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Full text of "Masekhet Rosh ha-shanah: Tract Rosh Hashanah, ("New Year") of the new ..."

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l^arbarli College library. 

FROM THE BBC^'EST OF 

JAMES WALKER, D.D., LL.D., 

(GlMS of 1S14), 

FOKMBR PRESIDENT OF HARVARD COLLEGE; 

" Preference being given to works in the 
Intellectual and Moral Sciences." 



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MICHAEL L. RODKINSON. 



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RABBI J. LEONARD LEVY. 



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JJ....^ __ Jlojr^ _ Sd^?^(--'^^ 



TRACT 



RosH Hashana, 



(••NEW YEAR") 



Of the New Edition of the 



Babylonian Talmud, 



EDITED. FORMULATED AND PUNCTUATHD 
FOR THE FIRST TIME 



Michael L. JRodkinson, 

AND TRANSLATED FOR THE FIRST TIME FROM THE ABOVE TEXT 

«^ 

Rabbi J. Leonard Levy, B. A. (London), 

OF THE 
REFORM CONGREGATION KENESETH ISRAEL. PHILADELPHIA. 

Honors' Graduate, University of London. Fielden Scliolar. University Coliege. London. 
Prize Essayist In Hebrew Literature. Jews* Tlieological College. London. En^and, etc. , etc. 



philadei.phia: 

Charles Sessler, Publisher, 

1895. 



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Copyright, 1895, by 

MiCHAKIf L. RODKINSON. 



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OPINIONS. 



Des Eaiserlicben Bath, 
Prof: M. Lazarus, Ph. D., D. J). 



Berlin, Koenigsplatz 5. 
July 20, 1885. 
Dear Mr. Bodkinson: — 

In reply to your kind favor of 
the 14th inst., I wish to say that I 
read your editorial in No. 298 of 
^pn with attention and pleasure, 
but it left me with a regretful feel- 
ing. I am delighted to see an idea 
expressed which affects a great and 
highly important concern of Juda- 
ism, and am saddened by the re- 
flection that in all probability, I 
shall not live to see its realization. 

At some time or other your plan 
must and will be executed, but 
only by moans of the union and 
cooperation of a number of com - 
petent scholars, who in turn must 
have the necessary financial sup - 
port of a large circle of well to do 
Jewish patrons. Unfortunately , 
Jews of both circles are possessed 
of deplorable indifference, while, 
on the other hand, those that re- 
gard the Talmud as a source of 
knowledge, or use it as such, are 
dominated by a petty spirit— they 
lack the broad, liberal cenception 
of historical developm'ent which is 
a prims quaUfication for success in 
planning and executing a work of 
the kind suggested. 

However, I shall greet with de - 
light any contribution to its ulti - 
mate realization. But I am forced 
regretfully to decline to take inte - 
rest or active part in any new un - 
dertaking. As it is, I am groaning 



under a burden of public duties^ 
which I can in no wise lessen. Cou- 
rage and inclination fail me for 
new projects, more particulaiiy in 
cases when the participation of 
scholars is a highly improbable 
contingency. 

With best wishes for your re- 
covery, 

Bespectfully, 

LAZABUS. 



Bev. Dr. M. Jastrow, 

Babbi of "Bodeph Shalom" Cong. 

of Philadelphia. 



Germantown, October 5, 1894. 
Dear Sir! 

At your jrequest I take pleas- 
ure in stating my opinion that 
your planned edition of an abridg- 
ed Talmud will be a great benefit 
to students who will be spared the 
wading through the intricate dis- 
cussions frequently interspersed 
without direct bearing on the sub- 
ject treated. An English translat- 
ion of the book so abridged will 
then be, though not an easy, yet a 
possible labor. 

Wishing your enterprise the full 
success it deserves, I am 

Very Bespectfully Yours, 

M. JASTBOW. 
To Mr. Michael L. Bodkinson. 



Prof. Dr. M. Mielziner 
of Cincinnati. 



Having perused some advance 
sheets of a part of the abridged 
Talmud edition which Mr. MichaeJ 



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VI 



L. Rodkinson is about to publisb. 
I lind his work to be very recom- 
mendable. Such a Talmud edition 
in which all unnecessary digress- 
ions and all disturbing interpolat- 
ions are judiciously omitted and 
in which the text is provided with 
punctuation marks, will greatly fa- 
cilitate the study of the Talmud 
especially for beginners. 

I trust that the friends of our 

ancient literature will liberally 

support this scholar, and enable 

him to complete this useful work. 

Dr. M. MIELZINER, 

Prof: H. U. College. 
Cincinnati, November, 1894. 



Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise, 
President of the Hebrew Union 
College of Cincinnati. Editor of 
"American Istaelite" & "Deborah- *. 



Cincinnati, Ohio, Jan. 14, 1895. 

R<. *) 

Dear Sir: — 

The bearer of this letter is the 
well known Mr. M. L. Rodkinson, 
whom I would recommend toy our 
special attention. 

The work which Mr. Rodkinson 
is doing, correcting the text of the 
Talmud and translating it into En- 
glish is a gigantic enterprise which 
only such a man would and could 
undertake. If he succeeds it will 
give another life to American Ju- 
daism both here and abroad. 

The question can only bt*, will 
he succeed? can he accomplish it? 



♦} We heartily thank the venerable 
writer of this letter for his kind per. 
mission to publish same, but the name 
of the gentleman to whom it was ad- 
dressed need not be mentioned. 



As far as his learning is concerned 
I am positive he can, and as to his 
eneifgy I dare say he will; he is an 
indefatiguable worker. We hav(» 
the duty to aflford him the oppor- 
tunity to publish one volume, as a 
sample copy, to convince the world 
whether he is or he is not the man 
to accomplish this t^isk. 

To get him at present the finan- 
cial support to publish Vol. L is 
what I ask of you for him. If this 
volume is what he promises, he 
will be the man to accomplish the 
task. Yours, 

ISAAC M. WISK 



Rev. Dr. B. Szold, 
Rabbi of the Cong."Oheb Shalom" 
of Baltimore. 



Balthnore, Jan. 16, 1895. 
To all whom it may concern. •) 

Kev. '^L L. Rodkinson, a renow- 
ned Hebi'ew scholar of repute and 
ability happening to be in Balti- 
more called on me in connection 
with his project of editing his work 
to be known as the "Ancient short 
Talmud'*. He laid before me a 
number of Hebrew proof sheets of 
the Treatise "Berechoth" and the 
whole of the Treatise "Sabbath" in 
Manuscript, and asked me to read 
with an eye of a critic his work, to 
the end that if it appeared to me 
valuable I should testify to the its 
merit and its purpose. 

I very carefully read 16 chapters 
of the M.S. of treatise Sabbath and 
it affords me the greatest pleasure 
that I not only conscientiously con- 
sider the work of extraordinary 

*) Extract from the Original in Hebrew. 



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merit and value at this time, but 
that I was exceedingly pleased to 
find that the editor has carefully 
arranged the text of the Talmud 
most consecutively and logically. 

He facilitates the reading of the 
Talmud considerably on account 
of this excellent orderly arrange- 
ment. The commentary of Rashi 
was also arranged to meet the re- 
quirements suiting this edition and 
the editor has not added any ex- 
planations of his own, nor altered 
the wording of the tpxt. 

Although the contents of the 
Talmud were famiUar to me from 
my- youth, yet this new arrange- 
ment makes delightful reading and 
brought new light. The reader can 
now read the text intelligently, for 
it seems as if the waters of the 
Talmud flow directly from their 
source, and therefore it is with the 
sincerest pleasure that I hope the 
work will meet with the greatest 
success. 

Every scholar will readily un- 
derstand the necessity of such an 
admirable work at the present 
time, when the study of the Tal- 
mud in its voluminous shape will 
not without deep and difficult stu- 
dy infuse the student with aknow- 
ledge of all its intricacies and fine 
points. In the Tulmud as formu- 
lated and abridged by Mr. Rod- 
kinson, however, where all unne- 
cessary repetitions and dispensible 
debates are discarded, the student 
will be able to gain a fair know- 
ledge of all desirable and attract- 
ive points at the cost of very little 
time and trouble. 

These considerations have con- 
s^ained me to overstep my well 



defined limitations, and to beg all 
friends of our nationality and its 
estimable old literature to encou- 
rage and aid this able author to 
the end, that success may crown 
his valuable and much desirable 
eflForts in this direction. 

Let this tribute of mine to truth 
and righteousness be a testimonial 
for the coming generations of the 
high esteem felt by our contempo- 
raries of the 19th century, toward 
the Talmud and our National tra- 
ditions and how ready we were to 
encourage those who made the 
Talmudical study the aim of their 
existence. 

With the assurance of the satis- 
factory results which will obtain 
to all Talmudical students by a 
perusal of this abridged Talmud. 
I am very respectfully, 

B. SZOLD. 



Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, 
Rabbi of the Cong. "Beth.El" of 
New York. 

New York, Febr. 12tb, 1895. 
Dear Sir! 

I gladly and heartily indorse the 
opinion expressed by Prof. Laza- 
rus and the Rev. Drs. Jastrow, 
Mielziner and, Szold, as to the 
merits of your planned edition of 
the Talmud. I also consider an 
abridged edition of the Talmud 
while omitting the many interpo- 
lations which tend to coniiise the 
reader and facilitating the study 
by the addition of modem punct- 
uation marks, would render the 
reading of the difficult passages a 
pleasure rather than a task, a be- 
nefit for the scholarly world both 



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'ew8 and Gentiles, and I can only 
Recommend the imdei taking of the 
work to the support of generous- 
hearted patrons of our so little 
subsidized Jewish literature. 

Dr. K. KOHLER. 
To Michael L. Bodkinson. 



Rev. Dr. Felsentbal, 
Rabbi of the Cong. " Zion " of 
Chicago. 

Chicago, Febr'y 14, 1895. 
Mr. Michael L. Rodkinson, 

New York City. 
Dear Sir: — 

The fact cannot be denied that 
the Talmud, as it has been handed 
down to us, is very voluminous, 
and that furthermore, by the in- 
tricacies of the dialectics prevail- 
ing therein and by the labyrinth- 
ical methods pursued in the same, 
it cannot be fully mastered except 
by scholars who devote their Uves, 
their days and their nights, almost 
exclusively to the study of this 
grand branch of ancient literature. 
In our present times and in coun- 
tries where of necessity all stud- 
ents, rabbis included, have to pur- 
sue other branches of learning al- 
so, such an exclusive devotion to 
Talmudical studies is out of the 
question. For the majority of the 
students, and especially for those 
who, in colleges or in other ways, 
begin to study the Talmud, an 
abridgment of the same — such 
an abridgment by which the more 
important parts of the Talmud 
would be contracted into a nar- 
rower compass and many of its 
difficulties would be avoided — 
will be very desirable, especially if 
by the inserting of punctuation 
marks into the text and by expia- 
tory notes at the bottom of its 
pages or at the end of the various 
volumes the reading and the un- 
derstanding of the talmudical ex- 
tracts will be facilitated. 

I would recommend therefore 
your intended publication of an 
epitomized Talmud to all friends 



of Jewish literature in general and 
to students of Theological Colleges 
especially. And may the wealthier 
ones among our coreligionists, even 
if they themselves are personally 
unable to read and enjoy such li- 
terature, nevertheless patronize 
your great undertaking and follow 
the example given by the wealthy 
merchants among the Zebulunites 
who supported the kss wealthy 
students of our sacred literature 
belonging to the tribe of Issacbar. 
May you then succeed in fur- 
.nishing us with an abridged Tal- 
mud in which especially the peda- 
gogical requirements of a work of 
this kind will have been satisfied! 
Respectfully, 

B. FELSENTHAL. 



Rev. M. Friedman, 
Lector of the "Beth Hamedrash" 
of Vienna, 
The Rev. M. L. Rodkinson,*) 

Yours to hand, and I take this 
opportunity to inform yoii that I 
have read your article and heartily 
agree with you in most of your 
conclusions, although I beg to 
differ in regard to some omissions 
you made from my text, which I 
consider valuable and should have 
been left intact. However, the sub- 
ject is of no importance and more 
of an academical than practical 
merit. As a rule, those who are 
rich in material wealth are poor in 
educational resources, and the rich 
in knowledge are poor in wordly 
possessions in verification of the 
Prophecy: for the wisdom of their 
wise men shall perish, and the un- 
derstanding of their men shall be 
hid. (Isaiah, XXIX, 14.) and al- 
though you are not well versed in 
sacred mysteries (your own confes- 
sion) yet you will I surmise readi- 
ly understand the secret of "hid" 
Yours very trulv, 

MEYER FRIEDMAN. 



*) Translated from Hebrew which 
was published in the *'CaU" july i6, '85 



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IX 



As I am a stranger in America, I deem it advisable to give the 
opinion on my work expressed by European scholars ten years ago. 

M. L. RODKINSON. 



Letters from the celebrated physi- 
cist, Dr. A. Bernstein, founder 
of the Reform Congregation, and 
• of " Das Volksblatt." 
Dear Mr. Rodkinson : — 

Accept my cordial thanks for 
your valuable work "Tefilla Le- 
moshe," which in many respects 
has given me valuable explanations 
of the development of the laws on 
" The wearing of the Tefillin." 

I was exceedingly interested in 
your view on the influence of the 
Jewish Christian sect on the form 
of the " Tefillin," and the presenta- 
tion of the laws relating to them. 
You would be doing signal service 
to science, if you were to continue 
yOur research on the Ebionites inci- 
dentally mentioned. The treatment 
of this theme would earn for you 
the gratitude of all men of science, 
and every layman should consider 
it a privilege to contribute to an 
undertaking of the kind. 
Sincerely yours, 

DR. A. BERNSTEIN. 



Gr. Lichtenfeld, near Berlin, 
23, 10, 1883. 
Have you finished my "Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob ? " I should like 
to hear your opinion of it. 



To Dr. Ritter, preacher of the Re- 
form Congregation in Berlin. 
Esteemed Sir : — 

Many thanks for your New 
Year's sermon, the receipt of which 
pleaaed me the more, as I am un- 
fortunately prevented by illness 
from leaving the house, and cannot 
hope to enjoy your addresses at first 
hand at the proper time and place. 
Permit me to address a question to 
you. 

I have read " Tefilla Lemoshe," 
by Mr. Rodkinson, which you sent 



me, and find that since our Hold- 
heim's most productive time no 
polemic work of such learning and 
judgment has appeared against 
orthodoxy. The author has planned 
other works of similar character, 
and I beg leave to ask you whether 
you do not consider it the duty of 
our congregation to support him in 
their execution. 

It is a fact, of which I have been 
painfully aware since the last twenty 
years, that our congregation subsists 
on the "works of our fathers," 
without bearing in mind that our 
reason for existence is the promo- 
tion of the reform of Judaism. If 
we have come to a standstill in this 
endeavor, it continues to be our 
duty to support men who, like Mr. 
Rodkinson, fulfill their original mis- 
sion by the aid of varied attain- 
ments and tulents. 

Were I not hindered by illness, I 
would plead his cause personally. 
At the end of my life I feel it more 
keenly than ever that I who was 
active in the matter from the first, 
must remember the saying, "To 
him who begins a work, we say, 
finish it." 

I cherish the hope that you will 
succeed in obtaining at the proper 
place a realization of my wish. 

With kindest regards. 
Sincerely yours, 
DR. A. BERNSTEIN. 



Letter from the Rev. Dr. N. Bnill, 

Rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, 

August 4, 1883. 

To Mr. M. L. Rodkinson, at Ems. 

Esteemed Sir : — 

I am in receipt of your valued 
letter addressed to me and my 
brothers, and take pleasure in say- 
ing the following in reply : 



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I have finished reading your 
valuable works on " TefiUin " from 
cover to cover with great attention. 
The novel and surprising views * it 
contains will not fail to meet with 
careful consideration from the 
learned. It is a subject which lat- 
terly has been extensively treated 
by archaeologists and historians, but 
by none so comprehensively and 
exhaustively as by yourself. Your 
plan and its mode of execution, 
your cautious use of the critical 
method, your precise analysis and 
profound understanding of the Tal- 
mudic passages and Medisevai litera- 
ture applicable to the subject, the 
convenient arrangement of the 
material and the clear, excellent 
manner, might serve as models, for 
similar works. At present I must 
deny myself the pleasure of a de- 
tailed review, as I am very busy 
with literary work of different 
kinds. You may expect to see an 
exhaustive criticism of your book 
in the seventh volume of my " Jahr- 
buch " to appear early in 1884. In 
my brothei^s journal there will be a 
long notice in September or October, 
as all his space until then is occu- 
pied. 

We have received Mr. L. Bing's 
work ; it will receive a deserve by 
favorable notice. 

I am with high regard, 

DR. N. BRULL. 



Letter of the Rev. Mr. Isidore, 

Chief Rabbi of France. 
My dear Co-religionists : — 

Mr. Rodkinson is a man of real 
merit, worthy of interest. His past 
and his present alike speak in his 
favor. He has written two works 
of permanent value, which throw 
light on two questions of prime im- 
portance to Judaism. 

I should be glad to have him 
meet with a favorable reception at 
Paris. ISIDORE, 

Chief Rabbi of France. 



P. S. — I have read with deep 
pleasure your work " Tefilla Lem- 
oshe," and have taken three copies. 

Letter of the learned philosopher 
and scholar, Dr. Steinthal, pro- 
fessor at the Universitv of Berlin. 
Berlin, W. Blumeshof 8, 
21,10,1888. • 
Dear Sir : — 

. You wish to have my opinion on 
your work "Tefilla Lemoshe." 
1 herewith give it to you gladly, 
and in so doing I do not believe my- 
self guilty of judging matters with 
which I am not familiar. 

I am particularly fond of works 
like yours, works, 1 mean, in which 
the meaning and history of religious 
thoughts and ceremonies are pre- 
sented in a strictly scientific way. 
Such investigations are not only 
attracted from a psychologic, but also 
of the highest importance from a re- 
ligious, point of view ; they protest, 
or liberate us from superstition, and 
strengthen true religiousness. 

Your work appears to me to be 
thorough ; it shows how the TefiUin 
arose m the course of centuries, 
develops their history, and their 
changes in form. Whether you have 
quoted all the passages in our liter- 
ature relating to TefiUin, I cannot 
say. But, in my opinion there are 
passages of such indisputable im- 
portance, that the meaning of all 
others depends upon theirs. A pas- 
sage of that kind is the one you 
quote from the " Semag." 

I wish to make one remark. Ac- 
cording to my view, also, the 
" Tefillin " can be derived from no 
Biblical passage. The well-known 
verses supposed to refer to the 
Tefillin have only a symbolic mean- 
ing. The argument that Uqshartem 
is followed by Ukhthabhtem is not 
valid, for the latter is also to be 
taken symbolically. Or, has the 
law ever been written on doorposts 
in its entirety, or even Deuteronomy ? 



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On doorposts as little as on hearts 
but in hearts ! 

I wish your work this success : 
that henceforth a Jew who uses the 
phylacteries will not call one who 
does not use them an atheist ; that 
he who ol)eys this custom hallowed 
by tradition does it, not as the ful- 
fillment of a command, but as a 



voluntary clinging to a ceremony, by 
which he wishes to remind himself 
most impressively of the religious 
and moral principles that are to 
guide him. 

Mav this, as well as all hopes 
cherished by you and me and all 
good Jews, be realized. Yours, 
PROF. STEINTHAL. 



NAMES OP SUBSCRIBERS. 



We feel, at this issue, that we should publish a list of names 
of all who have thus far given us their aid, in the form of subscrip- 
tions to our undertakings. We cannot but feel that this edition of 
the Talmud is destined to become historic, and we are proud to per- 
petuate the names of those who extended us their warm support at 
the beginning of our vast enterprise. We regret that time hsts not 
permitted us to visit even our friends in New York, much less seek 
subscriptions there. The subscribers to date follow here, but sub- 
sequently we shall publish the names of all who contribute to this 
work. 

Paid in Fui.i^ for the Hebrew and English Copies. 

Hon. Judge Sulzberger, (3 copies) $70.00 

Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow, the late Simon Muhr, Philip 
Lewin, Charles J. Cohen, Morris Newberger, Simon 
B. Fleisher, Marks Bros., all of Philadelphia . . . 25.00 each 

Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise (Cincinnati), Hon. Oscar Straus, 

Hon. Nathan Straus, Edward Lewison (New York), 25.00 each 

Paid in Advance for One Copy op Hebrew and English: 

Rev. Dr. Jacob Vorsanger of San Francisco, William 
Rayner and Alfred UUman (Baltimore), Moses 
Klein, S. L. Bloch, L. M. Leberman, A. Kaufman 
(Philadelphia), Rev. Henry Cohen (Galveston), I. 
B. Kleinert (New York) $10.00 each 

Subscription Paid for the Engush Translation. 

Rev. Dr. Krauskopf, Rev. Dr. Berkowitz, Rev. W. Loe- 
wenburg, Wm. B. Haclcenburg, J. Kriger, Simon 
Miller, Morris Stern, H. B. Blumenthal, Henry Jonas, 
D. Teller, M. Mayer, J. Gerstley, Edwin Wolf, M. 



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Xll 

B. Loeb, R. Blum, Herman Jonas, M. Pfaelzer, A. 
B. Loeb, D. W. Amram, J. Morwitz, W. Lichten, 
A. Hess, J. K. Arnold, M. H. Pulaski, J. Bacher, 
Dr. M. Franklin, Dr. L. W. Steinbach, Dr. J. L. 
Salinger, B. Kirschbaum, Dr. C. J. Spivak, M. 
Behal, E. Lederer, B. F. Greenewald, M. H. Stem, 
S. Klopfer, Morris Rosenberg (all of Philadelphia), $5.00 each 
Rev. Dr. Szold, Rabbi T. Shanfarber, Rabbi Rosenau, 
Rev. A. Kaiser, Dr. A. B. Arnold, Isaac Strauss, 
Henry Sonnenberg, W. L. Wolf, A. Hantz Bros., 
Wm. Fisher, Mrs. G. Blum, J. Mann, G. Erlanger, 
Ph. Hamburger, Mrs. Joel Gutman, E. Greenbaum, 
D. Greenbaum, S. Frank, B. Cohen (all of Balti- 
more) 5.00 each 

Rev. Dr. D. Philipson, Dr. M. Mielziner, Dr. G. Deutsch, 

M. Bettmann, Julius Freiberg (all of Cincinnati, Q.) 5.00 each 
Rev. Dr. K. Kohler, Dr. H. Baar, A. Solomon, Hon. M. 
Ellinger, Rev. Dr. M. H. Harris, Rev. Dr. S. H. 
Sonneschein, Rev. Dr. R. Grossman, C. Weingart, 
D. P. Hays, C. Sulzberger, Isaac Muslimer (all of 

New York) 5.00 each 

We are also glad to be afforded a long awaited opportunity to 
express our heartfelt gratitude to the reverend gentlemen of the 
several cities visited by us during the year 1893, ^^^ their generous 
efforts in our behalf, both for their own subscriptions and also for 
soliciting the aid and support of their friends for our forthcoming 
works. In this connection we wish to inform our subscribers to the 
second revised edition of our History of Amulets that, owing to cir- 
cumstances beyond our control, we are compelled to delay its publi- 
cation for the present, although it is already in the hands of the 
printer, and shall, in its stead, forward to our subscribers this edition 
of the Talmud, subject, however, to their approval. 

We take the plea.sure to record the names of the following 
Rabbis and gentlemen with accounts received from them, with 
the assurance that we shall ever remember them with gratitude 
and thanks. 

Rev. Dr. J. L. Leucht (New Orleans) and ten subscribers . $110.00 
Rev. Dr. M. Heller (New Orleans) and nine subscribers . 90.00 
Rev. H. Cohen (Galveston) and seventeen subscribers . . . 101.00 

Rev. Dr. Chapman (Dallas) and two subscribers 40.CO 

Rev. H. Bien (Vicksburg) and four subscribers 25.00 

Rev. Saenger (Shreveport) and four subscribers 20.00 

Rev. Dr. Samfield (Memphis) and four subscribers .... 25.00 
Rev. C. Rubenstein (Little Rock) and ten subscribers . . . 52.00 
Rev. Dr. Schulmann (Kansas City) and eight subscribers . 38.00 
Per J. Half (Houston) 30.00 

The address of the Editor is: 

399 W. Sixth Street, CINCINNATI, O. 



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R FEW WORDS TO THE ENGLISH READER. 



Michael L. Rodkinson. 



The Hebrew edition of this work contains an elaborate intro- 
duction in three chapters, the translation of which does not appear 
here. Its contents include many important rules which we have 
followed in this work, but we do not feel called upon at this time to 
engross the time of the English reader by reciting them. We, how- 
ever, deem it a duty to sa)' a few words so that the reader may under- 
stand our position, and the reason that we have undertaken a work 
that cannot prove financially profitable, and that will probably be 
productive of much adverse criticism in certain quarters. 

The fate of the Talmud has been the fate of the Jews. As soon 
as the Hebrew was bom,* he was surrounded by enemies. His 
whole history has been one of struggle against persecution and 
attack. Defamation and deformation have been his lot. So, too, 
has it been with the Talmud. At the beginning of its formative 
period it was surrounded by such enemies as the Sadducees, the 
Boethusians, and other sects. When its canon was fixed the Kar- 
aites tried to destroy or belittle its influence, and since that time it 
has been subjected to an experience of unvarying difiicult>\ Yet, 
with remarkable ttuth the words of Isaiah [xliii. 2] may be applied 
to both, * * When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; 
and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; when thou 
walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the 
flame kindle upon thee." There is, however, one point concerning 
which this simile is not true. The Jew has advanced; the Talmud 
has remained stationar>^ 

Since the time of Moses Mendelssohn the Jew has made vast 
strides forward. There is to-day no branch of human activity in 
which his influence is not, felt. Interesting himself in the affairs of 
the world, he has been enabled to bring a degree of intelligence and 

* vide Genesis xUli. 32. 

(xiii) 



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XIV 

industry to bear upon modern life, that has challenged the admira- 
tion of the world. But with the Talmud, it is not so. That vast 
encyclopedia of Jewish lore remains as it was. No improvement has 
been possible; no progress has been made with it. Reprint after 
reprint has appeared, but it has always been called the Talmud 
Babli, as chaotic as it was when its canon was originally appointed.* 
Commentary upon commentary has appeared, yet the text of the 
Talmud has not received that heroic treatment that will alone enable 
us to say that the Talmud has been improved. Few books have ever 
received more attention than, this vast storehouse of Jewish know- 
ledge. Friends and enemies it has had. Attack after attack has 
been made upon it, and defence after defence made for it; yet whether 
its enemies or its defenders have done it more harm, it would be hard 
to tell. Not, forsooth, that we do not willingly recognize that 
there have been many learned and earnest spirits who have labored 
faithfully in its behalf, but for the most part, if the Talmud could 
speak it would say, *'God save me from my friends!** For the 
friends have, generally, defended without due knowledge of the stu- 
pendous jnonument of Rabbinical lore; and the enemies have usually 
attacked it by using single phrases or epigrams disconnected from 
their context, and which could be used to prove anything. In both 
cases, ignorance has been fatal. For how many have read all the 
Talmud through and are, thus, competent to judge of its merits ! Is 
it right to attack or defend without sufficient information ? Is it not 
a proof of ignorance and unfairness to find fault, with that of which 
we are not able to give proper testimony ? 

If those, especially, who attacked the Talmud and hurled 
against it venomous vituperation, would have had an intimate 
knowledge of it, would they, for example, believe that a work that 
in one part said, **When one asks for food, no questions may be 
asked as to who he is, but he must immediately be given either food 
or money," could be guilty of teaching the monstrous doctrines it is 
so frequently charged with ? Could a work be accused of frivolity 
and pettiness that defines wickedness to be * ' the action of a rich 
man who hears that a poor man is about to buy a piece of property, 
secretly overbids him (Qiddushin 59a)? Could there be a higher 
sense of true charit>' than that conveyed by the .following incident? 
Mar Uqba used to support a poor man by sending him on the eve of 
each Day of Atonement four hundred zuz. When the Rabbi's son 
took the money on one occasion, he heard the poor man*s wife say, 
** Which wine shall I put on the table? Which perfume shall I 

♦ vide Introduction. 



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XV 

sprinkle around the room?" The son, on hearing these remarks, 
returned with the money to his father and told him of what he had 
heard. Said Mar Uqba, ' ' Was that poor man raised so daintily that 
he requires such luxuries ? Go back to him and give him double the 
sum ! " (Ketuboth 7a). This is not recorded by the Talmud as an 
exception; but it is the Talmudical estimate of charity. The Talmud 
is free from the narrowness and bigotry with which it is usually 
charged, and if phrases used out of their context, and in a sense the 
very reverse from that which their author intended, are quoted 
against it, we may be sure that those phrases never existed in the 
original Talmud, but jire the later additions of its enemies and ignor- 
amuses. When it is remembered that until it was first printed, that 
before the canon of the Talmud was fixed in the sixth century, it 
had been growing for more than six hundred years (the Talmud 
was in manuscript for eight centuries), that during the whole of that 
time it was beset by ignorant, unrelenting and bitter foes, that mar- 
ginal notes were easily added and in after years easily embodied in 
the text by unintelligent printers, such a theory as here advanced 
seems not at all improbable. In fact in this very volume we have 
an instance which has been retained only because of its usefulness, 
as an example. In Chapter III, the question is asked, " What is the 
measure of the cornet sound?'* In characteristic phrasing the 
answer is given that R. Simon b. Gamliel* explained (Piresh) that, 
etc., etc. The term here used is altogether un-Talmudical, and this 
is an illustration of a marginal note, later incorporated in the text. 

The attacks on the Talmud have not been made by the enemies 
of the Jews alone. Large numbers of Jews themselves repudiate it, 
denying that they are Talmud Jews, or that they have any sympathy 
with it. Yet there are only the few Karaites in Russia and Austria, 
and the still fewer Samaritans in Asia Minor, who are really no^ 
Talmud Jews. Radical and Reform, Conservative and Orthodox not 
only find their exact counterparts in the Talmud, but also follow in 
many important particulars the practices instituted through the » 
Talmud, e, g.. New Year's Day, Pentecost (as far as its date and sig- 
nificance are concerned), the Qaddish, etc., etc. The modem Jew 
is the product of the Talmud, which we shall find is a work of the 
greatest sympathies, the most liberal impulses, and the widest 
humanitarianism. Even the Jewish defenders have played into the 
enemy's hands by their weak defences, of which such expressions as 



* In th« Talmud only the initials of the name, R. S. b. C, are g^Ten, and theae could stftnd 
for a number of names. It is usual to interpret these letters, as is done in this accompanying: 
translation, but we are sure that R. Simeon b. Gamliel is not the commentator referred to. 



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XVI 

** Remember the age in which it was written '* or ** Christians are 
not meant by * gentiles/ but only the Romans, or the people of Asia 
Minor, etc.," may be taken as a type. 

Amid its bitter enemies, and weak friends the Talmud has 
suffered a martyrdom. Its eventfiil history is too well-known to 
require detailing here. We feel that every attack on it, is an 
attack upon the Jew. We feel that defence by the mere citation by 
phrases is useless, and at the best weak. To answer the attacks 
made upon it through ludicrous and garbled quotations were use- 
less. There is only one defence that can be made in behalf of the 
Talmud. Let it plead its own cause in a modern language ! 

What is this Talmud of which we have said so much ? What is 
that work on which so many essays and sketches, articles and books 
have been written ? The best reply will be an answer in negative form. 
The Talmud is not a commentary on the Bible; nor should the vein 
of satire or humor that runs through it be taken for sober earnest- 
ness. Nor is the Talmud a legal code, for it clearly states that one 
must not derive a law for practical application from any halakhic 
statement, nor even from a precedent, unless in either case it be 
expressly said that the law or statement is intended as a practical 
rule [Baba Bathra 130 b]. Further: R. Issi asked of R. Jo*hanan: 
" What shall we do if you pronounce a law to be a Halakha ? '* to 
which R. Jo*hanan replied: *' Do not act in accordance with it until 
you have heard from me, * Go and practice.' *' Neither is the Tal- 
mud a compilation of fixed regulations, although the Shul'han 
Arukh would make it appear so. Yet, even when the Shulkhan 
Arukh will be forgotten, the Talmud will receive the respect and 
honor of all who love libert>', both mental and religious. It lives 
and will live because of its adaptability to the necessities of every 
age, and if any proof were needed to show that it is not dead, the 
attacks that are with remarkable frequency made on it in Germany 
might be given as the strongest evidence. In its day the Talmud 
•received, not the decisions, but the debates of the leaders of the 
people. It was an independent critic, as it were, adapting itself to 
the spirit of the times; adding, where necessary to the teachings 
of former days, and abrogating also what had become valueless in 
its day. In other words the Talmud was the embodiment of the 
spirit of the people, recording its words and thoughts, its hopes and 
aims, and its opinions on every branch of thought and action. 
Religion and Ethics, Education, Law, History, Geography, Medi- 
cine, Mathematics, etc., were all discussed. It dealt with living issues 



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XVI 1 

in the liveliest manner and, therefore, it is living, and in reading it 
we live over again the lives of its characters. 

Nothing could be more unfair, nothing more unfortunate than 
to adopt the prevailing false notions about this ancient encyclopedia. 
Do not imagine it is the bigoted, immoral narrow work that its 
enemies have portrayed it to be. On the very contrary; it is as 
free as the bird in its statements. It permits no shackles, no fetters 
to be placed upon it. It knows no authority, but conscience and 
reason. It is the bitterest enemy of all superstition and all fanat- 
icism. 

But why speak for it ? Let it open its mouth and speak in its 
own defence ! How can it be done ? The Talmud must be trans- 
lated into the modem tongues, and urge its own plea. All that we 
have said for it would become apparent, if it were only read. Trans- 
lation ! that is the sole secret of defence ! In translating it, however, 
we find our path bristling with difficulties. To reproduce it as it is in 
the original is in our judgment an impossible task. Men like Pinner 
and Rawicz have tried to do so with individual tracts and have only 
succeeded in, at the best giving translations to the world, which are 
not only not correct, but also not readable. If it were translated 
from the original text one would not see the forest through the trees. 
For, as we said above, throughout the ages there have been added to 
the text marginal notes, explanatory words, whole phrases and sen- 
tences inserted in malice or ignorance by its enemies and its friends.* 
As it stands in the original it is, therefore, a tangled mass defying 
reproduction in a modem tongue. It has consequently occurred to 
us that in order to enable the Talmud to open its mouth, the text 
must be carefully edited. A modem book, constructed on a sup- 
posed scientific plan, we cannot make of it, for that would not be the 
Talmud; but a readable, intelligible work it can be made. We have, 
therefore, carefully punctuated the Hebrew text with modem punctu- 
ation marks, and have re-edited it by omitting all such irrelevant 
matter as interrupted the clear and orderly arrangement of the various 
arguments. In this way, there disappears those unnecessary debates 
within debates, which only serve to confuse and never to enlighten 
on the question debated. Thus consecutiveness has been gained, 
but never at the expense of the Talmud, for in no case have we 
omitted one single statement that was necessary, or of any impor- 
tance. In other words we have merely removed from the text those 
accretions that were added from outside sources, which have proven 
so fruitful a source of misunderstanding and misrepresentation. 

* In other of our works we have named these interpolators. 

2 



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XVIU 

It may be asked who and what are we that we undertake so colos- 
sal a task ? We are simply a lover of the Talmud, who believe that we 
have discovered its spirit. The liberal, free, tolerant, broad human- 
itarian s^pirit that pervades that spiritual encyclopedia has been 
shamefully misrepresented and it cries out for rectification. Scholar 
after scholar has tried to improve matters by weighty commentaries 
that have only made the already intricate more difficult of compre- 
hension. For ten years we have asked through letters, periodicals 
and books for a synod of scholars to judge of our work, and deter- 
mine how to deal with this case. We have not had our request 
granted until now and so we have decided to proceed with our work 
alone. We realize that it is by no means perfect, nor bej-ond criti- 
cism. The enterprise is vast; and he who undertakes it is single- 
handed. The difficulties to be overcome are incalculable, one of the 
greatest being that the work is absolutely unendowed, and we must, 
in addition to the important work of editing, travel hither and thither 
to collect funds with which to continue publication. 

We continue our labors in the full and certain hope that, **he 
who comes to purify, receives Divine help '' and that in our task of 
removing the additions made by the enemies of the Talmud, we shall 
be purifying it fix>m the most fruitful source of the attacks made on 
it and thereunto we hope for the help of Heaven. As we have 
already said we feel that this work will not be received everywhere 
with equal favor. We could not expect that it would. Jewish 
works of importance have most usually been given amid * * lightning 
and thunder,*' and this is not likely to prove an exception. Yet this 
we ask, that the reader believe that we have been actuated only by 
the love of the Talmud, to save it from its cruel enemies and weak 
friends, and to put it in such a position that it can plead its own cause 
in its own defence. 



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TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. 



There has never been, in all probability, any work, that has 
received more attention than the Talmud, with the exception, per- 
haps, of the Bible. Both of these productions of Jewish genius have 
been the subject of the world's discussion for many a centurj'. Nor 
is it likely that debate will cease now. Both of these works are too 
valuable to lie hid and blush unseen. They were never intended to 
waste their perfume upon the desert air. They have had so strong 
an influence upon humanity, that the world must think, speak and 
write about them. Quot homines, tot scntentics. You cannot expect 
the world to be unanimous in its judgment. 

For the most part the opinions concerning the Talmud have 
been made second-hand, as are the quotations that are so frequently 
made from it. Few, ver>^ few, have gone to the fountain-head. A 
mature, impartial judgment, therefore, were an impossibility. 
Friends have been able to prove by it, whatever they desired; so too 
have enemies. Friends have quoted from it page after page of ethi- 
cal precepts, so noble, so lofty, that we think we are reading of a 
Socrates or an Aurelius. Enemies have published citations that 
have shocked us. Partisanship will not enable us to give a calm 
judgment. Heated controversy concerning the unknown and unread 
will not hasten a correct estimate of this Encyclopedia J udaica, Tlie 
indulgence of friends is as fatal to justice as the severity of enemies. 
The apologies of the one are as futile as attacks of the other. We 
want deliberation, not heated one-sided argument. Hence it is 
that the thousand and one articles, pamphlets, monographs, lectures 
are almost useless, because for the most part, they are partisan. 

The Talmud deserves consideration at the hands of both Jew and 
Gentile. The Jew owes to it, in a largedegree, his preservation. For a 
thousand years it formed the subject of his mental disquisitions, and for 
another thousand years it was his library. When the Jew was * * hunted 
as a partridge on the mountains; * ' when to be a Jew meant to be plun- 
dered and persecuted; when to be of the ancient faith meant to be 
in daily fear of stake, rack or thumbscrew; when to be of the people 
of Israel meant to have public schools and universities closed against 
one, then it was that a complete vade-mecum, an * * Enquire within 
for everything,'* a miniature library was provided by the twelve 
folio volumes of the Talmud. When in the bitterness of his soul the 

2 (Xix) 



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XX 

Jew might say, '* Without are dogs," snarling and barking and 
waiting to jump at his throat, he might stay within and find solace 
in his Talmud. An old tradition says that when the Jews went into 
exile to Babylon, they carried with them some of the stones of the 
Temple. They, indeed, found sermons in these stones, and in later 
generations they serv'ed to console them in times of distress, to 
strengthen their saddened hearts, to quicken their intelligence, to 
inspire them with hopes for the future. The aim of the contributors 
to the Talmud was to keep pure the God- Idea of the Bible, and in 
doing this they tried to keep the Jew pure too. 

The Christian owes much to the Talmud, too. The best and 
most complete treatise on Jews and Judaism in the times of the 
founder of Christianity is the Talmud. Christianity is indebted to 
it, for much of its terminology. That many of its ethical precepts 
are found in the Talmud is a matter of common knowledge.* It is 
needless for us to expatiate on that which is accepted as a truism. 

There is but one means by which a fair and unbiased estimate 
of the Talmud can be formed. Neither abuse nor defence will pro- 
vide it; neither attack nor apology will furnish it. The evidence of 
its lovers will be rejected as must be the testimony of those who hate 
it. We cannot destroy it. During the famous Reuchlin and Pfef- 
ferkom controversy, the former said, when he heard that the Emperor 
Maximilian had decreed that it should be burnt, '* Burning is but a 
brutal argument.'* So we say to-day. Attack is but a weak argu- 
ment. Defence is weaker. Make the sphinx talk ! Its own words 
will be its vindication or condemnation. This our editor has under- 
taken by means of his *' New Edition of the Babylonian Talmud,** 
of which in course of time a translation will appear, and towards 
which the present volume is the first contribution. 

I have been moved to present my translation to the editor free of 
all charge, because, with him I feel, that the best that can be heard ia 
behalf of the Talmud will be its own words. From my boyhood, 
when I sat at the feet of some of the most learned Talmudists in 
Europe, I learned to love this wonderful work, this testimony to 
the mental and spiritual activity of my ancestors. And I feel that I 
am but doing a disciple's duty in reproducing their words, modestly 
yet lovingly, in a modem language. Of this particular Hebrew 
edition it is not for me to speak. Some of the most eminent scholars 
of America and Europe have approved of the manner in which the 

* The best monogrraphs in English on this subject, known to us, are those essays on " The 
Talmud,'^ '* NoUs of a lecture on the Talmud,^* and ** A Lecture delii-ered at the Midland 
Institute, Birmingham^^^ by Emanuel Deutsch. Vide, " Literary Remains of the Late Rman'- 
uel Deutsche London, 1874 ; John Murray. 



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XXI 

editor has dealt with the text, and this was a sufficient guarantee to 
me that if I could successfully translate their words, I should be doing 
some service in behalf of Hebrew literature and its proudest monu- 
ment, the Talmud. In addition to this present volume, I shall present,, 
at the end of this year, the translation of Berakhoth ( Benedictions) » 

The task of translation is not easy. The few score pages that 
represent this first volume is the result of many weeks* work. The 
genius of the Hebrew is synthetic, a few words expressing much. 
The genius of English is analytic. Those familiar wnth the Talmud 
know how, when it is read in Jewish schools and colleges, a tone of 
the voice, a single gesticulation, a single word, or an untranslated 
phrase will convey more than line upon line of cold type. There are 
other difficulties, in reproducing a dead language into a living pne, 
so well known to the public that they need not be detailed here. I 
have had no model to follow. There is^ to my knowledge^ no English 
translation of any volume of the Talmud^ taking us through the mass 
of Halakha and Haggada as they exist in the original, I have en- 
deavored to give a literal translation, and have sometimes sacrificed 
grace of diction for literalness. The editor desired a translation, not 
a paraphrase, and perhaps, not in one single instance, have I resorted 
to circumlocution. There will be found, however, a mass of paren- 
theses. A translation without these would have been positively 
unreadable. The parentheses, for the most part, represent the com- 
mentary of Rashi. The few notes scattered throughout the volume 
are placed only where they have been found absolutely necessary. I 
could have desired that these foot-notes were more abundant, but until 
the financial support needed by the editor in his undertaking, is 
forthcoming, such additions will be impossible. There is no doubt 
but that if the proper support is given to this enterprise, subsequent 
volumes will contain elaborate foot-notes, and a later volume will 
also contain notes to accompany this present one. 

In the English translation I have, at the special request of the 
editor, made a few corrections to the Hebrew text. I have added a 
few words omitted by the printer on page 19, line 23, the translation 
of which is, ** of two who fall sick with the same sickness " (vide 
page 27). And at his request I have omitted the following passages 
inadvertently admitted by the printer and which will not appear in a 
second edition: page 7, lines 10-12; page 8, lines 8-1 1; page 11, 
line 4; page 13, lines 20-22; page 14, lines 1-4, 6 and 7; page 15, lines 
14-16; page 34, lines 14-16; page 35, line 3; page 37, line 6. 

As to the peculiar phraseology of the translation I feel that I 
should explain one or two matters. The letter " R." has been used 



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xxu 

for the titles, Rabban, Rabbi and Rabh, and the letter ** b." for the 
word Ben or Bar, thus R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai should read Rabbi 
Jo*hanan the son of Zakkai. The quotations from the Scriptures 
will be found to differ frequently from the Authorized Version. There 
are two causes for this; first, the English translation of the Old 
Testament is very faulty, and secondly, I have endeavored to tran- 
slate the original as the Rabbis of the Talmud understood it. The 
word ** Torah *' has been used because I feel that ** Law " is a poor 
translation for it, and ** Pentateuch " would have been unwieldy; 
and the words Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and Shophroth have been 
retained because no English word could adequately express them and 
because the dictionaries consulted also transliterate but do not tran- 
slate them. The same is also true of the names of tlie sounds pro- 
duced on the cornet (Shophar). The words in capital letters at the 
beginning of the paragraphs are the citations from the Mishna. 

To avoid the too frequent use of quotation marks where speeches, 
addresses or remarks are reproduced, the Biblical expedient has been 
resorted to. A colon' (:) is used and the word after it, the initial 
word of the oraiio recta, begins with a capital letter, thus, The 
Rabbis taught: A king who ascends the throne, etc.; modernized 
this would read, The Rabbis taught, *'A king who ascends the 
throne, etc.*' Another typical case will be found on page 14, where 
the colon (:) is followed by a comma (, ) under similar circumstances: 
We have learnt in a Boraitha: R. Eliezer says, Whence do we know, 
etc.; modernized, this would read. We have learned in a Boraitha: 
" R. Eliezer says, * Whence do we know, etc.* *' On only two or 
three occasions has this rule been departed from, and then for reasons 
that will appear clear to the reader. 

With these few words by the way of introduction I present this 
first fruit of my Talmudical labors to the public. I, however, 
desire to express my appreciation of two works that have proven inval- 
uable in my task. The one is the Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow's *' Diction- 
ary of the Targumin, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi and the 
Midrashic Literature,'* and the other is Dr. M. Mielzikner's *' In- 
troduction to the Talmud." The editor joins me in expressing the 
highest sense of appreciation to Mr. Charles Sessler who so 
kindly superintended the publication of this translation. It is not 
of little significance that this volume appears during the Passover. 
That festival represents not only liberty, but also the removal of the 
leaven. May the Talmud, now awakened, be given the freedom it 
deserves. May the leaven of ignorance and unfairness that has sur- 
rounded it be forever removed. 
Philadelphia, April, 1893. J. LEONARD LEW. 



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BRIEF GENERAL INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

Babylonian Talmud. 

BY THK EDITOR. 



On this the appearance of onr latest literary under- 
taking we deem a few explanatory remarks necessary. 
The brief outline of the origin of the Talmud that follows 
may suggest the thought that we have departed from the 
usual manner of dealing with the questions here discussed, 
the more so since we have, for the sake of brevity, refrained 
from citing the authorities on which our statements are 
based. We wish therefore to declare here that we did not 
venture to make a single statement without the support of 
authorities well known in Hebrew literature. Our method 
was to select such views as seemed to us the best authen- 
ticated in the historical progress of Judaism. As we have 
taken our choice from the numerous works on our subject, 
the student is entitled to adopt or to reject the views that 
we represent. 

Most of the Mishnayoth date from a very early period, 
and originated with the students of the Jewish academies, 
which existed since the days of Jehoshaphat, King of 
Judah [2. Chron. xvii. 9]. 

The rabbinical students of ancient times noted the 
essence of the academical teachings in brief form, and as 
a rule in the idiom in which it was spoken to them so 

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XXIV 



that they could afterward easily commit it to memory. 
They have, sometimes however, added comments and ex- 
tensive explanations in the form of notes so that the mass 
of their learning embraced in course of time, according to 
some authorities, as many as six hundred divisions. 

The source of the Mishnayoth was the customs and 
regulations, practiced by the authorities in their adminis- 
tration of religious and civil aflfairs: such as the Sabbath, 
Prayers, Cleanliness (considered actually Godliness) Per- 
mitted and Forbidden Foods, and controversies arising con- 
cerning Slavery. Indebtedness and corporal punishment 
are subjects of academical discussions, conducted with the 
aim of perfecting them into national statutes, enforcible in 
all Jewish communities alike. 

In course of time, however, when those Mishnayoth 
were noted down from earlier existing copies, many addi- 
tions were made. Finall}^ Rabbi Judah the Prince, 
generally called "Rabbi," concluded to collect all the 
Mishnayoth in his college for proper arrangement. From 
these he selected six divisions called according to the sub- 
ject they deal with, viz.. Plants, Feasts, Women, Damages, 
Sacrifices and Purifications, and he proclaimed them holy 
for all Israel. Of the Mishnayoth so treated by Rabbi, 
some were left entirely intact, and were reproduced in their 
original form. To others he parenthetically added brief 
comments of his own, and there are still others that he 
changed in form completely because already in his day old 
customs had changed and taken new forms. 

Such of them as he desired to make final and indis- 
putable national laws, he incorporated into the Mishna 
without mentioning the names of their authors. Where, 
however, he could formulate no definite decision himself, 
or where they were well known to the public, he gave full 
information of their authors as well as the names of those 
opposed to their conclusions, without any decision on his 
part. In still others he mentioned no names but contented 



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xxv 



liimself with saying, " A'herim," /. ^., " Some say," not 
wishing to specify their authority for certain reasons. 

Rabbi did not seek the compliance and agreement 
of all his contemporaries in his arrangement of the 
Mishna, and many differed from his conclusions, and even 
arranged Mishnayoth in accordance with their own views. 
Being, however, a -man of great prominence, influence and 
wealth. Rabbi succeeded in quelling opposition and in 
making his conclusions, as acceptable as the Mosaic law 
itself, and his great pupils, seeing that his intentions were 
only to prevent dissensions, and their only aim the public 
weal, supported him nobly until his teachings were ac- 
cepted as the law of the nation. 

Many Mishnayoth were rejected and destroyed by 
Rabbi, but not being in possession of all those he wished 
to destroy, he went in search of them to Yeshibhoth out- 
side of his jurisdiction. There, however, he met with 
great opposition. Some of the Mishnayoth were hidden 
beyond his reach, others were secretly preserved and 
arranged within the very limits of his domain and 
promptly brought to light after his death. But, Rabbi's 
pupils did not dignify them with the name Mishna, 
implying : " Next to Mosaic law " but called them 
ToSEPHTOTH, meaning '^ additions of a later period " or 
merely additional^ not principal matter. They were also 
named Boraithoth (outsiders) i. e,^ secondary, not aca- 
demical matter. They spread, however, very rapidly, after 
Rabbi's death and to such an extent as to threaten the 
Mishnayoth of Rabbi with entire extinction. Such would 
actually have been the result, had not the pupils of Rabbi 
organized again Yeshibhoth whose aim was to perpetuate 
the Mishnayoth of Rabbi which thej'' also accomplished. 
Yeshibhoth of that character were those of Rabh and 
Samuel in Babylon and Rabbi Janai and Rabbi Jo'hanan 
in Palestine. These Yeshibhoth made strenuous efforts 
to explain and harmonize the Mishnayoth of Rabbi with 



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XXVI 



the teachings of the Boraithoth, generally legarded as 
those of Rabbi 'Hija and Rabbi Oshaia ^ho were greatly 
admired by the public. At times the Mishna of Rabbi 
was abbreviated and replenished with the text of the 
Boraitha, or explained with an opposing opinion so as to 
harmonize it with the latter, or suit the new conditions and 
consequent changes of the custom that originally caused 
the conclusion of the Mishna. Where, however, they 
found no other way to suit their purpose they inserted a 
new Mishna of their own composition into the text of 
Rabbis. 

The teachers mentioned in the Mishna of Rabbi or in 
the Boraithoth and Tosephta were called Tanaim {singular 
Tana) signifying Professor. The teachings of the Yeshib- 
hoth covering a period of some centuries, which also found 
adherents and became the traditional law were called 
Gamara signifying ** conclusion." The intention was to 
harmonize the Mishna and Boraitha, and, in most cases, to 
arrive at a final decision as to the proper interpretation of 
the theory of the law (as Rabbi Jo'hanan prohibited com- 
pliance with the Halakha unless it is mandatory). These 
Gemara teachers were called Amoraim (interpreters) 
i, ^., they interpreted to the public the diflBcult passages 
in the Mishna. Being classified as interpreters only, 
they had no authority to deviate from the spirit of the 
Mishna unless supported by another Tana opposing the 
Mishna, in which case they could follow the opinion of 
the Tana with whom they agreed. Rabhina and R. 
Ashi who lived in the fifth century (third centurj^ of 
Amoraim) began to arrange the Gemara but without 
success, and commenced a second time to arrange it. 
Unfortunately they died before accomplishing their task 
and the Gemara underwent troublous delivery from hand 
to hand until the appearance upon the scene of Rabono 
Jose, president of the last Amoraic Yeshibha in Pom- 
beditha who foresaw that his Yeshibha was destined to 



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be the last owing to the growing persecution of the 
Jews from the days of ^^Pyruz." He also feared that 
the Amoraic manuscripts would be lost in the coming 
dark days or materially altered, so he summoned all 
his contemporary associates and hastily closed up the 
Talmud prohibiting any further additions. This enforced 
haste caused not only an improper arrangement, and 
many unnecessary repetitions and additions but also led 
to the ** Talmudizing " of articles directly traceable to 
bitter and relentless opponents of the Talmud. The 
time (Rabono Jose conducted his Yeshibha only seven- 
teen years) being too short for 'a proper and critical 
review of each and every subject, many theories were 
surreptitiously added by its enemies with the purpose of 
making it detestable to its adherents. Of such charac- 
ter is the expression **That of R. Ashi is a fabrication " 
which is repeated numerous times throughout the Tal- 
mud and which could by no means have originated with 
the Amoraim, who as a rule were very guarded in their 
expressions and would never have dreamed of applying 
it to such Talmudical authorities as R. Ashi and Mar, 
his son, or such like expressions with reference to even 
the Patriarchs or the Prophets. This closing up of the 
Talmud did not, however, prevent the importation of 
foreign matter into it, and many such have crept in 
through the agency of the " Rabono Saburai " and the 
Geonim of every later generation. 

The chief aim of the authors of the Gemara being to 
perpetuate the Mishna as the sole source of the Jewish 
religious and civil code after the Mosaic laws themselves, 
they not only directed all their energy to the discussion 
and perfecting of its deductions, but treated its very words 
and letters as inspired and as holy as the Bible itself, form- 
ing at times conclusions from a superfluous word or letter. 
Oftentimes when they found the Mishna differing with an 
established custom in their days, they resorted to subtle 



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XXVlll 



inquiry and minute discussion until they succeeded in 
establishing harmony between the diflfering points. All 
these eflforts were directed to refute and disprove the asser- 
tions of the diflferent sects, who opposed the oral law and 
who were inclined to adhere to the written law solely : 
Therefore, the Rabbis of the Gemara asked *' Minalan '' 
(wherefrom its source ?) in the treatment of a subject not 
plainly specified in the Bible ; and also, the interrogatory 
remark "Peshita" (Of course!) as regards subjects 
plainly enumerated in the Scriptures which do not admit 
of any other interpretation. Of the same origin is the 
question ** Lemai Hilkhetha '' ? (wherefore this discus- 
sion ?) with reference to an obsolete custom. So much for 
its general historj^ We will now turn to the purpose of 
this tract in particular. 

INTRODUCTION TO ROSH HASHANA. 

The Sjcriptures do not in any way treat of the subject 
of the calendar, a matter of the greatest importance from 
an historical standpoint nor do they state from what period 
the year was begun to be reckoned, although there is a 
passage [Ex. xii. 2], *^ This month shall be unto you, the 
beginning of months ; it shall be to you, the first month 
of the year " which obviously points to Nisan (about April), 
as not only the most important month, but also as the 
beginning of the year. 

In another passage, however [Ex. xxiii. 16], we read 
" The feast of ingathering (Tabernacles) which is at the 
end of the year." The words " beseth hashana" in this 
passage can be, with perfect accuracy, translated ** during 
the year." This rendering would clear away all diflBculty 
with regard to Nisan as the beginning of the 3''ear, but 
since Tishri is the New Year, this translation, under no 
circumstances could apply to Tabernacles, which is neither 
"at the end," nor "during the year" {t. ^., when the 
year has advanced). The passage should, therefore, be 



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XXIX 



translated " and the festival for what is gathered abont 
the end of the year," /. e.y in the months before Tishri. 

In the face of these contradictory terms, we must re- 
vert to historical occurrences in support of one or the other 
of the above claims, and we find that not only the Egyp- 
tian rulers, but also the Jewish kings from Solomon, 
<:ounted the beginning of their reigns from Nisan (April) 
while other Eastern monarchs, such as the Armenians 
and Chaldeans commenced theirs from Tishri (Septem- 
ber). 

We are not certain however whether the Jews upon 
their conquest of Canaan, reckoned their calendar like 
that of the country from which they came or of the 
<:ountry which they conquered, yet it is plain that in the 
Mishnaic period, or after the second restoration, they 
<:ounted the beginning of the year from Tishri. It may, 
however, be that their kings still held Nisan as the begin- 
ning of the year following the example of their predeces- 
sors, and in all civil contracts and documents according to 
the then existing custom, used dates to agree with Nisan 
(April) as the first month of the year. The priestly tithes, 
however, during the days of the second restoration, were 
payable in Elul (August) which was considered the 
expiring season of the year, to prevent the disorder which 
might arise from mixing up one year's taxation with that 
of the other; only, the priestly taxation of fruits was 
delayed till Shebhat (February) (after the season when 
the fruits formed on the trees), so that the various tithes 
should not be mixed and to prevent the priests and 
levites from unduly interfering with the ajBfairs of the 
people. 

The prehistoric Mishna which always formed the law 
to suit the custom, found four diflferent New Year days in 
four diflferent months, and, desiring to make a uniform 
custom in all Jewish communities, taught its adherents to 
observe four days as New Year's to begin the first day of 



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XXX 



the four diflferent months that they happened to be 
practiced in, and the text of the opening Mishna before it 
underwent Rabbi's scrutiny was as follows: There are 
four diflferent New Year's days, First of Nisan, First of 
Elul, First of Tishri, and First of Shebhat. The dif- 
ferent purposes for which they were appointed were well 
known at that time. Because at the time that the second 
commonwealth had ended, and the authority of the priest- 
hood was abrogated and reverted to the House of David 
(in the person of Hillel the grandfather of R. Judah the 
Prince) , he adds to the text of Mishna, by way of com- 
mentary " for kings, and for the cattle-tithe," and there- 
fore he cites the opinion of R. Eliezer and R. Simon, in 
support of his own, because he felt no apprehension that 
the tithes due on one year's products would any longer be 
mixed with those of another, and that therefore a special 
New Year's day should be appointed for them. For the 
same reason he adds too, " the opinion of the school of 
Shamai and the school of Hillel." 

From the Mishna "There are four days of judgment 
for the world every year " it appears that in the Talmudical 
period New Year's was considered a day of repentance; 
and since the principal feature of repentance is devotion 
to God, therefore says Rabbi in the Mishna that devotion 
is the only requirement in the penitential days (between 
New Years and the Day of Atonement). But in his days 
the legend of ** the opening of the Books on New Year's " 
was yet unknown. Furthermore the word *'Nidon" 
in the Mishna Chapter I, 2, should be understood as " dis- 
cussion " as we find that the Benai Bethaira say to R. 
Jo'hanan Ben Zakkai " Let us discuss (Nidon) and after- 
wards we will blow the cornet." Thus the passage cited 
by the Mishna '* He who hath fashioned all their hearts 
understandeth all their works" can be made to harmonize 
with this interpretation, for meditation on spiritual matters 
will lead to investigation of one's own conduct. 



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XXXI 



The story that R. Kruspedai tells in the name of R. 
Jo'hanan that "on New Year's books are opened," etc., he 
quotes from the Boraitha : " Three books are opened on 
the day of Judgment." But in the Boraitha the meaning 
is not Rosh Hashana but the day of the Resurrection. 
That he cites it in the name of R. Jo'hanan proves noth- 
ing, for very often when teachers wanted to add weight 
to their opinions they would quote great Rabbis as their 
authorities ; and R. Jo'hanan himself permitted this. 

After the proper Mishnaic arrangement was com- 
pleted bj?^ Rabbi regarding the number of New Year's 
days, making the principal one " the Day of Memorial," 
after treating upon the laws governing the blowing of 
the cornet, in an exceedingly brief manner, the custom 
in vogue in the Temple of covering the mouth of the 
horn with gold is dwelt upon and the requirements of 
the law of the sounding of the comet is declared suflB- 
ciently fulfilled when a person only hears it in passing 
a synagogue. After arranging the prayers accompanying 
this ceremony in a few words he dilates, at great length, 
on the Mishnayoth governing the lunar movements by 
which alone the Jews were guided in the arrangement 
of their calendar ; on the mode of accepting witnesses 
concerning the same, on the pictures of the moon used 
by Rabbi Gamliel ; on the tradition handed down to him 
from his ancestors (meaning the undisputed correct regu- 
lations) and also the statutes ordained by Rabbi Jo'ha- 
nan Ben Zakkai, claiming that the wise of each genera- 
tion are the sole arbiters about decreeing regulations 
although they may be of such a character as is not to 
be found in the Mosaic 'code; on the right of the chief 
of the Beth Din (court of chief judges) alone of that 
period to arrange the order of the holidays, on account of 
the then visible discontent springing up among the masses 
who wanted to take the management of these subjects in 
their own hands. He, therefore, dilated upon this with 



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XXXll 



minute exactness and supported his assertions with the 
decision of his grandfather Rabban Gamliel also Rabbi 
Doso ben Harkhinas and Joshua that the existing gener- 
ation has only to look for guidance to the existing Beth 
Din, whose opinion is as binding and decisive as that of 
Moses, even though the decision may appear erroneous. 
Such are the contents of this tract, certainly most impor- 
tant from an historical standpoint. Go now and study ! 



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"NEW YEAR/' 



CHAPTER I. 

MISHNA. There are four New Year days, viz : The first of 
Nisan is New Year for (the ascension of ) Kings * and for (the reg- 
ular rotation of) festivals; f the first of Elul is New Year for the 
cattle- tithe, J but according to R. Eliezer and R. Simon, it is on the 
first of Tishri. The first of Tishri is New Year's day, for ordinary 
years, and for the reckoning of the sabbatic years, § and jubilees; 
and also for the planting of trees, j| and for herbs.^ On the first 
day of Shebhat is the New Year for trees,** according to the school 
of Shammai; but the school of Hillel says it is on the fifteenth of 
the same month ft 

GEMARA. " For Kings.'* Why is it necessary to appoint 
such a day? R. 'Hisda answered. On account of documents.! t 
The Rabbis taught : A king who ascends the throne on the 29th of 
Adar must be considered to have reigned one year as soon as the 
first of Nisan comes, but if he ascends the throne on the first of 
Nisan, he is not considered to have reigned one year until the first 
of Nisan of the following year. From this we infer that only Nisan 
is the commencement of years for kings (or the civil New Year's) ; 



* It mattered not according to the sages at what period of the year a Jewish king 
ascended the throne, his reign was always reckoned from the preceding first of Nisan. 
If, for instance, a Jewish king began to reign in Adar, the eleven months before would 
be considered one year of the reign of the king just deceased, and the month of Adar 
would be considered one year of the new king's reign. The next first of Nisan would be 
the beginning of the second year of the king' s reign. This rule had to be observed in 
all documents in which the year of the king's reign was mentioned. 

t This refers to the law concerning vows. If one made a vow it had to be fulfilled 
before the three festivals elapsed in the order of Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles. 

X A date had to be appointed in order to keep the tithes of animals born and products 
of the earth, distinct from year to year. 

§ Vide Lev. xxv. and Dent. xv. 

II With regard to the prohibition of eating fruit of newly planted trees [I,ev. xix. 23-25]. 

^ So as not to mix the tithe on herbs from year to year. 

*♦ With regard to the tithe due on fruit trees. 

tf" The Gemara fully discusses the reasons for these institutions, but we deem it wise 
to anticipate, for the sake of clearness. 

XX So that in the case of mortgages, one may know which is the first and which is the 
second by means of the year of the king*s reign mentioned in the documents. 

(I) 



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that even a fraction of a year is considered a year; and that if a king 
ascends the throne on the first of Nisan, he is not considered to have 
reigned one year until the next first of Nisan, although he may have 
been elected in Adar. The Boraitha * teaches this, lest one might 
suppose that the year should be reckoned from the day of election 
and therefore the king would begin his second year (on the first of 
Nisan following). 

The Rabbis taught: If a king die in Adar and his successor 
ascends the throne in Adar (documents may be dated either) the 
(last) year of the (dead) king, or the (first) year of the new king. 
If a king die in Nisan, and his successor ascends the throne in 
Nisan, the same is the case. But if a king die in Adar, and his suc- 
cessor does not ascend the throne until Nisan, then the year ending 
with Adar should be referred to as the year of the dead king, and 
from Nisan it should be referred to as that of his successor.! 

R. Jo'hanan says: Whence do we deduce that we reckon the 
commencement of years (for the reign) of kings, only from Nisan? 
It is said [i Kings vi. i] ** And it came to pass in the four hundred 
and eightieth 3'ear after the children of Israel were come out of the 
land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon*s reign over Israel, in 
the month Ziv, which is the second month, etc.*' He institutes the 
following analogy between ** the reign of Solomon '* and " the Exo- 
dus from Egypt '* mentioned in this passage: As the Exodus from 
Egypt is reckoned from Nisan, so also is the reign of Solomon 
reckoned from Nisan. But how do we know that the Exodus even 
should be reckoned from Nisan ? Perhaps we should reckon it from 
Tishri! The facts of the case do not support such a presumption, 
for it is written [Numbers xxxiii. 38] **And Aaron, the Priest, went 
up into Mount Hor at the commandment of the Lord, and died 
there, in the fortieth year after the children of Israel were come out 
of the land of Eg>'pt on the first day of the fifth month ; ' ' and it is writ- 
ten [Deut. i. 3] "Audit came to pass in the fortieth year, in the 
eleventh month, on the first day of the month, Moses spake, etc.** 
Since he mentions the fifth month, which is certainly Abh, and he 
speaks of (Aaron's death as happening in) the fortieth year (and not 
the forty-first year) , it is dear that Tishri is not the beginning of years 
(for kings) . This argument is acceptable as far as the former (Aaron's) 



•The word Boraitha is derived from a root meaning *' exiernal, foreign^'' etc. It means 
the traditions and opinions of Tana!ra not embodied in the Mishna as compiled by R. 
Judah Hauaasi. 

t No reference should be made after the first of Nisan to the reign of the king just 
deceased. For instance : it was not permitted to speak of the year beginning with Nisan, 
as the second year after the death of the king. 



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is co»ccmed, for the text specifically mentions (forty years after) 
the Exodus; but in the latter (Moses' ) case, how can we tell that (the 
fortieth year) means from the Exodus ? Perhaps it means (the for- 
tieth year) from the raising of the Tabernacle in the wilderness! 
The terms ** fortieth year'* (mentioned in connection with both 
Aaron and Moses) are compared by analogy; as in the former case 
it means forty years from the time of the Exodus, so also in the latter 
case. But whence do we know that the incident that took place in 
Abh (the death of Aaron) happened before that which is related 
(the speech of Moses) as happening in Shebhat ? Perhaps the Sheb- 
hat incident happened first! It is not reasonable to suppose this; 
for it is written [Deut. i. 4] * 'After he had slain Sihon the king of 
the Amorites," and when Aaron died Sihon was still living. Thus 
it is written [Numbers xxi. i] '*And the Canaanite, the King of 
Arad heard.' ' What did he hear ? He heard that Aaron was dead 
and that the clouds of glory had departed (and he thought that any- 
one might go up and fight against Israel) . How can we make any 
such comparison ? In the one place it speaks of the Canaanite, and 
in the other, of Sihon! Yes, we can, for a Boraitha says that Sihon, 
Arad and the Canaanite are identical. This opinion of R. Jo'hanan is 
quite correct, for we find that a Boraitha quotes all the verses that he 
quotes here, and arrives at the same conclusion. 

R. 'Hisda says: They taught this rule about Nisan only con- 
cerning the kings of Israel, but for the kings of other nations, they 
reckon from Tishri. As it is said: [Nehem. i. i] "The words of 
Nehemiah, the son of Hakhaliah. And it came to pass in the month 
of Kislev, in the twentieth year, Hanani, one of my brethren, came, 
he and certain men of Judah," and it is written: [ibid. ii. i] "And 
it came to pass in the month Nisan, in the twentieth year of Artax- 
erxes the king, etc." Since Hanani stood before Nehemiah in 
Kislev, and the Bible speaks of it as the twentieth year, and since 
Nehemiah stood before the king in Nisan, and the Text calls it also 
the twentieth year, it is clear that the New Year (for the non-Jewish 
king, Artaxerxes) is not Nisan (or in the latter case he would have 
spoken of the twenty-first year). This argument is acceptable as 
far as the latter quotation is concerned, for it specifically mentions 
Artaxerxes, but in the former verse how do we know that he refers 
to Artaxerxes ? Perhaps he refers to another event altogether ! Says 
R. Papa: Since in the first passage we read '* the twentieth year" 
and in the second we read ** the twentieth year," we may deduce by 
analogy that as in the one case Artaxerxes is meant, so is he meant 
also in the other. But how do we know that the event, recorded as 
3 



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occurring in Kislev, and not the Nisan incident, happened first? 
Any other deduction would not accord with the facts of the case. 
For we have learnt in a Boraitha: The same words which Hanani 
said to Nehemiah in Kislev, the latter repeated to the king in Nisan. 
as it is said: [Nehem. i. 1-2] **The words of Nehemiah, son of 
Hakhaliah. And it came to pass in the month of Kislev, in the 
twentieth year, as I was in Shushan the palace, that Hanani, one of 
my brethren came, and certain men of Judah .... and the 
gates thereof are burned with fire. * ' And it also said: [Nehem. ii. 1-6] 
** And it came to pass in the month of Nisan, in the twentieth year 
of Artaxerxes the king, that wine was before him .... so 
it pleased the king to send me; and I set him a time.*' 

R. Joseph offered an objection: It is written [Haggai ii. 10] 
** In the twenty-fourth day of the sixth month, in the second year 
of Darius," and it is also written [ibid, i] '* In the second year, in 
the seventh month, in the one and twentieth day of the month.'* 
If the rule is that Tishri (the seventh month) is the beginning of 
years for non -Jewish kings, should not the Text read ** in the third 
year of Darius" instead of the second year? R. Abahu answered: 
Cyrus* was a most upright king and the Hebrews reckoned his 
years as they did those of the kings of Israel (beginning with Nisan). 
R. Joseph again objected: If that were so there are texts that would 
contradict each other. First: it is written [Ezra vi. 15] ** And this 
house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was 
in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the King." A Boraitha 
explains this to mean: At that same time in the following year Ezra 
and the children of the captivity went up from Babylon, and the 
Bible says about this [Ezra vii. 8] ' * And he came to Jerusalem in 
the fifth month in the seventh year of the king." But if the rule is 
(that for Cyrus the year began with Nisan and not Tishri) should 
not the Text say " the eighth year " (since the first day of Nisan, 
the beginning of another year, inter\'enes between the third of Adar, 
and the month of Abh)? And secondly: How can you compare 
these texts ! In the one place it speaks of Cyrus, and in the other, 
of Darius! This remains unanswered. 

*' And for Festivals." Do then the festivals commence on 
the first of Nisan ? Do they not begin on the fifteenth of that 



♦ The Rabbis of the Talmud must have had a different reading in the book of Haggai 
from that which now exists. There is no verse in Haggai that reads, as the one quoted here. 
There is therefore a great difficulty in understanding the discussion. Rashi even, is unable 
to enlighten us on this point. It is possible, however, that some of the Rabbis knew that 
'* Darius " mentioned in Haggai referred to Cyrus, for all the Persian kings of the Achse- 
menidau dynasty were called Darius. 



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month? R. *Hisda answered: (The Mishna means that Nisan is) 
the month that contains that festival which is called the New Year 
for festivals (viz., Passover). 

