts before enumerated. 
The interior consists of a nave and side aisles. On each side of the 
nave are square piers supporting galleries. The altar is elaborately 
constructed of various ornamental and costly marbles. The great defect 
in the church is an insufficiency of light. The interior of the church 
was remodelled in 1874. 

ALL SOULS' CHURCH, LANGHAM PLACE. 

The first stone of this church was laid on the i8th of November, 
1822, and the consecration took place on the 25th of November, 1824. 
One of the most remarkable features in connection with the church is 
the strange effect produced by an acutely tapering spire set upon a 
circular tower of classic style. 

The ground on which All Souls' Church stands, formed part of the 



28 



MARYLEBONE. 



site of Lord Foley's mansion, which, with several adjacent houses, was 
removed to complete this end of Regent Street. 

HOLY TRINITY CHURCH. 

Sir John Soane, R.A., designed this church, which was consecrated 
in the year 1828. The principal face of the building fronts the south, 
instead of the west, as is the general rule. Of the first stage of the 
tower it has been said, " It is no vague or unmerited compliment to 
the architect to say that a more beautiful piece of ecclesiastical achi- 
tecture is not to be seen in the whole range of modern churches." 

The chancel, built from designs of G. Somers Clarke, was added, 
and the organ removed from the gallery into the chancel, in the year 1878. 

CHRIST CHURCH, STAFFORD STREET. 

This church was built from the designs of Philip Hardwick, Esq., 
and was consecrated in 1825. Curiously enough, the portico and prin- 
cipal front are at the east end. Another curious feature in the church 
is that it consists of two separate portions ; the first, which is entirely 
of stone, comprises the entrance and tower ; the second portion, which 
consists of the body of the church, and is entirely appropriated to the 
congregation. This portion is built of brick, with stone dressings. 
The portico and pediment are built in the Ionic order. 

A chancel was constructed, and the east end of 'the church re- 
arranged, in 1867. 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, VERE STREET. 

St. Peter's Church, formerly known as Oxford Chapel, was' erected 
about 1724, and during the rebuilding of the parish church in 1741, 
marriages, baptisms, &c., were performed here. The Duke of Portland 
was married at this church in 1734. The building is of brick, strength- 
ened with rustic quoins of stone. Upon the pediment at the west end 
of the church there is, carved in stone, a coat of arms, which appears 
to be those of a descendant of Aubrey De Vere, the last Earl of 
Oxford of that family. The arms were removed in the year 1832, when 
the chapel was repaired, and when it was named St. Peter's. 

Strange as it may seem to our modern notions of ecclesiastical art, 




sons Clinto 



i ou5 i 









r JOHN S CHl'RCH. I'-UJULNOTOJJ 




GHOU5Q H.AK OF TJUSHT CHURCH 



GROUND PLAH or STJOBKS CHTRCH. 



UTO PLAV Or AL1 SOm-S 




PLAN or THI DIORAMA. 




OLD CKLUCtt. 





NAI1OSAL SCOTCH CHTHCBL 



orxi> PUSJS or SCOTCH CHTHCH. 



c? 




ntocyr <;QT;AI. aum.. 





CHURCHES, &c., IN MARYLEBONE AND ST. PANCRAS. 



CHAPELS. 29 

this chapel, previously to the erection of the new churches, was con- 
sidered one of the most beautiful structures in the metropolis. 

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, GREAT PORTLAND STREET. 

This church, originally known as Portland Chapel, was erected in 
1766, on the site of Marylebone Basin, which was formerly a reservoir 
of water for the supply of that part of the metropolis, but had been 
disused for many years. By some unaccountable neglect, this chapel 
was left unconsecrated from the time of its erection until the end of 
the year 1831, when (it having, in common with the Rectory of the 
Parish, passed into the hands of the Crown) the ceremony of consecra- 
tion was performed, and it was dedicated to St. Paul. The church 
was restored in 1883. 

ST. JOHN'S WOOD CHAPEL. 

Architecturally this church has not many striking features. It was 
built after the designs of Thomas Hardwick, and consecrated in the 
year 1814. The monumental tablets placed against the walls inside the 
church comprise many beautiful specimens of modern sculpture by the 
most celebrated masters of the age. Among them are the productions 
of Chantrey, Behnes, Wyatt, and various other eminent sculptors. 

In the vaults beneath this church are deposited the remains of 
a great number of well-known persons, among whom is the wife of 
Benjamin West, P.R.A. 

In the burial ground attached to this church (now converted into 
a public garden) is the grave, among many others, of Joanna South- 
cott. It was estimated in 1833 that about forty thousand persons had 
been buried in this cemetery, and the list of notable characters included 
in that number is much too long to give in this volume. 

DISSENTING CHAPELS. 

There are several important and old-established Dissenting Chapels 
in Marylebone, but we have no space for even a brief account of 
them. 

In Little Titchfield there was a place of worship, called Providence 
Chapel, frequented by a congregation styling themselves " Independents," 



30 MARYLEBONE. 

and under the ministry of Mr. Huntingdon. This chapel was burnt down 
on the i8th July, 1810, upon which occasion the minister is reported 
to have observed, that " Providence having allowed the chapel to be 
destroyed, Providence might rebuild it, for he would not " and in 
consequence, the site was occupied by a timber yard. 

FRENCH CHAPEL. 

About the middle of the lyth century there was a French Chapel 
at Marylebone. It was probably only of a small size, conformably with 
the sparse population of Marylebone at that time. There seems to have 
been some doubt as to the exact spot it actually occupied, which is 
supposed to have been somewhere in Marylebone Lane or High Street. 
It is recorded that the chapel was founded in 1656, in which year 
Bernard Perny .and Michel Eloy Nollet were the officiating ministers. 

In the early days of their existence, the Marylebone Gardens were 
called the " French Gardens," in consequence, it is said, of their con- 
tiguity to the Marylebone French Chapel. The site of the Marylebone 
Gardens is well known : it is now occupied by Devonshire- Place and 
Street and Beaumont Street, and the adjacent locality, and if the French 
Chapel adjoined or stood near those gardens, it must have been some 
little distance to the north of Marylebone Lane. (See History of the 
Protestant Refugees settled in England. By J. S. Burn. p. 153.) 

The site of the chapel is pretty clearly defined in a plan of the 
Marylebone Gardens, which is reproduced in connection with the account 
of that establishment in the present volume. 

" The vast number of French Protestants who fled into England on 
the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, led to a large increase in the 
number of French churches. This was especially the case in London, 
which was the principal seat of the immigration. It may serve to give 
the reader an idea of the large admixture of Huguenot blood in the 
London population, when we state that about the beginning of last 
century, at which time the population of the Metropolis was not one 
fourth of what it is now, there were no fewer than thirty-five French 
Churches in London and the suburbs. Of these eleven were in Spitalfields, 
showing the preponderance of French settlers in that quarter." Smiles. 



CHAPTER III. 



MARYLEBONE GARDENS, TAVERNS, &c. 

Marylebone Gardens. The French Gardens. Illuminations, fireworks, and music, at Marylebone 
Gardens. " The Forge of Vulcan." Dr. William Kenrick's lectures. The Marylebone Spa. 
James Figg and "The Boarded House "Bowling Greens. " The Rose of Normandy." 
"The Queen's Head and Artichoke." "The Yorkshire Stingo." " The Old Farthing Pie 
House."" The Jew's Harp." 

MARYLEBONE GARDENS. 

HERE is evidence of the existence of public 
pleasure gardens at Marylebone at an early 
date. Pepys writes in 1668 : " Then we 
abroad to Marrowbone, and there walked 
in the garden ; the first time I ever was 
there, and a pretty place it is." 

The gardens, which occupied the ground 
where Beaumont Street, Devonshire Street, 
and Devonshire Place now are, seem to 
have been known at first (as was mentioned in the last 
chapter) as " The French Gardens," on account, as 
some say, of their having been cultivated by French 
refugees, who had a chapel close by. When the 
gardens were first named the Marylebone Gardens, 
and definitely set apart for the use of pleasure-seekers, 
does not clearly appear. The probability is, however, 
that they gradually assumed that character. 

An advertisement in the " Daily Courant," of the 
29th of May, 1718, reads: "This is to give notice to 
all persons of quality, ladies and gentlemen, that there 
having been illuminations in Marybone bowling-greens 
on his Majesty's birthday every year since his happy accession to the 
throne; the same is (for this time) put off until Monday next, and will 




32 MARYLEBONE. 

be performed with a consort of musick, in the middle green, by reason 
there is a ball in the garden at Kensington with illuminations, and at 
Richmond also." 

This notice goes to show that the bowling-greens at Marylebone had 
for a few years, at least, been used for the celebration of public events. 

A distinct advance towards improvement of the condition and 
appointments of the place was made in the years 1738-9, when Mr. 
Gough, the proprietor, enlarged the gardens, built an orchestra, and issued 
silver tickets at twelve shillings each for the season, each ticket admitting 
two persons. It is not generally known that, previous to the year 1737, 
this "fashionable" place of amusement was entered freely by all ranks of 
people ; but the company becoming more select, Mr. Gough determined 
to charge one shilling for entrance money for a lady and gentleman, for 
which the party paying was to receive an equivalent in viands. Any 
single person was admitted upon a payment of sixpence. The gardens 
were open from six to ten in the evening at first, but the hour for opening 
was afterwards altered to five o'clock. An advertisement in a con- 
temporary newspaper humbly requests that the gentlemen will riot smoke 
on the walks. 

The plan of the Marylebone Gardens here inserted has been reproduced 
from a valuable MS. plan in the Grace collection at the British Museum. 
The following are the references to the numbers marked upon it. 

1. The house called The Rose of Normandy. 

2. The field entrance. 

3. Old Church (French). 

4. Orchestra 

5. Burlettas, &c., without front. 

6. Fireworks. 

In the year 1740, an organ, built by Bridge, was added to the 
musical attractions of Marylebone Gardens, and later on illuminations and 
artificial fireworks formed a frequent and popular item in the entertain- 
ments. On July 27th, 1769, upon the occasion of Mr. Forbes's benefit, 
the following list of fireworks was advertised to be exhibited : 

"THE ORDER OF FIRING. 

"First Division. i. Four Sky Rockets. 2. Two illuminated, brilliant, and 
changeable wheels. 3. Two Tourballoons. 4. One large Range of Chinese 
Trees bearing white Flowers. 5. Two Furious Wheels changing into Wheat- 
sheafs. 6. Two Pots d'Airgrets with Chinese Jerbs. 








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MARYLEBONE GARDENS. 33 

" Second Division. 7. Four Skyrockets. 8. Two Tourballoons. 9. One 
large brilliant Wheel, with blue, yellow, and white lights. 10. Two Pyramids 
of Roman Candles, n. Two Line Rockets. 12. Two large Diamond Pieces of 
brilliant Fountains, five pointed Stars, and a large Sun at the Top of each. 

"Third Division. 13. Four Sky Rockets. 14. Two Tourballoons. 15. One 
regulating Piece of three Mutations, first a large brilliant wheel illuminated. 
2nd, A Sun of Brilliants and Royonet Fire. 3rd, Six Branches representing 
Wheat Ears. 16. One large Gothic Arch, superbly illuminated with Lances, 
and Variety of other Decorations. 17. One large brilliant Sun with a Star of 
eight Points in the Centre. 18. Two Pots d'Airgrets with large Chinese Jerbs." 

These elaborate fireworks were sent off at the conclusion of a concert 
of vocal and instrumental music, and as only half-a-crown was charged 
for admission, it cannot be said that the entertainment was extravagantly 
expensive. 

So many rough characters were attracted towards Marylebone Gardens, 
that the journey back to London through the country roads was attended 
with considerable risk of robbery and violence, and provision for the 
safety of visitors was made, as appears by the following : 

" Mrs. Vincent's night. At Marybone Gardens, on Thursday, July 
3rd (1766), will be a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music. The 
vocal parts by Mr. Lowe, Mr. Raworth, Mr. Taylor, Miss Davis, and Mrs. 
Vincent. With several new Songs. And (by particular Desire) after the 
Concert will be a Ball. Tickets Two Shillings and Sixpence. 

" To render it more agreeable to the Company there will be a 
Platform laid down in the great Walk which will be entirely covered in. 

"There will be a Horse Patrol for the City Road to and from the 
Gardens, to protect those Friends who intend honouring Mrs. Vincent 
with their Company. 

" Tickets to be had of Mrs. Vincent, at her lodgings, at Mr. More's, 
Grocers, next to the Savoy Gate in the Strand, and at the Bar of the 
Gardens." 

Music was one of the chief attractions of the gardens. Handel's 
name is closely associated with them, as are those of Dr. Arne, Webbe, 
Richter, Hook, Bartholomew, Abel, Dibdin, and Banister, and other 
popular singers and actors of the day. 

In 1744 Mi ss Scott was a singer at Marylebone Gardens ; Mr. Knerler 
played the violin, and Mr. Ferrand played an instrument called the 



34 



MARYLEBONE. 



bariton. In 1751 Mr. John Trusler was sole proprietor of the gardens, 
and, in 1758, his son produced the first burletta that was performed there, 
entitled " La Serva Padrona." 

The next year, 1759, Mr. Trusler, who appears to have been possessed 
of ingenious business capacities, opened his gardens for breakfasting, and 
his daughter, Miss Trusler, made the cakes. 

The following year this enterprising lady developed a new branch of 
her business. The following notice was publicly given in the news- 
papers : " Mr. Trusler's daughter begs leave to inform the Nobility and 
Gentry that she intends to make fruit-tarts during the fruit season ; and 
hopes to give equal satisfaction as with the rich cakes, and almond 
cheesecakes. The fruit will always be fresh gathered, having great 
quantities in the garden ; and none but loaf sugar used, and the finest 
Epping butter. Tarts of a twelvepenny size will be made every day from 
i to 3 o'clock ; and those who want them of larger sizes, to fill a dish, 
are desired to speak for them, and send their dish or the size of it, 
and the cake shall be made to fit. 

" The almond cheesecakes will be always hot at one o'clock as 
usual ; and the rich seed and plum cakes sent to any part of the town, 
at 2s. 6d. each. Coffee, tea, and chocolate, at any time of the day ; and 
fine Epping butter may also be had." 

A good idea of the general arrangement and appearance of the 
Marylebone Gardens is presented in the accompanying plate, which is 
reproduced from an engraving published in the year 1761. It represents 
the gardens probably in their fullest splendour. The central part of the 
plate exhibits the longest walk, with regular rows of young trees on 
either side, the stems of which received the irons for the lamps at about 
the height of seven feet from the ground. On either side this walk 
were latticed alcoves ; on the right hand of the walk, according to this 
view, stood the bow-fronted orchestra with balustrades, supported by 
columns. The roof was extended considerably over the erection, to 
keep the musicians and singers free from rain. On the left hand of th 
walk was a room, possibly intended for balls and suppers. The figures i 
this view are all well drawn and characteristic of the time. 

In 1763, the gardens were taken by the famous Mr. T. Lowe, who 
engaged Mrs. Vincent, Mrs. Lampe, Junr., Miss Mays, Miss Hyatt 



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MARYLEBONE GARDENS. 35 

Miss Catley and Mr. Squibb, as singers. Upon the opening of the gardens 
in May, 1763, the following musical address was sung : 

" MR. LOWE. 

Now the summer advances, and pleasure removes, 
From the smoke of the town to the fields and the groves, 
Permit me to hope, that your favours again 
May smile, as before, on this once happy plain. 

Miss CATLEY. 

Tho' here no rotunda expands the %vide dome, 
No canal on its borders invites you to roam ; 
Yet nature some blessings has scattered around, 
And means to improve may hereafter be found. 

Miss MILES. 

On spots as uncouth, from foundations as mean, 
Some structures stupendous exalted have been ; 
Hence started Vauxhall, and Ranelagh grew, 
From rudeness to grandeur, supported by you. 

Miss SMITH. 

The barrenest heath may by art be improv'd : 
And rivers diverted, and mountains remov'd : 
Do you then the sunshine of favour display, 
And culture shall soon the glad summons obey. 

Miss CATLEY. 
Meanwhile, ev'ry effort to please ye we'll try ; 

Miss MILES. 
Good music, good wine, with each other shall vie. 

Miss SMITH. 
To gain your esteem 's the full scope of our plan, 

MR. LOWE. 
And we'll strive to deserve it as well as we can. 

CHORUS. 

To gain your esteem 's the full scope of our plan, 
And we'll strive to deserve it as well as we can." 

One of the many popular sights at Marylebone Gardens was Signer 
Torre's representation of the Forge of Vulcan. When the ordinary 
fireworks were concluded, a curtain, which covered the base of the 
representation of Mount Etna, rose and discovered Vulcan leading the 
Cyclops to work at their forge ; the fire blazed, and Venus entered with 
Cupid at her side, who begged them to make for her son those arrows 
which are said to be the causes of love in the human breast ; they 
assented and the mountain immediately appeared in eruption, with lava 




36 MARYLEBOXE. 

rushing down the precipices. This exhibition proved highly interesting 
to the public, and was often represented. Another popular attraction was 
a course of lectures, delivered in 1774, by Dr. William Kenrick, author 
of numerous books and pamphlets. They were given in the Theatre for 
Burlettas, which was called the School of Shakespeare, as the lectures 
dealt mainly with Shakespeare, and consisted, to a large extent, of 
recitations from certain portions of his works. The character of Sir 
John Falstaff was received with much applause by the crowded audiences 
which were attracted by Dr. Kenrick's declamation. Dr. Kenrick used 
to hold his ''School of Shakespeare," as it was called, also in the Apollo 
at the Devil Tavern, Temple Bar, and he printed an introduction to his 
lectures in the form of a pamphlet. In 1775, Mr. George Saville Gary 
gave lectures on mimicry, in which he introduced, " A Dialogue between 
Small Cole and Fiddle-stick ; Billy Bustle, Jerry Douglas, and Patent ; 
with the characters of Jerry Sneak in Richard the Third, Shylock in 
Macbeth, Juno in her Cups, Momus in his Mugs, and the Warwickshire 
Lads ; concluding with a dialogue between Billy Buckram and Aristophanes, 
in which Nick Nightingal, or the Whistler of the Woods, made his 
appearance in the character of a Crow. 

In 1774, the public press made serious complaints against ihe 
management of the gardens for having demanded five shillings entrance 
money to a fete champetre, which consisted of nothing more than a few- 
tawdry festoons and extra lamps. There were indications that public 
favour was declining; the gardens, after a long period of popularity, were 
becoming less and less appreciated, and the roughs, who assembled there, 
tore down the decorations, and injured the stage. Moreover, the 
population around the district was rapidly increasing, and so much 
uneasiness arose in the minds of the inhabitants lest some accident 
should be occasioned by the fireworks, that complaints were frequently 
made to the magistrates. The result was that Marylebone Gardens were 
finally suppressed in 1778, and the site was let to builders. 

The following is an extract from a document which was formerly in 
the possession of Sampson Hodgkinson, Esq., who allowed an extract 
to be made for Thomas Smith's " History of the Parish of St. Marylebone," 
in which work it was published in 1833. It is a deed of assignment 
made by Thomas Lowe, conveying his property in Marylebone Gardens 



MA R YLEBONE GA RDENS. 



37 



to certain trustees, for the benefit of his creditors, on the 3rd of 
February, in the gth of George the Third, viz., 1769. 

By Indenture bec.ring the date of the 3Oth day of August, 1763, 
made between Robert Long, of the Parish of St. Mary-le-bone, otherwise 
Marybone, Esq., and the said Thomas Lowe, all that Messuage then or 
then before called the Rose Tavern, situate and being in the Parish 
of St. Marylebone aforesaid, with the tap-house thereunto belonging, and 
also a Room or Building known by the name of the French Chapel, 
together with a stable or brewhouse adjoining, or near to the same, 
and also all that other Messuage, situate in the same parish, then 
before in the possession of Daniel Gough, on the East side of 
the town of Saint Marylebone, alias Marybone, fronting towards the 
West on the Road leading to Marybone Church, and North on a 
Gateway or passage leading from the said Road into Marybone 
Gardens. And also all that great garden and the several pieces or 
parcels of garden ground and walks to the said Messuages or either 
of them belonging, which had been lately used therewith by the then 
late Tennants of the said Messuages in the carrying on a Musical 
Entertainment at Marybone Gardens, and also the orchestra, and all 
Rooms and Buildings erected, built and set upon the said pieces and 
parcels of ground or any part thereof, and also the organ then 
standing in the said orchestra, and also a harpsicord and all the 
musical books and music then being on the said premises, and used 
in carrying on the said musical entertainment, and all boxes, benches, 
tables, lamps, lamp-posts, and all other fixtures, belonging to the said 
Messuages or tenements, pieces or parcels of ground which were the 
property of the said Robert Long, and all the passage lights, profits or 
commodious advantages appointed to the tenants of the said messuages 
or said pieces of ground belonging or therewith held and enjoyed, 
except reserving to the said Robert Long, all that small piece of 
garden ground and a small tenement built thereon, then in the 
possession of Mr. Flanders, and another small piece of ground with 
a shed or tenement built thereon, late in the possession of Mr. Claxton, 
but then unlet, and also another small piece of ground with a tenement 
or shed built thereon, then in the possession of Mr. Gray Cutler, and 
also another piece of ground with a tenement built thereon, then in 



MARYLEBONE. 



the possession of Mr. Rysbrack, statuary, all which excepted premises 
had been parted off from the said Great Garden, and had been held 
and enjoyed separately from the same. And also, except and always 
reserving to the said Robert Long and his tenants free liberty to pass 
and repass in through and from the public walks of the said great 
gardens at all convenient times to the said excepted premises. To 
Hold the same (except as before excepted) unto the said Thomas 
Lowe, his Executors and Assigns, from the Feast Day of St. Michael 
the Archangel, next ensuing, for and during the full end and term of 
14 years from thence, and fully to be compleat and ended, at and 
under the yearly rent of 170 of lawful money of Great Britain 
payable quarterly, in manner therein mentioned. 

And on the 3ist of August, James Dalling, Robert Wright of the 
Parish of West Ham, in the County of Essex, Coal Merchant, and 
Francis Walsingham, together with the said Thomas Lowe, became 
bound to the said Thomas Long in the penal sum of five hundred 
pounds conditioned for the payment of the rent, and performances 6f 
the contract. 

This property was subsequently, in 1768, assigned to George Forbes 
and Andrew Mitchie, Trustees, for the benefit of the creditors. 

In the debtor and creditor accounts the following items appear: 

EXPENSES. 

* * 

To Mr. Hook, the Music Master ... 440 

Mr. Lowe's weekly allowance ... ... ... ... 220 

To Advertisements and Waiters ... ... ... i 6 10 

To Mr. Medhurst, for Chickens 580 

To the Patrol o 16 

To Master Brown ... .. ... ... ... 44 

To Miss Da vies ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

To Mr. Taylor ... ... ... ... ... ... 22 

To the Gardener... ... ... ... ... ... 09 

To Candles ... ... ... ... ... ... 30 

To Washing ... ... ... ... ... ... 01810 

To One Hundred Lemons ... ... ... .. o 10 o 

To Water Cakes.. 060 



MARYLEBONE GARDENS. 39 

s - d - 

To Beer ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 440 

To Servants' Wages ... .. ... ... ... 180 

To the Band of Music ... ... .. .. ... 27 13 8 

To laying out the Books and attending the Music 090 

To the Doorkeepers ... ... ... ... ... 2 19 6 

To attending the Organ... ... .. .. ... 076 

To Miss Davies ... ... ... ... ... ... 220 

To Mr. Phillips 220 

To Mr. Taylor i 8 o 

To Mr, Thomas, for the Organ ... ... ... 060 

To 12 Doorkeepers and 2 Patrols ... ... ... 430 

To the Doorkeepers for 6 Sundays ... ... ... 060 

To the Constable for 4 Sundays ... ... ... 040 

To Servant's Wages ... ... ... ... ... i 8 6 

To one Advertisement .. ... ... ... ... 050 

To Writing Music ... ... ... ... ... 113 6 

To one Watchman ... ... ... ... ... oio 

To the Music Licence .. ... .. ... ... 149 

To Mr. Wakefield o 12 o 

The expenses of the establishment from November I2th, 1767, to 
January 3ist, 1769, were 1534 us. gd. 

RECEIPTS. s. d. 
By received in part of the expenses of Mr. Brown's 

Benefit ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 10 o 

By ditto Benefit of the Band of Music ... ... 9 4 o 

By ditto Mr. Taylor's Benefit 13 2 6 

By ditto Miss Davis's Benefit 686 

By Dr. Arne, for Wine... ... 2 14 6 

By one Ticket i n 6 

The receipts at the door do not appear to have exceeded on any 
one night 15, but the receipts at the bar frequently exceeded 50, 
and on one occasion, the 8th of September, 1768, they amounted to 
65 6s. 4^. 

THE MARYLEBONE SPA. 

This valuable spring was discovered in Marylebone Gardens in the 

winter of 1773-4, in the course of a diligent search, made under the 



40 . MARYLEBONE. 

direction of the Surveyor of the City of London, after some wells 
situated about Marylebone, and under the jurisdiction of the City. Many 
ancient subterraneous avenues were found. Upon a careful examination, 
the medicinal virtues of the spring were found to be likely to be highly 
useful in nervous, scorbutic and other disorders. The waters were 
supposed to strengthen the stomach, and promote a good appetite and a 
good digestion. 

The company were admitted every morning immediately after six 
o'clock, and tea, coffee and other refreshments were obtainable at the bar. 



JAMES FIGG AND "THE BOARDED HOUSE." 

This celebrated prize-fighter, who long bore the palm of victory from 
all competitors, and who was extolled by Captain Godfrey in his treatise 
of the science of defence, as the greatest master of the art he had ever 
seen, was a Marylebone celebrity. He was for many years proprietor of 
" The Boarded House," in Marylebone Fields, near Oxford Road, 6r 
Oxford Street, as it is now designated. Here, the " Atlas of the Sword," 
as Figg was called, frequently exhibited his own skill, and at other times 
made matches between the most celebrated masters or mistresses of the 
art, for the noble science of defence was not confined to the male sex. 
We find Mrs. Stokes, the famous city championess, challenging the 
Hibernian heroines to meet her at Mr. Figg's. Lysons quotes a writer 
in Mist's Journal of the date, November 2Oth, 1725, who says: " We 
hear that the gentlemen of Ireland have been long picking out an 
Hibernian heroine to match Mrs. Stokes the bold, a famous city cham- 
pioness ; there is now one arrived here, who, by her make and stature, 
seems mighty enough to eat her up. However, Mrs. Stokes, being true 
English blood (and remembering some late reflections that were cast 
upon her husband by some of that country volk), is resolved to see her 
out vi ct annis. This being like to prove a notable and diverting 
engagement, it is not doubted but abundance of gentlemen will crowd to 
Mr. Figg's amphitheatre on Wednesday, the 24th instant, on purpose to 
see this uncommon performance." 

The following are copies of broadsides announcing exhibitions of 
skill at Figg's establishment : 




O) 
CO 

LU 

O 

I 

O _ 

r~ >O 

DC - 



< s 

o 

Q 

^ <ii 
LU r^ 

1^. 
^ 
v> 
^ 

co Q 
z 

LU 
LU 
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O 3 

LU 

I 
I- 



JAMES FIGG AND "THE BOARDED HOUSE." 41 

^At the Bear-Garden in Mar row -bone-Fields, the Backside of 
Soho Square, at the Boarded House, A Tryal of Skill to be performed, 
this present Monday, the iyth of May, 1714, by two Masters of the 
Noble Science of Defence, beginning at Three of the clock precisely. 

" I, John Terrywcsl, Master of the said Science, who am 
Obliged not to Challenge any Man : But the Gentlemen present 
at the last Battel, desiring me and Mr. John Parkes, of Coventry, 
to Exercise the usual weapons ; We, to Oblige them, and for the 
Diversion of others, will not fail (God willing) to Exercise the 
several Weapons following, viz. : 



BACK-SWORD, 
SWORD AND DAGGER, 
SWORD AND BUCKLER, 



SWORD AND GAUNTLET, 
SINGLE FALCHION, AND 
CASE OF FALCHIONS. 



Vivat Regina." 

" At the Boarded House in Marylebone Fields, to-morrow 
being Thursday, the 8th day of August (1723), will be performed 
an extraordinary Match at Boxing, between Joanna Heyfield, of 
Newgate Market, basket-woman, and the City Championess, for 
Ten Pounds Note. There has not been such a battle for these 
20 years past, and as these two Heroines are as brave and as 
bold as the ancient Amazons, the spectators may expect abun- 
dance of Diversion and Satisfaction from these Female Com- 
batants. They will mount at the usual hour, and the Company 
will be diverted with Cudgel-playing till they mount. Note a 
scholar of Mr. Figg, that challenged Mr. Stokes last summer, 
fights Mr. Stokes's Scholar 6 Bouts at Staff, for Three Guineas ; 
the first Blood wins. The weather stopt the Battle last Wednes- 
day." 

From the former of the two broadsides just quoted, it appears 
that the place was known as the " Bear Garden," doubtless on account 
of the cruel sport of bear-baiting and tiger-baiting which took place 
there. Bear-baiting and tiger-baiting were exhibited at Figg's Amphi- 
theatre. A bull-fight was once advertised to be performed by a "grimace" 
Spaniard, who had for some time amused and delighted the people of 
St. Pancras and Marylebone by making ugly faces, and a great 



4 2 



MARYLEBONE. 



company was drawn together by the novelty of the proposed entertain- 
ment. 

A portrait of Figg is introduced by Hogarth in the second plate 
of his " Rake's Progress." 

Figg died in 1734, and was buried at Marylebone on the nth of 
December. After his death the celebrated Broughton occupied an 
amphitheatre near the same spot, and was for many years the hero of 
bruisers, until at last he was beaten on his own stage by Slack, a 
butcher. The victor was supposed to have gained 600 by the result of 
the battle ; and the sums won and lost by the bye-standers were to a 
great amount, the house being crowded with amateurs, some of whom 
were of very high rank. Not long afterwards a stop was put to all 
public exhibitions of boxing and prize-fighting by Act of Parliament. 

BOWLING GREENS. 

In a map of the Marylebone Estate in 1708, there are two 
bowling greens shown, one of which was situated near the top of High 
Street, and abutting on the grounds of the old manor house. The other 
was situated at the back of that house ; the street afterwards called 
Bowling Green Lane having formed its southern boundary. In connection 
with the first mentioned green there was a noted tavern and gaming- 
house called the Rose Tavern, much frequented by persons of the first 
rank. It afterwards grew into much disrepute. The Marylebone Bowling 
Green is celebrated by the poet Gay, who makes it the scene of Capt. 
Macheath's debauches, in " The Beggar's Opera." This is probably the 
place alluded to by Lady Mary Wortley Montague in this line : 

"Some Dukes at Marybone bowl time away." 

It is also in all probability the tavern which is meant by Pennant, who, 
in his account of London, when speaking of the Duke of Buckingham's 
minute description of the house, afterwards the Queen's palace, and his 
manner of living there, says : " He has omitted his constant visits to the 
noted gaming-house, at Marybone ; the place of assemblage of all the 
infamous sharpers of the time ; " to whom his grace always gave a dinner 
at the conclusion of the season ; and his parting toast was, " May as 
many of us as remain unhanged next spring, meet here again." The 




THE ROSE OF NORMANDY. 



43 



" London Gazette," of January nth, 1691, mentions Long's bowling- 
reen at the "Rose" at Marylebone, half a mile distant from London. 

A description of the bowling-green attached to the tavern called the 
Lose of Normandy in 1659, states that the outside was bounded by a 
square brick wall, set with fruit trees, and there were gravel walks over 
two hundred paces long and seven paces broad. The circular walk was 
nearly five hundred paces in circuit, and six broad ; the centre was 
square ; and the bowling-green was one hundred and twelve paces one 
way, and eighty-eight paces another. All these walks were double set 
with quickset hedges, kept in excellent order, and indented in imitation of 
battlements. A writer in 1699 says : " Marybone is the chief place about 
town, but, for all its greatness and pre-eminence, it lies under the shrewd 
suspicion of being guilty of sharping and crimping, as well as the rest." 

Both of these bowling-greens were incorporated with the celebrated 
Marylebone Gardens. 

THE ROSE OF NORMANDY. 
Little seems to be definitely known as to the origin of this sign, but 

the house is supposed to have been established early in the I7th century, 

and when Thomas Smith wrote his history 
of Marylebone (1833), it was the oldest inn 
then existing in the parish. It was in its 
early days a detached building connected 
with the bowling-green at the back. The 
entrance to the house was by a descent of 
a flight of steps, the level of the street 
having been raised. At several dates the 
house had been repaired, but the original 
form of the exterior was preserved, and the 
staircases and ballusters were coeval with the 
erection of the building. 

There was, at the back of the house, an 
extensive yard on the level with the ground 
floor, which was laid out as a skittle 
ground. It is extremely probable that this 

was the skittle ground made famous by Nancy Dawson's association with 




44 



MARYLEBONE. 



it. The celebrated dancer and actress, of Drury Lane and Covent 

Garden fame, is supposed to have 

been born near Clare Market. At 

an early age she lost her mother, 

and was forced to lodge with an old 

Irish woman at Broad Street, St. 

Giles's. At the age of fourteen she 

lived in a cellar in Drury Lane with 

a sweep and his wife, and while 

quite a young girl Nancy Dawson 

is said to have been employed in 

setting up skittles at a skittle-alley 





184-CT 






in connection with a tavern in High 
Street, Marylebone, probably the Rose 
of Normandy. 

Later in life, after many adventures 
with a variety of lovers (including 
Jack Pudding, a showman, and Mr. 
Griffin, his master), she used to dance 
at Sadler's Wells, where, in one way 
or another, she made a good deal of 
money. In 1760, she gained great 
applause for the part she took in 
dancing at Covent Garden Theatre. 
She died at Hampstead, in the year 
1767, and was buried behind the 
Foundling Hospital. 

THE QUEEN'S HEAD AND ARTICHOKE. 

In olden times this was a well known house of entertainment, 
situated in a lane nearly opposite Portland Road, and about five 



OLD INNS. 



45 



hundred yards from the road that leads from Paddington to Finsbury. 
The accompanying illustration taken from an old engraving of the place, 
gives a view of the house opposite to the entrance, the door being on 
the other side of the bow-window. The barn alongside was well-known 
as Edmonson's Barn ; it belonged to Mr. Edmondson, coach-painter to 
the Queen, in Warwick Street, Golden Square, where he used to 




iy9 G 



execute the first part of his coach-painting. The lane was not any 
public road, only for foot-passengers, as it led into the fields towards 
Chalk Farm, Jews' Harp House, Hampstead, &c. On the other side 
the paling, was the lane and a skittle-ground belonging to the house. 
It was surrounded at the back and one side by an artificial stone 
manufactory, and several small houses with gardens attached to them. 



46 MARYLEBONE. 

THE YORKSHIRE STINGO. 

Opposite Lisson Grove and on the south side of Marylebone Road, 
there used to be a very celebrated public-house known as the York- 
shire Stingo. From this house the first pair of London omnibuses 
started on July 4th, 1829, running to the Bank and back. They were 
constructed to carry twenty-two passengers all inside. The fare was one 
shilling, or sixpence for half the distance, together with the luxury of 




a newspaper. Mr. J. Shillibeer was the owner of these carriages, and 
the first conductors were two sons of a British naval officer. 

As the name indicates, the house was noted for its ale " York- 
shire Stingo " but it was also as much noted for its tea gardens and 
bowling-green. It was much crowded on Sundays when an admission 
fee of sixpence was charged at the door. For that fee a ticket was 
given, to be exchanged with the waiters for its value in refreshments. 
This plan was very frequently adopted in these gardens, to prevent the 
intrusion of the lowest class, or of such as might only stroll about them 
without spending anything. 

THE OLD FARTHING PIE HOUSE. 

A good idea of the situation and surroundings of " The Old 
Farthing Pie House " may be gathered from a glance at Rocque's 






OLD INNS. 



47 



Map of London (1741-6), wherein it is shown as a house occupying the 
north-east corner of a nearly square enclosed garden intersected by 
footpaths. The " Farthing Pye House," as it is there called, is shown 
as being situated on the west side of "The Green Lane," almost 
opposite " Bilson's Farm," and at the point where that road was cut 




by a road going east and west, where the " New Road " was afterwards 
made. The Green Lane extended from what is now the south end of 
Berner's Street towards Primrose Hill, and the boundary line between 
Marylebone and St. Pancras seems pretty nearly to indicate its old 
course. 

The exact site of the Old Farthing Pie House is represented by 
the Green Man, near Portland Road Railway Station. 

THE JEW'S HARP. 

This public house, which was formerly in Regent's Park, was perhaps 
chiefly remarkable for its odd sign " Jew's Harp," or " The Jew's 
Trump." It was often called the " Jew Trump," and there is reason 
to believe that the name is a corruption of some foreign word. In 
the low Dutch a tromp is a rattle for children. Another explanation 
which is more ingenious than probable, is that the house was called 



4 8 



MARYLEBONE. 



11 The Jew's Harp " because the place where that instrument was played 
was between the teeth. 

The house was situated in old Marylebone Park, about a quarter of 
a mile north of Portland Place, but when the grounds were laid out 
for the formation of Regent's Park, it was removed further eastward. 
It was long known and resorted to, by holiday parties, on account of 
its bowery tea-garden, and thickly-foliaged arbours, and acquired consider- 
able fame for the excellence of its entertainment and accommodation. 




A curious anecdote is told of the Speaker Onslow in connection with 
this public house. For the purpose of relaxation from the many cares 
of his office, this celebrated man was in the habit of passing his evenings 
at " The Jew's Harp," at that time a retired country public house. He 
dressed himself in plain attire, and preferred taking his seat in the 
chimney corner of the kitchen, where he took part in the vulgar jokes 
and ordinary concerns of the landlord, his family and customers. He 



OLD INNS. 49 

continued this practice for a year or two, and much ingratiated himself 
with his host and his family, who, not knowing his name, called him 
" the gentleman," but, from his familiar manners, treated him as one of 
themselves. It happened, however, that one day the landlord was 
walking along Parliament Street, when he met the Speaker in state, 
going up with an address to the throne ; and looking narrowly at the 
chief personage, he was astonished and confounded at recognising the 
features of the gentleman, his constant customer. He hurried home and 
communicated the extraordinary intelligence to his wife and family, all 
of whom were disconcerted at the liberties which at different times they 
had taken with so important a personage. In the evening, Mr. Onslow 
came as usual, with his holiday face and manners, and prepared to 
take his seat, but found everything in a state of peculiar preparation, 
and the manners of the landlord and his w r ife changed from indifference 
and familiarity to form and obsequiousness. The children were not 
allowed to climb upon him and pull his wig, as heretofore, and the 
servants were kept at a distance. He, however, took no notice of the 
change, but, finding that his name and rank had by some means been 
discovered, he paid his reckoning, civilly took his departure, and never 
visited the house afterwards. 

It has been said that this was the only public house with the 
sign of " The Jew's Harp " in London, but that was incorrect, as 
there was another in Islington. 




CHAPTER IV. 



MARYLEBONE: MODERN HISTORY. 

Regent's Park. Old Mary lebone Park. Willan's Farm. Other Farms. Construction of "the 
Regent's Park." Proposed Triumphal Arch. St. Dunstan's Villa. Regent's Canal. St. 
John's Wood. Lisson Green. Lisson Fields. The New Road. Cavendish Square. Portman 
Square. Manchester Square. Dorset Square.- Blandford Square. Bryanston and Montague 
Squares. 

REGENT'S PARK. 

LD Marylebone Park, having been disparked 
for some years, and known generally as 
Marylebone Farm and Fields, Mr. White, 
architect to the Duke of Portland, in the 
year 1793, exhibited to Mr. Fordyce, the 
Surveyor-General, a " plan for the improve- 
ment of Mary-le-bone Park, which attracted 
his attention, and which he noticed in his 
report to the Lords of the Treasury, who 
that the necessary steps should be taken, 
and that a reward, not exceeding 1,000, should be 
offered to the successful author of a plan for the 
improvement of the whole estate. A copy of the 
Treasury Minute, dated July 2nd, 1793, was 
communicated to Mr. White, with six engraved plans 
of the estate, which induced him to devote much 
attention to the improvement thereof; and he made 
several plans, which are noticed in the First Report 
of the Commissioners of Woods and Forests and Land 
Revenues. 

The following are the names of tenants and fields, and the sizes 
of the fields on the estate called Marylebone Park Farm, taken by 




MARYLEBONE PARK FARM. 51 

order of the Lords of the Treasury, under the direction of John 
Fordyce, Esq., by G. Richardson, in 1794. 

Farm in the possession of Mr. Thomas Willan, and 
his Under Tenants. 

1. Farm-house, Barn, Stables, Cowhouses, Yards, A. R. p. 

Garden, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 2 o 36 

2. Small Tenements, Sheds, Yards, and Gardens, 

let to divers Tenants ... ... .. .. 108 

3. Ditto... ... ... ... ... ... ... o 2 25 

4. The Six Closes ... .. ... ... ... 72 i 37 

5. Butcher's Field ... ... ... ... . 27 i 28 

6. The Long Mead ... ... ... ... ... 24 3 36 

7. Long Forty Acres ... ... ... ... 34 o n 

8. Short Forty Acres ... ... ... ... 14 217 

9. Harris's Field ... ... ... ... ... 34 i 32 

10. Hill Field ... .. ... ... ... ... 18 2 14 

11. Gravel Pit Field ... ... ... ... ... 20 2 32 

12. Part of Home Seven Acres ... ... ... 6 3 32 

13. Remainder of Ditto ... ... ... . . 2 o 25 

14. Bell Field ... ... ... .. ... ... 9 2 32 

15. Pightle, let to Thomas Hammond ... ... i i 17 

16. Copal Varnish Manufactory and Garden, let 

to Mr. Alexander Wall ... ... ... o i 3 

17. Cottages, Sheds, Yards, and Gardens, let to 

divers Tenants ... ... ... ... ... 208 

1 8. The Five Acres ... ... ... ... ... 4018 

19. Paddock, let to Thomas Hammond ... ... i i 18 

20. White House Field ... ... ... ... 906 

Totrl 288 o 35 

Farm in the possession of Mr. Richard Kendall, and 
his Under Tenants. 

A. R P. 

21. Part of Saltpetre Field 12 3 23 

22. Ditto, let to John White, Esq. i i 12 

23-rt. Ditto Ditto o 3 16 

23. . Late part of the Five Acres, Ditto ... ... i i 24 

24. Garden let to George Stewart, Esq. ... ... o 2 12 



MARYLEBONE. 

25. House, Garden, and Shed, Ditto 

26. Dupper Field 

27. Garden let to Sir Richard Hill, Bart. 
Farm-house, Cow-houses, Yards, and Cow-lair 
Cow-houses, Sheds, &c. ... 

Tenements, Yards, Gardens, &c. 
White House Field 

Bell Field 15 

White Hall Field 20 

Rugg Moor and Lodge Field, in one ... 

Total 



28. 
29- 

30. 
3i- 
32- 
33- 
34- 



35- 

36. 
37- 
38. 

39- 

40. 



42. 



43- 



A. 


R. 


p. 





I 


20 


9 


I 


18 


o 


I 


7 


i 


2 


19 


o 


I 


ii 


2 


3 


24 


8 


o 


32 


15 


I 


35 


20 


3 


36 


57 


o 


12 


133 


2 


21 

^^M 


time: 


r, 




A. 


R. 


P. 


16 


I 


16 


22 


I 


30 


34 


O 


12 


34 


I 


21 


10 


I 


9 


o 


I 


2 


117 


3 


10 



Farm in the occupation of Mr. Richard Mortimer, 
and his Under Tenants. 

The Nether Paddock 

Pound Field 

The Thirty Acres 

The Twenty-Nine Acres ... ... ... ... 34 

Home Field, Farm-house, Cow-house, &c. 
Six Cottages and Gardens, with small Sheds, 
let to Mr. Richard Holdbrook 

Total 



ABSTRACT. 

A. R. P. 

Mr. White's Garden ... ... o 2 26 

Small triangular piece on the 

south side of the road ... o o 16 

Part of the Turnpike road 
belonging to the Estate .. ... o i 31 

Other part of ditto... ... ... 2 

(Both rented by the Trustees of 

the Road.) 
Farm rented by Mr. Willan 

Ditto by Mr. Kendall ... 
Ditto by Mr. Mortimer .. 

Total 



37 



288 
133 
"7 

543 



o 35 

2 21 
,3 10 

o 17 




DC 



CO 

H 

z 

LU 
O 
LU 
CC 



REGENT'S PARK. 53 

After the death of Mr. Fordyce, the Office of Surveyor-General 
of the Land Revenue was amalgamated with the Commission for the 
management of his Majesty's Woods and Forests ; and Messrs. Leverton 
and Chawner, architects and surveyors of buildings of the Land 
Revenue ; and Mr. Nash, Architect and Surveyor of the Woods and 
Forests ; were required to deliver in plans for the arrangement of the 
Marylebone Park Estate. The result of their labours was the delivery 
of several plans by Messrs. Leverton and Chawner, and of several 
others by Mr. Nash. 

Mr. Fordyce, in April, 1809, had laid before the Commissioners of 
the Treasury, a memorandum respecting the extension of the town over 
Marylebone Park, leading the attention of Architects to the proper 
consideration of the sewer, supplies of water, markets, police, churches, 
and a public ride or drive. He had, antecedent to this period, in May, 
1796, particularly brought into notice the forming a direct and com- 
modious communication to Marylebone from Westminster, and recom- 
mended its execution. 

On the expiration of the lease from the Crown to the Duke of 
Portland in January, 1811, the Crown obtained an Act of Parliament, 
and appointed a commission to form a park and to let the adjoining 
land on building leases. The whole was laid out by Mr. James Morgan 
in 1812, from the plans of Mr. John Nash, architect, who designed 
all the terraces except Cornwall Terrace, which was designed by 
Mr. Decimus Burton. 

The Park derives its name from the Prince Regent, afterwards 
George IV., who intended building a residence there at the north-east 
side of the Park. Part of Regent Street was actually designed as a 
communication from the Prince's projected residence to Carlton House, 
St. James's Palace, &c. The Crown property comprises, besides the 
Park, the upper part of Portland Place, from No. 8 (where there is 
now part of the iron railing which formerly separated Portland Place 
from Marylebone Fields), the Park Crescent and Square, Albany, 
Osnaburgh, and the adjoining cross streets, York and Cumberland 
Squares, Regent's Park Basin and Augustus Street, Park Villages east 
and west, and the outer road of the Park. 

About the year 1820, there seems to have been a proposition set 



54 



MARYLEBONE. 



on foot for the building of a gigantic triumphal arch across the New 
Road from Portland Place to Regent's Park. There are in the Grace 
Collection, at the British Museum, two beautifully executed sepia 
drawings, by John Martin, showing the proposed Arch, surmounted by 
a large and richly ornamented column, and steps, for foot passengers, 
extending over the whole of the convex external surface of the arch. 
Whatever there may be to urge in favour of such a structure from 
an artistic point of view, the absence of any public utility is quite 
sufficient justification for the relinquishing of such an extravagant scheme. 

ST. DUNSTAN'S VILLA. 

This house was built by Decimus Burton, Esq., for the Marquis of 
Hertford. There is an interesting story told in reference to the house. 
When the marquis was a child, and a good child, his nurse, to reward 
him, would take him to see " the giants " at St. Dunstan's, and he used 
to say, that when he grew up to be a man he would buy those giants. 
It happened when old St. Dunstan's was pulled down that the giants 
were put up to auction, and the marquis became their purchaser for the 
sum of 200. 

The giants used to strike the hours on the old clock of St. Dunstan's 
Church, in Fleet Street, and after they had been purchased by the 
Marquis of Hertford, they were again made to do duty for that purpose. 
Cowper, the poet, refers to the figures at St. Dunstan's in the following 

lines : 

" When Labour and when Dullness, club in hand, 
Like the t%vo figures of St. Dunstan's stand, 
Beating alternately, in measured time, 
The clock-work tintinabulum of rhyme, 
Exact and regular the sounds will be, 
But such mere quarter-strokes are not for me." 

The buildings and offices are on a larger scale than any other in the 
park. Simplicity and chastity of style, characterize the exterior, and the 
interior is in the same style of beauty. The entrance hall, in the principal 
front, is adorned with a portico of six columns, of that singular Athenian 
order which embellishes the vestibule of the Temple of the Winds at 
Athens. The roof is Venetian, with broad projecting eaves, supported by 
cantalivres and concealed gutters to prevent the dropping of the rain 
water from the eaves. On each side of the portico, on the ground floor, 




oc 



CO 

i- 

z 

LJ 
O 
LJ 
DC 



LJ 



REGENTS CANAL. ST. JOHN'S WOOD. 55 

are three handsome windows, and a series of dormers range along the 
upper story. The offices are abundantly spacious, being spread out, like 
the villas of the ancients, upon the ground floor, and are designed in the 
same style of architecture as the mansion. 

REGENT'S CANAL. 

