Vol. LXVII Maryville, Tennessee 37801 - April, 1969 Number 9 All-College Council Governs MC's Policies By: Dr. Carolyn L. Blair Professor of English and Secretary of the Faculty The Maryville College statement of purpose, adopted in 1967, is admittedly idealistic. In its expression of concern for the pursuit of truth, it emphasizes com- mitment, values, and the integrity of the individual. It sets as a major goal the establishment of a vital community as the most stimulating environment for learning, describing that community as one "in which students and faculty, of varying backgrounds, abilities, talents and interests, can unite in a common pur- pose and freely discuss their differences, recognizing that when differences and tensions no longer exist, man ceases to grow." Since January, 1969, with the installa- tion of the newly-formed eighteen- member All-College Council, Maryville has taken a firm step toward proving that its statement of purpose is more than words. Six students, six faculty members, and six administrative officers and staff will hereafter constitute the chief deliberative and legislative body for the institution. They will be re- sponsible for long-range planning and for directing the activities of the entire col- lege community, under the broader pur- pose and policies set forth by the Board of Directors. (Continued on Page 2) Elected members of the All-College Council, the new governing board of Maryville College which gives equal voice to students, faculty and adminis- tration are: Left to right, starring at center— Dr. Joseph J. Copeland, MC President, and Penny Proffitt, senior of Maryville, who serve as co-chairmen of the Council; Scott Thompson, freshman, Scranton, Pa.; Lloyd Kramer, sophomore, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Chuck Rumford, senior, Colwyn, Pa.; Dr. Jerry E. Waters, Chairman, Psychology Department; Arthur S. Bushing, English professor; Frank Layman, Treasurer and Business Manager. Steve Ellis, junior, Maryville; Dr. James A. Bloy, music professor; Dr. Paul J. Ogren, chemistry professor; Dr. Boyd L. Daniels, Academic Dean; Mrs. Edwin (Lynn Ann) Best, Circulation and Reference Librarian; Dr. Carolyn L. Blair, English professor and Council Secretary. Frances Massey, Dean of Women; Bill A. Fleming, Director of Development; Bob McEldowney, sophomore, Youngstown, Ohio, and Dr. David Young, Chairman, Chemistry Department. Absent was Brian Childs, senior, Annapolis, Md. Students, Faculty and Administration Unite (Continued from Page 1) Three Coordinates Supporting the All-College Council will be three coordinating councils re- sponsible for activities in the major areas of campus life: (1) the academic, (2) the religious, and (3) the social, cultural and recreational. Smaller committees within each of these areas (such as the curriculum committee and the artist series committee) will direct specific pro- grams. Joint student-faculty-administra- tion membership on the coordinating councils and the committees will increase the opportunities for campuswide partici- pation and full discussion of issues. Step Toward Changes This new structure represents another step in a series of changes resulting from intensive self-study and redefinition of goals begun more than a decade ago as Maryville College, like other small liberal arts colleges, was challenged to justify its existence. Four years ago the Board of Directors, under the leadership of President Joseph J. Copeland, initiated the study and planning that led to the new statement of purpose and a complete revision of the curriculum. At the same time, provision was made for a reexam- ination of the total community structure and government. Thus, after the adop- tion of the new statement of purpose and the launching of the new curriculum in 1967, attention turned to this third area. Three Recommendations The Special Committee on Commun- ity Life and Structure, headed by Pres- ident Copeland and composed of repre- sentatives from the directors, the ad- ministration, the faculty, and the student body, began an investigation of every area of campus life. Five subcommittees, with a combined membership of nearly one hundred students and faculty, as- sisted the Special Committee. By May, 1968, the Committee was ready to pre- sent three major recommendations to the Executive Council of the Faculty: (1) the liberalizing of automobile regu- lations and regulations governing wom- en's residence hall hours as a step to- ward greater student independence and responsibility; (2) the establishment of a weekly Community Issues and Val- ues Series as a means of integrating religious, academic, and cultural exper- iences; and (3) the organization of an All-College Council by January, 1969, to extend decision-making to representa- tives of all the constituent groups. Nominee from 3 Areas The Executive Council approved the three recommendations. The task re- maining was to work out the details for the All-College Council so that a com- plete plan could be submitted to the Board of Directors at the fall meeting. The Special Committee began by defining the roles of the constituent groups and establishing a philosophy of community. Recognizing the uniqueness of the college community, in which an overwhelming majority of the residents are transient, the Committee sought to devise a plan that would preserve in the representation a balance between those most directly affected by the decisions and those ul- timately responsible for the health and stability of the institution. In short, the goal was to provide a common ground where the new — the innovative — could be tested in the light of experience, where representatives of various ages and tenure could insure the constructive kind of tension described in the statement of purpose. The solution was the nomination of student representatives from the three upper classes, faculty representatives from three groups on the basis of tenure, and administrative representatives from those whose position, in the judgment of the administrative staff, would make them most useful on the Council. It was decided that the president, the academic dean, and the secretary of the faculty should be automatic members. After the respective groups had made their nom- inations, the fifteen elected members were chosen in a campus-wide election. Involve More Students Revolutionary though this new struc- ture may seem when compared with that of most other colleges, it is simply anoth- er step in an evolutionary process that has long been at work at Maryville. Ed- ucation in the classroom has gradually been supplemented over the years by student involvement in campus affairs through a student council, a student- faculty senate, and numerous joint stu- dent-faculty committees. The academics committee of the student council, for example, worked diligently with the fac- ulty curriculum committee in the plan- ning and implementation of the 1967 curriculum and must be given much of the credit for the smoothness with which the transition took place. It is upon this kind of foundation that Maryville is building its new community structure. The clear desire of the students to accept greater responsibility is reassuring even to the skeptics who are wary of such a sharp departure from tradition. Offers New Direction Pausing to take stock on the eve of its Sesquieentennial, Maryville College can point to a long history of concern for community, encouragement of student involvement, and an effort to keep a- breast of current trends in education. Tangible proof of the social awareness of its graduates is to be found in the large number of national fellowship win- ners and its impressive record as a bac- calaureate source of Ph. D.'s and M. D.'s. With a new curriculum and a new struc- ture, it enters the next phase of its his- tory confident not only that the small liberal arts college can prove its right to exist, but that it is in a unique position to offer direction in American higher education. Creative Activity Program Has Busy Spring Schedule The Creative Activity Program, under the direction of Mrs. Carle M. (Connie) Davis, is in its second year of organiza- tion and has a full schedule of events operating this spring. The events are open to all students, faculty and staff members and their spouses. This program provides not only a creative outlet, but an excellent opportunity for the extension of relation- ships to those outside one's own everyday sphere of activity. The bicycling group plans local rides as well as rides into the Great Smoky Mountains, especially around the Cades Cove Loop. The hiking group takes local hikes, one-day hikes and some hikes which are overnight into the mountains. A program which is very popular with the female members of the College com- munity is the handicraft program which includes beginning intermediate and advanced seamstresses. The arts and crafts group pursues the art of decoupage and a recording group meets every Sunday in the Choir room. Photography, a hobby of many in this area, meets twice a month to discuss advances made in the field and to display (Continued on Page 4) Page Two MC's 150th Commencement June 2 Officially Launches Year's Sesquicentennial Celebration Dr. Louis B. Wright Is Commencement Speaker Maryville College's 150th Commence- ment will officially launch the Sesqui- centennial Celebration. A full, three- day program has been scheduled, begin- ning with Alumni Day on Saturday, May 31. The complete schedule is listed below. The classes of 1919, 1924, 1929, 1934, 1939, 1944, 1949, 1954, 1959, and 1964 will hold reunions. The class of 1919 will receive official recognition at the Alumni Dinner in view of the fact that they have been graduated from the College for fifty years. Early indica- tions are that there will be a good turn out by this class for their 50th anniver- sary. The Golden Scots, those who have been out of college for fifty years or longer, will hold their traditional lunch- eon at noon on Saturday. Letters have been sent to all class members asking them to return their reservations to the Alumni Office by May 26. Alumni Day is always a happy occa- sion on the campus, and it is hoped that a large number of alumni and their spouses will return for the reunion weekend. COMMENCEMENT WEEKEND SATURDAY, MAY 31 - ALUMNI DAY 9 a.m. - 12 noon — Alumni Registration May 31, June 1, 2 9 a.m. - 12 noon — Self guided tours of the campus 12 noon — Class Reunion Luncheons (see schedule below) 12 noon — Golden Scots Luncheon, Simple Simon Restaurant 2 p.m. • 4 p.m. — Tea honoring Dr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Lloyd, Chapel Courtyard. Dr. Lloyd will autograph copies of his new history of Maryville College. 