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Full text of "Mashrak-el-Azkar, descriptive of the Bahai temple and illustrative of an exhibition of preliminary designs for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture"

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Copy No. 

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GIFT OF 
TLblishing Society 





MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR 



Descriptive of the Bahai Temple 

and 

Illustrative of an exhibition of 
preliminary designs for the first 
Mashrak-El-Azkar to be built in 
America, showing nine varying 
treatments in different styles of 
architecture 

BY 

CHARLES MASON REMEY 

1917 




/Y/l 



|N the Persian and Arabic languages each letter has 
* a numerical value and each name or word has as 
its numerical value the sum of the values of its com 
ponent letters. 13-2 A- 1 H-5 A- 1 . Thus 9 
is the numerical value of the name "Baha". This 
number, which is the greatest of simple numbers, is 
used by the Bahais as a symbol of name. 



DESIGNS AND TEXT 

Copyrighted by 

CHARLES MASON REMEY 
1917 



Copies of this book may be obtained from the 
BAHAI PUBLISHING SOCIETY 

P. O. BOX 283, CHICAGO. ILL. 

Price $1.00 

Postage extra. 

Weight of book 2 pounds. 



PRINTED BY 

J D. MILANS & SONS 

WASHINGTON. D. C 



"MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR." 

Literally translated from the Persian "The Dawning Point 
of the Mentionings (or commemorations) of God." 

It is the Bahai Temple with its various auxiliary institutions 
educational and philanthropic 




To ABDUL BAHA 

THE SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD " 
THESE DESIGNS ARE HUMBLY OFFERED 



NOTE 

Those portions of the text of this book which pertain to the Bahai 
Movement are quoted from various authentic and approved Bahai pub 
lications. 



CONTENTS 



CONTENTS 

I. Introduction. A historical sketch of the Bahai Movement. 

II. The Mashrak-El-Azkar. 

III. The Mashrak-El-Azkar, of Eshkhabad. 

IV. Words of Abdul Baha regarding the Mashrak-El-Azkar in 

America. 

V. The site for the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. 
VI. The Architectural Problem. 

VII. Styles of Architecture and Descriptions of Designs. 
Design No. 1. Roman Classic. 
" " 2. Byzantine. 

" 3. Arabian Moorish. 

4< 4. Persian. 

"5. Indian. 

" 6. Romanesque. 

7. Gothic. 

8. Renaissance. 
" "9. Modern. 



PREFACE 



PREFACE 

This book is descriptive of the Mashrak-El-Azkar and is illustrative 
of an exhibition of nine preliminary designs for the first Mashrak-El- 
Azkar to be built in America. 

These drawings, which represent study and work done at intervals 
during the past seven or eight years, are offered to Abdul Baha, and 
intrusted to the keeping of the "Bahai Temple Unity, the organization 
which has for its object the erection of the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in 
America, in the hope that some of the elements of these architectural 
compositions may be of service when the time arrives for formulating 
and composing the building design for the Mashrak-El-Azkar. 

C. M. R. 

July, 1917. 

Washington, D. C. 



I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE BAHAI MOVEMENT. 
Quoted from "Constructive Principles of the Bahai Teachings." 

Chapter III. 



THE BAHAI MOVEMENT. 

Religion, which is inherent in man, dates in general essence before 
the dawn of written history, each religious movement in its purity of 
truth being a phase of the one great Universal divine religion. 

The particular present latter-day phase of religion that we are here 
considering, the Bahai Movement, began over seventy years ago, when 
its first teacher arose in the year 1844, in the southern part of Persia, 
teaching under the title of The Bab, which term signifies door or gate. 
He proclaimed the approaching advent of One, a great world teacher, 
whose divine mission was the uniting in one great spiritual brotherhood 
of the peoples of all nations, races, and religions, and the establishment 
of a new spiritual era of oneness of all humanity in spiritual knowledge, 
and in brotherhood and peace. 

The Bab s teaching dwelt upon the coming of the Great Manifesta 
tion, of whom He spoke as "He Whom God Would Manifest," exhorting 
the people to prepare, and purify themselves to meet this Promised One, 
and to be ready to serve Him when He should appear. 

Many seeking souls were attracted by The Bab through His purity 
and illumination of spirit, for in Him the people not only saw the fore 
runner of the great universal Messiah, but they realized in Him "The 
First Point" of the great new age of God in the world. 

To The Bab flocked people from the great religions of Persia. Much 
enthusiasm was manifested by all, and the Mohammedan clergy watched 
the growth of the movement with jealousy, because they saw thousands 
of their own people going out from Islam and from the superstitions 
and forms which they taught. Seeing their own religious hold over the 
people waning before this teaching, these priests of Islam sought to 
exterminate the new movement. They incited the fanatical Moslems to 
pillage, arson, and murder. Thousands of the Babis, followers of The 
Bab, as they were then called, were massacred, their homes burned, and 
possessions destroyed; but notwithstanding this persecution the cause 
continued to grow, the blood of the martyrs being the seed. 

The Bab, Himself, was among the first to suffer. Scarcely had His 
mission begun than He was placed under military surveillance, and after 
two years of teaching under this difficulty was cast into prison, where He 
remained for four years, and at the expiration of that time He w=< c 



for heresy before a clerical court, was condemned, and suffered a martyr s 
death. 

Not long after the martyrdom of The Bab, the great world teacher 
appeared in the person of Baha o llah, "He Whom God Manifested." 
Surrounded by countless fanatical enemies, who strove to destroy Him 
and His Cause, Baha o llah was first known as a leader among the much 
persecuted Babis; then, later, as His power became manifest to all He 
was generally acknowledged to be The One Whose Coming The Bab had 
proclaimed. 

From that time on the cause became known as the Bahai Cause, and 
the followers, as Bahais, while the Babi Cause, as a separate movement, 
ceased to exist, The Bab s mission and the teaching which He established 
being not an end in itself but preparatory to the coming of Baha o llah. 

The Mission of Baha o llah lasted forty years, during which time He 
withstood all manner of trials and persecutions. He was sent out from 
His home in Persia as an exile and a prisoner to Bagdad in Asiatic Tur 
key, then to Constantinople in Turkey in Europe, and later to Adrianople 
in Roumelia, where He remained for five years, afterward enduring, with 
His family and about seventy followers, men, women, and children, a 
still more distant exile imprisonment in the fortress of Akka, in the Holy 
Land. In that country, ever made sacred by God s prophets and Holy 
Messengers, within view of Mount Carmel, upon which Elijah and others 
of the prophets had taught, and within a few miles of Nazareth, where 
Jesus had lived, Baha o llah completed the latter half of His active 
ministrations to humanity. 

During the first years of his captivity in Akka, Baha o llah and His 
followers suffered great privations. Confined in the barrack prison under 
conditions the most unsanitary, illness broke out, and the suffering was 
so intense that, without the faith and the assurance of soul of all incar 
cerated, the spirit of the community would have been quite broken, but 
in reality their persecution and trouble had the effect of increasing their 
miraculous faith and devotion. 

As years passed, the officials of the prison fortress city realized that 
Baha o llah manifested love and harmony, and they became friendly, so, 
little by little, the condition of the Bahai exiled community was bettered. 
Baha o llah was first given the liberty of the city, and later He was 
allowed by the governor to reside beyond the walls. The followers from 
various countries came to receive teachings from Him, returning again 
to their own lands and peoples fired with the desire to share with others 
the spiritual pearls of great price which they had found, and thus the 
cause spread throughout various of the oriental countries. 



Baha o llah gave His teaching and planted His Cause amid humanity, 
thus completing His work in this world. Then, for further guidance and 
development, and for the interpretation and explanation of His teachings. 
He designated as His successor, His son Abdul Baha. 

With the passing from this world of Baha o llah, in the late Spring 
of 1892, began Abdul Baha s mission as the Center of The Bahai Cause. 
The title of servitude which he chose for himself, namely, "Abdul Baha," 
means "The Servant of God." Abdul Baha seeks neither honor nor glory 
for himself other than servant of those who are serving God, yet in the 
texts of Baha o llah the spiritual station of Abdul Baha is clearly set forth 
as the Center of the Bahai Covenant to humanity. 

From his earliest childhood Abdul Baha s life has been devoted to 
the service of God and humanity. He was with Baha o llah during the 
sixteen years of exile and travel prior to His arrival in Akka, and then 
began Abdul Baha s long exile of forty years in that fortress, to which 
the Sultans of Turkey of the old regime used to send their most dreaded 
enemies, so that its terrible conditions of filth and disease might speedily 
accomplish their destruction. 

It was in August, 1868, that Abdul Baha arrived in Akka with Baha 
o llah. In August, 1908, when the Turks revolted against former rule, 
and established a constitutional form of government, Abdul Baha was 
officially freed ; but, during those years of trial, Abdul Baha had accom 
plished his work, despite the persecution of his enemies, while held, as 
Baha o llah was held, prisoner by the law of Islam because of his progress 
in teachings. With each added trouble came spiritual growth and 
strength to the cause. Throughout the years that Abdul Baha was in 
Akka he labored constantly with his pen, and was able, from time to 
time, to receive visits from truth seekers of Europe and America, as well 
as of the near and far East. Now the Bahai Cause is firmly planted in 
both the Occident and the Orient, and souls are constantly arising to 
promote Abdul Baha s work. 