What difiFerence does it make (in practice) ? It makes a differ- 
ence to one who has made a vow, because through this festival he 
becomes culpable of breaking the law, * * Thou shalt not slack to 
pay.*'* And this is according to the opinion of R. Simon, who says: 
That (before one is guilty of delay) the three festivals must have 
passed by in their regular order, with Passover as the first (of the 
three). 

The Rabbis taught: As soon as three festivals have passed by 
and the following duties (or vows) have not been fulfilled one is 
guilty of procrastination ; and these are they , The vow of one who says 
** I will give the worth of myself (to the sanctuary) ' * or '* I will give 
what I am estimated to be worth (in accordance with I^ev. xxvii) ;** or 
objects, the use of which one has foresworn, or which one has conse- 
crated (to the sanctuary) or sin-ofFerings, guilt-offerings, burnt-offer- 
ings, peace-offerings, charity, tithes, the firstlings, the paschal 
offerings, the gleanings of the field, that which is forgotten to be 
gathered in the field, the produce of comer of the field.f R. Simon 
says: The festivals must pass by in their regular order, with Pass- 
over as the first, and R. Meir says: As soon as even one festival has 
elapsed, and the vow has not been kept the law is infringed. R. 
Eliezer, b. Jacob, says: As soon as two festivals have elapsed, the law 
is infringed, but R. Elazar, b. Simon, says: Only the passing of the 
feast of Tabernacles causes the infringement of the law (whether or 
not any other festivals have passed by between the making and the 
fulfilling of the vow). What is the reason of the first Tana ? Since 
in [Deut. xvi.] the Text has been speaking of the three festivals, 
why does it repeat **On the feast of Unleavened Bread, on the 
feast of Weeks and on the feast of Tabernacles? " It repeats these 
words to teach us (that the festivals must pass in the order just 
mentioned, before one is) guilty of procrastination. R. Simon says: 
It was not necessary to repeat ' * on the feast of Tabernacles, * * because 
the Text was speaking of that festival (when it mentioned the names 
of the three festivals). Why, then, does it repeat it ?. To teach us 
that Tabernacles shall be the last of the three festivals. R. Meir 
arrives at his opinion because it is mentioned of each festival ** Thou 
shall come there (to Jerusalem) and ye shall bring there'* (your 

*This law of '* Thou shall not slack to pay," is known as " Bai. Tb'ahbr ; " i^ e.^ the law 
against procrastination or delay, 
t Lev. xxiii, 22. 



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vows; and this being said of each festival, if one elapses and the vow 
is not brought, then the law against delay is infringed). The reason 
of R. Eliezer, b. Jacob is that the passage [Numb. xxix. 39] runs: 
'* These shall ye oflFer to the I/)rd on your appointed feasts,'' and the 
minimum of the plural word ** feasts '' is two. On what does R. 
Elazar b. Simon, base his opinion ? We have learnt in a Boraitha: 
* * The feast of Tabernacles ' ' should not have been mentioned in 
[Deut. xvi. 16], since the preceding passages (of that chapter) were 
treating of that feast. Why, then, was it mentioned? To indicate 
that that particular feast (Tabernacles) is the one that causes the 
infringement of the law. 

What do R. Meir and R. Elazar deduce from the superfluous 
passage *' on the feast of Unleavened Bread, on the feast of Weeks, 
and on the feast of Tabernacles ? ' ' They use this verse, according to 
R. Elazar, who says in the name of R. Oshaya: Whence do we know 
that the law of compensation * applies to the feast of Weeks (although 
the feast is only one day)? For this very reason the Bible repeats 
the three festivals; and he institutes a comparison between the feast 
of weeks and the feast of unleavened bread; as the law of compensa- 
tion applies to feast of unleavened bread for seven da^s, so also does 
it apply to the feast of Weeks for seven days. Why, then, does the 
Torah find it necessary to repeat the words, ** In the feast of Taber- 
nacles?" To compare it with the feast of Unleavened Bread; as, 
during the feast of Unleavened Bread it was obligatory to stay over 
night (in Jerusalem), so was it also necessary during the feast of 
Tabernacles. But how do we know that it was obligatory during 
the feast of Unleavened Bread ? It is written [Deut. xvi. 7] , * * Thou 
shalt turn in the morning (after staying over night), and go unto 
thy tents." What are the sources of the above arguments? The 
Rabbis taught the following interpretation of Deut. xxiii. 21: 
'* When thou shalt vow a vow unto the Lord thy God, thou shalt not 
slack to pay it." Perhaps these words only apply to a vow! How 
do we know that they may also be applied to a voluntary oflfering ? 
In the passage just quoted we read **vow," and in another place 
[Lev. vii. 16] , we find *' but if the sacrifice of his ofiering be a vow 
or a voluntarj' offering;" as in the latter instance the Torah includes 
the '* voluntary offering," so does it also in the former; ** unto the 
Lord thy God, ' ' /. e, , offerings expressed by * * I will give the value of 
myself" etc., and other objects mentioned above; **thou shalt not 
slack to pay it;" /. c, the object promised must be given and not 

*The privilege of bringing on one of the later days of a festival a sacrifice that 
should have been offered on the first day. 



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anything in exchange of it;* ** for he wiU surely require it,*' /. ^., the 
sin- guilt- burnt- and peace-offerings; *'the Lord thy God;** these 
words refer to offerings of charity, tithes, and firstlings; ** of thee;" 
this refers to the gleanings, that which is forgotten in the field and 
the produce of the comer of the field; ** and it would be sin in thee," 
i, €., and not in thy sacrifice (which is not thereby invalidated). 

The Rabbis taught: Deut. xxiii. 23; may be explained thus: 
** That which is gone out of thy lips *' refers to the mandator>' laws 
(of the Torah); ** thou shalt keep ** refers to the prohibitory laws; 
** and perform ** is a warning to the Beth Dinf (that thej' should 
enforce the laws) ; * * according as thou hast vowed * * refers to vows; 
*' to the Lord thy God ** refers to sin- guilt- burnt- and peace-offer- 
ing; ** a free-will offering ** means just what it is; ** which thou hast 
spoken, ' ' refers to the sanctified objects devoted to the Temple for 
repairs, etc.; *' with thy mouth *' refers to charity. .Says Rabha: 
One is culpable if he does not give forthwith that which he has vowed 
for charity. Why so ? Because there are always poor people (need- 
ing immediate help) . Is not this self-evident ? Aye, but one might 
suppose that, since the law prohibiting delay is found in connection 
with the duty of giving charity and also of bringing the various vol- 
untary offerings, it would apply to both, and it would not be infringed 
until the three festivals had elapsed, therefore he teaches us (that 
charity and sacrifices are different) ; in the latter case, the infringe- 
ment of the law depends on the festivals, but in the case of charity it 
must be given immediately, for the poor are always to be found. 
And Rabha further said: As soon as three festivals have passed (and 
one has not brought his offering), he daily transgresses the law 
against delay. Against this opinion the following objection was 
raised: As soon as a year, containing three festivals or not, has 
passed (he that does not bring his offering) be it a firstling or 
any of the holy offerings, transgresses daily the law against delay. 
It is quite possible that the three festivals may elapse and yet 
a year may not go by (^. g,; from Passover till Tabernacles is only 
seven months), but how can it happen that a year may pass and 
the three festivals should not occur (in that time) ? It may happen 
according to those who say (that the three festivals must elapse) in 
their regular order, but according to those who do not say (that the 
three festivals must go by) in their regular order how can such a case 

♦ Lev. xxvii. 32. 

t The ecclesiastical and civil courts were called Beth Din, and consisted of an odd num- 
ber of judg^, so that in case of a division of opinion, a majority was always assured. The 
minimum number of judges required to form a court was three. In our translation we shall 
alwa3rs use " Beth Din " instead of *' court ; " using it as an English term, as Sanhedrim. 



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8 

happen ? It is possible according to Rabbi (who holds that the in- 
tercalary month* is not a part of the year), and it occurs in a leap- 
year, when one consecrates* anything (to the Temple) after the feast 
of Passover; for when the end of the second Adar has arrived, a 
year (of twelve months) has elapsed, yet the three festivals have not 
passed by in their regular order. But how can such a case occur 
according to the Rabbis? It can happen; as a Boraitha teaches: R. 
Shemaiah says. The feast of Weeks falls on the fifth, sixth, or seventh 
of Sivan. How is this possible ? In a year when the months of 
Nisan and lyar have thirty days each, Pentecost falls on the fifth of 
Sivan; when they each have twenty-nine days, Pentecost falls on the 
seventh of Sivan; but when the one has twenty-nine days and the 
other has thirty days, Pentecost falls on the sixth of Sivan. 

R. Zera asked: How does the law against delay affect an heir ? 
Shall we argue that the Torah says [Deut. xxiii. 21] ** When thou 
shalt vow a vow ' * (/. e. , the testator has vowed) , but the heir has 
not vowed (consequently, the law does not apply to him), or shall 
we argue from the passage [Deut. xii. 5, 6] *'When ye be come 
. . . . then ye shall bring * ' and the heir (who is obliged to 
come) is also in duty bound to bring with him (the objects vowed 
by the testator) ? Come and hear! R. 'Hiyya teaches: It is writ- 
ten in this connection ** from thee ** (/. ^., from the one who vowed) 
and this excludes the heir. But did we not say above that these 
words refer to the gleanings, etc. ? The Torah uses the word 
ME'iMMOKH ( ' * from thee ' * ) » which we can explain to mean both the 
successor and the gleanings, etc. (/. e., all that comes ** from thee "). 

R. Zera also asked: How does the law against delay affect a 
woman? Shall I say that since she is not obligated to appear (in 
Jerusalem) the law does not apply to her ? or perhaps it is her duty 
to go there because she is included in the law ** to rejoice." ** Cer- 
tainly, '* answered Abayi, **she is bound by this law because it is 
her duty to rejoice." 

The schoolmen asked: From when do we count the beginning 
of the year for a firstling? Answered Abayi: From the moment it 
is bom; but R. A*ha b. Jacob said: From the moment it is accept- 
able as an offering (/. e,, when it is eight days old. Lev. xxii. 27). 
These opinions are not contradictor>% for the former Rabbi refers to 
an unblemished animal and the latter to one with a blemish. May, 
then, a blemished animal be eaten (on the day of its birth) ? Yes, 
if we are sure it was bom after the full period of gestation. 

* Leap year occurs seven times in a cycle of nineteen years. On such occasions one 
month, the second Adar, is added to the twelve lunar months. 



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The Rabbis taught: The first of Nisan is the new year for 
(arranging the) months, for (appointing) leap-years, for giving the 
half- shekels, and, some say, also for the rental of houses. Whence 
do we know (that it is new year) for months ? From Ex. xii. 2 
where it is written, **This month shall be im to you the beginning 
of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. " It is 
also written [Deut. xvii. i] '* Observe the month of Abhibh ' ' (early 
stage of ripening). In which month is grain in the early stage of 
ripening? I can say, only Nisan, and the Torah calls it the first. 
Could I not say Adar (when the grain begins to shoot up) ? Nay, 
for the grain must be ripening during the major portion of the month 
(and in Adar it is not). Is it then written that the grain must be 
ripening the major portion of the month ? Therefore, says Rabhina, 
the sages do not find (the rule of calling Nisan the first month) in 
the Torah, but in the Book of Esther, where it is clearly stated 
[Esth. iii. 7] '* In the first month, that is, the month Nisan." 

**FoR Leap-Years.'* Do we, then, count leap-years from 
Nisan ? Does not a Boraitha teach us that Adar only is the inter- 
calary month? Answered R. Na'hman b. Isaac: The words ** for 
leap-years'' mean here the termination of leap-years* and our 
Tana t speaks of the beginning of the leap-year, and not the end. 

*' For GrviNG the Half-Shekels.'* And where is the 
scriptural text for this? R. Yashi answered: In Numb, xxviii. 14, 
** This is the burnt offering of the new moon each time it is renewed 
during the year. ' ' The Torah says proclaim it a new month and 
also bring a sacrifice from the new products; at the same time he 
makes a comparison between the words * * year ' ' used in this passage 
and in Ex. xii. 2, ** it shall be the first month of the year to you,'' 
and he deduces that they both refer to Nisan. 

R. Judah says in the name of Samuel: It is proper that the 
congregational sacrifices % brought on the first of Nisan should be 
purchased with the shekels raised for the new year; but if one buys a 
sacrifice with the funds obtained from the former year's stock, it is 
acceptable, yet the law was but imperfectly complied with; also, if 
an individual offers from his own property (proper objects, for the 
congregational sacrifices), they are acceptable, but he must first pre- 
sent them to the congregation. Is this not self-evident? Nay, it 
may be feared that one will not give them to the congregation in the 

* As soon as Nisan had been consecrated, there could be no further debate about making 
the past year intercalary, for once the new month had been called Nisan, it was forbidden 
to call it by any other name. 

t The author of a Mishna. The plural of the word is TanaTm. 

\ The TAMin or daily oflTerini? could not be presented to the Temple by an individual. 



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lO 

prescribed manner, and this, he teaches us, is not worthy of consid- 
eration. And the reason that our Tana does not mention that Nisan 
is a new year for the giving of shekels also, is because it is said above 
that if one has brought an oflFering (from the old stock) he has done 
his duty, therefore he could not make Nisan absolutely binding. 

**And Some Say Also for the Rental of Houses.*' The 
Rabbis taught: He who lets a house to another for a year, must 
count (the year) as twelve months from day to day; but if the lessee 
says (I rent this house) * ' for this year, ' ' even if the transaction takes 
place on the first of Adar, as soon as the first of Nisan arrives, the 
year (of rental) has expired. Can you not say Tishri (is the begin- 
ning of the year for such transactions) ? Nay, it is generally under- 
stood that if a man rents a house in the autumn he rents it for the 
whole of the rainy season (winter). And the Tana of the first part 
of the above Boraitha (who does not fix Nisan as the month for 
rentals) and also our Tana both are of the opinion that in Nisan 
too, bad weather sometimes prevails (and therefore Nisan and Tishri 
are alike in this respect). 

''On the First of Elul is the New Year for the 
Cattle-Tithes." According to whose opinion is this? Says R. 
Joseph: It is according to Rabbi's own opinion which he formed 
according to the opinions of different Tanaim. With regard to the 
festivals he holds the opinion of R. Simon and with regard to the 
cattle-tithe he holds the opinion of R. Meir. If that is so, are there 
not five beginnings of years, instead of four ? Rabha answered that 
the Mishna mentioned only the four, which are not disputed by any- 
one; according to R. Meir there are four, if that '* for the festivals " 
be excluded, and according to R. Simon there are four, if that ** for 
the cattle- tithes * ' be excluded. R. Na'hman says: (No such expla- 
nation is needed); the Mishna means there are four (months) in 
which there are (or may be) many beginnings of years. 

"According to R. Eliezer and R. Simon it is on the 
First of Tishri.'* R. Jo'hanan says: Both of them deduce their 
opinion by (various interpretations of) the same Scriptural passage. 
It is written [Ps. Ixv. 13] '*The pastures are clothed with fiocks; 
the valleys also are covered with com; they shout for joy, they also 
sing.*' R. Meir thinks (this is the interpretation) of these words: 
When are the pastures clothed with flocks ? At the season when the 
valleys are covered with com. And when are the valleys covered 
with com? About (the time of) Adar. The flocks conceive in 
Adar and produce their young in Abh; consequently the beginning 
of the year (for the cattle-tithe) is Elul. R. Eliezer and R. Simon, 



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II 

however, say: When are the pastures clothed with flocks? At the 
season when they shout and sing. When do the ears of com (seem 
to) send up a hymn of praise ? In Nisan. Now, the sheep conceive 
in Nisan, and produce in Elul, consequently the beginning of the 
year (for their tithe) is Tishri. But Rabha says: All agree that only 
Adar is the time when the pastures are clothed with flocks, and the 
valleys are covered with com. But they differ about this passage: 
[Deut. xiv. 22] '*Thou shalt truly tithe'' {literally, **Thou shalt 
tithe in tithing"), and we see that the Torah here speaks of two 
tithes, viz., of cattle and of grain. R. Meir thinks that this com- 
parison may be instituted between the two; just as the tithe of grain 
must be given in the month nearest to the time it is reaped, so that 
of cattle must be given in the month nearest to the one in which they 
are bom TElul). R. Eliezer and R. Simon, however, are of the 
opinion that another comparison may be instituted between these 
tithes; just as the beginning of the year for giving the tithe of grain 
is Tishri, so also, is Tishri for that of cattle. 

** The First of Tishri is the New Year's Day for Ordi- 
nary Years." For what purpose is this rule? Answers R. Zera, 
to determine the equinoxes (and solstices) ; and this agrees with the 
opinion of R. Eliezer, who says that the world was created in Tishri; 
but R. Na'hman says (it is the new year) for divine judgment, as it 
is written [Deut. xi. 12] ** From the beginning of the year till the 
end of the year," /. r., at the beginning of the year it is determined 
what shall be at the end of the year. But whence do we know that 
this means Tishri ? It is written [Ps. Ixxxi. 3] ' * Blow up the comet* 
in the new moon, in the time, it is hidden on our solemn feast day.'* 
What feast is it in which the moon is hidden ? I c^n only say Rosh 
Hashaxa (New Year's Day) , and of this day it is written [ibid. 
V. 4] ** For it is a statute unto Israel, a judgment (day) for the God 
of Jacob." The Rabbis taught: '* It is a statute unto Israel," /. r., 
the Supreme Court in Heaven does not enter into judgment until the 
Beth Din on earth proclaims the new moon. Another Boraitha 
teaches: It is written: '* It is a statute unto Israel;" one might sup- 
pose that (New Year's Day is a day of judgment) only for Israel; 
whence do we know it is so also for other nations ? Because it is 
written ** it is the day of judgment of the God of Jacob " (the Uni- 
versal God). Why, then, is " Israel" mentioned ? To inform us that 
Israel enters for judgment first. This is the opinion of R. 'Hisda, 
who holds that if a king and a congregation have a law suit, the 

♦The word "cornet" will be used throughout this translation for the Hebrew word 
Shophar. 



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12 

king enters first, as it is said [i Kings viii. 59] **The cause of his 
servant (King Solomon) and the cause of his people." Why so? 
Because it is not customary to let a king wait outside. 

**FoR THE Computation of Sabbatic Years." On what 
Scriptural passage is this based? On Lev. xxv. 4, which nms: 
** But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land," 
and he deduces (that it means Tishri) by analogy from the word 
** year " in this passage and in the following: " From the beginning 
of the year " [Deut. xi. 12], which surely refers to Tishri. 

*'And Jubilees." Do, then, jubilees begin on the first of 
Tishri? Do they not begin on the tenth of Tishri, as it is written 
[Lev. xxv. 9], '* In the Day of Atonement shall ye make the comet 
sound throughout all your land?" Yea, but our Mishna agrees 
with the opinion of R. Ishmael b. Jo'hanan b. Beroqa; for a 
Boraitha teaches: It is written [Lev. xxv. 10], "Ye shall sanctify 
the year, the fiftieth year,'' Why was it necessary to repeat the 
word ** year " ? Because in the same connection it is said [ibid. 9], 
**On the day of atonement shall ye make the comet sound," and 
one might suppose that the Jubilee is sanctified only from the Day 
of Atonement (and not before). Therefore the word **year" is 
repeated to teach us that by the words ' ' ye shall sanctify the fiftieth 
year " is meant, that from the very beginning of the year the Jubilee 
commences to be consecrated. From this teaching R. Ishmael b. 
Jo*hanan b. Beroqa says : From New Year's Day until the Day of 
Atonement, slaves used not to return to their (own) homes; neither 
did they serve their masters, but they ate and drank and rejoiced 
with the crown of freedom on their heads. As soon as the Day of 
Atonement arrived the Beth Din ordered the comet to be blown and 
the slaves retumed to their own homes and fields reverted to their 
(original) owners. 

We have learnt in another Boraitha: **It is a jubilee" 
(JOBHEL hi). What is meant by (these superfluous words) ? Since 
it is said [Lev. xxv. 10], "And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year," 
one might think that, as at the beginning of the year the Jubilee 
commences to be sanctified so also it should continue to be conse- 
crated after the end of the year; and be not surprised at such a 
teaching, since it is usual to add from the non-sanctified to the 
sanctified. Hence the necessity of the words, in the passage (next 
to that quoted above), [Lev. xxv. 1 1] *' A jubilee shall that fiftieth 
year be unto you ; " i, e,, the fiftieth year .shall be hallowed, and not 
the fifty-first. But the Rabbis (who do not explain this passage 
according to the above Boraitha whence do they derive the regulation 



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13 

that the fifty-first year is not sanctified) ? They say: One counts the 
fiftieth year and not the fifty-first; this exchides the opinion of R. Judah 
who holds that the jubilee year is added at the beginning and end.* 
The Rabbis taught •• Jobhel hi (it is a jubilee),'* even if the people 
have not relinquished (their debts), even if the cornet is not sounded; 
shall we also say even if slaves are not released ? Hence the word 
*' HI " is used (to indicate that only when the slaves are released it 
is a jubilee), so says R. Judah. R. Jose says: '*It is a jubilee,'* 
even if debts are not relinquished, and slaves are not released; shall 
we also say, even if the comet is not sounded? Hence the word 
** HI " is used (and means the sounding of the cornet). Since one 
passage includes (all that is prescribed) and the other passage 
exempts (certain regulations), why should we sa}' it is a jubilee even 
if they have not released slaves, but that it is not a jubilee if they 
failed to sound the comet ? Because it is possible, that sometimes (a 
jubilee may occur) and yet there are no (Hebrew) slaves to release, 
but a jubilee can never occur without the sounding of the comet 
(for a comet can always be found). Another explanation is that 
(the sounding of the comet) is the duty of the Beth Din (and it will 
never fail to perform it), while (the releasing of slaves) is the duty of 
the individual, and we cannot be sure that he will perform it. (Is 
not the first explanation satisfactory) that he gives this additional 
explanation ? (It may not be satisfactory to some who might say) 
that is impossible that not one (Hebrew) slave should be found 
somewhere, to be released. Therefore (the Boraitha adds) that the 
blowing of the comet is the duty of the Beth Din (and they will not 
fail 'to attend to it) while •the release of slaves is the duty of an 
individual (and we cannot) be sure that he will perform it. 

R. 'Hiyyab. Abba, however, says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: 
The foregoing are the words ofR. Judah andR. Jose; but the masters 
hold that all three conditions may prevent the fulfillment (of the 
law), because they hold that the word " hi " [Lev. xxv. lo] should 
be explained of the subjects mentioned in the passage in which it 
occurs, and in the preceding and the following passages also. What 
is the force of the words *' throughout the land ?" (They lead us to 
infer) that at the time when (under a Jewish government) liberty is 
proclaimed throughout the land (Palestine) it should be proclaimed 
outside the land; but if it is not proclaimed in the land, it need not 
be proclaimed outside the land. 

''And also for the Planting ok Trees.'* Whence do we 



* f. e.. The Jubilee year i», at the same time, the fiftieth year of the last and the first of the 
coming series. 



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14 

know this ? From Lev. xix. 23 where it is written, * * Three years 
shall it be as uncircumcised,'* and also, [ibid. 24] ** But in the fourth 
year. ' ' We compare the term * * year * * used here with that of Deut. 
xi. 12, ** from the beginning of the * year,* ** and deduce by analogy 
that they both mean Tishri. The Rabbis taught: For one who 
plants, slips or grafts (trees) in the sixth year (the year before the 
sabbatic year) thirty days before the New Year's day (as soon as the 
first of Tishri arrives) a year is considered to have passed, and he is 
permitted to use, during the sabbatic year (the fruits they may pro- 
duce) , but less than thirty days are not to be considered a year, and 
the fruits may not be used, but are prohibited until the fifteenth 
of Shebhat, whether it be because they come under the category of 
*' uncircumcised " or under the category of ** fourth year planting " 
[Lev. xix. 23, 24]. Whence do we deduce this ? It is said in the 
nameofR. Jo'hananorR. Janai: The Torah says [Lev. xix. 24, 25], 
**And in the fourth year. . . . And in the fifth year,'* i. e., it may 
happen that in the fourth year (from the planting, the fruit) is pro- 
hibited because it is still ** uncircumcised,*' and in the fifth year 
(from the planting) because it is still the product of the fourth year. 

We have learned: R. Eliezer says, In Tishri the world was 
created, the patriarchs (Abraham and Jacob) were bom, and the 
three patriarchs died; Isaac was bom on the Passover; on New Year's 
Day Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited with the blessing of 
children, Joseph was released from prison, and the bondage of our 
fathers in Egypt ceased; in Nisan our ancestors were redeemed from 
Egypt, and in Tishri we shall again be redeemed. R. Joshua says: 
In Nisan the world was created, and in •the same month the patri- 
archs were born, and they also died; Isaac was bora on the Passover; 
on New Year's day, Sarah, Rachel and Hannah were visited, Joseph 
was released from prison, and the bondage of our fathers in Egypt 
ceased. In Nisan our ancestors were redeemed from Eg\'pt, and in 
the same month we shall again be redeemed. 

We have leamt in a Boraitha: R. Eliezer says, Whence do we 
know that the world was created in Tishri f From the Scriptural 
verse in which it is written [Gen. i. 1 1] *'And God said, let the earth 
bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree, etc.** 
In what month does the earth bring forth grass, and at the same 
time the trees are full of fruit ? Let us say, Tishri; and that time 
of the year (mentioned in Genesis), was the autumn; the rain 
descended and the fruits flourished, as it is written [Gen. ii. 6] 
** But there went up a mist from the earth, etc.** R. Joshua says: 
Whence do we know that the world was created in Nisan ? From 



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the Scriptural veree in whkh it is written [Gen. i. 12] **And the 
earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed, and the tree 
yielding fruit, etc.** In which month is the earth covered with 
grass (and at the same time) the trees bring forth fruit ? Let us 
say, Nisan; and at that time animals, domestic and wild, and birds 
mate, as it is said [Psalm Ixv. 14] ** The pastures are clothed with 
flocks, etc.** Further says R. Eliezer: Whence do we know that 
the patriarchs were bom in Tishri? From the passage [i Kings 
viii. 2] **And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto King 
Solomon at the feast, in the month ethanim (strong), which is the 
seventh month; /. c, the month in which ethanim, the strong ones 
of the earth (the patriarchs) were bom. How do we know that the 
expression ethan means strength? It is written, [Numb. xxiv. 
21} ETHAN MOSHABHEKHA ** Strong in thy dwelling place,'* and it 
is also written [Micah vi. 2] ** Hear ye, O mountains, the I^ord*s 
controversy, and (ve-ha^hanim) ye strong ones the foundation, 
etc.** 

Further says R. Joshua: Whence do we know that the patri- 
archs were bom in Nisan ? From i Kings vi. i , where it says * * in 
the fourth year, in the month ziv (glory), which is the second 
month, etc.,*' which means in that month in which the ** glorious 
ones** of the earth (the patriarchs), were already bom. Whether 
the patriarchs were bom in Nisan or Tishri, they died (in later 
years), in the same month as that in which they were bom; as it 
is written [Deut. xxxi. 2] *' Moses said I am one hundred and 
twenty years old to-day.** The word ** to-day ** implies ** just this 
day ** my days and years are complete, " for God grants the righteous 
the fulfillment of the years of their life to the very month and day, 
as it is said: **The number of thy days, I will fulfill,*' [Ex. xxiii. 
26]. 

Isaac was bom in Nisan. Whence do we know this? It is 
written [Gen. xviii. 14] ** At the n^-^t^t festival I will return to thee, 
and Sarah will have a son.** What festival was it when he said 
this ? Shall I say it was Passover, and he referred to Pentecost ? 
That cannot be for what woman bears children after fifty days gesta- 
tion ? If I say it was Pentecost, and he referred to Tishri, a similar 
objection might be raised, for who bears children after five months 
gestation ? If I say it was Tabemacles, and he referred to Passover, 
a similar objection may be made, for who bears children in the sixth 
month of gestation ? But we have leamt that that year was a leap- 
year, and Mar Zutra says that although a child bom after nine 
months* gestation is never bom during the month (but only at the 



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end of the required time) still a seven months* child can be bom 
before the seventh month is complete, as it is said [i Samuel i. 20] 
** and it came to pass, li-tequphath ha-yamim (when the time was 
come about);** the minimum of tequphoth* is two and of yamim 
is also two (/. r., after six months and two days gestation, childbirth 
is possible). Whence do we know that Sarah, Rachel and Hannah 
were visited on New Year*s Day ? Says R. Elazar: By comparing the 
expression ** visit,** that occurs in one passage, with the word 
*' visit** that occurs in another passage; and also by treating the 
expression '* remember*' in the same way. It is written concern- 
ing Rachel [Gen. xxx. 32] **And God remembered Rachel,** and 
of Hannah it is written [i Samuel i. 19] **And God remembered 
her.** He institutes an analogy between the word *' remember** 
used in these passages and in connection with New Year*s Day 
which is called [Lev. xxiii. 24] '*a Sabbath, a memorial {liter- 
ally ^2^, remembrance) of blowing of comets.*' It is also written 
concerning Hannah [i Sam. ii. 21] *'And the Lord visited Han- 
nah;*' and of Sarah it is written [Gen. xxi. i] "And the Lord 
visited Sarah," and by analogy all these events took place on the 
same day, New Year's Day. Whence do we know that Joseph was 
released from prison on New Year*s Day ? From Ps. Ixxxi; in verses 
3, 4, it is written, '*Blow the trumpet, when the moon is hidden 
in the appointed time on our solemn feast day. For it is a statute 
for Israel.** In verse 5 of the same Psalm it is written, ** This he 
ordained (for the day) when Joseph went out, etc.** On New 
Year*s Day the bondage of our fathers in Egypt ceased. Whence 
do we know this? It is written [Ex. vi. 6] ** I will bring you out 
from under the burdens of the Eg>'ptians, * * and it is written in Ps. 
Ixxxi. 6, '* I removed his shoulder from the burden, ** (/. e, , I relieved 
Israel from the burden of Eg>'pt on the day spoken of in the Psalm, 
viz, , New Year*s Day) . In Nisan they were redeemed, as it is recorded 
in the Bible. In Tishri we shall again be redeemed. This he 
deduces by analogy from the word ** comet** found in the follow- 
ing passages. In Ps. Ixxxi. 3, it is stated, '* Blow the comet on the 
new moon" (/. e., on New Year's Day) and in Isaiah xxviii, 13. it 
is written, **And in that day the great comet shall be blown *' (and 
as it means New Year*s Day in the one place, so does it also in the 
other). R. Joshua says: **In Nisan they were redeemed and in 
that month we shall be redeemed again.** Whence do we know 



♦ Tequpha— Solstice or equinox ; hence, the period of three months, which ela|>ses 
between a solstice and the next equinox, is also called tequpha. The Talmud reads the 
Biblical te^m as If it was plural. 



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this? From Ex. xii. 42, which says, '*It is a night of special 
observance,'* /. r., a night specially appointed, since the earliest 
times, for the final redemption of Israel. The Rabbis taught: The 
Jewish sages fix the time of the flood according to R. Eliezer, and 
the solstices according to R. Joshua, but the sages of other nations 
fix the time of the flood also as R. Joshua does. 

**And for Herbs." To this a Boraitha adds *' tithes and 
vows. * ' (Let us see. ) ! What does he mean by * * herbs ' ' ? The tithe 
on herbs ; but are not these included with other ** tithes " ? (Nay ! 
for the tithe on herbs) is a Rabbinical institution, while the others 
are Biblical. If so, should he not teach the Biblical command first ? 
(This is no question); because it was pleasing to him (to have dis- 
covered, that although the tithe of herbs is only a Rabbinical institu- 
tion, yet it should have a special New Year, to prevent the mixing of 
tithes from year to year) he, therefore, gives it precedence. And the 
Tana of our Mishna teaches us the Rabbinical institution (viz., the 
New Year for herbs), leaving us to infer that if that must be ob- 
served so much the more must the Biblical law be followed. 

The Rabbis taught: If one gathers herbs on the eve of New 
Year's Day before sunset, and gathers others after sunset, he must not 
give the heave-offering or the tithe from the one for the other, for it 
is prohibited to give the heave-offering or tithe from the product of 
the past year for that of the present, or vice-versa. If the second 
year from the last sabbatic year was just ending and the third year 
was just beginning, then, for the second year he must give the first 
and second tithes,* and for the third year he must give the first and 
the poor tithes. Whence do we deduce that (in the third year no 
second tithe was to be given)? R. Joshua b. Levi says: In Deut. 
xxvi. 12, it is written, ** When thou hast made an end of tithing all 
the tithes of thine increase the third year, which is the year of the 
tithe ^'^ i, r., the year in which only one tithe is to be given. What is 
to be understood (b}'- one tithe)? The first and poor tithes, and the 
second tithe shall be abrogated. But perhaps it is not so (that the 
first and poor tithe are one tithe), but that the first tithe shall be al.so 
abrogated? This can not be so, for we read [Numb, xviii. 26] 
** The tithe which I have given you from them, for your inheritance, 



♦Tithes must be given even to-day. according to the Rabbinical law, throughout Palestine 
and Syria. 

It was the duty of the Israelite to give of his produce the following offerings and tithes : 
(t) Teruma a heave-offering to be given to the priest every year ; the measure was not fixed 
by the Bible; (2) MaXskr Rishon« or first tithe, to be given every year to the Levite; (3) 
Maasbr Shbni, or second tithe, was to be taken in the second year to Jerusalem and eaten 
there, or to be converted into money, which was to be spent there ; (4) Maaser Ani, or the 
poor tithe, to be given in the third year. 



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etc.** (From this we see that) the Scripture compares this tithe to 
an inheritance; and as an inheritance is the perpetual property of 
the heir, so also is the first tithe an uninterrupted gift for the Levite. 

**And for Vows/* The Rabbis taught: whoso vows to 
derive no benefit from his neighbor for a year, must reckon (for the 
year) twelve months, from day to day ; but if he said * ' for this year,^ * 
if he made the vow even on the twenty-ninth of Elul, as soon as the 
first of Tishri comes, that year is complete, for he vowed to deny 
himself some pleasure and that purpose (even in so brief a period) 
has been fulfilled. But perhaps we should say Nisan (should be 
regarded as the new year in such a case) ? Na}', in the matter of 
vows we follow the common practice among men (who generally 
regard Tishri as the New Year). We have learnt elsewhere: (We 
reckon the year for giving the tithe), for fenugreek as soon as it begins 
to grow; for grain and olives as soon as they are one-third ripe. 
What do you mean by *' as soon as it begins to grow? ** When it 
has put forth its blossoms. Whence do we know that we reckon the 
tithe on grain and olives when they are one-third ripe ? R. Asi says 
in the name of R. Jo'hanan, and some think in the name of R. Jose 
of Galilee: The Bible says [Deut. xxxi. lo] ** At the end of ever>' 
seven years, in the solemnitj' of the year of release, in the feast of 
tabernacles.** What has the year of release to do with Taberna- 
cles; it is already the eighth year (because the Bible says **atthe 
end of every seven years * * ) ? It is only to tell you that all grain which* 
was one-third ripe before New Year's Day must be regarded even in 
the eighth year as the product of the sabbatic year. And for this 
we find support in a Boraitha: R. Jonathan b. Joseph says, It is 
written [Lev. xxv. 21] ** And it shall bring forth fruit for three 
(lishlosh) years. Do not read i^ishlosh '*for three,** but in this 
case read LI SHUSH **for a third** (/. ^., it is considered produce 
when it is a third ripe). We have learnt elsewhere: Rice, millet, 
poppies and lentils which have taken root before New Year*s Day 
come under the category of tithes for the past year, and therefore one 
is permitted to use them during the sabbatic year; but if t/iey ha\'e 
not (taken root), one is forbidden to use them during the sabbatic 
year, and they come under the category of tithes, of the following 
year. 

Says Rabha: (Let us see)! The Rabbis say that the year (for 
giving tithes) begins as follows: *' for a tree from the time the fruits 
form; for grain and olives when they are one-third ripe; and for herbs 
when they are gathered.- Now under which head are the above (rice, 
etc.) classed? After consideration Rabha remarked: Since these do 



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not all ripen simultaneously but are gathered little bj' little, the 
Rabbis are right when they say they are tithable from the time they 
take root. A Boraitha teaches: R. Jose of Galilee says that from 
the words [Deut. xvi. 13] ** When thou hast gathered in thy com 
and thy' wine " we infer that as com and wine, now being gathered, 
grow by means of the past yearns rains, and are tithed as last year's 
(before New Year's Day) products; so every fruit that grows by the 
rain of last year is tithable as the last year's produce; but herbs do 
not come in this category, for they grow bj- means of the rains of 
the new year, and they are tithable in the coming year. R. Aqiba 
says that the words * ' when thou hast gathered in thy com and thy 
wine " lead us to infer that as com and grapes grow chiefly by means 
of rain and are tithed as last year's products, so all things that grow 
chiefly by rain, are tithed as belonging to the past year; but as 
herbs grow even by watering, they are tithed as the next year's pro- 
ducts. In what case is this difference of opinion applicable ? An- 
swered Abbahu: In the cases of onions and Egyptian beans; for a 
Mishna says onions and Egyptian beans which have not been watered 
for thirty days before New Year's Day are tithed as last year's pro- 
ducts, and are allowed to be used during the sabbatic year, but if 
they have been watered, then they are prohibited during the sabbatic 
year and are tithed as next year's products. 

'*On the First of Shebhat is the New Year for Trees." 
Why so? Said R. Elazar, in the name of R. Oshaia, because at 
that date, the greater part of the early rains have fallen, although the 
greater part of the Tequpha is yet to come. The Rabbis taught: 
It once happened that R. Aqiba picked the fruit of a citron tree, on 
the first of Shebhat and gave two tithes of them, one in accordance 
with the custom of the school of Shammai and one in accordance 
with the school of Hillel's custom. Says R. Jose b. Judah: Nay ! 
Aqiba did not do this because of the custom of the school of Shammai 
or the school of Hillel, but because R. Gamliel* and R. Eliezer 
were accustomed to do so. Did he not follow the practice of Beth 
Shammai because it was the first of Shebhat ? Answered R. 'Hanina 
and some say R. 'Hananya: The case here cited was one of a citron 
tree whose fruit was formed before the fifteenth of last Shebhat and 
he should have given the tithe of it even before the present first of 
Shebhat, but the case happened to be as cited. But Rabhina says: Put 
the foregoing together and read the (words of R. Jose) as follows: 
It did not happen on the first of Shebhat but on the fifteenth; and 
he did not follow the regulations of the school of Hillel or the school 

* The opinion of R. Gamliel is stated a little further on. 
4 



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of Shammai, but the custom of R. Gamliel and R. Eliezer. Rabbah 
b. Huna says : Although R. Gamliel holds that a citron tree is 
tithable from the time it is picked, as is the case with ** herbs,** 
nevertheless the new year for tithing it, is in Shebhat. R. Jo'hanan 
asked R. Janai: ** When is the beginning of a year for (the tithe 
on) citrons ? * ' ' * Shebhat, * * he answered. * * Do you mean ' * said he, 
* * the month Shebhat as fixed by the lunar year or by the solar year 
(from the winter solstice)?** ** By the lunar year,*' he replied. 
Rabha asked R. Na*hman, *' How is it in leap-years (when there are 
thirteen lunar months) ? * ' ** Shebhat, as in the majority of years, '* 
answered he. We have learnt : R. Jo'hanan and Resh Laqish both 
say that a citron that has grown in the sixth year and is unpicked at 
the entrance of the sabbatic year is always considered the product of 
the sixth year. When Rabhin came (from Palestine) he said, in the 
name of R. Jo'hanan; A citron that was as small as an olive in the 
sixth year but grew to the size of a (small) loaf of bread during the 
sabbatic year, if one used it without separating the tithe he is culpable 
because of Tebhei..* 

The Rabbis taught: A tree whose fruits formed before the fif- 
teenth of Shebhat, must be tithed as the product of the past year, 
but if they formed after that, they are tithed during the coming year. 
R. Ne*hemiah says: This applies to a tree that bears two crops a 
year. How can there be two crops ? It looks like two crops (as is 
the case with grapes) ; but in the case of a tree that produces but 
one crop, as for example, the palm, olive or carob, although their 
fruits may have formed before the fifteenth of Shebhat, they are 
tithed as the products of the coming year. R. Jo*hanan remarked 
that in the case of the carob, people follow the opinion of R. 
Ne*hemiah. Resh Laqish asked R. Jo*hanan: Since white figs take 
three years to grow fully ripe, must not the second year after the sab- 
batic year be regarded as the sabbatic year for them ? R. Jo*hanan 
was silent. 

MISHNA. At four periods in each year the world is judged; on 
Passover in respect to the growth of grain; on Pentecost in respect 
to the fruit of trees; on New Year*s Day all human beings pass before 
God, as sheep before a shepherd; as it is said [Ps. xxx, 9] ** He 
who hath fashioned all their hearts, understandeth all their works;* 'f 
and on Tabernacles judgment is given in regard to water (rain). 

GEMARA. What grain (does the Divine judgment, aflfect on 



* Produces, in that stage in which the separation of levitical and priestly shares is required 
before one can partake of them. 
t Vide introduction. 



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21 

the Passover) ? Does it mean the grain now standing in the field 
(about to be reaped) ? When then were all the accidents that have 
happened to it until that time appointed (by Divine will) ? It does 
not mean standing grain but that just sown. Shall we say that only 
one judgment is passed upon it ? Does not a Boraitha teach: If an 
accident or injurj' befall grain before Passover it was decreed on the 
last Passover, but if it happen (to the same grain) after Passover it 
was decreed on the most recent Passover; if an accident or misfortune 
befall a man before the Day of Atonement, it was decreed on the pre- 
vious Day of Atonement, but if it happened after the Day of Atone- 
ment it was decreed on the most recent Day of Atonement ? Answers 
Rabha: Learn from this that it is judged twice (in one year). There- 
fore says Abayi : When a man sees that the grain, which ripens slowly 
is thriving, he should as soon as possible sow such grain as ripens 
quickly, in order that before the time of the next judgment, it may 
already have begun to grow.* 

With whose opinion does our Mishna agree ? Certainly not 
with that of R. Meir, nor with that of R. Judah, nor with that of R. 
Jose, nor with that of R. Nathan, for they say as follows in a Borai- 
tha: All are judged on New Year's Day and the sentence is fixed on 
the Day of Atonement; so says R. Meir. R. Judah says all are 
judged on New Year's Day but the sentence of each is sealed each at 
its special times, at Passover for grain, at Pentecost for the fruit of 
trees, at Tabernacles for rain, and man is judged on New Year's Day 
and his sentence is sealed on the Day of Atonement. R. Jose says 
man is judged every day as we read [Job vii. i8] ** Thou remem- 
berest him every morning; " and R. Nathan holds, man is judged at 
all times, for we read [ibid] ** Thou triest him every moment." And 
if you should say that the Mishna agrees with the opinion of R. Judah 
and that by the expression ** judgment" it means the *' sealing of 
the decree," then there would be a difficulty about (the fate of) 
man. Says Rabha: The Tana of our Mishna is in harmony with the 
school of R. Ishmael, which says: At four periods is the world judged; 
at Passover in respect to grain; on Pentecost in regard to the fruit of 
trees; on Tabernacles in respect to rain, and on New Yearns Day man 
is judged, but his decree is sealed on the Day of Atonement, and 
the Mishna speaks of the opening of judgment only (and not the 
final verdict). R. 'Hisda asked: Why does not R. Jose quote the 
same passage in support of his opinion as R. Nathan ? You may 
say that "trying" means simply *' probing." But does not **re- 
membering ' ' also convey the same idea ? Therefore says R. 'Hisda^ 

* An example of Talmudical humor. 



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22 

R. Jose bases his opinion on another passage, viz., [i Kings viii. 59] 
** that God may pass judgment on his sen'ant and on his people 
Israel every day." Says R. Joseph: According to whom do we pray 
nowadays for the sick, and for faint (scholars) ? According to 
R. Jose. 

A Boraitha says: R. Judah taught in the name of R. Aqiba: 
Why does the Torah command [Lev. xxiii. 10] a sheaf of the first 
fruits to be brought on the Passover ? Because Passover is the per- 
iod of judgment in respect to grain, and God said: Offer before Me 
the first sheaf of produce on Passover so that the standing grain 
may be blessed unto you; and why the two loaves [Lev. xxiii. 17] 
on the Pentecost? Because that is the time when judgment is 
passed on the fruit of trees, and because of the offering, blessings 
should ensue. Why was the ceremony of * ' the outpouring of 
water '* (on the altar) performed on the feast of Tabernacles? God 
said: Perform the rite of ** the outpouring of waters,** that the rains 
may fall in due season; and He also .said recite before Me on New 
Year*s Day, the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and Shophroth*; the 
Malkhioth, that you proclaim Me King; the Zikhronoth that your 
remembrance may come before Me, for good; and how (shall this 
be done)? By the sounding of the comet. R. Abbahu asked why 
is the comet made of a ram's horn ? God said: Sound before me on 
a comet made of a ram*s horn, that I may remember, for your 
sake, the offering of Isaac, the son of Abraham [vide Gen. xxii. 
13], and I shall consider you as worthy, as if you had shown an 
equal readiness to sacrifice yourselves to Me. R. Isaac says: A 
man is judged only according to his deeds at the time of sentence, 
as it is said [Gen. xxi. 17] ** God heard the voice of the lad, as he 
then was,** and the same Rabbi also remarked: Three circumstances 
cause a man to remember his sins, viz : when he passes by an 
insecure wall, when he thinks deeply of the significance of his 
prayer, and when he invokes Divine judgment on his neighbor; for 
R. Abhin says: Whoso calls down Divine judgment on his neighbor 
is punished first, as we find in the case of Sarah, who said [Gen. 
xvi. 5] to Abraham, *' My wrong be upon thee," and .shortly after 
we read (that she died) '*And Abraham came to moum for Sarah 



•These are the divisions of the Additional Service for the New Year's Day. Tl»e Malk- 
hioth consist of ten scriptural passages in which God is proclaimed King. The Zikhronoth 
consist of an equal number of scriptural passages in which Divine remembrance is alluded 
to. The Shophroth are a similar series of .selections in which the Shophar (cornet) is referred 
to. In chapter IV of this tract there is a discussion as to the composition of these selections. 
We retain the Hebrew names, because we feel that no translation or pharaphrase will ade- 
quately express what they mean. 



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23 

and to weep for her '* [Gen. xxiii. 2] (And all this only applies to 
cases where appeal could have been made to a civil court). R. 
Isaac also said: Four things avert the evil decree passed (by God) 
on man, viz : Charity, Prayer, Change of Name, and Improvement. 
Charity as it is ^\Titten [Prov. x. 2] '* Charity delivereth from 
death;*' Prayer, in accordance with [Ps. cvii. 19] "They prayed 
unto the Lord in their trouble, and he saveth them out of their 
distresses;** Change of name, as it is written [Gen. xvii. 15] **As 
for Sarai, thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah 
shall her name be,** and the Text continues by saying [ibid. 16] 
** Then will I bless her and > give thee a son also of her; ** Improve- 
ment, we deduce from Jonah iii. 10, **And God saw their works 
that they turned from their evil ways,** and the chapter continues 
and immediately adds **And God repented of the evil, he had said 
he would do unto them and he did it not;'* Some add to these 
foiu*, a fifth. Change of location, as we read [Gen. xii. i and 2] 
**And God said to Abraham, get thee out from thy land** (and 
afterwards) ** I will make of thee a great nation.** 

R. Kruspedai * says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: Three books 
are opened on New Year's Day: one for the entirely wicked; one for 
the wholly good; and one for the average class of people. The wholly 
righteous are at once inscribed and sealed for life; the entirely wicked 
are at once inscribed and sealed for destruction; the average class 
are held in the balance from New Year's Day till the Day of Atone- 
ment; if the}' prove themselves worthy they are inscribed for life; if 
not they are inscribed for destruction. ** Whence this teaching," 
asked R. Abhin ? From Ps. Ixix. 28 which reads " they shall be 
blotted out of the book of life and they shall not be inscribed with 
the righteous." 

We have learned in a Boraitha: The school of Shammai says: 
There are three divisions of mankind at the Resurrection ; the wholly 
righteous, the completely wicked, and the average class; the wholly 
righteous are at once inscribed and sealed for life; the entirely wicked 
are at once inscribed and sealed for Gehinnom; as we read [Dan. 
xii. 2] *'And many of them that sleep in the dust shall awake, some 
to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt." 
The third class, the mean between the former two, descend to Gehin- 
nom, but they weep and come up again, in accordance with the pass- 
age [Zech. xiii. 9] **And I will bring the third part through the 
fire, and I will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as 
gold is tried; and he shall call on My Name, and I will answer him." 

* vide Introduction. 



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Concerning this last class of men Hannah says: [i Sam. ii. 6] ** The 
I/3rd causeth to die and maketh alive, he bringeth down to the grave 
and bringeth up again. ' * The school of Hillel says: The Most Com- 
passionate inclines (the scale of justice) to the side of mercy, and of 
this third class of men David says [Ps. cxvi. i] ** I would that God 
should hear ray voice; '* in fact David applies to them all that Psalm 
down to the words *' I was brought low and he helped me." 

Transgressors of Jewish birth and also of non-Jewish, who sin 
with their body descend to Gehinnom, and are judged there for 
twelve months; after that time, their bodies are destroyed and burnt 
and the winds scatter their ashes under the soles of the feet of the 
righteous, as we read, [Mai. iv. 3] ** And ye shall tread down the 
wicked, for they shall be as ashes under the soles of your feet; *' butasfor 
Minim, informers, and skeptics who deny the existence of theTorah, 
or the Immortality of the soul or separate themselves from the con- 
gregation (of Israel), or who inspire their fellowmen with dread of 
them, or who sin and cause others to sin, as did Jeroboam the son of 
Nebat and his followers, they all descend to Gehinnom and are 
judged there from generation unto generation, as it is said [Isaiah 
Ixvi. 24] ** And they shall go forth and look upon the carcases of 
the men who fiave transgressed against me; for their worm shall not 
die, neither shall their fire be quenched; " ** even when Gehinnom 
will be destroyed, they will not be consumed, as we read [Ps. xlix. 
14] *'And their forms shall endure even when the grave is no 
more. * * Why does so terrible a fate await the above ? Because just 
such people stretched out their hands against the dwelling (of God, 
/. e. the temple at Jenisalem); as we read [ibid.] ** because of what 
they did against His dwelling,'* and concerning them Hannah says, 
[i Sam. ii. 10] **The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken to 
pieces.'' R. Isaac b. Abhin says: Their faces are black like the 
sides of a caldron ; w^hilst Rabha remarked: Those who are now 
the handsomest of the people of Me'huza will yet be called the 
children of the nether-world. 

What do you mean by Jews who transgress with their dody f 
Says Rabh: The Qarpaphta (frontal bone) on which are not placed 
the phylacteries,* And who are meant by non-Jews who transgress 
with the body? Those guilty of the sin (of adultery). Who are 
those who inspire their fellowmen with dread of them ? A leader 



• There were sects at that time who did not wear the phylacteries on the frontal bone, but 
on other places. The people here referred to are those mentioned in Mishna Megillah III. 5. 
Those who do not wear phylacteries at all are, under no circumstances, included under the 
head of these transgressors. (Vide Tosaphoth, ad.loc. ) For fuller information the reader is 
referred to " The History of Amulets," by the editor. 



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25 

of a community who causes the people to fear him over-much, with- 
out furthering thereby a high purpose. R. Judah says in the name 
of Rabh: No such leader will ever have a learned son, as it is said 
Qob xxxvii. 24] ** Men do therefore fear him: he will never see (in 
his family) any wise of heart. ' ' 

The school of Hillel said above: He who is full of compassion 
will incline the scale of justice to the side of mercy. How does He 
do it ? Says R. Eliezer: He presses on (the side containing our vir- 
tues) as it is said [Micah vii. 19] '*He will turn again, he will 
have compassion upon us; he will suppress our iniquities.** R. Jose 
says: He lifts off (the sins), as it is said [ibid. 18] " He removes 
iniquity and passeth by transgression,'* and it was taught in the 
school of R. Ishmael that this means that He removes each first sin 
(so that there is no second), and this is the correct interpretation. 
But, remarked Rabha, the sin itself is not blotted out, so that if one 
be found in later times with more sins (than virtues), the sin not 
blotted out will be added to the later ones; but, says Rabha, Whoso 
treats with indulgence one who has wronged him (forms an excep- 
tion to this rule) for he will have all his sins forgiven, as it is said 
[Micah vii. 19] *' He removes iniquity and passes by transgression;'* 
from whom does He remove iniquity ? From him who passes by 
transgression (committed against him by his neighbor). R. Huna 
b. R. Joshua fell sick and R. Papa went to visit him. The latter 
saw that the end was near, and said, to those present, " Make ready 
his provisions (shrouds).'* Finally, he recovered, and R. Papa was 
ashamed to see him. *' Why did you think him so sick,** said they ? 
'*He was so, indeed,** he replied, *'but said God, since he was 
always indulgent (with every one), he shall be forgiven,** as it is 
said, ** He removes iniquity and passes by transgression.** From 
whom does He remove iniquity ? From him who passes by trans- 
gression. 

R. A*hasays: The phrase **of the remnant of his inheritance ' * 
[Micah vii. 18] is like unto a fat tail (of an Arabian sheep) with a 
thorn through it (that will stick some that lay hold of it) ; (for He 
forgives) the remnant of His inheritance, and not all His inheri- 
tance. (What is meant by remnant) ? Only those who deport 
themselves like a remnant (/. ^., modestly). R. Huna points out a 
contradiction in these passages: It is written [Ps. cxlv. 17] **The 
Lord is just in all his ways ** and in the same passage, ** and /nous 
in all his works. * ' It means, in the beginning He is only just, but in 
the end He is pzot/s; (when He finds that strict justice is too severe 
on mankind He tempers justice with piety or mercy.) R. Elazar 



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26 

asked about the contradictory phrase in Ps. Ixii. 12. " Unto thee, O 
Lord, belongeth mercy; for thou renderest to every man according to 
his worky This is explained as the above; in the beginning He 
rewards every man according to his works, but in the end He is 
merciful. Ilphi, or Ilpha asks a similar question about Ex. xxxiv. 
6, where it is written, ** abtmdant in goodness and truth," and gives 
a similar explanation. 

** And the Lord passed by before him and proclaimed. ' * R. Jo'ha- 
nan said: Had this passage not been written, it would have been itti- 
possible to have said it; for it teaches us that the Holy One, blessed 
be He, wrapped Himself, as does one who recites the prayers for a 
congregation, and pointing out to Moses the regular order of prayer, 
said to him: Whenever Israel sins, let him pray to me, after this 
order, and I shall pardon him. 

** The Lord, the Lord'' (these words mean), I am the same 
God before a man sins as I am after he sins and does repentance. 
" God, merciful and gracious;'* R. Judah said (concerning these 
words): The covenant made through the thirteen attributes [Ex. 
xxxiv.] will never be made void, as it is said [ibid. 10] *' Behold / 
make a covenant." 

R. Jo'hanan says: Great is repentance ! for it averts the (evil) 
decreed against a man, as it is said [Is. vi. 10] *' Make the heart of 
this people fat. . . .and hear with their ears, and understand with 
their hearts, and repent, and be healed,'' R. Papa asked Abayi: 
Do not these last words, perhaps, mean before the (evil) decree has 
been pronounced? It is written, he replied, **be healed." What 
is that which requires healing? I can only say that, against 
which, judgment has been pronounced. Is this not contradictory to 
the rule: He who repents between (New Year's Day and the Day of 
Atonement) is forgiven, but if he does not repent, even though he 
offered the choicest sacrifices, he is not pardoned ? There is no diffi- 
culty here; in the one case it refers to (the sins of ) an individual, 
and in the other, to (those of ) a commvmity . Come and hear ! It 
is written [Ps. cvii. 23-28] ** They that go down to the sea in ships, 
that do business in great w^aters; these see the works of the Lord. . . . 
for he commandeth, and raise th the stormy wind, which lifteth up 
the waves thereof, they reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken 
man. . . . then they cry unto the Lord in their trouble, and he 
bringeth them out of their distresses; O, that men would praise the 
Lord for his goodness, etc." Signs are given, such as the words 
* * but ' ' and * * only " in the Torah (which intimate limiting qualifica- 
tions) to indicate that if they cried before the decree was pronounced. 



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27 

only then would they be answered; but if after, are they not an- 
swered? (Would not this be a contradiction to the words **to those 
of a community) ? Nay, for those on a ship are not a community 
(but are considered as a unit). 

Come and hear ! The proselyte Beluria asked R. Gamliel (con- 
cerning the following apparent contradiction) : It is written in your 
Torah [Deut. x. 17] **The Lord which regardeth not persons" {lit- 
erally, who lifteth not up countenances) ; and it is also written [Numb, 
vi. 26] *' May the Lord lift up his countenance.*' . R. Jose, the 
priest, joined her, and said to her, * * I will tell thee a parable. To 
what may this be compared ? To one who lent money to his neigh- 
bor, and set a time for its repayment before the king; and (the bor- 
rower) swore by the king's life (to repay it on time). The time 
arrived and he did not pay and he came to appease the king. Said 
the king to him, * I can forgive you only your offence against me, 
but I cannot forgive you your offence against your neighbor; go and 
ask him to forgive you.' " So also here; in the one place it means 
sins committed by a man against Himself; but in the other, it 
means sins committed by one man against another. Nevertheless, 
the Tanaim differ as to the decree pronounced against an individual, 
as we may see from the following Boraitha: R. Meir used to say, of 
two who fall sick with the same sickness, and of two who enter a 
tribunal (for judgment), on similar charges, one may recover, and 
one not, one may be acquitted, and one condemned. Why should 
one recover and one not, and one be acquitted and one condemned ? 
Because the one prayed and was answered, and one prayed, and was 
not answered. Why should one be answered and the other not ? The 
one prayed devoutly and was answered; the other did not pray 
devoutly and therefore was not answered; but R. Elazar says it was 
not because of prayer, but because the one prayed before, and the 
other after the decree was pronounced. R. Isaac says: Prayer is 
helpful for man before or after the decree has been pronounced. Is 
it then so, that the (evil) decree, pronounced against a congregation 
is averted (through the influence of prayer)? Does not one Scrip- 
tural verse [Jer. iv. 14] say, "Wash thine heart from wickedness, 
and another runs [ibid. ii. 22] " For though thou wash thee with nitre, 
and take thee much soap, yet thine iniquity is marked before me." 
Shall we not say in the one case it means before, and in the other after 
the sentence has been pronounced ? Nay; both refer (to a time) after 
the decree has been pronounced and there is no contradiction, for in 
one case it refers to a decree issued with an oath, and in the other, to a 
decree pronounced without an oath, as R. Samuel b. Ammi points out; 



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28 

for he says in the name of R. Jonathan: Whence do we know that a 
decree, pronounced with an oath, cannot be averted? From [Sam. 
iii. 14] which says: ** Therefore I have sworn unto the house of 
Eli, that the iniquity of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacri- 
fice nor offering forever.*' Says Rabha: Even in such a case, it is 
only through sacrifices that sin cannot be purged, but by (the study 
of) the Torah it may be; and Abayi says: With sacrifice and offer- 
ing it cannot be purged, but by (the study of) the Torah, and by 
active benevolence, it can. (Abayi based this opinion on his own 
experience for) he and (his master) Rabba were both descendants 
of the house of Eli; Rabba, who only studied the Torah, lived forty 
years, but Abayi, who both studied the Torah and performed acts, of 
benevolence, lived sixty years. The Rabbis tell us also: There was 
a certain family in Jerusalem whose members died at eighteen years 
of age. They came and informed R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai. Said he: 
** Perhaps you are descendants of Eli, of whom it is said ' all the 
increase of thy house shall die in the flower of their age ' *' [i Sam. 
ii. 33]; " Go, then, study the Torah, and live ! " They went and 
studied, and they lived, and they called that family R. Jo'hanan's. 
R. Samuel b. Inai says in the name of Rabh: Whence do we know, 
that if the decree against a community is even sealed, it may never- 
theless be averted ? From Deut. iv. 7 where it is written * * as the 
I/3rd, our God, in all things that we call upon him for ; " (but how 
can you hannonize that with the passage) [Is. Iv. 6} '* Seek ye the 
I/3rd while he may be found ? ' ' The latter passage refers to an 
individual, the former, to a community. When is that time that 
he will be found even by an individual? Answered Rabba b. 
Abhuha: During the ten days, from New Year's Day till the Day of 
Atonement. 

* ' On New Year's Day all the Inhabitants of the World 
Pass Before Him Kibhne Maron (Like Sheep)." What does 
the Mishna mean by these last two words ? ** Like Sheep,'* as they 
are translated in Aramaic; but Resh Laqish says they mean " as 
the steps of the Temple** (/. ^., narrow, so that people ascended 
them one by one); R. Judah, however, says in the name of Samuel: 
(They mean) *' like the armies of the house of David** (which were 
numbered one by one). Says Rabba b. Bar *Hana in the name of 
R. Jo*hanan; Under any circumstances they are mustered at a glance. 
Said R. Na*hman b. Isaac: Thus also we understand the words of 
our Mishna: **He that fashioned all their hearts alike** [Ps. 
xxxiii. 15] /. €., the Creator sees all their hearts (at a glance) 
and (at once) understands all their works. 



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29 

MISHNA: Messengers were sent out* in the following six 
months; in Nisan, on account of the Passover; in Abh, on account 
of the fast; in Elul, on account of the New Year; in Tishri, on ac- 
count of appointing the order the (remaining) festivals; f in Kislev, 
on account of the Feast of Dedication; in Adar, on account of the 
Feast of Esther; also in lyar, when the Temple was in existence, on 
account of the minor (or second) Passover. J 

GEMARA: Why were they not also sent out in Tamuz and 
Tebheth (in which months there are also fasts) ? Does not R. 'Hana 
b. Bizna, say in the name of R. Simon the pious: What is the 
meaning of the passage [Zech. viii. 19], **Thus saith the lyord of 
hosts; the fast of the fourth, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of 
the seventh and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah, 
joy and gladness'* etc., that they are called fasts, and also days of 
joy and gladness ? Are we not to understand that only in the time 
of peace (cessation of persecution) they shall be for joy and gladness, 
but in the time when there was not peace, they shall be fasts ? Answered 
R. Papa it means this: When there was peace, these days should be 
for joy and gladness; in the time of persecution they shall be fasts; 
in times when there are neither persecution, nor peace, people may 
fast, or not, as they see fit. If that is so, surely then (messengers 
should not have been sent out) on account of the fast of Abh ? An- 
swered R. Papa: The fast (ninth day) of Abh is difierent, since 
many misfortunes occurred on that day, as the teacher says: On the 
ninth of Abh, the first and second Temples were destroyed, Bether 
was captured, and the city was razed to the ground. 

A Boraitha teaches: R. Simon says, there are four matters that 
R. Aqiba expounded, but which I interpret differently; " the fast of 
the fourth * ' means the ninth of Tamuz on which the city was broken 
up, as it is said [ Jer.lii. 6, 7] *' in the fourth, in the ninth day of 
the month. . . .the city was broken up.'* What does he mean by 
fourth ? The fourth of the months. * * The fast of the fifth, * ' means 
the ninth of Abh, on which the Temple of our God was burnt; and 
what does he mean by calling it, fifth ? The fifth of the months. 
**The fast of the seventh " means the third of Tishri the day on 
which Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was slain (and we fast) because 
the death of the righteous is equal to the loss of the house of our 



* The Beth Din sent them from Jerusalem to announce to other places the day which had 
bceu appointed New Moon, and thus to inform them whether it was the thirtieth or thirty- 
first day from the preceding New Moon. 

f/. g. Tabernacles. This was necessary since the Beth Din might have made the month 
intercalary. 

J Vide, Numb. ix. lo, ii. 



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God; and what does he mean by calling it the seventh ? The sev- 
enth of the months. *' The fast of the tenth,'* means the tenth of 
Tebheth, the day on which the king of Babylon set himself against 
Jerusalem, as it is said, [Ezek. xxiv. i, 2] '* Again in the ninth 
year, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, the word 
of the Lord came unto me saying, Son of man write thee the name 
of the day, even of this same day; the king of Babylon set himself 
against Jerusalem; '* and what does he mean by calling it the tenth ? 
The tenth of the months,' and actually this last event should have been 
placed first, (since it occurred first) and why is it placed here last in 
order? To mention the months in their reg^ar order. However, 
(says R. Simon): I do not explain (the passage quoted above) in 
this manner, but as follows: * * The fast of the tenth ' ' means the fifth 
of Tebheth, on which day tlie news came to the exiles that the city 
was smitten, as it is said [Ezek. xxxiii. 21] ** And it came to pass 
in the twelfth year of our captivity, in the tenth (month) m the fifth 
day of the month that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came 
to me, saying. The city is smitten,*' and they held the day on which 
they received the news as the day (on which the Temple) was burnt. 
Moreover (says R. Simon) my opinion appears more satisfactory 
to me than R. Aqiba*s, for I speak of the first, first, and of the last, 
last; while he speaks of the last, first, and of the first, last; he men- 
tions them in the order of the months, whilst I mention them in the 
order in which the misfortunes occurred. 

We have learnt: Rabh and R. *Hanina say. The Book of Fasts 
(which contained the names of minor holidays on which it was pro- 
hibited to fast) is abrogated, but R. Jo*hanan and R. Joshua b. I^evi 
say: It is not. When Rabh and R. *Hanina say that it is abrogated 
they mean: In the time of peace, the (fast) days are days of joy and 
gladness; but, in the time of persecution they are fast days, and so 
also with other (days mentioned in the Book of Fasts) ; and when R. 
Jo'hanan and R.* Joshua b. I^evi say it is not abrogated (they mean) 
that those (four fasts mentioned in Zechariah) the Bible makes de- 
pendent on the rebuilding of the Temple; but those (mentioned in the 
Book of Fasts) remain as they are appointed. R. Tobi b. Matana 
asked a question: On the twenty-eighth of (Adar), the good news 
came to the Jews that they need no longer abstain from studying the. 
Torah; for the king (of Syria had earlier) issued a decree, forbidding 
them to study the Torah, or to circumcise their sons, and compelling 
them to desecrate their Sabbath. What did Judah b. Shamua and 
his friends do ? They went and took counsel of a certain matron, 
whose house the celebrated people of the city frequented. Said she 



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31 

to them, ** Go and cr>^ aloud at night." They did as she advised 
and cried aloud, ** O heavens ! Are we not all brethren ? Are we 
not all the children of one Father ? Are we not all the children of 
one mother? Why should we be treated differently from other 
nations, and from all people who speak other languages inasmuch as 
ye issue such cruel edicts against us?" The decrees were annulled, 
and the day (on which this happened) they appointed a holiday. 
But if it is true that the Book of Fasts has been abrogated, (/. ^., the 
former (feasts) have been all abrogated), may, then, new ones be 
added? The Tanaim differ (on this question); for a Boraitha 
teaches: The days recorded in the Book of Fasts, whether during 
or after the existence of the Temple, are not permitted (to be kept as 
fasts), so says R. Meir; but R. Jose is of the opinion, so long as the 
Temple stood it was not permissible (to fast on them) because they 
were days of joy, but since the Temple fell it is allowed, because 
they are days of mourning. One rule says that they are abrogated; 
but another rule says they are not abrogated. There is a question 
here caused by one rule contradicting the other ? There is no ques- 
tion; in the latter case it refers to the Feasts of Dedication and 
Esther (which are never to be abrogated); and in the former case, 
to all other (minor feast) days. 

" In EirUi< ON Account op New Year's Day and in Tishri 
ON Account of Appointing the Order of the (Remaining) 
Festivals." Since (the messengers) were sent out on accoimt of 
Elul, why need they go again on account of Tishri ? Shall I say 
because (the Beth Din) desired to proclaim Elul an intercalary 
month ? (That cannot be) for have we not learned that R. 'Hanina 
b. Kahana says in the name of Rabh: Since the time of Ezra we 
have not discovered that Elul was an intercalarj^ month ? We have 
not discovered it, because it was not necessary (to make it so). But 
if it will be necessary, shall we make it an intercalary month ? This 
would disturb the position of New Year's Day ! It is better that the 
position of New Year's Day alone should be disturbed, than that all 
the holidays should be disarranged. And the best evidence for this 
is that the Mishna says that the messengers were sent in Tishri on 
account of appointing the order of the festivals. 

' * And in Kislev on Account of the Feast of Dedication 
AND IN Adar on Account of the Feast of Esther.*' But the 
Mishna does not say if it be a leap-year, that the messengers were 
sent out in the second Adar on account of the Feast of Esther ? 
From this we learn that the Mishna is not, according to Rabbi; for a 



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32 

Boraitha teaches: Rabbi says: in a leap-year, messengers are sent 
out also in the second Adar on account of the Feast of Esther. 

When Ulla came (from Palestine) he said: They have made 
Elul an intercalar}^ month, and he also said: '*Do my Babylonian 
comrades know the benefit we have gained through it ? " Becailse 
of what is this a benefit? ** Because of herbs, *' * said Ulla. R. 
A' ha b. 'Hanina, however, said: ** Because of dead bodies/' f What 
difference is there between them ? They differ concerning a holiday 
that falls immediately before or after the Sabbath (on the sixth or 
first day of the week) . According to the one who says * * because of 
herbs '* we ought to add an intercalary day; but (it is not necessarj) 
according to him who says ** because of dead bodies,*' for we can em- 
ploy non-Jews (to bury the dead for us on the holidays) . If this is 
the explanation, why is this a benefit only for us (in Babylon); is it 
not also to the advantage of them (in Jerusalem)? Our climate is 
very hot, but theirs is not. 

Is that so? Did not Rabba b. Samuel teach: One might sup- 
pose that as we intercalate the year when necessary, so we intercalate 
the month when necessary? Says the Torah [Ex. xii. 2], "This 
month shall be unto you the first of the months, ' ' which means as soon 
as you see (the new moon) as on this occasion, you must co7isecrate 
the month (whether or not it is necessary to intercalate it). (How 
then could they intercalate Elul, which had always only twenty-nine 
days) ? To intercalate it (when necessary) was permitted; but to 
consecrate it, was not permitted; and Rabba 's words should read: 
One might suppose that as it is permitted to intercalate the year and 
the month when necessary, so we may consecrate the month when 
necessary ? Says the Torah [Ex. xii. 2] , * * This month shall be unto 
you, etc.," which means, only when the moon is seen as on this occa- 
sion, may you consecrate it. 

Samuel said: "I can arrange the calendar for the whole cap- 
tivity.*' Abba, the father of R. Simlai, said to him, ** Do you know, 
sir, that which a certain Boraitha teaches, concerning the secret of 
the intercalary day, viz.: Whether the new moon appears before or 
after midday ? * ' Answered he, * * No. " * * Then, sir, " said he, * Mf 
you do not know this, there may be other things which you do not 

* By adding an intercalary day to Elul, the holiday (New Year or Atonement Day) was pre- 
vented from falling on Friday or Sunday, the intention being to separate the holiday by an 
intervening day from the Sabbath. Thus, herbs that were to be eaten fresh, and other foods, 
would not spoil, as they might, if kept from Thursday till after the Sabbath. 

t A simUar practice was followed with regard to the keeping of a dead body over the Day 
of Atonement and a Sabbath. Since it was impossible to keep the dead body two days, the- 
Sabbath and the Atonement Day were separated by the means of the intercalated day. 