4 p.m. - 6 p.m. — President's Reception honoring seniors and their par- ents at Morningside 6:30 p.m. — Alumni Dinner and Annual Alumni Association Meet- ing, College Dining Room SUNDAY, JUNE 1 10:30 a.m -BACCALAUREATE DAY — Baccalaureate Service, Wilson Chapel 4 p.m. — Senior Music Hour, Music Hall, Fine Arts Center 8 p.m. — Commencement Vespers, Wilson Chapel MONDAY, JUNE 2 -COMMENCEMENT DAY 10:30 a.m. — Commencement Exercises, Wilson Chapel 12:30 p.m. — Dedication of School House Replica. Official opening of the Sesquicentennial Celebration. SCHEDULE OF CLASS REUNION LUNCHEONS Class of 1919 — Home of Miss Catharine Wilkinson .12 noon Class of 1924 — Holiday Inn (across from airport) 12 noon Class of 1929— Home of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Keller 12 noon Class of 1934 — Holiday Inn (across from airport) 12 noon Class of 1 939 — Traveler's Restaurant ___ __12 noon Class of 1944 — Green Meadow Country Club 12 noon Class of 1949 — Picnic, Proffitt's Pavilion, Miller's Cove 12 noon* Class of 1954— Picnic, Holiday Park, Highway 411 South 12 noon Class of 1959 — Picnic, Sandy Springs Park 12 noon Class of 1964 — Picnic, College Woods _ 12 noon * Class of 1949 meet in front of Chapel at 1 1:30 a.m. Dr. Louis B. Wright Dr. Louis B. Wright, historian, author and former professor is scheduled to be the Commencement speaker at Maryville College on Monday, June 2 at 10:30 a.m. in Wilson Chapel. This will be the Col- lege's 150th Commencement and will of- ficially launch the Sesquicentennial Cel- ebration. Dr. Wright, a native of Greenwood County, S. C, received the Bachelor of Arts degree from Wofford College, in Spartanburg, S. C, in 1920. He received Masters and Ph. D. degrees respectively from the University of North Carolina in 1924 and 1926. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Dr. Wright was the recipient of 26 honorary degrees during the period from 1941 through 1965, from such institutions of learning as the University of Akron (LL.D.), the University of St. Andrews, Washington and Lee University, the University of British Columbia (Litt. D.), Georgetown University, the University of Leicester, the University of Birmingham (England), Mercer University, and the University of California at Los Angeles (L.H.D.) Dr. Wright has served on the faculties of the University of North Carolina, John Hopkins University, Emory Univer- sity, California Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, the University of Washington, the Uni- versity of Minnesota, Pomona College, and Indiana University. He was a Guggenheim Research Fellow in England and Italy from 1928 through 1930 and a member of the research staff (Continued on Page 4) Page Three (Continued from Page 3) Dr. Louis B. Wright Is Commencement Speaker of Huntington Library from 1932 through 1948. Until recently, Dr. Wright was director of Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D. C. He retired after serving in this capacity for twenty years. He has been Chairman of the Board of the John Simon Guggenheim Memor- ial Foundation since 1950 and Vice- Chairman of the Board of Directors of Council Library Resources, Inc., since 1956. He has been a life trustee of the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Strat- ford-upon-Avon since 1964. Dr. Wright is a Fellow of The Royal Society of Literature and Arts of Eng- land. Other organizations with which he has been associated are the Massachu- setts History Society (Executive Sec- retary); the National Geographic Society (Trustee); American Philosophy Society; American Antiquarian Society; American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Modern Humanities Association and many others. He is a veteran of World War I, having served in the United States Army. Dr. Wright has had several books pub- lished since 1935 on historical subjects and has also been editor of numerous items on American and English history. His latest work was "William Byrd of Virginia." In 1958, he co-authored "The London Diary, 1712 — 1721," with Marion Tinling; and in 1957 he was associated with Virginia LaMar in the publishing of "The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare Series." Other works of Dr. Wright's which have been published include "Shakespeare for Every Man," in 1964; "Dream of Prosperity in Colonial America," in 1965; and "The Prose Works of William Byrd of Westover," in 1965. He has made many contributions to professional jour- nals. Dr. Wright was made Officer of the Order of the British Empire by Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II (O.B.E.) in December 1968, and was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal by the Royal Society of Arts (London) on January 17, 1969. (Continued from Page 2) Creative Activity Program Has Busy Spring Schedule some of their results. Hiking is a part of this group too. There is a Chess Group which meets in the Carnegie Hall lobby each Tuesday at 7:00 p.m. Some of these sessions have proved to be quite lively. Admissions Staff Asks Alumni For Help to Recruit Students Maryville Alumni are reminded of the College's continuing need for their as- sistance in the recruitment of students. In view of the keen competition which exists today between the public and pri- vate institutions for qualified students, it is essential that the College use every means possible to maintain Maryville's enrollment. The dedicated efforts of con- cerned Alumni can be of tremendous help in this effort. Alumni are asked to examine carefully the young people of their acquaintance who are making plans for college, and to urge them to include Maryville in their considerations. Alumni are requested to furnish the names and addresses of these young people to the Director of Admis- sions, Maryville College, Meryville, Tenn. 37801. The college is processing applica- tions for the 1969-70 school year so it is not too late to file an application for the coming year. Two words of caution should be of- fered. First, every effort should be made to insure that the young people recom- mended meet Maryville's admission re- quirements. It is a poor policy to accept students of doubtful qualifications only to have them find they are unable to meet Maryville's academic requirements. This means that a prospective student should have an SAT Verbal plus Math score of approximately 900, or an ACT Composite score of 20; should have at least a "C" average in high school and rank in the upper half of his class. Second, Alumni are reminded that the College's resources for assisting students financially are very inadequate. The costs for the 1969-70 academic year, including tuition, room, board and basic fees, are $2100. At this point, with the commit- ments already made for the coming year, the amount of assistance the college would be able to offer any student is limited. Please address any inquiries you may have to the Director of Admissions. The College is indeed grateful for the support of its alumni in this effort. Select Gillespie to Live Summer Months With French Family Lynn Andrea Gillespie, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick S. Gillespie, 635 Belgrove Drive, Kearny, N. J., has been selected by The Experiment in Interna- tional Living to live abroad with a family in France this summer. She is currently a sophomore at Maryville College. The Experiment has been engaged in international educational Exchange since its founder, Dr. Donald B. Watt, first in- troduced a group of American youths to their French and German-speaking coun- terparts in Switzerland in 1932. It is now the most well-established program of its type in the world with representatives in more than 60 countries involved in the annual exchange of some 5,000 young men and women between the United States and 100 nations around the globe. The private, nonprofit organ- ization maintains its U. S. headquarters in Putney, Vt. The Experiment's south- ern regional office is located in Chat- tanooga, Tenn. Before Lynn arrives in her homestay community abroad, she will join ten other members of her Experiment group for intensive preparation for the adven- ture ahead. The group, with the assis- tance of an experienced leader, will dis- cuss the customs and culture of France Miss Lynn A. Gillespie and prepare to meet its people on their own terms. For one month Lynn and her fellow Experimenters will live with individual families in France. This firsthand op- portunity to develop friendships, to learn the customs and traditions, and to participate in the activities of the host country from the vantage point of a family environment, is the heart of the Experiment program. (Continued on Page 23) Page Four A Special Report Who's in Charge ? Trustees . . . presidents . . .faculty . . . students, past and present: who governs this society that we call ( the academic community'? The cry has been heard on many a campus this year. It came from the campus neigh- borhood, from state legislatures, from cor- porations trying to recruit students as em- ployees, from the armed services, from the donors of funds, from congressional committees, from church groups, from the press, and even from the police: "Who's in charge there?" Surprisingly the cry also came from "inside" the colleges and universities — from students and alumni, from faculty members and administrators, and even from presidents and trustees: "Who's in charge here?" And there was, on occasion, this variation: "Who should be in charge here?" Strange questions to ask about these highly organized institutions of our highly organ- | ized society? A sign, as some have said, that our colleges and universities are hopelessly chaotic, that they need more "direction," that they have lagged behind other institutions of our society in organizing themselves into smooth-running, efficient mechanisms? Or do such explanations miss the point? Do they overlook much of the complexity and subtlety (and perhaps some of the genius) of America's higher educational enterprise? It is important to try to know. Here is one reason: ► Nearly 7-million students are now enrolled in the nation's colleges and universities. Eight years hence, the total will have rocketed past 9.3-million. The conclusion is inescapable: what affects our col- leges and universities will affect unprecedented numbers of our people — and, in unprecedented ways, the American character. Here is another: ► "The campus reverberates today perhaps in part because so many have come to regard [it] as the most promising of all institutions for developing cures for society's ills." [Lloyd H. Elliott, president of George Washington University] Here is another: ► "Men must be discriminating appraisers of their society, knowing coolly and precisely what it is about society that thwarts or limits them and there- fore needs modification. "And so they must be discriminating protectors of their institutions, preserving those features that nourish and strengthen them and make them more free." [John W. Gardner, at Cornell University] But who appraises our colleges and universities? Who decides whether (and how) they need modify- ing? Who determines what features to preserve; which features "nourish and strengthen them and make them more free?" In short: Who's in charge there? Who's in Charge— I The Trustees By the letter of the law, the people in charge of our colleges and universities are | the trustees or regents — 25,000 of them, " according to the educated guess of their principal national organization, the Association of Governing Boards. "In the long history of higher education in America," said one astute observer recently, ^*-7<. Copyright 1969 by Editorial Projects for Education, Inc. "trustees have seldom been cast in a heroic role." For decades they have been blamed for whatever faults people have found with the nation's colleges and universities. Trustees have been charged, variously, with representing the older generation, the white race, religious orthodoxy, political powerholders, business and economic conservatism — in short, The Estab- lishment. Other critics — among them orthodox theologians, political powerholders, business and economic conservatives — have accused trustees of not being Establishment enough. On occasion they have earned the criticisms. In the early days of American higher education, when most colleges were associated with churches, the trustees were usually clerics with stern ideas of what should and should not be taught in a church-related institution. They intruded freely in curriculums, courses, and the behavior of students and faculty members. On many Protestant campuses, around the turn of the century, the clerical influence was lessened and often withdrawn. Clergymen on their boards of trustees were replaced, in many instances, by businessmen, as the colleges and universities sought trustees who could underwrite their solvency. As state systems of higher education were founded, they too were put under the control of lay regents or trustees. Trustee-faculty conflicts grew. Infringements of academic freedom led to the founding, in 1915, of the American Association of University Professors. Through the association, faculty members developed and gained wide acceptance of strong principles of academic freedom and tenure. The conflicts eased — but even today many faculty members watch their institution's board of trustees guardedly. In the past several years, on some campuses, trustees have come under new kinds of attack. ► At one university, students picketed a meeting of the governing board because two of its members, they said, led companies producing weapons used in the war in Vietnam. ► On another campus, students (joined by some faculty members) charged that college funds had been invested in companies operating in racially divided South Africa. The investments, said the students, should be canceled; the board of trustees should be censured. ► At a Catholic institution, two years ago, most students and faculty members went on strike be- cause the trustees (comprising 33 clerics and 1 1 lay- men) had dismissed a liberal theologian from the faculty. The board reinstated him, and the strike ended. A year ago the board was reconstituted to consist of 1 5 clerics and 1 5 laymen. (A similar shift to laymen on their governing boards is taking place at many Catholic colleges and universities.) ► A state college president, ordered by his trustees to reopen his racially troubled campus, re- signed because, he said, he could not "reconcile effectively the conflicts between the trustees" and other groups at his institution. How do most trustees measure up to their responsibilities? How do they react to the lightning-bolts of criticism that, by their position, they naturally attract? We have talked in recent months with scores of trustees and have collected the written views of many others. Our conclusion: With some notable (and often highly vocal) exceptions, both the breadth and depth of many trustees' understanding of higher education's problems, including the touch- iness of their own position, are greater than most people suspect. Many boards of trustees, we found, are showing deep concern for the views of students and are going to extraordinary lengths to know them better. In- creasing numbers of boards are rewriting their by-laws to include students (as well as faculty members) in their membership. William S. Paley, chairman of cbs and a trustee of Columbia University, said after the student out- breaks on that troubled campus: "The university may seem [to students] like just one more example of the establishment's trying to run their lives without consulting them. ... It is essential that we make it possible for students to work for the correction of such conditions legitimate- ly and effectively rather than compulsively and violently. . . . "Legally the university is the board of trustees, but actually it is very largely the community of teachers and students. That a board of trustees should commit a university community to policies and actions without the components of that com- munity participating in discussions leading to such commitments has become obsolete and unworkable." Less often than one might expect, considering some of the provocations, did we find boards of trustees giving "knee-jerk" reactions even to the most extreme demands presented to them. Not very long ago, most boards might have rejected such The role of higher education's trustees often is misinterpreted and misunderstood As others seek a greater voice, presidents are natural targets for their attack demands out of hand; no longer. James M. Hester, the president of New York University, described the change: "To the activist mind, the fact that our board of trustees is legally entrusted with the property and privileges of operating an educational institution is more an affront than an acceptable fact. What is considered relevant is what is called the social reality, not the legal authority. "A decade ago the reaction of most trustees and presidents to assertions of this kind was a forceful statement of the rights and responsibilities of a private institution to do as it sees fit. While faculty control over the curriculum and, in many cases, student discipline was delegated by most boards long before, the power of the trustees to set university policy in other areas and to control the institution financially was unquestioned. "Ten years ago authoritarian answers to radical questions were frequently given with confidence. Now, however, authoritarian answers, which often provide emotional release when contemplated, some- how seem inappropriate when delivered." asa result, trustees everywhere are re-exam- /% ining their role in the governance of / ^ colleges and universities, and changes -A- m seem certain. Often the changes will be subtle, perhaps consisting of a shift in attitude, as President Hester suggested. But they will be none the less profound. In the process it seems likely that trustees, as Vice-Chancellor Ernest L. Boyer of the State Uni- versity of New York put it, will "recognize that the college is not only a place where past achievements are preserved and transmitted, but also a place where the conventional wisdom is constantly sub- jected to merciless scrutiny." Mr. Boyer continued: "A board member who accepts this fact will remain poised when surrounded by cross-currents of controversy. . . . He will come to view friction as an essential ingredient in the life of a university, and vigorous debate not as a sign of decadence, but ot robust health. "And, in recognizing these facts for himself, the trustee will be equipped to do battle when the college — and implicitly the whole enterprise of higher education — is threatened by earnest primi- tives, single-minded fanatics, or calculating dema- gogues." Who's in charge? Every eight years, on the average, the members of a college or university board must provide a large part of the answer by reaching, in Vice-Chancellor Boyer's words, "the most crucial decision a trustee will ever be called upon to make." They must choose a new president for the place and, as they have done with his predecessors, dele- gate much of their authority to him. The task is not easy. At any given moment, it has been estimated, some 300 colleges and universities in the United States are looking for presidents. The qualifications are high, and the requirements are so exacting that many top-flight persons to whom a presidency is offered turn down the job. As the noise and violence level of campus protests has risen in recent years, the search for presidents has grown more difficult — and the turndowns more frequent. "Fellow targets," a speaker at a meeting of col- lege presidents and other administrators called his audience last fall. The audience laughed nervously. The description, they knew, was all too accurate. "Even in the absence of strife and disorder, academic administrators are the men caught in the middle as the defenders — and, altogether too often these days, the beleaguered defenders — of institu- tional integrity," Logan Wilson, president of the American Council on Education, has said. "Al- though college or university presidencies are still highly respected positions in our society, growing numbers of campus malcontents seem bent on doing everything they can to harass and discredit the performers of these key roles." This is unfortunate — the more so because