Some little time after the revolution in Turkey, that brought to 
Abdul Baha freedom from prison confinement in Akka, he went down 
into Egypt, and from there visited Paris and London, and later, in the 
Spring of 1912, he came to these United States, where he spent eight 
months. He traveled from coast to coast and visited many places where 
he had friends, and where there were people who wished to hear his 
explanations of religious questions, and who were desirous of coming 
into closer touch with that vital illuminating spiritual force which so 
characterizes his presence. 



In America, as well as in England and in France, and, subsequently 
upon his return to Europe, in both Germany and Austria, the pulpits of 
Christian churches of many denominations, institutions of learning, and 
the platforms of philosophical societies and of progressive humanitarian 
movements of various kinds, sought Abdul Baha, welcomed his message 
of peace and world oneness, and were rejoiced by the spirit which he 
radiated. 

In his many addresses, most of which have been published, Abdul 
Baha treats of the creative function of the religion of God, of the great 
world problems of this present day, and of the solution of these great 
human difficulties through the application of the true spirit of religion 
in the lives of the people. Upon all occasions he has taught of the coming 
of the great world teacher and Manifestation of The Spirit, Baha o llah, 
and of the new spiritual era upon earth that Baha o llah inaugurated. 
Abdul Baha invites all people to approach the Bahai Cause, and for them 
selves seek and partake of this divine bounty, and to become servants of 
God and of humanity in carrying this message of the Lord to all peoples. 

Those who have seen Abdul Baha, with quickened spiritual eyes of 
the soul, have realized in him the life-giving spirit of Baha o llah, and in 
Abdul Baha s life of service to humanity the manifested fruit of The 
Cause of Baha o llah. 

The Bab was the precursor and "The First Point" of this religious 
cause in the world today. Baha o llah and His teaching formed the root 
of the movement, which has been compared to a tree, Abdul Baha the 
branch springing from the root that is Baha o llah. As the branch of the 
tree bears the leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds, so in the life of Abdul 
Baha is the world witnessing the budding forth and flowering of the 
Bahai principles of religion and their application to the needs of humanity. 



II. 

THE MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR. 

Quoted from "Constructive Principles of the Bahai Teachings." 

Chapter VIII. 



THE MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR. 

In every age true religion has produced certain institutions that have 
served spiritual and practical needs of the people of that time. Such 
institutions have been a material expression of the spiritual quickening 
and of the cementing together of the people by the organic, cohesive 
force of truth. They have naturally grouped themselves about the places 
of religious worship and meeting, which temples have been the geo 
graphic centers of human progress and activity, and the mothers of archi 
tecture and the other arts. 

Throughout the years of the earliest prophets the people led nomadic 
lives, going up into the mountains at stated times for their religious 
observances; thus the open-air altars on the mountains were the recog 
nized religious centers of the collective life of the people. 

While the children of Israel were migrating from Egypt to the Holy 
Land, the tabernacle occupied the central position in their encampment, 
and later on, in their capital city, Jerusalem, the temple of the Lord 
crowned the highest hill, and was the center of the intellectual, material, 
and religious life of the people. 

In the typical Christian city of long ago the cathedral has been the 
great central edifice about which the other buildings of the city, religious 
and secular, were grouped. The religious life of the people of this epoch 
was all-important, and this principle was expressed in the architectural 
development of their cities. 

The temple of each religion and civilization is always found to be the 
focal point of the city architectural. The acropolii of the Greek cities, 
upon the summits of which were the temples, the forums of the Roman 
cities, with their many temples, the mosques of the Moslem cities, the 
fire altars of the Zoroastrians, the pagodas of the Buddhists, and the tem 
ples of the Hindus, all testify that each religion has been creative of its 
own art and civilization in the evolution of an epochal temple. 

In times past true religion has been the chief motive force for 
advancement, learning, and culture. The Bahais now anticipate the day 
when great universal temples of God will be built, the result of the spir 
itual quickening of the people, which will signify and further all phases 
of universal human advancement, spiritual, moral, and physical, of this 
new age of humanity. 



The "Mashrak-El-Azkar," which, translated from the Persian, liter 
ally means "The Dawning Point of the Mentionings of God," is the Bahai 
temple of worship and service to humanity. It consists of a central build 
ing for worship, the temple proper, surrounded by schools, hospitals and 
hospices, homes and asylums for the orphan, for the incurable, and for 
the aged, and by colleges and universities. The temple of the Mashrak- 
El-Azkar is for reading, meditation, and prayer, not an auditorium for 
preaching. It is essentially a place for worship and drawing near in spirit 
to God. Thus it will be a center of spiritual power and attraction, exert 
ing a divine influence in the world. 

Its many surrounding institutions are for the practical, moral, and 
physical service to humanity. The Bahais appreciate that man should 
glorify God in deed as well as by word of mouth, therefore this principle 
is embodied in its fullest expression in the Mashrak-El-Azkar. 

Some years ago, the first large Mashrak-El-Azkar was built. It is 
located in the city of Eshkhabad, in Oriental Russia, which has a consider 
able following of the Bahai Movement, and where the Russian royal gov 
ernment has been friendly to the cause. First, the temple proper was 
erected, an imposing structure in the oriental style of architecture, and 
then a school was founded, and a hospice, and now other institutional 
buildings are being added as the necessary ways and means are available. 

Not long past, the friends of the Bahai Movement endeavored to 
unite in establishing a Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. Contributions 
were received from the far parts of the world, sent by persons of different 
countries, races, and religions for the building of this great universal tem 
ple, in which peoples of every race and of all religions might find a wel 
come, and worship there in spirit, and in deed. A very beautiful building 
site at Chicago, on the shore of Lake Michigan, has been selected and 
purchased, and it is hoped that sufficient offerings will soon make it pos 
sible to begin the work of construction. 

When this Mashrak-El-Azkar, with its institutional groups is estab 
lished, it will be as an ensign to all those who are seeking the great uni 
versal spirit of religion, and it will be a practical demonstration of the 
spirit and of the working principle of service to humanity in the Bahai 
Cause. Resulting from the united efforts of the friends in its erection, 
the completed Mashrak-El-Azkar will be a center from which spiritual 
illumination will radiate, and it will be a haven that will attract seeking 
and spiritual souls. 



III. 

THE MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR, OF ESHKHABAD. 

Quoted from a letter written in October, 1908, by a Bahai who had traveled 

in the Orient. 

Published in "THE STAR OF THE WEST." 
Vol. VI., No. 18. 



To the House of Spirituality of Bahais, Chicago, 111., Brothers in the 
Service of Abha : 

As you have arisen for the construction of the first Mashrak-El- 
Azkar in America, and, as I have recently visited Eshkhabad and seen 
there the great Mashrak-El-Azkar of the East, of which we in the West 
have heard so much, I take it upon myself to write to you a description 
of this edifice, hoping to share with you the great blessing of meeting 
with the friends in those parts, and of beholding this temple, which is a 
testimony of their sacrifice and unity. 

As you know, Eshkhabad is in Russian Turkistan, just north of the 
Elbruz mountains, which separate the desert plain of western Turkistan 
on the north, from Persia on the south. The city itself lies on the plain 
a short distance from the mountains, which here are quite rugged and 
rocky. The town is quite modern in aspect, being laid off with gardens 
and broad streets meeting at right angles. Rows of trees along the side 
walks remind one of a western city, while the buildings and the water 
ways, which flank the streets and are fed with water coming from the 
nearby mountains, are strikingly oriental. 

I could hardly believe that this city had sprung up almost entirely 
during the past half century. It was but a huddle of mud huts when 
Baha o llah first directed some of His followers to settle there. Now this 
former village is replaced by a large and prosperous city built of brick 
and stone. 

The Mashrak-El-Azkar stands in the center of the city, surrounded 
by a large garden, which is bounded by four streets. It rises high above 
the surrounding buildings and trees, its dome being visible for miles, as 
the traveller approaches the city over the plain. The building in plan is 
a regular polygon of nine sides. One large doorway and portico, flanked 
by turrets, facing the direction of the Holy Land, forms the principal 
motive of the fagade, while the dome dominates the whole composition. 

The walls of the temple are of brick covered with a firm and hard 
stucco, which in that climate resists quite well the action of the elements, 
while the floors are concrete supported by iron or steel beams. 

In plan the building is composed of three sections ; namely, the cen 
tral rotunda, the aisle or ambulatory which surrounds it, and the loggia 
which surrounds the entire building. 



The interior of the rotunda is five stories in height. The first, or 
main floor story, consists of nine arches, supported by piers, which 
separate the ambulatory from the rotunda proper. The second story con 
sists of a similar treatment of arches and piers and balustrades, which 
separate the triforium gallery, which is directly above the ambulatory, 
from the wall of the rotunda. The third story is decorated with nine 
blank arcades, between which are shields, upon which is inscribed, in 
Persian characters, *"Ya-Baha-el-Abha." The fourth story contains nine 
large windows, while the wall of the fifth story, which is not as high as the 
others, is pierced by eighteen bull s-eye windows. 

