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Maryville, Tennessee 37801 - April, 1969 

Number 9 

All-College Council Governs MC's Policies 

By: Dr. Carolyn L. Blair 

Professor of English and Secretary of the Faculty 

The Maryville College statement of 
purpose, adopted in 1967, is admittedly 
idealistic. In its expression of concern for 
the pursuit of truth, it emphasizes com- 
mitment, values, and the integrity of the 
individual. It sets as a major goal the 
establishment of a vital community as 
the most stimulating environment for 
learning, describing that community as 
one "in which students and faculty, of 
varying backgrounds, abilities, talents 

and interests, can unite in a common pur- 
pose and freely discuss their differences, 
recognizing that when differences and 
tensions no longer exist, man ceases to 

Since January, 1969, with the installa- 
tion of the newly-formed eighteen- 
member All-College Council, Maryville 
has taken a firm step toward proving 
that its statement of purpose is more 
than words. Six students, six faculty 

members, and six administrative officers 
and staff will hereafter constitute the 
chief deliberative and legislative body 
for the institution. They will be re- 
sponsible for long-range planning and for 
directing the activities of the entire col- 
lege community, under the broader pur- 
pose and policies set forth by the Board 
of Directors. 

(Continued on Page 2) 

Elected members of the All-College Council, the new governing board of Maryville College which gives equal voice to students, faculty and adminis- 
tration are: 

Left to right, starring at center— Dr. Joseph J. Copeland, MC President, and Penny Proffitt, senior of Maryville, who serve as co-chairmen of the Council; 
Scott Thompson, freshman, Scranton, Pa.; Lloyd Kramer, sophomore, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Chuck Rumford, senior, Colwyn, Pa.; Dr. Jerry E. Waters, Chairman, 
Psychology Department; Arthur S. Bushing, English professor; Frank Layman, Treasurer and Business Manager. 

Steve Ellis, junior, Maryville; Dr. James A. Bloy, music professor; Dr. Paul J. Ogren, chemistry professor; Dr. Boyd L. Daniels, Academic Dean; Mrs. 
Edwin (Lynn Ann) Best, Circulation and Reference Librarian; Dr. Carolyn L. Blair, English professor and Council Secretary. 

Frances Massey, Dean of Women; Bill A. Fleming, Director of Development; Bob McEldowney, sophomore, Youngstown, Ohio, and Dr. David Young, 
Chairman, Chemistry Department. Absent was Brian Childs, senior, Annapolis, Md. 

Students, Faculty and Administration Unite 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Three Coordinates 

Supporting the All-College Council 
will be three coordinating councils re- 
sponsible for activities in the major areas 
of campus life: (1) the academic, (2) the 
religious, and (3) the social, cultural 
and recreational. Smaller committees 
within each of these areas (such as the 
curriculum committee and the artist 
series committee) will direct specific pro- 
grams. Joint student-faculty-administra- 
tion membership on the coordinating 
councils and the committees will increase 
the opportunities for campuswide partici- 
pation and full discussion of issues. 

Step Toward Changes 

This new structure represents another 
step in a series of changes resulting from 
intensive self-study and redefinition of 
goals begun more than a decade ago as 
Maryville College, like other small liberal 
arts colleges, was challenged to justify 
its existence. Four years ago the Board 
of Directors, under the leadership of 
President Joseph J. Copeland, initiated 
the study and planning that led to the 
new statement of purpose and a complete 
revision of the curriculum. At the same 
time, provision was made for a reexam- 
ination of the total community structure 
and government. Thus, after the adop- 
tion of the new statement of purpose and 
the launching of the new curriculum in 
1967, attention turned to this third area. 

Three Recommendations 

The Special Committee on Commun- 
ity Life and Structure, headed by Pres- 
ident Copeland and composed of repre- 
sentatives from the directors, the ad- 
ministration, the faculty, and the student 
body, began an investigation of every 
area of campus life. Five subcommittees, 
with a combined membership of nearly 
one hundred students and faculty, as- 
sisted the Special Committee. By May, 
1968, the Committee was ready to pre- 
sent three major recommendations to 
the Executive Council of the Faculty: 
(1) the liberalizing of automobile regu- 
lations and regulations governing wom- 
en's residence hall hours as a step to- 
ward greater student independence and 
responsibility; (2) the establishment 
of a weekly Community Issues and Val- 
ues Series as a means of integrating 
religious, academic, and cultural exper- 
iences; and (3) the organization of an 
All-College Council by January, 1969, 

to extend decision-making to representa- 
tives of all the constituent groups. 

Nominee from 3 Areas 

The Executive Council approved the 
three recommendations. The task re- 
maining was to work out the details for 
the All-College Council so that a com- 
plete plan could be submitted to the 
Board of Directors at the fall meeting. 
The Special Committee began by defining 
the roles of the constituent groups and 
establishing a philosophy of community. 
Recognizing the uniqueness of the college 
community, in which an overwhelming 
majority of the residents are transient, 
the Committee sought to devise a plan 
that would preserve in the representation 
a balance between those most directly 
affected by the decisions and those ul- 
timately responsible for the health and 
stability of the institution. In short, the 
goal was to provide a common ground 
where the new — the innovative — could 
be tested in the light of experience, 
where representatives of various ages 
and tenure could insure the constructive 
kind of tension described in the statement 
of purpose. 

The solution was the nomination of 
student representatives from the three 
upper classes, faculty representatives 
from three groups on the basis of tenure, 
and administrative representatives from 
those whose position, in the judgment of 
the administrative staff, would make 
them most useful on the Council. It was 
decided that the president, the academic 
dean, and the secretary of the faculty 
should be automatic members. After the 
respective groups had made their nom- 
inations, the fifteen elected members 
were chosen in a campus-wide election. 

Involve More Students 

Revolutionary though this new struc- 
ture may seem when compared with that 
of most other colleges, it is simply anoth- 
er step in an evolutionary process that 
has long been at work at Maryville. Ed- 
ucation in the classroom has gradually 
been supplemented over the years by 
student involvement in campus affairs 
through a student council, a student- 
faculty senate, and numerous joint stu- 
dent-faculty committees. The academics 
committee of the student council, for 
example, worked diligently with the fac- 
ulty curriculum committee in the plan- 
ning and implementation of the 1967 
curriculum and must be given much of 
the credit for the smoothness with which 
the transition took place. It is upon this 

kind of foundation that Maryville is 
building its new community structure. 
The clear desire of the students to accept 
greater responsibility is reassuring even 
to the skeptics who are wary of such a 
sharp departure from tradition. 

Offers New Direction 

Pausing to take stock on the eve of its 
Sesquieentennial, Maryville College can 
point to a long history of concern for 
community, encouragement of student 
involvement, and an effort to keep a- 
breast of current trends in education. 
Tangible proof of the social awareness 
of its graduates is to be found in the 
large number of national fellowship win- 
ners and its impressive record as a bac- 
calaureate source of Ph. D.'s and M. D.'s. 
With a new curriculum and a new struc- 
ture, it enters the next phase of its his- 
tory confident not only that the small 
liberal arts college can prove its right to 
exist, but that it is in a unique position 
to offer direction in American higher 

Creative Activity 
Program Has Busy 
Spring Schedule 

The Creative Activity Program, under 
the direction of Mrs. Carle M. (Connie) 
Davis, is in its second year of organiza- 
tion and has a full schedule of events 
operating this spring. 

The events are open to all students, 
faculty and staff members and their 
spouses. This program provides not 
only a creative outlet, but an excellent 
opportunity for the extension of relation- 
ships to those outside one's own everyday 
sphere of activity. 

The bicycling group plans local rides 
as well as rides into the Great Smoky 
Mountains, especially around the Cades 
Cove Loop. 

The hiking group takes local hikes, 
one-day hikes and some hikes which are 
overnight into the mountains. 

A program which is very popular with 
the female members of the College com- 
munity is the handicraft program which 
includes beginning intermediate and 
advanced seamstresses. 

The arts and crafts group pursues the 
art of decoupage and a recording group 
meets every Sunday in the Choir room. 

Photography, a hobby of many in this 
area, meets twice a month to discuss 
advances made in the field and to display 

(Continued on Page 4) 

Page Two 

MC's 150th Commencement June 2 Officially 
Launches Year's Sesquicentennial Celebration 

Dr. Louis B. Wright Is Commencement Speaker 

Maryville College's 150th Commence- 
ment will officially launch the Sesqui- 
centennial Celebration. A full, three- 
day program has been scheduled, begin- 
ning with Alumni Day on Saturday, 
May 31. The complete schedule is listed 

The classes of 1919, 1924, 1929, 1934, 
1939, 1944, 1949, 1954, 1959, and 1964 
will hold reunions. The class of 1919 
will receive official recognition at the 
Alumni Dinner in view of the fact that 
they have been graduated from the 
College for fifty years. Early indica- 
tions are that there will be a good turn 

out by this class for their 50th anniver- 

The Golden Scots, those who have 
been out of college for fifty years or 
longer, will hold their traditional lunch- 
eon at noon on Saturday. 

Letters have been sent to all class 
members asking them to return their 
reservations to the Alumni Office by 
May 26. 