By virtue of an Act of Parliament intituled " An Act for making and 
maintaining a navigable Canal in the Parish of Paddington to the River 
Thames, in the Parish of Limehouse, with a collateral cut in the Parish 
of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, in the County of Middlesex," the Regent's 
Canal was constructed. The work was begun in 1812, and the formal 
opening took place on the ist of August, 1820, when the circumstance of 
its completion was duly celebrated by an aquatic procession of boats and 
barges, ornamented with flags and streamers, and filled with ladies and 
gentlemen more or less interested in the success of the undertaking. The 
canal is eight miles and six furlongs in length, and has a fall of about 
eighty-four feet from its commencement to its termination. 

It was projected by Mr. John Nash, the architect, and Mr. James 
Morgan was the engineer. 

ST. JOHN'S WOOD. 

The name of this place was derived from its former possessors, 
the Priors of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. It is described in 
records as " Great St. John's Wood, near Marylebone Park," to 
distinguish it from Little St. John's Wood at Highbury, in Islington. 

Among these Woods, west of Marylebone Park, in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, Babbington and two of his fellow conspirators succeeded in 
concealing themselves from the officers of Lord Burghley. 

The St. John's Wood estate, consisting of nearly five hundred 
acres of land (about 340 acres of which were in Marylebone Parish), 
was granted by Charles II. to Charles Henry Lord Wotton, in discharge 
of 1300, part of the sum due to him. The said Lord Wotton on 
the 6th of October, 1682, devised his estate to his nephew, Charles 
Stanhope, younger son of his brother Phillip, Earl of Chesterfield. 
It was subsequently purchased in 1732, of Philip Dormer, Earl of 
Chesterfield, by Samuel Eyre, Esq. In this way the estate came into 



56 MARYLEBONE. 



the possession of the Eyre family, from which the famous hostelry 
known as the " Eyre Arms" takes its sign. 
The following is an " Account of the Mary-le-bone portion of this 


Estate from a Survey made in 1794 : 


A. 


R. 


P. 


i. 


Pasture, 


houses, yard, barn, gardens, &c. 


i 


I 


13 


2. 


ii 


Little Hay Field 


... 7 


3 


24 


3- 


Meadow, 


, Hanging Field ... 


7 


3 


12 






A, 




Spring Field 


O 


i 


IQ 


T 

5- 


5 ) 



Dutch Barn Field 


... 8 


i 


y 

H 


6. 


II 


The Twenty Acre Field 


... 6 


3 


3 


7- 


> 


Great Hill Field 


... 16 


i 


26 


8. 




Burton-way 


18 


9 


i 


9- 


) ) 

Pasture, 


house, garden and lawn 


i 


J 

2 


38 


10. 


Meadow, 


Little Robin's Field 


... 7 


3 


20 


ii. 





Little Blewhouse Field 


ii 


3 


6 


12. 


Arable, Seven Acres 


7 


2 


28 


I 3. 


Pasture, 


Middle Field 


3 


2 


7Q 


j 
I 4 . 


Meadow, 


Blewhouse Field 


J 

5 


3 


J.7 

37 


15- 


,, 


Great Robin's Field ... 


10 


i 


25 


1 6. 




Horn Castle 


c 


2 


18 


17- 


J ? 
M 


Great Garden Field ... 


... 30 


O 


38 


18. 


5) 


Willow Tree Field 


... 16 


I 


21 


IQ. 




Great Field 


25 


I 


17 


:/ 
2O. 


J J 


Brick Field 


ax 


I 


* / 

2 C 


21. 


? ) 

Pasture, 


cottage and garden 


O 


O 


JJ 
25 


22. 


Meadow, 


The Slipe 




o 


6 






23- 


Pasture, 


house, barn, yard, gardens 


... 6 


3 


36 


24.. 


Meadow, 


Barn Field 


14. 


o 


A 


"f 

25- 


> 


Oak Tree Field 


... IL^. 

... 16 


I 


T 

18 


26. 


Pasture, 


Piece on St. John's Wood Lane 


O 





19 


27. 


Meadow, 


Four Acre Field 


- 5 


3 


3i 


28. 




Six Acre Field ... 


6 


i 


16 


29. 


Pasture, 


cottage and garden 


o 


i 


37 


3- 


Meadow, 


The Twenty Acres 


... 25 


i 


i7 


3i- 





The Nine Acres 


... 9 


o 


i7 


32- 


ii 


The Twenty-two Acre Field... 


... 23 


o 







Saint Jol 


m's Wood Lane... 


i 


2 


J 3 







Total 340 i 33 



THE MANOR OF US SON GREEN. 57 

LISSON GREEN. 

It appears that the manor Lilestone, containing five hides (now called 
Lisson Green), is mentioned in the Domesday Book among the lands in 
Ossultone Hundred given in alms. It is said to have been, in King 
Edward's time, the property of Edward, son of Swain, a servant of the 
King, who might alienate it at pleasure ; when the survey was taken, it 
belonged to Eldeva. The land, says the record, is three carucates. In 
demesne are four hides and a half, on which are two ploughs. The villans 
have one plough. There are four villans, each holding half a virgate, 
three cottars of two acres and one slave ; meadow equal to one plough- 
land ; pasture for the cattle of the village ; woods for 100 hogs ; and 3d. 
arising from the herbage ; valued in the whole at 6os. ; in King Edward's 
time, at 403. 

This manor afterwards became the property of the Priory of St. John 
of Jerusalem ; on the suppression of which it was granted, in the year 
1548, to Thomas Heneage and Lord Willoughby ; who conveyed it in the 
same year to Edward Duke of Somerset. On his attainder it reverted to 
the Crown, and was granted, in the year 1564, to Edward Downing, who 
conveyed it the same year to John Milner, Esq., then lessee under the 
Crown. After the death of his descendant, John Milner, Esq., in the year 
I 753> it passed under his will to William Lloyd, Esq. The manor of 
Lisson Green, being then the property of Capt. Lloyd, of the Guards, 
was sold in lots in the year 1792. The largest lot, containing the site 
of the manor, was purchased by John Harcourt, Esq., M.P., who built a 
noble mansion, for his own residence, at the corner of Harcourt Street 
and the New Road. Part of the Harcourt estate was subsequently sold 
by auction in separate lots, and the mansion above-mentioned was 
occupied by Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital, an institution which was 
established in 1/52, removed from St. George's Row to Bayswater in 
1791, and established here at Harcourt House in 1810. 

The tradition is, that foot-travellers, in olden days, before crossing 
the dangerous area of " Lisson Fields " by night time, used to collect 
their forces and examine their fire-arms at a lonely public house on the 
outskirts of Lisson Grove. How great a contrast to the present over- 
crowded condition of Lisson Grove ! The report of a medical officer, 



58 MARYLEBONE. 

issued a few years ago, draws a terrible picture of the dwellings of the 
poor in that locality. One of those dwellings contained nineteen rooms, 
which appeared to have been constructed with special disregard to order 
in arrangement, uniformity, and convenience. Every part of this miserable 
abode was in a ruinous and dilapidated condition : the flooring of the 
rooms and staircases was worn into holes, and broken away ; the plaster 
was crumbling from the walls ; the roofs let in the wind and the rain ; 
the drains were very defective ; and the general aspect of the place was 
one of extreme wretchedness. The number of persons living in the house 

was forty- seven. 

THE NEW ROAD. 

The New Road from Paddington to Islington, constructed in the 
year 1757, is now mainly represented by Marylebone Road, Euston 
Road, and Peritonville Road. 

When the bill for making this road was before Parliament, the 
following reasons were offered in support of it : 

1. "That a free and easy communication will be opened, between 
the county of Essex and the different parts of the county of Middlesex 
and the several roads leading from the western to the eartern parts of 
the kingdom, without going through the streets, and by a nearer way 
of about two miles. 

2. That the frequent accidents which happen, and the great 
inconveniences that arise, by driving cattle from the western road 
through the streets to Smithfield Market, will be prevented. 

3. That the pavements of the streets will be greatly preserved, 
and the frequent destructions therein, by the multitude of carriages, 
which must necessarily pass through the same to go from the western 
to the eartern parts of the town, will be in a great measure removed, 
and the business of the inhabitants of London and Westminster will 
be transacted in a much easier and more expeditious manner. 

4. That in times of public danger, by threatened invasions from 
foreign enemies, or otherwise, this New Road will form a complete 
line of circumvallation, and His Majesty's Forces may easily and 
expeditiously march this way into Essex, and other counties adjacent, 
to defend our coasts, without the inconvenience of passing through the 
Cities of London and Westminster, or interrupting the business thereof." 






THE NEW ROAD. 



59 



Notwithstanding all these reasons in favour of the construction of 
the New Road, the bill met with strong opposition from the Duke of 
Bedford, who endeavoured to introduce a clause restricting the erection 
of buildings within an immense distance of the road. Horace Walpole 
writes: "A new road through Paddington has been proposed to avoid 
the stones. The Duke of Bedford, who is never in town in summer, 
objects to the dust it will make behind Bedford House, and to some 
buildings proposed, though, if he were in town, he is too short-sighted 
to see the prospect." 

His grace's amendment would have rendered the bill nugatory, but 
it was rejected, and the bill for the construction of the New Road 
passed. A clause was, however, inserted, prohibiting the erection of 
buildings, or any erection whatsoever, within fifty feet of the road, 
and empowering the parochial authorities, upon obtaining an order from 
a magistrate, to pull down and remove any such erection, and levy 
the expenses thereof on the offender's goods and chattels, without 
proceeding in the ordinary way by indictment. 

Thomas Smith, the historian of Marylebone, writing in 1833, 
says : 

" The effect of this restriction has been the laying out and 
planting gardens of fifty feet in length in front of all the houses 
erected on either side of the road, which gives them a most pleasing 
and picturesque appearance ; and has made it necessary to introduce 
a clause in the Acts of Parliament, for building the Parish and Trinity 
Churches, to legalize the erection of their respective porticoes, which 
encroach within the prescribed boundary. 

"This Road, which is now one of the finest leading avenues to 
the metropolis, is also considered one of the most convenient ; stage 
Coaches and Omnibuses (a vehicle recently brought into use) passing 
for the conveyance of passengers, from Paddington to the City, every 
five minutes daily, another proof of the immense increase of population, 
since, 35 years ago, only one coach ran from Paddington to London, 
and the proprietor could scarcely obtain a subsistence by his speculation. 

" The New Road is skirted by well-built houses, some of which 
were erected soon after the road was cut. On entering this Parish 
the road takes a slight turn after passing the "Old Fathing Pie 



60 MARYLEBONE. 

House " on the south ; and crossing Portland Road, passes through 
Park Crescent ; from this point the rows of houses on the south side 
are named as follows : Harley Place, Devonshire Terrace. Leaving these, 
we arrive, successively, at Church House, Church Cottage, the Parish 
Church, and St. Mary-le-bone Workhouse and Infirmary (described by 
a late writer, as "possessing as many windows and covering as much 
ground as a Russian Palace "), York Buildings, Salisbury Place, 
Cumberland Place, Queen Charlotte Row ; at the end of this Row is 
situated the extensive bowling-green and grounds of the Yorkshire 
Stingo ; this house has been a celebrated House of Entertainment for 
more than a century ; and it appears in the plan of the New Road 
of the date of 1757. Here was formerly held a fair on the ist of May, 
annually, which was tolerated by the Magistracy for several years, until it 
became the resort of a multitude of disorderly and dissolute characters, 
and a complete nuisance to the inhabitants of the vicinity, \vhen it was 
finally suppressed, within the last few years, by order of the magistrates ; 
this house is now a respectable tavern. Adjoining these premises is an 
extensive Brewery, the property of R. Staines. The road here takes 
another slight turn westward, passing an elegant building at the corner 
of Harcourt Street, occupied by that excellent Institution the Queen's 
Lying -in -Hospital. Paddington Chapel, in Homer Place, is the next 
prominent building, and the road finally quits the parish by Winchester 
Row, built in the year 1766, the houses of which have been recently 
repaired, the fronts being covered with stucco, and presenting a very neat 
appearance. 

" The prominent features of the north side of the road are : Trinity 
Church ; Albany Terrace ; Park Square ; Ulster Place ; Harley House, in 
the occupation of Charles Day, Esq.; Devonshire Place House, in the 
occupation of H. M. Dyer, Esq.; the office of John White, Esq.; 
Mary-bone . Park House, in the occupation of the Rev. Edward Scott ; 
Nottingham Terrace ; Union Place (here is a modern building, with a 
gothic front occupied by the Exchange Bazaar, and the old established 
Coach Manufactory of Mr. Burnand) ; Allsop Terrace. In Gloucester 
Place, New Road, are situated the following extensive establishments : 
Jenkins's Nursery, the Coach Manufactory of Messrs. Tilbury & Co., 
and that most respectable and valuable institution the Phylological School. 



CAVENDISH SQUARE. 61 

[n the next row of houses, named Lisson Grove South, is situated the 
Astern General Dispensary; and the north side of the road terminates 
by Middlesex Place, and Southampton Row. Here is a large cluster of 
houses of ancient date, the property of George Cabbell, Esq. 

CAVENDISH SQUARE. 

In 1717 or 1718, Cavendish Square was laid out and the circular 
piece in the centre was enclosed, planted, and surrounded by a parapet 
and iron railing. The whole of the north side was taken by the 
celebrated James Brydges, Duke of Chandos (then Earl of Carnarvon), 
who acquired a princely fortune as pay-master of the forces in Queen 
Anne's reign, and was afterwards called " The Grand Duke," from the 
grandeur and state in which he lived. 

The Duke, it is said, took this immense plot of ground, which 
extended a long way back towards the north, with the intention of 
building a town residence, corresponding with that of Cannon's. Only 
the wings were completed. One was the large mansion at the corner 
of Harley Street, at one time the residence of Princess Amelia ; the 
other wing was the corresponding mansion at the corner of Chandos 
Street. 

Harcourt House, on the west side of the square, was designed by 
Inigo Jones. The high brick wall, which now conceals this noble 
mansion from view, may have been deemed a necessary protection 
originally, when the spot was solitary and dangerous. 

The South Sea failure, in 1720, caused a temporary suspension of 
building, and several years elapsed before the square was completed. 

In the centre of the enclosure was erected an equestrian statue 
of William Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden. The inscription 
reads thus : 

"William Duke of Cumberland, born April 15, 1721 died October 
31, 1765. This equestrian statue was erected by Lieutenant-General 
William Strode, in gratitude for his private friendship, in honour to his 
public virtue. Nov. the 4th, Anno Domini 1770." 

The Duke was represented in modern dress, in a manner which 
induced much sarcastic and uncomplimentary criticism. 

Reynolds alludes to this statue in his tenth Discourse : " In this 



62 MARYLEBONE. 

town may be seen an equestrian statue in a modern dress, which 
may be sufficient to deter modern artists from any such attempt." 

A colossal statue has been erected on the south side of 
Cavendish Square, facing down Holies Street, and bearing the following 

inscription : 

WILLIAM 

GEORGE FREDERICK 
CAVENDISH BENTINCK 

BORN MDCCCII. 
DIED MDCCCXLVIII. 

PORTMAN SQUARE. 

One of the oldest squares in Marylebone is Portman Square, the 
building of which was commenced in the year 1764, but it was not 
completed until twenty years later. It takes its name from that of the 
Portman Family, upon whose estate of 270 acres it was built. It is 
a very handsome square, 500 feet by 400 feet in size, and adjoins 
the historic residence of Mrs. Elizabeth Montague, known as Montague 
House. 

By the death of her husband, the Hon. Edward Montague, in 
1775, Mrs. Montague was left in great opulence, and maintained her 
establishment in the learned and fashionable world for many years, 
living in a style of splendid hospitality. For many years her elegant 
house in Portman Square was opened to the world. Here the wit, 
rank, and talent of the last century assembled at her receptions ; and 
here was the apartment covered with feather hangings, celebrated by 
the poet Cowper in the lines 

"The birds put off their every hue 
To dress a room for Montague." 

She had lived at the table of the second Lord Oxford, the resort 
of Pope, and his contemporaries ; she was the intimate friend of 
Pulteney and Lyttelton, and she lived long enough to entertain Johnson, 
Goldsmith, Burke, Reynolds, and Beattie. She founded a literary society, 
denominated " The Blue Stocking Club," which for some years was 
the subject of much conversation. 



MRS. MONTAGUE. 63 

She early distinguished herself as a writer; first by her "Dialogues 
of the Dead," published along with those of Lord Lyttelton ; and 
afterwards by her able "Essay on the writings and genius of 
Shakespeare," in which she amply vindicated our great poet from the 
abuse thrown out against him by Voltaire. The work has been 
pronounced by Thomas Warton the most elegant and judicious piece 
of criticism this age has produced. After her death, four volumes of her 
epistolary correspondence were published under the editorship of her 
nephew and executor, Matthew Montague, Esq. 

The extensive and well-wooded gardens belonging to Montague 
House were annually, for many years, the scene of the chimney- 
sweepers' holiday. On the ist of May every year, Mrs. Montague was led 
by her benevolent feelings to invite all the chimney sweepers in the 
metropolis to her garden, where they were regaled with good and 
wholesome fare, so that they might enjoy one happy day in the year. 
Mrs. Montague died in the year 1800. 

In 1802, M. Otto, the French Ambassador, had his residence on 
the south side of the square. Upon the occasion of peace being 
proclaimed on the 2gth of April, 1802, between His Britannic Majesty 
and the French Republic, illuminations of the most splendid character 
succeeded the ceremonial of the day ; but the object of universal 
attraction was the French Ambassador's house, which was brilliant with 
illuminations by means of coloured lamps, dispersed in the form of 
an Ionic temple, and having in the centre a large transparency, 
representing England and France, with their various attributes, in the 
act of uniting their hands, in token of amity, before an altar dedicated 
to humanity, above which appeared the word Peace, with olive branches. 

The following circumstance, which occurred a few days before the 
illumination, will shew the true characteristics of national feeling. 
Immense crowds were daily attracted by the preparations for the 
magnificent display which afterwards took place. At length the word 
Concord was formed in coloured lamps on the entablature of the temple. 
The reading of John Bull was, however, Conquered, and his inference 
was that it was intended to mean that Britain was conquered by France. 
Disturbance and riot were about to commence, when M. Otto, after some 
fruitless attempts at explanation, prudently conceded, and the word 






64 MARYLEBONE. 

amity was substituted. But it did not end there, for some sailors 
found out that the initials G. R. were not surmounted as usual by a 
crown. This they promptly insisted should be done, and a sort of 
diadem, formed of lamps, was extemporized and placed over the monogram. 

MANCHESTER SQUARE. 

Manchester House, which occupies the north side of this square, 
was commenced in 1776, but the building of the other portions of the 
square was not finished until 1788. It had been intended originally 
that the square should be called Queen Anne's Square, in honour of 
the reigning sovereign, and it was proposed that a church should be 
built in its centre, but for some reason the plan was never carried into 
effect. The ground lying waste was purchased by the Duke of 
Manchester; the house was erected upon it, and his grace's title was 
given as the name to the new square which grew up in front of it. 

Upon the sudden death of the Duke of Manchester, and the 
minority of his heir, this noble mansion, which has a very imposing 
appearance, having a spacious court-yard enclosed with iron railing, 
became the residence of the Spanish Ambassador, and afterwards the 
property of the Marquis of Hertford. During the residence here of 
the Spanish Ambassador, he erected a small Roman Catholic Chapel in 
Spanish Place, which is at the north-east corner of the square. The 
chapel, which is dedicated to St. James, is reckoned a handsome piece 
of architecture, and was built from designs by Bonomi. In 1832 this 
chapel was repaired and its exterior covered with stucco. 

Manchester House was afterwards occupied by the French 
Ambassador. 

DORSET SQUARE. 

Dorset Square is a small but handsome square, with the area 
enclosed and planted, and is built on the site of Lord's old Cricket 
Ground. 

BLANDFORD SQUARE. 

The south side of this square was completed in the year 1833. 
That was the first portion built ; and the remainder has been built 
subsequently. 



BRYANSTON AND MONTAGUE SQUARES. 65 

At No. 16, George Eliot (Miss Marian Evans), the celerated authoress, 
lived previously to the year 1865, in which year she changed her residence 
to North Bank, St. John's Wood. Romola and Felix Holt were written 
at the house in Blandford Square. 

BRYANSTON AND MONTAGUE SQUARES. 

Bryanston and Montague Squares were built on ground commonly 
called "Ward's Field." Here was formerly a large pond, at which 
many fatal accidents annually occurred to the school-boys of the 
neighbourhood. Near this spot was also a cluster of small cottages, 
called Apple Village, remarkable from having been the residence of one 
of the murderers of Mr. Steele. 

The two squares were built by Mr. David Porter, an eminent builder 
"vvho had formerly been chimney-sweeper to the village. He acquired 
large property, and made his residence in Little Welbeck Street. On 
the occasion of the Jubilee to celebrate the fiftieth year of the reign of 
George III., Mr. Porter gave a substantial entertainment to his workmen 
and dependants in the enclosed area of Montague Square, \vhich was then 
in an unfinished state ; when, notwithstanding the public situation, much 
conviviality and harmony prevailed around the festive board. Mr. Porter 
died in the year 1819, having lived to see the result of his active 
labours, for many years, in a most flourishing state. 

Bryanston and Montague Squares are both oblong in shape, and 
are nearly of the same size, viz., upwards of eight hundred feet long, 
and between one and two hundred feet wide. 

Anthony Trollope used to live at No. 39, Montague Square. 

A sarcastic writer in Knight's Cyclopedia of London gives the following 
uncomplimentary account of these squares : 

" Montague Square and Bryanstone Square are twin deformities, the 
former of which is placed immediately in the rear of Montague House. 
They are long, narrow strips of ground, fenced in by two monotonous 
rows of flat houses. In the centre of the green turf which runs up the 
middle of Bryanstone Square is a dwarf weeping ash, which resembles 
strikingly a gigantic umbrella or toad-stool ; and in the corresponding 
site in Montague Square is a pump, with a flower-pot, shaped like an urn, 
on the top of it. A range of balconies runs along the front of the 






66 



MARYLEBONE. 



houses in Bryanstone Square ; but the inmates appear to entertain 
dismal apprehensions of the thievish propensities of their neighbours, for 
between every two balconies is introduced a terrible chevaux-de-frise. 
The mansions in Montague Square are constructed after the most approved 
Brighton fashion, each with its little bulging protuberance to admit of a 
peep into the neighbours' parlours. These two oblongs, though dignified 
with the name of squares, belong rather to the anomalous places 
which economical modern builders contrive to carve out of the corners of 
mews-lanes behind squares, and dispose of with a profit to those who 
wish to live near the great." 






CHAPTER V. 



TYBURN TREE AND PRIMROSE HILL. 

The name Tyburn. "Deadly Never Green." Fuller's derivation. The journey to Tyburn. St 
Giles's Bowl. Tom Clinch. Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw. Celebrated Executions : Holy 
Maid of Kent, Robert Southwell, Mrs. Turner, John Felton, Hacker, Axtell, Okey, 
Barkstead, Corbet, Thomas Sadler, Sir Thomas Armstrong, John Smith, Jack Sheppard 
Lord Ferrers, John Wesket, Dr. Hensey, John Rann, Dr. Dodd, Elizabeth Gaunt, John 
Austin. Hangmen: Derrick, Gregory Brandon, " Esquire Dun," John Ketch. Primrose Hill 
and Barrow Hill. Green Berry Hill. Murder of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey. Duels. 
Capt. Macnamara and Col. Montgomery. Barrow Hill. Origin of name. 

TYBURN TREE. 

YBURN, or Tybourn, the name anciently 
applied to the whole district of Marylebone 
and its vicinity, has, in process of time 
become restricted to one particular spot in 
the locality, where the gallows for the 
execution of criminals formerly stood. Park 
Lane, in 1679, was called Tyburn Road, and 
in 1686, Tyburn Lane. Oxford Street also, 
at one time, was called Tyburn Road. 
Tyburn Gallows, or Tyburn Tree, or " Deadly 
Never Green," as it was variously called, was the 
public place of execution for criminals convicted in the 
county of Middlesex. The actual gallows, which in 
all probability was a permanent erection, was of 
triangular form, standing upon three legs. There are 
various allusions in the works of old authors to the 
shape and uses of this celebrated structure. Thus, in 
Tarlton's Jests, 1611, it is written: "It was made like 
the shape of Tiborne, three-square." Taylor, the 
Water Poet, in 1623, writes : 

" I have heard sundry men of times dispute, 
Of trees that in one yeare, will twice beare fruit. 
But if a man note Tyburn 'twill appeare, 
That that's a tree that bears twelve times a yeare." 




68 MARYLEBONE. 

Fuller, in his Worthies, speaking of the name Tyburn, says, " Tieburne, 
some will have it so called from Tie and Burne, because the poor Lollards 
for whom this instrument (of cruelty to them, though of justice to 
malefactors) was first set up, had their necks tied to the beame, and their 
lower parts burnt in the fire " an ingenious derivation, certainly, but, as 
has been shown in another place, one which is far from probable. 
Shirley, in The Wedding, makes Rawbone say, " I do imagine myself 
apprehended already ; now the constable is carrying me to Newgate now, 
now, I'm at the Sessions' House, in the dock ; now I'm called ' Not 
guilty, my Lord.' The jury has found the indictment, billa vera. Now, 
now, comes my sentence. Now I'm in the cart, riding up Holborn in a 
two- wheeled chariot, with a guard of halberdiers. ' There goes a proper 
fellow,' says one ; ' Good people, pray for me.' Now I'm at the three 
wooden stilts (Tyburn). He)'! now I feel my toes hang i' the cart; 
now 'tis drawn away ; now, now, now ! I am gone." 

The exact spot upon which the gallows stood has been identified 
with the site of Connaught Place. After the buildings accumulated, the 
gallows at Tyburn was found to be in the way, and every time, after 
use, was taken down and deposited in a house at the corner of Upper 
Bryanston Street and Edgware Road. The house had curious iron 
balconies to the windows of the first and second floors, which were used 
by the sheriffs when attending in their official capacity as witnesses of 
the execution. In 1783, when Tyburn ceased to be the place of 
execution, the gallows was purchased by a carpenter and converted into 
stands for beer butts, in the cellars of a public-house in Adam Street 
called the " Carpenter's Arms." 

In journeying from London to Tyburn, criminals were conveyed along 
Holborn, and, as New Oxford Street was not at that time constructed, 
the way lay through High Street, St. Giles's, where the drinking of 
St. Giles's Bowl was an old established and long continued custom. It 
seems to have been given to the wretched criminals as their last 
refreshment, and Jack Sheppard, who conformed to the custom, is said to 
have desired that the remainder of the drink should be given to Jonathan 
Wild. I have referred to this custom in a recent book (see " Bloomsbury 
and St. Giles's," by George Clinch, p. 9). 

" St. Giles's Bowl " had its origin in early times, and was probably a 






ST. GILES'S BOWL. 69 

pardon-maser or pardon-bowl, whose superstitious use was denounced by 
Latimer from St. Paul's Cross, and by Bishop Bale, who, indeed, in his 
Ymage of both Churches, 1550, expressly mentions St. Giles's Bowl. 

The hospitality at High Street, St. Giles, however, if the last, was 
probably not the only refreshment in which the criminals indulged on 
their last road to Tyburn. Swift wrote some humorous lines upon one, 
Tom Clinch (with whom, of course, the present writer claims no 
relationship), who called for refreshments at the " George and Blue 
Boar," Holborn, now the " Inns of Court Hotel : " 

" As clever Tom Clinch, when the rabble was bawling, 
Rode stately through Holborn to die of his calling, 
He stop't at the George for a bottle of sack, 
And promised to pay for it when he came back." 

Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I., is said to have walked 
barefooted through Hyde Park to Tyburn, and to have done penance 
there ; though the fact of her having done so has been denied by the 
Marshal de Bassompierre, the French Ambassador at the time. 

Another historical event took place at Tyburn upon the first 
anniversary of the execution of Charles I., after the Restoration, when 
the bodies of Oliver Crowwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw were hung upon 
the three wooden stilts of Tyburn Tree. The bodies were dragged from 
their graves in Henry VI I. 's Chapel, in Westminster Abbey, and removed 
at night to the Red Lion Inn, in Holborn, from whence they were 
carried next morning in sledges to Tyburn, and there, in their shrouds 
and cere-cloths, suspended till sunset, at the several angles of the 
gallows. They were then taken down and beheaded, their bodies buried 
beneath the gallows, and their heads set upon poles on the top of 
Westminster Hall. 

Among the celebrated persons who have been executed at Tyburn 
were the Holy Maid of Kent, in the reign of Henry VIII. ; Robert 
Southwell, the Jesuit, who was charged with, and, in 1595, executed for, 
alleged conspiracy against the Government of Qeeen Elizabeth. He wrote 
a number of books, both in prose and verse, upon theological matters. 

Mrs. Turner, who was implicated in the murder of Sir Thomas 
Overbury, was executed at Tyburn on the I4th November, 1615. She was 
the inventress of yellow starch, and was executed in a cobweb lawn ruff 



70 MARYLEBONE. 

of that colour. It is also asserted that the hangman had his bands 
and cuffs of yellow, which made many after that day, of either sex, to 
forbear the use of that coloured starch, till it at last grew generally 
detested and disused. 

Among others who were executed at Tyburn, was John Felton, the 
assassin of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. His body was afterwards 
hanged in chains at Portsmouth, where the murder was committed. 
Hacker and Axtell were executed October igth, 1660, and Okey, 
Barkstead, and Corbet were executed April igth, 1662 ; they were five of 
fifty-nine individuals who signed the death warrant of Charles I. Thomas 
Sadler was hanged at Tyburn in 1677, for stealing the mace and purse 
of the Lord Chancellor ; and Oliver Plunket, Archbishop of Armagh, 
in 1681, suffered a similar fate for an assumed design of bringing a 
French army over to Ireland to murder all the Protestants in that 
Kingdom. On June 2Oth, 1684, Sir Thomas Armstrong was executed at 
Tyburn, as a punishment for his complicacy in the Rye House Plot. 
His head was afterwards set up on Temple Bar. 

A singular instance of either great tenacity of the vital principle, or 
failure of the means employed by the hangman for the acomplishment of 
his task, is to be found in the case of one John Smith, who was 
condemned for felony and burglary, and was conveyed to Tyburn on the 
1 2th of December, 1705; after he had hanged about quarter-of-an-hour, 
a reprieve came, and he was cut down, whereupon, marvellous as it 
seerns, " he came to himself," as an old account records, " to the great 
admiration of the spectators, the executioner having pulled him by the 
legs, and used other means to put a speedy period to his life." 

Jack Sheppard was, as is well known, executed at Tyburn. It is 
said that a crowd of two hundred thousand persons witnessed the 
spectacle. The various incidents which attended the closing scene in 
the life of this notorious criminal have been graphically portrayed by 
the pen of the novelist Ainsworth, and by the inimitable pencil of 
Cruikshank. The custom of drinking on the way to Tyburn reached 
such a disgraceful pitch that it had to be entirely prohibited. Lord 
Ferrers, who was executed at Tyburn on the 5th of May, 1760, for 
the murder of his land-steward, on the way to Tyburn said he was 
thirsty and wished for some wine and water. The sheriff said he was 






DA'. HENSEY'S REPRIEVE. 71 

sorry to be obliged to refuse him. By late regulations they were 
enjoined not to let prisoners drink from the place of imprisonment 
to that of execution, as great indecencies had been formerly committed 
by the lower species of criminals getting drnnk. Lord Ferrers wore 
his wedding clothes to Tyburn ; as good an occasion, he observed, for 
putting them on as that for which they were first made. 

John Wesket, on the gth of January, 1765, was executed at Tyburn 
for the murder of his master, the Earl of Harrington. He went in the 
cart, dressed in a blue and gold frock, and wearing, as the emblem of 
innocence, a white cockade in his hat. He ate several oranges on his 
passage ; inquired if his hearse was ready ; and then, as old Rowe used 
to say, was launched into eternity. 

If the melancholy spectacle of formal processions to Tyburn Tree 
were intended to impress the multitudes who witnessed them with 
sentiments of reverence for the laws of their country, it must be con- 
fessed that the result was a complete failure. The eager curiosity 
of the populace to witness executions became a source of considerable 
emolument to certain miscreants, whe were in the habit of erecting 
scaffolds for spectators. The prices of the seats varied according to the 
turpitude or quality of the criminal. Dr. Hensey was to have been 
executed for high treason in 1758, and the prices of seats for that 
exhibition amounted to two shillings and two-and-sixpence ; but in the 
midst of general expectation the Doctor was most provokingly reprieved. 
As the mob descended from their stations with unwilling steps, it occurred 
to them that as they had been deprived of the intended entertainment, 
the proprietors of the seats ought to return the admission-money, which 
they demanded in vociferous terms, and with blows, and, in short, they 
exercised their happy talent for rioting with unbounded success. 

Among the many desperate characters, who after making a 
considerable figure in criminal history, have finished their career at 
Tyburn, mention may be made of John Rann, commonly called " Sixteen 
String Jack." It is supposed that the sixteen strings worn by Rann at 
his knees were in allusion to the number of times he had been acquitted. 
The following circumstances are taken from an account of the life of this 
notorious man, published anonymously between the times of his sentence 
and execution. John Rann was born in the parish of St. George, Hanover 



72 MARYLEBONE. 

Square, of very honest parents, on the I5th of April, 1752. At the age 
of fourteen he was employed by Mr. Dimmock, a coachmaster of some 
standing near Grosvenor Square, by whom he seems to have been well 
treated, and for whom he himself always professed the most grateful 
acknowledgments and regard. 

It was reported that Rann acted as coachman to a nobleman, and as 
postillion to the Earl of Bute, but the writer of the contemporay account 
regards both reports as dubious. He thinks Rann only served as a com- 
mon hackney coachman under Mr. Dimmock. Finding this employment 
about the environs of Oxford Road and Grosvenor Square produced 
but a bare subsistence, Rann determined to play a bolder game, 
especially as he had conceived a strong attachment to a young lady, 
to whose fortune he thought himself unequal. 

His person, being in every way agreeable, he found means to be 
frequently at masquerades, assemblies, and other places of public resort, 
where address and effrontery were more useful than education. There he 
became acquainted with a young lady known by the name of Miss la 
Roache, for whom he entertained a passion. He was always anxious to 
appear in the guise of a gentleman, and was fond of showy dress, such as 
materials of green or blue trimmed with gold, or brown laced with 
silver ; and his hat was usually decorated with a narrow gold or silver 
band. At Barnet Races he appeared on the course dressed like a sporting 
peer of the first rank. He was distinguished by the elegance of his. 
appearance, in a blue satin waistcoat laced with silver, and was followed 
by hundreds of spectators from one side of the course to the other, 
attracted by so much finery. 

Scarcely had he entered the eighteenth year of his age, when, for 

t 

picking a gentleman's pocket, he was taken before Sir John Fielding, and 
punished. Upon several subsequent occasions Rann had to appear before 
that worthy magistrate, and generally upon charges of pilfering and 
robbery. William Clayton and Nathan Jones were his tutors in the art 
of pocket-picking, and James College, a lad known by the name of 
" Eight String Jame," was an intimate and frequent companion. 

His first trial was in April, 1774, when he, William Clayton, and 
Robert Shepherd, were indicted for robbing William Somers on the 
king's highway of four shillings, and putting him in fear of his life ; 



JOHN RANN. 73 

but of this they were all acquitted, the prosecutor refusing to appear. 
Their escape from punishment was no warning to the highway robbers, 
and Rann was mixed up with many others shortly afterwards. One of 
the most extraordinary circumstances was that Rann very frequently 
boasted of his exploits in public company ; made no scruple to recite 
the particulars of his robberies, and even mentioned the time when 
he thought his career of iniquity would be at an end. He was often 
heard to say, " I have so much money, I shall spend that, and then 
I shall not last long." He frequently said that he should be hanged 
about November, and once he bet a crown's w r orth of punch that he 
should suffer before Christmas. 

On Wednesday, the 28th September, 1774, John Rann and William 
Collier were examined at the public office in Bow Street, on a suspicion 
of their having robbed Dr. William Bell, Chaplain to her Royal 
Highness the Princess Amelia, of his watch and eighteenpence in 
money, on the highway, near Ealing in Middlesex. On the following 
Wednesday, October 5th, they were submitted to another examination, 
and committed to Newgate to take their trial for highway robbery. 
On the 2Oth October, 1774, John Rann was conducted from Newgate 
to the New Sessions House in the Old Bailey, together with his 
accomplice William Collier, to take their trial for the robbery of Dr. 
William Bell, near Gunnersbury Lane, and on the 26th of October 
they both received sentence to be executed at Tyburn, and Eleanor 
Roach to be transported for fourteen years. Rann was executed on 
the 3oth of November. 

John Thomas Smith, in his Book for, a Rainy Day, records some 
curious reminiscences of Rann's journey to the gallows. He says: "I well 
remember, when in my eighth year, my father's playfellow, Mr. Joseph 
Nollekens, leading me by the hand to the end of John Street, to see the 
notorious terror of the king's highways, John Rann, commonly called 
' Sixteen-string Jack,' on his way to execution at Tyburn, for robbing 
Dr. Bell, Chaplain to the Princess Amelia, in Gunnersbury Lane. Rann 
was a smart fellow, a great favourite with a certain description of ladies. 
The malefactor's coat was a bright pea-green ; he had an immense 
nosegay, which he had received from the hand of one of the frail 
sisterhood, whose practice it was in those days to present flowers to their 



74 MARYLEBONE. 

favourites from the steps of St. Sepulchre's Church, as the last token of 
what they called their attachment to the condemned, whose worldly 
accounts were generally brought to a close at Tyburn, in consequence of 
their associating with abandoned characters. On our return home, 
Mr. Nollekens, stooping close to my ear, assured me that had his 
father-in-law, Mr. Justice Welch, been high constable we could have 
walked all the way to Tyburn by the side of the cart." 

The following humorous account of the closing scene in Dr. Dodd's 
life (executed at Tyburn for forging a bond in the name of the Earl of 
Chesterfield, for 4200) is extracted from Seluyn's Correspondence: 

"Another was executed at the same time with him, who seemed 
hardly to engage one's attention sufficiently to make one draw any 
comparison between him and Dodd. Upon the whole the piece was not 
very full of events. The doctor, to all appearance, was rendered perfectly 
stupid from despair. His hat was flapped all round, and pulled over his 
eyes, which were never directed to any object around, nor even raised, 
except now and then lifted up in the course of his prayers. He came in 
a coach, and a very heavy show r er of rain fell just upon his entering the 
cart, and another just at his putting on his nightcap. During the shower, 
an umbrella was held over his head, which Gilly Williams, who was 
present, observed was quite unnecessary, as the doctor was going to a 
place where he might be dried. 

" He was a considerable time in praying, which some people standing 
about seemed rather tired with ; they rather wished for a more interesting 
part of the tragedy. The wind, which was high, blew off his hat, which 
rather embarrassed him, and discovered to us his countenance which we 
could scarcely see before. His hat, however, was soon restored to him, 
and he went on with his prayers. There were two clergymen attending 
on him, one of whom seemed very much affected. The other, I suppose, 
was the ordinary of Newgate, as he was perfectly indifferent and unfeeling 
in everything he said and did. 

" The executioner took both hat and wig off at the same time. Why 
he put on his wig again I do not know, but he did ; and the doctor took 
off his wig a second time, and then tied on a nightcap which did not 
fit him ; but whether he stretched that or took another, I could not 
perceive. He then put on his nightcap himself, and upon his taking it 






PRIMROSE HILL AND BARROW HILL. 75 

he certainly had a smile on his countenance, and very soon afterwards 
there was an end of all his hopes and fears on this side the grave. 
He never moved from the place he first took in the cart ; seemed 
absorbed in despair and utterly dejected, without any other signs of 
animation but in praying. I stayed till he was cut down and put into 
the hearse." 

The last woman who suffered death in England for a political offence 
was Elizabeth Gaunt, an ancient matron of the Anabaptist persuasion, 
burned to death at Tyburn for harbouring a person concerned in the Rye 
House Plot. The last person executed at Tyburn was John Austin, who 
suffered death on the 7th of November, 1783. After that date criminals 
were executed at Newgate. 

The earliest hangman, whose name is known as having officiated 
at Tyburn, was Derrick. He lived in the reign of James I., and is 
mentioned by Dekker, in his Gull's Hornbook, and by Middleton, in his 
Black Book. He was succeeded by Gregory Brandon, who, it is said, had 
arms confirmed to him by the College of Heralds, and became an esquire 
by virtue of his office. Brandon was succeeded by Dun, " Esquire 
Dun" as he was called; and Dun, in 1684 by John Ketch, commemorated, 
by Dryden in an epilogue, and whose name is now synonymous with 
hangman. The hangman's rope was commonly called " a riding knot an 
inch below the ear," or " a Tyburn tippet ; " and the sum of I3^d. is 
still distinguished as " hangman's wages." 

Trials, condemnations, confessions, and last dying speeches were first 
printed in 1624; and "Tyburn's elegiac lines" have found an enduring 
celebrity in The Dunciad. 

PRIMROSE HILL AND BARROW HILL. 

The name of this celebrated eminence is supposed to have been 
derived from the abundant growth in its vicinity of the beautiful flowers 
whose name it bears. Primroses grew abundantly, too, in " Primrose 
Lane " adjoining. There seems to have been an idea that it was 
once called " Green Berry Hill," but the idea is probably erroneous. 
Barrow Hill (now occupied by the reservoir of a waterworks company) 
seems to have been known by that name at one time, and a rather 
curious circumstance in connection therewith is that three of the 



7 6 



MARYLEBONE. 



supposed murderers of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey, in 1678, were named 
Green, Berry, and Hill. It is not improbable that " Green Berry Hill " 
was a form of name adopted in consequence of that curious fact, but the 
more ancient form of Barrow Hill was afterwards revived, and, as far as 
the name is now preserved, the ancient form is still used. Barrow Hill 
Road and Barrowhill Place are named after that historical eminence. 

Perhaps the most important event in connection with Primrose Hill 
was the discovery of the murdered body of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey, 
on Thursday, October I7th, 1678. He had probably been murdered 
elsewhere by strangulation. Three persons, namely, Robert Green, Cushion- 
man to the Queen's Chapel ; Lawrence Hill, servant to Dr. Godden, 
Treasurer of the Chapel ; and Henry Berry, Porter at Somerset House ; 
were tried for this murder at the King's Bench, before the Lord Chief 
Justice Scroggs, on the loth of February, 1679. The infamous witnesses, 
Gates, Prance, and Bedloe, declared " that he was waylaid and inveigled 
into the Palace (Somerset House), under the pretence of keeping the peace 
between two servants who were fighting in the yard ; that he was there 
strangled, his neck broke, and his own sword run through his body ; that 
he was kept four days before they ventured to remove him ; at length his 
corpse was first carried in a Sedan chair to Soho, and then on a horse to 
Primrose Hill." The verdict at the Coroner's Inquest was " That he was 
murdered by certain persons unknown to the Jurors, and that his death 
proceeded from suffocation and strangling ; and that his sword had been 
thrust through his body some time after his death, and when he was quite 
cold ; because not the least sign of blood was seen upon his shirt, or his 
clothes, or the place where he was found." Thus, although the evidence 
taken at the Inquest and that of the witnesses at the Trial agreed in 
some particulars, there was not the slightest ground upon which to convict 
the three prisoners. 

Nevertheless the jury found them all guilty of the murder, and the 
Lord Chief Justice said, " They had found the same verdict that he would 
have found had he been one of them." Green and Hill were executed on 
the 2ist of February, declaring their innocence to the last ; and Berry, 
who also declared himself innocent, was executed on the a8th day of 
May. 

Sir Edmond's corpse was embalmed and kept until the 3ist of 



SIR EDMOND GODFREY. 77 

October, when it was carried from Bridewell Hospital, of which he was 
one of the Governors, to the Church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, where he 
was buried. The pall was supported by eight knights, all Justices of the 
Peace ; and all the Aldermen of the City of London attended the funeral. 
Seventy-two ministers marched two-and-two before the body, and great 
multitudes followed after in the same order. A sermon was preached on 
the occasion by Dr. Williams Lloyd, Vicar of St. Martin's. 

Sir Edmond Godfrey was himself a magistrate, and had been active 
in the discovery of the Popish Plot in 1678, and a recent writer has 
suggested that his death might have been plotted by Titus Gates. 

Primrose Hill and the neighbouring locality has been the scene of 
several sanguinary duels, one of which took place on April 6th, 1803, 
between Lieut. -Col. Montgomery and Capt. Macnamara, in consequence 
of a quarrel between them in Hyde Park, when a meeting was appointed 
for 7 o'clock the same evening, near Primrose Hill ; the consequence of 
which proved fatal. Captain Macnamara's ball entered the right side of 
Colonel Montgomery's chest, and passed through the heart ; he instantly 
fell without uttering a word, but rolled over two or three times, as if 
in great agony, and groaned. Being carried into Chalk Farm, he expired 
in about five minutes. Colonel Montgomery's ball went through Captain 
Macnamara, entering on the left side, just above the hip, and passing 
through the left side, carrying part of the coat and waistcoat with it, 
and taking part of his leather breeches and the hip button away with 
it on the other side. A Coroner's Inquest returned a verdict of man- 
slaughter against Captain Macnamara, who was tried at the Old Bailey 
on the 22nd of April, when he received an excellent character from 
Lords Hood, Nelson, Hotham, and Minto, and a great number of highly 
respectable gentlemen, and the jury returned a verdict of " not guilty." 

The name of Barrow Hill the adjoining hill to Primrose Hill is 
suggestive of an ancient funeral mound. Barrow was a w r ord which 
signified an earthwork generally, but was confined as a general rule to 
burial mounds. It is extremely difficult to say whether Barrow Hill may 
or may not have been an artificially-formed eminence. The reservoir of 
the West Middlesex Waterworks now occupies the top of the hill, and 
its construction has destroyed the form of the hill so much that it is 
a matter of considerable difficulty to form any idea of its original shape. 



7 8 



MARYLEBONE. 



Under these circumstances it is impossible to ascertain much about 
Barrow Hill, except that the name is of great antiquity and probably 
has some reference to its historical associations. 

Primrose Hill is now chiefly remarkable for the beautiful and 
extensive view which it commands all around, and especially over Regent's 
Park, and the adjacent parts of Marylebone and St. Pancras. 




CHAPTER VI. 



MARYLEBONE: SOCIETIES AND INSTITUTIONS. 

The Marylebone Volunteers. The Royal York St. Marylebone Volunteers. The Royal Toxophilite 
Society, Regent's Park. Sir Ashton Lever. The Archer's Hall. The Marylebone Cricket 
Club. Thomas Lord. M. Garnerin's balloon ascent. The Zoological Society. The Royal 
Botanic Society's Gardens, Regent's Park. The Middlesex Hospital. 



THE MARYLEBONE VOLUNTEERS. 

URING the last few years of the i8th century, 
this military association was formed. It is 
thus described in a \vork entitled " Loyal 
Volunteers of London and Environs," published 
in 1799 : 

" MARYLEBONE VOLUNTEERS. 
Commandant, Lieutenant-Colonel Phipps. 

This Corps was formed early in 1798, under 
the Command of Lieutenant - Colonel Phipps, 
to protect their own district. They consist of 
six Companies, Light Infantry, Grenadiers, and 
Battalion Men. Received their Colours from the 
hand of the Right Hon. Lady Kinnoul, in Lord's 
Ground, Marylebone, the 3oth of May, 1799, and 
were reviewed by His Majesty the 4th of June. 
The concerns of this Association are regulated by 
a Committee, military and parochial. The number 
they mean to extend to is undetermined. 

NAMES AND RANK OF OFFICERS. 

Commandant, Lieutenant-Colonel Phipps. 
Major, Hamilton. 




8o MARYLEBONE. 

Captains, Welford, Blair, Wyatt, Thompson, Sir Henry Lambert. 
Lieutenants, Delamain, Neale, Boscowen, Pownall, Dare, Plowdc-n, 

Harcourt, Ward, Johnson, Arnold. 
Adjutant, Jos. Bibbins. 
Surgeon, Daston. 

DRESS. 

Round Hat, and Bear-skin with green Feather. 
Breast-plate, oval with a Star. 
Cartouch, a small Star. 
Half Boots, &c." 

The uniform also included a blue jacket, turned up with red, blue 
pantaloons, &c., from which circumstance they were facetiously called 
" Blue Bottles." The arms were provided by Government, and deposited 
at the workhous.e. Their parade ground was situated in George Street. 
According to one account, the corps was formed in 1797, but other 
ii accounts say 1798. It was disbanded in the year 1801. 

THE ROYAL YORK ST. MARYLEBONE VOLUNTEERS. 

