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A History of 

150 Years 4- 1819-1969 

Ralph Waldo Lloyd ^ 



<^J)(Caryville Qollege 

A History of 150 Years 

"This volume opened with the 
story of two American young men of 
the southwestern frontier 150 years 
ago, returning home on horseback 
from a two-months-long, 1400-mile 
journey — to found a school which 
became Maryville College. As this 
final chapter is written, three other 
American young men have just re- 
turned from a six-day, 6oo,ooo-mile 
flight around the moon nearly a 
quarter of a million miles away. . . . 
These two journeys mark the bound- 
aries of Maryville College history." 

In these words the author of this book, 
in his closing chapter, points up the revo- 
lutionary changes in thought and achieve- 
ment during the 150-year history of Mary- 
ville College. Founded on one of the early 
American frontiers, the College in its life- 
time has seen the United States expanded 
and developed from the Appalachian 
Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and its 
population multipUed from nine million 
to two hundred million. 

Less than three percent of the colleges 
and universities in the United States are 
as old as 150 years, and few, if any other, 
have had only seven presidents. The sixth 
of these presidents, whose service of 

Continued on back of jacket 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


COLLEGE A History 
of 150 Years ^ 1819-1969 

hy Ralph Waldo Lloyd 

President Emeritus 


Maryville, Tennessee : ig6g 

Copyright © 1969 by The Maryville College Press 
Maryville, Tennessee 
Library of Congress Catalog Card number 77-85320 

Printed in the United States of America 

By Kingsport Press, Inc., Kingsport, Tennessee 

Dedicated to 

The Hundreds of Devoted Men and Women 
Who Have Served at Maryville College 
As Teachers, Officers, and Staff 

The Centennial Class (1919) cooperated 
in financing the publication of this volume 


When Maryville College celebrated its Centennial, President 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson wrote a history of the institution to that time, 
which was published in a 2 65 -page volume with the title A Century of 
Maryville College, A Story of Altruism. A decade and a half later, in 
1935, it was republished, with six additional chapters written by Dr. 
Wilson after his retirement. On the title page the enlarged edition is 
called Chronicles of Maryville College, A Story of Altruism, with the 
cover bearing this title: A Century of Maryville College and Second 
Century Beginnings. At the present time copies of the 1935 edition are 
still available at the College. 

Although only a third of a century has passed since Dr. Wilson 
wrote his additional chapters, the Directors and President decided that 
the nature of events within that period and the importance of the 150th 
anniversary called for a new historical account covering not merely the 
period since 1935, but the entire history of the College. Perhaps they were 
thinking of Santayana's familiar warning, "Those who cannot remember 
the past are condemned to repeat it." 

Thereupon, they requested the writer to undertake this task. His 
relationship to Maryville College began when he entered the preparatory 
department as a first-year student in the fall of 1907. As student, alumus, 
president, and president emeritus, that relationship covers sixty-two years, 
of which thirty-one were spent as the sixth President. 


viii Preface 

It may well be asked whether one deeply involved in the policy- 
making and administration of an institution for thirty-one years can see 
and tell the institution's story objectively. Does he not inescapably write 
as though the volume were a biography of an esteemed friend, and un- 
consciously avoid whatever would detract from a favorable image? For 
some time past there have been historians who considered it a hallmark 
of realistic scholarship to stress weakness and error. On the basis of 
freedom of inquiry and of speech, writers of history sometimes yield to 
the temptation of appeal to primitive human interest. The present writer 
has deliberately given larger, although not exclusive, place to constructive 
service and positive characteristics, rather than to negative qualities or to 
mistakes made by Maryville's leaders (of which there have been not a 
few, some by the writer himself). However, he has made a sincere effort 
to be objective, even though positive. 

Th plan of the book is basically topical, with each "topic" presented 
chronologically, except the opening chapter entitled "The 150- Year 
Story — A Digest." Much of the material is factual, and there are a good 
many dates and statistics not readily available. It is hoped they will be 
useful as part of the total story. 

Many individuals have contributed to the production of this volume. 
The author is deeply grateful to a number of officers, faculty, and staff 
at the College who read parts or all of the manuscript; and especially to 
Dean Emeritus Frank D. McClelland who, as Assistant to the President, 
not only read the manuscript, but assumed much of the responsibility of 
collecting the pictures and of seeing the volume through the press. 
President Joseph J. Copeland, Chairman of the Board Joe C. Gamble, 
Recorder of the Board Edwin J. Best, and others have greatly assisted 
with cooperation and encouragement. 

Ralph Waldo Lloyd 
Bradenton, Florida 
January 1, 1969 




The 1 50- Year Story — A Digest 



The Influence of Geography 



The Maryville College Campus 



Ownership and Control 



The Presidents — Four in the 19th Century 



A Church-Related College 



Statements of Purpose 



The Curriculum 



Academic Standards and Accreditation 



The Faculty 



Three 20th-century Presidents 



Students and Alumni 



Religious Life and Program 



Racial Integration 



Extracurricular Activities 



A 150-Year Financial Report 







A Some Significant Maryville College Dates 257 

B Directors of Maryville College 259 

C Officers of the Board of Directors 263 

D 2 5 -Year Officers, Faculty, and Staff 265 

E February Meetings Leaders 268 

F Chronicle of Buildings and Facilities 270 

G Alumni Citations 273 
H The Constitution of the Southern and Western 

Theological Seminary 275 

J The Charter of Maryville College 278 

Index 283 



Chapter! The 150 -Year 

Story — A Digest 

On the Frontier: 1819-1861 

Two Men on Horseback 

It was early summer, 18 19. Two men on horseback were traveling 
the primitive road through the western valleys and mountains of Virginia 
toward the southwest. They were tall, rugged, relatively young, obviously 
accustomed to the saddle, marked by their speech as men of education 
and rej&nement. 

Rev. Isaac Anderson, aged 39, pastor at Maryville, and Rev. James 
Gallaher, aged 27, pastor at Rogersville, were Presbyterian ministers of 
the Tennessee frontier. They were on the month-long seven hundred mile 
journey home from Philadelphia, where they had been Commissioners 
from their respective Presbyteries of Union and Abingdon, to the thirty- 
second General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. As 
they rode, day after day, they talked of the desperate need for educated 
ministers in their vast territory, then still called the Great Southwest. 

At the General Assembly and at seven-year-old Princeton Theolog- 
ical Seminary, they had endeavored to recruit ordained ministers, minis- 
terial students, or even prospective candidates for training; but they had 
failed to enlist a single one. Isaac Anderson later reported, with mingled 
sadness and indignation, that one of the first questions asked about 
the frontier by many of those interviewed was, "What salary do they 


pay their ministers?" That was far back in 18 19! Isaac Anderson and 
others had been making appeals for several years to the Presbyterian 
missionary agencies, but the replies had been, "We are sorry for you, but 
cannot help you." And their appeal to the General Assembly that it 
sponsor a theological seminary in the Southwest had received a negative 
response. Presbyterian churches and members in Tennessee were con- 
sidered too few, remote, and widely scattered; and the General Assembly 
was still preoccupied with the young, struggling seminary it had estab- 
lished in 1 81 2 at Princeton. 

By the end of their journey Isaac Anderson and James Gallaher 
had reached the conclusion that they must establish a seminary of their 
own. They began to formulate a plan. Mr. Anderson, twelve years the 
senior, with seventeen years experience as educator as well as pastor and 
located in the strongest Presbyterian center of the region, would submit 
the plan to his Presbytery. 

Maryville College Founded October i^, i8icf 

A few months later he submitted a detailed proposal to the 
Presbytery of Union at its fall meeting held in Dandridge, Tennessee. 
Mr. Gallaher rode fifty miles from the adjoining Presbytery to lend his 
support. The plan was unanimously adopted on October 8, 1819, in the 
form of an Overture from the Presbytery to the Synod which was 
scheduled to meet in Maryville the following week. The opening section 
of the Overture is as follows: 

The Presbytery viewing with deep concern the extensive fields of the South- 
ern and Western parts of our country, already white to the harvest, in which 
there are few very few, laborers; therefore, Resolved, That this Presbytery 
submit a plan to the Synod of Tennessee for a Southern and Western Theo- 
logical Seminary, and do hereby recommend the adoption of it or some other 
plan by the Synod. 

At that time the young Synod of Tennessee, organized in 18 17, 
consisted of five thinly populated presbyteries extending from North 
Carolina beyond the Mississippi River and to the Gulf of Mexico. Its 
third annual meeting convened in New Providence Presbyterian Church 
at Maryville on October 13, 1819, five days after Presbytery's action. 

The i^o-Year Story — A Digest 5 

Twenty-one ministers and elders were present, most of them from Union 
Presbytery, within whose bounds Maryville was located, because travel 
from distant presbyteries was next to impossible. Once more young 
James Gallaher was there to help, and although his Presbytery was then 
in the Synod of Virginia his name led the list of Seminary Directors 
elected later in the meeting. 

The Overture from Union Presbytery was before the body for 
several days and the Synod minutes for October 19, 18 19, contain this 
historic record: 

The Synod after mamrely considering, revising and amending the plan for a 
Southern and "Western Theological Seminary, agreed to adopt it, which is as 
follows: (Then follows a "Constitution" with thirty-two Articles.) 

In the same meeting. Synod took a number of implementing actions. 
The first and most important was the appointing of a person to conduct 
the Seminary. The minutes for October 20 state: 

Synod proceeded to the election of a Professor of Didactic and Polemic 
Theology. Upon counting the votes it appeared that the Rev. Isaac Anderson 
was duly chosen. 

Other actions in the same meeting regarding the new institution 
were: election of thirty-six Directors; application to the State Legislature 
for a charter (which because of denominational jealousies was not 
granted for twenty-three years ) ; extension of an invitation to the Synods 
of North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Ohio "to join this 
Synod in building up the Southern and Western Theological Seminary" 
( nothing ever came of this ) ; and adoption of an address to the public on 
behalf of the Seminary. 

Although there were several Articles in the Constitution about 
qualifications of students and about finances. Synod does not seem to have 
taken any implementing action about either, unless the address to the 
public be counted such. But Isaac Anderson did not wait. His colleague, 
successor, and first biographer. Dr. Robinson, writes: 

A class of five was gathered, and a school of the prophets was opened in a 
small brown house on Main Street, Maryville, not far from his residence. This 
was the beginning of the Southern and Western Theological Seminary, 
known now, under the act of incorporation, as Maryville College. 


It is quite likely that this class of five was already studying under 
Isaac Anderson in his home before the official action of Synod. In any 
case, the new school was operating in the fall of 1819. And it has been 
in operation every year since that time, except during the Civil War. 

A Forerunner — 1802 

In the year 1801, William Anderson and his family removed from 
Rockbridge County, Virginia, to Knox County, Tennessee, and purchased 
a thousand acres of land in Grassy Valley, a few miles north of Knox- 
ville. The oldest son, Isaac, during the next year completed his theological 
studies begun in Virginia, was ordained a minister, became pastor of 
Washington Presbyterian Church, and erected a two-story log school 
house on his two hundred sixteen acre portion of the family land. 

Here he established "Union Academy," named for the Presbytery of 
Union which had ordained him, and conducted it with marked success 
until he left the area ten years later to become pastor of New Providence 
Presbyterian Church at Maryville. The Academy with its classical curricu- 
lum gained fame in the Tennessee Valley and beyond as "Mr. Anderson's 
Log College." The building was modest by twentieth-century standards, 
but must have been impressive on the 1 802 frontier. In fact it was several 
times as large as the famous "Log College" of William Tennent on the 
eastern Pennsylvania frontier three quarters of a century earlier, consid- 
ered the antecedent of all Presbyterian colleges and seminaries in 

Maryville was only twenty-five miles away, but that was too far to 
commute on horseback. So when Isaac Anderson moved to Maryville in 
1 81 2 he closed his Log College. However, at Maryville he continued 
there his teaching in academies until the founding of Maryville College, 
part of the time evidently in a school of his own. 

Some older American colleges trace their histories back to the 
beginning of such a sequence, and in that way Maryville could use 1802 
as its founding date. But it has followed the more conservative and direct 
practice of counting from the official action of the Synod of Tennessee 
and the first instruction authorized by that action, both in 18 19. Even this 
puts Maryville among the oldest three percent of all American colleges 
and universities operating in the 1960's. 

In 1 94 1 Maryville College placed a six- ton marble boulder, bearing 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 7 

an historical tablet, near the site of Mr. Anderson's Log College. It is on 
Murphy Road, between Washington and Tazewell Pikes, eight miles 
north of downtown Knoxville. 

Three Schools in One 

The Constitution approved by Synod specified that "before young 
men can enter this Seminary, they shall produce a diploma from some 
college, or submit to be examined by the professors on a course of 
literature." When the first class of five was gathered by Isaac Anderson in 
1 8 19, not one met these entrance requirements. All had to begin with 
literary courses, and this class did not graduate from the three-year 
theological course until six years later. 

The aim of Isaac Anderson and his colleagues was to establish a 
graduate theological institution by the standards inherited from England 
and Scotland. Few young men on the frontier were prepared for college, 
to say nothing of such a seminary. Provisions had to be made therefore 
for instruction on three levels, preparatory, four-year college, and three- 
year theological seminary. In 1821 the Constitution was formally 
amended to provide for instruction in "the requisite literature." After a 
third of a century the seminary course disappeared, and work on two 
levels continued for another three-quarters of a century. Finally in 1925, 
the preparatory department was closed, leaving the four-year college 

From the beginning, theological (seminary) students were a small 
minority of the total enrollment, never more than one fifth. However, 
during most of the frontier years a considerable proportion of the total 
were candidates for the ministry, aiming to study in the theological 
department when academically prepared. College and preparatory stu- 
dents appear to have been about equal in number. During its first 
twenty-three years, the institution was officially "The Southern and West- 
ern Theological Seminary," with three departments — theological, college, 
and preparatory. After receiving the Charter in 1842, it was officially 
"Maryville College," with the same three departments. 

Forty-Two Rugged Years: 1819-1861 

Had it not been for the grand design (purpose, constitution, direc- 
tors) that brought it into being, and the dedicated ability and endurance 



of Isaac Anderson that kept it going, the new institution could hardly 
have survived the numerous and massive obstacles of those early years. 

The hope of the Synod of Tennessee that adjoining Presbyterian 
synods might cooperate in building up a seminary in the Southwest did 
not materialize. Thus it was necessary to depend for support upon its own 
people, limited in number, most of them new settlers with meager 
resources who had never contributed to such a cause. Maryville itself was 
then a little village of some fifty houses, many built of logs. But the 
infant institution did survive, grew and developed, acquired its own 
grounds and buildings, collected a respectable library, and raised a modest 
endowment. It is estimated that before it closed in 1861 it sent out 
approximately 250 graduates of the several departments. There is a list of 
almost 150 ministers who received all or part of their education at 
Maryville in those years. 

Students enrolled in the theological, college, and preparatory depart- 
ments increased in number from the original five to 44 in five years and 
to 98 (the highest reached before the Civil War) in fifteen years; then 
averaged about 75 until Dr. Anderson's break in health near 1850, after 
which it dropped to between 50 and 60. Under Dr. Robinson attendance 
climbed back to 80, but was down to 46 in 1861. Measured by present 
institutions, this one was small and weak; but in that day, even in 
developed areas back of the frontier, fifty students and three professors 
were enough for qualification as a standard college. 

Most students before the Civil War were from East Tennessee, 
except a few who came from a distance to study theology under Dr. 
Anderson. They were chiefly of the white race, but members of all races 
were eligible and a few Indians and Negroes from the area were students 
in those years. Only men were enrolled, although women could attend 
classes as "annex students." Women were first enrolled for credit in the 
College's second year after the War. 

Dr. Isaac Anderson was the only teacher and officer for six years and 
was President and Professor for 38 years from the founding until his 
death in 1857. Dr. John Joseph Robinson was a Professor from 1850 to 
1855 and President and Professor from 1857 to 1861. Including these 
two, there were eight different full-time professors and eight tutors before 
the Civil War. All eight professors were ordained Presbyterian ministers 
whose training and experience placed them among the most scholarly 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 9 

educators on the frontier. They were versatile scholars, a professor some- 
times teaching at the same time courses ranging from mathematics to 
New Testament Greek. The names of the six professors, other than the 
two presidents, were: William Eagleton, Darius Hoyt, Samuel 
McCracken, Fielding Pope, John S. Craig, and Thomas Jefferson Lamar. 
Fuller information about them will appear later in this volume. 

The Maryville College campus of this period is described in detail in 
Chapter 3, hence only the outline of its development need be traced here. 
In 1 8 19 Isaac Anderson rented "a little brown house" on Main Street 
which was used for classes until the first purchased property was ready. 
Professor Craig later said that Dr. Anderson began his teaching without a 
building and without a cent of money. In 1820 the Directors bought for 
$600 a small two-story unfinished brick building on a half-lot, also on 
Main Street, which for lack of money was not finished enough to use for 
two or three years. It became known as the "Brick Seminary" and 
rendered useful service until the War. In 1824 an adjacent lot and a half, 
containing two little frame houses, was purchased for $400, the ground 
enlarging the first campus to a half acre, and the houses serving for a time 
as boarding facilities. In 1826 a farm of 200 acres with buildings on it, 
near the village, was purchased for $2,500, and for about ten years was 
cultivated by students as a self-help project, then sold. In 1835 a new 
two-story "Frame College" was completed on the half-acre campus. It 
had been five years under construction, work being done only when 
money came in. It was an ugly, barn-like building, occupied by the 
literary classes (college and preparatory) for twenty years; and then was 
removed to make way for the "Brick College." In the early 1850's, a 
property on Church Street near the campus was acquired and used as 
a boarding house even after the War. In 1856 the College occupied a 
section of the unfinished three-story Brick College begun three years 
before but never to be fully completed. An imposing building, of which 
Anderson Hall erected on the new campus after the war is a replica, it 
was so damaged in the War that it soon afterward collapsed. 

Three outside attempts to move the institution from Maryville were 
made during Dr. Anderson's lifetime. The original action in 1819 located 
the Seminary temporarily at Maryville, the permanent location to be 
decided by Synod in some future year. ( i ) In 1823 ministers west of the 
Cumberland Mountains attempted to have it moved to the Nashville 


area, but in a vigorous debate Dr. Anderson persuaded Synod to keep it in 
Maryville. (2) Four years later, in 1827, a proposal to unite it with an 
institution in Danville, Kentucky, gained headway but was defeated. ( 3 ) 
In 1856, with Dr. Anderson almost totally incapacitated and President in 
name only, the College had deteriorated in fact and in reputation. Offers 
of property and support were made for moving it to Rogersville, Tennes- 
see, but in the end Synod decided to build on existing foundations rather 
than to make a new start elsewhere. 

There were no funds at the beginning. Isaac Anderson did not have 
a salary in the early years, living on what he received as a pastor and from 
the farm he still owned in Knox County. For well over a half century 
salaries were low and uncertain. Income was very small from students 
who in the 1820's could pay little or nothing, some living at no charge in 
Dr. Anderson's home. As the years passed, more were able to pay 
something, but the charges were always low. The last catalog before the 
Civil War lists tuition at $25 a year, board at $1.80 a week, dormitory 
rooms free. Income from gifts of individuals and churches in the local 
area included money, food, clothing. But most contributions for both 
current and capital purposes came through "financial agents," one or 
more of whom were traveling for the College over the Southwest 
throughout those years. There was no gift before the Civil War as large 
as $1,000. Yet a plant was built, an endowment of 1 16,000 was estab- 
lished, a library of 6,000 volumes was assembled, the institution was kept 
in operation, and the final indebtedness was only 1 1,000. 

The End of an Era 

The Isaac Anderson biography in Chapter 5 tells of the stroke he 
suffered in his late sixties, of his last teaching in 1850, of the steady 
decline of his faculties from then until his death January 28, 1857. His 
going in one sense marked the end of an era. But within a few weeks on 
April 7, 1857, Dr. John Joseph Robinson, who had served five years as a 
professor under Dr. Anderson, became the second President and carried 
forward with success the program Dr. Anderson had developed. Thus the 
real end of the era came when, four years later, on April 22, 1861, eight 
days after the surrender of Ft. Sumter, Dr. Robinson held a final chapel 
service and announced the closing of the College because of "armed 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest ii 

hostilities." Of four faculty members, two (Professors Craig and Lamar) 
supported the Union, and two (President Robinson and an unnamed 
tutor) supported the Confederacy. Only one pre- War teacher or student 
ever returned to the College — Professor Lamar, to become its second 

Closed — Near Destruction: 1 861-1866 

Five and a half tragic years passed between the closing of the 
College in April, 1861, and its reopening. After the ravages of war and 
neglect, the prospects of ever reopening must have seemed hopeless to the 
few concerned friends left nearby. Both Union and Confederate soldiers 
had come and gone, camping in the vicinity and on the College grounds. 
The Brick Seminary building had been demolished; the larger, unfinished 
Brick College building was a windowless hulk; the frame boarding house 
a half block away was in pitiful condition; most equipment and library 
books were gone; and two thirds of the modest endowment had been lost. 
Furthermore, all the remaining property had been sold at sheriff's sale 
during the "War and could not be used until redeemed. The local commu- 
nity and all of East Tennessee, like the rest of the South, was disorganized 
and impoverished. Without doubt Maryville College would have ceased 
to exist if it had not been for Professor Thomas JeflFerson Lamar and a 
few others who loved it and believed it still had a mission. 

In the New South: 1866-1900 
The New South 

The Southwest had become the "South," and continues to be so in 
general usage, although for a long time it has been geographically the 
southeastern section of the nation. During the last third of the nine- 
teenth century, after the Civil War, a new South painfully but gradually 
came into being. 

Some of the new was bad. Impoverishment brought by the War 
would last far into the future. The bitterness of the conflict got written 
into political punishments of the South which almost destroyed for two 
decades the plans for harmony and goodwill which Lincoln had made. 


After his death, several strong political leaders, with a surprising spirit of 
vindictiveness, succeeded in getting Congress to pass, over President 
Andrew Johnson's veto, the Reconstruction Act. It divided the South into 
districts administered by generals of the U. S. Army, eliminated most real 
self-government, and made possible the shameful period of the "carpet- 
bagger." East Tennessee was on the border of the regions most affected, 
but it could not wholly escape the impact of events in other parts of the 

On the other hand, much in the new was good. All the States which 
had seceded returned to the Union; slavery was abolished, although it 
would take generations to create an interracial society of mutual friend- 
ship and justice; the old planter aristocracy was gone, and a more 
democratic ownership of land was begun; the unhappy rule of the 
misnamed Reconstruction Act came to an end, even though it left scars 
which are still sometimes visible; before the nineteenth century closed 
new plans for public education were initiated in each State, and a 
strengthening of the economy was felt as the industrial development, 
already widespread in the North, began to move into the South. 

The College Reopened, September 5, 1866 

The Synod of Tennessee held its first post- War meeting at New 
Market, Tennessee, on October 12-14, 1865. Professor Lamar, who had 
continued to live in Maryville and keep an eye on the deteriorating 
campus property throughout the War, reported the near hopeless condi- 
tion of the College, but recommended that steps be taken to reopen it. In 
a venture of faith, the Synod approved the recommendation, elected a 
new Board of Directors, and appointed Professor Lamar as financial agent 
to solicit funds. The new Board met at once, elected Professor Lamar as 
Chairman, and voted to reopen the College in February, 1866, if money 
could be found to redeem the property. Professor Lamar made a solicita- 
tion trip to the North, lasting from December, 1865, to April, 1866, but 
it was fruitless. The opening had to be postponed, but in July it was 
announced for September 5, 1866. On that day Professor Lamar himself 
conducted the first chapel service and the first classes in the old Brick 
College, then a ruin without doors or windows, with thirteen men 
students present. By the end of the academic year there were 47, two in 
the college department and forty-five in the preparatory department. 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 13 

Four Years on the Old Campus 1 866-18 jo 

Faculty. During that first academic year Professor Lamar and one 
tutor taught all the classes. At the beginning of the second year Rev. 
Alexander Bartlett, A.M., a graduate of Oberlin College and Theological 
Seminary in Ohio, began a service of sixteen years as a professor. Upon 
recommendation of Professor Lamar, who was Acting President but did 
not wish to be President, the Directors elected as President and Professor, 
Rev. Peter Mason Bartlett, A.M., a graduate of Williams College, Massa- 
chusetts, and of Union Theological Seminary, New York, a Seminary 
friend of Professor Lamar, and an older brother of Professor Alexander 
Bartlett. He began his service of eighteen years in March, 1869, and for 
the next six years these three strong, versatile professors, aided by tutors 
and assistant teachers, constituted the faculty. 

Contributions to the College materialized little by little. Several 
benefactors in the North became interested, chiefly through the efforts of 
Professor Lamar. The most generous were William Thaw of Pittsburgh, 
William E. Dodge and John C. Baldwin of New York. In 1867 Mr. 
Thaw sent the first $1,000 gift ever received by the College, and over the 
years he became the largest nineteenth-century donor. During the next 
twenty years, all three of these men made substantial contributions to 
current, building, and endowment funds. 

Facilities. For four years the program was conducted in what was 
left of the pre- War college plant. Some improvements were made as 
funds were secured, but the three-story brick building was really beyond 
repair, and in the spring of 1870 a main wall fell in. After that, classes 
were held in the dilapidated old boarding house on Church Street and 
some temporary premises, out-of-town students living wherever they 
could find accommodations, until the buildings on the new campus were 
completed in 1870 and 1871. The boarding house and lot were sold in 
1 87 1. The original half-acre campus, cleared of the ruins, was held for 
nearly twenty years, and then given to New Providence Church as a site 
for a new church building. 

Students. During the four years on the old campus, the enrollment 
was respectively 47, 63, 48, and 60; then jumped to 100 the first year on 
the new campus. A larger proportion than formerly were in the prepara- 
tory department, another indication of the disastrous eflfects of the War, 


and it was 1869 before the first post-War degree was conferred. This 
period saw the first enrollment of women regular students, with four in 
1 867-1868, six the next year, and eleven the third year. From that time 
Maryville was a coeducational college. 

The interracial policy of the College was reaffirmed in a memorable 
action of the Board of Directors on September 28, 1867. The resolution 
adopted stated that Negro youth "were in the days of slavery educated in 
this institution and now stand as alumni on its catalogue ... if there was 
no exclusion during the proscriptive reign of slavery, by reason of race or 
color, there can be no adequate reason for such exclusion now. . . . We 
deem it much to the credit of this institution that it has from its very 
existence, stood upon a broad Christian basis excluding none from its 
benefits by reason of their race or color." 

A New Campus 

With the first $1,000 gift from Mr. Thaw and a promissory note, 
sixty acres of high ground just east of the town had been purchased in the 
fall of 1867, for $1,691.50. There were urgent current needs for that 
$1,000, but new facilities were absolutely necessary. The buildings had to 
wait for further gifts. But by 1868 there was enough money to erect a 
professor's residence; and by 1869 it was possible to start construction of 
a classroom building which was occupied in the fall of 1870. Two 
dormitories were completed in 1 87 1 . 

The academic building was essentially a reproduction of the old 
Brick College, and was named Anderson Hall in memory of the founder. 
The dormitories were called Baldwin Hall for a principal donor, and 
Memorial Hall, commemorating a Presbyterian church union of 1869. 
The extensive grounds and three-story buildings on "The Hill" must have 
seemed quite magnificent in East Tennessee that soon after the War. 
They represented a noteworthy achievement by Thomas Jefferson Lamar, 
the second founder, President Bartlett, and their colleagues. A history of 
the Synod of Tennessee, published a few years later, said: 

Their success was remarkable. The results achieved were: (here follows a 
description of the grounds and buildings at the end of 1871 ) . . . . The entire 
cost of these, with needful improvements and furniture, was about $60,000; 
all free of debt. All the funds were drawn from the North excepting about 
$4,000. . . . There was also added to the endowment fund $8,000, making 
with what remained at the end of the war, $13,300. 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 15 

This summary tells a great deal about the progress which the 
revived college had made in five years. It reflects also the limited eco- 
nomic capacity of the post- War South and the beginning of generous 
interest and confidence on the part of well-to-do churchmen in the North, 
on whom Maryville College was to depend for a long time to come. 

A Decade of Firsts — the iSyo's 

The first, though not the last, economic depression centered in the 
North, to have a direct effect upon Maryville College located in the 
South, followed the Panic of 1873. The College, which lived largely on 
current contributions from the North, had its income seriously reduced, 
and faculty salaries were increasingly in arrears. The necessity of a larger 
endowment was clear, but there was no immediate way to obtain it. In 
addition to depressed financial conditions, the Directors found their title 
to the College's assets challenged in the courts by some of the pre- War 
directors, a matter not settled until 1 880. 

But the 1870's saw some solid progress. For the first time in its 
history the College had adequate facilities. Attendance increased steadily 
from 100 to 200, and 39 graduated with the B.A. degree. The first degree 
received by a woman from Maryville College, or from any college in 
Tennessee, was conferred upon Mary T. Wilson in 1875, At the opening 
of the decade there were three professors and one assistant teacher, and at 
the close five professors and four assistant teachers. The first February 
Meetings, which became the major annual evangelistic and spiritual 
emphasis program, were held in 1877. The first six of a long list of 
Maryville students to become foreign missionaries were students in those 

Progress and Problems in the i88o's 

The lawsuit against the College concerning ownership and control, 
which had been in litigation eight years, was dismissed in 1880. This 
cleared the way for a campaign to raise a much needed $100,000 
endowment fund. Professor Lamar gave most of his time to this effort for 
the next three years, spending many months in the North. On the last day 
of 1883, which was the final day of grace for several large conditional 
subscriptions, two additional pledges brought the total to the required 
$100,000. This, added to the existing fund of $13,300, gave the College 


its first substantial endowment and soon strengthened greatly its program 
and prospects. 

Two men destined to play major roles in the institution's future, 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson (President, 1901-1930) and Edgar Alonzo 
Elmore (Chairman of the Board, 1906-1927) were appointed professors 
in 1884; the campus was enlarged in 1885 from 65 to 250 acres; the 
enrollment increased in the i88o's from 200 to 300, and the faculty from 
nine to seventeen. In 1888, after the death of Professor Lamar, the Lamar 
Memorial Library was built (in 1969 it is the College bookstore and post 
office). The names of the major donors were once more Thaw, Dodge, 
Willard. This attractive little building was the first to be erected after the 
original four on the new campus. 

But these years took away the triumvirate most directly involved in 
rebuilding the College. Professor Alexander Bartlett died in 1883, after 
sixteen years of service; Thomas Jefferson Lamar died in 1887, after 
thirty years as Professor and second founder; and President Peter Mason 
Bartlett retired in 1887. 

The Fourth Presidency (1889-1^01) 

There was a two-year interim between the third and fourth presiden- 
cies. Administration of the college was directed by a "Chairman of the 
Faculty," Professor Edgar Alonzo Elmore the first year and Professor 
James Elcana Rogers the second year. In the fall of 1889, Rev. Samuel 
Ward Boardman, A.M., D.D., a native of New England but at that time a 
Presbyterian pastor in New Jersey, began what proved to be a twelve-year 
term as President and Professor of Mental and Moral Science. Dr. 
Boardman was the first president not to be ex officio Chairman of the 
Directors, the Bylaws having been amended during the interim making 
the chairmanship elective. Rev. William H. Lyle, D.D., a director since 
the Civil War, became the first elected Chairman, a post he held for the 
next fifteen years. 

In the Nineties 

The bitterness in the South caused by the Civil War and the 
Reconstruction Act were receding somewhat by the 1890's; and in spite 
of the disasterous nationwide economic depression that began in 1893 
and the Spanish- American War in 1898, the College under President 
Boardman continued to grow. 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 17 

Important additions were made to the physical plant. Willard Me- 
morial was built in 1890 as the president's residence. From the unexpected 
Fayerweather bequest, an annex to Anderson Hall was erected, more than 
doubling that building's original capacity; the College's first central 
heating plant was constructed; the first electric lights were installed; 
Baldwin Hall, the women's dormitory, was enlarged and an all-campus 
dining hall added to it; construction of Bartlett Hall, as a Y.M.C.A. and 
athletic center, was started; and Fayerweather Science Hall was built. In 
the 1890's student enrollment increased again by 100, from 300 to 400, 
with one fourth in the college department. From 1891 to 1901, Professor 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson served not only as a teacher but also as the 
College's first Dean. 

In the Twentieth Century: 1900-1969 

At the Turn of the Century 

Maryville College crossed from the nineteenth to the twentieth 
century eighty-one years after Isaac Anderson launched it on its course, 
and thirty-four years after Thomas Jefferson Lamar began to rebuild it 
following the Civil War. It was still a modest institution, but had grown 
steadily more substantial, especially after the successful endowment cam- 
paign in the early i88o's and the first installment payments of the 
Fayerweather bequest in the 1890's. 

In 1900 the College could report the following: a campus of 250 
acres on which were nine buildings; an endowment of $247,364 (a 
dollar was worth more than in the 1960's); no major outstanding 
indebtedness; a faculty of sixteen professors and instructors; an enroll- 
ment of 402 (93 college, 309 preparatory students); annual charges of 
tuition 1 1 2, room $6, heat $6, electric light $2, board about 1 1.2 5 per 
week, laundry about |io; total from $80 to $125. 

In Nation and College Since 1^00 

In the United States since 1900 the population has almost trebled, 
with the proportion in urban areas shifting from one fourth to almost 
three fourths of the whole. Medical progress has raised the average life 
expectancy from forty-seven to seventy years. The social order and much 
of personal living have been revolutionized by the automobile, the air- 
plane, the motion picture, the radio, television, and a multitude of other 


technological inventions. In the same period the nation and the world 
have been staggered by history's most disastrous wars and most extreme 
economic fluctuations. At the middle of this century atomic power was 
harnessed to serve man and at the same time to threaten his 

Much has happened at Maryville College also during these twen- 
tieth-century years. The College has increased its faculty of instruction 
from sixteen to sixty; has graduated nearly 6,000 students (there were 
but 217 between the Civil War and 1900); has increased its campus 
facilities from nine buildings to twenty-nine, and its endowment from a 
quarter of a million to three and a half million dollars; has closed the 
preparatory department (in 1925) and increased its college-grade stu- 
dents from 93 to 800; has retained its church-relatedness and Christian 
objective; has revised its curriculum and program from time to time in 
accord with changing needs, basic purpose, and facilities; has received 
selective accreditation as a four-year college of arts and sciences; has had 
three presidents; has celebrated its centennial, and is preparing for its 

The Fifth Presidency (ic,oi-iC)^o) 

In May, 1901, President Boardman, having reached the age of 
seventy, retired from office, and the Rev. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, A.M., 
D.D., was elected fifth President. He was a Maryville graduate of 1878, 
had been since 1884 Professor of the English Language and Literature 
and of the Spanish Language, and during the 1890's was also Dean, 
Registrar, and Assistant Treasurer. His service as President continued 
through twenty-nine years, during which time the financial assets of the 
College multiplied approximately tenfold and the institution became 
established and recognized by twentieth-century standards. 

A New Period of Expansion 

In the final fifteen years of the nineteenth century the enrollment 
had doubled. All facilities were crowded, and annual income became 
more and more inadequate. President Wilson began very soon to spend 
longer periods away from the College in search of funds than any one 
had done since Professor Lamar's campaigns twenty years earlier. He 

The 1 ^0-Year Story — A Digest 19 

continued to teach two thirds of each college year, and spent much of the 
other months in the field, chiefly in the North. A conservative pay-as- 
you-go policy was adopted, whereby new buildings would wait until 
funds were in hand and the operating expense would be held within 
income. That slowed down expansion and sometimes led to difficult 
economies, but it prevented deficits and interest expense. As is well 
known, this is no longer the prevailing practice among American 

Soon new friends were found and some old ones came forward, and 
expanded facilities and endowment began to materialize. Major additions 
to the plant included a second enlargement of the women's dormitory, 
Baldwin Hall, in 1904; a third story to Fayerweather Science Hall in 
1913; and the erection of four buildings: Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel 
in 1906; a college infirmary in 19 10; a second women's dormitory, 
Pearsons Hall, in 19 10 (enlarged in 1912); and a second men's dormi- 
tory, Carnegie Hall, in 1910. A swimming pool in its own building was 
added in 191 5, promoted and in part financed by students. A major 
campus loss was the destruction of Carnegie Hall by fire in 1916, but its 
rebuilding, double the original size, was covered by insurance and gifts 
received in a local community campaign. Meanwhile between the turn of 
the century and the rebuilding of Carnegie Hall in 19 16, the enrollment 
had doubled. 


When the United States entered the War in the spring of 19 17, 
there were 801 students (292 college and 509 preparatory) enrolled at 
Maryville. The number dropped only to 748 the next year, and during 
the college year in which the War ended, it went up to 826 (320 college 
and 506 preparatory), the highest in the College's history to that time. 
The situation was to be very different in World War II a quarter of a 
century later, when most men students were drafted into military 

In 1 9 17 some Maryville students enlisted and left school, but most 
of them remained in the Students' Army Training Corps (S.A.T.C.) 
which the United States installed on college and university campuses. 
Men students of military age (eighteen and over) who enlisted in the 
Training Corps were mustered into the national Army, with pay. They 


were enrolled in a modified college course and as Company A lived and 
received military training under assigned army officers. There was also on 
the campus a Company B made up of students under military age who 
merely wanted the drill. President Samuel Tyndale Wilson wrote after- 
ward that the College found the S.A.T.C. a "difficult, uncongenial, and 
embarrassing" program but cooperated with the War Department in it. 
However, the plan did allow men students to remain in college. Of course 
the War so involved America's attention and energy that until it was 
over, most normal development programs at all colleges had to be 

The Centennial 

The One Hundredth Anniversary of Maryville College was cele- 
brated in a series of appropriate and impressive events, culminating at the 
19 1 9 Commencement with a notable historical pageant. Preparation for 
the Centennial began three years in advance, and the "follow-up" con- 
tinued several years beyond 19 19. The aim was to commemorate and 
honor the past, and also to launch an advance movement into the future. 
To these ends President Wilson in 19 16 wrote and published a 2 62 -page 
history of the College, "a character sketch" he called it, entitled, 
A Century of Maryville College — A Story of Altruism. 

In 19 16 the Centennial Forward Fund was announced, was in 
abeyance during the War, and was completed in 1919, with a total of 
$500,000 raised for capital purposes. Between 192 1 and 1925, there were 
two "Emergency Fund" campaigns for additional capital funds which 
produced respectively $300,000 and $100,000. 

In 1920, the year following the Centennial, the Directors decided 
that the development of public high schools in the Southern Appalachian 
region made it possible and practicable to discontinue the Preparatory 
Department, and its gradual closing was completed in 1925. In 1920 
there were 452 college and 551 preparatory students enrolled (a total of 
1,003). I^ 1926, the first year in the College's history without prepara- 
tory-grade students, the enrollment was 676, growing to 751 the follow- 
ing year. In 19 19, the Centennial year, the number of graduates receiving 
degrees was 30 and in 1926 it was 71. It passed the 100 mark for the first 
time in 1929. 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 21 


As expected, the closing of the preparatory department reduced 
current income and increased the expense, but it created more favorable 
conditions for quality higher education. In 1922 Maryville became a 
member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, 
which meant official accreditation as a four-year college of arts and 
sciences. By the end of the 1920's it was on the approved list of the 
American Medical Association; and was a member of the American 
Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, the Liberal 
Arts College Movement, the Tennessee College Association, and the 
Presbyterian College Union. 

The Sixth Presidency (icf^o-ic)6i) 

Dr. Wilson had wished to retire at the age of seventy, but had been 
persuaded to continue. However, he made it known quietly to the Direc- 
tors that he would continue in office only two more years. Therefore, 
when they received his formal resignation at the meeting of June 5, 1930, 
they were prepared to consider a successor. A call was extended to Rev. 
Ralph Waldo Lloyd, D.D., age 37, a Maryville College graduate, then 
Pastor of Edgewood Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh. Dr. Lloyd accepted 
the call in September and entered upon his duties November 29, 1930, 
three months after Dr. Wilson had closed his work. During the interim, 
Edwin Ray Hunter, Ph.D., Professor of English, served as Chairman of 
the Faculty. 

The Depression Years 

Maryville College had felt the effects of the Panics of 1893 and 
1907 but these did not cut into the national economy so deeply or so long 
as did the "Great Depression" set off by the stock market crash of 1929. 
While Maryville's investments escaped the disasters reported by some 
institutions, it like all American colleges had to learn to live with 
depressed income, paralysis of large gifts, and students with little money. 
Providentially it did learn rather well. The rate of physical plant expan- 
sion and renewal became much slower, but when preparation for war 
ironically brought back national prosperity, the College was still practi- 


cally free of debt and had a capacity enrollment. Students came from 
other sections of the country in search of a college which combined low 
fees, high academic rating, and religious emphasis. During the 1930's the 
average attendance was 817, compared to 654 in the 1920's. 

There had been also other important advances. The campus land 
was extended in 1935 from 275 to 320 acres. "Morningside," later to 
become the president's residence, was built in the College Woods. In 
1939 a much needed new heating plant was constructed at one edge of 
the campus, removing the volumes of soft-coal smoke which the old 
plant at the center of the campus had given off since 1893; an annex 
increased the dining hall capacity fifty percent; campus entrance gates 
were built; and considerable progress was made in development of the 
college grounds. 

There was significant progress in the strengthening of academic 
standards and in national recognition. In 1932 the Association of Ameri- 
can Universities placed Maryville on its list of the colleges whose gradu- 
ates were approved for graduate study, at that time the highest formal 
institutional accreditation available. In 1942 came election as an associate 
liberal arts member of the National Association of Schools of Music, and 
as an institutional member of the American Association of University 

World War II 

A chief difference between the effects of the two World Wars upon 
American colleges and universities was this: In World War I, as has been 
seen, most students were permitted to remain in college by enlisting in 
the S.A.T.C, an Army unit of students training on the campus; in World 
War II, all students of military age were subject to selective service. At 
Maryville, there were 813 students, including 365 men, in 1 940-1 941; 
but in 1 944- 1 94 5, there were 458, including only 61 men. The numbers 
were still down when the War ended, but the next fall surged above 
pre-War levels. 

The war-time program included three parts: the ongoing four-year 
degree schedule; a summer session which made possible a continuous 
accelerated time-table; and provision of accommodations and special 
academic instruction for an Army Air Forces pre-flight training schedule 
for a unit of 300 men. Transfers of cadets in and out were too irregular to 




Founder, 1819; First President and Chairman 

of the Directors, 1819-1857 



Second President and Chairman of the 

Directors, 1857-1861 



Second Founder, 1866; Chairman of the 

Directors, 1865-1869; Professor of 

Languages, 1857-1887 



Third President and Chairman of the 

Directors, 1869-1887 


Fourth President, 1889-1901 



Professor of English and Spanish, 

1884-1901; Fifth President, 1901-1930; 

President Emeritus, 1930-1944 


Sixth President 1930-1961; President 

Emeritus, 1961- 

Seventh President, 1961- 

Chairman of the Directors, 1890-1905 


Chairman of the Directors, 1906-1927; 

Nine times leader of February Meetings, 

during years 1888-1924 

Chairman of the Directors, 1927-1932 

Chairman of the Directors, 1932-1953 


Recorder of the Directors, 1949-1953; 

Chairman of the Directors, 1953- 

Treasurer, 1884-1900 


Recorder of the Directors, 1891-1914; 

Treasurer, 1900-1914 


Instructor, 1908-1911; Principal of the 

Preparatory Department, 1911-1914; Treasurer 

and Recorder of the Directors, 1914-1943 


Acting Treasurer, 1944-1948; Recorder of 

the Directors, 1944-1949 

Treasurer, 1948-1954 


Director of Student-Help, 1918-1950; 

Administrative Secretary, 1934-1950; 

Special Assistant to the President, 

1950-1952; Acting Treasurer, 1954-1955; 

Recorder of the Directors, 1953-1962 

Treasurer, 1956- 


Professor of Mathematics, 1875-1891; 

Registrar, 1888-1891; Recorder of the 

Directors, 1876-1891 

Recorder of the Directors, 1962- 


Professor of Mathematics, 1891-1913; 

Secretary of the Faculty, 1892-1913; 

Dean of the College, 1905-1913 


Principal of the Preparatory Department, 

1892-1904; Professor of Psychology and 

Political Science, 1903-1919; Professor of 

Psychology and Education, 1919-1931; 

Dean of the College, 1914-1930 


Professor of English, 1918-1967; Secretary 

of the Faculty, 1920-1930; Dean of the 

College, 1930-1935; Dean of Curriculum, 



Dean of Students, 1937-1957; Dean of the 

College, 1957-1967; Dean Emeritus and 

Assistant to the President, 1967- 

Dean of the College, 1967- 

Dean of Students, 1965- 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 23 

permit sustained class work. But student and military programs conducted 
simultaneously on the campus went forward more satisfactorily than 
might have been expected. The financial contract, although held to 
moderate figures by the U. S. Government, did much to compensate for 
war-time loss of the College's usual income. 

i2ph Anniversary 

The College's 125th anniversary, on October 19, 1944, came at the 
height of the War, and of necessity the observance was simple and 
restrained. It consisted of morning and afternoon convocations in Eliza- 
beth R. Voorhees Chapel on October 22, at which a historical statement 
was read by the President of the College; greetings were extended by 
representative fraternal guests; and addresses were delivered by the Mod- 
erators of the General Assemblies of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. and the Presbyterian Church in the U. S., which were one Church 
in 1819. 

Post-War Events 

During and for several years after the War, individual colleges, 
higher education associations, and government agencies were much occu- 
pied with what was generally termed "post- War planning." In mid- 1946, 
the President of the United States, referring to hundreds of thousands of 
veterans returning to college, appointed The President's Commission on 
Higher Education to examine and make recommendations regarding 
"Higher Education for American Democracy." Its multi-volume report at 
the end of 1947 established many of the guidelines for the years follow- 
ing, guidelines particularly influential in expanding tax-supported junior 
colleges, colleges, and universities. 

Veterans did return, and for five years Maryville had its highest 
average attendance. Three war-surplus frame buildings contributed by the 
Federal Government — an intramural gymnasium, a student center, and an 
office annex — are still in use after more than twenty years. About that 
time (1947) the Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel, built in 1906, was 
destroyed by fire, and the Alumni Gymnasium served as a chapel, audito- 
rium, and theatre for the next seven years. Enrollment after the post- War 
veterans graduated dropped during a period of small high school classes. 
It was 713 in 1952 and 755 in 1962, but up to 852 in 1967-1968. 


To replace and enlarge the music facilities lost in the Chapel fire, 
and to provide teaching studios and galleries for art, Mr. and Mrs. Glen 
Alfred Lloyd, of Chicago, contributed funds to build and equip the Fine 
Arts Center in memory of their infant daughter Ann Baldwin Lloyd. 
Completed in 1949, its contemporary design and construction created 
much interest in the area and attracted nation-wide attention and study. 
Ultimately new built-in music equipment included large pipe organs in 
the Fine Arts Music Hall and the Chapel auditorium and a smaller pipe 
organ in the Little Chapel. 

On the site of the old Chapel there was completed in 1954 a 
building complex, containing a chapel- auditorium with seating capacity 
of 1,150; a little chapel to seat 50; a theatre with stage of standard size 
and equipment and a seating capacity of 450; and various class, office, 
and storage rooms. It was named Samuel Tyndale Wilson Chapel, in 
honor of Maryville's fifth President. 

Immediately after the U. S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision declaring 
school segregation laws unconstitutional, Maryville College resumed its 
original policy and practice of admitting qualified applicants irrespective 
of race or color. By a Tennessee law passed in 1 901, it had been forced to 
suspend enrollment of Negroes. Each year since 1954, there have been 
some Negro students, although the number has not yet become as large as 
desired. The Maryville integration story will be told in a later chapter. 

In line with recommendations of the President's Commission on 
Higher Education that Federal support be increased, Congress by the late 
1950's made available to church- related and independent as well as 
tax-supported colleges, long-term loans at low interest rates, for construc- 
tion of student housing. There was vigorous debate among private college 
leaders about the dangers of government financing and control. Housing 
loans are secured by the equivalent of mortgages to the U. S. Govern- 
ment. But gradually as needs of the institutions and availability of funds 
increased, fears decreased and private colleges joined public ones in 
applying for loans. By the middle of the 1960's practically no college 
dormitories or dining halls were being built anywhere in the United 
States except through Federal Housing Loans. And as this is written 
private colleges are also receiving Federal grants for science, health and 
other buildings. What the ultimate outcome will be, no one presumes to 


The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 25 

Maryville College's first federal loans were obtained in 1958 and 
1959, to cover approximately half of the construction cost of the Mar- 
garet Bell Lloyd Residence for Women and most of the cost of rehabili- 
tating three existing dormitories, Carnegie, Pearsons, and Memorial. In 
1966, three new residence halls were built, chiefly with federal loans. 
While these loans create for decades to come interest obligations which 
will take all the revenues from the dormitories, yet they provide new 
buildings without the delay usually accompanying the uncertain process 
of obtaining contributions from private sources. 

During the 1950's the current budget grew thirty-five percent; total 
instructional salaries increased fifty-five percent; and important supple- 
mentary financial benefits through insurance and retirement provisions 
for faculty and staff were established. 

Long-Range Plans 

In 1956 a Long-Range Planning Committee was appointed, com- 
posed of directors, officers, and faculty, with the President of the College 
as chairman. Based upon studies and recommendations of this Committee, 
the Board of Directors announced in February, i960, a ten-year Sesqui- 
centennial Development Program, to culminate at the College's 150th 
anniversary in 1969. This program was built around a list of specific 
essentials in the long-range purpose and plans which the Directors had 
set before the College as to its nature, facilities, and work. It initially 
included the raising of $6 million for capital and current uses. The 
announcement stated that "Maryville College has a long and honorable 
history. . . . But the future, in which the church-related Christian college 
has an essential role to play, presents a challenge to strengthen and 
expand our program and facilities for service which makes necessary this 
Sesquicentennial Development Program." 

The Seventh Presidency ( ig6i- ) 

At the end of July, 1961, Dr. Lloyd closed his service of thirty-one 
years as President, and was elected President Emeritus. In his letter of 
resignation eight months earlier, he had said: "My successor should now 
have opportunity to assume leadership as early as possible in this compre- 
hensive (Sesquicentennial) program, which I have helped to outline and 
initiate, but which in the course of human events I could not see through 


to completion, having reached the age of sixty-eight." Rev. Joseph J. 
Copeland, D.D., LL.D., aged forty-seven, Pastor of Second Presbyterian 
Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, and a Director of the College, was elected 
in March as Dr. Lloyd's successor, and on August i, 1961, entered upon 
his duties. 

Developments in the icf6o's 

The national economic inflation of the 1950's continued and in- 
creased rapidly in the 1960's. This soon made it necessary to raise the 
Sesquicentennial financial goal from |6 million to $7 million. The 
campaign launched in i960 more and more commanded the time of the 
new President, and it met with gratifying success. 

By June, 1966, the $7 million goal was reached, and was extended 
to |i2 million. In that year the three new residence halls were completed 
and occupied. Baldwin Hall, used as a women's dormitory since 1871, but 
now in poor condition and not needed, was taken down in 1968, an event 
of sentimental interest to many alumnae. Sutton Science Center, com- 
pleted in 1968, is the most costly and most fully equipped building in 
Maryville history. It adds immeasurably to the College's instructional 
possibilities. The approximate cost was $1,275,000, toward which the 
federal government made grants totaling $562,300. Projected for the 
near future, and included in the Sesquicentennial financial campaign, are 
a fireproof Library building, the first unit of which is estimated to cost $1 
million; enlarged Student Center facilities; and a new Health and Physi- 
cal Education building, to cost approximately $iVi million. There have 
been marked advances also in current funds, the operating budget having 
increased 95 percent since i960, and the instructional salary budget 100 

"New Occasions Teach New Duties" 

There have been, during the 1960's, several important changes in 
the College's posture and program. Following an Institutional Self-Study 
in 1 960-1 96 1 and a reevaluation by the regional accrediting body, the 
College in 1962 reorganized its curriculum and faculty, and returned to a 
plan of departments from that of divisions adopted twenty years earlier. 
In 1967 a new statement of Purpose and Objectives was approved by the 
Faculty and the Directors. In the same year, after a long intensive study, a 

The I ^0-Year Story — A Digest 27 

significant new curriculum and schedule were inaugurated. Some detailed 
information regarding these new approaches will be given in later 

One prominent feature in the new schedule is the "Interim Term." 
For four weeks in November and December classes are suspended and 
students participate in informal study groups on and off campus, formal 
lecture sessions, or independent work. In 1968 one group of thirty 
students went to the Middle East on a Study Tour of Bible Lands (an 
incidental evidence of change in the economic ability of Maryville 
students ) . 

Another new program is the Community Issues and Values series, 
consisting of a weekly one-hour convocation, at which attendance of all 
students is required, for presentation of "crucial issues of the day in 
religion, politics, economics, social relations, and personal living, and the 
kinds of values by which those issues may be dealt with." This replaces 
the traditional daily required chapel services which had been in schedules 
from the institution's beginning. Also the annual "February Meetings" 
with their daily services, established in 1877, are replaced by special 
preaching missions on the week-ends of a month in the winter term. 

The amount charged the student by Maryville College has usually 
been lower than that at most comparable institutions. But it has steadily 
increased in the twentieth century, with marked acceleration under the 
pressures of the 1960's. While there is no satisfactory way to compare the 
significance of money values in different periods, the figures nevertheless 
are interesting. Here are average approximate amounts per year paid by 
students, in different periods since 1900, for tuition, room, and board: 
$125 in 1900; $200 in 1920; $300 in 1930; $330 in 1940; |6oo in 
1950; $1,000 in i960; $1,500 in 1965; $1,900 in 1968; $2,100 in 1969. 
The tuition fee moved up from $18 a year in 191 5 to $50 in 1930, to 
$240 in 1950, to $1,150 in 1969. 

Changes in the pattern of campus life and work have been in the 
general direction of a college community with fewer regulations and 
more participation by students and faculty in institutional policy making 
and administration. At the time of this writing, an All-College Council, 
composed equally of administrative officers, faculty, and students, has 
been authori2ed by the Board of Directors. 

Perhaps the most important changes in every period of a college's 


life are those in the personnel of directors, faculty, and staflF. In the long 
history of Maryville College there has been the inevitable procession of 
these. They have not been distributed evenly over the years, and the 
number in the 1960's has been considerable. But an institutional life-time 
roll call reveals a rather remarkable degree of continuity, a fact of 
importance to the ongoing purpose and program of the College. 

The Sesqukentennial 

One hundred fifty years: 18 19 — Isaac Anderson; an ambitious, al- 
truistic plan; five students; no property or money; Synod action; a 
Constitution; thirty-six Directors. 1861 — Civil War, the College closed. 
1866 — Thomas Jefferson Lamar; the College reopened; one wrecked 
building; thirteen students. 1869 — Semicentennial; new sixty-acre cam- 
pus; three buildings started; sixty students (ten college, fifty prepara- 
tory). 19 1 9 — Centennial; two hundred fifty-acre campus; sixteen build- 
ings; three hundred college (and five hundred preparatory) students. 
ip6c) — Sesquicentennial; three hundred seventy-five- acre campus; thirty 
buildings; eight hundred college students. 

The oflacial anniversary date is October 19, 1969. For ten years a 
Sesquicentennial Development Program has been in progress. Beginning 
with the 1969 Commencement, there will be a year-long series of cele- 
brating events, looking to the past and to the future. 

Chapter Zu The Influence 
of Geography 

Throughout its whole life, Maryville College has been markedly 
influenced in character and development by its geographical location — at 
Maryville, East Tennessee, in the upper Tennessee River Valley of the 
Southern Appalachian Mountains, All who know American geography, 
history, and economic development will recognize at once certain forma- 
tive elements in this location. 

The upper Tennessee Valley lies between the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains and the Cumberland Mountains, each a part of the Appalachian 
range which extends from New England to Alabama. The Smokies, as 
they are commonly called, rise to more than 6,000 feet and form the 
boundary between Tennessee and North Carolina. The Cumberlands, not 
so high, cross into Tennessee from Kentucky. The Valley is 50 to 75 
miles wide in East Tennessee, with rolling land and hills of considerable 
size. The foothills of the Smokies, only ten miles from the Maryville 
campus, which itself has an elevation of 1,000 feet, rise to 2,000 feet and 

This of course is in one of the States on whose soil the Civil War 
was fought. Maryville College, closed five years, had to make a new start 
and then to face all the emotional, economic, and racial problems that 
arose in the aftermath of the "War. The influence of geography on the 
College, from its beginning, has indeed been important and varied. 



Birth on the Frontier 

The account of the College's birth, given in Chapter i, emphasizes 
the remoteness and primitive conditions of the southwest frontier as 
factors which brought the institution into being. While the basic motiva- 
tions were religious, the impelling reasons for the steps taken at that time 
by Isaac Anderson and his fellow Presbyterians were in large measure 
geographical. This belongs to the dramatic story of the American fron- 

When the Revolution ended, the area from the Appalachian Moun- 
tains to the Mississippi River was still a wilderness inhabited by Indian 
tribes. It was divided by the Ohio River into what came to be known in 
history as the Old Northwest (now commonly called the Middle West) 
and the Old Southwest (now commonly called the South) . 

The vast region west of the Mississippi to the Pacific was largely 
unknown and most of it was claimed by other nations. It took the new 
United States fifty years to acquire the whole of it. Just after Isaac 
Anderson opened his Union Academy north of Knoxville in East Tennes- 
see, the United States through the Louisiana Purchase from France 
extended its border from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. This 
immense territory, bought for $15 million, included all or portions of 
thirteen present States: Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, 
Wyoming, and Montana. In the very year that Maryville College was 
established, agreement was reached for the purchase of Florida from 
Spain. The College was seventeen years old when Texas won its inde- 
pendence from Mexico and elected as President General Sam Houston, 
who twenty years earlier had been an academy student of Isaac Anderson 
in Maryville; was twenty-six years old when Texas was annexed by the 
United States; was twenty-seven when the "Oregon Country" was divided 
by treaty with Great Britain; and twenty-nine when all the territory, now 
comprising California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona, was 
obtained from Mexico, by war and purchase. 

The development of the continent could be accomplished only by 
occupying land inhabited by Indian tribes long before America was 
discovered. There is no way of knowing accurately how many Indians 
there were when the first white settlers arrived on the Atlantic shores in 

The Influence of Geography 31 

the i6oo's. But the number then within the boundaries of the present 
United States has been estimated as about 500,000. (The U. S. Census 
figure for 1900 was only 237,196; but for i960 it was 523,591.) In the 
early years they were a primitive people, many tribes were warlike, and 
life on the frontiers was perilous. Stories of Indian massacres have 
become part of the American folklore. Their resistance to the white man's 
advance is understandable, even though individuals and government had 
to overcome this resistance, or retreat from the continent. The record 
contains many accounts of brave, just, and wise dealings. Yet some of the 
most regrettable acts in the nation's history were connected with the 
"conquest" of the American Indian. The ways in which he was often 
forced from the land which he considered his own cannot be defended 
with good conscience. The Cherokees, one of the most civilized of the 
Indian tribes, lived in the very country where Maryville College is located 
and some were enrolled as students. But in 1838, a majority were 
deported by U. S. armed forces to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Many 
took refuge in the Great Smoky Mountains and their descendents are 
today on a reservation in western North Carolina, over the mountains 
from Maryville. 

In more recent times, the federal government has endeavored to 
develop a constructive and benevolent national policy. Every Indian has 
been allotted a limited amount of land within assigned Reservations 
where there are provided needed economic, health, and educational bene- 
fits. Some Reservations have been discontinued (as in Oklahoma) and 
the Indians integrated as citizens of the United States. But the unfortun- 
ate events of the past cannot be changed, and the overall problem of the 
American Indian's status and development in the American nation has 
not yet been adequately solved. 

As settlements moved westward across the continent, there were 
various types of pioneers. The first always was the hunter and trapper — 
Daniel Boone in Tennessee and Kentucky, Jim Bridger in the Rocky 
Mountains, and a procession of others. There were the explorers like 
Lewis and Clarke, the gold rushers, the cowboys, the soldiers like Captain 
Pike, the missionaries like Marcus Whitman, the educators like Isaac 
Anderson in the old Southwest and Sheldon Jackson a half century later 
in the new Northwest. 

With the passing of time, life on the frontier has, of course, been 


idealized. It has been extensively reproduced in motion pictures, and in 
the 1960's, televised "westerns," adventures of Daniel Boone, and other 
stories of the frontier have been very popular. Many are skillfully done, 
but they are recognized as freely imaginative and fictional, picturing 
chiefly dramatic episodes (often with an unbelievable amount of shoot- 
ing), rather than the daily toil, resourcefulness, and endurance that 
gradually transformed the frontiers. 

Life on every frontier, including that in Tennessee, was in reality 
harsh and demanding. Not only was there for the first pioneers the 
danger of attack by Indian tribes; there were the wilderness, the desert- 
like plains, the mountains, the rocks, the mud, the dust, the loneliness, the 
ugly little towns with their saloons and trading stores. There was the lack 
of schools and churches and medical care and money and news and firm 
government. The frontier was no place for weaklings. To survive at all 
was a rugged business for men and women alike, and the possibility of 
building a society of comfort, culture, and character must have seemed 

Yet before the nineteenth century closed, there were farms, ranches, 
factories, towns, and cities from the Atlantic to the Pacific. There were 
Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Omaha; Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans; 
Denver, Salt Lake City, and San Francisco. The acquiring, settling, and 
developing of the vast region west of the Appalachians within the 
century fills one of the truly amazing chapters in the history of civiliza- 

It could not have happened without qualities of personal strength 
which frontier life bred in a large proportion of the pioneers. There were 
the uncouth and unscrupulous. But in many men, women, and youth, the 
frontier developed characteristics possessed, for example, by the founders 
of Maryville College. One was self-reliance, for frontiermen had to learn 
to stand on their own feet. This produced an emphasis on individual 
rights and responsibilities, which are basic elements in American democ- 
racy. The conviction that "all men are created equal" was strengthened by 
the fact that men were judged by what they were and what they did 
rather than by their social class or background. The unusual freedom of 
the frontier fostered a spirit of independence, a quality especially prized 
in America and one essential to effective and progressive living in every 

The Influence of Geography 33 

age and situation. But it often ran to extremes and produced lawlessness, 
which made necessary on every frontier community organization in the 
interest of law and order and cooperative effort. 

Maryville College was established twenty-three years after Tennes- 
see became a State; twenty-four years after the town of Maryville was 
incorporated as the county seat; and but thirty-four years after Fort Craig 
and the houses of the first settlers were built where the town was later 
established. The conditions of the region then and for many more years 
were those of the frontier. It was still fifteen years before the first 
settlement of Chattanooga or the incorporation of Chicago, and over 
thirty years before the first railroad connected Chicago and the Atlantic 
seaboard. By the fastest mode of travel (on horseback) when the College 
was founded, it took a week to go to the Tennessee state capital, three 
weeks to reach Washington the nation's capital from 1800, and a month 
for Isaac Anderson to ride to Philadelphia. 

It was 1868 before the first railroad to connect Maryville with 
Knoxville and the outside world was completed. Plans for this road were 
initiated in the 1850's but evidently were pushed aside by the War. 
Railroad bridges were built across the Tennessee River at Knoxville and 
Little River five miles from Maryville. The first general traffic bridge 
across the Tennessee River at Knoxville was a pontoon one laid by the 
Union Army in 1863 and acquired by Knox County after the War. A 
wooden bridge on stone piers was built in 1873, and it was 1898 before 
concrete and steel replaced wood. 

It was because the churches on that developing frontier had a dearth 
of educated ministers that the Southern and Western Theological Semi- 
nary (Maryville College) was founded in 18 19. 


There have been two names. Both identify the location — from 1819 
to 1842, the region; since 1842, the community. 

Southern and Western Theological Seminary, the name given at 
birth October 19, 18 19, described not only the kind of school being 
projected but also its general location and the far-flung region it was 
intended to serve. If this seems to us overly ambitious and a little 


presumptuous, we do well to recall that, although by 18 19 there were 
twenty-two States, this was the first theological seminary on a graduate 
level to be opened anywhere west of the thirteen original colonies. 

Before the Revolution what is now Tennessee was part of North 
Carolina which extended to the Mississippi River. After the Revolution 
North Carolina ceded that part west of the Great Smoky Mountains to 
the new United States on a two year option. Fearing delay in setting up a 
government, John Sevier and other leaders west of the mountains formed 
what they called, in honor of Benjamin Franklin, the State of Franklin. 
It lived four years, then went out of existence when the United States 
accepted the region from North Carolina. In 1790 Congress enacted a 
bill, modeled after the famous Northwest Ordinance of 1787, creating 
the Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio, commonly 
called the Southwest Territory, and William Blount was appointed terri- 
torial governor. The town of Knoxville was laid out at the site of White's 
Fort on the Tennessee River, and Governor Blount built there a weather- 
boarded log house as his executive mansion. 