the harassment frequently stems from a deep misunder- standing of the college administrator's function. The most successful administrators cast them- selves in a "staff" or "service" role, with the well- being of the faculty and students their central con- cern. Assuming such a role often takes a large measure of stamina and goodwill. At many in- stitutions, both faculty members and students ha- bitually blame administrators for whatever ails them — and it is hard for even the most dedicated of ad- ministrators to remember that they and the faculty- student critics are on the same side. "Without administrative leadership," philosopher Sidney Hook has observed, "every institution . . . runs down hill. The greatness of a university consists Who's in Charge —II The President A college's heart is its faculty. What part should it have in running the place? predominantly in the greatness of its faculty. But faculties ... do not themselves build great faculties. To build great faculties, administrative leadership is essential." Shortly after the start of this academic year, however, the American Council on Education re- leased the results of a survey of what 2,040 ad- ministrators, trustees, faculty members, and students foresaw for higher education in the 1970's. Most thought "the authority of top administrators in making broad policy decisions will be significantly eroded or diffused." And three out of four faculty members said they found the prospect "desirable." Who's in charge? Clearly the answer to that question changes with every passing day. With it all, the job of the president has grown to unprecedented propor- tions. The old responsibilities of lead- ing the faculty and students have proliferated. The new responsibilities of money- raising and business management have been heaped on top of them. The brief span of the typical presi- dency — about eight years — testifies to the roughness of the task. Yet a president and his administration very often exert a decisive influence in governing a college or university. One president can set a pace and tone that invigorate an entire institution. Another presi- dent can enervate it. At Columbia University, for instance, following last year's disturbances there, an impartial fact- finding commission headed by Archibald Cox traced much of the unrest among students and faculty members to "Columbia's organization and style of administration": "The administration of Columbia's affairs too often conveyed an attitude of authoritarianism and invited distrust. In part, the appearance resulted from style; for example, it gave affront to read that an influential university official was no more in- terested in student opinion on matters of intense concern to students than he was in their taste for strawberries. "In part, the appearance reflected the true state of affairs. . . . The president was unwilling to sur- render absolute disciplinary powers. In addition, government by improvisation seems to have been not an exception, but the rule." At San Francisco State College, last December, the leadership of Acting Presidents. I. Hayakawa, whether one approved it or not, was similarly de- cisive. He confronted student demonstrators, prom- ised to suspend any faculty members or students who disrupted the campus, reopened the institution under police protection, and then considered the dissidents' demands. But looking ahead, he said, "We must eventually put campus discipline in the hands of responsible faculty and student groups who will work coopera- tively with administrations . . . ." Who's in charge? "However the power mixture may be stirred," says Dean W. Donald Bowles of American Uni- versity, "in an institution aspiring to quality, the role of the faculty remains central. No president can prevail indefinitely without at least the tacit support of the faculty. Few deans will last more than a year or two if the faculty does not approve their policies." The power of the faculty in the academic ac- tivities of a college or university has long been recog- nized. Few boards of trustees would seriously con- sider infringing on the faculty's authority over what goes on in the classroom. As for the college or university president, he almost always would agree with McGeorge Bundy, president of the Ford Foun- dation, that he is, "on academic matters, the agent and not the master of the faculty." A joint statement by three major organizations representing trustees, presidents, and professors has spelled out the faculty's role in governing a college or university. It says, in part: "The faculty has primary responsibility for such fundamental areas as curriculum, subject matter and methods of instruction, research, faculty status, and those aspects of student life which relate to the educational process. "On these matters, the power of review or final decision lodged in the governing board or delegated by it to the president should be exercised adversely only in exceptional circumstances. . . . "The faculty sets the requirements for the degrees offered in course, determines when the requirements have been met, and authorizes the president and board to grant the degrees thus achieved. "Faculty status and related matters are primarily a faculty responsibility. This area includes appoint- ments, reappointments, decisions not to reappoint, promotions, the granting of tenure, and dismissal. . . . The governing board and president should, on V i ru * Mi.. questions of faculty status, as in other matters where the faculty has primary responsibility, concur with the faculty judgment except in rare instances and for compelling reasons which should be stated in detail. "The faculty should actively participate in the determination of policies and procedures governing salary increases. . . . "Agencies for faculty participation in the govern- ment of the college or university should be estab- lished at each level where faculty responsibility is present. ..." Few have quarreled with the underlying reason for such faculty autonomy: the protection of aca- demic freedom. But some thoughtful observers of the college and university scene think some way must be found to prevent an undesirable side effect: the perpetuation of comfortable ruts, in which individ- ual faculty members might prefer to preserve the status quo rather than approve changes that the welfare of their students, their institutions, and society might demand. The president of George Washington University, Lloyd H. Elliott, put it this way last fall: "Under the banner of academic freedom, [the individual professor's] authority for his own course has become an almost unchallenged right. He has been not only free to ignore suggestions for change, but licensed, it is assumed, to prevent any change he himself does not choose. "Even in departments where courses are sequen- tial, the individual professor chooses the degree to Who's in Charge —III The Faculty 'Tf ■ ' m iiritb v. &/y _ rwT_P_r-vj-ur^*^-^s Who's in Charge— IV The Students 5/ .m which he will accommodate his course to others in the sequence. The question then becomes: What restructuring is possible or desirable within the context of the professor's academic freedom?" nother phenomenon has af- fected the faculty's role in governing the colleges and universities in recent years. Louis T. Benezet, president of the Claremont Graduate School and University Center, describes it thus: "Socially, the greatest change that has taken place on the American campus is the pro- fessional ization of the faculty. . . . The pattern of faculty activity both inside and outside the institution has changed accordingly. "The original faculty corporation was the univer- sity. It is now quite unstable, composed of mobile professors whose employment depends on regional or national conditions in their field, rather than on an organic relationship to their institution and even less on the relationship to their administrative heads. . . . "With such powerful changes at work strengthen- ing the professor as a specialist, it has become more difficult to promote faculty responsibility for edu- cational policy." Said Columbia trustee William S. Paley: "It has been my own observation that faculties tend to as- sume the attitude that they are a detached ar- bitrating force between students on one hand and administrators on the other, with no immediate responsibility for the university as a whole." Yet in theory, at least, faculty members seem to favor the idea of taking a greater part in governing their colleges and universities. In the American Council on Education's survey of predictions for the 1970's, 99 per cent of the faculty members who responded said such participation was "highly desirable" or "essential." Three out of four said it was "almost certain" or "very likely" to develop. (Eight out of ten administrators agreed that greater faculty par- ticipation was desirable, although they were con- siderably less optimistic about its coming about.) In another survey by the American Council on Education, Archie R. Dykes — now chancellor of the University of Tennessee at Martin — interviewed 106 faculty members at a large midwestern univer- sity to get their views on helping to run the in- stitution. He found "a pervasive ambivalence in faculty attitudes toward participation in decision- making." Faculty members "indicated the faculty should have a strong, active, and influential role in de- cisions," but "revealed a strong reticence to give the time such a role would require," Mr. Dykes re- ported. "Asserting that faculty participation is es- sential, they placed participation at the bottom of the professional priority list and deprecated their colleagues who do participate." Kramer Rohfleisch, a history professor at San Diego State College, put it this way at a meeting of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: "If we do shoulder this burden [of academic governance] to excess, just who will tend the academic store, do the teaching, and extend the range of human knowledge?" The report of a colloquium at Teachers College, New York, took a different view: "Future encoun- ters [on the campuses] may be even less likely of resolution than the present difficulties unless both faculty members and students soon gain widened perspectives on issues of university governance." Who's in charge? Today a new group has burst into the picture: the