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Full text of "Mason's farrier and stud-book. The gentleman's new pocket farrier: comprising a general description of the noble and useful animal, the horse; with modes of management in all cases, and treatment in disease"

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Mason s Fame/ and Stud-Book — New Edition. 

























tdiloi now of the Farmers' Library, New York ; Founder of the American Farmer, in 1819: 

and of the Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, in 1821* being the first Agraul- 

lund and the first Sporting Periodicals established in the United State*. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by 


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



Few subjects can more justly claim the attention 
of the public, than that noble and useful animai, the 
horse; and there are few indeed of any moment, that 
have met with more neglect from society. Not more 
than one or two authors in the United States have 
turned their attention to this interesting subject. This 
neglect, in which every individual is so deeply interested, 
must have proceeded from the low standing in society 
to which the horse has been sunk by men destitute oi 
veracity, too often having the opportunity of dealing in 
those invaluable animals, committing frauds, making 
false statements of age,gaits, condition, &c. to the injury 
of those who are unfortunate enough to confide in their 
assertions, or to deal with them. 

In this little work, whose size is calculated for the 
pocket, I shall endeavour to guard the unsuspecting 
against the arts of the jockey, and to point out so plainly 
the difference between an elegant and a common horse 
a good and bad horse, a sound and an unsound horse 
that any person may become a tolerable judge, by 
reading this little book with attention, however unfa- 
miliar the subject may have been heretofore. It is 
my object to be useful rather than offend, or appear 
learned. I shall avoid all hard names, technical terms. 
Stc. ; and will offer to the public the information I 


possess, with candour and simplicity. In a work o' 
{his nature, the claim to entire originality must be 
relinquished; so far from attempting it, I confess J 
have, in a few instances, made quotations from othei 
authors, when I have found from experience they con- 
tained matter, useful, clear, plain, and familiar for my 
purpose. I hope this acknowledgment will bo received 
in place of marks of quotation. 

Amongst the great number of animals under the 
control of man, the excellent horse, unquestionably, is 
the most serviceable. How often do we see him the 
sole dependence of the poor farmer and his family, 
with whom he divides the morsel, shares in the toils, 
and by slowly turning up the soil, not only keeps them 
free from want, but fills the barn with plenty ! Trace 
him from the lowest to the highest situation, you will 
find him faithful, affectionate, and no less useful. Jn 
every species of farming, the horse bears the principal 
burden, and is the means of increasing wealth and 
happiness. In the transportation of foreign growth 
and manufactures to the interior of our country, and 
the exportation of the produce of the United States, 
the faithful horse affords a speedy conveyance to and 
from the water's edge. For the quick communications 
by posts and stages, even with the most remote parts 
of the union, we are indebted to the horse. Even 
our happy republican government has been established, 
protected, defended, and administered, by the means 
and aid of these noble animals. Men of every pro- 
fession, must all acknowledge the benefit derived 
from him; indeed he has been the very spring oJ 
punctuality and attention to business of almost every 
description. The horse, in his nature, is mild, patient, 
r orgiving, and affectionate. After being hard used, 
half starved, and unmerciful v beaten, who roool- 


leets ever to have seen him appear to feel the inja/y, 
pout over his scanty allowance, or discover hatred 
towards his cruel master? View his "gentleness anu 
kindness to a sot, who has indulged too long over his 
glass, often bending, turning and yielding to his giddy 
head ; and finally, when he is prostrated in the dust, 
now often does«the sagacious animal, when compelled 
to tread on him, bear lightly and tenderly ; and when 
loose, appear unwilling to leave the helpless drunkard : 
how often on his back are we conveved in safety 
at night amidst difficulties, dangers, and unfamiliar 
roads? And where is the traveller that does not re- 
collect that when returning on his journey, and in 
search of his home, when a road before unnoticed, 
had bewildered and stopped his progress, how readily 
and how faithfully has the horse thrown his ears to- 
wards the right road, and with quickening steps dis 
covered his eagerness to reach his home ? See him in 
the race, resolute, eager, and delighted, swelling every 
vein, and exerting every muscle and fibre to win the 
prize. Behold him in the field of battle, furious, in 
Irepid, and full of fire, forgetful of danger, rushing on 
the point of the bayonet, delighting in the glittering 
of arms, and panting for victory. View him in the 
civil and more happy circles of domestic life, in the 
service of the rich, the liberal, and the happy, proudly 
and smoothly rolling behind him the rattling chariot 
wheels, with an aspect lively, gay, and cheerful. Il 
to an animal like this, I can be the cause of adding to 
his comfort, improving his condition, making him fat, 
relieving his pain, removing disease, and sometimes 
save life, I shall feel as if 1 had rendered a service to 
'^lie community at large, and performed a part o) «ha 
'ask assigned me. 


When the reader reflects that a large volume has 
been written on the anatomy of the horse's foot alone, 
he will easily conceive my confined, embarrassed, and 
cramped situation; having to treat of so many differ- 
ent parts and subjects, within the scope of two hun- 
dred pages. In doing of this, it will be impossible for 
me to give more than the skeleton or bare outline of 
the interesting theme, which I hope, at some future 
day, will be filled up and completed by some more 
fortunate genius. 





Appendix to Mason, Page 


Journey, treatment on Paob 


Addenda to Mason, 








by feeling, 




Breeding and raising, 


Lock Jaw 


do. do. by Broadnax 34 

Lost appetite 


Blooded horse, to choose 




Blaze or star 


Mane and tail 




Moon Eyes 


Broken wind 




Bots or grubs 








Big head 


Narrow heels 




Neck and shoulders 






Carriage horses 




Castrating colts 




Crib biting 


Poll evil 


Chest founder 


Purging or Diarrhoea 




Race horse 


Colic or Gripes 




Clyster or glyster 


Horses, English mode 



of management. &c. 


Diseases, infectious to prev. 


Ring bone 


Diarrhoea or purging 


Saddle horse 








Star or Blaze 


Excessive fatigue 




Eyes, good and bad 




— moon 










String halt 


Founder, chest 














Stone or gravel in bladder 






Galls, wind 




Gravel in the bladdei 





»">nrf» inn ornft 


Glyster or clyster 


Saddle galls 






Heels, narrow 


Spot a white horse 




Treatment on a journey 


■ gravel in 


Wind broken 




Wind galls 


Hooks or Haws 




Hinny and Mule 


Wall's receipt 


IrJeotious diseases lo prev't. 


Yellow water 



KTThe following are Numbered instead of being Paged. 

Alterative medicine for live 

stock No. 129 

Astringent medicines for live 

stock 131 

Halls and drinks, mode ot 

giving to horses 111 

Balls, cordial cough, &c. used 

in Veterinary practice 147 
Belly, diseases of 39 

Bladder, inflammation of 62 

in cattle 193 

Bloody urine in horses 63 

Blistering 118 

Sweating of Liquid 120 

Bleeding 126 

Blisters used in Veterinary 

Pharmacopoeia 138 

Blood or bog spavin 89 

Bloody, ray (see dysentery) 196 
Blown or hove in cattle 187 
Blast or hove in sheep 220 

Blood rot in do. 222 

Bowels, inflam#ation of 45 

Bone spavin and splints 87 

Braxy or dysentery in cattle 196 

in sheep 



Broken wind 

Bridle sores 

Broken knees 

Catarrhal fever in horses 

Capulet of the hock in do. 

('anker or quittor in do. 

Castration, nicking, docking 

and cropping 125 

Castrating lambs, &c. 241 

swine 243 

Catarrh or influenza in cattle 1 77 
Cattle surgery 2ii I 

obstetrics 204 

vermin on 209 

Calves, diseases of 207 

Calving 205 

Chronic cough 36 and 218 

Clysters used in Veterinary 

Medicine . 143 

Claveau, or sheep pox 214 

Clystering 122 

Condition of horses 2 

Couu;h, chronic 36 

• - — hi sjieep 218 

Colic, red or enteritis No. 45 

, fret or gullion 53 

, in horn cattle 189 and 194 

Corns in the feet of horses 10 i 

Cracks 95 

Cud, loss of 198 

Cutting in feet of horses 103 

Curb of the hock in horses 92 

Cutting and spaying pigs 243 

Daisy or turning in cattle 199 

Diseases of horses, see horse 

Diseases in feet of horses 90 

Founder 93 

Contraction 99 

Pumiced foot 1 00 

Corns 101 

Burning thrush 103 

Sand Cracks 104 

Pricks 105 

Quittor and canker 106 








Diarrhoea or looseness 
in cattle 

Diseases of sheep 

Diuretic used in Veterinary 

Medicine 151 

Diseases of horn'd cattle 173, lrt3 
Diabetos, profuse staling or 

pissing evil 64 

Drinks and balls, mode of 

giving in Vet. Surgery 
Drinks in Vet. medicine 
Dysenteric inflammation 
Dysentery or braxy in ealilo 
in sheep 

l)o<;s, diseases of 
Sure eyes 

Inflamed bowels 
Inflamed lungs 

"Worming whelps 
Man ore 263— Worms 


2-4 1 

25 1 



Rtnbrocations used in Ve- 

tcrin.iry practice No. 154 
Epidemic fever or pest 15 
Epilepsy 17 
Kyos, horses, diseases of 18 
Farcy, 74 
Feet, founder of 96 
Fetlock, strains of the 83 
Fever in horned cattle 174 &, 183 
Fever medicine, used in ve- 
terinary practice 157 
Fistulous withers 28 
Firing 121 
Fret, colic gripes or gullion 54 
Flux, slimy, see dysentery 
Frontal worms in sheep 236 
Fomentations in veterinary 

surgery 113 
Founder of the feet 96 
Foot stoppings for horses 166 
Foul in the foot in oattle 2U2 
Fout rot in sheep 232 
Fumigations used in veteri- 
nary practice , 157 
Gall in sheep 224 
Gid in do. 233 
Goggles in do. 233 
Glander- 71 
Glanderous rot in sheep 217 
Grease 93 
Gravel and stone in horses 65 
Gripes, colic, fret or gullion 53 
Gutta serena 2(J 
Gullicn, colic, gripes or fret 53 
|]oksF4, diseases of 1 
In and out of con- 
dition, and when 
diseased. 2, 3, 4 
Inflammatory diseases 5 
Diseases of the head 1 7 
Neck 28 
Chest 31 
Skin 66 
G^andcri and farcy 71 
Diseases of the ex- 
tremi-i' a 76 
Diseases e r the Feet 96 
licpatiti- it yellows 58 
ilide bound 70 
Hoof Liquid foi veterinary 

practice 162 

Hove or blown »i» cattle 187 

H >rn distemper or horn ail 208 

Hove blast or wind colic \r 

sheep No. 220 

Hogs, see swine 

Hydatids or staggers in she^p 223 
Inflammatory fever in horse 

diseases 5 

General 6 
Local 7 
Inflammation of the brain or 

phrenitis 8 

Inflammatory fever in horse 

diseases, general 33 

local 7 

Iufluenza or catarrh fever in 

horses 13 

Inflammation of the lungs in 

horses 31 
in cattle 184 

Inflammation, of the bowels 45 

of the liver 58 

in sheep 222 

Incontinence of urine 63 

Influenza or catarrh 177 

Inflammation of the stomach 

in cattle 185, 189 

Inflammation of the kidneys 

or red water 191 

Inflammation of the bladder 193 
Jaundice in sheep 223 

Knees broken, in horses 85 

Lam pass or mouth disease 25 
Lambs, castration of 241 

diseases of 23S 

Liver, chronic inflammation of 58 

, diseases of in horses 58 

Lockjaw, in horses 1 1 

Looseness or diarrhoea 52 

Lungs, inflammation of 31 

Malignant fever in horses 15 
Madness, canine 257 

Mange 66 

in Dogs 263 

Mallenders and sallenders S4 
Malignant epidemic or mur- 
rain in sheep 21 t> 
Megrims 17 
Morfounder or cutairhal fe- 
ver in horses 13 
Moon blindness or opthalrnia 111 
Mineral poison 40 
Murrain or pest XL 

in cattle 179 

Murrain in sheep 21 f 



Neck, diseases of No. 28, 30 

Opihalmia or blindness 19 

Ointments used for horses, 
c;ittle, sheep, <&c. by Vete- 
rinary practitioners 169 
Obstetrics in cattle 204 
Overreach or tread in the 

feet 107 

Pest or murrain 15 

Peripneumonia or inflamed 

lungs in sheep 217 

Pendro, a disease in sheep 233 
Pinning do. in do. 22G 
Pharmacopoeia in horses and 

cattle 128 

Poll Evil 21 

Poison, mineral 40 

, vegetable 42 

, in sheep 239 

Poultices in Veter. surgery 115 
Pneumonia or inflammation 

of the .ungs 34 

Physicking 123 

Process 124 

Pricks in the feet 105 

Pumiced foot 100 

Purging medicine in Veteri- 
nary practice 163 
Puckeridge or wornals in 

cattle 203 

Pigs, see swine 
Quittor and canker in the 

feet of horses 106 

Salivation 41 

Sand cracks 104 

Sallenders and mallenders 84 
Setons 116 

Scalding mixture for poll 

evil 165 

Scouring or diarrhuea in horn- 
ed cattle 195 
Scour in sheep 224 
Scab or shab in sheep 231 
Siikep, diseases of 210 
Sore throat 28 
Staggers i.i horses 9 and 43 

in cattle 199 

Staggers in sheep 233 

Sturdy 17 

in sheep 233 

Strangles, vkves or ives 22 

Rtranguary or suppression of 
urine 63 

Stone or gravei in horses No. (56 



in sheep 

Strain in the shoulder 

, in the whirl bono 

, in the stifle 

, in the back sinews 

, of the leg 

■, of the fetlock and cof- 

fin joints 
Shoulder strains in horses 
Splints and bone spavins 
Spavin, blood and bog 
Skin, diseases of in horses 

Surgery in cattle 
Swelled neck 
Swine, diseases of 







-, cutting and spaying 243 

Tag-belt in sheep 
Tetanus or locked jaw in 


in cattle 

Throat, diseases of 
Thick wind or pneumonia 
Thoroughpin or blood spavin 
Treads or overreach in the 

Ticks in sheep, to destroy 
Turnsick, in horses 
, in sheep 










Veterinary operations on 

horses 109 

Veterinary Pharmacopoeia 127 
Vives or ives 24 

Vermin on cattle 209 

Warbles 68 

Warts 69 

Wash medicines used by ve. 

terinary practitioners 167 

Wind broken or pneumonia 37 
Whirl bone strains 78 

Worms in horses 57 

in sheep 236 and 237 

Wounds, treatment of 110 

Wornals or puckeridge !K^ 

Urinary organs of horses, 

diseases of 
Urine, suppression of 

bloody or stranguary 

incontinence of 



W->rm under the horn, a dis- 
ease in she«?p, No. 233 
Watery head in sheep 233 
Wind colic in do. 221 

Yellows or liver complaint 

No. 5* 

, hot, in cattle 190 and 19* 

— in shoeo 2'& 




When a horse is purchased for the saddle aione, u 
is to be presumed he must be clear of all defects, 
strike the fancy, entirely please the eye, and, from his 
happy symmetry and due proportion of form, stanu 
the second beauty in the world. When this is the 
case, he is seldom disposed of at too high a price. — 
Amongst the great number of people in the United 
States, 1 am induced to believe, there are but few 
good judges of a horse calculated for the saddle In- 
deed, they are better iniormed upon almost ap* othei 
subject that can be mentioned. Yet the Virginians 
have a large number oi (ine horses, and are accused 
of devoting too much attention to that beautiful ani- 
mal. Among all the difficulties attending the affairs 
of common .lie. there is not, perhaps, a greater than 
that of choosing a beautiful, an elegant, or good horse. 
Nor will this appear strange, when we consider the 
number of circumstances that are to be taken into 
consideration, with regard to shape, size, movements, 
jmbs, marks, eyes, colour, age, &e. Sic. — which are 
so various that it would fill a volume to describe; and 
indeed the best judges are often obliged to content 
themselves vvi th guessing at some things, unless they 
have sufficient time to make a thorough trial. If I 
were asked, wnat were the two most beaeti'.ul nbjwd 


m nature, I would answer, lhat woman, love.y woman, 
before whose charms the houl of man bows with re- 
verence and submission, stands unparalleled; next to 
this matchless paragon, j> beautiful horse displays 
nature in her highest polisti and greatest perfection; 
his gay and cheerful appearance, proudly prancing 
and bounding, his elegance of shape, smoothness oi 
limbs, polish of skin, due proportion of form, and 
gracefulness of action, united to a mild, soft, faithful, 
and patient disposition, raise him far above the rest of 
ihe brute creation. I shall now proceed to lay down 
some rules, and to give some hints, for the examina- 
tion of a horse previous to a purchase being made, to 
prevent the liberty of exaggeration, which is too fre- 
quently taken by dealers in those animals, and which 
too often terminates to the serious injury of the pur- 

It is to be much lamented, that men who entertain 
a proper idea of honour in all the common affairs of 
life, so soon as they become the owner of a horse, 
feel at liberty, without being sensible of doing violence 
to their morals, to knock off* two or three years from 
his real age, and express themselves, with apparent 
delight, of services, gaits, and qualities, to which he 
never had any sort of claim or pretention; carefully 
keeping a secret every vice and defect to which he is 
subject. I do not pretend to say this is tlie case with 
all who exchange or sell a horse, but that it has often 
occurred no person will deny, if a fraud can be prac- 
tised at all, it is sufficient reason for the inexperienced 
und unsuspecting to be placed on their guard. When 
a horse is offered for sale, I would advise the pur- 
chaser to ask one question, viz: Is he in all respects 
perfectly sound? Should a cheat be practised on you, 
under such circumstances, an action would lie again?! 


the seller, and damages could be recoverable; but be 
your own judge, not permitting any declaration tha\ 
may be made by the seller, to alter your opinion o\ 
form, age, condition, movements, action, &c. As 
the eyes of a horse are the most important organ, first 
Jet him undergo a strict examination; ascertain his 
age, examine his figure and action; guarding yourself 
against being toe much pleased or fascinated with the 
appearance of a new object; view his feet and legs; 
large ridges on the hoofs, or very flat feet, discover a 
horse to be subject to founder : large gouty legs, with 
enlarged tendons indicate strains and other injuries, 
examine his hind legs, with great attention, just below 
the hock and inside the hind knee; if there is .any 
unnatural prominence or knot, unlike the other knee, it 
wears the appearance of a spavin, which renders a 
horse of but little value. Splint, which appears on the 
inside of the fore legs, and wind-galls, upon the ancles, 
are unpleasant to the eye, but seldom produce serious 
lameness ; they furnish plain proof that a horse has 
been serviceable, and are very seldom productive of 
\iny other injury than stiffness, as he advances in years. 
Ride yourself, for the purpose of trying his gaits and 
qualities; as a rider accustomed to a horse, by private 
signs, such as manner of riding, bearing on the bit, 
leaning forward or backward, holding the heels close 
t<» his sides, &c. &c. &c, can make a dull horse appear 
gay and spirited, a wild horse gentle, a stumbler clear 
footed, one that is blind appear to see, and a starting 
horse free from that great objection, &c. &c Before 
mounting him, examine his knees, to discover if they 
are skinned, the hair off, or scarred; those are strong 
symptoms of his politeness to a fault. Ride with your 
bridle loose over any uneven ground: if he is in the 
habit of stumbling, he will very readily inform you" 
2* B 


then approach some object offensive to the sight; ii 
he appears much alarmed, stopping suddenly, and 
attempting to turn round, paying but little respect to 
the bearing of the bridle, you may judge he has been 
long in the habit of that bad practice. Ride him in 
all his different gaits, to ascertain if they are smooth, 
easy, and agreeable ; move him about a mile, out and 
Pack, in fully half speed; frequently stopping him 
suddenly to try his wind, also if he is spavined; if his 
wind has been injured, he will blow unnaturally; 
making a loud wheezing noise, with great difficulty 
of breathing. While warm, ride him in cold water 
above the belly; after which let him cool fifteen or 
twenty minutes, and if he is spavined, and has received 
temporary relief, by applications of any kind, the 
disease will make its appearance so plain, that you 
will discover evident marks of lameness. The spavin 
is often relieved for a time; and in a few instances 
has been permanently cured, by blistering, bathing 
with double distilled spirits, &c. Tne brisk exercise, 
&c. is intended to bring on a return of its effects, [:. 
case the animal should have had temporary relief from 
(hat distressing disease. 

Having given such hints as I am persuaded will 
lead to the discovery of any material defects in a horse 
about to be purchased, I shall now proceed to the 
description of a horse that I consider elegant and fil 
for the saddle. 

In order that he may have just claim to beauty and 
elegance, his head must be small, thin, bony, and 
tapering; his countenance lively and cheerful; his 
ears quick of action, high, erect, narrow, thin, and 
pointing togethci ; nis eyes kirge, round, full, and black- 
sparkling with cheerfulness, yet hushing his agitating 
passion* : nte order and obedience: his nostrils \arge 


und expanded, and when in motion, disclosing a deet 
red colour ; his brow and forehead smooth, and noi 
too flat ; his nose somewhat rising, of good turn, and 
a little inclined to the Roman shape ; his neck long, 
thin, delicate, and arched, forming a beautiful grada- 
tion from the breast and shoulders ; his mane half the 
width of his neck, thin and smooth ; his shoulders high 
tapering, and thrown well back ; his breast plump, full, 
and of moderate width ; his fore iegs straight, flat, 
sinewy, and thin ; his arms large and muscular : hi.s 
back short, and not too much s waved for strength and 
durability, but pretty even and straight ; his body 
rather round and swelling than flat, and of propor- 
tionable size ; his flanks plump and full, and the last 
nb approaching near the hip bones ; his hips and but- 
tocks full, round, and well covered with muscles ; his 
chine broad ; his tail well placed, and naturally or 
artificially elegant, which adds much to his figure and 
gay appearance ; his thighs long, from the hip to the 
naunch bone large and bulging with muscles; his 
hocks broad, sinewy, bony, and clear of puffs ; his hind 
legs from the hocks short, bending a little rather than 
straight, flat, and sinewy ; his pasterns " moderate 
►ength, small and bony ; his hoofs cupped, small, rounn, 
».nd smooth ; his hind parts not tucked, but of easy 
'urn and graceful slope ; when mounted his appearance 
should be bold, lofty, and majestic ; his eyes shining 
with intrepidity and fire ; his movements light and 
airy as a phantom, with a fairy step, that w r ould 
ncaicely break a dew drop; his actions smooth and 
graceful ; his colour should suit the taste of the pur- 
chaser, though a mahogany bay is certainly the besi 
colour; his marks large, of irregular white, to light up 
*he countenance, and at least two white legs, which 
will add much to his beaut v — though it must l% e w 


knowledged, that all parts of a horse that are white, 
are much more tender than any other colour. When 
a horse is rode by any person for you to judge of his 
ga:ts, you should have him moved towards you, from 
you, and finally by you, as you may have the oppor- 
tunity of discovering, if there is any turning in and out 
about his knees and ancles, before or behind, which is 
very objectionable. A well shaped horse will track 
as true, 01 his legs will follow each other in as direct a 
line, as the wheels of a well constructed carriage. — 
For him to be considered a good riding horse, he 
should move with ease to himself, and pass over the 
ground with great rapidity. Hard steps, short going, 
and great apparent labour, is offensive to the sight, 
unpleasant to the rider, and fatiguing to the horse him- 
self With respect to the colour of horses, people 
differ very widely ; a black horse, with white face and 
legs; a grey, or a mahogany oay, with white marks, 
when well kept, are all showy colours ; but for actual 
service, experience has proved, that dark colours, 
without any white feet, are far preferable; for who 
ever recollects to have seen a black, sorrel, or bay 
horse, with a bald face and four white legs, distinguish 
himself on the turf, in four mile heats ? I am inclined 
to believe there is no first rate race horse, of that de- 
scription, within the United States. 

I have, perhaps, stated some facts relative to hoise 
jockeys, in a manner so plain and candid, as to draw 
from them their displeasure. My object is not to 
orfend, but to instruct and be useful to those who want 
experience on the suDject, for which this little book is 

The annexed engraving (See Frontispiece) presents 
"nv idea of an e'ogant. saddle horse; by a U? 


which, the judgment of a purchaser will not oe 
Benefited, but meet with considerable support. 



Houses intended for a carriage or draft of air*' 
description, should be from five feet to five feet four 
inches high; though there are many excellent and 
truly valuable draft horses of much smaller size. The 
greatest attention should be paid to their habits, temper, 
quality, and disposition. A horse that has been once 
frightened in "harness, never again is safe for tha* 
employment. 80 retentive are their memories, thai 
thev do not forget an alarm of that kind during their 
whole lives. For the want of experience on this subject, 
horses that have been frightened in harness have been 
hitched to carriages, which too often has been the 
cause of the untimely death of many amiable females 
and helpless children. Indeed, a pair of good and well 
matched, gentle carriage horses, is rarely to be met 
with ; as so many good qualities, together with a 
similarity of age, colour, size, and marks, is required to 
make them complete and valuable. Th^ir eyes should 
be good, carriage lofty, bodies proportionally large, 
breasts full and wide, their whole bodies heavily 
muscled; their heads, necks, and ears delicate; their 
Jegs large, sinewy, and bony; their pasterns short, and 
their hoofs moderately large, and not too Mat. They 
should be frc*> from starting, stumbling, and kirkhu: 


and tnoir dispositions patient, gentle, and obedient. 
It very often happens that horses are kept together as 
a match, on account of their colour and similarity of* 
marks, when no respect is paid to their difference of 
form, spirit, and movements, which often differ as 
widely as the mettled racer from the dull cart horse 
When thus badly matched, they would very soon 
be separated by a good judge, and nothing short o( 
necessity should ever permit them to draw together. 
Carriage horses should carry good tails, naturally or 
artificially, which adds much to their gay and elegant 
appearance ; presenting figures ready, apparently, to 
move upon the wind, whilst they are perfectly gentle 
and manageable. Horses of different colours, whose 
spirit, aize, and movements are similar, are a much 
better match in harness than those of the same colour, 
with three or four inches difference in height; or one 
dull, and the other spirited; one young, the other old; 
one fat, the other poor; one with a bald face and white 
legs, the other with white legs; or one active, and the 
other clumsy. 

I have thus taken up the time of the reader, to make 
him the better judge, and give him a correct idea of 
a bad match of carriage horses, which will assist him 
much in selecting those that are good. After being 
thoroughly satisfied about the shape, age, condition, 
&c., of a pair of carriage horses you may be about to 
purchase, it will be necessary, in justice to yourseli, 
to try them in harness; though the seller will assure 
you they are as gentle as lambs, true as honour, and 
fiially, the best pair of horses in the world; although 
it is possible for such a statement to be a fact, I would 
ad\ise that a trial should be made, and the purchase! 
kcome nis own judge; for which purpose have them 
hitched in a carriage, and driven several times up ana 


down the steepest hill that the road may oross, which 
is most convenient: if they have any tricks, or are not 
true draft horses, it can be readily discovered: next, 
for the purpose of discovering if they have ever been 
alarmed in harness, frequently open and shut the car- 
nage door. als3 move and rattle the steps ; if they have 
ever been frightened in harness you will very soon be 
compelled to desist; then by coming to their front, and 
with attention observing their ears and eyes, you will 
be informed to your entire satisfaction, if they are safe 
Horses that have been once alarmed in harness, so 
soon as they hear anv rattling noise behind them, 
begin to grow restless, sinking or squatting behind, 
holding the head high, snorting, fetching long breaths, 
moving the ears with great quickness, at the same 
time showing the whites of their eyes. Let me warn 
the reader against the purchase of such horses ; they 
are unfit and unsafe for the use of a family. Horses 
for harness, that are fiery and fretful, are very objec- 
tionable, and should always be avoided; but great care 
should be taken to distinguish between animals of this 
description, and those that are eager and spirited ; the 
former begin to prance and tret the moment they are 
out of the stable, until they exhaust themselves with 
fatigue; but the latter endeavour only to be first in the 
chase, or foremost in the field, and are truly valuable; 
possessing those qualities that resemble prudence and 
courage; the others, intemperate heat and rashness. 
Whenever carriage horses are driven, they should 
be moved off fifteen or twenty steps in a slow walk, 
without the cracking or flourishing of a whip, which 
is so much the custom, and which is very frequently 
the cause of high tempered horses refusing to draw . 
After which their speed may be quickened to whatever 
gait you may prefer, by the use of some kind word 


to which n]l horses should be accustomed- 'l is "\erj 
much the practice with drivers to leave their horses 
standing in a carriage, without any person to hold 
them, for hours together. Having seen the worst ol 
consequences result from this practice, (and with horses 
under the character of being gentle,) I would recom 
mend that drivers should never give up their reins 
until they are prepared with some person sufficiently 
strong to hold them. By using such precaution, the 
overturning and breaking many fine carriages, and the 
ruining for ever many valuable and elegant carriage 
horses, would be avoided. 



It is a remarkable fact, that horses run m all shapes. 
But most generally, those excel upon the turf, that are 
of the following form : head and neck thin, small, and 
delicate; eyes large, plump, and full of expression; 
nostrils wide, red, and expanded; throttle large; 
shoulders high, thin, and running very far back; breast 
plump, full, and wide; body long, round, and rather 
light than heavy; back short as possible; thighs long, 
large, full, and bulging; fore arm large and swelling 
towards his breast; hocks broad, strong, and bony; 
legs of moderate size, thin, flat, and sinewy; pasterns 
rather long and small, than otherwise; feet of propor- 
tionable size to the balance of his form ; though, of the 
two extremes, small is the best; he should be nervous, 
tractable, and of good spirit, and he should be from 
five feet to five feet four inches high. Such a horse, 
we.i managed, kept and placed in races, will seldom 
foil to distinguish himself on the turf. 23 


The keeping a horse for a race is attended with 
much trouble, and requires great attention: but is 
more simple than is generally believed by persons 
wanting experience on that subject. 

A large majority of grooms, even to the present day 
are in the habit of giving to race horses large quanti- 
ties of physic, (though the number engaged in tnis 
practice has been diminished within the last ten years,) 
and for the sake of those very valuable animals, I hope 
ere long, such an injurious practice will be entirely 
abolished. All the medicine on earth will never give 
to a horse speed and bottom, that is naturally deficient 
in those respects ; and if he is affected at all by its use, 
it must operate to his disadvantage. 

The plainest and simplest mode of keeping horses, 
has proved much the best, to all who have ventured, 
in defiance of old opinions and customs, to use that 
course. When a horse is in health, the medicine ge- 
nerally given by grooms, has the effect of relaxing 
the muscles, enfeebling the system, and expanding the 
pores of the skin. I am clearly of opinion, that those 
large doses, which are so often given, never cause a 
horse, when running, to fetch a longer breath, braced 
his muscles, added to the elasticity of his tendons, in 
vigorated his system, or gave him, in any way, extra 
powers to perform the task assigned him ; but on the 
contrary, are frequently the means of throwing a 
lorse out of order, that in all probability, under dif- 
ferent treatment, would have proved successful, if not 
mastei on the turf: indeed, this has sometimes been 
proved bv the change of owners, and when a gooo 


horse has fallen into the hands of one that has observed 
plain and simple treatment — the horse that previous to 
the change never was more than second or third best 
has run with more than anticipated success. 

But many old and ignorant grooms who have nevei 
been benefited by experience, and all the knowledge 
they possess have been handed to them by persons 
equally ignorant with themselves, are under a belief, 
that unless a horse swallows a certain number of wind 
balls, that it is impossible he can win a race ; added 
to which, they are extremely superstitious, and some, 
even at the present day, confide in tricks and witch- 
craft. It is to be much regretted that a good horse 
snouid e T er fall into the hands of such blockheads. 

The first thing necessary in the keeping a race horse 
is, a good log stable, about fifteen feet square : then 
provide a plenty of good and sweet old corn, fodder 
and oats, and a sufficient quantity of clean and dry 
straw, to change his bed every two or three days. 

Most horses, when first taken up for the purpose of 
being kept, require bleeding; which a groom can 
always be a judge of from the appearance of the ani- 
mal. Good cloths, girts, &c. should be provided and 
kept on the horse, except at the hours for rubbing, 
which should be regularly three times a day ; in the 
morning, and evening after practice, and at twelve 
o'clock ; for which purpose a curry-comb, brush, straw 
and a large woollen cloth, must be provided and well 
used. Good rubbing assists in putting a horse in order, 
and places on his skin a beautiful gloss. His legs 
must be washed three times a day in clear cold water, 
nfter which they must be rubbed dry with straw, ano 
the naked hand rubbed over the ancles and pasterns, 
until a small degree of warmth is felt Th.3 stable 
should be kept perfectly clean. 


A ho/se should be given such practice as lie is well 
able to bear. As those animals frequently differ in 
every respect so widely from each other, it is impos- 
sible to lay down any rule that should govern, relative 
to the speed or quantity of practice necessary for horses 
in training. 1 will only remark, that a horse should 
be practised in a moderate gallop, the distance he is 
intended to be run, moving briskly every time he passes 
the stand, and for a short distance on the back of the 
ground: he then should be walked about a mile, and 
again gallopped in manner first directed. Some fleet 
and delicate horses require very little practice indeed; 
while other hardy and hard bottomed horses require 
and can bear verv hard practice. But the appetite ol 
a horse is the best criterion, as relates to that subject. 

If a horse refuses to eat, it is an evident that his 
practice is either too hard or too quick; when he eats 
heartily, it is a proof that he is able to bear what is 
given him. When a horse is first taken into keeping, 
his allowance for the first tw r o or three days, should 
be rather short; which should be offered four times a 
day. His exercise should be walking, for the first 
three or four days; two or three times the distance, or 
round the course of his contemplated race ; after whicn 
time, his food may be increased with his exercise, 
and he may be regularly fed with from two quarts at a 
feed to four quarts. His food should be often changed 
and prepared thus : his hommony (Indian corn ground 
coaise) should be first winded, then thrown into clean 
water, so as to separate the part that is nutritious from 
the husk and chaff; the oats should be lightly beaten 
m a common hommony mortar, to separate them from 
the hull or chaff', which may be blown off"; his foduei 
should be stemmed whenever it is discovered he nu* 


•oo much belly. A horse never should be drawn 
suddenly, as nothing is more weakening. 

The best medicine on earth, that can be employed 
in keeping of a horse, to give him wind and bottom, as 
the grooms term it, is good and sweet food. A greater 
proportion of old oats, hay, or hommony, opens the 
bowels ; and a large proportion of fodder and oats, 
when prepared in the way directed, has the reverse 
effect; so that by using food that actually contains 
nourishment, and will certainly benefit your horse, you 
may place him in whatever kind of order you think 
proper, without using those medicines which have a 
certain tendency to weaken and relax him. About 
two mashes during the time of keeping, is very bene- 
ficial ; the first as soon as you commence ; the second, 
about eight days previous to his running; composed 
of one gallon of bran, one table spoonful of flour Oi 
sulphur, and one tea spoonful of saltpetre. Most 
grooms are in the habit of giving one, two, or three 
sweats, during the time of keeping; which method of 
hardening the flesh I am much opposed to. If a horse 
is too gross, gradually increase his exercise, which will 
have the desired effect. Whenever a horse has to 
undergo one of those sweats, he is so much weakened 
and relaxed, as to require at least one week to recovei 
his strength. Should a horse, in keeping, lose his 
nppetite, it can readily be restored, by a single inno- 
cent drench, composed of a quarter of an ounce c\ 
asafoetida, one table spoonful of salt, and one quart of 
sassafras tea. Good food, regular feeding, moderate 
exercise, and strict attention to rubbing, are of much 
more importance and benefit to a horse in keeping, 
than the administering of large doses of physic, which 
!?is nature does not require. 

When a horse is well kept, he will noi appear very 

KKKfl.NO. */ 

fat, bin his flesh will be very firm and hard ; his legs 
and ancles must be perfectly cool, and not puffed or 
swelled ; his eyes should be lively, and countenance 
cheerful : he should possess no bad habits, but be 
tractable, gentle, and manageable ; his actions smooth 
and graceful ; he should be taught patience ; and often 
practised in starting around the race course, never 
permitting him to go off", until the word GO is given. 
Many advantages result in a race, to a horse, being 
uroperly broke in starting. 

After a horse has gone through his practice, and has 
been well rubbed, &c. &c. his feet should be stuffed, 
(during the time of his standing in the stable) with 
fresh cow manure, or clay and salt, to prevent hi? 
ancles from swelling or being heated; his legs should 
be bathed once a week, with equal parts of old peach 
brandy and fresh butter, or sweet oil and vinegar, 
stewed over the fire until well mixed, and applied 
warm as the hand can bear it. 

Whenever a horse commences his brisk exercise, 
the under part of his ancles should be occasionally 
greased, to prevent their cracking and the scratches 
being produced. The heels of most young horses 
crack, during their exercise, unless this precaution is 
used ; fresh butter, sweet oil, or hog's lard, answers 
well for that purpose. 

The subject of keeping horses is so extensive, thai 
tc treat fully on it, would require a book at least tho 
size of this ; the reader, therefore, must be center* 
with the few hints and few pages I have devotea fcj 
ti. is subicct. 

2* RA.VM RIO*?*. 


T" become a valuable and a good race rider, requue* 
more capacity, judgment, experience, and honour, than 
are often found in boys in the habit of riding. And 
no person can be successful on the turf, unless }>e can 
place the utmost confidence in his rider ; whose in- 
tegrity and honour it would be advisable frequently to 
put to the test. Boys are sometimes so young, foolish, 
and destitute of principle, as to receive bribes and 
promises : preventing the best horse from winning, to 
the disgrace of all concerned, and the serious injury 
of his owner, who, in such cases, never should tail to 
make an example of all persons engaged in the villany. 

A good race rider will have the pad of his saddle 
wet, before he mounts, to keep it firm in its place ; he 
will try his stirrups, and prove them long enough to 
raise himself about two or three inches clear of the 
saddle : he will then tie his bridle a length that will 
lllow his horse, when he bears him gradually ani 
steadily, to run at his ease, without being jeiker] 
or jostled ; he should never make a false start, but 
come up even and go off smoothly, without fretting or 
causing his to rear; and above all other things 

HRfcfcOlNG. *>U 

strict and pointed attention should be paid to the 
given, and they rigidly adhered to. 

A rider should bear a little forward, steadilv as 
possible, and without altering the attitude of his body, 
when whipping, pushing, or running at his ease, taking 
great care to remain steady in his stirrups, holding his 
elbows close, and his hands low. 

A rider, after running his heat, should never dis- 
mount, or give up his horse to any other person, unti 1 
it is his turn to prove his weight, and is directed to 
come to the stand. 



The breeding and raising of horses, to most persons, 
is a very amusing and pleasing task; but it is attended 
with much trouble and expense, unless well managed 
and then it becomes not only a subject of profit, but 
is well worth the attention of any person, whose situ- 
ation will admit of it, for the purpose of making a 

The raising of cold blooded or common horses, is 
generally a disadvantage to any person, being neither 
interesting or profitable. A colt three years old, of 
the above description, seldom costs the owner less than 
one hundred and twenty dollars; and when he maites 
a sale, twice out of three times that sum cannot 6e 
obtained; consequently there is a loss, independent 
of trouble. But colts, three or four yeais old, from 
the best stock in the United States, of large size and 


having distinguished themselves on the turf, have >ai 
manded from one hundred to one thousand pounds *! 

By raising and running such horses, large sums o1 
money have been accumulated in the United States, 
and particularly in Virginia, where the blood, speed, 
and beauty of horses, are equal to any in the world. 

Much has been stated by English authors, on the 
subject of blood, form, and speed of the English horses; 
particularly Dorimant, Bay Malton, Eclipse, High- 
flyer, Matchem, Shark, Childers, &c. &c. &c. But 
could the blood, form, speed, and bottom, of our Ame- 
rican horses, Brimmer, Chanticleer, Leviathan, Virago, 
Surprise, Florizel, Potomac, American Eclipse, &e. 
&c. &c. have been contrasted with them, I am induced 
to believe they would have had the same claim to the 
page of record and superior performance. 

True it is, that of Flying Childers it is stated, that 
ne run a mile in a few seconds over a minute. Mv 
regard for the life of every human being, particularly 
a valuable race rider, induces me to wish our horses 
may never perform the mile in that time, though we 
have several amongst us whose speed is unknown, 
although they were on the turf several years, contending 
with very tine race horses. 

I must confess, that for a horse to run a mile in a 
minute, or eighty-two and a half feet in a second, (as 
stated) surpasses any idea that i have entertained of 
the velocity that a horse was capable of. 

In order to raise a beautiful and good racer, a stud 
should be made choice of. that will be a good cross, and 
of the best blood; not less than five feet two, though 
five feet four inches high, is a preferable size. lie 
should be well proportioned, elegantly formed, of maho- 
gany bay colour, and clear of all defects, pirtic-i 


laily spavin and blindness: and should ncl only have 
pioved himself in possession of speed on the turf, out 
bottom also ; and should be a sure foal getter. 

A mare should be made choice of, not less than five 
feet high, with a del'Vate head and neck, great length 
of body, large belly, and above all other things, one 
that has proved herself, by her colts, to be a good 

When you commence breeding with a mare of this 
kind, you are almost certain of rinsing a valuable colt. 
But when you commence with one untried, you run a 
great risk of losing time and raising a horse of the 
120 dollar price, unless the mare, or stock from which 
she originated, was first rate and remarkable for their 
fine colts. Indeed there appears to be the same simi- 
larity in the blood of horses that exist in men, as 
respects their good and bad qualities, shape, &c. &<;. 
We find vice common throughout some families, while 
we see virtue reigning in others. One breed of horses, 
under every care and attention, will only raise you a 
coarse horse or pony ; whilst good blooded horses, 
even half starved and under everv disadvantage, will 
show strong marks of beauty, activity, and size ; and 
after winning from his master kind treatment, often 
becomes the champion of the turf. I have known 
several first rate race horses that were once plough 
and draft horses. 

A brood mare, that has produced one or two good 
racers, from a good cross, in all probability will, at 
any time produce one, when under similar advantages. 
When a colt is foaled early in the spring, he will be 
under every benefit that can be derived from size 
strength, and age; consequently, it would be advisable 
to put a mare to horse at such time as wouid produce 
a colt about the fifteenth or twentieth of .April. A 


mare generally goes with foal eleven months and as 
many days as she is years old. A colt foaled in April, 
when three years old would have to carry no more 
weight in a race field than one foaled in August ; which 
would give to the one first foaled a difference of three 
mom hs of age, and of equal blood and under similar 
advantages. The one first foaled ought very certainly 
to prove best on the turf, from three to seven years old 

After your mare has been put to the horse of youi 
choice, she should not be confined during her preg* 
nancy, but a house or shed about twelve feet square, 
should be built for the purpose of sheltering her from 
the rain or bad weather ; the south side of this house 
should be left entirely open, so that the mare might 
come in or go out at pleasure : and a manger and rack 
should be confined in it for the purpose of feeding. A 
good bed of straw, and that frequently changed, will 
add much to her comfort, and she will be induced to 
sleep under the shelter if the litter is kept clean. — 
Adjoining this house there should be a lot, enclosed 
with post and railing, containing from one to four 
acres of ground, clear of snags, grubs, and stumps ; in 
which the mare should be confined about two 01 three 
weeks previous to her foaling : she will then be con- 
venient to assistance, should any be necessary. 

Mares frequently produce colts at fourteen or fifteen 
years of age, and sometimes twenty ; but from five to 
twelve years of age, from experiments made, appears 
to be the most valuable part of a mare's life for raising 
colts. Experience has also proved the great advan 
tage resulting to the form and size of a colt, from 
letting him get thin upon grass alone, two or three 
time? previous to his being three years old; after which 
ume he may be constantly pushed as much as possible. 

When the dam and sire of a colt are small, it is to 


be presumed a colt produced by them will make a 
smad horse, although there may be no objection to the 
blood; and if he makes a race horse, it will be of the 
unprofitable kind. He may be a winner at three vears 
old; at four years old, second best; and being too 
small to carr^ weight, he never can win again. Such 
a horse will not command a high price with a judge of 
horses, as it is evident thai a large horse, with the same 
weight, will beat a small one, when they are equal in 
all respects except size. Indeed, for the purpose oi 
draft or riding, a large horse will command double the 
sum of a small one, which plainly proves the importance 
ot breeding from a large stock. 

When a colt arrives at the age of two and a half 
years, it is time he should be handled, and taught the 
use of the bit. It is of great consequence he should 
be first gentled by a person who well understands the 
management of horses, to prevent bad habits; as first 
impressions are never entirely removed from man or 


[ rhf following is the mode of raising Blooded Horses, as pursued by 
Wm. E. Broadnax, of Brunswick County, Virginia.] 

FiniOH THE AMERICAN FARMER.] \/ , Q p% ' 3 $**^f 


" In the first place, be particular in selecting a good 
stock to breed from. When the mare is near foaling, 
let her be to herself, and if early in the season, let her 
have a good roomy stable to foal in; and in good 
weather, let her and her colt be turned into a lot, (o{ 
wheat I prefer.) Wean the colt the first of October 
in a stable, until it is done snickering after its dam ; 
then tu?*n it in a lot ; if you have more than one, they 
will do best together. 

" Stable them at night, and turn them out in the day 
except in very bad weather : force them all you can the 
first winter. To do this, their principal food should be 
cut oats moistened with a due proportion of corn meal 
sprinkled over and mixed with them. Most foals are 
apt to be too delicate ; forcing them, and keeping them 
wirm at night, will increase the size of tne.f limbs 
in proportion to the weight of their bodies. After 
they are one year old, they should not be kept so fat, 
nor yet permitted to get poor. A stud colt, which is 
intended to be kept as such, should be separated from 
other horses at a year old, and stabled of nights; his 
rack and manger should be so high as to strain him a 
little to get food; the windows of the stable should 
also be high, as he will be looking out at them : by 
these means his shoulders will be thrown back, and his 
withers raised. If it be wished to increase his quar- 
rels, enlarge his muscles, and other material parts, 
keep him in the stable frequently, for several days 
together, which will animate him; then turn him out in 


a lot, and encourage him to run and exert himself aa 
you can, as his parts will acquire size and strength in 
proportion to the use made of them. 

" I would recommend a mare of good form and 
thorough blood, though she cost the most, because her 
colts would cost ^o more to raise them than those from 
an ordinary mare, and would probably sell for more 
than three or four times as much. The reason I would 
wean in a stable is, that in the usual way of weaning 
in cornfields, &c. the colts run themselves poor before 
they are weaned. I prefer wheat lots for mares and 
colts, because they like it better than any thing else, 
and 1 think it agrees better with them. I find oats 
made use of as above stated, not only the most healthy 
and best, but also the cheapest food for mares and 
coits. In pursuing the course which has been laid 
down, I obtained the following results : 

" I selected a mare which I knew to be of good 
stock, but from improper raising was only four feet 
six inches high, and very delicate : The first removal 
from her was four feet ten inches; the second reniova 
five feet; the third was five feet two incnes • the 
fourth was five feet six inches." 



77#e following answers were returned by William R. Johnson, to 
questions propounded by J. Marshall, of Fauquier Co. Va." 

" Senate Cham3er, February 4, 1829. 

1. Keep the colts in pretty good order, not too fat, 
until they are too years old, then break them gently. 

2. Keep them in lots, it does not matter as to size, 
taking care not to allow them to see other horses more 
than possible. 

3 and 4. Grass lots are best, and short grass. 

5. Dry food mostly — when young, cut oats. 

6. Give corn in the winter ; oats in the summer ; 
not more at a time than they eat clean. When they 
ure once fat very light feeding is best. 

7. It is not at all necessary to rub them until they 
are two years cM. 

8. Wean the colts at about six months old. 
Should the above answers to your questions not be 

sufficiently explicit, they will be with great pleasure 

lidded to. 


William R. Johnson 




/ S - 


fojo <o choose a race horse hy his external appearar,ce y and to hi • 
judge of his symmetry by angular demonstration. 


1st. Draw a base line from the stifle joint along the 
DOttom of the chest to the extreme point of the eibow, 
and to the shoulder-blade joint. 

2dly. Draw a line from the curb or hock by the hip 
joint above the back, to an imaginary point. 

3dly. Draw another line from the point of the s'iouI- 
der, ranging with the shoulder, and passing abo e the 
back, until it intersects the line at the imaginary point. 

4thly. Draw a line from the intersecting poin . of the 
shoulders, giving the same declension until it itr srsects 
the base line. 

5thly. From the stifle to the point of the I <ittock 
thence to the hip /.*int, thence declining to the ,tifle. 

6thly. Draw a line from the hip to the be ,e line 
right angular declension, then to the shoulder i p to the 

7thly. Then draw a straight line, regardle s of the 
curve of the back, to a straight line intersecti.ig at the 
shoulder at the beginning vf ti.e crest. 

8thly. Then take a line from *he point of the shoul- 
der, and angular degree, ranging vith the shouidei- 
blade to the top of the crest. 

Dthly. Then, regardless of the rising of the crest 


draw a straight line from the top of the shoulder-blade 
to inteisect with the point of the former line. 

Thus the real symmetry of a grand and beautiful 
horse, possessed with muscular powers and strength, 
is formed by a right-angled triangle; and the farther 
h om it a race horse's form is, the less pretensions that 
horse has to beauty, speed, bottom, or lastingness, ability 
to carry weight, or activity. 

A thick, upright shoulder, is a very certain mark of 
a "stum bier," and is fit for no use whatever but the 
slow draft. 

A low coupling in the back, is a true mark of weak 
iiess ; it denotes want of strength, lastingness, ability 
to carry weight, or speed. 

A low loin, is a certain mark of weakness, and a 
weakly and washy constitution. 

But a rising loin, of ability to carry weight, speed 
activity, and lastingness, and a good constitution, sym 
metry, beauty, and muscular strength. 

A race horse's legs cannot be too short. 

A great declivity, and thin shoulders, denotes 

A narrow breast, weakness 

A horse's breast bone, formed like that of the rabbit, 
denotes also speed, and it is the best form for a race 

A short, broad hock, denotes strength : a broad stifle, 
well let down to the curb or hock, denotes bottom or 
lastingness, strength, and activity. 

There are not two race horses in five hundred, pro- 
perly formed in the knees; which should be small, 
divested of superfluous appendages, and strong; they 
aenote activity and strength. 


A lax, bending pastern, denotes also speed ; a long 
norse is preferable to a short one, because he can 
cover a great deal of ground, and can bear pressing 
better and longer. 

The race horse, upon the whole, whose form in 
general, is composed of the essential properties of the 
following animals, viz. the rabbit, grey hound, and 
ostrich — is the best. 


December 6, 1827. 


The following is the English mode of management and working ij 

Race Horses. 

In the managing and wot king of race horses, 
three things are to be considered : the preparation of 
the horse, the conduct of the rider, and the after 
treatment of the horse. The preparation of a race 
horse for running a race is not the work of a few days, 
if there be any great dependence on lhe success. A 
month at least, is required to harden his muscles in 
training, by proper food and exercise, and to re tine his 
wind, by clearing his body to £hat degree of perfec- 
tion that is attainable by art. It is first necessary 1o 
ascertain correctly the present state of the horse, a3 
whether he be low or high in flesh ; and in either 
case, a proper estimate should be formed of the time 
and means required to bring him into true running 


If a race horse be low in flesh, it is necessary to 
mdge of the cause of such state, and to act accordingly. 
It is to be remarked, that spices are less to be depended 
on for this purpose than generous food, as malt mashes; 
and if any thing of the kind be used, let it be the simple 
cordial ball. Feed frequently, and by little at a time: 
while he is thus low, let his exercise be walking only, 
and by no means spare his water, or he will become 
hide-bound: carefully watch him, that full feeding 
may not disagree by making his heels swell, or his 
coat unthrifty ; and if such appearances occur, mash 
him and begin his scourings, otherwise abstain from 
physic until he is in better health. As he improves in 
condition, increase his exercise, but not to such a 
degree as to make him sweat: his food must now be 
the best oats and beans, with wheaien or barley bread ; 
the beans and oats are to be put into a bag and beaten 
until the hulls are a 1 ' off, and then winnowed clean ; 
the bread instead of being chipped in the common 
way, is to have the crust clean off. 

If the horse be in good flesh and spirits when taken 
up for his month's preparation, cordials are altogether 
unnecessary; and the chief business will be to give 
him good food, and so much exercise as will keep him 
in wind, without over-sweating or tiring his spirits.— 
When he takes larger exercise afterwards, towards 
the end of the month, it will be proper to have some 
horses in the place to run against him. This will put 
him upon his mettle, and the beating them will give him 
spirits. This, howe-ver, is t») be cautiously observed, 
that ne has not a bloody heat given him for len days or 
a fortnight before the plate is to be run for : and that the 
last heat that is given him the day before the race, must 
be in his clothes : this will make him run w r ith greatly 
more vigour when stripped for the race, and feeling the 


mid wind on every part. In Uie second week, the horse 
should have the same food and more exercise; and in 
the last fortnight he must have dried oats, that lia\e 
been hulled by beating; after this jockeys wet them 
with the whites of eggs beaten up, and then laid out in 
the sun to dry ; and when dry as before, the horse 
is to have them : this sort of food being considered by 
them as very light of digestion, and very good for the 
creature's wind. The beans in this time should be 
given more sparingly, and the bread should be made 
of three parts wheat and one part beans, or of wheat 
and barley in equal parts. If he should become costive 
under this course, he must then have bran- water to 
drink, or some ale and whites of eggs beaten together ; 
and keep his body moist. In the last week all mashing 
is to be omitied.and barley-water given him in its place; 
and every day, till the day before the race, he should 
have his fill of hay; then he must have it given him 
more sparingly, that he may have time to digest it ; 
and in the morning of the race day, he must have a 
toast or two of white bread soaked in ale, and the same 
; ust before he is led out of the held. This is an excel- 
lent method, because the two extremes of fulness and 
fasting are at this time to be equally avoiaed ; the one 
heating his wind, and the other occasioning a faintness 
that may make him loose. After he has had his food, 
the litter is to be shook up, and the stable kept quiet, 
that he may be disturbed by nothing till he is taken 
out to run. 

In the choice of a ruler for winning a race, it is 
necessary, as far as possible, to select one that is not 
only expert and able, but honest. He must have a very 
close seat, his knees being turned r;lose to the saddle 
skirts, and held firmly there ; and the toes turned 
inwards, so that the spurs may be turned outwards 10 
5 D * 


ihe horse's belly ; his left hand governing the horse t 
mouth, and his right the whip. During the whole time 
of the race, he must take care to sit firm in the saddle, 
without waving or standing up in the stirrups. Some 
jockeys fancy the last a becoming seat ; but it is : ertain 
that all motions of this kind do really incommode the 
Ziorse. In spurring the horse, it is not to be done by 
sticking the calves of the legs close to the horse's side, 
as if it were intended to press the wind out of his body ; 
but on the contrary, the toes are to be turned a little 
outwards, and the heels being brought in, the spurs 
may just be brought to touch the side. A sharp touch of 
this kind will be of more service toward the quicken- 
ing of a horse's pace, and will sooner draw blood than 
one of the common coarse kicks. The expert jockey 
will never spur his horse until there is great occasion, 
and then he will avoid striking him under the fore 
bowels, between the shoulders and the girt ; this is the 
tenderest part of a horse, and a touch there »s to be 
leserved for the greatest extremity. 

As to whipping the horse, it ought always to be 
done over the shoulder, on the near side, except in 
very hard running, and on the point of victory ; then 
the horse is to be struck on the flank with a strong 
jerk; for the skin is the most tender of all there, and 
most sensible of the lash. When a horse is whipped 
and spurred, and is at the top of his speed, if he clap his 
ears in his pole or whisk his tail, it is a proof that the 
jockey treats him hard, and then he ought to give him 
as much comfort as he can, by sawing the snallle back 
wards and forwards in his mouth, and by that mean* 
lorcing him to open his mouth, which will give him 
wind, and be of great service. If there be any high 
wind stirring in the time of riding, the artful jockey 
will let his pdversary lead, holding hard behind him, 


i'll he sees an opportunity of giving a loose ; yet in 
;his case he must keep so close behind, that the other 
horse may keep the wind from him ; and that he, sit- 
ting low, may at once shelter himself under him, a*io 
assist the strength of the horse. If the wind happen 
to be in their back, the expert jockey is to keep 
directly behind the adversary, that he may have aF. 
the advantage of the wind to blow his horse along, as 
it were, and at the same time intercept it in regard to 
his adversary. 

When running on level smooth ground, the jockey 
is to beat his horse as much as the adversary will give 
him leave, because the horse is naturally more in- 
clined to spend himself on this ground; on the con 
trary, on deep earths, he may have more liberty, as 
he will there spare himself. 

In riding up hill the horse is always to be favoured, 
by bearing him hard, for fear of running him out o/ 
wind ; but in running down hill, if the horse's fee! 
and shoulders will bear it, and the rider dares venture 
his neck, he may have a full loose. If the horse have 
the heels of the rest, the jockey must always spare 
him a littlf 1 , that he may have a reserve of strength to 
make a push at the last post. 

On the jockey's knowing the nature of the horse 
that is to run against him, a great deal depends ; for 
by managing accordingly, great advantages are to be 
obtained : thus, if the opposite horse is of a hot and fiery 
disposition, the jockey is either to run just behind him or 
cheek-by-jole with him, making a noise with the whip, 
and by that means forcing him on faster than his rider 
would have him, and consequently, spending him so 
much the sooner : or else keep him just before him in 
such a slow gallop that he may either overreach, 01 bv 


I reading on the heels of the fore horse, endangei 
tumbuiig over. Whatever be the ground that the 
adversary's horse runs worst on, the cunning jockey 
is to ride the most violently over ; and by this means 
it. will often happen, that in following he either stum- 
bles or claps on the back sinews. The several cor- 
rections of the hand, the whip and the spur, are also 
to be observed in the adversary, and in what manner 
he makes use oi them : and when it is perceived bv 
any of the symptoms of holding down the ears, < 
whisking the tail, or stretching out the nose like a pig, 
that the horse is almost blown, the business is to keep 
nim on to his speed, and he will be soon thrown out 
or distanced. If the horse of the opponent looks dull, 
it is a sign his strength fails him ; and if his flanks 
beat much, it is a sign that his wind begins to fail him, 
and his strength will soon do so too. 

The after management of a horse that has run, in 
eludes the treatment between the heats, and the treat 
ment after the race is over. After every heat, there 
must be dry straw and dry cloths, both linen and 
woollen, ready to rub him down all over, after taking 
off the sweat with what is called a sweat-knife ; that 
is, a piece of an old sword blade or some such thing. 
After the horse has been well rubbed, he should be 
chafed all over with cloths wet in common water, 
till the time of starting a^ain. When it is certainlv 
known that the horse is good at the bottom; and will 
stick at the mark, he should be rode every heat to the 
best of his performance ; and the jockey is, as mueh 
as possible, to avoid riding at .my particular horse, or 
slaving for any, but to ride out the whole heat with 
the best speed he can. H, on the contrary, he has a 
fiery horse to ride, and one that is hard to manage, 
nard mouthed, and dillicuit to be held, he is to be started 


hehind the rest of the horses with all imaginable cool- 
ness and gentleness ; and when he begins to ride at 
some command, then the jockey is to put up to the 
(V.her horses ; and if they ride at. their ease, and are 
hard held, they are to be drawn on faster ; and if it be 
perceived that their wind begins to rake hot, and they 
want a sob, the business is to keep them up to that 
speed ; and when they are all come within three quar- 
ters of a mile of the post, then is the time to push for it, 
and use the utmost speed in the creature's power. 

When the race is over, the horse is immediately to 
be clothed up and rode home ; and immediately on his 
coming into the stable, the following drink is to be 
given him : Beat up the yelks of three eggs, and put 
them into a pint and a half of sound ale, made warm ; 
and let it be given with a horn. After this, he is to 
be rubbed well down, and the saddle-place rubbed over 
with warm water and vinegar, and places where the 
spurs have touched, with the same ; after this he should 
have a feed of rye bread, then a good mash, and at 
some time after these as much hay and oats as he will 
eat. His legs, after this, should be bathed some time 
with a mixture of vinegar and water. ' 


i\o situation that a sen ant can be placed in, reqmres 
more activity, sobriety, strength, attention, and indus- 
try, than that of an hostler. And how often do we 
see weak, lazy, careless, crippled, and even extreme 
old men, worn out with age and infirmity, plaeed m 
Inat employment? Indeed, those are »>fteu maJe 
5 * 


choice of that are unable to perform labour of \n> 
description. Nothing can be more agreeable to s 
fatigued traveller, than to place his norse in possession 
of every pleasure, every comfort possible, after his 
having faithfully performed a hard ride, or on a journey , 
which he cannot have the opportunity of doing, unless 
t fit person is selected for an hostler. 

Many fine horses and stables have been destroyed 
by carelessness. Hostlers that smoke pipes or segars, 
are unfit for that employment. 



Nothing conduces more to the health of a horse, 
than a good and wholesome stable. It should be built 
upon a high, airy, and firm situation, that the horse, in 
Dad weather, may come in and go out clean. No 
animal delights more in cleanliness than the horse, or 
to whom bad smells are more disagreeable and perni- 
cious. Great attention should be paid to the removal 
of all offensive and putrid matter, to prevent the farcy 
and other troublesome and distressing diseases, which 
frequently proceed from such neglect. A log stable is 
preferable to any other, on account of its admitting a 
free circulation of air in summer; and by the use ot 
slabs or stiaw in winter, can be made warm and com- 
fortable. Opposite to each stall there should be a 
lattice or window, with a shutter; by which means you 
can, at pleasure, either welcome the cheering breeze, 
or bar out the threatening storm. The rack should be 
smooth, high, and firmly fastened to the wall ; which 
wiii pi'.ivent a horse injuring h's eyes, skinning his 


r ace, and doing himself other injury when feeding; 
The upright pieces in a rack should be four, or foui 
and a half inches apart, to prevent long food from 
beincr unnecessarily wasted. The halter should nevei 
be tied to the rack, (several fine horses having been 
ruined by such carelesness,) but should be passed 
through a ring in the manger, and confined to a longer 
or smooth piece of wood, weighing about a pound 
With a halter of this description, there is no danger 
of a horse's hanging, alarming, or injuring himself. A 
stall should be four and a half or five feet wide, which 
will allow him to lie down with comfort. The stable 
floor should be planked, to m. n ke the coat of hair show 
to advantage ; but a dirt floor is far preferable, when 
a horse is wanted for actual service : there is a mois- 
ture received by the hoof from the earth, which is 
absolutely necessary to make it tough and service- 
able. Either kind of stable floors should be a little 
raised towards the manger, to turn the urine from the 
stall, which produces an unpleasant smell, and (when 
permitted to stand a length of time) r 'ery unwhole- 
some vapours. When the size of a stable is calculated 
for several horses, the partitions between the stalls 
should be neatly and smoothly planked low enough to 
the floor, to prevent the horse when lying down, 
getting his legs through, and high enough at top to 
prevent them from smelling, biting, and molesting 
each other. A plentiful bed of clean, dry straw affords, 
to a fatigued or travelling horse, as great a welcome 
as his food, and is as necessary in a stable as tho 
uitchfork, curry-comb, and brush. 



Nicking a horse has been generally believed to be 
attended with much difficulty, and to require great in- 
genuity and art to perforin the operation. The nicking 
:>!onc, is by far the easiest part, as the curing and 
pullying requires considerable attention and trouble. 
Nicking is an operation performed for the purpose of 
making a horse carry an elegant artificial tail, which 
adds much to his beauty and value. A horse may be 
finely shaped, even without fault, except carrying a 
bad tail, and he will not command a larger sum than 
one of very loose and ordinary shape elegantly nicked. 
One thus operated on, will have an appearance 01 
gaiety, sprightliness, and life, vhieh cannot be given 
by ait in any other way ; indeed, it very lrequently 
happens the tail sells for one fourth the value of the 
horse, which argues strongly in favour of the opera- 
tion being performed on every tolerable likely horse, 
that is naturally deficient in that respect. 

Some are ol opinion, and particularly our plain, 
good old farmers, who are in the habit of raising fine 
horses, that nicking is injurious, weakening the back, 
unstringing the tendons, relaxing the muscles about the 
hind parts, causing a horse frequently to fall and some- 
times to catch upon their ancles behind, almost 
breaking the riderls back : in all of which they are 
entirely mistaken, and would readily be convinced of 
the fact, if they were to study the anatomy of the 
horse. Every tendon, muscle, nerve, artery, &c. that 
is separated in nicking, is always cut in docking ; 
and we do not find it. the result of experiment, that a 
horse with a loner tail is mure durable, stronger, reo 

NK'KINQ. 49 


from catching or sinking behind, than a horse that has 
been docked. Nicking will never make a bad horse a 
good one, or a good horse a bad one. 

The opinion unfavourable to nicking, no doubt, has 
taken its rise from many delicate, weak, long-legged 
horses being nicked for the purpose of selling them. 
When the operation succeeds well, the horse assumes 
a new appearance, being more like a dancing master 
than a grave digger, after which iie will continue to 
practise his old habits of catching behind, or making a 
bow, although he appears as if he could glide upon the 
wind. This elegant tail causes them to forget this is the 
same tender and weak horse that was in bad habits 
before he was nicked ; and almost proves, without 
reflection, that nicking is the cause of his apparent weak- 
ness. Indeed if such opinions were founded on fact, 
all horses that had been nicked, would fall and catch 
behind, whenever they had to descend a small hill. 1 
have never known an instance of a horse catching 
behind after being nicked, that was not in the habit 
previous to the operation being performed. 

Before I describe the operation of nicking, it may 
be necessary to inquire into the effect, or how the 
elevation of the tail is brought about. In order to do 
this, and judge of the operation with propriety, we 
must consider the tail elevated or raised by one set of 
muscles, ending in large tendons, and depressed or 
drawn down by another ; the muscles and tendons that 
elevate the tail, are stronger and more numerous, and 
nearer to the bone than those that depress it ; they are 
closely connected to the bones of the tail by fleshy 
fibres, and terminate in strong tendons at the extre 
/nity. The tendons that throw down or depress the 
'ail, are two in number, and may be found within a 


quarter of an inch of the outer sides of the tail, next uO 
die hair. There arc three arteries; two large, on the 
^uter side and immediately under the tendons, and one 
in the centre between the two nearer the bone, all 
running into a longitudinal direction, and decreasing 
in she to the extreme end. 

To perform the operation of nicking, it is first neces- 
sary the horse should be well secured, to prevent his 
kicking or doing other injury ; a twitch is to be put on 
his upper lip, but not so high as to prevent his breath- 
ing; a cord is to be made fast to the fetlock of one of 
his hind legs, thence carried forward and made fast to 
his fore leg above the knee, which will effectually 
prevent his doing injury during the' operation. — [See 

J eing now confined, you are ready to commence 
the operation, which chiefly consists in a transveise 
division of those depressing tendons of the tail, and 
siv'h a position afterwards as will keep their extremi- 
ty s a^ain from coming into contact ; so that an inter- 
vvning callous fills up the vacuity, and elevates, erects, 
and props the tail. There are three different modes 
of nicking, all of which I will proceed to explain, 
giving an opportunity to any person, about to perform 
l\ie operation, to make their selection. 

To make a horse carrv an elco-ant tail, is attended 
with some uncertainty, as much depends upon the 
spirit, disposition, form, size of the bone of the tail 
&c. &lc. &c. A horse of good spirit, tolerable shaj e, 
and a small bone in the tail, can be made to carry an 
elegant tail with the greatest ease ; 'particularly if he 
carried a tolerably natural tail. But a dull, leather 
neaded, flop-eared horse, with a remarkable large bone 
n Ins tail, will set you a task, although you may break 


the bone in two or three places — indeed there is so 
much difference m horses, that some judgment must 
be exercised about the mode best to be adopted to ihe 
accomplishment of the object in view. 

Nothing can more disfigure the appearance of a 
horse, than to be half nicked. The form of the tail, 
when this unfortunately happens, departs from the 
simplicity of nature, and never attains the elegance 
of art. 

The first mode of nicking I shall describe, is the 
simplest, and attended with the least trouble ; and 
although it succeeds well, twice out of three times, yet 
I think inferior to the other two I shall presently de- 
scribe. Being prepared with a sharp knife and a 
crooked piece of iron or buck's horn, for the purpose 
of performing the operation. 

1st. Have a twitch placed upon his nose as directed 
n the engraving annexed. — Figure 3. 

2d. With a strong rope, confine his left hind leg to 
his left fore leg, above the knee. — Figures 5 ty 0. 

3d. Plat the tail close and neatly, from the root to 
the end, clubbing or turning it over a small stick. — 
Figure 7. 

4th. Turn the tail up, with a strong arm that can 
keep it firm and steady, in a direct line with his rump 
and back-bone. — Figure 7. 

5th. With a sharp knife make an incision on each 
side of the tail about three inches long, in a longitu- 
dinal direction, about two inches from the root, and 
ihout a quarter of an inch from the outer edge of the 
uiil. next to the hair : so soon as you get through tl «• 
skin, yon will find exposed the two large tendons. 


(Ilh. Make a second pair of incisions, similar to 
the first, commencing within about two inches of the 
termination of the first. 

7th. Make one other pair of incisions, in length pro- 
portioned to the length of the tail, taking care to leav* 
about two inches at the end. 

8th. With a crooked iron or horn, take up the ten 
dons at the first incision, as near the root of the tail as 
possible, and cut them smoothly in two. 

9th. Take up the tendons at the second incision, 
and by using strength, draw those in the first incision 
out at the second. 

10th. Draw those of the second out at the third 
incision, and cut them off smoothly. 

11th. Wash the tail in strong salt and water, and 
take from the neck vein half a gallon of blood, three 
times within a week. 

12th. The horse may be turned out or used mode- 
rately, and should be fed on green or light food; his 
tail should be washed clean, with soap and water, three 
or four times within a fortnight ; by which time, in all 
probability, he will be entirely well. A horse nicked 
in this way will require no pulleying, provided the tail 
is well strained up, with a strong arm, twice a day. 

The second mode of nicking is attended with more 
trouble than the first : but with the greatest certainty 
oi a horse carrying an elegant tail. Having confined 
the horse as first directed, and prepared yourself with 
a sharp knife — 

1st. Make an incision entirely across the under 
part of the horse's tail, deep enough on each side to 
cut in two the depressors or tendons, but shallow 
in the middle, and about two inches from the root oi 


the tail When the depressors are entirely cut in 
two, one end of them will suddenly draw towards the 
rump, and tne other will slip or shoot out of the 
wound about half an inch, which must be cut oil 
smoothly and even with the wound. 

2d. The second incisions must be made like the 
fiist, from which they must be distant about three 

3d. The third incisions should be made like the 
second, except deeper. If any artery should be cut, 
it is no cause of alarm ; as a plentiful bleeding is ot 
infinite service in speedily curing the tail thus operated 
on, and the blood is easily stopped by wrapping the 
tail up with a small quantity of salt, added to a handful 
of flour, or by placing him in the pulleys; though from 
a gallon to a gallon and a hn)f of blood would not be 
too much to lose. 

4th. After nicking, the tail should be washed in 
strong salt and water, and the horse may not be pul- 
leyed for three or four days, at which time all blood, 
dirt, &c. should be carefully removed, not only from 
the under part of the tail, but from amongst the hair 
also, and should be kept clean until he js cured, which 
will be about three weeks; by which time should he 
not be fat, his condition will be much improved. 

5th. The tail should be taken out of the pulleys 
every three or four days, unplatted, and washed clean 
with strong soap-suds. 

Oth. Bleed every five or six days, taking from a 
half to a gallon of blood at each bleeding, and if the 
tail appears much inflamed, bleed oftener; it will 
•emove fever and inflammation, and cause the wounds 
to ieal very quick. 


7th. His food should be easy of digestion, light 
and cool, such as bran, oats, or green food of any kind 
If the root of the tail should be inflamed, fwhich is very 
often the case after pulleying,) or should small biles 
appear, apply a little tincture of myrrh, copperas, or 
blue-stone water. It very often happens, that the 
hair in the tail of a nicked harse shows a disposition 
to drop, which should be prevented, by washing the 
tail in sharp vinegar, and keeping it nice and clean 
with soap-suds. The matter discharged from the 
wounds, if permitted to remain amongst the hair for 
twenty-four hours, will take it off as readily as a 
knife. It is of very great importance to prevent this, 
\s the best nicked horse in the world will look ugly, if 
he has little or no hair in his tail; besides, it generally 
takes twelve months to replace it. 

Horses are sometimes nicked, when their blood i? 
in a bad state, which is the cause of their tails swelling 
and showing marks of violent inflammation ; to remove 
which, it will be only necessary to bleed plentifully 
and apply a poultice made of a strong decoction of red 
oak bark and corn meal 

If this operation should be performed in a season 
of the year when flies are troublesome, the tail and 
buttocks of the horse should be anointed with stur- 
geon's oil, which will effectually remove them. 

i shall now proceed to describe the thiid and best 
mode of nicking every description of horses; ami 
which, if well attended to, will seldom 01 never fail to 

1st. The stall, pulleys, halter, and manger, shou/d 
uii be prepared for the reception of a horse, previous 
to being nicked, as directed in the engraving prc- 
fixc-J. The pulleys (figure 2) about six or eight feet 


apart, and about the same distance from the stable 
floor, over each side of the stall, and firmly fastened 
to the wall ; a smooth and small cord is then to be 
passed through each of the pulleys, and to each end 
must be confined two equal weights, as figure 10 ; ibc 
tinker should be constructed and fastened as figure 1 1 ; 
the trough should be securely fastened to the stall or 
vvall, to prevent its being pulled down, {figure 8,) 
the stall should be three or three and an half feet 
wide, and not deep enough to allow a horse to rub and 
disfigure his tail, as figure 9. 

2d. The horse should be confined, as figures 5, G, 
and 3, and the tail closely and neatly platted up and 
clubbed at the end, or turned over a small stick, and 
securely tied with a waxed string, as figures 7 and i. 

3d. Being provided with a sharp knife and a crook- 
ed piece of buck's horn, and the tail being turned up 
by a strong arm, in a direct line with the back bone, 
as before mentioned, commence the operation by mak- 
ing a transverse incision, immediately across the tail, 
one and a half inches from the root, and deep enough 
*o separate entirely the tendons on each side of the 
under part of the tail, which will be found about a 
quarter of an inch from the hair on the outer edge ; 
this incision in the middle may be shallow. The large 
arteries lie so immediately under the tendons, that they 
are often wounded or separated in performing this 
operation, which will be a great advantage in the 
healing of the wounds, instead of doing injury by the 
loss of blood. But whenever a horse may have bled 
from one to two gallons, the bleeding will readily stop 
by placing the tail in pulleys, or by applying a small 
quantity of flour and salt to the wound, and wrap the 
tail up moderately tight with a iinen riiy, from *lie 
root to the end. 

6* E 


4th Make two incisions lengthwise or longitudi- 
nally, (commencing about two or two and a half inches 
from the cross or transverse incision,) and about three 
inches in length, which will expose the large tendons 
on each side. 

5th. Make two other incisions of the same kind, 
commencing about one inch from the second, and in 
length running within about two inches of the end ol 
the tail. 

6th. Make a transverse incision within half an inch 
of the termination of the longitudinal incisions, (or 
those made lengthwise,) pretty deep. 

7th. With a buck's horn take up the large tendons 
in the second incisions, and draw the ends out of the 
first ; take up those in the third and draw the ends out 
of the second, and at the upper part of the wound cut 
off the tendons even and smooth. 

8th. With a strong arm strain up the tail opposite 
the second incisions, until the bone slips or breaks ; 
treat the tail opposite the third incisions in the same 
manner — also the fourth and last, which should be 
made across. 

9th. Wash the tail in strong salt water, and the 
horse may be placed in a stall, turned in a pasture, or 
elsewhere, for two or three days. 

10th. Wash the wound and tail clean with strong 
soap suds, and place the horse in the pulleys, by pas- 
sing a sma',1 noose (Figure 1) over the stick confined 
in the hair, at the end of the tail — (Figure 4.) 

1 1 tli. Take from the neck vein half a gallon of blood, 
each week, until he gets well ; or double the quantity 
should the tail be much inflamed. He should remain 
in the pullevs about three weeks, in order to give the 
new flesh time to get firm, and should be washed ono 

Mi; KING. 57 

ii day vvi\i castile soap, so that it may be kept, entirely 
clean. The tail should be taken out of the pulle\s 
twice a week, the hair unplatted, and permitted to 
remain down all night, and the horse changed to a 
clean and large stall, with a good bed of straw, for the 
purpose of sleeping and refreshing himself. Before he 
is again confined, he may be rode two or three hundred 
vards, slow, and without being fretted. Whilst stand- 
ing in the pulleys, his legs should be frequently bathed 
with pot-liquor, in which bacon was boiled; vinegai 
and sweet oil, or lard and spirits of any kind ; and 
a mash should be given him at least once a week, of 
one gallon of bran or oats, with a table spoonful oi 
powdered brimstone, and one tea spoonful of salt- 
petre; not permitting him to drink for six hours after- 
wards. His halter should be made of substantial 
materials, to prevent his breaking loose whilst confined 
in the pulleys, pulling the hair out of the end of the 
tail, and doing himself other injury. A bucket of salt 
and water may be given twice a week during his con- 
finement, which will be very grateful to the taste and 
cooling to the svstem. 

12th. Great pains should be taken to have the weights 
to the pulleys equal, in order to keep the tail in a per- 
pendicular direction, and prevent it from turning to 
either side during the time of healing; as a horse tfia* 
carries his tail round to one side, instead of being 
elegantly nicked, is ruined. The wounds, occasionally 
should be washed in blue-stone or copperas water, 
which will cause them to heal rapidly; the horse 
should ha* r e as much green and light food as he can 
eat, such as bran, oats, &c. Some horses that are 
nicked in this way, and are pulleyed only four or live 
nays, carry very handsome tails; but 1 am of opinion 


to ensure success, it is necessary they should be kept 
in the pulleys until the wounds are perfectly well. 


The pricking a horse has proved to be as useless an 
operation as it is simple, seldom or never having the 
desired effect; consequently the practice should be 
abolished. Many nicked horses fail to carry good 
tails; and much less is it to be expected from a horse 
that is pricked. I would recommend that the operation 
should never be performed. 



To fox a horse is an operation so simple, that it can 
be performed by almost any person. The only skill is, 
to select such horses as will be improved by being 
foxed. There is an instrument generally used for this 
purpose • Hut the operation can be performed very 
correctly without it. The simplest and easiest mode 
is, to take a very small paint-brush, and with paint 
.hat will form a contrast to the colour of the horse, 
mark the ears of the shape and length you prefer ; 
men place on his nose a twitch ; have one of his for*; 


Ices held up ; and with a sharp Knife cut off* the ears, 
carefully following the line which was previously made 
with the brush ; the skin will immediately slip down 
and leave the gristly part a little naked, which mus* 
be washed in salt and water once a day for about a 
week, after which they should be greased with a little 
sweet oil, fresh butter, or hog's lard, and they will get 
entirely well in two or three weeks. A horse with a 
small, thin, delicate head, will always be much im- 
proved by being foxed. But a horse with a fleshy, 
heavy, thick, or long head, will show with less advan- 
tage after his ears are cut off', even if he carried them 
extremely bad previous to the operation. 



Docking a horse is an operation so simple, as to re 
quire but little skill or judgment in its performance 
A twitch is to be placed upon the upper lip of the 
Imrsc, but not so high as to prevent his breathing, (as 
in the engraving for nicking, figufe 3,) — one of his 
fore legs must be held up to prevent his kicking 01 
doing other injury, and a waxed string must be tied 
very tight twice round the tail, just above the place 
where it is to be cut off"; a large block of wood is to 
be placed upon his rump, and the tail turned up and 
iaid smoothly on the block ; then, with a sharp irwstru 
ment, you may cut the tail the length you prefer, 
(though horses docked short generally carry the best 
tails.) or after the waxed string is securely tied, take 


■ he tail in one hand, and a largo knife (sharpened on a 
ftrkk to give it a rough edge) in the other, and with 
ease, at one stroke, you may cut the tail in two: then 
take a piece of iron, moderately hot, place a little rosin 
in the wound, and sear it, recollecting to cut off the 
waxed string two or three days afterwards, and grease 
the tail with a little fresh butter or sweet oil, which 
will cause it to heal very quickly afterwards. When 
a horse is docked, the same tendons, arteries, and 
nerves are separated, that are divided in nicking ; and 
it is very rare that a' horse's life is endangered or lost 
in consequence of performing either operation. 

[from loudon's encyclopedia of, agriculture.] 


The time for castrating or gelding of colts is 
usually when they are about a year old ; although 
vhis operation is frequently suspended till the second 
year, especially when it is intended to keep them on 
hand, and without employing them in labour till the 
following season. Parkinson disapproves of delaying 
this operation so long, and recommends twitching 
the colts, a practice well known to the ram breeders, 
any time after a week old, or as soon after as the 
testicles are come down ; and this method, he says, 
he has followed himself, with great success. Blaine's 
remarks on the subject of castration appear wor- 
ihv of notice : he savs, when the breed is parlicu 


'arly gnod, and many considerable expectations are 
formed on the colt, it is always prudent to wait til/ 
twelve months: at this period, if his fore parts are 
correspondent with his hinder, proceed to castrate; 
but if he be not sufficiently well up before, or his neck 
be too long and thin, and his shoulders spare, he will 
assuredly improve by being allowed to remain whole 
six or eight months longer. Another writer suggests 
for experiment, the spaying of mares, thinking they 
would work better, and have more wind than geldings. 
But he does not appear to have been aware that this is 
by no means a new experiment ; for Tusser, who wrote 
in 1502, speaks of gelding fillies as a common practice 
at that period. The main objection to this operation 
is not that brood mares would become scarce, as he 
supposes; but that, by incapacitating them from breed 
ing, in case of accident, and in old age, the loss in this 
expensive species of live stock would be greatly 
enhanced. An old or lame mare would then be as 
worthless as an old or lame gelding is at present. 

f The following mode of castrating colts is taken from Mr. Skinner 8 
American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine.] ¥ . f 

The operator must in the first place provide himself 
with a strong rope, a couple of clamps for each colt, 
(if he intends altering more than one,) a little paste, a 
ball of twine or good thread, and a phial of the following 
mixture : 

R. Two tea- spoonfuls of red precipitate, 

One do. nf corrosive sublimate, 

to be well ground separately, and then intimately 
mixed. The clamp is made thus: Take a niece ol 

02 CA.-5T11ATING. 

older six inches long and from three quarters to one 
inch in diameter; bark it, and split it through the middle, 
and having taken out the pith, cut one adjoining end 
of each piece with a slope, from the inside out- 
wards, about an inch, and notch it on the outside, a* 
also the other end that is not sloped, that they may be 
securely tied together. Fill the hollows nicely with 
the paste, and sprinkle over it some of the mixture in 
phial. Then place the sloped ends together in such a 
manner that the other ends will be separated about an 
inch, and tie them by several turns of the thread in that 
position, thus: 

Every preparation being made; the colt, thrown 
and carefully tied; the integuments of the testicles are 
to be laid open, the stone pulled out, and the epididy- 
mis separated from its adhesion to the lower end of 
the testicle as in the ordinary way. The cord is then 
caught in one of the clamps, which is pressed hard 
upon it, and firmly tied at the open end. When this 
is accomplished, the cord must be cut directly oh*', close 
to the edge of the clamp, and a little more of the above 
mixture snould be sprinkled upon the ends exposed by 
the knife. After the operation is concluded, the clamps 
should be suffered to remain on eighteen or twenty-four 
hours. They may then be taken off by penning the 
colt in a confined place, and cutting the strings which 
tie their blunt ends. Neither swelling, nor stiffness, 
nor any other inconvenience follows this operation, and 
the animal appears, after he is relieved of the clamps, 
as well as ever he was. This method may, with equal 
efficacy, be applied to every other animai wnose ago 
or size renders the old way precarious. 



To fatten a horse in a short space of time, ha? 
generally been considered a very great art, and at- 
tended with much difficulty. Some authors are of 
opinion, it is necessary for a horse to swallow a certain 
quantity of medicine to produce the desired effect; 
while others rely on an uncommon or peculiar kind of 
food ; but experience has proved that both opinions 
are erroneous, and that the few simples which I shall 
heie recommend, together with good rubbing and a 
particular manner of feeding, will accomplish the fat- 
tening of a horse that is not a g*arran or extremely 
poor, within three or four weeks. After your stable 
is prepared, (as directed in pages 46 and 47,) provide a 
plenty of good sweet corn, hommony, oats, bran, and 
fodder ; also a sufficient quantity of straw to keep him 
with a comfortable and clean bed ; then notice the 
condition of the animal, for the purpose of bleeding in 
the neck. Should he be very poor, take from him only 
one quart of blood ; if in tolerable plight, two quarts 
— icpeating the bleeding at the expiration of every 
eight or ten days, until he is fat. Take of flaxseed 
one pint, boil it to a strong tea of one quart ; take ol 
powdered brimstone, one table spoonful ; salt-petre, 
one tea spoonful ; of bran, one and a half gallons; mix 
them all together, scalding the bran with the tea. form- 
ing a mash; which may be given every eight days: 
not permitting the horse to drink cold water for eight 
or ten hours afterwards. Take of asafoetida (which 
can be procured from any apothecary's shop) half an 
ounce ; wrap it in a clean linen rag, and nail it in the 
bottom of the manger where the animal is fed; at 
first the horse will eat unwillingly where it is placed, 
but in a few days he will grow remarkablv fonu of K. 


When you commence kind treatment towards a 
horse that has been cruelly used, let it be with great 
caution, or you may produce a founder or some other 
injury ; those serviceable animals being too often hard 
used and half starved. For three or four days, allow- 
ance a horse you contemplate fattening, to two and 
i half gallons a day, six or eight bundles of fodder, 
>r an equal quantity of hay ; after which you may 
\eep your rack constantly full of long food, and never 
>ermit the manger to be entirely empty : taking care 
o change the food every day, giving the largest pro- 
portion of bran, viz.: — bran and hommony, bran and 
oats, bran and corn, bran alone, oats, corn, hommony, 
&c. &c. The food moistened occasionally with strong 
sassafras tea, produces an admirable effect ; it whets 
the appetite, enriches the blood, and opens the bowels. 
Whenever a horse is fed, all dust, sour food, &c. 
should be removed from his manger, which should 
be washed twice a week with vinegar and salt ; this 
kind of attention will aid the appetite and keep the 
manger sweet and clean. If the season of the year 
you undertake to fatten in, affords green food of any 
Kind, a little about twelve o'clock would assist you 
much in accomplishing your object. In the bucket in 
which you water, throw a handful of salt, two or three 
times a week; it becomes very grateful to the taste, 
after a lew days' confinement, and will prevent his 
pawing and eating dirt. If the object is to fatten a 
.iorse as speedily as possible, giving to him unusual 
i_fe and spirits, he should not be brought out of tho 
stable, nor even led to water. But if flesh is to be 
'placed upon a horse to render hard service, I would 
recommend moderate exercise once every three days 
narefully avoiding fretting or alarming him ; more in 
•ury may be done a horse by fretting him one day 

excessive fatigue. 65 

than you can remove in a week by the kindest treat- 
ment. The hoofs should be cleaned out every moin« 
ing and evening, stuffed with clay and salt, or fresh 
cow manure, to keep the feet cool and prevent a swel- 
ling in the legs. A plenty of good rubbing is abso- 
lutely necessary for the placing of flesh speedily on a 
horse ; and a blanket as a covering, at any time except 
the summer months, will place on his coat of hair a 
beautiful gloss, and add much to his comfort and ap- 
parent value. 



For a horse to undergo very great fatigue without 
injury, requires at least one week's preparation. Pre- 
vious to entering him on his journey, he should be fed 
plentifully on solid old food, such as corn, fodder, 
hay or oats, and smartly exercised from five to ten 
miles a day. He should be well rubbed two or three 
times every twenty-four hours, which will very readily 
have the effect of making his flesh not only firm, but 
hard. I have no doubt, from the experiments I have 
made, that any tolerable good and active horse may be 
rode one hundred miles, in a pleasant long day, with- 
out receiving any permanent injury, by observing the 
treatment I shall here recommend. Experience has 
proved that rainy or drizzly weather is more favoura- 
ble to the performance of an excessive hard ride, than 
d day that is fair or sultry, with sunshine ; rain has 
.ne effect of keeping him cool, suppling his limbs, ol 
moistening and refreshing him. On the night pie- 


vious to his engaging in this laborious undertaking 
feed your horse with one and a half gallon of oats, or 
one gallon of corn and six bundles of fodder ; in the 
morning feed with one quart of oats or corn only, and 
offer some salt and water, of which a horse is apt to 
drink but little early in the morning. You then set 
out on your journey, in such speed as is proportioned 
to the distance you contemplate going in the day. A 
rider, who is compelled to perform a long journey in 
haste, and with certainty, in a given time, should be 
extremely particular in his manner of riding. He 
should bear lightly and steadily on his bridle and stir- 
rups, never jerking, checking, or stopping his horse 
suddenly, or change his gaits too frequently ; all these 
things have a tendency to weaken and fatigue a horse 
extremely. A good rider will more resemble the light 
and airy movements of a feather, than the duli and 
leaden gravity of a bullet ; the same horse can convey 
a good rider twenty miles farther in a day than he can 
one unskilled in this necessary and elegant accomplish- 
ment. After progressing about fifteen or eighteen 
miles, refreshment will be necessary, not only for the 
horse, but the rider also. You will then give him a 
bucket of salt and water with two handfuls of corn 
meal thrown therein, and one quart of oats or corn ; 
at twelve o'clock and at dinner time, feed and water in 
the same manner. Great care should be taken to pre- 
vent your I'orse from drinking cold pond or well water 
or indulge in any inviting rivulet he may meet in his 
road, more than to moisten his mouth. It is a prac 
tice among hostlers, when they have no particulai 
directions, to plunge horses that are tired and heated 
at twelve o'clock, into cold pond water ; in preference 
to which I would advise that their legs should be well 
nibbed with about half a pint of any k : n<* if spiiits 


Your last feed being at two o'clock, or dinner time, 
your horse will require nothing more until night. 
The day's ride being performed, turn him into a lot to 
roe*, and wallow ; after which let him be placed in a 
staF., on a good bed of straw. 1st. Offer him a bucket 
of water. 2d. Remove all dirt and dust from his legs 
and ancles with soap and warm water. 3d. Bathe 
him from his belly to his hoofs with equal parts of 
vinegar and spirits, to which add a little sweet oil, fresh 
butter, or hog's lard, stewing them all together, and 
make use of the mixture as warm as the hand can bear 
it. 4th. He must be well curried, brushed, and finally 
polished with a sheepskin or woollen cloth. 5th. His 
feet should be nicely cleaned out, and stuffed with clay 
and salt, or fresh cow manure. 6th. He should be fed 
with one gallon of old corn, or one and a half gallons 
of oats, and six bundles of old fodder. Your horse 
being now in possession of every attention and comfort 
you could offer him, will soon be refreshed, forget his 
hard service, and be again prepared, by the next 
morning, to obey you whither you may direct his 
footsteps. If you have more than one day's journey to 
perform with great rapidity, observe the same rules ol 
feeding, watering, and attention, as directed for the first 
day, except the feed at twelve o'clock, which quantity 
must be doubled. Many elegant and high spirited 
horses have been ruined and rendered useless by per- 
sons wanting experience on the above subject, who 
were disposed to treat those faithful animals with every 
kindness in their power; yet being under the neces 
6ity of performing a long journey in a limited time, 
and not knowing that the will of a heated and fatigued 
horse should be" controlled, they have permitted him 
to eat as much as he pleased, or when heated, to drink 
is much cold pond or branch water as his great Inirsi 


would induce him ; which have often been the means ol 
producing cholic, founder, and other diseases, that too 
frequently prove fatal in the hands of a common farrier, 
to which title every hostler, blacksmith, and every 
blockhead of a servant, who does not even understand 
the currying of a horse, have pretensions. The loss 
of two or three quarts of blood, to a horse that has 
undergone excessive fatigue, will remove the soreness 
and stiffness of his limbs, the natural consequence oi 
violent exertions. 



To perform a long journey, with comfort and ease 
to a horse, and satisfaction to the rider, requires some 
attention to the feeding, for eight or ten days previous 
to the setting out. A horse uncommonly fat, running 
late at grass, fed with unsubstantial food, such as 
bran, &c. or unaccustomed to exercise and fatigue, is 
very unfit to perform a journey on, unless prepared by 
being fed on old and solid food, for eight or ten days, 
such as corn, fodder, oats, or hay, and given moderate 
exercise. A horse about half fat is in the best situa- 
tion to bear the fatigue and labour of a journey bv 
following the mode of treatment I shall here recom- 
mend. If he is only a tolerably good one, by the time 
ne reaches his journey's end, should it last four or five 
weeks, his condition will be much improved, if he is 
not entirely fat. 1st. It is necessary to have your 
norse shod with a good and substantial set ol shoes, 


taking care that they fit easy, set well, and are not 
placed so near the inside of the foot as to cut the 
ankles in travelling, which often produces stiffness, 
considerable swelling of the legs, and sometimes lame- 
ness. 2d. Examine your saddle, valise, portmanteau, 
harness, &c. as the case may he, to discover if they fit 
with ease and comfort to your horse, taking care to let 
them undergo the same examination every two or three. 
days. For a saddle to fit properly, it must be neither 
wide enough in the tree to slip upon the shoulders, or 
so narrow as to pinch or break the skin on the withers, 
the bolstering or stuffing in the pannels should be 
adapted to the hollow spaces on each side of the back 
bone or spine. When thus properly fitted, a crupper 
will be useless. 3d. Your valise should be fastened 
on by passing two straps underneath two pieces con- 
fined to the valise pad, and through two loops at the 
back of the saddle; by which means it will be kept 
steadily in its proper place, and the rider will not be 
perplexed by its swinging first on one side, and then on 
the other, and the danger of the horse having a sore 
back from friction will be avoided. The only difference 
between the customary way of fastening a valise and 
the one I here recommend, is the passing straps through 
the loops to the back of the saddle. 

On the night previous to your commencing your 
journey, after your horse is placed on a good bed 
of straw, and is well rubbed, feed with two gallons 
of oats, or one and a half gallons a old corn and 
hommony, and eight or ten bundles of fodder, or 
a quantity of hay equal to it. In the morning ked 
with half a gallon of oats, after which offer a bucket 
of water. It is customary for horses to be watered 
before being fed ; but it is much better not to water them 
until afterwards; a large draught of water very ufteo 


destroys the appetite, and makes a horse dull and 
sluggish for a whole day afterwards. When he is 
watered in this way, he seldom drinks too much, and his 
mouth is washed clean and is moist when he commences 
his journey. It also measurably destroys his incclina- 
tion to drink out of every stream he may cross in the 
road, which is so tiresome and unpleasant to a rider. 

Being now completely prepared for the contem- 
plated journey, the following rules must be strictly 
observed. 1st. Never permit your horse, while tra- 
velling, to drink cold branch, well, or pond water, or 
more than is necessary to wet or moisten his mouth. 
2d. Every time you stop to feed, (which will be morn- 
ing, breakfast, and dinner time,) give him a bucket oi 
water, made a little salt, with about two handfuls oi 
corn meal stirred in it; he will very soon grow fond 
of it, and indeed prefer it to any other drink; it cools 
the system, relieves thirst, and contains considerable 
nutriment. 3d. Whenever you stop for the purpose of 
breakfasting, let your horse cool about ten minutes ; 
then feed with half a gallon of oats or corn, and two 
bundles of fodder, not forgetting to offer him again the 
water, meal, and salt. 4th. At dinner time observe 
the same treatment as directed at breakfast. 5th. At 
night (having arrived at the place you intend stopping 
at) have your horse turned into a lot, for the purpose 
of wallowing, cooling, &c. 6th. With soap and water 
have all dirt removed from his legs. 7th. Have 
him placed on a good bed of straw, then take of 
spirits of any kind half a pint, of vinegar half a pint, 
mix them together, and let his legs be rubbed with 
(he mixture until they are dry. 8th. Let him be well 
curried, brushed, and rubbed with straw. 9th. Water 
him plentifully. 10th. Feed him with two gallons of 
oats, or one and a half gallons of cvrn or hommony t 


and eight or ten bundles of fodder. 11th. Let h,a 
hoofs be nicely cleaned out and stuffed with fresh cow 
manure ; this application keeps them tough, moist, and 
cool. 12th. Change your food as often as possible, care- 
fully avoiding using any that is new, or just gathered. 
( )bserve the above rules to your journey's end, except 
your horse should prove a great feeder, and in thai 
case you may indulge him a little ; but the quantity ] 
have here recommended, is enough for any common 
horse when travelling. It may not be amiss to remind 
the young traveller to inspect his horse's shoes once a 
day, and whatever appears amiss about them to have 
immediately rectified. It frequently happens that the 
skin of young horses, unaccustomed to travel, is chafed 
and scalded by the friction of the girth; the part, 
washed clean with a little soap and water, and then 
washed with a little salt and water, will immediately 
*^ure and toughen the skin. 

It often happens at little baiting places or country 
taverns, (met with on the road by travellers,) that 
towards the end of harvest, servants are apt to feed 
with green oats or wheat, inconsequence of the scar- 
city of fodder, unless otherwise directed; food of this 
kind is poison to a travelling horse, and will produce a 
harrhcua and extreme debility. It would be much 
-vitter he should not have long food for two weeks, 
than to give it to him green from the field. When 
persons travelling are not attentive to their horses, 
they are frequently given mouldy oats and corn, which 
is productive of the worst effects ; there being but few 
kinds of food that can be given a horse, that will ter- 
minate his existence more speedily. Many of those 
valuable animals have been destroyed by such means, 
when the owners have been frequently at a loss to know 

with what disease or from what cause thev had died 


79 tat 


To \ 2 able to ascertain the age of a horse, with 
tolerahie certainty, from three to nine years old, is a 
subject of considerable importance to every person 
who may have occasion to purchase. Unless we pos- 
sess this information, we are subject to the imposition 
and to become the sport of every jockey, whose vice 
and depravity frequently surpass those of the most 
untractable horse. Some judges undertake to tell 
the age until a horse is fifteen or twenty years old, 
which in my opinion is impossible ; they merely make 
a guess, without any rule by which they are governed, 
and four times out of five they labour under a mistake. 
If I am enabled to describe such marks and appear- 
ances as will make any person a judge of a horse's 
age, from three to nine's years old, I shall conceive I 
have performed a useful task, and shall be the means 
of preventing many impositions. Horses that have 
not arrived at three years of age, are unfit for use, 
and those that are more than nine, decrease in value 
with great rapidity. All that are particularly fond of 
horses, will always be filled with regret on viewing an 
elegant horse worn out with old age, yet possessing 
strong marks of beauty, and even former fine and 
graceful actions. It is to be much lamented that so 
beautiful an animal should so soon feel decay and be no 
longer useful. I shall proceed to lay down such rules 
for ascertaining the age of a horse, as will enable any 
nan to speak with tolerable certainty on that subject. 
FiVery horse has six teeth above and below ; befot« he 
arrives at the age of three he sheds his two middle 
v.eth by the young teeth rising and shoving the nfta 


ones out of their place. When he arrive, at the ago 
of three, he sheds one more on each side of the <niddJ»s 
teeth; when four years old, he sheds his two c.orne; 
and last of his fore teeth; between four ami i]\\* he 
cuts his under tusks, and when five will cut hi/ 
upper tusks, and have a mouth full and complete 
his teeth appearing to have their full growth, excepi 
the tusks, and will be even, regularly placed, and 
pretty much grooved on the inside, with hollows d 
a very dark brown colour. There is always a verv 
plain difference between colts' and horses' teeth; tht, 
colts' being without grooves and hollows, and nevei 
so large and strong. Some horses are without uppei 
tusks even to the end of their lives; but this is not 
common. The appearance of the lower tusks, and 
them fully grown, is the most certain proof that the 
horse is five years old, even if one of his colt's teeth 
remains unshed. At six years old, the grooves and hol- 
lows in a horse's mouth begin to fill up a little, and their 
tusks have their full growth, with their points sharp, 
and a little concave or hollow on the inside. At seven 
years old, the grooves and hollows will be pretty well 
filled below, except the corner teeth, leaving where the 
dark brown hollows formerly were, little brown spots 
At eight, the whole of the hollows and grooves are 
filled up, and you see the appearance of what is termed 
$?nooth below. At nine years old there very often 
appears a small bill to the outside corner teeth ; the 
point of the tusk is worn off*, and the pari that was 
concave begins to fill up and become rounding ; the 
squares of the middle teeth begin to disappear, and the' 
gums leave them small and narrow at top. Dealer 
in horses sometimes drill or hollow the teeth with 
a graver, and black the hollows by using a hot lion, 
for the purpose of passing an old horse for a young 

74 AGE. 

one. upon those who have but little or no experience 
upon the subject. But a discerning eye will readily 
discover the cheat, by the unnatural shape and black- 
ness of the hollows, the dulness and roundness of the 
tusks, together with the want of squares to the front 
teeth, and by many other visible marks, which denote 
the advanced age of a horse. 

Between nine and ten years of age, a horse generally 
loses the marks of the mouth, though there are a 
few exceptions ; as some horses retain good mouths 
until they are fourteen or fifteen years old, with their 
teeth white, even, and regular, and many other marks 
of freshness and vigour. But when a horse grows old, 
it may be discovered by these indications, which com- 
monly attend old age, viz.: The gums wear away and 
leave the roots of the teeth long and slender ; the roots 
grow yellow, and often brownish ; the bars of the 
mouth (which are always fleshy, plump, and dry, in a 
young horse, and form so many distinct, firm ridges,) 
in an old horse, are lean, smooth, and covered with 
saliva, with few or no ridges. The eyes of a young 
horse appear plump, full, and lively; the lids with few 
wrinkles, the hollows above the ball small, and no 
gray hairs upon the brow, unless they proceed from 
the colour or marks of the horse. The eyes of an old 
horse appepr sleepy, dim, and sunk, and the lids loose 
and very much shrivelled with large hollows and the 
brow grav. The countenance of a young horse is bold, 
gay, and lively ; while that of an old one is sad, dejected, 
and melancholy, unless mounted, and artificial means 
used to give him spirit. 

The chin of a horse, in my opinion, is by far the 
best mark to enable you to ascertain his age, inasmuch 
as it does not admit of the practice of those aits, bv 

which the jockey so often passes oft' an old broken 
down horse lor a young one. The appearance of the 
chin can be changed only by nature: and he who will 
become an attentive observer, will soon be convinced, 
that it is not more difficult to tell an old horse from a 
young one, by the appearance of their chins, than it is 
for a skilful physician to distinguish a cheek of health 
from one that is wasted, diseased, and superannuated. 

The chin of a young horse is round, full, plump, full 
of wrinkles, and the pores close and small ; that of a 
horse advanced in years, flat, wrinkled, flabby, and the 
pores open and large. Indeed, after some experience, 
together with particular attention to this mark of age, 
there will be but little difficulty of ascertaining, with 
certainty, the age of a horse from three to nine years 
old. I have sometimes met with travellers on the 
road, whom I never before had seen, and in travelling 
alonsr, have told the a^e of their horses bv their chins. 
An examination of the lips and nostrils of a horse, 
may aid, corroborate, and strengthen the opinion of 
age, founded on the appearance of the chin. The lips 
and nostrils of a young horse are smooth and free 
from wrinkles, while those of an old one abound in 

Were I in pursuit of truth and honour, I nevei 
should seek them in the lower class of dealers in horses 
or horse jockeys. Whenever they have a horse to 
dispose of, they assure a purchaser he possesses every 
desirable quality, &c. and whenever they have effected 
a sale, they smile at their success, ana expose every 
vice to which the horse was addicted, to the next 
person they meet. 

The physiognomy of a horse wrJl assist much in 
ascertaining his age ; but the chin is certainly the 
nafest guide. 




A wonderful discovery recently made in an old Horse's age . 

*' ' Tis to the pen and press we mortals owe, 
All we believe, and almost all we know.'* 

Since the age of that noble animal, the horse, aftei 
a certain period of life, (that is to say) after the marks 
in his incisors and cuspidati are entirely obliterated, to 
be able to ascertain his age, with any tolerable degree 
of certainty, appears to the generality of " horse age 
judges" to be a subject of very much uncertainty. 1 
now take the liberty of laying before the public, 
through the medium of your paper, an infallible method, 
(subject to very few exceptions) o r ascertaining it in 
such a manner, after a horse loses his marks, or after 
he arrives to the age of nine years or over ; so that 
any person concerned in horses, even of the meanest 
capacity, may not be imposed upon in a horse's age, 
from nine years of age and over, more than three 
years at farthest, until the animal arrives at the age ol 
twenty years and upwards, by just feeling the sub- 
maxillary bone, or the bone of the lower jaw. 

This method I discovered, by making many ana- 
tomical observations on the skulls of dead horses and 
repeated dissections. In order, therefore, to elucidats 
the above, I must in the first place beg leave to remark : 
lha the submaxillary bone, or the lower jaw bone 

\«*. 77 

oi all young horses, about four or five years of age, 
immediately above the bifurcation, is invariably thick 
and very round at the bottom ; the cavity of said bone 
being very small, contains a good deal of marrow, and 
generally continues in this state until the animal arrives 
at that period which is generally termed an "agec* 
horse," or until the animal acquires his full size in 
height or thickness; or according U, yorting language, 
is completely furniskid, with very little variation. But 
after this period, the cavity as aforesaid becomes larger, 
and more marrow is contained therein. Hence the 
submaxillary bone becomes thinner and sharper a little 
above the bifurcation. 

This indelible mark may always be observed in a 
small degree in horses above eight years of age ; but at 
nine years old it is still more perceptible. It continues 
growing a little thinner and sharper at tne bottom until 
twelve years of age. From thence until fifteen, it is 
still thinner, and about as sharp as the back of a case 
knife near the handle. From this period until the 
ages 18, 19, 20, and upwards, it is exceedingly so; 
and is as sharp, in many subjects, as the dull edge of 
that instrument. 


1st. Put your three fingers about half an inch or an 
inch immediately above the bifurcation, and grasp the 
submaxillary bone, or the lower jaw bone. If it is '.hick 
at the sides, and very round indeed at the bottom, the 
animal is most certainly under nine years of age. 

2d. If the bone is not very thick, and it is per 
ceivably not very round at the bottom, he is from nine 
to twelve years old, and so on. From twelve to fifteen, 
the bone is sharper at bottom and thinner at me 



sides, the bottom is generally as sharp as the back of 
a ease knife; and from 15 to 18, 19, 20, and upwards, 
without many exceptions, the bone, when divested of 
its integuments, is as sharp as the dull edge of that 

3d. Allowances must always be made between 
heavy, large western < r wagon horses, or carriage 
horses, and fine blood* <l ones. By practising and 
strictly attending to the above rules, upon all descrip- 
tions of horses, the performer in a little time will become 
very accurate in the accomplishment of his desires, 
more especially if he attentively observes the lower 
iaw bone of dead horses " 



Perhaps there is no subject to be found, that admits 
of a greater diversity of opinion, than the form and 
number of marks necessary to constitute the beauty of 
a horse. Many white marks, when of irregular shape, 
and handsomely placed, give to a handsome horse a 
gay and sprightly appearance, lightening up the coun- 
tenance, and forming a beautiful contrast to his colour. 
Indeed, marks are sometimes so irregularly and fanci- 
fully placed, as not only to please, but to delight most 
persons who are judges on this subject; while others 
of such regular, common, and unbecoming shape, and 
so unnaturally placed as to be unfavourable to beauty 
and have a tendency to disfigure the animal they arc 


intended to beautify ; such as a face blazed large, high, 
und regular, like an ox ; the two fore legs white above 
the knees, and no white behind ; one white leg to the 
knee, behind on the right ; one fore leg white to the 
knee before on the left : a bald face and no white legs* 
a dim blaze, commencing with an awkward star, end- 
ing with a snip on the one side, &c. &c. A horse 
without marks, always has a deadness in his aspect — 
and one well marked, always appears the more 
beautiful for it. But it must be acknowledged, by 
every person of experience, that a horse with white 
faet, is much more tender than one without them. 
liven in cases of lameness not proceeding from acci- 
dent, nine times out of ten, if a horse has a white foot, 
that will be the one that will first fail him. White 
feet are also more subject to the scratches and other 
diseases, than those of different colours, and a very 
remarkable fact exists, that 1 never have seen or heard, 
in my life, of a first rate four mile heat racer, that had 
a bald face and white legs to the knees. 

White marks add to the beauty of a horse, but les 
sen his services. 



When we have a pair of horses that matcn well m 
every respect, except that one has a blaze or star in 
the face, it becomes very inteiesting and important to 
know how to make their faces match, and to givt 


80 HEAD. 

them blazes or stars precisely alike. This may be 
done in the following manner: — 

Number 1. — Take a razor and shave ofT the hair the 
form and size you wish the blaze or star to be made : 
then take a small quantity of oil of vitriol, and with a 
feather anoint the part once, which will be quite suffi- 
cient. After the application of the vitriol, the part 
will become a little sore and inflamed ; which may be 
readily removed and healed up, by washing the sore 
with copperas water. Great care should be used to 
prevent the vitriol from getting on clothes, as it will 
entirely destroy them. 

Number 2. — Take a piece of oznaburgs the size you 
want the blaze or star: spread it with warm pitch and 
appiy it to the horse's face : let it remain two or three 
days, by which time it vvill bring off the hair clean, 
and make the part a little tender; then take of elixir 
vitriol a small quantity ; then anoint the part two or 
three times ; or, of a very common weed called as- 
mart, a small handful, bruise it and add to it about a 
gill of water, use it as a wash until the face gets well, 
when the hair will grow out entirely white. 



Tiif head of a horse should be small, bony, thin, 
and delicate ; his jaws wide apart, yet thin : his throttle 
large and arched; his ears long, thin, narrow, high 
and pointing together ; his eyes prominent large and 


full, of a dark cinnamon or black colour, bright, lively, 
and shining; his nostrils wide, red, and expanded; his 
mouth and lips thin, small, and plump; his chin fuH 
sharp, and delicate ; his face rather of a Roman order 
than straight, with irregular white, either in a star or 
blaze, to give expression and light up the countenance 



The body of a horse should be large, in \ proportion 
to the balance of his frame, compact, round, and swel- 
ling; his flanks plump and full ; and his last or small 
est rib, approaching near the hip bone, which is never 
placed too near the point of the shoulders ; the back 
should be very short, smooth, and nearly even, neither 
swayed nor humped ; the hips wide apart, full, round, 
and even with the body. A horse with a light flat 
body, open and gaunt about the flanks, with high spirit, 
long legs, &c. is unfit for any purpose, except for 
show ; and that not for more than two or three hours : 
for his rider, after that time, as well as every spectator, 
will discover him sinking under fatigue, and completely 
giving up. 



The neck of a horse should be long, thin, and deli- 
rate (indeed they are never too long or too delicate) 
growing deeper from the joining of the head to the 
shoulders ; the upper edge should form the half of an 
arch, gradually falling in height and shape from the 
head to the shoulders ; the mane should be thin, 
smooth, and in length half the width of the neck. — 
The shoulders of a horse should be thin, high, and 
thrown very far back ; for experience has proved, that 
those with low shoulders and high rumps, although they 
may have many good parts, can never show to ad van 
tage, and seldom make good saddle or race horses. 



Tni5 *ore legs of a horse should bear a just propoi- 
cion to his size ; the arms large, long, and full ; the 
legs bony, tiat, and sinewy ; the pasterns rather long 
than otherwise, and tolerably straight. Small lean 
arms, a bending back or trembling of the knees, bow 
tegs, small and round legs, extremely delicate back 
sinews, or those unnaturally large, indicate weakness 
or some injury, and should be avoided. The hind 
pa r ts of a ho**se, from the hip bone to the ho^k, should 
oe of great length ; the thighs and muscles should be 
"ull, large, and bulging ; the hock broad, sinewv and 

SIIOKINtt. 83 

strong; the hind legs flat, smooth, bony, and fuh 01 
sinew, 'clear of knots, and rather crooked in the hock 
than straight; the pasterns of moderate length, small 
and rather straight than otherwise. The horse should 
be neither knock-kneed or bow-legged, or his feet 
turned in or out; as a horse thus shaped, moves ugly 
*.nd never can be sure fivMoA 



Diseases are sometimes produced in the feet, (mm 
which a horse is never again Wee during his life ; it is 
therefore important that a valuable horse should not be 
placed in the hands of every blockhead who pleases to 
call himself a horse shoer, but entrusted only to persons 
of known skill. For a horse to be well shod, the hoof 
should be pared with a buttress, (instead of giving in 
to the cruel and injurious practice of burning the foot 
with a red hot shoe until it fits,) smooth and level, to 
a reasonable size; the frog should be nicely trimmed, 
in shape a little convex, rather lower than the foot ; 
the shoes should be made of good and tough iron, and 
precisely the shape of the hoof after being trimmed, 
not so wide between the heels as to show on the out- 
side, or so narrow as to cramp the foot, and produce 
narrow heels, (which is a very troublesome disease ; 
The nails should be made of old horseshoes, or some, 
other tough iron, with small heads, and drove regular, 
smooth, and even: not high enough to /each the 


quick, yet with hold sufficient to confine the shoe three 
or four months. The points of the nails should be 
formed into neat and small clinches, and should be 
well driven up 

Some taste may be displayed in the rasping and 
shaping the hoof, after the shoe is confined. When it 
.s left more sharp than flat around at the toe, it adds 
much to its beauty and neat appearance. 

When a horse is well shod, if water is poured upon 
the bottom of his foot, it will not pass between the 
hoof and the shoe. A smith, who resided in Williams- 
burg, in the year 1804, was in the habit of shoeing in 
this exact and elegant style. Shoes for draft horses, 
that have seldom occasion to go out of a walk, should 
be heavy, strong, and with high heels, and pointed at 
the toe with steel. 

Horse shoeing is what every worker of iron, who 
has acquired the name of a blacksmith, pretends to be 
well skilled in ; but there are few indeed in possession 
of sufficient knowledge on that subject, to make it safe to 
place under their care a horse of value, for the purpose 
of being shod. To perform this operation correctly, 
and without present or future injury, requires not only 
good skill and judgment, but a thorough acquaintance 
with the anatomy of a horse's foot, which is a know 
jedgt. but few of our blacksmiths are in possession of, 
and is the cause of so many horses being rendered 
useless. Almost all the diseases in the feet, are, more 
or less, the result of bad shoeing, by wounding muscles, 
tf ciris nerves, or arteries in this way. 



The hoofs of a horse should be proportioned to his 
iize ; of a dark colour, smooth, tough, and nearly 
r< >und ; not too flat nor too upright, and the bottom 
hollow. White hoofs are much more tender than any 
other colour, nor do they retain or bear a shoe so well. 
One that is flat, turning up at the toe or full of ridges, 
or flat and pumiced on the under side, strongly indicates 
founder or other injury. If the hair lie smooth at the 
top of the hoof, it is an evidence of its being good, 
should there be nothing unnatural in its shape ; but if 
tne hair stands up and appears rough, and the flesh 
swelled a little beyond the circle of the hoof, it is a 
proof the foot is in some way diseased and a ring bone 
may be apprehended. 

— ♦•©•«— 


The mane and tail of a horse, when thr hair is even, 
smooth, long, and well proportioned, adds much to 
the beauty, boldness, and majesty of his figure. Great 
judgment and taste may be displayed in the trimming 
and proportioning those two ornaments. A very large 
horse, even if elegant, appears mean and trifling if you 
attach to him a little rat tail ; one very small with a 
monstrous long, bushy tail ; or a square, narrow 
hipped, lathy horse, with a small bob tail, onl/ serves 

86 EYES. 

to point out his imperfections, and attach to his ap. 
pearance an idea of insignificance and meanness. One 
with a remarkably long body, with a thin switch bob 
tail, bears no better proportion than the legs and thighs 
of a dwarf to the head and body. A large horse, 
roached and bobbed, never shows to advantage, as the 
appearance of the riding horse is given up, and the 
round and snug appearance of the nimble footed pony 
can never be attained. For a horse to look well with 
a bob tail, he should be plump, round, full, and com- 
pact ; but all tails that are full of hair, show to much 
more advantage than those that are thin and frizzled. 
Previous to a tail's being trimmed, great respect 
should be paid to the shape and proportion of the 
horse, and the tail should be made an equal propor- 
tionable part. The manes of all horses, except ponies, 
should be long, smooth, and reaching at least half way 
down the neek ; nothing can more disfigure him than 
a short frizzled mane : it even alters, apparently, the 
shape of the neck, and when once in this situation, it 
will take twelve months to grow of proper length. 
The mane of a horse may be combed two or three 
limes a day, as a thin mane looks well ; but his tail, 
if well proportioned and elegant, should not be combed 
oftener than twice a week. 



The eye is an organ of more use and more value 
thaji any that belongs to the horse, and should always 
undergo an examination by a purchaser with the 

eves. bl 

greatest attention and minuteness. Nothing can more 
affect his value than the want of vision ; as any elegant 
horse, that would readily command in cash two hundred 
dollars, it* blind, in all probability, would be wdl sold 
at fifty dollars, which plainly proves the necessity and 
importance of using on this subject the greatest 

To give a full description of the anatomy of a horse's 
eye, would take up more room and time than can at 
present be devoted to this topic: the reader must be 
content with a description of those parts most familiar 
and most important. 

The eye is the organ of sight, whereby the ideas ol 
tall outward objects are represented to the common 
sensory ; its form is a convex globular, covered by its 
proper lids, and enclosed within an orbit or socket: the 
eyelids preserve the eye from dust or external injury, 
and an expansion of the muscles and skin, the inner 
membrane being of an exquisite contexture, that it 
may in no manner hurt or impair the surface of the 
eye: their edges have a cartilaginous or gristly rim, 
by which they are so fitted as to meet close together 
at pressure ; the orbit or cavity in which the eye is 
situated, is lined with a very pliable, loose fat, which 
is not only easy to the eye in its various motions, but 
serves to keep it sufficientlv moist, as the lachamalial 
glands, seated in the outer corner of the eye, serve to 
. moisten its surface, or wash off any dust or dirt that 
may happen to get into it: at the inner corner of the 
eye, next the nose, is a carbuncle, which some are of 
of inion is placed to keep that corner of the eye from 
being entirely closed, that any tears or gummy matter 
(nay be discharged even in time of sleep, or into the 
nunctua lucluunaiia, which are little holes for tlie 
9 G 

89 EVES. 

purpose of carrying off any superfluous moisture or 
tears into the nose: the eye has four coats or mem- 
branes, and three humours ; the first membrane is called 
tunika adnata, and covers all that part of the eye that 
in a man appears white, but in a horse is variegated 
with streaks and spots of brown, and being reflected 
back, lines the inside of the eyelids, and by that inver- 
sion becomes the means to prevent motes, dust, small 
flies, or any extraneous matter getting behind the eye- 
ball into the orbit, which would be extremely danger- 
ous : this coat is full of blood vessels, which appear in 
little red streaks on the human eye when inflamed, 
and when there is but little white in the eyes of 
horses, they appear fiery, and the eyelids, when 
opened and turned back, look red : the second coat has 
its foiepart very strong and transparent, like horn, 
and is therefore called the cornea ; and the other part, 
which is opaque and dark, is called the schlerotis: 
under the cornea lies the iris, which in a horse inclines 
to cinnamon colour: the middle of this membrane, 
or coat, is perforated for the admission of the rays 
of light, and is called the pupil : under the iris lies 
the processes ciliares, which go ofl in little rays, and 
'n a sound eye are plainly to be seen. As often 
as these processes contract, they dilate the pupil, 
which may always be observed in places where the 
ight is small ; but in a strong light, the circular fibres 
of the iris act as a sphincter muscle, and lessen the size 
of the pupil ; and therefore a dilated and wide pupil, in 
ft strong light, is generally an evidence of a bad eye. 
Under the schlerotis lies the choroides, which is the 
third coat of the eye : in men it is of a dusky brown 
but in horses the greater part of this coat is white, 
which enables them to see bodies of all colours better 
than men in the night, as white reflects all colours 

EYES. 69 

But horses and other animals that feed on grass, have 
some parts of this membrane of a light green, which 
enables them to see with little light, and makes grass 
an object that they can discern with greatest strength, 
and therefore it is sometimes called tunlcla uvea, 
from its resembling the colour of a grape. The inner- 
most or fourth coat is called the membrana retina, 
which is only an expansion of the optic nerve upon 
the choroidcs, and encompasseth the glossy humour 
like a net. By the continuation of the rays of light 
upon the fine filaments of this membrane, all the 
external images are conveyed by the optic nerves to 
the brain. Within the coats of the eye are seated the 
three humours that chiefly compose the eyeball ; the 
first is the aqueous or watery humour, which lies 
foremost and seems chiefly as a proper medium to 
preserve the crystalline humours from injuries in case 
of wounds, bruises, or any other external cause. 
Behind the aqueous humour lies the crystalline lens, 
in a very firm membrane called arena, being like a 
spider's web — its use is to refract the rays of light 
that pass through it, so that all the rays proceeding 
from the same point of any object, being first refracted 
on the cornea, may be united on the retina — the 
vitreous humour lies behind the crystalline, being con- 
cave on its foreside to make a convenient lodgement for 
the crystalline, and its hinder part convex agreeable 
to the globular form of the eye, upon which the tunica 
retina and choroides are spread : this humour pos- 
sesses a space larger than the other two, and being of 
a hue like a light coloured green glass, is a proper 
medium, not only to keep the crystalline humour and 
the retina at a proper distance from each other, but b\ 
Us colour to prevent the rays o r light falling too for 

90 EVF.9. 

ciblv uT.nn *M 'alter, which might weaken or impaiT 
the si^ht. 

The eyes of horses difler so widely in their appear- 
ance, that the best judges will be sometimes mistaken 
as to their power of vision ; but I shall here recom- 
mend such modes of examination as will rarelv de- 
reive, having already described that organ fully, when 
in its most perfect state. 

For the purpose of making a fair trial of a horse's 
eyes, that you suspect to be bad, and to ascertain their 

1st. Have him confined in a dark stable about fif- 
teen minutes, then led hastily out into a strong light: 
if he winks fast, wrinkles his brows, throwing his 
head up as if desirous of receiving more light, and 
moves his ears backwards and forwards slowly, in an 
unmeaning manner, his eyes are not good. 