After six years the Southwest Territory, extending 500 miles from 
the North Carolina line west to the Mississippi River, found it had a 
population of 60,000, the minimum required for statehood. In 1796 it 
was admitted as the sixteenth State of the Union and given the name 
Tennessee. There is no factual record of how this name, which is a revised 
spelling of a Cherokee Indian name, was selected; but one tradition says 
it was suggested by Andrew Jackson, then a young lawyer of twenty-nine. 
Two decades later the Southern and Western Theological Seminary was 
established in East Tennessee, still regarded as part of the southwest 

Maryville College became the legal name in 1842. Undoubtedly the 
original name had been abbreviated in ordinary conversation to "The 
Seminary," or "The Seminary at Maryville." Within a few years it was 
being called "The College at Maryville," and for good reason. When five 
years old, the seminary department had only six theological students, 
whereas the college and preparatory departments had thirty-eight; and 
after twenty years the numbers were nine and sixty-one. Regardless of 
name, it had become primarily a "literary" college, with a theological 
department. The Tennessee Legislature, under pressure of jealous reli- 
gious groups for over twenty years refused to charter the Seminary, but in 

The Influence of Geography 35 

1842 it granted a charter to the same institution, with the same directors 
and faculty, under the new name of Maryville College. 

Why a name like Southern and Western College or Southwestern 
College was not chosen, we can only conjecture. But it is well that this 
was not done, since the Southwest of the 1840's in time became the 
Southeast. The student body was largely from the immediate area, and it 
might have been called Blount College for the local County, which had 
been named in 1795 for the Territorial Governor. But that name had 
been preempted, when in 1794 a Blount College (antecedent of the 
University of Tennessee) was founded in Knoxville. Therefore, the 
college at Maryville took the name of its town, in 1842 a small village of 
250 inhabitants. When Blount County was formed in 1795, a county seat 
town was laid out beside Fort Craig, one of the string of forts built a 
decade earlier by white settlers along the Indians' Great War Trail that 
ran from Virginia to Chickamauga in northwest Georgia. This town was 
named Maryville for the Governor's wife, Mary Grainger Blount. 

At the present time there are on the maps three towns in the United 
States by the name of Maryville — in Tennessee, Missouri, and Illinois, the 
one in Tennessee being the oldest and largest. There are some ten named 
Marysville, and the two spellings are sometimes confused. That the 
common and historic name of Mary should be frequently used is not 
surprising. There are today two colleges in the nation by the name of 
Maryville — one in Tennessee and one in St. Louis, Missouri, Maryville 
College of the Sacred Heart, a Roman Catholic four-year college for 

In its second century Maryville College's clientele has become na- 
tional as well as regional and local. Occasionally there have been ques- 
tions as to whether a name so local is the best possible one. But so far as 
this writer knows, there has been no serious discussion of changing it 
except once a hundred years ago, and then for a quite different reason. 
The Directors proposed to William Thaw of Pittsburgh, the major donor 
in re-establishing the institution after the Civil War, that the name be 
changed to "Thaw College." But Mr. Thaw wisely vetoed the idea. 

Many American colleges and universities are named for places, large 
and small: most of the tax-supported institutions, of which there are 
approximately 800, and a considerable number of those which are inde- 
pendent or church-related, such as Princeton, Boston, Chicago, Lake 


Forest, Wooster, Grove City, Berea, Birmingham-Southern, Knoxviile, 
Maryville. Also Maryville College is an unusually euphonious and con- 
venient name, which in the past century and a quarter has become widely 
known and respected, and is regarded with affection by thousands who 
have studied under its auspices. 

Student Clientele 

From its beginning Maryville has had some students from a dis- 
tance. In its first graduating class was Eli Sawtell who had walked eleven 
hundred miles in two months from New Hampshire to study under Isaac 
Anderson. But for obvious distance and travel reasons, most students in 
Maryville College through the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth 
century came from the surrounding area. In 1880 the total enrollment 
was approximately 200, of whom only two were from outside Tennessee 
and three fourths lived in Blount County where the College is located. In 
1900 three fourths were from Tennessee and one half from Blount 
County. In the Centennial year of 19 19, four fifths were still from the 
Southern Appalachian States and two thirds from Tennessee, with one 
fourth from Blount County. Since the mid-1930's students have been 
more nation-wide in backgroimd. Currently fewer than one third are 
from Tennessee, and fewer than one half from eleven Southern States, a 
distribution which the College would like to see revised. 

As long as there was a preparatory department some students came 
from the mountain coves a few miles away. Just before and after the turn 
of the century, Maryville College became known in the North as an 
institution serving under-privileged youth of the southern mountains. For 
many years this furnished the most effective appeal for gifts. But it 
resulted in an image of the College, not always accurate, which was not 
very popular on campus and was slow to change even after considerable 
change in conditions. The writer recalls from his own student days as late 
as 1915, the occasional disappointment of benevolent visitors from the 
North at finding that, contrary to some reports, all students were wearing 
shoes. A unique and valuable service was provided. After the preparatory 
department was closed fewer young people came from the remote areas 
because few were academically prepared for college work. Since then 

The Influence of Geography yj 

radical changes in communication and travel have almost put an end to 
the remoteness, and have enlarged the contacts and educational opportu- 
nities of all who live among the Appalachian Mountains. 

The new facilities for travel, which in recent years have brought 
students from afar, have at the same time taken local young people to 
other institutions. A majority of college youth in Blount County now 
commute to the University of Tennessee with its wide range of oiferings 
and its lower tax-subsidized fees. It is not possible to predict with cer- 
tainty the future influence on student clientele of such geographical 
elements as nearness to the State University, absence of large United 
Presbyterian population in the South, and the existence of fifty other 
colleges and universities within one hundred miles of Maryville. 


Frontier — ^War of Secession — Reconstruction — Appalachia! For 
more than a century these created two major, persistent college problems: 
a student clientele of slender means, and limitation on gifts from the area. 
Formerly officials and friends referred with pride to Maryville as "the 
poor man's college." In the more prosperous and sophisticated recent 
years, this designation was disliked and discarded. Yet it is true that until 
a few decades ago neither students nor alumni as a whole could be called 
affluent. Many became teachers, ministers, or housewives. One long-term 
result of the fact and feeling of limited financial resources was a natural 
tendency to be at times a little "penny wise and pound foolish" in 
construction and maintenance expenditures, as some of the facilities later 

But outweighing the negative results were some valuable positive 
ones: an increasing realization that the primary qualifications for going to 
college are other than the accidental possession of parents with financial 
means; experience in operating a high standard institution on a small 
budget; development of a unique student-help program; continued enlist- 
ment of supporters in other parts of the country; cultivation of democracy 
in the campus community. Changed economic conditions have brought 
some modification of philosophy and methods, but geographical influ- 
ences on Maryville's economy will be felt for a long time to come. 



The initial theological curriculum was due to a shortage of educated 
ministers and a total absence of theological schools on the southwest 
frontier. Then the college and preparatory departments became immedi- 
ate necessities because schools to prepare students for theological study 
were not accessible. 

As the years passed and the Seminary disappeared, the preparatory 
(academy) department was still needed until well into the twentieth 
century. There were no public schools, and just when the State of 
Tennessee might have made a beginning with a school system, the Civil 
War engulfed and impoverished the whole South. It was not until 1873 
that the first creditable public school law was enacted. Money was scarce, 
people were divided, government was disorganized, and progress slow. 
Further legislation, especially in 1907, 1909, and 1917, and better gen- 
eral conditions brought improvement in the schools. But the first tax 
supported high school in Maryville and Blount County was not estab- 
lished until 19 1 3 and did not graduate its first class until 191 9. Many 
other smaller Tennessee counties were behind this schedule. 

Therefore, to meet this area need until there were public high 
schools, Maryville College maintained a preparatory department, and 
much of the time until 19 16, also sub-preparatory classes. In fact, prior to 
World War I enrollment in the preparatory department always exceeded 
that in the college. In 1900 it was three times and in 191 5 twice as large. 
In 1920 the numbers were approximately equal; and in 1925, at the end 
of a four year closing process, the preparatory department was finally 

The influence of geography on curriculum content has not been 
comparable to that on the levels of work offered. Classical studies were 
long common alike to city and frontier institutions. Location probably did 
account in part for the teachers courses at Maryville in American educa- 
tion's "normal school" period before World War I; and being outside 
metropolitan areas probably helped resist the temptation to add numer- 
ous vocational training classes. Without doubt the proximity of the 
University of Tennessee in Knoxville, with its professional and graduate 
schools, has been a factor in keeping Maryville's curriculum in an under- 
graduate liberal arts framework. 

The Influence of Geography 39 

Church Support 

A large proportion of the pioneers in the Southwest Territory were 
of Scotch-Irish and Enghsh Puritan Presbyterian descent. But as the years 
passed, other denominations with equal zeal and lower educational re- 
quirements for their ministers outnumbered the Presbyterians. The first 
settlers had few resources; the Civil War destroyed what was being 
acquired and divided the church; prosperity came slowly. Consequently 
the Synod of Tennessee, two years old when it founded the College, and 
its successor the Synod of Mid- South have looked upon themselves as 
"receiving" synods in home-mission territory rather than as "giving" 
synods. Until the mid-1960's the sponsoring Synod was not a source of 
more than nominal financial support for the College. Recently the contri- 
butions have increased materially; but there are today in the Synod of 
Mid-South at least five colleges and six Westminster Foundation univer- 
sity centers bidding for support. 

As a United Presbyterian college in a region where a large majority 
of Presbyterians are adherents of the sister Presbyterian Church divided 
from the original Church by the Civil War, and where in fact the major 
portion of the total church population is not Presbyterian at all but 
predominately Baptist and Methodist, Maryville has never had among 
Presbyterians in the area either a financial or student clientele comparable 
to those of Presbyterian colleges in the strong synods. 

Religious Program 

Geography has had a more constructive effect on the College's 
religious program. While religion was largely ignored on the frontier, it 
was not opposed. An earnest, thoughtful emphasis on the campus was 
accepted even by students from extreme emotional religious backgrounds. 
In the latter part of last century and the early part of this, the South gave 
attention to personal religious profession to such a degree and in such a 
manner as to be nicknamed, usually in derision, the Bible Belt. Part of the 
derision was deserved, but not all. At least religion, even though often 
badly understood and expressed, was counted important. 

For a longer period of time than might have been the case in 
northern metropolitan areas, the College was able to maintain, with good 


response from students and faculty, some time-tested methods of develop- 
ing Christian belief and character. College leaders elsewhere frequently 
asked how Maryville succeeded so well with such programs as its full 
Bible and religion curriculum, its traditional February (evangelistic) 
Meetings, its required daily chapel. Part of the answer was that Maryville 
is in the religiously oriented Protestant South and that the increasing 
numbers of students from other areas have been from church groups 
attracted by the College's continued frank emphasis on intelligent Chris- 
tian training. Of course, the South has become more and more urban and 
sophisticated and the tendency to emulate well-known institutions in 
other areas now flows easily across all geographical lines. 


Isaac Anderson, trying to persuade educated ministers into the south- 
west frontier, once said factiously but with more historical insight proba- 
bly than he realized: "There is a feeling common to our race that the 
qualifications of those who live west of us cannot be of the first order." 
Most people are familiar with that feeling in themselves and in others. It 
may be directed variously to the "west" or "south" or "small town" or 
"little college" or otherwise. 

Perhaps it is inescapable that the strength and quality of a relatively 
small college, located in a relatively small city in the South, will often be 
underestimated. However, although so located, Maryville is in fact highly 
regarded in all parts of the country; and its prestige is highest among 
those who are best informed about colleges in general and Maryville 
College in particular. 

The Future 

The future character and progress of Maryville College are bound 
up with a whole series of geographical factors. The directors, officers, and 
faculty know full well that neither the State nor the wider South is strong 
United Presbyterian territory; that in Tennessee there are 26 church-re- 
lated colleges, II independent colleges and universities, and 10 supported 
by state taxes and enrolling an increasing number of Tennessee's stu- 
dents; that the smaller city of Maryville is in the shadow of the larger city 

The Influence of Geography 41 

of Knoxville; and that Maryville College is likewise in the shadow of the 
larger University of Tennessee. 

But those charged with planning Maryville's future report that as 
they approach the Sesquicentennial they are much encouraged by the 
College's deep foundations in Tennessee; the continuing nation-wide 
distribution of the College's clientele; by its solid reputation for both 
thoroughness and progressiveness; by the South's recent rapid progress 
and large future potential; by the area's increased desire for quality 
higher education; by the growth of responsible support in the community 
and territory; and by Maryville's geographical centrality in the eastern 
United States: two hours by plane from New York, Chicago, St. Louis, 
and Tampa; one hour from Memphis and Washington. 

Maryville College's 375-acre campus adjoins the twin cities of Mary- 
ville and Alcoa, with a combined population of 20,000, at the center of 
Blount County with 60,000. Alcoa has one of the world's largest alumi- 
num manufacturing plants. Thirty-five miles away at Oak Ridge is one of 
the world's principal atomic power centers. In nearby Knoxville are the 
headquarters offices of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and in 
East Tennessee are many of its large installations. Twenty miles to the 
east is a main entrance to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 
Maryville College is located in one of America's most scenic and pleasant 
regions; and near some of its most important enterprises. 

Chapter O The Maryville 
College Campus 

The Catalog current at this writing states: "The Maryville College 
campus of 375 acres, at an elevation of 1,000 feet, is one of unusual 
natural beauty. About one third of this area constitutes the central 
campus on which 24 buildings and the athletic fields are located." 
Another one third is woodland ( The College Woods ) and the remaining 
one third consists of rolling fields formerly used as the college dairy farm. 
Behind this description is a 150-year campus history of expansion and 
development — and people. 

The College's forerunner, Union Academy, popularly known as Mr. 
Anderson's Log College, conducted for the ten years between 1802 and 
1 8 12 by Isaac Anderson, founder of Maryville College in 18 19, was 
located on his farm ten miles northeast of Knoxville and 25 miles from 
Maryville. As reported elsewhere in this volume, there is a real relation- 
ship, through their common founder, between Union Academy and 
Maryville College. But, although the Academy was important in the life 
and work of Isaac Anderson, its relationship was not an institutional one, 
or direct enough to put it into the chronological history of Maryville 
College or its campus. 

The College has had two campuses. After beginning in a rented 
house, it acquired a half-acre campus of its own at the center of the town, 
and occupied it for fifty years. Then, a century ago, it moved to new 


The Maryville College Campus 43 

buildings on the front 60 acres of the present campus, about a half mile 
across Pistol Creek and two little valleys from the first campus. 

The First Campus: 1819-1870 

Long before the Synod of Tennessee took its historic founding action 
of October 19, 18 19, candidates for the ministry were being instructed by 
Rev. Isaac Anderson in his home and church. That was a standard 
practice of the times, and was necessary on the American frontier where 
there were no theological colleges. Experienced ministers frequently had 
prospeaive ministers studying under them, just as young men "read law" 
under experienced attorneys. In this way Isaac Anderson himself had 
received much of his training in Virginia and Tennessee. His class of five 
in 1819 probably had begun their study for the ministry on this plan. 

The Little Broivn House — Rented 

The first building used for instruction, other than the Presbyterian 
Manse, was described as a "little brown house" (brown from age and 
weather, not paint). It was on Main Street, now Broadway, in Maryville, 
across the street from the present Broadway Methodist Church. It was 
rented, probably late in 18 19, and with the Manse and New Providence 
Church it provided the only available class rooms for two or three years, 
until the first building owned by the College was completed. In that time 
the enrollment increased from five to fifteen, living in homes, including 
Dr. Anderson's. 

A Campus Purchased 

The Directors purchased its first property in 1820, during the 
institution's opening year, for $600. It consisted of a small (25^x40') 
unfinished building "of brick, two stories high, with six fireplaces," on a 
back corner of a half lot at the south corner of Main Street (Broadway) 
and what is now called College Street. Construction of this unfinished 
building, originally intended as a "female academy," had been started five 
years before, and modest as it was its completion took another two or 
three years, for lack of money. In 1824 an adjoining lot and a half, on 
which were two small frame houses, was purchased for I400. Thus, at the 


end of the first five years, Maryville College, still under the name "South- 
ern and Western Theological Seminary," possessed a campus covering 
two adjacent lots (about half an acre) measuring approximately 133 feet 
on Main Street (Broadway) and Church Avenue, and 166 feet on 
present-day College Street. On this ground in 1824 were: the brick 
building with six rooms — for classes, library, and student dormitory; and 
two poor little frame buildings used for a year or two as boarding houses 
for students until purchase of the farm, and some time later removed to 
make room for the "Frame College." 

The Campus Buildings 

That first little brick building became known as The Seminary, and 
housed the Theological Department until the Civil War. Bivouacking 
soldiers of both sides gradually demolished it to get its bricks and wood 
for their ovens. 

In 1835, a second academic building, started six years earlier, was 
completed on the half-acre campus. It was half again as long as the 
Seminary, also had two stories, was known as The Frame College, and 
housed the Literary Department for the next twenty years. When it was 
first occupied in 1835 the total enrollment was 98, of whom four fifths 
were in the Literary Department, with but one fifth in the Theological 
Department. In 1856 the Frame College building was torn down to make 
way for a larger Brick College, begun in 1853, partially occupied in 
1856, but never finished. In Dr. Wilson's terse words, "the War found it 
incomplete and left it a ruin." 

This unfinished Brick College must have seemed very large to those 
who passed by on the village's main street in the late 1850's. It had three 
stories and was no feet long, nearly three times the length of its 
companion on the campus, the two-story brick Seminary. And it has a 
special significance in the later history of the College's campus; Anderson 
Hall erected on the new grounds after the Civil War was practically a 
reproduction of the Brick College. 

Other Properties 

Two other pieces of property were acquired by the College before 
the Civil War. One was a 200-acre farm purchased about 1826 with 
funds ($2,500) raised by the College's financial agent, Eli Sawtell, with a 


The Maryville College Campus 45 

house and other buildings on the "south hills," contiguous to the "east 
hills" which nearly a half century later became the new campus. A 
boarding house was set up there and the farm was operated as a student- 
help enterprise until discontinued after a decade. Dr. Anderson seems to 
have had it in mind to move the whole institution to that location, but 
this did not materialize. When the student work plan played out, keeping 
the farm became a serious financial burden and it was sold in the middle 
1830's. Twenty-five years later there was a plan to buy back fifty acres of 
it as a campus, but that was cancelled by the War. In the 1960's, over a 
century later, that early college farm is a principal residential section of 
Maryville, across Court Street from today's campus and extending to the 
south and west. 

The other property was more modest. It was a frame house and lot 
on today's Church Street, next to the city library, in the same block as Dr. 
Anderson's manse. It was but a few steps from the main campus, being 
acquired probably in the 1850's, and was always called The Boarding 
House. After the War and final collapse of the brick buildings it served 
several months also for classes. 

Ruined and Abandoned 

"At the beginning of the Civil War. . . . The real estate consisted of 
two half-acre lots [two locations] with three buildings — one wooden (the 
boarding house ) , one small brick, and a large brick unfinished." So wrote 
Professor Lamar, who after the War became the second founder. The 
College was closed in April, 1861, and five years of war and neglect left 
little but the ground. When Professor Lamar reopened it in September, 
1866, the original little brick Seminary building was gone; the doors, 
windows, and equipment of the Brick College had been used by the 
camping armies; and the wooden boarding house on Church Street was 
war and weather beaten. No money and few materials were to be found 
in Tennessee for repairs. 

Although the three-story dilapidated Brick College was declared 
unsafe, it was used for instruction and as a dormitory for four years, until 
in the Spring of 1870 an outside wall collapsed on a Sunday afternoon 
when fortunately no one was in the building. By that time the new 
campus had been purchased and the construction of Anderson Hall 
started. Classes met in the boarding house and other temporary quarters 


until the Fall, then moved to the "magnificent" Anderson Hall on the 
new campus. Although the student body which began at 1 3 in 1 866 was 
now up to 60, of whom only one half were local, lodging and boarding 
were managed in town until Baldwin and Memorial Halls were com- 
pleted a year later. 

The ruins were soon cleared from the lots that had been the first 
campus. They were retained by the College, and for twenty years after 
1870 stood vacant. In 1887 they were transferred, by a conditional deed, 
without charge, to New Providence Presbyterian Church, which in 1 890 
erected on them a new church building. During the century before this 
time, the Church had occupied three different buildings farther west on 
Main Street, at the present corner of Broadway and Cates Street, where 
the old New Providence Cemetery still remains. In 1952 the College 
executed a quit claim deed to the Church, in effect removing the condi- 
tions of its 1887 deed. The Church sold the property to business interests, 
and erected a new building outside the downtown area. At the time of 
this writing, part of that first campus is owned by Blount National Bank 
and part by Blount Properties, Inc. On it are a parking lot and two 
buildings, including one occupied by a Woolworth store. The Boarding 
House and lot on Church Avenue was sold by the College at a nominal 
price to the Second Presbyterian Church of MaryviUe, a Negro congrega- 
tion which in the 1960's merged with New Providence Church. 

The Second Campus 
(Since 1870) 

The second campus has been the site of the College for a full 
century. Fortunately there is an abundance, even a surplus, of space (375 
acres ) , in an unsurpassed natural setting. 

The Grounds 

The first sixty acres were purchased from Julius C. Fogg, at a price 
of $1,691.50, of which $1,000 was in cash and the balance covered by a 
note. The deed is dated October 16, 1867, only two days after the College 
received a contribution of $1,000, the largest gift in the institution's 
history to that time. It was from Mr. William Thaw of Pittsburgh, a new 
friend who with his widow was to become the leading benefactor in the 

The Maryville College Campus 


College's first century. Professor Lamar, then Chairman of the Directors 
and Acting President, and John P. Hooke, Treasurer, moved rapidly to 
the purchase. The idea of a larger campus was by no means new. Isaac 
Anderson had dreamed of it. The second President, John J. Robinson, 
and Professor Lamar went so far in the late 1850's as to give their 
personal notes for $2,000 to secure an option on fifty acres of the former 
college farm in the south hills. 

But the War put an end to the plan, and when it left the buildings 
in ruins, new facilities became imperative if the College was to operate at 
all. Therefore, the 1 1,000 gift was used immediately for the purchase of a 
new larger campus. The best location then available was on the east hills 
adjoining the south hills, a fortunate circumstance, as one can see now. 
October 16, 1867, ^he date of that purchase, is one of the red-letter days 
in Maryville College history, although it would be another year before 
there was money for the first building on the new grounds — a residence 
for Professor Alexander Bartlett; and nearly three years before Anderson 
Hall was ready for classes. 

Expansion of the grounds from 60 acres in 1867 to 375 in 1967 is 
traced in the table below. No chronological report of this has heretofore 

Land Ac 



Deeds from 

Identification in 1968 


1867, Oct. 16 

Julius C. Fogg 

Front and Central Campus 


1871, Apr. 12 

Isaac Emory 

Present Lamar Ave. and R.R. 


1881, May 31 

Thomas J. & 

Martha A. Lamar 

College Woods 


1892, Aug. 6 

M. J. George 

The Corduroy 


1916, July 12| 
1925, Nov. 25/ 

Mrs. Martha A. Lamar 

Site oinew (women's) 


1928, Apr. 28 

C. A. Sullinger 

Site of present Heating Plant 


1925, July 22' 

1933, July 13 • 
1939, July 15, 

John M. Alexander 

Alexander houses and ground 


1934, Oct. 22 

Thomas N. Brown 

Dairy Farm 


1945, July 18 

A. M. Gamble 

Land north of Tuckaleechee 



1892 to 1968 

Miscellaneous Parties 

A dozen or more lots adjoining 

N and NE campus boundaries 


Total land acquired 



been compiled. The dates are those on which deeds to the College were 
executed. The acreage of the small tracts, some of which were called 
"lots," is necessarily approximate. The difference between the 400 acres 
acquired and the 375 acres estimated to be in the present campus 
represents certain tracts sold or given to others. Most previous writings 
have referred to the original purchase of 1867 as one of 65 acres. But the 
deeds show two purchases, one of 60 acres, another of 5 acres, four years 

Purchase of the College Woods. By far the most important expan- 
sion, the one which put the Maryville campus among the finest in 
America, was that of 187 acres in 1881. It quadrupled the si2e, already 
large for the small institution Maryville was in those days. It included the 
College Woods made up chiefly of tall oak trees, which in other hands 
probably would have been sold off. The catalogs in the i88o's an- 
nounced that "the College grounds consist of 250 acres, and for beautiful 
scenery are not surpassed by any in the country." The acres are more now, 
but the other part of the description remains true. 

That 187-acre addition came about through the foresight of Profes- 
sor Thomas J. Lamar, second founder. President P. Mason Bartlett, and 
the Board of Directors. This story has not been told, probably because of 
its relationship to a major controversy of the period. Linking the brief 
official record entries with the general situation and specific events of 
those years, the following picture emerges. 

In the early 1870's, soon after the new campus was occupied, the 
large adjoining tract of 187 acres, to the southeast, became available at 
$21 per acre, $7 an acre less than the original purchase price of the 60 
acres in 1867. It is not difficult to imagine the reasons for acquiring this 
land which arose in the minds of the College's officials. But in addition to 
money, there was another serious problem. A suit had been instituted in 
1872, by the former President and eighteen other pre-War directors 
against the new Directors and President, claiming ownership of the 
College and its property. This suit was finally settled in favor of the 
College, but not until 1880. For almost a decade it was a major obstacle 
to all appeals for capital funds, and with it hanging over their heads the 
Directors naturally hesitated at a large capital purchase such as this 
addition to the campus, no matter how excellent the opportunity. 

In any case, the records show that on January 25, 1873, one 

The Maryville College Campus 49 

G. A. W. B. Thompson, Executor of the Will of James Thompson, exe- 
cuted to T. J. Lamar a Title Bond ( a devise no longer used ) , guaranteeing 
to convey to him this property at a price of $4,007. Professor Lamar, who 
was also a Director, signed a note, secured by P. M. Bartlett, President of 
the College and Chairman of the Directors, and by J. M. Greer, who was 
not officially connected with the College. Three years later, on December 
3, 1875, Mr- Thompson, in compliance with the provisions of the Title 
Bond, deeded the land to T. J. Lamar for $4,007. After another five years, 
on May 31, 1881, the lawsuit having been won in June, 1880, Thomas J. 
Lamar and his wife Martha A. Lamar executed a deed for the 187 acres to 
The Directors of Maryville College, for "one dollar," and stated that the 
original purchase money had been paid by the Parties of the Second Part 
(The Directors of Maryville College). Professor Lamar more than once 
during the preceding quarter of a century had assumed personal risk and 
expense for the College; he had reestablished it, had raised most of the 
money to rebuild it, and the College had been in debt to him almost 
continuously for delinquent salary. And it was he who secured and saved 
the institution this valuable addition to its permanent campus. 

The College Woods have been one of the most prized features of 
the campus since 1881. But the tall oak trees there have meant problems 
as well as beauty and inspiration. Although oaks are long lived, time and 
storm take their toll. Shall trees be allowed to stand until they fall, then 
be used in the decreasing number of fireplaces? Or shall they be cut when 
ripe in the judgment of foresters with eyes for good saleable lumber? The 
former course, dictated by educational and aesthetic concern, has been 
followed except for brief periods. For instance, as a business venture in 
the mid-1950's, a rather large number of the big trees were marked, 
felled, and sold. This produced some extra income for that year. But 
cleaning up the woods afterward was a long process, and college officials, 
realizing that it takes a century to grow a tall oak tree, will be slow to 
give economic considerations priority in College Woods policy. 

An Amphitheater, near the center of the College Woods, was 
developed in 1935 and succeeding years. The natural contour of the 
ground, the stream creating a graceful outline for the stage, the lofty 
trees, and the man-made improvements, all combine to produce one of 
the most beautiful and spacious outdoor theaters to be found on any 
college campus. 


Later Expansion. There have been also other useful additions, 
large and small, such as the Corduroy, the present heating plant site, the 
Alexander property, the dairy farm, the Gamble land. An addition espe- 
cially valuable in the current building plans was that of twenty acres 
from Mrs. Lamar. It lay along the northeast boundary of the central 
campus, with a house on high ground to the east. This was the residence 
first of Rev. Ralph Erskine Tedford, Recorder of the Board of Directors 
through the decade immediately after the Civil War, and father of the 
second Mrs. Lamar; then of Professor and Mrs. Lamar, and finally of Mrs. 
Lamar, until her death in 1921. The Margaret Bell Lloyd Residence for 
Women was built in 1959 on the site of the old Lamar House, which had 
been removed in the 1930's, and in 1966 two more women's dormitories 
were erected nearby, also on the Lamar land. At various times the College 
has owned off-campus properties in the city, some of them just across the 
street, but they have been handled as investments, not as parts of the 
campus, and there has been a gradual disposing of them. 

Since World War II, ten or fifteen acres at outlying edges of the 
enlarged campus have been sold: on Tuckaleechee Road as business lots, 
on Wilkinson Road as residential lots. The latter tract, although part of 
the College Woods, was separated from the main area by a public road 
cut by the County through the far southeast corner of the campus. A 
small parcel of campus land on Tuckaleechee Road was given to Blount 
Memorial Hospital to square up its grounds. 

The Buildings 

There is no one way to count the number of buildings on any 
college campus. On that at Maryville, it is asked: Shall the house, big 
barn, milking barn, and milk treatment unit, a group three quarters of a 
mile from the central campus, be counted four buildings? Shall Morning- 
side, its three-car garage with a second floor apartment, and the accompa- 
nying five-room brick guest house be counted three buildings? Shall the 
heating plant and adjacent residence be counted two buildings? Shall the 
new greenhouse be considered a separate building? Shall the chapel and 
theatre be counted as one building or two? Several central campus struc- 
tures are scheduled to be replaced or have always been listed as temporary. 
Yet all are college properties now within campus limits. 

If for the moment we count them all, in order to get a complete 


The Maryville College Campus 5 1 

picture, we might say there are about 40 buildings, large and small, on 
the campus of Maryville College in its 150th year. A more accurate 
number for those being used directly by the College in its operation is 
about 30, In tracing their history, it will be noted that four of the older 
central buildings (Anderson, Baldwin, Fayerweather, Pearsons) were at 
various times greatly enlarged, in lieu of constructing additional separate 
buildings; and that the replacements for Carnegie and Voorhees Chapel, 
lost by fire, and of the outmoded first heating plant, are much larger than 
the originals. 

Most major buildings have come in a half dozen building periods. 
These periods correspond to forces at work both within the College 
(need, campaign programs) and in the nation (depression, war, prosper- 
ity, federal funds). In looking down the column of dates in Appendix F, 
one's attention is drawn especially to such periods as 1868-187 1; the 
1890's; the years around 1910; those before and after the 1919 Centen- 
nial; the 1950's; and the years since 1966, the Sesquicentennial campaign 
period in which the number, quality, and size of new buildings are 
notable, and the financial investment unprecedented at Maryville. 

Chronicle of Buildings and Facilities on the Present Campus. A 
table under this heading is given in Appendix F, that there may be an 
easily accessible chronological record of the years in which buildings and 
other facilities were completed or removed, and of the principal general 
sources of building funds. 

Major Fires. In the history of the College three campus buildings 
have been destroyed by fire: (i) the one first built on the new 
campus in 1868 as a residence for Professor Alexander Harriett, toward 
the woods from the present Thaw Hall, which burned and was rebuilt 
about 1904; (2) Carnegie Hall in 19 16; and (3) Elizabeth R. Voor- 
hees Chapel, whose basement housed the music department. Carnegie was 
rebuilt within a year with funds from insurance and an emergency 
campaign. The music facilities lost with Voorhees Chapel were replaced 
after three years by the Fine Arts Center, with five times as much space 
and vastly improved equipment. It was another four years before the 
Chapel was replaced, Alumni Gymnasium serving meanwhile as an 
auditorium. When the Samuel Tyndale "Wilson Chapel was completed in 
1954, it contained a large auditorium, a theatre, a small chapel, and 
various other areas, totaling five times the space in the former Chapel. 


While there is little comparison of the buying power of a dollar in 
1906 and one in 1950, yet there is some indication of the new day on the 
campus in the fact that the over-all cost of the Fine Arts Center and the 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson Chapel and Theatre was nearly forty times the 
original cost of the Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel and its music facilities. 
The cost of building and equipping the new Chapel and Theatre was 
about ten times the amount received from insurance on the old Chapel. 
Raising so large an amount of money required several years and was not 
finally completed until the Sesquicentennial campaign was well ad- 
vanced. But this extensive replacement is as permanent and functional as 
architects, concrete, steel, aluminum, brick, and glass in the 1950's could 
make it. 

Quality and Style. The basic materials used until well into the 
20th century were wood and brick. The first Maryville College building 
to have steel girders was the Fine Arts Center completed in 1950. Since 
then glass, concrete, and aluminum, as well as an increased amount of 
steel, have joined brick as the principal materials. Because aluminum was 
not yet available after the restrictions of World War II, the Fine Arts 
Center had to use wood in the windows and doors. In the buildings 
erected since that time there is very little wood except for interior 
decoration and warmth. It is interesting that although marble and sand- 
stone are produced in the area, the College has never constructed a 
building of stone. 

At this writing, of 25 buildings on the central campus, 20 have 
exteriors of brick, and five of wood. Four of the latter (all except 
Memorial) are scheduled to be replaced. Only two of the five wooden 
ones were put up by the College for permanent use, and one of them has 
now served nearly a century. Within the past year Baldwin Hall, a 
companion of Memorial, was removed. Three of the wooden buildings 
were contributed from World War II surplus, and were not intended to 
be more than semi-temporary. 

Anderson (original part), Baldwin (original part), and Memorial, 
the oldest of the buildings were excellently constructed, even without 
steel. The first two consisted originally of the present front sections, 
corresponding to Memorial which was never enlarged. The additions to 
Anderson (1892) and Baldwin (1898 and 1904) were of less quality, 
the Baldwin additions being notably poor. In 1958 and 1959, Pearsons, 

The Maryville College Campus 53 

Carnegie, and Memorial Halls were "rehabilitated" under the Federal 
Government's housing program; but chiefly because of the inferior qual- 
ity of the Annex, and partly because of location on the campus, Baldwin 
was omitted and scheduled for removal when sufficient new dormitory 
space became available. 

The buildings erected between 187 1 and 1950 have been servicea- 
ble and sometimes impressive. But for the most part they reflect the 
persistent necessity of building cheaply to meet the space demands of a 
growing student body and curriculum. Beginning with the Fine Arts 
Center, the buildings constructed are of superior permanent materials and 
equipment, and represent thorough planning. Of course, as has been 
mentioned, the cost of each recent building is several times, even many 
times, that of any building before the Fine Arts Center, not only because 
of escalating wages and prices or of larger sizes, but in part also because 
of quality. 

The white columns first used on Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel in 
1906 (which burned in 1947), then on Pearsons, Carnegie, and Thaw, 
continue to be admired and remembered by students, visitors, and photog- 
raphers. But the newer buildings are in a style which does not include 
white pillars, and in any case such pillars are now considered non-func- 
tional and too expensive. The past quarter of a century has seen some 
revolutionary changes in design. The term "modern architecture" was 
being used widely in the 1940's and 1950's. But the Fine Arts Center, 
designed in the late 1940's, was one of the first of these "contemporary" 
buildings in the area and for some time attracted locally both jesting and 
critical comment. That changed gradually to praise of its beauty, symme- 
try, and utility. The President received one prize letter from a prominent 
business man in another city expressing concern about the dangerous in- 
fluence of "alien ideologies." From the preliminary drawings the building 
promised to be radically "different" and disinterested professional advice 
was sought. After looking at an aerial picture of the central campus, his 
remark was: "No good design will be out of place on a campus which 
already has buildings of all ages and styles and no apparent pattern." 
College officials, with more insight and foresight than they realized, 
accepted the "radical" proposal. And when completed the Fine Arts 
Center attracted national and international interest. It was prominently 
featured in a leading architecture journal as "perhaps the most architec- 


turally significant building erected on an American campus that year." 
Wise and imaginative planning does not lead to duplication; but the Fine 
Arts Center set a general pattern for the buildings which have followed. 
Architects. The architect for the first three buildings was a Benja- 
min Fahnestock of Knoxville, about whom little is now known. But the 
clean lines and proportions of Anderson's front section continue to win 
the praise of architects and others. The architect for Thaw Hall was Graf 
& Sons of Knoxville, who was also the contractor. The identities of those 
who drew plans for most of the other buildings before World War II 
have not been discovered by the writer. But the architectural firms of 
Schweikher and Firing, formerly of Chicago, and Barber and McMurry, of 
Knoxville, have designed and supervised all building and remodeling 
since the mid-1930's. Schweikher and Firing designed the Fine Arts 
Center, the Samuel Tyndale Wilson Chapel and Theatre, and the Mar- 
garet Bell Lloyd Residence for Women. Barber and McMurry were 
associated architects on the latter two buildings, and have been the 
architects on all other construction since they designed the College Gates 
in 1936. 

Athletic Fields 

Athletic fields have been expanded and improved with the intercol- 
legiate and intramural programs. The baseball field, greatly improved by 
grading in the 1920's, has been in the same location since before the turn 
of the century. A new football field, named for the College's veteran 
Athletic Director and Coach, Lombe S. Flonaker, then retiring, was cut 
out of the edge of the College Woods in 1952. The old football field gets 
heavy use for a variety of outdoor sports, and other fields are being 
projected. There are tennis courts in different locations, the present 
varsity ones having been built near Memorial Hall in 1932. 

The College Cemetery 

In the edge of the College Woods toward the Central Campus is the 
little historic College Cemetery. At this time it contains approximately 
thirty graves, including those of the founder and first president, the 
second founder, and the second and fifth presidents. 

The first person buried there was Rev. Ralph Frskine Tedford, first 
Recorder of the Board of Directors after the Civil War and father-in-law 
of Professor Lamar, the second founder. When he died in 1878, Professor 
and Mrs. Lamar were holding title, in behalf of the College, to the 187 


Head of Women's Dormitory, 

1893-1897, 1904-1936; Dean of 

Women, 1913-1936; Dean of Women 

Emeritus, 1936-1945 


Supervisor of Women's Residence, 


Dean of Women, 1947- 


Assistant and Associate (1958) Professor 

of English, 1947-; Dean of Men, 



Proctor of Carnegie Hall, 1921-1959; 

Supervisor of Men's Residence, 1936-1959 


Assistant in the Library, 1948-1949; 

Secretary and Director (1957) of 

Student-Help, 1952-1966 


College Pastor, 1917-1941; College Pastor 

Emeritus, 1941-1944 

College Chaplain, 1961- 


Director of Athletics and Professor of 

Physical Education, 1921-1959; Chairman, 

Division of Physical Education and 

Athletics, 1939-1959 


Director of Athletics, and Associate Professor 

and Chairman of the Department of 

Health and Physical Education, 1959- 


Principal of the Preparatory Department, 

1914-1924; Librarian, 1924-1943 


Assistant Librarian, 1940-1943; 

Librarian, 1943-1953 

Librarian, 1953- 


Dietician and Manager of the 

College Dining Hall, 1934- 


Professor of Bible and Religious Education, 

1907-1929; Registrar, 1907-1926 


Secretary to the President, 1915-1930; 

Administrative Secretary, 1928-1934; 

Assistant Registrar, 1918-1930; Registrar, 



Campus Engineer, 1910-1961 

(longest service in iVIaryville College 



Secretary to the President, 



Assistant in the Personnel Office, 

1934-1943; Assistant to the Dean of 

Students, 1943-1957; Registrar, 1957- 


English: 1883-1885, 1892-1893, 



Biology: 1906-1950; Chairman, 

Division of Science 


Dramatic Art: 1899-1901, 1904-1912, 

1914-1947; Department Head 


Greek and Latin: 1915-1950; Secretary 

of the Faculty 


French: 1919-; longest teaching service 

in Maryville College history 



Mathematics and Physics: 1914-1938; 

Department Head 

Mathematics and Physics: 1909-1955 

English: 1919-1957 


Bible, Religion, and Philosophy: 

1919-1958; Division Chairman 


Chemistry: 1925-1968; Chairman, 

Division of Science 


Chemistry: 1922-1968; Department 



Home Economics: 1925-1964; 

Department Head 


History and Debate: 1927-1958; 

Chairman, Division of Social Sciences 

The Mary ville College Campus 55 

acres which included the College Woods and cemetery. In the Directors' 
Minutes of May 28, 1879, less than a year later and when this was still 
the only grave there, is the statement that President Bartlett and two 
other directors "were appointed to look after and report to the Board in 
regard to the college burial grounds." By the year 1900, ten faculty or 
members of their families and three students had been interred there, and 
there were a few burials in the early years of this century. But evidently 
interest lagged and maintenance was neglected. Some families became 
dissatisfied because the grounds were not cared for, and moved their 
people away, including the third President and one of the most promi- 
nent of the nineteenth century professors. 

However, in 1933 the College rehabilitated this little cemetery and 
obtained an endowment for it. That same year the remains of Dr. Isaac 
Anderson, Founder and first President, who had died in 1857, and four 
members of his family, with their monuments, were removed from the 
old New Providence Cemetery in Maryville to the College Cemetery. 
Two years later the remains of Dr. John Joseph Robinson, second 
President, were brought from Atlanta. In the 1 940's there were buried in 
the cemetery: Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, fifth President, and Mrs. 
Wilson; Mary E. Caldwell, first Dean of Women; Fred Lowry Profl&tt, 
sixth Treasurer; William Patton Stevenson, first College Pastor and 
Chaplain, and Mrs. Stevenson. And from time to time to the present 
other persons long closely connected with the College have been laid to 
rest there. 

In i960 the enclosure was enlarged and a permanent design of 
present and future locations made. In that same year the Directors 
adopted a resolution stating that: "In general, the following shall be 
eligible for burial in the College Cemetery: Administrative Officers, 
Faculty, Staff, and Directors of Maryville College, and their wives or 
husbands, and in special cases other members of the faculty, who in the 
judgment of the President ( or in his absence the Chairman of the Board ) 
shall have been related to the College for such unusual time and/or in 
such special way as to make inclusion in this private historic cemetery 
appropriate and natural." 

Campus Master Plan 

The new campus of sixty acres in 1867 was so extensive after living 
nearly a half century on half an acre, that the only master plan which 


seemed necessary was a high central location for the three buildings 
hoped for. Two and three years later they were built in a row along the 
brow of College Hill, facing the village. The next three were located in a 
row well behind these; and the seventh and eighth facing the first three, 
thus creating two campus streets. In 1892, as one of the many projects 
financed by the Fayerweather bequest, a topographical survey and map of 
the campus were made, which became the chart for location of some ten 
buildings during the next quarter of a century. Two basic principles 
dictated separating buildings enough to reduce fire hazard; yet placing 
them close enough together that walking from one to another does not 
require excessive time, thus avoiding a common building mistake of 
colleges with large ground area. 

In each decade since 1930, a revised campus plan has been produced 
by the College, with professional counsel. On these plans a dozen perma- 
nent and temporary buildings have been located and others projected for 
the Central Campus. And at this writing, a new Sesquicentennial Master 
Plan for the entire campus is being developed. 

Campus Benefactors 

The names of most of the thousands of benefactors who have 
contributed service and money to Maryville College do not appear pub- 
licly, in some cases at their own request. But from time to time, in accord 
with common practice among colleges and universities, a building has 
been named for a donor of all or a substantial portion of the cost: 
Baldwin, Thaw, Willard, Fayerweather, Voorhees, Pearsons, Carnegie, 
Sutton. And other buildings bear names of some of the persons who have 
contributed significant personal service rather than money: Anderson, 
Lamar, Bartlett, Samuel Tyndale Wilson, Margaret Bell Lloyd. 

Of all who have made possible the campus and plant possessed by 
the College at its Sesquicentennial, those who provided the funds to 
obtain the first land and erect the first buildings hold a unique place. To 
list all who followed them as campus benefactors is impracticable, and a 
partial list would be unfair. However, a true record cannot omit naming 
two (actually four) recent donors, as earlier major donors have been 
named elsewhere. The records show that each of these couples has made 
gifts larger than any others so far received by Maryville College in its 
long history. Glen Alfred Lloyd, Class of 19 18, a younger brother of 

The Maryville College Campus 57 

Maryville's sixth president, and his wife Marion Musser Lloyd, of Chicago, 
provided the funds to build and equip the Fine Arts Center completed in 
1950 and enlarged in 1961; and directly and indirectly have given other 
large sums for capital and current purposes, usually requesting anonymity. 
Algie Sutton, Class of 1929, and Mrs. Sutton, of Greenville, South Caro- 
lina, made large challenge gifts in the Sesquicentennial campaign and 
underwrote a substantial part of the cost of the Sutton Science Center 
completed in 1968. 

Projections for the Future 

The Sesquicentennial Development Program adopted by the Board 
of Directors in i960 listed eight "future buildings and major improve- 
ments with priority through 1969," and eleven "other approved long- 
range projects" for years after 1969. 

Since this program was announced, there have been some additions 
and some changes in the priority schedule. Several of the original long- 
range projects, including the two largest, have been moved to the "prior- 
ity through 1969" list, replacing certain ones there, and increasing the 
number of priority projects from eight to ten. As this is written, seven of 
the ten have been completed. 

Good progress is being made on the other three, and it is hoped that 
by the end of 1969 assurances of funds for them will be in hand. As 
reported in Chapter i, these three are: (i) a Health and Physical 
Education building, to cost $iV2 million, toward which the federal 
government has appropriated a grant expected to amount to more than 
$400,000; (2) enlarged Student Center facilities; and (3) a fireproof 
Library building, the first unit of which is estimated to cost $1 million. 
Added projects with early priority include major campus landscaping and 
additional athletic fields. 

There are still other projections in the present long range plan, and 
new ones will certainly be made as the years pass. A physical plant is 
never finally completed. But Maryville College will enter the second half 
of its second century with buildings, equipment, and grounds infinitely 
advanced beyond those of any other period in its 150 years of service. 

Chapter Ht Ownership and 

The Charter, granted by the State of Tennessee in 1842 and subse- 
quently amended, vests ownership and control in "a body politic and 
corporate, by the name and style of 'The Directors of Maryville 
College.' "In 1941, for the sake of convenience, the corporate name was 
changed to Maryville College, but the powers and functions of the 
Directors remained unchanged. 

The Board of Directors has power to regulate the "mode and 
manner of appointment" of its members. In practice, from the beginning 
(except for a brief period just before the Civil War, explained else- 
where), the Synod of Tennessee and its successor, the Synod of Mid- 
South, of the Presbyterian (now United Presbyterian) Church in the 
U. S. A., have elected the directors, and by request of the College continue 
to do so. In its first twenty-three years, before receiving a charter, Mary- 
ville College operated under a Constitution, which evidently assumed 
ownership and control to reside at that time in the Synod. The Directors 
were managing trustees, responsible to the Synod. 

It is recognized that sponsorship by a Church requires that certain 
specified standards be met. Likewise, all institutions, private and public, 
operating under a State charter, are perforce under a measure of control 
from the State issuing the charter. However, the United States Supreme 
Court's famous decision in the Dartmouth College case in 18 19, the year 
of Maryville's founding, established the inviolability of charters granted 


Ownership and Control , 59 

for educational purposes to private institutions, and assured them of 
freedom from state interference. 

The control documents in the history of Maryville College have 
been the Constitution, the Charter, and the Directors' Bylaws. 

The Constitution — 1819 

Minutes of the Synod of Tennessee for October 19, 18 19, contain 
this often-quoted record: "The Synod, after maturely considering, revis- 
ing, and amending the plan for a Southern and Western Theological 
Seminary, agreed to adopt it." This plan became a Constitution of 32 
articles, providing for organization, curriculum, and procedures. It speci- 
fied that directors and professors were to be elected by this and other 
cooperating synods and presbyteries, although no "other cooperating" 
bodies ever participated. This Constitution set up entrance and curriculum 
requirements for the Seminary, and soon also for College and Preparatory 

Article 7 stated, "It shall be the duty of the Directors to superintend 
and manage the concerns of the institution . . . and to report the state 
and progress of the Seminary at each annual meeting of the Synod of 
Tennessee." General control and many detailed decisions, academic and 
financial, were reserved to itself by the Synod, and the Directors' actions 
were subject to approval by Synod. 

The Directors served as trustees for Synod, but in the absence of a 
Charter could not as a Board qualify as a corporate body. Those were 
frontier days, and Maryville College's beginnings were small. The 32-ar- 
ticle Constitution was an elaborate and ambitious document for an 
institution with one professor, five students, and no property. But, true to 
Presbyterian tradition, it insured orderly procedure and respectable stand- 
ards. Well before the Civil War the Seminary had disappeared and been 
succeeded by the College. The Charter had become the regulative docu- 
ment, but parts of the Constitution have served as guides to this day. The 
College owes much to that first master plan. 

Charter Withheld Twenty-Three Years 

Why should anybody care about a legal charter for conducting a 
school, especially a church school, far out on the southwest frontier a 


century and a half ago? However, application for one was made to the 
State at once, and in a short time its absence was proving serious. 
Tennessee had been a State for twenty-five years, and the laws governing 
ownership of property and establishing institutions were increasing. Do- 
nors hesitated to make capital gifts to an unchartered institution, and 
some prospective students doubted its worth. 

Applications for a charter were refused. Today a charter can be 
obtained through the Secretary of State, but in the 19th century it had to 
be approved by the Legislature. Sectarian jealousies and unreasonable 
theological feuds were bitter on the frontier. One is amazed to find Isaac 
Anderson and the Seminary charged with training young men to infiltrate 
and take over the civil government of Tennessee for the Church. This 
was based in part upon published articles of Dr. Anderson. He had 
appealed for support of the institution as a means "to diffuse light, 
knowledge, science, and religion through a government which is happily 
republican in form, and the perpetuity of which depends on the knowl- 
edge and virtue of the people," and added that "the spirit and form of a 
church government, which universally prevails in a country, must influ- 
ence the spirit and form of the civil government of that country." One 
antagonist wrote excitedly that this represented an aim "to send out 
missionaries who are to 'twine about the government,' get into the State 
Legislatures, have religion established, and overturn the civil and reli- 
gious liberties of the people." 

One cannot imagine a tiny, impoverished Presbyterian school, with 
three teachers, ten theological students, and twenty-five literary students 
leading the Presbyterian Church to take control of the State. The charge 
was ridiculous enough and would have been amusing had not the Legisla- 
ture, most of whose members then, as later, were not highly literate in 
church government or history, listened to it and held up a charter for 
twenty-three years. 

The Original Charter — 1842 

But finally on January 14, 1842, the Legislature passed "An Act to 
incorporate a Literary Institution at the town of Maryville, Blount 
County, to be styled the Maryville College." This Act (Charter) con- 
tained approximately 750 words and was divided into seven sections. The 

Ownership and Control ^ 6i 

first five sections only are included in current editions, the last two being 
omitted because they were later superseded. The original Charter has 
been amended five times. 

Essential elements in the original Charter include ( i ) recognition 
that "a regularly organized Institution of learning has been in operation 
about twenty years in said town [Maryville}, under a board of directors 
. . . and has sent forth several hundred alumni;" (2) enactment "that 
the present board of directors be, and they are hereby, constituted a body 
politic and corporate, by the name and style of the Directors of Maryville 
College, and they shall have perpetual succession . . . ;" (3) thus a 
change of name from Southern and Western Theological Seminary to 
Maryville College, and legal recognition of the institution, now chartered 
under a new name, as a continuation of the one which had been in opera- 
tion under the former name since 18 19; (4) giving to the Directors "full 
power and authority to elect a president, . . . professors, . . . make 
bylaws, rules and regulations ...;"( 5 ) and providing "that the presi- 
dent and professors of said college, with the advice and consent of the 
Board of Directors, shall have full power and authority to confer on any 
student in said college, or any other person, the degrees of Bachelor of 
Arts, Master of Arts, or any other degree known and used in any college 
or university in any of the United States." 

Another essential provision, that for election of directors, somehow 
got mixed up by those who finally drafted the Act. Section 7 specified 
that vacancies in the Board of Directors should be filled by the Blount 
County Court, a local political body. That meant also all future appoint- 
ments of directors. It was a serious departure from the former plan of 
election by the Synod of Tennessee and from the intention of those 
applying for the Charter. 

Charter Amendments 

1842. It is not surprising that Dr. Anderson and others moved 
immediately to have this part of the Charter altered, through an amend- 
ment passed by the Legislature February 5, 1842, only three weeks after 
the original act. Section 7 was repealed and a new section enacted, 
making it the duty of the Board of Directors itself to fill vacancies in its 
membership. (This was amended again three years later.) 


Tacked onto that first amendment was a new section which reflected 
the fact that there were in the Legislature of 1842 some members harbor- 
ing the prejudices and intolerance which had held up the Charter for two 
decades. The added section began like this: "Be it enacted, That the 
rights, powers, and privileges granted by said Act to said College, shall 
always be subject to repeal, by its being made to appear to the Legislature 
by proof, that the said College has made an illegal use of its privileges or 
powers . . ." There is no record that MaryviUe College ever came to trial 
before the Legislature. But all of this strengthens the impression that 
doing good on the frontier had some rough going. 

184^. The Legislature on November 12, 1845, amended the 
Charter in points relating to a quorum of the Board, endowment of 
professorships, and election of directors. Only the last of these had direct 
bearing on control. The first amendment had made the Board of Direc- 
tors a self-perpetuating body. The amendment of 1845 transferred the 
election of directors from the Board itself back to the Synod of Tennessee, 
"according to the usage and custom of said Institution prior to its 

i860. An amendment passed by the Legislature January 17, i860, 
transferred to the United Synod of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A. all controls over the College then vested in the Synod of Ten- 
nessee of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. All parties involved had 
agreed to this transfer. It was terminated after the Civil War, and hence 
does not appear in the present edition of the Charter and effective amend- 
ments. But, as will be seen, it led to the harrassing lawsuit of the 1870's. 
An account of the United Synod is given in discussions of the lawsuit in 
this chapter and that regarding church relationships. 

188^. The Board of Directors, perhaps impelled in part by the 
eight-year post-War litigation involving ownership and control of the 
College, on November 19, 1883, (registered in Blount County November 
23) obtained through the Secretary of State a fourth Amendment to the 
Charter. In accord with the application the Board of Directors was 
invested with the privileges and powers specified in "An Act to provide 
for the organization of Corporations," which had been adopted in 1875 
by the Legislature (General Assembly) of Tennessee. 

A major change made by this 1883 amendment gave to the Board 
of Directors of Maryville College power "to regulate the mode and 

Ownership and Control ^ 63 

manner of appointment" of directors. This provision remains unchanged. 
As previously stated, the directors have in fact been elected by the Synod. 
But since 1883 this has been at the option of the Board and the Synod, 
although it is doubtful whether, until recent years, many directors or 
members of Synod have realized it. Having the Synod elect directors has 
seemed to both College and Synod the most desirable "mode and man- 

1^)41- This amendment was primarily a codification of the effec- 
tive parts of the original Charter and of the amendments prior to 1941. 
The one revision, made in the interest of clarity and brevity, changed the 
corporate name from The Directors of Maryville College to Maryville 

The Lawsuit of 1 872-1 880 

Previous histories of the College have referred to a lawsuit in the 
1870's seriously hindering the appeal for endowment funds. But all 
explanation has been omitted, perhaps because of the "conflict among 
friends" that was involved. The Directors' minutes are silent on this issue. 
Only the court records give the story, and they omit many details. 
However, since it had to do with ownership and control of the College, a 
summary of the case, now nearly a century past, seems appropriate and 
may be of interest here. 

In September, 1872, former President John Joseph Robinson, who 
had closed the College in 1861 and personally cast his lot with the 
Confederacy, and eighteen other pre-War directors filed in the Chancery 
Court of Blount County, Tennessee, a Bill of Complaint against P. M. 
Bartlett, President of the College and Chairman of the Board of Direc- 
tors; T. J. Lamar, Professor and director, who had been the second 
founder and interim Chairman of the Board; Alexander Bartlett, Profes- 
sor and director; Ralph E. Tedford, Recorder of the Board; and John P. 
Hooke, Treasurer of the Board and of the College. 

The Bill alleged ( a ) that the complainants were the legal Board of 
Directors, duly elected before the War for indefinite terms by the United 
Synod to which control of the College had been transferred by the Synod 
of Tennessee; (b) that after the Treasurer, General William Wallace, 
died in 1864, the Respondents, "taking advantage of his death and the 


unsettled condition of the country while the war was still raging, . . . 
subsequently, unlawfully, and fraudently took possession of the real estate 
. . . and of such of the personal property, books, papers, etc., of Mary- 
ville College as they could find;" (c) that the Respondents disposed of 
the seized assets and with the proceeds purchased a new campus on which 
they erected "valuable buildings;" (d) that since 1865 or 1866 they had 
"fraudently assumed to use the franchises of Maryville College" granted 
by the Charter, to conduct a school at Maryville. 

The Bill of Complaint did not refer directly to the new post-War 
Board of Directors, of which the five Defendants were representatives, 
perhaps to avoid any appearance of recognizing the legal existence of 
such a Board. But it asked the Court to restrain the Defendants from 
further "exercising or pretending to exercise any of the rights or privi- 
leges, power or authority, conferred upon the Directors or Trustees of 
Maryville College by the original Act of Incorporation and the several 
Acts amendatory thereto" and to giye the Complainants the rights, 
powers, and property. 

The court records show that in January, 1873, the Chancellor 
dismissed the Complaint, evidently ruling in favor of the new Directors 
(who in effect represented the College as it then existed). But on August 
22 of the same year, the record of the case was certified to the Supreme 
Court of Tennessee, evidently upon appeal by Dr. Robinson and his 
associates. Only fragmentary records of the litigation during the ensuing 
seven years are available; and in any case reciting them here would be 
more tedious than useful. But the final outcome is important. There is an 
entry for June 15, 1880, in the Blount County Chancery Court Minute 
Book, to the effect that those who filed the suit, through their attorneys, 
dismissed (withdrew) the original Bill of Complaint and paid the costs. 

In the background of the lawsuit was the transfer of Maryville 
College in 1858 by the Synod of Tennessee to a new United Synod of 
whose history something will be said in the chapter on church relation- 
ships. In the transfer agreement there was a reversionary clause specifying 
that if the United Synod should cease to exist, the control of the College 
and its property would revert to the Synod of Tennessee. In i860 an 
amendment to the Charter legalized the transfer agreement. During the 
War, in 1864, the United Synod did go out of existence through merger 
into the Presbyterian Church of the Confederate States of America, which 

Ownership and Control ^ 65 

was formed in 1861 and changed its name in 1865 to the Presbyterian 
Church in the U. S. ( Southern ) . Therefore, the original Synod of Tennes- 
see in 1865 eleaed a new Board of Directors and in 1866 reopened the 
College, which had been in operation six years and had constructed a new 
plant when the suit was filed. Four of the pre- War directors had been 
elected to the new Board, but most of those on the pre-War Board had 
moved or had changed church affiliation or had died. There had been no 
election during the War. Of the nineteen former directors who collabo- 
rated in the lawsuit against the active Board, only a minority were then 
living in East Tennessee. At least nine of the group had moved during the 
War from that area to States farther south — Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Texas. 

The Complaint (lawsuit) did not mention the reversionary clause in 
the 1858 transfer agreement or the merger of the United Synod. It 
greatly over-stated the assets salvaged by the College from the War. As 
has been previously reported, the property had been devastated by the 
War and sold for debt, and the Directors had difficulty securing money to 
redeem it. The charge that the new campus and buildings were financed 
from the sale of the old properties was totally incorrect. In fact, the old 
campus was never sold, and years later was given to New Providence 
Church. The boarding house, the only other property, was deeded for 
$1,000 to Second Presbyterian Church of Maryville, a Negro congrega- 
tion, on October 28, 1871, after the new campus buildings were con- 
structed and occupied. Their cost of near 1 60,000 was covered by gifts 
from new friends, most of them in the North. The small endowment 
was retained as such. 

The attempt by former directors, who had not participated in the 
efforts that brought the College back to life, to obtain possession and 
conrol through court action, must have seemed unjust indeed to Profes- 
sor Lamar, President Bartlett, and all associated with them. What finally 
led to withdrawal of the suit will probably never be known. Could it have 
been a discovery of the actual facts by a majority of those who had signed 
the Complaint? Or could it have been a realization that the Supreme 
Court was aware of the facts and preparing to rule against the appeal? Or 
was there a gradual returning of goodwill as the War receded into the 

The eight years of litigation hurt the College financially. Increased 


endowment was desperately needed, but prospective donors were unwill- 
ing to invest in an uncertain future. The dismissal of the suit in 1880 
made it possible within the next three years to establish the first substan- 
tial endowment. It made permanent the organic relationship of the 
College to the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., which had founded it 
in 1 819 and revived it in 1866. 

The Bylaws 

i8icf. In the beginning, the Bylaws were in the form of a Consti- 
tution, consisting of the plans and specifications whose adoption by the 
Synod of Tennessee on October 19, 1819, established the institution. The 
Constitution of 18 19 and the Charter of 1842 were the regulative 
documents for well over a half century, and of course the Charter as 
amended has continued to be the College's basic document. As the nature 
of the institution changed, the Constitution was altered in many details 
and was gradually set aside, although, as has been said, certain of its basic 
provisions have been retained down to the present. 

1842. The Charter granted by the State in 1842 stated that the 
Directors "shall have full power and authority ... to make such bylaws, 
rules, and regulations, as in their opinion may be expedient or necessary." 
This power and authority was used to amend the Constitution and to 
establish or delegate to the faculty responsibility for establishing regula- 
tions for the ongoing work of the College. 

1888. The first document entitled "Bylaws," which this writer has 
discovered, is transcribed in the minutes of a Directors' meeting held 
August 16, 1888, between the third and fourth presidencies. The text is 
given in full, without comment except the statement that "The Board 
adopted the following Bylaws." It is a relatively short document, divided 
into six articles providing for officers, meetings, and committees of the 
Board, degrees, certain business matters, and amendments. Minutes of a 
meeting the next year (May 29, 1889) contain five additional articles, 
adopted in response to suggestions by the Synod, relating to reports to 
Synod and election of directors by Synod. 

ic)i8. It was thirty years before the Directors made a general 
revision of the 1888 Bylaws. It was adopted on June 6, 19 18, a year 
before the College's Centennial celebration. 


Ownership and Control • 67 

iS)3i- During the first year of the sixth presidency, the Bylaws 
were rewritten and on June 4, 193 1, the new draft was adopted by the 
Board, replacing that of 19 18 and its amendments. 

1942. The Charter and its effective amendments, as codified into 
a single document in 1941, and the 1931 Bylaws, as subsequently 
amended, were printed in booklet form for circulation in 1942 and again 
in i960. 

ic^6c). The Charter has not been amended since 1941. But the 
Directors have adopted a number of amendments to the Bylaws since their 
publication in i960, as well as before. However, the Bylaws of 193 1 is 
the basic document in effect at the time of Maryville's Sesquicentennial. 

The Directors 

From the founding in 1819, there has been a Board of 36 directors, 
elected by the Synod for terms of three years, each eligible for re-election. 
Specifications as to directors in the Constitution, Charter, and Bylaws 
have been changed from time to time, but not the basic practice. In the 
Maryville College documents of the 19th century, including Board min- 
utes and College catalogs, the terms Director and Trustee are used more 
or less interchangeably. But from the beginning Director has been the 
official designation. The current Bylaws say: "The members of the gov- 
erning board of the institution are termed directors. In these Bylaws and 
in common usage the names 'Directors,' 'The Directors,' 'The Board of 
Directors,' and "The Board' are used interchangeably." 

The Constitution of 181 9 specified that two thirds of the Directors 
should be ministers and one third laymen of the sponsoring Presbyterian 
Church. This composition of the Board was maintained for approximately 
125 years although the amendment to the Charter in 1883 gave the 
Board itself authority to determine the qualifications of its members and 
the mode of their election. At present all directors are Protestant church 
members, most are Presbyterians, and approximately half are ordained 

The first women members of the Board were elected in 1938, after 
the College had reached the venerable age of 119, They were Miss 
Clemmie J. Henry, of Maryville, and Miss Nellie P. McCampbell, of 
Knoxville. Until the 1950's women could not be Presbyterian ministers. 


and until rather recent times the ecclesiastical term laymen seems to have 
been taken to mean men only. Since 1938 there have always been women 
on the Board. The present directors live in twelve States and the District 
of Columbia, and about forty percent are Maryville alumni. 

Honorary Directors 

In 1957 the Board of Directors amended its Bylaws setting age 
seventy as the maximum for active service as a director. At the same time 
a category of Honorary Director was established. When a director in 
active service attains the age of seventy years he becomes an Honorary 
Director at the next stated meeting of the Synod of Mid-South, and a 
successor director is elected. Honorary directors may attend and partici- 
pate in meetings of the Board and serve on special committees, but 
cannot vote or hold office in the Board. The number of honorary directors 
varies; at the time of this writing k is ten. 