Above, there is the dome which is hemispherical in shape. The 
rotunda from the floor to the top of the dome is elaborately decorated 
with fretwork and other designs, all in relief. We were told that the 
ultimate aim was that color and gilding should be added to this interior 
decoration. 

The inner dome is of iron or steel and concrete, while the outer dome 
or roof is entirely of metal. The intention is that this shall be gilded. 

The main portico of the temple is two stories in the clear, while the 
loggias, which surround the building, are on two floors, the lower being 
on the main floor level, while the upper one is on the level of the triforium 
gallery. This upper loggia is reached by two staircases, one to the right 
and one to the left of the main entrance, and the gallery is entered from 
the loggia. 

On the main floor the principal entrance is through the large door 
way, but there are also several minor doors, which connect the ambula 
tory with the loggia. An abundance of light is admitted through the 
windows in the upper part of the rotunda, as well as through the windows 
of the upper gallery and ambulatory, which open upon the loggias. 

The Persian style of architecture has been used in treating the 
details and decorations of the buildings. 

At present the stucco work is not quite completed. The interior of 
the rotunda is finished, but the decoration of the loggias and gallery and 
ambulatory is only done in part. However, the work is continuing and 
it will not be long before all will be complete. 

From what I saw and heard in Eshkhabad, I found that those be 
lievers who superintended the building of the temple were competent 
business men and that, although they had undertaken a large enterprise, 
every possible economy was made, yet at the same time no expense 
seemed to be spared when necessary for the beauty and solidity of the 
building. 
* "O Thou, The Most Glorious of The Glorious." 



The layout of the garden is not yet complete. Nine avenues of 
approach lead to the Mashrak-El-Azkar. The main avenue of the nine, 
leading to the entrance portico, will be entered from the street by a 
monumental gateway. Last July they were completing the plans for this 
principal gateway of the grounds. 

At the four corners of the garden are four buildings. One is a school, 
one is a house where traveling Bahais are entertained, one is to be used 
as a hospital, and the other is for workmen, storage, etc. Much of the 
property in the immediate vicinity of this enclosure belongs to Bahais, so 
the Mashrak-El-Azkar is the center of the community materially, as well 
as spiritually. 

That which impressed me more than all else, as I stood before this 
Mashrak-El-Azkar, was the fact that the Bahais of the East had all 
worked with one accord and had given freely toward its erection. 

The temple in America can be accomplished only as we give up self 
and unite in this service. The beloved in the East made their offerings 
and left them with all personal desires upon the altar of sacrifice. Now 
we in this country must do likewise! We need something more than 
money for the Mashrak-El-Azkar. It must be built of the material of 
sacrifice and cemented together by the spirit of unity. 

In the building of the Mashrak-El-Azkar every one should lay before 
God his material offering together with his ideas, desires, and aspirations, 
give them to the Lord completely, and then, as we come together to 
construct the material building we will find that we have ample means 
both spiritual and material for the work in hand. 

Each one of us has sufficient means for the work which God has 
given us to perform. We need not trouble thinking that we may not 
have enough means, but rather we should seek to apply to the best 
advantage the means which God has given us. 



IV. 

WORDS OF ABDUL BAHA REGARDING THE 
MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR IN AMERICA. 

Compiled from articles published in "THE STAR OF THE WEST." 

Vol. V., No. 5, and Vol. VI., No. 17, and in the program pamphlet of the 
eighth annual Mashrak-El-Azkar convention. 



WORDS OF ABDUL BAHA. 

I send you the glad tidings of the erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar, 
the Bahai Temple, in Eshkhabad, with all joy and great happiness. The 
friends of God assembled together with rejoicing, and conveyed the stones 
themselves upon their backs, while attracted by the love of God, and for 
the glory of God. Soon that great temple will be completed and the voice 
of prayer and praise shall ascend to the Sublime Kingdom. 

I was rejoiced through your endeavors in this glorious cause, made 
with joy and good interest. I pray God to aid you in exalting His Word, 
and in establishing the temple of worship, through His grace and ancient 
mercy. Verily, ye are the first to arise for this glorious cause in that vast 
region. Soon will ye see the spread of this enterprise in the world, and 
its resounding voice shall go through the ears of the people in all parts. 

Exert your energy in accomplishing what ye have undertaken, so 
that this glorious temple may be built, that the beloved of God may 
assemble therein, and that they may pray and offer glory to God for 
guiding them to His Kingdom. 

Now the day has arrived in which the edifice of God, the divine 
sanctuary, the spiritual temple, shall be erected in America. I entreat 
God to assist the confirmed believers in accomplishing this great service, 
and with entire zeal to rear this mighty structure, which shall be re 
nowned throughout the world. The support of God will be with those 
believers in that district, that they may be successful in their undertaking. 
For the cause is great, because this is the first Mashrak-El-Azkar in that 
country, and from it the praise of God shall ascend to the Kingdom of 
Mystery, and the tumult of His exaltation and greeting from the whole 
world shall be heard. 

Whosoever arises for the service of this building shall be assisted 
with great power from His Supreme Kingdom, and upon him spiritual 
and heavenly blessings shall descend, which shall fill his heart with won 
derful consolation and enlighten his eyes by beholding the Glorious and 

Eternal God. 

******* 

When the Mashrak-El-Azkar is accomplished, when the lights are 
emanating therefrom, the righteous ones are presenting themselves 
therein, the prayers are performed with supplication towards the myste- 



rious Kingdom of Heaven, the voice of glorification is raised to the Lord, 
the Supreme; then the believers shall rejoice, and the hearts shall be 
dilated and overflowed with the love of the All-Living and Self-Existent 
God. 

The people shall hasten to worship in that heavenly temple, the 
fragrances of God will be elevated, and the divine teachings will be estab 
lished in the hearts like the establishment of the spirit in mankind. The 

people will then stand firm in the cause of your Lord, the Merciful. 
******* 

To have the Mashrak-El-Azkar built is most important. Some 
material things have spiritual effect, and the Mashrak-El-Azkar is a 
material thing that will have great effect upon the spirits of the people. 
Not only does the building of the Mashrak-El-Azkar have an effect upon 

those who build it, but upon the whole world. 

******* 

The Mashrak-El-Azkar, though outwardly a material foundation, 
is possessed of spiritual effect and causes the union of hearts and the 
gathering of souls. 

In the days of the Manifestation (prophet) any city wherein a temple 
was founded afforded the means of promulgation of the cause, and the 
confirmation of the hearts and the confidence of souls, for in those dwell 
ings the Name of God is ever mentioned and always commemorated, and, 
for the tranquility and repose of the hearts, there is no other means save 
the commemoration of Almighty God. 

Praise be to God ! The erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar has a great 
effect in all grades, or states. It was tested in the East, and so, evidently 
and plainly, was it proved. Even when in a village a house was called 
the Mashrak-El-Azkar it possessed a different effect. How much more 
its building and organization! 

Therefore, O ye friends and maid-servants of the Merciful ! As long 
as ye can, endeavor with life and heart, so that the Mashrak-El-Azkar of 
Chicago may soon be built, organized, and confirmed. 

If all the friends in America, in all cities and hamlets, assist, and by 
the means of a building commission help, this offering will prove most 

acceptable in the Kingdom of the Sun of the Horizons. 
******* 

Among the most important affairs is the founding of the Mashrak- 
El-Azkar, although weak minds may not grasp its importance ; nay, per 
chance, they imagine this Mashrak-El-Azkar to be a temple like other 
temples. 



They may say to themselves: "Every nation has a hundred thousand 
gigantic temples. What result have they yielded, that now this one 
Mashrak-El-Azkar is said to cause the manifestation of signs and prove 
a source of light?" They are ignorant of the fact that the founding of 
this Mashrak-El-Azkar is to be in the inception of the organization of the 
Kingdom. 

Therefore, it is important and is an expression of the uprising of the 
Evident Standard, which is waving in the center of that continent, the 
results and effects of which will become manifest in the hearts and 
spirits. No soul will be aware of this mature wisdom save after trial. 

When the Mashrak-El-Azkar was founded in Eshkhabad, its clamor 
affected all the cities of the Orient and caused souls to awaken to the call. 
Most of the souls who investigated and heard the explanation were 

attracted to the Kingdom of God. 

******* 

The greatest interrelation and communication exists between the 
sons of men, without which peace, life, and existence are entirely impos 
sible. For a soul independent of all the other souls, and without receiv 
ing assistance from other sources, cannot live for the twinkling of an eye ; 
nay, rather, he will become non-existent and reduced to nothingness, 
especially among the believers of God, between whom material and spir 
itual communication is developed up to the highest point of perfection. 

It is this real communication, the essential necessity and requirement 
of which is mutual helpfulness, cooperation, and confirmation. Without 
the complete establishment of this divine principle in the hearts of the 
friends of God nothing can be accomplished, for they are the hyacinths 
of one garden, the waves of one sea, the stars of one heaven, and the rays 
of one sun. From every standpoint the essential unity, the luminous 
unity, the religious unity, and the material unity are founded and organ 
ized between them. 