Alumni Day is always a happy occa- 
sion on the campus, and it is hoped that 
a large number of alumni and their 
spouses will return for the reunion 



9 a.m. - 12 noon — Alumni Registration 

May 31, June 1, 2 

9 a.m. - 12 noon — Self guided tours of the campus 

12 noon — Class Reunion Luncheons (see schedule below) 
12 noon — Golden Scots Luncheon, Simple Simon Restaurant 
2 p.m. • 4 p.m. — Tea honoring Dr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Lloyd, Chapel 
Courtyard. Dr. Lloyd will autograph copies of his new 
history of Maryville College. 
4 p.m. - 6 p.m. — President's Reception honoring seniors and their par- 
ents at Morningside 
6:30 p.m. — Alumni Dinner and Annual Alumni Association Meet- 
ing, College Dining Room 


10:30 a.m 

— Baccalaureate Service, Wilson Chapel 
4 p.m. — Senior Music Hour, Music Hall, Fine Arts Center 
8 p.m. — Commencement Vespers, Wilson Chapel 


10:30 a.m. — Commencement Exercises, Wilson Chapel 
12:30 p.m. — Dedication of School House Replica. Official opening 
of the Sesquicentennial Celebration. 


Class of 1919 — Home of Miss Catharine Wilkinson .12 noon 

Class of 1924 — Holiday Inn (across from airport) 12 noon 

Class of 1929— Home of Mr. and Mrs. Earl Keller 12 noon 

Class of 1934 — Holiday Inn (across from airport) 12 noon 

Class of 1 939 — Traveler's Restaurant ___ __12 noon 

Class of 1944 — Green Meadow Country Club 12 noon 

Class of 1949 — Picnic, Proffitt's Pavilion, Miller's Cove 12 noon* 

Class of 1954— Picnic, Holiday Park, Highway 411 South 12 noon 

Class of 1959 — Picnic, Sandy Springs Park 12 noon 

Class of 1964 — Picnic, College Woods _ 12 noon 

* Class of 1949 meet in front of Chapel at 1 1:30 a.m. 

Dr. Louis B. Wright 

Dr. Louis B. Wright, historian, author 
and former professor is scheduled to be 
the Commencement speaker at Maryville 
College on Monday, June 2 at 10:30 a.m. 
in Wilson Chapel. This will be the Col- 
lege's 150th Commencement and will of- 
ficially launch the Sesquicentennial Cel- 

Dr. Wright, a native of Greenwood 
County, S. C, received the Bachelor of 
Arts degree from Wofford College, in 
Spartanburg, S. C, in 1920. He received 
Masters and Ph. D. degrees respectively 
from the University of North Carolina in 
1924 and 1926. He is a member of Phi 
Beta Kappa. 

Dr. Wright was the recipient of 26 
honorary degrees during the period from 
1941 through 1965, from such institutions 
of learning as the University of Akron 
(LL.D.), the University of St. Andrews, 
Washington and Lee University, the 
University of British Columbia (Litt. D.), 
Georgetown University, the University of 
Leicester, the University of Birmingham 
(England), Mercer University, and the 
University of California at Los Angeles 

Dr. Wright has served on the faculties 
of the University of North Carolina, 
John Hopkins University, Emory Univer- 
sity, California Institute of Technology, 
University of California at Los Angeles, 
the University of Washington, the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, Pomona College, 
and Indiana University. 

He was a Guggenheim Research Fellow 
in England and Italy from 1928 through 
1930 and a member of the research staff 
(Continued on Page 4) 

Page Three 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Dr. Louis B. Wright Is 
Commencement Speaker 

of Huntington Library from 1932 
through 1948. Until recently, Dr. Wright 
was director of Folger Shakespeare 
Library, Washington, D. C. He retired 
after serving in this capacity for twenty 

He has been Chairman of the Board 
of the John Simon Guggenheim Memor- 
ial Foundation since 1950 and Vice- 
Chairman of the Board of Directors of 
Council Library Resources, Inc., since 
1956. He has been a life trustee of the 
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Strat- 
ford-upon-Avon since 1964. 

Dr. Wright is a Fellow of The Royal 
Society of Literature and Arts of Eng- 
land. Other organizations with which he 
has been associated are the Massachu- 
setts History Society (Executive Sec- 
retary); the National Geographic Society 
(Trustee); American Philosophy Society; 
American Antiquarian Society; American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences; Modern 
Humanities Association and many others. 
He is a veteran of World War I, having 
served in the United States Army. 

Dr. Wright has had several books pub- 
lished since 1935 on historical subjects 
and has also been editor of numerous 
items on American and English history. 
His latest work was "William Byrd of 
Virginia." In 1958, he co-authored "The 
London Diary, 1712 — 1721," with Marion 
Tinling; and in 1957 he was associated 
with Virginia LaMar in the publishing of 
"The Folger Library General Reader's 
Shakespeare Series." 

Other works of Dr. Wright's which 
have been published include "Shakespeare 
for Every Man," in 1964; "Dream of 
Prosperity in Colonial America," in 1965; 
and "The Prose Works of William Byrd 
of Westover," in 1965. He has made 
many contributions to professional jour- 

Dr. Wright was made Officer of the 
Order of the British Empire by Her 
Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II (O.B.E.) in 
December 1968, and was awarded the 
Benjamin Franklin Medal by the Royal 
Society of Arts (London) on January 17, 

(Continued from Page 2) 

Creative Activity Program 
Has Busy Spring Schedule 

some of their results. Hiking is a part of 
this group too. 

There is a Chess Group which meets 
in the Carnegie Hall lobby each Tuesday 
at 7:00 p.m. Some of these sessions 
have proved to be quite lively. 

Admissions Staff Asks Alumni 
For Help to Recruit Students 

Maryville Alumni are reminded of the 
College's continuing need for their as- 
sistance in the recruitment of students. 
In view of the keen competition which 
exists today between the public and pri- 
vate institutions for qualified students, 
it is essential that the College use every 
means possible to maintain Maryville's 
enrollment. The dedicated efforts of con- 
cerned Alumni can be of tremendous help 
in this effort. 

Alumni are asked to examine carefully 
the young people of their acquaintance 
who are making plans for college, and to 
urge them to include Maryville in their 
considerations. Alumni are requested to 
furnish the names and addresses of these 
young people to the Director of Admis- 
sions, Maryville College, Meryville, Tenn. 
37801. The college is processing applica- 
tions for the 1969-70 school year so it is 
not too late to file an application for the 
coming year. 

Two words of caution should be of- 
fered. First, every effort should be made 
to insure that the young people recom- 

mended meet Maryville's admission re- 
quirements. It is a poor policy to accept 
students of doubtful qualifications only 
to have them find they are unable to meet 
Maryville's academic requirements. This 
means that a prospective student should 
have an SAT Verbal plus Math score of 
approximately 900, or an ACT Composite 
score of 20; should have at least a "C" 
average in high school and rank in the 
upper half of his class. 

Second, Alumni are reminded that the 
College's resources for assisting students 
financially are very inadequate. The costs 
for the 1969-70 academic year, including 
tuition, room, board and basic fees, are 
$2100. At this point, with the commit- 
ments already made for the coming year, 
the amount of assistance the college 
would be able to offer any student is 

Please address any inquiries you may 
have to the Director of Admissions. The 
College is indeed grateful for the support 
of its alumni in this effort. 

Select Gillespie to Live Summer 
Months With French Family 

Lynn Andrea Gillespie, daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick S. Gillespie, 635 
Belgrove Drive, Kearny, N. J., has been 
selected by The Experiment in Interna- 
tional Living to live abroad with a family 
in France this summer. She is currently 
a sophomore at Maryville College. 
The Experiment has been engaged in 
international educational Exchange since 
its founder, Dr. Donald B. Watt, first in- 
troduced a group of American youths to 
their French and German-speaking coun- 
terparts in Switzerland in 1932. 

It is now the most well-established 
program of its type in the world with 
representatives in more than 60 countries 
involved in the annual exchange of some 
5,000 young men and women between 
the United States and 100 nations around 
the globe. The private, nonprofit organ- 
ization maintains its U. S. headquarters 
in Putney, Vt. The Experiment's south- 
ern regional office is located in Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

Before Lynn arrives in her homestay 
community abroad, she will join ten 
other members of her Experiment group 
for intensive preparation for the adven- 
ture ahead. The group, with the assis- 
tance of an experienced leader, will dis- 
cuss the customs and culture of France 

Miss Lynn A. Gillespie 

and prepare to meet its people on their 
own terms. 

For one month Lynn and her fellow 
Experimenters will live with individual 
families in France. This firsthand op- 
portunity to develop friendships, to 
learn the customs and traditions, and to 
participate in the activities of the host 
country from the vantage point of a 
family environment, is the heart of the 
Experiment program. 

(Continued on Page 23) 

Page Four 

A Special Report 


Charge ? 

Trustees . . . presidents . . .faculty . . . students, past and present: 
who governs this society that we call ( the academic community'? 

The cry has been heard on many a campus 
this year. It came from the campus neigh- 
borhood, from state legislatures, from cor- 
porations trying to recruit students as em- 
ployees, from the armed services, from the donors of 
funds, from congressional committees, from church 
groups, from the press, and even from the police: 
"Who's in charge there?" 

Surprisingly the cry also came from "inside" the 
colleges and universities — from students and alumni, 
from faculty members and administrators, and even 
from presidents and trustees: 
"Who's in charge here?" 