Prior to 1957 there was no limit on the length or age of service, and 
many directors were re-elected every three years for life. This gave the 
Board extra experience and loyalty, but tended to keep the average age 
relatively high and to limit the infusion of fresh leadership. By the new 
plan, the experience of the honorary directors is retained, and additional 
openings for new directors are created. There is no limit on re-election 
except age. 

Recorders of the Directors 

During the first half century of the College's history the Board of 
Directors regularly used the title Secretary, but about 1870 changed it 
to Recorder. The duties and authority of the Recorder have always been 
those of the Secretary of a corporation. The current Bylaws continue this 
century-long usage, describing the office and authorizing Recorder and 
Secretary as interchangeable titles for legal transactions. In the College's 
150 years eleven individuals have served in this office. 

There were three before the Civil War, all with the title Secretary: 
Rev. Robert Hardin and Rev. William Eagleton within the first eight 
years; and Samuel Pride, M.D., a physician in Maryville, for over a third 
of a century, from 1827 until his death after the closing of the College by 
the War. 

When the Board of Directors was reconstituted by the Synod of 

Otimership and Control , 69 

Tennessee in 1865, Professor Thomas Jefferson Lamar was elected Chair- 
man and Rev. Ralph Erskine Tedford, Secretary. The latter had been a 
director before the War, and was the future father-in-law of Professor 
Lamar. His service of eleven years was from 1865 to 1876. In 1870 he 
began, for reasons now unknown, to sign the Minutes of the Board as 
Recorder, and that title has been used since that time. 

The Recorder from 1876 to 1891 was Professor Gideon Stebbins 
White Crawford, a member of the first post-War class. Professor of 
Mathematics from 1874 until his death in 1891; and for two years, 
by the Governor's appointment, State Superintendent of Instruction. 

Major Benjamin Cunningham, widely known and long connected 
with the College, was Recorder from 1891 to his sudden death in 1914. 
From 1 90 1 he was both Recorder of the Board and Treasurer of the 
Board and the College. He was succeeded in 19 14 as Treasurer and 
Recorder by Fred Lowry Proffitt, whose services first as a teacher, then as 
director. Treasurer, and Recorder covered thirty-five years, until his 
premature death in 1 944. 

Judge John Calvin Crawford, whose father Professor G. S. W. 
Crawford had been Recorder over a half century earlier, served five years, 
followed in 1949 by Joe C. Gamble, who after four years was elected 
Chairman, the post he continues to fill. From 1953 to 1962, Miss 
Clemmie J. Henry, whose service as head of the Student-Help program is 
reported elsewhere, was the first and only woman Recorder of the Board, 
as in 1938 she had been one of the first two women to be elected 
directors. Since 1962 the Recorder has been Edwin Jones Best, an alum- 
nus in the Class of 1936 and an official of the Tennessee Valley Author- 
ity. In the direction and detailed control of the College, the Recorder of 
the Board plays an important role. 

Chairman of the Directors 

The first three Presidents of the College served ex officio as Chair- 
men of the Directors. There is no mention of officers of the Board in the 
Constitution or in the Charter until its Amendment of 1883. Apparently 
the Synod and the Directors merely proceeded on the assumption that one 
presiding officer was enough. The amendment of 1883 was an "omnibus 
one," that empowered the Board of Directors as a corporation to elect its 
own officers. That was during the term of the third President, who had 



been serving ex officio as Chairman of the Board for fourteen years, and 
no change in practice was made until his term ended. 

But in 1888, during the two-year interim between the third and 
fourth presidencies, the Directors adopted a new set of Bylaws in which 
the chairmanship was made elective. There was never any regulation 
against the President of the College being elected a director, and the last 
three Presidents have been so elected by Synod. The present Bylaws 
specify that he shall be a director. He is eligible for election as Chairman, 
just as is any other director; but since the office was made elective in 
1888, the Board has elected as chairmen persons other than the presi- 
dents. This doubtless was the purpose of the bylaw amendment, and the 
experience of these past eighty years has proved the practice to be a wise 

The Six Elected Chairmen 

There was no permanent chairman for three years after the resigna- 
tion of President Bartlett. The minutes of the various meetings speak of 
"calling to the Chair" one or another of the directors present. Most 
frequently it was Rev. C. B. Lord. Since 1890 there have been the 
following six elected permanent chairmen with terms ranging from four 
to twenty-one years. 

Rev. Thomas Jefferson Lamar, M.A. (186^-1869). Much is said 
in this volume about Professor Lamar, the second founder. As reported in 
the narrative of Chapter i, he was elected Chairman by the Board at its 
first meeting after the War and served until the arrival of a president in 
1869. As previously indicated, the President of the College was until 
1888 ex officio Chairman of the Board. 

Rev. William Harris Lyle, D.D. ( 1 890-1905), Pastor of Hopewell 
Presbyterian Church, Dandridge, Tennessee, an alumnus of the College 
in the last class before the Civil War and a director from the time the 
College reopened after the War, He was elected in 1890, and continued 
in office fifteen years, until his death in 1905. His son. Rev. Hubert S. 
Lyle, D.D., was later a professor in the College for three years. Pastor of 
New Providence Church, Maryville, six years. President of the College of 
the Ozarks, Arkansas, and President of Washington College Academy, 

Rev. Edgar Alonzo Elmore, D.D., LL.D. (1906-1927), Pastor of 

Ownership and Control , 71 

Second Presbyterian Church, Chattanooga, Tennessee, and a prominent 
minister in the Synod, served as Chairman for the twenty-one years from 
1906 until his death. He was a graduate of the College in the Class of 
1875, was a member of the faculty from 1884 to 1888; and between 
1888 and his death in 1927, at usual intervals of four years, he was leader 
of the February Meetings nine times. 

Rev. William Robert Datvson, D.D. (ic)2j-ic)^2), Pastor of Gray- 
stone Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, Tennessee. He was a Maryville 
College graduate in the Class of 1884, and had two sons and two 
daughters to graduate at Maryville between 191 5 and 1921. He was the 
Chairman who formally inducted the writer of these pages into office as 
sixth President. 

Judge Samuel O'Grady Houston, B.A., LL.B., LL.D. (1932-1953), 
of Knoxville, was the first Chairman who was not a Presbyterian minis- 
ter. He was a graduate of Maryville College in the Class of 1 898 and of 
the University of Tennessee Law School, and became a practicing attor- 
ney and then a judge in Knoxville. He was a Presbyterian elder and a 
great-nephew of General Sam Houston of Tennessee and Texas fame. 

Hon. Joe Caldwell Gamble, B.A., LL.B., LL.D. (1953- ), a 
practicing attorney in Maryville, is the present Chairman, having been 
elected in 1953 to succeed Judge Houston, who retired because of age 
and failing health. Dr. Gamble is a son of the late Judge Moses Houston 
Gamble, for many years a director of the College. He graduated from 
Maryville College in 1926 and from the University of Michigan Law 
School in 1929; is an ordained Presbyterian elder and a member of New 
Providence Presbyterian Church; and serves with distinction in various 
important positions in the community and the State. 

Chapter D The Presidents" 
Four in the 
19th Century 

The Seven Presidents 



Isaac Anderson 



John Joseph Robinson 



Peter Mason Bartlett 



Samuel Ward Boardman 



Samuel Tyndale Wilson 



Ralph Waldo Lloyd 



Joseph J. Copeland 



Only seven presidents in 150 years — and the seventh just well started! 
This is no commonplace in higher education. The average tenure of 
twentieth-century American college presidents is actually more than twice 
the four years frequently quoted. But at comparatively few colleges or 
universities in this or the preceding century does it equal Maryville's 
twenty-year average. The second president, whose service was terminated 
by war, and the seventh president, whose term is presumably far from 
complete, are included in the twenty-year average. Of course, longevity in 
itself does not have superior value. But seven presidents in 150 years does 
say something about continuity and stability, and about personal dedica- 
tion in times when the task was discouraging and the rewards were 

The longest term was that of Dr. Anderson, 38 years; and the 


The Presidents — Four in the ic)th Century 73 

shortest, Dr. Robinson's of four years, was cut short by the Civil War. Dr. 
Copeland has now served twice as long as did Dr. Robinson. Only one, 
Dr. Anderson, died while in ofl&ce. Three of the five now deceased 
(Anderson, Robinson, and Wilson) are buried in the College cemetery. 
The ages at which the seven took office were: Anderson 39, Robinson 
35, Bartlett 49, Boardman 59, Wilson 43, Lloyd 38, Copeland 47. 

As previously noted, the first three presidents of the College were 
also ex officio chairmen of the Board of Directors. This practice was 
changed when new Bylaws, adopted in 1888, specified that the Board 
should henceforth elect its own chairman. The president, when a director, 
could be elected chairman; but one purpose of the change evidently was 
to divide authority, and no president since Dr. Bartlett has been Chair- 
man of the Board. Experience has confirmed the wisdom of this change. 

All seven presidents have been ministers of the Presbyterian (now 
United Presbyterian) Church in the U. S. A., by which the College was 
established and to which it continues to be officially related. All have 
been actively involved in the life and work of the Church; all have been 
committed to the historic Christian ideals and aims of the College; all 
have been non-sectarian and ecumenical in spirit and administration. At 
the same time, each brought to the office scholarly achievement and 
ideals, vigorous advocacy of high academic standards, and a considerable 
measure of interest and experience in higher education. The first four 
carried full teaching loads, and their successors partial loads until the 
1940's. Until well into the twentieth century, most church-related college 
presidents were ordained ministers. By the middle of this century they 
were being succeeded increasingly by laymen, usually from the ranks of 
professional educators, businessmen, or leaders in the newer fields of 
public relations and promotion. This change was in line with earlier 
developments among tax-supported and independent institutions. But for 
historical and practical reasons the Directors have continued to select 
Presbyterian ministers as having distinctive qualffications for the presi- 
dency of Maryville College. 

The seven Presidents were born in six diflferent States and one 
foreign country — Virginia, Georgia, Connecticut, Vermont, Syria, Tennes- 
see, Texas. All except the Founder did at least their graduate work in the 
North — ^New York (2), Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois (2). Only two 
(Wilson and Lloyd) did their undergraduate study at Maryville College; 


and only two (Robinson and Wilson) were on the faculty before becom- 
ing president. Thus of the seven, only three had any prior relationship to 
the College. Obviously the risk of sectionalism or inbreeding from these 
presidents was rather small. 

There have been three interim periods, in which a professor was 
appointed Chairman of the Faculty, to handle specified responsibilities of 
the presidency. Four men have served in this capacity: Thomas Jefferson 
Lamar, 1 866-1 869, the first three years of the College's operation after 
the Civil War; Edgar Alonzo Elmore, 1 887-1 888, and James Elcana 
Rogers, 1888-1889, between Presidents Bartlett and Boardman; and 
Edwin Ray Hunter, three months in 1930, between Presidents Wilson 
and Lloyd. Professor Elmore resigned in 1888 to reenter the pastorate 
and was succeeded by Professor Rogers who resigned to enter Y.M.C.A. 
work after the new president arrived. Professors Lamar and Hunter 
continued as valuable members of the faculty for many years. 

On the following pages of this chapter are biographical sketches of 
the four nineteenth-century presidents; and in Chapter 11 there are 
sketches of the three twentieth-cenmry presidents. Each sketch aims to 
give briefly a factual idea of the man and his service and of the College's 
problems and progress during his presidency. 

Isaac Anderson 
Founder and First President 

The name and unique place of its Founder and First President 
would doubtless receive special honor from Maryville College, even if he 
had been a mediocre individual. In fact he was a strong personality and 
leader on the frontier, who would have been outstanding in any genera- 
tion, on or off the frontier. He evidently was a remarkable man. And he 
not only laid the foundations of the College, but also gave direction to its 
life and development through these 150 years. 

Fortunately, we have reliable and rather full accounts. The earliest 
was an "eye-witness," President John Joseph Robinson, colleague and 
immediate successor of Dr. Anderson. It is a 300-page volume, published 
in i860, entitled Memoir of Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D. A little over a 
half century later President Samuel Tyndale Wilson wrote A Century of 
Maryville College, containing extensive information about the founder 

The Presidents — Four in the ic^th Century 75 

and his service, based in part on Dr. Robinson's book and in part on other 
sources. As a student and young professor Dr. Wilson learned much from 
Professor Lamar and other former associates of Dr. Anderson. In 1932 he 
published a 168-page biography entitled Isaac Anderson Memorial. 

The Three Periods of His Life 

(1) In Rockbridge County, Virginia — 21 years. Isaac Anderson 
was born March 26, 1780, during the American Revolution, on his 
father's farm, twelve miles north of Lexington, Rockbridge County, 
Virginia, and lived there until he was twenty-one. His ancestors, the 
Andersons and McCampbells, were in the dramatic migration of Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterians to the American colonies. Isaac was the oldest of seven 
children in a home where industry, Christian faith, honorable character, 
and education were magnified. His early education was at home and in a 
subscription school conducted by a Scottish dominie. From the age of 
fifteen to graduation he attended Liberty Hall Academy (antecedent of 
Washington and Lee University). He became a candidate for the ministry 
and began theological studies under Rev. Samuel Brown, scholarly pastor 
of New Providence Presbyterian Church, of which the Andersons were 
members. (The church at Maryville, Tennessee, was named for this older 
church in Virginia. ) It was a dozen years later that the first Presbyterian 
theological seminaries opened at Princeton and Richmond. 

(2) In Grassy Valley, Knox County, Tennessee — 11 years. In 
1 80 1, during the period of Isaac's theological training, the Andersons and 
McCampbells moved farther to the southwest, into the Tennessee River 
Valley of East Tennessee, where more and better land was available. 
They acquired 1,000 acres in what was then called Grassy Valley, about 
ten miles north of Knoxville. Isaac resumed his studies under Rev. Dr. 
Samuel Carrick, President of Blount College ( antecedent of the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee ) , at Knoxville, and Rev. Dr. Gideon Blackburn, Pastor 
of New Providence Presbyterian Church at Maryville. 

In 1802, after a year in Tennessee, he was ordained a minister and 
installed pastor of the Washington Presbyterian Church near his home; 
later he became part-time pastor also of the Lebanon Church a few miles 
away. In the same year he was married and established both his home and 
Union Academy, popularly called "Mr. Anderson's Log College," on his 
215-acre farm. The Log College had a very successful ten-year history, 


during which Mr. Anderson taught most of the courses in a rather 
amazing classical curriculum. He conducted the Academy, served as 
pastor of two small churches, and preached as a frontier evangelist, 
ranging over a wide area, with frequent circuits of 150 miles on horse- 

(3) In Maryville, Tennessee — 4^ years. In 18 12, at the age of 
thirty-two, he accepted a call to succeed his former teacher, Gideon 
Blackburn, as pastor of New Providence Presbyterian Church (organized 
in 1786) at Maryville, the most influential Presbyterian congregation on 
that part of the frontier. There he spent the rest of his life. 

Through his first seven years at Maryville, he served as full time 
pastor of the church, continued his preaching circuits to outlying places, 
tutored ministerial students in his home, and taught during school terms 
in local academies. One of his least serious students, but later the most 
famous, was General Sam Houston of Tennessee and Texas. 

In 1819 came the founding of the Southern and Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary (Marville College) in which he was professor and presi- 
dent, and at the same time pastor of New Providence Church, until his 
death thirty-eight years later. 

Founding the College 

By 1 8 19 Isaac Anderson had been a pastor, educator, and frontier 
evangelist in East Tennessee for seventeen years, and knew well the 
condition of the churches and religion there. He and others had made 
unsuccessful appeals to the older centers in the northeast for ministers. 
This eflFort reached its climax in 181 9 when Isaac Anderson went to 
Philadelphia as a commissioner to the thirty-second General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. There and at Princeton 
Theological Seminary he and his fellow-commissioner from Tennessee, 
Rev. James Gallaher of Rogersville, presented the appeal in person, again 
without results. As narrated in Chapter i, they returned home and 
persuaded the Presbytery of Union and the Synod of Tennessee to take 
the steps necessary to launch a new institution for the training of their 
own ministers. Isaac Anderson was elected "Professor of Didactic and 
Polemic Theology," gathered a class of five young men, and the College 
was born. That was in October of 18 19. 

The Presidents — Four in the i^th Century -j-f 

President Thirty-Eight Years 

His original appointment and his inauguration were as professor, 
with no mention of president, and he conducted the institution single 
handed six years, after which there were usually two associates. Several 
years later he is listed as both president and professor, and the Charter of 
1842 refers to "the President and Professors of said college." We do not 
know when he was given officially the title "President," but title or no 
title, he carried the responsibilities from the beginning. He was studious 
and scholarly all his life, and a teacher at heart. From the age of 
twenty-two to the failure of his health at seventy he taught at academy, 
college, or seminary levels, and was counted a logical and thorough 

Under him the student body increased from five to one hundred; the 
physical plant developed from nothing to a campus with three buildings 
and a broading house nearby. Also for ten years there was a farm of 200 
acres. The library grew to 6,000 volumes; and an endowment of |6,ooo 
was established. 

Dr. Anderson's teaching and pastoral duties prevented his going 
afield often in search of funds. Most of the time he and the Directors kept 
one or more "financial agents" soliciting gifts. He was a capable business 
manager and personally a sacrificial giver. He accepted no compensation 
from the College for the first ten years, living on his modest income from 
his churches and from the farm he continued to own in Grassy Valley. 
Moreover, for many years he and Mrs. Anderson boarded free in their 
home students who did not have money, and paid the tuition of these and 

Academic Degrees 

By the standards of his day — and in fact any day — Isaac Anderson 
had a superior education, although not accompanied by earned academic 
degrees. It possessed breadth and depth, as witness the range of his 
teaching. He received at least two honorary degrees: Master of Arts 
conferred in 18 19 by Greeneville College (founded 1794, merged 1868 
with Tusculum College ) , and Doctor of Divinity a few years later from 
an institution whose identity disappeared with lost records. He came to be 


known uniformly as Doctor Anderson. The A.M. degree is printed in the 
1823 Inauguration program, and that of D.D. in the only catalog 
(1854) from his lifetime; and both degrees are listed by his biographers. 

His Schedule 

His schedule was unbelievably "full-time" from 1819 until the 
collapse of his health thirty years later. At the College he carried increas- 
ing responsibilities as president and taught classes almost literally from 
sunrise until sunset every weekday throughout each term. For forty-five 
years he was pastor of New Providence Presbyterian Church, whose 
membership grew under him from 209 in 1812 to 788 in 1835. During 
ten of those years, he was the first pastor of Second Presbyterian Church 
at Knoxville, riding horseback sixteen miles each way every other week 
to conduct services there; and he was a frequent special preacher through- 
out the territory. For a long time he averaged two hundred sermons a 

The records show that he organized at least nine churches; that 
between 181 5 and 1849 he served as the moderator of Union Presbytery 
meetings on forty occasions; that he was Treasurer of the Presbytery 
thirty-one years and Stated Clerk eleven years, resigning the latter be- 
cause of pressure of work; that he was elected moderator of Synod seven 
times during his career; that he was for twenty-three years (1834-1857) 
a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, the first Protestant Board of Foreign Missions in America 
and the agency in which the Presbyterian Church participated until it 
formed its own board. 

His Appearance, Endurance, and Preaching Ability 

The following is part of a description of Dr. Anderson in the 
biography by Dr. Robinson: 

In his maturity, the person of Dr. Anderson was tall, commanding, and 
somewhat inclined to be corpulent. . . . For many years he knew not what it 
was to be weary under the most exhausting labor. In the saddle, riding to and 
from his distant appointments, in the heat of summer and the winds and 
snows of winter; in the pulpit, laboring with the strength and zeal of a man 
in earnest; in the classroom enduring that which is most trying to the 

The Presidents — Four in the i^th Century 79 

constitution, confinement within doors and sedentary habits; on his farm, 
toiling with his own hands to eke out a scanty living and secure the means of 
doing good, wherever he was, whatever he did, his natural force seemed not 
to abate under the pressure of labor which would have crushed a man of less 
vigorous constitution. . . . 

His eye seemed to look you through, yet it often sparkled with mirthful- 
ness, for he was always cheerful; or was bedewed with tears of kindness and 
love, for his heart was tender. Fearless of man's judgment, he shunned not to 
declare the whole counsel of God. He maintained what he believed to be the 
truth. . . , 

His commanding form, his expanded brow, his flashing eye, his power- 
ful voice, his irresistable logic, his intimate acquaintance with the word of 
God, his intense earnestness, his unaffected sincerity, his well-known and 
honored character, all conspired to make him one of the most remarkable and 
successful preachers of the first half of the nineteenth century. 

His Writings 

As a writer Dr. Anderson was capable but not notable. His responsi- 
bilities were too numerous and demanding. He expressed strong prefer- 
ence for study and activity rather than writing. He preached from notes in 
a day when for such educated ministers manuscript preaching was the 
rule. Yet for fifty years he wrote out his lectures (which unhappily were 
burned with his house), and the very partial available list of his pub- 
lished articles, sermons, addresses, essays, and other material is impressive. 
After the fashion of the day, he at times wrote articles for the public press 
using a pseudonym — "C. N." (the final letters of his two names) and 
"Amicus Literamm." Perhaps there were others. His style was clear, his 
material orderly, his presentations forceful and logical. His letters espe- 
cially were warm and sometimes whimsical. 

Position on Theological and Social Issues 

By present criteria, in his theology, Dr. Anderson was a conservative, 
who might be called a "moderate Calvinist." Needless to say, he was in 
various ways a product of his times and of the American frontier. But in a 
very real and practical sense he was a true liberal in attitude and in many 
of his ideas and methods. This was one of his bequests to the institution of 
the future. As a minister and educator he took strong positions on the 


current social issues of the frontier and the nation. He spoke vigorously 
for abolition of slavery and of the liquor traffic; for integrity in govern- 
ment; and for preserving the Union, calling secession "that most abomi- 
nable political heresy. . . ." 

It was said of Isaac Anderson: "He was no 'respector of persons'; the 
African, the Indian, or the foreigner from whatever land was to him as a 
brother." Before the founding of the College, he educated in his home 
George Erskine, a Negro whose freedom from slavery was purchased by 
Union Presbytery, and who was licensed as a minister in 18 19 and later 
went to Africa as the first foreign missionary from that presbytery. 
Strongly opposed to slavery and working for its abolition, Dr. Anderson 
meanwhile ministered to the Negro people of the area, baptizing slaves 
and receiving them into his church. It is true that, as in other churches, 
they sat in a gallery of their own, probably the only way they would at 
that time have been accepted by a congregation in Tennessee. He en- 
rolled Negroes in the College from the beginning, although perforce few 
were then free to attend. There were also some Cherokee Indian students; 
three were reported in 1824. 

His Family 

Dr. and Mrs. Anderson had six children, five boys and one girl, but 
all except one son died in infancy, a tragic commentary on the medical 
limitations of the times. Their son, Samuel Hoyse Anderson, married 
Mary Reece Thompson, of the family from whose estate the College forty 
years later acquired the College Woods. To them were born two children, 
Isaac and Rebecca. But in 1841, six years after his marriage, Samuel 
Anderson died at the age of thirty-one. His widow with her two children 
moved into Dr. and Mrs. Anderson's home and lived there six years, until 
her marriage to John M. Caldwell. The two grandchildren survived both 
Dr. and Mrs. Anderson, but the grandson, Isaac, died of tuberculosis at 
the age of twenty, unmarried. Thus the granddaughter, Rebecca, became 
the only one through whom Isaac Anderson's family line could be 
perpetuated, but not under the name of Anderson. In 1861, she was 
married to Isaac Newton Caldwell. They had two daughters, who married 
two Mclntyre brothers in Mississippi. Thus no direct descendents of Dr. 
Isaac Anderson bear the Anderson name, but there are Mclntyres and an 
increasing number of other names. 

The Presidents — Four in the i^th Century 8i 

His Final Years 

In his late sixties, Dr. Anderson was stricken with what was diag- 
nosed as "paralysis of an important lumbar nerve," from which he never 
recovered. This curtailed more and more of his activities, including his 
lifelong traveling on horseback. He had to remain seated when teaching 
and preaching and in his last two or three years he used a crutch. His last 
regular class work was in 1850, and by 1856 he was almost totally in- 
capacitated in body and mind. He was president and pastor in name only 
and the College and church declined seriously. 

In 1852 Mrs. Anderson died; in 1856 fire destroyed the manse, in 
which he was still living, and all its contents, including most of the 
College's records. He barely escaped with his life. His daughter-in-law 
and her second husband took him to their home at Rockford, five miles 
from Maryville, and gave him every care possible. But he declined 
rapidly, died there on January 28, 1857, and was buried beside his wife in 
the New Providence Church Cemetery. On November 4, 1933, seventy- 
six years later, under supervision of President Lloyd and President Emeri- 
tus Wilson, the remains of Dr. and Mrs. Anderson and of their son, 
grandson, and foster grandson, who had been buried with them, with the 
monimient and grave stones, were removed to the Maryville College 

John Joseph Robinson 
Second President 

Of Maryville's seven presidents, the second was the youngest when 
he took office at the age of thirty-five. His presidency, although a produc- 
tive one, was the shortest, four years. He closed the College and left 
Maryville at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, never to return. 

His Life 

John Joseph Robinson was born January 16, 1822, in Washington, 
Georgia, and died November 8, 1894, in Atlanta, Georgia. His father was 
a successful merchant who had earlier moved to Georgia from Baltimore, 
Maryland. The family background was one of culture and active church 

The future President of Maryville College attended the University 


of Tennessee in Knoxville, and graduated in 1845 at the head of his class. 
He then attended Union Theological Seminary, New York City, for two 
or three years, and returned to East Tennessee. He was licensed in 1848 
and ordained as a Presbyterian minister on September 14, 1849, by the 
Presbytery of Union, and served for a time as a pastor at Lenoir City. 

From 1850 to 1855 he was Professor of Sacred Literature at Mary- 
ville College, where his colleagues were Dr. Anderson and Dr. John S. 
Craig, Professor of Languages. By that time, however. Dr. Anderson was 
failing steadily in health. During two of the five years as a Professor, Dr. 
Robinson was also pastor of a church in Athens, fifty miles away, and for 
four years was Stated Clerk of the Synod of Tennessee. In 1855 he 
resigned his professorship, probably because of the College's decline and 
the shortage of funds due to Dr. Anderson's long illness. The next two 
years he spent as a pastor at Midway, Kentucky. 

Evidently he had left an excellent reputation at Maryville, for very 
soon after Dr. Anderson's death in January, 1857, the Directors invited 
him back as President and Professor of Didactic Theology. He accepted 
and in April assumed the office, which he held for the next four years. 
Under his leadership the College made rapid progress. But there were 
clouds of impending war, and in mid- April of 1861 the opening shots 
were fired at Fort Sumter. 

On April 22 Dr. Robinson conducted a final chapel service and 
announced the closing of the College "on account of a state of armed 
hostilities in the country." Actually there were as yet no armed hostilities 
anywhere near the Tennessee Valley, and some have wondered whether 
Dr. Robinson's personal sympathies with the Confederacy may account 
for what at this distance appears a precipitous action. But the feelings of 
war were already there and in time armies came. Closing the College 
would ultimately have been inevitable. 

The reports of Dr. Robinson's activities during the War are not 
entirely clear. But from the alumni records of Union Theological Semi- 
nary and from family papers given to this writer by Dr. Robinson's 
elderly daughter, it appears that he went first to Rogersville, Tennessee, 
where for a time he had charge of a church and a girls' school; then to 
Lexington, Georgia, where a brother was living; and that he served an 
unspecified length of time as a chaplain in the Confederate Army. 

For a quarter of a century after the War he served as a minister of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States (Southern), formed in 

The Presidents — Four in the i^th Century 83 

1861. He was a pastor thirteen years (1867-1880) at Eufaula, in 
southeastern Alabama; then for a period was principal of an academy in 
Rome, Georgia. Returning to the pastorate, he served churches at Ros- 
well and Atlanta, Georgia, and at Jacksonville, Florida. After being 
stricken one day in the pulpit, he resigned his pastorate at Jacksonville in 
1 892 and returned to Atlanta, where he lived as an invalid until his death 
November 8, 1894, at the age of seventy- two. He was buried in West 
View Cemetery, Atlanta; but forty years later, on October 22, 1935, 
Maryville College, with the consent of his daughter, Mrs. James Park 
Street, of Columbia, Tennessee, removed his remains to the campus 
cemetery, where they lie near those of his onetime colleagues, Dr. Ander- 
son and Professor Lamar. 

Dr. Robinson was married three times. His first wife was Margaret 
Ann Temple, who died leaving two small sons, neither of whom lived to 
maturity. He then married Margaret Ann "Wallace, daughter of General 
William Wallace, who was for thirty-one years Treasurer of Maryville 
College. She too died as a young woman and is buried in the old New 
Providence Church cemetery at Maryville. She left an infant daughter, 
who three quarters of a century later was the Mrs. Street who gave 
permission to remove her father's remains to the campus. His third wife 
was Mary Alice Piatt, daughter of Judge Piatt of Lexington, Georgia, 
who survived him but at death was not buried with him. There were no 
children by the third marriage. 

He did not return after the War to the College or to the area. East 
Tennessee in sentiment and action was Union territory, and he had cast his 
lot with his home State of Georgia and the Confederacy. There was little 
left of the College to which to return even if the way had been clear. In 
fact, had it not been for the efforts of Professor Lamar, the institution 
might have disappeared. Seven years after its reopening a lawsuit was 
filed by Dr. Robinson and eighteen other pre- War directors, who claimed 
that they were still the legal board of directors, rather than the directors 
who had been elected after the War by the Synod of Tennessee of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., and who had reopened and rebuilt 
the College. This suit was settled in favor of the College, but not until 
eight years in the courts had elapsed. Although he was chairman of the 
group prosecuting the suit. Dr. Robinson's correspondence in that un- 
happy situation is marked by conscientiousness and courtesy. The hitherto 
unpublished story of this suit is told in Chapter 4. 


Personality and Service 

All reports, which from College and family sources are rather 
numerous, describe Dr. Robinson as a cultured gentleman, a scholarly 
teacher, a good administrator, an eloquent preacher, and a man of kindly 
Christian spirit. He was drawn into positions of leadership in the Church 
at large. While President of the College he was elected Moderator of the 
Synod of Tennessee (1858) and of the new United Synod, about which 
there is information in Chapters 4 and 6 of this volume. 

In his relatively short term as second President, Dr. Robinson made 
two especially important contributions. The first was a revival of the 
College's life and a restoration of confidence in it by the Synod and the 
general public. When Dr. Anderson's strong leadership was removed by 
the collapse of his health, the College lost ground badly and by the time 
of his death was in a precarious condition. Supporting gifts had dried up, 
enrollment was down, criticism of the business management and general 
program was widespread, and disharmony had arisen in the Synod over 
national issues and over the College. An effort to move the institution to 
another town some distance from Maryville had almost succeeded. Dr. 
Robinson, with energy, tact, and wise administration, did much to restore 
strength and standing. There were four years of increasingly eflFective 
service, and prospects for the future were encouraging. All of this, 
however, was canceled by the War. 

Dr. Robinson's second notable service was the writing of a biogra- 
phy of Isaac Anderson. This continues to be of great value. A large 
proportion of what is now known about the early years of the College as 
well as about its founder and first president, is in Dr. Robinson's volume, 
Memoir of Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D., published in i860. It is there that 
we find most of the extant letters of Dr. Anderson, much of the authentic 
human-interest information about him, and the principal facts about his 
life and work. 

Peter Mason Bartlett 
Third President 

Eight years elapsed between the second and third presidencies — eight 
bitter years of Civil War and college rebirth. In the interim it was 
Professor Thomas JeflFerson Lamar, who in 1866 reopened the institution. 
He alone taught all the courses for a year. Wishing to be a teacher and 

The Presidents — Four in the i^th Century 85 

servant but not the president, he sought out Rev. Peter Mason Bartlett, 
six years his senior, who had been a fellow student fifteen years earlier at 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. Mr. Bartlett came from New 
England to Tennessee at the beginning of 1866 and served six months as 
temporary pastor of New Providence Church in Maryville. It was an- 
nounced that he would join Professor Lamar in reopening the College 
that fall, but for unknown reasons he returned to the North for three 
years. In 1868 the Directors elected him "President and Professor of 
Mental and Moral Science" (in 1872 "and of Didactic Theology" was 
added), and he entered upon his duties in March, 1869. 

Meanwhile the enrollment had increased from thirteen to forty- 
seven during the first year under Professor Lamar; and Rev. Alexander 
Bartlett, a graduate of Oberlin College and Theological Seminary and 
the future president's younger brother, came from Ohio in October, 1867, 
as Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, a chair he was to 
occupy until his premature death at the age of fifty-seven, sixteen years 
later. In its first year after reopening, the College had one professor and 
one tutor; in its second and third years, two professors and one instructor; 
and in its fourth year, three professors, T. J. Lamar, Alexander Bartlett, 
and P. M. Bartlett who served also as president. 

Fourscore Years and One 

Peter Mason Bartlett was born in Salisbury, Connecticut, February 
6, 1820, just three and a half months after the founding of Maryville Col- 
lege; and died at the age of eighty-one, on October 22, 1901, in Mary- 
ville, Tennessee, where he lies buried with members of his family in 
Magnolia Cemetery. He was a descendent of Robert Bartlett who came 
from England to Plymouth, Massachusetts, three years after arrival of 
The Mayflower. His father, four generations later, was born in Ply- 
mouth and lived in New England until, while his children were still 
young, he moved to Ohio. In general, Peter Mason Bartlett's life was 
divided into three periods: the first forty-nine years as youth, student, and 
pastor in the North; eighteen years as President of Maryville College; and 
fourteen years in active retirement at Maryville. 

Education and Pastorates 

Dr. Bartlett attended an academy at Farmington and Oberlin Col- 
lege in Ohio, and Williams College in Massachusetts under the renowned 


Mark Hopkins, receiving the Bachelor of Arts degree with high honors 
from Williams in 1850. He graduated in 1853 from Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City, where he established a life- long friendship 
with Thomas Jefferson Lamar. He received an honorary Doctor of Divin- 
ity degree from Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) in 1872, three 
years after becoming President of Maryville College; and an honorary 
Doctor of Laws degree from Blackburn College ( Illinois ) in 1 894, seven 
years after his retirement. He was ordained a Congregational minister in 
1853, later transferring to the Presbyterian Church. 

For fourteen years he was pastor of churches in Ohio, New York 
Massachusetts, and Connecticut; and for two years during the Civil War 
he was Chaplain of the New York Mounted Volunteers in the Union 
Army. Hon. William E. Dodge, of New York, one of the principal 
post- War donors to Maryville College and father of the Colonel of the 
Mounted Volunteers regiment, urged Mr. Bartlett to join Professor Lamar 
in the work of resuscitating the College in the South, rather than to accept 
a call he had received to an attractive pastorate in the North. Having 
served the church at Maryville for six months, three years before, he 
knew firsthand the desperate straits of the struggling College. But in spite 
of this, or perhaps because of it, he accepted the call extended by the 

President and Professor 

When Dr. Bartlett began his service, the new campus had been 
purchased and plans were under way to erect Anderson Hall. Although 
he was Professor of "Mental and Moral Science," he had a practical turn 
of mind and some experience in construction. As chairman of the build- 
ing committee he deserves much of the credit for the superior quality of 
buildings which after a century still serve at the center of the campus. 

While Professor Lamar continued to be the key person in winning 
and holding the help of benefactors in the North, where he spent many 
months as financial agent as late as the i88o's, yet also for almost two 
decades President Bartlett played an important role in obtaining funds for 
the College. In an article published after his resignation, he lists a 
number of large gifts for which, with some justification, he claims all or 
part of the credit. 

During the Bartlett administration, the first three college buildings 

The Presidents — Four in the icfth Century 87 

on the new campus were erected; the eight-year-long litigation as to 
ownership and control of the College, growing out of the Civil War, was 
settled favorably; the first $100,000 of endowment was secured; the 
enrollment increased from 48 to 246, and the faculty from three to ten; 
the historic February Meetings were established in 1877; the first student 
religious organization (Y.M.C.A.) was formed in 1878; fifteen alumni 
went out to China, Japan, India, Persia, and Africa as Maryville's first 
foreign missionaries; academic standards were raised; and the institution's 
stability was steadily increased. 


Unfortunately, the close of Dr. Bartlett's presidency was accompa- 
nied by controversy which continued into the years of his retirement. The 
issues seem to have been principally two: Negro students in Maryville 
College and President Bartlett's own strong, impulsive personality. 

There had been extensive correspondence between Dr. Harriett and 
benefactors in the North who felt that he and some others were not 
sincerely encouraging Negro attendance. Dr. Bartlett contended on his 
part that, although he personally considered coeducation of the races at 
that time in the South to be unwise, nevertheless he was faithfully 
administering the College's integration commitment. This story will be 
treated more fully in Chapter 14. Understandably, there arose disagree- 
ments among directors of the College as well as between the President 
and various faculty members. 

Throughout this time of controversy, President Bartlett and Profes- 
sor Lamar evidently continued to be loyal friends and colleagues. The 
strong, quiet Professor Lamar and the strong but more temperamental 
President Bartlett supplemented each other in winning support for the 
College and in conducting the internal affairs of the institution. Then 
Professor Lamar's health failed and following a long illness he died in 
March, 1887, three months before Dr. Bartlett finally closed his service. 

About the time Professor Lamar was forced to give up his work, the 
minutes of the Directors' meeting of May 26, 1886, a meeting attended by 
the faculty, state that a proposal was introduced "to relieve Rev. P. M. 
Bartlett, D.D., from the duties of President and Professor in Maryville 
College," and that "after a long investigation. Dr. Bartlett presented 
his resignation, which was accepted," effective at once. But three weeks 


later, at a called meeting, the Directors extended the effective date a year. 
At the end of the year some of the directors sought to have the time 
extended another two years, but without success. Dr. Bartlett's term ended 
in the summer of 1887. 

This was a rather unhappy conclusion of a constructive presidency. 
A resolution adopted by the Board stated, "That we assure him of our 
profound gratitude for his inestimable services and self-denying labors 
while he presided over the College, and pledge him our respect and 

The Last Fourteen Years 

Dr. Harriett was sixty-seven when he left the College and eighty-one 
at his death. He continued to live in his large brick house on High Street, 
between the campus and the business center of the town, and was active 
in various ways. He preached frequently in churches of the area, filling 
the pulpit of Washington Church north of Knoxville only two weeks 
before his death. While President of the College he had joined others in 
founding the Bank of Maryville, for many years now the County's 
leading financial institution. The College's growing need for banking 
facilities nearer than Knoxville was the primary reason for this action. 
Dr. Bartlett became its first president and continued in office until his 

Throughout his retirement he carried on a debate about issues in 
connection with his resignation, through letters and published statements 
of which a considerable number have been preserved. Within a few 
weeks after he closed his work at the College, he published an unusual 
full-page statement in the newspaper, charging that a minority of the 
directors and faculty had long sought his removal. He listed several 
principal reasons for their opposition and made vigorous replies in self- 
defense. He singled out especially the claim that he had discouraged the 
enrollment of Negro students, a matter which will be reported more fully 
in Chapter 14. From time to time in those years he wrote to church 
agencies and other donors, advising against financial support of the 
College while it was under control of those who he felt were misdirect- 
ing it. 

His death, at the age of 81, occurred in Maryville on October 22, 
190 1, the day after Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson was inaugurated as fifth 

The Presidents — Four in the icfth Century 89 

President of the College. He was buried first in the college cemetery but 
later removed to Magnolia Cemetery in the town. Dr. Bartlett has no 
descendents. A daughter and two sons are now deceased, leaving no 
children. One son, Rev. William Thaw Bartlett, D.D., graduated from 
Maryville College in 1901 and became a prominent Presbyterian minis- 
ter. At intervals of four and five years between 191 2 and 1925, he four 
times led the February Meetings which his father had established. 

The Man and His Work 

Rev. Calvin A. Duncan, D.D., a director of the College during most 
of Dr. Harriett's presidency and long afterwards, describes him as "a man 
of fine presence . . . fully six feet high, with well proportioned body . . . 
a man of decision and strong convictions. . . . Dr. Bartlett was fond of 
debate and frequently wrote controversial articles, and these articles were 
always able ... a man of fine scholarly attainments ... a magnificent 
preacher . . . with a mellow, sympathetic voice ... his every word could 
be distinctly heard ... an impulsive man (who) could be very severe in 
denunciation and at the same time tender and sympathetic . . . large- 
hearted and generous." 

Dr. Bartlett was President of the College during eighteen years of 
"reconstruction" in the South. It was a time of recovery and uncertainty. 
His vigor and practical abilities were especially valuable then. It was in 
his presidency that the College became a substantial institution with solid 
assurance of a future. 

Samuel Ward Boardman 
Fourth President 

Election and Inauguration 

When Dr. Boardman took office in September, 1889, the College 
had been without a president for two years. Evidently because of the 
tensions accompanying the termination of the third president's service the 
Board of Directors postponed selection of a successor. A year passed 
before a nominating committee was appointed. "That since great care 
should be exercised in filling the Presidency of the College, a committee 
of three be appointed" — so read the Directors' minutes of May 30, 1888. 
The three appointed consisted interestingly of one director, Calvin A. 


Duncan, and two professors, Edgar A. Elmore and Samuel Tyndale 
Wilson. The assignment was: "To correspond and confer with the friends 
and supporters of the College in regard to securing a President, and, if 
possible, at the next annual meeting of the Board to present the name of 
one well fitted to be President of the Institution." 

In six months the Committee was ready to report and at a special 
meeting of the Board on January 17, 1889, it nominated Rev. Samuel 
Ward Boardman, D.D., then a pastor in Stanhope, New Jersey, and he 
was unanimously elected. He had been recommended by Presbyterian 
leaders in New York, Pennsylvania, and elsewhere, and the family of a 
long-time friend and financial supporter of the College, Sylvester Willard, 
M.D., of Auburn, New York, where Dr. Boardman had served as a pastor 
for fifteen years. 

It was two months later, in March, that Dr. Boardman announced 
his acceptance, and still another three months before he arrived to assume 
his duties. While considering the call, however, he visited the College as 
the effective leader of the 1889 February Meetings. During the summer 
between his acceptance and arrival, he obtained a number of gifts, 
including a notable one from Mrs. Willard to build a President's residence 
on the campus. 

On September 5, 1889, Dr. Boardman was formally inaugurated as 
"President, and Professor of Mental and Moral Science, and of Didactic 
Theology," having been given the same staggering title which his prede- 
cessor had carried in the latter part of his term. The exercises were held in 
the College chapel on the second floor of Anderson Hall. His inaugural 
address on "The Bible in Colleges and Theistic Realism" was character- 
ized in the Directors' minutes as "a masterly discussion of a very impor- 
tant subject." Also in the minutes of the day is this record: 

The following Pledge was publicly read and subscribed: In accepting the 
office conferred upon me by this Board of Trust, I now assume the responsi- 
bilities of this high station, covenanting with the Board and pledging myself 
to the Christian world, and before God, to maintain the duties and preroga- 
tives that belong to the Presidency of Maryville College, in conformity with 
the Charter granted by the State, and the principles on which the College was 
founded and the time-honored usages established in its past history and the 
agreements heretofore made and now existing between this College and those 
who have contributed to its funds. 

The Presidents — Four in the i<^th Century 91 


Samuel Ward Boardman was born at Pittsford, Vermont, on August 
31, 1830. His boyhood was spent in Vermont, at Pittsford, Rutland, and 
Castleton. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Middlebury 
College (Vermont) in 185 1, and from Andover Theological Seminary 
(Massachusetts) . Later he was awarded honorary Master of Arts Degrees 
by both Middlebury and Dartmouth Colleges. In 1 868 he was elected an 
alumni member of the Middlebury Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. The 
honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
Hamilton College (New York) in 1870, nineteen years before he went 
to Maryville; and that of Doctor of Laws by Middlebury College in 1890, 
a year after he became President of Maryville College. 

He was an instructor at Middlebury College for three years 
( 1859-1862), and filled four pastorates in this order, all before going to 
Maryville: Norwich, Vermont, two years; Auburn, New York (Second 
Presbyterian Church), fifteen years; Sterling, Illinois, three years; and 
Stanhope, New Jersey, six years. During his Auburn pastorate. Dr. Board- 
man was moderator of his synod, and served as chairman of committees 
to raise funds for Auburn Theological Seminary and Hamilton College. 
While at Maryville College, he was in 1897 Moderator of the Synod of 
Tennessee. Throughout his life, he was a frequent contributor to journals 
and to the press. 

He was married at the age of twenty-seven to Jane E. Haskell, of 
Maine, but after two years she and their son both died. Two years later, 
he married Sarah Elizabeth Greene, of Westboro, Massachusetts, daugh- 
ter of the Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions (ABCFM), and great granddaughter of Roger Sherman, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence and the U. S. Constitution. 
There were nine children, six of whom grew to maturity. Two of them 
graduated from Maryville College, Samuel Ward Boardman, Jr., in 1894, 
and Roger Sherman Boardman in 1896. Both later had distinguished 
careers in the New York City metropolitan area, the former as an 
attorney, the latter as an editor and author. 

Dr. Boardman retired from the presidency of Maryville College in 
1 90 1, having reached seventy, the College's retirement age. From that 
time until his death in 1917, a period of sixteen years, he lived in 


BloomJ&eld, New Jersey, filling pulpits of churches in the area when 
invited to do so. He was the Baccalaureate preacher at the Maryville 
College Commencement of 191 5, the year this writer was a member of 
the graduating class. He died August 30, 1917, at the age of 87, and is 
buried beside his wife and others of his family in Fort Hill Cemetery, 
Auburn, New York. 

Progress Under President Boardman 

The overall advances made during Dr. Boardman's presidency were 
very substantial. The enrollment increased forty percent to 400, and the 
faculty seventy percent to seventeen. The number of graduates receiving 
the bachelor's degree each year was twice that in any year before 1890. 
The curriculum and academic standards in both the college and prepara- 
tory departments were notably strengthened. 

College facilities on the 250-acre campus were materially increased 
and improved. When Dr. Boardman arrived in 1889 there were five 
buildings and when he retired in 1901 there were ten. The additions 
included the Fayerweather Annex, which more than doubled the capacity 
of Anderson Hall; and Boardman Annex, which increased the dormitory 
capacity of Baldwin Hall and provided the first all-campus dining hall. It 
was in Dr. Boardman's administration that the College's first central heat- 
ing plant and system were built, and that electric lights were first used in 
the buildings. The first topographical survey and map of the campus were 
made in 1892, and became a guide for location of new buildings for 
several decades. 

Dr. Boardman assumed the presidency shortly after the racial-inte- 
gration controversies of the i88o's. Maryville's integration policy was 
increasingly under attack in the community and State throughout his 
term. His strong commitments to the College's position and to its pledges 
and his irenic spirit did much to maintain the program through that 
difficult period. During the nineteenth century, there were nine Negro 
students who received the bachelor's degree at Maryville, and eight of 
those were conferred by President Boardman. 

A Christian Educator 

The record of Dr. Boardman's own education and the recognition 
given him by such eminent colleges as Middlebury, Dartmouth, and 

The Presidents — Four in the ic)th Century ^^ 

Hamilton, testify to his sound scholarship. Perhaps his most distinctive 
contribution to the development of Maryville College was in the ideals of 
scholarship and culture which he brought to it. He was successful in 
raising money, both as a pastor and as president, although neither this 
work nor administration was his chief interest. He was at heart a scholar, 
a teacher, and a minister. 

He believed firmly in Maryville's Christian purposes and program. 
In a major report during his final year he said, "Most American colleges 
have been Christian in their origin, but Maryville College somewhat 
more. ... It has hitherto stood for something more than a common 
college. ... As it now leaves the nineteenth for the twentieth century, 
may it be baptized anew with the Holy Ghost." 

A half century after his graduation in 1897, Judge John C. Craw- 
ford wrote: "Dr. S. W. Boardman personally conducted all of the senior 
classes. He was a scholarly and cultured man, a Christian gentleman. He 
was somewhat of a philosopher, which enabled him to make the intellec- 
tual sciences interesting. . . . His personal acquaintance with many men 
of national prominence . . . enabled him to give interesting slants to our 
studies in Constitutional History, Government, and Political Economy. 
And of course with his theological training, experience, and ability, he 
was a good instructor in Theism." 

At Retirement 

Dr. Boardman reached the age of seventy in August, 1900, and on 
May 28, 1 90 1, the Board of Directors accepted his resignation and elected 
him "Emeritus Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy." The minutes 
of that date contain the text of a resolution reading in part as follows: 

The Board of Directors of Maryville College in regular annual session, in 
accepting the resignation of President Samuel W. Boardman, D.D., who for 
the past twelve years has so devotedly and faithfully served the College, 
hereby gives expression of its high appreciation of his noble Christian 
character and his constant and devoted loyalty to the institution; and rejoices 
that the years of his connection with the College have added a lustrous 
chapter to the history of the institution. 

Chapter O A Chuich-Related 

Repeatedly throughout this volume there is reference to the fact 
that Maryville College has always been a church-related institution. The 
present chapter will review the form of this relationship and describe 
briefly its American higher education context. First the context. 

The Church-Related College in America 

In the Colonies 

All of America's first colleges, and a majority of its later ones, had 
their beginnings in the zeal of the churches and their ministers. There are 
in existence today some nineteen institutions which were founded in the 
thirteen colonies before they became the United States of America. While 
most were not by formal action of church bodies, yet all had their roots 
and main support in the churches. For all of these there was a primary 
purpose which later impelled the founding of the institution that became 
Maryville College. The famous statement of purpose in founding Har- 
vard says it was "to advance learning . . . dreading to leave an illiterate 
ministry to the Churches, when our present Ministers shall lie in the 
Dust." Only five of the existing colonial colleges are church-related today, 
in the usual meaning of that term; three are now tax-supported, and 
eleven are independent of both church and government. Several of them 
began with a sort of joint relationship, and some historians have described 


A Church-Related College 95 

them as "state-church" colleges. For example: William and Mary, second 
oldest in the nation, was founded in 1693 with relationships to the 
Anglican Church and the Colony of Virginia; and Rutgers, founded in 
1766, had a Board composed of the Governor and three officials of New 
Jersey, 1 3 ministers, and 24 laymen. 

In the Young Nation 

During the first half century after adoption of the Constitution 
created the United States, about forty permanent colleges were opened. 
Of these, three fourths were established directly by ministers and mem- 
bers of the churches. Of interest here is the fact that half of the three 
fourths, including Maryville College, were by Presbyterians. Even the 
early state universities often owed their origin to church concern, as in the 
cases of the University of Tennessee, which began in 1794 as Blount 
College; and the University of Michigan, which was founded by a judge 
and two ministers in 18 17, two years before Maryville. 

Research has identified over 500 colleges founded in sixteen States 
alone by the time of the Civil War, most of them through efforts in the 
churches. A large number of them disappeared in time, especially in the 
South during the War years. Then, from the War until the end of the 
19th century, extension of the southern and western frontiers was accom- 
panied by church missionary enterprises which placed schools and col- 
leges all across the land. It was in this period that American church 
colleges wielded relatively their largest influence, often supplying to vast 
territories their only facilities for an educated leadership. From the estab- 
lishment of our first college in 1636 (named for Rev. John Harvard, who 
matched the Colony's grant and also gave his library) church colleges 
have been pioneers in all parts of the United States. And as late as 1900 
there were five times as many church- related as tax-supported colleges 
and universities, with twice as many students. 

A Decreasing Role 

In general the early state universities, up to the time of the Civil 
War, conducted much the same kind of program as that found in 
church- related and independent colleges — religious emphasis and a classi- 
cal liberal arts curriculum. An unheralded action of Congress in 1862 
became the basis in later years of a whole new development in American 


higher education. It was passage of the "Morrill Act" endowing colleges 
of agriculture and mechanical arts in the various States. Out of this came 
a greatly increased program of tax-support for all types of institutions. At 
the same time it led to a movement away from classical to vocational and 
practical studies. Also in the second half of the nineteenth century the 
German university idea of technical knowledge, devoid of interest in 
character or religion, and a growing emphasis on graduate study exerted a 
radical influence on American higher education. The rise of technology, 
secularism, and affluence, during the first two thirds of the 20th century, 
found the changed emphases in education congenial and useful. Since 
World War II especially, the number and proportion of youth entering 
college have multiplied; and the establishing of higher institutions by the 
States and government at other levels has been unprecedented, even 

Church-related colleges are more numerous, better equipped, and 
have more students than ever before. But they now occupy a much 
smaller part of the higher education field than ever before. Of the total 
college student population, the proportion in church colleges has de- 
creased from more than half at the turn of the century to something like 
a seventh or eighth at Maryville's Sesquicentennial. The present signifi- 
cance and future potential of our church-related colleges greatly exceed 
their proportion of the total student enrollment. In a recent U. S. Office 
of Education list of 2,207 colleges and universities in the country, 893 or 
about 40 percent are classified as church-related. Most of them are 
relatively small four-year colleges, although a few are large universities 
and a few are junior colleges. In common with other non-tax-supported 
institutions they face a serious financial future. Yet many of them are 
superior institutions and can continue to play an important role in 
American higher education, if they can secure adequate financial support, 
and are able to maintain in contemporary forms their fundamental 
historic purpose and character. 

The Plus Element 

Being church-related does not automatically make a college Chris- 
tian; and being state controlled or independent of both church and state 
does not necessarily prevent it from being Christian. However, it has long 

A Church-Related College 97 

been common knowledge that only a few colleges, other than those 
related to a church, consider religion or Christian character to be a direct 
part of their business. Few tax-supported or independent institutions 
think they are free to do so. All colleges are tempted to be like the 
majority, to avoid being different. But it is expected that the church 
college, free to be different, will be loyal to its purpose to do what the 
secular college does, plus something distinctively religious and spiritual. 
To many it seems self-evident that this plus element should have a 
regulative place in our colleges and universities. But to a great many 
people this does not seem self-evident at all. They do not think it matters 
much what the colleges or the churches do about religion in higher 
education. A former prominent university president warned: "Here is our 
national peril, that the supremely important task of our generation will 
fall between Church and State and be ignored by both. The Church may 
say, "Education is no longer in our hands;' the State may say, 'On all 
religious matters we are silent.' " 

In the Present Higher Education Picture 

The figures change every year, but at this writing the most recent 
report in hand from the U. S. Office of Education gives this distribution: 
Total senior and junior colleges and universities, 2,207; Public (tax-sup- 
ported), 790; Church-related, 893; Independent (of both state and 
church), 524. The church-related group is divided into Protestant, 484; 
Roman Catholic, 381; other religious bodies, 28. 

Whether our Protestant churches or their members will support and 
advance their colleges to any adequate degree remains to be seen. There 
are only 20 percent more Protestant colleges today than there were in the 
year 1900. More than that have been established in this century, but some 
older and younger institutions have withdrawn or been dropped from 
church afl&liation, and are now classified as independent or tax-supported. 
The Roman Catholic Church, on the other hand, has had an active 
college building policy, and since 1900 has increased the number of its 
colleges by something like 600 percent. 

The United Presbyterian Church currently sponsors 52 colleges in 
the United States (46, of which Maryville is one, through the Board of 
Christian Education, and six through the Board of National Missions ) . 


How Maryville is Church-Related 

There are various types of relationship between church bodies and 
affiliated colleges. They form a complicated picture, but in a sense this 
contributes to one of American higher education's notable virtues — its 
diversity. The factors most frequently found in the church-college rela- 
tionship are also in the history of Maryville College. Here are eight of 

Ownership of the college by the church or one of its agencies. In a 
comprehensive survey of church-sponsored higher education, published in 
1966, the Danforth Foundation found that approximately 95 percent of 
Roman Catholic colleges are owned by Catholic Orders or the Church; 
while but 50 percent of all Protestant institutions and 42 percent of 
Presbyterian colleges are owned by the sponsoring Church. Ownership of 
Maryville College was in the Synod from 18 19 to 1842; then by Charter 
it was vested in the Directors as trustees of the College, and continues to 
reside there. 

Appointment (or nomination) of members of the college's govern- 
ing board by the sponsoring church body. All directors of Maryville 
College from the beginning have been elected by the Synod within whose 
bounds the College is located. Since the 1883 amendment to the Charter, 
this has not been legally required (although generally thought to be), 
but has in reality been by mutual desire and agreement. The present 
College Bylaws, subject to change by the Directors, specify that directors 
are to be elected by Synod at its discretion. 

Official sponsorship by a church body (which may or may not 
involve financial support). Maryville College was founded and has been 
officially sponsored for all its 150 years by the Presbyterian (since 1958 
United Presbyterian) Church in the U. S. A. As noted, the College's 
direct relationship has been to the Synod; and in modern times it has been 
one of the colleges sponsored by the General Assembly, upon recommen- 
dation of the Board of Christian Education. Although it has never been 
officially related to the Presbytery within whose bounds it is located, there 
has always been the relationship inherent in the fact that the Presbytery is 
a constituent unit of the Synod; and for geographical as well as ecclesias- 
tical reasons, cooperation between College and Presbytery has been neces- 
sary, constant, and cordial. 

A Church-Related College 99 

Financial support of the institution from official church sources. 
Although often intermittent and usually modest, some such support has 
been received by Maryville in most periods of its history. This has been 
with increased regularity and amount in the twentieth century. 

Institutional Statement of Purpose. A reading of Chapter 7 in this 
volume will make it clear that all of Maryville's statements have reflected 
the College's Christian orientation, and often its organic church relation- 

Church membership of Directors. About three fourths of the 
church-related colleges and universities in the United States have some 
regulations as to church affiliation for members of their boards of control. 
The proportion is lower among Protestant than among Roman Catholic 
colleges. Maryville's original Constitution approved by the Synod of 
Tennessee in 18 19 required that two thirds of the directors should be 
ministers "in good standing" and one third laymen "in full communion" 
in the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. The Charter, as amended in 
1845, specified that election of directors be "according to the usage and 
custom . . , prior to its incorporation" in 1842. The amendment of 1883, 
currently in force, gives the Board itself power to fix specifications as to 
its composition and election. 

Since the 1940's a few that were not members of the sponsoring 
Church have served as directors. Current policy calls for a strong major- 
ity from the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., with ministers 
comprising approximately half the membership of the Board (compared 
to the former two thirds). Needless to say, today's professional fund- 
raising counsel are less than enthusiastic about the large proportion of 
ministers with their limited financial resources. However, Maryville has 
found that, with their training and interest, ministers on the Board of 
Directors make some special contributions, other than financial, to the 
life and work of a church college. 

Church membership of faculty and staff. About three fourths of 
all American church-related colleges and about two thirds of Presbyterian 
colleges state that church membership is a consideration in making 
appointments. The original 18 19 Constitution of Maryville College 
(then the Southern and Western Theological Seminary) specified that 
"the professors shall be ordained ministers of the Presbyterian Church, 
not under thirty years of age, in good standing and of good report, men of 



talents and learning." These specifications were gradually broadened as 
time passed. The "Statements of Purpose" published annually from the 
1930's into the 1960's defined the College's long-established policy in 
these words: "The only teachers and officers appointed are those who give 
clear evidence that they possess a genuine Christian faith and life pro- 
gram and are actively related to an evangelical church." It will be noticed 
that there was no reference to Presbyterian affiliation. The current By- 
laws, which deal chiefly with organizational matters, do not list qualifica- 
tions of personnel, but the policy continues to be that which was in the 
above Statement of Purpose. While the faculty of the past half century 
has become more interdenominational (perhaps ecumenical should be 
the word now ) , and a much smaller proportion have been ministers, yet a 
majority, including the presidents, have always been Presbyterians. 

Affiliation with an organization of colleges related to the same 
denomination. Maryville has been a member of the Presbyterian College 
Union, an association of the colleges sponsored by the United Presby- 
terian Church in the U. S. A., since its formation early in the twentieth 

Unofi&cial Relationships 

There has been a unique relationship between the College and New 
Providence Presbyterian Church of Maryville. It was to be pastor of this 
church that Isaac Anderson came to Maryville in 18 12. He was its pastor 
when he persuaded the Presbytery and Synod to establish Maryville 
College, and continued as pastor throughout his thirty-eight years as 
President. During its first fifty years the College held its Commencements 
and other public meetings in the church's sanctuary. After the College 
moved to its new campus, it gave its former campus grounds at the center 
of the town to the church. This became the site of the fourth building 
erected by the church (organized in 1786) and was occupied from 1891 
to 1952. Throughout the years, many directors, faculty, staff, and students 
of the College have been members and worshipers in New Providence 
Church, and both College and church have valued the long-time cooper- 
ative relationship. Another friendly relationship over many years was 
with the Second Presbyterian Church of Maryville, merged in the mid- 

A Church-Related College loi 

1960's with New Providence Church, to which the College in 1871 
deeded its "boarding house" property on Church Avenue. 

Since the early 1950's the Highland Presbyterian Church has been 
located just off the campus, and many students and faculty have attended 
there. When New Providence Church moved from downtown to its 
present location on West Broadway farther from the campus, about one 
hundred of its 1,140 members, including a considerable number of the 
College faculty and staff, withdrew and under authority of Union Presby- 
tery organized the Highland Church. 

Of course the College has had throughout its history a cordial and 
mutually helpful relationship also with other area churches of the Presby- 
tery and of other denominations. This has been especially true about the 
Second Presbyterian Church of Knoxville, which was established a year 
earlier than was the College, and of which Dr. Isaac Anderson was for 
ten years the first minister. Usually its pastor has been a director of the 
College; and the seventh President, Dr. Joseph J. Copeland, came from a 
nine-year pastorate there. 

Since all directors, faculty, and staff, and most students have been 
church members, there has been each year an indirect connection with a 
great many churches, especially Presbyterian churches. A majority of 
students, faculty, and staff, and almost all directors have been Presbyteri- 
ans. A considerable proportion of visiting speakers and lecturers on 
religious subjects have been Presbyterians, not for many decades because 
of theological preference, but because such contacts are as a matter of 
course more numerous and Presbyterian leaders are naturally more inter- 
ested than others in Presbyterian colleges. 

History of the Synod 

The Synod of Tennessee, which established Maryville College in 
18 19, was itself only two years old at the time. When the first Presby- 
terian congregations were organized in East Tennessee, there was as yet 
no Presbyterian General Assembly. There was a general Synod with 
several far-flung presbyteries. The old Southwest was until 1785 in 
Hanover Presbytery (named for a county in Virginia). The General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. was formed and its 


Constitution adopted in 1789 (the same year the U. S. Constitution was 
ratified ) . The inhabited parts of the country had been divided into four 
Synods: Philadelphia, New York and New Jersey, Virginia, and the 
Carol inas. 

Synods of the Carolinas and Kentucky 

The churches in Tennessee and in the territory south and west were 
included in the Synod of the Carolinas. From time to time there followed 
rearrangements of presbyteries and synods. From 1785 to 1797, Mary- 
ville was in the Synod of the Carolinas and the Presbytery of Abingdon 
(named for a town in Virginia). Then the Presbytery was divided by a 
line running north and south through East Tennessee, creating Union 
Presbytery west of the line and extending "towards the setting sun." The 
Maryville area was in this new Presbytery. In 1 802 the Synod of Virginia 
was divided into the three Synods of Virginia, Pittsburgh, and Kentucky. 
In 18 10 the Presbytery of Union was upon its own request transferred by 
the General Assembly from the Synod of the Carolinas to the Synod of 

Synod of Tennessee Formed ( 18 ij) 

But the synod alignment was soon to change again. After another 
seven years, the General Assembly of 18 17 approved a request of the 
Synod of Kentucky that it be divided, since it covered most of what is 
now Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and other regions. Thus 
the Synod of Tennessee was formed with four presbyteries: Union, West 
Tennessee, Shiloh, and Mississippi. At its first meeting the new Synod 
created a Presbytery of Missouri (which after only three years was trans- 
ferred to the Synod of Indiana) to include the missionaries sent from 
Tennessee to that territory. To the east, in 1825 that part of Abingdon 
Presbytery remaining in the State was transferred to the Synod of Ten- 
nessee. Meanwhile at its third meeting in 18 19 the Synod of Tennessee 
had founded Maryville College. 