col- lege and university students them- selves. The issues arousing students have been numerous. Last academic year, a nationwide survey by Educa- tional Testing Service found, the Number 1 cause of student unrest was the war in Vietnam; it caused protests at 34 per cent of the 859 four-year colleges and universities studied. The second most frequent cause of unrest was dormitory regulations. This year, many of the most violent campus demonstra- tions have centered on civil rights. In many instances the stated issues were the real causes of student protest. In others they provided excuses to radical students whose aims were less the correction of specific ills or the reform of their col- leges and universities than the destruction of the political and social system as a whole. It is impor- tant to differentiate the two, and a look at the dramatis personae can be instructive in doing so. at the left — the "New Left," not to be con- /% fused with old-style liberalism — is Stu- / — ^ dents for a Democratic Society, whose ^L M leaders often use the issue of university reform to mobilize support from their fellow students and to "radicalize" them. The major concern of sds is not with the colleges and universities per se, but with American society as a whole. "It is basically impossible to have an honest university in a dishonest society," said the chairman of sds at Columbia, Mark Rudd, in what was a fairly representative statement of the sds attitude. Last year's turmoil at Columbia, in his view, was im- mensely valuable as a way of educating students and the public to the "corrupt and exploitative" nature of U.S. society. "It's as if you had reformed Heidelberg in 1938," an sds member is likely to say, in explanation of his philosophy. "You would still have had Hitler's Germany outside the university walls." The sds was founded in 1962. Today it is a loosely organized group with some 35,000 members, on about 350 campuses. Nearly everyone who has studied the sds phenomenon agrees its members are highly idealistic and very bright. Their idealism has 'Student power' has many meanings, as the young seek a role in college governance '^Sp-- - . -tec -s ^P^ypTh. r H -?£k I M .V- •"■''• t^' , A Oi M A r c Sw-> Attached to a college (intellectually, led them to a disappointment with the society around them, and they have concluded it is corrupt. Most sds members disapprove of the Russian experience with socialism, but they seem to admire the Cuban brand. Recently, however, members re- turning from visits to Cuba have appeared disil- lusioned by repressive measures they have seen the government applying there. The meetings of sds — and, to a large extent, the activities of the national organization, generally — have an improvisational quality about them. This often carries over into the sds view of the future. "We can't explain what form the society will take after the revolution," a member will say. "We'll just have to wait and see how it develops." In recent months the sds outlook has become in- creasingly bitter. Some observers, noting the escala- tion in militant rhetoric coming from sds head- quarters in Chicago, fear the radical movement soon may adopt a more openly aggressive strategy. Still, it is doubtful that sds, in its present state of organization, would be capable of any sustained, concerted assault on the institutions of society. The organization is diffuse, and its members have a strong antipathy toward authority. They dislike carrying out orders, whatever the source. Far more influential in the long run, most observers believe, will be the U.S. National Student Association. In the current spectrum of student activism on the campuses, leaders of the nsa consider their members "moderates," not radicals. A former nsa president, Edward A. Schwartz, explains the difference: "The moderate student says, 'We'll go on strike, rather than burn the buildings down.' " The nsa is the national organization of elected student governments on nearly 400 campuses. Its Washington office shows an increasing efficiency and militancy — a reflection, perhaps, of the fact that many college students take student government much more seriously, today, than in the past. The nsa talks of "student power" and works at it: more student participation in the decision-making at the country's colleges and universities. And it wants changes in the teaching process and the traditional curriculum. In pursuit of these goals, the nsa sends advisers around the country to help student governments with their battles. The advisers often urge the students to take their challenges to authority to the emotionally) and detached (physically), alumni can be a great and healthy force courts, and the nsa's central office maintains an up-to-date file of precedent cases and judicial decisions. A major aim of nsa this year is reform of the academic process. With a $315,000 grant from the Ford Foundation, the association has established a center for educational reform, which encourages students to set up their own classes as alternative models, demonstrating to the colleges and univer- sities the kinds of learning that students consider worthwhile. The Ford grant, say nsa officials, will be used to "generate quiet revolutions instead of ugly ones" on college campuses. The nsa today is an organiza- tion that wants to reform society from within, rather than destroy it and then try to rebuild. Also in the picture are organizations of militant Negro students, such as the Congress for the Unity of Black Students, whose founding sessions at Shaw University last spring drew 78 delegates from 37 colleges and universities. The congress is intended as a campus successor to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. It will push for courses on the history, culture, art, literature, and music of Negroes. Its founders urged students to pursue their goals without interfering with the orderly operation of their colleges or jeopardizing their own academic activities. (Some other organizations of black students are considerably more militant.) And, as a "constructive alternative to the disrup- tive approach," an organization called Associated Student Governments of the U.S.A. claims a mem- bership of 1 50 student governments and proclaims that it has "no political intent or purpose," only "the sharing of ideas about student government." These are some of the principal national groups. In addition, many others exist as purely local or- ganizations, concerned with only one campus or specific issues. Except for those whose aim is outright dis- ruption for disruption's sake, many such . student reformers are gaining a respectful I hearing from college and university ad- ministrators, faculty members, and trustees — even as the more radical militants are meeting greater resistance. And increasing numbers of institutions have devised, or are seeking, ways of making the students a part of the campus decision-making process. It isn't easy. "The problem of constructive student participation — participation that gets down to the 'nitty-gritty' — is of course difficult," Dean C. Peter Magrath of the University of Nebraska's College of Arts and Sciences has written. "Students are birds of passage who usually lack the expertise and sophistication to function effectively on complex university affairs until their junior and senior years. Within a year or two they graduate, but the ad- ministration and faculty are left with the policies they helped devise. A student generation lasts for lour years; colleges and universities are more permanent." Yale University's President Kingman Brewster, testifying before the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, gave these four "prescriptions" for peaceful student involvement: ► Free expression must be "absolutely guaran- teed, no matter how critical or demonstrative it may be." ► Students must have an opportunity to take part in "the shaping and direction of the programs, activities, and regulations which affect them." ► Channels of communication must be kept open. "The freedom of student expression must be matched by a willingness to listen seriously." ► The student must be treated as an individual, with "considerable latitude to design his own program and way of life." With such guidelines, accompanied by positive action to give students a voice in the college and university affairs that concern them, many observers think a genuine solution to student unrest may be attainable. And many think the students' contribu- tion to college and university governance will be substantial, and that the nation's institutions of higher learning will be the better for it. "Personally," says Otis A. Singletary, vice-chan- cellor for academic affairs at the University of Texas, "my suspicion is that in university reform, the students are going to make a real impact on the improvement of undergraduate teaching." Says Morris B. Abram, president of Brandeis University: "Today's students are physically, emo- tionally, and educationally more mature than my generation at the same age. Moreover, they have become perceptive social critics of society. The re- formers among them far outnumber the disrupters. There is little reason to suppose that ... if given the opportunity, [they] will not infuse good judg- ment into decisions about the rules governing their lives in this community." mm *£-. MM W« fflltt 2a*sw#fit; ^W^iJI/W n*v 17! \|Ui ^— **7^ -d&rf ^^ "f-'IM /A\ W *V /' # FTA^ ? 