2d. If his eyes appear sunk, with the lids shrivelled 
or very much swelled, it is a proof they have received 
an Imury. 

3d. ll the ball of the eye appears covered with a 
film, or the remains of one about the corners, with the 
pupil large and light coloured, without occasionally 
contracting with a look wild and vacant, his eyes are 

4th. ll he can be rode against a tree or any other 
object which he should avoid, and which should alarm 
him, his eyes are bad. 

5th. If when moved he lifts his feet high and awk- 
wardly, and appears not to know where he is about to 
place them, you may immediately conclude he is I lind. 

Oth. If when rode over small gullies or old corn 
giound, he blunders much, and requires the constant 
attention of the rider to guide him, his eyes are not 


7th. If you shake your hand near his eyes in such 
a manner that he cannot feel the wind from it, and he 
pays no attention to it, by winking quick, and moving 
his ears, his eyes are such as should not be made 
choice of. 

8th. If at night, when you approach him with a 
candle, and the pupil of his eye looks large, of a light 
blue colour, without having near its middle, and on the 
upper part, little rough spots, of a dark brown colour, 
resembling moss, or if the pupil contains large white 
opaque lumps, the horse is either blind or occasionally 
subject to blindness, ana should be avoided by a 

The eyes of some horses are very subject to films, 
vhich have been sometimes removed by large bleed- 
ngs, or the use of double refined loaf sugar, or glass 
Dottle, powdered. Eyes thus affected are much to be 
dreaded, as it is very difficult to discover them. One 
hard ride will make a horse blind; and one large 
bleeding will remove the film. To detect such eyes, 
examine minutely the corners, as the film leaves those 
parts of the eye last, and will appear there, when it 
has been removed from the middle of the eye fot 
several days. 

The eyes of a horse are never too large, but very 

frequently too small ; and when shaped like a pi^'s, 

are neither durable nor handsome, and form a serious 

objection. The wall or white eyes are truly valuable, 

being much hardier and less subject to disease than 

eyes of any other description ; for who ever recollects 

io have seen a horse blind, or even with diseased eyes. 

that had wall eyes ? and unquestionably they can see 

botier in the night than a horse without them. 


The e/es of a horse should be large, round, full 
lively, dark coloured, clear, and shining, that you ma)- 
see far into them; and when moving, but little of the 
white should appear. Dealers in those animals are 
very apt to endeavour to lead a purchaser from any 
defect he by chance may discover about a horse, to 
some part without fault, or some of his best parts ; and 
as to eyes, speak of them as if they were of little or no 
consequence. Purchasers should always be on their 
guard when dealing with men that possess so much 
artifice and cunning. 



We sometimes observe the eyes of a horse to change 
c ilour, and to vary in appearance monthly. Eyes thus 
affected, are called moon eyes, from the prevailing 
opinion that the affection increases or decreases with 
the course of the moon ; insomuch that in the full moon 
the eyes are muddy, discharging a thin ichorous water 
so sharp as sometimes to excoriate the skin, and at 
new moon clear up again. At first appearance of this 
disease, the eyes are much swelled, and very often 
shut, and the whole eyeball of a muddy brown; the 
veins of the temple, and near the eyes, appear remark- 
ablv full of blood, and both eves are seldom affected 
at the same time. Large bleedings, and the eyes 
washed frequently in cold water, give temporary relief; 
hut this disease is the forerunner of a cataract, which 
seldom admits of a cure; the cases generally end in 
kindness of one, if not botn eyes. 


The e)es of horses are very frequently wounded 
and injured by blows, flies, accidents, &c. which car 
always be distinguished from diseased eyes by a 
proper examination. To perform a cure, when thus 
injured, wash them three or four times a day in clean, 
cold spring water, after which repeat the washing, 
adding a small quantity of sugar of lead to the water, 
when the eye gets strong enough to open of its own 
accord, in the light. Should a film appear on ihe 
surface, (which is absolutely necessary, if the eye has 
received a wound, before it can heal,) take of double 
refined loaf sugar, or glass bottle powdered to a fine 
dust, a small quantity in the end of a quill ; blow it 
in the eye affected, every third morning for a week : 
bleed at least three times within the week, taking 
about half a gallon of blood at each bleeding; if ihe 
horse is not disposed to go blind, the cure will in a shoi* 
time be completed. 



Horses, as wed as men, sometimes acqune ban 
habits, of which they can but seldom divest themselves. 
Starting is one among the worst habits a horse can 
possess, and has a tendency to reduce his value at leasl 
one fourth, in consequence of endangering the life ot 
any person who may back him. A good rider has 
sometimes been thrown by his horse in starting, that 
would have defied his agility in any other way. 

A rider never can guard against a starting horse, as 
he gives no notice of his intentions, by the moving oJ 


his eais, eyes, manner of going, &c. as they generally 
do in rearing, jumping, kicking, sullenness, and such 
vices. Some few horses are broke of starting by mild 
means, others by cruel treatment ; but whoever engages 
in it, at least runs the risk of breaking his own neck 
before his object is accomplished. 

A horse subject to starting, labours under an ocular 
deception, or rather an optic defect, seeing nothing 
perfectly, or in proper shape or colour; and can as 
easily make a scare-crow of a little bush or chunk, that 
may happen to lay in his road, as the most frightful 
object that could meet his sight. 

To ascertain that a horse starts, is very easy indeed. 
Mount him yourself, ride first slow, and then fast, 
towards and by such objects as are offensive to the eye, 
and you will readiiy discover if he possesses that bad 

Some horses that are free from this objection, will 
notice particularly all objects they meet, and may sidle 
a little ; but a starting horse, on approaching any objec 
that may displease him, whether frightful or not, will 
either suddenly spring from one side of the road to iH 
other, jump back, or when going in a full gallop, stop 
suddenly, turn round, and run in an opposite direction 
from the one he was going. Such horses are neitiiei 
agreeable or safe for any kind of service. 



The stumbling of a horse may be either natural 
or produced by accidents, such as splint, wind galls, 
sinew strains, shoulder sprains, withers injured, &c. 
&c. but whether produced by accident or natural 
defect, cannot be remedied. All horses, and particu- 
larly those that go well, stumble more or less; but there 
is a very wide distinction between a light tip or touch 
on the foot, and a stumble that will bring a horse and 
sometimes his rider flat in the dirt. Horses given to 
tins practice, are very much lessened in value, and can 
never be rode by any person aware of his bad quality, 
without being in pain, dreading every time ne lifts his 
feet, that all will be prostrated in tne dust. 

To ascertain it a horse stumbles, 

1st. Examine well his knees, to discover if they are 
scarred, or the hair knocked off. 

2d. Take him amongst uneven ground, small gullies, 
or old corn ground, and let him be rode with the bridle 
hanging slack upon his neck, in all the dilferent gaits 
he has been accustomed to, and if he is in the habit of 
stumbling, he will very soon make a sufficient number 
of low bows to convince you of the fact. 

3d. When a horse stumbles and immediately springs 
otT, appearing alarmed, it is a proof that he is an old 
offender, and is under the apprehension of having one 
other flogging added to the great number he nad, no 
doubt, received for the same fault. Such a horse I 
consider unsafe, and therefore cannot lecommend him 
to purchasers; he being not so good, even for a slow 
draft, as one possessing more activity. 



A spavined liorse may be considered as one com- 
pletely ruined, for a permanent cure can rarely be 
effected, if attempted, even on its first appearance. 

The spavin is a lump, knot, or swelling, on the inside 
of the hock, below the joint, that benumbs the limbs, 
find destroys the free use of the hind legs. It causes 
n horse to be extremely lame, and to experience, 
apparently, very excruciating pain. 

In the purchase of a horse, great respect should be 
paid to his bringing up his hind parts well, as a spavined 
horse never makes a full step with the leg affected ; 
also to the shape of his hocks, in order to discover 
if there is any knot or unnatural prominence about 
the joint, which is an evidence of the spavin. When 
a horse is thus diseased, he is unfit for any kind ot 
service, even the meanest drudgery, being in constant 
pain, and unable to perform. Horses sometimes have 
the spavin, when there is no lump apparent near the 
joint, the disease being seated in the joint. To detect 
such spavin, and to prevent a cunning fellow (who may 
have given the animal rest, blistered and bathed the part 
with double distilled spirits, and formed a temporary 
relief,) from imposing on a purchaser, have the horse 
rode in three quarters speed, about one mile out md 
back, occasionally fretting, cracking, and drawing nim 
up suddenly and short; after which let him be rode 
in cold water up to the belly ; then pJace him in a stall 
without interruption, for about half an hour, by which 
time h*» will be perfectly cool ; then have him led out, 
ar*d moved gently: if he has received a temporary 


cure of the spavin, lie will show lameness. A hhstc 
of Spanish flies applied to the part affected (afie? 
shaving oft' the hair) with a bath of strong spirits 01 
vinegar, and a week's rest, will frequently suspend 
the lameness produced by the spavin for a time, but a 
radical cure may not be exoected. 



Crib Biting is one amongst the number of baa 
habits to which some horses are addicted. It consi«ts 
in his catching hold of the manger, grunting and 
sucking in wind, until he is almost ready to burst. To 
discover this vice, it is only necessary to have a horse 
fed: whenever they eat, at least one half of his victuals 
is wasted, by tjeir catching hold o{ the manger, 
grunting, straining, and swallowing large quantities oi 
wind every two or three mouth fuls, which produces 
the cholic and other distressing diseases. 

Whenever this very bad habit is acquired, it is 
practised as long as the animal lives. Many experi- 
ments and fruitless attempts have been made to 
remedy it, but without success. An elegant horse, 
when once he becomes a crib biter, is reduced in value 
to little or nothing. lie always looks hollow, jaded, 
and delicate, and is incapable of rendering service in 
any situatior 



Broken Wind is one amongst the number ot 
incurable diseases to which the horse is s ubject. W hen 
affected with this disease, he is disagreeable to his 
rider, and is of but little value, however beautiful or 
elegant he may be in his appearance. All the boasted 
pretensions of farriers to cure, are vain and frivolous, 
since their utmost skill, now and then, can only palliate 
the symptoms, and mitigate their violence. 

It is easy to discover a broken winded horse. By 
giving him a little brisk exercise, he will draw up his 
rlanks and drop them suddenly, breathe with great 
difficulty, and make a disagreeable wheezing noise. 
The seat of the disease appears, from dissection, to be 
in the lungs; the heart and lungs being found of twice 
their natural size, which prevents their performing theii 
office with ease, in the action of respiration. 

Broken wind is sometimes produced in a horse by 
excessive fatigue, heavy drafts, sudden changes from 
heat to cold, and other cruel treatment. It would be 
advisable to dispose of such horses at any price, as 
they are not worth their feeding. 

This complaint, I believe, does not admit of perfect 
cure: but by much care may be greatly relieved. 
The food should be compact and nutritious, such as 
corn and old hay. Carrots are excellent in this case, 
as are parsnips and beet roots, probably on account of 
ihe saccharine matter they contain. I have heard 
that molasses has been given in the water (which 
should be in very small quantities) with very great 
«"iprv> ss . Some have used tar water; others proiso 


the effects of iime water; imt the greatest dependence 
should be in very sparing supplies of substantia] fooa. 
The exercise ought to be regular, but never beyond a 
walking pace. If the symptomatic cough should be 
tioublesome, take away about three quarts of blo'.d 
every other day. 



The string halt affects horses in their hind legs, 
and consists in a false action or involuntary use of a 
muscle, which twitches one of the legs almost up to 
the belly, and sometimes both. The string halt is 
produced by a muscle being over strained, or a violent 
blow on the hind parts. Good rubbing, and baths ot 
warm vinegar and sweet oil, afford momentary relief 
but a permanent cure may not be expected. A horse 
Jius injured, is incapable of faithfully performing a 
journey, although he may be rode four or five miles 
without appearing to sink with fatigue. Such a horse 
is very objectionable, being uneasy to the rider, and 
must give pain to every peison who is in the habit of 
seeinsr him rode. 




The chest founder appears to be a disease but little 
understood by farriers in general; they are, however, 
not backward in offering many remedies, and speak 
of some with much confidence, when they propose 
performing a cure. But experience has proved, beyond 
the possibility of a doubt, that the chest founder is one 
of those dreadful diseases to which the horse is subject, 
that admits of no cure. I can here be of more use, by 
speaking of its seat, and describing its symptoms to a 
purchaser, than by pretending there exists, for that 
disease, a specific medicine, or propose its use to the 
owner of such an unfortunate animal. 

The chest founder is sometimes produced by violent 
exerc'se on a full stomach, and drinking large quan- 
tities of cold branch water ; by the use of mouldy 
bran, corn, or oats, or by eating large quantities o: 
green food, such as oats, wheat, peas, &c. while per- 
forming hard labour. 

From dissection, it appears that the seat of the 
disease is in the lungs ; the heart and liver are also 
considerably enlarged, insomuch that there is not room 
for them to perform their office with ease. The liver, 
mngs, diaphragm, and surrounding parts, are all 
covered with large brown spots, and are much 

A horse that is chest foundered, will straddle 01 
stake with his fore legs, showing an unwillingness to 
bring his feet together; and if they are placed near 
each other, he will not permit them to remain so 
for a minute. Indeed they are frequently twelve 01 


eighteen inches apart, which is caused by a fulness, 
and continual uneasiness about the chest: the cavity 
being too small to contain the lungs, &c. in then 
enlarged situation with ease. 

The hind legs are free from the palsied appearance 
of those before, and it is not difficult to distinguisn it 
from a common founder, as it is wanting in all its 
symptoms, except the stiff and numbed appearance ol 
the legs 

Large bleedings and half an ounce of aloes, given 
internally in a ball, have sometimes afforded momen- 
tary relief. No effectual remedy has yet been dis- 
covered. A horse labouring under this disease, is 
worth but little more than his board, as he is unable to 
bear fatigue, or undergo severe service. 

— e£*. 


is a disease that often produces lameness without 
the master of the horse knowing from what cause it 
proceeds : often examining his legs, cleaning his hoofs, 
paring the frogs of his feet, &c. &c. without paying 
any respect to the shape of the horse's heels, which 
are always close together and unaturally shaped. 

A horse with narrow heels is unfit to travel, as he 
is tender footed, and goes cramped, short, and is al- 
ways subject to lameness, more o,- less. 

Narrow heels is the effect of shoes being permitted 
to remain on a horse that is not used, for three or low 

102 SPLINT. 

months, which cause the heels to grow togethei, piner 
ing and confining the coronet. 

The cure is simple, though tedious. Have his shoes 
taken off" and his feet cut down as small as possible, 
without injuring the quick ; then turn him out upon a 
marsh or low ground, where his hoofs may be con- 
stantly moist for three or four months, and his heels 
will expand, his hoofs again assume their natural shape, 
and the horse will be fit for anv kind of service. 



The splint is a hard lump or excrescence that grows 
upon the fore legs of a horse between the fetlock and 
the knee. It is unpleasant to the eye, but seldom does 
injury, unless situated on the back of the leg and im- 
mediately under the large tendons, in which case 
lameness 's always produced, and the cure rendered 

When the splint is situated in the usual place, and 
grows so large as to be unfavourable to beauty — to 
remove it, bathe the part with hot vinegar twice a day, 
and have the knot or splint rubbed with a smooth round 
stick, after bathing for ten or fifteen minutes ; by the 
expiration of a week the knot will perceptibly decrease 
in size, and finally, in a short time will disappear. — 
Jjut should such means not have the desired effect, 
shave off" the hair over the lump, and apply a blister oi 
Spanish flies, which in a short time will effectually 
remove it. 


The sj)lint, when first making its appearance, will 
cause a horse to limp a little: and, as he advances in 
years, may stiffen him, and cause him to stumble. 
But I have never known any serious injury to result 
from such an excrescence, unless placed beneath the 
.arsre tendons. 



All young horses are subject to the lam pass, and 
s«»me suffer extremely before it is discovered. 

It is a swelling or enlarging of the gums on the 
*nside of the upper jaw: the growth is sometimes so 
luxuriant as to prevent a horse from eating with any 
comfort. The cure is simple; and after being per- 
formed, a horse will improve in his condition with 
great rapidity. 

Take a hot iron, flat, sharp, and a little crooked at 
the end, burn the lampass out just below the level 01 
the teeth, using great care to prevent the hot iron 
from Rearing or resting upon the teeth. After the 
operation is performed, the horse should be given a little 
bran or meal, with a small quantity of salt in it. 

Some farriers have recommended cutting for the 
lampass, which only gives momentary relief, and would 
require the same operation to be performed every three 
or four months : but when it is once burnt out, it neve 
again makes its appearance. 
10* H 



Wind Galls are spongy and flatulent humou/s. thai 
make their appearance on both sides of the legs, just 
above the pastern joint or fetlock. It is seldom that 
a horse is found entirely clear of them, particularly 
about the hind legs, if he be much used. 

They are produced by hard usage, strains, bruises, 
&c. &c. of the back sinews or the sheath that covers 
them, which by being over-stretched, have some 
of their fibres ruptured ; whence probably may ooze 
nut the fluid which is commonly found with the 
included air. 

When wind galls make their first appearance, they 
are easily cured by a bath and bandage. »Boil red oak 
bark to a strong decoction, add some sharp vinegar and 
a little alum, let the parts be fomented twice a day, 
warm as the hand can be held in it ; then take a woollen 
cloth, dip it in the bath, and bind the ancle up, tight as 
possible, without giving pain to the horse. 

Should this method not succeed, after a thorough 
trial, the swelled or puffed parts may be opened with a 
sharp knife ; but blistering with flies is less dangerous, 
and generally attended with equal success. 

Wind galls give to a horse a gouty and clumsy 
appearance; but I have never known lameness pro- 
duced by them, or any other injury, except that oi 
stiffening his legs as he advances in years. They 
furnish strong proof that the animal has rendered much 



The farcv is a contagious disease among horses, 
md is more *o be dreaded than any malady to which 
they are subject. 

It sometimes makes its appearance on a particular 
part, while at other times it spreads its horrid ravages 
through the whole system. It may be found in the 
neighbourhood of each blood vessel, following the track 
of the veins, and when inveterate, appears to thicken 
their coats and integuments. Its characteristics are a 
fulness and hardness of the veins, a number of small 
lumps or buds on the limbs or lower parts of the body, 
which at first appearance are hard, but soon turn into 
soft blisters, and which (when broken) discharge an 
oily or bloody ichor, and turn into foul, spreading 
ulcers. In some horses it appears in the head only, 
in others near the external jugular or plate veins, 
inside the fore arms, on the hind parts, near the large 
veins inside the thighs, about the pasterns, and parti- 
cularly about the knees of the horse, which are fre- 
quently swelled until they appear deformed. 

The poison of the farcy appears to be slow in its 
operation, as a horse will frequently linger and dwindle 
away for six or nine months, and the ulcers increase 
in number and size, until the flesh appears almost dis- 
posed to fall from the bones, before life is destroyed. 
The appetite of a horse thus diseased is generally good 
to the last, but his hair looks dead, and his eyes sad 
and desponding. 

The farcy, in its first stage, readily admits of a 
cure • hut after running on a horse for a length 01 umi\ 

Htf* FARCY. 

and the absorbents or lymphatics about the ulcers 
become inflamed from an absorption of poisonous mat- 
ter, the cure is rendered extremely difficult. 

Whenever the farcy rises on trie ?pine, it shows 
great maugnancy, and is considered dangerous, parti- 
cularly to horses that are fat, and full of blood. When 
it is general in the system, as is sometimes the case, 
it rises on several parts of the body at once, forming 
many large and foul ulcers, causing a profuse running 
of greenish corrupted matter from both nostrils, and 
soon terminates the existence of the animal by general 

Jn the lower limbs the farcy sometimes remains 
concealed for a great length of time, and makes so 
slow a progress that it is often mistaken for a wound, 
or some other disease. A single bud will sometimes 
appear opposite the pastern joint, and run upwards in 
an uneven and knotty form ; and unless some steps 
are taken to check its progress, it will slowly steal 
upon the animal until it becomes general in the sys- 
tem, and finally centres in the lungs ; shortly after 
which a gangrene ensues, and the horse is unburdened 
of a life that is not only painful to himself, but to all 
that behold him. 

To effect a cure in this distressing disease, in ra 
first stage bleed three times the first week, taking hulf 
a gallon of blood at each bleeding, feed principally on 
bran, oats, or any food easily digested, and the long 
food green, (if to be had ;) remove all filth from or 
about the staole, taking care to keep it neat and clean 
afterwards ; give three mashes a week, of bran, scalded 
with sassafras tea, one table spoonful of powdered 
orimstone, and one tea spoonful of saltpetre (not per- 

FARCY. 101 

mining the horse to drink for six hours afterwards,) 
take half an ounce of asafoetida, which can be pro- 
cured in any apothecary's shop; wrap it in a clean 
linen rag, and nail it in the bottom of the manger in 
which he is fed : al! his drink must be equal quantities 
of sassatras boiled in water to a strong decoction, and 
half an ounce of asafoetida should be placed in his 
watering bucket in the same manner as directed for 
the manger; the buds or ulcers should be washed once 
a day with blue-stone or copperas water, and if the 
knees or ancles are swelled, spread on a piece of buck- 
skin mercurial ointment, and bind them up as tight as 
possible without giving pain. 

The second week bleed twice, taking half a gallon of 
olood each bleeding, if the horse is in tolerable order ; 
or if poor, only half the quantity; give the same number 
of mashes as directed for the first week, also the same 
drink, taking care to renew the asafoetida in the man- 
ger and bucket, should it be sufficiently exhausted 
to require it. 

The third week bleed but once, taking one quart of 
blood ; in other respects observe the same treatment 
as directed for the first and second weeks. The horse 
should be moderately exercised about a mile, twice a 
day, and occasionally should be offered a little horn- 
mony, as a change of food, to keep up his appetite. 

By the time your attentions for the third ween 
expire, if the disease is only local, it will not only be 
removed, but the plight of the horse will be mucn 

When the farcy make its appearance epidemically, 
the cure is rendered difficult, and will require the aid 
of more active medicine. Prepare and give to a horse 

1 08 FARCY. 

thus diseased, a ball every night for a week, com- 
posed of twenty-five grains of calomel, a quarter of an 
ounce of powdered fennel seed, a small quantity of 
syrup of any kind, and as much crumb of loaf bread 
as will make a ball about the size of an English 
walnut; all buds or ulcers should be washed clean in 
blue-stone water, after which they shonld be well 
rubbed around with mercurial ointment once a day ; a 
narrow pitch plaster should be laid on at the joining of 
the head and neck, in the direction of the throat latch, 
for the purpose of taking off the hair, which will happen 
in two or three days; after which, a lump of mercu- 
rial ointment, about the size of a hickory nut, must be 
rubbed on the naked part, amongst the large glands of 
the throat, until it is entirely absorbed, every night 
and morning, until the expiration of the week ; added 
to which, the treatment generally may be the same as 
before recommended in the more simple stage of the 
farcy, with these exceptions; — the drink should never 
be cold, but the air taken off, or milk warm ; the 
mashes without sulphur, during the week the balls are 
given, as the sulphur counteracts the effects of the 
ralomel and ointment ; he should not be bled, and 
great care should be used to prevent his getting wet, 
and catching cold in any way while under the course 
of physic. 

At the expiration of the first week, stop with the 
balls anu ointment for a week, adding sulphur to the 
mashes, as directed in the first stage of farcy. At 
the expiration of the second week, stop with the sulphui, 
and again commence with the balls and ointment. Go 
on in this manner, continuing to change the medicine 
each week, until the cure is performed. 

FARCY. J 09 

It may sometimes happen that a horse's mouth will 
become sore before the expiration of a week, when 
taking the balls and using the ointment. Whenever 
this is discovered, stop with the balls, and add sulphur 
to the mashes, which will readily remove the soreness 
about the mouth. 

The farcy is so contagious that it often destro} s 
horses of every description upon a plantation, and 
leaves the plough of industry standing still in the far- 
mer's field. Not long since, a gentlemen in the county 
of Sussex, lost upwards of forty horses by this fatal 
disease, without being able to save one. For the 
oenefit of those who have more than one horse, ] 
would recommend the use of asafoetida in the manger, 
watering bucket, and to the bridle bit, to prevent the 
farcy from dealing out destruction to their whole 
stock. I have made a fair experiment with this simple 
preventive, by placing a horse violently afFected with it, 
and which fell a victim to it, in the same stable with 
one in health, without any ill consequences resulting 
from their contiguous situation. 

The farcy has visited several farms within the 
United States, with effects so dreadful, as not only te 
destroy every one of the species, without respect tc 
age, but even occupied in triumph the walks and 
resting places of its prey. Nor could the disease be 
diverted from its stand, or completely eradicated, until 
stables, shelters, pens, litter, straw, &c. &c w°re 
entirely consumed and reduced to ashes. 

I tO RTtt»; 80XE. FOUNDER. 


The ring none partakes of the nature of the spavin* 
and frequently proceeds from the same cause. It 
makes its appearance on the lower part of the pastern, 
and sometimes immediately opposite the coffin joint. 
It is a hard and bony substance, and generally reaches 
half way round the ancle, which gives to the ancle an 
unnatural apper.rance, and causes the horse to go still 
and lame. Its name has proceeded from its resem- 
blance to a ring. It seldom admits of a cure, conse- 
quently a horse diseased with it is worth but little. 

When the ring bone first makes its appearance, 
blisters of flies have sometimes been employed with 
success. But after growing to full size, and remaining 
some length of time, to offer a remedy would be de- 
ceitful and presumptuous. 

Remedy. — A strong preparation of corrosive subli- 
mate added to Spanish flies arid Venice turpentine, 
and mixed with hog's lard, will often dissolve a ring 
bo»e <k,c. 



The injury sustained by horses, called founder, is 
sometimes the effect of the cruelty of his master, and 
at other times brought on by injudicious treatment ; 
bul it mos. frequently produced by carelessness, or 


a want of knowledge of the treatment necessary to 
those excellent animals on a journey. 

Although the horse is endowed with the strength 
and powers of the lion, yet he seldom exerts either 
to the prejudice of his master. On the contrary, he 
shares with him in his lahours, and seems to participate 
witli him in his pleasures. Generous and persevering, 
Fie gives up his whole powers to the service of his 
master; and though bold and intrepid, he represses 
the natural fire and vivacity of his temper, and not only 
yields to the hand, but seems to consult the inclination 
of his rider. 

But it must continue to be a matter of regret to every 
feeling mind, that these excellent qualities should be 
so often shamefully abused in the most unnecessary 
exertions ; and the honest labours of this noble animal 
thrown away in the ungrateful task of accomplishing 
the purposes of an unfeeling folly, or lavished in grati- 
fying the expectations of an intemperate moment. 

A. horse may be foundered by excessive hard rides, 
permitting him to plunge deep into cold water, while 
hot and sweating, and drinking his fill of cold pond 
water, eating large quantities of new corn and fodder, 
and then briskly exercised ; over feeding with bran 
alone whilst performing hard labour, drinking plenti- 
fully at every branch in travelling, feeding with more 
than a horse can eat after being half starved, violent 
exercise on a full bellv, or not permitting a horse who 
has travelled in a hot sun all day, to cool thoroughly, 
before he is given as much as he can eat, drink, &c. 

Symptoms of a Founder. — The symptoms that indi- 
cate an approaching founder, are so few and so 
''ommon, that the most ignorant persons will rarelv be 


mistaken. Great heat about the legs, pastei/is, and 
ears, a soreness in the feet, together with a stiffness 
so great in all his limbs that the animal frequently 
refuses to move, unless force is used ; his flanks and 
lower part of his belly draws up, his hide becomes 
bound or tight, his legs thrown a little more forwaid 
than in his usual or natural position ; a constant thirst, 
and very often a considerable swelling of the ancles, 
&c. &c. 

Remedy for a Founder. — So soon as you are con- 
vinced that your horse is foundered, take from his 
neck vein at least one gallon of blood ; give a drench 
of one quart strong sassafras tea, one table spoonful of 
saltpetre, and a quarter of an ounce of asafcetida, 
and do not permit him to drink for five or six hours ; at 
the expiration of which time, should he not be evidently 
better, repeat the bleeding, taking half a gallon of 
blood, and give another drench: at night offer him 
some bran or oats, scalded with sassafras tea, and if it 
can be procured, let him have green food, fresh from 
the field, for it has the happy effect of opening the 
bowels, and cooling the system : his feet should be 
nicely cleaned out, and stuffed with fresh cow manure: 
his drink should be at least one half sassafras tea, with 
a small handful of salt thrown therein. 

By the morning, should the horse be better, nothing 
further is necessary, only being careful not to over 
feed him. But should there be no change for the 
better, tie a small cord just above his knees, and with a 
ancet or fleam bleed in a vein that runs around the 
coronet, just above the hoof; take from each leg a 
yint of blood: give a pound of salts dissolved in three 
half pints of water, in form of a drench; keep his feet 
stuffed with fresh cow manure, and bathe his legs with 


equal parts of sharp vinegar, spirits and sweet 01! or 
lard. I3y attention to these directions, in two or three 
days the horse will again be fit for service. 

A horse in this unpleasant situation requires great 
attention. Whenever they are foundered, they search 
for a bank of manure to stand on, which should al- 
ways be prevented, as its heat increases the fever. 

Horses slightlv foundered, have sometimes been 
cured in a few hours, by standing them in pond water 
or mud, or by bleeding in the mouth, but those reme- 
dies are uncertain, and are not so much to be relied 
on as those first recommended. 

A foundered horse is generally very much reduced 
in flesh, before a cure is effected ; and is always more 
subject to founder afterwards. 

Large ridges on the hoofs, or a turning up of the 
feet, are strong indications of old founders or other 


The colic is a disease to which the horse is very 
subject ; and as often proves fatal, in consequence o! 
improper treatment, as any disease attendant on that 

It may be produced by improper feeding, watering, 
or riding, and sometimes by a want of energy in the 
stomach and bowels, occasioning a spasmodic con- 
striction of the intestines, and a confinement oi air 
Sofne horses are naturally disposed to colic, white 


others, even with improper treatment, are seldom 01 
never attacked with that dangerous disease. 

The pangs of the colic appear so excruciating, ana 
all the symptoms so violent, as to alarm, generally, 
those unaccustomed to it, and cause them to be appre- 
hensive of dangerous consequences ; but by using the 
remedies I shall here offer, the cure will be made ea^y, 
and the animal speedily relieved from this painful 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of the colic commence 
with great restlessness and uneasiness in the horse's 
manner of standing, frequently pawing, voids small 
quantities of excrement, and makes many fruitless 
attempts to stale: kicks his belly with his hind legs: 
often looks round to his flanks, groaning, expressive of 
the pain he feels : lies down, rolls, gets up again, and 
sometimes for a moment, appears to find relief. But 
the pain soon returns with double violence : his ears 
are generally cold, and he often sweats about the 
flanks and shoulders : his body swelled, and he fre- 
quently shows a disposition to lay down in great haste. 

A Table for distinguishing between the Colic or Gripes, and in. 
jlammalion of the Bowels of Horses, by the symptoms that mark 
the character of each. 

Spasmodic or Flatulent Colic. Inflammation of the Bowels. 

1. Pulse natural, though some- 1. Pulse very quick and small 
limns a little lower. (1) (2) 

2. The horse lies down and 2. He lies down and suddenly 
rolls upon his back. rises up again, seldom rolling 

upon his back. 

3. The legs and eat are gene- 3. Legs and ears generally 
rally warm. cold. 

4. Attacks suddenly, is never 4. In general, attacks gradual- 
preceded, and seldom accompa- ly, is commonly preceded, and 
me 1 by any symptoms of fever, always accompanied by symp- 
toms of fever. 

5. There are frequently short 5. No intermissions can '»o „b> 
inunnissh.nH served. 


(1) Pulse Natural. — When in health, the pulsa- 
tions or strokes are from thirty-six to forty in a 
minute ; those of large, heavy horses being slower than 
those of the smaller; and those of old ones, slower 
than those of young animals. When either are just oft 
a quick pace, the strokes increase in number; as they 
do if he be alarmed or animated, by the familiar cry 
of the hounds. 

(2) Pulse very quick and small. — Fever, if the simple 
or common kind, usually increases the pulsations to 
double the healthy number. As the fever increases in 
violence, and particularly in cases of inflammation of 
the bowels, the pulse beats still higher, and reaches to 
a hundred in a minute, or more. To ascertain either 
state, the attendant should apply the points of his fingers 
gently to the artery which lies nearest the surface. 
Some prefer consulting the temporal artery, which is 
situated about an inch and a half backward from the 
corner of the eye. Others again, and they are the 
greater number, think it best to feel it underneath the 
edge of the jaw bone, where the facial artery passes on 
under the skin only to the side of the face. In either 
case, too great pressure would stop the pulsation 
altogether; though by so trying the artery against the 
iaw bone, will prove whether it be in such a rigid state 
of excitement as attends high fever; or elastic and 
springy, slipping readily from under the finger, as it does 
when health prevails, and the strokes follow each other 
regularly. The presence of high fever is further inai 
cated by a kind of twang, or vibration, given by the 
pulse against the finger points, resembling much such 
as would be felt were we to take hold of a distended 
whip cord or wire between the fingers and cause it 
to vibrate like a fu'dlestring, sharph Wheieas, 10 

11 * 


health, a swell is felt in the vibration, as if the string were 
made of soft materials, and less straitened. Languid 
ur slow pulse, and scareely perceptible in some of the 
beats or strokes, indicates lovvness of spirits, debility, 
or being used up : if this languor be felt at intervals 
only, a few strokes being very quick, and then again a 
few very slow, this indicates low f ever, m which bleeding 
would do no harm, &c. — [A. Turf. R. fy S. Mag.~\ 

Remedies. — Number 1. Take from the neck vein 
half a gallon of blood ; take of laudanum one ounce, 01 
mint tea one quart, milk warm ; mix them well in a 
bottle, and give the contents as a diench; let the horse 
be well rubbed under the belly, and prepare and give 
an injection of meal, water, molasses, salt, and hog's 
lard, milk warm. 

Number 2. Take of mint tea one and a half pints; 
gin, or any spirituous liquor, half a pint ; mix them 
well in a bottle, and give them as a drench, taking care 
to rub him well. Should it not have the desired effect 
in fifteen minutes, repeat the dose. 

Number 3. Take of camphor a quarter of an ounce 
oil of turpentine half an ounce, mint tea one pint; mi? 
them in a bottle, and give them as a drench. Confine 
the horse in a close stable, cover him with three or 
four blankets, and under his belly place a large tub oi 
boiling water, which will readily throw him into a 
profuse sweat, and relieve him from pain. 

Number 4. In addition to the above, clysters ought 
.o be administered, by injecting the following ingie- 
dients, viz. : water half a gallon, salt one handful, oil 
of any kind one pint, molasses one pint; mix the whole, 
and inject it; and repeat it every half hour, until the 
bowels are well opened. 



The scratches is a disease which soon places a 
horse in such a situation as to render him unfit for any 
kind of service. When it is permitted to run upon a 
horse for a length of time, without any remedy being 
applied, the ankles and legs swell very much, and 
lameness is produced in so great a degree, that he is 
scarcely able to move. 

The scratches are produced from many different 
causes, as hard riding, dirty stables, legs left wet at 
night without being rubbed, standing in his own ma- 
nure or mud, in the stall where he is confined, &c. 
&c. Although much inflammation may appear, and 
the disease discover much inveteracy, the cure is not 

Remedies. — Number 1. — Remove the horse to a 
clean stall : with strong soap suds wash his legs and 
ankles nicely; clean out his feet; then wash every 
part, inflamed or sore, in strong copperas water, twice 
a day, until the cure is performed : take half a gallon 
of blood from the neck vein, and give a mash twice a 
week, of one gallon of bran, one tea spoonful of salt- 
petre, and one table spoonful of powdered brimstone. 
Great attention should be paid to the cleanliness of* the 

Number 2. After the horse is placed in a clean 
stall and his legs and ankles nicely washed with warm 
soap suds, take of blue-stone, one ounce ; of alum, 
four ounces, to which add half a gallon of strong de- 
coction of red oak bark, stir them together until the 
alum and blue-stone are dissolved; then wash, the 
cracks, sores, or inflamed parts, twice a day, and tn<» 


cure will be effected in a very short time. Ligjt or 
green food would be preferable to any other, for a 
horse thus diseased, until the cure is performed. 

Number 3. After washing the legs and ankles clean 
w ith soap suds, take of flower of sulphur or powdered 
brimstone, one table spoonful ; hog's lard, one table 
spoonful; mix them well together, and anoint the sores 
and parts inflamed twice a day. A horse will get 
well much sooner confined in a clean stall, than by 
running at large. 

Number 4. Boil poke-root to a strong decoction, 
and bathe the ankles twice a day. In all cases a clean 
stable will aid you much in making a quick cure of the 



The bots or grubs are small worms that are found 
m the stomach ; their colour is brown or reddish, and 
they seldom exceed three quarters of an inch in lenglL 
At one extremity they have two small hooks, by 
which they attach themselves, and the belly appears to 
be covered with verv small feet. Thev are most fre- 
quently found adhering to the insensible coat of tne 
stomach, and then they do not appear to cause any 
considerable uneasiness or inconvenience. Sometimes 
however, they attach themselves to the sensible part, 
and do great injury to that important organ, producing 
irritation, emaciation, a rough coat of hair, hide bound 
unc cough. It is astonishing with what force these 
worms adhere, and how tenacious they are of life. 

BOTS OR GRUBS. 1 1 t) 

It is proved beyond doubt, by experiments made, 
that this worm, Irke the caterpillar, undergoes severaJ 
changes. It is originally a fly, which deposits its 
eggs in the horse's coat, causes an itching, and induces 
him to bite the part. In this way he swallows the 
eggs, which by the heat of the stomach are brought 
into life, and are sometimes so numerous as to eat 
their way entirely through the stomach and destroy 
the animal. Indeed they seldom fail to attack a hoise 
with great violence, whenever his stomach is empty, 
and endanger his life. 

Numberless experiments have been made upon the 
grubs, after they have been taken from a horse that 
had died, to discover what medicine would soonest 
destroy their lives, that could be safely given. But all 
endeavours as yet upon that subject, have been fruit- 
less. It appears that they will live in any medicine 
that can be given to a horse, nearly as long as they 
can live without eating. All the benefit that results 
from experience on this subject, to me, merely serves 
to break the hold and expf3l those dangerous worms, 
when they are so mischievously engaged. 

After describing the symptoms attending the grubs 
J shall offer some remedies which have saved the lives 
of many horses. 

Symptoms. — A horse attacked by the grubs, fre 
quently lies down and looks round to his shoulders, 
groans, whips his tail between his hind legs, frequently 
turns up his upper lip, and has a very hot fever, which 
mav be discovered bv feeling his ears. 

Remedies. — No. I. Take of copperas iwo table 
spoonfuls; water milk warm, one pint; dissolve :n« 


copperas, and give it as a drench. If the horse is not 
relieved in fifteen minutes, repeat the dose. 

No. 2. Take of linseed or sturgeon's oil, one pint, 
and give it as a drench. If the horse is not relieved 
in fifteen minutes, repeat the dose. 

No. 3. Take of molasses, one pint; milk, one pint: 
give it as a drench, and repeat the dose. 

No. 4. Take of fresh meat of any kind (raw) half 
a pound, cut it into four or five pieces, and force it 
down the horse's throat; it will immediately induce 
the grubs to break their hold. 

No. 5. Take two ounces of ^Ethiop's mineral and 
give it to your horse in his feed, and in a day or two 
afterwards give him a purge ; then you may give him 
a decoction of bitter herbs, to prevent their return. 

No. P Give your horse (after taking molasses and 
milk) a quart or two offish or beef brine, as a drench. 
From recent experiments, salt appears to have the 
property of killing worms : these insects placed in c 
solution of this substance die immediately. 

No. 7. Drench the horse with half an ounce of salt- 
petre dissolved in common water, and in about fifteen 
minutes drench with half an ounce of dissolved 
in like manner. Let the horse have no water for 
twenty-four hours after. 

An active purge will be absolutely necessary imme 
diately after the use of either of the above remedies 
One pint of soft soap added to a pint of molasses 
with a handful of salt, will answer very w r ell. Re- 
peat the dose, should it not operate in four or fivo 


OR HAWS. 121 


The hooks or haws in a horse, is the growing of a 
horny substance upon the inner edge of the washer 01 
caruncle of the eye, which may be found in the innei 
corner next to the nose. When this disease makes its 
appearance, the washer or caruncle is enlarged with 
great rapidity, and the ligament that runs along the 
ed^e of this membrane, becomes extremelv hard, or 
like a cartilage, and whenever it arises to this state, 
it draws, compresses, and causes great pain to the. eyes, 
produces a tightness of the skin, a stiffness of the hind 
legs, and finally a general spasmodic aflection through- 
out the whole system. 

As the eyes of a horse are often inflamed, and some- 
times diseased, without their having the hooks, for 
the purpose of ascertaining the fact, take hold of the 
bridle, and raise the horse's head as high as you can 
with convenience reach: if he is diseased with the 
hooks, the washer or caruncle ol ihe eye, while his 
head is raised up, will covei at hast one half the 
surf u e of the eye ball. When this is the case, take a 
common sized needle with a strong thread, place on 
the horse's nose a twitch, to prevent his moving; then 
take in your thumb and finger the washer or caruncle 
of the eye, and pass the needle through it about a 
quarter of an inch from the outer edge, and inside the 
horny substance; draw it gently with the needle anu 
thread, until you have a fair chance of performing the 
operation; then with a sharp knife cut the piece out, 
taken up with the needle, which must not be larger 
than one fourth the size of a four pence half penny ; 


wash the eyes for two or three mornings with salt ai.d 
water, bathe his legs up to his belly in equal parts ol 
warm vinegar, spirit and oil, or fresh butter, and give 
a mash of one and a half gallons of bran or oats, ono 
table spoonful floui of sulphur, one tea spoonful salt- 
petre, and the cure will be performed in all probability 
in four or five days. 

Great care should be taken not to cut too large a 
oiece from the caruncle, as it disfigures the eves, and 
sometimes produces blindness. 


"Before I was acquainted with this subject, two 
years ago, I had two fine young horses sacrificed to 
this mistaken and ruinous operation. Ignorant quacks 
do not know that the horse has a membrane peculiar 
to the animal, which is at pleasure drawn over the 
eye. The enlargement of this, by a fever, produces 
the appearance, which, in jockey slang, is called the 
Hooks. Reduce the fever by depletion, such as bleed- 
ing plentifully, purging, &c. and have the horse well 
rubbed, and the hooks will disappear; that is, the 
membrane is restored to its natural size and office, 
which is to clear the eye from dust, &c. accidentally 
entering it. I need not mention the cutting out o* 
this useful membrane unnecessary, as I have proved 
the uselessness of this operation, by restoring a horse 
without it a few days ago. 


I American Feu mef.] 



Thu strangles is a disease to which horses are very 
subject, particularly those that are young. It consists 
in a running at the nose, and an inflammation and 
swelling of the glands, about the under jaw and throat. 
It is sometimes attended with high fevers, destroys the 
appetite, causes a horse to look sad and dejected, and 
dwindle away in an astonishing manner. Sometimes 
the inflammation extends to the muscles of the tongue, 
and is attended with so much heat and pain, that until 
matter is found, the horse swallows with the utmost 
difficulty, unless his drink is held up to him. 

The strangles proceed from many causes, violent 
colds, sudden changes of air or climate, extreme hard 
labour after habits of idleness, shedding teeth, or what- 
ever may produce pain, or bring on a flux of humours 
at any critical time upon the throat and jaws, and like 
most other diseases, requires strict attention, for the 
cure to be performed in a short time. 

Symptoms of the Strangles. — The approach of the 
strangles may be known by a dulness of the counte- 
nance, watery eyes, a distressing cough, running at the 
nose, glands enlarged beyond the jaw:, loss of appetite, 
and a constant thirst, without o</):ig able to drink, 
unless the water is placed a<j High as his head, in its 
natural position. 

Remedy. — Bleed four times within a week, taking 
Irom the neck vein half a gallon of blood at each bleed- 
ing; give a mash twice a week, of one gallon of bran 
or oats, scalded with one quart of sassafras tea, with 
the addition of one table spoonful of powdered brim 


sfone, and one tea spoonful of saltpetre. Take ol 
asafoetida half an ounce, divide it, placing one half in 
his mangei, the other in his watering bucket. Feed 
principally with green food, if to be had, if not, such as 
is light, cooling, and easily digested. 



Fortunately the stone is a disease not very com- 
mon amongst horses; but whenever it makes its appear- 
ance, unless some remedy is immediately employed, 
; ts consequences are to be much dreaded. It consists 
in small gravel or stones being lodged in the bladder, 
which prevents a free discharge of urine, and produces 
the most excruciating pain. The horse will iinger 
and pine away, until he can scarcely support the burden 
of life. 

As the stone is a disease w T hich has but seldom, if 
ever, struck the attention of farriers, I consider myself 
fortunate in being able to offer to the public a simple 
remedy, which has been employed with astonishing 
success by a gentleman in a neighbouring county. In 
one case, when the following remedy was used, three 
stones and a quantity of grit was discharged from the 

Symptoms. — Frequent stretching, groaning, and 
many fruitless attempts to pass water, which will finally 
be discharged by a few drops at a time, with great 
apparent pain, a shrinking of the flesh, although the 
appetite is good, no fever, but a dull, sluggish, and 
sleepy appearance, wanting much in his usual spirits 


Remedy. — Take of marsh-mallows, water melon 
seed, and asparagus, of each two large handfuls, boi! 
them in three quarts of water to one quart, and add 
one tea spoonful of saltpetre, and give the whole as a 
drench, after being nicely strained 

Take of sweet oil or fresh butter one table spoonful, 
grease his sheath, and draw out gently and grease 
his penis, also grease the large seam from the penis up 
near the anus ; and with the hand, bearing a little, 
stroke the seam downwards to the end of the penis, 
for ten minutes every hour, until the horse has a 
urinary discharge; which, in all probability, will take 
place in one or two hours after taking the drench 
Should some blood be passed, it may be no cause of 
alarm, and will clearly prove there is gravel in the 
urinary passages. Repeat the drench in three hours, 
should the desired effect not be produced. 



The yellow water is very common in the western 
country among horses ; and being infectious, is some- 
times brought into this state by drove horses. It is 
extremely fatal in its consequences, unless some remedy 
is employed shortly after it makes its appearance. 
For the benefit of the public, I consider myself fortunate 
to be able to recommend such medicines for its euro 
as have been fairly tried, by a gentleman of Brunswick, 
and n roved effectual. 


SympUms of Yellow Water. — The characteristics 
of this disease, are a dusky yellowness of the eyes> 
lips, and bars of the mouth; a dull, sluggish, appear- 
ance : a loss of appetite ; the excrement hard, dry, 
yellow, and sometimes of a pale or light green; the 
urine uncommonly dark, of a dirty brown colour, and 
when discharged a length of time, has the appearance 
of blood. 

Remedy. — Take of asafcetida one ounce; campho- 
rated spirits, four table spoonfuls ; warm water one 
pint; mix and give them as a drench, for three or four 
mornings successively. Take of bran one and a hall 
gallons, flour of sulphur one table spoonful, antimony 
twenty grains, saltpetre twenty grains ; mix them well 
together, and, with a strong decoction of sassafras, 
scald the bran, forming a mash, which must be given 
three nights in a week, not permitting the horse to 
get wet, or drink water, except it is milk warm. His 
stable should be a comfortable one, and he should have 
a clean bed of straw placed under him. Bleed twice 
in the neck vein, taking half a gallon of blood at each 
bleeding, within the week; let his exercise be regular 
and moderate, and by the expiration of nine or ten days, 
.he cure, in all probability, will be performed. 



As most diseases that are infectious endanger the 
l/ f e of a horse, I consider it important to every owner 
ot those useful animals, to be able to use a medicine 
that w'll act against or prevent those diseases that are 


contagious. 1 have been in the habit of owning from 
one to eight horses at a time, for fifteen years, and in 
all that time never lost a horse. I cannot help believ- 
ing my success, in this respect, has been much in- 
debted to the constant use of the asafcetida, which 1 
consider one of the most valuable and innocent medi- 
cines ever used amongst horses. It not only drives oh* 
diseases of almost every kind, but it keeps up the 
appetite, produces a remarkable fineness in the coat ot 
hair, and gives such life -and spirits as to induce even 
an old horse to attempt the attitudes and movements 
of the gay and mettled racer. 

The value of the asafcetida is at present but little 
know r n for the use of horses; but whenever it shall have 
been used or brought into notice, its remarkable effects, 
no doubt, will prove what I now say. Its virtues are 
acknowledged and remembered with pleasure, by all 
those who have used it in their stables. 

The asafcetida is produced from a plant called 
perennial, and is a native of Persia: it has, however, 
borne fertile seeds, in the open air, in the botanical 
garden of Edinburgh. The gum resin is producer 
from the roots of plants which are at least four years 
old. When the leaves begin to decay, the stalk h 
twisted off and the earth removed from about thei/ 
large tapering loots. The top of the root is some time 
afterwards cut off transversely, and forty-eight hours 
afterwards the juice which has exuded, is scraped oflj 
and a second transverse incision is made : this opera- 
tion is repeated until the root is entirely exhausted o 
juice: after being scraped off, the juice is exposed to the 
sun to harden. It is brought to us in large irregulai 
masses, composed of various little shining 'umps 01 
grains, which are partly of a whitish colour, partly led- 


dish, anl Dartlv of a violet hue; those masses m 
accounted best which are clear, or a pale reddish co- 
lour, and variegated with a number of elegant while 
tears. This drug has a strong fetid smell, somewhat 
like that of the garlic, and a bitter acid, biting taste. The 
smell resides entirely in the essential oil, which arises in 
distillation. It is tne most powerful of all the fetid 
gums, and is a most valuable medicine. It acts as a 
stimulant, anti-spasmodic, expectorant, emmenagogue, 
and anthelmintic, and its action is quick and pene- 

When a small piece of the asafetida has been placed 
in the manger of a horse in health, I have known him 
to stand for months in a stall next to one violently 
diseased without taking the infection, or any ill con 
sequence resulting from their contiguous situation. 

Preventive. — Take of asafcetida, one ounce, divide 
it and wrap each piece in a clean linen rag; nail one in 
the bottom of the manger the horse is fed in, the other 
in the bottom of the bucket in which he is watered. 
The above quantity will last about three months ; at 
the expiration of which time it must be replenished. 

A small piece confined to the bridle bit, will have 
the same eflect when a horse goes from home, or enters 
on a journey. 



The gravel in the hoof is an incident that happens 
10 horses in travelling, and is brought on by small 
stones or grit getting between the hoof and shoe, set- 
tling to the quick, and then inflame and fester ; it pro- 

WOUNDS. 129 

duces lameness and causes a horse to undergo verv 
excruciating pain. The first step necessary for a 
horse's relief is, to have his shoes taken off and gel 
the stone out. You may readily ascertain where they 
lie, by pressing the edga of the hoof with a pair of 
pincers. After all the gravel is removed, which may 
be known by a discontinuation of the blackness of the 
place, the wound caused by cutting for the gravel may 
be easily healed by melting together equal parts of 
bees- wax, rosin, fresh butter or sweet oil, and pouring 
the mixture on the wound, warm as the animal can 
bear it, without giving pain. Then warm a little tar 
or pitch, and pour a small quantity over the wound 
and its neighbouring parts, to keep out the dust and 
defend the foot from any hard substance for a few 
days, by which time it will get well. 



A wound is generally defined a separation of the 
parts in any member of the animal body by some 
instrument. In all fresh wounds made by cutiing 
instruments, there is nothing more required than bring- 
ing the lips of the wound into contact, by sewing a 
bandage, provided the part will allow of it. Foi 
wounds of the hips, or other prominent parts, and 
across some of the large muscles, the stitches are apt 
to burst by the horse's lying down and getting up in 
the stall. In such cases the lips of the wound siiould 
not be brought close together — one stitch is enough 

130 WOVNDS. 

for a wound two inches long, hu! In large wounds 
mey should be an inch or more apau. 

Should the wound bleed much from an artery's 
being divided, it will be necessary to secure it by pas- 
sing a crooked needle underneath, and tying it with a 
waxed thread ; but if the artery cannot be got at in 
this way, apply a small quantity of flour and salt to 
the mouth of the bleeding vessel, which will very soon 
have the desired effect. Care should be taken to keep 
it there, by. proper compress or bandage, until a scar, 
scab, or crust is formed, otherwise it will elude your 
expectations, and frequently alarm you with fresh 
bleedings. After the lips of the wound are brought 
together, by this needle or bandage, it needs only to 
be covered with rags, dipped in spirits of any kind, or 
spirits of turpentine, and a little lint placed lightly 
within the edges of the wound, taking great care to 
keep it entirely clean, with strong soap suds, and as 
free from motion as possible. Whenever a wound be- 
comes much swelled or inflamed, or discovers marks 
of mortification, frequent bleedings and the applica- 
tion of a red oak poultice or mush, will have a won 
Jerful effect. Should the wound be disposed to heal 
very rapidly, and turn out what is termed proud 
flesh, by washing it with a little blue-stone water, it 
will, in a very short time, shut in, and the wound 
entirely heal. 

The cure of most wounds is effected by the simplest 
methods, and it is often of much more consequence 
:o know how to dress a wound, than what to dress it 
witn, and in this consists the chief art of this branch 
of surgery ; for the most eminent in that profession 
have long discovered that a variety of ointments, 
kai^es, and grease, are unnecessary in the cures of 
most wounds and sores, and they have accordingly 


discarded the greatest part formerly in repute for that 
purpose ; repeated observations having taught them, 
that after digestion, or after healthy matter is formed, 
nature is disposed to heal up the wound fast enough 
herself. Some respect should be paid to the diet of 
a horse, as bran, oats, and green food keep the 
bowels open, and are free from that heat which the 
use of corn and fodder will produce in the system. I 
will here ofler a few more simples that have proved 
beneficial in the cure of wounds, sores, &c. 

The first operation necessary in all sores, wounds, 
&c. about a horse is, to remove all dirt, matter or 
extraneous bodies, with strong soap suds, after which, 

No. 1. Take of spirits, half a pint ; alum, one 
ounce ; honey, one gill ; mix them well together, and 
wash the wound night and morning. 

No. 2. Take of copperas, two ounces ; clean water, 
one quart ; wash the wound or sore twice a day. 

No. 3. Take of sugar of lead, a quarter of an ounce ; 
fair water, one quart; use it twice a day. 

No. 4. Take spirits of turpentine and wet the wound 
once a day. 

No. 5. Take of blue-stone, a quarter of an ounce; 
fair water, one quart ; wash the wound every morning. 

Punctured wounds, from thorns or other accidents, 
are generally of the most painful kind, and require 
great attention ; a bread and milk poultice, or a musb 
made by boiling red oak bark to a strong decoction, 
beating the bark very fine and throwing in as much 
corn meal as will make it of proper consistency 
should be applied until healthy matter appears, to 
gether with fomentations : after which, to effect a 
speedy cure, use any of the above remedies recom- 


Wounds in the feet, from shoeing, nails, thorns, or 
other accidents, are generally attended with mu",h 
trouble, and are often productive of very fatal conse- 
quences when neglected. Such wounds should have 
old dirt, grit, &c. carefully removed with warm greasy 
water ; after which, take of bees-wax, tar, and sweet 
oil, equal parts ; stew them well together, and fill the 
wound, hot as the horse can bear it without expe- 
riencing pain ; then pour on a little warm pitch, to 
prevent grit and dirt getting to the wound, and to pro- 
tect the foot, while sore and tender, from the hard 



Bruises proceed from external injury, and when 
no remedy is employed, are sometimes attended with 
violent inflammation, and after bursting and discharg 
in£ large quantities of matter, of a dark red colour 
and extremely offensive smell, often terminate in a 
mortification, which soon puts a period to the life oi 
the animal. 

Take of vinegar, one quart; laudanum, half an ounce ; 
sugar of lead, quarter of an ounce ; mix them well 
together, and apply it to the bruise three or four time* 
a day ; if the part bruised will admit of it, apply a 
flannel doubled and wet with the mixture, which will 
be the means of keeping the bruise continually moist 
'S by tins method the swelling does not subside, applv 


u. poultice made of a strong decoction of red oak bark 
and meal, once a day, until the swelling abates ; but 
in bruises that cannot, by these means, be dispersed, 
and by pressing with the finger you aMcover iliat mat- 
ter is formed, then the shortest way is, to open the skin 
and allow the bruise to discharge its contents : after 
which it will heai in a very short time, by keeping 
it entirely clean with soap suds alone. But after dis- 
charging the matter, if the wound should appear rotten 
and of dark colour, indicating mortification, togethe. 
with any very considerable inflammation, bleed plen- 
tifully ; feed on bran, oats, long green food, or light 
food of any kind, and again apply the red oak poul- 
tice, which will very soon cure the inflammation, 
cleanse and alter the appearance of the wound. After 
which, any of the simples recommended for wounds, 
may be employed in speedily healing. 

■ " »X^n# < — 


Strains, in whatever part of the horse, either pio- 
duced from running, slips, blows, or nam riding, are 
the relaxing, over-stretching or breaking me muscles 
or tendinous fibres. A strain, unless uncommonly 
bad, may be cured in a short time, by applying the 
following remedies : 

Number 1. Take of sharp vinegar, one pint; spirit, 
ol any kind, half a pint; camphor, one ounce: mix 
them well together and bathe the part injured twice a 


day, a piece of flannel wet with the mixture and wrap 
ped around the part, will be very beneficial ; take from 
the neck vein half a gallon of blood. 

No. 2. Take of opodeldoc (which can be procured 
from any apothecary's shop) a piece the size of a mar- 
ble, and rub it on the strained part with the naked 
hand until the hand becomes dry, twice a day : shoula 
the injured part resist both these remedies, you may 
conclude the injury is a very serious one, which 
nothing but time can relieve, and the horse must be 
turned out upon grass a sufficient length of time for 
nature herself to perform the great operation. 

— •*»©©« 


The staggers is a very common as well as a very 
fatal disease among horses of all ages: though young 
horses are more subject to it than those advanced in 

Many various opinions have been offered to the 
public, and some with much confidence, relative to the 
origin and seat of this disease. But few, if any, as 
vet, have investigated the subject with correctness. 

The staggers, in my opinion, are produced by per- 
mitting a horse to feed on grass in the spring and fall, 
late at night and early in the morning; for early in 
the morning and late in the evening, the fields and 
pastures are covered with a poisonous web, which is 
«pun and spread upon the grass by a small spider. So 
rapidiy, so industriously H ->es this little insect work, 


that in the space of one flight, not a blade or spire of 
grass has been left untouched. This web, Catching the 
dew-drops on its bosom, causes the fields in the morn 
ing to glisten and sparkle as if covered with a thin 
sheet of ice. A horse that feeds upon a pasture in 
this situation must, of course, collect large quantities 
of this web and dew, and very often the spider itself. 
They act upon the horse, producing delirium, giddi- 
ness, apoplexy, and sometimes death. The lungs 
appear to be the principal seat of this disease ; for in 
cases of dissection they have been found much en- 
larged, and covered with large brown spots ; smell 
very offensively, and have some appearance of moi 

The large quantity of poison thiJven into the stomach 
acts upon its nerves, and the sympathy that exists be- 
tween that organ and the large nerves of the head, 
accounts for the dull, giddy, and dejected countenance 
of the animal, and has induced many to believe the 
staggers was confined to that part alone. The poison 
is then removed from the stomach by the activity of 
the lymphatic and absorbent vessels, thrown into the 
circulation of the blood, diffused over every part of the 
system, and finally carried by the arteries into the 
lungs, through which all the blood in the body of a 
horse passes many times in an hour, and undergoes a 
change. Sometimes a determination of blood to the 
head takes place, which generally ends fatally, pro- 
ducing a furious delirium, the horse throwing him sell 
about with great violence, making it dangerous for any 
person to venture near him. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of the staggers are a 

drowsiness, eyes inflamed, half shut, and full of tears, 

the appetite bad, the disposition to sleep gradually 

increased, feebleness, a continual hanging of the head 

13 K 


or resiing it on the manger, rearing, falling, and lying 
in a state of insensibility, walking a small circle for a 
considerable length of time, the ears hot, with a burn- 
ing fever, &c. &c. &c. 

Remedy. — Take from the neck vein half a gallon 
of blood, three times in a week ; take of sassafras tea, 
three half pints ; plantain juice, half a pint ; asafceti- 
da, half an ounce ; saltpetre, one tea spoonful ; mix 
and give them as a drench three mornings in a week ; 
give an injection composed of one pint of meal, two 
quarts of water, one quart of molasses and one spoon- 
ful of hog's lard ; let the horse be moderately exer- 
cised, and whenever he is standing should be well 
rubbed ; give a mash twice a week, composed of one 
gallon of bran, one table spoonful of sulphur, one tea 
spoonful of saltpetre, one quart of boiling sassafras 
tea, and a eighth of an ounce of asafcetida, not per- 
miting the horse to drink cold water for six hours 
afterwards. Should he be much mended by this treat- 
ment, nothing more will be necessary, except feeding 
him on bran, or light food of any kind ; but should he 
appear to receive no benefit from these attentions, in 
four or five days, take of calomel, twenty-five grains ; 
of opium, two drachms; camphor, two drachms; 
powdered fennel-seed, one drachm ; of syrup, of any 
kind, a sufficient quantity to make the ingredients into 
a ball, which may be given every morning for four or 
five days, by which time the horse will get well il 
his disease will admit of a cure. 

Horses that are confined in a stable never have th< 
staggers ; consequently it would be advisable foi 
every person, whose situation will admit of it, to con 
fine their horses, particularly at night, during the 
spring and fall months 



The mange in horses is a disease of the skin, which 
u generally rough, thick, and full of wrinkles, espe- 
01 illy about the mane, tail, and thighs, and the little 
hair that remains on these parts stands up very much 
like bristles. 

The ears and eye-brows are sometimes attacked, 
and in a short time are left quite naked. The mange 
is an infectious disease : indeed so much so, that if a 
horse is carried into a stable where one that is mangy 
has been in the habit of standing, he will be almost 
certain to take the infection, unless the litter has been 
removed and the stable properly cleansed and aired. 
Proper attention will make the cure easy. 

Remedy. — Take of powdered brimstone and hogs 
/ard an equal quantity, mix them well together and 
anoint the part affected twice a day, bleed plentifully 
and give two or three mashes (composed of bran, sul- 
phor, saltpetre, and sassafras) within a week, by which 
time a cure will be performed. 

A clean stable and nice bed of straw will aid much 
in accomplishing the object in view. 


A horse is said to be hide bound when his sain 
will not slip under the pressure of the hand, but stickt 
a* fast to the ribs as if it was glued. 


Hoises are sometimes hide bound in consequence ol 
feeling the effects of some violent disease, and it is 
often a bad symptom; but generally, this tightness of 
the skin proceeds from poverty, cruel usage, and 
sometimes from worms. 

The first thing necessary for performing a cure is, 
fo offer bettei treatment to the animal, giving him 
plenty of light food, such as bran, oats, &c. and a clean 
stable with fresh litter. Then take from the neck 
vein half a gallon of blood; at night give a mash com- 
posed of one gallon of bran, scalded with sassafras tea,- 
one table spoonful flour of sulphur or powdered brim- 
stone, and one tea spoonful of saltpetre; not permitting 
him to drink for six hours afterwards. 

On the second day, at twelve o'clock, take of cop- 
peras, two table spoonfuls ; of warm sassafras tea, one 
quart ; saltpetre, one tea spoonful , mix and give them 
as a drench. Have the horse well rubbed, and in a 
few days he will be entirely relieved. 



The surfeit is a common disease among horses tba. 
have been cruelly or injudiciously treated. Sudden 
changes from heat to cold, plunging deep into cold 
water and drinking plentifully after being excessively 
hard rode, unsound food, being turned from a warm 
and comfortable stable out into the cold air, night 
d''ws, &c. 6ic. often produce surfeit. 


Symptoms. — The surfeit first makes its appearance 
with many fine and small lumps under the skin, a 
partial falling off of the hair, and a constant itching : 
at length a great number of scabs are formed, and 
some small ulcers, and unless some remedy is em- 
ployed, the whole coat of hair falls off and the norse 
becomes covered with scabs : the hair in the mano 
and tail will be nearly rubbed off, and the little remain- 
ing will stand erect. 

Remedy.— Take from the neck vein on the first and 
fourth days of the week, half a gallon of blood ; give 
a mash of one gallon of bran, one table spoonful of 
sulphur, one tea spoonful of saltpetre, and a quart of 
hot sassafras tea, well mixed together, three times 
within a week, not permitting him to drink for six 
hours whenever a mash is taken. 

Give three drenches within the week, composed of 
one quart of sassafras tea, and one tea spoonful of salt- 
petre, each. Change the horse's litter frequently ; 
keep. his stable clean, and do not permit him to get 

Take of hog's lard and sulphur, equal part?, mix 
them and anoint the horse where the surfeit appears 
worse, once a day ; and by the expiration of a week, 
if the horse is not entirely well, he will be much bene- 
fited, and nothing more will be necessary, except giv- 
ing him food that is light and easily digested, and 
observe towards him kind treatment. 




Take four ounces sugar of* lead, four do. bole am- 
moniao, eight do. alum, burned. 

The whole to be put in three quarts of good vinegar, 
nnd the horse's mouth washed or swabbed two or 
three times a day, keeping the bit out of the mouth. 
The above is enough for six horses. 



I have noticed several essays in your valuable paper, 
the " American Farmer," on the subject of " big head 
\n horses? and as I have never seen any description 
of this disease, or any cure recommended, I will 
endeavour to communicate what my limited experience 
on that subject has taught me : 

About twelve years ago the disease made its ap- 
pearance in this neighbourhood, and befc re a remedy 
was found out, many losses were sustained, by the 
death of the horses which were diseased. One of my 
neighbours lost horses to the value of six or seven 
thousand dollars, among them some of the best blood- 
ed mares and colts. I lost one only, and the first and 
onl) one, a brood mare, which had it about that time. 
Various applications were made to cure it, such as 
driving in spirits of turpentine by rubbing the parts 
dflectcd, and holding a red hot iron near the place .♦ 


burning, bruising, and cutting, were also resorted to, 
but in every case that I saw or heard of, the disease 
terminated in the death of the animal. At length 
white arsenic was recommended, but by whom it was 
first discovered, I am ignorant. I had occasion, about 
four years ago, to try it on a fine Archy mare, then in 
foal by Archy: she was affected on both sides of the 
face, and I succeeded in curing her : she produced a 
horse colt, whilst she was under the operation of the 
arsenic At about two years old the colt was affected 
on one side of the face. I had recourse to the arsenic 
and completely eradicated the disorder, leaving only a 
slight scar, though the mucus membrane of the nostril 
was so much injured as to cause a difficulty of breath- 
ing through it. The mare was still more affected, as 
both nostrils were nearly closed, and her head con- 
tinued to be much larger than before she was taken 
with the disease, though generally in good order, and 
occasionally worked. She has, however, produced 
three fine colts since, none of which has as yet been 
affected with the big head. I designed to have trained 
her first colt, but in consequence of the affection of his 
nostril, I declined the idea. He is now four years old. 
enjoying fine health, and possessing great vigour as 
a s*allion. I am thus particular in detailing the cha- 
racter of the animals who have been cured, that it 
may be seen how little horses are affected by the dis- 
ease after it has been cured. I have known the arsenic 
exhibited in at least twenty cases, in all of which it 
effected a cure, and I think I can say, that it is an 
infallible remedy. I will now endeavour to descnoc 
the disease, and the recipe. 

Symptoms— -Loss of appetite, a drooping of the 
head and a disinclination to move about — a sliefbi 

142 BIG HEAD. 

weeping from the eye on the side affected — -in a short 
time a local swelling appears on the side of the face in 
a direct line between the eve and nostril, which on 
being pressed hard with the finger causes the animal 
to wince, and by rubbing it gently with the hand, 
appears to gwe ease to him — an enlargement of the 
jaw bone, and a considerable decline in flesh. I have 
not discovered that the disease is attended with fever ; 
if it is suffered to run long, it causes an affection of the 
joints — they become puffed, as If inflated with wind, 
and in a short time those swellings become filled with 
pus, and ultimately break, and a discharge of purulent 
matter issues from the joints, and the animal falls, to 
rise no more without help. It is supposed to be infec- 
tious only in this last state of the disease. 

Cure. — As soon as the swelling on the side of the 
face appears, take a piece of white arsenic about the 
size of a common field pea, (or about six or eight grains 
pulverized and wrapped in fine paper, of a size only 
sufficient to contain it,) make an incision in the skin, 
immediately over the hard tumour, insert the arsenic 
(or the paper containing it,) and with a needle and 
thread make one suture or stitch, tie the ends of the 
tnread in a hard knot, bleed the horse, and turn him 
out alone in a good pasture, or if it is cold weather, 
put him in a stable, removed from other horses, and 
feed him on light food — in a few days the effects of 
the arsenic will be discoverable by a considerable 
swelling of the head, nose, and face, which will increase 
until the power of the arsenic is exhausted — if both 
*id2s of the face are operated on at the same time, 
ihe head will swell to an enormous size — in about a 
month, or six weeks, the arsenic will have developed 
'is efficacy by the appearance of a circular piece oi 

BIO HEAD. » l3 

skin, and the poious bone of the face which extends 
as far as the seat of the disease, or the influence of the 
arsenic on the affected part ; this circular develop- 
ment extends as far as the affected part only, and is 
quite callous and nearly detached from the sound skin, 
leaving the wholesome flesh in its natural state. In a 
month or six weeks longer, this circular part becomes 
entirely detached on its periphery from the sound 
skin, and adheres to the side of the face by a few 
slight integuments about its centre, which soon decays, 
(or it may be cut off,) and the diseased parts drop out 
in a mass, leaving a hideous wound; then may be 
seen the porous bone of the face, resembling honey- 
comb, which soon becomes covered with sound flesh 
and skin : the wound may be soon healed by using 
common applications, though I have made use of what 
we farmers in the country call pot liquor, as a wash, 
and anointing the place with an ointment made by 
bruising the leaves of the common poke-weed, (pny- 
tulacca decaudra) and extracting the juice by pressure, 
and stewing it in hog's lard, or of the Jamestown 
weed, or thorn apple, (datura stramonium,) prepared 
in the same way. These applications may be made 
use of with advantage as soon as it is discovered that 
the parts begin to separate. If the weather be warm 
it may be necessary to anoint the parts with a mixture 
of common tar and hog's lard, or the juice of elder 
stewed in hog's lard, in order to keep away the blow 
fly, which will be attracted to the parts by the oflen- 
siveness of the scent emitted. It cannot be expected 
that a horse which has thus been operated upon, will 
regain the beauty of his head, particularly if he be an 
old horse, or has been affected on both sides of the 
'ace, or the disease has been suffered to run too long 

144 BIG HEAD. 

before applying the remedy : this is evidenced by tne 
appearance of my mare. 1 suffered the disease to run 
too long, because I was fearful tnat the arsenic might 
injure the foal, but was induced to risk it rather than 
lose the mare: the stallion on the contrary, exhibits 
the effects of it in but a slight degree. It may be 
proper to remark, that a less quantity of arsenic will 
answer for a colt than for an old horse ; and that it 
ought to be inserted as high up on the face as the seat 
of the disease will admit of; perhaps on the upper 
edge of the swelled part will answer the same end. 

Another remedy has been communicated to me, 
which is much more simple ; and if it be a remedy, 
certainly possesses great advantages over the one on 
which I have been treating. I have never known 
it tried, but I am induced to believe that it is a remedy, 
both from its analogy to the arsenic, and from the 
authority from which I derived my information. It is 
this : Instead of the arsenic, take half a pint of strong 
ashes, (hickory 1 suppose,) put them into a tin cup, (of 
about a pint measure,) smaller at the mouth than at 
the bottom, say about one and a half inches at the 
mouth in diameter ; fill the cup or pot with water, and 
let it boil for half an hour, or until the water has been 
evaporated, or absorbed by the ashes, cord the horse's 
nose in the usual way, or otherwise confine him, in 
order that he may be still, and apply the mouth of the 
cup to the part affected, with the ashes quite hot and 
nearly dry, having previously covered it with a thin 
cloth to prevent the ashes from coming in contact with 
the skin of the horse, and hold it in that position until 
the heat has subsided, when it may be removed : in a 
day oi two the parts will exhibit a gluey exudation. 
Which will disappear in the course of a week, leaving 


an inconsiderable sore like a burn, which may be soon 
cured by treating it as such. It may be necessaiy in 
some cases to make the second application. The 
norse may be used as usual at the time, afid when 
ihe wound heals up, scarcely any scar will remain. 

Or, Take blood from the neck vein and bathe the 
swell-ed parts with spirits of turpentine once or twice 
a week, rubbing it in with a hard brush until you dis- 
cover the swelling is stopped : the lumps always 
remain, but as they cease to grow the horse gets 

Or, Give stramonium (Jamestown or Jimeson weed) 
m doses of one drachm, mixed with his feed for severa! 
days, then turning him out for two or three months. 


The fistula in the withers, generally proceeds from 
some blow or bruise, and is the most disagreeable 
disease t( which a horse is subject. 1 would recom- 
mend it to every person, whose situation will admit 
of the sacrifice, to dispose of a horse thus unfortunately 
affected, for whatever sum he would bring, or even 
give him away, sooner than be at the expense and 
trouble, and run the risk of performing a cure which, 
if completed, would be tedious, and the horse be much 
lessened in value in consequence of being disfigured by 
the scar which unavoidably will be left. The remedy 
here recommended is severe, but it will have tta 
desired effect more speedily than any other. 


So soon as the fistula assumes a formidabje appear. 
auce, fomentations of bitter herbs should be employed, 
such as wormwood, camomile, bay leaves, mullen! 
.lfe-eveulasting, &c. boiled in water to a strong decoc- 
tion, and after being strained, should be applied hot as 
the horse can bear it without giving pain, by means 
of large woollen cloths. This application promotes 
suppuration, and when matter is formed let the tumour 
be opened, so that its contents may be completely 
evacuated ; after which let the sore be nicely washed 
with strong soap suds, and applv the following oint- 
ment once a day:— Take of verdigris, half an ounce- 
copperas, half an ounce ; oil turpentine, one ounce ; 
ointment of yellow rosin, four ounces; to be well mixed 
together. As soon as healthy matter is discharged 
from the fistula the ointment may be discontinued, 
and nothing more will be necessary, except keeping 
it perfectly clean with strong soap suds. 

When the fistula first makes its appearance, it may 
be removed or prevented by placing a rowel or selsn ip 
each shoulder, just below the swelled or inflamed pari 
which should be kept running two or three weeks. 



The poll-evil, like the fistula, proceeds from some 
blow, bruise, or external injury, and its consequences 
are much to be areaded. A horse thus diseased would 
be weii sold almost at any price, though the cure is 
tolerably certain, yet extremely slow. The poll-evil 

POLL- KVIL. 147 

is an abscess or swelling found in the sinews, between 
the noil bone and the uppermost vertebra of the neck, 
immediately on the poll or nap of the neck. When 
this swelling first makes it appearance, bathe it fre- 
quently with hot vinegar ; and if the hair be fretted 
off, with an oozing through the skin, make use of equal 
parts of vinegar and spirits of wine ; but if there be 
an itching, with heat and inflammation, the safest way 
will be to bleed plentifully, and apply a red oak poul- 
tice, which will sometimes disperse the swelling and 
put an end to the disease. But whenever the tumour 
is critical, having all the signs of matter, and appears 
not benefited by the applications already recommend- 
ed, it will be advisable to bring it to a head as speedily 
as possible, with the following poultice : Corn meal, 
marsh mallows, oil turpentine, and hog's lard. When 
the tumour becomes ripe or full of matter, it may be 
either opened or permitted to break of itself; if opened 
with a knife, great care should be used to prevent 
wounding the tendinous ligument that runs along the 
neck under the mane. When the matter appears to 
be on both sides, the tumours must be opened on both 
sides, and the ligament between remain undivided ; it 
the matter flows in great quantities, resembling melted 
glue, and is of an oily consistence, it will require a 
second incision, especially if any cavities are dis- 
covered by the fingers or probe ; these should be 
opened by the knife, and the wound should be dressed 
with spirits of turpentine, honey, and tincture of myrrh, 
until light and thick coloured matter is found. Cleanse 
the sore well with strong soap suds and a sponge ; 
then take of verdigris, half an ounce; oil of tui- 
pentine, four ounces; of blue-stone, two ounces; ol 
green copperas, half an ounce ; mix them well to- 
gether, and hold them over a fire until thev are as hoi 

t 18 LOCK-JAW. 

as the horse can bear them : then pour ihem into tho 
ibscess and close the lips by one or two stitches ; this 
is to remain for several days without any other dres- 
sing, except bathing with spirits of wine. Should 
matter flow in great abundance, and of thin consisten- 
cy, the above application must be again repeated unti. 
the matter decreases in quantity, and becomes of a 
whitish colour and healthy appearance. 



The lock-jaw is sc fatal in its consequences, that it 
is a fortunate circumstance it occurs so seldom amongst 

It commences with a difficulty in mastication, and 
shortly after the jaws are so completely and immove- 
ably closed, that it is with much difficulty that medi- 
cines can be administered. The muscles of the neck 
appear much contracted, and the animal appears to 
suffer great pain. 

The lock-jaw is frequently brought on by trifling 
causes, such as cuts, wounding of nerves, tendons, &c. 
Generally speaking, the cure is very uncertain ; but it 
will chiefly depend on opium, the warm bath, and 
other antispasmodics. Sometimes the sudden appli- 
cation of cold water, in great quantities, has been 
serviceable ; friction of turpentine oil or spirits, gene- 
rally proves useful, as does a clyster made with two 


ounces of spirits of hartshorn, four ounces of oil of 
turpentine, and the yelks of three or four eggs, mixed 
with a quart of strong ale and gin or whiskey. It is a 
great object to promote urine, sweat, &c. Opium, 
camphor, and copious bleedings, have been found, in 
Some cases, very beneficial ; and when they have 
failed, hartshorn, ether, opium, and brandy, have 
been employed with some success; though the lock- 
; aw is often a symptom of approaching dissolution 
and frequently defies the power of any kind of medi- 
cine that can be employed. 



Horses lose their appetites from various causes, 
viz: — Excessive fatigue, want of a change in food, 
dirty fodder, mouldy corn, or a dirty manger, &e. &c. 
but most frequently by the approach of some disease. 
So soon as you discover a horse has lost his appetite, 
observe the following treatment, viz : — 

Take from the neck vein half a gallon of blood; 
take of asafoetida, a quarter of an ounce ; salt, one 
table spoonful ; sassafras tea, one quart ; mix and 
give them as a drench. 

On the second day, take of glauber salts, one pound ; 
warm water, one quart ; after dissolving the salts give 
it as a drench, and in two or three days the appetite 
will be restored, unless the animal is labouring under 
some disease, which may be ascertained by the symp- 



Nothing is more common than colds among horses, 
of all ages. They are frequently produced by a want 
of good rubbing after violent exercise, which strikes 
a chilliness and dampness over the whole body ; being 
changed from a warm and comfortable stable to one 
cold and open ; standing out late in dew at night 
plunging deep in cold water while heated in a profuse 
perspiration ; all of which have a tendency to check 
the perspirable matter and contract the pores of the 

Cold*- sometimes produce a slight running at the 
nose • the remedy is simple and almost certain — bleed 



Saddle Galls are generally occasioned by an un- 
equal pressure of the saddle, or by a saddle being badly 
fitted to a horse's back, and if neglected they grow 
into very ugly and troublesome sores. When these 
inflamed tumours are first discovered, cold water alone 
is frequently sufficient to disperse and drive there 
away, if applied as soon as the saddle is pulled off 
but when that will not have the desired effect, by 
washing them twice a day in the mixture I shall here 
recommend, the cure will be readily performed. — 
Take of sharp vinegar, one gill; spirits, of any kind, 
one gill ; sweet oil or fresh butter, one table spoonful; 
to l*e well mixed before used. 



Sitfasts proceed from the part being frequently 
orui«ed with a saddle, until it becomes extremely hnrd, 
and after remaining some length of time it is not 
unlike a horny substance. The cure cannot be per- 
formed unless the knife is used for the purpose of 
cutting it entirely out. After which the fresh wound 
can be healed with the greatest ease, in a very short 
time, by using either of the following mixtures : 

No, 1. Take of brandy, half a pint ; honey, half a 
pint ; alum, two ounces. 

No. 2. Take of blue-stone, a quarter of an ounce ; 
spirits of turpentine, two table spoonfuls ; spring water, 
one pint. 

No. 3. Take sugar of lead half an ounce ; alum, 
one ounce ; copperas, half an ounce ; let them be well 
mixed, and the sitfast washed twice a day, after tne 
wound is washed clean with soap and water. 



A diarrhoea amongst horses seldom occurs and is 
easy of cure. It may be produced by a suppression 
of perspiration or by an increased secretion of bile. 

The following ball (No. 1.) generally gives relief, 
but should it not have the desired eflect, No. 2 may be 

No 1. Take of sue. aloes, six arachms; Castile 
soap, four drachms; and syrup enough *o form me 

14* L 


No 2. Take of opium, one drachm , antimony 
three, drachms ; powdered ginger, two drachms ; ana 
syrup enough, of any kind, to form a ball. 

It wiL benefit a horse very much by keeping mm 
warmly clothed while labouring under this disease. 



A Diabetes is a profuse staling or a constant dis- 
charge of water ; it is attended with great weakness, 
loss of flesh and appetite, with every appearance ol 
decay and approaching dissolution. 

It is frequently the result of old disorders, surfeits, 
excessive hard rides, &c. &c. A horse of a delicate 
and weak constitution is extremely difficult to cure, 
as he soon loses flesh and appetite, his hair becomes 
rough, his eyes weak, sad, and dejected, and in a very 
short time he is unfit for any kind of labour. But if 
the following remedies are employed, when the disease 
first makes its appearance, if the horse possesses a 
tolerable good constitution, the cure, by proper atten- 
tion, can be rendered almost certain. 

Remedy. — No. 1. Take of opium, one drachm ; 
asafoetida, two drachms ; powdered ginger, two ditto ; 
red oak bark, powdered, one ounce ; syrup of any 
kind ; a sufficient quantity to make two balls for one 
dose, which must be repeated three times within a 
week, and the horse must not be permitted to drink an 
.inusual quantity of water. A little salt thrown into 
•hat he is permitted to use, will be found very beneficial 


No. 2. Take of red wine, one pint ; water, one 
pint ; gum Arabic, one ounce ; mix and give them as 
a drench three times within a week. 

No. 3. Take of salts of hartshorn, three drachms ; 
opium, one drachm ; powdered ginger, two drachms ; 
liquorice, half an ounce : syrup, of any kind, a, suffi- 
cient quantity *o make the ingredients into two balls, 
which may b* given twice within a week. Nourish- 
ing food, moderate exercise, and a clean, wholesome 
stable will assist much in effecting a cure. 



Previous to the application of a blister to any part 
of a horse, the hair should either be shaved or cut of! 
as close as possible ; the blistering ointment should be 
regularly spread with a warm knife on a stout piece of 
oznaburgs ; and during the operation of the blister, 
the horse should be tied short to prevent his biting the 
part or doing other injury. 

Blister — No. 1. Take of Spanish flies half ail ounce, 
oil turpentine one ounce, hog's lard four ounces; mix 
them well and the blister is ready for use. 

No. 2 — Take of tar, four ounces ; vitriolic acid two 
drachms, oil of origanum, half an ounce ; hog's lard, 
two ounces ; Spanish flies, two ounces. This Shs^i 
is excellent for the spavin, 



J ; clysters very often are the means of saving 
nones' lives, I shall here recommend the best and sim- 
plest mode of administering them. Take a large 
bladder, cut off the neck and soften it in warm water, 
take a pewter pipe, common reed, or any other smooth 
tube, nine or ten inches long and not more than an inch 
in diameter; the clyster must then be poured through 
a funnel into the bag, and securely tied around one end 
of the tube ; the otner must be made perfectly smooth 
and rounding, well oiled, and introduced into the anus 
several inches ; the liquid in the bladder must be 
forced through the tube by pressure with the hand. — 
When a clyster is given, a horse should be placed with 
his head down hill, and if he refuses to stand, a twitch 
should be put upon his nose. 

Glysters are of three kinds — opening, anodyne, and 
nourishing. For the first purpose take a gallon of 
warm water, with from half a pound to a pound of 
common salt dissolved in it; to which add four or 
five ounces of olive or linseed oil. For the second, 
take two drachms of solid opium, dissolve them, or 
rather mix them well with about half a pint of warm 
water, and add from a quart to three pints of Indian 
meal or wheat flour gruel. For the third purpose, 
rich broths, wheat flour gruel, and other nourishing 
fluids are recommended. With respect to the first 
kind of glysters, it may be observed that gruel is com- 
monly preferred to warm water : but according to my 
experience, the latter does just as well as the former 
As» to the second, tincture of opium may be substitu 


ted for solid opk n, and is by some preferred to it, 
but tne quantity should not exceed two ounces, on 
account of the sp; rit in which this opium is dissolved. 
The third kind of glyster is required only in lock-jaw, 
or in diseases oft ie throat which prevent swallowing, 
and in these its ut lity seems to be very questionable. 
As soon as the g!y jter has been injected, the tail should 
be kept close to 'he fundament for a few minutes to 
prevent its being too hastily returned. This is parti- 
cularly necessar) when the anodyne clyster is em*, 
ployed. The pipe must be oiled or greased before it 
is introduced, and if its passage be obstructed by hard 
dung lodged in the gut, the hand should be gradually 
introduced in order to remove it. 



Fo3ientations are generally made of bitter herbs, 
such as wormwood, camomile, mullen, bay leaves, 
sutherwood, life-everlasting, &c. &c. boiled in water 
to a strong decoction, strained off, and applied with 
large woollen cloths, hot as the animal can bear it that 
it is intended to benefit. The efficacy of fomentations 
often depends on the length of time they are employed, 
and their being frequently repeated. 

Poultice. — The following mixtures will be found 
useful as a poultice : 

No 1. Take of bran, one quart; of sharp vine- 
gar (scalding hot) half a pint ; hog's lard, one table 
spoonful — mix them for use. 

1 50 MASH. 

No. 2. Thke of red oak bark a sufficiency to boil 
to one quart of strong decoction ; take of Indian meal, 
a sufficient quantity to form the poultice. 

No. 3. Take of sharp vinegar, half a pint ; of meal 
one quart ; of hog's lard, two table spoonfuls ; pour a 
sufficient quantity of boiling water to form it into a 
mash, when it will be ready for use. 



A 3iash is generally given to a horse for the pur- 
pose of cooling the system, opening the bowels, and 
for disguising different kinds of medicines which may 
be necessary to be administered ; which if given in 
any other way, would be attended with trouble and 
difficulty, and would not be productive of effects so 

Mash. — No. 1. Take of bran one gallon, sassafras 
tea (scalding hot) one quart, powdered brimstone one 
cable spoonful, saltpetre one tea spoonful. 

No. 2. Take of oats one gallon, flour sulphur one 
table spoonful, saltpetre one tea spoonful, boiling wate: 
one quart. 

No. 3. Take of bran one gallon, salts (glauber, 
four ounces, sulphur one table spoonful, sassafras tea 
^scalding hot) one quart — let them be well mixed and 
given milk warm, not permitting the horse to drink 
cold water for six hours afterwards. 



The bleeding of a horse is so common and simple, 
lhat but little instruction can be necessary for the per- 
formance of the operation. The blood should always 
be caught in some vessel for the purpose of judging ol 
its quantity and quality ; if after it has coagulated a 
light buff coloured jelly forms the surface, it is an evi- 
dence of the inflammatory state of the blood. Blooa 
drawn from a healthy horse very soon coagulates and 
appears like a uniformly red jelly, with a small quantit 
of fluid, resembling water, floating on the surface, 
consists of two parts —the red jelly (termed crassa 
mentum) and the water or serum; the former may be 
separated into two parts by washing the red globules 
and coagulable lymph. 

Bleeding is extremely beneficial in many diseases , 
and with safety from one quart to one and a half gal 
Ions may be taken at one time. 



Take litharage, three ounces ; quick lime, six ounces; 
beat it fine and mix it together: put it into a pan arnd 
pour a sharp ley over it ; then boil it and you will 
have a fat substance swim on top, with which anoiat 
the horse in such places as you design to have blarfc 
and it will turn to the colour immediately. 

15S l>__.*i*iG. TRIBUTE TO THE HORSE. 

It has the same effect in changing hair that is red 
into a black colour, with only this difference, viz. : — 
Take an equal quantity of lime and litharage, and 
instead of boiling it with ley, boil it only with fresh 
water; what swims at top, is fit for use and will an- 
swer your expectation ; what hairs you anoint with it 
in the evening, will be black the next morning. 



It may be generally remarked, that men who drive 
fast have swift horses ; not that they drive fast because 
they have swift horses, but because fast driving makes 
horses swift. A horse may commonly be trained to 
a dull and heavy, or to an airy and fleet gait. Nature 
unquestionably does much ; but education does far 
more towards producing the great difference in the 
speed of horses, than most men are willing to allow. 
Horses are more frequently injured by driving them 
beyond their habitual pace, than beyond their native 
power. The best direction for the education of horses 
is, " drive jhfit and stop often." 




Take half a pound of saltpetre, half a pound of 
dium, and half a pound of alum salt ; pulverize and 
mix them well together, and every eight days give 
mm a table spoonful in his food ; his coat, flesh, anJ 
spirits will soon reward his master for his rare. 

Jlf ULES. 

— «©«♦ 



The mule is the hybiid produce of an ass with i 
mare ; having a large clumsy head, long erect ears, a 
short mane, and a thin tail. 

The hinny is the hybrid produce between the sho- 
ass and a stallion ; the head is long and thin, the ears 
are like those of a horse, the mane is short, and the 
tail is well filled with hair. The hinny is much less 
common than the mule, because, being less hardy and 
useful than the other, he is never cultivated. 

The mule, commonly so called, is much valued for 
the saddle, and for drawing carriages in Spain, Portu- 
gal, Italy, and the East, and in the warmer parts of 
America. In those countries where great attention is 
paid to the breed, it is as tail as the horse, exceedingly 
well-limbed, but not so handsome, especially about the 
head and tail. These animals are mostly sterile ; 
some, indeed, have thought that they are altogether 
incapable of producing their kind ; but some few 
instances have occurred, in which female mules have 
had foals, and in which even the male has impregnated 
females both of the ass and horse species, though such 
instances are exceedingly rare. 

The mules made use of in the southern paits of 
Europe, are now brought to an astonishing perfection 
as well as great size. They are usually black, strong 
15 " 


weli-limbed, and large, being mostly bred out of fine 
Spanish mares. They are sometimes fifteen or six 
icen hands high, and the best of them worth forty or 
fifty pounds. No creatures are so proper for lar^e 
burdens, and none so sure footed. Tney are much 
stronger for draft than our horses, and are often as 
thick set as our dray horses, and will travel several 
months together, with six or eight hundred weigh) 
upon their backs. Some think it surprising that these 
animals are not more propagated here, as they are su 
much hardier and stronger than horses, less subject to 
'liseases, and capable of living and workup to twice 
the a^e of a horse. Those that are bred in cold coun- 
tries are more hardy and fit for labour than those bred 
:n hot ; and those which are light made are fitter for 
riding than horses, as to the walk and trot ; but they 
are apt to gallop rough ; though these do it much less 
than the short-made ones. The general complaint 
made against them is, that they kick and are stubborn; 
but this is owing to neglect in breeding them, for they 
are as gentle as horses, in countries where they are 
bred with proper care. 

In the breeding of mules, mares that are of a very 
large breed and well made, should be employed. 
They should be young, full of life, large barrelled, but 
sm ailed limbed, with a moderate sized head, and a 
i;ood forehead. It is found of advantage to have the 
foals from the time of their being dropped often 
handled, to make them gentle: it prevents their huit- 
inir themselves bv skittishness and sudden frights ; and 
they are much easier broken at the proper age, and 
become docile and harmless, having nothing of that 
rieiousness which is so commonly complained of in 
these animals. Th^y may be broken at three yean 

MULES. 161 

oid, but should never be permitted to do much hard 
work till four, as they are thus secured from being 
nurt by hard labour, till they have acquired strength 
enough to bear it without injury. An expert breedei 
of these animals found, that feeding them tou well 
while young, though it made them very fat, was far 
from being any advantage to them ; as it was not only 
incurring a much larger expense than was any way 
necessary, but also made them wonderfully nice and 
delicate in their appetites ever after, and also by 
increasing their weight of flesh, rendered them more 
subject to strains and hurts in their morning gambols. 
[Ie therefore contented himself with giving them food 
enough to prevent their losing flesh, and to keep up 
their growth without palling their appetites with deli- 
cacies, or making them over fat ; he also took care to 
defend them from the injuries of the weather by allow- 
ing them stable room, and good litter to sleep on, 
besides causing them every day to be well rubbed 
down, with a hard wisp of straw, by an active groom. 
This was scarcely ever omitted, particularly in cold, 
raw, wet weather, when they were least inclined to 
exercise themselves. When three years old, mules 
are proper for use. 

The shoe for the mule is for the fore foot very simi- 
lar to that which farriers call the bar shoe. It is very 
wide and large, especially at the toe, where it some- 
times projects four inches and upwards beyond the 
hoof. This excess is given it with a view to enlarge 
the basis of the foot, which is in general exceedingly 
narrow in this animal. The shoe for the hind feet is 
open at the heels like a horse's shoe; but is lengthened 
at the toe like the preceding one. Mules are, how- 
rvt^r. bv no means invariably shod in this manner: n 

10*2 MULES. 

is not unusual to shoe them either like horses or asses, 
us they approach the one or the other in size or work 



PRIZE ESSAY. h$l f" 

[The premium of a silver cup, of thirty dollars value, offered by 
Robert Oliver, Esq. to the auther of the best essay on the natural 
history of the Mule, and its value for the general purposes of agn. 
culture, in comparison with horses, was awarded by a committee, 
appointed by the Trustees of the Maryland Agricultural Socie-'.f, 
to the author of the following essay.] 


With the view of promoting an improvement in the breed, and of 
demonstrating the utility of employing him as a substitute f 01 the 
horse, in the labours of husbandry, canals, tfc. 

By Samuel Wyllys Pomeroy. 
* v Opinion is the queen of the world — it gives motion tc 

the springs, and direction to the wheels of power." 

John Quincy Ad ants. 
" Knowledge is power." — Bacon. 

Soon after the accession of Charles III. to the c own 
of Spain, his subjects were prohibited by a severe 
edict, from wearing flapped hats and long cloaks; 
which caused an insurrection that obliged him to flee 
from Madrid, after witnessing the massacre of nearly 
one hundred of his Walloon guards ; and might have 
terminated in a revolution, but for a speedy revoca 
tion of the edict and banishment of his ministers. An 
eminent writer introduces the history of the occur- 
rence, bv observing, that " it is easier to conquer halt 

MULES. lf>3 

the world than to subdue a single prejudice or error, 
most nations having a superstitious attachment to those 
habitudes which they derive from their ancestors, that 
seem to come along with them into the world, and 
with which they were nursed and brought up." 

Perhaps it may be deemed by many quite as vision- 
ary or absurd to attempt an introduction of the mule 
as a substitute for the horse, for the purposes of agri- 
culture and hackney employments, as was the project 
of the Spanish monarch for compelling his subjects to 
wear the French costume, to the exclusion of one they 
had been so long accustomed to look upon " as a dis- 
tinction which was the birth-right of every true Spa- 
niard ;" and as we may suppose, so congenial to the 
indolent habits for which that nation had long been 

It must be acknowledged that there are serious, 
though I trust in this age of improvement, not insur- 
mountable impediments ; for we have to combat not 
only hereditary prejudices, or to speak more correctly 
such as have proceeded from a deficiency of means 
and want of knowledge, to develope the valuable pro- 
perties and to subdue propensities of a contrary cha- 
racter in this hybrid race, but we are met at the 
threshold by the same species of pride which the 
Spaniards manifested in regard to their costume, 
founded on the enthusiastic, I may almost say super- 
stitious, attachment to the horse. 

It is believed that a vast portion of our fellow 
citizens, and I may with propriety add the people 01 
£reat Britain, from whom we have derived some 
inveterate prejudices as well as those illustrious exam* 
pies that have had such a powerful influence in leading 
our country to the high destinies that await her, do not 


consider that a mule, especially a well bred one. 
would be in himself and in their view, one of the best 
formed and most distinguished of animals, if they had 
never seen a horse ; they must admit, however, that 
he holds the second rank instead of the first, and it is 
principally from this circumstance that so little atten- 
tion has been paid to him in both countries. Com- 
parison is the chief cause of his degradation — they 
look at and give their opinions not of himself, but 
comparatively with the horse. They seem not aware 
that he is a mule — that he lias all the qualities of his 
nature, all the gifts attached to the connecting and final 
link of two distinct species, and think only of the figure 
and qualities of the horse which are wanting in him, 
and that he ought not to have ; for he possesses those 
of more intrinsic value, which the supreme Author of 
nature has denied to both of his parents. 

There are few subjects of animated nature that have 
engaged the attention of the most eminent naturalists, 
more than the genus Equus, to which the horse and 
ass, with their hybrid offspring, are assigned. Lin- 
nceus, w T ith a view to establish, by new arguments, his 
doctrine, or theory of the sexual system of plants, 
which Spallanzani had attempted to overturn, illus- 
trated their generation by pursuing the chain of nature 
from the animal to the vegetable kingdom ; and has 
taken prominent examples from the tw T o different pro- 
ductions of mules. He says, " from the mare and male 
ass proceeds the mule, properly so called, which in its 
nature, that is, in its medullary substance, nervous 
system, and what Malpighi calls the keel, (carina,) 
bottom in sportsmen's language, is latent in, and 
derived from the mare. But in its cortical substance 
end outward form, in its mane and tail, resembles 

MULES. 105 

the ass. Between the female ass and the horse* 
the other kind of mule is engendered, whose nature 
or medullarv substance, resembles that of the ass : but 
its outward form and cortical structure, or vascular 
system that of the horse."* 

The latter kind was called Hinnus by the ancients 
hence the modern name Hinny. They were not held 
in much estimation by the Romans, according to Pliny, 
who describes them as difficult to manage, and so 
slow that little service could be derived from them. 
Buffon has noticed this animal, which he says " is 
smaller than the mule, as it preserves the diminutive 
stature of the ass." Hinnys were seldom propagated ; 
but it is said that a number have lately been bred in 
Spain, probably in consequence of the destruction of 
mares in the peninsular war, and are represented of 
good size, and more beautiful than the mule : that is, 
they resemble the horse much more. I understand a 
few have been bred upon the Spanish Main, no doubt 
from a similar cause that led to the system in Spain ; 
and if my information is correct, some have been 
recently shipped to the West India Islands, but are by 
no means esteemed so hardy, or valuable for service, 
as mules. 

Notwithstanding mules have a disposition to propa 
gate, there have been but two or three well authenti- 
cated instances recorded of their having bred; ana 
those productions were considered monsters. Buffon 
was indefatigable in his researches on the subject : and 
although he admits that it is possible for both males 

* See *' A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants/' by Sii Charle* 
liiriiiams — read before the Imperial Academy of Science.* at St 
Petersburgh, Sept. 6, 1760, and which obtained the premium o' 
one hunUted ducats. 


and females to propagate, he is confident that their 
parents are of a species distinct from each other. He 
says " the ass is not a horse degenerated," as some had 
supposed, "he is neither a stranger, an intruder, nor 
a bastard ; he has, like other animals, his family, his 
species, and his rank ; his blood is pure and untainted, 
and although his race is less noble, yet it is equally 
good, equally ancient as that of the horse." This pro- 
found naturalist continues a very minute and eloquent 
comparison between the horse and ass ; some of his 
expressions I have taken the liberty to apply to the 
mule and the horse in a preceding paragraph. 

It may promote the object in view to enter exten- 
sively upon the history of the ass ; and we commence 
with the supposition, that when men became so far 
civilized as to have burdens to carry, or required to be 
carried themselves, this animal was the first domesti- 
cated for that purpose — and it is reasonable to infer 
that those of the least spirit and most tractable, were 
put in requisition in the first instance ; when by breed- 
ing in and in, without any care in the selection of sire 
or dam. became in process of time degenerated to a 
very hi r erior grade. Be this as it may, it is an unques- 
tionable fact that different races of the ass now exist, 
possessing properties as distinct as are found in the 
species of camel. For instance, the Bactrian or single 
hunched camel, called the dromedary, by far the most 
numeious race, being lightly formed, exhibits great 
activity, and is able to traverse vast tracts with the 
speed of a high mettled race horse. The Arabian 
camel, with two protuberances on his back, is con- 
siderably larger, of much stronger form, travels at a 
pace seldom exceeding three miles an hour, and is 
capable of conveying such burdens, that the Arab* 

MULES. )<i? 

st vie him, emphatically, the ship of the desert; yet 
they are of the same species — a cross between them 
breed and constitute another variety, which multiply 
and according to BufFon, have the most vigour, and 
•tre preferred to all others. 

Ancient writers recognise three or four distinct 
varieties of the ass. According to the learned Dr 
Harris, four different races are indicated in the origi- 
nal Hebrew scriptures, viz: Para, Chamor, Aton, and 

The wild ass [Para) was a native of Arabia, De- 
serta, and those countries which formed the great 
Babylonian empire. They are now found in Southern 
Tartary, in the mountainous districts and saline plains 
of Persia — are migratory in large herds, visiting in 
winter the Northern parts of India, and said to be so 
fleet that no horse can overtake them in the chase. — 
This race is frequently alluded to by the inspired 
poets and prophets ; and afford similles diametrically 
opposite to those drawn from the domestic race. The 
sublime description of the former in the book of Job, 
exhibits such a contrast, that 1 trust its insertion i« 
this place vill not be deemed improper. 

" Who from the forest ass his collar hroke, 
And manuinized his shoulders from the yoke? 
Wild tenant of the waste, I sent him ihere 
Among the shrubs, to breathe in freedom's air. 

•Seethe "Natural History of the Bible, by Thaddeus Mason 
Ilairis, D. D. 1 vol. 8vo. Wells & Lilly, Boston." A work won it. 
earnestly recommend to those readers of the sucred volume win 
are desirous to be better acquainted with many allusions to sub 
jects of natural history, founded on their nature, habits, and cha 
lacteristic qualities, developing beautiful similies, which would 
otherwise lie concealed — and enahling them to judge moro cor 
rectly of the propriety r<* such allusions. 


i*M» MULES. 

S jeift as an arrow in his speed he flies ; 

Sees from afar the smoky city rise ; 

Scorns the throng'd street, where slavery drags her load. 

The loud voic'd driver and his urging goad : 

Where e'er the mountain waves its lofty wood, 

A boundless range, ne seeks his verdant food." 

Scoffs Vera ion. 

We find, that at a very early period of sacred his- 
iory, the common domestic ass (Cliamorj) was em- 
ployed in all the menial labours of a patriarchal family, 
while a nobler and more estimable animal (Aton,) was 
destined to carry the patriarchs, the well born ; and 
those on whom marks of distinction were to be con- 
ferred. They constituted an important item in a 
schedule of the pastoral wealth of those times ; of 
course attracted particular attention and care. David 
we are told, had an officer, apparently of high dignity, 
appointed expressly to superintend his stud of high 
bred asses, or Atonotk. 

There was another race that has been mentioned by 
Ai istotle, and by Theophrastus, whom Pliny quotes, 
which they denominated the wild mules that bred 
(hemi-onos,) and were found in Cappadocia and Africa. 
There can be but little doubt but this is the Hemionus 
or wild mule of the Mongalian Tartars, so particu- 
larly described by professor Pallas; and that it is not a 
hybrid, but actually of the species of ass resembling a 
mule.* This race is identified by Dr. Harris with 
the Orud of scripture. 

The wild ass of Northern and Western Africa, 
whose flesh was so much admired by the Roman cpi- 

* Herodotus says, that in the army of Xerxes, which invaded 
Sreece, there were "chariots of war drawn by wild asses." M. 
fiaichcr, a celebrated commentator, renders them zebres in his 
Trench translation, which he supports from Oppian, lib. 3 v. 18?. 
Uu* '.t is 1 jw well known that th« zebra is of a species cutirely 


cures, may, I believe, be ranked as another distinct 
race. Adanson, a French naturalist, who visited the 
river Senegal, more than half a century ago, describes 
those brought from the interior by the Moors, as so 
essentially different from any he had seen in P^urope, 
(probably those of Spain, Savoy, or parts of France 
adjoining,) it was with difficulty he could recognise 
them to be the same species — neither do they answer 
the description of the wild ass of Asia, of which we 
have been speaking. But his account of them corres- 
ponds with the diminutive domestic race introduced 
from Africa, particularly those from Senegal and the 
Cape de Verd Islands ; and from which the small race 
now in Europe and in this country, may with great 
probability claim their origin. 

The Arabian ass, like the horse of that country, is 
considered as the most estimable of his species — and 
there are strong reasons for concluding that he is 
descended from the Hebrew Aton, so highly valued 
by Abraham and by the patriarchs, judges, and kings, 
at subsequent periods of sacred history ; and that the 
same race has been preserved in the ancient land of 
Uz, in some degree of purity to the present time 
Indeed, there can be but little doubt on the subject, 
if we admit the fact, that the habits, manners, and pur 
suits of the descendants of Ishmael have continued, 
uith scarcely an iota of variation, from the day they 
took rank anions the nations of the earth. The 
position is greatly strengthened by the information J 

distinct from the ass; and BufFon asserts that none were ever di* 
covered out of Africa, and there only in the southern hemisphere. 
Jt is therefore highly probable, that those alluded to were the hemu 
onut, which are described as much larger than the wild ass, and 
tearer the size and form of the zebra. See Beloe't Ilerodotu», 
I'olymaia, chap. 86. 

1*70 mi i. us 

received some years since from an intelligent traveller 
of undoubted veracity, who had visited Arabia on the 
south-western side of the peninsula to Mocha ; and on 
the eastern, as far as the mouth of the Tigris. Hr 
represented the superior race of asses of that country 
as most beautiful — of perfect symmetry, great spirit, 
nctivitv, and vigour. He had seen those that could 

ml ' O 

not be purchased for less than four or fine thousand 
dollars — an enormous price, considering the value of 
money among those people.* I understand from him, 
that the Arabs were as tenacious of preserving the 
pedigrees of their horses, as the most careful breeder 
for the turf in England — and not less so of their asses. 
The descent of some of them they trace to those in the 
train of the queen of Sheba, when she visited Solomon 
— as they also do that of their horses to the numerous 
stud of that wise and gallant king. 

Dr. Harris supposes the wild ass {Para) to be the 
Onager of the ancients ; and that the Aton was of a 
different kind. My impressions coincide with the 
opinion of the learned divine — but may not writers of 
different periods have confounded the wild ass with the 
Aton in their representations of the Onager? for it is 
not improbable, but that the Aton was of the most 
improved breed known, produced from crosses of a 
choice selection of the domestic, the wild ass, and the 
Hemionus, or wild mule — which last Professor Pallas 
recommends to complete the perfection of the species. 
This supposition is supported by Buffon, who infers 

* Neibuhr remarks, " there are two sorts of asses in Arabia ; the 
tnnaller or lazy ass, as little valued there <-.s in Euorpe ; and a large 
and high spirited br< ed, which are greatly valued, and seii at a very 
liigJi price; I preferred them to horses.' Soe iVeibuhr's navel* n 

MILKS. J 71 

as a certain fact, that by a cross of the remotest oJ 
different races of the ass, the most beautiful produc- 
tions are obtained. 

Mules were in use and highly esteemed at a remote 
period of antiquity ; and are mentioned in scripture 
as of importance in the equipage of princes. Hero- 
dotus, who is styled the father of profane history, fre- 
quently speaks of them ; and it is known that they 
were introduced in the chariot races at the Olympic 
games in the seventieth Olympiad, about five hun- 
dred years before Christ. The Romans well knew 
their value. Pliny informs us, from Varro, that Q.. 
Axius, a Roman senator, paid four hundred thousand 
sersterces, upwards of thirteen thousand dollars, for a 
male ass, for the propagation of mules. And he says 
further, that the profit of a female ass in breeding 
stock for the same purpose, was estimated in Celte- 
beria, now the kingdom of Valencia in Spain, at a 
like sum. We may infer from a passage in Tacitus, 
and in Plutarch's life of Marius, that mules weie ge- 
nerally employed to transport the baggage of the Ro- 
man armies ; and that it is not improbable the superior 
officers rode those of a high grade, having their horses 
led except when they engaged an enemy. It seems 
that tlte dilletanti of Rome held them in great estima- 
tion, as we are informed that the mules of Nero and 
Poppea were shod with gold and silver — not plates, as 
iron shoes are now formed, but the whole Loof en- 

Columella, who in the reign of the Emperer Clauaiu*. 
published the most valuable treatise on the husband*) 
dnd economy of the Romans that nas been handed 
down to us, has given v»ry particular directions for 
Breeding asses and mules. He was a native of Cadiz. 


find owned estates : n Spain, where it appears that th« 
iinest mules were then bred. 

As it is not requisite to pursue our history of the 
mule any farther among the ancients, we shall drop 
their appellation of male and female ass, and adopt the 
modern one of Jack and Jennet. 

Spain has continued to support the reputation for a 
superior race of mules to the present period : and it is 
probable, that the Arabian breed of Jacks were intro- 
duced by the Moors, when they held possession ol 
that fine country, which, by crosses and the effects ol 
climate and soil, have formed two valuable races, 
which we shall notice in the sequel. The Portuguese 
race have been generally considered as differing but 
little from the Spanish ; those, however, that have 
come within my view appear evidently inferior. It 
was not until near the close of the sixteenth century, 
that coaches were used in France ; before which, it is 
said, the nobles rode to court, parliament, &c. on 
mules, that were brought from the vicinity of the Alps 
and Pyrenees. They were usually black, of large 
size, well made, and mostly bred from fine Spanish 
mares. Savoy has long been noted for an excellent 
breed of mules. None very extraordinary are found 
in Italy : those used by the Velterino, are strong and 
of a respectable size, but of a sluggish and debased 
spirit. Very little can be said of those animals in 
Great Britain. The Catholic prelates brought ovei a 
number of superb mules, prior to the Reformation, 
but in the reign of Elizabeth so little was known ol 
them, that a writer of that period says, " in Devon- 
«5hire some were produced by a Jack brought from 
Prance, and were knocked on the head by the people, 
*vho viewed them as monsters." A superior race of 
mules were bred in Flanders from Jacks introduced bv 


tl»e Spanish monarchy while they held dominion iri 
that country. Fifty of them were brought to England 
by the Duke of Cumberland, presented him by the 
Empress Queen, and from their beautiful appearance, 
engaged the attention of a few individuals ; but the 
spirit soon subsided, notwithstanding those who bred 
and used them were warm in praise of their utility. 

Among a voluminous mass of treatises on agricul- 
ture and rural economy, published in that country for 
near a century past, scarce a line can be found devoted 
to the mule ; except by Dr. Anderson, who, in his 
"Recreations in Agriculture," has made a few judi 
cious remarks on the subject. 

In Sir George Staunton's account of Lord Macart- 
ney's embassy to China, we are told that mules are 
valued in that economical empire at a much higher 
price than horses. In our own country, prior to the 
war of the revolution, a few Jacks of an ordinary kind 
were imported ; a small number of mules bred ; and 
all exported to the West Indies. I have reference to 
New England, as I am not aware that any attention 
was paid to the system in the middle, or Southern 
States, though it is not improbable that some valuable 
mules may have been raised by the farmers and plan- 
ters for their own use. When peace took place, the 
price of mules in the West Indies excited attention to 
the breeding of them, which was principally confined 
to Connecticut; and several cargoes of the small 
race of Jacks were imported from the Cape de Verd 
Islands, and St. Michael's, one of the Azores. It 
should be observed, that the exportation of Jacks from 
Spa hi or any of her colonies, was strictly prohibited, 
and continued to be until after the peninsular war. — 
There might have been, however, a few smuggled* 


from the Spanish part of Hispaniola into Cape Fran 
cois, and from thence introduced, but they were vastly 
inferior J .o the Spanish Jacks. From this miserable 
stock a system of breeding mules commenced, the best 
calculated to deteriorate any race of animals that has 
been, or could be devised, since their creation. The 
purchaser of a Jack when about to commence mule 
dealer, made little inquiry concerning him but of hi? 
capacity to propagate a mule. He placed him in <% 
district where there was the greatest number of mares 
of qualities so inferior that their colts would not com- 
pensate their owners for the expense of taking them 
to a horse, and contracted to purchase their mules at 
four months old. Those are kept in herds, with pre- 
carious shelter in winter, having ample opportunities 
afforded them, to mature and transfer that propensity 
for kicking, which seems at first merely playful, into 
an habitual means of defence, to be exercised when 
the biped or any other race of animals approach them. 
In this kicking seminary they remain two years, and 
are then driven to market. At subsequent periods, a 
few Jacks of higher grades were procured, from which 
a small number of good sized mules were bred, and a 
lew of them broke. The breed of Jacks have some- 
what improved, and mule dealers are now r located in 
most of the New England States and some parts of 
New York. But the system as above detailed, with 
few exceptions, has continued ; and it is from such a 
race of Jacks and such a svstem of breeding and 
management, that the mules have been produced, with 
which the farmers and planters of Maryland, Virginia, 
and the Southern States, have been supplied from 
New England ; and such have furnished a criterion for 
a great portion of our countrymen to form an estimato 
of the value and properties of this degraded animal. 

MULLS. 175 

It affords great pleasure to be enabled, for a short 
time at least, to pursue our investigations in a higher 

Several of my friends who had viewed the Jacks 
md mules, at Mount Vernon, in the life time of Ge- 
aeral Washington, gave such glowing descriptions of 
them, and understanding that part of that stock was 
inherited by George W. P. Custis, Esq. I was induced 
to address a few queries to him on this subject ; this 
gentleman with his characteristic urbanity, very 
promptly furnished replies, with liberty to make such 
use of them as I pleased, and I cannot do better than 
to transcribe them from a letter received about three 
years since. Mr. Custis observes: 

" The Royal Gift and Knight of Malta, were sent 
to General Washington about the year 1787 — the Gift. 
with a Jennet a present from the King of Spain ; and 
said to have been selected from the royal stud. The 
Knight I believe was from the Marquis de Lafayette, 
and shipped from Marseilles. The Gift was a huge 
and ill shapen Jack, near sixteen hands high, very 
large head, clumsy limbs, and to all appearance little 
calculated for active service ; he was of a grey colour, 
probably not young when imported, and died at 
Mount Vernon but little valued for his mules, which 
were unwieldly and dull. The Knight was of a mo- 
derate size, clean limbed, great activity, the fire and 
ferocity of a tiger, a dark brown, nearly black colour, 
white belly and muzzle ; could only be managed by 
one groom, and that always at considerable personal 
risk. He lived to a great age, and was so infirm to- 
wards the last as to require lifting. He died on my 
estate in New Kent, in the State of Virginia, ab'.«ut 
IHU9 ar 1^03. His mules were all active, spirited. 


und sei viceable ; and from stout mares attained con 
siderable size. 

" General Washington bred a favourite Jack caller 
Compound, from the cross of Spanish and Maltese 
The Knight upon the imported Spanish Jennet. This 
Jack was a very superior animal ; very long bodied, 
well set, with all the qualities of the Knight, and the 
weight of the Spanish. He was sire of some of the 
finest mules at Mount Vernon, and died from accident. 
The General bred mules from his best coach mares, 
and found the value of the mule to bear a just propor- 
tion to the value of the dam. Four mules sold at the 
sale of his effects, for upwards of $800: and two 
moie pairs at upwards of $400 each pair; one pair 
of these mules were nearly sixteen hands high. The 
only Jacks I know of at present, of the genuine Mount 
Vernon stock, are, one sold by me to Judge Johnson, 
of South Carolina, for five hundred dollars, at two 
years old? one given by me to Wilf'am Fitzhugh, 
Esq. of Ravens worth, and one which I believe is pos- 
sessed by my uncle, Geore Calvert, Esq. of Rivers- 

"The Jack purchased by Judge Johnson, I have 
understood, has a very high reputation in trie South. 

"Upon losing my groom (Peter) who was the first 
and last groom to the Mount Vernon Jacks, I parted 
•vith my stock. 

" There are many Jacks that have come into tl.e 
country of late years, but of their value and proper- 
ties I am unable to speak, though I rather presume they 
are generally small, and only fitted to get mules for 
the cotton cultivation in the light lands of the South. 
Some very fine mules are raised about Hagerstown, 
Maryland, from Jacks of the old breed ; thev are 
ured from stout wagon mares. 

MULES. 17*i 

" As to my opinion of the value of mules, I shall 
always appear extravagant. I have scarce a horse on 
my estates for agricultural purposes, nor would I ac 
ccptof one as a gift, (except for road wagons,) of which 
1 have no need, as my property lies on navigable 
water. Nothing ever was so good as mules for the 
uses of this, our southern country ; they live longer, eat 
less, and above all, are better suited to our slaves, than 
any other animal could possibly be: their strength, 
patient endurance of privation and hardships, slender 
pasturage, exposure — and in short, all those ills to 
which animals are subject where slaves are their 
masters, give to mules a decided preference in all the 
agricultural States of the South. 

" I do not know of any being trained to the pur- 
poses of pleasure carriages. They are often ridden, 
and go pleasantly, with great surety of foot. 1 have 
no doubt but that in time, they will generally be used 
for carriages, and would particularly suit mail coaches; 
they are very swift, and have great durability in 

The Knight of Malta, mentioned by Mr. Custis, was 
unquestionably the first Maltese Jack ever brought to 
the United States. The second came in the frigate 
Constitution, on her return I think, from her first cruise 
in the Mediterranean ; and I have understood was sold 
in the district of Columbia, or one of the adjoining 
States. Since that time a number have been intro- 
duced by officers of the navy from Malta, and the large 
Spanish breed from Minorca and Majorca. From the 
Mount Vernon and those stocks, some fine mules have 
been bred in the middle States, and probably farther 
South. A few valuable Maltese Jacis nave neen 
wn ported in merchant ships. 

17. S MILES. 

The impressions received, when on a visit to the 
West Indies in my youth, by observing, on the sugai 
plantations, the severe labour performed by mules in 
cane mills, induced me when I commenced farming, 
to purchase the first well broke mule I could light on ; 
and notwithstanding I e was so small as to require a 
vehicle and harness constructed purposely for him, his 
services were found so valuable, and the economy oi 
using those animals so evident, that I was stimulated 
to great exertions for procuring several others ol 
iarger size; in this I succeeded, after great difficulty 
to such an extent, as to have had more labour per- 
formed by them on farm and road, for thirty years 
past, than any pesron I presume, in New England ; 
and every day's experience has served to fortify my 
conviction of the superior utility of the mule over the 
horse, for all the purposes for which I have proposed 
him as a candidate. And it should be considered, that 
those I have used were of an ordinary breed, vastly 
inferior to such as may be easily produced in our 
country, by attention to the introduction of a suitable 
race of Jacks, and a proper system of breeding and 
management. The question occurs, how is this to be 
effected ? I will premise, that there exists a strong 
analogy between three varieties of the horse, and those 
of the domestic ass, considered the most valuable. We 
have the Arabian, the hunter, and the stout cart-horse. 
There is the heavy Spanish Jack, with long slouching 
ears, which Mr. Custis has described, that answers to 
the cart-horse ; another Spanish breed called the Anda- 

usian, with ears shorter and erect, of tolerable size, 
plenty of bone, active, more spirited, and answering 
to the hunter. Then comes the Arabian Jack, with 
ears always erect, of a delicate form, fine limbs, and 

fiiil of fire and spirit. Judicious crosses from Urate 

MHLBS. |70 

varieties, will be required to produce such kind of 
mules as may be wanted for general purposes, F/on. 
the small Jack of African origin, with a list down his 
back and shoulders, are bred a small race of mules, 
by far the most hardy of any. With attention to 
selection in breeding the Jacks, with, perhaps, a dash 
of some cross of the foregoing description, a stock of 
mules may be produced, preferable to all others foi 
the light lands and cotton culture of the middle and 
Southern States. 

To procure any number of Arabian Jacks from 
their native country, is hardly practicable at the pre- 
sent time. Egypt has been celebrated by Sonnini 
and other travellers, for superb Jacks of the Arabian 
breed, which probably has been often improved by 
those introduced by the pilgrims from Mecca. I ap- 
prehend no great difficulty in obtaining them from that 
country. There is, however, no question but the 
Maltese Jacks are of the Arabian race, more or less 
degenerated. The most of those brought to this 
country that I have seen, were selected on account oi 
their size, and had been used to the draught. I should 
recommend the selection of those that are esteemed 
most suitable for the saddle, as likely to possess greatei 
purity of blood. A Jack of this kind, was a number 
of years since imported from Gibraltar, that had been 
selected by a British officer at Malta ; and very much 
resembled the Knight of Malta described by Mr. 
Custis. I found upon a careful examination, that he 
differed but little from the description I had honrd and 
read of the true Arabian race ; indeed I could dis 
cover some prominent points and marks, that agreea 
with those found by professor Pallas to belong to the 
llcmionus or wild mule of Mongalia. From this Jack 
have bred a stock, out of a large Spanish Jenne* o' 

180 MULES. 

the Andalusian breed, that correspond very minutely 
with Mr. Custis's description of Compound bred by 
General Washington, and also a mule, that now, not 
three years old, stands fifteen hands, and has other 
points of great promise. 

Such have been the ravages of war and anarchy in 
Spain for a long time past, that the fine race of Jacks 
that country once possessed have become almost ex- 
tinct. In Majorca, and probably some part of the 
coast ol Spain opposite, the large breed may be ob- 
tained ; and there formerly was a superior race in 
Andalusia, which it is hoped have been preserved. — 
Crosses on one of these breeds by the Arabian or Mal- 
tese, I consider indispensable to furnish a race of Jacks 
for the production of the most desirable mules, uniting 
the weight and bone of one, with the spirit and vigour 
of the other, although their height will i» a great mea- 
sure depend on the mares, yet if sired by full blooded 
Maltese Jacks, their limbs are too stender and their 
pasterns too long for heavy draught ; but for the 
saddle, especially from blood mares, they are admira- 
ble, and out of stout mares suitable for light carriages. 