Old and New School Division ( i8^j-i8jo ) 

Two major ecclesiastical events before the Civil War affected the 
Synod of Tennessee and Maryville College. The first was the division of 
the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. in 1837 into the "New School" 

A Church-Related College 103 

and "Old School." This resulted from controversy over a cooperative 
"Plan of Union" effected back in 1801 with the Congregational Churches 
(chiefly in New England). The Presbyteries of the Synod of Tennessee 
went with the New School General Assembly. This major division of the 
Church, with two General Assemblies, continued from 1837 through the 
Civil War and until 1870. In the latter year there was a historic reunion 
ceremony in Pittsburgh. Memorial Hall, completed on the Maryville 
College campus the next year, was named in honor of this reunion. ( The 
"McLain," which was added nearly a century later, in effect changed the 

The United Synod (18^8-1864) 

A second ecclesiastical event had unfortunate results for both the 
Synod and the College. In 1858 the Synod of Tennessee withdrew from 
the New School General Assembly and affiliated on a rather anomalous 
basis with a new Presbyterian body known as The United Synod. It was 
formed by nineteen Presbyteries in the South which had taken great 
offense at an action concerning slavery by the New School General 
Assembly held at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1857. Some opposed the majority 
action of Tennessee Synod and in an attempt to explain k, the Synod 
issued a pastoral letter, reading in part as follows: 

In declaring our adhesion to the United Synod, we do not commit 
ourselves as a body, or as individuals, to any particular opinions on the 
subject of slavery or slaveholding. . . . We simply take the broad ground . . . 
as underlying the organization of the United Synod, that the discussion and 
agitation of the subject of slavery, except as regards the relation of master 
and slave, shall be excluded from our ecclesiastical meetings; that slavehold- 
ing not being in the Constitution of the Presbyterian Church, the discussion 
and management of slavery, as a political institution should be left to the 

This was an amazing effort to rationalize an action based on preju- 
dice and lack of understanding. Yet those who voted for withdrawal from 
the General Assembly and for this pastoral letter were sincere churchmen 
of those times in Tennessee. Maryville College was directly involved. For 
one thing. Rev. Dr. John Joseph Robinson, the College's second Presi- 
dent, was then Moderator of the Synod of Tennessee, and later became 
Moderator of the United Synod. But far more serious was the fact that in 


that same meeting the Synod of Tennessee surrendered the property and 
control of the College to the United Synod. Fortunately, there was a 
reversionary clause in the agreement, to the effect that the College would 
revert to the Synod of Tennessee if the United Synod should cease to 

Tennessee Synod After the War 

In 1864 the United Synod merged into the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America (since 1865 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States). Therefore, the Synod of 
Tennessee of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 
after it had reorganized in 1865, reclaimed, reopened, and continued to 
operate the College. However, this was not without opposition. An 
unsuccessful lawsuit, which was described in Chapter 4, was filed in 1872 
by nineteen pre- War directors of the College, elected by the former 
United Synod, claiming ownership and control. It was in litigation for 
eight years and then withdrawn. 

Most of the church leaders who had been out of accord with the 
Church's opposition to slavery and secession were no longer in the Synod. 
It applied to the New School General Assembly for readmission of its 
Presbyteries and they were received in 1866. All of the Presbyteries south 
and west of East Tennessee had affiliated with the Presbyterian Church in 
the United States (Southern). Many local churches had lost members. 
The Synod of Tennessee now had only half as many churches and one 
fourth as many church members as it had had before the War. In 1870 
the reunited General Assembly consolidated various synods, and "The 
Synod of Tennessee was made to embrace the States of Tennessee, 
Louisiana, and Texas, with all our ministers and churches intervening" 
(presumably in at least Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi). That was 
the period of the Synod's greatest size — from Virginia through Texas to 
Mexico. Those would be impossible bounds, even with more people and 
today's transportation. Within a few years Texas was transferred to the 
Synod of Kansas and the Presbytery of New Orleans covering Louisiana 
was dissolved. 

Synods of Alabama and Mississippi 

After the Civil War there were practically no churches or ministers 
of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. in Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 

A Church-Related College , 105 

sippi, or West Tennessee. But there were congregations of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church, which had been formed in 18 10 after a 
withdrawal from the Synod of Kentucky. They had organized a Synod of 
Mississippi in 1832 and a Synod of Alabama in 1836. In 1906 the 
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. and the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church reunited (unfortunately with a large minority of Cumberland 
congregations remaining out of the union). The Synods of Mississippi 
and Alabama became parts of the united Church, and in middle and 
West Tennessee there developed Presbyteries composed largely of former 
Cumberland churches. 

Synod of Mid-South 

In 1942, through the leadership of such men as Rev. Dr. James E. 
Clarke of Nashville, Rev. Dr. Joseph M. Broady of Birmingham, and 
Rev. C. P. Thrailkill of Mississippi, and after three years of joint synod 
meetings on the Maryville College campus, the three Synods of Tennes- 
see, Alabama, and Mississippi were united to form the Synod of Mid- 
South. Although this action created again a synod very large geographi- 
cally, it was a logical and near-necessary development. The Synod of 
Mississippi then had only 45 small churches with 2,370 members and 16 
ministers. Alabama was some stronger, with about the same number of 
churches, but with twice as many ministers, and three times as many 
members. The Synod of Tennessee had 185 churches and 19,454 mem- 
bers. But even a union of the three made a synod of only moderate 
strength. Since that time most of the annual meetings of Synod, the 
Women's Synodical Society, and Synod training conferences have been on 
the Maryville campus. 

In 1958, the Synod of Mid-South and the Synod of Blue Ridge, 
covering approximately the same geographical area, each having voted in 
favor of merger, were united by the General Assembly under the name 
Synod of Mid-South. The Synod of Blue Ridge at the time of merger 
consisted of three Presbyteries, 19 ministers, 35 churches, and 2,435 
members of the Negro race. It had been formed as the Synod of East 
Tennessee after the Cumberland Church merger of 1906. Similar synods 
of Negro churches had been formed much earlier in the Carolinas — At- 
lantic in 1868 and Catawba in 1887. The General Assembly of 1954 had 
set up (appointed by the present writer, then Moderator) a Special 
Committee on Segregated Synods of which there were five then remain- 


ing (Negro, Welsh, Indian), organized on the basis of race or culture 
rather than geography. This was with a view to integrating them into 
existing synods and presbyteries covering the same geographical areas. 
The 1958 merger of Blue Ridge and Mid-South Synods was expedited by 
the work of this Committee. 

The Synod of Tennessee, by which Maryville College was founded, 
consisted in 18 19 of approximately 50 churches, 40 ministers, and 3,000 
members. Its successor, the Synod of Mid-South, to which the College 
will report at the end of its 150th year in 1969, consists of approximately 
250 churches, 260 ministers, and 30,000 members. 

Financial Support 

As indicated earlier in this chapter, Maryville College has received 
some financial support from official church sources, although located in a 
part of the nation where its sponsoring Church has not been large or 
strong. However, the College was founded by a frontier synod which had 
no funds and during much of its life has considered itself to be in a home 
missions area, which received more funds from the outside than its own 
churches were able to contribute to missionary causes. But having never 
been classified as a home (national) missions project, Maryville has not 
received home mission funds. Yet in 19 19 the Presbytery of Union 
conducted a successful campaign for $25,000 as part of the Centennial 
Forward Fund. At different times during the next four decades the Synod 
sponsored limited united campaigns, with but moderate success, for Mary- 
ville and other colleges within its bounds. Then came more productive 
efforts in the 1960's. Within the past five years Maryville has received 
over $80,000 for capital purposes through a united Synod campaign, and 
is assured of more than $150,000 from the denomination's nationwide 
"50-Million Fund" campaign, the major portion coming from designated 
gifts of churches in the Synod of Mid-South. The officials of the College 
count this progress a hopeful sign for the future. 

Funds to rebuild and endow the College after the Civil War came 
largely from individuals in the North, most of them church members. 
Presbyterian Church officials gave friendly encouragement. Some agencies 
of the Presbyterian Church at large gave modest support to current 
operation in the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 

A Church-Related College ^ 107 

20th. But the records show few substantial contributions from official 
church sources. The only large church gift to the endowment fund raised 
by Professor Lamar in the i88o's was from a local congregation — $4,000 
from the West Presbyterian Church in New York City. In the 20th 
century there have been some official gifts for capital purposes, and 
several substantial ones from individuals through the Board of Christian 
Education. One notable contribution by the Church at large was that in 
the 1950's from the Opportunity Giving of United Presbyterian Women. 
But most larger gifts have continued to be from private donors or 
Foundations, and in the 1960's from the Federal Government. 

During much of the past half century, the Church at large has put 
into its budget contributions through the Board of Christian Education to 
colleges for current support. Much of the time this has been divided 
equally among the colleges, with Maryville's annual share being in recent 
years between $20,000 and $30,000. This has been of material help to all 
Presbyterian colleges, but it is a small proportion of their budgets, and 
does not indicate that the Church has in reality taken its colleges very 
seriously. Currently proposed changes in United Presbyterian Church 
policy will reduce even this support for most colleges related to the 
Church through the Board of Christian Education. Official sponsorship by 
the General Assembly, the Board of Christian Education, and the Synod is 
valuable. But, with the unprecedented financing now available to tax-sup- 
ported institutions, the future of the church-related college in America is 
uncertain, unless this sponsorship produces greatly increased support from 
church sources. 

Current Church Policy 

In 1 96 1, the General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church 
in the U. S. A. adopted an important policy paper prepared by the Board 
of Christian Education, entitled "The Church and Higher Education." It 
committed the Church to the support of "quality" higher education to be 
measured by "the best standards of the Academic World." And it de- 
clared, "We believe that the church must continue to provide, as one live 
option in the American pluralistic scene, colleges with an openly avowed 
Christian purpose where the best in education may be found in the 
context of a Christian community." 


Two years later, in 1963, the following "Administrative Standards 
and Procedures" for United Presbyterian Colleges were set up replacing 
the more specific standards of 1943: (i) a published statement of 
purpose; (2) faculty and officers dedicated to this purpose, to academic 
excellence, and to true piety, with integrity of thought and character; ( 3 ) 
accreditation by a regional accrediting agency; (4) courses in religious 
studies, including the Bible. In 1965 the General Assembly took note of 
the facts that the main problem of the colleges was inadequate financial 
support and that no increased church support was in sight; and approved 
a policy of concentrating support on the colleges which the Board of 
Christian Education considers to be of highest quality. In 1967 certain 
criteria and methods for appraising colleges were approved. 

In 1968 the Board of Christian Education called attention to the 
various patterns of legal ties between colleges and synods. In most cases 
the synods have some degree of control over the colleges, a control 
evidently considered by the Board and some colleges to be undesirable. 
However, with the approval of General Assembly, synods are advised to 
consider "the wisdom of . . . divesting themselves of the particular 
responsibilities for direct election or confirmation of trustees or the 
exercise of other responsibilities that represent latent powers over the 
governance of the college." 

It was suggested that new patterns of voluntary relationship be- 
tween synod and college be agreed upon, with a view of establishing "the 
integrity of each in sharing a Christian witness in faith and learning." 
Whatever the advance represented in these proposals, they appear to 
anticipate decreasing participation by the Church in the life and work of 
the colleges officially related to k. 

Chapter / Statements 
of Purpose 

All existing colleges were started with at least some objectives in the 
minds of their founders. These objectives may have been rather general 
or vague. Often they were not put into formal statements until the 
colleges had been in operation, more or less effectively, for a considerable 
period of time, perhaps many years. 

The founders of The Southern and Western Theological Seminary, 
chartered as Maryville College, unlike the founders of many older institu- 
tions, announced a definite objective and outlined a plan to achieve it. In 
historical sketches, curriculum offerings, and institutional descriptions, 
there appeared over the years various accounts of basic and expanding 
aims. However, 113 years passed before the catalog carried a separate 
section headed "Purpose." 

Formal statements of purpose have become increasingly a require- 
ment in the higher education accrediting process which has developed in 
the twentieth century. Both the statement and demonstrated fulfillment of 
an institution's purpose are criteria for evaluation. The following sections 
contain representative historic descriptions of purpose found in Mary- 
ville College documents from 18 19 to 1969. 

In the Founding — 1819 

The action taken on October 19, 18 19, by the Synod of Tennessee to 
establish the College was in the form of approving, revising, and imple- 



menting an Overture from the Presbytery of Union. It had been proposed 
by Isaac Anderson and was introduced by the following resolution, 
containing a brief statement of the original motivating purpose: 

The Presbytery viewing with deep concern the extensive fields of the South- 
ern and Western parts of our country, already white to the harvest, in which 
there are few, very few, laborers; therefore, Resolved, That this Presbytery 
submit a plan to the Synod of Tennessee for a Southern and Western 
Theological Seminary. 

The plan, received, revised, and approved by the Synod, consisted of 
thirty-two specifications for carrying out that purpose, and became the 
Constitution. Announcement of the infant institution was as oratorical as 
the Constitution was elaborate, envisioning such far-flung results as "the 
church increased, millions made happy on earth, heaven peopled with 
multitudes . . . and the inhabitants of both rising up to call its founders 
and patrons blessed." That is quite dififerent from the restrained collegiate 
announcements of the present day. But it certainly echoes "purpose," 
whatever the subsequent achievements. 

At Isaac Anderson's Inauguration — 1822 

Rev. Robert Hardin, A.M., Director, in the Inaugural Discourse at 
the formal induction of Rev. Isaac Anderson, A.M., as Professor in the 
Southern and Western Theological Seminary, said, "This is an institution 
to be devoted to the work of preparing men for the Gospel Ministry." 

Professor Anderson, in concluding his Inaugural Address, affirmed 

This institution was founded with the most liberal views towards other 
Christian churches. . . . From these liberal views, and a practice as liberal, it 
is hoped the institution will never depart. . . . 

Let the directors and managers of this sacred institution propose the 
glory of God, and the advancement of that Kingdom purchased by the blood 
of his only begotten Son, as their sole objects, and they need not fear what 
man can do. 

The second paragraph of this affirmation was published by the 
College regularly in catalogs for a hundred years after the Seminary 
Department was closed. These statements were made three years after the 
founding action and the first enrollment. Evidently most of the courses 
had been in "literary" subjects, preparatory to theological instruction. 

Statements of Purpose • in 

That was a principal reason for postponing Isaac Anderson's inauguration 
into the professorship to which he was originally elected. In effect the 
college and preparatory departments had been started, but in those first 
years were considered auxiliary to the Seminary. Hence the first state- 
ments were in religious terms and specifically refer only to training for 
the ministry. However, the value of the general education being given 
could not have been absent from Dr. Anderson's mind. He had already 
spent seventeen busy years conducting classical academies, and the institu- 
tion he would direct for the next third of a century would enroll several 
times as many students in the college and preparatory departments as in 
the Seminary. 

In the Charter — 1842 

The following excerpt from the Charter may be assumed to reflect 
basic purposes set forth by the Directors in their application to the State: 

An Act to incorporate a literary institution at the town of Maryville, in 
Blount County, to be styled the Maryville College, Whereas, sundry individu- 
als in the State of Tennessee and elsewhere, have for the laudable purpose of 
advancing education, and promoting learning in the State, contributed . . . 
now possessing a library . . . and a respectable chemical and philosophical 
apparatus, and has sent forth several hundred alumni, many of whom are now 
the ornaments of the different learned professions. . . . 

In the Earliest Catalog Extant — 1854 

Most early records were destroyed by the fire of 1856. The catalog 
of 1854 is the earliest one which has been discovered, and it may be the 
first one published. Professor Lamar once said that for many years the 
College could not afford to print a catalog. Neither it nor the three others 
issued before the War contained Dr. Anderson's early statement of 
purpose, but since catalogs after the War printed it, we may assume it 
was prominent throughout the frontier years. The 1854 catalog did carry 
the following paragraphs with their considerable information on objec- 

This institution was founded chiefly with a view to the education of 
young men for the Gospel Ministry. This object has never been lost sight of 
either by the Synod, the Board of Trustees, or the Faculty. To accomplish this 

112 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

object, it was found absolutely necessary to provide for the Literary as well as 
Theological Education of candidates for the Ministry. And in order to keep 
our young Ministers at home, it was necessary to educate them at home. A 
College merely could not have done this — a Theological Seminary alone 
could not. The experience of thirty years has shown that the two must be 
combined, if the destitutions of our section of country are to be supplied by 
anything like an adequate Ministry. 

The reasons for the establishment of the Institution are briefly these : the 
destitutions of the South and "West, the impossibility of inducing Ministers 
to come from other parts of the country . . . and the consequent necessity of 
educating our own Ministers at home . . . hundreds of young men have been 
educated ... for a useful and honorable career in life. Many thus educated, 
have attained to positions of eminence and honorable usefulness in the 
learned professions, whilst more than a hundred have been introduced into 
the Christian Ministry. 

In the Catalog of 1868 — and 95 Years Following 

The College reopened in September, 1866, after being closed five 
years. A tiny four-page "Catalogue for 1866-7" w^s printed. In 1868 one 
of sixteen pages was published "For the Academic Year 1867-68." A 
brief historical article in the latter quoted the familiar statement from 
Isaac Anderson's inaugural address in this form: 

The grand motive of the founder may be stated best in his own words: "Let 
the directors and managers of this sacred institution propose the glory of 
God and the advancement of that Kingdom purchased by the blood of His 
only begotten Son as their sole objects." 

This was reprinted in the historical section of every Maryville 
College catalog for 95 years — from 1868 to 1963. There were from time 
to time revisions of other parts of the historical section, some of them 
indirectly expressing certain aims and objectives. For example, in 1885 
and for a dozen years thereafter, we find this statement: 

After the War, the Synod of Tennessee, moved by a spirit of self-preservation 
and by a desire to promote Christian education in the Central South, resolved 
to revive Maryville College. The institution was reopened in 1866. 

That first little catalog after the Civil War lists courses and students 
in an Academic Department (four years) and a Preparatory Depart- 
ment (three years). Under the latter is the note, "Designed to prepare 

Statements of Purpose , 113 

young men for College. . . . Students not wishing to enter College can 
receive instruction in such branches as they may prefer." The next catalog 
said, "Young ladies, qualified to join any of the classes in the College, are 
allowed to avail themselves of its advantages." 

"The Maryville Spirit" 

In his book, A Century of Maryville College and Second Century 
Beginnings, Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, President from 1901 to 1930, 
speaks frequently of what he terms "The Maryville Spirit." At one point 
he writes: "From the foundation of the institution in 1819 . . . a 
well-defined Maryville College spirit has existed in the institution. . . . 
This spirit has long continued to be the honored and controlling spirit of 
the College. It has dominated the institution, and has, itself, developed 
richly under its tutelage," 

"It is rather hard to define," he says, "but its outlines may be roughly 
indicated ... a composite of at least four worthy qualities." These are 
usually stated as Breadth of Human Interest, Thorough Scholarship, 
Manly Religion, and Unselfish Service. A slightly different version lists 
"Scholarship, Sympathy, Spirituality, and Service." In Dr. Wilson's inter- 
pretation of Maryville's history through more than a century the develop- 
ment of these qualities in students is counted the College's dominant 

In the Catalog of 1932 

This was the first catalog to carry a statement of purpose under a 
separate heading, initiating a practice followed since that time. Dr. 
Anderson's historic statement was not included, but was put into the 
section entitled History where it was repeated annually until 1963. This 
was the 1932 statement: 

Purpose and Character 

Maryville is a liberal arts college, not a university or professional school. 
Its primary purpose is to provide a general cultural education and to develop 
Christian character. It believes that such a foundation is essential to the 
highest attainments in personal living and in any business or professional 
career. It urges that all qualified young people, who plan to take professional 
training, first secure a liberal arts degree, if at all possible. 

114 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Christian but not sectarian in its purposes, program, and teaching, 
Maryville College is officially related to the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 
The privileges of the institution are, of course, open alike to all young men 
and young women of good moral character and adequate scholastic prepara- 
tion, irrespective of their religious affiliation. . . , 

In the Catalog of 1933 

The second part of the 1932 statement was repeated, but the first 
paragraph was revised to read as follows: 

Maryville is a coeducational liberal arts college, not a university or 
professional school. Its primary purpose is to provide a general cultural 
education under conditions which develop Christian character and faith, and 
at rates which make it possible for young people of limited means as well as 
those of abundant means to secure a college education. Three historic and 
distinctive major policies of Maryville College are: (i) High scholarship 
standards; (2) Low expense rates to students; (3) Positive emphasis on 
religion and morals. 

In Catalogs from 1938 to 1963 

In 1935, the published statement was reduced to the first paragraph 
of the 1933 section. In 1938 this was expanded into the statement which, 
with minor word changes at three different times, was published under 
the heading "Purpose" in all Catalogs for the next 25 years. This 1938 
statement, as revised to 1963, was as follows: 


Maryville is a college of liberal arts and sciences, not a university or 
professional school. Its primary purpose is to provide a broad education 
under conditions which develop Christian character and belief, and at rates 
which make it possible for young people of varied means to secure a college 
education. Three historic and distinctive major policies of Maryville College 
are: (i) high scholarship standards; (2) low expense rates to students; (3) 
positive Christian emphasis and program. The only teachers and officers 
appointed are those who give clear evidence that they possess a genuine 
Christian faith and life program and are actively related to an evangelical 
church. The management of Maryville College realizes that the degree to 
which an institution is in fact scholarly or Christian is determined by the 

Statements of Purpose , 115 

purposes, ability, belief, character, and activity of its faculty and other staff, 
rather than by its claims. 

In Catalogs of 1964-1966 

In 1964, the statement which had been printed for thirty-two years 
was replaced by one of a single sentence, which in turn was replaced in 
1967 by the relatively long current statement. For the 1964 catalog the 
historical sketch of the College was rewritten, and the founder's state- 
ment of his "grand motive," which had been printed annually since the 
Civil War, has been omitted from the catalog since that time. The brief 
1 964-1 966 statement was: 

Statement of Purpose 

It is the purpose of MaryviUe College to graduate Christian scholars re- 
sponsive to God, who are intellectually and socially mature individuals, serv- 
ing their fellow men. 

Purpose Reflected in the Curriculum 

Curriculum Aims 
Catalogs of 1948 to icf66 

After a major revision of the curriculum, completed in 1947, the 
catalogs for two decades listed five "Essential Elements of the Curricu- 
lum" (reproduced in Chapter 8 of this volume) and summarized certain 
aims as follows: 

Thus the Maryville curriculum aims to keep in balance for a modern liberal 
arts college the basic liberal studies and a reasonable vocational emphasis; to 
give an integral place to the Bible and studies in the Christian religion in the 
face of widespread secularization of education; to counteract the piecemeal 
tendencies of the elective system; and to encourage individual creative study 
in a day when mass methods threaten many of the values of higher 

The Core Curriculum 
Catalog of 1967 

The new Statement of Purpose and Objectives, given later in this 
chapter, and a new curriculum were adopted in 1967. An integral part of 


the latter is the Core Curriculum which is described in the catalog by the 
following statements reproduced here because of the reflection of pur- 

The innovations in curriculum have been made to take into account the latest 
developments in education. In the conviction that a liberal education is, in 
the final analysis, the most practical education, the College continues to offer 
a core with a broad base in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social 
sciences. A recognition of the demands of the future, however, has led to 
these new emphases : ( i ) interdisciplinary and coordinated multidisciplinary 
approaches to make clearer the interrelationships among the various fields of 
learning; (2) a strong focus on non- Western smdies and on social and 
political issues to encourage more informed participation in world affairs; 
(3) the introduction of a philosophy course in the freshman year to 
stimulate from the beginning of the college career a greater concern with 
values; and (4) more opportunities for independent smdy in order to place 
on the student a gradually increasing responsibility for his own education. 

Vocational Preparation 

For twenty-five years, following World War II, the catalog con- 
tained a section on vocational preparation (including pre-professional) 
courses. Its introductory statement deals in part with institutional purpose 
during that period. 

The curriculum of Maryville College is based on the assumption that a broad, 
general foundation of cultural subjects is fundamental preparation for a 
useful life. This is provided in the core of general education which occupies 
approximately one half of each student's course for the four years. But the 
College is also alert to the desirability of a fully practical side of higher 
education and in the following pages seeks to point out the special types of 
courses which either provide the desirable preliminary training for, or in 
some cases lead to, a number of vocations presenting useful and inviting 
career possibilities. 

"Essentials in Long Range Purpose" — 1959 

A statement of approximately one thousand words, under the title 
"Essentials in Long Range Purpose of Maryville College," was adopted in 

Statements of Purpose 117 

1959 by the Board of Directors, upon recommendation of the Long 
Range Planning Committee, composed of directors and faculty, including 
the Chairman of the Board and the President of the College. In this 
statement there are thirteen "Essentials" specified and amplified under the 
following titles: 

( 1 ) A private college 

(2) A church- related college 
( 3 ) A Christian college 

(4) A four-year college of the liberal arts and sciences, offering 

the bachelor's degree 
( 5 ) A college offering vocational preparation 

(6) An accredited college academically 

(7) A coeducational college, with the numbers of men and 
women approximately even 

(8) A dormitory college, with all non-commuting students (esti- 
mated to average 80% of the total enrollment) living in the 
dormitories and eating in the college dining hall 

(9) A cosmopolitan and church-wide college that seeks qualified 
students from all parts of the United States and from foreign 
countries (aiming in particular to serve the whole United 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A.); yet recognizing as a 
first responsibility service to the College's own community 
and region 

(10) A racially integrated college 

(11) A college financially within the reach of qualified students 
of moderate means as well as those of ample means 

(12) A college of limited size, with a maximum enrollment of 

(13) In admission policies quality shall have priority over quantity 

In Catalog of 1967 

This is the current official Statement of Purpose. It was drafted by a 
joint committee of directors and faculty, after an extended period of study 
and after consultations with individuals and groups, including students. It 
was approved by the Board of Directors on May 5, 1967. This statement 


differs from its predecessors in length, terminology, and approach, but it 
seeks to retain the same regulative ideas and add to them. 

Purpose and Objectives 

Aware that twentieth century man is threatened by forces leading to the 
alienation of persons and the fragmentation of life, Maryville College seeks 
to be a community built upon a single commitment and dedicated to a single 
purpose. The commitment is to the Christian faith. The purpose is the 
pursuit of truth in concept and in life. The College recognizes no necessary 
dichotomy between the intellecmal and the religious or between knowledge 
and values. Man's creation of order out of chaos, his weaving of the 
fragments of his experience into a meaningful pattern, must call into play 
reason, experience, and faith — both empiricism and revelation. Although the 
pursuit of knowing and doing the truth is a single pursuit, the paths leading 
to it are numerous. An education that trully liberates involves full and free 

All learning begins with assumptions. It is only when they are made 
clear that one can ask the intelligent questions that lead to discovery. At 
Maryville College the basic assumptions are that God is the ultimate source 
of truth, that His highest revelation is through Christ, and that the relation- 
ship to God of love and obedience through Jesus Christ is the basis of true 

Once the smdent has the security of knowing what the assumptions are, 
he is free to ask questions, to doubt, and to evaluate as he searches for his 
own answers and attempts to establish his own identity and his own assump- 
tions. He is led by a faculty dedicated to the pursuit of knowing and doing 
the truth, sensitive to the Christian commitment, and concerned primarily 
with teaching. He is aided by a curriculum that provides a common core to 
insure breadth, perspective, and the discovery of interrelationships, an oppor- 
tunity for specialization in one discipline to lay the foundation for a vocation 
or graduate school, and a direction toward independent study that will 
prepare him to continue his education throughout life. The curriculum is 
designed to equip him to think and act with independence, imagination, and 
sound critical judgment, and to communicate effectively. 

In the conviction that the most stimulating environment for learning is 
a vital community, Maryville seeks to establish a community in which 
students and faculty, of varying backgrounds, abilities, talents, and interests, 
can unite in a common purpose and freely discuss their differences, recogniz- 
ing that when differences and tensions no longer exist, man ceases to grow. It 
seeks to establish a community in which all activities — intellecmal, religious, 
social cultural, physical — are coordinated so as to prevent distracting frag- 


English: 1935-; Division and 

Department Chairman 


Music: 1936-1964; Chairman, 

Division of Fine Arts 


Sociology: 1939-1968; Division and 

Department Chairman 


Psychology and Education: 1936-1965; 

Division and Department Chairman 


Bible and Religion: 1946-1963; 

Division Chairman 

History: 1911-1945 

Physical Education: 1925-1959 

Latin: 1926-1949 

English: 1932-1967 

Biology: 1936-1963 

Philosophy and Religion: 1940- 

Physical Education: 1940- 

"Brick Seminary," erected 1820; "Frame College," erected 1835 

Erected 1870; oldest building on present campus 




Erected 1871; removed 1968 

Erected 1890 

fii«- m 

Erected 1906; destroyed by fire 1947 

Erected 1910 




r> ^ 



\ ^m^^f 




4r '^^Jl 









ill IP 

i m 




te hx 

Erected 1910; burned, rebuilt 1916 

Erected 1922 

Erected 1950 


Statements of Purpose . 119 

mentation. It seeks to establish a community in which each member may 
grow in integrity, ever striving to understand and make a unified pattern of 
his experiences, but learning to contemplate, with reverence, the mysteries of 
the universe. The total college experience is designed to prepare the student 
for effective participation and leadership in the larger community of 

Although the ideal set forth here may be beyond man's grasp, the 
Maryville students and faculty are united in the belief that they can do no less 
than work toward it, making the pursuit of truth a dynamic process involving 
continued redefinition of goals, reorganization of curriculum and community 
life, and reevaluation of teaching and learning methods. 

What of These Statements? 

These selected materials have been reproduced in some detail, be- 
cause they throw light on the College's past, provide guidelines for its 
future, and should be made easily accessible in some such chronological 
order. In reviewing them a series of historical facts and characteristics 
appear. Here are ten of them: 

( 1 ) The first statements were almost wholly in evangelical Chris- 
tian terminology, relating to training of ministers. 

(2) For a half century after receiving a Charter, the emphasis 
was on broader forms of Christian education, with an 
evangelical foundation. 

( 3 ) By the turn of the century the development of character and 
service ideals were being specifically emphasized ( "The Mary- 
ville Spirit"), with religion still the base. 

(4) In the 1930's the first formal statements retained emphasis on 
character and religion, and added references to being a four- 
year liberal arts college of high scholarship standards and 
low expense rates to students. 

( 5 ) After World War II the return of veterans to college and a 
nationwide restudy of higher education led Maryville, like 
many others, to revise its curriculum, with considerable 
emphasis on vocational preparation. 

(6) In the late 1950's came an extended institutional study which 
led to the adoption of long-range purposes and plans to be 
implemented in a Sesquicentennial Program. 


( 7 ) Goals were established in the areas of enrollment, curriculum, 
finance, church relationship, and overall institutional life. 

(8) By the 1960's Maryville's statements were referring to 
academic excellence, an ideal and term then in wide usage. 

(9) Finally in 1967 came the latest statement, cast in contem- 
porary language of theology, sociology, and educational phi- 
losophy, without reference to specific methods. 

(10) From the beginning until now, there runs through all state- 
ments a comprehensive purpose to be both an institution of 
academic excellence and one which produces in its students 
Christian belief. Christian character, and Christian service 

There are critical observers of American higher education who have 
suggested somewhat cynically that college statements of purpose are 
likely to express administrative rationalizations rather than realistic goals. 
All college officials, including those at Maryville from the founders 
onward, have recognized the gap between statements and performance. 
But they also have found a close correlation. The tone of the Maryville 
statements attests their sincerity; and a comparison of the College's 
development and the statements attests their influence. 

For a long time Maryville's statements of purpose were fragmentary 
and imperfect. As at most institutions with small beginnings on the early 
American frontiers, the main concern was the work to be done, not words 
defining it. An absorbing objective was existence itself. It was not until a 
century and more after its founding, when higher education was being 
more systematically organized, methodized, and standardized, that Mary- 
ville and other older colleges began to write formal statements of pur- 
pose. And, of course, no one of the statements, or all added together, 
describes adequately the continuing or changing objectives of those re- 
sponsible for the institution in the succeeding periods of Maryville Col- 
lege history. 

In every era and area of Maryville's life and work, the announced 
objectives have been the guidelines in establishing policy, selecting per- 
sonnel, and carrying forward the daily program. To take seriously its 
announced purpose has long been a matter of College conscience. 

Chapter O The 


A NEW curriculum and a new calendar were inaugurated in 1967, two 
years before the Maryville College sesquicentennial. They constitute what 
is probably up to this time Maryville's boldest revision of its four-year 
college curriculum. Before looking at it, let us turn some pages of the 
College's long curriculum history. 

Before the Civil War 

The curriculum of Union Academy (Mr. Anderson's Log College), 
1802-1812, was patterned after the standard classical one of the times in 
New England. Its basic courses included English Grammar, Latin, Greek, 
Mathematics, Astronomy, Moral Philosophy, and others. 

The Southern and Western Theological Seminary curriculum, spec- 
ified in the founding constitution of 1819, appears to have been little 
changed during the Seminary's life of four decades. Admission was by "a 
diploma from some college" or examination "on a course of literature." 
The curriculum covered three years and consisted of forty-eight courses: 
Hebrew Bible, Greek New .Testament, The Inspiration of the Bible, The 
Decrees of God, Archeology, Church Government and Discipline, The 
Work and Offices of the Redeemer, Sermonizing and Pastoral Care, and 
forty more. It was an ambitious professional curriculum similar to that of 
the theological colleges of that day in Scotland. It is fascinating to 


122 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

imagine those early students in the frontier village classrooms at Mary- 
ville laboring through such scholarly subjects. 

The Literary Course, which also had to be started in 181 9, consisted 
of both college and preparatory curricula, the latter being similar to that 
of Mr. Anderson's Log College. The usual preparatory (high school) 
course until long after those days covered three years, and it was so at 

The usual four-year college curriculum likewise was classical in 
content until long after Maryville's frontier years. The only antebellum 
catalogs extant are those for 1854, 1857, 1858, and 1859. The printed 
description of the four-year Course of Study is substantially the same in 
each catalog. No electives are mentioned. Freshmen took three courses, 
apparently meeting daily, and upper classes took four. All students 
participated in Declamation and Composition alternately on Friday after- 
noons. Also the catalogs state that "every student is required to attend 
morning and evening prayers in the college chapel, unless for some 
special reason excused," and "to attend every college exercise prescribed 
by the Faculty or Board of Trustees." The college year was divided into 
two Sessions. Here is the calendar for 1859-1860: Winter Session, 
October 10, 1859, to March 15, i860; Spring Vacation; Summer Session, 
April 3 to July 28; Commencement, July 27; Summer Vacation, 

Chief among the college department courses covering one or more 
sessions were: Latin, Greek, Hebrew or French, Mathematics, History, 
Rhetoric, Logic, Natural and Moral Philosophy, Chemistry, Botany, Polit- 
ical Science, Political Economy, the last four being in the senior year 
only. All of this was before the Civil War. 

The Curriculum in 1875 

The curriculum for the first year of operation after the Civil War 
was practically the same as that before the War, except that the theologi- 
cal department was not reopened. By the second year some changes were 
being made. The number of college courses was doubled; additions 
included such subjects as History of the United States, International Law, 
Civilization in Europe, and English Bible. In 1867 it was announced for 
the first time that "Young ladies, qualified to join any of the classes in the 
College, are allowed to avail themselves of its advantages;" and four 
"young ladies" were listed among the 63 students. 


The Curriculum • 123 

In the same year an English Department, with a three-year curricu- 
lum, was added, "to occupy an intermediate place between the ordinary 
academy or high school and the scientific departments of colleges, and to 
... fit young men for any position in practical life." This department 
became popular and within a few years was enrolling over half the 
student body. Four years later (in 1872), after moving to the new 
campus, a Ladies' Course appeared on both college and preparatory 

The curriculum eflFective in 1875 had thus developed during the 
decade after the War. The new commodious campus, occupied in 1870, 
was an influential factor. Revisions in various details were made from 
time to time but few major changes until the late i88o's. There were four 
departments, each with its own curriculum: (i) the Collegiate Depart- 
ment ( the Classical Course ) ; ( 2 ) the Preparatory Department; ( 3 ) the 
Ladies' Course; and (4) the English Department. The following year a 
Normal Department was initiated and was in operation four or five years, 
but it was not a separate division with an organized curriculum; it merely 
offered a few classes in pedagogy to students in the four established 
departments who planned to be teachers. However, it can be counted 
Maryville's first designated work in Education. 

The four-year college curriculum continued to be of the traditional 
classical type, as did that of the three-year preparatory department. The 
four-year Ladies' Course led to a diploma, but not for some years to a 
degree. Its curriculum was considered lighter than that required for the 
degree, although neither men nor women today would call the following 
courses light: Virgil, Trigonometry, Astronomy, Chemistry, Botany, Geol- 
ogy, Mineralogy, English Literature, Human Intellect, Political Economy. 
In 1875 four graduates in the Ladies' Course received diplomas, and at 
the same Commencement a degree was conferred on Maryville's first 
woman graduate in the classical course — the first of many degrees 
awarded to women. 

An interesting announcement appeared first in the catalog of 1875 
and was repeated annually in some form until Fayerweather Science Hall 
was erected more than twenty years later. Here is an early version: 
"Chemical and Philosophical Apparatus. The most valuable and com- 
plete apparatus ever brought to East Tennessee has been purchased 
[made possible through a special gift]. Many of the instruments are costly 
and superior. Among these are an expensive Barometer . . . ; a powerful 

124 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Compound Microscope . . . ; a Telescope and a superior Spectroscope 
. . . ; a large Air Pump and Hyraulic Press of great power; a large 
Holtz Electrical Machine; and to these, other new instruments will be 
added; we expect soon to obtain an Induction Coil' which is used with 
such wonderful effect in electrical experiments. The College can now 
illustrate the principles of the sciences and thereby give a better education 
than can be obtained without experiments. . . , Instructive and brilliant 
scientific experiments are performed before the whole body of students." 
That was one of the firsts at Maryville, four years before Thomas A. 
Edison made his first electric light. 

Revisions in the Late i88o's 

The Ladies' Course, which from 1872 had helped pioneer the 
coeducational program, was discontinued in 1885. It was succeeded that 
year by the Latin-Scientific Course, which continued until 1898. Its 
content was similar to that of the Classical or regular course, except that 
the Greek requirement was omitted. It was open to men as well as 
women, covered four years, and led to the degree of Bachelor of Letters, 
as the Ladies' Course had done in its later years. 

In 1888 the English Department, which had been in operation as a 
"shorter and lighter" college course, was discontinued, and the catalog 
announced a successor in these words: "The English-Scientific Course, 
which is now for the first time offered our students, will meet the wishes 
of many who cannot find the time or money to take either of the other 
courses. It is two years shorter than the Classical Course, and one year 
shorter than the Latin-Scientific Course. To all who wish a liberal English 
education, we can confidently recommend this as being the best possible 
substitute for those which we deem the best courses of study. . . . The 
degree of Bachelor of Science will be given every graduate of this 

In the curricula of the i88o's, electives were more in evidence than 
in earlier years. The catalogs for several years printed this rather vague 
and precarious provision: "Elective Studies. Any student may, if the 
faculty consent, pursue any study not in his course, provided always that it 
not interfere with his regular work." French and German had been 
specifically listed as "optional" in the 1870's, and Spanish was added after 

The Curriculum • 125 

Samuel Tyndale Wilson, who had been a missionary in Mexico, joined 
the faculty in 1884. All through those years, the use of academic degrees 
was fluid. In 1888, when there were but seven seniors, the catalog listed 
three Bachelor's degrees and one Master's degree. Graduates in the Classi- 
cal Course received the degree of Bachelor of Arts; in the Latin-Scientific 
Course, Bachelor of Letters; in the English-Scientific Course, Bachelor of 
Science; and "upon any Bachelor of Arts who has been engaged in 
literary or scientific pursuits for no less than three years since his gradua- 
tion," Master of Arts. Before the Ladies' Course finished its thirteen-year 
career in 1885, its graduates who, as has been noted, were receiving a 
diploma, also received the degree of Bachelor of Letters. The temptation 
to multiply college degrees is by no means new. However, from 1900 to 
1932, only one degree was offered at Maryville; then until the 1960's 
usually two; and now at this writing, only one. 

At the Turn of the Century 

In 1900 there continued to be two distinct schools or departments, 
the College ( four years ) and the Preparatory Department ( three years ) , 
each with its own curriculum. This was to be the case for another quarter 
of a century. But our major interest here is the curriculum of the 
four-year College. 

"Maryville College offers its students nine Groups of studies, all of 
them leading to the one degree — Bachelor of Arts," said the 1902 catalog. 
"In following the lead of the principal colleges of our country and the 
trend of advancement in education, our College has been conservative to 
hold the best results of the thorough courses of the past, but ready to 
make a progressive movement along the lines of well considered liberal- 
ity." Each group was supplemented by other required and elective courses 
sufficient to make a weekly schedule of at least fifteen hours. The nine 
groups were: (i) Classical Group (all four Latin and five Greek 
courses ) ; ( 2 ) Greek ( all five courses, plus ) ; ( 3 ) Latin ( all Latin and 
German courses, plus) ; (4) English (all required studies except Ancient 
Languages, plus); (5) Modern Languages (German, French, Spanish, 
plus ) ; ( 6 ) Chemistry ( all seven courses, plus ) ; ( 7 ) Biology ( all seven 
courses, plus ) ; ( 8 ) Mathematics ( all seven courses, plus ) ; ( 9 ) English 
Literature (all the English Literature, Rhetoric, Logic, and History 

126 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

courses, plus). In these groups Maryville in eflFect initiated a system of 
majors before that term came into use. The plan first appeared in the 
1 899 catalog, and as it developed it utilized the expanding list of electives 
introduced a little earlier. 

A prominent supplementary vocational program was the Teachers' 
Course (Department), set up in 1897 and continued for more than a 
quarter of a century. It was "designed to equip intending teachers thor- 
oughly for their profession, and to afford those who are already members 
of the profession opportunities for further study." The full course covered 
five years, the first three in the Preparatory Department, and the last two 
in the College. Those who completed the two college years of the course 
could go on to a degree in two more years. A singular feature of this 
five-year curriculum was that it appears to have included only four strictly 
"education" courses. 

Funds received by installments between 1891 and 1907 from the 
Fayerweather bequest made possible not only extension and improvement 
in the physical plant, but also in the curriculum and faculty. Develop- 
ment of the curriculum went forward steadily and impressively, but 
without major revisions until the College's Centennial. 

Oral and Written Discourse 

From its beginning the College has emphasized the organizing and 
presentation of material. For many years, students were required to 
participate in all-college "Declamation and Composition" sessions. Early 
in this century President Samuel Tyndale Wilson introduced and taught a 
required course in "Outlining and Argumentation." Under the name 
"Systematic Discourse" it continued as one of the English requirements, 
sometimes for sophomores, sometimes for freshmen. Graduates have long 
testified to the permanent value of this somewhat unique training in 
making an outline and in writing and speaking. This has been a success- 
ful means for special preparation of Maryville students in the art of 

Reorganization and Accreditation 

In the fall of 1922, Maryville College was elected to membership in 
the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the Southern States 

The Curriculum , 127 

(now called Southern Association of Colleges and Schools), the regional 
accrediting body. This gave the four-year College an official accreditation 
recognized throughout the nation. 

The long-time existence of a Preparatory Department had made 
necessary some reorganization in order to meet accrediting standards. 
Similar situations existed at many American colleges in that period. As 
early as 1912 Maryville began listing separately the faculties of the 
College and the Preparatory Departments, although there was in practice 
some overlapping. In the Centennial year of 19 19, the Preparatory 
Department was accredited by the Southern Association as a standard 
high school, and the next year was listed in the catalog as a School instead 
of a Department. In 1 92 1 its gradual discontinuance was announced, and 
in 1925 it was finally closed. Accreditation of the College did not depend 
on discontinuing (only in separating) preparatory work. But there were 
several practical reasons for not keeping it longer; and it was correctly 
anticipated that concentration on a four-year, liberal arts college would 
expedite the strengthening of its academic standards. 

The fact that the application, finally submitted in the fall of 1922, 
was approved by the Southern Association before the end of that calendar 
year, is evidence of a high appraisal of the College and its educational 
program. There were at that time 517 college students, 25 faculty, a 
curriculum organized into ten departments (a minimum of eight was 
required by the accrediting standards ) , and one degree. Bachelor of Arts, 
offered in course. 

The first use of quality points in the grading system was in 1921. 
Also the catalog of that year listed non-credit offerings in Fine Arts ( Art, 
Expression, Music) and several semi- vocational areas (Bible Training, 
Home Economics, Teaching) under the general heading Departments of 
Special Instruction, a category which was retained for the next fifteen 

Curriculum Revisions in the 1930's 

Two principal influences on the curriculum in the 1930's were a 
new President and a new Dean, and the Great Depression. From the first 
came various new proposals; from the second, on the one hand financial 
strictures, and on the other hand opportunity to emphasize internal 
academic matters instead of outside financial campaigns. There was a 

128 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

clarifying reorganization of the curriculum and the initiation of studies 
which led to several significant changes. 

A second degree was added in 1932. It was that of Bachelor of 
Science in Home Economics for the limited group who fulfilled the 
special requirements of the Department of Home Economics, The depart- 
ment had been substantially endowed and under pressure of professional 
associations had expanded its technical requirements beyond the limits of 
a valid Bachelor of Arts curriculum. The wisdom of this curriculum and 
the awarding of its special degree by a liberal arts college was debated, 
but the degree was retained until 1947, when the more inclusive Bachelor 
of Science degree was inaugurated. The curriculum continued with con- 
siderable success until a slackening of student interest in the 1960's. 

The Fine Arts were included for the first time in 1934 among the 
courses carrying college credit. It seems strange that it took colleges so 
long to give the fine arts an integral place in a liberal-arts curriculum. 
Maryville had listed Music and music teachers (piano, organ, guitar, 
singing) in the catalog as early as 1871, the first year on the new campus. 
In the 1880's and 1890's "drill in vocal music" every alternate day was 
required of all students. Painting and Drawing were taught intermittently 
from 1890, and Elocution (later termed Expression) regularly from 
1899. By 1910 there were Departments of Music, Art, and Expression, 
and in 1920 these were grouped as Departments of Special Instruction. 
No college credit was given for any work in these departments until 
1934. In 1936 there was an extensive reorganization of fine arts offerings 
and faculty. The Departments of Special Instruction were discontinued, a 
Department of Fine Arts was established as one of eleven Departments of 
Instruction in the College, and the Fine Arts curriculum and college 
credit allowance were radically changed. The disciplines included were 
Music, Dramatic Art, and Art, and students could choose a major subject 
in specified fields. In the ensuing years modifications have been made in 
details, but Music, Drama, and Art continue in the curriculum. 

The Fine Arts Center, completed in 1950, and the Chapel and 
Theatre, completed in 1954, have provided superior facilities, excelled at 
few institutions, for teaching and performing in the Fine Arts. In 1941, 
Maryville was made an associate liberal arts college member of the 
National Association of Schools of Music, thus receiving national accredi- 
tation in Music. 

The Curriculum , 129 

The Divisional Plan 

In 1939, the eleven instructional Departments were replaced for 
purposes of administration by the following six Divisions: (i) Lan- 
guages and Literature; (2) Bible, Philosophy, and Education; (3) Sci- 
ence; (4) Social Sciences; (5) Fine Arts; (6) Physical Education, 
Hygiene, and Athletics. Major sequences were provided in twenty- two 
difiFerent subject-matter fields. Rather than "minors" as such, specific 
majors required certain related courses. According to the catalog: "The 
general graduation requirements are intended to secure a representative 
view of the principal fields of interest and to balance the specialized 
emphasis of the major field." 

The divisional plan was adopted for both logical and practical 
reasons. A chief practical reason was lack of a sufficient number of faculty 
with the degrees and experience required by accrediting standards to head 
the large number of fields of concentration. The accrediting body ap- 
proved this divisional organization until 1961, when an examining com- 
mittee questioned its effectiveness and the College returned to a revised 
departmental plan. 

The Curriculum after World War II 

National conditions after World War II required a new look at the 
curriculum. Veterans who crowded the colleges were older than the 
average student and had immediate vocational interests. Maryville did not 
go as far as many liberal-arts colleges in trying to meet them. But the 
catalogs for a decade and a half devoted several pages to Vocational 
Preparation, succeeded in time by a section entitled Pre-Professional 
Preparation. The original introduction in 1947 said: "The curriculum at 
Maryville College is based on the assumption that a broad general 
foundation of cultural subjects is fundamental preparation for a useful 
life. . . . But the College is also alert to the desirability of a fully 
practical side of higher education and in the following pages seeks to 
point out the special types of courses which lead to a number of voca- 
tions." A list of some twenty vocations followed and for each vocation a 
list of college courses suggested as foundational. 

From 1948 to 1955 there was a section headed "A New Curricu- 



ium," concerning which were these explanatory statements: "Its founda- 
tions are as old as the institution itself, but its present content and 
arrangement are new, having been inaugurated at the opening of the 
college year of 1 947-1 948. They are based on studies begun before 
World War II, interrupted by the war program, and resumed in 1945." 
These studies were under Dean and Professor Edwin Ray Hunter, Ph.D., 
who carried the chief responsibility for curriculum study and supervision 
from 1930 well into the 1950's. 

The following five essential elements in the new curriculum of 1947 
were outlined: "(i) the great fields of knowledge and the disciplines 
historically belonging to the liberal arts college as the core; (2) strong 
offerings and requirements in the fields of Bible, religious education, and 
philosophy as necessary to a full education and as the special contribution 
of the church college; ( 3 ) effective vocational training values in a variety 
of fields but with provisions for protecting the liberal arts program from 
excessive intrusion; (4) unity of the student's course of study through 
extended content and a reduced number of separate courses; (5) oppor- 
tunity for individualized creative achievement through a plan of Special 

The announcements pointed out that there were new aspects in all 
five elements, but that the last two especially represented new develop- 
ments. For the sake of increased unity (4) an additional number of 
four-hour units were introduced, with the new schedule providing for an 
average of thirty separate courses (compared to the former forty to fifty) 
plus Special Studies. The Special Smdies (known since i960 as Independ- 
ent Study) , listed as essential element ( 5 ) , was and is a program running 
ordinarily through the spring of the student's junior year and the fall of 
his senior year. It is required of all students for graduation and is similar 
to Honors Work, which had been conducted for a few selected students 
through the preceding fifteen years. After several years the designation 
"new" was dropped from the 1947 curriculum descriptions, and there 
were revisions from time to time. But there was no major revision for 
twenty years, until the new curriculum of 1967. 

Independent Study 

An essential element of the 1947 curriculum was the plan of Special 
Studies, whose designation was changed in i960 to Independent Study. 

The Curriculum , 131 

With alterations in details only, it has been an important part of the 
curriculum since that time, and is included in the new curriculum of 

It is a program running ordinarily through the spring of the stu- 
dent's junior year and the fall of his senior year, and is a graduation 
requirement for all students. It is similar to Honors Work, which had 
been conducted for a few selected students through the fifteen years 
preceding its expansion in 1947. 

The catalog description says that "the work may take the form of a 
coordinated program of reading, or it may represent investigation or 
experimentation . . . reported in a written paper or thesis." The experi- 
ence of two decades has proved its value in developing ability to search 
for, find, and organize materials of knowledge. The student learns how to 
use a library, a training of much value if he goes to graduate school. 
Perhaps the experience has even more value for those who do not go on 
in the academic process but as educated persons are called upon for 
various kinds of leadership. The Independent Study program aims to give 
a practical discipline in the processes and usages of scholarly method and 
to extend acquaintance with books and other sources of knowledge. 

New comprehensive studies were initiated in 1956 by the Long 
Range Planning Committee set up that year by the Directors. A subcom- 
mittee on Content and Organization of the Curricular Offerings did a 
thorough piece of work over a period of years. In i960 and 1961 the 
College, under direction of the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, conducted the most extensive self-study in its history, followed 
by a visit and report by an examining committee. In 1962, as has been 
mentioned, the divisional organization of the curriculum was replaced by 
a departmental one. 

In 1965 the Board of Directors appointed a Study Committee to 
work jointly with the Faculty Committee on Curriculum and initiated a 
major study of the College's academic program, with the entire faculty 
participating. The faculty committee reported from time to time to the 
Directors' Study Committee, but in operation it was a joint study, with 
Dean Frank D. McClelland as chairman and Professor Carolyn L. Blair as 
executive secretary. Dr. Blair, Professor of English, and Dr. Arthur 
Randolph Shields, Professor of Biology, were released from teaching 
duties for a year to visit other colleges and to work on formulating the 
philosophy and content of a new curriculum. 

132 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

The New Curriculum of 1967 

The Board of Directors approved the plan recommended by the 
Faculty and Directors' Study Committees, and the new curriculum and 
schedule were inaugurated in September, 1967. This may well prove to 
be one of the important formative events in the College's second century. 

The new calendar divided the college year into three ten-week terms 
and a four-week interim term, with the addition of a ten-week summer 
term. The interim term was designed to introduce a change of pace and 
method by freeing the student from the usual class schedules to explore 
one subject in depth or to engage in an approved project, including 
travel; and the ten-week summer term aims to facilitate acceleration by 
those who wish to graduate in less than four years. The dates fall into this 
general pattern: 

Fall Term September-November 10 weeks 

Interim Term November-December 4 weeks 

Winter Term January-March 10 weeks 

Spring Term March- June 10 weeks 

Summer Term June-August 10 weeks 

The catalog describes a core curriculum in the humanities, in natural 
sciences, and in social sciences, and major sequences in fifteen fields of 
concentration. To meet "the demands of the future," four new emphases 
are listed: (i) interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary courses; (2) a 
stronger focus on non-Western studies and on social and political issues; 
( 3 ) a philosophy course in the freshmen year to stimulate early concern 
with values; and (4) more opportunity for independent study. 

In a report to the Directors the Secretary of the joint Study Commit- 
tee underscored several guiding principles. One was emphasis on the need 
"to combat fragmentation and specialization," in the belief "that the most 
important mission of a liberal arts college is to lead the student toward a 
synthesis . . . finding unity in variety." A second emphasis was on being 
"concerned with values in an age in which everything is subject to 
question;" providing a "focal point from which a student can ask his own 
questions," with the security of knowing that within the college commu- 
nity "there are people who believe in something and have taken the risk 
of making commitments." 

The Curriculum 133 

It was pointed out that since students arrive at college now better 
prepared than formerly and less stimulated by the novelty of the college 
experience, freshmen need fresh, challenging courses. Because today's and 
tomorrow's freshmen are more knowledgeable than those of former 
years, it is assumed that they are capable of more independence than 
previously granted. Yet it is desirable that there be a sense of community 
in the learning program, achieved through a core curriculum containing 
some emphases unique at Maryville. It was to implement such objectives 
that the details of the new curriculum and schedule were worked out; 
that such course titles are found as Man's Search for Meaning and Science 
Thought for freshmen; Fine Arts Media and Forms and New Testament 
Beliefs for sophomores; Social Science Seminar for seniors; Independent 
Study for all upper-class degree candidates. 

As this is written, there has been more than a year of successful 
experience with the new 1967 curriculum and calendar. Faculty and 
students alike are enthusiastic about its future. 

A Summary 

Within its century and a half, Maryville has had two different basic 
curricula: a Theological Course from 1819 to 1861; and a Literary 
Course (as it was first called) from 18 19 until now. The latter was on 
two levels, college and preparatory, until 1925, and after that year on the 
college level only. 

There has been a four-year college curriculum for 150 years. During 
the first half century it followed the classical pattern of the older colleges 
in America, In the next half century, when the College and Preparatory 
Departments were growing and seeking to serve many students of small 
financial means and limited educational background, there developed, in 
addition to the regular college course, a number of shorter, general, or 
semi-vocational curricula. In the College's third half century some semi- 
vocational emphasis continued and, as in the curricula of all higher 
institutions, the physical and social sciences replaced many of the earlier 
classical subjects. Academic standards were steadily strengthened, and 
more systematic study than ever before was given to the philosophy and 
content of the curriculum. The revisions of 1947 and 1967 were espe- 
cially significant. 



Throughout its history Maryville has counted courses in Bible and 
religion as integral parts of a liberal arts curriculum. The College is 
committed to the role of a liberal-arts institution. In the 1967 curriculum 
the liberal arts achieved a unique unity and protection against undue 
intrusion of vocational and semi-vocational courses. For one thing, it 
provides for majors in fifteen areas of concentration, compared to 
twenty-four areas in i960. 

A recent informal comment by Dr. Edwin R. Hunter, formerly for 
many years Dean of the College and of Curriculum, says a great deal 
about the history of the curriculum. 

One of the most distinguishing features of the Maryville College offerings, is 
that there was always one basic program of studies which underlay whatever 
the student's specialization may have been. And I think it is not stretching 
language to say that from one revision to another there has been a continuity 
which has preserved the foundational emphasis on a liberal education. In 
those respects we have never had curricula — only a curriculum. 

^, ^, Q Academic 

Chapter ^ 

Standards and 

Maryville College is officially accredited by the national, regional, and state 
accrediting bodies. It is a member of the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the official accrediting body for the South; is a liberal arts 
college member of the National Association of Schools of Music; and is 
approved by the State of Tennessee Department of Education, and other 
principal educational associations and institutions. 

The College is an institutional member of the National Commission on 
Accrediting, the American Council on Education, the Association of Ameri- 
can Colleges, the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, the 
American Association of University Women, the National Collegiate Ath- 
letic Association, the Presbyterian College Union, the Tennessee College 
Association, and related groups. 

So SAYS the 1968 catalog. A similar statement, revised from time to 
time, has been published most years since the first official accreditation in 
1922. But the history of academic standards at Maryville began over a 
century before that. In the establishing of high standards, Maryville got a 
better start than many of the early colleges. It did not evolve out of 
a small academy, but began as a graduate seminary which, although ex- 
ceedingly modest, had a curriculum and requirements fashioned after 
those of established institutions in New England and Great Britain. It was 
to prepare candidates to meet those standards that the college and prepar- 
atory departments were added. The original purpose was to educate 


136 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

ministers of religion, with emphasis on educate. A tradition of high 
academic standards was born with the institution. 

Entrance Requirements 

In the Early Years 

The original Constitution of the Seminary in 18 19 specified that for 
admission applicants must "produce a diploma from some college, or 
submit to be examined by the professors on a course of literature" and 
that "no student shall be admitted . . . whose moral and religious 
character is not well certified." 

There are in existence catalogs for only four years before the Civil 
War, and it is not known whether there were others, most records and 
documents having been lost in the fire that destroyed Dr. Anderson's 
house in 1856, or in the War which demolished the college buildings. 
These four catalogs came through descendants of private families. The 
earliest is dated 1854 and the latest 1859. Very little in them is specific 
about admission. The 1854 catalog says: "The College is divided into two 
Departments — the Literary and the Theological. . , . Every person apply- 
ing for admission to the Literary Department is expected to produce 
testimonials of good moral character, and if from another college, he 
must furnish satisfactory evidence that he is not under censure of the 
college he has left." All four catalogs mention moral character; but none 
speaks of academic requirements for admission to the College's rather 
awesome four-year curriculum which is printed in full, except that "stu- 
dents may be admitted to either of the higher classes by sustaining an 
examination in the branches of study" of the lower classes. Entrance to 
the lower classes (freshman, sophomore) presumably also involved ex- 

From the Reopening in 1866 

Catalogs exist for all years since the Civil War, but surprisingly they 
do not contain a description of entrance requirements, other than good 
moral character, until 1885. In that year there was a section, filling 
almost a full page, headed "Admission to the College." This was probably 
merely putting into print what had been in practice. Students who had 
completed their high school course in the College's Preparatory Depart- 

Academic Standards and Accreditation 137 

ment could enter the freshman class on their record. Applicants who had 
taken their preparatory work elsewhere had to pass an entrance examina- 
tion. Transfers from other colleges were admitted on certificate and, 
"upon proof of their qualifications," given advanced standing. In 1901 
these were still the requirements, with two additional specifications: 
freshmen could be admitted on high school or academy certificates "satis- 
factory to the faculty;" and credits brought by transfer students were 
accepted "on probation." 

Within another decade, by 191 1, the catalog was describing in detail 
"fifteen units" required for admission to the four-year college department: 
English, 3; Latin, 4; Greek, German, or French, 2; Mathematics, 3; 
History, i or 2; Natural Sciences, 2. By the first year after accreditation 
(1923) two of these details had been changed: the foreign language 
requirement was reduced from six to four units and made more flexible, 
giving an option of any two of five languages — Latin, Greek, German, 
French, Spanish; and History was dropped as a requirement and made an 
elective. One recognizes here a movement away from foreign languages. 

Ajter ic)^o 

In 1 93 1 the Faculty added this important requirement, that the high 
school graduate must rank in the upper two thirds of his class. It had 
been found that most who graduated in the lower ranks of their high 
school classes, even at the better high schools, lacked either the prepara- 
tion or the ability or the interest to do successful college work. The upper 
two thirds requirement was retained for some thirty years, when it was 
lifted in 1961 to "the upper half of his class." Maryville has had no 
ambition to join those colleges which require applicants to be in such a 
limited segment as the upper five or ten percent of their classes, even if 
the number of applicants were large enough to make this possible. 
Experience has confirmed the belief that often students with a large 
potential for growth and usefulness are found among those of some- 
what indifferent high school achievement. 

Meanwhile, there were two other developments in Maryville's en- 
trance requirements. One was further flexibility in specific high school 
units. In the 1930's the applicant could offer nine electives among his 
fifteen units; and foreign languages were made entirely optional, not by 
faculty choice, but chiefly for the reason that fewer and fewer high 

138 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

schools were requiring a foreign language for graduation. The other 
development, especially since World War II, has been the addition of 
tests and various other means, in addition to the high school record, for 
appraising the applicant's promise and progress as a college student. 

During the three decades from 1931 to 1961 there was steady- 
progress in strengthening and refining admission standards within the 
general framework just described. Selections were made from graduates 
in the upper two thirds and increasingly the upper half of their high 
school classes. This progress is reflected in the statement of the 1961 
catalog: "Admission is based on evidence that the applicant possesses the 
qualities needed for satisfactory college achievement, in terms of charac- 
ter, ability, academic foundation, purpose, personality, and health. Evi- 
dence of these includes the high school record, reports of standardized 
tests, teacher ratings, the recommendation of the high school principal or 
other authorized officials, and information from various other persons, 
such as the pastor, family physician, and others. An applicant who ranks 
below the middle of his class is subject to serious question. Other factors 
being equal, preference is given to applicants with acceptable scores on 
either the Scholastic Aptimde Test of the College Entrance Examination 
Board or the tests of the American Testing Program." Fifteen acceptable 
units included English, 4; Mathematics, 2; Laboratory Science, i; Social 
Studies, i; Electives (from given list), 5. Admission from other colleges 
required an average grade of C or better. 

In the i^oth Year 

Entrance requirements at the time of this writing include: gradua- 
tion from an approved high school, in the upper half of the class, with a 
minimum grade average of C; and with a minimum combined score of 
900 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test, or a composite score of 20 on the 
tests of the American Testing Program. 

Grading Systems 

No grading system yet devised is satisfactory to all concerned; but 
schools, including colleges, seem unable to do without one. And it is 
related to academic standards. Student capacity and achievement must be 
measured in some way. Whatever the system, teachers differ in their 

Academic Standards and Accreditation 139 

evaluation of work and of the symbols. Every institution has "high 
graders" and "low graders." Since about the time of World War I 
numerous schemes for testing have been developed, with considerable 
emphasis on rather rigid mathematical formulas. For some years college 
students have been worried as much by the method of "grading on the 
curve" as by the teacher with a reputation for low grading. Increased 
enrollments and emphases on methodology have tended to make grading 
systems more and more mechanical; and with the modern computer at 
work the end is not in sight. The history of grading systems at Maryville 
evidently does not differ greatly from that at other liberal arts colleges of 
comparable size. But it is clear that through the years Maryville's admin- 
istrative officers and faculty have sincerely attempted to devise a fair 
grading system and to use it both to measure performance and to elevate 
academic standards. 

Looking at the past half century, we find a change made in 1922 
from numbers to letters, and a system of "quality credits" (points) 
introduced. Prior to that time students were graded by the familiar scale 
of I to 100, and only the designated passing grade was required for 
promotion and graduation. The new system raised the minimum require- 
ments. "Grades and quality credits are recorded as follows: A, unusual 
excellence, three quality credits for each semester hour of the course; B, 
honor rank, two quality credits; C, good, one quality credit; D, passing, 
and acceptable for graduation, but not entitling to quality credit; E, 
condition . . . ; F, failure. . . ." 

Within the next ten years, the B grade came to stand for "good" 
rather than "honor rank," C for "medium" rather than "good," and 
"grade points" for "quality credits." Then in 1934, in an effort to improve 
the chances of "giving credit where credit is due," grades A, B, and C 
were divided into A+, A, A—, and so on; and a new scale of grade points 
was assigned, ranging from ten for A+ down to one for D. But, as 
already pointed out, neither faculty nor students are ever wholly satisfied 
with any grading system. After a dozen years (in 1956) the three-way di- 
visions were discontinued, and the plan returned to that of 1932-1934, 
with grades and grade points listed as A, excellent, three grade points; B, 
good, two; C, satisfactory, one; D, passing, none; F, failure. The next 
revision came four years later, allowing one grade point for a D grade 
and lifting the others to four for A, three for B, and two for C. At this 

140 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

writing, there has been no further revision in the scale, but "quality 
points" have replaced "grade points;" and grades of Satisfactory and 
Unsatisfactory rather than A, B, C, D, F are used for Independent Study, 
for interim projects, for certain elective courses, and in activities for 
which course credit is not given. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The minimum requirements for graduation and the bachelor's de- 
gree in 1922 were 126 semester hours and 122 grade points (four hours 
of physical education carried no grade points ) , which means an average 
grade of C. Courses with a grade of D (no grade points) could be 
counted, however, to satisfy specific course requirements. 