In these times the utmost hope and wish of the friends of the West 
is the erection of the Mashrak-El-Azkar, and in those regions the mate 
rials for construction and building are expensive and costly. A large 
sum of money is needed for the building of a residence, then how much 
more is needed for the foundation of the Mashrak-El-Azkar, which must 
be erected with the utmost splendor, beauty, and magnificence ! 

Therefore, the friends of God must arise in every part of the world 
to raise contributions, and with their hearts and souls strive to gather 
these funds to be sent to the Occident, that it may become known and 
evident throughout the universe that the Bahais of the East and West 



are as members of one household, and the children of the one Lord! 
The Turks and the Persians, the Parsee and the American, the Hindu 
and the African; all of them are one army and one cohort, and without 
any distinction they arise for the assistance and aid of each other. 

This praiseworthy movement is beloved and accepted at the thresh 
old of the forgiving Lord. Truly, I say, in the erection of the Mashrak- 
El-Azkar in Eshkhabad the friends of God have laid the foundation of 
the oneness of the kingdom of humanity, and they worked nobly together 
until now, and it is nearly completed. Praise be to God, that, at this 
moment, from every country in the world, according to their various 
means, contributions are continually being sent toward the fund of the 
Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. 

In reality, this magnanimity of the believers is worthy of great praise 
and thankfulness ; for, from Teheran, Khorossan, Shiraz, Jahram, Espha- 
han, even from the towns and villages of Khorassan, Shiraz, and Yazd 
contributions were sent. This donation in the path of ihe Orb of Regions 
is conducive to the happiness of the souls of the spiritual ones. 

From the day of Adam until now such an event has never even been 
witnessed by man ; that, from the farthermost country of Asia, contri 
butions were forwarded to the farthermost country of America. From 
Rangoon, India, donations are sent to Chicago, and from Jahram, a little 
village of Shiraz, and Kheirol-Gora of Tarshiz, money is transmitted for 
the Mashrak-El-Azkar in America. This is through the bounty and provi 
dence of the Blessed Perfection, the assistance and confirmation of the 
Sun of Truth, and the victory and triumph of the Luminary of Effulgence, 
who has united so marvelously the regions of the world together. Glory 
belongs to the Lord of Hosts. Sovereignty belongs to the compassionate 
God. Power and might belong to the living, Selfsubsistent One, who 
has united the people of the world and assembled them together like 

unto the brilliant stars of the horizon of adoration. 

******* 

The accessories of the Mashrak-El-Azkar are numerous. Among 
them are the school for orphans, the great college for the higher arts, 
hospital, and home for the cripples and hospice. The doors of these 
places are to be opened to all sects no differentiations. When these 
accessories are completed, and, by God s help and aid, the departments 
fully systematized, it will be proved that the Mashrak-El-Azkar is to 
human society a great bounty and a great blessing. 

In brief, through the unlimited bounties of God I am hopeful that 
the beloved ones of God in America may be aided and confirmed in 



founding this mighty and solid foundation, and gradually annex thereto 
its accessories. 

******* 

When these institutions, college, hospital, hospice and establish 
ments for the incurables, university for the study of higher sciences, 
giving post-graduate courses, and other philanthropic buildings are built 
their doors will be opened to all the nations and religions. There will be 
absolutely no line of demarcation drawn. Its charities will be dispensed 
irrespective of color or race. Its gates will be flung wide open to man 
kind; prejudice toward none, love for all. The central building will be 
devoted to the purpose of prayer and worship. Thus, for the first time, 
religion will become harmonized with science, and science will be the 
handmaid of religion, both showering their material and spiritual gifts 
on all humanity." 

-.$ 4l 

ADDRESS OF ABDUL BAHA AT THE DEDICATION OF THE 
MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR GROUNDS. 

Chicago, High Noon, May 1, 1912. 

Today you have endured considerable difficulty in coming out, with 
standing the cold and wind, but the power which has gathered you here 
is truly a colossal power. It is the extraordinary power. It is a divine 
power which gathers you here. It is the divine favor of Baha o llah which 
gathered you together. Therefore, we praise God that this power does 
assemble people in this fashion. 

Thousands of Mashrak-El-Azkars, which mean the Dawning Points 
of Praise for all religionists, will be built in the world. In the Orient and 
in the Occident of the world will they be built, but this Mashrak-El-Azkar, 
being the first one in the Occident, has great importance. In after years 
there will be many Mashrak-El-Azkars ; even in this city of Chicago many 
will be established. In Asia there will be many. In Europe there will 
be many. Even in Africa there will be many. Even in Australia and 
New Zealand, but this one in America is of great importance. In Eshkha- 
bad, Russia, the Mashrak-El-Azkar has the same great importance, being 
the first one built there. In Persia there are many Mashrak-El-Azkars. 
Some are houses, which have been rented for that purpose. Others have 
given their homes entirely for that purpose, and in some places temporary 
and small places have been built therefor. In all the cities of Persia 
there are Mashrak-El-Azkars, but the great Mashrak-El-Azkar was 
founded in Eshkhabad. Because it was the first Mashrak-El-Azkar it 



possesses the superlative degree of importance. All the friends of Esh- 
khabad agreed and put forth the greatest effort. His holiness the Afnan* 
devoted all his wealth to it. Everything he had he gave for it. Hence, 
such an imposing edifice was built. A colossal effort was put forth. Not 
withstanding their contributions to that Mashrak-El-Azkar they have, as 
you know, contributed to the one here in this city. Now that one is 
almost complete ; that is to say, with all its gardens. That Mashrak-El- 
Azkar is centrally located. It has nine avenues, nine gardens, nine foun 
tains, so it is nine on nine, all nines. It is like a beautiful bouquet. Just 
imagine an edifice of that beauty in the center, very lofty, surrounded by 
gardens, variegated flowers, with nine avenues interlacing nine gardens, 
nine pools, and nine fountains, and think how delightful it must be ! That 
is the way it should be. It is matchless, most beautiful! Such is the 
design, and now they are at work building a hospital and a school for 
orphans, and a home for cripples, and a large dispensary and a hospice. 
They are now planning, thinking of these things. When that, God will 
ing, shall be completed, it will be a Paradise ! There will be no greater 
geometry than this, and I hope that in Chicago it shall be like this. It 
will be even so. 
* A Relative of The Bab. 



V. 

THE SITE FOR THE FIRST MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR IN 

AMERICA. 



THE SITE FOR THE FIRST MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR IN AMERICA. 

The site for the Mashrak-El-Azkar, now free from all encumbrances, 
is in the borough of Wilmette, Chicago, bordering on Lake Michigan. 

Compared with the flat character of the surrounding country the 
Mashrak-El-Azkar land is high, affording a commanding view of the 
lake. This tract of about nine acres is divided into two unequal parts 
by Sheridan Road, which is the lake-side boulevard connecting Chicago 
and Milwaukee. It is planned to build the temple proper of the Mashrak- 
El-Azkar upon the larger of the two tracts, which measures about six 
acres and lies to the west of Sheridan Road, which here runs north and 
south, while the smaller tract, of about three acres, extending east from 
the road down to the lake shore is to be improved and laid out as a park, 
thus giving an approach by water to the Mashrak-El-Azkar with its 
grounds. 



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VI. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEM. 
Its requirements and conditions. 



ARCHITECTURAL PROBLEM. 

The temple proper of The Mashrak-El-Azkar will eventually be the 
central feature of a group of buildings housing auxiliary, philanthropic, 
and charitable institutions which will be erected as the ways and means 
are available, all of which taken together form the Mashrak-El-Azkar ; 
however, for the present the architectural problem may be considered to 
be confined to the one main edifice, the temple, the entire site so far 
acquired being intended exclusively for this one building with its parks, 
gardens, and approaches. 

In general, the requirements of the temple of the Mashrak-El-Azkar 
are : that it should be built upon the plan of a polygon of nine sides, that 
it should be surmounted by a dome, that the interior rotunda with encir 
cling galleries should be supported by nine piers, that the building should 
have one principal portal facing the east, and that the edifice should be 
surrounded by a park divided into nine gardens, each with a fountain, by 
nine avenues radiating from the building. Beyond these simple general 
conditions no authoritative data has as yet been given out. 

In making the following designs the architect has tried to vary the 
different treatments to present a number of motives and compositions, in 
order to show some of the many varying architectural solutions appli 
cable to this problem of a Mashrak-El-Azkar. 



VII. 

STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESCRIPTIONS OF 

DESIGNS. 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

STYLES. Preceding each of the following designs for the Mash- 
rak-El-Azkar is a brief outline of the history and character of the style of 
architecture in which the problem is conceived. 

DRAWINGS. Each of these designs comprises a set of four draw 
ings, showing in elevation, plans, and section the arrangement of the 
building with its various parts as described in the text. 

THE EAST ELEVATION shows the general exterior architectural 
treatment with the main portal and its approach. 

THE GENERAL PLAN shows the arrangement of the main floor 
of the building, together with the surrounding terraces, gardens, foun 
tains, walks, drives, and other approaches. 

THE ROOF PLAN shows a horizontal section taken through the 
upper part, looking down upon the lower part of the building. 