My attention has been but lately directed to breed- 
ing mules ; and those intended only for my own use. 
The system adopted is to halter them at four months, 
and have the males emasculated before six months old, 
wnich has great influence on their future conduct, aud 
is attended with much less hazard and trouble, than il 
delayed until they are one or two years old, as is the 
general practice. If they are treated gently and fed 
»>ccasionally out of the hand, with corn, potatoes, &c. 
they soon become attached; and when they find that 
"every man's hand is not against them," will have no 
piopensity to direct their heels against him, and soon 
r orget thev have the power. In winter they should 

MULES. 1«, 

be tied up in separate stalls, and often rubbed down. 
By such treatment there is not more danger of having 
a vicious mule than a vicious horse; and I am deci- 
dedly of opinion, that a high spirited mule so managed 
and well broke, will not jeopardize the lives or limbs 
of men, women, or children by any means so much as 
a high spirited horse, however well he may have been 

The longevity of the mule has become so proverbial, 
that a purchaser seldom inquires his age. Pliny gives 
an account of one, taken from Grecian history, that 
was eighty years old ; and though past labour, followed 
others, that were carrying materials to build the temple 
of Minerva, at Athens, and seemed to wish to assist 
them ; which so pleased the people, that they ordered 
he should have free egress to the grain market. Dr. 
Rees mentions two that were seventy years old in 
England. I saw myself in the West Indies a mule 
perform his task in a cane-mill, that his owner assured 
me was forty years old. I now own a mare mule 
twenty-five years old, that I have had in constant work 
twenty-one years, and can discover no diminution in 
her powers ; she has within a year past often taken 
upwards of a ton weight in a wagon to Boston, a 
distance of more than five miles. A gentleman in my 
neighbourhood has owned a very large mule about 
fourteen years, that cannot be iess than twenty-eigh* 
years old. He informed me a few days since, that he 
could not perceive the least failure in him, and would 
not exchange him for any farm horse in the country. 
And I am just informed, from a source entitled to 
perfect confidence, that a highly respectable gentleman 
and eminent agriculturist, near Centieville, on the 
En stern Shore of Maryland, owns a mule that is 


lhirty-five years old, as capable of labour as at any 
former period. 

The great Roman naturalist, in one of the most 
beautiful passages of his elaborate history of nature, 
observes that "the earth is constantly teased more to 
furnish the luxuries of man than his necessities."* — 
We can have no doubt but that the remark applied 
with great justice to the habits of the Romans in the 
time of Pliny; and I am much mistaken if ample 
proofs cannot be adduced, that it will lose none of its 
force or truth, at this present period, in all northern 
climates, or any section of the United States where 
the horse is employed for agriculture as well as for 
pleasure. Far be it from me, however, to disparage 
this noble animal ; on the contrary, I feel a strong 
attachment for him, and at the same time a full convic- 
tion, that the substitution of the mule, for the purposes 
before stated, as extensively as may be consistent with 
the requisite production of each species, will have the 
effect of restoring the horse to the station from which 
he has been degraded, and place him as in former 
ages, upon a more dignified footing, an object of ac 
knowledged luxury ; and thereby introduce a more 

* " It is the earth that, like a kind mother receives us at our 
birth, and sustains us when born. It is this alone, of all the ele 
merits around us, that is never found an enemy to man. The body 
of waters deluge him with rains, oppress him with hail, and drown 
him with inundations ; the air rushes on in storms, prepares the 
tempest, or lights up the volcano ; but the earth, gentle and indul- 
gent, ever subservient to the wants of man, spreads his walks with 
flowers, and his table with plenty ; returns with interest every good 
committed to her care, and though she produces the poison, she 
atill supplies the antidote, though constantly teased more to furnish 
the luxuries of man, than his necessities, yet even to the, she 
continues her kind indulgence, and when life is over, she piously 
lodes his remains in her bosom." 

Pliny's Natural History, Book II. Chap. 63 

MULES. 183 

correct system of breeding and management, in which 
our countrymen are so generally deficient, consequently 
5! Te perfect animals and such an advance in the price 
ot them, that will afford the farmer what he is now a 
stranger to — such remuneration as will make his brood 
mares a profitable species of stock. And it is obvious 
that the system will be followed by an improvement in 
the breed of mules, in the same ratio as the miserable 
race of scrub mares, which are now consuming the 
profits of agriculture, shall become extinct. 

It does not appear that the horse was employed by 
the ancients for any purpose of husbandry. The ox and 
ass drew the plough and the wain, and performed all 
kinds of drudgery until after the feudal system was 
established in Europe, when the numerous retainers of 
the feudal lords, who held their lands by the tenure of 
performing knight's service, found themselves under 
the necessity of making the horses they were obliged 
to keep, contribute towards their support in the culti- 
vation. From this time I believe, we may date, and 
from this cause may be attributed the introduction of 
the horse for the purposes of agriculture. Since that 
period, the history of Europe is little else than the 
annals of war and its preparations ; and no material 
for that scourge, except the deluded human victims, 
seems more necessary than the horse — accordingly w T e 
find that throughout the whole country, from the Rhine 
or the Seine, to beyond the Danube and Vistula, which 
has been the principal arena, the system of agriculture 
has embraced, extensively, the breeding of horses of 
different grades and forms adapted to the several usei 
in war. Indeed whole provinces wete appropriated 
almost exclusively to the rearing those animals foj 
disposal to the different combatants ; and it must be 
17 N 

184 MULES. 

obvious, that their general use in husbandry, a< the 
same time, would follow as a necessary consequence. 
It cannot be expected therefore, but that the Dutch 
and Germans who have emigrated to our country . 
should bring with them such strong predilections foi 
the horse, which have continued with most of thcii 
descendants, especially in those sections where com 
munities of that respectable and industrious portion ol 
our population have been located. In Great Britain, 
to the causes which have produced the effects described 
on the continent, may be added the insular position 
of the United Kingdoms, vulnerable from numberless 
and distant points, the horse has been considered, in 
connexion with the unconquerable spirit of the nation, 
as one of the most efficient means of repelling inva- 
sion: a circumstance that would of itself be sufficient 
to account for the over-weaning attachment to this 
animal. But identified as his services have been for a 
long period, with the convenience, sports, and recrea- 
tions, of all ranks and classes, and the science of 
Dreeding and training, forming a characteristic feature, 
it could not excite surprise, if the approach of that 
terrible spectre famine, should produce little or no effect 
in the reduction of the number. And although som^ 
of the most distinguished characters in the nation 
eminent for their practical knowledge in rural econ 
omy, have been for half a century advocating ttV 
substitution of the ox for the purposes of agriculture, 
and demonstrating the feasibility, economy, and vast 
saving of food, yet it is said the number of labouring 
oxen have lately diminished and horses increased. 
Five millions of the latter are now supposed to subsist 
itl the United Kingdom, and two-thirds employed in 
husbandry — consuming, at a moderate estimate, the 

MULES. 185 

product of twenty millions of highly cultivated acres ! # 
And what is the consequence ? consumption follows so 
closr upon supply, that at every season of harvest, let 
the preceding one be never so abundant, fast sailing 
vesrels are found in the various ports, with their anchors 
atrip, to convey intelligence of the result, to all parts 
of the world where a surplus of bread corn is grown — 
exciting such an interest in our own country, that the 
farmer on the shores of Erie and Ontario, and on the 
banks of the Ohio, may be seen reading bulletins of 
British weather — the rain and sunshine of every day 
in August and the two following months — often within 
thirty days after the time of their publication in London 
or Liverpool. Can it be supposed that in a country 
where an attachment to the horse borders so nearly 
upon infatuation, that the question of the utility of the 
mule as a substitute, would be seriously agitated, or 
engage scarce a momentary investigation ? 

In no country is the mule better adapted to all the 
purposes of husbandry, for which the horse is used, 
than in every section of our own. And it would be 
highly desirable to be able to exhibit a calculation oi 
the actual saving, in dollars and cents, by his employ- 
ment — but unfortunately no correct data can be had. 
And as I consider such calculations, unless founded 
upon experimental facts, and those multiplied, to be as 
" tinkling cymbals," I shall merely submit a desultory 

* Mr. Pitt, in an able " Essay on the consumption of corn," 
published by the Board of Agriculture, in 1806, estimates that 
each draught horse, employed on roads, canals, and mines, in 
pleasure carriages of all descriptions, and carts in cities, consume 
the average product of four acres for oats and beans, and three 
acres for hay. It is stated in the same essay, mat " the aggregate 
of oats imported into England (only) for twenty years, ending in 
1*97, amounted to the enormous quantity of 8,655.046 quartet »"— • 
•pwardp of nxty.nine million* of h>i$heh .' 

186 MULES. 

comparison between the mule and the horse, derived 
from such facts as my own experience, and information 
from authentic sources, will justify the assumption of. 

From what has been stated respecting the longevity 
of the mule, I think it may be fairly assumed, that he 
does not deteriorate more rapidly after twenty years 
of age, than the horse after ten, allowing the same 
extent of work and similar treatment to each. The 
contrast in the mule's freedom from malady or disease, 
compared with the horse, is not less striking. Arthur 
Young, during his tour in Ireland, was informed that 
a gentleman had lost several fine mules by feeding 
them on wheat straw cut — and I have been informed 
that a mule dealer, in the western part of New York, 
attributed the loss of a number of young mules, in a 
severe winter, when his hay was exhausted, to feeding 
them exclusively on cut straw and Indian corn meal. 
In no other instance have I ever heard or known of a 
mule being attacked with any disorder or complaint, 
except two or three cases of inflammation of the intes- 
tines, caused by gross neglect in permitting them to 
remain exposed to cold and wet, when in a high state of 
perspiration after severe labour, and drinking to excess 
of cold water. From his light frame and more cautious 
movements, the mule is less subject to casualties than 
the horse. Indeed, it is not improbable, but a farmer 
mav work the same team of mules above twenty years 
and never be presented with a farrier's bill, or find it 
necessary to exercise the art himself. 

Sir John Sinclair, in his " Reports on the Agricul- 
lure of Scotland," remarks that " if the whole period 
of a horse s laoour be fifteen years, the first six may 
r>e equal in value to that of the remaining nine: there- 
fore, a horse of ten years old after working six yean 

MULES. 18? 

may be worth half his original value." He estimates 
the annual decline of a horse to be equal to fifty per 
cent, on his prce every six years, and supposes one out 
of twenty- five that are regularly employed in agricul- 
ture, to die every year : constituting a charge of four 
per cent, per annum for insurance against diseases and 
accidents. He considers five acres of land, of medium 
quality, necessary for the maintenance of each horse, 
and the annual expense, including harness, shoeing, 
farriery, insurance, and decline in value, allowing him 
to cost two hundred dollars, to exceed that sum about 
five per cent, which is the only difference between the 
estimate of this illustrious and accurate agriculturist, 
and that of a respectable committee of the Farmers' 
Society of Barnwell district, South Carolina, who, in 
a report published in the Charleston Courier, of 23d 
of February last, state, that " the annual expense ol 
keeping a horse is equal to his value !" The same 
committee also state, that " at four years old a horse 
will seldom sell for more than the expense of rearing 
him." That " the superiority of the mule over the 
horse, had long been appreciated by some of their 
most judicious planters — that two mules could be 
raised at less expense than one horse — that a mule is 
fit for service at an earlier period, if of sufficient size — 
will perform as much labour, and if attended to when 
first put to work, his gait and habits may be formed to 
suit the taste of the owner." This report may be con- 
sidered a most valuable document, emanating as it 
does, from enlightened practical farmers and planters. 
in a section of country where we may suppose a horse 
can be maintained cheaper than in Marvland or any 
vS'ate farther North. 

J am convinced that the small breed of mules will 
consume less in proportion to the labour they are 

1 88 MULES. 

capable of performing, than the large race, hvA 1 shaf: 
confine the comparison to the latter — those that stand 
from fourteen and a half to rising of fifteen hands, 
and equal to any labour that a horse is usually put to. 
From repeated experiments in the course of two win- 
ters, I found that three mules of this description, that 
were constantly at work, consumed about the same 
quantity of hay, and only one fourth the provender 
that was given to two middling sized coach horses 
moderately worked. And from many years' attentive 
observation, I am led to believe that a large sized mule 
will not require more than three-fifths to two-thirds 
the food to keep him in good order, that will be 
necessary for a horse performing the same extent of 
labour. Although a mule will work and endure on 
such mean and hard fare, that a horse would soon give 
out upon, he has an equal relish for that which is good ; 
and it is strict economy to indulge him, for no animal 
wih pay better for extra keep, by extra work. But if 
by hard fare, or hard work, he is reduced to a skeleton, 
two or three weeks' rest and good keeping will put 
him in flesh and high condition for labour. I have 
witnessed several such examples with subjects twenty 
years old ; so much cannot be said of a horse at that 
age. The expense of shoeing a mule the year round, 
does not amount to more than one-third that of a horse, 
his hoofs being harder, more horny, and so slow in 
their growth, the shoes require no removal, and hold 
on till worn out — and the wear, from the lightness of 
the animal, is much less. 

In answer to the charge generally prevalent against 
the mule, that he is " vicious, stubborn and slow," 1 
rat assert, that out of about twenty that have been 
employed on my estate, at different periods during a 
coiuse of thirty years, and those picked up chiefly oo 

MLLES. ]8 I 

account of their size and spirit, wherever they could 
be founa, one only had any vicious propensities, and 
those might have been subdued by proper management 
when young. I have always found them truer pullers 
and quicker travellers with a load, than horses. Their 
vision and hearing is much more accurate. I have 
used them in my family carriage, in a gig, and under 
the saddle: and have never known one to start or run 
from any object or noise : a fault in the horse that 
continually causes the maiming and death of numbers 
of human beings. The mule is more steady in his 
draught and less likely to waste his strength than the 
horse: hence more suitable to work with oxen; and as 
lie walks faster, will habituate them to a quicker gait. — 
But for none of the purposes of agriculture does his 
superiority appear more conspicuous than ploughing 
among crops, his feet being smaller and follow each 
other so much more in a line, that he seldom treads 
down the ridges or crops. The facility of instructing 
him to obey implicitly the voice of his driver or the 
ploughman, is astonishing. The best ploughed tillage 
land 1 ever saw, I have had performed by two mules 
tandem, without lines or driver. 

There is one plausible objection often urged against 
the mule, that " on deep soils and deep roads, his feet 
being so much smaller than those of the horse, sink 
farther in ; but it should be considered that he can 
extricate them with as much greater facility. 

Few can be ignorant of the capacity of the mule to 
endure labour in a temperature of heat that would be 
destructive to the horse, who have any knowledge ol 
the preference for him merely on that account, in tne 
West Indies, and in the Southern States. 

It is full time to bring our comparison to a close, 
'vhich I shall do by assuming the position, that tlw 

190 MULES. 

farmer who substitutes mules for hoises, will .lave 
this portion of his animal labour performed, with the 
expense of one spire of grass instead of two ; which 
may be equal, so far, to making "two spires grow 
where one grew before." For although a large sized 
mule will consume somewhat more than half the food 
necessary for the horse, as has been observed, yet if we 
take into account the saving in expense of shoeing, 
farriery, and insurance against diseases and accidents, 
we may safely affirm, that a c'?ar saving of one half 
can be fully substantiated. But in addition to this, the 
mule farmer may calculate, with tolerable certainty, 
upon the continuation of his capital for thirty years : 
whereas the horse farmer at the expiration of fifteen 
years, must look to his crops, to his acres, or a bank, 
for the renewal of his — or perhaps, what is worse, he 
must commence horse jockey at an early period. 

The intense interest with which the public mind is 
at present occupied on the subject of canals now in 
operation and progress, encourages me to offer the 
mule as an important auxiliary in the economy of their 
management ; as I trust, it will not be denied, that on 
the cheapness of transportation on them, depends their 
utility as well as profit to the stockholders. The mule 
seems so peculiarly adapted for the labour on canals, 
that compared with the horse, he may be considered 
almost equal to a locomotive p< wer engine. Among 
the advantages we have enumerated respecting his use 
in husbandry, the most of which are applicable to canal 
labour, that of the much greater security from diseases 
ond casualties, which must necessarily require a great 
number of supernumerary horses, to prevent interrup- 
tion in the line of passage, is not the least important, 
nor is the very trifling expense at which the mule can 
i»e supDorted during the winter months, as he will bea» 

MULES. I'll 

oeing taken off his feed till the boats are about to be 
launched in the spring, and in a few days can be made 
rit for efficient duty — while a horse will require at least 
half feed if he does nothing, or must be fed high for 
some time before he can resume the labour that will 
be demanded of him. The same advantages may be 
derived by his employment on railways. 

In a communication published in the Utica Observer, 
the 10th of May, inst. by Henry Seymour, Esq. one of 
the canal commissioners of New York, it is stated that a 
packet boat on the Erie Canal, requires a team of three 
horses to tow sixteen miles, going eighty miles in the 
twenty-four hours, including stoppages and detention 
at locks ; the relays demanding fifteen horses for each 
nautical day. If it takes five days for a boat to be 
towed from Lake Erie to the Hudson, seventy-five 
horses will be required. I am not certain but it may 
be done in a less time, but as there must always be 
supernumeraries kept, we shall be within bounds to 
estimate that number. In the same communication the 
expense of each horse is estimated at fifty cents per 
day, I presume for subsistence only, without reference 
to interest or deterioration of capital, for the object 
of the estimate seems merely to show a comparison 
between the packet boats and freight boats, on a ques- 
tion of profit and loss: as it is remarked that "many 
contingent expenses might be added to both." Taking 
this data, it will cost thirty-five dollars per day for the 
horse subsistence of a single packet boat. The freight 
boats require two, and allowing for the time occupied 
in taking in and discharging their cargoes, w<ith the 
other necessary detentions, average forty miles per 
day— which being double the time of the packet boats, 
although they may not require the same number ol 
relays, the expense cannot materially diftci. From 

102 MILES. 

these premises we may conclude, that for every boat 
navigating the grand Erie Canal, there must be ex- 
pended three hundred and seventy-jive dollars for the 
subsistence of the horses, each time they tow her from 
the Lake to the Hudson and back.* Now, if this can 
be done as effectually by mules for one half this sum 
and with an extension of capital free of interest, fifteen 
/ears longer than that vested in horses, the aggregate 
of this immense saving will appear by ascertaining 
the number of boats at the present time on the canal. 
But this is out of my power, and I should, perhaps, 
lead the reader nearer the verge of incredulity, were 
I to offer my prediction what that number will be 
thirty years hence, the ordinary period of a mule's 
labour, and which will then be some years less than a 
single century since the prime mover and guardian 
of this stupendous undertaking, the present Governor 
(De Witt Clinton) of New York, first saw the light 
of Heaven. 

I cannot resist an impulse to exhibit the mule in one 
other point of view. For the movement of machinery ; 
the employment of this animal, when judiciously 
selected, has met with a most decided preference, in 
comparison with the horse, independent of the eco- 
nomy in using him. And if we consider the rapid 
and probably progressive increase of labour-saving 
machines, in every department where they can he 
made subservient to the requirements of society, it is 

* This estimate (three hundred and seventy-five dollars) is th» 
maximum of expense for subsistence and other items, supposing 
Ihw whole number of horses should be required for one boat ; but 
they will unquestionably be employed for a succession of other 
boats. And should all the relays perform a tour on the line every 
day, the minimum of expense would be seventy-five dollars for each 
ooat. Facts derived from further information may enable ut to rii 
the medium 

MILES. 103 

evident that there will be a corresponding aemand foi 
animal power, as well as for that more potent, derived 
from the elements ; and although tne latter may vastly 
predominate, yet should the horse be employed, and 
his increase for other purposes continue, as it now 
does in the ratio of population, the number, at no very 
distant period, may become as alarming in our own, 
as it is at present in our mother country. And not 
withstanding we may feel secure, from the extent of 
our territory and extreme diversity of soil and climate, 
but, above all, from being in possession of Indian 
corn — the golden fleece found by our " pilgrim 
fathers," when they first landed on these shores ; yet 
such peculiar advantages may not insure us against the 
visitations of one of the most distressing calamities 
that a feeling community can possibly be subjected to 
Bi fcftftm, Mass. May 27, 1825. 



MASON'S farrier; 






LAMBS, SWINE, DOGS, <feo. <fce. 





SsiinUliiiiiiifflWI* mn* 


1. The diseases of the horse are as numerous and as 
important as his complicated structure and the artifi 
cial state of his present mode of life would lead one 
to expect. Until of late the treatment of these 
diseases was confined to the hands of ignorant farriers 
presumptuous grooms, or shoeing smiths ; and the fate 
of the animals was commensurate with the wretched 
treatment they were subjected to The estaoiishmeni 


of a school for the veterinary art, has disseminated ar 
improve I practice, and spread improved practitioners 
throughout the country ; and we would earnestly re- 
commend an application to one of established reputa- 
tion in all cases of difficulty and danger. But as it ig 
not always that such a one is within reach, to enable 
the agriculturalist to have in his own hands the means 
of informing himself, or to being a check to others, 
we submit a concise view of the diseases of the head, 
neck, trunk, and extremities, preceded by some general 



On the Healthy and Diseased State of the Hart,*;. 

2. Condition of Horses. — Being in condition, in stable language, 
nignifios not only perfect health internally, but such an appear, 
ance externally, as the philosopher would call unnatural, or at 
least artificial : while the amateur considers it as an essential requi- 
site to the other qualities of the horse. This external condition 
is denoted by a sleek, short, shining coat, with a degree of flesh 
neither bordering on fatness nor emaciation. Even in this sense of 
tne term, condition must be varied according to the uses of the 
i limal. In the cart horse, provided there be a sleekness of coat, 
looseness of hide, sound wind, freedom from grease or swelled 
legs with good digestion ; a fulness and rotundity of bulk, instead 
of detracting from his beauty or impeding his exertions, will add 
to the one and assist the other. In the coach horse, the hackney, 
the hunter, and the racer, a different condition is expected, varying 
in different degrees from that of the cart horse. In both cart horse 
and racer, it is equally necessary that the various internal organs 
ghouid be in a state to act uninterruptedly for the benefit of the 
whole ; but in addition to this, it is necessary to the racer, 'hat 
the greatest possible quantity of animal fibres should be condensed 
into the smallest possible bulk, and that the absorption of all 
useless fat and other interstitial matter should be promoted by every 
possible means, as essentially necessary to unite lightne&s of body 
with full strength and elasticity. It is in the attempts to produce 
tuch a state in its full perfection, that all the secrets of training 
eou-isi but whether a total departure from natural ru'es, by 


annatural heat, deprivation of light, stimulating food, restraint 
from water, and excessive clothing, are best calculated to promote 
it, admits of much doubt ; and it is to be observed that the dawn 
of reason and science appears to be shining through the crevices of 
these darkened casements ; for even at Newmarket the system lias 
lately much relaxed from its artificial rigor. 

3. To bring a horse into condition, not only should the purposes 
e is intended for be taken into account, but also his previous 

state. If he be taken up from grass with much flesh on him, it \» 
evident that what is required is to remove the soft instertitial mat- 
ter it may be supposed he has gained by green food, and to replace 
it by hard flesh ; and also to produce a sleekness of coat and beauty 
of appearance. To accomplish these ends, the horse should be 
accustomed to clothing and the full heat of the stable by degrees 
only ; and also by degrees only to the meditated change of food ; 
which is best done by mashes. In two or three days a mild dose 
of physic may be given, during all which moderate exercise only 
should be allowed, as walking, but which may be continued two 
hours at a time. After the physic has set, begin to dress his coat, 
increase his exercise and his food, and accustom him to an incease 
of warmth. In four or five days time again mash him for two days 
and give a second dose of physic, a little stronger than the first. 
(123) After this still further increase his warmth, his exercise, 
and his food, by which his belly will be taken up, his flesh will 
harden and his coat begin to fall. A third dose of physic or urine 
balls, &e. are only necessary in the training of hunters, &c. and 
even in these, a gradual increase of exercise, rather long continued 
than violent, with proper food, will effect the end, if not so quickly, 
more beneficially to the animal. To bring a lean horse into condi. 
tion, a somewhat different plan should be pursued. If from grass, 
still mash him for a day or two, by no means stint him in his water, 
ind with his mash let oats be also soaked. If oats be speared or 
malted, it will produce flesh sooner. But even here, give the horse 
moderate walking exercise, and if he be not too much reduced, add 
a mild dose of physic to prevent his heels flying, or his getting 
hide-bound by the increased food ; but if great emaciation forbid 
the physic, give him nightly an alterative. (Vet, Pharm. 129, No. l.\ 
As his appearance improves, gradually harden his food and increase 
bis exercise. 

4. Diseased condition of horses. What has been already said 
elrtc to that alteration from one state to another, neither being an 



unhealthy one, which custom has rendered necessary; thus a man 
in training for running or fighting, and a man out of training, are 
both considered equally healthy. But there are circumstances that 
vroduce a morbid state of condition different from all these. It is 
common to hear persons say " my horse is sadly out of condition, 
and I cannot tell either what is the matter with him, or how to get 
nim into better case." Various are the causes that may produce 
this: a sudden alteration of the food, or temperature, or of habits* 
altogether, may become a cause. Removing a horse from grass to 
a heated stable, full feeding, and hard exercise, will often do it : 
therefore these changes should always be gradual. Bad food, as 
mow-burnt hay, musty oats, beans, &c, likewise mineral waters, 
foul <iir, &c, are frequent causes. Diabetes, or profuse staling, 
is often brought on by these means, and the condition of the horse 
becomes greatly reduced. It is requisite, therefore, to enquire 
whether any of tnese errors are in existence, and to immediately 
remove them : but it often happens that the stomach has become 
relaxed and the hide become bound ; neither of which readily 
remove, even though the original evil may be amended. When the 
relaxed stomach has produced lampas, treat the mouth as described 
under that disease (25,) but the stomach itself must be principally 
attended to. — First mash and give a dose of physic ; after it has 
sot, commence the treatment, if the horse be of a full habit, by 
moderate bleeding and a nightly alterative. (Vet. Pharm. 129, 
No, 1 or 2.) Buf if he be not in full, but in low flesh, commence 
by. a daily tonic, (Vet. Pharm. 130, No. 1 or 2,) which will gradu 
ally remove the swelling within the mouth, and loosen the hide 
A sudden cold applied to the skin often brings on a want of con 
dition with surfeit. In which case, bleeding, with nightly altera, 
tive, (Vet. Pharm. 129, No. 1 or 2,) with or without an assistant 
dose of physic, as the habits of the horse may require, constitute 
the proper treatment. Worms form another cause of morbid con- 
dition which are to be removed as described (57.) Excessive fatigue 
is also productive of a bad state of condition, which often proves 
very obstinate. Turning out to very good grass is the quickest 
cure, and when that is impracticable, soiling in the stable, or 
feeding with carrots, parsnips, beet root, &.c. will be food restora 
lives ; as medicines give tonics daily. (Vet. Pharm. 13U, No. 1 or 2.) 
It will be only necessary to add, that in considering the state of u 
horse's condition, the effect is apt to be mistaken for the cause, ana 
the symptoms for the disease. Hide-bound and lampas are not in 
themselves any thing more than effects, or symptoms; the for»noi 
heiug commonly, and the latter always dependent on a derauge« 


fltite of the stomach: both are therefore to be treated accoraingly. 
Exactly the same will apply to all the other symptoms of morbid 

btflammatory Diseases of the Horse. 

5. 77*e inflammatory diseases of the horse are nu- 
merous, but his fevers are few : a febrile state being 
generally brought on by the inflammation of some 
important organ. Inflammation may be considered as 
general or diffused, and local or confined, and both 
seem to arise from an affection of the blood vessels, 
and perhaps from a peculiar state of the blood itself. 

6. General or diffused inflammation constitutes fever 
or extensive inflammatory affection, and appears to 
consist in an increased action of the heart and arte- 
ries, accompanied with an increase of heat. In some 
instances where the fever is purely symptomatic, and 
dependent on the inflammation of some important 
organ, as the lungs, or the intestines, the circulation 
appears retarded rather than increased, from interrup- 
tion arising to its passage through the heart. 

7. Local or confined inflammation is also dependent 
on an affection of the blood vessels, but confined prin- 
cipally to the blood vessels of the part affected. It is 
betokened by redness in the skin, tumour or swelling, 
heat and tenderness, with pain. Inflammations, both 
diffused and local, are brought on by excitements, such 
as over feeding, excessive heat, reaction produced aftei 
cold, and the reaction produced by inordinate exertion. 
Those more exterior, arise from injuries, the appli- 
cation of improper substances, &c. Inflammations 
tei-minate in various ways ; but it is to be remarked 
that in consequence of the very large circulatory 
svsterr of the horse, his febrile affections raefi higher 


%Ij2 diseases of horses. 

and terminate sooner tnan in man. The usual tei 
mination of inflammatory affections in the horse, are 
by resolution, effusion, suppuration, and gangrene. 
Scirrhus is not at all a common termination of inflam- 
mation in the horse. 

8. Inflammation of the brain, (phrentis) brain fever, phrensy 
ftver, staggers, mad and sleepy. There are few diseases more 
likely to be mistaken by inexperienced farriers than this ; it is not 
to be wondered at, therefore, if indifferent persons should be led into 
error by it. It appears in two forms, a violent frantic one, and a 
6leepy lethargic one ; and the latter appearance is also common to a 
disease, not dependent as this is, on idiopathic inflammation of the 
biain ; but on a paralytic affection of the stomach, and thence it is 
called stomach staggers. This latter affection, however, may be 
distinguished from the former by attending to the colour of the eye- 
lids, nose linings, mouth, &c. which in stomach staggers are usually 
more yellow than red ; whereas in sleepy staggers, they are more 
red than yellow. Inflammation of the brain shews itself in general 
cases by disinclination to food and motion, drowsiness, accompanied 
by a heaviness and closing of the eyelids, with moisture and red- 
ness of them ; and also of the linings of the mouth and nose. 
Sometimes these symptoms increase, until the horse becomes 
comatose, and after a few frightful struggles, sinks to rise no more. 
In these cases the pulse is apt to be oppressed instead of in- 
creased. But most frequently after the first stages he becomes 
furious, plunges about, and is vicious to himself and others, ap 
proaching to a state of madness, in which state he continues till 
he sinks from his own exertions, when he rises again to renew his 

9. The cause of staggers may be various : the immediate aro 
cither an original accumulation of blood within the brain, or the 
translation of the inflammation of some organ to the brain: as a 
remote cause is often brought on by too full feeding, without suf 
ficient exercise, and particularly in horses at one time working 
eery hard, and at another suffered to remain inactive; but which 
horses, whether used or not, are equally fed. Sudden cold, vro. 
}<mce, &c. may bring it on. 

10 The treatment of staggers should be begun by abstracting 
t »erv huge quantity of blood promptly, by opening both juguUrn 


ind letting the horse bleed to the amount of ten or ever twelve 
quarts; repeating the same until the delirium ceuses. After trie* 
first bleeding, back rake, throw up a laxative ciyster, ( Vet 
I'harm. 143.) blister the head, promote a current oi free air in thfl 
stable, and treat altogether as directed under other febrile in- 

11. Locked jaw, stag-evil, or tetanus, arises from coid, excessivs 
fatigue, sometimes perhaps from worms, but more often from a 
wounc of some part, as pricks in shoeing, &c. Such wound is 
seldom in a recent state ; but after two or three weeks continuance, 
sometimes after it has healed even : it follows docking, gelding 
and nicking frequently; and is preceded by a flabby unhealthy 
state of the wound. It appears as an affection of the brain, which 
transmits its morbid irritation, particularly to the nerves attached 
to muscles, by which they become cramped, or may be considered 
as in a high state of action, giving the horse a peculiar look oi 
energy, as though immediately stopped from full speed ; with his 
nostrils extended, his head raised, and his noso carried forward ; 
his legs straddle wide, and his tail is cocked and quivers, as after 
violent exercise. The jaws will now be found, if not closed, yet 
nearly so, when he is called jaw set. 

12. The treatment, is not often successful, hut, however, it is 
sufficiently frequent that it is so, to deserve the utmost attention 
Blaine informs us that enormous bleedings have succeeded ; but 
he places his principal dependence on the application of cold by 
means of ice, or of constant dashing with cold water, with an active 
blister applied the whole length of the spine. Balls oi % camphor 
and opium, to the amount of two drachms eacii, may be given 
every three hours. If any room remain in the mouth, the ball 
may be passed up by means of a stick, or it may be given as a drink 
by means of a syringe, and even when the mouth is entirely 
closed, he informs us we may give a drink by the nostrils. Moor- 
croft used cold also. Fearon, on the contrary, has experienced 
benefit from a bath, heated to ninety degrees, and kept at that 
.emperature for three hours. White recommends camphor and 
opium ; VV r ilkinson of Newcastle, has been very successful by 
keeping up heat and stimulus over the skin in general. !>y mean.* 
of newly stripped sheep skins put on hot. Perhaps if '.he body 
were previously rubbed with oil of turpentine one part, and common 
oil two parts, it might assist Wilkinson's plan. When locked 
aw arises from nicking, it might be prudent for a veterlnar* 


<rar«o n to dissect down on the nerves of the tail, and dhide 
<hem ; and when from nicking, it would be advisable to cut off 
another portion of the tail, which practices in both instances would 
afford a moderate chance of saving the animal. Jt. is necessary 
further to remark, that it is of great consequence that the bowels 
be kept free from faeces, by raking and clysters. With regard tc 
the latter they are very important in this disease, as a medium, 
commonly the only one, of giving support. A horse has been 
kept alive on nourishing clysters alone, for seven or eight days. 
{Vet. Ptiarm. 145.) 

13. Catarrhal fever, epidemic catarrh, influenza, distemper, cold 
morfaundering. ij-c. These names apply to one common disease 
which often in rainy, variable seasons appears as an epidemic, 
and affects thousands of horses at once. It is observed to be par 
ticularly prevalent in this form in the spring of some years, more 
than of others. It is not contagious like the more malignant form, 
but is brought on as an epidemic by the same causes being applied 
to nearly all subjects alike; which are alterations of heat with 
cold, moisture, and dryness, &c. In crowded cities and large 
towns, it is more prevalent than in more open situations, and it 
is more frequently found in the young than in aged horses. Wnero 
it does not exist as an epidemic, it is brought on by an accidental 
cold taken. It is of great consequence to distinguish it from pure 
inflammation of the lungs, with which it is very apt to be con. 
founded ; and which mistake is often a fatal one, from the treat- 
ment being in some essential particulars different. Inflammation 
of the lungs commences by a short cough, without much other 
disturbance to the health, than the pain it gives the horse to cough, 
but which is often so considerable as to make him stamp his fee* 
while coughing. If a horse in the distemper coughs early, it is not 
a hollow, harsh sounding, and distressing cough of this kind — il 
he expresses uneasiness, it is principally from a sore throat, which 
is very common in distemper, but by no means common in 
pneumonia. The sore throat in distemper gives the horse a dis 
position to refuse his food, or he chews it and lets the quid fa. 
witnout swallowing it. He refuses water, particularly if it ho 
placed on the ground ; his cough is quick, short, and usually 
sounds more moist than harsh and dry; but though common, thi» 
is not .nvanably the case ; his eyes are heavy and moist, his breathing 
is quickened, and his ears and legs are alternately hot and cold 
His nose on looking into it is redder than usual, and sometime 
»i# gland* <i.* well submaxillary or jaw glands, as his p?rotid o 


fives are tumefied. On the second or third day, e\cessive weakliest 
comes on ; the cough becomes more painful, the pulse is quick 
enr-d, and the nose begins to run. After which the horse eithei 
runs otr the disease by this suppuration, or it goes on to destroy 
him by the height of the fever, and degree of weakness produced 
or by suffocation from water in the chest. Now and then, although 
"vcovery takes place, an obstinate cough is left ; and in a few case* 
ho disease terminates in glanders. 

14. The treatment may in some cases be cut very short, foi na 
in almost every instance a shivering fit begins the disease, so when 
many horses are in a stable, and the disease is very prevalent, 
those who have not been attacked should be watched, and tho 
moment such an attack does take place, give of sweet spirit of 
nitre, or when not at hand of spirit of hartshorn, an ounce, in a pint 
of sound ale. Exercise the horse briskly, then well hand rub 
him, clothe him warmly; and it is more than probable that the 
disease will be cut short. But should it proceed, or should the 
disease have gone on unobserved to the appearance of the symp- 
tom detailed, begin by bleeding moderately, if the horse be not 
already weak; or if there have not appeared the running of matter 
from the nose. If there have, the bleeding had better be dispensed 
with, unless the fever appeir, from the quick full pulse and red. 
ness of the inner surface of the nostrils and eyelids, to be still 
so considerable as to require it ; in which case we must not be 
deterred from one moderate bleeding ; and which, if the febrile 
symptoms do not abate, may be even repeated. It will, however, 
in general cases, be advisable to avoid bleeding after the second 
-•ay of the attack, or after the running has appeared from the nose, 
or after considerable weakness has come on. In all cases a very 
cool temperature is essentially requisite ; hot stables, or hot clothing 
are very pernicious, but particularly the former. A hood is not 
improper over the head, because it encourages the running to 
make an early appearance ; and for this reason a warm mash may 
advantageously be hung round the neck three or four times a 
day. Before the running commences, give night and morning, 
the fever powder (Vet. Pharm. 157, No. 1 or 2.) in a mash ot 
drink ; after the running has come on, or as soon as the weakness 
has become considerable, give night and morning either of the 
fever drinks (Vet. Pharm. 158, No. 3 or A.) Malt mashes, when 
the weakness is great, are proper; at other times, bran mashca 
with plenty of chilled water are best. To relieve the throat, run 
♦be outside with mdd liquid plaster, (Vet. Pharm. i42,) and ; f th# 
breather be warm enough to allow it, two or three hours tutninf 


out in a fieid each day is proper. Green meat in tbe stable, wfiei 
it can be procured, should likewise be given. 

15. Malignant epidemic, murrain, or pest. Now and the - , tlie dis- 
temper or influenza assumes a character of uncommon malignance, 
which is happily not frequent here, but not unfrequent in conti. 
nontal countries, sweeping off a third of the horses and kine, 
without any means being found sufficient to arrest its progress. 
In^ these cases it is found highly contagious, attacking almost all 
the horses as well as cattle within its sphere of action, or which 
communicate with each other. Dr. Layard, and Osmer, English 
writers of established reputation, noticed the appearances of this 
disease long ago ; and their descriptions are not different from the 
milder kind noticed (13) but in degree. The throat is intensely 
sore, and the mouth ulcerated ; the glands of the head swell, ai d 
sometimes these and other parts suppurate and burst. The matter 
from the nose is hloody, and the stench intolerable ; the weakness 
is also peculiarly great, and shows itself early. 

If). The treatment recommended by Blaine is the early use of 
malt mashes; even ale is indispensable. Green meat should be 
allowed, and a very cool stall is necessary, having a free commu- 
nication with the open air. As medicine, three doses are necessary, 
every day, of the malignant epidemic fever drink, {Vet. Ph. 160.; 
half a pint of yeast with a pint of ale has been given, with good 
elfect, three times a day ; also, to prevent the infection from spread- 
ing, fumigate t'.:e stables and all the outhouses with the preventive 
fumigation. {Vet. Ph. 161.) 

Diseases of the Head. 

17. Epilepsy, megrims, sturdy, or turns ink, are epileptic attacks 
of greater or less violence, and which are apt to be confounded 
with the accidental strangulation that sometimes takes place from 
a collar too tight, or from driving a horse hard up hill, &c. The 
epileptic fit makes its appearance by a sudden stop ; if the horse 
be in action he shakes his head, looks wild and irresolute, but after 
some time proceeds ; when more violent, he suddenly falls down, 
is convulsed, dungs and stales insensibly, and remains some time 
before he recovers. This disease, like staggers, is generally the 
consequence of two full a habit; and is, therefore, best relieved by 
bleeding, and a more moderate diet; and, where it is convenient, 
« run at grass should be allowed to alter the habit. 

18 The diseases of the horse's eyes are not numerous, but they 
arc very destructive. The principal are opthalmia and g°uU« 


19. The opfhalmia, lunatic., or moan-blindness, is a very peculiar 
lisease among horses, affecting their eyes generally about theii 
full growth, hut sometimes later, and seldom earlier. It is but 
ittle known among mules and asses, and unknown in oxen and 
sheep. It does not, however, appear to be a disease natural to 
the, as wild, or even horses subjected to artificial restraints 
• re not observed subject to it. But among others, it is become sc 
common as to have the tendency handed down in the breed; tho 
progeny of some stallions bring more prone to it than others. — 
It. i« often very sudden in its attack, the eyelids being found 
swelled and almost closed to avoid the light ; they are also very 
red within, and the haw is half drawn over the surface ; the tears 
dow down the face perpetually, and the whole head is hot ; now and 
ihen these appearances come on gradually. The suddenness of the 
ittack makes the complaint to be attributed to accident, as blows, 
aay seeds within the eye, &c. and it is frequently difficult to get 
die owner of such a horse to believe that a constitutional attack,, 
oe it usually is, can come on so suddenly. Sometimes as it comes 
on, so it goes off as quickly, the eye from being opaque and milky, 
ui twenty four hours becoming clear and almost well. When sucli 
xn attack has taken place, even if nothing be done, the horse 
»ooner or later amends, and the eye or eyes, for it is sometimes 
■>ne and sometimes both that are so attacked, become again clear 
*nd well, and remain so an indefinite period, from five or six weeks 
to as many months. Another attack, however, sooner or later 
follows, to which others succeed, each leaving increased milkinesa 
on the outer coats, and some dimness within the pupil, either speek- 
iike or diffused ; and finally the horse becomes blind from cataract. 
When one eye goes blind totally before the other, it is often a 
means of preventing the future attack on the remaining one : 
which has given rise to a custom of putting out one eye to save 
the other, and which has succeeded. As this is a constitutional 
disease, brought on by artificial habits, as over exertion, close 
unhealthy confinement, and heating food ; so it is clear the abstrac- 
tion of all these are necessary to remove the complaint, and to 
prevent a recurrence ; but particularly the close, dark, and unven 
tilated state of the stable should be attended to, as well as the 
removal of the litter, which retains the volatile alkali of the urine, 
and Irritates the eyes most injuriously. The food should be mild 
and jooling, and the exercise moderate but long continued. Under 
the 'leight of the attack, however, rest is advisable, with, moderatw 
!igl», whi.-'h may bo still further moderated by keeping over the 
*»Vb or eyes a thick cloth, wet with goulard water. (Vet. Ph. 154." 
bamctimes one quarter of vinegar to three quarters of water ha? 


been found a useful application, and which ever is ut<ed, the eyei 
and eyebrows should be kept continually wet with it, which by 
exciting evaporation will keep the part cool. A seton may be 
introduced under the eye or jaw. In some cases, blistering the 
forehead or cheek is found useful; but in every instance bleeding 
is proper, which should be repeated until the disease lessens 
When the horse is very full and gross, physic and alteratives assist 
the cure. When blistering is used in any part near the eye, the 
greatest care is requisite to prevent the blistering matter from being 
rubbed into it. 

20. Gutta Serena or glass eyes, so called from the peculiar 
glassy appearance of the eye, arise from a paralysis of the optic 
nerve. As the eye is not materially altered in appearance, a horse 
often becomes blind without its being noticed, until his cautious 
stepping, quick motion of his ears, &c. give notice of the case. — 
On examination it will be found that the pupil remains dilated, 
however great the light, and the eye is irrecoverably lost. In the 
very early stages, blisters to the forehead and stimulants to the 
eyes, (as white vitriol a drachm, water four ounces,) may be tried, 
but with faint hopes of success. 

21. Poll-evil. This complaint commonly requires the attend, 
ance of an experienced practitioner — but the prevention is often in 
f.he power of owners and others about horses, and to this point 
we shall particularly direct their attention. Poll-evil is commonly 
the effect of accident. Repeated small blows of the manger, or 
continued pressure from hanging back on the halter, A c. will, if 
not remedied, produce swelling at the nape of the neck, with 
some tenderness. In this early state, if the collar be removed 
and the part be kept continually wet with vinegar and water, the 
swelling will often disperse — but if, in spite of this, it proceeds 
to suppuration, let a vent be made for the matter by a seton [11 GJ 
•o that it may readily flow out. Introduce nothing healing, but 
encourage a free discharge, and it may heal at once. When sucb 
tn not the issue, the disease attacks the ligaments ; sinuses form 
and the matter burrows under the skin and muscles, whey » 
•eton must be introduced from the opening above and should b« 
Drought out at the bottom ; the seton should be then daily wetted 
with the liquid blister. (Vet. Pharm. 141.) Shculd this plan fail, 
escharotics will be required in the form of scalding mixture. (Vet 
Pharm. 165.) 

22. Sh angles, vives or ives. This disease has been likened to 
\t,t human me3?lep, because it usually attacks every horse, nn<5 


most of them at a young period, between three and five years; it 
ts fortunate when it attacks colts at grass, as it seldom occasions 
inconvenience, and which has led some persons into error by 
turning their horses out as soon as attacked ; but it is not found 
that stabled horses, thus turned out, pass through the disease more 
mildly, but the contrary, except the disease exists under its mildest 
form. White has conjectured that colts breeding the strangles 
v bile at grass, are afterwards exempt from glanders, but this wants 
confirmation. Prosser has also affirmed, that inoculation by the 
matter of strangles, is good, because it mitigates the complaint, and 
renders the horse not liable to any future attack ; but the practice 
has never gained ground : when strangles occurs in the stable, and 
now and then in the field, it proves a severe disease, and shows 
itself under the appearance of a cold, with cough, sore throat, and 
swelling of the glands under the jaw, or behind and under the ears. 
Seme times there is not much external swelling, and the tumours 
nreak inwardly, and nature effects a cure ; at others they break 
outwardly, and the disease runs off that way, and some times the 
swellings disperse either by nature or art, which breeders think 
unfavourable, as they suppose it renders the animal liable to a future 
attack ; but many so treated, pass the remainder of their lives 
ivithout more affection. 

23. The treatment of Strangles. When the swelling "mgers, 
and neither comes forward or recedes, poultices are preferable to 
fomentations, which, by leaving the horse wet, promote evapora 
tion and produce cold. Peal recommends blistering the part, as 
tl.o best means of promoting suppuration. The horse should be 
kept very cool, and bran mashes with warm water should be his 
principal support, unless the complaint lasts long, and produces 
much weakness, when malt mashes should be substituted ; bleeding 
is only advisable when the early symptoms are violent, as heaving 
at the flanks, extreme soreness of throat, with much swelling around 
it, and considerable cough, in which case bleeding, and fever medi 
cines are proper. 

24. Vives, or ives, is supposed to be a relic of the latter com 
plaint, and it does appear now and then that after me strangles, the 
parotid or vive glands do remain enlarged [24,] which occasions the 
disease in question, resolution may be attempted by mercurial fric- 
tions, suppuration should be avoided, otherwise the gland may t>e 

25. Diseases of the month, tampan. All horses, but particularly 
»erv young on^s, are liable to enlargement oC the rugnn or r dgw 


of the f alate, dependent not on any local disease confined to tnt 
part itself, but occasionally by an affection of the whole passage o 
the mi uth, throat, and stomach. It is usual to attend to the pai 
only, which is sacrificed or burnt to little purpose, when a mild doso 
of physic, or gentle alteratives, would prove more certain expedi. 
ents ; to which may be added rubbing the part with bay salt, ji 
with vinegar. 

26. Bridle sores. When the bit in colt breaking, or in hard 
pulling horses, has hurt the bars, care is requisite to prevent the 
bone becoming carious. Touch daily with aegyptiacum, and cover 
the bit witli leather, unless total rest can be allowed. 

27. The teeth, which present themselves on the lower parts of 
the jaws, are the incisive and canine. The two front incisives are 
properly called nippers or gatherers. The two next adjoining 
separators or middle teeth, and the outer, the corners ; but it 
would be more indefinite to say the first, second, and third inci- 
sives, beginning at the corner. Tusks or tushes occupy a part of 
the intermediate space between the incisive and grinding teeth. — 
The teeth, as criteria of age, will be seen by reference to Mason, 
(page 72.) 

The teeth of the horse are the hardest and most compact bones 
of the body. There are usually »forty of them in the horse, and 
there are thirty-six in the mare ; in which latter, the tushes are 
usually wanting. In anatomical language, they are divided into 
i'leisores, cuspidati, and molares, or according to the language of 
firriers and horsemen, into twelve nippers, four tushes, and twenty- 
four grinders, which numbers are equally divided between the two 
jaws. The teeth are received into indentations or sockets between 
the bony plates of the jaw, called alveoli, by cone-like roots. The 
bodies of the teeth are principally composed of two substances, 
one of the nature of common bone, giving bulk and form, and one 
of extreme hardness, placed in man and carnivorous animals wholly 
without the teeth to give strength and durability : but the horse and 
other granivroaa, the latter particularly, is placed in the grinders, 
rn perpendicular plates, within the body of the teeth ; by which 
contrivance, a rough grinding surface is kept up ; for the mere 
mny parts wearing faster than the lamella* of enamel, it follows 
..nat ridges remain to triturate the vegetable matter that passes be 
-ween the teeth. 

There are two sets of teeth, a temporaneons or milk set, and a 
jenhaiient or adult set, ir. which wise Drovision, man and mort 

DISEASE* (JF nous us, 2\\ 

o\ ;tes participate. The nnik set are some of them, as the molars, 
a^arent at birth ; there being usually six grinders in each jaw, 
tin e on each side in the new born foal, and which number of this 
Bet it, never increased. The nippers begin to appear soon aftei 
birtl*, and follow a regular order of succession, until the animal is 
three -*r four months old ; at which time he begins to require 
support f r om herbage as well as milk. The temporaneous set re- 
move g.ttdually one after another; had they all been displaced at 
ho sam*. time, or even had several of them fallen out together, the 
mimai m««st have suffered great inconvenience, and perhaps have 
jeen starv»<i. This removal, which commences at the age of two 
/ears and * half, and is completed between the fourth and rifth 
/ear, is effected by the action of the absorbents on their fangs, and 
Appears to bn occasioned by the stimulus of the pressure received 
from the grovung teeth under them. For although these two sets 
ai'pear with an interval of some years between them ; yet the rudi- 
ments of both «re formed at nearly the same period, and both sets 
may be thus sren in a dissected jaw. Regulated by the stimulus 
of necessity, as> soon as the temporaneous set falls out, the perma- 
nent appears : and that such appearance follows the necessity, is 
evident; for a premature or accidental removal of the colts' teeth 
is soon followed by the appearance of the others. Dealers and 
breeders aware of this, draw the milk teeth to make their colls 
appear as horses. It was necessary there should be two sets of 
teeth, for as they grow slowly in proportion to the jaws, so hau 
there been but one only, the disproportion of growth between tho 
teeth and jaws must have separated them. 

The forms of the teeth vary more than their structure. The inci 
sive or nippers are round, which is favourable for the pressure they 
undergo ; the upper more so than the lower. On the upper surface 
a hollow is seen in the young tooth, which, not extending through 
the whole substance, naturally wears out with the wear of the tooth ; 
ind as a considerable degree of regularity occurs in this wearing 
i ivay in all horses, it has gradually settled into the general criterion 
»f age. The nippers are not all of them exactly similar ; the corner 
eelh differ most in being exactly triangular, and in having an 
nterval wall or side, which does not become level with the rest until 
.ong after the others. The cuspidate tusks or tushes are permanent, 
Appearing at about five years, or rather earlier; those in the front 
/aw are usually nearer the nippers than those below. Each pro- 
Bents a slight curve, which follows the direction of all the canine 
or pugnatory teeth of other mammalia. The pointed extremity 
wears away by age, leaving merely a buttoned piocess, which may 


icrve as a guide tc the age, when the hors-o «? .,ticspt>oied t< bi» 
fcishoped, as it is called, from a man of that nam*? fcno was peculiarly 
dexterous in imitating on old teeth the distinctive cavity of youtU 
The molar or grinding teeth are stronger in tne upper than in the 
lower jaw ; which was necessary, as they torm the fixed point in 
the process of grinding. The upper su/t'ace presents nearly a lonu 
square, indented from the alteration of the enamel with the bony 
portions; and as the interior or upper teeth hang over the posterior, 
so the ridges of the one set are received into the depressions of the 

Wear of the teeth. The teeth, in a state of nature, would probably 
present a surface opposed to each other for mastication to the latest 
period of the most practised life ; but the removal of the animal 
rrom moist food to that which is hard and dry, must occasion an 
unnatural wear in those organs; and hence, although the teeth of 
the horse, even in a domesticated state, are not subject to the caries 
of the human ; yet the grinders are liable to become thus injured 
by continued exertion. In the young or adult horse, the upper and 
under grinders do not meet each other horizontally ; on the con- 
trary, they have naturally an inclination obliquely inwards, and 
those of the upper jaw present small spaces between each other, 
while those of the lower are more continuous t by which means as 
I he food, but particularly as interrupted portions, as grain, become 
ground, they fall into the mouth to be replaced under the grinding 
surface, if necessary, by the joint action of the tongue and muscles 
of the cheek. This arrangement becomes in a great measure frus. 
trated in old horses, by the superior wear of the inner surface ol 
the upper grinders, as well as by the general misapplication of the 
surfaces of both upper and under teeth, by constant attrition when 
worn down to the gums nearly. The unfortunate animal feels 
sensible of this, and endeavours to remedy it by throwing the wear 
on the outer edge, by an inclination of the lower jaw and of the 
head in general ; and which is so particular in its appearance as to 
engage the attention of the by-standers. This defect may be in a 
considerable degree remedied by casting the animal, and having 
opened and wedged the mouth so as to keep it so, with a well tern, 
pered concave file to remove the inequality as much as may be. 
When the defect is considerable, and the horse is mild and quiet, it 
is better to file the inequalities every day, which will gradually but 
effectual Iv wear them down. It however happens, that the inclina- 
tion thus to wear is commonly resumed, and gradually the same 
loss of nutriment takes place ; in which case, soft moist food, as 
ca<r<»i!>. masne-is. •toiling, or grazing, must be substituted fo* hardei 


•ub?:ancea, and if corn be actually necessary, let it be bruised 
W henever an old horse betrays symptoms of want of condition, o-. 
weakness and emaciation, that neither his mode of feeding nor hia 
ratio of work will account for, and particularly if whole grains* 
should be found in his dung, his teeth should be examined care- 
fully. This undue wearing of the teeth occasions another evil often, 
which is ulceration of the cheeks, by reason of the projecting ragged 
surface of the uneven teeth, which can only be remedied by th« 
removal of such portions. These projecting portions are called b) 
farriers, wolve's teeth. 

Diseases of the Neck. 

28. Fistulous withers are brought on usually by pressure from k 
•addle with too low or narrow a tree, and what has been said both 
with regard to prevention and cure on the subject of poll-evil, ap- 
plies here also. (116.) 

29. Sore throat is common to horses in colds, in influenzas, and 
in strangles. (13, 22.) In every case, the horse finds crrcat difficulty 
in reaching every thing that stretches his neck downwards or up. 
wards, his water therefore should be held to him, and his hay should 
be pulled for him ; omission of these services greatly aggravates 
the sufferings of horses labouring under sore throat. 

30. Swelled Neck. A very serious swelling sometimes follows 
on bleeding with a rusty or poisoned lancet, or fleam, and some, 
times from causes not apparent. (126.) 

The Chest. 

31. Inflammation of the lungs, is a disease to which 
the horse is peculiarly liable, as we might a "prion 
suspect, from the vast dimensions of his circulatory 
system, and the vast alteration from a natural state to 
which we subject him, and thereby increase his pul- 
monary circulation. 

32. The causes are these deviations remctery, hut the immee ar.s 
attack is generally brought on by sudden cold, acting on a heated 
surface, and thus it. is that knackers, and collar makers in frosty 
Heather expect a glut of horses that die fiom this disease. Hard 
riding is a very common cause, and high feeding also ; it often 
commences slowly ; a hard dry cough has been slightly noticed, bu« 


occasioning no alarm for two or three days; gradually, however 
the cough appears to give the horse pain ; he occasionally shivers 
and his ears and feet feel colder than the rest of his hody, he heaves 
at the flanks, and the lining of his nose is inflamed, and his eyelias 
also ; the appetite now becomes aflected and although there is not 
much apparent pain, except when the horse coughs ; yet there ia 
much anxiety of countenance present. The pulse is usually small, 
but quick ; if in this state the horse be taken out and exercised 
quickly, it is almost always fatal to him ; it likewise happens that 
this complaint is sometimes mistaken for distemper, and from a fear 
of profuse bleeding, the only remedy that is to be depended on, is 
omitted, and the horse is lost. At the veterinary college, in these 
eases, a small dose of aloes is given every six hours, and after being 
bled and rowelled, the horse is turned out in the open air ; and it 
is affirmed that many recover from this treatment. Certain it is, 
that the stable in which a horse is placed in this disease can hardly 
be too cool ; but when entirely turned out, his feet and legs cannot 
conveniently be hand-rubbed, or bandaged up to promote circula- 
tion ; neither can we blister a horse when turned out, so conve- 
niently ; and on blistering we depend as the second source of cure 

33. The. treatment is to be commenced by attempts at lessening 
the action of the arterial system by early and large bleedings, a? 
seven or eight quarts from a large horse, and which should be re- 
peated in five or six hours if he be not relieved in his breathing. 
Immediately rub into the brisket, on the chest, and behind the fore 
legs, the blister. (Vet. Pha. 138, No. 1.) Give half a dose of physic, 
and assist it by mashes and warm water, which if not readily taken, 
horn down. Back-rake also, and throw up the laxative clyster. 
(Vet. Pha. 143.) Avoid all exercise, clothe moderately, allow a free 
circulation of cool air through the stable, and rub the legs frequently, 
and when not under this process, keep them bandaged up to the 
knees, with hay bands, or woollen cloths. The terminations ol 
this complaint are various. It is not uncommon for the horse to 
appear better, to eat and to drink, and to excite every hope of a 
perfect recovery ; but on some sudden exertion he falls down and 
expires. On examination after death, it is found that effusion oi a 
large quantity of serous ffuid has taken place in the chest. 

34 Thick wind is another termination of pneumonia \y leaving 
\he bronchial passages charged with coagulated blood. Moderate 
exercise and soiling in the stable with mild mercurial physic, form 
the best modes of treatment, but it frequently happens th<*t the 
fou^n resists all these and terminates in broken wind. 


35. Rt>arin^ is also a termination of pneumonia, in winch r.asn 
the lungs are not affected, but congealed blood, under the name «1 
coagulable lymph, remains in the trachea or windpipe, and obstructs 
the free passage of the air ; by means of which the roaring noise i* 
made. It is in vain to expect a cure : blistering the throat some- 
times slightly relieves it. 

36. Chronic cough is also a termination of pneumonia, and ap 
pears dependent on a peculiar irritability the disease leaves in tho 
bronchial passages, which are found afterwards incapable of bearing 
any sudden alteration of temperature ; thus horses with this kind of 
cough are excited to it as soon as the stable door opens, and by 
every exertion, by drinking, by eating, and in fact by any thing 
that alters the situation of the body, or is new to the part. But 
besides pneumonia or inflammation of the lungs producing it, it is 
often brought on likewise by gross feeding, which, weakening the 
stomach, impoverishes the blood, and thus injures the lungs which 
are fed by that blood. Worms also by the same means are a cause 
of chronic cough. It is thus that we expect to derive benefit by 
mediums acting on the stomach. Green food is often found useful, 
but particularly carrots. The hay should be excellent in quality 
and small in quantity ; and it will be found that soiling in the 
stable, but particularly a course of carrots, forms a better plan of 
treatment than turning out. If worms be suspected, treat as under 
that head. [57.] Formula? of chronic cough balls are seen in the 
Vet. Pkarm. [148.] 

37. Broken wind is also sometimes brought on by pneumonia, and 
sometimes by occult causes. It is often occasioned by over exer- 
tion after full meals, in which the lungs become permanently 
weakened, perhaps ruptured in their air cells. Inexperienced per- 
sons find some difficulty in detecting broken wind from other chest 
uffections, as chronic cough, occasional colds, &-c. &c. 

38. Criteria of broken wind. The cough which accompanies 
oroken wind, is a short, deep, hollow, grunting noise, and the shorl 
grunting expiration is peculiarly excited by turning a horse quickly 
round, striking him smartly with a stick at the same time, ^vhich 
)ften produces a deep sound without the cough ; and which is sc 
significant as nevei to be mistaken when once heard and attended 
to. but the principal peculiarity arises from the beating of the 
flanks, which operate rather by three efforts than two as usual 
In the first, the air is drawn in, in the usual manner, and the flank? 
fill up as in common ; but in tho next, the falnrg of the dankfc it 


by no means i\v;ural, for it is not done by a gradual sinking of the 
cities, but it takes place at once, with a kind of a jerk, as thougn 
the. norse were sighing ; and then a third effort takes place by a 
more slow drawing up of the muscles of the belly and flanks, t« 
press out the remaining air. Broken wind destroys the fecundity 
of the mare, and hence argues permanent alteration of structure ; it 
is also always incurable, but horses may be rendered very useful 
that have it, by feeding them very nutritiously, but with food much 
condensed in bulk. Little hay should be allowed, and that little 
should be wet ; water in any other way should be given but spa. 
ringly, for which they are however very greedy ; from which circum- 
stance, as well as that they are peculiarly flatulent, we learn, that 
the vitiation of the lungs is either aggravated by the deranged stato 
of the digestive organs ; or, which is more probable, that the diges- 
tive powers become weakened from the state of the lungs. 

39. Diseases of the belly. Inflamed stomach seldom attacks the 
horse as an idiopathic affection, but it is not unfrequent for the 
stomach to become inflamed by mineral poison as well as rendered 
inert by vegetable ones. 

40. Mineral poisons inflame the stomach acutely, and produce 
excessive distress, and cold sweats; the animal lies down, rolls, 
gets up again, looks short round to his ribs, stamps with his fore 
feet, and his pulse beats quick and short. When arsenic or corro- 
sive sublimate have occasioned the malady, a viscid mucus distils 
from the nose and mouth, and the breath is foetid. When copper 
in the form of vitriolic salts, or verdigris has been given, to the 
foregoing symptoms are usually added ineffectual attempts to vomit. 
Immediately after the poison is discovered, pour down two ounces 
of sulphuretted potash, in a quart of water; or in the absence of 
that, an ounce of common potash in the same quantity of water : 
or, when no better substitute is at hand, even strong soap suds are 
advisable. Mineral poisons have also another mode of acting, and 
are often received into the constitution, neither by design to do 
mischief, nor by mistake, but are purposely given as remedies. — 
In this way, Dotn mercury and arsenic are frequently given for 
worms, glanders, farcy, &c. in daily doses, which, w r hea even ot 
considerable magnitude, occasion for many days no inconvenience * 
*L at on< e, however, the constitution becomes fully saturated with 
the poison, and although before diffused througbout the blood, it 
now appears to return and act on the stomach to the great surprise 
ot the owner. In these cases the symptoms are not usually so 
v*»lent as in the former instance, but they are equally fatal. \ 


«itnilar treatment with the one already prescribed is necessary, anfl 
as soon as the first symptoms are abated, give laxatives. In all 
tnese cases large quantities of linseed tea should be horned down, 
the back should be raked and clysters thrown up, blood should a!xo 
00 taken away plentifully. As a preventive to this latter mode ol 
poisoning, whenever mineral agents are used, it is prudent eveiy 
five or six days to stop a while, and then recommence, by which 
whe constitution will part with the previous quantity. 

41. Salivation is also another mode of poisoning, and though not 
equally injurious to the stomach, it often proves distressing, and 
sometimes fatal. Whenever, therefore, mercurials are given, care- 
fully watch the gums, and as soon as they look red, and the horse 
quids his hay, give him a mild purge instead of his mercurial. 

42. Vegetable poisons also inflame the stomach, but by no means 
in an equal degree with the mineral poisons, nor is it supposed that 
it is the inflammation they raise that proves destructive, hut by an 
effect communicated through the stomach to the nervous system. 
Digitalis purpurea or foxglove, taxus baccata or yew, cenanthe 
crocata or water dropwort, cicuta virosa or water hemlock, phellun- 
drium aquatic urn. or water parsley, conium maculatum or common 
hemlock, are all poisonous in a high degree to horses, and may be 
taken accidentally by the animal as food, or given injudiciously as 
medicine. Nicotiana, or tobacco, and the vegetable acid of vinegar, 
are also poisonous, and are sometimes productive of injurious con. 
sequences by over-doses, when intended as remedies. It is little 
known that a pint of strong vinegar has destroyed a horse. As we 
cannot remove the matters from the stomach, we must endeavour 
to neutralize their effects, by acids and demulcents, as oil, butter, 
&c. Thus, when narcotics have been taken, a drachm of sul- 
phuric acid or oil of vitriol may be given in a quart of ale; or six 

-ounces of vinegar, six of gin, and a quart of ale, may be trieo. 

43. Stomach staggers. This peculiar complaint, which is even 
V^t but little understood, appears dependent on a particular stata 
3f stomach, acting on particular foods; and not on what is taken 
in, acting on the stomach, as was supposed by Coleman, White, 
and others. From later communications of White, ho also now ap 
pears to consider it as originating in "a particular state of stomach.' 
Blaine appears always to have characterized it as * a specific inflam 

; nation of the stomach." It appears among horses of every descrip- 
tion, and at grass as well as in the stable, and there is reason to 
«-.'»uik it epidemic, as it is prevalent in some seasois more tha* 


»n others. It may, perhaps, u, e regarded now anu then as enoemie 
also: under which circumstance it appears confined to low wfi 
situations, where long marshy grass is abundant, and where noxiou9 
aquatic plants mix themselves with the grasses. When it occurs 
at grats, the horse is found stupidly dull, or asleep with his head 
resting against something. This has occasioned the disease to 
r»e called the sleepy staggers, and it has often been confounded with 
the phrenitis or inflammation of the brain. (8.) In the stable the 
hjrse dozes, and rests his head in the manger; he then walks up 
and falls to eating, which he continues to do until the distention of 
the stomach becomes enormous ; for the peculiarity of the com- 
plaint consists in the total stop that is put to digestion, and tho 
uneasy feel of the distension consequent to such indigestion appears 
to deceive the horse, and by a morbid excitement to force him to 
take in more. In this way he continues eating until the distention 
prevents the return of the blood from the head, and the animal dies 
apoplectic, or his stomach bursts with over-distention. More fre- 
quently, however, the stomach becomes flabby, inert, and paralytic, 
and after death presents marks of inflammation towards the pylorus. 

44. The treatment. When recovery has taken place, it has 
occurred only when the disease has been very mild, and has been 
assisted by stimulating the stomach into action by purgatives, at 
once active and invigorating, as an ounce of aloes dissolved in a 
half pint of gin. When a horse of extreme value is attacked, croton 
oil might be tried to the amount of 20 or 25 drops in two ounces of 
tincture of aloes. Warm water in small quantities, or mixed with 
common salt should be frequently passed down. Remove every 
eatable, rake, clyster, and hand rub ; and if the determination to 
the head be extreme, bleed — otherwise avoid it. 

45. Inflammation of the bowels, enteritis, or red colic, is a very 
distinct disease from the gripes, gulliou, or fret, with which it is. 
however, very apt to be confounded to the destruction of many 
horses. The peritoneal inflammation of the bowels, the one hero 
treated on, is an affection of tiieir outer covering. 

4G. The causes are various. It is not unfrequently brought on by 
a sudden translation of cold after great heats, as swimming during 
nunting, or from the removal of a horse from grass at once into 
neated stables, clothing and hard food ; neglected gripes, or long 
continued costiveness, excessive riding, and the immediate drinking 
of cold water, have brought it on. It begins by restlessness, loss 
of apuetite, some uneasiness; the mouth is hot and dry, lue inwt 


membranes of the mouth, nose, and eyelids are often redder than 
natural As the disease advances, the pain, before not violent 
now increases so as to force the horse to lie down and rise again 
frequently ; and when very violent, he kicks at his belly, or looks 
round at his sides, pawing nis litter very frequently. The pulse i» 
usually small, quick, or hard ; sometimes it is more full and small 
but always hard. Breathing- is quickened, the extremities are 
alternately hot and cold, but continue longer cold than hot ; and 
the animal is costive ; sometimes pain may force away a few har- 
dened balls of foeces, but the principal contents are retained. 
Blaine has given the distinguishing features between this disease 
and colic, under which head we have stated them. 

47. The treatment must be active and immediate, or a fatal ter- 
mination lrr.y be expected. Begin by abstracting a considerable 
quantity of blood ; from a large horse to the amount of 7 or 8 quarts; 
proceed to back-fake, throw up a large clyster of warm gruel. Give 
bv the mouth, a pint of castor oil, mixed by the means of the yelk 
of two eggs, with half a pint of broth or gruel. Or, give olive oil 
instead, following it up in half an hour by a gruel drench in which 
six ounces of Epsom salts have been dissolved. A sheep skin, im. 
mediately as it is removed from the sheep, may be applied to the 
be' j. which should first be well rubbed with the stronger liquia 
blister. (Vet. Pha. 141.) In four hours repeat the bleeding, if con- 
siderable improvement have not taken place, and if the bowels be 
not unloaded, give more oil, and clyster frequently, having first 
back-raked. Avoid exercise ; first hand-rub, and afterwards wrap 
up the extremities to the knees. As a clear passage for the dung 
is found, the symptoms mitigate, and the animal slowly recovers , 
but he must be fed at first very sparingly. 

48. Inflammation of the inner surface of the intestines is, in some 
measure, different from the former, which is rather an affection of 
tlleir outer covering ; whereas this is usually confined to their villous 
surface, and may be brought on by superpurgation from ovei -strong 
physic, or from mineral acids being taken in, particularly mercu- 
rials, which often exert more influence on the bowels than on the 
stomach. It differs from the former in the symptoms being gener- 
ally accompanied with purging ; neither is there usually so much 
pain or uneasiness present, nor such cold extremities, but where 
from the violence of the inflammation these symptoms are present 
bleeding to the amount of three or four quarts is a proper pra 
jminary, but can hardly be with propriety continued. The same 
tunulants to the outside of the belly should be used as in tne las' 



HiKease but here clothing is recommended as well as warmth in 
the stable, as also hand-rubbing to keep up the circulation of the 
extremities. Give astringent drink (Vet. Pha. 131, No. 1 or 2., 
with a pint of boiled starch every three hours, and give the same 
by clyster with two quarts of pot liquor, or tripe liquor, free from 

49. Dysenteric inflammation of the horse's boicels is happily not 
▼cry common, but now and then appears, and is then called by 
farriers, molten grease; they mistaking the morbid secretion from 
the intestines, for the fat of the body melted down and passing off 
thus. But dysentery is a peculiar inflammation of the mucous sur 
face of the intestines, not contagious as in the human, nor epidemic, 
nor exhibiting a putrid tendency ; but is peculiarly confined to a 
diseased increase in the mucous secretions, yet very different from 
simple diarrhoea, which is a mere increase in the peristaltic motion, 
by which the common aliments are quickly passed through the 
intestines, and ejected in a liquid form by an increase in their watery 
secretion. Whereas in the dysentery of the horse, the mucous of 
the intestines separates from them in large quantities ; and comes 
away with the dung surrounding it; but when it does not pass in 
this way it appears in membranous films like sodden leather, or in 
stringy evacuations, like morsels of fat floating in water ; sometimes 
there is a little bloody appearance. The usual symptoms of fever 
are always present, but not in a very high degree. 

50. The causes are cold, over-riding, and not unfrequently 
acrid substances within the intestines: change of food has occa- 
sioned it. 

51. The treatment. In the first stages bleed considerably, and 
give as the first internal remedy six ounces of castor oil, which will 
amend the faecal evacuations considerably, afterwards administer 
the rollowing; powdered ipecacuanha, a drachm; powdered opium, 
a scruple ; liquid arrowroot, eight ounces. Should this not check 
the evacuation, and should it continue as mucous as at first, again 
give castor oil, and then follow it up by either of the drinks directed 
»oi tne cure of scouring or looseness. (Vet. Pha. 131.) 

52. Diarrhoea or looseness. This complaint originates in an in 
ereased peristaltic motion of the intestines, with an increase of 
their watery secretion, and is distinguished from dysentery by th rt 
i»u.-ging being complete from the first, and seldom occasioning much 
kvw or disturoance in the general health, unless exceedingly "o 


font. The stools are merely solutions of the aliment, and unmixed 
with membranous films as in dysentery or molten grease. It some 
rimes succeeds to over strong physic, at others the food enters into 
new combinations, and forms a purge. Some horses have the>r 
bowels constitutionally weak, as lank-sided small carcassed ones, 
where the mechanical pressure hurries the contents forwards. Sal; 
mashes and sea water will purge horses violently sometimes. It is 
always proper to encourage warmth in the skin, and to change the 
food. The change should be generally from one more moist to one 
less so, as beans, &c. Barley will sometimes stop looseness ; malt 
usually increases it. Buckwheat is often a check to habitual diar- 
rhoea. Efficacious astringents will be found in the (Vet. Pha. 131 ) 
Repeat either of these night and morning. Give but little water 
and that little warm. 

53. Colic, flatulent or spasmodic, called also gripes, fret, or gul- 
lion, is an important, because a frequent, disease, and because it 
frequently destroys either quickly by its irritation, or by its de. 
generating into the red or inflammatory colic, when improperly 
treated or long continued. It is usually very sudden in its attack. 

54. The causes of colic are not always apparent. It is sometimes 
occasioned by intestinal stones, which accumulate to a great size, 
remaining for years in the cells of the colon, until some accidental 
displacement occasions an interruption to the peristaltic motion. 
Cold in its various forms is a parent of colic ; but under the form 
of cold water given when a horse is hot, it is most common. 
In some horses it is so frequent as to become a constitusional ap- 

55. The distinguishing marks between colic and inflammation of 
the bowels are gained, according to Blaine, by attending to the 
following circumstances. In gripes the horse has violent fits of 
pain, but they remit, and he has intervals of ease. The pain in red 
colic is more uniform and less violent. In gripes the pulse is, in 
general, natural ; in red colic it is quicker than natural, and com. 
it only small. The extremities are not usually cold in gripes; in 
red colic they usually are. In gripes, the horse attempts to roll on 
his back, which in red colic he seldom does. There are no maras 
of fever with gripes, as red eyelids, inflamed nostrils, &,c. but m 
red colic they are always present. When the complaint has. con. 
tinned some hours it is always proper to bleed to prevent its ending 
in inflammation : bleeding in the mouth is quite useless. Back 
rake, and throw up clysters of warm water, one ifter nnojier \x 


fast as possible, which often overcomes the irritation. La Fossa 
recommends a curious remedy, but as it can always be obtained, and 
has the sanction of long experience, it may be tried. An onion if. 
pounded and mixed up with some powdered savin; in default of 
winch, use powdered ginger. . This is to be introduced up the rec 
turn as high as possible, and the horse is to be then moved briskly 
about. An onion put up the fundament whole, has long been a 
domestic remedy. The following is recommended by Blaine : spirit 
of vitriolic ether, an ounce; powdered opium, one drachm; oil oj 
turpentine, three ounces; warm ale, a pint. He also recommends 
the following more simple remedy as always at hand : the expressed 
juice of two or three large onions ; common gin, common oil, of each 
half a pint; mix and give. White recommends a pint of brandy, 
or of gin, with water, as an excellent carminative. Clark, who has 
expressly written on gripes, extols the virtues of a mixture thus 
made ; which, if it have the qualities he attributes to it, and which 
there is no reason to doubt, no agriculturalist, coach, or post master 
should be without it: pimento berry, called also auspice, ground 
tine, half a pound; spirits of wine, and of water, o- each a pint and 
a half ; infuse these together, and keep it for use. Give a quarter 
of a pint every hour until full relief is obtained ; hand-rubbing, 
wisping, or fomenting the bowels with hot water at the time. 

56. Inflammation of the intestines from wounds in the belly fre 
quently occurs ; and these injuries may happen in leaping over 
hedges or pale gates, or may be inflirt:d by the horn of a cow. 
Sometimes the strong tendinous covering of the belly is ruptured, 
while the skin remains entire : the gut then protrudes and forces 
out the skin into a tumour. The first thing to be done is to put 
the gut back, taking care at the same time, otherwise extensive 
inflammation follows, to remove any dirt or other matter that may 
be sticking to it ; for which purpose, should it be found necessary, 
it may be washed with warm water, but with nothing stronger. 
If the gut cannot be returned, from its being full of air, and the 
opening in the belly be too small to put it back again, such opening 
may be carefully enlarged to the necessary size. But if the animal 
can be thrown upon his back conveniently, a great deal may be done 
tnat cannot otherwise be accomplished ; after the gut is returned, 
the skin only should be stitched up, and a cushion of several folds 
if old linen and tow being placed on the wound, it should be kept 
•n its situation by means of a wide bandage rolled round the body, 
•mii carefully secured. The animal should then be copiously bled, 
and have his boweis emptied by clysters. The only food he should 
oo allowed is grass, or bran mashes and that only in moderate 


«j in.ity. When the distention of the intestines wholly prevents 
tiwir return, it would be prudent to puncture them with a very fino 
instrument, and thus to suffer the air to escape, which, although 
subjecting the horse to the risk of inflammation, is better than the 
certainty of death by having the intestines protruded. 

57. Worms of horses are found, as bots, in the stomach, but 
which as they attach themselves to the hard insensible part of that 
organ seldom do harm. Clark fancifully supposes they do good, 
and devises means for furnishing them when not in existence. The 
hot is the larva of the ojstrus equi, a fly which deposits its eggs on 
parts of the horse himself, from whence they pass into the stomach 
by being licked off. Certrain it is they get there, are hatched, and 
there remain hanging to the coats of it by two tentacular, receiving 
tb« juices of the masticated food as nutriment. After a considerable 
time they make their way out by the anus, drop on the ground, and 
are first transformed into the chrysalids, and afterwards into parent 
flies. When bots fix themselves on the sensible portion of the 
stomach, they may do harm ; but no medicine that we knew of will 
destroy them. The teres or large round worm sometimes occasions 
mischief, when it exists in great numbers, such as a starting coat, 
binding of the hide, irregular appetite, and clammy mouth. The 
best remedy is the spigelia marylandica or Indian pink, in daily 
doses of half an ounce. Tania are not common in the horse : now 
and then they exist, and are best combatted by weekly doses of oil 
of turpentine, three ounces at a time, mixed by means of the yelk 
of an egg with half a pint of ale. The ascaris or thread worms, are 
best removed by mercurial purgatives. The existence of worms 
may be known by the appearance of a yellow matter under the tail, 
and by tbe disposition the horse has to rub his fundament. Blaine 
rrcummends the following vermifuge : powdered arsenic, eight 
grains; pewter or tin finely scraped; Venice turpentine, half an 
ounce; make into a ball and give every morning. He also recom- 
mends salt to be given daily with the food, which agrees with our 
own experience as one of the best vermifuges known. It is a fact 
acknowledged by the residents along the sea-coast, that horses 
troubled with worms will often voluntarily drink largely of sra 
water, and thus cure themselves. 

5b. The diseases of the liver are acute inflammation or hepatitis, 
mid chronic inflammation or yellows. Hepatitis is the acute inflam- 
mation of this organ, which like the lungs, stomach, and intestines 
rmy spontaneously ^ake on the affection. The symptoms are not 
sulike those which attend red colic, but with less violence, it it 


je not however arrested, the termination will be equally fatal. 
About the third day the whites of the eyes turn yellow and the 
mouth also. Bleeding, blistering, and purgatives form the method 
of cure as practised in red colic. 

59. Chronic inflammation or yellows. The liver of horses is less 
complex than that of any other animals, and is therefore not very 
liable to disease ; indeed some authors affirm titat the horse is nevejr 
affected with jaundice, but that the yellowness of skin is a mere 
stomach affection: this is, however, erroneous, and not only does 
the liver become hardened and thickened occasionally, but the bile 
becomes diseased, and is thrown out in that state by the blood over 
the body. If fever be present, bleed, but if the symptoms present 
no token of active inflammation, give each night, ten grains of 
calomel, and every ten days, work it off with a mild dose of physic. 
It is, however, necessary to remark ; that it is not every yellowness 
of the skin that be».OKens either an acute or chronic inflammation of 
the liver. It is the property of every serious inflammation of any 
of the important organs of the chest and belly, to communicate a 
portion of the evil to the other organs immediately in conjunction 
with the liver : thus an affection of the stomach or intestines, of the 
inflammatory kind, very often occasions redness of the membranes 
of the nose, eyelids, &c. &c. 

GO. Diseases of the urinary organs. Inflammation of the kidneys, 
is an idiopathic affection, not one of frequent occurrence ; but as 
hrought on by injuries, such as over-riding, heavy loads, or violent 
diuretics, it is not unfrcquent: when idiopathic, it may be the effect 
either of cold, heating food, or a translation of some other inflam- 
mation, in which cases it comes on suddenly, and assumes the same 
febrile appearances that other intestine inflammations produce ; but 
there is not often great apparent pain, but a frequent inclination to 
stale, the quantity made being so small as almost to amount to a 
stoppage of urine, which is less or more complete as one or both 
kidneys are affected. What little urine is made, is also at first very 
thick, and then bloody. When the disease is the effect of external 
injury, the urine is not so scanty, but is more bloody ; and this 
symptom precedes the other. There is usually much pain and 
stiffness about the loins, and we learn from Blaine, that a swelling 
and a paralytic affection of the Mnd leg of the side of the affected 
Kidney, sometime!' is a feature in the complaint. ">To distinguish 
this inflammation from that of the neck or body of the bladder, 
with which it may be confounded, the same author recommends 
% hut toe hand be passed up the rectum, when if the affection belong 


to the kidneys, the Madder, whether full or empty, will not be ho*Ae» 
than usual; hut the contrary occurs when any part of the bladde 
is the seat of the disease. 

61. The treatment must be active, and in most respects similar 
to what has been recommended for red colic, as regards bleeding 
emptying the bowels, and endeavouring to lessen the arterial action 
by bleeding ; but here we must carefully abstain from irritating 
the kidneys by diuretics internally, or blisters externally. A newly 
srtipped sheep skin placed over the loins, or active fomentations ol 
h(t water, are the only sources of counter irritation that are proper 
neither should diluting liquors be pressed, on account of the dis 
tcition they occanon, but no evil can arise from clystering. 

62. Inflammation of the bladder. When the body of the bladder 
necomes inflamed, there is frequent staling from the very first 
attack ; but when the neck of the bladder is the seat of the evil, the 
bqueezing out of a few drops will only take place when the bladder 
has become filled, which may bo known by passing the hand up the 
rectum. The treatment will be alike in both cases, and is the 
same as recommended for the last affection. It must be evident, 
that warm, mild, and frequent clystering, must here be peculiarly 

63. Stranguary or suppression of urine; incontinence of urine; 
bloody urine. Stranguary may arise from an injury done to the 
kidneys, or to the bladder, by strains, or by the absorption of irri- 
tating matters. In these cases, bleed if there be fever, and if not 
merely give the horse absolute rest ; mash him, give gruel, and 
warm his water for drink. Bloody urine should be treated in the 
same way ; some horses have such a natural or acquired weakness 
of the kidneys, as to stale blood with their urine on every occasion 
of over exertion : the means frequently used for relief, are sucn aa 
aggravate the complaint, and indeed are often the occasion or' it, 
which are diuretics. Strong diuretics injure horses more than 
strong physic, and benefit them less than any other of the popular 
means made use of. In retentions of urine, but particularly in cases 
of bloody urine, they are absolutely improper. 

64. Diabetes, profuse staling, or pissing evil. This disease is 
more frequently forced on the horse, by long continued diuretics, 
or from a similar effect, brought on by kiln-dried oats, mow-burni 
hay, or some green vegetables, than aequiied from constitutional 
indisposition. The hjrse first stales often, and profusely, he then 
Oftcomes weak and fail t. and s\v«:it.s on any exertion. If >t be it ali 


•.onstitutional, his hide is bound from the beginning, And nis urine 
nil have a sweet taste ; but if his appetite were good and his coa*. 
leek, bright, and elastic, when the urine was first observed to be 
aimoderate, the evil arises from some fault in the feeding, clothing, 
ixercise, or other management of the horse. Examine into these 
natters, particularly into the food, and next the water. Inquire 
vhether diuretics have been given, under an erroneous supposition 
»f increasing the condition, and alter what may be amiss. If this 
do not remove the complaint, try the following, after Blaine's direc- 
tions : liver of sulphur, two drachms; uva ursi, four drachms; oak 
bark, one ounce ; catechu, half 'in ounce ; alum., half a drachm; givo 
as a daily drink in a pint of water. 

65. Stone or gravel. Calculous concretions are not uncommon 
in the large intestines of horses, where they grow sometimes to an 
enormous size, lodged in one of the cells usually, and where they 
occasion but little inconvenience, except a displacement occurs, 
when serious evils, as colic, inflammation, or total stoppage, follow. 
In the bladder, stone is very seldom found ; and there is reason to 
believe, that though gravel is a common term in the farrier's list, 
that it seldom if ever occurs ; injuries of the kidneys and bladder 
being usually mistaken for it. 

Diseases of the Skin. 

66. Mange is a contagious disease, not uncommon among low 
Dred and badly kept horses, but which is seldom generated in those 
properly managed. When it is the effect of impoverished blood, a 
different course of feeding must be substituted, not heating, but 
cooling, though generous; as carrots, speared oats, malt mashes, 
stable soiling, &c. When it arises in full fed horses, bleed twice, 
lower the feeding, substituting for corn, soiling, carrots, or bran 
mashes. Give a nightly alterative, (Vet. Pharm. 129, No. 1 or 2) 
and dress with either of the mange dressings. (Vet. Pharm. 171.) 
After a cure has been effected, carefully clean all the apartmpnt* 
with soap and water. 

67. Suifeit will now and then degenerate into mange y but more 
generally it is brought on by a fulness of habit, acted on by sudden 
transitions from cold to heat, or heat to cold : it is likewise not 
'.infrequently the consequence of over-fatigue. If it show a dispo- 
sition -o spread, and the skin become scaly and scurfy, treat as undei 
mange, otherwise treat as directed under Want of condition. (4) 

68. Warbles are of the nature of surfeit in many instances, in 
•thers thev are brought on by I he pressure of the saddle, which 


oilbcr nuppuraie and burst, or become indolent and remain unde» 
the name of stlfasts. In the early state, bathe them with cham 
ber-ley or vinegar: If the}' proceed to suppuration, refrain, and 
when they neither go back or come forward, put on a pitch 
plaster, and if this do not promote suppuration, let the sitfast be 
dissected out. 

G9. Warts are common to old horses, and had better be put up 
with unless they be situated in some very inconvenient or con 
spicuous part. In this case tie a thread tightly around the root, 
and the wart will drop off, or it may be cut off. Blaine recom- 
mends the following, when warts are too numerous to be sc 
removed: crude sal ammoniac, two drachms; powdered savin, one 
ounce; lard, an ounce and a half. 

70. Hide bound is a state of the skin, where the interstitial matter 
between that and the fleshy pannicle is not in a state to allow ot 
its pliancy and elasticity. The binding down of the hide thus 
closely, acts on the hair, which it protrudes in a contrary direction 
to its naturally inclined position ; and thus a staring coat usually 
accompanies hide binding. In considering the subject of condition 
(4) we have seen tnat it t s not a of itself, but is in every 
instance a symptom only. 

Glanders and Farcy. 

71. The glanders is the opprobrium medicorum, for hitherto no 
attempts have succeeded in the cure of more than a few cases. Bf 
some peculiar anomaly in the constitution of the horse, although 
conclusive proofs are not wanting that this and farcy are modi- 
fications of one disease, and can each generate the other; yet the 
one is incurable, while the other is cured every day. When glan- 
ders has been cured, the time and labour necessary to accomplish 
the end has swallowed up the value of the horse ; and has also, >n 
many supposed instances of cure, left the animal liable to future 
attacks which have occurred. The experiments on glanders, pu 
sued at the veterinary college and Dy White of Exeter, have thrown 
great light on the disease itself, its causes, connexions, and con- 
sequences; but have done little more. From these we ;ire led to 
conclude, that glanders will produce farcy, and that farcy cap oro. 
luce glanders. That glanders is Highly infectious, and that pact) 
infection may be received by the stomach, or by the skin when it 
;s at all abraded or sore : and it is also probable that it is received 
by the noses of horses being rubbed against each other. White # 
rxper'inenls go to prove that the air of a glandered stable is n»»l 


mfectioii3 ■• but this matter is by no means certain, and should a+h 
be depervded on without a greater body of evidence. 

72. The marks of glanders are a discharge of purulent matter 
from ulcers situated in one or both nostrils, more often from the 
left than the right. This discharge soon becomes glairy, thick, and 
white-of-egg-like : it afterwards shows bloody streaks, and is fetid. 
The glands of the jaw of the aifected side, called the kernels, swell 
from an absorption of the virus or poison, and as they exist or do 
not exist, or as they adhere to the bone or are detached from it, so 
6ome prognosis is vainly attempted by farriers, with regard to the 
disease ; for in some few cases these glands are not at all affected, 
and in a great many they are not bound down by the affection of 
the jaw. As there are many diseases which excite a secretion of 
matter from the nose, and which is kept up a considerable time ; sc 
it is not always easy to detect glanders in its early stages. Stran- 
gles and violent colds, keep up a discharge from the nostrils for 
weeks sometimes. In such cases a criterion may be drawn from the 
existence of ulceration within the nose, whenever the disease has 
become confirmed. These glanderous chancres are to be seen on 
opening the nostril a little way up the cavity, sometimes immediately 
opposed to the opening of the nostril; but a solitary chancre should 
not determine the judgment. The health often continues good, and 
sometimes the condition also, until hectic takes place from absorp 
tion, and the lungs participate, when death soon closes the scene. 

73. The treatment of glanders, it has been already stated, is so 
uncertain that it is hardly worth the attempt; however, when the 
extreme value of the horse or the love of experiment leads to it, it 
may be regarded as fixed by experience, that nothing but a long 
course of internal remedies, drawn from the mineral acids, can effect 
it. These have been tried in their endless variety : White recom- 
mends the mildest preparations of mercury, athiops mineral ; under 
the conviction that the more acrid preparations disturb the power* 
of the constitution so much, as to destroy as effectually as the 
disease. At the veterinary college the sulphate of copper (blue 
vitriol) has been long in use. Others have used the sulphates oj 
»ron and zinc. Clark recommends the daily administration of a 
drink or ball, composed of the following ingredients : sulphite oj 
tine, li> grains; powdered cantharides, 7 grains; powdered alL 
tpice, 15 grains; of which he gives one or two extraordinary 
pjoofs of utility. 

74. The farcy is a disease more easily cured than the glandcr* 
*f *nich ou' daily experience convinces us ; farcy, or farcin attack* 


tinder distinct forms, one of which affects the lymphatics of the skin 
and is called the bud or button iarcy ; the other is principally con- 
fined to the hind legs, which it affects by large indurations, attended 
with heat and tenderness. A mere dropsical accumulation of watei 
in the legs sometimes receives the name of water farcy ; but this 
has no connexion whatever with the true disease in question : farcy 
is very contagious, and is gained from either the matter of farcy or 
fram that of glanders. 

75. Treatment of farcy. The distended lymphatics or buds may 
often be traced to one sore, which w r as the originally inoculated 
part, and in these cases the destruction of this sore, and that of all 
the farcied buds, will frequently at once cure the disease, which is 
here purely local. But when the disease has proceeded further, 
the virus must be destroyed through the medium of the stomach ; 
although even in these cases, the cure is rendered more speedy and 
certain, destroying all the diseased buds, by caustic or by cautery 
Perhaps no mode <s better than the dividing them with a sharp firing 
iron ; or if deeper seated, by opening each with a lancet, and touching 
the inner surface with lapis infernalis. The various mineral acids 
may any of them be tried as internal remedies with confidence; 
2ven losing sight of the necessity of watching their effects narrowly, 
and as soon as any derangement of the health appears, to desist 
from their use ; oxmuriate of quicksilver (corrosive sublimate) may 
be given in daily doses of fifteen grains; oxide of arsenic may also 
be given in similar doses. The subacetate of copper (verdigris) may 
also bo tried, often with great advantage, in doses of a drachm 
daily. Blaine joins these preparations, and strongly recommends 
the following : oxmuriate of quicksilver, oxide of arsenic, subacetate 
of copper, of each eight grains; sublimate of copper, one scruple; 
make into a ball and give every morning, carefully watching the 
effects, and if it be found to occasion distress, divide, and give half, 
night and morning. The same author professes to have received 
great benefit from the use of the following: expressed juice oj 
clevers, or goose-grass, a strong decoction of hempsrcd and sassafras, 
of each six ounces; to be given after the ball. It remains to say, 
that whatever treatment is pursued will be rendered doubly effica- 
cious if green meat be procured, and the horse be fed wholly on it 
provided the bowels will bear such food ; but if the medicines gripe, 
by being joined with green food, add to the diet bean-meal. When 
green meat cannot be procured, carrots usually can ; and when 
they cannot, still potatoes may be boiled, or the oats may be speared 
01 malted. As a proof of the beneficial effects of green meat, 8 
uorpe, so bad with farcy as to be entirely despaired of, was drawi 


tttto a field of tares, and nothing more was done to him, nor furthei 
notice taken of him, although so ill as to be unable to rise from the 
ground when drawn there. By the time he had eaten all the tares 
within his reach, he was enabled to struggle for more; and finally 
r ie i jsh to extend his reach, and perfectly recovered. 

Diseases of tne Extremities. 

76. Shoulder strains, are very rare ; most of the 
(ameness attributed to the shoulder belong to other 
parts, and particularly to the feet. Out of one hundred 
and twenty cases of lameness before, Blaine found that 
three only arose from ligamentary or muscular exten- 
sion of the shoulder, or rather of the abductor and 
sustaining muscles: when shoulder strain does happen, 
it is commonly the consequence of some slip, by which 
the arm is forced violently forwards. It is less to be 
wondered at than at first seems probable, that farriers 
mistake foot lameness for shoulder strains, when we 
reflect that a contracted foot occasions inaction, and 
favouring of the limb; which thus wastes the muscles 
of the shoulder. Seeing that one shoulder is smaller 
than the other, the evil is attributed to that, and it is 
pegged, blistered, swam, and fired, to the torture of 
the animal and the increase of the foot's contraction by 
the confinement. In real shoulder strains, the toe is 
dragged along the ground while in motion ; at rest it 
is planted forward, but resting on the point of the toe. 
When the lameness is in the foot, the horse points his 
foot forward also, but he does so with the whole limb 
unbent, and the foot flat. These differences are highly 
necessary to be attended to, as well as the peculiar dif- 
ficulty there is in moving down hill, which he does 
with reluctance, and by swinging his leg round to 
avoid flexing it. This lameness may be further brought 
lo the test by lifting up the fore leg considerably, which 


(f the evil be in the shoulder, will give evident pain. 
The muscles between the tore legs pre likewise tumi- 
fied and tender in these cases. 

77. The treatment consists, when it is recent, in bleeding in the 
plate vein, rowelling in the chest, and fomenting with hot water 
two or three times a day. When the heat and tenderness have 
subsided, first bathe daily with the astringent wash for strains 
(Vet. Pita. 134, No. 1) for a week; and afterwards, if necessary, 
proceed to blister in the usual manner. 

78. Strain in the whirl bone. This important joint is sometimes 
strained, or its ligaments and muscles unnaturally extended, from 
a. greater force being applied to them than their structure is able to 
bear, or their power to resist ; a laesion takes place of some of their 
fibrillar, or in lesser injuries their elasticity is injured by being put 
on the stretch beyond their power of returning. In all such cases, 
the parts react, and inflammation follows ; by which heat, tender 
ness, and swelling ensue. 

79. Treatment. The first indication is the same in this as in all 
.igamentary strains, which is to moderate the inflammation by 
fomentations, &c. &,c, and when that has subsided, to endeavour 
hy astringents and bracers to restore the tone of the parts ; alter 
which, if any swelling remains, from the extravasated blood be- 
coming organised, to promote its absorptions by mercurial frictions, 
and blistering. This applies to all strains, and will direct the 
treatment therefore of that of strain in the articulation of the thigb 
with the body also. 

80. Strain in the stifle, is treated in the same manner. 

81. Strain or clap in the hack sinews. This is generally an injury 
done to the sheaths of the tendons, or of the ligaments which Dind 
them down. In very aggravated cases, it sometimes occurs that 
even the tendons themselves are extended beyond their capacity. 
The heat, swelling, and tenderness, are first to be combatted by 
fomentations, and if this be extreme, bleed also, and give a dose of 
(ihysic. Next proceed to poultice with saturnine applications, until 
the heat and swelling are reduced : then use tonics, astringent 
wash, (Vet. Pha. 134, No. 1 or 2,) bandage and exercise very 
irarefully. If swelling remain after heat, pain, and lameness are 
past; or when lameness only remains, after all heat is gone, pro 
?eed to blister mildly twice In "all cases of igamentary extension 



when thr heat has subsided, the part may be considered as in a statt 
of atony; and bandages judiciously applied are then proper, par 
ticularly during the day. 

82. Rupture of the tendons and ligaments of the leg. It is very 
neldom that the tendons themselves are ruptured, but the suspensory 
ligaments are more often so, and the evil is called breaking down. 
It is usually very sudden, and the fetlock is brought almost tc the 
ground. A perfect cure is seldom obtained; but the inflammation 
should be moderated by the means already described, and the heela 
should be raised. A laced stocking or firm bandage, when tho 
inflammation has subsided, is necessary ; and firing is often prudent 
as a permanent bandage. 

83. Strains of the ligaments of the fetlock and coffin joints often 
occur, and may always be distinguished by the heat, tenderness, 
and swelling. Treat as already described. In all strains of the leg, 
attended with inflammation, a goulard poultice is a convenient 
and useful application. The goulard water should be mixed with 
bran, and a worsted stocking being drawn over the foot, and up the 
leg, it is first tied around the foot ; the poultice is then put in, and 
the stocking fastened around the leg above the injury (115.) 

84. Mallenders and sallenders are scurfy, scabby eruptions, af- 
fecting the back of the knee, and ply to the hock ; common only in 
coarse, low bred, and in cart horses. Wash with soft soap every 
day, after which anoint with an unguent formed of equal parts of 
mercurial ointment, tar, and Turner's cerate. 

85. Broken Knees. The usual cases oi broken knees are referable 
to wounds in general ; and the treatment of them in no wise differs 
therefrom, with this caution, that here it is more immediately 
necessary, both for appearance and safety, that if any flap of ski.i 
hang apart, to cut it off, or the wound will heal with rugosed edges. 
Uut when the joint of the knee is broken into by the violence of 
the injury, it becomes of a very different nature, and is known first 
by the extreme lameness and swelling that occur ; and next by the 
escape of a slippery mucus not unlike the white of an egg. If this 
continue to escape, violent inflammation follows, and either tho 
horse or the joint are lost by it. Farriers are apt to attempt to stop 
tho flow of the joint oil, as it is called, by oil of vitriol, or other 
oscharotics, which treatment is usually followed by the most disas- 
trous consequences. It is however, necessary to stop the immediate 
*ow. by other means' trie best of which if by a fine budding-iron 

DISEASES of nons*3. 23.1 

heatftd. Should the laceration be considerable, this cannot be done , 
but the treatment must then consist of saturnine poultices, bleeding 
low diet, and the other anti-febrile remedies, until the swelling has 
Buhsided, when apply tne astringent paste recommended by Clarke, 
made of pipe clay and alum, everyday, but by no'means introduce 
my escharotics. On the subject of broken knees, a prejudice prevails, 
that a horse that has once broken his knees, is more liable to fall 
ugain than a horse that has not before fallen down ; but unless the 
knee be injured so as to become stiff by such accident, the supposi- 
tion is wholly erroneous. Horses fall as often by treading on sharp 
atones when they have corns, as they do by stumbling ; and as corns 
sometimes come on rapidly by pressure, so such a horse becomes 
afterwards liable to trip, and this gives rise to the opinion formed, 
hat. when once he has been down he will ever after be liable to it. 

8b\ Splints and bone spavin. The former are usually situated 
on the inner side of the canon or shank before — and as they are 
situated, so they are more or less injurious. When buried, as it 
were, within the tendons or back sinews, they are very apt to lame 
the horse seriously; but when situated on the plain bone, unless 
they are very large, they seldom do much injury. If a splint be 
eariy attended to, it is seldom difficult to remove. Blaine recom- 
mends the swelling to be rubbed night and morning for five or six 
days, with a drachm pf mercurial ointment, rubbing it well in ; after 
which to apply a b.ister, and at the end of a fortnight or three 
weeks to apply anotl er. In very bad cases he recommends firing 
in the lozenge form. 

87. Bone spavin is ar. exostosis of the hock bones, the treatment 
of which in no wise dhVers from that of splint ; except that as a 
spavin in general is m< re injurious than a splint, so it is more 
necessary to commence the treatment early, and to continue it 
energetically. It also ur. fortunately nappens, that from the com- 
plexity of structure on the hock, spavin is not so easily removed a* 
splint, and more usually rec uires the applicati m of firing. 

88. Ring bone is of the sa te nature, being an exostosis or bonj 
3ircle, formed around the ci vonet, the treatment of which is the 
*ame with splint and spavin. 

89. Blood spavin, bog spavif and thoroughpin, are all of them 
originally of the natirre of win galls, and are nothing more than 
enlargements of the brusal cap tiles described in the anatomy as 
■urrounding tendons, ligaments, ind bones, to furnish them wiih 



me lubricating medium. By over exertion or hard work thesa 
brusal bags bee mie extended, and their contents increased, and 
distended into puffy swellings in the hock, called, when on the ply, 
bog spavin. The pressure of this sometimes occasions a varicose 
state of the superficial vein, which passes directly over it on the 
inner side of the hock, and which enlargement then receives the 
name of blood spavin. When the brusal enlargement extend* 
through the hock, it is called thoroughpin. When it is situated 
below in the bursa? of the flexor tendons, near the fetlock joint, it 
receives the name of wind gall. 

90. The treatment in all these cases must be similar in principle, 
and consists in lessening the distended sac — not as was formerly 
practised to the destruction of the horse often, by letting out the 
contents of these wind galls; but by strengthening the sides of the 
tumours by stimulants or by pressure. The more active stimulants 
are the liquid blister, (Vet. Pharm, 141,) milder ones are found in 
the astringent wash. (Vet. Pha. 134, No. 1.) Bandages assist greatly, 
when well applied to the part, and in desperate cases firing has 
been resorted to, which is nothing more than a more violent stimu- 
lant and a more permanent bandage. 

91. Capulet is a bursal enlargement of the point of the hock, and 
is to be treated by friction, astringents and bandage. 

92. Curb is an inflammation of the ligaments at the back of the 
hock, and is usually removed by astringents. (Vet. Pha. 134.) 
When it does not give way to these, the sweating liquid blister 
may be applied. (Vet. Pha. 142.) 

93. Cracks and grease may be considered as modifications of one 
and the same affection, and are commonly brought on by some 
neglect in all horses; but when they occur in any but the thick- 
heeled low bred animals, they are invariably so. Over feeding or 
under feeding, but much more frequently the former, will bring it 
on.' A very frequent cause of it is the practice of washing the legs 
of horses and suffering them to dry of themselves. In every case 
without exception, washing the legs should be avoided, unless they 
be rubbed perfectly dry afterwards. When horses have long haira 
about their heels, and are washed and then left wet, the evil must 
ne doubled ; as the evaporation going on, cools and chills the heels, 
and thus produces a species of chilblain ; and we well know how 
difficult these are to heal when broken. Cracks in the heels very 
often occur in horses removed too suddenly into full keep from pre. 
r» mis btraw or grass jj from these to a hot stable ; which Lv tbe heat 


and moisture of the litter, occasions a determination of blood, and 
humours to the legs, and they break out into cracks or scabs, fron. 
which issue a bloody ichor, or a more thick matter. Between th* 
cores the hair stares and gets pen feathered, and the horse r'nd» 
difficulty and pain in moving. 

94. The treatment must depend on tlie state in which the anima 4 
is at the present. If there be reason to suspect the horse to be full 
and foul, bleed, lower his food, soil him in the stable ; or mash and 
give him a mild dose of physic. But when some mismanagement 
is the sole cause, remove that, and if the case be a severe one, by 
means of an old stocking drawn over the foot, bury the whole heel 
in a poultice, made of scraped carrots or turnips ; which will subdue 
the irritation and bring the parts into a state to bear the application 
of the astringent paste, (Vet. Pha, 136, No. 2,) or if more con- 
venient, of the astringent wash, (Vet. Pha. 134, No. 1 or 2.) Mode- 
rate exercise should be continued, and the heels carefully cleaned 
from dirt by soft soap and water on each return therefrom ; after 
which, always again apply the astringent. 

95. Grease is nothing more than an aggravated state of the same 
• flection, and is more common to the hind than the fore legs. 
Coarse fleshy legged horses are peculiarly prone to the affection 
from the great accumulation that takes place in their legs; and from 
the difficulty that the capillaries find in carrying the increased 
quantity of lymph upwards. In these, long stable confinement 
should be avoided, and when that is impossible, it should be coun- 
teracted by exercise frequently and judiciously administered. Many 
cart horses never go out but to work ; they often work three days 
incessantly, or nearly so ; and they perhaps rest two days entirelv 
Can it be wondered at, that the change occasions swelling, acting 
on the weakness and exhaustion of previous fatigue, and could not 
this be avoided by turning out for an hour, or walking for half an 
hour night and morning? stable soiling should be used ; bleeding 
and physicking alxo in very bad cases ; and when the inflammation 
and iiritation or soreness are great, the poultices recommended for 
cracks, should be apolied until these circumstances are removed ; 
when commence the use of some of the astringents recommended 
(Vet. Pharm. 134) White has stated two remarkable cases of 
grease cured by the application of corrosive sublimate in the form 
of a wash, as of two drachms of sublimate to ten ounces of water; 
increasing it to three drachms if the pain occasioned by the first bu 
not too considerable. Blaine says that the clivers or goose grass 
iias been known to be of great service in bad cases of greast — hal/ 



• pint of the 3xprfc5sed juice to be given daily as a drink , *nd a 
poultice of the herb to be applied to the heels. In some cases oi 
•ong standing when the running has ceased, a thickened state of 
the limb remains ; which is best removed by firing, and which like- 
wise is a preventive to a return. 

Diseases of the Feel. 

96. Founder of the feet is of two kinds, an acute and a chronic 
Acute founder is a disease that, until lately, was less understood 
than almost any other. After a very severe day's work, or when 
very much heated, if a horse get a sudden chill by standing in snow 
or cold water, it is not uncommon for him to be seized with universal 
stiffness, and every symptom of great fever. Such a horse is said 
to be body foundered. By degrees, however, it is observed that the 
animal has an extreme disinclination to remain on his feet ; from 
whence it will appear that the whole of them are affected, when the 
norse draws his hind feet under him, his fore only are affected, and 
when he draws his fore feet under him his hinder feet are the seat 
of the complaint ; but which is seldom the case. On feeling the 
feet they will be found intensely hot, and the pastern arteries beat 
with great violence. After a few days, unless the disease abate, a 
Reparation of the hoofs from the coronet takes place, and at last 
they fall entirely off. 

97. The treatment. At the commencement of the disease bleed 
largely, as well by the neck as from the toe of each affected foot, 
by paring, until the blood flows freely. After which immerse each 
foot in a goulard poultice (115,) give the fever powder or drink, 
(Vet. Pha. 157 & 158,) litter up to the belly; and if amendment 
do not take place, renew the bleedings, and blister round the 

98. Chronic founder, contraction or fever in the feet. The arti- 
ficial life that horses lead, subjects them to many diseases ; one of 
the principal of which is that of contracted feet. Blaine considers 
a neglect of sufficient paring of the hoof, the application of artificial 
heat from hot stables, and hot litter, the deprivation of natural 
moisture, constitutional liability, and the existence of thrushes, as 
•mong the principal causes of this evil. It is more common among 
blood horses, than to others, and he observes, that dark chesnuts 
are of all others most prone to it. 

99 The treatment of contraction in the feet. It is bettor to pre 
Tfliit. than to oe under the necessity of attempting t) euro tin? #vil 


Prevention may be practised by avoiding the acting courcs. As 
soon as at all suspected to be likely to occur ; keep the hoofs pared 
low; never suffer the horse to stand on litter, nor allow the stable 
to be too hot ; feed moderately, and never allow the horse to go 
without daily exercise ; whatever increases the general fulness of 
habit flies to the feet. Above all, keep the feet moist by means o. 
wet cloths tied closely around the coronet, falling over the whole 
hoof, but not extending beyond the edge. Then moisten repeatedly, 
and stop the feet (166) every night. When contraction has already 
taken place, many plans have been recommended ; as jointed shoes, 
by Coleman, Clark, and others, but it is not found that mechanical 
expansion in this way produces permanent benefit. The most 
elfectual mode is to obviate all previous causes of contraction ; and 
then to thin the hoofs around the heels from each quarter so thin as 
to be able to produce an impression by means of the thumb ; in fact, 
to remove so much of the horn as is consistent with safety, from 
the coronet downwards. It is also prudent to put in a score or two 
from above downwards, drawn a quarter of an inch deep on each 
side towards the front of the hoof; but whether this be done or not, 
the front of the hoof should be rasped thin about an inch in width ; 
by which means a hinge is formed, which operates most advanta- 
geously in opening the heels. After this is done, Lips should be put 
on, and the horse should be turned out *o grass, where he should 
remain three months, by which time the new formed heels will have 
reached the ground, and will bear a shoe. 

100. The pumiced foot is a very common consequence of acute 
founder, in which the elasticity of the laminae becoming destroyed 
the support of the coffin bone is removed, and it rests wholly on tha 
sole, which it gradually sinks from a concave to a convex surface, 
drawing with it the front of the hoof inwards. In weak, broad 
heavy feet, this evil comes on sometimes without founder , the 
treatment can only be palliative, a wide webbed shoe exactly fitted 
to the foot, without at all pressing on it, prevents the lameness 
consequent to the disease, a shoe exactly the contrary to tins has 
been tried in some cases with benefit, the form of which has been 
one with a web so narrow as only to cover the crust, but so thick 
as to remove the feet from accidental pressure. In other cases, ne 
■hoe answers so well as a strong bar shoe. 

101. Corns are most troublesome aliments, to which horses are 
ery liabie, and which injure and ruin thousands; they are wholly 

accidental ; no horse having any peculiar tendency to them, bu» 
Ixjing ulwars brought on them by some improper pressure, usuaii? 


of \he s li oe or from something getting between the shoe and tno 
uorny heel. A shoe toe /bng worn is a very common cause, and a 
st ill more frequent one it t\\3 clubbing the heels of the shoe ; neithei 
is it necessary to the production of corns that the «hoe itself should 
press :n the sole; but they are equally produced when the outei 
horn of the heels or of the bars, is the immediate offending part 
rendered so by two luxuriant growth, by unequnl wear, or by 
secondary pressure from the shoe, or by gravel working in. It is 
the fleshy sole itself that is bruised, from which a speck of extra- 
vasated blood follows, and if not immediately relieved it gathers, or 
the part becomes habitually defective, and instead of forming healthy 
horn, it always afterwards forms a spongy substance of extreme 
sensibility, and thus always is liable to produce pain and lameness 
when exposed to pressure. 

102. The treatment of corns is seldom difficult, or unsuccessful 
at their first appearance, but afterwards it can be only palliative. 
Blaine directs that by means of a fine drawing knife every portion 
of diseased horn should be pared away, and the extravasation under- 
neath likewise. Having done this, he advises to introduce some 
butter of antimony into the opening, to place over this some tow, 
which should be kept in its place by means of a splint. If any 
contraction of the heels le present it will materially assist the cure 
to lower them, and .c !hin the hoof a little around the quarters, and 
afterwards to put on a shoe without heels opposed to the corn, or 
a shoe chambered opposite the weak part : or a bar shoe may bo 
applied so framed as completely to leave the heel untouched. Intro- 
duce the butter of antimony once or twice more, with the interval 
of two days between, and then turn the horse out to grass ; in about 
six weeks time the foot will be sound. The treatment of corns, 
when of long standing, does not materially differ: for although 
they are never wholly eradicated, they may be rendered but little 
troublesome. The diseased part must be carefully pared out at each 
shoeing, ai.. such a shoe put on as will completely free the heel 
ft )m pressure 

103. Running thrush is always a dangerous disease, and few 
errors in horse management are more glaring than the common one 
of supposing they are necessary to enrry off humours. If less food, 
more exorcise, cool stables, and dry standings, were substituted to 
correct the fulness, instead of thrushes, which invariably contract 
the feel whenever they continue any length of time, it would savo 
many valuable horses. To the cure, begin by cleaning out all the *e* of the frog from loose ragged barn, and thun introduce to 


Mic bottom of the sinuses, by ncans of a thin piece >f wood, some 
of the thrush paste (Vet. Pharm. 133,) smeared on tow, which wb 
enable it to be held within the cleft, especially if it be guarded by 
splints of wood passed under the shoe; renew the dressing daily; 
turning out to grass may be practised to great advantage for thrushes 
by this mode of dressing. 

104. Sand cracks are fissures in the hoofs, commonly of mose 
before, and usually towards the inner, but now and then towards 
the outer quarter also, from above downwards: from the crack, a 
Utile oozing of blood or moisture is seen : and the sensible parts 
underneath getting between the edges of horn, being pressed on, 
lame the horse. White recommends to fire the fissuie crossways, 
so as to destroy the connection between the divided and undivided 
parts of the hoof. 

105. Pricks or punctures of the feet are often very serious evils, 
either when received by nails in shoeing, or by one picked up in the 
road, &,c. The danger arises from inflammation, which is always 
great from any injury done to the sensible and viscular parts within 
the foot. This inflammation quickly proceeds to suppuration; and 
the matter is apt to make its way upwards, unless it find a ready 
rent below. When it does not break out at the coronet, it will 
often penetrate under the sole, and finally disease the bones, liga- 
ments, or cartilages, and produce quittor. It is very seldom that a 
horse is pricked in shoeing, but that the smith is aware of it by the 
peculiarity of the feel on the hammer, and by the flinching of the 
animal. At such times were he to immediately draw the nail a little, 
enlarge the opening, and introduce some spirit within the puncture, 
uothing would occur; but on the contrary, he sends the horse home 
to avoid trouble, who, the next, or following day, is found lame, 
with his foot hot, if the nail be not driven too near the sensiblo 
lamina:, it will only require to be removed to free the horse from his 
evil ; but if it have been driven through, and have wounded them, 
then suppuration ensues, and on examining the foot by the. pincers 
when the shoe is removed, he will flinch at the pressure on the 
diseased part. It is probable, on the removal of the shoe that matter 
will at once flow out at the immediate nail hole, if not, the drawing 
knife will soon deteet the injury. If the heat be great, and insteao 
of matter, bloody dark ichor flows out, wrap the foot up in a poui 
lice ; but if healthy matter flows out this will not be necessary , 
Bometiine.-- it is requisite to detach all the horn that is undcrrun by 
• he matter. But when the injury has not proceeded to tnis extent, 
*pply over the part a pledget of tow steeped in friar's balsam , tack 


or the stroe lightly, and retain the dressing oy means of splints 
which are thin pieces of wood passed under the shoe; repeat the 
dressing daily, and avoid moisture, which would encourage quittor 
A nail picked up on the road, and which passes through the eole 
below or through the frog, is to be treated in the same manner, and 
also when the matter breaks out at the coronet ; but when a nail is 
picked up and penetrates the coffin joint, which is known by the 
synovia or joint oil appearing, such opening should be immediately 
stopped by paring towards the wounded joint, and then applying a 
heated budding-iron, not to the capsular ligament itself, but to the 
skin immediately near it; if this be inconvenient, put a pledget 
dipped in a little butter of antimony, just within the opening, but 
do not press it into the cavity of the joint: if this be insufficient to 
stop the flow, but more particularly if the original wound be pene- 
t-ated to the bone, it is probable that the bone itself will become in 
some measure diseased, which is known by the rough grating felt at 
the point of the probe when passed. In this case, enlarge the 
opening so as to be able to scrape the diseased bone away. Bruises 
of the sole, from whatever cause, will all fall under some of these 
points of view, according as the case may be. 

106. Quittor and canker are the consequences of these injuries, 
when neglected, or originally extensive. In these cases either tho 
bones, ligaments, or cartilages, or all, become diseased ; and a cure 
can only be obtained by removing the diseased parts by the knife or 
by caustic. 

107. Treads, over-reach, tyc. A wound on the coronet is not 
uncommon from one foot being placed on the other ; or the hinder 
foot may strike it, &c. First wipe away the dirt, and remove any 
loose edges that cannot unite ; avoid washing, unless stones and 
dirt are suspected to be within, and bind up, having first placed 
over the wound a pledget of lint or tow moistened with balsamic 
tincture, or tincture of myrrh, or of aloes 6lc. Over-reaching, or 
over-stepping, is often an injury done to tne fetlock joint before, by 
the hinder foot, or to the back sinew higher up. Sometimes it is 
simply a violent bruise, at others the laceration is extensive, in which 
case treat as a tread ; and when no laceration has taken place treat 
as a bruise or strain- 

108. Cutting is a defect to which some horses are liable from 
their form, as when they turn their toes out, or have bent legs. 
Others cut only when they are lean, which brings their le^s nearer 
together. Weak horses cut because thev cross their bg.s when 


'atigued, and young unfurnished horses cut at youthful periods and 
/row out of it afterwards. The part an which a foot interferes with 
the opposed limb is very different. When it strikes the shank high 
tip it is called speedy-cut, and is best remedied by wearing kne<* 
bo jts or rollers. When it is at the fetlock the cutting is at the side, 
or rather backward, according to circumstances. Some horses cut 
by th" side of the shoe, others by the hoof at the quarters ; and some 
by the point of the heels. It is to be remarked, that it is better to 
put no with the evil of cutting, than to do as is too frequently done, 
which is, to pare away the hoof until it excites contraction. The 
shoe m?,y be feather edged, or may be set a little within the cutting 
quarter; but by no means alter the size or form of the hoofs them- 
selves, and particularly avoid taking liberties of this kind with the 
fore feet. Boots or rollers, are but little trouble to put on, and 
when not buckled too tight never injure : whereas to allow a horsa 
to continue to cut produces a callus, and often throws the animal 



J 09. The general practises to be here enumerated 
are chiefly the treatment of wounds, the application of 
fomentations, setons, blisters, clysters, and physicking, 
and the operation of castrating, nicking, bleeding, &e 

Treatment of Wounds. 

110. A wound must be treated in some measure according to the 
part of the horse's body in which it happens : but there are some 
principles to be observed alike in all horse surgery. There are 
likewise a few, which, as they differ from the principles of humar 
surgery, should be first noticed, and which should guide the p.-ae 
tice of those who might be misled by analogy. The wounds- o* 
horses, however carefully brought together and confined in their 
•it nation, as well as shut out from the stimulus of the externa, air 
are seldom disposed to unite at once, or as it is called in surgical 
language, by the first intention. It is always, therefore, necessary 
to expect the suppurative process ; but as the adhesive inflammation 


does now and then occur, we should never wash with water *i 
other liquids a mere laceration, if no foreign matter, as dirt, &o oe 
suspected to be lodged within it, still less should we stuff it with 
candle or tents of any kind. On the contrary, it should be care- 
fully and smoothly brought together, and simply bound ip in ita 
own blood ; and if it do not wholly unite at once, and by the first 
intention, perhaps some portion of it may; and at all events, its 
future progress will be more natural, and the disfiguration less than 
when stuffed with tents, tow, &c. or irritated with heating oils or 
spirits. When an extensively lacerated wound takes place it is 
common, and it is often necessary to insert sutures, or stitches, 
into the lips of the wound : and here we have to notice another 
considerable variation from the principles of human inflammation, 
which is, that these stitches in the horse, ox, and dog, soon ulcerate 
out, seldom remaining longer than the third or fourth day at far- 
thest. It therefore is the more necessary to be careful, that by 
perfect rest, and the appropriation of good bandages we secure the 
wound from distortion. In this we may be assisted by strips of 
sticking plaster, made with diachylon and pitch; but these strips 
should be guarded from touching the wound itself by means of lint 
or tow first put over it. When in addition to laceration in a wound, 
there is a destruction of substance, then the caution of washing will 
not apply, as it will be necessary to bathe with some warming spirit, 
as, tincture of myrrh, tincture of aloes, or friar's balsam, to assist in 
restoring the life of the part, and in preventing mortification 
Bleeding must be stopped by pressure and astringents, as powdered 
alum; when it is very considerable the vessel from whence the 
blood comes must be taken up. When great inflammation follows 
wounds or bruises, counteract it by bleeding, a cooling temperature, 
pening medicines, and continual fomentations to the part itself 

Balls and Drinks. 

111. Mode of giving a ball. Bac.t the horse in his stall, \nd 
heing elevated on a stool, (not ;i bucket turned upside down,) gently 
draw the tongue out of the mouth, so as to prevent its rising to 
resist the passage of the hand : the tongue should however not bo 
laid hold of alone, but it should be held firmly by the fingers of the 
ieft hand against the jaw. The ball previously oiled should be 
»aken into the right hand, which should be squeezed into as narrow 
o shape as possible, must be passed up close to the roof of the mouth. 
«nd the ball placed on the root of the tongue, when botn hands 
»>eing withdrawn, it will readily pass down. This mod« is much 
oroferable, wher* a person is at all handy, to using a bailing iron. 


112. Mode of giving a drink. Exactly the same process is pm 
sued, except that a horn holding tlie liquid matter is forced up the 
mouth ; the passage being raised beyond the level line, the liquid is 
poured out from the larger end of the horn, and when the tongue ia 
loosened it is swallowed. Clark, however, ingeniously proposes to 
substitute the smaller end of the horn, the larger being closed, by 
which, he says, the horn can be forced up the mouth between the 
teeth, and poured farther back so as to ensure its not returning. 

Fomentations and Poultices. 