In 1937 there was added to the graduation requirements a compre- 
hensive examination in the student's major field and its prescribed related 
subjects, to be taken in the senior year. In its essential form this continues 
to be a requirement. Incorporated in it since 1963 is the Advanced Test of 
the Graduate Record Examination in major fields for which the tests are 

Requirements for graduation were lifted and enriched farther in 
1947 by introduction of the Special Studies program, which in i960 was 
renamed Independent Study, and is described in the preceding chapter. 
Fifteen years earlier a similar program called Honors Work was estab- 
lished for a few selected students. Special Studies, however, extended the 
program into a graduation requirement for all. 

Under the new curriculum of 1967, the general requirements are 
completion of at least forty-three courses, including core courses, three 
units of "Community Issues and Values," and major requirements, with 
an average grade of at least C for all courses undertaken; plus satisfactory 
performance in four interim projects, the comprehensive examination, 
and the Independent Study program. 

Graduation Honors 

From 19 1 6, when graduation honors were initiated, until 1922, the 
distinction of magna cum laude was conferred upon those who had been 
in attendance at Maryville College four years and graduated with an 
average grade of ninety-five percent or better. The distinction of cum 

Academic Standards and Accreditation 141 

laude was conferred on those who had been in attendance at least two 
years and graduated with an average grade of ninety percent or better. 
When in 1922 the grade designations were changed from numbers to 
letters and quality credits, graduation honors were continued in compara- 
ble terms of the new system. 

In 1968-1969 under the new curriculum these same two honors are 
conferred: magna cum laude upon those who have completed at Mary- 
ville College twenty or more of the forty-three courses required for 
graduation and have attained for the full college course a standing of 3.8 
in all work undertaken; cum laude upon those who have completed 
twenty courses or more at Maryville College and have attained for the 
full college course a standing of 3.3 in all work undertaken. 

Student Honor Societies 

In 1934 the College formed a scholarship honor society under the 
name Alpha Gamma Sigma, patterned after Phi Beta Kappa. No applica- 
tion had ever been made for a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa. It was 
anticipated that this would be a logical prelude to such an application. 
But the delay turned out to be a mistake. Soon a change in Phi Beta 
Kappa administration and policy practically closed the possibility indefi- 
nitely to colleges which did not have applications on file. This was made 
clear in reply to Maryville's inquiry some years later, but in 1936 an 
application was submitted nevertheless, with the negative result which 
Phi Beta Kappa officials had predicted. However, Alpha Gamma Sigma, 
with its comparable membership standards, has been a positive influence 
for high scholarship. 

From time to time over the past forty years and more, chapters of 
departmental honor societies or fraternities have been formed, such as Pi 
Kappa Delta, national forensic fraternity; Theta Alpha Phi, national 
dramatic fraternity; Tau Kappa Chi, honorary society for music students; 
and others in such fields as Biology, French, Spanish, Social Sciences, 
Psychology. Doubtless this will be a continuing process. 

Standard Tests 

From the 1920's onward much attention has been given in higher 
education circles to developing and using standard tests and testing 

142 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

services. Not a few have been standardized on a nationwide basis for both 
higher and secondary institutions. Maryville College has participated 
actively in this development, and continues to do so. Various standard 
tests have been or are currently used at Maryville for college admission, 
student placement in courses, measurement of aptitude and academic 
progress, and other purposes. 

The Library 

One of the first notable advances seen in the history of the College 
was the assembling of a library; it contained 6,000 volumes before they 
were destroyed by the Civil War. In 1885 the number was back up to 
5,000 volumes. In 1900 there were 12,000 volumes housed in the Lamar 
Memorial Library building erected in 1888 (since 1922 used for the 
College Book Store and Post Office). In 1930 there were 30,000 vol- 
umes; twenty-five years later, the number exclusive of government docu- 
ments was approaching 60,000. In the Sesquicentennial year there are 
approximately 85,000 volumes in open stacks, files of 800 periodicals, 
and fifteen daily newspapers, some on microfilm or microcard. It is thus 
one of the largest of the college and university libraries in Tennessee, and 
holds a high rating. Since 1922 it has been located in commodious and 
attractive quarters in Thaw Hall, and will continue there until the new 
fireproof building, now projected for the near future, is erected. 

In connection with the library are a museum of some proportions 
and the Elizabeth Gowdy Baker collection of paintings given to the 
College in 1937 by the artist's husband, Daniel Baker Baker. 

Honorary Degrees 

Maryville's charter, like those of most colleges, gives extensive 
degree-granting power. It says "the degrees of bachelor of arts, master of 
arts, or any other degree known and used in any college or university in 
any of the United States," may be conferred "on any student in said 
college, or any other person." 

Most of that authority has never been exercised at Maryville. But 
from its early years the College has awarded "earned" bachelor's degrees 
to students in course and "honorary" higher degrees to others. For more 
than a half century it has been generally agreed among colleges and 

Academic Standards and Accreditation 143 

universities, and increasingly required by the accrediting agencies, that the 
master's and doctor's degrees given for work done in graduate and 
professional schools are not to be used as honorary degrees. 

But it was not always so at Maryville or at other colleges. Between 
the Civil War and the Centennial, Maryville conferred the following 
honorary degrees: Doctor of Divinity, 59; Doctor of Laws, 16; Doctor of 
Philosophy, 5; and Master of Arts, 70. The Ph.D. was awarded in the 
1870's and i88o's, then discontinued by action of the Directors. The M.A., 
which was discontinued in 19 16, seems to have been entirely honorary 
at first; but in its later years carried specific requirements as to length and 
type of study and experience after graduation from college and as to a 
thesis to be presented. 

Between its Centennial and Sesquicentennial Maryville College has 
awarded 156 honorary degrees, 83 to alumni and 73 to others. This is an 
average of approximately three per year, quite within acceptable stand- 
ards. But the trend has been downward. In the 1920's the average was 4.4 
degrees per year; in the next three decades, 2.8; and in the 1960's, it has 
been 2.3. The honorary degree most frequently given by Maryville is that 
of Doctor of Divinity. The second in frequency, with about half as many, 
is that of Doctor of Laws. The latter is commonly conferred by colleges to 
recognize achievements in administration and general leadership, as well 
as distinction in the field of law. During the past half century several 
other standard degrees have been conferred occasionally: Doctor of 
Letters (Litt.D.); Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.); Doctor of Sci- 
ence (Sc.D.) ; Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.). 

Those familiar with higher education in America, will recognize 
from these statistics that the number of honorary degrees which have 
been conferred by Maryville College is a conservative one. Likewise, the 
basis on which they are awarded is conservative. It has been a long-time 
policy to resist the familiar temptation to give degrees for the primary 
purpose of influencing gifts to the College or of obtaining wide publicity; 
and also to resist the perennial efforts of people to obtain honorary 
degrees for themselves or their friends. Rather the policy has been to 
award degrees to persons of ability and achievement, whose position and 
relationship constitute logical reasons for special recognition by Mary- 
ville, and who in most cases are persons for whom the degree will have 
some practical value. 

In terms of academic standards, the history of honorary degrees at 

144 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Maryville is an honorable one. In terms of service, the directors, officers, 
and faculty in each period of the College's life have maintained, as 
valuable and practicable, the practice of conferring a limited number of 
such degrees. 

Academic Officers 

Academic standards do not develop of themselves. They are the 
products of college officers, faculty, and students. The influence of teach- 
ers and students is discussed in various sections of this volume, but too 
little is reported about the all-important service of such officers as deans 
and registrars who have been related to the academic program. Individu- 
als who have served in these offices at Maryville College in the twentieth 
century include, in the order of their services: as Deans, Elmer Briton 
Waller, Jasper Converse Barnes, Edwin Ray Hunter, Frank DeLoss 
McClelland, and Boyd Lee Daniels; as Registrars, Benjamin Cun- 
ningham, Clinton Hancock Gillingham, Olive Walker, Anna Josephine 
Jones, and Viola Mae Lightfoot. 


This chapter began by quoting the current catalog statement about 
the College's present official accreditations. There are references to them 
also in other chapters. The first basic institutional accreditation was that 
in 1922 by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (its present 
name ) , the accrediting body of eleven southeastern states from Virginia 
to Texas and south of the Ohio River. Accrediting action included then, 
as it does now, the approval of the institution's standards, organization, 
and work, and election to membership in the Association. It was gratify- 
ing to President Wilson and the others involved in formulating the 
application and detailed report in 1922, that the Association took favor- 
able action within less than a month after receiving them. Reports have 
been submitted to the Association periodically throughout the forty-six 
years since 1922. The most comprehensive report ever made was the 
Self-Study in 1961, in compliance with new procedures of the Associa- 
tion. Following this report and an official committee visitation, Mary- 
vilie's accreditation was reaffirmed and advice given for further 
strengthening of some standards. 

Academic Standards and Accreditation 145 

Maryville has been approved as an undergraduate college by the 
American Medical Association since the 1920's. In 1932 it was placed on 
the approved list of the Association of American Universities, a body 
especially interested in the ability of undergraduate colleges to prepare 
students for graduate study. This was the most selective national list and 
the one most used abroad. At the time only two or three Tennessee 
undergraduate colleges were on it. Nearly two decades later (in 1948) 
the Association discontinued its accrediting program, and there has not 
been since that time a nationwide accrediting body, institutional accredit- 
ing being done only by the regional associations. But the National 
Commission on Accrediting was soon formed and Maryville College 
became an institutional member. It is a coordinating and not an accredit- 
ing body, rendering various services to the accrediting program, including 
the publishing of lists of all colleges and universities accredited by 
regional and other major agencies. 

Election in 1942 as a liberal arts college member of the National 
Association of Schools of Music, a membership still retained, carried with 
it approval and accreditation of the College's facilities, faculty, and 
teaching in the field of music. In the same year, after approval of its 
report and application, Maryville was elected an institutional member of 
the American Association of University Women, which has particular 
interest in an institution's academic and general policy and standards 
relating to the higher education of women. In 1966 Maryville became a 
member of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. 

Maryville College has not so far considered it wise to seek formal 
accreditation from associations, of which there are many, representing 
separate disciplines, with the exception of music, which is on an institu- 
tional rather than a departmental basis. Many universities — and some 
colleges which have tried \x. — have found such a fragmentary plan of 
accreditation unsatisfactory. The Southern Association in accrediting the 
whole college accredits also each department. This unified plan has 
appeared to be in most cases sufficient and preferable. 

In effect, an undergraduate college is unofficially accredited or not 
accredited in many directions as by graduate and professional schools 
which accept the college's alumni. In a study by the National Academy of 
Sciences and the National Research Council, under the title "Doctorate 
Production in United States Universities, 1920-1962," published in 1963, 

146 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Maryville College was ranked in the top seventeen percent of four-year 
colleges and universities in the actual number of graduates earning 
doctorates. This is made especially significant by the fact that most of the 
institutions in the top group have enrollments many times that of Mary- 
ville College. It is notable that in recent years Maryville has had an 
unusual number of Woodrow Wilson Fellows. 

Also in a report of the United States Public Health Service entitled 
"Baccalaureate Origins of 1950-1959 Medical Graduates," Maryville is 
in the top twenty-five percent of four-year colleges in the nation, in the 
number of men graduates who received the M.D. degree in that period. 
Impressive reports could be cited likewise from theological seminaries 
and other professional institutions. All of which says something about 
standards of excellence. 

Chapter 1 \J The 


This chapter aims to summarize general facts about those who have 
served as Maryville College teachers during the past century and a half. 
The title The Faculty is limited here to teachers, although in both 
educational and popular usage it commonly includes the President, the 
Dean, and some other college personnel. 

How Many.' 

In the beginning and for six years, Isaac Anderson alone, under 
thirty-six directors, was teacher, president, and all else. Today, 150 years 
later, the college catalog lists 121 different persons under three catego- 
ries: Administrative Officers, 15, Faculty of Instruction, 60; Other 
Officers and Staff (excluding miscellaneous workers), 46. At Maryville, 
as at other colleges and universities in recent decades, the number of 
officers and staff, in proportion to teachers, has increased greatly, with 
most of them on twelve-month duty. 

Measured by the size of present-day universities, Maryville College 
has always been a small institution. About 525 individuals have served as 
teachers during its lifetime, approximately 175 joining the faculty in its 
first century, and 350 in this past half century. This is an impressively 
small number, reflecting a notable and valuable stability of faculty 
personnel during most periods in the College's life. The fact that so many 


148 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

teachers have remained for relatively long terms, often at personal finan- 
cial sacrifice, testifies both to their belief in the College and to the 
administrations' esteem for them. 

During the first fifty years after 18 19, there were one to four 
teachers, usually three after 1830. Eight different men served as profes- 
sors before the Civil War. Helping at various times were also eight tutors. 
One professor returned after the War as the second founder. 

In the institution's second half century, the size of the total faculty 
increased steadily from four in 1869 to 38 in 19 19. In the i88o's the 
number was usually nine or ten; and in the 1890's it was 12 to 14. In 
191 1, it was up to 25 where it remained for half a dozen years, then 
jumped to 35 at World War I, and to 38 at the Centennial. 

But these figures need a little explaining if they are to be compared 
with those of the College's third half century. Those given above include 
teachers in all departments — college, preparatory, non-credit (music, art, 
expression). The faculty lists through 191 2 did not distinguish between 
those teaching on college and on high school levels. However, beginning 
in 191 3 and continuing until the preparatory department was closed in 
1925, there were two faculties listed. In 191 3, teachers in the college 
department numbered 10; those in the preparatory department, 13, and 
in fine arts offered without academic credit, five. In the first year after the 
preparatory department was closed (1925-1926) the faculty of the 
College totaled 32, and that of the Departments of Special Instruction 
(music, expression, art), eight. There was also a list of 22 student 
laboratory assistants, a category which appeared earlier in the twentieth 

In 1940 the total number had grown to 50, including teachers of 
the fine arts which in 1936 had become a part of the degree curriculum. 
In 1950 there were 58 full-time college teachers, and in 1968-1969 
there are 57. 

The number of new teachers appointed each year, as replacements 
or additions, averaged five in the 1920's and 1930's; and seven in the 
1940's and 1950's, with a low of three and a high of 13. So far in the 
1960's it has averaged 13, with a high of 20 the year the new curriculum 
was inaugurated. But this increase was due in part to the absence of an 
unusually large number of faculty members on leave for advanced study, 

The Faculty 149 

some of them replaced temporarily by National Teaching Fellows under 
Title III of the federal Higher Education Act. 

As universities have become large, with lecture sections running into 
the hundreds and various changes in teaching methods, less and less 
emphasis has been placed on faculty-student ratio. But in colleges of 
Maryville's size, it is still considered important. In 1930 the ratio was 
approximately 1/20; since 1940 it has ranged from 1/15 to 1/12, well 
within generally approved limits. 

The Eight Frontier Professors 

The forty- two years between the beginning of 18 19 and the closing 
in 1 86 1 constitute the frontier period in the College's history, which is in 
a real sense separated from the institution's later life, yet foundational to 
it. The eight professors of that period are worthy of special remembrance. 
Considerable information regarding the two presidents has been given in 
earlier chapters, and references to Professor Lamar, as to Dr. Anderson, 
recur throughout this volume. President Samuel Tyndale Wilson, in A 
Century of Maryville College (19 16), gives adequate biographies of the 
others. But, because of their unique place in the Maryville story, the 
following brief notes are included here. 

Rev. Isaac Anderson, A.M., D.D., was Founder, first President, and 
Professor of Didactic Theology (1819-1857). Rev. William Eagleton, 
Professor of Sacred Literature, was for three years ( 1 826-1 829) Dr. An- 
derson's first colleague, coming to the Seminary from a Presbyterian 
pastorate and returning to one. Rev. Darius Hoyt was Professor of Lan- 
guages for eight years (1829-1837) and made a remarkable impression 
on students and community, but died in service at the age of thirty-three. 
Rev. Samuel McCracken served acceptably as Professor of Natural Sci- 
ences for one year ( 1831-1832), but then went back North for work in 
his own church body, which he felt had special claim on his services. Rev. 
Fielding Pope was for seventeen years (1833-1850) a capable and 
popular Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, a "courtly 
Kentucky gentleman," resigning after Dr. Anderson's breakdown, when 
the College's finances were at low ebb, to be principal of an academy, 
later becoming Dr. Anderson's successor as pastor of New Providence 

150 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Church. Rev. John S. Craig, A.M., D.D., was Professor of Languages for 
twenty-one years (1840-1861), a rugged, briUiant individual, on the 
faculty before the War longer than anyone else except Dr. Anderson. He 
was one of three professors when the College closed in 1861, and went to 
Indiana, where he served as a pastor until his death in 1893. Rev. John 
Joseph Robinson, A.M., D.D., was Professor of Sacred Literature for five 
years (1850-1855), was a pastor in Kentucky for two years, and re- 
turned after Dr. Anderson's death to be President and Professor of 
Didactic Theology for four years (1857-1861). Rev. Thomas Jefferson 
Jutmar, A.M., succeeded Dr. Robinson in 1857 as Professor of Sacred 
Literature and taught in the field of Languages, under different titles, for 
thirty years. He was the only person of the faculty or student body who 
returned to the College after the Civil War, and it was he who became 
the second founder. 

Length of Service 

The periods of service for the 525 persons who have taught at 
Maryville College during its history range from one to 50 years. The 
average tenure of the eight professors (including two presidents) in the 
first half of the nineteenth century was 13 years, the shortest being one 
year, the longest 38. 

After the Civil War to the end of the century the turnover was 
large. More than 50 individuals became members of the faculty, and 
more than 20 of them served only one, two, or three years. The longest 
tenure within that period was that of Professor Lamar, 26 years, in 
addition to his four years before the War. But there were eight others 
whose terms were ten years or more in that century: President Bartlett, 
18; G. S. W. Crawford, 17; Samuel Tyndale Wilson, 16 (30 more in the 
twentieth century); Alexander Bartlett, 16; Mrs. Florence A. Bartlett 
(Music), 15; W. A. Cate, 12; J. H. M. Sherrill, 11; Margaret E. Henry, 
10 (later 16 more). 

The faculty became larger and more stable in the 50 years after the 
College's Centennial. A look at the tenures of teachers in the 1 960-1 961 
faculty, the closing year of the sixth presidency, gives some indication of 
the stability. The retirement age at the time was 70 rather than the more 
usual 65. In that year, 40% of the 61 faculty members had served at 

The Faculty . 151 

Maryville ten years or more. Excluding persons then in their first year, the 
average length of service of all others was 1 5 years, and the average for 
the eleven full professors was 27 years, the shortest being six years and 
the longest 43. 

Those who have been closely related to the College may be inter- 
ested in having at hand information as to the teachers who, in the 
institution's history, have served longest. Excluding the presidents, several 
of whom served also as teachers, and including years which some taught 
in the preparatory department prior to teaching in the college, 26 persons 
have taught at Maryville College for a quarter of a century or more. All 
except one (Professor Lamar) have been in the twentieth century. Five 
of the 26 died in service: Professors Lamar, Barnes, Orr, Queener, and 
Meiselwitz. Of the 26, fourteen are men and twelve women. Four 
(Professor Jackson, Associate Professors Davis and Wilkinson, and As- 
sistant Professor Cummings) are now on the faculty, and three others 
have retired within the past year. 

Fifty years is the record length of teaching service, and it is held by 
Margaret Catherine Wilkinson, Associate Professor of French, teaching 
in her fiftieth year during 1968- 1969. A full list of the 26 who have 
taught at Maryville for 25 years or more and their terms of service is 
given in Appendix D. 

Church Members 

For twenty-five years, from 1938 to 1963, the Statement of Purpose 
in the annual catalog contained this sentence: "The only teachers and 
officers appointed are those who give clear evidence that they possess a 
genuine Christian faith and life program and are actively related to an 
evangelical church." This not only set forth the policy followed during 
the quarter of a century of this particular statement, but that which had 
been in effect from the institution's beginning. 

The President and Directors have been well aware of the opinion of 
some educators that students should be exposed to all religious points of 
view and to that end have teachers with non-Christian and neutral views 
as well as those with Christian views. But the traditional policy was 
retained on the basis that Maryville is a church-related college frankly 
committed to a Christian interpretation and ethic; and that, in such an 

152 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

age of communication, students are exposed to all kinds of competing 
ideas, before, during, and after college. College officials were aware also 
that uninformed, unsympathetic, or indifferent faculty gradually change a 
college's working philosophy and emphasis in the direction of the subtle 
but powerful movement which has been secularizing American education 
for several decades. It is a long-established belief at Maryville that a 
church-related college has both obligation and opportunity to provide 
higher education as qualitative and liberal as that of any other college, 
but with a plus element which most others are not free to offer. 

All Maryville College faculty have been members of churches, but 
relatively few have been sectarian or narrow. One formative principle of 
the Founder, written into the original constitution, specified that "Young 
men of other Christian denominations, of good moral and religious 
character, shall be admitted ... on the same principles, and be entitled 
to the same privileges, as students of our own denomination." This says 
nothing about faculty, but introduces an attitude and a principle which 
have done much to give Maryville its tradition of tolerance, non-discrimi- 
nation, and ecumenicity. 

Ordained Ministers 

As a church-related institution whose original purpose was the 
education of ministers for the Church, Maryville College for many years 
appointed chiefly ordained ministers to the faculty. Most of the older 
church colleges have a similar history. All of Maryville's regular teachers 
in the first half century were ministers. Likewise, with one exception, this 
was true of those holding the rank of professor until about 1890. There 
have always been some ordained ministers on the faculty, and all seven 
presidents have been ministers. But in the twentieth century ministers 
have constituted a small minority of the total faculty. Whether that 
minority has become too small is a matter of opinion — and judgment. In 
1900, the president and but two of the sixteen teachers were ministers. 
While the faculty was multiplied approximately by four during the next 
68 years, the number of ministers continued to be only two or three or 
four. At this writing it is four, less than six percent of those listed as 
Faculty of Instruction. 

In the pioneer years all ministers on the faculty, educated by Presby- 

The Faculty 153 

terian standards, taught all subjects. They were almost the only persons 
on the frontier with enough education to do so. But in recent times they 
have taught for the most part in the fields of Bible, religion, philosophy, 
and the social sciences, and the relatively large offerings in these areas at 
Maryville have required more teaching than the ministers on the faculty 
could do. Ministers have often filled important positions other than that 
of president and teacher. There has long been a College Pastor or 
Chaplain. At the present time the Dean of the College, the Dean of 
Students, and the Director of Admissions are ordained ministers with 
special qualifications. Most of the ministers have been Presbyterians. 
However, that has been due to normal church interest and contacts, and 
not, since the early years, to institutional requirement. 


Before the Civil War all students and all faculty were men. The first 
women students were enrolled in 1 867-1 868, there being four that year. 
The number had grown to 25 by 1 870-1 871, all still on the preparatory 
level. It was in this latter year that the first woman was listed in the 
faculty, separated from the professors by a prominent dividing symbol: 
"Mrs. Mary L. Taylor, Assistant Teacher." The institution has had women 
teachers from that time to the present, although there were never more 
than three until after 1900, and all in those earlier years taught prepara- 
tory courses or non-credit music. In 190 1 there were six women, and in 
191 1, eleven. In 1920 there were six on the college department faculty of 
14; in 1940 there were 24 in a college faculty of 51; and in 1968-1969 
there are 19 women in a faculty of 67. 

It took fifty years after its founding for the College to appoint its 
first woman teacher. Then another forty-three years passed before a 
woman was promoted to a professorship. Until after the turn of the 
century all faculty members carried one of two titles. Professor or Assist- 
ant Teacher (which after 1887 became Instructor). All women were 
Assistant Teachers or Instructors until 19 13. In that year two of them, 
Mrs. Jane Bancroft Smith Alexander (English) and Miss Susan Allen 
Green (Biology) were made Professors, and Miss Annabel Person 
(Greek) was made an Associate Professor, the first use of that rank at 
Maryville. Miss Person remained only through that year. Mrs. Alexander 

154 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

continued on the faculty until her retirement in 1934. Miss Green, who 
in 1946 became Mrs. Louis A. Black, was Professor of Biology until her 
retirement in 1950, and from 1939 to 1950 was also Chairman of the 
Division of Science. 

The increasingly prominent place of women in Maryville's instruc- 
tional program may be discovered in any recent year. In 1964- 196 5, for 
example, there were 21 women in the faculty of 66 teachers: four 
professors, two associate professors, eight assistant professors, and six 
instructors. Three of 12 department chairmen and the secretary of the 
faculty that year were women. Four of them held an earned Doctor of 
Philosophy degree. All the others who were teaching full-time held a 
Master's degree, and most of them had done extensive graduate study 
beyond that degree. Also the Registrar, head Librarian, Supervisor of 
Independent Study, and Director of Forensics, all closely related to 
instruction, were women. 

Maryville Alumni 

At the time of Maryville's Centennial, 25% of the college depart- 
ment and a majority of the preparatory department faculty were Mary- 
ville alumni. Of the faculty at the end of the fifth presidency in 1930 
approximately 49% had taken their undergraduate work at Maryville. In 
1950 the percentage was 46 and in 1961 it was 34. In the Sesquicenten- 
nial year of 1968-1969, the percentage is approximately 27. 

The question as to how many alumni should be on a college faculty 
has long been debated in higher education circles. The visiting committee 
of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1961 made this 

The college should be alert to the obvious trend of employing as members of 
the faculty a relatively large number of its graduates. Twenty members or 
approximately one third of the current faculty, received their undergraduate 
training at Maryville. While most of these have had graduate training in 
other institutions, the presence of this number of Maryville graduates is 
likely to produce an undesirable limitation in the breadth of academic 
viewpoint. It could inhibit academic growth and development. 

There does not seem to be a rigid standard in this matter, verified by 
experience, which fits all institutions. With due respect, there are educa- 

The Faculty 155 

tors who would question the conclusion that alumni constituting one 
third of a faculty, after extensive graduate study in various other institu- 
tions, jeopardize the College's breadth of academic viewpoint, academic 
growth, and development. On the contrary, many believe that without a 
substantial nimiber of alumni a college with distinctive history, character, 
and ideals will gradually drift from them. What proportion of the faculty 
is most desirable must depend on the judgment of those most familiar 
with the situation. 

Faculty Ranks 

From its founding, Maryville has had teachers with the title of 
Professor. Before the Civil War all regular teachers were Professors. The 
only other title used was that of Tutor. When the College closed in 1861 
there were three Professors and one Tutor. 

But soon after the Civil War a new title appeared: all faculty were 
listed as either Professors or Assistant Teachers. In 1887 the latter 
became a general classification, under which individuals were called 
"Instructors." After a few years the term "Assistant Teacher" was 
dropped, the faculty that year consisting of eight Professors and seven 
Instructors. Beginning in 1900, use of the title "Instructor" was discontin- 
ued and teachers, except Professors, were listed merely with their subjects. 
This was the plan for a dozen years, until in 191 3 college and prepara- 
tory department faculties were separated and the title "Associate Profes- 
sor" appeared in the college list. In 19 16 that of "Instructor" reappeared. 
From then until 1939 there were three ranks — Professor, Associate Pro- 
fessor, and Instructor. In that year the curriculum was reorganized on a 
divisional and faculty plan. Ranks increased from three to four and have 
remained so to the present. In 1 940-1 941 faculty consisted of 9 Profes- 
sors, 13 Associate Professors, 13 Assistant Professors, and 18 Instructors; 
and in 1968 the corresponding figures are 11, 10, 23, and 21. 


The record shows a healthy stability about the Maryville College 
faculty. But the reasons have not often been the inducement of salary. In 
innumerable cases teachers have declined offers of higher salaries else- 

156 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

where. The Maryville salary scale has risen steadily and has doubled in 
the decade preceding the Sesquicentennial. But even now it is barely up to 
the average for private colleges. Financial resources have never made 
possible a scale as high as the directors and presidents desired it to be. 

There is no satisfactory way to compare figures from widely sepa- 
rated periods through 150 years. General economic conditions, the pur- 
chasing power of a dollar, relative living costs in different times and 
different places — these and other factors change too greatly. But the 
actual figures are of interest. As has been noted in previous chapters, Isaac 
Anderson the founder received no salary for some ten years. Fortunately 
he and his fellow faculty members (usually one or two) as ministers 
received something from churches which they pastored. The College's 
income was so uncertain that even the small salaries assigned were often 
in arrears. The highest paid before the Civil War was |6oo a year. 

The first formal mention of salaries in the Minutes of the Directors 
after the Civil War was in June, 1869. It was authorization "to pay 
Professor Alexander Bartlett 1 1,000 as his year's salary." An interesting 
action taken a year later authorized the Treasurer "to pay Professor 
Alexander Bartlett $1,150 as his salary for the past year . . . President P. 
M. Bartlett $900 and Professor T. J. Lamar |8oo for the same time." No 
explanation is given regarding the higher amount for Professor Bartlett, 
who like President Bartlett, his brother, had been brought to the College 
by Professor Lamar, the second founder. In 1 874 an action made retroac- 
tive to 1869 set the annual salaries of each of the three at $1,000. 

But the 1870's brought a serious national economic depression 
which dried up much of the College's support from the North, and 
salaries went down. In 1878, with the faculty increased to five, the 
Directors budgeted a total of $3,500 for teachers' salaries. The president 
received $800 for the year, three professors $700 each, and one professor 
$600. The total enrollment that year was 164; and students paid during 
the year $20 for tuition, $5 for room (in Memorial and Baldwin Halls), 
$20 for fuel, lights, and washing, and $2 a week for board. 

In another ten years (1888), after the deaths of Professors Lamar 
and Bartlett and the retirement of President Bartlett, the Board of 
Directors fixed the annual salaries of four professors at $1,000 each, "on 
condition that they shall not assume any other work that will interfere 
with their immediate work at the College." In 1891 a new Professor of 

The Faculty 157 

the Latin Language and Literature was engaged at $1,000, and a tutor in 
Greek was reappointed at $700. Both were men. At the same time two 
women (Miss Margaret E. Henry and Miss Helen M. Lord) were ap- 
pointed assistant teachers (a rank above tutor) at salaries of $350. This 
probably reflected the prevailing difference between salaries of men and 

The records for 19 14-19 15, the year this writer was a senior at 
Maryville College, reveal the following salaries: senior Professor who 
was also Dean, $1,600; 8 other Professors, high $1,500, low $1,000; 
Instructors, high $900. In 1 929-1 930, as the Great Depression began, 
salaries were: Professors, high $3,000; Associate Professors, high $2,500, 
low $1,500; Instructors, $1,000 to $1,200. In 1950-195 1, five years after 
World War II, the record shows 13 Professors, high $4,700, low $3,200, 
median $3,600; 8 Associate Professors, high $3,400, low $2,800, median 
$3,000; 18 Assistant Professors, high $3,000, low $2,400, median 
$2,700; 17 Instructors, high $2,700, low $1,400, median $2,200. 

In 1 96 1, the minimum salary schedule of the Southern Association 
(regional accrediting agency) for teachers was: Professors $4,500; Asso- 
ciate Professors $3,900; Assistant Professors $3,300; Instructors $2,700. 
Maryville's salary budget for 1961-1962, the last for which the present 
writer had responsibility as President, was this: 12 Professors, high 
$6,800, low $5,800, median $6,100; 11 Associate Professors, high 
$6,600, low $5,000, median $5,400; 19 Assistant Professors, high 
$5,300, low $3,800, median $4,800; 17 Instructors, high $5,100, low 
$3,500, median $4,000. 

In practice, as can be seen, Maryville was exceeding by a substantial 
margin the Southern Association's minimum schedule. Yet a Southern 
Association examining committee in 1961 criticized Maryville salaries as 
"relatively low" (amid the rising economic inflation) and hence an 
obstacle in the recruitment of able and competent teachers. As indicated 
by the figures above, Maryville faculty salaries had been increased mark- 
edly in the decade between 1951 and 196 1, the median salary of profes- 
sors rising 70% and of the other three ranks, 80%. Midway in the 1950's 
an administrative goal of double the existing salaries was announced. The 
schedule for 1 968-1969 is passing the goal. It shows these medians: 
Professors $12,000, Associate Professors $9,100, Assistant Professors 
$8,200, Instructors $7,100. This represents increases of 183% since 1955 


and 65% since 1961. The total budget for instructional salaries was 
1181,984 in 1955-1956; was $313,828 in 1961-1962; and is $515,250 
in 1968-1969. 

Supplementary Benefits 

Since the mid-1930's the following supplementary benefits have 
been set up, one by one in the years indicated: ( i ) Health, Medical, and 
Hospitalization insurance made available and administered by the Col- 
lege, originally at the individual's option and expense but presently with 
premiums paid in full by the College — initiated in 1935 and expanded in 
1942 and 1949. (2) Retirement Annuity plan, under the Teachers 
Insurance and Annuity Association of New York, with participation 
required of all faculty after two years of service, the individual and the 
College each contributing an amount equal to five percent of the salary 
— initiated in 1939. (3) Collective Life Insurance coverage, with pre- 
mium payments assumed by the College — initiated in 1939. (4) Work- 
men's Compensation Insurance, with premiums paid in full by the College 
— initiated in 1945. (5) A Sabbatical Leave Plan, with specified condi- 
tions and salary payments — initiated in 1947. (6) U. S. Social Security 
participation since 195 1, with the individual and the College each paying 
one half of the cost. (7) Major Medical insurance, with premiums paid 
in full by the College — initiated in 1958. 

Academic Freedom 

In the College's Self-Study report in 1961 to the regional accrediting 
body was the statement: "There are no limitations on academic freedom, 
largely, it is believed, because considerable care goes into selecting faculty 
who can give their support and loyalty to the College's purposes, policies, 
and program." Of course, the generally accepted principles of academic 
freedom should be followed by the institution even if such care were not 
exercised in selection of faculty. But, as the Self-Study report indicates, 
the selective process throughout its history has saved Maryville from any 
serious conflict over academic freedom, now widely discussed and some- 
times abused. 

Although church-related, with announced Christian objectives, and 

The Faculty 159 

for these reasons criticized in some quarters as too conservative, the 
College has never required loyalty or orthodoxy pledges. From its begin- 
ning it has aimed to give its teachers freedom to present the truth as they 
see it. 

Formal and official statements on academic freedom belong chiefly 
to the past half century, being related in part to the developing accredita- 
tion processes as well as to the modern emphasis on freedom in all areas 
of thought and action. Maryville has drafted statements from time to 
time, the most recent and comprehensive being that approved by the 
Faculty and Directors in 1961. It was based largely on statements of the 
Association of American Colleges, the American Association of Univer- 
sity Professors, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and the 
United Presbyterian Board of Christian Education. In essence, it recog- 
nizes that the free search for truth and its free exposition are essential to 
the common good and that freedom to teach the truth as he sees it is the 
privilege and responsibility of the teacher. At the same time, as all 
thoughtful champions of academic freedom agree, there are duties as well 
as rights. Academic freedom, according to a widely accepted description, 
"does not authorize teaching contrary to the established policies of the 
institution or of the bodies with which k is officially connected or of 
democratic principles." One of the six sections of Maryville's statement 
reads in part as follows: 

The Christian church-related college, believing that all truth is God's 
truth, whatever the field of human knowledge or inquiry, encourages the 
pursuit of learning with diligence, "insisting only that truth must be sought 
with devotion, received with humility, and served with a sense of 

The statement, although dated 1961, describes essentially Mary- 
ville's traditional position. As already indicated, it is in accord with the 
established principles and to a considerable degree the words of leading 
organizations in American higher education. 

Preparation and Degrees 

For more than fifty years, as has been pointed out, most of the 
faculty were Presbyterian ministers, who had been required before ordina- 

l6o MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

tion, even on the frontier, to complete a three-year theological course 
after four years of college. A majority before the Civil War had taken 
this course under Dr. Isaac Anderson in the Southern and Western 
Theological Seminary ( Maryville College ) , to which they later returned 
as professors. But two before the War ( President Robinson and Professor 
Lamar) and the first two new teachers after the War (Professor Alexan- 
der Bartlett and President P. M. Bartlett) had taken their graduate 
training in the North. Seminaries had not yet begun to give degrees. 

Most of the teachers through the nineteenth century held the A.M. 
degree, but it was honorary or semi-honorary, not earned in the present 
sense. Until well into the twentieth century it was a common practice for 
undergraduate colleges to confer honorary A.M. and even Ph.D. degrees, 
or award these to persons who after a specified number of years submitted 
an acceptable written dissertation. Shortly before the end of the century 
three professors, now little known, were listed with Ph.D. degrees, but 
there is no information about their source or content. Regardless of 
degrees, however, the objective evidence is that by standards of the times 
the nineteenth-century teachers were mature, well prepared, and 

In the twentieth century this continued to be true, and the number 
of graduate degrees steadily increased. The first standard earned Ph.D. 
degree of which we know the history was that received in 191 1 by 
Professor Jasper Converse Barnes from the University of Chicago. Dr. 
Barnes had then been a member of the faculty for nineteen years. He had 
received an honorary Ph.D. degree from the College of Wooster in 1900. 
In 191 3, the first year of separate college and preparatory department 
faculties, two of the ten college teachers held the Doctor of Philosophy 
degree, five the Master of Arts degree, and three the Bachelor of Arts 
degree only. Twenty-five years later, in the midst of the depression, 
approximately 1 5 % of the 67 teachers held a doctor's degree and most of 
the others, except a few in fine arts and physical education, had master's 
degrees. In 1961 approximately 22% of the faculty held earned doctor's 
degrees, and another 25% had work for doctorates in process. For 75% 
the highest earned degree was the master's, but a considerable proportion 
of these had done additional graduate study. Degrees held by the teachers 
of that year had been received from more than sixty different colleges and 
universities. The proportion of doctorates at Maryville has increased from 
the 22% of 1961 to a present 35%. This exceeds the 30% of doctorates 

The Faculty i6i 

now required by the Southern Association, which attaches considerable 
weight to the doctorate as preparation for college teaching. The an- 
nounced long-range purpose calls for further increase in the proportion 
of faculty possessing doctorates; yet Maryville officials have long insisted 
that the quality of the College's teaching has far exceeded the statistical 
level of faculty doctorates. 

A Teaching Faculty 

One important difference today between the separate college of 500 
or 1,000 students and the university of 10,000 or 20,000 is this: in the 
former, all students have opportunity to be in courses taught by senior 
members of the faculty as well as those taught by junior members; 
whereas in the large university this opportunity is greatly reduced, both 
because of numbers and because the most experienced and best-known 
professors often do little actual teaching. In the university world there is a 
widely criticized but persistent institutional practice of measuring faculty 
success and making promotions by the individual's research and published 
writings, rather than by effectiveness in teaching. "Publish or perish" is an 
often-quoted complaint of university faculty members. 

This does not mean that faculty research and publication are with- 
out substantial and relevant value in the large university and the small 
college as well. Although at Maryville inadequate finances and full 
teaching loads have unduly limited opportunity for such faculty activity, 
all those responsible for the College's policy and program have for many 
years counted such activity important. They have in fact made considera- 
ble progress in affording opportunity and incentive for it. They have 
recognized that while many productive scholars are not good teachers, 
every good teacher becomes a better one if engaged in some creative 
activity of his own, provided it does not take undue time and interest 
from teaching. At the same time, Maryville College's working philosophy 
has included a conviction that in the teaching process there is no substi- 
tute for the impact of personality upon personality. The liberal arts 
college teacher's research and writing should be a means to an end, 
effective teaching. 

The extensive development of accrediting procedures during the 
past half century has established various criteria for appraising faculty 
competence. The most specific are in terms of academic graduate degrees. 

l62 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

The master's degree is more and more considered a minimal requirement 
for teaching even on a secondary school level. The doctorate is highly 
valued for and by undergraduate college faculty members as a yardstick 
of scholarship. Much can be said for this, and no alternative for prepara- 
tion of college teachers is in sight. 

However, a liberal arts college such as Maryville faces a constant 
problem of finding effective teachers. Competition for faculty in expand- 
ing higher education is overwhelming; and the supply of persons with 
strong graduate degrees, especially doctorates, is much less than the 
demand. Moreover, the usual doctoral program is not really designed to 
prepare candidates for teaching. Informed concern about this fact is 
widespread. The Ph.D. degree, which is the one usually sought by a 
liberal arts college, is chiefly a research degree. In some fields, such as 
Chemistry and Economics, most recipients do not enter teaching at all, 
but take positions in industry, business, or government. It is well known 
to every faculty member who has completed the long and arduous 
requirements for a doctorate, that the transfer from research within the 
established narrow limits to the teaching of students requires major 
adjustments. Many highly placed college leaders in higher education are 
questioning the strong emphasis which has been placed on the doctorate, 
although they consider it one useful way to measure sound scholarship. 
There have been various proposals for developing doctoral programs 
definitely designed to prepare college teachers; but the graduate schools 
so far have not made any radical changes. 

The final appointment of Maryville College faculty members has 
always been by the Board of Directors. But the actual selection has 
continued to be by the President, assisted increasingly in recent years by 
the Dean of the College and Department Chairmen. The aim has been to 
appoint men and women with broad and specific qualifications of sound 
scholarship, teaching ability, personal integrity, and Christian commit- 
ment. It has been standard practice to explain to applicants Maryville's 
basic purpose to conduct its work within a Christian context, and to 
appoint faculty who are in accord with such a purpose and will make a 
contribution to it. 

Of course some teachers have proved to be disappointments. But 
there is ample evidence to justify the conclusion that the over-all charac- 
ter and competence of Maryville faculties have been high and that some 
persons in every generation have been great teachers. 

Chapter Ji ± Three 


In Chapter 5 are some general facts about the seven presidents who 
have served during Maryville College's 150 years; and about the four 
whose presidencies were in the 19th century. It happened that the fourth 
ended and the fifth began almost with the turn of the century, in 1901. 
The present chapter, without repeating the comparative information 
given at the opening of the 5th chapter, concludes the series of sketches 
of the seven presidents and their times. 

Samuel Tyndale Wilson 

Fifth President 


Longest Total Service 

Dr. Wilson's official connection with Maryville College was longer 
than that of anyone else in the institution's history. He was a student five 
years, a professor seventeen years, the president twenty-nine years, and 
president emeritus fourteen years, a total of sixty-five years, of which 
forty-six were of active full-time service. The greatest advances so far in 
the development of the College were made under his dedicated and wise 

Of course the founder. Dr. Anderson, and the second founder, 
Professor Lamar, occupy unique places of honor in the College's history. 
These laid the small first foundations; but no one to the present time has 


164 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

equalled Dr. Wilson in building on them. This estimate by the writer, 
who for thirty-one years was Dr. Wilson's immediate successor, will be 
challenged by few who know Maryville College history. 

His Eighty-Six Years 

Samuel Tyndale Wilson was born February 17, 1858, in the ancient 
city of Horns, Syria, where his father and mother were American mission- 
aries. When he was three years old, the family was forced by his mother's 
uncertain health to return to the United States. His father, a Presbyterian 
minister, served as a pastor in his native State of Ohio for six years, and 
then at Athens, Tennessee, for seventeen years. Much of the son's early 
education was under the father, but in 1873, at ^g^ fifteen, he entered the 
preparatory department at Maryville College, fifty-five miles from his 
Athens home. In 1878, when he was but twenty, he and three other 
college seniors received the Bachelor of Arts degree. Four years later, in 
1882, he graduated from Lane Theological Seminary at Cincinnati and 
was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., his 
ordination taking place in the Eusebia Presbyterian Church, twelve miles 
from Maryville. 

In that same year he went to Mexico as a missionary under appoint- 
ment by the Board of Foreign Missions of his Church. He had wished to 
go to Africa, Asia, or the Middle East, but because of his uncertain health 
the Board was not willing to send him so far. In Mexico he learned the 
language rapidly and in four months preached his first sermon in Spanish. 
He taught in a theological seminary at Mexico City, did itineration and 
gave oversight to the churches in the State of Michoacan. But after two 
years repeated attacks of coastal fever sent him home, and to his keen 
disappointment physicians of the Board refused to approve his going 
again to any foreign field. 

After several months of recuperation, he accepted appointment in 
1884 to the faculty of Maryville College, as "Professor of the English 
Language and Literature, and of the Spanish Language," a chair he filled 
with distinction for seventeen years before his election as president. He 
was the first at Maryville to be called Professor of English. His duties in 
those years turned out to be much more extensive than this title implies. 
In addition to a full teaching schedule, he served as librarian for thirteen 
years, as registrar for ten years, and as dean for ten years. 

Upon the retirement of Dr. Boardman, the Directors elected Dr. 

Three 20th-century Presidents 165 

Wilson as fifth president, and he was formally inaugurated on October 
21, 1 90 1. His ability had been long in evidence. Twelve years earlier he 
had been on the committee of three, appointed by the Directors, which 
nominated Dr. Boardman for the presidency. He was the dean and 
registrar during most of Dr. Boardman's term, providing very valuable 
administrative leadership through the 1890's. 

During his presidency the assets of the institution were increased 
tenfold; eight important buildings were erected and paid for; several 
major buildings were enlarged to accommodate the growing enrollment. 
All of the money raised for increased endowment and plant and for 
current purposes was through efforts of President Wilson, assisted by 
officers who had other full time duties, and by the Directors. He fre- 
quently expressed satisfaction that no part of the contribution went for 
campaign expenses. This was after the days of financial agents at Mary- 
ville, and before those of fund-raising counsel and departments of devel- 
opment, now so widely used in the college world. He left Maryville 
College free of debt. 

The enrollment at the time of his inauguration in 1901 was 83 in 
the college and 306 in the preparatory department; at his retirement in 
1930 it was 760, all in the college department. Maryville became a 
member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 
and was officially accredited as a liberal arts college in 1922. It was under 
Dr. Wilson's leadership that it developed from a good college and 
academy to a first-rank college. In this process neither the Christian 
program nor the church relationship decreased, as frequently happens 
when colleges prosper financially and academically; on the contrary they 
grew stronger. 

When he reached Maryville's retirement age of seventy, the Direc- 
tors requested him to remain. Two years later, in June, 1930, he resigned, 
effective "by the coming September at the latest," saying, "I have arrived 
at the age when I am no longer physically able to bear the heavy burdens 
and responsibilities of administration. . . ." Having no alternative, the 
Directors acceded to his request and elected him President Emeritus. 

President Emeritus 

During the summer of 1930, in his characteristically thorough way, 
Dr. Wilson put the affairs of his administration in order, and in Septem- 
ber he and Mrs. Wilson left for Syria to spend a year with their daughter 

l66 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Lois, who was a missionary in that land of his birth. Upon their return in 
193 1, they established their retirement home in "Casa Blanca," the large 
white house on Indiana Avenue in Maryville, a five-minute walk from 
the campus, where they had lived during his years as a professor. 
Throughout their twenty-nine years in WiUard House on the campus, 
they had kept it for this day. For the next four years Dr. Wilson was busy 
with writing and occasional speaking. He wrote and in 1932 published 
the 168-page biography Isaac Anderson Memorial; and in 1934 Mary- 
fille's Foreign Legion. In 1935 he supervised the publication of A 
Century of Maryville College and Second Century Beginnings, containing 
the centennial history of the College, first published in 191 6, together 
with six valuable additional chapters, which he had written. Although he 
had been to an unusual degree the head of the institution for more than a 
quarter of a century and now lived near the Campus and took a keen 
interest in the College's progress, he never interfered, never voiced criti- 
cism, was unfailingly encouraging and helpful to his successor — a rare 
and notable achievement. 

His health from boyhood was frail. It cut short his foreign mission- 
ary career and delayed his marriage. All his life he worked to the limit of 
his strength, and at intervals was forced to take time away for recupera- 
tion. At sixty he had a serious breakdown which threatened to put an end 
to his career. But, after an extended motorcycle and camping trip across 
the nation with his son Lamar, he returned to the College for twelve 
years, in which he did some of his most effective work. He lived to be 
eighty-six, but he never expected to do so and often expressed the hope 
that God would not let him live until his mental faculties failed as Isaac 
Anderson's had done. He spoke of his death as just another of life's 
serious events, and made plans for it, selected Scripture passages and 
hymns for his funeral service, and erected a stone in the college cemetery 
fully engraved except for the date of death. 

Mrs. Wilson died in 1937, the seventh year of Dr. Wilson's retire- 
ment, but he continued to reside until his death seven years later in "Casa 
Blanca," with his daughter Olive and her husband and their son and 
daughter. As his physical and nervous strength became increasingly frail 
he gave up all public appearances. But he kept occupied with his papers 
and his books, with talking to occasional visitors, and with following 
current events, until his mental faculties began to fail two or three years 

Three 20th-century Presidents 167 

before the end of his hfe. He died July 19, 1944, at the age of eighty-six. 
The funeral service, conducted by the present writer, was held in New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, and burial was in the Maryville College 
Cemetery beside Mrs. Wilson and but a few yards from the graves of Dr. 
Isaac Anderson, founder and first president, and Professor Lamar, second 
founder, about both of whom Dr. Wilson had affectionately talked and 
written for over a half a century. 

What Order of Man Was Dr. Wilson? 

Appearance. He was fairly tall (almost six feet), slender, in later 
years a little stooped; with broad forehead, thick auburn hair when he 
was young, becoming white and thinner after his fifties, and a long 
mustache, trimmed shorter in his later years. This writer remembers him 
well from the time he was fifty, usually wearing a dark suit, with coat 
slightly longer than the average, cut straight down the front. His pictures 
show him wearing glasses from early manhood. In his later years as 
president and president emeritus, his snow-white hair and reverent atti- 
tude on the chapel platform or in the church pew made him an impres- 
sive and benevolent figure. His expression much of the time was serious, 
with a suggestion of shyness, and he could be stern when upholding what 
he considered true and right; but he had a subtle sense of humor and 
frequently a smile around his mouth and a twinkle in his eye. Often in his 
voice there was a sincere warmth which those who talked with him did 
not miss or forget. 

Teacher. He taught classes in the theological seminary at Mexico 
City for two years and in Maryville College for over thirty years. The 
catalogs from 1884 to 191 5 list him as "Professor of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature, and of the Spanish Language," in 1901 prefixing 
the title "President." The amount of teaching gradually decreased and 
then ceased as administrative duties grew. Four years before he became 
president, the editor of the student magazine wrote of him: "He brought 
with him to this work the same zeal and thoroughness which had 
characterized his work on the mission field . . . and he is in constant 
demand as a lecturer and preacher." His courses in rhetoric, outlining, 
and systematic discourse established one of the continuing emphases in 
the College; and his accurate, chaste use of English still influences the 
institution's standards. That he was always a teacher at heart and in 

l68 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

method was apparent in all of his speaking and writing. His academic 
standards for the College were high, and he was a leader in college 
circles. In 192 2-1 92 3 he was President of the Tennessee College Associa- 
tion, which had been organized only three years earlier. 

Administrator. The very fact that as a professor Dr. Wilson car- 
ried simultaneously a full teaching load, and many administrative respon- 
sibilities within the College — dean, registrar, librarian, alumni secretary, 
assistant treasurer (an off-campus director was a part-time treasurer) — is 
eloquent proof of his great administrative ability and his amazing capac- 
ity for work. No wonder he was made president in 1901. He was the first 
president to establish a real office in the college buildings, separate from a 
study in his home. Within a short time the faculty and staff were 
expanded, long-range plans were made, the first of his many financial 
campaigns launched, and a distinguished administration of three decades 
was in progress. His office facilities were always modest and his office staff 
small, but he transmitted to others some of his indefatigable spirit and 
habit, and he had an unusual capacity for inspiring loyalty. Professor 
Horace E. Orr said, "A secret of his success was an uncanny ability to 
make a person feel important in God's world." Of course there were those 
who reacted negatively to his refusal to gloss over shoddy motives or 
performance, his insistence on what some called old-fashioned ethical 
standards, his emphasis on law and regulations as well as love and 
freedom. Long before the widespread protests of the 1960's, college 
students were objecting to the rules, and in Dr. Wilson's last year or two 
a few students created some unrest. But he was a wise and strong 
administrator to the end, whom all respected and none charged with 

He dreaded to solicit funds; yet confronted by the College's needs 
and having but limited assistance, he gave much of his time to this task. 
As with Professor Lamar before him, this timidity, coupled with real 
sincerity, became an asset rather than a liability in raising money. Like 
Professor Lamar, having won a friend and his interest, he seldom lost 

Churchman. He was an ordained minister of the Presbyterian 
Church in the U. S. A. for sixty-two years, and all of his service, except 
that in Mexico, was within the Synod of Tennessee (Mid-South). 

Three 20th-century Presidents 169 

Through many of his years at the College he gave time also to small 
pastorless churches in the area. He was for thirty years ( 1 891-192 1 ) the 
Stated Clerk of the Synod of Tennessee, and its Moderator in 19 17-19 18, 
and held many other positions in Synod and Presbytery. Also there were 
important posts in the national Church, including membership in the 
General Council of the General Assembly from 1922 until his retirement 
in 1930. Upon receiving news of his death in 1944, the Moderator and 
Stated Clerk of the General Assembly sent the College the following 

For half a century the General Assembly and the Presbyterian Church at 
large have recognized and honored Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson as one of our 
greatest champions for our Lord Jesus Christ. Presbyterianism at large owed 
him a great deal. He was deeply trusted and loved in the Councils of the 
Church. We thank God upon every remembrance of him. He has gone into 
our Father's house to renew his youth. 

Attitudes. He considered himself a conservative, but he was essen- 
tially a liberal in spirit and in work for a Christian social order. He early 
shared his father's convictions against slavery and for the nation's unity. 
He was free from race prejudice and in the i88o's and 1890's opposed 
the efforts to stop Maryville's enrollment of Negroes. The very year he 
became president a new State law did stop it, and he led in a notable 
settlement described in the chapter on integration. He believed in law 
observance, private enterprise, that war is evil (although he was not a 
pacifist), the innate sinfulness of the natural man, the saving power of 
God, and the fact that right is right and wrong is wrong, under whatever 

Writings. Like his predecessor, Isaac Anderson, whom he so 
greatly admired, he was too occupied in his active ministry to do volumi- 
nous writing for publication. But he had a deep historical interest, the 
historian's capacity for research, and the writing ability of a master stylist 
and public speaker. Impelled by devotion to the College, he produced 
several historical volumes for which the institution will always be in his 
debt. In his desire not to tarnish the image of the institution and its 
leaders or to revive old controversies, he generously omitted most nega- 
tive qualities and acts, probably making the College and its people appear 


better than they were. He chose to leave some things unsaid and was at 
times over-generous; yet what he did include had been carefully verified 
and can be relied upon. 

Dr. Wilson's publications include these important volumes: The 
Southern Mountaineers (1914); A Century of Maryville College 
(1916); Thomas Jefferson Lamar (1920); Isaac Anderson Memorial 
(1932); Maryville' s Foreign Legion (1934); Chronicles of Maryville 
College (1934)- 

Major products of his systematic record-keeping and his writing 
habits are the daily diaries he kept from college days until he was no 
longer able to write them. Although these were personal and not in- 
tended for publication, this writer has had the privilege of free access to 
them. They constitute a fascinating log of nearly two thirds of a century. 
Yet it must be said that they do not really tell the Samuel Tyndale 
Wilson story, because his life-long practice of caution kept him from 
putting in writing what someone might later use without understanding 
or love. 

His dedication was unqualified. He asked no rewards for himself, 
sought no position, shrank from public praise. In his history of the 
College's first 115 years, during a third of which he was a principal 
figure, he magnified the service of many but seldom mentioned his own. 
He never doubted that the work he was doing was what God wanted him 
to do. The guidance of God was very real to him. But it was never 
expected on easy terms. He often said, "Every advance of the College has 
been the result of a mighty wrestling in prayer." There were from time to 
time invitations to important positions elsewhere, but each time he 
decided his place was at Maryville. 

Family and Recognition 

On June 8, 1887, at the age of 29, three years after beginning his 
teaching at the College, he was married to a fellow student of college 
days, Hattie M. Silsby, daughter of missionaries to Siam (Thailand) and 
long-time friends of his parents. He had deliberately postponed marriage 
until assured of dependable health. Four daughters and two sons were 
born to Dr. and Mrs, Wilson: Ruth (Mrs. Howard B. Phillips), Olive 
(Mrs. Clyde T, Murray), Lois, Mary (Mrs. Ben E. Watkins), Howard, 
and Lamar, all of whom became graduates of Maryville College and men 

Three 20th-century Presidents 171 

and women of outstanding character and usefulness in their gen- 

He received four honorary degrees, three from Maryville College: 
Master of Arts ( then awarded on the basis of achievement and a written 
thesis) in 1885; Doctor of Divinity in 1894; and Doctor of Letters in 
193 1 ; and Doctor of Laws in 19 18 from the College of Wooster. He was 
elected to various offices in the Church and in the college field and many 
times received public acclaim. In 1954, by unanimous vote of the Direc- 
tors of Maryville College, the new Chapel was named the "Samuel 
Tyndale Wilson Chapel." 

Ralph Waldo Lloyd 

Sixth President 



Ralph Waldo Lloyd, who is the writer of this volume and of this 
personal sketch, was born October 6, 1892, in Friendsville, Tennessee, ten 
miles from Maryville College, and was named at a time his father was an 
admiring reader of Ralph Waldo Emerson. He was the oldest of five 
children of Henry Baldwin Lloyd, M.D., and Maud Jones Lloyd, both of 
whom were of Welsh Quaker descent. His father went as a young man 
from Ohio to Tennessee to teach in Friendsville Academy and there met 
and married the daughter of the village physician, Samuel Lafayette 
Jones, M.D. A few years later he graduated from medical college and 
went to the Uintah Indian Reservation in northeast Utah, as a physician 
in the U. S. Indian Service. There his four sons and one daughter grew up 
and at various times traveled back to Maryville College, or its preparatory 
department, near their maternal grandfather, who by then was a physi- 
cian in Knoxville. Two, Ralph Waldo and Glen Alfred, continued in 
Maryville College to graduation; one, Hal Lafayette, died while a student 
there; two, Carl Stanton and Evangeline, completed their college courses 
elsewhere. In the Maryville years came the first affiliation with the 
Presbyterian Church. All had been birthright Friends. 

It was Ralph's purpose to study medicine, but at graduation in 191 5 
an offer to do college work caused postponement of medical study, and 
ultimately his plans were permanently changed by World War I. During 


the six years between college and theological seminary he was succes- 
sively Instructor in Mathematics and Physics and Athletic Coach at 
Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah; a Field Artillery officer in 
World War I; Assistant to the President at Westminster; and an assistant 
sales manager with the Fulton Sylphon Company, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

In 191 7 he was married to Margaret Anderson Bell, daughter of 
Rev. J. Vernon Bell, D.D., Pastor of First Presbyterian Church, DuBois, 
Pennsylvania, whom he had met as a fellow teacher in Salt Lake City. 
They have four children: John Vernon, Hal Baldwin, Ruth Bell (Mrs. 
Frank A. Kramer), and Louise Margaret (Mrs, James E. Palm), all 
graduates of Maryville College. 

He entered McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, in 1921, 
received the Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1924, and was ordained a 
minister in 1923 by the Presbytery of Union (Tennessee) of the Presby- 
terian Church in the U. S. A. For two of the seminary years he served as 
student supply of First Presbyterian Church, Ossian, Indiana. Since gradu- 
ation from seminary he has been pastor of First Presbyterian Church, 
Murphysboro, Illinois (1924-1926); pastor of Edgewood Presbyterian 
Church, Edgewood, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ( 1926-1930) ; President of 
Maryville College (1930-1961); and since 1961 President Emeritus. In 
1961 and 1962, accompanied by Mrs. Lloyd, he, as President of the 
World Presbyterian Alliance, made a year-long 70,000 mile "Presidential 
Visitation" to Presbyterian and Reformed Churches around the world. 
Since 1963, they have made their home in Bradenton, Florida. 

Dr. Lloyd has received the following honorary doctorates: Doctor of 
Divinity, Maryville College; Doctor of Laws, Centre College; Doctor of 
Laws, University of Chattanooga; Doctor of Literamre, Lake Forest Col- 
lege; Doctor of Letters, Westminster College (Utah) ; Doctor of Human- 
ities, Lincoln Memorial University; Doctor of Sacred Theology, Black- 
burn College; Doctor of Pedagogy, Monmouth College. In 1965 Mary- 
ville College established The Ralph Waldo Lloyd Chair of Philosophy 
and Religion. 

The Sixth Presidency 

On June 5, 1930, the Directors extended to Ralph Waldo Lloyd, 
then thirty-seven-year-old pastor of Edgewood Presbyterian Church, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, a call to succeed Samuel Tyndale Wilson, who that 

Three 20th-century Presidents 173 

day, at the age of seventy-two, had announced his retirement after 
twenty-nine years as President of Maryville College. Four months later, 
on September 28, Dr. Lloyd advised the Directors of his acceptance; and 
on November 29 he arrived to assume the office he was to jEll for the next 
thirty-one years. The formal inauguration was held on October 30, 1931, 
nearly a year later, and was accompanied by a two-day convocation on 
higher education. 

The sixth presidency is the longest so far in the College's history 
except the first. And the actual administrative service of the first president 
was in fact shorter than that of either the fifth or sixth president. Dr. 
Anderson's initial appointment and inauguration were as professor, and 
for the first six years he conducted the institution alone; and during his 
last half dozen and more years he was largely or wholly incapacitated. 

Dr. Lloyd's service spanned three of the most disrupted decades of 
American history to that time: one of depression, one of war, one of 
inflation. Just to mention a few of the names and events is to identify the 
years 1930 to 1961 as a major revolutionary period in world history: the 
Stock Market crash (1929); Depression; New Deal; Stalin; Hitler; 
World War II; Atomic Power; United Nations (1945 ) ; World Council 
of Churches (1948); Communist China (1949); U. S. Supreme Court 
decision on school segregation (1954); first man-made space satellite, 
"Sputnik" (1957); first human space traveler (1961); man's first flight 
to the moon ( 1968) ; the Computer. 

During the great depression of the 1930's, college incomes from all 
sources were down for years, gifts to private institutions dried up, and 
enrollments declined. All colleges were forced to reduce salaries, some as 
much as twenty-five to fifty percent, and to delay plant renewal and 
expansions. Maryville was fortunate at two points: it escaped with but 
one salary reduction of ten percent, which was more than restored the 
next year; and enrollment held up, even increased. Low charges when 
money was scarce, combined with high accreditation and a reputation for 
strong religious emphasis, attracted students from other areas, especially 
the Northeast. It was in this decade that Maryville's clientele first became 
national in extent. The average attendance was 817, with a high of 889 
(1935-1936), compared to an average of 654 college students and a 
high of 778 in the 1920's. 

World War II and its aftermath in the 1940's created unprece- 

174 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

dented conditions for all colleges. None was closed or demolished as 
Maryville had been in the path of the Civil War. But most men students 
were taken from the campuses as they had not been in World War I. In 
the early 1940's Maryville's total enrollment dropped to the lowest point 
since its centennial; and then returning veterans sent it to the highest in 
the College's 150-year history. Yet even during the War the campus was 
not empty, for Maryville had an Army Air Forces pre-flight training unit 
of 300 men taking special courses under College faculty. This did much 
to save the budget. Of course there were no materials or opportunity for 
building during the War or until near the end of the decade. 

The period of the 1950's was one of continuing economic inflation 
but not of student inflation. By the middle of the decade the purchasing 
power of the dollar was but half what it had been just before the War. 
This process has continued and accelerated in the 1960's, and economists 
are alarmed about the years ahead. On the other hand the low birth rate 
of the depression and war years resulted in a reduced number of high 
school graduates in the 1950's, and Maryville's enrollment was under 
pre- War levels. But, as the decade and the sixth presidency closed, 
educators were anticipating a permanent flood of college students. 

College Advances, ic) ^0-1961 

Neither history's worst depression nor its most disastrous war 
forced solidly established American colleges, large or small, to close. In 
his letter of resignation at the end of i960. President Lloyd could say of 
Maryville: "The College ... is more firmly established, more soundly 
organized, more advanced in its basic progress, and has attained a more 
extensive reputation and prestige than at any time in its history." 

Between 1930 and 1961 Maryville College carried forward its 
academic, religious, and cultural program steadily, introducing from time 
to time stronger requirements for admission and graduation. Added 
accreditation and approval were received from such bodies as the Associa- 
tion of American Universities, the National Association of Schools of 
Music, the American Association of University Women, and the Na- 
tional Commission on Accrediting. 

A sabbatical-leave program, medical and hospitalization insurance, 
and a retirement-annuity plan were established. New Bylaws were 
adopted by the Directors providing for marked College reorganization. 
Women were elected as directors for the first time. In 1954, immediately 

Three 20th-century Presidents 175 

after the Supreme Court declared the State school segregation laws 
unconstitutional, Maryville resumed its historic interracial practice and 
enrolled Negro students for the first time since prohibited by Tennessee 
law in 1901. 