And there was, on occasion, this variation: "Who 
should be in charge here?" 

Strange questions to ask about these highly 
organized institutions of our highly organ- 
| ized society? A sign, as some have said, that 
our colleges and universities are hopelessly 
chaotic, that they need more "direction," that they 
have lagged behind other institutions of our society 
in organizing themselves into smooth-running, 
efficient mechanisms? 

Or do such explanations miss the point? Do they 
overlook much of the complexity and subtlety (and 
perhaps some of the genius) of America's higher 
educational enterprise? 

It is important to try to know. 

Here is one reason: 

► Nearly 7-million students are now enrolled in 
the nation's colleges and universities. Eight years 
hence, the total will have rocketed past 9.3-million. 
The conclusion is inescapable: what affects our col- 
leges and universities will affect unprecedented 
numbers of our people — and, in unprecedented 
ways, the American character. 

Here is another: 

► "The campus reverberates today perhaps in 
part because so many have come to regard [it] as 
the most promising of all institutions for developing 
cures for society's ills." [Lloyd H. Elliott, president 
of George Washington University] 

Here is another: 

► "Men must be discriminating appraisers of 
their society, knowing coolly and precisely what it is 
about society that thwarts or limits them and there- 
fore needs modification. 

"And so they must be discriminating protectors 
of their institutions, preserving those features that 
nourish and strengthen them and make them more 
free." [John W. Gardner, at Cornell University] 

But who appraises our colleges and universities? 
Who decides whether (and how) they need modify- 
ing? Who determines what features to preserve; 
which features "nourish and strengthen them and 
make them more free?" In short: 

Who's in charge there? 

Who's in Charge— I 

The Trustees 

By the letter of the law, the people in 
charge of our colleges and universities are 
| the trustees or regents — 25,000 of them, 
" according to the educated guess of their 
principal national organization, the Association of 
Governing Boards. 

"In the long history of higher education in 
America," said one astute observer recently, 


Copyright 1969 

by Editorial Projects for Education, Inc. 

"trustees have seldom been cast in a heroic role." 
For decades they have been blamed for whatever 
faults people have found with the nation's colleges 
and universities. 

Trustees have been charged, variously, with 
representing the older generation, the white race, 
religious orthodoxy, political powerholders, business 
and economic conservatism — in short, The Estab- 
lishment. Other critics — among them orthodox 
theologians, political powerholders, business and 
economic conservatives — have accused trustees of 
not being Establishment enough. 

On occasion they have earned the criticisms. In 
the early days of American higher education, when 
most colleges were associated with churches, the 
trustees were usually clerics with stern ideas of what 
should and should not be taught in a church-related 
institution. They intruded freely in curriculums, 
courses, and the behavior of students and faculty 

On many Protestant campuses, around the turn 
of the century, the clerical influence was lessened 
and often withdrawn. Clergymen on their boards of 
trustees were replaced, in many instances, by 
businessmen, as the colleges and universities sought 
trustees who could underwrite their solvency. As 
state systems of higher education were founded, they 
too were put under the control of lay regents or 

Trustee-faculty conflicts grew. Infringements of 
academic freedom led to the founding, in 1915, of 
the American Association of University Professors. 
Through the association, faculty members developed 
and gained wide acceptance of strong principles of 
academic freedom and tenure. The conflicts eased — 
but even today many faculty members watch their 
institution's board of trustees guardedly. 

In the past several years, on some campuses, 
trustees have come under new kinds of attack. 

► At one university, students picketed a meeting 
of the governing board because two of its members, 
they said, led companies producing weapons used in 
the war in Vietnam. 

► On another campus, students (joined by some 
faculty members) charged that college funds had 
been invested in companies operating in racially 
divided South Africa. The investments, said the 
students, should be canceled; the board of trustees 
should be censured. 

► At a Catholic institution, two years ago, most 
students and faculty members went on strike be- 
cause the trustees (comprising 33 clerics and 1 1 lay- 

men) had dismissed a liberal theologian from the 
faculty. The board reinstated him, and the strike 
ended. A year ago the board was reconstituted to 
consist of 1 5 clerics and 1 5 laymen. (A similar shift 
to laymen on their governing boards is taking place 
at many Catholic colleges and universities.) 

► A state college president, ordered by his 
trustees to reopen his racially troubled campus, re- 
signed because, he said, he could not "reconcile 
effectively the conflicts between the trustees" and 
other groups at his institution. 

How do most trustees measure up to 
their responsibilities? How do they react 
to the lightning-bolts of criticism that, 
by their position, they naturally attract? 
We have talked in recent months with scores of 
trustees and have collected the written views of 
many others. Our conclusion: With some notable 
(and often highly vocal) exceptions, both the 
breadth and depth of many trustees' understanding 
of higher education's problems, including the touch- 
iness of their own position, are greater than most 
people suspect. 

Many boards of trustees, we found, are showing 
deep concern for the views of students and are going 
to extraordinary lengths to know them better. In- 
creasing numbers of boards are rewriting their 
by-laws to include students (as well as faculty 
members) in their membership. 

William S. Paley, chairman of cbs and a trustee 
of Columbia University, said after the student out- 
breaks on that troubled campus: 

"The university may seem [to students] like just 
one more example of the establishment's trying to 
run their lives without consulting them. ... It is 
essential that we make it possible for students to 
work for the correction of such conditions legitimate- 
ly and effectively rather than compulsively and 
violently. . . . 

"Legally the university is the board of trustees, 
but actually it is very largely the community of 
teachers and students. That a board of trustees 
should commit a university community to policies 
and actions without the components of that com- 
munity participating in discussions leading to such 
commitments has become obsolete and unworkable." 
Less often than one might expect, considering 
some of the provocations, did we find boards of 
trustees giving "knee-jerk" reactions even to the 
most extreme demands presented to them. Not very 
long ago, most boards might have rejected such 

The role of higher education's trustees often is misinterpreted and misunderstood 

As others seek a greater voice, presidents are natural targets for their attack 

demands out of hand; no longer. James M. Hester, 
the president of New York University, described the 

"To the activist mind, the fact that our board 
of trustees is legally entrusted with the property and 
privileges of operating an educational institution is 
more an affront than an acceptable fact. What is 
considered relevant is what is called the social 
reality, not the legal authority. 

"A decade ago the reaction of most trustees and 
presidents to assertions of this kind was a forceful 
statement of the rights and responsibilities of a 
private institution to do as it sees fit. While faculty 
control over the curriculum and, in many cases, 
student discipline was delegated by most boards 
long before, the power of the trustees to set university 
policy in other areas and to control the institution 
financially was unquestioned. 

"Ten years ago authoritarian answers to radical 
questions were frequently given with confidence. 
Now, however, authoritarian answers, which often 
provide emotional release when contemplated, some- 
how seem inappropriate when delivered." 

asa result, trustees everywhere are re-exam- 
/% ining their role in the governance of 

/ ^ colleges and universities, and changes 
-A- m seem certain. Often the changes will be 
subtle, perhaps consisting of a shift in attitude, as 
President Hester suggested. But they will be none 
the less profound. 

In the process it seems likely that trustees, as 
Vice-Chancellor Ernest L. Boyer of the State Uni- 
versity of New York put it, will "recognize that the 
college is not only a place where past achievements 
are preserved and transmitted, but also a place 
where the conventional wisdom is constantly sub- 
jected to merciless scrutiny." 

Mr. Boyer continued: 

"A board member who accepts this fact will 
remain poised when surrounded by cross-currents of 
controversy. . . . He will come to view friction as an 
essential ingredient in the life of a university, and 
vigorous debate not as a sign of decadence, but ot 
robust health. 

"And, in recognizing these facts for himself, the 
trustee will be equipped to do battle when the 
college — and implicitly the whole enterprise of 
higher education — is threatened by earnest primi- 
tives, single-minded fanatics, or calculating dema- 

Who's in charge? Every eight years, 
on the average, the members of a 
college or university board must 
provide a large part of the answer 
by reaching, in Vice-Chancellor Boyer's words, 
"the most crucial decision a trustee will ever be 
called upon to make." 

They must choose a new president for the place 
and, as they have done with his predecessors, dele- 
gate much of their authority to him. 

The task is not easy. At any given moment, it has 
been estimated, some 300 colleges and universities 
in the United States are looking for presidents. The 
qualifications are high, and the requirements are so 
exacting that many top-flight persons to whom a 
presidency is offered turn down the job. 

As the noise and violence level of campus protests 
has risen in recent years, the search for presidents 
has grown more difficult — and the turndowns more 

"Fellow targets," a speaker at a meeting of col- 
lege presidents and other administrators called his 
audience last fall. The audience laughed nervously. 
The description, they knew, was all too accurate. 

"Even in the absence of strife and disorder, 
academic administrators are the men caught in the 
middle as the defenders — and, altogether too often 
these days, the beleaguered defenders — of institu- 
tional integrity," Logan Wilson, president of the 
American Council on Education, has said. "Al- 
though college or university presidencies are still 
highly respected positions in our society, growing 
numbers of campus malcontents seem bent on doing 
everything they can to harass and discredit the 
performers of these key roles." 

This is unfortunate — the more so because the 
harassment frequently stems from a deep misunder- 
standing of the college administrator's function. 

