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Original stntue modelled under Bernadette s direction. 





Author of " Pilgrim Walks in Rome " 



W. E. BLAKE & SON, Limited 

Catholic Church Supplies 
123 Church St. Toronto, Canada 

5 4 


F. Thomas Bergh, O.S.B. 

Censor deputatus. 

fPetrus Epus Southwarc. 





In conformity with the decree of Pope Urban 
VIII, the author hereby declares that any extra 
ordinary events related in this volume of persons 
not canonized or beatified, are to be accepted as 
resting on mere human testimony, with no wish 
to forestall the Church s judgment in the matter. 


following notes on Mary s Praise, originally 
-*- intended only for private devotion and for instruc 
tions to Religious, have been rearranged and prepared 
for publication at the urgent request of several devout 
persons, in the hope that they may serve to promote 
greater devotion to our loving Mother, especially in Eng 
land. The work, necessarily compressed to lessen the 
expense of printing, differs in character from most English 
works on the subject, inasmuch as it does not contain a 
series of meditations or reflections on our Lady s life and 
virtues, nor of devotional exercises in her honour : its aim 
is rather to show the enthusiasm with which devotion to 
her has been taken up in all countries and by all classes of 
persons, especially in Catholic England, " Mary s Dowry." 
It abounds in matters scriptural, patristic, historical and 
biographical, and will be found touchingly suggestive of 
holy thoughts, most helpful in private meditation and in 
addresses to Sodalists and others. Such a work might 
easily have been expanded into a volume three times the 
size, but the price would then have made its purchase 
prohibitive to many who might wish to possess a copy 
for private devotion. 



Fr. Drive, S. J. (" Marie et la Compagnie de Jesus," p. 133) 
relates that St. John Berchmans made the following request 
to his friend and brother-scholastic Nicholas Ratka i : "If 
you live, won t you write some book in honour of our 
Lady, and particularly in honour of her Immaculate Con 
ception ? " He added : "I have made a vow to write 
such a book, and I have in my mind the plan I wish to 
work out, viz., explaining the figures of the Immaculate 
Conception, then the direct arguments, then the miracles, 

Whether Nicholas Ratkai ever carried out this request 
is unknown ; but the present writer, who during a pro 
longed stay in Rome often knelt at the shrine of the youth 
ful Saint, in the church of Sant Ignazio, may be permitted 
to offer through his hands to our Immaculate Mother this 
small tribute of loving affection, simple and imperfect 
as it is, hoping that it may do some little good by making 
her better known, better loved, and more widely praised. 

October, 1919. 



FT is to me a strange phenomenon," wrote the late 

* Cardinal Newman, " that so many learned and 
devout men stumble at the doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception, and I can only account for it by supposing, 
in matter of fact, they do not know what we mean by 
the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception." 

The Cardinal is right ; the " learned and devout men " 
to whom he refers, in attacking the doctrine of the Imma 
culate Conception, are assailing it, not in the sense in which 
it is denned by the Church, but in the sense only in which 
they themselves fancy it must be denned by Her. 

There is a proverb which says : "He that understands 
amiss, concludes worse." This being so, it may not be alto 
gether out of place to give here in a foreword to this most 
interesting and edifying volume, all in praise of God s 
Mother, a short exposition of the doctrine without the 
knowledge of which it is no easy matter to arrive at a true 
estimate of Mary s dignity and sanctity. 

And here, let me observe, that my experience teaches me 


that one of the chief reasons why " learned and devout 
men," outside the Church, do not understand the dogma 
of the Immaculate Conception, is because they misunder 
stand the doctrine of Original Sin. Not knowing the 
rule, they cannot realize the exception to the rule ; not 
recognizing the penalty, they cannot see the privilege ; 
in other words, not appreciating what we mean by the 
stain and guilt of Original Sin, they do not and cannot 
know what is meant by exemption from it. 

Besides personal sin, which may be mortal or venial, 
there is another sin called a quasi-personal sin. It is the 
sin inherited by the human family from Adam, who, as 
origin and constituted head of the human family, has 
transmitted to his posterity that state of forfeiture of 
grace, into which he fell when he transgressed God s law 
in the Garden of Paradise. 

Revelation teaches us that Adam, having forfeited for 
himself through an act of prevarication Sanctifying Grace, 
together with all its formal effects, and those preternatural 
gifts, with which God had dowered his being when He 
created it, has, as our rightly constituted head, trans 
mitted to us those fatal consequences of his lawlessness. 
Accordingly, each member of the human family is con 
ceived and is born in a state of forfeiture and disinherit 
ance. Hence the cry of the royal psalmist : " Behold I 
was conceived in iniquity, and in sin did my mother con 
ceive me." 

Since Adam s fall, Man, his descendant, comes into this 
world despoiled of that divine life of grace which finally 


develops into the life of glory. Ti]l reinstated in grace, 
Man, being without supernatural life, is without a super 
natural end to life. He is a wandering star, and, till grace 
restores him to divine sonship, he is no heir of God or 
co-heir with Christ. 

I have stated the rule let me now pass on to its excep 
tion. Mary is its exception. When we speak of her 
Immaculate Conception we mean to say that Mary did 
not incur the fatal consequences of Adam s fall from 
Grace ; we mean to say that she, by the special favour of 
God, was exempted from Original Sin, so that there was 
no moment of her life, either after or before her birth, 
in which she was in a state of forfeiture. On the contrary, 
sinless and stainless in her origin, she started her race for 
Heaven, enriched with a wealth of grace, short only of 

It is not my purpose here to do more than set before the 
readers of this book what is meant by the Immaculate 
Conception. Once we begin to realize the meaning of the 
doctrine, all Catholic outpouring of appreciation, eulogy 
and love of God s great masterpiece, " the Woman clothed 
with the Sun," becomes intelligible and reasonable. 

This volume is a bouquet of flowers offered at Mary s 
feet ; they symbolize her virtues, they are tokens of our 
child-like, clinging love of her, who, as she gave to us her 
Son, can win for us His grace and His love. What she 
has been in the past, to sinner as well as to saint, may she 
be to us, who sorely need her help. From her, as from no 
library, we learn to know the workings of the Sacred 


Heart ; from her, as from no Director, we may gather 
the secrets of our sanctity ; and from her, as from no 
other mother, we may be sure of guidance in life, of care in 
sickness, of comfort in sorrow, and of special love and help 
in death. Never can we tire of lifting up our eyes, our 
hearts and our voices to this incomparable and ever blessed 

" Above the Moon her face reflecting Heaven, 
Beneath her feet the Earth with all its strife, 
Thus is she pictured who to man hath given 
The Source, the Author, and the Crown of Life. 
Thou beauteous promise of Creation s dawn, 
Destined restorer of our fallen state, 
Brightest Star that ushered in Redemption s morn, 
Shine on our darkness, Oh! Immaculate ! " 




Our Lady greatly honoured 

I By God the Father . . .* . i 

II By God the Son ,~~ . . . 4 

III By God the Holy Ghost. . 6 

IV By the Angels . . . . . / 8 
V By Patriarchs and Prophets . . . 1 1 

VI By Figures in the Old Law . . .13 

VII By the Apostles . . . , . . 16 

VIII By Early Christians . . . .18 

IX By Early Fathers of Eastern Church . 21 

X By Early Fathers of Western Church . 24 

XI By Decrees of Councils . . . .27 

XII By Invocations in Ancient Liturgies . 29 

XIII By Saints of the XII Cent. . . < . 31 

XIV By Saints of the XII Cent, (cont.) . " . 34 
XV By Saints of the XIII Cent. . .36 

XVI By Saints of the XIII Cent. (cont.). . 4 

XVII By Saints of the XIV Cent. . 7 43 

XVIII By Saints of the XV Cent. . ,- 45 

XIX By Saints of the XVI Cent. . . , . * 47 

XX By Saints of the XVI Cent, (cont.) . 50 

XXI By Saints of the XVII Cent. . . > . 52 

XXII By Saints of the XVII Cent, (cont.) . 55 

XXIII By Saints of the XVIII Cent. . * .h, 57 

XXIV By Popes . ~ .,! . . 60 





Our Lady greatly honoured 

XXV By English Cardinals . . . -63 

XXVI By Religious Orders .... 64 

XXVII By the Society of Jesus . . .68 

XXVIII By Catholic England, Mary s Dowry . 71 

XXIX By Catholic England, Ancient Devotions. 75 

XXX By Catholic England, Shrines . . -77 

XXXI By Catholic England, Shrines (cont.) ; 80 

XXXII By Catholic England, Abbeys, Colleges . 84 

XXXIII By Catholic England, Pilgrimages . 85 

XXXIV By Faithful Ireland . . : , . 87 
XXXV By Catholic Scotland . : k ... 92 

XXXVI By Catholic Wales . V . . . 95 

XXXVII In the United States . f , . 96 

XXXVIII In Canada . : , . - . ,. . IOO 

XXXIX In France . ... . . ; ; . .103 

XL In Spain . . . * . . 105 
XLI in Italy. . . . . . .108 

XLII In Belgium and Holland. ... . no, 113 

XLIII In Poland % . . . . .116 

XLIV In Germany and Austria , . . 118 

XLV In Portugal . . . . . - 121 

XLVI In Greece. In Mexico and S. America . 122 

XLVII In Japan . .- .- . . . 125 

XLVIII In India and China . . . .127 

XLIX By Kings of England and Scotland. . 128 

L By Kings of other nations . . . 131 

LI By Cities and Kingdoms. . . . 133 

LII By Poets and Artists . . . "V 136 

LIII By Musicians . ., . . . .139 

LIV By Children . -, - . ; ... 141 

LV By Commanders of Armies and Navies . 144 

LVI By Warriors and Soldiers V . . 147 

LVII By Discoverers . . . . . 150 




Our Lady greatly honoured 

LVIII By Trade and other Guilds . . .151 

LIX By non-Catholic writers . . . 153 

LX By non-Catholic writers (cont.) . .156 

LXI By Builders of Churches . . .160 

LXII By Erection of Lady Chapels . .163 

LXI 1 1 By Pilgrimages in Italy . . .166 

LXIV By Pilgrimages in France . . .171 

LXV By Spanish Shrines . . . .175 

LXVI By Belgian and Swiss Shrines . .176 
LXVII By Institution of Feasts . . . .177 

LXVIII By Institution of Sodalities. . . 182 

LXIX By remarkable Sodalists . . .184 

LXX By illustrious Scholars. . . .186 

LXXI By Devotion of the Rosary. . . 188 

LXXII ,By Devotion of the Angelus . . 192 

LXXIII By Devotion of the Scapular . . 193 

LXXIV By Devotion of the Mirac. Medal . 195 

LXXV By Devotion of the Little Office, etc. . 197 

LXX VI In her Immaculate Conception. The 

Dogma . . ... . . 200 

LXX VI I In her Immaculate Conception. The 

Controversy ..... 204 

LXXVIII In her Immaculate Conception. The Defi 
nition ...... 208 

LXXIX In her Immaculate Conception: and Eng 
land 210 

LXXX In her Nativity. Her Privileges . . 212 

L&XXI In her Divine Maternity . ... 215 

LXXXII In her Perpetual Virginity v .. . 218 

LXXXIII In her Glorious Assumption. . . 220 

LXXXIV In her title of Mother of Mercy . > 224 

LXXXV In her Immaculate Heart . . . 227 

LXXXVI By England s Consecration to her . 230 




Our Lady greatly honoured 

LXXXVII By Devotion to her Seven Dolours . 234 

LXXXVIII By Ordinary Duties done for her . . 236 

LXXXIX By Spiritual Exercises offered to her . 239 

XC By special acts of Homage . . . 240 

XCI By loving trust in her as a Mother . 243 

XCII By imitating her Virtues . . . 245 

XCIII By imitating the practices of Saints . 246 

XCIV By devotion to special Pictures . . 249 

XCV By helping to convert Sinners . ,- T 253 

XCVI By helping the Holy Souls . . .254 

XCVII By honour paid her at Pontmain, Pelle- 

voisin . . ; - . . 256 

XCVIII By reciting the Magnificat . . . 257 

XCIX By invoking her in war-time . . 259 

C By praise of her Humility , . .260 

CI By reverence for her spotless Purity . 261 

CII By proclaiming her Privileges . . 263 

CHI By defending her Honour , " * . 264 

CIV Prayers of Saints. . . , . . 267 

Appendix I Council of Ephesus . .-- ". .270 

,, II Apparition at Pontmain . . . 273 

III Blessed Sophie Barat . . . .279 

Addendum Subscribers ...... 280 



HE adopted her as His queenly Daughter, " more 
beloved by Him," says St. Ephrem, " than all 
His creatures." 1 He made her to be 

i. The first in the order of nature, the greatest and best 
beloved, after the Sacred Humanity of Jesus. " I came 
out of the mouth of the Most High, the first born before 
all creatures." Ecclus. xxiv. 5. " From the beginning and 
before the world was I created," etc. xxiv. 14. These 
words, spoken of the Incarnate Wisdom of God, are applied 
by the Church to our Lady, the Divine decree selecting her as 
the privileged Mother of the Word made flesh being eternal 
as was the decree of the Incarnation. Pope Pius IX, in the 
Bull of definition of the Immaculate Conception, speaks thus 
of Mary : " God chose and prepared from the beginning 
and before time for His only Son, a Mother of whom He 
would be born in the happy fulness of time, and He loved 
her above all creatures ; so that, by an extraordinary 
predilection, He placed in her alone the utmost plenitude 
of His complacency. Therefore, far above all angelical 
spirits and all Saints, He filled her so admirably with the 
abundance of all celestial gifts, taken from the treasure of 

1 In speaking of Mary as surpassing all creatures in grace, glory, 
dignity, we exclude, of course, the Sacred Humanity of Jesus Christ, 
for He is Creator as well as creature. Mary ranks above all mere 

M.P. 1 B 


His divinity, that, always exempted from all stain of sin, 
all fair and all perfect, she received such fulness of sanctity 
and innocence that, under God, no greater sanctity can 
be imagined, nor any one except God understand the per 
fection thereof." Brev. Rom. d. 9 Dec. lect 4, 5. 

2. The first of all His creatures, after the Sacred Human 
ity of Jesus, in the order of grace. The sanctifying grace 
Mary received in her conception exceeds all the grace which 
has been given to any other mere creature, not only at 
the beginning of such creature s existence, but even at the 
consummation of its perfection. This is the opinion 
of Suarez, and, after him, of nearly all the theologians 
who in the last three centuries have explicitly treated 
of this subject. " It is piously believed and probable," 
he says, " that the grace received by the blessed Virgin 
in her first sanctification was more intense, greater, and 
more perfect than the consummated grace of angels and 
men." And the reason is, according to St. Augustine, 
St. Bernard, and St. Thomas, that the grace bestowed 
on her must have been proportionate to her sublime 
dignity of Mother of God, which excels whatever greatness 
and magnificence we can imagine in angels and men. 

3. The first of all creatures, after the Sacred Humanity 
of Jesus in the order of glory. An anonymous writer in 
a little work on the Immaculate Conception, printed at 
Trichinopoly in 1904, has the following reflection : " Have 
you never stopped to contemplate in a moment of joyous 
admiration the sky on a beautiful night resplendent 
with stars ? What a marvellous sight is offered by these 
numberless lights scintillating in the blue vault of heaven ! 
But, observe, at the advent of the dawn, when the rays 
of the sun set the horizon aflame, the stars disappear 
from sight. The stars are the Saints ; however admirable 
they may be, they disappear when compared with Mary. 
Those myriads of Angels, that innumerable multitude of 
virgins, anchorites, confessors, martyrs and apostles, so 
glorious that it seems nothing can equal them, all vanish 


before the sunlike splendour of the Virgin conceived without 
sin. Quasi aurora consurgens. Like the morning 
light she advances full of grace, and sheds a light a thousand 
times more resplendent than theirs." 

St. Epiphanius (d. 403) exclaims : " Hail, full of grace ! 
For, God alone excepted, she is superior to all. By nature 
she is far more beautiful than the very Cherubim and the 
whole Angelic host. To show her forth no heavenly nor 
earthly tongue at all suffices, nay not even that of the 
Angels." Livius, 215. 

St. Ephrem the Syrian (d. 373) says that she is 
higher beyond compare than Cherubim and Seraphim, and 
more glorious by far. Ibid. 213. 

St. Sophronius, see 4. 

4. The most privileged of all human creatures by her 
sinlessness, her Immaculate Conception. In consequence 
of Adam s sin committed in his capacity of first parent 
and fountain-head of the human race, all his children 
become partakers of his guilt and its appalling conse 
quences. We are born deprived of sanctifying grace and 
of the gratuitous gifts which accompanied it ; we are at 
our birth no longer children of God, but children of wrath, 
and deserve to be banished for ever from the Kingdom of 
heaven, because God does not find in us the divine grace 
which was to have been our inheritance. Mary, with her 
Divine Son, alone of all mankind, was preserved by God 
from contracting the stain of original sin. This great 
privilege will be referred to later. 

Father Gallifet, S.J., in his little work on Devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin, assures us that we may say without 
danger of error, that in elevating Mary to the dignity of 
the Divine Maternity, the Eternal Father has made of her, 
after Jesus Christ, the most perfect image of His Divinity, 
the most complete and admirable expression of His divine 
perfections, p. 21. 



HE chose her to be His Mother, a dignity so sublime 
that we can conceive nothing grander that God 
could bestow on a creature. " God," says St. Bonaventure, 
" could make a grander world, a greater heaven ; but a 
greater mother than the Mother of God He could not make." 
In speculo B. Virginis, cap. 8. 

In making her to be His Mother, God the Son made her 
to be in some way like Himself, i.e. a sharer in His perfec 
tions, virtues, privileges, power and honour. 1 

1. A sharer in His perfections. 

(a) Jesus is Goodness itself by His Divine Essence, i.e. 
He contains within Himself all Divine, all possible perfec 
tions in an infinite degree. Mary, His Mother, surpasses 
all creatures in goodness, just as she surpasses them in 
dignity : her soul is adorned with all created perfections 
in a sublime degree. 

(b) Jesus is Wisdom itself, the Incarnate Wisdom of 
God, full of grace and truth. Mary, His Mother, is super- 
naturally enlightened above all other creatures, and there 
fore is styled by the Church " Seat (or throne) of Wisdom." 

(c) Jesus is Omnipotent. Mary is spoken of by the 
Saints as " Omnipotentia supplex," i.e. all-powerful in 
prayer, an all-powerful intercessor. 

2. A sharer in His virtues. 

Jesus is most humble, patient, charitable, merciful, 
holy. After Him there is none among creatures so holy, 
humble, charitable and merciful as Mary. 

3. A sharer in His titles and qualities. 

(a) Jesus is our King, our Father, our Advocate, our life, 
hope, consolation. Mary is our Queen, Mother, mediatrix, 
our life, our sweetness and our hope. 

1 Adapted from Father Gallifet, p. 25. 


(b) Jesus is the Way to Life. Mary is the gate by which 
we are to enter heaven. Januacoeli. She is the mystical 
ladder whereby we are to ascend to that blessed abode. 

(c) Jesus is our Light and Guide. " Ego sum via, veritas 
et vita." St. John xiv. 6. Mary is the star (maris stella) 
that guides us safely to the harbour of salvation. 

(d) Jesus is the Author of Grace. Mary is the dispenser 
of grace. St. Bernard says God wills that we should 
receive all His good gifts through Mary. 

(e) Jesus is the Sun of Justice. Mary is the mirror of 
justice reflecting the full radiance of His virtues. 

4. A sharer in His privileges. 

(a) Jesus is sinless by nature. " Holy, innocent, un 
spotted." Hebr. vii. 26. Mary, through His merits, was 
preserved from all stain of sin, original and actual, as 
beseemed the Mother of such a Son. 

(b) Jesus was preserved from the corruption of the 
grave : " Thou wilt not allow Thy Holy One to see corrup 
tion." Psal. xv. 10 ; Acts ii. 27 ; xiii. 35. Mary was 
also raised from the tomb after three days, according to 
the Tradition of the Church. 

(c) Jesus ascended into heaven with His sacred body 
and soul. So Mary was assumed gloriously into heaven 
(see 83). 

(d) Jesus is seated at the right hand of the Father. 
Mary occupies a throne the nearest to her Divine Son s 
that can be given to a creature. 

5. A sharer in His power, riches and glory. 

Jesus is the Lord of the earth. " The earth is the 
Lord s and the fulness thereof." Psal. xxiii. i. He is 
the Author of grace, the King of kings and Lord of lords. 
Apoc. xix. 1 6 ; Dent. x. 17. Mary is the Queen of angels 
and men, the dispenser of the rich treasures of heaven. 

6. A sharer in the honour paid to Him. 

No cathedral, no church is consecrated to Him without 
an altar or chapel dedicated to her. Her name, associated 
with His, is constantly on the lips of the faithful. Her 


praises are chanted with His in the Divine Office. Her 
festivals, Nativity, Presentation, Assumption, Dolours, 
correspond in some way to His. In paintings and statues 
she is generally represented with the Child Jesus in her 
arms, showing how inseparable they are in the devotion of 
the faithful. 

7. A sharer in His dignity. 

Jesus is exalted above all angels and men. Hebr. i. 3, 4. 
Mary, as His Mother, holds a rank superior to that of all 
other creatures (see St. Epiphanius, St. Ephrem, in i), 
a rank by which she is intimately connected with the 
Hypostatic Union. 


i. T T E chose her to be His chaste Spouse, Cant. i. 
JTi 9 sq. ; ii. i sq., united to Him in purest, holiest 
love, her heart being inflamed with greater, more intense 
love than burns in any of the highest angels. 

He WTought in her by a stupendous miracle the mystery 
of the Incarnation. " The Holy Ghost shall come down 
upon thee, and the power of the Most High shall over 
shadow thee." Luke i. 35. The Incarnation, being a 
mystery of infinite love, is " appropriated " to the Holy 
Ghost, the Spirit of love. 

He preserved her a pure and spotless Virgin, and at the 
same time made her the most blessed of mothers. " Be 
hold a Virgin shall conceive and bring forth a Son." Isai. 
vii. 14. 

He enriched her with fulness of grace, lavishing upon her 
the riches of His treasure house. " Hail, full of grace ! " 
She alone, says St. Ephrem, because of her dignity as 
Mother of God, received more grace than all angels and 

He raised her to a dignity, which " in its operation comes 


closer than anything else to the confines of the Divinity." 
St. Thomas, 2, 2, q. 103, art. 4, ad 2. 

He loved her alone, says Suarez, more than all the 
Saints. " He prizes this one pearl," says Father Segneri, 
more than a countless multitude of inferior j ewels . Devout 
Client of Mary, p. 54. 

He enabled her to heap up greater treasures of grace 
and merit than all .the Saints. " Many daughters have 
gathered together riches : thou hast surpassed them all." 
Prov. xxxi. 29. 

In the very first instant of her Conception, i.e. at the 
moment of the creation of her soul and its union with the 
body, He gave her more grace than to any Saint on earth 
or Seraph in heaven. Suarez, 3 p. torn. 2, D. 4, i. 

He enriched her with surpassing beauty and glory. See 
Faber, Blessed Sacrament, 275. 

2. Privileges bestowed upon her by the Holy Ghost. 

(a) Sanctifying Grace, i.e. Sanctity, the greatest ever given 
to any creature, and that from the first moment of her 
Immaculate Conception : 

(b) suppression of concupiscence, Fomes peccati, that 
distressing heritage of evil passions and propensities we all 
derive from Adam : 

(c) confirmation in grace, so as never to forfeit or lessen 
it by sin or imperfection of any kind : 

(d) continual progress in grace by heroic acts of virtue, 
whereby grace was intensified within her to a degree alto 
gether inconceivable : 

(e) the use of reason from the first moment of her being : 
(/) the lovely grace of virginity conjoined with the joys 

of motherhood : 

(g) the miraculous conception and birth of the Divine 
Child without the least detriment to her virginity : 

(h) the preparing her to be a beautiful temple of the 
Word made flesh. " Wisdom hath built for herself a house, 
etc." Prov. ix. i. 



A CCORDING to Suarez (torn. 2, in 3 p. disp. 22) the 
jL\ Angels began to honour our Lady from the first 
moment of their creation, for it is thought that the mystery 
of the Incarnation was then revealed to them, so they must 
have begun at once to honour her who was to be the Incar 
nate Word s Virgin Mother. 

At her birth we may well believe that the Angels hovered 
in reverential homage over the cradle of her who was to 
be their Queen, and who far surpassed them in sanctity, 
rank, and beauty of grace. 

At the Annunciation the heavenly messenger Gabriel, 
as he entered her chamber, must have bent his shining brow 
before her, the most glorious creature of God, the master 
piece of the Creator, after the Sacred Humanity of Jesus. 

At our Saviour s Nativity, the Angels, according to 
Suarez (torn. 2, in 3 p. disp. 22), adored the Divine Child, 
and then paid homage to His spotless Mother. 

At her tomb, St. John Damascene tells us, the songs of 
Angels were heard for three consecutive days. Serm. i, 
de dormit. Virginis. 

At her Assumption the Angels escorted her with heavenly 
psalmody on her entrance into heaven, says the Saint, 
and exclaimed, " Who is this that cometh up from the 
desert, flowing with delights, leaning on her Beloved ? " 
Cant. viii. 5. 

St. Francis of Assisi is said to have heard the Angels 
singing the praises of our Lady in the little chapel of St. 
Mary of the Angels, known as the Portiuncula. 

A venerable tradition in Rome has it that, during the 
great pestilence of A.D. 590, as the procession of penance to 
avert the scourge filed past Ara Coeli, St. Gregory the 
Great heard Angel-voices singing high above the church 
the anthem " Regina Coeli." 


On the night of the feast of our Lady s Nativity Sept. 
8 St. Felix de Valois is said to have sung her office with 
the Angels, she being present in the choir. Brev. Rom. 
Nov. 20. 

The Angels thus honour our Lady because she is far 
greater than they, she being the Mother of God, Mother 
of the King of kings, whereas they are only His servants. 
St. Bernard says : " The greatness of an Angel is to be 
the servant of God ; but Mary has received a far greater 
dignity, for she is His Mother, and so is raised far above the 

St. Ephrem (d. 373) speaks of our Lady as " more 
pleasing to God, more resplendent than the Cherubim, more 
glorious than the Seraphim." Livius, 213. 

St. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (d. 638), 
addressing our Lady says : " Who shall worthily set forth 
thy glory ? Thou art the exaltation of humanity : thou 
art made much higher than the Angels ; thy brightness 
throws the splendour of the Archangels into shadow : thou 
lookest down on the lofty seats of the Thrones ; thoumakest 
the exalted heights of the Dominations to seem low ; thy 
rank taketh precedence before that of the Principalities : 
compared with thee the Powers are weakness ; thine eyes 
see further than the contemplation of the Cherubim can 
reach ; the Seraphim have six wings, but thy flight is 
nobler than theirs ; in a word, thou hast far excelled every 
other work of God ; thou wast far purer than any other 
creature ; and thou hast been chosen out of all to be made 
His Mother." De Annunt. Deiparae. 

St. John Chrysostom (d. 407), speaking of our Lady 
as far superior to the Angels, says : " The Blessed Virgin 
was truly a wondrous work of God. For what creature 
could ever compare in greatness and glory with her ? She 
alone by her dignity transcends heaven and earth. What 
creature was ever as holy as she was ? Not the Prophets, nor 
the Apostles, nor the Martyrs, nor Patriarchs ; not the Angels, 
nor the Thrones, nor Dominations ; not the Cherubim 


nor Seraphim ; none among created beings visible or 
invisible can compare with her in excellence. She is at 
once the handmaid and the Mother of God, a Virgin and 
yet a Mother. She is the Mother of Him who was born of 
the Father from all eternity ; whom Angels and men confess 
to be Lord of all things. Would you know how far this 
Virgin surpasses in dignity the Powers (i.e. Angels) of 
Heaven ? They with fear and trembling stand before God 
covering their face with their wings : she offers up (as inter 
cessor) the human race to Him to whom she gave birth. 
Through her we may obtain pardon of our sins. Hail, then, 
O Mother, heavenly being, Virgin-throne of God, the glory 
and bulwark of the Church : pray for us constantly to 
Jesus thy Son our Lord, that through thee we may find 
mercy in the day of judgment, and attain to the good things 
laid up for those who love God." Brev. Rom. Offic. 
B.M.V., lect. 5, 6. 

Venerable Mary d Agreda in her treatise Cite Mystique, 
Pt. i,bk. i, c. 14 says that Mary, conceived in the most 
perfect innocence, immediately received the Angels that 
God had destined for her as a guard of honour. St. Bridget 
of Sweden in her Revelations, Bk. i, c. 9 tells us that her 
holy soul as soon as it was created and united to the body, 
was confided to the care of Angels day and night. 

NOTE. Theologians do not fear to affirm with St. 
Alphonsus (Glories of Mary and Sermon on the Nativity), 
Contenson, de Rhodes, Cambalot and others, that the 
grace Mary received in the moment of her conception sur 
passed all that had ever been given to all the Angels and 
men together. Petit alot, 45. For, they say, God at that 
instant loved Mary more than all the elect together ; and, 
as a mark of that love, He prepared for her a glory without 
parallel ; He destined her for a dignity which left far 
behind all other dignities put together. 



ST. SOPHRCNIUS in his sermon on the Annunciation 
(d. 638) says that our blessed Lady was " foretold 
by the Prophets, foreshadowed in types and figures to the 
Patriarchs, described by the Evangelists, saluted most 
courteously by the Angels." 

1. She was foretold to Adam and Eve after their fall, as 
the privileged Woman who was destined to crush the ser 
pent s head, and who with her Divine Child was to be the 
enemy of the serpent, and to be completely victorious over 
him. Such a prediction must have filled them with great 
reverence for her, who was thus wonderfully to be associated 
with the Messiah in the work of Redemption. St. Bridget 
of Sweden is said to have learnt by revelation that Adam 
felt inexpressible joy at the announcement of a Virgin 
Mother of the future Redeemer. 

This revelation, with the joy it imparted, was passed 
on from father to son, through the long ages of expectation 
till it reached the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 
and the leader of God s people Moses, and finally received 
its confirmation in the prophetic words of Isaias and others. 

2. She was foretold by the Prophet Isaias, vii. 14 (Matt. 
i. 23), in the words : " Behold, a Virgin shall conceive and 
bear a Son, and His name shall be called Emmanuel," 
i.e. " God with us." Here Emmanuel is Christ, and 
the Virgin His Mother. On this prophecy see Catholic 
Encyclopedia, vol. xv. p. 464. C. The patristic testi 
mony on Mary as the Virgin of Prophecy, see Livius, 
ch. i, p. 36 sq. 

The same prophet, c. xi. i to 9, speaks of a rod that 
shall come forth out of the root of Jesse, and a flower that 
shall rise out of his root ; " And the Spirit of the Lord 
shall rest upon Him." According to St. Jerome and many 
other Fathers of the Church, the virgin-flower that bios- 


somed on the virgin-stem was Jesus the Son of Mary. St. 
Anselm says this rod or stem represents our Lady, and this 
flower her Divine Son, on whom rested the fulness of the 
Godhead. De Conceptu. Virg. 

3. She was foretold by Jeremias, xxxi. 22. "The Lord 
hath created a new thing upon the earth, a woman shall 
encompass a man." This passage refers to the virginal 
conception of the Man-God. As the Word Incarnate 
possessed from the first moment of His conception all 
perfections, His Mother is rightly said to " encompass a 
man " : and such a condition of a newly conceived child is 
rightly called " a new thing upon the earth." " O woman, 
blessed above women," exclaims St. Methodius, " who both 
knew not man, and compassed a man in thy womb. Mary 
compassed a man by giving faith to the Angel, whereas 
Eve lost a man by consenting to the serpent." Serm. 119. 
In Nat. Dom. iii. 3. Livius, 113. 

4. She was also foretold (a) by the Royal Psalmist, 
xliv. 10, " The Queen stood on Thy right hand in a vesture 
of gold surrounded with variety," i.e. wrought about with 
varicoloured embroidery : (b) by Solomon in the Canticle 
of Canticles, iv. 7, " Thou art all fair, my Beloved, and there 
is no stain in thee " : (c) by Solomon in the book of 
Proverbs, viii. 22 sq., " The Lord possessed me in the begin 
ning of His ways, before He made anything from the 
beginning, etc." This passage is applied by the Church 
to our Lady : (d) by Ecclesiasticus, xxiv. 12, "He that 
made me rested in rty tabernacle." From these and other 
passages of the inspired books, as from a casket of jewels, 
the Church has enriched our Lady s office. 

St. Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 806), 
referring to the Patriarchs, thus addresses our Lady : " O 
Mary, where shall I find words to praise thee ? Hail, 
maiden Mother, blessed art thou among women ; thy glory 
is in thy guilelessness, and thy name is a name of purity. 
In thee is the curse of Adam done away and the debt of 
Eve paid. Thou art the Ark of Noah and the bond of 


reconciliation with God in a new generation. Thou art 
the exceeding glory of the kingdom and priesthood of 
Melchisedech ; thou art the unshaken trust of Abraham, 
the burnt offering of Isaac. Thou art the ladder that Jacob 
saw going up to heaven, and the most noble of all his chil 
dren. O purest ! thou art the book of Moses, the law-giver, 
whereon the New Covenant is written with the finger of 
God. Thou art Aaron s rod that budded. Thou art as 
David s daughter, all glorious within, wrought about with 
divers colours. Hail, just hope of the Patriarchs ! Hail, 
special honour of all the Saints ! Hail, source of health to 
all dying creatures ! Hail, O Queen, ambassadress of 
peace ! Hail, advocate of all under heaven ! Hail, thou 
that art full of grace, the Lord is with thee, even the Lord 
that was before thee and from thee, and that is with us. 
To Him with the Father, and the most holy and life-giving 
Spirit, be ascribed all praise now and ever, world without 
end. Amen." Petitalot, 22, 23. 
On Prophecies of Mary, see Ibid. 16 seq. 


SPEAKING in praise of Mary the Fathers of the Church 
have borrowed from the inspired books comparisons 
an d titles from objects and persons, tafcen as typical of her 
ln comparable virtue and greatness. 

i. Objective types. Thus, Mary is by them compared 

to the virgin-soil of the terrestrial paradise, which, at 
the command of God, produced without seed all kinds 
of vegetation, and in its midst the tree of life ; 

to the earthly paradise, the abode of innocence, the 
place of delights, protected by Angels, inaccessible to 
venomous serpents. Livius, 65 ; 

to the Ark of Noah, riding safely above the deluge, 


protected from the corrupt waters of sin, destined to save 
the human race. Livius, 74 ; 

to the mysterious ladder of Jacob, uniting earth and 
heaven, down which Angels come to succour us, and again 
lead us upward to heaven ; 

to the burning bush seen by Moses, that was unconsumed 
by the flames. So Mary was untouched by the flames of 
passion and sin. Livius, 76 ; 

to the impregnable tower of David, from which a thousand 
shields are hanging to arm the strong (Cant. iv. 4) : so 
devotion to Mary is a tower of strength against the 
enemy ; 

to the ark of the covenant, made of incorruptible setim- 
wood, covered with plates of gold, and containing the 
tables of the law : so Mary is the living ark bearing in her 
chaste womb the Law-giver Himself. Livius, 74 ; 

to a garden perpetually closed, where the spirit of evil 
never set foot even for a moment ; 

to the white fleece of Gideon, wet with the dew (of grace) 
while the surrounding ground was parched and dry : and 
again preserved dry when all around was saturated with 
sin. Judges vi. 37, 39 ; 

to the dove of the ark, the harbinger of peace and recon 
ciliation ; 

to the rod of Aaron budding and blossoming miracu 
lously. Numb. xvii. 5 ; Isaias vii. 14 ; 

to the throne of Solomon (2 Paralip. ix. 17), Mary holding 
enthroned in her arms the Incarnate Wisdom of God ; 

to the cloud of Elias vision (3 Kings xviii. 44) bringing 
fertilizing showers (grace) to the barren earth ; 

to the gate of the temple ; Mary being the gate of heaven. 
Ezech. xliv. 2 ; Psal. cxvii. 20 ; 

to the rose of Jericho, because of her sweet charity. 
Ecclus. xxiv. 18; 

to the lily amid thorns, because of her sinlessness. Cant, 
ii. 2. 

Still using the language of the Prophets, the early Fathers 


ancTwriters of the Church also speak of our Lady as the 
holy Jerusalem, the sublime throne of God, the dwelling- 
place of Divine Wisdom, the Queen abounding in riches, 
most beautiful and lovely in her purity, a spotless earth, 
a fountain ever clear sealed up by the Holy Ghost, an 
incorruptible wood never attacked by the worm of sin, a 
flower blooming on a withered stem, a daughter of life and 
blessing, spotlessly conceived and born among us children 
of wrath and death, etc. 

2. Persons as types or figures of Mary here briefly 
indicated. The Fathers also see her prefigured 

(a) in Eve, the mother of all the living in the order of 
nature ; Mary being our Mother in the higher order of 
grace. But Eve was the author of our ruin, Mary through 
her Divine Son of our restoration ; Eve was deceived by 
the Angel of darkness, Mary was reassured by the Angel of 

On the patristic idea of Mary as the Second Eve, see 
Livius, 36 seq. 

(b) in Sara, the mother of a son in whom all Israel was 
to be blessed, she being a person of surpassing beauty, 
made fruitful miraculously according to the Angel s pro 
mise. Gen. xviii. 10 ; 

(c) in Rebecca, the mother of Jacob, clothing him in the 
garments of Esau, and obtaining for him his father s bless 
ing ; 

(d) in Debbora and Jahel, those valiant women who 
saved Israel from Sisera. Judges iv. 4, 21 ; 

(e) in Judith triumphing over Holofernes, the enemy of 
God s people ; 

(/) in Esther delivering her people from oppression and 



i. OHE was honoured and revered 

O (a) by her venerable parents SS. Joachim 
and Anna, knowing she was an extraordinary gift from 
heaven, and a pledge of innumerable blessings : 

(b) by St. Joseph who was tenderly devoted to her, and 
was the witness of her holy life : 

(c) by the Angel Gabriel who came with a salutation 
from heaven, and addressed her as " full of grace," and as 
chosen to be the Mother of God : 

(d) by her cousin St. Elizabeth addressing her as "Mother 
of the Lord " : 

(e) by St. John the Baptist, who at the sound of her 
salutation leaped for joy in his mother s womb : 

(/) by the woman in the crowd who, speaking of our Lord, 
exclaimed : " Blessed is the womb that bore thee." Luke 
xi. 27. 

2. By the Apostles. 

Jesus, hanging on the cross, bequeathed with His dying 
lips His holy Mother to St. John, this beloved disciple 
representing all the members of the true Church. " After 
that He saith to the disciple, Behold thy Mother. And 
from that hour the disciple took her to his own." John 
xix. 27. The loving affection of St. John for our Lady, 
his Mother, is dwelt upon with great feeling by many of the 
Saints. St. Thomas Villanova writes : "By the above 
words Woman, behold thy son. Son, behold thy 
Mother/ Our Lord implanted in Mary s virginal heart a 
maternal love for John, a stronger and more fervent love 
than that which nature inspires a mother to feel. And 
reciprocally He infused into the Apostle a filial regard for 
the Virgin Mary, such as no son (Jesus excepted) ever felt 
for his mother. It was not a bond of nature but of grace, 
a bond nobler and more intimate than the union that results 
from human adoption." Concio i a de S. Joan. Apost. 


The other Apostles also cherished a most tender affec 
tion for Jesus immaculate Mother. With her they spent 
their novena of preparation for the coming of the Holy 
Ghost. She was their counsellor, guide, instructor, consoler 
in the arduous work of spreading the Gospel and planting 
the Church. They were all, except St. Thomas, present 
at her happy death in Jerusalem, 1 and they bore her spot 
less body with the tenderest reverence to the tomb. That 
tomb may be regarded as the first sanctuary of our Lady 
after her death. 

St. James the Greater, Apostle of Spain, is said to 
have erected the renowned sanctuary of our Lady of the 
Pillar at Saragossa. Spinelli, 687. Segneri, 89. 

St. James the Less in his Liturgy, quoted by the 
early Fathers, shows his regard for our Lady by a com 
memoration of her at Mass both before and after the con 
secration. Harper, Peace through the Truth, ist series, 
p. 401. 

St. Luke the Evangelist is thought to have learnt from 
her the mysteries concerning our Lord s infancy, which he 
relates in his Gospel. 

3. By other Early Saints. 

St. Barnabas is believed to have dedicated to her the 
church he built in Milan. Spinelli, 687. 

St. Denis the Areopagite attests that he himself was 
present, when several of the Apostles, among them being 
St. Peter, came from different parts of the world to visit 
her, with no other object than to contemplate her, the 
greatest work (after our Lord s sacred Humanity) of the 
Divine Creator. Segneri, 88, at foot of page. On St. Denis 
and our Lady, see Orsini, 269, note. 

Fr. Segneri in his Devout Client, p. 89, tells us that 
St. Martha, sister of Lazarus, erected a chapel to her in 
Marseilles 2 : also that Zacheus, the converted publican, 

3 See 83. 

2 These early traditions are uncertain and to be admitted with 

M.P. C 


maybe considered the founder of the sanctuary of Roc- 
amadour. 1 

St. Denis, Bishop of Paris, Martyr (d. 275), according to 
tradition, brought a picture of her to that city, and placed 
it in the purified temple of Ceres, known afterwards as 
" Notre Dame des Champs." 

St. Protentianus, Bishop of Sens and Martyr (IV Cent.), 
is said to have blessed at Chartres the statue which the 
Druids had previously erected to the Virgin who was to 
bear a Son (Virgin! pariturae), and to have placed it in the 
chapel of Notre Dame delaGrotte built by him. Catho 
lic Encyclopedia, vol. iii. p. 635. 

St. Pothinus, first Bishop of Lyons, Martyr is, thought 
to have erected a shrine to her in Lyons in the II century. 
Crasset, Tract V. Q. 5, p. 352. Catholic Encyclopedia, 
vol. ix. p. 472. 

St. Cyril of Alexandria, speaking of our Lady at the 
Council of Ephesus (A.D. 431), refers to the help in their 
work the Apostles received from her. " Hail, thou by 
whom the only Son of God giveth light to them that sit in 
darkness and in the shadow of death ; by whom the pro 
phets have spoken ; by whom the Apostles have preached 
salvation to the world ; by whom the dead are raised to 
life ; by whom Kings reign. Who can give utterance to 
the praises of which Mary is worthy ! " 



IN the Catacombs has been found a series of fresco-paint 
ings of the three first centuries, in which our Lady is 
constantly represented holding her Divine Son in her arms. 
One of these, discovered by Count De Rossi in the Cemetery 
of St. Priscilla, goes back, so experts in archaeology tell 
^ee 64. 


us, almost to the time of the Apostles. Many learned 
persons, skilled in the knowledge of Greco-Roman monu 
ments, have studied this fresco, and consider it to be of 
not later date than the days of the early Antonines. Dar- 
ras, vol. vi. p. 10, speaking of it says : " Suddenly throwing 
the flame of his torch upon the side wall of a recess, De 
Rossi showed me a beautiful picture of the Virgin Mary 
holding the Child Jesus in her arms. The Virgin was 
seated on a chair, the outlines of which were almost defaced 
by time. Round her face was a veil which fell gracefully 
over the shoulders, after the manner of Jewish women. 
She wore a robe with short sleeves, and above it a mantle. 
The Infant-God, seated in the arms of His Mother, and 
leaning on her breast, turns His head towards the beholders, 
and seems by His gesture to invite them to take refuge in 
Mary s arms. A star of five flaming rays appears above the 
Virgin, and bathes her forehead with a celestial light. On 
the left a young man stands upright, clad in a pallium ; he 
raises his right hand and points to the Virgin and the star. 
His left hand holds a roll of parchment, of which a feeble 
trace can only be distinguished. This figure is (thought 
to be) Isaias, pronouncing, as he points to the star which 
was to rise upon Jacob, the famous prophecy : Behold a 
Virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and His name shall be 
called Emmanuel/ The writer adds that in presence of 
that picture he felt so impressed that he fell upon his knees, 
and the tears started to his eyes. Others describe the picture 
as wonderfully artistic, the Infant being almost Raphael- 
esque in conception and design. 

A copy of this fresco * was greatly admired by Pope Leo 
XIII, who blessed it and expressed his pleasure on hearing 
that it was to be placed in the little church of St. George, 
belonging to the Poor Servants of the Mother of God, Via 
S. Sebastiano, Piazza di Spagna. It has since become an 
object of great veneration, and a special feast of the Queen 

1 Prepared through the generosity of Mr. A. G. Fullerton. 


of Prophets l has been instituted by the Sacred Congrega 
tion of Rites, with a proper Mass and Office, the solemnity 
attracting each year crowds of pious persons to come 
and kneel before (this copy of ) one of the earliest and most 
touching representations of the Madonna. 

Elsewhere in the Catacombs are to be seen frescoes of 
the Annunciation, of our Lady with the Divine Infant in 
her arms in the act of welcoming the Magi. Further 
discoveries in the Catacombs may reveal other representa 
tions of the Blessed Virgin and Child, but those we have are 
sufficient proof that love and veneration for our Lady was 
cherished by the early Christians, and that the Mother and 
her Divine Child were considered by them as inseparable. 

Strange to relate, during the very period when the Chris 
tians were driven to hide themselves and their worship in 
the Catacombs, they had an oratory in a public place in 
Rome erected by Pope St. Callixtus I, and dedicated to our 
Lady about the year 223, not long before his martyrdom. 
The historian Lampridius tells us, that at the time men 
tioned, the Christians were in possession of a place of 
assembly in Trastevere, their right to which was, however, 
disputed by the corporation of popinarii, or tavern-keepers. 
The question was brought before the Emperor Alexander 
Severus, who decided in favour of the Christians, saying 
that it was better that God should be worshipped there, in 
whatever fashion it might be, than that the place should 
be given over to drinking bouts and revelry. See Pilgrim 
Walks in Rome, p. 320. Such was the origin of Santa 
Maria in Trastevere, the oldest of our Lady s many 
sanctuaries in Rome. 

1 This title was suggested for the picture by Cardinal Parocchi. 
See Our Lady, Queen of Prophets, p. 54. 




ORIGEN (d. 253). " In the company of the many 
my Jesus cannot be found. Learn where those 
who seek may find Him, and that thou too, seeking with 
Joseph and Mary, mayest find Him." Homil. xviii. in 
Luc. " Blessed art thou amongst women. For of so great 
a grace no other woman was ever partaker, nor can be ; 
since one only is the Divine Conception ; one alone the 
Divine Birth ; one alone is she who gave birth to Him who 
is God and man." Livius, 144. 

St. Gregory Thaumaturgus (d. 270). " All the 
celestial powers salute thee, (O Mary,) and, what is more, 
He who is Lord of all the celestial powers has chosen thee, 
the holy and all-adorned one from among all creatures (to 
be His Mother). Thou hast been made the holy one, and 
more glorious, more pure, and more saintly than all the 
rest of human kind ; having a mind whiter than snow, and 
thy soul more purified than the finest gold." Livius, 123 
seq., where also see the Saint s wonderful panegyric of our 

Vision of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. St. Gregory 
of Nyssa relates in his life of this Saint that he was disturbed 
in considering some ideas of Origen, his master, upon the 
adorable Mystery of the Blessed Trinity, which did not 
agree with the common teaching of Catholics. One night 
he saw before him a venerable old man of a sacred and 
almost divine beauty, who said he had come to remove his 
doubts ; and immediately he pointed to a Lady of ravishing 
beauty surrounded with light. These the Saint soon 
recognized as the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evan 
gelist. Our Lady invited St. John to unveil and explain 
the mystery, and, on the explanation being given, the vision 
disappeared. Petitalot, 381 ; Livius, 316. 


St. Basil the Great (d. 379) speaking of the Purification 
says : " This Virgin was not subject to the law of purifica 
tion in Deuteronomy : since without human generation 
she became JErnmanuel s Mother pure and holy and unde- 
filed ; and," after having become Mother, remained still a 
Virgin." Livius, 105. 

St. Athanasius (d. 373). Addressing our Lady he cries 
out : "It becomes thee, as being Mother of God, Queen, 
Lady and Mistress, for the sake of the King, Lord, God and 
Master, l^orn of thee, to be mindful of us, as thou standest 
near Him who . . . grants thee all graces : whence thou 
art called full of grace/ as though full of all joy on account 
of the coming of the Holy Ghost upon thee. ... Be mind 
ful of us, most holy Virgin, and bestow on us gifts from the 
riches of thy graces, O thou, full of grace." Orat. in Deip. 

St. Ephrem Syrus (d. 373). He is one of the glories 
of the Eastern Church, and one of the inspirers of its 
liturgy. He thus addresses our Lady : " O holy Mother 
of God ! protect us under the wings of thy piety and 
.mercy : all our hope is in thee : from our mother s breast 
we have been dedicated to thee : thou art the port of our 
refuge, O Virgin undefiled, we are wholly under thy tutelage 
and protection." Serm. de laudibus B.V.M. " Have 
compassion on our infirmities, Immaculate Virgin. Who 
can go to Him who was born of thee, with such assurance as 
thou ? Thou canst do all things in thy quality of Mother 
of God (i.e. by thy intercession). Nothing that thou 
wiliest is impossible. Despise not my sighs nor deceive my 
expectation. By thy maternal prayers do violence to the 
mercy of thy Son, and deign to restore thy unhappy servant 
to his old and pristine glory. Yea, Virgin above all praise, 
all that thou wilt thou canst do with God whom thou didst 
bring forth." Ibid. The Saint s wonderful praise of our 
Lady, see Livius, 383 to 395. 

St. Epiphanius of Salamis 1 (d. 403) speaks of " the 
1 In Cyprus. 


fragrant perfume that breathes over the world through 
the virtue of_the holy children of virginity, which had its 
beginning from holy Mary." Haeres, 25, p. 750 ; Livius, 
302. His words denouncing false devotion to our Lady, 
viz. adoring her as though she were a goddess : See in 
Livius, 302. Defending our Lady s honour against here 
tics he writes : " With what shameless boldness do they 
attack that stainless Virgin, who merited to be the dwell 
ing-place of God ; who out of the infinite number of 
Israelites was elected for this one end, that she might be 
consecrated as the vessel and habitation for the Divine 
Childbirth alone." Elsewhere he exclaims : " Hail, full 
of grace : for, God alone excepted, she is superior to all. 
By nature she is far more beautiful than the very Cherubim, 
and the entire Angelic host . To show her forth no heavenly 
nor earthly tongue suffices, nay not even that of the 
Angels." Livius, 215. The following beautiful prayer 
occurs in his writings : " Succour me, O Mother of God ! 
O Mother of mercy ! during my life avert from me the 
attacks of my enemies, and at the hour of death preserve 
my miserable soul, and repel the dark aspect of the devils. 
In the tremendous day of Judgment preserve me from 
eternal damnation : finally place me among the Saints, 
and render me heir to the inaccessible glory of thy Son." 
St. John Chrysostom (d. 407). (See above under 4.) 
St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386) shows that Mary is 
both the rod of Aaron and of Jesse. (See above, 6.) 
His words are : " Blossoming rod of Aaron : (Num. xvii. 
5) . Truly thou (0 Mary) wert the rod, and thy Son the 
flower ; since from the root of David and Solomon budded 
forth Christ, our Creator, Almighty God and Lord, the 
alone Most High. Of Him who is God and man art thou 
the Mother, Virgin before (His) birth, Virgin in birth, 
and Virgin after birth." Livius, 108. 

St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444). Preaching on our 
Lady s excellence he exclaims : " What man is there who 
may enumerate the multitudinous graces of Mary ? O 


Miracle ! The wonder strikes me dumb with amazement." 
His words at the Council of Ephesus. (See n.) 

St. Basil of Seleucia (d. 448) says : " What gifts 
sufficiently worthy of her can we offer of whom all earthly* 
things are unworthy ? " His touching words on Mary 
contemplating the Holy Child : See Livius, 395, 6. 

St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 446), says : 
" Mary is the glory of virgins, the joy of mothers, the 
support of the faithful, the diadem of the Church, the 
express model of the true faith, the seat of piety, the robe 
of virtue, the dwelling-place of the Holy Trinity." Orat. 6. 

St. James of Batnae (d. 521). "If any stain or defect 
had been in her soul, the Lord would have sought out 
another Mother for Himself, who should be free from all 

St. Sophronius of Constantinople (d. 638). (See 


St. Tarasius of Constantinople (d. 806). (See 5.) 
St. John Damascene (d. 754), the last of the Greek 

Fathers. (See 83.) 



ST. IRENAEUS, Bishop of Lyons (d. 202), speaks of 
Mary as the Second Eve, as unfallen Eve, bearing a 
part in man s Redemption similar to that which the first 
Eve, by her transgression, had in his Fall. Livius, 37 
seq., 43. 

St. Ambrose of Milan (d. 397). " Evil came by the 
woman (Eve), so good has come by a woman : for by Eve 
we fell, by Mary we stand ; by Eve we were prostrated, 
by Mary we are raised ; by Eve we were reduced to slavery, 
by Mary we are made free (through her Divine Son). Eve 
took from us length of days, Mary restored to us immor- 


tality ; Eve caused us to be condemned by an apple of 
the tree, Mary wrought our pardon by the gift of the 
tree ; because Christ also hung upon the tree as fruit. 
As therefore we died through a tree, so by a tree are we 
brought to life. All (the evil) that was done by Adam 
is washed out by Mary " (i.e. through the Blood of her 
Divine Son). Livius, 52, 53. 

St. Jerome (d. 420). " After Mary had brought forth 
to us the strong infant God, the curse was removed. Death 
came by Eve, life by Mary." Ad Eustochium de custod. 
Virginit. " The most holy Virgin is a garden enclosed 
whereinto sin and Satan have never entered to sully the 
blossoms ; a fountain sealed, sealed with the seal of the 
Trinity." Serm. de Assumpt. " Come from Lebanon, 
My spouse, come. Not unjustly is she bidden to come 
from Lebanon, for Lebanon is so named on account of 
its stainless and glistening whiteness. The earthly Leba 
non is white with snow, but the lovely heights of Mary s 
holiness are white with purity and grace, brilliantly fair, 
whiter far than snow, sparkling with the gifts of the Holy 
Ghost. She is undented like a dove, all clean, all upright, 
full of grace and truth. She is full of mercy and of righte 
ousness that hath looked down from heaven, and, there 
fore, is she without stain, because in her hath never been 
any corruption." Ibid. 

St. Augustine of Hippo (d. 430). The life of Mary 
was such as to be a rule of conduct for all Christians. Her 
example shows us what we ought to correct, what we 
ought to avoid, what we ought to do." Again : " For 
the honour and respect due to the Lord, I always except 
Mary when there is question of sin." De natura et gratia. 
He here asserts that she was untouched by original sin. 
Elsewhere he says : " Mary is the Mother of the members 
of Christ, which we are ; because by her charity she 
co-operated in giving faithful children to the Church." 
De sancta Virginit. 

St. Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (d. 450). " In 


lodging God in her breast, Mary gave glory to heaven, 
peace to earth, salvation to the lost, life to the dead ; 
she united heavenly things with earthly ones, and caused 
an intercourses to exist between God Himself and the 
creature." Serm. 64. 

St. Gregory of Tours (d. 594). His words on the 
death and Assumption of our Lady. (See in 83.) 
Livius, 360. His story of the little Jewish boy pre 
served miraculously by our Lady from being burnt to 
death. See Livius, 322. 

St. Peter Damian (d. 1071). "All creatures/ he 
says, " were groaning and sighing (before Mary s birth). 
At length she was born, and appearing in this gloomy 
shadowy world, beautiful in her comeliness she ravished 
God Himself, and drew down upon her the eyes of the 
Divinity." Serm. de Annunt. " Forthwith the name of 
Mary is drawn from the treasure of the Divinity, and by 
it, and in it, and with it, all this (the work of Redemption) 
is decreed ; that as without it nothing was created (Eccl. 
xxiv.), so without it nothing was repaired." Ibid. Again : 
" As the dawn announces the close of night and the open 
ing of day, so Mary has dispelled the eternal night, and 
diffused upon earth the Day (the Light) which was born 
of her virginity." Serm. de Assumpt. Elsewhere he 
says : " Let us rejoice in the Nativity of Mary, which 
proclaims to the world a new joy, and is a blessed harbinger 
of salvation : let us exult, I say, and, as we are accus 
tomed to manifest cur joy at the Nativity of Christ, let 
us rejoice also at the Nativity of His Mother. This day 
is born the Queen of the world, the gate of Heaven, the 
tabernacle of God, the star of the sea, the celestial ladder 
by which the King of heaven descended to earth, and 
man ascended to heaven." Serm. de Nativit. B.V.M. 

St. Ildephonsus, Archbishop of Toledo (d. 669), was 
remarkable for his great devotion to our Lady. When 
some heretics in Spain revived the heresy of Helvidius, 
and denied the perpetual virginity of the Blessed Virgin, 


the Saint wrote a powerful treatise against them, in which 
he displayed the greatest zeal for Mary s honour. By 
this work, and by frequent exhortations to his flock, he 
effectually checked the heresy. The story is told that 
one morning some time after this, as he was entering his 
cathedral for Matins on the feast of the Annunciation, 
our Lady appeared to him seated on a throne, holding in 
her hands his book against the heretics. She thanked 
him for all he had done in defence of her honour, and, 
in token of her gratitude, gave him a chasuble for Mass. 


i. npHE Council of Ephesus (431), the Third General 
JL Council. About the year 428, Nestorius, Patri 
arch of Constantinople, raised his impious voice against 
the Divinity of Christ and the Divine Maternity of Mary. 
Alarmed at this blasphemous impiety, the Fathers of the 
Church assembled in great numbers at Ephesus, and at 
the opening of the Council St. Cyril of Alexandria 
delivered an address which excited the admiration of the 
venerable assembly. It was received with acclamation, 
and deemed worthy of being included among the Acts of 
the Council. Some extracts of this discourse are here 
given : " Hail Mary, thou by whom the Son of God giveth 
light to them that sit in darkness and the shadow of death, 
by whom the prophets have spoken, by whom the Apostles 
have preached salvation to the world, by whom the dead 
(i.e. sinners) are raised to life, by whom Kings reign ! 
Who can give utterance to the praises of which Mary is 
worthy ! Hail to thee, O Mary ! venerable treasure of 
the whole earth, inextinguishable lamp (light of the world), 
crown of virginity, sceptre of true doctrine, indissoluble 
temple of God, dwelling of Him whom no place can con 
tain : Mother and Virgin, by whom He is named Blessed 


in the gospels, Who is come in the name of the Lord. 
Hail ! thou who hast enclosed in thy holy virginal womb 
the Immense, the Incomprehensible One ; thou by whom 
the Holy Trinity is adored and glorified ; by whom the 
precious Cross is celebrated and reverenced throughout 
the world ; by whom the heavens exult, the Angels and 
Archangels rejoice ; by whom the devils are put to flight, 
the tempter is overcome, frail nature is raised to heaven. 
What tongue can worthily praise the most glorious Virgin 
Mary ? " 

In this General Council Mary s glorious title of Deipara 
(Theotokos, i.e. Mother of God) was vindicated and denned 
as of faith. 

2. Council of Nicaea (in Asia Minor), A.D. 325, the 
First General Council. In Act 6 occur these words : " Let 
us therefore have the fear of God before our eyes in all 
we do, soliciting also the intercession of the ever unspotted 
Virgin Mary, our Lady and Mother of God and of all 
the Angels and Saints." 

3. Council of Basle (1439), although schismatical, 
affords valuable evidence as to the belief of the Bishops 
and theologians present in our Lady s sinlessness. One 
of the decrees of the 36th session states that " the glorious 
Virgin Mary, Mother of God, by the operation of a singular 
anticipating grace of God, was never subject to original 
sin, being always free from all sin, original and actual, 
always holy and immaculate." 

4. Council of Avignon (1457), which was convoked 
by Cardinal Pierre de la Foix and Cardinal Alanus de 
Coetivi, both legates of the Holy See, and in which a large 
number of Bishops of the metropolis and of the provinces 
of Aries and Aix took part, declared that the decree of 
the Council of Basel concerning the Immaculate Concep 
tion of Mary was to be held inviolably. 

5. Council of Trent (1545). In one of its decrees on 
Original sin, it confirms what St. Augustine had said, that, 
wherever there is question of sin, Mary is always to be 


except ed. It also approved of the feast of the Immaculate 



LEX supplicandi lex credendi." The prayers sanc 
tioned by the Church in her Offices are to be 
accepted as an indication of her faith. The Liturgies of 
the Church, being the established formularies of her public 
worship, are among the most authentic documents that 
can be adduced in favour of any religious practice. 

1. In the Liturgy of St. James (II or III Cent.), Mary 
is commemorated as " Our most holy, immaculate, and 
most glorious Lady, Mother of God, and ever Virgin Mary." 
Bibl. Max. Patrum. torn. 2, 31. 

2. In the Maronite Ritual (V Cent.) she is invoked as 
" our holy, praiseworthy, and immaculate Lady." DC 
Sacris Ordinat. 313. 

3. In the Alexandrine Liturgy of St. Basil (IV Cent.) 
she is addressed as " most holy, most glorious, immacu 
late." Renaudot. Lit. Orient. 

4. Ethiopia Hymn (V Cent.), translated by Rev. J. 
Rodwell, a learned Orientalist. It dates from A.D. 430, 
i.e. before the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon. The 
hymn is a dogmatic one, intended to teach the true doctrine 
of Christianity. The following is an extract : 

" Rejoice, Mother of God, thou joy of Angels ! 

" Rejoice, pure one, foretold by the prophets. 

" Thou art the Mother of the Light, the honourable 
Mother of the Lord, who didst bear the unseen Word, 
and after bearing Him didst remain a Virgin. 

" Praise and benediction shall be given thee. 

" Where is the tongue that shall be able to utter what 
should be said of thee, O Virgin Mother of the Word of 


the Father ! Thou hast become the throne of the King 
whom the Cherubim adore. We will call thee blessed, O 
blessed one, and will remember thy name to all generations, 
fair Dove, Mother of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

" All the heavenly hosts exclaim, Blessed art thou ! 
Thou art a second heaven upon earth, the Portal of the 
East. The Father looked down out of heaven, and behold 
ing none like thee, sent His only-begotten Son, Who 
became Man of thee. 

" Rejoice, O holy one, Mother of all who live. To thee 
do we look up.- Pray for us." Livius, 461 to 466. 

This hymn was sung by the Christians of Alexandria, 
and from them passed to the Christians of Ethiopia. 

5. Syriac Hymn of St. Ephrern (IV Cent.). " Holily 
did the Virgin Mary give birth to her Son, and give milk 
to the Nourisher of nations, and support on her virginal 
knees Him who upholds all things ; Virgin she is and 
Mother ; and what is she not ? 

" Holy is she in body, beautiful in soul, pure in mind, 
unalloyed in intelligence, most perfect in sense, clean of 
heart, well-approved, and full of every virtue. 

" Let the whole order of virgins rejoice in Mary, because 
she alone of them so disposed herself that she might bring 
forth the Hero that bears up all creation, by whom the 
human race that groaned under slavery has been set free. 

" Let great Adam, struck down by the serpent, take 
joy in Mary. She it was who gave Adam the new graft, 
nurtured wherewith he crushed the abhorred viper, and 
to strength recovered from its deadly bite. 

" Let priests rejoice in the Blessed Virgin who gave 
birth to the great Priest made victim ; since He freed 
them from (earthly) victims, and became Himself the 
Victim that appeased the Father. 

" Let the whole order of prophets rejoice in Mary ; 
because in her their visions have found their term, and 
prophecies their completion. 

" Let the whole order of patriarchs rejoice in Mary. 


For as she obtained their benediction, so also did she 
render them perfect in her Son ; since by Him have seers, 
just men, and priests been purified. 

" Instead of the bitter fruit that Eve plucked from the 
tree, sweet Fruit has Mary given to men. Lo, with Mary s 
Fruit the whole world is delighted." Livius, 410 seq. 


i. QT. ANSELM, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109). 