In design 2 a plan of the foundations and crypt has been shown in 
place of a roof plan. 

THE SECTION taken vertically east and west through the center of 
the building shows the interior arrangement of the entrance, portico, 
rotunda, ambulatory, crypt, domes, vaults, and galleries, with minor stair 
cases and elevators built in the thicknesses of the walls, which connect 
the different floor levels of the building. 

NOTE. 

In designs 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 a development has been given to the east 
bay of the building in order to accentuate the main portal. 

This has been accomplished in the following way: A circle was de 
scribed and divided into nineteen equal sectors. The area of three of these 
was taken for the development of the east bay of the building, thus having 
the area of two sectors for the development of each of the other eight 
bays. 

With the exception of design 9, which is symmetrical as viewed from 
any of its faces, each of the designs calls for a projection of the eastern 
bay in order to accommodate in plan the main portal, or vestibule. 



DESIGN NO. 1. 
ROMAN CLASSIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE ROMAN CLASSIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE, product 
of the civilization of ancient Rome, the fundamental elements of which 
the Romans borrowed from the Greeks and earlier peoples, is exemplified 
in the many Roman remains extant in various parts of Europe and 
northern Africa. Some Roman ruins of vast proportions are found as far 
east as Baalbek and Palmyra in Syria. 

Roman architecture covered a very broad field, including buildings 
religious and secular. The forums of cities with their temples, tombs, 
theatres, amphitheatres, baths, palaces, basilicas, gateways, triumphal 
arches, bridges, and aqueducts were richly embellished, to the point of 
luxury. 

The Roman style, with modifications adapts itself readily to certain 
of the big architectural problems of this present day. "The Pantheon 
and the "Church of the Madeleine" in Paris, as well as many other edifices 
in the various European cities, the Capitol at Washington, and a number 
of State Houses and other public buildings in America, are successful 
applications of the Roman classic to suit modern conditions. 

The decorative possibilities of this style are varied. Marbles of 
various colors, mosaics, painting, and sculpture are equally applicable and 
in character. 



" 




DESCRIPTION. ROMAN CLASSIC. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Roman classic style, 
to be constructed of masonry with steel reinforcements and supports in 
the construction of the dome and roofs. 

The exterior walls, turrets, dome, and roof are of light toned granite. 

The interior is finished in stone and colored marbles, with scultpured 
ornament and frescoes. The floors are of mosaic. 

The arches of the rotunda support two superimposed stories of 
galleries. Surrounding the rotunda on the main floor level is an ambula 
tory, from which open eight large apses. 

The exterior is dominated by the dome, while at each corner of the 
building is a turret surmounted by a small dome. From the faces of the 
building project semicircular bays roofed by half domes and surrounded 
by colonnades forming the apses. 





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DESIGN NO. 2. 
BYZANTINE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE BYZANTINE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE followed the 
classic period, and was the first matured style of Christian architecture. 
Attaining its finest development in the Sixth century, it flourished in 
Turkey, Greece, and Syria, while some examples of the epoch are found 
as far east as Armenia, and others on the west in Italy. The Byzantine 
of southern France is of a somewhat later date. 

The mosque of "Santa Sophia," originally a Christian church at 
Constantinople, is without doubt the most beautiful, famous, and admired 
example of Byzantine, while "S. Vitalae," at Ravenna, and "St. Marks," 
at Venice, as well as the cathedral of "St. Front" at Perigeux in southern 
France these latter two of the llth century are fine examples of the 
application of this style. 

Among the successful and well-known examples of the adaptation of 
Byzantine to modern buildings for worship are the cathedrals of West 
minster and of Marseilles, and the recently completed basilica of the 
"Sacred Heart" on the Butte of Montmartre in Paris. This latter, though 
decoratively less florid than some other examples of the style, like those 
of the earlier French Byzantine, produces nevertheless an effect of im 
pressive dignity which cannot be questioned. 

The Byzantine, though massive in construction, calls in its most com 
plete development for sculptured ornament, and interior decorations of 
marble and mosaic, rich in color, which relieve it from any seeming struc 
tural heaviness. 



DESCRIPTION. BYZANTINE. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Byzantine style, to be 
constructed entirely of masonry. 

The exterior is of light granite, including the domes as well as the 
roofs, which are formed of slabs supported by the interior vaulting. 

The interior, of stone and marble, relieved by sculptured ornament 
and richly decorated with mosaics, is entered through a high arched 
portico. Upon either side of the vestibule are staircases leading to the 
crypt below, which is so designed as to serve for religious purposes, sup 
plementing the main part of the building. In a sub-crypt below the vesti 
bule provision has been made for a vault for the storage of records and 
archives. 

The rotunda, entered from the vestibule, is encircled by piers and 
arches which support two stories of galleries. Surrounding the rotunda 
on the main floor level, is an ambulatory, from which opens out a series 
of apses. 

The exterior of the building is dominated by the great dome, which 
surmounts the central rotunda, about the base of which rise nine small 
domes which are above the ambulatory. From the faces of the building 
project the semicircular walls forming the apses of the interior, and upon 
the exterior these are encircled bysemicircular arcaded porticoes, to which 
there is access from the interior. Above these portions are open balconies 
upon a level with and entered from the galleries. A semicircular retain 
ing wall, with a colonnade supporting a terrace above on the level of the 
main gardens, is arranged in the rear of the building, with staircases con 
necting the levels. 





1 









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DESIGN NO. 3. 
ARABIAN-MOORISH STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE ARABIAN AND MOORISH STYLES of architecture were 
evolved by the Moslem civilization, reaching their perfection, respect 
ively, in northern Africa and in Spain. 

The palace of the Alhambra at Grenada, and the great mosque at 
Cordova, now transformed and used as a cathedral, are the finest and 
best known examples of Moorish art. 

The mosques of Cairo represent the finest examples of pure Arabian 
architecture, while many tombs and houses of Cairo testify to the beauty 
of the Arabian period. 

The Arabian buildings attained a grandeur of size, general propor 
tions, and composition not reached in the Moorish style, yet the Moors 
attained an elegance and a refinement in decoration which is not found in 
Arabian art. The architectural and decorative elements of these two 
styles can be used together in harmonious composition. 

The decoration of the Arabian and Moorish buildings is carried out 
in marbles, colored tiles, and very elaborate fretwork designs in colors 
and gold, producing an effect gorgeous, but at the same time dignified 
and harmonious. The horseshoe arch is one of the most striking features 
of these styles. 



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DESCRIPTION. ARABIAN-MOORISH. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Arabian-Moorish 
style to be of masonry, with steel reinforcements and supports in the 
construction of the dome and roof. 

The exterior wall surfaces, dome, roof, and retaining walls of sur 
rounding terraces are of white sandstone. 

The interior is finished in stone and colored marbles, with sculptural 
and plastic ornament in gold and colors. 

The building is entered by a vestibule portal, upon either side of 
which are staircases leading to the loggias upon the floor above. 

The rotunda is encircled by nine arches, which support a gallery of 
nineteen bays, and the dome above is pierced by an equal number of 
star-shaped openings. Surrounding the rotunda is a narrow aisle or 
ambulatory, and then a second one of more ample dimensions, above 
which is a spacious gallery giving upon a series of loggias which over 
look the terraces and gardens. 

The exterior of the building in general lines is extremely simple, 
with decoration in low though crisp relief. The most striking feature ot 
the main fagade is the high triple arched portal. The entire building rests 
upon a high terrace surrounded by retaining walls and abutments with 
stair approaches. Fountains are set into large grotto niches in the ter 
race-retaining wall, and from these fountains radiate avenues and 
gardens. 



DESIGN NO. 4. 
PERSIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE PERSIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE was developed 
under the influence brought into Persia by the early Moslem civiliza 
tion. Some of its grandest applications are found in the mosques of 
Esphahan, Khoum, Kashan, and Khazvin, while the same style is found 
in those and other cities, successfully applied to such buildings as bazaars, 
caravansaries, palaces, colleges, gateways, bridges, and other civic struc 
tures. 

The lower wall surfaces of the more elegant of these buildings are 
often revetted with slabs of marble, while the main walls and upper parts 
are usually in brick, terra cotta, and brightly colored tiles. Though some 
of these buildings have stood for centuries, the coloring in many instances 
remains quite fresh and even brilliant. 

The richness in color decoration of the domes and minarets of Per 
sian mosques, rising from a foreground of gardens and silhouetted against 
a cloudless sky, is very memorable and beautiful. This style of decora 
tion, so in harmony with its oriental environment, has a charm of its own, 
to which many Persian writers, as well as foreigners traveling in that 
country, have testified. 



DESCRIPTION. PERSIAN. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Persian style to be 
of a masonry construction of concrete and brick faced with colored tiles 
and terra cotta. 

The exterior is finished with tiles and terra cotta, and the lower 
parts faced with slabs of colored marbles. 

The interior is finished in materials similar to those utilized upon the 
exterior, to which is added mosaic. A high rotunda with galleries forms 
the central motive of the composition of the interior. 

About the central rotunda is a series of nine smaller rotundas, while 
upon the main floor a loggia passageway encircles the entire building, 
uniting the main portico with each of the minor porticoes. 