In 1802, after the short interval of peace, the old threat of 
invasion being repeated, a second Volunteer Corps of Infantry was 
specially established under the above title, in compliment to His Royal 
Highness the Duke of York, who at that time resided in the parish. 
This corps soon arrived to great perfection in order and discipline, 
under the command of Colonel the Rt. Hon. Viscount Duncannon, and 
T. Phillips, Esq., their Adjutant ; and comprised upwards of one 
thousand effective members. The uniform was different to that of the 
original corps, being a handsome scarlet jacket, trimmed with gold lace, 
blue pantaloons, &c. The arms were provided by the Government, and the 
Armoury and Orderly Room were first established at No. 4, Nottingham 
Street, and afterwards removed to a building at the corner of 
Marylebone Lane and Wigmore Street. The expenses of the corps were 
defrayed by a subscription amongst its members. A subscription was, 
however, solicited in 1804, from those inhabitants who were exempt, 
or not eligible to serve in the corps ; when it was stated in the 
circulars, distributed on the occasion, that nearly 20,000 had been 
expended in establishing the Association, which was one of most 



THE ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY. 81 

respectable character, being composed principally of master tradesmen, 
and officered by gentlemen. The corps was broken up in 1814, and 
the remains of their fund amounting to 700 vvas presented to the 
Parish Charity School, and Middlesex Hospital ; viz., 400 to the 
School, and 300 to the Hospital. 

THE ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY. 

Near the Inner Circle of Regent's Park are the grounds and hall 
of this ancient society, of which the following are some historical 
particulars : 

In the year 1514, the citizens of London practised archery in the 
fields round about Islington, Hoxton, and Shoreditch. Henry VIII. 
was particularly fond of archery, and in 1537 commissioned Sir 
Christopher Morris, Master of the Ordnance, to revive the amusement, 
which at that time was rather drooping, by establishing a society of 
archers, which was called "the Fraternitye or Guylde of St. George," 
upon which the King conferred many privileges. They were constituted 
"Overseers of the Scyence of Artyllery, that ys to wyt, for Long-bowes, 
Cross-bowes, and Handguns." 

The Archers of St. George used to assemble in Lolesworth or 
Spital-fields, and the name of their place of exercise at this spot was 
Teaselcroft, so called from the thistles with which it abounded. 

The Honorable Artillery Company had its origin about the year 
I 5&5> when London being wearied with continual musters, a number of 
its gallant citizens who had served abroad with credit, voluntarily 
exercised themselves, and trained others to the ready use and practice 
of war. The ground they used was at the north-east extremity of the 
City, near Bishopsgate, the same which had before been occupied by the 
above-mentioned Fraternity of Artillery. Fort Street, Artillery Street 
and Lane adjoin Spital Square, and by their names identify the spot. 
Within two years there were nearly 300 merchants and others sufficiently 
skilled to train common soldiers, and in 1588, in connection with the 
preparations for repelling the Spanish Armada, some of them had 
commissions in the camp at Tilbury. The association soon afterwards 
fell into decay, yet, as the Company has never since its first creation 
been altogether extinct, it is at present the oldest representative of 
G 



82 MARYLEBONE. 

the English standing army. From the Company's Register, the only 
book they saved in the Civil Wars, it appears that the association 
was revived in 1611, by warrant from the Privy Council, and the 
number of the Volunteers soon amounted to 6,000. 

Three years after this they made a general muster, when, according 
to a contemporary authority, the men were better armed than disciplined. 
In 1622 they erected an armoury, towards which the Chamber of 
London gave 300. It was furnished with 500 sets of arms of 
extraordinary beauty, which were all lost in the Civil Wars. Their 
captain during a part of those troublous times was a Mr. Manby, who 
detained for his own purposes the arms, plate money, books, and other 
goods of the Company, and the Protector was in vain solicited to 
enforce their restoration. In 1640 they quitted their old field of 
discipline, and entered upon the plot of ground which they now occupy 
in Bunhill Fields, leased to them by the City. This ground is described 
as a parcel of ground consisting of gardens, orchards, etc., situated on the 
north side of Chiswell Street, and called by the name of Bunhill Fields, 
which was in the year 1498 converted into a spacious field for the use 
of the London archers, and which is now known by the name of the 
Artillery Ground. 

For many years the}- kept up an Archery Division, archery being 
the art cultivated by the Company in their earliest days, when the bow 
and arrow were used in warfare. In process of time this division was 
abolished, but archery was still kept alive in the neigbourhood of London 
by the Finsbury Archers. Even this remnant of the ancient art of 
archery had almost died out when the few survivors joined Sir Ashton 
Lever in the inauguration of the Toxophilite Society, in 1781. 

Some years later the members of the Artillery Company appear to 
have resumed the bow, as they occupied two pairs of targets at the 
grand meeting of Archery societies on Blackheath, in 1792, and the 
Toxophilite Society, in its earlier years, mostly held their principal 
meetings in the Company's ground. But the Finsbury archers have 
never reappeared, and the Archers' Division of the Honourable Artillery 
Company has also become merged into the Royal Toxophilite Society. 

Sir Ashton Lever, Knight, who founded the Royal Toxophilite 
Society, on April 3rd, 1781, was son of Sir D'Arcy Lever, of Allington, 



THE ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY. 83 

near Manchester. He finished his education at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and on leaving the University went to reside with his mother, 
and afterwards settled at his family seat, Allington, which he rendered 
famous by forming there the best aviary in the kingdom. He next 
paid great attention to the study of all branches of natural history, 
which taste is said to have had its origin from the circumstance of his 
having shot a white sparrow. He is said to have become possessed 
of one of the finest museums in the world, in the procuring of which 
he spared no expense, and he purchased specimens from the most 
distant regions. This collection was removed to London about the year 
1775, and opened to the public in Leicester House, Leicester Square. 
Unfortunately, the exhibition does not appear to have been a very 
successful enterprise, as from the want of public patronage Sir Ashton 
Lever was obliged to dispose of his museum by lottery, and it fell to 
the lot of a Mr. Parkinson, who built rooms on the Surrey side of the 
Thames, near Blackfriars Bridge, for its reception, and did everything 
in his power to render it interesting to the public, but he was obliged 
to dispose of it by auction in 1806, when the whole of it was dispersed. 
Between the years 1792 and 1796, a handsome quarto volume was 
published, entitled " Museum Leverianum ; containing Select Specimens 
from the Museum of the late Sir Ashton Lever, Kt., with Descriptions 
in Latin and English. By George Shaw, M.D., F.R.S." This volume, 
which was published by James Parkinson the proprietor of the collection 
at that time, was richly illustrated with full-page coloured engravings, 
some of which are very fine, but there does not appear to be much 
method in their arrangement. According to the report of Mr. John 
Church before the House of Commons, which is quoted in the 
beginning of the volume, this beautiful collection of specimens was by 
careful computation estimated to be of the value of upwards of 53,000. 
Dr. George Shaw, who was the author of numerous works upon natural 
history, and a lecturer upon the same subject, delivered several lectures 
upon the Leverian Museum, both before and after that collection was 
removed from Leicester House, which never failed to attract a numerous 
and scientific audience. 

Sir Ashton Lever died in 1788, of an apoplectic attack, while 
sitting on the bench with the other magistrates at Manchester. 



84 MARYLEBONE. 

About the year 1776, Mr. Waring, father of the well-known bowyer 
of Caroline Street, Bedford Square, being then resident with Sir Ashton 
Lever at Leicester House, and having by continued application to 
business contracted an affection of the chest which the doctors could 
not relieve, resolved to try the effect of archery. He commenced, and 
continued the practice regularly, and ascribed his cure, which was 
perfect, solely to the use of the bow. Sir Ashton Lever, seeing the 
good effect of archery, followed Mr. Waring's example, and was joined 
by a few friends, who formed themselves into the Toxophilite Society. 
The practice of archery took place on the lawn at the back of 
Leicester House. Prince George of Wales (afterwards George IV.), who 
was fond of archery, shot with the members of this Society, at 
Leicester House, and on his becoming patron of the Society, in 1787, 
it assumed the title of "Royal," by which it has ever since been 
distinguished. William IV., the Prince Consort, and the Prince of 
Wales have been patrons subsequently. 

Among the plate belonging to this Society are the large silver 
shield given to the Archers' Company by Queen Catherine of Braganza, 
consort of Charles II., and silver arrows of the same and earlier periods. 

In 1791, the Society rented from the Duke of Bedford grounds 
lying on the east side of Gower Street, where the houses on the west 
side of Torrington Square now stand ; and also rented rooms and 
cellars in what was at that period called Charlotte Street, but now 
Bloomsbury Street (not many doors from New Oxford Street). 

In 1805, the Archery Grounds being required for buildings, the 
Society's property remained in charge of Mr. Waring, in Charlotte 
Street, Bedford Square, until 1821, when Mr. Waring rented a piece of 
ground about four acres in extent, at j per acre, situated at 
Bayswater, on the estate of the Bishop of London. Its exact position 
was opposite the point of separation between Hyde Park and Kensington 
Gardens, lying on the east side of Westbourne Street, and extending 
from the Oxford Road northwards to the Grand Junction Road at 
Sussex Gardens. 

In the year 1834, the Society obtained possession of a most eligible 
piece of ground, of about six acres in extent, from the Department of 
Woods and Forests. This is situated in Regent's Park, near the Royal 




PH 



K 



N 



THE ROYAL TOXOPHILITE SOCIETY. 85 

Botanic Society's Gardens, and upon it was erected a building known as 
the Archers' Hall. On account of the plantations, the ground is seldom 
seen from the road. There is a gravelled path enclosing the whole 
area, which, excepting the greensward reserved for the targets, is 
tastefully laid out with clumps of trees and flowering shrubs, and beds 
with a profusion of flowers. 

The ceiling and walls of the hall are handsomely panelled and 
decorated with the arms of the Society. The lockers around the hall 
bear the arms of the members. There are stags' heads upon the walls, 
and the windows are partially filled with painted glass, representing the 
arms of the founder, presidents, and patrons. 

The London Skating Club have a building at the south-west end 
of the Royal Toxophilite Society's grounds, which, during a portion of 
the winter, is flooded with water for the purpose of skating, when the 
weather is sufficiently severe to render that sport possible. 

"The laws of the Toxophilite Society," instituted in the year 1781, 
and revised and altered in the year 1791, set forth that the members of 
the Society are limited to two hundred, and " shall meet every Tuesday 
and Friday, from the Fifteenth of April to the Fifteenth of October 
yearly, at Five o'Clock in the Afternoon, upon the Toxophilite 
Ground, Bedford Square, for the Purpose of shooting, of transacting 
the Business of the Society, and afterwards of supping together ; 
which Meetings shall be called The Summer Meetings ; and on the 
Third Tuesday in the Month of February, yearly, at Three o'Clock, 
for the Purpose of transacting the Business of the Society, and 
afterwards of dining together (at such House as the Majority of the 
Members present at the last Summer Meeting shall agree upon), which 
Meeting shall be called The Annual Winter Meeting; and also on such 
Target Days as are hereinafter appointed. That there shall not be 
any Business transacted upon any Target Day except the particular 
Business relating to the Target, nor at any Summer Meeting before 
Eight o'Clock, or after Supper; nor at the Winter Meeting after Dinner; 
nor unless there shall be present, at such Summer or Winter Meeting, 
Nine Members or more." 

The admission of members was by ballot, two black balls excluding 
the candidate. A sum of three guineas entrance-fee was charged, in 



86 MARYLEBONE. 

addition to the annual subscription of three guineas. The prescribed 
uniform of the Society was as follows : " A Green Cloth Coat and 
White Waistcoat and Breeches of Cloth, or Kerseymere, with Gilt 
Arrow Buttons, White Stockings, and Black Hussar Half Boots; a Black 
Round Hat, with the Prince of \Vales's Button, a double Gold Loop, 
and One Black Cock Feather ; " shooting accoutrements, " A Black 
Leather Brace, a Buff-coloured Leather Belt, with a Pouch and a 
Green Tassel." 

Mr. Thomas Wearing, who in 1814 wrote " A Treatise on Archery ; or, 
The Art of Shooting with the Long Bow," mentions, in a list of model 
laws for the government of archery societies, one of the articles of the 
Toxophilite Society, which was " that if any Member marry, he shall 
treat the rest with a Marriage Feast." 

The same writer, at the end of the book, gives a list of thirty-three 
toxophilite societies which had been or were in existence within a few 
years of the compilation of the list. 

THE MARYLEBONE CRICKET CLUB. 

The mere mention of this famous club suggests to every admirer of 
our national game many interesting memories and associations. So great 
a part has this club played in the cricket of the past, and so important 
is its position at present, that if the chapter which refers to its doings 
were eliminated, the history of English cricket would be shorn of one of 
its chief glories. The rules of the game of cricket, as made by this club, 
are followed by cricketers in all parts of the world, and so great and uni- 
versal is the estimation in which its decisions are held, that it has justly 
acquired a right to the proud designation of the " Parliament of Cricket." 

Mr. Andrew Lang, in writing about the history of cricket, says of the 
M.C.C., "The club may be said to have sprung from the ashes of the 
White Conduit Club, dissolved in 1787. One Thomas Lord, by the aid 
of some members of the older association, made a ground in the space 
which is now Dorset Square. This was the first ' Lord's.' ' : 

Subsequently, Thomas Lord found it necessary to remove to North 
Bank, and finally, in 1814, to the present ground at St. John's Wood. 
Mr. Ward bought the lease of the ground from Lord in 1825, "at a most 
exorbitant rate;" and, in 1830, Dark bought the remainder of the lease 









MARYLEBONE CRICKET CLUB. 



87 



from him. The first recorded cricket match played on the new ground 
was M.C.C. v. Hertfordshire, June 22, 1814. In 1816, the club reviewed 
its " laws," the result of which review is recorded in Lillywhite's 
"Scores," i. 285. In 1825, the pavilion was burnt, after a Winchester 
and Harrow match. Upon that occasion many of the cricket records 
were destroyed, and no complete list of the presidents of the club is 
known to exist. Since the fire the most notable presidents have been 
Ponsonby, Grimston, Darnley, and Coventry. The renowned Mr. Aislabie 
was secretary till his death in 1842. Mr. Kynaston and Mr. Fitzgerald 
were other celebrated secretaries. 

In 1868 the club purchased a lease of ninety-nine years, at the 
cost of eleven thousand pounds. There have been recent additions to the 
area, which is now six or seven acres in extent, and permanent stands 
are erected on it, by means of which visitors can sit and see the matches. 

Lord's is celebrated as the scene of matches between Eton and 
Harrow, Oxford and Cambridge, Gentlemen and Players, &c. 

In connection with the old cricket-ground, now known as Dorset 
Square, it may be recorded that it was occasionally used as an exercising 
ground by the St. Marylebone Volunteers, and in 1799 the stand of 
colours was presented to the regiment in that ground, in the presence of 
a vast concourse of the nobility and gentry who attended, on the occasion. 

It is interesting, too, from having been the scene of M. Garnerin's 
second balloon ascent in this country. In the early part of the present 
century, bolloon ascents were sufficiently rare to cause intense popular 
excitement, and Garnerin's ascent on the 5th of July, 1802, was an event 
which drew an immense number of spectators, including a large number 
of the aristocracy and nobility ; and even royalty itself was represented 
in the person of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, who, as an old account 
says, " attended several ladies of distinction in the ground." Garnerin, 
who was accompanied by Edward Hawke Locker, Esq., was provided 
with a letter of recommendation to any gentleman in whose grounds or 
neighbourhood the balloon might happen to descend. The following is a 

copy : 

"July 5, 1802. 

" We the undersigned, having been present at the ascension 
of M. Garnerin, with his balloon, this afternoon, and witnessed 



88 MARYLEBONE. 

the entire satisfaction of the public, beg leave to recommend 
him to the notice of any gentleman in whose neighbourhood he 
may happen to descend. 

" Signed, " GEORGE P. W. " G. DEVONSHIRE. 
" BESBOROUGH. " CATHCART." 

From the contents of this letter it appears probable that some 
preliminary ascent was made, perhaps with the balloon secured by ropes. 
At any rate, when the balloon was liberated, it rose in a beautiful and 
majestic manner. Garnerin had a parachute, constructed of a stout cotton 
texture, with a circular aperture of a foot and a half diameter in the centre. 
In this aperture terminated the tube containing the rope by which the 
parachute was annexed to the balloon. It was the intention of this daring 
aeronaut to descend from his balloon by means of this contrivance, but 
he was prevented by the disturbed state of the elements. Owing to the 
density of the atmosphere, the balloon and its intrepid passengers were 
out of sight within three minutes from the time of starting, and an 
immense number of people were left gazing upon the wide expanse, and 
greatly excited. Notwithstanding the violence of the wind, the adventurers 
rose to the height of a mile and a half, and descended at five minutes 
past five o'clock, without the least injury, at Chingford, near Epping 
Forest, having travelled a space of seventeen miles in a little more than a 
quarter of an hour. Such interest had this famous aeronaut excited, that 
for several hours before the ascent all the metropolis was in an uproar; 
many accidents happened, and many depredations were committed. Mr. 
Locker afterwards published an account of his aerial voyage, and says 
in conclusion : " Although the mob which surrounded us on our descent 
were, as usual, both troublesome and officiously impertinent, we received 
great attention and assistance from Mr. Hughes of the Stamp Office, 
London, and several other gentlemen who beheld our arrival. Attention 
would, however, have been insured to us, if necessary, by the paper put 
into the hands of M. Garnerin, signed by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, 
and other persons of distinction." 

THE ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. 

Although from a scientific and recreative point of view this institution 
is of great popular interest, it does not come within the scope of the 



ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS. 89 

present writer to give anything beyond a very few of the chief facts in 
relation to its history. 

The Zoological Society of London was founded in 1826 for the 
advancement of Zoology, and the introduction and exhibition of specimens 
of the animal kingdom alive or properly preserved. The principal founders 
were Sir Humphrey Davey and Sir Stamford Raffles. 

At the present time the President of the Society is Professor W. H. 
Flower, LL.D., F.R.S. 

ROYAL BOTANIC SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 

This society, which is essentially a scientific institution, was founded 
and incorporated in the year 1839 f r the promotion of botany in all its 
branches. The grounds, about eighteen acres in extent, and occupying 
the whole of the area enclosed by the road known as the " Inner Circle," 
are most beautifully laid out with a great many varieties of trees, shrubs, 
and plants. The conservatory, which was designed by Decimus Burton, 
affords space for two thousand visitors. One small house is specially 
devoted to the cultivation of specimens of the magnificent "Victoria 
Regia." There is a museum within these gardens, in which are exhibited 
an interesting series of woods ; costumes made of vegetable substances, 
from Tahiti and the other Society Islands ; gums ; wax models of fruits 
and flowers, including those of the leaves and blossoms of the " Victoria 
Regia ;" fossil trees and plants ; and numerous other objects of botanical 
interest. 

Among the trees in the gardens is one not very vigorous specimen, 
which bears the following descriptive label : 

" Napoleon's Willow, grown from a cutting brought from 
St. Helena by Capt. Shea in 1821. Planted here in 1842." 

THE MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL. 

The following interesting particulars of this institution are taken 
from " A Brief Historical Account of the Origin and Progress of the 
Middlesex Hospital," prefixed to the annual report. 

The Middlesex Hospital was instituted in the month of August, 
1745, for sick and lame patients ; and in 1747 a ward was opened for 
the reception of lying-in married women. 



go MARYLEBONB. 

The hospital consisted, at first, of a building in Windmill Street, Tot- 
tenham Court Road, but this being found incommodious and inadequate, 
some of the most active promoters of the charity proposed to build, by sub- 
scriptions among the nobility, gentry and others, a new and commodious 
hospital in the neighbourhoood. A convenient site presented itself in 
the " Mary-le-Bonc Fields" as they were then called, and a lease of the 
same having been obtained from Charles Berners, Esq., for the term of 
999 years, at a ground rent of 15 per annum, the building was com- 
menced after the design of J. Paine, Esq., Architect. The Right 
Honourable Hugh, then Earl, afterwards Duke of Northumberland, laid 
the first stone of the present structure, with the customary solemnities, 
on the I5th May, 1755. 

It became necessary in the course of time, partly from want of 
funds, to close the lying-in wards, and since the year 1807, the mid- 
wifery patients, instead of being admitted into the hospital, have been 
attended at their own habitations under the direction of the physician- 
accoucheur. This department of the charity has so greatly increased, 
that attendance was given during 1870 to 992 poor women during their 
confinement. 

In the year 1792 a most humane and charitable benefactor, whose 
name, at his earnest desire, was concealed, fitted up a ward for the 
admission of patients afflicted with cancer, and settled the interest of 
4000 Three per Cent. Consolidated bank annuities for ever, by way of 
endowment, in aid of the cancer establishment. The death of Samuel 
Whitbread, Esq. (1796) made known the secret that he was the munifi- 
cent benefactor whose name had been so far concealed. Since his death 
the cancer fund has been augmented by other donations and bequests, 
and especially by a legacy bequeathed by Mrs. Alithea Maria Stafford ; and 
in the year 1854 by a bequest in the will of Sir Joseph de Courcy 
Laffan, Bart. 

These endowments have enabled the governors to appropriate three 
wards, viz., " Whitbread, Stafford, and Laffan," exclusively to females 
suffering from cancer, besides providing accommodation for men afflicted 
with the same disease. 

This charity is distinct in itself, and it is believed unique through- 
out the world. 






MIDDLESEX HOSPITAL. 91 

Towards the close of the past century causes, not now very distinctly 
known, interrupted the favourable progress of the Middlesex Hospital ; 
many annual governors discontinued their subscriptions, the hospital be- 
came involved in debt, and most of the wards were shut up. 

The Revolution in France drove to England a number of emigrants, 
and of these many were French clergymen, in a state of utter destitu- 
tion. The western wing of the hospital was made a receptacle for a 
large body of the sick French clergy and lay emigrants, and for several 
years they here enjoyed freedom from persecution. When, after a long 
interval of exile, permission was in 1814 given to them to return to their 
own country, those who survived availed themselves of the privilege and 
took their departure, expressing great and lasting gratitude for the 
quietude and comforts they had enjoyed. 

The merit of having retrieved the establishment from almost com- 
plete ruin is due to the late Lord Robert Seymour, who interested him- 
self in its behalf, and by his personal influence prevailed upon a great 
number of the nobility, clergy, and gentry to join in the good cause. He 
obtained for the hospital the patronage of the Prince Regent, afterwards 
George IV., whose example was followed by William IV., and her majesty 
Queen Victoria. 

In the year 1812, a Samaritan Fund was proposed by Richard 
Cartwright, Esq., one of the surgeons, which has since been established 
upon an enlarged and permanent basis. Its objects are to afford 
temporary assistance to poor convalescent patients, whose residence in 
the .hospital is no longer necessary, but who still require medical aid 
as out-patients ; to forward poor patients, especially cripples, to their 
homes; to supply flannel, linen, or other necessaries to those patients 
whose diseased condition ma)- require such comforts; and for other 
charitable purposes. 

The Samaritan Fund is altogether a distinct and separate Fund, 
no part of the donations or subscriptions for the general support or 
maintenance of the hospital being applicable to it ; it is not distributed 
indiscriminately to all applicants, the assistance granted being voted at 
the weekly board, on the application of the chaplain, either from his 
own knowledge that the patient is deserving and necessitous, or at the 
recommendation of one of the physicians, surgeons, or visiting governors. 



92 MARYLEBONE. 

During the year 1869, seven hundred and fifty patients were relieved 
from this fund, and sixty-eight were sent to the convalescent hospitals 
at Walton, Seaford, Margate, Eastbourne, etc. 

The building of the wings was not completed till the year 1775, 
since which time no addition had been made to the Middlesex Hospital 
until 1834, although during that period two of the most extensive 
parishes in the metropolis had grown up about it. In April, 1834, the 
governors deemed it expedient to extend each wing of the hospital thirty 
feet towards the street, and the whole was paid for by subscriptions 
raised for that specific purpose, without trenching upon the funds of the 
hospital. 

It was resolved, at a quarterly general court held in May, 1835, that 
a medical school should be erected by subscription. The buildings were 
commenced in July, and completed by the ist of October. A new 
operating theatre 'was built upon the ground floor soon after. 

A charter was obtained, through the exertions of William Tooke, Esq., 
on the 3Oth of March, 1836. 

In 1848, extensive and costly improvements were made. New 
rooms were provided for the superior nurses, and accommodation was 
afforded for ninety additional patients, so that the hospital now contains 
310 beds, instead of 220, as formerly. 

In 1848, a ward was opened for the reception of cases of diseases 
peculiar to women, and the governors were enabled, at the same time, 
under the direction of the will of the late Lady Murray, to open the 
Murray Ward, as a memorial to her deceased husband. 

The museum and the school buildings have both been enlarged, and 
at the present time the inmates treated number upwards of two thousand, 
and the out-patients over twenty thousand. 




CHAPTER VII. 



MARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES, &c. 

Joanna Southcott. Mrs. Siddons. Anecdote of Handel. Thomas Holcroft. Horatia " Nelson." 
Marylebone Celebrities: Mary Lamb, Edward Gibbon, Henry Fuseli, " Berners Street 
Hoax," Faraday, Wilkie, Flaxman, James Barry, Dr. Johnson, George Romney, John 
Constable, Thomas Hood, Landseer, Thomas Moore, Barry Cornwall, Lyell, Leigh Hunt, 
Dickens, Macready, Nollekens, Anna Jameson, Samuel Lover, Benjamin West, Thomas 
Stothard, J. M. W. Turner, Thomas Campbell. Frederick Marryat, Sydney Smith, J. G. 
Lockhart, Sir Walter Scott, Henry Hallam, Admiral Lord Hood, Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning, William Pitt, Lady Hester Stanhope. Miscellanea. Cato Street Conspiracy. 
Verley's Charity. Marylebone Rates, &c. 



OANNA SOUTHCOTT, the religious fanatic who 
made so such commotion in her day, was born in 
Devonshire, about the year 1750, of humble parents, 
and was chiefly employed in Exeter as a domestic 
servant ; but having joined the Methodists, and 
become acquainted with a man of the name of 
Sanderson, who laid claim to the spirit of prophecy, 
she advanced to a like pretension ; and wrote 
and dictated prophecies, sometimes in prose, and 
sometimes in rhymed doggrel. 

In one of her publications she says: "As I 
have began to publish to the world, I shall give 
some short account of my Life, which hath been 
singular, from my youth up to this day. I shall 
omit former particulars, and begin with informing 
the Reader, that, in 1792, I was strangely visited, by 
day and night, concerning what was coming upon 
the whole earth. I was then ordered to set it 
down in writing. I obeyed, though not without 
strong external opposition ; and so it has continued 
to the present time." She appears to have imagined 




94 



MA KYLE HONE. 



herself to have been favoured with a great number of visions, of which 
the following, told in her own words, will serve as a specimen : 

" I dreamed I saw my Father sweeping out the barn's floor 
clean, and would not suffer the wheat to be brought in the barn. 
He appeared to me to be in anger. When I awaked, I was 
answered, ' It is thy Heavenly Father is angry with the land ; 
and if they do not repent as Nineveh did, they shall sow, but 
not reap ; neither shall they gather into their barns. Then shall 
come three years, wherein there shall be neither eating nor 
harvest." 

She announced herself as the woman spoken of in the I2th chapter 
of the Revelation, and obtained considerable sums by the sale of seals 
which were to secure the salvation of those who purchased them. 




JOANNA SOUTHCOTT. 

The accompanying portrait is copied from an old engraving, which 
bears underneath the following inscription: " The Cunning Woman, who 



JOANNA SOUTH COTT. 



95 



found the Philosopher's Stone in the shape of an old Seal ; Saw the Devil 
in the shape of a Pig ; Two needy Apothecaries in the shape of Spanish 
Trumpeters ; Lives comfortably with a Laywer constantly at her Elbow. 
N.B. No Portrait can be genuine but Mr. Sharp's. A. Flat." 

JOA3SWA.SOUTHCOT T's 




fabrdr 




Joanna Southcott came up to London upon the invitation and at 
the expense of William Sharp, the eminent engraver, who is evidently 
the man alluded to in the above inscription. Among other gross and 
impious absurdities she gave out that she was to be delivered of the 



96 MARYLEBOXE. 

Prince of Peace, at midnight on the igth of October, 1814, and 
elaborate preparations were made in consequence. An expensive cradle 
\vas made, and considerable sums were contributed by her followers, in 
order to have other things prepared in a style worthy of the expected 
Shiloh. When the stated time came, no birth took place. Southcott, 
at that time upwards of sixty years of age, took to her bed, and, after 
a confinement there of ten weeks, died on the 2yth of December, 1814. 
Her death occurred in Manchester Street, Manchester Square. Her body 
was opened after her decease, and the appearance of pregnancy which 
had deceived her followers, and perhaps herself, was found to have arisen 
from dropsy. On the 3ist of December, her body was removed to an 
undertaker's in Oxford Street, where it remained until the interment. 
On the third of January, it was carried in a hearse, so remarkably plain 
as to give it the appearance of one returning from, rather than proceeding 
to church, accompanied by one coach, equally plain, in which were 
three mourners. In this manner they proceeded to the cemetery adjoining 
St. John's Wood Chapel. So well had their arrangements been planned 
for the insurance of privacy, that there was scarcely a person in the 
ground unconnected with the funeral party. The grave was taken, and 
notice given of the funeral under the name of Goddard. Neither the 
clergyman of St. John's who read the service, nor any of the subordinate 
persons connected with the chapel, were apprised of the real name of 
the person about to be buried, till the funeral reached the chapel. 

On the west side of this cemetery, opposite No. 44 on the wall, and 
26 feet from it, is a flat stone underneath which are deposited the 
remains of this remarkable woman. The stone is enclosed within plain 
iron railings and bears the following inscription : 

"In Memory of 

JOANNA SOUTHCOTT, 

who departed this life, December ayth, 1814, aged 64 years. 

1 While through all thy wondrous days, 
Heaven and Earth enraptur'd gaz'd 
While vain Sages think they know 
Secrets, Thou Alone canst show. 
Time alone will tell what hour, 
Thou'lt appear in "Greater" Power.' 

Sabincus." 



MRS. SIDDONS. 



97 



On a black marble tablet let into the wall opposite the above spot, 
is the following inscription : 

" Behold the time shall come, that these Tokens which I 
have told Thee, shall come to pass, and the Bride shall Appear, 
and She, coming forth, shall be seen, that now is withdrawn 
from the earth." 2d of Esdras, Chap, 7th, ver. 26th. 

" For the Vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the 
end it shall speak, and Not Lie, though it tarry, Wait for it ; 
Because it will Surely Come, it will not tarry." 

Habakkuk, Chap. 2, ver. 3d. 

" And whosoever is delivered from the Foresaid evils, shall 
see My Wonders." ad of Esdras, Chap. 7, ver. 27th. 

(See her Writings.) 
"This Tablet was Erected 
By the sincere Friends of the above, 
Anno Domini, 1828." 

It may be added, as a somewhat curious fact, that the engraver, 
William Sharp, also died from dropsy, in 1824. 

MRS. SIDDONS. 

Upper Baker Street contains the house in which this celebrated and 
talented actress lived from the year 1817, after her retirement from the 
stage, until her death (in the year 1831), which took place at the house 
numbered 27. 

The fact is recorded upon an inscribed medallion affixed to the front 
of the house by the Society of Arts. The house still contains some 
memorials of Mrs. Siddons. On the staircase is a small side window of 
painted glass, containing medallion portraits of Shakspere, Milton, Spenser, 
Cowley, and Dryden. This is chiefly interesting from the fact that it is 
the work of Mrs. Siddons, who designed it and put it up. The bow 
window looking north commands a view over Regent's Park to Hampstead ; 
and there is a tradition (in all likelihood an authentic one) to the effect 
that, when the mansions in Cornwall Terrace were about to be brought 
up to the very gates of the Park, Mrs. Siddons made a pathetic appeal 
to the Prince Regent, who with gracious condescension gave orders 
that her " country view " should be spared. 
H 



98 MARYLEBONE. 

Mrs. Siddons lived a simple, unostentatious life, quite content, it is 
said, with her salary of twelve pounds a week. She retired from the 
stage in 1812 in her favourite character of Lady Macbeth, but she appeared 
again occasionally on special occasions between 1812 and 1817. She also 
gave public readings from Shakspere at the Argyle Rooms, during two 
seasons. In her will she bequeathed her leasehold house in Upper Baker 
Street to her daughter, together with all her pictures and furniture ; and 
to her son she left an inkstand made from Shakspere's mulberry tree, 
and a pair of gloves said to have been worn by the poet himself, which 
had been presented to her by Mrs. Garrick. 

Mrs. Siddons was buried at Paddington in a now obsolete cemetery, 
recently converted into a very pretty ornamental garden and promenade, 
brilliant with flowery parterres, and trim with neat gravel walks. Her 
grave is marked only by a slab of cement, bearing no legible inscription 
on its face, and distinguished only by a half obliterated legend cut 
in its upper edge. 

ANECDOTE OF HANDEL. 

The following amusing anecdote of Handel was communicated to one 
of Hone's publications by a writer signing himself "J. H." He was a 
grandson of the Rev. John Fountayne, who rented Marylebone Manor 
House, and used it as a school for young gentlemen : 

" Having been at this school from my infancy almost, down to 1790, 
I have a perfect recollection of this fine and interesting house, with its 
beautiful saloon and gallery, in which private concerts were held occa- 
sionally, and the first instrumental performers attended. My grandfather, 
as I have been told, was an enthusiast in music, and cultivated, most of 
all, the friendship of musical men, especially of Handel, who visited him 
often, and had a great predilection for his society. This leads me to 
relate an anecdote which I had on the best authority. . . . While 
Marylebone Gardens were flourishing, the enchanting music of Handel, 
and probably of Arne, was often heard from the orchestra there. One 
evening, as my grandfather and Handel were walking together and 
alone, a new piece was struck up by the band. ' Come, Mr. Fountayne,' 
said Handel, ' let us sit down and listen to this piece I want to know 
your opinion of it.' Down they sat, and after some time the old parson, 




MRS. SIDDONS IN THE CHARACTER OF THE TRAGIC MUSE. 

(From an Engraving after SlR JOSHUA REYNOLDS^. 



THOMAS HOLCROFT.HORATIA "NELSON." 99 

turning to his companion, said, ' It is not worth listening to it's very 
poor stuff.' ' You are right, Mr. Fountayne,' said Handel, ' it is very 
poor stuff I thought so myself when I had finished it.' The old 
gentleman, being taken by surprise, was beginning to apologise, but 
Handel assured him there was no necessity ; that the music was really 
bad, having been composed hastily, and his time for the production 
limited ; and that the opinion given was as correct as it was honest." 

THOMAS HOLCROFT. 

This well-known writer was of humble origin, having been originally, 
it was said, a shoemaker in the north. Possessing great natural 
endowments, and much industry, he acquired such a knowledge of the 
modern languages as enabled him to translate from them with great 
facility. He was for some time a performer in the provincial theatres, 
and soon after his coming up to London, in 1778, he obtained an 
inferior engagement at Drury Lane Theatre, but never distinguished 
himself as an actor. He produced several pieces for the stage, one of 
which, " The Road to Ruin," had a great run, and is still deservedly 
very popular. Holcroft was the author of "The Adventures of Hugh 
Trevor," " Memoirs of Bryan Perdue," some poems, and numerous 
translations from the French and German. He died at his house in 
Clipstone Street, Marylebone, on the 23rd of March, 1809, and was 
buried in the larger cemetery at Marylebone on the ist of April. 

HORATIA "NELSON." 

Lady Hamilton's daughter by Lord Nelson was baptized in the old 
church at Marylebone on the 3rd of May, 1803. The birth took place in 
Sir William Hamilton's own house, where every care and precaution 
had been adopted to keep the matter as secret as possible from him 
and one or two members of his own family. Professional attendance 
was not necessary, where a skilful and well-practised mother resided on 
the spot ; and as soon as the patient was capable of moving about, 
which, owing to her remarkable constitution, was tolerably early, the 
infant was conveyed by her in a large muff, and in her own carriage, 
to the house of the person who had been provided to take charge 
of it in Little Titchfield Street. On this occasion, her ladyship was 



TOO MARYLEBOXE. 

accompanied by Lord Nelson's confidential agent, Mr. Oliver, who had 
been brought up from the age of twelve years in the house and under 
the protection of Sir Wiliam Hamilton at Naples, and was afterwards 
employed on various kinds of missions in that country, Germany, and 
England. The condition of the infant, when brought in this manner 
to the appointed nurse, was deplorable enough, and plainly showed the 
hurried process by which it had been ushered into the world. Now it 
is for the reader to judge whether anyone but a mother would have 
conveyed a new-born babe in this extraordinary manner, in her own 
carriage, to the house of a woman with whom she had no acquaintance, 
and that too accompanied by an old confidential steward. 

But should any doubt still be started on the subject, after such 
palpable evidence, the subsequent acknowledgment of the infant by 
the parties who were most concerned in the history of her origin must 
wholly remove the smallest shade of scepticism from the mind of the 
incredulous. That Lady Hamilton made no scruple of admitting the 
relation, after the death of her husband, can be easily proved ; and 
in what a tender estimation the noble lord regarded the child, the 
world has not to learn. It has been said, indeed, that being his 
god-child, and adopted by him on that account, his affection for her 
became ardent even to a degree of paternal fondness. But the truth 
is, that in the proper sense of the word, she was not his god-child, 
for he neither appeared at the font in person, nor by proxy. About 
a fortnight after the birth, indeed, the child was taken in a coach to 
Sir William Hamilton's house, that she might be shown to Lord 
Nelson, who actually came to town for that purpose. At this time 
also the child certainly was baptised, but not by the curate or minister 
of the parish. That ceremony, in whatever way it was performed, 
had not been conducted according to the legitimate rules of the church, 
which could authorize a registry of the fact ; and, therefore, it was 
found expedient, about two years afterwards, to have the rite duly 
solemnized in the parish Church of St. Marylebone, where a curious 
difficulty occurred for the want of proper instructions being given to the 
person whose place it was to mention the name, and to describe the 
parents. It is not a little remarkable, that the friend of his lordship, 
who privately baptised the infant, and who might be supposed to have 



MARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES. 101 

a thorough knowledge of the forms and orders of the church, did not 
take due care to give the necessary directions with respect to the 
name and parentage of the child. 

When the usual question was asked by the officiating minister, he 
received for answer, that the name of the child was " Horatia Nelson," by 
which he accordingly baptised her, though it was intended by her friends 
that the first should have been the Christian, and the latter the surname. 
At the time of the registry this error was discovered when too late, and 
as the parents could not be stated with safety, the entry presents the 
peculiarity of a child regularly baptised, and registered without the name 
of either father or mother. The name of Thompson, afterwards added to 
the baptismal one of Horatia Nelson, was merely adopted from necessity 
to complete the registry. 

MARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES. 

The large number of celebrated literary, artistic, dramatic, and other 
characters who, at one time or other, have made their home in Maryle- 
bone, renders it impossible to give, in the present place, anything more 
than the following brief details, which, for convenience of reference, are 
placed under an alphabetical arrangement. The list is certainly far from 
complete, as all such lists must be more or less, but it is hoped that 
such facts as are given will have some interest for the inhabitants of 
the district. 

ALPHA ROAD. 

Mary Lamb died in Alpha Road, St. John's Wood, and was buried 
in the same grave as her brother Charles, 28th May, 1847. 

BENTINCK STREET. 

In 1772, Edward Gibbon took the house No. 7, Bentinck Street, 
Manchester Square, where some of the happiest years of his life were 
spent, and where w r ere written the first volumes of The Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon himself describes this house as " the 
best house in the world." 

In his Correspondence he writes, September 10, 1774 : ~ 

" Yesterday morning, about half an hour after seven, as I 
was destroying an army of barbarians, I heard a double rap 



io2 MARYLEBONE. 

at the door, and my friend was introduced. After some idle 

conversation, he told me that if I was desirous of being in Parlia- 
ment, he had an independent seat very much at my service. This 
is a fine opening for me, and if next spring I should take my 
seat and publish my book, it will be a very memorable era in 
my life.'' 

Both anticipations were realized. The first edition of " The Decline 
and Fall " was exhausted in a few days, and his fame as one of the 
most distinguished of English historians became well established. 

BERNERS STREET. 

Henry Fuseli, the eminent painter, was, in 1804, living at No. 13, 
in this street, where he was visited by Haydon, who, in his Auto- 
biography, writes : 

" I followed her (the maid-servant) into a gallery or show- 
room, enough to frighten anybody away at twilight. Galvanized 
devils, malicious witches brewing their incantations, Satan bridging 
chaos, and springing upwards like a pyramid of fire, Lady 
Macbeth, Paolo and Francesca, Falstaff and Mrs. Quickly 
humour, pathos, terror, blood, and murder met me at every look. 
I expected the floor to give way. I fancied Fuseli himself to 
be a giant. I heard his footstep, and saw a little bony hand 
slide round the edge of the door, followed by a little white-headed, 
lion-faced man in an old flannel dressing-gown tied round his 
waist with a piece of rope, and upon his head the bottom of Mrs. 
Fuseli's work-basket." 

Berners Street is also celebrated as the scene of Hook's " Berners 
Street Hoax." In 1810, when Hook was in London (although he had 
no settled home there at that time), he spent six weeks in concocting 
and elaborating a hoax, the effects of which he is said to have wit- 
nessed from a safe window over the way. Mrs. Tottingham, the 
unhappy victim, lived at No. 54, Berners Street, when there came to 
her door hundreds of tradespeople bearing goods of all sizes and descrip- 
tions, from a mahogany coffin to an ounce of snuff, ordered by Hook 
in her name, to be delivered at the same hour ; while at the same 
hour, at the invitation of Mrs. Tottingham (per T. H.), came as well 



MARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES. 103 

bishops, ministers of State, doctors in haste to cure her bodily ailments, 
lawyers to make her will, barbers to shave her, mantua-makers to fit her, 
men, women, and children on every conceivable errand. The damage 
done and the confusion created were very great. 

BLANDFORD STREET. 
Michael Faraday lived at No. 2, Blandford Street. 

BOLSOVER STREET. 

David Wilkie was residing at No. 8, Bolsover Street (then known as 
Norton Street) when the exhibition of his picture, The Village Politicians, 
at the Royal Academy Exhibition, attracted so much attention. 

BUCKINGHAM STREET. 

No. 7, Buckingham Street, distinguished by a memorial tablet, was 
the house in which John Flaxman lived and, in 1820, died. 

CASTLE STREET EAST. 

James Barry, the artist, lived at No. 36, Castle Street East. The 
following amusing details of his method of living are taken from Wilmot 
Harrison's Memorable London Houses : 

" From thence he emerged morning after morning (in summer at five 
o'clock) and thither he returned usually at dusk during the six years 
1 777-83 that he was engaged on his colossal work of decoration at the 
Society of Arts, where, according to the housekeeper, ' his violence was 
dreadful, his oaths horrid, and his temper like insanity.' He is described 
as ' a little shabby pock-marked man, in an old dirty coat with a scare- 
crow wig,' living for the most part on bread and apples, and working 
for the print-sellers at night either at home or at the Society of Arts 
(where tea was made for him in a quart pot) to keep the wolf from the 
door, until the payment of the sum of 750 at the expiration of his 
gigantic task enabled him to buy an annuity of 60 a year. It is 
recorded that Burke, who was a great friend to the struggling artist, 
and had assisted in sending him for improvement to Italy in 1765-1770, 
once dined with Barry in his painting loft on beef steaks, of which he 
superintended the cooking, while Barry went to a neighbouring public- 
house to fetch porter, the foaming head of which he lamented on his 
return that a high wind had carried off as he crossed Titchfield Street." 



io 4 MARYLEBOXE. 

In the year 1737, or shortly after, Dr. Samuel Johnson had lodgings 
in this street, but the actual house in which he resided has not been 

identified. 

CAVENDISH SQUARE. 

George Romney, the artist, towards the close of the last century, 
lived at No. 32, Cavendish Square. "The man in Cavendish Square" 
was his customary designation by Sir Joshua Reynolds, his rival in the 
early part of his career. 

Romney's studios still exist. He was preceded in the tenancy of 
the house by Francis Cotes, R.A., and succeeded by Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., 
and afterwards by Sir Jones Quain and Richard Quain. E. D. Mapother, 
Esq., M.D., purchased the house in 1887, and I am indebted to that 
gentleman for these facts about the history of his interesting home. 

CHARLOTTE STREET. 
John Constable, artist, for many years resided at 76, Charlotte Street. 

ELM TREE ROAD. 

Thomas Hood lived, and wrote The Song of the Shirt, at No. 17, 
Elm Tree Road, St. John's Wood. 

FOLEY STREET. 

No. 33, Foley Street, was the home of Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A., 
the great animal painter and sculptor. 

No. 37 and No. 40 were occupied by Henry Fuseli ; the first from 
1788 to 1792, the second in 1800. 

GEORGE STREET. 

No. 85, George Street, near Montague Square, was the house in 
which lodged Thomas Moore, on his first coming to London at twenty 
years of age, to be entered as a student at the Middle Temple. 

HARLEY STREET. 

No. 38, Harley Street, was for some years prior to 1861 the 
residence of Barry Cornwall (Bryan Waller Procter.) 

Sir Charles Lyell lived at No. 73, Harley Street from 1854 to 1875. 

MARYLEBONE ROAD. 

From 1817 to 1819, Leigh Hunt resided at No. 77, on the south 
side of Marylebone Road. 



UARYLEBONE CELEBRITIES. 105 

At the corner of High Street is No. i, Devonshire Terrace, a double- 
bow-fronted house wherein Charles Dickens lived from 1840 to 1850, and 
wrote many of his best known works. 

At No. i, York Gate, William Charles Macready lived. 

MORTIMER STREET. 

Joseph Nollekens, the eminent sculptor, lived, and in 1823 died, in 
a house in this street formerly known as No. 9, and subsequently 
converted into two houses, and numbered 44 and 45. The corner 
room now one of the two shops into which the house is divided - 
which had two windows, was dining and sitting-room and sitters' 
parlour. For many years two pieces of old green canvas were festooned 
at the lower parts of the windows as blinds. 

Mrs. Anna Jameson lived for many years in the house of her sister, 
No. 7, Mortimer Street, but all of the houses have been renumbered 
since that time. 

Samuel Lover lived in Mortimer Street subsequently to the year 1834. 

NEWMAN STREET. 

Benjamin West, P.R.A., lived and had his studio at No. 14, Newman 
Street. W r est died in the drawing room in 1820. His studio was used 
in 1830 as a place of worship by Edward Irving after his condemna- 
tion by the Presbytery, and is now called St. Andrew's Hall. 

Thomas Stothard lived at No. 28, Newman Street, from 1794 until 
his death, which took place in 1834. 

QUEEN ANNE STREET. 

Joseph Mallord William Turner resided in a house in this street, 
which is described as having been in a very neglected condition during 
that artist's tenancy of it, and having a blistered dirty house-door and 
black-crusted windows. The house is gone, and Nos. 22 and 23 now 
occupy its site. 

SEYMOUR STREET. 

Between the years 1822 and 1828, Thomas Campbell lived at 
No. 18, Seymour Street. 



io6 MARYLEBONE. 

SPANISH PLACE. 
Frederick Marryat lived at No. 3, Spanish Place, in 1842. 

STRATFORD PLACE. 

At No. 18, Stratford Place, Sydney Smith lived for some months 
about the year 1834. 

SUSSEX PLACE. 

No. 24, Sussex Place, was, in 1820, the residence of John Gibson 
Lockhart, the biographer of Sir Walter Scott, and here, on what was 
then the very verge of the metropolis, Sir Walter was accustomed to 
stay with his daughter, Mrs. Lockhart, on his visits to London. 

WIMPOLE STREET. 

Henry Hallam- resided and wrote his great works, The History of the 
Middle Ages and Constitutional History of England, at No. 67, Wimpole 
Street. 

In the house No. 12 in the same street lived Admiral Lord Hood. 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, at that time Miss Barrett, was living 
at No. 50, Wimpole Street, from 1836 until her marriage ten years 
later. The Cry of the Children was written in this house. 

The name of the street is taken from Wimpole, in Cambridgeshire, 
sold by the second Earl of Oxford to Lord Chancellor Hardwicke. 

YORK PLACE. 

No. 14, York Place, was the residence from 1802 to 1806, of 
William Pitt. Pitt's niece, Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope, then twenty- 
three years of age, came to live with him here in 1803. 

MISCELLANEA. 

THE CATO STREET CONSPIRACY. 

The street from whence this extravagant conspiracy is named is 
situated in Marylebone, near the Edgeware Road, but was afterwards 
named Horace Street. 

The immediate object of this plot was the assassination of the 
ministers of state. The originator of the idea was one Arthur Thistlewood^ 
who was a man of some fortune and education. He was a subaltern 



THE CATO STREET CONSPIRACY. 



107 



officer, first, in the militia, and afterwards in a regiment of the line, 
stationed in the West Indies. After resigning his commission, and 
spending some time in America, he passed into France, where he 
arrived shortly after the fall of Robespierre. There he imbibed revo- 
lutionary ideas, and adopted the belief that the destruction of the 
institutions of his country was the only object worthy of the labours 
of a man. He sent a challenge to Lord Sidmouth, for which he was 
tried, and punished. 