He was born at Aosta, Piedmont, in 1033 ; entered 
the Benedictine Order in spite of his father s opposition ; 
succeeded Herluin as Abbot of Bee in Normandy (the 
most famous school of the XI Cent.) in 1078 ; was con 
secrated Archbishop of Canterbury in succession to Lan- 
franc in 1093 ; had great troubles with William Rufus 
and Henry I on the subject of ecclesiastical rights, posses 
sions and investitures ; suffered exile for his resistance 
to the royal tyrants, but was finally recalled. He is 
regarded as a second St. Augustine, superior to all his 
contemporaries in intellectual power, scholastic learning, 
and dialectical skill. His eminent virtue raised him to a 
place among the Saints. He was very devout to our Lady, 
and declared such devotion to be a mark of predestination. 
The saying " A servant of Mary will never be lost " is attri 
buted to him. Appealing to our Lady for protection he 
exclaims : " Whither shall I fly, whither go to hide me 
from the face of thy Son, my Judge ? The Church has 
apostles, martyrs, strong defenders whom I would fain 
invoke ; but thou, my Sovereign Lady, art better than 
all of them, for thou art the universal Queen. What 
they all can do in union with thee, thou canst do alone. 
And whence hast thou this power ? It is that thou art 

1 N.B. Only a few oi the better known Saints are selected from 
each century. 


the Mother of our Saviour, the Mistress of heaven and 
earth. To thee I have recourse, with thee I take refuge, 
thee I pray to assist me in all things." Orat. 46 ad B.V.M. 

Speaking of Mary s spotless purity he says : "It behoved 
the God-Man to be conceived of a Mother so pure that 
greater purity, except in God, is unimaginable. It was 
fitting that the incomparable Virgin, to whom God had 
decreed to give His only Son, should be adorned with a 
purity so splendid that none could conceive a greater 
after that of God." De Concept, c. 18. Addressing our 
Lady he exclaims : " Holy Mother, Immaculate Mother ! 
Mother of piety and mercy ! Open to me the bosom of 
your clemency." Orat. 48. " Who can more surely 
appease the anger of the Judge than you, who have merited 
to be the Mother of this same Judge and Redeemer." 
" The only grace I ask of you in the Name of your Son 
is, that you will give me a continual remembrance of your 
name, that it may be as sweet food to my soul." Orat. 
57. " To proclaim this alone of the Blessed Virgin that 
she is the Mother of God, exceeds every height of dignity, 
every title which, after that of God, it is possible to think 

St. Anselm and the Immaculate Conception. (See 
77. On the Assumption, 28, 2 d.) 

2. St. Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux (d. 1153). Efe was 
born at the castle of Fontaines near Dijon in Burgundy, 
1091 ; entered the Cistercian monastery of Citeaux at 
the age of twenty-two, and was made Abbot of Clairvaux 
in Champagne two years later. He was one of our Lady s 
most faithful and devoted clients, and a great apostle of 
devotion to her. He says that all the graces of God to 
us pass through the hands of Mary, she being the dispenser 
of His gifts to men. " Deus nos omnia habere voluit 
per Mariam." He adds that there is no grace which God 
will refuse at her intercession ; that all our pious senti 
ments and inspirations come to us through her mediation ; 
that the courage and strength we receive to practise virtue 


and overcome temptation are bestowed on us through 
her ; in fine that " according to the dispensation of Divine 
Providence, all the gifts which we receive from His mercy 
come to us through the hands of His holy and powerful 
Mother, who is, as it were, the treasurer and dispenser 
of them all." His confidence in Mary s protection is 
shown in the well-known prayer the " Memorare," and in 
the following passage : " Why should poor weak man 
fear to come to Mary ? There is nothing austere, nothing 
terrible about her : she is all sweetness. Ponder the 
whole course of Gospel history, and if you find in Mary 
any such thing as harshness, and even the least sign of 
displeasure, trust her not again and fear to draw near her. 
But if you -find her to be altogether, as indeed she is, full 
of a mother s tenderness and grace, full of gentleness and 
mercy, give thanks unto Him Who, in the vast abundance 
of His goodness, has given you such an advocate in whom 
you cannot fail to trust. In fine, through the boundless 
ness of her charity she hath made herself all things to 
all men. i Cor. ix. 22. She openeth to all the bosom of 
her mercy, that of her fulness (of charity) all may receive ; 
the captive, ransom ; the sick, health ; the sorrowful, 
comfort ; the sinful, pardon ; the righteous, grace ; even 
Angels, gladness. She is not one who inquireth what we 
have deserved ; but is to all most easy to be entreated 
and most merciful ; in the breadth of her love, she hath 
pity upon the needs of all." Serm. 12 de Stellis. See 
Rom. Brev. May 24, lect. 4, 5. 

Speaking of her as the Star of the Sea he says : " She 
is the noble star of Jacob that shines in heaven illuminating 
the world, inspiring souls, consuming vice and enkindling 
virtue. She is the wonderful star that rises above our 
wide horizon by her example and by her merit. Ye, who 
are tossed on the sea of life in the midst of storms and 
tempests, fix your eyes on the shining star that you may 
not be engulfed in the waves. If the furies of temptation 
arise, if you are assailed by tribulation and driven towards 

M.P. D 


the reefs, look up to the star and call upon Mary. If 
anger, avarice or temptation from the flesh assail you, 
look up to Mary. If, overwhelmed by the weight of your 
crimes, confused by your failings, or terrified by the fear 
of God s judgments, you sink into the abyss of sadness 
and despair, think of Mary. In peril, anguish and per 
plexity call upon Mary. Let her name be never far from 
your heart and your lips ; and that your prayers may 
be rendered effectual, imitate her example. When you 
follow Mary there is no straying from the way ; when 
you pray to her there is no cause to despair ; if she holds 
your hand you will not fall, and if she protects you there 
is no need of fear. When she is your guide, you will not 
fail to reach the goal, and you will learn with what truth 
it was said, The name of the Virgin is Mary. Homil. 
2 super Missus est. See Rom. Brev. April 26, Office B.V.M. 
de Bono Consilio, lect. vii. 

The concluding words of the hymn Salve Regina " O 
clement, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary ! " are said to 
have been first uttered by St. Bernard in a moment of 
enthusiastic religious fervour in the cathedral of Spires. 
To commemorate the event the town authorities had 
these titles of our Lady engraved conspicuously on the 
walls of the church, that after generations might recognize 
how constant and tender was their devotion to the Mother 
of God. 


ST. THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury (m. 1170), 
the son of Gilbert a Becket, was born in South- 
wark, 1117. Henry II made him Lord High Chancellor. 
Being consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in 1160, for 
six years he defended the rights and property of the Church 
against the King s tyranny, suffering exile and finally 


martyrdom. From his infancy his mother taught her 
little son to fear God, and inspired him with a tender 
devotion to Mary. " From his cradle," says Dr. Rock 
(Church of our Fathers, hi. 297), " St. Thomas was taught 
to ]ove the Virgin Mary by his own mother, who used, in 
her hallowed playfulness of heart, to put her boy, while 
he was yet a child, into a scale, and bestow his weight in 
food, clothing and money on the poor, that she might 
thereby win for her darling the prayers and protection of 
Blessed Mary." Cardinal Vaughan and the Bishops of 
the Province of Westminster in a letter addressed to the 
Catholics of England in 1894, speaks as follows of St. 
Thomas devotion to our Lady : "It was commonly 
believed, and it seems to be uncontradicted, that this 
beloved martyr and champion of the Church s unity was 
not only one of Mary s devoutest clients, but had written 
sweet and pious verses in her honour. It was probably 
in his retirement at Pontigny, where his soul grew nearer 
to God, and the Holy Spirit took possession of all his 
powers and aspirations, that he wrote those hymns which 
have been handed down to us. Two sequences of his, 
one beginning Imperatrix gloriosa, and the other Hodierna 
lux diei, are found in numerous Missals of the Middle 
Ages all over Europe ; and had not our liturgical books 
been almost utterly destroyed by the Reformers, we should 
have known how popular they were in England." 

St. Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln (d. 1200), was born in 
Burgundy, 1135, and placed when eight years old under 
the care of Canons Regular. He was ordained deacon 
at the age of nineteen, being already remarkable for his 
holiness of life and great austerity. Being attracted by 
the severity of the Grande Chartreuse, he entered the 
Carthusian Order at Grenoble, and later on was sent to 
England to establish a monastery at Witham. In 1186 
he was promoted to the see of Lincoln, in which position 
his personal holiness, firmness of character and sweetness of 
manner gave him great influence over Henry II, Richard I 


and John. England owes to him one of its noblest 
ecclesiastical buildings, the Cathedral church of Lincoln, 
dedicated by him to the Blessed Virgin. He usually spoke 
of it as " the church of my dear Lady Mary, the Mother 
of God." To raise this monument and make it worthy 
of her whom he styled his Lady and Queen, the Saint 
was ready to bestow not only his revenues, but his own 
personal service. He himself worked as a labourer, and 
might be seen hewing stones and carrying bricks and 
mortar in the midst of a crowd of workmen. The story 
is told that a cripple asked to be allowed to touch the 
rough hod which the Saint had been carrying on his shoul 
der, and at once obtained a miraculous cure. St. Hugh 
spoke of the estates of the see of Lincoln as belonging to 
" our Lady St. Mary/ and felt himself to be her repre 
sentative and champion in the defence of her rights. On 
arriving at Dover from the continent in his last illness, 
his first thought was to hasten at once to a church, and 
there celebrate Mass in our Lady s honour. 


ST. DOMINIC de Guzman (d. 1221) founded the 
Order of Friars Preachers in 1215. He was born in 
Old Castile in 1170, and, at the age of twenty-four, being 
remarkable for holiness and apostolic zeal, was made 
Canon of the Cathedral of Osma. When a student he 
had sold his bcoks to feed the poor, and offered himself 
in ransom for a slave. By means of the Rosary the Saint 
combated the foul errors of the Albigenses, and drew down 
abundant grace upon his apostolic work. He never began 
his instructions without first imploring our Lady s assist 
ance, and impressed upon his religious an extraordinary 
devotion to this blessed Queen. In a life of the Saint by 
Theodoric we read that while passing near the dormitory 


where his brethren were sleeping (at Santa Sabina on the 
Aventine, Rome) he began to pray, and suddenly our 
Lady appeared to him telling him she had come to bless 
the infant Order, and to show towards it a special mark 
of her tenderness. On another occasion he saw in vision 
his religious gathered under our Lady s wide mantle, a 
sign of her maternal protection. The Saint never wearied 
of preaching devotion to God s holy Mother. 

St. Francis of Assisi (d. 1226), founder of the Fran 
ciscan Order (Friars Minor). He was born at Assisi in 
1182. His baptismal name was John, but from his fami 
liarity in youth with the Romance language of the trou 
badours, he acquired the name of "II Francesco " (the 
Frenchman). He founded his Order in 1216. l The 
Saint, while in retreat on Mount Alvernia (Tuscany), 
received the impression of the five bleeding Wounds in 
his hands, feet and side. His heart was aflame with love 
for our Lady. It was under her protection in the little 
church of the Portiuncula, Assisi, that he wished to make 
a trial of the sort of life which the Holy Spirit had inspired 
him to embrace. Among the many pious practices which 
he adopted in honour of his heavenly Patroness was that 
of fasting from the vigil of St. Peter s feast until the Assump 
tion. He received during his lifetime the most extraordi 
nary graces in the little sanctuary above mentioned, which 
has since become so renowned under the title of St. Mary 
of the Angels. He was there favoured with visions of our 
Lord and of His blessed Mother. Feeling his end approach 
he requested to be carried into that hallowed shrine, and 
died, as he had lived, full of seraphic love of Jesus and 

St. Edmund of Canterbury (d. 1240). He was born 
at Abingdon in Berkshire, his family name being Rich. 
While still a child he learned from his pious mother Mabel 
to cherish a tender devotion to the Virgin-Mother of God. 
When a young student in Oxford, he went one day into 
1 See Pilgrim Walks in Rome, p. 70. 


St. Mary s Church, the most frequented place of worship 
in the town, and there " in the presence of his confessor, 
he promised to offer and to vow his unsullied virginity 
to Mary, the most chaste Mother of God, and to preserve 
it all the days of his life, reciting words to this effect before 
her statue. Then suddenly he rose up and placed a ring 
(which he had procured for the purpose) on the finger of 
the statue, saying, as he fitted it on : To thee, O most 
pure Virgin of virgins, I vow, promise, and consecrate 
the gift of my chastity. With this ring I plight thee my 
troth, and gratefully adopt thee for my Lady and Spouse ; 
that so I, a virgin, may merit the grace to serve thee a 
Virgin better for the future. And on bended knees he 
prayed most devoutly before the statue, as though before 
the Mother of God herself ; and, pouring forth abundant 
tears ... he said : O Lady, most dear to my heart, 
obtain from Thy Son, my Lord, by thy prayers that I 
may persevere in the service of you both, and so merit 
to follow the footsteps of JBlessed John the Evangelist. 
And after his prayer, when he wished to take off the ring 
which he had placed on the finger of the statue, lest it 
might be the cause of wonderment to the people, he was 
not able to do so, though he tried in every way he could. 
Whereat rejoicing he conceived the hope that the Blessed 
Virgin had favourably accepted his vow." Cot. MS. f. 124. 
During his studies in Oxford and in Paris, Mary s image 
stood ever on his table ; and when at length after a life 
of long conflict he came to die, his love of her shone out 
more brightly than ever. Having received with great 
joy the last Sacraments, he asked that his Crucifix, with the 
figure of the Mother of Sorrows, might be brought to him. 
He kissed them with inexpressible tenderness, and having 
laid himself on the floor, caused them to be so placed that 
his dying eyes might rest on these representations of Jesus 
and Mary, and so his soul went to God. H. S. Bowden. 
St. Hedwige (d. 1242), wife of Henry, Duke of Silesia. 
Devotion to the Blessed Sacrament was the keynote of 


her life. Summer and winter she walked barefoot to the 
church, her feet often bleeding, and knelt for hours before 
the altar without leaning on any support. In honour 
of Christ and His Apostles she kept always by her thirteen 
poor persons, suffering from incurable diseases. She used 
to carry about with her a picture of our Lady, and con 
tinued to hold it tightly with three fingers of the left hand 
when dying ; so that after death it could not be removed. 
She was buried with it, and twenty-five years after her 
death, when her grave was opened, the fingers incorrupt 
still held the holy picture. 

St. Hyacinth, O.P. (d. 1257), the apostle of Poland 
and Russia. He had inherited from St. Dominic a child 
like confidence in the Mother of God : to her he ascribed 
the success of his missionary labours, and to her aid he 
looked for his salvation. On the eve of her Assumption 
he was warned of his coming death. In spite of a wasting 
fever he celebrated Mass on the feast, and communicated 
as a dying man. He was anointed at the foot of the altar 
and died that very day. The story is told of him that 
when he was at Kiev, the Tartars sacked the town, but 
it was only as he finished Mass that the Saint heard of 
the danger. Without waiting to unvest he took the 
ciborium in his hands, and was leaving the church. As 
he passed by a statue of Mary he heard a voice say : " Hya 
cinth, my son, why dost thou leave me behind ? Take 
me with thee, and leave me not in the hands of enemies." 
The statue was of heavy alabaster, but when Hyacinth 
took it in his arms, it became light as a reed. With the 
Blessed Sacrament and the image he came to the river 
Dnieper, and walked dryshod over the surface of the 
waters. H. S. Bowden. 

Blessed Herman Joseph (d. 1230). From his earliest 
years he was a devoted client of the Mother of God. When 
a little child he used to spend all his playtime in the 
church at Cologne before an image of Mary. Once our 
Lady is said to have stretched out her hand to take an 


apple which the boy offered her in pledge of his love. 
Another time he saw her high up in the tribune, with the 
Holy Child and St. John : he longed to join them, but 
saw no way of doing so. Suddenly he found himself 
raised in the air and placed by their side, where he held 
sweet converse with the Infant Jesus. At the age of 
twelve he entered the Premonstratensian house at Stein- 
feld, and there led an angelic life of purity and prayer. 


ST. THOMAS OF AQUIN (d. 1274). This Saint, 
surnamedthe " Angel of the Schools " on account of 
his angelical chastity and the purity of his doctrine, always 
cherished a most affectionate devotion to the Virgin 
Mother of God, who repaid his affection by many remark 
able favours. He consecrated his talent to the defence 
of her sublime privileges, and offered all his labours, studies, 
writings to her. While at work at his desk he had con 
tinually before his eyes the images of Jesus crucified and 
of His blessed Mother, and he confessed to his disciples 
that it was from them that he had received all his learning. 
He declared some days before his death that the Mother 
of God had appeared to him, and that she had always 
obtained from him whatever he asked of her. Speaking 
of our Lady s spotlessness he says : " The Blessed Virgin 
committed no sin mortal or venial, that in her might be 
fulfilled that phrase of the Canticle of Canticles, Thou 
art all fair, my beloved, and there is no stain in thee. 
Summa Theol. III. q. 27, a. 4. Again : " Mary never 
would have been worthy to be Mother of God if she had 
committed a single sin." " The Blessed Virgin being a 
creature we do not owe her the cult of Latria, but we owe 


her in a more eminent degree than to other beings (Saints 
and Angels) the cult of Dulia, in that she is the Mother 
of God." Summa III. q. 25. This special cult paid to 
our Lady is known as Hyperdulia. See St. Bonaventure s 
words below. 

St. Bonaventure (d. 1274), one of the greatest of St. 
Francis sons, and one of the brightest lights of his Order. 
He is known as the " Seraphic Doctor " from the fervour 
of divine love which breathes in his writings. He was 
the friend of St. Thomas of Aquin, who asked him one 
day whence he drew the wonderful thoughts that abound 
in his works : the Saint replied by pointing to his Crucifix. 
He wrote a long Psaltery of the Blessed Virgin full of 
sweetness and devotion. Speaking of her he says : "It 
is impossible that the virginity of that body wherein God 
dwelt, should ever have suffered the least stain, or that 
the holiness of her soul should ever have been tarnished 
by the shadow of a sin." " The worship that befits Mary 
is that of hyperdulia, because she possesses a dignity far 
above that of the Angels and Saints, by the very fact that 
she, as Mother of God, is singularly raised above other 
created beings." 

St. Simon Stock, Carmelite (d. 1265). He was born 
in the county of Kent, and left his home when he was but 
twelve years of age to live as a hermit in the hollow trunk 
of a tree, whence he was known as Simon of the Stock. 
After twenty years of this penitential life he learnt from 
our Lady that he was to join an Order not then known 
in England. He waited in patience till the White Friars 
came, and then entered the Order of Our Lady of Mount 
Carmel. He repeatedly asked this heavenly Queen to 
make known to him how he could best honour her. One 
day, while in prayer before her statue, she appeared to 
him bearing in her hands a scapular (such as monks wear), 
which she gave him saying that this was the means by 
which she would be honoured, and by it she wished her 
true servants to be distinguished. She further promised 


that this holy habit would be a pledge of salvation to 
those who wore it faithfully till death. 

St. Louis of France (d. 1270). This glorious King 
was animated from his very childhood with a tender 
devotion towards God s blessed Mother. In order to 
honour her and imitate her humility, every Saturday he 
used to entertain a number of poor persons in his palace, 
washing their feet and waiting on them at table. He 
died on a Saturday, as he had desired, wishing to crown 
by this last act all the honour he had paid to Mary on 
that day during his life-time. 

St. Philip Benizi (d. 1285). He was born in Florence, 
and in his fifteenth year, after praying to our Lady for 
light and guidance, entered the Servite Order, then recently 
established. There he devoted himself wholly to Mary s 
service, striving to win the approbation of the Queen of 
Heaven by holiness of life and imitation of her virtues. 
Being ordained Priest, he preached up and down Europe 
with marvellous success under Mary s protection, his con 
stant aim being to spread devotion to her Seven Dolours. 
By this means he effected countless conversions, our Lady 
manifestly blessing his apostolical labours. His life was 
marked by great purity of heart and mind, and by the 
practice of the highest virtues. He fell ill on the feast 
of the Assumption, and died on the octave day. 

The Seven Servite Saints (XIII Cent.), founders of 
the Order. On the feast of the Assumption, 1233, seven 
Florentine nobles met together, as their custom was, to 
recite the Office of the Blessed Virgin. Suddenly she 
appeared before them, and bade them forsake the world 
for a more perfect life. At once, like the Christians of 
old, they sold their goods, gave the money to the poor, 
changed their senatorial robes for the simple habit of 
religious, and retired to a lonely spot on Monte Senario, 
some ten miles from Florence. To one of them, named 
Alexis Falconieri, our Lady presented the black habit 
which they were told to wear in memory of the Passion 


of her Son. They propagated everywhere devotion to 
Mary s Seven Dolours. The name " Servites " was given 
to them because a child at its mother s breast, seeing them 
enter Florence, cried out : " See, the servants of the 
Madonna ! " H. S. Bowden. 


ST. GERTRUDE, Abbess (d. 1302). Born of a noble 
Saxon family, she was placed for her education at 
the age of five in the Benedictine Abbey of Rodelsdorf, 
and later entered the Order, where she soon became perfect 
in humility, mortification, obedience and all other religious 
virtues. Her life was crowded with wonders. One 
Christmas night she saw the Mother of God enter the 
choir and accost each of the nuns, presenting to each her 
Divine Child, whom she carried in her arms. On another 
occasion our Lady allowed her to embrace the Divine 
Infant, and she says she felt His little arms around her 
neck, and a breath from His lips full of the sweetness of 
heaven. On the feast of our Lady s Nativity, Gertrude 
saw her during Mass praying for the community with 
clasped hands, while Christ in answer turned towards 
the nuns and blessed them with the sign of the cross, 
thereby preparing them to receive more worthily the 
adorable Sacrament of His Body and Blood. 

St. Andrew Corsini, Bishop of Fiesole (d. 1373), a 
Florentine of noble birth. His pious parents had dedi 
cated him to our Lady from his birth, but at the age of 
fifteen, Andrew entered the way of sinful frivolity that 
leads to perdition. His mother reminded him with tears 
that he had been consecrated to Mary, and this reminder 
made him a Saint. Entering the Carmelite Order he 
advanced rapidly in virtue, and soon became a model of 
perfection. At the command of his Superiors he became 


a Priest, and was afterwards chosen Bishop of Fiesole, 
near Florence, a dignity he strove his utmost to avoid. 
Throughout his religious life he retained the warmest 
devotion for Mary, his powerful protectress, whose glory 
he strove to advance by every means in his power. While 
praying one Christmas night in her little chapel of the 
Primerana, Fiesole, he was warned by her of his approach 
ing death, and on the following feast of the Epiphany 
his blessed soul took its flight to heaven. 

St. Catherine of Sienna (d. 1380). The daughter of 
a humble tradesman, she was raised up to be the guide 
and guardian of the Church in one of the most trying 
periods of its history. As a child, prayer was her delight. 
She would say the " Hail Mary " on each step as she 
mounted the stairs, and was granted a vision of Christ 
in glory. When seven years old she made a vow of per 
petual chastity, and took our Lady in a special manner 
as her beloved Mother. It was her wont never to com 
mence any action without first recommending it to Mary ; 
and with the desire of consecrating herself more closely 
to her, she entered the Third Order of St. Dominic at the 
age of fifteen. From that time all her thoughts, all her 
hopes seemed centred in Mary, who in turn bestowed 
marvellous favours on this seraphic soul. 

St. Bridget of Sweden (d. 1373) was born of the 
Swedish royal family in 1304. At ten years of age she 
was most tenderly affected by a sermon on the Passion, 
and thereafter the image of Christ crucified was ever 
present to her soul. She relates in her revelations that 
she one day obtained of God the conversion and grace 
of a happy death for a great sinner, because she implored 
it through the sorrows of Mary during her Son s Passion. 
She also heard our Lord say that His Mother was justly 
styled " Mother of Mercy," for there was no misery so 
abject that she despised, no distress so great that she did 
not commiserate, and incline the Divine Heart to pity. 
Addressing the Saint He said : " Ask what thou wilt 


through My Mother Mary, for neither thy charity nor 
thy request will be rejected/ Revelations, Bk. vi. c. 33. 

Blessed Henry Suso, O.P. (d. 1366), a great ascetic 
of the Middle Ages. Speaking of our Lady as the comforter 
of the afflicted he says : " When our heart is oppressed 
with grief and fear and can find no remedy for its suffering, 
we have no resource but to look upwards to the Queen 
of Heaven, the Virgin Mary. In every struggle w r e are 
sure to find in her both help and consolation. In truth 
thou art, O Mary, the Mediatrix between sinners and thy 
Divine Son ; thou art the consoler, the asylum of the 
afflicted. Turn then and look with pity on me, thou 
who hast never turned away thine eyes from souls in 
desolation, for in thee is my hope. How many sinners, 
after abandoning and denying their Lord, losing all hope, 
have found refuge in thee, and, under thy protection, 
returned to God s grace ! Divine virtue has made thee 
so kind even to sinners that thy goodness restores us to 
hope. Yes, heaven and earth shall perish before thou 
art seen to abandon the miserable (beings) who pray to 
thee sincerely. Truly art thou Queen and Mother of 
mercy. Rise up, then, and be our Mediatrix to reconcile 
us to thy Divine Son, so that, thanks to thee, He may 
pardon and bring us to eternal life." 



ST. VINCENT FERRER, O.P. (d. 1419), known 
as the " Angel of the Judgment." He was born 
at Valencia in Spain in 1350, and at the age of eighteen 
was professed in the Order of St. Dominic. His marvellous 
apostolate lasted twenty-one years, countless conversions 
being the fruit of his preaching wherever he went. A 
tender love for the Blessed Virgin characterized him from 
childhood. He strove his utmost to copy her virtues 


and please her by the great purity of his life. One day 
while praying to her, the Queen of Heaven appeared to 
him, and promised her protection in every assault against 
his virtue. He afterwards led the life of an angel rather 
than of a man, advancing as it were with winged feet in 
the paths of virtue and religious perfection. 

St. Bernardine of Sienna (d. 1446), one of the glories 
of the Franciscan Order. From early boyhood it was his 
habit to go every morning to salute a frescoed picture of 
our Lady that crowned one of the gates of the town. 
There, as he knelt in prayer, he committed to her maternal 
care his innocence, and chose her as his Patroness and 
Protectress. From her he received his vocation to the 
Franciscan Order, the gift of touching the hearts of even 
the most hardened sinners, and the power of working 
miracles. He became the apostle of the Holy Name of 
Jesus throughout Italy. Speaking of our Lady he says : 
" Mary has the keys of the divine treasury, so that she 
can distribute to whom she wills and as much as she wills, 
the grace of the Holy Spirit." Serm. in Nativ. B.V. a. i. 
Hence the oft-quoted saying, " Quod Deus imperio, tu 
prece, Virgo, potes " : " What God can do by His Will, 
thou, O Virgin, canst do by prayer." Hence also she is 
styled " Omnipotentia supplex," i.e. " Omnipotent through 
prayer," as having a power founded on divine goodness, 
able to obtain any favour from her Divine Son. St. 
Bernardine was born on September 8, the feast of our 
Lady s Nativity, and he chose that day for receiving the 
religious habit, for celebrating his first Mass, and for 
preaching his first sermon. He seemed never to be able 
to do enough to show his affection for her, and to spread 
devotion to her. 

St. Casimir, son of Casimir III, King of Poland (d. 
1483). This young Saint, who died at the age of twenty- 
five, was animated from his earliest years with a most 
tender devotion to Mary. To her he consecrated his 
innocence by a vow of chastity, and chose rather to die 


than forfeit that treasure. He was fond of repeating the 
hymn " Omni die die Mariae," etc. : " Daily, daily sing 
to Mary," written, it is said, by St. Bernard, though by 
some attributed to St. Casimir. He desired a copy of 
it to be placed in his coffin and buried with him. Count 
less miracles took place at his tomb. One hundred and 
twenty-two years after his death his tomb was opened 
in the cathedral of Vienna, when his body was found 
incorrupt, and under his head was the hymn to our Lady. 


ST. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA (d. 1556), the founder 
of the Society of Jesus. He was always tenderly 
devoted to Mary, and loved to visit her sanctuaries round 
Loyola. After being seriously wounded at Pampeluna, 
as he lay convalescent in his father s castle, he was favoured 
with a vision of the Blessed Virgin, who obtained for 
him the gift of perfect chastity, never after assailed by 
temptations. The better to recall the principal events 
of the life of Christ and of the Saints, he wrote copious 
notes during his convalescence in a quarto volume of 300 
pages, the words and actions of Christ being noted down 
in bright red ink, some even in gold, those of our Lady 
in bl*ie, and those of the Saints in various other colours. 
In the beginning of his conversion to a perfect life, imitat 
ing the knights of old, he made his " Vigil of Arms " in 
Mary s sanctuary at Montserrat. On his way there, a 
Moor, with whom he was travelling, began to speak dis 
respectfully of our Lady, denying her perpetual virginity. 
The Saint, after vainly trying to convince him, was tempted 
to run him through with his sword, and could hardly 
withhold himself. In jej^^Jie chose her church at Mont- 
martre, there to lay the first foundations of his Society 
on the feast of her Assumption. His solemn religious 


profession and that of his first companions was made at 
Mary s altar in St. Paul s basilica, Rome, April, 1541. It 
was his desire that devotion to her should ever be~one of 
the characteristic features of the Society. The first church 
he secured for his Order was " Santa Maria della Strada," 
where an ancient picture of her is greatly venerated. For 
long years the Saint had continually near his heart a small 
picture of our Lady of Dolours, and he declared that he 
had by this means obtained many graces. He was 
favoured more than once with visions of the adorable 
Trinity, of holy Mary and her Divine Child. 

St. Francis Xavier (d. 1552). One of St. Ignatius 
first companions. This great Apostle of the Indies had 
a very tender devotion to the Mother of God. He pro 
nounced his first religious vows in her sanctuary at Mont- 
martre (Paris) on the feast of the Assumption, 1534. In 
his apostolic journeys he invariably wore her Rosary 
round his neck or attached to his cincture : all his sermons 
and instructions he began by invoking her aid, and con 
cluded with the " Salve Regina." In every difficulty he 
had recourse to her, and he is said to have made a vow 
to defend her Immaculate Conception. As he lay dying 
in the island of Sanciano, off the coast of China, his lips, 
we are told, kept murmuring " Monstra te esse Matrem," 
" Show thyself a Mother." The story is told l that a 
merchant of Meliapur, about to sail for Malacca, asked 
the Saint for some parting souvenir. St. Francis gave 
him his rosary saying, " This will be of great service to 
you, if only you have confidence in Mary." Hardly had 
they w r eighed anchor, when a fearful storm arose which 
dashed the ship to pieces on a rock. There appeared no 
chance of safety for the crew, when suddenly the merchant, 
remembering St. Francis Xavier s parting injunciion, and 
trusting confidently in Mary s help, grasped his rosary in 
his hand, and instantly the whole party found themselves, 
how they knew not, safe on shore. 

1 Month of May, by Rev. Father Beckx, SJ. 


St. Francis Borgia (d. 1572), third General of the 
Society of Jesus. He had been Duke of Gandia, Viceroy 
of Catalonia, a great favourite of the Emperor Charles V, 
and was a Saint amid the splendours of court-life. An 
incident at the funeral of the Empress Isabella, whose 
features, on opening the coffin to certify the remains as 
being hers, were seen to be so terribly ravaged by death 
that the sight inspired horror, made him resolve to 
quit the world and all earthly vanities. He was fond of 
relating that he owed his vocation in great measure to 
our Lady, and throughout his religious life he preserved 
the most lively gratitude for this favour. So convinced 
was he that devotion to Mary is a necessary means to 
arrive at religious perfection, that, when General of the 
Society, he refused to admit into it some novices who 
seemed cold in their devotion to her. With Pope St. 
Pius V s permission, never given before, he caused copies 
of our Lady s picture in St. Mary Major to be painted, 
and sent to different houses of the Society. One was given 
to Blessed Ignatius Azevedo, Martyr, who held it tightly 
in his arms when cast into the sea by Calvinist corsairs. 

Of the members of the Society of Jesus the Saint used 
to say : "It would be a monstrous thing if any one were 
to belong to the Society of Jesus and did not love, serve, 
and revere the Mother of Jesus." Above all he expected 
to find this devotion shining forth in the novices of the 
Society. If a novice had a marked love for Mary, the 
Saint felt sure that, no matter how many were his diffi 
culties and temptations, he would persevere. If any 
novice showed little practical devotion to Mary, he said 
he felt convinced he would not stay in the Society. 

St. Aloysius Gonzaga (d. 1591). This angelical 
youth, the privileged child of Mary, was inspired to make 
a vow of perpetual chastity before her altar in the church 
of SSma Annunziata, Florence, when only nine years old. 
A few years later, when acting as page at the court of Spain, 
he received a distinct call from our Lady to enter the 

M.P. E 


Society of Jesus. His mind, ever filled with loving thoughts 
of Jesus and Mary, was never troubled by an impure 
temptation. His greatest pleasure was to visit the sanc 
tuaries of Mary, and he is said, even at the age of twelve, 
to have fasted every Saturday in her honour, taking nothing 
but bread and water. In all his needs he had recourse 
to her, and was unwearying in his efforts to make himself 
more and more pleasing to her and her Divine Son. 

St. Stanislaus Kostka (d. 1568). As a child he was 
more like an Angel than a human being, and was so sensi 
tive and pure-hearted that he would faint on hearing an 
indelicate word. Twice he received Holy Communion 
from an Angel, and was favoured with a wonderful vision 
of the Blessed Virgin, who placed the Infant Jesus in 
his arms. She bade him enter the Society of her Son. 
His zeal for Mary s honour led him to make extracts from 
the works of the Fathers and Saints referring to her or 
in praise of her. When conversing with others he always 
contrived to say something in his Mother s honour. While 
kneeling before the picture of St. Mary Major in Rome 
he fell into an ecstasy : and on leaving the basilica Father 
Emmanuel Sa said to him : " Stanislaus, you seem to 
love the Blessed Virgin very much." " Ah, yes," was 
the Saint s reply, " she is my Mother. The Mother of 
God is my Mother ! " His pure soul took its flight to 
heaven on the feast of her Assumption, at the age of 


ST. CHARLES BO RROMEO, Archbishop of Milan 
(d. 1584). He was the nephew of Pope Pius IV, who 
created him Cardinal when only twenty-two years of age. 
As Archbishop he effected wonderful reforms, restored 


ecclesiastical discipline, founded schools and seminaries, 
and proved himself a living copy of the Good Shepherd. 
He felt a sort of impassioned love for his Mother Mary, 
reciting her Rosary every day on his knees as well as her 
Office, and fasting on the eves of all her feasts. On hearing 
the Angelus bell he would fall on his knees even in the 
public street, though the ground might be wet and muddy. 
He established in his Cathedral church in Milan a chapel 
and confraternity of the Rosary. Over the main door 
of every church in the Archdiocese he caused an image 
of .Mary to be placed, as a reminder to the faithful that 
she is the Gate of Heaven, and that if they wished to 
enter into that temple of glory, it must be through her 
intercession. All the pious institutions founded by him 
were dedicated to Mary, and placed under her protection. 

St. Teresa (d. 1582). She was the Foundress of the 
Reformed Carmelites. When a child, she had arranged 
a small oratory in her father s house, where she placed 
a statue of Mary and surrounded it with flowers. To this 
she paid frequent visits, bringing gifts of various kinds. 
At twelve years of age she had the misfortune to lose her 
virtuous mother. In the intensity of her grief she ran 
to prostrate herself before our Lady s image, and begged 
her to be her Mother, promising to be a faithful child. 
Mary watched over her constantly with loving protection. 
Teresa had unbounded confidence in this Mother of Mercy, 
and, when a Carmelite Superior, she placed the keys of 
each convent she founded at the foot of her image, thereby 
appointing her the first Superioress. Angelic hands bore 
her soul heavenwards in the presence of Jesus and Mary. 
Month of May for Interior Souls, 120. 

St. Philip Neri (d. 1595), Founder of the Oratory 
and one of the glories of the Church in the XVI Cent. 
He never spoke of our Lady, but his face became radiant 
with joy, those listening to him feeling something of the 
warmth of his devotion imparted to them. In all his 
sermons, exhortations, conferences, he had always some- 


thing to say in praise of this loving Mother ; and to his 
penitents and all who sought his advice he warmly recom 
mended devotion to her. " My children/ he would say, 
" if you wish for the grace of perseverance, cultivate great 
devotion to Mary." Whenever he had to deal with 
hardened sinners, he recommended them to her, and 
astonishing conversions were the result. He called her 
his love, his joy, his consolation, and uttered these words 
with such deep feeling that his hearers were frequently 
moved to tears. In a serious illness our Lady appeared 
to him filling him with rapturous joy ; and the physicians 
and priests present beheld him raised in the air above 
the bed, with his arms outstretched as though he wished 
to clasp some one in their embrace. Ibid. He took a 
special delight in visiting the wonder-working picture of 
St. Mary Major, as well as other sanctuaries dedicated to 
her in Rome. In every church or oratory built by his 
children, he enjoined that a picture of the Madonna should 
be placed over each altar. 

St. Cajetan (d. 1547), Founder of the Theatines. He 
is thought to have been the first to introduce the Forty 
Hours adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, as an antidote 
to Calvin s heresy. He bore a most tender love for our 
Blessed Lady, and his piety was well rewarded. One 
Christmas night, as he knelt before the relic of the Holy 
Manger in St. Mary Major, Rome, she appeared to him 
and placed the Infant Jesus in his arms. She also appeared 
to him at his death. 


ST. FRANCIS DE SALES (d. 1622). He was one 
of Mary s most loving children. When a student he 
was for a time a prey to the greatest anxiety concerning 
his eternal salvation, and tempted almost to despair of 


ever being admitted into heaven. In this torture of mind 
he cast himself on his knees before a statue of Mary, recited 
the " Memorare," and at once all his trouble of mind 
vanished. He exhorted the Sisters of the Visitation to 
strew spiritual flowers every morning in front of our Lady s 
image the marigold by imitating her ; the heart s ease 
(pansy) by always serving her ; and, above all, the lilies 
and roses of purity and ardent charity ; also the violets 
of humility and simplicity. In his apostolic work in the 
Chablais (Switzerland), he is said to have converted 72,000 
Calvinists. His sweetness of character he owed chiefly 
to his devotion to her who is " our life, our sweetness, 
and our hope." 

St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, S.J. (d. 1617), a lay-Brother 
of the Society of Jesus. From his childhood his love for 
our Lady was remarkable. He would look for her images, 
press them to his heart, kiss them with deep affection, 
addressing the most fervent prayers to her, his loving 
Mother. Once when a boy, he spoke thus to the Blessed 
Virgin : " Dearest Mother, I know that you love me 
but not as much as I love you." She replied : " What 
are you saying, my child ? My love for you is far above 
yours for me : as heaven is above the earth." As he 
grew older his love for Mary went on increasing. In his 
later years, when porter of the college at Majorca, her 
Rosary was constantly in his hand ; and after his death 
it was discovered that the skin of his thumb and fore 
finger had become perfectly hard from the constant friction 
of the beads passing through them. The Immaculate 
Conception was a great object of his devotion, and he 
spread copies of her little Office among the college students, 
even transcribing them with his own hand. More than 
once he was favoured with visions of Jesus and Mary. 

St. John Berchmans, S.J. (d. 1621). This angelical 
youth was one of our Lady s most loving and devoted 
children. " I shall never rest," he said, " till I have 
acquired a most tender love for Mary. If I love Mary, I 


am assured of perseverance, and shall obtain from God 
all I desire." He made a vow to defend always the doc 
trine of her Immaculate Conception, 1 and wrote it out, 
signing it with his own blood. His greatest delight was 
to converse on the glories of Mary ; and the better to do 
this, he had enriched his memory with beautiful passages 
from the writings of the Saints in praise of the Queen 
of heaven. He always wore her rosary round his neck 
as though it were a precious relic, and was heard to say 
that he had three treasures with which he wished to die, 
viz., his crucifix, rosary and rule-book. He had the con 
solation of dying with these cherished objects clasped in 
his hands. To one who visited him in his last illness he 
said : "I love Mary ; I have always loved her ; I have 
a firm hope of eternal life relying on her protection." To 
another who asked him if he loved our blessed Lady very 
much, he replied : " Ah, yes ! I love her with my whole 
heart, and if I had a thousand hearts, I would love her 
with them all." 

St. Mary Magdalen de Pazzi (d. 1607), a Carmelite 
nun in Florence. The Queen of heaven often appeared 
to her encircled with glory, and taught her how to make 
herself acceptable to Jesus crucified. For two years she 
was assailed by most painful temptations, being finally 
delivered by our Lady who covered her with a white veil. 
Her very presence seemed to breathe the sweetness of 
holy purity, diffusing a heavenly fragrance that excited 
others to love the angelical virtue. She was favoured 
with many remarkable visions and revelations. On our 
Lady s feasts she felt herself caught up, as it were, into 
heaven : she was also permitted to share some of the pangs 
of Mary at the foot of the cross, by suffering acute bodily 

St. Andrew Avellino (d. 1608), a holy priest, a glory 
of the Theatine Order. His baptismal name was Lancelot, 
which he changed to Andrew out of devotion to St. Andrew 

1 Defined^by the Church as an article of faith in 1854. 


and to show his love of the cross. His mortifications 
were wonderful. In his old age nothing could prevent 
him from saying Mass every day, in spite of acute sufferings, 
being at times so weak and exhausted that he could scarcely 
reach the altar. One day, while reciting the Psalm Judica 
at the foot of the altar, he fell forward in a fit of apoplexy 
and was carried into the sacristy. In his last illness he 
was severely assaulted by Satan, but protected by Mary, 
whom he had deeply and constantly loved ; and, with 
a grateful salutation to her image, he breathed forth his 
soul to God. 


^T. JOHN FRANCIS REGIS, SJ. (d. 1640). His 


very childhood was marked by ardent love for Mary, 
and, when still a boy, he hastened to join one of the Sodalities 
founded in her honour. His constant effort was to make 
himself more and more pleasing to his heavenly Mother. 
Being admitted into the Society of Jesus, his devotion 
received a fresh impulse, and he sought every opportunity 
of kindling a deep love for her in others, especially in the 
hearts of the young. Later on, during his wonderful 
missionary life in France, he was never tired of preaching 
about her, her name being ever on his lips, his zeal in her 
cause unwearying. In his dying moments he was aided 
and consoled by a vision of Jesus and Mary, who came 
to lead his soul to eternal rest. 1 

JSt. Jane Frances de Chantal (d. 1641), Foundress 
with St. Francis de Sales of the Order of the Visitation. 
Being left an orphan while still a child, she found a tender 
and most affectionate Mother in Mary. In the married 
state as a lady of the world, she led the life of a Saint, and 
it was part of her devotion to recommend herself, her 

1 Rev. P. Beckx, S.J., Month of May. 


household, and all her affairs to the Blessed Virgin. Be 
sides other prayers to Mary, she bound herself by vow 
to recite the Rosary every day. As a Religious Superior 
she urged her subjects to do all they could to give pleasure 
and honour to holy Mary. On our Lady s feasts she 
would join the novices and other Sisters in singing the 
" Magnificat " and " Ave Maris Stella " before a picture 
of her loving Protectress. 

St. Peter Claver, S.J. (d. 1654). This great apostle 
of the negroes in South America triumphed over the most 
painful and humiliating labours by the help of Mary s 
protection. Thousands of poor negroes sunk in a degraded 
state of body and soul he converted and made children 
of God, teaching them to look up to and seek help from 
Jesus spotless Mother. One of the means he adopted 
to sustain his courage was to wear near his heart a little 
book containing representations of the mysteries of our 
Lady s life : these he frequently contemplated and made 
the subject of his constant meditations. 

St. Vincent de Paul (d. 1660), Founder of the Lazarists 
(Vincentians) and Sisters of Charity. He was one of the 
most wonderful of modern Saints. When a captive of 
the Mahommedans in Tunis, he consoled himself by singing 
the praises of the Blessed Virgin. To her he owed his 
liberty. Wherever he might be, even if conversing with 
a prince, at the sound of the Angelus bell he would fall 
down on his knees and recite the prayer with the greatest 
fervour. To promote devotion to her was the great ambi 
tion of his life, and he impressed upon his children, the 
members of his Congregation, that they were to consider 
themselves Mary s apostles and defenders, as well as 
imitators of her virtues. By this means, he assured them, 
their labours for the conversion of sinners would be blessed 
with abundant fruit. 

Blessed John Eudes (d. 1680), Founder of the Eudists 
and Good Shepherd nuns. This great servant of God 
was the first to make the devotion to the Pure Heart of 


Mary public. He frequently preached upon it, established 
several religious societies that are pledged to promote it, 
and obtained permission for a feast in its honour in several 
dioceses. It was not until the year 1855 that the Con 
gregation of Rites finally sanctioned the Office and Mass 
of the Most Pure Heart of Mary, but without imposing 
them on the Universal Church. Blessed John wrote his 
great work on this subject entitled Le Cceur Admirable 
de la Tres Sainte Mere de Dieu, which first appeared at 
Caen in 1681. It has recently been reprinted in three 
volumes, and is a glorious monument of the burning love 
of an enraptured soul. 

Blessed Bernardine Realino, S.J. (d. 1616), was sent 
by our Lady to the Society of Jesus, and favoured by her 
with apparitions, on one occasion receiving the Divine 
Infant into his arms. For sixty-two years he laboured 
in the town of Lecce in Italy, where all revered him as 
a Saint. He was often seen during prayer with a coun 
tenance radiant with light ; and sometimes bright rays 
shone from his whole body. He lived in closest union 
with Jesus and Mary. 


ST. FRANCIS JEROME, S.J. (d. 1716), the Apostle 
of Naples and Central Italy. Full of the deepest 
veneration and love for holy Mary, he made it his constant 
aim to inspire others with the same sentiments. For 
the space of twenty-two years he preached every Thursday 
on our Lady s privileges in one of the Neapolitan churches 
dedicated to her. He was extremely zealous in spreading 
devotion to her among the young, considering it the most 
powerful means of shielding their innocence, and of reclaim 
ing the wanderer. He was wont to say that it was next 
to impossible for any one to attain real holiness who was 


cool in devotion to her. On his missions he always had 
a picture of her placed in view of his hearers, that he might 
by her intercession ensure the Divine blessing on his labours, 
and lead those listening to him to Jesus through Mary. 

St. Alphonsus de Liguori (d. 1787), Founder of the 
Congregation of the Redemptorists, an enthusiastic client 
of Mary, and a true apostle of devotion to her. He is 
said to have preserved through her protection his baptismal 
robe unsullied. From his earliest years Mary was the 
object of his tenderest affection, and, as time went on, 
his love for her grew stronger and stronger. " The world, 
he said, owes its Redemption to Jesus, but also in some 
sense to Mary : for if Jesus is the fount, Mary is the channel 
of every grace." His love for her prompted him to write 
his golden book on The Glories of Mary. Out of devotion 
he fasted every Saturday, and on the eves of all her feasts ; 
constantly wore the rosary round his neck ; and made a 
vow to recite it daily, as also to preach frequently on her 
greatness and mercy. Full of zeal for her honour he wrote 
a treatise in defence of the Immaculate Conception long 
years before it was denned as an article of Faith, and 
summed up the various arguments in favour of its being 
so denned. Speaking of our Lady he says with great 
feeling : " Let us listen to the voice of our Mother encour 
aging us to become like little children, to keep near her 
and call upon her in our necessities. Si quis est parvulus 
veniat ad me. Prov. ix. 4. Little children cry per 
petually to their mother, especially when they fear danger, 
Mother, Mother ! Ah, sweet Mary, tender Mother, 
that is what thou wishest us to do, that, as thy children, 
we should call upon thee to help us in all our dangers ; 
for thou wilt certainly protect and save us, as thou hast 
always done when thy children have turned to thee." 
Glories of Mary, chap. i. 

St. Leonard of Port Maurice, O.S.F. (d. 1751). This 
Saint, a fervent sodalist of our Lady from his boyhood, 
wrote a wonderful letter, as though inspired by a spirit 


of prophecy, in which he expressed his longing desire to 
see the great truth of the Immaculate Conception denned 
by the Church, foretelling the advent of great blessings 
for the time when the Holy See should deem it suitable 
to pronounce the definition. He established in Rome a 
Confraternity of the Lovers of Jesus and Mary, one of the 
religious exercises being to make regularly every week 
the Stations of the Cross in the Colosseum, and to bring 
as many as possible to join in the devotion. 

de Montfort (d. 1716). He was a 

zealous promoter of devotion to Mary, regarding it as a 
great means to sanctity. If practised with fervour he 
felt sure, he said, it would cause saints to arise in the 
Church. " All perfection (sanctity) consists in our being 
conformed to and united with our Divine Saviour. The 
most perfect devotion is that which consecrates us to 
Him. Now of all creatures Mary is the most conformed 
to our Divine Lord : therefore it follows that devout 
imitation of her will make us most like to Him ; and the 
more a soul is consecrated to Mary, the more devoted it 
will be to our Lord." He urges Catholics to call themselves 
and become the slaves of Mary, consecrating themselves 
in body and soul to her, that she may present us to Jesus 
Christ. He enumerates the Saints and other holy persons 
who have made themselves slaves of Mary, among them 
being St. Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, about the year 1040. 
On this form of devotion, see Petitalot, 390, note. 

Blessed Crispin of Viterbo (d. 1750). He was a 
Capuchin lay-Brother, known as " the Apostle of Mary." 
With the oil from the lamp, which he kept burning before 
her image, or flowers from her altar he wrought marvellous 
cures. It was commonly said that the oil and flowers of 
Brother Crispin did more good than all the doctors medi 
cines. Frequently employed to gather alms for his con 
vent, he would teach Christian doctrine to children in 
the streets, as also little hymns which he himself had 
composed in Mary s honour. 



ST. CALLIXTUS I (218 to 223) built the church of 
S. Maria in Trastevere not long before his martyrdom. 
Julius I rebuilt it on a larger scale in 340, and this Julian 
basilica was restored and adorned with frescoes by John 
VII (705-707). This is the first, the most ancient church 
of our Lady in Rome. The historian Lampridius relates 
that during the Pontificate of Callixtus I the Christians 
were in possession of a place of assembly in Trastevere 
(the part of Rome west of the Tiber), their right to which 
was disputed by the corporation of popinarii, or tavern- 
keepers. The question was brought before the Emperor 
Alexander Severus who decided in favour of the Christians, 
saying that it was better that God should be worshipped 
there, in whatever fashion it might be, than that the 
place should be given over to revelry. Pilgrim Walks in 
Rome, 320. 

St. Liberius (d. 366) consecrated the original church 
of St. Mary Major, Rome, known as " Our Lady of the 
Snow " from a miraculous fall of snow in August (the 
hottest month of the year), the site and dimensions of 
the future building being found traced thereon. The 
story will be found in the Roman Breviary, August 5, 
and in Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 107. 

Sixtus III (d. 440) rebuilt this basilica, as the original 
edifice was found to be too small for the crowds flocking 
to it ; intending also that it should serve as a memorial 
of the great Council of Ephesus (held in 430) and of the 
vindication of our Lady s title of " Mother of God " against 
Nestorius. Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 108. 

St. Hilary I (d. 467) and St. Gelasius (d. 496) are 
said to have instituted the feast of our Lady s Purification 
with a view to suppressing the indecent games of the 
pagan Lupercal. 


St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) had the picture of 
our Lady St. Mary Major carried in a public procession 
through the streets of Rome to obtain a cessation of the 
plague. Pilgrim Walks, 112. 

St. Boniface IV (d. 615) purified the Pantheon, Rome, 
denied by Pagan worship, and consecrated it under the 
title of " Our Lady of Martyrs." Ibid. 342. 

St. Leo IV (d. 855) " in order to exterminate the pesti 
lential monster of Saracenism, whose look and breath 
had infected Rome and filled her streets with dead, added 
an octave to the ancient feast of the Assumption." Father 
Segneri, S.J., Devout Client of Mary. Note. The 
Saracen invasion of Rome occurred in 846. 

Urban II (d. 1099), desirous of raising a bulwark to 
withstand the flood of Turkish invasion, ordered Priests 
and clerics to recite daily the Office of the Blessed Virgin. 
Father Segneri, Ibid. 

Gregory IX (d. 1241), to free the Church from the 
oppression of the Emperor Frederick, commanded all the 
faithful to invoke our Lady s protection three times every 
day at the sound of the Angelus bell. Father Segneri, Ibid. 

Innocent IV (d. 1254) chose Mary as the Church s 
protectress against the fierce persecution of Frederick II, 
and added an Octave to the feast of her Nativity. Baro- 

Boniface IX (d. 1404), seeking to heal the wounds of 
the Church, whose unity had been rent by a schism 
of several years, instituted the feast of the Visitation. 

Paul II (d. 1471) in the scandals and troubles of that 
calamitous period had recourse to our Lady s protection, 
and decreed that the festival of her Presentation in the 
Temple should be celebrated with special solemnity through 
out the Church. Segneri. 

Sixtus IV (d. 1484), in fulfilment of a vow he had 
made for the restoration of peace and concord among 
Christian princes, erected in Rome the church of S. Maria 


della Pace (" Our Lady of Peace "). See Pilgrim Walks 
in Rome, 359. He also approved of the feast of the Im 
maculate Conception (1476), and granted indulgences for 
assisting at Mass on that day. 

St. Pius V (d. 1571), to save Christendom from the 
power of the Ottomans, urged all the faithful to appeal 
earnestly to our Lady by the devout recitation of the 
Rosary. Segneri. After the battle of Lepanto he insti 
tuted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. 

Gregory XIII (d. 1585), after several victories over 
the Turks obtained through Mary s intercession, appointed 
the feast of " Help of Christians " to be kept every year, 
It replaced the feast of Our Lady of Victory. 

Gregory XV (d. 1623) forbade any one to speak or 
write against our Lady s Immaculate Conception. 

Pius VII (d. 1823), after having been kept for five years 
in a most humiliating captivity by Napoleon Buonaparte, 
attributed his deliverance and return to Rome to our 
Lady s intercession (1814), and in thanksgiving crowned 
our Lady of Savona, and gave new sanction to the feast 
of " Our Lady, Help of Christians." 

Pius IX (d. 1878) defined as of faith the dogma of 
Mary s Immaculate Conception in 1854, to the great joy 
of the whole Catholic world. 

Leo XIII (d. 1903) in the Church s trials and neces 
sities ordered the Rosary to be recited in all churches 
every day during the month of October. 

Pius X (d. 1914) confirmed what his predecessor had 
prescribed regarding the October devotion of the Rosary. 

N.B. The Popes and the doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception. (See 77, 78.) 




CARDINAL WISEMAN. His sermons on our Lady 
V_x (xv,, xvi.) abound with beautiful thoughts that 
show how deeply he loved this glorious Virgin. 

Cardinal Newman has written with tenderest feelings 
and matchless eloquence on " The Glories of Mary for 
the sake of her Son," No. 17 of Discourses to Mixed Con 
gregations. His Difficulties of Anglicans, vol. II, contains 
striking passages concerning the Belief of Catholics in 
our Lady (a) as the Second Eve, pp. 31-44 ; (b) in her 
Immaculate Conception, pp. 44-50 ; (c) in her dignity 
and exaltation, pp. 50-61 ; (d) in her title of Theotokos, 
pp. 62-67 ; (e) in her intercessory power, pp. 68-76 ; 
(/) on Devotion of Catholics to her, pp. 77-88 ; (g) on 
excesses in devotion : see Answers to Dr. Pusey, pp. 89-118. 

Cardinal Vaughan, in his work The Young Priest, 
p. 44 seq., writes as follows : "A Paradise of great beauty 
and perfection had been created for the Angels. A Para 
dise was created for our first parents, a garden of delights 
proportioned to their nature. A Paradise was also created 
for the Incarnate Son of God. Mary most holy. It was 
measurable not by her physical limitations, but by the 
magnitude and multitude of her spiritual endowments. 
In the moment of her Immaculate Conception the germ 
of the fulness of every grace and virtue was laid within 
her. In the exquisite and entrancing beauty of her 
sanctity she approached nearer to God than any one that 
had ever come from His creative Hand. She was a vast 
spiritual kingdom, a world of heavenly grace and loveli 
ness, so spacious that the Word moved at ease within her 
realms of light, rejoicing in a Paradise which He had 
made worthy of Himself, the masterpiece of all creation. 

" Mary was far more to Jesus than an earthly taber 
nacle, more than a natural mother to bear and nurse Him. 


She was bound up with His life, and the lifelong companion 
of His sacerdotal mission, from its beginning and ordina 
tion in her womb to its consummation in the Sacrifice of 
the Cross. 

" At the Annunciation the angel had declared that she 
was not only possessed of the fulness of grace, gratia plena, 
but that the Lord Himself was with her, Dominus tecum, 
an expression truly without significance had it only meant 
that He was with her as He is with all the souls of the 
just, or as He is everywhere present in creation. It meant 
that the Lord had become united to her by a new relation 
ship, contracted with the Three Divine Persons, a relation 
ship altogether singular and special to herself. A unique 
and personal alliance had been entered into, and God 
became related to Mary as a son to a mother. No more 
intimate union is to be found than that between God 
and the soul of Mary, except only the union between the 
two natures in Christ, and the unity of the Three Divine 
Persons. The consequences of this union of God with 
Mary are ever flowing as a river of wealth and refreshment 
through the whole spiritual order of existence, until they 
reach their ultimate results, of which we men are the 
enriched and blessed gainers. Mary is the Queen of the 
Universe, while her Son is its Lord. She is the happy 
Eve and Mother of the new creation, He its second Adam 
and its Father." 


T) ENEDICTINES (founded 563), the first and chief 
J3 monastic Order of the Western Church. The 
honour of the first celebration of the feast of the Immacu 
late Conception in the Western Church is thought to 
belong to the English Benedictine Monks of Winchester, 
disciples of the Saxon St. Ethelwold. In a manuscript 


calendar still extant, said to have been written in the 
monastery of Newminster at Winchester between the 
years 1034 and 1057, there is inscribed in the original 
hand under the 8th of December : Conceptio Sanctae Dei 
Genitricis Mariae. Another calendar of the Cathedral 
Priory at Winchester, belonging to about the year 1030, 
has the same entry. After a few years the feast seems 
to have waned, and its renewal was mainly due to the 
influence of the younger Anselm, nephew of the Saint. 
See Ave Maria Magazine, December, 1901. Article by 
Dom.C. Edmonds, O.S.B. St. Anselm, O.S.B., Arch 
bishop of Canterbury (d. 1109), famous for his devotion 
to Mary, is generally credited with having (publicly) 
established the feast in the West. The Winchester calendar 
possibly referred to a private feast kept in certain Bene 
dictine monasteries. 

Carthusians (founded 1086), an austere Order founded 
by St. Bruno in a desert valley of the Alps near Grenoble, 
and known as "La Chartreuse." Its religious consider 
themselves the special children of Mary, to whom St. 
Bruno had consecrated his Order, and honour her daily 
by special religious exercises. The first chapel erected 
in the solitude of Grenoble was dedicated in 1085 by St. 
Bruno to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, and was known 
as " Our Lady of the Cells." It became a frequent place 
of pilgrimage, and here for long centuries the monks sang 
the praises of the Most High. Besides the Divine Office 
each monk was expected to recite the Office of our Lady 
every day. 

Cistercians (founded 1098), an austere reform of the 
Benedictine Order instituted by St. Robert, Abbot of 
Molesme, who withdrew with twenty-one religious to a 
solitude known as " Citeaux " in the diocese of Chalons 
sur Soane, and there built a celebrated monastery in honour 
of our Lady. Nearly all the monasteries of the Order 
are dedicated to her. (See 32.) St. Bernard (d. 
1153) entered Citeaux not long after its foundation, and 

M.P. F 


his ardent devotion to Mary has descended as a rich heir 
loom in the Order. 

Premonstratensians (f. 1119). An Order of Canons 
Regular founded by St. Norbert, as directed by a 
revelation from our Lady. Devotion to her has 
ever been a very marked characteristic of its mem 

Dominicans (f. 1216). The devotion of the Rosary, 
so fruitful of marvellous results in the salvation of souls, 
has ever been one of the great means used by the Friars 
Preachers for the benefit of the Church, and the gaining 
souls to Christ. In the XIII Cent, the question was 
agitated whether the Blessed Virgin had been conceived 
without original sin or not. A number of schoolmen on 
the authority of Peter Lombard, Master of the Sentences 
(d. 1164), and of St. Bernard himself, adopted the view 
contrary to this privilege of Mary. (On St. Bernard and 
the Immaculate Conception see 77.) St. Thomas of 
Aquin (d. 1274) and Albert the Great (d. 1280) his master, 
are said to have supported the same opinion ; but the 
teaching of St. Thomas, the Prince of Theologians, is not 
clear. In his Commentary on the Book of the Sentences 
and other works of his youth he openly favoured the 
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. 

Franciscans (f. 1216). The Seraphic school of this 
Order have ever considered the defence of our Lady s 
Immaculate Conception as a family inheritance. The 
cause, opposed by theologians of another Order, triumphed 
when John Duns Scotus (d. 1308), a Franciscan, in a 
solemn disputation held before the theological Faculty 
of Paris by order of the Pope and in presence of his legate 
in 1307, proved convincingly with unanswerable arguments 
that the Blessed Virgin was ever free from the stain of 
original sin. (See 77.) He spoke with such eloquence, 
and answered the objections with such force that the 
Faculty, of which several famous Doctors had previously 
embraced the contrary view, declared itself for the opinion 


defended by Duns Scotus, and conferred on him the title 
of Doctor Subtilis. 

Servites (f. 1233). The Servants of Mary, founded in 
the XIII Cent, by seven Florentine Saints, who were 
directed by our Lady to practise and spread devotion to 
her Seven Dolours, are among our Lady s most zealous 
and devoted children and apostles. 

Carmelites. The devotion of the Brown Scapular, 
revealed by our Lady to St. Simon Stock, a Carmelite 
religious, belongs especially to this Order, which in other 
ways has proved itself one of the foremost of religious 
bodies in spreading the honour and cultus of Mary. St. 
Teresa and St. John of the Cross were the founders of 
the Reformed Carmelites. 

Augustinians or Austin Friars (f. 1278), an Order 
originally of hermits, but now following the rule of St. 
Augustine. Their great devotion is to our Lady of Good 
Counsel, her miraculous picture being greatly revered at 
Genezzano, Italy (see Pilgrim Walks, 473), and copies of 
it spread throughout the world. 

Redemptorists (f. 1732), Congregation of the most 
Holy Redeemer, founded by St. Alphonsus de Liguori. 
His extraordinary devotion to Mary has descended to his 
children, and is their cherished inheritance. In their 
missions to the people the Redemptorist Fathers, true 
apostles of Mary, are most zealous in spreading everywhere 
devotion to this good Mother. Our Lady of Perpetual 
Succour is one of their special devotions. On this picture 
see Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 118. 

Passionists (f. 1746). The sons of St. Paul of the 
Cross have inherited from him an enthusiastic love for 
Mary. The novice-master of Blessed Gabriel dell Addo- 
lorata, present at the latter s beatification in 1908, being 
asked for some special characteristic of the young Beato s 
sanctity, replied that as he possessed all virtues in perfec 
tion, it would be hard to single out any one as more promi 
nent than another : one remarkable trait, however, he 


might mention, viz. a passionate devotion to the blessed 

The other Religious Orders and Congregations, both 
of men and women, Vincentians, Eudists, Canons Regular 
of the Lateran, Marists, Oratorians, Salesians, and the 
rest, vie with each other which shall do most to honour 
and spread devotion to Jesus loving Mother. 