113. Fomentations are very commonly recommended of varioua 
herbs, as rime, chamomile, St. John's wort, wormwood, bay leaves. 
&.c. but the principal virtue is tu be found in warmth and moisture, 
which unload the vessels ; but this warmth ought not to be too con. 
siderable, except when the inflammation is within, as in inflamed 
bowels. Here we foment to stimulate the skin, and cannot foment 
too hot; but when we do it at once to an inflamed part, it ought not 
to be more than of blood heat ; and it should be continued long, and 
when removed the part should be dried or covered, or cold may be 
taken, and the inflammation increased instead of diminished. Ano 
dyne fomentations are made of poppy heads and of tobacco, and ar9 
frequently of great use. 

1 1 4. The method, of applying fomentations is conveniently done by 
means of two large woollen cloths wrung out of the heated liquors., 
us one is cooling the other should be ready to be applied. 

115. Poultices act in the same way as fomentations in allaying 
irritation and inflammation ; but are in other respects more conve 
nient because they act continually. It is an error to suppose that 
ooultices, to be beneficial, should be very hot ; however hot they 
•na* be applied, they soon become of the temperature of the sur- 
rounding parts. When poultices are applied to the extremities, a 
stocking, as has been before stated, is a convenient method of appli- 
cation. When it is drawn over the leg and bound around the lower 
part of the hoof, or of the pastern, or otherwise, tne mattei of the 
poultice may be put within, and it may be then kept in its situation, 
if high up on the extremity, by means of tape fastened to one part 
vf it, and passed ovei the withers or back to the other side, and 
■gain fastened to the stocking. In this way, also, loose oanuagei 
:nay be retained from slipping. Cold poultices are often useful uj 
the inflammations arising from strains, &-c. In these cases bruu 
a^d goulard water furm a convenient medium; but when the ooui 



tine it* necessarily hot, a uttle linseed metl added to the bran wtl 
render it adhesive, and give it consistence. It is a very necessary 
caution in this, as in every instance where bandages are wanted 
around the extremities, to have them broad, and only so tight as to 
•ecure the matters contained, as in a poultice, or as in common 
bandaging. It is often supposed that " as strong as a horse," de. 
notes that nothing can be too strong for him, nor any means too 
violent to hurt him. The horse, on the contrary, is one 01 the 
most tender animals alive : and a string tied very tight round the 
ieg would occasion first a falling off of the hoc f, next a mortification 
of the rest of the limb, and lastly the death of the animal ; ana 
all this as certainly as though he were shot with a bullet through 
tne head. 

Setons and Rowels. 

116. Scions are often useful in keeping up a drain to draw what 
are termed humours from parts ; or by their irritations on one part, 
they lessen the inflammation in another part not very remote, as 
when applied to the cheek for ophthalmia or inflamed eyes. They 
also in the same way lessen old swellings by exciting absorption. 
Another useful action they have is to make a dependent or conve- 
nient orifice for the escape of lodged matter: thus a seton passed 
from the upper pai cf the opening of pole evil, through the upper 
pait ot the integunrents of the neck, as low as the sinuses run, will 
often eltect a cure without further application. The same with fistu- 
lous withers, wnich sometimes run under the shoulder blade, and 
appear at the arm point; in which case a blunt seton needle, of 
sufficient length to be passed down to that point, and to be then cut 
down upon, will form the only efficient mode of treatment. Seton? 
may be passed in domestic farriery, with a common packing needle 
and a skein of thread, or piece of tape : but in professional farriery 
they are made by a proper needle armed with tar. i or lamp cotton, 
or skeins of thread or silk smeared over with d.gestive ointment 
When the seton needle is removed, the ends of the tape should 
be joined together, or otherwise notted, to prevent them from 
coming out. 

11 7. Rowels in thf-ir intention act as setons, and as imitating a 
.arger surface, so when a general drain is required they act better , 
is in case of grease, &c. but when their action is confined to a part 
only, setons are more convenient. Any person may applv a rowei 
by making an incision in the loose skin about an inch separating 
with the finger its adherence around,. and then inseiting in the 


opening a piece of round leather, with a hole in the middle, smear*:} 
with a blistering ointment. Then plug the opening with tow, and 
in three days, when the suppuration has begun, remove it. Tlw 
rowel leather is afterwards to be daily removed and c'jeaned. 

Blistering and Firing. 

118. Blistering answers the same purposes as setons, and is prac. 
tised by first cutting or shaving the hair from the part, when the 
blistering ointment (Vet. Pha. 138.) should be well rubbed in for 
ten minutes, or a quarter of an hour. Some of the ointment after 
the rubbing may be smeared over the part The head of the horse 
should now be tied up to prevent his gnaw mg or licking. If a neck 
cradle be at hand, it may also for safety be put on ; in which the 
head may be let down the third day. 

119. A neck cradle for blistered horses is very convenient for 
ether occasions also, when the mouth is to be kept from licking or 
biting other parts ; or to keep other parts from being rubbed agains* 
♦he head. It is of very simple construction, and may be made by a 
tozen pieces of wood of about an inch and half diameter, as old 
Droom handles, &c. These bored at each end admit a rope to pass 
through ; and as each is passed on, a knot may be tied to the upper 
part of the pieces of the cradle, two inches apart; and those which 
form the lower part, four inches ; by which means the neck will bo 
fitted by the cradle when it is put on ; and the horse will be pre. 
rented from bending his head to lick or gnaw parts to be protected. 
When the lower parts of the legs, particularly the hinder, required 
blistering, it is necessary to bear in mind that in gross full horses, 
particularly in autumn, grease is very apt to follow blistering; and 
almost certainly if the back of the heels below the fetlock be blis. 
tered. First, therefore, smear this part over with lard or suet, and 
afterwards avoid touching it with the ointment. After blistering in 
summer, the horse is often turned out before the blistered parts ai« 
quite sound ; in this case guard them from flies by some kind o, 
covering, or they may become fly-blown : and likewise on the fourth 
or fifth day rub into the blistered part some oil or lard to prevent thfl 
akin from cracking. 

120. Sweating or liquid blisters, (Vet. Pha. 142,) are only more 
jrontle stimulants, which are daily applied to produce the same 
effects on a diseased part without removing the hair. Of course less 
activity is expected ; yet as the action is repeated, they are often 
more beneficial even than blistering itself; as in old strains tnc' 


121 Firing, as requiring the assistance of an experienced prac- 
titioner, we shall not describe; it will be prudent only to point eui 
that it is a more active mode of blistering; and that it acts very 
powerfully as a stimulant, not only while its effects last as blisters 
do, but also after its escharotic effect is over, by its pressure ; and 
in this way it is that it operates so favourably in bony exostosis, as 
splints and spavins ; and in this way it is so useful in old ligamentary 
weaknesses; because by lessening the dilatability of the skin it 
becomes a continual bandage to the part. 

Chjstcmng and Physicking. 

122. Clystering should always be preceded by back-raking, whicL 
consists in oiling one hand and arm, and passing them up the fun- 
dament, and by that means to remove all the dung balls that can be 
reached. The large pewter syringe for clystering, is neither a useful 
or safe machine. A much better consists in a turned box pipe, to 
which may be attached a large pig or ox bladder, by which four or 
five quarts of liquid can be administered at one time. (Vet. Pharin. 
134, to 146.) The pipe should be previously oiled, by which means* 
it passes more easily : the liquor should then be steadily pressed up; 
and when the pipe is removed, the tail should be held down over 
the fundament a little to prevent the return of the clyster. In some 
cases of a spasmodic nature, as gripes and locked jaw, great force 
is made by the bowels to return the clyster, and nothing but con- 
tinued pressure over the fundament can enable it to be retained. 
Clysters not only act in relaxing the bowels, but they may be used 
as means of nutriment when it cannot be taken by the mouth ; as 
in locked jaw, wounds of the mouth, throat, &c. &<c. In locked 
jaw, it was observed by Gibson, that he kept a horse alive many 
days by clysters alone ; and by clysters also, many medicines may 
be given more conveniently than by the mouth. 

123. Physicking of horses. It is equally an error to refrain 
altogether from giving horses physic, as it is to give it on every 
occasion, as some do. Neither is it necessary for horses to be bled 
and physicked every spring and autumn, if they be in perfect 
health, and the less so, as at this time they are generally weak and 
r aint from the change going on in their coats — nor is it always 
necessary to give to horses physic when they come from grass or a 
straw yard ; provided the ch inge from the one state to the other be 
very moderately brought about. But on such a removal, it certainly 
expedites all the phenomena of condition, (2) and such horses are 

ess likely to fall to pieces, as it is termed afterwards. (3.) In various 
forbid states puys> ^ is uarticularly useful, as in worms, nido bound, 


h-om too full a habit, &c. &c. It is not advisable to physic horses 
in either very cold or very warm weather. Strong physic is aiways 
hurtful ; all that physic can do is as well operated by a mild as by 
a strong dose, with infinitely less hazard. No horse should be 
physicked whose bowels have not been previously prepared by 
mashing for two days at least before. By these means the physic 
will work kindly, and a moderate quantity only is requisite. Most 
f the articles put into the purging balls for horses, to assist the 
aloes, are useless. Jalap will not purge a horse, nor rhubarb either. 
Aloes are the only proper drug to be depended on for this purpose, 
and of all the varieties of aloes the socotorine and Cape are the best. 
(Vet. Pha. 163.) Uarbadoes aloes are also not improper, but are 
thought more rough than the socotorine. For formulas of purging 
balls, see Vet. Pha. (163.) Blaine gives the following as the process: 

124. Physicking process. The horse having fasted an hour or two 
in the morning from food, but having had his water as usual, give 
him his purge, and two hours after offer him a little chilled, but not 
warm water, as is often done, by which horses are disgusted from 
taking any ; it may be here remarked that in this particular much 
error is frequently committed. Many horses will drink water with 
the chill taken off', provided it be perfectly clean, and do not smell 
of smoke from the fire, kettle or saucepan ; but few, very few, will 
drink warm or hot water ; and still fewer, if it be in the least degree 
greasy or smoky. After the ball has been given two hours, a warm 
bran mash may be offered, and a very little hay. He should have 
walking exercise as usual moderately clothed ; and altogether he 
should be kept rather warmer than usual. At noon mash again, 
and give a little hay, which should be repeated at night, giving him 
at intervals chilled water. On the following morning the physic 
may be expected to work ; which if it do briskly, keep the horse 
quiet; but should it not move his bowels, or on^y relax them, walk 
hiin quietly half an hour, which will probably have the desired 
effect. Continue ti give mashes and warm water, repeating them 
every two or three hours to support him. When physic gripes a 
horse, give a clyster of warm water, and hand rub the belly, as well 
as walk him out. If the griping prove severe, give him foui ounces 
of gin in half a pint of strong ale, which will soon relieve him. On 
the next day the physic will probably set, but should it continue to 
v> ork him se\erely, pour down some boiled starch; and if this fail, 
turn to the directions under diarrhooa. (52.) The horse shoi Id return 
to his jsual habits of feeding and full exercise by degrees; and i* 
n*ore than one dose is to be given, a week should intervene. It is 
often lequisite to make the socund and third doses ralher stronger 


inan the first. A very mild dose of physic is likewise often aiven 
:o horses while at grass in very warm weather, and without any 
injury. When worms, or skin foulness are present, and mercuna*. 
physic is deemed necessary, it is better to' give two drachms o» 
calomel in a mash the previous night, than to put it into the pur 
ging ball. 

Castration, Nicking, Docking, fyc. 

125. The operations of castration, docking, nicking, aud that qj 
cropping, (which is seldom practised,) all require the assistance o\ 
a veterinary surgeon ; and it is only necessary to remark of them, 
that the after treatment must be the same as in all other wounds 
To avoid irritation, to preserve a cool temperature and a moderate 
diet ; and if active febrile symptoms make their appearance, to 
obviate them by bleeding, &-c. &c. It likewise is proper to direct 
the attention of the agriculturist who attends to these matters him- 
self, that the moment the wound following any of these operations 
looks otherwise than healthy, locked jaw is to be feared, and no time 
should be lost in seeking the best assistance that can be obtained 
(11.) See Mason, p. 148. 


126. Bleeding is a very common, and to the horse a very impor- 
tant operation, because his inflammatory diseases, on account of the 
great strength of his arterial system, run to a fatal termination very 
soon and can only be checked in the rapidity of their progress by 
abstracting blood, which diminishes the momentum of circulation. 
Bleeding is more particularly important in the inflammatory dis- 
eases of the horse ; because we cannot, as in the human, lower the 
circulation by readily nauseating the stomach. Bleeding also lessens 
irritation, particularly in the young and plethoric, or those of full 
habit: hence we bleed in spasms of the bowels, in locked jaw, &,c. 
with good effect. Bleeding is general or topical. General as from 
the neck, when we mean to lessen the general momentum. Topical 
when we bleed from a particular part, as the eye, the plate vein, the 
toe, &-c. Most expert practitioners use a large lancet to bleed with ; 
and when the habit of using it is acquired, it is. by far Mie best 
instrument, particularly for superficial veins where a blow might 
«*rry the fleam through the vessel. In common hands the fleam as 
the more general instrument is best adapted to the usr,al cases 
lequiring the agriculturists notice. Care should, however, be taken 
not to stiike it with vehemence, and the hair being first wotted and 
wnoethed down, it should be pressed close between the hairs, so 


thut its progress may not be impeded by tbem. A ligatuie should 
be first passed round the neck, and a hand held over the eye, unless 
the operator be very expert, when the use of the fingers will dispense 
with the ligature. The quantity of blood taken is usually too small. 
In inflammatory diseases, a large horse, particularly in the early 
stage of a complaint, will bear to lose eight or ten quarts : and hali 
the quantity may be taken away two or three times afterwards, 'il 
the violence of the symptoms seem to require it; and the blood 
should be drawn in a large stream to do all the good it is capable of. 
After the bleeding is finished introduce a sharp pin, and avoid 
drawing the skin away from the vein while pinning, which lets the 
blood escape between the vein and skin ; wrap round a piece of tow 
or hemp, and next day remove the pin, which might otherwise 
inflame the neck. In drawing blood let it always be measured ; 
letting it fall on the ground prevents the ascertaining the quantity ; 
it also prevents any observation on the state of the blood ; which if 
it form itself into a cup-like cavity on its surface, and exhibit a 
tough yellow crust over this cavity it betokens an inflammatory 
state of blood that will require further bleedings, unless the weak- 
ness forbid. After the bleeding, it now and then happens from 
rusty lancets, too violent a stroke with the blood stick, or from 
drawing away the skin too much while pinning up, that the orifice 
inflames and hardens, and ichor is seen to ooze out betwe^.i its 
edges. Immediately after this is discovered, recourse must be had 
to an able veterinary surgeon, or the horse will lose the vein, and 
perhaps his life. 

tS@9 — 


127. The following formula for veterinary practice 
have been compiled from the works of the most eminent 
veterinary writers of the present day*, as Blaine, Clark. 
Laurence, Peel, White, &c. ; and we can from our 
own experience also, confidently recommend the selec- 
tion to the notice of agriculturists, and the ownera 
of horses in general. It would be prudent for such as 
have many horses, and particularly for such as live at 
a distance from the assistance of an able veterinarian, 
to keep the more necessary articles by tnem in case 

of emergence : some venders of horse drugs Keep 




veterinary medicine chests : and where the compo- 
sitions can be depended on, and the uncompounded 
drugs are genuine and good, one of these is a most 
convenient appendage to every stable. 

128. The veterinary phaj^macopceia for oxen, calves 
and sheep has been included in the arrangement. 
Where any speciality occurs, or where distinct recipes 
are requisite, they have been carefully noticed ; it will 
therefore only be necessary to be kept in mind, that 
with the exception of acrid substances, as mineral 
acids, &c. which no cattle can bear with equal impu- 
nity with the horse ; the remedies prescribed require 
about the following proportions : A large ox will bear 
the proportions of a moderate sized horse ; a moderate 
sized cow something less ; a calf about a third of 
the quantity ; and a sheep about a quarter, or at most 
a third of the proportions directed for the cow. It is 
also to be remarked, that the degrees in strength in 
the different recipes, are usually regulated by their 
numbers, the mildest standing first. 

129. Alteratives. 
Levigated antimony, 2 drachms. 
Cream of tartar, 

Flour of sulphur, each half an 

Cream of tartar, 
Nitre, of each half a* ounce. 

iEthiop's mineral, 
Levigated antimony, 
Powdered resin, each three 

Give in a mash, or in oats and 
bran, a little wetted, every night, 
or make into a ball with honey. 



Tonic Alteratives. 



Blue vitriol, in powder, of each 

1 drachm, 
Oak bark in powder, 6 drachms. 

Winter's bark in powder, three 

Green vitriol, do. one and a half 

Gentian, do. three drachms. 

Make either of these into a 
ball with honey, and give every 


White vitriol, 1 drachm, 
Ginger or pimento, ground,, two 

Powdered quassia half an ounctv 
Ale 8 ounces. 

Mix and give as a drink. 




A.r*cnic, 10 grains, 
Oatmeal, 1 ounce. 

Mix and give in a mash, or 
moiniened oats nightly. 

131. Astringent Mixtures for 
Diarrhoea, Lax or Scouring. 


Powdered ipecacuanha, one 

Do. opium, half a drachm, 
Prepared chalk, 2 ounces, 
Boiled starch, 1 pint. 

Suet 4 ounces, hoiled in 
Milk, 8 ounces, 
Boiled starch, 6 ounces, 
Powdered alum, 1 drachm. 

The following has been very 
strongly recommended in some 
cases, tor the lux of horses and 

Glauber's salts 2 ounces, 
Epsom do. 1 ounce, 
Green vitriol 4 grains, 
Gruel, half a pint. 

When the lax or scouring at 
all approaches to dysentery or 
molten grease, the following 
drink should be first given. 

Castor oil, 4 ounces, 
Glauber's salts, dissolved, two 

Powdered rhubarb, half a drachm, 
Powdered opium, 4 grains, 
Gruel, 1 pint. 

132. Astringent balls fin Dia- 
betes or pissing evil. 

Catechu, [Japan earth] half an 

Alum powdered, half a drachm, 
Sugar of lead, 10 grains, 

Conserve of roses, to ma-ke a 

133. Astringent paste for thrush, 
foot-rtt, foul in the f oot. <J-c. ' 

Prepared calamine, 

Verdigris, of each half an ounce, 

White vitriol, 

Alum, of each half a drachm. 

Tar, 3 ounces . mix 

134. Astringent washes for crack* 
in the heels, wounds, tyc. 


Sugar of lead, 2 drachms, 
White vitriol, 1 drachm, 
Strong infusion of oak, or elm 
bark, 1 pint : mix. 


Green vitriol, 1 drachm, 
Infusion of galls, half a pint, 

Mix and wash the parts three 
times a day. 

135. Powder for Cracks, $c. 
Prepared calamine, 1 ounce, 
Fuller's earth, powdered, 
Pipe clay, do. of each 2 ounces, 

Mix and put within gauze, and 
dab the moist surfaces of tire 
sores frequently. 

136. Astringent Paste for Grease 

Prepared calamine, 
Tatty, powdered, 
Charcoal, do. of each 2 ounces, 
Yeast enough to make a paste. 


To the above, if more strength 
be required", add of alum and ver. 
digris each a drachm. 

137. Astringent Washfor do. 


Corrosive sublimate, ^ drachms, 

Spirit of wine or brand) 1 ounce. 

Soft water, 10 ounces. 

Rub the sublimate in a mor- 
tar with the spirit till dissolved, 
then add the water. This is a 
strong preparation and lias often 
proved successful in verv bad 



oases of grease, which have re- 
sisted all the usual remedies. 

138. Blisters. 

1. A general one. 
Cantha rides powdered, 2 ounces, 
Venice turpentine, do. 
Resin, do. 
Palm oil or lard, 2 lbs. 

Melt the three latter articles, 
ogether, and when not too hot 
tir in the Spanish flies. 

• 39- A strong cheap blister, but 
not proper to be used in fevers or 
inflammations, as of the lungs, 
bowels, tyc. 
Euphorbium powdered, 1 ounce, 
Oil of vitriol, 2 scruples, 
Spanish flies, b ounces, 
Palm oil or lard, 
Resin, of each orae pound, 
Oil of turpentine, 3 ounces. 

Melt the resin with the lard 
>r palm oil. Having previously 
nixed the oil of vitriol with an 
Mince of water gradually, as 
gradually add this mixture to the 
nelted mass; which again set on 
i very slow fire for ten minutes 
more : afterwards remove the 
whole, and when beginning to 
cool, add the powders previously 
mixed together. 


i.40. A mercurial blister, for 
splints, spavins, and ring bones. 
Of either of the above, 4 ounces. 
Corrosive sublimate finely pow- 
dered, half a drachm. 


14J. Strong liquid blister. 
Spanish flies, in gross powder, 1 

Oil of origanum, 2 drachms, 
Oil of turpentine, 4 ounces, 
,')hve oil, 2 ounces. 

Steep the flies in the turpentine 
three weeka. strain off and add 
Uio oi 


142. Mild liquid or sweating 

Of the above one ounce, 
Olive oil or goose greas6, on* 
and a half ounces. 

143. Clyster- 1 * 
1. A laxative one. 
Thin gruel or broth, 5 quarts, 
Epsom or common salts 6 ozs. 

144. Clyster for Gripes. 

Mash two moderate sized onions, 
Pour over them oil of turpenf nev 

2 ounces, 
Capsicum or pepper, half an oi 
Thin gruel, 4 quarts. 

145. Nutritious Clyster. 

Thick gruel, three quarts, 
Strong sound ale, one quart. 

Oi 4. 
Strong broth, 2 quarts, 
Thickened milk, 2 quarts. 

146. Astringent Clyster. 

Tripe liquor or suet boiled in 

milk, three pints, 
Thick starch, 2 pints, 
Laudanum, half an ounce. 

Or 6. 
Alum whey, one quart, 
Boiled starch, two quarts. 

U7. Cordial Balls. 
Gentian powdered, 4 ounces, 
Ginger do. 2 ounces, 
Coriander seeds do. 4 ounces, 
Caraway do. 4 ounces, 
Oil of aniseed, quarter of an or 
Make into a mass with honey, 
treacle or lard, and give an ounce 
and a half for a dose. 

148. Chronic Cough Balls 
Ca.omel 1 scruple 



Gum ammoniacum, 

Horse radisli, of each 2 drachms, 

Balsam of Tolu, 

Squills, each one drachm. 

Beat all together, and make 
into a ball with honey, and give 
«very morning fasting. 

149. Drink for the same. 
1 ar water, 

Lime water, of each half a pint, 
Tincture of squills, half an oz. 

150. Powder for the same. 
Tartar emetic, 2 drachms, 
Powdered foxglove, half a 

Powdered squill, half a drachm, 
Calomel, one scruple, 
N.tre 3 drachms. 

Give ever} night in a malt 

151. Diuretic Balls. 
Resin, yellow, 1 pound, 
Nitre half a pound, 
Horse turpentine, half a pound, 
Yellow soap, quarter of a pound. 
Melt the resin, soap, and tur- 
pentine over a slow fire ; when 
cooling add the nitre. For a 
strong dose, an ounce and a 
half, for a mild one an ounce. 
It should be kept in mind, 
that mild diuretics are always 
equal to what is required ; and 
that strong diuretics are always 

152. Diuretic Powders. 
Yellow resin, powdered, 4 ozs. 
Nitre, ditto, 8 ounces, 
Cream of tartar, do. 4 ounces. 

Dose — 6, 8, or lO.drs. nightly, 
which some horses will readily 
eat in a mask 

153. Urine Drink 
Glauber'B salts, two ounces. 

Nitre, 6 drachms. 

Dissolve in a pint of warm 

154. Embrocations — r oo'.irg fot 

Goulard's extract, half an ounce. 
Spirit of wine or brandy 1 ounr*. 
Soft water, 1 quart. 

Mindererus spirit, 4 ounces, 
Water, 12 ounces. 

155. For Strains. 
Bay salt, bruised, half a pound. 
Crude sal ammoniac, 2 ounces, 
Sugar of lead, quarter of an oa 
Vinegar one pint and a half, 
Water, one pint. 

156. For the Eyes. 

Sugar of lead, 1 drachm, 
White vitriol, 2 scruples, 
Water, 1 pint. 

Brandy, 1 ounce, 
Infusion of green tea, 4 ounces 
Tincture of opium, 2 drachms, 
Infusion of red roses, 4 ounces 

Rose water, 6 ounces, 
Mindererus spirit, 3 ounces. 

Corrosive sublimate, 4 grains, 
Alcohol, 1 ounce, 
Lime water, 1 pint. 

Alum, powdered, 1 drachm, 
Calomel, half a drachm. 

Mix and insert a little at on* 
corner of the eye. The custom 
of blowing r m alarms the horse 

157 Fever Powders. 

Tartar emetic, 2 drachms, 
Nitre, 5 drachms. 

Antimo lial powder, Q draennta, 



Cream of tartar, 

Nitre, of each four drachms. 

158. Fever Drink. 
Sweet spirit of nitre, 1 ounce, 
Mmdererus spirit, G ounces, 
Water, 4 ounces. 

J ">9. Epidemic Fever Drink. 
©weet spirit of nitre, 1 ounce, 
Simple oxymel, G ounces, 
Tartar emetic, 3 drachms. 

1G0 Malignant Epidemic Fever. 

Simple oxymel, 
Mmdererus spirit, 
Beer yeast, of each 4 ounces, 
Sweet spirit of nitre, I ounce. 

161. Fumigations for purifying 

infected stables, sheds, ij-c. 
Manganese, 2 ounces, 
Common salt, do. 
Oil of vitriol, 3 ounces, 
Water, 1 ounce. 

Put the mixed manganese and 
salt into a bason ; then, having 
before mixed the vitriol and wa- 
ter very gradually, pour them 
by means of tongs, or any thing 
rhat will enable you to stand at 
a sufficient distance, on the ar- 
ticles in the bason gradually. 
As soon as the fumes rise, retire 
and snut up the door close. 

1G2. Hoof Liquid. 
Oil of turpentine, 4 ounces, 
1 ar, 4 ounces, 
Whale oil, 6 ounces. 

This softens and toughens the 
hoofs extremely, when brushed 
over them iujfht and morning. 

1G3 Purging Medicines. 
Halls — very mild. 
Aloe? powdered, 6 drachms, 
Oil o'" turpentine, 1 drachm 

Aloes, powdered, 8 drachms 
Oil of turpentine, 1 drachm. 

Aloes, powdered, 10 drachms, 
Oil of turpentine, 1 drachm. 

The aloes may be beaten with 
treacle to a mass, adding, during 
the beating, the oil of turpen- 
tine. All spices, cream of tar. 
tar, oil of tartar, jalap, &,c. are 
useless, and often hurtful addi- 

1G4. Liquid Purge. 
Epsom salts, dissolved, 8 ozs. 
Castor oil, 4 ounces, 
Watery tincture of aloes, 8 ozs. 

Mix — The watery tincture of 
aloes is made by beating pow- 
dered aloes with the yelk of 
egg, adding water by degrees , 
by these means half an ounce 
of aloes may be suspended in 
8 ounces of water, and such a 
purge is useful when a ball can- 
not be got down, as in partial 
locked jaw. 

165. Scalding Mixture for Poll 

Corrosive sublimate, finely pow 

dered, 1 drachm, 
Yellow basilicon, 4 ounces. 

1GG. Foot Stoppings. 

Horse and cow dung, each about 

% Z pounds. Tar, half a pound. 

1G7. Wash for coring out, d*. 

straying fungus, or proud flesh, 

#c. $c. 
Lunar caustic one drachm. 
Water, 2 ounces. 

168. Wash for Mang* 
Corrosive sublimate, 2 drachms* 
Spirit of wine or brandy, 1 oa. 
Decoction of tobacco, 
Do. of white Iietefoore, ot eacn I 



Dissolve the mercury in the 
rpirit, and then add tho decoc- 

169. Ointments for healing. 
Turner's cerate, two ounces, 
White vitriol powdered, half a 

Lard, 4 ounces. 

170. For Digesting. 
Turner's cerato, two ounces, 
White vitriol, 1 drachm, 
Yellow basilicon, 5 ounces* 

171. For Mange. 
Sulphur vivum, 8 ounces, 
Arsenic in powder, 2 drachms. 
Mercurial ointment, 2 ounces, 
Turpentine, 2 ounces, 
Lard, 8 ounces. 

Mix, and dress with every 

172. For Scab or Shab in Sheep 
Mallenders and Sellenders in 
Horses, and foul blotches and 
eruptions in cattle in general. 

Camphor, 1 drachm, 

Sugar of lead, half a drarchm, 

Mercurial ointment 1 ounce. 




173. Cattle are subject to some very dangerous dis- 
eases, but as their life is less artificial, and their struc- 
ture less complex, they are not liable to the variety of 
aliments which affect the horse. The general pathology 
of the horse and ox being little different, the funda- 
mental rules for veterinary practice, and the requisite 
medicines, when not particularized, will be found in the 
Veterinary Pharmacopoeia, already given. (126.) 

174. Mild fever, pantas or pantasia. Cattle sometimes appear 
affected with heat, redness of the nostrils and eyelids ; they refuse 
fjod, are dull, evacuate and stale with difficulty ; and the urine la 
nigh coloured. These symptoms are often aggravated every other 
day, giving it the appearance of intermittent affection. The com- 
plaint is often brought on by over driving in very hot weather, occa- 
sionally by pushing their fattening process too fast. If there be no 
appearance of malignancy, and the heaving be considerable, bleed, 
and give half an ounce of nitre in a drink night and morning; but 
unless the weather be cold do not house the animal. 

175. Inflammatory fever is called among farriers, cow-leeches, 
*nn graxiers, by the various names of black quarter, joint felon, 


quartor esil, quarter ill, showing of blood, joint murrain, striking 
m of the blood, &c. Various causes may bring this on. It is some- 
times epidemic, and at others it seems occasioned by a sudden 
change from low to very full keeping. Over driving has brought it on. 
No age is exempt from it, but the yoUng oftener have it than the 
mature. Its inflammatory stage continues but a few days, and 
shows itself by a dull heavy countenance, red eyes and eyelids : the 
nostrils are also red, and a slight mucus flows from them. The 
pulse is peculiarly quick ; the animal is sometimes stupid, at others 
watchful, particularly at first ; and in some instances irritable. — ■ 
The appetite is usually entirely lost at .the end of the second day, 
and the dung and urine either stop altogether, or the one is hard 
and the other is red. About the third day a critical deposit takes 
place, which terminates the inflammatory action : and it is to the 
various parts on which this occurs, that the disease receives its 
various names. The deposit is, however, sometimes universal, in 
the form of a bloody suffusion throughout the whole skin In 
others, swellings from the joints, or on the back or belly ; and in 
fact, no part is exempt from their attack. Sometimes the animal 
swells generally or partially, and the air being suffused under the 
skin, crackles to the feel. After any of these appearances have 
come on, the disease assumes a very malignant type, and is highly 

176. Treatment of inflammatory fever. Before the critical abscess 
form, or at the very outset of the disease, bleed liberally, and purge 
also: give likewise a fever drink (158.) If, however, the disease be 
not attended to, in this early stage, carefully abstain from bleeding 
or even purging : but instead, throw up clysters of warm water and 
6alt to empty the bowels, and in other respects treat as detailed 
under malignant epidemic. (15.) It may be added, that four drachms 
of muriatic acid, in three pints of oak bark decoction, given twice 
a day, has proved useful. The swellings themselves may be washed 
with warm vinegar both before and after they burst. 

177 Catarrh or influenza in cattle, also known by the nan.e ol 
felon, is only a more mild form of the next disease. Even in this 
mild lorm it is sometimes epidemic, or prevalent among numbers, 
or endemical by being local. Very stormy wet weather, changing 
frequently, and greatly also in its temperature, are common causes. 
We have seen it brought on by change of food from good to oaa , 
and from too close pasturage. It first appears by a defluxion irmn 
the nose; the nostrils and the eyelids are red; the animal heives, 
is tucked up in the flanks, and on the third day he loses the c\\A 


There is a distressing and painful cough, and not unfrequ&ntly a 
Bore throat also, in which case the beast almost invariably holds 
down his head. The treatment does not at all differ from that 
directed under the same disease in horses (13.) Bleeding only tho 
first two days, carefully sheltering, but in an open airy place, lit- 
tering well up. 

178. The malignant epidemic influenza is popularly called mur- 
ain or pest; and has at various times made terrible havoc among 
•rattle. Ancient history affords ample proof of its long existence, 
and by the accounts handed down, it does not seem to have varied 
its types materially. In 1757 it visited Britain, producing extreme 
fatality among the kine. From 1710 to 1714 it continued to rage 
on the continent with unabated fury, (Lancisiss Disputaiio His- 
torica de Bovilla Peste.) The years 1730 and 1731, and from 1744 
to 1746, witnessed its attack, and produced many written descrip. 
tions of it, among which stands pre-eminent that of Sauvages, thd 
celebrated professor of medicine, at Montpelier. The British visi- 
tation of the malady in 1757, elicited an excellent work from the per 
of Dr. Layard, a physician of London, which was afterwards trans- 
lated into several languages. 

179. Symptoms of the murrain. Dr. Layard describes it as coro 
mencing by a difficulty of swallowing, and itching of the ear* 
shaking of the head, with excessive weakness and staggering gait 
which occasions a continual desire to lie down. A sanious fcetir 
discharge invariably appears from the nostrils, and eyes also.— 
The cough was frequent and urgent. Fever, exacerbiating, par 
ticularly at night, when it usually produced quickened pulse.— 
There was constant scouring of green foetid dung after the firsi 
two days, which tainted every thing around, even the breath, per 
spiration, and urine were highly foetid. Little tumours or boils wer« 
very commonly felt under the skin, and if about the seventh oi 
ninth day these eruptions become larger, and boils or buboes appeal 
with lessened discharge of faeces, they proved critical and the animal 
often recovered ; but if on the contrary, the scouring continued, and 
the breath became cold, and the mouth dark in colour, he inform? 
us mortality followed. Sauvages describes the murrain as showing 
ttself by trembling, cold shivers, nose excorated with an acid dis. 
c-harge from it ; purging after the first two days, but previous to 
which there was often costiveness. Great tenderness about tho 
spine and withers was also a characteristic, with emphysema, or a 
b'owmg up of the skin by air discharged underneath it 


tyO. Dissections of those that have died of this disease, accordinp 
to Sauvagcs, have shown marks of great inflammation, and of a 
great putrid tendency ; but the solid parts seldom ran into gan- 
grene. The fluid secretions however, always were sufficiently 
dissolved and broken down by putridity. The paunch, he says, 
was usually filled with undigested matter, and the other stomachs 
highly inflamed : the gall bladder was also commonly distended, 
with acrid thick brown bile. Goelich, who likewise dissected 
these subjects, describes the gall as particularly profuse and in- 
tolerably foetid. According to him, the whole alimentary canal, 
from the mouth to the anus was excorated ; and Lancisi, contrary 
to Sauvages, found the viscera of the chest and belly, in some ^ases 
sphacelated and gangrenous. Gazola describes the murrain as 
accompanied with pustulous sores ; and so great was the putrid 
tendency, that even the milk, before it dried up, which it usually 
did before the fourth day, became foetid. 

181. The treatment of the murrain. In the very early stages, all 
eminent authors recommend bleeding ; but which should not only 
be confined to the very early periods, as to the two first days ; but 
also to such subjects as by their previous health and condition can 
oear it. The animals should be placed in an open airy place ; the 
litter should be frequently renewed ; and the place itself should be 
fumigated with the preventative fumigation. (161.) It has been 
recommended to burn green boughs with pitch as a substitute 
even charcoal fires occasionally carried around the place would be 
useful. Dr. Layard advises the body to be washed with aromatic 
herbs in water ; but vinegar would have been better. In early 
stages, saline purgatives, as from ten to twenty ounces of Epsom 
salts are to be invariably used. If the scouring have already come 
on, still, however, purge; but with only half the quantity; an arti- 
ficial purge will carry off the morbid bile ; and if excessive weakness 
do not come on, the same may be advantageously repeated. Setons 
are also recommended in the dewlap. When abscess appear, they 
may be opened, and their contents discharged, washing the wound 
with brandy or vinegar, if putrid sloughing takes place. The cm. 
physematous swellings or cracklings, may also be opened, and Iho 
air discharged. The other essentials of medical treatment, a9 
detailed under malignant epidemic among horses, is here applicable 
in every particular. When recovery takes place, it is usually a 
very slow process, and requires care to prevent other diseases super- 
vening. The animal should continue to be housed, and neither 
exposed to sun or wind for some time, and the feeding should l>e 
nutritious The following infallible cure of the bloody murrain ill 


cattle, was given by Mr. Jones, of Gloucester county, Va. to Mr. 
Beniamin Harrison, of Charles City County, Va. — " A quart of tho 
infusion of cedar berries, (containing about half a pint of the ber- 
ries) was given at a time, and in nearly every case tbe good effects 
were almost instantaneous : a considerable discharge from the 
bladder and bowels followed, and in five or ten minutes time, the 
animal began to eat. In nineteen cases out of twenty a perfect 
cure was effected. It may be necessary to repeat the drench foia 
or live times." 

132. The prevention of the murrdin, or the prevention cf ila 
epreading, in many respects is even more important than its medical 
treatment. Where it has already appeared, all the out-buildings, 
but particularly the ox-lodges or stalls, should be daily fumigated 
with the preventive fumigation (1GI ;) and, even the whole of the 
infected districts should have frequent fires of green wood made ir? 
the open air, and every such district should be put under rigorous 
quarantine. The cattle on every farm should be carefelly examined 
three or four times every day, and the moment one is found to droop, 
he should be removed to a distance from the others. In very bad 
weather, while it is prevalent, the healthy cattle should be housed, 
and particularly well fed ; and their pastures should also be changed. 
The bodies of those who die of the disease should be buried with 
their skins on, very deep in the earth, and quick lime should be 
strewed over them. — Prevention — Mr. VVm. Minge, (of James 
River, Va.) recommends tho u >e of a mixture of clay, salt, (in the 
common proportion for slock) tar and powdered brimstone. For 
fifty head, one gallon of tar and half a pound of brimstone, per week, 
put in a trough to which the cattle had free access. The disease, 
it appears, is endemic in Virginia, particularly in the districts bor 
dering on tide water. 

183. Phrenzy fever, or inflammation of the brain, called also 
cough, now and then, but by no means frequently, attacks cattle 
The symptoms differ but little from those which attack horses.— 
The treatment must be exactly similar. 

184. Inflammation of the lungs occasionally occurs in cattle, in 
which also the symptoms, progress, and proper treatment, are similar 
lo those detailed under that head in horse pathology (31.) 

185. Inflammation of the stomach sometimes occurs from poison, 
mis matters ; and in such cases, when the nature of the poison ia 
discovered, the treatment detailed under poiscn in horse pathology 


mUdt be pursued. Bat there is a species of iudigesljon, to which 
cattle are liable in the spring, from eating voraciously of the young 
sprouts of wood; to wliich some woods are more conducive thar 
others. The symptoms are heat, thirst, costiveness, lessened urine, 
quick and hard pulse, with heat and redness in the mouth and not3e; 
the belly is hard and painful, and the stools, when they appear, are 
covered with glare. When the mouth and nose discharge a serous 
fluid, the animal usually dies. 

186. Treatment. Bleed at first, open the bowels by saline pur- 
gatives (164.) After this give large quantities of nitrated water, and 
clyster also largely. 

187 The hove or blown in cattle is also an inflammatory affec- 
tion of the paunch, ending in paralysis and rupture of its substance. 
From the frequency of its occurrence, it has become a subject ol 
investigation with almost every rational grazier, and a particular 
matter of inquiry with every agricultural body ; from whence it is 
now very successfully treated by the usual attendants on cattle, 
when skilful ; but when otherwise, it usually proves fatal. It is 
observed to be more frequent in warm weather and when the grass 
is wet. When either oxen, cows, or sheep, meet with any food, 
they are particularly fond of, or of which they have been long 
deprived, as potatoes, turnips, the different grasses, particularly red 
clover ; they eat greedily, and forget to lie-down to ruminate ; by 
which means the first stomach or paunch, becomes so distended a? 
to be incapable of expelling its contents. From this inflammation 
follows, and fermentation begins to take place : a large quantity ol 
air is let loose, which still adds to the distention, till the stomach 
cither bursts, or by its pressure on the diaphragm, the animal is» 
suffocated. This situation of the beast is known by the uneasiness 
and general swelling of the abdomen ; with the circumstances ol 
the animal being found with such food, or the presumption that i» 
has met with it. 

188. Treatment. There are three modes of relieving the com 
olaint, which may be adverted to according to the degree ol 
distention, and length of time it has existed. These are internal 
medicines; the introduction of a probnng^ of some kind into the 
f-aunch by the throat: and the puncturing it by the sides. Dr. 
Whyatt of Edinburgh, is said to have cured eighteen out of twenty 
hovod cows, by giving a pint of gin to each. Oil, by condensing 
the air, has been successfully tried. Any other Rub&tanue also, thai 
has a strong power of absorbing air, may be advantageously given- 


Common salt and water, made strongly saline, is a usual country 
remedy. New milk, with a proportion of tar equal to one-sixth o. 
tho milk, is highly spoken of. A strong solution of prepared am. 
monia in water often brings off a great quantity of air, and relieves 
the animal. Any of these internal remedies may be made use of 
when the hoven has recently taken place, and is not in a violent 
degree. But wksn otherwise, the introduction of an instrument is 
proper, and is now very generally resorted to. The one principally 
in use is a species of probang, invented by Dr. Munro, of Edinburgh 
Another consisting of a cane of six feet in length, and of con 
siderable diameter, having a bulbous knob of wood, has been invented 
by Eager, which is a more simple machine, but hardly so effica- 
cious. It is probable that in cases of emergency, even the larger 
end of a common cart whip, dexterously used, might answer the 
end. But by far the best instrument for relieving hoven cattle, as 
well as for clystering them, is Read's enema apparatus, which is 
alike applicable to horses, cattle, and dogs. It consists of a syringe, 
to which tubes of different kinds are applied, according to the pur- 
pose, and the kind of animal to be operated upon. There is a long 
flexible tube for giving an enema to horses and cattle, and a smaller 
one for dogs. To relieve hoven bullocks effectually, it is necessary 
not only to free the stomach from an accumulation of gas, but from 
the fermenting pultaceous mixture which generates it ; for this pur, 
pose a tube is applied to the extremity of the syringe, and then 
passed into the animal's stomach, through the mouth, and being 
put in action, the offending matter is discharged by a side opening 
When the same operation is performed on sheep, a smaller tube is 
made use of. The characteristic excejlency of Read's instrument, 
is, that there is no limit to the quantity of fluid that may not be 
injected or extracted. The same syringe is used for extracting 
poison from the stomach of man, for smoking insects, extinguishing 
fires, and syringing fruit trees. The introduction of any of these 
instruments may be effected by the help of an assistant, who should 
hold the horn of the animal by one hand and the dividing cartilage 
of the nose with the other ; while the operator himself, taking the 
tongue in his left hand, employs his right in skilfully and carefully 
introducing the instrument; the assistant bringing tho head and 
neck into such an attitude as to make the passage nearly straight, 
which will greatly facilitate the operation. But when no instru. 
ments can be procured, or as cases may occur when indeed it is not 
auvisable to try them, as when the disease has existed a considerable 
tune, or the animal has become outrageous, or the stomach so much 
distended with air that there is danger of immediate suffocation 01 
bursting ; in these instances the puncture of the maw must L« 


instantly performed, which is called paunching. This may be dono 
with the greatest ease ; midway between the illium or haunch Done, 
and the last rib of the left side, to which the paunch inclines ; a 
sharp pen-knife is frequently used, and persons in veterinary prac- 
tice should always keep a long trochar ; which will be found much 
the most efficacious, and by fur the most safe, as it permits the air 
escaping certainly and quickly, at the same time that it prevents its 
entrance into the cavity of the abdomen, which would occasion an 
equal distention. As soon as the air is perfectly evacuated, and the 
paunch resumes its office, the trochar may be removed ; and in what- 
ever way it is done, the wound should be carefully closed with 
sticking plaster or other adhesive matter. It is necessary to observe, 
that this operation is so safe, that whenever a medical assistant 
cannot be obtained, no person should hesitate a moment about doing 
it himself. After relief has been afforded, a stimulant drink may 
yet be very properly given, such as half a pint of common gin ; or 
one ounce of spirit of hartshorn in a pint of ale ; or two ounces of 
spirit of turpentine in ale, may any of them be used as an assistant 
stimulus. When also the cud is again chewed, still some relaxation 
of the digestive organs may remain; at first, therefore, feed spar 
ingly and give for a few mornings a tonic. [130 No. l.J 

189. Inflammation of the bowels, or red colic, is by no means 
unknown in cattle pathology; the symptoms of which do not differ 
from those common to the horse, and the treatment also, is in every 
respect the same. (45.) 

190. Inflammation of the liver, or hot yellows, sometimes occur, 
in which case, in addition to the symptoms detailed under hepatitis 
in the horse (58,) there is, from the presence of systic bile in the ox, 
a more determined yellowness of the eye-lids, mouth, and nostrils, 
the treatment must be similar. (58.) 

191. Inflammation of the kidnies, called red water, by the cow- 
*ecches, is not uncommon among cattle, and is perhaps dependent 
on the lobulated form of these parts in them. The animal to the 
other symptoms of fever, adds stiffness behind, and often straddles, 
but always shrinks on being pinched across the .oins, where fre- 
quently increased heat is felt, the urine is sometimes scanty, and 
now and then increased in quantity, but it is always first red, then 
purple, and afterwards brown or black, when a fatal termination 
may be prognosticated. The treatment has been fully detailed under 
nephritis in the horse pathology, (GO) and which consists in plentiful 
bleedings, &c. but carefully abstaining from the use of diuretica, a* 
•dvised by ignorant cow-leeches 


192. Black water is only the aggravated and latter stages of tbe 

193. Iuflammation of the bladder also now and then occurs, and 
in no wise differs from the cystisis of the horse, in consequences 
and treatment. (02.) 

194. The colics of cattle, arise from different causes; they are 
Bubject to a spasmodic colic, not unlike that of horses, and which is 
lemovcd by the same means. (53.) Costiveness also brings on a colic 
in them, called clue bound, fardel bound, &c. which often ends in 
red colic, unless early removed ; the treatment of this we have fully 
detailed. (55.) Another colic is accompanied with relaxation of 

195. Diarrhoea, scouring, or scouring cow, is common in cattle, 
and is brought on by exposure to rain, improper change of food, 
over driving, and other violences. It is essentially necessary that 
the animals be taken under cover, kept warm and dry, and have 
nutritious food allowed them. The medical treatment has been 
detailed. (52.) 

196. Dysentery or braxy, bloody ray, and slimy flux, differs from 
simple scouring, in a greater degree of fever attending it, and in its 
being an inflammation of a particular kind, and part of the intes- 
tines. It is frequently dependent on a vitiated putrid state of the 
bile, brought on by over driving in hot weather, low damp pastures 
in autumn, &c. The discharge is characterized by its bad smell, 
and by the mucous stringy patches in it, and also by its heat and 
smoking when voided ; all which are very different from the mere 
discharge of the aliments in a state of solution in diarrhoea, and 
which differences should be carefully marked to distinguish the one 
from the other ; treat as under dysentery in the horse. (49.) 

197. Yellows. When active fever is not present, and yet cattle 
are very dull, with great yellowness of eyelids, nostrils, &c. it 
arises from some biliary obstruction, to which oxen and cows are 
mare liable than horses, from their being furnished with a gall 
bladder , it is a more common complaint in some of the cold pro- 
vinces on the continent, where they are housed and stall fed all thft 
year round, than it is in England. The treatment is the same as 
detailed for chronic inflammation of the liver in horses (59) adding 
;i i every instance to it, a change of pasturage, and if convcnu'ot, 
into salt mar.3hes, which will alone often effect a cure 


198. Loss cf the cud. This enters the list of most cow-leeches' 
diseases, hut is less a disease than a symptom of some other arFec- 
tion ; indeed it is evident that any attack sufficient to destroy the 
appetite will generally occasion the loss of the cud. It is possible, 
however, that an occasional local affection or paralysis of the paunch 
may occur, particularly when it is distended with unhealthy sub 
stances, as acarns, crabs, the tops of some of the woody shrubs, &lc. 
The treatment in such cases consists in stimulating the stomach by 
tonics, as aloes, pepper, and gin mixed; though these, as liquids 
may not enter the stomach in common cases, yet in this disease or 
impaired action of the rumen, they will readily enter there. 

199. Staggers, daisy or turning, are sometimes the consequences 
of over feeding, particularly when from low keeping, cattle are 
suddenly removed to better pastftrage. Treat with bleeding and 

200. Tetanus, or locked jaw, now and then attacks cattle, in wh'O.Ii 
case it presents the same appearances and requires the same treat- 
ment as in horses. (11.) 

201. Cattle surgery is in no respect different from that in prac 
tice among horses, the wounds are treated in the same manner. 
Goring with the horns will sometimes penetrate the cavity of the 
belly, and let out the intestines ; the treatment of which is the same 
as in the horse. (50.) Strains, bruises, &c. are also to be treated 
like these of horses. 

202. Foul in the foot. This occasionally come? on of itself, but is 
more often the effect of accident : cleanse it well and keep it from 
dirt: — apply the foot paste. (100.) 

203. Wornals, or puckeridge, are tumours on the backs -f cattle 
occasioned by a dipterous insect which punctures their skin, and 
deposits its eggs in each puncture. When the eggs are nateried, 
and the larvae or maggots are arrived at their full size, they make 
their way out, and leave a large hole in the hide, to prevent which 
the destruction of the egg should be attempted by nipping the 
tumour, or thrusting in a hot wire. 

204. Cattle obstetrics are not very varied; young cows of very 
*Vi 1 1 habits have sometimes a super-abundant secretion of milk before 
Calving, which produces fever and heat ; sometimes from ccld taken 
the same will occur after calving also : in either case, givi miid dry 
Jbcu or hay ; bathe the udder also with vineg:ir and watei , in sonm 



cases, waim fomentations do best. If the fever run high, treat u 
under fever in horse pathology. 

205. The process of calving is usually performed without diffi- 
culty; sometimes, however, cross presentations take place, and 
sometimes a constriction of parts prevents the natural passage of 
the calf. To act properly on these occasions, great patience in 
required, and much mildness; many cows have been lost by brutal 
pulling ; we have seen all the men and boys of a farm mustered to 
pull at a rope affixed about a calf, partly protruded, which, when it 
was thus brought away, was forced to be killed, and the mother soon 
died also from the protrusion of parts this bruta? force brought with 
the calf. A steady, moderate pull, during the throes of the animal, 
will assist much ; having first directed the attention to the situation 
of the calf, and that the presentation is such as not to obstruct its 
progress ; if it does, the calf must be forced back, and turned or 
placed aright. 

206. JVhethering, or retention of the after-birth or burden. It 
sometimes happens that this is retained ; for which no better remedy 
has been hitherto discovered than warm clothing and drenching 
with ale, administered as a forcer. 

207. The diseases of calves are principally confined to a species 
of convulsions which now and then attacks them, and which some, 
times arises from worms, and at others from cold. When the first 
cause operates, it is then relieved by giving a mild aloetic purge, 
or in default of that, a mild dose of oil of turpentine, as half an 
ounce night and morning. In the second, wrap up the animal warm, 
and drench with ale and laudanum a drachm. Calves are also very 
subject to diarrhoea or scouring, which will readily yield to the 
usual medicines. (131.) 

208. Horn distemper or horn ail. A disorder incident to horned 
tattle, by which the internal substance of the horn (commonly 
called the pith, which is the spongy part of the bone) wastes away, 
&c This disorder may be known by a dullness in tne countenance, 
a sluggish motion, want of appetite, a desire to lie down frequently, 
shake their head and appear dizzy, &c. To be sure of this disease, 
take a small gimblet and perforate the horn 2 or 3 inches above the 
head : if it is hollow and no blood follows, it is the hollow horn ; 
This distemper *s generally brought on by poverty, &c. 

Bore each horn at the upper and lower side that the drain may 
bave vent, and administer at least two or three doses of salts oi 


•ome gentle purgative ; inject, into the horn strong vinegar and can:*. 
phorated spirits of salt and vinegar: this will cleanse "the horn and 
effect a cure. Sawing off the horn is sometimes performed, hut the 
ahove receipt is preferablo. 

209. Vermin on cattle. It is found that a strong decoction o 
tobacco washed over a beast infected with vermin will generally 
drive them away. It sometimes will make the beast very sick foi 
a short time. But a better remedy is to mix a plenty of strong 
Scotch snuff in train oil, and rub the back and neck of the creature 
with it ; which will effectually kill or drive away all vermin from 
a quadruped. 

Salt — Let it be remembered, when given to animals, enables the 
farmer to increase his live stock and keep them in health ; hence it 
ought freely to be given to sheep and cattle of every description * 
but, to imitate nature, it should be previously dissolved and then 
mixed with pure fine clay in a mass, which is to be pli«^d under « 
•Jiolter bo that the animals may lap it at nU^sure 





210. The diseases of sheep are numerous ; for these 
animals are now so highly cultivated that they may be 
regarded in some respects as artificial machines : and 
thus, as a natural consequence, they are subject to a 
variety of artificial defects and maladies. 

211. The rot is a popular term among shepherds, 
and includes within its range diseases widely different. 
We shall not therefore follow the custom of treating 
the different rots of sheep together ; but we shall allow 
them to fall in the natural order, according to the plan 
pursued with the diseases of oxen. 

212. The inflammatory and putrid fever, popularly known by the 
names higham striking or blood striking, does not differ materially 
from the same disease in oxen and cows: and is in sheep also some- 
times epidemic , appearing by panting, dullness, watery mucus 
from the nose and eyes, and great redness of all such parts as aro 
usually white. 

213. The red water. The inflammatory fever sometwnes resolves 
itself into an universal secretion of serum throughout all the cavi 
lies ; in which case after a few days, the lymph tinged with blood 
will come away from the nose and mouth in large quantities. Some- 
times after death the bloody serum is found suffused throuphou* 
♦ho s>kin as in tho blood striking of skins. 


214. The claveau or sheep pox is also another variety of this dis 
ease, in winch it takes on a pustular form. About the third day 
6mall variolas appear : sometimes they are rather blotches than pus. 
tules. The weakness is usually extreme, and the putridity great. 
This form of the disease is seldom seen with us ; but it is stii 
known on the continent, wherp the pastures are very poor and 
lo <v, and tnc general keeping meagre. 

215. The treatment of all these in no wise differs from that di- 
rected under the inflammatory putrid fever of the ox. The doses 
of medicines being about a thi'.J of what is directed for them. 

21 G. Malignant epidemic or murrain. Sometimes an epidemic 
prevails which greatly resembles the murrain of oxen ; in appear- 
ances, termination, and treatment it resembles malignant epidemic 
of oxen. (178.) 

217. Peripneumonia or inflamed lungs, rising of the lights, glan- 
derous rot, hose, tyc. These terms are all modifications of an in- 
flamed state of the viscera of the chest, caught by undue exposure, 
bad pasturage, and often from over driving. The cough, trem- 
blings, the redness of t ho eyes and nostrils, and the distillation of 
a fl^id from them, with the heavings and hot breath, are all simi- 
lar to those which characterize pneumonia or rising of the lights 
in oxen. We remember to .have seen the disease strongly marked 
in the February of 1803, on a farm in the neighbourhood of Streat- 
ham ; where eleven sheep were attacked almost together, after a 
very stormy night. They were first affected by a loss of appetite, 
next with a fixed steadfast look, which was common to every one 
After this, they reeled about, fell backwards and became convulsed. 
When seen, five were almost dead, whose internal appearances 
fully confirmed the nature of the disease. The rest recovered by 
bleeding and drenching, with drenches composed of nitre and tar- 
tar emetic. Sometimes the symptoms of pneumonia do not kill 
immediately, but degenerate into an ulceration of the lungs ; which 
is then called the glanderous rot. This stage is always fate : the 
others may, by early attention, be combatted by judicious treat- 
ment, as detailed under the same disease in oxen. 

218. A chronic cough in sheep, when not symptomatic of rofc .'« 
always cured by a change of pasturage, particularly into a sa!t 

219 lujlannnation of the stomach occurs from various causen. A 


common on* arises from eating noxious vegetables, and produce* 
the affections termed tremblings. It also produces the grass ill in 
lambs, which latter is always accompanied with black foetid faeces, 
and is readily removed by an ounce of castor oil; while the for- 
mer usually yields to half an ounce of oil of turpentine, beaten up 
with the yelk of an egg. Some herbs (as Atropa belladonna) when 
eaten produce spasmodic affections, which are called by shepherds 
leaping ill: in such cases the water solution of aloes [Vet. Pha 
164,) in doses of two or three ounces is useful. Daffy's elixir we 
have also known to be given with good effect. 

220. The hove, blast, or wind colic. Sheep are as liable to be 
distended with an enormous collection within the maw, as oxen. 
An instrument similar to that invented by Dr. Monro is also made 
for them ; and when not relieved by these means, the same rerae 
dies are applicable, as are directed for oxen. (188.) 

221. A wind colic will also sometimes affect sheep more from 
the quality than the quantity of what they eat ; it is best relieved 
by an ounce of castor or salad oil with an ounce of gin. 

222. Inflamed liver, blood rot, or hot yellows, are liver affections 
arising from fever settling in that organ ; or from obstructed bile 
irritating it. Sometimes there are great marks of fever, and at 
others more of putridity ; according to which, treat as may be 
gathered from ox pathology 

223. Jaundice also now and then occurs, when refer to that4is-* 
ease in oxen. (197.) 

224. Dysentary, gall scour, braxy, are all affections brought on 
oy sudden changes of temperature, or of undue moisture acting 
with cold pasturage. It is often seen in sultry autumns : — Treat as 
under ox braxy. (19G.) 

225. Scouring is the diarrhoea of sheep, and in very hot weather 
soon carries them off. It should be early attended to, by abstract, 
ing the affected and housing them. The treatment is seen under 
diarrhoea of oxen, '195,) which it closely resembles. 

226. Pinning, tag-belt, break-share. The two former are only 
the adhesion of the tail to the wool, and the excoriation broughl 
on by diarrhoea ; the latter is the diarrhoea itseif, known to some 
oy this term. 

*i'27. The rot in sheep is also called great rot, and hydropic rot^ 
$c. out it is mere popularly known by the single term of rot. - 


Many causes have been assigned for it, as the faciola hepalica. or 
fluke worm; some particular plants eaten as food; ground eating : 
snails and other ingesta: but as most of the supposed deleterious 
herbs have been tried by way of experiment, and have failed to 
produce the disease, so it is attributable to some other cause. — 
Neither is there reason to suppose that the fluke worm occasions 
it, since we know the biliary vessels of other animals, as horses, 
asses, rats, &c. often have them ; and above all, because that they 
are not always present in the rotted subject. From long expe- 
rience! and the almost invariable effect produced by a humid state 
of atmosphere, soil, and product, wo are warranted in concluding 
these are the actual and immediate agents ; perhaps the saturated 
food itself is sufficient to do it. The morning dew has been sup- 
posed equal to it. Bakewell, when his sheep were past service, 
used to rot them purposely, that they might not pass into other 
hauQs. This he always readily did by overflowing his pasturages. 
But great differences of opinion exist as to the quantity, form, and 
varieties of moisture productive of this fatal disease. It is said 
That land on which water flows, but does not stagnate, will not rot 
however moist ; but this is contradicted by the experience of Bake- 
well, who used merely to flood his lands a few times only to rot 
his sheep. It is also said that they are safe from rot on Irish bogs, 
salt marshes, and spring flooded meadows, which experience seems 
to verify. It is also said that the very hay made from unsound 
land will rot ; but this wants confirmation. When salt marshes 
are found injurious it is only in such years when the rain has satu- 
rated, or rather super-saturated such marshes. That putrid exha- 
lations unaccompanied with moisture can occasion rot, wants con- 
firmation also ; for these commonly go together, and it is difficult 
to separate their effects. It is not perhaps the actual quantity of 
water immediately received by land, but the capacity of that land 
to retain the moisture, which makes it particularly of a rotting 

228. The signs of rottenness are sufficiently familiar to persons 
about sheep. They first lose flesh, and what remains is flabuy 
and pale; they lose also their vivacity. The naked parts as the 
lips, tongue, &c. look livid, and are alternately hot and cold in tho 
advanced stages. The eyes look sad and glassy, the breath is 
ftetid, the urine small in quantity and high coloured : and tho 
dowels are at one time costive and at another affected with a black 
purging. The pelt will come off* on the slightest pull in almost 
ease*. The disease has different degrees of rapidity, but is always 
r atal at last This difference in degree occasions sjme rotio*' 


*hcep to thrive well under its progress to a certain stage, when 
they suddenly fall off, and the disease pursues the same course witn 
the rest. Some graziers know this crisis of declension, as it has 
been called, and kill their sheep for market at the immediate nick 
ol time with no loss. In these cases no signs of the disease are 
to be traced by ordinary inspectors, but the existence of the flukes, 
and still more a certain state of liver and of its secretions, are 
characteristic marks to the wary and experienced. 

229. The treatment of rot is seldom successful unless when it is 
early commenced, or when of a mild nature ; a total change si 
food is the first indication, and that to a dry wholesome kind : all 
the farina are good, as the meals of wheat, barley, oats, peas, 
beans, &c. Carrots have done good mixed with these ; broom, 
burnet, elder, and mellilot, as diuretics, have also been recom- 
mended ; but it is necessary to observe, that there is seldom any 
central effusion but in the latter stages of the complaint. As long 
as the liver is not wholly disorganized, the cure may be hoped by 
a simple removal of the cause, which has been shown to be a va 
riable temperature, with excessive moisture of pasturage which 
may also be aided by such remedies as assist the action of the 
biliary system ; salt acts in this way, and thus salt mashes are good; 
salt may also be given in the water. Salt appears the principal 
ingredient in Flesh's patent restorative for sheep, for it states it 
to be composed of turpentine, sal ammoniac, turmeric, quicksil- 
ver, brimstone, salt opium, alkanet root, bark, antimony, camphor, 
and distilled water; but in this medley none of the articles can be 
in sufficient quantity to prove useful, but the salt. In the more 
advanced stages of the disease, when the liver has become mate- 
rially affected, it is prudent to rub the bellies of each sheep with 
half a drachm of mercurial ointment every other day for a week ; 
give also the following, every morning; watery tincture of aloes 
half an ounce ; decoction of willow bark, four ounces ; nitric acid 
twenty-five drops. 

230. The pelt rot, hunger rot, or naked disease, is a variety oJ 
llie former, but with this difference, that whereas the liver in the 
hydroptic rot, is principally affected ; in this the whole of tho 
chylopoietic viscera are injured ; the mesenteric glands are al- 
ways swollen and obstructed, and from thence arises the emacia- 
tion and unhealthy state of all the secretions, by which the roi 
necomes incapable of receiving nutriment, and falls off leaving 
the body bare, and in tiie last stages the teeth and horns also 
.ooser. Indifferent, unhealthy keeping, is a very common cause p* 


this malady, and a contrary course of feeding is the best remedy 
when tho disease has not gone on too long. 

231. The scab, shab, ray or rubbers, are sometimes erysipelatous 
eruptions, and sometimes they are psoric or mangy ones. In tho 
former instance they are universal and very red, occasioning a great 
heat and itching, and are thence called the rubbers: in such cases, 
nitre administered quickly relieves, with change of food. The 
eruptive scab is seldom cured without an external application 
cither of those directed for mange, lowered to half the strength 
will relieve it once. (See Vet. Pha. 171 and 172.) 

232. Foot rot sheep have a secretory outlet between the claws 
peculiar to them, which is liable to become obstructed : their feet 
are also liable to become injured, and then diseased, from travel, 
ling or continued standing on wet soils: but the real foot rot is an 
endemial affect ion which sometimes attacks half of the flock. It 
must be attended to by removing all diseased portions, and then 
dressing with the thrush paste, or foot rot application, (Vet. Ph. 
133,) and afterwards wrapping up from external exposure. 

233. Staggers, gid, turnsick, goggles, worm under the horn, stur 
dy, watei y head, and pendro, are all popular terms for hydatids, or 
an animal now known as the tasnis globulus, which by some unac- 
countable means, finds its way to the brain and settles itself there, 
either in some of its ventricles or more frequently on its substance. 
Their size varies from the smallest speck to that of a pigeon ego - , 
and the sheep it attacks are usually under two years old. These 
animals are likewise occasionally found in all the natural cavities 
of the body. 

234. The appearances of cerebral hydatids are, stupidity, a dis- 
position to sit on the rump, to turn to one side, and to incline th>* 
head to the same while at rest. The eyes glare, and from ovj^ 
the pupils become round. An accurate examination will now usu 
ally discover some softness at a particular part of the skull, gene 
rally on the contrary side to that which the animal hangs the head 
when no softness of the skull is discernable, the hydatid usualh 
exists in some of the ventricles, and the destruction of the slieeii 
•a certain and quick, from t"he greater disturbance to the functions 
of the brain ; but when it is situated on the surface, it sometimes 
requires many months to destroy; an absorption of tl>e oone takes 
p<ace and the hydatid increases, which produces the thn r.css in t'uu 
skull opposite to the affected part. 


235 This disease is not incurable, as has beeii supposed, but it u 
only rilieved by a manual operation. In France it has been success- 
fully treated by the application of the actual cautery : a pointed 
iron, heated red hot, is forced through the skin and skull, to the 
surface of the brain ; the principal nicity of which, is in penetrating 
the hydatid with the hot iron without wounding the brain itself*. 
In England, some shepherds are very dexterous at wiring, which 
they do by thrusting a wire up the nostrils till it rests against the 
skull. In the passage of the wire, the hydatid is usually ruptured , 
others elevate the skull (by means of a trephine, or even a knife) 
opposite to the soften portion, and extract the hydatid, if possi 
ble, whole, which a little care will effect, by drawing it away 
with a blunt pincer, gently moving it from side to side. Tapping 
is merely letting out the fluid contents of the hydatid by an awl, 
which is practised by some shepherds with success ; and if the 
instrument be not thrust too far, the animal is never injured ; to 
avoid which, it is passed obliquely. A well hardened gimblet is 
a proper instrument, with which the skull is easily penetrated, 
and an opening by the twisting of the instrument is made, suffi- 
ciently large in the hydatid itself, to discharge its contents, wbich 
is all that is sufficient to insure its destruction, and which, if no 
other exist, is followed by immediate recovery. 

236. Frontal worms. Sheep are observed to gather together, 
with their noses thrust inward to avoid the attack of the oestrus 
ovis, or fly, that lays its eggs on the inner margin of the nose, 
which, having become hatched, the larva creep up into the fron- 
tal and maxillary sinuses, to the torment of the sheep. It is re- 
commended to cover their nostrils during the short stay of these 
insects, with a gauzy substance, through which the animal can 
breathe, and keeping it on with some adhesive plaster, &c. or 
daubing the nose often with tar, train oil, or mercurial ointment, 
6lc. Remedy — Take half a pound of good Scotch snuff, pour two 
auarts of boiling water on it, stir it and let it stand till cold, inject 
about a table spoonful up each nostril, with a syringe ; repeat three 
or four times at proper intervals, from the middle of October to the 
first of January. Half an ounce of assafcetida pounded in a little 
water added to the snuff will make it more effectual. The owner 
need not be alarmed after the operation to see the sheep very 
drunk, &c. as they will soon recover. 

Q37. Fluke worms are a parasitic animal, found in the biliary 
finusbs, not only of the sheep, but of the horse, ass, goat, deer 
4tc. and whose existence is rather a consequence than a cause u( 


•£38. Diseases of lambs are confined to indigestion, and eruption 
of secreted matter: the former shows itself in colic, which is re- 
.5»*ved as in sheep, and also by diarrhoea, to be likewise cured by 
the means detailed for them ; the latter is more obstinate, begins 
on the rump, gradually extending along the chine, and when it 
becomes more universal, it usually destroys. The cure consists in 
giving daily drinks of half a drachm of cream of tartar, and one 
drachm of sulphur, in four ounces of chamomile decoction. Anoint 
alao with mild mercurial ointment and Turner's cerate in equal 

239. Poison. Sheep are often poisoned by eating laurel or ivy, 
as it is commonly called (not the magnolium.) The symptoms o) 
which is their foaming at the mouth, then vomiting the half mas- 
ticated leaves and green jmce, by which the mouth of the animal 
is discoloured. Remedy — Take a gill of sweet oil, hog's lard, or 
fresh butter ; mix it with i pint of new milk. If taken seasonably 
it will effect a cure. Or, an egg given to each of the diseased, in 
the shape of a natural bolus, by simply breaking the egg snd slip, 
ping the yelk, and as much white as practicable, down the throat 
of the animal. The sheep, after swallowing the egg, will vomit 
ap the leaves and green juice, but none of the egg. To cows give 
four times the quantity. 

240. To destroy sheep ticks. Make a weak solution of arsenic, 
in which the lambs are to be dipped a few days afler shearing 
the sheep, as the ticks having then no harbour on the old sheep, 
will resort to the lambs for shelter — this is the time to destroy 
them. Not the smallest injury will occur to the sheep, provided 
you take care to keep the head out of the water. Three persona 
are necessary — two to hold and dip the lamb, the third to squeeze 
the wool while the lamb is held over the tub. Or — An ointment 
m?de of Scotch snuff and hog's lard, or train oil, will kill or destroy 
thorn by one application. One ounce of snuff to a pouud of lard 
or oil, is about the proportion. 

941. Tho castrating lamba, may be performed anytime from the 
age of a fortnight or threo weeks, to that of a month or six weeks, 
the lambs should be in a healthy stato when it is done, as under 
any other circumstance they are likely to be destroyed by it. The 
operation is performed by opening the scrotum or cod and draw 
imr out the testicles with the spermatic cord. This is often done 
with the teeth in the young state of the animal, but when the ope 
ration is performed at a later period, it is usual to have recour*# 


to the knife, the arteries being taken up and secured by mnans of 
ligatures or the searing iron ; the business to bo done in fair wea 
titer, when not too warm ; the gelded lambs, &c. should bo kept iD 
a dry shelter and quiet situation for a few days. 

Sore nipples. Lambs very often die of hunger from their dams 
refusing them suck. The cause of this'is sore nipples, or sonio 
tumour in the udder, in which violent pMn is excited by the strik- 
ing of the lamb. Washing with m$K o f lia'lvi'l waHr ot soirita, 
ful remove the complaint. 



242. Swine are subject to various diseases, but according »o Lau 
rence, they are not easily doctored. They are subject, he ways, to 
pox or measles, blood striking, staggers, quincy, indigestion, catarrh, 
peripneumonia, and inflammation of the lungs, called heavings. 
When sick, pigs will eat, and they will take medicine in their wash , 
when they will not eat, there is 'no help for them. As aperients, 
cleansers, and alteratives, sulphur, antimony, and madder, are our 
grand specifics, and they are truly useful. As cordials and tonics, 
*reacle and strong beer, in warm wash, and good peas and pollard. 
In the measles, sulphur, &c. and, if the patient require it, give cor- 
dia/s now and then ; in staggers, bleeding, fresh air, and perhaps 
nitre ; in catarrh, a warm bed, and warm cordial wash, and the same 
in quincy or inflammation of the glands in the throat. If external 
suppuration appear likely, discharge the matter when ripe, and 
dress with tar and brandy, or balsam. The heavings or unsoundness 
of the lungs in pigs, like the unsoundness of the liver in lambs, is 
sometimes found to be hereditary ; there is no remedy. This dis- 
ease in pigs is often the consequence of colds fiom wet lodging, or 
hasty feeding in a poor state; in a certain stage it is highly inflam- 
matory, and without remedy. Unction with train oil, and the 
internal ase of it, have been sometimes thought beneficial. 

213. Cutting and spaying. Cutting the young pig is performod 
■t six or seven weeks old, according to their strength ; in a week 
after which they may be weaned. After weaning shut up the sow 
closely, feed well, and on the reflux of the milk, she wiii express 
very loudly her desire for the company of the boar. It is necessary 
to state that sows are voracious, and occasionally fierce and 6avage 
animals, and have actually devoured young children. The sow is 


spayed while sLo gives suck, and the boar safely castrated at any 
age. The operation of castrating is performed by cutting them 
across the middle of each stone, then pull them gently out and 
anoint the wound with tar. Spaying is performed by cutting in the 
mid flank, on the left side, with a sharp knife or lancet, in order to 
extirpate or cut off the parts destined for conception, and then stitch 
up the wound, anoint the part with tar salve, keeping the animal 
»v arm for two or three days. The usual way is to make the incision 
in a sloping manner, two inches and a half long, that the fore finger 
may be put in towards the back, to feel for the ovaries, which are 
two kernels as big as acorns, one on each side of the uterus, one of 
which being drawn towards the wound, the cord or string is cut, 
and thus both taken cut. 


J? 44. The diseases of dogs are very numerous. The 
following are described by Blaine as the most preva- 
lent, with their methods of cure. 

245. The canine asthma is hardly ever observed to attack any 
but either old dogs, or those who, by confinement, too full living 1 , 
and want of exercise, muy be supposed to have become diseased by 
these deviations from a state of nature. It is hardly possible to keep 
a dog very fat for any great length of time, without bringing it on. 
This cough is frequently confounded with the cough that precedes 
and accompanies the distemper, but it may be readily distinguished 
from this by an attention to circumstances, as the age of the animal, 
its not affecting the general health, nor producing immediate ema- 
ciation, and its less readily giving way to medicine. 

24G. The cure is often very difficult, because the disease has in 
general been long neglected before it is sufficiently noticed by the 
owners. As it is in general brought on by confinement, too much 
warmth, and over feeding ; so it is evident the cure must be begun 
oy a steady, persevering alteration in these particulars. The medi 
ciues most useful, are alteratives, and of these occasionally emetic* 
are the best. One grain of tartarised antimony (i.e. tartar emetic) 
9i lib two, three, or four grains of calomel, is a very useful and 
valuable emetic. This dose is sufficient for a small dog, ana mav 
be repeated twice a week with great success — always with palliation 

247. Of diseases of the eye, dogs are subject to almost ac great a 
variety as ourselves, many of which end in blindness. No troaC 
liont yet discovered will remove or prevent this coniolaint. 

280 diseases or DOGS. 

248. Store eyes, though not in general ending in blindness, art 
very common among clogs. It is an affection of the eyelids, is not 
unlike the scrofulous affection of the human eyelids, and is equally 
benefitted by the same treatment : an unguent made of equal parts 
of nitrated quicksilver ointment, prepared tutty and lard, very lightly 
applied. Dropsy of the eyeball is likewise sometimes met with, 
out it is incurable. 

249. Cancer. The virulent dreadful ulcer, that is so fatal in tha 
human subject, and is called cancer, is unknown in dogs; yet ther# 
is very commonly a largo schirrus swelling of the teats in bitches 
and of the testicles (though less frequent) in dogs, that as it some 
times becomes ulcerated, so it may be characterized by this name 
In the early state of the disease discutients prove useful, as vinegai 
with salt, and camphor and Spanish flies, with mercurial ointment, 
aave sometimes succeeded ; taking care to avoid irritating the pari 
so much as to produce blister. But when the swelling is detached 
from the belly, and hangs pendulous in the skin, it had better be 
•■eiiioved, and as a future preventative suffer the bitch to breed. 
Schirrus testicles are likewise s >>uetimes met with ; for these no 
treatment yet discovered succeeds but the removal of the part, and 
that before the spermatic chord becomes much affected, or it will 
be useless. 

250. Colic. Dogs are subject to two kinds of colic ; one arising 
from constipation of the bowels, the other is a kind peculiar to dogs, 
apparently partaking of the nature of rheumatism, and also of spasm. 
From a sudden or violent exposure to cold, dogs become sometimes 
suddenly paralytic, particularly in the hinder parts; having great 
tenderness and pain, and every appearance of lumbago. In every 
instance of this kind, there is considerable affection of the bowels, 
generally costiveness, always great pain. A warm bath, external 
stimulants, but more particularly active aperients, remove the colic. 
Colic arising from costiveness, is not in general violently acute from 
the pain it produces; sometimes, however, it appears accompanied 
witb more spasm than is immediately dependent on the confinement 
of the bowels. In the former give active aperients, as calomel w th 
pil. cochire, i. e. aloetic pill and clysters; in the latter caslar /J 
witb laudanum and ether. 

251. Cough. Two kinds of cough are common among dogs, tm 
accompanying distemper, the other in an asthmatic affection of th# 
chest. (See 245, 252.) 

252. Distemper. This is by far the most common and met fata? 
among the diseases of dogs ; hardly any young dog escapes it — ant 
of the few who do escape it in their yomu, tnree-iourtlis are attacker 
<*»th it %t home ueriod afterwards : it being a mistake that younfc 


dogs only have it. ft however, generally attacks before the animal 
arrives at eignteen months old. When it comes on very early, the 
chances of recovery fire very small. It is peculiarly fatal to grev 
hounds, much more so than to any other kind of dog, generally 
carrying them off by excessive scouring. It is very contagious, but 
it is by no means necessary that there should be contagion present 
tr» produce it; on the contrary, the constitutional liability to it is 
eueb, that any cold taken may bring it on ; and hence it is very com. 
inon to date its commencement from dogs being thrown into water, 
or shut out on a rainy day, &c. .There is no disease which pre- 
cents such varieties as this, either in its mode of attack, or" during 
its continuance. In some cases it commences by purging, in others 
oy fits. Some have cough only, some waste, and others have 
moisture from the eyes and nose, without any other active symptom. 
Moist eyes, dullness, wasting with slight cough, and sickness, are 
the common symptoms that betoken its approach. Then purging 
conies on, and the moisture from the eyes and nose from mere mucus, 
becomes pus or matter — there is also frequently sneezing, with a 
weakness in the loins. When the disease in this latter case is not 
speedily removed, universal palsy comes on — during the progress 
of the complaint some dogs have fits. When one fit succeeds 
another quickly, the recovery is extremely doubtful. Many dogs 
arf ^arried off rapidly by the fits or by purging; other waste gradu- 
ally from the running from the nose and eyes, and these cases are 
always accompanied with great marks of putridity. 

253. The cure. In the early stages of the complaint give emetics ; 
they are peculiarly useful. A large spoonful of common salt dis- 
solved in three spoonfuls of warm water, has been recommended ; 
the quantity of salt being increased according to the size of the dog, 
and the difficulty of making him vomit. While a dog remains 
strong, one every other day is not too much : the bowels should be 
kept open, but active purging should be avoided. In case the com- 
plaint should be accompanied with excessive looseness, it should be 
immediately stopped by balls made of equa. parts of opium, gum 
arabic, prepared chalk, and conserve of roses with rice milk as food 
Two or three grains of James' powder may be advantageosuly given 
at nijiht, in cases where the bowels are not affected, and in the case* 
where the matter from the nose and eyes betokens much putridity, 
we have witnessed great benefits from balls made of what is tennen 
Friar's balsam, gum guaiacum, and chamomile flowers in powder 
Dogs in every stage of the disease should be particularly well fed, 
A seton we have not found so useful as is generally supposed . 
where the nose is much stopped rubbing tar on the iippe* part jt 



useful, and when there is much stupidity and the head seems* !*.ucc 
affected, a blister on the top is serviceable. 

Or, Take <»ne part aloes, two parts salt petre, and four parts sul. 
phur , incorporate the whole together, and take as much as will lia 
on the point of a dinner knife, either put it into warm milk, and 
drench the dog, or give it to him in slices of meat. Tio up your 
aog for twenty-four hours after, and repeat the same in a day cr two 
after, should the dog not be relieved. 

254. Fits. Dogs are peculiarly subject to fits. These are of 
various kinds and arise from various causes. In distemper, dogs 
are frequently attacked with convulsive fits, which begin with a 
champing of the mouth and shaking of the head, gradually extending 
over the whole body. Sometimes an active emetic will stop their 
progress, but more generally they prove fatal. Worms are often the 
cause of fits in dogs. These deprive the animal wholly of sense ; 
he runs wild till he becomes exhausted, when he gradually recovers, 
and perhaps does not have one again for some weeks. Conhne 
ment produces fits and likewise costiveness. Cold water thrown 
over a dog will generally remove the present attack of a fit ; and 
for the prevention of their future recurrence it is evident that the 
foregoing account of causes niu»t be attended to. 

255. Inflamed bowels. Dogs are very subject to inflammation 
of their bowels, from costiveness, from cold, or from poison. When 
inflammation arises from costiveness, it is in general very slow in 
its progress, and is not attended with very acute pain, but it is 
characterized by the want of evacuation and the vomiting Of food 
taken, though it may be eaten with apparent appetite. In these 
cases, the principal means to be made use of, are the removal of 
the constipation by active purging, clysters, and the warm bath. 
Calomel with aloes forms the best purge. But w T hen the inflam 
mation may be supposed to arise from cold, then the removal of 
any costiveness that may be present, is but a secondary consider- 
ation. This active kind of inflammation is characterized by violent 
panting, total rejection of food and constant sickness. There is great 
heat in the belly, and great pain ; it is also accompanied with greaj 
weakness and the eyes are very red. The bowels should be gently 
opened with clysters, but no aloes or calomel should be made use 
of The belly should be blistered, having first used the warm bath 
VVben the inflammation arises from poison, there is then constant 
sickness, the nose, paws and ears are cold, and there is a frequent 
evacuation ot Drown or bloody stools. Castor oil should be given, 
m.u clysters of mutton br^th thrown up, but it is seldom any treat- 
ment succeeds 

*25tf lijjlamcd lungs. Pleurisy is not an uncomnor disea*« 


ai , «fogs. It is sonietiincs epidemic, carrying off great numbers. 
Its attack is rapid and it generally terminates in death on the third 
day, by a great effusion of water in the chest. It is seldom that 
•t is taken in time, when it is, bleeding is useful, and blisters may 
be applied t<"> the chest. 

257. Madness. The symptoms of madness are concisely summed 
up by Daniel, in the following words : " at first the dog looks dull, 
shows an aversion to his food and company, does not bark as usual, 
but seems to murmur; is peevish and apt to bite strangers; his 
ears and tail drop more than usual, and he appears drowsy ; after, 
wards he begins to loll out his tongue and froth at the mouth, his 
eyes seeming heavy and watery; if not confined he soon goes olf. 
runs panting along with a dejected air, and endeavours to bite any 
one he meets." As persons are continually alarmed at the approach 
of every strange dog, the following observations founded on expe- 
rience may be of service in knowing what dogs to avoid: I have 
seen many mad dogs but never knew one in that state to curl its 
tail. This is a certain indication of not being mad : If you see a 
dog dirty at the mouth, coming at a trot with his head high, and a 
drooping tail avoid him as a viper. Or if you see one sitting sicklv 
and dirty at the mouth, avoid him, though it is not likely that he 
will snap at you in that period of the disease. I never met a mad 
dog, on being pursued, (if his pursuers were not in actual reach to 
stone him, &c.) to exhibit any signs of fear, he generally goes li 
not impeded, in a straight line against the wind at a brisk trot, 
wholly unconcerned at the shouts of the multitude pursuing him, 
and never squats his tail. I never knew a dog that was not mad, on 
being pursued and shouted after by a number of people, not to exhibit 
every symptom of terror — squatting his tail, turning his head and 
scampering in every direction. If a mad dog escapes being killed, 
he seldom runs above two or three days, when he dies, exhausted 
with heat, hunger, and disease. As this is a subject of no slight 
importance, we shall 6tand excused for introducing the criteria as 
described by Blaine, whose account of the disease founded on long 
experience and attentive observation, is calculated to remove many 
unfounded and dangerous prejudices relative to it. He describes it 
as commencing sometimes by dullness, stupidity and retreat from 
observation ; but more frequently, particularly in these dogs that 
•re immediately domesticated around us, by some alteration in their 
natural habits ; as a disposition to pick up and swallow every minute 
object on the ground; or to lick the parts of another dog incessantly, 
or to lap his own urine, &c. About the second or third day. thb 
disease usually resolves itself into one of two types. The one is '.a. 
led raging and the other dumb madness. These distinctions a^e not 


however always clear ; and to which is owing so much of discrep 
ancy in the accounts given by different persons of the disease. 

258. The raging madness, by its term has led to an erroneous 
conclusion, that it is accompanied with violence and fury, which 
however, is seldom the case : such dogs are irritable and snappish, 
and will commonly fly at a stick held to them, and are impatient of 
restraint ; but they are seldom violent except when irritated or 
worried. On the contrary, till the last moment they will often 
acknowledge the voice of their master and yield some obedience to 
it. Neither will they usually turn out of their way to bite human 
persons, but they have an instinctive disposition to do it to dogs, 
and in a minor degree to other animals also ; but as before observed, 
seldom attack mankind without provocation. 

259. Dumb madness is so called, because there is seldom any 
barking heard, but more particularly, because the jaws drop para, 
lytic, and the tongue lolls out of the mouth, black, and apparently 
strangulated : a strong general character of the disease, is the dis- 
position to scratch their bed towards their belly; and equally so is 
the general tendency to eat trash, as hay, straw, wood, coals, dirt, 
&,c. and it should be remembered, that this is so very common and 
60 invariable, that the finding these matters in the stomach after 
death, should always render a suspicion formed of the existence of 
the disease, confirmed into certainty. Blaine is also at great pains 
to disprove the notion generally entertained that rabid dogs are 
averse to water ; and neither drink or come near it. This error, he 
contends, has led to most dangerous results ; and is so far from 
true, that mad dogs, from their heat and fever, are solicitous foi 
water, and lap it eagerly. When the dumb kind exists in its fuL' 
force, dogs cannot swallow what they attempt to lap ; but still thej 
will plunge their heads in it, and appear to feel relief by it: but iv 
no instance out of many hundreds, did he ever discover the smallest 
aversion to it. He lays very great stress on the noise made by 
rabid dogs, which he says is neither a bark nor a howl, but a 
lone compounded of both. It has been said by some that this 
disorder is occasioned by heat or bad food, and by others that 
it never arises from any other cause but the bite. Accordingly 
this malady is rare in the northern parts of Turkey, more rare in 
the southern parts of that empire, and totally unknown under 
the burning sky of Egypt. At Aleppo, where these animals 
perish in great numbers for want of water and food, and by the 
heat of the climate, this disorder was never known. In ether 
•^aris of Africa and in the hottest zone in America, dogs are ne- 
ver attacked with madness. Blaine knows of no instance of the 
OOUipiailii. being cured, although he has tried ta their fullest m tent, 


the popular remedies of profuse bleedings, strong mercurial and ar- 
aenical doses, vinegar, partial drowning, night shade, water plan 
tain, &.c. ho therefore recommends the attention to be principally 
directed towards tbe prevention of tlie malady. 

260. The preventive treatment of rabies or madness, is according 
to Blaine, always an easy process in the human subject, from the 
immediate part bitten, being easily detected ; in which case tho' 
removal of the part by excision or cautery is an effectual remedy. 
Bi t unfortunate for the agriculturist, it is not easy to detect the 
bitten parts in cattle, nor in dogs ; and it would be therefore most 
desirable if a certain internal preventive were generally known. 
Dr. Mead's powder, tbe Ormskirk powder, sea bathing, and many 
other nostrums are deservedly in disrepute : while a few country 
remedies, but little known beyond their immediate precincts, have* 
maintained some character. Conceiving that these must all pos- 
sess some ingredient in common, he was at pains to discover it 
and which he appears to have realized by obtaining among otbers 
the compositions of Webb's Watford drink. In tliis mixture, which 
is detailed below, he considers the active ingredient to be the buxus 
or box, which has been known as a prophylactic as long as the 
times of Hippocrates and Celsus, who both mention it. The reci 
pe detailed below has been administered to nearly three hundred 
animals of different kinds, as horses, cows, sheep, swine and dogs • 
and appears to have succeeded in nineteen out of every twenty cases 
where it was fairly taken and kept on the stomach. It appears 
also equally efficacious in the human subject; in which case ho 
advises the extirpation of the bitten parts also. The box pre veil- 
tive is thus directed to be prepared : — Take of the fresh leaves oj 
the tree-box, two ounces ; of the fresh leaves of rue, two ounces; of 
sage, half an ounce; chop these fine and boil in a pint of water to 
half a pint; strain carefully, and press out the liquor very firmly, 
put back the ingredients into a pint of milk, and boil again to half 
a pint ; strain as before ; mix both liquors, which forms three do 
»?es for a human subject. Double this quantity is proper for ? horse 
or cow. Two-thirds of the quantity is sufficient for a largo dog, 
half for a middling sized, and one-third for a small dog. Three do- 
ses are sufficient, giving each subsequent morning fasting, the quan 
tity directed being that which forms these three doses. As it some, 
times produces strong effects on dogs, it may be proper to begin 
with a small dose, but in the case of dogs we hold it always pru 
dent to increase the dose till the effects are evident, by the sicl* 
ness, panting, and uneasiness of the dog. In me human s"hject 
where this remedy appears equally efficacious, we have never w<u 
uessed any unpleasant or active effects, neither are such ob.^vrve«« 


in cattle of any kind. About forty human persons have taken thia 
-emedy, and in every instance it has succeeded equally as with ani- 
mals : but candor obliges us to notice that in a considerable pu 
portion of these, other means were used, as the actual or potentia. 
cautery : but in all the animals other means were purposely omit, 
ted. That this remedy therefore has a preventive quality, is un- 
questionable, ari<3 now perfectly established ; for there was not tho 
smallest doubt of the animals mentioned either having been bitten, 
or of the dog being mad who bit them, as great pains were in every 
instance taken to ascertain these points. 

261. To prevent canine madness. Pliny recommends worming 
of dogs ; and from his time to the present it bas had, most de- 
servedly says Daniel its advocates. He tells us, that he had various 
opportunities of proving the usefulness of this practice, and re- 
commends its general introduction. The fact, however, is, that 
taking out the worm has nothing to do with annihilating the dis 
order, although it will most certainly hinder the dog seized with 
it from doing any hurt to man or beast. A late author asserts, he 
had three dogs that were wormed, bit by mad dogs at three se- 
veral periods, yet notwithstanding they all died mad- -they did 
not bite, nor do any mischief, that being determined to make a 
full experiment, he shut one of the mad dogs up in a kennel, and 
put to him a dog he did not value — the mad dog often run at the 
other to bite him, but his tongue was so swelled that he could 
not make his teeth meet ; the dog was kept in the kennel until 
the mad one died, and was purposely preserved for two years af- 
terwards, to note the elfect, but he never ailed any thing, although 
no remedies were applied to check any infection that might have 
been received from the contact of the dog. The writer has had 
various opportunities of proving the usefulness of worming, and 
inserts three of the most striking instances, under the hope of in- 
ducing its general practice. A terrier-bitch went mad, that was 
kept in a kennel with forty couple of hounds ; not a single hound 
was bitten, nor was she seen to offer to bite. The bitch being o* 
a peculiar sort, every attention was paid to the gradations of tho 
disease (which were extremely rapid) minutely noted ; the hy- 
drophobia was fast approaching before she was separated lrom 
the hounds, and she died the second day after ; at first warm milk 
was placed before her, which she attempted to lap, but the throat 

efused its functions ; from this period she never tried to eat or 
drink, seldom rose up, or even moved, the tongue swelled very 
much, and long before her death the jaws were distended by it. 
A spaniel was observed to be seized by a strange dog, and waf 

mt in the lip; the servant who run up to part them narrowly e» 


caped, as the dog twice flew at him; a few minutes after ihfl 
dog had quitted the yard, the people who had pursued, gave no- 
tice of the dog's madness, who had made terrible havoc in a 
course often miles from whence he had set off. The spaniel was 
a great favourite, had medicine applied, and every precaution ta- 
ken ; upon the fourteenth day he appeared to loathe his food, and 
his eyes looked unusually heavy : the day following he endeavored 
to lap milk, but could swallow none ; from that time the tongue 
began to swell : he moved but seldom and on the third day he died ; 
for many hours previous to his death, the tongue was so enlarged, 
that the fangs or canine teeth could not meet each othei by up- 
wards of an inch. The hounds were some years after parted with, 
and were sold in lots : a madness broke out in the kennel of the 
gentleman who purchased many of them, and although several of 
these hounds were bitten and went mad, only one of them ever 
attempted to bite, and that was a hound from the Duke of Port- 
land's, who in the operation of worming had the worm broke by 
his struggling, and was so troublesome that one half of it was suf- 
fered to remain ; the others all died with symptoms similar to the 
terrier and spaniel, viz : a violent swelling of the tongue, and a 
stupor rendering them nearly motionless, and both which symp- 
toms seemed to increase with the disease. The idea that worming 
prevents a dog from receiving the infection when bitten should he 
exploded; but the foregoing show how far it maybe recommended 
for the restriction of a malady horrid in its effects, where a human 
oeing is concerned, and which to the sportsman and farmer are at- 
tended with such dangerous and expensive consequences. Blaine 
on the contrary, asserts, that the practice of worming is whol'v 
useless and founded in error ; and that the existence of any thing 
likp a worm under the tongue is incontestibly proved to be false , 
and that what has been taken for it, is merely a deep ligature of 
tne skin, placed there to restrain the tongue in its motions. He 
also observes, that the pendulous state of the tonguo in what i> 
called dumb madness, with the existence of a partial paralysis ol 
the under jaw, which they could not bite, having happened to dogs 
previously wormed, has made the inability lo be attributed to this 
source, but which is wholly an accidental circumstanco ; and hap. 
pens equally to the wormed and un wormed dog. 

2G2. The worming of whelps is performed with a lancet, to siit 
the thin skin which immediately covers the worm ; a small awl is 
then to be introduced under the centre of the worm to raise it up, 
the farther end of the worm will with very little force make its 
appearance, and with a cloth taking hold of that end, the other 
H'itl be drawn out easily ; care should be taken ll'at the whole o* 


the worm comes away without breaking, and it rarely breaks un 
less cut into by the lancet, or wounded by the awl. 

2t>3. Mange. This is a very frequent disease in dogs, and is an 
affection of the skin, either caugbt by contagion, or generated by 
the animal. I'he scabby mange breaks out in blotches along the 
back and neck and is common to Newfoundland dogs, terriers, 
pointers, and spaniels, and is the most contagious. The cure 
should be begun by removing the first exciting cause, if remova. 
ble, such as filth or poverty ; or, as more general the contrary 
(for both will equally produce it,) too full living. Then an ap- 
plication should be made to the parts, consisting of sulphur and 
sal ammoniac : tar lime water will also assist. When there is much 
heat and itching, bleed and purge. Mercurials sometimes assist, 
but they should be used with caution ; dogs do not bear them well. 
Or, fresh butter, free from salt, quarter of a pound ; red precipitate, 
one ounce ; Venice turpentine, one ounce : mix the whole well to. 
gether, and put it into a pot for use, rub it on the parts affected 
morning and evening, keep your dog tied up, and keep him warn 
and dry for some days. 

264. Worms. Dogs suffer very much from worms, which as in 
most animals, so in them are of several kinds: but the effects pro- 
duced are nearly similar. In dogs having the worms the coat gen. 
erally stares ; the appetite is ravenous though the animal frequently 
does not thrive ; the breath smells, and the stools are singular, 
sometimes loose and slimy, and at others hard and dry ; but the 
most evil they produce is occasional fits, or sometimes a continued 
state of convulsion, in which the animal lingers sometime and then 
dies; the fits they produce are sometimes of the violent kind ; at 
otners they exhibit a more stupid character, the dog being senselest 
and going round continually. The cure consists while in this state, 
in active purgatives joined with opium, and th& warm bath ; any 
rough substance given internally, acts as a vermifuge to prevent 
the recurrence. 








or THK 



The Publisher of the following work, with a view 
to an extension of its value, and to bestow on posterity 
a list of some of our most celebrated blood horses and 
mares, as well as those that have been imported, has 
added, with all the care the object so well merits, an 
American Stud Book, that such as may wish to breed 
from a particular stock, may trace the pedigree, in a 
wa> more satisfactory than vague report. The pub- 
hshcr thankfully acknowledges, that he is much* in- 
debted for information derived from the "American 
Farmer? and "American Turf Register? edited by 
J. S. Skinner, Esq. of Baltimore, to which works he 
confidently refers such of his readers as may wish fur- 
ther information as to the performance of manv of the 
stud herein noticed, as well as for other particulars, 
perhaps too numerous for insertion in a small volume! 
The publisher will not deny, that errors may una- 
voidably occur in a work of this sort; but he offers it 
with a confidence, nevertheless, that it contains a 
greater number of pedigrees of blooded horses, than 
has been ever before published in our country; and 
that it will be considered, at least, as meriting the con- 
sideration which should attach to a work, possibly 
proving an introduction to a complete Stud Book. 


Uespect fully inscribed to the Amateur, Sportsman, 
and Breeder of the American Turf Horse, 

Annuls of the Turf. — " The transcendent consequence of" llio 
horse to man in every possible stage of human existence, lias been 
the invariable theme of writers on the subject from the earliest 
records of time. Indeed it is impossible to conceive any other, out 
of the vast variety of animals destined by nature to human use, 
which can, with the least prospect of success, dispute with the 
favourite horse the palm of his master's predilection and attachment. 
It is an attachment of a truly rational nature, and to a most worthy 
object. The very idea of being supported at ease by an auxiliary 
and borrowed animal power, and of being safely borne from place 
to place, at will, with a pleasant and gentle motion, or with the 
rapidity of lightning, must have impressed the mind of the first d is- 
coverers of the mighty benefits of the horse, with ineffable delight. 
Such sentiments and feelings respecting this noble animal have been 
constantly entertained and handed down to us from the earliest 
ages. The general beauty, the harmony of proportion, the staieli- 
ness and delicacy of the superior species of this paragon of brute 
animals, could not fail of inspiring admiration in the breasts even 
of sa\age and untutored men. Time and the improving faculties of 
man, gradually developed the various uses aud qualifications of the 
horse. Endowed by nature with a portion of' intellect, with a 
generous pliability of disposition and fortitude of heart, with vast 
and energetic bodily powers, lie was found capable of bearing a sort 
of social part in all the pleasures and labours of man. He was 
associated with his master in the pleasures of the journey and the 
chase ; he shares willingly and with ardour in the dangers of the 
martial field ; and with a steady prowess partook in the humble 
labours of cultivating the soil for mutual subsistence. By the most 
illustrious nations of either ancient or modern times, the horse has 
ever been esteemed of the highest worth and consequence, and 
treated with a distinction and attendance befitting his rank as the 
first of domestic animals, approximating in society and service to 
human nature It is among the most savage and debased tribes of 
men only, that the breed, condition, and comforts of this noble ani- 
Mai have been neglected." 

This quotation from a very splendid English work on the blood 
horse, is no less just in sentiment than beautiful in language. It 
is proposed to treat of the value of the blood horse to our common 
stocks, and of the various uses to which his conformation adapts 
him. It has at every period been fashionable with a certain class 
of moralists, who were more rigid than correct, to decry the sports 
of the turf; and, further, to contend that the breed of horses having 
received all the improvement of which it is susceptible, from the 
blood horse, the further propagation of the latter is useless; the? 


would further nave horse racing abolished, and the horses applied 
generally as stallions. But the use which these sort of reasoners 
would propose to derive from the racing breed, would soon destroy 
itself. They do not consider that in racing the necessity for thor. 
ough blood, is obvious and imperative, and such is a sure ground 
of its preservation. Were the sports of the turf to be abandoned, 
that unerring test, by w\iich to ascertain the purity of the blood, 
?nd the other requisite qualities of the race horse, would be lost, 
and consequently, that glorious and matchless species, the thorough 
bred courser, would in no great length of time, become extincx 
among us — and with him all his noble and valuable properties, and 
his place be supplied by a gross, ill-shaped, or spider legged mongrel, 
which WDuld insure the degeneration of the whole race. I would 
ask, is not a cross of the blood horse upon the common stock in- 
dispensable to insure us light footed and quick moving saddle hor- 
ses ? Where do we go for the parade or cavalry horse if it is not 
the blooded stock, or to those highly imbued with that blood ? Did 
not the speed and wind of the cavalry horses of Colonels Lee and 
Washington, during the revolutionary war, give those commanders 
a decided superiority over the enemy in the kind of warfare they 
waged, where celerity of movement was all important? and were 
not those horses procured in Maryland and Virginia, and partook 
of the best racing blood of those states? The value of the blood, or 
southern horse, from their ability to carry high weights, was strongly 
exemplified in the wars of the ancients ; as they rode to war in 
heavy armour, and always selected and preferred for this purpose 
their highest bred horses, which were also frequently covered, like 
their riders, in heavy armour. In former times in England, their 
hunters were only half bred horses, but later observations and expe- 
rience have fully convinced them that only those that are thorough 
bred (notwithstanding the popular clamour of their deficiency in 
bone) are adequate in speed, strength, and durability, to long and 
6evere chases with fleet hounds, particularly over a deep country, 
and that they will always break down any horses of an opposite 
description that may be brought into" the field. 

The value of the racing blood when crossed upon the common 
cart breed is also apparent in making them superior in the plough 
and wagon, provided they have the requisite size, arising from 
quicker action and a better wind particularly in the long hot days 
of summer. There is the same difference of motion between the 
race, and the common bred horse as between a coach and a cart. 
It '« moreover a fact, although not generally known, that no other 
horses are capable of carrying with expedition such heavy weights; 
and were "a thirty stone plate (420 lbs.) to be given, and the dis. 
tance made fifty miles, it would be everlastingly won by the thor. 
ough bred horse. There is only one way in which a bred horse would 
be beat at high weights; it would be (to use a queer phrase.) to 
;nake it a stand still race ; in that rase, I would back a cart horse ; 
» thiiiK he would beat a racer by hours." 

The strength of the race horse, and his ability to carry high 
weights, arise from the solidity of his bones, the close texture of hia 
fibres, the bulk and substance of his tendons, and from his wholo 


peculiar conformation. His superior speed and endurance originate 
from his obliquely placed shoulders, depth in the girth, deep oval 
|uarters, broad fillets, pliable sinews, and from the superior duc- 
tility and elasticity of his muscular appendages. 

It is also from the blood horse that we acquire fineness of skm 
and hair, symmetry and regularity of proportions, elegance and 
grandeur. As a proof of the latter qualities, the highest dressed 
horses of the ancient emperors are invariably of the highest cast of 
Arabian or Southern blood. 

The object of the preceding remarks was to show the impolicy 
of discouraging the sports of the turf, as being the indispensable 
test by which to try the purity of our blooded stock, and the only 
certain means of insuring its preservation : that the thorough bred 
horse was beyond all question, the most useful species of the whole 
genus, since he was applicable to every possible purpose of labour 
in which horses are used, either for the saddle, for war, parade, 
hunting, the road or quick draught, and even for the laborious ser- 
vices of the wagon and plough. It now only remains to make some 
remarks (as connected with the above twpics) on the standing and 
prospects of future patronage which the sports of the turf have in 
England and this country. It is an undeniable fact that the high 
degree of improvement 10 which the blood of stock horses in Eng 
land have attained, is mainly owing to the liberal and weighty pa 
tronage which has invariably been extended to the sports of tho 
turf in that country; it is patronised as a national amusement by 
the royal favour and munificence, and directly encouraged by the 
most distinguished nobility and gentry; by men who are ranked as 
her chief statesmen. The decline of this sport lias frequently been 
predicted in that country, particularly at unfortunate periods of 
war and distress ; but it has been steadily maintained for more than 
a century, with few or no fluctuations, and is at this time in a high 
state of prosperity. Never were so many thorough bred st illions 
kept in England as at present — never was New Market, Epsom, 01 
Doncaster, better attended than at the late meetings. The numbei 
of blood horses annually exported from England is unusually great, 
and to her, Russia, France, Austria, and the United States of 
America, the East and West Indies, have been long indebted fur 
their most valuable stocks. 

In Virginia the sports of the turf have been revived and are ex 
tending over the state with great spirit, and are infusing into her 
citizens a due sense of their importance in giving value to the race 
horse. Virginia has long h"ld a pre-eminence over every othe* 
state in the Union in raising fine horses — and it is mainly to be 
attributed to the passion for this fascinating and rational mnust. 
nient, to the steady encouragement given to it at all times, both 
during adverse and prosperous times, since the state had its foun 
dntion in a colony. To her the Carolinas, Georgia, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee, have always looked for a supply of blooded stallions; 
to her they still are indebted as well as the new states of Alabama, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, &c. Let then Virginia maintain and in- 
»rease this celebrity, by adopting all means which are calculated to 
promote so laudable a distinction. Let lib.' place and extend thv 


sports of tbe turf on the most liberal and equitable basis, and let bar, 
in order to give increased value to her racing stock, speedily pub 
1 >b a Stud Book. 

Oiigin and progressive improvement of the race horse. It cannot 
but be an interesting task to inquire into the origin of the tur^ 
horse, and to ascertain the means by which he has been brought 
to his present high state of perfection. The English writers main 
tain tbe theory, that the horse genus was supposed to have consist. 
3d originally of two grand divisions or species : the silken. haired, 
flat, and fine bone courser, and the full bodied, coarse, and rough- 
haired steed, adopted to draught and the more laborious purposes. 
From these tv , original species may fairly be derived all those 
numerous varieties which we at this day witness in different parts 
of the world. Soil and climate most undoubtedly have considerable 
effects, through a long course of ages, in producing varieties of 
form, colour, character, and properties. The largest horses are 
generally found to be the production of the rich low lands of the 
temperate climates, abounding in rich and succulent food. The 
fine skinned, with elegant symmetry, dry and solid bones, large 
tendons, and the highest degree of muscular energy, in fact, bearing 
tbe general characteristics of the blood horse, are bred under warm 
and southern skies, upon a dry soil, on the hills of the desert. The 
hypothesis is entertained, that Arabia is the native or breeding 
country of tbe courser, and that part of Europe, formerly denomi. 
nated the Netherlands, or Low Countries, the original soil of the 
!arye draught horse. Other writers, however, contend, that all 
horses are derived from the same single primitive species, and that 
varieties are purely accidental and the effects of varying soil and 
climate. This opinion, however specious, is not sanctioned by 
facts and experience in allowing full force to the arguments derived 
from the effect of soil and climate, yet it is equally true there are 
certain landmarks and boundaries of specific character, in both the 
animal and vegetable creation, which nature will never permit to 
be passed. 

No length of time or naturalization upon the marshy soil of Bel- 
gium, it may safely be pronounced, would be sufficient to'transform 
the high bred, silken and bounding courser of Arabia, into the 
coarse, blulf and fixed horse of the former country; nor would the 
sojournment of the latter, during any number of ages, in the south, 
have the effect of endowing him with these peculiar properties of 
body, which distinguish the aboriginal southern horse. The inter 
change just supposed, would no doubt have the effect of increasing 
the bulk of the courser and reducing that of the draft horse; but 
the natural characteristics of each, would remain unassailable by 
any other medium than that of intercopulation through which 
we know from experience they may be merged, and in effect an- 

Arabia Deserta is allowed to be the breeding country of the purest 
and highest bred racers; that is to sav, possessed in the highest de- 
gree of those qualities which distinguish the species ; and these are 
ileekD^ss and flexibility of the skin, and general symmetry from the 
aea<- to the lowest extremities. The eye full and shining, the head 

ANNajl,« uF THE TUUF. 295 

joined, not abruptly, but to a curved extremity of the neck ; the 
shoulders capacious, deep or counter, and declining considerably 
into the waist ; the quarteis deep, and the fore arms and thighs long-, 
large and muscular, with a considerable curve of the latter ; tlie 
legs flat and clean, with the tendon or sinew large and distinct ; the 
pasterns moderately long, the feet somewhat deep, the substance of 
the hoof fine, like that of the deer; in size not large, seldom ex- 
ceeding or reaching the height of fifteen hands. 

It is in the mountainous country, among the Bedouin Arabs, that 
the blood and characteristic properties of this sDecies of the horse, 
has been preserved pure and uncontaminated by any alien mixture 
or cross, as they pretend, for more than two thousand years. 

It is well known that the English race horse was originally bred 
from the Arabian, Barb, and Turkish stocks, and contains in his 
veins nearly an equal admixture of the blood of each. The Bar- 
bary horses were generally smaller than the Arabians, but carried 
more depth of carcase. Their most prominent points are, ears 
handsome and well placed ; forehand fine and long, and rising 
boldly out of the withers ; main and tail thinly haired ; with lean 
small head ; withers fine and high, loins short and straight, flanks 
and ribs round and full, with good sized barrel ; tail placed high ; 
haunches strong and elastic ; thighs well turned ; legs clean ; si- 
news detached from the shank ; pastern too long and binding ; 
foot good and sound; of all colours, but grey the most common 
They are bred upon a similar soil and sprung from the desert like 
the Arabians, of which they are generally deemed a variety. In 
goodness of temper and docility these horses resemble the forme*, 
and are said to be very sure footed ; generally cold tempered 
and slow, requiring to be roused and animated, on which they 
will discover great vigour, wind and speed, being in their gallop 
great striders. 

The Turkish horses resembled the Barbs, and were paid to be 
handsome, elegantly formed, full of spirit, possessing fine hair, uoft 
skins, guod speed, but more particularly remarkable for thoir un- 
failing wind, enabling them to undergo much labour and fat'^ue. 

It is a curious physical question, that the Arabian. Barb, and 
Turkish horses, should, only in particular individuals, have proved 
valuable foal getters, and that these properties should be denied 
to the generality of them, and that the whole of them should so 
soon be laid aside. Out of the vast number of these foreign horses 
imported into England in early times, but very few of them estab. 
lished their characters as the propagators of high formed racers ; 
and it may be assumed as a fact, that for some more than half a 
century past, not a solitary Arabian, Barb, or Turkish stallion has 
been used in England ; or if used at all, were found to be utterly 

England soon discovered that from her fine climate and soil, she 
had obtained in size, form and speed, everv quality which the best 
models of the original foreign breeding countries could aflfjrd to 
her, it is true she had to resort to the Arabians anu Barbs for a 
foundation ; but as soo» as tl»e stock arh.injr r . om them had been 
Buihcie," >, ,lv accl'-uatud and 'liifunza through die tounuy, she tound 
20* # 

^yt5 ANjNALS of the turf. 

it feafnst t<i rcl> tipon them for all those qualities which they them 
geives hao acquired from their foreign progenitors. 

The early English breeders found the Arabian stock to consti 
tute an excellent cross upon the Barb and Turk, as from the Ara 
bian blood was acquired speed, stoutness and stride from the Barb 
length and height from the Turk. 

But of all the foreign stallions imported into England in early 
times, the fame of the two great Arabians, the Darley and Godol 
yhin, has swallowed up that of all the rest; and the best English 
horses for nearly a century past, have been either deeply imbued 
in their blood, or entirely derived from it. They have produced 
stock of vast size, bone and substance, and at the same time en 
dowed with such extraordinary and before unheard of powers of 
speed and continuance, as to render it probable that individuals 
of them have readied nature's ultimate point of perfection. The 
descendants of these Arabians have rendered the English courser 
superior to all the others, not only in the race, where indeed he has 
long excelled, but as a breeding stock. 

To such of my readers as are unacquainted with the history of 
that justly celebrated horse, the Godolphin Arabian, the following 
particulars of him may not be unacceptable. He was in colour a 
brown bay, somewhat mottled on the buttocks and crest, but with 
no white excepting the off heel behind ; about fifteen hands high) 
with good bone and substance. The fame of the Godolphin Ara- 
bian was greatly increased by the famous picture which was taken 
of him b}' the immortal Stubbs, and which sold at his sale for 246 
guineas. This portrait of the Godolphin is doubtless an admirable 
piece ; it represents his crest as exceedingly large, swelling and 
elevated, his neck elegantly curved at the sitting on of the head, 
and his muzzle very fine. He had considerable length ; his ca- 
pacious shoulders were in the true declining position, and of 
every part materially contributary to action, nature had allowed 
him an ample measure : add to this, there is in his whole appear- 
ance, the express image of a wild animal, such as we may sup- 
pose the horse of the desert. Certainly the horse was no beauty, 
but with his peculiar and interesting figure before me, I cannot 
help wondering, that it should not occur to his noble proprietor, 
a true sportsman as he was, that the Arabian might be worthy of 
a trial as a stallion. This horse was imported by Mr. Coke into 
England, and it was strongly suspected that he was stolen, as no 
pedigree was obtained with him, or the least item given, as to the 
country where he was bred ; the only notice given, was, that he 
was foaled in 1724. Mr. Coke gave him to Mr. Williams, keeper 
of the St. James' Coffee House, who presented him to the Earl of 
Godolphin. In this noble lords' stud he was kept as a teazer to 
Iiobgoblii.,. during the years 1730 and 1731, when that stallion re- 
fusing to cover Roxana, she was covered by the Arabian, the pro- 
duce of which was Lath, not only a very eljgant and beautiful 
horse, but, in the general opinion, the best which had appeared on 
the turf since Flying Childers. The Arabian served for the re- 
mainder of his life in the same stud, producing a yearly succession 
*f prodigies of the species. He died in the year J 753, in his 2 ( Jth 


year, and wus decently buried, and cakes and ale were given at 'die 
funerai of his flesh. The following famous horses, some of which 
were of great size and powers, besides many others with a grea- 
number of capita! racing and broodmares, descended from the Go. 
dolphin Arabian, viz : Lath, Cade, Regulus, Bahrain, Blank, Dis- 
mal, Bajazet, Tamerlane, Tarquin, Phoenix, Slug, Blossom, Dor 
mouse, Skewball, Sultan, Old England, Noble, the Gower Stal 
lion, Godolphin Colt, Cripple, Entrance. 

Mr. Darley, of a sporting family in Yorkshire, being a mercan- 
tile agent in the Levant, and belonging to a hunting club at Alep- 
po, made interest to purchase a horse, one of the most valuable 
ever imported in England, and which fully established the worth 
of the Arabian stock. He was a bay horse, his near foot before, 
with his two hind feet white, with a blaze in his face, and about 
fifteen hands high; he was imported into England in the year 
1703, then four years of age. 

The Darley Arabian, (for such he was called,} got Flying Chii 
ders, Bartlett's Childers, Almanzor, Whitelegs, Cupid, Brisk, Da3- 
dalus, Skipjack, Manika, Aleppo, Bully Rock, Whistlejacket, &c 
This horse had not that variety of mares which annually pour 
ed in upon the Godolphin Arabian, indeed he covered very few 
except those of Mr. Darley his proprietor — but from these sprung 
the largest and speediest race horses which were ever known. — 
Flying Childers and Eclipse, the swiftest beyond a doubt of ail 
quadrupeds, were the son and great grand son of this Arabian, 
from which, also, through Childers and Blaze, descended Samp, 
son, the strongest horse that ever raced before or since his time ; 
and from Sampson was descended Bay Malt on, who ran at York 
four miles in seven minutes forty-three and a half seconds, being 
seven and a half seconds less than it was ever done before over 
the same course. 

On crossing, breeding and rearing the Turf Horse. The subject 
of crossing is one of the most important which has ever engaged 
the attention of the breeder or amateur, and it is still left in doubt 
whether we ought to adhere to remote crossing in propagating thu 
race horse, or that we may successively breed " in and in," viz. 
putting horses and mares together of the same family. 

All that we can do is to disclose the facts which that unerring 
guide, experience, has established, and the exceptions to the rule 
which those facts have pointed out t<"» as. Crossing, or intermix- 
ing the blood of different racing breads, has ever prevailed upon 
the turf, and experience has proven it to be a rational practice, 
when adopted with the view of an interchange of the requisite 
qualifications, external or internal ; such as the union of speed 
and bottom, slenderness and substance, short and long shapes. 

Experience tells us that the greatest success has ever attendee 
those breeders and that the most valuable stock has resulted there 
from, who have- adhered to remote crosses. The finest running 
and highest formed horses that have appeared in England were brer 
from the union of two distinct stocks, the Herod and Eclipse. The 
former stock was invariably remarkable for stoutness and lasting- 
ttesa, tiie latter for suecd and bv the union of these opposite 


dualities 'whereby a remote cross was taken up,) a stock was ob. 
tained in which was blended a sufficiency of the requisite quali- 
ties of both to make first rate running horses. There was anothe. 
distinct stock in England, which crossed well upon the Herod 
and Eclipse branches ; I allude to the Matchem or Godolphin 
Arabian Stock ; and it may here be remarked, that there has net 
been in England a first rate running horse on the turf for the last 
70 years, without more or less blood of this valuable horse. How- 
ever necessary a remote cross may be considered, yet exceptions 
have arisen to it as a rule, as some of the most distinguished horses 
in England were bred considerably in and in — Flying Childers for 
instance, considered the fleetest horse in the world. Old Fox, also 
a celebrated racer and valuable stallion, had an affinity of blood in 
his pedigree, as well as other high formed racers and stallions. But 
these exceptions arose in Great Britain in her early days of breed, 
ing, when that country was enriched by the importation of par- 
ticular Barb, Turk, and Arabian horses that had peculiar and ex- 
traordinary properties els stock getters, as their immediate descen- 
dants constituted the best racers of those days, and demonstrated 
that the character of the English race horse had attained its utmost 
perfection at that early date. 

At a later period, but little success had attended the efforts of 
those who have bred in and in. The Earl of Egremont has occa- 
sionally tried it, as well as Lord Derby (the owner of Sir Peter 
Teazle,) but with little encouragement. Still the British writers 
are divided on the subject : Morland, in his treatise on the gene- 
alogy of the English blood horse, expressly says, that incestuous 
crosses should be avoided, viz : putting horses and mares together 
of the same class ; while on the other hand Lawrence, in his 
6plendid work on the " History and delineation of the Race Horse," 
makes the following remark of an opposite tendency : " An adhe- 
rence to the practice (of remote crossing) cannot be held indispen- 
sably necessary on any sound theory ; nor need any disadvantage 
be apprehended from coupling horses and mares of the same breed 
or family, even the nearest relative, upon the principles above and 
hereafter laid down. I have often heard of, and indeed seen, mis- 
erable legged and spindled stock resulting from such a course, but 
other very visible causes existed for the result. 

" According to the adage, " like produces like," we ought to 
follow form and qualification ; and if a brother and sister, or father 
and daughter excel in those respects all others within our reach, 
we ought to enjoin them with good expectations, for aught I know 
to the end of the chapter: and the prejudiced fear of adopting tins 
practice, has often led our breeders into the error of adopting an 
inferior form from the presumed necessity of a cross." The present 
remarks are peculiarly applicable to the breeders of the race ' '>rse 
in Virginia, for they are at this very time making the experiin,, 
of breeding "in and in," or from the same family of horses, as it i.<» 
well known that all the turf horses now and for the last ten years 
past, produced in that state, are of the " Sir Archv stock." It were 
to be wished that v'here was a greater variety of the race blood in 
*-Uat state to give breeders a wider field for selection; a descend .d 1 


tf Mcd'ey or Citizen would cross well upon the present numerous 
stock of SirAichy, and it would perhaps have been a fortunate cir- 
cumstance, could the celebrated horse Pocolet, (who was bred and 
raised in Virginia,) have been retained in that state 

The subject of breeding is the next which claims our attention. 

The business of breeding is divided into the systematic and 
chance medley; the formation of regular studs and observing some 
fixed principles, characterize the former; while the latter is a kind 
of random affair, common to the whole country where foals are 
raised for a man's pleasure or convenience, for which no extra pre- 
parations are made, or much reflection bestowed, further than to 
make use of any mare that may chance to be in possession, and of 
any horse which the vicinity affords or custom may present. 

In the formation of studs, the object generally had in view is 
breeding for the turf, and one of the first principles is to breed from 
no stallions unless they be thorough bred ; in plain terms, both 
their sires and dams must be of the purest of the Turkish, Barb or 
Arabian coursers exclusively, and this must be tested in an authentic 
pedigree, throughout whatever number of descents or crosses.* 
The brood mare should be equally pure or thorough bred, and par- 
ticular attention should be paid to her form, as one of the prime 
causes of failure of most breeders is confining their attention solely 
to the horse, without paying sufficient attention to the form of the 
mare, and permitting fashionable blood and the supposed necessity 
of a cross to have too decided a preference to correctness of shape 
To constitute a thorough bred animal, and to assure the attainment 
of every desired quality or perfection, both the male and female 
ought to possess it. Experience has proven the correctness of the 
principle that "like produces like;" acting upon this principle, we 
have the best assurances lo expect success from a junction of the 
best shapes or the greater number of good points we can combine, 
both in the horse and the mare, from such junction the average 
will be favourable, true form will result from the union of true form 
in both sire and dam ; and the next general result will be, that every 
horse sufficiently well formed, and furnished in the material points, 
will excel either in speed or continuance, or will possess an advan- 
tageous mixture of both. 

Blond is hlood, but form is superiority 

Tn rearing of turf horses, the following principles ».re recom. 
mended by the most successful breeders: the land to be dry and 
sound, the harder the better, provided it be fertile: irregularity of 
surf ice a recommendation. Fresh springs or streams, shade and 
shelter, and extensive range. Sufficient number of inclosures, 
both for each species, which it is necessary to keep apart, and to 
prevent too great a number of any being crowded together. Houses 

"There is a practice in Virginia and North Carolina, in giving the pedi 
gfeeofa stallion, to name only one or 'wo crosses, particularly on thedani'f 
Bide, and (hen pronounce him "the finest bred horse in the world." Who 
<;»n pronounce on a horse's good or bad blood unless we krow (he whole 
ol A I He may trace to the common dray breed of the eouotrv for au/nt 
»*e know 


or sheds in the inclosures ; soft and sweet herbage for the colts and 
•nilk mares ; and finally a very liberal allowance of land in propor 
lion to the stock, that there may be not only ample grazing in tho 
grass season, but an equally ample quantity of provisions of tho 
■equisite kind during the winter. 

A firm, dry, and hard soil, will have a corresponding effect upon 
the feet, limbs, and tendinous system of horses bred upon it; as 
will a dry, clear and elastic air upon their wind, animal spirits and 
general habit. Such are the advantages enjoyed by the horses of 
the mountain and the desert ; but these advantages are greatly en- 
hanced in a country where abundant herbage and moderate tern- 
perature are superadded. 