The campus was enlarged from 275 to 375 acres. Among the 
buildings and other plant facilities constructed were Morningside (which 
became the President's residence in 1951), the Fine Arts Center, the 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson Chapel, the Theatre, the Margaret Bell Lloyd 
Residence for Women (built 1959, named 1965 for President Emeritus 
Lloyd's wife ) , a new heating plant, and Honaker Field. Anderson, Memo- 
rial, Pearsons, and Carnegie Halls were rehabilitated; 1 1,182,012 (book 
value) was added to the endowment, an increase of approximately 
seventy percent; and the estimated value of the college plant in 1961 was 

over five times the value in 1930. 


"Extracurricular Activities" 

During his presidency, Dr. Lloyd filled various posts outside of the 
College, especially in the fields of higher education and the Church at 
large. Among these were the following: President of the Presbyterian 
College Union, of the Tennessee College Association, and of the AflSli- 
ated Independent Colleges of Tennessee; Member of the Commission on 
Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the re- 
gional accrediting body. 

In the Presbyterian (now United Presbyterian) Church in the 
U. S. A,, he was Moderator of the Presbyteries of Cairo and Union, the 
Synod of Mid-South (1944-1946), and the General Assembly (1954); for 
seventeen years (1941-1958) he was Chairman of General Assembly's 
Department of Church Cooperation and Union and its successor, the 
Permanent Commission on Interchurch Relations; and he served as a 
member of the Council of Theological Education, the Commission on 
Ecumenical Mission and Relations, and the General Council. 

In the ecumenical field he was a member of the Central Committee 
of the World Council of Churches from 195 1 to 1961 and of the General 
Board of the National Council of Churches from 1950 to i960; and was 
North American Secretary of the World Presbyterian Alliance (World 
Alliance of Reformed Churches) from 1951 to 1959, and President of 
the Alliance from 1959 to 1964. 

There were, of course, services in other fields, such as the YMCA, in 

176 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

which he was for two years President of the Southern Area Council. 
There was a continuous schedule of public speaking. In addition to 
administrative duties, Dr. Lloyd for several years taught a semester course, 
required of all seniors, in the Grounds of Christian Belief; and after its 
discontinuance he gave ten or a dozen lectures each year on the same 
subject, as part of the graduation requirements in religion and 


On November 29, i960, President Lloyd sent to each director a 
letter of which the following are excerpts: 

Today ... is the thirtieth anniversary of the beginning of my service as 
President of Maryville College. ... In anticipation of this anniversary, I 
analyzed anew the progress and prospects of the College and my relationships 
to them. ... I have come to the conclusion, which I now make known to 
you, that although I shall not reach the College's official retirement age for 
another two years, the end of these thirty years is an appropriate and logical 
time for me to close my work with the College. Therefore, I hereby present 
to the Directors my resignation as President, and ask that I be permitted to 
retire from office on July 31, 1 961, by which date my active service will have 
extended through thirty-one college years. ... It should now be possible to 
make a change in the presidency with a minimum of dislocation. 

Long-range plans have been inaugurated, with the sesquicentennial year 
of 1969 as one important target date; and my successor should now have 
opportunity to assume leadership as early as possible in this comprehensive 
program, which I have helped to outline and initiate, but which in the course 
of human events, I could not see through to completion, having reached the 
age of sixty-eight on October 6, i960. And furthermore, such a schedule will 
give the College the helpful experience of new enthusiasms which are, after a 
long period of years, the natural and proper responses of new leadership. . . . 
I firmly believe that Maryville's most dramatic advances in resources, clien- 
tele, and academic excellence will come in the years ahead. 

Joseph J. Copeland 
Seventh President 

As this is written. President Joseph J. Copeland has completed seven 
busy and productive years in office. They began only three days after the 
sixth president closed his work and left on a trip around the world. It is 

Three 20th-century Presidents 177 

literally true that the latter, on his way, stopped for a late dinner at the 
Copelands' home in Knoxville, and handed them the keys to the Presi- 
dent's office and residence on the campus. 


After receiving Dr. Lloyd's request that he be permitted to retire 
July 31, 1 96 1, the Directors appointed a committee to seek a successor. 
On March 10, 1961, the committee nominated to the Board, meeting in a 
special called session, Joseph J. Copeland, then pastor of Second Presby- 
terian Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, and he was elected seventh presi- 
dent. His service began on August i, 1961, and on October 28, 1 961, he 
was formally inaugurated. 

Biographical Data 

Joseph J. Copeland was born May 22, 19 14, in Ferris, Texas. 
(Incidentally, he was given a middle initial, but not a middle name.) In 
1936 he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts from Trinity University 
(Texas), and in 1939 that of Bachelor of Divinity from McCormick 
Theological Seminary (Chicago). In 1938 he was married to Glenda Lee 
Mullendore, also a graduate of Trinity University, who is today the 
gracious and capable wife of Maryville's seventh president. They have a 
son, Joseph Kirk, and a daughter, Karen Lee ( Mrs. Meldrum Gray, III ) . 
In 1939 he was ordained by the Presbytery of Waco (now Brazos), 
Texas, as a minister of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. Before 
going to Maryville College Dr. Copeland held three pastorates: 
1 939-1 94 1, First Presbyterian Church, Frederick, Oklahoma; 
1942-1952, First Presbyterian Church, Denton, Texas; 1952-1961, Sec- 
ond Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

liis service in the Church at large is prominent and important. He 
has been a member of the Board of Christian Education for more than a 
decade; Chairman of that Board's Counseling Committee on Church and 
Society; Chairman of the Program Committee of the Division of Radio 
and Television, United Presbyterian Board of National Missions; Modera- 
tor of the Synod of Mid-South (1959-1960); Chairman of Synod's 
Committee on Christian Education and of the Westminster Foundation 
on university campuses in the Synod. Since 1956 he has appeared regu- 
larly as moderator of The Pastor's Smdy, a television program originating 
in Knoxville. He holds two honorary doctorates: Doctor of Divinity from 


Trinity University, his alma mater ( 1950) ; Doctor of Laws from Mary- j 
ville College ( i960, a year before he became president) . [ 

Special Qualifications \ 

The following excerpts from the nominating committee's report to j 
the Directors in 1961 reflect in some measure both the committee's j 
estimate of the nominee and its concept of the position: "Some of the i 
special qualifications which the Committee believes Dr. Copeland pos- 
sesses for the Presidency of Maryville College are: his age (47); his 1 
success as a Minister in the Presbyterian (now United Presbyterian) ! 
Church in the U. S. A.; his graduation from a college similar to Mary- 
ville; his ten-year pastorate in Denton, Texas, a city with two colleges 
enrolling a total of 10,000 students; his nine-year pastorate in the Second 
Church of Knoxville with its close relationship to the University of 
Tennessee; his twelve years of service on the Board of Christian Educa- 
tion; his eight years as a Director of Maryville College (Vice-Chairman 
of the Board and Secretary of the Committee on Administration); his 
effective visits to campuses as speaker and counselor; his successful 
leadership of the Maryville February Meetings (in 1954 and 1959); his 
progressive but balanced point of view on race relations and other social 
issues ... his ability as a platform speaker to students and adults alike; 
his interest and capability in public matters . . . and his often demon- 
strated interest in higher education. . , . He is known as a man of 
excellent administrative ability, with good financial head, and with suc- 
cessful experience in promotion and public relations." Listed earlier in 
that report were such personal qualities as cultured and distinguished 
appearance and manner, conviction, courage, tact, warmth, enthusiasm, 
and Christian dedication. These observations and estimates have been 
reconfirmed at Maryville College in his service as president. 

The College These Seven Years 

Dr. Copeland began his work at a crucial time in the sesquicen- 
tennial program formulated during the preceding five years, announced 
in February, i960, and already in progress. It was not new to him, 
however, for as a director on the Long Range Planning Committee he 
had helped formulate and launch it. Under his energetic leadership as 
president its increased financial goal of $7 million was reached by June, 
1966, three years ahead of the original target date. New goals, requiring 

Three 20th-century Presidents 179 

additional funds of $5 million have been established by the Directors, 
and at this writing a campaign in the anniversary year is well under 

The nationwide movement to provide enough tax-supported univer- 
sities, colleges, and community junior colleges to enable every American 
young person to attend at low cost, was gathering unprecedented momen- 
tum when Dr. Copeland took office. The consequent shortage of qualified 
college teachers, coupled with continuing inflation, produced a rapid rise 
in faculty salary requirements. Across the nation and the world in the 
1960's there has moved a rising tide of unrest and protest demonstrations 
against "the establishment," as well as against specific social evils. Stu- 
dents, especially on large university campuses, have joined this move- 
ment, and have increasingly demanded radical changes, including those 
which would guarantee students a large part in running the institutions. 
All colleges, including Maryville, are now operating in this national 

Under these pressures, President Copeland, the Board of Directors, 
the officers, and the faculty have faced the mounting problem of conserv- 
ing and adapting the College's essential historic principles and methods, 
and at the same time making such changes as in their judgment are 
needed. In 1967 a new carefully formulated statement of Purpose and 
Objectives was adopted. 

The achievements so far during the presidency of Dr. Copeland are 
impressive. They include a clearing of indebtedness, particularly on the 
chapel and theatre, which he inherited; an approximate doubling of 
faculty salaries, a goal announced earlier, but toward which most progress 
came after 1961; the development of a comprehensive new curriculum; a 
twenty-five percent increase in endowment; the erection of three dormito- 
ries, financed through Government loans, and a modern science center; 
and excellent progress in the campaign to complete the sesquicentennial 
fund of $12 million, which will add such other major facilities as a health 
and physical education building, a new library, and an enlarged student 

A recent College statement authorized by the President, entitled 
"Maryville on the Move," regarding physical and academic advances, 
closes with these words: "All these changes, however, will not alter 
Maryville's commitment to the Christian faith and the pursuit of 

Chapter! Zj Students 

and Alumni 



Except during the five Civil War years, there have been students 
receiving instruction in Maryville College without interruption for one 
hundred and fifty years. The smallest number in any one year was the 
original five in i8 19-1820. The largest total (college plus preparatory) 
was 1,003 ^^ ^he centennial year of 1919-1920; and the largest number 
in the four-year college was 949 during 1 947-1 948, at the height of the 
"World War II veterans' enrollment. 

During the years before the Civil War, the highest attendance was 
98 in 1835. There were 46 when work was suspended in 1861; and 13 
(none pre- War) on the reopening day in September, 1866, growing to 
47 by the end of the academic year. There were an even 100 (71 men 
and 29 women) in 1 870-1 871, the first year on the new campus. From 
the Civil War until the centennial, practically a half century later, the 
number increased steadily and as fast as physical facilities, faculty, and 
budget could be enlarged. It was up to 400 in 1900, to 600 in 1905, and 
to 826 in the College's one-hundredth year (with the ratio of college to 
preparatory students at three to five). 

A year after the closing of the preparatory department was com- 
pleted in 1925, there were 751 students, all in the four-year college. Most 
of the time since 1930 the attendance has been in the 8oo's, a number 


Students and Alumni i8i 

which before the new buildings of the past three years was as many as the 
College was adequately equipped to handle. The three new dormitories 
completed in 1966 and the Sutton Science Center completed in 1968 
have increased the capacity to more than 1,000. 

Where They Come From 

Chapter 2 gave some facts about the changing geographical distribu- 
tion of students, how at the College's centennial two thirds of them lived 
in Tennessee, whereas at the sesquicentennial only one third are 

In 1880 only two of the 200 students were from outside Tennessee; 
in 1 90 1 one fourth of the 400 enrolled were from 16 other States and 
two foreign countries. By 1950 two thirds lived outside of Tennessee, in 
36 States and seven foreign countries. Maryville's student clientele had 
become nationwide and more. Other than Tennessee, the States with the 
largest representations in 1950-195 1 were Pennsylvania, 117; New 
Jersey, 86; New York, 58; Florida, 49; Ohio, 30; North Carolina and 
Georgia, 26 each; Maryland, 21; and Alabama, 20. 

This wide distribution has continued. In 1 967-1 968, students came 
from thirty-seven States, one territory, and ten foreign countries, the 
largest delegations being from Tennessee (244), New Jersey (119), 
Pennsylvania ( 94 ) , Ohio ( 64 ) , and Florida ( 48 ) . 

The number and proportion from the local community and Tennes- 
see have been smaller since World War II than they were earlier. This 
appears to be due to several factors. Tennessee, like the rest of the South, 
is numerically Baptist and Methodist country, Presbyterians have been 
divided since the Civil War, and Maryville is a United Presbyterian 
college in a State where United Presbyterians continue to be a relatively 
small part of the population. Furthermore, most major denominations 
have colleges in East Tennessee. 

An even more influential factor is the increased accessibility, 
through modern means of travel, of other institutions, especially tax-sup- 
ported ones with their large variety of vocational and professional offer- 
ings and their relatively low fees. The University of Tennessee, sixteen 
miles from Maryville, is within easy commuting distance and through the 
public school system maintains an effective contact with high school 
students and graduates. Even as late as three decades ago, a large majority 

l82 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

of the college students from Blount County attended Maryville College. 
At present a large majority commute to the University of Tennessee. 
Furthermore, the increased economic ability of most homes, coupled with 
the material and psychological encouragements to go away to college, 
take students from the Maryville community to colleges at a distance, just 
as they bring tu^o thirds of Maryville College's students from other 

Students listed from foreign countries have always included either 
nationals or Americans living there, the latter usually being sons and 
daughters of missionaries. They have come from all continents and some 
of the islands of the seas. The countries which have been represented 
most frequently in the twentieth century are Japan, Korea, China (before 
World War II), Cuba (until the 1950's), the Philippines, and Mexico. 
The foreign country with the largest number in recent years is Thailand. 
Ten foreign countries were represented by fifteen students in the Col- 
lege's 149th year: Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Hong Kong, India, Korea, 
Lebanon, Mexico, Taiwan, and Thailand. 

Men and Women 

For almost a half century Maryville was an institution for men only. 
Before the Civil War women were not regularly enrolled. The first 
catalog to carry the names of women students was that for 1 867-1 868. It 
listed four, all in the preparatory classes, along with 59 men. For the next 
eighteen years (until 1885) women were enrolled in both the college 
and preparatory departments under two categories, the regular course and 
the "Ladies' Course." Those who completed the Ladies' Course in the 
college department were counted among the graduates of the College, but 
did not receive a degree. 

The first women graduates were in 1875, four in the Ladies' Course 
and one with the Bachelor of Arts degree, the first woman to receive a 
college degree in the State. Between the Civil War and 1900, the college 
department recorded 228 graduates, of whom 164 were men and 64 were 
women. After 1885 all graduates, men and women, met the same require- 
ments and all received the bachelor's degree. 

For the first time in 1906, women graduates outnumbered men, 
fifteen to fourteen, and approximately two thirds of the graduating classes 

"',^^^^^r-"~; ■ ■-"• ' ' ■;^,^^' ■' .>^^|2g5^i;l. 

Erected 1959 


Erected 1954 

Erected 1966 

Dean Stone Photo 

Erected 1966 

Erected 1968 


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Kin Takahashi — Coach, Captain, Quarterback 

Reid S. Dickson (in derby), Coacii 




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Maryville 247, Opponents 

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Students and Alumni • 183 

since that time have had more women than men, a fact not uncommon 
among coeducational hberal arts colleges. The class of 1968 consisted of 
58 men and 89 women. 

Academic Levels 

In various chapters of this volume different levels of academic 
offerings have come into view. More than one level existed for a hundred 
years. The numbers need not be reviewed here, except in summary: 
before the Civil War there were three levels, preparatory, college, and 
graduate ( theological seminary ) , with but a minority of students enrolled 
on the graduate level. From the Civil War until after the centennial there 
was instruction on two levels, with preparatory students considerably 
outnumbering those in the college department. Since 1925 offerings have 
been on the four-year college level only. Until well into the twentieth 
century, there were many older students in the preparatory department as 
well as the college, especially in the first third or so of the institution's 
history, when educational opportunities in Tennessee were few; just after 
the Civil War, during which few young men in the South could be in 
school; and, of course, after World War II when veterans were older 
than the average undergraduate student. 

Racial Background 

From its founding, Maryville's policy and practice have been to 
admit qualified applicants without regard to race or national origin — ex- 
cept when prevented by law. Unfortunately the period of limitation by 
Tennessee law (supported by U. S. Supreme Court rulings) was a long 
one, fifty-three years, from 1901 to 1954. In that period the law prohib- 
ited coeducation of white and Negro students in all schools and colleges, 
public and private, in the State. When the U. S. Supreme Court in 1954 
declared such laws unconstitutional, Maryville at once began to enroll 
Negro students again. Chapter 14 of this volume will tell that story. 
Students of all other races could always be and were admitted when they 

However, except for a rather small minority, Maryville students 
have been white and Protestant, with a large proportion Anglo-Saxon or 
Scotch-Irish. This is quite obvious from the thousands of names on 
Maryville's student register. An overwhelming proportion of them are 

184 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

like Alexander, Blankenship, Carson, Davis, Evans, McMurray, Smith, 
"Williams. This, of course, is due in part to the Presbyterian relationship 
of the College and its location in an area where there are relatively few 
people of European or Latin- American descent. 

In his inaugural address the College's Presbyterian founder said, 
"This institution was founded with the most liberal views towards other 
Christian churches. . . . From these liberal views, and a practice as 
liberal, it is hoped the institution will never depart. . . ." The evidence of 
history is that Maryville has not knowingly departed from this practice. 
Qualified applicants, who desired or were willing to participate in the 
institution's program, have been enrolled without regard to religious 
affiliation. As might be expected, however, the Church to which the 
College is historically related has always been the one most largely 
represented. In the fall term of the institution's 150th year, 96% listed 
themselves as Protestants in affiliation or preference and 57% as Presby- 
terians ( including all Presbyterian denominations ) . 

This pattern has not changed markedly since the mid-1930's, al- 
though the number of Roman Catholics enrolled has increased somewhat. 
In the years of the preparatory department most students were from the 
nearby area. As the population after frontier days became increasingly 
Baptist and Methodist, the proportion of Presbyterians enrolled in the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth 
was considerably smaller than at present. A majority of students from 
distant States have been Presbyterians, being those with interest in Pres- 
byterian colleges and with Maryville College contacts. 

The Student-Help Program 

As has been pointed out in analyzing the influence of geography on 
the College, most Maryville students have had limited financial resources. 
In recent decades this has been less due to geography than to the fact that 
often the homes which have serious interest in college education are 
without large incomes. Many Maryville students have not needed finan- 
cial help, but for the many who could not attend college without it, 
Maryville developed through the first half of the twentieth century one of 
the best-known college student-help programs in the nation. 

Those most responsible for building this program were two cousins. 
Miss Margaret E. Henry, Scholarship Secretary from 1903 until her death 

Students aTid Alumni 185 

in 1916; and Miss Clemmie J. Henry, who from 1918 until her retire- 
ment for health reasons in 1950 was Secretary and then Director of 
Student-Help. The latter was successful in obtaining gifts to the College 
totaling more than a half million dollars. Included in this sum was the 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Oscar Miller Memorial Foundation of $100,000, an 
endowment fund used toward the president's salary; and a substantial 
portion of the money for the Margaret Bell Lloyd Residence for Women. 
Another substantial amount of these funds became an endowment of the 
total student-help program and also established a unique and useful 
student rotating loan fund. Miss Henry served both as administrator of 
the program and as student counselor. Her successor for a decade and a 
half was Miss Mary Miles, a Maryville College graduate and a former 
missionary to Japan, who in turn was succeeded by William A. Ribble. 

The kinds of help which the program has made available are ( i ) 
student employment within the College; (2) student loans from the 
rotating and permanent loan funds, chiefly to assist in payment of college 
bills, usually repaid monthly during the current year; and (3) a limited 
number of scholarship grants. The Student-Help Director also channels 
other funds now increasingly available to students from government and 
other outside sources. The plan was organized on the principle of "self- 
help" rather than that of "subsidy." Maryville College officials have 
expressed concern about the economic and moral dangers inherent in a 
growing American practice of subsidizing some, including college stu- 
dents, who could do more to help themselves. Dr. Isaac Anderson, the 
founder, spoke regretfully about an experience, far back in the 1830's, 
when students earning part of their way working on the College Farm 
gave up their work because a visiting church board official announced an 
appropriation for free grants to students. In the 1960's colleges, govern- 
ment, foundations, and others have been increasing the availability of 
scholarship grants. Perhaps this is necessary to meet the greatly increased 
cost of attending college. 

In 1952 the College issued a bulletin regarding its Student- Help 
Program, which outlined the following benefits to participants: financial 
assistance; increased appreciation of a college education by virtue of the 
personal effort put into it; training in managing one's own financial 
affairs; practical experience; cultivation of a democratic spirit; develop- 
ment of such qualities as appreciation, industry, self-reliance, and cooper- 

l86 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

ativeness. This was expressed clearly in the College's long-help commit- 
ment to the building of character and a sense of responsibility as well as 
in the proffer of financial aid. The program had evolved gradually 
through a half century and more; changing conditions have led to new 
forms and may lead to still others in the future. 


Since there have been in the College's life three levels of instruction, 
there have been three levels of graduates. Exact alumni statistics from the 
period before the Civil War do not exist, although the College has some 
reliable estimates. It has not seemed practical to search out the prepara- 
tory department graduates from the Civil War to the closing of the 
department. They would be in three categories: those who entered the 
college department at Maryville, those who entered other colleges, those 
who did not go on to college anywhere. The record of all graduates from 
the four-year College since the War is complete. But the term "alumni" is 
now often used in college alumni offices to cover former students as well 
as graduates. For example, the figure being used in the Maryville College 
alumni office for the number of "alumni now living" is larger than the 
total number of Maryville graduates on the college level since the Civil 
War, living and dead. 

By Half Centuries 

After early records were lost, information was pieced together to 
establish an estimate of 250 graduates from all departments before the 
Civil War. Almost 150 ministers, a large proportion of them among the 
250 graduates, received their training under Dr. Isaac Anderson. There 
are references to alumni in the other principal vocations of the times. In 
the three post-War years that closed that first half century, there was but 
one college graduate, Hugh Walker Sawyer, in 1869. 

In the College's second half century, 1869-19 19, there were 664 
graduates. The largest of the classes was that of 19 16, with 42, and the 
smallest was in 1883 with three; except that in three years (1870, 1872, 
and 1879) there were no college department graduates. It was 1891 
before the size of a graduating class reached ten. 

Of the more than 6,000 who have graduated during the 150 years. 

Students and Alumni 187 

approximately eighty-five percent belong to the third half-century. The 
first class to reach 100 was that of 1929. The largest class in the College's 
history was that of 1950. It totaled 177 and included a considerable 
number of World War II veterans. In the 1930's and since the mid- 
1950's graduating classes have usually numbered from no to 135. 

Where They Live 

A recent check located alumni in forty-eight States and the District 
of Columbia, and in forty foreign countries. Naturally and properly 
Tennessee has the largest number, in fact three times that of any other 
State. Pennsylvania, with over 400, is second; and New Jersey, New 
York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Florida are not far behind. Of foreign 
countries Japan and Korea just now have the largest number. The writer 
knows from experience that a traveler can find Maryville alumni in most 
parts of the world as well as most parts of the nation. 

What They Do 

Maryville alumni have found their way into most of the principal 
vocations. The one claiming the largest number is that of housewife. 
Over half of Maryville College graduates now are women, and a large 
proportion of them have married and established homes. Of course, many 
taught school or had other careers before marriage, and an increasing 
number have continued or entered a second career during marriage. 

The vocation in second place for the whole span of 150 years is 
probably teaching. Exact information is difficult to obtain because of the 
former practice of teaching in elementary and secondary schools before 
entering another occupation, or temporarily between other activities. But 
a great many have made teaching a permanent profession, have made 
superior preparation for it, and have become outstanding teachers, some 
on each level from kindergarten to graduate school. 

In its frontier years Maryville's main objective was to train men who 
ultimately would become ministers, and some 150 of them did. In this 
century a majority of graduates have entered other vocations. But a large 
minority continued on to theological seminary, most of them to Presby- 
terian institutions. The record shows that since 1819 some 900 Maryville 
graduates have entered the ministry. This is approximately 28% of all 
men graduates. In the late 1930's those going on to theological seminar- 

l88 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

ies each year averaged between 15% and 20% of the men graduating; 
and during the 1950's it averaged 25%. Probably few Hberal arts colleges 
related to denominations requiring a three-year seminary course beyond 
college for its ministers have for so long a time sent so large a proportion 
of its men graduates on to theological seminary. In addition, a relatively 
large number of Maryville alumni, both ministers and laymen, have 
become missionaries or fraternal workers at home and abroad. But, high 
as these percentages are, in this last half century some 75% of the men 
and 85 % of all graduates have entered other fields. 

The offerings in music and home economics have frequently led 
students directly into related vocations. The catalog has long contained a 
section on pre-professional curricula and for many years several pages 
concerning vocational preparation. Among the vocational areas most 
often named in recent decades have been Business, Chemistry, Medical 
Technology, Bacteriology, Law, Public Service, Library Science, Occupa- 
tional Therapy, Personnel Work, Recreational Leadership, Religious Edu- 
cation, Social Work, and Teaching in Elementary and Secondary Schools. 
And with these have been descriptions of pre-professional work in such 
fields as Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, and Engineering. The very pres- 
ence and substance of these lists tells something about Maryville alumni 

In the chapter on Academic Standards and Accreditation, reference 
was made to the fact that in the period from 1920 to 1962 Maryville 
College ranked in the top 17% of all American colleges and universities 
(some many times the size of Maryville) in the acmal number of 
graduates earning doctorates (Ph.D.'s and others); and that from 1950 
to 1959, Maryville ranked in the top 25% of colleges in the nation in the 
number of men graduates who received the M.D. degree in that period. 

Alumni Citations 

Maryville alumni have many worthy achievements to their credit. 
Some alumni have been widely known; most are inconspicious and 
unrecorded. A general account such as this cannot catalog or describe 
them. A special volume would be needed. 

One form of recognition devised jointly a few years ago by the 
Alumni Association and the College is the giving of citations each year to 
a few alumni selected for outstanding achievement by an established 

Students and Alumni 189 

process. The first citations were in 1961, and to the time of this writing 
there have been 29. The names of those who have received citations 
appear in Appendix G. Up to this time ministers have not been included 
in the citation hst, probably because they more frequently than most 
other groups are among recipients of honorary degrees, although the 
number in reality is not very large. 

Alumni Publications 

Most alumni do not write books but some do, and this is a notewor- 
thy achievement. The Maryville College library recently compiled a list 
of books on its shelves by Maryville alumni, written with but few 
exceptions in the College's third half-century. Doubtless there are other 
such books not yet received. Neither authors nor publishers always send 
copies even to the author's own college. But this list is both impressive 
and useful. It includes forty authors and seventy-three titles. The author 
with the most known titles is Jonathan Edward Kidder, Jr., '43, who has 
eight; Dan Mays McGill, '40, has seven; Edwin Ray Hunter, '14, and 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson, '78, each has six; and Frank Moore Cross, '42, 
has five. These authors and many other alumni have written articles, in 
some cases a large number, for magazines, journals, and other publica- 

Alumni Association 

The Maryville College Alumni Association was organized in 1871, 
just after the College first occupied the present campus. Forming an 
alumni association at that time was an unusual act of energy, good will, 
and faith. The pre-War graduates had been widely scattered and severely 
separated. Only one person had graduated from the college department 
after the War. The enrollment had reached 100 for the first time in 1871, 
but only seventeen were in the college department. Five graduated on 
June 15, 1 87 1, and the Association has grown steadily from that time. 
During the past third of a century two dozen or more Maryville alumni 
clubs or branches have been organized in centers ranging from Maryville 
to New York to Los Angeles. 

Chapter! ^ Rcligious Life 
and Program 


"Aware that twentieth century man is threatened by forces leading to 
the ahenation of persons and the fragmentation of hfe, Maryville College 
seeks to be a community built upon a single commitment and dedicated 
to a single purpose. The commitment is to the Christian faith. The 
purpose is the pursuit of truth in concept and in life." So declares the 
College's 1 967 statement of Purpose and Objectives. 

"It's primary purpose is to provide a broad education under condi- 
tions which develop Christian character and belief," reads one key sen- 
tence in the catalogs for twenty-five years spanning the middle of this 
century. "Let the directors and managers of this sacred institution propose 
the glory of God, and the advancement of that Kingdom . . . ," an- 
nounced the founder a century and a half ago. No fact in the history of 
Maryville College is clearer than the purpose as an institution to be 
Christian in character, program, and influence. 

Liberal and Christian 

There is today in the field of American higher education an exten- 
sive movement away from the kind of purpose historically emphasized by 
Maryville College. Its validity is questioned as never before. Is there any 


Religious Life and Program 191 

important relevance between religion and education? Can a college be 
both Christian and liberal? Does not freedom of inquiry obviate present- 
ing to students such conclusions as those of the Christian religion? In 
view of the increasing variety in student and faculty backgrounds, shall 
not an unlimited measure of religious pluralism (a word come recently 
into wide usage) be permitted? Should not the church-related college 
follow the example of increasingly dominant tax-supported higher educa- 
tion in disclaiming responsibility for religious training? Such questions 
have been increasingly prominent in word and in procedure. 

Maryville College has persistently answered that there is relevance 
between religion and higher education and that the church-related college 
has an obligation and a unique opportunity to advance both together. Its 
convictions have not been unlike those of the nineteenth-century British 
statesman who insisted that "secular education is only half education with 
the more important half left out." In its latest statement of purpose, the 
College says that it "recognizes no necessary dichotomy between the 
intellectual and the religious or between knowledge and values," and that 
"the pursuit of knowing and doing the truth is a single pursuit" although 
"the paths leading to it are numerous." Following are some of Maryville's 
paths, in addition to the path of continuing purpose, these past 150 

Control and Freedom 

Founded by the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. in order to 
advance education and religion, and directed throughout its history by a 
board of control appointed by a church body, the College has always been 
under a mandate of Christian higher education and has found itself free 
to follow that mandate. Many institutions do not consider themselves at 
liberty to emphasize Christian belief and conduct to any effective degree. 
Laws, tradition, clientele, alumni, faculty, or custom may limit a tax-sup- 
ported or independent institution in this matter. But Maryville as a 
church-related college has been free to be as Christian as it was willing or 
able to be. There is no evidence that Maryville's freedom in teaching was 
ever limited or otherwise regulated by the Church. The theological and 
ecclesiastical interference from which occasionally church-related colleges 
have been known to suffer has been absent at Maryville. 

192 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 


Of course at the heart of the rehgious Hfe of any college are 
its oflEicers and teachers. Without effort, even without realization, more 
than one church college has drifted rather far into the current of secu- 
larized education, merely by adding from year to year faculty members 
who have adopted the neutral attitude generally present in university 
graduate schools, where most study for advanced degrees is done. It 
is not so much an antagonistic attimde as one which largely ignores 
religion as an essential in the educational process. A logical danger 
is that graduate students may come to count as unimportant in all 
higher education a concern which is left out of the most recent and 
advanced stages of their own, even though the church-related under- 
graduate college is in a situation very different from that of the gradu- 
ate school. 

In its early history most of the faculty at Maryville, as at other 
church colleges of the times, were ordained ministers to whom religion 
was by vocation and education a major concern. As twentieth-century 
college faculties have come to consist almost wholly of laymen, it was 
necessary for the church college to develop a selective process. Usually it 
has not been difficult (until the recent shortage in the supply of college 
teachers) to find laymen who were academically qualified and friendly to 
the Christian religion; but increasingly it has taken vigorous searching to 
find those who were so qualified and at the same time enthusiastic about a 
college's religious responsibility and program. Yet Maryville has frankly 
aimed to appoint only men and women who meet the best professional 
standards, are committed to the essentials of the Christian faith and ethic, 
are active members of a church, and believe the institution's religious 
program to be a real faculty and staff responsibility. Obviously this has 
more and more required courage on the part of the College's administra- 
tion, in face of growing general emphasis on freedom of inquiry, plural- 
ism, and tolerance. But at Maryville it has been considered a reasonable 
and acceptable way for the College to maintain and develop its unique 
mission. A strong fact in the Maryville record is that all teachers ap- 
pointed have been granted freedom to teach according to their own 

Religious Life and Program 193 


With a theological department and a small total enrollment in its 
early years, the College naturally gave a prominent place to the study of 
the Bible and religion. After the theological course was closed at the 
middle of the nineteenth century, the curriculum of the college and 
preparatory departments continued to include Bible courses in most of a 
student's terms. Early in the twentieth century, in 1907, an endowed 
"Bible Training Department" was established. In 1926, by a notable gift 
from Dr. Thomas W. Synnott through the Board of Christian Education 
of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., and by other friends who 
provided a large additional fund to match this gift, the Bible Training 
Department was expanded into the "Department of Bible and Religious 
Education." A curriculum was developed in the field of religion much 
broader than the title of the department indicated, with an overall total 
of fifteen or more courses offered and a substantial selection from them 

In the new curriculum of 1967, twelve courses in Bible and Reli- 
gion are offered in the Department of Philosophy and Religion (the 
offerings in all departments are limited to a maximum of twelve ) , with a 
specified number required for graduation. The 1 968-1 969 catalog de- 
scription states: "At Maryville College philosophy is regarded not as a 
specific discipline with a specific subject matter, but as a study that 
permeates all areas of intellectual concern." It continues, "The study of 
religion, while related to many disciplines in the liberal arts, has an 
integrity of its own." In the curriculum description are references to the 
Bible, the history of Christian thought, and "the hard issues of the contem- 
porary world." 

It is of importance that throughout the years the same academic 
standards have been applied in Bible and religion courses as were applied 
in other fields, aiming at scholarly study conducted in a reverent spirit. 
These courses were never just "tacked on" to give a religious complexion 
to the College, but have been integral parts of the curriculum. 


The actual religious life and program within a college depend also 
in large measure upon the religious background, response, and influence 

194 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

of a majority of the students in attendance from year to year. No college 
can in three or four years alter radically in a majority of its students the 
religious stance acquired through the preceding seventeen or eighteen 
years. It is a truism to say that, when a student body is dominantly from 
irreligious or unchristian backgrounds, an effective Christian program 
will not have much chance to succeed. 

In the case of Maryville College, students ordinarily have come from 
church homes. The church affiliation picture in this sesquicentennial year 
is not very different from that of the past half century. Approximately 
ninety-three percent list themselves as church members, ninety-six per- 
cent as Protestant in membership or preference, two percent as Roman 
Catholic, a few individuals as belonging to other religious groups, and 
only two percent indicating no church membership or preference. 
Twenty-four denominations are represented, and approximately fifty- 
seven percent of the student body are Presbyterian. 

Thus, with all faculty and staff and nine tenths of the student body 
members of churches, the prevailing tone of the campus has long been 
Christian. Even allowing for a generous number of church members who 
are but nominally religious and some students who are unsympathetic, 
the majority have created an atmosphere in which Christian belief, 
character, and service are looked upon as essential to a normal life. 

College Chaplain 

An important service in the religious program during the past half 
century has been that of the College Chaplain. This office was created in 
1917, when Rev. Dr. William Patton Stevenson came to the College 
from the pastorate of First Presbyterian Church, Yonkers, New York, to 
be College Pastor. Friends of Dr. and Mrs. Stevenson provided funds for a 
residence — "The House-in-the- Woods." After his retirement, the office 
was vacant for a period, but since 1961 it has been filled by Rev. Dr. 
Edward Fay Campbell, under the title of Chaplain. Dr. Campbell came to 
Maryville College after distinguished services at Yale University and with 
the Presbyterian Board of Christian Education. The Chaplain gives gen- 
eral supervision to the religious program on the campus, has charge of 
various services in the Chapel, acts as coordinator of student religious 
groups, is a spiritual counselor and pastor for students and faculty, and 

Religious Life and Program 195 

cooperates with churches in matters relating to the spiritual life of 

Chapel and Church Services 

In the catalog for 1858-1859, one hundred years ago, are these 
announcements: "Public worship is attended in the Chapel every Sabbath 
evening; and prayers every morning and afternoon. On Thursday evening 
of each week, there is a religious service by the President, or one of the 
Professors, which all the students are invited to attend." There were that 
year eighty students and three faculty (President Robinson, Professor 
Lamar, and Professor Craig). The Chapel was a large room in the main 
building, the Brick College. 

Forty years later, in 1 898-1 899, an official administrative rule was 
this: "Prayers are attended in the College Chapel in the morning . . . and 
the students are required to attend public worship on the Sabbath, and to 
connect themselves with a Bible class in some one of the churches in 
town." The number of students by that time was 380, with a few over 
half of them rooming in dormitories on the present campus. The Chapel 
at that time was on the second floor of Anderson Hall. 

After still another forty years, in 1 938-1939, the announcements 
specified that all students were required to attend daily chapel on the 
campus and Sunday services at some church in town. The Elizabeth R. 
Voorhees Chapel, built in 1906, was in use then and until its destruction 
by fire in 1947. It was succeeded in 1954 by the present Samuel Tyndale 
Wilson Chapel, with the chapel programs and attendance plan similar to 
that in Voorhees Chapel. 

In 1968 required daily chapel services were replaced by a weekly 
hour-long chapel convocation on "Community Issues and Values." At- 
tendance is required and course credit is granted on an established basis. 
At present morning chapel services are held several times a week in "The 
Little Chapel," in charge of the College Chaplain, with student participa- 
tion and voluntary attendance. 

On Sunday evenings during the college year a Vesper Service is held 
in the Chapel, in charge of the College Chaplain, usually with a sermon 
by him or some guest minister. Student attendance is optional at Vespers, 
as it has always been, and also at church services in town, where it was 

196 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

required until a few years ago. In the course of each year various rehgious 
leaders visit the College as preachers, speakers, lecturers, and consultants. 
In supplementing the work of resident officers and faculty, they make a 
large contribution to the religious thought and life of the campus. 

Some principal special occasions are the annual singing of "Messiah" 
(since 1933) and the Good Friday service (since 1935) in the Chapel, 
and the Easter Sunrise Service in the College Woods Amphitheater (since 

The February Meetings 

For a third of a century after founding the College, President Isaac 
Anderson held a special series of evangelistic services every year in New 
Providence Presbyterian Church, of which he was pastor. The faculty and 
students of the College participated in them and in similar efforts at the 
church for ten years after the Civil War. In 1877, however, the College 
decided that it would be wise to have its own meetings, and the first series 
was held that year in the Chapel on the second floor of Anderson Hall. 
The invited leader that year (and for seven more series during the next 
thirty years) was Rev. Nathan Bachman, D.D., member of a noted 
family of ministers in Tennessee and a director of the College. The 1877 
series initiated annual services which came to be called 'The February 
Meetings." They have played a major role in the life of the College since 
that time. 

The general pattern was maintained until the middle 1960's. For 
about ten days in February two public preaching services were held each 
day in the College Chapel, with attendance required in the mornings and 
optional in the evenings. During those days there were also scheduled 
personal interviews with the speaker and others, group forums, prayer 
circles, and other related activities. The Meetings were given the right-of- 
way on the campus, with class assignments abbreviated and athletic and 
other group events suspended. Both the mind and the time of students 
and faculty were claimed by the Meetings. 

From the inception of this program in 1877, the College each year 
invited as leader a preacher of evangelistic spirit, usually a successful 
pastor in some part of the nation, with demonstrated ability to speak to 
college students. A list of those leaders is printed in Appendix E of this 

Religious Life and Program 197 

volume. It will be noted that a number who were effective and available 
served several times. In most of the years from the turn of the century, 
there was in addition to the speaker an invited song leader. Of these, 
Sidney E. Stringham, a Methodist pastor, led the singing far more times 
than anyone else — thirty different years between 1920 and 1953. Next in 
frequency came John Magill, of the class of 1939, a Presbyterian pastor, 
who rendered this service seven times between 1952 and 1962. Usually a 
member of the music faculty served as accompanist; but Henry Barra- 
clough was guest accompanist eleven different years between 1949 and 

In earlier years, when a majority of students were in the preparatory 
department, many of them in their middle teens, the Meetings were quite 
"revivalistic" in form. From the 1920's, when all students were of college 
age and most were church members, the form changed. But the basic aim 
continued — to focus attention on spiritual realities and to confront stu- 
dents anew with the claims of Christ and of Christian life and service. 

After 1966 the schedule was modified. In 1967 there were four 
different leaders, instead of one, on different days during the week. This 
was modified again in 1968, by setting up four weekend programs, 
instead of the former continuous week or ten days of services, with a 
different leader for each weekend. 

The February Meetings have been of interest beyond the College 
and its alumni. Some years ago the Department (now Division) of 
Evangelism of the Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the U. S. A. published a booklet by the present writer 
describing the plan and results of the Meetings under the title A College 
Spiritual Emphasis Program, which was rather widely distributed and 
parts of which were reprinted in church papers. 

Student Religious Organizations 

The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was the first 
student religious organization at Maryville College. It was formed in 
1877, under the inspiration of the first February Meetings, and was one of 
the earliest student organizations of its kind in the South. The Young 
Women's Christian Association (YWCA) was formed in 1884, and the 
Student Volunteers in 1 894. These groups maintained relationship to the 

198 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

national student bodies whose names they bore, but developed their own 
local emphases and programs. The YMCA and YWCA especially played 
important roles on the campus, not only in the area of religious life but 
also in planning and promoting various other student programs. In 1964 
these three organizations merged to form the United Campus Christian 
Fellowship which affiliated with the national organization of that name. 
In 1968, after the national body had merged with the University Chris- 
tian Movement under the latter name, the Maryville College organization 
also adopted the new name. 

There have been also more limited organizations such as the Pre- 
Ministerial Association, organized in 1901; and more temporary ones 
like the Gospel Fellowship, an informal group which was quite active for 
several years after World War II. It will be noted that, although Mary- 
ville College is related to a particular church denomination, all campus 
religious organizations have been non-denominational and inclusive. 

Religious Concerns and Outreach 

The College has taken seriously its opportunity to influence students 
in the direction of Christian dedication. But this was not to promote 
isolated piety; it was to increase commitment to service in the world. This 
service has taken many forms both at college and in the years following. 
A noteworthy student service to churches was through what was known 
as the Maryville College Parish Project in the 1940's after World War II 
and in the 1950's. It was a cooperative enterprise of the College, the 
Presbyterian Boards of National Missions and Christian Education, and 
New Providence Presbyterian Church of Maryville. It involved assign- 
ment of about fifty students each year to serve under supervision in 
missions, churches, and schools of the adjacent area. The project, with 
cooperation of the Church Boards, operated successfully and was found to 
render such a valuable service to the students participating and to the 
Christian enterprise in the region that it is being continued by the College 
with cooperation of the local churches. 

A notable expression of this concern has been through the annual 
student and faculty contributions to "The Fred Hope Fund," named for a 
graduate of 1 906 who served nearly forty years as a missionary in Africa, 

Religious Life and Program 199 

The fund has provided thousands of dollars and a number of workers for 
the Church's mission overseas. 

In another chapter some information has been given about the 
relatively large number ( approximately 900 ) of Maryville College grad- 
uates who have become ministers in the Church, Likewise, the number of 
graduates and other former students who have gone abroad as mission- 
aries and fraternal workers since Rev. George W. Painter went to China 
in 1873, is not exceeded at many liberal arts colleges. The list of these is 
over 250 as the College reaches its sesquicentennial. 

The record for each period in the College's history shows student 
concern for the issues of the day and participation of students and alumni 
in most civil rights and other educational and social enterprises. 

Old and New 

Some of the principles and methods reported on these pages are as 
old as the College itself. Some of them are relatively new. Few are 
original. None is perfect or final. All are flexible. They have been 
constantly adapted to changing conditions, as they doubtless will continue 
to be. But whether they are old or new or in the current campus fashion 
has not been considered the important fact by those bearing responsibility 
for them. The important fact is whether through them Maryville College 
has been helped to fulfill its historic purpose to be both an educational 
institution of the first order and a Christian institution of the first 

Chapter! Ht Racial 


Throughout its history Maryville College has held sincerely to the Christian 
belief in dignity, worth, and freedom of all people and their equality before 
God, irrespective of wealth, race, or color. From the beginning most Mary- 
ville College students have been of the white race, although representatives of 
many races have always been in attendance. Prior to 1901 some of these were 
of the Negro race. But in 1901 the State of Tennessee by legislation made it 
illegal. . . . The historic decision of the U. S. Supreme Court on May 17, 
[1954} outlawing compulsory segregation in public schools . . . makes all 
colleges in Tennessee and all other States free to accept Negro students if the 
colleges wish to do so. The Directors of Maryville College therefore have 
taken action re-establishing the College's policy of accepting any qualified 
student without regard to race or color. This policy is now in effect. . . . 

The above announcement was released in behalf of the Directors 
and Faculty by the President of Maryville College in August, 1954, and 
received wide circulation. Coming voluntarily from a college in the South 
so soon after the Supreme Court decision, it was "news." The action it 
reported stands as a historic one in the College's long life. At the opening 
chapel service of the ensuing semester in September, there were present 
six newly enrolled Negro students. 

The school segregation laws of Tennessee, including that of 1901, 
and other southern states did not prohibit coeducation of white and all 


Racial Integration 201 

non- white students; but only white and Negro students. Hence there were 
students of other races at Maryville College throughout the half century 
of the 1 90 1 law — from the West Indies, India, Japan, the Americas, and 
other parts of the world. 

The Maryville story of racial integration is at many points one of 
real heroism. Most of it has not been publicly told before, although 
during periods of controversy in the nineteenth century there was much 
fragmentary publicity. When the centennial history of the College was 
written, many people were living who had been related to the controver- 
sial events leading up to the legal suspension of integration. There being 
then no prospect of the repeal of segregation laws and no visible value in 
reviving old emotion and discord or needlessly creating prejudice against 
the College, the history of coeducation of the races was omitted. But as 
the sesquicentennial history is written, since all the active participants in 
those events are gone, and there is a new interracial climate in America, it 
seems appropriate now to tell the story in its main outlines. The writer 
has been permitted access to rather voluminous confidential records and 
papers from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was directly 
involved in the later developments. 

Since the designation Negro has a sound ethnic and historical basis 
and is reasonably well understood, it is the one ordinarily used in this 
volume, although as this is being written the designation "black people" 
is preferred by many American Negroes. 

In the Years of Legalized Slavery 

From its opening in 181 9 until its closing by the Civil War forty- 
two years later, Maryville College operated in a southern State where 
most Negroes were slaves. East Tennessee, not being a cotton raising or 
large plantation area, did not have so large a number of Negroes as did 
West and Middle Tennessee. But few were free, academically prepared, 
or financially able to attend an institution such as Maryville. The scanty 
college records preserved from that period do not designate the races to 
which students belonged, except that of a few Cherokee Indians. But 
from unofficial sources some Negro students have been identified; and the 
epoch-making policy statement, adopted by the Directors two years after 

202 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

the Civil War, says, "such persons [Negroes] were in the days of slavery 
educated in this institution and novv^ stand as alumni on its catalog." 
Among members of the Board listed in the minutes as present at that 
meeting were at least three who had been directors also before the War. 
One of them was Professor Lamar, second founder, who had been a 
student five years in the 1840's and a professor four years in the 1850's, 
and knew well the student bodies of those periods. Thus, contrary to some 
assertions made a third of a century later in the heat of controversy, the 
fact that Negro students were in the College before the Civil War is 
authentically established. Such an open-door policy was the only one in 
accord with the known convictions, attitudes, and practices of Isaac 
Anderson, who was president during thirty-eight of the forty-two pre- 
War years. In his speaking, writing, and working he supported the 
abolition movement and vigorously opposed the idea of any State seced- 
ing from the Union. It is true that in a private letter quoted by Dr. 
Robinson, who was seeking support for his own position. Dr. Anderson, 
after praising the Presbyterian General Assembly of 1846 for the Chris- 
tian spirit exhibited in its discussion of the slavery question, expressed 
reservations as to the Church's role in dealing with the social and political 
aspects of slavery as an institution. But he welcomed Negroes to his 
church both before and after emancipation, and even before founding the 
College he was instructing Negro students. The best known of these was 
George Erskine, whose freedom was purchased by the Presbytery of 
Union, and who was licensed as a minister and went to Africa as the first 
foreign missionary from that Presbytery. Dr. Robinson, his colleague and 
biographer, wrote of Dr. Anderson that "the African, the Indian, the 
foreigner from whatever land was to him as a brother." It is certain that 
Dr. Anderson, Professor Lamar, and the other pre-War professors, with 
probably two exceptions, were never slaveowners. 


It was during the five years in which the College was closed, that the 
American slave was legally set free. President Lincoln's Emancipation 
Proclamation was first announced by him in September, 1862, and was 
proclaimed as in effect by war-time executive authority, January i, 1863. 
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, permanently abolishing 

Racial Integration 203 

slavery in the United States, was ratified in December, 1865, as the nation 
was being reunited. 

Maryville College Policy Reaffirmed 

The Synod of Tennessee of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. 
held its first post-War meeting at New Market, Tennessee, October 
12-14, 1865, six months after Lee's surrender at Appomattox, and two 
months before the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. By 
official actions, the Synod resumed control of the College, decided to 
reopen it, elected a new Board of Directors, and adopted a resolution 
concerning the mission of the Church to American Negroes who had 
been liberated from slavery. The last named action is of particular 
interest in this chapter, even though it did not relate directly to the 

The chairman of the special committee of three which wrote the 
resolution was Professor Lamar, who in that same meeting persuaded the 
Synod to reopen the College. After being buried in the minutes of Synod 
for a hundred years, the resolution in considerable part is quoted here 
because it had significance for the College and because it sheds light on 
the times. The first paragraph contains an interesting and somewhat 
unusual interpretation. 

At the commencement of the rebellion, the two great parties in the 
conflict evidently contemplated no change in the condition of the colored 
race in our country. The one intended to make perpemal and more secure 
their bondage, while the other disclaimed any right, desire, or intention to 
interfere with the institution of Slavery, as it existed in the slave states. But 
in the progress of the conflict the hand of a third party was manifested, 
controlling and shaping events, with direct reference to the enslaved and 
oppressed of our land. Such has been the remarkable train of providences 
with regard to this people, that we are forced to the conviction that the grand 
design of God in the contest was their liberation. 

As a result ... of the war we have in the midst of us nearly four 
millions of free men, "all of them hitherto subject to disadvantages social, 
civil, and political, directly calculated to depress their humanity, degrade 
their pursuits, and prevent them from realizing their proper destiny as 

The obstacles to their improvement and elevation, hitherto existing. 

204 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

having been swept away, a door is now opened . . . there can be but one 
mind and one voice among Christians and all right minded persons in regard 
to our present duty to this people. . . . Strenuous efforts should be made for 
their education. The sanctifying, civilizing, and elevating influences of the 
Gospel should be brought to bear upon them. By every proper method, they 
should be aided to becoming a blessing to themselves and the country ... we 
deem it our solemn duty to encourage and give our moral support to every 
exertion made for their intellectual, moral, and religious improvement. 

Unhappily, the resolution's assumption that all in the Church would 
be of "one mind and one voice" did not prove to be true in the hundred 
years that followed. We miss here any specific reference to equality and 
justice. But it was on the whole a noble statement to be made in 1865 by 
delegates representing a synod in what had been a Confederate State. It 
provided support for continuation of the College's integration policy. 

It took almost another year to find enough money to reopen the 
College, on even a minimum basis. It is not now known whether any of 
the 47 students that first year were Negroes. But there was soon need to 
clarify the policy regarding admission of Negroes. One reason for this 
was the desire of prospective donors in the North to have official assur- 
ance of an integration policy. The Directors apparently did not meet 
during the first year of operation after reopening. But in 1867 ^hey 
adopted one of the most important statements of basic interracial policy 
in the College's history. It is clear, informative, and unequivocal. Here is 
the text as written in the minutes of the Directors' meeting held at 
Athens, Tennessee, September 28, 1867: 

The question proposed for consideration was, Shall persons be excluded from 
the benefits of Maryville College because of race or color? To which, after 
some discussion, the Board answered as follows: 

That since there is no law or custom of Maryville College prohibiting 
the admission of persons of color, and since such were in the days of slavery 
educated in this institution and now stand as alumni on its catalogue, any 
further answer in reference to the question proposed seems superfluous; for if 
there was no exclusion during the prescriptive reign of slavery, by reason of 
race or color, there can be no adequate reason for such exclusion now. 

And, moreover, to pass a resolution now declaring that persons of color 
shall be admitted to the privileges of Maryville College would seem to imply 
that there had been a time when such persons were excluded, which is not the 

Racial Integration 205 

fact. We deem it much to the credit of the institution that it has from its 
beginning stood upon a broad Christian basis, excluding none from its 
benefits by reason of race or color. 

The authority of the Directors to take such an action was questioned 
in some quarters. Prejudice was strong and widespread in the South. 
Therefore, it was felt by all concerned that the Synod of Tennessee 
should pass upon the matter. Accordingly it was brought to the next 
meeting, held at Greeneville, Tennessee, September 26, 1868, a year after 
the Directors' action. Professor Lamar, once again the quiet but bold and 
strong leader, presented the following motion: "Resolved, That no per- 
son, having the requisite moral and literary qualifications for admission to 
the privileges of Maryville College shall be excluded by reason of race or 

The record says that there was an "earnest, animated, and protracted 
debate," and that the resolution was adopted by a bare majority of one 
vote; with all but two of the ministers present voting in the afiSrmative, 
and most of the elders voting in the negative. In referring later to the 
close vote, Professor Lamar pointed out that a well-known college in the 
North had admitted Negro students through a tie-breaking vote by the 
presiding ofl&cer. Twenty- four years later (1892) a formal attempt was 
made to have Synod rescind the 1868 action, but it received only one or 
two votes; a second attempt in 1895 was tabled by unanimous vote. 

Thus, within the first two years of operation after the Civil War, the 
Board of Directors and the Synod established an ofl&cial integration policy 
for the College, which stood throughout the troubled years of the nine- 
teenth century. It was a successful venture, but not without problems or 

Response from Benefactors 

After liberation of the slaves the United States Government estab- 
lished a Freedmen's Bureau, through which appropriations were made to 
aid the new "freedmen." Private as well as public schools were eligible to 
receive funds; and when Maryville College reported the Directors' policy 
decision of 1867, General Oliver C. Howard who was in charge of the 
Bureau, sent in February, 1868, an initial sum of $3,000, General 

2o6 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Howard later assigned a representative to Maryville to make an inspec- 
tion of the work of the College, and within the next two years or so 
appropriated first $10,000 and then $3,000 toward the erection of Ander- 
son Hall, making a total of $16,000 from the U. S. Government. For 
each of these grants the following receipt was signed: 

The Trustees of Maryville College hereby acknowledge receipt of $ , 

from the Freedmen's Bureau, to be used or distributed as that the funds 
herein referred to shall be forever appropriated to the education of loyal 
refugees and freedmen and their descendents. 

Within a month after the Directors' 1867 policy statement, William 
Thaw of Pittsburgh sent $1,000, which during the ensuing year was 
increased by him to $4,000, and multiplied many times in the next three 
decades. He later said more than once that the opening of the doors to 
Negro students "was the cornerstone" of his interest and contributions. 
Other large donors, notably John C. Baldwin, William E. Dodge, Pre- 
served Smith, who with the Freedmen's Bureau and Mr. Thaw made 
possible the new college plant and the first substantial endowment, 
likewise were influenced by this policy and the resulting admission of 
Negro students. A document prepared by a special committee in 1901, 
much of it based on information given before his death by Professor 
Lamar, specifically attributes to its integration policy more than $100,000 
received by the College. The only legal agreement was with the Freed- 
men's Bureau; but the authorities of the College recognized an integra- 
tion commitment to the others also. 

From 1866 to 1901 

The number of Negro students was never large, due to lack of 
preparation, incentive, and money. It averaged about five a year from the 
Civil War to the mid-i88o's, and ten a year from then until their 
enrollment was halted in 1901. The total number of different individuals 
was about sixty. 

Of these, nine graduated from the College and received the bache- 
lor's degree. In view of the large proportion in the lower preparatory 
classes, the percentage of graduates is commendable, almost one to six. 
The first of the nine graduates was William Henderson Franklin in 1880, 

Racial Integration 207 

and the other eight were: John Gates Wallace (1889), William Henry 
Hannum (1890), Frank Marion Kennedy (1891), Oliver Campbell 
Wallace (1892), Paris Arthur Wallace (1895), James Allen Davis 
(1896), James Moses Ewing (1896), and Thomas Bartholomew Lillard 
(1898). Six of the graduates became ministers and at least one, Paris 
Arthur Wallace, was made a Methodist Bishop. Of the sixty Negroes 
enrolled, at least eighteen are known to have become teachers and 
fourteen ministers. 

In a group communication to the Directors in 1901, seven of the 
nine Negro graduates wrote, "It [attending Maryville College} has given 
us a better understanding of the white man; it has shown us that he is 
not, as a race, unwilling to appreciate earnest effort for advancement on 
the part of the Negro; that his prejudices decrease as mutual contact 
increases; that he in his best thought is not an enemy to the Negro. Also 
it has given a higher grade of teaching than may be found in most 
exclusively colored schools. . . . From the first it was known that only 
the few and select ones of the race would finish the course of instruction 
required for graduation. . . ." 

Maryville in Tennessee and Berea in Kentucky were the pioneer 
colleges in racial integration in the South. A few others with white 
students announced a similar policy but did not weather the pressures of 
anti-integration prejudice. In a printed circular for his northern financial 
campaign in the early i88o's, Professor Lamar said of Maryville: "It 
alone of all the old colleges of the South stands connected with the 
Presbyterian Church, North; ignores the color line; and educates the 
rising generation above an intolerant, narrow, sectional spirit." 

But the course was not easy or the results ideal. 


Needless to recall, feelings about the place of the Negro in Ameri- 
can society ran high, throughout the nation in general and throughout the 
South in particular, during all that last third of the nineteenth century, 
and is much alive after two thirds of the twentieth. In East Tennessee 
prejudice was less than in the "deep South," but even there it created a 
hostile atmosphere in which to operate an integrated college. The State 
required all tax-supported institutions to be segregated, but the law did 

208 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

not apply to private, including church-related, schools. However, almost 
none of the latter undertook to enroll Negro with white students. Mary- 
ville persisted in doing so; and while its total enrollment grew steadily 
(100 in 1 87 1, 200 in 1880, 300 in 1890, 400 in 1900), the growth 
would doubtless have been faster without Negro students there. The 
president, faculty, and directors were criticized by the public in general 
for admitting Negroes at all into what was predominantly a white 
student body. On the other hand they were criticized by advocates of 
integration for not having more Negro students and for some falsely 
rumored and some actual differences in the treatment of the races on the 

All Negro students were men, there being no Negro girls admitted 
in the nineteenth century, even though white girls attended from the 
Civil War on. Various reasons were given, including public attitude and 
the fewness of applicants, none of which would seem adequate reasons 
today, but did appear so to sincere and intelligent leaders three quarters 
of a century ago. In 1900, President Boardman, nearing the end of his 
administration, wrote: "The President believes that . . . admitting young 
ladies as well as young men to all the privileges for which the covenanted 
endowments were given, would have been and would now be the best 
policy, as well as best in ethics." 

Through the 1870's there were Negro students rooming in Memo- 
rial Hall, but evidently not after about 1880, and none ever boarded in 
the college dinning hall. They sat wherever they pleased in classes, but in 
the chapel they were seated as a group. Of course these practices, which 
would be unacceptable in the 1950's and 1960's, were for the most part 
accepted by white people in the i88o's and 1890's as reasonable ways to 
reduce racial tension. But they were criticized in some quarters even then. 
A faculty committee, answering criticism at the turn of the century, wrote 
rather unconvincingly that Negro students had not asked to room in the 
dormitory after 1880 or to eat in the dining hall; and that they them- 
selves established the custom of sitting as a group in chapel. The writer 
does not have information about the unrecorded daily white-Negro con- 
tacts and attitudes of that period; but it is obvious from the recorded 
practices just cited that there was some justification for the charge that 
Negro students d:d not receive all privileges received by white students. 

The most fundamental controversy arose, however, when the Col- 

Racial Integration , 209 

lege's greatest benefactor of the nineteenth century, Wilham Thaw of 
Pittsburgh, received the impression that the president and some of the 
professors had become "soft on integration," through lack of personal 
conviction and fear of losing many white students because of a few 
colored ones; and were making it unnecessarily difficult for Negroes to 
enter. Over a period of several years many letters were exchanged be- 
tween Mr. Thaw, President Bartlett, and others. Mr. Thaw wrote bluntly 
that his interest and support were at an end, unless convinced of the 
College's good faith in fulfilling the obligations it assumed when it 
accepted contributions from him and others with the understanding that 
qualified students would be admitted without regard to race or color. 

Thereupon, the Directors in 1882 unanimously adopted a second 
strong statement entitled, "Injunction Upon the Faculty and Teachers of 
Maryville College." It was drafted by a three-man committee of whom 
Professor Lamar, as in so many cases, was a member. It began: 

Whereas, The impression has become to a degree prevalent in the public 
mind that the co-education of the races in Maryville College is still a 
debatable topic, or its expediency questioned, or at least there is such a 
difference of opinion among the authorities of the College that the success of 
the policy is likely to be hindered, if not wholly thwarted; and 

Whereas, The Trustees of the College have learned that some of its 
supporters are apprehensive that the pledges made have not been kept in 
good faith and that there is a disposition on the part of some to disavow the 
obligations voluntarily assumed and published to the world respecting the 
educating together of all youth without regard to race, color, or previous 
condition, as a sound Christian basis . . . deem it advisable to ^xwe expression 
anew to our position on this question. 

There follows the text of the 1867 policy statement and a review of 
ensuing commitments, then this strong closing enjoinder: 

Thus it is clearly seen that the educational policy of the College has been long 
established and fuUy made known to the world as irrevocable. . . . And we 
do hereby reaffirm our adoption of this policy and declare it to be our sincere 
purpose to execute it impartially and honestly, and strictly enjoin it upon the 
faculty and teachers of the College to do nothing, by word or deed, directly or 
indirectly, seeming evasion or equivocation, to produce the impression that 
the coeducation of the races in Maryville College is any longer a debatable 


210 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Nearly twenty years later, Dr. Boardman, fourth President 
( 1889-1901 ), said, "The faculty have been a unit in loyalty to the strict 
injunction laid upon them by the Board of Directors in 1882. ... In 
1892 also the President had the 'Strict Injunction' laid by the Directors 
upon all teachers put in type, and has faithfully furnished it to all new 

In his report at the end of 1900, President Boardman reviewed the 
College's integration experience, gave reasons for his administrative 
methods, made clear his uncompromising commitment to the College's 
official policy; and at the same time said that looking back over his 
twelve years as president he believed the College had, in the interest of 
expediency, been too timid and silent about the great moral effort it had 
undertaken. He acclaimed the heroism of the founder, Dr. Anderson, and 
the second founder, Professor Lamar, in establishing an institution 
pledged to admit qualified students irrespective of race, nationality, and 
color. He pointed out that while this might be relatively easy to do in the 
North, it involved a high order of moral heroism to do it in the 
nineteenth-century South, 

The Tennessee Segregation Law of 1901 

Maryville's integration program was terminated suddenly in 1901 
by a new law enacted in March of that year expressly for that purpose. 
There were, of course, school segregation laws long before that (even 
written into the Tennessee Constitution in 1870) but they applied only 
to tax-supported schools. Private institutions were free to choose between 
segregation and integration, although it appears that Maryville alone 
among those of college grade in Tennessee had permanently chosen 

Widespread disapproval and opposition were inevitable. Finally a 
white graduate of the College, who became a prominent state and 
national leader, drafted a new state law to cover private as well as 
tax-supported schools, and it was enacted by the Tennessee General 
Assembly (Legislature) March 13, 1901. Long afterward this distin- 
guished leader, in his later years reminiscing about student days at 
Maryville College, to which he was really quite devoted, told the present 
writer an interesting fact. It was that he dropped out of college and 

Racial Integration 211 

delayed his graduation a year, because there was a Negro who would be 
graduating in his original class (and who did so on schedule with five 
white classmates ) . This postponement was in part a parental decision and 
reveals the deep prejudices of the period. But that he returned to graduate 
a year later (in an all-white class) is evidence of the high esteem in 
which the faculty and standards of the College were held, even by those 
who disagreed with its interracial policy. 

Since the ironclad statute of 1901 had a major bearing on Mary- 
ville's history, the following pertinent sections are quoted (the number- 
ing being added ) : 

[1} It shall be unlawful for any school, academy, college, or other place of 
learning to allow white and colored persons to attend the same school, 
academy, college, or other place of learning. 