The Military Orders acknowledged Mary as their 
Queen and Mistress, and bore the sword in one hand and 
the rosary in the other. The Knights Templar swore to 
defend even to the loss of life, the mysteries of the Faith, 
the seven Sacraments the perpetual Virginity of Mary. 
The Military Orders of Spain, viz. those of Calatrava, of 
Alcantara, of St. James, made a vow to defend the doctrine 
of the Immaculate Conception. The Knights of Malta 
and Rhodes also pledged themselves to defend Mary s 



ON the devotion to Mary of the Saints of the Society, 
see above, 19, 21, 22, 23. 
It would seem, according to St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, 

the holy Jesuit lay-Brother, that one of the objects of the 
Institution of the Society was to defend the Immaculate 
Conception. In the life of the Saint written by Father 
Mathew Marimon, S.J. (Bk. 7, 49), we have the following 
passage : " Alphonsus happened one day, while in recrea 
tion with the community, to hear of the objection which 
some good people were urging against this glorious privi 
lege of his Queen and Sovereign. The question turned 
on the theses that the Religious of a certain Order had 
posted up and intended to defend in a public act against 
the Immaculate Conception. Alphonsus became so excited 


that he surprised us all by the zeal and fervour he dis 
played in defence of this privilege. He stood up, and 
stretching forth his arm, his eyes raised to heaven, in a 
loud voice he exclaimed : Let no one attack the Mother 
of God, for, although she is so kind, and gentleness and 
sweetness itself, she has a Son exceedingly jealous of His 
Mother s honour, and numbers of Angels, who well know 
how to defend their Queen and avenge (any denial of) the 
purity of her origin/ Then he added that one of the 
reasons why God had sent the Society into the world was 
to teach and defend this truth in Holy Church/ Seeing 
him speak with such animation, one of the Fathers present 
said to him : Brother Rodriguez, how do you know that 
God has sent the Society into the world to defend the 
Immaculate Conception of our Lady ? He replied : I 
know it for certain : and again lifting up his hand and 
eyes to heaven, he added : It is from there above, from 
on high that I learnt it ; and if Father Rector will give 
me leave I will go and proclaim this in the streets of 
Palma/ " 

Father Goldie in his life of St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, p. 
351, writes : " Certain it is (a) that the Founder of the 
Society of Jesus bound himself by vow to defend the 
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, as St. Francis 
Xavier, St. Francis Borgia, and St. John Berchmans did 
after him. (b) Father James Laynez attributed to his 
invocation of our Lady under the title of Immaculate, 
the power he received, in spite of an attack of quartan 
ague, to speak at the Council of Trent, and that with such 
force as to obtain from the assembled Fathers an important 
concession in favour of the doctrine. 1 (c) The last clause 
of the Decrees of the Fifth Session on Original Sin/ which 
refuses to include Mary under the law common to all 
humanity, owes its existence to the learned arguments 
of Laynez. (d) The same doctrine was defended in the 

1 He is said to have spoken at the Council for three consecutive 
hours on the Immaculate Conception, 


very first public theses of the Roman College, (e) Its 
defence was imposed by oath on all graduates of St. Francis 
Borgia s University of Gandia. (/) Its defence was under 
taken by Suarez in his theological works ; and finally, 
in 1594, was ordered by the Fifth General Congregation 
of the Society to be taught by all its theologians." 

The Society, which came into existence only in the 
middle of the sixteenth century, vied nobly with the 
Franciscans in upholding the doctrine of Mary s Immacu 
late Conception, Bellarmine, Suarez, de Lugo, Salazar, 
Petavius (Petau), Lossada and others being among its 
chief supporters and defenders. 

Books innumerable have been written by the Society 
on our Lady s privileges, the best known being those of 
Blessed Peter Canisius, Fathers Arias, Barradas, Viegas, 
Tursellini, Bruno, Spinelli, Segneri, Poire, and the works 
of the great Jesuit theologians above-mentioned. 

The first church owned by the Society was Santa Maria 
della Strada, Rome. Cardinal Baronius bore public 
testimony to the remarkable fervour in the frequentation 
of the Sacraments as seen in this church. At the time 
yearly Communion had been thought sufficient by the 
majority of Catholics. 

Venerable Father Guttierez, S. J., in a vision vouchsafed 
to him saw our Lady protecting with her mantle the 
children of the Society (Ven. Fr. Louis de Ponte, Life of 
Father Balthasar Alvarez, c. 27), a vision similar to that of 
St. Dominic related above. 

On the establishment of the Sodality B.M.V. by a member 
of the Society, and on the May devotions originating in 
the Society, see 68. 

On our Lady and the Society see Father Drive, Marie 
et la Compagnie de Jesus. 





i. England her Dowry. The Ancient Faith 

N a touching address on devotion to the Blessed Virgin, 
Dr. Bilsborrow, former Bishop of Salford, reminded 
his hearers that ever since the introduction of Christianity 
into this island, Englishmen had practised this devotion 
with a sincerity of conviction and a fervour of piety not 
surpassed by any other nation in the world. " For upwards 
of 1500 years, he said, it was interwoven with the woof 
and web of their lives, and mingled with all their thoughts 
and duties to God. In no country of the world, perhaps, 
were there more numerous sanctuaries, more miraculous 
images, more celebrated shrines of our Lady than in old 
Catholic England. In fact it so rilled the imagination of 
the architect, inspired the chisel of the sculptor, guided 
the brush of the painter, and welled up in the heart of 
every Christian in the land, that England became known 
amongst the nations of the earth by the beautiful title 
of the Dowry of Mary." 

i. The Dowry of Mary. In 1893 Pope Leo XIII, 
addressing a number of English pilgrims conducted by 
the Duke of Norfolk and presented to His Holiness by 
Cardinal Vaughan, spoke of Catholic England as having 
" acquired the singular and honourable title of Mary s 
Dowry." DosMariaeis the title claimed for England in 
Latin documents of the XV Cent., meaning a land 
specially given and consecrated to our Lady. In the year 
1399 (the date of Richard II s deposition and Henry IV s 
accession), Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
wrote these words : " The contemplation of the great 
mystery of the Incarnation has drawn all Christian nations 
to venerate Her from whom came the first beginnings of 
our Redemption. But we English, being the servants of 
her special inheritance and her own Dowry, as we are 


commonly called, ought to surpass others in the fervour 
of our praises and devotions/ 

An idea of the wonderful devotion to her in old England 
may be gathered from the following verses in her honour 
written in the XII or XIII Cent. The spelling is 
modernized : 

" Christ s meek Mother, Saint Marye ! 
My life s light, my beloved Ladye ! 
To thee I bow and bend my knee, 
And all my heart s blood I offer thee. 
Thou art my soul s light, my heart s bliss, 
My life, my hope, my safety therewith ! 

" I ought to honour thee with all my might, 
And sing thy praise by day and night : 
For thou hast holpen me in many ways, 
And brought me out of hell l to Paradise. 
I thank thee for it, my beloved Ladye, 
And will thank thee while I live." 

An old prayer to our Lady by the monk Elmham (in 
the reign of Henry V, 1413-1422) contains the words : 
" Save thy people, O Lady, and deliver thy Dowry from 
the pestilence of death." This possibly refers to the 
heresy of Sir John Oldcastle (Lord Cobham) and the 
Lollards. That Henry V consecrated his kingdom to our 
Lady is certain, though he was riot the first to do this. 
See Father Bridgett, Dowry of Mary. 

During the reign of James I (d. 1625), a paper, now in 
the British Museum, was discovered giving an account 
of a picture known to have been in the church of St. Thomas 
Hospital, Rome, and described as a very ancient picture. 
It portrays a King and Queen kneeling and presenting 
the Island of Britain to Mary, saying : " Dos tua, Virgo 
pia, haec est, quare rege Maria," i.e. " This is thy Dowry, 
O loving Virgin, wherefore rule it " (take it under thy 
guidance). The King is supposed to be Richard II (d. 
I 399), with his Queen, Anne of Bohemia. 

1 I.e., out of the state of sin deserving hell. 


Note. It is thought to have been on occasion of the 
putting down of the Wat Tyler insurrection under Richard 

II (1378) that England was first publicly consecrated by 
the King to Mary, for the monarch went to Westminster, 
and there placed himself and his Kingdom under her 

Another picture, discovered in 1800 behind the wains 
coting in that part of the House of Commons which was 
formerly St. Stephen s Chapel, represents King Edward 

III (d. 1377) with his Queen Philippa and children doing 
homage to our Lady and Child. (See 49.) 

2. The Ancient Faith of England 

(a) in the Immaculate Conception. Because of 
her sublime dignity as Mother of God, the English of 
Saxon days could never bring themselves to entertain the 
thought that she was ever tainted with the slightest stain 
of sin. Thus in a MS. called the Book of Cerne, now in 
the University Library at Cambridge, which belonged to 
Ethel wold, Bishop of Sherbourne in 760, we read the 
following prayer : " Holy Mother of God, Virgin ever 
blest, glorious and noble, chaste and inviolate ; O Mary 
Immaculate, chosen and beloved of God, endowed with 
singular sanctity, worthy of all praise, thou who art the 
advocate for the sins of the whole world : Oh, listen, 
listen to us, O holy Mary. Pray for us, intercede for 
us, disdain not to help us. For we are confident and 
know for certain that thou canst obtain all thou wiliest 
from thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, God Almighty, the 
King of Ages, who liveth with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost for ever and ever. Amen/ 

(b) In the Divine Motherhood. At the Council of 
Hatfield, held A.D. 680, the Anglo-Saxon Church embraced 
and proclaimed the Decrees of the Council of Lateran 
(A.D. 649), one of which runs thus : "If any one shall 
not confess, in accordance with the teaching of the Holy 
Fathers, that the holy and ever- Virgin and immaculate 
Mary is properly and truly the Mother of God Who 


before all ages was born of the Father let him be ana 
thema." Canon Connelly : England and the Blessed Virgin, 

(c) In her Perpetual Virginity. Equally clear and 
definite were they on the doctrine of the Perpetual Vir 
ginity of Mary, the counterpart and necessary consequence 
of her Divine Maternity ; for in the Decree just quoted 
they salute her as " the holy and ever- Virgin and immacu 
late Mary, (who), without union with man, but of the 
Holy Ghost conceived God Himself, the Word, and brought 
Him forth without corruption, retaining indissolubly her 
virginity, even after the birth." Ibid. 

(d) In her Assumption. St. Anselm, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, preaching in the XI Cent, on a feast of 
the Assumption, says, speaking of Mary : "No longer is 
She solicitous how to serve Him as a Child, for all the 
hierarchies of the Angels serve Him as their Lord. No 
longer is she troubled flying with Him into Egypt from 
the face of Herod ; for He has ascended into Heaven, 
and Herod has gone down into hell before His face. No 
longer is she disturbed on account of the many things the 
Jews did against Him; for all things are now subject to 
Him. And now Mary herself is exalted above the choirs 
of Angels ; now all her desire is fulfilled ; she sees God 
face to face as He is, and rejoices with her Son for ever. 
This is the best part which shall not be taken from her. 
May we be partakers of it by her merits and her prayers, 
through her Son Jesus Christ, Who liveth and reigneth 
with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Ghost for 
ever and ever. Amen." 

St. Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherbourne, in some verses 
written about A.D. 690, speaks of the festival of our Lady s 
Assumption kept in August, as commemorative of her 
Nativity, i.e. her (heavenly) birthday. See The Month, 
August, 1917, p. 132, 



2. Ancient Devotions 

WHAT our forefathers believed with regard to the 
Blessed Virgin may be summed up in one 
sentence : " Mary is the Mother of God." 

1. The Marye Mass. Every village church, however 
small, had its altar in honour of the Blessed Virgin. In 
the Cathedrals and stately Minsters, behind the choir 
and High Altar was the Lady Chapel, to the extreme 
east, symbolizing her as the Morning Star that heralded 
the coming day. In old Catholic days a special Mass 
was offered to God every day, in almost every church and 
chapel throughout the land, in honour of the Blessed 
Virgin. " It was celebrated at early dawn with the utmost 
solemnity, with organ and choristers, chanting the sweetest 
and most touching music of those times." Dr. Rock, 
Church of our Fathers. 

This Marye Mass will be again referred to in a subse 
quent section. 

2. Office of our Lady. There is abundant evidence 
to show that in old Catholic times the laity as well as the 
clergy were accustomed to recite daily the Office of our 
Lady ; and it is clear, too, that they learnt it in their 
childhood, and were so familiar with it that they could 
say it by heart, and even recited it together while dressing 
in the morning. Thus, in the Book of Courtesay, printed 
by Caxton about 1477, " Little John " is admonished 

" While that ye be abouten honestly 
To dress yourself and do on your array, 
With your fellow well and tretably 
Our Lady s Matins look ye that ye say." 

Similarly the statutes of Eton College, founded by 
Henry VI in 1440, prescribe that the scholars, as soon as 


they have risen, and while making their beds, shall say 
the Matins of our blessed Lady. 

3. The Rosary or Mary Psalter. The less learned, 
unable to read, had provided for them the Mary Psalter 
or Rosary. The founders of colleges and other pious 
institutions frequently imposed the obligation of prac 
tising this devotion upon those who should hereafter 
partake of their benefits. Thus Henry VI wished that 
the scholars of Eton should every day repeat the whole 
Psalter of Mary (i.e. the fifteen decades of the Rosary) ; 
and William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, who in 
1456 built and munificently endowed St. Mary Magdalen 
College, Oxford, enjoined that the President and each 
of the Fellows of the said College should, with all possible 
devotion, on their bended knees, recite " fifty times over 
the Angelical Salutation, together with the Lord s Prayer 
after every ten rehearsals of the Salutation aforesaid." 

Writing about the year 1490 to the Head of his Republic, 
the Venetian ambassador states that it was a common 
practice for the people of England to hear Mass every 
day, and say the Rosary in public frequently. All the 
women would carry with them beads, and all who could 
read took with them to church the Office of the Blessed 
Virgin. It was also the custom for every one to fast on 
Saturdays in Mary s honour ; and, at the battle of Crecy 
(1346), the men went into battle breakfastless in our 
Lady s honour, it being Saturday. 

4. The Angelus. At the end of the XIV Cent. 
Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, at the special 
request of King Henry IV, enjoined that in the morning 
on awakening, as well as at nightfall, the bells should be 
tolled to invite the faithful to recite one Our Father and 
five Hail Marys in veneration of " Our Lady Mary, the 
Mother of God, our patroness and protector in all adver 
sities " : and he granted forty days indulgence to all who 
practised this devotion. 

Dr. Rock in The Church of our Fathers writes : " In 


many and many of those grey church towers which we 
so often see peeping over the trees as we wander by, there 
yet hangs the very bell the Gabriel bell/ so our fathers 
called it which the sexton had to ring at morn and at 
evening every day as a bidding to the people to the sick 
in bed and to the healthy, to those at home and those 
abroad, that they should greet our Lady with their five 
Hail Marys ; and all about its rim can still be read the 
quaint verse speaking of the Archangel and St. Mary." 
He adds : " The mid-day bell was never rung in England ; 
and the Angelus, as it is now said in all Catholic countries, 
did not come into use before the beginning of the XVI 
Cent, and seems to have commenced in France." 


3. Shrines 

MARY S shrines in England were renowned for their 
glory far beyond the sea : the beautiful Lady 
chapels in the Cathedrals and parish churches, blazing 
with gold and colour, the Mary Mass, the Mary Guilds in 
city and village, all proclaimed that the Island of the 
Saints was ruled by the Queen of Heaven, and belonged 
to her as her Dowry. 

i. Our Ladye of Glastonbury in Somersetshire was 
the most ancient and venerable sanctuary of the Blessed 
Virgin in England. According to tradition it was originally 
a little oratory formed of wattled twigs and branches of 
trees, said to have been erected by St. Joseph of Arimathea. 
Two centuries later it was rebuilt in stone ; and in the 
year 530, St. David added a Ladye Chapel. In 708 Ina, 
King of the West Saxons, reconstructed the Abbey and 
church, and also built the " Silver Chapel," as it was 
called from its richness. For the construction and adorn- 


ment of this chapel Ina gave 2,640 Ibs. of silver, and some 
600 Ibs. of gold ; his other gifts being a rich chalice and 
paten, a censer, covers for the Holy Gospels, besides orna 
ments for the altar ; likewise 175 Ibs. of silver and 38 
Ibs. of gold for images of our Lord, our blessed Lady and 
the twelve Apostles. See Waterton s Pietas Britannica, 
and Canon Connelly s Pamphlet England and the Blessed 
Virgin, C.T.S. 

During the reign of Henry II (1154-1189) the church 
was burnt to the ground, and he resolved to replace it 
by a structure of greater splendour. By a special charter 
he confirmed all the privileges granted by his predecessors 
to this church, which, as he sets forth in this document, 
" is called by some the Mother of Saints, and by others 
the Tomb of Saints, and which, built by the very Disciples 
of our Lord, was first of all dedicated by our Lord Himself, 
according to venerable ancient authority/ 

Several Kings made pilgrimages to Glastonbury, and 
many of the noblest of the land sought to be buried there, 
so that they might await the day of doom under the pro 
tection of our Lady. Waterton, II. 43. Connelly, Ibid. 

It was in the sanctuary of Glastonbury that Kindreda, St. 
Dunstan s mother, was foretold the future greatness and 
holiness of her child, who became Primate of England and a 
glorious Saint. Here, too, St. Dunstan spent whole nights in 
prayer. It is related of King Edgar, surnamed the Peace 
able, that he here laid his sceptre on our Lady s altar, and 
solemnly placed his Kingdom under her protection. 

2. Our Lady of Coventry. The celebrated image 
of Our Lady of Coventry is and will be for ever associated 
with the name of that perfect model of an Anglo-Saxon 
lady, Godgifu (Godiva), wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, 
described as " tune faeminarum pulcherrima, sic corde 
sanctissima." Here she and her pious husband founded 
a magnificent abbey in the XI Cent, (before the Norman 
Conquest), the church of which was consecrated in 1043. 
She further gave to this church of our Lady all her treasures ; 


and sending for goldsmiths, devoutly distributed all the 
gold and silver she possessed to make covers for the sacred 
books, images of the Saints, and ornaments for the altar. 
In a word, for the love of God and the service of the Church 
she literally despoiled herself of all her personal property. 
Waterton, II. 21. On her death-bed she desired that a 
rich chaplet of precious gems, valued at one hundred marks, 
on which she used to repeat her prayers, should be hung 
round the neck of Our Lady of Coventry whom she so 
dearly loved. She was buried in the porch of the church 
not far from our Lady s statue. 

Of Coventry Church an ancient historian records that 
" never before had so splendid a church been raised in 
England. It contained every ornament and decoration 
wrought by the art of man that boundless wealth, spent 
with lavish and pious hands, could supply. It was so 
enriched with gold and silver that the very walls seemed 
too confined to contain the treasures, and the eyes of the 
beholders were dazzled, as though what they saw was not 
a reality, but something supernatural." Canon Connelly, 
Ibid. Of this splendid edifice not a stone remains ; its 
immense treasures were carried off to enrich Henry VIIFs 

3. Our Lady of Walsingham. The story of this 
renowned sanctuary is related by Canon Connelly as 
follows : The most celebrated of all the English sanctuaries 
of our Lady was at Walsingham, a market town in the 
county of Norfolk, rather more than a hundred miles from 
London. Ancient records state that towards the end of 
the XI Cent, some five or six years before the Norman Con 
quest, a noble lady of Walsingham named Richeldis was fav 
oured by the Blessed Virgin in a vision with a sight of the 
Holy House of Nazareth, and told to build one like it at 
Walsingham on a site which would be indicated to her. 
Tradition relates that this pious lady caused the materials 
to be prepared, but being still in doubt as to the exact 
spot on which the chapel was to be built, she spent the 


night in prayer, and meanwhile " our Lady herself being 
the chief artificer/ built it with the assistance of Angels, 
and on this account it was that this sanctuary was held 
in such extraordinary veneration by our forefathers. 
Such is the legend. This chapel of Walsingham is said 
to have been an exact counterpart of the Holy House of 
Nazareth. (See 63.) 

Erasmus, the great scholar of Rotterdam, contemporary 
and friend of Blessed Thomas More, visited the sanctuary 
in 1509 and thus describes it : " Within the building (the 
church) there is a small chapel which admits by a narrow 
little door on either side those who come to salute our 
Lady : the light is feeble, in fact scarcely any except from 
the wax candles." One unceasing movement of pilgrims 
to and from Walsingham up to the Dissolution shows how 
much this sanctuary was revered. 1 Northcote s Sanc 
tuaries of the Madonna, 252 seq. Kings as pilgrims to 
Walsingham, see 49. 


3. Shrines (cont.) 

4. T^ VESHAM, in Worcestershire, on the banks of 
fj the Severn. A swineherd named Eoves hap 
pened on a certain day to penetrate into a thicket in a 
valley near the river, when he beheld a Lady standing 
on a particular spot with two other virgins, one on either 
side, all three of surpassing beauty and radiant with sun- 
like splendour. Terrified and trembling he returned home, 
and related all he had seen to the Bishop Egwin. 2 The 

1 The chapel was demolished and the statue burnt in the reign 
of Henry VIII. 

2 The third Bishop of Worcester. 


latter, having maturely considered the matter, after prayer 
and fasting, took with him three companions and proceeded 
barefoot to the valley. On reaching the thicket, the 
Bishop leaving his companions went in alone, and pros 
trating on the ground remained a long time in prayer. 
When he rose he beheld the three Virgins in brilliant light 
as they had appeared to Eoves. But she who stood in 
the centre far outshone her companions in glory, and seemed 
to him whiter than the lily, more brilliant than the rose, 
while all around was diffused a heavenly fragrance. Our 
Lady, for it was she, bade him erect a church on that 
spot and dedicate it to her. The church was completed 
in 701 through the assistance of Off a, King of the East 
Angles, and the two Mercian Kings Ethelred and Coenred. 
Eversham with its miraculous image of Mary became a 
favourite place of pilgrimage. Northcote, Ibid. 238. 

5. Tewkesbury, near Worcester, had a celebrated 
sanctuary of our Lady founded in 715 by the two Mercian 
nobles Oddo and Dodo. The church possessed a large 
wooden image of the Blessed Virgin, greatly revered by 
the people, which, though it escaped destruction in the 
time of the Reformation, was sadly desecrated in the 
reign of James I, being hollowed out by a Puritan and 
converted into a trough for swine. Terrible chastisement 
overtook the unhappy man and his famity. Ibid. 


6. Lincoln. We find Our Lady of Lincoln frequently 
mentioned among the sanctuaries which were regarded 
by the English with special veneration ; and the inhabi 
tants of Lincoln who took part with King Stephen in the 
civil war, choosing her as their special patroness, attri 
buted to her intercession the great victory they obtained 
in 1147 over the Earl of Chester. 

In the cathedral inventory there is mention of the " great 
image of our Lady seated in a chair, silver and gilt, having 
a crown on her head, silver and gilt, set with stones and 
pearls ; and her Child sitting on her knee with a crown upon 

M.P. G 


His head, with a diadem set with pearls and stones, having 
a ball (an orb) with a cross silver and gilt in His left hand." 
Ibid. 246. 

Whilst Henry VIII before his fall was walking in a 
procession of the Blessed Sacrament at Lincoln, the sight 
of the jewels and plate that glittered before him must 
have excited his avarice. Some time later he issued orders 
that all the superfluous plate, gold, silver, and jewels 
should be removed from this shrine and " conveyed to 
our jewel house in London." 

7. Ipswich. This appears to have been a very popular 
though less ancient place of pilgrimage. The image stood 
in a chapel commonly called " Our Lady of Grace," at 
the corner of a lane still known as " Lady Lane." It 
was much frequented in Catholic times, but especially 
under the Tudor sovereign Henry VII. We find it named 
among the sanctuaries to which Elizabeth of York, the 
consort of Henry VII, made her yearly offerings the 
others that shared her benefactions being Our Lady of 
Windsor, Our Lady of Eton, Our Lady of Caversham, Our 
Lady of Walsingham, and four others. It was to the 
chapel of Our Lady of Ipswich that Cardinal Wolsey, 
himself an Ipswich man, ordered a yearly procession to 
be made on the feast of our Lady s Nativity by the college 
which he founded in his native town. There exists in 
the Vatican a letter from the Cardinal to Pope Clement 
VII, dated April 16, 1526, thanking His Holiness for the 
Indulgences granted to this sanctuary. Of Our Lady 
of Ipswich Blessed Thomas More writes that " the man 
must seem mad who should mistrust (doubt) the miracles 
worked there." The miraculous image was publicly 
burnt at the Reformation. 

8. Wilsdon or Willesden. An image of Mary was 
greatly venerated in St. Mary s Church, Wilsdon, a parish 
on the western boundary of Hampstead. So early as the 
year 1251 we find an inventory of the goods and ornaments 
belonging to Wilsdon Church, which includes a scarlet 


Banner with a figure of the Blessed Virgin worked in cloth 
>f gold, and two images of our Lady. 

9. Our Lady of Caversham, a shrine in Buckingham- 
hire, was held in high repute. The image stood in a 
:hapel attached to the church. King John in 1199 made 

a grant of the church and lands to the Austin Canons of 
^utley. Rich offerings to Our Lady of Caversham were 
made by Isabel, Countess of Warwick, and Gilbert Mari- 
schale, Earl of Pembroke. 

10. Our Lady of Abingdon. In 675 Cyssa founded 
lere a church in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and a monas- 
.ery for twelve Benedictine monks. It became richly 

endowed, for the Anglo-Saxons loved " to make God and 

our Lady their heirs/ The charters of donations were 

everently laid by the donors on the altar. St. Edward 

he Martyr and St. Dunstan encouraged the people to 

make pilgrimages to Our Lady of Abingdon. 

Besides the above there were many other famous images 
and shrines of the Virgin Mother to be found in every 
Dart of the country. The English images of our Lady 
were renowned for their beauty. Travellers from the 

ontinent mention this as a striking feature, and one 
writer of ancient times says of the image of Mary in the 
Abbey church at Reading that "it is so exceedingly 
elegant that I have never beheld, nor shall I ever see one 
to be compared to it, even were I to go to the extreme 
ends of the earth. Nothing more beautiful nor more 
lovely could be executed." The image at St. Alban s 
was known as " Our Lady the Beautiful " ; and critics 
acknowledge that one of the very best miniature paintings 
of- the XIII Cent, is an English picture of our Lady. 
The images (as seen above) were often made of gold or 

liver gilt ; and when of stone or wood, they were crowned 
with diadems of gold. Wealthy ladies bequeathed for 
the use of these statues their jewels and costly ornaments, 
while noble knights hung their swords about the shrine. 



4. Abbeys. Colleges 

A BBEYS. In the Cistercian Order, to whose devoted- 
./~\ ness England was indebted for the magnificent 
abbeys of York, Waverley, Buildwas, Tintern, Fountains, 
Furness, and many others, it was an invariable rule to 
dedicate all their churches and monasteries without excep 
tion to the Virgin Mother of God. Not a few of the Abbeys 
in England, such as Kirkstall and Joreval in Yorkshire, 
and Vale Royal in Cheshire, were founded and endowed 
in fulfilment of vows to the Blessed Virgin, and in grati 
tude for blessings received through her hands. 

Colleges. Both Oxford and Cambridge had their 
celebrated statues of our Lady. It was before the Oxford 
one that St. Edmund of Canterbury, when a boy, made 
his vow of perpetual chastity. (See 15.) 

Eton College was founded by King Henry VI in 1440, 
under the title of " The College of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
of Eton beside Windsor." The original foundation con 
sisted of a Provost, ten priests, four clerks, six choristers, 
twenty-five poor grammar-scholars, and twenty-five poor 
infirm men. Bishop Wayneflete (of Winchester) was the 
first Head-Master, and afterward a munificent benefactor 
of the College. As stated above, the statutes of the 
College prescribe that the scholars, as soon as they have 
risen, and while making their beds, shall say the Matins 
of our Lady, which they had to know by heart. Also 
they were required to say every day the Mary Psalter, 
i.e. the Rosary, 29. 

Magdalen College, Oxford, founded by Bishop Patten 
of Wayneflete in 1458. In the statutes provision is made 
for our Lady s Antiphon to be sung on Saturdays, " Our 
pleasure is that on every Saturday throughout the year, 


and on all the eves of the feasts of the Blessed Virgin 
Marye, after Compline, all and each of the said Fellows 
and Scholars and Ministers of our chapel, do devoutly 
perform among themselves in the common hall by note, 
an Antiphon of the said Glorious Virgin." He also enjoined 
on all the daily recitation of the Rosary. Waterton, 34. 

King s College, Cambridge, founded by Henry VI 
in 1443. Its statutes are equally precise with those of 
Eton in regard to devotional exercises to our Lady. 

Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, dedicated to our 
Lord in the Blessed Sacrament, and to " His most spot 
less Mother." A similar statute to that of Magdalen 
College with regard to the singing of an Antiphon B.M.V. 
was made by its founder, Bishop Richard Fox of Win 
chester, A.D. 1516. 

New College, Oxford, founded in 1379 by William of 
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, was dedicated by him 
to our Lady, whose statue still crowns the gateway. 

English Saints and our Lady. St. Thomas of Here 
ford, St. Richard of Chichester, St. Hugh of Lincoln 
(French), St. Anselm of Canterbury (Piedmontese), St. 
Wilfrid of Ripon, St. John of Beverley, St. Bede of Jarrow, 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Cuthbert of Durham, St. 
Godric of Finchale with many other English Saints were 
conspicuous for their tender filial piety to the Blessed 


5. Pilgrimages 

OUR forefathers were great pilgrims and devout clients 
of Mary. They never forgot that England was 
her Dowry. The stones of hundreds of its now desolate 
churches still remain as witnesses to the ancient devotion. 


To some of her English shrines, as Walsingham, Abingdon, 
Willesden, there was an unceasing stream of pilgrims, 
each with his staff blessed according to the special rite 
of the Old Sarum Missal. In the Council of Calne, A.D. 
978, it was decreed that it should be lawful for the people 
to make pilgrimages to Our Lady of Abingdon, and many 
English royal pilgrims went thither. Henry II, on recover 
ing from a severe illness, went on pilgrimage, as he had 
vowed, to Our Lady of Rocamadour. To the little chapel 
of our Lady at Caversham there was a perpetual conflux 
of pilgrims. At Newcastle-on-Tyne, Pilgrim Street still 
records the piety of the townsfolk. Cardinal Wolsey 
ordered a yearly pilgrimage to be made to Our Lady of 
Grace at Ipswich. The devotion of some of England s 
Kings, as shown by their pilgrimages to her sanctuaries, 
is mentioned elsewhere. ( 48.) 

Our Lady of Ardenburg, Great Yarmouth, was a 
favourite shrine resorted to by Catholic sailors. Barnes 
in his Life of Edward III, p. 180, tells us that of the 260 
ships, which then composed the English fleet, sixty at 
least were from Yarmouth, and manned by stalwart East 

Salisbury was also a noted place of pilgrimage during 
the Ages of Faith ; in fact Our Lady of Salisbury is men 
tioned in the " Witt en Bouc " amongst the more famous 
shrines to which penitential pilgrimages were made. 

At Leeds in the year 1376, a chapel dedicated to St. 
Mary the Virgin was built " together with the bridge." 
It stood at the north-eastern end, and in it, as in most 
of these sanctuaries, Masses were said at a very early 
hour for the benefit of travellers. Nesbitt, Our Lady in 
the Church, pp. 12, 61. 



i. QT. PATRICK, the Apostle of Ireland, always 
w^ spoke of our Lord as the " Son of the Virgin/ 
and of Mary, as " Mary, Mother of God." His disciples 
caught up his spirit, and, when he had passed away, they 
transmitted to others that glowing love for Jesus and 
Mary, which was such a distinctive feature of the life 
and teaching of the Saint. They filled the Irish mind 
with admiration of the beauty of the Mother and the 
Son ; they thrilled the Irish heart with their love ; and 
this admiration and love found expression in the Hymns 
and Litanies that were composed. There is yet in exist 
ence a remarkable Litany of the Blessed Virgin, which 
has come down from the middle of the VIII Cent. 
It is replete with poetic imagery, and so fragrant with 
genuine piety that, when translated into English, it was 
enriched with an indulgence of 300 days by Pope Pius IX. 

In the VIII, IX, and X Cents, monasteries and 
churches studded the land, and very many of these were 
placed under the protection and invocation of Mary. 
In fact " Mary s Church or Chapel " became in course of 
time a familiar name throughout the land and was used to 
designate localities. It still survives in the corrupted form 
of Kilmurry. Note. On the above Litany see end of book. 

2. The Blessed Virgin in Ireland was not spoken of as 
" Our Lady," or even as " Our Blessed Lady," but as 
" Mary Mother," " Mary the blessed, the beloved," " The 
darling Virgin." " This Virgin, full of grace and blessed 
amongst women, was always before the mind and in the 
heart of the Irish people. Her memory sweetened their 
many trials, her image beautified their humble homes, 
herjcult sanctified their daily lives, and her dear name 
lent its beauty and its fragrance to their ordinary saluta 
tions and greetings. Even to this day in many parts 


of Ireland, instead of the usual Good morning/ Good 
evening/ people greet you with such words as God bless 
you/ God and Mary bless you/ Father Augustine, 

3. Early in the XIII Cent, the sons of St. Dominic 
came to Ireland and preached the devotion of the Rosary. 
They were helped by their brother Religious, the Augus- 
tinians and Franciscans, and also by the secular clergy, 
who vied with each other in propagating this beautiful 
devotion to Mary. In consequence the love of the Rosary 
spread rapidly throughout the land, and so entered into 
the spiritual life of the Irish people, that two centuries 
later they remained loyal to Jesus and Mary, despite all 
the tyranny and oppression that marked the so-called 
Reformation. " Their persecutors might break the statues 
in the churches, they might tear the pictures in the houses, 
they might hack the images in the squares ; but they could 
never take the Rosary of Mary from Irish hands, nor erase 
the name of Mary from Irish hearts." Idem. 

4. The Irish carried their reverence for the holy Name 
of Mary to a remarkable degree. Influenced in early 
ages by profound feelings of humility and respect, they 
never assumed the names of the Blessed Virgin or of 
certain Saints for their children at Baptism, reserving them 
exclusively for those holy persons who had borne them ; 
and adopted the prefix Mael or Maol, so common in Irish 
names, which signifies " servant." Thus " Maelisa " 
means " Servant of Jesus " ; " Maelmuire," servant of 
Mary; Maelphadraic/ servant of Patrick. "Mael 
muire " was borne both by men and women. Waterton, 
20. On the subject of the " Royal Name of Mary " the 
Irish Messenger of the S.H. (May, 1916) presents the 
following reflections. It has been said with truth that 
the fidelity of the Irish race to the Faith which St. Patrick 
brought them, is due above all else to the love and devotion 
they have always borne to the Mother of God. They were 
always jealous of their titles and of the names they gave 


to their kings and queens, to their scholars and their 
warriors. And to mark their love and reverence for Mary, 
their refuge and comfortress in all dangers and trials, 
they gave her a name that was to be hers alone for ever, 
the sacred name of Muire and no Mary of the Irish 
race, no matter how high her station or how grand her 
gifts, has ever been allowed to call herself by that honoured 
name, set specially apart for the Mother of Jesus. 

The name of Mary has ever been a talisman among the 
children of the Gael. There is nothing more inspiring or 
more glorious in the history of any land than the victory 
of Benburb, when, outnumbered and to all appearances 
defeated, the Irish soldiers rallied at the inspired battle- 
cry given to them by Owen Roe O Neill, " Sancta Maria ! " 
At once they faced their foes in a final charge and sent 
them flying in all directions, completely routed and dis 
mayed. And when Red Hugh O Donnell roused his men 
to valiant deeds at the battle of the Curlew Mountains, 
it was of " Holy Mary s honour/ defiled by the " tainted 
lips " of the heretical invaders that he spoke, and no higher 
or holier cause could those brave and simple men desire 
to do battle for. In the penal days, in the days of famine 
and pestilence and eviction, on the bleak roadside, on the 
deck of the emigrant ship or amid the horrors of enforced 
exile, it was Mary s name and Mary s aid, implored through 
the holy Rosary, that kept Faith and Hope and Charity 
alive in many a sorrow-clouded soul. 

5. The ancient Irish Litany above mentioned was 
probably composed in the famous monastery of Clonsart 
as early as the year 725, and used by St. Broghan s com 
munity there, contains many titles that are strikingly 
beautiful. In it the Blessed Virgin is appealed to as " O 
great Mary, O greatest of Marys, Blessed and most 
blessed, Mother of eternal glory, Mother of the heavenly 
and earthly Church, Mother of love and indulgence, 
Mother of the golden light, Harbinger of peace, Golden 
casket, Temple of the Divinity, Beauty of virgins, 


Fountain of the gardens, Mother of orphans, Refuge 
of the wretched, Abode of the Godhead, Garden en 
closed, Fountain sealed, Perpetual Virgin, Temple of 
the living God, Throne of the Eternal King, Sanctuary 
of the Holy Spirit, Virgin of the Root of Jesse, Cedar 
of Mount Lebanon, Cypress of Mount Sion, Crimson 
Rose in the land of Jacob, Fruitful like the olive, Bloom 
ing like the palm, Light of Nazareth, Glory of Jerusa 
lem, Beauty of the world, Noblest born of the Christian 
people, Queen of the world, Ladder of heaven." From 
an authorized translation. 

6. Shrines of our Lady in Ireland. 

Our Lady of Youghal. This image was found in a 
beam of timber cast ashore at Youghal some time in the 
first half of the XV Cent. It was venerated in the 
Dominican House at Youghal until the outbreak of the 
Elizabethan persecution, and is said to have been famous 
at the time for numerous miracles. It is now in St. Mary s 
Church, Cork. A copy of it in carved stone is to be seen 
in the Parish Church, Youghal, where it is a cherished 
object of popular devotion. 

Our Lady of Drogheda. In 1345, Richard Fitz- 
william, Mayor of Drogheda, had license to assign four 
acres of land for increasing and maintaining lights before 
this venerable image of our blessed Lady. Waterton, 

Our Lady of Limerick. A greatly venerated and 
richly adorned statue, which was despoiled of its silver 
and other ornaments in the thirtieth year of King Henry 
VIII. Ibid. The statue was probably destroyed. 

Our Lady of Muckross. When the English were 
devastating the abbey, and had torn down and trampled 
on the figure of our Lord on the Rood, some of the friars 
carried off the image of our Lady and placed it at the 
foot of a dead tree which had lost its bark. Lo ! immedi 
ately the dead tree revived, and budded forth leaves and 
shoots. Ibid. 309. 


Our Lady of Navan. In July, 1539, the image of 
our blessed Lady, so long held in veneration here, and to 
which people from all parts of Ireland came on pilgrimage, 
was torn from her altar and sacrilegiously destroyed. 

Our Lady of Trim. This was the most celebrated 
sanctuary of our Lady in Ireland. Pilgrims resorted to 
it from all parts of the country, the Irish and Anglo-Irish 
vying with each other in reverencing and enriching it 
with votive offerings. Ibid. 311. Miracles were recorded 
here in 1397, 1412, 1444, 1464. It was burnt by Protes 
tants in 1537. 

7. Early Irish Poets and our Lady. From the V, 
VI, VIII Cent. Irish writers have composed beautiful 
Latin hymns in honour of the Mother of God. The chief 
among them Sedulius Caelius, V Cent., acquired a 
widespread fame throughout Christendom. His sweet 
address to the Virgin Mother has been hallowed by uni 
versal use throughout the Church, and its opening lines 
" Salve Sancta Parens, etc." are still recited in the Office 
and votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin. The following 
is a translation of a portion of this address : 

" Hail, holy Mother, who hast given birth to the Almighty 
King, who rules the heavens and the earth. ... In thy 
blessed womb thou didst unite the joys of motherhood 
with the honour of virginity : none has hitherto been like 
to thee, nor shall hereafter any such be found ; thou alone 
above all others hast been beloved by Christ." 

Another Sedulius, also an Irishman and a gifted writer, 
lived in the IX Cent., and has left beautiful Latin verses 
in honour of God s holy Mother. The Irish form of the 
name is Siadhal, or Shiel. 

8. Ireland and our Lady s perpetual Virginity. 
As early as the V Cent, we find Mary s spotless virginity, 
both before, in and after the birth of her Divine Son, com 
memorated in a profession of faith which a native of 
Ireland, a disciple of St. Patrick (Bachiarius Macceus), 
presented in Rome to Pope St. Leo the Great about the 


year 460. See Cardinal Moran, Essays on the Early Irish 
Church, 225 seq., 234, 239. 


i. /^\UR Lady in the Highlands. In the Highlands 
\_J and in the Western Isles there is a Marian litera 
ture, mostly oral, of which the world knows little or nothing. 
The Mother of God is the pre-eminent Mary, and she alone 
is, by both Catholics and non-Catholics, styled " Moire," 
while all other Marys are called " Mair." Nor is she 
simply " Mary/ but " Mary Mother " " Moire Mhathair." 
If a mother hears her little one crying, the words " Dhia s 
de Moire, thu m eudail, qu de h-ort ? " "To God and 
Mary s care, my darling, what ails thee ? " rise spon 
taneously to her lips. The expression " Moire Mhathair " 
is as often in the mouth of the Highland Catholic as the 
familiar " Mon Dieu " is in that of the Frenchman, and 
the mild expletive " Faith" in that of the Irishman. 

In the Highlands alone there are no fewer than twelve 
or thirteen parishes dedicated to our Lady. Such is the 
parish of Kilmore (Mary church) in Argyllshire. In the 
Island of Mull there is another parish of Kilmore, and in 
North Uist one of Kilmuir, as also one of the same name 
in the Isle of Skye. The isles of Bute and Arran have 
each a parish of Kilmorry, and so on. In the parish of 
Alness in Ross and Cromarty there is the beautiful lake 
of Loch Muire, or Mary Lake. It takes its name from 
an old chapel dedicated to our Lady, situated at the 
extremity of the loch in a lovely and romantic glen. In 
several places there are springs with the name " Lady s 
well." The village of Tobermory, i.e. " Mary s Well " 
in the Island of Mull, Argyllshire, takes its name from a 
1 From a pamphlet by Rev. A. Campbell, S.J., and other sources. 


well, which in the ages of faith had been dedicated to our 
Lady. Not far from the village is a small loch known as 
" Mary s lake," beautifully situated between two finely 
wooded hills. At Ard-na-fuaran in Arisaig the church 
of Kilmaria, a parish church before the Reformation, still 
stands in ruins. The spot has been exceptionally favoured, 
for our Lady here has never lost her own. There still 
stands, rearing its head above those who never abandoned 
her, the fine church of St. Mary, whence was appointed 
the chief pastor of the whole West Highland flock, the 
late Bishop of Argyll and the Isles, who afterwards 
became Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. The 
grand old cathedral church of lona was also dedicated to 
our Lady. 

2. Our Lady in the Lowlands. Dedicated to our 
Lady were the Abbey of Scone, the Priory of Portmoak 
in Kinross-shire (on the south side of Loch Leven), the 
Priory of Monymusk in Aberdeenshire, the seal of the 
latter house having a figure of the Blessed Virgin with 
the Holy Child under a niche ; also the Abbey of Murlach 
in Aberdeenshire, founded by King Malcolm II in thanks 
giving for a victory over the Danes. There were churches 
of our Lady of Loretto in Musselburgh and Perth, and of 
Our Lady of Holyrood in Edinburgh, the latter founded 
by King David I. There was the Kirk of our Lady in 
Haddington ; but one of the most famous was Our Lady 
of Aberdeen, the statue of which may be seen to this 
day in the church of Finisterre in Brussels. Rev. M. 
Barrett, O.S.B., in his work Footprints of the Ancient 
Scottish Church, 246, informs us that various images of 
the Mother of God were formerly honoured in Aberdeen 
Cathedral. The chief of these was that known as " Our 
Lady of Pity," which stood in the nave near an altar 
dedicated to her. This image was greatly venerated by 
clergy and people. Alexander Kyd, precentor of the 
Cathedral, gave a yearly revenue to provide two candles 
to burn constantly in its honour. Canon Clatt presented 


a candle-holder upon which the faithful might burn their 
tapers before it ; and Bishop Elphinstone provided for 
it a large candelabrum, which on feast days was filled 
with lighted candles. On great occasions the statue was 
clothed in a rich mantle, set with beryls. Votive hearts 
of silver hung near it, and other offerings spoke of graces 
received through prayers said there. A smaller image 
of solid silver was carried in procession on festivals by 
order of Bishop Elphinstone, who granted an indulgence 
to all who should take part. 

At a later period an ancient wooden statue, which once 
stood in the chapel of the Brig of Dee, was removed to 
the cathedral by Bishop Gavin Dunbar (d. 1532). After 
escaping destruction, several times attempted without 
success by Protestants, the statue was finally carried to 
the Continent and eventually placed in the church of the 
Augustinians at Brussels, the Infanta Isabella having 
arrayed it in a magnificent robe and many of her own 
jewels. It was hidden away during the French Revolu 
tion, and afterwards placed in the church of Finisterre, 
Brussels. There it is still honoured under the title of 
" Our Lady of Good Success." 

Full information on honours paid to the Blessed Virgin 
in Scotland will be found in Fr. Barrett s work. Ibid. 

The origin of the custom of resting from work on a 
Saturday was to allow the people an opportunity of going 
to confession. William the Lion, King of Scotland, in 
1202 ordered rest from work every Saturday from midday, 
as a proof of love for the Church and the Blessed Virgin. 
A Scottish writer of the XIV Cent., either Fordun or 
his continuator Bower, says : "In the days of our fathers 
the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday) was held in great veneration 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin, principally by the devo 
tion of women, who every Saturday with great piety 
restricted themselves to one meal, and that merely of 
bread and water." 

Of the other Abbeys and Priories dedicated to Mary we 


may mention Melrose (Cistercians), Newbattle (Cistercians), 
Jedburgh (Austin Friars), Dryburgh (Premonstratensians), 
Cambus Kenneth (Austin Friars), Kelso, Paisley, Inch- 
affray or the Island of Masses, the Priories of St. Mary s 
Isle, of Coldingham, Fail, and others. In Perth the church 
of St. John the Baptist had forty altars all endowed, five 
of them being dedicated to our blessed Lady. 

In the Lowlands (as in the Highlands) we find wells 
dedicated to Mary, as Tibbermore (Tobar-Mhoire, i.e. 
Well of Mary), Tobermory, Motherwell, and others ; also 
her name is preserved up and down the country in many 
parishes, such as Ladykirk, Maryculter, Marykirk, Muir- 
kirk, Marytown, etc. 

In the armorial bearings of several towns, such as Banff, 
Rutherglen, Leith, Selkirk, our Lady is represented with 
the Holy Child in her arms. In the town of Old Aberdeen 
the " Snow Churchyard " remains as a reminder of the 
dedication of the Old Church to " Our Lady of the Snow." * 
In one of the stalls of Dunblane Cathedral, the letters 
I.H.S. (Jesus) are carved inside an ornamental letter M, 
to show, as it were, that Jesus, our Saviour, is come to 
us through Mary. 

The stamp on cover and title page of this volume 
represents the arms of the ancient borough of Selkirk. 


i. f~\F Churches and Chapels dedicated to Mary 
\J there were very many in all parts of the Prin 
cipality, the sites or ruins still bearing her name, as Llan- 
fair (Marychurch), Llanfairfechan (Church of Mary the 
Virgin), Llanfechan, etc. Of places of pilgrimage the 
most remarkable were Llantwyd Major, near Aberystwith, 
Llantwyd Minor, and Kidwelly, where there were famous 
1 See Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 107. 


shrines of our Lady. In one of these old churches there 
was a statue of the Virgin Mary over the entrance door, 
which the old women especially used to reverence with 
a curtsey when passing it, even until quite recent times. 
To do away with this custom a certain incumbent had the 
statue removed to the vestry. 

2. Welsh Poets before the Reformation. All the Bards 
of any name in Wales have written poems in praise of 
our Lady, with possibly one exception, Gwilym ap Dafydd 
(XIV Cent.). Even he refers to the famous picture of 
St. Mary Major as one of the sights of Rome, and implies 
that Welshmen of his day went on pilgrimage to Rome. 
Llewelyn ap Howel ap Jeuan Gronow visited Rome in 
1540, and there saw the picture just mentioned. In the 
time of Glendwr (i.e. Owen Glendower, d. 1416), the great 
Welsh patriot, an Eisteddfod was held, at which the 
subject proposed for the great prize was the praise of the 
Blessed Virgin. He is said to have presided at this Bardic 

Not a few of these mediaeval Welsh poems are models 
of poetic beauty. One of the modern Welsh bards, Gwily, 
a non-Catholic, has written a beautiful poem entitled 
" Mair ei Earn ef " (Mary His Mother). The bard Gitto r 
Glyn, who flourished about the year 1450, wrote a poem 
on the Rosary. See Catholic Encyclopedia, xv. 535, foot 
of column 2. 

On Our Lady of Abergavenny, Cardigan, Penrice, St. 
David s, see Waterton, 282 seq. 




i. CATHEDRALS and Churches. Three Arch- 

Vi/ dioceses and twenty-seven Dioceses in the United 

States are placed under our Lady s special protection, 


nearly all the Cathedrals being dedicated under the title 
of the Immaculate Conception. 

2. Towns, Localities, called after our Lady. In the 
different States there are fifteen towns with the name of 
Mary vale, eleven known as St. Mary s, four bearing the 
title of Mariana, and four that of Marydell. We meet 
also with such names as Mary, Marye, Marie, Marytown, 
Maryvale, St. Marie, Ste. Marie, Santa Maria, Notre Dame, 
Sault Ste Marie, Assumption, etc. ; and with rivers bearing 
such names as St. Mary s River, Mary s River, Santa Maria 
River, Marias River, Rio Santa Maria ; also with Lady 
Lake, Lady Island, etc. 

The State of Maryland, one of the original thirteen, 
was named after Henrietta Maria, the Queen Consort of 
Charles I, in the charter given by the King to the Catholic 
Lord Baltimore. Many Catholics have, however, come 
to regard the name as at least an indirect tribute to our 
blessed Lady s protection over the first Catholic colony 
in the United States. 

3. Father James Marquette, S.J. (d. 1635), the dis 
coverer of the Mississippi, whose statue adorns the Capitol 
in Washington, writes as follows in one of his letters : "I 
placed our voyage under the protection of the Blessed 
Virgin Immaculate, promising her that if she granted us 
the favour of discovering the Great River, I would give 
it the name of Conception." Campbell, S. J., Pioneer Priests, 
vol. hi. 170. On page 173 of the same work we read : 
" Launching out on the Wisconsin River, Marquette says, 
we began a new devotion to the Blessed Virgin." 

4. A Remarkable Shrine, which attracts Bishops, 
Priests, and thousands of the faithful from all parts of 
the land, and even from distant countries, is that of Our 
Lady of Martyrs in Auriesville, N.Y., on the west bank 
of the Mohawk River, forty miles from Albany. This 
has become a centre of enthusiastic devotion to Mary. 
Here it was that Brother Rene Goupil, S.J., and Father 
Isaac Jogues, S.J., with many other Christians suffered 

M.P. ii 


a terrible martyrdom for the Faith. It was here that 
Father Bressiani, S.J., was tortured, and that many great 
missionaries of the Society of Jesus laboured until the year 
1684, when the Mission was destroyed. Here, too, was 
born the saintly Indian maid, Catherine Tekaktwitha, 
the " Lily of the Mohawks," whose beatification has been 
petitioned by her own countrymen, and by the Third 
Plenary Council of Baltimore, when they requested the 
causes of Rene Goupil and Father Jogues to be taken up 
by the Sacred Congregation of Rites. 

5. The Sodality of our Lady, that great means of 
arousing and fostering in the souls of the faithful, especially 
of the young, a strong devotion to the Blessed Virgin, 
flourishes in the United States with a fervour that is unsur 
passed in any other country of the world. Nearly every 
church, every college, every convent, has its branch 
Sodality affiliated to the Prima Primaria in Rome, and 
the religious exercises and various good works are taken 
up with an enthusiasm that must touch the heart of our 
Immaculate Mother. Hundreds of thousands of young 
persons have enrolled themselves as her clients, and pledged 
themselves to promote her honour and never to do any 
thing that would be unworthy of one consecrated to her. 
The result of this marvellous association is seen in the 
earnestness and thoroughness of American Catholics, and 
in the preservation of the young from the poisonous influ 
ences of an irreligious world. 

6. Prelates. Venerable John Nepomucene Neu 
mann, the fourth Bishop of Philadelphia, began the 
practice, followed in many places, of reciting the Litany 
of the Blessed Virgin and the Rosary before High Mass 
on Sundays and Holy days of obligation. 

Bishop John Carroll was consecrated by the Right 
Rev. Dr. Charles Walmesley at Lulworth (Dorsetshire) 
on August 15, 1790, the preacher on the occasion being 
the celebrated Jesuit, Father Charles Plowden. Eleven 
months later Bishop Carroll assembled his twenty-two 


Priests in the first diocesan synod of Baltimore. Of the 
statutes adopted at that synod, the nineteenth reads as 
follows : " From the beginning of our Episcopate we were 
most desirous of choosing the Blessed Virgin Mary as the 
principal patroness of our diocese, that, through her inter 
cession, faith, piety towards God, and purity of morals 
might flourish/ He exhorts all his clergy to be zealous 
in promoting devotion to the great Mother of God. 

Dr. John England, first Bishop of Charleston, was a 
most fervent client of our Lady, and on his death-bed 
(1842), he said to the priests who were kneeling in the 
room : "I recommend my poor diocese to your patron 
saints, and above all to her to whom our Divine Lord 
entrusted His children, in the person of the beloved dis 
ciple, when He said, Woman, behold thy son ; Son, 
behold thy Mother/ " 

Dr. Edward Fen wick, first Bishop of Cinncinati, Dr. 
Benedict Joseph Fenwick, first Bishop of Boston, Dr. 
John Dubois, Bishop of New York, and others, were 
distinguished for their extraordinary devotion to Mary. 

7. Love of Mary in the United States. In the Council 
of Baltimore, 1846, attended by twenty-two Bishops with 
their Theologians, the Blessed Virgin was solemnly chosen 
as Patroness of the United States, which election was 
confirmed by the Sovereign Pontiff. 

Love for this blessed Mother is as deeply rooted, as 
ardently cherished, as fervently and fruitfully practised 
in the States as in any country in Europe. Everywhere 
there are Sodalities of Mary, Rosary Societies, Confra 
ternities of the Immaculate Heart, etc. Everywhere both 
children and people are taught to love and honour Mary 
as a Mother : everywhere one meets with churches and 
cathedrals dedicated to this spotless Virgin. 

The Irish exiles, driven by persecution to seek a home 
in America, brought with them the ardent love of " Mary 
the Virgin " which they had cherished in the old land. 
American Catholics love their Rosary : Generals and 


Admirals, shipping merchants of New York, prominent 
lawyers, favourite and successful physicians are known 
to be as attached as the poor to this simplest, most child 
like, and sweetest of devotions to our gentle Lady Mother. 
Macleod, Devotion to the Blessed Virgin in North America, 


The month of May, Mary s month, is kept with a fervour 
that can hardly be surpassed. A great proportion of the 
Catholics wear the scapular ; and you will hardly find 
any one without the medal of the Immaculate Conception 
or some badge of Mary. From countless hearts rise every 
day aspirations of love to this spotless Queen ; from 
countless lips the sweet prayer of St. Bernard the " Me- 
morare " is whispered to the best and tenderest of Mothers. 

Among the converted Indians Father de Smet, S. J., their 
apostle, tells us that the beads were recited in every family, 
these good children of the forest raising their voices every 
evening in supplication to God and His glorious Mother. 
The name of Mary, which, pronounced in the Indian 
language, has a sweet and endearing sound, delights and 
charms them. The hearts of these good Indians melt 
with devotion when they sing the praises of her whom 
they call and know to be their loving Mother. From a 
letter written in 1846. 



I ^HE first French settlers in Canada Samuel de Champ- 
JL lain and others were men of deep religious spirit, 
and animated by a tender devotion to Mary. Their pur 
pose in sailing to America was to work for the salvation 
of the Indians. " The salvation of a single soul," said 
Champlain, " is worth more than the conquest of an 


Our Lady s name was given by them to the first dis 
covered coasts St. Mary s Bay, St. Mary s Isle, St. Mary s 
River, etc. The city of Montreal built by them was 
consecrated to her as Mary s City, " Ville Marie," a title 
it bore till about 1760. A sort of military con 
fraternity was organized in the city for protection against 
the Iroquois Indians, their battle-cry being " Ave Puris- 
sima." The city and island on which it stands were con 
sidered to be our Lady s property. Monsieur Olier was 
greatly interested in the establishment of the Sulpitians 
in Ville Marie, and wished the whole territory to be con 
secrated to Jesus, Mary and Joseph. Mary s sweet name 
was given to river, lake, mountain-peak, and bay through 
out the land, and her praises were chanted in every home. 
A large statue of the Blessed Virgin still overlooks from 
a lofty summit the city of Montreal, serving as a perpetual 
reminder to Catholics of its former consecration to her. 
This statue stands on the dome of the church of " Notre 
Dame de Bon Secours," Our Lady of Help, having been 
placed there in 1848 ; but the shrine within the church 
was blessed in 1773, and the history of the original chapel 
with its wonder-working statue can be traced back to 
the year 1642. 

At Quebec still an intensely Catholic city pious 
foundations in honour of Mary were made as early as 
1625. In that year the Jesuits arrived, having previously 
laboured in Nova Scotia and Maine. Their first house 
was at St. Charles. Soon they received a grant of land 
from the Due de Ventadour known as "La Seigneurie de 
Notre Dame des Anges," the Property of Our Lady of 
the Angels. In 1633 some fifteen Jesuit Fathers were at 
work in Canada. Churches of the Immaculate Conception 
rose in the Dominion in 1666 and 1675. In 1672 a hospital 
and chapel in Quebec were dedicated to the Precious Blood 
and to the Mother of Mercy. In 1690 was built the hand 
some church of Our Lady of Mercy, and in 1693 the Recol 
lect Friars raised a noble church in the city " to the glory 


of God, and the honour of the Virgin Mother of God." 
At the present time the enthusiasm of Canadian Catho 
lics in their devotion to Mary resembles that of the United 

Devotion of St. Anne, our Lady s mother, is a marked 
feature of Canadian Catholicity. This devotion the early 
settlers brought from France, where the name Anne was 
given at baptism to men as well as to women, e.g. Anne 
de Montmorency. St. Anne of Beaupre is the most famous 
of Canadian places of pilgrimage, to which devout persons 
flock from every corner of North America. Notre Dame 
du Rosaire also draws thousands of suppliants from all 
the surrounding country. It stands on the north bank 
of the St. Lawrence, about 60 miles from Montreal. Origi 
nally the site of a Jesuit mission founded in 1639 by Fathers 
Albanel, Druilletes and others, it became a centre of 
special devotion to Our Lady of the Rosary in 1894. 
Countless favours are reported as having been granted. 
Our Lady of Liesse in the Jesuit church of the Gesu, Mon 
treal, also attracts many pilgrims. Its legendary history 
is worth recording. The thread of the story reaches back 
to the time of the Second Crusade, when three brothers, 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, being unable to make 
a statue of our Lady for the Caliph s daughter whom they 
had converted to Christianity, were presented with one 
by our Lady herself. This statue was subsequently 
carried to Picardy and enshrined in a beautiful church. 
In the chaos of the French Revolution (1789) the church 
was burnt and the statue reduced to ashes, but the ashes 
being saved were enclosed beneath a new statue, which 
was one of the treasures of the Jesuit Tertianship at the 
House of St. Vincent till 1877. This same year the Jesuits 
moved from St. Vincent to Paray-le-Monial, and when 
the question about the removal of the statue arose, it was 
decided to give it for the Missions to two Canadian Fathers 
returning home in the August of that year. It was even 
tually placed in the Gesti church, Montreal, Graces of 

7A T FRANCE 103 

conversion are the favours most commonly granted by 
Our Lady of Liesse. 


RANGE, the Church s eldest daughter, where so much 
JL holiness and religious fervour are found side by 
side with so much worldliness, godlessness, and irreligion, 
was known ages ago as " Regnum Mariae," Mary s king 
dom, being consecrated to her by Louis XIII, when her 
feast of the Assumption was chosen as the national feast. 
Benedict XIV gave his sanction to the said title, adding the 
words " nunquam peribit," i.e. Mary s queenly power in 
France shall never fail. 

Other nations claim to belong in a special way to Mary 
England as her Dowry ; Spain as favoured with an appari 
tion of her in her life-time ; Italy as having on its soil 
the Holy House of Nazareth, translated to Loreto from 
Dalmatia ; Austria with the victory of Vienna won by 
Sobicoki through Mary s intercession ; Poland with 
repeated victories over the Turks won by her aid. Yet 
France has a glory and privilege all its own, being favoured 
with such marvellous apparitions as those of Lourdes, 
La Salette, Pontmain, Paris, and being the land where 
Mary s miraculous favours are dispensed so bountifully 
to countless pilgrims gathering from every quarter of the 

Catholic France has displayed its zeal and enthusiasm 
in Mary s praise and service in many remarkable ways : 
(i) Its Saints have proclaimed by word and writing the 
sublimity of her dignity, notably St. Bernard, St. Felix 
de Valois, St. Francis de Sales, Blessed Grignon de Mont- 
fort. St. Dominic, himself a Spaniard, spread the Rosary 
devotion in France : (2) Its religious in countless abbeys 
and monasteries have sung her praises for centuries, as 


at Cluny, Citeaux, Clairvaux, Fontevrault, Chaise Dieu 
and others : (3) Its doctors of Theology have defended 
her privileges, as Vincent de Beauvais, Hugh of St. Victor, 
Gerson, William Archbishop of Paris, Petau (Petavius, 
S.J.) and others : (4) Its University of Paris, the Sor- 
bonne, exacted from all its Fellows and Professors as a 
condition of membership, adhesion to the doctrine of the 
Immaculate Conception : (5) Its Kings have enriched 
her sanctuaries, and some have shown openly their devo 
tion to the Rosary, as St. Louis, Charles VII, Louis XI, 
Louis XIII, the latter consecrating his Kingdom to Mary, 
as stated above : (6) Its warriors have been proud to 
call themselves her soldiers, v.g. the Crusaders, who invoked 
her on the field of battle ; Du Guesclin, the war-cry of 
whose troops was " Notre-Dame Guesclin " ; Blessed 
Joan of Arc whose banner bore the names of Jesus and 
Mary ; the Generals Bugeaud, Lamoriciere, De Sonis, 
and we may add Marshal Foch, and Generals Castelnau, 
Fayolle, Gouraud, all model Catholics, and fervent clients 
of Mary. General Pelissier chose her feast, September 8, for 
his victorious assault on Sebastopol, 1855 : (7) Its illus 
trious Bishops and Priests have been eloquent in her 
praise as Bossuet, Fenelon, Bourdaloue, Lacordaire, de 
Ravignan, Coube and others : (8) Its sacred writers have 
left us an immense treasury of works in her honour. The 
" Salve Regina " is said to have been composed by Adhemar 
de Monteil, Bishop of Puy : d. 1098 : (9) Its architects 
have reared to her glory cathedrals that are imperishable 
monuments, veritable poems in stone, v.g. Chartres, 
Rheims, Amiens, Notre Dame de Paris, Fourvieres : (10) 
Its millions of devout Catholics never begin nor close the 
day without seeking her blessing. Her name is given at 
Baptism to multitudes of children, both boys and girls, 
to boys as a second name : (n) Its sea-faring population 
pay unceasing homage at her shrines of La Garde, Mar 
seilles, Boulogne, and in other ports : (12) Its notable 
pilgrimages are described elsewhere. 

J.V SPAIN 105 

The love of Mary is planted deep down in the heart of 
Catholic France, and no combination of Voltairianism, 
Rationalism, Materialism, Anticlericalism will ever pluck 
it out. " Mary s Kingdom in France shall never fail." 
Benedict XIV. 

France s Places of Pilgrimage, see 64. 


SPAIN rejoices in the name of " Mary s privileged 
nation." Its devotion to her is said to date from 
her life-time, for she is thought to have sent St. James 
the Apostle into Spain, to have accompanied him with 
her prayers and sympathy, and to have followed him even 
in person by a wonderful apparition to be referred to. 

1. Mary is said by Spanish writers to have driven Pagan 
ism out of Spain. 1 Tradition has it that even in her 
life-time she appeared surrounded by angels on the banks 
of the Ebro, where now stands the sanctuary of Our Lady 
of the Pillar at Saragossa. She came to confirm the 
Apostle s teaching and to scatter the hellish horde of pagan 
deities that infested the land. The early martyrs of Spain, 
St. Vincent of Valentia, St. Leocadia of Toledo, the child 
martyr St. Eulalia and many others, sustained by Mary s 
prayers laid down their lives for the implanting of the 
faith and the uprooting of paganism. Prudentius, the 
Latin poet who sang of the triumph of the martyrs, was 
a Spaniard. 