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33 

know.'* When R. Zera went (to Palestine) he sent back word to 
his comrade (saying): The evening and the moming( following) 
must both belong to the month (/. ^., when the old moon has still 
been seen after dark on the twenty-ninth day of the month, the 
thirtieth evening and following day belong to the closing month) . And 
this is what Abba, the father of R. Simlai, meant: We calculate only 
the beginning of the new moon; if it began before midday, it is certain 
that it was seen close upon the setting of the sun, but if it did not 
begin before midday, it is certain that it did not appear close upon the 
setting of the sun. What difference does it make (in practice)? 
Answered R. Ashi, to refute witnesses. R. Zera says in the name 
of R. Na*hman, in every case of doubt (about the holidays), we post- 
date but never antedate.* Does this mean to say that (in a case of 
doubt concerning the exact day on which Tabernacles begins) we 
observe the fifteenth and sixteenth but not the fourteenth; let us 
keep the fourteenth also; perhaps Abh and Elul have each only 
twenty-nine days ? That two consecutive months should each have 
twenty-nine days is a matter that every one would know. Levi went 
to Babylon on the eleventh of Tishri. Said he, '* Sweet is the food 
of Babylon, on the great Day (of Atonement now being held) in Pal- 
estine." They said to him, '* Go and testify." Answered W, "I 
have not heard from the Beth Din the words, ** It is consecrated,'* 
(and therefore I cannot testify). For R. Jo'hanan announced: In 
every place that the messengers sent in Nisan reached, but that the 
messengers sent in Tishri cannot reach, they must observe two days 
for the holidays; and they make this restriction for Nisan lest people 
would do in Tishri as in Nisan. f Rabha used to fast two days for 
the Day of Atonement. X Once it happened that he was right (because 
the Day of Atonement fell one day later in Palestine than in Baby- 
lon). R. Na'hman was once fasting on the Day of Atonement, and 
in the evening a certain man came and said to him, ** To-morrow 



• I. e. if there be a doubt about which day is the Passover or the feast of Tabernacles, the 
festival should be kept for two days ; not, however, by ante-daitnjc and keeping the fourtfenth 
and fifteenth (of Nisan or Tishri) but by post-dating and keeping the fifteenth and sixteenth 
of either month. 

fin Tishri, messengers might be delayed reaching distant places, to which they were 
sent to announce the date of the festival (Tabernacles) , on account of New Year's Day and the 
Day of Atonement, on which they could not travel more than a short distance. In Nisan, 
however, they could, without delay, reach those places, and having announced the date of 
the festival, only one day was hallowed. Fearing that people might do, in regard to the Feast 
of Tabernacles what they did with regard to Passover, (f. <»., keep one day, even when in 
doubt about the date), the Rabbis instituted that both Tabernacles and Passover should have 
two days hallowed instead of one. 

\ He was in doubt whether the Beth Din at Jerusalem had made Elul intercalary or not„ 
and as the messengers did not arrive until after the Day of Atonement, he fasted two days. 



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34 

will be the Day of Atonement in Palestine.'* He angrily quoted, 
** Swift were our persecutors** [Lamen. iv. 19]. R. Na*liman said 
to certain sailors, ** Ye who do not know the calendar take notice 
that when the moon still shines at dawn (it is full moon, and if it 
happens to be Nisan) destroy yoiu- leaven bread, (for it is then the 
fourteenth day). 

MISHNA: For the sake of (the new moon) of the two 
months, Nisan and Tishri, witnesses may profane* the Sabbath, 
because in these months the messengers went to Syria, and the order 
of the festivals was arranged; when, however, the Temple f was in 
existence, they might profane the Sabbath in any month, in order to 
offer the (new moon) sacrifice in its proper time. 

GEMARA: For the sake of these two months and not more? 
Against this I raise a question of contradiction: (Is it not said), For 
the sake of six months messengers were sent out ? Answered Abayi: 
Thus he means: For all new moons, the messengers were sent out 
while it was still evening, but for Nisan and Tishri, they were not 
sent out until they heard from the lips of the Beth Din, the words 
**It (the new moon or month) is consecrated.** The Rabbis taught: 
Whence do we know that for them we may profane the Sabbath ? 
From [Lev. xxiii. 4] which runs ** These are the feasts of the Lord, 
which ye shall proclaim in their seasons; ** might not one suppose 
that as (witnesses) were permitted to profane the Sabbath until the 
new moons had been consecrated, so were messengers permitted to 
profane the Sabbath, until (the festivals) were introduced? Says the 
Torah: ** which ye shall proclaim,** /. e., you may profane the Sab- 
bath in order to proclaim them, but not to introduce them. 

'*WHE>r, However, the Temple Was in Existence, 
They Might Profane the Sabbath, in Any Month, in Order 
TO Offer the (New Moon) Sacrifice, in Its Proper Time.** 
The Rabbis taught: Formerly they profaned the Sabbath for all 
(new moons); but since the destruction of the Temple, said R. 
Jo*hanan b. Zakkai, have we any (new moon) sacrifice to offer? 
They then instituted that (witnesses) might profane the Sabbath 
only on account of Nisan and Tishri. 

MISHNA: Whether the new moon had appeared clear to all 
or not, (the witnesses) were permitted to profane the Sabbath 
on its account. R. Jose says: If it appeared clear to everyone,! the 



• To travel to Jerusalem in order to inform the Beth Din might have necessitated walk- 
ing more than the distance permitted on the Sabbath. 

fThe Temple in Jerusalem. 

t It might then be presumed that everyone had seen it, and it was therefore unneces* 
sary for anyone to go to Jerusalem to announce it to the Beth Din. 



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35 

Sabbath should not be profaned (by witnesses). It once happened 
that more than forty pair (of witnesses) were on the highway (to 
Jerusalem) on the Sabbath', when R. Aqiba detained them at Lydda. 
R. Gamliel then sent word saying, ** If thou thus detainest the peo- 
ple, thou wilt be the cause of their erring in the future (/. c, they 
may refuse to come and testify). 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: The words [Eccles. xii. lo] 
* * Qoheleth sought to find out acceptable words, * * mean, that Qoheleth 
sought to invent laws, without the aid of witnesses or warning. Au 
echo was heard saying, [Eccles xii. lo] , '* I^et that which is written 
be upright, even words of truth '* (which meant that) by means of 
two witnesses (should the words of truth be established). 

** It Once Happened That More Than Forty Pair (op 
Witnesses) Were on the Highway (to Jerusalem) and R. 
AqibaDetained Them, etc." A Boraitha teaches: R. Judah says, 
God forbid that R. Aqiba should have detained them; it was Shazpar, 
the superintendent of Gader who detained them, and (and when) R. 
Gamliel (heard of it, he) sent and dismissed him. 

MISHNA: When a father and son have seen the new moon, 
they must both go to the Beth Din, not that they may act together 
as witnesses, but in order that, should the evidence of either of them 
be invalidated, the other may join to give evidence with another wit- 
ness. R. Simon says: Father and son, and relatives in any degree 
may be accepted.as competent witnesses to give evidence as to the 
appearance of the new moon. R. Jose says: It once happened that 
Tobias the physician, his son, and his freed slave, saw the new 
moon in Jerusalem (and when they tendered their evidence), the 
priests accepted his evidence and that of his son, but invalidated that 
of his freed slave; but when they appeared before the (Beth Din) 
they received his evidence, and that of his freed slave, but invali- 
dated that of his son. 

GEMARA: Asks R. Levi: What is the reason for R. Simon's 
opinion? It is written [Ex. xii. i] *'And the Lord spake unto 
Moses and Aaron saying: This month shall h^ unto you, *' which 
means, this evidence shall be acceptable from you (although you 
are brothers). And how do the Rabbis explain it? They say it 
means: This testimony shall be given into your hands (/. e,, the 
Beth Din's). Says Mar Uqba in the name of Samuel the rule is 
according to R. Simon. 

MISHNA: The following are considered incompetent to be 
witnesses: gamblers with dice, usurers, pigeon-breeders,* those who 

* Those who breed and train pigeons for racing. 
5 



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36 

deal with the produce of the sabbatic year, and slaves. This is 
the rule: All evidence that cannot be received from a woman cannot 
be received from any of the above. One who has seen the new 
moon, but is unable to go (to give evidence), must be brought (if 
unable to walk) mounted on an ass, or even in a bed.* Persons 
afraid of an attack by robbers may take sticks with them;* and if 
they have a long way to go, it will be lawful for them to provide 
themselves with, and carry their food.* Whenever (witnesses) 
must be on the road a day and a night, it will be lawful to profane 
the Sabbath to travel thereon, to give their evidence as to the ap- 
pearance of the moon. For thus it is written [Lev. xxiii. 4] * * These 
are the feasts of the Lord, the holy convocations, which ye shall 
proclaim in their appointed seasons, ' * 

* Bven on the Sabbath, when under ordinary circumstances this might not be done. 



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CHAPTER II. 

MISHNA: If the Beth Din did not know him (the witness) 
another was sent with him to testify in his behalf. In former times 
the}' would receive evidence (about the appearance of the moon) 
from any one; but when the Boethusians used their corrupt practices 
the rule was made, that evidence would only be received from those 
who were known (to be reputable). 

GEMARA: What is meant by ** another'* (in the above 
Mishna) ? Another pair (of witnesses). This is proved by the fol- 
lowing reasoning: If you do not say so, then what is the meaning of 
** him,** in the words of the Mishna ** If the Beth Din did not know 
him f ' * Shall I say it means one (witness) ! Surely the evidence 
of one was not received, for this transaction was called ** judgment *' 
[Ps. Ixxxi] (and two .witnesses are necessar>') ? What then does 
* * him * * mean ? That pair; so also here, * * another * ' means another 
pair. Is then the evidence of one not accepted ? Does not a Boraitha 
state: It once happened that R. Nehorai went to Usha on the 
Sabbath to testify (to the character) of one witness ? He knew, that 
there was one witness in Usha and he went to add his evidence (and 
thus make two witnesses). If that is so, why need it tell us (that R. 
Nehorai went on the Sabbath) ? One might suppose that, as there 
was a doubt (that he might not meet the other witness), he ought 
not to have profaned the Sabbath (by traveling to Usha as a single 
witness) ; therefore he teaches us (that even in such a case of doubt 
the Sabbath might be profaned) . 

When Ulla came (to Babylon, from Palestine), he said: They 
have already consecrated the New Moon in Palestine. Said R. 
Kahana: (In such a case) not only Ulla, who is a renowned man, 
is to be believed, but even an ordinary man. Why so? Because 
men will not lie about a matter, that will become known to every 
one. 

* ' In Former Times They Would Receive Evidence From 
Any One, etc.** The Rabbis taught: What corruption did the 
Boethusians practice ? They once sought to deceive the sages, and 
they bribed, with four hundred zuz (silver coins), two men, one 
belonging to their party and one to ours. The former gave his evi- 
dence and went out; to the latter, they (the Beth Din) said, **Tell 
us what was the appearance of the moon ? *' ** I went up, replied 

(37) 



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38 

he/* to Maale Adumim,* and I saw it crouching between two rocks. 
Its head was like a calf, its ears like a goat, its horns like a stag, and 
its tail was lying across its thigh. I gazed upon it and shuddered, 
and fell backwards; and if you do not believe me, behold, here I 
have two hundred zuz bound up in my cloth. ** Who induced you 
to do this *' they asked ? '* I heard,** he replied, ** that the Boethu- 
sians wished to deceive the sages; so, I said to myself, I will go and 
inform them, lest some unworthy person may (accept their bribe) 
and come and deceive the sages. * * Then, said the sages, * * The two 
hundred zuz may be retained by you as a reward, and he who bribed 
you, shall be taken to the whipping-post (and be punished).** Then 
and there they ordained that testimony should be received only from 
those who were known (to be of good character). 

MISHNA: Formerly bon -fires were lighted (to announce the 
appearance of the new moon) ; but when the Cutheansf practiced 
their deceit it was ordained that messengers should be sent out. How 
were these bon-fires lighted? They brought long staves of cedar 
wood, canes, and branches of the olive tree, and bundles of tow 
which were tied on with twine; with these they went to the top of 
the mountain, and lighted them, and kept waving them to and fro, 
upward and downward, till they could perceive the same repeated by 
another person on the next mountain, and thus, on the third moun- 
tain, etc. Whence did these bon-fires commence ? From the mount 
of Olives to Sartabha, from Sartabha to Grophinah, from Grophinah 
to Hoveran, from Hoveran to Beth Baltin; they did not cease waving 
the burning torches at Beth Baltin, to and fro, upward and down- 
ward, until the whole country of the captivity appeared like a blaz- 
ing fire. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: Bon-fires were only lighted to 
announce the new moon that appeared and was consecrated at the 
proper time (after twenty-nine days). And when were they lighted? 
On the evening of the thirtieth day. Does this mean to say that for 
a month of twenty-nine days the bon-fires were lighted, but not for a 
month of thirty days ? It should have been done for a month of 
thirty days, and not at all for a month of twenty-nine days. Says 
Abayi: That would cause the people a loss of work for two days 
(because they would wait to see if the bon-fires would be lit or not 
and thus lase a second day).t 



*Tbe name of a place between JeruMlem and Jericho. 

t ▲ sect of Samaritans. 

\ The thirtieth day from the last New Moon was always New Moon, but in intercalary 
months the thirty-first day was also New Moon ^second day); In the latter case the thirtieth 
day (first day of New Moon) belonged to the passing month, and the second day of New Moon 



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39 

'* How Were These Bon-Fires lyiGHTED ? They Brought 
Long Staves of Cedar Wood, etc.*' R. Judah says: There are 
four kinds of cedars: the common cedar, the Qetros, the olive tree, 
and the cypress. Qetros says Rabh, is (in Aramaic) Adara or a 
species of cedar. Every cedar, says R. Jo*hanan, that was carried 
away from Jerusalem, God will in future times, restore, as it is said 
[Is. xli. 19], **I will j^ant in the wilderness the cedar tree," and 
by ** wilderness" He means Jerusalem, as it is said, [Is. Ixiv. 
10], **Zion*is (become) a wilderness." Further says R. Jo*ha- 
nan, * * Woe to the Romans, for whom there will be no substitu- 
tion," for it is said [Is. Ix. 17], '* For brass, I will bring gold, and 
for iron, I will bring silver, and for wood, brass and for stones, 
iron;" but what can He bring for R. Aqiba and his comrades (who 
were destroyed by Rome) ? Of them He says [Joel iii. 21] , ** I will 
cleanse them, (but for) their (Aqiba's and his comrades') blood, I 
will not cleanse them." 

**And Whence Did These Bon-Fires Commence?" From 
Beth Baltin. What is Beth Baltin? ^*Biram," answered Rabh 
What (does the Mishna) mean by the captivity- ? Says R. Joseph* 
*' Pombeditha." And how was it that the whole country looked 
like a blazing fire ? We learn that each Israelite took a torch in 
his hand and ascended to the roof of his house. 

MISHNA: There was a large court in Jerusalem, called Beth 
Ya'azeq, where all the Witnesses met, and where they were examined 
by the Beth Din. Great feasts were made there for (the witnesses) 
in order to induce them to come frequently. At first, they did not 
stir froni there all day (on the Sabbath),* till R. Gamliel, the Elder, 
ordained that they might go two thousand cubits on everj' side; and 
not only these (witnesses) but also a midwife, going to perform her 
professional duties, and those who go to assist others in case of con- 
flagration, or of an attack of robbers, or of flood, or (of rescuing 
people) from the ruins (of a fallen building) are considered (for the 
time being) as inhabitants of that place, and may go (thence on the 
Sabbath) two thousand cubits on every side. How were the wit- 
nesses examined ? The first pair were examined first. The elder 
was introduced first, and they said to him: Tell us, in what form you 

was the first day of the new month. Bonfires were always lighted on the night of the 
thirtieth day, i e., on the night after new moon ; and if no bonfires were lighted then there 
were two days New Moon. In the case of the month of Elul they would, after twenty-nine 
days, observe New Year's Day. Now if that month happened to be intercalary (» /'.have 
thirty days) and bonfires would have been lighted, the next day would have had to be ob- 
served as New Year's Day again, and the people would consequently have lost a second day. 
• For if they had already traveled two thousand cubits, they were prohibited from jour- 
neying more than four cubits more. 



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40 

saw the moon; was it before or behind the sun ? Was it to the north 
or the south (of the sun)? What was its elevation on the horizon ? 
Towards which side was its inclination ? What was the width of her 
disk? If he answered, before the sun, his evidence was worthless. 
After this they introduced the younger (witness) and he was exam- 
ined; if their evidence was found to agree, their testimony was 
accepted as valid; the remaining pairs (of witnesses) were asked 
leading questions, not because their testimony was necessary, but 
only to prevent them departing, disappointed, and to induce them to 
come again often. 

GEMARA: Do not the questions (asked by the Mishna), ** was 
it before or behind the sun? '* and '* was it to the north or to the 
south?'* mean the same thing? Answered Abayi: (The Mishna 
asks) whether the concave of the. crescent was before or behind the 
sun, and if (the witness said) it was before the sun, his evidence 
was worthless; for R. Jo'hanan says: What is the meaning of the 
passage [Job xxv. 2] ** Dominion and fear are with him; he maketh 
peace in his high places? ** It means that the sun never faces the 
concave of the crescent or the concave of a rainbow. 

** What Was its Elevation on the Horizon? Towards 
Which Side Was its Incunation?'* In. one Boraitha we have 
learnt: If (the witness) said *' towards the north," his evidence was 
valid, but if he said, '* towards the south,*' it was worthless; does 
not another Boraitha (which says the following) teach the very 
opposite: If (the witness) said ** towards the south,** his testimony 
was accepted, but if he said ** towards the north ** it was valueless? 
There is no diflBculty here; in the latter case it speaks of the summer, 
while in the former it refers to the winter. The Rabbis taught: If 
one (witness) said its elevation appeared about as high as two ox- 
goads and another said about as high as three, their testimony was 
invalid, but either might be taken in conjunction with a subsequent 
witness (who offered similar testimony). The Rabbis taught: (If 
the witnesses say) ** we have seen the reflection (of the moon) in the 
water, or through a metal mirror, or in the clouds, ' ' their testimony 
is not to be accepted; or (if they say we have seen) ** half of it in the 
water, and half of it in the heavens, or half of it in the clouds, * * their 
evidence carries no weight. Must they then see the new moon again 
(before their testimony can be accepted) ? Answered Abayi: This 
is their meaning, if the witnesses testify that they saw the moon, 
accidentally, and they then returned purposely and looked for it, but 
they saw it not, their evidence is worthless. Why so? Because 



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41 

one might say they saw a patch of white clouds (and they thought 
it was the moon). 

MISHNA: The chief of the Beth Din says ** It (the new 
moon) is consecrated," and all the people repeated after him '* It is 
consecrated, it is consecrated. " Whether the new moon was seen at 
its proper time (after twenty-nine days) or not, they used to consecrate 
it. R. Elazar b. Zadok said: If it had not been sent at its proper 
time it was not consecrated, because it had already been consecrated 
in heaven (/. ^., of itself). 

GEMARA: Whence do we know that the (chief of the Beth 
Din must say * * It is consecrated * * ) ? Answered R. ' Hiyya b. Gamda 
in the name of Rabbi: The Torah says [Lev. xxiii. 44], ** Moses 
declared unto the children of Israel the feasts of the Lord ' ' from 
which we deduce that (as Moses, who was the chief in Israel, 
declared the feasts to Israel, so also does) the chief of the Beth Din 
announce the words ** It is consecrated.'* 

'* Aht, THE PEOP1.E Repeated After Him *'It is Conse- 
crated, It is Consecrated.'' Whence do we know this? 
Answered R. Papa: The Torah says [Lev. xxiii. 2], '* Which ye 
shall proclaim," /*. ^., which ye, all the people shall proclaim; but R. 
Na'hman b. Isaac says: We know it from the words [ibid.] * * Tkese 
are my feasts," /. e. (these people) shall announce my feasts. Why 
are the words *' It is consecrated " repeated twice ? Because in the 
Scriptural verse just quoted we find it written * * holy convocations ' ' 
{literally, announcements, and the minimum of the plural expression 
is two). 

" R. Elazar b. Zadok Said: If it Had Not Been Seen at 
ITS Proper Time, it Was Not Consecrated, etc." Pelimo* 
teaches in a Boraitha: When the new moon appears at its proper time, 
they used not to consecrate it, but when it appears out of its proper 
time, they used to consecrate it. R. Eliezer, however, says: In neither 
case used they to consecrate it, for it is written [Lev. xxv. 10] **And 
ye shall consecrate the fiftieth year; " years should be consecrated, 
but not months, R. Judah says in the name of Samuel: The law is 
according to R. Elazer b. Zadok. Abayi says: We have also a 
Mishna to the same effect, viz. : If the Beth Din and all Israel saw 
the new moon (on the thirtieth day) and if the examination of the 
witnesses had already taken place, and it had become dark before 
they had time to announce ** It is consecrated," the month (just 
passing) is intercalar>\ That (the month) is intercalar>' is men- 
tioned (by the Mishna), but not that they said *' It is consecrated ? " 

* The name of a Tana, a contemporary of Rabbi. 



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42 

It is not clear that this is a support for Abayi's argument, for it was 
necessary to say that it was intercalary, or we would not have known 
that the next day was the intercalary day. One might have thought 
since the Beth Din and all Israel saw the new moon, that it was 
apparent to all, and that the month does not become intercalary, 
therefore he teaches us that (nevertheless the month becomes inter- 
calary). 

MISHNA: R. Gamliel had on a tablet, and on the wall of his 
upper room, illustrations of the various phases of the moon, which 
he showed to the common people, saying, ** Did you see the moon 
like this figure or like this ? " 

GEMARA: Is this permitted ? Does not a Boraitha teach that 
the words ** Ye shall not make with me** [Ex. xx. 23] mean, ye 
shall not make pictures of my ministers that minister before me, 
such as the sun, moon, stars or planets? It was different with R. 
Gamliel, for others made it for him. But others made one for R. 
Judah, yet Samuel said to him *'Thou, sagacious one, destroy that 
figure ! " * In the latter case the figure was embossed, and he was 
afi-aid that one might suspect the owner (of using it as an idol). 
Need one be afraid of such suspicion ? Did not that synagogue in 
Shephithibh of Nehardea have a statue (of the king), yet Rabh, 
Samuel, and Samuel* s father and Levi went there to pray and were 
not afraid of being suspected (of idolatry) ? It is a different case 
when there are many. Yet, R. Gamliel was only one? Yea, but 
he was a prince, and there were always many with him; and if you 
wish you may say that he had them made to teach by means of 
them; and that which is written [Deut. xviii. 9] **thou shalt not 
learn to do,** means but thou mayest learn, in order to understand 
and to teach. 

MISHNA: It happened once, that two witnesses came and said: 
We saw the moon in the eastern part of the heavens in the morning, 
and in the western part in the evening. R. Jo*hanan b. Nuri de- 
clared them to be false witnesses; but when they came to Jamnia, 
Gamliel received their evidence as valid. (On another occasion) two 
other witnesses came and said: We saw the moon on its proper day, 
but could not see it on the next evening of the intercalary day; R. 
Gamliel received them : but R. Dosa b. Harkhinas, said: They are 
false witnesses; for how can they testify of a woman being delivered 
(on a certain day), when, on the next day, she appears to be preg- 
nant? Then R. Joshua said unto him: I approve your opinion. 
Upon this Gamliel sent him (R.Joshua) word, saying, *'I order 

* literally " put out the eyes of that figure I " 



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43 

you to appear before me on the Day of Atonement, according to 
your computation, with your stafiF and with money. R. Aqiba went 
to him (R. Joshua), and found him grieving; he then said to him, 
I can prove that all Gamliel has done is proper for it is said, 
*' These are the feasts of the Lord, holy convocations which ye shall 
proclaim,'* either at their proper time, or not at their proper time, 
onl>' their convocations are to be considered as holy festivals. When 
he (R. Joshua) came to R. Dosa b. Harkhinas, the latter told him, 
** If we are to reinvestigate the decisions of the Beth Din of Gamliel, 
we must also reinvestigate the decisions of all the Beth Dins which 
have existed from the time of Moses till the present day; for it is 
said [Ex. xxiv. 9], '* Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy 
elders went up (to the Mount).** Why were not the names of the 
elders also specified ? To teach us, that every three men in Israel 
that form a Beth Din are to be respected in an equal degree with the 
Beth Din of Moses. Then did R. Joshua take his staff and money 
in his hand, and went to Jamnia, to Gamliel, on the very day on 
which the Day of Atonement would have been according to his com- 
putation; when Gamliel arose, and kissed him on his forehead, say- 
ing, *' Enter in peace, my master and disciple! My master— in 
knowledge; and my disciple — since thou didst obey my injunction.*' 

GEMARA: A Boraitha teaches us: that R. Gamliel said to the 
sages, thus it has been handed down to me from the house of my 
grandfather (Hillel), that sometimes the new moon appears elongated 
and sometimes diminished. R. 'Hiyya saw the old moon yet on the 
morning of the twenty-ninth day, and threw clods of earth at it, 
saying, *' We should consecrate thee in the evening, and thou art 
seen now ? Go, hide thyself ! ' * 

Said Rabbi to R. * Hiyya: **Go to Entob and consecrate the 
month and send back to me as a password* * David, the King of Israel 
still lives.* ** The Rabbis taught: Once it happened that the heavens 
were thick with clouds and the form of the moon was .seen on the 
twenty-ninth of the month (of Elul), so that the people thought that 
New Year's Day should be then proclaimed, and they (the Beth Din) 
were about to consecrate it. Said R. Gamliel to them: Thus it has 
been handed down to me by tradition, from the house of my grand- 
father, the consecration of the moon cannot take place at a period 
less than twenty-nine and a half days, two-thirds and .0052 (z. ^., 
seventy-three 'Halaqim) of an hour. On that self-same day the 
mother of Ben Zaza died and R. Gamliel delivered a great fimeral 

* This device was resorted to because, in the days of Rabbi, the Romans had prohibited 
the Jews, under penalty of death, to consecrate the moon. 



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44 

oration,* not because she specially deserved it, but in order that the 
people might know that the new moon had not yet been consecrated 
by the Beth Din. 

''When He (Rabbi Joshua) Came to R. Dosa b. Hark- 
HiNAS, etc.*' The Rabbis taught: The reason that the names of 
those elders are not mentioned, is in order that one should not say: 
Is So-and-so like Moses and Aaron ? Is So-and-so like Nadabh and 
Abihu ? Is So-and-so like Eldad and Medad ? (And how do we know 
that one should not ask thus) ? Because, it is written [i Sam. xii. 6] , 
** And Samuel said unto the people the Lord that appointed Moses and 
Aaron *' and in the same connection it is said [ibid, ii.], **And the 
Lord sent Jerubaal and Bedan and Jephtha and Samuel.'* Jerubaal 
is Gideon; and why is he named Jerubaal? Because he strove 
against Baal; Bedan is Samson; and why is he named Bedan? Be- 
cause he came from Dan. Jephtha means just what it is (/. e,, he 
had no surname or attribute). It is said [Ps. xcix. 6] ** Moses and 
Aaron among his priests, and Samuel, among them that called upon 
his name ; ' * the sacred text regards the three common people equal 
with the three noblest, to teach us that Jerubaal was in his genera- 
tion like Moses in his; Bedan in his generation was like Aaron in 
his; Jephtha in his generation was like Samuel in his generation. 
From all this one must learn, that if, even the commonest of the com- 
moners is appointed leader by a community, he must be consid- 
ered as the noblest of the nobility, for it is said [Deut. xvii. 9] 
•*And thou shalt come unto the priests, the Levites, and unto the 
judge that shall be in those days.** (Why does the Torah say '* in 
those days *'?) Can you imagine that one could go to a judge who 
was not in his days? (Surely not ! but by these words Scripture 
teaches us that a judge is to be held '* in his days " equal in author- 
ity with the greatest of his antecedents). We find a similar teaching 
in Eccles. vii. 10: *' Say not thou, that the former days were better 
than these ! '* 

*' He Took His Staff, etc.** The Rabbis taught: (Gamliel 
said to R. Joshua) : Happy is the generation in which the leaders 
listen to their followers, and through this the followers consider it so 
much the more their duty (to heed the teachings of the leaders). 



• No funerals or funeral orations were, or are, permitted on the holidays. 



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CHAPTER III. 

MISHNA: If the Beth Din, and all Israel saw (the moon on 
the night of the thirtieth day), or, if the witness had been examined, 
but there was no time to proclaim * * It is consecrated ' * before it has 
become dark, the month is intercalary. If the Beth Din alone saw 
it, two of its members should stand and give the testimony before 
the others, who shall then say ** It is consecrated, It is consecrated." 
When three who formed a Beth Din saw it, two should stand and 
conjoining some of their learned friends with the remaining one, give 
their testimony before them, who should proclaim **It is conse- 
crated, It is consecrated,'* for one (member of a Beth Din) has not 
this right by himself alone. 

GEMARA: '* If the Beth Din Alone Saw It, Two op Its 
Members Should Stand and Give Their Testimony Before 
THE Others, etc.*' Why so? Surely hearsay evidence is not 
better than the testimony of an eye-witness ! Says R. Zera: It refers 
to a case where they saw it at night (and on the next day they could 
not consecrate the new moon until they had heard the evidence of 
two witnesses). 

"When Three, Who Formed a Beth Din, Saw it, Two 
Should Stand and Conjoining Some of Their Learned 
Friends With the Remaining One, etc.'* Why so? Here 
also we may say, surely hearsay evidence is not better than the tes- 
timony of an eye-witness ! And if you should object that this also 
means where they saw it at night, is this not, then, the same case? 
The case is the same, but he needs to state the above, because of the 
concluding words, **one (member of a Beth Din) has not the right 
by himself alone;*' for you might possibly think that we say, since 
in civil cases three (are required to constitute a Beth Din), but 
where he is well known (as a learned authority ) one judge may act 
alone, so here we may consecrate (the new moon) on the authority 
of one judge, therefore, he teaches us (that three are required). 
Perhaps I should, nevertheless, say here (that one learned authority 
is sufficient)? Nay, for there is no greater authority than Moses, 
our master, yet God said to him, that Aaron should act with him, as 
it is written [Ex. xii. i, 2], '*And the Lord spake unto Moses and 
Aaron, in the land of Egypt, saying: This month shall be unto you 
the beginning of months. * * 

(45) 



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46 

Does this mean to say that a witness may act as judge ? And 
shall I then say that the above Mishna is not according to R. Aqiba, 
for a Boraitha teaches: If the members of the Sanhedrin saw a man 
commit murder, part of them may act as witnesses and part as 
judges, according to R. Tarphon; but according to R. Aqiba all of 
them are witnesses, and no witness (of a crime) may act as judge ? 
You may state (that the Mishna is) according to R. Aqiba even. In 
the latter instance R. Aqiba only refers to capital cases, for the Torah 
says [Niunb. xxxv. 24, 25] **Then the congregation shall judge 
. . . .and the congregation shall deliver, * ' and since they saw him 
commit murder, they will not be able to urge any plea in his favor; 
but here (concerning the new moon) even R. Aqiba assents (that a 
witness may act as judge). 

MISHNA: Every kind of comet may be used (on New Year's 
Day) except those made of cow-horn, because they are called '* horn * * 
(Qeren) and not ** comet '* (Shophar). R. Jose says: Are not all 
comets called ** horn,'' as e. ^., it is said [Josh. vi. 5] **And it came 
to pass that when they made a long blast with the horn." 

GEMARA: How comes it that the word Jobhel means ram ? A 
Boraitha teaches: R. Aqiba says. When I went to Arabia, I found 
they called a ram ** Yubla." The Rabbis did not know the meaning 
of the word Salseleho in the passage [Prov. iv. 8] **Salseleho and 
she shall promote thee." One day they heard Rabbi's maidservant 
say to a certain man who was (conceitedly) playing with his hair, 
*' How long wilt thou mesalsel (twist up) thy hair ? " The Rabbis 
did not know the meaning of the word yehabhekha in the passage 
[Ps. Iv. 22] '* Cast YEHABHEKHA (burden) upon the Lord." Says 
Rabba b. Bar 'Hana, '* One day I went with a certain Arabian car- 
avan merchant and I was carrj'ing a burden. Said he to me, * Take 
down Yehabhekh (thy burden) and put it on my camel.' " 

MISHNA: The comet used on the New Year was a straight 
horn of a wild goat; the mouth-piece was covered with gold. The 
two tnunpets were stationed one on each side: the sound of the 
comet was prolonged, while that of the trumpet was short, because 
the special duty of the day was the sounding of the comet. On the 
fast days two crooked ram's-homs were used, their mouth-pieces 
being covered with silver, and the two trumpets were stationed in the 
middle between them: the sound of the cornet was shortened while 
that of the trumpets was prolonged, because the special duty of the 
day was the sounding of the trumpets-. The Jubilee and New 
Year's Day were alike in respect to the sounding (of the comet) and 
the benedictions, but R. Judah says on the New Year We blow (a 



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47 

comet) made of ram's-hom, and on the Jubilee one made of the horn 
of a wild goat. 

GEMARA: R. Levi says: It is a duty on New Year's Day and 
the Day of Atonement to use a bent comet, but during the rest of 
the year a straight one. But have we not leamed that the comet 
used on the New Year must be the ** straight hom of a wild goat ? 
He (R. Levi) supports his opinion with the following Boraitha 
which teaches that R. Judah says: On New Year's Day they used to 
blow (a comet) made of a straight ram's-hom and on the Jubilees, 
one made of wild goat*s hom. About what do they dispute ? R. 
Judah holds that on New Year's the more bent in spirit a man is, 
and on the Day of Atonement, the more upright he is (in his confes- 
sions), the better; but R. Levi holds the more upright a man is on 
New Year's Day and the more bowed in spirit on the Fast Days, 
the better. 

** The Mouth-Piece Was Covered With Gold." Does not 
a Boraitha teach, however, that if one covers the place to which the 
mouth was put the comet may not be used; but if (he covers) 
another place it may be used? Answered Abayi: Our Mishna also 
means, a place to which the mouth was not put. 

* • The Two Trumpets Were Stationed One on Each Side.' * 
Could the two sounds be easily distinguished ? Nay; and therefore 
the sound of the cornet was prolonged to indicate that the special 
duty of the day was the sounding of the comet. 

'*0n the Fast-Days Two Crooked Ram's-Horns Were 
Used, Their Mouth-Pieces Being Covered With Silver." 
Why was the comet used in the one case covered with gold and in 
the other, with silver? All (signals for) assemblies were blown on 
horns made with silver as it is written [Numb. x. 2] ** Make unto 
thee two trumpets of silver . . . that thou mayest use them for the 
calling of the assembly, etc." R. Papa b. Samuel was about to 
follow the practice laid down by the Mishna; said Rabha to him, 
that was only customary so long as the Temple was in existence. 
A Boraitha also teaches this applies only to the Temple; but in the 
country (outside of Jerusalem) in a place where they use the 
trumpet, they do not use the comet, and vice- versa. And so also 
did R. 'Halaphta, in Sepphoris and so too did R. 'Hanina b. 
Teradjon in Si*hni, when the matter was brought to the attention 
of the sages, they said: That was the custom, only at the eastern 
gates or the Temple Mount. Rabha, but some say R. Joshua b. 
Levi asked: From which Scriptural verse is this deduced ? From 
Ps. xcviii. 6 which runs, '* With trumpets and sound of comet, 



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4S 

make a joyful noise before the Lord, the King; *' /. r., before the 
Lord, the King (in the Temple) we need both the trumpets and the 
comet, but not elsewhere. 

**The Jubilee, and the New Year Were Alike in 
Respect to the Sounding (of the Cornet), and the Bles- 
sings." R. Samuel b. Isaac said: According to whom do we now- 
a-days pray: '*This day celebrates the beginning of thy work, a 
memorial of the first day?" According to R. Eliezer who says: 
The world was created in Tishri. R. Ina asked a question: Did we 
not learn in our Mishna that the Jubilee and New Year are alike in 
respect to the sounding (of the cornet) , and the benedictions, and 
now how can that be so when we say * ' This day celebrates the be- 
ginning of thy work, a memorial of the first day," which is said on 
New Year but not on the Jubilee ? (That which we have learnt in 
our Mishna that they are alike means) in every other respect but this. 

MISHNA: It is unlawful to use a cornet that has been split and 
afterwards joined together; or one made of several pieces joined 
together. If a comet had a hole that had been stopped up, and pre- 
vented (the production) of the proper sound, it might not be used; 
but if it does not affect the proper sound, it might be used. If one 
should blow the comet inside a pit, a cistern or a vat and the sound 
of the comet was (plainly) heard (by one listening to it) he will 
have done his duty (to hear the comet on the New Year), but not if 
he heard only an indistinct sound. Thus also, if one should happen 
to pass by a synagogue, or live close by it and should hear the comet 
(on the New Year) or the reading of the Book of Esther (on the 
Feast of Esther), he will have complied with the requirements of the 
law, if he listened with proper attention but not otherwise; and 
although the one heard it as well as the other, yet the difference (on 
which everything depends) is, that the one listened with proper 
attention, and the other did not. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: If a comet was long and 
they shortened it, it might be used; if one scraped it and reduced it 
to its due size, it might be used; if one covered it on the inside, with 
gold, it might not be used; if on the outside and it changed the tone 
from what it originally was, it might not be used, but if not, it might 
be used; if a comet had a hole in it and they closed it up, and 
thereby prevented (the production) of the proper sound, it might not 
be used, but if not it might be used; if one placed one comet inside 
another and the sound heard (by a listener) was produced from the 
inner one he has complied with the requirements of the law, but if 
from the outer one, he has not. 



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'*Or One Made of Several Pieces Joined Together." 
The Rabbis taught: If one added to a cx)met never so small a piece, 
whether it be of the same kind of horn or not, it might not be used. 
If a cornet had a hole, whether one stopped it up with a piece of the 
same kind (of horn) or not, it might not be used, but R. Nathan 
held (only when repaired with material) not of the same kind, it 
might not be used, but otherwise it might. (To which) R. Judah 
added: That is, if the greater part of a comet was broken. From 
this we may prove that if repaired with material of the same kind, 
although the greater part was broken, it may, nevertheless be used. 

*' If one covered a comet on the inside with gold it might not 
be used; if on the outside, and it changed the tone from what it 
originally was, it might not be used, but if not, it might be used. * * If 
a comet had been split lengthwise, it might not be used, but if cross- 
wise, yet enough remained with which to produce the sound, it might 
be used, but if not, it might not be used. [And how much is that ? R. 
Simon b. Gamliel explains it to be as much as we may hold i^ our 
closed hand, and yet on either side a portion is visible] .* If its tone 
was thin, or heavy or harsh, it might be used, for all tones were 
considered proper in a comet. The schoolmen sent a message to the 
father of Samuel : ( One has complied with the requirements of the law 
if he bored a hole in a horn and blew it. That is self-evident! for 
in) every comet a hole must surely be bored. Says R. Ashi: If one 
bored a hole through the bony substance inside the horn (which 
ought to be removed), are we to suppose that one substance causes 
an interposition with another of the same nature, (and that, there- 
fore it might not be used) ? Therefore they sent to say that this is 
no objection. 

** Ip One Should Blow the Cornet Inside a Pit or a 
Cistern, etc." R. Huna says: They taught this only in the case 
of those who stood at the pit's mouth, but those who were in the pit 
comply with the requirements of the law. If one heard a part of 
(the required number of) the sounds of the comet in the pit, and the 
rest at the pit's mouth, he has done his duty; but if he heard a part 
before the dawn of day, and the rest after the dawn, he has not com- 
plied with the requirements of the law. Asked Abayi: Why in the 
latter case (should he not have done his duty, because he did not 
hear the whole of the sounds at the time when the duty should be 
performed), yet, in the former case (he is considered to have done 



* The opinion of the editor is that this parenthesis is a fair illustration of the interpola« 
tions in the Talmud. The term Piresh is not Talmudical and was only used in later times. 
It has only been left here because the explanation happens to be correct. 



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50 

his duty) under similar circumstances? How can you compare 
these cases ? In the latter case, the 7iight is not the time of perform- 
ing the obligation at all, while in the former case, a pit is a place 
where the duty may be performed for those who are in it ! Shall we 
say that Rabba held: If one heard the end of the sounding (of the 
comet), without having heard the beginning he complied with the 
requirements of the law, and from these words we must understand 
that if he heard the beginning, without the end he has also done his 
duty ? Come and hear ! If one blew the first sound (Teqia) and 
prolonged the second (Teqia) as long as two, it is only reckoned 
as one; and (if Rabba's opinion is correct) why should you reckon 
it as two ? (This is no question) ! If he heard a half the sounds, 
he has done his duty, but when one blows one sound on the comet, 
we may not consider it two halves. Rabha says: One who vows to re- 
ceive no benefit from his neighbor, may blow for him the obligatory 
sounds (of the comet); one who vows refusal of any benefit from a 
comet, may blow on it the obligator}^ sounds. Furthermore says 
Rabha: One who vows to refuse any benefit from his neighbor may 
sprinkle on him the waters of a sin-offering in the winter, but not in 
the summer. One who vows to receive no benefit from a spring, 
may take in it an obligatory bath in the winter, but not in the sum- 
mer. The schoolmen sent a message to the father of Samuel: 
If one had been compelled to eat unleavened bread (on the first night 
of Passover, /. e., he had not done so of his own accord) he has also 
done his duty. Who compelled him ? Answered R. Ashi, Persians. 
Rabha remarked: From this statement we can prove that if one plays 
a song on the comet, he complies with the requirements of the law. 
It is self-understood ! The cases are similar ? But one might sup- 
pose that in the former case, the Torah commanded him to eat 
(unleavened bread) and he ate it, but in the former case the Torah 
speaks of *' a remembrajice of blowing the comet ** [Lev. xxiii. 24] , 
and (when he plays a song he does not remember his duty for) he is 
engaged in a worldly occupation ! Therefore he teaches us that even 
under such circumstances he does comply with the requirements of 
the law. To this an objection was raised. We have learnt: If one 
who listened (to the sounds of the comet) paid the proper attention, 
but he that blew the comet did not, or vice-versa^ they have not done 
their duty, until both blower and listener pay proper attention. This 
is all right as far as the case where the blower, but not the listener, 
pays the proper attention, for it is possible that the listener imagines 
he hears the noise of an animal; but how can it happen that the 
listener should pay due attention and the one who blows (the comet) 



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51 

should qot, except he was only playing a song (by which he does 
not do his duty)? (It is possible) if he only produced a dull sound; 
(/. e, and not, for example a Teqia). 

Said Abayi to him: But now, according to your conclusion (that a 
duty performed without due attention is the same as if perfonhed 
with due attention) will you say that he who sleeps in a tabernacle 
<m the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles receive stripes (because 
he had no right to observe the law for more than seven day)? 
Answered he: I say that one cannot infringe a command except at 
the time when it should be performed. R. Shamen b. Abba raised an 
objection: Whence do we know that a priest who ascended the plat- 
form (to pronounce the priestly benediction) must not say: Since the 
Torah has given me the right to bless Israel, I will supplement (the 
benedictions Numb. vi. 24-26) by one of my own, as for example 
[Deut. i. 11] *' May the Lord God of your fathers make you a thou- 
sand times so many more as ye are ? * ' From the Torah which says 
[Deut. iv. 2] * * Ye shall not add tmto the word.' * And in this case as 
soon as he has finished the benedictions, the time for performing 
that duty has gone by, still if he add a blessing of his own he is 
guilty of infiringing the law which says ** Ye shall not add ? '* Said 
Rabha: (I mean), To fulfill the requirements of the law one need 
not pay attention; to transgress the law against supplementing, at 
the time prescribed for performing it, also, does not require one's 
special attention; but to transgress the law against supplementing 
at the time not prescribed for performance, needs one's special atten- 
tion. R. Zira said to his attendant: **Pay attention, and sound 
(the comet) for me ! " Do we not thus see that he holds that to 
fulfill the requirements of the law the act is not enough and one 
must pay attention ? This is a disputed question among the Tanaim, 
for a Boraitha teaches: One who hears (the blowing of the comet) 
must himself listen in order to perform his duty, and he who blows 
(the comet) blows after his usual manner. R. Jose says: These 
words are said only in the case of the ofiiciant for a congregation; 
but an individual does not comply with the requirements of the law 
unless bbth he that hears and he that blows pay proper attention. 

MISHNA: (It is written in Ex. xvii. 11 that) "When Moses 
held up his hand, Israel prevailed, etc." Could then the hands 
of Moses cause war to be waged or to cease? (Nay); but it means 
that as long as Israel looked to Heaven for aid, and directed their 
hearts devoutly to their Father in Heaven, they prevailed; but when 
they ceased to do so, they failed. We find a similar instance also in 
[Numb. xxi. 8] ** Make unto thee a fiery serpent and set it on a 
pole, and every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it shall 
6 



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52 

live." Could then the serpent kill or bring to life ? (Nay); but it 
means when the Israelites looked (upward) to Heaven for aid and 
subjected their will to that of their Father in Heaven they were 
healed, but when they did not, they perished. A deaf mute, an 
idiot, or a child cannot act in behalf of the assembled congregation. 
This is the general rule whosoever is not obliged to perform a dut>^ 
cannot act in behalf of the assembled congregation (for that duty). 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: All are obliged to hear the 
soimding of the comet, Priests, Levites and Israelites, Proselytes, 
Freed-Slaves, a monstrosity, a hermaphrodite, and one who is half 
slave and half free. A monstrosity cannot act in behalf of those like 
or unlike itself, but a hermaphrodite can act in behalf of those of the 
same class, but not of any other. The teacher says: It is said. All 
are obliged to hear the sounding of the cornet. Priests, Levites and 
Israelites. This is self understood, for if these are not obliged, who 
are ? It was necessary to mention priests here, for one might have 
supposed, that since we have learnt, * * the Jubilee and New Year's Day 
are alike with regard to the sounding of the comet and the benedic- 
tions," that only those who are included under the rule of Jubilee are 
included in the duties of New Year's Day; and as the priests are not 
included in the rule of Jubilee (for they have no lands to lie fallow, 
etc.), might we not therefore say that they are not bound by the 
duties of New Year's Day ? Therefore he teaches us (that they must 
hear the sounding of the comet). 

Ahabha, the son of R. Zera teaches: With regard to all the 
benedictions, although one has already done his duty he may never- 
theless act for others, with the exception of the blessings over bread 
and wine; concerning which, if he has not yet done his duty, he 
may act for others, but if he has done his duty, he may not act for 
others. Rabha asked: What is the rule in the case of the benedic- 
tion of the unleavened bread, and the wine used at the sanctification 
of a festival ? Since these are special duties, may one act for others, 
or perhaps the (dut}- is only the eating of the unleavened bread and 
the drinking of the sanctification wine) but the benediction is not a 
duty, and therefore he cannot act for others? Come and Iiear ! R. 
Ashi says: When we were at the home of R. Papa, he said the bles- 
sing of sanctification for us, and when his field-laborer came fi"om work 
he said the blessing for him. The Rabbis taught: One may not 
say the benediction over bread for guests, unless he eats with them, 
but he may for the members of the family, to initiate them into 
their religious duties; with regard to the Service of Praise [Hallkl 
Ps. cxiii-cxviii.] and the reading of the Book of Esther, although 
one has already done his duty, he may, nevertheless, act for others. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

MISHNA: When the feast of New Year happened to fall on 
the Sabbath, they used to sound (the comet) in the Temple, but 
not outside of it. After the destruction of the Temple R. Jo'hanan 
b. Zakkai ordained that they should sound (the comet) in every 
place in which there was a Beth Din. R. Elazar says that R. Jo'hanan 
b. Zakkai instituted that for Jamnia alone; but they (the sages) say 
the nile applied both to Jamnia. and ever>' place in which there was 
a Beth Din. And in this respect also was Jerusalem privileged more 
than Jamnia, that everj' city, from which Jerusalem could be seen, 
or the sounding (of the comet) could be heard, which was near 
enough, and to which it was allowed to go on the Sabbath, might 
sound the (comet) on the Sabbath but in Jamnia they sounded 
(the comet) before the Beth Din only. 

GEMARA: Whence do we leam these things? Says Rabha: 
The Rabbis issued a decree concerning them according to Rabba; 
for Rabba says, Although the duty of sounding (the comet) is 
obligatory upon all, yet all are not skilled in sounding (it), there- 
fore they feared lest one might take (the comet) in his hand, and 
go to an expert and carry it more than four cubits on the New 
Year. The same rule applies to the palm branch (Lulabh) and 
also to the scroll (on which is written the) Book of Esther. 

**Apter the Destruction of the Temple, R. Jo'hanan b. 
Zakkai Ordained, etc.** The Rabbis taught: Once it happened 
that New Year's Day fell on the Sabbath, and all the cities gathered 
together. Said R. Jo*hanan b. Zakkai to the Benai Betherah:* ** Let 
us sound (the comet) ! ** ''First,** said they, **let us discuss!*' 
** Let us sound it,** replied he, ** and then we will discuss ! ** After 
they had sounded (the comet) they said to him ** Now let us dis- 
cuss ! * * He answered ** The comet has now been heard in Jamnia, 
and we cannot retract after the act has been performed.** 

**BuT They (the Sages) Say the Rule Applied Both 
TO Jamnia and Every Place in Which There Is a Beth Din.** 
Says R. Huna, that means, in the presence of the Beth Din. Does 
this preclude people from soimding (the comet) out of the presence 
of the Beth Din ? And, when R. Isaac b. Joseph came (from 

* A scholarly family of Babylonian descent, much favored by Herod. 

(53) 



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54 

Jamnia) did he not say: When the officiant appointed by the con- 
gregation in Jamnia had finished sounding (the coraet) one could 
not hear his«own voice on account of the sounds (of the cornets) 
used by individuals? (Even individuals) used to sound (the cor- 
net) in the presence of the Beth Din. We have also been taught: 
Rabbi says, We may only sound (the comet) diiring the time that 
the Beth Din is accustomed to sit. 

**jERUSAi.EM Was Privileged More Than Jamnia, etc.'* 
(When the Mishna speaks of) ** Every city from which Jerusalem 
could be seen,*' it means with the exception of a city located in the 
valley (from which it could be seen only by ascending to an elevated 
spot); by ** the somiding (of the comet) could be heard,** it means 
to except a city located on the top of a moimtain; by, ** which was 
near enough,** it ^eans to exclude a city outside the prescribed 
limit (of a Sabbath journey); and by, ** and to which it was allowed 
to go '* it means to exclude a city (even near by) but divided (from 
Jerusalem) by a river. 

MISHNA: Formerly the palm-branch (Lulabh) was taken to 
the Temple seven days, but in cities out^de (of Jerusalem) it was 
taken (to the synagogue) one day. Since the destruction of the 
Temple, R. Jo*hanan b. Zakkai ordained that the palm-branch 
should everywhere be taken seven days, in commemoration of the 
Temple, and also that it should be prohibited (to eat the new pro- 
duce) the whole day of waving (the sheaf-offering; vide Lev. xxiii. 

GEMARA: Whence do we know that we do this in commem- 
oration of the Temple? The Scriptures say [Jer. xxx. 17] **For 
I will restore health unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy wounds, 
saith the Lord, because they called thee an outcast, saying, This is 
Zion whom no man seeketh after.** By implication (we see) it 
(Zion or the Temple) needs being sought after (or commemora- 
ted). 

**And That it Shotjld be Prohibited to Eat ... on 
THE WH01.E Day of Waving (the Sheaf-Offering) etc.** R. 
Na*hman b. Isaac remarks: R. Jo*hanan b. Zakkai says this 
according to the opipion of R. Judah, for it is said [Lev. xxiii. 
14] '*Andye shall eat neither parched corn . . . until the self- 
same day,** i, e,, until the very day itself, and he holds that when- 
ever the expression ** until** (Adh) occurs it is inclusive. How 
can you say the above according to (R. Judah); surely he differs 
from him ? For we have learnt: Since the destruction of the Temple 
R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai ordained that it should be prohibited (to eat 



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55 

of the new produce) the whole of the day of waving (the sheaf- 
offering)! Says R. Judah: Is this not prohibited by the Torah 
which says: ** Until the self-same day ? '* R. Judah was mistaken; 
he thought that R. Jo*hanan b. Zakkai taught that (the prohibition) 
was Rabbinical, and it was not so, for R. Jo*hanan also said it was 
Biblical. But does the Mishna not say ** he ordained ? '* Aye; but 
what does it mean by " he ordained? '* (It means), he explained 
the ordinance. 

MISHNA: Formerly they received evidence as to the appear- 
ance of the new moon the whole (of the thirtieth) day. Once, the 
witnesses were delayed in coming, and they disturbed the song of 
the Levites. They then ordained that evidence should only be 
received until (the time of) the afternoon service, and if witnesses 
came after that time both that and the following day were conse- 
crated. After the destruction of the Temple, R. Jo*hanan b. Zakkai 
ordained that evidence (as to the appearance) of the new moon 
should be received all day. 

GEMARA: What disturbance did they cause to the Songs of 
the Levites? Said R. Zera to Ahabha his son: Go and construe (the 
Mishna) thus: They ordained that evidence as to the appearance of 
the new moon should not be received, only that there might be time 
during the day to offer the continual and the additional sacrifices and 
their drink offerings, and to chant the (daily) song without dis- 
turbing the order. A Boraitha teaches: R. Judah says in the name of 
R. Aqiba, what (song) did (the Levites) chant on the first day of 
the week ? "The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof** [Ps. 
xxiv.] , because he is the Creator, the Providence and the Ruler of 
the Universe. What did they sing on the second day ? ** Great is 
the Lord and greatly to be praised '* [Ps. xlviii.] , because He distrib- 
uted His works and reigned over them. On the third day they sang 
**God standeth in the congregation of the mighty" [Ps. Ix3txii.], 
because He, in his wisdom made the earth appear and prepared the 
world for its occupants. On the fourth day they sang * * O Lord, to 
whom retribution belongeth " [Ps. xciv.], because (on that day) He 
created the sun and moon, and (determined) to punish in the future 
those who would worship them. On the fifth day they sang * * Sing 
aloud unto God our strength ' ' [Ps. Ixxxi.] , because (on that day) 
He created birds and fish to praise Him. On the sixth day they sang 
' * The Lord reigneth. He is clothed with majesty ' ' [Ps. xciii.] , because 
(on that day) He finished His works and reigned over them. On 
the seventh day they sang ' * A Psalm or Song for the Sabbath Day * * 
[Ps. xcii.] , for the day that is wholly Sabbath. R. Nehemiah asked: 



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56 

Why did the sages make a distinction between these sections (for the 
last refers to a future event, while all the others refer to the past)? 
It should have been said, that they sang that Psalm on the Sabbath 
day because He rested ! 

. What did the I^evites sing when the additional sacrifices were 
being offered on the Sabbath ? R. Anan b. Rabha says in the name 
of Rabh: Six sections of Deut. xxxii.* R. 'Hanan b. Rabha also 
says in the name of Rabh, as these sections were divided (by the 
Invites) so they are divided for the reading of the Torah (on the 
Sabbath on which they are read). What did they sing at the Sab- 
bath afternoon service ? Says R. Jo*hanan, a portion of the song of 
Moses [Ex. XV. i-io]; the conclusion of that song [ibid. 11-19] 
and the song of Israel [Numb. xxi. 17]. The schoolmen asked: 
Pid they sing all these on one Sabbath, or did they, perhaps, sing 
one section on each Sabbath ? Come and hear ! A Boraitha teaches: 
During the time that the first choir of (Levites who sang at the time 
of the additional sacrifice) sang their sections once, the second choir 
(that sang at that time of the afternoon sacrifice) had sung theirs 
twice; from this we may deduce that they sang but one section on 
each Sabbath. 

R. Judah b. Idi says in the name of R. Jo'hanan: According to 
the Rabbinical explanation of certain Scriptural passages, the Shek- 
hinah made ten journeys; and according to tradition, a correspond- 
ing number of times was the Sanhedrin exiled, viz. : from the cell of 
Gazith (in the Temple) to the market-place; from the market-place to 
Jerusalem; from Jerusalem to Jamnia; from Jamnia to Usha; from Usha 
(back again) to Jamnia; from Jamnia (back again) to Usha; from 
Usha to Shapram; from Shapram to Beth Shearim; from Beth Shearim 
to Sepphoris; from Sepphoris to Tiberias, and Tiberias was the sad- 
dest of them all. 

R. Elazar says they were exiled six times as it is said [Is. xxvi. 5] , 
** For he bringeth down them that dwell on high; the lofly city he 
layeth low; he layeth it low even to the ground; he bringeth it even 
to the dust.*' Says R. Jo'hanan: And thence (from the dust) they 
will in future be redeemed, as it is said [Is. Hi. 2] *' Shake thyself 
from the dust; arise, and sit down, etc.*' 

MISHNA: R. Joshua b. Qar' ha says: This also did R. Jo' hanan 
b. Zakkai ordain: that it mattered not where the chief of the Beth 
Din might be, the witnesses need only go to the meeting-place (of 
the Beth Din). 



♦ i-vii; viii-xiii ; xiv-xix ; xx-xxvii ; xxviii-xxxvi ; xxxvil-xliv. These passages are called 
Hasyv Lakh because the initial letters are H, Z, Y, V, I<, KH. 



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57 

GKMARA: A certain woman was summoned for judgment 
before Amemar in Nehardea. Amemar went away to Me'huza, but 
she did not follow him, and he then excommunicated her. Said* R. 
Ashi to Amemar: Have we not learned that it mattered not where 
the chief of the Beth Din might be, the witnesses need only go to 
the meeting-place (of the Beth Din) ? Answered Amemar: That is 
true in respect to evidence for the new moon; but with regard to my 
action **The borrower is servant to the lender'* [Prov. xxii. 7]. 
The Rabbis taught: Priests may not ascend the platform in sandals, 
to bless the people; and this is one of the nine ordinances insti- 
tuted by R. Jo'hanan b. Zakkai; six are to be found in this chapter, 
one in the first chapter; another one is, if one become a proselyte now- 
a-days, he must pay a quarter of a shekel for a sacrifice of a bird, 
(so that if the Temple should be rebuilt the authorities would have 
a contribution fi-om him towards the daily sacrifices). R. Simon b. 
Blazar said, that R. Jo'hanan had already withdrawn this regulation 
and annuled it, because it easily led to the sin (of using the money 
for different purposes). And what is the ninth (ordinance of R. 
Jo'hanan) ? R. Papa and R. Na'hman b. Isaac dispute about this; 
R. Papa says it was with regard to a vineyard of the fourth year's 
crop; but R. Na'hman b. Isaac says it was with regard to the crimson 
colored strap (displayed on the Day of Atonement). 

MISHNA: The order of the benedictions (to be said on New Year 
is as follows): The blessings referring to the Patriarchs (Abhoth), 
to the mighty power of God (Gebhuroth), and the sanctification of 
the Holy name; to these he adds the selection in which God is pro- 
claimed King (Mai^khioth), after which he does not sound the 
comet; then the blessing referring to the sanctification of the day, 
after which the comet is sounded; then the Biblical selections refer- 
ring to God's remembrance of his creatures (Zikhronoth) after 
which the comet is again sounded; then the Biblical selections re- 
ferring to the sounding of the comet (Shophroth), after which the 
comet is again sounded; he then recites the blessings referring to 
the restoration of the Temple, the adoration of God, the benediction 
of the priests; such is the opinion of R. Jo'hanan b. Nuri. R. Aqiba 
said to him, if the comet is not to be sounded after the Malkhioth, 
why are they mentioned? But the proper order is the following: 
The blessings referring to the Patriarchs (Abhoth), to the mighty 
power of God (Gebhuroth), and the sanctification of the Holy name; 
to this last, the Biblical selections referring to the proclamation of 
God as King (Malkhioth) are joined and then he sounds the cornet; 
then the Biblical selections referring to God's remembrance of His 



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creatures (Zikhronoth), and he then sounds the comet; then the 
Biblical selections referring to the sounding of the comet (Shoph- 
rbth), and he again sounds the comet; then he says the blessings 
referring to the restoration of the Temple, the adoration of God, and 
the priestly benedictions. 

GEMARA: The Rabbis taught: Whence do we know that we 
should recite the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth, and Shophroth ? Answered 
R. Eliezer: From the passage [Lev. xxiii. 24] in which it is written 
** Ye shall have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing comets, a holy 
convocation,** the word ** Sabbath ** refers to the consecration of the 
day; '*a memorial** refers to the Zikhronoth; ** blowing of cor- 
nets'* refers to the Shophroth; **a holy convocation** means the 
hallowing of the day in order to prohibit ser\'ile work. R. Aqiba 
said to him: Why is not the word '* Sabbath** construed to mean 
the prohibition of servile work, since the passage (quoted above) 
begins with that? And then, let the passage be interpreted thus: 
*' Sabbath ** means the hallowing of the day and the prohibition of 
servile work; *' memorial** refers to the Zikhronoth; ** blowing of 
the comets '* refers to the Shophroth; *' a holy convocation ** means 
the consecration of the day. Whence do we know that we should 
recite the Malkhioth ? A Boraitha teaches : The words, ** I am the 
Lord, your God; and in the seventh month** [Lev. xxiii. 22, 24] 
may be interpreted to refer to the proclamation of God as King. 
R. Jose says it is not necessary to cite this passage; for the Torah 
says [Numbers x. 10] "that they may be to you for a memorial, 
before your God: I am the Lord your God.*' These concluding 
words "I am the Lord, your God" are entirely superfluous, but 
since they are used, of what import are they ? They form a general 
rule, that in ever>' selection, in which (God*s) remembrance of His 
creatures is mentioned there should also be fouud the thought that 
He is the King of the Universe. 

MISHNA: Not less than ten Scriptural passages should be tised 
for the Malkhioth, ten for the Zikronoth and ten for the Shophroth.' 
R. Jo*hanan b. NuH says the requirements of the law will be fully 
complied with, if but three of each class have been used. 

GEMARA: To what do the ten Scriptural passages used for the 
Malkhioth correspond ? Answered Rabbi: To the ten expressions 
of praise used by David in the Psalms. But there are more exiM-es- 
sions of praise found ? Only those are meant, in conjunction with 
which it is written ** praise him with the sound of the cornet,'* 
[Psalm ci. 3]. R. Joseph says they correspond to the ten command-* 
ments that were prcx:laimed to Moses on Sinai. R. Jo'hanan says 



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59 

they corre^)ond to the ten words with which the universe was 
created. 

**The Requirements of the Law Will be Fully Complied 
With tp but Three of Each Class Have Been Said." The 
schoolmen asked: Does he mean three from the Pentateuch, three 
from the Prophets and three from the Hagiographa, which would 
make nine, and they differ about one (passage)? or perhaps one 
from the Pentateudi and one from the Prophets and one from the 
Hagiographa, which would make three, and they differ about many 
palssages ? Come and hear ! A Boraitha teaches: Not less than ten 
Scriptural passages should be used for the Malkhioth, ten for the 
Zikhronoth, and ten for the Shophroth; but if seven of them all were 
recitfed, corresponding to the seven heavens, the law has been com- 
plied with. R. Jose b. Nuri remarked: He that recites less (than 
t^n of each) should not, however, recite less than seven, but if he 
recited but three, corresponding to the Pentateuch, Prophets, and 
Hagiographa, but some say correi^x)ndihg to the Priests, Levites and 
Israelites, the requirements of the law have been fulfilled. R. Huna 
b. Samuel says the rule is according to R. Jo*hanan b. Nuri. 

MISHNA: We do not cite Scriptural passages for the above 
three series that contain predictions of punishment. The passages 
from the Pentateuch are to be recited first, and those from the Prc^hefe 
last. R. Jose, however, says if the concluding pa.ssage is from the 
Pentateuch the requirements of the law are fulfilled. 

GEMARA: Passages, proclaiming the kingdom of God that 
should not be used, (because of the above) are such as the following 
[Ezekiel xx. 33]: "As I live, saith the L<ord God, surely with a 
mighty hand, and with a stretched out arm, and with fury poured 
out, I will rule over you," and although as R. Na*hman says (of this 
passage) : Let Him be angry with us, but let Him take us out of 
captivity, still, since it refers to anger, we should not mention * * anger, * * 
at the beginning of the year. An example of the same idea being 
found in conjunction with the Zikhronoth is to be read in [P3. 
Ixxviii. 3] , ** For he remembered they were but flesh; and in con- 
junction with the Shophroth an example is found in Hosea v. 8. 
**Blow ye the comet in Gibeah, etc.*' We must not mention the 
remembrance of the individual (in the Zikhronoth) even if the pas- 
sage speaks of pleasant things, as, for example [Ps. cvi. 4], 
* ' Remember me, O Lord, with the favor that thou bearest unto thy 
people.** According to R. Jose passages that contain the expression 
of *' visiting'* may be used in the Zikhronoth, ^. j^., "And the 
Lord visited Sarah- [Gen. xxi. i] or **I have surely visited you" 



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[Ex. iii. 1 6] so says R. Jose; but R. Judah says, they may not. But 
even if we agree to what R. Jose says (shall we say that) the passage 
" and the Lord visited Sarah '" speaks of an individual (and therefore 
it should not be used) ? Nay; since many descended from her, she 
is regarded as many and therefore that passage though speaking of 
one only, is regarded as though it spoke of man}'. 

(In the Malkhioth, they used Ps. xxiv. 7-10, which is divided 
into two parts). The first part can be used as two of the required 
passages, and the second as three, so says R. Jose; but R. Judah 
says: The first part can be used only for one, and the second for 
two.* So too [Ps. xlvii. 6, 7] **Sing praises to God, sing praises, 
sing praises to our King, sing praises; for God is the King of all 
the earth;** R.Jose says: This maybe used for two of the Malkhioth; 
but R. Judah says it is to be reckoned as one only.f Both, how- 
ever, 'agree that the next verse of the same Psalm ** God is King 
over the nations; God sitteth upon the throne erf his holiness,* * is to 
be used for one only. A passage containing a reference to God*s 
remembrance of His creatures and also to the comet as, for instance 
[Lev. xxiii. 24] ** Ye shall have a Sabbath, a memorial of blowing 
of comets ** may be used in the Zikhronoth and the Shophroth; so 
says R. Jose; but R. Judah says: It can only be used in the Zikh- 
ronoth. A passage in which God is proclaimed King, containing 
also a reference to the comet, as for instance [Numb, xxiii. 21] 
' **The Lord his God is with him, and the shout (Teruath) of a 
king is among them,** maybe used in the Malkhioth and in the 
Shophroth, says R. Jose; but R. Judah says: It may only be used in 
the Malkhioth. A passage containing a reference to the comet, 
and nothing else, as for instance [Numb. xxix. i] ** It is a day of 
blowing the comet; ** may not be used at all. 

"The Passages From the Pentateuch Are to be Re- 
cited First and Those From the Prophets Last.** R. Jose 
says: We should conclude with a passage from the Pentateuch, but 
if one concluded with a passage from the Prophets, the law has been 
complied with. We have also learnt: R. Elazar b. R. Jose says. The 
Vathiqin used to conclude with a passage from the Pentateuch. That 
is all very well as far as Zikhronoth and Shophroth are concerned for 
there are many such passages; but as for the Malkhioth there are but 
three in the Pentateuch, viz.: ** The Lord his God is with him, and 
the shout of a King is among them '* [Numb, xxiii. 21]; ** And he 

♦ He excludes the two interrogative sentences •• who is the king of glory? " 
t He rejects one, because the words "our king," referring to one people only, was not a 
sufficiently broad expression of praise for Him, who is the King of the universe. 



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6i 

was king in Jeshurun*' [Deut xxxiii. 5]; and **The Lord shall 
reign forevef '* [Ex. xv. i8], but we require ten and there are not 
so many ? Said R. Huna: We have learned that, according to R. 
Jose, the passage, ** Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, is one Lord '* 
[Deut. vi. 4], may be used in the Malkhioth, but R. Judah says it 
may not; so also they hold with regard to the passages, **Know, 
therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the Lord, he 
is God there is more else '* [Deut. iv. 39], and ** Unto thee it was 
shewed, that thou mightest know that the Lord, he is God; there 
is none else beside him.'* (Deut. IV. 35). 

MISHNA: The second of those who act as ministers of the 
congregation on the feast of New Year shall cause another to 
sound the comet; on days when the Hallel (Service of Praise, Ps. 
cxiii-cxviii) is read, the first (minister) must read it. In order 
to sound the comet on New Year's Day it is not pennitted to go 
beyond the Sabbath limit, to remove a heap of stones to ascend a tree, 
to ride on an animal, to swim over the waters, nor to cut it (the comet) 
with anything prohibited either by the (Rabbinical) laws against 
servile work or by the Biblical laws; but if one wishes to put water 
or wine in a comet (to cleanse it) he is allowed to. Children may not 
be prevented from sounding the comet, but on the contrary we are 
permitted to occupy ourselves with teaching them until they learn 
to sound it; but one who thus teaches, as also others who listen to 
sounds thus produced, do not thereby fulfill the requirements of" 
the law. 

GEMARA: Why are the above prohibitions made? Because 
the sounding of the cornet is a mandator}^ law; now, the observance 
of a festival involves both mandatory and prohibitory laws, and the 
mandatory do not render the prohibitory laws inoperative. 

** Children May Not be Prevented From Sounding the 
Cornet, etc." May then women be prevented? Does not a 
Boraitha teach: Neither women nor children may be prevented from 
sounding the comet on the New Year's Day? Answered Abayi: 
There is no difBcult>^ here; the one is the opinion of R. Judah and 
the other of R. Jose and R. Simon, who say that as women are per- 
mitted (in the case of sacrifices) to lay their hands on the animals, 
so here, if they desire to sound the cornet, they may. 

' ' Until They Learn. ' ' R. Elazar says: Even on the Sabbath; 
so also does a Boraitha teach: We are permitted to occupy ourselves 
with teaching (children) until they learn Tto sound the comet) even 
on the Sabbath; (and if we do not prevent them doing this on the 
Sabbath) how much less do we, on the feast (of New Year). Our 



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62 

Mishna says, ** we do not prevent them '' (bnt it does not say that 
we should tell a child to go and sound the comet). Is this then pro- 
hibited? No; a child already initiated in the performance of reli- 
gious duties is not prohibited, but we do not tell a child, not yet 
initiated, to go and sound the comet; yet, if he sounds it of his own 
accord, no law has been infringed. 

MISHNA: The order of sounding the comet is three times 
three. The length of aTEQiA is equal to that of three Teruoth, and 
that of each Tenia as three moans (Yababhoth). If a person 
sounded a Teqia and prolonged it equal to two, it is only reckoned 
as one Teqia.* He who has just finished reading the benedictions 
(in the additional service for the New Year) and only at that time 
obtained a comet, should then blow on the comet the three sounds 
three times. As the Reader of the cdng^egation is in duty lx>und 
(to sound the comet) so too is each individual; but, says R. Gamliel, 
the Reader can act for the congregation. 

GEMARA: But we have leamt in a Boraitha that the length of 
a Teqia is the same as that of a Tema. Says Abayi: Our Mishna 
speaks of the three series, and means that the length of all the Teqioth 
is the same as that of all the Teruoth. But the Boraitha speaks of 
only one series and says that one Teqia is equal to one Tenia (which 
is the same thing). 

**Each Terua is (as Long as) Three Moans." But we 
have leamt in a Boraitha, a Terua is as long as three broken (staccato) 
tones (Shebharim). Says Abayi: About this they do indeed differ, 
for it is written [Numb. xxix. i] * * It is a day of blowing the comet * * 
which in the (Aramaic) translation of the Pentateuch, is ** It is a 
day of sounding the alarm (Yababha); Now it is written con- 
cerning tne mother of Sisera [ Judg. v. 28] * * The mother of Sisera 
.... moaned ** (Vat*yabeth); this word, one explains to mean a 
protracted groan, and another to mean a short wail. The Rabbis 
taught: Whence do we know (that one must sound) with a comet ? 
From the passage in which [Lev. xxv. 9] "Thou shalt cause the 
comet .... to sound, etc** Whence do we know that (after the 
Terua) there should be one Teqia? Therefore it is said (later in the 
same verse) *' Ye shall make the comet sound." f ^^t perhaps this , 



*The comet is sounded three times, corresponding to the Malkhioth, Zikhronoth and 
Shophroth. The order of the sounds is Teqia, Tenia, Teqia ; Teqia, Tenia, Teqia, etc. The 
case here supposed is that the one who sounded the comet sustained the second Teqia as long 
as two Teqioth. intending thereby to sound the second and third Teqioth. This, we see, is 
not permitted 

t The Hebrew words tr-rHBQATBM Tbrua are interpreted to mean that first a Teqia should 
be soundbd, and then a Terua. 