All breeders concur in the propriety of keeping colts well tho 
fir^t and second winters ; for colts from the best shaped parents will 
degenerate upon insufficient nourishment, and be stinted from the 
palsying effects of damp and cold in the winter, if a comfortable and 
general shelter is not allowed them. Good keeping and warmth, 
during the first and second years, is indispensable, in order to invi- 
gorate the circulation of the animal's blood, to expand his frame, to 
plump up and enlarge his muscles, to encourage the growth of his 
bones, and to impart to them that solidity and strength which pre- 
serves them in the right line of symmetry. 

It must be interesting to the amateur, the sportsman, and the 
breeder, to give a correct, though concise account of the most dis. 
tinguished turf stock of blood horses, which existed in Virginia 
between the years 1750 and 1790, a period more remarkable for fine 
norses, than perhaps any ether, either prior or subsequent to that 

It was during this period that " races were established almost 
at every town and considerable place in Virginia : when the inhabi- 
tants, almost to a man, were devoted to this fascinating and rational 
amusement : when all ranks and denominations were fond of horses, 
especially those of the race breed ; when gentlemen of fortune ex- 
pended large sums on their stud, sparing no pains or trouble in 
importing the best stock, and improving the breed by judicious cross 
ing." The effects of the revolutionary war put a stop to the spirit 
of racing until about the year 1790, when it began to revive, and 
under the most promising auspices as regarded the breed of turf 
horses, for just at that time or a little previous, the capital stallion 
Old Medley was imported, who contributed his full share to the 
reputation of the racing stock, whose value had been before so well 
established. Previous to the year 1800, but little degeneracy had 
taken place either in the purity of the blood, the form or perform- 
anct:s of the Virginia race horse; and in searching for the causes 
of a change for the worse, after this period, the most prominent one 
was the injudicious importation of inferior stallions from England. 
About the period of time last mentioned, Colonel Hoomes and many 
others, availing themselves of the passion for racing, inundated 
Virginia with imported stallions, bought up frequently at low prices 
in Eh gland, having little reputation there, and of less approved 
olood. thereby greatly contaminating the tried and approved stocks 
•'hich had long and eminently distinguished themselves for the!* 


featu on the turf, their services under the saddle, and as valuable 
cavalrj horses during the revolutionary war. In recommending 
renewed efforts to the Virginians, for the further improvement and 
preservation of their stock of blood horses, the necessity »nd im- 
portance of the immediate publication of a Stud Book (and of a 
Racing Calendar hereafter) cannot be overlooked. 

It is the wish of the writer, that the tendency of this, and the fol 
lowing pages, may excite a spirit and a desire for such a work, by 
showing that there are valuable materials extant, only requiring 
diligence and zeal to bring them to light, capable of being made up 
into a valuable publication on this subject. The want of such a 
work as a Stud Book, is now lamentably seen and felt in Virginia, 
where few pedigrees of any particular stock can be traced far back, 
before they are lost in the mazes of uncertainty and conjecture. It 
may safely be asserted that the stock of horses in Virginia never 
can arrive to that degree of improvement and perfection, and moro 
particularly high value as to price, they otherwise woul-d do, unless 
a record of this kind is published and preserved, to be resorted to 
for a correct knowledge of their blood In breeding for the turf 
and selling turf horses, blood is every thing; as it has been found 
that particular strains or pedigrees of horses of this class, are re- 
markable for their speed and bottom, while others are miserably 
defective in these essential qualities of the race horse. A Stud 
B )ok and Racing Calendar will be a standing record, always ena- 
bling us to avoid the bad, and to cherish those particular strains oi 
horses, that have established their good qualities for the turf. How 
has Virginia been injured in her racing stock by some particular 
stallions, bred in that state ? Potomac, for instance, who, although 
they raced it well, yet being badly bred, propagated an inferior race 
of horses. 

Let me therefore, emphatically remind the breeder of the race 
horse to use great particularity and caution as to the stallions from 
which he breeds ; examine well into their pedigrees, and to the 
qualities of the stock from which they are descended; as an exDe. 
rience of more than a century in England has proven the fact, that 
where a stallion has been stained with an inferior or "dunghill' 
cross, however remote in his pedigree, it is certain to lurk out and 
exhibit itself in his progeny, no matter how well he may have raced 
it himself. 

We should breed back as much as possible upon the gooa old 
stocks of Jolly Roger, Janus, Morton's Traveller, Fearnought, and 
Medley, of which I propose to give a particular account in the suc- 
ceeding pages. It has been well for us that the importation of 
stallions from England has long since ceased, and I hope never to 
see it revived again. The sod of the Beacon course (four miles and 
upwards) is now too little trod by the English race horse : short 
races witli light weights are now too common ; the consequence* 
are, that their stock of blood horses are rapidly losing that stamina 
and inherent goodness of constitution or stoutness, which enablea 
them in former days to carry high weights, and to support frequen* 
md hard running. Fifteen or twenty years ago, the Virginians 
ored altogether from imported English stallions, and at that Urne 


also, there were more sportsmen on the turf; yet we have at this 
day better race horses, under less patronage, from American bred 
stallions, than at that day. Does not this prove that by adhering 
to our slock, and breeding from large highly formed, full 
blooded stallions, that our turf horses will soon equal or exceed any 
in the world ? and as our race stock is considered stronger and more 
active, it will be found advisable to breed them For tiie saddle, plough 
cr wagon. 

Jolly Roger, was the first horse that gave distinction to the racing 
B&cfc of Virginia. His performances on the English turf, and thai 
of his pedigree, are recorded in tiie name of " Roger of the Vale." 
After he was imported into this country betook the name by which 
he is now known ; he was foaled in 1741, and commenced covering 
in Virginia about the year 1748. He was got by Roundhead, who 
was by Flying Childers, who was by the Darley Arabian. Tiie dam 
of Roundhead was the famous "plate" mare Roxana by the Bald 
Galloway, the dam of the celebrated racers and stallions Lath and 
Cade by the Godolphin Arabian. The dam of Jolly Roger was got 
by Mr. Croft's famous horse Partner, the best racer and stallion of 
his day, his gran dam by Woodcock — Croft's Ray Barb; Makeless : 
Brimmer ; Son of Dodsworth ; Burton Barb mare. 

Jolly Roger got many fine racers, stallions and brood mares, 
and is a favourite cross in the pedigree of the Virginia bred turf 
horse, and very justly too. 

Jolly Roger got Spanking Roger, out of the imported mare Jen- 
ny Dismal, and Longsdale out of an imported Monkey mare. 

Janus was a chesnut horse, foaled in England in 1746, and got 
by Janus, a bay horse foaled in 1738, full brother to Blank and 
Old England, being got by the Godolphin Arabian out of the fa- 
mous ' Little Hartley mare' by Bartlett's Childers, son of the Dar- 
ley Arabian. 

Janus was imported into Virginia by Mr. Mojrdecai Booth, of 
Gloucester county, Va. in the year 1752; his dam was got by old 
Fox, [whose name stood eminent in the English pedigree,] his 
grandam by the Bald Galloway. 

Although Janus partook of every cross in his pedigree calcula- 
ted for the distance turf horse, yet his stock were more remarka- 
ble for speed than bottom. Janus, from his shoulders back, was 
considered the most perfect formed horse ever seen in Virginia, 
by the most skilful connoisseurs ; he was remarkable for roundness 
of contour, strength of articulation, and indicating great powers 
a;id stamina in his whole conformation. 

His stock partook of these qualities in an eminent degree, and 
!ur thirty or forty years they were considered as a ' peculiar stock,' 
as they invariably exhibited even in the third and fourth genera- 
tions from the old horse, the same compactness of form, strength 
and power. The Janus stock have exceeded all others in tho Uni- 
ted States for speed, durability and general uniformity oi' good 
form ; and more good saddle and harness horses have sprung from 
mem than from any other atck. 


Celer was justly considered as the best son of old Janus, as ho 
propagated a stock equal in every quality to those of the stock 
begotten by his sire. He was bred by Mr. Mead of Virginia, and 
foaied in 1774, and died in 1802, aged 28 years. 

As the pedigree on his dam's side is not generally known, I wilV 
here give it. The daia of Celer was got by the imported horse 
Aristotle, a brown bay, finely formed, full 15 hands high, bred by 
Mr. Bladen and got by the Cullen Arabian, his dam by Crab, his 
grandam by Hobgoblin, great grandam by the Godolihin Arabian, 
out of a famous mare called White Cheeks. 

Morton's imported horse Traveller contributed in an eminent 
degree to the improvement of the turf stock of horses in Virginia 
He was a bay horse, foaled about the year 1748, and was a cover, 
ing stallion at Richmond court house, Va. as early as the year 1754 
He was bred by Mr. Crofts, at Raby in Yorkshire (who was the for 
tunate breeder and owner of some of the first horses in England) 
and was got by his famous horse Partner, who was a grandson of 
the Byerly Turk, and was himself the grandsire of King Herod. 
The dam of Traveller was by Bloody Buttocks (an Arabian) Grey, 
hound ; Makeless ; Brimmer ; Place's White Turk ; Dodsworth ; 
Layton Barb mare. Morton's Traveller was bred from the bes* 
running stock in England in that day : the famous Wetherington 
mare was full sister to Traveller ; she bred Shepherd's Crab and 
other capital racers. 

Morton's Traveller got Trvall and Yorick out of Blazella, im- 
ported, and Burwell's Traveller out of a Janus and Lycurgus ; al- 
so Lloyd's Traveller out of a Jenny Cameron, and Tristam Shandy 
out of a Janus, Ariel full brother to Partner, and Partner out of 
colonel Tasker's imported mare Selima. 

Partner was the best son of Morton's Traveller, proving to be 
not only a fine race horse, but a valuable stallion. He was foaled 
about the year 1755. Partner got Rockingham out of Nelson's im- 
ported mare Blossom, and Fitz Partner out of the dam of Celer and 
the celebrated horse Mark Anthony. 

Mark Anthony's dam was by Othello, (a son of Mr. Parton's capi 
tal English horse Crab) his grandam the imported mare Moll Bra. 
zons : she was sired by Spark, who was imported to this country 
oy Governor Ogle, of Maryland, and was given to him by Lord 
Baltimore, who received him from Frederick, Prince of Wales. 

Mark Anthony was foaled about the year 17G3, and did not ex- 
ceed fifteen hands in height, and '/as a horse of beauty and intrin- 
sic value, whether viewed as a racer or stallion. In the former 
rharacter he was not excelled by any horse of his day, being 
4 remarkable for his swiftness," having at the same time good Wind. 
enabling him to run four miles heats in good form. In the latter 
character he stood deservedly celebrated, and propagated a stock 
which were held in the highest estimation for their various vain 
able qualities, whether for the turf, the saddle or the harness. — 
Mark Anthony got Collector out of a Centinel, and Monamh out 
of a thorough bred mare, and Romulus out of a Valiant 
27 . 


Yorick got Pilgnm out of a little Davie, and Bucephalus out of 
a Careless, and Junius out of an Othello. 

Bunnell's Traveller got Southall's Traveller out of an imported 
mure, and Camillus out of a Fearnought mare. 

Lloyd's Traveller got Leonidas out of a Morton's Traveller mare. 
Junius got Spangloss out of a Jolly Roger mare. 

Fearnought holds the first claim prior to the day of Medley, and 
is therefore entitled to the palm in preference to any stallion that 
had preceded him in giving the Virginia turf stock a standing rqual 
to tiiat of any running stock in the world. The blood which flow- 
ed in the veins of old Fearnought must have been peculiarly rich 
in those qualities that make up the conformation of the race horse, 
as not only the whole stock got by Fearnought run well, but also 
his sons and his grandsons were remarkable for generally getting 
good running stock. There was also strength and stamina univer- 
sally pervading the Fearnought stock, to which may be added good 
size, that made them the best distance horses of their day. The 
fact is that the Fearnoughts run well all distances, and the old 
horse stood higher than any other horse on the continent for get- 
ting racers ; and he got more of them than any other — he also was 
the sire of more fine stallions than any other horse of his day. 

Old Fearnovght was bred by William Warren of England, and 
foaled in the year 1755. He came out of Mr. Warren's fine brood 
mare ' Silvertail,' and was got by Regulus the best son of the Go- 
dot phin Arabian. Regulus, when six years old, won eight King's 
plates. He never was beat, being very superior to any horse of 
his day. 

Silvertail the dam of Fearnought, was foaled in 1738, and got 
\y Heneage's Whitenose ; her dam by Rattle — Darley's Arabian — 
the old Child mare, got by Sir Thomas Gresley's bay Arabian out 
of Mr. Cook's Vixen, who was got by the Helmsly Turk, out of a 
Boyal Barb mare. 

Fearnought was imported into this country by Col. Jn. Baylor, 
who advertised him in the year 1705, as "a bright bay, 15 hand* 
H inches high, remarkably strong and active, and the full brother 
to the late Mr. Warren's invincible horse Careless." Old Fear- 
nought died in the fall of 1776, at the age of 21 years. 

Among other capital stallions and racers, he got tho following, 
Ttz : — 

Nonpareil, out of a Janus mare. 

Nimrod, out of a Partner. 

America, out of a Jolly Roger. 

Regulus out of the imported mare Jenny Dismal. 

Godolpbiri, full brother to Regulus. 

Shakspeare, out of an imported Cub mare. 

Gallant, out of a Stateley mare. 

Shakspeare, out of an imported Shakspeare mare. 

Apollo, out of an imported Cullin Arabian mare. 

Harris's Eclipse, out of Baylor's imported Shakspeare marv 

Laurel, out of a Fearnought. 

Matchless, out of Sober John. 

Kiiur ll3rod, o it of an Othello. 


Whynot, ouf o 4 ' in Othello. 

Dandridgo's Fearnought, out of 

Symmcs' VVildair, out of a Jolly Roger, who proved to Ik* lb« 
best son. of old Fearnought. 
VVildair got — 

Commutation, out of a Yorick maro. 

Highflyer, out of a Yorick mare. 

Chanticleer, out of a Pantaloon mare. 
Chanticleer, the best son of VVildair, got — 

Magog, out of a VVildair. 

Prestley, [full sister to Magog,] the dam of Wilkes' Madison 

Cornelia, the dam of Mr. Randolph's Gracchus. 

The stock of old Medley may justly be ranked as among the most 
remarkable and valuable that have ever signalized themselves on a 
Virginia race course. This stock of horses lacked nothing but 
size to have made the best racers in the world ; and yet their want 
of size was not manifested on the turf: as their ability to carry 
weight exceeded that of any other stock ; they were also remarka- 
ble for good wind or bottom, for fine limbs and good eyes, than 
other race of horses that have been bred in Virginia. These quali- 
ties resulted in this stock [and were more peculiar to them than to 
any other,] from the close proximity of the points of the hips to the 
shoulder, from the uncommon solidity of their bones, the close tex- 
ture of their sinews, and the bulk and substance of their tendons, 
which always enabled them to carry the highest weights, and to 
endure the greatest stress on their bodily powers. To these quali- 
ties may be added their uncommon purity of blood, derived from 
their sire old Medley, who was one of the purest blooded horses 
ever bred in England. 

Gimcrack the sire of Medley, was one of the most remarkable 
horses of his day in England. lie was a grey, and called the " lit- 
tle grey horse Gimcrack," foaled in 1700, got by Cripple, a son 
of the Godolphin Arabian. Gimcrack was one of the severest 
running and hardest bottomed horses that ever ran in England ; 
although small, yet his ability to carry weight was very great, for 
he frequently gave the odds as high as 28 pounds, and he con- 
tinued on the turf until 11 years of age, thereby showing his un- 
common hardiness of constitution and firmness of limbs which he 
richly transmitted into the veins of Medley. Gimcrack at four 
years old won seven 50/. plates, 4 miles; also in 1765, at 4 miles, 
507; also 1000 guineas, 250 guineas forfeit. He beat the Duke of 
Cumberland's Drone, 4 miles for 500 guineas, giving him 21 lbs. 
In 1706 he was sent to France, and in 1767 returned to England, 
and won in that year, four 50/. plates, 5 miles. In 1768, two 50/ 
plate" and the silver bowl. He beat Mr. Vernon s Barber for 300 
guineas giving him 28 lbs. in 1770. He beat Lord Rockingham » 
lacho for 3000 guineas, giving him 28 lbs ; also Lord Rockingham ■? 
Pilgrim for the whip and 200 guineas, the whip equal to the gui- 
neas. Gimcrack was then 10 years of age. Earl Grosvenor had 
two portraits taken of Gimcrack. That of Gimcrack preparing to 
*art w reckoned excellent of its kind. The two nortraits. it 10 
ww* *ore6ont thif horse in different shades of grey : *lw «ron 


grey ol his youth, and the hoary white of his old age. Gimcracli 
had acquired such fame and celebrity that his last proprietor lei) 
kum a length of tinoe at Tattersal's for the inspection ol the 

The darn of Medley was Arminda, by Snap, (full sister to Papu- 
ion, the dam of Sir Peter Teazle, the best in England.) Medley 
acquired his beautiful symmetry and proportions from Snap, who 
was a horse of great beauty and justness of proportion, strong, 
vigorous, and muscular, and was upon an equality as a racer, if not 
superior to any horse of his time. Medley was imported to thia 
country by Malcomb Hart, in the year 1785. Among many othtr 
distinguished racers and stallions, Medley got the following, via : 

Boxer, out of a Fearnought mare. 

Opernico, out of a Lindsey Arabian mare. 

Quicksilver, out of a VVildair. 

Young Medley, out of a Blue and all Black. 

Melzar, out of a Wildair. 

Lamplighter, out of a Longsdale. 

Fitz-Medley, out of a Dandridge Fearnought mare. 

Gimcrack, out of an Ariel. 

Bellair, out of a Yorick. , 

Bellair may justly be distinguished as the best son of old Medley, 
not only as being upon an equality as a racer, but as having got more 
line stallions, racers, and brood mares, and as being decidedly the 
best bred son of his distinguished sire. Bellair partook of the best 
blood that has been highly valued in Virginia, viz: of Morton's 
Traveller through Yorick, Fearnought, Partner, Mark Anthony, &c. 
Colonel Tasker's famous running mare Selima, that was the dam of 
Partner, was the great grandam of Bellair; and I will here take 
occasion to correct an error in the pedigree of this celebrated mare, 
as it has prevailed for more than thirty years in all the published 
pedigrees which I have seen of Bellair. Col. Tasker's Selima, is 
represented to have come out of a mare called Snap Dragon, by 
Snap; this is a manifest error: tiie Godolphin Arabian, who sired 
Selima, died in 1753; Snap was foaled in 1750 and did not com- 
mence covering until G years old, hence the first Snap mares were 
not foaled till 1757, 4 years after the Godolphin was dead. Col. 
Tasker's Selima was bred by Lord Godolphin, and came out of a 
m;ire by Old Fox, that was the dam of Daphne, and also of the 
celebrated running horse Weasel, that was the property of Lord 
Rockingham ; the grandam of Selima by Flying Childers, — Make- 
less— Taffc-let Barb — Natural Barb mare. 

I .vould urge upon the breeders of the Virginia Turf Horse to 
take in, in their different crosses, as much of the blood of old Med- 
ey and Bellair as possible, to give their stock firm limbs, very much 
needed at this time, as the Virginia race horses of the present day 
train off the turf too early. 

' f ''~ following letter appropriate to the present subject, is from 
that eminent breeder and sportsman Col. John Tayloe, formerly ol 
Mount Airy, Virginia, now of Washington City. 

4 - (n reply to you 1 - favour, I shall be happy if any information 1 
%m unie io give you in regard to old Medley, and fcuch of hi* stock 


as I nave owned, can be of service to you. Old Medley was im 
ported to this country about the year 1785, was owned by Mr. Ma.!. 
comb Hart, and stood at Hanover Court House. He was one of 
the most beautiful horses I ever saw. I cannot at this remote period 
pretend to describe him further than he was a grey horse of the 
finest proportions and not more than 14 1-2 to 15 hands high. I 
have always esteemed him one of the best horses ever imported into 
the United Stales, and concur with you in opinion that his slock 
is decidedly the best we have had. His colts were the best racers 
of their day, although they were generally small; but their limbs 
were remarkably fine, and they were distinguished for their ability 
to carry weight. I owned some of the best of his colts. Bellair 
and Calypso 1 bred ; Grey Diomed and Quicksilver, I purchased 
from the profits which I realized from their successful performances 
on the turf. I have reason to hold Medley in grateful remembrance 

" As respects Bellair, he was strong built and rather stout, good 
eyes and remarkable fine bony legs : rather above fifteen hands. 
I do not think his bottom was surpassed by any horse on record ; 
if ever he locked his antagonist I felt confident of success. When 
he ran with Mr. Randolph's Gimcrack, he was in excessive bad 
order, after a long journey, in bad weather, from Maryland, — ■ 
they ran three 4 mile heats, in each of which Bellair mended, and 
was not beat far. I refused 500 guineas for him immediately after 
the race. 

" I concur with you respecting the old Virginia stock, which 
should not be lost." 

Having given an account of Col. Tasker's imported mare Selima, 
it may not here be improper to add that of Carter Braxton's im 
ported mare Kitty Fisher : as those two mares bied more fine stock 
in Virginia than any other imported mares brought to this country ; 
it being well known to the sportsmen and breeders for the turf, 
that some of the highest formed racers and stallions bred in that 
State were descended from those two mares. 

Kitty Fisher was a gray mare foaled in 1755, and imported by 
Carter Braxton in the fall of 1759. She was bought by Mr. Brax. 
ton, at New Market, England, in the spring of 1759, being then 
the property of the Marquis of Granby, and stood at the time en 
/aged in a sweepstake for 3600/. for three years old fillies ; but the 
Marquis being abroad with the British armies, he was allowed to 
withdraw himself from his racing engagements, and directed all his 
running stock to be sold. At the sale she was purchased as above 
and sent over to this country. She was got by Cade, (one of tho 
finest sons of the Godolphin Arabian) her dam by the Cullen Ara 
bian, out of the famous mare Bald Charlotte. (Bald Charlotte was 
a high bred mare, of the finest form and winner of King's plates.) 

Kitty Fisher was trained in this country and run, and won easily 
several matches. 

ft is peculiarly pleasing to recur to those periods in Virginia, 

when the blooded horse held such a high place in the estimation 

of the people; when men the most distinguisned for their wealth 

their talents or patriotism, were seen vying with each othei wio 



should import the finest blood horses or mares from England, o 
raise them from those already imported. It was the object of the 
writer, in the preceding pages, to call up those periods to review, 
and give an account of the most valuable stallions and mares, from 
which the Virginia stock were bred during those times, hoping il 
will serve to animate the breeders of the present day, and stimulate 
them to emulate their ancestors in their zeal and success in rearing 
the blood horse. 

Justice, a chesnut horse, fifteen hands high, was bred by Win. 
Manby, of Gloucestershire, England, and got by Regulus out of the 
Bolton Sweepstakes. Justice covered in Prince George county, 
Virginia, in 1761. 

Othello, a beautiful black, fifteen hands high, very strong was 
got by Mr. Panton's Crab, in England, out of the Duke of Somer- 
set's favorite brood mare. Othello covered in Virginia, on James' 
River, in 1761, and was a most capital stallion. He got Selim and 
the dam of Mark Anthony. 

Crawford, a fine dapple grey, 15 hands high, was bred by his 
royal highness the Duke of Cumberland, and got by his Arabian. 
Covered in Virginia in 1762. 

Juniper, a fine bay, 15 hands one inch high, foaled in 1752, was 
got by Babraham, one of the best sons of the Godolphin Arabian. 
The dam of Juniper by the Stamford Turk, &c. Juniper covered 
in Charles City, Va. in 1762, and was an excellent stallion. He is 
a remote cross in the Virginia pedigree. 

Ranter, a beautiful bay, 15 hands high, foaled in 1755, imported 
into Virginia in 1762, by Wm. S. Wadman. He was got by Dimple, 
a son of the Godolphin Arabian ; the dam of Ranter by old Crab, 
Bloody Buttocks, &,c. Ranter stood in Stafford County, Va. in 
1753, and is an old cross in our pedigrees. 

Aristotle, brown bay, 15 hands high, got by the Cullen Arabian, 
his dam by old Crab, &c. Aristotle was one of the finest and 
highest formed horses imported into Virginia in his day ; he pro- 
pagated a most valuable stock for the time he lived, having died 
shortly after coming into Virginia. He stood at Beikely, Charles 
City county, in 1764. 

Bucephalus, brown bay, 15 1-2 hands high, foaled in 1758, was 
got by Sir Matthew Wetherton's horse Locust, his (Km by Old 
Cade, Partner, &c. Bucephalus was a very strong hors*?, and stood 
at Tappahannock, Va. in 1765. 

David, a bay"horse, 15 hands high, well made, ver) active, and 
descended from the best stock in England Stood in Virginia 
in 1765. 

Dotterel!., a high formed horse, 15 1-2 hands high, a powerful 
strong boned horse, was got by Changeling, his dam by a son of 
Winn's Arabian, &c. Changeling was one of the finest horses in 
Fngland of his day Dotterell stood in Westmoreland county, Va 
in 1 7 66. 

Merry Tom, & beautiful bay, 4 feet 11 inches high, he was got 
by Regulus, (jne of the best sons of the Godolphin Arabian,' his 
•iniv by Locust, a son of Crab, his grandam by a son oi Haying 


' flilders, &c In 1702, he won 200 guineas sweepstakes at R.clt- 
uiond ; in 1753, lie won 50/. at Durham, and the noblemen and 
gentlemen's subscription at Cupar, in Scotland. Merry Tom stood 
in Prince George county, in 1707; lie was the sire of the noted 
horse Smiling Tom. 

Sterling, a fine dapple grey, foaled in 1762. was got by the Bell- 
size Arabian, (which Mr. J. Simpson offered 1500 guineas for,) out 
of Mr. Simpson's Snake mare; she was got by Snake, a son of the 
Lister Turk, out of the Duke of Cumberland's famous mare, the dam 
cf Cato. Sterling traces down to the famous old mare bred by Mr. 
Crofts at Raby, in Yorkshire, and sold to the Duke of Cleveland. 
Sterling was a very fine horse, and became famous as a valuable 
foal getter. He was owned by Win, Evans, and stood in Surry 
county, Va. in 1708. He did not exceed 15 1-2 hands in height. 

Lath, a Way horse, 15 hands one inch high, strong and bony, was 
got by Shepherd's Crab, his dam by Lath, a son of the Godolphin 
Arabian, &c. Lath was landed in this country in 1768, and won 
that year the 50/. weight for ago plate, at New Market, on long 
Island. In 1769 he won the Jockey Club purse of 100/ at Phila. 
delphia, beating the then best running horses in that State and 
from Maryland. In 1770, he also won the 100/. plate at the same 
place. In 1771, he won the 100/. plate at New Market, and never 
was beat but once, when he ran out of condition. Lath was de- 
scended from the most valuable blood in England, and contributed 
in an eminent degree to the improvement of the stock of horses ol 
his clay. 

Whirligig, was a dark bay 15 hands high, and was imported from 
England in the year 1773. He was got by Lord Portmore's bay 
horse Captain, (a son of young Cartouch,) his dam by the Devon- 
shire Blacklegs, son of Flying Childers, &c. In April 1769, when 
this fine horse was rising six years old, his owner received forfeit 
of 1000 guineas from Rapid ; the same year he beat Volunteer, for 
200 guineas. In October 1770, he beat Warwickshire Wag for 
100 guineas; and the same year he beat Atrides for 100 guineas, 
&.c. Whirligig stood to mares in Halifax county, N. C. in the 
year 1777. 

Sclitn. This beautiful and valuable stallion was a dark bay, a 
little rising 15 hands high, was got by Othello, (commonly called 
Black and all Black,) whose sire was old Crab. The dam of Selim 
was a beautiful mare of that name, got by the Godolphin Arabiar 
and full sister to the celebrated horse Babraham of England. Se- 
lim was a tried and approved racer, and a stallion of deserved 
celebrity. He stood in Virginia fiv>m the year 1770 to 1780, and 
propagated a valuable race of horses. 

A retrospect of the older stallions of Virginia, evinces the im. 
portant fact that they did not exceed from 15 to 15 1-2 hands in 
height ; and yet Virginia in those days had a stock of horses equal 
to any in the world. They were remarkable for substance or fine 
ftamina. This stock of horses was the immediate descendants of 
the best Arabian, Barb, or Turkish blood which nud been eanj 


imported into England from Oriental countries, and has exhibitec 
a degeneracy as to suhstauce or stamina, in proportion as it haa 
oeen removed from this elder foreign blood. 

The above stallions were the descendants of Oriental stock, as 
well as Janus and Fearnought, [who were the grandsons of the 
Uodolphin Arabian.] During the days of those horses and their 
offspring, Virginia was famed for her fine saddle horses, and tiieir 
weights on the ;urf was 144 lbs. foraged horses: now it is pro- 
verbial that the blood horse of Virginia rarely produces a fine sad. 
die horse, nor have they a single turf horse capable of running four 
miles in good time with their former weight. All their good races 
are now made by young horses carrying light weight, say from 90 
to 103 lbs. 

The same retrospect of the English stock discloses the same 
facts : Lawrence remarks, that a " retrospect seems to evince great 
superiority in the foreign horses of former times, many of the best 
English racers in these days, being the immediate descendants, on 
both sides, of Arabs, Barbs, or Turks, or their sires and dams. That 
union of substance and action, which was to be met with in for 
mer days, has been of late years still more scarce." 

As evidence of the correctness of Lawrence's opinion, it may 
be adduced that the established weights on the English turf, in 
former days: were increased to 1G8 lbs. and it was during this pe- 
riod that their horses continued to improve both in substance and 
speed, and notwithstanding the great weight of 168 lbs. they had 
to carry, they ran four miles from 7 minutes 30 seconds to 7 min 
utes 50 seconds. From the days of Eclipse, the weights were gra- 
dually reduced, and have been brought down to 1 19 lbs. and on no 
track exceeding 133 lbs. Yet there is not a racer now in England 
able to run his distance in as good time as they were in former 
days with their high weights. 

The present rage for breeding horses to a great height should 
not be so much attended to as obtaining the requisite substance, 
and from the above list we see that from 15 to 15 1-2 hands in 
height, has combined with it that necessary union of substance 
and action which enabled the horses in former times to run in 
such fine form and carry such high weights. The most obvious 
way to insure this desirable substance or stamina in our stock, is 
to increase the weights of the turf to the old standard, and not to 
permit colts to start in public until four years old. The great su- 
periority of the elder English race horses is in part to be attribu- 
ted to the favorable circumstance of their not having started in 
j-ublic until five or six years old. This delay has the obvious fa- 
vorable effect of enabling the bulk and substance of their limbs and 
inferior joints to become strong in proportion to their weight, and 
their whole tendinous system consolidated and firm. Flying Chil 
dcrs, Bay Bolton, Brocklesby, Betty, Bonny Black, Buckhunter, 
the famous Carlisle gelding, Eclipse, and a great number of others, 
du not race in public until five and six years old; and they were 
;acers of the highest eminence for performance and heavy weight, 
of any on record in the English annals of the larf. 


Tlic first itep towards an American Stud Book or collecting an 
account of our b.jod horses, is to ascertain the number of stal- 
lions imported from England, with their pedigrees annexed, be- 
cause it is to the importation of horses and mares from that king, 
dom, that we are indebted not only for the foundation of our stock 
of Turf Horses, but for their present value. There is not a pedigree 
of a single blood horse or mare in this country, but what goes in 
every cross directly or remotely back to English stock 




ABELINO, g. c. by Dragon, dam Celerrima. 

1804. John Hooines. 

ACQUITTAL, by Timoleon, dam (dam of Bolivar) by Sir Hal, fee. 

William Wynne. 
ACTEON, ch. h. oy Dandridge's Fearnought, dam [by imp'd] Fearnought, 

gr. dam by irnp'd Jolly Roger, out of an imp'd mare, &c. 

Chesterfield, Va. 1712. Thos. VVoolridge 
ch. c. bv Kosciusko, dam Artless. 

1829. S. Carolina. Harrison 

ACTTYE, by Chatam, dam Shepherdess, [by imp'd] Slim. 
AEaMANT, b. h. by Boxer, dam by Lindsay's Arabian, g. dam by Oscar, 

out of Kitty Fisher. 

1799. Nicholas Wynne. 
ADELINE, b. f. oy Henry, dam by Old Oscar, g. dam the Maid of Nor- 
thumberland, &c. New Jersey. J. Vandike. 
br. m. by Spread Eagle— Whistle Jacket — Rockingham — 

Old Cub, &c. 

1806. John Tayloe. 
Young, by Topgallant, dam Adeline by Spread Eagle. 

1809. John Tayloe. 

ADELA, b. f. by Ratlei, dam young Adeline. 

Dr. Irvine. 
ADELAIDE, b. f. by Thornton's Ratler, dam Desdemona by Miner E» 

cape, &c. 
ADRIA, b. f. by Pacific, dam Oceana. 

1831. J. Southall. 

ADMIRAL NELSON, [imp'd] b. h. by John Bull, dam Olivia, by Justice 

— Cypher, &c. 

Foaled 1795. William Lightfoot. 

AFRICAN, bl. h. by Careless, dam by Lloyd's Traveller, g«. dam bj 


Flatbush. 1788. A. Oiles. 

*f!NES, or the Thrift mart, by Bellair, dam by Wildair, gr. dam by 

Fearnought, &c. William Thrift. 
b. m. by Sir Solomon, (by Tickle Toby,) her dam Young 

Romp, by Duroc, g. dam Romp, by [imp'd] Messenger. 

1822. (>«*• OoUs» 



AGRiCOLA, bl. h. by Highflyer, dam by [imp'd] Dove, gr. dam Emery't 

;ioted running mare. 

Chesterfield, V a . Reuben Short. 

AGR1PPA, g. h. by the Wintei Arabian, dam by Harrison's Pretender, 

(who was by Hyde's [imp'd] Pretender,) g. dam by {imp'd) Dio- 

mede, &c. 

Kentucky. R. J. Breckenndge. 

AJAX, (See Kill Devil.) 
ALFRED SIR, (See Sir Alfred.) 
ALAR1CUS, by Haskin's Americus, dam (Henderson's) Young Medley, g. 

dam, by Thornton's Wildair, &c. 
ALEXANDER, [imp'd] was bred by Sir William Wynne, Bart, got by 

Lord Grosveuor's Old Alexander, (son of Eclipse) his dam Sweet- 
brier, g. dam out of Monimia's dam, who was by Alcides, her dam 

by Crab, out of Snap's dam, &c. 

Virginia. Win. Smalley. 
[Imp'd] got by Champion, dam Countess, &c. 

Claverick, New- York, 1797. 

gr. c. by Old Pacolet, dam Jenny Riland. 

\bv imp'd] Bedford, dam Imp'd mare Drone, &c. 

L Col. Piatt. 

ALEXANDRIA, sor. m. [by imp'd] Alexander, dam Black Maria by Shark. 

1811. J. Tayloe. 
[Imp'd] was by Alexander, her dam by Woodpecker, g. dam 

by Phlegon, out of Lord Egremont's Highflyer mare, &c. 

Foaled, 1796. John Hoomes. 

ALBEMARLE, by Diomede, dam Penelope, by Shark— Indian Queen by 

Pilgrim, &c. 
ALDERMAN, [Imp'd] got by Pot8os, dam Lady Bolingbrooke, by Squir 

rell, Cypron, the dam of king Herod, &c. 

John Banks. 
Mare, dk. b. by Alderman, dam by Clockfast, out of a Wil- 
dair mare. 

1799. J. Wickham. 

ALARM, [Imp'd] br. m. by Thunderbolt, dam Tadora, &c. 
ALABAMA PACOLET, (see Pacolet Alabama.) 
ALBERT, by Americus, dam by Wildair, (by Fearnought,) g. dam oy 

Vampire, g. g. dam by [lmp'd] Kitty Fisher. 

1798. Robert Saunders. 

ALCIDES, b. c. by Galatin, dam Clio, [by Imp'd] Whip. 

Richard A. Rapley. 
ALFRETTA, ch. f. by Christian's Hotspur, (by Timoleon,) dam Lady Al- 
fred, by old Sir Alfred. 

1831. Hugh Campbell. 

ALGERINA, b. f. by Jones' Arabian dam Equa. 

P. Wallis. 
ALIDA, ch. f. bv Bagdad, dam Nancy Nicnol, [by Imp'd] Eagle, her dam 

by Little Wonder, &c. W. W. 

\UERKER, a. g. by Old Sir Hal, dam by Wonder, her g. dam by Bellair, 

g. g. dam by Medley, &c. Win. D. Taylor. 

\LICE, gr. f. by Henry, dam Spirtmistress. 

Queens Cy. New-York, 1829. Thos. Pcarsall. 

ILICE GRAY, gr. f. by Brilliant, dam by Sir Archy. 

Foaled, 1829. Thomas Snowden, Jur 

*LLAKR'.)KA,b.m.byTelegraph,dam Crazy Jane by Sky Scraper 

Lewis Berk tv 


ALL 1*1* (/MPS, s. m. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp\l] Jack Andrews. 

Ricliard Adains 

ALL WORTHY, b. c. by Aratus, dam Miss Gatewood. 

ALKNOMAC, ch. c. by Kosciusko, dam by Buzzard, g. dam [by Imp^J] 
Speculutor, &.c. 
Kentucky. Ed. M. Blackburn. 

ALZIRA, by Archduke, dam by Bedford, g. dam by Pollyphetiuis, g. g. 
dam by Lloe out of Celesta. 

Win. Garnett. 

AMANDA, by Grey Diomede, dam Amanda by Bedford. 

Powhatan, Va. Wade Mosby. 

■ - b. in. by Bedford, dam by Old Cade, g. dam by Col. Hick- 

man's Independence, (by Fearnought,) out of Dolly Fine, &c. Fur- 
chased by J. Hoomes. J. Broaddus. 
-Duroc, b. m. by Duroc, dam by Sir Solomon, g. dam [Imp'dl 

Trumpetta. &c. 1827. 

AMAZON, by Dictator, dam Statira by Percy, g. dam Homespun b> Rom- 

18(10. Wade Hampton. 

AMAZONIA, b. m by Tecumseh — Sir Harry — Celer, &c. 

Nash. Cy. N C. 1815. Nath. Ward. 

AMAGAZA, b. m. [by /?«/>'</] Chance, dam by Carolinian — Chanticleer - 

Flimnap — Fearnought — Old Janus, &c. 
AMERICAN ECt/PSE, (or New- York,) s. h. by Duroc, dam Miller's 

Damsel, (bj Messenger,) g. dam [Imp'd] Pot8os mare by Eclipse, 


Dosiris, Long Island, N. Y. Foaled, 1814. C. W. Van Ranst. 
AMERICA or GIFT, ch. h. by Old Fearnought, dam by Jolly Roger, g. 

dam by Dabster. 

Bred by Ralph Wormley, 1775. Augustin Miller, 

ch s. h. by Smiling Tor out of a Blooded mare. 

York Town, Va. 1777. 

-b. m. by Sir Peter, dam Diana by Americus. 

AMER1CUS, [by Imp'd) Shark, dam by Wildair, (by Fearnought,) g. uatn 
by Vampire, out of Braxton's Kitty Fisher. 
King and Queen, Va. 1798. John Hoskins. 

— — — [/;(/ Imp'd] Fearnought, dam [Imp , d] Blossom. 

AMY ROBSART, ch. f. by Gracchus, dam Lady Bunbury. 

J. Randolpn. 
ANASTATIA, b. m. by Tom Tough, dam by Hoskins' Americus, g. dam by 

Boxer, &c. 
ANDREW JACKSON, b. h. by Virginian, dam by Sir Arthur, g. dam by 

ANDROMACHE, by Old Cub, her dam by Sweeper, g. dam Clarissa, [by 
Imp^d) Ranger. 

Washington, 1808. Wm. Thornton 

ANGELINA, b. f. [by Imp'd} Norris' Paymaster, dam Shrewsberry Nan by 

Cecil Cy. Maryland, 1795. Th. M. Fonnan. 

ANNA, b. f. by Truxton, dam Dido by Caeur de Lion. 

ANNETTE, by Old Shark, dam by Rockingham, g. dam by Galatin. 

Lewis Willis 
ANTOINETTE, b. f. bv Marshal Ney dam Camilla by Timoieon. 

Raleigh, N. C. 1830. C. Manly 

VNV1L, [by Imp^d] Cormorant, dam b) Jellair, gi. Jam an [/«/;■'</] maie 

Laialou Cari«*« 


iNVELlNA, [ImfiT] h. m. Presented by Mr. O'Kelly in 1799 to Col J. 

Tayloe, she was by Anvil out of O'Kelly's famous mare Augusta b» 

Eclipse. Sold Co!. Alston of S. Carolina. 
vPOLLO, dk. b. h. by Old Fearnought, dam Spotswood's [Imp^d] Culier 

Arabian mare. 

1777. Richard Elliott. 

\PPARITION, [Tmp , d] b. c. by Spectre, dam young Cranberry, (bred by 

Eatl Grovesnor,) by Tlumderbolt out of Cranberry, by Sir Peter, 

&,c. [Imj^d\ into New-York. 
\RABIAN Lindsay's or Ranger, presented by the Emperor of Morocco tr 

the captain of an English vessel, and landed in the West Indies ■ 

there he broke three of his legs, and was made a present to a gentle. 

man from Connecticut, where he went by the name of Ranger. 

Captain Lindsay was sent by General Lee, in 1777-8, who purchased 

him and brought him to Virginia. See American Farmer, vol. ? 

page 22:3. 
— Jones'. A dapple grey 15 hands high, black legs, mane and 

tail. Selected in Tunis by Major Stith, American Consul there, and 

purchased for Commodore Jacob Jones of the United States Navy 

See American Farmer, vol. 10. page 127., g. h. presented by Murad Bey to the late Gen. Sir F 

Abercrombie, and after his death he became the property of Com- 
nodore Barron, of whom he was purchased, and afterwards sold 
and carried to Kentucky. 
1815. John Tayloe 

-Winter's. Was captured during the last war, (1814,) then 
one year old, by the privateer Grampus, of Baltimore, on board the 
brig Doris, his Majesty's transport, No. 650, on his passage from 
Senegal in Africa, to Portsmouth, England, and was intended as a 
present for the then Prince Regent, late king of England. This 
norse was sold, and purchased by E. J. Winter, member of Con- 
gress, from the State of New- York. This Arabian is now white, and 
about four feet nine inches high. 

-Bagdad. Was purchased by George Barclay, Esq. of New- 

York, from Hassana de Gris, Minister to England from Tripoli, who 
imported him to England, as a horse of the purest Arabian blood : he 
was purchased by a Company in Nashville, Tennessee, for $8,000. 

-Bussora. [Imp , d] from the land of Job, for which $4,000 

was paid. Stood at New- York. 

-Ballesteros, dk. br. formerly the propertv of Ferdinand 

King of Spain, and still bears the Royal Mark. When the French 
Army got possession of Madrid, the steed belonging to the King of 
Spain, was taken by the Spanish nobles, carried to Cadiz and there 
sold. Amongst others was young Ballesteros — he became the pro- 
perty of Richard S. Hackley, Esq. Consul at that place, who dis 
posed of him to Captain Singleton, of Philadelphia, who brought 
him to this country, and sold him to Thomas Guy of Richmond, Va 
he got some colts in the State of Delaware. 
Broad Rock, \ t. 1816. William Ball. 

- - i ARABARii, bl. j7/n/>V] by Col. Lear, a large strong horse, 

well proportioned but not handsome; he was the sire of the dam o/ 
Fairfax. Col. Leai. 

ARABIA, bl. h. by Old Janus, from a blood mare by an [hnp^d] Horse. 
Cumberland Cy. Va. 1777. Thomas Moody. 

• Felix, ch. in. by Aral, dam by Shylock. 

Thomas T Tabb. 


A.RAB, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Bet Bounce, by Sir Harry. 

Brunswick Cy. Va. 1829. 
ARATUS, b. h. by Director, dam (Star's dam) by Sir Harry, g. dam*b» 
Sattram, &c. (dead.) 

J. J. Harrison 
ARABELLA, br. f. by Arab, dam by Virginian, g. dam by Old Sir Archy 


by Dare Devil, dam a Clockfast mare. 

Richmond, 18:23. Samuel McCraw. 

ARCHER, \Im]fd.~\ A bay horse got by Flagergill, dam sister to Crassus, 
by Eclipse, Young Cade, Rib, Partner, Greyhound, &c. 
Virginia, 1802. T. Reeves. 

ARCH DUKE, Ump'd.] A brown bay got by Sir Peter Teazle, dam Ho- 
ratio by Old Eclipse — Countless by Blank. 

Richmond, 1803. John Banks. 

ARCHIBALD, [Imp'd] bred by the Duke of Hamilton, and foaled in 1801. 
He was got by Walnut son of Highflyer, his dam the bay Javelin 
mare, her dam Young Flora, sister to Spadille by Highflyer, &c. 

William Smalley. 
ARCH DUCHESS, by Sir Archy, dam Duchess. (Blind.) 

John Randolph. 
ARCHY SIR, (Benehans) by Old Sir Archy, dam by Eagle, gr. dam [by 
Imp'd] Druid, g. g. dam by Old Mark Anthony. 

[Neajl's] by Old Sir Archy, dam Virginia. 

J. Jackson. 

Minikin, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam Young Minikin. 

John Randolph. 

— — Grf.y, ^See Grey Archy.) 

ARIADNE, [by Imp'd] Citizen, dam by Blank. 

Col. Holcombe. 

. by Bedford, dam Mambrino. 

J. Hoomes. 

— by Ball's Florizelle, dam Thunderclap, (bred by Mr. Wick« 

ham, Richmond,) g. dam Ariadne, by Bedford. 
ARIEL, b. f. by Young Contention, dam Kilty [by Iinp'd] Whip. 

Georgia, 1830. Charles A. Rudd. 

—(brother lo Partner,) by Morton's Traveller, dam Col. Task- 

er's Selima, &.c. 
Richmond Cy. Va. 1754. 

, — (or Erie!,) by American Eclipse, dam Empress by Financier. 

-by Old Tanner, dam by Galloway's Selim, g dam an [lmp'd. j 

Maryland, 1 782. 
ARIETTA, b. m. by Virginian, dam by Shjdock. 
ARION, ch. h. by Polyphemus, dam Leeds, gr. dam by Traveller out of 

[Imp^d] mare Pocahontas. 

Spencer Ball. 
ARISTOTLE, [Tmp'd] b. h. by the Cullen Arabian, his dam by Old Crab, 

g. dam by Hobgoblin, Godolphin Arabian, &c. 

Charles City Cy. Va. 1764. Hodgkin. 

. b. in. by Aristotle, dam an [Tmp'd] mare from Lord Cullen'* 

ARM1NDA, by Medley, dam by Bolton, gr. dam Sally Wright by Yor'-ck. 

1790. J. Hoomes. 

ARIMLN'NA, by Brimmer, dam Peyton Randolph's Lovely Lass, &c. 
ARRAKOOKER, Imp\l] br. by Drone, cut of a Chatswortn mare, her aanr 

by Engineer — Drone by Herod. 

Foaied, 1789. Imported by Dr. Tate 



ARRAKOOKRESS, ch. m. by Arrakooker, dam Young Hope by *► 
mede, &rv. 

ARTLESS, b. m. by a son of [Imp'd] Bedford, dam a Ratth de Cashe bj 
Tenor, he by Janus, &.C. 
S. Carolina, 1809. Harrison. 

ASPACIA, gr. m. by Bellair, dam Polly Peachem. 

1795. . J. Tayloe. 

ASSIDUOUS, \hy Imp'd] Wonder, dam by American Eagle. 

ATLAS, b. h. [by Imp^d] Ranter, dam [by Imp'd] Lansdale out of an 
Imported mare. 
Bait. Cy. 1787. M. Nestor. 

ATLANTIC, (bred by T. B. Hill,) by Archy, dam by Phoenix. (Broke 
down young.) 

ATALANTA, ch. f. by Old Slouch, dam Brilliant mare. 

South Carolina, 1791. Win. Alston. 

— — b. m. by Hart's [Imp'd] Medley, dam Pink by Old Mark An- 
thony, g. dam by Jolly Roger, &c. 
1787. James Blick. 

by Sir Harry, dam by Melzar son of Medley, &c. 

by Dictator, dam Duchess by Hero, &c. 

by Lindsay's Arabian, dam Kitty Fisher by Regulus. 

— b. f. by Roanoake, dam Young Minikin, <fec. 

J. Randolph. 

ATTALUS, b. c. by Pacotaligo, dam Miss Crawler by Crawler — Melzar, 

AUGUSTA, [Imp'd] by Sattram, dam by Wildair— Clockfast- -Apollo- 
Jan us — Jolly Roger, &,c. 
Foaled, 1802. William Rives. 

AURORA, gr. m. by Gov. Lloyd's Vintzun, dam Pandora by Grey Dio 
mede. Thomas Emery, 

b. f. by Aratus, dam Paragon [by Imp'd] Buzzard. 

[by Imp^d] Honest John, dam Zelippa by Old Messenger — 

Bay Richmond, &c. 

by Oscar, dam Pandora. 

by Marplot, dam Camilla by Percy. 

Richard A. Rapley. 

AURELIA, [Imp^d] by Anville, dam Augusta by Eclipse, Herod, Bajazett, 
&c 1800. 

gr. f. by Winter's Arabian, dam Sophy Winn by Blackburn's 

AURA, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Amy Robsart. 

J. Randolph. 

A URINE, br. f. by Whip, dam Arrakookress. 

AUTOCRAT, [Imp'd] gr. h. sixteen and a half hands high, by Grand 
Duke, dam Olivetia, (by Sir Oliver,) g. dam Scotini by Delphini, 
Scotta by Eclipse, &c. Grand Duke by Arch Duke out of Hand- 
maid by John Bull, &c. 
Foaled, 1822. 


8AHRAHAM, [by Imp^d^ Juniper, dam Col. Tasker's [Imp'd) Selima, (fee 
Philadelphia, 1780^ Jacob Hiitzheimer. 

BACCHUS, b. c. by Sir Archy, dam by Rattler, (by Shaik,) g. dam by 
Wildal.. Wilkinson. 


6A DGER, [Imp'd] gr. h. by Bosphorus, (a son of Babraham) dam by Black 

and ail Black — Flying Chiklers, &c. 

N. Carolina, 1777. Gov. Eden. 

■ ' ■ [by Imp'd] Badger, dam by Galloway's Selim out of an impd 

mare by Spot. 

Maryland, 1806. Benjamin Ogle. 

BACDAI),*(See Arabian Bagdad.) 
BAINBR1DGE, [by Imp'd] Dion, dam Campbell's grey mare, bred in Ma 

ryland, got by Marcus and her dam by Moscow. (Died at 5 or b 

years old.) 
BAJAZETT, [Imp'd] by tne Godolphin Arabian, dam by Whitefoot-- 

Leedsman — Moouah — Barb Mare. 

- (Little Devil,) by Dare Devil, dam Miss Fauntleroy. 

1801. John Tayloe. 

(Young,) b. h. by Bajazett, dam a Janus mare, (bred by B. 

Moore, N. Carolina.) 

King and Queen, Va. 1774. 
BALD EAGLE, b. c. by Spread Eagle, dam Broadnax by Old Janus, &c. 

J. Breckenridge. 

" bv American Eclipse, dam Lady Lightfoot. 

BALLY SHANNON, by Wedding Day, dam Miss Fauntleroy. 

1801. J. Tayloe. 

BALL HORNET, b. by Black and all Black, dam Rosetta by Shylock. 
BALLESTEROS, (See Arabian Ballesteros.) 
BANGO SE1B, by Bedford dam, dam of Byron by Archy. 

R. Benehan. 
BARONET, [Imp'd] b. h. by Virtumnus son of Eclipse, his dam Penulti 

ma by Snap — Old Cade — Childers, &c. 

This horse was imp'd into New- York with Pot8os mare, the gr. 

flam of Am. Eclipse. 
BAREFOOT, [Imp'd] was by Tramp, (he by Dick Andrews out of a Go- 

hanna mare,) dam Rosamond by Buzzard out of Roseberry, sister o/ 

Huby and Tartar by Phenomenon out of Miss West by Matchem, 

&c. So' 1 in England for over $12,000. 

Foaled 1820. [Imp'd] by Sir Isaac Coffin, 1825-6. 
BARBARA, b f. by Roanoake, dam Wakefield. 
B«\ RONESS, b. m. by Potomac, dam by Young Baronet, gr. dam [by imp'd, 

Bedford, g. g. dam [byimp'd] Shark, &c 
BARON BOSTROP, gr. c. by Roanoake, dam Miss Ryland. 

1325. J. Randolph. 

FARON TRENCK, by Sir Archy, dam by Old Galatin, g. dam [Imp'd] by 

Gov. Telfair of Georgia. 

Wm. Terrell. (Georgia.) 
BASHAW, b. h. [by Imp'd] Wildair, damDe Lancey's [Imp'd] Cub mare 

New Jersey. 
Mare, dk. ch. [oy Imp'd] Bashaw, Imp'd Jolly Roger, Aris- 
totle, Merrypintle, &c. dam an Imp'd mare from Lord Cullen's 

RAY RICHMOND, [Imp'd] by Feather, dam Matron by tne Cullen Aia- 

bian, Bartlett's Childers, &c. 

BAY BOLTON, by Bolton, which was bred by the Earl of North.imnri 

land, and owned by William Lightfoot of Charles C : *y Cy. Va. dans 

[Imp'd] Blossom. 
BAY COLT, [Imp'd] a dk. b. got by Highflyer, dam by Ellipse from Yortif 

Cade, which was the dam of Vauxhall, also dam ol Dulcina, »Lc 


v Imported by Wm. Barksdale.) 

Manchester, Va. 1797. Jos. Strange 

(Sold Dy John Baylor,) [by Imp'd] Tup, dam by Old Shark, 

g. dam Betsy Pringle by Fearnoirglu. 

-Mare, by Bedford, dam by Old Cade, g. dam by Hickman's 


J. Broadus. 
PAY YANKEE, by President, dam Cora by Obscurity. 
BAY BETT, b. in. by Ratler, dam b. m. bred by Isaac Duckett of Mary 
land in 1809, got by Dr. Thornton's [Imp'd] horse Clifden, her dam 
by Richard Hall's Tom by imported Eclipse. 

Gen. C. Irvine. 
BAY MARIA, b. f. by American Eclipse, dam Lady Lightfoot, &c. 

BAY DOLL, by Sans Culotte, out of the dam of Spot. 

J. Randolph 
BEAL T TYb.f.byRavenswood, dam Everlasting. 

John Randolpn. 
b. m. by Diomede, dam Virginia, full sister of Desdemona. 

J. M. Seldert. 
BECCA JOLLY, cli. f. by Sir William, dam by Ragland's Diomede, gr. 

dam [by Imp'd] Dion. 
BEDFORD, [Imp'd] by Dungannon, (he by Eclipse,) dam Fairy by High* 
flyer, Fairy Queen by Young Cade, &.c. 
Bowling Green, Va. 1792. John Hoomes. 

. (Bland's) [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam Pandora by Bellair. 

Mark, [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam by imported Dare Devil. 
Foaled, 1810. Greensville, Va. Thomas Spencer. 

Mark, (Old) [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam by imp'd Coeur da 

Lion — Fortuna by Wildair, &c. 

R. K. Meade. 

b. h. by Consul, dam [by Imp'd] Bedford. 


BEDLAMITE, b. m. by Cormorant, dam Madcap— Arvil, &c. 

1799. J.Tayloe. 

ch. c. by Janus, dam by Young Frenzy. 

J. RandolpH. 
BEGGAR GIRL, by Sir Arch v. 

. — b. f. [by Imp'd] Baronet, dam Betsv Bell. 

BEHEMOTH, (late Hamlet) br. by Bagdad, dam Rosy ClaciC. 
BELLAIR, gr. h. by Old Medley, dam Selima by Yorick. 

J. Tayloe. 
— — — — (Cooke's) gr. h. by Bellair, dam by Independence cut of a 

Virginia mare, &c. 
BELLAR1A, by Bellair, dam Sweetest. 

1796. J. Tayloe. 
— by Bellair, dam Narcissa by Wildair. 

1 797. Tyler. 

BELL1SSIMA, b. f. by Melzar, dam by Old Wildair, Fluvia, &c 

1K07. J. 'idyloe. 

BELINDA, b. m. by Escape (Alias Horn's) dam by Bedford. 
BELLONA, by Bellair, dam Indian Queen [by Imp'd] Pilgrim. 
BELLVILLE, by Bellair, dam Indian Queen [by Imp'd] Pilgrim. 
BELMONT, by Tanner, dam by Selim out of an {Imp'd} man.. 
WELV1DERA, b. c. by Symme's Wildair, dam [by Imp'd] Clockfast, gr 

dam by Old Yorick, &c. 

Brunswick Cy. Va. 1798. Hartwell 'i'ucke* 


BELVIDERA, b. f. byRoanoake, dam Archy Minikin. 

John Ranrtolph. 

BEN COUPER, gr. c by Messenger, dam Temptation by Heath's Guilders 

BENYOWSKI, b. h. by Americus, (by Diomede) dam [Imp'd] Anvelina. 
1802. John Tayloe. 

BERGAMOT, [Imp'd] got by Highflyer, dam Orange Girl by Matchem- 
Red Rose by Babraham — Blaze — Fox, &.c. 
Charles City Cy. Va. 1787. Win. Lightfoot. 

BERNADOTTE, (Wind flower) by Ball's Florizelle, dam [by Imp'd] Bed- 
ford, g. dam bv Quicksilver — Victorious, &c. 

BERTRAND, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Eliza [by Imp'd] Bedford, g. dam 

-Junior, ch. by Bertrand, dam Transport. 

South Carolina, 1827. J. B. Richardson. 

BET BOUNCE, b. r. by Sir Harry, dam Atalanta by Old Medley, &c. 

Foaled, 1825. 
BETTY, ch. f. by Contention, dam Flora by Ball's Florizelle. 

Loudon, Va. J. Lewis. 

BETSY ARCHER, bv Old Sir Archy, dam Weazle. 

E. Irby. 

Andrews, ch. by Sir Archy, dam by Jack Andrews. 

. Baker, gr. f. by Buzzard, dam Portia. 

— — br. m. [by Imp'd] Shark, dam by Romulus, — St. George, 

Hay lines' Old Poll by Fearnought 

-b. m. by Florizelle, dam Tartar mare by Old Fearnought, etc 

' ~ j - — ^ J — C* w l 

— Blossom, dk. b. by Superior, (by Old Superior,) dam bj 
niton's Wildair out of a Dare Devil mare. 


■Bell, b. f by Mr. McCaiihy's Cub, dam Temptation. 

-Haxall, (See Roxaia) 

-Hi nt, br. m. by Sir Hal, dam by Dion- — Quickstep- — Shark 

Wildair- — Clockfast, &c. 

Mapison, ch. f by Madison, dam Maria by Archy. 

Pearson, ch. by Tom Tough, clam [by Imp'd.] Diomede. 

Wm. D. Taylor. 

-Pringle, by Old Fearnought, dam [Imp'd] Jenny Dismal. 

-Ransom, gr. in. by Virginian, dam Old Favourite by Beliair. 

■Robinson, b. f by Tbaddeus, dam Maiia b> Sir Archy— 

[Imp'd] Sir Harry-— Dare Devil, &c. 
-Bobbins, ch. f. by Kosciusko, dam by Hephesbon, g. darn 

Arion, g. g. dam by Romulus. 

by South Carolina, lKifi. B. F. Taylor. 

— Ruffin, ch. m. by Virginian, dam by Irby's Shylock, g. dam 

T i- Burton. 

Saunders, gr. f by Stockholder, nam by Pacolet. 

Taylor, ch. in. by First Consul, dam [by Imp'd] Obscurity 

Philadelphia Cy 

-Wilson, by Ratray, dam by Oscar 

1827. Col. Emer". 
Wu.ks, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Bedford, g. dam by Daw 

Devil, g. g. dam bv Lamplighter, &c 
BIG BEN, [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam Pandora by B^llair. 

See Phenomenon, also Charlemont or Strange's Traveller 

BLACK MARIA, by American Eclipse, dam Lady Lightfooi. 

'82i5. J. C. Stcpnent 
by Shark, dam by Clockfast, g. dam Maria by Regains, to 

18<M ' Tavloa. 


BLACK MERINO, by Vintzun, dam by Comet, g. dam bj Don Carlos- 
Old Figure, &c. 
BLACK GHOST, [by Imp'd} Oscar, dam Pill Box by Lmp'd Pantaloon — 

Melpomone, &c. 

Dr. A. Dixon, (Va.) 

by Oscar, dam Melpomone, &,c. 

BLACK EYED SUSAN, by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Druid, g. dam bt 

imp'd Saltram. 

1812. C. Harrison. 
by Potomac, dam by Galatin — by Diomede, &c. 

1819. Stephen Hester. 

frLACK AND ALL BLACK, by Madison, dam Virago by Whip. 

[by Imp'd] Brunswick, dam by Ariel, g. dam Brent's Ebony, 

g. g. dam imp'd Selima. 

Pennsylvania, 1780. Elihu Hall. 

[Imp'd.] (See Othello.) 

BLAKEFORD, ch. c by Gov. Wright's Silver Heels, dam Selima by Top- 
gallant — Gabriel — Chatam, &c 

Maryland. Robert Wright, Jun. 

BLACK JACK, b. c by Carolinian, dam by Miner's Escape, (or Horn's.) 
BLACK ROSE, bl. m. by Stockholder, (by Sir Archy,) dam by Hamilto- 

niau, [by Imp'd Diomede,] g. dam by Columbus, (by imp'd Panta- 
loon^ oirt of Ladv Northumberland, &c. 

Frederick Cy. Va. 1826. D. H. Allen. 

BLAZE, [Imp'd] by Vandall, (by Spectator,) dam the sister of Chrysolite 

by Truncheon — Regulus — Partner, &c. 

York, Va. 1796. Hugh Nelson. 

br. c by Roanoake, dam Miss Peyton. 

J. Randolph. 
BLAZELLA, [by Imp'd] Blaze, dam Jenny Cameron. 
BLACK PRINCE, by Don Carlos, (he by Figure) dam by Figure, g. dam 

by Dove — Othello, &c. 

Maryland, 1783. 
by Marion, dam Lady Burton, &c. 

BLACK WARRIOR, [by Imp'd] Merryfield. 

by Black Warrior. 

BLACK TOM, by Tom Jones, dam an imp'd mare. 
BLEMISH, b. m. by Gracchus, dam imp'd Duchess. 

1819. H. Burwell. 

BLOSSOM, [Imp'd] by Old Sloe, her dam by Regulus the sire of Fear 

nought, &c. 

Thomas Nelsou, (Va.) 
■ Imp'd] dap. gr. by Bordeaux, dam by Highflyer, g. dam by 

Eclipse out of Vauxiinii's dam by Young Cade, &x. 

Pennsylvania. John Mayo. 

BLUE SKIN, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Miss Ryland, &c. 

J. Randolph. 

. Mare, by Baylor's Fearnought, dam an imp'd mare. 

BLUE RUIN, by Gracchus, dam Duetta, &.c. 

BLUSTER, [bnp'd] by Orlando, (son of Whiskey,) out of a Highflyer mare 

sister to Escape by Pegasus, her dam by Squirrel, &c. 

Petersburgh, Va. James Dunlop. 

BOASTER, [Imp'd] b. h. by Dungannon, dam by Justice, Mariame bf 

Squirrel —Miss Meredith by Cade, &c. 

r oaled, 1 795. W alter Bell. 

BOLIVAR, by Sir Hal, dam by Old Diomede— -Wildair— Apollo, &c 


BOLIVAR, gr. Oscar,(by Wonder,) dam by Pacolet, Truxton,&o. 

. by Sir Robert Wilson, dam Darning Needle. 

b, h. by Ratler, dam by Sir Solomon. 

1826. Wright 

BOLTON, [Imp'd] b. by Shock, owned by Mr. Lightfoot of Charle* 

City, Va. 

Foaled, 1752. 
Mare, ch. by Bolton, dam Sally Wright by Yorick. 

Foaled, 1776. John Hoomes. 

BOMBARD, [by Imp'd] Obscurity, dam by Pillgarlic, g. dam by 

Imp'd Jack of Diamonds, &c. 
BONNETS O'BLUE, gr. f. by Sir Charles, dam Reality by Sir Archy 

Wm. R. Johnson. 
BONNY BLACK, b f. by Bagdad, dam Fancy. 

Tennessee. D. W. Sumner. 

BONNY LASS, (L. Hardimans,) by Jolly Roger, dam [Imp'd] Bonny 


[Imp'd] by Ray Bolton. 

BONAPARTE, b. by Col. Tayloe's Grey Diomede, dam by Matchem, g. 

dam by Marius — Si'ver Heels, &c. 

Maryland. Sam. Norwood. 

BOREAS, b. c. by McCarthy's cub, dam Shrewsbury Nan, by Bajazet, <fcc. 

KentCy. Md. 1791. 

BOXER, [Inj Imp'd] Medley, dam by Baylor's Fearnought, g. dam by Jolly 

Roger, &c. 

Goochland Cy. J. Curd. 
by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Druid — Symme's Wildair- 

Americus, &,c. 

Ohio, 1830. P. Claiborne. 

BRANDON, by Aristotle, dam by Old Janus. 
BRAVO, b. c by Henry, dam Gulnare, &c. 

Queens County, N. Y. 1829. Tho. Pearsall. 

BRENDA, ch. f. by Gracchus, dam Mariana. 

F. B. Whiting. 
b. m. by (Ame's) Sir Archy, dam Madame Lavalette. 

Foaled, 1823. J. J. Ambler. 

BRITANNIA, [Imp'd] b. m. was got by Pegasus, dam Peggy, was veiy 

fleet, but invariably bolted. 

1800. John Tayloe. 
by Wildair, dam [hy Imp'd] Aristotle, g. dam by Imp'd 

Vampire out of Imp'd Britannia. 

1792. Col. Symme. 

-full sister to True Briton, dam Col. Gant's Milly, full siste« 

to Hopper's Pacolet, &c. 

-dk. gr. m. by True Briton, dam Duke of Cumberland's Ebo 

ny, &,c. 

Maryland, 1769. 
BRIGHT PHOEBUS, full brother to Miller's Damsel. 
BRILLIANT, [Imp'd] gr. by Phenomenon, dam Faith by Pacolet- Att 

lanta by Matchem, &x. 

Foaled, 1791. J. Taj toe. 
br. c. by Sir Archy, aam Bet Bounce. 

1820. W. R Johnson 

■ — b. c. by Marplot, dam Brilliant mare. 

1797. Joseph Atston 

-Chichester's, by Timoleon, dam Caroline by Marshall 

Fairfax County, Va. 1828. 


BRILLIANT, ch h. by Eden's [Imp'd] Badger, dam by Othello, gi. dam hi. 

Morton's Traveller, &.C. 

Towsen's Tavern, Maryland, 1736. J. R. Holliday. 

■ ■■ ■ - Mark, [by Imp'd] Matchem, dam Imp'd was by Brilliant, 


1799. Ed. Fen wick. 

BRIMMER, b. h. by (Harris 1 ) Eclipse, dam Polly Flaxen. 

Powhatan County, Va. 1777. T. Turpm. 
b. h. by H =rod, dam by Robin Redbreast, g. dam by Shark — 

Cine, &c. 

John Goode. 

[by Imp'd] Valiant, dam by Jolly Roger. 

BROADNAX, by Old Janus, dam by Apollo, g. dam by Fearnought, g. g* 

clam by Jolly Roger, &c. 

1784. Broadnax. 

BROWN FILLY, [Imp'd] was by Sir Peter Teazle out of the dam of Horn's. 

S. Caro'ma, 1802. John McPherson. 

BRUNSWICK, [Imp'd] (railed Lightfbot in England,) was gol by On* 

nooko, a son of Crab, (Black and All Black) out of iVFtss S lamer- 
kin. Brunswick's dam by Babraham, a son of Godolphin Arabian, 

BRUNSiMUTT, dk. br h. by Brunswick— [Imp'd] Ranter— Imp'd Dab- 
ster, &c. 
BRUNETTE, full sister to Gohanna. 

b. f. by Telegraph. 

b. f. by Roanoake, dam Archy Minikin. 

J. Randolph. 
BRYAN O'LYNN, [Imp'd] by A ston, dam by De Sang— Regulus— Part 

ner — Brocklesby's Betsy, by the Curwen bay Barb. Foaled, 1796. 

Worth Carolina, 1803. Turner.. 

BUCKSKIN, by Mark Anthony, dam Brandon. 

B. Harrison. 
BUCEPHALUS, [Imp'd] br. h. got by Sir M. Witherton's Locust, dam bj 

Old Cade, g. dam by Partner. 

Foaled, 1758. Archibald Ritchie. 
— s. h. by Craig's Yorick, dam by Careless. 

King Williara Cy. Va. 1777. Reuben Butler, 

-b. h. by Symnie's Wildair, &c. 

1807. Col. Ed. Ward. 

-by Granby, dam Maria Slamerkin. 

BUFFALO, b. c. bv Bagdad, dam Anna by Truxton. 

BUSSORA (See Arabian Bussora.) 

BULLE ROOK, (Old) [by Imp'd] Sparks out of a full Wooded mare. 

BURK, ch. c. by Stockholder, dam Eliza by Bagdad. 

BURSTER, ch. h. by Rasselas, dam by TopgaJlant, g. dam, [by Imp'd' t 

Play or Pay — Bellair, &x. 

Wm. Cleveland. 
BURSTALL by Shvlock, dam Pare Devil mare. 
BURWELL'S TRAVELLER. v See Traveller Burwell's.) 
BUXOMA, ch. f. by Pulaski, dam Virginia Nell. 

1829. J. Blick. 

BUZZARD, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Woodpecker, dam by Dux — Curiosity by 

Snap — Regulus, &,c. 

1787. J. Hocmes. 

— ~- . gr. h. by a son of Old Buzzard, dam Pandora by Bellair, Ac. 

Oi.n, ch. m. [hy Imp'd] Buzzard, dam by Diomede, gr dam 

r>v Boyer, &c. 


BUZZARD, Yoi'NG, m. by Hamilton*™ (of Va.) dam Old Buzzard [1$ 

/«?//(/] Buzzard, g. d. by Diomede, &c. 
■ ■ - ■ Mare, ch. by Buzzard, dam Symmetry, bought by M Aip« 


Geo. Jefferson 


CADMUS, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam by Shylock, g. dam [by [mp'd] Btd 

ford, &c. 

Kentucky. N. Hutchcrofu 

CADE, by Old Partner, dam [Imp'd] Kitty Fisher. 

1780. Wm. Lumpkin. 
ch. c. bv Ajax, dam Tartar maro, &.c. 

CAIRA, ch. by Wildaii, (by Fearnought,) dam by Sloe, the dam of Grey 


1 796. Richard Brooke. 

CALYPSO, g. m. by Medley, dam Selima by Yorick. 

1793. J. Tayloe. 

b. f. by Chance Medley, dam by Vintzun. 

Col. Chambers- 

by Nolimetangere, dam Lady Dudley by First Consul. 

CALENDER, ch. h. by American Eclipse, dam Princess by Sir Archy, g 

dam a full flooded mare. 
CALISTA. gr. f. by Roanoake, dam Miss Peyton. 

J. Randolph. 
CALM EC, ch. c. by Timoleon, dam Fair Forester, &,c. 

1331. Dr. Goodwin. 

CAMDEN, by Old Janus, dam Polly Haxen. 

King and Queen, Va. 1782. Har y Gaines. 

CAMELEON, dk. br. m. by Virginian, dam Rosetta [iy Imp^d] Dion. 
CAMILLA, [fmp'd] by Dove, &c. 

by Tanner, dam Stella by Tasker's Othello. 

Henry Carter. 
■ cr ^. by Timoleon, dam Duchess by Bedford. 

Halifax, U. C. Robert A. Jones. 

by Old Wildair, dam Minerva by Obscurity. 

Wm. Broadnax. 
gr. m. by Old Peace Maker, (by Diomede,) dam Lady Eagle 


Albemarle, Va. Walter Coles. 

— by Old Fearnought, dam Calista. 

-b. m. by Bolingbroke, dam by Thornton's Diomede, he tt 

Ball's Florizefie— [Imp'd] Whip, &c. 

King and Queen Cy. Va. 1826. Hugh Campbell. 

■ b. f. by Bluster, [bnp'd] son of Orlando, dam Jet. 

J. Randolph 

__ ch. m. by Sumpter dam, by Robin Gray, <fec. 

Tho. Stephens 
C AMILLUS, b. h. by Burwell's Traveller, dam Camilla by Old Fearnougb' 

Foaled, 1773. 

Prince George, Va. 1782. John Gordon. 

CANDIDATE, b. c by Cormorant, dam by Mexican out of Maria, &c 

Freds. James Smock. 

(late Eutaw,) ch. c. by Virginius, jam Peggy by Bedford 

CANTAB, ch. h. by Pantaloon, dam Selima b> Yorick. 



CARDINAL PUFF, [Imp'd] by Cardinal Puff, dam by Bardy, g. dam W 

Matchem, &,c. 

Herring Bay, Maryland, 1737. Sam. Harrison 

CARLO, [Imp'd] b. h. by Balloon, dam own sister to Peter Pindar by Java 

lin, g. dam Sweetheart by Herod — Snap, &c. 

1809 Dr. Thornton. 
— [by Imp'd] Carlo, dam by imp'd Florizelle out of a mare raised 

by Col. R. K. Heath, &c. 

Major Gibbs. 
CARELESS, [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam Camilla, by Dove— Othello- 
Spark, &.o. 

Maryland, 1776. Rich. Sprigg. 

■ — by Cormorant, dam [by Imp'd] Shark, gr. dam Betsy 1'rin- 

gle, &,c. 

1801. J. Hoomes 

-by Obscurity. 

CARNATION, br. h. by Virginian, dam Rosetta [by Imp'd] Dion. 
CAROLINE WHITEFOOT, b. m. by Oscar, dam Indian Hen by Othello, 

g. dam by Lloyd's Traveller, &c. 

Caroline Cy. Va. 1818. Elisha Wilson. 

CAROLINE, ch. f. by Mufti. 

b. f. by Eclipse, dam a Janus mare. 

b. in. by Old Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Dion, g. dam Mist 

Selden by Sorrel Diomede — Wildair, &c. 

1823. Dr. Tho. Hall. 

CAROLINA, b. f. by Saltram, dam Medley mare, g. dam Old Reality, &c. 

Marmaduke Johnson. 
CAROLINIAN, gr. c. by True Blue, dam Medley mare, &,c 
Mark, gr. by Carolinian, dam gr. mare by Superior, gr. dam 

by Quicksilver — [Imp'd] Shark, &c. 

-b. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Druid, gr. darn by Wildaii 

by Fearnought, &c. 
CARROL, ch. c. by Sir William, dam Jennett by Muzzle Diomede. 
CARRION CROW, by Young Royalist, dam [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle. 

Paris, Kentucky. Jefferson Scoit. 

'♦^STIANIRA, [Imp'd] br. m. by Rockingham, dam Tabitha by Trent- 

ham out of the dam of Pegasus. 

Foaled, 1796. Imp'd 1799. John Tayloe. 

CASTANIA, by Arch Duke, dam Castianira. 

1803. J. Tayloe. 

CASWELL, b. h. by Sir William, (by Sir Archy,) dam Lady Bedford, and 

half brother to Giles Scroggins. 

J. W Jeffries. 
CASTAWAY, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Miss Peyton. 

1827. J. Randolph. 

CATHERINE THE GREAT, b. f. by Roanoake, dam young Grand 

Duchess. J. Randolph. 

I'ELER, [Imp'd'] by Old Janus, dam Brandon by Aristotle — Cullen Ara- 
bian, &c. 

Foaled, 1774. (Virginia, 1798.) Meade. 

Mare, by Celer, dam by Janus, &c. 


CELIA, by Old Wildair, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

■ ■ ■ ch. m. by Powhatan, dam [by Imj'd] St. Paul, g. dam Crj 

Sans Culotte, &,c. 
CLLERIMA, by Old Medley, dam by Old Celor, <$r. dam by Old Fea* 

nought. &c. 1797. Edmund Harrison. 


CENTINEL, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Blank out of Nay lor by Cade, Spectator'* 

dam by Partner, &,c. 

Foaled, 1758. 
CENTAUR, br. h. by Evan's Starling, dam an [Imp'd] mare. 

Foaled, 1764. 
CHAMBERLAIN, ch. h. by Diomede. 
CHANCE, [Imp'd] b. h. by Lurcher, (son of Dungannon,) dam by Hydei 

Ally— Peiditta by Herod — Fair Forester by Sloe, &c. 

1797. JohnTayloe. 
Medley, gr. h. [by Imp'd] Chance, dam by Young Diomede, 

k by gr. Diomede,) g. dam by Imp'd Oscar, &c. 
CHANTICLEER, by Wildair, dam by Pantaloon, g. dam by Traveller- 
Mark Anthony, &,c. 

1798. B.Wilkes. 

br. by Sir Archy, dam Black Ghost [by Imp'd] Pill Box by 

Imp'd Pantaloon — Morton's Traveller. 

Jas. G. Green. 
CHARLES CARROLL, ch. c. by Sir Charles, dam Susan by Bond's Sir 

Solomon, &c. 
CHARLES STEWARD, b. h. by Tuckah^e, dam by Sir Solomon. 
CHARLES MARE, by Sir Charles, dam by Young Hal, gr. dam by Bed- 
ford, g. g. dam [Imp'd] Trumpeter. 
CHARIOT, [Imp'd] b h. by Highflyer, dam Potosi by Eclipse— Blank- 

Godolphin Arabian — Snip — Partner, &c. 

Foaled, 1789. N. Carolina, 1800. J. & L. Lyne. 

CHARLEMONT, [Imp'd] b. c. (afterwards called Big Ben) in which name 

he ran many races in England, and afterwards in this country cahec 1 

Traveller — he was got by O'Kelly's Eclipse, his dam by king Herod 

— Blank — Snip — Penton's Lady Thigh, &c. 

Foaled, 1786. Manchester, Va. Jas. Strange. 

CHARLEMAGNE, by Wildair, dam by Romulus by Mark Anthony, out 

of Judge Tyler's Pompadour. 
CHAT AM, by Fitzhugh's Regulus, dam Brent's Ebony, g. d. Selima [by 

Imp'd] Othello. 

Gunpowder Falls, 1786. Brogden. 

CHARLOTTE, ch. f. by Galatin, dam Anvelina. 

— — — by Sir Archy, dam Merino Ewe. 

W. R. Johnson. 

-Temple, full sister to Gohanna. 

CHEROKEE, by Sir Archy, dam Young Roxana by Hephestion. 
CHESNUT MARE, by Diomede, dam by Alderman, g. dam by Clockfa*, 


J. Wickham. 
CHESAPEAKE, gr. h. by Sweeper. 


CHEVALIER, by Celer, dam Brandon by Aristotle. 

B. Harrison. 
CHILDERS, [Imp'd] b. by Blaze, son of the Devonshire Cnilders dam bj 

Old Fox, &c. 

Stafford Cy. Va. 1759. Francis Thornton. 
Heath's, ch. h. by Baylor's Fearnought, dam an imported 

mare by Bajazet — Babraham — Sedbury, &.c. 

Rich. Barne* 
-b. h. [by Imp'd] Childers, dam by Traveller. 

Charles' County, Maryland, 1764. Geo. Lee. 

■Flying, ch. (brother to Batler) by Sir Archy, dam by Rolim 

Redbreast. &.c. Gen. Wynne 


CHIEFTA'N, :h. c. by Director, Ham by Hoskin's Sir Peter, gr. dam i»f 

Highlander, &e. 

Rich. Hill. 
C'HINOANGTl, [by Imp'd] Arab, dam Aurora by Imp'd Honest John. 
CICERO, by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Diomede g. dam bv Imp'd Fear 

nought — Jolly Roger, &c. 
■ — Mark, (dam of Trifle by Cicero, dam by Bedford, g. dam 

by Bellair — Shark, &x. 

1822. Tho. Graves. 

CITIZEN, Ump'd] b. h. by Pacolet, a son of Blank, a son of the Godol 

phin Arabian— Fairy Queen by Young Cade, &c. 

Foaled, 1785. 
— by Facolet, dam Fancy. 

Tennessee, 1818. 

by Timoleon, dam by Sir Hal, g. dam Ariadne, (Johnson's.; 

C1NCINNATUS, (Bowie's) by Lindsay's Arabian, h ■ dam [by Imp'd] Fi 
gure, g. dam Thistle by Imp'd Dove. 

by Bay Richmond, clam Blue Skin by Ba^ or's Fearnought. 


CINDERELLA, full sister to Marshal Duroc. 

B. Badger. 
[Imp'd] b. f. by Sir Peter, her dam (Vivaldi's dam) by Mer 
cury, g. dam Cynthera, &,c 

S. Carolina. Gen. John McPherson. 

CIRCE, by Ariel, dam [Imp'd] Lady Northumberland. 

1784. Beckwith Butler 

CLARA FISHER, by Kouskiruska, dam by Hephestion, g. d. by Roxana, 
(her dam never run, having been crippled.) 
b. f. by Virginius, dam Transport, 
CLAUDIUS, b. h. by Old Janus, dam Brandon by Aristotle. 

Andrew Meade. 

. by Meade's Claudius, dam by Cole's Eclipse. 

Mare, by Claudius, dam by Bolton, g. dam Sally Wright. 

1791. J- Hooines. 

CLARISSA, b. m. by Sumpter, dam by Cook's Whip, [by Imp'd} Whip 

g. dam by Imp'd Spiead Eagle Bellair, &c 
CLERMONT, by Spread Eagle, dan- Peggy. (Went to the South.) 

J. Tayloe. 

ch. c. by Kosciusko, dam Josephine by Young Bedford, &c 

S. Carolina, 1824. J- J- Moore. 

CLEVELAND, ch. h. by Bussora out of a Director mare. 

J. M. Selden. 
CLEMENTINA, b. f [by Imp'd} Paymaster, dam Tulip. 

Maryland, 1795. ' Tho. M. Firman. 

CLEOPATRA, by Druid, dam by Pegasus. 

E. Haynes. 
CL1FDEN, [Imp'd] b. h. by Alfred, a son of Matchem, his dam by Flo-> 
zelle, g. dam by Matchem. 
foaled, 1817. Dr. Thornton. 

— [Imp'd] got by Abba Thulla, dam Eustatia by HighrljM— 

Wren by Woodpecker — Sir Peter Teazle's dam. 

Mare, by Doctor Thornton's [Imp'd] Clifden. dam uy R. 

Hall's Tom, he by Imp'd Eclipse. 

for Clifien,) ch. h. by Dr. Brown's Wonder, dam Iris by Stti 

ling, <Lc 

181; J. I/€iri» 


CLIO, [by Imp'd] Whip, dam Sultana by imp'd Spread Eagle. 

. ch. m. by Sir Arcby, dam Beauty by Diomede, g. dam Vir 

guva by Dare Devil. 

Foaled, 1817. C. W. \ an Ranst. 

CLOCKFAST, [Impost, h. by Gimcrack, (sire of Old Medley,) dam Mat 

Ingram by Regulus — Miss Doe by Sedbury — Miss Mayes by Bart- 

lett's Childers, &c. 

Foaled, 1774. 
CLOWN, [Imp'' d] got by Bordeaux, brother to Florizelle, dam by Eclipse* 

Crisis by Careless — Snappiana by Snap, &c. 

Foaled, 1785. N. C. Cain & Ray. 

COCK OF THE ROCK, brother to American Eclipse. 
COEUR DE LION, [Imp'd] b. h. by Highflyer out of Dido by Eclipse- 
Spectator — Blank, &c. 

Foaled, 1789. (1800.) John Hoomes. 

COALITION, b. h. by Shylock, dam Maria by Bay Yankee, Green's mare 

by Celer, &c. 
COESS, b. m. by Virginian, dam by Sir Arthur, g. dam by Bellair, g. g. dam 

by Medley, &c. 
COLLECTOR, by Old Mark Anthony, dam Lady Legs. 

Died, 1813. S. R. Carney. 

COLLIER, ch. c. by Sir Charles out of a Whip mare. 

1826. William Finney. 

COLLING WOOD, ch. c. by Thornton's Ratler, dam Vixen by Trafalgar, 

COLUMBIA, by Ogle's Oscar, dam Selima by Hall's Eclipse. 
■ — — ch. f. by Sir Archy, dam Duchess by Bedford. 

■ b. m. [by Imp'd] Eugene, out of a Young Selima by Yorick. 

[by Imp'd] Baronet, dam by Old Cub — Farmer, &,c. 

COLUMBUS, ch. h. by Young Sir Harry (he [by Imp'd] Sir Harry,) dam 

Gentle Kitty by Young Postboy. 
■ b. h. by Tennessee Oscar, (by Wonder) dam [by Imp'' J] 

Dungannon — imp'd Rapid. 

Isaac Bledsoe. 

> s. h. [by Imp'd] Pantaloon, dam Lady Northumberland, &c 

-s. h. by Sir Archy, dam Vixen by Jack Andrews. 

1828. James G. Green. 

COMBINATION, by Gracchus, dam Evelina by Phenomenon. 
COMMUTATION, b. h. by Symme's Wiklair, dam by Yorick, g. dam by 

Little David, &c. 

1788. John Beltield. 

COMPETITOR, by Dragon out of Celerima. 
COMMODORE, [fmp'dj bL b. h. 16 hands high by Caleb Quotem, (a sot 

of Sir Peter Teazle,) dam Mary Brown by Guilford, &lc. 

Geneva, N. Y. C. A. Williamson. 

COMET, ch. by Tayloe's Yorick, dam by Ranger, g. dam by Dove, g. 5 

dam by Tasker's Othello, &c. John Brown. 
ch. h. by Old Janus, &c. 

1 792. J. Lewis. 

CONSTANTIA, gr. f. [by Imp'd] Messenger, dam Betty Bell. 

• Thomas M. Foreman 

CONSTANTIA, b. m. [by hnp'd] Whip, dam by imp'd Bedford— impVJ 

Shark, Wormley King Herod. &c. 

1814. D. ri. Allen 

CONSTELLATION, ch. c. by Thornton's Ratler, dam Nett/etop. 

L. Berkley 

dk. ch. by American Eclipse, dam Olivia. 




CONSUL, by First Consul, dam [by Imp'd] Aracolien, Messenger, a T5asha» 

in a re, &c. 
Mare, by First Consul, dam [by Imp"-/,'} Obscurity, g. dam 

Moll by Grey Figure, &c. 

CONFESSOR, (Speculator,) by Shark, dam Fluvia by Partner out of the 

dam of Oracle, <fec. 
CONGAREE, ch. c. by Kosciusko, dam full sister to Sally Taylor. 
CONTENTION, by Sir Arch y, dam a Rare Devil mare, &c. 
CONTRACT, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Cotton out of Eliza Leeds, dam Htlen by 

Hamiltonian, gr- dam Drowsey by Drone, g. g. dam Mr. Goodrich's 

Old English mare, &.c. 

New- York, 1829. William Jackson. 

CONVENTION, by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Alfred, Florizelle, Bedford, 


— . b. h. b. Virginian dam. 

"Wm. H. Minge. 
CONSTITUTION, by Diomede dam, (dam of Timoleon,) [by Imp'djSal- 

tram — Old Wildair, &,c. 
CONQUEROR, b. h. [by Imp'd] Wonder, (Cripple) his dam by Saltram— 
Dare Devil — Pantaloon — Valiant Jumper out of a mare imp'd by 
Mr. John Bland. A. J. Davie. 

CONTEST, ch. c by Contention, dam Fairy by Sir Alfred. 

Petersburg, Va. William Haxall. 

— — b. h. by Virginian, dam by Constitution, Bay Yankee, [Imp'd] 

Diomede, <fcc. 

Mecklenburg, Va. T. Young. 

COPPER BOTTOM, c. c. by Sir Archy, dam by Buzzard, g. dam, dam of 
Betsy Richards. 

Edward Parker. 
COPPER HEAD, by Kosciusko out of a Whip mare, g. dam by Buzzard — 

Grey Diomede, &c. 
COQUETTE, by Sir Archy, dam Bet Bounce by Sir Harry. 

Virginia, (See Virginia'Coquette.) 
CORA, by Bedford, dam Little Moll by Medley. 

J. Tayloe. 

by Dr. Brown's Godolphin, dam by Charles Fox, g. dam oy 

Hall's Eclipse, <fcc. 

G. W. Peter. 
—————by Obscurity dam. 

-ch. m. full sister to Virago and Nettle by Wildair by Ajax. 

CORIANDER, by Diomede, dam by Shark. 

Wm. B. Hamlin. 
CORNELIA VANHORNE, ch. f. by Wares' Godolphin, dam Sally Bax 

ter, &c. 
CORNELIA, by Chanticleer, dam by Old Celer. 

John Randolph. 
Bedforo, by the Duke of Bedford, (he by Bedford) dam Pi 

lot by Old Quicksilver. 
CORNET, by Old Yorick, dam by Ranger, &c. 
CORN W ALUS, bv Florizelle, dam out of Edelin's FVoretta 
CORMORANT, [Imp'd] b. h. by Woodpecker, his dam Nettletop by Squw 

rel — Bajazet — Regulus — Lonsdale Arabian— -Darby Arabian, &,c 

Faaled, 1787. 

Virginia, 1800 John Hoome» 

CORSICA, b. c by John Richards, dam Selima by Topgallant. 

Philip VVdllii. . 


CORPORAL TRIM, ch. by Sir Archy, flam by Old Diomede, gr. nam t"> 

Wildair, Apollo, Partner, &c. 

J. Powell 
CORPORAL CASEY, ch. c. by Virginius, dam Josephine by Blanii'sBeci 

forH, &o. 

1H26. J. J- Moore. 

COSSACK, b. c. by Marion, dam Canwlla by Timoleon. 

C. Manly 
COTTAGE GIRL, ch. f. by Am. Eclipse, dam Agnes by Sir Solomon. 

Sold to T. Harrison, Boston. 
COUNT BADGER, ch. c. by American Eclipse, dam by Hickory. 


COUNT BERTRAND, b. h. by Old Bertrand (of South Carolina) dai 

Constantia [by Imp' J] Whip. 
Piper, ch. c. by Marshal Duroc, dam [by Imp'd] Expedition, 

g. dam by imp'd Royalist. 

Daniel Holmes. 
COUNTESS, ch. m. by Ridgley's Young Oscar, dam oy Little Bay Post 

Boy, and out of the Mountain Filly, &,c. 
COWSLIP, [Imp'd] by Virtumnus, dam by a son of Latham's Snap, g. dam 

Clementine, ifcc. 

by Bedford, dam [Imp'd] Hackabout, Sic. 

CRAB, \ Imp'd] ch. fifteen and a half hands high by Old Fox, his dam th« 

Warlock Galloway by Snake, &c. 

Foaled, 1739. 
CREMONA, b. f. by Spread Eagle, dam Gasteria. 
CRAZY JANE, b. in. by Rob Roy, dam Josephine, &c. 

J. Lewis. 
by Allen's Skyscraper, dam a Cincinnatus mare, g. dam b% 

Galloway's Selim. 
CRAWFORD, [Imp'd] gr. h. bred by the Duke of Cumberland, and got by 

his Arabian. 

Covered in Va. in 1762. Robert Riiflin. 

CRAWLER, b. h. by Highflyer, his dam Harriet by Old Matcliem, &c. 

CRUSADER, by Sir Archy, dam Lottery by Bedford. 

South Carolina, 1830. 
CUB, [Imp'd] ch. h. fifteen hands three inches high, bred by Mr. Grenville, 

got by Old Fox, his dam Warlock Galloway — Cm wen's Bay Barb 

&c. Foaled, 1739. 
. Mare, [Imp'd] by Cub a son of Fox, her dam by Torismond, 

son of the Bolton Starling, her g. dam by second brother to Snip. 6lc. 

1767. Delancv. 

CUB, (called Old,) b. h. by Yorick by Silver Legs out of Moll Brazen, Slc 

Westmoreland, Va. Daniel McCarthy. 
Make, b. m. [by Imp'd] Figure out of imp'd Cub mare, (killed 

running a race.) 

J. L. Gibson. 
CUMBERLAND, gr. h. by Pacolet, dam Virginia by Dare Devil. 

James Jackson. 
CUPBEARER, b. h. by Bedford, dam Louisa by Harris' Eclipse. 

John Tayloe. 

by Florizelle, dam by Bellair. 

CURTIUS, by Diomede, dam by Bedford, g. dam by Patriot. 
CUT LEG, ch. f. by Gracchus, dam Everlasting. 

1SIH. John Ranuoipo 


CUPID OSCAR, b. h. by Edelin's Oscar, jun. dam by Thornton's Me»»ury, 

g. darn by Bowie's Sportsman, &c. 

Pr. Geo. Maryland, 1 827. Thomas N. Baden. 

CYPRON, b. m. by Van Tronip, dam Miss Madison by Lurcher. 
f YPRUS, dap. gr. by Smiling Tom, dam by Silver Legs, (the dam ol 

McCarthy's Cub.) 
CYPHAX, by Janus out of an [Imp'd] Mare. 

Jas. City, Va. 1775. John Walker. 

CYGNET, by Cormorant out of Blossom. 

Turner Dixon. 


DABS TER, [Imp'd] by Hobgoblin— Spanker— Hautboy, <fcc. 

Imn'd 1741. 
DARE DEVIL, [Imp'd] b. h. by Magnet, dam Hebe by Chrysolite out ol 

Proserpine sister to Eclipse, &c. 

Foaled, 1787. 
Young, [by Imp'd] Dare Devil, dam by a son of Old Partner 

out of a mare which was got uy an imp'd horse. 

New Kent Cy. Va. 1802. John Clopton. 
Mark, [by Imp'd] Dare Devil, dam Sallard's old mare b) 

Wildair, g. dam Picadilla by Bait &, Macklin's Fearnought. 


Mare, [by Imp'd] Dare Devil, dam Trumpeter. 

J. Hoomes. 
DAIRY MAID, by Bedford, dam Racket by Medley. 
s. in. by Sir Hal, dam [by I/tip'd] Oscar, g. dam by Old Dio 

mede — Bellair, &c. 

J. M. Botts 
DAFFODIL, by Dare Devil, dam Celerima. 

T. C. Nelson. 
DAMON, dk. ch. h. by Old Celer — Babraham — thoroughbred Janus mare, 

b. by Janus (by Fearnought) dam by Old Fearnought out ol 

an [Imp'd] mare Steady Sally. 

1781. John Baylor. 

DAME PRESLEY, b. m. by Carolinian, dam Miss Dance. 
DAPHNE, by Figure, (by Yorick) dam an Ebony mare. 
DAPPLE JOHN, by Lloyd's Traveller— [Imp'd] Janus— imp'd mare. 
DARIUS, dap. b. h. [by Imp'd] Jolly Roger— Baylor's Old Shock out of a 

thorough bred imp'd mare. 

Foaled, 1767. 
DART, ch. m. by Diomedon— Old Celer— Old Warning— Old Spa !ille, 

&c. out of a thorough bred mare. 

1815. (Crippled.) 
DARLINGTON, [Imp'd] b. h. by Clothier, dam by Highflyer, Little John, 


Mecklenburg, Va. J. Goode. 

- ' Mare, by Darlington, dam byClodius, g. dam by Bolton, g. g. 

dam Sally Wright, &c. 

J. Tayloe. 
-Mare, dk. Iron gr. [by Imp'd] Darlington — Hart's Medlev — 

tnorough bred mare by imp'd Justice, &c. 
DAVID, [Imp'd] b. h. by the Gower Stallion, dam by Fox Cub — Young 
True Blue out of the sisier of Pelham's Little George, &c. 175£ 
.. Little, (See Little Davids 


DARNING NEEDLE, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd i Diomeoe. 

Foaled, 1813. . E. Warrieid- 

DASHER, gr. c by Cincinnatus, dam Shrewsbury Nan. 

Maryland. TJios. M. Forman. 

DASH ALL, hr. h. by Sir Archy, dam Meg Dodds. 

Reeds, Caroline Cy. Messrs. Corbin's. 

DAUPHIN, b. by Lloyd's Traveller, dam by Old Figure, gr. dam by Dove, 


("has. Cy. Maryland, 1783. 
DEFIANCE, br. h. by Florizelle, dam Miss Dance by Roebuck. 

J. Tayloe. 
DE KALB, b. li. by Arab, dam by Virginian, g. damPrudentia by Shylnrk. 

Soutli Carolina, 1832. A. R. Ruffin. 

br. c. by Kosciusko, dam Virginia Coquette. 

182.5. J. Ferguson. 

DESDEMONA, bv Dare Devil, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

1800. J. Tayloe. 
b. m. by Miner's Escape, dam by Dare Devil, gr. dam by 


1819. E. G. W. Butler, 

-gr. f. by Comet, dam Kitty Fisber by Oscar. 

'92. Ramson Davis, 

br. ch. m. bv Virginius, dam Miss Fortune [by lmp'd\ btar, 

g. dam Anvelina 

DELEGATE, ch. c. [by Imp'd] Valentine, dam Cornelia Van Home, (fee. 

1831. T. M. Forman. 

DELILAH, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Herod, &c. 

Jas. L. G. Baker. 
DEMOCRAT, b. h. by Grey Diomede, dam by Hall's [lmp'd] Eclipse, g. 

dam by Don Carlos. 

Walter Bowie. 
hi. c. by Morgan's Shakespeare, dam Shrewsbury Nan, &c. 

Cecil Cy. 1794. T. M. Forman. 

DEPRO, by Lav Baronet, dam [Imp'd] Crop. 
DE WITT CLINTON, ch. h. by Ratler, dam (Flirt's dam) by Duroc, § 

dam by Baronet. 
DIAMOND, [Imp'd] by Hautboy, son of Old Fox, &c. 

Alex. Spotswood. 
DIANA, &r. f. by Galatin, dam by Clio [by Imp'd] Whip. 


b. m. by Claudius, dam Sally Painter. 

■ br. in. by Tayloe's Hamilionian, dam by Bowie's Bellaii — 

Irish Grey, &c. 

Lexington, Kentucky, 1821. E. Warficld 

— by First Consul dam, dam of Marshal Ney, g. dam by Mes 

senger, g. g. dam by Figure. 

by Americus (by Shark,) nam Minerva by Bellair. 

— ■ — ■ [by Imp^d] Sterling, dam one of Col. Willis' best mares. 

Col. Davie*. 
DIANA VERNON, br. b. m. by Ratray, dam Cora [by Imp'd] Carlo out c 


Maryland, 1817. James Parker. 

DIANORA, b. (.[by Imp\l] Expedition, dam Bstsy Bell. 
DICK DASHALL, ch. c. by Diomede, dam Shark mare. 

J Hoomes, Juo 


OIUTATOR, [by Imp'd] Mexican, dam by ImpM Flimnap, g. dam Imp'd 
Bougnl at the Duke of Bridgwater's sale in 1762. 
F .aled, 1790. Gen. John McPherson. 

0IDO, gr. f. (hred hy J. by Coeur de Lion, dam Araminda bj 
Medley, g. dam by Bolton. 

by Gen. Morris' [Imp'd] Bay Richmond, dam Slamerkin by 


-b. f. by Coeur de Lion, dam Poll by Eclipse. 


Dl VERNON, by Old Florizelle, dam by Ogle's Oscar, g. dam by Hero, 

Diana, by Sir William, dam Lady Burton. 

D1NWIDDIE, b. h. by Diomede, dam by Wildair, gr. dam by Apollo- 
Partner — Fearnought, &,c. 
1804. Dr. Wm. Cutler. 

DION, [Imp'd] by Spadille, dam Faith by Pacolet, gr. dam Atalanta by 
Matchem — Lass of the Mill by Oronooko— Old Traveller, &.c. 
1795. J. Hoomes. 

Mare, b. m. [by Imp'd] Dion— Highflyer— Apollo— Old Jolly 

Roger, &c. 

Halifax, Va. 1806. J- Sims. 

DIOMEDE, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Florizelle, dam by Spectator, g. dam sister 
to Horatio by Blank — Flying Childers — Miss Belvoir by Grey Gram 
Iham — Paget's Turk — Betsy Percival by Leed's Arabian. (Died in 
1807, 30 years old.) 

(Batt's,) [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam Mulga by Wildair. 

Eagle, br. c [by Imp'd] Eagle, dam Chesnuf Mare by Dio- 
mede, gr. dam by Alderman — Wilda> <k,c. 
1814. J. Wickham. 
(Thornton's,) by Ball's Florizelle, dam [by Imp'd] Whip, gr. 

dam by Topgallant, &c 


-Mare, b. [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam by Gimcrack, (alias Ran- 

dolph's Roan.) 

Buckingham Cy. Va. 1815. Edw. Curd. 

-Mare, b. by Ragland's Diomede — [Imp\l] Dion — Imp'd High- 

flyer- -Apollo, &.C. 

1816 J- Sims. 

Grey. (See Grey Diomede.) 

b. m. [by Imp'd] Diomede— Darlington — Old Medley— Clock 

fast, Sic. — thorough bred mare by Imp'd Justice, &c 

Jas. Gowan. 
(Second,) gr. [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam by Imp'd Clockfast 

— Old Partner — Old Regulus, &c. 

Cumberland Cy. Va. Wm. Randolph. 

IAOMEDX, [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam Imp'd Janette. 
DIOMED1AN, by Am. h. Saltram, (son of [Imp'd] Diomede,) dam by Hen 

drick's Celer, (son of Old Celer.) 
DIRECTOR, ch. by Sir Archy, dam Meretrix by Magog. 

, ■ Young. (See \ ouiig Director.) 

DIRECTRESS, ch. m. by Director, dam by Old Potomac, g. dam by Gim 

crack, &c. 

1822. Jackson. 

OOCTO , o. c. by Pacotango, dam Virginia, (Coquette.) 

18i9. J. Ferguson. 

KJLI Y FINE, bv Old Silver Eye, nam [/>$ Imp'd] Badger— Forester. &* 


DOLLY PATMAN, ch. by Sir Alfred, dam by Tom Tough, g ilaiu of 

Kell:^ by Dandridge's Fearnought 
HOLLA BELLA, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Pay Doll. 

182.-1. J. Randolph. 
DON CARLOS, [by Tmp'd] Valentine, dan: Fenella by Silver Heels. 
b. b. [by Imp'd] Figure, dam Primrose by Dove. 

1780. * Dr. Hamilton. 

DON JUAN, ch. c. by Timoleon, dam Rosemary [by Imp^d] Diomede. 
by Rattler, dam by Oscar, g. dam by Medlev. 

Dr. Thornton. 
DONGOLAH, by Mark Anthony, dam Nancy Bell by Fearnought, g. dam 

Miss Bell. 
DOMINICA, gr. h. [by Twp'd] Dove — Regiilus — American horse Othello— 

thorough bred Imp'd mare. 
DORA, b. f. by Kosciusko, dam Josephine. 

1825. " John S. Moore. 

DORACLES, [by tmp'd] Shark, dam by Clockfast. 
DOTTRKLL, [Imp'd] g. fifteen and a half hands high, got by Changeling, 

his dam bv a son of Wvnn's Arabian. 

Foaled, 1750 Westmoreland Cy. Va 1766. Philip L. Lee 

DOUBTLESS, by Fitz Diomede, (son of Diomede,) dam by Picture, g. 

dam by Sweet Su:ry by Spaclille. 

G. P. Tayloe. 
DOUBTFUL, b. f. by Spread Eagle, dam Medley mare. 

John Hoomes. 
DOVE, [Tmp'd] gr. by Young Cade, dam by Teazer out of a Gardiner 

mare, &c. 

1762. Dr. Hamilton. 

DOUCE DAVIE, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Cornelia. 

1825. J. Randolph. 

DRAGON, [Tmp'd] by Woodpecker, dam Juno by Stectator, Horatio by 

Blank, — Childers — Miss Belvoir, &c. Died 1812, aged 25 years. 

John Hoomes. 
[by Tmp'd] Dragon — Truxton — Barry's Grey Medley — Stern 

— Pillu;ar!ic, <tc. 
DREADNOUGHT, ch. c. [by Tmp'd] Expedition, dam Tulip. 

Thos. M. Forman. 
DRIVER, [Tmp'd] b. h. by Driver, dam by Lord Ossary's Dorremont, g 

dam by Old King Herod — Shephard's Crab— Miss Meredith bj 

Cade. Foaled, 1794. 

Washington City. Dr W. Thornton. 

DRUID, [Tmp'd] ch. near sixteen hands high by Pot8os, (son of Eclipse,, 

his dam Maid of the Oaks by king Herod — Matchem — Snap — Re 

gulus, &c 

Foaled, 1790. (1800.) John Hoomes. 

DUETT A, by Silver Tail, dam Vanity by Celer. 
JHJBIOUS, b. c. by Bertrand, dam Darning Needle, &c. 

I UNGANNON, [Tmp'd] b. h. by Dungannon, dam by Conducioi — Flu! 

bv Squirrel — Helen by Blank — Crab out of Old Partner's sister. 

1793. J. Tayloe 

• by Bedford, dam by Coeur de Lion, g. dam by Medley. 

1 UFF GREEN, (Cage's Colt) ir. gr. by Pacolet, dam by Royalist, gr. oair 

bv Bompard, (son of Obscurity,) Pillgarlic, ifcc. 
f UKE OF BEDFORD, [by Tmp'd] Bedford, dam Pilot by Quicksilver 
I UKE OF LIMBS, (Experiment) by Highflyer. J. lloumet 


DUKE CHARLES, ch. c by Kosciusko, dam by Financier. 

J. J. Harrison. 
DUROC, ch. h. [by Imp'd} Diomede, dam Amannaby Grey Diomede, &c 
Died 1826. 
Powhatan Cy. Va. 1810. Wade Mosby. 

— b. h. by Old Duroc, dam by Florizelle — Gabriel — BedforJ, 

DUTCHESS, [Imp 1 J] b. m. bred by the Duke of Grafton, got by Grouse son 
of Highflyer out of Georgiana, own sister to Conductor by Matchem 
— Bahraham — Partner, &,c. 
1801. John Randolph. 

— by Bedford, dam Thresher [by Imp 1 d] Shark — Twigg, Sec. 

R. R. Johnson. 

by Hero, dam by Brutus, g. dam by Tarquin — Old Prince, <fcc. 

Rich. Rapley. 
DUMPLING, ch. f. by Gracchus, dam Everlasting. 

1H18. John Randolph. 

DUTiFUL, ch. f. by Sumpter, dam Miss Haggin. 

E. Warfield. 


EAGLE, [Imp'd] b. sixteen hands high, got by Volunteer (a son of Eclipse) 
out of a Highflyer mare, her dam by Engineer — Cade — Lass of the 
Mill by Traveller — Miss Matchless — Partner — Woodcock, &c. 
Foaled, 1796. Whitby, Va. 1812. S. S. Saunders. 

-b. h. [by Imp'd] Eagle, dam Iris by Imp'd Sterling. 

J. Lewis 

. - br. b. by Spread Eagle, dam Arminda, &x. 

1801. Sold to Mr. Alston, S. C. J. Hoomes. 

-b. c. by Volunteer, dam by H^hflyer — Engineer — Cade, &.c. 

Foaled, 1 796. 

-br. b. by Old Sir Solomon, da ) Aurora by Honest Jolin, gr. 

dam Zelippa [by Imp'd] Messenger. 
New Jersey. Stephen Hunt, 

-c. by Spread Eagle, dam Spndille. 

EBONY Young, [Imp'd]. (See Young Ebony.) 

EBONY, [by Imp'd] Othello, dam Imp'd Selima. 

Virginia. Brent 

. -dk. br. by Roanoake, dam Jet. 

1829. J. Randolph 

EASTER, ch. f. by Gohanna, dam by Napoleon, g. dam by Sir Harry- • 

Diomede, &c. 

1829. Thos. Graves. 

ECHO, ch. f. by American Eclipse, dam Maria Slamerkin. 

ECONOMY, b. c by Old Rattler, dam by Topgallant— Bedford- -Pnmroje. 


Win. Cleveland. 
ECLIPSE AMERICAN. (See American Eclipse,) &c. 
ECLIPSE, Harris' b. h. [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam an Imp'd mare bj 

Shakspeare, &c. 

Died 1790. Raised by John Baylor. 

— - Maryland, dk. ch. h. by American Eclipse, dam Lady a* 

the Lake, g. dam Maid of the Oaks. 

Bait. 1829. Samuel BriscoA, 


ECLIPSE, Southern, ch. h. by Northampton, dam by Firsl Consul — Grt? 

Dioniede — Old Ebony, &x. 

William Thorn'on. 

— — Coles', ch. sor. h. [by Imp'd] Obscurity, claiv w y Apollo, gt 

dam by Old Valiant— Try All, &,c. 

Prince" George Cy. 1796. Win. Cole. 

•[by Imp'd] Eagle, dam Lauretta by imp'd Bedford, &c. 

Kentucky, 182;"). Lewis Sheely. 

Hkrou, [by Imp'd] Driver, dam imp'd Miss Bennington. 

Washington City, 1808. Win. Thornton. 

Virginia, (See Virginia Eelipse) 

-of the West, b. h. by Duroc,dam [Imp'd] Moggy Slamerkki, 


Warren, Ohio, 1825. 

-Liuhtkoot, bl. c. by American Eclipse, dam Lady Lightfoot, 

&c. 1325 

-by Virginius, dam Anvelina 

1812. J. B. Richardson. 

Mare, dk. bay by Harris' Eclipse — Black and All Black— Old 

Mark Anthony, &c. thorough bred mare. 

Halifax Cy. N. C. 1797. Vanghan. 

-Northern, [Imp'd] by O'Kelly's Eclipse, dam Amyrilhs by 

Adolphus, &c. 

Foaled, 1770. Annapolis, 1780. Wallace & Muire. 

-[Imp'dA ch. was got by O'Kelly's famous Eclipse, dam I'hebe 

full sister of Apollo — I'hebe by Regulus, her dam by Cottingham, g 

dam by Snake, &,c. 

Prince George Cy. Richard B. Hall. 

EFFIE DEANS, b. m. by (Farmer's) Florizelle, (by Bali's Florizelle,) dam 

by Ciockfast, gr. dam by Jones' Coeur de Lion — Robin Redbreast- 
Dare Devil, &c. 
ELECTION, c. c. by Spectator, dam Fairy by Bedford. 

1811. J- Hoomes. 

ELEGANT, [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam by Bellair— Wildair, &,c. 
ELIZA, ch. m. by Bagdad, dam Mellwood by Topgallant. 

Tennessee. L. J. Polk. 

[by Imp'd] Bedford, dam imp'd Mambrino, &c. 

b. f. by Justice, dam Nancy Dawson. 

180.3. James Ferguso:.. 

-ch. m. by Timoleon, dam by Sir Alfred (the dam of VVaxev 


Red House, N. C. J. W. Jeffiies. 

Adams, by Hornet, dam [by Imp'd] Jack Andrews. 

VV. H. Minge 

Reilf.y, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam Bet Bounce. 

Dr. J. Mingfl 

Splotch, g. f. by Sir Archy, dam by Diomede. 

-Walker, b. f. by American Eclipse, dam by Moore's Sir Ar- 

chy, g. dam Jenny Deans. 

-White, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam by Diomede. 

-Wharton, b. by Director, dam by Bedford — Proserpine c» 

Dare Devil. 

Drake, ch. f. by Shawnee, dam by Sir Vrchy. 

John White, i.ii Jacksou 
ELIZABETH, by Sir Archy, darn by Robin Redbreast. 

CiiM.. Wv»«llf 

-b. m. by Alfred out of the dam of Sally Hor>iu< by Honi«( 


ELVIRA, eh f. by Bedford, dam Virginia Sorrel. 

(Sold in H. King.^ J. TaOoo. 

EMIGRANT. by Carolinian, dam Pet by St. Tamman?. 
EMPRESS, [by Imp'd] Baronet, dam by Old Messenger— Snap — Trui 

Briton, &,c. 

Elatbush, Long Island. 
ENDLESS, ch. f. by Gracchus, out of sister to Everlasting. 

1819. J. Randoloh. 

ENTERPRISE, b. h. by Diomede, dam Forlorn Hope. 

Henry Macklin. 
■ by Florizelle, dam by Saltrara, (the dam of Timoleon anJ 


-(See Grey Diomede.) 

ENGINEER, ch. [by Imp'd] Eagle, dam by imp'd Archduke out of imp'd 

Castianira, &c. 


EQUA, ch. m. [by Imp'd] Chance, dam by Republican President, g. dam 

by imp'd Figure — Dove, &c. 

1815. Isaac Duckett. 

EQUINOX, ch. c. [by Imp'd] Baronet, dam Tulip. 

1799. T. M. Forman. 

ERIEL, (or Ariel,) gr. m. by Am. Eclipse, dam Empress by Financier. 
ESCAPE, (or Horns,) [Imp'd] ch. h. fifteen and a half hands high, was got 

by Precipitate, his dam by Woodpecker, his g. dam by Sweet Brier, 

out of the dam of Buzzard by Dux — Curiosity by Snap— Regulus, 

&.c. ^ 

Foaled, 1798. John Hoomes. 

N. B. Escape was called Horns in England, under which name he 

— 1 Mixer's, [by Imp'd'] Escape, dam by imp'd Bedford, g. dam 

imp'd Gasteria. 
— Make, ch. bred by Dr. Thornton in 1821 by Miner's Escape, 

dam Young Adeline by Topgallant. 


-of the West, by American Eclipse, dam Moggy Slamican. 

Courtland Cy. N. Y. Ebenezer Hopkins. 

■ ■ by Timoleon, dam by Sir Harry, g. dam by Old Diomede. 

Robert Saunders. 

ETHIOPIA, bl.m. by Tayloe'sBedford(by Bedford) dam by Pot8os, who wa* 
by Old Medley out of a Conductor mare, g. dam Celer, &c. 

EVELINA, by Phenomenon, dam by Regulus, g. dam by Lindsay's Ara- 
bian, <fec 

EL 1 DOR A, b. m. [by Imp'd] Dragon, dam by impV Clifden, g. dam by Flag 
of Truce — Goode's Brimmer 

H. Baldwin, 

*1X1LE, ch. c. by Coeur de Lion, dam oyren Silver, 6 . dam Caroline Uy 
Eclipse, <fcc. 
Davidson, Tennessee. 1806 

EXPECTATION, (See Calatm.) • 

EXPEDITION, or Ballinamuc, [fnp'd] fifteen hands, three and a half in- 
ches high, was got by Pegasus, his dam Active by Woodpecker, gr 
dam Laura by Whistlejacket, g. g. dam Pretty Polly by Staring. 
Foaled, 1795. J. Humphreys. 

EXPRESS, [Imp'd] was got by Postmaster out of a Cypron mare, g. dam 
by Matchem, g. g. dam by Snip, Regi Jus, &o. 
Foaled. 1 785. 



FAIR PLA V , b. c. by Play or Pay, dam Bellaria. 

1802. J. Hoome*. 

. by Citizen, dam by Medley. 

Gen. Eaton. 
FAIR FORESTER, b. m. [by Imp 1 J] Chance, Celia by Synnnes' Old \\ il 
dair — Lady Bolingoroke, &c. 

John ^aker. 
FAIRFAX, (afterwards called Rniller)by Rattler, dam Laura by Aiabarb, 

Imp'd by Col. Lear, an Arabian horse. 
FAIR MAID, by First Consul, dam Jane Lowndes, by Driver. 
FAIR RACHEL, by Diomede, dam Susan Jones by Old Shark, Wil Jair, 

> Rosamond, gr. m. by Sir Archy, dam Forlorn Hope. 

H. Macklin. 
FAIRY, by Sir Alfred, dam [Imp'd] Promise. 

b. in. by Tom Tough, dam [by Imp'd] Archibald — Lothario— 

Whig, &c. 

by Herod, dam by Diomede — Gimcrack, &c. 

Joseph Bailey, 
by Bedford, dam Mambrino by Mambrino full sistt- of Nai- 

lor's Solly. 

Foaled, 1797. A. Spotswood- 

FAIR STAR, b. f. by Torpedo, dam Betsy Wilkes. 

Foaled, 1831. G. A. Blaney, U. S. A. 

FANNY, ch. f. by Coeur de Lion, dam Fanny Foster by Wildair. 

Tennessee, 1808. 
FANNY FOSTER, ch. by Old Wildair, dam by Old Partner— Old Feai 

nought — Old Jolly Roger, &c. 

N. Carolina, 1795. John Foster. 
Murray, g. f. own sister to Miss Peyton. 

1814. John Randolph. 

■ Cole, br. b. by Francisco, dam Sting by Jack Andrews. 

Benjamin Harrison. 

Fairmaid, ch. in. by Rob Roy, dam Fairmaid by First Con 

sul, &ic. 

-Hii.i,, ch. f. by Sir William, dam Diomede mare by Ragland'i 

Diomede, &c. 
FANTAIL, br. in. by Sir Archy, dam Sally McGhee. 

FANCY, br. m. by Wilke's Wonder, dam by Mark Anthony, Fearnought, 

Tennessee, 1809. J. Sumner, 

by Jubilee, (by Independence,) dam Stella. 

by Independence, (by Atkinson's Fearnought) dam by Amen 

cus — [Imp'd] Traveller— Monkey, &,c. 

H. Macklin. 
FARMER JOHN, b. c. by Sterling, clam [Imp'd] Janette. 

Richird Hoomes. 
FAVOURITE, [Imp'd] b. m. by Volunteer, dam by Mate hem. Dwnty D«j 
vey— Bayton, Sic., bred by Mr FenwkA. 
Foaled, 1790. Imp'd 1796. John Hoome> 

— — >y Old Fearnought dam. 

Gen. Jones 

— (Old) by Bellair, dam by Bedford, Pantaloon, &e. ('*} 

F. Thornton, (cf "A'art^n.) 


FAYETTE oy Fitzhugb's Regulus, dam by Othello, [Imp* J) Juniper, Mei 

ton's Traveller, dec. 

Charles Ciiy Cy. Va. 1788. Presley Thornton. 

FEARNOUGHT, [Imp'd] br. bay, fifteen hands three inches high got by 

Regulus, (who was by the Godolphin Arabian) dam Silver Tail o) 

Heneague's Whitenose, her dam by Rattler, &,c. 

Died 1776, aged 21 years. J. Baylor. 

. Drandriges, [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam . 

_ Bath &. Mackun's, [by Imp , d) Fearnought, dam an imp'fl 

mare, bought of the widow of Col. Mail near Norfolk, &.c. 

Wicksford, Va. 1777. Edwards. 

FEATHER, ch. f. by Rattler, dam Marianna. 

Fred. Cy. Va. 1827. B. F. Whiting 

FEDERALIST, by Lath, dam by Old Fearnought out of Col. Tusker's Se 

lima, raised by J. Tayloe. 

J. Pryor. 
FENELLA, by Silver Heels, dam Black Merino by Vintzun — Comet — Doa 

Carlos— Old Figure, &c. 

Eastern, Maryland. G. S. Winder, 

-ch m. by Smith's Alfred, dam by Dungaimon — Nimrod— 

[Jmp\i\ Hamilton — Ball's Florizelle, &.c. 

by Cornet (by Tayloe's Vorick,) dam by Don 


Mount Calvert, 1795. John Brown, 

-ch. f. by Stockholder, dam Rosetta by Wilke's Wonder. 

FIDELITY, c. f. by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Alfred — Florizelle — Diomede 


Pcnsa. Edward Parker. 

FIGURE, [lmp\T] b. h bv Grey Figure — Old Figure by an Arabian, hit 

dam the dam ofBov le's Cyrus, and got by Young Standout, hisgr. 

dam. Old Jason, \oung Figure's dam was Marianna dam of Ralph 

G ore's gr. mare. 

1767. Dr. Hamilton. 

.. [Imp'd] gr. h. by Standard, dam a Beaufort Arabian mare- 

Lord Brooke's Arabian — Brimmer — Darley's Arabian, &c. 

Foaled, 1747. 

-b. h. by Hamilton's [fmp'd] Figure, dam Brent's Ebony. 

Meckknberg, Va. 1777. P. Skepvvith. 

Young, (See Young Figure.) 

-hy Yorick, dam an Ebony mare. 

FINANCIER, by Tippoo Saib, (who was by Old Messenger) dam by Old 

Messenger — Bashaw, &c. 
FIREFLY, ch. f. by Reigo, dam Shepherdess by Phenomenon. 

Richard Adams. 
FIRETA1L, [Imp'd] b. by Phenomenon out of Columbine by Espusike'* 


1801. lmp'd by Cain & Ray. 

FIREBRAND, [frnp^d] ch. c by Buzzard out of Fanny, own sister to King 

Fergus the sire of Hamiltonian. 
FIRST CONSUL, by Flag of Truce, dam [6* Tmtfd] Slender, g. dam imp'd 

Dion by famous Eclipse. 

Philadelphia, 1804-.7 John P. Bond. 

FIRST FRUITS, dk. br. c. by Randolph's Roanoake, dam Cameleon by 

Virginian — Rosetta, &c. 
FITZPARTNER, bv Old Partner, dam Brandon [by Imp'd} Aristotle. 

Albemarle, Va. 1800. David Clarkson. 

Fr AGFLLATOR, ch. h. by Sea Gull, dam Honesty [by lmp'd] Expedi 

•Tan, g. dam by Imp'fl Messenger, &c. John Frost. 


FLAG OF TRUCE, (Goode's) byGoldfinder,damby Fhmnap- ArtstotJe--- 
Fearnouglu, &c. 
Prince George Cy. Col. Portress. 

FLEETWOOD, b. c by Washington, nam by Sir Robin, (he by Robin Red- 
breast,) g. dam by Dare Devil, &c 

FLIMNAP, [Imp^d] b. h. fourteen and a half hands high, by South, darr 
Cygnet niaie, bred by Sir John Moore, g. dam by Ebony — Clnldeis, 
Sorth Carolina, 1780. Foaled, 1765. 

FI JRTILLA, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Robin Redbreast — Obscurity, &c. 
Sussex Gy. Va. Win. Wynne. 

[Imp'd] ch. m. by Virtumnus, O'Kelly's Flirtilla by Squirrel 
— Helen by Blank — Crab — out of own sister to Old Partner. (Died 

J. Tayloe. 

FLORIZELLE, [Imp\T] (Helen's) dap. bay sixteen hands high by the noted 
Florizelle, out of a brown mare by Alfred, his g. dam Fairy Queen 
by Young Cade, g. g. dam Black Eyes by Crab out of Warlock, Gal- 
loway by Snake, &c. \lmp\i] 1794 by Helen for Ringgold & Co. 