[2] It shall be unlawful for any teacher, professor, or educator, in any 
college, academy, or school of learning to allow the white and colored races to 
attend the same school, or for any teacher or educator, or other person to 
instruct or teach both the white and colored races in the same class, school, or 
college building or in any other place or places of learning, or allow or permit 
the same to be done with their knowledge, consent, or procurement. 
[3} Any person violating any of the provisions of this article, shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction, shall be fined for each offense fifty 
dollars, and imprisonment not less than thirty days nor more than six 

It is difficult to believe that such a law would be enacted in 
twentieth-century America. But it is in the record. It was drafted by a 
capable man of high purpose and voted by a deliberative state legislature 
— merely to prevent association of a dozen Negro young men with 250 
white young men and women at Maryville College. The wording left no 
loopholes for institutions or individuals. The penalties were severe and 
mandatory. Tennessee law had early defined "colored" persons as Ne- 
groes, and Negroes as those "having any blood of the African race in 
their veins." The practical meaning was plain, even if the wording 
reflected limited ethnological knowledge. 

It was clear to all concerned that Maryville's eighty-two-year-old 
practice of admitting qualified applicants without regard to race or color, 
would have to be abandoned, unless one of two things should happen: 
either the repeal of the law by the legislature, or its invalidation by the 

212 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

courts as unconstitutional. The probability of either appeared remote and 
proved to be so. For another fifty years school segregation laws were held 
to be constitutional. 

Early in 1901, the Directors of Maryville College set up a special 
committee, with Dr. Edgar A. Elmore as chairman, to study the situation. 
It, of course, received numerous suggestions. One outlined in a thoughtful 
and respectful letter, from seven of the nine nineteenth-century Negro 
graduates, was this: ". . . to establish and equip at Maryville a school 
with accommodations equal to Maryville College, for the colored race, 
incorporate it into and make it a part of Maryville College, subject to the 
same management." Even if this plan had been thought workable, it 
would not have been financially possible. 

On May 28, 1901, after receiving the committee's report, the Board 
made a series of decisions, four of which were: ( i ) To accept the advice 
of "eminent legal counsel" not to make a further attempt to test the 
constitutionality of the law passed by the State in March, 1901; (2) to 
comply with the law which prohibited coeducation of white and Negro 
students; (3) to admit only white students from September i, 1901, in 
view of the fact that throughout the years of integration, "the ratio of 
white to colored students has not been less than twenty to one;" (4) to 
divide the endowment, "in compliance with the principles of equity and 
generosity," placing part where it would perpetually support education of 
Negro people. 

"Separate but Equal" — Supreme Court 1896 

The Directors' decision not to test in the courts the constitutionality 
of this Tennessee statue of 1901 was vindicated by rulings both before 
and after 1901. The power of States to require racial segregation in 
"separate but equal" schools was upheld by all courts from 1896 to 1954, 
except in a few graduate school cases from the 1930's onward. 

The authority for this was the famous decision of the U. S. Supreme 
Court in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. In this decision the Court 
upheld the constitutionality of a statute enacted by the State of Louisiana, 
requiring railway companies carrying passengers in that State to provide 
separate but equal accommodations for white and Negro passengers, thus 
legalizing the so-called "Jim Crow car." The specific ruling and the 

Racial Integration 213 

principles and illustrations recited with approval by the Supreme Court in 
its written decision were interpreted by all courts for over fifty years as 
validating the constitutional right of States to require racial segregation in 
transportation facilities, schools, hotels, restaurants, theaters, government 
buildings and institutions, and other public accommodations, whether 
publicly or privately operated. The 1896 case was not one primarily 
concerning schools, but the court cited with approval the establishment of 
"separate schools for white and colored children" as "a valid exercise of 
the legislative power. . . ." 

Three years later, in 1899, the U. S. Supreme Court upheld the 
Georgia school segregation law. In 1908, in a case of much interest to 
Maryville and other colleges, Berea College v. Kentucky, it "held that the 
State could validly forbid a college, even though a private institution, to 
teach whites and blacks at the same time and place." Similar decisions, 
based on the 1896 Supreme Court approval of "separate but equal" 
schools, were consistently rendered by all courts, lower and higher, until 
1954, except the graduate school cases mentioned above. 

Negro Education Fund Established 

In their meeting of May 28, 1901, reported above, the Directors 
specified that the income from $25,000 of the College's permanent 
endowment funds be appropriated to Swift Memorial Institute, Rogers- 
ville, Tennessee, a preparatory school for Negro youth, "so long as it shall 
remain a Presbyterian Institution," and meet certain standards. 

The amount of $25,000 was a little more than one tenth of the total 
endowment at that time. Negro students over the previous third of a 
century had comprised less than one twentieth of the total enrollment. 
Hence the Directors estimated that one tenth of the endowment was a 
division "in compliance with the principles of equity and generosity." 
Before reaching this decision, the College received approval from heirs of 
major donors who had intended their contributions to support education 
of both Negro and white youth. During the next two years there were 
discussions with church agencies concerning a practical plan for adminis- 
tering the fund. 

Finally, on May 13, 1903, Dr. Samuel Tyndale Wilson, who mean- 
while had become President of the College and who previously, as 

2 14 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Professor and Dean, had been a staunch supporter of the integration 
policy, delivered in person $25,000 to the Trustees of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., at Philadelphia. It 
was invested by the Trustees and the income regularly sent through the 
Presbyterian Board of Freedmen (and its successors) to Svi^ift Memorial 
Institute. "That was one of the hardest duties I ever undertook," Dr. 
Wilson would say long afterward, "giving away $25,000 of our little 
endowment; but it was the right thing to do." The doing of it made a 
deep impression on some who knew of it. Long afterward, in the 1930's, a 
successful and prominent business man of Philadelphia told this writer 
that as a young bank employee he was assigned to receive the money 
from Dr. Wilson. He was so impressed that he resolved to do something 
significant for the institution if he ever became a man of means. He did so 
become, made a number of contributions, and talked of larger ones until 
the great depression radically reduced his resources. 

In 1953, just fifty years after this fund was established, the Trustees 
of the General Assembly notified Maryville College that Swift Memorial 
Institute was no longer connected with the Church. By terms of the 
original arrangement, this canceled its connection with the fund, and the 
trust accepted by the Trustees of the General Assembly was at an end. 
They proposed returning the balance and the College agreed, the Direc- 
tors' covering action being in part as follows: 

That the Directors accept from the Trustees of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., refund of that portion of the funds 
adjudged by the said Trustees now remaining ($23,125.62) of the $25,000 
turned over by the Directors of Maryville College in May, 1903 . . . and that 
before allocating this refund, when received, the Directors of Maryville 
College give consideration to the action and the purpose of the Directors in 
transferring these funds to the Trustees of the General Assembly in 1903; 
and that until the fund is allocated for specific use, all income received from 
or for the fund be added to the corpus of the fund. 

That was in 1953, a year before the U. S. Supreme Court decision 
which enabled the College to resume its integration policy. The Directors 
by their own action were pledged to a recognition of the original fund's 
assignment to Negro education, before designating its future use. Some 

Racial Integration 215 

alumni, hearing of this development, were moved to make personal 
contributions to the fund, which with accumulated interest soon lifted the 
principal above the original amount, to $25,500. After the College in 
1954 began again to enroll Negro students, it was returned to the regular 
endowment, where it is designated "Fund for Negro Education." 

1901 to 1954 

There were no Negro students between May, 1901, and September, 
1954. The unprecedented progress of the College in those years has been 
traced already in this volume. But because of the forced racial segrega- 
tion, there were unseen, unmeasured losses — cultural, moral, and spiritual. 
Direct service to Negro youth by the College was absent, and its contribu- 
tions to better race relations were consequently much reduced. 

Integration of traditionally "white" colleges in the South had pro- 
gressed very little. Separate colleges for Negroes had been established by 
States and other government units and by private and church groups. By 
the end of the first third of the twentieth century, there were approxi- 
mately one hundred such colleges and universities in the nation, most of 
them in the South. They formed a national association which at the 
middle of the century was conducting successful financial campaigns for a 
Negro College Fund. In the South they formed their own accrediting 
body, largely because the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 
and the large city hotels in which it annually convened were not willing 
to accept Negro and white college representatives on an equal basis. Also 
a separate body was for a considerable time desired by Negro colleges 
themselves because of the fact that many of them could not then meet the 
Southern Association's standards. Both of these obstacles have been for 
the most part overcome during the past two decades, and these colleges 
are eligible for regular membership in the Southern Association. 

The development of these colleges, during the long period of legal 
separation, provided higher educational opportunity for Negro youth who 
were prepared financially and scholastically to go to college. Even today, 
with many predominantly white institutions in the South open to Negro 
students, the vast majority of them continue to attend institutions with 
predominantly Negro enrollments. As numbers increase and attitudes 


change further, there will undoubtedly be a marked increase of Negroes 
in predominantly white colleges and universities, especially tax-supported 

It is well to remember that throughout the half century when 
Negroes could not legally attend MaryviUe College, all other qualified 
applicants regardless of race or color were admitted. Only those classified 
by law as having "African blood in their veins" were missing! Gradually 
from the 1930's onward, Negroes, although not eligible to matriculate, 
appeared on the Maryville campus — as singers, speakers, student visitors 
in religious services, members of interracial conferences, and in other 
capacities. They were invited and welcomed by the president, faculty, and 
students, as guests in the college dormitories and dining hall and in 
private homes. This was before the 1954 Supreme Court decision re- 
opened the doors to enrollment. For several summers in the early 1950's 
the College was host to successful interracial conferences under auspices 
of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., with attendance exceeding 
300, divided about equally between white and Negro delegates from 
seven or eight southern States. The values to participants of both races 
and to the integration movement were marked. 

But the College did not follow this course without public and 
private opposition. For example, in 1952 the local papers carried the 
picture of a nationally known Negro baritone singer who was scheduled 
for a concert on the campus. Immediately the president's office received 
so many telephone protests, including numerous ones which were anony- 
mous, profane, and obscene, that it was necessary to close off the tele- 
phone. More than once, during interracial conferences, word reached the 
campus that some group in the area was threatening to "come up there 
and clean the whole lot out." But no mob ever appeared, and gradually 
opposition declined. 

Meanwhile, directors, officers, teachers, and students for the most 
part were loyal to the ideal and undertaking. Then came May, 1954. 

U. S. Supreme Court Decision of 1954 

The decision of the U. S. Supreme Court on May 17, 1954, outlaw- 
ing school segregation, is one of the most important and far-reaching in 
the nation's history. The vote of the Court was unanimous. A single 

Racial Integration ^ 217 

opinion was issued covering a number of separate cases which had come 
up to the Supreme Court from South CaroHna, Virginia, Delaware, 
Kansas, and the District of Columbia (plus a separate opinion relating to 
special legal aspects of the District of Columbia case ) . 

Seventeen States (all those in the South from Delaware to Okla- 
homa and Texas) had segregation laws forbidding coeducation of white 
and Negro students; and four States (Arizona, Kansas, New Mexico, 
Wyoming) permitted segregation. These segregation laws had been le- 
gally (and morally) justified by the "separate but equal" principle 
approved by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 1896 decision in the Plessy v. 
Ferguson transportation case. But in the unanimous 1954 opinion, the 
Supreme Court held that even if physical facilities are equal, there are 
intangible factors which keep "separate" from being "equal." Said the 
Court: "We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 
'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are 
inherently unequal." 

An interesting observation in the opinion pointed out that the 
Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution (guaranteeing "equal protec- 
tion of the laws" ) , adopted just after the Civil War, did not clearly state 
an intention to prohibit school segregation, since there were few public 

There had been some earlier court orders requiring certain tax-sup- 
ported universities and professional schools to admit Negroes when the 
State did not provide equal separate education. The first of these cases 
involved the University of Maryland Law School in the mid-1930's. 

The 1954 decision declaring segregation in the public schools un- 
constitutional was at once understood to extend also to private and church 
schools and colleges chartered to serve the public. 

The 1954 spring meeting of the Directors of Maryville College was 
on May 19, two days after this famous decision of the U. S. Supreme 
Court. The following is an excerpt from the minutes of that meeting: 

The President presented the following recommendations concerning the 
College's enrollment policy: (a) that the President, Chairman, and Recorder 
be authorized to transmit to each Director of the College by mail a survey 
and analysis of the present situation touching the admission of all races to the 
College, request from all Directors a mail ballot and comments, compile the 
results and submit them to the Committee on Administration sometime 

2l8 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

during the summer; (b) that the Committee on Administration be author- 
ized to make such decision and take such steps as seem to it wise in light of 
the returns from the Directors. This recommendation was adopted. 

Integration Resumed 

Soon after this action by the Directors, a letter went to each director, 
in which the President of the College and Chairman of the Board 
reviewed the history and effects of the Tennessee segregation law of 
1 90 1, called attention to the U. S. Supreme Court decision just published, 
and proposed that the Directors announce a return of the College to its 
previous integration policy, effective for the ensuing semester. In re- 
sponse, thirty-three directors by mail ballot voted "I favor accepting 
Negro students this year," and tv,^o voted in the negative. There was then 
one vacancy in the Board of thirty-six. On July 19 the Directors' Commit- 
tee on Administration, in light of these returns, took the following 

That the Committee on Administration, acting under the authority conferred 
upon it by the Board of Directors on May 19 hereby re-establishes the 
College's policy of accepting qualified students without regard to their race or 

The announcement with which this chapter opened was then trans- 
mitted to all directors, faculty, and students, and on August 11, 1954, was 
released to the press. At its next stated meeting, October 15, 1954, the 
Board of Directors ratified this action of its committee as the policy of the 
College. The President reported that six Negro students had been en- 
rolled and that their integration into the total group had gone forward 
smoothly on the campus and with a minimum of difficulty in the commu- 

The public announcement brought a flood of protests from all over 
the South, and a year later, when a Negro was appointed to the faculty, 
another flood followed the press report of that. There were a few 
individual donors and churches in the South that registered vigorous 
objections and discontinued their support. For several years there were 
few students from the "deep" South, but the numbers are now almost 
back to "pre-integration" levels, and generous gifts are coming from 

Racial Integration . 219 

quarters where they had been cut off, all of which indicates changing 
emotions and attitudes. 

The College stated clearly that all students, regardless of race or 
color, were to have the same privileges — in class, dormitory, dining hall, 
recreation programs, and other aspects of college life and work. It could 
not be guaranteed, of course, that Negro students would find non-segre- 
gated practices in the surrounding community. In 1954 there was in the 
Maryville community still a rather typical pattern of segregation. But 
there have been notable advances since then, advances which the College 
has sought to encourage and commend. 

The number of Negro applicants and the proportion who have gone 
on to graduation have been rather disappointingly small. There were six 
enrolled the first year. A total of 50 different individuals, 23 men and 27 
women, have attended during the fifteen years since 1954, ranging from 
3 to II per year. As this is written there are 10. Almost all have been 
from the South, 48 from seven southern States and two from one 
northern State. The record shows that in this period only five have 
graduated. Thirty-five of the 50 have roomed and boarded on the campus, 
the homes of the other 1 5 being in the local community. There have been 
Negro students in the college choir, on varsity athletic teams, and in other 
public groups. 

These relatively small numbers are not peculiar to Maryville, among 
four-year liberal arts colleges with predominantly white student bodies. 
They may be traced to several causes: inadequate preparation received in 
most "separate" high schools in the South, limited financial resources, 
desire and need for a more vocational type of course, and preference for 
colleges where Negro students predominate, rather than colleges where 
they are a small minority. 

However, the Maryville College integration story is a noteworthy 
one; and the college gates are open to all qualified applicants irrespective 
of race or color. 

Chapter Jl D Extracumcular 

Extracurricular activities are not part of the course of study, but 
they form an important part of the hfe of college students. In reality they 
include the whole program of living in the campus community, as well as 
that of participating in specific kinds of work or play. They have been 
notably strong at Maryville College, in some measure because of the 
general plan of the campus community. 

Dormitory Life 

Maryville has always been a dormitory college. From the beginning 
it has enrolled students from outside the immediate community, has 
undertaken to provide lodging for them, and has not had such supple- 
mentary facilities as fraternity or sorority houses. The buildings on the 
first campus contained both classrooms and dormitory rooms; and of the 
first three erected on the present campus, two were dormitories. Today the 
College has seven three-story and four-story dormitories and a central 
dining hall. 

From two thirds to three fourths of all students have lived on the 
campus during the past fifty years. In the days of the large preparatory 
department a considerable number were day students, but even then 
usually as many as half of all attending the institution lived in dormito- 
ries. All except those living at home are and have been required to live in 


Extracurricular Activities 


the dormitories, and all living there are required to board in the College 
dining hall. Thus, for a large proportion of students the Maryville 
College campus has been through three fourths of each year an active and 
rather self-contained community — with its own residence halls, dining 
hall, chapel, recreation facilities, infirmary, post office, stores. Living in 
such a community obviously involves a whole range of extracurricular 
activities not usually so designated. 

Student-Help Program 

For a long time more than half, sometimes two thirds, of all 
students have been employed part time in the College's student-help 
program. The policy has been to use student workers as far as they are 
qualified, have the time, and need the earnings — in dining room, offices, 
maintenance, library, laboratories, and elsewhere. For a quarter of a 
century, until after World War II, a considerable number of girls worked 
in the College Maid Shop, which manufactured various kinds of gar- 
ments. It was a unique college enterprise founded by the late Mrs. James 
H. McMurray while head of the Home Economics Department. 

Student employment has gradually decreased since about the time of 
World War II. There are several reasons, including the increased finan- 
cial resources of most American college students, increasing federal aid 
to students, and the growing demands of the academic program, leaving 
less time for extracurricular activities. 

However, most of those who have participated, and now participate, 
in the student employment program have found the participation benefi- 
cial educationally as well as materially. For many it is a major extracurri- 
cular activity. 

Student Organizations 

Reference has been made previously to the religious organizations: 
the establishing of the YMCA in 1877, the YWCA in 1884, and the 
Student Volunteers in 1894; their merger in the 1960's to form the 
United Campus Christian Fellowship (UCCF); and the change in 1968 
to University Christian Movement (UCM). The importance attached to 
them as extracurricular activities may be inferred from their facilities on 

222 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

the campus. The campaign in the 1890's, led by a Japanese student, Kin 
Takahashi, to build Bartlett Hall was to provide a home for the Maryville 
College YMCA and a place for physical education and indoor athletics, 
which at that time were commonly related to YMCA's. In the 1930's, 
smaller but commodious quarters were constructed in the Thaw Hall 
annex for the YWCA. For many years after Bartlett Hall's completion 
the secretary and president of the YMCA roomed in the building. 

The oldest student organizations at Maryville College were the 
literary societies. There were three before the Civil War: The Beth- 
Hachma (house of wisdom) and the Sophirodelphian, formed sometime 
in the 1820's; and the Beth-Hachma ve Berith (house of wisdom and 
covenant) in the early 1830's. The use of Greek names for societies is 
well known, but here the Hebrew names reflect the theological seminary 
influence. One of these societies had a small frame building on the first 
campus. None of the three was reorganized after the Civil War, and new 
ones soon appeared. 

In 1867 the Animi Cultus literary society was formed, and in 1868, 
the Athenian, both for men students. After fifteen years, in 1882, the 
Animi Cultus was succeeded by the Alpha Sigma. Two women's literary 
societies were organized before many years, the Bainonian in 1875 and 
the Theta Epsilon in 1894. For a long time each of the four societies had 
its own quarters on the third floor of Anderson Hall, but later all were 
located in other buildings. As long as the preparatory department existed, 
the men's societies had college and preparatory sections. 

Until the 1920's these literary societies were centers of training in 
public speaking and forms of expression. There were weekly programs in 
which students had practice in presiding, debate, oratory, writing and 
reading essays and poems, newscasts, and extemporaneous and humorous 
speaking. One or more times each year a literary society would present 
before the whole college community a program of speaking or a dramatic 
production, known as a "Midwinter." 

But as such training was included in the curriculum, in the forensics 
program, and in drama departmental productions, it declined in the 
societies; and they became increasingly social organizations, as they are 
today. In the 1950's the name Athenian was changed to Kappa Phi and 
Bainonian to Chi Beta. They all continue as Maryville College social 
societies, not as fraternities or sororities in the usual understanding of 

Extracurricular Activities 223 

those terms. Functioning on a brother-sister plan (Alpha Sigma-Theta 
Epsilon and Kappa Phi-Chi Beta ) , they sponsor a variety of extracurricu- 
lar activities, including weekly meetings, intramural sports, dances, and 
service projects. 

Various kinds of clubs have existed intermittently. They were more 
numerous formerly than in recent years. They have usually represented 
special interests, such as home States, hiking, and vocations (ministry, 
law, medicine, and others). The vocational interest clubs often have 
conducted studies and discussion in their special fields. Such groups as the 
Varsity Lettermen's Club, the Women's M Club, the French and German 
Clubs, and others have been active. 

Honor Societies 

In recent decades as life and higher education have become more 
and more organized, chapters of national honor societies have been 
formed at Maryville: Pi Kappa Delta, forensics; Theta Alpha Phi, 
drama; Tau Kappa Chi, music; Pi Gamma Mu, social sciences; Sigma 
Delta Psi, athletics; and several others. Of particular importance is the 
Maryville College scholarship honor society, Alpha Gamma Sigma, or- 
ganized in 1934. Membership in these societies is basically a reward for 
superior academic achievement, and therefore the organizations are in a 
sense semi-curricular rather than extracurricular. But they constitute part 
of the student's experience outside of regular college courses. 

Student Publications 

Maryville College students issued their first printed publication in 
1875. It was edited and produced, even printed on their own small 
printing press in Memorial Hall, by two students, Samuel Tyndale Wil- 
son, a sophomore, and John A. Silsby, a freshman. In later years the 
former became fifth president of Maryville College, and the latter served 
forty-one years as a missionary in China. Both are now buried in the 
Maryville College cemetery. Theirs was a monthly publication entitled 
The Maryville Student. After they graduated, there was no continuous 
student publication until 1898; it was founded by a member of the 
faculty, Elmer B. Waller, Professor of Mathematics, who, as editor-in- 

224 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

chief, assisted by representatives of student organizations, published it 
until 1907, when he turned the management over to students. It con- 
tinued on a monthly basis until 19 15, when it became a weekly under its 
present name The Highland Echo. 

The first college annual. The Chilhowean, was published in 1906 by 
the graduating class of that year. It and The Highland Echo continue in 
1 969 to be the College's two student publications. Both represent a great 
deal of extracurricular responsibility and work on the part of those who 
serve on the staffs. 

Campus Government 

The first Student Council was formed in 1923, consisting of repre- 
sentatives of the four college classes and officers elected by the smdent 
body. In 1946 a Women's Student Government Association and in 1948 
a Men's Student Organization were formed, the latter succeeded in 1956 
by the Men's Student Cooperative, recently renamed Men's Student Gov- 
ernment. A Student-Faculty Senate and various student-faculty commit- 
tees have functioned for more than two decades. 

In 1968 a new structure was approved by the Directors, replacing 
both the Executive Council of the Faculty, which has had chief responsi- 
bility for academic and social matters, and the Student Council. It pro- 
vides for an All-College Council, composed of six students, six faculty, 
and six administrative officers and staff. It will have as chairman and 
co-chairman, respectively, the President of the College and the senior 
student receiving the most votes in the all-college election. Related to the 
All-College Council are an Academic-Curriculum Coordinating Council, 
a Religious Life and Activities Coordinating Council, and a Social, Cul- 
tural, Recreational Coordinating Council. 

College Regulations 

College regulations can hardly be classified as extracurricular activi- 
ties, unless the perennial effort to gtx. them relaxed be considered such. 
But they do have a bearing on student programs, especially regulations 
concerning residence and social life. Maryville, like most other institu- 
tions, has always had some definite rules about lodging and meals, 
absence from the campus, social events (dances and others), dating, 

Extracurricular A ctivities 225 

automobiles (since they became numerous), Sunday activities, hazing, 
drinking, and other matters. Social regulations in most church-related 
colleges were once much alike and were comparatively strict. A relaxing 
trend began several decades ago and was accelerated even in small 
colleges by the mood of the times and the enormous growth of universi- 

Maryville maintained longer than some a number of regulations 
about such matters as Sabbath observance (e.g. discouraging Sunday 
travel and closing the athletic facilities ) ; social events ( there were no 
dances at the College until after World War II ) ; smoking within campus 
limits; times and places of dating. The purpose of all regulations, of 
course, was and is to advance order and wholesomeness in the campus 
community, to protect students' time, and to assist development of culture 
and character. Regulations at Maryville have changed with changing 
conditions, personnel, and ideas — from decade to decade, even from year 
to year. They are among the factors which affect the number and kinds of 
extracurricular activities. For example, a student body which has limited 
freedom to scatter from the campus creates more activities on the campus 
than does a student body whose interests and time are divided. 

The Performing Arts 

Music and drama have long afforded opportunity for student partici- 
pation. Even when there were limited theatre facilities Maryville had an 
active and strong program, being the first college in the State to obtain a 
chapter of Theta Alphi Phi, national dramatic honor fraternity. Since 
1954 Maryville has possessed one of the most complete college theatres 
in the country. 

In music there have long been a choir, glee clubs, a band, and an 
orchestra, involving many students. The Maryville College Choir has had 
a national reputation for nearly two decades. For such a special presenta- 
tion as Handel's Messiah each year over two hundred students are in- 


As already reported, the organization and oral presentation of the 
materials of knowledge have received special emphasis from the earliest 

226 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

days. Literary societies and curriculum have done much in that field. 
Before its centennial year the College was taking part in intercollegiate 
debate. By the 1930's an extensive national, regional, and state forensics 
program had developed, and Maryville College was participating with 
marked success. Many trophies have been won by teams and team 
members. The number of students involved is not large, but it is a strong 
on-going activity. There is a chapter of Pi Kappa Delta, national forensic 
honor fraternity. 

Intramural Athletics 

The first athletic activity on the campus was intramural. The earliest 
report of it available today is in a letter, written years afterward by Rev. 
Dr. Calvin A. Duncan, who had entered the College as a student the first 
year after the Civil War; although doubtless there was similar activity 
there before the War. 

During the nineteenth century, interest in physical education and 
competitive sports grew steadily. This interest has continued, and within 
the past quarter of a century a systematic intramural program came to 
involve a large proportion of all students, both men and women. Much of 
it is related to the physical education requirement for graduation; but 
even varsity athletes fulfill these requirements through team membership, 
and intercollegiate athletics is certainly extracurricular activity. The com- 
pactness of the Maryville College campus community has contributed to 
the building of this strong intramural program. 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

Out of extensive research of the records, Kenneth D. Kribbs, who 
returned to graduate in the Class of 1968, has recently written an 
informative and comprehensive Independent Smdy report on the "His- 
tory of Athletics at Maryville College," to which the writer is indebted 
for many of the following facts. 


Baseball is the oldest sport with a continuous history at Maryville. 
The first student team was organized in 1876 under the name "Reckless 

Extracurricular Activities 227 

Baseball Club of Maryville College" and for three years played outside 
teams. While these early games seem to have been with independent 
teams of the area rather than with other schools, yet in a general sense 
they constituted Maryville's first intercollegiate athletics. Samuel Tyndale 
Wilson, then a sophomore, played shortstop, evidently was the captain, 
and kept careful records of each game. In an address at his fiftieth 
graduation anniversary in 1928, he reported that in three years the team 
won twelve and lost three games. In a photograph taken at that fiftieth 
anniversary are seven members of that first team. 

There do not appear to have been games with off-campus teams for 
a dozen years after Dr. Wilson's graduation in 1878, but baseball was 
continued on an intramural basis. In 1890 formation of the first Mary- 
ville College athletic association gave a boost to athletics. In 1891 a 
Maryville baseball team played five games, winning them all. In 1892 
two games were played with the University of Tennessee, initiating a 
competition which has continued to this day. The first regular uniforms 
were worn in 1893. They were a gift from Chicago, and in accord with a 
custom of the times, they had on them in large letters, "McCormick," the 
name of the donor. In 1903 a full-time baseball coach was engaged by 
the College for the first time. He was S. A. "Diamond" Lynch, who in the 
fall became also the first full-time football coach. The detailed account of 
baseball teams and schedules from then until now is an interesting and 
gratifying one. There have been outstanding teams, players, and coaches. 
There were a number of years, beginning in 19 13, when Maryville 
played major league teams on their way north from the training season in 
Florida. Baseball has been maintained as a major sport through the 
periods that many colleges demoted it because of the growing plan of 
football spring practice, the increasing competition for public interest by 
major league baseball, and for other reasons. 


The first intercollegiate football game played by Maryville College 
was in 1892. The game was introduced three years earlier, in 1889, by 
Kin Takahashi, but evidently was played on an intramural basis until 
1892. It is of interest that this first intercollegiate game was against the 
University of Tennessee, which was to become from the 1930's onward 
one of the country's football powers. Maryville lost the game 0-25. In 

228 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

later years Maryville occasionally won from Tennessee, as in 1903 and 
1906, and the two teams played some very close games in the 1920's, but 
the series closed in the early 1930's as Tennessee's football team became 
too strong for colleges of Maryville's size. There were two or three 
intercollegiate football games a year in the 1890's, until Kin Takahashi, 
the coach, captain, and quarterback graduated. In 1898 and 1899 there 
were no games, but in 1900 intercollegiate competition was resumed, and 
two games were lost that year to the University of Tennessee. 

In the fall of 1903, S. A. "Diamond" Lynch became Maryville's first 
full-time coach in football, as he had been in baseball that spring. His 
team won six games and lost one, the loss being again to Tennessee. But 
one of the six wins was over Tennessee in a controversial return game 
that lasted only one play and has sometimes been called the "six seconds 
football game." Maryville kicked off and recovered the ball behind the 
Tennessee goal line. This was ruled a touchdown; the Tennessee team 
protested and after a long argument finally left the field. The game was 
forfeited to Maryville. 

The College has fielded football teams annually since that time, 
except in the war years. There have been successes and failures, with years 
like 191 5 and 1946 when all games were won and a few when all were 
lost. The record is a good one in terms of wins and losses, and a 
noteworthy one in terms of sportsmanship and honor. Until well through 
the 1920's Maryville's schedule for most years included leading universi- 
ties of the South as well as colleges of comparable size, the larger 
universities usually counting the games as "breathers" but sometimes 
finding them to be real contests. 

The 1906 season is undoubtedly the most unique and famous in 
Maryville's football history, not because all games were won but because 
of the amazing character of the schedule and the results. After winning 
the opening game at home against American University in Tennessee, an 
institution no longer in existence, Maryville went to Atlanta and tied 
Georgia Tech, G-6, on Saturday, September 29. On the next Wednesday, 
the Maryville team started a road trip on which it played three games on 
alternate days (Thursday, Saturday, and Monday, October 4, 6, and 8) as 
follows: at the University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss"), won by Missis- 
sippi 16-6; at the University of Alabama, won by Alabama 6-0; and at 

Extracurricular A ctivities 229 

Auburn (Alabama), tied 0-0. The Maryville team then returned home 
and went to Knoxville for a game with the University of Tennessee on 
Saturday, October 13, only five days after the Auburn game, and Mary- 
ville won by the score of ii-o. Thus five games were played away from 
home within a period of two weeks, against five universities whose 
football teams for many years, as this is written, have ranked among the 
leaders in the South and the nation. It will be noted that in these five 
games Maryville scored 22 points to opponents' 28, winning one game, 
tieing two, and losing two. These and the other five games of the 1906 
schedule were played with one coach, twelve regulars, and four substi- 
tutes. It must be some kind of a record that not a single substitution was 
made in any of the three games played on the long road trip. Of the ten 
games in the 1906 season Maryville won five games, lost three, and tied 
two, the third loss being to the University of the South ( Sewanee ) . The 
coach of this unbelievable team was Reid S. Dickson, who had played at 
the University of Pennsylvania, and who later became a prominent 
Presbyterian minister. 

Another notable record was in 19 15, when a team under Coach 
A. S. Kiefer, who had played at Ohio State, was undefeated and unscored 
on during the season, the only such record in the College's football history. 
One game ended in a scoreless tie. In 1946, after but one loss in two 
seasons, Maryville was picked to play in the first post-season Tangerine 
Bowl game in Florida (which was lost to Catawba College of North 
Carolina, 6-3 1 ) . 

Lights for night football games were first installed in 1929 on what 
is now called the "old field" (its official name was "Wilson Field"). All 
home games were played there until football moved in 1952 to the new 
Honaker Field, also equipped with lights. Ever since lights were first 
installed most home games have been at night, usually Saturday night to 
avoid competition with Friday night high school games and Saturday 
afternoon games at the University of Tennessee in nearby Knoxville. 


It is with the completion of Bartlett Hall gymnasium in 1898 that 
this history of basketball at Maryville College begins. But the history of 
the game itself is not much older. Its invention by Dr. James Naismith at 

230 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

the YMCA in Springfield, Massachusetts, is usually dated 1891, but it 
was not until 1901 that the first uniform rules were set up by the 
Amateur Athletic Union. 

There is record of intramual basketball at Maryville in 1902, but 
the first intercollegiate schedule was in 1903. Of nine games played, 
Maryville won seven and lost two. The first was lost by the College to 
Knoxville YMCA by the surprising score of 9 to 12. In 1905, under 
Coach W. D. Chadwick, Maryville won eight games, lost none, and 
claimed the East Tennessee championship. In 19 10, scores by evenly 
matched teams were still low compared with those of the present era. 
That year Maryville and the University of Tennessee played three games, 
each winning one, the other being a tie, 28-28. 

The small Harriett gymnasium was the scene of games against many 
leading teams until the Alumni Gymnasium with a regulation-size floor 
was built in 1921. In the earlier years many colleges and universities had 
small basketball courts like that in Bartlett. A notable record in Mary- 
ville athletic history was made by women's basketball teams. They played 
intercollegiate schedules from 1903 until 1927. Their success was as- 
tounding, with nine seasons without the loss of a game. Basketball 
continues to be a major sport at Maryville. Its records, as well as those of 
other intercollegiate sports during Maryville's third half century, have 
been reasonably available and now are well compiled by Kenneth Kribbs 
in his work. 

Other Sports 

Track. The first Maryville College field day was held in 1893 with 
fourteen events. Evidently a reliable stop-watch was not at hand, as the 
winner of the 100-yard dash was credited with time of seven seconds. 
Maryville participated in an intercollegiate field day first in 1904, won by 
the University of Tennessee, with Maryville second. There were some 
successful track teams in various years, and by the 1930's they became 
leaders in the athletic circles of the South. Robert "Bob" Thrower was the 
track and wrestling head coach and assistant football coach for fourteen 
years until his untimely death in 1940. One of his track teams won the 
Southeastern Amateur Athletic Union Championship in 1933 and an- 
other won the Tennessee State Championship in 1939. In four other years 

Extracurricular Activities 231 

of that period Maryville finished second in the State meet and won the 
Smoky Mountain Athletic Conference title eight out of ten years they 
competed. Student interest since then has fluctuated, and many colleges of 
Maryville's size do not have track teams. 

Tennis was played at the College as early as 1886, which was only a 
dozen years after its introduction into America. Maryville's first intercol- 
legiate match was not until 1910, and regular intercollegiate schedules 
really date from the 1920's; since then there have been some strong 
teams. The first member of the athletic staff to be assigned as a regular 
tennis coach was George F. Fischbach, '33, who served through the 
middle and late 1930's. The coaching before that time was done by 
faculty members of other departments. The intercollegiate program in 
tennis has been steadily strengthened. In 1940 and again in 1949 the 
team had perfect seasons, winning ten matches and losing none each of 
those years. 

Wrestling has been popular with both students and people of the 
community ever since it was introduced at the College in the late 1920's. 
Intercollegiate wrestling is carried on under strict regulations and by the 
same honest and good sportsmanship standards as are other intercolle- 
giate athletics, even though professional wrestling has been generally 
discredited. Since a wrestling team is made up of individuals of different 
specified weights, a small college can often compete successfully with 
large universities, as Maryville's record shows. In the mid- 1920's a suc- 
cessful wrestling tournament was held among the men on the campus. In 
1929 came the first meet with an outside team, and during the season two 
members of the Maryville team entered the National Wrestling Tourna- 
ment in Richmond, Virginia, one of them winning third place in his 
weight class. In 1933, Maryville won its first state championship against 
all colleges and universities of Tennessee. The record through the years 
down to the present is a noteworthy one in competition with institutions 
of all sizes. 

Swimming teams have competed on an intercollegiate basis during 
several rather short periods — in the late 1920's and before and after 
World War II, but swimming has not been so far a continuous intercolle- 
giate sport at Maryville. 

Beginning in the 1920's women and later men students have had an 

232 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

active intramural soccer program. In 1957 an effort was made to intro- 
duce intercollegiate soccer at Maryville, and a few matches have been 


In the earlier years of intercollegiate athletics at Maryville, little 
attention was given by colleges to eligibility rules, other than that players 
were expected to be properly enrolled students. However, Maryville was 
a charter member of the East Tennessee Athletic Association, which was 
organized in 1903 and exercised some supervision over the intercollegiate 
athletic activities of its members. There is record of institutions being 
dropped for failure to live up to the constitution. On the other hand, 
when the Association awarded Maryville the football championship tro- 
phy in 1903, it voted commendation of the fact that Maryville had 
"honestly and honorably won" and had not played any men who were not 
bona fide students. 

As long as Maryville had a preparatory department, the students of 
that department were eligible for varsity teams. This was the case also at 
other colleges. It meant that academic requirements were very flexible, 
and some good players never got out of the preparatory department. In 
this writer's student days, there was some practice of enthusiastic support- 
ers in the community recruiting a few strong players (sometimes mem- 
bers of minor league baseball teams whose spring training programs were 
less extensive than at present), for the baseball or football season. They 
could enroll in a preparatory class for a term and then drop out. That was 
a generally acceptable practice. 

After the preparatory department was closed, the eligibility require- 
ments were strenthened. In 1925 the College became a charter member 
of the Smoky Mountain Athletic Conference, which set up rather good 
eligibility standards but found difficulty in enforcing them. In 1940, after 
fifteen years as a member, Maryville withdrew from the Conference, 
stating that it was increasingly concerned over a growth within the 
Conference of subsidization and eligibility practices which were contrary 
to the original conference purposes, and that it did not wish to be a party 
to condoning such violations. An accreditation requirement of the South- 
ern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools at that time was 
membership in an approved athletic conference. But the Southern Associa- 

Extracurricular Activities 233 

tion gave Maryville permission to withdraw in view of the fact that the 
withdrawal was because of the College's adherence to higher standards 
and protest against the Conference's inconsistency. 

Maryville's basic policy is to apply to all students, including athletes, 
the same requirements for admission, attendance, promotion, and gradua- 
tion. The College has never belonged to a conference with a "freshman 
rule," and first-year students have always been eligible. 


Through most of its athletic history, Maryville has not had athletic 
scholarships or other special inducements or aid for athletes. Those 
needing to do so have participated in the regular student-help program. 
There has, of course, been some financial assistance given quietly to 
individual players by interested supporters, but the College has discour- 
aged such practice. This has made it difficult to recruit superior high 
school athletes, since athletic scholarships have long been offered by 
practically every college and university which has a football team. In 
recent years Maryville has modified its policy to the extent of providing a 
limited number of academic and leadership scholarships for athletes. 
There have always been divergent opinions as to the ultimate value of 
providing special financial aid to athletes, but the tremendous popularity 
of athletics, professional and college, in the 1960's and the large sums of 
money involved have given a powerful impetus to systematic subsidiza- 
tion of college athletics. However, Maryville has moved in that direction 
much more cautiously than have most institutions. 


As reported earlier in this chapter, Maryville College appointed its 
first full-time coach in 1903. From then until 192 1, a considerable 
number of men served as coaches of the various sports, their terms usually 
being for only one, two, or three years. Some were young men earning a 
little money before going on to further study. 

In 1 92 1 Lombe Scott Honaker, who had been a coach at Southwest- 
ern University, Texas, became Associate Professor of Physical Training 
and Director of Athletics, a position he held with some advance in title 
until his retirement thirty-eight years later, in 1959. Until near the end of 
that period, he served with marked success as coach of three major sports. 

234 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

ifootball, basketball, and baseball. A coaching staff was assembled and the 
College's athletic program was steadily developed and stabilized. One 
member of the staff, John A. Davis, '30, has served since 1940. Coach 
Honaker received a number of national recognitions and trophies, his 
career being an outstanding one in the nation's athletic history. He 
died in 1964, and in 1968 he was elected posthumously to the Tennessee 
Sports Hall of Fame. His successor is Boydson H. Baird, '41, who as 
a student played under him, returned to Maryville in 1959 from a 
coaching position at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, and 
has now served a full decade. Since the 1920's, all permanent full-time 
coaches have held faculty rank; and their long tenures witness to the fact 
that the College does not dismiss coaches merely because a team has a 
losing season and fans agitate for a change, as they sometimes do. They 
are selected with the same regard for character and dedication to Chris- 
tian higher education as are other members of the faculty. Their influence 
on students has been consistently constructive. 


2^ A 150-Year 

"All of us are hard-put to see where we are going to get the funds to 
meet the demands of the coming decade." This recent statement of a 
university president describes concisely the problem faced by an over- 
whelming proportion of church-related and independent colleges and 
universities every year of their existence. It has certainly been so at 
Maryville College for 150 years. As this is written informed leaders are 
alarmed lest the present simultaneous inflation of money, taxes, and 
student enrollments may bring about a crisis in the financing of all higher 
education. Yet it is a remarkable historical fact that until now funds by 
which to survive and grow have been found somewhere — by Maryville 
and an ever increasing number of colleges and universities. 

Frontier College Financing 

The founding plans that created Maryville College in 18 19 were 
bold and detailed; but they did not include any provisions for property or 
operating funds, except the tiny student fees, which as late as 1854 were 
$25 a year for tuition and $32 for board, with rooms free. For a long time 
students were few and most of them could pay only a small part of the 
fees. The first president. Dr. Anderson, provided room and board in his 
own home for some, and paid for others out of the slender income he 
received from his churches and the farm he still owned north of Knox- 


236 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

ville. Gifts of food and clothing were received from friends, and for ten 
years, from 1825 to 1835, students earned most of their room and board 
by working part-time on the "college farm." As time passed, more 
students were able to pay something. But receipts from students were very 
small throughout the frontier period and in fact were relatively small at 
Maryville until well into the twentieth century. In 1969 they are still 
lower than at most private and church colleges. 

There were modest cash contributions from the local community 
and from individuals and congregations in the synod. Some Maryville 
families provided free boarding for students. Dr. Anderson at one time 
wrote, "Now I wish to remember, and record with a thankful heart, the 
goodness of God, that I did again and again receive by mail sometimes 
ten, fifteen, twenty dollars ... at one time I received seventy dollars 
from Dr. Emmons" (of Massachusetts). The Synod of Tennessee, al- 
though having control of the institution, had no synod funds with which 
to support it. 

Most contributions before the Civil War came through personal 
solicitations by several college "financial agents," chiefly ministers trained 
under Dr. Anderson — Eli N. Sawtell, Sr., Robert Hardin, Thomas Brown, 
and others. By far the most permanent and productive was Thomas 
Brown, who served in this capacity thirty-six years. It was largely his 
work which made possible the grounds, buildings, the two endowed 
professorships, and much of the current operation. These agents traveled 
widely over the Southwest, conducting church services and evangelistic 
meetings, as well as soliciting funds for the Seminary and College. One 
interesting report, which has survived nearly a century and a half, was 
submitted by Eli Sawtell in 1828, and covers the preceding two and a 
half years. He logs travel of 7,000 miles (on foot and horseback), and 
lists cash contributions of $1,335, subscriptions of $1,000, and expenses 
of 1 3 96, with no salary. 

There was no single gift before the Civil War as large as $1,000. 
But the Seminary and College somehow obtained funds to purchase 
ground and the Brick Seminary on Main Street in 1820 for $600; the 
adjoining lots in 1824 for $400; the College Farm of 200 acres in 1825 
for $2,500 (sold after ten years); the boarding house and lot on Church 
Street; to build the Frame College (finished 1835, removed after twenty 
years) at an unrecorded cost; to erect (started in 1853) and occupy but 
never finish th? Brick College on which $7,000 was paid; to collect and 

A I ^0-Year Financial Report 237 

invest approximately $16,000, toward a goal of $30,000, for endowment 
of two professorships; to accumulate through donations and purchases a 
respectable library of 6,000 volumes; to remain in operation without a 
break throughout forty-two years; and to educate "hundreds of young 
men . . . for the learned professions, who have attained to positions of 
eminence and usefulness," graduating an estimated 250 in all depart- 

When the College closed in April, 1861, it had indebtedness of 
approximately $1,000. But compared to that, the assets were substantial. 
They consisted of "two half-acre lots with three buildings — one wooden 
(the boarding house on Church Street), one small brick, and a large 
brick unfinished;" endowment of about $16,000; and a library of about 
6,000 volumes. An appraisal now, a century later, is of course impossible; 
but It appears that the net total assets were in the neighborhood of 

There is among the records a very interesting report made by 
General William Wallace, then a railroad president and Treasurer of the 
College, to the United Synod in May, 1863, about midway through the 
Civil War. It includes the following investment portfolio for the endow- 
ment funds: Knox County six per cent bonds, $5,100; Confederate eight 
per cent bonds, $5,000; Confederate 7.30 notes, $500; notes of individ- 
uals, $5,101.37 (plus a small amount of uninvested cash). 

At the end of the listing the Treasurer wrote: "All of which is 
believed to be perfectly safe"; and later in the report: "The Treasurer 
will only further remark that during over thirty years, the time he has 
been the Treasurer, none of the monies which have come into his hands 
during that period have been lost. If any should complain of the funding 
of the monies in Knox County and Confederate Bonds, the Trustees 
considered it the best investment that could be made at the time." When 
the War was over, however, the College was able to recover less than one 
third of these funds. 

Salvage from the War 

When in October, 1865, the first organized steps were taken to 
reopen the College, closed four years before, the total financial assets 
were depleted and uncertain, worth probably no more than $7,000 or 
$8,000. As reported earlier, the lots and buildings had been sold for debt 

238 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

and would have to be redeemed. The old frame boarding house still stood 
on the Church Street lot, but on the Main Street campus there remained 
only the ruins of the unfinished Brick College, and it collapsed in 1870. 
Furnishings, equipment, and most library books were gone. The Treasur- 
er's journal for September 4, 1866, just one day before Professor Lamar 
reopened the College for instruction, carries two important entries. One 
says, "Redeemed College Building and Lot, $54.25"; the other, "Re- 
deemed Boarding House, $217.00." 

General Wallace, the Treasurer, had died in 1864, and the notes and 
bonds in which the College's endowment was invested were in possession 
of the executor of his estate who lived in Atlanta. The executor held that 
these securities did not belong to the College, but to General Wallace 
personally. The College's attorneys through vigorous effort finally ob- 
tained the securities without court action. The new Treasurer, John P. 
Hooke, Esq., appointed in October, 1865, reported that in April, 1866, the 
sum of $103 "for keeping Bonds during the War," and $13 "for Express 
on Bonds returned" was paid to the executor; also, that in 1865-66 there 
was paid to the attorneys a total of $587 "to procure Bonds from" the 
executor. The Confederate bonds and notes, listed in General Wallace's 
last report, were of course worthless; and evidently most of the notes of 
individuals likewise. But the Knox County six percent bonds were sound 
and paying interest in full — $159 every six months. 

The Treasurer's reports to Synod show that three days after the 
College reopened in September, 1866, there was on hand $104.73. ^^ was 
the balance after the first post- War collection of accumulated and current 
interest on the recovered bonds, plus certain other income; and after 
expenditures for recovery of the bonds, for redemption of the grounds 
and buildings, and for some other obligations. During the first academic 
year and the summer following, income totaled $588.40. This and the 
opening balance gave $693.13 for use. The expenditures were $693.50, 
leaving a deficit of 37^. The total paid to Professor Lamar for reopening 
the College and operating it single-handed for a whole year was $181.50, 
probably an amount cut by him to fit the income. 

Value of the Physical Plant 

There is no satisfactory way to compare property values in different 
periods of Maryville's 150 years. The buying power of the dollar at the 

A I ^0-Y ear Financial Report 239 

College's sesquicentennial is but a fraction of what it was even at the 
centennial. The rise in cost of construction in the 1960's alone has been 
frustrating. Comparative figures from different eras, whether for property 
values or salaries, cannot be accurate; but they are sufficiently interesting 
and informative to be included in a historical report. 

Costs of the first campus and buildings, occupied from 1820 to 

1870, have been given in this chapter, in Chapters i and 3, and else- 
where. We have no formal appraisals for the College's first half century, 
but $10,000 (mid-eighteenth-century dollars) is not an unreasonable 
figure for the total physical plant value in 1861. Little except the ground 
survived the War. The boarding house and lot were sold a couple of years 
after the move to the new campus for $1,000; the ruins of the collapsed 
Brick College were cleared away and the Main Street ground was given 
to New Providence Church almost two decades later. 

The first sixty acres of a new campus cost $1,691.50 in 1867. By 

1 87 1, five more acres of land had been added, four new buildings had 
been erected, and the College had moved into them. In a report to the 
Synod of Tennessee in 1874, ^^e following costs were listed: (i) a 
three-story brick classroom building (Anderson Hall) — $22,000; (2) 
two three-story wooden dormitories, each housing 65 students (Baldwin 
and Memorial Halls) — $12,000 each; (3) a professor's residence (for 
Alexander Bartlett) — $4,000. Ten years after moving to the new campus, 
the purchase of 187 acres of adjoining land was concluded ("The College 
Woods"), at a cost of $4,007 ($21 an acre), bringing the total campus 
size to 252 acres. 

During the thirty years between 1871, the year the first four build- 
ings on the new campus were completed, and 1901, six new structures 
were added: Lamar Memorial Library (1888) at a cost of $5,500; 
Willard Memorial, the President's Residence (1890), at a cost of 
$11,000; Fayerweather Annex to Anderson Hall (1892) costing 
$12,000; the first central heating plant (1893) at an unrecorded cost; 
Fayerweather Science Hall, two stories (1898), the building costing 
$12,000 and laboratory equipment $10,000; and Boardman Annex to 
Baldwin Hall (1898), at a cost of $2,000; and other lesser improve- 
ments. To one familiar with the campus, these original cost figures, like 
those of 1870-187 1, seem incredible; but they are in the records. 

At the mrn of the century, the physical plant consisted of approxi- 
mately 250 acres of campus land, nine buildings, a private water supply 

240 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

system, and modestly satisfactory furnishings and equipment for 400 
students. It was carried on the Treasurer's books at a value of $100,000. 
When the College was a hundred years old in 191 9, the number of 
campus buildings had increased to sixteen and the book value of the total 
physical plant to $451,022. 

The following are some twentieth-century figures on the physical 
plant from the Treasurer's books: 

End of Acres in Campus Plant 

Fiscal Year 







$ 100,000 





















In this table the book values of the physical plant through 1940 
were based on actual costs; those in 1961 and 1968 on replacement costs, 
estimated for insurance and other purposes. There is an element of 
flexibility about the number of campus buildings, not because it is 
unknown, but because the number depends on whether you count only 
buildings on the "central campus"; or all within the whole campus; or, as 
is done above, those within the whole campus which are or have been 
used in the College's operation. Since 1961 four new major buildings 
have been completed and one older one (Baldwin Hall) removed. 

The largest expenditures have been for buildings erected since 1950, 
with the price per square foot rising steadily, the approximate costs 
being: Fine Arts Center (1950), $575,000; Samuel Tyndale Wilson 
Chapel (and Theatre) (1954) $700,000; Margaret Bell Lloyd Resi- 
dence for Women (1959), $475,000; Residence Halls No. i, 2, and 3, 
not yet named (1966), $2,100,000; Sutton Science Center (1968), 


It has been reported that when the College closed in 1861, it had an 
endowment of approximately $16,000. This had been raised to endow 
two "professorships," one back in the 1820's, the other in the 1840's. 
Reports in the 1850's indicate that the fund was earning almost six per 

A I ^0-Year Financial Report 241 

cent. Then during the Civil War two thirds of it was lost. To the one 
third salvaged for the revived institution it was possible to allocate about 
$8,000 from the substantial gifts received when the new plant was built. 
But by 1880 this had brought the endowment to only $13,300. 

The first substantial endowment was $100,000 raised by Professor 
T. J. Lamar between 1880 and 1883. From the time of reopening in 
1 866, the College depended largely on contributions for current expenses 
as well as for the building of a plant. William Thaw and William E. 
Dodge together were giving some $3,000 annually. Student fees were 
low and even a six per cent income from the small endowment did not go 
far to cover expenses of the larger facilities and growing enrollment and 
faculty. But the nation-wide "Panic" of 1873 ^^^ ^he ensuing depression 
dried up a large proportion of the gifts. The College began to go into 
debt. The Directors could see no long-range solution except through 
endowment. But even if economic conditions in the 1870's had permitted, 
until the lawsuit, described in Chapter 4 of this volume, challenging the 
ownership and control of the College, was settled, securing of gifts to 
endowment was virtually impossible. This litigation ended in favor of the 
College in 1880. 

In the same year the Directors set an endowment fund goal of 
$100,000 and assigned Professor Lamar to conduct the campaign. He 
went north and sought out the supporters who had provided funds to 
rebuild and sustain the College. Generous pledges were made on condi- 
tion that the full $100,000 was raised, but it took almost three years to 
secure the $100,000. President Wilson in A Century of Maryville Col- 
lege gives a dramatic account of Professor Lamar's three-year campaign 
and the two final pledges near the end of the last day of grace for 
claiming the large conditional subscriptions. Most of the $100,000 was 
paid soon, and added to that already in hand it gave a new assurance to 
the future of the College. 

The three principal donors were already generous supporters of the 
College, and others joined them: William Thaw of Pittsburgh, $25,000; 
William E. Dodge of New York, $25,000; Preserved Smith of Dayton, 
Ohio, $25,000; Sylvester Willard, M.D., of Auburn, New York, 
$10,000; West Presbyterian Church of New York City, $4,000; Mar- 
quand Estate, $1,000; alumni and friends in Tennessee, $5,000; and 
others $"5,000. 

242 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Professor Lamar's total expense account for the three-year campaign, 
including time "in the field" in northern cities, aggregating more than a 
year, is to modern campaigners next to unbelievable — 1702! 

In the 20th Century. During the i88o's and 1890's, contributions 
were allocated to the endowment fund whenever possible, and at the 
close of President Boardman's administration in 1901 it had reached 
$247,364, more than twice the total after the Lamar campaign. And 
when the College had finished celebrating its centennial the Treasurer 
reported $803,702 of endowment. The providential Fayerweather be- 
quest received before and after the turn of the century; the large Voorhees 
gift in 1905; the Forward Fund in 1 907-1 908, which brought the first of 
a series of Foundation grants to endowment; and the Centennial Forward 
Fund campaign had been the chief sources of the half million dollars 
added since 1901. When President Samuel Tyndale Wilson retired in 
1930, the total endowment reported was $1,703,277, approximately 
seven times what it was when he took office in 1901. 

In the next three decades the endowment funds grew, in spite of the 
Great Depression and World War II, more than a million dollars to 
$2,885,208. The latest Treasurer's report in hand as this is written lists 
endowment funds in 1968 totaling $3,632,208. Maryville's figures are 
not large when compared to the sixty million dollars of Tennessee's most 
highly endowed university or the six hundred million of America's 
highest; and not as large as Maryville needs. But three and a half million 
dollars is substantial, and the history of its growth is creditable. 

Current Income and Expenditures 

As a private educational institution, with no support from taxes, 
Maryville's sources of current income have always been three: student 
fees, endowment earnings, and gifts. Although church-related, its only 
income from the Church has been gifts (appropriations) subject to the 
decisions of those charged by the Church with that responsibility. 

Earlier in this chapter is mention of the operating expenditures of 
$693.50 and the deficit of 37^ in the first year after reopening in 1866. In 
the second year of operation (1867-1868), the totals went up radically, 
the first gifts for capital purposes being received then. Mr. Thaw sent 
$4,000, of which $1,000 was paid toward the new campus and $3,000 

A I ^0-Year Financial Report 243 

toward erection of a professor's residence on the new campus. The 
Freedman's Bureau (U. S. Government) sent $3,500 as endowment for 
education of Negroes ( f reedmen ) , which was invested in Blount County 
bonds. The total income for the fiscal year, as reported to the Synod of 
Tennessee, was $8,368.42, and the expenditures for current and capital 
purposes was $9,191.27. The overdraft of $822.85 was approximately 
the amount above Mr. Thaw's gift spent in building the professor's 
residence. The year's expenditures for all purposes, other than construc- 
tion and endowment, totaled a little under $1,400. The sizeable overdraft 
was covered by a loan — from Professor Lamar himself. Now and again 
through the next twenty years the record shows the College to be 
indebted to him. There is no explanation of his personal resources. 

A dozen years later with student enrollment of 200 and a faculty of 
10, the Treasurer's report for the fiscal year ended May 30,1880, shows 
income of $3,499.37, of which $1,750 or approximately half represented 
contributions again by William Thaw, William E. Dodge, and Preserved 
Smith, and $803.77 tuition for the year. The long list of expenditures add 
up exactly to the income, which one suspects may be due in part again to 
Professor Lamar trimming his salary — in any case he received the odd 
amount of $491.97. The following condensed report was submitted to 
Synod for the fiscal year ended May 31, 1884: 


Interest on invested funds 


Gifts for current expenses 


College bills of (264) students 





Salaries paid professors 


Interest on debt 






Balance against College (deficit) 


The first one hundred thousand dollar annual budget was in 
1920-1921; the first one million dollar budget was in 1961-1962; and 
the first one to approach two million dollars was in 1 967-1 968. 

The relative amounts of current income from the three basic sources 


have shifted from period to period. In 1 900-1 901 they were: from 
students, 32%; from endowment, 68%, In 1930-193 1 they were: from 
students, 53%; endowment, 46%; gifts, 1%. In 1950-1951 these per- 
centages were, respectively, 79%, 18%, 3%; and in 1968 they were 
75%, 11%, and 14%. In annual expenditures, the amounts and propor- 
tions for instructional salaries since 1931 have been: in 1930-1931, 
$83,225, which was 29% of the current expenditures; for 1940-1941, 
1103,255 (27%); for 1960-1961, $290,000 (30%); and for 1967- 
1968 they were $580,000 (31%). 

Twentieth-Century Totals at Twenty-Year Intervals 

Current Income 



$ 18,775 

$ 20,260 













A new accounting system was installed in the 1930's. Under it the 
current income and expenditure figures given here after that time include 
balances, not total transactions, of auxiliary enterprises (dormitories, 
dining hall, etc. ) . 

There is widespread concern about the future financing of non-tax- 
supported colleges and universities. The rapid rise in Maryville's current 
budget, without a comparable rise in enrollment is one sign of the 
problem. The changing proportion of income realized from students does 
not necessarily tell very much, for its does not indicate the fees charged. 
Hard pressed and having no subsidy from taxes, the private college is 
tempted to charge more and more, until it changes its clientele to students 
in higher economic brackets and /or to price itself out of the market. 
More and more students are going to tax-supported universities and 
junior colleges where total cost is lower. 

Student Fees 

In bulletins in the 1940's and 1950's appeared such statements as 
that "Maryville College counts the real qualifications for attending col- 

A I ^0-Year Financial Report 245 

lege to be interest, ability, academic preparation, character, and personal- 
ity — not extensive financial resources. Therefore, the policy is to select 
students carefully, then to keep charges as low as possible and to maintain 
a vigorous and systematic student-help program." 

This general philosophy was a major reason through a large part of 
the College's life that fees have been lower than at most accredited 
four-year colleges. The following published annual (nine months) 
charges for tuition, room, board, and average total expense (including 
also books, laboratory and activities fees, ttc. ) , in some different periods, 
are given here for record and general interest. 








$ 25.00 


$ 32.00 

$ 71.75 



$ 10.00 

































(Announced anticipated annual charges for 1969-1970 are $2,100 for resi- 
dent students and approximately $1,200 for commuting students.) 

Major Gifts 

There were six major donors in the nineteenth century. The first gift 
as large as $i,ooo ever received by the College was one of that amount 
from William Thaw of Pittsburgh in 1867. He added another $3,000 
within a year, and was a frequent donor until his death in 1889, his cash 
gifts totaling some $60,000. Mrs. Thaw continued to give up to the end 
of her life in the 1920's, until the Thaw benefactions to Maryville 
reached a quarter of a million dollars. William E. Dodge of New York, 
like Mr. Thaw, contributed annually to support of the College from the 
time it reopened after the Civil War, and gave $25,000 toward the 
endowment in the 1 88o's. Preserved Smith of Dayton, Ohio, also contrib- 
uted $25,000 to the endowment and made other gifts. A fourth major 
donor was Sylvester Willard, M.D., of Auburn, New York, who gave 

246 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

$10,000 to the endowment in 1883, and his widow gave $11,000 for a 
president's house in 1890. One of the most providential gifts was the 
bequest of Daniel B. Fayerweather, a businessman of New York, which 
was paid to the College by installments before and after 1900, totaling 
$216,000. The sixth major gift was in point of time one of the earliest 
after the Civil War. It was the $16,000, described earlier in this volume, 
appropriated by the Freedmen's Bureau of the U. S. Government, desig- 
nated for Negro education. 

, Major gifts received during the first two decades of the twentieth 
century, up to the College's centennial, included the following: $100,000 
was given in 1905 by Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Voorhees, of New Jersey, 
which made possible the Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel, a center of 
campus life from 1906 until it was destroyed by fire in 1947. Andrew 
Carnegie in 1906 and 1907 contributed $50,000 toward the building of 
Carnegie Hall; and a gift of $20,000 by Dr. Daniel K. Pearsons, of 
Chicago, went into the building of Pearsons Hall in 19 10. John C. 
Martin gave $20,000 in 1907 to establish a Bible Training Department. 
An anonymous friend in 1913 gave $26,000 toward the endowment and 
equipment of a Home Economics Department, and in following years 
added gifts until the total far exceeded $100,000. The General Education 
Board made grants of $50,000 in 1907 and $75,000 in 1916; to which it 
added $40,000 in 1923 and $40,000 in 1925, a total of $205,000, 
designated for endowment. 

In the 1920's, there were the two grants from the General Educa- 
tion Board, and one of $50,000 in 1923 from the Carnegie Corporation, 
the other principal Foundation at that time. A notable gift of $140,000 
was completed at the close of the 1920's by Mrs. Charles Oscar Miller of 
Connecticut, designated as a partial endowment of the president's salary. 
In 1926, Dr. Thomas W. Synnott set up a considerable trust fund with 
the Board of Christian Education of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U. S. A., the income from which was to go to designated colleges for sup- 
port of departments of religious education. Of this, $50,000 was for Mary- 
ville College, on condition that the College establish a matching fund of 
$100,000. This was done, thanks chiefly to a large contribution by one 
who wished to remain anonymous. During the first half of the twentieth 
century Maryville College received many substantial contributions from 
organizations and individuals of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 



Seventh Consecutive State Champion Team 



r^ w-j: 

*"" «ir"r- m.^^'Sii' 


* i». 





Harry H. Harter, Director 




President Samuel W. Boardman in center 


Dean Stone Photo 








4f ^ ^' 






Dean Stone Photo 

As Seen from the Margaret Bell Lloyd Residence 



Looking Up Little River Toward the Chimneys 

A I ^0-Year Financial Report 247 

tion, being one of the original schools on the approved list maintained by 
the National Society. 

Larger gifts received by the College in the 1940's and 1950's 
included approximately $575,000 from Mr. and Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd of 
Chicago to construct and equip the Fine Arts Center (Mr. Lloyd is a 
graduate of Maryville College in the Class of 1918); a grant of 
1 1 66,000 from the Ford Foundation, for support of faculty salaries; 
$100,000 from the Aluminum Company of America, toward endowment 
of a Chemistry Professorship; from James A. Padgett of Washington, 
D. C, approximately $125,000 (Mr. Padgett was a graduate of Mary- 
ville College in the Class of 1910) ; from the Kate Buckingham Sheadle 
Trust of Cleveland, Ohio, approximately $100,000; and more than 
$75,000 toward a new women's dormitory, from Opportunity Giving 
through the national organi2ation of United Presbyterian Women. 

In the sesquicentennial campaign during the 1960's, the largest gifts 
have included additional contributions of approximately $450,000 by Mr, 
and Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd, bringing their total gifts since World War II to 
more than a million dollars, the largest amount from the same donor in 
the College's 150-year history; approximately $750,000 by Mr. and Mrs. 
Algie Sutton of Greenville, South Carolina, toward the Sutton Science 
Center and other objects (Mr. Sutton is a graduate of Maryville College 
in the Class of 1929) ; $250,000 by Edmund Wayne Davis, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin and Secretary of the Faculty at Maryville Col- 
lege; $150,000 from the Aluminum Company of America; and certain 
contributions of other kinds, such as valuable paintings from Mr. and Mrs. 
L. H. Langston of Rumson, New Jersey (Mr. Langston is a graduate of 
Maryville College in the Class of 1913 ) . 