The most successful administrators cast them- 
selves in a "staff" or "service" role, with the well- 
being of the faculty and students their central con- 
cern. Assuming such a role often takes a large 
measure of stamina and goodwill. At many in- 
stitutions, both faculty members and students ha- 
bitually blame administrators for whatever ails them 
— and it is hard for even the most dedicated of ad- 
ministrators to remember that they and the faculty- 
student critics are on the same side. 

"Without administrative leadership," philosopher 
Sidney Hook has observed, "every institution . . . 
runs down hill. The greatness of a university consists 

Who's in Charge —II 

The President 

A college's heart is its faculty. What part should it have in running the place? 

predominantly in the greatness of its faculty. But 
faculties ... do not themselves build great faculties. 
To build great faculties, administrative leadership 
is essential." 

Shortly after the start of this academic year, 
however, the American Council on Education re- 
leased the results of a survey of what 2,040 ad- 
ministrators, trustees, faculty members, and students 
foresaw for higher education in the 1970's. Most 
thought "the authority of top administrators in 
making broad policy decisions will be significantly 
eroded or diffused." And three out of four faculty 
members said they found the prospect "desirable." 

Who's in charge? Clearly the answer to that 
question changes with every passing day. 

With it all, the job of the president 
has grown to unprecedented propor- 
tions. The old responsibilities of lead- 
ing the faculty and students have 
proliferated. The new responsibilities of money- 
raising and business management have been heaped 
on top of them. The brief span of the typical presi- 
dency — about eight years — testifies to the roughness 
of the task. 

Yet a president and his administration very often 
exert a decisive influence in governing a college or 
university. One president can set a pace and tone 
that invigorate an entire institution. Another presi- 
dent can enervate it. 

At Columbia University, for instance, following 
last year's disturbances there, an impartial fact- 
finding commission headed by Archibald Cox traced 
much of the unrest among students and faculty 
members to "Columbia's organization and style of 

"The administration of Columbia's affairs too 
often conveyed an attitude of authoritarianism and 
invited distrust. In part, the appearance resulted 
from style; for example, it gave affront to read that 
an influential university official was no more in- 
terested in student opinion on matters of intense 
concern to students than he was in their taste for 

"In part, the appearance reflected the true state 
of affairs. . . . The president was unwilling to sur- 
render absolute disciplinary powers. In addition, 
government by improvisation seems to have been 
not an exception, but the rule." 

At San Francisco State College, last December, 
the leadership of Acting Presidents. I. Hayakawa, 

whether one approved it or not, was similarly de- 
cisive. He confronted student demonstrators, prom- 
ised to suspend any faculty members or students 
who disrupted the campus, reopened the institution 
under police protection, and then considered the 
dissidents' demands. 

But looking ahead, he said, "We must eventually 
put campus discipline in the hands of responsible 
faculty and student groups who will work coopera- 
tively with administrations . . . ." 

Who's in charge? "However the power 
mixture may be stirred," says Dean 
W. Donald Bowles of American Uni- 
versity, "in an institution aspiring to 
quality, the role of the faculty remains central. No 
president can prevail indefinitely without at least 
the tacit support of the faculty. Few deans will last 
more than a year or two if the faculty does not 
approve their policies." 

The power of the faculty in the academic ac- 
tivities of a college or university has long been recog- 
nized. Few boards of trustees would seriously con- 
sider infringing on the faculty's authority over what 
goes on in the classroom. As for the college or 
university president, he almost always would agree 
with McGeorge Bundy, president of the Ford Foun- 
dation, that he is, "on academic matters, the agent 
and not the master of the faculty." 

A joint statement by three major organizations 
representing trustees, presidents, and professors has 
spelled out the faculty's role in governing a college 
or university. It says, in part: 

"The faculty has primary responsibility for such 
fundamental areas as curriculum, subject matter 
and methods of instruction, research, faculty status, 
and those aspects of student life which relate to the 
educational process. 

"On these matters, the power of review or final 
decision lodged in the governing board or delegated 
by it to the president should be exercised adversely 
only in exceptional circumstances. . . . 

"The faculty sets the requirements for the degrees 
offered in course, determines when the requirements 
have been met, and authorizes the president and 
board to grant the degrees thus achieved. 

"Faculty status and related matters are primarily 
a faculty responsibility. This area includes appoint- 
ments, reappointments, decisions not to reappoint, 
promotions, the granting of tenure, and dismissal. 
. . . The governing board and president should, on 




* Mi.. 

questions of faculty status, as in other matters where 
the faculty has primary responsibility, concur with 
the faculty judgment except in rare instances and 
for compelling reasons which should be stated in 

"The faculty should actively participate in the 
determination of policies and procedures governing 
salary increases. . . . 

"Agencies for faculty participation in the govern- 
ment of the college or university should be estab- 
lished at each level where faculty responsibility is 
present. ..." 

Few have quarreled with the underlying reason 
for such faculty autonomy: the protection of aca- 
demic freedom. But some thoughtful observers of the 
college and university scene think some way must be 
found to prevent an undesirable side effect: the 
perpetuation of comfortable ruts, in which individ- 
ual faculty members might prefer to preserve the 
status quo rather than approve changes that the 
welfare of their students, their institutions, and 
society might demand. 

The president of George Washington University, 
Lloyd H. Elliott, put it this way last fall: 

"Under the banner of academic freedom, [the 
individual professor's] authority for his own course 
has become an almost unchallenged right. He has 
been not only free to ignore suggestions for change, 
but licensed, it is assumed, to prevent any change 
he himself does not choose. 

"Even in departments where courses are sequen- 
tial, the individual professor chooses the degree to 

Who's in Charge —III 

The Faculty 



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Who's in Charge— IV 

The Students 



which he will accommodate his 
course to others in the sequence. 
The question then becomes: What 
restructuring is possible or desirable 
within the context of the professor's 
academic freedom?" 

nother phenomenon has af- 
fected the faculty's role 
in governing the colleges 
and universities in recent 
years. Louis T. Benezet, president 
of the Claremont Graduate School 
and University Center, describes it 

"Socially, the greatest change that 
has taken place on the American campus is the pro- 
fessional ization of the faculty. . . . The pattern of 
faculty activity both inside and outside the institution 
has changed accordingly. 

"The original faculty corporation was the univer- 
sity. It is now quite unstable, composed of mobile 
professors whose employment depends on regional 
or national conditions in their field, rather than on 
an organic relationship to their institution and even 

less on the relationship to their administrative 
heads. . . . 

"With such powerful changes at work strengthen- 
ing the professor as a specialist, it has become more 
difficult to promote faculty responsibility for edu- 
cational policy." 

Said Columbia trustee William S. Paley: "It has 
been my own observation that faculties tend to as- 
sume the attitude that they are a detached ar- 
bitrating force between students on one hand and 
administrators on the other, with no immediate 
responsibility for the university as a whole." 

Yet in theory, at least, faculty members 
seem to favor the idea of taking a greater 
part in governing their colleges and 
universities. In the American Council on 
Education's survey of predictions for the 1970's, 
99 per cent of the faculty members who responded 
said such participation was "highly desirable" or 
"essential." Three out of four said it was "almost 
certain" or "very likely" to develop. (Eight out of 
ten administrators agreed that greater faculty par- 
ticipation was desirable, although they were con- 
siderably less optimistic about its coming about.) 

In another survey by the American Council on 
Education, Archie R. Dykes — now chancellor of the 
University of Tennessee at Martin — interviewed 
106 faculty members at a large midwestern univer- 
sity to get their views on helping to run the in- 
stitution. He found "a pervasive ambivalence in 
faculty attitudes toward participation in decision- 

Faculty members "indicated the faculty should 
have a strong, active, and influential role in de- 
cisions," but "revealed a strong reticence to give the 
time such a role would require," Mr. Dykes re- 
ported. "Asserting that faculty participation is es- 
sential, they placed participation at the bottom of 
the professional priority list and deprecated their 
colleagues who do participate." 

Kramer Rohfleisch, a history professor at San 
Diego State College, put it this way at a meeting of 
the American Association of State Colleges and 
Universities: "If we do shoulder this burden [of 
academic governance] to excess, just who will tend 
the academic store, do the teaching, and extend the 
range of human knowledge?" 

The report of a colloquium at Teachers College, 
New York, took a different view: "Future encoun- 
ters [on the campuses] may be even less likely of 

resolution than the present difficulties unless both 
faculty members and students soon gain widened 
perspectives on issues of university governance." 

Who's in charge? Today a new group 
has burst into the picture: the col- 
lege and university students them- 
The issues arousing students have been numerous. 
Last academic year, a nationwide survey by Educa- 
tional Testing Service found, the Number 1 cause 
of student unrest was the war in Vietnam; it caused 
protests at 34 per cent of the 859 four-year colleges 
and universities studied. The second most frequent 
cause of unrest was dormitory regulations. This 
year, many of the most violent campus demonstra- 
tions have centered on civil rights. 

In many instances the stated issues were the real 
causes of student protest. In others they provided 
excuses to radical students whose aims were less the 
correction of specific ills or the reform of their col- 
leges and universities than the destruction of the 
political and social system as a whole. It is impor- 
tant to differentiate the two, and a look at the 
dramatis personae can be instructive in doing so. 

at the left — the "New Left," not to be con- 
/% fused with old-style liberalism — is Stu- 

/ — ^ dents for a Democratic Society, whose 
^L M leaders often use the issue of university 
reform to mobilize support from their fellow students 
and to "radicalize" them. The major concern of 
sds is not with the colleges and universities per se, 
but with American society as a whole. 