■ « — ch. s. [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam by Imp'd Shark — Harris' 

Eclipse — Fearnought — Old Jolly Roger. 

Broad Rock, Va. 1806. Wm. Ball. 

-gr. c by Grey Diomede, dam Louisa by Eclipse. 

Foaled, 1795. J. Tayloe. 

-(Graves') by Old Florizelle, dam by Old Spread Eagle, gr. 

dam by Boxer, g. g. dam by Eclipse — Fearnought, &c. 

Young. (See Young Florizelle.) John M. Burton. 

-Mare, ch. by Ball's Florizelle, dam [by Imp'd] Cripple- 

Wonder— Old Bedford, &c. 

J. Selden. 
FLORIZELLA, br. f. [by lmp'd] Florizelle, dam Betsy Bell. 

Foaled, 1802. Thos. M. Forman 

(or Grey Tail) by Ball's Florizelle, dam (Dr. Cutler's race 

mare) by Wildair, g. dam by Apollo — Eclipse — Mark Anthony 
[Imphl] Partner, &c. 

-by Florizelle, dam Black Eyed Susan by Potomac. 

Georgia. Jos. Hester. 

FlORA, by Roanoake, dam [lmp , d~\ Lady G. 

- — b. m. by Florizelle, dam Miss Dance by Roebuck, g. dam b> 

Independence, &c. 

Alex. F. Rose 

_ _ ch. m. by Ball's Florizelle, dam Ins. 

J. Lewis, 
-b. f. by Heath's Childers, darn Maggy Lauder. 

Foaled, 1789. T. M. Forman. 

-ch. by Am. Eagle, (by [Imp y d] Spread Eagle,) dam by Imp'u 

Dare Devil, g. dam by True Whig — Regulus, &c. 
FLOUNCE, ». f. by Buzzard, clam Portia. 

Delaware, 1828. Thos. Massey. 

I LORETTA, (Ed el in's) [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle, dam by Hall's Unioi - 

Leonidas— Othello, &c. 
FLORIDA, b f. by Contention, dam by Francisco— Jack Andrews— Dar« 

Devil— Clock fast, &c. 
by Old Rattler, dam Flora by Ball's Florize'.'ie. 

1H27. J Lewis 

t'LOTE. ch. c. hv Neal's Archy, (by Old Sir Aichy, x dam Marv Grey. 

3Q #" U. J. G'8t 


FLLVIA, by Partner, dam Fluvia by Celer. 

J. Tr.yloe. 
FLYING DUTCHMAN, b. h. by John Richards, dam by Ec.ipse, g dair. 

by Tippoo Saib — [Imp^d] Royalis*., &,c. 
FLYING CHiLDERS, ch. h. by Sir Archy, dam (the dam of Sumpter,) 
by Robin Redbreast. 


FORLORN HOPE, gr. m. by Bellair, dam Fancy by Independence. 

Henry Macklin. 
f ORTUNATUS, by Conway's Black and All Black, dam a full bred 
daughter of Tavloe's Yorick. 
Goochland Cy/Va. 1782. 
FORTUNIO, b. c. by Cormorant, dam Broadnax bv Old Janus, <fcc. 

1793. J. Tayloe. 

FORESTER, ch. h. by Sir Alfred out of a Hornet mare. 

Sold Mr. Powder, Fred. Md. Rich. Craddock. 

— — — — — f/mpV] by Magog, dam by Forester. (Stood in Kentucky, 

FOREST MAID, b. m. (See Maid of the Forest.) 
FOSKARI, b. c. by Kosciusko, dam by Whip, gr. dam by Columbus, &c 

Kentucky. Ed. M. Blackburn. 

FRANCISCO, [by Imp'd\ Hambleton, dam Nightingale by Chanticleer- 
Jolly Roger, &c. 

John Minge. 
FRANKLINA, b. m. by Sir Solomon, dam [by Imp'd] Expedition— hnp'd 
Slender — Gen. Herd's Snap, &.c. 

C. Cruser. 
FRANCES PUCKETT, b. by Arab, dam by Knowsly, g. dam by Sal- 
tram, &c. 

FREDERIC A, by Escape, (Horn's,) dam a thorough bred mare, owned by 
Messrs. Norwoods, Maryland. 

Messrs. Tayloes. 
FREDERICK THE GREAT, br. h by Young Sir Harry, (who was out of 
the full sister to Defiance by Old [Imp'd] Sir Harry,) dam by Ham'l 
tonian — Cormorant, &,c. 
FREDERICKSBURG, dk. ch. by Old Gracchus, dam by Friendship— Old 
Paragon — [Imp^d] Bedford, &c. 

Jefferson Minor. 
FRENZY, by Sans Culotte, dam Minikin. 

J. Randolph. 
FRIENDSHIP, sor. h. by Apollo, (he by Old Apollo,) dam a full bred 
mare, &x. 

1789. Cbas. Dewall. 

FROLIC, I), f. by Argus, dam Amazon by Dictator — Statira by Percy — 
Homespun by Romulus, &.c. 

Rich. A. Rapley. 

— b. f. by Sir Charles' dam. 

J. M. Selden. 
FURJOSO, gr. c. by Dare Devil, dam Medley mare — Bolton — Fearnought, 


FYLDE, [Imp^d] br. h. sixteen and a half hands high, by Antonio out cf 
Fadlidinida, she by Sir I'eter Teazle, her dam Fanny out of Am- 
brosia by Woodpecker, he by Herod out of Miss Ramsden, she by 
Old Cade, a son of Godolphin Arabian, &,c. 
• mu'd 1832. John Averv. 



GABRIEL, [Imp 1 !!] b. h. got by Doremont, dam by Highflyer, g. dam by 

Snap out of the dam of Chalkstone — Iris — Planet, &,c, she by 

Shepherd's Crab, her dam Miss Meredith by Cade out of the little 

Hartley mare. Foaled, 1790. 

1799. John Tayloe. 

GABRIELLA, ch. no. by Sir Archy, dam by Bellair. 

1826. J. S. Garrison. 

— b. f. by Baronet, dam Temptation. 

1799. Thos. M. Forman. 

G ALLEN A, alias Madame JVorfleet, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam (a mare 

[Imp'd] by Thos. B. Hill of Halifax, N. C.) by Oscar, g. dam Me- 

lissa, &c. 
GALLANT, b. h. by Fearnought, his dam Stately by Sober John out of an 

[Imp^d] mare. Robert Taylor. 

GALLATIN, (Expectation) by Bedford, dam Mambrina out of a sister oi 

Nailor's Sally, and sold to Col. Alston for $4000. 

1798. J. Tayloe. 

GAMESTER, b. c. by Spread Eagle, dam Sappho by Buckskin. 

1803. Richard A. Rapley. 

GANYMEDE, by Hephestion dam. 

South Carolina. Richard Singleton. 

GARR1CK, by Ceier, darn by Janus, g. dam the Partner mare, &c. 

Granville, N. C. Chas. Eaton. 

• by Americus, dam [7/npV] Kitty Fisher. 

Benj. Hoskins. 
GASTERIA, r/m/>V] b. f. by Balloon, (he by Highflyer,) dam a Marske 

mare — her dam Cremona by Regulus, &x. 

GASCOIGNE, by Roanoake, dam Lady G. 

1824. J. Randolph. 

GATROMINA, ch. f. by Timoleon, dam Nili. 
GAY, by Celer, dam by Old Partner, g. dam by Valiant, Col. By /d's [Imp 1 d] 

Tryall, &c. 
GAYOSO, b. c. by Rinaldo, dam Orange. 

1829. Thos. Massey. 

GAZELLA, by Bussora, dam Hyacinth. 
GEM1MA, by" Bedford, dam [Imp'd] Rachel by Drone. 

Wade Hampton 
GENESIS, h. c. by Sir Archy, dam Henrietta by Sir Hal. 

Bait. 1827. Pit. Wa'P* 

GENTLE KITTY, by Young Post Boy, dam Gen. Ridgby's Dairy M»i4 

by Bedford. 

by Archibald dam. 

GEORGE ST. (See St. George.) 

GEORG1ANA, by Sir Archy, dam Gattellier's mare. 

1826. Wm. Wynne. 

ch. m. by Napoleon, dam Old Poll by Druid. 

E. B. Hicks 
GESTION, by Spread Eagle, dam Calypso. 

1802. J. Tayloe. 

GIANN1NI, hi. b. m. by Burwell's Post Boy— [Imp rfj i.o'ee Chariid ou, *J 

the Cumming's mare, &,c. 

Granville, N. C. 1809. 
SIANT, I), h. by Sir Archy, dam Anderson's Twir,. (&V Old Twig,) g. d 

by Commutation — Eaton's Garrick. &c. 


GIFT. {See. AmericaA 

GILES SCROGGINS, by Sir Archy, dam Lady Bedford. 

N. Carolina, 1828. W. B. Moses. 

GIMCRAOK, ro. h. by Hart's [Imp'd] Medley, dam bv Ariel, &.c. 

1788. Peter Randolph. 

G1PSEY, ch. f. by Sterling, dam Hebe, by Dare Devil, g. dam by Old Med- 

ley, <tc. 

Hoomes, Farish, & Co. 
■■ b. m. [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam by Soldier, g. dam by Imp'd 

Sea Gull, g. g. dam by King Herod, &c. 

1814. Fairfield, Va. Rich. Adams. 

GLIDER, (2nd) b. c. by Glider, dam Temptation. 

1802. Thos. M. Forman. 

GODOLFHIN, [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam Sally Shark by Shark, g. dam 

Betsy Pringle. 

Newmarket, Va. John Baylor. 

« -(Dr. Brown's) ch. Godolphin, (by Diomede,) dam (Indian 

Hen) [by Imp'd] Shark, g. dam by Wormleys or Black Herod, &c. 

Frederick Cy. James Ware, 

-b. h. [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam Jenny Dismal. 

Dinwiddie Cy. Va. 1777. Thos. Field, 

-by Sprigg's Careless, dam by Selim,g. dam by Panton's Ara- 

bian, &.C. 

-Marf., by Godolphin, (by Diomede,) dam by the Pennsylva- 

nia Farmer, g. dam by Pegasus — Bolton, &.c. Sent to Kentucky. 

John Hoomes. 
GOHANNA, br. b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Merino Ewe, by Jack Andiewa 


1829. Half Sink, near Richmond. John M. Botts. 

GOLD FINDER, by Old Fearnought, dam Kitty Fisher. 

ch. m. by Virginius, dam Miss Fortune, g. dam [Imp'd] An 

GOLIAH, ch. h. by American Eclipse, dam Lady of the Lake, &c. 

1827. W. Livingston. 

GOLDEN ROD, by Mousetrap, dam Nancy Bell — bred by Gen. Jones. 
GEORGE'S J UNIPER. (See Juniper George's.) [Imp'd). 
GOUTY, [Imp'd] b. h. five and a quarter feet high, by Sir Peter Teazi», 

his dam the famous yellow mare by Tandem, g. dam Perdita, by 

Herod, Fair Forester by Sloe — Forester — Partner — Croft's bay Bar 

— Makeless — Brimmer, &c. 

Foaled, 1796. Win. Rives. 

GRACE, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Wildfire. 

1822. John Randolph. 

GRACCHUS, ch. h by Diomede, dam Cornelia by Chanticleer, &.c. 

1806. John Randolph. 
Mare, by Gracchus — [Imp'd] horse Dion — imp'd Highflyers- 
Apollo, &c. 

Halifax, Va. 1818. John Sims. 

GRACE, b. in. by Ravenswood, dam Old Everlasting by Sans Cuiotte. 

1822. J. Randolph. 

GRAND DUTCHESS, ch. m. by Gracchus, dam [Imp'd] Dutchess. 

J. Randolph. 
GREENSVILLE, g f. by Bedford, dam Arminda by Medley. 

Sold J. Jones, 1803. J. Hoomes. 

GRECIAN PRINCESS, b. m. by Virginian, her dam Calypso by Beliair, g 

dam Irby's Dare Devil mare, &c. 

Id24 G W. Jeffnet 


GREGORY, ch. by Gracchus, flam Red Eye, g. dam by Sarpedon, g. g, 

dam by Traveller. 
GRENADIER, 1). Ii. by Wilkes (who was by Old Figure,) dam by S„'on> 

Bri'ania, A:c. 

Petersburg, 1782. Thomas E*inn. 

GREY MARE, by Slouch, [by Imp'd] Medley out of a full bred mine. 

N. B. The dam of the gr. m. was sold by W. A. Lee to Di f.U>j Ir- 
GREY ARCHY, by Old Sir Archy, dam by Grey Medley, (son of [Imp'd] 

Medley,) g. dam by imp'd Messenger, &.c. 

Tennessee, 18 10. B. P lilips 

GREY DOLL, by Spot, (before he was castrated,) dam by Stirling (son of 

Volunteer) Duetta by Silver Tail. 

John Randolph. 
-Medley, (Barry's) by Old Medley, dam by Blacl. and AY 

Black, g. dam by Bay Bolton — Old Partner, &c. 

N. Carolina. George Williams. 

Alfred, by Lindsay's Arabian, dam [by Imp'd'] Tom Jones- 

-Diomede, gr. h. [byjmp'd] Diomede, dam by Flag of Truce 

Brimmer — Silver Eye, &.C 

1808. Barksdale., or Enterprise, [by Imp J d] Medley, dan. by Sloe, g 

dam by Vampire, &c. 

Sold to J. Tayloe, 1793. Richard Biooke. 

Beard, by Kosciusko, dam [Imp'd] Psyche. 

R. Singleton. 

Badger, by Eden's [Imp'd] Badger, dam by imp'd Selim. 

Benjamin Ogle* 

Childers, by Medley, dam by Partner. 

Thomas Ea»on. 
Orphan, by Orphan, (he by Ball's Florizelle,) dam by Imp**. 

Diomede, dam of Grey Orphan, Mary Grey. 

John Gist. 
GREYHOUND, gr. [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle, dam Pandora by imp'd Mtd 

lev, &c. 

1806. H. T. Thornton. 

GUNNILDA, [Imp'd] got by Star, by Regulus, by the Godolplnn Arabian- 
G ULNA RE, gr. f. by Duroc, dam Sportinistress. 

Queens Cy. N. V. 1824. Thomas PearsalL 


HACK A BOUT, [Imp'd] got by Eclipse, dam by Cyphon and sister to Tan- 
dem, g. dam sister to Apollo by Regulus — Snip, &.c. Foaled 1794. 
Imp'd 1798. John Hoomcs. 

HAIL STORM, b. h. [by Imp'd] Pantaloon, dam Wir.gyfeet by Jolly Ro- 
ger, g. dam Melpomone by Bunnell's Traveller, &,c. 
Charles Citv, 1802. Fr. H. Dancey. 

HALF PONE, by Rattler, dam Maid of Patuxent by Magie, g. dam Kitty 
Fox, by a son of imp'd Venetian. H. G. S. Key 

HALL'S UNION, (See Union Hall's.) 

HAMBLETON", or Hamilton, [Imp'd] br. b. sixteen hands high by Dun 
gannon, his dam by Snap, gr. dam by Blank, Partnei, GreytHund, 
Foaled, 1791. Win. Lightfoot 

HAMJLTONIAN, or Hamlintonian, ch. ii. by Diomede, dam by »)>aik,| 
dam by Spol by A polio. 
I H01. J- T* >• 


HAMLET, b. c. by Maryland Eclipse, dam Forest Maid. 

Laurenceviile, Va. 1830. R. K. Mead« 
sor. (ch.) h. by Hall's Eclipse, dam Shepherdess by Chatam, 


J. H. Harrison. 
H\NOVER, by Bussora, dam by Sir Archy, &c. 
HANNIBAL, by Sir William, dam Sally Currie. 

1828. J. W. Jeffries. 

HANNAH, b. m. by Moore's Archy, dam by Buchanan's Medley — Old 

Celer — Hector, &x. 
HANDEL, by Goode's Herod, (he by Diomede,) dam by Thornton's Wil- 

dair — Bellair — Symmes' Wildair, &,c. 

H. D. 
HAFHAZARD, bv Collector, dam bv Fearnought — Spadilla, &c. 

1805. J. Tayloe. 

HARDIN1A BURNLEY, bl. m. by Old Roebuck, dam by Old Bedford— 

Bellair, «fcc. 

W. D. Taylor. 
HARMONY, [by Imp'd] Figure, dam Stella, (the dam of Primrose and 

Thistle) by imp'd Dove. 


b. m. by Cragg's Sweeper, dam [by Imp'd] Dove, g. dam Se- 

lima by Othello, &x. 

1784. Walter Bowig. 

HARVEY BIRCH, by Richmond, dam by Sir Alfred. 
HARLEQUIN, ch. h. by Gabriel, dam by Venetian— True Whig— Cub, 

HARPER, by Grey Diomede, dam Polly Peachem. 

1 799. J. Tayloe. 

HARRIET, b. f. by Bedford, dam Proserpine. 

1804. J. Hoomes. 

HARWOOD, by Archy, dam Asmoplede by Diomede. 

A. J. Davie. 
HAUTBOY, gr. c. by Gallatin, dam Sappho by Tartar. 

HAYMAKER, dk. ch. s. h. [by Imp'd] Clifden, dam Harlot by Hall'i 

Eclipse, &.c. 

Albany, 1829. C. M. Bennett. 

N. B. This horse was bred by Col. Lyles of Maryland. 
HAVOC, c. c. by Sir Charles, dam by Alfred. 


HAZARD, ch. c. by Tinioleon, dam [by Imp'd] Royalist, g. dam by Dio- 
mede, &c. 

Tennessee, 1829. John Swinnev. 

HEDGFORD, [Imfd] br. by Filho da Puta, dam Miss Cragie by Orville, 

g. dam by Lurcher — Phenomenon, &,c. Filho da Puta by Haphs*. 

aid — Ws»xey — Woodpecker — Squirrel, &c. 

Foalco, 1826. Imp'd 18:32. Wm. Jackson. 

HEATH'S CH1LDERS, (See Childers Heath's.; 
HEBE, b. f. by Florizelle, dam Tartar mare, &c. 

1 794. Dandy Griggs. 
b. f. by Dare Devil, dam Yarico by Medley. 

1796 J. Hoomes. 

HELEN, b. m. [by Imp'd] Medley, dam Diana by Specimen. 

J. Foster. 
HEARTWELL, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Planter, (which was raised 

by Collier Harrison of Va. sired by I'antaloon.) g. dam by Sultan- 

Sv-eei^r. Sec H. &. H. S. Vilkinson. 


HENRY, ch. n. by Sir Archy, dam out of Bellona by Bellair 

II. ach. h. by Henry, dam (the dam of Sir Lovel 1 ) [by Imp'd t 

Light Infantry — Imp'd Messenger, &c. 

Can>])ridge,- N. Y. Edw. Long. 

HENRIETTA, br. m. by Sir Hal, dam Lady Burton. 

1822. J. W. Eppes. 

■ ' b. f. by Henry, dam Agnes. 

Bait. 1827. Philip Wailis. 

<— — gr. m. by Sir Archy, dam Forlorn Hope. 

Henry Macklin. 
HEPHESTION, red s. h. by Buzzard, dam Castianira. (Sold for $1400.) 

1809. J. Tayloe. 

HEROD, [Imp'd] gr. h. by Young Herod, son of Old Herod out of Lord 

Clermont's Stud, a daughter of Conductor. 

1 790. J. Hoomes. 

H1AZIM, ch. c. by Sir Archy, dam Jenny by Archduke. 
HICKORY, ch. h. by Gracchus, dam Everlasting. 

John Randolph. 
• br. h. [by Imp'd] Whip, dam Dido by imp'd Dare Devil, g 

dam by Symmes' Wildair, <fec. 

B. Badger. 
HIGHFLYER, [Imp'd] br. by Tattersall's Highflyer, his dam by Cyphon 

out of Young Cade's sister — Old Cade— Partner — Makeless — Brim- 
mer, &,c. 

Foaled, 1784. (South River.) J. Craggs. 
br. b. h. by Wildair, dam by Yorick, g. dam by Fitzhugh'* 

Regulus, (fee. 

Albemarle Cy. Va. 1802. David Clarkson. 

-ch. c. by Marplot, dam Brilliant mare 

1795. S.Carolina. "William Alston. 

[by Imp'd] Sir Harry, dam imp'd Pamona. 

Hanover, Ya. 1815. Daniel Wade, Jun. 

HIGHFLYER MARE, [by Imp'd] Highflyer— Apollo— Imp'd Jolly Ro- 

ger, (fee. 

1790. Halifax, Va. John Sims. 

HIGHLANDER, [Imp'd] gr. by Bordeaux, his dam (Teetotum) by Match- 
em, g. dam Lady Bolingbroke by Squirrel, — g. g. dam Cypron, the 

dam of King Herod, &.c. bred by Mr. Douglass in England. 

Foaled, 1783. 
L. by Shark, dam Young Selima by Fearnought. 

1796. Richard Brooke. 

H1PPONA, b. m. by Virginian, dam by Rockingham, (by Florizelle,) g 

dam by Magog by Chanticleer. 

S. Carolina. P. M. Butler. 
b. f. by Roanoake, dam Grand Duicness. 

1822. J. Randolph. 

HITPONA, [Imp'd] b. f. by Sir Peter, dam by Woodpecker, g. dam oj 

Sweeibrier out of Buzzard, clam by Dux, <fec. 

Foaled, 1802. Gen. McPherson 

HOMESPUN, by Romulus, dam Venus by Hero, g. dam Tripsey by Fear- 
HONEST JOHN, [Imp'd] br. b. by Sir Peter Teazle, dam by Magnet— Lt 

Sang— Rib— Mother Western by (Smith's) Son of r.iakt, ifec. Imp'd 


Milton, New Jersey, 1806. 

by Old Misssngerj dam Maria Slamerkuv 


•IOJVEST JOHN, by Tuckahoe, dam Chehoangti [by Imp'd] Arab. 

Bordentown, N. J. 1826. James Davidson 

HONESTY, [hi/ Imp'd] Expedition, dam by imp'd Messenger, g. aatn bf 

imp'd Bay Ricbmond, &c. 

J. H. Vanmeter. 
HONEY COMB, [by Imp'd] Jack Andrews, dam Pill Box by Pantaloon 

Dr. A. T. Dixon. 
HOPE, [Imp'd] by Volunteer, imp'd by Dr. Tate of Philadelphia. 

Young, by Diomede, dam Arakookress. 

1 by Imp'd] Shark, dam by imp'd Fearnought, g. dam by imp'd 

Monkey, &c. 1783. 

HOPPER BOY, g. [by Imp'd] Messenger, dam the imp'd PotBos mare, &c. 
HORN'S, [Imp'd] (See Escape.) 

HORNET, by Diomede, dam Cade's Primrose by Dove, Cade, &c. 
gr. c. by Bellair, dam by Celer, g. dam by Janus, &G, 
HOTSPUR, by Timoleou, dam by Sir Archy, g. dam bv Old Wilda>r. 

Christ, ans. 

HUNTRESS, ch. m. by Cherokee, dai i [by Imp'd] Buzzard, tkc. 

HUGO, ch. c. by Sir Charles, dam [by Imp'd] Chance, g. dam Celia by 

Symmes' Wildair — Lady Bolingl roke, &c 

Richard Adams. 
HURRY'EM, [by Imp'd] Precipitate, dam Dixon's Pill Box. 

Messrs. Minges. 
HYDER ALLY, dap. gr. by Lindsay's Arabian, dam by Othello — g. dam 

(an imp'd mare from the Duke of Hamilton's slud) by Spot. 

Foaled, 1782. Dr. Marshall. 

HYENA, br. in. by Young Wonder, (full brother of Nell Saunders) out of 

Rosy Clack, &c. 1320. 

HYPERION, by Diomede, dam Patsy Walthall by Medley, &c. 


IDIORA, b. m. [by Imp'd] Citizen, dam by imp'd Sea Gull, gr. dam bj 

Huntsman — Old Janus, &,c. 

Foaled, 1810. Charles Shields. 

INAUGURAL, b. c. by Arab, dam Jenny by Archduke. 

1829. J- C. Goode. 

INDEPENDENCE, [by Imp'd] Fearnought, dam Dolly Fine, by Old 

Silver Eye, &c. 

Col. Hickman. 

-ch. f. by Pacolet, dam Fancy. 

Tennessee. J- Sumner, 

-by Old Potomac— [Imp'd] St. Paul — Imp'd Old Diomedo 

Mead's Old Pilgrim, &c. 

.NDUSTRY, br. b. by Sir Archy' dam 


INDIAN QUEEN, by Pilgrim dam, dam of Belleville, and g. dam of Sir 

W. Wilkins. 
WDjAN HEN, by Othello, dam by Lloyd's Traveller, g. dam by Figure, 
g. g. dam was imp'd by Mr. Crow of Philadelphia, and was fuil 
sister to Irish Grey, &,c. 


INDIANA, br. m. by Flonzelle, dam by Thornton's Medley, g. dam bj 
Cragg's Highflyers-Hall Union, <fcc. 

Ale.ssrs. Taylo«. 


rNVAT H), [Tmp^d] by Whisker, Ham Hamihonian, g. dam Susan out of 
Drowsy by Drone, ifcc. 

Craig &, Corbin 
RIS, ch f by Marplot, dam Nancj Dawson, &c. 

by Punch, dam Beane's Maria. 

gr f. by Sir Archy dam. 


^r. f. [by Imp^d] Sterling, dam by Imp'd Coeur de Lion, & 

dam Mead's Oracle. 

Loudon, Va. 1830. J. Lewis, 

-ch. f. by Sir William, dam Shepherdess, 

1828. Rich. Adams. 

by Young Baronet, dam by Post Boy (of Kentucky,) out of a 

Snap mare, &c. 

Rich. Higgins. 

IRVTNA, by Virginian, dam Pandora by Bellair, &.C. 

ISABELLA, [Imp'd] dk. br. f. by Trumpeter, dam Demirip, sister to No- 
ble, &C. 
1802. Gen. John McPherson. 

b. m. by Sir Archy, dam Black Ghost [by Imjfd] Oscar. 

b. f. by Roanoake, dam Mexican. 

1825. J. Randolph, 

-b. f. by Arab, dam Lady Bedford. 

1827. J. W. Jeffries. 

IVANHOE, b. c. by Virginian, dam Jenny by Archduke. 

1824. J. C. Goode. 

JACK ANDREWS, [Imp'd] b. h. fifteen and a half hands high, by Joe An- 
drews, (son of Eclipse,) his dam by Highflyer — Cardinal Puff — Tat- 
tler — Snip — Godolphin Arabian, &.c. Foaled, 1794. 
Charles City Cy. Va. Win. Lightfoot. 

JACK THE BACHELOR, [Imp'd] by Blaze, dam by Gallant— Smiling 
Tom, &c. 
Foaled, 1753. 
JACK FROST, b. c. by Ranger, dam Betsy Bell. 

Rose Hill, 1799. Thos. M. Forman. 

JACK BULL, by Gabriel, dam Active by Chatam. 

JAMES F1TZJAMES, b. c. by Tariff, dam Noma, g. dam Lady Talman, 
(the dam Kate Kearney and Sussex.) 

Wm. D. Taylor. 

by Sir Archy dam. 


JANE, b. m. [by Imp'd] Knowsley, dam ch. m. Selinia. 

Albemarle, Va. Walter Coles. 

LANE SHORE, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam Fair Rosamond. 

1827. Henry Macklin. 

JANETTE, [Imp'd] by Mercury, dam by Highflyer, g. d. by Snip — Regu 
lus, Slc. Foaled, 1791. 
Imp'd 1798. J. Hooines 

— b. f. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Citizen — Commutation, 


. Johnson. 

JANE ALFRED, b. m. by Sir Alfred, dam by Floriielle, g. dam by Ou> 
Bedford— Lamplighter, &.c. 

Wm. D. Taylor. 

•« Grey, b m. by Orphan Boy, dam Dy Oscar — [Imp'd] Expe 

d it ion, &.c. 


JANE GREY, gr. f. by Old Slouch, dam Nancy Dawson. 

. Lowndes, [by Imp'd] Driver, dam Modesty, g. d. Madge h? 

Hall's Union. 
iANUS, [Imp'd] bl. h. fifteen bands one inch high, by Old Stirling— Oid 
Oral) — Monkev — Basto, &.c. 
Foaled, 1 754. ' Wm. Hynes'. 

. [Imp'd] ch. by Janus, dam by Fox — Bald Galloway, &c. 

Died 1779-80, aged 34. 

Gloucester Gy. Va. Mordecai Booth. 

_ ch. h. by Sir Archy, dam Frenzy by Sans Culotte. 

_ ._ -Young, b. (See Young Janus.) 

J. Randolph, 
-b. c. by Spread Eagle, dam Broadnax 

]8Q2. Rich. Hoomes. 

Mare, ch. by Old ch. Janus, [Imp'd] dam by Dapple John on! 

of a full sister to Harlot by Janus. 
JEFF, br. c. by Stockholder, dam Maria Hill by Oscar. 

Nimrod Porter. 
JEFFERSON, br. h. by Virginian, dam Old Favourite by Bellair, &c. 

1825. J. J. Harrison. 

JENNY, by Archduke, dam [by Imp'd] Stirling, g. dam by Imp'd Obscuri- 
ty out of Miss Slamerkin. 
JLNNY GAMERON, by Lloyd's Traveller, dam Kitty Fisher. 

1785. Wm. Scott. 

_ . . [Imp'd] was got by Cuddy, a son of Old Fox, by Miss Bell* 


John Tayloe. 
-Dismal, [Imp'd'] by Old Dismal, he by the Godolphin Ara- 

bian — her dam by Lord Godolphir.'s Whitefoot, &c. 

Col. Baylor. 
-Deans, ch. m. by Gracchus, dam Cornelia. 

1815. J- Randolph. 

-Deans, br. b. by Virginian, dam by Bainbridge, g. dam by 

Jolly Air, g. g dam by Why Not, &,c. 
Wilmington, N. G. W. B. Mears. 

-Di'tek, by True Briton, dam Quaker Lass by Juniper, g. d. 

[Imp'd] Molly Pacolet, &c. 
_ Kiland, b. in. by Doublehead, (he [by Imp'd] Diomede,) 


of Folly Medley — Mark Anthony, &c. 

VVi.M)Fi.owEK, ch. in. by Bernadotte, dam Kate Cole. 

-Gockracv, ch. in. by Potomac, dam [by Imp'd] Saltram— 

Imp'd Wildair — Driver — Fearnought, &c. 

1814. Kentucky. E. Warfield. 

JERRY, dap. gr. by Pacolet, dam by Topgallant, g. dam by Grey Medley, 

&c. Col. Elliott. 

JESSICA, b. m. by Shylock, dam [by Imp'd] Young Si Peter Teazle, g 

dam Castianira, (dam of Sir Archy.) 

Rich. Adam*. 
JEZEBEL, ch. f. by Bedford, dam Miss Chance, &c. 

Mess *». Tayloes. 
JESSAMINE, br. f. by Dockon, dam Virginia, (Coquette.) 

1824. J- Ferguson 

i ET, bl. f. by Bluster, dam Statira. 

1820. J. Randolph 

JEWESS, b. I. by Roanoake, dam Jessie* 
JJA1 CRACK. (See Gim Crack.) 


JU T, {jr. f by Ajax, Hani Nancy Dawson. 1791. 

JIM CARR, br. f. by Forester, dam Forest Maid. 

1831. Rich. I. Meade. 

JOAN, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Grey Doll. 

J. Randolph. 
JOHN BROWN, ch. by Sir Charles, dam Sally Brown. 
JOLLY FRIAR, by Garrick, dam descended from Gilmour's Milk Ma.d, 

JOHN BULL, [Imp'd] ch. by Fortitude, dam Xantippeby Eclipse, g. dam 

Grecian Princess by Forester, &c. 
b. m. by Gabriel, dam Active by Chatam, &c. 

N. B. — She was called John Bull by Gov. Wright, from his having 
exchanged a bull for her with Col. Lyles of Md. 
JOHN DISMAL, ch. by Sober John, dam Jenny Dismal. 
' Richards, b. k. by Sir Archy, dam by Rattler, (by Shark,) g. 

dam [by Imp^d] Medley — Wildair — Nonpareil, &c. 

-Hancock, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Roanoka by Florizell* 

1823. John Randolph. 

Stanley, b. h. by Sir Hal, dam Ariadne [by Iinp'd] Citizen, 

<fcc. Foaled, 1818 

Pennsylvania. Edw. Parker 

ok Roanoake, b. h. by Roanoake, dam Grand Dutchess. 

Randolph, b. c. by Rinaldo, dam Portia, &c. 1809. 

-W, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Young Frenzy 

1825. J. Randolph. 

JOLLY AIR, by Old Wildair, dam [by Imp'' d] Flimnap — Brimmer — Imp'a 
Valiant, &c. 

J. J. Harrison. 

JOLLY ROGER, [Imp'd] ch. called in England Roger of (he Vale, got by 
Roundhead, (who was by Flying Childers,) the dam of Jolly Ro- 
ger got by Partner, his gr. dam by Woodcock — Croft's Bay Barb — 
Makeless, &c. 
Foaled, 1741. Imp'd about 1743. 

— ~ .[Imp^d] b. c. by the Gower Stallion, Miss Harvey by Car 

touch — Sophia by Godolphin Arabian. 

-by Jolly Roger, dam by Dabster, g. dam Mary Grey. 

Prince Geo. County Va. 1777. Edm. Ruffin, Jun. 

JONAH, [Imp^d] b. h. by Escape, dam Lavinia by Herod — Snap— -Cade- 
Bloody Buttocks— Partner — Makeless, &c 

1796. Bush. 

JOSEPHINE, b. m. by Peace Maker, dam a full bred Diomede mare, «fec. 

J. Lewis. 
by Flying Dragon, dam by Hamiltonian — St. George — Kin| 

Herod— Old Yorick, &c. 

ch. by Bussora, dam by Sir Harry, g. dam by Obscurity, &*. 

Win. D. Taylor. 
JOSEPHUS, ch. c. by Rob Roy, dam Flora by Ball's Florizello. 

Loudon, Va. J. Lewis. 

^UBA, b. h. by Charlemaigne, dam a full bred Fearnought mare. 

1798. - Thos. Hunt 

JUBILEE, by Independence, by Quicksilver, [by Imp'd] Medley, &,c. 
JULIA, gr. m. by Spread Eagle, dam Calypso. 

1804. J. Tavio*. 

JULIET, ch. by Muttnomer, (he by Tom Tough,) dam \by Imp'd' 1 . Oa* 

Bedford, g. dam by Bellair out of King's Kitty Fisher. 

\V. D. Taylor 


..UNIPER, (George's) [Imp'd] b. h. fifteen hands one inch high, by Bab » 

ham, (who was by Godolphin Arabian,) dam Aurora by Stamford 

Turk, &c. 

Charles City Cy. Va. 1762. Robert Harrison. 
Little, [by Imp'd] Juniper, dam Tasker's Selima. 

Hanover, Va. 1777. 
JUNIUS, by (Craig's) Yorick, dam by Othello, g. dam by Monkey, out o( 

a Spanish mare Imp'd by Mr. N. Harrison. 

Prince Edward Cy. Va. 1777. Edw. Watts. 

JUNO, gr. f. by Grey Archy, dam Fancy by Wilkes' Wonder, &c. 

Tennessee, 1823. D. W. Sumner. 

JUPITER, b. h. by the noted Janus, bred by Capt. James Bell of Sussex 

remarkable for swiftness, &c. 

1775. J.Mason. 
b. c. by Florizelle, dam Circe. 

JUSTICE, [Imp'd] ch. h. fifteen hands high, got by Regulus out of thcBol 

ton Sweepstakes, &.c. 

Prince George Cy. 1761. 


KATE, by Sir Alfred, dam Hurry'em. 

J. <fe W. H. Mmge. 
KATYDID, [by Imp'd] Expedition, dam Imp'd Sourkrout, g. dam Match 

less by Gen. White's Imp'd Slender. 
KATE COLE, c. m. by Badger's Hickory, dam by Bucephalus — Celer— 

Fearnought, &c. 

Pennsylvania, 1811. C. Irvine. 
Kearney, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam Lady Talman by Sir Harry, &c. 

1826. Col. Wynne. 

KILL DEVIL, (late Ajax,) b. h. by Dare Devil, dain Atalanta by Old 


J. Tayloe. 
KING HEROD, (Wormley's) b. h. by Baylor's Fearnought, dam [by Imp'd] 

Othello out of Imp'd Kilty Fisher. 

Jersey, 1777. Herbert Haynes. 

Agrippa, b. c. by Old Sir Archy, dam T. K. 

Hiram, [Imp'd] was by Clay Hall, dam the Prince of Wales, Rock- 
ingham, g. dam Yorico by Eclipse, g. g. dam Fidget by Spectator, 


Prince Geo. Maryland, 1817. 
KITTY, b. m. [by Imp'd] Whip, dam Queen of May. 

Georgia. ' Chas A. Rudd. 

MTTY FISHER, [Imp'd] gr. m. by Cade, dam by the Cullen Arabian out 
of the famous mare Bald Charlotte. 

1759. Cartel Braxton. 
by Lindsay's Arabian, dam [by Imp'd] Oscar, Imp'd Vam- 
pire out of Imp'd Kitty Fisher, &x. 

•[by Imp'd] Oscar, dam by Imp'd Vampire out of Imp'd Kitty 

Fisher, &,c. 

1789. John Thorntor. 

[by Imp'd] Alderman, dam Hoskins' Kitty Fisher. 

(Hoskins') by Symmes' Wildair, dam [by Imp'd] Vampirv, g. 

dam Imp'd Kitty Fisher. 

by Virginia Cade, dam by Baylor's Fearnought. 

Geo M -art in 


RITTY FISHER, h. by Tiller's Bedford, (by Old Bedford,) dain by Olo 
Bedford — Boxer — Claudius — Mexican, &,c. 

W. D. Tavloi. 
KITTY CLOVER, b. m. by Tom Tough, dam by Arcl. duke— Sterling- 
King Herod, &,c. 

Enoch Mason. 
Clover, bl. m. by American Eclipse, dam [by Imp'd] Light Infan- 
try, (she is half sister to Sir Lovell.) 

New- York, 1825. M. Beach. 

- ■ Clover, by Eclipse, dam Lady Bedford. 

N. C. J. W. Jeffries. 

———Clover, ch. m. by Turk, (he by Expedition,) dam by Oscar. 


- Medlet, gr. m. [by hnp'd] Medley, dam Hoskin's Kitty fisher, &,c 

John Hoskins. 

— Bull, [Imp'd] by John Bull, dam Lord Grosvenor's Isabella by 

KITTY FOX, by Fox, (a son of [Imp'd] Venetian,) dam by McCarthy's 

Cub, <fcc. 
— — Russell, b. m. by Sir Peter (Hoskins',) dam [by Imp'd] Bed 

ford, (fee. 

King William Cy. Va. Thomas Carter. 

KNOWSLEY, [Imp'd] b. h. by Sir Peter Teazle, darn Capilla by Herod— 

Regulus — Crab—Snake, dec. 

Foaled, 1796. Chas. City Cy. Va. 1802. Win. Lightfoot. 

KOULI KAHN, [Imp'd] b. h. by the Vernon Arabian, his dam Rosemary 

by Blossom, her dam by Ancaster Starling out of Look at me Lads, 

by Grasshopper. Foaled, 1772. 

N. B. The above pedigree is furnished by Mr. Peter of Georgetown. 
■ ■ [Imp'd] b. h. Pearson's Partner, dam by Lord Lonsdale's 

Kouli Kahn — Jigg — Curwm's bay Barb — Curwin's Spot, &,c. 

Imp'd in 1764-5 by Col. Baylor. 

N. B. The above pedigree given by Mr. R. N. Edgar. 

b. h. by Lloyd's Traveller, dam Tasker's Fatima. 

Foaled, 1777. 
KOSCIUSKO, by Sir Archy, dam Lottery by [Imp'd] Bedford. 

LADY ADAMS, ch. f. by Whipster, dam by Buzzard. 

J. Atchison. 
ARCHIANA, gr. f. by Sir Archy, dam Pandora by Wryht's Silvei 

AMELIA, ch. m. [by Imp'd'] Magic, dam by Republican President, 
g. dam by imp'd Figure, <fec. 

Isaac Duckett. 
ALFRED, b. m. by Old Sir Alfred, dam [by Imp'd] Wonder, Thun- 
derclap, full brother to Old Chanticleer by Wildair. 

H. Campbell. 

AUDLEY, by Tariff, dam Ethiopia by Tayloc's Bedford. 

Win. D. Tavlor 
— >~-BOLL\GBROKE, by Pantaloon dam, dam of King Herod, g. aam 
Primrose by Dove, (a Son of Cade.) 

Col. Selden. 
Bull, [Imp'd] by John Bull, dam by Pumpkin — Fleacatclier — SqLir» 
rel, &.c. 

Foaled, 1796 Johr. Houmei 



LADY BUG, b. Oy Young Florizelle, dam by Jack Andrews — Driver — High 

flyer, &c. 

Wm. D. Taylor. 
■ Burton, by Sir Archy, dam Sultana : she was out of the mare got by 

the horse sent as a present by the Bey of Tunis to Thos. Jefierson. 

1813. J. W. Eppes. 

Bedford, [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam by imp'd Dare Devil — Mercury 

— Apollo — Joliy Roger. (See also Bedford mare) foaled, 1810. 

J. W. Jeffries. 
m ■ Bun bury, [Imp'd] b. oi. by Trumpeter, dam Theopha, (sister to Old 

Tut; by Highflyer — Plaything by Matchem — Vixen by Regulus, &,c 

Foaled, 1802. J. Randolph. 

'■ Burleigh, by Silver Heels, dam (Sterne's Maria) by Major Gibbs 

Carlo, (by imp'd Carlo,) g. dam by Ridgley's Cincinnatus, &c 

Richard Craddocks. 

Chesterfield, by Old Diomede, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

Col. Selden. 
m Culpepper, „h. m. by Carolinian, dam full sister of Defiance and Ro 

venge, &c. 

Md. H. G. S. Key. 

Dudley, by First Consul, dam Edelin's Floretta. 

Dudley Digges. 

Eagle, gr. m. [by Imp'd] Eagle, dam Spot by Bedford. 

Albemarle, 1817. Walter Coles. 

Essex, ch. f. by Grey Diomede, dam Virginia Sorrel. 

1797. J. Tayloe. 

Flirt, ch. m. by Hickory, dam by Duroc. 

Isaac Snedeker. 

FiF.Ln, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Diomede. 

1830. J. J. Harrison. 

— -«- — G. [Imp'd] (Magician's dam,) bred by Sir Thos. Gascoigne, got by 

Hambletonian, Golden Locks by Delphine, Violet by Shark, Quick's 

Charlotte by Blank, Crab, &c. 

Roanoake, 1804. John Randolph. 

— •—Grey, [Imp'd] by Gohanna, dam by Grey Skin — Woodpecker — He 

rod — Young Hag by Skim, (fee. 
Foaled, 1803. 

-Gray, by Robin Gray, dam by Melzar — g. dam [by Imp'd] Highfly 

er — Fearnought, &.c. 
——Jane Gray, b. f. by Kosciusko, dam by Big Ben. 

■Greensville, by Conqueror, dam by Ban's Diomede. 

^-.......■~- . , ~ j j — . — , — j ~ — - - 

-Granville, b. in. by Roanoake, dam [by Imp'd] Bryan O' Lynn- 
True Blue— -Celer— Old Partner, &c. 
Oxford, N. C. 1827. Wm. M. bneed. 

— — Hal, by Sir Hal, dam Beauty by Diomede. 

Maryland. James Sewall. 

— — Harrison, [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle, dam by imp'd Herod, g. dam 

by VVildair — imp'd King Herod, &c. 
———Hamilton ian, by Sir Arthur, (he by Sir Archy,) dam Bet Bounce. 
.-* Jane, [by Imp'd] Obscurity, dam Molly by Grey Figure out of th« 

Old Slamerkin mare. 
— J«ne, by Poiomac, dam Anvelina. 

N. Carolina, 1811. J. B. Ricnardson. 

Jane, b. f. by Shylock, dam Dutchess by Bedford. 

182'i. Mark Alexander 

— Jackson, ch. m. by American Eclipse, dam Lady of the Lake. 
«" ■■ J Av:k Bull, [by Imp'd] Gabriel, dam Active by C ha tain. 


LADY LA GRANGE, ch. f. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Dr&gcn, g. dam 
by imp'd Medley — Mark Anthony, foe 

Laurenceville, Va. R. K. Meade. 

.——Light foot, (Maria,) dk. br. m. by Sir Archy, dam Black Maria by 
Shark, &c. 

Foaled, 1812. J- T. 

™ the Lake, b. m. by KOsciufko, dam by Bedford — g. dam Meilis- 
sant by Arion — Obscurity — Valiant, foe. 

S. Carolina. Foaled, 1814. B. F. Taylor. 

or thf. Lake, b. m. [by Imp'd] Sir Harry, dam by imp'd Diomede— 
imp'a St. George — imp'd Fearnought, <fec. 
-of the Lake, by Hickory, dam Maid of the Oaks. 
Legos, [by Imp'd] Centinel, dam by Spadille. 

Mar, gr. m. by a thorough bred son of Badger's Hickory, dam by 
Mark Anthony — imp'd Dove — imp'd Lath, &c. 
1818. C. Irvine. 

Maky, er. f. by Henry, dam Miller's Maid. 

C. W. Van Ranst. 

Mary, by Bussora, dam Black Maria by Am. Eclipse. 

of the NECK,gr. in. [by Imp'd) Merry field, dam by imp'd Wonder— 

Bellair— Old Medley, foe. 

Thomas Doswell. 

Northumberland, [Imp'd] by Northumberland, dam by Shakspeare 

— Regulus — Parker's Snip— Old Partner, &c. 

John Tayloe. 

Richmond, b. f. by Ball's Florizelle, dam by Diomede, g. dam A! 

derman mare, &c. 

J. Wickhain. 

Roland, b. by Tariff, dam by Florizelle — Bedford, &c. 

T. Doswell. 

. Racket, by Sir Charles, dam by Ball's Florizelle, g. dam by Melzar. 

Relief, ch. f. by Am. Eclipse, dam Maria Slamerkin. 

N. J. 1827. Dr. E. A. Darcy, 

Randolph, by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Druid — Symnies' Wil 

dair — Americus, &,c. 

Sterling, b. m. by Herod, dam [by Imp'd] Sterling, g. dam by King 

Herod — Lindsay's Ranger, foe. 

Wm. D.Taj lor 

Sumner, b. f. by Shawnee, dam by Sir Archy. 

Win. M. West. 
■ Talman, by Sir Harry, dam by Bedford. 

J. A. Selden. 

Tonson, by (Elliott's) Topgallant, (he by Gallatin,) dam by Barry'i 

Medley, (by Old Medley,) g. d. Dr. Rany's mare. 

Willis, by Janus, flam by Jolly Roger, g. dam [by Imp'd] Shark. 

LABURNUM, by Lath, dam by Jolly Roger, g. dam imp'd by Carts 

.jAFAYETTE, b. h. by Conqueror, dam Julia, g. dam by Florizelle— Be' 
lair — Pegasus, foe. 
Tennessee. H. Davis. 

— ___ b. c. by Virginian, dam by Sir Archy, g. dam Dy Sir Hairy 

Chanticleer — Mead's Old Celer, foe. 

J..M. Botts 
— ch. c. by Kosciusko, dam Virginia, (Coquette ) 

J. Ferguson 
'AHARA, dap. gr. by Thornton's Rattler, dam by Winter's Arabian, g 
dam Alexandria by Alexander. foe. C. Andrews 


LALLA ROOKH, by Handel, dam Phillis by Old Topgallant. 

Geo. Chicestei. 
LAMBALLE, ch. f. by Kosciusko, dam Psyche by Sir Peter Teazle, &c. 

South Carolina. Richard Singleton. 

LAMPLIGHTER, b. h. by Hart's [Imp'd] Medley, dam by Lonsdale on 

of Kitty Fisher, &c. 

Hanover Court House, 1801. Paul Thilman. 

LANCE, b. h. full brother to Eriel by Am. Eclipse. 
LASS OF THE II 'ILL, gr. f. by Spread Eagle, dam Araminda. 

J. Hoomes. 
LAST CHANCE, ch. f by Sir Archy, dam Lady Bunbury. 

1325. J. Randolph. 

LATH, [Imp'd] b. fifteen hands one inch high; fosled in 1763; Imp'd m 

1768, was got by Shepherd's Crab, dam by Old Lath, g. dam by Fly- 
ing Childers — Makele^s — Tafifolet Barb, &c. 


LAUREL, b. h. by Old Fearnought, dam by the sair^t, g. dam a fine blood- 
ed mare, &,c. 

1777. Geo. Baylor. 

LAURA, gr. f. by Grey Diomede, dam Polly Peach m. 

1798. J. Tavloe. 

LAVENDER GIRL, b. f by Henry, dam OpheU by Little Medley, &r. 

LAVIN1A, by Diomede, dam Lady Bolingbroke 

Col. Selden. 
LAWRENCE, br. by Sir Archy, dam [by Inp'cT] Sir Harry— Chanticleer— 

Mead's Celer — Lee's Mark Anthony, jx. 
LAZARUS, by Eclipse, dam an Imp'd mare, he stood many years at Mount 

Gallant and left some valuable stock. 
LEE BOO, br. b. by Cragg's Highflyer, dam Captain James Betts' mare, 

she was of pure blood. 

Maryland, 1803. Osborn Spriggs. 

LEON I DAS, b. by Sir Archy, dam "\ ix* [by Impact] Jack Andrews raised 

by J. G. Green, and sold to J. Al. Botts. 

b. c. by Virginian. 

by Lloyd's Traveller, -Vim by Morton's Traveller, out of 

Tasker's Selima, etc. 

Foaled, 1773. J. P. Custis. 

LEOCADIA, br. ch. m. by Virg.m *,, dam Lady Jane by Potomac, g. dam 

[Imp'd] Anvelina. 
LEOPOLD, ch. h. by Ogle's Os^'j, dam Katydid [by Imp'd] Expedition. 


LEATHER STOCKINGS, ch. h. by Rob Roy, dam Cora by Brown's 


George*v>vn, D. C. V 27. Peter. 

'^ETITIA, b. m. by VVSip, dam by Buzzard, g. dam by Grey Dionied^ 


Woodfd. Cy. Kentucky. E. M. B 

-by Tfi'xton. dam by Elegant, (he [by Imp'd] Fearnought,) g 

dam by Bel'air — Wildair, &c. 
Galla Tennessee. A. B. Shelby. 

W I'.THAN, [Imp'd] (first called JWazercon,) ch. got by Muley out of a 
Windle mare, g. dam by Anvil out of Virago by Snap — Muley by 
Orville, and he by Bcnningbrough, and he by King Fergus out of a 
Herod mare. 
Foaled, 1<J23 Imp'd to Alabama 


LEXINGTON, b. h. by Symmes' Wildair, dam by Lonsdale, g. dam .>« 

Jolly Roger, (fee. 

1800. Andrew Wood ey. 

LIBERTY, by Sharp's Othello, dam by George's Juniper. 

Maryland. Charles R.dglev. 

. by Burwell's Emperor, dam by Zane's Ranger, g. dam by Alark 

Anthony, <fcc 

1798. John Brownly. 

JGHT INFANTRY, [JhpVfl by Eclipse, dam by Feather, g. nam by 

Childers, g. ° dam Windrington mare, she by Old Partner. 
LINDSAY'S ARAB AN. (See Arabian Lindsay's ) 
LINNET, by Trafalgar, dam Humming Bird by Tom Tough. 

Messrs. Corbins. 
LIONELLA, b. m. by Coeur de Lion out of the dam of Cinderella. 
LI TTLE DAVID, [by Imp^d] Childers, dam Jenny Cameron. 

J. Tayloe. 

Bii.i.y, by Florizelle, dam by Celer. 

W. R. Johnson. 

JiMPKR. (See Juniper Little.) 

James, full brother to Garrick by Celer. 

Mkdley, [by Imp'd] Medley, dam Kitty Fisher by Lindsay's Ara- 
LIVELY, b. m. by American Eclipse, dam Haynes' Maria [by Imp' d] Dio 

mede, g. flam Lively by Lively — Wild Goose by Selim, &c. 

New Jersey. Henry De Groot. 

LOCHINVAR, b. c. by Oscar, dam Virago by Shark. 

1810. J. Tayloe. 

LONSDALE, by Jolly Roger, dam a bay mare Imp'd., she by Monkey — 

Lonsdale's Bay Arabian, «fcc. 

John Byrd. 
»r. h. by Page's Young Medley, dam Mariatma by Telema- 

chus, »fec. 

1824. F. B. Whiting 

LORENZO, by Telemachus, dam by Ravmond. 
LOGAN, a Mahogany bay, by Sir Archy, out of rhe dam of Lafayette bj 

LOGANIA, [by Imp' J] Medley, dam by Fearnought. 
LOTTERY, ch. f. by Bedford, dam Anvelina. 

LOUISA, b. m. by Eclipse, dam Vanity by Celer — Mark Anthony — Silvei 

Eve, fee. 

1789. J. Tayloe. 

LOUISIANA, b. f. by Old Rattler, dam Desdemona. 

1829. E. G. W. Butler. 
LOVELY LASS, b. f. by Timoleon, dam Lady Alfred by Old Sir Archy 

LOVE LACE, by Flving Childers out of an Imp'd mare by Bosphorus. 
LUBLY ROSA, b. f.'by Sir Archy, dam Equa. 

1830. P. Wallis. 
LUCIFER, [hy Imp'd] Dare Devil, dam by Bellair — Imp'd Medley— Lt*i» 

dale, »fec. 
LUCY, by Young Sir Alfred, dam Nancy by Florizelle. 

' J y } W.Cole*, o. f. by Roanoake, dam young Minikin. 

1823. J. Randolnr., by Bellair, dam Old Selim a by Morton's Travellei -i*«he< 

lo, <fec 


U'CJV GVVYNN, b. m. by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Harry— Bedford Dap 

Devil — Wildair, &c. 

Messrs. Tayloeg. 
Grf.y, b. f. by Washington, dam Betsy Hunter. 

Norfolk, 1820. E. Townes. 

LLDEE, gr. f. by Old Slouch, d«am Nancy Dawson. 

LURCHER, [by Imp'd] Bedford. 
L\ CURGUS, a son of Morton's Traveller. 

1764. Benj. Harrison. 

it ZBOROUGH, [Imp'd] b. h. by Williamson's Luzborough, (a son of Si* 

Peter Teazle,) whose dam was by Dungannon, (a son of Eclipse. 

Luzborough's dam was out of a Dick Andrews mare, sent to France 

and she by Whiskey out of Eleanor, &c. g. g. dam by Diomede, &c 

Greensville. (Imp'd 1832.) John Avery. 


MA£, b. f. by Archduke, dam Fairy by Bedford. 

1809. J. Hoomes. 

MABEL, dk. b. f. by Sir James, dam Meg Merrilies. 

Lewis Berkley. 
MACBETH, bl. b. by Sir Archv, dam by Shylock, g. dam Lady Burton. 

Foaled, 1828." D. H. Allen. 

MACEDONIAN, b. by Roanoake, dam Statira by Alexander the Great. 

1824. J. Randolph. 

MACAW, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Paroquet, &c. 

J. Randolph. 
MADCAP, [Imp'd] b. m. by Anville— O'Kellv's Madcap by Eclipse— BlanV 

— Blaze — Greyhound — Curwen's Bay Barb, &,c. 1794. 

Trained not successfully. J. Tayloe 

MADISON, by Diomede, dam Priestley by Chanticleer. 
MADAM NORFLEET. (See Gallena ) 
MADAME LAV ALETTE, b. m. by Peace Maker, dam by Bedford, g. &\n 

by Medley, &c. 

1815. J. J. Ambler. 

MaGIC, [Imp'd] ch. h. (sold for $4000,) by Volunteer, dam Marcella by 

Mambrino — Media by Sweetbrier — Angelica by Snap — Regulus, 


Prince George Cy. Maryland. 
MAGOG, by Chanticleer, dam Camilla by Wildair. 

J. J. Harrison. 
MAGNETIC NEEDLE, [Imp'd] b. by Magnet, he by Herod, his dam sister 

to the dam of Eusophroyne, she by Sweetbrier, his g. dam Raritj 

by Matchem, &.c. Foaled, 1787. 

Tienton, N. Jersey, 1804. 
MAGGY LAUDER, by "Dr. Hamilton's [Imp'd] Figure, dam by Imp'd 

Othello, g. dam by Imp'd Spark. 
MAGNOLIA, ch. h. by Lindsay's Ranger, (Arabian,) dam by Othello by 

Crab, her dam by Morton's Traveller, ami .ier dam was Selima b) 

Godolohii. Arabian, &c 

1785. Lund Washington. 

MAGNUM, ch. h. by Am. Eclipse, dam by Oscar, (by Diomede,) g. darn 

by Picture, (by Imp'd Shark,) Sweet Larry, &ic. 
MAID OF ALL WORK, b. f. by Stirling, dam [imp'd] Hackabout, Sic. 

Foaled, 1800. J. Hoomes. 

- - - or th» Forest, br. m. by Young Hickory, dam by Oh' Handnt 


MAID OF THE FOREST, gr. f. by Winter Arabian, dam Young Buaxaid 

mare by Hamlintonian, etc. 

of Lodi, by Virginian, dam by Potomac. 

ok thk. Mill, by Old Hickory, dam by Young Shaik, g. dam Mdjov 

Biddle's mare. 
•——of Northampton^ [by /?/(/>'</] Clifden, dam Jese Lowndes. 
ok Oakland, [by lnip'd'] Stirling, dam by Hall's Eclipse, Breut't 

Young Ebony, &c 
■■■■ of Orange, by Hambletonian, (by Dungannon,) dam by Dr. Tuorn 

ten's Duver, g. dam full sister Cj Nantoaka by flail's Eclipse. 

James Madison. 

of thk Oaks, by Spread Eagle, dam [hy Imp'd] Shark, g. dam by 

Rockingham, g. g. dam by Gallant — True Blue, Sic. 

Fredericksburg, Va. Lewis Willis. 

of Corinth, b. m. by Virginian, dam by Sir Archy — Quick Step — 

Americus — Aristotle, &c. 

of Patuxf.nt, [hy Im/Sd] Magic, dam Kitty Fox. 

of Warsaw, by Gohanna, dam Chestnut mare by Trafalgar, g. dam 


King William Cy. Va. 1831. Lewis Hill. 
MALV1NA, gr. in. by Stirling, dam Calypso. J. Tayloe. 
\)>y I'tip'd] Precipitate, dam by Dungannon, Mark Anthony, 

&c. Major Bayly. 

MALCOLM, b. by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Alfred — Hoomes' Tom Tough 

— Imp'd Spread Eagle, &c. 

Wm. Wynne. 
MAMELUKE, br. b. by Bagdad Arabian, dam Depro by Bay Baronet— 

\Iinp\l] Crop, &c 

Boston. Edw. Elridge 

MAMBRINO, dk. c. by American Eclipse, dam Grand Dutchess. 

Delaware Cy. Pa. 1830. Humphrey Hill. 

MANFRED, [Imp^d] b. foaled 1796, by Woodpecker, oam by Mercury, g. 

dam by Highflyer, &.C. (Died.) 

J. Hoomes. 
MARCELLA, b. f. by Roanoake, dam [Imp'd] Philadelphia. 

1823. J. Randolph. 

MARCELLUS, (formerly Red Rover,) ch. h. by Sir Charles, dam Shep- 
herdess by Phenomenon, <fcc. 

Rich. Adams. 
MAR1ANNA, ch. m. by Telemachus, dam by Wild Medley, g. dam by 

Young Fearnought, &,c. 
MARC1A, gr. m. by Archduke, dam Celerima by Celer. 

1810. J. Tayloe. 

MARIA ANTOINETTE, g. f by Andrew, (by Sir Andrew,) dam by W» 

ley's Marok, g. dam by Old Gallatin — [Imp'd] Medley, &c. 

Georgia. Foaled, 1831. C. A. Redd. 

- -- -Fontaine, by Superior, dam by Tom Tough — Perto — Camden - 

Brilliant, &,c. 

W. D. Tudor. 
■ Hill, b. m. by Oscar, (by Wilkes' Wonder,) dam [hy Imp^d] Cin 

sen out of a Fearnought mare by Regulus, &c. 

Nimrod Portei 
•, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Bellair. 

Bellfield, Va. Henry Macklin 
Archy, b. f. by Old Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Diomede -Old Giu 

crack, (alias Randolph's Roan.) 

Buckingham Va. 1816. Isaac Cut J 


MARIA LOLIJA, by Pacolet, dam Letitia by Truxton — Gallatin, <tc. 
Tennessee. A. Snelby 

- - Slamerkin, c*i m. by Bond's First Consul, dam by Paragon, [Imp'd] 
Figure, &c. 

New Jersey. Dr. E. A. Darcy. 

MAGGY SLAMERKIN, (Old) [by Imp'd] Wildair, dam Delancey's Ctb 
mare. (VVildair and Cub mare were Imp'd together.) 

Col. Delancey. 
MARIA, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam Forlorn Hope. 

Sold E. Parker, Va. H. Macklin. 

— Black. (See Black Maria by American Eclipse, ditto by Shark ) 

by Diomede, dam by Bellair. 

Tennessee. H. Haynes. 

b. f by Monsieur Tonson, dam Eliza by Tmioleon. 

North Carolina, 1829. J. W. Jeffries. 

by Bay Yankee, dam Green's Old Celer mare. 

W. R. Johnson. 

by Clockfast, dam Maria [by Imp'd] Regulus. 

gr. in. by Pacolet, dam by Truxton. 

— — Bl'rwkli.'s, [by Imp'd] Regulus, she by Godolphin Arabian. 

— -by Punch, dam 

B. Beans. 

-by Gallatin, dam 

Georgia. McNellys. 

-by Walnut, dam by a Grey Diomede horse, g. dam by Medley, &c 

MARGARET, by Virginian, dam Hurry'ein. 

MARPLOT MARE, by Marplot, dam Betsy Baker. 

MARTANZA, ch. f. by Sir Arthur, dam Amazonia by Tecumseh, Sic. 

MARY GREV, g. m. by Ainie's Sir Archy, dam by Old Bellair— Shark- 
Aristotle, &c. 
Alabama. Levi Gist. 

g. f. [by Imp' J] Messenger, dam Tulip by Ranger, or Lind- 
say's White Arabian. 

(or Sappho,) [Imp'd] b. in. by Ruler, dam by Sampson — Re- 
gulus — Greyhound mate, &c 
Foaled, 1792. 

King, g. m. by Muckle John, dam by Quicksilver, and he by Imp'd 


Georgia, 1825. Charles A. Redd. 

MARY, b. f. by Coeur de Lion, dam Fanny Foster, &c. 1809. 

— ■ ch. f. by Sir Archy, dam by Francisco. 

Wm. Minge. 

. Eldridge, ir. gr. by Napoleon 2d, dam by Pacolet, g. dam [by lmp'd\ 

Sir Harry — Imp'd Dare Devil — Bett and Macklin's Fearnought, &c 
Pulaski, Tenn. Geo A. Glover. 

. of Cloveroale, by Doubtb^s, dam Potomac, g. dam by Obscurity, 


Jane, b. f. by Bertrand, dam by Arrakooker. 

- M or eton, ch. f. by Cook's Royalist, dam Mary by Coeur de Lion. 

— Roiunson, b. m. by Sir Archy out of the Imp'd Pot8os mare, &.c. 

Lancaster, Pa. E. Parker 

Randolph, by Gohanna dam. 

MARIGOLD, ch. m. by Tom Tough, dam Hoskins' Sir Peter, g. dam [by 
Imp'd] Bedford — Imp'd Dare Devil — Symmes' Wihlair, &ic. 

MARION, by Old Sir Archy, dam by Citizen — Alderman — Roebuck — evl 
of a Herod mare 
Haiifax, N C. 1«30. B. S Long. 


MARUJS, by SeVim, dam [Imp'd.] 

MARK TIME, b. by Ar. Bagdad, dam [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle -(^uick 

silver, (bv Hart's Medley,) &.c. 
MARK ANTHONY, [Imp'd] by Spectator, dam Rachel by Bland— R?gu. 

lus — Soreheels — Makeless — Dr. Arcy's royal mare, &.C. 

Foaled, 1767. Stood m Virginia. 
- - dk. b. by Old Partner, dam [Imp'd] Septima by Othello, &x. 

Caroline Cy. Va. 1771. L. Hardyman. 

-(Randolph's,; hro. h. by Sir Archy, dam Roanoake. 

1826. J. Randolph. 

MARLBOROUGH, by Thornton's Rattler, dam Young Red Eye, g. dam 

U/i/ Imp'd] Bedford — imp'd G aster ia, &.c. 
MARMALUKE, b. f. [by Imp'd) Venetian, damMagg Lauder. 

Rose Hill, Maryland. Thus. A. Foreman. 

iMARSKE, (or Mask, ) by Shark, dam [Imp'd] Virago. 

Orange Cy. Va. 1799. Robert Young. 
by Diomede, dam by Medley. 

Charlotte Cy. Va. 1808. Charles Wyllie. 

-by Marske, (by Diomede,) Hart's Old Medley thorough bred 

mare, &c. 


MARSHAL NEY, dap gr. by Pacolet, dam Virginia by Dare Devil. 
M ARM ION, by Virginian, dam by Sir Archy — Cotton's Phenomenon, (he 
[by Imp'd] Restless) — Whirligig by imp'd Whirligig, &c. 
MARYLAND ECLIPSE, (See Eclipse Maryland.) 

MARYLANDER, by (Wynnes') Rattler, dam sister to Sir Archy, on the 
dam's side by Tayloe's Topgallant, &.c. 

G. S. 
MARSHAL, by Spread Eagle, dam Virginia Nell. 

— . Duroc, by Old Duroc, dam Maid of the Oaks. 

1812. Bela Badger. 

-Nf.y, by Am. Eclipse, dam Diana by First Consul. 

Elkton, Maryland, 1828. Samuel Hoi lings worth. 

MARS, r. h. by Mountaineer, dam Camilla by Peace Maker, &.c. 

Albemarle, 1829. Walter Coles. 

MARTHA JEFFERSON, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam [by Imp'd] Buzzard, 

imp'd Symmetry, &c. 
MATILDA, g. in. [by Imp'd] Jonah, dam by Grey Diomede, Whistle 

Jacket, &c. 

1810. D. W. Sumner. 

b. m. by Sir Archy, dam [Imp'd] Dutchess. 

• G. H. Burwell. 
Poi.k, gr. f. by Marion, dam Parallel by Virginian, Par.u'et'l 

dam [by Imp'd] Medley, &,c. 

MATCHKM, ch. c. by Janus, dam Amy Robsart. 

J. Randolph. 

by Dion, dam [Imp'd] Favourite. 

John Hooinrs, 
MATCHLESS, f'»y Imp'd] Slender, dam Fair American by Lloyd's Tra 

veller, g. dam Old Slamerkin by Wildair. 

-b. h. by Old F'earnought, dam by Sober John — Dabster, Jt.c. 

Caroline Cy. Va. 1777. Robt. Taliaffera., [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam 

MATOUCA, b. m. by Combination, dam by IV ilium in °arvo, g dair b» 
Green's Potomac, &c. 



MARY DACRE, bl. f. [by Imp'd] Valentine, dam Wright's Seiima. 

MAY DAY, by Sir Archy, dam Eliza Adams. 

Messrs. Minge 
■ ■ b. c. by Virginian, dam by Florizelle. 

J. K. Vanmeter. 
MEDLEY, [Imp'd] gr. h. by Gimcrack, he by Cripple, &c. dam of Medlej 
was Arminda by Snap, &c. Foaled, 1776. 
Hanover Court House, Va. 1785. Malcomb Hart. 

— gr. c. by Sir Hal, dam Old Reality. 

1824. W. R. Johnson. 

b. c. by Bedford, dam Hebe by Dare Devil. 

Farish, Coleman &, Hoomes. 
-Marf., bredby J. Hoomes, foaled [by Imp'd] Medley, dam by 

Bolton — Fearnought — Tristram Shandy out of a Sober John mare, 

Mare, ch. by Am. Eclipse, dam Clio by Sir Archy. 

C. W. Van Ranst 

gr. c. by Polafox, dam Miss Bailey [by Imp'd] Boaster. 

Natchez. Chambers. 

Chance, (See Chance Medley.) 

- Fitz, (See Fitz Medley.) 

-Grey, by Hart's [Imp'd] Medley, dam by Black and All Black 

— Bay Bolton — Old Partner — Old Fearnought, &c. 

N. Carolina, 1795-6. B. Williams. 

(Jones') by Old Medley, dam by Mark Anthony — Fearnought 

— Janus — Jolly Roger, &.c. 

-(Thornton's] [by Imp'd] Punch, dam Helen by imp'd Med- 

ley, &,c. 

-(Thompson's,) [by Imp'd] Medley, dam by iinp'd Aristotle, g 

dam by Fearnought, &,c. 

Stood in Scoit Cy. Kentucky, 1803. 

-Wild, by Old Medley, dam Wildair, g. dam Shandy, g. g. 

dam Sportley by Old Janus, &c. 

Young, (See Young Medley,) (two.) 

MEDORA, ch. f. by Rattler, dam Sportmistress by Old Hickory, out of 

Miller's Damsel, &,c. 

Butler Coles. 
MEAD'S ORACLE, (See Oracle Mead's.) 
MEG DODDS, br. m. by Sir Archy, dam Black Ghost [by Imp'd] Oscar, 


Nansimond, Va. J. G. Green. 

MEG MERRILIES, b. m. by Trafalgar, ([by Imp'd] Mufti,) clam by imp'd 

Dragon — Lamplighter — Highflyer — Escape, &c. 

Loudon, Va. Lewis Berkley. 

MEG OF WAPPLXG, b. f by Bedford, dam [Imp'd] Alexandria. 
MELEMELE, by Virginian, dam Lady Burton. 

MLLPOMONE, by Burwell's Traveller, dam Virginia by Old Mark Antho- 
ny — g. dam Polly Byid, &c. 
MELUNTHEE, gr. c. by Hephestion, dam Castianira, dam of Sir Archy. 
MELZAR, b. hi [by Imp'd] Medley, dam Kitty Fisher by Wildair, ^wenl 

to Kentucky.) - 
MERCURY, by Dr. Thornton's [Imp'd] Driver, dam by impV Eclipse, £ 

dam by Union, by imp'd Traveller, Sec. 
MERINO EWE bv Jack Andrews, dam Spot bv Bedfod. 


MERLIN, b) Old Archv, dam by Old Bedford— Dare Devil- «»■ Shark, 

MENDOZA, (Bruiser,) by Boxer, dam Nancy Dawson, dam o iSr-*»)la. 

1796. J. Taj'oe. 

MERRY TOM, [Imp'tT] by Regulus, dam by Locust, (a Son of Cra* ) g 

dam by a son of Flying Childers, his gr. dam by Croft's Partnet, k.<: 

Prince George Cy. 1767. John Bail. 

MERRY FIELD, [Imp'd] by Cockfighter, dam by Popinjay, Bourbo«'« 

dam, &c. 
MERCURY, b. by Virginian, dam by Citizen, &c. 
— by Janus, dam Celesta. 

1777. Col. William Byrd. 

by Spread Eagle, dam Janetta. 

J. Hoomes. 
MERRYFELLOW, b. c by W. R. Johnson's Byron, dam the dam of Ca 

milla, &.c. 

King & Queen, Va. 1831. H. Campbell. 

MERRY GOLD, b. f. [by Imp'd] Barefoot, dam Meg Dodds. 

N. Jersey, 18.31. VV. Gibbons. 

MERETRIX, by Magog, dam Narcissa. 

MESSENGER, I Imp'd] gr. h. by Mambrino, dam by Turf, g. dam by Regu- 
lns out of a sister of Figurant by Stirling, out of the Fox mare, the 

dam of Snap, &c. 

Foaled, 1780. C. W. Van Ranst. 

— — — — — Diroc, dk. ch. by Duroc, dam Vincenta [by Imp'd] Messen 

ger — i 1 1 1 p' d Slender — imp'd Lath, &,c. 

Nevv-Yo»k, 1790. E. & A. Stephens. 

METEOR, b c. by Comet, dam Nancy Dawson. 
MEXICAN, [Imp'd] by Snap out of Matchem — Middleton, &c. 
MIDAS, by Am. Eclipse, dam by Sir Robin, (he [by Imp'd] Robin Red 

breast,) — g. dam by Dare Devil, imp'd Shark — Apollo, <tc. 

1828. Win. Towndes. 

MILLER'S DAMSEL, [by Imp'd] Messenger— dam the English PotHos 

mare by Eclipse. 

- Maid, full sister to American Eclipse. 

1820. C. W. Van Ranst. 

MILK MAID, by Centinel, dam 

Gen. Carney. 
MILK SOP, b. f [hy Imp'd] Justice, dam the Brilliant mare by Matchem 
- h. i by Coeur de Lion, dam Bolton mare, g. dam Sail\ 
Wright bj x'orick. 

179K. J. Hoomes. 

MILWOOI), by "opgallant, dam by Kenedy's Pantaloon by Bedioid. 
MINERVA, [bi Imp'd] Obscurity, dam Diana by Claudius. 

Win. E. Broadnax 

-— -r It. m. by Dr. Thornton's Rattler, dam Rosalba bv Tralalgu 

—Old kosalba {by Imp'd] Eagle, <fcc. 

'■ by Bellair, dam by Syinmes' Wildair, g. dam by Vampire out 

of Br* xton's Kitty Fisher. 
MINK, b f. by Roauoake, dam Cut Leggs. 

18T9. J. Randolph 

MINIKIN, by President— Old Celer— Tristram Shandy, &c. 
MiNIMUd, b. c. by Roauoake, dam Young Minikin. 

J. Raiulolpn. 
■M3CUIEF, b f. by Virginian, dam by Bedford — Bellair — Sliaik, &n 

John M Poiu 


ch. in. by Rattler, dam by Ogle's Oscar — Ridgley's rlam)e\ 


Fred. Maryland. J. Powder, Jiin. 

MISS FORTUNE, by Am. Eclipse, dam the dam of Maryland Eclipse, &c. 

J. Sevvall. 

Chance, [by Imp'd] Chance, dam Roxana by Ar. Selim. 

Messrs. Tayloes., I. m. [by Imp'' d] Crawler, dam byMelzar — Grey Alfred — 

imp'd Tom Jones, &c. 

Bell, [Imp'd] by Othello, dam of Dungolah. 

S. Carolina, 1783-4. H. Haynes. 

Bailey, [l>y Imp'd] Boaster, dam (mothei of Maria Haney,) by Bel- 
lair — Wildair, &c- 
— D.vsfk, l>y Roebuck, dam by Independence, [Imp'd] Centinel (01 
Flimnap,) Old Janus, &,c. 
Stafford, Va. Alexander F. Rose. 

Dok. by Olrl Celer, dam by Diomedeont of Bynham's Filly, (anote'J 

running mare in Va ) 

Eagle, b. f. by Spread Eagle, dam [Imp'd] Hackabout. 

Fitzroy, l)y Roanoake, dam Wakefield. 

J. Randolph. 

Fadnti. f.roy, b. m. by Wildair, dam by Yorick — Little David — Mob 

ton's Traveller, &c. 
— Fire, b. f by Roanoake, dam Wakefield. 

J. Randolph. 
Euston, b. f. by Roanoake, dam by Gracchus. 

John Randolph. 
— Fortune, ch. f. [by Imp'd] Star, dam Anvelma. 
S. Carolina. James B. Richardson. 

Flora Hamilton, b. m. by a son of old Hamiltonian, (by Diomede,) 

dam by Old Hamiltonian, g. dam [by Imp'd] Spark, &.C 

Gatewood, alight b. in. [by Imp'd] Buzzard, dam by Melzar, Shark, 

Union, &.c. 

Lexington, Kentucky. E. Warfield. 

Grafton, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Wakefield, &c. 

J. Randolph. 

Haggin, br. m. by Blackburn's Whip, dam Blackburn's Buzzard, g. 

dam by Celer, &c. 

Harriet, br. f. by Sir Hal, dam Miss Waxy, g. dam by Saltram, (fcc 

Petersburg. Win. Haxall. 

Jeffer«on, ch. f. by Diomede, dam Johnson's Medley mare, &c. 

Madison, ch. m. by Lurcher, ([by Imp'd] Bedford,) dam by Ver- 
mont, (a son of Deceus, a son of Old Celer,) her dam by Fearnought, 
Old Shark, &c. 

Win. R. Johnson 

— — — Minroe, ch. f. by Precipitate, dam 

Serab, b. f [by Imp'd] Serab, dam Agnus, by Sir Solomon, <fcc. 


Makeless, b. f. bv Spread Ea»le, dam Hebe by Dare Devil, &c. 

J. Hoomcs. 

— Marske, b. f by Bedford, dam Gastena. 

Minn I.Eton, b. f. by (Cormorant, dam Janette b}' Mercury, &c. 

Midway, ch. m. by Kosciusko, dam Ruth by Big Ben, Psyche, &c 

B. F. Taylor. 
■— — Monf.v Maker, b. f. by Speculator, dam Milksop by Coeur de Lion 

.' 11 uomes. 


MlSS PELHAM, b. m. by Virginian, dam Sugar by Constitution, g. dam 

[by lmp'd] Dragon — Atalanta, &c. 

James Blcik. 
Pone, ch. f. by Dare Devil, dam Milksop by C'oeur de Lion, &c. 

1806. J. Hoonies. 

Peyton, gr. m. by Gracchus, dam Telegraph by Old Wilriaiv, &c. 

Ryland, g. m. by Gracchus, dam Duetta by Silvertail — Vanity by 

Celer, &c. 

1813. J. Randolph. 

Slamerkin. (See Maria and Maggy Slamerkin.) 

Tucker, b. f. by Arab, dam [by lmp'd] Archduke, g. dam by Preci 

pitate, &c. 
Tl'dor, b. m. by Hyperion, dam Logania by Medley, <fcc. 

1808. J. Randolph. 
Waxy, by Sir Archy, dam [lmp'd] Mermaid by Waxy out of Pro- 

W. R. Johnson. 

Walker, ch. m. by Tartar, (by Diomede,) dam [by lmp'd] Mufti - 

Hag of Truce — Old Fearnought, &c. 

Kentucky. E. Warfield. 

MODESTY, by Hall's Union, dam Madge, (by Galloway's Selim,) g. dam 

an [lmp'd] mare by Spot, &c. 

Benjamin Lowndes. 

ch. m. by Ridglev's Tuckahoe, dam Dairy Maid. 

MOGGY, b. m. by Defiance, dam by Old Messenger. 

MOHICAN, b. h. by Young Topgallant, dam by Telegraph, g. dam by Med- 
ley, <fcc. 

Dr. E. L. Botcler. 
MOLLY ANDREWS, by Jack Andrews, dam by Dare Devil, &c. 

Randolph Harrison. 
MOLL BRAZEN, [lmp'd] by Spark, dam byTorismond, g. dam by second 

brother to Snip, g. g. dam by Mogul, brother to Babraham. &x. 
by Spread Eagle, dam Nancy Medley. 

Fredericksburg. James Smock. 

MOLL or MOLLY, by Grey Figure, dam Old Slamerkin by Wildair. 
MOL IN THE WAD, [lmp'd] b. by Sir Peter Teazle, dam the famous yel- 
low mare by Tandem. Foaled, 1797. 

lmp'd 1803. John Tayloe. 

MOLLY PACOLET, [lmp'd] by Pacolet, dam by Old Spark, g. dain Queen 

Mab, &x. 

Garrett Vanderveer. 
MOLLY FISHER, b. m. by Janus, dam Gemima by Bedford, g. dam lmp'd 

Rachel by Drone. 

1814. Gen. vV. Hanpton. 

MOLO, c. c. by Timoleon, dam by Tom Paine. 

O. Shelby. 
MOLTON MARE, light b. by Molton— Fleetwood— [lmp'd] Bashaw - 

lmp'd Jolly Roger — Starling, &c. out of a thorough bred Eng isb 

MONROE, [by lmp'd] Wonder, dam the dam of Madison. 
MONSIEUR TONSON, (or Sir John,) by Pacolet, (by Citizen,; dam oy 

Topgallant, g. dam by Grey Medle) — lmp'd Oscar — lmp'd Fear 
nought, &c. ' r hos. Watson. 

MONOM1A, gr. m. by Bellair, dam Sweetest bv Highflyer — Virago, Slc 
32 * • Tajloe. 


MONK ICY, [//H/AfJ by the Lonsdale Arabian- -Curwen's Bay Barb - Byet 
\y Turk. ( This horse was 22 years old when imported, and stocH 
in Virginia and North Carolina, and got some fine colts. "l 
MONARCH, by Mark Anthony, and the pedigree of his dam side unex- 

New Kent, Va. 1775. Geo B. Poindextei. 

MOORE'S PARTNER. (See Partner Moore's.) 
MERDANTO, b. [by Imp'd] Pantaloon, dam by Morton's Traveller— Bol 

ton — Monkey — Jolly Roger, &c. 
MOREAU, by Bedford out of Miranda. 

Gen Ridgley 

Young. (See Young Moreau.) 

MOUNT AIRY, by Byron, dam Roxalana. 

B. S. Forest. 
MORTON'S TRAVELLER. (See Traveller Morton's.) 
MORGIANA, bl. f. by Sir Archy, dam by Sir Hal. 

J. S. Garrison. 

b. ra. by Kosciusko, dam 

Win. Wynne. 
MORGAN RATTLER, b. h. by Rattler, dam Iris. 

1823. J. Lewis. 

MORNING BRIDE, by Spread Eagle, dam Samuel Love's roan mare. 

Edw. Carter. 
MOUNTAIN LEADER, ch. s. h. by Old Wildair, dam a Mousetrap mart 

Chesterfield, 1803. Caleb Boush. 

MOUNTAINEER, by Spread Eagle, dam Spot by Bedford, &c. 

Win. Dandridge. 

. ch. s. h. by Old Peacemaker, dam Jane by Knowsley. 

1822. Walter Coles. 

ch. h. by Contention, dam Iris. . 

J. Lewis. 
MORVENNA, b. f. [by Imp'd] Syphax, dam Brenda. 

J. J. Ambler. 
MOSCOW, c. c. by American Eclipse, dam Die Vernon by Old Florize ,, e, 

Yonkers, N. Y. 1826. W. Lyles. 

MOSES, [l>y Imp'd] Sir Harry, dam by Waxey, g. dam by Imp'd Buzzard. 

W. Haxhall. 

Mare, br. by Moses, dam Lady Harrison [by Imp'd] Spread Eagle 

— Herod, «fcc. 
MOUSETRAP, or Jack Rap, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Young Marske out of Gen 

tie Kitty by Silvio, Dorimoud — Portia by Regulus — Hutton's Spot — 

Fox— Cub, &c. Foaled, 1787. 

North Carolina, 1793. 
— — ■ ch. h. [by Imp'd] Mousetrap, dam by Imp'd Fearnought- 
Partner — Imp'd Janus, &c. 

MULATTO MARY, by Sir Archy, 

MURAT, ch. c. by Old Madison, dam Maria Archy. 

MLLTI FLORA, b. f. by Old Sir Archy, dam Weazle by Shylock. 

E. Irby. 

: ch. m. by Kosciusko, dam by Rosicrucian. 

J. Atchison. 
Ml'CKLE JOHN, by Sir Archy, dam the dam of Sir William by Bellaii, 




MUCKLE JOHN, by Muckle Jobn, dam Black Eyed Susan by Pot^n *c, 

MUFTI, \lmp\l) was by Fitzberod, (he by King Herod,) Mufti's dan Vj 
Infant, son of the Godolphin Arabian, g. dam by Whiltington ou 
of a full sister of Black and All Black, fifteen bauds one inch high 
Foaled, 1775. John Tayloe. 

iVTUSIDORA, by Archduke, dam by Dare Devil. 

J. Tavloe. 

MURDOCH, by Sir Charles, dam gr. m. by Bedford, her dam by Old VVil 
Chesterfield, Va. 1830. Charles Graves. 

MUZZLE DIOMEDE, [by Imp'd] Diomede, dam by Hymen, byClotus, b) 
Fearnought, &,c. 

MYRTILLA, br. f by Marylander, dam Desdemona by Miner's Escape 
Foaled, 1828. Dr. Crawford. 

NAMELESS, [Imp'd] b. m. by Felho da Puta, by Haphazard, out of Misf 

Barnet, her dam Rosetta by Young Woodpecker — Dungannon 

Justice, sfec. Foaled, 1825. 

Imp'd 1829. N. Y. Chas. Green. 

NANCY, b. f by Spread Eagle, dam 

b. m. by Ball's Florizelle, dam the Bedford mare Spot. 

1814. Walter Coles. 

— — — Abnf.r, by Sir Archy, dam 

—Air, [by Fmp'd] Bedford, dam Annette by Old Shark, g. dam oy 

Rockingham — Gallant, &c. 

Foaled, 1799. Died 1822. James B. Ricnardson. 

— Air, b. m. by Virginius, dam Old Nancy Air. 

J. B. Richardson. 
— Belx, by Fearnought, dam by Imp'd Miss Bell, &c. 
— Bvwell, [Imp\t] b. in. got by Matchem, dam by Goliah — Red 

Rose — Curwen — Old Spot, &.c. 
— Coleman, by Young Fearnought, dam Latonia by Old Partner, gi. 

dam by Imp'd Jolly Roger, &c. 

1806. J. Verrell. 

— Crewhton, by Francisco, dam Molly Andrews by Jack Andrews. 

Messrs. Minges. 
— Dawson, by Lloyd's Traveller, dam' Phillis (by Fearnought,) q. 

dam a celebrated mare of Col. Baylor's by Imp'd Sober John. 

Foaled, 1783. Win. Scott. 

— Dawson, b. by Eagle, dam by Bellair. 

-Martin, ch. m. by Bolingbroke, dam by Bedford — Selim — Tyler'i 

Independence, &c. 

Medley, by Old Medley, dam Mead's Oracle. 

Whihuuio, [hy Imp'd] Figure, dam by Mark Anthony — Jollv Ro 

ger — Imp'd Mary Grey, &c. 
NANNY O, c. f by Pantaloon, dam Young Selima by Yorick. 

1788. J. Tayloe. 

NAOMI, ch. f by Pulaski, dam by Young W : onder- Smilax — Giey Di« 

mede — Atalanta by Imp'd Medley. 
NAPOLEON, br. b. by Imp'd Diomede, dam by Eclipst, g. dam by Me:co 

ry, &c. 

1808. H Cheshire. 
by Gouty, dam by Sir Harry, g. dam Oy Diomede- F'a^ • 

Truce, &,c. 


NAPOLEON, en. h. by Napoleon, (by Diomede,) dam by Floriielle. 
——————by Imp ,(J Wonder, dam by Diomede — Hart's Medley — out 01 

a favourite man. of Col. Seidell's, &c. 

S. M. Spangler. 

by Sir Archy, dam by Sir Harry, g. dam by Dare Devil. 

-by Imp'd Punch, dam Luff borough's Selinia, the third by 

Hall's Eclipse. 

(Killed 1805.) N. Luff borough. 

-by Oscar, dam Letitia by Truxton. 

Tennessee. A. B. Shelby. 

\ARCISSA, by Imp'd Shark, dam Rosetta by Wilkins' Centinel— Diana 
by Claudius, &c. 

J. J. Harrison. 
■ by Wildair, dam Melpomone, g. ^am Virginia by Mark An- 

thony — Folly Byrd, &c. 

J. Hoomes. 
NELLY SPARKS, br. m. by Bertrand, dam by Whip, (by Imp'd Whip)— 
Bompard, Sic. 

Kentucky, 1828. Edw. M. Blackburn. 

NELL GWYNN, ch. f. by Thornton's Rattler, dam Vixen by Trafalgar. 

Saunders, ch. m. by Wonder, dam by Imp'd Dare Devil — Imp J 

Centinel, &c. 
NETTLE, ch. m. by Wildair, dam Desdemona. 

Dr. E. A. Darcy. 
full sister to Virago by Wildair, by Ajax. 

A. F. Rose. 
NETTLETOP, by Imp'd Spread Eagle, dam by Shark— Old Janus, &c 
out of a thorough bred mare. 

— ch. m. by Trafalgar, (by Imp'd Mufti,) dam Nettletop by 

Spread Eagle, &c. 

L. Berkley. 
-by Bellair, dam by Mark Anthony — Fearnought. 

Foaled, 1794. Reeves. 

by Diomede, dam Betsy Lewis, &,c. 

Wm. Herndan. 
NERISSA, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Jessica by Shylock. 

1825. J. Randolph. 

NE VERT IRE, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Endless. 

J. Randolph. 
NEV, b. h. by Mountaineer, dam Lady Eagle. 

1827. Walter Coles. 

NIGHTINGALE, by Chanticleer, dam Winguryfeet, (by Jolly Roger,) g. 

dam Melpomone by Bin well's Traveller. 
NIL1, bl. m. by Black and All Black, dam by Careless — Augustus — Pil- 
grim — Fearnought, &c. 

Tennessee. H. Baldwin, jun. 

N1MROD, ch. c. by Baylor's Fearnought out of a Partner mare — Imp'd 

Janus — Imp'd Jolly Roger. 

Williamsburg, Va. 1775. Richard Taliaferro. 

NOLI ME TANGERE, by Richmond, dam Noli Me Tangere by Topgallant 

1800. Dr. Thomtoii. 

— . by Tcpgallanf dam Castianira. 

J. Tayloe. 
NONPAREIL, dk. b. bv Old Fearnought, dam by Janus, &c. 

York Town, 1773. Thomas Lilly. 

%ORNA, b t by Director, dam by Sir Harrv — Bedford— Dam DeviV— 

Wildair, &c 


NORTH CAROLINIAN, by Virginian, dam by imp'd Dion, g. dam Beisj 

Baker by imp'd Clown, Golden Figure, &c 
NORTHAMPTON, b. c. by Ogle's Oscar, dam Jane Lowndes. 

Gov. Spngg. 
NORTHERN ECLIPSE, (See Eclipse Northern.) 

NORTH EAST, b. c. by imp'd Highlander, dam Tulip by Ranger or Liiul 
say's Arabian. 

17H7. Thomas M. Foreman. 

NORTH STAR, [Imp'd] b. by Matchem, dam Lass of the Mill by Oranoo 
ko, g. dam by Traveller — Miss Makeless by Young Greyhound. 
Foaled, 1768. Thomas Peter. 

NORVAL, dap. gr. by imp'd Spark, dam by Shakspeare, g. dam imp'd 
Lady Northumberland. 

John Rose. 
NORTHUMBERLAND, by Bellair, dam by Wildair— Shakspeare, &c. 

J. Tayloe 
NULLIFIER, b. c. by Am. Eclipse, dam Roxana by Sir Harry, &c. 

Messrs. Corbins. 


OATHMAN, b. c. by Selim, dam B, Ruler mare, (by Ruler in England,) 

Turk, itc. » 

OAKLEY, cb. c. by Crusader, dam Josephine by Bedford. 

S. Carolina, 1829. J. J. Moore 

OBSCURITY, [Imp'd] dk. ch. got by O'Kelly's Eclip*, dam by Carelf ^ 

g. dam by Cullen Arabian, g. g. dam by North Country Diomede, &.j 

Foaled, 1778. John Forman. 

OCEANA, b. f. by Bagdad, dam Florida by Conqueror-- Rosemary, (South 

all's mare,) by Diomede — Celia by Wildair. 

1827. J. Southall. 

OCTAVIA, b. f. by Rockingham, dam Frederica by E^vi^. 

vAarles Tayloe 
OCEAN, ch. o. by Timoleon, dam Anna by Truvton. 

Tennessee, 1828. 
OHIO, ch. h. by Bacchus, dam Crazy Jane, &c. 

- — Cones. 
O'KELLY, [Imp'd] b. by Anvil, dam by Eclipse, g. dam by Blank, g. g. 

dam by Snij) — Godolphin Arabian, &.c. 

1798. Thon«\i Reeves. 
by Virginian, dam by Bay Yankee, g. Iain by sorrel Diomede 

— Jet by Ha} ties' Flimnap, &x. 
OLYMPIA, bl. f. by Roanoake, dam Jet by Blustsr. 

J. Randolph- 
OLJVIA, b. f. by Am. Eclipse, dam Brunette, (by Telegraph) out oi Albca 

full sister to Defiance. 
OROONOKO, b. c. by Hyperion, dam Minikin, &c. 

1810. John Randolph. 

ORACLE, (Mead's,) [by Imp'd] Obscurity, dam by Citizen— imp'd Old 

Partner — Janus — Valiant, &c. 
ORANGE, b. m. by Cooper's Messenger, dam by Slasher, (he by Messe** 

ger,) g. dam bred by Gen. (Jreen of Philadelphia out of u Va. brec' 

mare, <Lc. 
OREL1A, b. b. by Pacolet, dam by Truxon, g. dam Dr. Butler's Roselb 

by imp'd Meudoza, &c. 
ORPHAN BOY, b. h. by Am. Eclipse, dam Maid of [he Oaks, &c. 

i^.tin^ate 6t, FurT* 


ORPHAN, b. c. by Cormorant, dam Darlington mare by Darlington. 

— ■ by Ball's Florizelle, dam bv imp'd Diomede. 

ONEA, br. f. by Pacotaligo, dam Virginia (^Coquette.) 

ONORER, b. m. by Sir Archy, dam Black Ghost 

C. Ridgley 
OPHELIA, by Grey Diomede, dam Primrose by Apollo 
gr. m. by Gen. Ridgley's Little Medley, darn Ophelia by Grey 

Diomede, &c. 

• Gen. Ridgley. 

OPOSSUM, g. m. by Shark, dam by 01dTwig-g.damby[/m/>V] Fearnought 

— Jolly Roger, <fcc. 

Mark Alexander. 
OPERNICO, b. h. [by Imp'd] Medley, dam by Lindsay's Arabian, g. dam 

by imp'd Oscar, &c. 

New Castle, Va. 1797. Nicholas Symme 

OSCAR, [Imp'd] a deep sorrel by Young Snip, dam by Lord Morton's Aia- 

bian, g. dam by Old Crab, g. g. dam by the Bald Galloway, &c. 

Cumberland Cy. Va. 1777. William Gay. 
(Ogle's,) b. h. [by Imp'd] Gabriel, dam Vixen by Old Med- 
ley, g. dam Penelope by Yorick, dec. 

Bellair, Maryland, 1800. 

-[hnp\i] br. h. by Saltram, dam by Highflyer — Herod — Mi?* 

Middleton by Regulus — Camilla by a son of Bay Bolton — Bartlett'i 
Guilders, &,c. 

Foaled, 1795. William Lightfoot. 

-J UN. by Ogle's Oscar, dam EdeJin's Floretta by imp'd Spread 

Ea^le, &c. 
Carlisle, Pa. 1822. 

-dk. b. h. by Wonder, (son of Diomede,) dam Rosetta, (Rosy 

Clack,) by Saltram, &,c. 

-Young, b. h. by Tuckahoe, dam by Ogle's Oscar, g. dam by 

Medley, Cub, Tamerlane, &c. 
Maryland, 1824. Charles Ridgley. 

-Ir. gr. by Roanoake, dam Lady Eagle. 

1829. Walter Coles. 

OSSORY, b. c by Old Rattler, dam Desdemona, &c. 

J. Tavloe. 
OTHO, dk. b. h. [bylmp'd] Shock, imp'd Morton's Traveller, imp'd Jus- 

tire, imp'd Juniper, imp'd Othello, imp'd Childers out of a thorough 

bied mare purchased from the stud of King George II. 

Foaled, 1765. George Branham. 

01 HELLO or BLACK AND ALL BLACK, [Imp'd] a beautiful black got 

by Portmore's Crab, out of the Duke of Somerset's favourite mare 

Miss Slamerkin, &cc. 

Foaled, 1743. Imp'd 1755-6. Gov. Sharpe, (Maryd.^ 


PACRINGHAM, by Florizelle, dam by Magog, g. dam by Flimnap— Mark 

Anthony, &,c. 
PACIFIC, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Eliza, (full sister of Gallatin,) by imp'd 

Bedford out of imp'd Mambrino, &lc. 

Nashville, Tennessee. D. W. Sumnei. 

PACOTATIGO, [by Imp'd] Bedford, dam Milksop by Justice. 


PALrtfOX, by Express, dam by Cub — Heath's Chikfers — ao. Traveller- 
Old Dove— Othello, &c. 

. - gr. h. by Old Diomede, dam Eppes' Tippoo Saib mare, &o 

PACOLET IMA RE, [Imp'd] by Pacolet, dam Whiteneck by Crab— Godo. 

fihin Arabian — Conyer's Arabian, &c 
mp'd into Pennsylvania. Hiltzheimer. 

—————by Pacolet, dam by Dragon, g. dam by Truxton — Bompaid— - 
Pillgarlick, &c. 

Tennessee, 1824. Reuben Cage. 

PACOLET, by Old Pacolet, dam by Albrack, (by Truxton.) 

St. Louis, Mobile. B. McMenomy. 

, (Old,) [by Imp'd] Citizen, dam by Tippoo Saib, (the dam of 

Palafox by Old Diomede, Wilkes' Wonder, &c) Died 1825, uged 

1 7 years. 

Sumner Cy. Tennessee. Geo. Elliott. 

\labama, by Old Pacolet, dam by imp'd Whip, Old Shark* 

Shakspeare, &c. 

PANDORA, by Bellair, dam by Soldier, g. dam by imp'd Oscar, Merry 
Tom, &c. 

E. A. Massey. 

or Sally Gee, b. f. by Archy, dam a Citizen mare, dam ol 



II. by Gov. Wright's Silver Heels, dam Equa. 

P. Wallis. 

by Grey Diomede, dam the dam of Floretta. 

Gov. Wright 
-by Haft's imp'd Medley, dam by Lonsdale out of Braxton ■ 

imp'd Kitty Fisher. 

-b. in. by Palafox, dam by Wonder, Snip, imp'd Bedford, &c 

Louisiana. James Cnambers. 

PANTALOON, [Imp'd] b. by King Herod, out of W. Fenwick's Nil- 
cracker who was by Matchem, &c. 
Foaled, 1799, Brandon, Va. 1787. Benjamin Harrison. 

— [Imp'd] b. h. by Matchem, dam Curiosity by Snap — Regulus 

— Bartlett's Childers — Honeywood's Arabian, dam of the two Tnw 
Blues. 1767. 

P ANTON 1 A, by Bedford, dam by Dare Devil— Shark— Pilgrim, &c. 

John D. Macklin. 

PARROT, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Paroquet. 

1811. J. Randolph. 

PAROQUET, b. f. by imp'd Merryfield, dam Popinjay, Bourbon's dam. 
1819. J. Randolph. 

PARTNER, [Imp'd] b. h. by the Duke of Hamilton's Figure, Old Figure- 
Standard, &.c. Partner's dam was Britannia, full sister of Col. Hop 

per's Pacolet, g. dam Queen Mab, &c 

over, Morris Cy. John Blanchard. 

(Moore's,) [Imp'd] by Croft's Partner, dam (sister to Starlin») 

by Bay Bolton son of the Brovvnlow Turk by the Pulliam Arabian. 

-(Old,) by Morton's Traveller, dam Tasker's imp'd Selima. 


— b c by Roanoake, dam the dam of Wildfire. 

, r . Randolph 
«kRAGON, g. b. by Spread Eag.e, dam b> Bellair out of Andiew Mead't 


1808. Ralph Wormtej 


_ b. h. by Virginia Eclipse, dam Virginia by Timoleoii of Ma> 

ryland out of the Maid of Oakland by knp'd Stirling, &.c. 

1829. Captain Geo. H. Terrell. 

— by Timoleon, dam by Brutus, (by Beilair,) g. dam by Old Di 

omede, <tc. 

(Huntsville, Ala.) Gabriel Moore, 

-by Old Flimnap, dam Camilla by Burwell's Traveller, &c 

Sold to Col. Fenvvick- 

Foaled, 1788. W. Hampton. 

-Mare, by imp'd Buzzard, dam by Columbus, (by imp'd Pan- 

taloon,) out of Lady Northumberland, g- dam by Paragrfn, &c. 
PARTNERSHIP, ch. h. by Volunteer, dam Rosy Clack by imp'd Saltram 
— Camilla by Old Wildair, tkc. 

Arthur Cotton. 

b. c. by Ogle's Oscar, dam 

PATRIOT, by imp'd Fearnought, dam by Fearnought, g. dam by Aristo- 
tle, g. g. dam by Valiant, &.C. 
PATTY SNAGGS, ch. f. by John Richards, dam Selima by Topgallant, &c. 

P. Wallis. 
PATSY WALTHAL, by Medley, dam Maria by Diomede, g. dam by 
Beilair, &c. 

H. Haynes. 
PAUL JONES, by Specimen, dam by imp'd Wildair, (which was taken 
back to England,) g. clam Delancy's Cub mare. 

Gen. Morgan. 

Young, (See Young Paul Jones.) 

ch. by Sir Charles, dam by Tom Tough — Ball's Florizelle, 

imp'd Hamilton, &,c. 

Jefferson, Cy. Va. S. & J. Str'rder. 

**AUL, [Im^d] ch. fifteen hands high, by Saltram, dam Virago by Snap, 
Paul's dam Purity by Matchem, g. dam the Old Squirt mare. 
Powhatan, Va. 1807. Thomas Harris, Jun. 

PAYMASTER, [Imp'd] b. by Old Paymaster, dam by Otho— Herod— Duke 
of Northumberland's Arabian out of own sister to Skim, &c. 
York River, 1791. Henry Norriss 

N. B. No runners from this horse. 
PARALLEL, by Virginian, dam by Medley. 
PARIS, by Highflyer, dam a Cade mare. 

PARTIZAN, a light bay by Virginian, dam Diomedian by Am. horse Sal- 
tram, (son of imp'd Diomede,) gr. dam by Hendrick's Celer (son of 
Mead's Old Celer.) 

Horace Royster. 
PAMUNKEY, by Am. Eclipse, dam Bellona by Sir Archy— g. dam by Sir 
Harry — Melzar, &c. 

Thomas Doswell. 
PEACOCK, (Young's) by imp'd Citizen — imp'd Sterling — imp'd Mouse- 
trap, &.C- 

(Randolph's,) b. c. by Roanoake, dam Roanoka. 


-(Berkley's,) by Old Janus, dam an imp'd Spanish mare. 

i'EACE MAKER, dk. b. h. by imp'd Diomede, dam Poll by Young Black 
and all Black, out cfa Mercury mare, g. d. Nanny by Black and all 
Black, g. g. dam by imp'd Oscar — Old Partner, &c. 
1807. J. Tayloe. 

._ by Old Volunteer of Tennessee, (he by Gallatin,) dam bvOld 

Peace Maker — Dutchess by Coeur de Lion, &,c. 


PEGASUS, g. f. by Pegasus, dam Sally Wright. 

1?}C J. Hoomes. 

PEGGY, (Yot'Nfi) ch. m. by Gallatin, dam Trumpetta by Hephestion, g 

dam Peggy by Bedford. 

Kentucky. E. Warfiekl. 
ch. m. by Imp'd Bedford, dam Imp'd Peggy. 

189.S. Wade Hampton. 
\Imp'<l] by Trumpeter, dam by Herod out of Peggy, (sister to 


Foaled, 1788. Died 1805. J. Tayloe 

PEGGY MADEE, gr. f. by Sir Hal, dam Fair Rosamond, &c 

1823. i 
PENDENISS, gr. h. by Volunteer, dam Ariadne by Ball's Florizelle. 
PENELOPE, by Yorick, dam by Banter, g. dam by Old Gift, Sec. 

J. Tayloe. 

■ ch. f. bv Timoleon, dam Rosetta by Wilkes' Wonder. 

.PENNSYLVANIA FARMER, by Partner out of a full bred mare. 

1775. J. Tavloe. 
Mare, by Pa. Farmer, dam by Pegasus, g. dat.. by Bol- 
ton, &.C. 

J. Hoomes. 
PELHAM, b. c. by Gracchus, dam Mary by Whip. 

Falmouth, Va. Enoch Mason. 

PEY EYE, b. c. by Bedford, dam Milksop, Sec. 

PET, b. f. by St. Tammany, dam Miss Dance by Roebuck. 

gr. f. by Gracchus, dam Mouse by Sans Culotte. 

J. Randolph 
PETRUCHIO, by Shakspeare, dam Miss Chance by Chance — Roxalaua, 

Mt. Airy, Va. W ; m. H. Tayloe. 

PHENOMENON, or £/g- Ben, by Imp'd Wonder, dam by Dare Devil, Sec 

J. Mayo. 
b. h. by Roanoake, dam Young Frenzy. 

1824. John Randolph. 
PHENOMENA, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam Lottery by Bedford, Sec. 

1827. R. Singleton. 

PHOEBE, by Bright Phoebus, (full brother of Miller's Damsel,) dam by 

Republican President, (he by Cragg's Highflyer,) g. dam by Lind 

say's Arabian — Imp'd Ranger, Sec. 
PHOENIX, [Imp'd] ch. 1.. bred by the Duke of Bedford, got by Dragon, hi§ 

dam Portia by \ r i lunteer — Florizelle — King Herod, Sec. Foaled, 


North Carolina, 1803. Thos. B. Hill. 

— b. h. by Imp'd Venetian, dam Zenobia by Don Carlos — Juni- 
per, &c. 

Bait. Cy. 1794. G. Fitzhugh. 

PH LADELPHIA, [Imp'd} b. m. by Washington, dam Miss Totteridge oy 

Dungannon — Marcella by Mambrino — Media by Sweevbrier — An 

gelica by Snap, Sec. 

• 808. J. Randolph. 

PHILIP, ch. c. by Rattler, dam by Flag of Truce. 


PHILLIS, by Fearnought, dam a celebrated mars of Col. Baylor's got by 

Imp'd Sober John, Sec. 
ch. f. full sister to Gohanna. 

1821. John M. Bom 



PH1LLIS, by Old Topgallant, dam by Grey Diomede, g. dam also by Giet 
Diomede out of a thorough bred mare. 
1811. Geo. Chicester. 

PICTURE, by Imp'd Shark, dam by Sweet Larry, by Spadille — Janu* 

PILGRIM, [Imp'd) bl. h. by Samson — Regulus— Greyhound mare— Browi 
Traveller, the grandam of Matchem, &c. 
Foaled, 1762. 

— by Yorick, (by Morton's Traveller,) dam a Little Davie mare, 

g. dam by Old Traveller out of Muslin Face, &c 

1777. Wm. Smith. 

dap. gr. by Fearnought, dam Brandon by Aristotle, &.c. 

Foaled, 1774. B. Harrison. 

PILOT, b. c. by Sir Archy, dam by Gallatin. 

J. J. Harrison. 

r. c. by Flimnap, dam Hope by Shark. 

b. c. by Sir Henry, dam Slow and Easy by Duroc. 


PIRATE, by Sir Archy, dam Lady Hamilton by Sir Arthur— Medley- 
Mark Anthony, &c 

W. R. Johnson. 

PILLGARLIC, by Old Janus, dam by Imp'd Jolly Roger, g. dam by Silver 
Eye, &c. 

PILL BOX, (Dr. Dixon's) by Imp'd Pantaloon, dam Melpomone by Bur- 
well's Traveller, g. dam Virginia by Mark Anthony. 

PINK, by Lee's Mark Anthony, dam by Jolly Roger — Jenny Cameron, &c. 

PINK OF RETREAT, ch. by Young Tom Tough, (by Old Tom Tough,) 
dam by Buzzard, g. dam by Jones' Wildair. 

PIROUETTE, [Imp'd] ch. f. by Tenier's dam Marcondotti by Muley, &c 

Craig &, Corbin. 

PLAY or PAY, \ Imp'd] b. h. got by Ulysses, dam by King Herod — Regu- 
lus — Royal George's dam by Rib— Snake — Coney Skins — Hutton'a 
Barb, &c. 
Foaled, 1791. J- Hoomes. 

PLENIPOTENTIARY, gr. c. by Ogle's Badger, dam Shrewsbury Nan, by 
Bajazet, &,c. 
Rose Hill, Md. 1789. Thos. M. Forman. 

__ by the Arabian Dey of Algiers, dam Cora by Bedford. 

POCAHONTAS, b. f. by Randolph's Janus out of the dam of Powhatan. 

by Topgallant, dam Pocahontas by Vintzun. 

Gov. Wright. 

— by Vintzun, dam Pandora by Grey Diomede — Old Medley, 


-b. m. by Sir Archy, dam Young Lottery, (by Sir Archy,; 

out of Lottery — Bedford, out of Imp'd Anvelina. 
1819. R. Singleton 

POCOTALIGO, by Imp'd Bedford, dam Milksop by Justice. 

Gen. McPherson. 
POLLYPHEMUS, ny Tayloe's Yorick, dam Selima by Old Fearnought. 
IOLL,chX by (A.Young'b) Peacock, (by Citizen,) dam Dutchess by Bert 
ford — Thresher — Twigg, &c. 

by Partner, dam by Mark Anthony — Old Parmer, &,c. 

H. Hoyrn. 

b. f. by Eclipse, dan. Janus mare. 

K)LLOr PLYMOUTH, ch. f. by Archduke, dam Imp'd Alexandria. 


POLL\ BYRD, by Aristotle, dam Young Bonny Lass by Old Jelly Rcger, 

g dam Bonny Lass. 
————Brooks, b. f. by Imp'd Valentine, dam Sally Baxter. 

Thos. M. Forman. 
Flaxen, by Joily Roger, dam Imp'd Mary Grey. 

H. Games. 

— Hopkins, b. m. by Virginian, dam Jenny by Archduke— Imp'd 

Stirling — Imp'd Obscurity, &c. 

Col. Wynne. 
——^-Martin, b. m. by Benehan's Sir Archy, dam by Imp'd Dion. 

Capt. Geo. A. Bl«ney. 
— Medley, b. m. by Thornton's Medley, dam by Thornton's Mercu- 
ry — Bowie's Sportsman, &,c. 

Pkachum, by Patriot by Isabella, (the gr. dam of Page's famous Isa- 
•Peachum, b. f. by John Richards, dam Fair Forester, ttc. 

1826. John Baker. 

•Powell, by Virginian out of a full sister to Napoleon. 

POMPADOUR, by Valiant, dam Imp'd Jenny Cameron. 

Judge Tyler. 
POMONA, [Imjj\(] b. m. by Worthy, (own brother to Waxey,) dam Co 

niedy by Buzzard, her dam by Highflyer, &,c. 

Petersburg, Va. Wm. Haxall. 

POOR CHANCE, ch. c. by Archduke, dam Milksop by Coeur de Lion. 

J. Hoomes. 
PORCUPINE, ch. by Imp'd Diomede, dam Diana by Claudius. 

1804. Wm. E. Broadnax. 

PORTO, [Irnp y d] by King Herod, dam by Snap — Cade — own sister to 

IVlatchem's dam by Partner — Makeless — Brimmer, &c. Kred by 

Mr. Crofts, and foaled 1731. 

Thos. Goode. 
f'ORTO BELLO, by Commutation, dam by Walker's Flimnap, &c. 

Dinwiddie Cy. Va. 1796. Belf. Starke. 

PORTIA, b. m. by Clipper, (a son of Old Messenger,) her dam the dam of 

Moggy by Defiance. 
b. f. by Shylock, dam Jessica. 

1825. J. Randolph. 

POST BOY, by Gabriel, dam by Hyder Ally, g. dam by the Old Grey Ara 

bian, g. g. dam by Ariel — Othello, &x. 


by Wrangler, dam 

B. Wilkes 
POTOMAC, b. h. by Imp'd Diomede, dam by Pegasus, &.c. 

Mecklenburg, Va. 1804. Rich. Dennis. 

— — Mare, by Potomac, dam by Gallatin. 

Kentucky. Jefferson Scott. 

POT80S, by Old Medley, dam by Conductor, g. dam Dy Celer, &c. 
Mare, [Irnp' l d] was got by Eclipse, dam by Gimcrack, &c. 

Foaled, 1792. Win. Constable. 

POWHATAN, by Oscar, (he by Assiduous,) dam a Bashaw mare. 

Spotsylvania Cy. Va. John Ho'liday. 

■■ gr. h. by Old Pacolet, dam by Powhatan, by Imp'd Diome'ie 

by Imp'd Diomede, dam by Imp'd Shark— Old Celer -lniL'd 

mare, &c. 
POWWANCY, by Sir Alfred, dam Virgo by Imp'd Young Sir Peter Te» 

i!e, g. dam Castianira. 


PRECIPI TATE, [Impact] a sorrel horse, fifteen and a naif hands high, 
Ve.d by the Kail of Egremont, got by Mercury, flam by Herod, g. 
dam by Matchem out of Mr. Pratt's Old Squirt mare, &c. 
Foaled, 1787. Imp'd 1804. W'm. Lightfoot. 

PRESTLEY, by Chanticleer, dam Camilla by Wildair, g. dam Minerva b» 
Obscurity, &c. 

PRESIDENT, by Old Celer, flam by Mark Anthony out of Bonnv Eass. 

■ , , dap. gr. by Imp'd Clockfast, dam Haines' Old Poll by Fear- 
nought — Moore's Partner, &c. 
DinwiddieCy. Va. 1796. Drury Jones. 

PRIMROSE, (Dr. Stockett's) by Grey Medley, dam by Apollo, g. dam by 
Imp'd Gran by — Hamilton's Figure, &c. 

• by Dove, dam Stella by Othello, Imp'd Selima. 

Dr. Hamilton. 

('s) by Apollo, dam by Imp'd Granby — Hamilton's Fi- 
gure, &c. • 

PRIMERO, by Mason's Rattler, dam Kitty Russell. 

Thomas Carter. 

PRINCE FREDERICK, [Imp'd] a bay fifteen and a half hands high, was 
got by Fortunio by Flororet, dam by Lexicon, g. dam by Sportsman, 
g. g. dam Golden Locks by Oronooko — Valiant, <fcc. 
Boston, 1798. Edw. Davis. 

Edward, ch. by Muckle John out of a Whip mare, &x. 

Georgia, 182!!. C. A. Rudd. 

Rli-kkt, by Tom Tough, dam by Imp'd Sir Harry. 

King Win. Thos. Carter. 

PRINCESS, by Sir Archy, dam a full blooded mare, bred by Lemuel Long 
of North Carolina, &x. 


PRIZE FIGHTER, by Imp'd Expedition, dam Zelippa by Imp'(f Messen- 
ger, &c. 

PROMISE, [Imp'd] ch. m. by Buzzard out of a Precipitate mare, the dam 
of Wizard, her dam out of Lady Harriet by Mark Anthony, &c. 

Win. Haxall. 

, by Grey Medley, dam by Apollo, g. dam by Imp'd Granby, &.c. 

„ ■ Gen Ridgley. 

PROSERPINE, by Dare Devd, dam a Clodius mare, g. dam by Bolton, g. 
g. dam Sally Wright by Yorick, &-C. 

1797. J. Hoomes. 

•b. m. by (Tenn.) Oscar, dam by Pacolet, second Diomede by 

Imp'd Diomede — Wildair, &c 

Tennessee, 1823. J. C. Guild. 

PSYCHE, [Imp'd] gr. m. by Sir Peter Teazle, dam Bab by Bordeaux out 

of Speranza, own sister to Saltram by Eclipse — Snap, &c. Imp'd 

by Gen. McPherson. 

South Carolina. Foaled, 1802. 
PUNCH, [Imp'd] got by King Herod, dam by Old Marske — Cullen Ara- 
bian — Black EyesJy Regulus — Crab — Warlock — Galloway, Slz. 

1799. Win. Powers. 

PUNCH IN ELLA, [Imp'd] by Punch, dam Craig's Highflyer by Highflyer 

of Tattersalls, g. dam by Galloway's Selim, &,c. 

Washington City, 1808. Win. Thornton. 

PURITY, gr. m. by Sir Archy, dam by Bedford, g. dam (dam of Trifle) by 

Bellair — Shark — Wildair, &c. 

Foaled, 1827. Chas. Botts & T. Lawson. 

PI RE (.OLD, by Stirling, dam by Escape, g. dam uy Lord I ouvaine'a 

Percy Arabian — King Herod, 6lc. 


PULASKI, cb. h. by Virginian, Hani Constitution (by Diomede,) g. rlain 
me dam of Lady Lagrange by imp'd Dragon, Bel Bounce, JLz. 

Thomas S. Goodrum. 


QUAKER LASS, by Jumper, nam imp'd Molly Pacolet. 

by Kouli Kalm. dam by Valiant, g. dam imp d by William 
Byrd, and fjaled 17&9. 

Theoderirk Bland. 
QUEEN ISABELLLA, br. m. by First Consul, dam Nancy Dawson by Old 

— Mab, [Inip'd] by Musgrcve's Grey Arabian, dam Harrison's 

Arabian, g. dam by his Chestnut Arabian, Leeds, &c. 
Imported by Gov. Ogle. 

-ok May, by inip'd Shark, dam by inip'd Janus, &c. 

1789. Thomas. 

QUICKSILVER, (formerly Snap,) s. h. by imp'd Medley, dam by Wildair, 

g. dam by Spark out of Col. Overton's Jolly Roger, and Valiant mare 

sold to H. Heath. 

1789. J. Tayloe. 

- by Mercury, dam Brondon by Aristotle. 

1783. Benjamin Harrison. 

QUIETUS, b. c. by Sir Henry, dam Slow and Easy by Duroc, &c. 


b. c. by Speculator, dam Alexandria. 

1808. John Hoomes. 

QUIDNUNC, b. c. by Arabian Bagdad, dam Rosy Carey, (by Sir Archy,* 

g. dam Sally Jones by imp'd Wrangler — imp'd Traveller, <fcc. 

Tennessee, 1826. Rev. H. M. Cryei. 


RABBI, g. c. by Winter's Arabian, dam by one of the best sons of Hamble- 
tonian, g. darn by Spread Eagle. 

Alabama. J- & A. Gist. 

RACHEL FOSTER, gr. m. by Virginian, dam by Palafox— Betty Mufti by 

imp'd Mufti, &.C. 
RAFFLE, ch. m. by Bellair out of a full sister to Narcissa. . 

1793. Samuel Tyler. 

RANDOLPH, gr. c. by R'maldo, dam (Ridgley's) Ophelia by little Medley, 

RANGER, [Imp'd] a Milk White horse got by Regulus, (son of Godolphip 
Arabian,) his dam by Mercury, Andrew, her dam by Steady, &c 
(Unsuccessful in racing.) Dr. Hamilton. 

• b. c. by Roanoake, dam Never Tire. 

John Randolph. 
(See Arabian Lindsay's.) 

dk. b. by Bussora, dam Alarm. 

-ch. c. by Heath's Childers, dam Tulip by Lindsay's Whits 

Arabian, imp'd Othello, George's Juniper, &,c. 

1793. Thos. M. Forma n. 

RANTER, [Imp'd] b. foaled 1755, got by Dimple, (son of the Godolphiu 

Arabian,; dam by Crab out of Bloody Buttocks, Sic. Imp'd ii. .'62 

and stood in Stafford County, Va. in 17H3. 

Young, (See Young Ranter.) 

I'ASSKLAS, by Sir Archy, dam by imp'd Play or Pay, g dam I v Bel'au, 

imp'd Pantalooti, &r, 18*3 



RATTLER, or (RATTLE,) by imp'd Shark, dam Lady Leggs, (the dam o, 

Collector,) by Centinel — imp'd Fearnought and imp'o mare, itc. 

N. Carolina, (foaled, 1796.) Bignell. 

ch. h. by Rattler, (by Sir Archy.) dam by Old Prize Fighter, 

g. dam Luffborough's Spread Eagle mare. 

Lancaster, Pa. 1829. Edward Parker, 

-by Sir Archy, dam by imp'd Robin Redbreast, g. dam b? 

iniD'd Obscurity, Old Sl'amerkin, &lc 


ch. by Thornton's Rattler, dam Maid of the Mill. 

Walter Livingston. 

by Rattler, (by Shark,) dam Polly McCulloch. 


(See Fairfax ) 

-ch. c. by Kosciusko, dam by Archer 

Kentucky. Edward M. Blackburn. 

(Alias Stafford,) ch. h. by Timoleon, dam Constitution (b* 

Diomede,) g. dam imp'd Saltram, Old Wildair, Fearnought, &c 

E. Mason. 

• • Mare, c. ni. by Rattler, dam Jenny Windflower. 

C. Irvine. 
RATRAY, by imp'd Clifden, dam by Fitzpartner out of Ariminna by 

RAPLEY, gr. c by Bassino, dam Clio by imp'd Whip. 

Gen. Taylor, (Georgia.) 
RAPID, by Columbus, dam by Sir Archy. 
RAPPAHANNOCK, by Richmond, dam by Sir Alfred, g. dam by Sey 

mour's Spread Eagle, Paotajoon, &,c. 

Pennsylvania, 1830. 
RAVENSWOOD dk. b. h. by Sir Harry, dam Dutchess by Grouse. 

1815. J- Randolph. 

REALITY, by Sir Archy, dam by Medley, g. dam by Centinel, Mark An- 

thony, Janus, &c. 
REAPHOOK, by Old Sir Archy, dam Irby's Dare Devil mare. 

E. Irby. 
RECRUIT, ch. by imp'd Stirling, dam Citizen by Wildair, gr. dam Miner 

va by Obscurity, g. g. dam Diana by Claudius, &,c. 

Hickory Hill. 1807. Samuel Marshall. 

RED MLRDOCK, (See Murdock.) 
RED ROVER, ch. h. (See Marcellus) 

ch. h. by Carolinian, dam Sycorax. 

Richard S. Nicholson. 
RED FOX, by Virginian, dam by imp'd Knowsley. 
REFORM, br. h. by Marylander, (by Thornton's Rattler,) dam by Rich 

mond — Ogle's Oscar — Grey Diomede — Hall's Union — Leonidas, &c 

Prince George Cy. Maryland. Geo. Simms. 

b. I. by Tariff, dam the dam of Chieftain. 