In a real sense all colleges are continuously engaged in a fund-rais- 
ing campaign. But from time to time there are organized intensive efforts. 
These probably have been less often the method used at Maryville than at 
some other institutions. But in the past hundred years there have been 
some vigorous campaigns, notably in the centennial and sesquicentennial 

Professor Lamar's successful single-handed three-year (1880-1883) 
effort in raising $100,000 for endowment might be called Maryville's 
first major "organized" campaign. There had been routine and special 
appeals and solicitations from 1819 onward, but the 1880-1883 effort 

248 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

was the first with the now famihar characteristics of twentieth-century 
campaigns. There was not another comparable eflFort until 1907, when 
the Directors announced a campaign to raise a Forward Fund of 
I2 00,000. It was conducted by President Samuel Tyndale Wilson, who 
personally did most of the soliciting of larger gifts, and had exceeded its 
goal by $27,000 when concluded in 1908. It set the pattern for the three 
other campaigns conducted by President Wilson within the next twenty 
years. Major features in the pattern were that all were essentially nation- 
wide in appeal, with a large proportion of the money coming from the 
northeastern states; that President Wilson personally did a lion's share of 
the work, assisted effectively in the field first by Miss Margaret Henry, 
Student-Help Secretary, and then her successor Miss Clemmie J. Henry; 
that there was no expense for professional fund-raising service; that all 
achieved the goals set; and that the initial challenge subscription in each 
campaign was made by the General Education Board, New York. 

The second and largest of Dr. Wilson's campaigns was for a Cen- 
tennial Forward Fund of $325,000, extending over the three years 
1916-1919. The amount actually raised was $500,000, and the total 
came to be known as the Centennial Half-Million Dollar Fund, this 
consisting of the Centennial Forward Fund and the additional $175,000 
received. Among the contributions were: $30,000 by citizens of the local 
community; $25,000 raised by a committee of Union Presbytery; and 
$10,000 by the General Board of Education of the Presbyterian Church 
in the U. S. A. In 1923, a First Emergency Fund of $300,000 was raised, 
and in 1925 a Second Emergency Fund of $100,000. 

For obvious reasons, extensive fund-raising campaigns were not 
possible during the depression which followed the stock market crash of 
1929, or during World War II, although there were some gratifying gifts 
and the assets steadily increased. After World War II, funds were given 
that made possible the Fine Arts Center, the Chapel and Theatre, the Mar- 
garet Bell Lloyd Residence for Women, and other buildings and facilities. 
The sesquicentennial campaign for $6 million was announced in Febru- 
ary, i960. In 1966 a revised goal of $12 million was set, toward which at 
this writing $8 million has been realized. In 1958 the College established 
the office of Director of Development, which has been filled in succession 
by Raymond Irving Brahams, Jr., (until 1966) and Bill Alexander 

A i^o-Year Financial Report 249 

Fleming. The fund-raising firm, Ketchum, Inc., Pittsburgh, has directed 
much of the sesquicentennial campaign. 

Investment Policy 

Ever since the first money was raised to endow a professorship in the 
1820's, the College has had some to invest. The minutes of the Synod of 
Tennessee contain careful annual reports prior to the Civil War by the 
Treasurer of Maryville College concerning the endowment funds. Until 
near the War they were invested almost wholly in small loans to individ- 
uals, evidently at six per cent interest. The report in 1835 listed the 
names of 36 notes held by the College, totaling $8,040.10. The Treasurer 
complained of trouble collecting interest from some individuals, the 
income the preceding year being equivalent to but 4.7% on the whole 
amount. But he wrote that he was of the "opinion that every dollar 
loaned ... is safe and well secured." In the 1850's when economic 
conditions in the area were unsettled, he reported increased difl&culty in 
collecting both interest and principal from individuals and recommended 
investing in county bonds. His report in 1863, previously quoted, stated 
that no principal had been lost, but that it was then invested about 
equally three ways — in personal loans, Knox County bonds, and Confed- 
erate bonds. After the War, with many of the personal loans and all the 
Confederate bonds gone and some new gifts received, additional county 
bonds were purchased and the plan of loans covered by personal notes 
was continued. 

The Lamar endowment of $100,000, received and added to the 
$13,000 then in the fund, created an unprecedented investment responsi' 
bility. How the Directors met it is reflected in the following Treasurer's 
report of 1885: 

Still invested in Pennsylvania and Ohio 

$ 55,000.00 

(William Thaw and Preserved Smith gifts) 

Blount County Bonds 


Knox County and Knoxville City Bonds 


Notes'secured by trust deeds, etc. 


Personal Notes 


Cash on hand 




250 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

By the time of the centennial in 19 19, the investment portfolio 
looked like this: Total endowment, $803,702; Stocks and Bonds, 6%; 
Loans, secured by First Mortgages, 85%; Real Estate, 8%; Cash, 1%. 

At the following years indicated approximate proportions have 




Total AtQount 












Mortgage Loans 




Real Estate 




With Special Trustees 




Invested in Plant 








The Board of Directors of the College has always had a Treasurer. 
Until 1 90 1 he was a director who gave part of his time to the position, 
with little or no compensation. Since 1901 he has been a full-time 
administrative officer, responsible to the President and the Board. Also 
there has been a committee of the Board to supervise the financial 
program and make investments. In 1944, for the first time, the Directors 
employed professional investment counsel, executing a management con- 
tract with the United States Trust Company of New York. The only 
securities, other than some of local origin, which the College owned at 
that time had been gifts from donors. It was the practice of the Directors' 
committee on finance to invest all available endowment funds in first- 
mortgage loans, administering them directly in the Treasurer's office. The 
securities initially placed with the United States Trust Company in 1944 
constituted about 26% of the entire investment portfolio, with approxi- 
mately 55% of all funds still in first-mortgage loans, bearing interest at 
six per cent (except a few larger loans at a slightly lower rate) . All loans 
were on properties in East Tennessee, most of them within fifty miles of 
Maryville and hence conveniently accessible to representatives of the 
College. Beginning about the time of World War II, all loans were made 
on an amortization schedule. There had been an abnormal number of 
foreclosures necessary in the depression years, but increased values during 
and after World War II enabled the College to dispose of the properties 
acquired and in most cases recover both investment and delinquent 


A I ^0-Year Financial Report 251 

In 1965 the Directors decided to discontinue the long-time plan of 
investment in mortgage loans. As this is written all funds received from 
repayment of loans and all new monies received for endowment are 
added to that under management of the United States Trust Company, 
which now has in custody 55% of the Maryville College endowment. 

Government Funds 

A cardinal principle long vigorously defended by Protestant 
church-related colleges is independence from government financial sup- 
port. This has been due in part to fear that control would follow support 
and limit institutional freedom. Roman Catholic institutions have not 
shared this fear. Large independent universities risked this many years ago 
by accepting federal and state funds for research and other programs. 
After World War II, the federal government included loans to colleges 
for dormitories and dining halls in its plans for financing more housing in 
the nation. More recent legislation by Congress has greatly extended 
eligibility of colleges for federal aid. It makes available grants for 
science, library, health, physical education, and other facilities and pro- 
grams. As such funds became available in expanding amounts, the fears 
and opposition of college trustees and officers gradually receded, applica- 
tions were rationali2ed and filed, and funds accepted by all but a few 

As has been reported, Maryville College, soon after the Civil War, 
accepted $16,000 in three grants from the Freedmen's Bureau of the 
United States Government. This was in support of the College's inte- 
grated program, into which Negroes were to be accepted. Part was for 
current use and endowment and part for the completion of Anderson 
Hall on the new campus. There is no record of further government funds 
until the first of the housing loans in 1958; except those paid for 
furnishing facilities, boarding, and instruction to assigned military person- 
nel during World Wars I and II. There have been federal government 
funds to students who are veterans, and in the 1960's there are several 
other forms of federal assistance to students and faculty. 

Since 1958 the College has secured long-term, low interest- rate 
loans to cover approximately half the cost of the Margaret Bell Lloyd 
Residence for Women, completed in 1959; to rehabilitate Carnegie, 

252 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

Memorial, and Pearsons Halls in 1958 and 1959; and to cover practically 
the full cost of erecting what are currently designated Residence Halls 
Nos. I, 2, and 3, completed in 1966. Also there have been federal grants 
toward constructing and equipping Sutton Science Center, and toward 
certain academic programs, notably the Library and Language Labora- 
tory; with further grants for projected buildings hopefully in prospect. 
Thus the United States Government now has a large investment in the 
Maryville College physical plant, as it has in hundreds of other college 
and university plants throughout the nation. In accepting financial bene- 
fits from government, the Directors of Maryville College have endeav- 
ored in all cases to protect the independence of the College as a private 
institution. Meanwhile Maryville College's 150-year financial report can- 
not be finally closed until after this volume is in print. 


Chapter! / Sesquicentennial 

Travelers 150 Years Apart 

This volume opened with the story of two American young men of the 
southwestern frontier 150 years ago, returning home on horseback from a 
two-months-long, 1400-mile journey — to found a school which became 
Maryville College. As this final chapter is written, three other American 
young men have just returned to earth from a six-day, 600,000-mile 
flight to the moon nearly a quarter of a million miles away. Each journey 
was by the fastest mode of travel of the time — a horse at five miles an 
hour, more or less; an Apollo spacecraft at 24,000 miles an hour. 

These two journeys mark the boundaries of Maryville College his- 
tory. They symbolize the revolutionary advance of technical knowledge 
and skills. Between them the College has grown from a tiny school of one 
teacher and five students in "a little brown house," to a college of a 
hundred teachers and counselors and eight hundred students from 38 
states and 10 foreign countries, in 29 buildings on a spacious campus of 
375 acres. 

In those 150 years man has discovered and harnessed more of the 
latent forces of the physical universe than in all the myriads of years of 
previous history. Maryville College has had a serious interest and some 
share in these discoveries and achievements, for throughout that time it 
has been an institution of higher learning. Maryville's faculty and stu- 
dents followed by television (also a product of the scientific age) the 
achievements of this latest adventure into space, and they shared in the 


254 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

world-wide response to the simple but moving religious act of the three 
astronauts on Christmas Eve as their spacecraft, Apollo 8, was making its 
ten scheduled orbits around the moon. They heard the commander's 
unexpected announcement, "Apollo 8 has a message for you"; followed 
by the voice of one, then of a second and a third in turn, transmitted 
through almost a quarter of a million miles of space to the earth, reading 
from the Bible the opening ten verses of the Book of Genesis: 

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was 
without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the 
Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said. Let there be 
light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God 
divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the 
darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first 
day. . . . And God said. Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together 
unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called 
the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: 
and God saw that it was good. 

These men, who were at the very moment achieving in applied 
science what no representatives of the human race had ever achieved, were 
calmly acknowledging before people in every land that the Creator is 
God. After the commanding astronaut had said, "God bless all of you — 
all of you on the good earth," a secular journal writer called that the 
"most moving moment of the flight, perhaps of the space age." 

The fantastic travel and communication of these astronauts are 
immeasurably beyond those of the two horseback riders from Pennsyl- 
vania to Tennessee in 18 19. But the reading and the acknowledgment are 
the same: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." The 
150-year history of Maryville College, founded by one of those pioneer 
horseback riders, reveals a consistent, unified emphasis on learning and 
man's response to God, recognizing the world and man as creations of 

Wonderful But Tragic 

Marvelous advances in man's knowledge and powers have relieved 
suffering, lengthened life, produced food, provided improved facilities for 
living, increased the well being and opportunity of millions of the human 

Sesqukentennial 255 

race. But also in the century and a half there were tragic suffering and 
poverty and war. Maryville College has lived through seven American 
wars, one of them closing the College and almost destroying it. In the 
American nation, side by side with its tremendous development in re- 
sources, standards of living, education, institutionalized religion, there has 
been a devastating increase in crowded cities, crime, intemperance, race 
and class conflict. It has been a century and a half both of high achieve- 
ment and of tragic failure in the nation and the world. A college 
concerned with values is needed as much in 1969 as it was in 181 9 — even 

Maryville College Men and Women 

"History is the essence of innumerable biographies," once wrote 
rugged-minded Thomas Carlyle. So it has been at Maryville College, even 
though the pages of this volume are more filled with accounts of the 
framework and the results of their work, than with their names and faces. 

An early plan for this book projected a chapter containing a limited 
number of biographical sketches of persons whose service and influence 
have been of special significance, some of whom are still living. But the 
plan was abandoned as impracticable, not for lack of such personalities 
but because there have been so many. There are chapters with sketches of 
the seven presidents, and numerous references to the second founder, 
because these few encompass the whole history of the College. 

It is impossible in a volume of this kind and size to report concern- 
ing the multitudes who have been significantly involved these 150 years in 
Maryville's life and work — as students, faculty, ofiicers, staff, directors, 
alumni, and other supporters. Yet to these must go credit for the charac- 
ter, progress, and service of the College. Its history could be told in the 
biographies of its men and women. 

Trends in American Higher Education 

As the College celebrates its sesquicentennial in 1969, it is con- 
fronted by unprecedented developments in the whole field of higher 
education, of which some have accelerated rapidly. 

The most inclusive current trend is that of rapid change. It affects all 

256 MARYVILLE COLLEGE 1819-1969 

areas of life and most institutions, including colleges. There is nothing 
new about the idea or fact of change, but the complex structure of society 
is new, the rapidity of change is new, and the pressures (frequently 
conflicting) have never been so strong or from so many quarters — from 
youth, government, publications, industry, foundations, educational asso- 
ciations, national economy. All colleges are more aflfected by outside 
forces than once they were. To control these pressures or to use them 
productively is for every college a tremendous task. 

Maryville completes its first century and a half at a time of unprece- 
dented increase in the number and proportion of American youth who go 
to college; in the si2e of individual institutions; in the consequent deper- 
sonalizing of the higher education process; in the dominance of tax-sup- 
ported institutions; in the establishment of tax-supported community 
junior colleges; in the participation of government in the support and life 
of private as well as public institutions; in the cost of operation; in 
withdrawal of the Church from support of colleges; in necessity for 
extended administrative structure and duties in every college; in student 
and faculty unrest; in the demand for specialized training; and in the 
secularization of all life, including education. 

The Future 

The directors, officers, and teachers at Maryville College in 1969 are 
aware of these pressures and trends, are confronting them with courage, 
and are moving into the future with hope and confidence. Under the 
successful leadership of President Copeland and the Board of Directors, 
the College by the end of the 1960's will have made extensive additions 
that insure an excellent physical plant for some time to come. The next 
major need will be a radical enlargement of the endowment. The direc- 
tors, officers, and faculty are convinced that the endurance, growth, and 
unique mission of the College will continue into the future. They are 
committed to the proposition that a Christian-oriented college of arts and 
sciences, of limited size, of high academic standards, with sound but 
adaptable policies, conscientiously conducted by loyal men and women, is 
an essential to the future of the Church, the Nation, and the World. 

Appendix j\ Some Significant 
College Dates 

1802 Union Academy ("Mr. Anderson's Log College"), forerunner of Mary- 
ville College, established 

18 19 Maryville College (as the Southern and "Western Theological Seminary) 
founded by the Presbyterian Synod of Tennessee through Rev. Isaac 

1820 First campus purchased 
1825 First graduating class 

1842 Chartered by the State as Maryville College 

1857 Death of Isaac Anderson, founder and first president; second president, 

John Joseph Robinson 
1 86 1 College closed by the Civil "War 

1866 College reopened by the Synod of Tennessee through Professor T. J. 

1867 A new sixty-acre campus purchased; women first enrolled as students; 
Directors reaffirmed inclusive interracial policy 

1869 Third president, Peter Mason Bartlett 

1870 College moved to new (present) campus 
1875 First awarding of degree to a woman student 
1877 First February Meetings 

1 88 1 Campus enlarged to 250 acres (including the College "Woods) 
1884 Endowment increased from $13,000 to $113,000 
1887 Death of Professor Thomas JeflFerson Lamar, second founder 
1889 Fourth president, Samuel "Ward Boardman 
1893 First central heating plant; first electric lights 

1901 Fifth president, Samuel Tyndale "Wilson; new Tennessee segregation law 
suspended Maryville's practice of enrolling Negro students 


258 Appendix A 

1 9 16 The Directors published A Century of Maryville College, by President 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson; Carnegie Hall destroyed by fire and rebuilt 

1 919 Centennial celebration 

1922 Official accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Sec- 
ondary Schools 

1925 Closing of the Preparatory Department completed 

1930 Sixth president, Ralph Waldo Lloyd 

1932 Approved by Association of American Universities 

1942 College elected an institutional member of the American Association of 
University Women, and a liberal arts college member of the National 
Association of Schools of Music 

1944 125th anniversary celebration 

1947 New curriculum adopted; Elizabeth R. Voorhees Chapel destroyed by fire 

1950 First of series of new buildings (Fine Arts Center) 

1954 U. S. Supreme Court declared school segregation laws unconstitutional; 
Maryville resumed its former integration policy 

i960 A ten-year Sesquicentennial Program inaugurated 

1 96 1 Seventh president, Joseph J. Copeland 

1967 Far-reaching new curriculum and calendar adopted 

1969 Sesquicentennial celebration 

AppendixD Directors of 

From the Centennial in 1919 to the Sesquicentennial in 1969 

Begins with the thirty-six Directors who were serving 

at the Centennial and the dates of their first election 

(In the order of first election) 


William Anderson McTeer 
Calvin Alexander Duncan 

William Leonidus Brown 
Edgar Alonzo Elmore 
William Robert Dawson 
John Samuel Eakin 
John McKnitt Alexander 
Robert Lucky Bachman 
John Beaman Minnis 
John Baxter Creswell 
James Addison Anderson 
Thomas Nelson Brown 
Samuel Tyndale Wilson 
Robert Isaacs Gamon 
James Martin Trimble 
Newton Wadsworth Cadwell 
John Calvin Crawford 
Thomas Judson Miles 

Residence When 

First Elected 












Asheville, N. C. 


Atlantic City, N. J. 



Period of 

1901— 1936 

I 907-1 948 




Appendix B 


John C. Ritter 
Henry Seymour Butler 
Woodward Edmund Finley 
James Moses Crawford 
Samuel O'Grady Houston 
Moses Houston Gamble 
J. Ross Stevenson 
David Gourley Wylie 
William Edwin Minnis 
Fred Lowry Proffitt 
John Riley Lowry 
John Grant Newman 
Joseph McClellan Broady 
William Alexander Lyle 
Morgan Llewellyn 
William Leonard McEwan 
Lewis Hopkins Spilman 
Roy Ewing Vale 
John Morgan Wooten 
Horace Cady Wilson 
Howard Anderson 
Alexander Brabsom Tadlock 
John Milton Pitner 
Milton Wilbur Brown 
Hugh McCall Tate 
Frank Healy Marston 
William Love McCormick 
Arthur Evan Mitchell 
Robert Harvey Hooke 
James Lewers Hyde 
Clifford Edward Barbour 
J. WilUson Smith 
John Henry Webb 
James Gilbert Mason 
Ralph Waldo Lloyd 
Elmer Everett Gabbard 
Thomas McCroskey 
Loren Edgar Brubaker 
Frank Moore Cross 
John Vant Stephens, Jr. 
Clyde Terelius Murray 
Theron Alexander 

Residence When 

First Elected 

Huntsville, Ala. 
Marshall, N. C. 
Princeton, N. J. 
New York, N. Y. 
New Market 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Cohutta, Ga. 
Fountain City 
Cincinnati, O. 
Cincinnati, O. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Walnut, N. C. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Metuchen, N. J. 
St. Augustine, Fla. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Alliance, Ohio 

Period of Honorary 

1909-1957 1957-1958 



1919-1958 1958-1959 




1923— 1926 









1928-1965 1965- 



1930-1961 1961- 




1935-1959 1959-1962 


Appendix B 



Residence When 

Period of 


First Elected 


Frederick H. Hope 

Flat, Cameroun, 



Robert M. Stimson 



Nellie Pearl McCampbell 




Clemmie Jane Henry 




Joe Caldwell Gamble 



Robert J. Maclellan 



Charles R. Erdman 

Princeton, N. J. 


William Barrow Pugh 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


Charles Edgar Cathey 



Stuart Nye Hutchison 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Ernest Koella 



Roscoe Dale LeCount 

Birmingham, Ala. 


John Hamish Gardner, Jr. 

Baltimore, Md. 


F. Edward Barkley 




Herman Lee Turner 

Atlanta, Ga. 



Chester Fred Leonard 



Hugh Rankin Crawford 




Harrison Ray Anderson 

Chicago, 111. 


James L. Getaz 

New York, N. Y. 



Donald A. Spencer 



John Nevius Lukens 

Birmingham, Ala. 


Albert Madison Brinkley, Jr. 



Albert Dubois Huddleston 




Inez McLucas Moser 

New York, N. Y. 


William Wood DuflF 



James Hayden Laster 



Margaret Shannon 

New York, N. Y. 


Edward L. R. Elson 

Washington, D. C. 


George Henry Vick 

Charleston, W. Va. 


Joseph J. Copeland 



David Wilson Proffitt 




Francis White Pritchard 



Glen Alfred Lloyd 

Chicago, 111. 



Edwin Jones Best 



Harold Gordon Harold 



Earl Winston Blazer 



Lea Callaway 



Lillias H. Dale 




Daisy A. Douglas 

Weirsdale, Fla. 



W. Glen Harris 

Birmingham, Mich. 


Thomas L Stephenson, Jr. 


I 957-1 964 


Appendix B 


Paul Floyd Jones 
Russell Arnold Kramer 
Robert Barr Stewart 
Edwin Adkisson Shelley 
James Ward King 
Robert James Lamont 
John Magill 

Joseph William Sullivan, Jr. 
William Garnett Walker 
Edward Brubaker 
Raymond V. Kearns, Jr. 
Herman Everett Spivey 
William A. Mitchell 
Lois Brown Murphy 
James S. Hall II 
Neil McDade 
Richard W. Riggins 
John C. Page, Jr. 
Algie Sutton 
Julian Johnson 
James N. Proffitt 
Margaret M. Flory 
William L. Murray 
Samuel M. Nabrit 

Mildred J. Langston 
Jack D. McSpadden 
Roy J. Fisher 
Harold Blake Walker 

Residence When 

First Elected 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Abington, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Columbus, Ohio 
Atlanta, Ga. 
Greenville, S. C. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
New York, N. Y. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
Houston, Texas 

Rumson, N. J. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Evanston, 111. 

Period of Honorary 
1965— 1966 

Appendix (^ Officers of 
the Board of 


Years Served 

Isaac Anderson 


John Joseph Robinson 


Thomas Jefferson Lamar 


Peter Mason Bartlett 


William Harris Lyle 


Edgar Alonzo Elmore 

1906— 1927 

William Robert Dawson 

. 1927-1932 

Samuel O'Grady Houston 


Joe Caldwell Gamble 



Robert Hardin 


William Eagleton 


Samuel Pride 


Ralph Erskine Tedford 


Gideon Stebbins White Crawford 


Benjamin Cunningham 


Fred Lowry Proffitt 


John Calvin Crawford 


Joe Caldwell Gamble 


Clemmie Jane Henry 


Edwin Jones Best 



James Berry 


William Wallace 




Appendix C 

Treasurers Years Served 

John P. Hooke 1865-1884 

"William Anderson McTeer 1884-1900 

Benjamin Cunningham 1900— 19 14 

Fred Lowry Proffitt 19 14-1943 

John Calvin Crawford (Acting) 1944— 1948 

Paul Willard Henry 1948-19 54 

Clemmie Jane Henry (Acting) 1954— 1955 

Sidney Evans Hening (Acting) 195 5-1956 

Daniel Frank Layman 1956— 


AppendixLJ Twenty-Five-Ycar 
Officers, Faculty, 
and Staff 

Name and Last Position 

Ernest Chalmers Brown, Engineer 

Margaret Catherine Wilkinson, M.A., Associate Profes- 
sor of French 

Edwin Ray Hunter, Ph.D., Professor of English 

Edgar Roy Walker, M.A., Associate Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Physics 

George Dewey Howell, M.S., Professor of Chemistry 

Susan Green Black, M.A., Professor of Biology and 
Chairman of the Division of Science 

Nita Eckles West, B.A., B.O., Associate Professor of 
Dramatic Art 

Fred Albert Griffitts, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman of 
the Department of Chemistry 

Thelma Hall, R.N., Nurse, College Infirmary 

Ralph Wallace Irwin, Night Watchman 

Jasper Converse Barnes, Ph.D., Professor of Psychology 
and Education and Dean Emeritus 

Horace Eugene Orr, M.A., Professor of Religion and 
Philosophy and Chairman of the Division of Bible, 
Religion, and Philosophy 

Eulie Erskine McCurry, M.S., Supervisor of Men's Resi- 


Years of 















I 904-19 I 2 

I 9 14-1947 
















Appendix D 

Name and Last Position 

Gertrude Elizabeth Meiselwitz, M.S., Professor of Home 

Celia Rough "Wrinkle, Assistant to the Treasurer 

Jessie Sloane Heron, M.A., Associate Professor of Eng- 

Lombe Scott Honaker, B.A., Professor of Physical Edu- 
cation, Chairman of the Division of Physical Educa- 
tion and Athletics, and Director of Athletics 

Mary Ellen Caldwell, B.A., Dean of Women 

Callie Cox McCurry, Assistant in the Treasurer's Office 

Fred Lowry Proffitt, B.A., Treasurer 

Edmund Wayne Davis, M.A., Professor of Greek and 
Latin and Secretary of the Faculty 

Jessie Katherine Johnson, M.A., Associate Professor of 

Robert Thomas Hutsell, Engineer 

Viola Mae Lightfoot, B.A., Registrar 

Margaret Susanna Ware, Dietitian and Manager of the 
Dining Hall 

Almira Elizabeth Jewell, M.A., Assistant Professor of 

Clemmie Jane Henry, Director of Student-Help and Ad- 
ministrative Secretary 

Evelyn Norton Queener, Assistant Professor of Physical 
Education for Women 

Elizabeth Hope Jackson, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman 
of the Department of English 

Jane Bancroft Smith Alexander, M.A., Associate Profes- 
sor of English 

EUzabeth Benedict Hall, Matron of College Infirmary 
Frank DeLoss McClelland, M.S., Dean Emeritus and As- 
sistant to the President 
Horace Lee Ellis, M.A., Librarian 

Verton Madison Queener, Ph.D., Professor of History 
and Chairman of the Division of Social Sciences 

Thomas Jefferson Lamar, M.A., Professor of the Greek 
Language and Literature and of Sacred Literature 


Years of 


















































Appendix D idj 

Name and hast Position 

Kathryn Romig McMurray, B.S., Manager of College 
Maid Shop 

Jessie Eleanor McCorkle, Assistant in the Treasurer's 

David H. Briggs, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman of the 
Department of Psychology and Education 

Ralph Thomas Case, Ph.D., Professor and Chairman of 
the Department of Sociology 

Margaret McClure Cummings, M.R.E., Assistant Profes- 
sor of Bible and Christian Education 

John Arthur Davis, M.A., Associate Professor of Physi- 
cal Education 

Katharine Currie Davies, Mus.M., Professor of Music 
and Chairman of the Department of Fine Arts 

Nancy Boulden Hunter, B.A., Secretary to the President 

Lyle Lyndon Williams, Ph.D., Professor of Biology 


Years of 




















Appendix tZ February Meetings 

All were ministers and most held doctor's degrees, 

but only years and names are given here 

(In alphabetical order) 

Harrison Ray Anderson 

1939, 1944 

Nathan Bachman 

1877, 1878, 


1885, 1893, 1896, 1903, 

Clifford E. Barbour 

1938, 1942, 


William Thaw Bartlett 

1912, 1916, 



Samuel Ward Boardman 

1889, 1890 

Lewis Andrew Briner 


Joseph M. Broady 

1913, 1917, 



Edward Brubaker 

1957, 1962 

Frank H. Caldwell 


Joseph P. Calhoun 


E. A. Cameron 


Joseph W. Cochrane 


Joseph J. Copeland 

1954, 1959 

John M. Davies 


Ralph Marshall Davis 


William R. Dawson 


Solomon C. Dickie 


George M. Docherty 


William M. Elliott 

1943, 1950, 


Edgar A. Elmore 

1888, 1892, 
1919, 1924 


1900, 1905, 1911, 1915, 



Appendix E 269 

Louis H. Evans 




William Hiram Foulkes 


John H. Gardner, Jr. 


James R. Hine 


Walter A. Holcomb 


William B. Holmes 


Thomas Franklin Hudson 


Raymond V. Kearns, Jr. 


Ganse Little 


Ralph Waldo Lloyd 



Donald McDonald 




George C Mahy 


Frank H. Marston 




Howard Moody Morgan 



1949, 1953 

K. Arnold Nakajima 


William T. Rodgers 


Luther E. Stein 



George E. Sweazey 



WiUiam Taliaferro Thompson 


William J. Trimble 



1898, 1902 

Mel Trotter 


Roy Ewing Vale 



John M. Vander Meulen 


Note: A changed pattern brought four or more leaders each year in 1967, 1968, 
and 1969: 1967 — James D. Glasse, William E. Cole, John T. Fry, and George E. 
Todd; 1968 — John E. Cantelon, Lisa Sergio, D. T. Niles, and four Presbyterian 
and Reformed Church Moderators, Eugene Smathers, Marshall C. Dendy, Har- 
old J. Schut, and Raymond Burroughs; 1969 (projected) — James H. Robinson, 
Raymond H. Swartzbach, and V. Bruce Rigdon. 

Appendixir Chroniclc of 
Buildings and 
Facilities on 
Present Campus 




Source of 







William Thaw 

(Burned-Rebuilt 1904) 

Anderson Hall 



Thaw-Baldwin-U. S. Govt. 

Baldwin Hall 




Memorial Hall 





Lamar Memorial Library 


Thaw-Mrs. Dodge- 

Mrs. Willard 

Willard Memorial 



Mrs. Sylvester 



to 1951) 

Fayerweather Annex- 



Fayerweather Bequest 

Anderson Hall 

Heating Plant (ist) 


Steam Heat 

Fayerweather Bequest 

Fayerweather Science , 
Hall Bu^>^^^<^- 

. , i89„8 


Fayerweather Bequest 


Boardman Annex- 


Dining Hall 

Gifts from North 

Baldwin Hall 

and Dorm. 

Bartlett Hall 


YMCA and 

Kin Takahashi Campaign 

Electric Light Plant 




Second Annex- 


Dining Hall 


Baldwin Hall 

and Dorm. 

Elizabeth R. Voorhees 


Chapel and 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph 





Appendix F 





Source of 




Ralph Max Lamar 



Mrs. T. J. Lamar 

Memorial Hospital 


Pearsons Hall 



(Women and 
Dining Hall) 

Dr. Daniel K. Pearsons 

Carnegie Hall 



Andrew Carnegie 


and Others 

Pearsons — 3rd and 



Louis H. Severance 

4th Stories 


Fayerweather Hall- 



Anonymous Donor 

3rd Story 

Swimming Pool 




Carnegie Hall 



Insurance and 



Local Campaign 

The House in the Woods 



Anonymous Donor 

Thaw Hall 


and Library 

Mrs. William Thaw 

Alumni Gymnasium 




Tennis Courts 


Varsity Teams 




( President's 
from 1 951) 

Mrs. John Walker 

College Cemetery 


Limited College 

Mrs. Walker, 



Dr. Stevenson 

Dairy Farm (buildings 


College Dairy 

T. N. Brown, 


J. W. Brown 

Pearsons Annex 


Dining Hall 




Outdoor Per- 

Mrs. John Walker 

(College Woods) 


College Gates (North 


Two Campus 

Classes '17 & '28 

and South) 


College Gate (West) 


Campus Entrance 

Mrs. John Walker 

The Steps 


West Corner 

Class of '30 


Mrs. John Walker 

Heating Plant (and) 


New Plant — 
New Site 


Voorhees Chapel Burned 


Intramural Gymnasium 



U. S. Federal Works 



Office Annex 



U. S. Federal Works 

Student Center 



U. S. Federal Works 




Appendix F 

Designation Year 


Fine Arts Center 1950 

Heating Plant 195 1 

Capacity Doubled 
Honaker Field 1952 

Samuel Tyndale Wilson 1954 

Carnegie Hall Rehabilita- 1958 

Margaret Bell Lloyd Resi- 1959 

Pearsons Hall Rehabilita- 1959 

Memorial Hall Rehabilita- 1959 

New Steam Lines i959 

Fine Arts Center — 1961 

Art Wing 
Fine Arts Center — 1961 

Band House 
Residence Hall 1966 

(No. i) 
Residence Hall 1966 

(No. 2) 
Residence Hall 1966 

(No. 3) 
Baldwin Hall Removed 1968 

Sutton Science Center 1968 




Heating System 

Chapel and 






Heating System 
Art Instruc- 
Music In- 





Source of 

Mr. & Mrs. Glen A. 



Campaigns and 

Federal Housing Loan 

Campaign and Federal 

Housing Loan 
Federal Housing Loan 

Federal Housing Loan 


Mr. & Mrs. Glen A. 

Mr. & Mrs. Glen A. 

Federal Housing Loan 

Federal Housing Loan 

Federal Housing Loan 

Sesquicentenniel Cam- 
paign; Mr. & Mrs. 
Algie Sutton; Federal 

Appendix Kj Alumni 

Awarded each Commencement by Maryville College to alumni 

selected by a joint College and Alumni plan, on the basis of their 

outstanding achievement and service 



Year of Citation 

Raymond Floyd Anderson 



Herrick R. Arnold 



Robert Melvin Arnold 



Earl Winston Blazer 



Ruth Gamble Bosworth 



Ernest Chalmers Brown 



George Brandle Callahan 



Mary Kate Lewis Duskin 



John Hurt Fisher 



Paul H. Fox 



Mary Sue Carson Going 



John Albert Hyden 



Julian Johnson 



George C. Kent, Jr. 



Lloyd H. Langston 



Reba Millsaps Lowry 



Dan Mays McGill 



Wilson McTeer 



David Samuel Marston 



Cliflford T. Morgan 





Appendix G 



Year of Citation 

Rose Wilcox Pinneo 



Leland Shanor 



Sue Way Spencer 



Richard Edgar Strain 



Roy A. Taylor 



Leland Tate Waggoner 



George D. Webster 



Lamar Wilson 



Nathalia Wright 




AppendixJil The Constitution 
of the Southern 
and Western 

Adopted by the Synod of Tennessee, Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A., 
on October 19, 18 19, and amended in 1821 (Article 28), 1823 (Article 5), 
and 185 1 (Articles 10 and 13). The original document was as follows: 

1. This Seminary shall receive its location and commencement by the di- 
reaion of the Synod of Tennessee. 

2. The members of synods and presbyteries who may choose to cooperate 
with the Synod of Tennessee in building up this Seminary and promoting its 
interests shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges of the members of the 
Tennessee Synod. 

3. There shall be thirty-six directors chosen by the synods and presbyteries 
under whose care the Seminary shall be at the time, who shall on their nomina- 
tion be divided into three classes. Two-thirds of each class shall be ministers 
and one-third laymen, one of which classes shall go out of office annually, and 
their places be supplied by a new election at the annual meeting of the Synod 
of Tennessee. 

4. All elections shall be by ballot. 

5. The directors shall meet on the first day of January, 1820, at the Semi- 
nary, and afterwards according to their own adjournments; and when convened 
in this manner twelve shall be competent to transact business. 

6. One-third of the whole number of direaors shall be laymen in the full 
communion of the Presbyterian Church, and two-thirds, ministers of the Pres- 
byterian Church in good standing. 

7. It shall be the duty of the directors to superintend and manage the 
concerns of the institution, to appoint agents to solicit donations and aid, to at- 
tend the semiannual examinations in the Seminary either in person or by a 
committee of their own body, and to report the state and progress of the Semi- 
nary at each annual meeting of the Synod of Tennessee. 


276 Appendix H 

8. The treasurer and the recording secretary for the Seminary shall be 
chosen by the directors, and shall hold their offices during good behavior. 

9. Of Professors. The professors shall be ordained ministers of the Pres- 
byterian Church, not under thirty years of age, in good standing and of good 
report, men of talents and learning. 

10. The professors shall be chosen by synods, presbyteries, and individuals 
connected with the Seminary, and may serve during good behavior. 

1 1. The duties of the professors shall be to hear the classes recite, and to 
deliver lectures to the classes at the times and in the manner prescribed by the 

12. There shall be two sessions in the year, and at the end of each the 
professors shall hold a public examination before the directors. 

13. The summer session shall commence on the first day of May and con- 
tinue to the fifteenth day of September; the winter session shall commence on 
the first Monday of November and continue to the end of March. 

14. No man shall be eligible as a professor until he shall declare his hearty 
approbation of the articles of the Confession of Faith, and the Presbyterian mode 
of Church Government. 

15. Of the Courses. This shall be the Greek Testament and the Hebrew 
Bible, Jewish Antiquities, Sacred Chronology, Biblical Criticism, Metaphysics, 
Didactic and Polemic Theology, Church History, Church Government, Composi- 
tion and Delivery of Sermons, and the Duties of the Pastoral Care. 

16. The students shall be divided into not less than three classes in prose- 
cuting the studies of these branches, as the directors may think best. 

17. The number of the professors and the respective branches which they 
shall teach shall be determined by the synods and presbyteries connected with 
the Seminary. 

18. The individual ministers of the Presbyterian Church who wish to pro- 
mote the interests of this institution and whose synods and presbyteries do not, 
shall have equal rights and privileges with the members of the Tennessee Synod 
when present at their sessions. 

19. In Metaphysics, Locke's Essays shall be read; and, as preparatory to 
the student's writing on didactic theology, he shall read and be examined on 
some well-chosen elementary works which most clearly illustrate and defend the 
doctrines contained in our Confession of Faith. 

20. After the student begins to write on didactic theology, it is recom- 
mended that he consult Doddridge, Ridgley, and others. 

21. The professor of didactic theology shall deliver lectures on the System 
of Divinity in such a manner that he shall finish the course in the time pre- 
scribed; and every student shall write and read an essay or sermon on each 
distinct subject. 

22. The synods and presbyteries shall fix the salaries of the professors. 

23. Of Funds. There shall be two funds, the one permanent and the other 
contingent. The permanent fund shall be supplied by lands, money, or bank 


Appendix H 277 

stock, the interest of which only shall be used; the contingent fund, by dona- 
tions and contributions. 

24. The contingent fund shall be used to defray the expenses until the 
permanent fund shall yield an interest sufficient for that purpose. 

25. The form of a devise shall be as nearly the same with that used by 
the General Assembly for the Theological Seminary at Princetown as the nature 
of the case will conveniently admit. 

26. No part of this plan shall be altered unless proposed a year before, and 
finally carried by two-thirds of the Synod, or by an unanimous vote when the 
amendment is proposed. 

27. Of Students. No student shall be admitted into this Seminary whose 
moral and religious character is not well-certified, and who does not give evi- 
dence of a saving change of heart and of his being a regular member of some 

28. Young men of other Christian denominations, of good moral and 
religious character, shall be admitted into the Seminary on the same principles, 
and be entitled to the same privileges, as students of our own denomination. 

29. Before young men can enter this Seminary, they shall produce a di- 
ploma from some college, or submit to be examined by the professors on a course 
of literature. 

30. No student shall be considered as having gone through the course of 
the Seminary in less than three years. 

31. No measures shall be used to enforce the doctrines taught in the 
Seminary on the students, except argument and evidence; nor shall the students 
be subject to censure or any abridgement of privileges for their sentiments un- 
less they deny the doctrines of three coequal, coessential, and coeternal persons in 
the Godhead, the total moral depravity of man, the necessity of regeneration by 
the Holy Spirit, the eternity of future rewards and punishments, and the divinity 
and humanity of the Lord Jesus Christ, or any one of them. 

32. The inspired volume is professedly regarded by all denominations of 
Christians as the infallible rule of faith and practice. Most denominations agree 
in the general respecting the essentials of religion; yet their views are different 
on many important and interesting subjects of divinity. We rejoice that all have 
liberty to teach that system which is most agreeable to their views of the Book 
of God. It is our right and privilege to do the same. We as Presbyterians have 
adopted a Confession of Faith which we honestly believe contains the system of 
truth and grace taught in the Bible. Therefore the doctrines taught in this 
Seminary shall be the system taught in the Confession of Faith of the Presby- 
terian Church, and such doctrines only as are at agreement with that system. 

Appendix J The Charter of 

Maryville College 
As Amended 
and Codified 

Originally granted by the General Assembly (Legislature) of the State of 
Tennessee, through an Act passed January 14, 1842, and amended from time to 
time by the State. 

Introductory Note 

Maryville College was founded in 18 19 under the name "The Southern 
and Western Theological Seminary," but it was chartered by the State of Ten- 
nessee in 1842 under the name "Maryville College." Amendments to the Charter 
have been granted from time to time. In the amendment of December i, i94ij 
"such provisions of the original Charter as continue to be in effect and the effec- 
tive amendments thereto" were "so summarized as to cause the rights, powers, 
and privileges of said Charter and amendments to be codified into one single 
document for the general and legal use of the corporation." 

Original Charter — 1842 

"An Act to incorporate a literary Institution at the town of Maryville, in 
Blount County, to be styled the Maryville College. 

"Whereas, Sundry individuals in the State of Tennessee and elsewhere, 
have for the laudable purpose of advancing education, and promoting learning 
in the State, contributed funds to the amount of between fifteen and twenty 
thousand dollars, with a part of which, lots in the town of Maryville, and land 
adjacent, have been purchased, and suitable buildings erected thereon; and 
whereas a regularly organized Institution of learning, has been in operation 
about twenty years in said town, under a board of directors, and now possessing 
a library of upwards of six thousand volumes, and a respectable chemical and 


Appendix J 279 

philosophical apparatus, and has sent forth several hundred alumni, many of 
whom are now the ornaments of the different learned professions, and some of 
them members of the National and State Legislatures, Wherefore to give the 
Directors the power necessary to further the beneficent views of the founders: 

"Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten- 
nessee, That the present board of directors be, and they are hereby, constituted 
a body politic and corporate, by the name and style of the directors of Maryville 
College, at Maryville, and shall have perpetual succession, and a common seal, 
and that they and their successors, by the name aforesaid, shall have, and they 
are hereby invested with all legal powers and capacities to buy, receive, possess, 
hold, alien, and dispose of any property for the use and benefit of the institution, 
and for no other use or purpose whatsoever, and may sue and be sued, plead 
and be impleaded in any court whatever, and to do whatever may by them be 
deemed necessary for the advancement of general literature in said Institution. 

"Sec. 2. Be it enacted. That a majority of said directors shall constitute a 
board to transact any business of the institution, and shall have full power and 
authority to elect a President, and such professors, tutors and other officers in 
said college as they may deem necessary, to fix their salaries, and to make such 
by-laws, rules and regulations, as in their opinion may be expedient or necessary: 
Provided, such by-laws, and regulations, are not inconsistent with the constitu- 
tion and laws of the United States or of this State. 

"Sec. 3. Be it enacted, That the estates and funds already acquired and such 
as may be hereafter possessed shall be and remain for the use of said college and 
for the advancement of learning in said Institution, and shall not be diverted to 
any other use or purpose. 

"Sec. 4. Be it enacted, That the President and professors of said college, 
with the advice and consent of the board of directors, shall have full power and 
authority to confer on any student in said college or any other person, the degrees 
of Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, or any other degree known and used in 
any college or University in any of the United States. 

"Sec. 5. Be it enacted. That no misnomer or misdescription of said corpora- 
tion, in any will or deed, gift, grant or demise, or any other instrument of con- 
tract or conveyance, shall vitiate or defeat the same, but that the same shall take 
effect in like manner as if said corporation were rightfully named: Provided it 
be sufficiently described to ascertain the intention of the parties." 

(Sec. 6 and Sec. 7 omitted here because later superseded.) 

Amendment — 1 845 

"An Act to amend an act, entitled 'An Act to incorporate a Literary Institu- 
tion at the town of Maryville, in Blount county, to be styled the Maryville 

"Section I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ten- 
nessee, That eight Trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of 

28o Appendix J 

business, except in the enactment of bye-laws, when a majority of the whole 
shall be required, and a majority of the Trustees shall have power to fill vacan- 
cies in their own body: Provided, That no appointment, so made by said 
Trustees, extend beyond the close of the next ensuing session of the annual 
meeting of the Synod of Tennessee, and said next Synod shall have power to 
fill all vacancies, and designate the term of service of said Trustees according 
to the usage and custom of said Institution prior to its incorporation." (Sec- 
tions 2, 3, and 4 omitted here because later superseded.) "Passed November 12, 

Amendment — 1883 

"We the undersigned, comprising the Board of Directors of Maryville 
College, apply to the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the general laws of the 
land for the purpose of investing said Corporation with the power as specified 
and provided in the Aa of the General Assembly of Tennessee entitled An 
Act to provide for the organization of Corporations,' approved March 23, 1875, 
as follows: 

"The general powers of said Corporation shall be to sue and be sued by 
the corporate name; to have and use a common seal which it may alter at 
pleasure; if no common seal, then the signature of the name of the Corporation, 
by any duly authorized officer, shall be legal and binding; to purchase and 
hold, or receive by gift, bequest, or devise, in addition to the personal property 
owned by the Corporation, real estate necessary for the transaction of the cor- 
porate business, and also to purchase or accept any real estate in payment or in 
part payment, of any debt due to the Corporation, and to sell the same, to 
establish by-laws, and make all rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the 
laws and constitution, deemed expedient for the management of corporate af- 
fairs; and to appoint such subordinate officers and agents, in addition to a 
President and Secretary or Treasurer, as the business of the Corporation may 
require, designate the name of the office, and fix the compensation of the officer. 

"The Corporation shall have the power to increase the number of Directors 
or Trustees; to regulate the mode and manner of appointment of the same, on 
expiration of terms of service; to regulate the number, duties, and manner of 
election of officers, either actual or ex-officio; to appoint executive agencies, and 
to pass all other by-laws for the government of said Institution, as may be re- 
quired by the denomination establishing the same: Provided, said by-laws are 
not inconsistent with the constitution and laws of this State. The term of all 
officers may be fixed by the by-laws; the said term not, however, to exceed 
three years. All officers hold over until their successors are duly elected and 

"The general welfare of society, and not individual profit, is the object for 
which this Charter is granted, and hence the members are not stockholders in 
the legal sense of the term, and no dividends or profits shall be divided among 

Appendix J 281 

the members. The members may at any time voluntarily dissolve the Corporation 
by a conveyance of its assets and property to any other Corporation, holding a 
Charter from the State for purposes not of individual profit, first providing for 
corporate debts. Witness our hands the 12th day of November, A.D., 1883." 

("Amendment obtained November 19, 1883, and accepted and adopted 
by the Board of Directors, December 29, 1883.") 

Amendment — 1941 

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises, and pursuant to the 
resolution adopted by The Directors of Maryville College in their stated Spring 
Meeting, held on the fourth day of June, A.D., 1941, at Maryville, Tennessee, 
and especially pursuant to Section 2 thereof, the corporate name of this cor- 
poration is hereby changed from "The Directors of Maryville College" to 
"Maryville College," and said corporation, under its new name, shall be entitled 
to all the rights and privileges as have heretofore been possessed by said cor- 
poration under its former name. 

State of Tennessee 
Department of State 

I, Joe C. Carr, Secretary of State of the State of Tennessee, do hereby 
certify that the annexed Instrument with Certificate of Acknowledgment was 
filed in my office and recorded on the 28th day of November, 1941 in Corpora- 
tion Record Book P-25, page 24. 

In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my Official Signature 
and by order of the Governor affixed the Great Seal of the State of Tennessee 
at the Department in the City of Nashville, this 28th day of November, A.D. 

Joe C. Carr 
Secretary of State 
State of Tennessee 
County of Blount 

Register's Office 
Received for record the first day of December, A.D. Nineteen Hundred and 
Forty-One, at 10:30 o'clock A.M.; noted in Note Book I, page 218 and recorded 
in Charter of Incorporation Book, Volume 3, page i. 

Witness my hand. 

R. C. Parkins 

Register of Blount County 

By Tressie Everett, D.R. 





Academic freedom, 158 

Accreditation, 21, 22, 144 

A Century of Maryville College, vii, 20, 

74, 113 

Alcoa, town of, 41 

Alexander, Jane Bancroft Smith, 54-55, 
153, 266 

All-College Council, 224 

Alumni, 186-189; association, 189; ci- 
tations, 188; publications, 189 

Alumni Gymnasium, 271 

Amphitheater, college woods, 246-247, 

Anderson, Isaac, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 22-23, 
72, 74-81; Memoir, 74, 84; Memorial, 

Anderson Hall, 14, 118-119, 270 

Appalachian mountains, 29, 36 

Architects, 54 

Astronauts, Apollo 8, 253, 254 

Athletics, intercollegiate, 226-234; intra- 
mural, 226 

Athletic fields, 54 

Baldwin, John C, 13, 14 

Baldwin Hall, 14, 17, 26, 52, 118-119, 

270; removed, 31, 53, 272 
Baird, Boydson Howard, 54-55, 234 

Barnes, Jasper Converse, 22-23, i44> 

160, 265 
Bartlett, Alexander, 13, 16, 85 
Bartlett Hall, 222, 230, 270 
Bartlett, Peter Mason, 13, 22-23, 72, 

74, 84-89, 263 
Baseball, 182-183, 226 
Basketball, 182-183, 229, 246, 247 
Bassett, Almira Caroline, 11 8-1 19 
Benefits, supplementary, 158 
Berry, James, 263 

Best, Edwin Jones, viii, 22-23, 69, 263 
Black, Susan Green, 54-55, 154, 265 
Blackburn, Gideon, 75, 76 
Blount, William, 34; Mary Grainger, 35; 

County, 35 
Boarding House, 9, 45 
Boardman, Samuel Ward, 16, 18, 22-23, 

72, 74, 89-93; annex, 270 
Brick College, 9, 11, 44, 45 
Brick Seminary, 9, 11, 44, 11 8-1 19 
Briggs, David H., 118-119, 267 
Brown, Ernest Chalmers, 54-55, 265 
Brown House, The Little, 9, 43 
Buchanan, John Dales, 11 8-1 19 
Buildings, college, 50 ff., 270-272 
Bushing, Arthur Story, 54-55 
Bylaws of the Directors, 66, 67 




Caldwell, Mary Ellen, 54-55, 266 
Campbell, Edward Fay, 54-55, I94 
Campus, 9, 42-57; first, 43-46; second, 

46-57, 270-272; land acquired, 47 
Carnegie Hall, 118-119, 271, 272; 

burned-rebuilt, 19, 51, 271 
Case, Ralph Thomas, 118-119, 267 
Cemetery, college, 54, 271 
Centennial, The, 20, 180; Fund, 247 
Chapel, Elizabeth R. Voorhees, 19, 23, 

51, 118-119, 270, 271 
Chapel, Samuel Tyndale Wilson, 24, 51, 

182-183, 272 
Chapel services, 195 

Chairmen of the Directors, 69-71, 263 
Chaplain, college, 54-55, i94 
Charter of MaryviUe College, 5, 278- 

281; withheld, 59; original, 60; 

amendments, 61-63 
Cherokee Indians, 31, 201 
Choir, college, 246-247 
Christian Education, Board of, 98, 107, 

Chronicles of MaryviUe College, vii, 170 
Church-Related College in America, The, 

Citations, alumni, 188, 273-274 
Coaches, athletic, 233 
College Woods, The, 47, 48, 49, 246- 

Constitution of the S & W Theol. Sem., 

5, 7, 59, 275-277 
Control and ownership, 58-71 
Copeland, Joseph J., viii, 22-23, 25, 72, 

Craig, John S., 9, 82, 150 
Crawford, Gideon S. W., 22-23, 69, 263 
Crawford, John Calvin, 22-23, 69, 93, 

263, 264 
Cummings, Margaret McClure, 118-119, 

Cunningham, Benjamin, 22-23, 69, 263, 

Curriculum, 1 21-134; new, 129, 132 

Daniels, Boyd Lee, 22-23, 144 
Dates, significant MaryviUe College, 257- 

Davies, Katharine Currie, 118-119, 267 
Davis, Edmund Wayne, 54-55, 247, 266 
Davis, John Arthur, 118-119, 267 
Dawson, William Robert, 22-23, 7i> 

Depression, The, 21, 173 
Directors, 5, 12, 58, 67, 259-262; hon- 
orary, 68 
Dodge, William E., 13, 86, 243, 245 
Dormitory life, 220 
Duncan, Calvin Alexander, 89, 259 

Eagleton, William, 9, 68, 263 

Electric lights, first, 17, 92, 270 

Eligibility, 232 

Ellis, Horace Lee, 54-55, 266 

Elmore, Edgar Alonzo, 16, 22-23, 70, 

263, 268 
Endowment, 11, 15, 87, 240-242 
Entrance requirements, 136-138 
Expenditures, current, 242—244 
Extracurricular activities, 220-234 

Faculty, 13, 147-162, 192; frontier, 149- 

150; preparation, 1 59-161; salaries, 

155-158; women, 153 
Farm, college, 9, 44 
Fayerweather bequest, 56, 246; annex, 

92, 270; science hall, 270 
February Meetings, 15, 27, 87, 196, 197; 

leaders, 268-269 
Federal housing loans, 24, 25, 251-252 
Fees, smdent, 244-245 
Financial report, 150 years, 235-252 
Fine Arts Center, 24, 51, 57, 118-119, 

Fires, major, 51 
First buildings, 9, 11 8-1 19 
First women students, 14, 15; first degree, 

Football, 182-183, 227 
Frame College, 9, 44, 11 8-1 19 
Fred Hope Fund, 198 
Freedmen's Bureau, U. S., 205, 206, 243, 

246, 251 
Frontier, 3, 30-33 
Fuhr, Tom, 22-23 



Gallaher, James, 3, 4, 76 

Gamble, Joe Caldwell, viii, 22-23, 69, 

71, 261, 263 
Gates, college, 271 
Geography, influence of, 29-41 
Gifts, major, 245-248 
Gillingham, Clinton Hancock, 54-55, 

Government, campus, 224 
Government funds, U. S., 24, 25, 251- 

Grading systems, 138-140 
Graduation requirements, 140, 141 
Grassy Valley, 6, 75 
Great Smoky Mountains, 29, 246-247 
Grierson, Martha Ruth, 54-55 
Griffitts, Fred Albert, 54-55, 265 

Hall, Elizabeth Benedict, 266 

Hall, Thelma, 265 

Hardin, Robert, 68, 263 

Harter, Harry Harold, 246-247 

Heating plant, 17, 22, 92, 270, 271, 272 

Hening, Sidney Evans, 264 

Henry, Clemmie Jane, 22-23, 69, 185, 

263, 264 
Henry, Paul Willard, 22-23, 264 
Heron, Jessie Sloane, 54-55, 266 
Honaker, Lombe Scott, 54-55, 233, 266; 

Honaker Field, 54, 272 
Honor societies, 141, 223 
Honorary degrees, 142-144 
Hooke, John P., 238, 264 
Hospital, college, 271 
House in the Woods, 194, 271 
Houston, Samuel O'Grady, 22-23, 7i) 

Houston, General Sam, 30 
Howell, George Dewey, 54-55, 265 
Hoyt, Darius, 9, 149 
Hunter, Edwin Ray, 22-23, 74, 130, 

134, 144, 265 
Hunter, Nancy Boulden, 54-55, 267 
Hutsell, Robert Thomas, 266 

Income, current, 242-244 
Independent Study, 130 
Interracial policy, 14, 24, 87, 183, 200- 

Investment policy, 249-251 
Irwin, Ralph Wallace, 265 
Isaac Anderson Memorial, 75, 170 

Jackson, Elizabeth Hope, 11 8-1 19, 151, 

Jewell, Almira Elizabeth, 118-119, 266 
Johnson, Jessie Katherine, 11 8-1 19, 266 
Jones, Anna Josephine, 54-55, 144 

Kin Takahashi, 222, 227, 228 
Knapp, George Alan, 54-55 

Lamar, Thomas Jefferson, 11, 16, 22-23, 
47-49, 70, 85, 263, 266; Memorial 
Library, 16, 270 
Lawsuit, 15, 63-66 
Layman, Daniel Frank, 22-23, 264 
Library, college, 10, 11, 57, 142 
Lightfoot, Viola Mae, 54-55, 144, 266 
Literary societies, 222; early society, 246- 

Little Brown House, The, 5, 9, 43 
Lloyd, Mr. and Mrs. Glen A., 24, 56, 

247, 261 
Lloyd, Margaret Bell, Residence, 50, 54, 

56, 182-183, 272 
Lloyd, Ralph Waldo, vii, 21, 22-23, 25, 

72, 171-176, 260 
Location of Maryville College, 5, 8, 9, 

10, 29, 41 
Log College, Mr. Anderson's, 6, 42, 75 
Lyle, William Harris, 16, 22-23, 70, 263 

McClelland, Frank DeLoss, viii, 22-23, 

131, 144, 266 
McCorkle, Jessie Eleanor, 267 
McCracken, Samuel, 9, 149 
McCurry, Callie Cox, 266 
McCurry, Eulie Erskine, 54-55, 265 
McMurray, Kathryn Romig, 221, 267 
McTeer, William Anderson, 22-23, 264 
Maryville, town of, 3, 8, 34, 35, 41 
Massey, Edith Frances, 54-55 
Master plan, campus, 55 
Meiselwitz, Gertrude Elizabeth, 54-55, 

Memoir of Rev. Isaac Anderson, D.D., 

74, 170 



Memorial Hall, 14, 52, 103, 252, 270, 

Miles, Mary, 54-55, 185 
Morningside, 22, 271 
Music Hall, Fine Arts Center, 11 8-1 19 

Name of College, 33-36; of town and 

county, 35; of state, 34 
Negro Education Fund, 213 
Negro smdents, 200-219; graduates, 206- 

New Providence Church, Maryville, 4, 

46, 100 

Oral discourse, 126 

Orr, Horace Eugene, 54-55, 265 

Ownership and control, 58-71 

Parish project, 198 

Pearsons Hall, 19, 118-119, 246, 271, 

Plant, college, value, 238-240 
Pope, Fielding, 9, 149 
Preparatory department, 7, 38, 123, 127 
Presidents, seven, 72; 19th century, 74- 

93; 20th century, 163-179 
Pride, Samuel, 68, 263 
Proffitt, David Wilson, 261 
Proffitt, Fred Lowry, 22-23, 69, 260, 

263, 264, 266 
Purpose, statements of, 109-120 

Queener, Evelyn Norton, 118-119, 266 
Queener, Verton Madison, 54-5 5, 266 

Racial integration, 14, 24, 80, 87, 183, 
200-219; suspended, 210-212; re- 
sumed, 218 

Reconstruction Act, U. S., 12 

Recorders of the Directors, 68, 69, 263 

Regulations, college, 224 

Religious life and program, 190-199 

Robinson, John Joseph, 8, 10, 22-23, 
72, 81-84, 263 

Second Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, 
78, lOI 

Segregation laws, Tennessee, 210-212; 
U. S. Supreme Court decisions, 212, 

Sesquicentennial, 25, 28, 179, 248, 253- 

Snyder, Grace Pope, 54-55 

Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools, 126, 131, 135, 157 

Southern and Western Theological Sem- 
inary, 4, 5, 7, 33, 121, 136, 275-277 

Southwest frontier, 3, 30-34; territory, 

Standards, academic, 135-146 
Steps, the, 271 

Stevenson, William Patton, 54-55, 194 
Students, 5, 13, 23, 36, 180-186, 193 
Student-Help program, 184-186, 221 
Student organizations, 221 
Student publications, 223 
Student Volunteers, 197, 221 
Subsidization, athletics, 233 
Supreme Court decisions, U. S., 212, 216 
Sutton, Mr. and Mrs. Algie, 57, 247, 262 
Sutton Science Center, 26, 182-183, 247, 

Swimming pool, 271 
Synod of Mid-South, 105; history, loi- 

Synod of Tennessee, 4, 5, 12, 203, 204; 

history, 1 01-106 
Synod, United, 64, 103, 104 

Tedford, Ralph Erskine, 54, 69, 263 

Tennessee River Valley, 6, 29 

Tennessee, Synod of, 4, 5, 12, 203; his- 
tory, I 01-106 

Tennis, 231; courts, 271 

Thaw Hall, 53, 118-119, 142, 271 

Thaw, William, 13, 14, 35, 46, 206, 
209, 245 

Theatre, 24, 54, 272 

Three Schools in One, 7 

Track, 230, 246-247 

Trail, great Indian war, 35 

Trends in higher education, 255 

Turrentine, Virginia, 54-55 

Twenty-five year officers, faculty, and 
staflf, 265-267 



Union Academy, 6, 42, 75 

Union Presbytery, 3, 4, 5, 98 

United Campus Christian Fellowship, 

University Christian Movement, 221 

Voorhees, Elizabeth R., Chapel, 19, 23, 
118-119, 246, 270, 271 

Walker, Edgar Roy, 54-55, 265 
Walker, Mrs. John, 271 
Wallace, William, 237, 238, 263 
Waller, Elmer Briton, 22-23, i44 
Ware, Margaret Susanna, 54-55, 266 

West, Nita Eckles, 54-55, 265 
Willard Memorial, 17, 90, 118-119, 

246, 270 
Williams, Lyle Lyndon, 11 8-1 19, 267 
Wilson, Samuel Tyndale, vii, 16, 17, 18, 

22-23, 72, 163-171; chapel, 272 
Women smdents, 14, 15, 182; Ladies' 

Course, 122, 123, 124 
Woods, college, 47, 48, 49, 246-247 
World War I, 19 
World War II, 22 
Wrestling, 231 

Y. M. C. A., 87, 197, 221 
Y. W. C. A., 197, 221 


The text of this book is set in Linotype Garamond 
Number 3, a type based on the designs of Claude Gara- 
mond. The display type is Palatino, designed by Hermann 
Zapf and aptly named for the Italian scribe. The print- 
ing is by Kingsport Press, Inc., on Warren's Olde Style 
Antique wove paper, and the binding cloth is from The 
Columbia Mills. The design of the book is by Gary Gore. 




The Author 

Ralph Waldo Lloyd was President of Mary- 
ville College from 1930 to 1961, and has been 
President Emeritus since 1961. His relation- 
ships to the College have included also those of 
student, alumnus, director, and honorary di- 
rector. He graduated there in 191 5 and at 
McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, in 
1924, and is an ordained minister of the United 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. Between 
college and seminary he was successively on 
the faculty of Westminster College, Salt Lake 
City, a World War I field artillery officer, and 
a junior executive in industry. Between semi- 
nary and his return to Maryville he was pastor 
of churches in Indiana, Illinois, and Pennsyl- 

Dr. Lloyd has filled various posts in the field 
of higher education, including those of Presi- 
dent of the Tennessee College Association, of 
the Presbyterian College Union, and of the 
former National Conference of Church-Related 
Colleges. In his Church he has served as Mod- 
erator of Presbytery, Synod, and General As- 
sembly ( 1 954-1 955), as Chairman of the 
Permanent Commission on Interchurch Rela- 
tions, and in many other capacities. For ten 
years he was a member of the World Council 
of Churches' Central Committee and the Na- 
tional Council of Churches' General Board. I 
From 1959 to 1964 he was President of the | 
World Alliance of Reformed Churches (World 
Presbyterian Alliance). He has written much 
about higher education, the church-related col- 
lege, and church cooperation and union. 

His responsibilities and speaking appoint- 
ments have involved extensive travel in the 
United States and throughout the world. Dr. 
and Mrs. Lloyd now live in Bradenton, Florida. 

Continued from front flap 

thirty-one years covers a fifth of the Col- 
lege's whole life, is eminently qualified to 
write this history. Dr. Lloyd has set down 
in clear perspective the elements of provi- 
dential guidance, courageous leadership, 
good fortune, misfortune, and diverse in- 
fluences which have molded the institu- 

The first chapter traces the College's 
modest beginnings and early growth, its 
near destruction by the Civil War, its pre- 
carious rebirth, its slow but steady devel- 
opment, and its eventual emergence as a 
liberal arts college of stature and stability. 
Fifteen chapters review and interpret dif- 
ferent phases of the College's life and 
service, under such titles as The Influence 
of Geography, Ownership and Control, 
The Curriculum, The Faculty, Religious 
Life and Program, Racial Integration, Ex- 
tracurricular Activities, A 150-Year Finan- 
cial Report. The final chapter looks at 
historic emphases, current trends, and fu- 
ture plans as the College approaches its 
Sesquicentennial. Nine appendixes con- 
tain important data as to names, dates, 
and facilities, and some historic docu- 
ments. More than a hundred pictures are 
grouped into five sections. Some of these 
facts and events, such as those in the 
chapter on Racial Integration, have not 
been previously published. 

This volume, with its wealth of histori- 
cal information and its reappraisal of the 
elements basic to Christian education, 
represents a valuable contribution not 
only to the institution it portrays but to 
the entire field of higher education in 
America, particularly to that of the church- 
related college.