"It is basically impossible to have an honest 
university in a dishonest society," said the chairman 
of sds at Columbia, Mark Rudd, in what was a fairly 
representative statement of the sds attitude. Last 
year's turmoil at Columbia, in his view, was im- 
mensely valuable as a way of educating students 
and the public to the "corrupt and exploitative" 
nature of U.S. society. 

"It's as if you had reformed Heidelberg in 1938," 
an sds member is likely to say, in explanation of his 
philosophy. "You would still have had Hitler's 
Germany outside the university walls." 

The sds was founded in 1962. Today it is a loosely 
organized group with some 35,000 members, on 
about 350 campuses. Nearly everyone who has 
studied the sds phenomenon agrees its members are 
highly idealistic and very bright. Their idealism has 

'Student power' has many meanings, as the young seek a role in college governance 

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Attached to a college (intellectually, 

led them to a disappointment with the society 
around them, and they have concluded it is corrupt. 

Most sds members disapprove of the Russian 
experience with socialism, but they seem to admire 
the Cuban brand. Recently, however, members re- 
turning from visits to Cuba have appeared disil- 
lusioned by repressive measures they have seen the 
government applying there. 

The meetings of sds — and, to a large extent, the 
activities of the national organization, generally — 
have an improvisational quality about them. This 
often carries over into the sds view of the future. 
"We can't explain what form the society will take 
after the revolution," a member will say. "We'll 
just have to wait and see how it develops." 

In recent months the sds outlook has become in- 
creasingly bitter. Some observers, noting the escala- 
tion in militant rhetoric coming from sds head- 
quarters in Chicago, fear the radical movement soon 
may adopt a more openly aggressive strategy. 

Still, it is doubtful that sds, in its present state of 
organization, would be capable of any sustained, 
concerted assault on the institutions of society. The 
organization is diffuse, and its members have a 
strong antipathy toward authority. They dislike 
carrying out orders, whatever the source. 

Far more influential in the long run, most 
observers believe, will be the U.S. National 
Student Association. In the current spectrum 
of student activism on the campuses, leaders 
of the nsa consider their members "moderates," not 
radicals. A former nsa president, Edward A. 
Schwartz, explains the difference: 

"The moderate student says, 'We'll go on strike, 
rather than burn the buildings down.' " 

The nsa is the national organization of elected 
student governments on nearly 400 campuses. Its 
Washington office shows an increasing efficiency 
and militancy — a reflection, perhaps, of the fact that 
many college students take student government 
much more seriously, today, than in the past. 

The nsa talks of "student power" and works at it: 
more student participation in the decision-making 
at the country's colleges and universities. And it 
wants changes in the teaching process and the 
traditional curriculum. 

In pursuit of these goals, the nsa sends advisers 
around the country to help student governments 
with their battles. The advisers often urge the 
students to take their challenges to authority to the 

emotionally) and detached (physically), alumni can be a great and healthy force 

courts, and the nsa's central office maintains an 
up-to-date file of precedent cases and judicial 

A major aim of nsa this year is reform of the 
academic process. With a $315,000 grant from the 
Ford Foundation, the association has established a 
center for educational reform, which encourages 
students to set up their own classes as alternative 
models, demonstrating to the colleges and univer- 
sities the kinds of learning that students consider 

The Ford grant, say nsa officials, will be used to 
"generate quiet revolutions instead of ugly ones" 
on college campuses. The nsa today is an organiza- 
tion that wants to reform society from within, 
rather than destroy it and then try to rebuild. 

Also in the picture are organizations of militant 
Negro students, such as the Congress for the Unity 
of Black Students, whose founding sessions at Shaw 
University last spring drew 78 delegates from 37 
colleges and universities. The congress is intended 
as a campus successor to the Student Nonviolent 
Coordinating Committee. It will push for courses on 
the history, culture, art, literature, and music of 
Negroes. Its founders urged students to pursue their 
goals without interfering with the orderly operation 
of their colleges or jeopardizing their own academic 
activities. (Some other organizations of black students 
are considerably more militant.) 

And, as a "constructive alternative to the disrup- 
tive approach," an organization called Associated 
Student Governments of the U.S.A. claims a mem- 
bership of 1 50 student governments and proclaims 
that it has "no political intent or purpose," only 
"the sharing of ideas about student government." 

These are some of the principal national groups. 
In addition, many others exist as purely local or- 
ganizations, concerned with only one campus or 
specific issues. 

Except for those whose aim is outright dis- 
ruption for disruption's sake, many such 
. student reformers are gaining a respectful 
I hearing from college and university ad- 
ministrators, faculty members, and trustees — even 
as the more radical militants are meeting greater 
resistance. And increasing numbers of institutions 
have devised, or are seeking, ways of making the 
students a part of the campus decision-making 

It isn't easy. "The problem of constructive student 

participation — participation that gets down to the 
'nitty-gritty' — is of course difficult," Dean C. Peter 
Magrath of the University of Nebraska's College of 
Arts and Sciences has written. "Students are birds 
of passage who usually lack the expertise and 
sophistication to function effectively on complex 
university affairs until their junior and senior years. 
Within a year or two they graduate, but the ad- 
ministration and faculty are left with the policies 
they helped devise. A student generation lasts for 
lour years; colleges and universities are more 

Yale University's President Kingman Brewster, 
testifying before the National Commission on the 
Causes and Prevention of Violence, gave these four 
"prescriptions" for peaceful student involvement: 

► Free expression must be "absolutely guaran- 
teed, no matter how critical or demonstrative it 
may be." 

► Students must have an opportunity to take 
part in "the shaping and direction of the programs, 
activities, and regulations which affect them." 

► Channels of communication must be kept 
open. "The freedom of student expression must be 
matched by a willingness to listen seriously." 

► The student must be treated as an individual, 
with "considerable latitude to design his own 
program and way of life." 

With such guidelines, accompanied by positive 
action to give students a voice in the college and 
university affairs that concern them, many observers 
think a genuine solution to student unrest may be 
attainable. And many think the students' contribu- 
tion to college and university governance will be 
substantial, and that the nation's institutions of 
higher learning will be the better for it. 

"Personally," says Otis A. Singletary, vice-chan- 
cellor for academic affairs at the University of 
Texas, "my suspicion is that in university reform, 
the students are going to make a real impact on the 
improvement of undergraduate teaching." 

Says Morris B. Abram, president of Brandeis 
University: "Today's students are physically, emo- 
tionally, and educationally more mature than my 
generation at the same age. Moreover, they have 
become perceptive social critics of society. The re- 
formers among them far outnumber the disrupters. 
There is little reason to suppose that ... if given 
the opportunity, [they] will not infuse good judg- 
ment into decisions about the rules governing their 
lives in this community." 











^— **7^ -d&rf ^^ "f-'IM /A\ W 

*V /' # 

FTA^ ? 5 m Charge? 

Ideally, a Community 

As far as the academic community is concerned, 
A. Benjamin Franklin's remark about hanging to- 
gether or hanging separately has never been more 
apt. The desire for change is better expressed in 
common future-making than in disputing who is in 
and who is out — or how far. 

— John Caffrey, American Council on Education 

A college or university can be governed well only by a sense of its community 

Who's in charge? Trustees and ad- 
ministrators, faculty members and 
students. Any other answer — any 
authoritarian answer from one of 
the groups alone, any call from outside for more 
centralization of authority to restore "order" to 
the campuses — misses the point of the academic 
enterprise as it has developed in the United States. 

The concept of that enterprise echoes the European 
idea of a community of scholars — self-governing, 
self-determining — teachers and students sharing the 
goal of pursuing knowledge. But it adds an idea that 
from the outset was uniquely American: the belief 
that our colleges and universities must not be self- 
centered and ingrown, but must serve society. 

This idea accounts for putting the ultimate legal 
authority for our colleges and universities in the 
hands of the trustees or regents. They represent the 
view of the larger, outside interest in the institu- 
tions: the interest of churches, of governments, of the 
people. And, as a part of the college or university's 
government, they represent the institution to the 
public: defending it against attack, explaining its 
case to legislatures, corporations, labor unions, 
church groups, and millions of individual citizens. 

Each group in the campus community has its own 
interests, for which it speaks. Each has its own 
authority to govern itself, which it exercises. Each 
has an interest in the institution as a whole, which 
it expresses. Each, ideally, recognizes the interests of 
the others, as well as the common cause. 

That last, difficult requirement, of course, is 
where the process encounters the greatest risk of 

"Almost any proposal for major innovation in the 
universities today runs head-on into the opposition 
of powerful vested interests," John W. Gardner has 
observed. "And the problem is compounded by the 
fact that all of us who have grown up in the aca- 
demic world are skilled in identifying our vested 
interests with the Good, the True, and the Beautiful, 
so that any attack on them is, by definition, 

In times of stress, the risk of a breakdown is 
especially great. Such times have enveloped us all, 
in recent years. The breakdowns have occurred, on 
some campuses — at times spectacularly. 