2. Mary is said to have driven Arianism out of Spain 
through her devoted servants St. Leander, St. Isidore, 
St. Fulgentius, St. Braulio, St. Ildephonsus, and the royal 
martyr St. Hermenegild. His death won the conversion 
of his brother Recaredus, who became Spain s first Chris- 

1 Coube, Claire et Bienfaits de la Ste. Vigrge. 


tian King. At the third Council of Toleda, A.D. 589, 
Recaredus, surrounded by sixty-four Bishops and by the 
nobles of the land, solemnly abjured Arianism and embraced 
the Catholic faith. 1 

3. Mary drove Mahomedanism out of Spain. In the 
VIII Cent, when Moslem hordes were sweeping like 
a devastating hurricane over the land, destroying churches 
and monasteries, massacring the Christians who refused 
to apostatize, and carrying havoc and desolation every 
where, Pelayo (Pelagius), King of Oviedo in the Province 
of Asturias, withdrew with a handful of followers to our 
Lady s Grotto of Covadonga and there awaited the 
approach of the Moorish general Alxaman. Suddenly 
sallying forth from the heights above the cave he over 
whelmed the infidel army, hurling down rocks and stones 
from above, and then pursued them inflicting terrific 
slaughter on the fugitives. Other victories followed, 
ascribed to our Lady s aid. The grotto became thence 
forth a place of pilgrimage. The struggle with the Moors 
was continued in the XI Cent, and again by our Lady s 
help Cid Campeador (Rodrigo Diaz de Bavar) achieved 
prodigies of valour against the infidels, capturing Toledo 
in 1088. He is said by some writers to have been a member 
of an association or confraternity in honour of Mary 
Immaculate. Coube, 108. 

4. Mary has kept Protestantism out of Spain. The 
Spanish theologians, notably Lainez, Salmeron, Suarez, 
de Lugo, all of them Mary s most devoted children, were 
the most valiant opponents of Lutheranism. Protestant 
ism has never succeeded in gaining a foothold in the 
country. At heart Spain is thoroughly Catholic, and on 
May 3, 1919, the young King Alphonsus XIII, in presence 
of the Court, the Papal Nuntio, the Cardinal Primate, 
numerous Bishops, the ministers of the Crown, and count 
less others, by a solemn act consecrated his kingdom to 

i Coub<, Ibid, 


the Sacred Heart. A large statue of the Sacred Heart 
erected in a public square was solemnly blessed on the 
occasion by the Cardinal Primate. 

5. Spain has her Orders of Knighthood pledged to hon 
our the Blessed Virgin and to defend her Immaculate Con 
ception, viz. those of Calatrava, Alcantara, Montesa and 
Santiago, all true soldiers of Mary bound by vow to defend 
her privileges and honour. 

6. But the country s greatest glory is the championship 
of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, (a) 
At the Council of Trent Cardinal Pacheco, Bishop of Jaen, 
supported by the Jesuit theologians Laynez and Salmeron, 
won from the Council the declaration that in its decrees 
on Original Sin it was not its intention to include the 
blessed and spotless Virgin Mary, (b) Confraternities 
of the Immaculate Conception are said to have existed 
in Spain from the Middle Ages. One is mentioned as 
existing in Burgos in the XI Cent, of which Ferdinand 
Gonzales and Cid Campeador were members. Charles V 
belonged to a similar confraternity at Toledo, and had 
Mary s image embroidered on his standard. Philip II 
had the same image embossed on his shield, (c) The 
Universities of Salamanca and Valladolid exacted from 
their professors and members an oath to defend the 
doctrine of Mary s Immaculate Conception, (d) The 
Spanish artists Murillo, Velasquez, Zurbaran, Ribera 
have made our Lady Immaculate the subject of their 

! grandest efforts, (e) Popular devotion to Mary Immacu- 
j late is shown by the usual form of salutation, " Ave Maria 
Purisima," to which the answer is given, " Sin pecado 
concebida." (/) Our Lady s name and titles often appear 
in the baptismal names of children, as Maria, Concepcion, 
Soledad, Immacolada, Dolores, (g) Spanish discoverers, 
led by Columbus, a Genoese, have given our Lady s 
name or sublime privilege to places in America where 
they landed, as " Conception Isle." While at Hispaniola 
(San Domingo) on September 8, 1493, Columbus so the 


historian Herrera tells us wishing to honour this glorious 
Queen on her birthday, ordered his vessels to be dressed 
with flags and salvos of artillery to be fired. 

NOTE. On the Cave of Covadonga see The Tablet, 
Oct. 26, 1918, p. 471. 


OF all lands outside Palestine Italy may be considered 
the most favoured, the See or Chair of Peter being 
established in its capital, which is thus the home of Christ s 
Vicar, the centre of unity, the fount of ecclesiastical juris 
diction, and the very heart of the Church. Rome is also 
the centre of devotion to our Lady, inasmuch as all 
Religious Orders, Congregations and Sodalities of Mary 
receive their canonical institution, privileges and indul 
gences from the Holy See. 

Italy s devotion to Mary is shown (i) in the noble 
churches raised in her honour in Rome, Florence, Milan, 
Naples, Turin, Caravaggio, and other cities. Rome has 
some forty churches dedicated to her : (2) in the extra 
ordinary manifestations of popular devotion to her in 
Venice, Siena, Turin, Ancona, Bergamo, and other cities : 
(3) in the Saints who have signalized themselves by spread 
ing devotion to her, notably St. Bonaventure, St. Ber- 
nardine of Siena, St. Philip Benizi, St. Philip Neri, St. 
Alphonsus de Liguori and others : (4) in the works of 
Theologians upholding her privileges and dignity, as St. 
Thomas of Aquin, St. Bonaventure, St. Bernardine : (5) 
in the foundation of hospitals in her honour, v.g. S. Maria 
della Consolazione in Rome, and countless others up and 
down Italy : (7) in the famous places of pilgrimage 
described in 63 : (8) in the extraordinary devotion of 
the people, concerning which see Northcote s Sanctuaries 
of the Madonna, 107, 108 : (9) in the glorious works 
of art left us by Fra Angelico, Giotto, Perugino, Raphael, 


Guido Reni, Filippino Lippi, Domenichino, Sassoferrato, 
Botticelli, Titian and others, of which our Lady is the 

Mary s love for Italy is seen (i) in the miraculous 
favours accorded as a reward of devotion to her at Loreto, 
Pompei, Genezzano, La Quercia, Campo Cavallo, and many 
other favoured spots : (2) in the miraculous translation 
of the Holy House of Nazareth from Dalmatia to Loreto. 
This translation and the authenticity of the Holy House 
at Loreto have been called in question : but, until the 
Holy See decides the controversy, we may safely believe 
and venerate what Popes and Saints have believed and 
venerated : (3) in the miraculous translation of the picture 
of Our Lady of Good Counsel, from Scutari to Genezzano. 

Italian devotion to Mary is further shown by the practice 
of abstaining from wine on Saturdays, a practice dating 
from the XI Cent. ; by the adoption of orphan children 
for her sake ; by festive rejoicings in honour of the Ma 
donna of each village and neighbourhood, when the streets 
are garlanded, candles are lit in the windows, fireworks 
let off, and a general holiday held ; by countless wayside 
chapels in every part of the country, each well cared for 
and provided with flowers and candles by the Catholics 
of the vicinity. 

Dr. Northcote speaks of the poor frequenting the churches 
and praying with arms outstretched in the form of a cross, 
as they kneel in silent adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, 
or in deep veneration before our Lady s image. " They 
come and pour forth their whole souls before some picture 
or image of the Madonna, entering into all their hopes 
and fears, doubts and anxieties, every detail of their 
domestic circumstances, quite as naturally as a child 
confides its little troubles and desires to its mother, or 
to one whose sympathy and assistance it has reason to 
be assured of." He is speaking of Naples, but the same 
confiding love, if not quite so demonstrative, may be seen 
in every part of Italy. 


It would require a volume apart to describe the wonderful 
churches of our Lady in Rome, with all their saintly and 
historical associations St. Mary Major, St. Mary of the 
Angels, St. Mary of Peace and some thirty-seven or thirty- 
eight others. Then there are the many Madonnas or 
pictures of Mary in Rome, one venerated by St. Ignatius 
of Loyola at the Gesu, another by St. Philip Neri at the 
Vallicella; a third by St. Benedict at S. Benedetto in 
Piscinula ; a fourth by St. Pius V at S. Maria Maddalena, 
and so on. Before the picture of St. Mary Major the 
young novice St. Stanislaus Kostka knelt in ecstasy, and 
St. Francis Borgia had copies of it painted, one of which 
he gave to Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo, who died a martyr 
clasping it in his arms. 



THIS little country, so sorely tried in the great war of 
1914-1918, has a population of over seven millions, 
the great majority of whom are Catholics, and, among 
most of these, religious life is intense. Religion finds so 
strong a support in the loyalty and devotedness of the 
people, that a Catholic government has remained in power 
for over forty years. It was in great measure because of 
its religion that it was so savagely treated by Prussian 
(i.e. Lutheran) officers and troops. The world heard with 
horror of noble churches desecrated and destroyed, cities 
and villages burnt, lands richly cultivated laid waste, 
houses plundered, priests shot, innocent civilians murdered, 
and whole masses of them deported into slavery, ruinous 
fines exacted, and nameless outrages perpetrated. After 
four years of agony Belgium began to be rescued from its 
fierce oppressors in our Lady s month of the Rosary, the 
prayers of thousands upon thousands of Catholic children 


imploring her to bless and help Marshal Foch in the gigantic 
task of crushing the invading army. 

1. Belgian popular devotion to Mary is very notice 
able (a) in the crowds that flock to her sanctuaries at 
Hal, Montaigu, Oostacker, Bon Secours : (b) in the honour 
paid to her statues, often miraculous, in every town, and 
nearly every village : (c) in the wayside chapels and 
niches each with its statue of Mary, which are to be seen 
everywhere along the roads, in the streets, and even in 
the fields : (d) in the monumental cathedrals and churches 
dedicated to her, chief among them being Antwerp and 

2. Belgian Saints and our Lady. St. Plat (III 
Cent.), apostle of Tournai, is said to have built the first 
sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin in that city. St. Maternus 
(IV Cent.), apostle of East Belgium, is revered as the foun 
der of Mary s sanctuaries at Huy, Dinant, Leffe, Hastiere, 
Namur, Walcourt. St. Servais (IV Cent.), bishop of 
Tongres, built a magnificent church to Mary, known as 
" Prima Cisalpes." St. Eleutherius (VI Cent.), bishop of 
Tournai, rebuilt St. Fiat s church in that city. St. Lan- 
delin (VII Cent.), founder of the Abbeys of Lobbes and 
Aulnes (now in ruins) in Hainault, placed them under 
the protection of Mary. From the theological school of 
Lobbes came many a valiant defender of the Immaculate 
Conception. St. Gerard (X Cent.) erected at Brogue (now 
St. Gerard in the diocese of Namur) an abbey in Mary s 
honour. St. John Berchmans (XVII Cent.), Mary s 
favourite child, wrote with his own bloocl a vow to defend 
the Immaculate Conception. 

3. Sovereigns and Princes. Charlemagne (d. 814), 
born, it is said, at Jupille or Liege, founded the Palatine 
School, which counted ardent defenders of the Immaculate 
Conception. Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy (d. 1467), 
founded the Order of the Golden Fleece in memory of the 
fleece of Gideon, emblematical of Mary s spotless purity. 
Charles the Bold (d. 1477), son f Philip, always had the 


Rosary about him, and recited it when marching to battle. 
John IV, duke of Brabant (d. 1427), founded Louvain 
University, exacting from its professors an oath to defend 
Mary s Immaculate Conception, Charles V (d. 1558) 
recited the Rosary daily. On his abdication he strongly 
recommended to the States General at Brussels to spread 
devotion to Mary. The Archduke and Duchess, Albert 
and Isabella (XVII Cent.), enriched with costly gifts nearly 
all the great sanctuaries of Mary in Belgium, notably 
Wavre, Hanzwyck, Montaigu, Hal, Antwerp, Vilvorde. 
The Counts of Flanders. Every year for a considerable 
period in the Middle Ages, the citzens of Ghent, headed 
by the Count of Flanders, went on pilgrimage to our 
Lady s shrine in the cathedral of Tournai. Philip de 
Cray, duke of Aerschot (XVI Cent.), came as a pilgrim to 
Hal in 1566, there to proclaim aloud by a document posted 
on high his undying hostility to the sect of the Gueux. 
He also caused silver medals of our Lady and Child to 
be struck and distributed to the gentlemen of his suite, 
who were required to wear them attached to their hats 
as a mark of Catholic nobility. 

4. Writers, Artists, Warriors. Justus Lipsius (d. 
1606) wrote a Latin History of the two sanctuaries Our 
Lady of Hal and Our Lady of Montaigu, offering a golden 
pen as an ex-voto on her altar. He was a member of the 
Sodality of Mary directed by the Jesuit Fathers in Louvain, 
and at his death he told Father Lessius, S. J., his confessor, 
that the greatest consolation he felt in that supreme hour, 
was that he had belonged to the Sodality. Guido Gefrelle, 
the most gifted Flemish poet of the XIX Cent., sang 
Mary s praises with an ardour of devotion that goes right 
to the heart. Godejroid Kurth (d. 1917), the great Belgian 
historian, cherished a simple, childlike devotion for God s 
holy Mother : his beads were ever in his hands. In his 
travels he sought out Mary s sanctuaries, there to pour 
out his affection at her altars. Huysmans, Joris, the 
famous novelist, was born in Paris (1848) of a family 


of Dutch extraction. He is mentioned here by mis 
take. From the time of his conversion he conceived 
a tender devotion to Mary, regarding himself as her 
knight and the champion of her honour. His letters 
contain many beautiful passages referring to her, and 
he speaks of a pilgrimage made to Chartres in 1894, 
where his heart overflowed with devotion. Peter Paul 
Rubens, Belgium s greatest artist, was a pious member of 
our Lady s Sodality in Antwerp. Van Dyck was also a 
member of the same Sodality, and bequeathed to it one 
of his best paintings. The Archduke Leopold, wishing to 
purchase it, offered to cover it with gold crowns as pay 
ment. 1 Tilly de T Serclaes (d. 1632), one of the heroes 
of the Thirty Years War, was born in Brabant. He had 
our Lady s image embroidered on his standard, and offered 
to her shrine at Altotting a crucifix of lapis lazuli richly 
set with diamonds, also a jewelled gold-chain presented 
to him by the Infanta Isabella. 

5. Belgium and the Immaculate Conception. On 
December 8, 1659, Belgium being then under Spanish 
rule, King Philip IV, and with him the clergy, nobility 
and gentry of Brussels, enrolled themselves in the Domini 
can church as champions and defenders of the Immaculate 
Conception. On December 8, 1904, the fiftieth anniver 
sary of the proclamation of the dogma, Belgium was again 
consecrated to Mary. Under Alexander Farnese, duke 
of Parma, the Belgian army was placed under Mary s 
protection about the year 1578. On Good Friday, 1916, 
while the great European War was in progress, Belgium 
was consecrated to Our Lady of Dolours by Cardinal 


I. Popular Devotion. The deep devotion of Dutch 
Catholics towards God s holy Mother " Our dear Lady " 

1 Hans Memling (d. 1494) and the two Van Eycks (XV Cent.), 
Flemish painters, should also be mentioned. 

M.P. I 


(Onze lieve Vrouw) as she is commonly called may be 
judged (a) from the great number of churches dedicated 
to her : (b) from the common (all but universal) family 
practice of reciting the Rosary together each evening : (c) 
from the enthusiasm with which the May services are 
attended : (d) from the large number of flourishing 
Sodalities of Mary, which are found in all the parishes : 
(e) from the pilgrimages made to her shrines. 

2. Shrines of our Lady. Prior to the Reformation 
numerous and much frequented shrines (statues and holy 
pictures) of our Lady were to be found throughout the whole 
country. The Reformation, alas ! suppressed almost all 
pilgrimages and acts of public veneration, destroyed a great 
number of the sacred images, and desecrated the churches, 
often transferring them to Protestant worship. This sup 
pression was chiefly effected in the Northern provinces ; 
but in Limburg and Brabant, whore the Calvinists were 
in a minority, public devotion to our Lady and Catholic 
worship generally, survived, and the shrines were spared. 
(a) Our Lady of Bois-le-Duc. Throughout Brabant 
this miraculous statue in the cathedral has been the object 
of a continuous popular devotion. Every year a great 
procession is held in which the image is carried round the 
city, (b) Our Lady, Star of the Sea, at Maastricht. 
This is the most popular centre of devotion to Mary in 
Limburg. The statue is revered in the magnificent XI 
century church of Our Lady. At all hours of the day 
numerous worshippers may here be seen, often praying 
with arms extended. On solemn occasions the image is 
carried in procession through the town, and the streets 
in Maastricht followed by this procession form what is 
known as the " Bidweg " (the prayer road), where it is 
not unusual, even on ordinary days, to see groups of people 
going the round of the road reciting the Rosary. 

3. Other Pilgrimages. In the North, where the 
old shrines have disappeared, pilgrimages are frequently 
made to our Lady s sanctuaries outside Holland : v.g. 


to Kevelaer in Germany, just across the frontier ; and 
to Montaigu in Belgium. It is the custom to make the 
pilgrimage to Kevelaer on foot, a ten hours walk, returning 
in the same way on the following day. 

There are also many other less prominent, but greatly 
venerated shrines, v.g. Our Lady of Land at Roermond ; 
Our Lady of Nood near Heilo, in the Protestant part of 
Holland ; Our Lady of Handel near Gemert. Early in 
the spring pilgrimages to the latter shrine (a village church) 
begin, whole parishes coming in procession from the neigh 
bouring towns and villages, with banners and music, the 
singing of hymns and the recitation of the Rosary. The 
older people, women and men, are mostly conveyed in 
carts, provided with chairs for the occasion. Along the 
last half mile of the road to Handel are erected wayside 
chapels with Stations of the Cross ; and behind the church 
are similar chapels with the mysteries of the Rosary, at 
each of which groups of pilgrims may be seen praying 
vigorously. The miraculous statue, richly decorated with 
a profusion of candles and flowers, has its throng of wor 
shippers all day long. 

4. Dutch Saints and Holy Persons. St. Lidwina 
(d. 1433). At fifteen she fell while skating on the ice, 
and the hurt she received kept her in the bed from which 
she never rose, except in ecstasy, for thirty years. Every 
limb was in torture and the pain she suffered made life a 
continual martyrdom. Wonderful stories are told of her 
devotion to our blessed Lady. Blessed Peter Canisius, 
S.J. (d. 1597), was already as a child a devoted client of 
Mary, and in her honour he wrote an extensive work. 
With her help he fought the battles of the Church against 
Lutheranism in Germany. Venerable Thomas a Kempis 
(d. 1471), author of the Imitation of Christ, was most 
devoted to our Lady. Gerard Groot, founder of a pious 
Brotherhood, translated into Dutch the Office of our Lady 
for the use of the common folk. Joost von den Vondel 
(d. 1679), the poet, a contemporary of Milton, owe?] his 


conversion from Protestantism largely to devotion to the 

Blessed Virgin. 


POLAND, like Ireland, is a country very dear to our 
Lady, for though crushed, oppressed, dismembered, 
it has clung tenaciously to the Faith, and has never swerved 
in its loyalty to Jesus and Mary. It is the land of heroes, 
of martyrs, of noble defenders of Christianity and of 
civilization. In 1621, when the Poles sent to Pope Paul 
V some standards captured from the Turks and Tartars, 
and asked in return the gift of certain relics, the Pontiff 
replied : " Why do you ask me for relics ? Gather up 
a little of your own soil. There is not a particle of it 
which is not the relic of a martyr." 

1. Poland is the native-land of St. Casimir and St. 
Stanislaus Kostka, Mary s cherished children ; of St. 
Hyacinth, Mary s devoted client and apostle ; of St. 
Josaphat the Martyr, St. Adalbert, St. Hedwige, 
and other glorious Saints, specially dear to the Queen of 
heaven. It is the land of heroes and warriors like John 
Sobieski, who routed the Turks and Tartars in many 
a memorable battle (Buczacz, Chocim, Lemberg, Vienna) ; 
Kordecki a monk who with 400 men, sixty-eight of 
whom were monks, defended Czenstockowa against 8,000 
Swedes in 1655 ; Chodkiewicz, who in 1621 with 65,000 
soldiers routed 300,000 Turks near Chocim ; Tarnowski 
and others, all fervently devout to the Blessed Virgin. 

2. Our Lady s protection in battle was experienced 
by the Polish armies (a) against the Teutonic knights 
near Griinwald in 1410. King Ladislas Jagiello had put 
his army under her protection, and during the battle she 
is said to have appeared with St. Stanislaus, Bishop of 


Cracow and martyr. The victory was complete : (b) 
against the Turks near Chocim in 1621, when Chodkiewicz 
defeated a formidable Turkish army, ascribing his victory 
to our Lady s protection : (c) at the siege of Chestochowa 
in 1655. See Kordecki above, (d) John Sobieski, King 
of Poland, and the defeat of the Turks at Vienna (1683), 
see 55. 

3. Poland abounds in sanctuaries and miraculous pic 
tures of our Lady : the chief being Chestockowa and 
Cracow, renowned places of pilgrimage. (See 66.) 
Popular devotion is seen (a) in pilgrimages to the numerous 
shrines : (b) in the chanting of our Lady s office (trans 
lated and arranged by Fat her Wujek, S.J.) at home, in the 
churches, and on the battle-field : (c) in the rigorous 
fasts before her feasts, and the crowds approaching the 
holy Table on her solemnities : (d) in the wearing openly 
by soldiers of large scapulars with a figure of our Lady 
to serve as a breast-plate : (e) in the chanting by soldiers 
before battle of the hymn" Boga Rodzica," i.e. Dei Geni- 
trix a hymn believed to have been composed by St. 
Adalbert (d. 981) and the oldest specimen of Polish litera 
ture. (/) The month of May and October services are 
splendidly attended. Where people live at a distance 
from a church, they assemble near wayside chapels, or 
in their homes, there to recite the rosary and sing hymns 
to Mary, (g) The upper classes, even professors, magis 
trates, rich merchants, consider it an honour to belong 
to our Lady s Sodality. 

4. Poland and the Immaculate Conception. In 
1510 Polish Archbishops and Bishops assembled in Pro 
vincial Council decreed that the feast of the Immaculate 
Conception should be kept in Poland. In the University 
of Cracow professors were not permitted to lecture till 
they had taken an oath to defend the Immaculate Concep 
tion. About the year 1586, the Magistrates (Town Council) 
of Lwow (Lemberg) sent to Pope Sixtus V a hundred 
arguments proving our Lady s Immaculate Conception 


against heretics and others who denied it, and received 
from the Pope his coat of arms, i.e. three mountains with 
a star, which together with the lion form to this day the 
armorial bearings of the city. 


"POPULAR devotion to Mary is chiefly noticeable 
L in the South of Germany in that part of the Black 
Forest region where Catholicism predominates, as also 
in Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and the Rhineland. The Black 
Forest hides within its depths many a little chapel dedi 
cated to Mary, of which the story in many cases is touch- 
ingly impressive. These modest sanctuaries have been 
raised by the piety of poor work-people, only too glad to 
devote their slender savings to such a holy purpose. On 
Saturdays groups of peasants may be seen wending their 
way to one or other of these Mary-chapels. In the Middle 
Ages the various Trades Guilds carvers, masons, gold 
smiths, metal-workers, cordwainers and others took our 
Lady for Patroness, and vied with each other in enriching 
her churches and altars. 

2. Places of Pilgrimage. Bavaria is known as 
" Mary s own Kingdom/ and contains many shrines 
with statues reputed miraculous. Allotting is perhaps 
the oldest shrine in Germany, founded, it is said, by Louis 
the Pious (d. 840), son of Charlemagne. Year by year 
it attracts thousands upon thousands of pilgrims. The 
first Elector, Maximilian I (d. 1651), head of the League 
in the Thirty Years War, was very devout to Our Lady 
of Altotting. His father, duke William, in an instruction 
drawn up for the education of his sons, recommended that 
they should every day recite the Rosary and the Litany 
of Loreto. On his tomb at Allotting he wished the follow 
ing words to be carved : " Passing stranger, know that 


in life and in death Maximilian was devoted to Mary." 
Tilly de T Serclaes (d. 1632), commander of the League 
armies also, lies buried in this chapel by his special request. 
Kevelaer on the Rhine is another popular place of pilgrim 
age. A gold crown was sent by Leo XIII in 1892 to 
adorn this picture. 

3. German Artists and our Lady. In the XV and 
XVI Cent. Albert Diirer of Nuremberg (d. 1528) pro 
duced a series of artistic representations of our Lady s 
life. The Cologne school of artists has left several master 
pieces, rare examples of simple devotional conceptions 
of her life. The Dtisseldorf school of Catholic painters 
stands conspicuous in the modern artistic world for its 
remarkable inspiration and piety in paintings of Mary 
and her Divine Child. Carl Miiller, Ittenbach, Deger, 
Steinle, Sinkel, Overbeck, Fuhrich are the chief repre 
sentatives. Their productions are marked by great 
spiritual beauty of conception and masterly design. Ach- 
termann, the great sculptor (d. 1889), whose masterpiece, 
" the Pieta," is in Minister Cathedral, was noted for his 
devotion to the Blessed Virgin. Joseph Haydn, the 
musician (d. 1809), is reported to have said that his sweetest 
melodies came to him after reciting the Rosary. 

4. Early German Poems on our Lady. The Melker 
Marienlied (1125) is a devout interpretation of the figures 
in Holy Writ referring to Mary. Each strophe ends with 
the invocation " Sancta Maria." The Armsteiner Marien 
lied (XII Cent.) gathers all possible similes from nature, 
applying them to Mary. The Marienlob (XII Cent.) is 
full of tender admiration of God s masterpiece. Werner 
von Tegernsee, a priest (d. 1172), wrote an epic on our Lady, 
one of the most remarkable literary works of its kind in 

5. German Saints and our Lady Blessed Herman 
Joseph, a Premonstratensian (d. 1241). Beautiful legends 
are recorded of his childlike devotion to Mary. Blessed 
Albert the Great, O.P. (d. 1280), St. Thomas of Aquin s 


master in philosophy, attributed all his theological and 
scientific knowledge to our Lady. St. Henry and St. 
Cunegunda (XI Cent.) consecrated their virginity to God 
in honour of the ever Blessed Virgin. St. Elizabeth, Land 
gravine of Thuringia (d. 1231), was favoured with several 
apparitions of the Mother of God ; as were also St. Gertrude 
and St. Mechtild. Blessed Peter Canisius, S.J. (d. 1597), 
Dutch by birth, is distinguished as the apostle of Germany, 
and the foremost opponent of the Lutheran Reformation 
in the country. He founded the colleges of Dillingen, 
Ingolstadt, Prague (where Blessed Edmund Campion 
spent some time). By word and writing he spread every 
where devotion to Mary. Blessed Clement Hofbauer, 
Redemptorist (d. 1821), was our Lady s greatest promoter 
in Austria and Southern Germany. 


1. The raising of the siege of Vienna by John 
Sobieski, through our Lady s protection, and the routing 
of the Turks. See 55. Ferdinand II (d. 1657) solemnly 
consecrated the empire to the Immaculate Virgin, a 
memorial of the event being a majestic column crowned 
with a statue of our Lady in Vienna. Very flourishing 
Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin under Jesuit direction are 
to be seen in Vienna and other cities. 

2. In 1901, Linz was selected for a Marian Congress, 
followed by a pilgrimage of all the members to Our Lady 
of Allotting. 

3. Father Baumgartner, S.J., wrote in 1892 a series of 
sonnets on the titles in the Litany of Loretto. Some of 
these sonnets are said to be masterpieces. 

4. The Benedictine Fathers at Beuron edited a new 
" Marienleben," viz. a series of remarkably beautiful 
pictures illustrating our Lady s life. 



PORTUGAL from its birth as a Kingdom has signalized 
itself by devotion to God s holy Mother, i. Kings. 
The dominions conquered by its first king, Dom Affonso 
Henriques (d. 1185), were styled "St. Mary s lands/ and 
later, " The Immaculate s domain." Its capital, Oporto, 
was known as " The Virgin s City." Even to our day 
the whole country remains studded with shrines and 
monuments in her honour. John I (d. 1433), after a 
victorious battle against the Spaniards in 1385, founded 
in Mary s honour the glorious abbey of Batalha, which 
Cardinal Justiniani spoke of as another Solomon s Temple. 
It is one of the most sumptuous ecclesiastical monuments 
in Europe. Manuel I (d. 1521), in gratitude for Vasco 
de Gama s discovery of the Cape maritime route to India, 
built the splendid church of Our Lady of Belem, a few 
miles from the mouth of the Tagus. 

2. The University of Coimbra in 1645, with King 
John IV s sanction, passed a statute that no academical 
degrees would be conferred on any candidate who refused 
to take an oath to defend Mary s Immaculate Conception. 

3. Portuguese Missioners, Orators, Poets. Father 
Antonio d Andrade, S.J., the apostle of Tibet, penetrated 
into the very heart of that country (1624), and built a 
church to Mary right in the centre of Buddhism. Father 
Antonio Vieira, S.J., the Bossuet of Portugal (d. 1697), 
spoke rapturously of Mary s dignity in some of his most 
powerful addresses. He is famed as an orator, theologian, 
poet, and historian. Camoens (d. 1580), the immortal 
author of the "Luciades," chose Mary as the subject of 
one of his most beautiful sonnets. 

4. Places of Pilgrimage. Our Lady of Nazareth on 
the sea- shore, so called from a small statue of Mary brought 
from Nazareth by a monk, who rescued it from the out- 


rages of the Iconoclasts. The church is much frequented, 
and is rich in ex-votos. Our Lady of Atalaya on the left 
bank of the Tagus, facing Lisbon, is a shrine very dear 
to the people. The annual pilgrimage is marked by extra 
ordinary rejoicings. Our Lady of Oliveira, the church of 
Guimaraes, where King John I came as a pilgrim after 
the brilliant victory which set the crown on his head. 

5. The Portuguese Crown. John IV (d. 1656), 
eight days after the recovery of Portugal s independence, 
attended a great solemnity in the Chapel Royal, it being 
the feast of the Immaculate Conception. There in front 
of the altar he presented the royal crown to the Queen 
of Heaven, and thenceforth for 249 years no King or 
Queen of Portugal ever ventured to wear it, even on the 
coronation day. The same King assigned an annual 
donation of fifty gold crowns to our Lady s sanctuary of 
Villa Viosa. 


^pHROUGHOUT Greece, our Lady, after our Lord 
JL and the Blessed Trinity, is the principal object of 
worship : she is invoked on every occasion, and the greatest 
devotion is shown to her. There are several special shrines 
in various parts of the country, which are very popular 
and much visited, containing celebrated icons (paintings) 
of her, for the Greek Church, as all other branches of the 
Eastern Church, forbids the use of statues or images. 

Our Lady of Tenos (one of the Cyclades islands) is 
one of the most popular of these shrines : the Church of 
the Annunciation there is full of thank-offerings to her, 
consisting of gold and silver plate for altar use, richly 
bound Bibles and service books, missals inlaid with jewels, 
vestments of richest material, adorned with the most 


beautiful Oriental embroideries. Besides these the church 
is hung with propitiatory offerings and thank-offerings 
sent by the peasants, v.g. silver ex-votos, which have been 
given in such profusion that candelabra, sufficient to light 
the whole church, have been made of these objects after 
being melted down for the purpose. Sometimes these 
ex-votos represent horses, sometimes boats, at other times 
grapes, corn-sheaves, or whatever her client wishes to 
place under her protection. Very often a leg or arm, or 
some other part of the body, is modelled in wax, for 
Our Lady of Tenos is particularly invoked and celebrated 
for bodily cures. 

Many miracles are said to have been worked by Our 
Lady of Tenos. 

In an official description of them which is published, 
forty-four are mentioned as occurring down to 1898. 
Pilgrims visit this shrine by thousands. There is a holy 
spring there, which is said, like Lourdes, to possess miracu 
lous qualities. During these pilgrimages the " icon " of 
our Lady is carried in procession through kneeling crowds 
of believing, suffering pilgrims, who come year after year 
in the hope of being cured. Irish Eccl. Record, January, 


i. Mexico. This much-tried country, so sadly tyran 
nized over by Rulers who are avowedly irreligious and 
anticlerical, turns to our Lady in its distress. " O Mary, 
turn thy merciful eyes on this unfortunate land." Devo 
tion to her is most marked : (a) There is no town, and 
hardly a village, without a church or chapel dedicated to 
her : (b) Its great sanctuaries of our Lady are Guadelupe, 
in the city of Mexico (see 65) ; Zapopan, in the province 
of Jalisco ; dellos Remedies in Durango ; Jacona in 
Michoacan ; in each of which not unfrequent miraculous 
favours reward the piety of the faithful ; (c) numerous 


Sodalities and confraternities of Mary are found in each 
diocese : (d) popular devotion, as far as the impious 
Government will allow it, displays itself with enthusiasm 
on her feasts : (e) men of remarkable holiness, loving 
clients of Mary, figure in the history of the country. 

That such good people should be oppressed in what they 
cherish most their religion is sad beyond words : but 
from the crucible of persecution they will in time come 
forth more inflamed than ever in their devotion to Jesus 
and His holy Mother. 

2. South America. The fervour of devotion to Mary 
among the Brazilian, and South American Catholics 
generally, compares favourably with that of Spain and 
Portugal, (a) Cathedrals and churches dedicated to her 
are to be found in every province, and chapels in almost 
every town : (b) her Congregations or Sodalities count 
their members by hundreds of thousands : (c) great 
pilgrimages to her shrines are not wanting, as in Para, 
Brazil : (d) her great festivals evoke extraordinary enthu 
siasm : (e) apparitions of Mary are recorded, as at Para 
and Quito (see 94) : (f) Mary s affectionate solicitude 
is seen in the series of marvellous manifestations in the 
Jesuit college, Quito, Ecuador. See Ibid. 

Concepcion, Chile, has a pilgrimage to a shrine of the 
Blessed Virgin that is perhaps unique, a rock-drawn figure 
of the Mother of God. It was discovered by a child in 
the XVIII Cent., and was long popular among the Chilians. 
Our Lady of Nazareth, at Para, Brazil, has a remarkable 
history. Two hunters, resting in the forest, fell asleep 
from exhaustion . One of them dreamt that a lady appeared 
to him and told him he would find an image of the Virgin 
Mary in a thicket close by. On awaking he made a search, 
and a beautiful statue was discovered near the trunk of 
a palm tree. It was carried to the town amid great rejoic 
ings and placed in the Governor s chapel : but the next 
day it disappeared, and was found to have returned to 
the original spot in the forest. This happened several 


times, and at length a chapel was built for it in the place 
of its choice. Miraculous favours were so numerous that a. 
large church had to be erected to accommodate the pilgrims, 
and, in course of time, a city, Para, grew up around it. 
The annual feast is a public holiday, prolonged for several 


ON the feast of our Lady s Assumption, August 15, 
1549, St. Francis Xavier landed in Japan with 
Father Cosmo de Torres and John Fernandez. The Saint 
remained in the island till near the close of 1551. Fathers 
Gomez, Cabral, Valignani and others of the Society who 
succeeded him brought with them the ardent devotion 
to the Mother of God which is one of the prominent char 
acteristics of the Order to which they belonged. 

In the persecution of Daifusama, A.D. 1598 to 1615, the 
Christian religion was proscribed, the missioners were 
put to a cruel death or exiled, and every effort was made 
to stamp out the faith which had spread through the 
land with such marvellous results and been sealed by many 
glorious martyrdoms. 

From the year 1640 the poor persecuted Christians 
exiled to distant Provinces were left without priests, 
without sacraments* (except Baptism and Matrimony, 
the essential rites of which were transmitted from father 
to son), without instruction except such as they remem 
bered from the teaching of the Fathers and which was 
handed down by tradition, devotion to the Virgin Mother 
and knowledge of the Rosary being also treasured by them : 
yet in spite of those long years of isolation and persecution 
they clung to the faith with admirable fortitude, and their 
discovery by the French missionaries in 1865 is one of 
the most interesting events in the history of Christianity 


in the East. In the new church of Nagasaki on March 
17 of the year above mentioned, fifteen Japanese Chris 
tians of the Province of Urakami, descendants of the 
martyrs, came to the city to see the new church erected 
by the French missionaries. They were suspicious at 
first, fearing the new missionaries were not of the right 
sort, but they were led to recognize them as true successors 
of their ancient Fathers by three marks, respect for the 
authority of the Pope of Rome, the Rosary and veneration 
of the Virgin Mother, and the celibacy of the clergy. 
They told Father Petit jean that there were a great many 
other Christians in the interior of the country, about 
50,000 in all being known. 

At present Catholicity is progressing and devotion to 
Mary is as fervently cherished by Christians as in Europe. 
The cathedral of Tokyo is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
and has a beautiful figure of her in stained glass above the 
high altar. Behind the church is a grotto of Lourdes 
with a basin supplied, as far as possible, with Lourdes 
water. Every parish has its association of the Rosary, 
and in many parishes there are special devotions every 
Saturday, as also during the months of May and October. 
There are also Sodalities of our Lady for boys, and of 
Children of Mary for girls. Almost all the popular hymns 
to her and about ten books of devotion treating of her 
dignity and glory have been translated into Japanese. 
In districts where the light of the Faith has never been 
extinguished, one sees rough but simple farmers, labourers, 
fishermen, working in the fields or on the shore, with our 
Lady s scapular or medal openly displayed on their bare 
breast. Manifestations of our Lady s help and interest 
in these good persons are not wanting, and there are 
reports of miraculous favours by using the water of Lourdes. 
In 1917, a pagan, far gone in consumption, was thus cured 
and became a Christian. 



Ceylon, speaking of the Catholicity of that far-off 
island, relates that the greatest possible devotion to Jesus 
holy Mother is there cherished by the Christians. " Out 
of 600 churches there, more than 200 are dedicated to 
her. There are everywhere realistic replicas of the famous 
Lourdes grotto, which are visited on Saturdays and great 
feast-days by thousands of pilgrims, who form themselves 
into magnificent processions. It is a very touching sight 
to see the Archbishop, about 100 Priests, and 10,000 
Catholics marching in procession at night, all bearing 
lighted candles and singing hymns to our Lady." Strange 
to say, even the Buddhists, who number nearly 3,000,000 
out of a total population of 4,000,000, have taken to dis 
tributing festive cards for their New Year s Day, which 
are copied from our own Christmas cards, and bear the 
figures of the Infant Saviour and His holy Mother. On 
these cards appears the inscription " God bless our Lord 
Buddha/ the sect thus unwittingly admitting that there 
exists a God greater than their Lord Buddha. 

From all parts of India, China, Japan, and other 
distant lands, reports are sent to the " Catholic Missions," 
and " Annals of the Propagation of the Faith " of extra 
ordinary manifestations of devotion to our Lord s holy 
Mother, similar to those of Ceylon. 

The Chinese Catholics are remarkable for their tender 
devotion to Holy Mary. In Borneo the Chinese Christians 
always assemble in the church on Sundays and Feast- 
days half an hour before the principal Mass and chant 
the Rosary together, the children taking the first part 
of each prayer, and the adults the second. The effect 
is most impressive. 

Our Lady at the Hills, some twenty miles from Shang- 


hai, is a shrine greatly venerated, to which pilgrimages 
are made, especially in the month of May. Throughout 
the month a continuous line of devout pilgrims resort 
thither to honour God s holy Mother. The opening 
ceremony commences on April 30 with the firing of a 
cannon. The next day Masses are said in the two churches, 
which are situated one midway up the hill, the other on 
the top. The path leading to the latter zigzags up the 
steep slope, along which are erected the fourteen Stations 
of the Cross. Thousands flock to the celebration, and 
from morning until night there is a continuous procession 
of pious pilgrims making their way to the summit, while 
performing the devotions of the Way of the Cross. The 
natives come on these occasions from all parts of the 
country, and it is not uncommon to see entire families 
who have journeyed several hundred miles. It might 
be called the Chinese Lourdes, so loved is it by the simple 

One of the picturesque sights is the hundreds of boats 
in the canal at the foot of the hill and stretching for more 
than a mile along the canal banks. This solid mass 
remains practically unbroken for the entire month, those 
who leave being replaced by new comers. The whole 
month of May is held by the Chinese in reverence and 
love, and one of the surest signs of the lack of faith in an 
individual is a waning devotion towards the Mother of 


INA, King of the West Saxons, rebuilt Glastonbury 
church. (See 30.) His silver chapel. Ibid. 
Henry II in 1189, again rebuilt Glastonbury church 
after a fire. (See 30.) 
Henry III is the first English King mentioned as a 


pilgrim to Our Lady of Walsingham. This was in 1242, 
the twenty-sixth year of his reign. Waterton, 173. 

Edward I came twice on pilgrimage to Walsingham, 
in 1280, 1296. Ibid. 

Edward II made the same pilgrimage in 1315. Isa 
bella of France, his Queen consort, whilst residing at 
Castle Rising came as a pilgrim in 1332. 

Edward III followed their example in 1361. 

A picture found in 1800 under the wainscoting of that 
part of the House of Commons which was formerly St. 
Stephen s Chapel, 1 represents this King and the Queen 
kneeling before our Lady and Child. (See 28.) 

The same King founded the Order of the Garter " to 
the honour of the Blessed Virgin ; and, out of his singular 
affection for her, he wished her to be honoured by his 
knights." On her festivals, during the Divine Office, 
they each bore on the right shoulder a golden figure of 
the Mother of God. 

Richard II (d. 1399), son of the Black Prince, is shown 
to have been a devout client of our Lady. During the 
reign of James I a paper, now in the British Museum, 
was discovered giving an account of a picture known to 
have been in the Chapel of St. Thomas Hospital, Rome ; 
on which see 28, also Bridgett, 164. Others think 
the King there represented may have been Edward III, 
Richard s grandfather. 

Henry IV (d. 1413) and the Angelus. (See 29.) 
In his reign Archbishop Arundel spoke of England as 
Our Lady s Dowry in a pastoral letter. (See 28.) 

Henry V (d. 1422). It is certain that he consecrated 
his kingdom to our Lady, though he was not the first 
to do this. Thomas Elmham (see 28), a monk who 
wrote in the King s lifetime an account of his exploits 
and his piety, makes use of the words, " O Virgin sweet ! 
England is made thy dower by royal Henry ; keep it 

1 This chapel was founded by Edward III as a collegiate one for 
a Dean and twelve Canons. 

M.P. K 


by thy power." (Anglia dos tua fit, Mater pia, Virgo 
Maria Henrico rege : tu tua jura rege.) See Bridgett, 166. 
The battle-cry at Agincourt, Elmham tells us, was " Our 
Lady for her Dowry ; St. George and St. Edward to our 
aid." Ibid. 167. 

Henry VI (d. 1461). His foundation of Eton, of King s 
College, Cambridge, and his devotion to the Rosary. 
(See 71, also 29.) He went on pilgrimage to Wai- 
singham in 1455. 

Henry VII (d. 1509) repaired to Walsingham in 1505, 
taking with him the young prince, afterwards Henry VIII. 
Margaret, Countess of Richmond, Henry VII s mother, 
was a person of remarkable piety. Every morning she 
rose at five, said the Matins of our Lady with one of her 
gentlewomen and then heard several Masses, often pro 
longing her prayers until nearly the dinner hour, which 
was 10 a.m. on ordinary days, and n on fasting days. 

Henry VIII (d. 1547) and his Queen, Catherine of 
Aragon, were together the last of the royal pilgrims to 
Walsingham, their visit being in 1511. From Barsham 
Hall the King walked barefoot to the shrine, where he 
offered a valuable necklace to our Lady. After the victory 
of Flodden Field in 1513, Queen Catherine wrote to Henry, 
who twenty years later was to betray her so basely : " And 
with this I make an end, praying God to send you home 
shortly, for without this no joy can here be accomplished ; 
and for the same I pray, and now go to Our Lad}r of 
Walsingham that I promised so long ago to see." 

Note. It is interesting to know that the crown formerly 
worn by English Kings bore a figure of our Lady amid 
rubies and diamonds. 

Scottish Kings : Malcolm II (d. 1033) founded an 
abbey at Murlach (Marylake ) in Aberdeenshire in 1010, 
and dedicated it to our Lady and St. Maloch in thanks 
giving for a victory over the Danes. At a later period 
he built and dedicated another monastery to our Lady 
in Brechm. 


David I founded the Abbey of Holyrood in honour of 
the Holy Cross and the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

David Bruce went as a royal pilgrim to Walsingham 
in 1364. 


CLOVIS I in 501 built Notre Dame d Argenteuil 
near Paris. Here part of our Saviour s seamless 
robe was preserved : it had been found in a marble chest 
in the city of Saphat in 593, and was brought to Argenteuil 
in 1156. 

Childebert in 522 built Notre Dame de Paris. In 
1257 St. Louis erected a much larger and nobler church 
on the same site. 

Charlemagne in 804 built the magnificent church of 
our Lady at Aix-la-Chapelle. 355 Archbishops, Bishops 
and Abbots assisted at the ceremony of consecration. 

Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne (d. 840), was 
very devout to our Lady, and always carried her image 
about with him, even when hunting. He had been anointed 
and crowned by Pope Adrian I in Rome, and he confirmed 
all his father s gifts to the Church. 

Robert, surnamed the Wise, son of Hugh Capet, 
founded in 1022 a chapel to our Lady in Paris, on the 
very site where now stands La Sainte Chapelle. 

St. Canute, King of Denmark (d. 1087), built several 
churches which he dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 

St. Stephen of Hungary (d. 1038) dedicated to her 
the Royal basilica of Alba Reale, and placed his crown 
at our Lady s feet, declaring her to be the Sovereign of 
his kingdom. 

James, King of Aragon, in 1218 co-operated in the 


institution of the Order of Our Lady of Ransom (Trini 
tarians), our Lady having revealed her wish to him, as 
also to St. Peter de Nolasco. 

St. Ferdinand of Castille (d. 1252) had her banner 
borne before his soldiers in his battles with the Moors, 
whom he conquered in Andalusia. 

St. Louis IX of France (d. 1270) rebuilt on a grand 
scale Childebert s church of Notre Dame in Paris. How 
ever occupied he might be with government affairs, what 
ever his troubles and sufferings, he never failed to say 
our Lady s Office every day. 

Louis XI (d. 1475) appointed the devotion of the Angelus 
to be observed, in honour of the Incarnation, ordering 
" all Frenchmen, knights, men-at-arms, servants and 
others to recite it kneeling in order to obtain the blessing 
of peace." 

Charles VI (d. 1492) instituted an order of knighthood 
in honour of our Lady, and in thanksgiving for his miracu 
lous escape while hunting. 

Francis I (d. 1547), hearing that a Huguenot had 
mutilated a statue of the Blessed Virgin, came barefoot 
with his courtiers to the place of the sacrilege, and sub 
stituted a magnificent statue for the defaced one. 

John Casimir of Poland (d. 1592) consecrated his 
kingdom to Mary, and had her image woven on its banners. 

Philip III of Spain (d. 1621) requested Pope Paul V 
to declare our Lady Immaculate in her conception. 

Philip IV (d. 1665) urged the same request with Pope 
Gregory XV. 

Louis XIII of France (d. 1637), by a solemn act chose 
our Lady as the protectress of his family and kingdom, 
placing his crown and sceptre on her altar in the metro 
politan cathedral. He ordered an annual procession to 
be held on the feast of the Assumption to commemorate 
this event. 

Louis XIV (d. 1650) renewed his father s act of homage, 
and by a public proclamation dated March 25, declared 


that he owed to our Lady s help the victories he had won 
in Flanders. 

Ferdinand III of Germany (d. 1647) consecrated him 
self, his family and empire to the Queen of heaven. A 
large column supporting a statue of our Lady, represented 
as crushing the serpent s head, stands in a public square 
of Vienna as a memorial of this consecration. 

Duke Rollo of Normandy (d. 931), on occasion of his 
baptism, asked the Archbishop of Rouen which were the 
most venerated churches in his province. The Prelate 
mentioned Notre Dame de Rouen, N.D. of Bayeux, the 
churches of Evreux, of Mont St. Michel, of St. Peter at 
Rouen, and of Jumieges. " And what Saint is most 
revered in these parts ? " inquired the Duke. " St. Denis, 
the Apostle of France." Accordingly, before dividing 
his territory among his leading officers, he set apart por 
tions for God, for the Blessed Virgin, and for the Saints 
named by the Archbishop. 

Among the founders of churches in our Lady s honour 
should be mentioned St. Helena, the mother of Con 
st antine who in the IV Cent, built the church at Bethle 
hem, which with its altars, mosaic, and statues remains 
to the present day. 



I. (~^ ITIES that had our Lady s image in their armorial 
V_^ bearings or corporation seals : 

(a) in England London, Rye, Newhaven. Waterton, 

(b) in Scotland Leith, Banff, Rutherglen, Selkirk. 
Aberdeen has a vase of lilies in honour of our Lady. 

Montreal in Canada, founded by M. Maisonneuve in 
1640, was originally named " Ville Marie," and conse 
crated to Mary. 


The City of London in 1500 had 118 parish churches and 
thirty-six non-parochial. Of these, eighteen, and probably 
more, were dedicated to our Lady, for Arnold s Chronicle, 
the authority for these figures, does not give the names 
of all the churches of Regulars. 

A few streets in London still retain our Lady s name, 
v.g. St. Mary Axe, Ave Maria Lane, Mary-le-bone. 

A Council of Exeter held in 1287 ordered that every 
parish church was to have an image of the Blessed Virgin, 
and one of its Patron Saint. 

2. Kingdoms consecrated, or specially devout to our 

(a) England, the Dowry of Mary. (See 28.) Con 
secrated to her by its Kings. (See 49.) 

(b) Ireland. (See 34.) 

(c) France emblazoned the lilies of Mary on her banners. 
St. Bridget of Sweden, in one of her Revelations (lib. iv. 
c. 10 ), says she saw St. Denis, the Apostle of France, 
entreating the Queen of heaven to come to the aid of that 
country, then suffering cruelly from its wars with England 
France for which she had done so much in the past. 
Poire I. 356. Our Lady touched by his prayer interceded 
with her Divine Son. 

Several French monarchs have consecrated their king 
dom to Mary. (See 39, 50.) France has many wonder 
ful sanctuaries of our Lady Lourdes, Rocamadour, 
Fourvieres, La Garde, Chartres, Puy, Liesse, La Salette, 
Pontmain, and many others. Poire I. 356 seq. Some 
of these will be found mentioned under 39. 

(d) Spain. Devotion to Mary is a marked feature in 
the Spanish character. The usual salutation on entering 
a house is " Ave Maria purissima " : to which the answer 
is given " Sine labe concepta." Its Kings have dedicated 
their kingdom with its cities, corporations, etc., to Mary ; 
and its provinces boasted of some 500 shrines raised in 
her honour. Among the famous Spanish sanctuaries of 
the Blessed Virgin are Our Lady of the Pillar (Saragossa), 


Montserrat, Atocha (Madrid), Betharam, and others. (See 


(e) Portugal. John IV (d. 1655) consecrated his king 
dom to Mary Immaculate, and placed his royal crown at 
her feet. Thenceforth the Kings of Portugal never wore 
that crown. He also decreed in 1645 that no student 
should be admitted to a University degree without an 
oath to defend the doctrine (not yet defined by the Church) 
of the Immaculate Conception. The city in Portugal that 
glories the most in having been consecrated to Mary is 
Oporto. (See 45.) 

(/) Italy, says Bozius (lib. ix. de Signis Ecclesiae) belongs 
to our Lady by right, having been delivered by her from 
the tyranny of the Goths, the impiety of the Arians, and 
the ravages of the Saracens. Siena is in an especial way 
our Lady s city, and on its coinage it formerly bore the 
inscription " Siena, ancient city of the Virgin." Italy 
possesses glorious sanctuaries of Mary, the chief being 
St. Mary Major (Rome), Loretto, Pompei (Naples), Bologna, 
Perugia. (See 63.) Poire I. 438 seq. 

(g) Belgium, so sadly afflicted by war, possesses many 
remarkable shrines of Mary, the more important being 
Hal (near Brussels), Montaigu (near Louvain), Oostacker 
(near Ghent), and others. Poire I. 409 seq. 

(h) Poland, Germany. (See 43, 44.) 

Note. A Venetian, who visited England in 1500, says 
of the English : " Above all, their riches are displayed 
in the Church treasures for there is not a parish church 
in the kingdom so mean as not to possess crucifixes, candle 
sticks, censers, patens, and chalices of silver ; nor is there 
a convent of mendicant Friars so poor as not to have these 
same articles in silver, besides many other ornaments 
worthy of a Cathedral church in the same metal. Your 
Magnificence may, therefore, imagine what the decorations 
of those enormously rich Benedictine, Carthusian, and 
Cistercian monasteries must be." He relates also that a 
large golden shrine blazing with precious stones was shown 



to him in London (probably in St. Paul s or Westminster 
Abbey). " I never saw anywhere carving so delicate or 
elegant as in that church. In London alone there are 
twenty golden shrines adorned with precious gems ; in 
the whole kingdom as many as eighty such." He adds 
that he never expects to find elsewhere such churches 
and monasteries as he saw in England. Nearly every 
county in England has some rich shrine or monument to 
our Lady. 


i. pOETS. 

L (a) Ancient Hymns and Poems in her honour. 
Ethiopic Hymn to our 

Lady . 

St. Ephrem s Hymns to her 
Sedulius (V Cent.) . 
Prudentius (d. 410) 
Arator (VI Cent.) . 
St. Venantius Fortunatus 

(d. 609) 
An Irish Saint of the VI 

Cent. . . 

(b) Liturgical Hymns and Sequences adopted by 
the Church in her services. 

Stabat Mater, by Blessed Jacopone of Todi, 1 a disciple 
of St. Francis (d. 1306). Sir Walter Scott admired it 
greatly and was fond of repeating it. He is said to have 
died muttering one of its stanzas. 

Salve Regina, by Herman the Cripple, a monk of Reiche- 
nau (d. 1054). St. Bernard added the words, " O clemens, 

1 By others its authorship is ascribed to St. Gregory the Great 
(d. 604), or to Innocent III (d. 1216). 

See Livius, 462 seq. 

402 seq. 

422 seq. 

449 seq. 

.. 454 


..: 459 


pia, O dulcis Virgo Maria " in the cathedral of Spires. 
The words are said to have burst from his lips in a moment 
of enthusiastic religious fervour. 

Ave Maris Stella, by St. Venantius Fortunatus. See 

Gloriosa Virginum, by the same. 

Alma Redemptoris Mater, by Herman the Cripple. 

Are Regina coelorum : author unknown: X Cent., 
some say much earlier. 

Regina coeli laetare : author unknown. 

(c) Non -Liturgical. 

Omni die, known as St. Casimir s Hymn (see above, 
1 8), but said to have been written by St. Bernard. 

A collection of beautiful Mediaeval Hymns and Se 
quences on our Lady by Richard of St. Victor, Rabanus 
Maurus and others. See Dreves, Analecta Hymnica. 

2. English Hymnologists. Crashaw, Caswall, New 
man, Faber, Aubrey de Vere, Francis Thompson, and 
many others have written beautiful hymns to Mary. See 
Or by Shipley s Carmina Mariana, Series I and 2. Thomp 
son s verses are in Series 2, p. 439. " Hail, Queen of 
Heaven " we owe to Dr. Lingard. 

3. Artists. Mary, the ideal of created beauty, and the 
perfect copy of the Uncreated Beauty, is both the inspirer 
and the favourite subject of Catholic art. Only a few 
of the great Masters, who have enriched the world with 
glorious representations of this Master-piece of God s 
creation, are here given. 

Cimabue (d. 1302). His Madonna and Holy Child, 
enthroned and surrounded by Angels (preserved in the 
church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence), marks a tran 
sition from the stiff Byzantine school of art. It created 
wild enthusiasm in Florence on its appearance. 

Giotto (d. 1336), who covered the churches of San 
Francesco, Assisi, and of Santa Croce, Florence, with 
wonderful frescoes, has also painted beautiful altar-pieces 
of our Lady and Child for churches in Florence and Bologna. 


Fra Angelico (d. 1455), the prince of religious painters, 
has left us many paintings of our Lady and Child. His 
" Coronation of Our Lady/ " Madonna della Stella " 
and others, are the works of an inspired mind. They 
are as near a glimpse of heaven as the artistic world has 
produced. It is said that this artist would only paint 
the figure of Mary on bended knees. 

Botticelli (d. 1510) has some charming paintings of 
our Lady and Child with attendant angels, the figures, 
grouping and colouring being marvellously beautiful. 

Filippo Lippi (d. 1469) and Filippino Lippi (d. 1504) 
have produced paintings of our Lady adoring the Holy 
Child that fix the attention of the beholder, as though 
he were gazing at a vision. 

Perugino (Pietro Vanucci, d. 1524), the master of 
Raphael, has given us several splendid paintings of the 
Blessed Virgin. 

Raphael (d. 1520, aged thirty-eight) produced more 
than thirty times the figure of our Lady, with an expression 
always new and nearly always admirable. His Madonna 
di San Sisto, Madonna del Gran Duca, Madonna di Foligno, 
Madonna della Sedia and others are unsurpassed for ideal 
beauty and life-like expression. 

Titian (d. 1576). His " Assumption " in Venice is a work 
of surpassing power and design and richness of colouring. 

Murillo (d. 1682), the painter of the Immaculate Con 
ception, has left us perhaps the grandest and most perfect 
artistic figure of our Lady from a religious point of view. 
One can imagine nothing more lovely than his Madonna 
in the Louvre. 

Carlo Dolci (d. 1686) and Sassoferrato (d. 1689) 
have left us some exquisite pictures of our Lady and Child. 
The latter s painting of " Our Lady of the Rosary" in 
Santa Sabina s Church, Rome, is of unsurpassed beauty. 

Michelangelo (d. 1564), whose frescoes in the Sis- 
tine Chapel are the wonder of the world, was eminent 
both as a painter, sculptor, and architect. In St. Peter s, 


Rome, may be seen his Pieta, a marble group representing 
the Blessed Virgin with the body of the dead Saviour on 
her knees. The critics of the time objected to the youthful 
appearance of the Mother, but he defended it on the ground 
that it afforded an additional proof of her pure and spot 
less character. " You forget," he said to one stupid 
critic, " that our Lady was an Immaculate Virgin ; sin 
never having had dominion over her, the beauty of her 
youth could never fade." Michelangelo has inscribed his 
name on the girdle of the Virgin : it is said to be the only 
work on which he ever did so. 

On the beauty of our Lady Petitalot writes (p. 414) : 
St. Denis the Areopagite, a convert of St. Paul s from 
Paganism, speaking of the impression that the sight of 
our Lady had made upon him, says : "I have seen the 
marvellous image of the Divinity ; I have contemplated 
with my eyes that creature who formed the God-Man 
Himself : Propriis oculis intuitus sum deiformam ; that 
holy Mother superior to all the angelic spirits." He adds 
that if he had not been a Christian, he would have fallen 
down and worshipped her as a goddess. Ibid. 425. 

Spanish, Belgian, and German artists, see 40, 42, 44. 


OF the great musicians of the XVII and XVIII Cents. 
Bach, Handel, Beethoven, Mendelssohn were 
Protestants ; yet Mendelssohn has written a really 
fine " Ave Maria," and so has Beethoven. Palest rina 
(d. 1594) was a good Catholic and a devout client of Mary, 
and there are some devout composers, contemporaries 
of his. Rossini, Cherubini, Verdi, and others can 
hardly be held up as devoted to our Lady ; also their 
compositions, even for sacred purposes, are operatic and 


lacking in reverence. Mozart, a prince in the realm of 
music, is said by some to have recited the Rosary fre 
quently ; by others his piety is questioned, and it is stated 
that he was a Freemason for a time at least. Haydn, 
notwithstanding what Mendelssohn calls his " scandalously 
gay " Church music, was a pious Catholic and devout to 
our Lady. So real was his joy in the Faith that he declared 
he could write even a Kyrie in tripping time. Indeed he 
has done something very like it. Gounod was entered 
for the priesthood. He did not persevere, but was always 
a good Catholic and devout to our Lady. His " Ave 
Maria " is full of religious feeling, and all his Church music 
is certainly reverential. Byrd and others of the old 
English school composed anthems in honour of our Lady, 
and to judge by their works, they seem to have really 
loved her. 

In the Middle Ages, when faith was more lively and 
devotion more tender, our Lady and her praises were 
constantly the subject of poetry and song ; it was of her 
that sang the troubadours of Provence, the singers of 
Guyenne, the minstrels of Brittany, the bards of Wales 
and Germany, the Spanish romancers, and the gondoliers 
of the Adriatic. 

The Mary Mass in England and elsewhere had its 
music of quite a special character. Long before har 
monized singing was in use at the high altar service, or 
in any other portion of the Church s liturgy, it was employed 
for the Lady Mass. And as this particular music required 
a select body of singers, our Lady frequently had her own 
special choir of priests and boys. In Benedictine churches, 
and possibly in others, these boy-choristers were known 
as Our Lady s Pages. 

In his Histoire de Notre Dame de Montsenat Dom Louis 
Montegut gives a long list of renowned men who had 
once acted as our Lady s choristers. One of these was 
the famous Don John of Cardona, the Admiral of Sicily, 
who succoured Malta when it was besieged by the Turks, 


and who chose for his standard Our Lady of Montserrat. 
He used to say that he valued more the honour of having 
been a Page of our Lady than of having been born at 
Aragon, and of having acted as the defender of Malta in 
his character of Admiral of Sicily. Whenever he wrote 
to the Abbot he would beg to be recommended to the 
prayers of his little brothers who served at our Lady s 
altar. He lived to be Viceroy of Navarre, and, at his 
own desire, was buried under the shadow of the great 
Abbey-church, in which he had served as a singing boy. 
Great pains were taken with these children, not only 
to teach them Latin, mathematics, and music, but also 
to train them in the observance of good manners, and to 
bring them up piously and devoutly. Not only were 
they taught to sing, but also to play the organ and other 
instruments of music, for on Sundays and feasts, as well 
as on Saturdays (our Lady s weekly festival), they joined 
instrumental music to their singing. More than one old 
writer makes mention of the exquisite Mary-music pro 
duced by these pages. You might have thought," says 
one, " that you were listening to a choir of angels descended 
from the sky, such entrancing melody did they make 
with their youthful voices and various instruments, filling 
the hearts of the worshippers with a most sweet and 
heavenly devotion." Stella Maris, 1911, p. 54. 


OUR blessed Lord loved children with a special love, 
and would come into this world as a Child. " For 
a Chid is born to us, a Son is given to us." Isaias ix. 6. 
In His public life, when the mothers brought their little 
ones to obtain His blessing, and the Apostles sought to 


drive them away, our Lord was displeased at this. He 
invited the children to Him, and taking them in His arms 
caressed them. Mark x. 16. 

Our Lady shares with her Divine Son this deep attach 
ment to children : they are indeed her children, given to 
her as such by Jesus on the cross, and she cherishes for 
them a love far surpassing that of all other mothers for 
their children. She has on several occasions manifested 
this love by appearing to them, v.g. : 

(1) to Bernardette Soubirous at Lourdes in 1858; 

(2) to Maximin and Melaine at La Salette in 1846 ; 

(3) to the children at Pontmain in 1871 ; 

(4) to the young college boys at Quito in 1906. (See 


(5) to the scholars in Rome taught by St. Joseph Cala- 
sanctius : besides other cases. 

And she in turn has been and is tenderly loved by the 
young ; v.g. : 

(1) St. Stanislaus Kostka, her greatly favoured child) 
fell into an ecstasy before her image in St. Mary Major, 
Rome, exclaiming, " She is my Mother ! The Mother of 
God is my Mother ! " 

(2) St. Aloysius at the age of nine consecrated to her 
by vow the lily of his purity in the church of SSma Annun- 
ziata, Florence. 

(3) St. John Berchmans, when a young boy, made 
,a pilgrimage every Saturday from Diest to her sanctuary 
at Montaigu, near Louvain. On his deathbed he told his 
brother Scholastic Nicholas Ratkai, that he had intended 
to write a book on " Our Lady," and he asked Nicholas to 
do it for him. 

(4) St. Edmund of Canterbury, when a boy at Oxford, 
made a vow of perpetual purity to her, and put a ring 
on the finger of her statue to mark his consecration of 
himself to her. 

(5) Blessed Herman Joseph, when a child, used to 
spend all his playtime before her image in the church 


at Cologne, and was favoured with visions of her and the 
Divine Child. 

(6) Blessed Gabriel dell Addolorata seemed beside 
himself at times with intense love for the Madonna. Father 
Bernard, Passionist, his confidant, said : " Gabriel s heart 
became like a furnace of love for the Queen of heaven " : 
he seemed as if he could no longer speak, think, nor act, 
without having her present before his mind. 

Many other instances might be given. 

Among her Sodalists, while yet young scholars, were 
the Saints Francis de Sales, Leonard of Port Maurice, 
John Baptist de Rossi, Camillus de Lellis, Peter Fourier, 
Blessed Gaspar de Bufalo, and others. Thousands upon 
thousands of Children of Mary have consecrated their 
young hearts to her. Year by year, when May comes 
round, also on all her festivals, children load her altar 
with flowers, adorn it with lights, and gather round it 
in prayer, chanting loving hymns which, learnt in child 
hood, are never forgotten in after-life. In far-off lands, 
Ceylon, Madura, China, Japan, and others, children love 
to gather round her image exposed in imitation Lourdes 
grottoes, and to walk in procession chanting her Litany 
and hymns. 