The exterior of the building is so proportioned that the dome rises 
high above the other parts of the building, so that it will dominate the 
landscape. Each facade contains three large and spacious niches, which 
form the loggia porticoes through which the building is entered. 



DESIGN NO. 5. 
INDIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE INDIAN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE had its richest de 
velopment during the Mogul rule in India. In this civilization art and 
architecture show a strong Persian influence. Some of the finest exam 
ples of this style are found in the vicinity of Delhi, India s ancient capital, 
while the world-famous Taj-Mahal, near the city of Agra, though not 
so pure in details as other mosques of the period, nevertheless is without 
doubt the best known and by many the most admired building of the 
epoch. 

The Taj-Mahal is finished within and without with white marble 
inlaid with jasper, lapis lazuli, and other semi-precious stones. It is 
surrounded by a garden intersected by waterways separated by richly 
colored flowers and foliage, and produces an effect of beauty beyond the 
power of words to describe. 



MA5HK&K-E ~A2 




DESCRIPTION. INDIAN. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Indian Style to be 
constructed of masonry, with the exception of the inner and outer shells 
of the dome, which require steel reinforcing. Both the exterior and the 
interior would be finished in white marble, in the latter to be relieved 
here and there by inlays of colored marbles, and decorated with sculp 
tured ornament. 

In conceiving this design the architect has in mind a structure much 
less in dimensions than others here illustrated. It will be seen from the 
drawings, therefore, that both the exterior and interior arrangements 
are simple in the extreme. 

The rotunda is encircled by nine columns, which support a gallery 
of nineteen bays. Upon the main floor the central space is surrounded 
by deep windowed alcoves, which are connected by passageways piercing 
the walls behind the columns, while above is a gallery story similarly 
treated. Upon either side of the main entrance are staircases leading to 
the galleries. 

The dome is the most striking feature of the exterior. Engaged 
with the building at each corner are minaret turrets terminating in minia 
ture domes. The interior arrangement of main and gallery floors is 
indicated on the exterior by the two stories of windows. 



DESIGN NO. 6. 
ROMANESQUE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE ROMANESQUE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE is peculiar 
to the buildings of the period which was transitional between the Roman 
and the Gothic epochs. 

As with all transitional periods of art, the examples of the Roman 
esque are most varied, and exhibit the influence of the inventiveness and 
the traditions, and the culture of the people in the several European 
countries, as well as in the few near eastern lands in which its monu 
ments are found, its development extending over an age of constructive 
ingenuity beginning with the late and decadent classic, and leading up 
to the most highly structurally developed of all styles yet evolved the 
Gothic. 

In its earliest stages the Romanesque still retains much of the classic, 
and in some of the countries where abounded buildings and remains of 
the classic period the traditions of the people were 1 such that it was never 
freed from this influence, while in its latter stages of evolution, notably 
exemplified in the churches of northern France, are to be found elements 
which exhibit in rudiment the principles of the Gothic structural system. 

The monuments of this epoch are very widespread. Some fine exam 
ples of the Romanesque development are found in Auvergne in south cen 
tral France, of which the church of "Notre-Dame-du-Port," at Clermont- 
Ferrand, is one of the best examples. The churches in northern France, 
in particular the abbys of Caen and the church of "St. Etienne," at Beau- 
vais, show important developments in the evolution of the style. 

In Germany the cathedrals of Mayence, Speyer, and Worms are 
grand examples of the character of the Romanesque peculiar to the 
Rhenish provinces, while in Belgium the cathedral of Tournai is one of 
the most striking monuments of this epoch. 

Latterly in France the Romanesque has been successfully used in 
some large churches, among which are "St. Pierre de Montrouge" in 
Paris and "St. Jean" at Bar-le-Duc. 

In America there was a brief period during which, in some cities, 
the Romanesque was applied to various buildings. Without doubt the 
happiest and most admired application of this style to the religious needs 
of modern America is found in Trinity Church, Boston, which shows 
traces of the influence of some of the late Romanesque churches of south 
ern France and Spain. 




MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR- 




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DESCRIPTION. ROMANESQUE. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Romanesque style 
to be constructed entirely of masonry. 

The exterior is of light granite, including the conical roof of the 
cupola as well as the other roofs which are formed of slabs supported by 
the interior vaulting. 

The interior is finished in a light colored stone with sculptured 
ornament, while a rich color effect will be obtained by stained glass. 

The high central space is surrounded by an ambulatory divided by 
columns and piers (carrying the roof) into three aisles, from which open 
out large apses, each surrounded by a small ambulatory containing stair 
cases connecting the main floor with the basement entrances. The upper 
stories of the central space or rotunda contain interior galleries, while 
about the base of the high central portion of the building runs a low 
exterior gallery enclosed by nineteen bays of five arcades each. 

In making this design the architect has tried to retain the feeling 
of the Romanesque, which is somewhat more severe and less florid and 
exubriant than the Oriental styles and those of a later date of the 
Occident. 



DESIGN NO. 7. 
THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE found its origin in 
the Romanesque period. Like other styles, its character has been greatly 
influenced by local conditions, temperamental, cultural, military, national, 
and, above all, religious. The forms peculiar to it are found in different 
stages of evolution in various parts of Great Britain and Europe, but 
nowhere did it attain the grandeur and structural development reached 
in northern France in the twelfth century. This was brought about by 
a people working under the influence of a common religious ideal, a 
mixed people in whom were combined and balanced the artistic and 
intellectual traits of southern, central, and western Europe under social 
and political conditions which made possible the building of such monu 
ments as the cathedrals of Paris, Amiens, Rheims, and Chartres which, 
together with many other less generally known cathedrals and churches, 
testify to this period, brief in length, of the perfection of the Gothic style. 

To the casual observer, the Gothic style is characterized by the 
pointed arch, windows filled with tracery, ribbed and groined vaulting, 
spires and turrets, flying buttresses, and mouldings and ornaments of a 
distinctive type; but to the student of this art the chiefest and most 
distinguishing characteristic which it embodies, and which no other style 
of architecture embodies, is its structural system of active mechanical 
parts so arranged that a perfect equilibrium is attained by the neutraliza 
tion of opposing and balanced thrusts. Thus in the typical Gothic cathe 
dral this principle of mechanical structure differentiates that style from 
previous styles wherein the stability of buildings depended upon the 
inert massiveness of walls to overcome any internal or external thrusts. 
In the Gothic wall surfaces have almost ceased to exist, the structure 
being one vast stone skeleton of piers, arches, and ribs which support 
the vaults of the roof. The tracery, taking the place of the walls, carries 
the protecting glass. 

Gothic architecture in its complete structural development never 
existed outside of a comparatively small area in northern France, 
yet in many other parts of Europe the churches and cathedrals of that 
epoch attained grandeur, beauty, and charm not to be questioned, and 
the development of many motives and details peculiar to the period but 
secondary to the unique structural principle attained by the French. 

In mentioning the Gothic, the cathedral of Cologne in Germany 
should not be overlooked. This building was directly prompted by the 
French examples at Amiens and Beauvais. It is not structurally related 
to any local architectural development, so cannot be considered to have 
been evolved upon German soil. 



In the western ecclesiastical world there has been a reversion to 
certain characteristics of Gothic in many of the churches recently built. 
In America almost every city and town has several so-called "Gothic 
churches," but when one examines these structures he finds they are not 
really Gothic. They carry certain decorative features peculiar to the 
Gothic style, yet structurally they cannot be classed as Gothic because 
they do not conform to the principle of this style. 

In France in recent decades Gothic has been revived according to 
the true construction of the original epoch in the Church of "Ste. Clo- 
tilde" at Paris. Completed some sixty years ago this church is perhaps 
the best known example of pure modern Gothic. It is structurally car 
ried out in accord with the perfected Gothic principle. The Pilgrim 
church of "Bonsecours" at Rouen, and the churches of "St. Epvre" at 
Nancy, and "St. Vincent-de-Paul" at Marseilles, though smaller than 
"Ste. Clotilde," are good examples of the modern French revival of thir 
teenth century Gothic. 



DESCRIPTION. GOTHIC. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Gothic style to be 
constructed entirely of masonry, with the exception of the roofs, which 
will be of a light metal construction resting upon the structural masonry. 
Both the exterior and interior will be of light standstone, sparingly but 
richly decorated with sculptured ornament, the color effect in the inte 
rior to be obtained by a richness of stained glass, the windows being 
so developed as practically to eliminate the wall space, which arrange 
ment is characteristic of the Gothic. 

The high central space contains two stories of triforium galleries, 
and upon the main floor is surrounded by an ambulatory divided by 
piers, which carry the overhead vaults into three aisles, out from which 
open polygonal apses forming, as it were, a series of chapels surrounding 
the building. 

The exterior of the edifice is dominated by the central portion, 
which rises high above the roofs of ambulatory and chapels, the most 
striking feature of which is without doubt the flying buttresses, counter 
acting the thrust of the interior vaults, which, with the turrets and other 
structural as well as decorative elements of the design, give the building 
the character peculiar to the Gothic. 



DESIGN NO. 8. 
RENAISSANCE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. 