Whenever they happen, cries are heard for 
abolishing the system. Some demand that campus 
authority be gathered into the hands of a few, who 
would then tighten discipline and curb dissent. 

Others — at the other end of the spectrum — demand 
the destruction of the whole enterprise, without 
proposing any alternatives. 

If the colleges and universities survive these 
demands, it will be because reason again has taken 
hold. Men and women who would neither destroy 
the system nor prevent needed reforms in it are 
hard at work on nearly every campus in America, 
seeking ways to keep the concept of the academic 
community strong, innovative, and workable. 

The task is tough, demanding, and likely to con- 
tinue for years to come. "For many professors," 
said the president of Cornell University, James A. 
Perkins, at a convocation of alumni, "the time re- 
quired to regain a sense of campus community . . . 
demands painful choices." But wherever that sense 
has been lost or broken down, regaining it is 

The alternatives are unacceptable. "If this com- 
munity forgets itself and its common stake and 
destiny," John Caffrey has written, "there are 
powers outside that community who will be only 
too glad to step in and manage for us." Chancellor 
Samuel B. Gould, of the State University of New 
York, put it in these words to a committee of the 
state legislature: 

"This tradition of internal governance . . . must — 
at all cost — be preserved. Any attempt, however 
well-intentioned, to ignore trustee authority or to 
undermine the university's own patterns of opera- 
tion, will vitiate the spirit of the institution and, in 
time, kill the very thing it seeks to preserve." 

Who's in charge there? The jigsaw 
puzzle, put together on the preced- 
ing page, shows the participants: 
trustees, administrators, professors, 
students, ex-students. But a piece is missing. It must 
be supplied, if the answer to our question is to be 
accurate and complete. 

It is the American people themselves. By direct 
and indirect means, on both public and private 
colleges and universities, they exert an influence 
that few of them suspect. 

The people wield their greatest power through 
governments. For the present year, through the 50 
states, they have appropriated more than $5-billion 
in tax funds for college and university operating 
expenses alone. This is more than three times the 
$1.5-billion of only eight years ago. As an expression 
of the people's decision-making power in higher 

Simultaneously, much power is held by 'outsiders' usually unaware of their role 

education, nothing could be more eloquent. 

Through the federal government, the public's 
power to chart the course of our colleges and uni- 
versities has been demonstrated even more dramat- 
ically. How the federal government has spent 
money throughout U.S. higher education has 
changed the colleges and universities in a way that 
few could have visualized a quarter-century ago. 

Here is a hard look at what this influence has 
meant. It was written by Clark Kerr for the 
Brookings Institution's "Agenda for the Nation," 
presented to the Nixon administration: 

"Power is allocated with money," he wrote. 

"The day is largely past of the supremacy of the 
autocratic president, the all-powerful chairman of 
the board, the feared chairman of the state appro- 
priations committee, the financial patron saint, the 
all-wise foundation executive guiding higher educa- 
tion into new directions, the wealthy alumnus with 
his pet projects, the quiet but effective representa- 
tives of the special interests. This shift of power can 
be seen and felt on almost every campus. Twenty 
years of federal impact has been the decisive in- 
fluence in bringing it about. 

"Decisions are being made in more places, and 

Who's in Charge— V 

The Public 

more of these places are external to the campus." 
The process began with the land-grant movement 
of the nineteenth century, which enlisted higher 
education's resources in the industrial and agri- 
cultural growth of the nation. It reached explosive 
proportions in World War II, when the govern- 
ment went to the colleges and universities for 
desperately needed technology and research. After 
the war, spurred by the launching of Russia's 
Sputnik, federal support of activities on the campuses 
grew rapidly. 


■illions of dollars every year went 
to the campuses for research. Most of 
it was allocated to individual faculty 
members, and their power grew pro- 
portionately. So did their independence from the 
college or university that employed them. So did 
the importance of research in their lives. Clearly 
that was where the money and prestige lay; at 

Illustrated by Jerry Dadds 

many research-heavy universities, large numbers of 
faculty members found that their teaching duties 
somehow seemed less important to them. Thus the 
distribution of federal funds had substantially 
changed many an institution of higher education. 

Washington gained a role in college and uni- 
versity decision-making in other ways, as well. 
Spending money on new buildings may have had no 
place in an institution's planning, one year; other 
expenditures may have seemed more urgent. But 
when the federal government offered large sums 
of money for construction, on condition that the 
institution match them from its own pocket, what 
board or president could turn the offer down? 

Not that the influence from Washington was 
sinister; considering the vast sums involved, the 
federal programs of aid to higher education have 
been remarkably free of taint. But the federal power 
to influence the direction of colleges and uni- 
versities was strong and, for most, irresistible. 

Church-related institutions, for example, found 
themselves re-examining — and often changing — 
their long-held insistence on total separation of 
church and state. A few held out against taking 
federal funds, but with every passing year they 
found it more difficult to do so. Without accepting 
them, a college found it hard to compete. 


he power of the public to influence the 
campuses will continue. The Carnegie 
Commission on Higher Education, in 
its important assessment issued in Decem- 

ber, said that by 1976 federal support for the 
nation's colleges and universities must grow to 
$13-billion a year. 

"What the American nation now needs from 
higher education," said the Carnegie Commission, 
"can be summed up in two words: quality and 

How far the colleges and universities will go in 
meeting these needs will depend not basically on 
those who govern the colleges internally, but on the 
public that, through the government, influences 
them from without. 

"The fundamental question is this," said the 
State University of New York's Chancellor Gould : 
"Do we believe deeply enough in the principle of 
an intellectually free and self-regulating university 
that we are willing to exercise the necessary caution 
which will permit the institution — with its faults — 
to survive and even flourish?" 

In answering that question, the alumni and 
alumnae have a crucial part to play. As former 
students, they know the importance of the higher 
educational process as few others do. They under- 
stand why it is, and must be, controversial; why 
it does, and must, generate frictions; why it is, 
and must, be free. And as members of the public, 
they can be higher education's most informed and 
persuasive spokesmen. 

Who's in charge here? The answer is at once 
simple and infinitely complex. 

The trustees are. The faculty is. The students are. 
The president is. You are. 

The report on this and the preceding 15 
pages is the product of a cooperative en- 
deavor in which scores of schools, colleges, 
and universities are taking part. It was pre- 
pared under the direction of the group listed 
below, who form editorial projects for 
education, a non-profit organization associ- 
ated with the American Alumni Council. 

Naturally, in a report of such length and 
scope, not all statements necessarily reflect 
the views of all the persons involved, or of 
their institutions. Copyright © 1969 by Edi- 
torial Projects for Education, Inc. All rights 
reserved; no part may be reproduced without 
the express permission of the editors. Printed 
in U. S. A. 


Indiana University 


Carnegie-Mellon University 


The University of Oklahoma 


Swarthmore College 


George Washington University 


American Alumni Council 


Columbia University 


The University of Texas 


Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 


The University of Oregon 


The University of Colorado 


Wesleyan University 


The University of Pennsylvania 


New York University 


The Carnegie Commission on 
Higher Education 


Phillips Academy, Andover 


The Ohio State University 


Dartmouth College 


Simmons College 


Brown University 


Sweet Briar College 


Executive Editor 


Associate Editor 


Managing Editor 

rftotmai 7tecv4 *i¥efie and ^?^ene 

The Rev. and Mrs. William R. Steven- 
son are living in Maryville for several 
months while he is on sabbatical leave. 

Dorothy Andrews Elston, x'39, has 
been named by President Nixon to be 
treasurer of the United States. 

G. Ellis Burcaw has been elected to 
membership in the national scholastic 
honor society Phi Kappa Phi "for emi- 
nent accomplishment in his professional 
field." He is Director of the University 
of Idaho Museum and Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Museology. 


Grady L. E. Carroll had an article 
entitled "Calvin H. Wiley was a Devoted 
Carolinian" published in the Raleigh 
News and Observer on Feb. 23, 1969. 

The Rev. James E. Marvin is an Assoc- 
ate Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Wichita, Kansas. 

Charles C. Parvin has been promoted 
to night editor of the Chicago Tribune. 

Hugh T. Davis, Jr. has joined the staff 
of the University of Tennessee as a 
training and employee relations officer. 

The Rev. Robert M. Gwaltney is now 

serving as Minister of Administration at 
the Christ Presbyterian Church in Edina, 


Jon Gresham was featured in the con- 
cert given at Maryville College on March 
24, 1969 by the 581st U.S. Air Force 
Band of Warner-Robins, Georgia. Jon 
and A1C Herbert Blauel, Jr. performed 
the trumpet duet in the Vivaldi Concerto 
in B Flat, which was part of the band's 


Clint Abbott has been named assistant 
football coach at Alcoa High School in 
Blount County, Tennessee. 

Mary Rucker is now studying piano 
under Menahen Pressler at Indiana Uni- 
versity where she expects to receive her 
Master's degree this spring. 


Ruth A. Black is in her third quarter 
of Physical Therapy training at the 
University of Tennessee School of Medi- 
cine at Memphis. 

James L. Hogue, Jr. is presently serv- 
ing with the U. S. Army at Fort Dix, 

New Jersey. His wife, Sherry Wood 
Hogue, '68, is living in Cleveland, Ten- 
nessee with her parents and teaching 
fourth grade. 