REGULUS, (L. BurwelPs) [Imp'd] got by Regulus, (a son of theGodolphin 

Arabian,) he was half brother to Bain Partner by Smiling Tom out 

of a Partner mare, her dam by Cupid — Hautboy — Bustler &c. 

Foaled, 1747. 
by Silver F^c, grand sire Valiant, g. g. sire Jolly Roger, <fcc 

York Cv- Va. 1770. "" James Shields. 

-(Fitzhugh's,) b. h. by imp'd Fearnought, dam imp'd Jennj 

Disma 1 . Chatam near Fredg. 1774 
REINDEEF., b. c by Arao -lam by Marske, &e. 

18^7. J J. Hanmon 


REMUS, [hn]i\l\ by Dove — Spanker — Flying Childers — out f Betsy L«_od» 
• (sister to Leeds,) by the Leeds Arabian, &l,c. 

N. Carolina, 1777. John Baird. 

RENOVATOR, g. c. by Chichester's Brilliant, dam Indiana by Florizelie. 

1831. H. A. Tayloe. 

REPUBLICAN, by True Whig, dam Young Selima sister to the note' 1 

Chatam, &,c. 

William Brent. 
_- , hi. by imp'd Shark, dam by Fitzhughs' True Whig — Worm 

ley's King Herod — imp'd Silver Eye, &.c. 
REPUBLICAN PRESIDENT, by imp'd Highflyer, dam by imp'd Venitiaa 

— Don Carlos — imp'd Ranger — imp'd Dove, &c. 

1805. Isaac Duckett. 

RESTLESS, [/m;/f/] a dk. brown sixteen hands high, got by Phenomenon, 

his dam Dutchess, she by Lesang, her dam Caiiope by Slouch — Oro 

nooko, &.c. 

Foaled, 1788. Win. Lightfoot. 

by Virginian, dam Roxana, (formerly Betsy Haxall ) 

Wm. R. Johnson. 
REVENGE, ch. c. by Florizelie, dam Britannia. 

1812. J. Tayloe. 

— or Young Janus, by Sir Archy, dam Frenzy by 'Gracchus. 

J. Randolph. 
RHODIAN, gr. m. by Raglaud's Diomede, Quicksilver, imp'd Pantaloon, 

imp'd Fearnought, &.c. 

Halifax Cy. 1816. Robert Easley. 

RHEA, by Chatam, dam by Eclipse, (who was the sire of Brimmer, &c> 

g. dam by imp'd Shark, g g. dam by imp'd Silver Eye. 
RICHMOND, ch. c. by Ball's Florizelie, dam Chestnut mare by Diomede, 

<fec. Sold Dr. Thornton. 

1812. J. Wickham. 

RIEGO, bl. h. by Francisco, dam by imp'd Sir Peter Teazle, g. dam inipM 


Hector Davis. 
RIOT, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam by Burdett. 

Richard Long, 
RINALDO, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Miss Rylaud by Gracchus. 

J. Randolph. 
RINALDINI, ch. c. by Baronet, dam Temptation by Heath's Chilcters, Sea 

1H04. Thos. M. Format. 

RIPLEY, ch. by Sir Charles, dam Betsy Robinson by Thaddeus. 
ROAN COLT, [Imp'd] got by Sir Peter Teazle, dam by Mercury, g. dan 

Cytherea bv Herod, g. g. dam by Bla::k, &c. 

Foaled, 1802. Imp'd by John MePherson. 

ROANOAKE, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Lady Bunbury by Trumpeter, &c. 

1817. J. Randolph. 

g. c. by Magic, dam Johnson's Old Medley mare. 

• John, b. h. by Ravenswood, dam Flora by Am. Eagle. 

Essex, Va. Jefferson Minor. 

ROANOAKA, ch. f. by Ball's Florizelie, dam Cornelia by Chanticleer- 
Vanity by Celer, <Lc. 

1815. J. Randolph 

ROEBUCK, by Sweeper, (son of Beaver's great Drivei,) dam by imp'd B* 

—————— bh. by Fitzhughs' Othello, dam by imp o Othe.lo. 

1733. Wm. M. Wj'kiai 


ROEBUCK, by Roebuck, (wbo was got by Powell's Selim, a son of Oin 

Selim,) dam of Young Roebuck by iinp'd Druid, Shark, FiguretMaik 

Anthony, &c. 

Bremo. Foaled, 1810. John H. Cocke, Sen 
ROBERT BURNS, or Sir Archy, (See Sir Archy.) 
or. oy Stockholder, nam by Sir Arcny, 'Robert Burns,) g. dam 

by imp'd Bedford, Hart's imp'd Medley. 
ROB ROY, ch. h. by Gracchus, dam iinp'd Lady Bunbury. 

J. Randolph. 

— by Sir Archy, dam imp'd Psyche. 

Col. Singleton. 
gr. h. by Winter's Arabian, dam by Young Baronet, g. dano 

by iinp'd Damon, &c. 
ROBIN ADAIR, by Sir Archy, dam Lady Burton by Sir Archy. 

Dr. Win. Terrell, (Geo.) 
ROBIN REDBREAST, [Imp'd] b. h. by Sir Peter Teazle, his dam Wren 

by Woodpecker out of Papillon by Snap, (the dam of Sir Peter Tea- 
zle,) Woodpecker by Herod, Sir Peter by Highflyer, Herod, &c. 

Foaled, 1796. Virginia, 1800. 

ROBIN GRAY, by imp'd Royalist, dam by Grey Diomede, g. dam by imp'd 

St. George, Cassius, tfcc. 
ROBIN HOOD, b. c. byTippoo Sultan, dam Rosalia by imn'd Express, &c. 
ROCHESTER, b. c. by Alderman, dam Thresher. 
ROCKINGHAM, b. h. by Old Partner, dam imp'd Blossom. 

1775. Gen. Nelson. 
by Sir Archy, dam by Rattler, g. dam by Medley, (lost bit 

eyes at 2 years old.) 

J. D. Amis. 
RODERICK, by Dare Devil, dam by Bellair, g. dam by Wildair. 

18U8. John Thornton. 
by Winter Arabian, dam by Lorenzo, g. dam by Blaze, tfcc. 

Lexington, Kentucky. 
RODERICK DHU, b. h. by Sir Charles, dam by Bedford, g. dam by Bel 

lair, Shark, Wildair, &,c. 

T Cary 
RODERICO, ro. h. by imp'd Monkey, imp'd Silver Eye, imp'd mare, <fec. 
RODOLPHO, bl. h. by iinp'd Hob or Nob, darn an imp'd mare, foaled 1768. 

N. Carolina. John McDermut. 

ROGER OF THE VALE, (See imp'd Jolly Roger.) 
ROMAN, [/m/Ai] b. h. got by Camilius, dam by Eagle, g. dam by Trumpe 

ter, g. g. dam by Highflyer, g. g. g. flam by Snap out ofMisst'le\e 

land by Regulus, &c. 

Imported into N. York, 1823. • S. Williams. 

gr. h. by Roman, dam Ariel's dam Empress. 

b. h. by Roman, dam Pinkney's mare. 


ROMP, bi. f. by Leander, dam Rosalia by Express. 

T. M. Forman 

» by imp'd Messenger and full sister to Miller's Damsel. 

ROMULUS, s. h. by Mark Anthony, dam Pompadour by Valiant — Jenny 

Cameron, &c. 

Charles City Oy. Va. 1775. Peter Dunn 

— by Sweeper, dam by iinp'd Ranger, g. dam by Ariel, Othelio 

&c. 17S9. Win. Stewart. 

iWHtJUA, by Trafalgar, dam Fancy by Jubilee. 

Hanovu. \ a. N. Berkley 


ROSALBA, b. f. by Spread Eagle, dam Alexandria. 

1801. ■',. Hoomea. 

by Trafalgar, dam Rosalba by Spread Eagle. 
ROSALIA, t> f. I))' imp'd Express, dam Betsy Bell by Old Cub. 

Thos. iM. Forman. 
ROSALIE, gr. f by Knowsley, dam Calypso. 
ROSABELLA, cb. m. by Topgallant, dam by imp'd Play or Pay, g. dan 

by Old Bellair — imp'd Pantaloon — Janus, &c. 

Southampton Cy. Va. 1819. James Kochelle. 

ROSALINDA, gr. m. by Tayloe's Oscar, dam by imp'd Expedition — imp' j 

Grey Highlander — imp'd Traveller, &,c. 

New Jersey. Jacob Vandyke. 

ROSAMUND A, b. f. by Bedford, dam Gasteria. 

1804. J. Hoomes. 

ROSEMARY, by imp'd Diomede, dam Celia by Old Wildair, g. dam Lad; 

Bolingbroke, &c. 
ROSETTA, by imp'd Gentmel, dam Diana by Claudius. 
by imp'd Dion, dam hy imp'd Druid — Old Shark — imp'd M'ec 

ley — imp'd Fearnought, &,c. 

ch. f by Sir Archy, dam Bet Bounce by Sir Harry. 

ch. m. by Wilkes' Wonder, dam Rosy Clack by Saltram, &,c 

Tennessee. Lewis J. Polk. 

by Columbus, dam Lady Northumberland. 

L. Butler. 

« by Sir Harry, dam Spot by Bedford, &c. 

Wm. Dandridge. 
ROSICRUCION, b. c. by Dragon, dam imp'd Anvelina. 

1803. J. B. Richardson. 

ROSY CLACK, by imp'd Saltram, dam Camilla by Wildair. 
ROSY CAREY, by Sir Archy, dam Sally Jones by imp'd Wrangler. 
ROSELLA, b. m. by Obscurity, dam Maggy Lauder. 

1817. Thos. M. Forman. 

ROWENA, br. m. full sister to Lafayette by Virginian. 

ch. in. by Sumpter, dam Lady Grey by Robin Gray, &c. 

ROXALANA, gr. f. hy Selun, (the Arabian,) dam Britannia by Pegasus, 


1H06. J. Tayloe. 

ROXANA, by Sir Solomon, 'dam Auicra. 

by Hephestion, dam by imp'd Archer— Dare Devil, &c. 

by Sir Harry, dam by Saltram, g. dam by Wildair — Fearnought 

— Driver, <fcc. 

blood I), by Gohanna, dam Kitty Clover. 

or Betsy Haxkn, by Sir Harry, dam the dam of Timoleon by 

Sir Arcliv, fee. 
ROYAL CHARLIE, dk. ch. by Arastus, dam Amelia by Hephestion. 
ROYALIST, [Imp\l) b. h. by Saltram, dam by King Herod, g. dam by 

Marske — Blank — Diz/ley Driver — Smiling Tom, &.C 

Foaled, 1790. Died in Tennessee, aged 24. 
ROYAL OAK, bl. h. by imp'd Othello, (or Black and All Black.) His dam 

was Dr. Maglather's Lovelace by Flying Childers, near the city of 

Anopolis, his gr. dam an imp'd mare by Bosphorus, ttc. 

Salenl Cy. New Jersey, 1777. Win. Riddle. 

RUST V ROBIN, c. by Diomede, dam by Shark, g. dam Blatk Eyed Susan, 


Thos Goode 
RULER MARE, [Imp'd] by Ruler, dam by Turk, (he by RcrhIus,) g aair 

by Snake, &,c. 


> LAND, b. c by Roanoake, dam Miss Ryland. 

1«24. J. Randolph 


»ATiLY BARONET, by Dungannon, dam bv Michau's Celer, g. dam by 

Celer — Old Fearnought, &c. 
Brown, gr. by Buck Rabbit, dam by imp'd Knowsley, g. dam by 

Bellair, &c. 

Wm. D. Taylor. 

— — Baxter, b. f. by Ogle's Oscar, dam Dianora by imp'd Expedition. 

Thos. M. Forman. 

Currie, ch. m. by Matchless Diomede, (he by imp'd Diomede,) dam 

by Celer, g. dam by imp'd Shark, &c. 

Duffee, gr. in. by Diomede, dam Forlorn Hope, &c. 

H. Macklin. 
Hope, ch. f. by Sir Archy, dam a bay mare imp'd by Dunlop of Pe- 
tersburg, was by Chance, and was own sister to Grimalkin, tkat 
was sold to the Emperor of Austria for $7933, her gr. dam by Phe- 
nomenon, (fcc. 

— Hornet, b. f. by Sir Charles, dam by Hornet. 

Hector Davis. 

Hap vie, by Virginian, dam an Archy^mare. 

Hill, dk. ch. m. by Trafalgar, dam Musidora by imp'd Archduke, 

g. dam Proserpine by imp'd Dare Devil, &c. 

1818. C. B. Berkley. 

Magic. (See Pandora.) 

Maree, b. m. by Carolinian, dam by Jack Andrews — imp'd Drive 

—Highflyer, &c. 

W. D. Taylo- 
Morris, b. by Superior, dam by Tom Tough — Bedford, &,c 

— — Melville, b. f. by Virginian, dam Bet Bounce. 

— - Nailor, by imp'd Wonder, dam Primrose by Dove. 

Bailor, oy Spread Eagle, dam 

Painter, gr. in. by Evans' Stirling, dam Old Silver by Bellsize Ara 
— Smith, by Virginian, dam a Gallatin mare. 

— Slouch, bl. m. full sister to W. R. Johnson's Star. 

Shark, by imp'd Shark, dam Betsy Pringle by Old Fearnought, &c 

Taylor, ch. in. full sister of Betsy Robins. 

S. Carolina. B. F. Taylor. 

Trent, ch. m. sister to Gohanna. 

W. R. Johnson. 

Wilson, br. m. by Blackburn's Whip, dam by Hamiltonian by imp'd 


Wright, by Yorick out of a full bred mare. J. Tayloe. 

W'alker, by Timoleon, dam by Dragon out of Honeycomb by Ja<k 

Andrews — Pill Box by Pantaloon, &,c. 

F. V. Corbi*. 
by Muckle John, (by Muckle John,) dam Black Eyed Susan by Po- 

Georgia. J. Heister. 

BALTRAM, [Imp'd] dk. b. h. fifteen hands three inches high, (was near 
20 years old when imp'd,) was got by Eclipse, his oam Virago by 
Snap, g. dam by Regulus out of own sistei to Black and All Blach, 
sire of Tuting's Pollv, &c 
Foaled, 1780 Wmlightfool 


SM/TRAM, 1/ Stirling, dam Marcia by Shark. 

1800. A. ex. Spolswood. 

SALADIN, b. c. by Crusader, dam Onea by Dockbn. 

1830. James Ferguson. 

SALVADOR, by Singleton's Ganymede, dam Clio by imp'd Whip, g. dain 

Sultana by Spread F'.agle, &c. 
SAMBO, cli. c. by Sir Archy, dam by imp'd Buzzard, g. dam imp J Sym 

metry by Trumpeter. 
SAM PATCH, by Rob Roy, dam by Telegrapb,g. dam *by Oscar, dam 
Ridgley's Primrose. 
SAMSON, bl. h. by Traveller out of a fine English hunting mare. 

1767. John Wormley. 

SANS CULOTTE, ch. s. by Old Celer, dam Logania by imp'd Medley, &,c. 

Charlotte Cy. Va. 1802. Stephen Davis. 

SAPPHO, by Buckskin, dam Dutchess by Hero — Brutus — Tar qui n — Old 
Prince, &x. 

gr. f. by Tartar, dam Sultana by Spread Eagle. 

SARAH JANE, ch. m. by Virginian, dam Lady Jane by Potomac. 
SASSAFRAS, b. c. by Ware's Godolphin, dam Rosalia by Express. 
SATELLITE, by Citizen., dam an imp'd mare by Waxy, imp'd by Coi 

Bland of Prince George Cy. 
SAUCY PAT, f. by Cormorant, dam Minerva. 

Eagle's Nest, 1803. B. Grymes. 

SAXE WlEMAR, full brother to Crusader and Kosciusko. 
SCAR 10 US, by Roanoake, dam Miss Peyton. 

1829. J. Randolph 

SCREAMER, ch. f. by Henry, dam Lady Lightfoot. 

SEAGULL, [Imp\f] by Woodpecker, dam Middlesex by Snap— Misi 
Cleveland by Regulus out of Midge, &c. 

Foaled, 1786. ' Bush 

by Sir Archy, dam Nancy Air by Bedford. 

SECOND DIOMEDE. (See Diomede Second.) 

SELAH, dap. gr. by Bussora Arabian, dam by imp'd Messenger out of a 
full bred mare. 

C. W. Van RansL 
SELIMA, by Topgallant, dam Jack Bull by Gabriel. 

T. Murphy. 

s. m. by Spread Eagle, dam Virago by Shark. 

J. Tayloe. 

bl. n. by Old Fearnought, dam imp'd Selima. 

by imp'd Othello, dam imp'd Selima, &c. 

Tulip Hill. Samuel Galloway. 

— — — ch. s. m. by Dandridge's Fearnought, dam by Bolton — Monkey- 
Dart, «fcc. 

Walter Coles, 
b. m. by Yorick, dam bl. Selima, (by Fearnought.) 
-(Taskku's) [Imp 1 J] was by the Godolphin Arabian, dam by Old 

Fox — Flying Childers, >Lc. 
Foaled, 1772. 
•Young. (See Young Selima.) 

SELIM, [Imp\l] was by Bajazet, flam Miss Thign by Rib — Lady 'I hignb* 
Partner — Bloody Buttocks — Greyhound — Maktdess — Brimmer, V 
Foaled. 1760. 


SELIM, dk b. h. by Othello, (or Black and All Black,) dam Selim mare 

1770. Calloway. 

Mare, jet jlack, by imp'd Selim — imp'd Hob or Nob — imp'd Evaor 

Stirling — imp'd Merry Tom — imp'd Bucephalus out of a thorouga 

bred mare, &c. 

North Carolina. Foaled, 1774. Died, 1781. 

gr. h. (See Arabian Selim.) 

SENECA, by Old Rattler, flam Cora by Brown's Godolphin. 

Georgetown, D. C. C W. Peter. 

SENATOR, b. c. by imp'd Paymaster, dam Tulip by Lindsay's Arabian. 
SEPT1MA, [fmp'd] by Othello, dam Moll Brazen by Shark, &c. 
SEPTIMUS, ch. c. by Cohanna, dam Vixen by Tiafalgar. 
SERAB, [///*;>V] b> Phantom out of Jesse, by Totteridge, &.c. ; her dam 

Cracker by Highflyer, out of Nutcracker by Matchem — Regains— 

Crali — Ghilders — Basto, (fee. 

Foaletl, 1821. S. & I. Coffin 

Sold in England for $14,000. 
SEVERITY, by Napoleon, dam by Old Pacolet. 
SHARK, [Imp'd] n dk. br. b. by Marshe, hisdam by Shafton's Snap, g. dam 

bv Marlborough, (brother to Babraham,) out of a natural Barb mare. 

Foaled, 1771. 

Nottingham near Fredg. Va. 1767. Alex. Spotswood. 

br. h. by Sir Andrew, dam Kitty by imp'd Whip. 

C. A. Rudd. 
Mark, by imp'd Shark, dam 

1793. J. Tayloe. 

-bl. c. by American Eclipse, dam La d\ r Light foot. 


Mare, ch. by Shark, dam Felnah by Grey Diomede — OLd Medley 

E. Branch. 
SHAKSPEARE, dk. br.' h. by Baylor's Fearnought, dam Stella by OtheL 

lo, &c. 

1777. Robert Baylor 

— —dap. gr. h. by Baylor's Fearnought, dam imp'd, was by Cub, 

a son of Old Fox, &c. 

North imberland, Va. 1776. P. P. Thornton 

-b. h. by Virsjiniar, dam by Shenandoah, by Potomac. 

SHAWNEE, by Tecumseh, dam by Citizen, full sister of the dam of Ma 

SHENANDOAH, by Potomac, dam Hill's bay mare by imp'd Febrifuge- — 

Grey Diomede — VVildair, &z,c. 
gr. c. by Pilgrim, dam Swan by imp'd Eagle. 

1828. J. Randolph. 
SHEPHERDESS, bl. m. by Sweeper, (by Hamilton's Figure,) dam bt 

Tasker's Othello — Morton's Traveller, &.c. 

1829. T. J Hanson. 

6. m. by Phenomenon, dam by imp'd Diomede — imp'd 

Shark — imp'd Medley, &.<:. 

Richard Adams, 
-by imp'd Slim, dam Shrewsbury by Old Figure, g. dam 

by Dove — Selima by Othello, &c. 

New York. 
»HOCK, [7mp'</] b. h. by Jig, dam by Snake, Grey Wilkes by Hautboy, 

Miss D'Arcy's Pet mare, daughter of Sedbury Royal mare. 

Foaled, 1729. 
SHOWMAN, by imp'd Fearnought, dam imp'd Jenny Dismal 


SHREWSBURY, by Hamilton's Figure, dam Thistle by impMhove, 4 
dam Stella by imp'd Othello. 

— Nan, br. by Bajazett, dam by Lloyd's Traveller, g. dam imp'd 

mare by Babraham. 

1784. T. M. Forman. 

5IIYLOCK, b. h. by imp'd Bedford, dawn by Old Diomede, g. dam by imp'd 
Si. George, Fearnought, .'oily Roger, &.c. 

Edm. Irhy. 

— Mark, by Shylock, dam by Sting, g. dam Cades by Wormley'a 

King, Herod by imp'd Fearnought, &,c. 
SID] HAM FT, br. b. by Virginian, dam Lady Burton by Sir Archy, &x. 
Foaled, 1825. S. Davenport. 

SIGN-ORA, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Miss Peyton. 

11524. J. Randolph. 

SILK STOCKINGS, ch. h. by Ogle's Oscar, dam Maria Slamerkir. by First 

SILVER, [//rt/»V] dap. gr. by Mercury, (who was by Eclipse,) dam by He- 
rod^, dam Young Hag by Skim, Crab, Childers, Basto, &c. (Did 
not succeed as a stallion.) 

John Drew. 

Mark, [Imp'd] by Belsize Arabian. 

Surry Cy. Va. Win. Evans. 

SILVER EVE, [Imp'd] got by Cullen Arabian, dam by Curvven's Bay 
Barb, Curwen Spot, White Leggs, &c. 


. ch. h. by imp'd Silver Eve, dam an imp'd mare. 

SILVER LEGGS, by Morton's Traveller, dam Jenny Cameron, &c. 

SILVER HEELS, dap. gr. by Ogle's Oscar, dam Pandora by Grey Dio 

Robert Wright. 

by John Richards, dam by Sir Solomon, g. dam Trumpeter. 

N. J. 1823. J. Davison. 

4iy Jolly Friar, Whitacie's Mark Anthony, Lee's Old Mark 

Antnony, Spadille, imp'd mare. 
SILVER TAIL, by imp'd Clockfast, dam Young Primrose by Wormlev's 

King Herod, &c. 
by Sir Archy, dam Coquette. 

1829. Thos. Branch, 

by Old Tanner, dam by Selim, Panton's Arabian, &,c. 

SIR ARCHY, or ROBERT BURNS, b. h. by Old Diomede, dam imp'd Cas- 


J. Tayloe. 

Archy, jun. b h. by Sir Archy, dam by Albemarle, (son of Diomeae^ 

om of Penelope by Shark. 
. Arc hy, b. h. by Sir Archy, dam Transport by Virgi. ins, &c 

Kentucky. William Dickey 

■\ihhy Young, (See Young Sir Archy.) 
Archy, (Moore's,) by Amis' Old Sir Archy, dam by Little Dnvei. 

imp'd Bay Richmond, Janus mare, &c. 

. Aki hy M Ontario, by Sir Archy, dam Transport by 

Aaron, ch. c by Tormentor, dam by Revenge. 


. Andrew, gr by Mar.ske, (by Old Diomede,) dam Virago by imp'd 

Whip, Partner, &.C. 

Georgia, 18lo. 'ohn f icnvas. 

; ; i 



SIR ANDREW d c by Thomas' Sir Andrew, dam Black Eyed Sisan by 
Potomac. 1326. 

■■■ Arthur, by Sir Archy, (Old,) dam Green's Old Celer mare, (fee. 

W. R. Johnson. 

Arthur Mare, ch. by Sir Arthur, dam Sally Nailor. 

Albert, by Rattler, dam Laura by Col. Lear's imp'd Barb horse. 

—— Alfred, g. by Sir Andrew, dam Lady Alfred, (Haxall's) dam ot 
Waxey, &c. 

George A. Rudd. 
Alfred, b. by Sir Harry, dam Lady Chesterfield. 

Wm. Haxall. 

Alfred Yocng, (See Young Sir Alfred.) 

Bolingkroke, by Seidell's Old Superior, dam by Hyde's imp'd Pie 

tender, Highflyer, Shark, &c. 

H. Campbell. 

Charles Pinckney, by Sir Charles, cam Pawnee. 

Charles, ch. by Sir Archy, (Old,) dam by imp'd Citizen, g. dam b) 

Commutation, imp'd Dare Devil, imp'd Shark, imp'd Fearnought. 

W. R. Johnson. 

Charles, ch. by Duroc, dam Maria Slamerkin. 

Charles, by Robin Adair, dam Black Eyed Susan by Potomac, &,c 

James Hester. 

Dudley, ch. c. by Rob Roy, dam an Oscar mare. 


Hal, br. by imp'd Sir Harry, dam by imp'd Saltram, g. dam by 

imp'rl Medley, Young Aristotle, fee. 
——Harry, [lmp\f] br. by Sir Peter Teazle out of Matron by Alfred, g. 
dam (dam of Pilot,) by Marske, Regulus, Steady, Palmer, Grey 
hound, vfce. foaled, 1794. 
Petersburg. Wm. Haxall. 

— — Harry, ch. by Bussora Arabian, dam imp'd Maria by imp'd Lively, 

Selim, &c. Van Ranst. 

— — Hakky, by Diomede, dam by Obscurity. 

Halifax. J. Nelmes. 

Henry, by Pacolet, dam Madam Tonson. 

Henry, by Sir Archy, dam by Diomede — Bellona by Bellair, &c. 

Humphrey, by Old Tuckahoe, dam the dam of Maryland Eclipse. 

James, dk. bl. b. by Sir Archy, dam by Diomede, Pilgrim, Old Pear 

nought, &,c. 

John Moore, by Young Bedford, dam by Melzar, g. dam Betsy Ba 

ker by Medley, &c. 
— — Lovell, b. h. by Duroc, dam Light Infantry by Messenger. 
. Peter Teazle, [Imp'd] b. h. by Old Sir P Teazle, dam Lucy by Con 

ductor, Spectator, Blank, Flying Chiiders, &c. 

Peter, by imp'd Knovvsley, dam by Bellair, YVildair, Vampire, imp'd 

Kitty Fisher, <fec. 

• Peter, br. h. by John Stanley, dam Lady Chesterfield. 

Peyton, by Shylock, dam by Citizen. 

Robin, by imp'd Robin Redbreast, dam by imp'd Dare DeAil, Shark, 

Apollo, «fec. 
Richard, gr. h. full brother to Monsieur Tonson by Pacolet, &.c. 

Tennessee, 1830. Thus. ForaJi 

.. , ■■ P.icHARb, by Sir Archy, dam Lady Jane, g dam Anvelma. 

— Solomon, by imp'd Tickle Toby, dam Vctla by Dreadnought, Clock 

fesi, k,c. Die J 1829. 

180? James Macklin 

mm Solomon Yoiing, (See Young Sir Solomon.) 


SIR WILLIAM, by Amazon, clam Black Eyed Susan by Potomac, <Lc. 

W'i.LiAM,ch.|h. (Clay's) by Sir Archy, dam by Bellair, g. dam by Pil 

gri.ii, &.C. 

L. Long. 
■ William, by Sir Archy, dam Transport by Virginius, <fcc. 

J. B Richardsoa. 

William Wallace, by Sumpter, dam by Whip (of Ketity.) 

i i ■ Wm. Wallace, ch. h. by Oscar, dam 

Van Meter. 

— ■ i. W 7 m. Wallace, by Kosciusko, dam Piamingo, her dam Lee's O J 

Va. mare. 

Kentucky. E. M. Blackburn. 

SIMON PURE," bl. h. by Sir Archy, dam Philadelphia. 

J. Randolph. 
SKIM, (Alias Farmer or Lord Portmores' Skim,) [Imp''d] gr. by Starling 
out of Miss Mayes by Bartlet's Childers. 
Foaled, 1746. 
SKY LEA PER, br. b. by Sir James, dam Vixen by Trafalgar. 

Scraper, by Lamplighter, dam Miss Doe. 


S jAMERKIN, (See Maria Slamerkin and Maggy Slamerkin.) 
SLFNDER, [hnjt'd] b. by King Herod, dam Rachel by Blank, g. dam by 
Regulus, Sore Heels by Basto, Make'ess, &c. Foaled, 1779. 
Sans Sbnci, N. Y. 

-■b. in. by Sir Charles, dam Reality by Sii Archy. 

W. R. Johnson. 
SLIM, [Imp'd] a dk ch. by Wildman's Babraham, dam by Roger's Babra 
ham, g. dam by Sedbury out of Ebony, «fcc. 

Marcus Hook, N. Y. 1775. A. Dick. 

SLOVEN, [Imp'd] bl. h. foaled 1756 by Cub, dam by Bolton Sterling, Go- 
dolphin Arabian, Bonny Black, Sec. 
SLOE, by imp'd Partner, dam (Nelson's) imp'd Blossom. 

Thos. M. Forman. 
SLIP JOINT, b. c. by Messenger, dam Temptation, g. dam by Heath'* 

Childers, (Sec. 
SMILAX, ch. in. by Grey Diomede, dam Atalanta by Old Medley. 

James Blick. 
SMILING BILLY, by Ariel, dam by Tasker's Othello, g. dam by Spark, 


1767. H. Dnvall. 

SMILING TOM, ch i. by'Coeur de Lion, dam Betsy Baker by imp'd 

Spark, &c. 1806. 

by Tom Jones out of an imp'd mare. 

SNAP, by imp'd Figure, dam (Jen. Herd's Nettle. 
SNAP DRAGON, br. h. by Collector, dam by Fearnought, Spadille, Fa 

brie ius, &c. 

Foaled, 1798-9. J. Tayloe. 

SNIP, gr. c. by Roanoake, dam Blue Ruin. 

J. RaiKlo.p.i. 

- by Oscar, dam Britannia, Slc. 

SNOW STORM, b. h. by Contention, dam Roxana by Sir Harry, g. dan 

by Saltram, Wildair, Fearnought, »Vc. 

Foaled, 1825. E. Warneld, (Kenty.; 

SOLDIER, ch. c. by Bedford, dam Raffle by Bellair. 

180a I lloumei 


SOPHY WINN, b m. by Blackburn's Whip, dam by Buizard, g. dam by 

Columbus, Celer, &c. 

1822. E. Warfield. 

SOFRKKOUT, [Imp'd] b. by Highflyer, dam Juvell by Squirrel, Sophia by 

Blank, out of Lord Leigh's Diana by Second, <fcc. Foaled, in 1786. 

Stood in Tennessee. 
SOUTHERN ECLIPSE, (See Eclipse Southern.) 
SPAD1LLE, \Imp\l] by Highflyer, dam Flora by Squirrel, Angelica by 

Snap, Regulus, Bartlet's Childers, &,c. 


-by Janus, dam an imp'd mare. 

SPANGLOSS, by (Winston's) Junius, dam by Jolly Roger, g. dam by 

Fearnought, &c. 

1797. Benj. Toller. 

SPARK, [ Imp'd] was imp'd by Gov. Ogle, and given to him by Lord Balti 

more, who received him as a present from Frederick, Prince o. 

Wales; Spark's dam was Miss Colvill. 
SPANKING ROGER, by Jolly Roger, dam imp'd Jenny Dismal. 
SPECIMEN, by Old Fearnought out of Jenny Dismal. 
SPECULATOR, {Imp'd} br. h. by Dragon, dam sister to Sting by King He- 
rod, g. dam Florizelle's dam by Cygnet, g. g. dam by Cartouch, g. g. 

g. dam Ebony by Childers, &,c. Foaled, 1795. 

Kentucky. R. J. B. 

— (Late Confessor,) by Shark, dam Fluvia by Partner, &,c. 

1795. JTayfoe. 
SPIRANZA, own sister to Saltram by Eclipse. 

SPOT, [Imp'd} (See Young Spot.) 

by Apollo, dam Jenny Cameron. 

cli.c. by Shylock, dam by Buzzard, g. dam by imp'd Synnne 

try, vtc. 

-by Bedford, dam by Cade, g. dam an Alfred maio 

SPOT MARE, [Jmp'd] gr. by Lockhart's Grey Spot, dam by Traveller, g. 

dam by Sedbury, Cartouch, Bartlett's Childers, &c. Imp'd 1765. 

South River. John Craggs. 

SPORTSMAN, b. h. by Bussora Arabian, dam Sportmistress by Hickory, 


Boston. Ed. Eldridge. 
bl. h. by Galloway's Selim, dam by imp'd Dove, g. dam by 

Othello out of Tasker's Selima. 

Prince George Cy. Maryland. F- Bowie. 

SPORTMISTRESS, g. m. by Hickory, dam Miller's Damsel by Messenger, 


Queens Cy. N. Y. 1818. Thos. Pearsall. 

SPREAD EAGLE, \ Imp'd] by Volnnteer, (one of the best sons ol Er.lipsftJ 

his dam by Highflyer, Engineer, Cade, Lass of the Mill by Old Tra 

veiler, Young Greyhound, &x. Foaled, 1792. 

Bowling Green, Ya. J. Hoomes. 

SPRITE ch f by Sir William, dam Maria Archy. 
SPRING HiLL, by Si; Archy, dam Miss Monroe by Precipitate, &c. 
SQU1RTILLA, b. f. by Boxer, dam Louisa by Eclipse. 

1796. J. Tayloe 
STAFFORD, (See Rattler, alias Stafford.) 

STANLEY', 1))' Sober John, dam imp'd mare. 
STANDARD, b. c. by Sir Arch)-, dam an Archy mare. 

1829. Wray &, Simule. 

STAR, {JmtffP dk. b. by Highflyer, dam by Snap, g. dam bv R'ddlc by 

Matchem. Foaled 1785 Died 1811. 


STAR, bl. h. b) Virginian, dam Roxana by Sir Harry. 

Win. R. Johnson. 
STATELY, by itnp'd Sober John, dam imp'd Strawberry. 
STAT1RA, [Jmp'a] ch. m. by Alexander the Great, (sister to Lycurgus by 

Buzzard,) Rose by Sweetbrier — Merleton by Snap. 

Foaled, 1809. J. Randolph. 

STELLA, I), f. by Marplot, dam Betsy Baker. 

by Tasker's Othello, dam Selima, (sister of Calloway's Selnn.) 

STERNE'S MARIA, by (Gibbs*) Carlo, dam by Ridgley's Cincinnatus— I. 

Beard's Badger out of Black Snake, <fcc. 
STEUBEN, by Kosciusko, dam Irvina by Virginian — Pandora by Bellair, 


1825. J. Ferguson. 

STOCKHOLDER, b. by Sir Archy, dam by Citizen— imp'd Stirling— Har- 
ris' Eclipse, &x. 

b. h. by Stockholder, dam Bryant's Diomede mare. 

Mare, by Stockholder, dam Pantaloon, g. dam by Magog, &c. 

STORM, b. c. by Cormorant, dam Darlington mare by Darlington, &c. 

1799/ J. Hoomes. 

St. GEORGE, [Imp'd] br. b. fifteen hands three inches high, foaled 1789, 

was got by Highflyer, dam by Eclipse — Miss Spindie Shanks bv 

Oman — Godolphin Arabian, &c. 
St. TAMMANY, full brother to Florizelle. 

Alex. F."Rose. 
St Nl'CLAUS, b. c. by Roanoake, dam the dam of Arch Dutchess. 

J. Randolph. 
St. PAUL, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Saltram, dam Purity by Matchem, uuc of the 

Old Squirt mare. 

Foaled in 1791. Imp'd to Va. 1804. Harris. 

STING, by Jack Andrews, dam Marigold by Dungannon, out of a thorough 

bred mare. 
STIRLING, [Imp'd] b. h. by Volunteer, dam Harriet by Highflyer, g. dam 

by Young Cade, g. g. dam Childeikin by Second, out of the dam oi 

Old Snap, &c. 

Foaled, 1792. J. Hoomes. 

■ [Imp'il] dap. gr. by the Belsize Arabian out of Mr. Simpson's 

Snake mare, she by Snake out of the Duke of Cumberland's famous 

mare, dam of Cato, Sic. Foaled, 1762. 

Surry County, Va. l'b'8. Wm. Evans. 

-b. h. by Carroll's Badger, dam Darnell's Primrose. 

Bait. 1787. Wm. Patterson 

Mare, by Stirling, dam imp'd Mambrino. 

J. Ferguson. 
STRAP, [Imp'd] b. h. by Bennington, dam by Highflyer— Tattler — Snip, 
&c. Foaled, 1800. 

North Carolina, 1808. II. Cotton. 

STRETCH, gr. f by Pot8os, dam Threshei by Shark. 
STUMP THE DEALER, by Old Diomede, dam by Shark 

1804. r Iros. Hamlin. 

by Bryan O'Lynn, dam by Grey Diomede — Old 
Wihlair — Spadille — Old Janus, Sec. 
SUKEV TAW DRV, b. f. by imp'd Stirling, dam Nancy Medley. 

King Geo. Va. 1800. Charles Stuart 

SULTANA, by Black Sultan, dam Barb mare. 

J. W. Eppes 

by Spread Eagle, dam Orelia Dy Percy. 

S. Carolina. Kh h. A. Raple) 



SI LTANA, by Wildair. — — Delancjr. 

SUMPTER, ch. by Sir Archy, dam by Rol)in Redbreast, own sister to th« 

dam of Rattler — Flving Childers, &c. • 

SUPERIOR, by (Cook's) Whip, dam a Union mare. 

Kenuicky. E. M. Blackburn. 
b. h. by imp'd Diomede, dam Lady Bolir.gbroke. 

1811. J. M. Selden. 

Mare, gr. by Superior, dam by Quicksilver, g. dam oy imp'd 

Shark, &c. 

West Tennessee. R C. Dickitnon. 

SURPRISE, by Old Sir Solomon, dam Potter's Oscar, Jun. by Ogle's Os 

ch. c by Americus, dam Calypso. 

Foaled, 18U1. Win. Alston 

SUSAN, ch. m. by Bond's Sir Solomon, dam Columbia by imp'd Baronet 
—Old Cub— Partner, &c. 

SUSAN FAVOURITE, gr. m. by Sir Hal, dam Wynnes' Young Favourite 
by Bedford. 

SUSAN MARY, b. m. by (Cook's) Whip, dam by Buzzard, g. dam Por- 
ter's fine mare. 

SUSANNA, ch.m. by ( MuItnomer,dam by imp'd Knowsley, g. dam by Box- 
er — Symmes' Wildair — Old Janus. 

Wm. D. Taylor. 

SUSSEX, by Sir Charles, dam a Sir Harry mare, dam of Kate Kearney, 
&c. J. M. Selden. 

SUWARROW, b. by Columbus, dam by imp'd Venitian — imp'd Figure — 
Slamerkin by Wildair, &c. 

SWEEPER, by imp'd Figure, dam by Tasker's Othello— Morton's Travel- 
ler — Tasker's Selima, (fee. 
Prince Geo. Cy. Maryland, 1780. Joseph Pierce. 

[Imp'd] bl. by Sloe, dam by Mogul — Partner — Coney Skins, &c. 

Foaled, 1751. Imp'd into N. C. 

SWEET ERIN, ch. f. by American Eclipse, dam Maria Slamerkin, &c. 
New Jersev, 1829. Dr. E. A. Da icy. 

SWEET SURRY, by Spadille, dam by Janus, g. dam by Jolly Roger - 
Monkey, &c. 

SWEETEST WHEN NAKED, gr. m. by Tattersall's Highflyer in England, 
dam gr. m. Virago, imp'd by Mr. Hyde. (She was foaled in Ame- 
rica, and bred by Alexander Spotswood.) 
IS 17. J. Tayloe. 

SYLVIA, b. f. by Spencer's Moreau, dam Romp by Leander. 

SYLPH, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Witch. 

1828. J- Randolph. 

SYREN, ch. f. by Silver, dam Caroline by Eclipse. 
Tennessee, 1800. 

SYMMETRY, [/w»/>WJ ch. m. bred by Lord Clermont, foaled 1799, got bj 
Trumpeter, dam Young Doxy by Imperator, g. dam Old Doxy Lj 
King Herod. 

-b. f. by Gibbs' Flimnap, d?m "3ri''.i?,.it mare. 



I'ALMA, gr. c. b) Henry, dam Sportr.V.rss v y Hickory. 

I'ANNER, [Imp'd] dk. b. h. by Cad*, ut *\ Uie Jes* .sons oi tie Godol 

piiir Arabian. 

17K5. Maryland Dan Wolstouholm* 


TANNER, by imp'd Tanner, dam Camilla by Othello 
TAKE IN, b. c. by Gracchus, dam Young Frenzy. 

182.3. J. ',j0 Ran^olpt. 

TALLY HO, by Tuckahoe, dam by imp'd Diomede. 
1 ft RIFF, dk. b by Sir Archy, dam Bet Bounce. 

Win. R. Johnson 
TARTAR, gi c by Winter Arabian, dam Young Buzzard mare. 
by Diomede, dam by Celer, g. dam by imp'b Bay Richmond. 

Amelia, Va. James Hill 

. b. c. by Bedford, dam Atalantaby Dictator. 

Foaled, 1805. 

■Mare, by Flimnap, dam by Old Pharaoh, g. dam imp'd by M 

Fenwicks, sen. got by Tartar — Young Sweepstakes. 
Foaled, 1780. Edw. Fenwick. 

TECUMSEH, by Sir Archy, dam the imp'd Gamenut mare out of AUf 
grante by Pegasus. 

A. J. Davie. 

by Rob Roy, dam Thistle by Oscar. 


by Florizelle. 

TELEGRAPH, [Imp'd] br. h. by Sir Peter Teazle, dam Fame by Panta 
loon out of the dam of Diomede by Spectator, &c. 

Foaled, 1795. Baldock. 

■ i ... ' b. h. by Lamplighter, dam by Old Wildair, g. dam by Rock 

ingham, &c. 

King Win. Cy. Va. 1800. Wm. Anderson. 

by Old Wildair, dam Lagonia by Medley. 

J. Randolph. 
\ y imp'd Spread Eagle, dam imp'd Janette by Precipitate 

TELEMACHUS. by Old Diomede, dam by imp'd Dare Devil, g. dam bj 

Commutation — Damon, &c. 

Brunswick, Va. Merritv 

ch by Dungannon, (by Bedf' r d,) dam by Lawrence's Dio- 
mede— Paris — Cloditis, &c. 
TEMPTATION, b. by Heath's Childers, dam Maggy Lauder by imp'd 

Fearnought, &c. 

1786. T. M. Forman. 
TERROR, by Janus — Mark Anthony — out of an imp'd mare. 
br. c. by American Eclipse, dam Lady Lightfoot. 

1829. Stephens. 

^HADDFUS, by Ball's Florizelle, dam Dare Devil mare, g. dam by Old 

Wildair, "&c. Edm. Irby. 

THALESTRIS, gr. f. by Elliot's Jerry, dam Cornelia Bedford by the Diika 

of Bedford, &,c 
THISTLE, by imp'd Dove, dam Stella by imp'd Othello, g. d. Taskcr ■ 

ch. m. by Oscar, dam by imp'd Clifden. 

Pr. Geo. Maryland. E. B. Duva.l 

THOR, b. h. by Diomede, dam by Wildair, g. dam by Clock fas'. &.c. 

Philip Rodgers. 
THORN, b. c bv Sir James, dam Nettletop. 
THORNTON MEDLEY. (See Medley Thornton.) 
THRESHER, gr. no. full sister to Opossum. 

Messrs. Tavloes- 
TIB, by Sir Archy, dam by Old Celer, g. dam by Clodius, g. &. oa«> oi 

imp'i Fearnought, Sic. 


TICHICUS, 3h. c. bv Clifton, dam Miss Chance hv Chance, (fee. 
TICKLE TOBY, [Imp'd] br. foaled 1785, got by Alfred, dam Celiaby H» 

rod, out of Proserpine by Marske, &c. 
HMOLEON, ch. c by Sir Archy, dam by imp'd Saltram — Old WHdaii— 

Driver, &c. 
— hv Grey Diomede, dam Bonny Lass. 

(Called Timoleon of Maryland.) 1830. W. Townes. 

TIGER, by (Cook's) Whip, dam by Paragon, imp'd Figure, &c. 
TIPPOO SA1B, gr. h. by Old Messenger, dam imp'd mare — (Thompson's} 

by Lath, dam Brandon by Aristotle, &c. 


-by Lindsay's Arabian, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

-Sultan, b. h. by Tippoo Saib, dam Rosetta by Bajazett. 

TOBY, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Old Janus— Old Fox— Bald Galloway, &c. To 

by was full brother to Old Janus, &c. 

N. Carolina. Col. Alston. 

b. c. by Cannon's Ranger, dam Sally Baxter. 

1822. T. M. Forman. 

TOKEAH, ch. f. by (Dr. Thornton's) Don Juan by Rattler, dam Frederica 

Dy Escape, (Horn's.) 

Messrs. Tayloes. 
T. K. b. m. by a son of imp'd Wonder, dam Smilax. 

1818. James Blick. 

TOMAS1A, by Young Alfred, dam ny Old Tom Tough — Lamplighter, &c. 
TOM JONES, [Imp'd] gr. h. fifteen hands high, by Croft's Partner — True 

J31ue — Cyprus Arabian. Foaled, 1745. 

Richmond County, Va. Sir M. Beckwith. 
by imp'd Tom Jones, dam Betsy Blazella by Blaze, Sec. 

Maryland, 1764 
TOM, by imp'd Eclipse, dam an imp'd mare. 

Richard Hall. 
TOM TOUGH, ch. c. by imp'd Escape, (Horn's,) dam Fairy by Bedford, 

Marf, by Tom Tough, dam by Lawrence's Diomede, g. 

dam by Lamplighter, &c. 
TOM TACKLE, br. c. by Archduke, dam Fairy by Bedford. 

TOM PIPER, by Janus, dam Ethiopia by Bedford, (he by Teller's Bed- 
ford,) g. dam by imp'd Bedford. 
TOOTH DRAWER, b. c. by Dare Devil, dam Virginia by Medley, &c. 

J. Hoomes. 
TOPAZ, ch. c. by Rob Roy, dam Flora by Ball's Florizelle. 

1826. Joseph Lewis. 

0. c. by Roanoake, dam Jet. 

1828. John Randolph. 

TOPGALLANT, b. h. by imp'd Diomede, dam by Shark— Harris' Eclipst 

— Mark Anthony — Janus, &c. 

Foaled, 1800. J. Tayloe. 

— b. bv Topgallant, dam by Old Wildair — imp'd Black and 

All Black, (or Othello.) 

-by imp'd Druid, dam by Bedford, (sire of Rosabella.) 

TORPEDO, by Sir Alfred, dam by Potomac out of the dam of Madison 

and Monroe. 
TOUCHSTONE, [Imp'd] by Clothier, (by Matchem) out of Beihell's mare 

Kifit — Riot by Regulns — Matehem by Cade out of a Pa/tue, mare, 

Arc. dam's side not given. 


TRANSPORT, br. l». Dy Virginius, dam Nancy Air. 

1812. J. B. Richardson 

TRAFALGAR, by imp'd Mufti, dam Calypso, sister of Bellair. 

Lewis Berkley. 
TRAFFIC, g. by Sir Charles, dam Sally Brown. 

Thomas Doswell. 
TRAVELLER, (Morton's) [Imp'd] b. h. by Partner, who was a grander 

of the Byerly Turk — Traveller's dam was by Bloody Buttocks, an 

Arabian, Greyhound, Makeless, &c. 

Richmond Cy. Va. 1754. Foaled, 1743. 

— (Strange's,) [Imp'd] was by Eclipse, see Charlemont, &c. 

• ■ (Lloyd's,) by Morton's Traveller, dam Jenny Cameron 

. — . (Southall's,) b. h. by Burwell's Traveller, dam an imp'd 


-(Burwell's,) by Morton's Traveller, dam by Janus, Lycur- 

gus, <tc. 

-ch. h. by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Archy, g. dam Whaley'g 

imp'd Sunflower. 

•(Young,) by Morton's Traveller, dam Miss Colville. 

1761. Col. Tasker. 

TROUBLE, ch. c. by Duroc, dam Sportmistress, &c. 

TROUBLESOME, b. c. by Monsieur, dam Jenny by Archduke. 
TR1PSY, by Figure, dam Homespun by Romulus, Venus by Hero, &c. 

TRIMMER, by Hall's Eclipse, dam by imp'd Slim, Old Figure, &c. 

Prince George, Md. 1791. Win. Lyles 

TRISTRAM SHANDY, by Morton's Traveller, dam by Old Janus out o. 

a fine English mare. 

Caroline Cy. Va. 1777. James Upshavv. 

TRUE WHIG, by Fitzhughs' Regulus dam, dam of Apollo. 
TRUE BLUE, [Imp'd) b. h. by Walnut, dam by King Fergus, Celia by He- 
rod out of Proserpine by Marske. 

Foaled, 1785. James Turner 
ch. by Tormentor, dam by Expedition, Sir Solomon, Honest 

John, Messenger, &c. 
TRUE BRITON, b. by Tasker's Otlvello, dam Milley by Spark, and was 

full sister to Col. Hopper's Pacolet, her dam Queen Mab. 

TRUFFLE YOUNG, (See Young Truffle.) 
TRUMPETTA, [Imp'd] b. m. by Trumpator, dam by Highflyer, g. dam by 

Eclipse out of Vauxhall's dam, who was by Young Cade. 

Foaled, 1797. J. Tayloe 
by Hephestion, dam Peggy by Bedford, g dam imp'd Peggj 

by Trumpator, &,c. 

TRUMPATOR, b. c. by Dragon, dam imp'd Trumpetta. 

1804. J. Tay!oe. 

by Sir Solomon, dam by Hickory, g. dam imp'd Trumpetta. 

Kentucky, 1829. Samuel Davenpoi: 

TRUMP, ch. c. by Janus, dam Last Chance. 

J. Randolph 
TRUXTON, b. c. by Old Diomcde, dam Nancy Coleman. 

Andrew Jackson 
TRY ALL, by Morton's Traveller, dam Blasella. 
'''RV, b. m. by imp'd Wonder out of a Chanticleer mare. 

J. M. Seidell 


fUCKAHOE, by Florizelle, dam oy jmp'd Alderman, g; dam by Cloca 

fast, <fec. 

Va. 1827. J. Wickham. 
b. h. by Tuckahoe, dam by imp'd Expedition, imp'd S.'cnJer, 

Herd's Snap, &c. 

N. Jersey- Corns. Cruser. 

TUBEROSE, ch. f. by Timoleon, (sire of Sally Walker,) dam Rhodian by 

Radland's Diomede, <fec. 
TULIP, ch. by Lindsay's Whiie Arabian, (Ranger,) dam by imp'd Othello, 

g. dam by Gorge's Juniper, <fec. 


eh. f. by Alexander, dam Maria Archy. 

TURK, bl. c. by Arab, dam by Florizelle, g. dam Maria by Bay Yankee, 

TUP, [Imp'd] b. h. by Javelin, dam Flavia by Plunder, out of Mi&s Eustace 

ny Snap, &c. 

Foaled, 1796. 
TWIG, by imp'd Janus, dam Puckett's Switch, also by Janus. 

Thomas Hudson. 


UNCAS, ch. c. by Sir Archy Montario, dam Leocadia by Virginius. 

1828. J. B. Richardson. 
ch. c. by Stockholder, dam by Powhatan. 

1827. O. Shelby. 

UNION, (Hall's,) by imp'd Slim, dam by imp'd Figure by Dove by Othello, 

out of Tasker's Selima. 

1777. Dr. Hamilton. 
(Chesley's,) b. h. by Shakspeare, dam by Nonpareil, g. dam 

by Morton's Traveller, (fee. 1783. 

UNCLE SAM, b. by John Richards, dam Sally Baxter by Oscar, imp'd 

Expedition, Old Cub. 

1328. Thomas M. Formaru 

UPTON, b. c. by May Day, dam Jesse by Telegraph. 

C. S. W. Dorsey 


VALERIA, b. f. by Monsieur Tonson, dam Betsy Wilkes, &c. 

1832. G. A. Blaney. 

VALENTINE, [Imp'd] by Magistrate, dam Miss Forester by Diomede, 

Alexander, the dam of Captain Absolute by Sweet William. 

1826. Thomas Connagh. 

VALIANT, [Imp J d] got by Dormouse, dam by Crab, Partner, out of Tlnvait'i 

dun mare. 
VARIETY,!), f. by Wilkes' Potomac, dam Dutchess by Bedford, g. darn 

VAMPIRE, [Imp'dl by Regulus, dam by Steady, son of Flying Childers, 


Foaled, 1757. 

• _— . b. c. by Bedford, dam Britannia by Wildair. 

J. Hoonies. 
VA \ITV, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam by Old Medley, (full sister of Rvality,' 

(broke her neck on New Market track.) 
-- b. m. by Celer, dam by Mark Anthony, Jolly Roger Biiret 

Eye, <fcc. 


VANSICKLER, (Bela Richards',) b. e. by John Richards, dam Covert 

marc Dy Am. Eclipse. 
VAN TROMP, by Sir Hal, dam by Coeur de Lion. 

Gen. R. Eaton. 
VELOCITY, by Rob Rov, dam Simmes' (Mab) bay mare by Ogle's Oscar, 

g. dam Edelin's Floretto, &c. 

1827. Simms. 

VILLAGE MAID, full sister to White Stockings by Silver Heels. 
VENITIAN, ch. h. by Rob Roy, dam Maid of Patuxent by imp'd Ma§.«e, 

g. dam Kitty Fox by Fox, and he by imp'd Venitian, &c. 
[Imp'd} b. c. by Doge, dam by Matchem, her dam by Small 

Bones, sister to Squirrel. 

Foaled in 1774. 

N. B. This horse was sent back to England. 
VESTA, by Dreadnought, dam by Clockfast, Americus, Traveller, <fce\ 
VESTAL, dk. br. f. by Monsieur Tonson, darn Fair Forester by imp'd 

Chance, &c. 
VETO, ch. c. by Contention, dam Columbia by Sir Archy. 
VICTOR, ch. by Contention, dam by Minor's Escape, g. dam by Sans Cu 

lotte, Mahomet out of a thorough bred mare. 
VICTORIOUS, by imp'd Fearnought, dam by Clevis, (he by Fearnought,) 

g. dam by Hunting Squirrel. Imp'd by Gen. Nelson. 
VIGNETTE, ch. f. by Sir Richard, (hy Sir Archy,) dam Desdemona by 

Virginius, &c. 

J. B. Richardson. 
VIOLET FAME, by Contention, dam by Tom Tough, her g. dam by 

Strange's Traveller out of a full bred Wildair mare. 
VINCENTA, by imp'd Messenger, dam by imp'd Slender, g. dam by imp'd 

Lath, &c. 
VIOLA, gr. f. by Gallatin, dam Clio by imp'd Whip. 

1820. Wade Hampton. 

VIOLA NTE, ch. f. by imp'd Young Peter Teazle, dam Selima by Spread 

Eagle, &c. 1809. J. Tayloe. 

VINTZUN, by imp'd Diomede, dam Maria by Clockfast, Maria by Regu 

lus, &c. 

(Sold for $2,750.) Gov. Lloyd. 

VIRAGO, [Imp'd] by Star, dam Virago by Panton's Arabian out of Craaj 

by Lath, which was sister to Snip, &x. 

Orange Cy. Va. Robert Young, 

ch. m. by imp'd Shark, dam imp'd Virago. 

Foaled, 1791. J. Tayloe. 

— ch. m. by Wildair, (who was by Ajax,) dam by imp'd Ham 

ilton, g. dam by Spread Eagle, &x. 

A. F. Ros«. 
-by imp'd Whip, dam by Partner a full brother to Thomas' 

Queen of May, and out of a mare by imp'd Shark, Sic. 

Mann. Page. 
VIRGO, br. f. by imp'd Sir Peter Teazle, dam Castianira. 

J. Tayloe. 
VIRGINIA, (Coquette,) by Virginius, dam Dorocles by imp'd Shark, Clock 
fast, &,c. 

J. Ferguson. 

gr. f. by Medley, dam by Pegasus, g. dam Sally Wright, &a 

1790. J. Hoome*. 

by Dare Devd, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

Col. Selce» 
. . _' D y Old Mark Anthonv, dam Polly Bvrd. 


VIRGINIA, by Skyscraper, dam Polly Ready Money by Bowie's Cx^ai 
natus out of a Va. mare. 

b. f. by Marylander, dam Belinda by Escape, Bedfoid, Ga.s 

teria, &c. 

E. G. Butto. 

by Timoleon, (by Grey Diomede,) dam Maid of Oakland by 

imp'd Stirling, Hall's Eclipse, &c. 

ch. m. by Sir Hal, dam Beauty by Diomede, Virginia by Ma 

rylande' - , &c. 

J. M. Selden. 

- Lafayette, (See Janette.) 

— Tavlor, b. f. by Sir Archy, dam Coquette. 

Wm. R. Johnson. 
Eclipse or American, by imp'd Eagle, dam Malvina by Pre- 

cipitale, &c. 

G. Chichester. 

Nell, by imp'd Highflyer, dam by Gallant. 

-Sorrel, ch. in. by Virginia Sorrel, dam Black Seliina by Fear- 


1798. J. Tayloe. 

Sorrel, s. h. by Black and All Black, (Othello,) dam by Tay 

loe's Vorick, g. dam by imp'd Whittington, imp'd Silver Eye, &c. 

P. Conway. 
Winn, ch. by Charles, dam by Tom Tough, imp'd Hamilton, 

Wildair, Fearnought, &c. 
VIRGINIAN,!), h. by Sir Archy, dam Meretrix by Magog, Narcissa by 

Shark, Rosetta by Ceutiuel, Diana by Claudius, &,c. 

Foaled, 1815. J. J. Harrison. 

« VIRGIN1US, by imp'd Diomede, dam Rhea by Chatam, g dam by Eclipse, 

(who was the sire of Brimmer, Wilton Roan, &c.) imp'd Shark. 

Silver Eye, &,c. 
ch. by Virginius, dam Transport. 

1826. J. B. Richardson. 

VIOLANTE, s. m. by Sir Peter Teazle, dam Selima by Spread Eagle, &c. 

1810. J. Tayloe. 

VIVIAN GREY, Ir. gr. by Lonsdale, dam MegMerrilies by Trafalgar, &,c. 
VIXEN, full sister to Nettletop by Trafalgar. 

L. Berkley. 

by Old Medley, dam Penelope by Yorick. 

VOLAJNTE, [Imp'd] by Volunteer, dam Lava by Sulphur, g. dam Maria 

by Blank, Snip, Lath, &c. 

Foaled, 1797. Imp'd 1799. J. Hoomes. 

VOLTAIRE, by Smiling Tom, dam by Silver Legs out of Moll Brazen. 

Northumberland Cy. Va. 1781. J. Thornton. 

VOLUNTEER, [Imp'd] ch. h. by Volunteer, clam by Whipcord, own U c 

ther to Woodpecker, Blank, Old Crab, Childers, &c. 

1794. John Tay'oe. 

• by First Consul, (by imp'd Slender,) dam by imp'd Ankrko- 

ker, imp'd Messenger out of a Bashaw mare, &c. 

b. c by Bedford, dam imp'd Favourite. (Sold Mr. Moitaae 


1799. J. Hcomes. 


WABASH, by Sir William, dam by Edgie. 

W ^KEFIELD, br. f. by Sir Hal, dam Grand Dutcness. 

* J. Pj»ndn|nb 


VV \LNCT, ny imp'd Archibald, dam Cremona by Spread Eagle, g dan. 

Gasteria by Balloon. 
WAKS \ VV. dk. ch. by American Eclipse, dam Princess by Sir Archy, g. 

dam bv Peebles' Rattler, g. g. flam Dangola. 
WASHINGTON, gr. by Facolet, dam Old Rosy Clack by irhp'd Saltram, 


O. Shelly. 

ch. h. by Timoleon, dam Ariadne by Citizen. 

North Carolina, 1829. 

ch. by Rattler, (he by Sir Archy,) dam Lady Jane ny 

mp'd Obscurity, g dam Molly by Grey Figure, Sec. 


A \XEY, b. by Sir Archy, flam by Sir Alfred, g. dam by Haxall's imp'd 

mare Primrose by Buzzard. 
A'AVERLEY, b. c by Sir Charles, dam Josephine by Flying Dragon, g. 

dam by Hamiltouian — St. George — King Herod, <kc. 

1829. Winchester, Va. J. M. Brome. 

A'EAZEL, by Shylock, dam Irby's Dare Devil mare. 

. ch. f. by imp'd Wrangler, dam Thresher. 

Mark Alexander 
WEDDING "DAY, (The) r. h. by Bellair, dam by Fearnought. 

Foaled, 1791. J. Tayloe. 

WEEHAWK, by Shawnee, dam by Gallatin. 
WHALEBONE, br. c. by imp'd Alderman, darn Atalanta by Hart's Old 

WHIG, by Fitzhughs' Regulus out of the dam of Apollo. 
WHIP, [imp'-d] br. h. fifteen hands three inches high, got by Saltram, his 

dam by King Herod, g. dam by Oronooko — Cartouch, &c- 

Foaled, 1794. Imp'd 1801. Richard Bland 

(Cook's) by imp'd Whip, dam by Spread Eagle — Bellair, &c. 

WHIRLIGIG, [Imj^d] dk. b. fifteen hands high, by Lord Portmore's hors« 

Captain, he by Cartouch, &.c. his dam by the Devonshire Blacklegs, 

son of Flying Childers, &,c. 1774. 

WHITE FEATHER, by Conqueror, dam by Diomede. 

L. Long. 
WHITE LEATHER, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Everlasting. 

1824. J. Randolph. 

WHITE STOCKINGS, by Silver Heels, dam Snip by Oscar out of Bri 

lannia, Sic. 

Maryland. Robert Wright. 
WHISTLE JACKET, by Diomede, dam Lucy Locket by Bellair, &c. 
-blood b. by iinp'd Monkey — imp'd Silver Eye — Mor- 
ton's Traveller, &c. out of. a thorough bred imp'd mare, &c. 

C'apt. Tinneswood. 
WHISKEY, by Chanticleer, dam Poll by Partner. 
(Washington's) g. by Saltram, dam by Bellair, g. dam by 

Wildair — imp'd Driver, Sec. 
WHY NOT, b. h. by Old Fearnought, dam by Othello, g. dam by Spaik, 


Gloucester, N. Jersey, 1780. James Tailman. 

WILDAIR, [Imp'd] b. h. (foaled in 1753, and imp'd in 1764,) v\,i* got by 

(Jade out of the Steady mare, her dam by Partner — Greyhound — 

Matchless, &c. Wddair was imp'd by Mr. DeLiucy of New York, 

and afterwards reshipped to England. 
(Svmmks') br. b. h. by Old Fearnougnt, dam oy Joliy Roger on 

of Kitty Fisher, fac. 

Rockv Mills, Hanover Cv. Va Col. Johi Svnim« 



WILDAIR, (Sims') b. h. by imp'd Wildair, dam by Ariel, g. dam by imp'a 
Othello, &c. 
Maryland, 1778. Col. Jos. Sims 

-by John Symmes' Wildair, dam by Handell, g. d. by Camden 

— Jolly Roger, &c. 

Forks of Hanover, Va. 1804. John Thornton. 

— by Ajax, dam by Knowsley, g. dam by Highflyer, g. g. dam by 

Old Wildair, &c. 

R Walker. 

(Jones') blood b. by Symmes' Wildair, his dam by Flimnap out 

of a Fearnought mare. 

Wylie Jones, 
-by Rochester, (a son of Cripple, who was a son of Old J anus,) 

dam by Butler's Fearnought, by Old Fearnought, &x. 

WILD MEDLEY. (See Medley Wild.) 

WILD FIRE, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Wildfire by Gracchus. 

J. Randolph. 

by Gracchus, dam Everlasting by Sans Culotte. 

J. Randoipn. 
WILD CAT, ch. m. by Play On, (who was full brother to Stump the Deal 
er, and by Old Diomede,) dam by Mercer's Janus — Shark, &c. 

Win. D. Taylor. 
WILD DEVIL, b. h. by Old Dare Devil, dam by Symmes' Wildair— Rock 
ingjiaui — Spanking Rodger, &c. 

Hanover Town, Va. 1803. John Anderson. 

WILTOiMA, by Stirling, dam Little Molly by Medley. 

Wm. Randolph. 
WINGY FEET, by Ruffm's Jolly Roger, dam Melpomone. 
WILBERFORCE, br. c. by Pacotaligo, dam Miss Crawler. 
W1NDFLOWER. (See Bernadotte.) 
WITCH, ch. m. by Gracchus, dam Everlasting, &c. 

J. Ranaolph. 
WITCHCRAFT, b. c. by Roanoake, dam Witch, &c. 

J. Randolph 
WINTER ARABIAN. (See Arabian Winter.) 

WONDER, [Impact] dk. ch. h. fifteen hands three inches high, got by Phe- 
nomenon out of Brown Fanny by Old Diomede, g. dam by Marska 
— Skim — Crab — Childers — Basto, &c. 
Foaled, 1794. Imp'd in 1802. 

— — by imp'd Diomede, dam by Tippoo Saib — Brimmer — Silver 

Eye — Jolly Roger mare, &,c. Wilkes. 

. br. c. by Old Flimnap, dam Kitty Fisher by Os^r. 

-by imp'd Wonder, dam by Diomede. 

1315. G. R. A. Brown. 

WORMWOOD, gr. c. by Sir Archy, dam a Clifton mare. 

Y\ OODLARK, b. f. by Roanoake, dam Paroquet. 

J. Randolph. 

WOODPECKER, ch. by imp'd Dragon, dam (Irby's) Dare Devil mare- 
Old Wildair — Fearnought, &c. 

1804. C. Sallard. 
WOOSKV, ch. f. »?y Dragon, dam Raffle by Bellair. 

1805. J. Hoomes. 
WORTHY, e. m. by Sir Hal, dam by Sir Archy. 

Maryland, 18)4. J. Powder, jim. 

WRANGLER, by imp'd Diomede, dam Lady Bolingbroke. 

CoL Selden 


WRANGLER, W. b. by Sir Alfred, dam Clio by Sir Archy— Beauty by 
Diomede — Vh-ginia by Dare Devil, &c. 

1824. C. W. Van Ransu 
[Imp'd] b. h. by Diomede, dam Sir Charles Sedbury's Flea- 
catcher by Gold Finder — Squirrel, &c. 
Foaled, 1794. 

vVREN, b. m. by Thornton's Rattler, dam by Sir Archy, g. dam Noli Me 
Tangere, g. g. dam Castianira, &,c. 

G. A. Blaney, U. S. A. 

W VANDOTT. ch. by Piatt's Alexander, dam Honest Jane — Alexander tjr 
imp'd Bedford — Honest Jane by imp'd Honest John. 


VANKEE DOODLE, by Virginian, dam the dam of Maid of Lodi. 

J. J. Harrison. 

YANKEE MAID, ch. f. by Sir Archy, dam 

YARICO, by Medley, dam by the Pennsylvania Farmer, g. dam by Pegs 
sits, g. g. dam by Bolton. 

1790. J. Hoomes. 

YELLOW ROSE, ch. m. by Wildair, (by Ajax,) dam Pet. 
YOR1CK, ch. c. by Bellair, dam Virginia Sorrel. 

1795. J. Tavloe. 

(Oin) by Morton's imp'd Traveller, dam imp'd Blazella by Blaze 
(In England.) 

1767. John Craigs. 
Mare, ch. by (Old) Yorick, dam by Lath, g. dam by Fearnought- 
Sober John, &,o. 

D. Patterson. 
YOUNG ARCH DUTCHESS, by Janus, dam Arch Dutchess. 

J. Randolph. 

Adf.i.isr. (See Adeline Young.) 

Alfred, by Old Sir Alfred, dam Alaricus by Americus. 

Sik Alfred, ch. s. by Old Sir Alfred, dam Jane by Knowsley, &c. 

Walter Coles. 
Sir Archy, by Sir Archy, dam Virginia, full sister of Desdemona, 


Bedford, by imp'd Bedford, dam by Harris' Eclipse. 

Baronet, by imp'd Baronet, dam by imp'd Othello, g. dam by imp c 

Figure, &c. 

Bajazett. (See Bajazett Young.) 

Bonny Lass, by Old Jolly Roger, dam Hardiman's Old Bonny Law 

Bussoha, b. h. by Bussora out of a Duroc mare. 

Canandaigua, N. Y. in*. Win. Blossom. 

Cokmorant, b. c. by Cormorant, dam Virginia iW.i. 

Clown, by imp'd Clown, dam Old Black Snake, g. dam by Nonpe 


Dare Devil. (See Dare Devil Young.) 

Dion, dam Bainbridge. 

— - — Drummer, b. c. by Drummer, dam Bdsy B^h, <fcc. 

Hamburg, 1808. Thos. M. Format!. 
Diomede, by Tayloe's Grey Diomede, dam by imp'd Gabriel out of 

Active by Chatam — out ol Sh^oherdess by imp'd Slim, a.*c 

Benjamin Og)*> 
Director, sor. h. by Old Director, (of Va.) dam by TaMar — r^m-ed 

Ear!* — Percy, Ax. 


tOUIVG Dt ROC, b. by Old Duroo, dam by imp'd Gabriel, g. dam by 

Lindsay's Arabian, &x. 

Pennsylvania. John Snyder. 

— Eagle, by imp'd Eagle, dam Arabella by Dare Devil out of a Clock- 
fast mare, &c 

Richmond, Va. Samuel McCraw. 
Ekoxy, [Imp'd} gr. m. by Muley, (an Arabian,) dam by Pantcn's 

Old Crab — Devonshire Childers — Basto — Black Barb, &c. 

Eclipse, ch. by American Eclipse, dam by Old Bajazett, (formed) 

Young Tanner,) g. dam by Old Mercury— imp'd Messenger, &.c. 

Cambridge, New Jersey. Edw. Long. 
Favourite, by imp'd Bedford, dam by imp'd Diomede — Beilair— 

Clock fast, &c 
Fearnouuht, by Gay, dam by Old Fearnought, g. dam by the same, 

g. g. dam by Jolly Roger. 

Flokizf.lle, [Imp\L] (See Florizelle imp'd.) 

Florizelle, by Ball.'s Florizelle, dam Fair Maid by First Consul. 


Gov. Sprigg. 
~ — Figure, blood b. h. by imp'd Highflyer, dam by Old Figure, g. dair 

by Camillus, &c. 

Frenzy, by Gracchus, dam Minikin, &c 

J. Randolph. 

- • — Grand Dutchess, by Sir Archy, dam Old Grand Dutchess. 

J. Randolph. 

Hickory, by Hickory, dam Lavinia. 

Jam's, I), h. by Hylies' imp'd Janus, dam a Lycurgus mare — imp'c 

Crawford — imp'd Justice, &c 

Wm. Hynes 

Jams. (See Revenge, or Young Janus.) 

■ Lottery-, by Sir Archy, lam Lottery by Bedford. 

• —Madison, by Madison, dam Minerva by Diomede. 

IVUmiv, by Cup Bearer, dam by Old Medley, g. dam by Hams' 

Eclipse, Lonsdale, imp'd Shark. 

Frederick Cy. Matthew l»age. 

Mkdikv, lr. gr. by Beilair, dam by Pennsylvania Farmer bin of a 

Partner mare, &x. 

Thomas Wells., by Ridgley's Moreau, dam Virginia by Skyscraper, &.C. 

— — Spencers- 

Minikin, by Gracchus, dam Old Minikin, &x. 

J. R. 

— Nakussa, b. f. by Play or Pay, dam Old JVarcissa by Wildair, ScC 

1-81)2. J. lloomes. 

Os< au, (See Oscar Young.) 

Paul Jones, by Old Paul Jones, dam by Marius, (belonging to 

Charles Carrol] of Carrolllon,) gr. dam by Old Silver Heels, Crab, 

Samuel Norwood. 

— — Pacolkt, gr. by Pacolet, dam by imp'd Coeur de Lion, Juba, lea 

cock, Olo Partner, &.C. 

• - - Pk.i.v,c1i. m. by Gallatin, dam Trumpetta by Hephestion, g. dam 

Pegsrj" bv Bedford. 

Foaled, 1H21. VV. Hampton, jnn. 

- - -Po<t Boy, by Ridgley's Post Roy, his dam out of the Mountain Filly, 
< called Seiime 


fOUNG RANTER, l>r. b. by Ranter, dam a fine blooded mare. 

Romp, (dam of Livingston's Camilla,) by Duroc, dam Romp by inip'd 


Shark, by Shark, dam by Eclipse, g. dam by Fclipse out of Britannia. 

■ i S klima, by Old Fearnought, dam Ebony by Othello. 

Spot, [Liij/iI] ch. by Old Spot and he by Blank, Spot's 'am by Mai 

tindales 1 Regains, Jig, Goliah, <fec. 
Imp'd by Mr. Hyde of Fredericksbg. 
Sin Peter Teazle, [Imp'd] (See Sir Peter Teazle.) 

■ Sir Solomon, jun. by Old Sir Solomon, dam Maid of North amp* xi 
oy imp'd Clifden. 

1823. Henry Lazier 

Superior, by Superior, dam Pirate by Lamplighter, ifcc. 

Tom Tough, by Old Tom Tough, dam by imp'd Buzzaru, g. dam by 

Jones' Wildair. 
Tkiffle, [//n/;V7] br. h. bred by the Duke De Guiche, was got by 

Truffle out of Helen by Whiskey, her dam Brown Justice by Jus 

tice, Old Truffle was got by Sorcerer out of Hornby Lass by Buz 

zard, <fcc. 

Orange Cy. Va. 1830. James Barbour. 
Traveller, (See Travel'*" ""Hing.l 

Topgallant, by Old Topga.. u, dam by Shark, g. dam by Harrii 

Fclipse, Mark Anthony, &.C. 

ViKtiiMAN, b. h. by Virginian, dam by Enterprise (by Flotizelle ) 

Yokick, by Tavloe's Vorick, dam by Figure, g. dam by Dove, Task 

er's Othello out of Selima, &,c. 

1 7t>3. Fielder Bowie. 


ZABUD, by the Winter Arabian, dam by imp'd Spread Eagle, g. dam N*, 

Sir Peyton, (by Shy lock.) 

Kentucky. R. J. Breckenridge. 

ZAMOR, gr. by Silver Heels, (by Ogle s Oscar,) dam Aurora (by Vintzun,, 

g. dam Pandora, (by Grey Diomede,) g. g. dam by Hall's Union, 

Leonidas, &c. 
ZF.NOBIA, by Don Carlos, dam by George's Juniper. 
ZLL1LKA, ch. in. by Gracchus, dam Miss Chance by imp'd Chance. 

Messrs. Tayioes. 
ZELIPPA, by Old Messenger, dam Dido by imp'd Bay Richmond, g. dam 

Old Slamerkin, (by Wildair,) g. g. dam imp'd Cub mare, &c. 





I it the horse be in good flesh when you put him up; night ana 
tiitn.iing walk him four miles, well clothed with one blanket and a 
■uit of horse clothes, for eight days ; water him between the walk- 
ing witli forty swallows ; feed him at nine in the morning, at twelve 
o'clock, at six in the evening, and at nine at night, witli three qu>in& 
of oats and chopped corn, one-fifth chopped corn, giving him one 
bundle of blades after feeding in the morning, at twelve o'clock, and 
at six o'clock : after feeding at nine at night, give him two bundles 
of blades. Let him be well rubbed before each feed with straw as* 
to his body, and his legs with woollen rubbers ; let him have a good 
bed of straw; let his feet and legs, night and morning, before you 
take him in, be washed with warm water and Castile soap ; then 
for eight days more, in the morning, gallop two miles before wa- 
tering and one mile after, and in the evening one mile before wa- 
tering and one mile after, clothing and rubbing before each feed as 
before. After that prepare him for sweating, by feeding with two 
quarts at six o'clock, and at nine o'clock the same, giving him no 
blades, and having him well muzzled ; let him be well rubbed and 
have a good bed of straw, always keeping his feet well stuffed with 
cow-dung. Let your turf be kept well harrowed and soft. At 
day-break take him to his training ground with three, four, or five 
blankets, and his body-clothes ; let him go four miles, the first three 
half-speed, the fourth mile at a sweeping rate with a tight rein. 
and a rider not exceeding the weight the horse should carry. Then 
strip him on the field, carefully scraping, rubbing, and brushing him 
till dry ; then put on his usual clothes and walk him an hour; then 
rake him to the stable; then scald a gallon of bran, add cold water 
to it till milk warm, and let him drink what he will of it. Then 
I >t him be well rubbed and dressed; then scald two quarts of bran, 
and two quarts of oats; mix them, putting among them a tablo 
spoonful of flour of sulphur and as much antimony as will lie on a 
cent, and let the horse eat it warm ; then take two bundles o* 
stemmed blades, and sprinkle them with salt and water, and give 
»jm; tnen take some warm bran and water and wash nia legs, rub 


bing them dry with straw and woollen rubbers; then leave luni till 
twelve o'clock ; then feed as usual with three quarts at twelve ; at 
four in the evening brush him and let him walk an hour ; then wa- 
ter him with water aired or branch water ; then walk him a quar- 
ter of an hour, take him in and have him well cleaned and rubbed ; 
then feed at six and nine with three quarts of grain ; then muzzle 
him. In the morning after his sweat taKe him to the ground and 
strip him as for a race ; then run him two with a tight rein, 
and continue him two miles more in a loose; then clean him and 
rub him dry ; clothe him and walk him till cool, then take him in, 
wash his feet, and rub them dry, cleaning him, rubbing him, stuff- 
ing his feet, and feeding as usual : so continue to gallop every night 
and morning, as before directed, to wit : In the morning first gal- 
lop two miles, second gallop one mile, and in the evening one mile 
each gallop ; sweat every eight days. Train your colts in martin, 
gales ; bleed after the first sweat, and if necessary after the second 
sweat. Those are the rules I observe in training. 



From which, the rules observed by Mr. Thomas Larkin, of Vir- 
ginia, varied in these particulars: lie feeds in the morning with 
four quarts, at twelve with two quarts, and at night witli four 
quarts; same blades as Mr. Duvall. Morning gallops first two miles 
and a half, second two miles. Evening, gallops first two miles, 
second one mile and a half. Sweats five miles, and brushes his 
horse before he takes him in ; after cleaning, and rubbing, and dry- 
ing him, two miles. He washes with cold water, except when he 
sweats his horse, and waters after the horse comes in and is clean, 
just before feeding, forty swallows morning and evening, and twelve 
swallows at twelve o'clock; mixes a spoonful of sulphur in the 
mash, after sweating, but no antimony ; walks before galloping, 
.wo miles ; between the gallops, one mile. 

Mr. Duvall, in 1797, gave me the foregoing rules: Mr. Larkin 
trained for me two years. And as a sportsman, that all horses may 
run in the best order, and that their superiority of foot and bottom 
alone may entitle them to the palm, I with pleasure comply with 
your request, that through your inestimable paper, all excuses by 
gentlemen having fine horses, as to the mode of training them, may 
be removed, and the friends of the turf gratified with fine sport. 

American Far met . 
_~»©@«. — 


Mr Editor — The within was recently found among the papers 
of an ild sportsman of the turf, (a pencil memorandum) in the 
shape of answers to questions, by a gentleman well known to the 
Virginia turfites, who was at that time about to begin his racing 
career. I have examined it with a trainer of long experience, and 
with few alterations hand it to you for publication in the Sportmg 
Magazine A Vikuinun 


A horse when put in training should be fat: his exercise .night 
•«p commence with walking about eigbt miles a day; tbree in tlnj 
morning, two at twelve o'clock, and three in the evening. Tin* 
should be continued at least four weeks. A light gallop of a mile 
in the morning, should now be added, and at the end of a week, a 
mile .n the evening. In another week, half a mile more morning 
and evening. He will now be in condition for his first sweat; hi? 
exercise may now be the same as the last week, except a " burst oi 
heels" once or twice in the week, of three or four hundred yards ; 
at which time he will be ready for his second sweat. This given, 
the horse should have, every other morning, a move of a quarter o 
a mile ; this continued for a week, and his third sweat may be 
given. After this his exercise may be increased to two miles, morn, 
ing and evening; one mile of which (in the morning) should be at 
half-speed, with a dash of a quarter every other morning, more or 
less according to his appetite. The sweats should vary according 
to the high or low condition of the animal. At the end of the 
week, after the fourth sweat, he may, perhaps, require a draw,* and 
another a day or two before he runs. I do not approve of physic, 
ing generally ; when there is much grossness, or general bad health, 
a purge may be necessary. Race-horses should be watered regu- 
larly three times a day, in a clear brook, in the morning after exer- 
cise, at twelve o'clock, and in the evening: after exercise walking 
them until perfectly cool, previous to watering. They should be 
fed with hominy and oats, (the first divested of its mealy particles,) 
in the proportion of one of the first to two of the latter. Sometimes, 
when the condition of the horse is low, he should be allowed a 
greater proportion of hominy ; as horses when in training must 
feed well, every thing in the food way must be tried to make them 
do so : as hominy alone, oats, corn in the ear, meal, cut oats, &e. 
I once trained a mare, and ran her successfully, feeding her three 
days in the week on meal with chopped or cut oats. They should 
be fed five times a day : at day-break, after the morning exercise, 
xl eleven o'cloek, a little before the evening exercise, and at night : 
one quart at first, three the second time, three at eleven o'clock, 
one the fourth time, and three the last, with about nine pounds oi' 
blades without picking, divided as the grain. Some horses eat more 
than others, and should be allowed accordingly. t When there is 
costiveness, sprinkling the fodder with water, or a mash must be 
given: a bucket of salt and water is also sometimes useful. Sweat- 
ing should be done by heavy clothing and gentle exercise, giving 
the horse a swallow or two of water with a little meal stirred in it two 
or three times during the sweat. To put a horse in order, at least twelve 
weeks are necessary ; for a colt, nine weeks. A colt, to be in condition 
to run a good race, should just be low enough to feel his ribs pretty 
plainly, but they should not be seen : a horse should be much lower 
The usual preparation for a sweat is a mash at night, muzzled, hea 

" A very li<>iht sweat. 

t Particularly large horses: small horses sometimes will eat fourteen oi 
fifteen quarts a day. I think thirteen enough frr the latte: — asore is apt, I 
thifk, to {jive them gotty legs. etc. 


vy clothing, (three or four blankets) — the next morning, after break 
fast, walk three or four miles, and gallop one slowly ; give a mouth, 
fill or two of water,* and gallop two or more, as the weather is 
warmer or colder: carry him then to the stable, take out the unde 
blanket, rolling the cover up, half at a time, scrape well, rub bod) 
and legs until perfectly dry, put on blanket and hood, and walk foi 
an hour or two, occasionally giving a mouthful of water with a 
handful of meal in it, about milk warm at first. His legs, when per 
fectly cool, should be washed with warm water and soap, rubbed 
dry, and the horse put to rest and given a mash,t (scalded oats,) in 
the evening walked four or five miles. 

The quantity of exercise mentioned, is for horses, after four years 
old, and upwards ; few colts require more than three miles a day. 
Every eight or ten days the horses should be taken from the exer- 
;ise ground and walked on the road. A careful trainer will always 
know the condition of his horse's legs every morning before gal- 
loping, and decide whether they receive their work or be sent, if 
their legs be feverish, to have the fever extracted by standing in the 
water, to the pond. To keep up the appetite, I have known nothing 
better than a table spoonful of the powder of poplar bark, (the 
liriodendron tulipifera,) every day or two when it is observed that 
they are mincing their food : salt should be given once a week. 

[It will be seen by a comparison of the above instructions, which 
correspond with the system now usually pursued in the South, that 
-it is much milder than the system laid down by Mr. Duvall of the 
olden time. It is wonderful, (observes our correspondent,) how 
their horses could stand such severe training: and he supposes that 
the greater fleetness of the horses of the present day may be ascrib- 
ed, in some measure, to changes which have been adopted in the 
system of training. It is true that many of our fine horses are let 
down and trained off at an early age, but that may be attributed to 
the severe trials to which they are put at a tender age — four mile 
tieats, in quick time at three years old ! ] 

* Milk-warm, with a little meal stirred in it. 

t "Not always necessary, except there is much oosiivencss. 




RICHMOND JOCKEY CLUB.* it is necessary that all well-regulated association* 
should have some Rules for their government, and the Richmond 
Jockky Club being sensibly impressed with this truth, Therefore, 
Resolved, that the following be the Rules and Regulations of the 
Richmond Jockey Club : 

1st. There shall be two regular meetings of this Club, at Tree 
Hill, each year, and each to continue four days, to be called Spring 
and Fall Meetings. The Spring Meeting shall commence on the 
second Tuesday in May, and the Fall Meeting the third Tuesday 
in October. 

2d. There shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary, Trea- 
surer, and four Stewards, appointed by ballot. 

3d. It shall be the duty of the President to preside in all meet- 
ings of the Club; to act as Judge in each day's race; appoint his 
assistant Judges on the evening preceding each day's race; report 
the result of each day's race, and stand as Judge in all sweepstakes, 
with such other persons as the parties may appoint. 

4th. It shall be the duty of the Vice-President to attend all meet- 
ings of the Club; assist the President in the discharge of his duty 
act as President pro tern, in the absence of the President. 

5th. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to attend the Judges 
on eaoh day's race ; assist them with his counsel ; keep a book, in 
which he shall record the members' names, the Rules of the Club, 
and add to them any Resolutions which may change the character 
of either; also record the proceedings of each meeting; the entries 
of horses ; an account of each day's race, including the time of run- 
ning each heat ; publish the races, and after they are over, publish 
the result ; for this service, he shall be exempt from paying his 

6th. The Stewards shall be appointed by ballot, and serve for 
one meeting next succeeding their appointment. They shall wear 
a white rose on the left side of the cape of their coat. It shall be 
iheir duty to attend on the course, preserve order, clear the track, 
seep off the crowd from horses coming to the stand after the close 
of a heat ; may employ able-bodied men to assist them, who he 
paid out of any money in the hands of the Treasurer, and they be 
designated by a red sash. 

* The Rules of New-Market, (near Petersburg, Va.) Broad Rock, and 
most of the courses in Virginia, are nearly die same. 


1th. There shall be three Judges in the starting stand, the Pre*i 
dent and two assistant Judges, whose duty it shall bo to keep the 
stand clear of any intrusion during the pendency of a heat, except 
the officers, trainers, and weigher, and also see that the riders are 
dressed in jockey style. 

8th. All disputes shall be decided by the Judges of the day, from 
whose decision there shall be no appeal, unless at the Judges' dis- 
cretion ; and no evidence to be received of foul riding, except from 
Distance Judges and Patroles. 

9th. There shall be two Distance and three Patrole Judges, who 
6hall repair to the Judges' stand after each heat, and report the nags 
that are distanced, and foul riding, if there be any. 

10th. The distance of the Proprietor's Purse shall be three mile 
leats, and be run for on the second day of each regular meeting 
The purse shall be $300 — entrance $15. 

l]th. The distance for the Jockey Cluo purse shall be four mile 
heats, spring and fall, and be run for on the third day of each regu 
lar meeting — entrance $20. 

12th. All Sweepstakes, advertised to be run for over the Tree 
Hill course, on any day of the regular meeting of the Club, shall be 
under the cognizance of this Club; and that whenever a subscri- 
ber makes an entry, he may change it at any time before the stakes 

13/A. No person shall start a horse for any purse under the con- 
trol of this Club, other than a member, he being at least one-third 
interested, and producing proof of his horse's age ; nor shall any 
member start a horse, unless his entrance and subscription b« paid 
before starting. 

14th. All entries of horses to run, shall be made in open Club, on 
the evening preceding each day's race, by 5 o'clock, or during the 
sitting of the Club, and no entry made alter that time shall be al- 
lowed ; Provided, if there be no meeting, then with the Secretary 
or Treasurer, by 5 o'clock. 

\5th. No person shall be benefited by the winning of any purse, 
under the control of this Club, unless he be a member or the owner 
af the horse. 

\&th. Any person desirous of becoming a member for the purpose 
of starting a horse, may do so, he being approved by the Clui), and 
uaying double entrance. 

17th. The winning horse of the Jockey Club Purse shall not be 
permitted to start for the Proprietor's purse, nor the winning horse 
of the Proprietor's purse for the Jockey Club purse, during the same 

\Sth. No compromise or agreement between any two persons 
■tarting horses, or their agents or grooms, not to oppose each other 


upon a promised division of the purse, shall he permitted or allowed, 
and no person shall run their nags in conjunction, that is, with a 
determination to oppose, jointly, any other horse or horses which 
may run against them. In either case, upon satisfactory evidence 
produced before the Judges, the purse shall be awarded to the next 
best horse, mare, or gelding ; and the persons so otfending, shall 
never again be permitted to start a horse on this course. 

\9th. No two riders from the same stable shall be allowed to ride 
in the same race ; nor shall two horses, trained in the same stable, 
be allowed to start in the same race. 

20///. Riders shall not be permitted to ride in a race unless dressed 
in the jockey style. 

21s/. Riders, after the heat is ended, must repair to the Judges 
stand, not dismount until ordered by the Judges, and then carry 
their saddles themselves to the scales, there to be weighed. 

2'2d. The Rider who has won a heat shall be entitled to the track, 
and the foremost entitled to any part of the track, he leaving a suf- 
ficient space for a horse to pass him on the outside, but shall not, 
when locked by another horse, leave the track he may be running 
in to press him to the outside, doing which will be deemed foul 
riding. A Rider may take the track on the inside, but he must do 
it at his own peril, as, should he be posted in making the attempt, it 
will not be considered as foul. Should any rider cross, jostle, strike 
an adversary or his horse, or run on his heels intentionally, or do 
ant- thing else that may impede the progress of his adversary, he 
wiii be deemed distanced, though he come out ahead, and the purse 
given to the next best nag : and any rider offending against this 
Rule, shall never be permitted to ride over or attend any horse on the 
course again. 

23d. If any nag shall run on the inside of any pole, they will be 
deemed distanced, although they may come out first, and the purse 
awarded to the next best nag. 

24th. The distance stand shall he sixty yards from the Judges 
stand fur mile heats, and sixty additional vards for every mile in a 
heat, unless it be the best three in five, and then ninety yards to 
a mile. 

25th. The time between heats shall be 20 minutes for mile heats, 
30 minutes for two mile heats, 40 minutes for three mile heats, 
and 45 minutes for four mile heats. Some signal shall be sounded 
from the Judges' stand five minutes before the period of starting, 
after the lapse of which time, the Judges shall give the word to 
fcuch riders as are ready — but should any horse be restive in sad 
dling, the Judges may delay the word a short interval, at theil 
own discretion. 

20//i. A horse that does not win a heat out of three. «hall tiot be 
Bntitled to start for a fourth, although he may save his distance A 
drawn horse shall not be considered as distanced. 


2~tk. No utud horse shall be exhioited within the walls of the 
course until the ladies have retired. 

28/7*. All members and their families shall pass the ^ate free, 
and all who are not members shall pay the following tolls, viz:— 
for every four-wheeled carriage $1, for every gig and two- wheeled 
carriage, cart, man and horse, 50 cents : and for every person on 
foot 25 cents. 

29/A. Any person who may kill a dog on the course, shall be 
paid two dollars out of the funds of this Club, and if there be 
none in hand, by the Judges, out of the purse of that day on which 
t'ie dog or dogs may be killed. 

30th. The following weights shall be carried, viz : 

2 years old, a feather, 

3 .. .. 86 lbs. 

4 .. .. 10b .. 

5 .. .. 110 . 

6 .. .. 118 .. 

7 .. .. and upwaras, 124 lbs. with an al. 
Imvance of three pounds to mares and geldings. The weigher shall 
see that each rider shall have his proper weight, before he starts, and 
that they have within two pounds after each heat. 

31s/. The age of horses shall be recorded by the year in which 
they are foaled ; during the year 1800 shall be considered as a 
yearling; during the year 1801, two years old; during the year 
1802, and so on. 

32<7. New members can only be admitted upon recommenda. 
tion ; any person wishing to become a member, shall be balloted for 
and two black balls will exclude him 


When both parties are present, either party has a right to de. 
mand that the money be staked before the horses start ; and if one 
refuse, the other may, at his option, declare the bet void. 

If any party be absent on the days of race, the party present may 
declare the bet void, in the presence of the Judges, before the race 
commences ; but if any person offer to stake for the absentee, it ia 
a confirmed bet. 

A bet made on a heat to come, is no bet, unless all the horses 
running in a previous heat start again. 

All bets made between horses that are distanced the same hea: 
are considered drawn, and when between two horses throughout a 
race, and neither of them win it, the horse that is best at the termi- 
nation of the race, wins the bets. 

If an entrance horse, or subscriber die, no forfeit shall be re- 

A premium given to another to make a bet shall not be refunded, 
although the bet is not run for 


handy cap races. 

1st. The Judges for the season, on meeting with the Secretary, 
•hall Handy Cap. 

2d. A list of all the horses, mares, and geldings which have start 
•d at the said meeting, shall be made, to which any others, if pro 
posed, and particularly described, may be added. 

3rf. Any horse, &c. which has not run during the said meeting, 
fcr Sweepstakes, Jockey Club, or Proprietor's purse, shall carry the 
weights of the course. 

4th. When the distance to be run, the entrance required, and the 
prize be agreed en, the Judges and Secretary shall proceed to as- 
sign them their weights. 

5th. JNo horse, &c. shall be bound to carry more weight than 
.he rules of the course prescribe. 

6///. On the supposed best horse, &c. his or her proper weight 
shall be imposed. 

1th. From horses, &c. of the 2d, 3d, &c. rate or reputation, as 
much weight may be taken as will, in the opinion of the Handy 
Cappers, make them equal to the first rate ; in equalizing them as 
aforesaid, they are not bound to regard the winning horses, &c. 
as a change of distance, or a hard run, may change their ability to 

8th. Those who Handy Cap, shall particularly mark such horses, 
&c. which are started in shoes, or not allowed to exert themselves 
in a previous race — any such horse, &,c. shall carry the weight oi 
the course, subject to the determination of the Judges and Secretary. 

9th. As soon as the list of horses, &c. with their weights, be 
prepared, the Secretary shall post up the same in the Club Room at 
this place to which shall be added the distance to be run, the sum 
to be run for, and the entrance money. 

10/A. When the aforesaid nine rules be complied with, until 10 
o'clock P. M. shall be allowed the owner or starter to determine 
whether he will contend for the prize, and no longer; as they de- 
termine, they shall give their names to the Treasurer or Proprietor 
of the course, with a description of their horses, &.e. who shall make 
a list of them as entered, which list shall point out their places at 
starting — two or more to make a race. 


Abstract of the laws which govnrn the Race Course in Great Britain, 
as extracted from a Liverpool paper. 

Horses take their ages from Mayday, i.e. ahorse foaled any 
.line in the year 1623, is one year old on the first day if Mav 1624 
Four inches are a hand ; fourteen pounds a stone ; two huimrcd arc 
** rty yards a distance. 


Oath weights are, each to appoint a party to /ide without weighing 
Feather weight signifies the same. Give and take plates are weights 
for inches ; fourteen hands to carry a staked weight, all above to 
carry extra, or be allowed the proportion of 7 lbs. to an inch. A Whim 
Plate is a weight for age and a weight for inches. A Past Match is 
to insert the ages of the horses in the articles, and to run any horso 
of that age, without declaring till you come to the post to start. 
Hand Cap weights are weights according to the supposed abilities 
of the horses. Plates or shoes are not allowed in the weight. 

The horse that lias his head at the ending post first, wins the heat 
Riders must ride their horses back to the winning post to weigh ; und 
he that dismounts before, or wants weight, is distanced. If a rider 
fall from his horse, and the horse be ridden in by a person of sufii- 
cient weight, he shall take place the same as if it had not happened, 
provided he goes back to the place where the rider fell. 

Horses not entitled to start without producing a proper certifi. 
cate of their age, if required ; except where aged horses are included 
in which case a junior horse may start without a certificate, provi. 
ded he carry the same weight as an aged horse. 

For the best of the plate, when there are three heats run, the 
ziorse is second who wins one. For the best of the heats, the horse 
is second that beats the other twice out of three times, though he 
doth not win the heat. When a plate is won at two heats, the pre- 
ference of the 1 orses is determined by the places they hold in the 
second heat. W hen three horses have eacn won a heat, they only 
must start for a fourth, and their places must be determined by it. 
though before no difference between them. No distance in a fourth 
heat. In running heats, if it cannot be decided which is first, the 
heat goes for nothing, and they may all start again, except it be be- 
tvveen two horses that had each won a heat. Horses drawn beforo 
the plate is won are distanced. 

A bet after the heat is over, if the horse betted on does not start 
again, is no bet. A confirmed bet cannot be off, without mutual 
consent. Either party may demand stakes to be made, and on re- 
fusal may declare the bet void. If a party be absent on the day of 
running, a public declaration of the bet may be made on the course, 
and a demand whether any person will make stakes for the absent 
party; and if no person consent to do so, the bet may be declared 
void. Bets agreed to be settled in town, or any particular place, 
cannot be declared off on the course. 

The person who bets the odds, has a right to choose the horse of 
the field. When he has chosen the horse, the field is what starts 
against him ; but there is no field unless one starts with him. If 
odds are net without mentioning the horse before the race is over 
it must be determined as the odds were at the time of making it. 
Bets made between particular horses are void if neither of them be 
the winner, "nless specified to the contrary. 

At New Market, if a bet be made for any particular day in any 
meeting, and the parties afterwards change the day, all bets must 
«tand ; but if altered to another meeting, bets made before the altera- 
tion are void. Bet& determined, though the horse does not start 


when the words " absolutely, run or pay," or •* play or pay," are 
made use of in betting. For example; I bet that Mr. Udny's ch. 
mare, Mirandela, absolutely wins the king's plate at Chelmsford, in 
1824. I lose the bet though she does not start, and win though she 
goes over the course alone. 

All double bets are considered as play or pay. 

Since Epsom Races, 1812, all bets are made in pounds, and not in 
guineas, as formerly. 

Horses running on the wrong side of a post, and not turning back, 
are distanced. Horses distanced if the riders cross or jostle. Horses 
that forfeit are beaten horses, where it runs or pays. Bets made 'jn 
any horses winning any number of plates that year, remain in force 
till the first day of May. Money given to have a bet laid, not re- 
turned if not run. All matches, bets, and engagements are void on 
the decease of either party before determined. An untried stallion 
or mare, is one whose produce had not started in public at the time 
of closing the engagement. 

In estimating winnings, it is the practice to consider the clear sum 
gamed only, and consequently to exempt the winner's stakes. A 
winner of sweepstakes of 20 guineas each (three subscribers) is, 
therefore, not disqualified from running for a fifty pound piate, ex 
pressed to bo for horses that never won a plato, match or a**e$!p 
stake of that value. 




















Editor now of the Farmers' Library, New York ; Founder of the American Farmer, in 181* 
and of the Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, in 1829: hemic the first Agricul- 
tural and the first Sporting Periodicals established in the United Stales. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in th<. y^ar 1872, by 


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



Without going through the formality of asking leave 
to say " by his gracious permission," which, if sought, 
might have been withheld, this Supplement to Mason 
and Hind's Popular Systems of Farriery is respect- 
fully dedicated to Col. Balie Peyton. 

It is not that a contribution so inconsiderable is 
deemed worthy of him, or the subject so interesting; 
but that the Author would fain embrace any fair occa- 
sion to manifest to him, and through him to their com- 
mon friends at New Orleans, his grateful remembrance 
of their kindness when among them. 

There would be, moreover, an essential propriety in 
dedicating to Col. P. a more adequate offering of this 
sort ; as he is known to be a breeder and warm amateut 
of the high-bred horse; and, in his own spirit and cha 
racter, exemplary of what is best bred and most excel 

lent among men. 

J. S. S. 

New Year's Dat, 1848. 
For the nonce at Annapolis, iVfd 



Though, undtr over fluctuating but sometimes pro- 
pitious circumstances, the very climax of equestrian 
power may have been reached in a few cases in the 
United States, as in the country from which we derived 
our skill and material, is it not still worthy of all con- 
sideration how we may contrive to belay, as the sailors 
say, what we have gained in that important branch of 
Rural Industry — not only as a means of individual en- 
joyment, but as a prolific, indispensable source of 
National power and wealth ? 

However serious and apparently insurmountable may 
be the difficulties that stand in the way of farther im- 
provement of domestic animals, and especially the Horse 
— either in the general absence of the necessary means 
and appliances, and of adequate encouragement for the 
care and expense attendant on the production of Horses 
of high qualities, there ought, surely, among well-in- 
formed men, to be no obstacle arising from ignorance of 
the art of breeding. Hence it is that in sending forth 
the Ninth Edition of this popular work on Farriery, 
while nothing seemed to be needed in the way of de- 
scription or treatment of the diseases of domestic animals, 
and while the author of this Supplement was only called 
on to extend the stud-book in a manner to embrace thf 
pedigrees to which breeders and dealers might have 
occasion to refer, he could not forego the opportunitj 


to ofTer some such additional matter as, to him at least, 
seems to be of sufficient value to render it acceptable 
and useful. 

In the introductory remarks on the relations existing 
between Man and the animals destined for his use and 
amusement, and the obligations these relations impose, 
the writer has but expressed the sentiments he has ever 
entertained, of duty on our part to respect the feelings 
and comfort of the humblest among them ; and has 
endeavoured to encourage continued exertions for their 
melioration by showing how successful and progressive 
such efforts have been, even up to the present time. 

To these observations of his own are appended those of 
writers of acknowledged judgment and authority — > 
accompanied by such notes as appeared to be apposite and 
well-founded ; and to these, again, have been superadded 
a few tables and other items which might not elsewhere 
be conveniently met with. His undertaking, kind reader, 
<hath this extent, no more." All, then, that the author 
of the " Supplement to Mason's Farrier" has to ask 
of you is that you will bear in mind that there has been 
no engagement to write anything — much less a Book on 
Farriery: for that there was no call or necessity. With 
this inrimation, the reader will please accept for what it 
is worth and with all due allowances, the little that has 
been volunteered — by one who may claim to have been 
all his life an amateur if not a connoisseur of the Horse. 

J. S. S. 

Edit. Farmers'' Library 


Jri the relations between Man and the Domestic Animals, 
especially the Horse, and the obligations they impose, Pago 9 

On the Form of Animals 18 

The Chest 19 

The Pelvis 20 

The Head 20 

The Muscles 21 

The Bones 22 

On the Improvement of Form 22 

On the Character of Animals 25 

Examples of the good and bad effects of crossing the breeds 26 
On the importance of more attention to the Principles of 

Breeding — the Stallion and the Brood Mare 31 

An Essay on the Condition of a Stallion 41 

Tables — Weights and Measures 49 

List of Medicines 50 

Apparatus for Compounding Medicines 5C 

Instruments 5C 

Calving Table 51 

Lambing Table 51 

Trotting 52 

Best Trotting Time, at Mile Heats 53 

At Two Mile Heats 53 

At Three Mile Heats 53 

At Four Mile Heats 53 

Racing — Best Time on Record at Mile Heats 54 

At Two Mile Heats 54 

At Three Mile Heats 56 

At Four Mile Heats 57 

The St. Leger 58 

Average Speed for the Doncaster St. Leger 59 

Pedigrees of Winning Horses, since 1839 60 

Celebrated Stallions and Brood Mares 69 





" La connaissance de la conformation exterieure du cheval est beau- 
cjup moins repandu qu'on ne le pense vulgairement : elle repose sur de? 
etudes d' anatomie de physiologie, de mecanique, et d' histoire naturella 
dont peu de personnes se font une juste idee." 

If animals were classified by naturalists in the order 
of their intelligence, docility and usefulness, the Horse 
and the Dog would occupy, in relation to Man, the jux- 
taposition they have assigned — on the ground of physical 
structure — to the impracticable baboon and the grotesque 
and chattering monkey ; and in lieu of groping in the 
darkness of antiquity for the period when they are sup- 
posed to have been entrapped or subdued, by fraud or 
violence, we should the rather conclude that Nature 
placed all the domestic animals where we have ever found 
them — in close association with Man, administering to 
his pleasures and wants ; lightening his toils and sharing 
his dangers, , and constantly advancing, like Man him- 
self, under the improving influence of civilization and the 
arts that belong to it. 

In contemplating the whole animal kingdom, docs not 
Man— standing preeminently at the head of it, surrounded 
by the domestic races — present everywhere the mosi 


lust; ous spot on the varied map of living creation ? From 
the everlasting snows of the north to the burning sands 
of tropical deserts, his faithful dog follows at his foot ; 
the horse is at his side — submissive to his will; — the 
patient ox bows his neck to the yoke ; and the sheep and 
the hog are present to supply his clothing and his food. 
Far otherwise is it with untameable and predatory birds 
and beasts. Restricted to particular regions by an all- 
wise Providence, the absence of food and climate con- 
genial to their nature forbids them to roam beyond limits 
comparatively circumscribed. And do not these arrange- 
ments for our benefit, and which give us " dominion 
over all the earth and every creeping thing that creepeth 
upon the earth," enjoin on us the duty of studying their 
habits, their economy, and all the laws of their existence 
— with a view to their improvement for our advantage, 
in every way consistent with kindness to them and with 
gratitude to Him, 

" Who in his sovereign wisdom made them all ? " 

And while these considerations teach us to be merciful 
ourselves, do they not convey the admonition 

« Ye therefore who love mercy, teach your sons 
To love it too!" 

The very fact that to them has been denied the power of 
speech, and the necessity of uncomplaining submission 
under every hardship, ought to put us constantly on our 
^uard against practising, or permitting to be practised, 
any, the smallest measure of abuse or ill treatment. Thus 
tfvery man of common humanity will study their com- 
fort in all things, consistently with the purposes for which 
they were designed, and will never even mount his faith- 
ful horse without seeing that whatever is needed has oeen 
done to give an easy set to his saddle — and, still more, 
tnat all is right about his feet I 


Doctor Rush, in a beautiful and benevolent eulogy op 
the Horse, in one of his lectures, related a touching anec- 
dote of a highly intelligent and successful Pennsylvania 
farmer, who, stricken down suddenly with apoplexy in 
his barn-yard, expired on the instant — with this last di- 
rection to his herdsman on his lips : « Take care of the 
creatures!" And the biographer of an eminent English 
Chancellor relates, as from himself, how his beloved son 
had preferred to him, in his very last moments, a petition 
in favour of his faithful terrier ; " And Father , you'll 
take care of poor Pitcher, wonH you V Nevertheless, 
after all the care that can be taken, we should probably 
be amazed if we could know the amount of pain unwit- 
tingly inflicted on animals dedicated to our service, and 
some of whose bodies are at last consumed to afford us — ■ 
as some would contend — superfluous nourishment, refer 
ring back as they do to that golden age when 

" Man walked with beast — joint tenant of the shade ; 
The same his table and the same his bed — 
No murder clothed him, and no murder fed." 

Even all. unnecessary harshness of reproof should be 
avoided — for it is well known that some animals are even 
more susceptible of painful and violent emotions, from 
various causes, than some men, whose hardened nature 
and familiarity with vice, render them as insensible to 
the reproaches of others as to the stings of their own 
conscience. Those, for instance, who have studied the 
character and affections of the horse — with a view to his 
diseases and moral susceptibilities — need not be told that 
while sharp and threatening words will so disturb him as 
to quicken his pulse some ten beats or more in a minute,* 

* The natural constitution of different varieties of the same class of 
animals is worthy of close attention. In small and thorough-bred horses, 
!or instance, the pulsations of the heart are about 40 to 42 — while in 
the larger, cold-blooded cart-horse, they do not amount to more than 36. 
But when ill treated, as before suggested, their pulsations are increased, 



ne ha* in very memorable cases been known to fall dead 
under the excitement of the sexual and other passions. 
That he is sometimes animated by the strongest spirit of 
rivalry, and a noble ambition to excel, has been occa- 
sionally evinced by violent attacks on his passing rivals 
on the turf — and very recently the case occurred with a 
noble animal which fell dead at the very winning-post, 
in vainly struggling for victory, on the Pharsalia course at 
Natchez. The contest which had this melancholy issue 
was between Col. Minor's Jenny Lind and Col. Bing- 
aman's Black Dick : 

" Dick was the favourite at odds. Some even bets 
were made that he would win at three heats — and some, 
if the heats were broken, would not win. Jenny drew 
the track, and after some little mancevring, they got off 
together, but Dick outfooted her and took the track on 
the turn ; at the half-mile post she had got her head to 
his hips, and they ran locked round the upper turn ; at 
the head of the front stretch she began to draw clear of 
him, and spurs were applied. 'Then burst his mighty 
heart,' for he soon was seen to reel, but he still struggled 
on ; his jockey Mat, leaped unharmed from his back, and 
the noble animal fell dead within ten feet of the winning- 
post, which he had left not two minutes before in perfect 
health and the finest condition. No shout of triumph 
hailed the winner: all was sympathy and regret. Two 

say, ten in a minute. The natural circulation of the sheep is about 70 
per minute. The average pulse of a full-grown ox, in a stale of health, 
Irv England, is about 40 — but this increases in a climate of higher tem- 
perature. Doctor James Smith (Journal of Agriculture, vol. ii. p. 92.) 
Suds that in the climate of Louisiana the pulse of the ox, in its natural 
-state, is from 08 to 75 — rising on the slightest excitement to 80. Every 
one knows how destructive is the moral influence of fright to a flock of 
sheep — when, for instance, they have been badly scared by dogs. It 
often happens that they never recover from its effects. 

For all farmers wh., nave occasion to fatten animals, we must take 
room for three worls — warmth, cleanliness, and quietude. They are 
ibe vtni-vidi-viu ", in their fields of action. 


of our most talented medical gentlemen immediately 
made a post-mortem examination, and came to the con- 
clusion that the death of the horse was produced by apo- 
plexy, caused by congestion of the heart, brought on bv 
over-excitement and violent exertion." 

The annals of domestic animals abound in cases to 
show how liable they are to acute affections and suffer- 
ing, far beyond the apprehension of the most considerate 
and humane. 

Thus much, good reader, have we gladly seized the 
opportunity, and even gone a little beyond the require- 
ments of our publishers, to say in the w r ay of appeal in 
behalf of speechless creatures, as alive to pain as to a 
sense of gratitude for generous treatment ; and having 
already adverted to the obligation we are under to study 
the laws of their existence, and the means of their meli- 
oration, it may now, even be insisted that in the whole 
range of the occupations and interests of breeders of 
their own stock, there are few things that demand more 
consideration and skill than does this very branch of 
rural industry. 

The study and the pride of eveiy one should be, not 
merely to maintain them at a point of excellence already 
acquired, but to have them progressively improving in 
whatever constitutes economy and value ; for why should 
any man indolently conclude that his stock has already 
attained the ne plus ultra in the way of amelioration^ 
however superior it may be ? Such is not the fact, nor, 
it may safely be affirmed, would it be consonant with the 
orders of Providence, or even with our own interests, 
that it should be so. To man has been given dominion 
over the beasts of the field — that, like the earth itself, he 
should cultivate and improve them ; and for that, amon^ 
other purposes, was he endowed with the great, dis- 
tinguishing, and godlike power to prosecute intellec r ua» 


investigations into every department of nature and in- 
dustry. Doubtless our ancestors, more than a century 
ago, were ready to believe — what indolence is ever ready 
to whisper — that the several races of domestic animals 
most immediately under their care, had then already been 
carried up to the maximum of improvability ; yet which 
of them has not been vastly bettered in the meantime, in 
all their valuable points — and that, too, not by any sud- 
den or accidental accession of one or more good quali- 
ties, but constantly and progressively ; by a closer study 
and a better knowledge of the laws of animal and 
vegetable physiology, and by the application of other 
appropriate sciences. In the plain English of the motto 
chosen for these reflections what is there said of the 
Horse may apply to other animals : 

" The knowledge of the external conformation of the 
horse is much less extended than is generally supposed. 
It reposes on the study of anatomy, of physiology, of 
mechanics, and of natural history, in a manner of which 
few persons have a just conception." 

In 1710, by the estimate of Dr. Davenant, — a writer 
of unquestioned candour and authority, — the weight of 
"black cattle" (so called, because, at that day, most 
cattle were of that colour) averaged but 370 pounds ; the 
weight of the calf was estimated at 50 pounds; and the 
average of sheep and lambs, taken promiscuously in the 
London market, was only 28 pounds. After the lapse 
of 120 years, — with far less of science applied to the 
subject than at this time, — M'Culloch, in his dictionary, 
so highly characterized by the accuracy of its statements, 
puts the average of cattle at 556 ; sheep and lambs at 
50; and calves at 105. But the late accomplished Pro- 
fessor Youatt, in his able work on cattle estimates the 
average weight now at Sraithfield at 656 ; that of sheep 
and iambs at 90; and calves at 144; — -the weight oi 


each having doubled in 130 years; and that, as befoie 
said, not by any accidental importation from abroad, or 
fortunate cross at home, but by a course of careful, 
systematic, and sagacious attention to the laws and prin- 
ciples of breeding and feeding. The horse, standing at 
the head of the list, — sharing and supporting man in all 
his most pleasurable as well as toilsome and dangerous 
enterprises, — naturally engaged his earliest attention and 
most assiduous care, to cherish and improve to the high- 
est pitch, his noble faculties of strength, speed, and 
endurance ; and thus may have been already brought to 
the zenith of his capabilities, if indeed he has not pass- 
ed the culminating point ; but see what must have been 
achieved by the stimulus of the turf, and art in the 
breeding-stud, to raise the bred horse of England to a 
height of perfection, even above the wonderful capacity 
of his south-eastern ancestry, — the very "drinkers of 
the wind" themselves! — for we have the high authority 
of Nimrod, the crack writer of England on all field- 
sports, for saying that, on the best Indian authorities, 
" the best Arab, on his own ground, has not a shadow 
of a chance against an imported English racer, in any- 
thing like a good form." The celebrated race on the 
Calcutta Course, between Pyramus and Recruit, — the 
former the best Arab of his year ; the latter a second- 
rate English race-horse, by Whalebone, the property of 
die Marquis of Exeter, — settled this point, inasmuch as 
allowance w r as made for the comparatively diminutive 
size of the Arab, — it being what is termed a give-and 
take match, or weight for inches ; in which Recruit car- 
ried 10 stone 12 (152) pounds; and Pyramus only 8 
stone 3 (115) pounds, an extra allowance of 7 pounds 
fiaving been given to him as an Arab. 

Pyramus, says the reporter of this race. « as goo«- 


an Arab (he had previously beaten all the best Arabs in 
Calcutta for the gold cup) as has appeared for many years. 
His condition was undeniable ; the distance was all in 
his favour, and he was ridden with superior judgment — 
so that the result of his match with Recruit may be con- 
sidered to have established this an axiom : that no allow- 
ance of weight, within the bounds of moderation, can 
bring the best Arab — even in a climate most congenial 
to him — upon a par with an English thorough-bred horse 
of moderate goodness. In addition to all these circum- 
stances in favour of Pyramus, it must be remembered 
that Recruit only landed on the 28th May, (the race was 
run in January), after a voyage of five months." 

In England, where the progress of improvement was 
greatly accelerated by a seasonable infusion of Arabian 
and barbaric blood, the bi erf-horse — standing, in respect 
of the equine race, as the capital on the Corinthian pil- 
lar — has reached a point of perfection that, if it can be 
kept up, we can hardly dare hope will ever be excelled 
I \ that country, four-mile races are nearly abolished, and 
i( has been said with every show of reason, that early 
tiaining, light weights and short distances, are impairing 
the stoutness of tie English race-horse and hunter, and 
their capacities to stand up and go the pace as in the 
palmy days of the English turf. In our own country, 
the annals of the course show, that our climate is highly 
congenial to the constitution and physical development 
of the horse — and that whenever the sport has been 
fashionable and the rewards adequate, he has ever been 
ready to meet all reasonable expectations — rather advan- 
cing tnan falling oack. 

When Floretta won her race in Washington — winning 
the 2d heat in 7.52, against such nags as Oscar, Top- 
gallant and First Consul, it was deemed a mar-dlous 


perforrr?.nce ;* ard sportsmen thought that the acme of 
speed and bottom Had been reached in our country in 
the days of Sir Charles and Eclipse, yet have not their 
best achievements been eclipsed by two illustrious and 
yet living rivals of each other — Boston and Fashion ? 
But what have we not to apprehend should what seems 
to be threatened come soon to pass, and the turf — the 
only sure test of speed and stoutness, be allowed to go 
down ? We remember once at a dinner-party at the 
British Minister's in Washington, to have inquired of the 
late John Randolph of Roanoke, whether the Old Domi- 
nion maintained, unimpaired, her claim to a superior race 
of horses? " No, Sir; no, Sir/' was his shrill-toned 
prompt reply ; " Since we gave up horse-racing and fox- 
hunting, and turned up the whites of our eyes, our hor jes 
as well as our men have sadly degenerated." 

Finally — justice, truth, and a sense of obligation (or 
the assistance derived from his labours, in the small con- 
tribution we are here making to the breeders and amateurs 
of the Horse, demand of us to say, at the least, that if 
the American Turf should decline, it will not be for want 

* This was one oi the most memorable contests that ever came off 
on the Washington Course. Horses were horses, and men were men, 
in those days. Fair-top boots, powdered heads, and golden " guineas '* 
were all the go — and for fairness and honour, a "stain was felt like a 

The horses were thus placed : 

Dr. Edelin's c. m. Floret la, by Spread Eagle, 6 years old, 5 11 

Gen. Ridgely's b. h. Oscar, by Gabriel, 6 yrs. old, 2 2 2 

J. 13. Bond's b. h. First Consul, by Flag of Truce, aged 4 3 3 

Col. Tayloe's b. h. Top-gallant, by old Diomed, 6 yrs. old, 14 4 

M. Brown's b. m. Nancy, by Spread Eagle, 6 years old. 3 dr. 

In this race Floretta was closely run by Oscar and First Consul — 

each heat was run under 8 minutes, and the second in 7.52. Each horso 

made play from the score, and the time was better than had been made 

in that Course even up to 1829. Has such a field of men and horses 

come to that post since 1 

In another pace — the trot — it was deemed marvellous that • old Top " 
•hould go his mile with 150 pounds weight in 2.45. But Lady Suf- 
folk — well dashed with the old Messenger blood — has done hers *u 
2.28A. and is yet in full if not improving vigou r . 


of an able, industrious, and tasteful advocate and illus- 
trator of its advantages and uses, as long as W. T. Por- 
ter shall continue to animate and guide the " Spirit of 
the Times." Extensive acquaintance and coextensive 
popularity — the just fruits of accomplished manners and 
an obliging temper — have made him the focus of a most 
varied and recherche correspondence : while his own 
tact, scholarship and nice appreciation of what is good 
in the literary and the sporting world, enable him to turn 
all his rich resources to the best account, for the enjoy- 
ment of his numerous and refined readers — for the most 
part, gentlemen of blood and mettle. 



The form of domestic animals has been greatly im- 
proved by selecting with much care, the best formed for 
breeding — but the theory of improvement has not been 
so well understood, that rules could be laid down for 
directing the practice. There is one point particularly, 
respecting which the opinions of breeders have much 
varied, which is, whether crossing the breed be essential 
to improvement. 

It is the intention of this communication to ascertain 
in what instances crossing is proper, and in what pre- 
judicial ; and the principles upon which the propriety 
of it depends. 

It has been generally supposed that the breed of ani- 
mals is improved by the largest males. This opinion 
has done considerable mischief, and would have done 
more injury hail it not been counteracted by the c'esire 
of selecting animals of the best form and proportions, 
which are rarely to be met with, in those of the largest size 


Experience has proved that crossing has only suc- 
ceeded in an eminent degree, in those instances in which 
the females were larger than in the usual proportion of 
females to males ; and that it has generally failed when 
the males are disproportionally large. 

The external form of domestic animals has been much 
studied, and the proportions are well ascertained. But 
the external form is an indication only of internal structure. 
The principles of improving it must therefore be founded 
on the knowledge of the structure Snd use of internal 

The lungs are of the first importance. It is on their 
size and soundness that the health of an animal princi- 
pally depends. The power of converting food into 
nourishment, is in proportion to their size. An animal 
with large lungs, is capable of converting a given quantity 
of food into more nourishment than one with smaller 
lungs, and therefore has a greater aptitude to fatten.* 

The Chest. 

The external indication of the size of the lungs is the 
form and size of the chest; the form of which should 

* [In farther explanation of this principle, it may he added, from an au- 
thor who had evidently read and relied on this ahle Essay of Surgeon 
Cline, that muscular exertion facilitates the return of venous blood to 
the right side of the heart, and in long continued and violent exertion, 
the respiration being quickened, the lungs — if small — are unable to 
arteriulize and get rid of die blood as fist as it is pumped into them ; 
consequently, if there is not room for the blood, congestion tikes place, 
and the horse becomes what is termed »• blown" — the lungs beinsj gorged 
Hith blood, and sometimes the animal is destroyed by it. In England 
it is said to be " well understood that a majority of horses that perish 
under a hard press ' across the country,' are narrow-chestea /" The 
conical form, not of the body, but of the chest, as laid down in the next 
paragraph, is very observable in the best paintings of Fashion. There, 
and in her quarters and hocks, appear to us to lie the great sources of 
her vet in this country unequalled speed and stoutness.— I. S. S."| 



have the figure of a cone, having its apex situated between 
the shoulders, and its base towards the loins. 

The capacity of the chest depends upon its form more 
than on the extent of the circumference ; for, where the 
girth is equal in two animals, one may have much larger 
lungs than the other. A deep chest therefore is nat 
capacious unless it is proportionally broad. 

The Pelvis. 

The pelvis is the cavity formed by the junction of tht 
haunch bones with the bones of the rump. It is essential 
that this cavity should be large in the female, that she 
may be enabled to bring forth her young with less diffi- 
culty. When this cavity is small, the life of the mother 
and of her offspring is endangered. 

The size of the pelvis is chiefly indicated by the width 
of the hips and the breadth of the twisty which is the 
space between the thighs. 