ARTHUR THISTLEWOOD. 

After his liberation in August, 1819, Thistlewood, actuated by a 
spirit of revenge, employed himself in forming connections with the most 
degraded of the lowest and poorest class. Ings, a butcher, Tidd and 
Brunt, shoemakers, and a man of colour named Davison, were his 
principal confidants. These men held meetings in a hired room in the 
neighbourhood of Gray's Inn Lane, where the necessity of murdering 
the ministers, and subverting the Government, was frequently discussed. 
At length, at a meeting held on Saturday, the igth February, 1820, 
it was resolved that poverty did not allow them to delay their purposes 
any longer, and that, therefore, the ministers should be murdered 



io8 



MARYLEBONE. 



separately, each in his own house, on the following Wednesday. Meet- 
ings were held on the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday, and the whole 
plan was arranged. On the last named day, however, Thistlewood was 
informed by a conspirator named Edwards, who was a spy in the pay 
of Government, that a cabinet dinner was to take place at Lord 
Harrowby's house in Grosvenor Square on the morrow. Thistlewood 
immediately procured a newspaper, and, on reading the announcement, 
exclaimed, " It will be a rare haul to murder them altogether! " Fresh 
arrangements were determined upon, and it was agreed that one of 
their number was to go to the door with a note, and when it was 
opened, the others were to rush in ; and while a part secured the 
servants, the remainder were to force themselves into the apartment 
where the ministers were assembled, and murder them without mercy ; 
it was particularly specified that the heads of Lords Sidmouth and 
Castlereagh were to be brought away in a bag. 




18-20, 



The \V ednesday was spent in preparing weapons and ammunition, 
and in writing proclamations ; and towards six in the evening, the 
conspirators assembled in a stable situated in Cato Street. The 
building contained two rooms over the stable, accessible only by a 



VERLEY'S CHARITY. 109 

ladder ; in the larger of which, a sentinel having been stationed below, 
the conspirators mustered, to the number of twenty-four or twenty- 
five, all busy in preparing for their sanguinary plot. 

The ministers, however, had been made acquainted by Edwards, 
with every step that had hitherto been taken ; and a man named 
Hidon, who had been solicited to join in the plot, had warned Lord 
Harrowby of it, on Tuesday. The preparations for the dinner were 
continued, lest the conspirators should take alarm, though no dinner 
was in fact to be given. 

In the meantime a strong party of Bow Street Officers, headed by 
Mr. Birnie, proceeded to Cato Street, where they were met and supported 
by a detachment of Coldstream Guards, under the command of Captain 
Fitzclarence. The officers arrived about 8 o'clock, and entering the 
stable, mounted the ladder, and found the conspirators in the loft, on 
the point of proceeding to the execution of their scheme. Smithers, 
one of the officers, in attempting to seize Thistlewood, was pierced by 
him through the body, and immediately fell. The lights were then 
extinguished, and some of the conspirators escaped through a window 
at the back of the premises. The military detachment now arrived, 
and by the joint exertions of the soldiers and officers, nine were taken 
that evening and conveyed to Bow Street. Thistlewood, among others, 
had escaped, but he was arrested next morning, in bed, in a house 
near Fitzroy Square. He was tried, condemned and, with four of his 
companions, executed on the ist of May, 1820, for high treason. 

VERLEY'S CHARITY. 

Upon a benefaction table, affixed to the wall of a room adjoining 
the vestry of the old parish church, is the following inscription : 

''Thomas Yerley, late of this parish, gave 50, the interest to be 
given in bread, viz., 12 penny loaves to the poor every Sabbath-day for 
ever, 1692." 

This money appears to have been received into the parish fund, 
and from the parish funds there are now provided every week 12 penny- 
loaves, which are given away by the churchwardens every Sunday after 
morning service to poor old women of the parish, who attend at the 
church. Further Report of the Chanty Commissioners (1825) Vol. 14, p. 198. 



no MARYLEBONE. 

/ 

MARYLKHONI: RATKS. 

The following official returns to Parliament made in 1762 by John 
Austen, the vestry clerk of Marylebone at that period, will no doubt be 
read by many of the present ratepayers of Marylebone with considerable 
interest and curiosity. 

"The first rate for the poor made in May, 1761. At 6d. in the 
pound. 

" Total of the rent-charge / 18,920. At 7d. in the pound. 

" The second rate for the poor made in November, 1761. The rates 
having increased, the total of the rent-charge amounts to 20,194. At 
6d. in the pound. 

"The total rent-charge of the rate for cleansing the streets and 
repairing the highways, consolidated pursuant to Act of Parliament in 
which is included the landholders, amounts to 18,960. At is. 6d. in 
the pound. 

"The lamp rate, by 29 George II., is directed to be made on all 
persons inhabiting the streets, c., where lamps are or shall be erected 
by order of the committee therein mentioned ; but as most of the 
inhabitants (especially persons of quality and distinction) chose to put 
up lamps at their own expense, which they may do upon giving proper 
notice, the burthen at present lies chiefly upon the poorer sort of 
inhabitants. 

" The rent-charge fluctuates ; but is at present about 206. 

" The present contractor has agreed with the committee to cleanse 
the streets for one year for 170. 

" The composition with the trustees of the Turnpike road from St. 
Giles's pound to Kilburn bridge, in lieu of statute-work, and towards 
repairing the pavement of Oxford Street, is 75. 

" The present contract with the lamp-lighter, for lighting about 112 
lamps, is i 125. per annum each." 

In the neighbourhood of the Middlesex Hospital there was in the 
last century a rope-walk, extending north to a considerable distance 
under the shade of two magnificent rows of elms. This was a favorite 
spot of Richard \Yilson and Baretti, who frequently took a walk there 
together, 



BURIAL OF A SUICIDE. in 

A curious instance of the burial of a suicide at cross-roads took 
place at St. John's Wood in the first quarter of the present century. 
Sir Charles Warwick Bampfylde, Bart., was shot in the street, in the 
open day, shortly after he had come out of his house in Montague 
Square, on the 7th of April, 1823. Morland, the assassin, had formerly 
been in his service, and his wife was in Sir Charles's service at the 
time. Upon seeing that his aim had taken effect, Morland discharged 
a second pistol into his own mouth, which killed him on the spot. 
This murder was committed while under the influence of jealousy, which 
was afterwards proved to have been entirely groundless. Sir Charles 
lingered till the igth of April, when he expired in great agony. The 
jury which sat upon the body of the murderer, having returned a verdict 
of fclo dc sc, his body was buried in the cross road, opposite St. John's 
Wood Chapel. Sir Charles was descended from one of the most dis- 
tinguished families in Devonshire, and was in the 7ist year of his age. 



The unsafe condition of the country-lanes in the neighbourhood of 
Marylebone early last century is illustrated in the following extract from 
The Evening Post newspaper (March 16, 1715): "On Wednesday last, 
four gentlemen were robbed and stripped in the fields between London 
and Mary-le-bon." 

On the 2ist of June, 1825, the square of houses formed by Great 
Titchfield Street, Wells Street, Mortimer Street, and Margaret Street, 
was nearly all destroyed by a dreadful fire, which commenced in the 
workshops of Mr. Crozet, carver and gilder, in Great Titchfield Street ; 
caused by a kettle containing a compound called French polish, boiling 
over, which set fire to some shavings of wood. The flames spread 
rapidly to the premises of Mr. Woolley, a stable-keeper ; Mr. Stoddart, a 
pianoforte maker ; Mr. Stout, who had a mahogany and timber-yard ; 
Mr. Messer, a coachmaker ; Messrs. Bolton and Sparrow, upholsterers ; 
the Chapel of Ease in Margaret Street ; Mr. Pears, perfumer ; Mr. Arnold, 
grocer; Miss Storer and Miss Vennes. In Mortimer Street, the houses 
of Mr. Wales, cabinet-maker; Mr. Hunt, card-maker; Mr. Reid, sofa 
and chair-maker; Mr. Kensett, cabinet-maker; and Messrs. Holt and 
Scheffer, were in a short time reduced to ruins. 



112 



MARYLEHOXE. 



A part\- of the Guards soon arrived at the spot, and assisted the 
police officers in aiding the firemen, and preventing plunder. But all 
the exertions of the firemen, with a plentiful supply of water, appeared 
to have no effect in extinguishing the flames. In the whole, not less 
than thirty houses and shops were destroyed. More than one hundred 
families were thus deprived of a home, and many, who were lodgers, 
lost all they possessed, excepting the property they carried about their 
persons. Among the property burnt were some of the valuable carvings 
belonging to the Duke of Rutland, which were deposited in one of the 
warehouses, and on which an insurance to a large amount had been 
effected in the Westminster Fire Office. The Duke of York, and several 
of the nobility, visited the ruins, and set on foot a subscription for the 
relief of those who had suffered loss or injury by the fire. 




ST. PANCRAS. 



/rn^t-i^actf.- 




CESAR'S CAMP AT ST. PANCRAS, 
From rt Drawing by DR. STUKELEY. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
ST. PANCRAS : EARLY HISTORY. 

The Brill; Dr. Stukeley's theory of its having been a Roman camp Defensive works in 1643. 
Pastoral character of the district. Value of land. The name St. Pancras. Manors of 
Cantelows (Kentish Town), Totenhall, Pancras, and Ruggemere. King John's Palace. The 
Adam and Eve. " The Paddington Drag." The Pinder of Wakefield. Battle Bridge and 
King's Cross. 

THE BRILL. 

) PART of Somers Town is built upon the 
site of some ancient earthworks formerly 
known as " The Brill," the origin of which 
name has, with great probability, been sup- 
posed by Dr. Stukeley to be a contraction 
of Bury Hill. The same learned anti- 
quarian, who sometimes allowed his specu- 
lations to be unduly influenced by his 
imagination, supposed these earthworks to 
be the remains of a Roman camp. He 
wrote sixteen pages in folio upon this entrenchment, 
which he expressly affirms to have been the camp of 
Caesar. He supposes it to have extended five hundred 
paces by four hundred, including a small moated site 
to the south of the church, and another to the 
north. " Quitting the language of conjecture," says 
Lysons, " the doctor points out the disposition of the 
troops, and the situation of each general's tent, with 
as much confidence as if he had himself been in the 
camp. Here was Caesar's praetorium ; here was stationed Mandubrace, 
King of London ; here were the quarters of M. Crassus, the Quaestor ; 
here was Cominius ; there the Gaulish princes, &c., &c. It is but 







n6 



ST. PANCRAS. 



justice to Dr. Stukeley's memory to mention that this account of 
Caesar's camp was not printed in his lifetime ; as he withheld it from 
the public, it is probable he was convinced that his imagination had 
carried him too far on this subject." Lysons remarks that probably 
the moated areas above mentioned near the church were the sites of 
the vicarage and rectory-house, a supposition which is extremely pro- 
bable from the fact that indications of this moat remained until 
comparatively recent times, and were doubtless sufficiently important to 
arrest the attention of Dr. Stukeley in his day, who says that over 
against the church, in the footpath on the west side of the brook, the 
ditch was perfectly visible. " North of the church," adds Lysons, " was a 
square, moated about, originally the residence of the English King, and 
there Caesar made the British kings Cavselhan and Mundabrace, as good 
friends as ever, the latter presenting Caesar with that famous corslet of 
pearls which the Conqueror afterwards bestowed upon Venus in her 
temple at Rome." 




There is good reason for thinking that the earthworks at the Brill 
were of great antiquity, although the evidence brought forward is not 
sufficiently clear to determine in what age they were constructed. The 
theory of their having been a Roman camp is, however, entirely exploded. 



THE BRILL. 117 

In 1643, when an attack upon London by the king's party seemed 
imminent, the Parliament ordered that defensive works should be 
constructed, and fortified lines were thrown up. "Many thousands of 
men and women (good housekeepers)," says a contemporary account, 
" their children, and servants, went out of the several parishes of 
London with spades, shovels, pickaxes, and baskets, and drums and 
colours before them, some of the chief men of every parish marching 
before them, and so went into the fields, and worked hard all day in 
digging and making up trenches, from fort to fort, wherebie to entrench 
the citie round from one end to the other." 

A fort, consisting of two batteries and a breastwork, for the 
defence of London, was constructed upon that occasion in the grounds 
of Southampton House, Bloomsbury ; and it is not improbable that the 
works at the Brill were adapted for use for the same purpose. 

Until about the year 1790, this locality was almost exclusively 
pastoral, and, with the exception of a few houses near the " Mother 
Redcap " at Camden Town, and the old church of St. Pancras, there was 
nothing to intercept the view of the country from Queen Square and 
the Foundling Hospital. The extraordinary change which has taken 
place in the character of this neighbourhood during the last hundred 
years is most remarkable, and it seems almost incredible that at a 
period no longer ago than a hundred years, the crowded and busy 
environs of King's Cross were absolutely rural, and lonely and secluded 
to a dangerous degree. 

The gradual rise in the value of property is also noteworthy. In 
a will of 1588, the testator says, " I give and bequeath my estate 
called Sandhills, consisting of a close of pasture, situate at the back 
side of Holborn, in the parish of Pancras, and valued at 13 6s. 8d. 
per annum, to the Company of Skinners, on behalf of my school at 
Tonbridge, in Kent." One part only of this property (the whole of 
which was valued at 13 6s. Sd.) was, on September 2gth, 1807, 
leased to Mr. Burton for 99 years at 2,500. What its value may 
be when that lease expires in 1906, it is not possible to estimate. 

A trace of the Brill exists in the street which is known as Brill 
Street, leading from Phrenix Street to Goldington Street. 

In the Domesday Book this place was designated St. Pancras, a 



n8 ST. PANCRAS. 

name which it doubtless received from the name of the saint to whom 
the church was dedicated. This circumstance renders it extremely 
probable that the church was one of the most ancient institutions in 
the parish, and that the houses have been built around it as time 
went on. 

MANOR OF CANTELOWS (KENTISH TOWN). 

Two manors, besides that of Totenhall, are, in the Domesday Book, 
described as being in the parish of St. Pancras. The canons of St. 
Paul's, says that record, hold four hides at Pancras for a manor. The 
land is of two carucates. The villans employ only one plough, but 
might employ another. There is timber in the hedgerows ; pasture for 
the cattle, and 2od. rents. Four villans hold this land under the canons, 
and there are seven cottars. In the whole, valued at 405. ; in King 
Edward's time at 6os. Lysons supposes this to have been the pre- 
bendal manor of Kentish Town, or Cantelows. The name of Kaunteloe, 
or de Kaunteloe, occurs in some of the most ancient court-rolls of the 
manor of Totenhall. According to the survey taken by order of Parlia- 
ment in 1649, the demesne lands consisted of about 210 acres. The 
manor house was then sold to Richard Hill, merchant, of London, and 
the manor (which had been demised to Philip King and George 
Duncomb for three lives, all then surviving) to Richard Utber, draper. 
After the Restoration, the lessees, or their representatives, were reinstated 
in their property. About the year 1670 the lease came into the 
possession of John Jeffreys, Esq., father of Sir Jeffrey Jeffreys, of Roe- 
hampton, Alderman of London. By the intermarriage of Earl Camden 
with Elizabeth, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Nicholas Jeffrey, 
Esq., grandson of Sir John, it became vested in him in right of his 
wife. 

MANOR OF TOTENHALL. 

The manor of Totenhall (from whence the modern name of Totten- 
ham Court Road is derived) was described in the record of Domesday 
as containing five hides. The land is of four carucates (says that 
account), but only seven parts in eight are cultivated. There are four 
villans and four Bordars, wood for 150 hogs, and 405. arising from the 
herbage. In the whole valued at 4, in King Edward's time at 5. 



MANOR OF PANCRAS. 119 

This manor was formerly kept by the prebendary of Totenhall in his 
own hands. In 1343, John de Carleton held a court baron as lessee, 
and the prebendary the same year held a view of frank-plege. In the 
year 1560, the manor of Totenhall, or Tottenham, was demised to 
Queen Elizabeth for 99 years, in the name of Sir Robert Dudley. 
In the year 1639, twenty years before the expiration of Queen 
Elizabeth's term, a lease was granted to Charles I., in the name of 
Sir Harry Vane, for three lives. In 1649, this manor being seized 
as crown land, was sold to Ralph Harrison, Esq., of London, 
for the sum of 3,318 35. lid. At the Restoration it reverted to the 
Crown ; and in the year 1661, two of the lives in King Charles's 
lease being surviving, it was granted by Charles II. in payment of a 
debt to Sir Harry Wood, for the term of 41 years, if the said 
survivors should live so long. After that the lease became the property 
of Isabella Countess* of Arlington, from whom it was inherited by her 
son, Charles Duke of Grafton. In 1768, the lease being then vested 
in the Hon. Charles Fitzroy (afterwards Lord Southampton), an Act 
of Parliament was passed by which the fee-simple of the manor 
was invested in him subject to the payment of 300 per annum, in 
lieu of the ancient reserved rent of 46, and all fines for renewals. 

According to the survey of 1649, the demesne lands of this manor 
comprised about 240 acres. 

MANOR OF PANCRAS. 

The third great manor into which the parish of St. Pancras was 
anciently divided, consisting of the land near the old church and round 
about Somers Town, was called Pancras Manor. When the great 
survey of Domesday was taken, Walter, a Canon of St. Paul's, held 
two hides of land in Pancras. The land in this manor (says that 
record) is of one carucate, and employs one plough. On this estate 
are 24 men, who pay a rent of 305. per annum. In the year 1375, 
Joan, widow of Robert Lord Ferrers, of Chartley, died possessing an 
estate, called the Manor of Pancras (held under the dean and chapter 
of St. Paul's, by a rent of 30$.), being probably the same which 
belonged to Walter the canon. 

In the year 1381, the reversion, which belonged to the Crown, was 



120 ST. PAXCRAS. 

granted after the death of Sir Robert and his wife Custancia, to the 
prior and convent of the house of Carthusian monks, built in honour 
of the holy salutation. 

RUGGEMERE. 

This manor is mentioned in the survey of the parish in 1251, as 
can be seen from the records of the Dean and Chapter at St. Paul's : 
Norden also mentions it. Its exact situation, however, is not known. 
Very possibly at the breaking up of the monasteries it reverted to the 
crown, and was granted by Henry VIII. to some court favourite. The 
property of the Bedford family was acquired in a great measure from that 
monarch's hands. It is, therefore, very probable that the manor of 
Ruggemere consisted of all that land lying at the south-east of the 
parish, no portion of that district lying in either of the other manors. 

Among the names of fields at Marylebone Farm, referred to at 
PP- 5'5 2 f the present volume, was one " Rugg Moor," described as 
having been in the possession of Mr. Richard Kendall. The name 
resembles Ruggemere so closely that one feels inclined to enquire whether 
it may not be in some way connected with that ancient manor. 

KING JOHN'S PALACE. 

The house at Tottenham Court, known as King John's Palace, was 
of great antiquity, and had undergone many repairs and patchings up 
previous to its demolition in 1808. The portion shown in the illustra- 
tion made but a small part of the building, there being in front, at 
about twenty yards distance, a house of thrice its dimensions, and of 
as ancient a foundation, evidently connecting with this and making 
part thereof. The interior seemed to have undergone no alteration 
since the reign of Elizabeth or James I., and the oaken panels, about 
twelve inches by eight in size, were neatly executed. There was a very 
curiously carved mantel-piece of oak, much resembling that at the 
" Pyed Bull,'' at Islington, formerly ^ the residence of the illustrious Sir 
Walter Raleigh ; and several fragments of antique ornaments indicated 
it to have been formerly a place of some consequence. The apartments 
were more spacious than the appearance in the view would lead the 



THE ADAM AXD EVE. 121 

spectator to imagine, particularly in the back, where the rooms were 
nearly double the size of those in front. 

The tradition is that this was one of the palaces of King John, 
and, later on, the residence of Oliver Cromwell. 

At the extremity of the building, through the Gothic arch (see the 
view) was a door, very rarely opened, that led by a gradual descent 
to a subterraneous passage, traditionally said to lead to the old church 
of St. Pancras, with which, in former times, it is said, this building 
had a communication, although the two places were nearly a mile 
apart. This subterraneous passage was the subject of conversation of 
neighbours for many years before the demolition of the premises, and 
several persons were led by curiosity to explore the passage, but few 
had courage to venture a distance of more than twenty yards before 
they turned back, resigning the task to others who might possess more 
courage. A man named Price, a smith, who lived in the neighbour- 
hood, was at length resolved to discover the termination of the passage, 
if possible, and provided himself with a quantity of blazing links to 
subdue the damps of the earth, as well as guide him in his way. He 
returned, however, unsuccessful, but with the best account that had 
hitherto been given of the obstructions that lay in the way. He pro- 
ceeded, as far as he was able to judge, a distance of from thirty to 
fort} 7 yards with some difficulty, from the falling-in of the earth, but 
was unable to proceed any farther by reason of a pool of water, which 
entirely stopped any further progress. 

THE ADAM AND EVE. 

This celebrated inn was built upon the site of the ancient manor 
house of Totenhall, and its walls were in fact portions of that house. 
It was situated at the north-western extremity of Tottenham Court Road. 

As early as the time of Henry III., the house, the property of 
William de Tottenhall, was a mansion of eminence, and was probably the 
court-house of the manor of the same name. 

It was of course much later when the old mansion was turned into 
an inn. Its situation, a little way out in the pleasant fields, doubtless 
attracted many visitors and customers, especially on Sundays, when 
freedom from work gave a little leisure for pleasure and wholesome 



122 



ST. PANCRAS. 



recreation. There is a curious entry in the parish books of St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields, to the following effect : 

" 1645. Rec d of Mr. Bringhurst, constable, wh ch he had 
of Mrs. Stacye's maid and others, for drinking at Tottenhall 
court on the Sabbath daie xij (l apiece ... ... ... ... 35." 

The building represented in the accompanying illustration formed but 
a small part of the ancient mansion, and appears, indeed, to have been 
only a part of the lodgings or offices appropriated to the use of the 
domestics. In the year 1813 it was used as a sort of drinking parlour, 
being detached from the dwelling of the " Adam and Eve " public-house 
and wine-vaults, which were built on the site of the old manor-house 
itself. 




/\PM-A <, 



IBM 



The "Adam and Eve" is supposed to have acquired its sign from 
the ancient mysteries ard moralities which were formerly exhibited in inn 
yards, 

"Those shows which once profaned the sacred page, 
The barb'rous mysteries of our infant stage." 

The house was for a long time celebrated for its tea gardens, which 
were similar to those of the White Conduit House and Bagnigge Wells. 
The grounds were extensive and convenient, and a part of them were 
devoted to the uses of those who chose to play at skittles, Dutch-pins, 
bumble-puppy, &c. 

There were spacious gardens at the rear and at the sides, and a 
fore-court, with large elm-trees, and tables and benches for out-door 



"THE PADDINGTON DRAG." 123 

customers, who preferred to smoke their pipes and enjoy the fresh air 
from Marylebone Park in front of the road. Inside the gardens were 
fruit-trees and bowers and arbours, with every accommodation for tea- 
drinking parties. In the long-room there was an excellent organ, and it 
was generally well attended, and the company respectable, until the last 
few years in the eighteenth century ; but in consequence of the accumu- 
lation of buildings in the neighbourhood, it became a place of more 
promiscuous resort, and persons of the worst character and description 
were in the constant habit of frequenting it ; highwaymen, footpads, 
pickpockets, and common women, formed its leading visitants, and it 
became so great a nuisance to the neighbourhood, that the magistrates 
interfered, the organ was banished, the skittle-grounds destroyed, and the 
gardens dug up for the foundation of Eden Street, which was built on 
their site. 

Hogarth has made the " Adam and Eve " the place of rendezvous 
for the " March of the Guards to Finchley ; " and upon the sign- 
board of the house is inscribed " Totenham Court Nursery, 1745," 
in allusion to the famous Broughton's Amphitheatre for boxing. 

At the commencement of the present century there was only one 
conveyance a day between Paddington and the City. This conveyance 
was known as the " Paddington Drag," and called to take up passengers 
at the " Adam and Eve," whose doors it passed twice a day. It was 
driven by its proprietor, performing the journey in two hours and a 
half quick time, returning to Paddington in the evening within three 
hours of its leaving the City, which was considered fair time considering 
the necessity for precaution against the accidents of night travelling. 

We cannot do better than borrow the following extracts from some 
most interesting communications published in Hone's Year Book (pp. 
317-318): "It may be recollected that the 'Paddington Drag' made 
its way to the City, down the defile called Gray's Inn Lane, and gave 
the passengers an opportunity for ' shopping,' by waiting an hour or 
more at the Blue Posts, Holborn Bars. The route to the Bank, by 
the way of the City Road, was then a thing unthought of; and the 
Hampstead coachman who first achieved this daring feat was regarded 
with admiration, somewhat akin to that bestowed on him who first 
doubled the Cape in search of a passage to India. 



124 ST. PAXCRAS. 

" The spot which you recollect as a rural suburb, and which is 
now surrounded on every side by streets and squares, was once 
numbered among the common boundaries of a Cockney's Sunday walk. 
George Wither, in his ' Britain's Remembrancer,' 1628, has this 

passage : 

' Some by the bancks of Thames their pleasure taking ; 
Some, sullibubs among the milkmaids making ; 
With musique some, upon the waters rowing ; 
Some to the next adjoyning hamlet going ; 
And Hogsdone, Islington, and Tothnam-Court, 
For cakes and creame, had then no small resort.' " 

Further he says : 

"Those who did never travel, till of late, 
Half way to Pancridge from the City gate." 

Broome, in his " New Academy," 1658, Act 2, has this passage : 

' When shall we walk to Totnam, or crosse ore 
The water ? or take coach to Kensington, 
Or Paddington, or to some one or other 
O' the City out-leaps, for an afternoon? 1 " 

Another writer in Hone's Year Book (p. 318) says : 

" MR. HONE, 

" Your brief notice of the Adam and Eve, Hampstead-road, 
has awakened many a pleasant reminiscence of a suburb which 
was the frequent haunt of my boyish days, and the scene of 
some of the happiest hours of my existence at a more mature 
age. But it has also kindled a very earnest desire for a more 
particular inspection into the store-house of your memory, re- 
specting this subject ; and it has occurred to me, that you could 
scarcely fill a sheet or two of your Year Book with matter more 
generally interesting, to the majority of your readers, than your 
own recollection of the northern suburb of London would supply. 
Few places afford more scope for pleasant writing, and for the 
indulgence of personal feeling; for not many places have under- 
gone, within the space of a few years, a more entire, and, to 
me, scarcely pleasing, transmutation. I am almost afraid to 
own that ' Mary-le-bone Park ' holds a dearer place in my 
affections than its more splendid, but less rural successor. 
When too I remember the lowly, but picturesque, old ' Queen's 
Head and Artichoke,' with its long skittle, and ' bumble-puppy ' 



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BATTLE BRIDGE AND KING'S CROSS. 125 

grounds, and the ' Jew's Harp, 1 with its bowery tea-gardens, 
I have little pleasure in the sight of the gin-shop-looking places 
which now bear the names. Neither does the new ' Haymarket ' 
compensate me for the fields in which I made my earliest 
studies of cattle, and once received from the sculptor, Nollekens, 
an approving word, and pat on the head, as he returned from 
his customary morning walk." 

THE FINDER OF WAKEFIELD. 

From the old inscription, dated 1660, upon a stone forming a portion 
of old Bagnigge House, it appears that the Finder of Wakefield was a 
public-house at that early date, and there is evidence that it was in 
existence as early as the year 1577. 

A pinder was the petty officer of a manor, whose duty it was to 
impound all strange cattle straying upon the common land. Such cattle 
were kept in bondage in the pound until they were claimed and the 
expenses paid. It was the pinder's duty to attend to the wants of 
impounded cattle during their period of detention. 

In the year above-mentioned, 1577, this is said to have been the 
only house of entertainment between Holborn and Highgate. It seems 
as if the proprietor of Bagnigge House was concerned in the " Pinder," 
as he would scarcely have allowed a slab of stone to have remained 
on the front of his house, pointing it out as a well-known place, unless 
he had some interest in it. 

Aubrey mentions that in the " spring after the conflagration at 
London, all the ruins were overgrown with an herbe or two ; but 
especially one with a yellow flower : and on the south side of St. Paul's 
Church it grew as thick as could be ; nay, on the very top of the 
tower. The herbalists call it Ericolevis Neapolitana, small bank cresses of 
Naples ; which plant Tho. Willis (the famous physician) told me he 
knew before but in one place about towne ; and that was at Battle 
Bridge, by the Pindar of Wakefield, and that in no great quantity." 

BATTLE BRIDGE AND KING'S CROSS. 

Until about the year 1830 the locality now known as King's Cross 
was called Battle Bridge, and the tradition is that this name was given 
in consequence of it having been the site of the great battle in which 



126 ST. PANCRAS. 

Queen Boadicea played so prominent a part. The second portion of 
the name was doubtless applied in allusion to the bridge in continuation 
of Gray's Inn Road, which at that point crossed the river Holebourne or 
Fleet. 

King's Cross took its name from a structure which formerly stood in 
the middle of the spot where several roads crossed at Battle Bridge. It 
was of no great antiquity, and, indeed, was not a cross at all in the 
proper meaning of the word. It was really a national monument, and 
certainly it possessed no feature which could be called ecclesiastical. 

It was erected by public subscription in the year 1830, in order to do 
honour, as a contemporary circular announced, to " His Most Gracious 
Majesty William the Fourth, his late Majesty George the Fourth, and the 
preceding kings of the Royal House of Brunswick." The same circular 
sets forth various reasons for the erection of this national memorial, as 
follows : 

" A splendid monument is now erecting, by public sub- 
scription, to be called King's Cross, in the centre of the six roads 
uniting at Battle Bridge, in conformity to the model presented 
and approved by the Right Honorable the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department ; the honorable the Commissioners of the 
Metropolitan Roads ; the Commissioners of the New Police ; and 
the Nobility in general. 

" The situation selected is, perhaps above all others, the most 
appropriate for the purpose, from the many memorable events 
that have occurred upon the spot, which the history of the country 
will fully explain. Around it, Julius Caesar, with Marc Anthony 
and Cicero, were in encampment for two years ; when the laws 
and mandates issued by Caesar, tended in a great measure to 
civilize the Ancient Britons. 

" On the site was fought the Grand Battle, in which Queen 
Boadicea so greatly signalised herself, from which emanated the 
name of Battle Bridge. 

" Near it was erected the famous Observatory of Oliver 
Cromwell. 

" From it commenced the original Roman North Road, and 
Great Pass or Barrier, to the Metropolis, bounded by the River 
Fleet. 




ELEVATION OF KING'S CROSS, 1830. 



KING'S CROSS. 

" And even at the present day, the spot is eminently distin- 
guished, as it forms the centre of the finest and most frequented 
public road round the Metropolis. 

" Description of King's Cross. The Base or Lodge is of an 
Octagonal form, and is ornamented by Eight Grecian Doric 
Columns, two at each corner, supporting, above the Entablature, 
the four late Kings of England, which will occupy the North- 
West, South-West, South-East, and North-East Corners. From 
the Cornice of the Columns rises a Bold Plinth and Subplinth 
with a Balustrade. Between the opening over the Doors fronting 
East and West, is a richly sculptured National Coat of Arms; 
above is the station for the Illuminated Clock, fronting the 
Paddington and Pentonville Roads ; the upper part forms the 
Base of the rich Ornamental Grecian Pedestal, on which will be 
placed the colossal statue of his Majesty, in full Robes. The 
lower part will be splendidly Illuminated by Gas Lamps : the 
whole forming not only an imposing ornament, but a protection 
to the Public from danger in crossing the six roads uniting at 
this spot. 

" The Proprietors and others interested in the Estates sur- 
rounding King's Cross, have already rendered liberal Subscriptions 
in order to carry on the undertaking ; it is presumed that every 
loyal subject will embrace this opportunity of evincing his 
attachment to his late Majesty, and our present beloved Sovereign, 
by subscribing in aid of the funds for the completion of King's 
Cross. 

" Each subscriber of One Guinea and under Five, will be pre- 
sented with a Gilt Medal of the Cross ; and of Five Guineas and 
upwards, with a Silver Medal, with his Name inscribed thereon. 

" Subscriptions received at the Banking Houses of Messrs. 
Robarts, Curtis, and Co., Lombard Street ; Messrs. Williams and 
Co., Birchin Lane; Messrs. Coutts and Co., Strand; Sir Claude 
Scott and Co., Cavendish Square ; at Sam's Royal Library, St. 
James's Street; Messrs. Rushworth and Co., 12, Haymarket ; of 
the Treasurer; and at the Office, n, Liverpool Street, King's 

Cross. 

" JOHN ROBSON, Esqr., Treasurer, 

" Hamilton Place, New Road." 



127 



128 



ST. PAXCRAS. 



Tlierc is a little doubt as to whom it was intended to represent by 
the four figures, as another account describes them as the effigies of St. 
George of England, St. Patrick of Ireland, St. Andrew of Scotland, and 
St. David of Wales. There is reason even to doubt whether the 
figures were ever put up at all; for in a view of King's Cross, published 
in the year 1836, the structure shewn is devoid of these appendages. It 
is certain, however, that there was a colossal figure of George IV. upon 
an ornamental Grecian pedestal. 

The architectural features of King's Cross have been made the subject 
of severe sarcasm by Pugin in his Contrasts; or a Parallel between the 
Architecture of the i^th and igth Centuries. It is figured in one of the 
plates of that work side by side with the beautiful Gothic cross of 
Chichester. The architect of King's Cross was Mr. Stephen Geary. 

King's Cross was not destined to stand for many years. It was in 
the way ; and, to tell the truth, the public did not seem very much in love 
with their bargain. In the year 1845 it was pulled down in connection 
with some public improvements. 

A contemporary newspaper, in commenting upon its demolition, says: 
" The pennyworths of artistical information, doled out from week to week, 
soon taught the people that the above was a very uncomplimentary effigy 
of majesty ; even the very cabmen grew critical ; the watermen jeered ; 
the omnibus drivers ridiculed royalty in so parlous a state ; at length 
the statue was removed in toto, or rather in piecemeal. 

" We cannot tax our memories with the uses to which the building 
itself has been appropriated ; now a place of exhibition, then a police 
station, and last of all (to come to the dregs of the subject), a beer-shop." 



CHAPTER IX. 



ST. PANCRAS: ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The old Church of St. Pancras Quaint description in 1593. Antiquity of St. Pancras Church. 
French Refugees. Benefactions to the church. Renovation in 1848. Altar Stone. 
Epitaphs. Epigram in St Pancras Churchyard. Anecdote of the Poet Chatterton. The 
New Church of St. Pancras. St. James's Church, Hampstead Road. Whitefield's 
Tabernacle. " Resurrection- Men " Monuments. Demolition of the Tabernacle, 1890. 
Presbyterian Church, Regent Square. Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon Square. 

THE OLD CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS. 



HERE is some uncertainty about the date 
when this church was built. A period 
somewhere about the year 1350 has been 
assigned to it ; but however that may be, 
it is certain there was a church at 
St. Pancras before that date, for in the 
records belonging to the dean and chapter 
of St. Paul's there is a notice of a 
visitation made to this church in 1251. 
It states that it had a very small tower, a little 
belfry, a good stone font for baptisms, and a small 
marble stone to carry the pax. 

The following quaint description of the church of 
St. Pancras is taken from John Norden's Speculum 
Britannia, 1593 : 

" Pancras Church standeth all alone as utterly 
forsaken, old, and weatherbeaten, which for the 
antiquitie thereof, it is thought not to yield to Paules 
in London; about this Church have bin manie 
buildings, now decaied, leaving poore Pancras without 
companie or comfort ; yet it is now and then visited 
with Kentish towne and Highgate which are members 




130 



ST. PANCRAS. 



thereof; but they seldome come there, for that they have chappels of 
ease within themselves, but when there is a corps to be interred, they 
are forced to leave the same in this forsaken church or churchyard, 
where (no doubt) it resteth as secure against the day of resurrection 
as if it laie in stately Panics. 

" Pancras as desolate as it standeth is not forsaken of all ; a prebend 
of Panics accepteth it in right of his office." 

The list of the prebends of St. Pancras includes the eminent 
names of Paley and William Sherlock. 



\> %}>, 

SHt** 

^IA*}; -V, 




17SO. 



Lysons describes it as a church " of Gothic architecture, built of 
stones and flints, which are now covered with plaster. It is certainly 
not older than the I4th century, perhaps in Norden's time it had the 
appearance of great decay ; the same building, nevertheless, repaired from 
time to time, still remains ; looks no longer ' old and weatherbeaten,' 
and may exist perhaps to be spoken of by some antiquary of a future 
century." 

The church was probably of Gothic style originally, but it had 
been patched up so often, in so many ways, and with such a variety 
of materials, that it had lost all its original architectural features. 



ST. PANCRAS OLD CHURCH. 131 

A writer in the Builder (of February 4th, 1888) says : " This little 
church, standing against Pancras-road, and northwards of its ancient 
burial ground, presents externally but few indications of its venerable 
history. The existing fabric indeed dates from the end of the twelfth 
century. In 1848, the old tower was pulled down, when its stones 
were used for recasing the body of the church, which at the same 
time was repaired and enlarged by Mr. A. D. Gough and Mr. Roumieu 
in the Anglo-Norman manner. That was the precursor of the very 
small tower and little belfry, which are described in a schedule of the 
visitation made hither in 1251, whereof a record is preserved in the 
archives of St. Paul's. Norden, writing in 1593, claims for the church 
an antiquity rivalling, if not excelling, that of St. Paul's itself. 

" There can be no question that Saint Pancras-in-the-Fields yields 
to very few churches in our country as touching the antiquity of its 
foundation. Some would connect its dedication to the Phrygian boy- 
martyr, with a cherished memory of the three Pagan boys, captives 
from Ella's northern province of Deira, whose fair beauty and slavedom 
excited the pity of Gregory the Great when yet a monk of St. Andrew's 
convent on the Crelian Mount at Rome. Pancratius was the patron 
saint in particular of children. His name was taken for the place of 
his burial, the Calepodian Cemetery in Rome. There the church of 
S. Pancrazio, behind the Vatican, marks the scene of his sufferings 
and death under Diocletian, in the year 304. ... A long-lived 
tradition avers that here, on the site of this little church in London, 
hard by the shore of the Fleet, was raised the first altar to Christ in 
Britain, that is to say, anterior to the Saxon Invasion. This cannot 
now be either contradicted or confirmed." 

The exact date when St. Pancras became a parish, with defined 
boundaries, has not been ascertained. 

Weever, in his Funerall Monuments, speaks of a wondrous ancient 
monument in this church, by tradition said to belong to the family 
of Gray, of Gray's Inn. " If it be that which now remains in the 
north wall of the chancel," says Lysons, " I should suppose it not to 
to be older than the year 1500. It is of purbeck marble, and has an 
elliptical arch ornamented with quatrefoils. No inscription or arms 
remain." Weever mentions also the tomb of Robert Eve, and 



132 ST. PANCRAS. 

Laurentia his sister, daughter of Francis, son of Thomas Eve, clerk 
of the crown. The family of Eve, or Ive, were of great antiquity 
in this parish. In the year 1458, King Henry VI. granted leave to 
Thomas Ive to enclose a portion of the highway adjoining his mansion 
at Kentessetonne. Richard Ive, about the middle of the last century, 
had the manor of Toppesfield, in the parish of Hornsey, and died 
without male issue. 

The church and churchyard of St. Pancras were for many years 
noted as the burial place of such Roman Catholics as died in London 
and its vicinity. The reason assigned for this preference for St. Pancras 
Church as a burial place was that masses were said in a church in 
the south of France, dedicated to the same saint, for the souls of the 
deceased interred at St. Pancras in England. 

Some persons aver that at St. Pancras Church mass was sung since 
the Reformation ; others claim unusual sanctity for a spot where a few 
Roman Catholics are supposed to have been burnt in Queen Elizabeth's 
day, the martyrs whose recollection evoked the prayers of Dr. Johnson 
as he twice passed the church when out walking with Dr. Brocklesby. 

Since the French Revolution, a large number of clergy, and other 
refugees, some of them of high rank, made their residence at 
St. Pancras. It has been computed that on the average thirty, 
probably of the French clergy, were annually buried at St. Pancras 
in the early part of the present century. In 1801, the number of 
French refugees buried there was 41 ; in 1802, 32. 

This circumstance may account for the burial of many Roman 
Catholics there, but according to a note in Croker's edition of Boswell's 
Life of Dr. Johnson, the Roman Catholics are prejudiced in favour of St. 
Pancras for some reason or other which has not yet been explained, 
just as is the case with respect to other places of burial in various 
parts of the kingdom. 

The rectory of St. Pancras was valued at thirteen marks per 
annum in 1327. It appears, by the visitation of the church in 1251, 
that the vicar had all the small tithes, a pension of 5 per annum 
out of the great tithes, four acres of glebe, and a vicarage house near 
the church. 

Richard Cloudesley of Islington, by will, dated I3th January, 1517, 



ST. PANCRAS OLD CHURCH. 133 

gave as follows : " Item I give and bequeath to the Church of St. 
Pancras, two torches, price xivd., and two poor men of the same 
parish two gowns, price the piece vis. viiid. Item I give and bequeath 
to the priest of the church aforesaid xxd., to ye intent yt he shall 
pray for me by name openly in his church every Sunday, and to pray 
his parishioners to pray for me and forgive me, as I forgive them and 
all the world." 

From the certificates of the commissioners for dissolving colleges and 
chantries, in the first year of the reign of Edward VI., it appears that 
John Morrant gave unto the parson and churchwardens of St. Pancras, 
for the intent that they should keep an obit yearly, for ever, four acres of 
meadow land, called Kilbornecroft, valued in 1547 at sixteen shillings per 
annum, whereof, at the obit, the sum of twelve shillings was to be given 
to the priest, and four shillings to the poor in recreation. 

In the inventory of the ornaments, bells, &c., belonging to the parish 
church of St. Pancras-in-the-Fields, made in the time of Edward VI., 
mention is made of "a hearse cloth of sattyn of Brydges, and four 
standards for the hearse of latten." 

Phillis Oldernshaw, wife of William Oldernshaw, gentleman, of Toten- 
hall Court, in this parish, gave on the gth of February, 1627, a black 
cloth for ever, to be laid on the poor deceased people of this parish, 
without fee, and all others to pay for the use of it to the churchwardens. 

Mrs. Rose Knightly, of Green Street, Kentish Town, gave on the 
25th of September, 1632, to this parish for ever, a fair gilt plate, to be 
only used for the bread at the Holy Sacrament, in the same parish. 

Before the renovation of 1848, the church contained no galleries, and 
was capable of accommodating not more than about one hundred and 
twenty persons. It was usual formerly to perform service in this church 
only on the first Sunday in each month ; on other Sundays in Kentish 
Town Chapel. 

By the enlargement and reconstruction of the church in the year 
1848, as above mentioned, sitting room was provided for about five 
hundred persons. The exterior w r as entirely faced with ragstone, prin- 
cipally obtained in rough unhewn masses from the old tower, which was 
removed to effect an elongation of the church, so that no new stone of 
this description was required ; but the old stone which had existed for 



i 34 ST. PANCRAS. 

many centuries in the fabric was re-worked and re-applied to the entire 
casing of the structure throughout. 

The arrangement of the church, as then restored, consists of an 
elongation westward ; a new tower occupying a central position on the 
south side of that part which constituted the old church ; and a stair 
turret in a corresponding position in that, which was entirely new. The 
west front and tower were the main features of the structure. The internal 
fittings were those of the old structure, retained, altered, and adapted to 
the new church. The oak carvings of Gibbon's time were preserved 
and applied, the whole being treated as the furniture of the church 
rather than as part of the structure itself. 

The windows of the chancel are filled with stained glass. The east 
window consists of three compartments, the subjects being the crucifixion 
in the centre, and effigies of St. Peter and St. Paul on either side ; and 
in the windows of the north and south side of the chancel are repre- 
sentations of the conversion of St. Paul, and his appearance before 
Agrippa. The small circular windows have the emblem of the Trinity, 
the Agnus Dei, and the Alpha and Omega. The large wheel window in 
the west front is also filled with stained glass. 

An old altar-stone, found during the progress of the works, has been 
preserved and inlaid, and placed in position so as to be slightly raised 
above the chancel flooring. The many sepulchral monuments have been 
carefully restored and refixed as nearly as possible in their original 
positions. 

In the year 1850 the churchyard was closed by Act of Parliament. 
In 1868 the Midland Railway Company made a cutting through the 
churchyard and a viaduct over. 

The tombs in and around old St. Pancras Church in many cases bear 
most interesting inscriptions, but it will be impossible to give more than 
a small selection in this place. Nothing more than that is desirable 
either, as a large number of the inscriptions were brought together by 
Frederick Teague Cansick, and printed in the years 1869 and 1872. 

The first inscription quoted is in black letter, and reads as follows : 

" At this pues end here lyeth buryed MARYE BERESFORD, 
the daughter of Alexander Elonore, of Tottenham 



ST. PA NCR AS OLD CHURCH. 135 

Courte and the late dear and wellbeloved wife of John 
Beresford gentleman and ouster barester of Staple 
Inne who departed this life the xxi. day of August in 
the year of our Lorde God 1588 ; whose soul is with 
God for she trusted in the Lorde and reposed her salva- 
tion wholye in Jesus Christ in whom is all peace and 
rest all joye and consolation all felicitye and salvation 
and in whom are all the promises. Yea and amen." 

"MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT GODWIN, 

Author of 

A Vindication 

of the Rights of Woman. 

Born 27th of April, 1759: 

Died loth of September, 1797." 

"WILLIAM WOOLLETT, 
Engraver to His Majesty, 

was born at 

Maidstone in Kent, 

upon the i5th of August, 

MDCCXXXV. 

He died the 23rd and 

was interred in this place 

on the 28th Day of May, 

MDCCLXXXV. 

ELIZABETH WOOLLETT, Widow of the above, 
Died December the i5th, 1819. 
Aged 73 years." 

On this tombstone were formerly written with a pencil the following 
lines, which have long since been defaced : 

" Here Woollett rests expecting to be sav'd, 
He graved well, but is not well engrav'd." 

It has been suggested as not improbable that these lines gave rise 
to a subscription for erecting a monument in Westminster Abbey to 



136 ST. PANCRAS. 

Woollett's memory, and to which Benjamin West, P.R.A., and Alderman 
Boydell were liberal contributors. The monument was placed in the 
cloisters of the Abbey. 

" Here lie the remains of MR. JOHN WALKER, author of the 
Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language, and other 
valuable works on Grammar and Elocution, of which he was 
for many years a very distinguished Professor. He closed a 
life devoted to piety and virtue on the first of August, 1807, 
aged 75. 

" Also in the same grave are interred the remains of Sybylla 
Walker, wife of the above John Walker, who died on the 2gth 
of April, 1802, aged 79. I cling to the foot of the Cross." 

" Underneathe thys stone doth lye 
The Body of Mr. Humphrie 
Jones, who was of late 
By Trade a plate- 
Worker in Barbicanne ; 
Well known to be a good manne 
By all his Friends and Neighbours toe 
And paid every bodie their due. 
He died in the year 1737 
Aug. 4th, aged 80, his soule we hope's in heaven." 

EPIGRAM IN ST. PANCRAS CHURCHYARD. 

The following epigram, said to be in St. Pancras Churchyard, is 
copied from Samuel Palmer's History of St. Pancras: 

Thro' Pancras Church-yard as two Taylors were walking, 
Of trade, news, and politics earnestly talking, 
Says one, "These fine rains," and looking around, 
"Will bring all things charmingly out of the ground." 
"Marry, Heaven forbid!" says the other, "for here 
I buried two wives without shedding a tear." 



A curious anecdote is told of Chatterton, the poet, who was amusing 
himself one day, in company with a friend, by reading epitaphs in 
St. Pancras Churchyard. He was so much absorbed in thought as he 
walked along, that, not perceiving an open grave in his way just dug, 
he tumbled into it. His companion, observing his situation, ran to 



ST. PANCRAS NEW CHURCH. 137 

his assistance, and as he helped him out, told him in a jocular 
manner, he was happy in assisting at the resurrection of genius. Poor 
Chatterton smiled, and, taking his friend by the arm, replied, " My 
dear friend, I feel the sting of a speedy dissolution. I have been at 
war with the grave some time, and find it not so easy to vanquish as 
I imagined ; we can find an asylum from every creditor but that." 

Three days afterwards the neglected and disconsolate youth 
committed suicide by poison. 

THE NEW CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS. 

The Duke of York laid the foundation stone of the new Church of 
St. Pancras on the ist of July, 1819 ; and in April, 1822, the Bishop of 
London consecrated it. It was built, from the designs of Mr. William 
Inwood, in imitation of the Erechtheium at Athens, and it is said 
to have been the first place of Christian worship erected in Great 
Britain in the strict Grecian style. The steeple, upwards of 160 
feet in height, is from an Athenian model, the Temple of the Winds, 
built by Pericles ; it is, however, surmounted by a cross in lieu of the 
Triton and his wand, the symbols of the winds, in the original. There 
is a very fine portico of six columns at the west end of the church. 
Towards the east end are lateral porticoes, each supported by colossal 
female statues on a plinth, in which are entrances to the catacombs 
beneath the church. Each of the figures bears an ewer in one hand, 
and rests the other on an inverted torch, the emblem of death. These 
figures are composed of terra-cotta, formed in pieces, and cemented round 
cast-iron pillars, which in reality support the entablatures. 