Virginia Roseborough Wylie had a 
paper, "Outdoor Education," written 
while she was a student at Maryville, 
borrowed by the Environmental Educa- 
tion Specialist of the Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park so that copies 
could be made for the park library and 
for the regional office. 

Pvt. Richard G. Yates, Jr. has com- 
pleted a meteorological observer course 
at the Army Signal School, Ft. Mon- 
mouth, New Jersey. 


Dr. and Mrs. James M. Callaway, '52, 
a daughter, Carrie Catherine, their third 
child, Feb. 21, 1969. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. Mouton, '59 
(Pat Penland, '61), a son, David Law- 
rence, Aug. 31, 1968. 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Buddie, '60 
(Sue Tourtelotte, '59), a daughter, 
Heather Suzanne, their third child, Mar. 
8, 1969. 

Mr. and Mrs. Landon D. Fox (Gayle 
White, '62), a daughter, Lana Gayle, 
their second child, Feb. 26, 1969. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rex Stafford, '64 (Joyce 
Hooper, x'65), a son, Christopher Parker, 
their second child, Jan. 8, 1969. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack D. Damron (Linda 
Vansant, '65), a daughter, Jami Eileen, 
Jan. 8, 1969. 

Lt. and Mrs. George S. Viney (Sue 
Foreman, '66), a son, Mark Andrew, 
Aug. 18, 1968. 

Mr. and Mrs. R. Kirk McNair, '67, a 
daughter, Julia Lynne, Mar. 15, 1969. 

Mr. and Mrs. Patrick C. O'Bryan, '67, 
identical twin sons, Patrick Douglas and 
Michael Todd, Mar. 9, 1969. 


Eva McConnell, Prep. '25, died Feb. 
22, 1969, at Blount Memorial Hospital in 
Maryville. She had been employed by 
ALCOA for 27 years. Services were held 
in Maryville on Feb. 25, 1969. 

Elizabeth Bassel Belt, '23, died Mar. 
14, 1969, in Pasadena, California fol- 
lowing a long illness. Survivors include 
a sister, Dorothy Bassel McKeehan, '31, 
and brother, John Burr Bassel, '24. 

Dr. L. Quentin Myers, '42, died Apr. 6, 
1969, in Blount Memorial Hospital in 
Maryville after a lingering illness. Dr. 
Myers began his opthalmological practice 
in Maryville in 1961. He had previously 
served in the Navy at Bethesda Naval 
Hospital in Maryland. Survivors include 
his wife, Elizabeth Huddleston Myers, 
'42, four daughters, and a brother, Dr. 
Paul T. Myers, '50. Services were held in 
Maryville on Apr. 8, 1969. 

Mobley Is Princess 
From Mississippi 
In D. C. Festival 

Miss Julie M. Mobley 

Miss Julie M. Mobley, Maryville Col- 
lege freshman from Fairfax, Va., repre- 
sented the State of Mississippi as its 
Princess in the annual Cherry Blossom 
Festival held in Washington, D. C. the 
second week in April. She was selected 
by the Mississippi State Society of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Miss Mobley resides in Fairfax, Va., 
with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard 
Mobley. Mr. Mobley, a native of Rolling 
Fork, Miss., is an official of the United 
States Department of Commerce and 
currently is serving as City Councilman 
in Fairfax. 

Miss Mobley is majoring in art at 
Maryville College. She is a cheerleader 
and a member of the Theta Epsilon 

Page Twenty-One 

Two $50,000 Foundation Gifts 
Lifts Category to Ail-Time High 

Two foundation gifts of $50,000 each 
have increased the total amount of gifts 
and pledges to the 150 Fund to over 
$1,400,000. The foundations wished to 
remain anonymous. This brings the to- 
tal amount of foundation and corporate 
support to $331,950 which is an all-time 
high for Maryville College. 

With money pledged to date, this will 
permit the College to go ahead and 
build the new health and physical edu- 
cation building. Bids are being received 
now, and ground should be broken in 
early May. The expected cost of the 
building is $1,500,000. It will be the 
largest building on the campus when 
completed. It is to be located on the old 
intramural field which will put it in 
proximity to the football field and base- 
ball field. The house formerly occupied 
by Dr. Frank D. McClelland is being 

razed to make way for the new facility. 

Alumni and friends who have still 
not made a pledge to the 150 Fund are 
encouraged to do so. With such a heavy 
commitment to the health and physical 
education building, necessary monies to 
meet current operating expenses over 
the next three years will still be need- 
ed. You will recall that the College 
asked everyone to make a three-year 
commitment, payable in 1968, '69, and 
'70. This was done in lieu of asking for 
an annual gift. Each class has been 
asked to make a birthday gift to the 
College during the Sesquicentennial 
Celebration. All pledges received will 
be compiled and reported as the class 
gift at the various class reunion dinners 
which have been scheduled throughout 
the Sesquicentennial year. 

Terry Collins Is 5th MC Student 
Chosen for a Summer in Africa 

Terry L. Collins, Maryville College 
sophomore, has been chosen by Operation 
Crossroads Africa to spend the summer 
in Africa. Terry is the son of Mrs. Ina 
M. Collins of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Terry will leave on June 17 for an 
orientation session at Rutgers University 
in New Brunswick, N. J., and will com- 
plete this session on June 23. He will 
depart from New York City for Sierra 
Leone, in West Africa, on June 27 and 
will return to the United States on Au- 
gust 30. 

Terry, who is an art major at the 
College, in expressing his thoughts of 
going to Africa, stated, "I hope to 
absorb a lot about African art while I'm 
working in Africa and to give my art 
experience in exchange for another. Most 
of all, I want to understand how and 
why the Africans express themselves the 
way they do through their art and hope 
that they will understand how and why 
I express myself as a Black American 

Terry is very active in school activ- 
ities. Besides his devotion to art, he 
participates in the College Choir and 
is rehearsing for the "Creation" which 
will be presented on Thursday, May 8, 
at the College, under the direction of 
Dr. Harry H. Harter, Professor of Music 
and Chairman of the Department of 
Fine Arts. 

Terry L. Collins 

Several of Terry's paintings were 
recently displayed at the Hunter Gallery 
of Art in Chattanooga, Tenn., along with 
an exhibit of paintings by three members 
of the faculty of Fisk University. 

Terry will be the fourth student from 
Maryville College to participate in Oper- 
ation Crossroads Africa in the past five 
years. Other participants have been 
John Noel, from New York City, in 1967; 
Carol Pusey, from Pittsburgh, Pa., in 
1967, who is now a graduate student at 

MC Gets Increased 
Title III Grant For 
Faculty, Curriculum 

Maryville College has been given a 
grant of $170,445 from the Federal Divi- 
sion of College Support, Department of 
Health, Education and Welfare, under 
Title III of the Higher Education Act of 
1965, President Joseph J. Copeland an- 
nounced recently. This money is allo- 
cated to developing institutions and 
recognizes those small colleges and uni- 
versities that are trying to move closer 
to the mainstream of higher education. 

In announcing the grant, Dr. Cope- 
land said, "This is the fourth year in a 
row we have received aid under Title 
III. Our grant this year represents a 
$32,000 increase. It will enable us to 
continue our faculty and curriculum de- 
velopment, as well as participate in the 
Cooperative College Development Pro- 
gram. This latter program is designed to 
improve the quality of our College's de- 
velopment program." 

Next year the College will be able to 
release four of its younger faculty mem- 
bers for a year's leave of absence to do 
advance work on their Ph.D. degrees. 
During their absence, the federal grant 
will pay for their replacements in the 
classroom. These replacements are Na- 
tional Teaching Fellows and must have 
their master's degree. 

In expressing his appreciation for the 
grant, Dr. Copeland said, "This grant is 
evidence of the fact that Maryville Col- 
lege continues to be recognized as a fine 
liberal arts college. It will enable us to 
strengthen our faculty by providing 
more Ph.D. recipients, continue to move 
forward with our changes in curricu- 
lum, and strengthen our total develop- 
ment program." 

the University of Tennessee and who 
plans to return to the continent of Afri- 
ca; and Diana Lynn Drake, 1968, senior, 
from Buffalo, N. Y. 

Operation Crossroads Africa was con- 
csived by Dr. James H. Robinson, from 
Knoxville, Tenn., who envisioned expos- 
ing young American college students to 
the continent of Africa. In the summer 
of 1958, a pilot program was carried out 
in five countries of West Africa, with 
75 participants. The group represented 
41 colleges and universities and a cross- 
section of races and religions. Since 
that time, nearly 2,000 young men and 
women have participated in 135 projects 
in 28 countries. 

Page Twenty-Two 

MC Produced TV 
Programs Are Now 
Shown in Roanoke 

"Focus: Maryville College" will begin 
broadcasting from WBRA-TV, Channel 
15, in Roanoke, Va. beginning on Friday, 
May 2, at 9:30 p. m., announced Maryville 
College Communications Coordinator 
Arthur F. Dees. 

"Focus: Maryville College" will pre- 
sent a variety of programs dealing with 
the total college life such as panel dis- 
cussions of today's issues and will fea- 
ture distinguished guests and college 
students, along with faculty and staff 
members. There will also be musical 
recitals, original drama and many other 
forms which will help to describe the 
many facets of life at Maryville College. 
Many of the television programs will 
be in color. 