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63 

only refens to the Jubilee. Whence do we know that it refers also to 
New Year's Day? Because it says (in the same verse) **inthe 
seventh month." These words are superfluous; for what purpose 
then does the Torah use them? To teach us that all the sounds 
of the comet during the seventh month should be like each other. 
Whence do we know that the sounds are to be three times three ? 
From the three passages, ** Thou shalt cause the comet . . . to 
sound *' [Lev. xxv. 9] ; '*A Sabbath, a memorial of blowing of cor- 
nets * ' [L^v. xxiii. 24] ; ' * It is a day of blowing the comet ' ' [Niunb. 
xxix. i] . But the following Tana deduces it by analogy from (the 
rules given in) the wildemess [Numb. x. i-io]; for a Boraitha 
teaches: The words **When ye sound an alarm" [Numb. x. 5] 
means one Teqia and one Tenia. Do you mean one of each, or 
do you mean that both together should constitute one ? Since the 
Torah says [ibid. 7] ** But when the congregation is to be gathered 
together, ye shall blow but ye shall not sound an alarm, ' ' we deduce 
that (in the first citation) it means one of each. But whence do we 
know that there should be one Teqia before the Tenia. From the 
words [ibid. 5] '* When ye sound an alarm '* (/. ^., first a ** sound,*' 
or Teqia, and then an ** alarm,** or Tenia). And whence do we 
know that there should be one after the Tenia ? From the words 
[ibid. 6] **An alarm shall they sound ! " R. Ishmad, the son of R. 
Jo*hanan b. Beroqa, says: It is not necessary (to deduce it from these 
passages, but from the following), in which the Torah says, ** When 
ye sound an alarm the second time** [ibid. 6]. The words *'a 
second time ** are unnecessary, but since they are used, what do they 
signify ? They form a general rule that on every occasion, on which 
** alarm ** (Tema) is mentioned, a sound (Teqia) must be used with 
it as a second (or following) tone. Possibly all this only refers to the 
practices followed in the wildemess, but how do we know that they 
refer to New Year's Day also ? We learn it by analogy from the 
use of the word ** comet** (stc! Tenia), which is foimd in the three 
passages, [Lev. xxiii. 24] **A sabbath, a memorial of comets; " 
[Numb. xxix. i] ** It is a day of blowing of comets; ** and [Lev. 
xxv. 9] ** Thou shalt cause the comet. . . .to sound; ** and as for 
each Tenia there are two Teqioth, we, therefore, learn that on New 
Year's Day there are sounded three Teruoth and six Teqioth. R. 
Abbahu enacted in Caesarea that the order should be first a Teqia* 
then three single staccato sounds, or Shebharim, then a Tenia, and 
then again a Teqia. What are we to think of that ? If by Tenia is 



« The Teqia is a long tone produced by sounding the cornet. The Tenia is long tremuloiis 
sound. The Shbbarim consists of three short staccato sounds. 



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64 

meant **a protracted groan'* then he should have instituted the 
order to be a Teqia, a Tenia and then a Teqia; and if it means ** a 
short wail *' then he should have instituted the order to be, a Teqia 
then Shebharim (three single broken sounds) and then again a 
Teqia ? He was in doubt whether it meant one or the other (and 
therefore he enacted that both should be sounded). 

•* If A Person Sounded a Teqia and Prolonged It Equal 
TO Two, ETC.'* R. Jo'hanan says: If one heard the nine sounds at 
nine different hours during the day, the requirements of the law are 
fulfilled and we have also learnt: If one heard the nine sounds at 
nine different hours of the day the requirements of the law are ful" 
filled, and if he heard from nine men at one time, a Teqia from one 
and aTerua from another, etc., the law has been complied with even 
if he heard them intermittently, and even during the whole day or 
any part of the day. The Rabbis taught: (Generally) the sound- 
ings of the comet do not obviate each other, nor do the benedictions; 
but on New Year's Day and the Day of Atonement they do. 

* * He Who Has Just Finished Reading (the Additional 
Service) and Only at That Time Obtained a Cornet Shall 
Sound on the Cornet the Three Sounds Three Times." This 
means, only when he did not have a comet at the beginning (of 
the service); but if he hid one at the beginning of the service 
when the sounds of the comet are heard, they must he heard in 
the order ot the benedictions of the day. R. Papa b. Samuel rose 
to recite his prayers. Said he to his attendant. When I nod to you, 
sound (the comet) for me." Rabha said to him: This may only be 
done in the congregation. A Boraitha also teaches: When one 
hears these sounds, he should hear them, both in their order, and in 
the order of the benedictions (in the additional service of the New 
Year). These words only apply to a congregation, but one need 
hear them in the order of the benedictions only, if he is not in a 
congregation; and a private individual who has not sounded the 
comet (or heard it sounded) can have a friend sound it for him; 
but 'a private individual who has not recited the benedictions cannot 
have a friend say them for him; and the duty to hear the comet 
sounded is greater than that of reciting the blessings. How so ? 
If there be two cities (to which a person may go) and in one city 
they are about to sound the cornet and in the other to recite the 
benedictions, he should go to the city in which they are about to 
sound the comet; and not to that in which they are about to recite 
the benedictions. This is self-evident ! for is not one a duty pre- 
scribed by the Torah and the other by the Rabbis? (It is not so 



i 



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65 

self-evident as one might suppose) ; but it is needed to tell us that 
in the case in which one is sure that they have not recited the 
benedictions in one city, and with regard to the other he is in doubt 
(whether they have sounded the comet or not, he must nevertheless 
go to the place where they are about to sound the comet.) 

** Just as the Reader of the Congregation is in Duty 
Bound (to Sound the Cornet) so too is Each Individual.** 
A Boraitha teaches: The schoolmen said to R. Gamliel, why accord- 
ing to your opinion should the congregation pray ? Answered he: 
In order to enable the Reader of the congregation to arrange his 
prayer. Said R. Gamliel to them: But why, according to your 
opinion, should the Reader pray ? Answered they: In order to en- 
able those who are not expert, to fulfill the requirements of the law. 
Just as he enables those who are not expert, said he, so too he causes 
those who are expert, to fulfill the requirements of the law. R. Bar 
b. 'Hana said in the name of R. Jo'hanan: The sages accept the 
opinion of R. Gamliel; but Rabh says there is still a dispute between 
them; could (the same) R. Jo'hanan say this? Have we not heard 
that R. *Hana of Sepphoris said in the name of R. Jo'hanan: The 
mle is according to R. Gamliel: from these words (** the rule is ac- 
cording to R. Gamliel **) we see that there must have been some that 
disputed with him ! Says R. Na'hman b. Isaac: It is perfectly clear; 
by the words, ** the sages accept the opinion of R. Gamliel," R. 
Meir is meant, and the rule arrived at through those who disputed 
with him (was arrived at) through other Rabbis; for a Boraitha 
teaches: R. Meir holds that with regard to the benedictions 
of New Year's Day and the Day of Atonement, the Reader can act 
for the congregation; but the other Rabbis say: Just as the Reader is 
in duty bound, so too is each individual. Why, only for these bene- 
dictions (and no others) ? Shall I say it is because of the many 
Biblical selections used? Does not R. 'Hannanel say in the name 
of Rabh: As soon as one has said (the passages beginning with) the 
words, ** And in thy law it is written," he need say no more? It is 
because there are many (more and longer) benedictions (than usual). 
We have also learnt, R. Joshua b. Levi says: Both the private indi- 
vidual and the congregation as soon as they say ( the passages begin- 
ning) with the words, **And in thy law it is written," need say no 
more. R. Elazar says: A man should always first prepare himself 
for prayer and then pray; concerning this R. Abba says: The remarks 
of R. Elazar clearly apply to the benedictions of New Year's Day 
and the Day of Atonement, and to the various holidays, but not to 
the whole year. It is not so: for did not R. Judah prepare himself 



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66 

(even on a week day) before his prayers and then oflfer them ? R. 
Judah was an exception, for since he prayed only once in thirty 
days, it was like a Holiday. When Rabhin came (from Palestine) 
he said that R. Jacob b. Idi said in the name of R. Sinion the pious: 
R. Gamliel did not excuse from public service any but field-laborers ! 
What is the difference (between them and others)? They would be 
forced to lose their work (if they went to a synagogue) but people 
in a city must go (to the House of Ptayer). 



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oma ,vrr2 ,crSrno i^ss no? .cr.'z*? oSm nov 123 sec' pypinn Ssk -S' d«i mrjr 
nsSm .a"i 3'Mn nitrn ty«i Str mDi:2 iS ,d^":id ^«d .mm ntn ^pbnzv nns ,a^»3n 
,p2i .;npiSi02 no;;i SSso jroiraT -n; hnrr^i ]2^d nsS.i ;:nv 'i ^o«pT ,';^'-ct SSdd 
m2n3Ti nvaSbi nn^ n^rn rrsi ^rrian kd^kt ,»Hnp ♦cf^sn .ona pn c^oann istr 
^03 -am nixo: I'asS znpii ntr;*: n;:«ir po loi'rs ,2^T)2 -^minai id»c» p»3 »nnnB*i 

nno HMc* ^rnSnS pnSra .nnv^o ,D»pns hv^ .\nz rx»p2 S^n ]^«i m^'ooi msnsi 
■n:^*r\ c'«i hddd nS xp^Soi 31D dv iSy pin 



pinn -iTys ,,y'sb n"3nn nnx n"-i 's nr Disnn n^ra nna:: 
^:2r p ,n:irK-in nx -naib** nnob irsi\r D\rsi •]!?-[ di«S 
.JDK •nsnnxn xnsDttn ns -n»jSi nnD^ 



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."'y^ntrn tnna/, ')Dii' nioSn v p^jo njirn L'^^ia ;^avn Ki)K "b rKV*''")Di5r n^nyri// 
cnnn nijmn ba ^n^c:^ rrae^n cnna ^n noi /''^yarn cnna^ ^n pxB' (.T^) 
rnar pnnc' ,njn")n -^bik* n-iaynv ^"n ?K6trtr^B' i>r C'Sc'i> poo .nta nt ^jrae^n 
(» 12102) «om ,-iDTo» tr"n ni) ti^^d «:n ^xni .''ddS n'»n^ njmn Dv ,njrnn 
"jDn nrpn ioi« nnx ; now "3^3 nxmni novy oea ny^pn "nyiin Dnypnv, 
1D1X x^nsra V XM nnx nyiim n)r^>n kS« ij''« ^k ^novy ^ODi nyinni novy 
nyi")m novy 'jsa ny^pn -low '»in "lynn kS lypnn i>npn n« ^^npnnv (or) 
P'3D^ /'nynn onypnv (as*) '^^^b nv:)Sn ? n^:si) noirDcr p^j»^ ; novy ^3D3 
■•aT b^ i:3 i)«yoc^ ^di /lypn^ nyi-in/, (oi?) -^oi^ iiobn ? nnn«b noirDc* 
b'Ti pKB^ ,''n"'jjr nynn onypni^ "idik Kin nn ^nv i3''k noix xpm p pnv 
n^OB^ nrpn xnn nyiin -lOK^tr Dipo ^db^ ,3K n^n nt v n^:^ b'^n nt?i ,n''3B' 
niyi-in c'^tn ; c^^at^ nyi-in nyi-^n ^jti ? p^jo n^-in ,-)3"ioa Kb« ^b p« ; nt> 
(HD >npn) /'nyi-^n uv„ oa i-ia) /ny^-in piar pn3tr,f (« »i?n) n*^3 inoxj 
B'tri niy^-^n ': ptd:> irvo /nnxi nnx !?3b niy^n "nc /'nyiin neiB' m3ynv 
,nyi-»n .onac' e^B' /nypn : nops in3>e ''3T ppn^« .n^-is noKj niy^n 
T3yb n:i ^mj: ^xi ,nypni nyi-in nypn Tivb b'h' 'h^b' "x i itraa no .nypn 
ypn .S^b^ ''Sb" "K ,nji ^m:i ^k : n^b kpddd ? nypni 0^30^ ne^cr ny^-^n 
r\\v^ V^n2 niypn ycrn (:1^) yoc' pnv i^n •o'^nco n'jc»3 ie*oi n3icrN-i3 
D1K ^^3 'DO ,NV^ DV3 n^v^ vcr\2 mypn yrn ycr /"Dn ^oj K^^n kv^ Dr3 
pTi .ibi3 Dvn bs ib^D«i .p:n^D3 i>D«i KV^ nto nynni nro ny^pn insD 
n^T b^ ni3-i3i nirpn ,n nK it ni33yo p« ni3-i3 ,n n« it nnsyo p« niy^pn 
KoytD .ypini ynoi ypin -iDitr 'b n:Dn3 3''n«i ii^3r ^o .nissyr: s^'n'' btn 
nDn3 'MDH )7ih yoB^ ^3 ,Nip^yo idie' n^S mn «n ,«-ip^yo iDitr n^b nin kSi 
•"•b ypn ,i? KJTno o n'-yocrb n^b "los /^^ibvb dp b«ior 13 kdd 3-1 onb yor 
bv }yoiB' /tJ^iK' wntra ^sn ^d} «^3n n^y i3n3 Kb« nox xb rxa") n^ lox 
;yoi5r Ty -lana k^b^ b3« .i^y ^3n3 Dnio« Dn3n noa : n')3-i3 -no byi iiDn 
nun p« n"»'3 Kbt? i^nn ; )b ypin n^an ,ypn xbr n*nn ; noia itd ?y 
pypin nnK3 nn^-^y '•nc^ ? ivo ; paiaon p inr pypin3 nivoi ; vby i"»a'^ 
Kn iKCB^D pa-iaoB' Dipo? ibin pKi ^pypine' Dipob pabin ,p3ia» nn«3i 
-^nv n^bcrcr DBo .pDo «ni ^ki) Km i^'yjn ,Kanv «b ? i^aiT Kn xn^nixi 

nsinn di»3 ,SA» iSi'** .p»mn»3i: lonKor o^nn 1*113 iiSo naun dixd ,"132 *m :5 
Din nioipo naas iS 2n3 »m poiS n»Sn p^i? .mS m ]oi»3 onvp mSip p-o^ 
.iHK Sip ni::?n voBfo noirs ,ni3vm .-*n3 onicsn m« Hsni mn 'y^zwn cnrc omcsn 
n*3cS nswD nam pao /trSc rSr .o^n^s H3»n3 nynm spti n^nn nisyn nn ,n»2:rn 
S"n ?Kin nncitrSl »in nijnsTSi mn nvsSaS :^2on »nSn lanz;* y»o«2 'Tiini rpiniAi 
n^2th nsijro Hnni? piioo .nnnKS 7^u^vs^ n^acS nmrc in** S3S f^iD'*} HnSn ,n:nin 
k'jk ,^:>H IK .nvnn pypin vn p^m H>n mn Ko^n hSi ,'i3 tto't; »3E2 .nnn»S 'Bitrsi 
v;pnn m:?D03T SSso i>*nn hSi lypnn low mnrs .nyivi pypin vn p'rii K»n nn» 
ioxi23r ,notr V'n pKtr .n>*iin nm ,on;*pm .rt^pn nS np hS nviim losp lynm 
n^3P ny»pn »nn *Kin rvan hd^itb onypni iok nn »3 »3iSb nana y3:i npin Dn;*pni 
nyrn ^my^n jrtrn .innin 12^1 ,n»S «pcD3 .n:*nnS n»2tr ny^pn orypn ia»p oni .nS 



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T2-I pTS Hjirn C?K*I -^'^ c^' 



:M 



{1 Di^2i) ^n^3i?D nj^« 1DW min^ "i ,^di"' 't nan ,ni3^ "thk 'n ^y7lh^ 'n 
; ^DV "1 nm ,noi>D /"Tiy r« DM^«n Kin 'n ^a ^m:) ^k nuK'ni Dvn nyT-v 
niy r« DMb«n Kin 'n ^a njn^ n^K^n nnK„ (ow) nia^JD n:^K ,idik mm'' 'i 
-JD^ naiyn '''jno .no^o n:^K ^dik min^ ^di ; "dv 'n nan ,nia^ /na^o 
^kd '03 -i^bnn nx KipD pc^Kin ^^nr nye^ai /V^pno ^:irn n"-! ^C' iD*^a na^nn 
^^K n"i bcr iDicr '^JDD .i:tr nia^n ntn: nytra pnv i''k ?y^pno ^ic' Kic» 
2"v pan Kt)i ,ii>^Ka p^y nb ,bin hk v>y rnpDO tki ,Dinnn nK v^y |n*3y» 
fa ,nu5r Die*o Kinr lana pa inix panin pto ,D''Dn ""jb ^y poir k^i ^nona 
paayo pK .jn^ /p^ ik d^d lain^ jn^^ nvn dk baK ; ncryn «b Di;rtD kihb^ -laia 
3;Dirm ,kv^ k^ poynoni ,no!?"'::' ny tnoy ppoyno ^aK ,]n\>rho mponn hk 
ncry pKi ,ncryn kS nc»y D"n ,wn ncj^y nsic' ? d''d D3 .kv^ Ki> poynon p 
c^c': Kn .yipn!?o nipirnn nK paayo pK (J^) .ncryi niryn t6 nK nnn 
V D'"»a v'^prhiD mpij^nn pk kS D^cr^n hk k^ paayo pK : x^jnm ? paayo 
.men niaoiD d*co noxn ,pytDr '•an ^or ^an Kn rnmn" n kh ,p*b ,^^a« idk 
ib'LKnt:>tr ny jna ppoyno /H^jh .nac*a i^^dk iTyi>K '•an iok ."nc^^r -iy,, 
«in Kaiay .y\c ova noi^ inv pxi /nae^a yipni>D nipirnn paayo pKi ,naL^a 
^^"•inr |opa (:J^j }Ka K'trp Ki> ? "lypn jrioK xb n^''nnab Kn ^paayo t&\ 
^rSc' B'^cr i^c' t:6c^ mypn mo '^jno -iiimi) r:n nbi:^ p^a |Ka n^^'"^ 
n^'-jcra icroi n^ic^Kia ypn .nua^ ':a nynn niy^c^ ,niynn c'^tra nrpn "»iy^B^ 
3;pini yn»i ypin ,iDie' ^b nj»n: na inKi Ti^ac* "d .nn« Ki»K n^a pK D^nK'a 
:-iDiK bK^inD:i pi .a'^^n T'n^i Tm ^a la ^a^^n nn^v n'-^c^c' DC'a .D^Dys 'j 
-iDK ?nynn3 ny^pn Tiyc' K'':nni 'D3 .}nain n^ D''a-in pk k^vid "iia^v n^^c* 
*<P K-ia K:n ; ua inbian niynni ^aa in^an niy^pn a^c'n xp p^i wn ,^^aK 
ntrSc^a nyiin "iiy^B^ Konni .n)aa^ 'ia nynn -ysv"^ .k^ mi ,Kaa nn a^crn 
"D3b n^n^ nynn dV/, (o3 12102) a^nan /"r^s ^nti Kna ^^^aK "idn ? onac* 
n^prjpbnmya,, (nn^2ijr) kid'^di n^DKa a^nai ,pa^ xn'' xaa" Dvpn:nn?:i 
-nsic'ar p'-iD ^pai i^n .S''i>'''SS^iaD-ioi ,n:} ^mji lao 10 /'n-id'd dk aa^ni 

VB21D n?cn S^Enon ,rpno '^>no .rmn2 d^Sipo y^ lOKpn nnin pa ;'2n8i oir;* iryz 
B*2*i« ^uip nn^an niu n::tr2 'D3 .2"b rs'i*^- pnams SSn h2^ nn2i ,SSnn .:;^pna 
,^£3102 :riprA nn>2;*n isS nnn«r rhtn ppS my» trw ^2 onS ]*2-)ik rm i^'pn* i6tr nw 
-Ksa ipnD Kp pnoK kS ,'12 o»o .njr^pn yiatrS DinnS pin iW ,mnnn nn '^jno 
ptnir y"oi noA ni'noci ^p^^yo cnra nn .in^2i3nS »y2T ,p22yD hVi mn nipM»n 'D3 
^i2^H K2^ mp inanofii y^rn «dS» mtn ni2DiD .B|»Din S2 k2»k »vpn >2i ^k'h KO-\a 
.r=3yo r^^B* b^'^si noS»ty in2 ppoyno ,i^vrh :rxnv pp .hoi:i lornir ntr;* rnmsS n^m 
n>»»pn ,trSc^ trSir *rtr rte» .nnnirS nn^i nianatS nnw nioSoS nnK /'o irSr '^^no 
naiB^ ,n3imn2 4<intr Ss «DSy2 mSp '^ ,ma2» trSr .nnio nnn SrS nppni nyivti 
n^nir c^ntrn^ n2 nin6 D»n»3 iro nyivin inw 'jir njj^pn ^n^^awa "tiwdi .np-tfin-'ae^ 
^niK hSk n»2 ]»K .nwi'on n^acStr noiiTBi nioSoi n^inKSr nowc it mc^ in^ 
.7^12*^2 nyen 1^21 i^toio nSsn SSenn ^■n»2r »o .p^poso k*? D»ntrS nnie n)?»pn 'pioDn 
^oKp om ,»22 inSi22 '03 jinew S'aa^ pi manat S»2r2 pi nioSo S»2JW ,D»oyB 'i 
NnSna mn nnvii nynnn -nre^a njr»pnn -n^r^r ,ie22 Kim .nipmn ':i2 mrpn ';i iir^ 

Sv U»^C k'? Httnil K30»piin a'TH /^^'^C *«11 Hn2 ♦OH 10H .ni22»D 0»211K ,Dn2tr .noR 

.22»n K2P^ *Kn ^03 2*n2 H'lO'si n'o»Kii »22^ H^iin ,i3'?:3-iroT .u*Sc KD»D ien2 ir.l2 



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r.-iry 13:3 "io« ^idv ai /-id^c* ypna im^i^n,, (2p c>Snn) ma rnDi lin ? im 
K13J ;nac' nn»Ko nitry 13:2 .icK pnv "3") /roa ntro^ \b noxx** nnairr 
,.-nmn p c^r : '•:np "D^n ,in^ K-'yyK -kv^ i^^dd trbcr tr^ir idk dk .D^^u^rt 
,KDi»n i« ?KTn m^':u «3''Ki ,yrn WT ,DU)n3n p trk^n ^D^K^a^n p tri^c;^ 
XD''«i ,^b^ inb p'^'^T /D^iinan p in«i ,D''K''a:n p nnxi ,nninn p inj^ 
mtryo ^nonar mu^yo ,nrD^o n-ic^yo pnniD p&< tx^am ^^^''n ?«3io VT'ra 
,-iDi« nij p pnv -31 .D-'y^pn nync' 1333 ^«v^ ,j^30 y3c^ "idh d«i rniiDic^ 
,a''3m3i D'K''33 niin n::3 ,«v^ }S3o cr^B^ nD« d«i ,y3trD ninD^ i6 nmDrr 
l^nv "3-13 njbn i>WDtr "id« wm 3i no« .d^^kik^i D'"iS o^^n 1^33 n^ now 
mm3 S^nnD ,ni3y-iiD ^b^ nneicn m:n3T ,T)v:hD p"3TD pj^ '•^ino .n^: p 
p33 nv3SD 'aa (:3b) .-Kr m^n3 D"^5rn d« ,")dik "DV m ; «"3:3 D"'?trD\ 
TiSdk n3iDC* non3) h^^id: yiiT3i ,nprn n"3 k^ dk 'n dkj ^:k "n,, (3 SnpTnO 
Nnn''i3n p^3 ,irpnD"S py n"3p nm''i? Knnn ^xn "3 ^3: pn: -i^'ki i^'yKi ''D3''>ir 
-ir3 ^3 -n3rV; (nr o'^^n) p:3 p-i3T ; iri3no kS Knt:' tr-13 «nn"i 'n^3T« iidjc 
TTP ^r p-i3r pT3ro p« .'wi ''ny3:3 isic lypn^ (n vcnn) pw noicr "131 "nort 
P33 ni:n3T3 jn nn ni^nps) ,'noy pv-»3 'n '•3i3r// (^p o>^nn) pi3 ,n3iiDS ib^axi 
n f"DV i'"! "D3n« ^mpD nipa^/ (^ mctr) p33i /mc' n« npe 'nv (»3 '»«wn) 
npD 'ni ,1113^3:3 p nn n^onpan "dj "nj "dv "3-1^^ .nii'n3T3 p-'K poix min^ 
^Kcv (^3 c^Sn) .«^n D^3i3 Hi^D D''3i ^NT p"3 ? KiH n^nn pnpB niB' nK 
^^Dv '■) n3n ,r^e^ n^^^cr ^D'Ticr ^D1t^•K"l "nSo nn3n i^d ny .'131 D3''r«i onytr 
i:3!?iD^ no? iiDT D^nSx nor,, (to dc) d-tie' n''":^^ ,nnK n3iE*«") ,n»i« min^ 'n 
picn ; nn« ,idin nnin" '1 : "dv '1 n3i /D^ntr "D"nb« pxn ^3 i^o "3 n»r 
13 K'":^» p-i3r .nn« «"nc:» "ii^np «D3 by 35:^" D"nf>« D"i: by d^h^k iSo3,r (or) 
,ni3nDrn oy n-i»i« /tt^n^p «-ipD nyi")n p-^3T ;m3B^ff (:i3 »np'0 P33 ,nyi^n 
m:n3rn oy kSk moiK irx poix min" 'n ;''or "1 n3T rnnDif^n oy niDi«t 
/'i3 iSd nyi")ni loy vn:^« 'n,, (33 1210) pw ,nyi-in loy ^♦^b' ni3biD ; 13^3 
i3"« ,ioi5< min^ 'n ; "DV '-I n3T /niiDiirn oy hid^ki nv3biDn oy niott 
Dv,, (03 ■^3^o:) pi3 ;DiS3 K^ Hoy pxc' nyiin .13^3 n)''3biDn oy n?« moiK 
n-iDiw ir« ,-iDiK nnin" "3") ;^dv ^31 nsn /jnnDiB'n oy n")tDi« ''03^ n^n'' nyi-rn 
D^be^n Djn ,n-iin3 D"bc*o toi« "Dv h ^N^ajs D^b^noi mina b^nno .')p^v ^3 
.niin3 nni« pD^b^no vn j^pTii ,^Dr "313 irybx ")"« on "oa K^^n -Kr ^"3:2 
'n„ :(33 cr) p^mn wn nbn nv3bD k^k «3id K3^« nnsK^i ni:n3T «o:»ca 
l^bo'' 'n„ ,(^^ mor) "-jSd piit:^3 ^n^n ,(i^ o-ian) «u ibo nrnni idv vhSk 
Skiit vtDBV (1 onsn) K:n KDin 31 iD« ? K3''bi -ic*y jrya p«i "lyi obiyS 

,KoSn w '03 .03^ inK »:k ]^wh mn ,03»r6« 'n ♦:« .nyivt pi3T »y»3Bfn onro 
,nnciirS tr^n ,man3TS rStn ,nv3SDS b^ip .>Kp nneiBn niansn noSoK '3 'jj '^rr 
,n3'D in:t o'sn 'D3 .o^ainsn p nnKi D^K^ran p nn.^i ."mnn p nnn inS nm 
i<S ,i33SdS not .K5*»:a'3 wh nrsn 1^0 r.t mn <a /cTir n'2P .nrpc K^nna 
i<D3 S;» 2c^ p*30 nhi 'w r^B^ .nnK noix S;» kS« n^nsf dk »Si mir.< ^21 rnrn Kp 
.«nn2 ititr 10TD1 IV Hin mcitr pcS wb njriin ,n:r3Tn c:? .nrSo pc^a icn:? 
.::^^33 iruo nS^nns trStr niinn ]3 ^rs'^n inS mm ,n'nn3 .d»T23 c^2ir.3ni ,c'k*23z c^rt2i 



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fQyiDcr^ «n«Di ,«cnK^ n:3^Di ,n:3^t) «'c;n«Di ^xt^nxt) n^n^oi (:Sbj ^n^Tf^ 
ribi3D npioy 'naiDi ,Kn3t:^ ^-iiqvtdi ,n^sv^ onytr nuDi fOnyr n^ab oyiDrDi 
iD«:tr ,m^3 ctk' "^din irySx "3^ .^nain ]nND n^sc'v Cos n^*;tr^) id«:c» 
"ly n^Ty p^^ TV n^'^sr^ n:S^Dr^ nnJC'D nnp dhd "acn"" nr*n >^„ (t3 Dt?j 
."^ac* "Dip iDyo "-ly^nn,, (iS ay) -id«:l*^ ^xr^ n^ny dctd) ,pnr 'i iok '^sy 
r«"i ^^'•DKr /KDT p pnv pi ppnn n^T niyi ,nnip p ynn'* 'i idx '''irs 
Knn'« «\nn '2J .lyiin Dipoi^ xi^x pb^n onyn in^ kS^ ,DipD ban jn n^s 

^33 p n^3 :?♦«-) ^^^D« pn p« xm : -io'dxS ^tJ*« 31 n^i^ -id« tn^'^^v xmriD 
cnnn nny loy^ ^i>''o '^n ,y« ? lynn Dipo^ «b« ps^in onyn in^ t6t* ,DipD 
an>hjD3 mi5yi>r«^ D'^^3 r« '"^"^ •"'^^^'^ ^'«^ J^^^ "^^y,, (23 ^btroj xsn ^3» 
,«cp KpiDT ^^m Kpi^D ^«m n'^ : T''3n rpnn:,'' ni:pn ye^no in« in /pnb 
133 ,N"3C'n iDX .irpS y3'n c^ns'*::' -|nv nrn tDT3 T'-injcr i: : x'-jm it«i 
31 :^^3:-n KSD 311 KHJi^D 'nT'W -n^pnn ''3DO ^n^a''3i pnv pi n^^y n:D: 
"no '''jno (.2^) .nmnr ^e' ptrS "idx pnv 13 ]om 3-1 ,''y3i D13 i»« kded 
ncmp ,ypin irxvpoy nr3:>D bb\^'\ .Dsrn nempi nnuii nn« ir:i« :ni3i3 
^D^^ns n3i3i nxiini r^\l^2v ioi«i /ypim nnaie^ ,ypini nunsr ,ypini Dvn 
? i^sTJD «in hdS ,nv3!^DS ypin ij^« d« : y'") iS "id« ; m: p pnv '1 n3n 
ni:n3r /ypim Dvn n:rnp oy nv3^o biris) ,Dcrnn'jmpi nni33i nn« idik kS« 
r^o /"i"n 'Si -D^jns n3"i3i nxiini mny loixi ,ypini piidic^ ,yinni 
pi3T pn3Kv (33 K^pn) ,3''n3i ,i»i« K'"! ? nnom ni:i-i3r nrs^o onoix::* 
,ni-iEiL'» i^« nynn ,ni:ii3r i^jk jnsr /Dvn nK»np nr pn3c:' "\yi\p Kipo nynn 
now ^b no ^:dd : N3^py ^31 1^ ton .hsnSd n'^c»y3 mtrnp emp K-ipio 
pi3r ^hsj^Sd n^''-j^y3 ^n^cnp pn3C' «^k ? n^^nn 3in3n nna 13l»* nur pn35r 
DnDi«5r p^:d .Dvn ncnip it \yl^? xipo ,nnDitr i^« nrim ,m:n3r ib« 
••D)^ '-I ; ni3^o IT ''Tnt^n cnn3i OTnb^ 'n ^JX;, (dc) -idix '•3-1 H^^n ? nva^o 
"D3''n^K ^JD^ P"»3T^ DsSvnv, f; 12102) iDi« Kin nn ,yi^ ^m idik nnin^ 13 
.nunsT 13 lOKrj' Dipo bS 3^^ n:3 nT ? V'n noi ^Ds^n^^K 'n ":{< V'n pxt' 
ni'jw /HunsT nic'yo ^nrsSo nTj^yo pnniD px '^ino .poy nvs^o vn^ 
nv3^»mc^ '':n 'ai -kv^ j^idd '3 'i id« d« r.?:)iK mj p pnv -31 , niiDic* 

'K31D D'-SSn .D^^n "IDD3 111 IDNr D'-Sl^M m'J*y 13:3 Ul IDK ?^D 1333 

■•'T 1 
.rua^^ HttnKO i-iTm ,Sk»Sd3 T21 »o»2 kitik ,T3m> 12*1 »o<2 n:2> .^cnK^ n:2*3T .or 128^1 
^^SiDD npioy «n33i .nn »2i »o^2 ]h\^ nnzoi ms^xi on^tr n>2 ,)'yyn wn ^lyoc pi '0^21 
piK ly n^n nS»cr» nn n:S<£B^^ «in ni?n ,nf3 trc^ .i73b^ m^'^on Sro th vn whtu 
.D1-0S xSk '^jno .ncySi p» ly n:'?'£r» *io^oS *voi rs* ley i;» ntron n::r*3» y:i« 
.T^noo npK oif ,3''«i .nnotr natr ,8n'nc 'D3 ♦T'2 itk-i hSs imirrp* Tmnioi ,i;nn 
HT^'v^ ryzv So'3 2SiS nn^ci ]*yi in in^r ppnn '*:noi c'om »Hn «in ^spiT ^nm n^ir 
Nim .ivnn cipoS nSk i^aS^n ony in» nScn avn Sd pS2po m^ri nD« iSia n^n ov 
p im i:n »:;n w^mi Sptr ,y2n .12^2 nirni p-^a Sv kSk T^SSno in» wSc ,Kop »pm 
nm23i m2K '^3nD .i32np»i u^d>2 tripon n*2 n32» kdb^ 13\-;S y2n triD* isSm ,]p 'Oi 
2in2n 12 nns n-iir 'rD3 .i?Str srSr Sr mv'pn v'^vz nivoi /o ypim ovn nrnpi 'o 
n»S -;'d::i 2n::n n'S »::r':«i ,c2r^s 'n "zsi .np»v x^nr naxSen Sv "iMinS s<2 Hini ,nSnr 



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rnnn D"n3 3-)nrD -wmp inoSi cnip Dvn 1nl^5 pm: »n'v-D^^ nn:on ;d d^'^xt 
D^iSn iSpyp S1pS^'5 n»j 't:i .ovn bj cnnn nny r^^po in e* "ndt p pnv p-> 
nny pSipo in^ xS'J* irpnn :^rh ^:r\ pis nna nan^^ «-in "\ S"k '^tc*2 
nrc' "loiS on'DDJi psDiDi pT-on anpni? Dva nine* «n^cr na x^x t^inn 
V nnois vn nr: prxin :7'"i di^d -»tDix min* '•ai «*:n (.xS •nn'-L'^n >cS'w*^ 
no "rj'n ;'i?D^'iy3 O'-yjn n:pm n:p*j' di" Sy 'Mxii?Di ^nxn 'n\, (ns o^^nnf 
; jn S:; iSoi vryo pyn:j» d'j» ^y "ixd S^inoi 'n Sh^a, (n:: oc). ? onoix vn: 
in'^Dna ]*-ix ni?*rj* d*j* ^y "t^x nnya nv: D^n^x,, (ic ar) : onoix vn ^e^^Sri 
n?:)n xiar L*'"y "'n niDp: ^«,, h^f co :Dnr:ix vn "y^nm :imyi) Snn pn^ 
"i:ny D nSxS i:^:"in„ iks dc^) rDnoix vn ^trvcnn ;;nnniytD y"iD^!? n^nyi n^nh 
iSd 'n„ cj:; DC) : Q^^D X vn ^L''c*a ; iDrS nnr'i' D^m niDiy xincr dc* ^y 
(:v DC) :DnD X vn ^y^rja : jn'-Sy i^Di inDs^o -iDic* or Sy "u-3> nixi 
pSnS D'-ODH ixn no ,n^rDn: 'i nD« -nne* iS du* dv^ /'nnc^n Dvi? tl** ni?0TO«- 
3-1 -losi ,i^rcp 2112 ^j^s'Dpi ;n3rr or* ^y v'^cr^a k^jk ? iSSn D'-p-iDn t''2 
Dvn nnb '^' niKOV; {:i nviyi) -idx:c* ,3nn nm ^Dt^y ^in ^:c:» "l^n xn^r xrtDf> 
no xna'^n '•DDion .^'d^dvo ir''n\, d vcn) ncx^c nnn nn irDX ^^nx /«inn 
-iDX X31 "13 pn 3"! iDXi ."iS V'-Tn ,31 iDX X31 13 py 31 "iDX ? Dnoix vn 
?DnDi« vn no «n35n xnn:D3 .no^Dn n^33 ppi^n id |xd D'-piSnc:* ttid ,3"^ 
xn3r nn3 m^n ^:n ,^n^ h^v2'^ ."v-k*^ rxi ,']r22 "di ,-1"^^^ rx ,pnv 'i -idx 
ny ^ov n"x X':m ,yo::* xn ? nn n^x xn3ri xn3L'* Sd xoisn ix Arh -idx 
nox xn3En xn3{r ^d n:^D yoc' /D^hl*' ninn n^^x'' ,nnx moix n:vj»x"inr 
^xipD ,nrDc» nyoi niyoD it:*y ,pnv n'^x n^x 13 min^ 21 nox .nro yor nn 
D'SnT'oi ,D^^'jn-i'S nvi^RDi nvi^nS ^nn^n nDu**^o .xnoao ,pinn:D nnSi p^^^^ 

nno DH*; ".xin^ XDr cn^p iz Mnz nvirm oniry ^^^S racncr^n \^p n:trn cn-'z /Cnip 
ony 1W2 D«i ,m:on ny ovn Ss "i^dS pi 8*.n c"> S'S r.?n n^^Sntr n^*s:i tz imcipn 
nSyoS: n-!2on p d«i ,mp iz ijjna nc^c vn:i cnnn rn o'lrnp ;n n»2 nn^an Dnip 
D^'^Di:! 2"D:r« inoS imcip^i h^hn nn nzyn orn icipS ;m« l^spa t^s i^kc e'^yN iwi 
DIM S3 rax^D 12 wy*i nnzn nscS n<2 ^SitStS 'nx K^-^n n:«So2 iid»i ncmp^ iniit 
,inS un pi2 'Di .Sin 12 i33n:i i:iTn nSych nmon pi D:n cnip 12 i:;5n2 npncH naxn 
D*oir ,n5pc . iiDTon S2 ,pKn 'nS .Sin Sc i^tr no»ir nr^S* nioor it Kfi»n2 onS riiT 
D^avSy p3 y»p*i ^i2n ,viyyo pSMC .mspnS n2 n:ip naiSs ns >2iri>S S2n ^napm .pKt 
pioKa D^a> ntrc Ssc ,iSSn nvcnsn ]^2 pSnS yi n«n no .01102 2m nSyn:i '»:innnS 
n>S n»Q-: 'i ,»:n:p 2112 uSco Kpi .«2nS Dir Sy n2C Sin isyc otr Sy iSSn o^pncrr 
i3*Tsn ni'tr ncns ,-i"S vnn .no« tb* *»*3 ,Kn2trT ^£01:22 .>»2«t hS« ^srop 2m n^'r 
,pj<:n 'n »ti ,pH »ni02 Sy in20T ,dSi;* ni?:» 112? ^lannn ro^pis ntryS nnw D»pSirr 
n*22 vpSin IS .^xsnxTn n^cn ^pi^s ^rp^^^nr -ins .loy 'n p-i* o ,^^^H 2*i« d;*2 riV 
niiBf p*tr» T« .^SnSi m^cn p «nip 'im niin idd2 ]>Kiipn nirc oniK j^«iip ";2 ,nD32n 
110K »n2ir in2 .•*ih2 'Syn SKitr» ^i^c^ tki .m»tyn s)id ny ,nDioD >oi .nsiQs *» ny d\t 
t^cDion ni»ir ,n3iir«inc ny .-in» pis nrn nztyS pisi piD S2 ,HoSn i« .o^iSn ^inS- 
^pi*B n^ir onm ,D»nc ninn . D^ziyn i^on bv nn:Dn ni*c» ,n'<2r .nn« oyt nS^S.i ninrr 
n**Ki D1C3 '12 niyDO icy .dSo pi n»*:c r2C2 1121 .nnn n2C2 i2n«n iwriSn X2ni 
•iK'jnrs ayo oyr:^ Sxic^ *"vd pKirnS ,n:^2c nyo: ,Hrn nS op: n:2» Sc fii5pn2 '*2nD 
r!*2n in2 onS iiry nv:n ,rv:rS r>T;n r.2rSo .r^Hip^ ^d»3i inS *m 101S2 ,*xipD> 



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N^ Sax .rypin vn cnpon ,naca nrnS Sn::* n:\:*n rxi Sc* 2Vi 2V 
Dipo ^33 pypin VT'C' ^''XDT p pnr p-i t'pnn cnpon n^a a-incD , nrnon 
; naSa n:3'»3 k^« /'•kdt ^n pnv p-i ppnn ?eS nrypx ^m -id« .p n^a n t:*^C' 
nn^n^ D^kn-i" nn%i n«r lyJ^ .p n^a n cr^r Dipo i^a nn«i n:T ins iS nox 
vn K> nj3^ai .pyD^n «uS nSo^i nnnpi nyoi;ri nxn x^nr i^y Sac* ,nDa' Sy 
^nnnD ,n'a -iim «in pai «an -i»s ? o^njo '2J .na^n ri n^33 kS« ^pyp^n 
ijSid'' «Dtr mnj nDic* ny^pnn r«'p3 San pwi ,iDir nrpnn pT-'n San nn-i -idnt 
li^^ni ,aSiSn K^Dya ij'mi .n"i3 nnx 't m^nyi ,nioSS "pan Sv« iS^i ,n"a 
Dye ,pa-i i:n .'ia ^xar p pnr pi I'-pnn cnpon n^a a"int:*D .nS^im xoyo 
"jaS "K3T p pnv p-i DnS id« .pojano D'»^yn Sa vni ,nara nvnS n^i Sn nn« 
nrDKiypnc' -inxS ;}n: a"n«i ypnj :DnS "lox ; pi: nS "no« ;ypn: inrna 
iS 11DS .nryo nnxS pa^cio pxi ^n^a^a pp ny»c:*j laa : onS i»k ,pi3 : iS 
"pisxS »pi n^a ^:aa (..^) .x^in ai lox .T'a la c^'-l*' Dipo Sa nnxi nja^ inx 
xn'-Sr D^^DD r]^7^ ^a noK ^d^' "»3 pnv an xnx •a ,xni vxSi pi n^a "^sa xSr 
vn T'a "jaa ? "xrnn xny^pno n'-jix Sp c:»rx yotr «S .nn^a ny^pn x-iia^vr 
."lai n^a" Sy n^n^ .patrv r'2^ lor Sa xSx pypin p« 'ai now ^'•d: idh^k .pypm 
pin narvS did nanp nnn c'xia nat:*vS dil nyoic ,Sn3a nac^n^S tDiD nxn 
trnpoa So^: aSiSn n'^n n:ir«ia '^intT .xinjnS p^DDoSDiBXiaSnSia'-i.Dinnt) 
aSiS xn^c* "xar p pm^ p-i ppnn c^ipon n'-a ain::iD ,nnx dv njnrDai ,nyar 
-laTivnarr iSjdi '03 -iiox iSia^iin dv xn^n /cnpoS lar nyai'* nrnroa Sd^j 
"3 M Dxj iXD-ix ^wa!:D^ iS nanx nSyx "a,, (•' n^o-^O xip irDxn ? LnpoS 
i^ia 5|3n DV xn^c'i .nc^m x^yai SSar) "nS px criin x^n p*v iS ixip nm: 
,niox min'» ^an nD'^2 {:b) "xar p }:m^ p-i pnv la }Dn3 ai idx .-iidx 
"oi .S^aa lyi ny laop^ ,dv Sc* lovy iv "nrn ovn Dvy ny,. hd h\.^) -idxt 
i:nv p-i ppnn cnpon n^a ainc^o ,pn"r y n'-Sy rSa j^Sbo xni n'-nn nS lao 
a^nai ,"»idx xin ni^nn p xSni ^min" i''x niDX iSia sj^n dv xn^c' '•xa? p 
••xar p pnv p-i lao ^n'^x :^yo xpi xin min^ 'i Dnn v nrn Dvn ovy ny 
cm ,ppnn ^xd ? "^np ppnn xni .loxp xn'^nixno ,xm xSi ,iDxp pane 
onynmnr^nnx Dys ,DvnSa r'nn nny pSapo vn nDVj»x"ia '''jniS .ppnm 
^xa DX1 ,nn:Dn ny xSx pSaptD in^ xSr irpnn ,-i^c*a D'-iSn iSpSpn:i xiaSo 



,vo^2 nVii:i ]'-^nniC dc nr^nc ,n3:»i «Sk .yh^2iz «S a^Sm^s k^ .nanos »h hzn 
riv ry^^.rz r.i*r^ nr»:ir mi;»2 ,o»S!ni» nr.'n rm ii^n .piina^ nn^:itr mpo ?22 pi 
T m .tr-;;:D2 pn'iT mntr "in^^ pxn in:! «S cnpori ,'oi i3Sd> »oir m*T:i 'Di .n:2^ Sy 
p i*S^:n vr>\ff *cS n n»3 >m^tm n^pn yictrS DtrS ,oo33no .nar ma^noof ,onjrn Sa 
1^1 .13^?;^ *<::» jn n^a oipoi p.k -^itjiS c' aH.,:n: .vn inn ^hMi ,nTm >:2 .o^Scnn^a 
]*K .8:in :i3 ,<d: i::n*K .^:*3y;* S;» o^yia T;rS »»s^3y »in ^k:;« ^n-yo m<S ps^iro 
.i»vn Sn ]7pin p;»pinm pip:^: r^cn* t'2C» pr^ hS« ,Siv3 amoon uv2 cn»n> ,rypin 
in nostra .ir.^o n*T» TKni?o Kn^msnoi ,tnrn p Sia«S ncn iSianoiyntanovKn^cn'^jno 
»3 wn laiSs ,iSKp ]:2mD .SS32 lyi ly iiapn n?n ]OTn ovn Sa nc» niinn p loxi ,ni2« 
v"in:*ty rpr.ni Knro-t onS tm ,]*prm tsm .n32* hobh S*ySi oyo »inn dico vS;» iwS 
Dvnr'! J r\tr:r. '^:n^ .-^t^ -^sir^r ^e!;»n ri^tro -^m in^n .T.-r virav lytr ^cS ,ii!:\*< 



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.SDH xm "-)ann bj i^oin n'^,, ii cri y'n "v DD^iv ^jv uD''nu>; •n^^x 'n„ 
.n:^)D ^V2 «S nxvS ,^21 ion v nayn '•inpi ,n':cr n^^ may n^^ in:n jvd 
,n>i;Dr^ ^5-ln '3i n'-s -ids .n:ia ^yn irora nSl'* ,n:>iD ^ya nS i:*^Tn "iu:S 
yorj* N':m ,5<M \><M •(» n^iiD vn r*Dr3 n::^p n»dSn ,^S ypni pirN (.t^r^ 
T'iT3 Sdn ,".13** n*yj'3 ^"13 f^D." "i"x ;iD-n ^£jS to-'d ^'0^*31 /V3v;p yoic 
n" nro Dn"* i'j*xd n^nv, (t' m^r) '^ji12 -rorDi vdvj* piDirr ny n*v^ xS 
"i!DiS xSx V nonSo nnaiL** in n:DnS'D hvjny n-j'o i^r vi^ ^di 'ui "^N"ir^ 133^ 

-•S nry,, («3 12-502) "irDiN n.iN nana N;va ; n^bz^: vn ixn dsi ,Dna3nD vn 
c*n: IN n-OD c*n3 "ai ""m imx nxni t r:n ^a n^ni d: ^y ims D^i:n cj-ic 
Dn^axS Dat» nx pnavcrji nS^o ^aSa pS^noo SNnr^r irDta nSn v h'-hd 
riN ps'-viD pN }Dpi ntDitr* /L'nn -d^p^d: vn ,inS dni ,pNDnnr: vn ^Dv^cacr* 
n^ Q^ain nN n^vid irN ,nma a^^no i:^Nr i^D : SSan nr .pain n"* D^ann 
Dn3:;i Dni ,D^i5NnL**'^ u''^h^ D^:nD .nsvj* nrpna pa'-^n San p'^n '^i :jnain 
N^viraiVN DVJo^tD ,p"iin p vvni nay vvnr ^d .Dir^nnjNi diddidi onnmro 
^j'-Ni'* nN nS SaN or.o nx n^tid Di:^inn:N .i:nD o^Nr pn nS irrD nx kS 
^:n *N I NtD^c:*3 .D^SNnL**'»i D^nS D'^na :nsir ny^pna pa'-^n San pD noN .ij'd 
n^L:* ,pni S^Nin n^dn n"D ,n''S Na''n::v^N D^:na v ^a^'-n^o jnd fU'-^mo nS 
,n:i**n e*Nnn mvoa n'n\>« ,Savn mv?aa n^n-'Nn ;nd ,nianaSi nypnS n"nS Savn 
? U'-n'-n nS njcn t:*Nnn mv»Da no^n ,b2Vi nvoa injn^Si S^Nin D^:na ^:m 
]nn ,N^viD NV^'j* D"yN ,;Sia nianan Sa : xnn ^ann nna nanx ^:n J b''i2p 
,Nan ^ya -x^v^d >rx xv^ dxi ,h'^d ht xS dxc* ,p^n nanai onSn nanao 
,N'n nainn p^a vin» Dvn \:*n'p S'J* p^n nanai nvD Sr onSn nana (:tt2) 
nn ^a inn ^a /w**x an noxn ^y^e* xn v x'-n nain ixS nana ^xoSn ix .p-sra 
Dns" xS ,pan ^:n .inS c^np?a nin xnano n^onx ^nx nin ^ai ^jS cnpo nin "dd 
"na ,)n^a ':aSi v:aS xin oniD Sax .ontry Saix p dn xSx »pnnixS none Dnx 
.X'viD xv^L" "D Sy 5)x nS'-^oai SSnai , mvr:a p:nS 



'"'c n 
,:'»Sv i2iy ps nxo V r^'cin S2 oiiro niiy nntr ,npS* .nn^a mirS n^s* ^naoz ^a'oca 
nyjr S;* nyr ik o^a^ S;* cv nsDin ^2N sSiSn p:>» rtrcn p;j2 ]:dt2 k'jh r]>Din San 
)n:ii3 V- ro:ro /nnin n' uK^^nS *ob'2 yipn'? pisnn ,»S ;'pni po'K .:)»aiD nt p» 
;^i:um3H^ Dit3D^t2i ,«S p'lnmtrD p»Hir Srw ,pnnmtro ann^n 'dj .yoitrn »^s^nS 
m vpin Nor ,imoa nicDia ,w*o n« .irtr nn>n nx oiro ,n2>» vxnc *d .h^h nsT «Dir 
nn^i* nv ^nn sSi /o nny vvnc >o .^moa Di:>;!nn:N ,i3^o k'Xio .nsr n»2m nzp 
nT2 HT ]^2n;* S«nr^ Sa nnc ,h>viq HS^y »2 'rv ^** .vo^bh nn»n ns'? pcci y^Dtron 
.^212 hS2 ntn cSiyn p nnn^S niDKc «Sh n2in p^Ktr ,]^\m cnSn n2n20 pin .mvoS 
,1-0 .enTp »32S ]O'i20B' ,]'^7^ n2n2i .H^xion n^asS lonnoc nso n?o« *?jr ,cnSn nana 
.r%n n2i2i K^xion n2'i2 n'tk ,p^coi inao nnnn ^S V2»n hS '?i«nB*» enpei nxo nSo« Sy 
Hi'o nSir» rtt^n niim po v »«d nsnn 'y2i oyooS in^^:>o nnS n^S 2^n> «Sn ncT« ^xn 
c^xc w^nx mxoS nam i«S nxsnn n3i2 ,«DSn w .vSy nzin cvn v^vp pi vSy nam 
.Dn^Sy n^in n^'xir N»sion na-12 ,':n2^ hS .r.;m: 8*n rv:nn S22 
.]n no ^nixn iSy pnn 



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,SiDQ iDixS piD3 ; TJ'J ixi5 D«i ,^^Dti HM*;* ni03D iSp n:n'jo D« pnno 
V nrpn iirr noDi ; ^idd ixt^ dxi n::*2 nrpn "iirc» 13 i^T^y: d« lannS 
-inv i« nay ix pi ipip n'-n ; jjor^i ;«d^ nx"i^i n'»3 i^rnx'^cr na ,a"3en b^-i-'d 
.KV^ n ypm ^mp : ^jxidb'i n)2t6 n^h )nSr .laicra jn^cra nii>ipn pdc:» ;-i:;>3 
«D^m ino ,^nnDn imp::' "c^.x m loj^ I inS imp mp^D ^d: in^o ! Nostra 
K> /«jin 31 iDX .nnn ^inS in "lun iin^ ypinn ! yop v j'vin irD3 fD 
^^Dcr (.n2) .iN^" 1133 poiyn iniN S3N /lun nse' by onDiyn inixi» k^x irj* 
Diip nrpn nvpo ; nv ,-ii3n riDir bv nrpn nvpoi ,1133 nrpn nvpo 
n^S -iDN .«v^ n^ rin'j^n iioy n^y^K^ -in«^ nypn nvpoi rinrn nioy nSy^tr 
nSiD K:^y3 ^D3 N3n ? «3''^i «3vn3 Hy^H nS3 Nry3T ,Dnn «:::» ^so /u« 
113 N3n hbj Nin N3rn pr in!? n!?""^ onn ! kjik^h ^3.1 ? xs^t'i N3vn3 ny^n 
«^3 ny^pn ^^o yor : n3i i3di id^d^ .1133 pioiyn inixi) Kin N3vn Dipo 
ypn I c:*"n ? nv'' ny^pn ^id nS3 ny^pn nS^nn KyoDi /NV^ ny^pn rh'nn 
v^nin3 nS p5:>Dn.''KDNi ,nnN n^k it3 px ,o^n*c*D iT^rj*3 i^^i n:irsi3 
:;ipn!? iniD /ii^3nD nH:r] iiion ,N3i ion -irpoD n^ "iino Nny^pn ^piDS 
^0X1 .niv» :)C' r\v^pr\ 13 yipn^ iniD /iDie'D Dii^n ninn ; nivD ^c:» ny^pn ii) 
r)iD''3 K^ ^3N ^D^DC^an niD^3 riNon ^o vi?y nro ,iiuno iiNjn nion ,n3i 
Nb t>3N ,D^»crjn niD^3 ,nivo bz* nb^iD 13 i)3iD .pyoo n^:n iiion .nbnn 
T'n V }ND 1ND3 •KV'' nvo bxi 1ND3 iSkidcti n^2^b n^b inbc* .nonn niD^3 
!^^1rM ,KD^B>3 ,NV^ T5r^ ypinn nioiN nxr ,N3i idn .d^^did iniNMB' »*e'N 
<53 Kipi) N3n S3N driD) .S3N Km ,KJDm iDK nvD ^i3K Dnn ,KD^m mo 
K^i ,v^y^ !ii3nj ,n''3^n^K '• b"op ,Kin KD^y3 poyno '•Km 3'n3 "nyiin jnsr,, 
«oi>tj»3 .y^oroi yoiK' pi3n''B' ly ,kv^ k^ yDicr pian: k^i y^otro ,v'^\:r> pi3nj 
K^i yoic* pi3n3 Ki^K /Kin KDSy3 iion ii3D3 ,yDic' pisn: t<i?i y^oe^ pian: 
V'K .^nnj n33D kpi kdSh ? i^c6 ypin3 ik^ ^nt^ nnsc:^ ^3^n ,y^DB^ pian: 
i3iy i:^K nn^D idik ^jkc* /^"k v npS^ nDiD3 ^:^Dfir3 tern ,nnyD Ki>K /^"sk 
^OK" K^tr ,pii^ nSiyw'» t^3^ r'^» /N3K 13 p^ 31 3^X10 .pDr3 K^K }mi?y 
<N onii ) P33 /"^c'D nnx n3i3 ^i^dik ^kik'^ dk ii3S nvjn nun ^i> n:nji i^^Kin 



'"l:*i 
rnan apa T'op 12;: a ,^mp .trr* I'.irS pns .i^s n;?^pn nrir no nn:n mpo ly pion 
]*«»iioi omS 02221 c«in p Q7in D:?y naiss laino Hincfs ,inn3Ta impir .iD«p no 
isitm Sip pir i»s> nz3 piQi;»n ;mH .nnsrn nK :p: n'?^ ,ij<«v^n »S nn ,i3ino imw 
Kin loiy nvi :ioKp ^3m inyi «pS3 «p /o 1122 n;»»pnn nspo yoe^ .lyatr nSiyS 
onp .HVi^ ^03 nspm Hsn p>yDB'.^i ,ny^pnn ^^n2 ]nS »si 1^22 ypin n»2m 112.1 nQC*2 
•vo;;o ci'Si i£itr nv'pnS 1^2 ovn *72 :nSua fi2ra2 pnDKi2 Kin n»30T ikS ,ini?n na;' 
liroi .nioSan n;iin ^aeScr noitrs ,n3iBfKi2 ypn .nS^S «Si dv ,c2S n\T nyiin nvn 
m:ii2Tn nyiin »3B'?ir naiyo >i< n^* n2 nxsS p2n3i wnrs nnn» Sb» nDitrfi2 ,n»»:tr2 
.i2n^: niM^S i«S msoi nuro inSiDi ND^ta ;iS yipn? inia .itS ci2>n yipnS vSy vnyu 
^nann mo^2 »*? S2K .nnon cvp nj^an kS)« ]«d ^kb* ^o^oyjin niD'2 rSy mo ni2n 
hu prKi ^^2 n!JD n2in n» nnsfS piana nStr X'';hi ,d>»oib iniKS2B^ .nun nxan k3»ki 
mo .p niaiK nnn ,«o»c»d -iprn nio *cd ♦nvoir 12 iotSi inir? ,tb6 ypinn .kx» noc 
8p .Hin poyno i«S i2'7n inS'2«2 nanai ,S2» xni xaom iDHp n!J» Si2k onn Kp»m 
lirn .»oi v^Dn-is ni:fDS ]^i2rr3 pNn ,nryQ «Sh .«v» «in poynoi :i''y«i ,]S yoira 



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,-»?3iN* min^ '-I N*^:m ;x:n \^n ^d tdxi xin ? D'c:*a ^r Sr n"-i Sl** -lai::* t:nn> 
"130 "10 V^jSdvop \son 'U'bT ^-3 mSarni rpaisD onDt Si**n pypm vn n""i2 
/'Syo'^sD n^ny-r c-rx d^^^dt hod DM^ai ryjr^ 'so n^nyn c^^rxn^^nnoDn'-in 
c»'r« 5]^^Di HDD nv^ynn^ ^'^i'c ""SD n*nxn L-^rN o^rLi noD n:t:'n c*K"ia "ino "i?:i 
,hDDV2nn:i DiDon nnr ins^>; N^:nn^ .2nr nai^;© v^^ (.TD ."i'VrD 'D'J n'»n:,-r 
r\n:n oipoa «>::♦ pn'-jno ^d3 pn ^3 /"ux "ids vi^d td nn:n Dipo3 «>c^ 
f"»aita "inx'o id:5 ? 'VDnrc ^d "Sp nm .Dmrn jd nnvivn ^nn .pn hd 
x^r "KD .51DD na^y^ vDi paiDD D^DT ^L** fiv^ynm .-laica Dvn n^vcr ]:t^ 
i? n-j^y,, (' i:i32) 3^nDi ,>:n h^^t xoirD Sd v^^ddt j^dh c*".':ji ,3nn anrr 
n'h "iDx ,;w:nD3 smiy naroS m^ \>cvor "13 saa a"i ,"^d3 munvn Mtr 
^3X rj»ip'D3 DniDS Dn3i nD3 /3n ro: x^jn .•jnp'^n t<Sx nox n^ :X3-> 
yn:r\ p^ .nnvivn p:^ "lair t:»*w* DP'O pair i^x nnvivn r r Dip*o ,pi2;2 
'A-^oti D^DDH SvK "im 5^2^31 ; ^3333 pmn p N"::."! ^3-11 /ma-V3 Kna^n ^3-v 
^"3n XD^n^«i N3"i "iDK .^3S3 n^3n in3i n-iTo "iyr3 n^jk p pm: vn nS 
':3^ /"n "iSon *J3S lynn navr ^ipi niT:;ivn3« (n; c^^nr) 3^131 v sip '•sd 
nrpn^j n^-)^ i)3vn mr .xS NDSy3 S3X f"iavj* Sipi nnvivn |ry3i «":n 'n i^bcn 
TC*yD nS^nn Dvn nr : wn^sn p^^vio ;so3 pnv 13 Ssicr "i^s ."13 msin^i 
nir : «rv 31 3^no .oSiyn X13: nm3 -idxt f"iryi»s '13 ? prxi orS p"»3r 
,pc*s-) Dv^ p"i3T i^ryo n^nn nvn nr n3\>« Km ,m3"i3Si nrpnS n"i^ ^31.'^ 
,SiDa 1P3TI piDJE' "lavj* '•'jnt: .xiNrx 'jnp "3 Vsn^^ ^3V3i xn'-x n"-i3T 
DS1 ,^1DB nrpnn ns 33yD dx idhdi 3p*j (:T2) ;SDa nnair n3cr p3n 
i^ip DX1 ,xv^ yott' "iBir ?ip Dx ,DD^an iin^ ix ,nnn i^nS vpinn .-irs ixS 
"IIDD in^3 nMr IX ,nD:3n n^3 ninx ■131V n'-nr ^d pi ; xv^ xS yor nisn 
;XV^ xi^ ixS DX1 ,xv^ 131 p^3 Dx nS^jo Sip IX naic Sip yon ,nD:3n n^3> 
iivpi inx ,"i''n 'aj .13^ p^3 xS nn ,13^ p^3 ni : yor nn ynr nrc* B"yx 
ihp njriK*: DX /pn3D ,Sidb D^ia3rD 3nT ina'^v pc*3 n^j i>y n^Dyni nij ,"ic3 
;"ir3 ^"xi /SiDB ny^pnn nx 33yD dx lonDi 3p'': ;"ir3 S"xi ,^^103 ^^^r niD3D 
n3cr p3n .xv^ xS yocr pv^nSipDxi ,x^*'yDr''D^:B Sip dx ,-iair iin3 "laicr |m 
iDj-iDi 3p^j ; SiDB irD3 xS^ p3 i3''D3 P3 ,K^"3 vSy 5|^bin ,-i"n .SiDB nnaic^ 
xini ^''"ix .SiDB irD3 xSb* 1^3 iriD3,-iDix ;n3 ^31 ;Sidb irD3 xSk* p31 irD3 p3 

rSlDB D''JB3D 3nr LIB^V ; "IC»3 1311 nHBJr B'^yX 1^031 SSsD ,1311 nnBX'' 



^"B'l 
'^r ,n:im ^3 ^tsn 'Di .S2i» Sir omcon dv2 ni3i2 n;'B»n io*dS ^ym ,mDi2^i .ptsie^rr 
Y^nh pcnrs v3B inSena ,b^:*k b|»3i noa .min» 'ii nop 8:n /^^Sro np ^H»a .nvayn 
<D3 DniBsn ami km nSenSi ptjie'cs nairn trKi: laS^n ,tin:? »co o^rci no3 .B)ny ^sd 
cipo2 .KionS p£ic3 pnzyi ]h ncD>K kS H»BiaoSi n'jynzi nitr ni^TJjn rp^icn dw» 
,Ki3iy lay^oS .Kin KSii'n .icw: inKO laS .ieic2 k^t ^nr: nrpnnc ,h^u^ ne nmn 
,:jm3.i .nvayn p;i3 ,nn:fivn c^tr mpo .Srvi nn p:iD ,ieitr tr^c aipo .ieiitt nn^ivnr 
nyira k"^i ,n^rn inn nito nyi?n km Kn^»o Kin ,n»2n inai .niivi^m iDiir i3*n3tro3 
•pi iSa ,n^Jj Sy .nncic >3tr3 n^S mm Sidd .psm ,ip:ii '^:n» .o^tra nirya niTD 
i3^K DK ,ic^D 13V22 .n^'pni n-^nfia »o*aM ,ni:f»nD k3'ki ,K:f» kS .znta nrpnnr ,Sidq 
D1-C p ,12 T»htr: CK .ir-n^ izni ^s o^riS pic: pi ,iS2 ,piD: .ny»prn nK r3y» 



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M:l^' n •^i<i ]^^ n^^ m^xn 



29 



n^n%n ^vi« Dnn^nnD iTcn D^icn noy ,1*3 jm nc^c* iniNi .cnipo ci-po 
n"3 inix-i ^^y .levy •"!' jcn: n^n^n pxe* ,cn^pD tnipo i-idk'"i dh^jm n^y^ 
,N-in "i''K vn^'-N-D nSn:i nrcc* Nnn nS f^NONi :Dn^:D3 ht^ d^^E' ncj;^ 
bv« cnn^inro u^cn D^•c* ncy pn n^i ;m nc'^r in^Ni -ni^^^n inrKn::' pjD 

,i»:vy n^ ?y |dn: T-n^n psn ,n^S N^ncv^x ne^d ir\n ir^n /nS^i^n ^n-K-c 
n D^an^ nnoiD n*n dxi ,ne'Sc'3 mrcD "^n pm ^^xin wdk ^ny'^ np^dt 
n^ px VD3 ^2n ND^si !|S ixc*?:) Np vn^n^a iTirnp'3 ^dj xrn /Tn'-a i^'-cn 

nin cnnn "i?:fc<S d^-vd pixn pn^ Sni nc'io ^« 'n -"D^n,, (2' motr) a^nsn 
iNir p-nnjD ,ti^:m ,y"nD nH '*:nD ko'-S ? pn nry: nyi k-^d'-dS ."d:^ 
"31 '•nm ,prn icy: invprii* ,Dny ic'y: invpo r.*i2j C'sjn n« nnr inK 
"m NO^n iS'DN vj'"! nry: ny pNi ,Dny pcT^ f^n ,-idik Hi^pv '2i ;pD"iD 
(.17 1r^a) -icN ^c:r:m'^ ,n^ct: ":na n^n* ,Dnn w^py ""ai ncxp k^ }N3 ny /Kn^py 
^2K /XniDTn^i^irn ":;d n^ ,nl"d: ^::pi nr?m ]v^^ "n^vn iWm myn icen,, 
'':=:d ,niB ^c*d pn d^l-d nneicn h^ '"•jrc .mio xa^py ^ai iS^d« ,«2n 
nvj'n3f, (1 ;'BnnO "iDN:r ipp ixnp: nrsitr'n Sd xSm ,'dv ui "i»K ,pp Kinc* 
;X2^py '"I icN ,ii^:m ?6<'in xi^in Nrj""^ K^nv "xm yoro "nd .'631M pp3 
(1 ^Sra) ''XD P3-1 ^yi^ iin nS (:12) .i«S3V ,Kn3n!:» p-iip vn N^3"iyb '•ns^nrs 
,N-i3J xinnS nioK nnm ,^31 "31 xnos^ myoc nn kdv "loonni hSd^d,, 
lyn^ iin nS ? i"»yr3 Sd'Cd nnx "hd ny n'b niD«„ ^nnycr3 icno xp n*m 
nin -in k»v ,n:n "13 13 ni-i ncx ."i3n^ 'n Sy ^^c^^„ (na o^Sn) '•kd ;:3^ 
.'•5<^d:n nn i'3n'' Spc* "S -GK1 ,X31D «r-n mn ,«y>^D x^nn "1113 k^Stn 
|D nnyivn \-n /3nT neiVD yt^ ,t:ic'D Sy^ ^tr n:rn c'Ki ^r "jbic:^ '''jrs 
Dnzr ^c*3 nv:yn3i ;isvu"3 Dvn nivoc' ,nnvpD nnvivm 71x0 idic' ^pmvrr 
.n 3n«D nnvivni nvpr) -ibvj* ,;->;dx3 nnvivn mci .pid3 naiVD p-'si ,pDiD3 
i:r3 mS3V3i ,Dn3T Sc*3 pyp^H n"-i3 1D1K •""! ,n"i3n3^i nypni* n*-i^ bivn me* 
.pi:'.rE3 n:rn ^3 ^c") ,"£i£33 3"n^ 5)t:n n"-i :>c» mvo ^^i) "'-i id« 'a3 .D^^y^ 

•.«^i ,cn «Sj< i^y^r ^o \>»u ,'^2hi T'2 ^nw^ .onjrn ^^pr\3 ^ca »k /Dnyn npnai 
pirr c^'VHi ,Dn*3sr n*;*n o^:c n?:y .cnpS mnir n»np kSk ^n^tmS iio^n >«p NirnK 
r^nnS in:r -dS ,idv:,* '2C3 ctjitq *^ai^ ^pn: Tn*n pxr .o^airn ^orvacn itv*^ .'jniK-) 
vT.H"iy .Dn>*Kis imtrr;;* jSo ini8i «*n n»yn n>w nor f*«o»i 'D3 .A^k |nn»:no 
nvnS *i»"iBf o ,r'i nc^;*3 ny-: K'la'oS .ic*^p' "a Sy ny^oty ikS «« inoS i3S\n ,nW2 
,Dny rc*y3 ;nsi:a .irnsn cr'is n-c on;* nvnS o^nK") ]Si3 iS»i ,pn ntrya 1213 ny 
cnnn nny ^r.'^i ,Dn*:y i:nn irc^ k7 Dn^yan h^H ,D':>n j^trp ^nvpai .nnn>rn »3B3 iTyn 
•jTy* vcr.^-'zria iscn' ^S r.aS 3' »i ,D-rn o^trya onyn nvnS '»:ha2 «:ii?3H nh »a3 nci:i 
122.-^ ,rnvn iS^^m .i^nS onni ,Dn ony ]So .iiripn lay on i2tr» id in«i i»n» »iC2 
KiDn Sivi ,S2vn pp2 .2'r2 icic yri^ ^2Jti icic nnp w>k ,]^p mnv '^ino .im2T2 
yatr: ,]t^.rpr, rp^^s mixivnc inn'? ,inxa *iciB^ .laxp cnpo Sco ,2nT nci^^a v£i .sin 
.reifi- ian:c^ d^^h ,cn:T Str2 .lypn o^3n2n lypn nvsyna p^^^dkt ,nV3ymi ."ifiitm h\p 
DiT nrar .yvaK2 ini ]^-2^ •^r»^ ]hdd 'k pS rrcic' <:tr ,yvaK2 nn^Jisn ^nri 
ny'pr'? .myn K-^aS -S n^ni 2'n2': rn!n^n2 K^n:2 ^21 m^*: HaSv2 »»cw2H ,nnvivn2 