Childhood and youth are the spring-time of life : children 
are the flowers of the human race freshly planted on this 
earth by the hand of God : they resemble the angels, 
whom artists delight to represent as children : T angelic 
souls seem to look through their eyes : they are God s 
work unspoilt by the world, objects of the Sacred Heart s 
tenderest complacency. Devotion to our Lady, as experi 
ence shows, is a most efficacious means of preserving 
children innocent, guileless, simple, unworldly, and devoted 
to their religion. Also in bodily dangers remarkable 
stories are told of Mary s protection of her children. In 
the disastrous Messina earthquake, January, 1909, several 

1 Angels appeared to St. Teresa, St. Frances of Rome, and others 
under the form of children. 


instances of miraculous escapes were reported. Father Nal- 
bone, S.J., Provincial of Sicily, in a letter to the Father 
General of the Society of Jesus, writing of the destruction 
of Messina College says : " One boy jumped to the ground 
from the third storey without sustaining any injury : 
others let themselves down by sheets from the balconies : 
others again account for their escape by miracle. See, 
Father/ said a small boy to me, how much our Lady loves 
me. I had the Sodality medal hanging by a string near 
my pillow. At the shock of the earthquake the cord 
broke and the medal fell on my neck. Seizing it I cried 
out : O Mary, Immaculate Mother, save me ! and presently 
I found myself in the college courtyard safe and sound. 
See how our Lady loves me. Letters and Notices, 
April, 1909, p. 76. 

In July, 1918, thousands of English children offered 
up Novenas of Holy Communions for Marshal Foch s 
success in the great European War; and this greatest 
warrior of modern times wrote to thank them, ascribing 
the defeat of the enemy to the Divine aid obtained for 
him by their prayers and those of others. The Marshal 
lets it be publicly known that he is a thorough Catholic 
and proud of his religion. His devotion to our Lady is 
well known. 



I. ^V VICTORY of Lepanto, October 7, 1571. In the 
V days of Pope St. Pius V, the Moslems were threat 
ening all Christendom : they were masters of the Medi 
terranean, of Hungary and Greece, and threatened to fall 
upon Italy, after subduing Malta and Cyprus. In spite 
of jealousies between the Powers, the Pope succeeded 


in uniting Spain and Venice under the standard of the 
Cross. Don Juan of Austria, the natural son of the 
Emperor Charles V, was appointed Commander-in-chief 
of the combined fleet. The Pope, like another Moses, 
lifted his hands to heaven in prayer, while the defenders 
of Christendom were carrying out their great designs. 
On the very day when the confraternities of the Rosary 
were offering solemn supplication at the Pope s desire, 
and the Blessed Sacrament was publicly exposed for 
adoration, Don Juan gained a glorious victory over the 
Turks, the news being communicated to the Pope miracu 
lously on the day itself, October 7, and at the very hour, 
5 p.m. The Cross thus triumphed over the Crescent, 
and Moslem invasion of Europe was checked. Don Juan s 
victory was attributed to our Lady s intercession, and the 
Pope instituted an annual feast of " St. Mary of Victory." 

2. Victory of Belgrade, 1456. After four months 
siege by the Turks and a terrific assault, the exhausted 
garrison were on the point of surrendering, when a holy 
Franciscan, St. John de Capistran, presented himself to 
the soldiers, crucifix in hand, and called aloud upon God 
and the Blessed Virgin to come to the protection of their 
own. This roused the courage of the Christian soldiers, 
who flung themselves upon the Turks with irresistible 
force, massacred several thousands of them who had 
already penetrated into the city, and put the rest to flight. 
This extraordinary victory, coming at the very moment 
when all seemed hopeless and lost, was attributed to the 
intercession of Mary. 

3. Victory of Vienna, 1683. John Sobieski (i.e. John 
III, King of Poland), hearing that Vienna was besieged 
by the Turks, hurried to its rescue with 18,000 Poles, and 
was joined on the way by many German troops. He 
succeeded in raising the siege, defeating an army of 100,000 
Turks, 25,000 of whom were slain. The heroic commander, 

I immediately after the victory, prostrated himself before 
I our Lady s altar, attributing the success to her and her 

M.P. L 


Divine Son s protection. He joined in the Te Deum that 
was sung, with eyes fixed on the ground, and with the 
most lively expressions of humility, gratitude and devotion. 
See A. Butler, Lives of Saints, September 8, note. 

He had previously inflicted great defeats on the Turks 
at Bucracz in Galicia, in 1669, and at Choczin in 1673, 
capturing the green standard of Hussein Pasha, the Turkish 
commander, and slaying more than 20,000 of his soldiers. 
The standard was sent to the Pope, and is still to be seen 
in the Lateran Basilica. 

4. Other Victories. Segneri (Devout Client, 124) 
speaks of several signal victories obtained through the 
manifest protection of the Blessed Virgin, v.g. by Heraclius 
over the Persians, by Narses over the Goths, by Zemisces 
over the Bulgarians, and others. 

The battle-cry of Blessed Joan of Arc was " Jesus, 
Maria ! " these sacred names being woven on her white 
banner. Pelayo, with a handful of brave men, found 
the strength that was to deliver Spain in the grotto of 
Covadonga, which had been consecrated to the Mother 
of God. Roland tempered his sword by a vow to Our 
Lady of Rocamadour, and uttered his war-cry in the 
valley of Roncesvalles. Paris being besieged by the 
Normans, the people carried processionally the image 
of the Blessed Virgin, which gave them victory. Those 
fierce Normans became the liege-men of the great Queen. 
Rollo, their chief, after his baptism in our Lady s church 
at Rouen, rebuilt this magnificent edifice, richly endowed 
that of our Lady at Evreux, and was always faithful to 
our Lady St. Mary. His adventurous successors founded 
sanctuaries to the Blessed Virgin in many lands. From 
distant Apulia, where 500,000 Saracens had retreated 
before a small body of Normans, Tancred and Robert 
Guiscard sent to the Bishop of Coutances treasures for 
that beautiful cathedral of St. Mary, which drew from 
Vauban the cry of admiration : " How sublime must be 
the faith, which could raise this marvel of architecture 


in the air ! " The promoters of the Crusade, Urban II 
and Peter the Hermit, used a white cross, the sign of the 
Son and the colour of the Mother, and instituted certain 
devotions in honour of Mary, among others the recital of 
the Angelus by the armies at mid-day ; and history attests 
that, while the Crusaders were faithful to these practices, 
victory was not wanting to their arms. Petitalot, 407. 
At the battle of Agincourt (1415), the English colours are 
said to have borne the image of Mary, and the battle- 
cry was " Our Lady and St. George ! " 


MARSHAL FOCH (Ferdinand), the greatest 
military commander of his day, to whom is due 
the defeat of the Germans in the awful European War of 
1914 to 1918, is a model Catholic and a devout client of 
Mary. The struggle against the enemy seemed hopeless till 
he took supreme command, when at once the whole aspect 
of the war changed, and the Germans were driven out of 
France and Belgium, utterly routed and defeated. This 
gigantic task proved the Marshal to be a leader of con- 
sumate ability. He attributed his success mainly to 
prayer. Thousands of English children had offered Holy 
Communions for him, and dense crowds of his own coun 
trymen had flocked to Our Lady of Victories in Paris 
praying for his success. 1 

The late Major William Redmond (killed in action, 
June, 1917), in his work Trench Pictures from France, 
p. 106 seq., speaks as follows of the devotion of the Catholic 

1 It is remarkable that the Catholic officers, Marshals Foch, Pe- 
tain, Generals Castlenau, Gouraud and others, who before the war 
had been put aside with no prospect of promotion by the irreligious 
French Government, proved themselves to be the greatest of 
France s military commanders. 


soldiers : " At a certain point at the front there is a village 
where the troops come from time to time to rest, and the 
church there is crowded each evening with soldiers. . . . 
It is a strange sight in this church at night. Entering it, 
all is dark save for the few flickering candles on the altar 
of Our Lady of Dolours before which the priest kneels 
to say the Rosary. It is only when the men join in, 
that one becomes aware that the church is really full ; 
and it is solemn and appealing beyond words to describe 
when up from the darkness rises the great chorus of 
hundreds of voices in prayer. The darkness seems to 
add impressiveness to the prayers, whilst from the outside 
are heard the rumble and roar of the guns which, not so 
very far away, are dealing out death and agony to the 
comrades of the men who are praying. . . . 

p. 109 : " The day and night before a battalion goes 
to the trenches, the army chaplains are busy in the churches, 
for the men throng to confession ; and it is a wonderful 
and most faith-inspiring sight to see them in hundreds 
approaching the altar before marching off to danger, 
and in many cases to death itself. 

" When the turn in the trenches is over, and the men 
resume their Rosary in the darkened church in the even 
ings, there are always some absent ones who were there 
the week before. For this very reason perhaps because 
of the comrades who will never kneel by their side again, 
the men pray all the more fervently, and with ever increas 
ing earnestness say, May the souls of the Faithful departed 
through the mercy of God rest in peace ! . . . 

p. 112 : " The writer has seen men who were killed in 
the line. Their little personal belongings are carefully 
collected by comrades and safely kept to be sent home ; 
but the Rosary, when found in the pocket, is often, 
usually indeed, reverently placed round the dead man s 
neck before he is wrapped in his blanket for burial. I 
put his beads about his neck, sir/ is the report *of ten given 
by the stretcher-bearer to the chaplain or other officer, 


as a man is given to the grave. How many Catholic 
soldiers lie in their lonely graves to-day in the war-zone 
with their beads about their necks ! How very, very 
many ! And so, indeed, one feels sure, would they wish 
to be buried." 

The Tablet of November 23, 1918, p. 574, quotes from 
an American paper the following interesting " War Item " : 
" Rosaries carried to Battle. The men (American 
soldiers) of Comp. II were good Catholics, most of them. 
No one knows where they got the idea, or who first sug 
gested it, but had you been watching at dawn on the 
morning of October 28 you would have found that, when 
they went over the top, each one of them wore something 
that was no part of issue regulations looped around the 
left shoulder strap of his blouse. It was a Rosary." 

The brave Vendeans, led by Charette and others 
(1790), fighting in defence of their homes and country, 
marched to battle each soldier having a badge of the 
Sacred Heart on his breast and the beads round his neck. 

Andrew Hofer (d. 1810), the Tyro lese patriot, recited 
the Rosary with his brave followers as they marched 
through the mountain passes and over the hills of their 
native land. 

Marshal Bugeaud, Duke of Isly (d. 1850), after 
his conversion was an exemplary Catholic, and openly 
recited his Rosary in sight of the troops in Algeria, as they 
were resting round the bivouac fires. 

Simon de Montfort (d. 1218), leader of the crusade 
against the Albigensian heretics, having learnt from St. 
Dominic the devotion of the Rosary, found in it a more 
powerful weapon than the sword against the enemy. 

Anne de Mcntmorency (d. 1567), Marshal and Con 
stable of France, is said to have recited the Rosary while 
marching against the Calvinists. Coube, 25. 

General Lamoriciere (d. 1865), leader of the Ponti 
fical troops against the Piedmontese, who were invading 
and sacrilegiously usurping the Patrimony of St. Peter, 


was a fervent Catholic and known to be devout to our 


ON August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail on his perilous 
voyage on board a vessel, which he had had con 
secrated a few days previously to our Lady, changing its 
name from " La Gallega " to " Santa Maria." He had 
need of our Lady s help, for trouble followed upon trouble, 
still the vessel held on its course. When, however, it 
became known that the compass proved to be no longer 
true to its star, that the constellations had changed, and 
that a meteor had been seen in the heavens, the men s 
hearts sank within them, and they clamoured to return. 
But Columbus was unbending and undaunted : the con 
stellations might change, his trust was not in them. He 
confided in Mary, Star of the Sea, whose loving guidance 
and protection never change. From the beginning of the 
voyage ne had ordered that the " Ave Maris Stella " should 
be sung daily to seek our Lady s protection. One of his 
biographers says : " Every evening the Ave Maris Stella 
sanctified those watery solitudes, where never from crea 
tion s dawn the voice of man had sounded until then." 
The Star of the Sea heard their prayers, and on October 
12 land was sighted. In gratitude to Mary, Columbus 
named the archipelago east of Cuba " Our Lady s Sea," 
and called the largest island " Holy Mary of the Immacu 
late Conception." Saturdays with Mary, 24. 

Samuel de Champlain, founder of Quebec, governor 
of Canada, and father of New France (d. 1635), was a 
most fervent Catholic and devoted client of Mary, whose 
name he gave to many of the places he discovered. (See 


Father James Marquette, S.J. (d. 1675), the discoverer 


of the sources of the Missouri, gave to the river the name 
of " Immaculate." His monument has been placed in 
the Capitol, Washington. (See 37.) 


ON May I, 1449, the goldsmiths of Paris began to make 
an annual present to the cathedral of Notre Dame. 
In England Trade Guilds and other Guilds in great number 
were established in pre-Reformation days, no fewer than 
155 being dedicated to our Lady. Their object was two 
fold, Piety and Charity. 

The modern Livery Companies of London (Drapers, 
Leather-sellers, Skinners, and others) were founded from 
religious motives, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 
One of the many works of charity which sprang from these 
institutions was Bedlam, or Bethlehem Hospital, estab 
lished by the Drapers Company in the reign of Edward 
III, and dedicated to " the honour of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and His sweet Mother, Saint Mary, Our Lady of 

Waterton (p. 97) says " that 909 Guilds existed in Norfolk 
(i.e. Norfolkshire) alone, and of these 177 were Guilds of 
our Lady." (a) Some Guilds were founded solely for 
religious purposes, such as the Salve Guild in the church 
of St. Magnus, near London Bridge, the members of which 
assembled together every evening to sing the " Salve 
Regina." Stow particularly mentions that most of the 
churches had their Salve Guilds, and legacies of candles 
were often left to burn before the image of Mary whilst 
the " Salve " was being sung. A very noted chapel 
dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury stood on old Lon 
don Bridge, and attached to this chapel was one of the 
most famous of the Salve Guilds. From the Tower Records 


we learn that certain pious members of this Guild, together 
with " others of the better (class) of the parish of St. 
Magnus near London Bridge (out) of their great devotion, 
and to the honour of God and His glorious Mother, our 
Lady Mary the Virgin, began and caused to be made a 
chantry, (there) to sing an anthem of our Lady called 
Salve Regina every evening. And thereupon (they) 
ordained five burning wax lights at the time of the said 
anthem, in honour of the five principal joys of our Lady 
aforesaid, and for exciting the people to devotion at such 
an hour, the more to merit to their souls." Nesbitt, 
Our Lady in the Church, 14. Wax candles were then 
very costly. (See p. 200, note.) 

(6) The Guild called the " Little Fraternity of our 
Lady " in St. Stephen s church, Coleman Street, had for 
object to provide candles to burn before our Lady s image. 
(c) At Bodmin there was a Guild of Our Lady of Walsing- 
ham. (d) At Carbrooke Magna the Guild of our Lady 
had its chapel and maintained a priest to serve it. (e) 
At Caston the Guild of our Lady kept a light constantly 
burning before her image. (/) In St. Paul s, London, 
the Guild of the Annunciation had its special altar, (g) 
The Drapers Company maintained its Lady-light in St. 
Mary Woolchurch. (h) Sir Simon Eyre, a famous mer 
chant, and Mayor of London in 1445, made a rich endow 
ment to our Lady s Guild in the church of St. Mary, Wool- 
noth. (i) The Guild of Our Lady of Lynn was founded 
in 1329. (/) In the church of St. Andrew, Norwich, there 
was a Guild of Our Lady of Grace, (k) At Oxford the 
Guild of the Cordwainers built a Lady Chapel in All Hallows 
Church. For others, see Waterton, Ibid. 

Sir Richard Whittington and the Mercers Company. 
Sir Richard, known to us in our boyhood days as the 
poor lad, who leaving London penniless, " turned again," 
and by a stroke of luck amassed a great fortune, was 
thrice Lord Mayor of London, and, moreover, a devout 
Catholic and fervent client of the Blessed Virgin. In 


the year 1419 he founded a Home (then called a " God s 
House ") for thirteen poor men, one of whom was to be 
the tutor or head. In the MS. Constitutions, which are 
in the archives of the Mercers Company, it is laid down 
that " every tutor and poor folk, every day when first 
they rise from their beds, kneeling shall say a Pater 
Noster and an Ave Maria, with special and hearty 
recommendation making mention of the aforesaid Richard 
Whittington, and Alice (his wife), to God and our blessed 
Lady, Maiden Mary." They were also to say the Rosary 
for the same, and in the evening the " De Profundis " 
with other prayers. 


I. T)ROSE Writers. 

JL Lecky (Rationalism in Europe, c. iii. 234) : 
" The world is governed by ideals, and seldom or never 
has there been one which has exercised a more salutary 
influence than the mediaeval conception of the Virgin." 
Again (in History of European Morals, vol. ii. 389) : " There 
is, I think, little doubt that the Catholic reverence for the 
Virgin has done much to elevate and purify the ideal 
woman, and to soften the manners of men." 

Ruskin (Fors Clavigera, letter 41) pays the following 
tribute to the influence of the devotion to the Mother of 
God : "Of the sentiments which in all ages have distin 
guished the gentleman from the churl, the first is that of 
reverence for womanhood, which, even through all the 
cruelties of the Middle Ages, developed itself with increas 
ing power until the thirteenth century, and became con 
summated in the imagination of the Madonna, which 
reigned over all the highest arts and purest thoughts of 
that age. I am persuaded that the worship * of the 
1 Inferior worship. 


Madonna has been one of the noblest and most vital 
graces, and has never been otherwise than productive of 
true holiness of life and purity of character. There 
has probably not been an innocent cottage home through 
out the length and breadth of Europe during the whole 
period of vital Christianity, in which the imagined presence 
of the Madonna has not given sanctity to the humblest 
duties, and comfort to the sorest trials of the lives of 
women ; and every brightest and loftiest achievement 
of the arts and strength of manhood has been the fulfil 
ment of the prophecy of the Israelite maiden, He that 
is mighty hath magnified me and holy is His Name/ 

Nathaniel Hawthorne (The Blithedale Romance) says : 
" 1 have always envied the Catholics in that sweet, sacred 
Virgin Mother who stands between them and the Deity ; 
intercepting somewhat of His awful splendour, but per 
mitting His love to stream upon the worshipper more 
intelligibly to human comprehension through the medium 
of a woman s tenderness." 

Charles Kingsley. " Our hearts and reasons tell us, 
and have told all Christians in all ages, that the 
Blessed Virgin must have been holier, nobler, fairer in 
body and soul than all women upon earth." 

Robert Buchanan. " The worship of the Virgin is 
to my mind the mind of an unbeliever full of holiness 
and beauty. We owe to it a great deal that is ennobling 
in life, in art, in literature. I myself see in the Virgin 
the exquisite incarnation of Divine Motherhood, well 
worthy of the reverence of any man, whatever his theo 
logical belief may be." 

II. Non -Catholic Poets. 

Wordsworth has the following lines on Mary s sin- 
lessness : 

" Mother ! whose virgin bosom was uncrossed 
With the least shade of thought to sin allied ; 
Woman ! above all women glorified 
Our tainted nature s solitary boast. 


Purer than foam on central ocean tossed, 
Brighter than eastern skies at daybreak strewn 
With fancied roses, than the unblemished moon 
Before her wane begins on heaven s blue coast, 
Thy image falls to earth. Yet some, I ween, 
Not unforgiven, the suppliant knee might bend 
As to a visible power, in which did blend 
All that was wise and reconciled in thee 
Of mother s love with maiden purity, 
Of high with low, celestial with terrene." 

Eccles. Sonnets. 

Lord Byron the poet of tumultuous passions wrote of 
our Lady these touching lines in 1820 : 

" Ave Maria ! tis the hour of prayer : 
Ave Maria ! tis the hour of love : 
Ave Maria ! may my spirit dare 
Look up to thine and to thy Son s above ? 
Ave Maria ! oh, that face so fair, 
Those downcast eyes beneath the Almighty Dove." 

Longfellow speaks of the Virgin Mother as captivating 
the hearts of all sorts and conditions of men : 

" Virgin and Mother of our dear Redeemer ! 
All hearts are touched and softened at her name ; 
Alike the bandit with the bloody hand, 
The priest, the prince, the scholar and the peasant, 
The man of deeds, the visionary dreamer, 
Pay homage to her as one ever present ! 

" And if our faith had given us nothing more 
Than this example of all womanhood, 
So mild, so merciful, so strong, so good, 
So patient, peaceful, loyal, loving, pure 
This were enough to prove it higher and truer 
Than all the creeds the world has known before." 

The Golden Legend. 

Edgar Allan Poe in the following lines speaks to 
our Lady with all the charm and simplicity of a child at 
prayer : 


" At morn, at noon, at twilight dim, 
Maria, thou hast heard my hymn : 
In joy and woe, in good and ill, 
Mother of God, be with me still. 
When the hours flew brightly by, 
And not a cloud obscured the sky, 
My soul, lest it should truant be, 
Thy grace did guide to thine and thee 
Now when the storm of fate o ercast 
Darkly my present and my past, 
Let my future radiant shine 
With sweet hopes of thee and thine." 

Shelley. We may apply the following passage to the 
Mother of the Redeemer : 

" Seraph of Heaven ! too gentle to be human, 
Veiling beneath that radiant form of Woman 
All that is insupportable in thee 
Of light, and lova, and immortality ! 
Sweet Benediction in the eternal Curse ! 
Veiled Glory of this lampless Universe ! 
Thou Moon beyond the clouds ! Thou living Form 
Among the Dead ! Thou Star above the Storm ! 
Thou Wonder, and thou Beauty, and thou Terror ! 
Thou Harmony of Nature s art ! Thou Mirror 
In whom, as in the splendour of the Sun, 
All shapes look glorious which thou gazest on ! " 



SIR WALTER SCOTT, who had not a few anti- 
Catholic prejudices, often introduced our Lady s 
name in his poems. 1 

1 Lockhart (Life of Sir W . Scott, 33) quotes the following words 
of Sir Walter: "I would, if called upon, die a martyr for the 
Christian religion, so completely is (in my poor opinion) its divine 
origin proved by its beneficial effect on the state of Society. Were 
we but to name the abolition of slavery and polygamy, how much 


" Ave Maria ! Maiden mild 
Listen to a maiden s prayer ; 
Thou canst hear though from the wild, 
Thou canst save amid despair. 
Safe may we sleep beneath thy care, 
Though banished, outcast, and reviled 

Ave Maria ! stainless styled 
Foul demons of the earth and air, 
From this their wonted haunt exiled, 
Shall flee before thy presence fair. 
We bow us to our lot of care, 
Beneath thy guidance reconciled 
Hear for a maid a maiden s prayer : 
And for a father hear a child." 

Lady of the Lake, Canto III. 

Robert Southey, in his beautiful Tale of Paraguay, 
has the following lines : 

" They served a Maid more beautiful than tongue 
Could tell or heart conceive. Of human race, 
All heavenly as that Virgin was, she sprung ; 
But, for her beauty and celestial grace, 
Being one in whose pure elements no trace 
Had e er inhered of sin, or mortal stain, 
The highest heaven was now her dwelling-place ; 
There as a Queen divine she held her reign, 
And there in endless joy for ever would remain. 
Her feet upon the crescent moon were set ; 
And moving in their order round her head, 
The stars compose her sparkling coronet. 
There at her breast the Virgin Mother fed 
A Babe Divine, who was to judge the dead 
Such power the Spirit gave this awful child. 
Severe he was, and in his anger dread ; 
Yet always at his Mother s will grew mild, 
So well did he obey that Maiden undefiled." 

Keble in The Christian Year thus addresses our Lady : 

has iii those two words been granted to mankind in the lessons of 
Our Saviour." Jan. 10, 1828. 

He was fond of reading and reciting the hymns of the Roman 
Liturgy, and his last prayer was his favourite hymn, Stabat Plater 


" Ave Maria ! blessed Maid ! 
Lily of Eden s fragrant shade, 
Who can express the love 
That nurtur d thee so pure and sweet, 
Making thy heart a shelter meet 
For Jesus holy Dove ? 

Ave Maria ! Mother blest, 

To whom caressing and caress d, 

Clings the Eternal Child : 
Favour d beyond Archangels dream, 
When first on thee with tenderest gleam 

Thy new-born Saviour smil d. 

" Ave Maria ! thou whose name 
All but adoring love may claim, 

Yet may we reach thy shrine. ; 
For He, thy Son and Saviour, vows 
To crown all lowly lofty brows 

With love and joy like thine." 

The Annuntiation. 

Thomas Osborne Davis, the Irish Patriot, a Protes 
tant, is the author of this pilgrim hymn : 

" Fading, still fading, the last beam is shining ; 
Ave Maria, day is declining ; 
Safety and innocence fly with the light, 
Temptation and danger walk forth with the night ; 
From the fall of the shade till the matin shall chime, 
Shield us from danger and save us from crime : 
Ave, Maria ; audi nos. 

" Ave, Maria, oh, hear when we call, 
Mother of Him who is Saviour to all ; 
Feeble and failing, we trust in thy might, 
In doubting and darkness thy love be our light ; 
Let us sleep on thy breast, while the night-taper burns ; 
And wake in thine arms, when morning returns : 

Ave, Maria ; audi nos." 
(Written about 1843.) 

Kipling in his " Hymn before Action/ writes the 
following touching words : 

Oh, Mary, pierced with sorrow, 
Remember, reach and save 


The soul that goes to-morrow 
Before the God that gave ! 
As each was born of woman, 
For each in utter need, 
True comrade and brave foeman, 
Madonna intercede ! " 

The following beautiful lines are taken from Coleridge s 
Sibylline Leaves. They were copied, the poet tells us, 
from a print of the Virgin in a Catholic village in Germany. 

The Virgin s Cradle Hymn. 

Dormi, Jesu ! Mater ridet Sleep, sweet Babe ! my cares 

Quse tarn dulcem somnum beguiling; 

. Mother sits beside Thee smiling ; 

Sleep, my darling, tenderly ! 
Dormi Jesu ! blandule ; If Thou sleep not Mother 

Si non dormis, Mater plorat, mourneth, 

Inter fila cantans orat, Singing as Her wheel she 

Blande, veni, somnule. turneth ; 

Come, soft slumbers, balmily. 

A Protestant Tribute to Mary. 

At a celebration of " Mother s Day," Sunday, May 9, 
1915, Rev. W. H. Clagett, a Protestant minister of St. 
Louis and former President of the University of Texas, 
paid a beautiful tribute to the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
Mother of God. 

" Mother, for whom words never have been, never can be coined, 
with which to weave the wreath of glory that we would place upon 
thy brow mother, by whom God became man, by whom the 
human race has thus been linked for ever to the throne of God 
mother, the light of whose eyes was the first light that shone upon 
the Babe of Bethlehem mother, whose face was the first face 
into which the Infant Jesus ever looked- mother, who, alone of 
all God s servants, angels, archangels, seraphim and cherubim, 
cradled Deity in thine arms and laid Him on thy bosom and held 
Him to thy breast mother, who taught the feet of the Infant 
Son of God to walk mother, the first word that the lips of the 
Babe, that was God and Man, learned to lisp- mother, who guided 
the footsteps of the Son of God and the Son of man through a 


spotless youth to a spotless manhood mother, who followed the 
Son of God, thy Son, bone of thy bone and flesh of thy flesh, to 
the cross to ignominious death mother, the first of all the earth 
to give to the Saviour Jesus loving ministry as He nestled on thy 
bosom mother, the last of all the earth in the thought of the 
Saviour, Son of God and Son of Mary, as He hung upon the cross 
and died mother, through whom heaven itself was for ever changed, 
when the Son of Mary and Son of God ascended from the cross 
and took His seat for ever upon the throne of God mother, who 
to this sin-darkened world gave the Infant Jesus, God and Man, 
who to heaven gave the Lamb of God, Man and God, who is the 
light of heaven mother, standing not beneath the shadow of the 
cross, but beneath the glory of the throne of God and of the Lamb, 
that throne now resplendent with the glory with which thy Son 
has enshrouded it, one and all we rise up and call thee blessed and 
place upon thy brow our richest diadem. We crown thee queen 
of our hearts we give thee the first place in all of God s creation." 

Homage more beautiful could not come from the lips 
of a devout Catholic. It furnishes another proof of the 
universal appeal made by the purity and sanctity of Mary 
and by the sacredness of her divine maternity to the 
upright and the clean of heart. 


FOR a list of the more important churches dedicated to 
our Lady s honour in every land, see Father Guppen- 
berg s Atlas Marianus. A few only are mentioned here. 

i. In Palestine and Eastern Europe. St. Helena, 
mother of Constantine, a saint whose praises have been 
proclaimed by St. Ambrose, Eusebius, Theodoret, Nice- 
phorus, and others, built three churches dedicated to our 
Lady in Palestine one at Bethlehem, a second in the 
valley of Jehosaphat over her tomb, and a third where 
the Angel is said to have appeared to the Shepherds. 
Crasset, 204. 

The Emperor Justinian (d. 565) built a splendid church 


to the Virgin Mother in Jerusalem, besides others else 

St. Pulcheria, sister of the Emperor Theodosius the 
younger (d. 453), illustrious for her sanctity and her pro 
tection of the Fathers assembled in the Councils of Ephesus 
and Chalcedon, raised three noble sanctuaries to Mary. 
Rom. Brev. Supplem., July 7. Her panegyric by St. 
Cyril of Alexandria, Ibid., lessons 7, 8, 9. 

Richness of these early churches. Theodoret, 
Bishop of Cyprus, who wrote in the V Cent, and took 
part in the Council of Ephesus (431), which was held in 
a large and magnificent church of our Lady, speaks of 
the churches of his day as dazzling the eyes by their rich 
ness and splendour. Suidas (X Cent.) says that in Con 
stantinople there were many altars of pure gold adorned 
with precious stones. St. Pulcheria gave an altar of gold 
to a church in Constantinople, which Sozomenus (1. 9, c. i) 
says was a thing of surpassing beauty. 

2. In Rome. St. Mary in Trastevere, the most ancient 
church of our Lady in the Eternal City, was built by 
Pope St. Callixtus I about A.D. 223. (See 8.) 

St. Mary Major, erected by the Patrician John under 
Pope St. Liberius, was rebuilt on a much larger plan by 
Pope Sixtus III in 432 to 440, soon after the Council of 
Ephesus. Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 108. 

St. Mary of the Angels was adapted by Michelangelo 
from the baths of Diocletian. Ibid. 126. 

St. Mary on the Capitol (" Ara Coeli ") was consecrated 
by Pope St. Gregory the Great in 591. Ibid. 175. 

St. Mary of the Rotunda (Sae Mariae ad Martyres) 
the ancient Pantheon was opened as a church of our 
Lady by Pope St. Boniface IV in 610. Ibid. 342. 

St. Mary of the People (del Popolo) was erected by Pope 
Paschal II in 1099. Ibid. 393. 

St. Mary in Cosmedin was built in the VI Cent. Ibid. 132. 

St. Mary of Peace (della Pace) has Sixtus IV for its 
founder (1471-84). Ibid. 359. 

M.P. M 


Old St. Mary s (Sa. Maria Antiqua) in the Forum, below 
the Palatine, dates from the VI Cent. Ibid. 186. 

3. France has its splendid cathedrals (veritable " poems 
in stone ") of Paris, Amiens, Chartres, Rheims (the latter 
destroyed in the war of 1914-18), Rouen, Bayonne, Avig 
non, Grenoble, Bayeux, Strasburg, all dedicated to our 

4. England has the glorious cathedrals of Salisbury 
and Lincoln, similarly dedicated, and rivalling the best 
Gothic churches on the Continent. 

5. Belgium possesses the Cathedral of Our Lady of 
Antwerp, with its wonderful spire : also many other rich 
sanctuaries raised in her honour. 

6. In Spain the Cathedrals of Seville and Burgos ; in 
Italy those of Siena, Venice, Florence, Pisa, Naples ; 
in Germany those of Spires and Friburg in Brisgau, are 
all placed under Mary s patronage. 

These architectural monuments are in many cases 
crowded with works of art, paintings, sculptures, bronzes, 
rich shrines and reliquaries, executed by great masters 
in the respective arts. 

From the XIII Cent, onward the Religious Orders 
vied with one another in multiplying churches, chapels, 
shrines, etc., in our Lady s honour, and scarce a province 
or noted town lacked a sanctuary to the Madonna, linking 
to that sanctuary some legend, which marked the spot 
as one chosen by Mary for the bestowal of her special 

In the life of St. Hugh of Lincoln the work of cathe 
dral-building is thus described : "To undertake and 
carry on the construction of these cathedrals, it was needful 
to combine the efforts of every kind of talent and resource. 
Every one who could help had to be pressed into service. 
Rich and poor, priests and monks, workmen and artists, 
confraternities and other associations, united their forces. 
The building of a great church called out an army who 
marched to their work as the Crusaders marched to battle. 


In the middle of the XII Cent., for instance, the spectacle 
might be seen of whole bands of voluntary workers har 
nessing themselves to carts which were to draw the neces 
sary materials for building the church of Our Lady of 
Chartres. This example was followed in Normandy by 
men of all classes of the people, as Hugh of Amiens, Arch 
bishop of Rouen, relates in a letter dated 1145 : These 
voluntary labourers, he says, allow no one to share their 
toil, unless he has first confessed his sins and done penance 
for them, (also) unless he has renounced all animosity 
and desire of vengeance, and is in perfect charity with 
all his enemies. 

Similarly in England the work was undertaken and 
carried out in a thoroughly religious spirit, the radiant 
vision of Mary smiling upon the work with the sweetest 
and most powerful encouragement. Under the spell of 
that beloved name there was no difficulty in bringing 
together men of good will, and making them understand 
that nothing could be too beautiful to give expression 
to the immaculate loveliness of the Mother of God, and 
so to honour the Infinite Beauty of God of which she is 
the reflection. 


ENGLAND S shrines of our Lady were renowned for 
their glory far beyond the seas, and the beautiful 
Lady Chapels in Cathedrals and parish churches, rich in 
architectural beauty, and often blazing with gold and 
colour, proclaimed that the Island of the Saints was truly 
devoted to the Queen of Heaven and belonged to her as 
her dowry. 

A few of England s more famous Lady Chapels are here 

i. Our Lady of Westminster (now Henry VII s 


Chapel). It seems certain that when Henry VII built 
this magnificent chapel in Westminster Abbey, he did 
not intend it to be called by his name. His will and 
intention was to erect a splendid shrine in honour of the 
Mother of God, replacing the early English Lady Chapel 
of the XIII Cent., which he pulled down. It is said 
of this King that " in all his necessities he made our Lady 
his continual refuge." No wonder then that he should 
desire to build in her honour one of the grandest Lady 
Chapels in the world. It was also his wish to bury there 
the remains of his uncle Henry VI (d. 1461), venerated 
by the people as a saint : but it is doubtful if the transla 
tion ever took place. More probably the body remained 
in the south aisle of St. George s, Windsor. 

It would be hard to conceive a more lovely structure, 
a richer shrine than this. Scarcely any portion of the 
interior lacked its delicate and elaborate carved work. 
Angels and Archangels, saints and martyrs, apostles and 
evangelists, the hierarchy of heaven and the sainted ones 
of earth, all had places on these walls. High above, the 
fan tracery of the stone roof seems literally to hang from 
the sky, so delicate and light is the workmanship. The 
original architect, Sir Reginald Bray, died soon after the 
laying of the foundation stone, and the work seems to 
have been continued, and certainly supervised by Abbot 
Islip. It is regrettable that it has long since lost its char 
acter as a Lady Chapel, and is now only a mausoleum. 

2. Lady Chapel, St. Alban s. It dates from the 
latter part of the XIII Cent, and the beginning of the 
XIV, Abbot Norton being probably its founder. In some 
respects it surpasses in elegance Henry VH s chapel at 
Westminster. The Decorated style had then reached its 
full development. One gazes in wonder at the lovely 
statuettes in the jambs and mullions of the windows, each 
with its delicately carved niche ; at the ornamental detail 
of the large windows ; at the richly traceried arch ; at 
the splendid range of niches, and beneath them a gorgeous 


range of sedilia. It will hardly be believed that this 
architectural gem was used as a Grammar School from 
the time of Edward VI until 1870. 

3. Winchester Lady Chapel was begun by Bishop de 
Lucy in 1204. The east wall with its fine Perpendicular 
window was erected by Prior Hunton ; but the north 
and south walls show the beautiful work of de Lucy, his 
early English arcades and lancet windows. Much of the 
wall-space is now concealed by some richly carved wood 
panelling added by Bishop Fox (1500-1528), the friend 
and confidant of Henry VII. 

Under the direction of Prior Silkstede in 1489 some 
remarkable frescoes, archaic in character, but extremely 
interesting and illustrating miracles of our Lady, were 
executed on the walls. They represent : 

(a) the miracle of an image of the Blessed Virgin : 

(b) protection and honour conferred by our Lady on 
an ignorant priest, who knew and could sing only one 
Mass, which was in her honour : 

(c) Prior Silkstede kneeling before the Mother of God 
saying " Benedicta tu in mulieribus " : 

(d) a Jewish boy, after receiving the Holy Eucharist, 
thrown into a furnace by his father, but delivered from 
the flames by the Blessed Virgin : 

(e) the Picture of St. Mary Major (Rome) carried in 
procession by Pope St. Gregory the Great to allay a fearful 
pestilence. During the procession the destroying angel 
is seen sheathing his sword : 

and so on. See Stella Marts, 1911, pp. 117, 118. 

4. Gloucester Lady Chapel was begun in the middle 
of the XV Cent, by Abbot Hanley. The architect was 
a monk of Gloucester, Elias the Sacrist. The Perpendicular 
style roof is said to be one of the grandest ever erected, each 
boss being a separate work of art. Nearly all of them are 
carved to represent foliage, and are as clear and distinct 
in design as they were in the XV Cent. It was one of 
the largest Lady Chapels ever built in England, and one 


of the richest in decorative detail. It shone with gold 
and blue and vermilion. The reredos must have been 
a gorgeous sight, and literally a blaze of colour, judging 
by the traces of it which still remain. Ibid. 187. 

5. Lady Chapels of York, Durham, Salisbury, 
Hereford, Worcester. See Ibid., 1911. 

6. Our Lady of Pew, Westminster. This was an 
image of Our Lady of Pity (Pieta) represented seated, 
bearing the dead body of her Son on her knees ; it was 
a great object of devotion and attracted numerous pil 
grims. It stood in the old Lady Chapel of Westminster, 
the one destroyed by Henry VII, to be replaced by the 
present edifice that bears his name. The old chapel had 
the indulgence of the Scala Sancta, granted by Pope 
Alexander VI in 1490. Henry III having pulled down 
the (Westminster) Abbey Church built by St. Edward 
the Confessor, laid the first stone of the new one in the 
fifth year of his reign, 1220. The erection occupied fifty 
years. The Queen set up the celebrated silver image of 
the Blessed Virgin in the feretory of St. Edward ; and 
in the twenty-eighth year of his reign, Henry III caused 
Edward FitzOdo, keeper of his works at Westminster, 
to place upon the forehead of that image an emerald and 
a ruby taken out of two rings which the Bishop of Chichester 
had left to the King as a legacy. Waterton, 222, 227. 


I. In Italy 

i. npHE Holy House of Loreto. 1 Father W. Guppen- 

JL berg, S. J. (Atlas Marianus) and Father Petitalot, 

S.J. (The Virgin Mother, 431), give the story of the Holy 

1 The question of the authenticity of the Holy House raised 
within recent years remains unsolved. 


House as follows : For many centuries it was venerated 
at Nazareth, but soon after the Mahomedans had become 
masters of Judea in 1291, it was translated to Dalmatia. 
It -,was still at Nazareth in St. Louis time, for he is said 
to have visited it there in 1252. Some woodmen first 
discovered the little building, of unknown origin, on the 
coast of Dalmatia in 1291. It stood in a spot where pre 
viously there had been neither house nor materials to build 
one. On approaching it, they found it to be 30 feet long 
by 13 broad, and constructed of square red stones totally 
unlike those used in that country. The building stood 
without foundations of any kind, and upon unlevel ground. 
The only room was rectangular with a door on one side 
(the front side) : on the right of the door was a narrow 
window, and facing it (at the other end of the room) a 
stone altar, surmounted by a cross to which was attached 
a figure of our Saviour crucified painted on linen. Near 
the door was a small cupboard in the wall, containing 
some vessels (two cups). Above the altar was a niche 
containing a statue of the Blessed Virgin and Child, carved 
of cedar wood, and apparently very ancient. 

The Bishop and Governor of Dalmatia inquired closely 
into the matter. Four men were sent to Palestine, who 
found that the House of the Blessed Virgin had disappeared 
from Nazareth, and that the foundations were still there, 
the measurements corresponding exactly with those of 
the walls of the house in Dalmatia, and that the stones 
were of the same kind. 

Dalmatia, however, was not to be its final resting- 
place. After a stay of three and a half years it disappeared, 
being translated across the Adriatic to a laurel plantation 
(Lauretum, whence the name Loreto) in the States of the 
Church. This occurred on December 10, 1294. Eight 
months later, the plantation being infested by robbers 
who came to plunder the pilgrims, the Holy House was 
again translated a little further to a small hill belonging 
to two brothers, most unworthy to have such a treasure 


on their property, for they quarrelled over the offerings 
of the pilgrims. So, after four months stay, the fourth 
and last translation took place : this time it alighted in 
a public road, on the spot near the Adriatic, where it has 
remained for over six centuries. 

The Santa Casa is enclosed in a large and beautiful 
church : its walls are preserved exteriorly by a casing 
of marble exquisitely carved, which covers but does not 
touch the walls. For the convenience of the numerous 
pilgrims, Pope Clement VII (d. 1534) caused two doors 
to be opened, one on each side of the building, and the 
original door in front to be walled up. The walls are 
14 inches thick, constructed of plain red stones, cut square 
like bricks : no foundations sustain the building. The 
furniture consists of a wooden altar on which St. Peter 
is believed to have said Mass : a cupboard protected by 
a wooden framework and containing two cups or vessels, 
thought to have belonged to the Holy Family. Behind 
the altar a door leads to an inner apartment with a chimney, 
and near the chimney a small recess in the wall contains 
a third cup of terra cotta, with some traces of gilding on 
the outside. Pilgrims are allowed to kiss this and place 
in it objects they wish to have blessed. Above the fire 
place is a niche with the ancient statue of our Lady and 

In the list of illustrious pilgrims to this sanctuary we 
have the names of Popes, Kings, Emperors and Saints, 
among the latter being SS. Ignatius of Loyola, Francis 
Xavier, Francis Borgia, Aloysius, Stanislaus, John Berch- 
mans, Francis de Sales, Philip Neri, and many others. 
Forty-six Popes from St. Celestine V (1294), in whose 
reign the prodigy of the translation is said to have taken 
place, to Pius IX, have honoured the sanctuary of Loreto 
either by their visits, or by magnificent gifts and spiritual 
favours (indulgences, etc.). 

2. St. Mary Major, Rome. Multitudes of English 
pilgrims, both in Saxon and Norman times, have come 


to kneel before this greatly venerated picture, which an 
ancient tradition attributes to St. Luke. 1 After a visit 
made to St. Peter s, their thoughts at once turned to 
Mary s glorious basilica, and thither they hastened kindled 
with enthusiasm to lay their homage at Mary s feet. St. 
Gregory the Great, St. Francis Borgia, St. Philip Neri, 
St. Charles Borromeo, and many others had a great affec 
tion for this picture. A Welsh pilgrim s reference to it 
in the XIV Cent. (See above, 36.) In 590, when 
a terrible plague was devastating Rome, this venerable 
portrait of Mary was carried in procession through the 
streets by St. Gregory the Great ; and tradition avers 
that, as the procession drew near the Vatican, an angel 
was seen on the summit of Hadrian s mole (Castel S. 
Angelo) sheathing his sword. See Pilgrim Walks in 
Rome, 52. 

3. Our Lady of Genezzano. " Mother of Good 
Counsel." Genezzano is a little town of 3,000 inhabitants 
about five miles from Palestrina. Here is reverently 
preserved a celebrated picture of our Lady and Child, 
said to have been brought by Angels from Scutari on St. 
Mark s day, 1467. The story is as follows. In the middle 
of the XV Cent, a pious widow, named Petruccia 
di Jeneo, had undertaken to restore a ruined church of 
Our Lady of Good Counsel, but on a grander scale than 
her means would allow. When the walls had risen but 
a few feet, she was compelled to dismiss the workmen, 
and gaze sadly on a monument hopefully begun, but 
apparently destined never to be completed. About this 
time the inhabitants of Scutari, a small town in Albania, 
embraced the Eastern schism and suffered a rapid decline 
in morals. This was followed by an invasion of the Turks, 
who took Scutari and began a general massacre. During 
the subsequent flight, two of the fugitives, one a shepherd, 
the other a slave, conceived the idea of turning for a 
moment to a shrine of our Lady, once reverenced by the 

1 It is thought to be a V Cent, copy of a painting by St. Luke. 


people, but long since neglected, there to ask for help, 
and to look for the last time at the holy picture. As they 
gazed, the picture (a fresco) detached itself from the wall, 
passed out of the church and was carried by invisible 
hands towards the west. They followed it over hill and 
valley and plain, till it vanished from their sight. 

Meanwhile the inhabitants of Genezzano were cele 
brating with unusual solemnity the feast of St. Mark in 
the piazza near the unfinished church, when they were 
astounded by the sudden appearance in the sky of a picture 
of the Madonna. It descended, moved into the church 
enclosure and alighted on the unfinished wall. The news 
of the miraculous advent of the picture soon spread through 
the country, and reached the ears of the two fugitives 
who had crossed the Adriatic and travelled as far as Rome. 
They hastened to Genezzano. One glance was enough ; 
their beloved Madonna had fled from schism and sin to a 
land of faith and love. Pilgrims flocked to the town and 
brought with them abundant alms, so that in a short 
time Petruccia saw her church to our Lady completed. 
Many miraculous cures were wrought, and devotion spread 
far and wide. 

Pope Leo XIII had a special devotion to this shrine of 
our Lady. In 1884 he approved of a special Mass and 
Office for the Feast of Our Lady of Good Counsel, which 
is kept on the 26th April, as the day of the apparition is 
impeded by the Feast of St. Mark. In 1893 he approved 
of a special scapular of Our Lady of Good Counsel, with 
Indulgences. On April 22, 1903, he issued a decree com 
manding the title " Mother of Good Counsel " to be added 
to the other titles of our Lady in her Litany. 

4. Our Lady of Campocavallo, in a town near the 
Adriatic, not far from Loretto. An oleograph of Our Lady 
of Dolours, hanging in a poor barn-like church, was observed 
in 1892 to shed tears : the eyes too were seen to be some 
times raised heavenward, sometimes lowered. The prodigy 
was constantly repeated and numerous miraculous cures 


were recorded. Campocavallo has now become a great 
place of pilgrimage, and the holy picture now reposes 
within a magnificent basilica erected by the bounty of 
the faithful. 

5. Our Lady of Pompei, near Naples. Signer Bar- 
tolo Longo purchased in 1877 a very simple painting of 
Our Lady of the Rosary for a charitable institution he 
had established. Almost at once miraculous cures were 
obtained and have continued ever since, few shrines of 
our Lady in Italy attracting more pilgrims than this. A 
stately church has been built, and extraordinary manifes 
tations of faith occur. 


I. T OURDES. Four years after the proclamation 

J ^ of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, 

our Lady appeared on February n, 1858, to a little girl 
of poor parents, named Bernadette Soubirous. It was 
at the Grotto of Massabielle, near the little town of Lourdes, 
at the foot of the Pyrenees, a town quite unknown at the 
time, but now of world- wide fame. The Queen of Heaven 
committed to that little girl in a subsequent apparition 
of February 23 the duty of announcing to the Clergy that 
a church should be built on that spot, and that people 
should go thither in procession. On February 25 Bernad 
ette was told to go and drink at the fountain, the fountain 
which till then did not exist, as the whole country testifies, 
but began to flow as the girl touched the ground, and has 
never ceased since. Countless pilgrims have since drunk of 
its waters. The whole world bears testimony to undoubted 
instantaneous cures, cures manifestly superhuman, cures 
which, according to the avowal of an infidel, are upsetting 
and can t be explained by any natural cause. These con 
tinue to the present time, not rarely or occasionally, but 


continually and constantly. Finally, on March 25, 1858, 
the feast of the Annunciation, at the earnest request of 
the pious girl who asked her name, the august Mother of 
God, joining her hands and raising her eyes to heaven, 
answered : "I am the Immaculate Conception " : thus 
speaking she disappeared. A large and beautiful church, 
which has cost many millions of francs, now stands above 
the rocks, and attracts many thousands of pilgrims every 
year. See Bertrin, Lourdes, tr. Gibbs, London, 1908 : 
The Month, Oct. 1905, 359 ; Febr. 1907, 124. 

2. La Salette, in Dauphiny, diocese of Grenoble. The 
Blessed Virgin is said to have appeared to two young 
shepherds, a boy named Maximin Giraud, aged eleven, and 
a girl, Melanie Calvat, aged fourteen, on September 19, 
1846, about 3 p.m. in full sunlight. The place of the 
apparition was on a mountain 5,918 feet high, and about 
three miles distant from the church. The children were 
very poor, very ignorant, unacquainted with each other 
till that day or the day before, utterly unable of themselves 
to invent the story they told, and with no sign of collusion 
between them. To each our Lady is said to have imparted 
a special secret, which neither ever made known to the 
other. These secrets were disclosed to Pope Pius IX in 
1851. Opinions differ as to the reality of the apparitions 
and the truth of the children s story, though the Bishop 
of Grenoble, after a thorough investigation, believed them 
both. A splendid church was built, to which countless 
pilgrims flock every year. See Northcote, Sanctuaries 
of the Madonna. 

3. Notre Dame des Victoires, Paris. This sanctuary, 
now perhaps the most frequented church in France, dates 
only from the XVII Cent. Louis XIII, having taken 
Rochelle and put an end to the wars of religion, decided 
to build the church for the Augustinian Friars. Begun 
in 1629, it was not finished and consecrated till 1740. In 
1837, Monsieur 1 Abbe des Genettes here established the 
Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary for 


the conversion of sinners, as a means of renewing his 
parish which had fallen into a sad state of ignorance and 
prejudice against religion. Marvellous effects followed. 
In 1876 the Parisian Associates numbered nearly a million. 
With the branch confraternities the present number of 
Associates throughout the world exceeds 30,000,000. 
Every year over 3,000,000 persons visit this sanctuary, 
and about 9,000 Masses are said at its altars. During 
the Paris Commune of 1871 this venerable sanctuary was 
sacrilegiously profaned. Petitalot, 438, 440. 

4. Notre Dame de Rocamadour, in the diocese of 
Cahors, Province of Quercy. For long centuries this 
famous sanctuary has been a centre of attraction to pil 
grims from nearly every country of Europe, among them 
being Kings, . Bishops, and nobles. A curious legend 
connects its foundation with Zacheus of the Gospel, who 
is thought to have built the original oratory, subsequently 
added to by one Amadour. Others believe this Amadour 
to have been St. Amator, Bishop of Auxerre : but this is 
mere conjecture. The origin of the sanctuary is lost in 
antiquity. St. Dominic is counted among its pilgrims. 

5. Notre Dame de Chartres, Department of Eure 
et Loire. This is in many respects the most wonderful 
sanctuary in Europe, as it boasts of an uninterrupted 
tradition from the time of the Druids, who dedicated there 
a statue Virgini pariturae, " To the Virgin who should 
bear a child." This wooden statue is said to have been 
in existence in 1793, but to have been destroyed during 
the Revolution. The present statue is a copy of the 
original one. Many Kings of France came here on pil 
grimage, among them St. Louis, who, in order to reach 
the place, travelled seven leagues on foot. Charles V 
of France went there twice, part of the way barefoot. 

6. Notre Dame de Boulogne. This was a favourite 
place of pilgrimage with our English forefathers : indeed, 
from the year 1212, there was a constant succession of 
English pilgrims to this noted sanctuary. The Earl of 


Shrewsbury presented to the statue a magnificent robe 
of cloth of gold with his coat of arms embroidered upon 
it. The Earl of Warwick, when governor of Calais, gave 
an image of our Lady in silver gilt, " with the demon under 
her feet." Godfrey de Bouillon offered to Our Lady of 
Boulogne the crown he refused to wear as King of Jerusa 
lem. Besides several French monarchs, Henry III of 
England visited this shrine in 1255, the Black Prince and 
John of Gaunt in 1360, and later, Charles the Bold of 

7. Notre Dame de Fourvieres, Lyons. St. Pothinus, 
a disciple of St. Polycarp, was the first Bishop of Lyons. 
He is said to have brought to the city an image of the 
Blessed Virgin, which he placed in a grotto, now the crypt 
of the church of St. Nizier. After a long episcopate he 
was martyred near Fourvieres in 177. St. Irenaeus, his 
successor, was famed for his devotion to the Mother of 
God. The earliest chapel, built in 840 and enlarged in 
1168, was utterly destroyed by the Calvinists in the XVI 
Cent., and, though rebuilt, was again reduced to a ruin 
during the Revolution of 1793. The present structure 
dates from the beginning of the XIX Cent., being con 
secrated by Pope Pius VII in person, April 19, 1805, on 
his return from the coronation of the Emperor Napoleon. 

8. Notre Dame de Puy, built on the scene of one of 
the earliest of the Blessed Virgin s apparitions. After 
the Crusades this sanctuary became famous throughout 
Christendom. French Kings, princes, nobles in great 
number came here to offer their homage to the Queen of 
Heaven. St. Louis IX presented the shrine with a thorn 
from the Sacred Crown. The pilgrimages in former days 
must have been veritable pageants, for the crowds, even 
as late as 1853, exceeded 300,000 in number. 

9. Notre Dame de Liesse in Picardy was, before the 
rise of Lourdes, one of the most frequented pilgrimages 
in France. Its origin is dated from the XII Cent, and 
is said to be connected with the Christian captives during 


the crusades. It is still held in high honour. (See Canada, 


i. /~\UR Lady of Montserrat. Its existence can be 
V_y traced to the X Cent., but it was not till 
the XIII that it became a centre of much devotion. Here 
St. Ignatius of Loyola came as a pilgrim at the beginning 
of his conversion to a perfect life in 1522. Here he 
made his " vigil in arms " before our Lady s altar, and hung 
up his sword, vowing henceforth to serve only Jesus and 
His holy Mother. The present church was consecrated 
in 1562. 

2. Saragossa, Our Lady of the Pillar, in Aragon, 
is one of the most popular of our Lady s shrines in Spain, 
and is constantly thronged with pilgrims. Popular tradi 
tion traces its origin to the Apostle St. James the Greater : 
and from time immemorial it has been celebrated for 
miracles. (See 40.) It is the most popular of Spaidsh 
pilgrimages, and the most thronged with pilgrims. 

3. Guadalupe, Estramadura, is celebrated for its 
wonder-working statue of the Blessed Virgin. But it is 
far outshone by another shrine of the same name in Mexico, 
the story of which may be given here. A poor Indian 
was favoured more than once with a vision of our Lady 
bidding him tell the Bishop of Zumarraga that she wished 
a church to be built in her honour on a certain spot which 
she pointed out. The Bishop was incredulous. Again 
our Lady appeared and told the Indian to gather some 
roses from the rocks as a sign to the Bishop, it not being 
the season for roses. He did so, put them in his cloak, 
and on unfolding the cloak before the Bishop a miraculous 
picture of the Mother of God was found painted thereon. 
This happened in the XVI Cent, about 1531, and ever 


since the church built to receive the picture has been a 
centre of unceasing pilgrimages. 

4. Toledo, New Castile, enshrines in its gorgeous cathe 
dral a statue of the Blessed Virgin in a chapel richly orna 
mented with jasper and containing many splendid and 
unique treasures. This centre of devotion to Mary which 
attracts annually a great number of pilgrims, is associated 
with the tradition of an apparition to St. Ildephonsus. 

5. Puche, Valencia, is the great Spanish sanctuary dedi 
cated to Our Lady of Mercy. On the Order of Mercy, 
founded by Spanish Saints, see 67, n. 9. 


i. T T AL, near Brussels, possesses a wooden statue 
1 1 of the Blessed Virgin which is decorated with 
a golden crown. Its history has been written by Justus 
Lipsius, the title to his work being Diva Virgo Hallensis. 
As a pilgrim-resort it has been famous for centuries, and 
possesses many rich gifts presented by noble pilgrims. A 
silver monstrance, presented by Henry VIII in his younger 
days, was lent for use during the Eucharistic Congress in 
London, 1908. A confraternity was attached to this 
church and in the register of its members may be seen 
the names of Henry VIII and Queen Katherine of Aragon. 

2. Montaigu, a few miles from Louvain, is another 
well-known shrine of our Lady. The miraculous image 
was originally found in a tree, and still stands in the tree 
above the High Altar. Montaigu was a favourite pil 
grimage of St. John Berchmans in his boyhood. He came 
every Saturday from his home in Diest, a distance of 
about seven miles. Extraordinary manifestations of 
faith and devotion are here constantly witnessed. 

3. Oostacker, near Ghent, is a grotto built in imitation 
of Lourdes with a supply of Lourdes water in a pool or 


basin below the grotto. The cures recorded are remark 
able and undoubtedly miraculous. Its inauguration began 
with a body of 2,000 pilgrims on July 29, 1875, since which 
time there has been a continuous stream of devout visitors. 
Crowds at times may be seen coming to it from Ghent 
and other towns. 

4. Einsiedeln in Switzerland has been a place of pil 
grimage since the time of the anti-Pope, Leo VIII, in 964. 
The object here venerated is a miraculous statue of the 
Blessed Virgin brought by St. Meinrad from Zurich. The 
Saint was murdered in 861 by robbers, who coveted the 
rich offerings already at that early date left by the pil 
grims. It is calculated that the yearly number of pilgrims 
exceeds 150,000. Even Protestants from the surrounding 
cantons are known to have joined the throng of worshippers. 

5. Cracow in Poland is said to possess a miraculous 
statue of the Blessed Virgin brought to it by St. Hyacinth, 
to which in times past pilgrimages were often made. 

6. Czenstochowa is the most famous of Polish shrines 
dedicated to the Mother of God, where a picture painted 
on cypress wood and attributed to St. Luke is greatly 
venerated. This is reputed to be the richest sanctuary 
in the world. 

Note. On these and other pilgrimages, see Catholic 
Encyclopedia, vol. xii. p. 94, and Northcote s Sanctuaries 
of the Madonna. 


i. T7EAST of the Immaculate Conception. (See 

JT 77.) 

Luther is reported to have said that of all the Church s 
feasts, the two he abominated the most were Corpus 
Christi and the Conception of the Virgin. No wonder 

M.P. N 


he hated her who tramples on the head of heresy. Cr asset, 
Tract. IV. Q. 5, p. 262. 

2. Feast of Our Lady s Nativity. It is said to have 
been first celebrated soon after the Council of Ephesus, 
431. Baronius tells us that it was observed by both the 
Eastern and Western Churches in 446. We have sermons 
delivered on the feast by St. Proclus, who succeeded 
Nestorius as Patriarch of Constantinople ; by St. Germanus 
of Constantinople, and by St. Andrew of Crete. An ancient 
liturgical hymn has these words referring to SS. Joachim 
and Anna, the parents of Mary : " O Parentes, quam 
gaudentes, quam beatos, quam laudatos, vos facit 
haec Filia ! " Jamar. 82, note 2. In 688 Pope St. Sergius I 
appointed the homilies to be read, and the Litany to 
be said on this solemnity ; also a procession to be made 
from St. Adrian s Church in the Forum to St. Mary Major. 
St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) also prescribed special 
collects and preface for the Mass, prayers for the procession, 
and psalms for Matins on the same feast : also a Mass for 
the solemnity is thought to have been used in the time of 
Pope St. Leo I (d. 461). Alban Butler, Lives of Saints, 
Sept. 8. 

3. Feast of the Holy Name of Mary. This festival 
was appointed by Pope Innocent XI (d. 1689), to recom 
mend to God through our Lady s intercession the neces 
sities of His Church, also to return Him thanks for the 
relief of Vienna (1683) through her intercession. Ibid. 
" The name of Mary," says St. Ambrose, "is as ointment 
poured out. May that same ointment descend into the 
inmost depths and recesses of our souls, whereby holy 
Mary was redolent not of the odours of (earthly) delights, 
but of the breathings of divine grace." De Instit. Virg. 
c. 13. 

On the Name of Mary see 80. 

4. Feast of the Presentation of the Child Mary in 
the Temple. This festival is mentioned in the most 
ancient Greek Menologies extant, and we have several 


sermons preached on it by St. Germanus of Constantinople 
(d. 715), by St. Tarasius of Constantinople (d. 806) and 
others. Alban Butler, Nov. 21. The feast passed 
from the Greeks into the West, and was kept at Avignon 
in 1372. Pope St. Pius V had given permission that 
this festival should be expunged from the Breviary, as a 
modern introduction, but its antiquity was so well proved 
by Father Francis de Torres, S. J. (d. 1584), from the writings 
of the Fathers, that it was again restored by Sixtus V. 
It seems to have been in recompense for this act of zeal 
that Father de Torres died happily on this very feast. 

St. Ephrem s testimony on Mary s presentation in the 
temple. See Livius, 424, note, also 452, note. St. Proclus 
and St. Theodatus on the graces of Mary. Ibid. 221. 

5. Feast of the Annunciation. St. Augustine says 
the Annunciation took place on March 25. Lib. 4 de 
Trin. c. 5. Both Eastern and Western Churches celebrate 
it on that day, and have done so ever since the V Cent. 
The festival is mentioned by Pope Gelasius I in 492. The 
Council of Toledo, held in 656, calls this solemnity pre 
eminently the festival of the Mother of God. Alban 
Butler, March 25, note. Livius, 389, 9. See St. Gregory 
Thaumaturgus on the mystery. Livius, 123 ; St. Peter 
Chrysologus, Ibid. 137 ; St. Ephrem, Ibid. 435, 6 ; Early 
Liturgies, " Hail, full of grace," Ibid. 228. 

On this feast in 1522 St. Ignatius of Loyola at Mont- 
serrat hung up his sword near our Lady s altar, and after 
a night s vigil, swore to serve henceforth only Christ and 
His holy Mother. 

It was on this same feast in 1578 that St. Aloysius at 
Florence, then a child of nine years, made a vow of per 
petual chastity at our Lady s altar in the Church of SSma. 

6. Feast of the Visitation. The earliest evidence of 
the existence of this feast is its adoption by the Franciscan 
Chapter in 1263 upon the advice of St. Bonaventure. It 
v/as extended to the entire Church by Urban VI in 1389, 


with the hope that Christ and His Mother would visit 
the Church and put an end to the Great Schism, which 
rent the seamless garment of Christ. The first rhythmical 
Office (abolished later by St. Pius V) was drawn up by an 
Englishman, Adam Cardinal East on, Benedictine and 
Bishop of Lincoln. Bridgett, Our Lady s Dowry, 235. 
The feast was confirmed by the Council of Basle in 1441. 
Cath. Encyclop. xv. p. 481. For beautiful passages from 
Origen, SS. Jerome, Ambrose, Ephrem, on the Visitation 
and the Magnificat, see Livius, 142-9, 156, 415, 417. 

7. Feast of the Purification. A pilgrim to Jerusalem 
in the IV Cent., Egeria or Sylvia of Bordeaux, speaks 
of the celebration of this feast in the Holy City on February 
14. From Jerusalem it spread to the entire Church, but 
was kept on February 2. Pope Sergius I (d. 702) intro 
duced for the whole Church a procession to be held on 
this day, though there is mention of such a procession with 
lighted tapers in the time of Pope Gelasius I (d. 496). 
St. Ildephonsus, St. Eligius, St. Sophronius, St. Cyril of 
Alexandria and others have sermons on this festival. St. 
Bernard s words on the Procession. See Alban Butler, 
Febr. 2. St. Leontius of Cyprus on the mystery. 
See Livius, 161,2,3. St. Methodius beautiful words. 
Ibid. 153, 4, 5. 