The eastern end of the church differs from the ancient temple in 
having a semi-circular, or apsidal termination, around which, and along 
the sides, are terra-cotta imitations of Greek tiles. 

The interior of the church is in keeping with its exterior. The 
pulpit and reading desk were made of the celebrated " Fairlop oak," which 
formerly stood in Hainault Forest, Essex, and gave its name to the fair 
at Easter-tide long held beneath its branches. Gilpin mentions this tree 
in his Forest Scenery. " The tradition of the country," he says, " traces 
it half way up the Christian era." The old oak tree was blown down 
in 1820, 



i 3 8 ST. PANCRAS. 

ST. JAMES'S CHURCH, HAMPSTEAD ROAD. 

In or about the year 1792, St. James's Chapel was built upon the 
eastern side of Hampstead Road, and an adjoining cemetery in connection 
with it was formed about the same time. Both chapel and cemetery 
were, by Act of Parliament, made to belong to the parish of St. James, 
Westminster. 

Among the celebrated persons buried in the cemetery attached to St. 
James's Chapel were the celebrated fanatic, Lord George Gordon, 1797 ; 
Matthias Tomick, of Broad Street, Carnaby Market, seven feet ten 
inches in height, who died at the age of 66, of a decline, in 1794 ; Dr. 
Rowley, the physician ; Count de Welderen, many years ambassador 
to this country from the Hague ; John Hoppner, the portrait painter ; 
George Morland, a skilful painter who was particularly happy in his 
representations of rural nature and animals ; Dr. Dickson, Bishop of 
Down ; and many others. 



WHITEFIELD'S TABERNACLE. 

In 1741 the friends of Rev. George Whitefield, the eminent Calvinist 
preacher, procured a piece of ground close to Wesley's Foundry, and 
employed a carpenter to build a large temporary shed to screen his 
Moorfields congregations from the cold and rain. For twelve years this 
wooden shed served as Whitefield's metropolitan church. In 1753 it was 
superseded by the erection, on the same site, of the substantial brick 
building which, for more than a hundred years, was used by Whitefield's 
successors. 

In the year 1756, Whitefield set about collecting funds for a proposed 
new chapel in Tottenham Court Road, upon a site which at that time 
was surrounded by fields and gardens. On the north side of it there 
were but two houses, and the next after them, half a mile further, was 
the " Adam and Eve " public house. The chapel, when first erected, 
was seventy feet square within the walls. Over the door were the arms 
of Whitefield. Two years after it was opened, twelve almshouses and a 
minister's house were added. The inhabitants of the almshouses were 
allowed 35. weekly, and candles, out of the sacramental collections at the 



WHITEFIELD' S TABERNACLE. 139 

chapel. About a year after that, the chapel was found to be too small, 
and it was enlarged to the size of a hundred and twenty-seven feet long, 
and seventy feet broad, with a dome a hundred and fourteen feet in 
height. Beneath it were vaults for the burial of the dead, in which 
Whitefield intended that himself and his friends, John and Charles Wesley, 
should be buried. " I have prepared a vault in this chapel," Whitefield 
used to say to his somewhat bigotted congregation, " where I intend to 
be buried, and Messrs. John and Charles Wesley shall also be buried 
there. We will all lie together. You will not let them enter your 
chapel while they are alive ; they can do you no harm when they are 
dead." 

The lease of the ground was granted to Whitefield by General George 
Fitzroy, and on its expiration in 1828, the freehold was purchased for 
14,000. 

The foundation stone of the chapel was laid in the beginning of June, 
1756, upon which occasion Whitefield preached. Among those who 
attended the service were the Rev. Thomas Gibbons ; Dr. Andrew 
Giffard, Assistant- Librarian of the British Museum; and the Rev. Benjamin 
Grosvenor, D.D., for many years the pastor of the Presbyterian congrega- 
tion in Crosby Square, and who, after preaching in London for half a 
century, had recently retired into private life. 

On the 7th of November, 1756, the new chapel was opened, and 
Whitefield again preached a sermon. 

Among the distinguished preachers who, in olden days, occupied the 
pulpit at Whitefield's Tabernacle, were : Dr. Peckwell, De Courcy, 
Berridge, Walter Shirley, Piercy (chaplain to General Washington), 
Rowland Hill, Torial Joss, West, Kinsman, Beck, Medley, Edward 
Parsons, Matthew Wilks, Joel Knight, John Hyatt, and many others. 
Tottenham Court Road Chapel has a history which is, indeed, well 
worthy of being written. From this venerable sanctuary sprang separate 
congregations in Shepherd's Market, Kentish Town, Paddington, Tonbridge 
Chapel, Robert Street, Crown Street, and Craven Chapel. 

The following account is given of the discovery of "resurrection- 
men " at W T hitefield's Tabernacle : 

" It appears that on Friday, March 13, 1798, the watchman on 
going his round perceived a hackney coach waiting near the chapel, 



i 4 o ST. PANCRAS. 

and he at once concluded that some resurrection-men were at work in 
the burial ground. Acting on this supposition he gave notice to one of 
the patrols, who, going to the spot, saw three men in conversation with 
the coachman, but who, on his approach, decamped. He, however, 
secured the coachman, and, on searching the coach, discovered the body 
of a male child wrapt up in a cloth. He then went to examine the 
burying ground, when, finding several graves open, he went to the 
sexton's house, which adjoined the ground, but found that he had gone 
to stay at Westminster. 

" At daylight a further search took place, when eight other bodies 
(four women, three children, and one man) were found tied up in sacks 
for removal. The coachman, whose name was John Peake, was brought 
before the magistrate at Bow Street on the following morning, and, 
after the parties had identified the bodies, the magistrate proceeded to 
examine the prisoner. 

" He said, in his defence, that about three o'clock he was called 
off the stand near the Hatton Street end of Holborn by three men, 
who ordered him to drive to Pitt Street, Tottenham Court Road, and 
there, getting out, desired him to wait for him near the Chapel. 
That one of them continued by the coach the whole time, but he 
denied seeing anything put into the coach, or even that the doors were 
opened after the men first got out. The sexton was then examined, 
but nothing could be collected from him, he having slept from home 
that night. After considerable investigation, it at length came out that 
the prisoner was well known as connected with resurrection-men, that 
he was nick-named ' Lousy Jack,' and had been implicated in the 
robbery at Hampstead Churchyard. 

" There had been six funerals on that afternoon, and the whole of 
the bodies were in the sacks. Among them was a woman, who, dying 
in her lying-in, was interred with her infant. The greatest scene of 
distress was exhibited round the Chapel by the relatives of those who 
had lately been buried in that ground." 

The chapel contained memorials, among others, to the following: 
Mason Jenkin, limner, 1758 ; Matthew Pearce, builder of the chapel, 1775 ; 
Rev. A. M. Toplady, aged 38, 1778 ; Anna Cecilia, daughter of Chris- 
topher Rhodes, Esq., of Chatham (a monument by Bacon, with a 



WHITEFIELD'S TABERNACLE. 141 

bas relief of the woman touching the hem of the Saviour's garment), 1796 ; 
John Bacon, R.A., 1797, with the following inscription : 

" Near this place lies John Bacon, R.A., sculptor, who died 
Aug. 7, 1799, aged 59 years, and left the following inscription for 
this tablet, ' What I was as an artist seemed to me of some 
importance, while I lived, but what I really was, as a believer in 
Christ Jesus, is the only thing of importance to me now.' " 

There were also monuments for Elizabeth, wife of John Bacon, R.A., 
who died in 1782 ; and for Samuel Foyster, Esq., one of the trustees of 
the chapel, 1805. 

It is a somewhat remarkable circumstance that neither John nor 
Charles Wesley, nor Whitefield himself, were buried at Tottenham Court 
Road Chapel, according to Whitefield's intention. Whitefield's wife, 
however, was buried there, and is commemorated by the following 
inscription : 

" In memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Whitefield, aged 62, who, 
after upwards of thirty years' Strong and frequent manifestations 
of a Redeemer's love and as Strong and frequent strugglings with 
the buffettings of Satan, Bodily Sicknesses, and the remains of 
indwelling Sin, finished her course with joy, August gth, Anno 
Domini 1768. 

" Also to the Memory of the Revd. Mr. George Whitefield, 
A.M., late Chaplain to the Right Honourable the Countess ot 
Huntingdon, whose Soul made meet for glory was taken to 
Imanuel's Bosom the 3oth of Sept., 1770, and whose Body now 
lies in the silent grave at Newbury Port, near Boston, in New 
England, there deposited in sure and certain hope of a joyful! 
Resurrection to Eternal life and Glory. 

" He was a man Eminent for Piety, of an Humane, Benevo- 
lent and Charitable Disposition. His zeal in the Cause of God 
was Singular ; His labours indefatigable, and his success in 
preaching the gospell remarkable and astonishing. He departed 
this life in the 56th year of his Age. 

" And, like his Master, was by some despis'd, 
Like him by many others lov'd and priz'd ; 
But their's shall be the everlasting crown, 
Not whom the world, but Jesus Christ shall own." 



I 4 2 ST. PANCRAS. 

In consequence of the insecure nature of the foundations, the entire 
structure of Whitefield's Tabernacle had to be taken down in the year 
1890. Preparations are now being made for the rebuilding of the chapel. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, REGENT SQUARE. 

The foundation-stone of this church was laid in October, 1824, by 
the Earl of Breadalbane, who acted in the capacity of proxy for the 
Duke of Clarence, whose indisposition prevented him laying the stone 
in person. The Regent Square Church was erected in consequence of 
the Caledonian Church in Hatton Garden being too small for the large 
congregations who assembled to hear the eloquent preacher, Rev. Edward 
Irving. 

The building was completed in 1827, and opened according to 
the manner of the National Scotch Presbyterian Church. It cost over 
25,000 ; was built to accommodate about three thousand persons ; and 
for many years had Mr. Irving for its minister. 

CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH, GORDON SQUARE. 

The members of the Catholic Apostolic Church, often called Irvingites 
in allusion to their founder, Rev. Edward Irving, seem to have consisted 
originally of the bulk of the congregation attending Regent Square 
Presbyterian Church, who accompanied Irving when he was expelled 
from the Scottish Church in 1833. A building in Newman Street, 
formerly the studio of Benjamin West, P.R.A., was taken by the new sect 
soon after that date. 

For the service of the church a comprehensive book of liturgies 
and offices was provided by the "apostles;" and lights, incense, vest- 
ments, holy oil, water, chrism, and other adjuncts of worship have 
been appointed by their authority. 

Each congregation in the Catholic Apostolic Church is presided over 
by its "angel" or bishop (who ranks as pastor in the Universal Church); 
under him are four-and-twenty priests, divided into four ministries of 
" elders, prophets, evangelists, and pastors," and with these are the 
deacons, seven of whom regulate the temporal affairs of the church 
besides whom there are also " sub-deacons, acolytes, singers, and door- 
keepers." 



CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH. 



143 



The fine church in Gordon Square is the Metropolitan Church or 
Cathedral of the Catholic Apostolic Church. It was built about the 
year 1853, from the designs of Mr. R. Brandon and Mr. Ritchie. 

The exterior is of Early English design, and the decorated interior 
has a triforium in the aisle-roof, after the manner of our early churches 
and cathedrals. The ceilings are highly enriched, and some of the 
windows are filled with stained glass. The northern doorway and porch 
and the southern wheel-window, are very fine. A beautiful side chapel, 
called a " Lady Chapel," has been added on the south. 




CHAPTER X. 



SPRINGS AND WELLS OF ST. PANCRAS. 

Lamb's Conduit. William Lamb. Public rejoicings The Lamb Public House. The River 
Holebourne. Black Mary's Hole. Bagnigge Wells. The Finder of Wakefield. Nell 
Gwynne. Properties of the waters. Bagnigge Wells Tea-gardens. " The Bagnigge 
Organfist." Pancras Wells The Adam and Eve, Pancras. St. Chad's Well. Portrait of 
St. Chad. Tottenham Court Fair. Smock Race. 



LAMB'S CONDUIT. 

AMB'S CONDUIT was situated above the 
north end of Red Lion Street, Holborn, 
and was celebrated for the abundance of 
water, clear as crystal, and suitable for 
drinking purposes, which it afforded. 
" The Fountain Head," says the writer 
of the New View of London, " is under 
a stone marked S. P. P., in the vacant 
Ground a little Southward of Ormond 
Street, whence the Water comes in a Drein to this 
Conduit, and it runs thence in Lead Pipes to the 
Conduit on Snow Hill, which has the figure of a Lamb 
on it, denoting that its Water come from Lamb's Conduit." 
It was erected for the use of Londoners by a 
gentleman of the riame of William Lamb, of whom, 
notwithstanding his munificence, but little of his history 
is known at the present day. In addition to the erection 
of this conduit, he endowed a chapel in the City, which 
was destroyed at the great fire of London. 

When the New River Company commenced to supply 
the metropolis with water, the conduit pipes got neglected and stopped up, 
and the water ceased to run to Snow Hill, though it was still useful 




LAMB'S CONDUIT. 145 

to the inhabitants in the neighbourhood of the streets to the north 
of Holborn. The stone at the source of the conduit itself was taken 
down at the time of the erection of the Foundling Hospital, and the 
water caused to run a little more to the east, from whence, for a 
long time, the inhabitants had access to the spring. The supplies of the 
pumps in Mecklenberg and Brunswick Squares are derived from the 
springs which supplied Lamb's Conduit. 

In the year 1800 access to the water was gained by means of steps 
descending to the pipe whence it issued. The following inscription was 
placed upon a part of the Conduit : 

" On this spot stood the Conduit, 

Commonly called and known 

By the name of Lamb's Conduit, 

The Property of the City of London ; 

Which was rebuilt in the year MDCCXLVI., 

At the request of the Governor and Guardians 

Of the Hospital for the maintenance 
And education of exposed and deserted 

Young Children. 
In order to lay the way 
And make the same more commodious ; 
The waters thereof are still preserved, 
And continued for the public emolument, 
By building an arch over the same ; 
And this compartment is erected 
To preserve the City's right and interest 
In the said ground, water, and springs." 

Upon certain occasions of public rejoicing, Lamb's Conduit, like 
many other conduits in London, was made to flow with wine instead 
of water. A hogshead of wine was put in communication with the 
conduit and allowed to run out, but the aperture from which the 
people filled their vessels is said to have been never larger than that 
of a straw, so that this apparent prodigality was regulated upon strictly 
economical principles, and the flow of wine was made to last a long 

time. 

K 



146 ST. PANCRAS. 

The sign of the Lamb public-house at the north-eastern end of 
Lamb's Conduit Street was the effigy of a lamb cut in stone, which 
was believed to have been one of the figures which stood upon Lamb's 
Conduit, as a rebus upon the name of William Lamb. 

The fields around Lamb's Conduit formed a favourite promenade 
on a summer's evening for the inhabitants of St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
and St. Giles's. William Wycherley alludes to them in his Love in a Wood, 
or St. James's Park (1672). They were first curtailed in 1714, by the 
formation of a new burying-ground for the parish of St. George's, 
Bloomsbury, and again in 1739, by the erection of the Foundling 
Hospital. 

THE RIVER HOLEBOURNE. 

Among the rivers which formerly supplied London with water, the 
Holebourne occupied an important place. As we have already said in an 
earlier chapter in this volume (p. 10), this stream arose in and around the 
ponds at Hampstead and Highgate, and flowed through Kentish Town, 
Camden Town, Somers Town, Battle Bridge, Farringdon Road, Farringdon 
Street, and into the Thames at the point where Blackfriars Bridge now is. 
" Holebourne " is the ancient form of the name, and Holborn is a 
corruption of it. Throughout its course its physical character justified 
its name. It was strictly the brook or bourne in the hole or hollow. 
It was also called "Turnmill Brook," "The River of Wells," and "The 
River Fleet." But the term " fleet," as Mr. J. G. Waller has pointed 
out, could only be properly applied where it was influenced by the tidal 
flow of the Thames. A "fleet" is a channel covered with shallow water 
at high tide, and frequent examples of the use of the term are to be 
found in the names of places upon the banks of the Thames and the 
Medway. 

The designation, "The River of Wells," was an appropriate name for 
the Holebourne, which received the waters of Clerkenwell, Skinners-well, 
Fags-well, Tode-well, Loders-well, and Rad-well. 

The Holebourne received a small stream a little north of Battle 
Bridge arising from some springs near Tottenham Court Road. At 
Battle Bridge, the stream, which ran along the south side of the road, 
frequently overflowed, and at times the inundations were so serious as 
to occasion much loss to the dwellers in the neighbourhood. Just about 



THE RIVER HOLEBOURNE. 147 

this locality there was but little fall in the ground, and the spring moved 
sluggishly, spreading itself out as it bent round the end of Gray's Inn 
Road, which was here carried over the bridge which gave name to the 
locality. 

There was a serious inundation in January, 1809, which is thus 
related in Nelson's Islington : " At this period, when the snow was lying 
very deep, a rapid thaw come on, and, the arches not affording a 
sufficient passage for the increased current, the whole space between 
Pancras, Somers Town, and the bottom of the hill at Pentonville, was 
in a short time covered with water. The flood rose to the height of 
three feet in the middle of the highway, the lower rooms of all the 
houses within that space were completely inundated, and the inhabitants 
sustained considerable damage in their goods and furniture, which many 
of them had not time to remove. Two cart-horses were drowned, and 
for several days persons were obliged to be conveyed to and from their 
houses, and receive their provisions in at the windows, by means of 
carts." 

It appears that this stream in the neighbourhood of Bagnigge Wells, 
through the gardens of which it flowed, was sometimes known as 
Bagnigge River. It is recorded that, in 1761, on " Saturday night the 
waters were so high at 'Black Mary's Hole,' that the inhabitants of 
Bagnigge Wells and in the neighbourhood suffered greatly. About seven 
o'clock a coach, with five gentlemen within, and three on the outside, 
was overturned by the height of the water in the road just by, and 
with great difficulty escaped being drowned." 

Black Mary's Hole was the name applied to a very few small 
houses at Bagnigge Wash, the origin of which is thus described. The 
land here was called Bagnigge Wash, from the River Bagnigge, which 
passed through it, and subsequently people resorting thither to drink 
the waters of the conduit, which was then leased to one Mary, who 
kept a black cow, whose milk was drunk with the waters of the conduit ; 
the wits of that age used to say, " Come, let us go to Black Mary's 
Hole." However, Mary dying, and the place degenerating into licen- 
tiousness, about 1687, Walter Baynes, Esq., of the Inner Temple, 
enclosed the conduit, which is said to have had the appearance of a 
great oven. He is supposed to have left a fund for keeping the same 



148 ST. PANCRAS. 

in perpetual repair. The stone with the inscription was carried away 
during the night. 

There was a tradition that the name Black Mary's Hole was a 
corruption of Blessed Mary's Well a highly probable explanation. 

In April, 1756, a newspaper states: A few days since the water 
was so deep in Pancras Wash as to drown a horse which fell into the 
same with a load on his back." 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. 

The Hole-bourne, or Fleet River, was locally called the " River 
Bagnigge," and hence a well near at hand was called " Bagnigge Wells," 
and ultimately there arose Bagnigge Tea Gardens. The name Bagnigge 
is derived from that of a family to whom the property belonged in the 
1 7th century. It is supposed, with some degree of probability, that 
the house originally called " Bagnigge House " was a country residence 
of Nell Gwynne, the celebrated mistress of Charles II. In some ancient 
deeds, the ground where this house stood is called Bagnigge Vale. On 
a square stone, over an old Gothic portal taken down about the year 
1763, and afterwards replaced over the door from the high road to the 
house, was cut the following inscription : 

t 

S. T. 
THIS IS BAGNIGGE 

HOUSE NEARE 

THE FINDER A 

WAKEFIELDE 

1680. 

Over one of the chimney-pieces was the garter of the Order of St. 
George in raised work ; and over another, the royal arms on one side, 
and on the other side the same arms joined with several more. 
Between them was the bust of a woman in Roman costume, " let deep 
into a circular cavity of the wall, bordered with festoons of delf earth, 
in the natural colours, and glazed. It is said to represent Mrs. Eleanor 
Gwin, a favourite of Charles the Second, who sometimes made this 
place her summer residence." The bust is said to have been the work 



BAGNIGGR WELLS. 149 

of Sir P. Lely. This quotation is from Dr. Bevis's account, to which 
we are just about to refer. 

Beyond this there does not appear to have been anything of a 
remarkable character in connection with the history of the house until 
the year 1756, when the discovery there of medicinal springs formed 
the commencement of a new epoch in its history. In the year 1760, 
John Bevis, M.D., published An Experimental Enquiry concerning the 
Contents, Qualities, and Medicinal Virtues of the two Mineral Waters, lately 
discovered at Bagnigge Wells, near London. In 1767, a second edition, 
with additions, was published, from whence the following curious facts 
are extracted : 

"These wells are situated a little way out of London, in the high 
road from Coppice Row, or Sir John Oldcastle's, which, about a quarter 
of a mile further, at Battle-Bridge turnpike, comes into the great new 
road from Paddington to Islington, affording an easy access to the spring 
for coaches from all parts : And the foot path from Tottenham Court 
Road, by Southampton Row, Red Lion Street and the Foundling Hospital, 
to Islington, Clerkenwell, and Old Street, running close by the wells, is 
no less convenient for such as prefer walking exercise. 

" The place where the waters issue, is environed with hills and 
rising ground every way but to the south, and, consequently, screened 
from the inclemency of the more chilling winds. Primrose Hill rises 
westward ; on the north-west are the more distant elevations of Hamp- 
stead and Highgate ; on the north and north-east there is a pretty sudden 
ascent to Islington and the New River Head, and a near prospect of 
London makes up the rest of the circumference, with the magnificent 
structure of St. Paul's, full in front, and nearly upon a level with 
Bagnigge House. 

"Such a situation, however agreeable in itself, and favourable to 
the production and maintenance of springs, should seem, nevertheless, to 
expose their waters to be frequently contaminated and spoiled by in- 
undations from large and sudden rains : And yet that these springs ever 
suffer the least damage on that account does not appear; since they 
are found to retain their genuine clearness, mineral flavours, and virtues, 
through all seasons and vicissitudes of weather. The floods which, at 
times roll down toward this spot, are all received and carried off quick, 



150 ST. PANCRAS. 

without ponding, by a rivulet, anciently called the River Fleet, which 
running near Pancras Church, and the Brill, passes under Battle Bridge, 
and so hard by the wells, to London, discharging itself into Fleet-ditch, 
and at last into the Thames. Add to this, that although it be difficult 
to dig hereabouts two or three feet deep without encountering springs, 
yet do the sources of the wells lye so low, as to be inaccessible to any 
percolations of rain or other waters, from or near the surface. 

" At what time these waters were first known to be possessed of 
salutary qualities, cannot be made out with any degree of evidence. A 
tradition goes, that the place of old was called Blessed Mary's Well ; 
but that the name of the Holy Virgin having in some measure fallen 
into disesteem after the Reformation, the title was altered to Black 
Mary's Well, as it now stands upon Mr. Rocque's map, and then to 
Black Mary's Hole ; though there is a very different account of these 
later appellations : For there are those who insist they were taken 
from one Mary Woolaston, whose occupation was attending at a well, 
now covered in, on an opposite eminence, by the footway from Bagnigge 
to Islington, to supply the soldiery, encamped in the adjacent fields, 
with water. But waiving such uncertainties, it may be relied on for 
truth that the present proprietor, upon taking possession of the estate, 
found two wells thereon, both steaned in a workmanlike manner; but 
when, or for what purpose they were sunk, he is entirely ignorant." 

The water of these wells was of two kinds ; one had aperient quali- 
ties; the other tonic, being of a chalybeate nature. It will be unnecessary 
to give any account of the various experiments made by Dr. Bevis in 
his studies of the properties of these waters, and of which he has given 
full details in his book ; but a few interesting particulars of the acci- 
dents which led to the discovery of the medicinal characteristics of the 
waters may be added. 

In the year 1757, upon boiling some of the laxative sort of water 
in a tea kettle, it was observed to turn whitish and foul, which caused 
it to be rejected for culinary uses. The same year, a man who was 
employed at some snuff-mills, then erected close to the well, happening 
to be feverish and thirsty, drank plentifully of the water, and found 
himself immoderately purged by it, which gave the first intimation of 
its cathartic quality. 



BAGNIGGE WELLS. 151 

The well from whence this water was obtained was about twenty- 
two feet deep. There was not the least appearance of any water 
trickling in through the junctures of the steining ; it clearly arose from 
the very bottom of the shaft, and came in slowly through a blue clay. 
This was discovered when continued pumping had almost entirely 
exhausted the supply of water. 

As the pump brought it up from the well the water was remarkably 
clear and limpid, and it is said to have discharged more air bubbles 
at the surface than most waters do at the spring head, although it was 
less remarkable in this respect than the Bagnigge chalybeate waters. It 
never turned foul or deposited any sediment, or threw up any scum, 
if kept in clean vessels, unless heated to a degree much beyond that of 
the warmth of any known climate. It did not taste disagreebly in the 
mouth ; but being swallowed, left a distinguishable brackish bitterness on 
the palate ; and there was nothing remarkable in it as to smell, when 
cold. 

As far as the chalybeate waters are concerned, it appears that in the 
year 1757, the spot of ground in which this well was sunk, was let out 
to a gentleman curious in gardening, who observed that the oftener he 
watered his flowers with it the less they throve. " I happened," says 
Dr. Bevis, in his interesting account, "towards the end of that summer 
to be in company with a friend or two who made a transient visit to 
Mr. Hughes, was asked to taste the water ; and being surprised to find 
its flavour so near that of the best German chalybeats, did not hesitate 
to declare my opinion that it might be made of great benefit both to 
the public and himself. At my request he sent me some of the water 
in a large stone bottle, well corked, the next day ; a gallon whereof I 
immediately set over the fire, and by a hasty evaporation found it 
very rich in mineral contents, though much less so than I afterwards 
experienced it to be when more leisurely exhaled by a gentle heat. 
Whilst this operation was carrying on, I made some experiments on the 
remainder of the water, particularly with powdered galls, which I found 
to give, in less than a minute, a very rich and deep purple tincture to it, 
that lasted many days without any great alteration. I reported these 
matters to Mr. Hughes, but soon after a very dangerous fit of sickness 
put a stop to my experiments, which I resumed not that year, nor 



152 



S7\ PANCRAS. 



till lately, when the proprietor called and told me his waters were got 
into very great vogue, and known by the name of the Bagnigge Wells, 
which indeed I remembered to have seen in the newspapers, without 
so much as guessing it had been given to these springs. Mr. Hughes 
took me to his wells, where I was not a little pleased with the elegant 
accommodation he had provided for company in so short a time. 
Upon intimating his desire that I would proceed to complete a proper 
series of experiments on the waters, and draw up some rational account 
of them, I consented to do so ; the result of all which is the little 
treatise now humbly submitted to the public. 




" The chalybeat well is just behind the pump room, about forty 
yards south of the purging well, being almost twenty feet deep, and 
near two yards in diameter within the steaning. It is fed by no less 
than four springs drilling through the steaning, the strongest and purest 
of which is one that runs in plentifully from the north. It has been 
found upon exhausting this well that it replenishes at the rate of three 
feet in an hour. 

" The water fresh pumped up is exceeding clear, and much of the 
complexion of pure rain water ; has something of a sulphury smell as it 
issues out, and discharges great quantity of air-bubbles at the surface. Its 



BAGNIGGE WELLS. 153 

taste is highly ferrugineous, with an agreeable and sprightly subacid 
tartness." 

In an appendix to the book, the author gives particulars of several 
remarkable cures which had been effected by the use of these mineral 
springs. 

Very soon after the house was opened as a public spa, it rose into 
notoriety also on account of its tea-gardens, which became a highly 
popular place of resort on Sundays. The gardens covered an extensive 
piece of ground, and were decorated in the old-fashioned manner, with 
walks in formal lines, a profusion of leaden statues, alcoves, and fountains. 
They were much frequented by the lower sort of tradesmen. The 
following was a popular comic song in those days : 

"BAGNIGGE WELLS. 

" Come, come, Miss Prissy, make it up, and we will lovers be, 
And we will go to Bagnigge Wells, and there will have some tea ; 
It's there you'll see the lady-birds upon the stinging nettles, 
And there you'll see the waiters, ma'am, with all their shining kettles. 
Oh la ! Oh dear, O dash my vig, how funny. 

It's there you'll see the waiters, ma'am, will serve you in a trice, 

With rolls all hot and butter pats serv'd up so neat and nice : 

And there you'll see the fishes, ma'am, more curioser than whales, 

Oh ! they're made of gold and silver, ma'am, and they wag their little tails. 

And they're you'll hear the organ, ma'am, and see the water-spouts, 
Oh, we'll have some rum and water, ma'am, before that we go out, 
We'll coach it into town, ma'am, we won't return to shop. 
But we'll go to thingimy hall, ma'am, and there we'll have a drop. 
Oh la! Oh dear!" &c. 

A humorous engraving showing Charles Griffith, the Bagnigge Wells 
organist, seated and performing upon an organ, was published about the 
time when these gardens enjoyed the greatest share of popular support. 
The following lines are engraved beneath the picture : 

THE 
BAGNIGGE ORGANFIST. 

What passion cannot Music raise & quell ! 
When G[rirfith] struck his corded shell, 
The listning Drunkards stood around, 
And wondring on their faces fell. 

Vide Dry [den] 's Ode to S. Cecillia's Night 
Pub d for the Benefit of decayed Musicians." 



ST - P 

An account published in 1788, says of Bagnigge Wells : " It is a 
place of Health, like most of those in or about this metropolis, because 
a place of relaxation and amusement, and a tea-drinking convenience for 
Sundays, &c. 

" There is a handsome long room, the organ in which was once a 
favourite part of the amusement of such as resorted thither in motley 
crowds ' to kill an idle hour.' 

" But what seems most attractive to company (if we except the desire 
of seeing and being seen, of appointed interviews, or the attractions they 
appear to have for each other) is the circumstance of gardens laid out 
prettily enough in what is called the miniature taste, with convenient 
boxes for the company : but being situate on low ground, are subject to 
be frequently overflowed. 

" Having already observed what a motley groupe the company forms, 
it may be expected that too many among them are of very indifferent 
characters, a consideration which has contributed much to bring the 
place into disrepute ; in the mean time its being particularly open on 
Sundays, appears lately to have drawn the attention of the magistrates. 
Better order is to be kept, and special care taken that none are 
admitted during the hours of divine service. 

" Perhaps it may be thought not a little remarkable that the 
proprietor of these Wells is ranked with the people called methodists, 
and was a constant attendant at a certain well-known neighbouring 
chapel, where the congregation was of that description, whilst he 
suffered the sabbath to be incroached on, and scenes of dissipation to 
prevail on his own premises. \Ve mean not to be invidious ; but the 
remark is obvious, and seems to carry its comment with it." 

In 1779, a poem entitled "Bagnigge Wells" was issued, in quarto 
size, at one shilling. It is supposed to have been written by Hawkins, 
but the copy I have examined unfortunately has lost its title page. 
The poem is unfit for quotation, but the copious foot-notes are 
remarkable for their humour and sarcasm. 

In the year 1813, a new tenant took Bagnigge Wells, and the 
grounds were made considerably smaller. In the sale that then took 
place, the catalogue described the fixtures and fittings as comprising a 
temple, a grotto, arbours, boxes, large lead figures, pumps, shrubs, two 



BAGNIGGE WELLS. 155 

hundred drinking tables, three hundred and fifty wooden seats, etc. The 
temple and grotto were purchased by the new proprietor, and remained on 
the grounds till the entire breaking up of the house in 1844. The temple 
consisted of a roofed and circular kind of colonnade, formed by a 
double row of pillars and pilasters with an interior balustrade a 
building much like the water-temples at the Crystal Palace. In its 
centre was a double pump, one piston of which supplied the chalybeate 
water, and the other the cathartic water. The grotto was a little 
castellated building, of two apartments, open to the gardens, in the 
form of a sexagon, and covered for the most part with shells, pebble- 
stones, and bits of glass stuck in compo. In the long room was an 
organ, and a bust of Nell Gwynne, in a circular border composed of 
a variety of fruits, supposed to be in allusion to her original occupation 
of selling fruit at the playhouse. These specimens of carved work 
were originally over a chimneypiece in the ancient mansion, and being 
sold by auction, were restored, painted, regilt, and put up in the 
room by the proprietor of Bagnigge Wells. 

It appears that the gardens, after the curtailment of their fair pro- 
portions, soon began to decline in the popular favour, or at least they 
appealed to the tastes of a lower class of visitors. The once famous 
resort sank down to a " three-penny " concert-room. Mr. Allcock was the 
performer upon the organ, but the main attraction was Paddy O'Rourke; 
some singers named Alford, Ozealey, Prynn, Box, Sloman, Booth, Gibbs, 
Dickie, and others, also gave their aid. The songs and duets were 
diversified by the delivery of portions of plays, but without scenery or 
dresses. This place was, in fact, the precursor of the Grecian, the 
Britannia, and other saloons, the Bower at Westminster Bridge, etc. It 
was kept for many years by a man named Thoroughgood. Soon after 
the Battle of Waterloo, he obtained one of the hoofs of the horse shot 
under the unfortunate Duke of Brunswick. This he converted into a 
snuff-box, which he handed round to the visitors, male and female, who 
attended his room. But the attraction of the relic seems to have been 
inconsiderable, or only short-lived, for the place did not pay ; it was, in 
fact, a ruinous concern, and his successors did little better than he. 
About the year 1870, Messrs. Gardiner, the brewers, of St. John Street, 
Clerkenwell, erected a gin palace upon the site of the gardens. 



156 ST. PANCRAS. 

PANCRAS WELLS. 

At what date the virtues of Pancras Wells first became known is 
a matter of some doubt, but it is pretty certain that they were favoured 
with a considerable share of public patronage early in the i8th century. 

The wells were situated a little to the south of the old church of 
St. Pancras, at that time described as being " about a mile to the north 
of London." The gardens around the wells were extensive and admirably 
laid out as walks for those who visited the place for the purpose of 
drinking the waters. The buildings belonging to the establishment, too, 
appear to have been sufficiently extensive to accommodate a large 
number of visitors. The accompanying reproduction of an Indian -ink 
drawing in the Grace Collection at the British Museum will be sufficient 
to give a pretty clear view of the locality. The following references 
answer to the numbers marked in the bird's-eye view : 

1. The New Plantation. 

2. The Bed Walk. 

3. The Long Room, 60 feet by 18 feet. 
4 & 5. The Pump Rooms. 

6. House of Entertainment. 

7. Ladies' Walk and Hall. 

8. Two Kitchen Gardens. 

9. Road to Highgate, &c. 

10 & ii. Coach ways to the Wells. 

12. Footway from Red Lion St., Southampton Row, 
and Tottenham Court. 

13. Footway from Gray's Inn. 

14. Footway from Islington. 

15. St. Pancras Church. 

1 6. Old Church Yard. 

17. New Church Yard. 

1 8. Kentish Town. 

19. Primrose Hill. 

20. Hampstead. 

21. Highgate. 

A description of the waters attached to this view informs us that 
they "are Surprisingly Successful in Curing the most Obstinate Scurvy, 



PA NCR AS WELLS. 157 

King's Evil, Leprosy, and all other breakings out and defilements of the 
skin : Running Sores, Cancers, Eating Ulcers, the Piles (herein far 
excelling the Waters Holt), Surfeits or any Corruption of the Blood 
and Juices, the Rheumatism and all Inflamatory Distempers, most Dis- 
orders of the Eyes or Pains of the Stomach and Bowels, loss of Appetite, 
sinking of the Spirits and Vapours, the most Violent Colds, Worms of 
all kinds in either young or old, &c." 

In an advertisement displaying the virtues of these waters published 
in The Craftsman of July 5th, 1722, there is a note to the following 
effect: " N.B. As the credit of these wells hath much suffered for 
some late years, by encouraging of scandalous company, and making the 
long room a common dancing room, originally built and designed only 
for the use of gentlemen and ladies that drink the waters ; due care 
will be taken for the future, that nothing of the kind shall be allowed, 
or any disorderly person permitted to be in the walks." 

Very near to Pancras Wells was a sort of rival establishment, the 
Adam and Eve Gardens, which attained to considerable popularity as 
the resort of pleasure seekers, although they had not the attraction of 
a medicinal spring to offer. The gardens were attached to the Adam 
and Eve Inn (an establishment quite distinct from that at Tottenham 
Court Road), close by the old church of St. Pancras, and to judge 
by the following announcement, which appeared in a newspaper in the 
year 1786, were specially calculated to meet the material wants of 
visitors : 

"ADAM AND EVE, PANCRAS. 

Charles Eaton respectfully begs leave to inform his friends 
and the publick in general, that he has, at a considerable expence, 
rendered his gardens and pleasure grounds commodious and fit 
for the reception of the genteelest company. A choice assortment 
of neat Wines, Foreign Spirituous Liquors, Cyder, and home- 
brewed Ale. A good larder, and dinners dressed on the shortest 
notice for any number of persons. Societies and other public 
bodies will meet with every accommodation at the above house. 

A good Ordinary on Sundays. 
Tea, Coffee, and Hot Rolls, every morning and evening." 



158 ST. PANCRAS. 

ST. CHAD'S WELL. 

Near Battle Bridge, in a small garden and shrubbery fronting 
Gray's Inn Lane, there was formerly a mineral spring, dedicated to 
St. Chad, Bishop of Lichfield. St. Chad was the founder of the see 
of Lichfield. According to Bede, joyful melody as of persons sweetly 
singing descended from heaven into his oratory for half an hour, and 
then mounted again to heaven. This was to presage his death, and 
accordingly he died, attended by his brother's soul and musical angels. 

The following account was published, in 1831, in Hone's Every 
Day Book : 

" St. Chad's Well is near Battle Bridge. The miraculous water is 
aperient, and was some years ago quaffed by the bilious and other 
invalids, who flocked thither in crowds, to drink at the cost of sixpence, 
what people of these latter days by ' the ingenious chemist's art,' can 
make as effectual as St. Chad's virtues ' at the small price of one 
halfpenny.' 

" If anyone desire to visit this spot of ancient renown, let him 
descend from Holborn Bars to the very bottom of Gray's Inn Lane. 
On the left-hand side formerly stood a considerable hill, whereon were 
wont to climb and browze certain mountain goats of the metropolis, 
in common language called swine ; the hill was the largest heap of 
cinder-dust in the neighbourhood of London. It was formed by the 
annual accumulation of some thousands of cart loads, since exported 
to Russia for making bricks to rebuild Moscow, after the conflagration 
of that capital on the entrance of Napoleon. Opposite to this unsightly 
sight, and on the right hand side of the road, is an angle-wise faded 
inscription 



ST. 
CHAD'S WEL 




" It stands, or rather dejects, over an elderly pair of wooden gates, 
one whereof opens on a scene which the unnacustomed eye may take for 
the pleasure ground of Giant Despair. Trees stand as if not made to 
vegetate, clipped hedges seem willing to decline, and nameless weeds 



ST. CHAD'S WELL. 



159 



straggle weakly upon unlimited borders. If you look upwards you 
perceive painted on an octagon board, ' Health Restored and Preserved.' 
Further on towards the left, stands a low, old-fashioned, comfortable 
looking, large windowed dwelling ; and ten to one, but there also 
stands, at the open door, an ancient ailing female, in a black bonnet, 
a clean, colored cotton gown, and a check apron ; her silver hair only 
in part tucked beneath the narrow border of a frilled cap, with a 
sedate and patient, yet, somewhat inquiring look. This is ' the Lady 
of the Well.' She gratuitously informs you, that ' the gardens ' of 




' St. Chad's Well ' are ' for circulation ' by paying for the water, of 
which you may drink as much or as little, or nothing, as you please, at 
one guinea per year, gs. 6d. quarterly, 45. 6d. monthly, or is. 6d. weekly. 
You qualify for a single visit by paying sixpence, and a large glass 
tumbler full of warm water is handed to you. As a stranger you are told 
that ' St. Chad's Well was famous at one time.' Should you be 
inquisitive, the dame will instruct you, with an earnest eye, that ' people 
are not what they used to be, and she can't tell what'll happen next.' 
Oracles have not ceased. W r hile drinking St. Chad's water you observe 
an immense copper into which it is poured, wherein it is heated to due 
efficacy, and from whence it is drawn by a cock, into the glasses. You 



160 ST. PANCRAS. 

also remark, hanging on the wall, a ' tribute of gratitude,' versified and 
inscribed on vellum, beneath a pane of glass stained by the hand of time, 
and let into a black frame : this is an effusion for value received from St. 
Chad's invaluable water. But, above all, there is a full sized portrait in 
oil, of a stout comely personage, with a ruddy countenance, in a coat or 
cloak, supposed scarlet, a laced cravat falling down the breast, and a 
small red night cap carelessly placed on the head, conveying the idea that 
it was painted for the likeness of some opulent butcher who flourished in 
the reign of Queen Anne. Ask the dame about it, and she refers you 
to ' Rhone.' This is a tall old man, who would be taller if he were 
not bent by years. ' I am ninety-four,' he will tell you, ' this present 
year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-five.' All that 
he has to communicate concerning the portrait is, ' I have heard say it is 
the portrait of St. Chad.' Should you venture to differ, he adds, ' this 
is the opinion of most people who come here.' You may gather that it 
is his own undoubted belief. On pacing the garden alleys, and peeping 
at the places of retirement, you imagine the whole may have been 
improved and beautified for the last time by some countryman of William 
III., who came over- and died in the same year with that king, and 
whose works here, in wood and box, have been following him ever since. 
" St. Chad's Well is scarcely known in the neighbourhood, save by 
its sign-board of invitation and forbidding externals. An old American 
loyalist, who has lived at Pentonville ever since ' the rebellion ' forced him 
to the mother country, enters to ' totter not unseen ' between the stunted 
hedgerows ; it was the first ' place of pleasure ' he came to after his 
arrival, and he goes no where besides, ' everything else is so altered.' 
For the same reason a tall, spare, thin-faced man, with dull grey eyes 
and underhung chin, from the neighbourhood of Bethnal Green, walks 
hither for his ' Sunday morning's exercise,' to untruss a theological 
point with a law-clerk, who also attends the place because his father, 

' when he was 'prentice to Mr. , the great law stationer in Chancery 

Lane in 1776, and sat writing for sixteen hours a day, received great 
benefit from the waters, which he came to drink fasting, once a week.' 
Such persons from local attachment, and a few male and female atra- 
bilarians, who without a powerful motive would never breathe the pure 
morning air, resort to this spot for their health. St. Chad's Well is 



TOTTENHAM COURT FAIR. 161 

haunted, not frequented. A few years and it will be with its waters as 
with the water of St. Pancras' Well, which is enclosed in the garden of 
a private house, near old St. Pancras churchyard." 

Hone's prophecy has been fulfilled. The glory of St. Chad's Well 
has long ago entirely departed. On September i4th, 1837, " tne 
Premises, Dwelling-house, Large Garden, and Offices, with the very 
celebrated Spring of Saline Water called St. Chad's Well, which, in 
proper hands, would produce an inexhaustible Revenue, as its qualities 
are allowed by the first Physician to be unequalled," were sold at 
Garraway's Coffee House, Change Alley, Cornhill. A row of houses, 
called " St. Chad's Row," was afterwards built upon the spot. 

Old Joseph Munden, the comedian, when he resided in Kentish 
Town, was in the habit of visiting St. Chad's Well three times a week, 
and drinking its waters, as did the judge Sir Allan Chambre, when he 
lived at Prospect House, Highgate. Mr. Alexander Mensall, who for 
fifty years kept the Gordon House Academy at Kentish Town, used 
to walk with his pupils once a week to St. Chad's, to drink the 
waters, as a means of " keeping the doctor out of the house." 

A gentleman, who professed to have been relieved from a very 
deranged state of health by the use of these waters, placed in the 
pump room a poetical tribute to their praise, which thus concludes : 

1 Oh ! were Physicians to their judgment true, 

' Would give each plant, each spring, each herb, its due, 

' No foreign aid we need of Drugs compound, 

1 To heal diseases or to cure a wound ; 

1 But doctors still, politically blind, 

'Deny the bliss, and torture half mankind." 

TOTTENHAM COURT FAIR. 

A fair was annually kept at the beginning of August in the fields 
on the right-hand side of the hedgerow of the road leading from 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields to the old tavern known as the Adam and 
Eve. 

Upon the occasion of this fair, some of the actors from the chief 
London theatres, most celebrated for comic humour, entertained the 
visitors with drolls and interludes. They were, however, suppressed by 
the magistrates. An official proclamation issued by the Quarter Sessions 



162 Sr. PANCRAS. 

of Middlesex, and published in The Daily Courant of July 22nd, 1827, 
sets forth that "this Court being informed that several common players 
of interludes have for several years used and accustomed to assemble 
and meet together at or near a certain place called Tottenhoe, alias 
Tottenhal, alias Tottenham Court, in the parish of St. Pancras, in 
this county, and to erect booths, and to exhibit drolls, and use and 
exercise unlawful games and plays, whereby great numbers of his 
Majesty's subjects have been encouraged to assemble and meet together, 
and to commit riots and other misdemeanours, in breach of his 
Majesty's peace ; " these interludes and drolls were prohibited. 

" Whoever reads the foregoing Order," says a writer in The Craftsman 
of August 25th, 1827, "will have reason to suppose that the worshipful 
Gentlemen were in earnest, at the time of publication, to suppress all 
the unlawful Games, Plays, Drolls, and other shews, mentioned in it. 
That they are unlawful cannot be doubted, since so many of his 
Majesty's learned Justices of the Peace have declared them to be so ; 
and, therefore, I was in hopes that they would have put their Order 
rigorously into execution ; especially since these vagabonds had the 
impudence to affront the Government and administration ; for whilst I 
was stopt in the crowd, there were two jack-puddings entertaining the 
populace, from a gallery on the outside of one of the booths ; one of 
whom represented an Englishman, and the other a Spaniard. The 
English jack-pudding bully'd the Spaniard for some time, and threatened 
to treat him as he deserved ; but Jack Spaniard defy'd him, bid him 
take care of his ears, and at last knock'd him down. I was shocked 
at such an insolent ridicule of our brave countrymen in our own 
country, and expected to see the scandalous buffons taken into custody, 
but I don't hear that any examples had been yet made of them. This 
can be imputed to nothing but the neglect, or something worse, of 
'the High Constable, and Petty Constables of Holbourn Division,' 
who were charged with the execution of the solemn Order ; and, 
therefore, it is expected that their worships will make a strict enquiry 
at their next meeting, why their Order was not punctually obey'd ; this 
Fair not only tending to the encouragement of vice and immorality, as 
their Worships very justly observe, but even to sedition and disloyalty. 
It is not only frequented by pickpockets, sharpers, foot-pads, &c., to the 



SMOCK RACE. 



163 



utter ruin of many apprentices, servants, and other young people, but 
renders our nation contemptible in the eyes of all foreigners who 
reside here." 

SMOCK RACE. 

Smock races were a frequent and favourite pastime in olden days, 
especially in country districts among the rustic people, to whom the 
indelicacy of the exhibition does not appear to have been objectionable. 
" Running for the Smock " is said to have been much in favour among 
the young country wenches in the North of England, where the prize 
offered was a fine Holland chemise, usually decorated with ribbons. The 
conditions of the race were that the competitors young girls in their 
teens should race, a hundred yards on the turf, with nothing on but a 
smock. A writer in Notes and Queries describes the spectacle as " a very 
pretty and merry sight." 

The last race of this kind in Kent was run about the middle of the 
present century at Chilham Castle, but the practice was discontinued after 
that " in compliance with the proprieties of the age." 

In the quaint old engraving which is here reproduced, a race of this 
sort is humorously represented as one of the diversions in connection 
with Tottenham Court Fair, about the year 1738. 



CHAPTER XL 



POPULAR EXHIBITIONS AND ST. KATHARINE'S 

HOSPITAL. 

The Colosseum. Panoramic View of London. The Swiss Cottage. The Glyptotheca. Classic 
Ruins. Stalactite Cavern. Cyclorama of Lisbon. The Diorama. The Cosmorama. The 
Royal Hospital of St. Katharine : foundation, benefactions, statutes, &c. Raymond Lully. 
The Hospital Church. Removal to Regent's Park. 



THE COLOSSEUM. 

CURING the Great Exhibition of 1851, when 
. ' visitors from all parts of the world crowded to 
', the great centre of London, one of the most 
' : popular of the many sights in the Metropolis was 
\ ; the Colosseum. It was so called from its colossal 
size, and was originally planned by Mr. Hornor, 
and commenced for him, in 1824, by Messrs. 
Peto and Grissell, from designs by Decimus 




Burton, the architect who was responsible for many 
buildings in London about that period. 