THE RENAISSANCE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE, or the 
application of classic forms to the needs of building, began with the 
revival of classic culture and traditions in Europe in the fourteenth, fif 
teenth, and sixteenth centuries, which had been latent and practically 
forgotten during the mediaeval ages. 

With its general awakening first in Italy it spread to all parts of 
Europe, assuming many and various forms in different countries and 
under varying conditions, ranging from the simplicity of the almost pure 
classic through many variations to the flamboyant forms of Rococo and 
Louis XV, then to the more restrained Georgian and Colonial styles, and 
yet again to the florid extremes of the modern French Renaissance. 

Some of the world-known ecclesiastical buildings of the Renaissance 
are "St. Peter s" church and "St. John Lateran," the cathedral of Rome, 
the "Escorial in Spain, the "Tomb of Napoleon," the church of the 
"Sorbonne," and the more modern ones of "La Sainte Trinite" and "St. 
Vincent-de-Paul," and others in Paris, and St. Paul s Cathedral in London. 
In addition to these and other well known buildings practically every city 
where modern architecture has attained any development contains build 
ings, with Renaissance forms to some degree, so widespread in this day 
is the influence of this style. 

The decorative possibilities of the Renaissance are without doubt 
more varied than those of any other style, this style having such a wide 
range of forms that there are practically no restrictions as to the mate 
rials which are in character with it. 




El-AZKAR- 





- FAST- ElEVATION - 



DESCRIPTION. RENAISSANCE. 

The architect has imagined this building in the Renaissance style 
to be constructed of masonry, the exterior to be of light granite, the 
interior to be of stone and marbles, with sculptured ornament and mosaic 
treatments. 

While the architectural details of this design are Renaissance, the 
general lines of the building approach the more eastern or oriental 
forms, which feeling the designer wishes to express in the interior treat 
ment as well as upon the exterior of the building. 

The high central rotunda, with its interior galleries, is surmounted 
upon the exterior by a dome with massive buttresses, about the base of 
which is a series of smaller domes which cover a corresponding number 
of smaller rotundas which encircle the central rotunda already described. 

A series of large apses surround the building and are visible from 
the outside by their encircling porticoes and the half domes which cover 
them. 



DESIGN NO. 9. 
MODERN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUCTION. 



THE MODERN STYLE OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSTRUC 
TION, product of the exigencies of building in America, but now being 
emulated in other countries as well, as an art is yet in its earliest stages 
of development. Structurally it is an application to present day needs 
of the simple principles of timber construction known more or less to 
builders in all ages, but which attained the highest architectural develop 
ment and beauty in the so-called "half timbered" houses of the mediaeval 
period. 

In this period the art and the science of timber construction were so 
happily combined as to have produced an architectural composition in 
which the construction was apparent and the decoration so applied as 
not to mask or to interfere with the mechanical structure, but to conform 
to it, and to enhance its value by making it a thing of beauty. The 
houses were built of timber, to which a light filling of masonry was 
added to form the enclosing walls and partitions, and sometimes the 
floors. When completed, these houses presented structures bony in 
character, the parts of little resistance and the weight of the building 
being carried by the timber framework. The difference between this 
and the ordinary masonry and timber construction commonly built now- 
a-days is that in these latter the enclosing walls of masonry are self- 
supporting, and these not only carry their own weight, but also the 
weight of the floors, roofs, and other parts of the building which rest 
upon them. 

In the business center of the typical American city it has been neces 
sary to erect, for commercial purposes, buildings which are in many cases 
great in height and small in lateral dimensions. This necessity, together 
with considerations of economy of space and of building materials, has 
produced the evolution of, first, the steel frame, and later the reinforced 
concrete building now finding their development in the typical American 
"sky piercer." 

In the fireproof "sky piercer," and in the ordinary building con 
structed of timber, the structural principle is the same ; namely, that there 
are no self-supporting walls, but that the structural framework of the 
building carries alike the walls, partitions, floors, and roof, and other 
parts of the building. While the modern steel and concrete construction 
is having its beginning in buildings of a type more utilitarian than beau 
tiful, and up to this present time the best known examples of architecture 
applied to this principle of construction are found in the factory and in 
office buildings, rarely objects of beauty, yet there is every reason why 
architects should seek to apply appropriate architectural treatments to 



structures of this type, thus giving the modern steel and concrete struc 
ture architectural treatment which shall add to a building science already 
quite perfected the art of architecture which shall make these structures 
pleasing to the aesthetic sense of the passer-by in the measure that they 
are already practical and utilitarian. 

In this style of architecture the possibilities of surface decoration, 
both exterior and interior, are almost without limit. Stucco, stone facing, 
brick, terra cotta, mosaic, etc., are all applicable and in harmony with the 
character of the structure. 



MASHRAK-EL-AZKAR 




S[ -EAST -ELEVATION- 



DESCRIPTION. MODERN. 

The architect has imagined this building to be of reinforced concrete 
of the most improved and modern construction. 

The exterior is to be encrusted with terra cotta and tiles, with stone 
casing near the ground. The interior to be likewise, treated with terra 
cotta and tiles, enriched by marble casings and mosaic decorations. 

The high central rotunda with its galleries is surrounded by a s cries 
of smaller rotundas, and these in turn, upon the main floor, by a loggia 
which encircles the building, connecting the nine porticoes. 

As in character with this style of construction, it will be seen that the 
wall supports in the plans are quite small in comparison with the floor 
areas, thus giving an air of lightness of structure attained in no other 
style, though approached in the Gothic. 

In this design the architect has attempted to show frankly in the 
exterior and interior treatment of surfaces the character and lines of 
the internal structure of the skeleton and walls, thus trying to put into 
one homogeneous whole the architectural decoration and the mechanical 
structure. 



PRICE LIST of PUBLICATIONS 
of the BAHIA MOVEMENT 

DISTRIBUTED BY THE 

BAHAI PUBLISHING SOCIETY 

P. O. BOX 283. CHICAGO. ILL. 



WORKS BY BAHA O LLAH 



The Book of Ighan (Certain 
ty). 

This book contains explanations 
of sacred scriptures and the Argu 
ment of BAHA O LLAH. A learned 
Oriental scholar (Mirza Abdul - 
Fazl) has said that it was not 
until he had carefully studied this 
book and read it many times that 
he realized It contained an answer 
to every question which a seeker 
for Truth might ask. 
190 pages, bound in cloth. . .$1.00 
Postage lOc additional. 

The Tarazat and other 
Tablets. 

This book contains recommenda 
tions for the uplifting of hu 
manity and provides means for 
the improvement and preserva 
tion of the welfare of society 
both individually and collectively. 
92 pages, bound in paper... $ .60 

Surat-ul-Hykl. 

(The discourse on the Temple.) 

A deeply mystical discourse upon 
the Manifestation of the Spirit 
through the human temple. 
63 pages, bound in paper... $ .25 



The Tablet of Ishrakat. 

This book contains the declara 
tion of BAHA O LLAH concerning 
"The Most Great Infallibility" 
and administrative affairs. 
45 pages, bound in paper... $ .25 

The Seven Valleys. 

An exposition of the Seven Val 
leys through which a Traveler 
journeys in his Search for Truth 
and by which he attains to union 
with the Spirit of God. 
r(i pages, bound in paper... $ .25 
Same bound in leather, gilt 
edges 1.00 

The Hidden Words. 

Translation of the "Hidden 
Words" in Arabic and the "Hid 
den Words" in Persian, together 
with selected Prayers of BAIIA - 
O LLAH, and an appendix with ex 
planations. 

102 pages, bound in paper. . .$ .16 
Same bound in leather, gilt 
edges 1.00 

Lawh-el-Akdas. 

4-page pamphlet. 

Kitab-el-Ahd. 



4-page pamphlet. 
Both for 



.$ .06 



WORKS BY ABDUL-BAHA 



Tablets of Abdul-Baha Vol. 
1 and Vols. 2 and 3. 

These Tablets have been compiled 
in the order in which they were 
collected, no attempt having been 
made to arrange them according 
to subj ect. These books are in 
tended more particularly for those 
who are acquainted with the Reve 
lation, as the pearls of revela 



tion are often hidden in the Tab 
lets and the editors did not feel 
themselves competent to make any 
comments or to arrange them ac 
cording to subjects, leaving it to 
the insight of each reader to take 

as much as he is able from this 
store of spiritual food. 
238 pages, bound in cloth 

$1.00 each 

Postage, each, 15c additional. 



WORKS OF ABDUL, 
Some Answered Questions. 

By Laura Clifford Barney. 

This book contains 83 chapters, 
devoted to the answers given by 
Abdul-Baha to some questions 
which western minds wish ex 
plained. To get these answers the 
author studied the Persian lan 
guage and lived two years in the 
fortress at Acca. 

356 pages, bound in cloth.. $1.50 
Postage 15c additional. 



BAHA (Continued.) 

Abdul-Baha s Addresses in 
London. 

134 pages, bound. in paper.. $ .40 
Postage 5c additional. 

Abdul-Baha s Addresses in 
Paris. 

Bound in paper $ .75 

Postage 5c additional. 

"Divine Philosophy." 