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pi Dni? "iDx s^:n '.*::; .nm nx n^npr n^D^ni ,nMna -m ,n^i»ni 'ii 
N3L*' Droi;Di nDn«3 Nn::^ D^oya ,N3S un nuD "ii^nipo id : d^ddh^ :)K''i)CJ 
pna«^p^p*j» ,nj;crm Dn-^]n nibv3 \xp mm Nin^oi^ N^nn j^^'-n "ai -nivpa 
"31 n^b 1DX I "DD\x yr ? N3n nci'-^p nxi /^n ^cmp^ p'-ya {^mixS /IDK .nu 
.D^pi ^n bxi::*" ";Sd nn : n:d'd "? nkn ,Nm^^ iT^cnpi ao py^ i^n /N^^n ^ai^ 
,cnn^ ny:;Tn om^'ya nn^ moT n-i5=):i D^nyn d^dc* nrpnj nn« Dye ,pn-) iDn 

n"3?3 "jSn^pD ID : yi DHS 1!D« OL'HpS jH H^D 1C*PD1 /H''! 1D^^ Dyn D^IIDDD 

"r^Sr ^:Kn nvnoi or nyc:*ni Dnt:^yD nn^ns hjd^ S::* nirmn px : t<2« "dn 
N*^ ,i?nj nsDH y'l m^som t<n p i?c* idn nno Dvn ^n^H'\ ,o^pbn i"yi nyc' 
1^ ND .tnnn ns pi nu icn^p j^Sc' oyn wc* '•id k>n ,iDi) n'»iKi'':* '•:ed 
V )hbn D^jpr ^c^ DmD-j» vjibh: nS hd^ o"n .'id Djoiin p Non 'i i^VN 

Yll'Dl n^ND "JI^D V Nin^DNI DIJD "Jl^S ? pHNI ntJ»i:D "J^^D :D1« 1D«" K^^L" 

/"pnK n«i n\:*D ns nt^y i:rx 'n Dyn bt< ^n^.dl" idn^I/^ (=^ « '?8ioir) idin^ 
nr /SyDn"* "Snid'j' n«i nns" nxi pa m^) ^yan^ nx 'n n^trn^ (otr) idini 
Kip: .iD^i /pcroc* n? pD ,i>yDn oy nnno n^yv^r ? '^yDii^ idc> «ip: .id:ji rpyi: 

V^HDD pilNI ntTD,, Ct3:rc^Sn) 1D1N^ flHS) /lyOtTDD nnS" ,pD TIN! ? pD IDC' 

,'n^ iDi^ D^iy n^on nr'^c'D D^iy ">p nc^c' mnDn t'pc ,'"idl'' "«i^pd ^x^dci 
; iinD ^svD'j'D nnn nns'' ,nn3 pnxD niD pD ,nnD hctdd nnn i^ynn^ 
on'-DXDr i^DND Kin nn invn bv D:ia n:Dn:i p^pnc* S"' ib'-DKE* IidS^ 

,"Dn.l D^D^D HM" irK DEiVJ^n ^5<1 D^^Sl D^J.lDn b^ riNDI/, (t^ onn) lO^Nl 

N^^5 li^'-i* iS pi« Nil V VD^D n^n n^c' pnn ^vn i^^n dikb' nnyi ^y n!?yn ^d) 
D^DVJ vn D*3itrNin D'-D^nc^ vn no iDj^n ^n« (t nSnp j idixi ,vo"Dcr tDD^tr b^^ 
D^yDtro D'^Snjnc* inn •irN ni idk ,i"n .nu rniyoi )bprD b^: .''h^wd 

.jDvyD V'p d'':dpi1 d^nctij nr n^nci D':op^ 

ly f'jnipD iDiS ^p-'DDn «^i nnvn npn: ,Skic»" ^di pi n''D in*lX1 

: iiDN^i Dn'-iDD H^yi D*:c* Hoy" ,i3^D i"D ^niKi .iDiytD nr nn ^nD^c^nsr 

^;* 12?^D ;»tnn^ <2iS v'l ^«^o^ "1^" /*5«i*0T "'?n .nai n« layS /"nn n« »3« nnn 
^21 ,^^ H2 .z\r\2n iM^n pn n^2 nsnp- ,i«i|:n iith .d'Mv SSn^ i^y lu K^trancf 
/-'trnpS ]5<y2 Kni^x^ .n'2:n nD»s ,N^p Sptr .n:c*» ,Knn^DS nnn 'oi ,wn ^3t Sxk ymn* 
^»«^3 «nn nw ,«Dn na^p nm .SSw n» iD.iS nn Ss» a^v nS»^i nitry'? iSk pDn!t 
naipo: lov nijitr cn^s >ni» n^tnpi 20 ]^h ^n .nnoS trinn nn icnp^ vh aie^ n»2iy 
]iD^ nno n;53 troirD i«dd 12 iDj<:ir h^z'td Sroa ,'7Xir^ -^» in .cnnn riK iBnp» k^b^ 
vo^2tr T2 S;* ,DnK idh* h'tb' .s)'V2 pTSDD pKC ,tnnn hk T2 itnp nSirivn^r .dSijtS 
,pn«T ne^D i3'« oh iS idi« lencra k'^c vcdv ?i^ vob^wc" pnHi nirDD ^iiSci ^jiSboi 
H^z:ri Sx^otr ,pnK nm nco nx ntry irK .on ^a pv i:»H«r D^:pT iKiro in»D «in m 
nns^i n=^ S;'2n» r^n«i nro :^SSn c^jpt nc^r v/y do: odS nry n''2pn Skic^S idk 
c^:irK*n n>zin22i ,pnsi nro c;* Skiob* 2ir.2n Spcnr nn ,ior ♦»iip2 Smotri .Skioiti 
-]S ]^H Ki .anion nr'rtr o;* o^Sp ni?Siy Sxiotn iinni nc^ ny nnei pD SyDn» 2»nD 
.■]*o>2 nMc Qsic k'tx trp2S -S ]^»ir ,;sd zinsn iio^ nn ,'0 iW? 

pi^DD |rs DN "iSy pm 



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iDi« T'3 t:*«"icr i«DD "'n nyio n« nc'» "i3Ti„ (« Kip^i) K-ip nox ,^ni i»« 
(or j «-ip -in« ,KDD 31 "io« ? }^:d .en^po cnipo v-inK p3)y oyn Sai .::nipD 
on "njno Dn n^K^ (oir) -id« pnv^ 'M :'*'\ .Dn« nn np /Dn^« iN-ipn "ic:*^;^ 
nn K"-! ."cTTjp «ipt3,r a^nDi ? ""b 'no^ 'Jon nn c:mpD cnipo .nyio iidn^ 
r« ijora po « 10''^ s^jn .ims panpo px ijorn nxi: x^ dk noix dhv 
rcnpD pK 13 pm ^3 p3 /-ioi« iTy^« ^31 ;ini« pcnPD i:dt3 «i)E' oniK pcnpD 
nriK ^Ki tnpD nn« d^:b' "D^cionn n^cr n« onenp^,, (ns dc) -lox^e' ,iniN 
,*^35< -iD>e .piTV 13 iry^x ''313 njhn ,^h\d^ "id« n"nn'» y'l^ .D^cnn cnpo 
tTTpo -loi^ ip^DDH «bi Dnyn npn: .S«ik''' bi ^^3 ini«-i ik:":;! ^dj p« c|n 
r'D ,n'b «3nDV« i3iyio ? «^ cmpo ,p« -i3iyD ;-i3iyD nr nn ,n3^rnr ny 
n^Di '''Jna .^"Dp ,nn3y^b «?i «dd"id''K ,^«"ic''' ^31 n^3 im^i^ s>xin Nros 
:-i»i«i m:D'innn n« n«-)op3-j' ;^n^"'i>y3 i5ni33i Ki)3D3 nh iS vn nj^i? nniv 
n\oiD ptryn k? ''^nx pn^n kS, K^^nm (n::) v nc^ ^o\ 'S3 ?nr3iK /JT'ki nrsn 
le^y Dnnxi j^'t ^j^jj' ? ni^TDi "•3313 mT33^i non pis /jBt) petDKiDn '•croc* 
lon^n Dnn ?p"n n^'yv 'oo /Wrc :^"iS Sxior b"Ki 1^ ic'y Dnn«n ^^-i xm .i^ 
«yTinj3 3Wi5iKnKntrj3^3«inn xm ?K"rrnS p^c^^n ^d) .KicrnDic'Dimn Dt^u 
"c^^'-n K^i Dnn i^vd^ ^xp^ i^x^oen nnw i>NiDKn 31 ^i»''^y mm ,Nonn:K n^3 nim 
.nn: Dm ^nne? Kin x^crn \V2 v mn nm'» y'l xm ."jkc^ d^si ? xirnS 
p3nS loS nnx b3« ^''miry^ lo^n kS, (n^ on^nj 3^n3i ,i3y To^nn^ K"y3K) 
n''3-iyi (.n3) niTD3 nnnc' ini:^«-i :nDKi d^jc i«3tr nc*yt; '''jna .nnin^i 
Tiyi ; bx^^Di pi ]b3''p njs''^ i«3'k:*3 ,Dn -ipe» ny ,niD p pnv -i"k' ,3iyD3 
p HOM -»"K 0''-) ji53'pi /nK-i3 i6 ^'^^2''V ^'t>3i i3or3 im:^Ki :nDNi D^jr ij?3 
?n^rc' p3 nons inoS .m^^E' ne'Kn Sy ]n'v^ ^km ;n iptr ny o^'^siin 
"bvK Ksnc'^^by onm :SK^!nDi '-1 \b n^c:' .^n3i nx ^jk nxn :yenn^ 'i \h ick 
nos .-»V'»D «3^py m i«voi ^^n .'!iDUcrn3 nvn^ i^n'j* 3"nn i^niyosi ii>ptJ3 
'n "-jviD n^K„ (:»3 nipn) -lOKic' /^ic'y i'^i ntrycr nn ^sc' moiji) ^h C'" /^ 

.I^K K^iK nnyiO "h PK rPDT3 K^JB^ P3 pDT3 p3 "DHX )Xipn -ir« L*mp "K-ipD 

p-i i?^' i:n nn inK pn^ ijk pK3 dk :ib "id« ,Dr3iin p xdh '-i bv« 1^ k3 
,v:i^3V nyi n'j^o mo'^o loyK' pT nni p nn ^3 inx p-6 ijk p3nv fW'b^: 
vh nob) "^k-ic'^ "•jptd D^ysc'i Kinnw 313 pnxi ncTD bv^tf ri3 moir) -idn:c» 
S«ic^by pn nnnoyc' nt:*yjn n^j'S'J* ^3tr n^^^ k^k ?D''jpt b::* invjjr rj'-iDn.'r 
DV3 y'\ i^vx n33^i? ^^m nn vmyoi i^pD Vjj .n^j^o by irn nn3 . «*.n ^-.-j 



H7r\ ,BnTp ♦yn nnoS o'?iy*? lof a ,n*S HS'-ts'H .-i-.dS pipno ht nn ':np ,hS cn^oi 
nn 8:n 'w ,nin2y»*? «S m^hd om«i laorai .m^ro p^yiocxS nana ki 013^3 n^»3n h?i 
^Kyins^ 2»nn e)Bn .nnn^na la^apno nop kdvd o'?iy*? h^dk mn mrs^ cnpno rr 
nn':i ,mn Tn»;i"'n nm .nSan mai oSi ,Hom3J< .n3::i irm r-^nr i^tt? tr^ ,Kin cr» 
nir .n»nn r» ,':ivi3^ n'2%n .narM nx ,mT3i nms* ^ms^Ki '^^no .x"ttr-S <C3 
VSi .o^rSir CV3 ,13312 1mr^<n .«-in*:3 ^-^ss ';•» n;i*.Ki entry ]h KO^'pn ,Dn n-c» 
.onS nK-i3 hS ,cv2 mm o-n^^nr nrwco r.ij<in nSua nnnir o^ni t: ]'ssq i»ny ^o^tr*?-* 



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V ,^DV 21 -iD« ? n^3 'KD ,uv2 IT (:3Dj 31 iD« V ppi^a n^n ^ko .pn^D 
6r«ib n^jn n^n npMii bo^: nn^i nnx S3 wn ? c:*Kn mnoa \xd .KnnnoiD 
onj^n ^3 DrSi ,n«ip3 nn*n prjr iT3i D^S5m''3 nriM nhnj ivn '^jna -13:1 
.«3i> pt)^:n i.T'-j' S'3r3 rOnS pcnv n)bn: nWiyD^ or ddik ppnn r'y\ .pD:3nD 
D^s>« I'^bn^ in'-L** ,jprn Sx^^oi pi ppnn ,Drn ^3 dc^o pn vn kS njirxis 
,np^Hn p WnS K3ni ,nS^^S n«3n nD3n ?|« k^k ,13^3 iSx ^b) ;nn S3S hdk 
.nn ^3^ d^dSn dhS r^i ,-i^yn 'r:«3 i^x nn ,nSDDn pi pn:n roi .D^^jn p 
!m:n nx po'^soi ,p:rxi jmx ppnn ^pi-'xi K3r in ? onyn nx ppin "iv^3 
vnonn -inxi) in ,nonn ^:sS ,nj3Sn nx n'«i nv^3 /iirDN :iS .p-ioixi |n3B' 

-l?DS Dw^ ? 3m HM nD31 V nOO HM p«^ ? nUi iTH nD3 ? HDmS IN /H^DV^ 

iw>evD: DS ,imK ppim ^JK^n n« po^^o vn 3''n«i »Dii»3 "idn nS .nonn '•jsb 
VHK^ nS ,Dn3n -B'NT ;n^N pSxiB* nunn S3 n«tri ,nD'V inny /D^:ii3d Dnn3"i 
ir^n 'aj :NuS D^S^n in^c* S'3r3 ,c»D3 'nD3 i«v^ vbt* "13 nSn ,DnS D^3nv 
nno^js ,^'3X iDN ? HDm ij^m ,nDnn nn^S ir^n ? hd^dvS ij^'h ^nonn ^:bS 
••ND ,pnv T'NT ;DiS3 iDN «S ,nonn '•:bS idn dn ^nonn inNS in ,nDnn '•^sS 
non nnw-i kS oSiyo /''rDno3 diS*j* rrjny loy nnsi S*J»Dn,r (nz 2vh) Tn3"i 
nmi n\i pxSi m33 hm nD3 (.li) .rvj'p Sc* nntD^ia nSi /n:3S Sk* nno'^D 
nomS :N3a^N N^Dnm ,ovd idn nS nomS /po'^v vi3n njiavS :Knn N:n /n 
mon }N3 ,nonn nion in3 fK^t:'p nS ?diS3 idn n^ niiDvS /po^^'^ ri3T 
S3N ,nS''03 inny /: idin nnsi ,myiiD '3 nuj -idik ihn ,-i''n .D^»t:*;n 
pN ,^2^2 ^n^yHl fn^K'ry3 im:^N-i ,d*c3 imj^xi ,-i''n .mnN nnyS pd-iidvd 
ni nn ''3n S3 ,vSy pi^y.o pN ,D''3y3 vvn ,yv"i3 vvn d^d3 vvn ; vSy p^yo 
pK ,ini:^K-i nS u^nyno imxiS mn irSso ini:^N-i : p"Yi ^^n idk ? ^Stni 
iDiN n"3 t?*Ni '^3nt2 .nm xin KDSy3 N3^yn Nnnn idin ?o"d ^rSy pr'yo 
n>:-i3 nS'J' P3 /iiDT3 n:<-i:e' p3 -^Dp-^ iriipo vmN p:iy oyn S31 .cnipD 
,iniN p:ripD px id:2T3 nNi3 nS dx ,-)01N pr^)i 13 n'^i .mix pcnpo iaor3 

SlNw* J3 ^DV "I^'N NIDJ "13 N-^'n l"N V ^S^D '•jnOJS '23 .D'0*J* imCH^D 133^* 

^T 1 

DV2 ,V333no cn^n S3 '^JHD ^Mic* Sr oaia npax nS ^^ri'pa nh ,]-Mn cy id ,K*inK 
•p^SJ^^^Xr*^** nS p» DinnS pn m^^^u ^^h ,Diro r" vn «S .Tyn*?! miS v-A'rSnir nnwn 
0S7S nrf^in nann ,nonn »3bS .anSn r«i i^n ^22 ns s)atBn awne Si:i ninc^ pnan ]di 
11Q5 hS« n7iyS o^rSiy nra n^Ki: n3\^ n::Sm ,p2vS iivoai :n>»o*? omoi omS n-^roo 
>:np kSid ;nnnii:j: noantr "n^r^ n^«i3 n3>H n:Dpi npi H^nir imoir ,nenn nri^t?^ 
DX :Dnyn ns i^Smtr rnip to npi omz an? n^Kia p)* na'o yai? n2*;*DS w nmT::S 
?n?3n hv nam'? ix ,nmx on^w-t nan hv naisxS ? nnnifS ^H ,nonn »3bS r.sSno mm 
: ;'3i: Ti nr^H? no*:i2n ^b^h-i ,n3« n\n pK*? .ora^r r\^Hi »bS ,pKn ]a ,nii:t n^n no3 
n'cnn: »^n unS^a mi nn .nais^fS ir»n nann »38S i2M D3 ? am is'? ik ,|ibx tsS 
»59S laH DX »B^3 ^anp nS;i ,inK urS ik nam ixS n:iB ,nain obS nnauc .S»yS 
na:? n«sa3 D*Br:in mo^z .nazS *7jr nnaus nan nnxi «S oSvai ,21^3 laK hS nann 
inK i:r Dv siiase pa inK ,nin« nn>«S vfi'iava S2« .omn nnsaa nann ma^3i ,pc»3 
pi:ran uv ,D^2y3 .nazS Sb' nmai i3*«i r'va w nn: iin ,c*a3 inn>xi .ima3 lax^y 
Vir.iKiS D>3ns on dSi»»S »3i ,f tki nn on S3 .3;* Sr V2^:; -,n ni^wa ni:»»*ii ^i^n . 



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DnS iDX V n^2^n riK n^x^ nra /^idn :iS iidn i3i)c* ,«v^i inny n^yn Dn!?cr 
.^jy> non vj*«-i /D^ySo '2 p3 p^-i «inr vn'X">i rO^onx n^yoa- w^n nSi?» 
"nyni^i n "nvrni /Vnoi" pa iS nn^io u^n /"^vb mon v:ip ,nii) pon v^tn 

/D'D3n n« myonS D^Din^'^ irpac* "nyor ,nnh ^ok v laS i]p^prn ^d ih 
.DvoDnn n« lyD^i pji^iD ortcc* D^^c ^jn inu^ ndc» ,DnS yniKi ^:x -|Sn "moN 
n;i-' nmxn .moyn i^y nno^ -iidvjmi ^n^non ^S p:in3 tJt D^nxo iS noN 
/mxv:'D pwc'D vn n:itr«i3 '"'jna .;n'3on jo k^k r:»2pD in^ n^::* irpnn 
rx'30 ? nixiro px^L-o vn ivo .p«sv pnrr* in^c* irpnn Dwan i^pSpc*D 
n?iyi nn^roa ^-iidi ,;nra Sr mwi pr ^vyi Dopi ,p3nx nN ^l'^ niNo^iSa 
riN nxn Ninr iy imoi nb'oi ^^aoi tj^S^di ,iixn n« p2 n^vni ,inn c*Nii> 
]'»NTD vn pND) .T^Sc*n inn c*ni2 pi ,^^m inn r«in p nriy xinr n^an 
]-)iinoi ,pvin> «ranj!Di rXrsniS KnoiDDi fX2D"iDi) nnron ino vmtocrD 
nMriy ,tiidi nSyoi ,kuo'. ^^So ^<Ss /D^d )tt «S pnSa irnni ,pni>3 n^aS 
nnn ^y k^s^ nisiro ]'i<'*c*D px /iTi '!2i .rxn ninoD ^'jaS nSi^n S3 nxn 
iriny i3n><i «io^oS ."nuv iixS vps^L'*D ^no^Ki ;icripS i^on nNijc* 
Dr.-o "^nx iv« V SSa idhx I'ny^S «Si kSdn i^ny^S ( .i2 1 v pnnv «S «i)D« 
los -'Di niDOiSa pN'-ao nixicvo px^'^ro vn ira .d^o' ^:c* oyS nD«SD SitD^i 
,m IDS ,Diinp ;c*n2i /;Dr py ,Dnnp ,n« :}n oniK "ro 'i ,nnn^ 3 
;'\'^nn':) n'apn i^ny D'-S'jii^d niDi« iSo^k* no^n no^r Sd ,pnv i"n .«n« 
l!:«:cr ,D^S*jnT «Ss 121D3 PSI /'MD^CMIS 121D2 IHS;, (ns n^tr^ iDSjr ,nS 
01PD3 moSoi mm loiSi Sd rpnv "21 idsi ,131 "nnM 1210 p'»v,, (id ctr) 
r«t:* D^NonS DnS "is .pnv i"k) ;2''3m ,131^3 omS n^n ,D3n T^oSn p«t» 
nnm pid3 k^3« Snsn nnm 3nT «^3N nrn:n nnn^ (3 or) ioku** ,n:pn onS 
Dn^S^i ? p«^30 ^Ko vv2n\ «3^py ^31 nnn /'Sn3 D'';3«n nnm ncn^ D^vyn 
n'30i "13 msvj'o yv^^'^o vn pxoi /'n'p3 «S ddi ^n^p^v d ^kvi idi« «in 



^"c* 1 

I'rtr »K:n na^trn K^tr ♦"cyw payS »Kin wnni ,n:nD2 i^ D*3in: nr dtiho .imion k^i 
naiiTKi: .mpSoS ^iiojrn 'ry nro» .npcn imiryS /]ion DwpS t'^S nitn trn iia^c^? 
^vn^i'? n^uS mSirS u^rnhv matrS ]*3nx im k^ti cnnn Mffipv nnxS ,n^»iPD ]«K»trD w 
mycn^ cnnn ^0^2 H^r mKiira on o:j ^n^rm ,c»m3n ^hphpv:2 .]n^H D»v'no niHitron o 
vn nbv^'i ,ppn»c2 'noKia 'S 01*2 tnprac* irins k'tx mKicfOifp^'-o i*n h^ t'^i Skiw' 
iK»trn ¥h^ irinn riK T'a n2»y nrw oyci ,12170 tnnnir pyiv Ssn 'S ov *?Bf 2nyS pw^ra 
,DonK .lan iriB^;*^ n?i:in 02 nn lysm cnSir Dnn2 oiK^en o^niam ,'S 2"iy^ niH^ro 
,m»B03 pii2i .nin'^Bf d*210 i^x ^2 ]nr£ Str mysi py »:ryi oopi .pinioS iki^ na 
ina ?onnn oir na ,iiKiyp pn^co vn p^oi .'ra^iSan «ir.ri: nTira Sr Din2 o-iirip 
nK '121 ]'^^^^ .X2312 "^ns p \'hmv ny O'Sc^n* »:cSy D»nnn m Kin ,|»S»nn3 ^nritron 
];»mn^ /WtpS 'D3 .S22 nana *32 S27 ;7»-no nam ,Hnn20ifi ♦ran hzz ^32 ,n^un 
,H?aH T2y'Si .ni2»y ov mp D»ir?y op ,y"^ »ru3 o^tySB* ov 2i;»*? ,11127 iwS .ripnsir 
pi2n cnrii h^i ,Kin lom 'jn* yi*a P'l^y h*?i nar 2172 idi n-i ySpa *2i p:nn k'ti 
V^32na pKir nn iV pn /12 n2j«7a Sio*2 oira »*2j« lan may hS 'a: »»m pn2y hS 
orm tnnn nn n2iy nair h"S on ,n"i om Kar ''r ov :D'o^ oir nsitSaa nSun U2 



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riK i«itr 1*331 2« '^jilt: .inSnao innmni Sx^So: pn nStn ,p3^y ina b^ 
nv "x^'n ^iDV^ ,jnD inx ^dd" D«r Ni)« ,nT oy nr pDiDVOtr «i> ,13^^ cnnn 
n^3itD3 ncryo ,^DV T'K cnnn nnyS ptra panpn Sai 1:31 3« /1Di« c*"i rnK 
ini« D^:n3n iSnpi ,iin^c:*D nnyi ij31 Nin D^^tni^3 trnnn n« n^itr ,NDnn 
133 nx iSdsi ,n3y n«i ini« ii>3p n"3 ^:bS i«3B'3i ,n3y n« ii?DDi ,133 n«i 
pHK i)Ni nc^ h^ 'n idx^v, (s^ mar) 3'n3i ? e^^n KDyo "xd ,"1^ n^'x 'a:i 
«nnirnny ,p3ii ,D33 mc^3 «nn it nny "03^ nrn nnn iok^) onikt: pK3 
ipSiDDH }n i!?x '"'jra .5r''i3 Kn3Sn bxiot:* id« «3p^y id idk .D3^ mioD 
S3 :Si>3n nr .Dn3yi fn^y^3C' nniDi ,0":^ "nncoi n^3i3 ''iSoi ,«^3ip3 pntron 
irNi ,tnnn n« hkict ^d .nS jn^rs p^x ^n ^« ,nS niT3 nr«n p«B^ niiy 
p^3 rnpib /DnS miv dni ,.1003 1^'D^< ,iiDnn :)y ini« D'3^So /■nSnS Si3^ 
}^S!?no Dvi nS-S ^^no Syr /ni3iTo dt'3 rnpiS ,npini i-ii nn-n dni ,Tr6pj:> 
iKipn -ic^« M nyiD hSn,, (:!3 Kipn j -IDX3:^• ,ennn nnyS r«^'^ /n3rn n« 

.''DnyiD3 oniK 

nny r5?3po vn n3i6r«i3 .)Tvnh -inx loy ^nSeo ,iniK in''3D p^« DX 
.rT3on p «S« r^3pD in" nSc* ,irpnn ,D''Din"''3n iSpSpe^o rDiN S3D nnn 
pT'30 p\x D« ? "311 NOT kS "xi ,«i3nDD m .ini< 31T (:22) nn« "x© '::J 
nSn ,n'3 3''n3 ''OBKMD,, (hc c'Sn) ?p\nD -^ nm nn ini« nd^S^x ?ini« "kd ,iniN' 
"313 nc»ytD /X'^nni ? p^no kS ^m .in« 31T ,-n« "kd j'M oirn mix ,iniN "nd 
,Ncn«3 nin N3nn« xino ?«nN3 n3cr3 vSy TynS nyn Sv« ^Snr "xiin: 
nS np^bdd XD^m mo ? nid^oS '•no ,'-3n "« .nnn3 "diicvkS "Hiin: "31 ^tni 
«:n3 31 noN .«3-iyo3 nhi^S nicnp :idn «Siy nhk "3 ! S^'op ,«n3{r p^SSno 
.jcno "DO «oSyn :?*'3'n iS'£« «S« ,p"nDi «in n3i Kn33n «Siy «"y3"o nS 
nny pS3po vn n3icrxi3 ."co^n n3 npcio «S nSa«S «n"3yi «nS"o S3 v o^d 
iC'P3 nn« DyD ? rDin'"'3n iSpS^p SipS^p no ,p3i ur .'131 Dn« S3d ennrr 
^DnS'iTO nn«i i^Sc^d inx jit niNo 'i3 Dn« "33 "oc* n3L** ,D''D3n n« niyonS 

n-ttr3 Knn '03 .impir^tra vc2 hv2^ ,hcv uhv '"jno .lotr la ,i£?c» .:n7 inn 3i7 uny 
tynnn iinpn nnjrn i^ap^B' idio *3h inn ♦21bt6 ,c3S nico nnn • o^nn ontr cywi ,022 
>i^ryi .psnrn I'pncDr c:?:? Sb' ni2»nn ,H»:ipn pntron '"3no hz wzMp TC'snS xS> 
^D3 li'^n ,o»3v *ppnco .Don -.y nirn Sk dicd cSocdS insu nn^niKi i^jSu ihS ,n»2i2 
m Sy ninyS iSk ''S hbtub' ^cS^ ,n*y»2Bf 'n*c2 niino pnp ,n»y»2ir nmoi .K>2ip pv^ 
]*20io ,'13 irinn nn nxic' »d .imtri poo »"y ipr on*;?© nvnS cneri poo rcno 
on*? D»niiK vn on o^mam o*Din«:m ,-pi2 dniH r* dm ,unh mi:f dhi .nzc^n qw imn 

.c^02n riH n^vanS ns o:r;'V 
D*3r "C'Ni ny3iN ^Sy pnn 

loy inK .n^ysBf to ,]'rhv^ ,wn ib»3i ]»s«3 dh lyn n« T'3 ,]noo p»H DK 
cBf pinsD nac'^tra ,88^182 ,inr\r] nn;*S ,p»nD *o in '03 3n:jn t'2 ^aaS I'Sj? v:;rh 
8OT ,'p»sDO .n^n lyn tk noon ,KcnH2 mn wnnn mno .nnn nw rtmpo vn Dir> 
,uoT2 mn nHi3 nSi n2B'2 -nn Sr '? dv ^tkc ^coann riK myonS .■in»22 ij?n iniH )»h 
ni^yi /Hrtrz -^nw loiyn nesn Knrtr ns r2tr2 ncs Sc* iitrni dv htvv pwno pDin^sni 



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inay non^ri no^om vnr^^b /pnc' n^isph kp^ed b^ pno nn ick Knn "21 
?SbKb nncm a^i^ nnon Ko^n ,nDOiK ^co lay-bi .pnay k:> lo^nnK 
D^DD nc« ,^"ma nonns b22b p^P'k ^b .inb n^K t6p n^n ^nn^ nn (ND) 

^mbir )DD K^i ID^3 ^ml'C' ^ccn ksm ^a ,pr.v ^an mo .B'l^po ••i^'n 'ed 
KTi'^^vna m'» nim b^^n mn kdi .nrn m:« jdo ni^w -."cv nn nay''^ nen 
niD^an ^ov n^bn Kn^:ynn i-n^ 3*1 .n^nvo nane-K Knn Kion ;^dv nn 
D^bp (n ns'H) n^'bv '"P .Kaipca na-^ kdv nnob ^K ,Ki33 Kinn khk ^ni^^b 
/Kmn Ky'»apa in^jT K^n pnx ikd- wno in:nb icn: an inb id« .irann vrr 
pbbno D^cnn ^jb' by '"JHO (:N2) -Ki'Dn n^ya ,KDvb D^bc'Di kih^d innn o 
.nnyion n« ppno jnai ,KniDppNVvrmbB^;naB' ,nBTi byi p^o by rae-n n» 
D^enn 'a by 'D3 .pipn n:pn ^3Bo |bn by t\K pbbno d^^p cnpcn n^a •Tnc'aT 
rnirjc' jbo by : p^'n ^^aw now ?rKVV pmb^'n onnn m by ,inrDni ?«:> im 
rbbnoE' r^^ /"TTi ! enipD n^a >bd lyocr-'B^ ny nrn by^ p'^o :>y ^aiyao rKVi*- 
bia^ /''Diy^oa ddik ^Knpn ib'k 'n nj;io nbK/. (w nnp^o b*n najrn hk jiTby 
/Dmx iKnpn n{r«,f bTi ?iD'»^pn'»8r ny rb^no ?ia ^cripn^B^ ly pbbncB' ors 
by p\K pbbno o'^'^p n^'a ^^^cr^l .pvp by bbno nnx "ki ,bbntD nnx on^np by 
cnpon n'^a aintro ,ibia :>y p|K pbbno vn n^^B^x-ja n'T) .jaipn n^pn ^:BtD ;bi3f 
p^3 by Nbx pbbntD in'» Kbtr ij^prin ?|aip k^ -ai :'K3T |a pm'* jan jnb idk 
nK vby rbbno b^bya nxi: wbe^ pa b^bya nKi^jr r^ '"3^0 -"taba nrn 71.1 
M2v^ HB'yD -nacrn hk vby pbbno pK b'^bya hkio dk ,nDiK ^dv ^an .natrrr 
nKvtD3 D^ain n« nmc aaro dk :"! )b nbir /i)ba y,fi oaa^yi 31T D^yai«D -jni* 
B'P^a ytn ^ai wvob nbnp e^po., (:» n*?np) ,'T'n '£23 .xab i^nyb ib^wo 
ainav ib moKi p^a nn^ ,nK-inna nbcn onya Kbc' abac* jon pb nbnj? 
inv naytr ncryo (.32) •''lo^^i ony d'»jb' D^'y (^ otr) ^''ncK nai nn* 

.//{•^ -J 
13K ;on» SaK ,nytWTj ontrj? ova cnrn n« T'a inp hdv pcD none ^iSh Sbi mw ^r 
irwi D ty'-ty ova po i^api mnn n» to na^y kdit peoD t^o ova »3jy aio ov niryS 
n^n HoSn /an pna an jj'jotyH noi^a ,Hmn*3a /ia lan^tn iD^om Kno^oS .SiS«a pi 
ia lyapi inSr O'c^r ov n»n an nn miz'^u w^r SiSna njtrm oncy or ic:tD:i ,2hV 
D^aiyoS onS ^San ,»it*?an HS^van ooa .earS rcn KD*?n ]c»3 ppS pi ^nrrn trKi 
kS .Sana kS la^Sy Sap:i ,-5*ncH .ouyro vm cinn nn na»:? to nnr ,v'Haiy a^no 
P'a 'mSir .]a'3 ♦m^B' looi .otr }mrua lac^ir ci.Da 'n*M i^Str .cnipo to 'bd ^nyor 
fV'i tt^ nrnai oaayS O'^naa o»aio d»d» r» '^-b^ /I'y'^o '^cn 'ni^rtr ]»»ir oipoS r^'-^o 
.iny^ap ov othSbh onS nunr c^^ki 'aa ,*dv nn na::»S .ia paSin rmScn ]Vty a nn 
o»mSr t"y »Ay nrna ja una* inje di» poa ne^ oji^nan onr ,nBn idh jj«3 nin;s 
inK oin trian nn to ina^y nnm ,Dn^niS'S oy ,nDi» '"vi Hn»:yna a*n» .1^:0 r o^oyci 
i3»Hty n^snnpn oyniH'a o^Ssna m\nr .HOI'S D^roi H-in^ .}nSr n^wy xin Mhm •)»]? 
no ,D*ni^ onaty .mirv^ nn wnc^ ony ,nawn n» i^SSno '^ono .nn^ir nyr ly i^btid 
pii^» '0:1 .wara anp'cf n^n Sa^ ,pnp napn .oni^rop cv 7ih)A p'-nnS x»iidS ]rhw 
piwiM'niSy p» ,nBfn Sp p»3 Sj* no »io bhijo lyaerr nnoS ij? I'^'nao pni ,^nyaD 
^I^SSnDir otra Sia» .jnxnp pr hu nyian may* i6r myiaa .Bmpo to ♦■d i^oc^r 17 
njcna) '^jriD .pora nnyian la^'pn'r ny oniStwi ,|»SSno ia .pra isnpnnr na onyn 
Mr ,:nT c*yan>« .-pi]t i»»Bf ♦tS /I'SVno ]♦» .(pH^ Wya loa nSj pa^ lenojia enca iS^S^a 



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'»:3)D n« bv^ nai^n ^jdo ^^d3 Sjn .o^cr ,nnr.Dn n:pn ^jdo nm i>y '»:n{rT 
V-^np nb Dnisn '•:bo "^tr ttk bv ^ik p^vi" ,n:!rn mayn: iS^wi .oniDrr 

^«Sa3p3n^in^ .k^ividx .^iSieS nnajr ,id« «i)ir Kn« ^3 (.Oj -DniD'n "^so 
na «n« >aT ,H'pi^ DitrD idx kSiv ? «nia^D ^ko .in^nna pnay «mTD "nd 

i*^3« ,x^no n^^o r'D^ ,pnayD /^^p-i" dik^d loxn ikd rnnnxSo pa noaSo 
vrinS /S'D^y jS ^"an pnS ? "o: imnS ii>''DK pnS 5<3cr "ko ^^an ^x .'»dd;*3 
mc'n nx jnayor D'J'd Sa" /Skiob' la nan ^^nni /j'*^ .«o^y inS S^an nS 
rx-i Dab nin nnn^ (:» moir ) ,b"n ? ^iivb cnnn nt< p-iayo ^a O"^^^*'^ 
: iDNp ^am xyipb t«a ,nay> txa fP^b ,^21 lox v tnp^ n«-i ma •''a'-^n 
v^iivS cnnn nx rt:np!D ^a n"^ivf> trinn nxi n^t^n nx payees Dira b'iT 
nbiaS ^3^pnb wb^a^ bxior id« (O) .cripi n«T nra "oaS rrrn cnnn^, S-n 
ma H^^m «nb^o ^«n id yn^ Sxios^b "^botr "ain nia« xax n^? nD« -nb): 
«S «mD ,n^:» io« ; «^ ,y« ? nivn nnx nbi: ^« nivn oiip n^ij : nia^yrr 
KH^j'^inv :)nb n:)r xm "an p^bo "a .id yi" xh ^n^^nnx "b^D Ka-x .id yn^ 
nSi3 omSn n« r^rno : ^xSd^j* 'in max «3i< idxc* in ^cninn p dvi nS^S 
«be* yiT'a mvn Diip -rSo «ij ,nDnn ny^ptr^ ^idd nwn^c* ynu nivn oiip 
-lox .nna ^e^^nasb ,'»rK ai idx vnro xpe: ^kdS .nDnn nyv-*^ 1^»^ nx-i: 

.SiSx |n2y» OK nsSna rfn^n ua dih»;» kSit k»D3-! ,nivn vhi nhphp^p wm .K»ro 
.'7iS)« n» n2«yir Skib^ pK U2 ino:? ptyivir nsio lonS 2S luma loiSa ^^kSi: ]n2n ♦yi* 
nrtrs o^^n )nir2 ni^Diean nipn» itnD3» kSc n^ ,n?o nr d"v^ n2r inin'? ,K»pi» euro 
na nn^i hSc /Wo nr 2"m»^ niir msnS ,H»nD oiro .n2ir ini«?y o"»2 ih o"> inwtr 
.n:n'K ^n»min /i.T»r2 ♦ks .it:'? hVi ovn kS i2p< »Si ,tw8i KiTtr tno in«2 nio'c 
S:2 »:2 «K ,MoSy f? S2n ]inS .poa;* 12 ips^n^ i1B'-'*"i o"i*2 f^o "^o "io»^ ,'00^2 nrcK 
o'-ir ]^»i ,*"i*2 niy23i onn px nv»^ H»n n,^ny S22ir ♦eS ,h2n «S ir^ oSiyn laS on 

»D1 ,»3^K .13S*2r2 hS» ,H»pi» DltTDI 8*n0 DirO l2vS ^2*1^ Sh'^JT pX »:2 PHI ,"inx H2 

lS»«n niTBi nsipnm 2>2Hn »3b» nm^rS n:Bf.i n)« ins^otr oirs •"j'^i^ cmn |3n2yo 
n^u;;h /^syS .01*2 12 tnp nnirw p»2 ^iripi n.'Ci n?2 .|mn33i 8op 'C2 wn'ma 
ino uv ly i3»no» d8i ,n»j«n3 kS n32Sm D^irTy 01*2 ,iBnp'? .nma Tn^rS kSd n^nn nH 
,vnp 2"nHi nSnn n:n ,Bnpi nxn n?2 .im^fS piripo pi« /psio^ oniaan oin n2?y »n' 
nn>in2 '3k «p2 ♦d ony n'»»i HS2 ,>5ipnS k3So» .mn npi n»i n2VD nnHM S2K 
•12 »i:ir"i2 ,m:fn ')nj«'? w .onoi2 ni3ir »n»n2 ,m2»yn 112 .mSTon itdi nsi^^ni n32Sn 
,in*:' rhv ?c^ pi^n nn po yT .mvn nnwS iSi30 pAn mvn oiip lOiS mn KoSy2 toii 
Bfin-. p ovn nvnS rh^^n inK i^n ovn ,irinn p .;h2 lo'^c onri *3C^ S222tr n»2nS 
*?»S mnc nyc^m onc^y ov nr'jrnrD n:tnn n32Sn n»xi3 OKir i3iaS ,v5c^b* W 12 .thc 
na na^ifiS yn» h^i ,S{tiDtr ^39^ /jcSac' 'n m2H .D»ySir ov2 imjc ]»iripD pK o^trSr 
.n32Sn iSiD nw ,p2B^no .02S ncnso >3H ,m!fn inxS i7«S niirn oTjp iSi3 p2 pih^n 
v'x 132D nsano TMzhn ]^^ nonn yptrne* OTip orn nHi3C* yn»2 Dvn ,m:fn o-np i?i3 
iikS myir tW2 o^iy** n32Snr nsoip iino num^n in« myir rr kSk 2nyo2 onv 
S2 njop Kmr Di»n nxi^ h^ yiT2 ,m!fr. _nn» .o-iS n»Hi3i n^ain n»2iyo p,';2 nm»n 
! ]*rTpo »K D^iy 'B Sy nn ? 2ts^nw ,n3*D npcs *koS .Ss l*y» n»Sy3i n^yc bv 
,ovn lenp^ hd ,nonn ny\':r »32S ntrrnn i3*ki I'lom ,m^n nnK i'?i3 oh ,nn2 »tnn2HS 
Qie^Bf 01^ T^2 m2iD w n3c onpnS ;»2n2 i:k pk ,pnr n^apS Kp'C2 Ss .en -^-^ir ny 



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^33 ^i?o lOD ur /n303 nicr nr ^^'^''cv^ dw .D^irrn^ ^y^atr v T3^ n*S 
^i^tryn enna n^v^crnn n^cra ^^« 'n im \tu C"»3 'jxpTn*) iD«:ir ^D^t'in'^^ t'y 
"^bo lOD nrn orn ovy hk Dvn or nx -|^ nna di« p -iDKi> cnn:) ni^ya 

Div«i>K ,p TOiK^'»J^ ow ;pp^3 D'»cnn nnon^ na^jxa ana: r\r:h^ /pcrKi 
(:S otr) nox^s' /"vyn nna^ncr n^iab njnoc' nx3 ur ,n3i33 new nr ."i^c'yn 
D'ijBm^o d^Sdh ^i>x «a irmSi^ tnr6 rrcTDna n^^pa n:cr mc»y "ncra m^v 
noi« oxK^ ,v-iano nan pxi^i /nsnc' ova njntDC' nv inn ^''I'pn nnain -lox^ 
,p:j*«T ,pinK '^jn ,pnn« ^pb'Kt bv '^rD^H «im ;p-»nx ,pinx i>in prxi ^pcxi i'j; 
«:^:n "am a"i ,ntDn"« .nv^yniD -iid^ ry^'MD "jxi ,D*cnn m»i» n:it> Kinr «S^ 
n^ ai ;noyn rh'^o nSoa Ki> rnox ^ani pnv 'i ;n'':yn ni)"3iD nSoa ,n»K 
,nnorh prc6 r.T /D^^ir 5re» pra :-io«p ""an ,n":yn n^ao n^oa '''\t:>i< i^rm 
rh'^r^ n^Da «S no« n^ p ycnn^ 'ii pm^ n .'•jn "a "d: ^:ni ;aiv ,DiSt:' pN 
a^no (.a^ "o^^P iD'^'pia :i:n Sax ,n''a p:aa K^on-^. inrSm ton ^jni ^n^^yn 
pT-y" K^T '•XTin^S «nai3 «miB^a nns n^a «"3oni bnc'ya : rr^nD -ia ^aiD 21 
iD.T^a nx iW «Sttn Mmna ipoy^ x^e^ /Httj noSon mor .Kn^nixo 
n^^noDO nvy i^d:i iai>n ? vn^am yio::* p min" nry no .ninat:' i^Sn^ri 
ir^Dni la^n .n!?"Sa o'»3Dni iku : nnh nicH ,n^^N ]'''r£Ki -i^yn -"i^nj br .nnK 
"^a kSi 'n^n^K inx a« ^^a K^i ?i:mK oa^nx «i> ♦D'^k* "« -.nox ;nS"ija 
V nirp niTTJ iri^;? pinj Dnx'r ,p5r^i noix ^aD ir:ncrj no ? ijn3« nnx dk 
,S"iDa s*n""»p ,n"3ynnS"30 ni»oa rT'o^w .aitD dv imx::'y Dvn ini«i .Di:»tD''ai 
rn^^yn n^\*Da painrn i^«n d^dm -.x^^m ,«\n ""xon (iCNj^rD^Dic xn^^nnx 
"•an ,o"-i nan ;pia« ,D"'»p o^na pxc' pra pa , o^^p cnpon n-aL** pra pa 
cnpon n^a px ,DnS x^n nnor:r ":9o ,pniDK ,D'»"p o'Mac* pra noix *ov 
K^rp -ir^oa «i» «naS\Tt ^iSoa xnaS^ni -onb «in Saxtt* ^jao ,pnniD ,D""p 
•^^BD SiS« >y .'»DV i«ra jxa ^oniei nawna |«a rK'^-^p «S ? NnaS^nx «n^S^^ 
"ai ? in^ noi^ nrnx ,S>x« inS "pan p"a .nnyion n^pn "jso ncrn Syi n''! 
K-»Ty niD"D a-i lox «:na na «::"n "an noxm ? b)bt6 nnay Koyn ,«D"n 
? n'-? pnayo ^ni3V"« xn ;^nDV"« «^n ,i:"vd «S naiyo S^« irvo xi) iS"ni 
/"d: Kpn .nny^o inSa )i>pi>pn" «S ^n^rn c*«n Spi>P"n aoio ! n^n bpbpo «n 

""cr n 
n^ioir .n'Sj? nixS ^^nnn ,^22 iSo -10:3 .noian nnwins pn:c^ ';m yno nnn m ,'i3 iSSn 
nvp^in nS»nnn mapicS ,pirKi .mpD m^rr ,pyHi H' "^ow 'ikb^ .n^sa* mS^S ,nSiA 
nnK2 inriKSv n2a2i n>Vii ^nna inn»S«y nirnai sh: nv«ma n^sn cj'ib': i3 inm i^n 
]iB^Hn ,Kipa:ir ,pinH Sp .n«7iicS ptnH ,pi3Mtr ,pi?Ki h^ ioi» Kim .njnDBn 
r^'D^S ]nn8 Ki;:a2 pcvi mnir nons r'> k»D3 ,nyp2in 3"nm no3 nV^nn ♦inv nuj-tiDS 
S;' hSh Kipon i»fipn hSit now ,o»Bnn "ii^S naio leimy »Sk .wnpoa ')pn»D leincf ,^22 
,n^:j?n n^UD n^2 .maims nsS r\H naio *aKi ^2oS oiip Tion nao laS ,o»irinn ina 
]aT2T a":?Ki ,Div DiSc pK .n»ayn2 d^dhi Dn2 nn»xty D»D»a »''>* o^oan ii*2pty d«2io d»d» 
,»Ss2 ^:m o»n o ,in^ niiro ♦an o ,n*a:?n nSuon .»Da nam .d>2id onjno inanp n>2n 
pnc72 .0"^ iy2pin ]>a2n ^^jn oixS ip2pin p'linn ♦"yn ,pa2a ina'Sm ."^02 ♦©: 'an 
ipv:t oaucn .nninn ]o ]ovy pnaS onox^ »Air ,Kn*niK ja in«y* hSt .•n»2 ,n»2 H^aom 
Dire *H ,HpT Dijro 'k ,-;nD!ri« i«n .n»ayn nS»;tta rAo2 *h ,H»n 'nan .'i2in*i2i c^piira 



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nn^oai nsn /"idk ^o« -mina -isano ^3« PDano )3^« nnooni nara ,Kan 

.Tn D^iDn ni^^oiai mina poyn "3k ; poe^ pyaiK n^n /Hi^na poyn n3"> 
^X3 ^nar^ n"^ ^J3 pno n^no rnsr D^ScnT^ nnM nn« nns'^rtD ^"»"n .pjE' r'^'^ 
n^'-rnai v onx "Sy nnetroD ^5Dc:' ,Dnb -io« /^kdt p pnv pi riK lyniiT^ 
mina^PDyi idSi .rm minn ipoyi ^a^ /d^c^on ^mo^ ino n^aiD ^dv (= o&j 
rrnDBiD K''3\>< -»3 bwDB» ai io« .idc' ^y pm^ pi nnoeTD nnw jn^p vm .vn> 
'n3^ (t onan) io«J3» ? y-p3 ^Drnjc' ^"yi^c' .lU'^v ^2^ r^ "^wb p-^o ,mT 
^i"'n^3 Dnn ^ri«vona 'n ic^m^ tna n^ycr) ^nam ,''rb« i:«"»p ban irn^K 
.s^'itS n"T f^J D^D^ n-iB^y )i)K ,nuK nn nan "id« ? no^K i^nu .nn^va «an 
"oaa iD'»nn Kan ?p-iD ^:aa "kd .pio ^^aa v^sb paiy D^yn "xa Sa n"ia 
!?8r nib"'"'na i>Kioc idk m^n^ aii .piD n^a niSyoa idk e^^p!? c'n ; siio'-K 
pn3 an iok .nnx m^poa r">pDo i^ai /pnr •t'k n:n na la nan no«|nvT n^a 
DaS nn> nxn nyiM ^oaS nm nvrn,, (jS D»Snn) ny^n ^d: pK ^ik pnr"Ta" 
"^^0 \D^^ bv :r«^' rm5:»K'n D^trin nc'S' i^y '^jriD .on^c^nD i?a t^K p^i 

J ,nnyiDn n^pn "^do ntrn i^y /n^n ^jso b^^K Sy ,n^3ynn ^:do ax Sy .tiDcn 
,T>K hv p|s pxvr D'^p n^a nMg^ai .onisn '»3Do -iik Syi rnai^n "•^do rSoa Sy 
tora na wn an noxn {:\V) ? nam nonw ^oo ipo^i)! 'DJ .pp noD "ato 
Dm ^rann Div nij^av 'n io« na^ (n nnir) a^nai "Kd /XT'on cr'^n noK 
inS np /nnoK^Si p^j'S'S min^ n^^h n\n^ n^e^n dw ^y^airn Dm '•tr^onn 
/Dibe' r« ^nnos'Si ps^e^b n^n^ ,Dii>cr c^g* fora ? nnon ptrtr inb npi ,div 
nnw B^ .nnoB'Si pc^c^S vn'- o^bs' c^^b' pra •.•ho«p ^an ksd an nox ? div 
,^an >x .p^yno px ivn rp^yno ivn ,oibcr pw niai^on nnr: p« ,div ^niaSon 

_ 'oa no noxT ,mnv ^2 iSsDim i)\^in axa 'd "2^^^ #Kfi& an no« V ^d: a"o 
^B^**! nox «^jn .nvn n^j^nmi nn^a nnab^i n^^az^ai n:vj^Kna n^an ann axa 
lae^ »nona nytrn nr /'•y^ann div :inioa c^nn p« "oki cnn yn n-n Dnan 'n 
/Tyn ypani'wi ennb nycrna ^rann ennair (aa n»ai^) nowc^j/Tyn nypain 
n^a pjntr: lacr ,aKa 'd nr ,^B^nn div .D'^ennb ^yan v "y^an n^h ^"^p '•koxi 
lae^ intrna '3 nr ,^yuirn D)v .D^cnnb ^jr^on ? ^c^^on n^S ''')p -kdki ^^m^w 

^ np '»K»D«^ .ij^pb« n^a nsn^^a D^pnv ^B' jnn^o nSptrc' Dp''n« p n^bn: jnnj 

••"t^ n 
niWiD .m 1^2 nr nS»S ]t^3i oor ]»i«i -ivp ^nn ,pnD n^a m^yos .inna rnvS 
.n«3nteS DnK!f2 nr nnn nt D»H:n^ :DmK paio i»n n^i ,nwim mno perS ,ino ,Tn r»a ^r 
iBnpr ,o»HXi» D»mSrn o^tyinnyefSy'^onD .nnn nn^poa o^ipoa ]Soi ,Haon 'oa ]3h qn 

S»nnn *n3 o^ymo ,nn »39D ^iSh S;?^ .iAd '^zyv trim ;»"S Dva i8 ,')Dn ta^rr nm 
napn odd nmn Sjn .'^aiyo SiS« ^h cair am ,n^ja SiSkS o^B^r Dva nn pen^i S^Sk 
|iSia»» oipD ny ]o^m nnnan dvS ]^)e:n» pmSm nirnS tq imenpr '^rwh ,nnyion 
io:n 'Oi .oir not ,]Dp naa .ihS om ^^h nn n n^a na^y dm '^n^Di jnn ly y^jinS 
pnr ,3^*:'Bf B^'ty .o^p n''a pKW ntn pta in:u n^jyn *d' inSoi /la H3t»a na won ai 
,01^ maSon nnw b^ ,n»3ynai nsana i3i«»S ,mDtrSi yiuv^ vn^ ,SHny« Sy ne'pn jt^.th i* 
onan '1 .in^Sy u^rvhjff ]3TnaD kS mn niBm poi ^p^yno p» ^sn .ina m3:rnn^ nam 



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,nDi KD^^K Tih noNi ^Df)''^ .non 'n tjS c^ioa^ ,in^yi03 oSrh nn« ^a nb^nnn 
-non 211 pjna^i ,no«i ^i)^^n3 ''?nDKv n^nai /idh anv (nS mocf) ma 

,Di«n xon^e' Diip «in ^3« "'n 'n„\^r6 i^mo ''3«i ,nTn iid3 "JD^ iK^r ^r^^^^" 
nna min^ m 1!dk ''p:m Dim ^^„ ; naicrn ne^y^ onxn KiDn''8r nnNS «in ^3«i 
n"K /nna miD ^33« hM;, (oirj -lox^r ,Dpn nnnn p^Ntr nno 3"^^ nnna 
opn ai) pe^n^ (i T-t?0 no5<:r ;D1k ^c' iri -iw njnpocr nnic^n n:)na ,pm^ 
iM ^^si) fcttD^i /'»^nKi> Kas a"» ^''k .")b kdii an panaa^i yDB»n'3TKai 'laimn 
"awo 'pi iw nr-iDiK^n ? hkidi invc' nan inrK ^a^na ,"^b ^div :>"« ?p 
r« D^Jiyacy nva5 ^^^k ^a «'»an i^^dk ,D^n:'»a atr kS ,1^ r^nio ,D'»nra atrn 
nnxa dm mv^ (Tp D»Sn) ,B'"n ."luva «n /T»n^a «n ^K^rp kS ?^b p^mo 
Donn) n-iya nn l^T^ "»dk^i 'lii M ^^vo ixn n^n D'^a-i D^oa na«bo ^qjfiP 
nrry /ioi3i nan 'nt» nv ')3i DnViva 'n ^x ipyvn 'tai -iiara ijn^^ i3im >i!): 
nn«^ ipyv /pjyj ,;n ">t: Diip ipyv iS lOp rminatr ]^p^) pa«a rnno^o jnS 
P"» nx nnnn «m^a n^«cr .rTi .ion p-'n^a ^d3 ^jn ? pay: jrx ,pn nw 
M Kcrv (1 i2n»2) atrial /'d^dq «r^ «S ncrx„ (» on^i) Daniina a-na : ^x^^jd: 
V non nann noi^ ,Srr> ^i» Sb'DK n:? -jok ,pan ^dv ^ai nS ^bo: /''t'S^k raa 
y'»3n ,^i)Dn ^^a ii) yacoi r^Son ^jsa pr iS papi ^nao n*ana ncnacr dixS 
;nTan m d*^d ^S /^i^ t'lno ':^2bv ^b idki ,iSon nx d^'B^ «a ,)jnD «^i pdt 
-ir3i f.n*) .iTan^ d-?x patr niraya t«a rOipoS Dnx pac* niraya jNa ."^^ xjorr 
,ni2? |ri) pT'S DmiS iSyr d^jc -. idi« o"i hm ,K'»:m ,K\n ^«:n i^n pn 
S'": nr m" kS nn m^ nr no ^jdd ; ^r: wS nn fSv: nr ^m^ v6 nn m" nr 
«S nn ,njy: nr no "jdd .n:y3 Hb^ ^^snn nn .njyji ^^snn nr ? bT^ «^ nn 
^nw ^b ,n!D^yj* n^^an ^^enn «S nn rn:y: rmD^^tr nS'sn ^^enn nr ? n^y: 
^-^jyv nc po« pn>r "an .pi ir: inxS jxa ,pi iw D-np i«a ,itDK nry^« ^a-i 
aina xni ?y-ip^D '•d "iia^vn pi iwi -p"? nr: nnxS pa pn "»w onip pa Dn«> 
^ami -inn "oaan dx '•a^. (= oir) a^nai ,"^2^ n]j'\o ^oaa^r fi nw) -idik mx 
^T« ,kS ?T'n.nn:<t» |xa',T'n Diip {xa ixi> \so /"^aS i:iy onaj nnn ?iS 
VXw* pi ma i^a ,nync» idv r*::* pi iwa }«a ,K*rp nSi ,pi iw ins^ n^«i 
n'^H nb '•iDKi /"Dx la \xiDr ai id«i ,"»« la bHM2::> ana Miyiacr loy 
iDKJtr ? yip: irxc* nyiar loy tr^c* pi inS pao ,in:v i^k ^:Dni la ^«iDe» 

.2ir* DM Hon^y in>« oji oii;5 oms '3x ,c^Dnn mo ,'n 'n .p-ii owpno oSi^n t*»r nm-tiya 
n:n .opn nntin p^H on'a^n nS'cns Snitr Dno?> one* ^SSn nno me^* irStrS nnns nns 
piDB 1^2 ,m*aDD .DmsDn orS nacn bvt p2 ronna*: .n*?:rDS -ndHn h^ ,nn3 nii3 03k 
>iBf ppn ]^3HD ii2nn n» 070^ nmS pH2 ,ppn psH .c ms paisn p3Do ir» pneS 
^zys p DK «*?» ,Dn*nipiXD'3 d>«*sv cnS 1x2 'n S» ^pytnr nyir ^22 k^ loiS ]>3ijr»D 
•i':t *?j? iB'Dnj on^iB* ,mir oam ,runnS nrw n D'31c lyii n'2 ,nni;iS .pi lu Dnp 
•j^ 'WO ,no»H Tni .pi:n3 ^rta^^jir nS>2n .i:nin la ,Sis»i m .noon 10 ,Tt^ n; .nnn 
l»Hr pp a'^s2 nr i.m nt pK^»i ]iirvS ;rix p3ior d»b^22 ^Hsiax uza .iHV3n2 2»n3i 



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a''^ na r<3in^>i>&3n'»>i)piiv {Dian D^oy ^jftriDi fjsi^n ^Kicr ^r«?tc' .''p^cnn^ 
'«38^ ,D^pnv "b:") niD3 nnn imiDO nni ^i^2\ nba^p^i cnn a"^ -inw^ ,nn 
nniDoni ponDn bnx /oa^Sn niM nnn "isk vn> ^a D^cn Dniojn^ (;i oje?s) 
i:n:Bn ,-)UV ^3"no wi^st) ,D^non n^^nna nean ,mina nsaB' D^onip^BKnt 
/in^am oa: ja oyar p^a iD'ain n» ^ironm ixoncn /O'-^n pnxa on^n^n 
njDa 1K11 iKvi,, 0:3 n';»rO -io«rwr /nniT nnS na p^n":*! D3n^:i> pnr 
D-iivi/r (33 n^n) ^^^ry ,p^a p\>< jni rh^ d:.t: poiji "'•a D^ycnon o^B'Jxn 
•^iS :)iaTD;, -iDx:s^ ,i>nTa onn^ itDrer ^3D0 ? no^ ^a b^ /in^^c* m>aS 
pen Dn-:3) ,pax na pir i"« .^rano inn'* 'n^ (2 k Smac^) n^n m»K on^Stn 
.Djn^j ^:a ]^npo) \xnno 03 n^ar n^ac^o inr«i wai io«i .mnp ^incr> 
D^'iay ^yna .pi^^Dn n:o«?i (.* Knapip ai isx ? in-3 "hd iDiia i^xnc^ ^yno 
S^Don Dna nr^f ,xnan a-i lox rO^'n pixa on^n^n on^cn ^ -nTaya ,\Si^:2 
i>^oon D3-ID ^a /ai lose «nin^ i\^ .D'DS' Dri> K^r no^vn Sy m'^n^ no^x 
(:S2rKjnDX3cr ^Dam^Sntanxn irx ,D^Dr DE^b k^B' nuvn Sy nrn^ no'K 
^aM non ^s^a noD non aii K"na .''aS ^oan ^a hkt k^ o^e^oK imjn^ pS^ 
.''i:^ni^iy t5^aa^ i^om^ aitr\ ns^oj nowir OB^aia /Iok iry^x "an ? i^ay 
"ai "ai «:n /y:ra b; laiyi py «rn:^ (so noxjir /Kcn^ ion w*3n na "or 'n 
rPn::: o\>< lovy pyi ,Kan nox .niDn km p) ,p2^Kn ptr«n Tayo ,^Kyo2'* 
pva:;D .rnno h'j Tavon Sa ,«an noxi .in^nna a^E^no nwy Kan Ka'^K '•jn 
h laiyr -d:) ? py Hy\: -dS /yra t>y iar;i \)v Ksn3,r noxjc /vyc'D i>a py i> 
n*^ tr*S.m n^vn ,n^a '•!?re^p ksd ai bv »crSn ycniT an nna win an .yc:*D 
,n^nn'o? kss an ci^oa^o nin ,nsn"x p|ia^ Knmn iT? in''av :ins noK ,H}2b]^ 
,tS*d3 D''pio kS ^^Kirr n"apn ^n:> noxi ,ni.n "sn pat in^ n^x ? nnn \^d ^'x 
;yra n3v;S ?py x:ro ^oS ^yra ^y n3iyi r^v x:ri3^ noxrj' ^nnna loipn vh 
rin^nD nnxrS •. na ppi n^Sx ,xr3n na xnx "^an nox "ini^no nnxc^ir (or) 
(no,-? c'Sn) 3"n3 :''On X3in 3n .D^vrs lovy dvob' "oi* (rD ^in^n^ ^aS xin 
.n^on 5)133^1 ,pnv n^'»nn3 ''? VE'yo t^33 n^om^ ,3'»n3i /ram ^aa 'n pn'x^ 



'"E'n 
nna ,'5m;5*si« .d-swd ,nni3Dm .nytS o^^n o^nSn nsi i32n ntw D>W3Kn ,p3»sn 
cnn* nrsir .snt^^i id3 ,dii«i .D^DSfi 10 niin pn p3ir<n ,nm2 ncaw .o»D3n n^t2Sn 
iKi,"5» ID ,c:nu '31 pnpoi .vn o^ran du3i::d ,«tvto 'an .oaiiya n"3 lannne^ ,Si2T3 
,Bf2i3 .[(nsDin) mno y2n« 'ca nn^ma v'-y 'intio na ptr nvi:?2 ,nn*ayaj .on^ 
pym i*2yD .py Sir o»aTHo r^a ,t230 ,Hcn: .maiiyn njc p^rnaai no; Sb» o^itnan p,2 tk 
,7na: «*« la^y p^i .man »*n 121 laaiBn n^aya qaS onnS c^esn D*:iyKi2iy py ,;i?yHn 
pipia irjcr ,vnna Sy I'ryan .in^nna 2rnna py »>r)n nni ni:ny i«2n k2'» >»i 
in»2t -inrnx n;5ipna pn ma ]♦» ,vj;2^fi S2 'ry iS ]n^2ya .iniK onyvaS me maV 
,mn on .Hinna ;ncn'« .lonan ?D>nan m»:f H»n na rimS mx iS won ,«mMT n^S 
ijjnpnn «*? ,nnn: )aipn hS .vr.na Sy nns^a la^H ,n»S»a2 '»piB «S .»Sy n^ap: nn^a 
:cn n2in2Jjr fc;ie ,;«2 ir panan 121 -i^ib. ,ni..^pi .ik2 ir» nrar ^n»Sx .v-^nK 
pS^D^ ,:^;':2S .n'^^irn p D»3tS oaaa ,i*::n .nax osras ,pn-i >2S mir wkc r.yp 

.8r2ran :|ir2 nn taxan bv lern^a Sy mnn ]"»;♦ (♦ 



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in''2pn lox ,Kin ;S'Nn nn^B pr n")vyc* 'jdo v mvyn nnhn "nr w^nn nun 
mD« n!D ^3fioi .jr^n nn^D oaS inan-sr na ,ni^QD on^rr T.r obS nrnn 
nsn Dab ^Dian^e' na jna onD ^oeb ^dd: :n*'2pn io« ?3na onD i3d: /min 
;D3''Sy ^oia-bonB' na ,nvD^ ;nnD^Bn n\ynDi ,r\V2bo : n^'ia "^^ish noKi ^n^r 
pypin noi> rinax !"« .iDic^n ? noai ,r]2\oh ^jdS oa'^jnar n:>y^tr na ,nwn2r 
m^py Dab -iiarx::' na ,b'K b:r iD^e^a ^:dS lypn : n^'apn iok ? b^« b^ ns^crj 
rK ,pnv^ i^'w (:Ta) ."^bS D3Dvy ompy ib'»«3 ny^v '^k nbyoi ,DmaK p pnv^ 
Sk D^nb« yotr ^a^ t»3 ri^irjo) lo^^tr nye* nniK bc' vb^d *dS «bK dikh hk pn 
.p ibt* /D1K b^ vnioiy ri-aro Dnan 'a ,pnT vki •/db' win ntr«a '^v^n inp 
mn n'»3n by p "jdidh ba ra« -j^jn ,iT3n by p -^oim ,nbDn p^yi ,mo3 i^p 
(33 or) a'Tiai f^'i^by "oon Diax bn nc' -io«nv 0* db^) iok^e' ,nb^nn r^yj 
vto ;[(:j3 p-22) Ky-iKa vcn .Tb n^Ki o^m] nniaabi mc^b noob omaK i^aM 
^rtr. /DB'n nrtr ,npyv ,npv :;n I'bx ,Di«bK» on in pripo Dnan 'i ,pnv' 
ipyv'^v (»p o^nn) a'Tian ,npyv /moo b^vn npiyi„ (^ 'Stro) a^nai ,np^ ;nryr 
^nB^« nc'^ (T» n'Bvi) a^nai /Orn '•ij^b* /dx^v on^nipixoo^ onb iva 'n bx 
^b n:oD "nn: D3^ nniK "naiav .a^nai /noc* n-itr "a ntr noir riK K-ipn xb 
omn^ (or) ,a^nai ^^Dn^tryo n« DNibxn ki^^ (j n^v) a^nai ,nis^yo ^o^k^ ^''la 
aTiai fDipo ^y\ff n« x^^i /''nc^y xbi Dnb niwb lan ntrx nyin by D^nbxn^^ 
T'K /h"i3 ^wb T^rywv film ^'^vind ib ib Diax b« 'n iok^v fr n^rK-ia 
bc' inNi /pio3 D^yen be* inx : n"ia pnns^ d^bd ': ,;nv -!"« ^KiDona 
/D^^nb inbsb ponnj^ i^ana: pio: o^nv ; D^'oi^^a be* nn«i ^piioj D^pnv 
p^iT* nyi iT'itD poiyi p^ibn D^*3i:"'a ,nn^ob inbxb ponn:) pana: pio: D^ycn 
)nov (0* c^'^nn) ?Kip ^«o ,pa« I'^w .nnnob pana^ »iaT «b ;D^nb pana^ ,iar 
nnK :pn Dvb in mna ': Dnoix jr^a x-^n /lana" b« D-pnv oyi D^'^n iddd • 
p-nD3 D^pnv ;D^'':ira be' nnx^ ;pioi D^yen b^ nnxi ,p-iitD: D^pnv be* 
/D^n^ib inb«b jnonn^i pana^ pi^oa D^yc'T ,Db)y ^^nb inb«b ponn^i pana: 
niDinb nbxi D'ly ^^nb nbx irp^ isy noi« ^^et^d D^aiu (=* Shoi) idn:e' 
(ji^ nnoT) iDx:r ,pbiyi D'^DVDVD) iV) D3iT:b piv D^-^ijo ,^Dbiy pK-nb • 
amn n« pnaa D^n^nai ^aan nx ^irva D^nsivi c'xa n^e^bci nx ^nnanw 
n^noi nnDO 'n,, c k bs*ior) n:n hidk Dn*byi /in)« n^yw ^:io nDtra Kip^ Kin 
(7 DiS.i) m i:o« DH'-byi ,iDn -eba rroo .''iDn aiv «Ma .^bri biWB' imo • 

^^55? 1 
•>u ^» ,n riSTJT.je .D'p'^a n^ziK ,]\")»3n3 ':np '21 .lax 3 tp3 mini ^sn n-i^ '\-no 
Saa irra on» lom ,»di» 'aia .na ^cnen |ny n^n ,^»-d .o'Sin ,n»xp .a^'n^a mm ]n 
,onfen *nty .« wno n^eimnw idt ,H*n nxwn pt n^Entr .marS mw uitb^ SS»n»i ar 
jmnnS n»ny mn iS^cht m-ttb' hdih Sty .omaa K*:rn in*na |nw ]S»)cn nn'o S^ m» 
iwm i2iyi ,no3 17 .in;BO j<Sh oSiyn nn p i:ne ,Dir mn ntrKs iDxay .pr inieS 
-|00 ^rtSen p^jn .pisa nn la twdi ?::a iS nw:r*S nr n»n mSa iDwm ,vmyiy i'stdi 
mSa^'none ,73*21 ♦3*2 'n*witt^ 102 ,]n 1310 .iiS ^naS foienoi nyotr: itrvMr inSrn '•»• 
.inyio air ^ne^ *i2»ty .nmx lap mn /i3i umzn hz^ ?n» Sy r.»2n ma^r^ wn nni 
,o»non iTinra ,pn oi»S .mian nrjo Ssf p-or nw ,iw«3 oniD nrSr 
p-^ia* IviD D'2121 B»ppi ,o*wwo .ntno Sy mrno ^o^^aw^a .many can ,Bnie3 o^prn 
JT12T i*S p2nn DM noa on n»na hy ntnc^ S*«in ,TDn ♦b^-» nso .jfiyi rni* n-r 



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n pa^N^. p-is rs2]i^r\ IS^J^T c^:r ^s^xn rr;2^^^ 



16 



l^-'X ^3« /ni3n3 Tir ri"3 ^^^'^^ «^« vT'D nnna TiC» ;n:r3 nana 
D-np in''nn''B lo^ncr ^b bv ^i« /r3^"»ni D^n^n D^^pn p:3 rnnK nana nenyn 
•n^on: ^ana jnnna oyn on: ,pnv i''« .nxan n^tri? jnryno ,Dara i^'d 
t:'^w''bniBnyEV"':DD ,n^^^r inS::* n^y^ai** m:r noa : pnv ^aiS B^pS t'n n^aww 
^nwann Sy nosa :jn^j D^iyn d'P"»b nyan^a "»3n3 (.TO) .p-ne'^x VD^itrn 
(;> D'Sn) nDN^r /piD ^jaa v:b^ piaiy oi'iy "Ka i>a n^'ia /ii>^«n nn-^a ^y mvya 
.nxian ^n 'OJ .d^dh ^y p:n^j jnai /on^eyo !?a S« r^cn oaS nm nyiM^ 
nxian nS« ? pin^x n?D''« n^y nyi 'pncin 'jn ^a ? «o^^pn n^nn Kn kd^S^k 
d:ix IK "^ip na yi'xr nxan : '*inni V «^ino xjn im kid^d!? /ny^iron 
IX np n yv«c* Dix ,«anS n^^n": noan -in«^ pay^S n^^n^j ,nDBn Dn^p 
^jn nn Ccr /Xai lox ! ^^a^^ pT*: a"n^ "inxS /"^ayr*^ }n^: a^n^ Dnip rO^^K 
,Nain y-irbi Dnpn ,k>ss «y-»T nSvtn crx nn ^a ^aSi ."^ax idk .K^nno 
f^DV n f6^ .min^ n nSi ,D'n xS ? '^:nD ^:o .p^^D Dnp ^n^j^noS "tDoi -jyi 
; o""! nan ^a^n^a Dnn^ onSc* ;n nni ,n'na D^^in^j ^an :H^:m !}n^ ^an «S 
: i^Dta nn«) nn« i^a onn: apbi:* jn nni /n'na pn^: ^an ,nDi« nnin^ ^an 
^n^'na pT3 Dn«i ,D^Dn i«y p:n': 3na ,f?^Hry nn'D t'y mvya ,n«nnn ^v noea 
(T 2VX) nDi«:B» fDV Saa pno Dn« ,n!Dix "dv -ai ;aM^a Dnnj ^b::* p nn^ 
D^y^nS,, (Qir) iD«:r ,nytr ^aa pi^j onx ^noix jn: ^an "onpaS mpcnv 
^'•r^p ^"'an "K ,}n nwK '':nD ^jnp ^ai ,^c^n min" ''an nb^rh «D^n '•ai "ij^nan 
nya^Ka : Wok^ 'an -an «:nn ,«^n ^Kyot:*" n -an H:r\ "xn ,Kan no« ? DnK 
Sy r^'J"!'^ ^na ^jTxn nn^e Sy nnvya ,nKiann ^y noea ;r\i': ob)v^ D-pne 
.]n ni)-nn« /'-in© -^np -a^ o"n-a onn: ^^r pnu^ nn-napn-jDnKi ,D-Dn bv 
.x\n «oi?ya -3ry nrna v }n3 -ana nD« k^ d"o -dv -am :Kncn an note 
«ant: 'dv -a-^n n-oy^D ^non an no« «i>N ? «-n KoSva Kjvy -o: nn-PD 
c^DV n''« ."lova Dv nan ^xnc- loy oarr:^ nay oacio n)^v% (n m doSd) 
-320 .yn Diro nnin- n"K «-:n .-dv -ana ?-y-nt:K^ -n-vpK N:n-«n p-:)v» j«d3 
,n"apn noK : wn nNian pr noenr -^dd vnoaa noiy iK-an nnin nnoK no 
mox no -32D1 ; nne*ac* nxnn Da^ ^nanntr -na ^noaa noiy -jdS ^«-an 