8. Feast of the Assumption. This feast is mentioned 
as having been celebrated with great solemnity before 
the VI Cent, both in the Latin and Greek Churches. 
Alban Butler, Aug. 15, note. The Emperor Constantine 
Porphyrogenitus describes the solemn procession made 
by the court and clergy at Constantinople on the great 
festival of the Repose of the Virgin Mary. The Emperor 
himself often passed the vigil watching all the night in 
the great church of our Lady at Blachernae on the coast, 
some miles below Constantinople, whither he went in 
great state attended by his court, either by land or in a 
yacht. Ibid. The Early Fathers and writers on the 
Assumption. See Livius, 341 seq., also St. John Damas- 


cene (Ibid. 356), St. Gregory of Tours (Ibid. 360), the 
Sacramentaries (Ibid. 362). See also Livius Mary in 
the Epistles, no. Miracles by our Lady as recorded by 
Early Fathers. See Alban Butler, Aug. 15. St. John 
Damascene s sermon on the Assumption. See Rom. Brev., 
Aug. 15, lessons 4, 5, 6, also Aug. 18, lessons 4, 5, 6. St. 
Bernard s sermon, Ibid., Aug. 19, lessons 4, 5, 6. Aug. 
22, lessons 4, 5, 6. Note. Our Lady probably died in 
Jerusalem. Alban Butler, Aug. 15, note. 

On this feast in 1534 a remarkable event occurred in 
the little church of Our Lady of Montmartre, Paris : St. 
Ignatius of Loyola and his first nine companions, one of 
whom was St. Francis Xavier, took their first vows at 
the Mass celebrated by Blessed Peter Faber. In 1583 
St. Aloysius, aged fifteen, then a page of the Infante of 
Spain, while praying in the church of Our Lady of Good 
Counsel, Madrid, heard a voice bidding him enter the 
Society of Jesus. 

At Rome in 1568 occurred the happy death of St. Stanis 
laus Kostka, on this our Lady s feast. 

9. Feast of Our Lady of Mercy (" de Mercede," i.e. 
of Ransom), September 24. The Order of Our Lady of 
Ransom, was founded by St. Peter Nolasco, St. Raymond 
de Pennafort, and King James of Aragon, with the object 
of freeing Christian captives from the Turks. The feast 
was approved first of all for the Order itself, and later 
on extended to the whole Church by Innocent XII (d. 

10. Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, July 16. 
It was approved for the Carmelites by Sixtus V in 1587. 
Paul V inserted new lessons in the Office, which was 
revised by Cardinal Bellarmine. Benedict XIII extended 
the feast to the whole Church. It commemorates the 
tradition that from the first days of Christianity groups 
of hermits fixed their abode on Mount Carmel, and that 
the Blessed Virgin visited them there. Some historians 
of the Carmelite Order trace its origin to these solitaries, 


11. Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, October 7. 
The naval victory of Lepanto over the Turks was won 
by Don Juan of Austria, October 7, 1571, while the mem 
bers of the Confraternity of the Rosary in Rome were 
making supplication for the success of the Christian arms, 
and St. Pius V, then Pope, ordered an annual commemora 
tion to be made of " St. Mary of Victory." Gregory XIII 
(d. 1585) instituted the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary 
for all churches possessing a chapel or altar dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin under that title. Clement X (d. 
1676) extended the feast to all the dominions of the Spanish 
King. Clement XI (d. 1721), after another great victory 
over the Turks had been obtained by the Emperor Charles 
VI, and Corfu had been freed from Turkish besiegers in 
the same year, made the feast of universal observance. 

12. Feast of Our Lady s Seven Dolours. (See " The 
Seven Servite Saints," 16.) 

There are also feasts of Our Lady s Apparition at 
Lourdes, of the Dedication of Our Lady of the Snow, of 
the Most Pure Heart of Mary, and others. 



i. r ~T r HE Sodality or Congregation,* known as Prima 
JL Primaria, i.e. the very first and head of all 
the Sodalities aggregated to it, was started in the Roman 
College, A.D. 1563, by a young Belgian Jesuit named John 
Leunis (Leonius), who used to gather together the younger 
scholars on Sundays and Feast days for special devotions 
in honour of our Lady. The Sodality rapidly developed 
and spread throughout all the colleges of the Society in 
every part of the world. In 1584 it received the solemn 
approval of Pope Gregory XIII, who by a special Brief 


enriched it with Indulgences. Subsequent Popes, chiefly 
Sixtus V, Clement VIII, Gregory XV, Benedict XIV, Leo 
XII, Pius IX and Leo XIII, have marked their apprecia 
tion of the work done in and by the Sodality by adding 
to its privileges and indulgences. 

(a) Saints, who were members of the Sodality : St. 
John Berchmans, St. Francis de Sales, St. Peter Fourier, 
St. Leonard of Port Maurice, St. John Bapt. de Rossi, 
St. Camillus de Lellis, St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen, St. 
Alphonsus Liguori, St. Francis Jerome, St. John Francis 
Regis, St. Peter Claver, Blessed Andrew Bobola, Blessed 
John Eudes and others. Elder Mullan, The Sodality, 

4, 5- 

(b) Popes and Cardinals who were Sodalists : Urban 
VIII, Alexander VII, Clement IX, Clement X, Innocent 
XI, Innocent XII, Leo XIII, and some eighty Cardinals. 

(c) Other remarkable persons who belonged to the 
Sodality are mentioned in the next section. 

Leo XIII spoke of the Sodality as an " excellent school 
of Christian piety, and the surest protection of youthful 

St. Alphonsus Liguori is reported to have said : " When 
any one asks me what he ought to do to be saved, I tell 
him to join the Sodality of our Lady : there is no better 
advice, no safer or surer means. The Sodality is a means 
of salvation that comprises all other means." 

2. Children of Mary. " Enfants de Marie," this is 
a branch of the Sodality Prima Primaria for girls and 
women. At first the Sodality was restricted to boys and 

3. A distinct Association of the Children of Mary, 
for girls only, was erected in 1864 in the church of St. 
Agnes outside the walls, Rome. In 1866 it received its 
privileges and indulgences. Since 1870 the power of 
aggregation has belonged to the Abbot General of the 
Reformed Augustinian Canons of the Lateran. 

4. The Archconfraternity of Our Lady of Perpetual 


Succour belongs to the Redemptorists, whose General 
has power to incorporate branch confraternities. On the 
picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, see Pilgrim 
Walks in Rome, 118. 

5. The " Archconfraternity of the Most Holy and 
Immaculate Heart of Mary for the conversion of sinners " 
was founded in Paris, A.D. 1836, by the parish priest of 
Our Lady of Victories, with astounding results for good 
in every country. See 64, under Notre Dame des Vic- 

6. Confraternity of Our Lady of Compassion for the 
return of England to the Faith : founded by Leo XIII 
in 1897. 

7. Confraternity of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, 
established at Issoudun, France, in 1864, by Missioners 
of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Its centre is the church 
of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, Piazza Navona, Rome. 

8. There are also Confraternities of the Brown, Blue, 
and Black Scapulars, about which see 73. 



THE head of the Sodality is the Father General of the 
Society of Jesus. Its history unfolds before our 
eyes a brilliant array of members, remarkable for talent, 
dignity and deeds of heroism. Seldom have such illus 
trious names been united together as in this Guard of 
Honour to Mary. 

1. Saints, Popes and Cardinals, see above. 

2. Prelates, Illustrious Priests, and others. Fene- 
lon, Bishop of Cambrai ; Monsieur Olier, founder of St. 
Sulpice ; the Nuncios Apostolic at Vienna, Prague, Cologne ; 


very many Bishops of Italy and Austria ; and a long line 
of priests remarkable for holiness and zeal. 

3. Kings, Emperors, Princes. John IV of Portugal 
established in his palace a Sodality for the royal pages, 
the sons of the first Grandees of his kingdom : the Dukes 
and Princes of Bavaria with their families ; several Doges 
of Venice and Genoa ; Francis II, Duke of Lorraine ; 
Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy ; Henry of Bourbon ; the 
royal Princes of France, Louis and Armand ; Sigismund 
III and Ladislaus IV, Kings of Poland ; the three German 
Emperors, Ferdinand II, Ferdinand III, and Leopold I. 

4. Great Soldiers. Tilly, Turenne, Prince Eugene of 
Savoy, lions in the battlefield ; Don Juan of Austria, 
the Victor of Lepanto. 

5. Poets, Orators and Artists. Tasso, Justus Lip- 
sius, Lopez di Vega, Calderon, Corneille, Peter Paul Rubens, 
Anton Van Dyck, Bossuet and Bourdaloue, and many 
others. See Opitz, S.J., The Sodality of Our Lady. Elder 
Mullan, The Sodality. 

6. Heroic Sodalists. In Palermo, in the year 1610, 
a Sodalist refused to lend himself to a certain transaction 
of which his conscience did not approve. When he was 
threatened with death, he replied : " Take away my life ! 
but the flower of purity must remain with me. I am resolved 
to preserve it : whether I bear it red or white lies in your 

An Indian maiden, a Sodalist of Monteren in Chili, 
cried out in a moment of temptation : " How could I 
offend the Divine Son, to whose holy Mother I consecrated 
myself as a child." Opitz, Ibid. 75, where will be found 
many other examples. 

7. Praise of the Sodality by Pope Benedict XIV. 
In the famous Golden Bull (Bulla Aurea, A.D. 1748), 
which reads like one long hymn of praise of the Sodality, 
the Pope says : " It is incredible what advantages persons 
of all ranks can derive from this pious and praiseworthy 
institution. Some have obtained through it the grace 


of persevering all their life through in the innocence and 
piety of their early youth. Others, who had fallen into 
the snares of the evil one, have been brought back from 
the way of perdition to that of virtue, through the help 
of Her to whose service they had once dedicated themselves 
in the Sodality ; and have afterwards led a well-ordered 
and pious life. Others, again, have felt themselves raised 
to higher degrees of the love of God through the devotion 
instilled into them for the mother of God, and with noble 
and brave hearts, have turned their back on the perishable 
goods and pleasures of this world, bound themselves by 
vow to the Cross of Christ, and consecrated themselves 
to the care of their own perfection and the salvation of 
others," etc. The Pontiff concludes with these words : 
" We consider it a duty of our pastoral charge and of our 
apostolic liberality to favour and advance a work which 
is so solid and pious, and so powerfully makes for progress 
in virtue and the salvation of souls. It is for this reason 
that we have approved, enlarged, and extended all the 
privileges granted to it by our predecessors." 

Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII have also bestowed great 
praise on the Sodality. 

Pope Pius X, speaking of the Sodality and its branches, 
said : " They are for me a. source of sweetness in the midst 
of bitterness. I count on the Sodalities of our Lady to 
obtain for the Catholic Church of the future all that is 
good and all that is strong. They must bring the spirit 
of prayer into all Catholic societies." 


i. T)LESSED Albertus Magnus, of the Dominican 

D Order (d. 1280), was most fervently devout to 

the Blessed Virgin, and attributed all his learning to her. 

So extraordinary was his genius, and so extensive his 


knowledge, that he was known as Doctor Umversalis. He 
was proficient in every branch of learning cultivated in 
his day, and surpassed all his contemporaries (except 
Roger Bacon, d. 1294) in the knowledge of nature. St. 
Thomas of Aquin studied philosophy under him in Paris. 
He seems to have received some warning that as he had 
received his gift of learning from our Lady, it would be 
taken away for his humiliation a little before his death. 
In 1278 he suffered a lapse of memory ; his strong mind 
became clouded, and he sank under the weight of years 
and manifold labours. 

2. Father Francis Suarez, S.J. " Doctor Eximius," 
thought to be the greatest of modern theologians (d. 1564). 
He was Professor at Seville, Valladolid, Alcala, Salamanca, 
Coimbra, Rome, and wrote twenty-four volumes in folio 
on Philosophy and Theology. When a novice he was 
found to be so dull that he requested to be admitted as a 
lay-Brother. Father Guttierez bade him ask our Lady s 
help, and he became a prodigy of talent. 

3. Cardinal Francis Toletus, S.J. (d. 1596), was another 
paragon of theological learning, and one of the leading 
men of his day. Every Saturday of the year and in all 
weathers he went on foot from the Vatican to St. Mary 
Major to say Mass at our Lady s altar ; and every year 
he prepared for the feast of the Immaculate Conception 
by an eight days fast. Pope Gregory XIII is reported 
to have said of him, on raising him to the Cardinalate : 
" We affirm that, of all men now living, Toleto is the most 
learned ; but we must add that he is even more distin 
guished for his integrity and virtue than for his learning." 

4. Justus Lipsius (d. 1606), one of the foremost 
scholars of his day, wrote treatises on the veneration and 
miracles of Our Lady of Hal (near Brussels), and Our 
Lady of Montaigu (near Louvain). The golden pen with 
which he wrote his works, he gave as an ex-voto to the 
shrine of Our Lady of Hal, acknowledging that whatever 
talent he had, came to him from her. 


5. St. Edmund of Canterbury (d. 1240) had always 
a picture of the Blessed Virgin before him, when at his 
studies. The same is told of other great Saints. 

6. The other great Jesuit Theologians (besides Suarez 
and Toleto) who cultivated a most tender devotion to 
Mary, were Cardinal Bellarmine (d. 1621), Lessius 
(d. 1623), de Ripalda (d. 1648), Cardinal de Lugo (d. 
1660), Molina (d. 1600), Gregory a Valentia (d. 1603), 
Petavius (d. 1652), and others. 

7. Blessed Peter Canisius (d. 1589) wrote an admirable 
work in praise of our Lady, which was welcomed with 
enthusiasm by Catholics. He was the mainspring of the 
Catholic cause in Germany, and a formidable defender of 
the Faith against heretics. Though honoured by Popes, 
Emperors, Princes, Prelates, he remained humble and 
simple as a child. 


The Rosary 

i. T ^HE Rosary. We are told that the Christians of 
JL the early ages were accustomed to lay garlands 
of flowers at the foot of their altars and holy images : 
and in doing so they gave expression to a touching truth, 
viz. the obligation we are under of referring the gifts of 
God to their source, of honouring God in His works, and 
especially in His grandest work of all, the victory of His 

In accordance with this pious custom St. Gregory 
Nazianzen (d. 389) composed garlands of spiritual flowers, 
so that the prayers of the faithful might ascend to heaven 
like the breath of flowers. 

St. Bridget of Ireland (VI Cent.), being desirous of 
facilitating this practice and making it more general, 


is said to have composed chaplets of the two prayers 
used by Catholics, the " Our Father " and the " Hail 
Mary." And in this she was following the example of 
the anchorites of the first ages of the Church, who, when 
they were prevented from reciting the great Psalter of 
150 Psalms, supplied the omission by offering the Lord s 
Prayer to God a certain number of times, making use of 
small stones to count the number of Paters said. 

Also St. Albert, Bishop of Liege (d. 1192), and Peter 
the Hermit (d. 1115), who lived long before St. Dominic, 
propagated the popular practice of reciting the Pater and 
Ave, as a means whereby the faithful were enabled to unite 
themselves with the Canonical Hours, or Divine Office, of 
the Church. 

But it was reserved to St. Dominic to popularize the 
" Psalter of Mary," i.e. the Rosary as we now have it. 
It was first known as " The Chaplet " or little crown, but 
soon received the name of Rosary, or crown of spiritual 
roses. That St. Dominic was led by a divine impulse to 
spread this devotion is evidenced by the marvellous effects 
it produced, the countless conversions it wrought, the 
mighty revolutions for good it effected in the world. The 
Church was afflicted in his day by an impure sect of heretics 
called Albigenses, who went about foul-mouthed and loud- 
tongued spreading their evil doctrines everywhere with 
a pride and even ferocity that bore down all opposition. 
Saints and doctors of theology had striven against them 
in vain, the avalanche, carrying with it destruction to 
thousands of souls, came crushing its way into the fair 
domain of the Church. Even St. Dominic, great Saint 
as he was, mighty in word and deed, was powerless to 
resist the advancing evil : he laboured and suffered, but 
seemingly in vain. At length he was inspired to preach 
everywhere the devotion of the Rosary, and the effect 
was marvellous ; souls returned in vast numbers to the 
Church, and whole provinces were saved. Thus the very 
birth of the devotion was signalized by Victory, victory 


over the powers of hell and the hordes of heresy, and this 
character of victory it has ever preserved. 

Since the Saint preached it to the people more than six 
centuries ago, as a protection against the inroads of heresy, 
the Rosary has fastened itself on the lives and affections 
of Catholics in every land. And when, as in the days 
of Lepanto (see 55), the fate of Christendom seemed 
to be trembling in the balance, it was the Rosary the 
cry of the confraternities in Rome to Mary for help 
that won victory for the Christians, and inflicted a crushing 
blow on the Turks. 

The Rosary in Catholic England. That it was a 
favourite devotion with our Catholic forefathers is evi 
denced (i) by ancient brasses still to be seen on monu 
ments, where the figures of men and women are seen with 
Rosaries hanging from their girdles : (2) by the records 
of wills that tell us how, among the precious heirlooms 
handed down in the families of our ancient nobility and 
others of note, a jewelled or gold-mounted Rosary is met 
with from time to time as one of the testator s special 

The names given to the Rosary by our ancestors were 
a " pair of beads," or a " pair of Paternosters," or " Ave 
Beads." It was not until the XVI Cent, that the word 
" Rosary " came into use. Sometimes a string of beads 
consisted of only one decade, and was so small that it 
could be attached to a ring, and was used over and over 
again for the five decades. It may be seen thus repre 
sented on some effigies still preserved. 

The beads were often made of very costly materials, 
and were considered a not unsuitable gift for a King. 
One of chalcedony garnished with gold was given to Henry 
VI as a new year s gift in 1437. There is not unfrequent 
mention of Rosaries of gold and coral being left as legacies 
in wills, some of great value. One of these, left in 1361 
by Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, to his nephew 
must have been of great interest. It is described as a 


nonche of gold, surrounded with large pearls, and adorned 
with a ruby, three diamonds, fifty gold beads, and a cross 
of gold in which was set a relic of the true cross. Henry 
VI (see 32) had a great devotion to the Rosary and 
belief in its power. He ordered his scholars at Eton to 
say before High Mass five decades of the Rosary for the 
remission of sins committed by the five senses. 

Saints, Prelates, Kings and the Rosary. St. Francis 
de Sales had bound himself by vow to recite the Rosary 
every day. St. Francis Xavier in his apostolic journeys 
wore it round his neck. On the devotion of St. Alphonsus 
Rodriguez and St. John Berchmans to the Rosary, see 
21. Bossuet and Louis XIV recited it daily, as did 
also Queen Blanche of Castile, who through this devotion 
obtained the birth of her son, St. Louis. Henry IV of 
France said it every Saturday and Sunday. St. John 
Baptist de la Salle, founder of the Brothers of the Christian 
Doctrine, was seen with it constantly in his hand. Garcia 
Moreno, the martyr-President of Ecuador, said the Rosary 
every day. Some of the great musical composers, v.g. 
Haydn, Mozart, Gounod and others, made a practice of 
reciting the Rosary. 

The Rosary in Ireland. (See 34.) In Penal 
times, when there was no Mass, the Faith was kept alive 
in Ireland by the Rosary, the family Rosary being recited 
each evening in nearly every Catholic home. In the Co. 
Kildare grown-up men made it a matter of conscience 
never to be absent from the Family Rosary. In the 
Maynooth decrees, No. 196, it is laid down that the Parish 
Priest should, if possible, fix an hour at which the Rosary 
should be recited in each house in presence of the whole 
family. Soldiers and the Rosary, see 56. 



ON the Angelus as it was recited in England at the 
end of the XIV Cent., see 29, also Waterton, 
143 seq. Alban Butler (Lives of the Saints, March 25, note) 
informs us that Pope Urban II in the Council of Clermont, 
A.D. 1095, ordered the bell to be rung every day for the 
triple Angelical Salutation, called " Angelus Domini," in 
order to honour our Lady and praise the Divine Goodness 
for the ineffable mystery of the Incarnation. 1 Which devout 
practice several Popes have encouraged with Indulgences, 
viz. John XXII (d. at Avignon, 1334), Callixtus III, Paul 
III, Alexander VII and Clement X. Benedict XIII 
increased the indulgences for those who at the sound of 
the Angelus bell should recite the prayers kneeling. In 
some Protestant churches in England, as at King s Lynn, 
the church bell is still tolled at 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., as a 
signal to labourers and artisans, evidently a remnant of 
old Catholic usage. 

St. Charles Borromeo had such love for " the Angelus," 
that on hearing the bell he fell down on his knees, wherever 
he might be, even in the muddy road. The same is told 
of other Saints. St. Stanislaus Kostka usually said his 
three Aves turned in the direction of St. Mary Major, 

Millet s " Angelus," a remarkable painting, sold to an 
American for an immense sum, represents two peasant 
labourers in a field stopping in their work to recite the 
Angelical Salutation at the sound of the village church- 
bell. Many religious, when reciting the Angelus, have 
the practice of renewing their religious vows. 

The Angelus and the Victory of Belgrade. (See 55.) 

The " Hail Mary." St. Catherine of Siena, St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice, St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, St. Alphonsus 
1 Also to obtain our Lady s blessing on the Crusade. 


Liguori and others used to salute our Lady with the Hail 
Mary, whenever they heard the clock strike. St. Bernard 
of Clairvaux recited it every time he saw a picture or statue 
of our Lady. The story is told that once, when in the 
cloister of Afflighem near Alost in Flanders, he failed to 
notice a statue of Mary that stood in a niche in the wall, 
suddenly he heard a sweet voice calling after him, " Ber- 
narde, salve Bernarde ! " : whereupon he fell on his knees 
exclaiming : " O gentle, O loving, O sweet Virgin Mary." 


i. "T^HE Brown Scapular, that of Our Lady of Mount 
_L Carmel, consists of two pieces of brown cloth, 
connected with strings and worn over the shoulders. 
The story of its origin is as follows. The Blessed Virgin 
appeared in England to St. Simon Stock, General of the 
Carmelites, at a time when the Order was in great trouble. 
She presented to him a scapular (such as many Religious 
Orders now wear), in order that by it " the holy Carmelite 
Order might be known and protected from the evils which 
assailed it " : and she added, " This is the privilege granted 
to you and to all Carmelites ; no one dying with this 
scapular on, will suffer everlasting burning." 1 It was to 
be a pledge of salvation, a security in dangers, a sign of 
holiest affection between our Lady and her children. The 
privilege of wearing the scapular was extended by Popes to 
other Religious and even to persons in the world. Among 
the illustrious members of the Confraternity may be 
mentioned Edward III of England, with his Queen and 
children ; Henry Duke of Lancaster, St. Louis IX of 
France, Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV ; also Henry 
Earl of Northumberland and others. See Waterton, 176. 

1 See note at the end of this section. 
M.P. O 


The Sabbatine Indulgence. The Blessed Virgin is 
said to have further promised that if any Carmelite, or 
any one associated with the Order by wearing the scapular, 
went to Purgatory, she would release them from that state 
of suffering on the Saturday following their death. Special 
conditions are required to gain this Indulgence, viz. obser 
vance of chastity, either conjugal or in the single state ; 
daily recital of our Lady s Office ; abstinence from flesh- 
meat on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Priests having 
power to invest with the scapular have also power to 
commute the two last conditions. Some controversy has 
arisen within recent years concerning this Sabbatine 
Indulgence. See The Month, 1886, Nov., 305. 

2. The Blue Scapular of the Immaculate Conception 
was greatly propagated by Venerable Ursula Benincasa, 
a Theatine nun, whose virtues were admired by St. Philip 
Neri. This scapular belongs to the Theatine Order, and 
has attached to it extraordinary indulgences, viz. every 
time those who wear it recite six Paters, Aves and Glorias 
in honour of the Most Holy Trinity and of Mary conceived 
without sin, they gain all the indulgences granted for 
visits to the seven Basilicas of Rome, to the church of 
the Portiuncula, and to the Holy Places of Palestine. 
Neither confession nor communion is required to gain this 
rich indulgence. Pius IX, 1856. 

3. There are also the Black Scapular of the Servites, 
the White Scapular of the Trinitarians, the Red Scapu 
lar of the Passionists, each with special indulgences and 
favours attached to it. 

N.B. Our Lady s promise of a holy death to all who 
die wearing the Brown Scapular depends on its having 
been worn piously and chastely. To lead a sinful life 
expecting to be saved by the scapular is presumption of 
God s mercy. Still, miraculous conversions even at the 
last hour are often obtained by means of the Scapular. 



The Miraculous Medal 

IN 1830 the Immaculate Mother of God appeared three 
times to a novice of the Sisters of Charity in Paris 
named Catherine Laboure. The facts may be briefly 
stated as follows. Sister Catherine was favoured with a 
first apparition on July 18, the particulars of which are 
here omitted for brevity s sake. The second and most 
important apparition occurred on November 27 of the 
same year, the Saturday preceding the first Sunday of 
Advent. The young novice was making her meditation 
in the chapel about 5.30 p.m., when she heard in the sanc 
tuary something like the rustling of a silk dress. Looking 
up she saw the Blessed Virgin with a countenance of 
indescribable beauty, her feet resting on a globe, her hands 
raised as high as the waist holding another small globe, 
a figure of the universe. Suddenly her hands seemed 
filled with rings and precious stones, emitting rays of 
light that shone brilliantly on every side. Then the 
Blessed Virgin spoke to her with an interior voice saying : 
"This globe represents the entire world, more particularly 
France, and each individual soul. The rays of light are 
a symbol of the graces I bestow on those who ask for 

Then around the spotless Virgin there began to form 
itself a kind of oval frame upon which were written in 
golden letters the words, " O Mary, conceived without 
sin, pray for us who have recourse to thee." Then a 
voice was heard saying : " Have a medal struck after 
this model. Those who wear it will receive great blessings. 
Abundant graces will be given to those who have confi 
dence." Then the oval frame seemed to turn round, and 
there appeared on the reverse the letter M surmounted 


by a cross, and below the letter were figures of the sacred 
Hearts of Jesus and Mary, the former encircled by a crown 
of thorns, the latter pierced with a dagger. 

Sister Laboure saw the same vision a second time in 
December, and received the same order to have a medal 
struck like the model she had seen. It was only in 1832 
that she could prevail upon her Director, M. Aladel, to 
have this order executed. Her name was never men 
tioned in connection with the medal until after her death, 
December 31, 1876. 

In the IV Lesson of the Office of the new feast, estab 
lished soon after her death, we read : " Events soon showed 
the divine origin of the commission entrusted to Sister 
Laboure. Scarcely was the new medal made known, 
when many asked to wear it as a token of devotion to the 
Mother of God. France first signalized herself in the 
matter : then, the Bishops approving the practice, the 
whole world witnessed a daily increase of devotion, respect, 
and confidence towards the holy Virgin, who deigned, 
through the medal, to work miracles for the alleviation 
of bodily ailments, as well as for the destruction of the 
vices of the soul." 

The V Lesson is as follows : " Among all these facts 
worthy of note, we must refer to that which happened 
to Alphonsus Ratisbonne on January 20, 1842, and which 
was confirmed by the solemn judgment of ecclesiastical 
authority. Born at Strassburg of Jewish parents, Alphon 
sus, on his way to the East, stopped for a time at Rome. 
There he became acquainted with a man of noble birth, 1 
who had been himself converted from heresy to the Catholic 
religion. Pitying the condition of his unfortunate friend, 
he endeavoured to bring him to the true religion. But 
his words were of no avail : all he could obtain was that 
the Jew should wear on his neck the holy medal of the 
Mother of God. In the meantime prayers were offered 

1 The Viscount Theodore de Bussiere. 


for him to the Immaculate Virgin. Mary did not allow 
them to wait long for her assistance. 

" Alphonsus chanced to enter the church of St. Andrew 
delle Fratte (Rome). It was about noonday. Suddenly 
it seemed to him that the church became dark, except 
one chapel, that of St. Michael, where a brilliant light was 
shining. Awestruck he looked in the direction of the 
chapel, and suddenly the Blessed Virgin appeared to him 
with a countenance full of sweetness, and in form such 
as she is represented on the holy Medal. This celestial 
vision suddenly changed Alphonsus heart. He shed 
abundant tears, and acknowledged the errors of Judaism. 
The Catholic religion, for which he had felt only horror 
hitherto, now seemed to him to be the true religion. He 
embraced it wholeheartedly. After being instructed in 
the doctrines of the Faith, some days later he was purified 
in the holy waters of baptism to the great joy of the whole 
Roman people." 



i. ^pHE Little Office of the Immaculate Concep- 
J. tion, " Salve mundi Domina," etc. Its author 
is unknown. St. Alphonsus Rodriguez, S.J., recited this 
Little Office daily for the last forty years of his life, and 
occupied his spare moments, while acting as door-keeper 
of the College of Palma in Majorca, in transcribing copies 
of it for distribution among the students who frequented 
the college. This he did in obedience to injunctions 
received from our blessed Lady herself. The history of 
this Office is given by Waterton, 134 seq. Young clerics, 
and others, who, on account of their tender age, do not 
recite the Offlcium Parvum B.M.V., are recommended by 
the Holy See to say instead the " Little Office of the 


Immaculate Conception " as a means of preserving chastity 
unblemished. Waterton, 139. 

2. Saturday dedicated to Mary. As every week has 
its Lord s day, i.e. Sunday, so the piety of the faithful 
has long since x made Saturday Mary s day. " A beautiful 
custom," writes St. Peter Damian, Cardinal Bishop of 
Ostia, about the middle of the XI Cent., " has grown 
up in some churches of celebrating Mass in Mary s honour 
on every Saturday, unless some feast or Lenten feria 
prevent it." St. Bernardine of Siena, St. Alphonsus 
Liguori, St. Diego, St. Nicholas of Tolentino, St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice, St. Elizabeth of Portugal, St. Juliana 
Falconieri, and many other Saints were in the habit of 
fasting every Saturday. St. Louis of France served the 
poor at table with his own hands every Saturday. Sebas 
tian, King of Portugal, used to hear two Masses on Saturday 
in Mary s honour. Monsieur Olier s intention at Mass 
every Saturday was to thank God for Mary s Divine Mater 
nity. St. Rose of Lima used to bring flowers to our 
Lady s altar every Saturday. 

In England, Alcuin (Alcwine, d. 804), in the distribution 
of the various offices which he drew up for each day of 
the week, assigns Saturday to our blessed Lady. This 
he did for the Abbey of St. Vedastus, about the year 796. 
St. Godric, the hermit of Finchale (d. 1170), made it a 
custom every Saturday to give an alms in our Lady s 
honour. In Scotland the pious King William, friend of 
Innocent III, to prove his love for the Church and our 
Lady, ordered in 1202 cessation from work from midday 
on Saturday, the object being to allow the people time 
to go to confession. At Magdalen College, Oxford, the 
singing of our Lady s anthem on Saturday was one of 
the devotions prescribed by the founder. See Waterton, 


3. Month of May. The pious custom of addressing 
public prayers to the Blessed Virgin, of decking her altar 

1 Before the XI Cent. 


with flowers and singing hymns in her honour, etc., seems 
to have arisen about the middle of the XVI Cent. St. 
Philip Neri, founder of the Oratory (d. 1595), is thought 
to have been the first to conceive the idea of dedicating 
the most beautiful month of the year to Mary. In 1748 
Father Latomia, S.J., spread the devotion in Rome by 
publishing a little book entitled May, Mary s Month. 
Father Muzzarelli, S.J., contributed more than any one to 
propagate the pious custom by his book on the month of 
May, published in 1801. Pope Pius VII in 1815 granted 
special indulgences for the May devotions, whether public 
or private, viz. 300 days for each day of the month, and 
a Plenary Indulgence on the usual conditions once in the 
month. In colleges of the Society of Jesus a picture or 
statue of our Lady occupies a position of honour in every 
classroom and playroom ; and during the month of May 
loving hearts and ready hands busy themselves in affec 
tionate rivalry adorning this little shrine. 

4. Flowers are placed on Mary s altar as symbolical 
of her virtues, the lily of purity, the rose of charity, the 
violet of humility, and so on : also as an outward expres 
sion of the love we bear her, and of the spiritual flowers 
we wish to offer her. 

In an Irish Litany of the VIII Cent. Mary is invoked 
as the Enclosed Garden, the Branch of the Root of Jesse, 
the Cedar of Lebanon, the Cypress of Mount Sion, the 
crimson Rose of Jacob, and as blooming like the Olive tree. 

Alcuin of England (VIII Cent.) addresses her as the 
Flower of the Field, the Lily of the world, the Garden 
enclosed. In the Sarum Primer she is saluted as the Rose 
without thorns, the Lily of chastity, the Violet of* humility. 

Many plants bear our Lady s name, as Marygold, Lady- 
smock, Lady s seal (Black Bryony), Virgin s bower, Lady s 
hair (Maidenhair fern), Lady s slippers (Cypripedium), 
Lady s eyes (the blue Forget-me-not), and so on. 

On the custom of decorating altars with flowers and 
garlands in the VI Cent., see Waterton, 198. On 


the custom as prevailing in England, Ibid. 198. Welby 
Pugin denounces artificial flowers, when nature supplies 
so bountifully her beautiful gifts to be presented to God, 
and God s spotless Mother. 

5. Votive Candles. 1 Waterton, 83, tells us that it 
was a very old and universal custom to burn candles 
before images of our Lady ; and, as illustrating the prac 
tice, he gives the story of the Abbot John, related in the 
VII (Ecumenical Council (the second of Nicaea, A.D. 787). 
This pious custom was most common in England. In 
the year 1225, William, Earl of Salisbury, when nearly 
lost at sea, is said to have had a vision of our Lady pro 
tecting him because of his having assigned a sum of money 
for a wax candle to be burnt every day before her altar. 
Numerous bequests and endowments were made to pro 
vide lamps and candles to burn before Mary s image : 
even lands were bequeathed for this purpose and known 
as "lamp-lands," u light-lands." In many churches 
Lady-lights were supported by guilds. Waterton, 85. 
Henry VIII, in his better days, used to provide candles, 
called the " King s candles," for Our Lady of Doncaster 
and of Walsingham ; and the Earl of Northumberland 
maintained candles in the same sanctuaries all the year 
round. Candles were costly in those days : see footnote. 



MEANING of the Immaculate Conception. It means 
that in the very first instant of her soul s creation, 
she was by a special privilege, in consideration of the 

1 Beeswax was a very costly article in the Middle Ages, as its 
supply was very limited. A large candle cost as much in those 
days as a fat sheep. 


merits of her Divine Son, preserved from the stain of 
original sin. 

Proofs of this article of our belief, of which a sum 
mary only is given here, may be sought in Theological 

A. Testimony of Holy Scripture, as explained by the 
Fathers of the Church. 1 

(1) Genesis iii. 16. "I will put enmities between thee 
and the Woman, and between thy seed and her seed : 
she shall crush thy head." Here God curses the serpent, 
and at the same time promises a Redeemer, and with the 
Redeemer His holy Mother. The seed of the serpent are 
the devils, sin and sinners ; his head means his power 
which shall be crushed, i.e. vanquished. 

From this passage we see that the enmity which exists 
between the Woman with her Son and the serpent with its 
brood is absolute, complete, perpetual, without restriction ; 
an enmity by which this Woman is set against the infernal 
serpent, the author of the first sin ; an enmity which 
places Mary with her Son apart as the perpetual opponents 
of sin and Satan, as having nothing in common with the 
devil, as persons against whom the devil has no claim. 
But if Mary had ever been even for a moment in Satan s 
power by being conceived in sin, if the trail of the serpent 
had ever been upon her soul, the enmity between her 
and Satan would not have been perpetual like that of her 
Divine Son, who was altogether free from sin ; nor would 
she have gained a complete victory over the serpent. 
Besides, the devil could have claimed her as once having 
belonged to his brood, as once having been a child of 
wrath, deprived of sanctifying grace. See 78, Pius IX s 
words on this text. 

(2) St. Luke i. 28-42. Mary is saluted by the Archangel 
as " full of grace," therefore perfectly innocent and pleas- 

1 There is no apodeictic and certain proof from Scripture of the 
Immaculate Conception. All theologians of repute put the argu 
ment in some such form as above. 


ing to God, never deprived of divine grace for a moment : 
also as " blessed among women/ therefore equal to Eve, 
to say the least, who was created sinless and in the state 
of grace. 

(3) Canticle of Canticles, ii. 2 and iv. 7-12. " Thou 
art all fair, my beloved. Thou art all fair, and there is 
no stain in thee." " My beloved is like a lily amidst 
thorns." But original sin is a dark stain that disfigures 
the soul, and makes it hateful in the sight of God. 

B. Testimony of the Early Fathers. 

St. Denis of Alexandria (d. 265) calls Mary " the only 
daughter of life, the tabernacle most holy, not made by 
hands of man, preserved incorrupt, and blessed from the 
head to the feet." 

Origen (d. 253) not only says that Mary was never 
tainted by the breath of the venomous serpent, but he 
infers the same conclusion from the angelical salutation 
" Hail, full of grace," which, he says, can apply to Mary 
alone. Again, in his Homilies he says : The Blessed 
Virgin Mary was neither deceived by the suggestion of 
the devil, nor sullied by his pestilential breath." 

St. Epiphanius (d. 403) : " The immaculate sheep 
that brought forth Christ the Lamb of God, was superior 
to everything, God excepted ; she was more beautiful 
in her nature than the Cherubim, the Seraphim, and the 
whole host of Angels." " Mary by grace was free from 
all stain of sin." 

St. Amphilochius (d. 344) says that " He who created 
the first virgin Eve in the state of innocence, also created 
the second, Mary, exempt from opprobrium and from all 

St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444). (See n.) 

St. Sophronius, Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 680), 
in a letter approved by the Third Council of Constantinople, 
states most clearly that Mary was exempt from all blemish. 

St. Gregory of Nyssa (d. 403) speaks of Mary s " purity 
without shadow." 


St. James of Batnae (d. 522) says : " If any stain 
or defect had been in her soul, the Lord would have sought 
out another Mother for Himself, one perfectly free from 
all sin." 

The Liturgy of St. James the Apostle calls Mary spot 
less and immaculate, " all blameless, more to be honoured 
than the Cherubim, incomparably more glorious than the 

The Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, much anterior to 
the Saint whose name it bears, says "Mary was altogether 

Father Harper, S.J., in his work Peace through the Truth, 
vol. I. pp. 101 to 117, after giving multitudes of passages 
from the Eastern and Western Fathers of the Church, 
sums up the question as follows : " Who can be so blinded 
with prejudice as not to perceive in these questions, bor 
rowed from successive centuries, an Apostolic tradition, 
which is as far removed from the least heterodox concep 
tion of Mary professed by Protestants as heaven is from 
earth ? Voices reach us from Syria, from different parts 
of Africa, from Mesopotamia, from Phoenicia, from Milan 
and Constantinople, from Jerusalem, from the shores of 
the Tiber, from Mount Sinai, from Rome, from Lyons, 
which, one and all, conspire in ascribing to Mary an 
immaculate purity of soul, mind and body, a solitary pre 
eminence in God s creation of grace." 

C. Testimony of Reason. Reasonableness of the 

(1) Mary is the Mother of God : therefore she must 
have been immaculate in her conception. The infinite 
greatness and dignity of the Son require that the Mother 
should not be less privileged than His servants. But 
the Angels, His servants, were created in sanctifying grace, 
as also was Eve : therefore much more is this true of Mary. 

(2) The infinite purity of her Son requires that the 
tabernacle, where He was to take flesh, should be abso 
lutely pure and unblemished. St. Bernardine of Siena 


(d. 1444) writes : " We must not believe that the Son 
of God would have cared to be born of the Virgin and to 
assume flesh from her, had she been stained by the slightest 
shade of original sin." 


Celebration of the Feast. The Controversy 

EORGE, Bishop of Nicomedia, in the reign of Hera- 
V_T clius (VII Cent.) calls the Conception of our Lady 
a feast of ancient date. See Alban Butler, Dec. 8, note at 
the end. In the West, Naples is thought by some to 
have been the first to borrow this solemnity from the 
Greek Church. Ibid. St. Ildephonsus (d. 667) is said 
to have introduced it into Spain, and St. Anselm (d. 1109) 
into England, the latter about the year 1070. But there 
is proof that it was celebrated in England at an earlier 
date, viz. 1034 or 1057. (See 28, n. 2.) 

It is related in the Chronicon Belgicum that, in a council 
held at Mayence in 1049 i n presence of Pope St. Leo IX 
and the Emperor Henry I, the feast of the Immaculate 
Conception was established (in Central Europe). In the 
year noo it was celebrated at St. Laurence s Church, 
Liege, and in 1142 in the whole diocese of Liege. 

In 1215, Rheims, at the request of the Legates of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, solemnized the feast on September 8 
with unusual pomp, its example being followed by many 
other towns. 

In the XIV Cent, it was celebrated in Rome, at least 
by the Carmelites. 

In 1378 the Synod of Saragossa insisted on its cele 

In 1394 J onn I King of Aragon, published a decree 
re-establishing this feast in all the provinces conquered 


from the Moors, and with a great display of theological 
arguments, forbidding any one in his kingdom to deny 
this privilege of Mary. 

In 1483 Pope Sixtus IV commanded September 8 to 
be kept as a holiday. 

The Controversy. 

St. Bernard (d. 1153), our Lady s most devout client, 
and an eloquent advocate of her privileges, reproved the 
Canons of Lyons because of their own authority, and 
without consulting the Holy See, they celebrated a feast 
of the Immaculate Conception. Epist. 174. He con 
cludes his letter thus : " What I have said, let it be said 
without prejudice of a wiser man than me. All this and 
other similar questions I mostly reserve to the authority 
of the Roman Church, ready to abide by her judgment, 
if I happen to differ from it." 

Suarez, referring to St. Bernard s objection just stated, 
remarks: "If he were alive now (XVI Cent.) and saw 
the aspect of the present Church, and the authority of 
the Holy See highly favouring this opinion, undoubtedly 
he would reverently embrace it." 

The mind of St. Thomas of Aquin on the Immaculate 
Conception is not clear. In his early works, v.g. i Sent. 
D. 44, q. i, a. 3, he writes : " The Blessed Virgin was 
exempt from original and actual sin " : and in Psalm 
xiv. : "In Christ and in the Virgin Mary there was no 
sin whatever." But in his Summa Theologica, written in 
the last years of his life, he took the other view (3 q. 
27, a. 2), viz. : that she was conceived in sin, but immedi 
ately purified from it. 

In the XIII Cent, the question was agitated among 
schoolmen whether the Blessed Virgin Mary had been 
conceived without original sin, or not ? A number of 
them, led by the authority of Peter Lombard, Master of 
the Sentences, adopted the view contrary to the privi 
lege of Mary. The Friars Preachers (Order of St. 


Dominic), following St. Thomas (1274) and Albert the 
Great (1280) his master, constantly supported this 

But the cause of the Immaculate Conception triumphed 
when John Duns Scotus (1308), a Franciscan, in a solemn 
disputation which took place before the theological faculty 
of Paris by order of the Pope and in presence of his Legate 
(1307), proved with arguments that seemed unanswerable 
that the Blessed Virgin was exempt from original sin. 
(See 26.) 

After the Controversy. 

In 1387 the Sorbonne condemned a proposition of the 
Dominican John de Monteson, affirming that the Blessed 
Virgin had been conceived in sin : and the Bishop of 
Paris confirmed the censure . 

In 1439 the Council of Basle declared our Lady immacu 
late in her conception. (See n.) 

In 1457 the Council of Avignon confirmed this decree. 
(See n.) 

In 1476 Sixtus IV published a Constitution, in which 
he granted indulgences to those who should hear Mass 
on the feast of the Immaculate Conception, and recite 
the Office approved by him for the feast. 

In 1481 Sixtus IV, by a new Constitution, forbade any 
one to condemn either opinion as heretical. 

In 1497 John Verus, theologian of Paris, having preached 
that the Blessed Virgin had not been preserved, but purified, 
from original sin, the faculty of Theology compelled him 
publicly to withdraw his assertion, and ruled that same 
year that, in order to prevent further discussions of this 
kind, it would in future confer the degree of Doctor only 
on those who admitted the doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception, and solemnly pledged themselves to defend 
it. At the same time the Faculty qualified the contrary 
opinion as " false, impious, and erroneous." This qualifi 
cation, however, was withdrawn later on at the request 


of the Jesuit Father Maldonatus, as forestalling the judg 
ment of the Holy See. 

In 1546 the Council of Trent (sess. 5, can. 5, on Original 
Sin) declared that " it was not the intention of the Sacred 
Synod to include in the decree dealing with the question 
of Original Sin the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin Mary, 
Mother of God ; but that the Constitutions of Sixtus IV 
of pious memory should be observed, under the penalties 
specified therein, which were thereby renewed." 

In 1567 St. Pius V/condemned the 73rd proposition of 
Baius, which asserted that " the Blessed Virgin Mary had 
died on account of the sin she had contracted from Adam." 
The condemnation was renewed in 1579 by Gregory XIII, 
and in 1641 by Urban VIII. 

In 1570 St. Pius V by a special Constitution forbade 
under severe censures the public discussion of the question 
of the Immaculate Conception in presence of the ordinary 
faithful, and allowed such disputes to be held only in the 
presence of competent theologians. The same Pontiff 
inserted the Office of the Immaculate Conception in the 
Roman Liturgy, and fixed the feast for December 8. 

At a later period Philip III of Spain (d. 1621) requested 
Pope Paul V to decide the question. The Pope refused, 
and in 1616 merely confirmed the Constitutions of his 
predecessors, Sixtus IV and St. Pius V, publishing new 
penalties against all who should violate his orders. The 
same Pope, by a new Constitution of 1617, forbade it to 
be asserted, or even contended (questioned) in sermons, 
lectures, and theses, that the Blessed Virgin had been 
conceived in sin. 

Soon afterwards Philip IV of Spain (d. 1665) applied 
to Pope Gregory XV to have the question settled by a 
Papal decree. The latter refused, but in 1622 prescribed 
(i) that whoever in public discussions (before competent 
theologians) contended that the Virgin Mary was conceived 
in sin, must not attack the contrary opinion, but keep 
silence in its regard : (2) No one is to be allowed to defend 


the opinion opposed to the Immaculate Conception without 
special permission from the Holy See. This permission 
was granted only to the Dominicans, who might discuss 
the question privately among themselves, without incurring 
the Papal censures. 

Pope Clement IX (d. 1669) allowed the feast of the 
Immaculate Conception to be celebrated with an Octave ; 
and Clement XI (d. 1721) in 1708 made it a feast of obli 
gation for the whole Church. 

With the exception of St. Bernard and St. Thomas of 
Aquin, whose utterances on the subject are open to dis 
cussion, we do not know of any Saint who has expressed 
an opinion contrary to our Lady s great privilege. 

All Religious Orders, except one, were decidedly 
for the privilege ; and even among the latter, many 
eminent theologians defended it in their writings. The 
great Schools of Theology, except that of the Thom- 
ists, taught and defended it. In the schools of the Sor- 
bonne, Salamanca, Alcala, Coimbra, Mayence, Naples, 
Louvain, and others, each graduate had to bind him 
self by oath to defend Mary s Immaculate Conception. 
The Franciscans, headed by Duns Scotus, defended it 
as a family inheritance. The Society of Jesus and the 
Immaculate Conception. (See 27.) 


Bull of Pope Pius IX, 1854 

IN the Bull Ineffabilis Deus, declaring the dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception to be an article of faith, 
Pope Pius IX says : " The Fathers and the Writers of 
the Church, taught by celestial revelation, had nothing 
more at heart in their writings to explain the Sacred 
Scriptures, to defend the dogmas (of faith), and to teach 


the faithful, than to publish and celebrate in many admir 
able ways the high sanctity of the Virgin Mary, her dignity, 
her exemption from all stain of sin, and her glorious vic 
tory over the terrible enemy of mankind. Wherefore, 
when relating the words by which God, at the very begin 
ning of the world, announced the remedy He had prepared 
in His mercy to regenerate men, and thereby confound 
the boldness of the deceitful serpent, and wonderfully 
revive the hope of our race saying, I will put enmities 
between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her 
seed, they taught that by this divine oracle the merciful 
Redeemer of the human race, that is, the only Son of God, 
Jesus Christ, had been clearly and openly pointed out ; 
His blessed Mother the Virgin Mary had also been desig 
nated, and at the same time the enmity of both against 
the devil had been expressed. Therefore, even as Christ, 
the Mediator between God and men, having taken human 
nature, blotting out the decree of condemnation passed 
against us, victoriously nailed it to the Cross, so the Holy 
Virgin, united with Him by a strait and indissoluble bond, 
together with Him and through Him exercising eternal 
enmity against the venomous serpent, and fully triumphing 
over it, crushed its head with her immaculate foot." Brev. 
Rom. die 7 infra Oct., Immac. Concept, lect. 5. 

The Proclamation. In the concluding part of the 
Bull, the Pope, standing in front of his throne, pronounced 
with a voice full of faith and authority the longed-for 
definition : " After having offered without interruption 
to God the Father through His Son our humble prayers 
accompanied with fasts, and the public prayers of the 
Church, in order that He would vouchsafe to direct and 
confirm our thoughts by the virtue of the Holy Ghost : 
after having implored the help of the whole celestial Court, 
invoked by our sighs the Spirit of consolation, and acting 
under His inspiration, for the honour of the holy and 
indivisible Trinity, the honour and glory of the Virgin 
Mother of God, for the exaltation of the Catholic faith 

M.P. p 


and the increase of the Christian religion, by the authority 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, and o the Apostles St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and by Our own, (We declare, pronounce, 
and define that the doctrine which holds that the Most 
Blessed Virgin Mary, in prevision (consideration) of the 
merits of Jesus Christ, Saviour of the world, was by a 
singular grace and privilege of Almighty God preserved 
and exempted from all stain pf original sin in the very 
first instant of her conceptiony is a doctrine revealed by 
God, and is therefore to be firmly and constantly believed 
by all the faithful.j Wherefore, if any one presume to 
think in his heart otherwise than has been defined by Us, 
which God forbid, let such one know and be sure that 
he is condemned by his own judgment, that he has made 
shipwreck of his faith, and has fallen away from the unity 
of the Church." Brev. Rom., Oct., Immac. Concept., 
lect. 6. 


FATHER H. THURSTON, writing in The Month, 
December, 1904, p. 563, quotes from the " Christ " of 
the Anglo-Saxon poet Cynewulf, who wrote in the second 
half of the eighth century, a long passage extolling the 
Mother of God with the highest praise, and calling her 
" immaculate " (unwemme, i.e. spotless). 

The prayer book of Ethelwald, a Mercian Bishop of 
the first half of the IX Cent., contains the following 
loving appeal to our blessed Lady : " Holy Mother of 
God, Virgin ever blest, glorious and noble, chaste and 
inviolate. O Mary Immaculate, chosen and beloved of 
God, endowed with singular sanctity, worthy of all praise, 
thou who art intercessor for the peril of the whole world, 
listen, listen, listen to us, holy Mary. Pray for us, inter 
cede for us, disdain not to help us : for we are confident 


and know for certain that thou canst obtain all thou wiliest 
from thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, God Almighty, the 
King of Ages, who liveth with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost for ever and ever. Amen." The Month, Ibid. 

Dom Columba Edmunds, O.S.B., writes in the Ave 
Maria, December, 1901, as follows : " Leaving out of 
consideration the legend which connects the institution 
of the feast of the Immaculate Conception with the preser 
vation from shipwreck of Abbot Helsin 1 (Elsi, see The 
Month, Dec., 1904, 569), it would seem that the 
festival, so far as the Latin Church is concerned, first 
originated about the beginning of the XI Cent. Accord 
ing to the most recent research connected with this subject, 
the honour of its first celebration belongs to the Bene 
dictine Monks of Winchester, disciples of the Saxon St. 
Ethel wold. In a manuscript calendar, still extant, said 
to have been written in the monastery of Newminster 
at Winchester, between the years 1034 and 1057, there is 
inscribed in the original hand at the 8th of December 
Conceptio Sanctae Dei Genetricis Mariae. Another 
calendar of the Cathedral Priory at Winchester, belonging 
to about the year 1030, has the same entry." 

On Abbot Anselm of Bury s treatise in defence of the 
Immaculate Conception (by some writers assigned to 
St. Anselm) see The Month, June, 1904, 562, 566. Abbot 
Anselm was nephew of the Saint, and ruled the Abbey of 
Bury St. Edmunds from 1119 to 1148. 

In a metrical calendar, which is thought to belong to 
the time of Alfred the Great, we meet the first traces of 
a commemoration of our Lady s Conception, not under 
December 8 or 9, but opposite the second day of May. 
Ibid. 452. 

The English monk Eadmer, disciple of St. Anselm, 
wrote his treatise De Conceptione Beatae Mariae to vindicate 
the Conception feast from the attacks made upon it. He 

1 The Legend of Abbot Elsi. See The Month, 1904, July, i seq. 


clearly states that our Lady was exempt from the general 
law of sinfulness affecting all the descendants of Eve. 
Ibid. 570, 571, and 563, note. 

St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109), is 
famous for his devotion to our blessed Lady. He is said 
to have been the first to establish publicly the feast of the 
Immaculate Conception in the West, the earlier instances 
of its celebration, given above, being confined to monastic 
establishments and churches. 


i. r I A HE Nativity of Mary. Two holy persons, 
Ji Joachim and Anna, lived in the little town of 
Nazareth in Lower Galilee. Joachim was of the tribe of 
Juda and of the race of King David through Nathan ; 
and his wife Anna, according to St. Augustine, was of 
the priestly tribe of Aaron. Both were just before God 
and walked in the path of His commandments with a 
perfect heart. But they were denied the consolation of 
children, which made them sad, for in Israel sterility was 
a reproach. Yet, resigned, they passed their days in 
labour, prayer, and almsdeeds. God had not forgotten 
them. In the course of time, by a great miracle, He 
gave them a daughter more perfect, more holy, more 
pleasing in His sight than all the elect put together. 

This occurred on September 8, some fourteen (?) years 
before the common era. What a day of joy that was ! " Thy 
nativity," the Church sings in Our Lady s Office, " brought 
joy and gladness to the whole world," (i) joy to the Blessed 
Trinity, for she is to be the co-operatrix of the Incarnation ; 
(2) joy to the Angels, for she is to be their Queen; (3) 
joy to the Saints in Limbo, for she is to be the Mother of 


their Deliverer ; (4) joy to all mankind, for Redemption 
is nigh. 

Mary s advent into this sin-stained, sorrow-laden world 
of ours marks the opening of a new and glorious epoch, 
the reversing of the original curse, the transforming 
it into a blessing. It was like the break of a glorious 
sunrise on a night of horror ; it was like the stealing of 
the empire of light on the realm of darkness ; it was like 
the opening of the portals of heaven to send down the 
most lovely creature this world ever saw ; it was like the 
blossoming of the fairest flower of the human race whose 
fragrance was to perfume the whole earth. 

An anonymous spiritual writer reminds us that the 
cradle of the Queen of Angels was neither ornamented 
with gold, nor covered with silken counterpanes, or em 
broidered curtains, but was simply covered with coarse 
linen, for her parents, though royally descended, were 
poor. But over that cradle Angels and Archangels must 
have bent with reverence, ravished by her beauty ; and 
on that tiny babe the Blessed Trinity looked with infinite 
delight, for never was creature so lovely : even the brightest 
Archangel in all his dazzling splendour was not so beautiful 
in God s eyes. She was pure as the crystal waters of 
Paradise, reflecting the image of the Godhead. 

The following hymn, ascribed by Father Ballerini to St. 
Ambrose, was sung at Mass in early times on our Lady s 
feasts : "Hail, O whitest of lilies. Lily of the Eternal 
Father ! Hail, Mother of the Redeemer. Hail, Spouse 
of the Holy Spirit. Conceived without stain. Hail, 
elect of the Trinity. Hail, Conqueror of the infernal 
viper, alone free from his sting. Hail, elect of the Trinity, 
-conceived without stain." Fr. Harper, Peace through the 
Truth, ist series, 357. 

2. The Name of Mary. The name given to this child 
of predilection was Miriam or Mary, which in Syriac means 
" Lady," " Sovereign Mistress," and in Hebrew " Star 
of the sea (?) " ; for Mary is sovereign Lady and Queen, 


exalted above the choirs of angels : she is also a bright 
Star to those who sail on the stormy sea of this world ; 
a bright star on both sea and land, heralding the glorious 
sunrise. On the Name of Mary, see Alban Butler, Sept. 8, 
after St. Disen. 

St. Anthony of Padua says : " Mary s name is sweeter 
than the honeycomb to the lips, sweeter than melodious 
music to the ear, sweeter than purest joy to the heart." 
St. Bonaventure always bowed his head at the name of 
Mary. St. Bernard s beautiful words on the Name of 
Mary, " Star of the Sea." See Brev. Rom., Sunday 
within Oct. of her Nativity, lessons 4, 5, 6. On the Name 
of Mary, see 97. 

3. Privileges of the Child Mary. That blessed Child 
had an understanding filled with the purest light ; an 
upright will perfectly conformed to that of God ; a more 
perfect liberty than that of the Angels and of Adam in 
the state of innocence. Her soul was never darkened 
by ignorance, nor troubled by concupiscence, nor dis 
turbed by the tumult of evil passions. God dwelt in her 
soul as in a heavenly tabernacle. Her body was spot 
lessly pure, perfectly holy. She was enriched with sancti 
fying grace in an eminent degree, with actual graces of the 
highest kind;elevating,;ennobling all her thoughts, affections 
and actions. She was confirmed in grace, full of horror 
of sin, even the most trivial ; gifted with a more than 
seraphic attraction to God, being continually united with 
Him. In everything she had the most sublime intention 
of pleasing God, and at once began to acquire merit in 
a degree beyond the power of the highest Angels. The 
majestic glory of the Seraphim, compared with the dazzling 
beauty of her soul, is but as the flickering light of a star 
compared with the noon-day sun. 

Suarez on the Privileges of Mary. (See 102.) 



THE dignity of Mother of God is the highest to which 
any mere creature is capable of being raised. What 
closer union could any creature have with the Creator of 
all things ? What title could be more noble, what privi 
lege more wonderful ? He Who was born of the Father 
from all eternity, the only-begotten and consubstantial 
Son, Maker and Lord of all things, is born in time and 
receives a being in His nature of man from Mary. x " Listen 
and attend, O man," cries out St. Anselm, " and be trans 
ported in an ecstasy of astonishment contemplating this 
prodigy. The infinite God had one only-begotten co- 
eternal Son ; yet He would not suffer Him to remain 
only His own, but would also have Him to be made the 
only Son of Mary." Monol. St. Peter Damian exclaims : 
" Let every creature be silent and remain in holy fear, 
scarcely daring to cast his eyes on that dignity so immense." 
Petitalot, 197. St. Bernardine of Siena says God alone 
can measure the height and extent of that dignity. St. 
Bernard writes : " It is impossible for God to make a 
creature more excellent." St. Anselm observes : " That 
thought alone that Mary is Mother of God surpasses all 
excellence, ah 1 imaginary glory after that of God." St. 
Bonaventure adds : "To be Mother of God is the greatest 
grace that can be conferred on a simple creature. It is 
a grace so great that God cannot confer a greater. God 
could (if He wished) make a grander world, a brighter 
heaven, but a greater Mother than Mary He cannot make," 
such is her dignity. 

The Angelic Doctor St. Thomas tells us that God, having 
almighty power, could create worlds more great, suns 
more brilliant, stars more numerous, creatures more intelli 
gent and more perfect than He has made. But, he adds 
* Alban Butler, Sept. 8. 


we must always make three exceptions, the Humanity 
of Jesus Christ, Celestial Beatitude (the Beatific Vision), 
and the Blessed Virgin. These three the Humanity of 
Jesus Christ by reason of its union with the Divinity ; 
Beatitude, because it is the enjoyment of God Himself ; 
and the glorious Virgin in her quality of Mother of God, 
because there proceeds from that immediate relationship 
with God a certain infinite dignity (these three are God s 
absolutely perfect works), than which it is impossible to 
conceive in the same order anything more perfect, for 
nothing can exist more perfect than God. Pt. i, q. 25, 
a. 6. 

Pius IX in the Bull " Ineffabilis Deus " represents the 
Mother of God as "an ineffable miracle of the Almighty, 
and even the crown of all miracles, because that glorious 
creature approaches as near to God as created nature 
can do, and is exalted above all human and angelic praise." 
Again : " God chose for His only Son a Mother, of whom 
in the fulness of time He should be born, a Mother whom 
He Himself prepared, and in whom He was so well pleased 
that He preferred her to every other creature. In virtue 
of this choice He endowed her richly with heavenly favours, 
to an extent far excelling those bestowed on the Saints 
and Angels : He preserved her from all sin, and bestowed 
on her a holiness He alone can understand. And indeed 
it was necessary that she should be for ever adorned with 
the splendour of the most perfect grace, this Virgin, to 
whom God the Father chose to give His own Son in such 
a manner that the same Divine Person should in His 
twofold nature be at the same time the Son of God, and 
the Son of Mary." 

Denis the Carthusian exclaims : " Mary, most ad 
mirable of created beings, thou art in truth associated with 
the paternity of the Eternal Father, having for thy Son, 
the same Son whom He has ; thou art the most excellent 
Mother "of His only Son"; thou art the most singular 
tabernacle of the adorable^Paraclete ; the Blessed Trinity 


has admitted thee to share their empire and glory. The 
divine artist has formed thee so great, so worthy of love, 
so perfect, adorned thee with so many other privileges 
above those of the elect, because it was fitting that such 
a Mother, such a Spouse, such a Queen, should be greater, 
richer, and fairer than all the handmaids and all the ser 
vants of God." Laus vitae solit. art. 29. 

If it is a joy to possess God as He reveals Himself to 
His elect ; if it is a bliss to know Him as do the angelic 
spirits, whom He ravishes with a torrent of untold delight ; 
what must have been Mary s joy on becoming the Mother 
of God. She found, in a way no words can express, her 
Beloved whom she sought ; she could never be separated 
from Him ; she was nearer to Him than any creature 
could ever be, and the mountain-tops of heroic sanctity 
were nothing to her elevation. She was folded in the 
complacency of the adorable Trinity, the daughter of the 
Father, the Mother of the Son, the Spouse of the Holy 
Ghost. Her breast was converted into a most pure shrine 
or temple of the Godhead, with Jesus dwelling on its altar. 

This great dignity of Mary was vindicated in the Coun 
cil of Ephesus against Nestorius. (See n.) 

Note. Many Protestants, unaware of the true doctrine 
of the Incarnation, call the Blessed Virgin the Mother of 
Jesus, and not the Mother of God, as though our Saviour 
existed in a twofold personality human and divine. The 
Catholic doctrine is that the Second Person of the Blessed 
Trinity, in His Divine nature eternally begotten of the 
Father, took to Himself from His Virgin Mother a human 
nature of the same substance as hers ; and therefore the 
Mother of that Divine Person, Jesus Christ, the God-man, 
is in very truth the Mother of God. As our mothers are 
not called the mothers of our bodies, but simply our 
mothers, because the soul, which is directly created by 
God is united with the body in one personality, so the 
Blessed Virgin is not called simply the Mother of Jesus, 
i.e. of His human nature alone, but the Mother of God, 


because the Divine Nature of the Word, which is eternally 
begotten of the Father, is united with the human nature 
in one personality. In a word, she is Mother not merely 
of the (human) nature, but of the Person, and that 
Person is God the Son. 


THE early Church held most firmly to the perpetual 
Virginity of our Lady, as we learn from the con 
demnation of Helvidius, Jovinian, and other heretics in 
the IV Cent, by the Synods of Rome (A.D. 381) and 
Capua (A.D. 392). The Council of Lateran in A.D. 649 
finally voiced the infallible witness of the Catholic Church, 
so that Catholics are not left to mere conjecture or private 
opinion. Indeed, Luther, Calvin, Zwingle and Beza 
among the Reformers, besides many Protestant writers 
to-day, deny as emphatically as any Catholic that Jesus 
holy Mother ever ceased to be a Virgin. 