The main part of the building was polygonal on the 
outside, having sixteen faces, each measuring twenty-five 
feet in length, and the whole of the chief portion occupied 
a space a hundred and twenty-six feet in diameter ex- 
ternally. The walls were three feet thick at the ground, 
sixty-four feet high on the outside, and seventy-nine feet 
high within. This was surmounted by an immense dome, 
one hundred and twelve feet in height. Fronting the 
west there was a bold portico, with six fluted columns of 
the Grecian Doric order, sustaining a well proportioned 
pediment. Its entablature was extended along the flanks, 



THE COLOSSEUM. 165 

and around the whole building. At each angle were double antae, or 
pilasters, rising from the base to the cornice ; and above the parapet there 
were three steps from which sprang the dome. This was crowned by a 
parapet, forming a circular gallery, for the convenience of visitors who 
desired to enjoy a sight of the natural panorama which the adjacent Park, 
buildings, and distant country afforded. The upper portion of this dome, 
seventy-five feet in diameter, was glazed for the purpose of lighting the 
whole of the interior, there being no side windows. The lower part of 
the dome was cased with sheets of copper painted. Beneath the portico 
there was a drive for carriages, and a paved path for foot passengers. A 
large and lofty doorway opened to a handsome but plain vestibule, with 
its walls painted in imitation of white marble, and its pilasters in imitation 
of Sienna marble. It was divided into three compartments, measuring 
70 feet by fourteen, and was forty feet in height in the middle division. 
This was an intermediate building, between the open portico and the 
main work. On the left was a flight of descending stairs for visitors to 
the middle gallery ; and on the right, another flight to view the saloon, 
the first gallery, the third gallery under the ball (the original ball, 
removed from St. Paul's Cathedral), and the exterior parapet-gallery, on 
the summit of the building. 

There was a small, narrow corridor which conducted the visitor 
to the centre of the rotunda, where he entered a spacious circular 
apartment, called the saloon, fitted up with festooned and flowing 
draperies, hung and arranged in imitation of an immense tent, arched 
overhead, and formed with numerous recesses around the exterior verge, 
for settees and tables ; whilst a collection of pictures, sculptured and 
fancy pieces, objects of virtu and curiosity, were arranged in various 
places throughout the apartment. This room was intended as a place for 
rest or promenade. The immediate centre of the room was occupied 
by a circular enclosure of strong and substantial framework, containing 
two spiral staircases, and a circular chamber, in which was suspended a 
lift capable of conveying from ten to twenty persons to and from the 
first gallery. 

The famous picture which this remarkable building was designed to 
display was a panoramic view of London from the top of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. Mr. Hornor, the projector of this work, finished the sketches 



166 ST. PANCRAS. 

for its execution in 1824, having constructed scaffolding and a suspended 
house, or large box, above the highest cross of the Cathedral, at a time 
when a new ball and cross were required, to crown the summit of that 
edifice. The undertaking was daring and hazardous; but, when accom- 
plished, was calculated to produce such a picture as had never before 
been executed. The painting of the picture upon the walls of the 
Colosseum was certainly a wonderful performance. It covered upwards of 
forty-six thousand square feet, or more than an acre of canvas. The 
dome, on which the sky was painted, was thirty feet more in diameter 
than the cupola of St. Paul's, and the circumference of the horizon from 
that point of view represented nearly one hundred and thirty miles. After 
the sketches were completed upon two thousand sheets of paper, and the 
building finished, no individual could be found to paint the picture in a 
sufficiently short period. Artists of talent were not possessed of sufficient 
hardihood to execute the difficult and dangerous work. The painting of 
such a large extent of surface, and of such peculiar formation, was 
scarcely more dfficult than to gain easy and safe access to every part 
of it. The common modes of scaffolding could not be adopted, and 
many unsuccessful attempts were made to accomplish the gigantic and 
intricate task. At length Mr. E. T. Parris was found willing to undertake 
the work. This gentleman was possessed of considerable taste, knowledge 
of mechanics and perspective, and practical knowledge of that sort of 
painting. Above all he had steady nerves, enthusiasm, and perseverance, 
and was able to adapt many original and ingenious plans to that 
peculiar undertaking, to effect much with his own hands, and direct 
others by his quick and discriminating eye. Standing in a basket, 
supported by two loose poles, and lifted to a great height by ropes, he 
painted and finished nearly the whole surface of this immense picture of 
London. 

Spectators viewed the picture from a balustraded gallery, with a 
projecting frame beneath it in exact imitation of the outer dome of 
St. Paul's Cathedral. It presented such a pictorial history of London 
such a faithful display of its myriads of public and private buildings such 
an impression of the vastness, wealth, business, pleasure, commerce, and 
luxury of the English metropolis, as nothing else could effect. Towards 
the north the eye recognised Newgate Market, the old College of 



THE COLOSSEUM. 167 

Physicians, Newgate, the Blue-coat School, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
Smithfield Market, with its crowds of sheep and oxen, and the new 
Post Office. These were objects in the fore-ground. Beyond them were 
Clerkenwell, the Charter House, and the lines of Goswell and St. John's 
Streets, Pentonville, Islington, and Hoxton. In the next or third distance 
there were represented Primrose Hill, the noted Chalk Farm, Hampstead, 
and a line of fine wooded and wild hills to Highgate. The bold Archway 
and excavated road at the latter place, and the line of the great North 
Road, from Islington to Highgate, were clearly to be traced ; whilst 
Stamford Hill, Muswell Hill, part of Epping Forest, and portions of 
Essex, Hertfordshire, and Middlesex, bounded the horizon. 

To the east was displayed a succession of objects all differing from 
the former in effect, character, and associations. Whilst that view 
exhibited the quiet, rural, and cheerful scenery of the environs of London, 
this view embraced the warehouses and docks and other proofs of the 
immense bustle and business belonging to the River Thames. In the 
immediate fore-ground was St. Paul's School-house ; whilst the lines of 
Cheapside, Cornhill, Leadenhall Street, and Whitechapel carried the eye 
through the very heart of the city, conducting it to Bow, Stratford, and 
a fine tract of woodlands in Essex. On the right and left of this 
line were to be seen the towers of Bow Church, Cheapside ; St. Mary 
Woolnoth ; St. Michael, Cornhill ; St. Ethelburg, Bishopsgate, and others 
of sub-ordinate height ; the Bank, Mansion House, Royal Exchange, East 
India House, and several of the Companies' Halls. Another line nearly 
parallel, but a little to the east, extended throughout Watling Street (the 
old Roman Road) to Cannon Street, Tower Street, and the Tower of 
London. It also included Greenwich Hospital and some portions 
of Essex. 

Upon the south, with the River Thames, and its numerous fine 
bridges in the fore-ground, there were shown an amazing number and 
variety of public and private buildings. 

The western view included the west end of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
Ludgate Hill, Fleet Street, the Strand, Piccadilly, etc., Holborn and 
Oxford Street, the Inns of Court, Westminster, Hyde Park, Kensington 
Gardens, and a long stretch of flat country to Windsor. 

A staircase led to the upper gallery, from which the spectator had 



168 ST. PANCRAS. 

an opportunity of again contemplating the whole picture in a sort of 
bird's eye view. Another flight of stairs communicated with a room 
containing the ball, which was originally placed on the top of the dome 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, and also a fac-simile of the cross. A few steps 
more conducted the visitor to the summit of the building, which 
commanded extensive views over the neighbouring houses and parks. 

This panorama was first exhibited in the spring of the year 1829, 
before the painting was actually completed ; nevertheless it was computed 
that upwards of a million spectators visited it during that year and the 
subsequent years until 1845, when, under the direction of Mr. William 
Bardwell, the picture was almost entirely repainted by Mr. Parris and his 
assistant artists. In connection with the original Colosseum there was a 
conservatory, three hundred feet in length, stored with many choice and 
beautiful plants. There were also waterfalls, fountains, ravines, and a 
Swiss Cottage, the latter having been designed by Mr. P. F. Robinson, an 
architect, and the author of several publications upon architectural subjects. 

Numerous structural alterations were made in the building, in addition 
to the repainting of the panorama in 1845.. The entrance on the 
Regent's Park side was considerably improved, and from it the visitor 
proceeded down a handsome and well-lighted staircase to a vestibule, 
leading to the Glyptotheca, or Museum of Sculpture, the Classic Ruins, 
Conservatory, etc. 

The eastern entrance in Albany Street was newly constructed at that 
period for the convenience of such visitors as desired to enter from that 
side of the Colosseum. Entering here by large folding doors, the visitor 
passed into a square vestibule ; thence, to the left, into a noble arched 
corridor, reminding the Italian tourist of the entrance to the Vatican. 
The corridor was lighted, during the day, from above, by several circles 
of cut and ground glass ; and, at night, by twenty-six bronze tripods. 
Descending to the basement story by three easy flights of steps, he 
entered a spacious apartment, supported by columns and pilasters, and 
adorned with glass chandeliers : in this room refreshments could be 
obtained. Glass doors opened at the north end into the Swiss Cottage, 
and at the south into the Conservatories and Promenade. Proceeding 
from the refreshment room, a similar corridor to that on the Regent's 
Park side of the building conducted the visitor to the Glyptotheca. 



THE COLOSSEUM. 169 

The Glyptotheca, or Museum of Sculpture, designed and erected by 
Mr. William Bradwell, chief machinist of Covent Garden Theatre, was a 
much finer apartment than that known as the " Saloon of Arts," which 
was originally constructed upon this site. In lieu of the draperies, which 
had the appearance of a large tent hastily fitted up for some temporary 
purpose, the visitor now beheld a lofty dome, of several thousand feet of 
richly cut glass, springing from an entablature and cornice supported by 
numerous columns. The frieze was enriched with the whole of the 
Panthenaic procession from the Elgin Marbles, modelled by Mr. Henning, 
Junr. This was continued without interruption around the entire circum- 
ference of the Hall, and above it were twenty fresco paintings, by 
Mr. Absalom, of allegorical subjects on panels, the mouldings, cornices, 
capitals of columns, and enrichments being all in gold. Beyond the circle 
of columns was another of as many pilasters, dividing and supporting 
arched recesses, in each of which, as well as between the columns, were 
placed works of art from the studios of some of the most eminent British 
and foreign sculptors, who gladly availed themselves of the opportunity 
for the first time afforded them in London of exhibiting their productions 
with those advantages of light and space so desirable for such a purpose. 

In the centre of the building was the circular frame-work enclosing 
the staircase leading to the panorama. This was hung with handsome 
drapery from the summit of the arched dome to the floor, concealing the 
stairs, and harmonizing with the prevailing tints of the architectural 
decorations. Around this were seats covered with rich Utrecht velvet, 
raised on a dais, and divided by groups of Cupid and Psyche supporting 
candelabra in the form of palm-trees. Various other figures supported 
branches for lights around the outer circle. 

In repainting the "Grand Panorama of London," as it was now 
called, Mr. Parris materially improved the sky and distant country, giving 
to the picture the appearance of a clearer atmosphere, freer from smoke 
than in the first instance, and many of the details were brought out with 
greater precision and truthfulness. 

To add an appearance of greater reality to the scene, the noise of 
various clocks and chimes of church bells were represented by suitable 
sounds. 

The Conservatories were newly stocked with flowers and shrubs, and 



I 7 o ST. PANCRAS. 

elaborately decorated in the Arabesque style. In the centre there 
was a so-called Gothic Aviary, superbly fitted up with gilt carved-work 
and looking-glass. The Exterior Promenade had numerous clever repre- 
sentations of the marble columns and mouldering frescoes of ancient 
Greece and Rome, including the ruins of the Temple of Vesta, Arch of 
Titus, and Temple of Theseus. The mountain scenery around the Swiss 
Cottage, representing the Mer de Glace, Mont Blanc, &c., was painted 
by Mr. Danson. There was also an imitation Stalactite Cavern, con- 
structed by Mr. W. Bradwell and Mr. Telbin. 

There was an Evening Exhibition at the Colosseum, when an extra- 
ordinary panorama of " London by Night " was shown. This immense 
picture had no support from the wall, on which the day view was painted 
behind it. It was erected and illuminated every evening, after the closing 
of the morning exhibition. The streets of London were represented as 
being illuminated, the moonlight was reflected in the River Thames, and 
a movement was imparted to it like that of rippling water, and to the sky 
like that of fleecy clouds flying steadily along, and various descriptions of 
street music were occasionally introduced. 

At Christmas, 1848, was added a superb theatre, with a picturesque 
rustic armoury as an ante-room. The spectatory, designed and erected 
by Bradwell, resembled the vestibule of a regal mansion fitted up for the 
performance of a masque : it was decorated with colossal Sienna columns, 
and copies of three of Raphael's cartoons in the Vatican, by Horner of 
Rathbone Place. The ceilings were gorgeously painted w r ith allegorical 
groups, and upon the front of the boxes there was a Bacchanalian 
procession, in richly-gilt relief. Upon the stage passed the Cyclorama of 
Lisbon, depicting in ten scenes the terrific spectacle of the great earth- 
quake of 1755, accompanied by characteristic performances upon Bevington's 
Apollonicon. In 1851, four exhibitions of the Cyclorama were given daily, 
and no doubt the great influx of visitors to the Great Exhibition rendered 
that number necessary. During the same year there were daily afternoon 
and evening performances upon an immense organ in the Glyptotheca. 

In 1855, the Colosseum, with the Cyclorama, were put up to auction 
by the Messrs. Winstanley. It was then stated that the Colosseum was 
erected at a cost of 23,000 for Mr. Thomas Hornor, who held a lease 
of it direct from the Crown, at a ground rent of 262 i8s., for a period 



THE DIORAMA. 171 

of ninety-nine years, sixty-nine of which were unexpired on the loth of 
October, 1854. He subsequently expended above 100,000 to carry out 
the objects for which it was intended, by decorating the interior, 
purchasing pictures, &c. In August, 1836, the lease was sold to Messrs. 
Braham and Yates. Mr. Braham laid out about 50,000 on the building, 
which in a few years afterwards became the property of Mr. Turner, who 
added the Cyclorama, which cost 20,000, so that the entire edifice cost 
above 200,000. The sum of 20,000 was bid, but the property was not 
sold. 

At Christmas, in 1856, after having been long closed, the building 
was opened to the public, with an admission charge of one shilling. 
Under the charge of Dr. Bachhoffner, it continued open till the spring of 
1864, when it was again closed. The sale of the site was announced in 
1870. In December, 1871, it was announced that a company was about 
to transform the building and grounds into club-chambers, baths, a 
winter garden, &c. In 1874 it was sold ; and large mansions, and a 
mews, have subsequently taken the place of the old building. 

THE DIORAMA. 

A building was set up on the eastern side of Park Square, Regent's 
Park, as early as 1823, for the accommodation of a diorama which had 
long been an object of wonder and delight in Paris. It was opened in 
the latter part of the year 1823, having been erected by Messrs. Morgan 
and Pugin in the short space of four months at a cost of about 9,000 
or 10,000. The Diorama consisted of two pictures, eighty feet in 
length and forty feet in height, painted in solid and in transparency, 
arranged so as to exhibit changes of light and shade, and a variety of 
natural phenomena ; the spectators being kept in comparative darkness, 
while the picture received a concentrated light from a ground-glass 
roof. The contrivance was partly optical, partly mechanical ; and con- 
sisted in placing the pictures within the building so constructed that the 
saloon containing the spectators revolved at intervals, and brought in 
succession the two distinct scenes into the field of view, without the 
necessity of the spectators removing from their seats ; while the scenery 
itself remained stationary, and the light was distributed by transparent 
and moveable blinds some placed behind the picture for intercepting and 



I 7 2 ST. PANCRAS. 

changing the colour of the rays of light, which passed through the semi- 
transparent parts. Similar blinds above and in front of the picture were 
moveable by cords, so as to distribute or direct the rays of light. The 
revolving motion given to the saloon was an arc of about seventy-three 
degrees ; and while the spectators were thus passing round, no person 
was permitted to go in or out. The revolution of the saloon was 
effected by means of a sector, or portion of a wheel with teeth which 
worked in a series of wheels or pinions. One man, by turning a winch, 
moved the whole. The space between the saloon and each of the two 
pictures was occupied on either side by a partition, forming a kind of 
avenue, proportioned in width to the size of the picture. Without such 
a precaution the eye of the spectator, being thirty or forty feet distant 
from the canvass, would, by anything intervening, have been estranged 
from the object. 

The combination of transparent, semi-transparent, and opaque colour- 
ing, still further assisted by the power of varying both the effects and 
the degree of light and shade, rendered the Diorama the most perfect 
scenic representation of nature, and adapted it peculiarly for moonlight 
subjects, or for showing such accidents in landscape as sudden gleams of 
sunshine or lightning. It was also unrivalled for representing architec- 
ture, particularly interiors, as powerful relief might be obtained without 
that exaggeration in the shadows which is almost inevitable in every 
other mode of painting. The interior of Canterbury Cathedral, the first 
picture exhibited in 1823, was a triumph of this class ; and the companion 
picture, the Valley of Sarnen, equally admirable in atmospheric effects. 
In one day (Easter Monday, 1824) the receipts exceeded "200. 

Although the Diorama at Regent's Park was artistically successful, it 
was not commercially so. In September, 1848, the building and ground 
in the rear, with the expensive machinery and pictures, was sold for 
6,750 I again, in June, 1849, for 4,800 ; and the property, with sixteen 
pictures, was next sold for 3,000. The building has since been converted 
into a Chapel for the Baptist denomination at the expense of Sir Morton 
Peto, Bart. 

THE COSMORAMA. 

This exhibition was established at Nos. 207 and 209, Regent Street, 
in 1820. It presented delineations of the celebrated remains of antiquity, 



ST. KATHARINE'S HOSPITAL. 173 

and of the most remarkable cities and edifices in every part of the globe. 
The subjects represented were changed every two or three months. 

THE ROYAL HOSPITAL OF ST. KATHARINE. 

The institution which is represented by the church and adjoining 
buildings pleasantly situated on the eastern side of Regent's Park, near 
Gloucester Gate, has a long and eventful history. The Royal Hospital of 
St. Katharine owes its origin to Queen Matilda, wife of King Stephen, 
who, in 1148, obtained that monarch's consent to found the Hospital and 
Church, in pure and perpetual alms, to secure the repose of the souls 
of her children, Baldwin and Matilda, who were buried within it before 
her own death. The foundation consisted of a Master, Brethren and 
Sisters, and Almspeople ; and the endowments were ample. The Queen 
purchased the site, with a mill, from the Priory of the Holy Trinity, 
Aldgate, for 6 per annum, charged upon the Manor of Braughing, 
Herts, and gave them the perpetual custody of the Hospital. 

The Collegiate Chapter of the Royal Hospital and Free Chapel of 
St. Katharine, originally situated near the Tower of London, was an 
ecclesiastical corporation of the Church of England of higher antiquity, 
(if we may accept the testimony of a well-known archaeologist, who wrote 
in 1824,) than any other existing. It remained upon that site until the 
year 1825, when, for reasons which will be explained in another place, 
it was removed and the present buildings at Regent's Park were erected. 

It is recorded that, soon after the foundation of St. Katharine's 
Hospital, William de Ypres granted a tract of ground called Edredeshede, 
since called Queenhithe, near the Tower, to the above Priory of the Holy 
Trinity, Aldgate, charged with a payment of 20 to the Hospital of 
St. Katharine. Thus it remained until 1255, when Queen Eleanor, wife 
of Henry III., instituted a suit against the Prior and Convent, with 
the final result of the alienation of the custody, and a dissolution of 
the Hospital. 

This unjust exercise of power was effected in opposition to the 
express charters of Stephen, Matilda, and Henry III., and two decisions of 
the courts of law (which had pronounced the right of custody to belong 
to the Priory), through the superior address and ecclesiastical assistance 
afforded the Queen by Fulke Basset, Bishop of London, who visited 



174 ST > PANCRAS. 

the Hospital, at the lady's suggestion, on St. Giles's Day, 1257, 
attended by a train of eminent persons, and entered into the following 
examination of the Prior and Chapter : What was their temporal right 
in the Hospital ; their spiritual right ; of whom they had the latter ; 
and why they had placed one of their own Canons to preside over 
the Hospital? 

The answer was that they had the same right over this Hospital 
as they had over those at Corney, etc., etc., whose brethren and sisters 
received their habits and pronounced their oaths before them. The 
spiritual right, they said, was derived from situation within the parish 
of St. Botolph, Aldgate, on their own land, and from grant by the 
Bishop of London, who had himself appointed the then Prior, who 
was as legally constituted as any ever had been. And, as to the 
appointment of one of their own body to the Mastership of St. 
Katharine's, it was done to reform the Brethren, who had acquired 
the reputation of being frequently inebriated. 

The bishop, however, proceeded to remove the canon from his 
office ; and prohibited, under heavy penalties, the Brethren and Sisters 
from paying any kind of obedience to the prior and convent of the 
Holy Trinity. He placed a chaplain over them as master, who 
probably presided until the death of Basset. After the death of the 
latter, Wengham, Bishop of London, was prevailed upon by the Queen, 
in 1261, in conjunction with two bishops and others of the Queen's 
council, to summon the Prior and Canons a second time, when they 
were intimidated, by threats of the King's displeasure, into a verbal 
surrender of all claims to St. Katharine's. Upon which the Bishops 
executed a surrender, under their respective seals, to the upright 
Eleanor. Urban IV., in 1267, made an ineffectual attempt to prevail 
upon her Majesty to restore the Hospital to its legal owners ; who 
very soon after this shameful deprivation granted the churchyard of 
St. Katharine's to the Brethren and Sisters, for an annual payment of 
two pounds of wax, to be deposited on the anniversary of St. Botolph, 
upon the altar of the church, and remitted to them five shillings 
tithes at Chaldfleet, for certain lands at Edmonton. 

Queen Eleanor, after the death of her husband, Henry III., re- 
founded St. Katharine's by her charter, dated July 5th, 1273, for a 



ST. KATHARINE'S HOSPITAL. 175 

Master, three Brethren, three Sisters, ten Beads-women, and six Poor 
Scholars, with endowments ; and reserved to herself, and the successive 
Queens of England, the nomination of the Master, three Brothers, 
Priests, and three Sisters, upon all vacancies. The Beadswomen were 
to receive their sustenance from the alms of the Hospital, and lodge 
within it, for which they were required to pray for the foundress, her 
progenitors, and the faithful. The boys to be maintained, taught, and 
to assist in the celebration of divine service. 

King Edward II., in the year 1309, granted to this Hospital the 
perpetual advowson and patronage of the church of St. Peter, in 
Northampton, with the chapels of Upton and Kingsthorp annexed. 

St. Katharine's Hospital is supposed to be associated with the 
memory of Raymond Lully, the celebrated hermetic philosopher, who is 
said to have made experiments with a view to the discovery of the 
secret of the transmutation of brass and iron into gold. 

Lully was born at Palma, Majorca, in or about the year 1235. 
One account of him says that he fell in love with a young woman 
who had a cancer, which circumstance induced him to apply himself 
*o the study of chemistry and physic for the purpose of discovering a 
remedy for her complaint. He is said to have succeeded, but the 
account says not whether they were afterwards married. Another account 
is that Lully, upon finding the young woman had cancers in the breast, 
relinquished his purpose of marriage, and undertook a course of travels 
into Africa and the East for the purpose of converting the Mahometans 
to the Christian faith, where he incurred great hardships and dangers. 
He was so much inflamed with zeal for this object that, not succeeding 
in his application to various Christian princes for assistance, he entered 
the Franciscan Order, and returned to Africa with the hope of obtaining 
the crown of martyrdom. When he was again found in that country, 
from which he had been permitted to quit only on condition of not 
returning, he was thrown into prison, and subjected to much torture. 
He is said to have been stoned to death, but a more detailed account 
records his rescue by some Genoese traders after being stoned and left for 
dead. His rescuers took him into their ship to convey him home, but on 
the passage, and just within sight of his native land, the poor old man 
expired. His death occurring in 1315, his age must have been about eighty. 



176 ST. PANCRAS. 

Lully was a famous man in his time, but his name has long since 
been forgotten. His works upon theology, physic, philosophy, chemistry, 
and law, which are considered very obscure, have been frequently printed, 
and in olden times were much valued. 

It is not certain, however, that Raymond Lully was ever in this 
country. His name seems to have been confounded, by some writers, 
with that of another Raymond, a Jew of Terragona, who had an apart- 
ment in the Tower of London, where he tried some experiments in the 
prevalent delusion of gold making. 

I R X 335 Edward III. granted to the Hospital of St. Katharine wood 
and timber, to be taken in the wood of Roger Wast, of Leyton, in the 
forest of Essex, for firing, and for the repair of their mill at Reynham. 

The next benefactress to the hospital was Philippa, wife of Edward 
the Third. She founded a chantry here, and gave to the Hospital, 10 
in lands per annum, for the maintenance of an additional Chaplain, with 
the manors of Upchurch, in Kent, and Queenbury in Reed, in Hertford- 
shire. She also granted a new charter and statutes for the regulation of 
the hospital. Some of these regulations are curious : 

" The said Brethren shall wear a straight coat or clothing, and over 
that a mantel of black color, on which shall be placed a mark signifying 
the sign of the Holy Katherine ; but green cloaths, or those entirely red, 
or any other striped cloaths, or tending to dissoluteness shall not at all 
be used. And that the Brethren and Clerks there assembled shall have 
the crowns of their heads shaved in a becoming manner. 

" None of the Brethren or Sisters shall stay out of the said Hospital 
longer than the usual time of ringing the fire-bells belonging to the 
churches within the City of London, for the covering up or putting out 
of the fires therein. And also, that none of the Brethren shall have any 
private interview or discourse with any of the Sisters of the said house, 
or any of the other women within the said Hospital, in any place that 
can possibly beget or cause scandal to arise therefrom." 

The statutes also gave directions for the diet, stipend, number of 
masses to be said every day, visitation of the sick, and many other 
internal regulations. They likewise notice the re-building of the church 
by William de Erldesby, master of the hospital, who began that work about 
the year 1340; to which building the queen was a liberal contributor. 




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Sr. KATHARINE'S HOSPITAL. 177 

Several royal and other personages were among the benefactors to 
this institution in one way and another. It is very probable that 
Henry VIII. intended to dissolve this house, but his intention is supposed 
to have been altered at the request of Queen Anne Boleyn. 

St. Katharine's Hospital escaped the ravages of the great fire, and, 
later on, of the Gordon Riots, although upon the latter occasion its 
safety was imperilled by the mob. William Macdonald, a lame soldier, 
and two women named Mary Roberts and Charlotte Gardner (the latter 
a black woman), headed the rabble, who destroyed the dwelling of John 
Lebarty, a publican in St. Katharine's Lane, and were about to demolish 
the church, as a relic of popery, had they not been prevented by the 
London Association. They were afterwards hanged upon Tower Hill. 

The old church belonging to this hospital contained a fine monu- 
ment to the memory of John Holland, Duke of Exeter, a great 
benefactor to the establishment ; and also a very curiously carved wooden 
pulpit, which was given by Sir Julius Caesar in the time of James I., and 
had around its six sides, this inscription : " Ezra, the scribe, | stood 
upon a | pulpit of wood | which he had | made for the | preachin Neheh. 
Chap. viii. 4. j 

Early in 1824 some of the principal merchants in the City obtained 
the sanction of Government to apply for an Act of Parliament to 
construct wet-docks between the Tower and the London Docks, a space 
which included the site of the chapel, hospital, and entire precinct of 
St. Katharine ; and when the act was obtained, the new Dock Company 
made compensation to the hospital, under the direction of Lord Chancellor 
Eldon, to the following amount, namely 125,000 as the value of the 
precinct estate ; 36,000 for building a new hospital ; 2,000 for the 
purchase of a site ; and several smaller sums, as compensation to certain 
officers and members of the hospital, whose interests would be affected by 
removal to another situation. 

A site having been granted on the east side of Regent's Park by 
the Commissioners of Woods and Forests, the new hospital buildings were 
erected there. The centre consists of a chapel, with chapter-house ; and 
on each side of the chapel are three houses, those on one side being 
for the brothers, and the others for the sisters, with requisite offices and 

outbuildings, including a coach-house ; and at each end, by the Park side, 
M 



ST. PANCRAS. 



there is a lodge. The residence of the master, on the opposite side of 
the carriage-road, is situated in about two acres of land laid out in 
ornamental grounds and shrubberies. The ancient and interesting monu- 
ments were transported at the expense of the Dock Company to the new 
chapel, where they have been restored at an enormous expense. 

The income in 1890 was stated to be 7,500, and out of this hand- 
some sum means were found for the provision of a home and pension 
for three sisters and three brethren, and a master; and also for the 
education of thirty-six boys and twenty-four girls. 







CHAPTER XII. 



INSTITUTIONS, THEATRES, &c. 

University College. St. Pancras Volunteers. The Royal Panarmonion Gardens. Thorrington's 
Suspension Railway. The Tottenham Theatre. The Cabinet Theatre. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

N THE YEAR 1826, University College, 
London, was founded. The Report of the 
Council to the Proprietors, dated 30th 
September, 1828, gives the following ac- 
count of the early history of the building. 
"A portion of freehold land, containing 
rather more than seven acres, between 
Russell Square and the New Road, having 
been purchased by the Council, and the 
design of William Wilkins, R.A., having been selected, 
the first stone was laid by the Duke of Sussex, on 
the 3oth of April, 1827. The contractors were Messrs. 
Henry Lee and Sons. The chief access to the 
University is by Gower Street, Bedford Square, at the 
upper end of which the ground is situated. There is 
access also from the new Road by Gower Street North, 
and from the west by Carmarthen Street and Grafton 
Street, leading from Tottenham Court Road. 

"The building, when completed, will consist of a 
central part, and two wings advanced at right angles from 
its extremities. . . . The central part only has been 
erected, and to that the present description is confined. 

" At the entrance are two temporary lodges for the porter, one 
surmounted by a belfry, the other by a clock, 




180 ST. PANCRAS. 

" As it must necessarily take some time to finish the dome and 
portico, that part of the building is partitioned off from the rest of the 
area, to prevent any interference between the students and the workmen. 
A temporary semi-circular iron-railing encloses the area for the students, 
leaving a communication to the courts behind; a large space of ground 
on each side being left for the workmen, while the wings are building. 
A broad paved footpath on each side of the porter's lodges, and 
a carriage way between the lodges, lead to the doors, in the centre 
of what may be called, for the convenience of description, the North 
and South Ranges, being the portions of the building on the north 
and south sides of the portico. These doors are the chief entrances 
of the students to the lecture rooms. 

" Upon entering the door of the north range, there is a room 
on each side of the passage, both of which are to be used as lecture 
rooms." 

Detailed descriptions of the various rooms follow, but space does not 
allow of any mention of them. They included a chemical laboratory, 
museum of materia medica, upper and lower north and south theatres, 
libraries, common rooms for the students, refreshment rooms, &c. 

Among the professors attached to the University at its commence- 
ment was Mr. (afterwards Sir) Anthony Panizzi, whose department 
included Italian language and literature. 

University College, London, was opened on October ist, 1828, under 
the title of " the University of London ; " the institution was incorporated 
as " University College, London," by Royal Charter, dated November 
28th, 1869, which was annulled by Act of Parliament, passed June 24th, 
1869, whereby the college was re-incorporated with additional powers, 
and divested of its proprietary character. 

The purpose of the college, as expressed in the Act, is " to afford 
at a moderate expense the means of education in literature, science, 
and the fine arts, and in the knowledge required for admission to the 
medical and legal professions, and in particular for so affording the means 
of obtaining the education required for the purpose of taking the degrees 
now or hereafter granted by the University of London." 

The college was founded on undenominational principles, and supplies 
instruction in all the branches of education including engineering and 




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ST. PANCRAS VOLUNTEERS. 181 

the fine arts that are taught in the universities, with the exception 
of theology. 

The buildings, the chief feature of which is the Corinthian portico 
at the main entrance, surmounted by a dome, were enlarged by a wing 
in 1881, and contain a large library, and the Flaxman Gallery, with 
original models by Flaxman. 

ST. PANCRAS VOLUNTEERS. 

The following account of this corps is taken from the Loyal Volunteers 
of London and Environs, published in 1799 : 

" ST. PANCRAS VOLUNTEERS. 
" Major Commandant, James Miller. 

" This Volunteer Corps was formed in April, 1798, for the 
preservation of Public Tranquility, to assist the Civil Magistrates, 
and for the protection of Property ; but not to march without 
consent beyond their own District. The corps consists of three 
Companies, Battalion and Light Infantry, of about 340 Privates; 
and every man has the care of his own Arms, &c. They were 
originally joined to the Kentish Town Association, but are now 
unconnected with any Body. The St. Pancras Volunteers 
received their colours from the hand of Mrs. Dixon, as Proxy 
for Lady Camden, in the Cricket Ground belonging to Mr. Lord, 
and they were reviewed by His Majesty in Hyde Park, on the 
4th of June, 1799, and inspected by him on the 2ist of the 
same month, at the Foundling Hospital. Their Committee consists 
of all the Officers, 18 Privates, and a Serjeant-major ; and each 
Company chooses its own Privates. 

"OFFICERS' NAMES. 

Major Commandant and Captain, John Dixon. 
First Company. Captain, Phillip Lejeune ; 

Lieutenant, John Crompton ; 

Ensign, Robinson. 
Second Company. Captain, John Dixon ; 

Lieutenant, John Downman ; 

Ensign, Adolphus. 



182 ST. PANCRAS. 

Light Company. Captain, vacant; 

First Lieutenant, John Pepys ; 
Second Lieutenant, John Cooper ; 
Adjutant, William Elliott. 

" DRESS. 
Helmets: on a Label, ST. PANCRAS VOLUNTEERS; ornament on 

ditto, G. R. 

Breast-plate, oval : S. P. V. and Crown at top. 
Cartouch : a Star, S. P. V. in centre. 
Buttons : S. P. V. ; Light Infantry, a Bugle Horn. 
First Company, Gaiters or Boots; Second Company and Light 

Infantry, Half Boots." 

The dress of the St. Pancras Volunteers was a blue coat and 
pantaloons, red lappet, collar and cuffs, and white waistcoat. 

On stated days the corps marched to Chalk Farm to fire with 
ball at a target, for a silver cup subscribed for by the corps. 

THE ROYAL PANARMONION GARDENS. 

From a prospectus issued in the year 1829, it appears that a 
spacious and desirable spot of ground was selected very near Battle 
Bridge, a site which in the year 1790 was occupied by some nursery 
grounds belonging to, or in the occupation of, a Mr. Collins. To 
assist in the erection of the various buildings projected, which included 
concert rooms, hotel, etc., the lessees proposed to raise a sum not 
exceeding 20,000 by shares of 100 each, to be paid by instalments, 
as the undertaking proceeded. The prospectus sets forth that, " In 
addition to the extensively ornamented Gardens, which will be 
judiciously planted and pleasingly interspersed with Fountains, Cascades, 
Temples, etc., it is proposed to erect an Hotel replete with every 
comfort and accommodation, and which the contiguity of the Gardens, 
together with Reading Rooms, and Reflectories, for the purposes of 
refreshment, which will be supplied with the daily Newspapers, 
Periodical Publications, etc. 

" The amusements in the Gardens, independently of the ingenious 
Rail-way already constructed, will comprehend Concerts, Reading Rooms, 



THE ROYAL PANARMONION GARDENS. 183 

and a variety of novelties too numerous to detail, to which will be added 
a Botanical Bazaar, unique and useful in character, also, Bathing Rooms 
of a peculiar and convenient construction. 

" A neat and elegant Theatre for Evening Entertainments has been 
fitted up, in which Opera and Ballet performances will be produced, with 
appropriate Decorations, Scenery, Dresses, etc., to which Shareholders 
will be admitted at stated periods. 

" In short, no pains nor expense will be reasonably spared in 
rendering the general amusements of the Panarmonion Gardens and 
Theatre effective and interesting, and it is confidently presumed they will 
present a novelty at once chaste and classical. Every care and attention 
to individual comfort will be observed. The price of tickets for the 
Season, for admission to the Theatre and Gardens, will be regulated by 
the Committee of Management." 

The Grand Panarmonion Theatre was situated on the north side of 
the Gardens, and was probably approached from Chesterfield Street and 
Belgrave Street. There were entrances to the Gardens themselves in 
Manchester Street, Liverpool Street, and Argyle Street. From a contem- 
porary plan of the establishment it appears that there were boxes and 
covered walks all around the Gardens, and there were a fountain and 
cascades in the Gardens. The Concert room was on the south side, and 
the Theatre, Billiard Rooms, Reading and Refreshment Rooms, etc., 
occupied the entire width of the north side of the Gardens. 

The "ingenious Rail-way" referred to in the prospectus was doubtless 
the "suspension railway" invented by Mr. H. Thorrington, two or three 
illustrations of which appeared at the time. The invention seems to have 
consisted in suspending a boat-shaped car from a substantial level bar, 
along which it travelled upon small wheels. The motive power was 
supplied from the car by means of a wheel which was worked by hand, 
and by which means the rate of progression was regulated. "No one can 
believe," says a contemporary account, " that this Car travels with such 
ease and rapidity without being a witness of the fact. The idea is a very 
ingenious one, and does great credit to Mr. H. Thorrington, who is the 
inventor. The admittance to the Gardens is One Shilling each Person, 
entitling the parties to ride round the gardens in the Car, or on the 
Hobby Horse. On Sunday, 6d. each person to walk in the Gardens." 



184 ST. PANCRAS. 

A further prospectus sets forth in detail the various objects of the 
institution. It was established " for the encouragement and promotion 
of the arts, in their connection with dramatic exhibition, and 
for the cultivation and development of native British musical talent." 
It comprised an academic theatre for young professors and pupils 
of the stage ; a subscription theatre for opera and ballet performances, 
admission to which was limited to subscribers, no money being taken 
at the doors ; a grand panorama ; ornamental gardens ; assembly and 
concert room ; exhibition gallery for paintings and works of art ; 
reading room, etc. Signer Gemaldo Lanza seems to have been 
intimately associated with the promotion of the institution. 

. THE TOTTENHAM THEATRE. 

Francis Pasqualis, in the year 1780, at the suggestion of the Earl of 
Sandwich, built this house originally, which was known at first as " The 
King's Ancient Concert Rooms." In an early period of its history it 
received royal patronage, as may be seen from the following notice in a 
newspaper of 1792 : 

" ANCIENT CONCERT IN TOTTENHAM STREET. 
" This place was honoured last night by their Majesties and 
the elder princesses. The selection was made by Lord Exeter, 
and consisted, as usual, of compositions by Handel and others. 
Master Walch was added to the vocal corps. Kelly, Niell, Miss 
Pool and Miss Pache were the other vocal performers, and they 
all acquitted themselves with their accustomed ability. The whole 
was as usual forcible and earnest, particularly the choruses." 

In 1808 the celebrated Master Saunders took the house as an eques- 
trian theatre, and it was then denominated " The Amphitheatre." At 
one time it was called "The Regency Theatre." It was afterwards 
called " The Tottenham Street Theatre," and in 1823, when French 
plays were performed there, "The West London Theatre." This is 
said to have been the first house in London at which French plays 
were put on the stage. It has frequently changed its name, having 
been, at various times, known as "The New Royal West London 
Theatre," "The Queen's Theatre" in 1835, "The Royalty," and "The 
Prince of Wales's Royal Theatre." 






THE CABINET THEATRE. 185 

The latter part of its career was, to say the least, chequered, and 
before it was finally closed it was popularly known by the significant 
but uncomplimentary name of " The Dust-hole." The building is now 
occupied by the Salvation Army. 

Most of the celebrated actors of the day have occasionally performed 
at this house. The first appearance of C. M. Young was at a private 
performance there. The Royal Life Guards engaged the house for a 
private performance in 1804, when Captains Noel, Hardy, Chad, 
Thompson, and others took parts, and after the entertainment concluded* 
a ball and supper were provided at the expense of Captain Chad. 
Madame Catalini had a benefit there, when ten guineas were offered 
for a seat in the boxes. M. Piozzi, Mr. Jones, Mr. Lidel, and others, 
had benefits at various times. It once was known as " Hyde's Rooms " 
when Mr. Griesbach held his annual concert there. 

CABINET THEATRE, KING'S CROSS. 

This little theatre in Liverpool Street, like its fellow in Tottenham 
Street, Tottenham Court Road, passed under various names. Each 
new management sought out some fresh name. From Palmer's History 
of St. Pancras we learn that it was originally known as " The Philhar- 
monic," then as " The Royal King's Cross Theatre," afterwards as 
"The Royal Clarence Theatre." After that it was known as "The 
Cabinet Theatre," and now as " The King's Cross Theatre." At the time 
it was known as "The North London Athenasum " Mr. George Bennett, 
of Sadler's Wells, read lectures there on the " Morality of Shakespeare's 
Plays." During the more recent part of its career the theatre has been 
principally engaged as an amateur establishment. 




CHAPTER XIII. 
CHARITIES, HOSPITALS, &c. 

Charities : Heron's Charity ; Miller's Gift ; Stanhope's Gift ; Charles's Gift ; Cleeve's Gift ; 
Coventry's Gift ; Platt's Gift ; Church Lands ; Donor unknown. Ancient Bequests. Charity 
School. The Foundling Hospital. Thomas Coram. Hatton Garden Premises. William 
Hogarth's Pictures. Raphael's Cartoon. G. F. Handel. " The Messiah." Benjamin 
West, R.A. The Small Pox Hospital. The Royal Free Hospital. North London, or 
University College Hospital. 

CHARITIES. 
HERON'S CHARITY. 

UMEROUS ancient charities belonging to the 
parish of St. Pancras are mentioned in the 
Charity Commissioners' Reports. 

William Heron, citizen and woodmonger, by 
his will, dated I2th July, 1580, after giving 
certain annuities to his wife and others for life, 
and after making various bequests, gave 8 
towards the repairing of the highways from 
time to time in most needful places, between 
Spital House at Highgate, and the corner of 
St. James's Wall, and the common highway 
leading from Highgate through Kentish Town to Battle 
Bridge, the same to be yearly bestowed by the constable 
and churchwardens of the said places for the time being. 
The yearly sum of 8 is paid by the Company of 
Clothworkers in London in respect of this gift ; and it is 
transmitted in rotation to the officers of the parishes of 
Clerkenwell, Islington, and St. Pancras, in which parishes 
the highways mentioned by the testator lie. 

According to the Report of the Charity Commis- 
sioners in 1826, the 8 received by the parish of St. 
Pancras every third year was carried to the general parish 
fund, out of which the necessary disbursements were made 
for the repairs of the highway lying within the parish. 





CHARITIES. 187 

MILLER'S GIFT. 

In a list of the benefactions to the parish of St. Pancras, printed 
in 1766, but purporting to have been collected in the year 1696, it is 
stated that John Miller, by his will, dated the i8th day of July, 1583, 
gave two closes in Green Street, in the manor of Totten-hall Court, 
in this parish, containing about nine acres, to Simon Frenchbourne, 
of Islington, his heirs and assigns, upon the condition that he and they 
should yearly pay 265. 8^. to such one poor impotent man as the vicar 
and churchwardens of this parish, and four of the tenants of the said 
manor, should appoint from time to time to receive the same. 

The Charity Commissioners, in 1826, could find no trace of this 
payment, neither could they ascertain what were the lands charged 

therewith. 

STANHOPE'S GIFT. 

It is also stated in the printed list above referred to that Edward 
Stanhope, knight and doctor of laws, by his will, dated the last day 
of February, 1602, gave to this parish 20, to be paid to the Bishop 
of London for the time being, and to the two Justices of the Peace 
next inhabiting to Kentish Town, for a present stock for employing 
the poor of the said parish that dwell in the manor of Cantelows, and the 
profits thereof to be to their relief. The stock to be always kept whole. 

In 1826 nothing further could be learned respecting this gift. 

CHARLES'S GIFT. 

Thomas Charles, by will, bearing date 23rd December, 1617, gave 
245. in bread yearly to the poor of this parish for ever, out of four 
messuages in Fetter Lane, London, three of them adjoining towards 
the north side of the passage leading into King's Head Court, the 
fourth behind the three said messuages ; and by decree in Chancery, 
dated the 3d day of April, in the 2d year of King William and Queen 
Mary, the annuity is payable yearly at every Christmas for ever. 

The property charged with this payment in 1826 belonged to Mrs. 
Ann Hooper, of Stockwell (or of Prospect Place, Walworth), in the 
county of Surrey. 

A similar donation was made by the same benefactor to the parish 
of Hampstead. 



i88 ST. PANCRAS. 

CLEEVE'S GIFT. 

In the printed table it is stated that Thomas Cleeve, on the loth 
of October, 1634, gave the sum of 50, with which was purchased by 
the parishioners, according to his directions, an annuity of 2 i6s. a 
year, payable out of two acres of free land of Mr. Richard Balthorp (and 
in the year 1696 the fee of Mr. Francis Stanton) to the churchwardens 
of this parish yearly at Lady-day and Michaelmas-day for ever, to be 
laid out for 13 penny loaves of bread, and to be bestowed on 13 poor 
people of the said parish (except the poor people of Highgate only) 
every Sunday, and to such only that come in due time to church or to 
chapel to morning prayer, unless hindered by sickness or otherwise, as 
the vicar and churchwardens shall allow to be reasonable. 

The premises charged with this annuity are the Boot public-house, 
Greenland Place, Somers Town, not far from Battle Bridge, the property 
of Mr. Lucas. 

The charity was given away by the parish clerk after morning 
service at the church, in penny loaves, to poor women of the parish 
who attended at the service. 

COVENTRY'S GIFT. 

Thomas Coventry, Esq., by deed bearing date the loth of July, 
1636, settled upon certain feoffees for the Company of Merchant Tailors, 
London, the fee -farm rents of 10 35. 4^. per annum, issuing out of 
the rectory and church of East Mouldsey in Surrey, and that of "14 
per annum issuing out of the rectory and church of Winslow in Buck- 
inghamshire, and that of j 135. 4^. per annum issuing out of the 
rectory and church of Kempton in Hertfordshire, for ever, upon the 
condition that the master and wardens of the said company should 
yearly for ever, upon the Feast of All Saints, pay out of the same 
rents, unto the overseers of the poor of this parish, the sum of 5 to 
be bestowed in fuel and clothes upon the poor people dwelling in the 
said parish at or near Highgate. 

PLATT'S GIFT. 

It is stated in the printed list of charities that William Platt, of 
Highgate, in this parish, Esq., by a codicil to his will, dated 4th 



CHARITIES. 189 

November, 1637, ave out f the yearly revenues of the lands and 
tenements given by him to St. John's College, Cambridge, the sum of 
14 yearly for ever, to be paid to the overseers of the poor every 
New Year's Day ; 10 thereof to be given to ten poor people of High- 
gate in the said parish, and the other 4 to four poor people in 
Kentish Town. 

CHURCH LANDS. 

In the printed list it is stated that certain lands, copyhold of inheri- 
tance, held of the manors of Toten Hall Court and of Cantelows, in 
the names of eight trustees, and let in the year 1696 to four several 
tenants at the rents of 6, 3, 19 ios., and 8, were given by a 
person or persons unknown, for the use and benefit of this parish, for 
the needful and necessary repairs of the parish church and the chapel. 

DONOR UNKNOWN. 

The Report of the Charity Commissioners, in 1826, states that there 
is a parcel of land, containing about three acres, lying at Kentish Town, 
in the parish of St. Pancras, called the Fortress Field, being copyhold 
of inheritance, held of the manor of Cantelow, of the rents of which 
the parish of St. Pancras is entitled to one third, and the parish of 
Chipping Barnet to the other two thirds. In the printed list of 
benefactions to which reference has already several times been made it is 
stated that this land was given by some person unknown, and was then 
(1696) let for 7 ios. per annum ; 2 ios. thereof for the relief of the 
poor of this parish, as the said parish shall in vestry direct and appoint. 

It appears, however, from returns of charitable donations made to 
Parliament, that among the returns for the parish of Chipping Barnet 
this land was the gift of John Brisco, by will dated in 1666. The will 
of John Brisco w r as searched for, but could not be found. 

Upon an application made some years since to the court of Chancery, 
the parish documents and the court rolls of the manor were searched, 
in order to state as fully as possible the circumstances belonging to this 
property, but nothing further was discovered respecting its origin, or the 
trusts on which it is held, than what appears in the printed list. 

The Charity Commissioners' Report of 1826, says : " The one third 
of the rents belonging to this parish, (to which is generally added by the 



1 9 o sr. PANCRAS. 

churchwardens a small sum from the sacrament money,) has been usually 
distributed on the ist of January, by a committee of the directors of the 
poor appointed for the purpose, by ticket for 35. each ; these tickets are 
delivered to the members of the committee previously to that day, and 
they give them at their discretion to such persons as they think deserving 
of them ; the distribution is made at the female charity school." 

ANCIENT BEQUESTS. 