5 m Charge? Ideally, a Community As far as the academic community is concerned, A. Benjamin Franklin's remark about hanging to- gether or hanging separately has never been more apt. The desire for change is better expressed in common future-making than in disputing who is in and who is out — or how far. — John Caffrey, American Council on Education A college or university can be governed well only by a sense of its community Who's in charge? Trustees and ad- ministrators, faculty members and students. Any other answer — any authoritarian answer from one of the groups alone, any call from outside for more centralization of authority to restore "order" to the campuses — misses the point of the academic enterprise as it has developed in the United States. The concept of that enterprise echoes the European idea of a community of scholars — self-governing, self-determining — teachers and students sharing the goal of pursuing knowledge. But it adds an idea that from the outset was uniquely American: the belief that our colleges and universities must not be self- centered and ingrown, but must serve society. This idea accounts for putting the ultimate legal authority for our colleges and universities in the hands of the trustees or regents. They represent the view of the larger, outside interest in the institu- tions: the interest of churches, of governments, of the people. And, as a part of the college or university's government, they represent the institution to the public: defending it against attack, explaining its case to legislatures, corporations, labor unions, church groups, and millions of individual citizens. Each group in the campus community has its own interests, for which it speaks. Each has its own authority to govern itself, which it exercises. Each has an interest in the institution as a whole, which it expresses. Each, ideally, recognizes the interests of the others, as well as the common cause. That last, difficult requirement, of course, is where the process encounters the greatest risk of breakdown. "Almost any proposal for major innovation in the universities today runs head-on into the opposition of powerful vested interests," John W. Gardner has observed. "And the problem is compounded by the fact that all of us who have grown up in the aca- demic world are skilled in identifying our vested interests with the Good, the True, and the Beautiful, so that any attack on them is, by definition, subversive." In times of stress, the risk of a breakdown is especially great. Such times have enveloped us all, in recent years. The breakdowns have occurred, on some campuses — at times spectacularly. Whenever they happen, cries are heard for abolishing the system. Some demand that campus authority be gathered into the hands of a few, who would then tighten discipline and curb dissent. Others — at the other end of the spectrum — demand the destruction of the whole enterprise, without proposing any alternatives. If the colleges and universities survive these demands, it will be because reason again has taken hold. Men and women who would neither destroy the system nor prevent needed reforms in it are hard at work on nearly every campus in America, seeking ways to keep the concept of the academic community strong, innovative, and workable. The task is tough, demanding, and likely to con- tinue for years to come. "For many professors," said the president of Cornell University, James A. Perkins, at a convocation of alumni, "the time re- quired to regain a sense of campus community . . . demands painful choices." But wherever that sense has been lost or broken down, regaining it is essential. The alternatives are unacceptable. "If this com- munity forgets itself and its common stake and destiny," John Caffrey has written, "there are powers outside that community who will be only too glad to step in and manage for us." Chancellor Samuel B. Gould, of the State University of New York, put it in these words to a committee of the state legislature: "This tradition of internal governance . . . must — at all cost — be preserved. Any attempt, however well-intentioned, to ignore trustee authority or to undermine the university's own patterns of opera- tion, will vitiate the spirit of the institution and, in time, kill the very thing it seeks to preserve." Who's in charge there? The jigsaw puzzle, put together on the preced- ing page, shows the participants: trustees, administrators, professors, students, ex-students. But a piece is missing. It must be supplied, if the answer to our question is to be accurate and complete. It is the American people themselves. By direct and indirect means, on both public and private colleges and universities, they exert an influence that few of them suspect. The people wield their greatest power through governments. For the present year, through the 50 states, they have appropriated more than $5-billion in tax funds for college and university operating expenses alone. This is more than three times the $1.5-billion of only eight years ago. As an expression of the people's decision-making power in higher Simultaneously, much power is held by 'outsiders' usually unaware of their role education, nothing could be more eloquent. Through the federal government, the public's power to chart the course of our colleges and uni- versities has been demonstrated even more dramat- ically. How the federal government has spent money throughout U.S. higher education has changed the colleges and universities in a way that few could have visualized a quarter-century ago. Here is a hard look at what this influence has meant. It was written by Clark Kerr for the Brookings Institution's "Agenda for the Nation," presented to the Nixon administration: "Power is allocated with money," he wrote. "The day is largely past of the supremacy of the autocratic president, the all-powerful chairman of the board, the feared chairman of the state appro- priations committee, the financial patron saint, the all-wise foundation executive guiding higher educa- tion into new directions, the wealthy alumnus with his pet projects, the quiet but effective representa- tives of the special interests. This shift of power can be seen and felt on almost every campus. Twenty years of federal impact has been the decisive in- fluence in bringing it about. "Decisions are being made in more places, and Who's in Charge— V The Public more of these places are external to the campus." The process began with the land-grant movement of the nineteenth century, which enlisted higher education's resources in the industrial and agri- cultural growth of the nation. It reached explosive proportions in World War II, when the govern- ment went to the colleges and universities for desperately needed technology and research. After the war, spurred by the launching of Russia's Sputnik, federal support of activities on the campuses grew rapidly. M ■illions of dollars every year went to the campuses for research. Most of it was allocated to individual faculty members, and their power grew pro- portionately. So did their independence from the college or university that employed them. So did the importance of research in their lives. Clearly that was where the money and prestige lay; at Illustrated by Jerry Dadds many research-heavy universities, large numbers of faculty members found that their teaching duties somehow seemed less important to them. Thus the distribution of federal funds had substantially changed many an institution of higher education. Washington gained a role in college and uni- versity decision-making in other ways, as well. Spending money on new buildings may have had no place in an institution's planning, one year; other expenditures may have seemed more urgent. But when the federal government offered large sums of money for construction, on condition that the institution match them from its own pocket, what board or president could turn the offer down? Not that the influence from Washington was sinister; considering the vast sums involved, the federal programs of aid to higher education have been remarkably free of taint. But the federal power to influence the direction of colleges and uni- versities was strong and, for most, irresistible. Church-related institutions, for example, found themselves re-examining — and often changing — their long-held insistence on total separation of church and state. A few held out against taking federal funds, but with every passing year they found it more difficult to do so. Without accepting them, a college found it hard to compete. T he power of the public to influence the campuses will continue. The Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, in its important assessment issued in Decem- ber, said that by 1976 federal support for the nation's colleges and universities must grow to $13-billion a year. "What the American nation now needs from higher education," said the Carnegie Commission, "can be summed up in two words: quality and equality." How far the colleges and universities will go in meeting these needs will depend not basically on those who govern the colleges internally, but on the public that, through the government, influences them from without. "The fundamental question is this," said the State University of New York's Chancellor Gould : "Do we believe deeply enough in the principle of an intellectually free and self-regulating university that we are willing to exercise the necessary caution which will permit the institution — with its faults — to survive and even flourish?" In answering that question, the alumni and alumnae have a crucial part to play. As former students, they know the importance of the higher educational process as few others do. They under- stand why it is, and must be, controversial; why it does, and must, generate frictions; why it is, and must, be free. And as members of the public, they can be higher education's most informed and persuasive spokesmen. Who's in charge here? The answer is at once simple and infinitely complex. The trustees are. The faculty is. The students are. The president is. You are. The report on this and the preceding 15 pages is the product of a cooperative en- deavor in which scores of schools, colleges, and universities are taking part. It was pre- pared under the direction of the group listed below, who form editorial projects for education, a non-profit organization associ- ated with the American Alumni Council. Naturally, in a report of such length and scope, not all statements necessarily reflect the views of all the persons involved, or of their institutions. Copyright © 1969 by Edi- torial Projects for Education, Inc. All rights reserved; no part may be reproduced without the express permission of the editors. Printed in U. S. A. WILLIAM S. ARMSTRONG Indiana University DENTON BEAL Carnegie-Mellon University DAVID A. BURR The University of Oklahoma MARALYN O. GILLESPIE Swarthmore College WARREN GOULD George Washington University CHARLES M. HELMKEN American Alumni Council GEORGE C. KELLER Columbia University JACK R. MAGUIRE The University of Texas JOHN I. MATTILL Massachusetts Institute of Technology KEN METZLER The University of Oregon RUSSELL OLIN The University of Colorado JOHN W. PATON Wesleyan University ROBERT M. RHODES The University of Pennsylvania STANLEY SAPLIN New York University VERNE A. STADTMAN The Carnegie Commission on Higher Education FREDERIC A. STOTT Phillips Academy, Andover FRANK J. TATE The Ohio State University CHARLES E. WIDMAYER Dartmouth College DOROTHY F. WILLIAMS Simmons College RONALD A. WOLK Brown University ELIZABETH BOND WOOD Sweet Briar College CHESLEY WORTHINGTON CORBIN GWALTNEY Executive Editor JOHN A. CROWL Associate Editor WILLIAM A. MILLER, JR. Managing Editor rftotmai 7tecv4 *i¥efie and ^?