SS. Jerome, Epiphanius, Ambrose and others took up 
the defence of Mary s perpetual virginity against Ebion, 
Cerinthus, Helvidius, proving that she was a Virgin before, 
in, and after His birth, a Virgin in soul, a Virgin in body, 
a Virgin in mind and in every thought and feeling. For 
St. Jerome s arguments briefly stated, see Alban Butler, 
September 8. St. Epiphanius asks the question : " Who 
in any generation ever dared to utter the name of Mary 
without adding at once the title of Virgin ? How then 
do they (Helvidius, Jovinian) dare to attack that spotless 
Virgin, who merited to be the dwelling of the Son (of God), 
she who was chosen for this out of the tens of thousands 
in Israel, that she might be made a worthy vessel and 
dwelling-place for a unique prodigy of child-birth ? " 
Livius, 129, see 8. St. Ephrem grows rapturous in speak- 


ing of our Lady s spotless innocence and virginity. " Most 
holy Lady Mother of God, alone most pure in soul and 
body ; alone exceeding all perfection of purity, both 
chastity and virginity ; alone made in thy entirety the 
home of all the graces of the most holy Spirit ; and hence 
excelling beyond all compare even the angelic Virtues in 
purity and sanctity of soul and body, cast thine eyes upon 
me." " My Lady most holy, Mother of God, and full of 
grace, most blessed and most pleasing to God, vessel of 
the Divinity of thy only Son. All-pure, all-immaculate, 
all-stainless, all-undefiled, all-blameless, all-worthy of 
praise, all-incorrupt, all-most blessed, all-inviolate. Virgin 
in soul, in body, and in spirit incomprehensible miracle 
spotless robe of Him who clothes Himself with light 
as with a garment holy root of Jesse City of God, 
beautiful by nature, and inaccessible to all blemish, Flower 
unfading, Purple woven by God, alone most immaculate." 
Livius, 213. 

Mary s Perpetual Virginity has been denned as an Article 
of Faith by the Lateran Council under St. Martini (649),* 
and was proclaimed by Popes St. Leo I (d. 461), Adeo- 
datus (d. 676). See Denziger, 143, 204, 256, 282. St. 
Jerome writing against Helvidius says he can quote the 
whole of antiquity (in defence of Mary s perpetual vir 
ginity), " Ignatius, Polycarp, Irenaeus, Justin, and all 
other holy and apostolic men." St. Bede, the Venerable, 
says : " Mary was the first of women to offer (to vow) her 
virginity to God." St. Epiphanius held that it was 
heresy to doubt Mary s perpetual virginity ; St. Basil 
considered the denial of it equivalent to blasphemy ; St. 
Ambrose spoke of the injury done to Christ by calling 
in question the virginity of His Mother. Reason itself 
tells us that to call it in question is a sort of blasphemy 
against the Eternal Father, who has made her His daughter ; 
an injury to the Holy Ghost, who has chosen her to be 

1 Not a General Council. Denz. 204. 


His Spouse ; and an insult to Christ who has elected her 
to be His Virgin Mother. 

Ireland and Mary s perpetual virginity. (See 34.) 
Note. The Scriptures speak in several places of the 
" brethren of the Lord." Matt. xii. 46-50 ; Matt. xiii. 
55, 56 ; Mark iii. 31-35 ; vi. 3 ; Luke viii. 19-21 ; John 
ii. 12 ; vii. 3-10 ; Acts i. 14. But the word brother 
is used in the Hebrew and in all languages in a general 
sense, and therefore by no means necessarily implies 
children of the same parent. In the Old Testament it 
applied to any relation, v.g. nephew (Gen. xiv. 16 ; xiii. 8 ; 
xii. 5), uncle (Gen. xxix. 15), husband (Cant. iv. 9), 
one of the same tribe (2 Kings xix. 12), of the same people 
(Exod. ii. 21 ), an ally (Amos i. 9), any friend (2 Kings 
i. 26), one of the same office (3 Kings ix. 13). 


r I A HAT our Lady was assumed body and soul into 
JL heaven is not an article of faith ; but it is so uni 
versally accepted by the Christian Church that it cannot 
be denied without rashness and scandal. There is reason 
to believe that the Vatican Council, had it continued its 
sittings, would have defined the doctrine. Much evidence 
was collected for this purpose, both historical and theo 
logical. The historical evidence is not very strong, but 
the consensus of the whole Church is a convincing argu 

Holy Scripture is silent as to the close of Mary s beautiful 
life, but St. John Damascene (VIII Cent.) tells us the 
story as it was handed down among the faithful in his 
day, and the Church has inserted his account in the Rom. 
Breviary (Aug. 18, lessons 4, 5, 6) as proper to edify and 
excite the devotion of her children, but without pronounc 
ing on its accuracy or certainty. " We learn," he 


says, " from an ancient tradition that at the time of the 
glorious sleep of the Blessed Virgin, all the Apostles scat 
tered abroad for the salvation of the nations, were trans 
ported to Jerusalem. 1 As they were assembled together, 
an angelic vision appeared to them, they heard the psalmody 
of the heavenly powers, and then with a Divine glory, 
Mary gave up her blessed soul into the hands of God. 
Her body, which by an ineffable mystery had received 
God, was transported with the joyful hymns of Angels 
and Apostles, and deposited in a sepulchre at Gethsemane ; 
and there for three whole days the angelic melodies did 
not cease. After three days the song of the Angels came 
to an end ; Thomas, the only Apostle then absent, arrived, 
and desired to see and venerate the body in which God 
had dwelt. The Apostles opened the tomb, but did not 
find the sacred deposit. Seeing only the linen which had 
enveloped the body of Mary, and from which a sweet 
odour arose, they closed the sepulchre. Astonished at 
the miracle, they could have but one thought that He 
Who had been pleased to become Incarnate in the chaste 
womb of the Virgin Mary, and to be born of her, being 
the Word of God, and the Lord of glory, and having already 
preserved the virginity of His Mother, had also willed to 
preserve from corruption her Immaculate body after 
death, and to translate it to heaven before the general 
and universal resurrection." 

St. John Damascene continues : " There were with 
the Apostles the blessed Timothy, first Bishop of the 
Ephesians, and Denis the Areopagite, as he himself attests 
in his letter addressed to Timothy on the subject of the 
blessed Hierotheus, also present, and in which he says : 
Near the pontiffs, inspired of God, along with us as you 
know, and many others of our holy brethren assembled 
to contemplate the body which gave birth to Life, there 

1 On the question whether our Lady died at Jerusalem or Ephesus, 
see Alban Butler, August 15, note. The story of the visit of 
the twelve Apostles to the tomb of our Lady is doubtful, and of 
little authenticity. 


was James, the brother of the Lord, and Peter, the supreme 
and ancient chief of divine teachers ; and at the sight of the 
sacred body it pleased all, each according to his power, 
to celebrate with hymns the infinite goodness of the Divine 

The same Saint in his sermon on The Sleep of the Blessed 
Virgin, speaks as follows, his words being inserted in the 
Divine Office for August 15. " To-day that sacred and 
animated ark of the living God, who conceived the Creator 
in her womb, rests in that Temple which is not made 
with hands : David her ancestor rejoices, and with him 
the Archangels celebrate her, the Virtues glorify her, the 
Principalities are glad, the Powers rejoice, the Dominations 
are ravished, the Thrones solemnize her festival, the 
Cherubim praise her, and the Seraphim proclaim her 
glory. To-day heaven received the living paradise of 
the new Adam, that Eden where our curse was taken 
away, where was planted the tree of life, and where our 
nakedness was covered. This day the Immaculate Virgin, 
free from all earthly affections, and trained to thoughts 
of heaven, no longer walks upon earth, but giving life to 
heaven, she is placed in the celestial mansions. She who 
hath given life to the world cannot taste death. She hath 
obeyed the law of Him Whom she conceived ; daughter 
of the old Adam, she hath submitted to the ancient con 
demnation (i.e. death), like her Son Who is life itself, 
yet would not avoid it : and as Mother of the living God, 
she is worthily assumed to Him." He continues : " How 
could she become the prey of death ? How could the 
tomb retain her ? How could corruption touch that 
body, which has given life to God ? For if Christ, Who 
is the life and the truth, hath said, Ubi ego sum illic 
erit et minister meus/ would not His Mother, by better 
right, be with Him ? " 

St. Gregory of Tours (d. 596), voicing the popular 
tradition among the Christians in Gaul of the VI Cent., 
writes : " When at length the Blessed Virgin had fulfilled 



the course of this present life, and was now to be called 
out of the world, all the Apostles were gathered together 
from the several regions to her house. And as they learnt 
that she was to be taken from the world, together they 
watched with her. When, behold the Lord Jesus arrived 
with His Angels, and, receiving her soul, committed it 
to the Archangel Michael, and thereupon withdrew. Then 
at day-break the Apostles lifted her body with the couch, 
laid it in the sepulchre, and watched by it, awaiting the 
coming of the Lord. And, lo, the Lord stood by them 
again, and commanded her holy body to be taken up and 
borne on a cloud to Paradise ; where now united to the 
soul, and rejoicing in company with the elect, it enjoys 
the good things of eternity which shall never come to an 
end." De Mirac. lib. i, c. 4. Patr. Lat. torn. 71, 708. 

The same Saint speaks of a marvellous occurrence 
witnessed by him on the eve of the Assumption-feast : 
" When the feast (of the Assumption) was now nigh at 
hand I went thither (to the Oratory at Marsac in Avernum) 
to keep the vigil. And as in the dark of night I approached 
the Oratory, I saw, whilst still some distance off, a bright 
ness so intense shining through the windows, that one 
would have thought a very great number of lamps and 
candles were burning there. Supposing then that some 
devout persons had already got in before us to celebrate 
the vigil, I go up to the door. I knock but find there is 
no one there. Trying the door, I discover that it is locked, 
and that all is silent. What is to be done ? We send 
for the custodian then in charge of locking the door, to 
bring the key and unlock it. Whilst he is on his way, 
we light a candle outside, when, lo, the door opens of itself. 
On going in, the brightness which we had been wondering 
at from outside, as our candle makes its appearance, 
vanishes I believe, because of the darkness of my sins. 
We were in fact able to see nothing else, save the power 
and virtue of the glorious Virgin, from whom that bright 
ness had arisen." Ibid. c. 9, 713. 


St. Venantius Fortunatus* testimony to our Lady s 
Assumption he was Bishop of Poitiers in the VI Cent. 
See Livius, 361. The Mass for the festival in the Gre 
gorian Sacramentary VI Cent. See Ibid. 363. St. 
Augustine s testimony. Ibid. 349. St. Jerome speaks 
of our Lady s sepulchre, but of her Assumption he says 
there is no certainty. St. Willibald s pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land : (about 754) his visits to the church and 
tomb of Holy Mary. See Ibid. 377. 

St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (XI Cent.), 
preaching on the feast of the Assumption contrasts our 
Lady s sufferings and anxieties in life with her present joy 
and glory. "No longer," he says, "is she solicitous how 
to serve Him as a Child, for all the hierarchies now serve 
Him as their Lord. No longer is she troubled flying with 
Him into Egypt from the face of Herod ; for He has 
ascended into Heaven, and Herod has gone down into 
hell before his face. No longer is she disturbed on account 
of the many things the Jews did against Him ; for all 
things now are subject to Him. And now Mary herself 
is exalted above the choirs of Angels ; now all her desire 
is fulfilled, she sees God face to face, as He is, and rejoices 
with her Son for ever." 



r I ^HE Church salutes Mary constantly as Mother of 
JL Mercy : " Salve Regina, Mater misericordiae." 
Mercy, St. Augustine tells us, is the compassion we feel 
for the misery of others, a compassion that leads us to 
assist them in proportion to our ability. De Civ. Dei. 
1. 9, c. 5. This compassion has its birth in charity, for 
the love we feel for any one who is unfortunate makes 
us look upon the ills he suffers as our own. If then Mary 



is all love for us, she must be moved by our distress and 
be merciful to us. After our Blessed Saviour Himself, 
no one loves and compassionates us so much as His holy 
Mother Mary. 

St. Anselm addressing our Lady says : " Thou who 
didst become Mother of God with a view to mercy, show 
pity to my misery by interceding for me." And the holy 
Doctor adds : " What mediator can I invoke with greater 
fervour under the terror that haunts me than her, whose 
womb contained reconciliation for the whole world ? The 
Son of the Father of mercy came down from heaven to 
seek the lost sinner, and wilt thou, His dear Mother, wilt 
thou, the mighty Mother of God, reject an unhappy soul 
who prays to thee ? " Orat. 51 ad- B.V. St. Bernard, 
extolling our Lady s clemency, exclaims : " Let those 
keep silence about thy mercy, Blessed Virgin, who can 
remember invoking thee in their need without receiving 
help. We, thy poor servants, praise thy other virtues, 
but still mercy more strongly attracts those who are in 
trouble, appeals more strongly to their love, is more often 
remembered, more willingly invoked ; for it is mercy 
which obtains for the world reparation and eternal salva 
tion. Thy mercy has given renewed life to those in misery, 
and it will aid those who seek it to the last day." De 
Assumpt. B.V. serm. 4. The same Saint in another place 
says : " Who is there on whom the sun does not shine ? 
Who is there on whom Mary s mercy does not shed its 
light ? " Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173) writes : "As 
a loving mother hides her boy under her mantle when his 
father wishes to chastise him, so the Blessed Virgin pro 
tects those who fly to her, fearing the justice of Christ." 
The devout Blosius (d. 1566) affirms that " sooner will 
heaven and earth pass away, than Mary deprive of her 
help one who invokes her." 

Let us listen again to St. Bernard : " You were afraid 
to draw near to the Father ; terrified at the mere sound 
of His voice, you tried to hide yourselves ; God gave you 



a Mediator, and what cannot a Son obtain from such a 
Father ? This Son then will be favourably heard for 
the Father loves His Son. Are you also afraid to appeal 
to Jesus ? He is your Brother, He took your flesh upon 
Him, He suffered all your trials, except that of sin, for 
the sake of being merciful to you, and it is Mary who gave 
Him to you as your Brother. But perchance you dread 
the Divine Majesty in Him, because when He became 
man He yet did not cease to be God ? Do you wish for 
an advocate with Him ? Then have recourse to Mary, 
for in her you will find human nature free from every stain. 
She will also be heard because of the consideration of which 
she is worthy. The Son will hear His Mother, and the 
Father will hear His Son. Here, my children, behold the 
sinner s ladder ! Here is my strong confidence, here the 
reason of my hope. What, can the Son repulse His Mother, 
or Himself meet with refusal ! Undoubtedly not ; Mary 
will always find grace with Jesus, and we only need grace, 
and by grace alone are we saved. Let us seek grace by 
Mary ! she finds what she seeks and cannot be frustrated 
in her desires." This passage the Church has included 
in her Liturgy. See Offic. B.V. de Bono Consilio, April 26. 
Rom. Brev. vSupplem. See also another beautiful passage 
from the same Saint, Offic. B.V. Auxil. Christianorum, 
May 24. Ibid. Note. This feast of Our Lady of Good 
Counsel is no longer observed, except locally. 

In her Litany our Lady is invoked as Health of the Sick, 
Refuge of sinners, Consoler of the afflicted, Help of Chris 

Mary, health of the sick. What thousands upon 
thousands of sick persons have been miraculously cured 
of various ailments by her at Lourdes and elsewhere ! 
See the votive offerings at her numerous shrines. The 
history of these miraculous cures would fill a library. If 
the Angel Raphael cured the blindness of Tobias ; if the 
bones of Eliseus gave life to a dead body ; if the Apostles 
had power to cure diseases ; if the very shadow of St. 


Peter cured many who were sick ; what must be the power 
of Mary to relieve and dispel human suffering ! The pool 
of Bethsaida was moved by the Angel only at intervals : 
but the loving Heart of Mary is in a continual movement of 
holy compassion. And if her pity for our bodily ailments 
is so great, with what tenderness of affection will she 
welcome and assist those who fly to her for help in interior 
troubles, trials, temptations, anguish of soul, and spiritual 
distress of every kind. 




THE great apostle of the devotion to our Lady s 
Immaculate Heart is Blessed John Eudes (d. 
1680), Founder of the Eudists and of the Good Shepherd 
nuns who still preaches it through his great work Le 
Cceur Admirable de la ires Sainte Mere de Dieu. He here 
speaks as with words of fire, and no one can read the work 
seriously without feeling inflamed. 

If we seek for reasons why the Heart of our Blessed 
Mother is so greatly honoured and revered by Catholics, 
the answer is : 

i. Because, after the Sacred Heart of Jesus, it is the 
purest and holiest heart that ever was. 

(a) It is a shrine or temple of holiness, whose threshold 
was never once crossed by the demon of sin ; whose sanc 
tuary was never once contaminated by the least touch of 
evil ; whose altar was the chosen resting place of the 
Spirit of God. 

(b) It is a shrine or temple of peace, for it is the heart of 
the Mother of the Prince of Peace ; a heart never for a 
moment disturbed by evil passions or by the noisy clamour 
of evil propensities ; a heart whose gifts to mankind are 
those of mercy, reconciliation and peace. 


(c) It is a shrine adorned with all the skill of the Divine 
Artificer, who has lavished upon it the riches of His treasure- 
house riches of sanctifying grace, each of which far tran 
scends in value all the riches of the material universe. 
" Ave, gratia plena ! " Hail, full of grace ! 

2, Because it is a counterpart of the Heart of Jesus. 

(a) His is a loving Heart, that love being symbolized 
by the flames. So Mary s is a loving heart, the most 
affectionate of hearts after that of Jesus. She loves us 
as a mother loves her children ; her eyes are ever watchful 
over us ; her ears are ever attentive to our cries ; her 
hands are ever extended over us to help us and impart 
heavenly blessed gifts to us ; above all, her heart is full 
of the tenderest solicitude for us. 

(b) Jesus Heart was a suffering Heart symbolized by 
the thorns that circle it round, the cross planted in its 
summit, and the gash opened in its side. So Mary s was 
a suffering heart. Its martyrdom began with holy Sim 
eon s prophecy in the temple, and was consummated on 
Calvary. If Jesus hands and feet were pierced with 
nails, the sound of each blow of the hammer inflicted a 
corresponding wound on the heart of His Mother. If 
His head was crowned with thorns, another crown of 
thorns encircled the heart of His Mother. If His side 
was opened with a lance, a sword of anguish likewise 
pierced the heart of His Mother. If His lips were tortured 
with gall and vinegar squeezed against them, a very sea 
of bitterness was poured into the heart of His Mother. 
" Magna est velut mare contritio tua." 

(c) Jesus Heart was a pure Heart, symbolized by the 
light that Blessed Margaret Mary saw issuing from it 
and streaming round it. So Mary s was a pure heart, 
pure as the light, purer than the snow, free from the stain 
of original sin, from the least blemish of actual sin, from 
the least evil tendency of our fallen nature : a heart full 
of light and beauty reflecting to the full the radiance of 
the Sacred Heart of her Divine Son. 


(d) Jesus was a generous Heart, symbolized by His 
open breast, and the wound in His side whence issued 
the last drops of His Heart s blood shed for us, and by which 
an access was opened to us to the treasures of that Divine 
Heart. So Mary s is a generous heart, expansive in love, 
abounding in mercy : all mankind may find a place there 
as her children, if they only choose to listen to her loving 
invitation, " Venite ad me omnes." 

(e) Jesus Heart suffered and bled for sinners. So 
Mary s heart is a refuge, a blessed asylum opened for 
sinners. She is the Mother of Mercy, who never was 
known, as St. Bernard assures us, to turn away any one 
who came in sincerity to seek her aid. 

The Heart of Mary, says Blessed John Eudes, is a 
very heaven of glory, more wonderful than the empyrean 
heaven ; it is, through her Divine Son, a source of life to 
all the faithful, " Vitam datam per Virginem, Vita, dul- 
cedo, et spes nostra " ; it is the holiest and most acceptable 
victim of divine love ; it is a sun more brilliant than the 
material sun, enlightening the minds and inflaming the 
hearts of all the children of light ; it is a fountain of living 
water, a stream of mercy and blessing, " Fons innumerorum 
bonorum " ; it is a loving haven of safety, in which we 
may find shelter when buffeted by the storms of trials 
and temptations. If St. John Chrysostom felt such affec 
tion for the heart of St. Paul ; if we feel such deep rever 
ence for the hearts of St. Teresa, St. John Berchmans, 
Blessed Baldinucci and others still preserved incorrupt, 
how great, how burning ought to be our devotion to the 
Immaculate Heart of the Mother of God ! 




IN May, 1893, England was solemnly consecrated by 
Cardinal Archbishop Vaughan and the whole Hier 
archy of English Bishops to the Mother of God and to 
the Prince of the Apostles. Some extracts from his 
Eminence s pastoral letter are here given. 

1. Our Lady s Dowry. " The Holy Father (Leo 
XIII), in his reply (to an address presented by English 
pilgrims on February 27, 1893), has used and thus con 
secrated an expression which is familiar to us here, but 
which has probably never before been heard from the 
mouth of a Pope. He has called this country Our Lady s 
Dowry. That is to say he has mentioned with approval 
that, in the ages of faith, this land was commonly so named. 
It is to an Archbishop of Canterbury of the XIV Cent. 
Archbishop Arundel that we are indebted for a 
formal testimony to a fact which of itself is enough to 
prove how Most Holy Mary was loved in England in days 
gone by. He writes thus to the Bishops of the Province 
of Canterbury in the year 1399 : The contemplation of 
the great Mystery of the Incarnation, in which the Eternal 
Word chose the holy and Immaculate Virgin, that from 
her womb He should clothe Himself with flesh, has drawn 
all Christian nations to venerate her from whom came 
the first beginnings of our Redemption. But we in 
England/ he continues, being the servants of her special 
inheritance, and her own Dowry, as we are commonly 
called, ought to surpass others in the fervour of our praise 
and devotion. These words form part of a Constitution 
which is remarkable for many reasons." 

2. The Angelus Bell. " It is the (same) decree which 
established the morning and evening Angelus/ as it was 
used in mediaeval England. Already it had been the 


custom in England to toll the bell in the evening hour 
and to recite five Hail Marys with the Our Father. 
It was at the request of King Henry IV that the English 
Primate ordered that in all cathedral, collegiate, monastic, 
and parish churches, the bell should be rung in the early 
morning also, and the same prayers be said. The sound 
of that Angelus Bell seems to bring back to our memories 
the never-ceasing cultus or worship of the Blessed Mother 
of our Redeemer which so strongly marked every age of 
Catholic history in this country. The bells of every church 
from Canterbury to Lindisfarne, and from Mary s great 
shrine at Walsingham in the east to remote St. David s 
in the extreme west, rung out at dawn and again at sunset, 
day by day, as the years went by. But not more regular 
or more constant was their sweet sound over all the land 
than was the lifting up of the heart of rich and poor, high 
and low, in morning salutation and in evening supplication 
to the holy Mother of God." 

3. Monuments to Mary. " Since the landing of St. 
Augustine and his monks every great name, Saxon or 
Norman, which had adorned the annals of the Church, 
had left a monument to Mary, either in solid stone or in 
immortal speech. The great Doctors of the English, like 
Bede, Alcuin, and Anselm, had written of her with the 
enthusiasm of sons ; the great preachers, such as St. 
Aldhelm and St. Aelred, had given the flower of their 
rapturous meditations on her prerogatives ; the men of 
action and builders of churches, like St. Bennet of Wear- 
mouth and St. Wilfrid, had set her name on the temples 
they erected to Almighty God and placed her image in 
their sanctuaries ; the splendid mediaeval Bishops, as 
St. Hugh of Lincoln, St. Edmund of Canterbury, and St. 
Richard of Chichester, had built glorious Ladye-chapels 
to their great cathedrals, and added gem after gem not 
only to her shrines but to the ever-growing trophy of the 
public and private devotions of the English people." 

4. St. Thomas of Canterbury and Devotion to 


Mary. " It cannot be doubted that the name of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury carried with it more power over 
the hearts of the English than the name of any other 
saint of this island. It was commonly believed and it 
seems to be uncontradicted that the beloved martyr 
and champion of the unity of the Church was not only 
one of Mary s devoutest clients, but had written sweet 
and pious verses in her honour. It was probably in his 
retirement at Pontigny where his soul grew nearer to 
God, and the Holy Spirit took possession of all his powers 
and aspirations that he wrote those two hymns which 
have been handed down to us. Two sequences, one 
beginning Imperatrix gloriosa, and the other Hodierna 
lux diei, are found in numerous missals of the Middle Ages 
all over Europe ; and had not our English liturgical books 
been almost utterly destroyed by the Reformers, we should 
have known how popular they were in England. About 
the middle of the XII Cent., ere yet St. Thomas 
had shed his blood at Canterbury, St. Aelred, who is called 
the English St. Bernard, was proclaiming the praises of 
the Mother of Christ in his Cistercian church in Yorkshire." 

5. Speaking Facts. The Ladye-Mass. " There are 
those who speak as if such devotion were a modern develop 
ment or the outcome of a national temperament very 
different from that of the English. Let a few facts speak for 
themselves. In England, during the ages of faith, there 
was the Votive Mass of our Lady every day in cathedrals 
and greater churches. At the early dawn the bell sounded 
its summons to the Ladye-Mass/ and the people hastened 
to the magnificent Ladye-chapels of cathedrals like St. 
Paul s, or Lincoln, or York, or to the Ladye-altar of their 
own parish church. This Mass did not take the place of 
the Mass and Office of the day. It was the willing tribute 
of a devout people to the Mother of Jesus." 

6. The Ladye-Chapel. " Day by day the services 
went on in the choir, at the high altar, and in the vast 
naves of the glorious churches of the land. But the Ladye- 


chapel was the scene of Mary s special honour. Her altar 
was there, her image was there, of precious marble, even 
of gold or silver, or perhaps of common wood, now dark 
and venerable with the lapse of years. The ministers 
who officiated were set apart for this special duty ; some 
times a single priest, who was Our Ladye s Priest ; 
sometimes a college of four, or six, or of eight, for whom 
the piety of benefactors had provided in order that they 
might stand at our Lady s shrine. The Ladye-chapel had 
its own precious vestments and its own golden chalice ; 
wax candles offered by Mary s clients, living and dead, 
burned during the Mass and before her image ; the missals, 
the graduals, the psalters were Mary s own, and the lamp 
that shone there night and day was in the custody of one 
who was appointed to guard and keep the chapel. Let 
it be remembered that there was not one church in all 
England to which this description did not in some degree 
apply during the XIII, XIV and XV Cents." 

7. Political and Social Life. Order of the Garter. 
Eton College. Famous Sanctuaries. " And what 
was true of the daily liturgical life of the country, was 
true also of its political and social life in the widest sense. 
We are told that the Order of the Garter was founded by 
Edward III to the honour of the Blessed Virgin, and 
that out of his singular affection for her he had wished 
her to be honoured by his knights ; and on our Lady s 
festivals the knights, during the Divine Office, bore on 
their right shoulders golden figures of the Mother of God. 
When King Henry VI founded his great College of Eton, 
he dedicated it to the Name of the Blessed Virgin. There 
was no part of the country where there was not a famous 
Sanctuary of the Madonna, to which royal and noble per 
sonages with crowds of pilgrims continually thronged. 
Amongst these the most popular was Our Lady of Wal- 
singham, in Norfolk ; but scarcely less so were the Church 
of All Hallows, near the Tower of London, on account 
of its miraculous statue, Our Lady of the Pue at West- 


minster, Our Lady of Doncaster, Our Lady of Ipswich, 
and far away to the west, among the hills of Glamorgan, 
Our Lady of Penrice, marked stilr by a holy well. With 
these sacred shrines the life and history of the country 
were bound up. Thither went Kings to beg a blessing 
on their arms from the God of battles, and to return thanks 
for victory and peace. Piously and humbly, often with 
bare feet like Henry VIII himself in the days before he 
fell from the faith princes, prelates, statesmen, and 
great soldiers, representing the religious emotion of a 
Catholic nation, sought out in the hour of national crisis 
the hallowed spot where the power of Christ s Mother 
seemed to dwell where pious generations had lifted up 
her monuments, where the knees of suppliants had worn 
away the stone, and where trophies of piety and gratitude 
covered the wall of the sanctuary. We cannot bring 
back those days of faith. But we can arouse our own 
faith, and at the bidding of the Holy Father, renew and 
enlarge our love and our service of the Queen of Virgins, 
in public and private, in great things and in small, con 
secrating to her our lives and our actions, and, as far as 
lies in our power, putting her once more in her place as 
the country s sovereign protector." 


ON the Feast of the Assumption, 1233, seven Floren 
tine nobles met together, as their custom was, 
to recite the Office of the Blessed Virgin. While they 
were thus engaged she herself appeared before them, and 
bade them forsake the world for a more perfect life. In 
a second apparition, 1239, she recommended them to 
spread devotion to her Seven Dolours, and presented to 
them the black habit which the Servites wear in honour 


of the Passion of her Son. Throughout Europe these 
zealous Servants of Mary preached everywhere devotion 
to the Passion of Jesus and to the Sorrows of His holy 

Mary s martyrdom, observes Father Petitalot, 324, began 
with the first knowledge which the prophecies gave her 
of the sufferings which the Messias would have to endure. 
It increased when she was chosen to be the Mother of that 
Messias, destined to die a cruel death for the sins of the 
world. It became more intense when she heard the words 
of holy Simeon, and saw the flowing of the first drops of 
our Saviour s Blood. It continued during the thirty-three 
years of our Lord s life. It attained its greatest intensity 
during the hours of the Passion. Even after the Resurrec 
tion and Ascension it did not entirely cease : Mary suffered 
as long as she lived, for she could not forget any of her 
sorrows, but, on the contrary, recalled every day the 
painful remembrance by visiting (it is believed) the places 
where she beheld the sufferings of her adorable Child. 

As salt is found in all the waters of the ocean, so suffering 
spread itself throughout the entire life of Mary, and this 
is why many have said that the name of Mary is equivalent 
to Mare amarum. St. Bridget of Sweden, while praying 
in the Church of St. Mary Major, Rome, had a vision in 
which the Blessed Virgin appeared to her, having by her 
side holy Simeon, and an Angel bearing a long sword 
reddened with blood. This sword, says St. Alphonsus, 
recounting the circumstance, typified the long and bitter 
grief which never ceased to pierce the heart of Mary. 

The Seven Dolours of Mary commemorated by the 
faithful in the Rosary of the Dolours are (i) the Prophecy 
of Simeon ; (2) the Flight into Egypt ; (3) the loss of 
the Holy Child in Jerusalem ; (4) the meeting Jesus on 
His way to Calvary ; (5) His death on the Cross ; (6) 
the opening of His side with a spear ; (7) the entombment 
of Jesus. The aforesaid Rosary, a favourite devotion of 
pious Catholics, has proved a source of abundant graces 


and blessings. St. Ignatius of Loyola was very devout 
to Our Lady of Dolours, and wore on his breast for very 
many years a picture representing her at the foot of the 
cross with her heart transfixed with a sword. To her he 
addressed his constant prayers. When Father Anthony 
Araoz, his nephew, was about to leave Rome for Spain, 
the Saint gave him this picture saying : " Since the day 
of my conversion, when I exchanged my secular dress 
for the garb of a penitent, never has this picture left me. 
I have had it always on my heart with my crucifix, and 
I have received from it wonderful help. Take it there 
fore : let it be to you the pledge of a perpetual assistance 
from our Lady, and the treasure of your heart." This 
picture is preserved at Sarragoza in Spain, and is known 
as " St. Mary of the Heart." 

The Stabat Mater composed by Blessed Jacopone di 
Todi (d. 1306) is the most beautiful sequence ever written 
on our Lady s sorrows, and has been included in the 
Liturgy of the Church. Sir Walter Scott admired it so 
greatly that he is reported to have said he would give 
all his works to have written such an exquisite soul-stirring 
composition as that. 


ST. JOHN DAMASCENE exhorts us to remember 
Mary in all our actions. " Let us make our memory 
the tabernacle of the Virgin." St. Bonaventure also 
bids us "at every moment think of Mary." " Who can 
live," exclaims St. Bernard, " without loving Mary ? " 
and if we love her we shall think of her continually. See 
Pere Blot s Jour de Marie, from which this and the follow 
ing section are borrowed. 
On rising in the morning, kneel and ask our Lady s 


blessing, as M. Olier, founder of the Congregation of St. 
Sulpice, used to do : then kiss respectfully her image or 
medal. Afterwards, place into her blessed hands all the 
actions you will perform during the day, to be presented 
by her to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Blessed Henry 
Suso, of the Order of St. Dominic (d. 1221), says of him 
self : " Every morning as soon as I awake, my soul turns 
towards thee, O Mary. It is sure that all that is pre 
sented to God through thy most pure hands, of however 
little value in itself, will be favourably received in con 
sideration of thy sublime dignity." 

At Study, offer up your work to Mary and beg of her 
light and help. Blessed Albert the Great, master of St. 
Thomas of Aquin, Father Francis Suarez, S.J., one of the 
greatest of theologians, and many other learned men, 
whose names have become famous, seemed at first desti 
tute of natural talent ; but their devotion to Mary made 
up for any intellectual shortcomings, and they rose to be 
the glory and admiration of their century. St. Edmund 
of Canterbury, while at study, always had an image of 
Mary before him, and from time to time turned to her to 
ask for light. Such was also the practice of St. Leonard 
of Port Maurice and of Father Francis Suarez, S.J. 

Daily Occupations. Begin them by kneeling to ask 
our Lady s blessing with St. Francis de Sales. This Saint 
never undertook any business without first imploring her 
aid on his knees. Such also the pious custom of St. Alphon- 
sus Liguori, Monsieur Olier and many others. 

Manual Work, the work of Martha. Unite it with the 
simple duties of Mary at Nazareth, and ennoble it by a 
pure intention. St. Bonaventure says somewhere that 
our Lady merited more by her simplest action, such as 
sewing or winding the flax from the distaff, than the 
Saints by their greatest works of zeal, because of the 
sublimity of her intention. 

At table you may feel prompted, especially on Saturdays, 
to make in our Lady s honour some little sacrifice, imitating 


in this the example of St. Vincent Ferrer. If anything 
be wanting or less palatable, never murmur or complain. 
The Blessed Cure d Ars used to say : " Saints never 

On a Walk. Before you leave your room or re-enter 
it you should ask our Lady to bless you. Lanspergius, 
the great Carthusian writer, recommended his religious 
to kneel and salute Mary each time they returned to their 
cell. This was the habit of Father Alvarez de Paz, S.J., 
and of St. Alphonsus Liguori. 

Going about the house. Whenever you pass an image 
or picture of our Lady say with St. Bernard " Ave Maria." 
Under his beautiful fresco of the Annunciation in St. 
Marco s convent, Florence, Blessed Fra Angelico inscribed 
the words : " Virginis intactae cum veneris ante nguram, 
praetereundo cave ne sileatur Ave " : i.e. Whenever you 
pass before a picture of the spotless Virgin, be careful 
not to forget to say Ave." 

Entertainments. Offer your hours of relaxation to Mary, 
and, if you can, introduce some thought about her in 
your conversation. This was the habit of St. John Berch- 
mans. St. Jane Frances de Chantal used to invite her 
community to sing hymns to our Lady at recreation on 
her feast days. You at least can sing to her in your heart 
while others talk. St. Berchmans used to collect pious 
anecdotes about our Lady to serve as subjects of religious 
conversation. St. Aloysius playing at ball used to offer 
up the game to her, and the stake for which he and his 
fellow scholastics played was a certain number of Hail 

Retiring to rest. St. Stanislaus before retiring to rest 
always turned towards St. Mary Major, Rome, and kneel 
ing said three Hail Marys to ask our Lady s blessing. 
The Roman novices S.J. still observe this practice. The 
Hail Marys might be offered to obtain the grace of a holy 
death. This was what our Lady recommended to St. 
Mechtilde. You should also ask this Mother of Mercy 


to pray for those who will die during the night, and especi 
ally those who are deprived of spiritual help. 


ED1TATION. Every good Catholic should try to 
find a little time (at least ten minutes or one-quarter 
hour) every day for mental prayer, using some book of 
meditations with short but suggestive points like those 
of Father Richard Clarke, S.J. Begin the meditation by 
asking our Lady to teach you how to pray and to suggest 
to you holy thoughts. This was the devout practice of 
St. Elzear, earl of Arian in Provence. Blessed John Eudes, 
who founded the nuns of Our Lady of Charity, and the 
Good Shepherd nuns, wrote many admirable spiritual 
books, and acknowledged that he was indebted to Mary 
for the attraction he felt from his tender youth for mental 
prayer, as well as for the reading of pious books. Vener 
able Father Gonalvo Silveira, a Portuguese Jesuit put to 
death in Monomotapa out of hatred of the Faith, used 
every Saturday to meditate on the life of the Blessed Virgin. 

Holy Mass. St. Charles Borromeo always had recourse 
to our Lady before celebrating Mass, and recommended 
the same practice to all Priests. You should do the same 
before assisting at Mass. At the Consecration ask our 
Lord for some special grace through the love He bears 
for His holy Mother. Try to give all the pleasure you 
can to Jesus and Mary by hearing Mass very devoutly. 

Holy Communion. On the eve of your Communion 
imitate St. Francis Borgia by asking our Lady to prepare 
in your heart a worthy dwelling-place for her Divine Son. 
In receiving Holy Communion imagine it is our Lady who 
is placing the Divine Child in your arms, as she did to St. 
Stanislaus. Let part of your thanksgiving be our Lady s 
Magnificat. Let one of your intentions in hearing Mass 


and going to Holy Communion be to thank God for the 
sublime graces conferred upon Mary, particularly those 
of her Immaculate Conception, her divine Maternity, her 
spotless Virginity, and her glorious Assumption. 

Visits to the Blessed Sacrament. Imagine you are enter 
ing the little home of Nazareth to pay a visit to Jesus and 
His blessed Mother. Salute them both reverently, and 
again thank our Lord for the wonderful graces and privi 
leges bestowed upon her. St. Alphonsus Liguori wished 
that none should visit the Blessed Sacrament without at the 
same time visiting her. See his Visits to the Blessed Sacra 
ment. St. John Berchmans used to feel great delight 
when visiting our Lord in churches dedicated to Mary. 
St. Stanislaus, after adoring the Blessed Sacrament in 
St. Mary Major, Rome, went to kneel before our Lady s 
miraculous picture and there fell into an ecstasy, exclaim 
ing, " The Mother of God is my Mother ! " 


THE Rosary and Angelus have been mentioned 

The Little Office of the Immaculate Conception, also 
referred to above : 75. Many find time to say this 
every day. The late Mr. Edmund Waterton, author of 
Pietas Britannica, and son of the great Naturalist, carried 
the little book of our Lady s Office with him wherever he 
went, and told the present writer that he had never for 
a single day omitted to say that Office since he was a 
boy at Stonyhurst. St. Louis, King of France, St. Elzear, 
St. Aloysius Gonzaga, St. Charles Borromeo, Ven. Cardinal 
Bellarmine, St. Francesca of Rome, St. Catherine and her 
mother St. Bridget of Sweden, St. Mary Magdalen de 
Pazzi, and many other Saints and saintly persons used 
to recite every day the Office of our Lady as it is in the 


Roman Breviary. But this may be impossible for you, 
so try to say the Little Office oj the Immaculate Conception 
in order to obtain of our Lady the grace of spotless purity. 

Consecration to Mary. Father Nicholas Zucchi, S. J., a 
zealous missionary, recommended his penitents to recite 
the little prayer " My Queen and my Mother," etc., as a 
sure means of conquering evil temptations and preserving 
the soul in innocence and spotless purity. By means of 
this prayer he wrought prodigious conversions. St. John 
Berchmans used to recite daily the Sodality Act of Conse 
cration, and St. Aloysius wrote for his own use a special 
act of dedication of himself to his beloved Mother. St. 
Bernardine of Siena dedicated himself every morning to 
the service of Mary ; and St. Jane Frances de Chantal, 
before becoming a nun, considered her house as a convent 
of which the Virgin Mary was the Abbess. 

Whenever the clock strikes. Many pious persons have 
the touching practice of saluting their loving Mother on 
hearing the clock strike. This was familiar to St. Catherine 
of Siena, St. Leonard of Port Maurice, St. Alphonsus 
Rodriguez, St. Alphonsus Liguori and many others. The 
latter Saint on hearing the clock strike would break off 
his conversation to recite the Hail Mary, and he used to 
say that one Ave Maria was worth more than the whole 
world. If your occupations or circumstances do not allow 
you to say the Hail Mary, you might with Venerable Father 
Vincent Caraffa, General of the Society of Jesus, say "Praised 
be God ! Praised be holy Mary ! " St. Francis Xavier s 
ejaculation on hearing the stroke of the clock was " Mother 
of God, remember me " ; and St. Philip Neri s, " Virgin 
Mary, pray for us to Jesus." The Spaniards, at least in 
some parts, whenever they meet or enter a house greet 
each other with the words " Ave Maria purissima ! " 
to which the answer is returned " Sine labe concepta." 

The Picture of Mary. Every Catholic house should 
have a picture of the Sacred Heart and one of our Lady 
in some conspicuous place. In Italian homes a lamp is 

M.P. R 


kept burning before our Lady s picture, especially on 
Saturdays. Many Catholics have in the house a little 
altar with the image of our Lady, where the members 
assemble to say the Rosary. Many Saints delighted to 
gather flowers and crown our Lady s image or decorate 
her altar with them. Such was the practice of St. Joseph 
of Cupertino and St. Clare of Assisi. But better than 
natural flowers are pious prayers and little acts of self- 
denial in our Lady s honour. 

Acts of Self-denial. If we are painstaking in God s 
service, we shall gain many victories over ourselves every 
day, and offer these like spiritual flowers on our Lady s 
altar. Such victories, as in conquering sloth, resisting 
sleep, checking one s appetite, never complaining of food 
or anything, etc., may appear small and insignificant, 
yet they become precious when united with a supernatural 
motive and offered to our Lord and His blessed Mother. 
Opportunities of conquering oneself in little things are 
never wanting : v.g. you might recite a few more prayers ; 
or pray with your arms extended in the form of a cross ; 
or kiss the ground ; or kneel for a short time without 
any support ; or sit less in the cosy armchair ; or read 
less of the newspaper ; or keep silence and custody of 
the eyes more carefully ; or go out of your way to do a 
kindness ; or take a little less of the more appetizing 
dishes at table ; or never eat or drink between meals ; 
or read more Saints lives and less light literature, etc., 
etc. Such little victories are most pleasing to our Mother 
and are recorded by angels in heaven. Some further 
acts of self-denial, see 93. 

Saturday in our Lady s Honour. Try to hear Mass on 
that day, and if possible go to Holy Communion, your 
intention being to return thanks to God for the sublime 
privileges conferred on His holy Mother. Try also to 
gain some victories over yourself on Saturday. Very 
many Saints were in the habit of fasting every Saturday. 
If you can t imitate them in this, at least deprive yourself 


of some little thing, or give an alms to the poor. St. 
Louis of France served the poor with his own hands on 
every Saturday ; so also at times did St. Margaret of 
Scotland. If you have time you might hear a second Mass 
on Saturday, and imitate many holy persons who pray 
that their death may fall on that day of the week. On 
the subject of meditation on Saturdays we have spoken 

It is said that at Crecy (1346) the English troops went 
into battle breakfastless, it being Saturday. 


OUR Divine Lord s last bequest to us as He hung 
upon the cross was to give us His holy Mother to 
be our Mother. " Woman " x (He thus addresses her as 
the Woman of prophecy, the Woman above all women, 
the perfect Woman, the co-operatrix in the Redemption 
of the world), " Woman, behold thy son. After that 
He saith to the disciple, Behold thy Mother. And from 
that hour the disciple took her to his own." In St. John, 
the beloved disciple, all the children of the Catholic Church 
were represented. This has been the constant belief and 
teaching of the Church. Thus by His words our Lord 
has made His own Mother to be our Mother in the super 
natural order, or life of grace. The soul has a higher life, 
a supernatural one, but as real as the natural life of the 
body. As without our mothers our bodies could not 
have had life, so without Mary there can be no life in our 
souls, 2 and consequently she is our true Mother. 

1 Like ytvai (voc. of 71^77) in Greek, the Aramaic word our Lord 
used for " woman " signifies also Lady. 

2 All grace is of course from God, as all life is from God ; but, 
as St. Bernard observes, God wills that His graces should come 
to us through Mary. 


How lovingly our blessed Lady exercises the office of 
Mother. She has her eyes constantly directed upon us 
her children (" Turn those merciful eyes of thine towards 
us "), and all the dazzling forms of angels, who pass before 
her throne, do not cause her to turn her eyes and thoughts 
away from us. She has her ears constantly attentive to 
our cries, and all the ravishing music of heaven does not 
prevent her from hearing even the feeblest appeal for 
help from one of her exiled children. She has her hands 
constantly extended over us, those hands through which, 
St. Bernard says, God wills that all His gifts to us should 
pass. Her heart is full of maternal affection for us, and 
her beautiful mind is ever busy with plans how to get 
us safe through the perils of life to our bright home in 

The Fathers of the Church frequently speak of Mary s 
Maternal intercession even in favour of enormous sinners. 
St. Anselm speaking in humility of himself says : "I 
was conceived in sin and born a sinner. Baptized and 
purified I again became a sinner ; not such as I was at 
first (by original sin), but more defiled and unclean (by 
actual sin). This is why I seek an advocate so powerful 
that after Thy Son (O loving Mother) there is none more 
powerful and august in the whole of creation. The (catho 
lic) world has its apostles, patriarchs, prophets, martyrs, 
confessors and virgins, excellent protectors, whose help 
I implore. But thou, my Queen, art better and greater 
than all these intercessors ; for thou art their mistress 
and the Sovereign Lady of all the Saints, and even of all 
the Angels, of the kings and princes of this world, of the 
rich and the poor, of masters and slaves, of the great and 
the humble ; that which they can all do with thee, thou 
alone canst do without them. And thou canst do so 
because thou art Mother of our Lord, the Spouse of God 
(the Holy Ghost), the Queen of heaven and earth. It 
is therefore thee that I seek, to thee that I have recourse, 
and whom I supplicate to help me in all things. If thou 


art silent, none will pray for me, none will help me ; if 
thou prayest, all will pray and all will help. For we 
know undoubtedly, O God, that Mary enjoys such credit 
with Thee, that her wishes can never fail to be accom 
plished. Our salvation is, therefore, in her loving hands." 
Oratio xlvi. ad Virg. Mariam. 


A TRUE devotion to the Blessed Virgin has always 
been looked upon as an assured sign of salvation. 
" Servus Mariae nunquam peribit." A true servant of 
Mary will never be lost, says St. Anselm. But true devo 
tion consists not merely in reciting certain prayers to her 
(the Rosary, Angelus, etc.), or in wearing her scapulars, 
but in trying to imitate her virtues as far as we can with 
God s grace. She is our Mother, and we her children 
should in some way try to resemble her. Now (i) Mary 
was holy and unspotted, untouched by the least sin ; so 
we, her children, if we are to bear that title worthily, 
must have a horror of sin, not only of mortal sin but also 
of deliberate venial sin. Mortal sin would make us 
cease to be her children, for we become thereby the 
deadly enemies of her Divine Son. Venial sin makes 
us displeasing to her and Him ; and though it does 
not break off relationship with them altogether, it 
produces a cooling of affection, and checks to some 
extent the loving benevolence they wish to show us. 
(2) Mary on earth was poor and detached from the 
things of this world, its riches, pleasures, favour, esteem, 
etc. So we, her children, must rid ourselves of all inor 
dinate attachment to creatures, v.g. to money and the 
things that money can purchase, and try to be poor of 
spirit, undisturbed by the coldness or even hatred and 
persecution of the world. (3) Mary s life was one of 
suffering and martyrdom ; so we must bear our crosses 


patiently and resignedly, knowing that it is by the cross 
we are to win our crown. Crosses are sure to come, whether 
(a) from bodily ailments, or (b) from mental anxieties 
and trials, or (c) from family troubles, or (d) from reverses 
of fortune, and failure in our work, or (e) from the unkind- 
ness and ingratitude of others. These crosses, if accepted 
in the right spirit, are precious : they count for our 
eternal reward, and they make us true disciples of Jesus, 
and companions of our Lady at the foot of the Cross. 

(4) Mary s great characteristic virtues were her humility 
and purity. " He hath regarded the humility of His hand 
maid." St. Bernard says she pleased God by her purity, 
which was far greater than that of the angels, but she drew 
God down into her breast by her humility. Purity and 
humility (so contrary to the horrid characteristics of the 
world, concupiscence of the flesh, and pride of life) must 
be also our cherished virtues, jealously protected by prayer 
and self-denial against the blighting influence of the world, 
if we wish our Lady to acknowledge us as her children. 

(5) Mary s immaculate heart is full of charity, so we her 
children must be full of tender consideration for one 
another, and full of patient forbearance of one another 
in our shortcomings and defects. 

Mary is styled the " Mirror of Justice," reflecting the 
radiance of God s infinite holiness ; so each of Mary s . 
children should be like a little mirror reflecting the purity, 
innocence, humility and charity of our spotless Mother. 



WE may imitate the Saints in one or more of the 
following ways : 

(i) St. John, the beloved disciple, by taking her to be 
our Mother and doing all we can to please her. 


(2) St. Bernard by saluting her images or pictures 
whenever we pass them. 

(3) St. Edmund of Canterbury by having her image or 
picture (or at least the thought of her) before us at our 
work or study. 

(4) St. Francis de Sales by kneeling to ask her blessing 
before any undertaking. 

(5) St. Ignatius of Loyola by wearing her image or 
picture near our heart. 

(6) St. Simon Stock by devoutly wearing her scapular. 

(7) St. Dominic by devout recitation of the Rosary. 
(70) St. Francis of Assisi by unbounded confidence in 


(8) St. Francis Xavier by beginning our actions with 
an invocation to her. 

(9) St. Aloysius by consecrating the flower of our inno 
cence to her. 

(10) St. Stanislaus by enthusiastic love for her as our 
Mother, and the devotion of the three Hail Marys. 

(n) St. John Berchmans by introducing her praises 
with anecdotes of her in our conversation. 

(12) St. Alphonsus Rodriguez by constantly turning 
our mind and heart to her. 

(13) St. Philip Neri by reciting rosaries of ejaculatory 
prayers to her. 

(14) Father Francis Suarez by consecrating our studies 
to her and consulting her in every difficulty. 

(15) Father Balthasar Alvarez by carrying her picture on 
our breast as a shield against temptation. 

(16) Father Martin Guttierez by sheltering under her 
mantle when the tempter is near. 

(17) St. Alphonsus Liguori by bringing others to love 
and praise her. 

(18) St. Bernardine of Siena by acts of self-denial in 
her honour. 

(19) St. Louis of France by great kindness to the poor 
for her sake. 


(20) Blessed John Eudes by great devotion to her 
immaculate Heart. 

(21) Blessed Peter Canisius by writing something about 
her, or at least instructing others to love her. 

(22) Blessed Margaret Mary by kissing the ground and 
reciting the Ave Maria. 

(23) Blessed Peter Faber by beginning each prayer 
(each canonical hour) by pronouncing several times the 
sacred names of Jesus and Mary, to rouse our fervour and 
awaken attention. 

(24) St. Francis Borgia by distributing pictures of her 
to children and others. 

(25) St. Teresa by regarding our Lady as Superioress 
of the house where we live. She placed the keys of the 
convent in the hands of a statue of Mary, which she had 
set up in the Prioress s stall. 

(26) St. Joseph of Cupertino, St. Clare and others by 
bringing flowers to our Lady s altar. 

(27) St. Stanislaus (again) by finding delight in reading 
books about her. 

(28) The Seven Servite Saints by devoutly reciting the 
Stabat Mater. 

(29) St. Jane Frances de Chantal by singing on her 
feasts the " Salve Regina," or " Ave Maris stella." 

(30) St. Bonaventure by meditating on her life, especi 
ally on Saturdays. 

(31) Monsieur Olier by never leaving the house without 
asking our Lady s blessing. 

(32) Father Zucchi, S.J., by reciting morning and night 
the prayer " My Queen and my Mother " and spreading 
this devotion. 

Some further acts of self-denial in honour of our Lady. 
(See p. 242.) 

(1) To fast, or at least deprive ourselves of something, 
on Saturdays and eves of her feasts. 

(2) To rise punctually at a fixed hour. 


(3) To be silent when others say sharp things to us or 
about us. 

(4) To yield at once when any one contradicts or chal 
lenges a statement of ours. 

(5) To say nothing in one s own praise. 

(6) To bear discomforts as of heat, cold, rain, fog, 
insects, etc. 

(7) Never to eat or drink between meals. 

(8) To suffer patiently the rudeness or inconsiderateness 
of others. 

(9) Not to assume a lazy, too indulgent posture in one s 

(10) To welcome troublesome visitors. 

(n) Not to waste valuable time over newspapers, or 
light and fugitive literature. 

(12) To guard one s tongue by silence : also to guard 
one s eyes. 

(13) To go on foot when inclined to take a bus, taxi, 
or cab. 

(14) Never to complain or grumble whatever happens. 

(15) To avoid useless visits, useless gossip, useless 

(16) To give extra time to spiritual reading. 

(17) To take the lowest place without affectation. 

(18) To go to bed early at a fixed hour. 

(19) To give to the poor money intended for enjoyment. 

(20) To yield to the will and inclination of others. 



ONLY a few special pictures are here mentioned : 
i. Our Lady of Perpetual Succour. See Pilgrim 
Walks in Rome, 118. 
2. Our Lady of Genezzano. (See 63.) 



3. Our Lady of the Wayside. Madonna della Strada. 
See Pilgrim Walks in Rome, 337. 

4. Our Lady of Quito. 

On April 30, 1906, the boys, to the number of thirty- 
six, who formed the boarding-school of the Jesuit Fathers 
at Quito, had just finished supper and Father Alberdi was 
preparing to conduct them to the study hall, when the 
Father Prefect gave them recreation in the playground. To 
the elder pupils he spoke of the earthquake at San Fran 
cisco, whilst the others played or talked as usual. Four 
of the smallest, who on the previous day had made their 
first Communion, remained in the refectory and were 
conversing on pious subjects, when suddenly the youngest, 
Jaime Chavez, lifted his eyes, and as if urged by an interior 
movement, fixed them on a picture of Our Lady of Seven 
Dolours hanging on one of the walls of the refectory at 
a distance of about three yards. O wonder ! He saw 
the Blessed Virgin slowly open and shut her eyes. With 
out seeking to explain what he saw he made it known to 
his companions, who, frightened, called the professors and 
pupils. All, especially Father Roesch, Prefect of Studies, 
pretended that it was a delusion and refused to believe 
it. They drew near to the picture, however, and were 
witnesses themselves of the prodigy, which lasted about 
a quarter of an hour. Without awaiting the end the Father 
Prefect conducted the boys to the Chapel to recite the 

This picture is an oleograph representing Mary, her 
heart pierced with seven swords. It is of medium size, 
very devotional and expressive, especially because of the 
look of sadness in our Lady s face. The miracle was 
repeated afterwards more than twenty times. The second 
time it was again in favour of the boys. At 8 p.m. 
the pupils were again reciting the Rosary and night prayers 
in the Chapel where the holy picture had been removed. 
When they came to the litany, they called out altogether, 
" See, she is moving her eyes/ and at the same instant 


the bells began to ring without any one having touched 
them. Such an extraordinary event, of which so many 
persons, young scholars, Fathers, Brothers, servants of 
the college, were witnesses, had to be, and was the object 
of a serious examination on the part of the ecclesiastical 

The canonical process was carried out with the greatest 
prudence. To the great consolation of the faithful, six 
weeks after the event the Vicar Capitular of Quito ordered 
the miraculous picture to be carried in procession from 
the college refectory to the church of the Jesuit Fathers, 
where a solemn triduum was to be celebrated. The pro* 
cession was magnificent ; all the religious communities 
of the town, the different associations and confraternities, 
colleges and schools, nearly all the nobility of the capital 
and more than 30,000 people took part in it. Such a 
general and spontaneous manifestation of faith had not 
been seen in Quito for a long time. Senor Alfaro, Presi 
dent of the Republic, sent the military band to join in it, 
and several detachments of soldiers. The triduum drew 
such a concourse of the faithful that the Church, though 
large, was too small to contain them. 

In the church the prodigy was repeated several times 
in presence of the crowd gathered together to see the 
miracle. Many remarkable conversions took place. A 
little time after the triduum a novena was made to implore 
Mary s aid in favour of Ecuador. During three consecutive 
days our Lady renewed the prodigy, and thousands of 
people were able to observe it at their ease, for on one 
occasion the extraordinary event lasted throughout a 
whole morning. On July 6 the Bishop of Ibarra, Don 
Frederick Gonzales Guarez, recently named Archbishop 
of Quito, came to take possession of his new See. The 
wonder then was thrice repeated. The last time was at 
3 p.m. when the new Archbishop was making his entrance 
into the town. Whilst the choir was singing " Eia ergo, 
Advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos 


converte " (Turn then, most gracious Advocate, thine eyes 
of mercy towards us), the Blessed Virgin slowly moved 
her eyes. Suddenly the frame and background of the 
picture disappeared, and the figure stood out as if in relief. 
The complexion of the face was that of a living person. 
She several times opened and shut her eyes. Twice she 
raised them heavenward. At times the eyelids closed 
as though she was making an effort to repress the tears. 
Then she became pale, her face waxlike as of a person 
about to expire. The people dismayed broke out into 
cries and sobs imploring pardon and mercy, when gradually 
the countenance resumed its serenity and natural colour. 

Three little children, having one day entered the private 
chapel of the college, where the holy picture had been 
placed, found her weeping. The last time that this prodigy 
took place, towards the end of July, our Lady did not 
manifest any signs of suffering : she turned her eyes 
towards the tabernacle. It is said that at times she looked 
from side to side as if seeking some one among the assembled 

There was an impression at the time that some impending 
calamity was portended by this miraculous manifestation ; 
and subsequently some have connected it with the great 
European war that broke out in 1914. Several remarkable 
miraculous cures have since taken place, on copies of the 
picture being applied to sick persons, and on October 12, 
1907, Pope Pius X granted by his own hand an indulgence of 
100 days to all the faithful who should recite three Hail 
Marys before the holy picture or a copy of it. 




REFUGE of Sinners and Advocate of the Fallen 
^ are titles we give to this Mother of mercy, and 

they are titles that appeal to us for we have great need 
of pardon. It is from God indeed, through the merits 
of Jesus Christ, that we hope for mercy. But we know 
that God is angry ; that Jesus Christ is full of zeal against 
sin, that He wishes to destroy and punish it ; that since 
His Resurrection He has been made Judge, because He 
Himself had been judged by men, and that the Father has 
committed to Him the care of His vengeance. It is true 
that Jesus Christ also fills the office of Advocate pleading 
with the Father for us ; but this does not take away His 
office of Judge : so we have need, before appearing in 
His presence, of another powerful intercessor. Judgment 
tempered with mercy has been given to the King s Son : 
mercy pure and simple has been entrusted to His Mother. 
Mary having no part in executing God s justice is our 
second hope : the sinful count upon her for a reconcilia 
tion with their Judge, who fortunately has become their 
Brother by means of Mary their common Mother. Peti- 
talot, 369. 

St. Bernard s beautiful words on our Lady s mercy, 
see 84. 

There is nothing we can do that gives such pleasure to 
Jesus and His holy Mother as to work for the conversion 
of souls. If there is joy before the Angels of God upon 
one sinner doing penance, greater joy there is to the Queen 
of the Angels, and greatest joy of all to her Divine Son. St. 
James says, " He that causeth a sinner to be converted 
from the error of his ways shall save his own soul and shall 
cover a multitude of sins." Jas. v. 19. We may work 
for the conversion of souls (i) by the Apostles/tip of the 


Word, if we have opportunity of instructing others ; (2) 
by the Apostleship of Prayer, which is more efficacious 
than argument ; (3) by the Apostleship of suffering, 
offering our pains and acts of self-denial for the conversion 
of souls ; (4) by the Apostleship of holy example. " So 
let your light shine before men that they may see your 
good works and glorify your Father who is in heaven." 
Matt. v. 16. " And teach them too, as love knows how, 
by kindly words and virtuous life." Hymn " Faith 
of Our Fathers." 

On the " Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart 
of Mary for the conversion of sinners," see " Our Lady 
of Victories, Paris." 64 j also Petitalot, 436. 

In his Glories of Mary St. Alphonsus Liguori has 
collected many remarkable instances of conversions of 
sinners through the intercession of this Mother of Mercy. 


MARY is not only Queen of Heaven and earth, i.e. of 
the Church triumphant and Church militant, but 
her sway also extends over the Church suffering in Pur 
gatory. The Souls in Purgatory are Holy Souls ; they 
died in the grace of God ; they are portion of the Elect 
of God ; their names are inscribed in the Book of Life ; 
they are destined to enjoy the Vision of God, and to be 
associated with the angels and saints of God ; they are 
signed with the sign of salvation ; their crowns and robes 
of glory are waiting for them in heaven ; they are inex 
pressibly dear to the Sacred Heart of Jesus and to the 
Immaculate Heart of Mary. Moreover they are our 
brethren, having the same Divine Father, the same Brother 
Jesus Christ, the same loving Mother Mary. So charity 
to them is a special duty, and by it we give joy to the 
heart of our blessed Mother. They cannot help them- 


selves, but we can help them (i) by our prayers and com 
munions ; (2) especially by Holy Mass ; (3) by gaining 
indulgences for them ; (4) by almsgiving and acts of self- 
denial. These prayers and good works we can put into 
our Lady s hands to be applied to the souls she wishes 
us most to help. If we are to believe the revelations of 
certain holy persons, our Lady has been seen more than 
once comforting the souls in Purgatory, and bringing to 
them the " light and refreshment " obtained by the prayers 
of the faithful. 

Hardly any work of charity or mercy is so pleasing to 
our Lady as that which is exercised towards these her 
suffering children. By devotion to them we are performing 
the several works of mercy : (i) we axe feeding the hungry 
and giving drink to the thirsty. After this life the soul 
hungers and thirsts after the possession of God with a 
vehemence of which we can form no conception : and we 
satisfy that hunger by hastening their admission to the 
banquet of the Elect : (2) we clothe the naked by procuring 
for them more speedily the robes of glory that await them : 
(3) we harbour the harbourless, i.e. shelter the homeless, 
by opening for them the gates of their blessed home in 
heaven : (4) we visit the sick, for the privation of the 
Vision of God is to them a sickness far more painful than 
the fire or the darkness of their prison : (5) we visit the 
imprisoned, and like the Angel that descended into the 
furnace of Babylon to protect the three Hebrew children, 
we beat back the flames and cause the centre of the furnace 
to be for a time like the blowing of a soft wind Refrig- 

Such charity on our part touches deeply our Mother s 
heart, and she will certainly see that mercy is shown to 
us in proportion as we have shown it to others. 




Recent Apparitions 

IN the XIX Cent. France was honoured by five 
apparitions of our Lady, viz. i. to Sister Catherine 
Laboure in Paris, 1830 (see 74) ; 2. to Maximin and 
Melanie at La Salette in 1846 (see 64) ; 3. to Berna- 
dette at Lourdes in 1858 (see 64) ; 4. to Eugene and 
Joseph Barbedette at Pontmain in 1871 ; 5. to Estelle 
Faguette at Pellevoisin in 1876. 

The first and third of these have been recognized as 
authentic by the supreme authority of the Holy See : 
the second, fourth and fifth, though approved as to their 
reality by French Bishops, await the final judgment of 
the Church. La Salette having been the scene of pheno 
menal cures, the Bishop of Grenoble founded there an 
association of prayer, under the title of " Notre Dame 
Auxiliatrice de la Salette." He also issued a pastoral 
letter in 1851 expressing his approval of belief in the 
apparition. For the story of this apparition and the 
controversy as to its reality, see The Blessed Virgin in 
the Nineteenth Century, by Bernard St. John, Part III, 
111-205. See also " The children questioned by the Blessed 
Cure d Ars." Ibid. 149 seq. Their letters to Pope Pius 
IX, 156. Papal Indult, 161. Bishop Ginoulhiac on the 
truth of the apparition, 167. 

Pontmain in Mayenne, 1871. A full account of this 
apparition will be found in the work just referred to, page 
337 seq. Besides Eugene and Joseph Barbedette, two 
little girls, Francoise Richer and Jeanne Marie Lebosse, 
were also privileged to see the figure of our Lady resplendent 
in the sky. The event was inquired into by several Ecclesi 
astical Commissions appointed by the Bishop of Laval 
(P- 373 )> an( i on February 2, 1872, a pastoral letter was 
issued by his Lordship stating his belief in the reality 


of the apparition, and at the same time his intention to 
submit the matter in all humility and obedience to the 
judgment of the Holy and Apostolic See. The year 1873 
saw upwards of 100,000 pilgrims and visitors to Pont main. 
In 1875 a stately church of Our Lady of Pontmain was 
built and opened, commemorative of the great event. 