-''c n 

125 pDxna D»:Kn ]U3 'jo jnoij rnn»£ ^^kb' ,ni3na ^ntr p:*3 .naicvi nsnrn nncjj 
^22 .^nn laftH no»pS nna ,iik3 i^opSa vnn^tr ,|S>h Ssk .^aiB ptryir ^ino nv:op 
n»or mjffz nama in*?ir n*y':ir ,n»:tr jnStr n^p^ar .nn'ivn »:*Hn vj: ra^oi cnstt ,pnr 
n**3Bf natr ly pD:i: p» n'y^nyn nr onsainn nn^s ,D»3tr trSir^ mcnytr »3to .neoc' Sr 
/^ntin .121002 Kncfn ,K»"pn nHi2n 'W .nara ,D»pnD n;»2nK2 '^ano .neair Str 
cvB fH5n im .Hzn prmo2 ynrS n'nyr ^njri-TOi .n^Sy na^rir ,r6»» njn .nwipo 
r:iT: .nprnrx h^ n^c w*»m nprar oiip paverS n^ar^a .pcnir ih nia pa2 ,np .nnn 
i25rr 3".n»2 ,«2nS .vS;» iu: npne^K Sir 3^T2'i naytrS ]n»a .nnyn; irwc' nasa ,H2nS 
i*V-«T pfrxDT tr»3>K nn ^a .i^:tpS n^o^i nn;*nT oiip ,K3in»o ^an nn .anpa viray 
miyirn ^Ksin ynt^ onpf .Scanrf pnoo p»y pcmsa mtair noaiai non ,«Sck 
naea in-a n2it:S n:*D roc^ nSv» hSchi poi oiw t22tr2 nm» c^yim ^tranrS nnnco 
''-ai ,7^:: onp .nan na92 ,n»rn^S ^bot n^n •" *3y nynra vr.6 nno» -la^rS payr 
♦:rn ,c-:k ><»?yp .pi iuk D^pis n^anK /^ano ^anp »ai 3pSpnr6 aitr incD ia>Ki nxp 



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n^rac^n piD« li^b D&n ,n^xrntra inn^oi lajrc'S pB^no /n^e^n k'^i *:d^ 
K^ytjn« Vk iry^ftc -i*k ?d''o -f^^^b n^'-i MB^n nnKa .nKan nwb ptrynoi 
Ka^py^ann n^^yo ,n''n .pnao nsipn anir D*y« .noir i:im an ik^i b^Kin 
r^KOB^ n^a nana nrw (:T) :p^B^y ''^^ ia anoi ,Da^a nnxa ann« Dp^k** 
3nj bbrin^ai ^Kosr n^a :n:p k!? ioik min^ la ^Div^an .bbn n^a nana "in«i 
in3 '•KDB' rr^aa D^K^a nnxa .na an^ nrp^b« '-ji i)K^boa jai an^o k^k ,na 
Clip nTiiTD iD^ntr ann«a «an H^:^n >a"i KO"»n^Ki xr^n 'i idk ?na 
riMB' nc^yo^ ,pi) Diip itJ^D« Kin pai ,p^pDp oatr ^i^jn nc^y ncion 
,^^^ Dasra i^d kS« /Hm oara "in« «i) :^3ni "ina now Krai .n^n ^a 
.na :n3 iry^JK ^ani ^K^i^oi p-i m^d k^^k na anj bi)n n'^ai ^kdb* n'»a n:o kSi 
,pi^a no^pb inx annK i>K'»!?Da pi idki a^ Sy ^k :K3in la nai idk (.10) 
,n*tr^brb nD«3 n^^^c' nnM dk t^onpi onn k^b' "ko .oac' ibc' njc'n b*ki 
n^niix a^K Hjih^D ? n^y^aib no^a: n^^b^ nnM dk : ^^npi Kan k:c:' ^koi 
n:vD K^ ,n^y^a;ra Koby ^Sia na ''troB^oi n^*Ki ,ki^ n^b k^b'p annKi ^S^op 
m?D''K ibc^ n^rn ctki inns : ^k:^ ^aio pnv ^ai n^j^o Kya .p^r ni>n ly n*D 
•T^ro Kva .D^*j^im : b"i< ? naipm Da:r ik /D^cnm oac' .oatr : n^S idk 
,^\s "nno niaiyo n^K^ nnM :-Kr ^aiD pnv ^ai nb now ,pnj aio Kai 
jnnK iin^mn noK tr^pb B^ii pnv ^ai non^K COS) .d'»jb» an mK ^^n 
na 3nnK : pnv i"k pai KnK '•a .n^c^^^ Di>iy^ ,r\^T2^b nooajc* n^c'cr na 
l^K .i^'n .Sao Dvro nny pa^'^n ,iaa n^c^n nna '-dk n^rac'i? nD:a3r n^^tr 
oae^a iK^y ne^n inK ,mayEr n:^ ico^no ,Da^a i^'d Diip vnn^D loanr 



^''r 1 
.•jn^'rs »3n« .rrenc^ -inK hS« iz oSn kSi mn n'aop ynrS i^rn; mi ,pn*^ ^v'^riy niron 
n»» ^^:in 'dv h 'id ,pni .n''^ nrw ]opSi n'n ^3dS cv 'S ]pB^ kSi d'O ono poc^ ]ia3 

7Sm nn^fiD poiM ^kt ,}SmS nn oira irws .»nnS pitrynoi d»o h^ hy whm nn 
,rwB? ^ow :n ^kv»i Smn .ik2D i-tk*? loanir |S»h.-i nn*c ^y pS oiip vnn»c ^osnir 
.nr.^D inaann mi^cn wsoai nwS^wa ciiirn nSyi nr-^i ]0t 8inr D>Dir:jn mo* 211 nsy n^sc 
n:ir3 oy itryov iT^iir nic'a ^ae' iBa*o rD*ii-'y ^ae' .:innH ]S'» nn^c ,;ninH op»Str 

712332 123 TMm UinTM nOHlT ,17' 2 ^212 lUH .D^^hvh D'DZDZ 7^'iV TtD^nC ,r\'^h\r 

:in20 vh .12 itry ncnsn ny nair ncnnna hS ]nown ,n"2 n2i2 inni .na^cnro mc*^i? 
,3"T2 n2Sn ^523 oiiro »hH ,n"22 pB2 B^'22 ps2 Qiena ihS n2 Jiiiitr p-iiiy»y lair ,'12 c"2 
ITin .maS^H n>cB'2 12 oSn nasn nnn io«i wna hdit ik ,pi»2 r\:s'>ph inj* jnnx iok-: 
DMX03 ,n*c^ir n)cs» «S pnyi n^c^'Sc^ nstr .12223 ipncvi t32sy2 v'D2i ,ipniyj«T ,^2V 
jims^y o«y n2 3m2 mn ♦oa pS DTip nopS ckt ,Kin |n2i .n^tr^Sc^n nop'jai n»»2iy2 noani? 
*2v *2i n2i n:« Sis2 ,oni 1112 .hm 02r2 inK2 ,rrnty niryo hS» .H'm 3n 2n:o oirft 
Ta2y .12 mc^DB^o on* 3i-tnj«n pyS nrp ,ht rrt H'lrp 3nnK .mpiSno *nr n2 nar 
nn'n .nan Sir 02«y 0222 n20 ncipn Sc DnrSa' b^isS /Htipm nzv ^H ,r,i2b Sir ,D*Bnrn 
•ffw ? 02ir mpD2 H'iTvy pr»in hh ik ,n2oS "paDn t32ir ? n'n »no»» ,i,id ni2iyD n2ir 
iVfiH ,nn2 iS^fiH .i^y»2n ]o nnoai i»yo2 n2"n ,n*BV oSiyS .02ir loirir »o ,D*:ir 2n 
-nn-ii S2D Diro n2*'n ,122 nnry2B' ly n»y<2ir2 nSi2 nam oyo kSh n*BTr2 nSi3 nS 
-lie nn»c npi^n :pma ,nwy2 iiSh Sm2 nr pB6 ]»i« ^t^d ni2n2 viBf .]2^» noan 



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(v u^ift) rnani ,Kin n^vp pj^ok "Km niOK n^vo "d^ ,Krjn ^ai ni> cj^pno 
KH Kin -!''« ? -lantD nnan apM ni3 nSoea no now /^^apnDi ^nao iddn^^ 
pjnjv ^31 /K^^niD ? |^3D ,K^« ,«3-ij iTa Kien K3":n 't «n«^ ^p-a "Kin «n^"D 
K^x ,e6K6:fcnpn ^K (: J^) f^n^^fn ^s^hvb nKunn riK njryv (nr j<-ipn) idi« c^dv 
niK»n n« Dnjnn/r (n^ wip*^) «3nnK Kip a'»nD vn^Di^i) n-:) ^ya^o Km .e'^i^cS 
pnem jnnm niKn ronn pn ."jT'pvnn nwn ly ]::•> nKiann jo on^aw n^j^ccrn 
piDK iKt> DK1 ,n"r3B^2 pniLi myc^ pryno ,n^T "jd^ icr^^c^nsr jnDrc^rni 
HKiin ,ntD:n mn p'^K -.pan iioK ,r»2-i ncK .nKan r^tr^ )nr;noi n^y-arn 
Hino ,n3n lOK "inn ? j:3-i vnricr ikd3 '"jn ^no^ps mz pn^ .r'Str ina D'»nn> 
-ID1K "^"^:n "DV "an K^^n (.T)i .ncnc^n nnn pa-i "^jtk paiD paiD p^ic'yr 
mayc' niC' "d Sy rbn^E^ pimnD npn \y\: no "Tjapn^i i^iao ^dokd^ (t» o^^ai) 
,nnaycr n^e^ pc'yr.D ,niaytr n^cr "o Sy pbn^r Sa «)« ,n-»ayB' nor^ ptrync^ 
-I01K K3"py "T) .HKan n:trS p-irynoi rHKan n^cr "d ^y li'bn:^:^ nip^ ik^" 
noB'^ prynoi d'^o an ^y p^n^^* pnvo ap^i pi3 no n^P^^ l^-i^o ^CDxa^ 
l^nac' nipT ^KT fmayc' njtrS p-icryno ,0"^ aii ^y p^najr Sa p|k ,n-iarfir 

"T 1 
irie 12 i!np nn» itw cj^dk ,rnB^ ]d -i^ryo rn iccks kih nirK jim p^m p»vp p>»rK 
inS o'pi /msyr n:ir -^rk T^m ;tnn n^pir |so "po*?^ ,rK!?vn naeia k^k ^noaa^n mro 
.n^ 'aaS m^hjff nn^zrw :m»2 JJir nitpair nKisn 'jst ,»^''r nnw nmrnn nomr ira-^ 
,inrp B|'c^ '••"'^ '^'^^ '^^^^ nmzn jcd^k ,nHVvn naro K\-rtr ^rurn n^va n^S ^^p np 
.i:p»m -n:JO icdhs noSra /='ri3 »m .mn Tvp ]^wh rvvr^^nh «Tn» q»0H ♦Km niewpT 
pHW 121 ,mii»n pirp lua =p'i P^^ n*«ca roio hm lao rnB^S nnan iioSr ,id -cki 
mnrnnir ]H3d i^oSair piiso w^n ,n»2 mn wnS'o km .pun p iSn»;n nnDia Sipo 
mpi HaBf*Sa vontyo i»cir n*c» *»?^"» "loi^ /«^3 n»2 mir H3»an »2i hjiki .ir'Sr inK 
K»nr3 nnc^r ,B^irS kSh vfhjsh ^-^^n hn oom c^rS n>n2rn nn niryi .m Ki>n» ^Hh^ 
.p n»:Dp '3^0 ,'o ]'^':rA Tiwn .n^yrc^n ruea Sana no Sy n2wn ,n»ciA .nSiB^2 B»'Str2 
]nrrtDi /3V itryo n^tr^Cf o«i »:ir ivyo m':tr d» ,m2;'r nar nnc^oa ,i2jBfS ^'•tyyra 
miro OH pD'pS natw ;nK2n T\iwh Dntrynoi .n"i »:bS n"p'2C^ 2-^^ imrn om ,n»v*2B'2 
o-np vnn^t itMnt? iS*k i»pi*B2 nS wn ppS ,noan nn2 .n'v»2ir tm^hv ,Hm ;-iitr ♦:» 
S^'S poma ,no»pS nn2 pi» .mzyty rutr? icvno /oS^k^ .ti Hin» ,02^2 itry ne^n 
pi»yty l^no .nenim irw in2 oSn» ,iruir |»oa nvaap ,*:n .'o n^i 2ir pi» ap»S 
,oyD P21C01 ]^ph cvn hSh ,inH2 ptap^a pntr ,oyo oyo ic^ lanjr nino ,p2iD p2->c 
DM ,n'n in^S pancan 03; nn ♦39S psisan ,nn» i»2-nvo ?b"i cnn iK^foai eye •iro-'i 
jy^n Sy cnnn p iirya V'n ,rninryD ir^ico ^n'trD pi^ nxtra no»pS irw ]n2 pi'jin 
nnn n:2 nntr ,mtyn S2 ncniro nni* muim ^ncntrn in2 in2 ♦Sth ,nan Sy im pi 
'bS ]0t yi2pS D»02nn 1^2 nSi2i ,)n p2-nD pm nv:opi p»nn nn»fl ib^'di nniH pv^u 
ann2TT pi* le^o pr 5n2pS o»D3n o'sd ik30 ^l^p'oi 15i:jd •icdk2 .mm inn SdS orn 
->ue mm ina nsVnc^ ,2pn pu nanna i«n» iScf b|*dh Sa ,HaSy2 nnsoDuS na>pS ^rw 
,inSn:i rn inSr tr»^r nninr ,n'D*02 iSiair nsr inw p2 nsSm? nn ,BfiSB' nH>2rw nar 
vmi'fi nSna *?Dr ,n!:an in>* ]S»2 la^n laS /12 Sa hh .pnn2 iijp»S niKi nyjr nnwcr 
nair u^tti ,me2n nsB' Sy i^Snjty mpn> ikv* .«in naai "i^h p^nn c)ir ni«*>ynr »' y 
Sy o^na o^yiT 2nr ,Dn3W na on ,d»d 211 .nSnjn ntin kmi nm» p?rjj »vw ,ina»pS 
pa iSn2 n'prm lawr rsya ,Tan piK ppiroi ]*Siir p2iHB' Sy b|h ,d*o Sa Sy .ci» 
^n .P'S»2 new ]^i:i i^rya pur .o'rnrn b'^v2 .nKptwi2 -.am pTn p ono ,pi»n 



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op'h^ irm-©tefrn «3n xbe^ iy n"-! aiy pi^ Dp^VT'n .Kn^n^srre'^a^ pan wn 
jntryoi ronn r«K' '»Di> rnr i^y.nro jnK^yo'^ ro">'»n p« /B^DK^n «aneiD (O**) 
fiT'ir'i^s'p no^a: n''''3:r nmn dx .trinn :»]; tj'nt p «Si js^n bv ^nnn p v6 
nox ?o'M3D r''3j; n-^jo) pirxi is^yo n^^'b:^ ^"^^ iB^yoi pcr«n i;rjnD n^2\sr 
n:^ n'^'byn njB^a ^nxun nK^yo ^a n« ne^y^ nSan ^a,, (o onan) ^an 
/oy iB^iTDi psrxT -iB^yo •? iv'-a «n ,in^ nwo Kb« na pkb' njB' /le^nDn 

DaS "nn: nrx ns^yan nx Sx-icr^ "^a nxo inpn "a dh^Sk nioxi "»ain Dni)n 
pr^.o is'yo P|K fp-^i^n nb px ni?n3 no ,n^n:i> ainan itr^pn "oan^ma onwa 
trim ne^;; d::*^ n^io /n^s'? n^an^ nxjn iiion ,i"n ."lai Dm:^i .poen ^S pic 
p-a ,biSxa n:;a'ni Dn-j*ya «i>K loy vh i^^ax ,it n:B*b "id« dw ,ovb nx*o 
.Tvb lyovx «ni n^t^y >ap n^tre^ niy^-^ ,n:ir ^^ nnt>y /nc^na nn« or y^^nc^ 
nxiann ^noi'ns^o pSnn ,Dnn pn .dik "^a pK'S -inx i^n D^nnoa ? jc'»: kl^so 
Dwrni nxiann .D^yi6 novn^D ynovntro ^ko ,ir^Sr ik^-b^ dthhi 
"•DV "a-n n'»DB'o na 100^ pnv i^'x "Dx a^ io« ? D"n:D ,ir^S8r w^a^cia 
TiiaiDH ina rrjD^^'n n^r nyioa D'^b' yae^ ppD,, («S bnzi) xip note ,^b':>in 
nxnn ^a iS noi!? «S« i «^^ n^jraty ,noiDn 3na n^rn*ay ^xo nDOjrn mc^ 
n^'p 10 : .n^:^:D'^a n^y^acr :in^J:> u am: nnx n''-i "•obS n^y acra tr^t>2^ nx^anc* 
in iy ^TH) oo:rn xDian iDxp^ y?a S^v x> xd^jti (.D ."ax ai!? XTr u-i 
? pi^DX "XD "njcrn nxva ^i^oxn inu (as mor) a^nai .t'd xS ? niaion 
,pa-ib ins D'p^ ^n^vp ^ji^dx "xd xSx /'iDDxa^ a^nan ^ne^DX icra xan :n xd*^''« 

o;5>S .nn^mm co iS yi2p dvt ]r;*D:rKi ,]32-n nan .miirroS nan j^i wpi»^ icrrT 
car ♦nr2 nphz d» ,'k niirs Snay t'yw ,nttfy3 ]'3;»S Snn na^pS via pin p»yiOBrj* ,pn» 
nam tapSar no ,n»»3iy .nar nsir 2>n2T ,j3^n S;? irinn p vo'>in pnr ,|m rm *in 
')W;»o nny^y naw opSae^ noi ^D'Smo »aBf -^ryo^ nV? ptwi iryo no^or Sty n^aBr 
na ama v»v nay .♦ay lyya na a-na »»« n^e^-^irn ,>S»d on Kao .>3y -lafyo^ pym 
ly inay Tna ;n» ,|iiwn nc^yo ira Kn .n'asSr D>ay *nra unair nniryon p ^tnie iAk 
RK w .*ay iir;»D mm ,naoSHSi oin*S naV a^naia »aty ntr;*D oipoa qor ,»ay nofyoi .n:n 
Hin^ ,naoS>iSi oin^S laS mSS S*tki tmon KMn p3»p in nc^an nacn ,St32» ptwn ibttd 
'oi Hair ]0T Sa py»T nyyo? ,nSn nai .pxa pSi iS pny 'ay SVaa nS bj^B' *ay lyjrD 
ma cn>f pKir ,oi» ua iw? .'iai nSn k2i loui o^air e^y nxpo : a^na r\^^m natya urn 
,na-mya •I'San po ,]nSnn .nn na^n nnpS Di«»aa iiti ,')anSSu'i Hintr ]ib6 Sy i6» 
.laina naix prny ,vyyth nD:fnira .inp>pS natr inK hSi nwyno »in inn^ojr naer imt 
iN{ii»B^ in!f» ,D»n»Tm .ap» n>«ianai pu nniana a*nai ,nHian pnip Bn^m pi ,met:nn 
,**?'o 'an nao .n'i?'SBf dk n'^aB' dk oSiy^a b^^Sb^ ia lyuny naB^ inn p^wynD btSbt 
nnpS ,n»nTay 'hd ? ^h Bf^Sy inai ]SaDi ,i«n^i>«T mn ib^di >Kp o^nnnt rwianir 
.no^aa^n^aaa laai nno na^ayn nKs« 11a nn ,T3'oy.T nay o»ay yar Bjiaay n^aian n 
njfian n n».<i n»y»aya ii^h mn^ n'anay Sy Kiny nai i*? y» hv p^m ,Ma -|S idiS k?k 
nuja KaaTiia»p nv^awa Syann? iS»nnn »h iV»2hi ,SSa S"y hS hovti ,y^y n.-t^^riBr 
ix^anya kS.< lenp 'ynySi ,to h? .ivipSi yn-iSa mann an ly mo^» lyo^S mrar 
ncoK pra nai uw2\ man oy mnm hd'S^sc ,yD}iin an 'hd .nannn Hip na-joT bt^ 
<HD hSk .i^yyo nx ifiawa n^cia Kip K^nna a^na nn *?i:Dn nn Kip ma a»nai h na^ 



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^xm vi2yo \so .D>ir '3n^« u nS^B' m^ ''ana D^an^xn m>3 ^xib^ i5^« Sa 
(1 nyQ) -I01K1 /^lac'iD iJT'x,, (no •^noa) rnana ? «in "»D'»pm «3B^S jn^K 
nSo p^J3E^ poif -ID1K ycnn^ ^31 .''p« no^s Don^xni 'n an nx onn lyoty,, 

jD^33 i"D .D^ip ^:nvT u nSiaB' nio ''vr cnna n^rnin natra onvo pKtD 
Dn^^K noK^v (»^ cnm) lOKjir ,ino ntrnn ,n^3 nrna T'd ;vto p^aa /ni^ia 
'^o^ ixi^o DIM ? Dvn ^n noi /Orn b*n pKK' *Dvn ^djk natr onrjn n«D p 

3'n3i3 ? t^3D /pnv^ 1S1: RDsa /xbox T^^ IBM nx,r (w moiy) iokjb^ 
,mvy3 n^S noxpi /nssa K!D'b'»« ? ^Kp no'-x ^'T^tK i^^H nxnoS,, (m nnwna) 
ns^ria ^n3K ^nc^na n^^ ntD.>:pi nivya ^Kpn kSk ? mi>^ kp "^ pov pc^na 
Kp ^3 MT* xn^B^a "riDS /p^:2 n'b -^onp^ ana ^Kpi k^k ? mi)> xp ^d ♦ni^ 
njfyrh mb^^ Yob '^a« /S"i::n no -ioki ,^n^^ maiytD nac^ nnix wn ? nnS^ 
>^M^ (kh ^.<iDr) i»x3rTPmpD^ mbr nv2^b m^" ,ryo'>po^ nib^^ nrw 
^m .mc' mpaa n"i3 .D^:r d^o' mroi D^nc* n^Dipn mp'^o ''D'»D\n nDipr6 
H-13 a^na ,nvaT nrar «^nx ,nrps nrpe «^nx nry^x Vk ?i^3o .n^m 
K'nw *'n n-ian^ (» h Swoir) nana a^nai ,*^ni pk D'^n^x niarv (S n^rma) 
a^na ,m-pD nT^ps ;''nxmn pnar pnar^ (33 nip^o a^nan /n^'io ni^ar n-i-ar 
nx npD 'nv {«3 nnyjt'^a) mcra a^nai ''nan nx 'n npD ^a,, (2 k Smoir) nana 
tnna wn,, (na o^Snn) a-nan ? i^ao ,pn«n n^ao ^idv kv^ n^-ia /mc' 
nnxva 1DB» ^iDin^a nny,, (:NM ''-lowi Kin ^xir'S pn "^a la'^an avb noaa nair 
••nxvim,, (1 mo7) Kan a'»na rD^ivoa la^nDKO muy n^taa nacrn B*«ia ."loiai 
p^aa ."iDas' ^aoo ^niTon (hs c^Snn) onn a^nai "onvo m^ao rnno oanx 
cnina lypn^r. xan a^na /imcr idib* K'^nx :bv(yh p'^^P nc'na yxn^Kna oSxaa 
p^aa "I01K yc^in^ ^ai ."'tma lai^a ypn^ Kinn Di^a^ (t3 ''ye^) onn a^nai ''-idie^ 
no^iron i?"!? "onioc' ^^^^ (2* moir) x-ip noK ? j^ao ^Sxa^^ p^ny p^aa ,^^Kaa 
nsipni)! nrr^x 'na tnaoS paio ^K->r^ noan ,n''n (.n**) .n^crxna nD> ncc^ xai 
n^pr^ K)n .nipi-Si .ynn^ na SudS nx paiD D^iyn niDiK ^an \v^\n^ ^ana 
^jaan Kin ! nni*»ya la^-n ? pT is^yo onao *kd nipi^:) romaiji nnc'ytD^ 

p»3i p20n 3"» ,p*32 122 nSa i»*h «rinn3ir2 ^dSij? »2nin 12 nSiar .mn i»<j« ,in irina 
]iym »2n o^'S n'^w 2Wj« i^idS .n«nS ^nwsnnS .n32S Sb' n<»H i^n^ itroa riBipnn 
.011 D^r'^B' hv ''»Sb» D»nnS nSi* ^i^oipaS mSi* n3»» .m: naass ^t'dS iS^sk .p hySi 
2»n2 Bi-jra ,n:cf Sidd 'nnon .Sxnr»S pn ot 2>n2 mp nnm rrina ,^ay eiain^a nny 
nur ]»3iD pt^^Sh »212 Si2dS ^3113 S>«ntr »33i. .n'nw^'? ,x2i no^yon .ti3in»3 nny via 
,oSiyn Hiaa ncna %iS '-i^a^T outohSi ,o'3C^n nS*nn nrna nm-;n m^n dSij? nwnn na 
]»3n naaSm nam nsipn r:ioc^a ,vB^'n» ^ana nsipnSi ;o»3»S n:irn trsi ntrrn iAk 
nSt« p»3 nnpn ]*« la^s*? ,p*3a nan ntrac^ ♦yan S»S nS^nnai ,iKia3 p^a*:!!^ laiS ,p»3a 
v»»a ^naai ,m:aS p^aa pS^nna nnnn m;Bf i^saS lai'ja ,hMDh v[h .Dvn »5r>a-t 'la hSk 
^aan nn oatra nnr mn po ,o»an nanir pcwia niKa ofcn nnna lannra a";r ,-n» 
^y n"n any opS3n pma ron^^ rHt? Mty*i cm ]»2yS pi» ntr^a ^nipi*Si .cm nry D»3tr 
nn ]>3yS yiap rrn tr'r ny^ac^n ,;3am H3n .trnsa ppS ,om3*?i .nsim rxn nnx o,"5S:n 
,piT K3m .i*?ir icn nnS yiap dv iS qxr pi irya X3n mm ,}3am pi» lyjraa * iirn 



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'i) m^n'» '1 n3i n pnv •t'k «aK ia x^^n "si id« .p rr'a!? niiDO n:'K in 

"jD^Ji V3dS cm: «ipD /naopi ^n nnayo jnir^B' onoiw o^oan ^a« ,^di^ 

^H^ryn ^pKa^ rrom ^pxi^ nyina ib^DXi wnn ''^ar^ Tnam .inn«i>i V3D 

* nvinn :ni3 o\y ,p«3 3ni3 irKB' pn /pxb nvma ini: ,pKa -im ani^tr pn 

nn« pTi ^Ti^i^n n^c^KiO/r (h* onai) n^nsT ncrno njK^ n^c^ pi^^*i Ti^y^ain 
/H^trn cr«T "^ab dv d^B'^j^ ^n^yacr 2"iy a-a-ion nnxi ijn^on inM ycion 
nni^y k^j ,nr^n c'xn "od^ dv '^jd nina ,n^r3*^a p"pi> imoi ; noc^ ib nnby 
,D3B'3 ro ny piD« ,n ny^o: niTDi (.^) /'•yatra \o'^'pb niDXi ,n3cr ib 
1CD01 pnr '-I 10K Ka« 13 ^^'•n i''^ ? o^'no /yan ^yanb dxi ,ni)iy nbnyi) uh 
''n^B^Dnn narai n^y^mn njc^ai/r (ta^ Kip»i) ,kip iok ,^k:^ '-n •T'ctro nn 
D1B1D miD« rnyi n'»B'^Dn3':j' o'^ysi .n^iy oitro n-iioK pnyi n^yanac' onDyo 
mo nc^na ,nD« nS^ nc^ria olnyn xnao n^ria now «"i /K^^n (:^) .'•yan 
JT'aD pjor «v'» n:\:^ry t:'«na ,n:m ^ni me^ nip^^ n^ia ,pnv^ -iSi3 noea .ni3« 
jnmy nirna /ii>W3 poa ronvoa ij-niaxo n-.iay n^ca n^'ia (.t;^) ,piD«n 
,niaK mo p^ja ,niaK nino p'^^a /obiyn K-ia: p'^a idik yinn^ ^an .bwb 
,piDKn n-ao t\DV xv n^'ia ,n:m i?n-i n-i^^ mpej n"na ,pn^^ nbi3 noea 
"ai x>jn 3«r^ pmy p"':a ,ii?8i3 p^^a ^onvoa i^miaxo muy n^oa n^'-ia 
«snn D'ni>« nox^i,, (« n^cwTi 'ob^ ? ob^yn xia: nc^nac' p^jd ^hdik iry^bx 
Ki>D l^^«i D^Ken nx^viD pKntr tnn inp« ^'»ib ]*y y-»T ynro ac'y kbh pxn 
inoyi D^cri nin ,nn^n ny^an pr pisn inwi , "^iz^n nr . noi« mh ,niTD 
? D^yn K-ia: ]T:2y p'^o r"ioix y^in* '-i /'p^^ 1^ •"'^l^^ "^^^ (= db^) iowb^ 
nn inr« "ns n\^)v r^i yiT ynro ary Ksri pxn Kvinv f« oir) -jok:^ 
pr p"iDn ini«i •.p'-j nr idi« ^in ,nn^B K^no jS^ki d^kiti hk^^ pkhb' 
r^iDiii |«vn Dna ic'ai?,, (hd D>Sn) hok^B' .nr ^v« nr r^mtDB^ ^iiyi n^m nona 
noStr ^!?on bn 'hnp^n (n k'^d) io«^8r ? nu« n^ij "ncrnatr p^jo idik k""! 

.TttDD onay m^rcn r^ipriS Dm*?B^ miiA .t'i'? mi^D ifiiir nypn k'i .dSi>'S 'n'on 
nnna a^nai wyp'^p nta^ocf onn^S^ .w air^n ^ic^n hS laSn Sam Star* }8a» ow dhtpS 
nSty H'm ,r>3D ny^oaVi .0"D ^av yoeiaa ma')S ^Sav aviam .innnK h» tr»j« onaen 
DV y^nty po ,n:tr iS nnSjr .n^ana \h^H ,aono .f "^na m^Drn n» e\t^3 ^inao ? nrn 
n»n ly ,n3ty A nnSy hS dv d-w'^cd nine .nSny '3«y r:DS n:ir iS nnSy ntrna inn 
pcoioty n^^ac' ncoin owr^ lo^pS i^dh K»n rvyair anj? dxi ,n»yair ai^? nant d» ,«in 
^r •T'l nnK^ nn»» na loan dj* rue' iS nrhy mo^Bf t^yKi /la onoH ^vi'ip S;» *?ino 
,npn:A ntm njc^ irxnr ^b Sy sikb^ ,nViy oiira n»D*?iy in iman pny i»o n^B^ir ruty 
ly r^h'^y ^i^ nnsS rcnnno nnac^ yn la^sS ,|?^» n^tpya naa ni ;jS*hS r/n oaca vo 
oatra vo 'np onsiinn nn»B ')n»S patyoa ^aii nViy maony ,»S'D ^an nara .oaira ro 
.»H3» 'Ti rvotro i-nawS n 'j^^ora j^jniDi poo b^ ,n3 iddi ?n*ny ♦ar riBfSa' iSar -^nHS 
1U3 ,nny onar ona^c .oaB^ ^ae"? n»yana iswnS vnn^B ')n»D dk ]aa ,n*y»a')ar d'Djtd 
n3V)3T Ka ,mBf mpca .apyn omaw ,maH nSia .^Sn paiyo oaw oiip na laanB^ nn»t 
.iiay^m pet onSina ^aoS o»Bnn nwBf ;ivn^aKO miay nVoa .]vnn r^hy -lun naitaS 
.poa Df ia»Bf 'iryi'wr pra ,Dna itraS .-nw ne f y h^i ne nsny pjn ,infi nojjar ,nD i^jy 



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ana .pp n>nn po^a^ ^Kicrc* ^nor^tD ''?^>nB^S pn 'a^ i?^n no a^K ''apy 
nav DDc^/r {n « ooSo) nox35r -p^ nS-^nn D:a3 i5?o nn^vi 'iSo noKn vnon 
ox^ax «ai>D dp*d> xyix nr\^H ^t6 ^kck n^ya *« v xoyo ^kd "it^y occw 
njcrav (na mpn) rnai vii>:o .ronDB^i .^iK pnn tns-H nDpO',«tD^K n^ya ^ki 
(K» nnan) a^nai ,nrno nae^ ,n3C^ no3^ ''ptcS n^^n"' pnar natr n^y^arn 
(nrin;;n)a*nai ?Kinncna '^a ,ncrna Tn«a niSav .niSa^'61 ."njrn n^rKie,, 
,RM npna ja pm^ "an i^B* oa ^Kyor* ^ai ,'•:» «n "idib* n^ayn a^n^a^r 
"a'^n^a^ iD«3cr "d^ v^n no /n^r D^r^enn n^tr nx onc'ipv (otrj Kvm 
noSo D^r^onn n:r nx oncnpi ^n ,^h''H^ a^'n'iD «S« ncniJnD xnn «^ b)T 
:«pna ja pnv 'i Str i:a ijKyor" n^x jxao ,nnS-nno nai^im ntnpnotr 
nSx ,Dn'3n«S payncTD k^i ,{n*naS pcDJ onay vn «S a'ST' ny n^'io 
naitra T'a ^ypn /a^n^ r:nra n^a ;|n''irKia in-nnoyi j-nocn pnin r?ai« 
••B^ ''?^"n no^ «*n ^av ,^t« x-^^n .in^fjya^ nnnn nnen ,Dn*na? onay nee^ 
^a nin^^nno na5?im ncnpnocr ora ha^ r^o^r^nn n^e* n« oncnpv 'w^r 
^av„ (oBf) !?^n ?Knp>y irino pd^dio nnc' ^nonn fjKi ;nmDa naSini rrinpno 
,nn«i D-c'^onn mir cnpo nnx ^«i cnptD nnw D^tronn njc^ /D-^enDnn njr «%i 
^Tiaxb .nn«i o^c^n mc' n^io nn« 'Ki ,n3io nn« D'^r'Dn n^tr .paii (.0) 
i3n (rQ) -kH ,it» yoc^D KP ,iNaS jxai? n^y o'^cr^on n^r oo«i .niin^ 'no 
«>ir B^yx b^y .lypn «Sc* "d ^y 5|« looc* «^c» a'^yx ''xm by\\ (na nipni pan 
«^t? D''y«''«^n Saiv poi« ^dv '•a-i ;min> 'an nan !km noi^ n^o^n ? ^nSr 
«ipor inxo ^ai ! «^n ^n v ^ypn «Str ^d ^y «!« fj^a^ on^ij' «^e' D'^yx ,ieoB' 
}^«) iny^r K^tr a^yx K^n Sav no^K "jx no "^ao o^yoo nn« «-ipoi na-io nn« 
«:>a oSy^ ic:*dj« ^xi ,Dnay m^c* xi^a D^iyt> ncBKt:* "b^ ? n*pn a^K «Sn Sav 
in '•«o .pn n^a^ mioo nrx w ,p n^aS mioo it ,nnN nan .na^tr ny^■^n 

noScf ,n2y BBP» ,rh'nr\ S333 i^d nniK p n'spnira ,ii2'vi -'?d ,n"2pnS obb^ kh* 
•nrKi r.'nD nempo ns'otr r\:vu ,f?io .'Vizn niaiiy S»2b^ ,e\H pin cns^Sn .rpS lonp 
m:ym D»3Bf ninrtr i^itr nantr noo ,S' n no ctronn nair onmpi ? vpipn mwya 
,nD323 S2^» nasTT^ /Cnpo nriK D»3tr .'nronn nscf K^ncf *:« jnv ,^»:irn cnns new 
V2 Top*? nam trna x^ns ,nn Die* trrpa nnn »ki .navn nenipo noiS t'2 ^y mvo 
,D'rann nar nn ontnpi nonatr 'cS .iniK rcnpo ^k i:dt2 nn^z H^tr ps noT2 nKn;Bf 
? 3".-.' ny nrom n^n -in« ..nans ncnpna na Sa* .nnS^nriD nmpnotr n»3»o p^cSn 
l^noKna ,Bnip Sy Sino p£»2io nny ..n^inKSc* n^r -,^2 nniK inotro ck ,nDnn '•ki 
inos^x hSi nnS^nno enpnntr onrnpia »£S» KSn ,]:ci^ ,K»n Koiro #»*n S2V V'n .lopS 
nair S2vn nair n:)0 nnit »ki naia nnit o^ronn natr : on n^ 'cm nn:: 'ciro^ K\n 
n^BfD hSk «2n Szrn nac^ naio nnK »ki ,K2n S2V ]»aaS nnni n27Jr ^21* c\oS o^cfon 
r\2V^ f]H2h^ ]HDh r\hv; onran n:tr oma n2::a2 laxn ,m)n» 'ma »p)£K^ .Sivn nnnSjf 
r>r2 n^ra h^h ,'0 itsair kSc i"*;H S2V K»n S2V .nnin na-atrS naic^Kn naen S2vn 
nsS n^nn «»n Srv 2»n2 nnn^ nm onKnp-, n:B^ D»yann nar nx nnenpi new nn2yn) 
nn2n 12 irya kS iS'cki oipa Ssa oaS H»n fev nicmn om KcnnS Hin Hn»n» jenpi 
.nn^xpi nn»Tt2i nynT2 moH nvnS I'Sy S2vn qc^ p c^yjc ,nTinje ^« 2iy^ new nnayn n^n 
\vh D«i ,S2V x»n iSSn D^n2n n»e7 ok ,»»n V'n ?S2v Kn» ,ni-!2v ^^n'^tr kSb' b^^'h S>2» 
.mSw ]iva*^ Sjenc^s n2y i2'» pxr o'a^rB fOn2y mSjy KS2 dSi;*S ntrenr .S2V wk 



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,nn wm ,Kn^nm Kop «:ni ; i^x D^oiran n^o^ in^3:> ,Kn^3 tr^rK n^K 
V30 .*nonn ir^yoS n^rn ctki ,^6»3 nn«arr :niD''p n^ar nacr^ ^dj }d^33 
rpyos^ ^ai3 n^ i3d D^t»3'ia : ^x^m «a^S« ni> 3'"»D3^ «m ^a"i ,^ov 3"i ntD« 
nyaiK wai io« ? iin rKron ,ny3iK ^an '« .tnd '•313 ni) 130 non3 icrjnD3i 
.nDn3 -)c:»yo ^n ,nv2i^ i[\vr:i\:* "31^ rO'^Sa-i bi ,nj;3-)N i^«d '3"iS ! bn n3n^ 
nty^x ^3-i,r (.ri) .Dor 'tr«n nos ;n3i ,D^cnn ny3n« f"iDK pnv^ 13 pn: 3n 
^o«3r* ,^c^n nnx «i?d on^^cn .pnv i^'x .''nm3 nn«3 Dnoi« pjtDtr ^311 
^no\^ /13D o''"i '"iT*j*' «!« lyxmn'' 13 ^D:3jr o^potn jxvn ons ie»3t>;f (nr o'S^nn) 
: m«D o3 iD::y'' D-'poy '•nD\^^ ; "13 isor D^-^oycr }ot3 .{«vn ons itr3S 
"riD^K Dnoix tr^'ii "ity^x "31 .^iSk jnSr n"-i ,3x3 nn:>ri ,nK3 nn3ynD 
;p*:3 ?nTy nnDi« D'^3C' tio^x rn^r* 5|« lyynriT pT3 'n«vn Dn3 irsS 
tKvn Dn3 ir3^ ,y^3n "idx «3i .nrn ini)C» n-i ,tvi^«3 nni>vi }d^33 nn3yntD 
^"iryn ie*y^ {v on-n) "jSg-iop jc^p >xn3 X3m pi«3 13 iDoy^ D^pnycr iot3 
C'^po n30 D"! ;pi T^yo Tn«i ,nDn3 "is*yo inx : 1310 3in3n nncrytD ^^^3 
TitDD nDn3 -iry*: 5i« .n^r^y noj^ ^iod jn ncnnD no rjn nryoS nDn3 icrytD 
n''! pi -ic^yo no ,pi ntryoS non3 nryo cr^-^o ,n3D r^ni x^ni .nir^y nojS 
^xr)S :"D^3e*S n'*! nm3 nnx3^ .nrn iSe* n*-) ,nrDn3 nc^yiD n« ,nc*n iSr 
]on3 31 .D^yn ni3: n'^n3 noxi f«M K^n^ .nBipni> Nin "•3-1 icn ? xna^n 
n^i^'xio m:c» nnnx lyi n:trn n^rNnOr* («* on-n) 3^131 .p^ OOK pnr -13 
rrn3 iypn,r («3 o^?nn) 3^n3T ?xin nrm ^«oo .nDiD3 xn^ no pi^o n:rn 
;n"-i nt nD^8< ^n ?u nDsno cninnr CHJ Jn inr -« /irjn dv^ nD33 '^bib' 
.-S^e-iir^p pn '•s^ iTi .''3py'' ^nSxS ODro r«in ^xir»^ pn '3,r(K8 c^rnn) 3'n3) 

«roi» rnSna -rviS xn»2 i:j^o^ wk nia kVt ,Kn:JK Kne^ lesim HnjnKi is»d^ »3*St 
?n:r ^S nnSy nrn ^♦^jintr ;v2 h^hni 'hi kSk nay kS dk ,o»n2 nnoirS n"i ,nyn kjs'ki 
•'OK K?! ,Hn»*n2n p"m .i;ik D^oy^n *o» ir6irS ntrn'" tjod Kn»2 ir3»« "uh o »3ro) 
man jon ,»si »2T .D*ar3n niao *im piv D'oir:n pjypna D»ry ,no»p .o^n: nnorS 
r'5:i rn^anoS nnoK K^iriJ nm ,*3n »k .wn nro Hnm ,H2n nna nnn KnS»D z»D3i /»3noS 
,S^K2 irw^ ,p^32 iry ntram ,p»:2 inx : inau D^atrn ^trx-i ntran ,K3n nns «nn n»nS»D 
nnnSi p»cBf ,rvJ3- *-^3 J^s'nS nS nsD.-Jio »« Kn»3 hh Ioib^i -ib^ ntram ,»irn: nnKi 

n**? n»Hi ,i^HO »2"iS .ny:-iK: >S cn^a '•an in>ai ^'S htid niran K3« naxp '3i^ ,i«»n 
]i^ap 'i*?i 3»y^T Kn*n:s K*:nr pr^nn S:2 iriy ipk S;ii nnnSn ,ojS;ti *n ,SiS»2inK 
^yxi naa ?n2i .Kin n:c*n trnn ^aa -^B^i^a ih?^^ ,nyn2 irmz kSk n»n^i ,nan2 irya St 
.rn::*nac o^tri^n nitriSna ,;!«sn ona iiriS .n»^ z'snp nn ,^'-\d rv2 n»KT p»3 laSn ,o^zv 
nmnnm nivpn pt jr^^^ra p*:: ,n»tr c^k i^^^nn^ .ns* ms'ST nnan nynrnsy p^ icoy* 
n-2n2 -nry pr .nniitras mKn:i hypn yatr: ,n Sy n ccpw im n2wa nnm nSir '»B^p3 
;aT2 .nam BnrnS ^nSiy ?r^ ni pr na:iS -;ia3T ,SiSk ^nSc^ n^n .B»nn ntr:3n np-x 
,tapS n'S ♦an om nyn nncyaS nn ,r^B'*y •'laaS y.c: ]ii nryo .n^Sisnm oyynnnr 
raiay *^aiS ,nfiipnS .nncfitr m:"ia2 ^z'h 'n'aa nam ma* Sn ,H^n i-iaaS iior ncfni 
Sa nK nyn^ p n'^pntr ,pS .ns^na na^S-s nnS^ai nam nisipn hu piS*m in'^naS 
'sS n-ira 'aaS mz'iyi r"iva '32^ n-iiy p« cpimS ,12 n^ana cnnnr .nSyn 'H3 
r-tnn pn nn Skib^ ij^^p ex p'm ,'i3 cnnn icnp p ok kSk .nrnM? iia? K^n naapv 



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Th p:io 'HD^KD ,-1^33 ,in^ K'vyv^ I nnom nn^« «m ,i)^b piD^ni ,^^3K b*« 
; n«vnnS nxi^e' nyro lox apr i3 «n« m n'^^.sr nptro lOK ^^3K ? n:B^ 
iT^ D^pn ? n^^ ^'2K ^«3 ^ D10 i>ya .did ^P33 Kn (.T) .ona kh /rSfi t6\ 
.D^^ptr nonnSi ;piu^i;i>i ,D^Ennfj n^i ,|o'03 nnxa nTi .vcnn o ^Sar n^a 
nrn dnn/, (2» nay) a^nan ? i^jd D^cnni* .D^na nn^atrb «)« ,DnDiK B^n 
enn n« nio*^^ (t> onan) a^nai /n^c^n "cnn^ oa^ N^n ]^^t^'^ o^crrn e^xi Da> 
KD^Si .pjTKn .T^b npi .p": nt "iDiK ^iH ? a^a« ia cr^r Knn inr8< "a^axn 
:KanD «iDn ai id« «Sk ? a^na a^a« an n*"© .«a''>i ,a^a« an N^-^ya ? niK 
)nrK "pKn n«un nx oaDoxa ^racrn enn^ dv nry nc^na ik,, (:i3 xip»0 
?bib« «o^K^ .'♦rac' iT^ np Kpi /-crn nr pdi« 'in ?ns'D« ^2 trr tnn 
K^K ? a^na ^i^dn an n'o .«3^h /ej'-DX an K^^a ? iixt* "y^ac^ ^'•y^aB' ^«d) 
(;» inDK) ^ncb nbapnaio ^nr:h vh irai ni:^ mino nt "lan /Kran itDX 
p« «^:nm ?fr3D poo jmay^^ .pia^yS /p^: e^in «n ;\yl^'^r^ cnna^ 
K^m .piu^y npDsn ? piia'^y "ko ,pny» ia fion: ai i»« ! -nx tfh^ p-iayo 
n^B'K^ i^K ? t^:D .D^^ps' nonnS .n^^op «^ npaena n^nDp nbnnna .pn 
/Cnn mm mo« ,"n3trn ^;rinS v^na cnn n^^y nxr,^ (na -isnoa) vnp -idk 
Kin pB^«i,, (2> maty) aTian /p^^o n;B^ n:cr no^i ; ncnn nonno pip «an\ 
fp-'ja THKa pxan -inv m:anp ^kidk' idj< min^ ai no« .''njE'g ^ennij oaS 
ai^nncTHM .nivoiD'^nr «^x «v^ }6r\n p K^an djo ; trrnn p K>an^ niVD 
«t) (:T) XDB' B'ln^S ,K!D^m iHD ! K^^tra .iiavS DiDD^sr la^ai ,pTB^a lf>Bt> 
«S /«v^ «^an Dx ^3nPT p^a ,pn x^ni .}b yoE'D xp /HD^ ns"* nu^v^ dido* 
n^anb n^a Ta:ron .pan i:n /D^a nn^ae^ «)« onoix cr^„ .n^b xp^oo 
K^K TDy x^ i^^ax ,iT n^s'i) lox dxi ,Dr^ di^d enin i::»y 0^:^^ niio ^n^c^^ 
^a DHD ? nE»n xo^xi .n^B^ ii) nn^y p^ja inx dv y^ncr p^a .mxa nnxa 

i*^ .i:in2 nnocn 2»n3T ,nnoty oidd po^oS n2»*n^o KoSn ik ,nn»n SsS cSjji pr ra I'^r kV 
nvD ;pna orw^ lo^yi loioa nViac ,cid S72 .rwJinS nK-i:rD nvtT)7\h ^k^t ^ona kh 
pKi mn ^23 «D'?n iSiacf ova ,7vh ^oj* »3ra »o .nSiaro ^h p:iDi ia^ nm mn n'jwr 
Kpte Kp ,pia»yS .nasTi 'trrn paoS ,o»nnS ? o^o» n:ioy ontr tr ny innnso no»nty 
pB^jii anpnS ,o»Spp nannS) .naynnS nanx r««an nam osc ,p^ySi ]n n»a air'S mnyi 
n^anS no Taran ;D»na nr.^ae^ s[h .it n:B^ »SpBf ^ir msip nonno o»mp^n nuanp 
,03^ nn Bfnn .n» irin hSk n m k^ '»£Ki ,iT3a nnna inar nn^a ,it nawS -icki 
>a ttf'Bf ,a»aKn irina naany icannK m^ a»nai ^n^sS nm nnS inp'i a^nan ? p»n iSaot 

■ ,{aoo mo:Ji naay ,Ka»*?i a'an »a»ya .nSira i-sjia n^cnaa nvnS u moa nwiannB^ ,a'a» 
.m»a naanan Ksnn k^ht h2>hi /inx »a\>ii 3*£H »Sh ,V22 nr ]»k h^'ck k^it Ka»K <kt 
♦asa n»aS nn»i ia ]»a»3aaBf ^naos* ia trr .ia nnaarra mnian an vTr ,a'aK an 
n^A ynn^ in»s 01 »a ]'3'»ya pK ,pi2ya ]»j« ,V2^'h ]»3«i3 nncf; in p'pn Sai ,o'atyri 
pB»3ia pK /"nw K^s paya pK »Kan -n» ny nann nany^ nSr ,n3tyn nx to na'yr 
•wara a»aK Hia>y pay iiaan cnn ,a'a»n um ns niair a^nan piK kSk nam Sy trnn 
niy maiya nvnSa mayB^ natr npDs p»3 oirS ennn tk le^ipy p^atr ,|ma'y npoen 
,n»^ Kp kS npacna .iia^ p'ayV miK natr naaaa •laatr pix p^a mB»;?S I'lfin pwcf 
aSa ,na» ns»-..»3mS KTn* »iyin ,»3nn7 itrna um ..n^a np k*? npocm u^im ^cfHia 
na8fn»Sn nnSna n»S k^ob kS »«♦ wan oj* ^anpi po .''anaa n'^an kSt ,nn Ham .oStr 
ina^Sc n:tr na -ni nay iS nnSy janan kS ona i»xaa Sax pnna inna xSh .d'3B^ 'twia 



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nivo n ^i^riBC' Kyio^r (;»3 nnn) .T-n (.1) Kon ^oaipa «^i ''Kon ^a hmv/ 

^manc^ff .ijnDe^3''nan3^.D''tDbB'ini!ny /nioc'xinixoni^x ''•i^nt)K'ni);,.'nj 
,in^«b n^y a^nnD npnvi /K3i id« .npnv n ''T'D3„ .ivm pi2 "cnp )Sn 
IV ^«3''n3 ni:3ipi j<i^:y3n p^3 NO^m mo •' kd^ctd .D^^^y nD>^p xm v o^'d 
«3n b3X ,0^^313 «3Dm in^bm Kin onn /ij^'iop ,ni33-ip3 o'^i^n 'j n^ii^y nayi 
i3iy on or ^33 ,0^^:! '3 i^y n3yE' p^3 ,K3i "id«i (0) .o^^^y '•m3K' «ni ,kS 
«i)3 n^e^ on^by n3y8r p^3 /D'cnpn S3 lnH^ 1133 nnx ,'3'nnD .-in«n :^33 
,«:n3 31 10X ? n^n3vn ^«d ^sm ! insn ^33 n3iy ,n^\i^ ^bi o^Sr ,D'i>n 

Dl" ^33 '3/1"^) .TTHD «p '•IxijK «jn n3D : 3W0 Np I'BCT /3*niD «pi }ND 

Kp kS n^n'' ^j<b ninD xp i«b3 n^y3pDS «3n ,itki ? inKn ^33 i3iy on 
nn3rD ^3\n ,D^bn fc<S3 n^^ «S« .nb nrbtro n^B' ^^3 D^Sn «»Scr3 .nno 
pi33 n'h n^bi jkoS k\^ ^nS nn3'^o fpiDs itS n^sn }K»S «non ? nt> 
in3 nenpjn ,ni3iyo nitr3 nS nn3E'D ^3iS kdSb'3 v nS nn3trD "s^n 
P3ib «!?« .1S0 kS D-'Sn ,vho n^cr ,nKin3 nx ^nb''tr kod ^31 ; hivon :n 
D^oya ,ns^r D'oya ntron o^oyD ,nivy :n^yor 3i ^3m3 ? rub nn3B')o ^3m 
inxi «b.o inx .ny3tt' ,|nDn jn^jtr .ntron ,pkSo jn'^^tr viv^3N*n ,ny3-j* 
-iDX "n: inn ^3,, (:»3 onai) ? in«n ij33 mo triv ,ktt '1 "ya -nrr ocn 
! 3"»''n*D Kni ''nor Dnx3ni nor nx3i« i^^ cr) xo^i ^x ,113 kS xni x^cni 
nt ,n^:) ^ya-'^D "loyo.. 'xm ,cnv^ i3is ^^'loyo,, (:j3 or) x^^n ^31 ^3ni ,c"n 
x^n no nc X ,xin ^31 *y3 .loyD n^3 npi ,-;oy n''3 np v nxBi nn3C» cpS 
? nnora nn^x xn xobn ix ,n^xia na^^n*"© ^b xn ^pnox ^d ? mxn i^aa 

^«c* 1 
>zBh npTi rrnn i?i inr oiy p2 iinac* nnc^^ai nip-sv ^^initS n^2 cm: ,«i,to2 n^voS 
^•y '■ty ip^n inir .hkui nise^ opS nr loyo .i::n itryo i»nS8 'n ^jbS nSsm i^nSn 'n 

,ins«n i6:ff ^ntryn kS nxo n noirn .o"p i^ncc' ksio : 8ip lox on wonroi ,ncv 
1K33 ^'irra S>» ,n»ryi .'i3 hH^ ;2 iDirn -joxac oipo h2 »xrrK 1 » p» '-ns 
,npTj? IT -;^::^ .nnn^c 121 m^-iS ,«yii':« 8in w-^^n* 8np ,y'hH 'nh .s\^2h izh nir^A 
,o^;n nhz n:^ .liinp* n^yna z>n2 nm ,Kin »i^n» Kip ,imK 2np» .c^m Ki»n' ki; 
^kSh .izc "^nxn ^a nSnnn }ot n»s Sa lymnS ^-^nno «p i«Sa n'^npoS .tneo n'op*? 
niayi ,nS nnaro pi23 '721 |kdS kh^m .isc^ o*2in }ikS lymnS oiro kS n»n» 
,2^*1 ,]n:j3 D»*?:n nr;* h'jc^ c^k ,7M^ nirn P'^t TO^^ /piD3 or:ii nry hSi n:^ 
.1337! p u»K na^yn cm 1!:kt ,»2iS Ko'^ira .mnr n>7^* ^Ssji Kin2 cia nS ^21:1 
^nsan n ma .niaiyo r3B^2 n*? nnaro ,n:2*?n h*; kth* nan nacnr ov «'*o pn 
n« HT-y •'.ns*? kSj* ,«pn ikS K^na n« 'nSri S:jin inxS noxi nw /^Jt-^n -,ir2 
o^B^in cv ]vj2 nrtr wincr ,nriy '^oys .b^sd» nironi n-^tcn niKO ':» /H^d nitr .icHp 
nswTa onran inS hSo i»^xi 'Si ]::*33 n'o» via nn ,t»xi ]d>3 ,d»»So Dn*:^ .laiy"? 
'na ni«y yT»i ,n\HSo on»:iy |ua ,3»S;ii nSa n:^ nS nnacfoi /ia kSo in.< .]VS2 
,|vDa 'T2 r\^Tj yi»K^ ,o*ian ]n'3ir vn nican narSi ,ivd2 ')a ninoS njynpm ,?rr2 
Sy ,nKn ^22 mo cnv .vSy ni!fy lay «•? ]»nyi /rnpnyo poa 'i nv2 'hSd nam 
K-i»n» 'oy »:y Sb' ipSn n^ yoro layi z^nin n2 c^m ,-oyoi loy rra np .v2h n-^ 
pD^aS n2''nn3 nh ]vai ,iuaT Sa 2^nai ,n»Kia na^n'a ttb Kn pnan >a .civ ^avaS 



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D^>ri '3 ".Dta ,«^n pyo^j' "mi pnxn Saa n^by Dp^D^ m^:b .n^D Kpa: .D^i>n^ 
niDCTKi nixisnnicnpnmpoinm paiyniponn "3"^n,T'n .ni^^nnmvon jmpicD 
}V3 ,nx2i nnae* DpS (:T) /nosi nt^»yoi ma ,nnryoi nipiv /D^Sn n^^y 
^m ,pnD3 D"^n nc'^tr noiK tr^n pnxn Saa i3iy ^D^i^n nr^c* i.T'Sy naytr 
-iry^bx '-I .inKn ba miy nnx bi jn^^y layc' }V3 pd^« »n .n^^nn nivon 
,nDix c:»'nn K'n .nnxn Saa "laiy ,D'Sii ^3tr jn^^y nayr jva ,nDiK apy" p 
nao ? «tDp x:m tD"» .inxn ?aa p^Sy na'.y nia^on jn p^Sy layt:' |va 
^nai m;?iac*n inai divdh jna// (to nna-t) ana"»Di mnoS "b no^ d^Sd ^n^^j^o 
M^ /niaiDH 3na i»i^ Tjnv i:"« "^d-.x c^'n^ .nnwn Sab ,nyiD yoir ''?nia^Dn 
nocr nxaVf (2^ cc) a*nai ?id")o oni .pnn« nm* nD^b v^dk^ neb ^airan nan 
iiryn nbx- (ro 12^0:) a-nai ? Noyo ^«!d apy* p nty^bx '-11 ."nocr Dnxam 
crna «'n w^^m ? o"» e»na nryp« "11 .d^ok' Dnyio oiy^D ' oanyioa 'nb 
on^ -D-iiJ ntr noib Vidk: nob ,ain3n inn latr niaion in n»K" kS iidik 
?n"a icm "nd "niaion :nai n^yiacn ^nai ni^rn ina,, ^fccn opy* p nty^bw '•ani 
mvyb r"»30 : «"ycnx t'« Kn "iDsn /X^ynx 'i idk nrybx "a-nab inb "ya^ 
tr^po "maion inai niyiacn inai nivon ^na- b^'n '?nyair ba pDibrn nb c^c* 
niyurn in P|X ,nyac?* ba pcibc^n ib r"» nivon an no ,niVDn anS niyurn in 
n^cnp^b ? maion inb K^om n'-ana Kna^M ^kdS .nyar ba jnDibc^n 1:) tr^ 
?;SiD Dnm .ni'b pyonia^on in cjk ,nrb pyo niv»n in no (n) ^mvcn inb 
pan ^ini ?"b^o ^inir) (wT) /'^^bnK^ nabni ipaa n'-isv (^^ nnai) a^nan 
iD«ii mi ;xa noKi ?.p"iD naii pii -nSk '•b pK /mi inn -a/' (:52 on^n) 
'nb- ,iDy naii i«a 5i« /loy naii f?nb no /^naii i« mi dn./ (t Kip^) jbnS 
"vobc'i nn«n x:)// Us on^n) .nicnpnni p)0"inm panyn pom ibs ^n"^^^ 
( cy) ,D^o!>cn mbiy niotJ^xi niKon ibx ''li^^ni" mi "a// (re) ,VBiS-n k^^i {<in 

" c* 1 
inTi?2 «inir na p:;»S -.I'l ^«ni „i:*» »pc: .0''?;ji'? n^i mn p^:2 in«2 D33:n uira 
iDB »n^B^ ly i2i;» i:^Ktr '<3na ]2>yDtrKT c»'?:ii nipStr mn'K rins.i nSm piKn S22 
,|>3inm .»Sy >di io« ,poin »2^*n .i2iy «»k piD2 kSi? vh*j n2v D«ir ,inBf?B'S pc^Ki 
n:Bf2 D»DyB c^tr :2in2n lOKtra ,}h-D in»»3»D nro ^nanz iiryo ,iiyyoi 1122 ,ni=^ 'O'^n 
:2»2Kn inn mk noir p:y2 nSyoS 2in2 122 ,n^iy n^n ona '\i^ nixon ;in2 n'^-at ^a nKi» 
?ni2ian ^n 'BnE2 ina^ao^Vi riin^DS 'S noS .iS nty:;n ni2ian ;in ,iS isDn m;i2Cf nyzty 
,m2iDn ;ii V'S r» .Oj"*"' ^'*-'^ ^''^^ 02ni3 nSirS v:b^ r^na vn p"m ,iiKn h^h o"v 
2in2n i2n ^2tr .12 pn;* payn nnr ii^^rn? ^is n»n kS innn Ss^ ^n^^nc^a r« 
:ji2 iVhi ,ni:fy'? vkd .nrn nr2 oniK n2y'ir ly ,7nnH mtr id:S lona noS 
V'T ^2 r^^n in* ^2^ n»a» ny2B' 'n'? :n ^r\'•H onumo iS »pca niv::n ;i^2i nisirn 
,]»Di^B^nS V'T .138: noS ]2 dk ;'t S2 :j;iin nnn >kt ,5:jin nn8 inw oniK Vn 
,ip22 n»3CT .o"cnn ^f ,na^ pyo .»:b'2 n32np» ,pB'Ki2 inrjin ;n hS lhv 
lan ^3Ki /Vd »:n K30 .mryz niKi^ i2i»nr cv »in iiniy ,Kip lonp kS c"^2 
SKI ,113 I'jnS 1DK2 .IT m ,n2i: .^y nn ,113 ?in»n S2 »2»k S^yS '^3nD2 k'st.i 
]n2 nnn2S ]^xi 'rh ;Soi n»:n pi2 »tnp ]nr ,12 loiym pom iSk .'ui nsi: ik 113 
]*Bni3 \n\ff ,nio»w niKon i*"k ,.vci^*n Sy hSi i2iy nn» vSy ,vriSn hSi «in .ci'r2 
,n2in \njff njjui 'oSm n*»Ki mSiy p32 ,o»d*?bi m^yi .i»Sy p^cio en nl^n ^^nu -no 
l*n"» 'n .mm ^ncf ncsi itr;*o*'i -nriS ^a: n"m ,»2»n2 »ipi Ktrn2 n2i2i 1131 iVm 
tT2 *n 1:21 ,'5:cni» t?ni o zr^nh r.^h rv.m ^mn ki^t Hip nm ,r.nryoi nnpi^f ^Sh 



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«b ?Dnp oacn ne^yo KDi^n ,Dnp axn ne*yDi ^«ddi -onvD nx^v^^ |nd 
pmo nin ^1385 pHKi iT'rB: n: ^di "pn^o nx iniDn nn&c,, (or) thdi /'T'd 

ly^DDnn .^1 ""d .Sxic^a onSii) me^i n^n^: nnoDi 1123 ^:jy ipSnoii \'\nii r.DK» 
r«eM'"'^'o .pnr '-n n'-niia «^jn .jy^a Kin ,1^^]; nih ,pn'D wn ,N:n ?pn^D ^3n 

>N pDn pn« bv'h, pS 12103) ,mDi "10131 onvo pKD ^xic*" \*n nsvS n:c* 
a^nai "nn ic*y ••n^^^yn n^r D^ymxii m^i,, a'riai "nciji M '•b ^y inn in 
"131 ^3yj3n yoi'n,, ma 12102) n»ixi "10131 pmo nx inian nnx,, (k cn2i). 
n3::a ii'krxin cnna m-1/, (» ctr) idini /'ID131 pnt^ yi3 *3 myn ^3 ii<i^V/ noixi 
o ^ 03*) iDiKi ""10131 '•3crn tnna n^3t:*n n3:ra '•n^i,, (0 mor) idisi "10131 n^3L'*n 
n"« ."10131 ni3a!:' Sn^i„ (3 2 n"i) ioini "10131 ^«ik'^ "33 riKV^ ^c^^cm \:nn2„ 
.10K3C' /J300 nrno obiyn nioiK '•3t>oi» i^3N ,^kic:»^ ••sSoi) xi^ic oe* «S ,«iDn 
<2cr) 3^7131 "10131 ont'y n3-j» iSd3 cnnn m-i n^^sn p n>on3 n3iif (« n^om) 
n3cr •1''^ nm vi>D3a -xpio "10131 KnDcrnniN*> n^'^cy n:t:' 10^3 trins m-v, 
•n«MN^!?:ra «i.i}dvix^ n'^ii V?y2 ,W)\:^v n3t^sTS ^^p) }D''33 "xpi ^D-ic^y 
^3"ins N3"3oti (O) ,Ko^n ?KnDC'nnixi>i "noo ri<n t6t^ /Knocnnixh crieo 
/5<nDc*nniKb onn no ;nic* ni''T3b Dnry n:c:» onry n3r ,ne:d 31 ion .\xin 
V Dnp }D'3i nryo «oSn ,Dnp vbD3i n:j»yoi \^ooi .snornnixS N3n pjx 
iboS n^on3 po>« ,1^^333 n-on3> "33n lONir Dn3i /N-3m ,inyi npbo ^b 
.oncr^y niC' iSd3 cnn3 ^n^i n"i)3n p nnDn3 nai,, (» n^on:) ,ioN3r ,}D"33 
,10^31 trN3 inv3 nnyci ,10131 "hno inx "•33n n3^ ni^sn iric'3 "n'-M ^35<i 
^^on "32!? 30^1 /10131 r3DS p' ^^on NnotJ^nnixS Dncy n3cr p''3 cnns m^ 
^K'C's c^inp ny3i«i onrry dv3// (2 »3i) ,c|dv 31 3'no -"{ot iS n3nNi '•3n5?r"i 
/Xn"« DN1 'Tin^ inNi D'»ic»y3 '•yatra.. (3tr) ,3^1131 ."Cim^ d^dc* n3ea 
^3"aS nM 1^3 Tjpo rii3 max ^31 ion ? n^^ '•y3*o n'\:^'h^* n:^2 '•y"3tri 
a''n3i ! mnx \^ip ic»p 3"ni Nin ,^dv 31 ni> ti'-pno .^Nie»" "3^03 1^ 130 
ni3SoS n'-c' r.3C' nm "i n« ni^S xn^^n or iy n31 «n"'3 n^V'BI'/ (1 «it7) 
.3''h3i ,i:.y iniS3i ^330 «iTy nSy nxsn n3r^ jot iniN3 /K'»3ni ''N3bo mm 
n3r ,Nn"x DN1 '^^S n-'y^sc^n n3e* x'^n ^e^^onn cnn3 d^^e^^ii'' n3"V/ (i cv) 
^D''!?3i!n (.1) .K^t^'p Vcnm N3n eni3 onn ,>oi "-o ,iiyi ? n^p "•y3''o n"3''orn 

n3rn TNI 13r ,^31 rNIOn 31 ion ? Nin p"33 V'03 /Kin p>33 inK3 D'^31 

^^^ 1 

•n»3B^ n3Br2 n^nir ,ptron nD;:n*? »o^n .«"0 n:Bf 020^2 n^h mn nn ntyn ♦iti n"i wS 
1DH3 ,pio n» in^rn nin .dv2'^k n:B^ n::323 viihu ntrnn ,nnp ortn ntryo MoSn 
-j22Bf K2 o'Sb^itd /^33n H21 3*;*^ M^'«T '«i? '^132 ,pni^ '11 n»miD K»:n .nun n:trD2 
/Cnic^.iK in«ir trim int ,Kn3BTini«i ciiicn» *d'2i vo^2 cr vni Bni2 mo^o n^wn '32 iSy 
l^'oS D\:tron iir nM m^r\ p n»on3i ,^=22 nKcr3 n2im ,iyviiS o>ntr n3B'2 n^in n32:r 
^23f pi3B2 2in2 Ki03 kSi hi,';02 pi23 ;'3n mxi2:2 on-itr ,0 ncf n:B'2 >irty2 .m^in ]jy)V2 
^'30 DKi rtnn .D^ncf n3ty2 12 2in3Bf '»p i:om nS;*D hv pi3bSb» S"» ik orr r:tr2 
2m:i .ib^d3 noo yh rn n'y»2BP r^y ,n«2n n:B^ pr inw3 ^ninn »Hip itrp p*:d 
,«M n»3»or p':o 1*? 1:0 'HI n*?D^ n»r*2twi n:Bf H«n »m:nn cnna u^\Tn^ k21 KiTy2 
i<^nr -31 ^D'S^iS n"i n2tr 'r3i .nTi ib»3 iSo Bm2 r.iOK r«^ ^ro^^p cnni2 ]:k ,-.^yi 



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nop kS dxi ; n:r iS nn^y jo'-^a nn« y^jnc' ;V3 ,nNa ryjrni Dnrya loyr 
n"-i iD^^n ^"»pi (:2) ."inx p^: y^rtr ny /n:cr iS r:^D px ,;D'oa nn«a «^fi< 
)S p)D rx ,p^:a inxa «b« noy xi:* Dxi njc' aic^n n^ca Tn« on ^D^a^oS 
pnnn n^^ 13d-j K»^m ino mso .T^y ij&^ni 5"yxi -inN jd*: y^rtr ny n:r 
no ;nTh n6 n^tr p^io ,-n«a vnnn -inx noyi -n«a no o' n -V'dp .pc* 
^jD'^a vnnn "ins loy^ m«a no ;nr^^ nrij n^tr p;io ,;D^:a vnnn -in« noy^ p^^a 
?|D''oo «^« DnSp3iop«c»D^aSoSr*30 .pnrT'x/jirSTO'jn .pc*xi^ n3iL'»«n p^io 
piNO bi^'^^ ^22 nKvS njE* niKO yaiNi n^cr D"»j^obo ••n^v, (.: k doSo) poK^r 
c^po "iijcnr' bv nox* ^SoS ^:B*n cnnn wn vr cnina n^y^ain n^c^ d^vo 
.|D^30 nor'L** nia^o «!« fp^:o onvo nx^'^ no ,Dnvo nx''V"'S nobc» niaSo 
nnyn «p^d nS ?p^3o ntrno Ko^n ^p^^o p^^oi ib^o na^a onvo nx^VM 
D-yaixn mc^a or no'^i 'n ^s ^y inn -in ^« |nan pn« b]n„ (:h i^noi) a^nai 
\Ti„ (8 Dn:^) a^nai "tnn^ in«a ^r^onn cnna onvo pxo '^xntr^ "^a n«vS 
npi axa ^xpno "loi^i ncro "lai \:nnb msa cr-.n nry ^nrya n^tr o'^ya^xa 
•x^nnB'n ^kS n'^mS^ao /D)j;a"iK n^r nS npi oacra ^xpi /D'-yaix nx* n^ 
KoSn Dnvo nx^rfn "noo ,^Kn xi^x ,Dnvo nx^v^bn khsd ,^x'n xobc'a 
nx /Dnvo nx^rS i«a no »niE» mni? D^yaix n:tr D^yaix n:c* ?pL*T:n nopn^ 