^ene 1933 The Rev. and Mrs. William R. Steven- son are living in Maryville for several months while he is on sabbatical leave. 1939 Dorothy Andrews Elston, x'39, has been named by President Nixon to be treasurer of the United States. 1943 G. Ellis Burcaw has been elected to membership in the national scholastic honor society Phi Kappa Phi "for emi- nent accomplishment in his professional field." He is Director of the University of Idaho Museum and Assistant Pro- fessor of Museology. 1950 Grady L. E. Carroll had an article entitled "Calvin H. Wiley was a Devoted Carolinian" published in the Raleigh News and Observer on Feb. 23, 1969. The Rev. James E. Marvin is an Assoc- ate Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Wichita, Kansas. 1952 Charles C. Parvin has been promoted to night editor of the Chicago Tribune. 1959 Hugh T. Davis, Jr. has joined the staff of the University of Tennessee as a training and employee relations officer. 1960 The Rev. Robert M. Gwaltney is now serving as Minister of Administration at the Christ Presbyterian Church in Edina, Minneapolis. 1965 Jon Gresham was featured in the con- cert given at Maryville College on March 24, 1969 by the 581st U.S. Air Force Band of Warner-Robins, Georgia. Jon and A1C Herbert Blauel, Jr. performed the trumpet duet in the Vivaldi Concerto in B Flat, which was part of the band's program. 1966 Clint Abbott has been named assistant football coach at Alcoa High School in Blount County, Tennessee. 1967 Mary Rucker is now studying piano under Menahen Pressler at Indiana Uni- versity where she expects to receive her Master's degree this spring. 1968 Ruth A. Black is in her third quarter of Physical Therapy training at the University of Tennessee School of Medi- cine at Memphis. James L. Hogue, Jr. is presently serv- ing with the U. S. Army at Fort Dix, New Jersey. His wife, Sherry Wood Hogue, '68, is living in Cleveland, Ten- nessee with her parents and teaching fourth grade. Virginia Roseborough Wylie had a paper, "Outdoor Education," written while she was a student at Maryville, borrowed by the Environmental Educa- tion Specialist of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park so that copies could be made for the park library and for the regional office. Pvt. Richard G. Yates, Jr. has com- pleted a meteorological observer course at the Army Signal School, Ft. Mon- mouth, New Jersey. BIRTHS Dr. and Mrs. James M. Callaway, '52, a daughter, Carrie Catherine, their third child, Feb. 21, 1969. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. Mouton, '59 (Pat Penland, '61), a son, David Law- rence, Aug. 31, 1968. Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Buddie, '60 (Sue Tourtelotte, '59), a daughter, Heather Suzanne, their third child, Mar. 8, 1969. Mr. and Mrs. Landon D. Fox (Gayle White, '62), a daughter, Lana Gayle, their second child, Feb. 26, 1969. Mr. and Mrs. Rex Stafford, '64 (Joyce Hooper, x'65), a son, Christopher Parker, their second child, Jan. 8, 1969. Mr. and Mrs. Jack D. Damron (Linda Vansant, '65), a daughter, Jami Eileen, Jan. 8, 1969. Lt. and Mrs. George S. Viney (Sue Foreman, '66), a son, Mark Andrew, Aug. 18, 1968. Mr. and Mrs. R. Kirk McNair, '67, a daughter, Julia Lynne, Mar. 15, 1969. Mr. and Mrs. Patrick C. O'Bryan, '67, identical twin sons, Patrick Douglas and Michael Todd, Mar. 9, 1969. DEATHS Eva McConnell, Prep. '25, died Feb. 22, 1969, at Blount Memorial Hospital in Maryville. She had been employed by ALCOA for 27 years. Services were held in Maryville on Feb. 25, 1969. Elizabeth Bassel Belt, '23, died Mar. 14, 1969, in Pasadena, California fol- lowing a long illness. Survivors include a sister, Dorothy Bassel McKeehan, '31, and brother, John Burr Bassel, '24. Dr. L. Quentin Myers, '42, died Apr. 6, 1969, in Blount Memorial Hospital in Maryville after a lingering illness. Dr. Myers began his opthalmological practice in Maryville in 1961. He had previously served in the Navy at Bethesda Naval Hospital in Maryland. Survivors include his wife, Elizabeth Huddleston Myers, '42, four daughters, and a brother, Dr. Paul T. Myers, '50. Services were held in Maryville on Apr. 8, 1969. Mobley Is Princess From Mississippi In D. C. Festival Miss Julie M. Mobley Miss Julie M. Mobley, Maryville Col- lege freshman from Fairfax, Va., repre- sented the State of Mississippi as its Princess in the annual Cherry Blossom Festival held in Washington, D. C. the second week in April. She was selected by the Mississippi State Society of Wash- ington, D. C. Miss Mobley resides in Fairfax, Va., with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Mobley. Mr. Mobley, a native of Rolling Fork, Miss., is an official of the United States Department of Commerce and currently is serving as City Councilman in Fairfax. Miss Mobley is majoring in art at Maryville College. She is a cheerleader and a member of the Theta Epsilon Society. Page Twenty-One Two $50,000 Foundation Gifts Lifts Category to Ail-Time High Two foundation gifts of $50,000 each have increased the total amount of gifts and pledges to the 150 Fund to over $1,400,000. The foundations wished to remain anonymous. This brings the to- tal amount of foundation and corporate support to $331,950 which is an all-time high for Maryville College. With money pledged to date, this will permit the College to go ahead and build the new health and physical edu- cation building. Bids are being received now, and ground should be broken in early May. The expected cost of the building is $1,500,000. It will be the largest building on the campus when completed. It is to be located on the old intramural field which will put it in proximity to the football field and base- ball field. The house formerly occupied by Dr. Frank D. McClelland is being razed to make way for the new facility. Alumni and friends who have still not made a pledge to the 150 Fund are encouraged to do so. With such a heavy commitment to the health and physical education building, necessary monies to meet current operating expenses over the next three years will still be need- ed. You will recall that the College asked everyone to make a three-year commitment, payable in 1968, '69, and '70. This was done in lieu of asking for an annual gift. Each class has been asked to make a birthday gift to the College during the Sesquicentennial Celebration. All pledges received will be compiled and reported as the class gift at the various class reunion dinners which have been scheduled throughout the Sesquicentennial year. Terry Collins Is 5th MC Student Chosen for a Summer in Africa Terry L. Collins, Maryville College sophomore, has been chosen by Operation Crossroads Africa to spend the summer in Africa. Terry is the son of Mrs. Ina M. Collins of Chattanooga, Tenn. Terry will leave on June 17 for an orientation session at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N. J., and will com- plete this session on June 23. He will depart from New York City for Sierra Leone, in West Africa, on June 27 and will return to the United States on Au- gust 30. Terry, who is an art major at the College, in expressing his thoughts of going to Africa, stated, "I hope to absorb a lot about African art while I'm working in Africa and to give my art experience in exchange for another. Most of all, I want to understand how and why the Africans express themselves the way they do through their art and hope that they will understand how and why I express myself as a Black American artist." Terry is very active in school activ- ities. Besides his devotion to art, he participates in the College Choir and is rehearsing for the "Creation" which will be presented on Thursday, May 8, at the College, under the direction of Dr. Harry H. Harter, Professor of Music and Chairman of the Department of Fine Arts. Terry L. Collins Several of Terry's paintings were recently displayed at the Hunter Gallery of Art in Chattanooga, Tenn., along with an exhibit of paintings by three members of the faculty of Fisk University. Terry will be the fourth student from Maryville College to participate in Oper- ation Crossroads Africa in the past five years. Other participants have been John Noel, from New York City, in 1967; Carol Pusey, from Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1967, who is now a graduate student at MC Gets Increased Title III Grant For Faculty, Curriculum Maryville College has been given a grant of $170,445 from the Federal Divi- sion of College Support, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965, President Joseph J. Copeland an- nounced recently. This money is allo- cated to developing institutions and recognizes those small colleges and uni- versities that are trying to move closer to the mainstream of higher education. In announcing the grant, Dr. Cope- land said, "This is the fourth year in a row we have received aid under Title III. Our grant this year represents a $32,000 increase. It will enable us to continue our faculty and curriculum de- velopment, as well as participate in the Cooperative College Development Pro- gram. This latter program is designed to improve the quality of our College's de- velopment program." Next year the College will be able to release four of its younger faculty mem- bers for a year's leave of absence to do advance work on their Ph.D. degrees. During their absence, the federal grant will pay for their replacements in the classroom. These replacements are Na- tional Teaching Fellows and must have their master's degree. In expressing his appreciation for the grant, Dr. Copeland said, "This grant is evidence of the fact that Maryville Col- lege continues to be recognized as a fine liberal arts college. It will enable us to strengthen our faculty by providing more Ph.D. recipients, continue to move forward with our changes in curricu- lum, and strengthen our total develop- ment program." the University of Tennessee and who plans to return to the continent of