The "Focus" series is now viewed 
weekly on WSJK-TV, Channel 2, in 
Knoxville; and daily on WDEF-TV, 
Channel 12, in Chattanooga, Tenn. Many 
programs are being telecast as specials 
on WBIR-TV, Channel 10, in Knoxville; 
WJHL-TV, Channel 11, in Johnson City, 
Tenn.; and WSTV-TV, Channel 30, in 
Atlanta, Ga. The programs used for 
this series are produced by the Mary- 
ville College Communications Service 
through the facilities of WSJK-TV and 
WBIR-TV in Knoxville. 

In arranging with WBRA-TV to begin 
telecasting the "Focus" series, Mr. Dees 
stated, "This is part of the Maryville 
College Communications Service plan 
to expand the effectiveness and the ben- 
efits of Maryville College as an educa- 
tional institution. Maryville College 
views the television medium as an oppor- 
tunity to produce programs that will 
reflect the quality of liberal arts educa- 
tion which a student receives at the 
College as well as enhance the image of 
Maryville College throughout the area. 

(Continued from Page 4) 

Select Gillespie to 

Live with French Family 

During her last three weeks in France, 
Lynn and her group will invite members 
of their host families to join them for 
an extensive travel period throughout 
France. Seeing the host nation through 
the eyes of its nationals is a special 
feature of Experiment programs. 

Honaker Club Sponsors Spring 
Football Game May 24th at MC 

The Scots annual Red and White 
spring football game, to be played at 
8:00 p.m. Saturday, May 24, at Honaker 
Field, will take on added color this year 
under the sponsorship of the Honaker 

Advance tickets will be available at 
businesses throughout the Maryville- 
Alcoa area. All tickets, except for Mary- 
ville College students, will be $1.00. For 
Maryville College students, the tickets 
will be 500, but must be accompanisd 
by the student activity card. 

Spring football drills begin Monday, 
May 5, and the Red and White game 
will climax the sessions. The squads 
will be selected Wednesday prior to the 

It will pit the best Scot offensive per- 
formers against the best defensive per- 
formers. Head Coach Howard J. (Monk) 
Tomlinson and his No. 1 assistant, Lau- 
ren F. Kardatzke, will turn over the 

reins of coaching the squads during the 
game to other assistants and observe 
the action from the press box. 

As spring practice begins, 43 men will 
return from last year's team which 
closed the season with three victories 
out of the last four games, a record high 
in victories since 1964. 

Two former Scot gridders are expect- 
ed to return from the service. They are 
Steve Worrell, six foot, 205-lb. former 
starting defensive guard from Ard- 
more, Pa., and Carl Gehman, five foot 
ten inches, 185-lb., former starting of- 
fensive guard from Quakertown, Pa. 

Coach Tomlinton said, "We lose only 
two of our players through graduation. 
This is the finest group of holdover 
players we have had in many seasons. 
If they come back next fall with the 
same cpirit they showed in our last four 
games last season we ought to show a 
great deal of improvement." 

Scot Trackmen Lose 2 Close Meets 
To End Season With 3-3 Record 

Members of the 1969 Scots Track team are, front row (left to right) Steve Collier, freshman. Pigeon 
Forge, Tenn.; Gary Mace, freshman, Burlington, Vt.; Jim Cannon, sophomore, Sevierville, Tenn.; David 
Garner, junior, Maryville, Tenn.; Bob Ciccotti, junior, Verona, N.J.; Harry Robertshaw, freshman, Holden, 
Mass.; Chip Pusey, freshman, Allison Park, Pa.; Henry Hastings, freshman, Ho-Ho-Kus, N. J.; and Coach 
Howard (Monk) Tomlinson, Second row. Rick Snyder, freshman, Nazareth, Pa.; Bruce Semple, senior, 
Glenolden, Pa.; John Leibrock, sophomore, Newport, Tenn.; Don Hickman, junior, Kingsport, Tenn.; Dub 
Osborne, junior, Kingsport, Tenn.; John Powell, freshman, Columbia, S.C.; Steve Zerwas, sophomore, 
Iowa City, Iowa; David Wiley, junior, Heiskell, Tenn.; and Robert Cooper, sophomore, Wilmington, Del. 
Those not present when picture was taken were Randall Calhoun, freshman, Millington, Tenn.; John 
Klein, sophomore, N. Olmstead, Ohio; Dennis Shockley, junior, Roanoke, Va.; and Lynn Dildine, 
sophomore, Ashley, Ohio. 

Page Twenty-Three 

Mrs. Schoen Plays 
Compositions In 
Texas and Alabama 

Mrs. Victor R. (Sallie) Schoen, Assis- 
tant Professor of Music at Maryville Col- 
lege, has again been chosen to play Mrs. 
Dwight (Nancy) Van de Vate's latest 
composition "Concerto for Piano and 
Orchestra" at the Southern Composer's 
League Convention at the University of 
Alabama, on Friday, April 25. The con- 
vention continues through Tuesday, April 

Franklin Choset, who conducts the 
Lynchburg, Va. Symphony and is former 
conductor of the Oak Ridge, Tenn. Sym- 
phony Orchestra, will be guest conductor 
of the University of Alabama Symphony 

Mrs. Schoen performed as piano solo- 
ist with the University of Houston Sym- 
phony Orchestra premiering this musical 
score last February. She was invited to 
Houston in connection with the three- 
day Composer's Symposium at which 
time the noted American composer Aaron 
Copland was lecturer and guest artist. 

"Concerto for Piano and Orchestra" 
was written by Mrs. Van de Vate in three 
movements as her doctoral dissertation 
at Florida State University. 



Mm. Lili Chookasian 

Saturday night, May 2, 1970, will be a gala night for Maryville College alumni' 
students, faculty and staff members, and friends, for that is the night that Richard 
Yardumian, the internationally known Philadelphia composer, will have his Ora- 
torio, based on the story of Abraham and especially written for the Maryville Col- 
lege Sesquicentennial Celebration, World Premiered from the stage of the Samuel 
Tyndale Wilson Chapel Auditorium. 

American oratorios, such as the one Yardumian is writing for the College, are 
now being written by composers with such stature as Mr. Yardumian and Dave 
Brubeck. Mr. Brubeck's "Light in the Wilderness" was written in 1968. 

Lili Chookasian, the world renowned Metropolitan Opera contralto has been 
contracted to sing part of the Oratorio. There are other world famous opera stars 
being considered. 

The choir will be selected from the roster of former Maryville College Choir 
members, along with the 1969-70 student College Choir. 

The Oratorio will be unique in that it will employ the use of a moving art film 
in the performance by the late French artist Andre Girard, who captivated Mary- 
ville audiences here two years ago, and who collaborated with Mr. Yardumian in the 
vision of this unprecedented molding of the audio-visual art forms so that the Ora- 
torio will become a work to see as well as hear. 

Lili Chookasian is the possessor of a voice which is most frequently described 
as "opulent," "sumptuous," and "satisfying." 

Mme. Chookasian is, in the words of the Chicago Tribune, "a true contralto — 
an authentic member of a tribe so rare as to be almost omnipresent: she has ap- 
peared in concert, opera and recital from Rio de Janeiro to Soviet Armenia, and on 
records she is frequently heard as soloist with the orchestras of New York, Boston 
and Philadelphia. 

She made her Metropolitan Opera debut as La Cieca in Ponchielli's La Giocon- 
da in 1962. Since then, she has sung consistently at the Metropolitan in new as well 
as standard operas. She created the role of Maharani in Menotti's The Last Savage, 
and has been heard in Tchaikovsky's Eugen Onegin, Verdi's Ballo in Maschera and 
Falstaff, Wagner's Das Rheingold and Der Fliegande Hollander, and Britten's Peter 

As a distinguished recitalist and soloist with major orchestras, the Chicago-born 
artist has risen steadily to the top of her field. She regularly appears with the New 
York Philharmonic, the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Boston Symphony Orches- 

Mme. Chookasian was a teacher of Karen Roewade, Maryville College Affiliate 
Artist, who has performed, taught, talked and explained her version of music so 
wonderfully on her visits to the campus over the past two years. 

Advance ticket sales are now under way for the World Premiere performance 
which will be given on Saturday night, May 2, 1970, at 8:15 p.m. in the Samuel Tyn- 
dale Wilson Chapel Auditorium at Maryville College. 

Reservations may be made by writing or phoning 982-5531, Don R. Brakebill, 
'53, Minister of Music, First Baptist Church, Maryville, Tenn., 37801, or by phoning 
982-4720 or writing Maryville College Ticket Office, Maryville, Tenn., 37801. Tickets 
range in price from $2.75 to $6.50. 

Reserved seats have been sectioned off in the Chapel Auditorium as follows: 
the first 10 rows middle section downstairs, $6.50 each; the next 7 rows $5.00 each; 
the back 8 rows $3.50 each. The middle balcony section: first 3 rows $5.00 each; and 
the back 6 rows $3.50 each. The side sections downstairs and balcony will be $2.75 


Page Twenty-Four 

Bulletin of 


APRIL, 1969 

Number 9 

J. Richard Herring, Editor 
Published in May, June, August, October, 
November, December, February, March, and 
April by Maryville College. Entered May 24, 
1904, at Maryville, Tennessee, as second class 
matter. Acceptance for mailing at special 
rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized February 
10, 1919.