Pellevoisin, in the department of the Indre, 1876. 
In this case our Lady is said to have appeared fifteen 
times to Estelle Faguette, a sick person, aged thirty-two, 
and to have revealed to her in one of them the devotion 
of the Scapular of the Sacred Heart. This devotion has 
received the approval of Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII. 
Estelle was considered to be dying of consumption, and 
the doctor had pronounced her case hopeless : but though 
paralyzed and given only a few hours to live, she was 
miraculously cured (p. 423). An ecclesiastical commission 
was appointed to examine into the truth of the apparitions, 
and the case was then referred to the Holy See. Though 
the latter reserves its decision in all three cases La S alette, 
Pontmain, Pellevoisin Leo XIII has attached an indul 
gence of 200 days to a prayer to Our Lady of Pellevoisin, 
which prayer is based on some of the leading facts of the 
Apparitions (p. 445). Several miraculous cures followed, 
for the particulars of which see the work by Bernard St. 
John quoted above, p. 446 seq. On Pope Leo XIII 
receiving Estelle in audience, see p. 471. Crowds of 
pilgrims now go to Pellevoisin both to honour our Lady 
and to be invested with the scapular of the Sacred Heart 
revealed by her. 



LUKE i. 48. "For, behold, from henceforth all 
generations shall call me blessed." The following 
thoughts are taken from a discourse in the Universe. 
M.P. s 


The Magnificat has been truly called the hymn of the 
Incarnation ; and its glowing words were spoken in cir 
cumstances the like of which had never before, and can 
never again surround any human being. To the illu 
minated soul of Mary, the Angel s words at the Annuncia 
tion " Blessed art thou among women " are prophetic ; 
and as recompense of her unfailing faith, the present and 
future stand out in accurate detail and with crystal clear 
ness before her divinely- taught intellect. The Incarnation 
from a merciful promise has become a real fact ; the 
Kingdom of Christ reigns over the earth ; and as she sees 
her name, with love and reverence, handed down through 
the rolling centuries, her soul bursts forth, like some sun- 
sprayed fountain jet, into the prophetic utterance : "All 
generations shall call me blessed." No nation but has 
rung with its echo ; no people but have cherished and 
passed the message onward. It stands rooted and imper 
ishable in the language and literature of a hundred tongues ; 
the canvas and fresco of the painter reap immortality 
from its rich inspiration ; in many a statue and altar the 
cold granite and marble glow into life and radiant beauty 
under the sculptor s chisel ; the historian s hard, stern 
chronicles soften into the quivering transcript of living 
emotions, as his pen unfolds the story of Mary s greatness 
and Mary s love. Like a trumpet blast, this song of nearly 
2,000 years ago has reverberated through all the cycles 
of time the world over, and to-day, as of old, the warder 
standing on the impregnable watch-tower of the Catholic 
Church proclaims anew to the Christian peoples the inviol 
able sinlessness of the Virgin Mother of God. 




ON the name of Mary see 13, 80. " Glorious and 
admirable is thy Name, O Mary," exclaims St. 
Bonaventure, " those who pronounce it need not fear all 
the powers of hell, for the devils on hearing that name 
instantly fly, and leave the soul in peace." St. Bernard, 
speaking of the invocation of this holy name, says : " O 
Mary, thou canst not be named without inflaming the 
heart of him who does so, with love of thee." Blessed 
Henry Suso was often heard to exclaim : " O Mary, what 
must thou thyself be, since the very name is so amiable 
and gracious." 

Pope Benedict XV, in his Christmas Allocution, Decem 
ber, 1915, after speaking of the earnestness with which 
all the members of the Church should pray for a cessation 
of the terrible war that was turning Europe into a scene 
of horror and desolation, added : " Our sight of Christ 
(the Prince of Peace) born for us is made complete by our 
sight of Mary, in whom the faith of believers, and the 
love of sons recognize not only the Queen of Peace, but 
the Mediatrix between rebellious man and the merciful 
God. She is the aurora pads rutilans across the darkness 
of this world. She fails not in her plea to her Son, albeit 
nondum venerit hora ejm. And she who has not failed 
to plead for suffering mankind in the hour of peril will 
surely hasten to meet our supplications, Mother of so 
many orphans, Advocate for us all in this our tremendous 

" Therefore with this great purpose, npt less than with 
the intention of guiding Christian thought and Christian 
faith to the prevailing ministry of the Mother of God, 
We, echoing the sigh of many of Our children far and near, 
permit that to the Litany of Loretto be added the invo- 


cation Queen of Peace/ Will Mary, who is Queen not 
of wars and slaughter, but of the kingdom of peace, 
disappoint the trust and the prayers of her faithful chil 
dren ? Will she, in the most blessed night when, fulfilling 
prophecies and promises of happy and golden days, she 
gave us the Celestial Babe who is the author of all peace, 
not smile upon the prayers of children called by the Epis 
copate and by Ourself to the holy Eucharistic table to 
honour this most beloved festival ? When man has 
hardened his own heart, and his hates have overrun the 
earth ; when fire and sword are raging, and when the 
world rings with the sound of weeping and the noise of 
arms ; when human reason is found at fault, and all 
civilized rights are scattered like thistledown, faith and 
history alike point us to the one succour, to the omnipo 
tence of prayer, to the Mediatrix, to Mary. In all security 
and trust we cry Regina pads, or a pro nobis." The Tablet, 
January i, 1916. 


OUR Lady s humility in the Incarnation was heroic : 
it drew down upon her the eyes of God and led 
Him to choose her to be His Mother. " Quia respexit 
humilitatem ancillae suae." Though saluted by the 
Angel as full of grace, as blessed among women, as about 
to be the Mother of the Messias, the everlasting King, 
as about to conceive the Son of God miraculously, she 
replies that she is but the ancilla Domini, a little servant 
of the Lord. For one who is poor in material, intellectual 
or spiritual resources, humility is a necessity and occasions 
no surprise : but that one richly endowed with every best 
gift should esteem herself as nothing, is heroic humility. 
St. Bernard says of her : " She pleased God by her vir- 


ginity, but by humility she hath conceived." The same 
Saint adds : " That a converted sinner should humble 
himself, is but an act of justice which he renders to him 
self ; but that Mary, as pure as the star which precedes 
the day, and elevated even above the angels, should only 
think of her dignity in order to humble herself the more, 
is a prodigy of humility." 

Mary s whole life was but one continued practice of 
humility, having ever in mind that the Son of the Eternal 
Father, by becoming man in her womb, had reduced Him 
self to the lowest state of abjection. Exinanivit semetip- 
sum. Phil. ii. 7. She remembered all the self-annihila 
tion of this God-Saviour, all the ignominious treatment 
which He suffered, all His lowliness and self-effacement 
for thirty years ; and His example so perfected her humility, 
that she deserved to be raised above all the choirs of 
angels. Knowing, too, that humility is the first step on 
the ladder of virtues, and that none give greater pleasure 
to God, she used all her efforts to humble, abase and 
annihilate herself as her Divine Son had done so to 
please and glorify her Creator. " Respexit humilitatem 
ancillae suae," 



THE Church applies to our Lady the words of the 
Canticle of Canticles, " Hortus conclusus soror 
mea " (My sister is as a garden enclosed), a garden typified 
by the terrestrial paradise. The Garden of Eden was 
enclosed, with Cherubims set to guard it ; it was enriched 
with every charm of natural growth and natural scenery ; 
blessed with a soft temperate climate ; abounding in trees 
laden with fruit all the year round. So our Lady s virgin 
soul was protected by seraphic spirits, clothed with the 


beauty of sanctifying grace, adorned with the flowers of 
every virtue, the lily of purity, the rose of charity, the 
violet of humility, the spikenard of patience : it was 
redolent too with the fragrance of holy prayer, and lit 
with the radiant glory of the Deity within her. Mary s 
soul was a paradise enjoying perpetual tranquillity and 
serenity, swept by no winds of temptation, no stormy 
gusts of passion ; darkened by no clouds of ignorance, 
no mists of thoughtlessness ; suffering neither from the 
heat of concupiscence nor the frost of tepidity. Her soul 
was a paradise never once desecrated by the slimy trail 
of the serpent. She was all pure and spotless, whiter 
than the snow, purer than the light, brighter than the 
highest Archangel. St. Anselm says of her : "It was 
only fitting that the Virgin, to whose care God the Father 
was pleased to confide His only Son, should shine with 
a dazzling purity, surpassing all but that of God Himself." 
St. Ambrose writes that when Mary was on earth her 
presence alone inspired all who looked at her with a love 
of holy purity. St. Thomas of Aquin, quoted by St. 
Alphonsus Liguori, says that even the images of this 
chaste, spotless Virgin extinguish the flames of sensual 
desires in those who look at them with devotion. Blessed 
John d Avila spoke of many suffering from impure tempta 
tions who were preserved chaste and spotless by devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin. Father Nicholas Zucchi, of the Society, 
spread everywhere the little prayer " My Queen and my 
Mother," as a most efficacious remedy against these 

It is said that from her very infancy Mary felt inspired 
to consecrate to God her whole being by a vow of perpetual 
virginity, 1 knowing that the more perfectly she possessed 
this virtue, the more she would resemble Him who is 
purity by essence. When the angel announced to her 
that she was to be the mother of the Most High, she with 
held her acquiescence until she was assured that the divine 

1 See the words of St. Bede, 82. 



maternity would not prejudice her vow. On this our 
Lady s vow see Father Gallifet, S.J., Devotion to the Blessed 
Virgin, p. 145. Father Petitalot, S.J., The Virgin Mother, 
p. 139. The early Fathers of the Church, St. Jerome, 
St. Epiphanius, Origen and others, greatly extol the spot 
less purity and virginity of Mary. 


FATHER SUAREZ, S.J. (torn, ii., 3 p., d. 18, 4) 
enumerates her privileges as follows : 

1. Sanctity (sanctifying grace), the greatest ever ac 
corded to any pure creature, communicated to her from 
the first moment of her conception : 

2. Suppression of concupiscence, that distressing legacy 
of sin, showing its presence in us by hateful passions that 
so easily catch fire at the least spark of temptation : 

3. Confirmation in grace, so as never to forfeit it by 
grievous sin, and never to suffer the least diminution of 
it by venial sin : 

4. Continual progress in grace by heroic acts of virtue, 
especially charity, whereby it was increased to a degree 
beyond that of saints and angels. 

5. The use of reason from the first moment of existence, 
so that she began at once to accumulate vast treasures 
of merit. 

6. Divine Maternity combined with spotless Virginity, 
by a stupendous miracle of the Holy Ghost : " Ecce Virgo 
concipiet et pariet filium." 

7. Virginal, miraculous delivery, without incurring 
the sentence denounced against Eve, " In sorrow shalt 
thou bring forth children." 

8. Her being a fathomless sea of grace, surpassing the 
perfections of all the Saints together. 

9. The state of incorruption after death. Psalm xv. 10, 


"Thou wilt not allow Thy holy one to see corruption." 

10. Her glorious Assumption into heaven, and her 
coronation as Queen of heaven by the ever adorable 

11. Her power as intercessor with God. She is the 
King s mother, so one prayer from her is of more avail 
than the united prayers of all the Saints, who are the 
King s servants. 

It is the teaching of Fathers and Theologians (v.g. of 
Suarez) that " God loves the Blessed Virgin by herself 
more than all the other Saints together." Prov. xxxi. 
29, " Many daughters have gathered together riches : 
thou hast surpassed them all." St. Bonaventure explain 
ing this text, says : " She has surpassed all the daughters 
(Saints) in nature, in grace, in glory. She has surpassed 
all the souls of men, all the intelligences of Angels." St. 
Augustine says Go4 made her " Digna digni," (worthy 
of His worthiness). St. Gregory the Great compares her 
dignity and corresponding sanctity to a lofty mountain, 
whose summit towers above all others. St. Sophronius 
on our Lady s dignity, see above, 4. 


" ILfARIOLATRY " is a term frequently applied by 
Ivl Protestants to the honour shown by Catholics 
to the Blessed Virgin, and implies that we worship her 
with Latvia as though she were divine. Such worship is 
directly contrary to Catholic teaching, and would be 
considered by Catholics as blasphemous and idolatrous. 
Catholics love and honour Mary as the Immaculate Mother 
of God and the greatest of His Saints, with a special honour 
known as Hyperdulia (i.e. a homage greater than is paid 
to the Saints who are the servants of God) : but they know 
that she is only a creature, and that therefore to adore 


her would be a grievous sin of idolatry. " We adore no 
Saints," wrote St. Epiphanius in the IV Cent. ... " Let 
Mary then be honoured, but the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost alone be adored. 1 Adv. Collyrid. I. xxix. 

1. Protestants ask : " Why does the Catholic Church 
show such devotion to the Blessed Virgin ? is it not unscrip- 
tural ? " Reply. We honour her because she is the 
Immaculate Mother of God, and so entitled to a higher 
honour than is paid to the Saints. We honour her who 
was respectfully saluted by an Angel ; her through whose 
agency the Incarnate Lord first exhibited His power in 
the case of St. John the Baptist and his mother St. Eliza 
beth ; her whom the Angel and St. Elizabeth greeted as 
" Blessed among women " ; her at whose request Christ 
worked his first miracle (at Cana) : her to whom the 
Creator of the Universe was obedient ; consequently 
such honour is not unscriptural. 

Moreover devotion to Mary necessarily follows from a 
genuine belief in the Incarnation : " Mary is the Mother 
of God. She is not merely the Mother of our Lord s man 
hood, of His body ; but she is to be considered the Mother 
of the Word Himself, the Word Incarnate." Newman, 
Discourses to Mixed Congregations, xviii. Such being her 
dignity and office, far higher than that of any other creature, 
we must needs conclude that her gifts of grace and glory 
are above those of all angels and saints, and accordingly 
that the honour to which she is entitled is similarly beyond 
theirs. Such is and ever has been the mind of the Church. 
" Rightful is it to honour thee, Theotokos, ever to be 
blessed, free from all stain ; Mother of God, more full of 
honour than the Cherubim, more glorious than the Sera 
phim ; who without loss of thy virginity didst bring forth 
the Word." Liturgy of St. Chrysostom. 

2. How can Catholics prove that Mary remained ever 
a Virgin after the birth of Christ ? What about the 
" Brethren of our Lord " mentioned in the Gospel ? 

Reply. An answer has already been given to the latter 


question. (See p. 220 note.) Although Holy Scripture speaks 
only of our Lady being a pure Virgin in the conception 
and birth of Christ, yet that she remained ever a Virgin 
we know (i) from the teaching of the early church, v.g. 
of Pope St. Martin I in the third canon of the Council of 
Lateran held in 649 (see Denziger, Enchiridion, No. 256) ; 
of Pope St. Siricius (d. 398) (Denziger, Ibid. No. 91) ; of 
Pope Adeodatus and others ; (2) from the writings of 
St. Jerome (against Helvidius 1 ), of St. Epiphanius, Origen 
and others. These early Fathers speak of the contrary 
opinion as blasphemous, sacrilegious, impious, irreligious. 
Hurter, Theologiae Dogmat. Compend. II, No. 658. " Be 
lieve the Scriptures," exclaims St. Jerome, " therein we 
read that Mary was a Virgin ; therein we do not read 
that she ceased to be a Virgin." On the contrary the 
whole of that beautiful intercourse between the Archangel 
Gabriel and the Blessed Virgin at Nazareth leads to the 
inevitable conclusion that Mary had vowed her virginity 
to God. She asked the Angel " How shall this be done 
because I know not man." And St. Augustine says 
" She would certainly never have uttered these words, 
had she not vowed her virginity to God." "Mary was 
the first of women," says St. Bede the Venerable, "to 
offer her virginity to God." (See p. 219.) 

3. But is not our Lord called in Scripture Mary s " first 
born Son," implying that she had afterwards other chil 
dren ? Reply. The expression " First-born " (primo- 
genitus) had a special significance, because such a child 
had to be offered in the temple and a ransom paid if it 
was to be freed from the temple service : it by no means 
implies other children, for the law regarding the first 
born (Exod. xxxiv. 19, 20) was binding at once, whether 
there were other children or not. 

1 Helvidius, Jovinian and other heretics of the IV Cent, were 
condemned by the Synod of Rome, A.D. 381, and of Capua, A.D. 392. 




i. QT. BERNARD. Remember, O most loving 
O Virgin Mary, that never was it known that any 
one who fled to thy protection, implored thy help and 
sought thy mediation was left unaided. Inspired with 
this confidence, I fly to thee, O Virgin of virgins, my 
Mother. To thee I come, before thee I stand, a sorrowful 
sinner. Despise not my petitions, O Mother of the Word 
Incarnate, but mercifully hear and grant my prayer. 

2. The Same. " O Mother of Mercy, by thee may 
we have access to thy Son, and by thee may He receive 
us, who was given to us by thee. O Lady, our Mediatrix, 
our Advocate, commend us to thy Son ; obtain, O Blessed 
Lady, by the grace which thou didst merit, and by His 
mercy whom thou didst bear, that He who, by thee, 
vouchsafed to become partaker of our infirmities and 
misery, may by thy intercession, make us sharers in His 
goodness and glory." 

3. St. Aloysius. " To thee, O Holy Mary, my Sovereign 
Lady, to thy blessed trust and special charge, and to 
the bosom of thy mercy I commend this day and every 
day and at the hour of my death, myself, my soul and my 
body ; to thee I commit all my hope and all my consola 
tion, my distresses and my miseries, my life and the end 
thereof ; that through thy most holy intercession and 
through thy merits, all my works may be directed and 
disposed according to thy will and the will of thy Son. 

4. St. John Berchmans. The Sodality Act of Con 
secration : his daily prayer. 

" Holy Mary, Virgin Mother of God, I, N. N., choose thee 
this day for my Mother, my Queen and my Advocate ; 


and I firmly resolve and purpose never to depart either 
by word or action from the duty I owe to thee, nor to 
suffer those committed to my charge to say or do any 
thing against thy honour. Receive me, therefore, as thy 
servant for ever : assist me in all the actions of my whole 
life, and forsake me not at the hour of my death. Amen." 

5. Father Zucchi, S.J. " My Queen and my Mother, 
to thee I offer myself without any reserve, and to give 
thee a mark of my devotion, I consecrate to thee this 
day my eyes, my ears, my mouth, my heart, and my whole 
being. Since therefore I belong to thee, O my good Mother, 
watch over me and protect me as thy property and thy 

(In temptation say) " My Queen and my Mother, re 
member that I belong to thee, preserve and defend me as 
thy property and thy possession." 

6. St. Anselm. " O glorious Virgin, Lady of the world, 
Queen of Angels, holy and ever Virgin Mary, help" the 
faint-hearted, and grant to us all a deep and continual 
remembrance of thy name. Let that name be ever with 
us in perils, in trials, in the beginning of our joys. If 
we obtain this we shall never fear to perish, for thy grace 
and protection will be ever with us." 

" Help us, O most compassionate Lady, and consider 
not the multitude of our sins. If thou hadst become Mother 
of God only for thine own advantage, we might say that 
it mattered little to thee whether we were lost or saved : 
but God clothed Himself with Thy flesh for our salvation. 
What will thy great power avail us, if thou dost not make 
us partakers of thy glory and happiness. We recommend 
ourselves to thee ; let not our souls be lost, but make 
us eternally love and serve thy beloved Son Jesus Christ." 

The Same. " Blessed Mary, intercede for me, 
so that having lived holily, I may end my life happily, 
confessing my sins, in the true faith, calling upon Jesus, 
receiving the Body and Blood of my God. Pray for me, 
holy Mother of God, that I may enter into that eternal 


kingdom, where thou, Queen of Angels, Queen of men, 
dost triumph in glory. Amen." 

7. Consecration of Studies. " Under thy protection, 
dearest Mother, and the invocation of the Immaculate 
Conception I desire to pursue my studies ; and I declare 
that I study chiefly for this purpose that I may be better 
able to spread God s glory and thy honour. I beseech 
thee, therefore, most loving Mother, Seat of Wisdom, to 
assist me in my endeavours, and I, on my part, promise, 
whatever success shall attend my labours, to attribute 
it all, as is but just, to thy intercession with God." 

8. St. Athanasius. " Give ear to our prayers, O most 
holy Virgin, and be mindful of us. Dispense unto us the 
gifts of thy riches and the abundance of the graces with 
which thou art filled. All nations call thee blessed ; all 
the hierarchy of heaven blesses thee ; and we who are of 
the terrestrial hierarchy also address thee saying : Hail, 
O full of grace, our Lord is with thee : pray for us, O holy 
Mother of God, our Lady and our Queen." 

9. St. Ildephonsus. " We come to thee, O Mother 
of God, and implore thee to obtain for us the pardon of 
our sins, that we may be cleansed from the stains of our 
whole life. We beseech thee to obtain for us the grace 
to unite ourselves in affection with thy Son and with 
thyself, with thy Son as our God, and with thee as the 
Mother of our God." 

10. St. Gertrude. " Hail, pure white Lily of the 
bright and ever peaceful Trinity. Hail, brilliant Rose 
of heavenly delight (fragrance), of whom the King of 
heaven deigned to be born, and with whose milk He deigned 
to be fed : uphold and succour me, a miserable sinner, 
now and at the hour of my death." 

n. St. Thomas of Aquin. "O Virgin, full of all 
goodness, Mother of Mercy, I recommend to thee my 
body and my soul, my thoughts, my actions, my life and 
my death. Obtain for me the grace of loving thy Son, 
my Saviour Jesus Christ, with a true and perfect love ; 
and, after Him, of loving thee with my whole heart." 


Appendix I 


NESTORIUS was at the time Archbishop of Constanti 
nople. One of his priests had, in a sermon, declared that 
the title of Mother of God ought not to be given to our 
Lady. Such an assertion roused the instinctive feelings 
of the people to whom the title was familiar and the Arch 
bishop was appealed to. He decided in favour of the 
priest ; but as this alienated from him the confidence of 
the people, he tried to conciliate them by inviting a holy 
and learned Bishop, St. Proclus, to preach upon the sub 
ject in his Cathedral, but this Saint most decidedly vin 
dicated the title of Mother of God and showed that those 
who refused it, in reality declared Christ not to be the 
Word of God and thus separated themselves from God. 
The sermon was received with the greatest enthusiasm ; 
but Nestorius, at the conclusion, in a few words, contra 
dicted the open declaration of St. Proclus, and again 
denied that it could be said that the Divine Word was 
born of Mary or that He died upon the Cross. 

The people rose in a body and fled from the church, 
for the faithful of Constantinople were noted for their 
love of and devotion to the Blessed Virgin, and their 
city had been specially placed under her patronage. But 
not they alone defended the claim of Mary to this title. 
Tradition had always given it to her ; and it was one of 
the taunts of Julian the Apostate, a hundred years before, 
to the Christians : " You Christians are always calling 
Mary, Mother of God." 

The question was raised and it was reduced to this: 
Was Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, the same (Person) 
as the Word born of God ? Were there two Persons, or 
was there but one ? Thus the Maternity of Mary involved 
the whole question of the Incarnation. 


The zeal of St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, was 
aroused in favour of the honour of Mary, and he condemned 
the blasphemous teaching of Nestorius. The case was 
laid before St. Celestine, the Pope, and in a Council held 
in Rome he condemned the heresy, ex-communicated 
and deposed Nestorius unless he retracted his error. This 
Nestorius refused to do. The Pope then summoned a 
General Council to meet at Ephesus and appointed St. 
Cyril to preside in his name. 

Father Dalgairns of the Oratory gives the following 
graphic account of the solemn Definition of this glorious 
title of our Lady : " Place yourselves in imagination in 
a vast city of the East in the V Cent. Ephesus, 
the capital of Asia Minor, is all in commotion ; for a Council 
is to be held there, and Bishops are flocking in from all 
parts of the world. There is anxiety painted on every 
face, so you may easily see that the question is one of 
general interest. Most injudiciously have the heretics 
chosen to take the matter out of the terms of theology 
and to ask, not whether our Lord had a double personality, 
but whether Mary was the Mother of God ; more inju 
diciously still have they allowed the Council to be held 
at Ephesus, the old See of Mary s child, the beloved dis 
ciple St. John. But perhaps they did not know the love 
of the people for her, of whose sojourn there, real or sup 
posed, many traditions lingered still ; nay, perhaps the 
Ephesians were not conscious themselves how much they 
loved her. But now the fact is plain ; ask the very chil 
dren in the streets what is the matter ; they will tell you 
that wicked men are coming to make out that their Mother 
Mary was not also Mother of God. 

" And so during a livelong day of June they crowd around 
the gates of the old Cathedral Church of St. Mary, and 
watch with anxious faces each Bishop as he goes in. Well 
might they be anxious, for it is well known that Nestorius 
had won the Court over to his side. It was only the other 
day that he entered the town with banners displayed 
and trumpets sounding, surrounded by the glittering files 
of the Emperor s body-guard, with Count Candidianus, 
their General, and his own partisan, at their head. Besides 
which, it is known for certain that at least eighty-four 


Bishops are ready to vote with him ; and who knows 
how many more ? He is himself the Patriarch of Con 
stantinople, the rival of Rome, the imperial city of the 
East, and then John of Antioch is hourly expected with 
his quota of votes, and he, the Patriarch of the next See 
in influence to that of Nestorius, is, if not an heretic, at 
least, of that wretched party which, in ecclesiastical dis 
putes, ever hovers between the two camps of the devil 
and of God. 

"The day wears on, and still nothing issues from the 
church ; it proves at least that there is a difference of 
opinion, and as the shades of evening close around them, 
the weary watchers grow more anxious still.- At length 
the great gates of the basilica are thrown open, and oh ! 
what a cry of joy bursts from the assembled crowd, as it 
is announced to them that Mary has been proclaimed to 
be what every one with a Catholic heart knew that she 
was before the Mother of God. The Ephesians them 
selves were not conscious till then how intense was the 
love of Mary, which was buried deep in their heart of hearts. 
Men, women and children, the noble and the low-born, 
the stately matron and the modest maiden, all crowd 
round the Bishops with acclamations. They will not 
leave them ; they accompany them to their homes with 
a long procession of lighted torches ; they burn incense 
before them, after the Eastern fashion, to do them honour. 

There was but little sleep in Ephesus that night ; for 
very joy they remained awake ; the whole town was one 
blaze of light, for each window was illuminated. For 
many days after, the most celebrated prelates of Christen 
dom preached of Mary s praises in her own Cathedral, 
and the people especially flocked to hear St. Cyril of 
Alexandria deliver in his majestic Greek a sermon such 
as you might hear now in Rome on some high festal day/ 


Appendix II 


THE year 1871 was for France a period of great misery 
and disaster, for she was engaged in a death struggle with 
the Prussian Army which had invaded her richest and 
most fruitful provinces. Defeat after defeat had thinned 
the ranks of her soldiers, and either left them dying on 
the battle-field, or languishing in captivity. No human 
power could hurl back the tide of the foreign invasion. 
Paris had opened its gates to the conqueror, who was 
now devastating the fair plains of Chartres, and had 
already arrived at Laval, where an armistice was signed 
on January 30, 1871. This was the preliminary to the 
signing of peace between the two nations. 

It was about this time, or rather a few days previous, 
that the great apparition of Pontmain took place. To 
one who reads events by the light of faith, it was a remark 
able interposition of Divine Providence in favour of France, 
and a sign of the loving protection Mary has ever shown 
to that nation so devoted to her. On the confines of 
Normandy, about six kilometres south of Laudivy in 
Mayenne, is situated the small village of Pontmain. In 
the centre, facing the church, stood a house of modern 
appearance though bearing the date of 1598. It was the 
residence of a family called Barbedette. Five in all, it 
comprised Cesar, the father, Victoire Quentin, the mother, 
and three boys. Auguste, the eldest of these, had joined 
the army in the previous September ; the second, named 
Eugene, was about twelve years old ; and Joseph, the 
youngest, was ten. Near the house was a loft with a 
broad thatched roof and a large green door. On January 
17 the father proceeded as usual at six o clock to awake 
the sleeping children. 

After a short prayer to God, Eugene and Joseph set to 
work to make up bundles of furze, the common fodder for 

1 From the English Messenger of the Sacred Heart, May, 1916. 

M.P. T 


horses in that part of the country. Before breakfast they 
said the Rosary together for their brother, and then 
adjourned to the church. While waiting for the arrival 
of the priest they finished their morning prayers and 
made the Stations of the Cross, which they had been in 
the habit of doing since the beginning of the war. 

After hearing Mass and taking part in the public prayers 
offered up for the soldiers, they went to school. School 
over about five in the evening, Eugene and Joseph returned 
to the loft with their father, and by the light of a tallow 
candle began cutting up wood. A quarter of an hour 
had passed when a woman, opening the door, entered 
bearing good news of the arrival of their brother, who 
had profited by the opportunity of his regiment being 
in the neighbourhood, to slip off unseen to his home. 
Interrupting their work they entered into conversation 
with the woman. Presently Eugene, rising up, went 
outside. " I was going/ said he later on, " to examine 
the weather." For some days previous he had noticed 
the Aurora Borealis in the sky, and he felt curious to 
know whether it was visible that evening. 

On gazing at the stars he perceived that they were more 
brilliant than usual, when all of a sudden he started back 
over the house opposite the loft his eyes beheld a beauti 
ful Lady smiling on him. This sight so overpowered him 
that he stood in silence gazing upon it. The form appeared 
to be that of a young woman of eighteen or twenty years, 
clothed in a dark blue dress, bespangled with golden stars, 
and five regular brilliant points. From the neck the 
garment, with wide sleeves, fell in folds to the feet, which 
were covered by blue shoes fastened with gilt buckles. 
A black veil covered her head and ears and part of her 
forehead, and fell over her shoulders. Over this veil 
encircling the brow was a crown of gold glittering like 
a diadem. Her hands were small, lowered towards the 
earth but without emitting rays. Her face, slightly oval, 
and pale delicate features betokened the freshness of 
youth, and wore a sweet smile. 

The vision had lasted a quarter of an hour when tLe 
woman, Jane Detais, came out. When questioned by 
the child whether she saw the figure, she replied in the 


negative. Then turning to his brother, Eugene said : 
" Do you not see anything ? " 

" Oh yes ! Eugene, I see a beautiful lady." 

" How is she dressed ? " 

Joseph described the blue dress, golden stars, buckled 
shoes and crown. Meanwhile the father, listening to this 
conversation with his eyes intently fixed on the sky, said : 
" My poor little fellows, you see nothing, for if you saw 
anything, we also should see it. ... Let us return to 
our work, for supper will soon be ready." The children 
complied with the command much against their will. 

Shortly afterwards the father, feeling rather uneasy, 
said to his son : " Run out, Eugene, and see if the vision 
is still there." Eugene eagerly obeyed, and joyfully 
exclaimed : "Oh yes ! just as it was." . r-*- * 

" Go and tell your mother to look out, and see if she 
can notice anything." - 

The mother had scarcely reached the door when Joseph, 
clapping his hands, cried out : "Oh how beautiful, how 
beautiful it is ! " His mother, seizing him by the arm, 
said : " Hold your tongue, boy, hold your tongue ; see, 
the people are looking at us." 

In vain did Victoire strain her eyes to catch a glimpse 
of the mysterious object, nothing was visible to her. 

Feeling however impressed by the sincerity of the chil 
dren, she said : " Perhaps it is the Blessed Virgin who 
appears to you, if so, let us say five Our Fathers and Hail 
Marys in her honour." 

Accordingly, shutting the door of the loft, they began 
their prayers. Shortly afterwards, on looking out, the 
same figure appeared to the eyes of the children. To 
convince herself of the truth of this strange appearance, 
the mother put on her spectacles and gazed intently on 
the spot pointed out, but to no purpose. At this the 
beautiful Lady smiled. " Be off to your work, you little 
story-tellers," said the mother, " for surely there is nothing 
to be seen." 

Their work finished, they sat down to supper, which 
was of short duration, and went out again to look at the 
beautiful Lady. 

As the apparition still remained in the same place, 


Eugene expressed a desire to look upon it as long as it 
should last. 

Puzzled at so unusual an occurrence, Victoire asked 
the height of the Lady. " She is as tall as Sister Vitaline,"" 
was the reply. This Sister was one of the nuns who taught 
in the school. On hearing the name of Vitaline, the 
mother thought it would be well to bring her to the spot. 
So she went in search of the nun, whom she found reciting 
her Office in the school-room. " I beg your pardon. 
Sister," said the mother, " will you come with me, for 
my children declare they see some one who is not visible 
to me ! " 

In company with the mother the nun went to the loft, 
from which Eugene pointed out the exact position of the 

" I see absolutely nothing," she replied. 

The children insisted : " What, Sister, you see nothing, 
look at those three stars which form a tripod." 

" Oh yes ! " 

" Well then, the Lady s head is just in the middle." 

All present saw the stars, one was just above our Lady s 
head and the two others as high as her elbows. To all 
they seemed to shine more brilliantly than the others. 
Unable to see more, Sister Vitaline returned to the school, 
where she found two little girls sitting by the fireside, 
Frances Richer, twelve years old, Jan^Mary Lebosse, 
and a third child. 

" Come, my little girls," she said to them, "come and 
see something Victoire wishes to show you." " What are 
we going to see ? " they asked. " The children will tell 
you," answered Victoire, "for I have seen nothing." 

Having reached the loft, Frances and Jane Mary ex 
claimed : " Oh ! the beautiful Lady with the blue dress ! " 

Whilst the four children kept looking at the Apparition, 
the Sister went off to acquaint the people of the village, 
and the parish priest. At the news the old man stood 
speechless, whilst his housekeeper prepared the lantern. 
Having recovered himself, he in company with the Sister 
proceeded to the loft, where he found the children still 
intent on the spectacle. " Oh, there is something more," 
they cried out. The addition was in the shape of a small 


red cross, two or three inches long, hanging over the breast 
of the beautiful Lady, and a circle, or oval, four or five 
inches wide, of a deep blue colour. This oval enveloped 
the apparition, leaving the three triangular stars outside. 
In the interior were four lighted candles, two at the bottom 
and two at the top. 

" Let us say the Rosary," said the priest. 

Accordingly they all knelt down. Meanwhile the figure 
continued to increase until at the end of the Rosary it 
seemed twice the size. The Magnificat having been 
intoned, the children cried out : There is something 
else ! " A long band of white linen was stretched in 
rectangular form beneath the feet of the figure, and on 
it these words were written : " Pray, my children, pray ! " 

The good priest again begged them to pray to the Blessed 
Virgin to make known her will. In compliance with this 
request the Litany of the Blessed Virgin was sung ; at 
the last invocation there appeared the words : " Pray, 
my children, pray. God will hear your prayers in a short 
time. My Son will let Himself be touched." 

The children s faces now wore an expression of deep 
sadness. " Something else is being formed," they cried 
out. In the hands of the Lady was, a red cross about 
two inches long ; on it appeared a figure of Christ, on 
which drops of blood were seen. The head was a little 
inclined to the left, but showed no sign of life. Above it, 
attached to the wood of the Cross, was a white cross-bar 
with this inscription on it : " Jesus Christ." When the 
hymn was begun one of the stars situated at the feet of 
the Queen of Heaven re-entered the oval-space, passing 
by the candles lit them, and then returned to the star 
placed above the triangle. During the hymn the Mother 
of God kept her eyes constantly lowered and fixed on the 
crucifix, while her lips seemed to move in prayer. On 
the hymn " Hail Star of the Sea " being sung, the blood- 
like crucifix disappeared, and the Blessed Virgin lowered 
her hands to their first position. At the same time two 
little white crucifixes, about six or eight inches long, were 
seen on the shoulders of our Lady, whose head was, as 
it were, placed between the crosses. A smile mingled 
with sadness played on her countenance. The night 


prayers having been said, the Apparition disappeared 
about nine o clock. That same evening General Schmidt 
encamped his troops in a place called Jouanne, and the 
next day beat a retreat. " Surely there must be a Madonna 
here," exclaimed a German officer, astonished at the 
sudden retreat. He had spoken truly. The Blessed 
Virgin, more powerful than an army in battle array, had 
once more shown her love for France. 

The news of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin at 
Pontmain soon spread throughout the diocese, and through 
the whole of France pilgrims flocked in crowds, and 
numberless graces were received. Mgr. Wicart, Bishop 
of Laval, maintaining at first a prudent reserve, caused 
a preliminary inquiry to be made into the extraordinary 
occurrence, and ordered an official report to be published, 
on which this narrative has been founded. 

In the month of March the first canonical inquiry was 
held, and in the December following a long and rigorous 
examination was made. On February 2, 1872, the Bishop 
announced in a pastoral letter that the Apparition of the 
Immaculate Mother of God made to Eugene and Joseph 
Barbedette, Frances Richer and Jane Mary Lebosse, on 
January 17 in the village of Pontmain, was true and 
genuine. In accordance with this solemn declaration 
the Holy See authorized the establishment of the Arch- 
confraternity of Our Lady of Hope, of Pontmain, and 
permitted the diocese of Laval to make a commemoration 
of the Apparition on January 17 in the office of the Immacu 
late Conception. 

In proclaiming the truth of the Apparition, the pious 
Bishop enjoined the erection of a church in honour of Mary, 
on the very spot she had deigned to favour with her pres 
ence. His appeal for funds was generously responded to, 
and a magnificent Gothic Basilica, elaborately decorated, 
flanked by two splendid towers, with a peal of bells pro 
claiming far and wide the glories of Mary was erected. 

A magazine published every month makes known the 
power and goodness of this holy protectress. Pilgrimages 
are constantly made to implore the intercession of her, 
who is invoked under the title of the Virgin of the Stars, 
or the Virgin of Hope, and of the Bleeding Crucifix. 


Father Guerin, the two sisters, Cesar^Barbedette and 
Auguste Friteau, have all passed into another world. 
Little Auguste, a sickly child, died a few months after 
the apparition. Eugene Barbedette is now Vicar in the 
Diocese of Laval ; Joseph has entered the Order of the 
Oblates of Mary ; Jane Mary Lebosse is a nun in the 
order of the Holy Family at Bordeaux ; Frances Richer 
helps the nuns in taking care of the little children in their 
schools. All retain a tender remembrance of the heavenly 

Appendix III 

Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, cherished throughout 
life a strong and tender love of our blessed Lady, which found 
expression at the outset in the consecration of the Society to 
the " Immaculate Heart of Mary." At a later date, in 1839, 
when trials came upon the Institute, the holy Foundress 
again sought Mary s protection, and again placed her 
religious family under the care of that loving Mother, 
with the happiest results. 

To the members of her Society the devotion of their 
Foundress to our Lady is well known. Next in honour 
to the Feast of the Sacred Heart comes that of the Immacu 
late Heart of Mary ; the Office of the Blessed Virgin is 
one of the daily joys of the Nuns ; and the love and affec 
tion of Blessed Madeleine Sophie has been crowned in 
recent years by the setting apart of the First Saturday of 
each month as a day of special honour to the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary ; this practice the Church has ratified by 
granting to all convents of the Sacred Heart, the privilege 
of exposition of the Blessed Sacrament on that day and 
the recitation of the office of the Immaculate Heart. 

Blessed Mother Barat s devotion would however have 


been Incomplete had it not reached a chosen part of her 
family the children. Every child knows the love of our 
Lady, which, with devotion to the Sacred Heart, is the 
atmosphere of school life. This devotion is expressed in 
the honour paid to their Queen and Mother under the 
title of " Mater Admirabilis." Our Lady as a young girl 
in the Temple, seems to live before them in that miraculous 
picture. She is their model in prayer, in study, in the 
duty of each moment. In the one hundred and forty con 
vents of the Sacred Heart all over the world may be seen 
the same tender confidence in Mater Admirabilis, the same 
loving imitation of her virtues, the same loyal homage 
paid to her in every country by the Children of the Sacred 


Subscribers, whose generosity has helped to make 
possible the publication of this work in times of special 
difficulty : 

Mrs. Matilde Harwath, R.I.P., 20 ; Anonymous Donor, 
20 ; Mother Patricia, Roehampton, 6 ; Rev. Fr. Welsby, 
S.J., Preston, 5 ; Miss E. Burrows, 5 ; Miss H. Kiely, 
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Subscribers of one guinea each : Rev. Fr. Bodkin, S.J., 
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Blackpool ; Rev. Fr. Nicholson, S. J., Stamford Hill ; Rev. 
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Stonyhurst ; Rev. Fr. O Brien, Liverpool ; Rev. Mother 
Thunder, Roehampton, S.H. Convent ; Mother E. Mona- 
han and Mother Hamilton, S.H. Convent ; Miss E. Boynton ; 
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Imelda, Dublin ; Mrs. Marie Scott McGrath ; Miss K. Nelson. 


Abbeys, English, 84 
Aberdeen, our Lady of, 93 
Abingdon, our Lady of, 83 
Adam and Eve, 1 1 
Aedelvald, Ethelwald 210 
Afflighem, 193 
Agincourt, 130, 147 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 131 
Albans, St., 83, 164 
Albert, St., 189 
Albertus Magnus, 186 
Albigenses, 36 
Aldhelm, St., 74 
All Generations, 257 
Alma Redemptoris, 137 
Aloysius, St., 49 
Alphonsus Ligouri, St., 58 
Alphonsus Rodr., St., 53, 68 
Allotting, 118 
Ambrose, St., 24, 213 
America, North, 96 
America, South, 124 
Ancient Faith, England s, 73 
Ancient Liturgies, 29 
Andrew Avellino, St., 54 
Andrew Corsini, St., 43 
Angelico, Bl. Fra, 138 
Angels and our Lady, 8 
Angelus, 61, 76, 147, 192, 230 
Anne of Beaupre, St., 102 
Annunciation feast, 179 
Anselm, St., 31, 65, 74, 212, 

224, 225, 244 
Anselm, Junior, 65, 211 
Apostles and first Disciples, 16, 


Apostleship, four kinds, 253, 254 
Apparition to St. Gregory 

Thaumaturgus, 21 
Apparitions, Recent, 170, 273, 


Archconf raternities, 1 84 
Armorial bearings, 95 
Army commanders, 144 

Artists, 137 

Arundel, Archbishop, 71, 76, 230 

Assumption, 74, 180, 220 

Assumption feast, 74 

Athanasius, St., 22 

Augustine, St., 25 

Augustinians, 67 

Austria, 120 

Ave Maris Stella, 137 

Ave Regina Coelorum, 137 

Avignon, Council, 28 

Baltimore, Council, 99 

Barat, Blessed Sophie, 279 

Basle, Council, 28 

Basil, St., 22 

Basil of Seleucia, St., 24 

Beauty of our Lady, 139 

Beauty of English images, 83 

Bedlam Hospital, 151 

Belgium and our Lady, 110 

Belgrade Victory, 145 

Benburb battle, 89 

Benedict XIV, 185 

Benedictines, 64 

Bernard, St., 9, 32, 65, 225 

Bernard, St., and Immaculate 

Conception, 205. 208 
Bernadette Soubirous, 171 
Bernardine, St., 46 
Bernardine Realino, BL, 57 
Blessed by all generations, 257 
Bonaventure, St., 41, 215 
Boniface IV. St., 61 
Book of Cerne, 73 
Book of Courtesay, 75 
Botticelli, Artist, 138 
Boulogne, our Lady of, 173 
Bray, Sir Reg., 164 
Brethren of our Lord, 220, 265 
Bridget of Sweden, St., 44 
Brigid of Ireland, St., 188 
Bruno, St., 65 
Builders of Churches, 160 




Building of Cathedrals, 162 
Bull of Immaculate Conception, 

Bulla Aurea, 185 

Cajetan, St., 52 

Callixtus, St., "60 

Cambridge, King s Coll., 85, 130 

Campo Cavallo, 170 

Canada and our Lady, 100 

Candlemas day, 180 

Candles, Votive, 200 

Canisius, Bl. P., 188 

Canute, 131 

Cardinals, English, 63 

Carlo Dolci, 138 

Carmel, our Lady of, 181 

Carmelites, 67 

Carroll, Bishop, 98 

Carthusians, 65 

Casimir, St., 46 

Catacombs, 18 

Catherine of Aragon, 130 

Catherine of Siena. St., 44 

Cath. England (See England) 

Caversham, our Lady of, 83 

Ceylon, 127 

Champlain, Samuel. 150 

Chaplet, Lady Godiva s, 78 

Charlemagne, 131 

Charles Borromeo, St., 50 

Charles VI, 132 

Chartres, our Lady of, 173 

Childebert, King, 131 

Children and our Lady, 141 

Children of Mary, 183 

China and our Lady, 127 

Cimabue, Artist, 137 

Cistercians, 65 

Cities and our Lady, 133 

Clock striking, 241 

Clovis, King, 131 

Coimbra University, 121 

Colleges, English, 84 

Columbus, 150 

Commanders of Armies, 144 

Communion, Holy, 239 

Confidence in Mary, 243 

Consecration of England, 230 

Consecration to Mary, 241 

Conversion of Sinners, 253 

Corpus Christi College, 85 

Councils, 27 

Council of Avignon, 28 

Council of Basle, 28 
of Baltimore, 99 
of Calne, 86 
of Ephesus, 27, 270 
of Exeter, 134 
of Hatfield, 73 
of Later an, 73 
of Nicaea, 28 
of Trent, 28 

Councils and Immaculate Con 
ception, 206, 207 

Covadonga Cave, 106, 108 

Coventry, our Lady of, 78 

Cracow, 177 

Crecy, Battle of, 76, 243 

Crispin of Viterbo, St., 59 

Crown, English Royal, 130 note- 
Crown of Portugal, 122 

Crusades, 147 

Cynewulf, 210 

Cyril of Alexandria, St., 18,23,27 

Cyril of Jerusalem, St., 23 

Czenstockowa, 177 

Dalmatia and Holy House, 166 
Damascene, St. John, 220, 24 
David Bruce, 131 
David I, 131 

Death of our Lady, 221, 222 
Decrees of Councils, 27 
Defending her honour, 264 
Deipara (Theotokos), 28 
Denis the Areop., St., 17, 139, 
Denis Carthusian, 216 
Denis of Paris, St., 18 
Discoverers, 150 
Divine Motherhood, 73, 215 
Dolours of our Lady, 234 
Dominic, St., 36, 189 
Dominicans, 66 
Don Juan of Austria, 145 
Dowry of Mary, 71, 72, 230 
Drapers Company, 151 
Drogheda, our Lady of, 90 
Duns Scotus, 66, 206 
Dunstan, St., 78, 83 

Eadmer, Monk, 211 
Early Christians, 18 
Early Fathers, 21 



Edgar, King, 78 

Edmund of Canterbury, St., 37, 


Edward, St., Martyr, 83 
Edward I, 129 
Edward II, 129 
Edward III, 73, 129 
Egwin, Bishop, 80 
Einsiedeln, 177 
Elizabeth of York, 82 
Elmham, monk, 72, 129, 130 
England, Abbeys, 84 

Ancient Devotions, 75 

Ancient Faith, 73 

Catholic, 71 

Consecration of, 72, 230 

Dowry of Mary, 71, 72 

and Immaculate Concep 
tion, 73 

Kings of, 128 

Pilgrimages, 85 

and Rosary, 76 

Shrines, 77, 80, 233 

Statues, 83 

England, Dr., Bishop, 99 
English children, 144, 147 
English Saints, 85 
Eoves, Swineherd, 80 
Ephesus, Council of, 27, 270 
Ephrem, St., 3, 9, 22, 30 
Epiphanius, St., 3, 22 
Erasmus, 80 
Ethelwold, Bishop, 73 
Ethiopic hymn, 29 
Eton College, 75, 84, 233 
Eudes, Bl. John, 56, 229 
Evesham, our Lady of, 80 
Exeter, Council of, 134 

Fathers of Eastern Church, 21 

Fathers of Western Church, 24 

Fathers and Immaculate Con 
ception, 202 

Feast of Immaculate Concep 
tion, 204 

Feasts of our Lady, 177 

Felix of Valois, St., 9 

Fenwick, Bishop, 99 

Ferdinand of Castile, St., 132 

Ferdinand III, 133 

Figures of Mary, 13, 14 

Filippino Lippi. 138 

Filippo Lippi, 138 

First of creatures, i 

First Disciples and our Lady, 1 7 

Flowers, 199 

Foch, Marshal, 147 

Foreshadowed in Old Law, 13 

Foretold to Patriarchs, n 

Fourvieres, 174 

Fox of Winchester, Bishop, 85, 


Fra Angelico, 138 
France and our Lady, 103 
Francis of Assisi, St., 8, 37 
Francis Borgia, St., 49 
Francis Jerome, St., 57 
Francis de Sales, St., 52 
Francis Xavier, St., 48 
Francis I, 132 
Franciscans, 66 
French Cathedrals of our Lady, 

1 104 
French Kings, 104 

Pilgrimages, 171 

Saints, 103 

Soldiers, 104 

University, 104 

Warriors, 104 

Gabriel Addol., Bl., 67 
Gabriel Bell, The, 77 
Garden enclosed, 261 
Garter, Order of, 129, 233 
Gelasius, St., 60 
Genezzano, 109, 169 
German Pilgrimages, 1 1 8 

Artists, 1 1 9 

Germany and our Lady, 1 1 8 
Gertrude, St., 43 
Giotto, Artist, 137 
Glastonbury, 77 
Glendower, Owen, 96 
Gloucester chapel, 165 
God the Father and our Lady, i 
God the Son and our Lady, 4 
God the Holy Ghost and our 

Lady, 6 

Godiva, Lady, 78 
Golden Bull, 185 
Grace, Above Angels in, 2, 9 
Grace, Full of, 10 
Great Yarmouth, 86 
Greece and our Lady, 122 


Gregory the Great, St., 61 
Gregory of Nazianzen, St., 188 
Gregory of Nyssa, St., 21 
Gregory Thaumat., St., 21 
Gregory of Tours, St., 26, 222 
Gregory IX, 6 1 
Gregory XHI, 62 
Gregory XV, 62 
Grignon de Montfort, Bl., 59 
Guadahrpe, 123, 175 
Guilds, Trade, 151 
Salve, 151 

Hail, Mary, 192 

Hal, our Lady of, 176 

Hatfield, Council, 73 

Health of the Sick, 226 

Heart of Mary, Archconfr., 184, 

Heart of Mary, Immac., 227 

Hedwige, St., 38 

Helena, St., 133, 160 

Help of Christians, Feast, 62 

Henry Suso, BL, 45 

Henry II, 78, 128 

Henry HI, 128 

Henry IV, 76, 129 

Henry V, 129 

Henry VI and Eton College, 75, 
76, 84, 130 

Henry VI and King s College 
(Cambridge), 85, 130 

Henry VII, 82, 130 

Henry VII s Chapel, Westmin 
ster, 163, 164 

Henry VIII, 79, 82, 130 

Henry IV of France, 191 

Herman Contractus, 137 

Herman Joseph, BL, 39 

Highlands of Scotland, 92 

Hilary, St., 60 

Holland and our Lady, 113 

Holy House of Loretto, 109, 166 

Holy House, Pilgrims to, 168 

Holyrood, our Lady of, 131 

Holy Souls, 254 

Honour defended, 264 

Hugh of Lincoln, St., 35, 162 

Humility, Mary s, 260 

Hyacinth, St., 39 

Hymnologists, 137 

Hyperdulia, 41, 264 

Ignatius of Loyola, St., 47, 236 

Ildephonsus, St., 26 

Images, Beautiful, in England, 


Imitation of Mary, 245 
Immaculate Conception, 3, 200 

Proofs of doctrine, 200 

Proofs from Fathers, 202 

Feast of. 64, 177, 204 

Controversy, 205 

SS. Bernard and Thomas, 
205, 208 

after the Controversy, 206 

Pius IX s Bull, i, 208 

Proclamation, 209 

and England, 73, 210 

Gregory XV, 62 

and Universities of Paris, 
104, Spain, 107, Louvain, 
etc., 113 

and Coimbra, 121 

and Poland, 117 
Immaculate Heart, 227 
Ina, King, 128 
Ina s Silver Chapel, 77 
India and our Lady, 127 
Indians, North American, 100 
lona, 93 

Ipswich, our Lady of, 82 
Irenaeus, St., 24 
Ireland and our Lady, 87 

and the Rosary, 88 
Irish Litany, 87, 89 

Shrines, 90 

Soldiers, 148 

Poets, Early, 91 
Isaias, i i 

Isabel of Warwick, 83 
Italy and our Lady, 108, 109 
Italian devotion, 108 

Saints, 108 , 

Artists, 1 08 

Jacopone, BL, 136 
James. St., Apostle, 17 
James of Batnae, St., 24 
James, King of Aragon, 131 
Jane F. de Chantal, St., 55 

apan and our Lady, 125 

eremias, 12 

erome, St., 25 

esuits, and our Lady, 68 



esuit Theologians, 188 
ban of Arc, Bl., 146 
ohn (Juan) of Austria, Don, 145 
ohn Berchmans, St., 53 
ohn Capistran, St., 145 
ohn Chrysostom, St.. 9 
ohn Damascene, St., 24, 220 
ohn Eudes, Bl., 56 
ohn Evangelist, St., 16, 243 
ohn F. Regis, St., 55 
ohn, King, 83 
ohn Sobieski, 120, 145 
Joseph of Arimathea, St., 77 
Juan of Austria, Don, 145 
Justinian, Emperor, 160 
Justus Lipsius, 187 
Kingdoms and our Lady, 134 
King s College, Cambridge, 85, 


Kings of England, 128 
Kings of France, 131 
Kings of Scotland, 130 
Knights of Garter, 129, 233 
Knights, Orders of, 68 
Knights of Malta, 68 

Laboure, Sister C., 195 
Lady Chapels, 163, 232 
Lady s Choristers, 140 
Ladye Mass, 140 232, 
Lady s well, 92 
Lady s Flowers, 199 
La Salette, 172 
Lateran Council, 73 
Laynez, Fr., 69 
Leeds, Bridge Chapel. 86 
Leo IV, 6 1 
Leo XIII, 62 
Leofric, Earl, 78 
Leonard of Port M., St., 58 
Lepanto Victory, 62, 144 
Leunis, John (Sodality), 182 
Liberius, Pope, St., 60 
Liesse, our Lady of, 102, 174 
Limerick, Our Lady of, 90 
Lincoln, Our Lady of, 36, 81 
Litany, Anc. Irish, 87, 89 
Little Office, 197, 240 
Liturgies, Ancient. 29 
Liturgical hymns, 136 
Liturgy, Alex., 29 
Liturgy of St. James, 29 

Livery Companies, 151 

London Bridge Chapel, 151 

London churches, 134 

Loreto, Holy House, 109, i66> 

Louis, St., 42, 132 

Louis the Pious, 131 

Louis XI and Angelus, 132 

Louis XIII, 132 

Louis XIV, 132 

Lourdes, 171 

Louvain University, 1 1 3 

Lowlands of Scotland. 93 

Luke, St., 17 

Magdalen College, Oxford, 84. 
Magnificat, 257 
Malcolm II, 130 
Margaret of Richmond, 130 
Maria della Strada, 48, 70 
Maria in Trastevere, 20, 60 
Mariolatry, 264 
Maronite Ritual, 29 
Marquette, J., S.J., 97, 150 
Martyrs, Our Lady of, 97 
Mary s Assumption, 220 

Choristers, 140 

Dowry, 71, 72 

Lake, 93 

Mass, 75, 140, 232 

Martyrdom, 235 

Name, 178, 213 

Name (Ireland), 88 

Name (Scotland), 92 

Name (Indians), 100 

Nativity, 178 

Office, 75 

Psalter, 76 
Mary and England, 71 seq. 

ever Virgin, 74, 218 

Immaculate, 200 seq. 

Major, St., 60, 168 

Major, Picture, 96 

St. of Trastevere, 20, 60 
Mary our Mother, 244 
Mary of Agreda, 10 
Mary Madg. Pazzi, St., 54 
Maryland, 97 
Mass, 239 

Mater Admirabilis, 280 
Maternity, Divine, 73, 215 
May, month of, 100, 198 
Meditation, 239 

286 INDEX 

Mercers Company, 153 
Mercy, Our Lady of, 181 

Mother of, 44, 224 
Messina Earthquake, 144 
Methodius, St., 12 
Mexico, 123 
Michel Angelo, 138 
Military Orders, 68 
Miraculous Medal, 195 
Montaigu, Our Lady of, 176 
Month of May, 100, 198 
Montreal, 101 
Montserrat, 175 
Monuments to Mary, 231 
More, Bl. Thomas, 82 
Mother of God, 217, 270 
Mother of Mercy, 224, 44 
Muckross, Our Lady of, 90 
Murillo, 138 
Musicians, 139 

Name of Mary, 213 

etc., Ireland, 88 

Scotland, 92 

and Indians, 100 
Nativity of our Lady, 212 
Naval Commanders, 144 
Navan, our Lady of, 91 
Neumann, 98 
New College, Oxford, 85 
Newman, Cardinal, 63 
Nice, Council of, 28 
Non-Catholics on our Lady, 153, 


Normans, 146 
N.D. des Victoires, 172 

Oddo and Dodo (Saxons), 81 

Off a, King, 81 

Office of our Lady, 75 

Office, The little, 197, 240 

Oostacker, Belg., 176 

Orders, Religious, 64 

Ordinary duties, 236 

Origen, 21 

Our Lady s Pages, 140 

Our Lady of the Snow, 60, 95 

Owen O Neill, 89 

Oxford, Magdalen College, 84 

Corpus Christi, 85 

New College, 85 

and St. Edmund, 37, 84 

Pages of our Lady, 140 

Palestrina, 139 

Passionists, 67 

Patriarchs and Prophets, 1 1 

Patrick, St., 87 

Paul II, 6 1 

Pelagius (Pelayo), 106 

Pellevoisin, 257 

Perpetual Succour, 184 

Perpetual Virginity, 74, 218 

and Ireland, 91 
Perugino, 138 
Peter Chrysol., St., 25 
Peter Claver, St., 56 
Peter Dainian, St., 26 
Peter the Hermit, 147 
Pew, our Lady of, 166 
Philip Benizi, St., 42 
Philip Neri, St., 51 
Pictures, Miraculous, 249 
Pilgrim Street, 86 
Pilgrimages in England, 77 

in Belgium, 176 

in France, 171 

in Italy, 166 

in Spain, 175 

in Switzerland, 177 
Pillar, our Lady of, 1 75 
Pius V, St., 62 
Pius VII, 62 
Pius IX, 62 
Pius X, 62 

Poets and our Lady, 136 
Poets, Non-Catholic, 154, 156 
Poland and our Lady, 116 

and Immaculate Concep 
tion, 117 
Pompei, 171 
Pontmain, 256, 273 
Popes, 60 

Portugal and our Lady, 121 
Portuguese Crown, 122 
Pothinus, St., 18 
Practices of Saints, 246 
Prayers of Saints, 267 
Premonstratensians, 66 
Presentation feast, 61, 178 
Prima Primaria, 1 82 
Privileges of our Lady, 7, 263 

of Child Mary, 214 
Proclus, St., 24, 270 
Protestants and our Lady, 153, 
156, 159 



Protentianus, St., 18 
Psalter of Mary, 76 
Puche 3 our Lady of, 176 
Pulcheria, St., 161 
Purgatory, Souls in, 254 
Purification feast, 60, 180 
Purity, Mary s, 261 
Puy, Our Lady of, 174 

Quebec, 101 
Queen of Peace, 259 
Queen of Prophets. 19, 20 
Quito Apparition, 250 

Ransom, our Lady of, 181 

Raphael, 138 

Ratisbonne, Abbe, 196 

Reading statue, 83 

Redemptorists, 67 

Refuge of sinners, 253 

Regina coeli, 137 

Religious Orders, 64 

Richard II, 72. 129 

Richard Whittington, 152 

Riches of English shrines, 135 

Richness of early churches, 161 

Robert the Wise, 131 

Robert Guiscard, 146 

Rocamadour, 173 

Roland, 146 

Rollo, Duke, 133 

Rome, Churches of, 161 

Rosary, 76, 188 

and soldiers, 148, 149 

Rosary feast, 182 

Rosary in Catholic England, 

76, 190 
and Eton, 76 

and Magdalen College, Ox 
ford, 76 

and St. Dominic, 189 
in Ireland, 191 
and Irish soldiers, 148 
and Lady Godiva, 78 
in United States, 99 

Royal Psalmist, 12 

Sabbatine, Indulg., 194 
Saints of XII Cent., 31, 34 
Saints of subsequent centuries, 

Saints of England, 85 

St. Alban s Lady Chapel, 83 
Salette, La, 172 
Salisbury pilgrimage, 86 
Salve Guilds, 151 
Salve Regina, 34, 136 
Sanctuaries of our Lady in 

England, 80 
Santa Casa, 168 
Saragossa, 175 
Sassoferrato, 138 
Saturday and our Lady, 198, 242 
Saturday, rest p.m., 94 

fast, 76 

Scapular Brown, 193 
Blue, 194 
Black, 194 
of Sacred Heart, 257 
Scottish Kings, 130 
Scotland and our Lady, 92 
Scott, Sir Walter, 156 
Scotus, John Duns, 66, 206 
Scutari, 169 
Sedulius, Irish poet, 91 
Self-Denial, 242, 248 
Selkirk Arms, 95 
Sergius I, St., 178 
Servant of Mary, 31 
Servites, 67 
Servite Saints, 42, 234 
Seven Dolours, 234 
Shrines in England, 80 
Silkstede, Prior, 165 
Silver Chapel, Ina s, 77 
Simon Stock, St., 41 
Sinners and our Lady, 244, 253 
Sixtus III, 60 
Sixtus IV, 6i/ 
Slaves of Mary, 59 
Snow churchyard, Aberdeen, 95 
Sobieski, John, 120, 145 
Society of Jesus, 68 
Society of Jesus and Immaculate 

Conception, 69 
Sodalists, 143, 184 

Heroic, 185 
Sodality, The, 98, 182, 184 

Saints and Popes, 183 

St. Alph. on, 183 

Prelates, 184 

Poets, Orators, 185 

Kings, Nobles, 185 

Praise of, 185 



Soldiers and our Lady, 147, 148 

Solomon, 12 

Sophronius, St., 9, n 

Sorbonne and Immaculate Con 
ception, 104 

Souls in Purgatory, 254 

Spain and our Lady, 105 

Spain and Immaculate Con 
ception, 107 
Cathedrals, 107 

Spanish Knights, 107 

Spiritual exercises, 239 

Stabat Mater, 136, 236 

Stanislaus, St., 50 

Star of the Sea. 33 

Stephen of Hungary, St., 131 

Studies, 237 

Suarez, Fr., 187, 263 

Syriac hymn, 30 

Tancred, 146 

Tarasius, St., 12 

Teresa, St., 51 

Tewkesbury, our Lady of, 81 

Theotokos, 270 

Thomas of Aquin, St., 40 

St. Thomas and Immaculate 

Conception, 66 
Thomas of Canterbury, St., 34, 


Titian, artist, 138 
Toledo, 176 
Toleto, Cardinal, 187 
Trade Guilds, 151 
Trastevere, 20, 60 
Trent, Council of, 28 
Trim, our Lady of, 91 
Trust in Mary, 243 
Types of Mary, 13, 1 4 

United States and our Lady, 96 

and Rosary, 99 
Universities, English, 84 
University of Louvain, 1 1 3 

of Paris, 104 

of Poland, 117 

of Portugal, 121 

of Spain, 107 

Urban II, 61 

Vaughan, Cardinal, 63 
Venantius Fort., St., 137, 224 
Vendeans, 149 

Venetian on English shrines, 135 
Victories, N.D. des, 172 
Victory of Belgrade, 145 
of Lepanto, 144 
of Vienna, 145 
Ville Marie (Montreal), 101 
Vincent Ferrer, St., 45 
Vincent de Paul, St., 56 
Virginity, Perpet., 74, 218 
Vision of St. Gregory Thaum., 


Visitation feast, 179 
Visits to Blessed Sacrament, 


Votive Candles, 200 
Vow of Perpetual Virginity, 262, 

(SS. Aug. and Bede, 266) 

Wales and our Lady, 95 
Walsingham, our Lady ol, 79 
War, Appeal in, 259 
Wat Tyler, 73 
Waynflete, Bishop, 76, 84 
Wax candles costly, 200 note, 
Wells, Lady, 92 
Welsh Poets, 96 
Westminster, Our Lady of, 163., 

1 66 

Whittington, Sir Richard, 152 
Willesden, our Lady of, 82 
William the Lion, K., 94 
Winchester, Lady chapel, 165 

frescoes, 165 

and Immaculate Concep 
tion, 64, 65, 211 
Wiseman, Cardinal, 63 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 82 
Wykeham, Bishop, 85 

Yarmouth, our Lady of, 86 
Youghal, our Lady of, 90 

Zucchi, Fr. N., 262, 268 



Mary s praise on every tongue .C42-