Afri- ca; and Diana Lynn Drake, 1968, senior, from Buffalo, N. Y. Operation Crossroads Africa was con- csived by Dr. James H. Robinson, from Knoxville, Tenn., who envisioned expos- ing young American college students to the continent of Africa. In the summer of 1958, a pilot program was carried out in five countries of West Africa, with 75 participants. The group represented 41 colleges and universities and a cross- section of races and religions. Since that time, nearly 2,000 young men and women have participated in 135 projects in 28 countries. Page Twenty-Two MC Produced TV Programs Are Now Shown in Roanoke "Focus: Maryville College" will begin broadcasting from WBRA-TV, Channel 15, in Roanoke, Va. beginning on Friday, May 2, at 9:30 p. m., announced Maryville College Communications Coordinator Arthur F. Dees. "Focus: Maryville College" will pre- sent a variety of programs dealing with the total college life such as panel dis- cussions of today's issues and will fea- ture distinguished guests and college students, along with faculty and staff members. There will also be musical recitals, original drama and many other forms which will help to describe the many facets of life at Maryville College. Many of the television programs will be in color. The "Focus" series is now viewed weekly on WSJK-TV, Channel 2, in Knoxville; and daily on WDEF-TV, Channel 12, in Chattanooga, Tenn. Many programs are being telecast as specials on WBIR-TV, Channel 10, in Knoxville; WJHL-TV, Channel 11, in Johnson City, Tenn.; and WSTV-TV, Channel 30, in Atlanta, Ga. The programs used for this series are produced by the Mary- ville College Communications Service through the facilities of WSJK-TV and WBIR-TV in Knoxville. In arranging with WBRA-TV to begin telecasting the "Focus" series, Mr. Dees stated, "This is part of the Maryville College Communications Service plan to expand the effectiveness and the ben- efits of Maryville College as an educa- tional institution. Maryville College views the television medium as an oppor- tunity to produce programs that will reflect the quality of liberal arts educa- tion which a student receives at the College as well as enhance the image of Maryville College throughout the area. (Continued from Page 4) Select Gillespie to Live with French Family During her last three weeks in France, Lynn and her group will invite members of their host families to join them for an extensive travel period throughout France. Seeing the host nation through the eyes of its nationals is a special feature of Experiment programs. Honaker Club Sponsors Spring Football Game May 24th at MC The Scots annual Red and White spring football game, to be played at 8:00 p.m. Saturday, May 24, at Honaker Field, will take on added color this year under the sponsorship of the Honaker Club. Advance tickets will be available at businesses throughout the Maryville- Alcoa area. All tickets, except for Mary- ville College students, will be $1.00. For Maryville College students, the tickets will be 500, but must be accompanisd by the student activity card. Spring football drills begin Monday, May 5, and the Red and White game will climax the sessions. The squads will be selected Wednesday prior to the game. It will pit the best Scot offensive per- formers against the best defensive per- formers. Head Coach Howard J. (Monk) Tomlinson and his No. 1 assistant, Lau- ren F. Kardatzke, will turn over the reins of coaching the squads during the game to other assistants and observe the action from the press box. As spring practice begins, 43 men will return from last year's team which closed the season with three victories out of the last four games, a record high in victories since 1964. Two former Scot gridders are expect- ed to return from the service. They are Steve Worrell, six foot, 205-lb. former starting defensive guard from Ard- more, Pa., and Carl Gehman, five foot ten inches, 185-lb., former starting of- fensive guard from Quakertown, Pa. Coach Tomlinton said, "We lose only two of our players through graduation. This is the finest group of holdover players we have had in many seasons. If they come back next fall with the same cpirit they showed in our last four games last season we ought to show a great deal of improvement." Scot Trackmen Lose 2 Close Meets To End Season With 3-3 Record Members of the 1969 Scots Track team are, front row (left to right) Steve Collier, freshman. Pigeon Forge, Tenn.; Gary Mace, freshman, Burlington, Vt.; Jim Cannon, sophomore, Sevierville, Tenn.; David Garner, junior, Maryville, Tenn.; Bob Ciccotti, junior, Verona, N.J.; Harry Robertshaw, freshman, Holden, Mass.; Chip Pusey, freshman, Allison Park, Pa.; Henry Hastings, freshman, Ho-Ho-Kus, N. J.; and Coach Howard (Monk) Tomlinson, Second row. Rick Snyder, freshman, Nazareth, Pa.; Bruce Semple, senior, Glenolden, Pa.; John Leibrock, sophomore, Newport, Tenn.; Don Hickman, junior, Kingsport, Tenn.; Dub Osborne, junior, Kingsport, Tenn.; John Powell, freshman, Columbia, S.C.; Steve Zerwas, sophomore, Iowa City, Iowa; David Wiley, junior, Heiskell, Tenn.; and Robert Cooper, sophomore, Wilmington, Del. Those not present when picture was taken were Randall Calhoun, freshman, Millington, Tenn.; John Klein, sophomore, N. Olmstead, Ohio; Dennis Shockley, junior, Roanoke, Va.; and Lynn Dildine, sophomore, Ashley, Ohio. Page Twenty-Three Mrs. Schoen Plays Compositions In Texas and Alabama Mrs. Victor R. (Sallie) Schoen, Assis- tant Professor of Music at Maryville Col- lege, has again been chosen to play Mrs. Dwight (Nancy) Van de Vate's latest composition "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra" at the Southern Composer's League Convention at the University of Alabama, on Friday, April 25. The con- vention continues through Tuesday, April 28. Franklin Choset, who conducts the Lynchburg, Va. Symphony and is former conductor of the Oak Ridge, Tenn. Sym- phony Orchestra, will be guest conductor of the University of Alabama Symphony Orchestra. Mrs. Schoen performed as piano solo- ist with the University of Houston Sym- phony Orchestra premiering this musical score last February. She was invited to Houston in connection with the three- day Composer's Symposium at which time the noted American composer Aaron Copland was lecturer and guest artist. "Concerto for Piano and Orchestra" was written by Mrs. Van de Vate in three movements as her doctoral dissertation at Florida State University. _J_i SESQUICENTENNIAL NEWS Mm. Lili Chookasian Saturday night, May 2, 1970, will be a gala night for Maryville College alumni' students, faculty and staff members, and friends, for that is the night that Richard Yardumian, the internationally known Philadelphia composer, will have his Ora- torio, based on the story of Abraham and especially written for the Maryville Col- lege Sesquicentennial Celebration, World Premiered from the stage of the Samuel Tyndale Wilson Chapel Auditorium. American oratorios, such as the one Yardumian is writing for the College, are now being written by composers with such stature as Mr. Yardumian and Dave Brubeck. Mr. Brubeck's "Light in the Wilderness" was written in 1968. Lili Chookasian, the world renowned Metropolitan Opera contralto has been contracted to sing part of the Oratorio. There are other world famous opera stars being considered. The choir will be selected from the roster of former Maryville College Choir members, along with the 1969-70 student College Choir. The Oratorio will be unique in that it will employ the use of a moving art film in the performance by the late French artist Andre Girard, who captivated Mary- ville audiences here two years ago, and who collaborated with Mr. Yardumian in the vision of this unprecedented molding of the audio-visual art forms so that the Ora- torio will become a work to see as well as hear. Lili Chookasian is the possessor of a voice which is most frequently described as "opulent," "sumptuous," and "satisfying." Mme. Chookasian is, in the words of the Chicago Tribune, "a true contralto — an authentic member of a tribe so rare as to be almost omnipresent: she has ap- peared in concert, opera and recital from Rio de Janeiro to Soviet Armenia, and on records she is frequently heard as soloist with the orchestras of New York, Boston and Philadelphia. She made her Metropolitan Opera debut as La Cieca in Ponchielli's La Giocon- da in 1962. Since then, she has sung consistently at the Metropolitan in new as well as standard operas. She created the role of Maharani in Menotti's The Last Savage, and has been heard in Tchaikovsky's Eugen Onegin, Verdi's Ballo in Maschera and Falstaff, Wagner's Das Rheingold and Der Fliegande Hollander, and Britten's Peter Grimes. As a distinguished recitalist and soloist with major orchestras, the Chicago-born artist has risen steadily to the top of her field. She regularly appears with the New York Philharmonic, the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Boston Symphony Orches- tra. Mme. Chookasian was a teacher of Karen Roewade, Maryville College Affiliate Artist, who has performed, taught, talked and explained her version of music so wonderfully on her visits to the campus over the past two years. Advance ticket sales are now under way for the World Premiere performance which will be given on Saturday night, May 2, 1970, at 8:15 p.m. in the Samuel Tyn- dale Wilson Chapel Auditorium at Maryville College. Reservations may be made by writing or phoning 982-5531, Don R. Brakebill, '53, Minister of Music, First Baptist Church, Maryville, Tenn., 37801, or by phoning 982-4720 or writing Maryville College Ticket Office, Maryville, Tenn., 37801. Tickets range in price from $2.75 to $6.50. Reserved seats have been sectioned off in the Chapel Auditorium as follows: the first 10 rows middle section downstairs, $6.50 each; the next 7 rows $5.00 each; the back 8 rows $3.50 each. The middle balcony section: first 3 rows $5.00 each; and the back 6 rows $3.50 each. The side sections downstairs and balcony will be $2.75 each. MARYVILLE COLLEGE /MARYVILLE, TENNESSEE 37801 Page Twenty-Four Bulletin of MARYVILLE COLLEGE Vol. LXVII APRIL, 1969 Number 9 J. Richard Herring, Editor Published in May, June, August, October, November, December, February, March, and April by Maryville College. Entered May 24, 1904, at Maryville, Tennessee, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized February 10, 1919.