'n!28nr -'^on ns laytr n:rD i^on n^ivh Dn'nrcB' pT n:27 vn Dt-ui ,c*27s^ 
mi«2 IX 02^2 noy '»£«) mar nSnnS p>:2 inn o'Dsn 15:271 ^ri-'^o oi^ir aica psu nrccz 
Dn^:n p pryo p^jtr ,nDr.2 iryaS .n^atr nac» i? niao'? iS»nnn p»3 yunca in:^* nnSr 
.minn p jjntSi cn-.S iidx nrn 0333^0 ,mS2i^i po^arS .nn"i»2n2 'nSian Sy v n:r2 
Koyta cicD inSi22i SiSx c^oS n:ic^ipin nnst? nn'js 2x2 nytJi '»bki nS-i^ »3tr pioS ,ny»a:^ 
,]S»kS .n-i ^nx Sr S:? n"i *:bS D;:S3n p ]ncTOi pa"»in p»r pi» *ityyo^ /nipi'S •'0:2 
|^^K2B' ,oity '^nnh lojnr Sy ^21^ omp iwnir 1 ^Kn nn»B inpjra pur , •^trya p:;*^ 
'^2 hv^ KD'K VD»2Sen ]<3oS invo cv y2pin naS nai^2 ,j<n2S^n »kbS '03 .nr:n nnjc -|^*.n 
r.T'Ki niSaS onpia 2in loc nr» pn2nS ^nnrirS .12 nayc ova in:c» ^Tinn iSsi iSa 
ua: /H^Sj? wa>8i .n^^sc nity iS ]*3ia nr>*ai nn:tr i^ r:nS2 iaiS2 ,n3r i'? nn^v .iniwa 
2^2*? n^n DK /:rn nayir "inxS *in82 *oir 2*.r2S Krn /rrSi ttS .ini:aS c^-m re:*, 
na .nayir »3iS9 iSaS nsisvi n3B'2 2m2 nsi dki ,2r.i2 rar -i^a^ »:iSb n3C2 i::r2 
ni3a^ nvm ,K2n p»3 nv» ocnnn S2a nnK2 naj? ex p-.n Kim ,p»32 rrnn nn« na;n p>:2 
iSaS n3ic'Ki n3ir2 2ni2 n:i'\^7\\ ,n3ia ptymn nsr ]*2aS »3B*n najrca i2n2»B' nnuirn ^22 
iSir n ruB* pKc^ ^nacf iSaS n^^sir nse* n:a» nh nr ia;*s'a*2in2^ H2n ,»3tr^ n^^:tn .na^rr 
,in Bnn2 .»3ipS n3iCN^ n n^sc* kSk ,n<^:tr nz layir n:ynnpS ,^3C"S n:irH"jn nn n2a» k'^t 
-jSaS .Q^cnnn p3a msS n-i p3 ppS pnawi ^:cti pinn sii «ip cnEan2 ■^■•\y xn 
^8itr> Sy na^tr iSaS n^^i n3ir2 ixin oiica w^pai /i*p nT2^ n:rK ,hv^.v>h';r.r:hv 
Hipan nntr onva nj|t>s^^ D^3Bn ]*3a ]»3yS ,na^tr ni2^a c^pa »':vn cnm wn vr Bnn2 
na .na^tr "iiSaS r;5r2n« n3ty2i cnva nx^x^S D»:iatn nina 'i n3C^ n n3ir r:a nr.n 
,nBfnB »a»K .p*3a naStr noSa s^k p'3a pSrnna nS piiatr nucn p3a ,Dnva n«»!J» 
nnniS o*3e3n o^icr* nn ncne' »bS ^n^^iir n3tr 1^ wnp nirn y*;inira p»32 wv'C' cyn 
ntrm ^''sa ,minn dk ik2 nc^a Swn nic* o»v-"JK2 ^n^i .onxa tk^v^^ nn xim oSi:r 



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— XXVI — 

tju' D"iD nnNT nrwa nj::»on misi A2 pr«inb ,BninntD Dvn nK baam 
.ng^nn nnxa ,i:nbKn nn«3 rjoon nnxn :in d^jb' ^ctki nyn-)« mioa nni« "•m 
^ab jnn^ iTnc? in^on "^co /^nei^ ^niv ^3 on^ n\n Kt'C* .onm in«n^ 
^33 DJ1 ^xntr^ "•dSd i^y vn n^ vd^db'. n};:^n n« iiddh '•m ^«i ,i)«"»cr^ 

031 nona itrvD^ ,n^M? ,r\:^on nij^^an 5|-Din ,nn n^n^ nitm dt»o mo^n 
DHonn nx •iB^yi) iiy D^jm:n omnn nvp»!? ttiv nip tkk' ^^"11 ^"1 nn n« 

'H'^i 5:'"3 nma pjDin pi) ;inri n^ km p "d toiS /ntrn kmb' rr^S^an n^irn 
(.^Sn n^no hm lovy Nim nD:nn mn«n: inD'-ac' ^:dd '•Sk 
riM njc^on '•D^a nnDB* /HKij pi3 oSyn d^-jid nyaiw natron p (3 
Q^DsraL" i^'nxS n^n luyL" km naicrnn -ipyr ty'i n"inim Dva n^c*n trKi dv 
•Dn> i:j»kd n\-ii cn"3 imKi pnsD) morion ^ai Kn ,D^KtDnn nn'^^D ^y nSenni 
^D^n cm- ,DvoL''^ aSn nnycn nSyo ^Di>3 ni^anonn p-i ^2 n»>S 'idi H'' ncro 
cMHDin nnsoniD niy nyi' K^ ^K "D^'Dnv,, nn^t>DnDv iyn"ip Kinc niwnr) 
ry^b «iM3 -^n noxr iod n^^nns r"» ''jn^,, rhion) ^D^^nnxn ik'-vdhc' n^'m 
Sd bv V^isn DnS nn^ ivim ainan p n^K-im ,ypn3 3"nKi jn>j (K-ion pp^) 
'<**.nDoi»iB^3irD^c:*y»n trnLra noni: n^yo^D^DniSDnonn^D ,nTSD\xnnDn*c*yo 
*3n ,inDTn dv n''5?3n nx ,D^:t:»n "itki p^o hk ij^ai -nor nnK (4 
VQ HMr iBitrn cnp»n hmct ^n^ion riK pi poj iiypn idib' ny^otn ny'pn 
jDtri D''3Dn3 ninK -i3iyn k^'d -iDitrny^pnS n^Dnn Tiiv Die* rKt:n nnr naivo 
nnsic* ni^nar nva^o ^tr D-'piDDn m^DK 3n:» D31 nnain hk ne^y idib* Sip 
^sijanibnoHD lann npy hk jnS onpn -i3dc' nnK,pD: -iiv^pa niypnn ^:bS 
IKr ,nDaSn n^'Ki pjya niyji:n nv^L'^n bn iso insn ,aSn nuycn nSyo 
1(5 vnr hiSnpni o^-iS vne^ nibaon miv ,n^Knn ny ,'•''33 i3d* n^cnn poS 
)''pnnr ni3pnn riKi ,Dnyn nK bip DiTd i?ytr ^mdkh p3crnn -itDib ,vni3KD 
n^K DK Da 131 rpnn!? inn hnab nic'ii n3 cr^r yotrn nT3C' "•K3r p pnv 'n 
Si:n n"3n 1^3 iKcn ,nn3n Sy t^^o ik yni:3 nxi^ n: dki ,min3 3in3 
^SiiiD vn^L** 5|K D^D->D D''6r:xSi inx T'ai) kSi D'^anni onyion pnb nicnn 
p^Knn> nSi: ^33 "133 iSnn r)o^3 ^3 ,nKtn nisnxn tk nnM nsnvt:^ ^:b» ,Dyn 
.n:3Si ^*jnn p3rn '•"sy DDVyS Dnyion ;pnbi niK^con Sy ns dhd n^onS ivan^i 
1 Dyi Dr3"in p KDii 'n Dy i^K^Soa 'i laprS mpc* no idd^ inxn p :)yi 
3irn Kini i3*o^3{r pn n^3 ntryo kSk oS pxtr noKi iD"'Snn non D3tr v^n^ 
^3 K^^ IT .nac* ik nvt^'j* b^ ]^vb nKi3r ^s by 5|k iDvy3 i:-3i n\rD nc^yos 
I "11DJ W .Dnp nD^ nninDM^ nm nixvin naoDB' /npi3 Kn3DDn 

X3 :»*;*» ,cn2in iS«S naiirn cn^^y |»Ktr ninsan nvKin mk njnS pcnn hs (* 
riiv . :n"T jj'^ n::tr ^crn 'dim mio^i ;]vh^n ^h^vp umynr nn^ni 20 nvo '»pn2 lamsina 

cnsD ';5 xn-nin p mpb priw oncD n"mr ,>"■» otr: »kibdi"^3 'i ^tr nD»D (♦* 
rir^-'Kai o^iss 17 ns n«i) '"cn Sty iBniB3 o^non n«nn Dva njirn os^ h^n pn dvS DTinsa 
jS^Ks niSr^ nn^n Dam ]3 o ennS^K ]5nv '-1 oiiro )-^d» ib»»i (nrn oipoa niae^n nnws 
.SoimS ni ,12 iSn pSi n»T i*nn pm^ 'ii ,S:pn»ty rwi wixi itrn 121 Si-u 



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— XXV — 
•t^a -i'^> '••j\^ a-iD nnh cmpi ^nj dtjc bv nra j<id303 itrontr^ n^ofjnn moo 

''i:'P3vmiv '•^y3 vn «^n insm ^B'K 313 d^mh D^3nn«n Dmoon vn k^ o^ofct 
DSKi—^i^yD kSt'C^^kd i3in3 i3::nnix— .nb«3 rbo «^vi^ DiT-d k^i ps yn 
D31 onnnx iM^j' ^Nino p3-in '•3 ^nc^y: «b Dvam n^jrin k^ ni»Snn n»^nrt 
.pn in bn v^y id^dihi onyno d^3i 0^31 iiD^n3 iD^:3n o^iiK^rr 
n^i^n N'nc» iKi" oyn ^31:^1 r\yi:nDn cnprini ininn lyo^t:' ,xiDan '•osn 
oa '•s ,n:vj63 is!? nh ^pipi pS ,n3:)nb pn n3 Dj-^ytD ^3 iDcr /HB'd nnin3 pn 
nrx -3 Dnixi3i D^K^33ni n^m min33 pnni poiy^o on© D3 itmi n^nvniNi 
ntrK3 ,nb)j:2h niON3 D^3n D^i3e'3 nm« ivnbi ipm ,Dn''D^3 n3Snn oy riDNnb 
^ir D'3nn on^^Dn "^dd JW^vb im3in nr ^531 i":n3 D"»;3in3n Dy D^«:nn iry p 
iSxr nr '•^DDtr ,n3in3n n-iin3 pn nin K^cr nniDt:n nninn m ni^itrn nin3n 
n3n DX l«i3''crD H'tDnn d:i ?t^3D ,KnpD3 cniBO i^^xe^ nan ^3 i)y vnmn ^mh 
.njL^rn ny^DC'.n ncKO nns nn^D ij3iD li-'K Nnpon ibiE'D ^3 1« ,cniDD 3in3 nr 
?"Kn3Sn>KD^„iW /TnySi m.nnb S^yinb i:'3VKh DniDn3yn^n3D3B^Dn3ni>n 
:n3 D'^pioy iJNB' n^rn 'conii'K' n33ini nnoo n«3^ nnyi ;niyp3 }nnbin ik3 ny 
nx nynb 1:^13^ i^doc' bn: npy ,D^3in3ni D\s^3:n ,ntro nnin3 Nin non 
,i3^:ini "ijn^ NiVD^ b3i:«bny^aDnc^« /D^^rnpo Kim rU^v^n nam o^iyn nnD 
. nr\:^ r^o nx D^jionpn 1:0 on enin nrxa ik ,pn ny nrxo noK^ Ki^c*^ 
n^\:^ri "cmn^ oa^ Kin ptrxn ,D':rnn K*Kn D3^ nrn cninn :eniBo 3in3 djd» 
n^n"» jD''3 cninntr n3b xi? "3 :ppinon niVD loirD poiy "•bIjc' (.n ,3'' niioe^> 
r\^<^:r\ )y:if? nn« 3in3 03 ^ax ,njr.n p:t> ^*nnn 1310D oj k"3 ,nSyD3 pc^sn 
nN^a^ K^J osK' (na 03 or) "n^trn n«va cj-'DKn 3ni„ Kim ,iniK nmoa nnixaS 
C1DIK bcr jnn db^dh poiy ^"ey pv "n^B^n ^c?'tD3rr piD3 ''n^;:^?} nNV3^ jmSd 
nii3 i)y xaS u^^ob K^n mrp ^3 jy^i 3ibK cnin i^^^nc^ nx-'n non nKianrr 
HK o^abcn 1:0 jD-'iD ^3 ,n«n:i nmno^nno ij^ yin^n nc^jcn by }b: ouirarr 
]n^ nr n*oiySi ;nK^m n»b:r*D bKn{r» "abo 03 x^'a onvon "abo nai) n^ /On^r 
KinK' na?Dyt2ByD cninD on:tJ* nx tk 1:0 ontrani o^oronxn nntDn *3i?o ^3 "s 
13D o« 1103 pK HK Dntn3 bxnc'^ ^^a i^n^nn na3^K yn^ wb o:ok oki .ne^n 
:Kiin nina n^n ,iioipD nx tn"» nc^K oyna ^3 ik /13»o kv^ nc^K Dyn3 on^tr nx 
nbbi3n on:c' nx i:d f-'iw n^3n '•»^3 /ninnx ni^3 ^nDinpn n^trrDn |dt3 o 
o^3!5Dn3 jd^:d onic' n« 1:0 -^cn n^3n ^3!50 "3 nr ^3 oy pn^ Sa« ;nE'no 
pc'xn ,D"»^nn trxn oab,/ o^oys ^nc' «np03 bB33ni) oj ic'n ■•Siki) o^niprr 
on^^r nx ooion no^ o^K3 oriKK' on^n nB^yD3 itryn N^cr rntni) ^03^) win 
n\n p nr«3 Dn'»3btD n:tr n« 03 i3p: bxncr^ >:3 Oicr nmorn !>3ai (ncnD 
pra mntryom niioinnn .}d>jd n:trn nbnnn «ib^k inn\n ,o*Dyn Sa i?v« ^n^ion 
ic'ns.n ,f|pin i^aa inotr^i c^nan ni^troo nnn nriNn n'-notr ainatr ^^crn n-^arr 
«^aianyi nipibnon p pnnnnb (o^abion n3tri» 16 iT'bbn n^-^DS) nDsrn nxva 
cnin ny inn« }y«n niTB nryoim .^^Ncnins «im r\:^*b n^'j'D niKunn b\i^ 
oy IT n:cr niTB 3nyb tib^ ^3 3"3 ni3b"»Kn bv noann nnx 5)3^n ^''n d3c^ 
. Dn"*^ ^trrD3 oir^K^b o^ii^n D'':n3inb n'* nnb ^b^ ,n«an n^C" 
nabn.n jpnbi ^n^on p n^n n3nb n3nn nn^n p^ novnpn n^ron (2 



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- XIV — 

y^'^pn Arb^c'vuj^ u^pDb pn vntr nu^e^^i D^e^no ^nnn Dnnn« tm7\ ninS 
in^JtrtDD Dipoa d:i moj nuii i:tDtD jnix i-itidhi k'-pu n^n Sb' '•^^nna vbv 

/^''nx iDD'niB' i)''-ir niriDDin orn p^a^^ njJ'o mm nnx nbi:D2 jt'JB^ nnx-iiniy 
nv:iy nS pi n:nc*nne^ i)''icr nin'^nn dji nvipyn p «^i hibd^j pi njntr ^3 ik 
D::^n oa ^nx ,nvipy!?i nvo-'iD^ x5?i nvnv^ K^non n^n ^i?nD |o pn i^e^^c* 
,'•21 ^5:> in32^ ^B' ninr is^trnnc oyoDi D^yn ^an mi» nnx to nro^ nrn 
^D /Ui ^6^ in^B^ nx pnvnp rrfy\i} mrr*^ pnnnb in-o'^n iDoxn: xi? xnSi 
n^y^^3D vncr ninin mn^nn^ ninsDinn pn noipn ni? nn^n x> ovoj nny 
fH-'Toai 2iyon nu'^JTM ^j^ jpoy ':»3 hm pStr ,n:aip ^x nxn ^3 yio xbi nnix 
inrjTDa niin^p^oyS /X^ncr^^sa pnv "ii *xr ''i^ .^nnn bxictri 3i ^B'jnn^E'^a 
'1 t:'"y DixipB' nin^iai xnDDinn pp^in n^^y b*^b^ Dipo3 nmx pn^ ••m be 
is^Dim n3^c6 nx ivvp nini D^oyai ;Dyn ^j^ya no'^an vnc^ xy^crix /ii x^^n 
b^'i ""an XD^x,, 11DX *D IX ,xn^n3n pt;»bi nj^i na ^V2p^ xiono mona n^by 
xnBDinn oy ix D'-xnn lytDt) ^n^ron nains i^xd ixipi n^e^n ninan p ?jiD^nn 
,^31 pta iS r\^r\ irxo nmx miv bspi n^nm^* :r\^OT\ oy ix ,nS nij^nD.i 
n:icr*S3i nnnvD nD"»bcr n:rD n: is^Din ninx nma onb n^n ^b^ Diponi 

>xip: nin^nsm nmsinnn -jma ix "•ai be' m:e'D ima nanc* D'oann (n 

. Professor "iD^'D,, /"HUD,, inXllilB' "X^D^ I^H^a ,"D'X3n,, DCO 

D'-TD^nn icen ?nix o^cr mxD notr ictDa nn'-B'M hv Dnnio'b (o 
iSintrn ^3 ,^^o^ loi oe^n p ,xiDi DB'a ixip3 ,i^b i^d 3"nx ipny:i DDvyS 
^x nT3 ii3i>nn nx iiDji» Da 311 ^"syi xn^nsni n:ii'Dn n3i nx mc^nh iiiojb 
iy n3in3n n3ijnn3 ijnjn'' t6ti^ pnv ^31 imm ry ^3 ntryo!? xS ^3 dx) ,nT3 
''xiiDX,, T-n^a ,D'XiiDX Dco D\xipa xioan ^D3m ,(vc^yn p triiDD n3 idx^C' 
pi ^.lin ^3 jyi .113!:' p3D lyxc Dn3in nx oyb iX3»:i tneo ^''paimD,, xintr 
cr^'^ xb DX .xn^-i3n ix ri^c^cn p xann bv p^bnb men ^r? px nx3D^ B'ibd 
'•j^y3 nitr'' xinn xann nyi "3 poiSi :5v:nnb ^3^ im iniD3 i3iDn inx x:n iS 
nxcn oin:n iddd^ .n^C'^Dnn .1x03 vntr ^c»x 311 xj''3ii .nrn x:nn nyio inv 
30M DT'3 nnSy xbi xop xi^inos xioan nx nob iSnn ,D'xnDxnb n^jr^^BM 
^bihin: D'-snsm Doy bx ^bdx: 13 iin3 S3X ^xran xinntD3 nmx noi? mvii 
D^xnoxno n^nnxn nn^B'" b»xi ^dv X33i '•b^^bm nxD3 DpB^ iy i^b i^o 
vn» xS::' dux DvmSi D'3n3n i)3 nx |^3pp vi3n 33b nx iy>i xn''i3DiD3 
D^:nnxn o ix Dtnyn p D^3n3n lis."**' js n^n xi^ ^3 /On^by ei^omb D'-xb'i 
310 xS xy^BH ni^B niD^D nobon 2b '•s inyi3i ,d:ivi3 D3 iB*y^ Dn^by id^dv 
D''3n3n S3 nx bn: prans pp /D'^xiiDxnb nmnxn x'-n in3*B^i Sxib»^ nuS 
/"ixin DD1PD3 xSb'ixo d^3i onoxD iiiDO '•3 Di^ nm prenm .DDnn^i dud 

D^31 OntDXD Dai ,mDDini ^I^BOI pB^b Ma^B^ ^^3 ni31 DV^VD D''31 Dn31 13B»rC' 

S3 nx ip3S n^xi ny onS nn^n x^b' '•jsd fViaaoi iioSnn naoo D3 naann 

lD^a3n D"'31 OnOXDI (in3"'B^"»3 "DV X031 ^SD H^B^ niB*y y3B' IX ^3) ,DnoxDn 

:xD3Dn 3:ann pB^ .D^yn ^ry3 i3iy nx i^.»Snn i3X^ jyo^ piT3 iioSnn ^3nx 
'•3 roxnS S3ia xSb' no noSnn ^1n3 D^oya iry3 "xm xnn3 ^B'x 311 xn„ 



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.ansi r\:::;n tyfc<n 'ds^^i ,bb22 i^Qbr\nh 

n^ni — 1D1P03 n"\s n3^ .-jnxn ij\inDn «iipn d«^ uc* ivp Nno n^ nni» 
^D iri' fUDip nE:*«D HL'^aa in nr« nrn xim^ 03-»n ^a ^D^Kiipn i«vd^ d« 
Sy 13^5 cr* d:o« dnc* ,D^mD'"i x^n ,du"i nn^^nna ^c^3n ne*N ,K^n nL*nn ^n 
3^yi ''D^p^ p,, :"»DX^ Nt> Snx ^:n:b^ d"*:! p-i o o^nyi iScp i»N3 k^ i^ddS no 

:iD«: .nxtn n:Dpn nonpnn nn«i ; hd ny 
cmr: "nan np^ '•yoK**n ^d ,i«d n^rr nionp \2\'\2 ir:D:»6r nv^ron (x 
nan nx ^D*jn ,min^ ^Sd DD:nn^ mo^D niy b«"ic*^3 D^ain: vnc» ^noanm 
.D'lytDrc* ]v^^2 031131 mvp ncc*3 ,Dn^Ba S^ai dtid^h nvn:? ,DDvyS D^ODnn 
nvrjn:n ivib d^d^h nianni /n*i |o tmi'»Di "iix^n pi^a on^Sy id^dih D^Dyst> iw 
•Dmo ni«D ere* ny D^ai nyiS dibdio nSy ^3 iy rhv^h 
Dyn ^e*Ni sv« dh^d^s amj n^ntr in^on n*n nionpn nv:cr»n pin (2 
niKD^tD /r"pi nbtn ,n3cr nivo3 DipoS onx r3 D'^K^p^n onsnn p3 .vrn:oi 
^:ni ,Dn3yi d^co "jns ii3nS di« pae^ Dn3in p3i /nniDX niSsNoi nnniDi 
y3P ^n^on nx niry:? nn3 o^piDy vn cnion '•n33t:* ,ni»^B: ^:n d3i ni^ioo 

.D^^VDJ Sxnr* ^33^^ Dipr:) ^3 
Dii'n" 0^331 inyiD i:*^K nr:t:»Dn nx p^nyn^ ii:»nnB» o^D^n ni3"i3 f.i 
"^3i„Dtr33n*"ay xip^n x^cr^n xiin^ ir3n Dp ,Dn»D iy-131 on'-^y id^dihi Dni3XD 
Dmo nc?:rS anix -noi -in3i -n3 dhdi in3'r^ Sx nr^ctDn ij3 }'3pi> Snn ,DnD 
;niini3 ,D'"L*np ,ppu ,D^rj ,iyio fO^ynr : Dr:y ^s!i moi" onS mp ne'x DnnvD 

.Sxnr^ n^3^ ompn 
ir3D^pn:i jnsc'nx nx*» xStr ni>x nixvDi ^31 113 iB^xnv^tMon p (t 
nivu>3 }nix rvDL" nSx Da irj^n |n^^y cj^oinr p3 pc^> d:i ^x ,Dnpn piB'^3 
paoion "»DXO py3 novy naron ^1n3 payn nx Dnx30 mSo nrx D''33nc' ^"n 
jn^DH nancra -133 vd^31" '•:dd joyoi pic'S nx nae* -le^x n\>e D) tn3 r^ ^3X 

•mnx miv S3pi 
xSi Dno |xjr ,nD nyiD px3 naSnS iS3ip^ ^3 '3"i nvn ntrx Dn3Tn (n 
n!?x o IX /HsSnn nx ynanS in33 hm xi>tr Dno ni3i bv ix ,DiDixn Dtr cn^D 
D3 D:r3 xnp^i didix Dr3 Dnix mo ,Dioixn dc' Dy Dy3 d^ddiidd 133 vnc^ 
Dnnx Dr3 D"iDX irx nSx Da p::*"- S3X ,ny-i3n i>3 x^3 ,nr\b Dnaaon nyn nx 
.D^yn"» D^DytDO onoixn dk' on^^y xnpS nyn xS ntr^XD ,Dnoix c^ ix 
vbv ^'^v^v D^3-i n3nxi in:e*rD nx ^3"i niD DnDsnn 311 n»3Dn3 nb (1 
in33 ^31 S3X ,in:e'o Dy nio'^xno vn x^e^ ^xrn3 pvy^ nvacjiD mo^ 
inaao ^3 nx nt3 ,D^3"in VD3a3i ,nD"i3 a^nanc* inx"»cr33 ,nicnn ^vx Snan 
•^TDO nanan minn3 i)X")tr^ i>3 ^ry^ inatro S3ipnBn naa crxi lon^ xi^tr 
nnn ,Sxib'^3 nipiSnon tD'^yonS D^Dr ozh inais ^3 1x1 ne'X3 D^Snan innD^ni 

.nS3pn3 iniini it3 ip^rnn 
*3''^nnn3i .}^i3 rrn'^ in33 n^n ^b bin D^iyn p ^31 iy3 ni3i nvacro (r 



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— xxn 



••.c'?n "11^9 n»n* n£^ sis in ,ca^::S onc^s 
12 isiirn» Dn:3: invn c^'imn irK ,m3 

nirf? nrjp dh ois2 ,nDiSn imo Scao 
iKi3» icf» poD.-in »:03 v/M ^23^, t,p3 nio^nn 
E^oa iH nn^orn ^ic^2 DniK2i nnyn v^yi 12 
nnsin 1^2 f^nS <33n p S;* "ijtk .DncDn 

^na n^oSn ^ith^ S^22 pnir^ rnsD »22in 
^322 on^trpn Sp ,o->e2 naiow mS tmo 
ijn> J<^ Di« t)jc "it;»'? iS nvn^ n2inn wD^r 
on^ n^ni ,niin naio ]^ir\z la^m "noSrin ni* 
w»0Dpii:2 pov; mnr// 1S12T ntP3?D nsic? 
."niin2 o'poij? Dm •^strc^ tsrvS ]ito k^sodi 
7rn» ityK ixp mo^jn 13^ rnS nS^rn nSv 
71220 .nnsSn c;* ;»20 *?2 ysrh trim 

.K^DSyix^^Dn "Sxir'' mpD„ p"p2 

nnx nnnia »:« ic^ o'snn *n*?2p p^c Dr2 
"irx n^xSon nSp nS .2Bn d2 ^na^^e* 
no^Strr.S n>2 nSy^ c»i I'S;* r/oo D^o:rn 
K-ip» Sn;i pw ,ns^nmw S^nnnc |qik2 
^VH i^^hr.n ^wph ^noacn .Sio* n2nn nsin 
n»nn imD2 onvtr2 yi)^ jr« n^ nnna kv» 
KUKty »aK no o S^'i^S w'?! "»'V*'? hS n2nDS 
^2110 2*1 1D2 (pan ote iKol iSon •inK 
n»;ix noKH oSik .n'ODiicon cnnKi ikiodk^ 
c^x-) n2Di2» ^nnptr c^enn o iac»n2« «Si 
.vnpin •)22 iirKS ^i':?2 nr> naen 
"i-iinn ^n;inS n:2s 1^12 i:2m< 'n 
ns ovn mon ,n2;* cca niK2 nnnHnri 
r!i:22n niirS ear n-^'S T02 w^r H'c'^nMS^B 
,p"sh 'n'i''\'r> ]'in2 

.S^-jsn mpa p"r.z.]-"v 
To Michael L. Rodkinson, D. T. 

ai "ID '13 DDiiDon :"mn nriDD. 

.P"bS n-'iin wc c^^ptr 'cS p"C7 n' z 
n"^o i\-iD iBiDi jiSbidh 2in Dp nan 
KDaonc niB'jA i-nvnai v^: ]«T3>pnKn mS Sk2^o 

."|c^n nioSnn mv«p// ^^Hh nnnrm nenn 
isuS Dtr iB'K ntD n:fp2 »nKip uk d; 
.na ina ick n'jiSon iinn nn *5s n2troi 
i\-n2py2 iSi nc'H nioSnn d' ninni* n2iy Sa 
D^o D^a» Btin2i ,*7K0Bn ]»o» n«» ^21 nyo^ S2 
ns3 HK-jn D^^B^i noa'' p^ mm Sc d't;* 
12 nSfin »aw ,12 nnSn d»2i mar^ .TnoSn 
•i2ion T'K inoSir n»nn inyon Str inmaefo 



nvnS ,Dr.ir Dips ^22 ,d2'7S -ip* imini «oy 

r»xS ,nTn Soron lanonS nyoSi ityS 

nse 8*iMnS S:v jyoS /iprnSi laonS ^iTnynt 

in-^a Skib^^ n^aS nan2 nnSi 'jpcS m2C no 

.na 0*51312 ytn nan Sa itrn nac^n 

noxn ]yoS *n'i2i •)irK n^«n Dn2nn vm ^ 

nK22 oa o pnnx in^ Dan mn^ ,pnvm 

npoo Skic' n»n ]oSk nh nitryn-yrn 

D*pDi;»n onciDi D>Dan n» »rainD) ST"n n^iri 

ToSn Say ,*3nt32ioi .mn^nSi mm SnanS 

^a'yoa D'la aiKtrS iwa navn ity» n^n 

"i^^pn iioSnnr// n k:jo» nonpn noam 

i»S:r 'n c^ia ^hm .nppitm itrsa nn*? ntn 

.nnm;»a virjri vaoin Sa Sj?i 

.T?ND po^an 

Di'rc aniK m;*S ni\»i an 

.n«3*BS»a i»ya 

Dr. Beniamin Szold. 

Dnvc:*^ yiian oann y'n^n anao 
31 ,"iy^nKp |«DDnp -i^in nSnnSi n^b 
.pix'^ian >N n^3 myS 

New York, Feb. 12, 1895. 

!naaa pns* 
n;nS o^aao *aan ^rca Saai ^22^ Saa 
iiKiBDt<^ omDpnn D'aanm cn^v^cS "na^fincn 
noiK ^t^n itr» nio'jrn n«xn natra nv3»sS»Di 
ix»:fma o ,arB^? arn« >aK ca .D»Bnn*? 
Sa ittDca iioac pspn nioSrin nx nwS 
,ii'-)'\p7\ n^n iSaSa* ncx cnaoien Dna^ian 
Sy SpnS na pccnn »aar ia nxia^ ncfxi 
nimpon Sy Da Kiipn aavn* t« ,]^':::2n 
naiQ «^n ntoi ,kb»07 iiy iS i'n< k^i p^trpn 
]»ai ,nna *aa cny pa ,D*»an n^n^nS nan 
p»Sia nvnS >^^n p Sy ntrx ,nna ^aa ca\sr 
>22in im2on' lyoS ,nTn Syson ny2 ai» 
Dsaao nnr' c»tay» "]x ncK ,nnayn nnfio 

'HNp .p .m /"''^^ 

.]KC3^pn«n .S .0 Sk 



.nyS^^ 



i^^T) DD-iiDon DDnn ^''mn 3n3?D 

.SKHDayrSyB .it .3 

Chicago, Feb. 14, 1895. 

nzaa pnx 
n^naian mm:j2 "i^oSnn o nna» «S tr^K 
nxo «in Sna ^imco v/y ^^t, noDar loa 
nr» h^thtn pa^v ^"y '3 rix? ni;n ^imoaa 
S2i» kS ,omDn 131 n rono x^aianym ia 
D*r:an n»oSno pin ,ima Ty inix nynS b^« 
cn"n Sa n» iimpn o^a^a niS^S lor iirs 
IK .nrnpn nnfion he n? loaoa mSyS ik 
«?•; '?y 'jaa pa iitk nxixai nSnn D*a»a 
yiap*? imy*? pnx nmo Sa Syi Dan To'jn 
'Ktr lan ,DnnK D^ynoi nioanS ca D'ny 
HK vniny Sa n» tmpnS uivh Kin iwk 
nen 21 u 121 p 7y icv .112^ iiD*?nn 110V? 
,12 D^pDiyn 211S i^pn iio'rnn r.KSin n»nn 
Dnir p2 ,iniK 110V? o^S^nnon on^hrh oifi2i 
iniK onsiS cnr pai eniD Maa iriK onoiS 



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— X\I — 



31 B«« Kin o ,n»2 rh^ ivcn ^3 »iS p^^ 

pSn -^^kS K'sinS n^ Sk*? »n» |>»»S iS -ityf? 
Kin OK Snpn ny^ nam lyoS ,»»jr.S nnK 
.kS'oki Ttrn Syco^ irDion izjjn 
pnnnS qh o ?-iDyo Snic »;k no nn;n 
H^sin? Sav ]5;a'? htS oo-ivan niKSina n^ 
H!i» mn p'-nn otc .pc^^in phnn r.H i;iA 
d:d» '3 nov nK /innozns ipro n» nnno 
nrn Sn;jn isnn n« H^iiinh wn lum *iki 
Isaac jl. Wise. ."« mSiycS 

Baltimore, Jan. 16, 1895 U^*T\ U^2 

S»3^ornn oann >nn i3n»;'S 82 izramiK 
^•)DDa ims^pai moSn: y-nan |KD:»pn(<i .S 
13 niT -irjr 01 ,nBnnm nitron nnryn 
Dtrn iB»K ,150 nSua n»2i ^inmcoi ii»Sna 
n»^y '2c^ uv^i ;in33» nvpni ic*n niaSnn 
ny\ ,?n2oS '^nona// Knaroo c»dci2 onnK 
n« Sn^ 'ifiS K>rn n» 2^22 "r2ir// naco 
o» ,\x^h ,mn n"np2 r;* on^'r:? oicS »3b 
inrK^D ^y i»5?nS ^dik ,}*cn-^2n iiBoa kydk 
«SHitri my Snp Sa ^3£2 nn»*?3n Syi 
^mn |DT2 nnipi nawSan iny ^nuS 
nsDOD D^piD iry nuu Sj? »ni2;'i 1^ ^ninya 
D^yn nn '3*3? lina ]2i ,p03 ivya n2c 
i»o tSy »i3ni ;^3dS cffiy ^oiDno in2oS 
»n«i*D D3DH o ,no« ^21 in* 2n22 TynS 
nwan non '2*? npS mvi . ^trca nan^r 02 
n»3i itr» |£W2 'S22 D"tyn n2T 12 mtsir 
,nn' o»pi2ii Dmn» ,DmDS nncHon S2 »3i 
»^fiy r2n^ o>Sp noni ,|v;inn »octro »e Sy 
,03v:>n2 D»Q>y3i ;oiS2 ctr ib*m »"tn em^c 
,Dn»nn2i02 iyD^]2i i:n' V3?j« 7yii2'i 121*2 
e\H n»SnD on^Sy c^^cin kS ■^2nan o ok 
.03ic^ nx na^ty k^ d:ji ,in« nte 
nsHO *:»y2 vn o^c^n kS 03D#< dki 
'noyta nan myaa nyiS d'hidS ity8 D'Tn 
»a^y naiiKni nnani cnnn non ir2i eiiso 
02 pi» p23n Kiipnc >aan nita2 nnyo '2 
»D'D iip» p i^K2 ra»y2 i»ni ,nyii ^2^2 
p^i .oiipoo 12C* ]2i on^a^yoo iio'jr.n 
.iS»n itri» j*2ia NSyc? >moi« ♦trca ns»'?y2 
mo^B^ ,iaoDT2 nT2 ico |*ina noa iy 
in«2Di v^icoSa oy on» 2nii Siian iii2*?nn 
o»a*acn laoo ii^nSi ,n2 iy ocia Nine 102 
d^ihhS na^^nn »2 iy ,0*21 nioipo2 nntificn 
yiD ^caH^ oa niircK2 yn /ih^v mn2 
D^i«i ;D'vioi no2n2 IK on^D* ^2 o^poiyn 
nmrsi nrpcn ir» ,nTn ivpn iio^nn2 
cniin pi ,nSyin dib^ vx*20 ]a'»tr nnn»n 
,12 iiDni ,D»oyD n^2 lac^a iitk inw v^yo 
,n2i ny»a» »S2i i:ep pT2 a^cnS 'aim ^2 S2v 
.nyiSi V2rh 12S psn* ick S2 nn 
ni^nSi >oipoo nx^jS »aiy»an r^hnn on2in 
ii22ty lanow n22a ,nac»n nnccn '2ni» oc 



^vinna Donccn hi^n nin 3r.D'3 
pn;r^ my ^npa vniSysDi vnnno 

• N^D^yiK^^s i^yn D^Sr"«nn my> 

Gerniantovvn, Oct. 5, 1894. 

!ip»r. »ai» 
niSaS aaiyn n« nnpS »a:n i^tn nhch 
r\H 'n»Hii Tan2r) ispn iio^nn »2 *pyi 
nSyinS n^n* iikS ^H^:i^rh inyizty (n2NSDiT 
121DS* x'?, t""'y >2 |y» ,D'a2n nwn'? n2i 
mnoni nSptrn 02a imz 2*n3 onS ohsh iiy 
ipy Sk ni2**c^ ]a'K mpni n't o^nyS ic^ 
noSnn nssD nprynS yaia2i .12 1211'c^ ]*ayn 
o« c^K ,n»SaaKn nsvh f ir2«^t3 »e2) ixpn 
K^ S2K Kin nSp n2K*:'0 kS nany oaox 
iio^nn oyp r^tr no) rzopMyco iiy i>'2^ 
n-hT 2it3n -|Scn '2 iniK '2-»22i (la^acS itr»»^ 
iKi2 11220 »aan ,11^2 

M. Jastrow. 

To M. L. RoilkinsoD. 

iiD^nn HN n'))J2n 'pyiin 3in miyn 
yiian NtDxa'D^^on o'^iin c^iid n^ii 
i^in "nioSnn ^uo^ xr^san ninna dl*'S 
.iya^v!:»^D n '*a nei:: 

nDinn ^ir inK pSno onnK o'^jy »nKip 
ir;iK iKDa'piKi >^h hi*2'D 'n iBfK isfn 
.nSnn ni^a in2KSoS o k^'dki ,iiK^.K^xin> 
na2nn Spin nKT2 ib'k naSrn nK^in »"/ 
>bS o»S»nnonS dic2i SS22 iio'^nn n2i2 
Sk i»'b^ la'Kiy a^iyi n^tr S2 itaoca nrootf^ 
0*1212 laoiD 10KD S21 12 121' -^iTK payn 
»2 oa no ,rayn na2n nx 1*22* itrn n^Tci 
anaon *b2 niKnpni niSKtrn pocnn 'ao^ 
nptn *nipn .noSnn o>afi2 1K2* oncDn •'n'2 
Tiy S22 ivoKn* nar*n laniieo *2niK '2 
lyoS 01K01 oeia2 ntn osnnS iTyS nvnV 
.ntn nSyinn -21 Sycon nK o^SiynS 11* hnh m* 

Cincinnati, Nov., 1894. 
Dr. M. MIelzlner, 

' lye^ ,0::^ '•B^ax D^ai on^o^n i^oyni 

.(12T* kS IOB^ inK C*kS 2n2B'^ 
Cincinnati, Oh., Jan. 14, 1895. 
!l22a IIIK 

,]KDa*piKi .h .0 Kin nt *2n2o Kcna 
izb o'rn o iS in^SnS ^mtn itrK yuan 
.iSyc i*2nSi iin*2 vbn 
nKSin ,12 pioy .1 piKn itrn Syeon 
ty^Saay nEB^ inpnyni ipnoi naio ,iiDSn 
ntry oa imo2 ib*k b^k "^kb^ iKin pay Sye 
IK ,11*2 isDH n*Ss» OK .S2V i2» oai nB^» 
'apnoKn riin*S o^Bnn D»»n iSye K'2n tk 
.lasiKS nsin oai no nx 
n^h^n ihnvh SKirn hpv kid»k nnw 
nayK nxr Syi ?SyiM 7h «cn K»vinS 1T2 



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— XX 



'npDs^ .S"T iyo2nS en TiraS k^^ "nv 

:UV2 nHip "icK "ps^ cnS i<«o* '^ nnin 

nai"Dn Ssa coys ntrjr onain rniirn nnm 
^naDon o'.pa nx-io pi v'^^^ ona o^yjtian 
^23 ,w*? ''m ,n3itrKn oarsr K3 ib^^ einm 
nrn Ss *?Vi3 ido ',v">oi 5?"»o ^-^ dV' a> 
kSh .13 »np pi' U'o'^ "^^p^ e-;»3tr nun 
'13 *npna niOK03 n*7it Sa nyvn cyta 3it23 
MKB^ "iS'm ins iB^n iiTyz 'n n»n' iw . 298 
laS nnri lorc^ S;* mn irsn xcon Si;» 
,8'Bnr. kVj nJ38n nicD 'jw 8"!3S -,>3->» ixn 
Nnnrf?i 113S nnn r;z ipnS win in wSn o 
oy -,i3nrn3 n"*D» nri ,]:r> ':ca cm 
nnns om v onS tr^ ir« o^pnaio d*03i 
nj« niNiS o'a^jri nyi*? -^ cnS 'n ^na d:.i 
minn S3 S:? »nnon dS^ni .(^'0'"^?) trnnn 
»3 iqkS nzi >«»^io r.on ^aro mm itrs 
wm psS ni*3 «*? nan ;rr.i* m;»>oa3 ]*vpo 
ID cnam pni*? m^ vh d:si niSn "dd3 
cn3im ison Sk o^sn-n ripS pi cSi^n 
-noSns D)»n c:j t»03 ^^vo> non o;i n^sjcian 
TiDip o»Sn;i no3 «Sm .pi«ip» om inxn 
13'Snniy i3i nvH pnoS '>cni cnryns tts 
12S13 r« nioipD3i nnsian niatyS ix ci:tyS 

V2 S:? DS13 ]21 ia»313 *3n V'T ^/^^^ 2n3 

nS nsSn nsSn natron 'rcnan^ \:hv c"r3 
'13 msm onir 108 nu onsi r;^3 Syi 
li»7« D131 'arr Sv Ssk .nonri psa \xns 
p^nynSo n3c*n Ss (x .*Sk on o^Snai nn^ 1*3 
yai:r no mnrS ixpn ina'jns ^'cn '>2 
V3i:n r\H c^ocn c; ax ,p::m r:hr2r\ n:3ni 
Kin >3 (t2v*3 ^i^^^) »"in ^213 Ss^jsn *?x 
►vxnpS cinn 12^3 no^rn in"3T Nm3Di2n 
DipD ^33 D>3i»!J 3»^nSo n3yn hS (2 
n»im "nyi »2S c>2D«n 0*131 u'orn iy« 
n!Jiin ^31 ,-,nN no^^ns cmpo '*« p^'^an S^ 
,a2ipS w c;:niS ^nin N^pn ki3» nnpS 
S3 'O »3 ,ixnpn nr.'> I's «ino Ss S;* nS 
2<in ]B^n pn i3i S3 Sy la^SnnS S3v mt^n 
(* ?Bnnn \o m^ 
-13321 ii^TiD inaioi lorir trinn "112:; 
.( Dr. Landau) Cj^xil 3Nr pD^^n i'r**n 
.nanom ;:?iTpi2 i"2k St >"0"n3 



.'o txonna i^kd 

,p''£S n^nia on2i "eS 'n 
.l^m ,1885 ,^Sv 16 
n"iD 02nn 3in Sipn nn S^ion ti23S 

'O lKD3'piK1 »lS Sk3»0 

»n«ip '3 -ijrmnS 03m »nS3p i3n3o nK 
D« ,v3'3y 3)13 3Sn noaona iio^o nx 
no3 B'ocnS 8vio aiHc^ S33 dod« «S *3 
'2n»o tt'CB^nS D'H nKii »3» pnty ^nn3ne^ 

]2132 UK nSo n«2 0*?132iy .'131 '121 »nDKO 

»3n»o aic3i ]>3vn ip^S on n^y^uy nn-^iH 

I'K S2K ,vS;* Kip3 IDB^y .'131 lt"^taiT 13 

«Si n3SnS «'0 12m p« ,13 i« 12 n^n^c^ 
C3>s no3n »Sy2 o ,tr*ayi«pK Si nc^^'oS 
2'yi na2n »Sy2 c:^« qoa »S5?2i c^ds »S5?2 
o»:i23 n3»2i vD3n nr33n msKi// : 1:3 o'pn: 
iiDn p2n lion »S;»20 i3»Kr »"evKi r'innrn 
»K32 'S MKso hS o »S picm /innon Sc 
pS»2nn P3V2 iifiD Sj? tsi2trS n2i niKSoS n:;i 
■S2S iioiip »n'3 »33S S2i8n nSKiy n2iB»n o 

.ni3iBTn 
(* .DiStr v^H TKO ii233ni -ji^pion 



nii-in3i 3^0 Sipn3 ofiia rn3on p,id (* 
piKn:2 309 Sipn3 DCi3 iS ^:ty iijn nrn^D 

.1J<0 ir< 



noiSon n^n^ m3)on hijn nnn ansD 
nnac' D^:mn ^30 i:t:n bn: nnvn 
n;'3xn rnnD3 pvioi vcmsDi iiD^nn 
^iSnii 3KT po"»33 3n n^non^ prynn p"! 
.V'T x^nj^i) .m 

itr» Kim n3trS 2K '> 'i dv iy"iT>m n"2 

.p-cS 'I'^'n'i'n'VK 
iy''2 i223n ipinni c3nn 2in ii23S ciSir 

.'^3 ]nHT3»piK1 nS Sk30 1'iniD 

1:3 >nifi ]''2a 1210 Sipn nK M;rotr 
i3niin 1122S ncnnS o>Sy 12 nv:23 ick 
•;2S nx nn3 o Skic» no3n \^p c^-^nSi 
oirS 11KD nip\m nSn3n naxSon Sk 2ipS 
nn3ian2 na Sy2ir nnnn hk Skic^ »:2 »3cS 
no3 ]OTn 1^02 n3 i2iynn 0*0 naicxin 
,a^:ix3noi d^k"^i2d D':2mo m2uin n33i 
i»::nS cai ,n3Snn ip>*3 Bf"in n:;:^ 'nS20 
vSx insoac^ nii3K no3i no3 iioSnn ]d 



^nsiirn uy ,29qSipn2 ciianTn 2n2Dn ( * , 
1121 otr »irKin » 3 ca 12 Kiipm iS;» 
i»oc» kS "'13 nyiio ^cv:3 pi ^3h1// '-^nnrn 
i3*3*3:,*S y^rff Kin o ,S-3 mn n^n^ pi 
.n»3Bf i2»£ir.S cipn ]k3 px S2K 



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-- XIX — 

HM^ iDcn n'-a n^yn vh is 'n«"i'» "jk ^« ,n«T '•nDjct^D ^y nanDn c'P3t> pcra 
n''^:3« necrn inyi mm t:3c:*« nDc?*3 nbnn nn3D '•jy^jn nny ."n^n p'ytnS 
^^ih inyn n« |m3 ^^^nc^ ,Sxnt::pyD m .noan njpc^ trc^n h^'^yn anno 
nyn oi "d tkd "n^ nDL'*^i ,n:rn trKn "odd D^by 10 vn vjd!? uy\ D^«mpn 
inx -^^n n3nn«^ .iiud lor dj %i^^ imbipr D^ODnn oy riDDDO mn osnn 
,Sd: D'i!?6rn ba ^^n nxr ntrye* i3i:'oc?* '•"j ^i!:> "n^xy^ am Dsnn p-'nyon^ min 
;DiD-|i^}n: D"iD rnSDinSD^3'':BSK-ipSnTn''n KmonriK v^y sapS uiDn bwn non 
.^NrrnKH n« noxnc K^n "3 '•rr'x^i ica ^ry ^riDcr k^ ncr^Kinpr^yn San -mi r«i 
-irj< ^Dn ihnc*nc^ ornin it^ap" piKpiyai 5|Dkpd«ip O'^oann D3 
^'•nDxSD S« ncjS i»3i« ]v^b tr«^D cjoa lo^c* itrK D^Dinnn n^ dk iiDni:* ):>3^ 
nry3p,DJ>K3r3Dn33pa 'b i-iry^m" nx laiion^ irx nS« ^sS ma ynio ^3:pn 
/DOS' n5< pin« -in n-ia'' D^iotrn p b^sa n^n^ Diac'C^ nxr laS ^a /Hc^yoa ra^ 
"•:d nN?D K^'K nrai .D^xan n^naoon nycra D'^aiaim onnyS npa^ lar dd^ ^a 
pcv ,niToS ftrxn pai» ,ninKSnirDD c^e^a x^a ^n^innc^m m^pa i6 ,^^^^pn 
.DiScra iDy n« i"ia^ 'm .ainpSi pimS Dii^c* tU'hc* noix^ omi 
.psS n^nn tDacr i^a aiD "a ia Saainr or pn^^ij 
.n p 1 K -i-j a ^T n^Da^K 'i Tonn aina .'^ .b^yo 



"•3:nr ,Dvni D':Di> n:{r "iD»y -inn "•bn: ona ^:naar D^anaon non n?to 

,-iay nsc'S -npnyn nvnn msra D^ainan .mina ,Dna*na dv -noa ,DmN )m: 

: x-iip Sa Da p-i'' lyoS c^^S^^kS o^npnyn nay nsL'*a D^ainam 

cniD rr^aa n-iit:n bnan a-in anao 

iDK» '^2^ nb^}2Dn j^yi^i p^iaa D'yion 

.'": DnKvxS nc'D -i"-in a:e*DS yni: 



nr.03n iipoS nis^nn hh i2cn> ibw nS« 
^^:?20 on oanD ,oS:>iS na insi inr »a w 

Syi o»nyn miip Sy ncf* oro cnS ion* p 

^312 ona npiDy maannn n» Sr 1» "'B'H 

maanm miajrn nSnnn Sy c;i dSi«i 

nnpS /xcn ^a oy ,S3ik nh ,yiz ::'V7hi nrn 
.nn sinncnS ik c:j i« it3 naxSo »o:ey ^y 
1)2:^ '3nv3 nnn nnay ^Sy nsioy nnacs 
>^y D^oynS ^ri« «Si ^^co nnn psn ♦aantr 
nyai ,nan ny*:>M Soy nani^n ntrrn nmsy 
inp^r inn >a3n ns^on Sy ri^^ph Ssik «Sty 
n'taan o:ji tiyn >h non^ nts aso2 .niz pSn 
,noSB^ nxiciz isnax ^zh 2"ipo .nr 
n23on '3in 



-nS 



Berlin, den 20 July, 1885. 
!n233n »3iK i«Drpntn 



T'» orsD np»n unso ?y 



nayoS 



:T:nS »35n 
'tr8%n no«D n« ^n^ip nnon^ 2S mc'i 
nnpS n^B^-n ny\n d:j Sax ,298 '13 h^phi 
.mnnn ^nasisnn nnK ^22h 
10113 y;n3n nrn Hiran |vpn o 'nnor 
SrK Sipn2 Sac* cib^z cms nnn^n oSiy Sr 
o ,poxnS '5in» »S ^ih itrno <S n^ 03 
»aniy2 mw mSiycS nK!?v -irzcrio nn n»iK 
.♦n^n o»Ti3 

nT>K21 DipO nVHZ ^2 ^2^2 pCD Ss r>* 

D^^nj non »3 ^Svisn S« innn ikv» p? 
pi mir^nS Sam nmn nawSon hzH /O^nivin 
•Tni on D:>r ,c>pn2io o^oan >8^yDi ncoH ♦ y 
nij<tinS na'on ihzp^ o ,i2i03»r no by onS 
.D»2n2i on>cy omn^o nrn b^in innn 
sVir«nr «n3K owi n'^K p nS»3 S2« 



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— XVIII — 

b^an «pc^ '•:bd ^3 (31 tjp^pn: nya ly ddt3 ik'Ki K^ntr loa p^nyon nn K'-n 
ODpytDnnN ipn^ bve^ipnon^y t^pnS nma npnynn oy nnnb '•nven nmn 
pn:i brii r^y ^'^n ^na^nn nab n«Tn Knaoon nxt ni>m -nn^ oa ^pnJ;^^^ 
rsD i>3i> n^cn onnyi ran n^pn eninn tm*p p:yai n:abni nonn nijc' p^oa 

.f>"tma r^i'Di ipin 
«im ^D^b^atroni onD^Sn b naiob nitrybi n^isanS '•i:n nnx niy (n 
«n3DDa ;Tinu"i«'inDDipoby«"a &ci»iai nv^iTDa iKain*wr onann ba ToynS 
i«a''B^ Dip»a baN .irvo «m ,d^dk6 p 'idio pya «iipn jikt kvd^ nwrn 
-i^ay« ,naDona "lanon p:yb '•i«in ooipoa Kf>e' nr\b xno^ni ni»bc' nv:e73 
«naoDi «naDD ba nain nai ^nrn p^ya nain^ nipy i5r« «^nn Knaoonb iniK 
«Tipn Kvo^ f«naD)onnKT nn«5|a^n y^Din ifi^^x pcmpai .n^aio ncrcr^vo P"' 
p^anb nip«i pa:n iionh nh)'^} nbyin inn pKtrn bv nno pi^i nro nbna «i:in 
^na^bo n« -i^anb onnx un'^ ^h d« ^a ,iioya ni^^Bon ^a n^o nra pxi 
Sai maxm nabnno "TiD^^nn -iirp« in^n ^a ^nr oma by xbn ,Dnpn niobrb 
/KiD^a nnpb na«'' ntr« p^yo bab ind b?\n ^ai non: xb ona poi «8rDn 

.Dinnn nsDa vjdS n^n na lytr 
C'crno niDipD n«"iDn Sy nnvo anaoa ^ni« i^yn -ly^^xb^o .-n ^^mn (o 
*ni« min„ ison nx ^nn:i ^b oa ^nyoir ;Dnn« onan bv Tiyi niaiaa icd^je^ 
^a "bv imnnx bapo ^j^« bax i^'Tino «ainB> «npDi KipD ba ^jd^ iDipD by 
naxbon n« "hv 'nnpb xb ^c'ana'i Dipo nx^onc' n^Dipo nrxa '•nx^^D d:dn utf 
nnon Nini^^ioa vnn:n pbi ,mybaD '•^dS nasbon an ^a vinx p^ybi B'Bnb 
by lb m^D ^D:m ub ^no-^ b^:n oann ^jTync^ onann nn^ by D3i ,ni:5r^n 
D^aainb miD ''::n p .mpm mnin nmpa pya nnoD nn« p^D «-ipb iny^r 
'•nc'pab nny:tr nbxD .a .-n y'nim iin'ddx^ .d .n y'nin r^siB^^ ^ry D^bnan 
bxic'^ ?a ^i^yb ^iba onyn ns nmbi nipa pya ^naxbDO D'too pbn by "iiayb 
irxT .n^N»n bnan am nx bxic'^ n^a ipt n« Tia« pioy abi aipDi ,D^Drni 
American Israelite orb yii:n pnyn nx Tiiyi 'tDKi'DJ^oa D^^aib dtcn n^a 
by 'n Dyij ^n^ onNoai le'saa bar i« -icn baa ""nx a''t:nb n^ n« n"*:^ xb ^.C'k 
.b^itr^ nu niitDbi mxanb on^niJB'i dh^d^ in&cnb obia 
^3 /iB'BST no ba "ivpb nybnxp p^-^n loibon oann nxy ^j^ya mp^ p 
.D^Dsba^a::' ic^y nr '•:« \-iana pi ,^n^yH bi^n inioaa pjp^ i::'^ bac' km inyn 
M^ .'•naxbo aion on^py^:' D^asKn ^bba nro:a pvpb baix wb ^rsa paxnb baK 
n^ Nin ""a /Dnin\m nnn^ b'-a-ja iboyi inrr "i-ara niiao "lybn&cp a^n u^ 
D^aaio ^anao D^snnb '•aivi idc^ dk "b anann o^asb D'^B' e'bB' m itrx pL"K-n 

pbtr .Da tj^ne^nb ncrsNa pK ^a ny D-c^airo vntj' ^:dd D^rsn^n d^'iD no 
Dipo nxnon ^a DX ,nnnD nyn\T ^bira-^'T-iD oy nnnb nxtn 'orra Tjina 
baa p'»b:n nvnoo -^nv inpb ^"e^nai nip^cDcn nnip:i nbi^tr-m nxnpn ^:dd 
iba: nD DJ DJDK DX1 ,t:*K-iD won wb irx lai ^D^-ai nc-bc' oa ^bixi /nioy 
ai Disna ^a /nnann K'n naio bbaa :»a5< ,niDnn mniKo ciDin niNVtr nrx 
nmaoon "inu bnn'j'Ji /nn^inn naxbo vby bap Kim ^DDm niobna ^"531 b^atj'o 

' .b^a n\s^aB' njMn xb 'a 



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_ XVII — 

(i.n^DH r«3 nov ^n'hh^r] omcDT iiD^nn ^^yn nn n^i nr^ne* onm nn 
nK'SKn px Djroa ^a '•n^Nic* Dipon D'^^ban i^x» oa ^n«^'^ D'oyob (t 

na n:3ion i^isyi ni:^D p^nynS nxo rrj'p'' ii''« "D:tDn nbon iDievv. 'kjb' 

/monn «np» n^«in nxi -io«Dn ^nn^n p ijyc* — ni3p:D d: kSdh joan o 
^t? "i^yn ^Dtr .innnx Knn on (2;NnnDiD vnx pMD C.K3) nxrn naoon ?di 
p^nynS man n^n^ «^ p^nyom nSyin ^d i:dd i:^ pxr nrn b^rh kSn nxi3J 
pjyna yi3:^ ^Sao '•nionn nrS d^dhh ^d .rnnyK^ ^"^^nc rw'^^n nnK 5i« 

.iDvy 
nafc^" Dx «Tipn i^y bpnb /mjcr^n nnoiar ^i^n n« nyi nv baa ^n^'^^v (n 
a iioy 'a /k m»y .a ^"ic* (:a) (.aj bhan jioDai ponn n« oa N"ipi) 

.D>ia pi 
an 13DD ^nyna djdx dki iiv^c' Dipoa ^nmn tnnt:MDa^"cn cn-r^D nx (i 
cDyoa ^JDo npb nr Sa by *vj*n^B nybaD Kioan n&c panb tr^'ipn b^v^ mpoa 
ncrxa nbnno ^narno nn^n p nS '•a rinax «S nD«m ,niDy baa p^bn n^vno 
^3n^yn bn «i:«b iJ^Dta bnj inrn noibon a-in |v^ ba&c ,^jcr nnsa Ki^pn nxn^ 
^^ nD"ia ^3 D« ^nnDan ^no^p /nai Tipb yicpb ib ^nnoan ^iw lanaca ry 
nbaiin wb ntrx naxbo onva '•"^in D^annb wbnn "laa nia"ia 'Doa ^a ,ai pn 

(3.n«Tn njn»a nvn^Nn moo na 

Tionan :n:DOi n^y iosb^i ^Kiip'? nnH 8o;n mxnn^ sine ^d:?;* n« k>3id oan ( i 
ooa DioK» n"2B^T o iiDJ trisir xim pm^ osna d'^b^sJ jnav 't ctr^ n"2Bn -^aH' (.») 
ns'H 2'n3i nc^Ki d»ci ntr^s n2 ane mn H* '"i^^an nn»nr ntr-it *?a .(inav '•) ora -^h 
ipmty nsmn p';n D»Snnn Saa Ki*D3 k*? nnts ninK ntnei .12 »Din Ss ncKs d^'di tr^Hn 
inSn:io p^t nimo D^n^ron njn ♦cS "iir;ii noS// ncno n;m .01^2 nnSy »h -h ac^'S ony:* 
natron -jsna n^aen n:n dki /'iz 'Din Ss nrK// /'C|3H»]Bi3ipra// ,"nnH ^n,, patron Sr 
oicv/ DBO Kipan vcan^ .inn S»nsD2 .S h^jm 'd ]B^mn ntm "1 Str ma^a Kiipn wro^ 
nin in«K S2S1 .^DScni^i 2in2n »C2 oyo now »o^r2 SK32i2NnS iircfo ni:?i8^«2i '^n^ron 
n^22 n'jia nnronB' in^^K »bo ^S n^jair now macn KiniP n^yr6 pi »3an ,ns is)vh a«xnS 
o (.Top n2r2) low »rKXD mw /'*?n;in ]nn dv^ vSy nano in^Sw mncn ,n-nrp onS 
H^n "]nxn PD32 >nn / o "^own oyoo k*?j rr)^^ nroin n»on hSi «S rv^^n »ncD n;»2Bf 
iioSn2 nHO 0*2') mo^po2 nrn p«32 1210 >n«vo inw ,(20'n n-npn k3 p'y^ nm^o ibd 
'nKVir!2 ;CD"cn»:v^ iS nD02 oiinyH^ *?n:n ccrr osinf ^nna nni*) »^s« cri^o oSiai 
;o»rpB^n n* niy;*DS "iw^ noS// moTon *:'y2 men »2 ihdk k^i ,r6H2 onoKO viiDnn 
nni!< onrA oaoK »atyin tH2'i:?a"i O'-i i"nn pnpion oann ^ax'^n ,-siy wvoa onioa •^B'ki 
o Qj no .Divon H\n ns kS ^2k .ono nrw Sr 'Si«C// no'nn »^ nK^^n D;n loc^a D3 ^ 
^2 nuiS nz^rh '^ aitmn n«T hk noo trmS iSsv cwiipm i«3ipa»n »^n >n 'n^ nmn 
2'nK n^nxio -^rK nnn nprn n>»-» »3eo ,'2^2 iS »nmn 2"r.Hi iS ]*OKnS ^2^ ;i2 r6nno 

.'2^2 "mn ^2p:i 
.nsn .13123 o ,'121 wvT 'KoniT moim 1212 .7 pSnn nni (2 
nmr v.T noa dt^pd lyjrb noxa K^n ma a naw^D Dai) (3 
v\l^v ;''r"iBr Dipoa nnvp hoai ,«nD)n by ^imy ^"e^inir Dipoa nnn-i 
niryb bp: jir^n D'^rno ^a ooipoa ^''jtid nM'-tr -non n« niDK'b K\nn nyai 
a^'yi /P^nS mob invar na a^si'^o nan o'^itr nnoan ban w^tnn^ ^-bd nx 
mbaa bnn h« ot^'D nn«n niaia 'do ^nooin d^didt ^ac^a .D^aiB^p ibia nby 
£3 ^•j.>ci:Dp;;by nimb Dnwa bpbpb main ^atrni ,nois» ^nbap «bi ^ptj'XT pio 



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- XVI — 

Dsoo nrn i3iKn ^jvn nx n^«ii? Dn^ry inpsi icr*« ono ^an^i ,N2n oSy "^nS 
-i\>:n^ non d; i^nn Ai:p nioyS onDn niy p«T iniDD p2i i:^n ycrsai ntJiyi 
^yji"? D^n K> :nDK^i lir -ID pin'j»3i niyDT nj^rn Dn^ry ^d dk vSx Dn':D 
.p:Dn^ "DDHvi .px"ipn^ ^^air, Di n"3 .rSapnoi" iSnh maic'ni nutj^no 
^K^« b^h c\^i: ^moK oyos nya ^^^y n^^^ moy "irw njvrnn km n&cr 

.nvjnn nnv D3 mem nix^n d: D^cnn d^di** oa ^:dS iS:j ,n-jnnn jn^ ^-lyr 

,im ^naSni "•Dipn ^^aarn ,nv bDl^ Dipr^S^a ^:iSn^:vyi ^2n r'-T.a^niDynNS 
,Dn^ry3 "d^nt pnvoD ic'X "lyoi iry nc;*p22 D'^^an \*ss >3S rn>:^ ^nci: xh 
n^:rin ynn paon ddhh ddib^h inn nx -"ym i\>cn D^oyo 0^^102 "ic'x ly 
nioi^n D^in iS ai,, r^ id« -ir« "dmn nanx^ n^ytD nynpsi'SlD T'Xtt 
mni r\:m "ir«i ir^e^y -ib'x i^^ nnno N'vin ,n pii?i p^n^ "in^a c" "irxo 
Tnv^pn nSx v^2ib "nny^ •t'^'d iS .T-n: nn ctdd l*'" "d n«i: dn n\ni py^sS 
wKi T«i ^n^xSons nK^yS^iSnni nidj ^i^ w:p ^:^]jiDrD ^03:^' n« tiidd ini 
niic\^"in Ko;nni Sn3i |op or "h Ti^^p tk i«i ;n^3 n^h)S' 'n pen ^d 

.D3^*E)S nn:iD 

innDn ^5X1 ,D3^:d^ nmne nrj-'-n xi?j:n n>nn -ii-x ny3 nS^ nsrn xnDDrrn sy 

ly^yn Dii ;nD ixvon xi* "ik^k nnnx nte D3i onvpo ^D^D^^cn oncKcn nx 
.Ss py^ ,'''6: ,0333^2 ic:*n nx x: nDx ,t&«i mvD D"L"n micoa 
^M ,''D''y3B' i3min„ 0^6 nioSnn nch x"3 ,13^ x^ i-^nxi mx ,i:S x? 
nni) D3i> nrnn ,pivm noxn ,n:nnni nynn 1 1123 lan .irex nrorji irnn 
n::nn xm '•3 ixvon Dx n^i .nry^n p"it:*3i n3xi>.vn bv n-ip3 ipS tDBc*o 
rrn^ "3 ,D3SipS y^D'J'S pvo >ijm X3 '^:'iV'i:>^r] ,n^i33 ix niDipo nrxn ,\\p^n 
2? D^c'x x^ ,^vr\o t:j^ '•:an ,n2 n2i^i r}^)'^n nip2^ ix /noxn dc6i dl**2 

. .""i^y Dcm Dir lay x^> 
nx iDnS ^nix inn3n'j* ,DytDm n2''Dn nx nox 2n32 dk'hx nnvio -iBr2 
/T'2 ^niny nrnn dx ;nv2 iioyc nnxi inx ^3 ,D"t:'n ^22 nonac^ Dn2nn 
inx2 in^axi ,DiDin n-20 "ivpn iiD^nn xv' "122 "3 /nisni? nrn >33t^ nnx 
^afx ,ixnjxS2 D^xvno K'yon22 DrT2 d^c^C'dd d^i^ t::' Dneon ivis ^n2io 
nx ncny "^an d.td i^yr onnx wbb^ no dj nn^ 3^n?^ 'ovy nx x^id ^:jn 

:nDm ,nD D3 ,^n3xS?3 
^y p2 ,nvp pr> 'nrs'2 D3 p2i *ij k* ^'^2 p2 on2nn ii>S33tr DipD S22 (k 
1 p D 2 nnx Dye p"i 1x12^ /O^rn S32 nnnso nioipDS p3i Doipo 

.D n ^ M X "I n 
nSnnnS niannxn nixD2 iDDin^B* ,ninm nii>p*^»n -|in2 ,ninui niSpB* (i 
J31 rHonDi nxnD2 IX novy n3Snn2 entn Die* p b ^ o 1 d jrxc* nioijnn 
.nsnv XMB^ DipD2 xnn xipoon p-ii ;nDn^ ,mjn2 
^^22 D*3"i r-'-jsn irx r3i rnT3 o-n^tron oninM u lo^asn nrx nx f.t 



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— XV — 

jnnc^no-ivpn nyn'^n /Hiir'a'' xi^^'nan o nonN ^nx .rnipo bnnn moi D^c^jxrt 

^Dnjno non mcnn «^ nnn oijaB'a i:MD3n ):b n^v^ -itr« nxm n:iDnn 
^b ^i« pN Ds no«b An\i2 iprn bbn lis^c'j ::'x-i nm« nan nac* D'D>K3 nr '•d 
mc^ni Tyn D'-^niii rianon «nip SipnM^Sip ^^x -^no^^vtrDy «b d« r'^ nD /^^ 
i^K'^tr: i)e^ inyi siiof) m^ onn rnyni ,Dnra poiyn ^"rn tj^i \vb^ nib id*j' nS 
^i'':th n^n natr naox: n:ion loi^ i«-ia lann n«i imcr nx -i«3^ cnt^ ,nT 
vj^npnB^ D^annxn ^'tn i« o^^in riKumrnx Any2 ^nnn inyi poiy n« Tira 
non IN ,t>ann mo ninbi onn nx }3nb ,DnKn n:^Dn n« lo^b dh^d^ ^3 nt^ 
i3iNn ^jyn e^o: mo nw ,vr\m c^Dan ^byn Se' nSn ninaj n« nynb no^ i-j-n 
D3Vd: min ,iob ti« ,t^i po^tr^n ^nia^t^v -ic^x vjryn pa i^ irn^ny crpnon 
iD«' iB'Ni it'K' yy-i^xn nnro ^y lovy nx nnpon poo c^«d nxn naion «vr:^ 
De^n itTN .3npn i^nynn ib Dcn nnn^ n kivo^ dji ibi3 D:>iyn nx u jpnV 

.im:3^ «nn o^iy 
na nnc^no «^vin^ ^d ,n^it3 inoDn ^a poon n^n^ ion im-ini lavaeo 
c'paDi v^« n:iD in:m ,nna nn^n oyn dud nity ^ni>n in^ f>N^ p« byien ^n 
-inn nic^nn D^yn nMrr anrn '•y« nx yr^S «"iip man ;n^n "i^on^ ^a D^cm 

nnnnnm orp id^l-" D^naian pntj* npron ^^yn Sn vdd chid in:n ,3^) i^ id'^c'* 
1« ,onD n« n ion loi^ pn^ro^ ibc' yyn^xn nx inp> o ,DmiD^ n^xb^p^Dcni 
,Dni5n T»VN opDi onnr Sy ^iS) p)n:yy) v:Dn iS inoi^ it> y^vb" ipncr^ nn«3 d^id 
31D ? D^OD'yyn^Nn pn i3\s D:n ,nn^ny c^pni> ^:ySi ? DsnnnS pDo^n :)b lay^ 
131DD '»o ^Di^DvySyD^omc^paa .ini"pa^ iny:c» ny "d !iS D-'onn i)N ib hjd 
^::p u'\y: d^^did pai ijn'ct iSy^ d^d::6 -irx o^Ncron niynan ,DnD"in onnn 
,«an D^iyn d^vdh i:^i3 ,i:nn>ny nnx lanatc D''nrnT3 i:^o jn ?D^yyn^« "^ya 
!?irbN mpn^a nn«^ioi ,iini«n '•vn 5)Ni3n-n n?y n^ iiy in ,n D^Tioy ^:i?u 
nn« "»3pn noen man otr nc»n Ssra ,"i*Dipo i^x axDi ^:y ,nid^« n^ ma 

ncTi "^TNnn k"3 ,nD vb^ Diana inn n^e: N*i?tr 12b xb .nrn nai«n ^K 
Nvj» ,nnn3 nyac' -lay D:n ^a piann ^« ,nar3: Da in^mncr n^-i ^K ^a ;b^n 
b^ nr aaiao psp^i n:aSS nono iic' aVi^ ma nba binh ,ninn ni^yb npc» 
onnn bv 'noao ^oicra ^nS«i: no nab b« id«^i noy Sy i»y^ prnnn ,"inN Std 
nse^ T\by:* /nian d^:c:' warn "nnntr yyT«n nxc' ^arna "n^ac* n» ,D^D"in 
yorhy oa^a'^ya D^oan oa^^y San ,fiDan niaa nib nk*' Itrnr ^b in^vo^ ^'•aah 
«bi D^yyT'xa la^an nb nc^N jytDaSp'^Do ncnn ^aaia Danaio ^ana ^lynn nS 
-a ! u kSx '•li^n vm'^^ p« ^'iSn "lann oaa n> ,nanb noi nnrb no lynn 
,D^aiN ail na T'aa t'^kS ^n^i "^sna n«Ta iiaiai ! ? ^a nmry pw oxn o .na> 
n «^ /notra ia mnia kS tDyoa "d d«i oovy ^aia pa ic'ni Dirb ny iiann 
5« />y ^N nby^i ostD^ ue» bann nvpa tn^e^ ny ,imtDO nx a^c^'nc^ ny dctd 
rh^]r^ DDtDD inan dvi dv boy laen^ n^i Tin«^ n .lanpa pic^n yyn^xn l^'ni 
Da vnin«rD varx nayoc^n rx is ! n«bni laoo my naa^«i inntao bt^ anpnoi 