The following list of ancient bequests to the parish of St. Pancras 
embraces a number of charities which are not mentioned in the Report 
of the Charity Commissioners. 

BAKER'S GIFT. William Baker, of Coombe Bassett, bequeathed 
the sum of ^"50 to the poor, to be distributed on New Year's 
Day in bread and money. 

BLUNT'S GIFT. This was the grant of William Blunt, who, in 
1678, left to the poor of this parish, 10 to be distributed 
by his executors. 

CRAVEN'S GIFT. John Craven, Esq., of Gray's Inn, left the 
sum of ^"2,000 to be distributed amongst one hundred poor 
householders of this parish. The distribution was made at 
Bagnigge Wells, March 14, 1786. 

DENIS'S GIFT. Sir Peter Denis, of Maize Hill, Greenwich, be- 
queathed 200 to the poor of the parish, which donation 
was presented by the parish to the Female Charity School, 
in 1793. 

DESTRODE'S GIFT. Charles Destrode, of Lambeth, in 1823, left 
15 to be distributed amongst the poor of the parish. 

EDWARDS'S GIFT. Mrs. Grace Edwards, of Pratt Street, left ^"20 
for the poor, to be distributed in money and bread, in 1820. 

FITZROY'S GIFT. In the year 1788, the Right Hon. Gen. Fitzroy 
left a plot of ground, known as the Mother Red Cap tavern, 
for the use of the parish. It was sold in 1817, and the 
proceeds applied towards the expenses of the new work- 
house, 



CHARITIES. I9I 

GOULD'S GIFT. This lady left by will property yielding ^"70 per 
year, to be distributed amongst the poor of Highgate, 
whether in Hornsey or St. Pancras, to those poor who are 
not recipients of parochial relief. 

HAMEY'S GIFT. Baldwin Hamey, Esq., M.D., left by will, in 
1674, the sum of ^30, towards the building of a wall to 
the vicarage house. 

JACKSON'S CHARITY. John Jackson, of Tottenham Court Road, 
bequeathed in 1843, 20 per annum to be distributed in 
coal amongst the poor of the parish ; also 6,000 to be 
divided amongst several institutions. 

JONES'S GIFT. John Jones, Esq., of Hampton-upon-Thames, left 
by will, in 1691, the rent of the Rainbow Coffee- House, 
Fleet Street, for the good of the parish, one-fourth to go 
to the vicar. 

MILLS'S GIFT. Mr. J. N. Mills, of Bayham Street, Camden 
Town, in 1847, bequeathed a sum of money towards the 
expense of repairing his family grave, the remainder of 
which sum was to be distributed amongst the poor widows 
and orphans of Camden Town. 

MORRANT'S GIFT. In 1547 John Morrant gave to the parson and 
churchwardens of St. Pancras four acres of meadow land, 
called Kilborne Croft, valued in 1547 at sixteen shillings per 
annum, twelve shillings to the priest to keep an obit, and 
four shillings to the poor in recreation. 

NICOLL'S GIFT. Isabel Nicoll, of Kentish Town, left, in 1682, 
a fair silver flagon for the use of the altar of the parish 
church. 

PALMER'S GIFT. Mrs. Eleanor Palmer, wife of John Palmer, of 
Kentish Town, bequeathed a third part of the profits of 
three acres of land, situated near the Fortress Field, to the 
poor. In 1696, it produced 2 los. ; and in 1810, ^"14. 

PERRY'S BEQUEST. Henry Perry, of St. Ann's, London, be- 
queathed to the poor of this parish the residue of his 
estate after the payment of several legacies, 



I 9 2 ST. PANCRAS. 

PITT'S GIFT. This was a grant from James Pitt, a church- 
warden of this parish in 1668, who left by his will ^"20, to 
the poor of the parish. 

The foregoing list is given upon the authority of Palmer's History 
of St. Pancras. 

CHARITY SCHOOL. 

The St. Pancras Female Charity School was instituted in the year 
1776, for the purpose of maintaining, clothing, instructing, and putting 
out to service the female children of the industrious poor of the parish. 
In the first instance, a house was taken and six children were elected, 
and a matron was appointed for the purpose of instructing and taking 
care of them, and such other children as might afterwards be admitted 
into the school. These children were taken entirely from their parents, 
and wholly maintained by the charity, so as to be kept from bad society 
and made useful members of society. 

The old Charity School being greatly out of repair and obscurely 
situated, and also too small to accommodate the increasing number of 
children, a new house was erected, by voluntary contributions, about the 
year 1790, upon a piece of ground generously offered for the purpose by 
the Right Hon. Lord Southampton, on the east side of the Hampstead 
Road, near Tottenham Court, in a public and healthy situation. The 
number of inmates, about the same date, was increased from six to 
thirty. 

"A Brief Account of the Charity School of St. Pancras," published in 
1791, states : 

"The Children are instructed in the Principles of the Christian 
Religion, in true Humility and Obedience to their Superiors, and such 
necessary Qualifications as may make them of Benefit to the Community, 
and honest and useful servants. 

" They are Annually cloathed ; and when of proper Age, placed out 
to domestic Service, in such creditable Families as are approved by 
the Trustees. 

"Every Person subscribing Two Guineas per Ann : is a Trustee 
during the Time such Subscription shall be continued," 






THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 193 

The conditions under which children were admitted to the benefits 
of this institution required that they should be free from any infectious 
disorder or falling fits ; that they should be not . under eight years or 
above eleven years of age ; that they should not remain in the school 
after having attained the age of fourteen years; and "that no child be 
admitted into the School, unless legally settled in this Parish, for the 
full Space of Two Years previous to such Admission ; and the Parents 
of such Child have not received any pension or Subsistence from the 
Parish (otherwise than from Public Gifts) within the same Period." 

Collections at St. Pancras Church, in the year 1790, in behalf of 
this institution, produced the sums of 16 155. 6d. and 17. Three 
collections at Percy Chapel in the same year and for the same worthy 
object produced the total sum of nearly 90. 

The board-room belonging to the school is a handsome apartment, 
and contains a list of the benefactors, written in gold, and over the fire- 
place, a portrait of Thomas Russell, Esq., one of the trustees, painted by 
J. P. Knight, R.A. 

THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 

The founder of this excellent institution was Thomas Coram, the son 
of John Coram, the captain of a ship, who was born at Lyme Regis in 
1667 or 1668. In process of time Thomas Coram adopted a maritime 
career, and, like his father, he became captain of a ship. In 1719 his 
ship was stranded off Cuxhaven, and after that he settled down to 
business near London. His residence was at Rotherhithe, and in the 
journeys, early in the morning and late at night, to and from the City, 
which his business compelled him to take, he frequently saw infants 
exposed and deserted in the streets. His kind heart was touched at 
the pitiable sight, and he immediately set about improving their condition. 

For seventeen years he laboured hard for the establishment of a 
foundling hospital, and at length a charter was obtained, funds were 
provided, and the Board of Guardians which had been appointed met 
for the first time in 1739. The body of Governors and Guardians 
comprised John Duke of Bedford and 350 other persons, including several 
Peers, the Master of the Rolls, the Chief Justices and Chief Baron, the 
Speaker, the Attorney and Solicitor-General, and Captain Coram. 



ST - PANCRAS. 

A house in Hatton Garden was first taken, and in 1741 children 
were first admitted to its benefits, but only twenty children could be 
received, and the large number of applications for admission soon proved 
that the limits of the house must be greatly extended. It was required 
of all who brought children that they should " fix on each child some 
particular writing, or other distinguishing mark or token," so that the 
children might be identified if it were subsequently found necessary to do 
so. This wise condition removed the danger of a woman being punished 
for the supposed murder of her child, when she had really placed it 
in this excellent asylum. The number of applicants was so great that 
sometimes a hundred women would crowd round the door with children 
when only a very few of them could possibly be admitted, and a kind 
of ballot was taken, those who chanced to draw a white ball being 
admitted subject to the approval of the Board, those who drew a black 
ball being excluded, and those who drew a red ball being allowed to wait 
and draw among themselves to fill up any vacancy which might chance 
to arise where a candidate was found to be ineligible. 

The necessity of more extended premises led to the purchase of a 
magnificent site, fifty-six acres in size, at the top of Lamb's Conduit 
Street. The foundation was laid in September, 1742, and the western 
wing of the present hospital was opened in 1745, and the house in Hatton 
Garden was given up. The other two portions of the edifice soon 
followed, and in 1747 the Chapel was commenced. 

The Governors of the hospital having appealed for assistance in 1756, 
the House of Commons promised and gave substantial support, and the 
hospital was thereupon thrown open for the general admission of found- 
lings. A basket was hung outside the gates of the hospital, and an 
advertisement publicly announced that all children under the age of two 
years, tendered for admission, would be received. On June 2nd, 1756, the 
first day when this regulation came into force, 117 children were tendered 
and received within the hospital walls. 

Children were sent up from all parts of the country in baskets and 
bags, and so little care was taken that many of them perished by the 
way. One man is said to have made a regular trade of bringing up 
from Yorkshire two children in each of his panniers, for which he received 
the sum of eight guineas. 







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THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 195 

In the first year of this indiscriminate admission 3,296 infants were 
received ; in the second, 4,085 ; and in the third, 4,229. Of course it was 
found quite impossible to attend properly to the wants of this enormous 
number of young and often delicate children. Only a comparatively small 
proportion of the children lived to be apprenticed. To remedy this evil to 
some extent, it was resolved that some children should be received upon 
the payment of 100 each ; but of course this unpopular resolution, so out 
of harmony with the plan and intent of the venerable and kind-hearted 
founder, was soon abolished. Since January, 1801, no child has been 
received into the hospital with any sum of money, large or small. 
Children are now admitted solely upon the committee being satisfied that 
the case is genuine and deserving of consideration. The chief require- 
ments are that the child be illegitimate (except in the case of the father 
being a soldier or sailor killed in service), that it be under twelve months 
old, that the father be not forthcoming, and that the mother shall have 
borne a good character. 

In 1745, upon the completion of the western wing of the hospital, 
Hogarth contemplated the adorment of its walls with works of art, with 
which view he solicited and obtained the co-operation of some of his 
professional brethren. On November 5th in each year, the most 
prominent of the artists and the Governors of the Hospital dined 
together at the Foundling Hospital. One good result of these meetings 
was to bring a large number of valuable paintings together for the 
beautifying of the walls, and a visit to the Foundling Hospital to see 
the pictures became the most fashionable morning lounge in the reign of 
George II. 

Hogarth was not only the principal contributor, but the leader of his 
brethren in all that related to ornamenting the hospital. One of the 
richest treasures of art which is comprised in the Foundling Collection is 
Hogarth's celebrated " March to Finchley." Hogarth disposed of this 
picture by lottery, and as 167 chances remained unappropriated when the 
subscription list was closed, the artist generously gave them to the 
hospital. The lucky number is said to have been amongst that 
remainder ; but another account says that a lady was the possessor of 
it, and intended to present it to the Foundling Hospital, but that some 
person having suggested what a door would be open to scandal, were 



196 ST. PANCRAS. 

any of her sex to make such a present, it was given to Hogarth, on the 
express condition that it should be presented in his own name. 

The next work which Hogarth presented was "Moses before Pharaoh's 
Daughter." It was painted expressly for the hospital, and was designed 
by the artist to assist in ornamenting the Board-room, where it now 
hangs. In the year 1740, Hogarth presented to the hospital a whole- 
length picture of Captain Coram ; so that there were now in the 
possession of the Foundling Hospital three of Hogarth's pictures, each 
of which was an excellent example of the genius of that celebrated 
artist. 

It has been remarked by Charles Lamb, in one of his critical essays, 
that Hogarth seemed to take particular delight in introducing children 
into his works. There can be little doubt that he was passionately fond 
of children. His sympathy with the work of the Foundling Hospital 
was so great and so practical that he had some of the young children 
sent down to Chiswick, where he at that time resided, in order that 
he and his wife might more effectually see after their welfare. 

The pictures at the Foundling Hospital are arranged chiefly upon 
the walls of three of the apartments there ; viz., the Secretary's office, 
the Board-room, and the Picture-gallery. The following are chiefly worth 
notice : 

SECRETARY'S OFFICE. 

" The March to Finchley." Hogarth. 

Portrait of Handel (in oil colours). Kneller. 

A view of London from Highgate (in oil colours). Lambert. This is 
reckoned to be one of Lambert's finest works. The foliage is especially 
good. 

A sea-piece, representing ships employed in the British Navy (in oil 
colours). Brooking. A very fine example of this artist's work. It was 
given to the hospital by the painter. 

Two oil paintings upon wooden panels, representing portraits of 
Shakespeare and Ben Jonson. These paintings are known to be of 
considerable antiquity, and they are certainly possessed of some merit. 
It is to be regretted, however, that nothing whatever is known as to 
their history, or of the person who gave them. They have been in 



THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 197 

the possession of the hospital since the beginning of this century, if 

not longer. 

There are some prints, too, in this room, which deserve notice : 
Prints of Hogarth's portrait of himself, and also of Captain Coram. 
Mezzotint portraits of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. 

BOARD-ROOM. 

" Fear not ; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where 
he is" (Gen. xxi. 17). (Hagar and Ishmael.) Highmore. This is 
one of the artist's most famous pictures. 

"Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid, 
them not " (St. Mark x. 14). Rev. James Wills, Chaplain to the 
Society of Artists. This is Wills's principal performance, and 
was presented to the hospital by the painter. 

" And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her, Take this child 
away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages " . 
(Exod. ii. 9). Hayman. 

" And the child grew, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's 
daughter, and he became her son. And she called his name 
Moses " (Exod. ii. 10). Hogarth. Presented by the artist. 
The four pictures just mentioned are of large size, and occupy the 
principal parts of the wall, but there is a series of eight circular oil 
paintings of hospitals, etc., which, although of much smaller proportions, 
are works of great merit. The following is a list of them, with the 
names of the artists : 

Christ's Hospital. Samuel Wale, R.A. 

Greenwich Hospital. ,, ,, 

St. Thomas's Hospital. ,, ,, 

Bethlem Hospital. Haytley. 

Chelsea Hospital. ,, 

The Charterhouse. Thomas Gainsborough, R.A . 

The Foundling Hospital. Richard Wilson, R.A. 

St. George's Hospital. ,, ,, 

Before leaving the Board-room there are one or two other works of 
art worthy of mention. The handsome marble mantelpiece has a fine 
basso-relievo, by Rysbrack, representing children engaged in navigation 



i 9 8 ST. PANCRAS. 

and husbandry, being the employments to which the children of the 
hospital were supposed to be destined. 

The side table, of Grecian marble, is supported by carved figures 
in wood, representing children playing with a goat. It was presented 
by Mr. John Sanderson. 

The ornamental ceiling was done by Mr. Wilton, the father of the 
eminent sculptor. 

STONE HALL, OR VESTIBULE. 

Among the pictures exhibited in the Stone Hall are portraits of 
Archdeacon Pott, Lord Chief Justice Wilmot, Dr. Heathcote, etc. There 
is also an oil painting by Casali, representing " The Offerings of the 
Wise Men." 

PICTURE GALLERY. 

This gallery contains a large collection of paintings and other 
valuable works of art and objects of interest. The cartoon of Raphael 
representing " The Murder of the Innocents," of course, deserves first 
mention. This very valuable work of art was bequeathed to the 
Foundling Hospital by Prince Hoare, Esq., in 1835. By the will of 
that gentleman it was directed that it should be offered first to the 
Royal Academy of Arts for 2,000 ; or, if declined, to the Directors 
of the National Gallery for the sum of 4,000 ; and if that offer was 
not accepted, it was then to be presented to the Foundling Hospital 
or to a public hall or college. The Royal Academy and the National 
Gallery both declined the offer, and the picture was accordingly 
presented to the Foundling Hospital. 

This cartoon belonged to a set of ten cartoons executed by Raphael 
by the order of Pope Leo X. They were afterwards sent to Flanders, to 
be copied in tapestry, for which purpose the Flemish weavers cut them 
into strips for their working machinery. When the tapestry was 
completed and sent to Rome, the original cartoons were carelessly thrown 
into a box and left mingled together. When Rubens was in England 
he told Charles I. the condition they were in, and the King desired 
him to procure them. Seven perfect ones were purchased and sent to 
his Majesty ; the remainder appear to have been scattered in fragments, 
here and there, in different parts of Europe. When the royal collections 



THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL. 199 

were dispersed, these cartoons are said to have been bought in for 
300 by Cromwell's express orders. 

This portion of " The Murder of the Innocents " was sold at 
Westminster as disputed property, and Prince Hoare's father purchased 
it for 26. The artistic merits of this superb composition are beyond 
all praise, and some of the heads represented in it are considered to 
be unequalled by any of the great works of art in the world. Seven 
of Raphael's cartoons are now in the South Kensington Museum. 

In this picture-gallery hangs the portrait of Captain Coram by 
Hogarth, of which the artist wrote, some time after 

" The portrait which I painted with most pleasure, and in which 
I particularly wished to excel, was that of Captain Coram, for the 
Foundling Hospital ; and," he adds, in allusion to his detractors as a 
portrait-painter, "if I am so wretched an artist as my enemies assert, 
it is somewhat strange that this, which was one of the first I painted 
the size of life, should stand the test of twenty years' competition, 
and be generally thought the best portrait in the place, notwithstanding 
the first painters in the kingdom exerted all their talents to vie 
with it." 

Among other pictures are the following portraits : 

Duke of Cambridge. G. P. Green. 
Earl of Macclesfield. Wilson. 
Theodore Jacobsen, Esq. Hudson. 
King George the Second. Shakleton. 
Dr. Mead. Ramsay. 
John Milner, Esq. Hudson. 

In some glass show-cases there are exhibited various documents 
connected with the hospital, autographs of various celebrated personages, 
trie pocket-book of Captain Coram, and the original draught in pen 
and ink of the arms of the Foundling Hospital. It is thought probable 
that this was executed by Hogarth. 

The connection of Handel with the Foundling Hospital forms one 
of the most pleasing features in the hospital's history, and the following 
notice is very properly preserved and exhibited in one of the glass 
cases : 

" At the Hospital for the Maintenance and Education of exposed 



200 57. PANCRAS. 

and deserted Young Children in Lamb's Conduit Fields, on Tuesday 
y* first day of May, 1750, at 12 o'clock at Noon, there will be 
performed, in the Chapel of the said Hospital, a Sacred Oratorio 
called ' The Messiah,' Composed by George Frederick Handel, Esq. 

" The Gentlemen are desired to come without Swords, and the 
Ladies without Hoops. . . ." 

In the same show-case are preserved the MS. scores of " the 
Messiah " which Handel generously bequeathed to the hospital. " The 
Messiah " was performed for the first time in London on March 
23rd, 1749. 

Upon several occasions Handel shewed his personal sympathy with 
the objects of this charitable institution, by conducting musical per- 
formances in aid of its funds. In 1749, he gave a performance in 
aid of the funds for completing the chapel, upon which occasion he 
gave the " music of the late Fire Works, the anthem on the Peace, 
selections from the oratorio of Samson, and several pieces composed for 
the occasion." The tickets were sold for half a guinea each, and the 
audience numbered above a thousand persons. 

When the Hospital chapel was completed, Handel presented the 
Governors with an organ for it, and his amanuensis and assistant, 
Mr. John Christopher Smith, was appointed the first regular organist. 

One of the Governors of the hospital presented the communion 
plate ; the king's upholsterer gave the velvet for the pulpit ; and many 
other valuable gifts were presented. 

In the year 1750, upon the completion of the hospital chapel, 
Chevalier Casali presented an altar-piece painted in oil colours, entitled 
"The Offering of the Wise Men." In 1801, however, the Governors 
removed that picture, and replaced it by West's masterpiece of harmony 
and colouring, " Christ Presenting a little Child." The artist, speaking 
of this work, says 

" The care with which I have passed that picture, I flatter myself, 
has now placed it in the first class of pictures from my pencil ; at least, 
I have the satisfaction to find that to be the sentiment of the judges 
of painting who have seen it." 

In order to make the picture as nearly perfect as possible, West 
almost entirely repainted it, and the Governors, in acknowledgment, and 



SMALL-POX HOSPITAL. 201 

to show their high appreciation of West's talents and generosity, 
resolved to elect him one of their corporate body. It was West's 
intention to fill two panels in the chapel with oil paintings, but unluckily 
his professional engagements were too numerous to permit him to carry 
out his excellent intention. 

Coram, the venerable founder, died in 1751, and was buried in the 
catacombs beneath the chapel. Many of the Governors of the hospital 
have subsequently been buried there. 

Among the objects which everyone who visits the hospital should see 
are the miscellaneous contents of two glass show-cases. One cannot look 
upon these objects without feelings of deep and pathetic interest. 
These cases are filled with small articles of personal ornament and 
old and rare coins, which have been attached by a mother's loving hands 
to the infants as a token whereby, if necessary, it might be possible to 
identify them, after their names were changed and many other circum- 
stances of their history forgotten. 

When the Governors of the Foundling Hospital were negotiating 
for the purchase of the site in Lamb's Conduit Fields, the owner of 
the land, the Earl of Salisbury, declined to sell them so small a plot 
as they desired, and they were, therefore, forced to buy a large area, 
fifty-six acres in extent. Fortunately, this has turned out a very good 
investment. The Governors could hardly have done a wiser thing, for 
as the neighbourhood has grown and the value of land has increased 
so enormously, the rents from the surplus ground have proved a very 
substantial source of income to the hospital. 

SMALL-POX HOSPITAL. 

This institution was first erected on the 23rd of September, 1746, 
at Battle Bridge, but the accommodation being insufficient, it was 
decided to erect a new and larger building. An old paper of 1793 
contains the following notice: "New Building, Small-Pox Hospital. 
The president, vice-presidents, and committee will meet at the hospital, 
in Pancras, on Thursday next, the 2nd of May, at 2 o'clock precisely, 
in order to assist at the ceremony of laying the first stone of the 
new building, by his grace the Duke of Leeds; after which they will 
dine together at the New London Tavern, Cheapside. Gentlemen who 



202 ST. PANCRAS. 

design to favour them with their company are requested to send to the 
tavern on before the preceding day, where tickets will be delivered at 
75. 6d. each. There will be no collection. A. HIGHMORE, Secretary." 

In 1798, Dr. Jenner having made the discovery of vaccination, 
Dr. Woodville, the then physician to the hospital, cordially united with 
him in its working, which led to the result of its acceptance by the 
principal physicians and surgeons in London. Thus a new branch was 
added to this establishment, and it thereupon received the name of the 
Small Pox and Vaccination Hospital. For upwards of fifty years it 
continued thus, when upon the alterations occasioned by the construc- 
tion of the Great Northern Railway, the establishment was removed to 
its present situation on Highgate Hill. 

THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL. 

Previously to the founding of this hospital, there was no medical 
establishment in the Metropolis where destitute strangers, when overtaken 
by sickness or disease, could find an asylum for their immediate reception. 

In the winter of 1827, a poor, destitute girl, under eighteen years of 
age, was seen lying on the steps of St. Andrew's Churchyard, Holborn 
Hill, after midnight, actually perishing through disease and famine. She 
was a total stranger in London, without a friend, and died two days 
afterwards, unrecognized by any human being. This distressing event 
being witnessed by the late Mr. William Marsden, Surgeon, who had 
repeatedly been struck with the difficulty and danger arising to the 
sick poor from the system of requiring letters of recommendation before 
admission to the Public Hospitals, and of having only appointed days 
for admission, he at once determined to set about founding a medical 
charity in which destitution and disease should alone be the passport 
for obtaining free and instant relief. On this principle the Free Hospital 
was established in Greville Street, Hatton Garden, and opened to the 
public on the 28th of February, 1828. Through the influence of Sir 
Robert Peel, the patronage of George IV. was conceded to it ; and 
the following year the Duke of Gloucester became its President. Under 
the countenance and support of many noblemen and distinguished 
personages, as well as private individuals, of the Corporation of London 
and other public bodies, its means and utility went on increasing in 



THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL. 203 

a corresponding degree, till 1832, when that alarming and destructive 
scourge, malignant cholera, appeared in London ; and in order to carry 
out the great principle of the charity, the Governors at once threw 
open the doors of the hospital to all persons afflicted with that dreadful 
malady, notwithstanding the other hospitals had closed theirs against 
them. Upwards of seven hundred cholera patients were consequently 
admitted. In the years 1849 and 1854, when that awful epidemic again 
visited the metropolis, more than three thousand in the former year, 
and upwards of six thousand in the latter, were, upon the same principle, 
relieved by the Royal Free Hospital. 

At the death of George IV., William IV. honoured the charity by 
becoming its Patron. In the course of the same year their Royal 
Highnesses the Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria became 
Patronesses, and other ladies of high rank followed their good example. 
On the demise of the late Duke of Gloucester, His Grace the Duke 
of Buccleuch and Queensbury was elected President. On the death of 
William IV., the Hospital still retained the Royal sanction ; for our 
young and munificent Queen, through Lord John Russell, expressed her 
approbation of the Charity, and most graciously condescended to become 
its Patron. Her Majesty further evinced her regard for the welfare 
of the Hospital by commanding that in future it should be called THE 
ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL. In 1863, the Prince of Wales became its 
Vice-Patron. 

A favourable opportunity of extending the usefulness of the Hospital 
presented itself in the autumn of 1842, in the circumstance of premises in 
the Gray's Inn Road, formerly known as the barracks of the Light Horse 
Volunteers, being then vacant and adapted to the purposes of the Charity. 
In order not to lose so valuable an opportunity, the Governors 
determined on purchasing the lease of those premises, which they 
accordingly did on the 3ist August, 1842, when the Hospital was 
established in Gray's Inn Road. 

After the decease of the Duke of Sussex, a subscription was entered 
into for the erection of a monument to his memory. After several 
meetings of the subscribers, and much deliberation, it was decided that 
the most suitable mode of carrying out the object would be the erection 
of a Wing to the Royal Free Hospital, to be called the " Sussex Wing," 



204 ST - PANCRAS. 

with a Statue of His Royal Highness in front. The important work was 
commenced in the year 1855, and completed and opened in June, 1856. 

In the year 1863, mainly through the zealous exertion and personal 
influence of the late George Moore, Esq. (then Chairman of the 
Committee), the Freehold of the Hospital was purchased from the 
Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe, at a cost, inclusive of incidental charges, 
of 5,265 los. 7^., the whole of which sum having been raised by a 
special appeal, the property of the Hospital, disencumbered of interest 
on mortgage and of annual rental, was vested in Trustees. Henry 
Hoare, Esq., Alexander E. Marsden, Esq., M.D., and William Tarn 
Pritchard, Esq., are the Trustees at the present time. 

In the year 1876, in consequence of the munificent bequest of the 
late Rev. John Gautier Milne, the committee resolved to pull down the 
old buildings which had formed part of the barracks of the Light 
Horse Volunteers, and erect a new wing and other necessary buildings 
for the accommodation of the nurses, and the increasing requirements 
of the hospital. As the amount derived from Mr. Milne's legacy was 
only sufficient to enable the Committee to carry out a part of this 
scheme, they resolved in the first instance to proceed with the erection 
of the new wing, containing fifty additional beds ; a large out-patient 
department, including waiting rooms for men and women ; the dispensary ; 
and a covered way for communicating with the other portions of the 
building. This wing was completed and opened in the spring of 1878, and 
has been named the Victoria Wing, in honour of Her Majesty the Queen. 

In the year 1878, in consequence of the munificent legacies bequeathed 
by the late Mr. Wynn-Ellis, Miss Usborne, Mr. George Moore, Mr. 
James Graham, Mr. Thornhill Gell, and Mr. Walter Cave, the Committee 
were enabled to carry out the rest of the works comprised in the scheme 
for the reconstruction of the Hospital. These buildings contain the 
nurses' quarters; isolated wards for patients; a large room for meetings; 
private rooms for the medical staff and students ; museum, post-mortem 
theatre ; mortuary ; and a number of store-rooms and other necessary 
conveniences ; and were completed and opened at the close of 1879. 
The Governors are now in possession of a hospital containing 150 beds, 
constructed on the most approved modern principles, and replete with 
every convenience for the comfort of the patients and nurses. 



UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL. 205 

This hospital was founded on the principle of free and unrestricted 
admission of the sick poor ; poverty and suffering being the only pass- 
ports required. Having no endowment, it is entirely dependent for 
support on the subscriptions of its Governors and the voluntary donations 
and bequests of its friends. 

The hospital has afforded relief to over two million poor sick persons, 
and admits into its wards about 2,000 in-patients annually, besides 
administering advice and medicine to more than 25,000 out-patients, who 
resort to it, not only from the crowded courts and alleys in its immediate 
neighbourhood, but from all parts of London and the suburban districts. 
The relief thus afforded is effected at a cost of about 11,500 per annum, 
while the reliable income of the Charity from annual subscriptions and 
other sources does not exceed 2,500, so that the large balance of 9,000 
has to be raised by means of constant appeals to the public benevolence- 

NORTH LONDON, OR UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL. 

A beginning of this institution was practically made on the 8th 
September, 1828, when the " University Dispensary " was established at 
No. 4, George Street, Euston Square. It was the medical school of the 
University of London, and the " objects of the Institution " covered a 
large, comprehensive, and benevolent area for work. The specified objects 
were " To give medical and surgical advice and administer medicines 
gratuitously, to poor persons suffering under disease of any description. 
To visit at their own abodes those who from the severity of the case 
may be incapable of attending at the Dispensary. To provide poor 
iying-in at their own homes with professional attendance and medicines." 

The management of the Dispensary was at this early stage of its 
career in the hands of a Committee of Proprietors of the University of 
London. 

In 1833, a large and influential committee having been appointed, and 
the Council, with the consent of the Proprietors, having set apart an 
eligible plot of ground facing the College, valued at 7000, on which to 
build an hospital, public subscriptions towards that object were solicited, 
and the result was so satisfactory that in May, 1833, a sufficient sum 
had been raised to justify the Committee in at once proceeding with the 
erection of the building. 



206 



ST. PANCRAS. 



The selected design by Mr. Ainger provided for the accommodation 
of 230 patients, but the funds would only enable the Committee to start 
with the erection of the entire block, to contain 130 beds. On the 22nd 
of May, 1833, the first stone of the North London Hospital, as it was 
then called, was laid by his Grace the Duke of Somerset. 

It is a noteworthy fact that such of the medical professors as were to 
be appointed physicians or surgeons to the hospital agreed to devote their 
fees exclusively to the support of the institution. 

The President of the hospital, from its foundation until the year 1866, 
was the Rt. Hon. Lord Brougham and Vaux, Lord High Chancellor. 

The hospital was opened for the reception of patients on the ist 
of November, 1834, and after twelve months had elapsed it became 
evident that there was absolute necessity for extending the accommodation 
already provided. 

During the years 1838-40, the work of building the south wing was 
carried on, and in November, 1840, was completed. 

The foundation of the north wing was laid on the 2Oth May, 1846, 
by Lord Brougham and Vaux. 

In 1854, Dr. William Jenner was appointed physician, and, in 1856, 
Mr. Henry Thompson (afterwards Sir Henry Thompson) assistant-surgeon 
to the hospital. 

In 1867, Mr. Edward Yates, a member of the hospital committee, 
bequeathed 46,000 to University College as trustee for the hospital the 
income of one half to be appropriated for the purpose of a " Samaritan 
Fund " for the relief of poor patients, and that of the remainder to the 
general purposes of the hospital. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



CELEBRITIES AND MISCELLANEA. 

St. Pancras Celebrities : Frank Buckland, John Leech, Barry Cornwall, Charles Dickens, 
Charles Darwin, Thackeray, Shelley, Charles Kean, Samuel Warren, Dr. Dodd, George 
Smith. Anecdote of Toplady. Miscellanea: Capper's Farm, Pugilism, Items from Old 
Newspapers. Index. 



ST. PANCRAS CELEBRITIES. 

N EXTENDED search would doubtless tend 
to show that St. Pancras in its association 
with celebrated men and women of the past 
is equally rich with its sister parish of St. 
Marylebone. A very few of its celebrities 
are here set down, without any attempt to 
exhaust the list. 

ALBANY STREET. 

Frank Trevelyan Buckland lived for some 
years at No. 37 (formerly No. 34), Albany Street. 

BRUNSWICK SQUARE. 

The well-known caricaturist, John Leech, resided at 
No. 32 in this square for about ten years. 

Barry Cornwall (W. B. Procter) in 1816 was living in 
a house in Brunswick Square. 

DOUGHTY STREET. 

Among the many residences of Charles Dickens in 
London, No. 48, Doughty Street, was one. Dickens resided with his 
family in that house from March, 1837, until late in the year 1839, 
and while living there he wrote Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nickleby. 




208 S7. PANCRAS. 

GOWER STREET. 

Charles Darwin lived in furnished apartments, in the year 1839, at 
No. no, Gower Street. 

Charles Dickens and his parents used at one time to reside at 
No. 4, North Gower Street. 

GREAT CORAM STREET. 

William Makepeace Thackeray was, in 1840, living at No. 13, Great 
Coram Street. It was whilst residing at this house that he wrote The 
Paris Sketch Book. 

ST. PANCRAS CHURCHYARD. 

In the churchyard attached to the old church of St. Pancras, Percy 
Bysshe Shelley wooed and won his bride, Mary Godwin. 

T/VISTOCK SQUARE. 

Tavistock House, on the north-east side of Tavistock Square, was 
from 1850 to 1860 the home of Charles Dickens. Bleak House and 
Little Dorrit were produced during this period. 

TORRINGTON SQUARE. 

During the period of his management of the Princess's Theatre, 
viz., from 1853 to 1856, Charles Kean resided at No. 3, Torrington 
Square. 

WOBURN PLACE. 

Samuel Warren lived at No. 35, Woburn Place, from 1840 to 
1857. His novel, Ten Thousand a Year, by which he is best known, was 
published in 1841, and was probably partially, if not entirely, written 
at that house. 

DR. DODD. 

Dr. Dodd's execution has been referred to in an earlier part of this 
volume (see pp. 74-5). After the melancholy scene at Tyburn was over, 
the body was conveyed by the undertaker to a house in George Street, 
Tottenham Court Road, with the hope that by some means life might 
be resuscitated ; and, indeed, it was afterwards reported that the efforts 
used were successful, and that he had retired to France. But such 
was not the case. Death had too effectually accomplished his work, 



ST. PA NCR AS CELEBRITIES. 209 

and no means which could be used by the several eminent surgeons 
and members of the medical profession who were present, could avail 
to bring back life to the lifeless body, which they resigned to the 
persons appointed to see his remains interred. 

It was the wish of Dr. Dodd to be buried in his own churchyard, 
and the place was crowded the whole day with people in carriages and 
on horseback who came to witness the ceremony. But the sexton 
informed them he had been carried to a village near Uxbridge for 
interment. This false report gaining ground, the spectators departed 
for that place. In the afternoon, however, a vault was opened in West 
Ham Churchyard, which belonged to a very ancient family, and a few 
minutes past twelve the body of the unfortunate clergyman was interred 
therein, in the presence of a great number of spectators, who flocked 
to the churchyard on the report of the vault being opened. 

GEORGE SMITH. 

This famous bass singer resided for many years in Union Street, 
Somers Town. The deep tone of his voice is said to have been 
surprising, and to have had a wonderful effect upon every person who 
heard it. The following anecdote is told of him : 

One day Mr. James, of the Bedford Arms, Camden Town, having 
a party of friends about to dine with him, invited Smith to join them, 
which he did, and they dined in the club-room, which was over the 
smoking parlour. An elderly gentleman was quietly smoking his pipe 
below, when Smith sang " The Wolf," which had such an extraordinary 
effect upon him, that he rang the bell and told the waiter that he 
wished to speak to Mr. James. Upon his coming into the room, he 
requested to know tfye name of the gentleman who had just been 
singing; and when told it was Mr. George Smith, of Drury Lane 
Theatre, he remarked, "Well, although I am quite aware that he was 
over my head, yet I declare that his voice lifted up my chair, and 
made my glass dance upon the table." 

ANECDOTE OF TOPLADY. 

In 1775, Toplady was compelled through ill-health to come to 
London, and he became preacher at Orange Street Chapel, Leicester 



2io ST. PANCRAS. 

Square, for a short time. On Sunday, June 14, in the last stage of 
consumption, and only two months before he died, he ascended his pulpit 
in Orange Street Chapel, after his assistant had preached, to the 
astonishment of his people, and gave a short but affecting exhortation, at 
the close of which he made the following declaration : " It having been 
industriously circulated by some malicious and unprincipled persons, that 
during my present long and severe illness, I expressed a strong desire 
of seeing Mr. John Wesley, before I die, and revoking some particulars 
relative to him, which occur in my writings, Now I do publicly and 
most solemnly aver that I have not nor never had any such intention 
or desire ; and that I most sincerely hope that my last hours will be 
much better employed than in communing with such a man. So certain 
and satisfied am I of the truth of all that I have ever written, that 
were I now sitting up in my dying bed, with a pen and ink in my 
hand, and all the religious and controversial writings I ever published, 
especially those relating to Mr. John Wesley, and the Armenian contro- 
versy, whether respecting fact or doctrine, could be at once displayed to 
my view, I should not strike out a single line relative to him or them." 

MISCELLANEA. 
CAPPER'S FARM. 

Two maiden ladies, sisters, of the name of Capper, occupied a farm 
situated behind the north-west end of Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury. 
They wore riding-habits and men's hats. One rode an old grey mare, 
and took a spiteful delight in cutting kite-strings attached to kites when- 
ever she came across boys indulging in that pastime. For that purpose 
she provided herself with a large pair of shears. The other sister's 
business was to seize the clothes of the lads who trespassed upon their 
premises. About a hundred years ago there were only a few straggling 
houses between Capper's Farm and the "Adam and Eve" public house. 

There is some reason to think that a portion, at least, of the farm- 
house still remains. Messrs. Heale and Son's extensive premises at No. 
195-198, Tottenham Court Road, stand upon the boundary-line which 
separates the parishes of St. Pancras and St. Giles-in-the-Fields. There 
are two tablets, attached to the walls of an old building in the rear of 



MISCELLANEA. 211 

those premises, which mark the boundary-line, and both bear last-century 
dates. An old lease of the property contains a clause binding the 
tenant to keep up stabling for forty head of cattle. That old stable, 
constructed entirely of wood, was destroyed by fire a few years ago, and 
the ground it occupied is now covered by the show-rooms attached to 
Messrs. Heale's extensive premises. This may have been Capper's Farm, 
but the evidence is not conclusive. It is known, however, that the 
premises were once used for the purposes of a large livery-stable. 

PUGILISM. 

The Morning Herald of August 22nd, 1805, gives the following 
curious account of a female pugilist : 

"A singular case of pugilism was seen yesterday, August 21, 1805. 
Two porters, of the names of Johnson and Wigmore, having had a 
quarrel in Tottenham Court Road, on the next day agreed to meet in 
the fields to have a fight. The contest afforded but little diversion, 
as neither parties possessed any skill, and Johnson was declared the 
victor in the space of fifteen minutes. The wife of Wigmore who 
seconded her husband, was so enraged at this, that she challenged the 
second of her husband's opponent, a fellow of the name of Leverett, and 
a fight took place, in which sally she made such forcible straitforward 
hits that her opponent reluctantly yielded to her superior strength and 
science. After a fight of ten minutes, the Amazonian pugilist then 
challenged her husband's conqueror." 



The London newspapers of the last century contain a great deal of 
information about the various events which took place in this district. 
Cases of highway robbery appear to have been of frequent occurrence 
close by the old church of St. Pancras, and the following few extracts are 
given without further comment : 

"Yesterday evening a prodigious concourse of people were assembled 
in St. Pancras Churchyard to see a Free Mason's funeral. Many people 
having got on the tiles belonging to the Adam and Eve, some of the 
waiters imprudently threw water at them, which enraged them so much 



212 ST. PANCRAS. 

that they stripped the whole row of arbors of the tiling, threw them 
into the gardens and did much mischief. The pickpockets took advantage 
of the confusion and uproar, and eased many people of their pocket 
handkerchiefs, snuff-boxes, etc. 

" Last night one of the Hampstead stages was stopped at Pancras 
by two Footpads, armed with cutlasses, who robbed the passengers of 
between four and five pounds, and, after threatening to murder every 
person that attempted to apprehend them, made off through the 
churchyard." i$th September, 1772. 

" On Thursday morning a duel was fought near Pancras by Capt. 
E , formerly of Burgoine's Light Horse, and a Surgeon in the army ; 
they fired each a case of pistols, in the course of which the former 
received a shot in the arm, and another in the side, when he fell to 
the ground, and was directly dressed by his antagonist, who assisted 
to place him in a coach, and attended him to his apartments in Bond 
Street, where he lies dangerously ill." 2^th January, 1774. 

" Early on Thursday morning two modern men of honour (a Parish- 
clerk and a Barber) met in a field near Pancras, in order to settle a 
dispute which had arisen from the former gentleman's having accused 
the latter of writing a paragraph which appeared in a morning paper, 
tending to ridicule him (the said clerk) for dancing at a public ball ; 
but just as they were proceeding to action, they were interrupted by 
the arrival of a lady (wife of the psalm-singing hero) who very soon 
ended this important business in a ludicrous manner, by wresting the 
pistols out of their hands, and then seizing the poor tonsor by the 
foretop, giving him a most severe and terrible scratching, for his 
insolent attempt to injure her dear man in the eyes of the Public. 
Having completed her revenge on him, she instantly commanded her 
husband to quit the field, on pain of sharing the fate of his bleeding 
antagonist. The hen-pecked combatant had too often experienced the 
fatal effects of non-compliance to her will, to show the least 
reluctance on the present occasion, and immediately departed, to the 



MISCELLANEA. 213 

great diversion of the bystanders, who were called to the scene of 
action by the cries of the vanquished periwig-maker." 2jth June, 1776. 

" On Thursday last, according to an immemorial octennial custom, the 
Minister and Parish-officers of Pancras, attended by a numerous train of 
children and other parishioners, made the Lustration of that parish, when 
they found no less than three terminal boundaries had been removed, which 
they ordered to be fixed up again in their proper places. The procession 
forced their way through Lord Mansfield's Park, which, they said, ought 
not to have been enclosed : his Lordship was all the while at his house 
at Canewood, and was a spectator of their marching triumphant through 
his fields, by an ancient common foot-path, which, in law, ought always 
to be left free and uninclosed. 

" By this lustration of the parish of St. Pancras, made last Thursday, 
it appears that two thousand new houses have been built in the parish 
within the space of these last eight years." Newspaper, 1776. 

A newspaper, dated 2gth April, 1810, says : " Another large field, 
beyond Somers Town is about to be covered with houses, for the purpose 
of assisting London in its progress towards York." 

" The Pond by the Brill near Pancras is the most dangerous piece of 
water near London. The holes are deep, and the declivities to them very 
sudden. More lives have been lost there within seven years than in any 
land of equal size ; and it ought to be immediately filled up or enclosed." 

Newspaper, 1780. 

" Sunday morning Pancras Church was broken into, and a large brass 
chandelier and a surplice were stolen thereout. 'Tis imagined that the 
sacrilegious villans were in expectation of meeting with the Communion 
Plate, as it was the first Sunday in the month, but they were disappointed 
of their expected booty." Jth April, 1779. 

" Sunday morning, about seven o'clock, a hare was discovered in the 
fields near Kentish Town, and was immediately pursued. At Pancras it 
swam across a pond, and was almost surrounded by its followers. It 



214 



ST. PANCRAS. 



then continued its route to the turnpike by the New Road near Battle- 
bridge, when a man was very near knocking it down with his hat ; and 
a greyhound, who happened to be there, with too much eagerness to 
catch it, leaped over its back and missed it. It then crept between 
the narrow rails, and ran across the lawn before the Inoculating Hospital. 
This inclosure for some time obstructed the pursuit. It afterwards fled 
across the fields to Maiden Lane, and up towards Copenhagen House. 
Here poor puss had the good fortune to hide itself, and to remain 
concealed somewhere about the brick-fields, though it was followed by 
a great number of people with bull-dogs, fox-dogs, terriers, pugs, and 
curs in abundance." September, 1801. 




INDEX. 



NOTE. In several cases where surnames are mentioned in the index, it has been found 
impossible to give the Christian names of the persons referred to ; but, as a general rule 
these cases are limited to the immediate districts of Marylebone and St. Pancras, and, as a 
further means of identification, the profession, or trade, has been specified. G.C. 



ABSALOM, 

Adam and Eve, The, Pancras 

Gardens, Pancras 

Tottenham Court Road 

121-125, ] 
Adolphus, Ensign 

Africa 175 

Agrippa 

Ainsworth, W. H 

Albany Street ... ... 53 

Albemarle, Duke of 

Alford, 

All Souls' Church, Langham 

Place 

Allcock, , organist 

Allen, George 

John 

Allington 82-83 

Alpha Road 101 

Amelia, Princess 

" Amphitheatre," The 

Anne, Queen 160 

Apollonicon ... ... ... ... 170 

Apple Village 

Archers' Hall 

Argyle Rooms 



PAGE 


PAGE 


l6g 


Argyle Street 


.- I8 3 


157 


Arlington, Henry Earl of... 


6 


157 


Arne, T. A 


08 




Arlington, Isabella, Countess of 


... 119 


161 


Armstrong, Sir Thomas 


... 70 


181 

T *~l T* 


Arnold, Lieut. 


... 80 


T 75 


Artillery Ground 


. . . iii 
... 82 


7O 


Lane 


81 




Street 


81 


6 


Arundel, Richard Earl of ... 


3 


155 


Augustus Street 


53 




Austen, Family of ... 


4 


*y _^ Q 


John 


I IO 


I 55 


j 

d * T^-\VT-i T<i-4- 


4 




2 5 
23 


Austin, John... 






/ j 


2-83 


Athens, Temple of the Winds 


54 


IOI 


Axtell, , a regicide 


... 70 


i 73 






184 


BACHOFFNER, DR. 


... 171 


1 60 


Bacon, Elizabeth 


... 141 


I7O 


Francis... ... 


25 


/" 

65 


Tnhn R A 


140-141 


J ULLlly .\.,r\ ... ... 


85 
nS 


Bagnigge, Family of 

"HniiQp TOic. i 


... 148 
r/*S. T An 



2l6 



INDEX. 



Bagnigge River ... ... 147 

- Wash 147 

- Wells 122, 148-155, 190 

Baker, William ... 190 

Bale, Bishop 69 

Balthorp, Richard 188 

Bampfylde, Sir C. W., Bart. ... in 

Bank of England, The 167 

Bardwell, William ... ... 168-170 

Baretti, Giuseppe ... ... 23, in 

Barking Abbey ... ... ... 3 

Barkstead, , a regicide ... ... 70 

Barn Field ... ,. ... ... 56 

Barnet Races ... ... ... 72 

Barrow Hill ... ... ... ...75-78 

Barry, James... ... ... 103-104 

Basset, Fulke, Bishop of London 173 
Bassompierre, The Marshal de ... 69 
Battle Bridge 125, 126, 146, 149, 

150, 158, 182, 186, 188, 201, 213 
Bayham Street ... ... ... 191 

Baynes, Walter 147 

Bayswater ... ... ... ... 84 

Beattie, James ... ... ... 62 

Beck, Rev. - ... ... ... 139 

Bedford, Duke of 59, 84 

John, Duke of... ... ... 193 

Arms, Camden Town ... 209 

House ... ... ... ... 59 

- Square 85, 179 

Bedloe, Capt. William 76 

Behnes, The sculptor ... ... 29 

Belgrave Street 183 

Bell Field 51, 52 

Bell, Dr. William 73 

Bennett, George 185 

Bentinck, Lord George, Statue of 62 



Bentinck Street 

Beresford, John 

Beresford, Mary 

Bergavenny, Lord ... 

Berkeley, William, Marquis 

Berners, Charles 

Street 

Street Hoax 



of 



Berridge, Rev. ... 
Berry, Henry 
Bertie, Charles 
Bethlem Hospital ... 
Bethnal Green 
Bevington's Apollonicon 
Bevis, Dr. John 
Bibbins, Jos.... 
Bilson's Farm 
Birchin Lane 

Birnie, 

Bishopsgate ... 
Black Mary's Hole... 
Blackfriars Bridge ... 

Blair, Capt 

Blandford Square ... 
Street ... 



Blessed Mary's Well 
Blewhouse Field 
Bloomsbury ... 
Street 



" Blue Bottles" 

" Posts," The 

" Stocking Club," The 

Blunt, William 

Boadicea, Queen 
" Boarded House," The ... 
Boleyn, Queen Anne 
Bolsover Street 



PAGE 

IOI-IO2 

135 

134 

4 
4 

... 90 

47, 102-103 

102-103 

... 139 

... 76 

6 

... 197 

160 

... 170 

149-152 

... 80 

... 47 

... 127 

... 109 

... 81 

147-148, 150 

83, 146 

... 80 

... 64-65 

... 103 

148, 150 

... 56 

146 

... 84 
... 80 
... 123 
... 62 

190 

126 

...40-41 
... 177 
... 103 



INDEX. 