A series of talks and addresses. 
Bound in paper, single copy.$ .60 

Per dozen 6.00 

Postage 5c additional. 



WRITINGS BY ORIENTAL AND OCCIDENTAL 
BAHAl S 



The Bahai Proofs. 

By Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan. 

The best known book of this great 
Oriental scholar, philosopher and 
disciple of BAHA O LLAH translated 
into English. It presents the 
truth of the Bahai Revelation 
from manifold points of view, and 
also contains a biographical out 
line of the lives of the Bab, 
BAHA O LLAH and Abdul-Baha. 
288 pages, bound in cloth. .. $1.00 
Postage lOc additional. 

The Brilliant Proof. 

By Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan. 

A scholarly answer to an appo- 
nent of the Bahai Cause. 
37 pages, bound in paper. . . .$ .15 

The Bahai Revelation. 

By Thornton Chase. 

This book contains a most ex 
cellent compilation of the teach 
ings of BAHA O LLAH, gathered 

from various translations and ar 
ranged so as to be consecutive as 

to subjects. Aside from this, Mr. 

Chase s argument is convincing. 

187 pages, bound in paper... $ .50 

Postage lOc additional. 

In Galilee. 

By Thornton Chase. 

An account of a few days spent in 
the Prison at Acca, guests of 
Abdul-Baha, by a party of Ameri 
can visitors to the Holy Land. 
84 pages, bound in paper, il 
lustrated $ -25 



Before Abraham Was, I Am. 

By Thornton Chase. 

10-page pamphlet $ .05 



The Revelation of Baha o llah. 

By Mrs. Isabella D. Brittingham. 
An interpretation of the Bahai 
Revelation given in four lessons. 
32 pages, bound in paper... $ .10 

Bahaism: The Modern Social 
Religion. 

By Horace Holley. 

In this volume the western sociol 
ogist proves with brilliant logic 
that the Bahai Gospel is the finest 
solution of the social and inter 
national problems that vex the 
modern world. A beautiful in 
troduction to the Bahai Move 
ment. 
223 pages, bound in cloth. . .$2.00 

Martyrdoms in Persia in 1903. 

By Hadji Mirza Hayder AH. 

Being the accounts of the sorrow 
ful events by which seventy beau 
tiful souls added to the number 
of the many thousand martyrs who 
have surrendered their lives in 
support of this Revelation. 
32 pages, bound in paper. ..$ .10 

The Bahai Movement: Its 
Spiritual Dynamic. 

A reprint of a magazine article. 

10-page pamphlet $ ! 

The Oriental Rose. 

By Mary Hanford Ford. 

218 pages, bound in cloth. ..$ .60 



WRITINGS BY ORIENTAL AND OCCIDENTAL BAHAI S (Cont d) 



Ten days in the Light of Acca. 

By Mrs. Julia M. Grundy. 

Ill pages, bound in paper..? .25 

Daily Lessons Received at 
A.cca. 

By Mrs. Goodall and Mrs. Cooper. 
80 pages, bound in paper.... $ .20 

My Visits to Abbas Effendi 
(Abdul-Baha) in 1899. 

By Mrs. Margaret B. Peeke. 

An interesting account of her visit 
to Acca and subsequent investi 
gations of the teachings of the 
Revelation of BAHA O LLAH, pub 
lished in booklet form by her 
daughter-in-law, Dr. Pauline Bar- 
ton-Peeke. 
23 pages, bound in paper.. $..15 

Unity Through Love. 

By Howard MacNutt. 

An exposition of Bahai Principles 
as contained in an address given 
before the New York Assembly of 
Bahais upon the return of the 
author from a visit to Acca. 
32 pages, bound in paper... $ .10 

Table Talks with Abdul-Baha, 

By Mr. and Mrs. George T. Winter- 
burn. 

32 pages, bound in paper... $ .10 

My Visits to Acca. 

By Mrs. Mary L. Lucas. 

42 pages, bound in paper. . .$ .10 

Flowers from the Rose Gar 
den of Acca. 

By Mrs. Finch and Misses Knob- 
loch. 

40 pages, bound in paper...? .10 

The Bahai Movement. 

By Chas. Mason Remey. 

This book describes the principles 
of the Bahai Movement and out 
lines the history of the cause. 

Bound in cloth $ .50 

Postage IGc additional. 

Observations of a Bahai 
Traveler. 

By Chas. Mason Remey. 

Treats of travels among the 
Bahais of the Orient and of the 
Teachings from the viewpoint of 
the various world religions ; also 
a brief history of the Movement. 
Has 12 illustrations and one map. 

Bound in cloth $ .60 

Postage lOc additional. 



Constructive Principles of the 
Bahai Movement. 

By Chas. Mason Remey. 

A booklet containing a brief sum 
mary of the history, institutions 
and obj ect of the cause, with 
special emphasis upon those uni 
versal principles for world prog 
ress, religious, social, and econ 
omic which are foremost amongst 
the burning questions of the day 
now uppermost in the minds of 
thinkers. 

Bound in cloth $ .40 

Postage lOc additional. 

The Mashrak-El-Azkar. 

By Charles Mason Remey. 

Comprising Quotations from 
Abdul Baha s words An his 
torical sketch of the Bahai 
MovementA general explana 
tion of the Mashrak-El-Azkar 
(Bahai Temple) A description 
of the Mashrak-El-Azkar in 
Eshkhabad in Russian Turkistan 
and An account of the pre 
paratory work for building the 
first Mashrak-E 1-Azkar in 
America, with descriptions and 
illustrations of an exhibit of 
nine preliminary designs for 
this building, showing various 
treatments in different styles of 
architecture. 

This is a large volume bound 
in cloth, containing a portrait 
of Abdul Baha and nineteen 
architectural illustrations. 

Price $1.00. 

Postage additional. 

God s Heroes. 

By Laura C. Barney. 

A drama centered around the men 
and women whose heroic lives 
first revealed to the people of 
Persia the transforming power in 
the teachings of the Bab and 
BAHA O LLAH. The heroine is the 
poetess Kuratu l Ayn. The volume 
is beautifully illuminated in Per 
sian style. The proceeds from its 
sale go to the Mashrak-el-Azkar. 
106 pages, beautifully bound. $3. 00 
Postage 15c additional. 

Portfolio of Views of The 
Holy Land. 

In the vicinity of Mt. Carmel and 
Acca. 

18 colored sheets, heavy pa 
per cover $1.00 

With portrait of Abdul-Baha, 
cloth cover 1.25 



:,< . d 



is only lately that the architects have 
in such w.ise been showing their works. 
A few months ago Thomas Hastings, B 
the well known architect of New York 
and membr of the Federal Commis 
sion of Fine Arts , exhibited a group 
of his architectural desiirna at Colum 
bia University. 

Now Charles Mason Remey is show 
ing a series of studies in design for 
the Bahai Temple, proposed for erec 
tion In Chicago, at thft National Mu 
seum in the rooms of th National Gal 
lery. According to th present plan 
this modern tempi*, representing a 
world religion, <a to be erected on the 
shore of Lak Michigan, In Chicago. 

In the way of study and experimenta 
tion, in order to secure the best and 
most appropriate design, Mr. Ramey 
has made not on*, but nine, designs, 
each In a different style, thus varying 
the treatment and demonstrating the 
possibility of varied architectural so 
lutions of this single problam. The 
styles he has used are Roman-classic, 
Byzantine. Arabian-Moorish, Persian, 
Indian, Romanesque, Gothic, renais 
sance and modern. Each is worked out 
and shown in colored perspectives. 
With but two exceptions, the Some Is 
made a dominant feature these are, 
obviously, th* Romanesque and Gothic. 
It is enormously interesting 1 to see 
how the same problem can be expressed 
in such varied terms and while yet In 
a measure possessing so much unity 
of expression.. 

Mr. Remey was, it will be remem 
bered, assistant professor in architec 
ture at George Washington University 
and completed the course of study at 
the Eco .e cles Beaux ArtF in Paris. 

To students 0,1 architecture, as well 
as students of history And art, this 
series of drawings, showing most In 
teresting solutions of a difficult prob 
lem, Vlll prove of very genuine In 
terest. 

* * 
From tomorrow for one week Bft S . 



i. .ac-hi" 
script! ve of 



the Bahai 



R43 



temple 





/VA I 



371945 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFOKXIA LIBRARY, 
BERKELEY 

THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 

Books not returned on time are subject to a fine of 

tn 1 P nn V lume , after the third da > overdue, increasing 
to $1.00 per volume after the sixth day. Books not in 






AfR 7 1922 



73 



OCT-251987 



RECEIVED 

MA& 3 1901 



20m-ll, 20 



U.C. BERKELEY LIBRARIES 





ARCHITECTURAL EXHIBITION OF A SERIES 
OF PRELIMINARY DESIGNS BY CHARLES 
MASON REMEY FOR THE MASHRAK-EL- 
AZKAR (BAHAI TEMPLE) IN THE NATIONAL 
MUSEUM. WASHINGTON. D. C.. FEBRUARY 
TWENTY-FIFTH TO MARCH EIGHTEENTH. 
NINETEEN EIGHTEEN. 



* 



-V