The breadth of the loins is always in proportion to that 
of the chest and pelvis. 

The Head. 

The head should be small, by which the birth is facil- 
itated. Its smallness affords other advantages, and gen- 
erally indicates that the animal is of a good breed. 

Horns are useless to domestic animals. It is not dif- 
ficult to breed animals without them. The breeders of 
horned cattle and horned sheep, sustain a loss more 
extensive than they may conceive ; for it is not the horns 
alone, but also much more bone in the skulls of such 
animals to support their horns ; besides there is an addi- 
tional quantity of ligament and muscle in the ntck which 
is of small value. 

The skull of a ram with its horns, weighed five times 
more than another skull which was hornless. Both these 
skulls were taken from sheep of the same a$-/*, euth be ng 


four )>ears old. The great difference in weight depended 
chiefly on the horns ; for the lower jaws were nearly 
equal, one weighing seven ounces, and the other six 
ounces and three quarters ; which proves that the natural 
size of the head was nearly the same in both, independent 
of the horns and the thickness of the bone which supports 

In a horned animal, the skull is extremely thick. In a 
hornless animal it is much thinner ; especially in that 
part where the horns usually grow. 

To those who have not reflected on the subject, it maj 
appear of little consequence whether sheep and cattle 
have horns — but on a very moderate calculation it will 
be found, that the loss in farming stock, and also in the 
diminution of animal food, is very considerable, from 
the production of horns and their appendages. A mode 
of breeding which would prevent the production of these, 
would afford a considerable profit in an increase of meat 
and wool, and other valuable parts. 

The length of the neck should be proportioned to 
the height of the animal, that it may collect its food 
with ease. 

The Muscles. 

The muscles and tendons, w T hich are their appendages, 
should be large ; by which an animal is enabled to travel 
with greater facility. 

* [It is mntter of surprise that among the varieties of cattle imported, no 
one should hring the celehrated Suffolk polled or hornless cattle. Be- 
sides the advantage here enumerated, valuable animals are sometimet 
killed by being gored. In respect of this breed, Youatt speaks very 
highly. He says they sometimes give 32 quarts of milk, and 24 is 
not uncommon, in a day — and adds: — "There are few short-horn 
cows ; although far superior in size to the Suffolks, and consuming nearly 
double the quantity of food ; that will yield more milk than is usuallv 
obtained from the smaller polled breed." Formerly the Suffolk pollea 
cattle were generally of a dun colour, and thence commonly called 8uf- 
S»lk duns, but that colour has of late been repudiated. — J. S. S.] 


The Bones. 

The strength of an animal does not depend upon the 
size of the bones, but on that of the muscles — Many 
animals with large bones are weak, their muscles being 
small. Animals that were imperfectly nourished d iring 
growth, have their bones disproportionately large. If 
such deficiency of nourishment originated from a con- 
stitutional defect, which is the most frequent cause, they 
remain weak during life. Large bones, therefore, gene- 
rally indicate an imperfection in the organs of nutrition. 

On the improvement of Form. 

To obtain the most approved form, two modes of 
breeding have been practised — one, by the selection of 
individuals of the same family — called breeding in-and- 
in. The other by selecting males and females from 
different varieties of the same species ; which is called 
crossing the breed. 

When a particular variety approaches perfection in 
form, breeding in-and-in may be the better practice — 
especially for those not well acquainted with the princi- 
ples on which improvement depends. * 

♦[Professor Youatt says, on this subject [breeding in-and-in]: " It is the 
fact, however some may deny it, that strict confinement to one breed, 
however valuable or perfect, produces deterioration." By what he after- 
ward says, as will be seen, be must have meant confinement to one 
family or strain of the same breed. The rule should be this: that 
valuable qualities being once established, which it is desirable to keep up, 
should thereafter be preserved by occasional crosses with the best animal 
tc be had of the same breed, but of a different family, This is the 
secret which has maintained the bred Horse in his great superiority— 
for although, as INimrod avers, the immediate descendants of eastern 
horses have, almost without an exception, proved so deficient of late 
years that breeders will no more have recourse to them than the farmer 
would go for immediate improvement to the natural or original oat ; yet 
the breeder is glad to cross his stock with one of another strain or family 
of the same blood, taking care never to depart from the blood of the south- 
eastern courser which flows in the heart of all families of Horses of th» 
biphnst capabilities. 


When the male is much larger than the female, the 
offspring is generally of an imperfect form. If the female 
be proportionally larger, the ofTspiing is of an improved 
form. For instance, if a well-formed large rain be put 
to ewes proportionally smaller, the lambs will not be so 
well shaped as their parents ; but if a small ram be put 
to larger ewes, the lambs will be of an improved form. 

It is here worthy of remark that Nicholas Hankey Smith, who resided 
a long time among the Arabs, in a work entitled " Observations on 
Breeding for the Turf," gives as his opinion that colts bred in-and-in 
6how more blood in their heads, are of better form, and fit to start with 
fewer sweats than the English turf-horse ; but when the incestuous 
intercourse has continued a few generations, he says, the animal de- 

This plan of breeding in-and-in, says Youatt farther, when speaking 
f»f cattle : " has many advantages to a certain extent. It may be pursued 
Until the excellent form and qualities of the breed are developed and 
established. It was the source whence sprung the cattle and the sheep 
of Bakewell, and the superior cattle of Colling — and to it must be traced 
the speedy degeneracy, the absolute disappearance, of the new Leicester 
or Bakewell cattle ; and in the hands of many an agriculturist, the im- 
pairment of constitution and decreased value of the new Leicester sheep 
nnd the Short-Horn beasts. It has therefore become a kind of principle 
with the agriculturist to effect some change in his stock every second or 
third year — and that change is most conveniently effected by introducing 
a new bull or ram. These should be as nearly as possible of the same 
6ort coming from a similar pasturage and climate, but possessing no 
relationship, or at most a very distant one, to the stock to which he is 
introduced" — and these remarks " apply to all descriptions of live-stock," 
says Professor Johnston, author of the Farmer's Cyclopedia. 

This is the secret whereby Mr. George Patterson, of Maryland, 
has not only kept up but improved the size and beauty of his North De- 
vons. Every "two or three years," a new bull the best to be had in 
England, is introduced to his cows. The neglect of this precaution, and 
breeding in-and-in too closely, are the true reasons why we so rarely see 
the descendants of imported stock in this country equal to the originals. 
Too close breeding tells in Man as well as in beast ; hence the famoua 
lines of Lord Byron when speaking of the nobility : 

" They breed in-and-in as might be known, 

« Marrying their cousins, nay. their aunts and nieces, 
«« Which always spoils the breed, if it increases." 
But, after all, we must look closely to the form of the parents as well 
in Horses as cattle — for, let the world dispute as it may, whether " blood 
is everything," or "blood is nothing," — be the blood what it mav, who 
has ever seen, as Apperley asks, an instance of a misshapen horse and 
ill-formed mare producing winners? — J. S. S.l 



The proper method of improving the form of animals, 
consists in selecting a well-formed female, proportionall) 
larger than the male. The improvement depends on this 
principle, that the power of the female to supply he" 
offspring with nourishment is in proportion to her size, 
and to the power of nourishing herself from the excel- 
lence of her constitution. 

The size of the foetus is generally in proportion to that 
of the male parent ; and therefore, when the female pa- 
rent is disproportionately small, the quantity of nourish- 
ment is deficient, and her offspring has all the dispro- 
portions of a starveling. But when the female, from her 
size and good constitution, is more than adequate to the 
nourishment of a foetus of a smaller male than herself, 
the growth must be proportionately greater. The larger 
female has also a greater quantity of milk, and her off- 
spring is more abundantly supplied with nourishment 
after birth. 

To produce the most perfect formed animal, aOundant 
nourishment is necessary from the earliest period of its 
existence, until its growth is complete. 

It has been observed, in the beginning of this paper, 
that the power to prepare the greatest quantity of nour- 
ishment, from a given quantity of food, depends princi- 
pally upon the magnitude of the lungs, to which the 
organs of digestion are subservient. 

To obtain animals with large lungs, crossing is the 
most expeditious method ; because well-formed females 
may be selected" from a variety of a large size, to be put 
to a well-formed male of a variety that is rather smaller. 

By such a method of crossing, the lungs and heart 
become proportionately larger, in consequence of a pe- 
culiarity in the circulation of the foetus, which causes a 
larger proportion of the blood, under such circumstances, 
10 be uistributed to the lungs than to the other parts of 


the body ; arid as the shape and size of the chesi depend 
upon that of the lungs, hence arises the remarkably largt 
chest, which is produced by crossing with fenjales tha* 
are larger than the males. 

The practice according to this principle of improve* 
ment, however, ought to be limited ; for, it may be car- 
ried to such an extent, that the bulk of the body might 
be so disproportioned to the size of the limbs as to pre- 
vent the animal from moving with sufficient facility. 

In animals where activity is required, this practice 
should not be extended so far as in those which are 
required for the food of man. 

On the Character of Animals. 

By character in animals is here meant, those external 
appearances by which the varieties of the same species 
are distinguished. 

The characters of both parents are observed in their off- 
spring ; but that of the male more frequently predominates? 

+[To the eontrary of this, as to Hor*rs, T. B. Johnson, author of the 
Shooter's Companion, and a writer ol high authority, says : " although 
it is a maxim universally admitted,. that an equal degree of precaution 
should be used in respect to the Horse, it is doubly and trebly necessary 
with the mare — because strict observation has demonstrated that nearly 
or full two out of every three foals, display in their appearance more of 
the dan* than the sire ; and that there are more fillies than colts fallen 
every year will not admit of a doubt." 

This positively asserted predominance of females over males, may be 
accounted for on the principle established by very numerous experiments 
in France with sheep, if not with other animals — on the results of which 
the experimenter, whose name is not remembered, based and confidently 
asserted his theory, that the sex of the offspring, in all cases, depends 
much on the co/nparative vigour of the parents. By putting old ewes 
to young rams in the prime of life, he never failed to get n lar^e vro~ 
portion of ram lambs ; and, vice rersa, when young ewes in their prime 
were put to a ram lamb, which had not yet attained his full growth any 
development, or to old ones far gone in the down-hill of life, then a very 
large proportion were females. A great number of experiments were 
given corroborative of the doctrine. Is it not reasonable to suppose that 
4u influence sufficient to control the sex. would have an effect on exte* 


This may be illustrated in the breeding of horned ani- 
mals; among which there are many varieties of sheep, 
and some of catlle, that are hornless. 

If a hornless ram be put to a horned ewe, almost all 
the lambs will be hornless ; partaking of the character 
of the male rather than of the female parent. 

In some countries, as Norfolk, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, 
most of the sheep have horns. In Norfolk the horns 
may be got rid of by crossing with the Ryeland rams ; 
which would also improve the form of the chest and the 
quality of the wool. In Wiltshire and Dorsetshire, the 
same improvements might be made by crossing the sheep 
with South Down rams. 

An offspring without horns might be obtained from the 
Devonshire cattle, by crossing with hornless bulls of the 
Galloway breed ; which would also improve the form of 
the chest, in which, the Devonshire cattle are often de- 

Examples of the good effects of crossing the breeds. 

The great improvement of the breed of horses in Eng- 
land arose from crossing with those diminutive Stallions, 
Barbs, and Arabians ; and the introduction of Flanders 
mares into this country was the source of improvement 
in the breed of cart-horses. 

The form of the swine has also been greatly improved, 
by crossing with the small Chinese boar. 

Examples of the bad effects of crossing the breeds. 
W T hen it became the fashion in London to drive large 
bay horses, the farmers in Yorkshire put their mares to 

Dal form and colour! It may be a reason why some of our very popu- 
lar Stallions, being overtasked, have had so few of their get to rival them 
in power and fame. Every reader may cast about for himself, for in- 
stances, to see how far and to what other animals the principle applies. 
After all, in an economico-agricultural view, it is much more important 
lhat the stallion should be all right because it is his blood that ; s to b« 
diffused far and wide. — J. S. S.] 


much larger stallions than usual, and thus, did infinite 
mischief to their breed, by producing a race of smalJ 
chested, long legged, large boned worthless animals.* 

A similar project was adopted in Normandy, to en- 
large the breed of Horses there by the. use of stallions 
from Holstein ; and, in consequence, the best breed of 
Horses in France would have been spoiled, had not the 
farmers discovered their mistake in time, by observing 
the offspring much inferior in form, to that of the native 

Some graziers in the Island of Sheppey, conceived 
that they could improve their sheep by large Lincoln- 
shire rams, the produce of which, however, was much 
inferior in the shape of the carcase, and the quality of 
the wool ; and their flocks were greatly injured by this 
attempt to improve them. 

Attempts to improve the native animals of a country, 
by any plan of crossing, should be made with the great- 
est caution ; for, by a mistaken practice extensively pur- 
sued, irreparable injury may be done. 

* [This was the effect experienced in Maryland, by the use of Exile, % 
Cleveland bay, of the highest breeding of his sort in England, imported 
by the late Robert Patterson about the year 1820. At three years old, 
he was advertised for sale, and stated to be then upward of 16 hands 

They may do very well, with their long legs, long backs and long 
tails, for the heavy, lumbering slow coaches of millionaires, to drive to 
church, and occasionally to make a swell in town, but they are not fitted 
for the country — and especially not for this country. True, for the 
coach-horse we want substance, but we want that substance well placed, 
deep, well-proportioned body, rising in the withers, and slanting shoul- 
ders, short back well ribbed home, and broad loins; sound, flat, short 
legs, with plenty of bone under the knee ; and sound, open, tough feet. 
" In fact, coach-horses should be nothing more than large hackneys, 
Tarying in height from 15 hands I inch to 16 hands 1 inch." Sue 1 } 
horses, of good colour, and well matched, will always ^.ommard a hi^h 
figure from the swelled heads in our large cities — men who have aro«*;j 
rich as the conduits of exchange, between the produce' and trie CO* 
turner of Agriculture and Manufactures.-— \ S. S.] 


In any country where a particular race of animals uas 
continued for centuries, it may be presumed that their 
constitution is adapted to the food and climate. 

The pliancy of the animal economy is such, as that an 
animal will gradually accommodate itself to great vicis- 
situdes in climate and alterations in food ; and by de- 
grees undergo great changes in constitution ; but these 
changes can be affected only by degrees, and may often 
require a greater number of successive generations for 
their accomplishment. 

It may be proper to improve the form of a native race, 
nut at the same time it may be very injudicious to attempt 
to enlarge their size. 

The size of animals is commonly adapted to the soil 
w r hich they inhabit ; where produce is nutritive and abun- 
dant, the animals are large, having grown proportionally 
to the quantity of food which for generations they have 
been accustomed to obtain. Where the produce is 
scanty, the animals are small, being proportioned to the 
quantity of food which they were able to procure. Of 
these contrasts the sheep of Lincolnshire and of Wales 
are examples. The sheep of Lincolnshire would starve 
on the mountains of Wales. 

Crossing the breed of animals may be attended with 
bad effects in various ways ; and that, even when adopted 
m the beginning on a good principle ; for instance, sup- 
pose some larger ewes than those of the native breed 
were taken to the mountains of Wales and put to the 
rams of that country ; if these foreign ewes were fed in 
proportion to their size, their lambs would be of an im- 
proved form and larger in size than the native animals; 
but the males produced by this cross, though of a good 
form, would be disproportionate in size to the native 
ewes; and therefore, if permitted to mix with them, 
would be proJuctivt of a standing ill-formed pn«geii\ 


Thus a cross which, at first, was an improvement, would, 
by giving occasion to a contrary cross, ultimately pre- 
judice the breed. 

The general mistake in crossing has arisen from an 
attempt to increase the size of a native race of animals ; 
being a fruitless effort to counteract the laws of nature. 

The Arabian Horses are, in general, the most perfect 
in the world ; which probably has arisen from great care 
in selection, and also from being unmixed with any va- 
riety of the same species, the males have therefore never 
been disproportioned in size to the females. 

The native Horses of India are small, but well propor- 
tioned, and good of their kind. With the intention of 
increasing their size, the India company have adopted & 
plan of sending large stallions to India. If these stal- 
lions should be extensively used, a disproportioned race 
must be the result, and a valuable breed of Horses be 
irretrievably spoiled. 

From theory, from practice, and from extensivt ob- 
servation, whicn is more to be depended upon than either, 
it is reasonable to form this conclusion, that it is wrong to 
enlarge a native breed of animals ; for in proportion to 
their increase of size, they become worse in form, less 
hardy, and more liable to disease.* 

* [For this plain reason, our farmers should have recourse to well-formed 
hulls of a smaller or middling size, rather than to those of a larger breed 
than the average size of their own cattle, and also why it is far better 
to employ compact, short-backed, well-formed, thorough-bred stallions, 
than cold-blooded stallions of larger size. 

Essential difference has been found, by analysis in France, between 
the blood of the ordinary Horse and that of the aristocratic iace de- 
scended from the south-eastern courser. It is stated to be less serous 
than that of the common Horse. One cannot but admire the ardour 
with which, in France, they are now applying the sciences to enlighten 
all branches of agriculture, as it has been so much more and more suc- 
cessfully applied to other industries. A society of the first men of 
that country is devoted to the melioration of the Horse, and they under 
»ake to predict the time not distant when " lu science Ju chcvd,' tiw 


science of the anatomy and physiology of the Horse — wih he as well 
understood and agreed upon as any principles in Geometry. 

The reason that, in our country, agriculture has benefited so much 
less by the application of the sciences, is that the policy of the govern- 
ment has a tendency to disperse them, while it concentrates other classes 
Instead of compelling the consumer — the shoemaker, the tailor, the 
wheelwright, and all manufacturing consumers to come from abroad as 
well as at home, and settle down nearest to them, the agriculturist* 
foster a policy which compels them — over bad roads — to expend hall 
di» produce in carrying it to the fashioner and consumer. — J. S. 8.J 



To every lover of the Horse, possessed of a knowledge 
of his fine points and capabilities, it must be lamentable 
to perceive how miserably ignorant and careless the mass 
of breeders of that noble animal appear to be, as to all 
the precautions which are indispensable to maintain him 
at the point of excellence which is known 'to be attainable 
— much less by well-digested and rational systems of 
breeding and rearing throughout the country, to meliorate 
his form and invigorate his constitution ; and on no one 
*)oint is there, seemingly, more pernicious indifference 
displayed than in regard to the condition of the stallions 
they employ, as set forth in the Essay which these re- 
marks are intended to introduce. 

Well has it been said, in the introduction to the "An- 
nales des Haras el de V Agriculture" that if the import- 
ance of a question is to be measured by the number of 
those who are occupied with it, that of the multiplicat* 
and of the amelioration of the Horse ought to hold th*s 
first rank in Political and Rural economy. The traditions 
of antiquity — those of nations, whether barbarous or 
enlightened — writings the most ancient as well as the 
"Dost modern — prove to us \ le estimation which Man, 
in all times, has attached to this his most noble conquest, 
to use the expression of Buffon. The Horse, as there 
alleged, is in truth the most fruitful source of the riches 
of States, by his indispensable instrumentality in the 
cultivation of the soil. He is one of the most direct 
agents of their power by the use th?.t is made of him in 
armies, whether in peace or in war ; and has contributed 
nuch moie than is generally considered, to the civiliza 



tion of communities, by facilitating intercourse betweej* 
ihem and the individuals of whom they are composed. 

It is not, then, astonishing that in the abstract, so much 
importance should be attached to the multiplication and 
improvement of an animal so useful ; but is it not 
Amazing that this universal admission of his value, and 
the general interest of society in cultivating his finest 
qualities, should give rise to no association or system in 
our country, based on reason, and guided by scientific 
principles? On the contrary, everything is left to chance, 
to ignorance, and to narrow and sordid calculations of 
economy. True, we have societies that group the Horse 
with every other animal and thing, and offer petty pre 
miums for the mere .exhibition of the best that may 
happen to be convenient to, or purchased for the show • 
but should not an object so important be made the sub 
ject of special associations, and of legislative encourage- 
ment, directed to a thorough investigation of the princi 
pies to be followed in all enlarged and judicious plans 
for the melioration of the whole race? Look at the 
amount of capital involved in the w T hole Union — 4,365,669 
horses. Value these at an average of $50, and we have 
a capital of $218,283,450, which, with anything like 
judgment or system, might be brought to an average 
improvement of at least twenty per cent, in a few years. 
What is the number lost by exposure to sudden vicis- 
situdes of weather — to lad shoeing — in short, to ill 
treatment and ignorance of the management and the 
remedies prescribed in this work, no one can venture to 
estimate. Youait sets down the loss of cattle by disease 
annually in England at $50,000,000 !— and the loss of 
sheep at one-tenth of the whole number; and though 
{.here the veterinary art is taught as a science in the en- 
dowed colleges, and regular professors practise it 
throughout tte kingdom, he says it is difficult *o say 



w! /» ii is the greater source of this immense loss to the 
agriculture of the country — " the ignorance, and obstinacy 
of the servant and the cow-leech, or the ignorance a?id 
supineness of the owner." The Horse, in a state of 
nature, even the colt — until subjected to ignorant hand- 
ling and cruel management, is much healthier than after 
he comes under the hands of him who ought to be his 
kindest friend. 

If such be the immense mortality in England, what 

nust it be among Horses in this country, where not one 

farmer in a hundred knows how to tell the colic from 

the botts, or the thrush from the scratches — ignorant 

alike of symptoms and of treatment ? 

Properly appreciating the importance of a constant 
supply of Horses for their cavalry, as one of the most 
efficient arms of her military power — the French Govern- 
ment takes it upon itself to supply its thirty-six thousand 
communes with stallions, whose services are put at the 
lowest rate, the average being set down at 5 or 10 francs, 
(one or two dollars,) and these stallions are required to 
be not under a certain age — four at the least — nor under 
a certain standard of height, according as they are tho- 
rough-bred, half-bred, or slow draft: 1 m. 49 centimes, 
or a fraction over 14.2 for thorough-bred ; 1 m. 55 c. 
for half-bred ; and 1 m. 55 c. for heavy draft stallions — 
and undergo every year rigid inspection, to guard not 
only against palpable deformity of shape, but against 
any latent or transmissible diseases. Opposed as is the 
genius of our political institutions to regulations, too 
minute, of individual industry and concerns, yet it is 
hard to say why a planter's tobacco or his butter should 
be subjected to rigid inspection, and condemned and 
taken from him for bad quality or short weight, and yet 
that any fat, lazy, lounging rapscallion should be allowed 
to set up a public stallion without spirit or action, an* 


*oo often tainted with some hereditary disorder or defect 
of body or temper — to deform and poison everything he 
.s allowed to touch. The Arabians, after having brought 
their breed of Horses to the highest degree of perfection 
of which they consider them capable, are said to have 
preserved their splendid qualities of great endurance 
with highly organized matter and natural soundness of 
limb, by prohibiting the use of stallions until approved 
by a public inspector. " Breeders of all kinds of Horses, " 
says Nimrod, " but of the race-horse above all others, 
scarcely require to be cautioned against purchasing or 
breeding from mares, or putting them to stallions, con- 
stitutionally inferior. By constitutionally inferior is 
chiefly implied, having a tendency to fail in the legs and 
feet during their training, which too many of our present 
racing breed are given to — although the severity of train- 
ing is not equal to what it was some years back. It 
w r ould be invidious to particularize individual sorts ; but, 
says he, we could name stallions and mares from which 
the greatest expectations were raised, whose progeny 
have sacrificed thousands of their owners' money, en- 
tirely from this cause." After instancing numerous cases 
to show the heritableness of diseases — glanders among 
others — of horses, sheep, and cattle, "these conside- 
lations," continues an eminent French writer, Professor 
Dupuy, on the Veterinary art, " are to us of the greatest 
moment, since we have it in our power by coupling and 
crossing well-known breeds, to lessen the number of ani- 
mals predisposed to these diseases. Acting up to these 
ideas, our line of conduct is marked out. We must 
banish from our establishments, designed to improve the 
breed, such animals as show any signs of tuberculous 
disease or any analogous affection." 

Thus much have we felt called upon to say, introduc- 
tory of the following able dissertation on the condition 


of the stallion — anonymously written by some gentle- 
man who has evidently observed the precaution to*> 
often neglected ; to understand his subject, before he 
oegan to speak upon it. It is taken from the " Farmers' 
Library," for which it was written, and where, it 
may be needless to say, such writers will always be truly 
•♦eleome. As against the assertion of Surgeon Cline, 
with whom the author of this Essay agrees as to the pre- 
dominant influence of the male in characterizing the 
progeny, we have, in another place, arrayed the opinion 
of Mr. Johnson, it is but fair here to adduce, in support 
of the affirmative side of the proposition, the all-power- 
ful testimony of Mr. Apperly, who says : « Virgil, in 
his excellent remarks on breeding Horses, tells those of 
his readers who wish to gain prizes to look at the dam ; 
and until of very late years, it was the prevailing opinion 
of Englishmen that in breeding a racer the mare is more 
essential than the Horse, in the production of him in his 
highest form ; and we know it to have been the notion 
entertained by the late Earl of Grosvenor — the most ex- 
tensive though not perhaps the most successful breeder 
of thorough-bred stock that England ever saw. The 
truth of this supposition, however, has not been confirmed 
by the experience of the last half century, and much 
more dependence is now placed on the stallion than on 
the mare. The racing calendar, indeed, clearly proves 
the fact. 

" Notwithstanding the prodigious number of very highly 
bred and equally good mares that are every year put to 
the horse, it is from such as are put to our very best 
stallions that the great winners are produced. This can 
in no other way be accounted for than by such horses 
having the faculty of imparting to their progeny th»j 
peculiar external and internal formation absolutely esse it* 
Ual to the first-rate race-horse ; or, if the t^rm < bloou' 



De insisted on, that certain innate but not preternatura* 
virtue peculiarly lelonging to some horses, but not U 
others, which, when it meets with no opposition from the 
mare — or, in the language of the stable, where ' the cross 
nicks' by the mare admit of a junction of good shapes — 
seldom fails in producing a race-horse in his very best 

After all, when the reader shall have carefully perused 
the following disquisition, he will, we think, be apt to 
concur with us in the belief that incalculable loss and 
deterioration ensue from an almost universal want of 
attention to the condition of the stallion, and from igno- 
rance in what true condition consists. The maxim of 
the feeder of the ox may be embraced in the words 
warmth, cleanliness and quiet. Not so with the grazier 
of s/ocA>cattle — for they may be kept too warm ; nor 
with the owner of a Stallion ; yet too generally they 
manage him as if he had nothing to do but to eat, drink, 
and sleep — except when suddenly aroused to go through 
violent agitation to the opposite extreme. 

— On the subject of the comparative agency of the 
male and female parent in the modification of the progeny 
in form and character, as sir Roger expressed it « much 
may be said on both sides." There needs no citation 
of instances to show the influence of the male progenitor 
in modifying the exterior form and colour, of the ofT 
spring, aftd may we not infer it in regard to its internal 
structure, its temper and character? Neither can we 
deny the share of the female parent in the same influences 
— see how often the calf, in its marks, exhibits an exact 
copy of its dam. But there are cases of what is called 
Sftperfoctation, which go to show some extraordinary 
power of the male in transmitting his influence even tc 
the second and third generation on the fruits of subse- 
quent conceptions from sexual intercourse between the 


iraine dam ami other males. No fact in Natural Histon 
need to be better proved ; and circumstances lead us H 
believe, though we are not aware that the question has 
occurred to naturalists, that this always occurs with thf 
first or virgin conception; and if so, it admonishes the 
breeder to be especially particular in the selection of the 
male to which is granted the high privilege of the first 
access. Out of many cases that might be referred to, 
the reader's memory may be here refreshed as to two that 
are somewhat familiar. 

Twenty-six years ago, in the London Farmer's Journal 
was recorded the ease which had then lately appeared 
in the Philosophical Transactions, on the authority of 
Ea:i Moreton, stating that his lordship possessed a male 
animal called Quagga by the Hottentots — in whose 
mountains they abound. It closely resembles the Zebra, 
but of a smaller size. He determined on obtaining a 
foal by this animal, from a chestnut-coloured mare of 
seven-eighths blood, which had never been bred from. 
This gross prostitution — as we should call it — took place, 
and accordingly a female hybrid progeny was produced, 
w 7 hich bore, in form and colour, decided indications of 
mixed blood, but proved incapable of breeding — as is al- 
most universally the case with mules ; but not quite, as the 
writer has proved in his edition of Youatt on the Horse, 
f Lea & Blanchard,) on the most unquestionable testimony. 

This mare of seven-eighth Arabian blood was soon 
after sold to Sir Gore Ousley, who afterward bred from 
her, by a very fine black Arabian stallion, two colts. 
These Lord Moreton went to see and examine, — *he one 
a two-year old filly ; the other a yearling colt — both of 
which were as strongly characterized by Arabian blooii 
as might be expected where there was fifteen-sixteentha 
of it present — but both in their colour and hair of theii 
manes, they showed a striking resemblance t the (-u /gga 


The whole statement was fully verifie to the Society bj 
Doctor Woolaston, a member of it, who examined both 
the filly and colt, and who was " distinguished for his 
very extensive knowledge." 

Following the communication of Lord Moreton hi the 
Transactions, is one from Dr. Woolaston, relating the 
case of a black and white sow r , of Mr. Western's cele- 
brated breed of hogs (she being the property of a Mr. 
Giles) which was put to a wild boar, of a deep chestnut 
colour, that was soon after by accident drowned. The 
pigs produced, which were the sow's^zrstf litter — partook 
in appearance of both boar and sow, but in some the 
chestnut colour of the boar strongly prevailed. This 
sow was afterward put to a boar of Mr. Western's breed. 
The pigs produced were some of them stained and clearly 
marked with the chestnut colour which had prevailed in 
the former litter. Her next litter, by a boar of Mr. Wes- 
tern's spotted, black and white breed, were also stained 
with marks of the wild boar — although in no other in- 
stance, with any other sow, had the least tinge of the 
chestnut colour been observed. 

Another very striking instance of the transmissible in- 
fluence which survives the f st and impresses itself on 
subsequent conceptions, occ red under the observation 
of the writer of this, and wa' it is believed, related in a 
small volume scribbled and jblished under the title of 
" The Sportsman and his Dog." The case was that of 
a beautiful coach-dog bitch, Annette, presented to him 
by that earnest and efficient promoter of agricultural im- 
provement, Gorham Parsons of Massachusetts, along 
with her full brother, Lubin. Though closely watched 
for the first signs of sexual appetite, with a view to a 
litter of the genuine breed for the great pleasure of giving 
them to friends to whom they were promised, a straj 
dog, of large size, of white colour, except his black ears 


contrived \\> steal the fiist access to the bitch, and in all 
subsequent Jitters, by Lubin, one pup always appeared 
to attest the indelible impression made in the enthusiasm 
of a first embrace. It may gratify curiosity to note such 
facts, and may serve, beyond all dispute, to show how 
cautious every breeder should be in the cho ; °e of the 
male — especially the one first employed. 

But how vain to endeavour to account for these 
things ! Nature invites us to study her ways, and science 
is most efficiently applied to every art and every industry, 
when it most closely conforms to her laws: but she has 
certain arcana of her own, which she keeps in reserve, 
and which defy the scrutiny of the most curious and im- 
portunate inquirer. We see enough to know that her laws 
are enacted by an All-Wise and Overruling Power; an J 
can never be too grateful for the faculties that enable us, 
so much above other created beings, to study and under- 
stand them, and yet more for that hopeful thirst for know- 
ledge which is leading us on from one discoveiy f.o an- 
other, until, in view of what science is revealing from 
year to year, who shall say how near we may be per- 
mitted to approach the Supreme Intelligence ? Oh that 
our love of peace and of each other, may k?fp way *ri$h 
our progress in knowledge! — for of tho^o to whom much 
is given, much shall be required — else, has it been we£ 
iskc d, 

"why was Man thus eminently raised 

Amid the vast creation! Why etrp.nvered, 
Through life anil death, to cast hi* watchful eye 
With thought heyond the limits o« his frame — 
But that the Omnipotent might tend him forth 
I:i sight of angels and approving worlds: 
Might send him forth the sovereign good to learn \ 
To chase each meaner passion from his hreast. 
And through the storms of passion and of sense 
To hold straight on, with constant heart, and eye 
Still fixed upon Man's everlasting palm, 
The approving pmilc of Heaven.'' 


There is, as elsewhere intimated, if we consult Nature, 
always acting for the best, — reason to conclude it wa<i 
intended, with domestic animals, that the male should 
exert the greater influence over the form and qualities 
of the progeny. Were it not so, how slow and inef- 
fectual w r ould be all attempts at amelioration, for it is 
through one male that blood and form and qualities are 
imparted to great numbers — while, with the female, but 
a solitary effect or result can be accomplished during a 
whole period of gestation. In herds of w T ild Horses, 
Nature allows troops of mares to be engrossed by the 
stallion of most courage and strength, thus guarding 
against the inevitable degeneracy of promiscuous inter- 
course — and he again, after a season or two, is supplanted 
by some rebellious young rival, stronger if not braver 
than he, before time enough has elapsed to stamp the 
whole race by that degeneracy which follows invest jous 
intercourse long continued. Here again we are invited 
to follow, and, as art may always do, improve upon, if 
we do follow, the laws of Nature. But, alas, of breeders 
of animals it may be said, "they have sought out many 
inventions" that violate her law T s, and the consequence 
is, a miserable race of ill-formed, decrepit garrans^ fit 
neither for harness nor saddle, for the road or the rliase, 
r or peace nor for war, nor toi anything- but — dog\s meat. 



The word condition is used by horsemen in a different 
sense from that in which it is understood as applied to 
cattle by the mass of farmers. By condition the farmer 
often means a high state of fatness ; the horseman, on 
the contrary, makes use of the word to indicate the 
greatest health and strength produced by reducing all 
superfluous fat, bringing the mere flesh into clean, hard 
and powerful muscle, and invigorating the lungs and 
other internal organs, so that they may promptly discharge 
their respective functions, and suffer no damage from 
uncommon stress — the whole in order to the animal's 
performing labours and sustaining a continuance of action 
to which he would not be adequate without such especial 

By the Condition of a Stallion is meant the state of 
the system in which the male horse should be kept, in 
order to deriving from him the greatest excellence in the 

Too many persons are content to breed their mares to 
a horse whose figure suits them, without regard to his 
condition. The mention of one prominent instance alone 
will be sufficient to show that good condition is essential 
to the production of a valuable progeny. A remarkable 
case occurred in England some years since, in so high 
a quarter as to attract public attention, and consequently 
thi fact of the account's obtaining currency without con- 
tradiction is a fair evidence of its correctness. The 
Prince of Wales, who afterwards became George the 
Fourth, owned, and was in the habit o( riding as a hun- 
ter, an entire horse of uneqmlled excellence. In conse- 
quence of this horse's superior qualities, Plis Royal 
Highness caused a few of his own mares to be bred to 


nim in the spring, after he had been kept in the higher 
condition as a hunter throughout the winter, and the 
produce, on growing up, proved every way worthy of 
their sire. When His Royal Highness, as Prince Regent, 
became seriously engaged in the cares of Government, 
and therefore relinquished the pleasures of the chase, 
being desirous to perpetuate the fine qualities of this 
stock, he ordered the horse to be kept at Windsor for 
public covering, provided the mares should be of the 
first quality ; and in order to insure a sufficient number 
of these, directed the head groom to keep him exclu- 
sively for such, and to make no charge, with the ex- 
ception of the customary groom's-fee of half a guinea 
each. The groom, anxious to pocket as many half 
guineas as possible, published His Royal Highness's 
liberality, and vaunted the qualities of the horse, in order 
.o persuade all he could to avail themselves of the 
benefit. The result was, the horse being kept withoiu 
his accustomed exercise and in a state of repletion, anc 
serving upward of a hundred mares yearly, that the stock, 
although tolerably promising in their early age, shot up 
into lank, weakly, aw r kward, leggy, good-for-nothing 
creatures, to the entire ruin of the horse's character as a 
sire — until some gentleman, aware of the cause, took 
pains to explain it, proving the correctness of their state- 
ments by reference to the first of the horse's get, produced 
under a proper system of breeding, and which were then 
in their prime, and among the best horses in England. 

Almost every observing farmer in this country has 
icmarked that whenever, within his knowledge, an or- 
dinary work-horse has, by chance, covered a tolerably 
good mare, the foal thus produced has, at maturity, 
almost invariably become a better animal than it was 
expected to be, and in many cases proved quite supeiior 
to the get of the high-priced and highly pampered stal- 


iions of the neighbourhood. What was the cause of 
this ? Condition. The work-horse, by constant an'i 
severe exercise, was brought into health and strength, 
and his stock partook of the state of his system ac the 
time 01 copulation. Why is it that many experienced 
farmers, after having tried the best stallion within tbeii 
knowledge, frequently resort to the keeping of one of 
theii own colts or farm-horses entire, for the service of 
their mares, and actually obtain as large and as good 
and saleable stock from such a one, as that fiom the 
public stallions of far superior size, form, blood, and all 
other qualities, except this indispensable condition') 

It may be stated that, generally, whenever the get of 
a stallion has proved, at maturity, to be of remarkable 
excellence comparatively with the sire, such horse has 
been, at and previously to the time of getting such val- 
uable stock, kept without pampering, without excessive 
sexual service, and with a good share of exercise or 

To show the effect of a peculiar state of the system in 
the parents at the time of copulation, instances may be 
cited from various sources. We will content ourselves 
with two — and first take a lamentable case in the human 
species as given in the valuable work on " The Consti- 
tution of Man," by George Combe : 

" In the summer of 1827, the practitioner alluded to 
was called upon to visit professionally a young woman 
in the immediate neighbourhood, who was safely deliv- 
ered of a male child. As the parties appeared to be 
respectable, he made some inquiries regarding the ab- 
sence of the child's father, when the old woman told him 
that her daughter was still unmarried ; that the child** 
r ather belonged to a regiment in Ireland ; that last autumn 
ne had obtained leave of absence to visit his friends in 
this part cf the country, and that, on the eve of his de 



parture tu join his regiment, an entertainment was given> 
at which her daughter attended. During the whole 
evening she and the soldier danced and sang together; 
when heated by the toddy and the dance, they left the 
cottage and after the lapse of an hour were found to- 
gether in a glen, in a state of utter insensibility, from 
the effects of their former festivity ; and the consequence 
of this interview was the birth of an idiot. He is now 
nearly six years of age, and his mother does not believe 
that he is able to recognise either herself or any other 
individual. He is quite incapable of making signs 
whereby his wants can be made known, with tfcis ex- 
ception, that when hungry he gives a wild shriek. This 
is a case upon which it would be painful to dwell, and 
I shall only remark that the parents are both intelligent, 
and that the fatal result cannot otherwise be accounted 
for than by the almost total prostration or eclipse of the 
intellect of both parties from intoxication." 

For another instance of a peculiar constitution derivec 
from a parent at the time of copulation, and owing to z 
temporary excitement of the animal, a respectable farmer 
related to the writer of this Essay that he witnessed the 
etfect of pain and nervous agitation on a stallion just 
before the moment of covering, in the production of a 
wild, timid, violent and worthless colt. The sire was in 
repute as one of the best horses ever kept in the dis 
trict ; and his stock afterward justified the opinion. The 
groom became angry and beat him in his stall in a cruel 
manner, and then led him out and allowed him to co^er 
the mare, which was one of a perfectly quiet and ord^rh 
temper. The consequence was the production o*" an 
animal totally valueless, as above mentioned. 

That the doctrine here held is no « new thing under 
the sun " is evident from many venerated authors. Plu- 
tarch says " The advice which I am now about tc ?i-e, 


is indeed no other than what hath been given by those 
who have undertaken this argument before me. You 
will ask me what is that ? 'Tis this, that no man keep 
company with his wife for issue sake, but when he is 
sober — as not having before either drunk any wine, or, 
at least, not tc such a quantity as to distemper him ; for 
they usually prove wine-bibbers and drunkards whose 
parents begot them when they were drunk ; wherefore, 
Diogenes said to a stripling somewhat crack-brained and 
half-witted, < Surely, young man, thy father begot thee 
when he was drunk ?'" 

Shakspeare intimates the same belief in making a hero 
insult his enemies with the taunt 

" For ye were got in fear." 

On no other known principle than this condition, or a 
peculiar state of the system at and before the time of 
copulation, can be explained the important fact which 
forms at once a criterion of skill in the scientific breeder, 
and a stumbling-block to the ignorant and unreasonable 
one, who would expect success without giving himself 
the trouble of investigating the natural laws which govern 
the subject of his operation : such a person is too apt to 
argue within himself that because the same parents at 
different times produce offspring of opposite character- 
istics, there can be no certain rules by which to create 
determinate qualities in the progeny: such a one would 
maintain that, because all the children of one married 
couple are usually somewhat different in characteristics 
from each other, there can be no means of predicting, 
with an approach to certainty, the qualities to be pro- 
duced in the offspring by a particular sexual intercourse 
Now this law of condition accounts for the difference 
between individuals produced at several births from the 
same parents. The case of twins, in the human species, 
serves to strengthen this argument, inasmuch as the two 


persons produced at one birth usually beai a close resero 
blance to each other, in all respects. 

li is known that ideal impressions on the femal 
parent, subsequent to conception, frequently take per- 
manent effect on the offspring. That such causes do not 
usually give the leading characteristics to the progeny, 
is evident from these considerations : 

1st. The consequences of such impressions on the 
female, are usually somewhat of an unnatural or mon- 
strous order, being different from the traits of either 
parent, and from the common nature of the variety to 
whic*~ the animals belong. 

2d. It is a settled point with breeders that the pro 
geny is more strongly characterized by the traits of the 
male, than by those of the female parent. This fact is 
well known ; and indeed it can hardly be expected other- 
wise than that the sex which bears so much the stronge. 
impress of character, should impart the more visible re- 
semblance to the offspring. 

3d. It is an ascertained law of Nature, that peculiar- 
ities of climate, food, occupation and most other circurn 
stances affecting the well-being of an animal, produce in 
its constitution a change such as is necessary for the wel- 
fare of the species ; and that this proceeds throughout 
many generations, until the animal becomes completely 
adapted to the circumstances of its existence. [The 
same thing occurs in the vegetable kingdom.] 

This last consideration, of the gradually altered state 
of an animal through successive generations, is a strong 
instance of the effect of condition ; and it is by a regard 
to this invariable law of Nature, of self-adaptation to cir- 
cumstances, that the cultivation or improvement of any 
creed is to be effected. « Hence the most acid and 
worthless grape is by skilful culture rendered sweet and 
uscious, flowery without attraction are graduall) nurtured 


into beauty and fragrance ; the cat may be made to pre- 
sent all the rich colours of the tortoise-shell, and the 
pigeon may be ' bred to a feather.' " 

Le* us now endeavour to deduce a useful, practical 
conclusion from the foregoing arguments. If our doc- 
trine be correct, the horse-breeder will depend upon the 
condition of the stallion, in order to the producing of 
valuable stock from him, as well as upon his other qual- 
ities of pedigree, speed, action, bottom, wind, temper, 
spirit, form, style, size, colour, &c. 

The next practical question is, how this condition is 
to be attained, and how the animal is to be kept at the 
required standard in this respect. The requisite condition 
is only to be attained by training for health and strength 
in a great measure according to the system of training 
for races : supplying an abundant nourishment of the 
best quality, allowing sufficient periods of repose for di- 
gestion, and giving regular and strong exercise, the 
whole with such variations as only experience and close 
observation, under constant practice, can dictate. 

The aptitude of an animal to benefit by training is 
often inherited, like other qualities, from its parentage; 
and judicious breeding alone can insure a continuance 
of the desirable quality, or create a propensity for it by 
proper crossing, when it does not exist in the parents. 

The age at which the horse is best adapted to under- 
go a course of training, is just at the close of his most 
rapid period of growth, while the system is in its great- 
est freshness and vigour. This period is at abo "X five 
years old. The powers of a horse will augment by suit- 
able treatment in this respect until about the age of nine 
years: and, in order to obtaining the most valuable 
stock, a stallion should not be put to service before at- 
taining a full de\ elopment of his powers, nor kept at it 
aftf his form or energies appear to be affected for the 



worse. He should be, then, between five and fifteen 
years of age, if of an ordinary constitution ; but if of re- 
markable energy and endurance, and exhibiting no symp- 
tom of debility, may be continued until past twenty. 

Trainers find their endeavours to produce the highest 
state of strength, in an animal, greatly impeded by any 
excitement of the sexual appetite. It is then the more 
necessary to keep the horse in a state of training through- 
out the year, impressing most forcibly a tone of health 
and strength upon his system at the time when his nerves 
are liable to the least distraction ; and continuing the 
course carefully thoroughout the season of copulation ; 
never allowing such excess of service, or of the excite- 
ment of sexual appetite, as to induce a disturbance of 
spirit or temper, or a relapse from the most thoroughly 
strong, healthy and regular tone of the ^tem. 

G, B 


The following Tables may be so often useful to the classes of 
persons for whom this work is intended, that it has been thought 
expedient to give them a place. 

The list of medicines embraces such as ought to be kept con- 
stantly on hand, not only in every training and livery stable, but 
by every farmer and breeder who aspires to good management, and 
to deserve the praise of all men who happen to visit his establish- 
ment, and who know, as the French say, what is comme il fauL 
Some other medicines might well be added, but it is thought best 
not to leave any excuse to the indolent and improvident to say tna; 
too much is required — but we will begin with 


Apothecaries' or Troy weight is most usually employed in medi 
rin*. In this, a pound contains twelve ounces : 

1 lb. is 5760 Troy grains. 

9 oz. or three-quarters of a lb 4320 " " 

6 " " a half lb 2S80 « « 

3 " " one-fourth of a lb 1440 » «* 

1 » " 8 drachms 480 " « 

7 drachms 420 " « 

6 " 360 « « 

5 " 300 « ■ 

4 " or a half oz 240 « ■ 

3 M 180 " «• 

2 " 120 « « 

1 ■ 60 « ■ 

1 scruple 20 « « 


Twenty grains one scruple 

Three scruples one drachrr 

Eight drachms one ounce. 

Twelve ounces one pound. 


Sixty drops one fluid drachm. 

Eight fluid drachms one fluid ounce. 

Four fluid ounces a measure or nagjj-.i. 

Sixteen fluid oum-es one fluid pint. 

Eight fluii pints one i^allon. 




dad other articles which ought, to be at. hand about every training and 
livery stable, and every Farmers and Breeder's estaolishment : 


Aloes, Barbadoes, 


Arrow Root, 

Bas:^Lcon, yellow, 


Castile Soap, 

Goulard's Extract, 


Hog's Lard, 

Linseed Meal, 


Oil of Caraway, 

Oil, Castor, 

Oil of Cloves, 

Oil of Olives, 



Spanish Flies, 

Sweet Spirit of Nitre 

Spirit of Turpentine, 

Salt, common, 

Soft Soap, 


Tartar Emetic, 

Tincture of Myrrh, 

Venus Turpentine, 


Vitriol, Blue, 



White Lead. 

Apparatus for Compounding Medicines. 

A box of small weights and scales, for the weighing of medicines 
in small portions, as from a grain to two drachms— the weights 
marked with -English characters. 

One pair of two-ounce scales ; one pair of pound scales , one 
pound of brass box-weights. 

A graduated glass for the measure of fluids, marked with English 

One large and one small pestle and mortar. 

One marble slab, a foot and a half square, for mixing ointments. 

One large and one small ladle. 

One large and one small pallet knife — to mix and spread plasters 

Articles necessary to be kept for administering and applying Medicines. 

Improved Ball Iron. 

Drencning horn. 

Flannel — for the app.ying of fomentations and poultices. 

Woollen and linen bandages. 

Tow, and broad coarse tape. 



Elastic tube, 

Fleam and blood stick, 

Aoseess lancet, 

Tooth rasp, with a guard, 

Seton, and curved needles, 
Improved casting hobbks, 
Brushes, ourrycr mbs, &c, 





Day Bulled. 

Will Calve. 

[ Day Bulled. 

Will Calve 

Day bulled. 

July 1 

Will Calve. 

Day Balled. 

W,ll Calve. 

Jan'y 1 

Oct'r 8 

April 1 

Jan'y 6 

April 7 

Oct r 1 

July 9 

« 7 

« 14 

u 7 

" 12 

" 7 

" 13 

11 7 

" 15 

« 14 

» 21 

it 14 

« 19 

ii 14 

« 20 

11 14 

" 22 

» 21 

« 28 

« 21 

» 26 

« 21 

« 28 j 

« 21 

" 29 

" 28 

Nov. 4 

" 28 

Feb'y 2 

" 2S 

May 4; 
« 8 ! 

« 28 

Aug. 5 

" CI 

« 7 

« 30 

ti 4 

« 31 

" 31 

" 8 

Feb'y 1 

« 8 

May 1 

« 5 

Aug. 1 

« 9 

Nov. 1 

u 9 

m 7 

« 14 

it 7 

« 11 

i, 7 

« 15! 

11 7 

« 15 

u 14 

" 21 

K 14 

« IS 

u 14 

ii 22 

11 14 

" 21 

" 21 

« 2S 

u 21 

« 25 

« 21 

« 29 

« 21 

" 29 

« 28 

Deer 5 

" 28 

Mar. 4 

" 28 

June 5 

" 28 

Sept. 5 

Mar. 1 

« 6 

" 31 

it 7 

« 31 

« 8| 

" 30 

11 7 

u 7 

it 12 

June 1 

" 8 

Sept. 1 

ii 9: 

Dec'r 1 

« 8 

" 14 

« 19 

it 7 

ii 14 

ii 7 

« 15 

u 7 

" 21 

« 21 

« 26 

it 14 

" 21 

ii 14 

" 22 

ii 14 

« 21 

« 28 

Jan'y 2 

" 21 

" 28 

« 21 

« 29 

« 21 

« 28 

" 31 


« 28 

April 4 

« 28 

July 6 

« 28 

Oct'r 5 

" 50 

" 6 

" 30 

« 8 

" 31 

" 8 


When to 

Will Lamb. 

When to 

Will Lamb. 

WheD to 

Will Lamb. 

When to 

Will Lamb. 

Jan'y 1 

May 27 

April 1 

Aug. 26 

July 1 

Nov. 25 

Oct'r 1 

Feb. 25 

11 14 

June 10 

11 14 

Sept. 8 

" 14 

Dec'r 9 

11 14 

Mar. 10 

Feb'y 1 

" 28 

May 1 

" 22 

Aug. 1 

" 26 

Nov. 1 

'• 26 

u 14 

July 12 

11 14 

Oct'r 8 

11 14 

Sept. 1 

Jan'y 8 

« 14 

April 9 

Mar. 1 

" 26 

June 1 

11 25 

" 26 

Dec'r 1 

" 25 

u 14 

Aug. S 

h 14 

Nov. 8 

« 14 

Feb'y 9 

11 14 

May 9 


Should you bave anywbere a spare corner, please enter a protest 
in my name, against tbe cruel practice recommended, of firing for 
the lamp as ; which takes its name from the brutal custom among 
old farriers, but now abandoned in England, of burning the swe.l- 
ing down with a red-hot lamp-iron. In most cases, it will soon 
subside of itself, especially if a few mashes be given, aided by a 
gentle alterative. If need be, a few moderate cuts may be made 
across the bars with a pen-lcnife. 

Founder may be cured, and the traveller pursue his journey the 
next day, by giving a table-spoonful of alum ! This 1 got from Dr. 
P. Thornton, of Montpeliei, Rappahannoc county, .Virginia, as 
funded en his own observation in several cases. 

. S. S 


This s a gait held in high estimation in the northern parts of the 
Onited States, and in Canada; especially when a horse can go his 
mile within three minutes. Then, as he falls by seconds, his value 
rises by guineas. In the south, gentlemen don't "cotton" to such 
action; though a passion for this sort of equestrian display is travel- 
ling towards the land of the magnolia grandiflora, with some other 
changes less compatible with their ancient high-born chivalry. 

On the good old track at Charleston, among gentlemen who have 
never let the old Huguenot fires go down, you rarely see a snaffle- 
bridle, or what is called a " goer /" They have an eye and a hear* 
ibr a good horse; but choose to retain the power of throwing him 
on his haunches when occasion may demand it. 

It is, we believe, a rule on all courses in the United States, that 
the jockey's weight, in a trotting race, whether in harness or saddle, 
must be not under 145 pounds. 

In harness, simply signifies a sulky, as light as the owner may 
choose. They generally weigh from 75 to 125 lbs. The weight of 
a trotting wagon is from 125 to 200 lbs. Hiram Woodruff's weight 
was about 160 lbs. 

An interesting investigation is now going on in England to ascer- 
tain whether Tom Thumb, the celebrated American trotter, ever 
performed 20 miles within the hour. Large bets are pending on 
the result. If he has ever accomplished such a feat, it has not been, 
within our knowledge, officially recorded. Many of the parties 
betting on Tom Thumb having performed the above feat, failing 
to procure satisfactory proof thereof, have paid their bets. 

Fanny Jenks trotted 101 miles in harness, over the Bull's Head 
<*ouise. Albany, in 9 hours, 42 minutes, 57 seconds, on the 5th of 
May, 1845. 

Fanny Murray trotted 100 miles, in harness, in 9 hours, 41 mi- 
nutes, 26 seconds, on the 15th of May, 1S46, over the Bull's Head 
courae, Albany. 





Aggy Down. 


Confidence. .. . 

Dutchman .... 

Edwin Foirest 

Lady Suffolk. . 

Lady Suffolk.. 

Norman Leslie 

Saddle or 




2 27, 2 29$, 2 30, 

2 30, 2 31, 
2 32£, 231^,2 33, 

2 38, 
2 35, 2 37, 2 36 . 
2 35, 2 32, 2 35 . 
2 30, 2 35, 2 33, 

2 33, 2 40, 


2 28i, 2 28, 2 28, 

2 29, 2 32, 
2 20i, 2 27, 2 27 
2 38, 2 3«i, 2 38, 

2 3D, 2 38, 



Beacon Course, N. J. 

Beacon Course, N. J. 

Beacon Course, N. J. 
Beacon Course, N. J. 

Trenton, N.J 

Centreville, L. I. . .. 

Beacon Course, N. J 

Beacon Course, N. J 

Trenton, N.J 

Sep. 25, 


June — 
July — 

Sep. — 

May — 

July 4, 

July 12, 

June — 

18 15 









Amerirus. .. 
Americus. .. 
Black Maria 

Confidence. • 

D. D. Tompkins 
Dutchman .... 
Dutchman ■ • . . 
Edwin Forrest 
Edwin Forrest 


James K. Polk 
Lady Suffolk 
Lady Suffolk 
Lady Suffolk 








5 13,5 11 

5 17±, 5 17, 5 22 
5 19$, 5 12± .... 
5 164,5 ll?i,5 16, 
5 18. 5 25, 

5 16$, 5 11 

5 10, 5 09 

5 11, 5 10 

5 05, 5 00 

5 17,5 13,5 17 ... 
5 24, 5 19, 5 17| • • 
5 If), 5 l(ji 

4 59, 5 03i 

5 10, 5 15 

5 17,5 19,5 18 ... 

5 10i, 5 12i 

5 07, 5 15 

5 07, 5 15, 5 17 . . . 

Union Course, L. I. 
Hunting Park, Pa. . 
Cambridge Park . . . 

Centreville, L. I. . . . 

Centreville, L. 
Beacon Course, 
Beacon Course, 
Hunting Park, 
Hunting Park, 
Hunting Park, 
Union Course, 
Centreville, L. 
Centreville, L. 
Beacon Course, 
Reacon Course, 
Hunting Park, 
Hunting Park, 

1. ... 


Pa. . 
Pa. . 
Pa. . 



Pa. . 
Pa. . 

Oct. 8, 1846 
Oct. 17, 1840 
June 18, 1845 

May — 1841 

Oct. — 1837 
April— 1839 
Oct. — 1839 
May — 1840 
Oct. — 1838 
June 2, 1846 
Nov. 18, 1846 
Sep. — 1H10 
May — 1842 
May 21, 1844 
May — 1842 
May — 1842 
May - 1842 


Columhus. .. 
Dutchman . . 
Dutchman . . 

Dutchman . . 

Dutchman . . 
Lady -Suffolk 




7 58, 8 07 

7 32i 


7 54f 7 50, 8 02, 

8 24£, 

7 401,7 56 

8 00, 7 5GJ 

Hunting Park, Pa. . 
Beacon Course, N. J, 
Beacon Course, N.J 

Beacon Course, N. J 

Hunting Park, Pa. • 
Hunting Park, Pa. . 
Beacon Course, N. J 

June - 1834 
Aug. - 1839 
July — 1839 

Oct. — 1838 

May — 1840 
May - J841 
Au? -^ 18-12 



l.anv Suffolk... 
Lady Suffolk. .. 

Sir Peter 

fillen Thompson 

Centreville, L. I. . • • 
Centreville, L. I. . . . 
Cnmbri lire Park . . . 
Hunting Park, Pa. 
. .Beacon Course, N. J 

Mav — 1836 
,j, ine _ if40 
Nov. — 1839 
Or. — 1829 
>hv — i812 



Nam 5 

| Aduella 
Beta . . . 

J 48, 1 50, 1 49 

] 50, 1 47, 1 S2| . .. . 

1 50, 1 48, 1 49 

J 48, 1 50, 1 48, 1 49 
1 45, 1 45, 1 57, 2 01 

Big Alirk |l 57, 1 47£, 1 50, 151 

Capt. McIIeath. ■ 1 49, 1 48, 1 50 

1 48, 1 49i 


Colt by Levi a 

tlian, 1). F 





Dan. Mc In tyre. 
Fred. Kaye .... 

Fred. Kaye .... 

Gildersleeve . . . 
Harden 'd Sinner 
llouri, {Imp.) . . 
Jane Adams . .. 

Jim Bell 

John Hampden. 
Kitty Harris . .. 


Little Trick ... 
Lucy c. (Bu ford's) 
Mary Brennan 


Miss Footo . . . 



Nathan Rice. . 


Sailor Boy 


St. Pierre 


Susan Hill .... 
The Duke ... 

Uncas , 


1 48, 1 47J, 1 50 



1 48, 1 48, 1 46 

1 51, 1541, 149 

1 49 

1 50, 1 48, 1 51 

1 50, 1 48L 1 50, 1 53i, 1 52i, 
I 1 52, 1 47i, 1 52, 1 48, ) 
\ 1 57i, ] 5f,i, \ ' ■ 

1 51, 1 49, 153, 156 

1 50, 1 48, 1 49i 

1 47, 153 

1 47i, 1 52 

151, 1 46 

148, 149, 153 

1 48, 1 51,2 02 

1 48, 1 48 

1 48 

149, ] 48, 151 

1 48, 1 49 

1 48, 1 48 

1 47, 1 49, 1 48, 1 50, 1 50 . . . 

1 50, 1 48 

1 48i, 1 4(5i, 148 

1 45, 1 52 

1 50, 1 48, 1 53 

1 51, 1 49, 1 48 

1 48, 1 55, 2 00 

1 47, 1 56. 1 55 

1 47, 1 48, 1 46|, 1 47, 1 47 . 

1 55, 1 50, 1 48 

1 48, 1 55i, 1 531 

1 451, 1 48, 1 471 

1 50, 1 55, 1 48 

New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . 

Lexington, Ky 

New Orleans, La. . . 
Nashville, Tenn.... 

Louisville, Ky 

Columbus, Ga 

Washington, D. C. 

New Orleans, La. . . 

New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Georgetown, Ky. . 
Louisville, Ky. . .. 

New Orleans, La. . 

Versailles, Ky 

Jackson, Miss 

New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Lexington, Kv. . . . 
Orange C. H., Va. . 
Baltimore, Md. ... 
Lexington, Ky. ... 
E. Feliciana, La. . 

Bardstown, Ky 

Cincinnati, Ohio. . 
Louisville, Ky. . .. 
New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Louisville, Ky. . . . 

Trenton, N. J 

Cynthiana, Ky. ... 
Cvnthiana, Ky. . .. 
Orange C. H., Va. . 
New Orleans, La. . 


Trenton, N. J 

E. Feliciana, La. . 
Kanawha, Va 

Dec. 25, 1842 
Mar. 19, 1843 
Sep. 24, 18-10 
Mar. 21, 1811 
May 22. 1841 
June 4, 1842 
May 4, 1839 
June 1, 1841 

April 1, 1846 

Mar. 27, 1842 
Dec. 20, 1846 
Mar. 15,1846 
Apr. 28, 1842 
Oct. 9, 1846 

Dec. 6, 1846 

Sep. 18, 
Feb. 17, 
Mar. 18, 
Oct. 29, 
May 21, 
Sep. 18, 
Mav 17, 
May 19, 
Apr. 24, 
Oct. 12, 
Oct. 19, 
June 4, 
Dec. 12, 
Mar. 17, 
Dec. 29, 
Oct. 7, 
May 25, 
Oct. 25, 
Oct. 25, 
Sep. 15, 
Mar. 24, 
A pr, 30, 
May 31, 
Apr. 27 
June 7, 




























Ann Hayes . .. 
Ann Stuart 



Balie Peyton . • 
Bee's- Wing 
Betsey Archy, 


Brown Ktty 
Butterfly filly . , 

3 54, 3 39 

3 43i, 3 421 

3 50,3 44,3 45 

3 44^ 3 49, 3 49, 3 50. 

3 46, 3 52 

3 54, 3 45 

3 44, 3 47 

3 53, 3 44 

3 491,3 45 

2 49i, 3 44, 3 45 

3 56, 3 40. 3 47 . 
3 481, 3 50, 3 40 


Lexington, Ky. 
New Orleans, La. . . 
Memphis, Tenn. . . . 

Louisville, Ky 

Columbus. Ga 

Broad Rock, Va. . . 
New Orleans, La. . • 

Washington, D. C. 

Georgetown, Ky. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Lexington, Ky. . .. 



Sep. 26, 
Nov. 21, 
Nov. 14, 
June 7, 
Mav 2, 
Apr. 26, 
Mar. 26, 

May 31, 

Sep. 18, 
Dec. 1, 
Mar. 18. 
Sep. 27, 






Continued on page 55 






Consol lunior 








Earl of Margrave.. 


George W. Kendall 
Governor Butler . . 

Grey Medoc 

Grey Medoc 



La Bacchante 


Maid of Northampt'n 


Miss Clash 






Xancy Clark 

Nannv Rogers 

Of' %m 

Passenger, (Imp.) . . . 



Richard of York 

Richard of York .... 

Robert Bruce 




Bally Shannon 

Sally Ward 

Sarah Bladen 

Sarah Washington. . 


Snag 348,343 

Borrow, (Imp.) 3 5.>, 3 

Stanley Eclipse 


Susan Mill 



The Colonel . . , 





Soon colt, 


West Florida . 


Wilton Brown 
Young Whig . 

3 49, 3 40, 3 47 

3 46, 3 53, 3 47 

3 41. 3 41 

3 46, 3 42 

3 40, 3 45 

3 50, 3 44^, 3 50 ... . 
3 44J, 3 43i, 3 43± .. 

3 474, 3 40 .. 

3 45i, 3,44 

3 46, 3 40*. 

3 45, 3 45 

3 50, 3 47, 3 45, 4 07 

3 57,3 46 

3 46, 3 49, 3 55 

3 45, 3 55 

3 45, 3 55 

3 46, 3 51 

3 41,4 03 

3 50, 3 45, 3 5H . . . 

3 45 

3 46, 3 46 

3 46, 3 43 

3 48*, 3 43 

3 40, 3 48£ 

3 49,3 46, 3 51 

3 51, 3 46, 3 55 

3 49, 3 45 

3 46, 3 46 

3 48, 3 46, 3 51 

3 49, 3 46 , 

4 10, 3 53, 3 44 

3 50. 3 44 


3 49, 3 46 

3 46,3 44 

3 43,3 43,3 47 ... 

3 48, 3 46 

3 49, 3 45£, 4 42£ . . 

3 49, 3 40 

3 50, 3 43 

3 50,3 41* 

3 46 

3 45 

3 40, 3 46 

3 44. 3 45* 

3 43, 3 4. r » 

3 45, 3. r .l 

3 49, 3 46 

3 48, 3 46 

3 45, 3 50 

3 47, 3 45* 

3 46, 3 45 

3 46, 3 48 

3 47, 3 45 

3 49, 3 45 

3 50, 3 52, 3 43, 3 50 

3 51i. 3 46,3 53 

3 46 

3 52. 3 45 

1 53. 3 44 


Lexington, Ky. • • • 
Louisville, Ky. • •• 
New Orleans, La. . 
Louisville, Ky. . . . 


New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Louisville, Ky. • •• 
New Orleans, La. . 
Lexington, Ky. . .. 
New Orleans, La. . 

Camden, S. C 

New Orleans, La. . 
New Orleans, La. . 

Pineville, S.C 

Union Course, L. 
New Orleans, La. . 

Fairfield, Va 

Washington, D. C. 

Baltimore, Md. . 

Louisville, Ky. . • 

Lexington, Ky. •• 

Bardstown, Ky. . . 

New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La. 

Augusta, Ga 

Lexington, Ky. . . 

Richmond, Va. . . 

Trenton, N. J. ... 

Jackson, Miss 

Louisville, Ky. . . 

New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Trenton, N.J 

Lexington, Ky. •• 

Natchez, Miss 

Frankfort, Ky.... 

New Orleans, La. 

New Orleans, La. 

Orange C. H. Va. 

Baltimore, Md. . . 

Terre Haute, Ind. 

Springfield, III 

Trenton, N. J. .. . 
New Orleans, La. 


Pineville, S.C. ... 
Nashville. Tenn. . 
Baltimore, Md. . . 

Trenton, N. J. • • ■ 
Union Course, L. 
Lexington, Ky. .. 
E. Feliciana, La. 

Lexington, Ky. .. 

Camdf n, S. J. 

Sep. 20, 
June 6, 
Mar. 24. 
June I, 
Apr. 26. 
Apr. 13, 
Apr. 2, 
Apr. 10, 
Oct. 1, 
Mar. 23, 
May 23, 
Dec. 10. 
Nov. 21, 
Dec. 27, 
Mar. 18, 
Feb. — 
May 8, 
Apr. 3, 
May 20, 
Oct. 2, 
ay 9, 
June 15, 
Sep. 20, 
Sep. — 
Dec. 22, 
Jan. 4, 
Dec. 25, 
Dec. 9, 
May 22, 
Apr. 10, 
Oct. 25, 
Jan. 28, 
June 5, 
Mar. 13, 
Mar. 24, 
Oct. 14, 
May 29, 
Sep. 21, 
Nov. 19, 
Sep. 7, 
Dec. 3, 
Mar. 17, 

Sep. 16, 

May 8, 
Sep. — 

Georgetown, Ky.. 
Broad Rock, Va. . 
Alf vruidria D. C. 
Oaklev. Miss 

Apr. 24, 
Oct. 30, 
Mar. 19, 
Apr. 28, 
Jan. 30, 
Oct. 4, 
Mav 4, 
May 28, 
Oct. 8, 
Sep. 21, 
Apr. 25, 

May 23, 





J 840 



















































Oct. 20, 1811 
Apr. 12, 1839 
Oct. 2, " 
June 5 

Dec. 7, 








kjlsey Scroggins 

I uidrewetta 





Blue Dick 

Blue Dick 

Blue Dick 

Bob Letcher 




Creath ". 


Eliza Calvert 


George Martin 

George Martin 


Hard Cider 


James F. Robinson 


Joe Chalmers 

Kate Aubray 

Liz Hew Ht 

Louisa Jordan 



Master Henry 


Miss Foote 

Polly Green 

Uueen Mary 

Red Bill 





Sally Shannon 

Santa Anna 

Sarah Washington. 
Sarah Washington. 


Ten Broeck 

The Colonel 



■ Wilton Brown. 

5 57, 5 46, 5 54£ 

5 48,542* 

5 42,551 

5 45, 5 44 

5 48, 5 4b" 

5 45,546 

5 44,5381 

5 42, 5 39i 

5 50, 5 4G 

5 52, 5 46, 6 12, 5 51 . . 

5 46 

5 45k 5 57 

5 57,5 43 

5 45, 5 44£ 

5 44, 5 53 

001, 5 59, 5 46 

5 43 


5 45i, 5 49, 5 52 

5 45,5 51 

5 41,6 14. 5 55, 5 50 .. 

6 04i, 5 45, 6 02*, 6 44 

5 46, 5 55 

5 45,538* 

5 48,5 45 

5 40, 5 41 




5 46. 5 56 

5 47L 5 40, 5 56, 6 01 . 


5 59, 5 46 

5 46, 5 48 

5 37, 5 40, 5 40 

5 40, 5 48, 5 49 

5 45, 5 49 

5 51,5 47,5 44,5 52.. 
5 47, 5 48, 5 46, 5 52 . • 

5 401, 5 3G 

5 41*, 5 50,5 57,6 01 . 

5 43L5 48 


5 10, 5 45 

5 46 


5 42, 5 54, 5 56 


5 55L 5 46 

5 45, 6 05 



Trenton, N.J 

Louisville, Ky 

Washington, D. C. . 

Frankfort, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Trenton, N.J 

Alexandria, DC... 

Baltimore, Md 

Lexington, Ky 

Broad Rock, Va. . . . 
Union Course, L. I. 

Louisville, Ky 

New Orleans, La. . . 


Camden, N. J 

Baltimore, Md 

New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . 

Natchez, Miss 

Fredericksburg, Va 

Lexington, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

New Orleans, La. . . 
Memphis, Tenn. . .. 
New Orleans, La. . . 

Peoria, HI 

New Orleans, La. . . 

E. Feliciana, La 

Camden, N. J 

Baltimore, Md 

Washington, D. C. . 

Mobile, Ala 

Columbus, Ga. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. .. 

Lexington, Ky 

Baltimore, Md 

Louisville, Ky. 
Lexington, Ky. 
New Orleans, La. . 
Lexington, Ky. 

Pineville, S. C 

Broad Rock, Va. . .. 
Baltimore, Md. 

Rome, Ga 

Louisville, Ky 

Camden, N. J 

Union Course, L. 1 
Union Course, L. I 
Alexandria, D. C. . . 


Sep. - 
May 29, 
June (i, 
June 3, 
Sep. 24, 
Sep. 28, 
May 19, 
June 3, 
May 6, 
May 20, 
Apr. 27, 
Oct. 9, 
Oct. 15, 
Mar. 28, 
Apr. 29, 
Oct. 29, 
Oct. 16, 
Mar. 25, 
Mar. 17, 
Apr. 25, 
May 28, 
Sep. 19, 
May 20, 
Dec. 27, 
Nov. 15, 
Dec. 23, 
Oct. 28, 
Dec. 4, 
Apr. 26, 
May 21, 
May 16, 
May 16, 
Mar. 10, 
May 2, 
O. 17, 
May 22, 
Oct. 20, 
Oct. 8, 
Sep. 24, 
Mar. 22, 
Sep. 21, 
Feb. 8, 
A pr. 21, 
May 19, 
Sep. 16, 
June 2, 
Nov. 27, 
June 5, 
Oct. 5, 
June "i, 

KM l) 






Ann Hayes 



En taw 









George Martin. .. . 

Grey head 

Grey Medoc 


Jerry Lancaster. . . 
Jerry Lancaster. . . 
Jerry Lancaster. .. 
Jerrv Lancaster. . . 

Jim Bell 

Miss Foote 

Miss Foote 

Mis? Foote 







Sarah Bladen 



7 4(5 

7 36J, 7 42 


8 13, 7 46, 7 58J 

8 01,7 43 

7 37£, 7 49, 8 24 ... . 

7 42,748 

7 32i, 7 45 

7 38, 7 521 

7 36, 7 49 

7 35£ 

7 43* 

7 3(i, 7 51 , 

7 33,743 

7 45£, 7 50 

7 35, 8 19, 7 42, 8 17 ■ 

7 45,758 

7 43, 7 40 

7 38,8 14 , 

7 55, 7 45 , 

7 51,7 43,8 08 

7 37,740 

8 02, 7 35 

7 42, 7 40 , 

7 3(j[, 7 39, 7 5li ..., 

7 57,7 45 

7 45,748 

7 39$, 7 45£ 

7 40, 743 

7 431,7 41 , 

7 39, 7 39*, 7 51, 8 29 
7 45,740 , 

53, 7 46, 8 19 

Raleigh, N. C 

New Orleans, La. . 
Baltimore, Md. 
Union Course, L. I 
Washington, D. C. 
Ui ion Course, L. I 

Can. Jen, N. J 

Union Course, L. I 

Camden, N. J , 

Trenton, N. J 

Baltimore, Md 

Union Course, L. I 
Baltimore, Md. 
New Orleans, La. . 

Lexington, Ky 

New Orleans, La. . , 

St. Louis, Mo 

New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . 

St. Louis, Mo 

New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . , 
New Orleans, La. . . 

Lexington, Ky 

New Orleans, La. . , 

Augusta, Ga 

New Orleans, La. . . 
Union Course, L. I 
New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . . 
New Orleans, La. . , 
Baltimore, Md 


Nov. 7, 
Mar. 23, 
May 15, 
May J 3, 
May 6, 
Mav 27, 
Oct. 28, 
May 10, 
Oct. 29, 
Nov. 4, 
Oct. 20, 
Oct. 23, 
May 14, 
Mar. 29, 
Sep. 23, 
Mar. 20 
June 24, 
Apr, 5, 
Apr. 12, 
Oct. 21, 
Dec. 5, 
Mar. 19, 
Mar. 26, 
Sep. 25, 
Dec. 24, 
Dec. 11, 
Jan. % 
May 13, 
Dec. 11, 
Mar. 18, 
Dec. 28, 
Mar. 17, 
Ma i 15, 




The Doncaster St. Leger (in England prone mo.e »Sellenger,) 
is the most important stake in Great Britain, amou .ing to fron. 
eighteen to twenty-four thousand dollars, and is run for, annually, 
by three year old colts and fillies: the former carry i9 pounds, the 
latter 114. 

With these tables in view, a comparison of the meed of English 
and American horses can easily be made, having due regard to 
weight, age, and the distance run. The St. I eger is a race of" one 
utraight heat, and the horse has only to do his * est for that single run. 

J. S. S. 

The following table will show the rea/ i th-? distp.noe per sec^ad 
■ vcraged by horses running at any disti oe : 

Time of running Distance per seond 

one mile. Yds. Ft. In. 

140 M 17 1 9| 

141 _ 17 1 3\ 

142 17 9* 

143 17 3| 

144 16 2 9J 

145 16 2 3? 

146 16 1 9J 

147 16 1 44 

1 48 16 lOf 

149 16 5| 

150 16 

151 15 2 6 T 9 T 

152 15 2 If 

153 15 1 8 r » 3 

154 15 1 3| 

155 15 Oil 

156 15 6 r 4 j 

157 15 lf£ 

158 14 2 8f| 

159 14 2 4,^ 

200 14 2 



Distance I mile 6 furlongi 132 yard*. 

fear. Name of Horse. Time - Yds ,n • 

m. a. minute. 

1818 livelier 3 15 988 

1846 Si, Tatton Sykes 3 16 983 

\838 D™ John 3 17 978 

_819 Ar.onio 3 18 973 

1842 Blu* Bonnet 3 19 ^ 968 

1835 Qut^n of Trumps 3 20 963 

1836 .'. Elis 3 20 963 

1840 Lau„celot 3 20 963 

1843 Nutwith 3 20 963 

1847 Van fromp 3 20 963 

1834 Touchstone 3 22 954 

.841 Satirist 3 22 954 

1837 Mango 3 23 949 

1844 Faugh-a-ballagh 3 23 949 

1823 Barefoot 3 23 { 948 

1825 Memnon 3 231 947 

1827 ,. Matilda 3 24 945 

1826 Tarrare 3 25 940 

1839 Charles XII 3 25 940* 

1845 The Baron 3 25 940 

1820 St. Patrick 3 26 935 

1822 Theodore 3 26 935 

1824 Jerry 3 29 922 

1810 Octavian 3 30 918 

1812 Otterington 3 31 913 

1833 Rockingham 3 38 ...... 884 

Mean speed 3 24 945 





SINCE 1839. 
Being an Appendix to Mason* s Farrier 


AARON, b. h. by Tennessee Citizen, dam by Timoleon. 

ABBEVILLE, b. h. by Nutlifier, dam by Gallatin. 

ABNER HUNTER, b. h. by Medoc, dam by Blackburn's Whip. 

ACALIA, b. m. by Luckless. 

ACHILLES, gr. h. by Boxer. 

ADELA, b. m. by The Colonel, dam [Imp .] Variella by Blacklock. 

ADELAIDE, b. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Napoleon. 

ADELIA, b. m. by Mons. Tonson, dam by Sir Archy. 

ADRIAN, ch. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam Phenomena, by Six 

ADUELLA, ch. m. by [Imp.] Glencoe, dam Giantess by [Imp.] Le- 

^SOP, ch. h. by [Imp.] Priam, dam Trumpetta by Mons. Touson. 

iKTNA, b. m. by Volcano, dam Rebecca by Palafox.. 

AH IRA, b. h. by Medoc, dam by Tiger. 

AILSEY SCROGGINS, ch. m. by Giles Scroggins, dam by Pirate. 

AJARRAH HARRISON, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam by Gallatin. 

AJAX, gr. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Pacolet. 

A.J. LAWSON, b. h. by [Imp.] Hedgford, dam Kitty Fisher bf 

ALAMODE, ch. h. by [Imp. ] Margrave, dam by Timoleon. 

ALARIC, b. h. by Mirabeau, dam by [Imp.] Tranby. 

A LA TOON A, b. m. by Argyle, dam Viola by Gallatin. 

ALBION, [Imp] bl. h. by Cain or Action, dam by Comus or Black 

Al-BORAC, b. h. by Telegraph, dam by Monday. 

ALDERMAN, ch. g. by [Imp,] Langford, dam by Sir Cbarks. 

ALLEGRA, b. m. by StockhoUler, dam by Pacolet. 

ALLEN BROWN, ch. h. by Stockholder, dam by [Imp ] Eagle 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, b. h. by Collier, dam by Kojciusko. 
ALEXANDER CHURCHILL, b. h. by [Imp.] Zinganee, dam by 

ALICE, b. m. by Conqueror, dam by Wild Medley. 

i b. m. by [Imp.] Sarpedon, dam Rowena by Sumpter. 

ALICE ANN, gr. m. by Director, dam by Gallatin. 
ALMIRA, gr. m. by Eclipse dam by Stockholder. 
ALTORF, b. h. by [Imp.] Fyldt, dam by Virginian. 
ALWILDA, gr. m. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam by John Richards. 
AMBASSADOR, ch. h. by Plenipotentiary, dam [Imp.] Jenny Mill* 

by Whisker. 
AMELIA, br. m. by Bluster, darn by Messenger. 
AMERICA, b. m. by Stockholder, dam by Democrat. 

b. m. by [Imp.] Trustee, dam Di Vernon by Florizel. 

AMERICAN CITIZEN, b. h. by Marion, dam by Harwood. 

EAGLE, gr. h. by Grey Eagle, dam by Waxy. 

■ STAR, ch. h. by Cramp, dam by Pulaski. 

AMY THE ORPHAN, ch. m. by [Imp.] Nonplus, dam by Comet. 
ANDREWANNA, b. m. by Andrew, dam by Gallatin. 
ANDREWETTA, gr. m. by Andrew, dam by Oscar. 
ANDREW HAMET, b. h. by Sidi Hamet, dam by Trumpator. 
ANN BARROW, b. m. by Cock of the Rock, dam by Virginian. 
ANN BELL, ch. m. by Frank, dam Jonquil by Little 2ohn. 
ANN BLAKE, b. m. by Lance, dam by Blackburn's Whip. 
ANN CALENDAR, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam Grand Duchess by 

[Imp.] Gracchus. 
ANN GILLESPIE, br. m. by McCarty's Henry Clay, dam Susan by 

Sir William. 
ANN HARROD, ch. m. by Hickory John, dam by King William. 
ANN HAYES, b. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Pacific. 
AlfN INNIS, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam (the dam of Mary Morris) by 

ANN KING, b. m. by [Imp.] Sorrow, dam Lady of the Lake by 

Henry Tonson. 
ANN STEVENS, ch. m.Jby [Imp.] Trustee, dam (an imported mare) 

by Muley. 
ANN STEWART, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam Kitty Hunter by Paragon 
ANNE ROY ALE, br. m. by Stockholder, dam Alice Lee by Sii 

Henry Tonson. 
ANTOINETTE, ch. m. by [Imp] Leviathan, dam Multiflora bv 

ANTIPATOR, ch. h. by Tychicus, dam Club Foot by Napoleon. 
ANVIL, b. h. by [Imp.] Contract, dam by Eclipse. 
ARAB, b. h. by Arab, dam by Sir Archy. 
ARABELLA, b. m. by Collier, dam by Gallatin. 
ARABIAN MARK, b. h. by [Imp.] Fylde, dam by Sir Charles. 
ARGENTILE, b. m. by Bertrand, dam Allegrante by [Imp.] Truffi> 
ARGYLE, br. h. by Mons. Tonson, dam Thistle by Ogle's Oscar. 
ARILLA, gr. m. by Kelly, dam by Medley. 
ARKA.LUKA. ch. h. by [Imp] Leviathan, dam Sally McGehee 


AROOSTOOK, b. h. by Wheeling Rodolph, dam by Moses. 
A RR. A LINE, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Stockholder 
ARRAH NEAL, ch. m. by [hup.] Leviathan, dam Martha Wash 

ington by Sir Charles. 
ARSENIC, ch m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Mary Farmer by Con 

ASHLAND, ch. h. by Medoc, dam Lady Jackson by Sumpter. 
ASTOR, b. h. by Ivanhoe, dam Tripit by Mars. 
ATTAKAPAS, ch. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Arab. 
ATTILA LECOMTE, b. m by [Imp.] Glencoe, dam Extant by 

[Imp.] Leviathan. 
ATLANTIC, b. m. by Blood and Turf, dam Old Fly. 
AUNT PONTYPOOL, ch. m. by Bertrand Junior, dam Gold Finder 

by Virginius. 
AUSTER, br. h. by Westwind, dam by [Imp.] Leviathan. 
AUTHENTIC, ch. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Timoura by Timo- 


BALD HORNET, ch. g. by Bald Hornet, dam by Bertrand. 
BALIE PEYTON, b. h. by Andrew, dam (Master Henry's dam) by 

BALTIMORE, b. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Gohanna. 
BAND BOX, gr. m. by O'Kelly, dam Lucy Brooks by Bertrand. 
BANDIT, b. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Virginian. 
BANJO BILL, b. h. by [Imp.] Sarpedon, darn bv Darnaby's Diomed. 
BAND OF MUSIC, ch. m. by O Kelly, dam by Oscar. 
BARBARA ALLEN, ch. m. by Collier, dam Lady Jackson by 

BASSINGER, bl. h. by [Imp.] Fylde, dam by Randolph's RoanokB. 
BAYWOOD, b. h. by Editor, dam by Pacolet. 
BEACON LIGHT, ch. m. by [Imp.] Glencoe, dam Giantess by [Imp.] 

BEATRICE OF FERRARA, m. by Stockholder, dam by Duroo. 
LEAU-CATCHER, ch. m. by Leopold, dam Cranberry. 
BEE'S-WING, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Black Sophia by 

BELFIELD, b. h. by [Imp.] Priam, dam [Imp.] Bustle by Whale- 
BELLISSIMA, b. m. by [Imp.] Belshazzar, dam Wingfoot by Rat 

BELLE OF WINCHESTER, ch. m. by Stockholder, dam by Sir 

, ch. m. by [Imp.] Shakspeare, dam 

Cado by Sir Archy. 
BELLE TAYLOR, b. m. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 
BEN 3ARKLEY, b. h. by Push Pin, dam Miss Wakefield by Sir 

BEN BUSTER, b. h. by Cherokee, dam by Whip. 
BEN FRANKLIN, ch. h. by Flagellator, dam Medova by Eel pse. 
— ch. h. by Woodpecker, dam by Franxlitj Beauty 


BEN FRANKLIN, eh. h. by [Imp ] Leviathan, dam by Stockholder 
BENDIGO gr. h. by Timoleon, dam by Sir Charles. 

■ b. h. by Medoc, dam by bir Archy. 

BENGAL, ch. h. by Gohanna, dam Sportsinistress (or Gulnare) by 

BERENICE, ch. m. by Skylark, dam Kathleen by [Imp.\ LeviaJian. 
BETA, ch. in. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Kosciusko. 
BETHESDA, b. m. by Pacific, dam by Sir Henry Tonson. 
BETH UN E, br. h. by Sidi Hamet, dam Susette by Aratus. 
BETSEY COLEMAN, ch. m. by Goliah, dam Melinda. 
BETSEY COODEY, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Sir Charles. 
BETSEY HUNTER, ch. m. by Sir Clinton, am by Hamiltonian. 
BETSEY LAUDERDALE, ch. m. by [Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Sir 

BETSEY MILLER, gr. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Jane Shore 

by Oscar. 
BETSEY RED, ch. m. by Red Rover, dam Betsey West by [Imp.] 

BETSEY SHELTON, b. m. by Jackson, dam Harriet Haxall by Sii 

BETSEY WATSON, br. m. by Jefferson, dam bv Sir Henry Tonson. 
BETSEY WHITE, ch. m. by Goliah, dam by Sir Charles. 
BIG ALECK, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Tiger. 
BIG ELLEN, b. m. by Medoc, dam by Old Whip. 
BIG JOHN, ch. h. by Bertrand, dam by Hamiltonian. 
BIG NANCY, ch. m. by Jackson, dam by Gallatin. 
BILLY AYNESWORTH, ch. h. by Traveller, dam Helen by Tino- 

BILLY BLACK, b. h. by Volcano. 

BILLY BOWIE, b. h. by Drone, dam Agility by Sir James. 
BILLY GAY, b. h. by [Imp.] Hedgibrd, dam Mary Francis by Di 

BILLY TONSON, gr. h. by Mons. Tonson, dam by Cherokee. 
BILLY TOWNES. b. h. by [Imp.] Fytde, dam by Virginian. 
BILLY WALKER, ch.h. by [Imp.] Valparaiso, dam by Sir Richa-4. 
BILLET, ch. h. by Mingo, dam by Mambrino. 
BILOXE, ch. h. by Dick Chinn, dam Extio by [Imp.] Leviathan. 
BLACK BOY, bl. h. by [Imp.] Chateau Margaux, dam by [Imj ] 

hi. h. by [Imp.] Chateau Margaux, dam Lady Mayo 

by Van Tromp. 
BLACK DICK, bl. h. by [Imp.] Margrave, dam by Pamunky. 
BLACK FOOT, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Blackburn's Whip. 
BLACK HAWK, bl. h. by Industry. 

bl. h. by Mucklejohn. 

BLACK JACK, bl. h. by Tom Fletcher, dam by Baronet. 
BLACK LOCUST, bl. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Sir Aichy. 
BLACK NOSE, ch. h. by Medoc, dam Lucy by Orpnan. 
ELACK PRINCE, bl.h. by [Imp.] Fylde, dam Fantail by Sir Ai-'hy 


BLACK RABBIT, bl.h. by [Imp.] Nonplus, dam (Fair Ellen's dam) 

by Virginius. 
BLACK ROSE, bl. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Arab. 
BLAZING STAR, b. h. by Henry, dam by Eclipse. 
BLOODY NATHAN, gr. b. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Paeolet. 
BLOOMFIELD RIDLEY, b. h. by Bell-Air, dam Cedar Snags. 
BLOOMSBURY, ch. m. by [Imp.] Fylde, dam by Giles Scroggins. 
BLUE BONNET, gr. m. by [Imp.] Hedgford, dam Grey Fanny by 

BLUE DICK, gr. h. by [Imp.] Margrave, dam by Lance. 
BLUE JIM, ch. h. by Mucklejohn. 
BLUE SKIN, h. by Ms mion, dam by Tecumseh. 
BOB BUSH, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Bertrand. 
BOB LETCHER, b. h. by Medoc, dam by Rattler. 
BOB LOGIC, br. h. by [Imp.] Langford, dam by Mambrino. 
BOB RUCKER, ch. h. by Eclipse, dam by Sir Charles. 
BOIS D'ARC, ch. h. by Eclipse, dam Hortensia by Contention. 
BONNY BLACK, bl. m. by [Imp.] Valentine, dam Helen Mar by 

BORAC, ch. h. by Pacific, dam by Bagdad. 
BOSTON, ch. h. by Timoleon, dam (Robin Brown's dam) by Ball's 

BOSTON FILLY, m. by Boston, dam by [Imp.] Priam. 
BOWDARK, b. h. by Anvil, dam by Bagdad. 
BOXER, b. h. by Mingo, dam by Eclipse. 
BOYD M'NAIRY, ch. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Morgiana by 

BRACELET, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam [Imp.] Trinket. 
BREAN, ch. h. by Goliah. 

BRILLIANT, b. h. by Sidi Hamet, dam Miss Lancess by Lance. 
BRITANNIA, [Imp.] b. m. by Acta?on, dam by Scandal. 
BROCKLESBY, ch. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Roanoke. 
BROKER, b. h. by [Imp.] Row ton, dam Jane Bertrand by Bertrand. 
BROTHER TO HORNBLOWER, b. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam 

Music by John Richards. 
BROTHER TO PEYTONA, ch. h. by [Imp.] Glencoe, dam Giantess 

by [Imp.] Leviathan. 
BROTHER TO VICTOR, b. h. by [Imp.] Cetus, dam [Imp.] My 

Lady by Comus. 
BROWN ELK, b. h. by Buck Elk, dam by Whip. 
BKOWN GAL, br. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Virginian. 
BROWN KITTY, br. m. by Birmingham, dam by Tiger. 
BROWN LOCK, br. h. by Pacific, dam by Sir Hal. 
BROWN STOUT, bi ... by [Imp.] Sarpedon, dam Feathers by Mons. 

BROWNLOW, br. h. by [Imp.] Merman, clam (Glenares lam) by 

[Imp.] Leviathan. 
BRUCE, ch. h. by [Imp.] Nonplus, dam La nbal'e by Kosciusko 
EUBB, b m. by Bertrand, dam by Whig. 


MUCK -EYE, h. h. by Critic, dam Ami Page by Ogle's Oscar. 

b. h. by Lafayette Stockholder, dam Old Squaw by In 


BELLE, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 

LAD, ch. h. by Bertrand, dam by a Son of Spread Ea 

BUCK RABBIT, b. h. by [Imp.] Nonplus, dam (Fair Ellen's dam) 

by Virginius. 
BULGER BROWN, b. h. by Lance, dam by Jenkins' Sir William. 
BUNKUM, ch. g. by Hya/.im, dam by Gallatin. 
BURLEIGH, b. h. by Sir Arcbie Montorio, dam Mary Lee by Con 

BUSTAMfclVTE, ch. h. by Whalebone, dam Sarah Dancy by Timo 

BUZ FUZ, gr. h. by Medley, dam by [Imp.] Luzborough 


CADMUS, h h. by Cadmus. 

CALANTHE, b. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Jackson. 

CALANTHE, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 

CAMANCHE, ch. h. by Grey Eagle, dam by Rattler. 

CAMDEN, br. h. by Shark, dam [Imp.] Invalid by Whisker. 

CAMEO, b. m. by [Imp.] Tranby, dam by Buzzard. 

CAMEL, ch. h. by Birmingham, dam by Whip or Sumpter. 

CAMILLA, br. m. by [Imp.] Hedgford, dam (Picayune's dam) by Sii 

William of Transport. 
CAPTAIN BURTON, br. h. bv Cherokee, dam by Green Oak. 
CAPTAIN M'HEATH, ch. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Miss Bailej 

by [Imp.] Boaster. 
CAPTAIN THOMAS HOSKINS, b. h. by [Imp.] Autocrat, dam bj 

Tom Tough. 
CAPTAIN (The) b. h. by Sir Archy Montorio, dam Ophelia by Wild 

CAPTAIN WHITE-EYE, bl. h. by Chifney, dam by Sumpter. 
CAROLINE MALONE, (Col. Thomas Watson's), ch. m. by [Imp.] 

Leviathan, dam Proserpine by Oscar. 
(Col. J. C. Guild's), b. m. by [Imp.] Levia* 

than, dam by Sir Richard. 
— > (Col. Thomas Watson's), b. m. by [Imp.] L«* 

viathan, dam by Jerry. 
CASHIER, ch. h. by Goliah, dam by Sir Charles. 
CASKET, b. m. by [hup.] Priam, dam by Constitution. 
CASETTA CHIEF, ch. h. by Andrew, dam by Wildair. 
CASSANDRA, b. m. by [Imp ] Priam, dam FJirtilla Jr. by Sir Archy. 
CASTIANIRA, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Stockholder. 
CATALPA, b. no. by Frank, dam by John Richards. 
CATARACT, b. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam by John Richards. 
CATHERINE, b. m. by Bertrand, dam Black-eyed Susan by Tiger. 
CATHERINE FEN WICK, gr. m. by Mucklejohn, dam by 3ax* 



CATHERINE RECTOR, ch. m. by Pacific, dam Mary Tonson. 

CAVALIER SERVANTE, gr. h. by Bertram!, dam by Andrew. 

CEDRIC, b. h. by [Imp.] Priam, dam Countess Plater by Virginian. 

CELERITY, eh. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Patty Puff by Pacolet. 

CHAMPAGNE, b. h. by Eclipse, dam by Sir Archy. 

CHARLES, b. h. by [Imp.] Row ton, dam Leocadia. 

CHARLES ARCHY, ch. b. by Sir Charles, dam by Eclipse. 

CHARLES MALCOLM, ch. h. by Malcolm, dam by Albert Gallatin, 

CHARLEY ANDERSON, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Mercury. 

CHARLEY FOX, b. h. bv Waxv, dam by Buckner's Leviathan. 

CHARLEY NAYLOR. b. h. by Medoc, t^m by Tiger. 

CHARLOTTE BARNES, b m. by Bertrand, dam by Sir Archy. 

CHARLOTTE CLAIBORNE, b. m. by Havoc, dam by Conqueror 

CHARLOTTE HILL, b. m. by Hpphestion, dam by Cook's Whip. 

CHARITY GIBSON, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Sir Charles. 

CHATEAU, [Imp.] b. in. by Chateau Margaux. dam Cuirass by 

CHEMISETTE, b. m. by [Imp.] Glencoe, dam by Arab. 

CHEROKEE MAID, gr. in. by Marmion, dam by Tecumseh. 

CHESAPEAKE, b. or br. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Thaddeus. 

CHICOMAH, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam White Feather by 

CHICOPA, ch. m. by Tuscahoma, dam Fortuna by Pacolet. 

CHIEFTAIN, b. h. by Godolphin, dam Young Lottery by Sir Archy. 

CHOTAUK, br. h. by Pamunky, dam by Arab. 

CHURCHILL, b. h. by [Imp.] Zinganee, dam by Buzzard. 

CINDERELLA, b. m. by Pacific, dam Mary Vaushan by Pacolet. 

CLARA BOARDMAN, b. m. by [Imp.] Coiisol t ~dam Sally Bell by 
S'r Archy. 

CL\RION, ch. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam by Ogle's Oscar. 

CLARISSA, ch. m. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam (Clarion's dam) by 
Ogle's Oscar. 

CLEAR THE TRACK, ch. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Stock- 

CLEuPATRA, b. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Pacolet. 

CLEVELAND, gr. h. by [Imp.] Emancipation, dam by [Imp.] Levia- 

COAL BLACK ROSE, bl. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Arab. 

COLUMBUS, Junior, b. h. bv Columbus, dam by Bertrand. 

COMPROMISE, b. m. by NulJitier, dam by Anti-Tariff. 

CONCHITA, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Miss Bailey by [Imp. 

CONSOL, Junior, br. h. by [Imp.] Consol, dam [Imp.] The Nun'» 
Daughter by Filho da Puta. 

«!ORA, [Imp.] ch. m. by Muley Moloch, dam by Champion. 

CORA MUNRO, ch. m. by Hugh L. White, dam by Crusher. 

CORDELIA, ch. m. by [Imp.} Leviathan, dam by Sir Archy. 

CORK, b. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Caledonia by Jerry. 

CORNELIA, b. in. by Skylark, dam by Arab. 

CORONATION, ch. h. bv Laplander, dam by Oscar. 


COTTON PLANT, gr. m. by Bertram], dam by Pacolet. 

COWBOY, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Virginian." 

CRACKAWAY, ch. h. by Marmaduke. 

CRACOVIENNE, gr. m. by [!»/>.] Glencoe, dam [Imp.] Gallopade 

by Catton. 
CREATH, b. h. by [Imp.] Tranby, dam by Sir Archy Montorio. 
C RICH TON, ch. h. by Bertratid, dam by Phenomenon. 
CRIPPLE, gr. m. by [Imp.] Philip, dam (Gamma's dam) by Sii Ri- 

CROCKETT, b. h. by Crockett, dam by Sir Archy. 
CROTON, gr. h. by Chorister, dam by Mucklejohn. 
CRUCIFIX, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Virginia by Sir Archy. 
CUB, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 

CUMBERLAND, b. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Sir William. 
CURCULIA, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 
CZARINA, gr. m. by [Imp.] Autocrat, dam Aurora by Arab. 


tyANDRIDGE, b. h. by Garrison's Zinganee, dam by Walnut or La- 

DAN MARBLE, ch. h. by Woodpecker, dam (a sister to West Flo- 
rida's dam) by Potomac. 

DAN M'INTYRE, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 

DAN TUCKER, ch. h. by [Imp.] Belshazzar, dam by Pulaski. 

DANIEL BUCK, ch. h. by Collier, dam by Pacolet. 

DARIUS, b. h. by Orphan Boy, dam bv Cumberland. 

DARKNESS, bl. m. by Wagner, daxi bally Shannon's dam^ bv Sir 

DARNLEY, ch. h. by John Richards, dam Lady Gray by Sir Richard. 

DART, b. h. by [Imp.] Doneaster, dam Jane Gray by Orphan Boy. 

DAVE PATTON, ch. h. by Sumpter, dam by Hamiltonian. 

DAVID FYLDE, b. h. by [Imp.] Fylde, dam by Clay's Sir William. 

DAY DREAM, br. m. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Sir Archy. 

DAYTON, ch. h. by Tormentor, dam by Tuckahoe. 

DECATUR, ch. h. by Henry, dam Ostrich by Eclipse. 

DECEPTION, b. h. by Stockholder, dam by [Imp.] Leviathan. 

DE LATTRE, br. h. by [Imp.] Consol, dam [Imp.] Design by Tramp. 

DELAWARE, b. h. by Mingo, dam by John Richards. 

DELPHLNE. ch. m. by Sumpter. 

DEMOCRAT, ch. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam by Eaule. 

DENMARK, br. h. by [Imp.] Hedgford, dam Betsey Harrison by 
A rat us. 

DENIZEN. [Imp.] b. h. by Aclaeon, dam Design by Tramp. 

DEVIL JACK, ch. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Lady Burton b) 

DIANA CROW. bl. m. by Mark Antony, dam by Botts' Lafayette. 

DIAN # A SYNTAX, br. m. by Doctor Syntax, dam [Imp.] Diana b? 

DICK COLLIER, ch. h. by Collier, dam by Whip. 

DICK MENIFEE, br. h. by Lance, dam by Sir William of Transpo.l 



DOCTOR DUDLEY, b. h. by Bertram!, dam by Robin Cray. 

DOCTOR DUNCAN, cb. b. by Cadmus, dam bv Old Court. 

DOCTOR FRANKLIN, cb. h. by Frank, dam Althea by Big Archy. 

DOCTOR WILSON, ch. h. by John Bascombe, dam Bolivia by Bo 

DOLLY DIXON, b. m. by [Imp.] Tranby, dam Sally House by Vir- 

DOLLY MILAM, b. m. by [imp.] Sarpedon, dam by Eclipse. 

DONCASTER, [Imp.] bl. h. by Longwaist, dam by Muley. 

DONNA VIOLA, b. m. by [Imp.] Luzborough, uam (Jack Downing'^ 
dam) by Mons. Tonson. 

DUANNA, gr. m. by [Imp.] Sarpedon, dam Goodloe Washington by 

DUBLIN, gr. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, darn by Jerry. 

DUCKIE, b. m. by [Imp.] Sarpedon, dam Mary Jones by Kosciusko. 

DUKE SUMNER, gr. h. by Pacific, dam by Grey Archy. 

DUNGANNON, b. h. by Mingo, dam by John Stanley. 

DUNVEGAN, b. h. by [Imp.] Trustee, dam Jemima by Rattler. 


EARL OF MARGRAVE, b. h. by [Imp.] Sarpedon, dam DuchesB 
of Marlborough by Sir Archy. 

ECLIPTIC, ch. b. by Eclipse, dam (Rodolph's dam) by Moses. 

EDISTA. b. h. by [Imp.] Rovvton, dam Empress. 

EDWARD EAGLP:, ch. h. by Grey Eagle, darn by Director. 

EFFIE, b. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Stockholder. 

EL BOLERO, br. h. by Stockholder, dam by [Imp.] Leviathan. 

EL FURIOSO, b. h. by [Imp] Hedgford, dam Rattlesnake by Ber- 

ELIAS RECTOR, b. h. by [Imp.] Luzborough, dam Kate Blair. 

ELI ODOM, br. h. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam Chuckfahila by Ber- 

ELIZA CULVERT (or Calvert), ch. m. by Cymon, dam Lady Sum 
ner by Shawnee. 

ELIZA HUGHES, b. m. by Marmion, dam by Whip. 

ELIZA JANE, b. m. by [Imp.] Monarch, dam Big Jinny by Rattler. 

ELIZA ROSS, b. m. by Marmion, dam by Tiger or Whip (or Tigor 

ELIZABETH GREATHOUSE. b. m. by Masaniello, dam by Waxy. 

ELIZABETH JONES, m. by Pacific, dam by Mons. Tonson. 

ELLA. cb. m. by Young Virginian, dam by Harwood. 

ELLEN HUTCHINSON, ch. m. by [Imp.] Leviathan, dam by Ber 

ELLEN CARNELL, ch. m. by [Imp] Behhazzar, dam by [Imp., 

ELLEN JORDAN, b. in. by (Imp.) Jordan, dam Ellen Tiee L» 

ELLEN PERCY, ch. m. by Godolphin, dam by (Imp.) Bedford. 

■ cb. in. by Godolphin, dam by Financier. 

ELLEN WALKER, b. m. by (Imp. ) Consol, dam (Imp.) Plenty o* 

ELLISIJ', b. rn. by Platorf, darn by Mucklejohn. 


ELLIPTIC. c!i. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam Amanda by Revenue 
ELOISE, ch. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam Mary Wasp by Dcu 

ELVIRA, cli. m. by Red Gauntlet, dam by Rob Roy. 
EMERALD, b. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam (Imp.) Ebza by Ru 

EMIGRANT, gr. h. by Cadet, dam by (Imp.) Contract. 
EMILY, ch. m. by Medoc, dam Spider by Almanzar. 
« br. m. by (Imp.) Priam, dam by Tom Tough. 

■ (Imp.) 1). m. by Emilius, dam Elizabeth by Rainbow. 

EMILY SPEED, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Pacolet. 
EMMET, b. h. by Bertrand. dam by Gallatin. 
ESMERALDA, b. m. by Pressure, dam by Murat. 
ESPER SYKES, (Imp.) br. h. by Bclshazzar, dam Capsicum by 

ESTA, gr. m. by Bolivar, darn by (Imp.) Barefoot. 
ESTHER WAKE, gr. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Stock- 
ETHIOPIA, bl. m. by Dashall, dam by (Imp.) Expedition. 
EUDORA, br. m. by Jefferson, dam by Oscar. 
EUCLID, br. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Sir Archy. 
EUTAW, b. h. by (Imp.) Chateau Margaux, dam by Sir Charles. 
EVERGREEN, ch. m. by Wild Bill, dam by Sir Charles. 
EXT10, b. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam (Imp.) Refugee by Wan- 

FANCY, br. m. by (Imp.) Fylde, dam by Sir Archy. 
FANDANGO, gr. m. by (Imp.) Leviatban, dam (Imp.) Gallopade 

by Catton. 
FANNY, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam Maria West by Marion. 
(J. Guildersleeve's), bl.'m. by Sidi Hamet, dam by Sump- 

(Joseph Alston's), b. m. by Woodpecker, dam Fan by 

FANNY BAILEY, ch. m. by Andrew, dam by Bertrand. 
FANNY FORESTER, b. m. by (Imp.) Emancipation, dam by In 

FANNY GREEN, b. m. by {Imp.) Trustee, dam Betsey Archy by 

Sir Archy. 
FANNY KING, b. m. by (Imp.) Gleneoe, dam Mary Smith by Sir 

FANNY LIGHTFOOT, b. m. by Stockholder, dam by Sumpter. 
FANNY ROBERTSON, b. m. by (Imp.) Priam, dam Arietta by Vir 

FANNY STRONG, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Sally Bell t y 

Sir Archy. 
FANNY WYATT, ch. m. by Sir Charles, dam by Sir Hal. 
FAN TAIL. ch. m. by W;ixy, dam by Sumpter. 

FAIRLY FAIR, ch. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Peter Teazle 
FAITH, b. m. by (Imp.) Tianby, dam Lady Painter by Latins 
FASHION, ch. m. by (Imp.) Trustee, dam Bonnets 6 BIjb by fiff 



FEATHERS, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam (George Kendall's 

dam) by Stockholder. 
FESTIVITY, b. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, darn Magnolia by Mons. 

I on son. • 

FIAT, b. m. by (Imp.) Hedgford, dam Lady Tompkins by Eclipse. 
F1FER, b. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam Music by John Richards. 
FILE-LEADER, ch. h. by (Imp.) Barefoot, dam Saluda by Timo- 

FINANCE, b. m. by Davy Crocket, dam by Sir Henry Tonson. 
FLASH, b. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Conqueror. 
FLAXINELLA, gr. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Virginian. 
FLEETFOOT, gr. m. by (Imp.) Barefoot, dam Dove by Duroc. 
FLETA (James L. French's) br. m. by (Imp.) Sarpedon, dam by 

■ (G. B. Williams's), ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Clay's 

Sir William. 
FLIGHT, eh. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Sir Charles. 
FLORA HUNTER, gr. m. by Sir Charles, dam by Duroc. 
FORDHAM, ch. h. by Eclipse, dam Jane'te by Sir Archy. 
FORTUNATUS, ch. h. by Carolinian, dam by Sir Charles. 
FORTUNE, b. m. by (Imp.) Tranby, dam by Maryland Eclipse. 
FRANCES AMANDA, ch. m. by Pennoyer, dam Sally McGrath. 
FRANCES TYRREL, b. m. by Bertrand, dam by Rockingham. 
FRED KAYE, b. h. by Grey Eagle, dam by Moses. 
FRESHET, ch. m. by Tom Fletcher, dam Caroline (or Catherine) 

by Pacific. 
FREE JACK, br. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam (Imp.) Tinsel by 

FROSTY, ch. h. by Eclipse, dam Martha Hoi loway by Rattler. 
FURY, bl. m. by Terror, dam by Smith's Bedford. 
(Col. Wade Hampton's), ch. m. by (Imp.) Priam, dam (Imp.) 

sister to Ainderby by Velocipede. 


GABRIEL, ch. h. by Napoleon, dam Harpalyce by Collier. 
GALANTHA, b. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Jackson. 
GAMMA, gr. m. by Pacific, dam (Melzare's dam) by Sir Richard. 
GANO, b. h. by Eclipse, dam Betsey Richards by Sir Archy. 
GARRICK, gr. h. by (Imp.) Shakspeare, dam by Eaton's Columbus 
GARTER, b. m. by (Imp.) Glencoe, dam by Trumpator. 
GAS-LIGHT, br. h. by (Imp.) Merman, dam by Mercury. 
OAZAN, b. h. by Sir Leslie, dam Directress by Director. 
GENERAL DEBUYS, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam (/m/«. 

Nanny Kilhain by Voltaire. 
GENERAL RESULT, b. h. by (Imp.) Consol, dam by Timoleon. 
GENEVA, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Arab. 
GEORGE BURBR1DGE, b. h. by (Imp.) Chateau Margaux, dam b> 

Mons. Tonson. 
GEORGE ELLIOTT, br. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Lawrence 
liEORGE LIGHTFOOT, b. b. by Eclipse Lightfoot, dam Ma»7 

Logan by A.rab. 


GEORGE MARTIN, b. h. by Garrison's Zinganee, dam Gabriella 

by Sir Arch v. 
GEORGE VV. KENDALL, ch. h. by Medoc, dam Jenny Devers by 

GEROW, ch. h. by Henry, dam Vixen by Eclipse. 
GERTRUDE, b. m. by {Imp.) Leviathan, dam Parasol by Napoleon 
GIFT, ch. m. by Dick Chinn, dam Milch Cow. 
GIPSEY, b. m. by Nu! lifter, dam by Anti-Tariff. 
GLENARA, b. h. by (Imp.) Rowton, dam Nell Gwynne by Tramp. 
-•- (Davis &. Ragland's,) ch. m. by (Imp.) Glencoe, dam 

Kitty Clover by Sir Charles. 

(Dr. Thos. Paynes,) b. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam 

Jane Shore by Sir Archy. 
GLIDER, ch. h. by (Imp.) Valparaiso, dam by Clifton. 
GLIMPSE, b. h. by Medoc, dam by Tiger. 
njLORVTNA, ch. m. by Industry, dam by Bay Richmond. 
GLOVER ANN, gr. m. by (Imp.) Autocrat, dam by Bolivar. 
GOLD EAGLE, ch. h. by Grey Eagle, dam Eliza Jenkins by Sir 

GOLD FRINGE, ch. h. by (Imp.) Glencoe, dam (Imp.) Gold Wire. 
GONE AWAY, b. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Virginian. 
GOSPORT, br. h. by (Imp.) Margrave, dam Miss Valentine by (Imp.) 

GOVERNOR BARBOUR, b. h. by (Imp.) Truftie, dam by Holmes' 

GOVERNOR BUTLER, ch. h. by Argyle, dam Mary Frances by 

GOVERNOR CLARK, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Old Court. 
GOVERNOR POINDEXTER, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Eliza 

Clay (the dam of Giantess,) by Mons. Tonson. 
GRACE DARLING, ch. m. by (Imp.) Trustee, da~> Celeste by 

GRAMPUS, b. h. by (Imp.) Whale, dam by Timoleou. 

br. h. by Shark, dam by Mons. Tonson. 

GRATTAN, b. h. by (Imp.) Chateau Margaux, dam Flora by Mary- 
laud Eclipse. 
GREY ELLA, (A. G. Reed,) gr. m. by Big Archy. dam by Bertrand. 

(A. G. Reed,) gr. m. by Collier, dam by Gallatin 

GREY FRANK, gr. h. by Frank, dam by Buzzard. 
GREY-HEAD, (J. L. Bradley's,) b. h. by Chorister, dam by Sumpter 
(J L. Bradley's,) b. h. by Chorister, dam by Mucklo- 

GREY MARY, s^r. m. by Ben. Sutton, dam by Hamiltonian. 
GREY MEDOC, gr. h. by Medoc, dam Grey Fanny by Bertrand. 
GREY MOM US, gr. h. by Hard Luck, dam by Mons. Tonson. 
GUINEA-COCK, br. h. by Merlin, dam by Grey-tail Florizel. 
GULNARE, b. rn. by (Imp.) Sarpedon, dam by Sir William ol 

GUSTAVTJS, b. h. by Sussex, dam by Thornton's Rattter 
GUY OF WARWICK, ch. h. by Frank, dam »iy Hamiltonian 




HANNAH HARRIS, b. m. by Bertrand, dam Grey Goose oy Pacolel 

HANNIBAL, b. h. by O'Kelly, dam Roxana by Sir Charles. 

HA'-PENNY, b. m. by Birmingham, dam Picayune by Medoe. 

HARDENED SINNER, b. h. by {Imp.) Philip, dam by (Imp.) 
Bluster. . 

HARD CIDER, b. h. by (imp.) Tranby, dam by Sir Charles. 

HARK-AWAY, ch. h. by Emilius, dam (Imp.) Trapes. 

HARPALYCE, ch. m. by Collier, dam by Sea-Serpent. 

HARRIET, ch. m. by Eclipse, dam by Shylock. 

HARRY BLUFF, bl. h. by (Imp.) Autocrat, dam by Pakenham. 

HARRY CARGILL, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam (Imp.) Flo- 
rentine by Whisker. 

HARRY HILL, b. h. by (Imp.) Chateau Margaux, dam (Imp.) Anna 
Maria by Truffle. 

HARRY WHITEMAN, ch. h. by Orphan Boy, dam by Sir Archy. 

HAWK-EYE, ch. h. by Sir Lovell, dam Eliza Jenkins by Sir Wil- 

HEAD EM, b. h. by (Imp.) Trustee, dam Itasca by Eclipse. 

HEALER, ch. m. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam by Sir Archy of 

HEBE, ch. m. by Collier, dam by Bertrand. 

HECTOR BELL, gr. h. by Drone, dam Mary Randolph by Gohanna. 

HEIRESS, (THE) ch. m. by (Imp.) Trustee, dam by Henry. 

HELEN, (Imp.) b. m. by (Imp.) Priam, dam Malibran by Rubens. 

HENRY A. WISE, br. h. by Dashall, dam by Hickory. 

HENRY CLAY, br. h. by Cock of the Rock, dam by Virginian. 

HENRY CROWELL, b. h. by Bertrand Junior, dam sister to Muckle- 
john Junior. 

HERALD, ch. h. by Plenipotentiary, dam (Imp.) Delphine by 

HERMIONE, ch. m. by (Imp.) Non Plus, clam Leocadia by Virginian. 

HERO, ch. h. by Bertrand Junior, dam (Imp.) Mania by Figaro. 

HIT-OR-MISS, b. m. by (Imp.) Somonocodrom, dam (Imp.) Baya- 
dere. [These horses are owned in Canada.] 

H00SIER-G1RL, ch. m. by (Imp.) Langford. 

HOPE, ch. h. by the Ace of Diamonds, dam (The Captain's dam,) 
by Oscar. 

HORN BLOWER, br. h. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam Music bj John 

HOURI, (Imp.) ch. m. by Langar, dam Annot Lyle by Ashton 

HUGUENOT, ch. h. by Convention, dam (Imp.) Marigold. 

HUMMING-BIRD, br. m. by Industry, dam Virginia by Thorr*on't 
Rattle . 

HUNTSMAN, gr. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Pacolet. 
HYDE PARK, ch. h. by (Imp.) Barefoot, dam Saluda by TimoliKn 


[AGO, bl. h. by Othello, dam (Sartin's dam,) by Timolcon. 
.CELAND, ch. h. by Medoc, dam Lady Jackson by 
ILLINOIS, b. h. by Medoc, dam by Bertrand. 


/OWA, ch. h. by (Imp.) Barefoot, dam (Imp.) Woodbine. 

IRENE, ro. m. by Printer, dam McKinney's Roan. 

ISEE TURNER, ch. in. bv (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Stockholder 

ISIDORA, b. m. by (Imp.) Blacklock. 

ISOLA, ch. m. by Bertrand, dam Susette. 


JACK DOWNING, b. h. by Pacific, dam by Mons. Tonson. 

JACK PENDLETON, eh. h. by Goliah, dam (Philip's dam,) by Tra 

JACK WALKER, ch. h. by Cymon, dam by (Imp.) Luzborough. 
JAMES ALLEN, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Donna Maria by 

Sir Hal. 
JAMES CROWELL, br. h. by Bertrand, dam by Sir Charles. 
JAMES JACKSON, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Parasol by 

JAMES F. ROBINSON, ch. h. by Mcdoc, dam by Potomac. 
JAMES K. POLK, b. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam Oleana by Tele- 

b. h. by Telegraph, dam by Buzzard. 

ch. h. by Buck-eye, dam by Mcdoc. 

JANE ADAMS, b. m. by (Imp.) Tranby. 

JANE FRANCIS, b. m. by Granby, dam by Tecumseh. 

JANE MITCHELL, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Conqueror. 

JANE ROGERS, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Sir Charles. 

JANE SMITH, b. m. by John Dawson, dam by Pacolet. 

JANE SPLANE, gr. m. by (Imp.) Autocrat, dam Helen McGregor 

bv Mercury. 
JEANETTE BERKELEY, ch. m. by Bertrand jr., dam Carolina by 

Young Buzzard. 
JEANNETTON, ch. m. by (Imp.) Leviathun, dam by Stockholder. 
JENNY-ARE- YOU-THERE, ro. m. by Sir Archy Montorio, dam by 

JENNY RICHMOND, ch. m. by Medoc, dam by Hamiltonian. 
JENNY ROBERTSON, b. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Marcus. 
JEROME, b. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Sir Charles. 
JERRY, gr. h. by Jerry, dam by Blackburn's Sir William. 
JERRY LANCASTER, ch.g. by Mark Moore, dam Maid of Warsaw 

by Golianna. 
JIM BELL, b. h. by Frank, dam Jonquil by Little John. 
JIM ROCK, ch. h. by Young Eclipse, dam by Potomac 
JOR, b. h. by Eclipse, dam Jemima bv Rattler. 
JOE, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Sir Archv Montorio. 
JOE ALLEN, ch. h. by Goliah, dam by Sir Charles. 
JOE CHALMERS, ch. h. by (Imp.) Consol, dam (Imp.) Rachel by 

Partisan (or Whalebone). 
JOE DAVIS, b. h. by Eclipse, dam Virginia Washington by Saxe 

JOE GATES, ch. h. by Marlborough, dam by Eclipse. 
JOE MURRAY, br. h. by Waxy, dim by Hamiltonian. 
,'OE STURGES, ch. h. by John Bascombe, dam by Thomas s $v 

JOE WINF1ELD, h. h. by John Dawson, dam Sally Diliard. 


IOHTN ANDERSON, b. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Bagdad. 
ch. h. by Cadmus, dam (Kate Anderson's damj 

by (Imp.) Kagle. 
JOHN AROHY, ch. h. by Jobn Richards, dam by Old Whip. 
JOHN BELL, b. h. by Shark, dam Kate Kearney. 
JOHN BENTON, gr. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan. 
JOHN BLEVINS, ch. h. by The Colonel, dam (Imp.) Trinket. 
JOHN B. JONES, b. h. by Bertrand, dam by Director. 
JOHN BLUNT, b. h. by Marion, dam (Mary Blunt's dam,) by Alfred. 
JOHN CAUSIN, b. h. by (Imp.) Zinganee, dam Attaway by Sir 

JOHN C. STEVENS, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Sumpter. 
JOHN DUNK IN, b. h. by Mueklejohn, dam Coquette. 
JOHN FRANCIS, ch. h. by Francis Marion, dam Mary Doubleday by 

Sir Henry. 
JOHN HAMPDEN, ch. h. by Goliah, dam by Director. 
JOHN HUNTER, b. h. by Shark, dam Coquette by Sir Archy. 
f OHN KIRKM AN, ch. h. by Birmingham, dam by Sir Henry Tonson. 
JOHN LEMON, ch. h. by Uncas, dam by Oscar. 
JOHN MALONE, ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Proserpine by 

Tennessee Oscar. 
JOHN MARSHALL, b. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam Lady Bass 

by Conqueror. 
JOHN R. GRYMES, gr. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam Alice Grey by 

(Col. A. L. Bingaman's,) gr. h. by (Imp.) Levia- 

than, dam Fanny Jarman by Mercury. 
JOHN ROSS, bl. h. by Waxy, dam by Topgallant. 

ch. h. by (Imp.) Leviathan, dam by Oscar. 

JOHN VALIANT, bl. h. by Valiant, dam by Kind's Archer. 
JOHN YOUNG, b. h. by John Richards, dam by Trumpator. 
JOHNSON, br. h. by Star, dam Vanity by Grigsby's Potomac. 
JOSHUA BELL, ch. h. by Frank, dam Jonquil by Little John. 
JOYCE ALLEN, b. m. by (Imp.) Emancipation, dam Leannah by 

JULIA, b. m. by (Imp.) Rowton, dam by Roscius. 
JULIA BURTON, ch. m. by Gohanna, dam by Tom Tough. 
JULIA DAVIE, ch. m. by (Imp.) Rowton, dam by Kosciusko. 
JULIA FISHER, ro. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam Polly Bellew by 

JULIUS, ch. h. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam by Jackson. 
JUMPER, ch. h. by Timoleon, dam Diana Vernon by Herod. 


KANAWA, ch. h. by Medoc, dam by Rattler. 

KATE, b. f. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam Shepherdess bv Apollo. 

KATE ANDERSON, b. m. by Columbus, dam Eaglet by (Imp.) 

KATE AUBREY, gr. m. by Eclipse, dam Grey Fanny by Bertrand, 
KATE CONVERSE, b. m. by (Imp.) Non Plus, dam Dais) bv 

KATE COY, b. m. by Critic, dam Nancy Bone by Sussei. 
KATE HAUN, br. m. by Stockholder, dam by Timoleon 


KATE LUCKETT, b. m. by Monmouth Eclipse, dam Shepherdess by 

KATE NICKLEBY, br. m. by' (Imp.) Trustee, dam by Teniers. 
b. m. by (Imp.) Glencoe, dam by (Imp.) Levia 

KATE SEYTON, br. m. by Argyle, dam Pocahontas by Sir Arciiy. 
KATE SHELBY, ch. m. by (imp.) Leviathan, dam Maria Shelby by 

KAVANAGH, b. or ch. h. by Bertrand, dam by Director. 
KEWANNA, b. m. by (Imp.) Cetus, dam (Imp.) My Lady by Comua 
KITTY HARRIS, gr. m. by (Imp.) Priam, dam Ninon de l'Enclos by 

KITTY THOMPSON, gr. m. by (Imp.) Margrave, dam N : non de 

l'Enclos by Rattler. 


LA BACCHANTE, ch. m. by (Imp.) Glencoe, dam by Bertrand. 
LA BELLA COMBS, ch. m. by Andrew, dam by Director. 
LADY CANTON, gr. m. by (Imp.) Tranby, dam Mary Randolph b. 

LADY CAVA, ch. m. by Bertrand, dam Betsey Echols by Archy 

LADY FRANCIS, b. m. by Trumpator, dam (Pressure's grandam.) 
LADY FRANKLIN, b. m. by (Imp.) Luzborough, dam Sting by Con