217 



Bolton & Sparrow, Messrs. 
Bond Street ... 
Bononi, Joseph 

Booth, 

Boscowen, Lieut. 

Boston, New England '... 

Bos well, James 

Bow Church, Cheapside ... 

Middlesex 

- Street 

Bower Theatre, The 

Box, 

Boydell, Alderman ... 

Bradshaw, John 

Braham and Yates, Messrs. 

Brampton Bryan 

Castle 

Brandon, Gregory 

, R. 



109, 



Braughing, Manor of 

Bray, Sir Reginald... 
Braybrooke, Robert, Bishop of 
London ... ... ... n 

Breadalbane, Earl of 

Brick Field 

Brill, The ... ... 115, 117, 150, 

Bringhurst, (constable) 

Brisco, John ... 

Britannia Theatre, The 

British Museum ... ... 9, 

Broad Street 

Street, St. Giles's 

Brocklesby, Dr. R 

Brooking, Charles ... 
Brougham and Vaux, Lord 
Broughton, (prize-fighter) 
Broughton's Amphitheatre 



PAGE 


PAGE 


III 


Brown, John... 


8 


212 


Browning, E. B 


... 106 


64 


Brunt, (a shoemaker) ... 


... 107 


155 


Brunswick, The Duke of ... 


v J 55 


80 


T-TrmT- nf 


... 126 


... 


141 




145, 207 


oquare ... ... ... 


132 


Bryanston Square 


...65-66 


167 


Buckingham, Duke of 


42, 70 


167 


Buckingham Street... 


... 103 


140 


Buckland, F. T 


... 207 


155 


"Bumble-puppy," a game... 


... 124 


155 


Bunhill Fields 


... 82 


136 


Burke, Edmund 


62, 103 


6 9 


Burn, J. S. 


3O 




j 


171 


Burton, Decimus ... 53, 


54, 89, 164 


9 


Burton-way (Field) ... 


... 56 


9 


Butcher's Field 


... 51 


75 


Bute, Earl of 


... 72 


H3 


Byron, Lord ... 


... 25 


173 






4 


CABBELL, GEORGE ... 


... 61 



> 15 
142 

56 
213 

122 
189 
155 
139 
I 3 8 

44 
132 
196 
206 

42 
123 



" Cabinet Theatre," The 
Caesar, Julius 
Julius 



... 185 

115, 126 

... 177 

Caledonian Church, Hatton Garden 142 



Calthorpe, Lord 
Cambridge, Duke of 
Camden, Earl 
Lady 



Town 



204 

199 

118 

181 

...117, 146, 191, 209 



Campbell, Thomas 105 

Canewood 213 

Cannon Street ... ... 167 

Cansick, F. T. ^34 

Cantelows ... in, 187, 189 

Canterbury Cathedral ... 172 

Capper's Farm 210-211 



2l8 



INDEX. 



Carey, John 6 

Carleton, John de 119 

Carlton House ... ... 53 

Carnaby Market 138 

"Carpenter's Arms" The 68 

Cartwright, Richard 91 

Gary, George Saville 36 

Casali, The Chevalier ... 198, 200 
Casley, Mr., Keeper of the Cot- 

tonian Library ... ... ... 10 

Castle Street East 103, 104 

Castlereagh, Lord 108 

Casvelhan, King ..>. 116 

Catalini, Madame ..' 185 

Catherine, Queen, of Braganza ... 84 
Catholic Apostolic Church, Gordon 

Square I 4 2 ' I 43 

Catley, Anne 35 

Cato, Street 106-109 

Cave, Walter 204 

Cavendish Square ... 61-62, 104, 127 

Chad, Capt 185 

Chaldfleet ... -. 174 



77. 



Chalk Farm ... 
Chambers, Sir William 
Chambre, Sir Allen... 
Chancery Lane 
Chandos, John Duke of 
Chantrey, the sculptor 
Chapman, Rev. Mr. 
Charles I. ... 5, 

II 

Charles Thomas 

Charity School, St. Pancras 

Charlotte Street 

Charlotte's, Queen, Lying-in Hospital 



167 

25 

161 

160 

61 

29 

18 

69, 70, 119, 198 

5, 55, 84, 148 

187 

192-193 
84, 104 
57 



Chartley 

Chatterton, Thomas 
Cheapside 

Chelsea Hospital 

Chesterfield, Philip Earl of 
- Philip Dormer, Earl of 
Street 



... 119 
136-137 

... 167 

... 197 

55 

55 

... 183 

... 163 



Charterhouse, The 



167, 197 



Chilham Castle, Kent 

Chingford ... ... ... 88 

Chipping Barnet . . ... 189 

Chiswell Street 82 

Christ Church, Stafford Street ... 28 

Christ's Hospital 197 

Church, John 83 

Clare Market 44 

Clarence, Duke of 142 

Clarke, G. S 28 

Clarke, Sir William 6 

Claxton, Mr 37 

Clayton, William 72 

Cleeve, Thomas 188 

Clerkenwell ... 146, 149, 155, 167, 186 

Clinch, George 68 

Clinch, Tom ... ... ... ... 69 

Clipstone Steeet ... ... ... 99 

Cloudesley, Richard ... ... 132 

College, James 72 

i Collier, William 73 

Collins, , a nurseryman... ... 182 

Colosseum, The ... ... 164-171 

Connaught Place 68 

Constable, John ... .. ... 104 

Coombe Bassett ... ... ... 190 

Cooper, Lieut. John ... ... 182 

Copenhagen House ... ... ... 213 

Coppice Row ... ... ... 149 

Coram, John ... 193 



INDEX. 



219 



Coram, Thomas 193, 196, 197, 199-201 

Corbet, , a regicide 70 

Cornhill 167 

Cornwall, Barry 104, 207 

Terrace... ... 53, 97 

Corpus Christi College, Oxford ... 83 
Cosmorama, The ... ... 172-173 

Cotes, Francis, R.A. ... ... 104 

Coutts & Co. 127 

Covent Garden Theatre .. 44, 169 

Coventry, Thomas 188 

Cowley, Abraham 97 

Cowper, William 54, 62 

Grace Collection, British Museum 

32, 54. 156 

Cramer, William 25 

Crassus, M 115 

Craven, John 190 

Chapel 139 

Crompton, Lieut. John 181 

Cromwell, Oliver 5, 69, 82, 121, 126, 199 

Crosby Square ... 139 

Crown Street... ... ... ... 139 

Crozet, , carver in 

Cruickshank, George 70 

Cumberland, William Duke of ... 61 

Square 53 

Cupid ... 35 

Cutler, Gray 37 

Cyclops, The 35 

Cyclorama, The, of Lisbon ... 170 

DALLING, JAMES 38 

Danson, ... ... ... ... 170 

Dare, Lieut. ... ... ... ... 80 

Dark, 86 

Darwin, Charles 208 



Davey, Sir Humphrey 89 

Davidson, (a man of colour) ... 107 
Davis, Miss, a vocalist ... ... 33 

Dawson, Nancy ... ... ...43-44 

Day, Charles... ... ... ... 60 

"Deadly Never Green" ... ... 67 

De Courcy, Rev. ... ... 139 

De Kaunteloe ... ... ... 118 

Dekker, Thomas ... ... ... 75 

Delamain, Lieut. ... ... ... 80 

De la Place, Mr 7 

Denis, Sir Peter 190 

Derby, Earl of ... ... ... 4 

Derrick, , a hangman 75 

Deschamps, John ... ... ... 19 

Despair, Giant ... 158 

Destrode, Charles 190 

Devonshire Terrace... ... ... 105 

Dickens, Charles ... 105, 207, 208 

Dickie, - 155 

Dimmock, , a coachmaster ... 72 
Diocletian, Emperor ... ... 131 

Diorama, The 171, 172 

Dissenting Chapels in Marylebone 29-30 

Dixon, Capt. John 181 

Dixon, Mrs 181 

Dodd, Dr 74. 75> 208-209 

Domesday Book, The ... 118-119 

Dorset Square 64, 86 

Douce, Mr 10 

Sir Edmund 21 

Doughty Street , ... 207 

Downing, Edward 57 

Downman, Lieut. John ... ... 181 

Drury Lane Theatre ... 44, 99 

Dryden John... ... 75, 97, 153 

Dudley, Sir Robert 119 



220 



INDEX. 



Dun, " Esquire " 
Duncannon, Viscount 
Duncomb, George . 
Dupper Field 
"Dust-hole, The" ... 
Dutch Barn Field ... 
Dyer, H. M 



75 

80 
118 

52 
185 

56 

60 



HALING 73 

East India House, The 167 

East Mouldsey, Surrey ... ... 188 

Eastbourne 92 

Edgware Road , 68, 106 

Edmondson's Barn... ... ... 45 

Edmonton ... ... ... ... 174 

Edward the Confessor ... ... 57 

-II 175 

- Ill 176 

Edwards, (a spy) ... 108-109 



Grace 



"Eight String Jame" 
Eldon, Lord Chancellor ... 

Eldeva 

Eleanor, Queen of Henry III. 
Elgin Marbles 

Eliot, George .. 

Elizabeth, Queen ... 4, 69, 119, 

Elliott, Adjutant William 

Elm Tree Road 

Elonore, Alexander... ... ... 134 

Mary 134 

Epping Forest 88, 167 

Erechtheium, The ... ... ... 137 

Erldesby, William de 176 

Essex ... ... ... ... ... 167 

Etna, Mount... ... ... ... 35 

Euston Road 58 



190 
72 

177 
57 

169 

65 
1 20 
182 
104 



Evans, Marian ... ... ... 65 

Eve, Francis... ... ... ... 132 

Laurentia ... ... ... 132 

Robert 131-132 

Thomas 132 

Exeter... ... ... ... ... 93 

John Holland, Duke of ... 177 

Lord 184 



Exhibition, The Great, of 1851 164, 170 

Eyre, Samuel ... ... ... 55 

" Arms, The" 56 

FAGS-WELL , 146 

Fairlop Oak, The ... ... ... 137 

Faraday, Michael 103 

Farringdon Road ... ... ... 146 

Street 146 



Felton, John... ... ... ... 70 

Female Charity School ...190, 192-193 

Ferguson, James ... ... ... 25 

Ferrand, (performer upon the 

bariton) ... ... ... 33'34 

Ferrers, Joan, Lady ... ... 119 

Lord 

Robert, Lord 



Fetter Lane ... 
Fielding, Sir John 
Figg, James ... 
Finsbury 
Street 



Fitzalan, Joan 

Fitzclarence, Capt 

Fitzroy, Hon. Charles 

Rt. Hon. Gen. 

Square ... ... ... ... 109 

Five Acres, The 51 

Flanders, Mr. 37 



...70-71 
... 119 
.. 187 
... 72 
24, 40-42 

- 45 
... 82 

4 

109 

... 119 
139, 190 



INDEX. 



221 



Flaxman, John 

Fleet-Ditch 

Fleet, River 

Street 

Flower, Prof. W. H. 
Foley, Lord ... 

Street 

Forbes, Mr. ... 

George . . 

Fordyce, John 
Forset Family Vault 
Forset, Arabella 

Edward 



103 

150 

131, 146, 150 
167, 191 

89 

28 

104 

32 

... 38 

5' 5 1 . 53 
18 

4 
4>5 

81 

189, 191 



Fort Street ... 
Fortress Field 
Foundling Hospital, The 

44, 117, 145, 149, 193-201 
Fountayne, Rev. John ... 7, 98-99 
Four Acre Field ... ... ... 56 

Foyster, Samuel 141 

Franklin, Benjamin 197 

" Fraternitye of St. George " ... 81 
French Chapel 30, 37 

Refugees 132 

Revolution 91, 132 

Frenchbourne, Simon ... ... 187 

Fuller, Thomas 68 

Fuseli, Henry 102, 104 



GAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS 
Gardiner, Messrs. ... 
Charlotte 



197 

155 
. 177 
87, 88 



Garnerin, A. J 

Garraway's Coffee House, Cornhill 161 

Garrick, Mrs. 9 8 

Gaunt, Elizabeth ... ... 75 

Gay, John, the poet 42 



PAGE 

Geary, Stephen .. 128 

Gell, Thornhill ... ... ... 204 

George II 195, 199 

III., Jubilee of ... ... 65 

IV. 84, 91, 126, 128, 202, 203 

"George and Blue Boar, The"... 69 

George Street ... 80, 104, 205, 208 

Gibbs, a vocalist ... ... 155 

James 22 

Gibbon, Edward ... ... 101-102 

Gibbons, Grinling ... ... ... 134 

Rev. Thomas ... ... :.. 139 

Gibson, Thomas ... ... ... 6 

Giffard, Dr. Andrew 139 

Gilpin, William ... ... ... 137 

Gloucester, Duke of ... ... 202 

Gloucester Gate 173 

Glyptotheca, The 168, 169 

Goddard, 96 

Godfrey, Sir E. B 76-77 

Godwin, Mary ... ... ... 208 

- M. W. ... 135 

Goldington Street ... ... ..- 117 

Goldsmith, Oliver 62 

Gordon, Lord George 138 

House Academy 161 

Riots 177 

Square 142 

Goswell Street 167 

Gothic Aviary 17 

Gough, Mr., proprietor of Maryle- 

bone Gardens 32 

A. D ... I3 1 

Daniel ... 37 

Gould's Gift iQ 1 

Gower Street ... 84, 179, 208 

Grafton, Charles, Duke of ... 119 



222 



INDEX. 



Graham, James 

- Sir James, Bart. 
Grand Junction Road 
Gray, Family of 
Gray's Inn Lane 107, 

- Inn Road 
Gravel Pit Field 
Great Coram Street 

- Field 

- Garden Field ... 

- Hill Field 

- Robin's Field'... 

- Titchfield Street 
Grecian Theatre, The 
Green, G. P. 

- Robert 

- Berry Hill 

Lane, The 

Street 



123, 



. . . 204 

... 25 

... 84 

... 131 

158, 190 

147, 203 

208 



Greenland Place, Somerstown 
Greenwich 

- Hospital 

Gregory the Great ... 

Greville Street 

Grey, Samuel 

Griffin, Mr., Showman 
Griffith, Charles 
Grosvenor, Rev. Benjamin 

- Square 



... 56 

... 56 

... 56 

in 

155 
... 199 

.. 76 

75-76 

... 47 
... 187 
... 188 
190 
167, 197 



202 
6 

44 
153 
J 39 
1 08 



71, 72, 



Gwynne, Eleanor ... 

HACKER, a regicide 
Hainault Forest, Essex 
Hallam, Henry 
Hamey, Baldwin, M.D. 
Hamilton, Major 
Emma, Lady ... 



70 

137 
106 

.. 191 
.. 79 
99-100 



Hamilton, Sir William ... 99-100 

127 

5i 

' 187 
140 

138, 192 
Hampton-upon-Thames ... ... 191 

Handel, G. F. .. 98, 99, 184, 199, 200 
Hanging Field ... ... ... 56 

Harcourt, Lieut 

John, M.P 



Hammond, Thomas 
Hampstead, 44, 45, 97, 146, 149, 

- Churchyard 
Road 



Street 



Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor 

Philip, R.A 

Thomas 



.. 80 
57 

57. 61 
.. 56 
,. 106 

25, 28 



Hardy, Capt. 

Harleian Manuscripts 

Harley, Edward, Earl of Oxford 

and Mortimer 
Lady Margaret Cavendish ... 



185 
, 10 



Street 



Harrington, Earl of 
Harris's Field 
Harrison, Col. Thomas 
Wilmot 



Harrowby, Lord 
Hatton Garden 
Street 



4 
4 

9 

104 
... 71 

5i 

5 

... 103 
1 08, 109 

142, 194, 202 
... 140 



Hayley, W 

Hayman, Francis ... 
Haymarket, The 
Haytley, artist ... 
Hawkins, 
Heale & Son, Messrs. 
Heathcote, Dr. 



... 197 
125, 127 

... 197 
... 154 

210, 2TI 
... 198 



INDEX. 



223 



Heneage, Thomas ... ... ... 57 

Henning, Junr. ... ... ... 169 

Henrietta Maria, Queen ... ... 69 

Henry III 170, 173 

- VII. 's Chapel, Westminster 
Abbey 69 

- VIII 81, 120, 177 

Hensey, Dr 71 

Heron, William 186 

Hertford, Marquis ... ... 54, 64 

Hertfordshire 167 

Heslop, Rev. Archdeacon ... 25 

Heyfield, Joanna 41 

Hidon, ... ... ... ... 109 

High Street, St. Giles's 68 

Highgate, 125, 146, 149, 161, 167, 

186, 188, 189, 191, 196 

Archway 167 

- Hill 202 

Highmore, A. ... ... ... 202 

Joseph ... ... ... ... 197 

Highway Robbery at St. Pancras 212 
Hill, Lawrence ... . . ... 76 

Richard 118 

- Sir Richard 52 

Rev. Rowland 139 

Field 51 

Hinde, Jacob ... ... ... 6 

Peter 6 

Hoare, Henry ... ... ... 204 

Prince 198 

Hobson, Thomas 4 

Hocher, Mr., Deputy Keeper of 

the Records in the Tower ... 10 
Hodgkinson, Sampson ... 22, 36 

Hogarth, William 42, 123, 195, 

196, 197, 199 



Hogarth's "Rake's Progress" ... 16-18 
Holborn 68, 117, 125, 140, 144, 

145, 158, 162, 167 

" Holborn Bars. The " 123 

Holcroft, Thomas ... ... ... 99 

Holdbrook, Richard ... ... 52 

Holebourne, The River ... 146-148 

Holland, John, Duke of Exeter ... 177 

Holies, John, Duke of Newcastle 4 

Holt & Scheffer, Messrs. ... ... in 

Holy Maid of Kent 69 

- Trinity, Priory of, Aldgate, 173-174 
Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone 28 
Home Field 52 

- Seven Acres Field ... ... 51 

Hone, William 123, 124 

Honorable Artillery Company, The 

81, 82 

Hone, William 161 

Hood, Lord 77, 106 

Thomas ... ... ... 104 

Hook, Theodore ... ... 102, 103 

Hooper, Ann 187 

Hoppner, John 138 

Horn, Thomas ... ... ... 17 

Horn Castle 56 

Rev. Thomas Hartwell ... 10 



Horner, (of Rathbone Place)... 170 

Hornor, Thomas .. 164, 165, 170 

Hornsey ... ... 191 

Hotham, Lord ... ... 77 

Hoxton 81, 167 

Hoyle, Edmund ... 24 

Hudson ... 199 

Hughes, , proprietor of Bagnigge 

Wells I5 1 * J 52 

Hunt, , card-maker m 



224 



INDEX. 



Hunt, Leigh 104 



Hunting in Marylebone Park 
Huntingdon, Countess of ... 
Mr. 



Hyatt, Rev. John ... 

- Miss, a vocalist 

Hyde Park 



5 

... 141 
... 30 

139 

34 
77, 84, 167, 181 



INGS, (a butcher) ... ... 107 

Inner Circle 89 

Innoculating Hospital 213 

"Inns of Court HoJel, The" ... 69 
Insula, William de, .Earl Warren, 

&c 3 

Invvood, William 137 

Ipsley, Sir John ... ... ... 5 

Ireton, Henry ... ... ... 69 

Irving, Rev. Edward ... 105, 142 



Islington 

Ive, Family of 

Richard 

Thomas 



58, 81, 120, 147, 

149, 167, 1 86, 187 

132 

... 132 

132 



"JACK PUDDING " ... 
" Jack Spaniard" 
Jackson, John 
Jacob, John ... 
Jacobson, Theodore... 
Jacomb, Lucy 

- Robert 

Jacombe, William ... 
James I. 
Jameson, Anna 
Jeffrey, Nicholas 
Jeffreys, Sir Jeffery... 
John 



44, 162 

... 162 

... 191 

6 



.. 199 
6 
6 
6 

4, 120 
.. 105 
.. 118 
.. 118 
118 



Jenkins's Nursery ... 
Jenner, Dr. William 
" Jew's Harp, The " 
- Harp, Islington 



John, King ... 
Johnson, , pugilist 

Lieut 

Dr. Samuel 



Jones, Humphry 

Inigo 

John 

Nathan 



Jonson, Ben ... 
Joss, Rev. Torial 



PAGE 
60 

2O2, 2O6 

45. 47. 49. 125 

... 49 

120, 121 

211 

80 

...62, 104, 132 
136 

61 

... 191 

... 72 

196 

139 



KAUNTELOE 118 

Kean, Charles 208 

Kempton 188 

Kendall, Richard 51, 52, 120 

Kenrich, Dr. William ... ... 36 

Kensett, , cabinet-maker ... in 

Kensington Gardens ... 84, 167 

Kent, Duchess of ... ... ... 203 

Kent, Holy Maid of 69 

Kentessetonne ... ... ... 132 

Kentish Town 118, 133, 139, 146, 

161, 186, 187, 189, 213 

Kentish Town Volunteer Association 1 8 1 

Ketch, Jack 75 

Kilbornecroft 133, 191 

Kilburn Bridge no 

King, Philip 118 

" King's Ancient Concert Rooms, 

The " 184 

Cross ... ... 117, 125-128 

" Cross Theatre, The " ... 185 

Head Court 187 



INDEX. 



225 



King John's Palace... 
Kingsthorp 

Kinsman, Rev. ... 
Kneller, Sir Godfrey 
Knerler, , a violinist 
Knight, Charles 

Rev. Joel 

- J.P., R.A. 
Knightly, Rose 

LAFFAN, SIR J. DE C. 
" Lamb," the public-house 
Lamb, Charles 
Mary 



FACIE 

12O 

139 
196 

33 

65 

139 

193 

133 



Lever, Sir Ashton ... ... ...82, 85 

Leverett, ... ... ... ... 211 



101, 196 
101 



William 

Lamb's Conduit ... 144, 

Conduit Fields 

Conduit Street 

Lambert, George 

Sir Henry 
Lambeth 

Lampe, Mrs., Jun., a vocalist 
Landseer, Sir Edwin, R.A. 
Lanza, Gemaldo 
La Roache, Eleanor 
Leadenhall Street ... 
Lebartz, John 
Lee, Walter ... 
Lee & Sons, Messrs. Henry 
Leech, John ... 
Leeds, Duke of 
Leicester House 

Square 

Lejeune, Capt. Phillip 

Lely, Sir Peter 

Leo X., Pope 

Lever, Sir D'Arcy ... 
p 



... 144 
145, 146 

2OO, 2OI 
149, 194 

196 
80 

190 

34 

1 04 

... 184 

72-73 
... 167 
... 177 
... 19 
... 179 
... 207 

6, 2OI 

83, 84 

83, 209 

... 181 
... 149 
... 198 

82 



Leverton & Chawner, Messrs. 
Leyton, Essex 

Lichfteld 

Light Horse Volunteers 
Lilestone, Manor of 
Lisbon, Cyclorama of 
Lisson Fields 

- Green . . 
Grove 



203, 



Little Blewhouse Field 

- Hay Field 

Robin's Field ... 

- Titchfield Street 
Welbeck Street 



Liverpool Street 
Lloyd, William 
Dr. Williams 



Locker, E. H. 
Lockhart, Mrs. 
J. G. ... 



53 
176 

158 
204 

57 
170 

57 

-57-58 

46, 57-58 

... 56 

... 56 

56 

... 99 
... 65 
127, 183 

... 57 

... 77 

...87-88 

106 

1 06 



Loders-well ... ... ... ... 146 

Lodge Field 52 

Lollards, The 68 

Lombard Street ... ... ..-. 127 

London Association, The ... ... 177 

Defences of, 1643 117 

Grand Panorama 169 

- Skating Club 85 

Tower of ... 167, 173, 176 

Long's Bowling Green, Marylebone 43 

Long, Robert 37 

Forty Acres ... 

Mead, The 



Lord, Thomas 

Lord's Cricket Ground 



38 

... 51 
... 51 
... 86 
64, 181 



226 



INDEX. 



" Lousy Jack " ... ... ... 140 

Lover, Samuel ... ... ... 105 

Lowe, Thomas ... 33, 35, 36, 37, 38 

Ludgate Hill 167 

Lully, Raymond, a Jew of Terragona 176 

, , of Palma ... ... 175 

Lyell, Sir Charles 104 

Lysons, Daniel ...115, 116, 118, 130 
Lyttelton, Lord ... ... 62, 63 

MARYLEBONE, ANCIENT NAME ... 3 

- Domesday Account of ... 3 

- Old Church of ... ... 100 

- Bowling Green ... 42, 43 

- Celebrities ... 93> 101-106 

- Cricket Clab 86-87 

- Farm ... ... ... 53, 90, 120 

- Gardens ... ... 30-39, 98 

- Lane ... ... ... ... 80 

- Manor House... ... ... 6-8 

- Park ... 48, 50-53, 55, 123-124 

- Road ... 39, 40, 46, 58, 104 



Volunteers, The 



Macbeth, Lady 
Macclesfield, Earl of 
Macdonald, William 
Macnamara, Captain 
Macready, W. C. ... 
Maiden Lane 
Maize Hill, Greenwich 

Manby, - 82 

Manchester, Duke of 

- Square ... ... 64, 96, 101 

Mandubrace, King of London 115 



79 

98 
199 
177 

77 
'05 
213 
190 



Marsden, William ... 
Mapother, E. D., M.D. ... 

Margaret Street 

Margate 

Mark Antony 

Marryat, Frederick ... 
Martin, John... 

Matilda, Queen of King Stephen 
Mays, Miss, a vocalist 

Mead, Dr. ... 

Mecklenberg Square 

Medley, Rev. - 

Mensall, Alexander ... 

Mer de Glace 

Messer, , a coach-builder 

Methodists 

Middle Field 

- Temple, The ... 
Middlesex 

- Hospital, The 89 

Midland Railway Company 
Middleton, Thomas... 

Miller, John 

- Major Commandant James 



Mansfield, Lord 
Mansion House 
Marsden, A. E., M.D. 



64 

183 
116 
... 213 
64, 167 
204 



Mills, J. N 

Milne, Rev. J. G 

Milner, John ... 
Milton, John... 
Minto, Lord ... 
Mitchie, Andrew 
Montague, Hon. Edward ... 

- Elizabeth 
House ... 

- Lady Mary Wortley... 

- Matthew 

- Square ... ... 65, 66, 



Montgomery, Lieut. -Col. 



PACE 

202 
I0 4 
III 
92 
126 
I O6 

54 

34 
199 

'45 



... 161 

... 170 

in 

93 

... 56 

.. 104 

... 167 

-92, no 

... 134 

75 

... 187 

.. 181 

... 191 

... 204 

57. 199 
... 97 
... 77 
... 38 
... 62 
... 62-63 
... 62-63 
... 42 
... 63 
104, nt 
... 77 



INDEX. 



227 



6, 53 



Moore, George 

Thomas 

Moorfields 

Mont Blanc 

Morgan, James 

& Pugin, Messrs. 

Morland, -- 

George ... 

More, , a grocer ... 
Morrant, John 
Morris, Sir Christopher 
Mortimer, Richard ... ... 

Street ... ... ... 10 

Moscow 

"Mother Redcap, The" ... 
Munden, Joseph 
Murray, Lady 
Muswell Hill... 



133, 



204 
104 

138 
170 

55 
171 

138 

33 
191 

81 

52 
in 

158 
117 
161 
92 
167 



.NAPLES 

Napoleon I. ... 
Nares, Rev. Robt. 
Nash, John ... 
National Gallery 
Neale, Lieut. 
" Nelson," Horatia 
Lord 



Nether Paddock 

New London Tavern, Cheapside 

Oxford Street ... 

River Company 

- Head 

Road, The ... 57, 58-61, 213 



100, 125 

89, 158 

10 

6, 53> 55 
... 198 
... 80 
99-101 
77, 99-100 
... 52 
20: 
84 
144 
149 



" Royal West London Theatre, 

The" 184 

Newbury Port , 141 

Newcastle, Duke of... ... ... 4 



Newgate '... 68, 73, 74, 167 

Market 166 

Newman Street ... ... ... 105 

Nichol, Isabel ... ... ... 191 

Nine Acres, The ... ... ... 56 

Noel, Capt 185 

Nollekens, Joseph ... ... 73, 74, 105 

Nollet, Michel Eloy ... ... 30 

Norden, John ... 129-130, 131 

North Bank 65, 86 

" London Athenaeum, The" 185 

or University College 
Hospital ... ... ... 205-206 

North Road, The 167 

Northumberland, Duke of ... 90 

Nottingham Street ... ... ... 80 

OAK TREE FIELD ... ... ... 56 

Gates, Titus 76 

Okey, , a regicide ... ... 70 

Old Bailey 73 

Farthing Pie House, The 46, 47, 59 

- Street 149 

Oldcastle, Sir John 149 

Oldenshaw, Phillis ... ... ... 133 

- W T illiam 133 

Oliver, Mr '... 100 

Onslow, Mr. Speaker 48-49 

Orange Street Chapel ... ... 209 

O'Rourke, Paddy 155 

Osnaburgh Street ... 53 

Ossultone Hundred 57 

Otto, M., French Ambassador ... 63 

Overbury, Sir Thomas 69 

Oxford, Edward, Earl of 10 

- Earl of 4, 9, 106 

Lord 62 



228 



INDEX. 



Oxford House 
- Road .. 
Street 



... 8-10 
...72-84 

96, no, 167 



Ozealey, 155 

PACHE, Miss 184 

Paddington 45,58,98,123-124, 139, 149 

"- - Drag, The" 123 

Paine, J. ... ... ... ... 90 

Paley, William 130 

Palma, Majorca 175 

Palmer, Eleanor 191 

John ... ... ... ... 191 

- Samuel ... ... 136, 185, 192 

Pancras, Manor of 119-20 

- Road 131 

- Wash ... 148 

- Wells 156-157 

Pancratius, Saint ... ... ... 131 

Panizzi, Sir Anthony .. ... 180 

Park Crescent ... ... ... 53 

Lane ... ... ... ... 67 

- Square ... 53, 171 

- Village East ... ... . 53 

- West ... ... ... 53 

Parkes, John .. ... ... ... 41 

Parkinson, James ... ... ... 83 

Parsons, Rev. Edward ... ... 139 

Parris, E. T.... ... ... 166, 169 

Parrot, An old, at Marylebone 

Manor House ... ... ... 8 

Pasqualis, Francis ... ... ... 184 

Peake, John ... ... ... ... 140 

Pearce, Matthew ... ... ... 140 

Pears, , perfumer... ... ... in 

Peckwell, Dr. ... ... ... 139 

Pennant, Thomas ... ... ... 42 



PAGE 

Pentonville 58, 147, 167 

Pepys, Lieut. John .. ... .. 182 

- Samuel ... ... ... ... 31 

Percy Chapel ... ... ... 193 

Pericles ... ... ... ... 137 

Perny, Bernard ... ... ... 30 

- Henry 191 

Peto & Grissell, Messrs. ... 164 

Peto, Sir Morton, Bart 172 

Piccadilly 167 

Piercy, Rev. - 139 

Pightle (Field) 51 

Pinder of Wakefield, The... 125, 148 

Piozzi, M 185 

Pitt, James 192 

- William 106 

- Street 140 

Platt, William 188 

Plowden, Lieut. ... ... ... 80 

Plunket, Oliver ... 70 

Pool, Miss 184 

Pope, Alexander ... ... ... 62 

Porter, David .. 65 

Portland, Duke of 25, 28 

- William, 2nd Duke of ... 4 

- William H. C. B., Duke of 24 

- Margaret Cavendish ... ... 9 

- Family Vault 18, 24 

- Place 48, 53 

Road ... 44 

Portman Square ... ... ...62-64 

Family ... ... ... ... 62 



Portsmouth ... ... ... ... 70 

Post Office, The New (General)... 167 

Pott, Archdeacon ... ... ... 198 

Pound Field 52 

Pownall, Lieut So 






INDEX. 



229 



PAGE 

"Philharmonic, The" 185 

Philippa, Queen of Edward III..., 176 

Phillips, T 80 

Phipps, Lieut. -Col. ... ... ... 79 

Phoenix Street ... ... ... 117 

Physicians, Old College of ... 166 

Prance, , a conspirator ... ... 76 

Pratt Street ... ... ... ... 190 

Price, (a smith) ... ... ... 121 

Primrose Hill 47> 75-7^, 149, 167 

Prince Consort, The ... ... 84 

" Prince of Wales' Royal Theatre, 

The" 184 

Prince Regent ... 6, 53, 91, 97 

Pritchard, W. T 204 

Procter, B. W. ... ... 104, 207 

Prospect Place, Wai worth ... 187 
" Providence Chapel " ... ...29-30 

Prynn, ... 155 

Pugin, A. W. N 128 

Pulteney, William ... ... ... 62 

" Pyed Bull, The," Islington ... 120 



QUAIN, SIR JONES 
, Richard 



104 
104 
Queen Anne's Square ... ... 64 

Anne Street 105 

Square ... ... ... ... 117 

Queen's Head and Artichoke 44-45, 124 

" Theatre, The " 184 

Queenhithe ... ... .. ... 173 

RAD-WELL ... ... ... ... 146 

Raffles, Sir Stamford 89 

Rainbow Coffee House ... ... 191 

Raleigh, Sir Walter 120 

Ramsay, ... ... ... ... 199 



PAGE 

Ramsay, Allen ... ... ... 25 

Rann, John ... ... ... ... 71-73 

Raphael's cartoons ... ...170, 198-199 

Rathbone Place ... ... ... 170 

Raworth, , a vocalist ... ... 33 

Red Lion Inn, Holborn ... ... 69 

Street ... ... 144-149 

"Regency Theatre, The"... ... 184 

Regent's Canal ... ... ... 55 

Regent's Park 48, 50-54, 78, 81, 

84-88, 89, 97, 168, 172, 173, 177 
- Basin ... ... ... 53 

142 

53. 172 
in 

... 25 
61, 62-104 
... 140 
1 40 
Richardson, G. ... ... .. 51 

Ritchie, ... ... ... ... 143 

River of Wells, The 



Square Presbyterian Church 
Street 



Reid, , chair-maker 
Relham, Anthony .. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua 
Rhodes, A. C. 
Christopher 



Robarts, Curtis, & Co. 
Robert Street 
Roberts, Mary 
Robinson, Ensign ... 
P. F. 



... 146 
127 

... 139 
... 177 
... 181 
... 1 68 
... 127 
46-47, 150 
... 118 
... 116 
104 

43-44 
37-42 

Rotherhithe ... 193 

Roumieu, 131 

Rowley, Dr 138 



Robson, John 

Rocque's map of London ... 

Roehampton ... 

Rome ... 

Romney, George 

Rose of Normandy, The ... 
Tavern, Marylebone ... 



230 



INDEX. 



Royal Academy 198 

- Botanic Society 84-89 

"Royal Clarence Theatre, The"... 185 

Exchange, The ... ... 167 

- Free Hospital, The ... 202-206 
" Royal King's Cross Theatre, The " 185 

Panarmonion Gardens 182-184 

- Toxophilite Society, The ...81-86 

"Royalty, The" 

Rubens, P. P 198 

Rugg Moor ... ... .. 52, 120 

Ruggemere, Manor of ... ... 120 

Rush worth & Co. .'.. 

Russell, Lord John... 

John 



Rye House Plot 

Rysbrach, J. M 

SADLER, THOMAS 
Sadler's Wells 

St. Andrew 

St. Andrew's, Holborn 

Churchyard, Holborn 

Hall 



24. 



St. Anne's, London... 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital 

St. Botolph, Aldgate 

St. David 

St. Dunstan's Church 

- Villa 

St. Chad 

Portrait of 

St. Chad's Row 

- Well 

St. Ethelburg, Bishopgate... 
St. George 

St. George's, Bloomsbury ... 



... 127 
203 

... 25 
70, 75 
38, 197 

... 70 

44. l8 5 
... 128 
... 146 

... 202 

... 105 
... 191 

... 167 

... 174 
... 128 

- 54 

54-55 

158 

160 

... 161 
158-161 
. . 167 
... 128 
... 146 



St. George's Hospital 
Row, Bayswater 



197 

57 

St. Giles's ... ... ... ... 146 

Bowl 68-69 

Pound ... ... ... ... no 

St. Helena 89 

St. James's Church ... ... ... 138 

Palace ... ... ... ... 53 

Street ... 127 

St. John of Jerusalem, Hospital of 55, 57 

St. John's Street 155, 167 

- Wood 55, 86, iii 

Great ... ... ... 55 

Chapel ... ... 29, 96, in 

Lane 56 

- Little, at Highbury ... 55 
St. Katharine's Lane ... ... 177 

St. Katharine, Royal Hospital of 173-178 

St. Martin-in-the-Fields 161 

St. Mary's Church, Wyndham 

Place ... ... ... 26 



St. Mary Woolnoth, Church of 
St. Marylebone Church (Old) 
St. Marylebone Church (New) 
Volunteers 



167 

... 15-25 
25-26 

... 87 
... 167 
115-214 

150. 193 
137 
186-192 

2O8, 211 

181, 182 

St. Patrick 128 

St. Paul . ... ... ... 134 

St. Paul's Cathedral 125, 131, 

149, 165, 167, 168 



St. Michael's, Cornhill 
St. Pancras ... 

- Old Church of 

121, 129-137, 

Church (New)... 

Charities 

Churchyard 

Volunteers 



INDEX. 



231 



St. Paul's, Canons of ... ... 118 

- Church, Great Portland Street 29 

- Cross ... ... ... ... 69 

- Dean and Chapter of 119-120, 129 

School ... ... ... ... 167 

St. Peter ... ... 134 

St. Peter's Church, Northampton 175 

- Church, Vere Street 28-29 

St. Sepulchre's Church ... ... 74 

St. Thomas's Hospital ... .. 197 

Salisbury, Earl of . . 201 

Saltpetre Field ... ... ... 51 

Salvation Army, The ... ... 185 

Sam's Royal Library ... ... 127 

Sanderson, - .. ... ... 93 

Sanderson, John .. ... ... 198 

Sandhills ... ... ... ... 117 

Sarnen, Valley of ... ... ... 172 

Scott, Sir Claude, & Co 127 

Rev. Edward .. ... ... 60 

Sir Walter ... ... ... 106 

Scroggs, Lord Chief Justice ... 76 

Seaford ... ... ... ... 92 

Selwyn, George ... ... ... 74 

Seymour, Lord Robert ... ... 91 

- Street 107 

Shakespeare, William 63, 97, 98, 196 

School of ... ... ... 36 

Sharp, William 95'97 

Shaw, George, M.D., &c 83 

Rev. Stebbing 10 

Shea, Capt 89 

Shee, Sir M. A., P.R.A 104 

Shelley, P. B 208 

Shepherd, Robert ... ... ... 72 

Shepherd's Market 139 

Sheppard, Jack ... ... 68, 70 



Sherlock, William 130 

Shillibeer, J. ... ... ... ... 46 

Shirley, James ... ... ... 68 

- Rev. Walter ... ... . . 139 

Shoreditch ... ... ... ... 81 

Short Forty Acres ... ... ... 51 

Sice, Thomas ... ... ... 17 

Siddons, Mrs. Sarah ... ...97-98 

Sidmouth, Lord ... .., ... 108 

Six Acre Field ... ... ... 56 

Six Closes, The ... ... ... 51 

"Sixteen String Jack" ... ... 71 

Skinners, Company of ... ... 117 

- Well 146 

Slipe, The (meadow) ... ... 56 

Sloman ... ... ... ... 155 

Small-Pox Hospital... ... 201-202 

Smiles, Samuel ... ... ... 30 

Smirke, Sir Robert... ... ... 26 

Smith, George ... ... ... 209 

J. C 200 

- J- T. ... 7, 8, 73 
John ... ... ... .. 70 

- Sydney ... ... ... ... 106 

Thomas ... 18, 22, 36, 59 



Smithers, (Bow Street Officer) 109 

Smithfield Market 58, 167 

Smock Race ... ... ... ... 163 

Snow Hill ... ... ... ... 144 

Soane, Sir John, R.A. ... ... 28 

Soho ... ... ... . . ... 76 

Somers, William 72 

- Town 119, 146, 147, 213 

Somerset, Duke of ... ... ... 206 

Edward, Duke of 57 

House 76 

South Kensington Museum ... 199 



232 



INDEX. 



Southampton, Lord... 

- House, Bloomsbury 
Row 



... 119 

... 117 

... 149 

-93-97 

... 69 

... 81 

64, 106 

... 1 86 

... 81 

... 97 



Southcott, Joanna ... 

Southwell, Robert . . 

Spanish Armada 

Spanish Place 

Spital House, Highgate ... 

Spital Square 

Spenser, Edmund ... 

Spring Field... ... ... ... 56 

Squibb, , a vocalist ... ... 35 

Stacye, Mrs.... 122 

Stafford, A. M 90 

Staines, R 60 

Stamford Hill ... ... ... 167 

Stanhope, Charles ... ... ... 55 

- Edward... ... ... ... 187 



Lady H. L. ... ... ... 106 

Stanton, Francis ... ... ... 188 

Stephen, King ... ... ... 173 

Stewart, George ... ... ... 51 

Stockwell .. ... ... ... 187 

Stoddart, , a pianoforte maker... in 
Stokes, Mrs., the City Championess 

40, 41 

Storace, Stephen ... ... .. 23 

Storer, Miss ... ... ... ... m 



Stothard, Thomas ... 
Stout, , Timber Merchant 
Stow, John ... 
Strand, The ... 
Stratford 

- Place 

Strode, Sir George 

William, Lieut. -Gen. 

Stubbs, George 



... 105 
in 

5 
127, 167 

... 167 
... 106 

5 

... 61 
... 25 



Stukeley, William, Dr. 
Surrey, Earl of 
Sussex, Duke of 

Gardens 

Place 



Swain, Edward, Son of 
Sykes, A. B 



TARLTON'S JESTS 
Tavistock Square ... 
Tayler, Thomas 
Taylor, , a vocalist 
John 



Telbin, 

Temple Bar, London 
Terry west, John 
Thackeray, W. M. ... 
Thames, River 
Theseus, Temple of... 
Thirty Acres, The ... 
Thistlewood, Arthur 
Thompson, Capt. 

Sir Henry 

Horatia " Nelson " 



Thorney Island 
Thoroughgood, - . . 
Thorrington, H. 
Tidd, (a shoemaker) 
"Tieburne" ... 
Tilbury 

- & Co., Messrs. 



PAGE 
II5-II6 

3-4 
203-204 
... 84 
... 106 

57 
vi. 



Titus, Arch of 
Tode-well 

Tonbridge Chapel ... 
Tornick, Matthias ... 
Toole, William 
Toplady, Rev. A. M. 



140, 



... 67 
... 208 

... 24 

33 

... 67 

... 170 

70 

... 41 

... 208 

167 

... 170 
... 52 
106-109 
... 80 
. . . 206 
... 101 
...13-14 

155 

... 183 

... 107 

... 68 

... 81 

... 60 

... 170 

... 146 

... 139 

... 138 

... 92 
209-210 



INDEX. 



233 



Toppesfield, Manor of 
Torrington Square ... 
Totenhall, William de 
Manor of 



... 132 

84, 208 

121 
II8-II9 



Court I2O, 121, 122, 187, l8g, 192 

Tottenham Court Road 90, 138-141, 

146, 149, 157, 185, 191 

Fair 161-163 

Street 185 

" - Street Theatre, The" ... 184 

" Theatre, The" ... 184-185 

Tottingham, Mrs. ... ... 102-103 

Tower Hill 177 

- Street ... ... ... ... 167 

Toxophilite Ground... ... ... 85 

Society 85-86 

Trollope, Anthony ... ... ... 65 

Triumphal Arch across the New 

Road ... ... ... ... 54 

Trusler, Dr. ... ... ... ... 16 

John ... ... ... ... 34 

Tunbridge ... ... ... ... 117 

Turner, Mrs.... ... ... ... 69 

J. M. W 105 

Turnmill Brook, The ... ... 146 

Twenty Acres (meadow) ... ... 56 

- Acre Field ... ... ... 56 

Twenty-nine Acres, The ... ... 52 

Twenty -two Acre Field ... ... 56 

Tybourne, The River ... ... 10-14 

Tyburn, Couduits at ... ... 5 

Manor of ... ... 3, 4, 5 

Lane ... ... ... ... 67 

Road ... ... ... ... 67 

" Tippet, A" ... ... 75 

Tree 67-75 



UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON 179-181 

Upchurch, Kent 176 

Upton... ... ... ... ... lyjj 

Upper Baker Street 97-98 

Bryanston Street 68 

Usborne, Miss ... ... ... 204 

Utber, Richard 118 



VANE, SIR HARRY ... 

Vandrebrank, John... 

Vatican, The 

Vennes, Miss 

Venus, Temple of ... 

Vere, Aubrey de, Earl of Oxford 

Joan de 

Robert de 



Verley, Thomas 

Vesta, Temple of ... 

Voltaire, F. M. A. de 

Victoria, Queen 

Vincent, Mrs., a vocalist ... 

Vulcan, Forge of, at Marylebone 

Gardens ... .. ... "-35-36 



119 

24 
1 68 
in 
;, 116 
28 
3 
3 

109 
1 70 

... 63 
91, 203, 204 

33-34 



WALCH, MASTER - ... ... 184 

Wale, Samuel, R.A. ... ... 197 

Wales, , cabinet-maker ... .. in 

- Prince of ... ... 84, 203 

Walker, John ... ... ... 136 

Wall, Alexander ... . . ... 51 

Waller, J. G. ... ... n, 13, 146 

Walpole, Horace ... .. ... 59 

Walsingham, Francis ... ... 38 

Walter, Canon of St. Paul's ... 119 

Walton ... ... ... ... 92 

Wai worth ... ... ... ... 187 

Wandesford, John 5 



234 



INDEX. 



Wanley, Humphrey 

Ward, - 

Lieut. ... 



Ward's Field 

Waring, Thomas 

Warren, Earl, and of Surrey 

Samuel 



10, 24 

.. 86 
.. 80 
.. 65 
84, 86 

3 

.. 208 

Warton, Thomas ... ... ... 63 

Warwick Street, Golden Square... 45; 

Washington, George ... 139, 197 

Wast, Roger 176 

Waterloo, The Battle of 155 

Watling Street ... 167 

Watson, Caroline ... ... ... 24 

Weever, John ... .... ... 131 

Welch, Mr. Justice ... ... ... 74 

Welderen, Count de 138 

Welford, Capt. ... ... 80 

Wells Street in 

Wengham, Henry de, Bishop of 

London ... ... ... ... 174 

Wesket, John ... ... ... 71 

Wesley, Rev. Charles ... 25, 139-141 

- Rev. John ... 138-141, 210 
West, Rev. - ... . . 139 

- Benjamin, P.R.A. 26, 29, 105, 

136, 142, 200 
West Ham Churchyard ... ... 209 

" - London Theatre, The" ... 184 

- Middlesex Waterworks ... 77 
Westbourne Street ... ... ... 84! 

Westminster ... ... ... 167 

Abbey ... " itf-itf 

- Bridge 155 

- Hall 69 

Wheatley, Francis, R.A. ... ... 25 



White, John 

- Conduit Club ... 
House 

- Hall Field 
House Field 



50, 51, 5 2 , 6 o 
86 

122 

... 52 
51, 52 

Whitechapel ... ... ... ... 167 

Whitefield, Rev. George ... 138-141 
Wigmore, , a pugilist ... ... 211 

Street ... ... ... ... 80 

Willan, Thomas ... ... 51, 52 

William III 160 

- IV 84, 91, 126, 203 

Williams & Co. ... ... ... 1*7 

- Gilly .. 74 

Wilkie, David . 103 

Wilkins, William, R.A 179 

Wilks, Rev. Matthew ... ... 139 

Willis, Thomas .. ... .. 125 

Willoughby, Lord ... ... ... 57 

Willow Tree Field ... ... ... 56 

Wills, Rev. James ... ... ... 197 

Wilmot, John Eardley ... ... 24 

- Lord Chief Justice 198 

Wilson, Richard, R.A. no, 197, 199 

Wimpole, Cambridgeshire 106 

- Street ... ... ... ... 106 

Windmill Street ... ... ... 90 

Windsor . . ... ... ... 167 

Winslow 188 

Winstanley, Messrs. ... ... 170 

Wither, George . . ... ..'. .124 

Woburn Place ... ... ... 208 

Woodville, Dr. ... .._.<* . . 202 

Woolaston, Mary ... .'.. .. 150 

Woollett, Elizabeth... 135 

William 



Whitbread, Samuel . . . 



90 1 Woolley, , a stable-keeper 



135 
in 



INDEX. 



235 



Wooton, Charles Henry, Lord 

Wright, Robert 

Wyatt, Capt.... 

- the sculptor ... 
Wycherley, William 
Wynn- Ellis, - 

YATES, EDWARD 
York, The Duke of.. 



York Gate 

- Place 

- Square 



55 

38 

8o 

29 '" Yorkshire Stingo, The" 
146 Young, C. M. 
204 i Ypres, William de ... 

206 Zoological Gardens, The 
137 - - Society, The ... 



I'AGE. 

'05 
1 06 



53 

46, 60 
.. 185 
173 

..88-89 
..88-89 




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