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— XIV — 

moipon HKiD ,n^3o rcniao nw n''^^ mi« km mnin rP3i m^pt^^n nio^K 

mDiy Dyn DiBn« nnni) noi nn6 no o^bnw pi3n« nnxi ri^c^B' D^pr:2 
,^n3«bDn«^n^B^nTnr''BnDiD'iBnD,'»S -i^kb^h^ ^nisi^nn n5r« nx ppn D^cna 
.« -i^ynS «vo« iB'K n« pii /Sb^d nn« m« i>s« ^i^dik n!? laon d^:d3 "d 
onnvD D^:oDn Dimx K^^^ rn:nn i« lOKon nx "nnry yno D'-K-iipnb cnth 
ly lo^bcs'K «^ *<inn -iDon n«i ,invo iDon nn^ ^3« pi D3 nnpS baix ik'n 
^^D^ «^n nn mi-inn ^nyn^ ^eb ^3 }y^i .o^^^n bx n^ia ^naxSo nx n^D« "ic»n 
Die' ^^3 ^nax^ob D^anvan vh^ ^scnai rcneo ^3 oy irk nidj 5)^^ nn« nyc» 
o^tm^n ^3 oai >^i3 iniK ^nxip -issb' ^:sd ,0'3yb yai: irKK' mv ^aSs: 
niisVN v6 nonDn nytr D3 iB'Nn^N3 d^st D^tr^i ,83— 84P|Tin3nviBiDi wnsDin 
ns^on a"3y or i)33 rsn^i nioSb '•033 iTh^ n:n ,Dni) p^Don nv^ ^n ni^ nnh 
iB'K D^D^ 550 ny pi 'n3KbiDS ^b T»V3 n3i rDisn^ D^i3iD vn> -iB?« «iDa rei 
D3C^ tnoi (T\v:^or nt>iT) d^bt 2570 ^wb ^3 or ^3 niyc' nc^n Dn3 ni3yx 

.■•^33 DTn S33 
''in« D« ir»M /^n3«PD3 nx'^ae^ nr« Kvon «vtDn d: dw nbn b nnxi 
^3 i« ,TiDbnn ipyo ini« i«vtD^ D^03nn t^tk "i3t hpn d*o::»k ni:ii3nnn S3 
niy^oi3 nT3 i^pkk!) T\:n mobnmp^'o irxcr imKvo' D'^3nnic*N 131 d^jsk 
ivyin '•s wn ipyn ,n3nS >b2V ^D):r\^ n:) S33 D^Srn^ 1S3V irnn n« ^3 /^^3 
n3-» ny e^^ niy n!?S3Si ni^th no'^JC^nS pojin njic^Kin n3«i>Dni bv\th kv^ 
Soior no nen^K ^3i« ,D3ir» my ■noSnn n^pioi ,Y^i^r\ p d^mr ion «S niyi 
«S "3 ioi« «i> b3« ,nKTn mnyn nx nnvK ^b'bd nijnrsi wns ^331 ^^:; 
yiiM n3n HN ^D« yiv /nb nnin ^vy nx yiv ^:k ''"nyn iS3p^ ^3 i« ,njrx 
^j^on n« iB^ nom r'h^ nn nB^«i ^nennc^ no3 pun« ^:« /^nu^ n« ^:k 
i«i^ iB'x D^:n i>3^ Skib^ bJ:> .1313^ DDi> n^^^ iTH^ ivpn ino^nni an^Sy 

.inpnyn3vin-nn3 i-nvp3 im« 
Br»« ^3 ,0333^53 m^DD \\'')nn «vo le'K ni5« ^3 bt^'^^ ^33 Dn« nnyi 
/*Ti3on riniini im loy n3iiD3 }*Qnn ^3 rminoni n^npn omin r:^y3 np^ ick 
D'r3D vni ,D3iDn3 'hv 133131 ^j^D^b noy ,nTn Snarr 131^ D3T i3n J ^Jiiry 
c^ipmrfi< 3X131 11 c'^x n** bv minomnDB^n nonpn D''y3tri3n-iin n» f>3pS 

.n^^n i» i3i3nni ,n«Tn moD^ vn nx 

wp2:tr t;* iD'om '^^» ic^ps ^mSroi D'233 ,n53Si non ,pjo o^ar ,nij?r:ji cnn 
njtr ,'131 vain pz itr^n non 1 ^2 h^x *i^n ■jnn |»k noH ! lao^y Sy c^pa: i»^y 
d;i i6k oniK cSapoy i»n fcA now 'la »ii na: ,K3n oSiy '^1^ ioitd 'o Sip ns 

St3 D3n3 nD3 i33i3nni «3 IB': D^30K Dn«v rn:n nip D^cnn ^osn 
nB'y3 .D^So iyip3i b^n tid33 Sn i:03n D3^:d^ iinntr it n:ion io-'^bS n^^vi) 
nm« iiKnn D3^3bS nman nv^-^^n bvr\ ?i^3in D3 \5rynn ,n^:^b n3L- niKO 



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f 



-- xi:i — 

^3D nn« n^H u ^loi: n> ■'d ihdv nnx ocon rrno ynv-nK '3 D5 no ! ^^cy 
r) "'Dcn ?3a D ^ K v?o : n onoxo u piDn^ "ix^ -i3d i^^dch t'sn D£n:m anr:n 

-^Dn «^ iDvyn niDi?nn nm k^« nrn nDonn p« '•a unb xnv n« dk D^r^n: 

pi^n |D nnpij D'»V3ni Dovy n« Duni« n»n dj ^3 ,noij^i n niD^So DDvy 
nt^NcrnS Di nnien djdk |«ddi ^ . . D:n Dovy n« yrin b^i^ivbi^ ,nr:'i !?^y ^Sn 
D3 \sco nw*s 5|oi: Sax ^inx trxD pn rr^n^ d« oyS laon Saip^ dn n^3t»n 
«vo:n IX ?D^ai onanoD nann: itr^ Dnaoa NipS oyn paon ponn :i:mK 
nat/ iD«^ /Hdio ncnD^ncmpn i^min nx iT^pn S^mnr nyo |n v htd nso 
«in Sna -invniDDDni nnxn onnnno D'jq Dnson Sa npj ^nny nro niin 
,Ky^enN 'ii K^''n 'i c^'^y NnQDinn ,vMpn i:ai c*''y nxipa n3t:':2n td-^'^m 
TMD1 /131 m ^v nson ,n3-i «^^n'n E^'^y cmion {r ,^E:•^5 3-)"^ xrai r"y D"c:*n 
nnSnn /xn« m c'^'y ninSxcrn ^Dn^rnn •DnnanD.tr"y onDor? D'^Kip: n^bn^ 
'•D WDHM DnDD nnn Tj'x D^mx^DH Dnanon d^i ,Ki^''po y^.r^y mSn: 
}n: '11 nu« ,k*ii ^piD i03 D^Sn:n p nns^ db' nx on^Sy iKip dibd Saip^ 
in« ETKO pi mnn: in«i inx Sd ib'« D'^oain naoD i2iS iiy pxi .iiyi iiyi 
D^pan nsDXo ^m idd >3nn3 nS oSiyoi ^ncryoSi nJpn"? xin >m ibd dj dk 
nx ponn iS np^ d"« kid'^ki rSx'^irn niyi nn ^^syi y^Dyixpx na^c*^ ^''sy 
iKB^a t6 nai ?^:iDcnn nac'n^nei^ d^:u:i wdju iidd kv^c* ibd rpaS p^yin 
nD3'«i nnS naxStDH S« ncraS ^c*B33 hdik ib'K Sid ^na noa cnsS kSk ^S 
nrn prn niixaS ir« nyn u':v ^*b^ p mr n!? naxSon n^ry p.? lyrS Sd^k 
NM n-'^i V on^Sa ^xnai viriso oy d I'^n Sa Sy luyS loiSo e'\xS dj '^ivj 
Sa:)X kS nrS D3 i'^« D"B^n p npnynn naxSo nno niaani nrpn naxScn 
Svx ^mnyn v^ya ma ^n-'DJC' ^:d!:)i ,DnS dSb»S ni^^o n^ pxe^ ^:bo my Dit^^ 
iB»ND mv ^mny ^:oio nnpS p^nyon naxSoS nnann ^a Dn«VN? .Dxisn pixn 
,u':^ b^Sb* T^-oa S^Sd niD)> ira nawSo ^^y SnpK «i3N i^sn .■•Dvya "npnyn 

? DiDin n^DD d: ,'n ^a^^n^ d« 
^naxSon imd '•::n "a ,^ovy Sy aicrnS "S nS^Sm ^nSKSDnN'onK ^jn yir 
nai ni:3nnna prn '•nnvpn r^ayi ,'S^3d onoiSion p'^aiK ,inn 'oanSDD m^" 
TX d:i nxM naxSoS ^iv:n Sua invn «in nrn prn ^a nxn 'aim .niynoai 
^Knp ^b irox^ jyioSi .yi3B*n d^o^ n-j*B* ^or Sd2 niyc' ct r:^n pi iuy« dx 
^:rKB' B^KD D3nn ^Sy nna ma "a ,niiD n« nSa«i naxS^^n no n» bids 
.••aK iKDHD kSi DTao kS '•a ,SDn iNir rxi ,mn >Sy2D 
ny^B^n naxSoa ^a« "pi '•3 lyi^ 133 D^asS d'jb' B^n ''Sipn,, ^snip 
n^a i:r^ ^3 ,ia n^B^-^n n:B' 16 ^x 14 p^S33) niio n« wSa 1331 DoSipn 
D3 iB't* nnx n3KSD iiy ^moh D'db' Bt5n ^nsDin /'•n« S3K (n p^yS 0113 
iB»« nxtn n3«SDn n«i d ^ 1 d d d n n3KS*3 wni D''3i Dncio iB*!Drr^ na 

DnDDt531 Mn ^S3B'3 1« lUyN ^Dy3 «Sl ^DtD:)1p3 «S n^S« HB'iS "DW ^2K 

."•1^3 vn^B* u^'inn 
D'-Bnecn S3 oy Sna d B' n^n^ inxn p'^oB' >nB»3 ^hskSd mk nB»y« "^ax 

.nr;' n:ictym •iry nysrn 'pica a'^n i"n in ibd: T'o |»nv^ (i 



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_ II — 

/D^Dnpn VTORo ^3 nx i>3p^ .nnenbi imp:^ ,niD^nn n« in?:!? k 3 n-nx 

B^'yac' minn «m nst;, nDxi> iin:oi ii^x:iK» ^3 ^Jvi^T ^sir" S3 ^ryS c: Sy 
n^n ppa nn:iDi n3n3 ,xnv3iK3 njio -i«'j'ni ,TiioSnn "hv^ ^rn i^^ i»l'* icc? 
«S /n3 ny yn^ «S -le^x nDi>nn n« Sxic'*' yn^ nrai ^Sio^i n3^ i^vo^b nmn b2^ 
^3 Dn*o iDya i^n^ ii^«3c*D oai ,Sxir^ 13 n3^ niy ^bi /ri3ij noi^S niy ni"- 
«Sn m ^3 )2'bv n^c*b 1^3^ t6 y^v3iK3 o^m^D nxc':)::* onoKonD nvnnNn r.K 
t>V3 D3S «njK Dnoix ,^>3^e^ r3D DD^p StD i:S Dn!Di« Dn«c* ny Dni) idjcd 

n^ry P3D nrp 
mi)3nDnn nnx ^3 njiB'xnn •»m3K3 03^ "ny-nn nnw i ^^nx nnyi 
nj< a:;i> a'^^b n>b) dov m:D p^y-in "S ;n: xS n&crn ^innsD Sy m::unnni 
/HPiDS imuy 33^1 ^^1 «i\i >3 ^n^x-n ^nD:nnn nnx ,DynS nioSnm Tir:Snn 
^-inxi ,Sini'*n D^e^ix pxc^ Dipo3 ^rn nvy n« ]v^:^b '•b ^nnpS "ii'\s nn^^i 
,.13X^0^ n'j^yon nv^> n«ir3ni 0333^3 no^o kvo ovyi ^3 n^n \'K ic:*n 
ny}b iDi« -i:rx '>nl^2y "ons S3 nxi nT3 '•nnc'no S3 ns D3^jdS khdS 3ic*n 
: p-inx pr><i Syi ptrxn pinx Sy n^yxi /Tinx '•pS« mTy3 D^o^n 3-»p3 h^Sn* 
^t: n:^^ ^n^Sa kSi \s:rn3 ^n3«SD nx mL'»yS ^nS3^ «iS '•3 '•jn' mio 
D^o-iD3 D3^ /Dnnx D'oiS3 ^ ^ sS iTH 3iDinv nny ^3 ,n^3 n:3iD nS'3 n*nn 
S3pn: «S DJox DX1 ,3^e^nS t ^5 *»33 iTj»yjn ns o nDvy3 n3sSDnS d ':^^? 
pSnn^ «S niSipn n:n ,i:S m^.nn n:n: dvd /3^p-»3i niSip nS3 -ied dvj* i:rvw 

.^nSi3^3 HM K1? n3in hnt 3^0 inr pSi ,i^'r{n ny3 d: i:S ncn^ ns 
'•n3«So nSn i3t dib'3 p)Dvb ^6^ lyvoS D^j:r t:»Sc:» nni3»3 n3rS 
yioc6 ^'^v^)^ nDN3C' ^j-soi /nrn -i3in nx mtryS ^n33 ^^i^iy ^jed S3« ,nsTn 
S03S p3: «S '•3 ^n^«T n3«SDn n»'^n: Sy^ p^yin Dvy Sy ca-Jinni D^D3nn nyn 

n^trxiSniix ,"»DDn nS3pS pT r^n^ DK»/^rjr ^3 Dnnj< vj*^nvni"N •T'yi 
pT i3nDn D-j' «S3 "i2Dn nN D^annS (k ,"i3n3 ni3irn ^nti' n:n ,n3«Scn 
OS' n*3''»;n3 Dn3y n33 p^an^ n*n3*j'xni JT'Sajj^n )xo''Drr nSnn n:.*rD "3 nxD 
in «'.n vn^Do D) DX ny.i n^b::n2 y^av ->tr.\* iqd S3 Sy tjmh Sov nnn^n 
Hr\^ ^3r« D^«3pn n^yiS pt i^j^xd -in'* 31 jx^d^dhS vniri3 ptoh d:i ',fK^Dn:n 
iDon nx «ipS D'03nn n« y:io larx nrn nc»nn Da d:ds dxi ,nrn irnn ro 
nx yyr}"? isdh S3V «S txi pmn!3 n*3ri "^atDO lyia^ nyn y)j2n S3n ^3 p3nSt 
yi3D0 mu ^:rx D3 S3« CiTi33ninN^nn^:rwD:oNDNcr .n'^atr nxn odidd 
n\T Dx p^i ?nyS30 ^3X crcnn "lonn '•3 ^nnx s^nT jcini'' p-:n« nSc' ^aeo 
i)3D n3'j' inr ;n o ,mSy '•oir xip'' -3 panx irn n3KSDh nx ninassi nny3 'n 

]o »33'x o 'iscn-iS *?3i« H^ nc2i ,D»DTiin nH 3 y n K dw iiy kSi c * d 1 1 ■> n 
n7S:o r.vr.S Ssijctr nys B\D3n nrw hS d;i ,0 ^ i y 2 i 2 i i b^ o n n D»mTi 
o'£-tnno ^3in o nrn ]TiDr:n nn »Sy pKnfD* h? c^'n"::i -nvn *x3itr w o »'-' rrar.DST 

.niitro IS nauD 12t ht'h nrui 



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— XI — 

njK' ^33 Dsno lainntr n?o Sa Dy Tiot^nm ,nv3iDip ^c'-iiii pkSnS^dhS 
nx pnvnS nxrn n3y::n nx SnpS ipjn onn D^craxn ^ryn ♦D^obK^ r\:tn 
Dn*.n^ ^3 Dnt5i«i onio iDn:s d: ->c*« .uniK ? u D*pnnrn ijnixi iiD^nn 

? ! lim DniD^n 
I'yir i3n:« pKrniD^nm nnTnnn:«n nx D^triBDnr Kt^« .izbi n k^ 
nSapn nvrnni h^n >c» N^BiD\t>''D3 /HUD nn^pna /n^ono nnwxS^Kn ,1^0 no 
nonnn ^d /(iixDi:bip^v^iyT nioSrin b^ d^hsd: non d:c' ,mnDi noDni 
Drxi D'^3' Q^K nr« /Dnaj»n n^yo n« D^'^rnoi 1^13 "no^nn dn D^crnpD 
,D*:ioipn nQD ^c* mi^oa d^j^oko d^^nt id3 iioi^nn nmoa poxni) Donv 
D3 r«^ #^^«^ Q>'^ nonn onnnn i)33 t^^o pw D«,f 133 iSxc" ^Ktr »^n ^3 
nioS? D'D'BiD DHK irx iioSnnD Dn« n^DD «S ]mo ];>\rD ^b2 1331 /i?T'0 

D3Sr«*^nmD3 Q^xSoD Dnn3T ^3 DnD15<1 D3 D^p'TnO D3niy DX1 I?nD^?1 

^! ? Dns D>iyn S33 D31d3 pwtr nnn ^^y3 «Si iDhd atno S3 D30vy3 
ronnxn o^oyn ^:''y3 j^b prm i)n3 orn nryn ^'•nn-ii mo ,nNTn n::Dm 
in:;iS D^i»i3^ orxi moSnn n&c o^riv Dr« D3n:r Dovy omnM Sy x'^s 
HDytD n5<i vxoic' ^rio pi Ti*DSn3 3in3n hk D^yor non ^3 ,nny «inc* imD33 
nryn nnsn in^j^ao e'Sc6 ipSn: p Sy irxi /D3S3 D^J3nS d^?13^ dj''&« vpnvc 
nioc' "Dn^v ,Dno-i ,nniD kSd wn ^3 moiKi D^tnp inpS 1S13 iioSrn nt< 
n^3' ,n^in "ditv 3''^ rr'-is "nv^3« D^tnso nr^n) ,vnM: b Sy ninD: n?:3nv 
D^SSiD*:* n^3n "bbr] n^2^ ,DSiyn S3 Sy Seiion n'3 S^i ^xdc* «no3 pt'So "^Kcr 
ona in'f> D''y3enrS^ DnoioS inp^ nn; n^von S3 ns ,(y''L**3in n« D-n3C'Ci 
133 Kin« «iD3n 133 D2 DinSS pn "•S3S ^np^ nSn n«i n^n3^3n n"3ip ns 
njyo .13^3 .10333 i:r« n''3rn ;i^bmS is ,nSn n3 S31 n^S^S /pcn ^o^cn 
non ,iS^n Dy nvnin ^o nx D'3Bicr iioSrin p D.m^ iQ^orn di^ Syi Dn33Dn 
,n3iDK Ss kS3 nKtr3 ,Dn3ios iiD^i Dmi -^n 1 oSnn n« nnx if« 
S3*n kS iB^s n^r'»S-.**m ;DninM dduxd nS>3tr '•3Bd pi Dn^.n^ D'Kip3 ncni 
,131 nrN3 }nD«nS nn'D3 nx SsnS S3in nSi ,n3iioKn tnitr n« n3SD cncS 
nns DyD3 iids^ nT3i Dir3 n« d-'OS onnoD non ,D^Dn dit n« n3yr 
iSnn ny» noSpn S*Bn D^SSn nD3 .n3iOKnD «S S3« i3in3B* no S30^ t^dShho 
nyn? wenn nrn 131.1 nx dn ? vni3iipn nx nixi.iS uid nx D^Syrr^ vi:d 

D1B3D Sy ,D.irD1pD ^33^X11^'' ^331DDD:5y tD^SnSl Jlllin PV3 S3nD.lS D3''Sy 

;prn Dyn Kin Sxizr^ nv^ nys f}y3K^S^D ny3r Sy jdik Drj»3 ^iny^ «Scr SSi3n 
rD'oyn S3 Sy m^ d^3ii one none' ny3 rny3 DntVD3n o^oy.i S3d onp.n 
Sy Miyna k3 n:«i> '01 'in c^sShS uina ''':sd o t>io" I3^o* '^-^O DHD ninD D^no 

xS 131BD0 "'3 .13133ni DT.DNn .130.1 «*n .1101 (26 i> 285 '-: Spn2 S"^Ci 2n3D 

Scr n33iin» «Sk iivn«PD3 «Sc% nxixSox Si3n^ «Si n3in' 
mo «v^ iC'K S3C' ,nyii 1303131 i3^Ki 133 13rC3 p3XlS ^3 !?"DScrii' 

/iiy .i^Sx 3C» xS nioSnn 

''nsn 13 in nav »ncD ^y iokb' pSnna "rsn/ maon esnn mi uoxa nci (r 

'^.iTiDK hz i^BHED t:i n"22 .121 Ts H3 nSci./ n^Ka cenisji: 



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- .v — 

SdS'J' nnr\y /Djn oy ^3 b^ nnDono !?«itr nnoo «m njie* p -d n:n 
Da^ nc nx D^^ipn D>jmn d^mh d^st^k Dneo nmo djjt nijjc6m onDyn 
TXD ij^nn'' DBD3 n« ik^vi^ d-io iB'Ki /Dovy }n^n i^y Dio^Bn^i D'-cann Sb' 
nmo iD^) p« ^''33 Dy /iD^ n:n rinynai inaion ,DyS ini3-Dvnn riBon mnoa 
^3 DyD3 ^ijnnDD namna ipoyn^ ib'K D^yn^i onDan D^cr:« «bi ni?«3 oneo 
t^nprrfoirnSy nnnx ni^3 ik ,DDvypnrn bv DiTidd n« d'^d^did Dnanon 
/D^ac'n Sy onanon neo n« ik o^^^Dno iijatr D*D^siom ,vd pn ibxr^ ^^ao 
jyob DDvy jntrn ^y Dn^js^r no by m d d i n oy mn nsoi n^obnn n« i« 
''0OD1 nnoyoi ni:^nni D^'cni^ei niBDin oy nibfin nno ik ;DnpD nac' 
pT "DnaK 'T nan d:i pni^ 'i naii /lai 'iai nSinS nnbvb whnn ]''bt^''t^Hpt] 
.now Dvaa 'trby on^ntoi nyb ons^pi oav: ns^n 
^ny ^D^ "lE'x nra D3 x^a n^^non baa D^oyn bx ^ybt: 12b nra kS ^k 
in-.-iDDtD D^oya maai d) ^bi«i o^oyD siSs i^nnoo bi:in ,D^Dyn Sa i^: ^onDDD 
Sba Donv i:x :\><i paDi m^bo na«a i^mx paji Dan oy "a ,Dri oy ba bc^ 
v^'iaoi niobnnn;^^^ dji ,^bban laon rr^a nyn^S /D'^ynon cmio n^a nyn^b 
?iaa no nra: xb oa dki ^jenp nsc' nx oyo paa dk lib n ,^ynD idd "lanb 
D^an*'n D^ai d^-dd ^2b ts^^ ncmpn i^nDtr maa "^ai n^:a nm nise* i:b e>^ 
•^lannb vja> dvo n^^** lanoT -ikid bai nix^a o^anv D^ai om^^a d:i /-nK^a 
u^^ xbn ,n ^ba ^y omK^an dtiid lODna laa oa dm ,'niK'»ab iiK^a lanb u 
npTHDH oy^o «'m D"* ^io nam^ mo j'-ixd nanx i:min ,minb d^:d D^yac* ijb 
M m^n nbn baai n^oaa ubap d^d.d n^thn "•sbxi o'-cnTD maan /nancn nx 
nx nxi: xb ny*n bni:D a^'yi ! e^« ba i^ niy na ya: x^i x^n n c d n nniy 
n VJ1 n n nn^aom nmnan irm^ni ,iy^n nx nsi: «? o^xyn an^i D^vyn 
D^^po '•jx no Kb«« noKE' ^''acn nbbp i:a n»^pnj o i:b i:n:c' oraa lab pn 
n::roi mna nabn invd"* xbtr ikvo^ «bi 'n lan E^pab toaic'^ 
.yl^ in« Dipc^a "•Dfct b^-11 ( o*bp naO ''nnx Dipoa n-ma 
«"oa i-^DX -irxai ,ixo nem: moa nrn b thko i:a nioxni p djdk 
vby I'n'axi nra^ inn ns i^^by iQa nyo ^a /D^beaa ipbi o^^eaa iN::n b«iB*^ 
. n^Din bax i:o3 iy"»: Nb:r ^:trn ^vnn pi D^pna nrx "yi-iib rx i:r»i ^i^Dinb tk 
ann bas' Di:ra lain -ixa^ nc'xai /naacrai pira iini nn baa txd nann vby 
mxob D^Bu name* ny ."nnanjcDinabniobrxr-ab xb (^n T'na vnxnn 
lon^ Dysa DyQai ixd lai vi:^) n^obnn '•roc^ D3E» xbx ^^b na^nn x^'vrrnb 
nbxn v-iDXDioi ,vbam vnvrn .inobao-'^x ,in;itrD nixinb v-icxd nx d: by 
nn^D im in :)aa ijx D^xn nbxa onani .nDnc'bi iTbab in "*?: nx D^anin 
,nTn nna "lypyon "^rbnxny pxpiyDDyDD /-lyajyo^ypx pyobxii ,^ixKn ,py 
Da^pa D^yaon onnx onoxD d^ddxd non ?niDbnn ^pnvo D'-ny no i]x 
noiyb Dip'^'*i 'iai 'lai .nai mabao ,nc:m: mr:a onx nanx ,nnr'' nno 
;^x '^a nx„ i^>:n'' niobnn ^x:ir lon^ ic^x D^oxcn nanai ,b"in Dnoxon 
XV*:: Dn^mmi nn^ninixa ,D*:iDnpn D''on ^-Jina rem dx '•a ? "nbx loa 
m^n nbia^ nsrn n3;tDm ;niobnn nox'a^o ai nn^ D'yn:n ixo o^an Dnan 
yivD'xa D'n:iD vcmi vnnjxiiDbnn vnibx n^noxi nprn n^vt^ nvnb noxa 
on^nvrm on^ban ,DnMicm) Dn^nnix ,D"»Dit:npn D^i3n -pin D-mioe* im 



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— IX 

onur nNir^-iT in:iD nn'-n dn noi^ ^nv n%T -i&'Na nnn nnn Don-iup Nnn 
D^^ DDmup Knn D'-mn niDi«n pn ds' ! or :k"d ,n^b2\>^ nh dn ->nn nnn 
DC' -yjv N^i Dy^ nvnbo ibnnni on^j^s i^rnnm nnynn nninn nx ^t>3pn k> 
n?DX3 Nin 6CD*n pi ronn« '-i t'cr "ivhon,, '•3 d^ni i:x n:n^ — .'l^v bn-wy 
r[*:ir\ D ^Do K^) ^D i^x-ic'^ t^^D bv *'»3 HiDT TD^o ^^^n ,nNo 13331 Sn: 1»^D 
D^aon bv P /DniDD ai) Dnb D31 /Hto no lyn^ n^c lai ^3pS n1!::^;^ inv^ 
n''D33 imin nx SapS maio in:n «in ^ni npy^ j-^p^r ^jdcc' '\nn nx on^Sy 
inan do'os^i D'J3 noa nyi — D^^yn -in^ pn nap^ kS }yoS ,n^n^ p;»^ ,d:ij<3i 
n-'^DD «rnS ? IDT ^3 i:S ixb^: dkh idS moye^ i:n-iin kSi^j ^3 r'K S3 p3^ ^S^« 

? ^:b)3 irM Nir« im m b^i n^r:3 nnn 
nn ^33 n^D33 i3n-nn n« D^Sspo i::n i ^jnw m« ,«in p 
mo'D ,i-n-iin n Sr^nrn mo nx tDytD cjx ynvn :r« ^31 pn ny ba /ini 
->3in ^y DH^yiD ) Sn^n oinn hpS bx-^^^ S3 ivap: ib'k n^»n:i N-ity ly nro 
i:3i r.uc* T^.DSnn ly ,N>r:n 1331 Str in-nr3 n:K7:n ny (''• Kiry ^D^imnci 
ly ,(nmx nmsi D^ron n?Dni3) yi-iaS p« i:ddi ^i^DinS p« vSy rnoxi '•k-iud 
iSnnr on'-insr D^^mn nao ly /nSsao ^nS3 nScTD03 iSsr^tDtr D^^iwn noD 
^3iipD 3p;"' 'T Hionnn isd a'^Don T'sxinj D*DL"n p iS3p onnsi "3 n^anS 
ns nsi^ ,"ni:e*S rxi« yiny D'-onnxm D^rcrx-in o^poisn neo ny (niyi niyi 
3:210 m^nn n>c iS3pn dx,, ioi«i nSyoSr: nny d3 irSy ic\yi 5|^D3 inn 

nn'j'y ,noi«n DvpS noN3 nn\n Dnji3C' D'':i^Nin D"*2i3n d« dSiki 
mon bv u'lsn ^:5 d«) nrn Dvn ny oixSn nx np^mm ,31 nDnSnan Dn^D3 
'ny^ mini nncryj SSni ^jcd'J' n^oSn nnetD n»Ni D^vy3 yin laaixnn il"K3 
n n^^yriT 2^3 Sj^n::*^^ n::»p n'ni„ nD« nnnion Dn3nn Sy me' d^''31 ,nnin 
'•3 nxo nnin ny-iS inry Dn^S33i nxon n« it:n: D^:nn«n D^si3n n:n ("S:yn 
nx kS my i«v xSi ^iwn inn nnno oSnS ixx'' •^l*'n i«d 1x0 nrn d*3i 
nun ic:*5: nnni*' D^:iinxn iry nxr d: tjxi — 3iin nx xSi ly^n nx xSi inn 
/iisSmx t:*^x 311S iDDn iidd n^n d:dx Dxtr niDSnn cnmc ly D':ii**xin 
D^:iinxn 1x3 n:n ,i3nS no nxi niitS no nx ri^oSn oyi iS^i ^^ i oy B"3y pyia 
inn nx ns3i idd i3n ,ni3S ini3Di inyi ^ oy iDvyS nc3 inx S3 cnS 1:31 
xS ^cnpni S3pn^ iiqd ^3 ,id3 i3niD S3 Str in''B3 nn^n no:- ly ,in S3p^ '•3 
(^mooio t2>D3 ^nxv"* 1331 1X0 iox*:n 3nini Tixn^ ^3) ,ix3S Dipon ns 
Sy D^:3in Sr niD3Dn3i ,D^Jic*x")n nsD pins nixiS f^'X S3 Si3^ nxr S3x 
Dnp3?3n iSin xS .Sxic^^s an:oS nrnS niD3Dnn iSin nyo d:i ,D^:iinxn '•idd 
nx nia3:? ibdi nx nix'^Saon ni3in ni^itrn niyiiom D^nyn ^3n303 onipani 
D'^nnon Sy Dnino nxr xSi nr xS onS px irx D^^:yn Dn3n*:ni /131 I31 mn 
,DnnDD iS3ip''K* fDnSi3^3 c'^r nD3 ly ,inn nx non d: D^a*.3i onneD Dy 
nn3^a iddi ibd 1? px ^3 nxia niiini naio py3 Ssno: dx 131 bi* 1SS3 
131 S3 iS nM x:* nxr ^nSsi ,n3in dxi oyo dx inn nx iiy3 123 xSc:' Sxitr> 
irx nSx DJ d:::*^ n^ess D^jnM oneon p3 ^3 3vj ^bi yi px dSixi . oSiys 

.Sxic^'' nvDix:> DrpS 1x0 iS'^yii 31 nx iv^es* 



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— yiii — 

D-^xSa^n DnDXDn bv p^ann^ nirn ovn ly |n*'j'Kio miDDm nn^nan minn 
noixi ,nTn noxD tri<i3 D\njvn -ic^n i:ni^n n^ap -nD i:!) DnDccn 

«Si^ D3Vj; bii^^'h D31 /pc^i noiK t>Di> r^npnn^ n^tr n^^KC^ niinn ^y ivb riKVin 
-»n3 nana ^Sxn o-T^nnan D'^i^apno vrr k^ inv l^v^ ,-inn hk Dn^i^y iD3 
K311 'o n3T nyno |S3o iDX ^"a xns "ir i; .m:isn "oan ^^ab d^")i pa: 
Nt>n D*:' Dj) ma leaps' no lo^'j* inx pr minn ni^C'^jntr^na crsnS n^tsvn 

QM13-.D y"nix D) ^h^2 — \ ni^ap «bi minn n« n^apn mnn '•3 pnv '1 «->acj' 
n3vy?2 n3r^i<nn m:m n.^ ids' DmoDn^annNi ;nTmDt>on b^pa yioe^ ntsn 
"loSon^ ^JDD pni "onn nx ir^y n^sa diSd,, by /'niaSap nSi ^:h nn: di^D/t p 

!?DT?y '{^y^'^^o y^\ nni xhxvz* pxi ixo fiani y^yi oavo 
'•DO p-i nix:;iM nn;n p-x ibs^n nn^nn o ^noi'y t^y n^yn no«n bn« 
ns pab dhS n\n xSi oaSa mynpi D^oDnn '•33 nnioc vn k"3 is^n ono^n 
•T^« t?in ,a';a:' mmn u^moi hd^oo iTH t^x n]:\ pnr 'n -innoxa ya^ 
in -: D\'DOD3i Q'03i naax xSa r^ih nrron nx mo c^npn i:an 'D nyn n^n 
'1 xni (mm n nn nxi D^oann an yj' Dnyi t;: nn^x iid xin nn-nx) 
ij'an i:;n by pin> nms DirSi nxrn niinrr nx pnb pn:b xvd I'^rx i!3vy pnv 
i3or3 •j'»D3^ D^ian pa D;n 3-iyn^i SbuT nxr xb^b ^3 mips pyn nxic* ^:dd) 
nn>c bo^ Q.>:. -.yo^"? D^x^bao D'SSd am (n^m^ron m^nn nbnjn:i nvia icrxD 
.13^1 nx3 aN''('jn x s nr:* roS:riT) "rh':h:^, ,7\yo ny nyio*irn nx b'J^brS 
D''OT nn^n noD*:' in.^ -imb narban bx na^o no yiv nnx pxi Ti^ nnn 
n"^ p''D05 xiiino xSi xro ba (t"o nxa d::') /["an id^^j'] nrjron niynp 
niSn n'.b^o ^xvo mm ^3 n><-i xim O's pany 3''d m3i3 Dr) ''pxoa pmxD 
PT ^3 S.<v:» nira mnx L'^mi? bn^ .th dxh mT^iphdi T\b2p7\^ imin^ oyn 
HDix S3 ^? pxi ,|r*3 no pyir orx;* nnbn bnp? onraioi D^b6y bxie*^ '•^3 
"To'-^oi, ^^1 d:' -^^yA CTTT nx^ xb Dxi Vibx 103 noSn b3pn::» Dbiy3p*j'bi 
:^?1 ii^r ?^ n")r3) nnry;)n S3?i nmxn ^3^ imm nx Ttnn n"3pn ^3 \bv 
n^ob n:; nS::^rjoi no^pSi nnvnnb n3Sn3 3"i in3 n'n*j' no3 ly ^3 ? nbspb ^V"i 
n.^ ir3'' D'03nn ^3 t;^x 131 "jo'?i nao niS:S max3 in3 bn: n\"i p ^roo 

.— 13 i:iD^ xbi innox 
n3in3n i3min Sy n-baS X3 x'ln o^^nso nS: XD^n pn ^D''n3X 'i dSixi 
n3in3n n-nnnnox3 ^3 .0:1x31 n''233 x'pxi:Svx n^3pn3 xb abiyo ^3 n-iiDcm 
"JO m ,pm -lavj' S-p .133 p-; ,Q'pi3i mb.p vn minn nS3p3 ,iy"Dn miooni 
0^1310 n3nDnn„ miDon min3i "yo'j»:inry3 nox^i Dynbs -nn^i ,ibi3 i^'y 
ny nnio ni30 mix p30v , nn^o 3^m D'»03n nai Sy -i3iyn ^3,, ,"min n3no 
''^ 7\'hi p3'n x^'.n n^p-iD^S D''03n myy in: pnisn S37 D3i (i ^^itrc: xvnr 
nx ib3pn DX7 moxp loyo nx a: nb: nrn -i3in nx iniSn S3X ! "xniox 

,n>nn"i:T Dn^ri m nim n-.in nn S:? niiyn^ iho m-rn dtv: ]3 itr*^*2^ no ( r 
.^"irrn .n»:-!3': pnnsD Dtr2 natr 0*721^3 nn>< nn'sS my imnarn th iKip '2 nv 



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yizn-y n»337i -no^nn n-^Jixri No 300 Si^nz nata pni diot*? tx lara kS wh oSo 

TKi nrn r^vn 'npc:r.NSB^ o':b^ ir:; »*?y nsjrc^ nnn nn:? djj m^i \v:Bf jA new, 
:cn •.'?si 132 ro Sb» d i:t Qy»v nz-iS i:S d>b« ^3 B72K N'n;::! 

nuas inn ni« on^;* n-z^.n n^^B^ loSa not n: kohih -^ .i 'inn riM-n^ nrnn// 
13 Kn.* i".< .crnii27 h ri uy 'i^h um smo mi.in r.K o^a;:© Dn« ch on? ioki 
.3\"5 r^n'rn.imBTw »3'- nSip "VMn 2"»2:rK h21 lax .Hn»mxS nai n;-nD ;k3d aj^r 

'.( T"D niu) .123 iSapty no 107 ,^ 2p 
»rro 'n iDHn./ 2M2n*i (oSi^'nmawS nn.in n.^ ]n3 kSh z^nv) on i3*oS v;o »oi 
hn» i".< ?p.<B3 ^y: *«3i i*;*y3 <:?3 'xo '''ui ni» p^no nS.x ,ioS i^jtb'd n n hz 
h:H HIV Tj n^hzp kSi I'CfSi now Sd ^:; m Tnm niinn n» n-spn npSir idSd 
ciS^v nax on kSx 'o ''mao^p kSi msSap 01^3,/ nan on xSj* ?n63pi ^8itr» 

.('H t";r) .'13 "^HicnS n^tyyir 133 nw^ip hS n»au3 in «**?;• n'cs 
niD^^nn imn ^;v;-i wS: n«D nay onnK nijnitr ^k ! ^:nKi ^nx 
,b'?22 HM iv:7in n.^ inne^^ 1312^ ns'x D^m D^anao ^au'^n ^nai) nnoe^^i 
D'm ,i.s*3 i:i> pn; ''Tio^nn -i^.vp„ bn nrn imn '•d d^d^ki onio d^u 
D.s Din "laiD^ pS "i*J*xi iro:; ^:n pa rmic^n DiDroayiDiyxn ^y o^i^ixno 

u p It-:? nnN'j* nxr ca iDX^ MinnoDi nnn%T naiuP vd^ ba n5< trnpn iz^k 

naS Nin ir.^ n>5!3 p^xn!?) in^iye!? kvv i3-,n n« niNii? nap vma niy ^a p::^;* 
A} k:i2?\ ,mn'3a nn^i^aSi nn^arn^ inaa p« is'x nai mny ^n^n o^^y nna 

.'131 '131 DrooyiyanaKn ^:sd nip> kS on:^ 
DTniyn3 D^:irn 0^31 D^c*:^:»oT«u*D:rD^3in33 '•nbsptr h^do mv ni^i 
31 nn>< jixa 07 oa D3in3i nrn b)i:n p^yin nnix Dn« '•m3i irK Dn^^ycD3i 

D DODD Di>131 M'^V 'S'3L*0 D^CTl '•:)^3B' n^S pT»n: IC'fc^ N^Dn3 ^ li ^133 T'ZKI 

n 31 ^j^y nx nps' -^^a "i^spn o"ynr n:vM3 da ir3^ dSi3 ,n3X^Dn w^vb 
•uMT2 n^:nS pien^ nr ,n3x4Dn -inD3 n:n niavj'Dn^myn ^xi ,13 S^3rn^ip3nS 
,:^n^bv nxixi nvn jo d^stx niSDon '3 idx^ nn fOsnan T.^^pn by ^''E'^i 
D'3ii3V.>«i3 ir«*ir onnx d^dis ii7» /xm ^loiai tnn nr nxi,, n^^b y3VX3 
n-U N'b3 n3«'?on n&? n3^ni!:iS n^ b>^b n\T dk Cnd''Pqxio nnK3 dSi3 ^3^ 
-i33n i>3 p^ DX ,\"i3xS-3 njc nb3Xi bn« ^3 n3i3 xn^ n b (3 ,Dn'n^ i5« 0^3-1 
n^^^bon m«Dn n'»nn dx (j ,n3S nnx e^"*«3 ix n*n' dx bxic'^ m;; ^3^ n:n 
n*j*y "y.ny ,m3n-3 wx Dn^3»i D^ynr -133 ^3 nn« ,n'Sy ^o:r Nipni> nxm 
u*xiD nrn -)3nn nx ^nooiD yno cfnnx nx3»^ (1 ^bxitru n^rsn m^pnn nx 
\X3^n3 '•n3xbD nx n-^y w^^ dxc» non D^n*iD3 Dnyi:5i ? 0^31 n3n I'^yn jyoS 
.D^x:pn p3 51X na nvia dic' Vv n*n «S rx ,i>^!?3 no^siDi m?Dij ^n^^n^ 
,nxrn n3xSDn 1313 31dm 1x3 n^rj' Mms' c'idS *an-'.iy nSxn Dn3nn 
H'j'yx n::'y ^3 Mipn n:n noi ,n3xbDn ^x ny^b b)i} M3 nD3 ctiidd TanS 
n^Sr^!?n*J*n!5yiinx^D^3n^i 3v:-S n-^3V^ ''::-i nxr n^^v'A D">o Sax .S3IX b^T d:i 



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-VI — 

Da ^N D^r^X* 'ir "irK DTn Sdd oopyi^n n« p^nro dk nsi .(inyn ^ipnn 
*TXD m^ ^11033 t-P "'BD ii^ iKtr^ nan .*t*nn N-iD^nn '•si? u isoina "jnr 

n-iiDD HMn K^ni ,n3 Sa "icn^ kS ^:n&c n^n nc^r D^ync' nT.nn .^nia^Ka 
n-iin nx pn^^ao i:kc;» ^m dikh Sa "rj;^ pw3 nnix-ini>^ n^2:nb ^Diii iJT'a 

.^^Kic*^ ^3 '•jvS iTjiD DC* "lE'K minn K*n n«n« -.DnoiKi D^Kiipi nac* Sd3 hb'd 
:inijt N-ipj ijnDKC' nanon n^oSrin iivp '•d ^ntn^ D) '•nyn^ ,:d d:dk 
D^^ni D'^oan riDDK^^y pn nic'rni) K\n ^ix-» ^TiDi>n lyiDDjr nyn^, npyn tudShh 
pni Dn3«^3 in^r tj^n D^S^an ^*Dy imw iiin^ -icr« ''DvayS^yp vt^inpSwr* 
iTH^ Da DX ):prh) ^n^\:*v^ nnw c»^k^ «bi ,D^Dnn n^nn ddiid^ d^d nCDono 
^naxbo '•3 ^nDiDi ^VDn n«T p-i jn ^^nx ^3k ,-in3L- D-^^irKin p i^n: nioi^o 
^aaiopi ntry^j«nxTDn .odc^d on'Sy ^^nn N^n ncK D^cann nccK ^ac^ K3in 
m3D n3«i)0 vi>y SnpS pen'^B' nnnr D'oann jd inx oa p« '3 nt^i:^ ny yi«B' 
nnxn^ D^onm D^a*j* nny^ ,D^D3nn n>e t:»p3Pi «ipS K3: dki .nKT3 noivyi 
Kvn DTJ nm D-ac* nsK^n ^c*Dnr. nn«n^ D3 dni ^nrn payn on^mynn 
Da-s* dSi33 D3n iD'^aopn oy D^'Sian i:in ^i:3n n« t3d^ ^:« nv '•3 /byiD^ 
npnc' na poiy K^nr mmns n3K^ iS tj^^ inxi in^ ^3 ^nniDD Dninyi D^iae 
T'anb^3oi)S3^-i"i3i .Dmy:> Dmuy3i cn-nic^-na D^picy Dnatr D^:3-im ony ^3 
n3xSD3 o ,D'TDyen p D'oyio p-> pk^'D'' ^i^iw nNtn nvhtDb Dntr3iD D'-ai kS ^3 
pi ux D'3nv nxrn nSnan n3xS!D^ ,n^p07] x^'s npyn x^n nD3nn kS n«Tn 
^*j' n:iK^ paa3 ,n^»St:nTm n^i^aan iaiL-> paaomoSnn hk 3o^n D^nvn nSx^ 
ta^Sn^ kSi ,m:nr] ^hv^) D*cm»:n ^b» DaiB'b paaoi /xnnani Knooinn /nacrn 
d-^:d |n3n -)e*N nyoir ?tki mn ]'^}: n3-iva nwrn n3«^D^ ,nT3 nt n« n^io" k^i 
pai S^3B^nSi lobb in p3 noi&c "^'j^x -jdkd pa ,SinS crnp pa SnanS pao aSi 
is n^x ntr»K r^'K Sai ; oniony pt:'^a na^Si Snn^ pn.ia p3 noiK irx -iond 
«^ Da Dx rD-^yiDn cm© n^ao mioan ^ap kS Da Dy nsrn naxSoS «in "»iKn 
:pnn Sy n^av ir'Dn niecrn pa!D ia*N Da d;"i .-"iNDDyDKiDSi niispnS nooa 
"•S ac^nn in^ nerS x!?i 'treaa ••:« tr'^anoi '•ax ynr- ^D^annxn nSwo "•a ly^i 
/Hx^noi Soy KiraS }PT3 S^ai .pyi»i prn pvn Dn^:>y '•^ :)Diai oax Da naox— nxr 
hzpj^ *aan ,^aivni "113X^0!: '•a^ns'' xSc* ,nxL*» S3V Sacn nar nva ny SaD^i 
i;icn^ Dxr ;^aic»"n'» Dit: \ix!k*D:i '':irpa'' did nxrn naxScn Sx nra^ ^bv 
*::< piD DiancS xvn dtj D.i^Sy Da^y D1t^•^ ^n3X^D nx ipaS Sx-i:r^ ^Dan 
naxSon *.at:' ^a /Hxan navj d:i — oidi -or nc'pa DiC'X^a Dn^as^ ncr^anS 

.nar nr ^nSyci novya Tax^D 'b n^nn 
»o;inn rn inioS *noc ntn Dipo:i nninE n-^jJKri Si-n: n< ocna n*?xn onann *?3 
r3i<*?Dn "nro oa n^fpcs >rin ,n>n:Toi n:i-:i-D onan onoKD 'in d^tcb 'ddd 
-jrsKon riK 'ho^id m»D m^nS ;iSia oSiyn h^h rjao nyn *ic*« nSnjJi nS;nnnoi 
'T^vpn oai ;'n msni nrn'jon ia;nn ir«3 a'^ns ntrvKC noi n^H^an Sx »nrj did 
«:a» DnvnS pcnr.i 'lai 'i3i unyi mn 'S mSirS i:r.:D» oirns ^2 inn 'oan Sa nx 
c^-nvD chinas Dii .ncian nnine niJiHm .231— 235 -jvd n'lriy ruc^ Sipna Dnw 
im3«S '-n ;i"m- :D'Snan o^ornn nn^rn ^n'l'rp m ^jn ]OTn ^oano onnH*? <nwin 
arya iccii nan oar ,DiSr v'» n^sa "i :s r.im ,3n:rvHS .a "n c'cn sin ,Vt 
narm:i msitr m^ns onnx n^ana*: o^traroi (n; i-^ana ^1^02 cji oD'cin^ z'ivm) 



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,3^m ^yV2 D-j" D3 DX1 D^trn ^2d inx n-x e^x y^y «?i vv x^ ^ax cnarn 

D) ^nM:' i)^^nr\ n:oi /Hxpn onp x> D^ij^anon nio>nn.o no.'' k> ^raDXci 
Kin ""o ^D .rx D^imyT' xi^inix d'TW" Drx:? nSx) ;^"!aD y^Din D"id Dipr^D tn* 
i>y 3i>i^ nDD ^"ayi ^n.Dr^na ni:nt> nt tj^x nya nu nso n,T i::'« md.t 
nxT nybno d: ic*« dv^ibh o^xjpn o cj no '^ niD^nn p orxc' Dnoxorr 
Tx n^n ,^Di IV "h ip^ri ^oe* iSnr nny d: irx /Hzidc* 7^Dra^ fis2 mix iett^ 
? nv Sc:' iyip3 six mi:2d*> ddm ^Sid ."^^^jS y"ix xid'X no^i ,^:iy^T u^t^ 
,inDx xi?) ,"33^ ^cn'.D pnS n33\s '•nri' nSi 'niDTo "jcd ipn: 13 ^3 n:n 
nx pTiyn^j nno ynnn!) ir^ ^Tioirin nx nvpi^ ^32t» ^y pyin np; 133 ^3 
t6 ^3 rxiD yix Tj»x DnoxDH ij3 DX n"»:nSi n3> TiD^nno "'^ nxijn ^3 
"lyvoi) /mn3 ^631 '•pj moSnn xv^ n3i D3 pax irx nSx dj ix ,nj:n T.o^nr.S 
nyp\ m33 n3X^on o "n^xi i»3X fn:i2n ^3 Dn3 ^^ px ncrx onoxon n^x 
nxT n^y^ Dx n:)2x sj^d ^3 ^^o^ ^iny nn3D ^3 rx ^jdd D^onn xm n^t^ 
,Di3in n3To i>y nnii^ynS 1x31 iV3 nnn nSp3rSi n:pnS niDiiS /m3^ n^a 
no n*j>x n^S pp DT3:ip nipDH mpn xSit? /nxrb n: rxij midx Dyt:3^ 
,nD^:r p3X nvho n'3ni c*x S*j* jiv^: 103 '•*^»2:3 ^r^in ,13 M3:i3nm vrr-xi 
^ry in3 DyD3 itrx n:; >n: iix ti^xi 13 ,"33^ ^dt ^3 nx nbiVD3 n^mn x*n 
/^^nicn DnvnoS ''pi^v 'pan ncr ^x /nn nx ^ynn :]x ^n^i ;imx xir:S 
Dnny pxvo^ dx ,n3xi>Dn ^x n*^:b ''n^^hnn) ,nvy ^poyn /n3e'n ,''3:>3 wra 
Dyi rC^K nvnb ^n^n D'^trax pxc' DipD3,/ ^"rnxo bv ly^^x xS dxi 3it3 ^-n 
,nD3X (ni3"i3) 133 ^inn i3: n^Sn -inx3i ,inx3 n:p ]'^zip nSr :x"ipx xisp 12 

! no ^i^y nuy^ n3^ t.3 
''iiD^nn niTix ^y ")3i„ idb' nr ^33t» S3 nx npi> icrx ppn oiojipn 
lyi 1133^ ,Dii>'*r tr^x i^xo 'i n:nm n3ii3 py Sy3 cmnn 3in n^ 1:313 inixi 
DV3 n^3 ^S i:iDD^) n^r D^y3*e' ^b nx>D Dvi> d^^ii n"x 'i pn3iDn 3in inoxi 
py n^ny nixom n^m .iv 10 ix n^bv s P"» ^-30 i33ini (pinxn n^33i V':n 
t<m:rt b2 nx S3S nx-r* it>xn niXD3nn3L*» m3n3 D^cn n3i5n3 D'-nc^ ;y3ix 
Dm ^ir'n^Qi x^-j^ip ^n3 ix ,33X ^^3 dx 13 iSDino "icrxi niD^nn ipyo 0.13 
xv^ TXi ^3^31 3U"iy xS3 '•->3i ^3 p^yn nvno n\i^ dp^d: dxjt ;Dn3in "cn-is 

p-|pi3 DXr 1X3 Ty: 33X ^1131 '':Vn31 HX D'^-'DIO XIH HSI ,DO"inn D3 i:S 

noi X'-Jion -ipyo xina^ no -i''3nb b2^: ^yTV\ i^ rx 'niobnsD' ni:itrSn p:3D3 
r}b)i^ n3ie»n nroi ,nT nnx m cjOiniB' no di^33 nisoinn mix Dai ,n3 p|Dinrj» 
pxi D^:i33i D^33 ibx in3n ''njioi 3in3 nioSnn n\n t6y Dn3iDn Dnix bv^ 
xin n:ni .nioi?nn n^aio nx "i*30i ynvni trnnn tnn ^b r^e» ^o ^3^ pirn D^3nv 
1^' 4 J b^2r2r\ oopyon }o dmdq "do c*n3 n3Snn n:nnxn xo:nn3 xvo 
'•:ipn3 Mnon ^3x1 ;ni3n-i nm poc' nmc' 60 p -inv xS npyn nio?nn nx 
nv3 pi nv ^vm y3ixn S30 ^p:n oopyon -ixco^^r ny nnic' 25 n^y tx ^apnc^ 
13 "i*oxn p:yn pin bo ! diS^d xS ,noixo ^:h non^ xS nr ^3 b]r\ pp nnx 
nx"i' iC'X3 p": xn:xS "i "in i:ot3 Sna -invn noiSon 3nn n^ Sy lo^soni 
nnx inyio irn xS d^ox dx iovy3 xin Dii Dm D^03n inxi I3n303 try\pr\ 



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- IV — 

n^) pnt> no D^nv Drx non d: ?x^b^ n^n pen ^331 ijod hdikd D^yiv 

«w /njiUDi i:min n.s i:S n^'J^nS :Nn> ^o ;\>« nm inn ^y ^:n«D nS^n pxi 
v'r'x vj'> n*3a n>jr3 n nn ti^d ny^ jH^l"^^^ moy v;nnS nrn ^i^n -i2n^ 3^ w^n 
'riaiD rv'-^nrD ,Vw\><^ /V:3i .S«nr" '•03n D3'Sx ! N^p^5 D^{^•''K D3^^s 
nioSnn nx ^.:> i3n ! '\:r\'\in nx 1:^ un„ :-dxS yiL'*Ni pvrx /Vsid^^bi inixj 
''idSS Nin i:min ,1:3^5 vi>x Dici^i n Nip> i>3iD *ir« nnvD -idd3 '•p^^ f)iiv 
D3Mnx K3^^iD ^3 MmtDSi^^j ^nnSi nnDi)nmpDVi^m3inD33tn ,3^3nv 1J^5 
vnn D>5 D3'»3»yo nnx -imn" '•di ?r*i3 D3nx N^3^ ^d ?^KTn "133 icrx nnx 

?nn« nvysi miiK3 03^13 
-13T31 xnip Sp3 5^^ .TH' .>;S ^"lxnp ^ip ^3 i«^ "ly "nyn^ d: Dio« ^nyn^ 
D1X yD3M^xi:n nx ^jx yiri D3nx \"»ri* o .D3'':tkS y^r Dno^i^x 3ic*^ K*n 
/Hnn ;33on n33n dxi ,p3r^ ciD3n ^V3 wsS ir« tr^N n3it> D333^ ^o^rn nS 
m^:.S3 isDKnn nS dSivSi ,n3ii invy V'p Sl'* ij3 p V'pi ,intrp3^ insnp V'p 
n>«i'S M3 x^< *nsnp «? ,d3^Sx ^nxip dxv ,inT.ni ^Nntr^ n:itD^ nnx nvyn 
^3X r-S yovj* rx d: dx j^^n Sn: ^ip ^Sip ^3 D3^ n^x^ni? n3 /^ovy^ '•n3*.n '•n^ 
13 p KC' "^n^^ ) /.:»;d S3 Sy 03*33'^ miiixi '•S «: lyoc' ^:n« ^bn« Dycn 
yvs Dj ^3 D3':sS X 3S r>V2p^^ nn^iab^ /Wstrno ^3 n« ny^th nb^Hinon 
.n3 n3i3 is-^n nbzpb ivsnn *:« Dx ncrx nnx nyvn dd^je^ 

"•bS nsrx 0^31 DnDNDi onsD ni3i 0":^ n^ o^Bnoi 3ni3 o:n ,nn3yr7 nncr 3 
non D*3icD ,nH30 n"»3i3T "nn inn nb"^ nxi V33 nx nn^^n tr^x ^33 ,^ry nix-^ 
nSym ix*3n n33 o ^n^x^ ':rx n:vj» dx D31 nnn ^D3n i\n^c»3i) D^S^yD- 
n33 ""s nixV? ^1^31 d:i ,^m3*:»".?Di ^3m nx lo'^xn^ ic^x onoibon onnxS 
\o^ !?3 ly::;^ "^^n S3X n'' pi ;»:n xS ->'^*x Dnson nn>:ix3 onoiyi d^3-'3D 
133 "I'j'x nnn^S n'^yin xSi Svi3i n:^yin ,n^rmD nSyin /"loyS nf^y^n x^3nS 
nSyinSnrnS ^ninn n^S ^^yS xS nnj^ xSi — D''3i o^iosn nnix 1x^3^1 ix^3n 
n33\>< :^:vyi3 p'dvjo ^::n ,|rar.D \'3n ,3tnn "^oni -iB"'n onxn pio ^3^ d: x"3 
n'r\^ x6 '3 nzb "io\s3 xi^i ^yiD3 nioSnn Sx Dym cynS nv3^nn nx 3'''j'nS 
nnu'M D^^j'jxn ^3 Sx D] x'3 n3'?3 i^xic*^ DyS xt^ nSyinn n\nn rx '•3 ^nxts 
S3X ,m3vj'>3i m:vj* mvy "3^3 ^n^sr "1331 - nox -i3n Sy inoir'' "irx Dni3S3 
.nn niyni non S3n '3 "n'^xi mp3 py on'^Sy ^nou* nnx 
xS T]b'b2 d:i Dvn bi ':v:r^^ '^nrrc* x-n ,m:'3 'b ]n' t6 nrn '»:vyi ^3X 
n< x^vin? ^\>« n^ain \:*?i)^^ nv S>< ivo ^3nnx mSS3 ^33^0 Sy ,''3S mj'* 
D^nxvo i:;»x Dn^xon S3 nx ?i'3xS '3^3 \-nox nSnn'^i ,SytDn Sx nr ^<;£n 
"133 S*; 1.1.^ Dip-D Sx ,v3"'y"'^^i nnSnn n:?3'3 dxi d^^-vj^'ho dx /U iDD-n: "3 
bz 'r'Jb^ b><r^' ^3"^^'^ do.t.i dmdio3i mpviD nvx-13 ,D3 ?; orjnnSi invD 
n3".n nx Si^S ^m^DX nT3i ;Sx-»r^Si 'nS mp i!"i3 i^n" -Dw":n ^31 ,D'':oyn 
\n:xi n>3Tn ^nvy S; Mnor t:yD3i ,vi:d '•yy3 ipivnSi \s-id^ Syo miofjnn 
,n^pin D3L*»nnn nmx Dm"i3ym nxio^n::i3nn nnxSsx rn3xSDn Sx n::':S 
!?3 nS rnpnS "n-i^j^x *Six n'j*x nxn 'n3xSo d: ,b2n nr D3 ^3 ^n^xi ^nxvD 



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-^ III — 

p D'DDm "ijij i^^jnn no ,narr3 i« pirn dk D^B^^eoni o^^iK^no '«ii3D 

iioSnn p Drx'j' onoKon nx non ^ybyn Dxn ? nbxa DO^^yn D^m Dneo 
DnDD nnn p-i ryi^n Di p ?u pan^i tmpb by\^ -icr« *p3 nio^n y:b i:n*i ,n^nn 
DnnsD -iB^« onDon -j^«^ pi 3"i riTync' no miri i^^ym ,D^:3in3 ninjn^ 
nb« p n^K3 -iB'K rmytDi vsnac^ i>3 Dy nio^nn ddti^ nsi ,(n3')n ^k ^idk^ 
•D'jB' nno 1^3 i«rK vni^oe^ cj^^nn^ ^-^nch) '\n^plh 2b d^cd p«3 ,on2 oniD 
inSvj' Dif D^jnnxn o^poiDn iiry p nioi^nn oy D^^^ton D*;inn ne'yo3i 
^S noyn ,Dnun3 1330 mix Da onannS nrn? 13K D''3nv vd ^y nrx inyn 
vpSn ny3ix n« i^S3 /D^buyi ,0^333 /Jivnix ,D^:rv3 ix^o uin nxi nnoy 
DnmnD DnDD3 iD^Dimc^K 13^1 D^3n-i D^3nKD^!?ni onDO naio5r dhd ic^y^i 
irM ^D^ b^h ^:b p'son n^c'si vpoiD vb^ido ^3 Dy i^do nnx n3i'n d: ^3 ny 
n? ,bD\D nn Tfir3*o nr ,"i^nD nn idin nt ^3 ^yb^^^ lan^ u kvoj »> tk D3^ 
5|3 n!?iT - n^^r^ -jido kvh -it^K mpo ir^D^ mp^ dm n3i (2TrnD nn ^p-o 
n>< i5tJ ip.D3' non ^3 m3ip i3m« D^3nv pr3 ^«r mnp3 n3nn3cr nitnn 
1^300 in« iSxtrpS .ddbid pini>nn»^ vh) p3 non o^jino non i«~p-:n 
ixv^ onoi — mya «S inx Dn-^a^e S31 Doii^r max oy n^3nb nnK ^3 in^::n 
-^yA niyim nmon nnon nimoni (i)D^'nn ^Djy ^3 "nwe^m niW,r ^:b 
n:<n-o^Sy DnD3 Dpnno Dn^motr no^c^ ^3 ny nac' t>33 ivnr^ m^ ne^ 
ijnannb ^n3 oy3 nnnnn i:ns<'3n s^n nxt oanDcrK3 myia itrK i:nnDD x^n 
— Q^!?^Dai D^y^x "-isss nniK DnxDo ,nniKD^3'n-iD lamxi— nv3 m3nD ianr3S 

I ? oi«n ^33 n^nj '3 penai 
nc'X nrn DB'n3i ^mni:oi>iy3— 13S pse' t3Dmoi>nn Dmn^n lamx n3i 
n^oSnn by nnx 'i kSx -ir«3icn irsniK ^do Kipa pi ijovy ns Kipa 13 
«in no D^ynv i:k pN ! pp acno Di woo lai? pxi niobnn n« r»3 «b /n3:>3 
Dr5< 13^3 i3oy pon pi kS iio^nn pia^K Kin noi ODnani 3in3n S33 iiobnn 
S3 oy 1^13 iniK D^vnyoi D^trnpo non 3''yr woo nr\6 noi -i3n^ no D^ynv 
Drx irDiD^^ai ir-110 iyo3n oi ^"2 ^on^ry nxnoS 13 iitrpm pi3ini iS ncoan 

-i^r D»D:nn iitk ,D*S»yio invm ouia virn oncon ^3 ,Kin ]3 nwnpn nan (i 
C723D iTK D»3*:y nT»K i:do wi< nx *?h i:rD onm i3£nn nan oi3i3» ,n:fcn trr:2 onw 
.Snwn n>«'3 nj? n* 12 yan 8^ tm oncon nv^K Sk imnnsy* a nwi ,on'? n^oa on*? »* 
noip vTjaa uh\2\r p-icn n-iK onfio outran nyon nicnsi no^nc no^jn ^v (2 
/k;£3 pcD r:yS aiosnS c^2t nipcD irya nnn pcD ]o ,icco t*K cno o^aopS) Di3n »2jri 
n»";: o ly ^xmynS 'nin I'syS n3fiiO!fn poS ikd mai niniyn ic^a nnie nmyno^ 
11':* hS "ny Tojn ,D»om »Vra Si2hS i^Sj? itra iir2 ^i:kS nsin ok oncnn 'ca StraS 
.npnn mo'ntr »2»ay3 doiijci on^pp onco nann cnnSxa unn^ nn o^omtm 
nf n;j niy«B y;ui i:3 ir*K nS.y oai ,non omoSn o»Kipn laS omn»n Sa (3 
nan onioSn iH non oa ,D'mn Dunaon Ss TK iSo2 na'sitrni /k cvz nzunuv nn ic'Snni 
n-nnai ^iiD^nn pi nS oin irK jr^a 'c^a mv^^B^n ai nn non w^iin o mnn iS nr' 
I VT ,niSaii »in2 imoa unan» nc^K laS ,pa3 hS dv nr^Kai nairn ni-ioo D»«iip wif 
:i:ioKoa OKpinnK oiHspnai The Pentateuch etc. nairoa ,iioSnn Kv-i no :oiokd3 

Is the Jewrsh religion non dov^matic? 



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— 1[ — 

Sa "^3 DnpDD nny d: n^TOijn nnbn n.Sscn ^3 ,rf\tr6 DD'sne^^ ? op^ p 
n^n ,D^D^p3n \-i:r ^y naiDm nn-; Da nuic'Di nan noie^ n-ynn "a /(ijnrD 
rnmc'nm mi^xrn ,D'3in onsDn ^31 o^^ca xvnK* ny nxbn d: noL^i nny l : 
"»nn n«Dn i)y iy Sa .^ina nitr'a" niDvy ^tr Sa pi non ,}jiDNaynm ,D*m3^r.n 

iina^cro hvy 
d;i oy Sa >c* nnoan ^y ^aS ^a^y ^noen ib«n is^rn nana ^nacn ^nac' 
Sa ^^Jai nas^n b2 "i^a non DnD*pi D^^n onnan o ^n^K-i^ ,nny irnnDo ^yi 
nSnan lannaaa m Sao ir^na oy Sao laoK'K Dn*n^n ian:« no«a ^a Kon: 
D^yioDnDDi /ai nn"a«n:D«p ,n'JKWno n^m pi n^a oyca «mc» ,n2n-ni 
jn^jn -lain b'j Dn^oDna p"inb ^Sar p^Djm cnnni di^d* p^anni i^y^trn ic's 
-itr« "lyto tDyo pi i« ,y^a i:n«o nanna xb ,n-;a-i« ontr D^:t:' D'oys "ara 
,nnyna ,ninjna /D^ennsa «^n ^anax lapoy Sai /D^oyn ^oan ^-id:o ^p^nyn 
nSx Saoi ^innxbe' o'^aann ^-iDoai noSna ainan lana diod^sxdi iry-JKB^na 
nain 0200 dh-idj oa^ li? onainoi nioSnn a^a^ D^enn Dnao Dnino i:na« 
-10X3 c« mon b'j ms: nS n:n ,0^50 non rr^yinn non "a io«3 t6 Dxi ,ino 
nnas'oa D^35n Tya nn«S piiWrnNonoyo .onac'D^a^onSc' oa ,DnSrn "a 
lamS D) tbb^ «nn «b n^^Sa rhj^n 7]x ,nnDon mina D^po^y^ D^-o*Son 

.i:'TnS Dovy Q-yro n-:nr 
maSnn nao nx n^aai) D^annxn D^aiwn ^-.dd n« NoanS w npa 
nr» «S ^x nana «rpu' *aBO iov;6 noa n:a nnxi nnx Sa i«r« D^:iB*Nnno. 
n;r^« yi ,«:b^iio «"iana (ins Dipoa nro i:nai laa ir« lonpc^ nan vn'a 
rnnipa rniSoa [nplh^ r.vhnn nx n^ani? iSnn non -irx niyi nni ,p^D ^''-1 
i30D iTon D«n fOn^nmana iioi>nn tn non lo^Din Dxn ?^5ry noi ,voyo^ 
Dn-nin:n "lana non i «S ? ;n^nnn nnnx ion ono^ya nc»^ nS nr« mbcn nx 
nioSnn ^^K^a D'o-aan Dnpo natr r;oS D^D^anoni "nvn:) ^nv p,, no«b ibd by 
najTi na^y i)aa o^D^anon la^ai^ nai nxo nir.tri man ninano a^ao it ^6 '\\:n!''^ 
o-^in iD-'Dv ncrx D^ai2^ D>:rnDi ni:itr nnyn oy ^nicnn ninan oy DTn n« 
DOB^ pi nioSnn pr'i i>na^i ,a*3nnxn D^:iK:n ns^yoa nvryS D^pnnon -inn 
«b D^vyn anoi t^:h^^ diet o-Sn: D^a-»a T'a ic'ra D^an-.i o^ay c^a-ia n-itry 
K^m ini« onoiyn ano v^iynDa Soan m!:i?nn nx nx-^a «b ! "ly^n nw nNia 
^vna DnaiDO n yanoi D^puy /D^aa>a ,D'arv /D^jic'oi D^aitr nvnixo ua-na d: 
nio?S pan: d«i la^ao anrn -ita pyi> inK Sa omen 'iai myano nia-na ,n:aS 
^o^ !?a by nn:< n^ao i:bpsDn rx vn nam vsnva ?a oy u pani?i moSnn nx 
Kia^x K^JDHD Dxn !?T,oi>nno yjno pa iS r>« oyn an o xisx xba^n ir^n 
nyx oyon jo o;o nx xvoa D^aai'^sm D^axSxrnon o^anvon D'o:nn pa Ditr 
Diwnana DM^aon xis^x ^:b iS^ym noi ? ii>ia nioi^nn ^2 nx noSi ix"^p 
.taooi lainS KV:'» rJ^'J «3 r«^ — ^"^y^ ^''■^^ P"» "^^ P ? Di^cm^aa D-jneoni 
jmpa pya nioi?nn bv nay nc»x o^i^^airon i:S icry no kd'j ^in^xb pi 

iiaSnn 1:12 o^aDBfrsi o'o^strsaxn nxD i^xwr cTna'im niS>»n 127 hS (i 
,ouivT ,e|n onS I'KB' O'D ,ni:u:? n:i2 ni2wm mSntr 0:1 »3 ra iv nnsna K7 ywrn 
'Tniwni nAKC// nsD isdd o d>« ,o»32nn pin:^ msnoi mo'pi nnaiy n:So ,nix»^n 

?^2n3 »3nDyn hSa m pnn .d's^kS yu> 



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TILVCT 



ROSH HASHANA 



OF THK 



NEW EDITION 



Original Babylonian Talmud 



Edited, FORMrLAiKO and functlated 



For the first time 



MICHAEL L. RODKINSON. 

Author (»f NuiDtn us Theological Works, Formerly Editor of tiie 
Hebrew "CALL"' (in Koeiiigsberg, Berlin, Vienna and 
New York) etc., etc. 

Published by the Editor. 



NEW YORK, 

C<»i)y righted February 2iy^ 1805 Vy ^I. li. Rodkinson. 

A:l rijrhts rcs^en'ed. 




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$1,00 rnnf) nnnyn D^:ip? 

$2,50 n^i)«i<n nonpn dp 



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